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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"

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(or ocean op streams op story) 




N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 








\ I / /, 

VOL. Ill 


Dr M. G ASTER, Ph.D. 



Made and Printed in Great Britain 


IT is with great diffidence that I venture to step in where 
the great masters of Indian scholarship found some diffi- 
culty to tread. It is a heavy task to follow in the wake 
of men like Sir Richard Temple and Sir George Grierson, 
to whom Sanskrit literature is an open book, but turning 
the leaves I found they had left some blank pages, and on 
these I shall endeavour to put down some of the thoughts 
which this new edition of Tawney's translation of Somadeva's 
great work has suggested to me. I am encouraged to under- 
take this work owing to the kind invitation with which 
Mr Penzer has honoured me, and by whom I have been 
granted the privilege of appreciating to the full the excellent 
work which he is performing in producing his magnum opus. 
By his illuminating notes, and by the extensive treatment 
of some motifs found in this collection, he has carried his 
investigations far beyond the narrow borders of the original 
home of the Kathci Sarit S agar a. With immense industry 
and keen insight he has been able to accumulate a mass of 
literary parallels from all parts of the world which gives to 
this edition a value of its own, and places it in the forefront 
of modern studies in comparative literature. 

It is from this point of view that I will address myself to 
the task thus placed before me. Many a problem arises from 
the contemplation of this Indian literature in its relation 
to the other literatures of a similar kind. In the first 
place, the students of folk-lore are returning again to the 
question as to whether the inland lake of Indian tales 
was the ocean which overflowed its banks and carried 
these tales on the crest of its waves to distant lands and 
many nations. Ever since Benfey published his famous 
introduction to the German translation of the Panchatantra 
and here I fully re-echo Mr Penzer 's desideratum for an 
English translation brought up to date this question has 
never ceased to agitate the mind of scholars. True, he was 


the first to show how great has been the influence of Indian 
literature upon mediaeval fiction, but he also drew within 
the circle of his investigations a number of modern fairy- 
tales. His researches centred to a large extent round the 
literary products of India, notably those books which were 
unquestionably of Indian origin, and which had reached 
the West through manifold translations. Kalila wa Dimna, 
Syntipas and, to a certain extent, Barlaam and Josaphat 
are the typical representatives of this book-literature. It 
is now a fact that none of these books could have reached 
the West before the sixth century, the time when the first 
translation, at any rate, of the Kalila wa Dimna was 
made into Pahlavi by Barzoe at the Court of the Sassanian 

None of these books, then, reached Europe before the 
tenth or eleventh century at the earliest. Thus he merely 
touched the fringe of the greater problem as to the relation 
between the Indian and the European folk-tales and legends. 
Benfey's theory stimulated the question rather than answered 
it, and a reaction set in which put folk-lorists on a different 
scent. The question had not been rightly put. It was not 
to be reduced merely to the relation of the Indian tales to 
European folk-lore in connection only with these books, for 
Benfey endeavoured to trace it back as well to other Indian 
collections of tales, and among them he drew very often upon 
Somadeva's Ocean. 

Mr Penzer has happily been able to fix the date of 
Somadeva's literary activity c. 1070. This is at least five 
hundred years later than the date of the translation of the 
Paikhatantra , and creates a new problem as to the antiquity 
of the tales so sedulously collected, and also to a large extent 
copied by him. 

How old are these tales, and whence did he derive them ? 
As Mr Penzer rightly remarks in his Introduction, many a 
river has flowed into this ocean and has swelled its size. 
Can we trace these rivers to their ultimate source, or tell how 
long it has taken them to cut through the gorges of the 
mountains until they reached the lake or the ocean ? What 
elements did they carry in their course, and how long was it 


before these turgid waters mingled together and allowed 
their sediments to settle at the bottom of the ocean, so that 
the waters, clear and transparent, should be able to reflect 
the blue sky and the radiant light of the sun during the day, 
and the silvery rays of the moon should play gently upon 
the waves, slightly moved by lover or tossed heaven-high 
by the storm of human passion ? I do not feel competent 
to touch upon the question raised with such consummate 
knowledge by Sir Richard Temple as to the Dra vidian or 
Aryan elements in this ocean. I wish we knew more of 
anything that is purely Dravidian or purely Aryan in legend 
and tales, and even in customs and beliefs. There is no pure 
race in the world, and I believe nowhere has such a blending 
and mixing of races taken place as in Central Asia and 
also in India. Who to-day can disentangle the skein and 
separate every strand ? If anywhere, it is in the world of 
spirit and fiction that this blending goes on so continuously 
and so profoundly, that I for one fear me to approach this 
problem with the hope of arriving at a definite and satis- 
factory result. 

Beyond the limited border of known facts there lies the 
wide world of hypotheses. There the goblins of fancy dis- 
port themselves, and that is the land where the spirit roams 
freely. Happily there are no geographical or religious or 
national boundaries in that land of imagination and fancy. 
The whole of mankind dwells therein. There is that higher 
unity after which man is yearning, and only there is that 
bliss which gives to the tales their peculiar charm. 

But now let us return to sober facts, lest we are carried 
away too far into dreamland and lose the ground under our 
feet. At the time when Somadeva made his collection, not 
far from Kashmir Firdusi wrote his great poem Shahnameh, 
the mighty epic of the Persian kings, embodying the ancient 
legends of Iran ; and in the West we witness the rise of epic 
poems and the romances of chivalry, not to speak of the 
great Arabic poem of Antar, all dealing with the great heroes 
of the past. What epic poems may have been lost with 
the Pahlavi literature, at which Firdusi hints, none can 
tell, save for those remnants that are found in Georgian 


and other late translations. One point which they have in 
common is that they are all written in verse, just as Soma- 
deva's Ocean. In looking for origins here we have a certain 
clue. They were all intended to be sung or recited with 
accompaniment to music. They formed from the beginning 
a written literature. The minstrels and troubadours in the 
West, the wandering Kaleki in Russia, did not read as prose 
those poems or ballads, but they sang them at the banqueting- 
tables of the great, or on the roadside to the poor, and on 
their pilgrimages to hallowed spots. The unwritten literature 
and the oral recital may have preceded the written poem. 
But it would not be easy to determine whether the oral tale 
preceded these poetic versifications, and what influence they 
may have exercised upon the imagination of the poet ; but 
here they have become fixed and no longer float about, 
and form, as it will be seen, the starting-point of further 

That Somadeva had used to a very large extent written 
literature there can be no doubt. Many of the Jatakas and 
tales from the Panchatantra, which had been written down 
centuries before Somadeva, have indeed found their place in 
his Ocean. He may have used some oral traditions too, but, 
as just now mentioned, it would be very difficult to trace them. 
Thus far we would, then, have two sets of popular literature, 
but the process did not end by the writing down of the oral 
tale. The written book became in time the starting-point 
of a new set of oral lore. I shall return to these phases in 
the development of the popular literature when discussing 
the modern fairy-tale. For the time being it must suffice 
to have raised this question, and to hint at the possibility of 
Somadeva and of his immediate predecessors having made 
use also of some of the ballads and legends floating about 
only. But these may have been developed out of more 
ancient writings, thus forming a cycle which, however, did 
not lead to Nirvana. 

If Indian tales and legends, Indian teachings, beliefs and 
customs have really spread Westwards at a time anterior 
to the translation of the writings mentioned before, it may 
have been done by word of mouth. Buddhist missionaries, 


as is well known, carried the teachings of the Master far and 
wide. Their presence in Alexandria in the second century 
B.C. is a well-established fact, and so one may mention 
parenthetically the presence of Buddhist monks in the north 
of Europe. What kind of seed did they carry in their bosom 
or their knapsack ? Did they bring written Jdtakas if they 
were already then written down or did they, as the story- 
teller to-day in the East, tell to a spellbound audience the 
miraculous life and adventures of the Great One ? 

Here Somadeva's Ocean, on the one side, which contains 
not a few of these Jdtakas, and shows us how in the course 
of time they were adapted to changed circumstances, and Mr 
Penzer's scholarly notes on the other, help us to approach 
this problem with some hope of solution. Two remarkable 
beliefs suddenly come to light about that period. 

Firstly, in the Hellenistic as well as Jewish Apocryphal 
literature we hear suddenly of a belief that, attracted by 
the beauty of women, angels fell from heaven. The love for 
women had overcome them and they lost their angelic status. 
Or, one of the angels, moved by insensate pride, lost his 
station in heaven and was cast down to earth, and henceforth 
acts as the inspirer of all evil. It is not here the place to do 
more than briefly refer to this extraordinary conception, and 
to the remarkable consequences to which it led, through the 
evolution of the idea of redemption and salvation. What- 
ever form this latter theory may have assumed in the religious 
system of Iran, the story of the fall of angels does not occur 
anywhere else except among the nations living in Egypt 
and Palestine, and in the tales of Somadeva, where we find 
it over and over again. 

Many an Apsaras or Vidyadhara has lost his station as 
a divine being and has been cursed for his love of men and 
women exactly as in the Henochic literature. Is this of 
Indian origin ? 

Secondly, we have in Egypt, the home of aberrations of 
the mind and of morbid introspection and consciousness of 
human frailty, that peculiar development of extreme asceti- 
cism. The monks in the desert of Egypt mortify their flesh, 
and shun the pleasures of the world as so many temptations of 


the Evil One, giving their life up to the same morbid intro- 
spection to gain thereby heavenly bliss. There may have 
been some sects of an ascetic turn of mind along the banks 
of the Jordan and the banks of the Nile, like the Essenes 
and the Therapeuts and who knows whether these also have 
not been influenced by Buddhist missionaries preaching the 
gospel of asceticism as the means of salvation but they 
flourish nowhere so strongly as in Egypt, where the people 
were surrounded by tombs, by books and by monuments 
of the dead. Did they bring some of the parables found 
in the New Testament ? To these questions Somadeva's 
Ocean gives the answer. If they can be shown to be as 
old as the Jdtakas, those tales would carry us back at least 
one thousand years before they were written down in their 
actual form. 

On the other hand, did not India receive from the West ? 
Those who travelled Westwards returned also to the East ; 
they carried and fetched ; just as easily as they could bring 
tales and legends, so could they also carry back some of 
the rich stores accumulated in other lands. Either way it 
is very difficult to discover the hall-mark of origin. Each 
nation quarrying in the same way the same mine of the 
spirit, and even one nation borrowing the gold from the 
other, puts its own seal on the coins which it mints. A river 
or rivulet flowing from Egypt or Palestine towards India 
will mingle its waters with the mighty ocean and become 
so profoundly assimilated as not to be easily recognised. 

The farther back we go the more difficult it gets, no 
doubt, to settle the question of the priority, especially when 
the chronological dates are missing. Difficult as it is in the 
case of the pre-Christian period and of Greek myths, carried 
in ail probability along by the armies of Alexander, it be- 
comes still more difficult if we are turning to old Babylonian 
and Assyrian traditions, customs and beliefs. One country 
borders practically on the other, and the recent discoveries 
of Babylonian or Sumerian tablets (inscriptions) in India 
more than countenanced the belief in direct intercourse 
between India and Babylon. What may have flowed from 
one country into the other must for the time being remain 


an object of speculation, which, however, in this case, rests 
on a solid basis of facts. 

Again, if we remember the activity of Christian mission- 
aries, some of whom, like St Thomas, have been directly 
connected with India, and others, especially the Nestorians, 
how many legends could they not have carried with them 
and contributed to increase the amount of the popular lore 
in India ? Besides, there is a rich material in the innumer- 
able legends of the saints, which waits for the sifting hand 
and scholarly insight of men fully prepared for the task to 
examine the possible relations between Indian legends and 
Christian hagiology. Everywhere a strong assimilation has 
taken place. This is a regular process through which all the 
tales and legends are passing. One need not go farther 
than to remember the legend of Barlaam and Josaphat, who 
have become saints of the Church. Centuries have passed 
since their story was first circulated throughout Europe, and 
many a parable has become the property of the Western 
world, influencing even the genius of Shakespeare in the 
story of the Three Caskets, and it was only by the middle 
of the last century that Liebrecht recognised in them a 
Christianised form of the life and legends of Buddha, so 
thoroughly had their character been changed, and yet in 
essence they remain the same. 

There is a profound psychological element in all these 
tales and legends, which appeals to the human heart and 
tends to explain to some extent the ready admission of such 
tales, quite indifferent as to their origin and the primitive 
meaning attached to them. The contemplation of the world 
and its miseries leads to two extremes the asceticism of 
Buddha or the unbounded frivolity of the rich and the power- 
ful. One, no doubt, produces the other. The contemplation 
of the Hedonism among the Greeks of Alexandria could 
create a reaction which culminated in that mortification of 
the flesh, and vice versa ; the morbid turning away from all 
pleasure and joy as well as from duty and responsibility may 
have created a revulsion in the opposite direction. Thus 
the Decameron was written at a time when the plague 
decimated the city of Florence, and Somadeva's Ocean was 


written, as Mr Penzer shows, at a time of murder and blood- 
shed, horror and despair. It is at such times that the soul 
takes refuge in a better and happier world as a consolation 
for the miseries of this world. Men wish to dream them- 
selves away from the sore trials with which they are beset, 
and they grope instinctively for a world in which justice and 
mercy hold sway, righteousness triumphs over wickedness, 
and love finds its reward. 

This is the general character of the fairy-tale to which I 
am now turning, and Mr Penzer has taken special pains to 
discover as many parallels as possible in the fairy- lore of 
the world. Here, again, we are confronted with a problem 
which is beginning practically to divide the two schools of 
thought. What has been the fate of these old stories and 
tales, and how have they become disseminated and known 
to the people ? Nature abhors a vacuum and the spirit 
partakes of the same character. Everything is in constant 
flux, ebb and flow alternate. A literature that has reached 
the high- water mark does not keep it for long, and who can 
discover the water- sheds of literature, when they are running 
down from the heights of the palace and the cloister to 
mingle with the masses, and thus to become the real popular 

Leaving the ancient sources as a mere matter of specula- 
tion, we are more concerned with those facts which are easily 
discernible and can be followed up with greater accuracy 
and reliability. As hinted, many of these tales and stories 
deal either with the prowess of the hero on the battle-field, 
or with the spiritual wrestling of the saint. They have, one 
may surmise, in many cases a local origin ; they can be 
localised geographically and connected with some outstand- 
ing personality, either a king or a Bodhisattva, with the former 
in epic poem tales, and with the latter in a pious legend. 
Here we have, then, indications as to the possible origin and 
date of some of these ancient tales at the time when they 
reached Somadeva, and also the way shown by which their 
dissemination may have been carried out. One outstanding 
characteristic of this literature is that a legend or tale after a 
time can be, and is, either slightly changed or entirely readapted 


in its further transmission. Yet in all this work of change 
and transmission I insist one must bear in mind that the 
written word remains the primary source for the later develop- 
ment. Those who were present at the recital by the bard 
at the court of the baron or king may then repeat the 
story by word of mouth, and those who join in pilgrimage 
to a holy place will listen with deep reverence and joy to the 
tales of miracles and wonders which have been performed 
by the saints in that special spot. Then these, scattering far 
and wide, and still following the great routes of pilgrimage, will 
at every halting-place and stage of their journey repeat and 
simplify, change and alter, the stories which they have heard. 

Still another element assists in this development from 
the written to the oral the picture and the sculpture. The 
stories are written in stones as well as on paper, and they 
in turn become the material upon which the imaginative 
power of the spirit feeds. At a certain period, almost con- 
temporary with Somadeva, a rich store of Indian tales had 
been poured into Europe. A kind of levelling had been 
accomplished from East to West. We are in a better position 
to study here the gulf stream flowing from one part of the 
world to the other, and carrying with it some of the exotic 
trees and fruits of distant lands. They became quickly 
naturalised ; they found everywhere a fertile soil and pro- 
duced an unexpected crop, rich and luxuriant. Thus a vast 
amount of fiction has been accumulated, and as in the East 
so in the West it slowly glided down from the high places 
which it originally occupied to the lowly places in which men 
dwell. There the written book rules paramount, and the pic- 
tures which accompany it tend to make its contents familiar 
to larger circles. 

The invention of the printing-press marks a turning-point 
and carries the written word far and wide among those who 
have now learned to master the mystery of the alphabet. 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales give us the best example of this 
literary migration and dissemination. The tales are told on 
a pilgrimage, just as in centuries before, but these are all of 
a literary origin, mostly from Boccaccio, and one, at least, 
from the cloisters. 


Thus the oral literature develops step by step, East and 
West alike, drawing its inspiration ultimately from the 
written book. I know it is a view which is shared by very 
few, if by any. But a careful study of the history of the chap- 
books, or "La Litterature du Colportage," as Nisard called 
it, must lead to the same conclusion. The ancient romances 
slowly dwindle down to such small story-books as carried by 
the chapmen on their backs, and cheapened in the markets 
of the world, and are even still more reduced to illustrated 
broadsides. They show thus the slow decay which has over- 
taken the old written literature and has transformed it into 
the oral one. 

We have now to go only one step farther, and in many 
cases the fairy-tale collected from the mouth of the people 
turns out to be a mere repetition of a printed chap-book. 
This brings me now to touch, as briefly as I can within 
the limited space afforded to me, upon that part in Mr 
Penzer's work in which he refers to the fairy-tales. There 
is no better guide than he in following up the parallels for 
modern fairy-tales so richly adduced by him. 

A gap of close upon a thousand years separates Soma- 
deva's Ocean from the small rivulets flowing out of it. The 
process of transformation has been the same in the East as 
in the West, and given the same motives the result must be 
similar. Here also there have been literary intermediaries 
at various stages between past and present, and in all prob- 
ability the poetic imagination has ripened the fruit in the 
East much more quickly than in the West, and has produced 
what we call now the fairy-tale, with its glowing richness of 
fancy, some time before it assumed the shape in which we know 
it in Europe. Still one important fact must be retained 
namely, that for a large number of incidents literary parallels 
can be adduced to prove irrefutably some connection between 
the written and the oral. The fairy-tale often turns out to 
be a replica of the old tale stripped of its geographical limita- 
tions and historical personages. It has freed itself from 
these trammels, it has broken down the barriers, and it is 
roaming freely over many countries. 

The fact of the similarity of folk- tales in many parts of 


the world, discovered since Grimm started his collection, has 
given rise to many interpretations. Grimm's mythological 
theory, which recognises in the persons and incidents found 
in the fairy-tales remnants of ancient Teutonic mythology, 
has developed into a much wider anthropological theory. 
According to this latter the popular tales are nothing else 
but the depositories of primeval culture and primitive 
civilisation. These incidents are nothing else but survivals 
carried unconsciously by the people, who have lost every 
knowledge of their origin and character. But I see in these 
alleged " survivals " nothing else but some of the archaic 
details found in the written literature. The anthropological 
interpretation must fail when we find the very same story 
among nations that are almost of yesterday and are divided 
from one another by race, faith and tradition e.g. Rumanians, 
Hungarians, Bulgarians and Turks yet have practically the 
same tales in common. Still more curious is the fact that 
such tales as are found in the east of Europe among the vary- 
ing races are also found in England, in which the greatest 
mixture of races has taken place. Picts and Celts, Romans 
and Angles, Saxons and Danes, no less than Normans, have 
all contributed towards the formation of the British nation. 
How could they bring their own traditions and blend them 
together in such a manner that out of that melting-pot 
should arise the modern fairy-tale, unlike any of them, and 
yet like the rest of the fairy-tales of the world ? Not so, 
however, if we believe them to be of a somewhat more modern 
origin, carried to a large extent by word of mouth in this 
their latest shape of development. They are neither the 
most ancient property of the people nor are they of such 
permanent character as the followers of the anthropological 
school would postulate. One has only to compare the 
stories collected in the East and in the eastern parts of 
Europe with those collected in the West, and then those 
collected a century ago with those collected in our own 
times, to realise that when they reached the West they were 
shorn of most of their poetic beauty and that they are fast 
disappearing. If this could happen within a century, how 
could they have persisted for thousands of years ? To these 

VOL. III. b 


theories, therefore, I oppose what I may call the historical, 
an investigation which, instead of roaming far and wide and 
losing itself in the mists of the past, traces every tale and 
legend step by step from the modern type to a possibly more 
ancient written source, but directly and immediately con- 
nected with it in historical sequence. It is thus a question 
of tracing the literary influence upon popular lore and the 
possible reaction of the latter upon the former. 

A careful examination of the tales from the stock of the 
European literature, and in fact of all the oral popular lore, 
reveals the surprising fact that they can all be reduced to a 
very limited number of types, not exceeding a hundred, and 
in all probability very much less. They are the elements out 
of which, through various combinations, the vast number of 
tales has been evolved. A rich material had already been 
accumulating in Europe during the previous centuries and 
a slight impetus and a % few examples from the East would 
suffice to set the world of fancy in motion and to produce 
the new popular literature. The same shading down from 
the most perfect works of literary art has been taking place 
in the East as well as in the West, and this Mr Penzer shows 
by the parallels from Indian literature with the same results. 

I now turn again to the present edition of the Kaiha Sarit 
Sdgara. Not for their sins but for their virtues the tales 
are reborn over and over again, sometimes in a divine shape, 
sometimes in a human shape, for, travelling along the borders 
of this limitless ocean of poetry, the panorama changes and 
yet it remains the same. In the Ocean we do not find the 
modern novel with its psychological problem describing in 
detail the torture of the soul, but pictures of a life in which 
God and men play their parts often to bring happiness, but 
just as often telling us life as it is, with its ups and downs, 
with its hopes and disappointments, such as it has been lived 
in ancient India, and has always been lived throughout the 
world, and throughout all time. 

To Mr Penzer the deepest thanks are due from all those 
who are interested in these entrancing studies. 

M. Gaster. 

London, 3rd February 1925. 





Author's Preface ..... xxv 

Invocation ...... 1 

M(ain story) ...... 1 

30. Story of King Dharmadatta and his Wife Nagasri 7 
M. Cont ...... 8 

31. Story of the Seven Brahmans who devoured a Cow 

in time of Famine .... 9 

M. Cont . . . . . .10 

32. Story of the Two Ascetics, one a Brahman, the 

other a Chandala . . . .10 

M. Cont . . . . . .11 

33. Story of King Vikramasinha and the Two Brah- 

mans . . . . . .11 

33a. The Double Elopement . . 13 

33. Story of King Vikramasinha and the Two Brah- 

mans . . . . . .16 

M. Cont . . . . . .17 


M. Cont . . . . . .18 

34. Story of the Seven Princesses . . .19 

34a. The Prince who tore out his own Eye 19 
34aa. The Ascetic who conquered 

Anger . . .22 

34a. The Prince who tore out his own Eye 23 





34. Story of the Seven Princesses 
M. Cont. . 

35. Story of Sulochana and Sushena . 
M. Cont .... 

36. Story of the Prince and the Merchants 

saved his Life 

M. Cont .... 

37. Story of the Brahman and the Pisacha 
M. Cont .... 
37. Story of the Brahman and the Pisacha 
M. Cont .... 

Son who 





M. Cont . . . . . .39 

38. Story of Kirtisena and her Cruel Mother-in-Law . 44 

M. Cont . . . . . .54 


M. Cont .... 

39. Story of TejasvatI 

39a. The Brahman HariSarman 
39. Story of TejasvatI 
M. Cont 





M. Cont . 

40. Story of Usha and Aniruddha 
M. Cont 





M. Cont. . . . . . .90 

41. Story of the Brahman's Son Vishnudatta and his 

Seven Foolish Companions 
M. Cont. ..... 

42. Story of Kadaligarbha 

42a. The King and the Barber's Wife 

42. Story of Kadaligarbha 
M. Cont ..... 

M. Cont ..... 

43. Story of Srutasena 

43a. The Three Brahman Brothers . 
43. Story of Srutasena 

43b. Devasena and Unmadim 

43. Story of Srutasena 
M. Cont ..... 

44. Story of the Ichneumon, the Owl, the Cat and the 

Mouse ..... 
M. Cont ..... 

45. Story of King Prasenajit and the Brahman who 

lost his Treasure 
M. Cont . . . . 

M. Cont 

46. Story of King Indradatta . 
M. Cont 

47. Story of the Yaksha Virupaksha 
M. Cont 

48. Story of Satrughna and his Wicked Wife 
M. Cont .... 













Invocation ..... 


. 155 

M. Cont. ..... 

. 155 

49. Story of Ratnaprabha 

. 156 

49a. Sattvasila and the Two Treasures 

. 157 

49. Story of Ratnaprabha 

. 158 

49b. The Brave King Vikramatunga 

. 159 

49. Story of Ratnaprabha 

. 163 

M. Cant. ..... 

. 166 

M. Cont. . . . . . .169 

50. Story of King Ratnadhipati and the White 

Elephant Svetarasmi .... 169 

M. Cont. . . . . . .178 



Cont. ...... 



Story of Nischayadatta . 

51a. Somasvamin and Bandhudatta 



Story of Nischayadatta 

51b. Bhavasarman and the Two Witches 

. 193 


Story of Nischayadatta 

Cont ..... 

. 200 


M. Cont. . . . . .206 

52. Story of King Vikramaditya and the Courtesan . 206 
52a. King Vikramaditya and the Treacher- 
ous Mendicant . . . 209 
52. Story of King Vikramaditya and the Courtesan . 211 
M. Cont. . . . . . .217 



M. Cont. . . . . . .218 

53. Story of Sringabhuja and the Daughter of the 

Rakshasa ..... 218 

M. Cont. . . . . . .235 



Cont. . . . . . .240 


Story of Tapodatta . . . .241 


Cont. . . . . . .241 


Story of Virupasarman .... 242 


Cont. . . . . . .242 


Story of King Vilasasila and the Physician Taruna- 

chandra ..... 243 


Cont . . . . . .249 

M. Cont. . . . . . .252 

57. Story of King Chirayus and his Minister Nagarjuna 252 
M. Cont. . . . . . .256 


M. Cont. . . . . . .259 

58. Story of King Parity agasena, his Wicked Wife and 

his Two Sons . . . . .263 

M. Cont. . . . . . .275 


M. Cont. . . . . . .281 

59. Story of the Two Brothers Pranadhara and Rajya- 

dhara . . . . . .282 

M. Cont. . . . . . .285 


CHAPTER XLIII continued 


60. Story of Arthalobha and his Beautiful Wife . 286 
M. Cmt. . . . . . .290 

61. Story of the Princess Karpurika in her Birth as a 

Swan . . . . . .291 

M. Cont. . . . . . .292 

Sneezing Salutations ..... 303 

Indian Eunuchs ..... 319 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . 331 

Index II General ..... 345 


THE present volume contains more text than either 
of the two preceding ones, and Vol. IV will carry 
us to the end of Mr Tawney's first volume. 
Dr Barnett continues his proof-reading and has given 
invaluable advice on a number of points. In the absence 
of Mr Fenton, who is pursuing his archaeological studies in 
Central America, my old friend, Mr Douglas Marshall, has 
kindly read through the proofs, making many valuable 

Any fresh acknowledgments are duly made in the notes 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, 
bth February 1925. 





MAY the god with the face of an elephant, who 
appears, with his head bowed down and then raised, 
to be continually threatening the hosts of obstacles, 
protect you. 

I adore the God of Love, pierced with the showers of 
whose arrows even the body of Siva seems to bristle with 
dense thorns, when embraced by Uma. 

Now hear the heavenly adventures which Naravahana- 
datta, speaking of himself in the third person, told from 
the very beginning, after he had obtained the sovereignty 
of the Vidyadharas, and had been questioned about the 
story of his life on some occasion or other by the seven Rishis 
and their wives. 

[M] Then that Naravahanadatta, being carefully brought 
up by his father, passed his eighth year. The prince lived 
at that time with the sons of the ministers, being instructed 
in sciences and sporting in gardens. And the Queen Vasa- 
vadatta and Padmavati also, on account of their exceeding 
affection, were devoted to him day and night. He was 
distinguished by a body which was sprung from a noble 
stock, and bent under the weight of his growing virtues, 
and gradually filled out, as also by a bow which was made of 
a good bamboo, which bent as the string rose, and slowly 
arched itself into a crescent. 1 And his father, the King of 

1 This is an elaborate pun in the original. Guna = " string " and 
" virtue " ; vansa = " race " and u bamboo." 

VOL. III. 1 A 


Vatsa, spent his time in wishes for his marriage and other 
happiness, delightful because so soon to bear fruit. 

Now hear what happened at this point of the story. 

There was once a city named Taksha&la 1 on the banks 
of the Vitasta, the reflection of whose long line of palaces 
gleamed in the waters of the river, as if it were the capital 
of the lower regions come to gaze at its splendour. 
Merchant's In it there dwelt a king named Kalingadatta, a 
-Son in distinguished Buddhist, all whose subjects were 

Takshafila devote d to t h e great Buddha, the bridegroom of 
Tara. 2 His city shone with splendid Buddhist temples densely 
crowded together, as if with the horns of pride elevated 
because it had no rival upon earth. He not only cherished 
his subjects like a father, but also himself taught them know- 
ledge like a spiritual guide. Moreover, there was in that 
city a certain rich Buddhist merchant called Vitastadatta, 
who was exclusively devoted to the honouring of Buddhist 
mendicants. And he had a son, a young man named Ratna- 
datta. And he was always expressing his detestation of his 
father, calling him an impious man. And when his father 
said to him, " Son, why do you blame me?" the merchant's 
son answered with bitter scorn : " My father, you abandon 
the religion of the three Vedas and cultivate irreligion. For 
you neglect the Brahmans and are always honouring 
Sramanas. 3 What have you to do with that Buddhist 
discipline, which all kinds of low- caste men resort to, to 
gratify their desire to have a convent to dwell in, released 
from bathing and other strict ordinances, loving to feed 
whenever it is convenient, 4 rejecting the Brahmanical lock 

1 The Taxila of the Greek writers. The Vitasta is the Hydaspes of the 
Greeks, now called Jhelum. 

2 Monier Williams says that Tara was the wife of the Buddha Amo- 
ghasiddha. Benfey {Orient u. Occident, vol. i, p. 373) says she was a well- 
known Buddhist saint. The passage might perhaps mean, "The Buddha 
adorned with most brilliant stars." It has been suggested to me that 
Taravara may mean Siva, and that the passage means that the Saiva and 
Buddha religions were both professed in the city of Takshafila. 

3 I.e. Buddhist ascetics. 

4 A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads sukala for svakdla : the meaning 
is much the same. 


and other prescribed methods of doing the hair, quite at 
ease with only a rag round their loins ? " 

When the merchant heard that, he said : " Religion is not 
confined to one form ; a transcendent religion is a different 
thing from a religion that embraces the whole world. 
People say that Brahmanism too consists in avoiding 
passion and other sins, in truth, and compassion to creatures, 
not in quarrelling causelessly with one's relations. 1 More- 
over, you ought not to blame generally that school which 
I follow, which extends security to all creatures, on account 
of the fault of an individual. Nobody questions the pro- 
priety of conferring benefits, and my beneficence consists 
simply in giving security to creatures. So, if I take exceed- 
ing pleasure in this system, the principal characteristic of 
which is abstinence from injuring any creature, and which 
brings liberation, wherein am I irreligious in doing so ? " 

When his father said this to him, that merchant's son 
obstinately refused to admit it, and only blamed his father 
the more. Then his father, in disgust, went and reported 
the whole matter to the King Kalingadatta, who superin- 
tended the religion of his people. The king, for his part, 
summoned on some pretext the merchant's son into his 
judgment-hall, and feigning an anger he did not feel, said to 
the executioner : "I have heard that this merchant's son is 
wicked and addicted to horrible crimes, so slay him without 
mercy as a corrupter of the realm." When the king had 
said this, the father interceded, and then the king appointed 
that the execution should be put off for two months, in 
order that he might learn virtue, and entrusted the merchant's 
son to the custody of his father, to be brought again into 
his presence at the end of that time. The merchant's son, 
when he had been taken home to his father's house, was 
distracted with fear, and kept thinking, " What crime can 
I have committed against the king ? " and pondering over 
his causeless execution which was to take place at the end of 
two months : and so he could get no sleep day or night, and 
was exhausted by taking less than his usual food at all times. 

1 A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads nigrahah, " blaming one's relations 
without cause." 


Then, the reprieve of two months having expired, that 
merchant's son was again taken, thin and pale, into the 
presence of the king. And the king, seeing him in such a 
depressed state, said to him : " Why have you become so 
thin ? Did I order you not to eat ? " When the merchant's 
son heard that, he said to the king : "I forgot myself for 
fear, much more my food. Ever since I heard your Majesty 
order my execution I have been thinking every day of death 
slowly advancing." When the merchant's son said this, 
the king said to him : "I have by an artifice made you 
teach yourself what the fear of death is. 1 Such must be 
the fear which every living creature entertains of death, and 
tell me what higher piety can there be than the benefit 
of preserving creatures from that ? So I showed you this 
in order that you might acquire religion and the desire of 
salvation, 2 for a wise man being afraid of death strives to 
attain salvation. Therefore you must not blame your 
father, who follows this religion." When the merchant's 
son heard this, he bowed and said to the king : " Your 
Majesty has made me a blessed man by teaching me religion, 
and now a desire for salvation has arisen in me ; teach me 
that also, my lord." When the king heard that, as it was a 
feast in the city, he gave a vessel full of oil into the hand of 
the merchant's son and said to him : " Take this vessel in 
your hand and walk all round this city, and you must avoid 
spilling a single drop of it, my son ; if you spill one drop of 
it these men will immediately cut you down." 3 Having said 
this, the king dismissed the merchant's son to walk round 
the city, ordering men with drawn swords to follow him. 

The merchant's son, in his fear, took care to avoid spilling 
a drop of oil, and having perambulated that city with much 
difficulty, returned into the presence of the king. The king, 
when he saw that he had brought the oil without spilling it, 

1 Cf. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 122, and Bartsch's Sagcn, Mtirchcn 

u. Gebr'duche aus Meklcnburg, vol. i, p. 90. See also Chauvin, Bibliographie des 

Ouvrages Arabes, viii, p. 181. n.m.p. 

2 Moksha is the soul's final release from further transmigrations. 

8 Cf. Gesta Romanorum, cxliii (Bohn's edit.). This idea is found in the 
Telapatta-Jataka, Fausboll, vol. i, p. 393. 


said to him : " Did you see anyone to-day as you went 
along in your perambulation of the city ? " When the 
merchant's son heard that, he clasped his hands and said 
to the king : "In truth, my lord, I neither saw nor heard 
anything, for at the time when I was perambulating the city 
I had my undivided attention fixed on avoiding spilling a 
drop of oil, lest the swords should descend upon me." When 
the merchant's son said this, the king said to him : " Because 
your whole soul was intent on looking at the oil you saw 
nothing. So practise religious contemplation with the same 
undivided attention. For a man who with intent concen- 
tration averts his attention from all outward operations 
has intuition of the truth, and after that intuition he is not 
entangled again in the meshes of works. Thus I have given 
you in a compendious form instruction in the doctrine of 
salvation." Thus the king spoke, and dismissed him, and 
the merchant's son fell at his feet and went home rejoicing 
to his father's house, having attained all his objects. 

This Kalingadatta, who superintended in this way the 
religion of his subjects, had a wife named Taradatta, of equal 
birth with the king, who, being politic and well-conducted, 
was such an ornament to the king as language is to a poet, 
who delights in numerous illustrations. She was meritorious 
for her bright qualities and was inseparable from that beloved 
king, being to him what the moonlight is to the moon, the 
receptacle of nectar. The king lived happily there with that 
queen, and passed his days like Indra with Sachi in heaven. 

At this point of my tale Indra, for some cause or other, 
had a great feast in heaven. All the Apsarases assembled 
there to dance, except one beautiful Apsaras named Sura- 
The Apsaras bhidatta, who was not to be seen there. Then 
Surabhidatta Indra, by his divine power of insight, perceived 
her associating in secret with a certain Vidyadhara in 
Nandana. When Indra saw it wrath arose in his bosom, 
and he thought : " Ah ! these two, blinded with love, 
are both wicked : the Apsaras because, forgetting us, she 
acts in a wilful manner ; the Vidyadhara because he 
enters the domain of the gods and commits improprieties. 
Or rather, what fault is that miserable Vidyadhara guilty 


of ? For she has enticed him here, ensnaring him with her 
beauty. A lovely one will sweep away with the sea of her 
beauty, flowing between the lofty banks of her breasts, even 
one who can restrain his passions. Was not even Siva 
disturbed long ago when he beheld Tilottama, whom the 
Creator made by taking an atom from all the noblest 
beings ? " * And did not Visvamitra leave his asceticism 
when he beheld Menaka ? And did not Yayati come to 
old age for love of Sarmishtha ? So this young Vidyadhara 
has committed no crime in allowing himself to be allured by 
an Apsaras with her beauty, which is able to bewilder the 
three worlds. 2 But this heavenly nymph is in fault, wicked 
creature, void of virtue, who has deserted the gods and 
introduced this fellow into Nandana." Thus reflecting, the 
lover of Ahalya 3 spared the Vidyadhara youth, but cursed 
that Apsaras in the following words : " Wicked one, take 
upon thyself a mortal nature ; but after thou hast obtained a 
daughter not sprung from the womb, and hast accomplished 
the object of the gods, thou shalt return to this heaven." 

In the meanwhile Taradatta, the consort of that king 
in the city of Taksha&la, reached the period favourable for 
procreation. And Surabhidatta, the Apsaras who had been 
degraded from heaven by the curse of Indra, was conceived 
in her, giving beauty to her whole body. Then Taradatta 
beheld in a dream a flame descending from heaven and 
entering into her womb ; and in the morning she described 
with astonishment her dream to her husband, the King 
Kalingadatta ; and he, being pleased, said to her : " Queen, 
heavenly beings owing to a curse fall into human births, so 
I am persuaded that this is some divine being conceived in 
you. For beings, bound by various works, good and evil, 
are ever revolving in the state of mundane existence in these 
three worlds, to receive fruits blessed and miserable." When 
the queen was thus addressed by the king, she took the 

1 A kind of Pandora. 

2 Cf the argument in the Eunuchus of Terence (Act III, sc. 6) which 
shocked St Augustine so much {Confessions, i, 16). 

a Et tonantcm Jovem et adulter antem. See Vol. II, pp. 45, 46, of the Ocean 

of Story. n.m.p. 


opportunity of saying to him : " It is true, actions, good 
and bad, have a wonderful power, producing the perception 
of joy and sorrow, 1 and in proof of it I will give you this 
illustration. Listen to me. 

30. Story of King Bharmadatta and his Wife Nagasri 

There once lived a king named Dharmadatta, the lord of 
Kosala ; he had a queen named Nagasri, who was devoted 
to her husband and was called Arundhati on the earth, as, 
like her, she was the chief of virtuous women. And in 
course of time, O slayer of your enemies, I was born as the 
daughter of that king by that queen ; then, while I was a 
mere child, that mother of mine suddenly remembered her 
former birth, and said to her husband: "O King, I have 
suddenly to-day remembered my former birth ; it is dis- 
agreeable to me not to tell it, but if I do tell it it will cause 
my death, because they say that if a person suddenly re- 
members his or her former birth, and tells it, it surely brings 
death. Therefore, King, I feel excessively despondent." 
When his queen said this to him, the king answered her : " My 
beloved, I, like you, have suddenly remembered my former 
birth ; therefore tell me yours, and I will tell you mine ; let 
what will be, be; for who can alter the decree of fate?" 
When thus urged by her husband, the queen said to him : 
" If you press the matter, King, then I will tell you. Listen. 

" In my former birth I was a well-conducted female slave 
in this very land, in the house of a certain Brahman named 
Madhava. And in that birth I had a husband named Deva- 
dasa, an excellent hired servant in the house of a certain 
merchant. And so we two dwelled there, having built a 
house that suited us, living on the cooked rice brought from 
the houses of our respective masters. A water vessel and 
a pitcher, a broom and a brazier, and I and my husband 
formed three couples. We lived happy and contented in our 
house, into which the demon of quarrelling never entered, 
eating the little food that remained over after we had made 
offerings to the gods, the manes and guests. And any 

1 I separate balavad from bhogadayi. 


clothes which either of us had we gave to some poor person 
or other. Then there arose a grievous famine in our country, 
and owing to that the allowance of food, which we had to 
receive every day, began to come to us in small quantities. 
Then our bodies became attenuated by hunger, and we 
began to despond in mind, when once on a time at meal- 
time there arrived a weary Brahman guest. To him we 
both gave all our own food, as much as we had, though we 
were in danger of our lives. When the Brahman had eaten 
and departed, my husband's breath left him, as if angry that 
he respected a guest more than it. And then I heaped up 
in honour of my husband a suitable pyre, and ascended it, 
and so laid down the load of my own calamity. Then I was 
born in a royal family, and I became your queen ; for the 
tree of good deeds produces to the righteous inconceivably 
glorious fruit." 

When his queen said this to him, the King Dharmadatta 
said: "Come, my beloved, I am that husband of thine in 
a former birth ; I was that very Devadasa, the merchant's 
servant, for I have remembered this moment this former 
existence of mine." Having said this, and mentioned 
the tokens of his own identity, the king, despondent and 
yet glad, suddenly went with his queen to heaven. 

In this way my parents went to another world, and 
my mother's sister brought me to her own house to rear me, 
and while I was unmarried there came a certain Brahman 
guest, and my mother's sister ordered me to wait on him. 
And I diligently strove to please him as Kunti 1 to please 
Durvasas, and owing to a boon conferred by him I obtained 
you, a virtuous husband. Thus good fortune is the result 
of virtue, owing to which my parents were both born at 
the same time in royal families, and also remembered their 
former birth. 

[M] Having heard this speech of the Queen Taradatta, 
the King Kalingadatta, who was exclusively devoted to 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 23, 24. n.m.p. 


righteousness, answered her: "It is true, a trifling act of 
righteousness duly performed will bring much fruit, and in 
proof of this, O Queen, hear the ancient tale of the seven 

31. Story of the Seven Brahmans who devoured a Cow 
in time of Famine 1 

Long ago, in a city called Kundina, a certain Brahman 
teacher had for pupils seven sons of Brahmans. Then that 
teacher, under pressure of famine, sent those pupils to ask 
his father-in-law, who was rich in cows, to give him one. 
And those pupils of his went, with their bellies pinched by 
hunger, to his father-in-law, who dwelt in another land, and 
asked him, as their teacher had ordered them, for a cow. 
He gave them one cow to support them, but the miserly 
fellow did not give them food, though they were hungry. 
Then they took the cow, and as they were returning and had 
accomplished half the journey, being excessively pained by 
hunger, they fell exhausted on the earth. They said : " Our 
teacher's house is far off, and we are afflicted by calamity 
far from home, and food is hard to obtain everywhere, so it 
is all over with our lives. And in the same way this cow 
is certain to die in this wilderness without water, wood, or 
human beings, and our teacher will not derive even the 
smallest advantage from it. So let us support our lives with 
its flesh, and quickly restore our teacher and his family 
with what remains over, for it is a time of sore distress." 

Having thus deliberated, those seven students treated 
that cow as a victim, and sacrificed it on the spot 
according to the system prescribed in the sacred treatises. 2 
After sacrificing to the gods and manes, and eating its 
flesh according to the prescribed method, they went and 
took what remained of it to their teacher. They bowed 
before him and told him all that they had done, to the 

1 This appears to be found in a slightly different form in the Harivansa 
(Leveque, Mythes et Legendes de VInde et de la Perse, p. 220). 

2 For a note on the sacred cow of the Hindus see Vol. II, pp. 240- 
242. n.m.p. 


letter, and he was pleased with them because they told 
the truth, though they had committed a fault. And after 
seven days they died of famine, but because they told the 
truth on that occasion they were born again with the power 
of remembering their former birth. 

[M] " Thus even a small germ of merit, watered with 
the water of holy aspiration, bears fruit to men in general, 
as a seed to cultivators, but the same corrupted by the water 
of impure aspiration bears fruit in the form of misfortune, 
and a propos of this I will tell you another tale. Listen. 

32. Story of the Two Ascetics, one a Brahman, the 
other a Chandala 

Once on a time two men remained for the same length 
of time fasting on the banks of the Ganges, one a Brahman 
and the other a Chandala. Of those two, the Brahman 
being overpowered with hunger, and seeing some Nishadas 1 
come that way bringing fish and eating them, thus reflected 
in his folly : " O happy in the world are these fishermen, 
sons of female slaves though they be, for they eat to their 
fill of the fresh meat of fish ! " But the other, who was a 
Chandala, thought, the moment he saw those fishermen : 
" Out on these destroyers of life, and devourers of raw 
flesh ! So why should I stand here and behold their faces ? " 
Saying this to himself, he closed his eyes and remained 
buried in his own thoughts. And in course of time those 
two, the Brahman and the Chandala, died of starvation ; 
the Brahman was eaten by dogs on the bank, the Chandala 
rotted in the water of the Ganges. So that Brahman, not 
having disciplined his spirit, was born in the family of a 
fisherman, but owing to the virtue of the holy place he re- 
membered his former existence. As for that Chandala, who 
possessed self-control, and whose mind was not marred by 

1 The name of certain aboriginal tribes described as hunters, fishermen, 
robbers, etc. 


passion, he was born as a king in a palace on that very 
bank of the Ganges, and recollected his former birth. And 
of those two, who were born with a remembrance of their 
former existence, the one suffered misery, being a fisherman, 
the other being a king enjoyed happiness. 

[M] " Such is the root of the tree of virtue ; according 
to the purity or impurity of a man's heart is without doubt 
the fruit which he receives." Having said this to the Queen 
Taradatta, King Kalingadatta again said to her in the 
course of conversation : " Moreover, actions which are really 
distinguished by great courage produce fruit, since prosperity 
follows on courage ; and to illustrate this I will tell the 
following wonderful tale. Listen. 

33. Story of King Vikramasinha and the Two Brdhmans 

There is in Avanti a city named Ujjayini, famous in the 
world, which is the dwelling-place of Siva, 1 and which gleams 
with its white palaces as if with the peaks of Kailasa, come 
thither in the ardour of their devotion to the god. This 
vast city, profound as the sea, having a splendid emperor 
for its water, had hundreds of armies entering it, as hundreds 
of rivers flow into the sea, and was the refuge of allied kings, 
as the sea is of mountains that retain their wings. 2 In that 
city there was a king who had the name of Vikramasinha, 3 
a name that thoroughly expressed his character, for his 
enemies were like deer and never met him in fight. And he, 
because he could never find any enemy to face him, became 
disgusted with weapons and the might of his arm, and was 
inwardly grieved, as he never obtained the joy of battle. 

1 In the original Mahakala, an epithet of Siva in his character as the 
destroying deity. 

2 Generally only one mountain named Mainaka is said to have fled into 
the sea, and retained its wings when Indra clipped those of the others. The 
passage is, of course, an elaborate pun. 

3 I.e. lion of valour. 


Then his minister Amaragupta, who discovered his longing, 
said to him incidentally in the course of conversation : 
" King, it is not hard for kings to incur guilt, if through 
pride in their strong arms, and confidence in their skill in 
the use of weapons, they even long for enemies ; in this 
way Bana, in old time, through pride in his thousand arms, 
propitiated Siva and asked for an enemy that was a match 
for him in fight, until at last his prayer was actually granted, 
and Vishnu became his enemy, and cut off his innumerable 
arms in battle. So you must not show dissatisfaction be- 
cause you do not obtain an opportunity of fighting, and a 
terrible enemy must never be desired. If you want to show 
here your skill in weapons and your strength, show it in the 
forest, an appropriate field for it, and in hunting. And 
since kings are not generally exposed to fatigue, hunting 
is approved to give them exercise and excitement, but 
warlike expeditions are not recommended. 1 Moreover, the 
malignant wild animals desire that the earth should be 
depopulated ; for this reason the king should slay them ; 
on this ground, too, hunting is approved. But wild animals 
should not be too unremittingly pursued, for it was owing 
to the vice of exclusive devotion to hunting that former 
kings, Pandu and others, met destruction." 

When the wise minister Amaragupta said this to him, the 
King Vikramasinha approved the advice, saying : " I will do 
so." And the next day the king went out of the city to hunt, 
to a district beset with horses, footmen and dogs, and where 
all the quarters were filled with the pitching of various nets, 
and he made the heaven resound with the shouts of joyous 
huntsmen. And as he was going out on the back of an 
elephant he saw two men sitting together in private in an 
empty temple outside the walls. And the king, as he beheld 
them from afar, supposed that they were only deliberating 
together over something at their leisure, and passed on to 
the forest where his hunting was to be. There he was 
delighted with the drawn swords, and with the old tigers, 

1 The last part of this sentence seems strange ; the D. text differs, and 
means, " for kings who have not exercised themselves in the way of fighting 
are disapproved." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 108. n.m.p. 


and the roaring of lions, and the scenery, and the elephants. 
He strewed that ground with pearls fallen from the nails of 
elephant-slaying lions whom he killed, resembling the seeds 
of his prowess. The deer leaping sideways, being oblique- 
goers, 1 went obliquely across his path ; his straight-flying 
arrows easily transfixing them first, reached afterwards the 
mark of delight. 

And after the king had long enjoyed the sport of 
hunting, he returned, as his servants were weary, with 
slackened bowstring to the city of Ujjayini. There he saw 
those two men whom he had seen as he was going out, who 
had remained the whole time in the temple occupied in the 
same way. He thought to himself : " Who are these, and 
why do they deliberate so long ? Surely they must be spies, 
having a long talk over secrets." So he sent his warder and 
had those men captured and brought into his presence, and 
then thrown into prison. And the next day he had them 
brought into his judgment-hall, and asked them: "Who 
are you, and why did you deliberate together so long?" 
When the king in person asked them this, they entreated 
him to spare their lives, and one of these young men began 
to say : " Hear, O King ; I will now tell the whole story as it 

33a. The Double Elopement 

There lived a Brahman, of the name of Karabhaka, 
in this very city of yours. I, whom you see here, am the 
son of that learned student of the Vedas, born by his pro- 
pitiating the God of Fire in order to obtain a heroic son. 
And when my father went to heaven, and his wife followed 
him, 2 1, being a mere boy, though I had learned the sciences, 
abandoned the course of life suited to my caste, because I 
was friendless. And I set myself to practise gaming and 
the use of arms. What boy does not become self-willed 
if he is not kept in order by some superior ? And, having 
passed my childhood in this way, I acquired overweening 

1 I.e. animals, horizontal-goers. The pun defies translation ; the word 
I have translated "arrow" is literally "the not sideways-goer." 

2 I.e. by burning herself upon the funeral pyre. 


confidence in my prowess, and went one day to the forest to 
practise archery. And while I was thus engaged a bride 
came out of the city in a covered palankeen, 1 surrounded 
by many attendants of the bridegroom. And suddenly an 
elephant, that had broken its chain, came from some quarter 
or other at that very moment and attacked that bride in its 
fury. And through fear of that elephant all those cowardly 
attendants, and her husband with them, deserted the bride, 
and fled in all directions. When I saw that, I immediately 
said to myself in my excitement: "What! have these 
miserable wretches left this unfortunate woman alone ? 
So I must defend this unprotected lady from this elephant. 
For what is the use of life or courage unless employed to 
succour the unfortunate ? " 

Thus reflecting, I raised a shout and ran towards that 
huge elephant, and the elephant, abandoning the woman, 
charged down upon me. Then I, before the eyes of that 
terrified woman, shouted and ran, and so drew off that 
elephant to a distance. At last I got hold of a bough of a 
tree thickly covered with leaves, which had been broken off, 
and covering myself with it I went into the middle of the 
tree, and placing the bough in front of me I escaped by a 
dexterous oblique movement, while the elephant trampled 
the bough to pieces. Then I quickly went to that lady, who 
remained terrified there, and asked her whether she had 
escaped without injury. She, when she saw me, said with 
afflicted and yet joyful manner : " How can I be said to be 
uninjured, now that I have been bestowed on this coward, 
who has deserted me in such straits, and fled somewhere 
or other ? But so far, at any rate, am I uninjured, in that I 

1 This word is sometimes spelt palanquin, although it should always be 
pronounced as spelt in the present text. The origin of the word is doubtful. 
It came to England through the Portuguese palanquim, which was derived 
from the East Indian forms Malay and Javanese palangki, Pali pallanko, 
Hindustani palki. All these words are based on the Sanskrit paryafika, " a 
bed," from pari, "round," and aftka, "a hook." The Spanish word palanca 
is used for a pole to carry loads on, and may have influenced the form of 
the word taken by the Portuguese. For fuller details see Yule's Hobson 
Jobson under " Palankeen " ; and Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Provinces, vol. iii, pp. 292-294. n.m.p. 



again behold you unharmed. So my husband is nothing to 
me ; you henceforth are my husband, by whom, regard- 
less of your life, I have been delivered from the jaws of 
death. And here I see my husband coming with his servants, 
so follow us slowly ; for when we get an opportunity you 
and I will elope somewhere together." 

When she said this, I consented. I ought to have 
thought: "Though this woman is beautiful, and flings 
herself at my head, yet she is the wife of another ; what 
have I to do with her ? " But this is the course of calm 
self-restraint, not of ardent youth. And in a moment her 
husband came up and greeted her, and she proceeded to 
continue her journey with him and his servants. And I, 
without being detected, followed her through her long 
journey, being secretly supplied with provisions for the 
journey by her, though I passed for someone unconnected 
with her. 1 And she, throughout the journey, falsely asserted 
that she suffered pain in her limbs, from a strain produced 
by falling in her terror at the elephant, and so avoided even 
touching her husband. A passionate woman, like a female 
snake, terrible from the condensed venom she accumulates 
within, will never, if injured, neglect to wreak her vengeance. 

And in course of time we reached the city of Lohana- 
gara, where was the house of the husband of that woman, 
who lived by trading. And we all remained during that day 
in a temple outside the walls. And there I met my friend, 
this second Brahman. And though we had never met 
before, we felt a confidence in one another at first sight ; 
the heart of creatures recognises friendships formed in a 
previous birth. Then I told him all my secret. When 
he heard it, he said to me of his own accord : " Keep 
the matter quiet ; I know of a device by which you 
can attain the object for which you came here. I know 
here the sister of this lady's husband. She is ready to fly 
from this place with me and take her wealth with her. 
So with her help I will accomplish your object for you." 

1 Brockhaus reads paravat sada, and Tawney makes the best sense he 
can by ignoring sada. The D. text has paravartmana, "by another way," 
which gets rid of the difficulty. n.m.p. 


When the Brahman had said this to me he departed, 
and secretly informed the merchant's wife's sister-in-law of 
the whole matter. And on the next day the sister-in-law, 
according to arrangement, came with her brother's wife 
and introduced her into the temple. And while we were 
there she made my friend at that very time, which was the 
middle of the day, 1 put on the dress of her brother's wife. 
And she took him so disguised into the city, and went into 
the house in which her brother lived, after arranging what 
we were to do. But I left the temple, and fleeing with the 
merchant's wife dressed as a man, reached at last this city of 
Ujjayinl. And her sister-in-law at night fled with my friend 
from that house, in which there had been a feast, and so the 
people were in a drunken sleep. 

And then he came with her by stealthy journeys to 
this city ; so we met here. In this way we two have obtained 
our two wives in the bloom of youth, the sister-in-law and 
her brother's wife, who bestowed themselves on us out of 
affection. Consequently, King, we are afraid to dwell any- 
where ; for whose mind is at ease after performing deeds of 
reckless temerity ? So the king saw us yesterday from a 
distance, while we were debating about a place to dwell in, 
and how we should subsist. And your Majesty, seeing us, 
had us brought and thrown into prison on the suspicion 
of being thieves, and to-day we have been questioned 
about our history, and I have just told it ; now it is for your 
Highness to dispose of us at pleasure. 

33. Story of King Vikramasinha and the 
Two Brdhmans 

When one of them had said this, the King Vikramasinha 
said to those two Brahmans : "I am satisfied ; do not be 
afraid, remain in this city, and I will give you abundance 
of wealth." When the king had said this, he gave them as 
much to live on as they wished, and they lived happily in 
his court, accompanied by their wives. 

1 This seems rather unnecessary here. There is probably a corrupted 
reading. See Speyer, op. cit. } pp. 108, 109. n.m.p. 


[M] "Thus prosperity dwells for men even in question- 
able deeds, if they are the outcome of great courage, and 
thus kings, being satisfied, take pleasure in giving to discreet 
men who are rich in daring. And thus this whole created 
world with the gods and demons will always reap various 
fruits, corresponding exactly to their own stock of deeds, 
good or bad, performed in this or in a former birth. So 
rest assured, Queen, that the flame which was seen by you 
falling from heaven in your dream, and apparently entering 
your womb, is some creature of divine origin that, owing to 
some influence of its works, has been conceived in you." 
The pregnant Queen Taradatta, when she heard this from 
the mouth of her own husband Kalingadatta, was exceedingly 



THEN the Queen Taradatta, the consort of King 
[M] Kalingadatta in Takshaslla, slowly became op- 
pressed with the burden of her unborn child. And 
she, now that her delivery was near, being pale of counte- 
nance, with tremulous eyeballs, 1 resembled the East in which 
the pale streak of the young moon is about to rise. And 
there was soon born from her a daughter excelling all others, 
like a specimen of the Creator's power to produce all beauty. 
The lights kept burning to protect the child against evil 
spirits, blazing with oil, 2 were eclipsed by her beauty, and 
darkened, as if through grief that a son of equal beauty had 
not been born instead. And her father, Kalingadatta, when 
he saw her born, beautiful though she was, was filled with 
despondency at the disappointment of his hope to obtain a 
son like her. Though he divined that she was of heavenly 
origin, he was grieved because he longed for a son. For a 
son, being embodied joy, is far superior to a daughter, that 
is but a lump of grief. 3 Then in his affliction the king went 
out of his palace to divert his mind, and he entered a 
monastery full of many images of Buddha. In a certain 
part of the monastery he heard this speech being uttered by 
a begging hermit, who was a religious preacher, as he sat in 
the midst of his hearers : 

' They say that the bestowal of wealth in this world is 
great asceticism ; a man who gives wealth is said to give 
life, for life depends on wealth. And Buddha, with mind 
full of pity, offered up himself for another, as if he were 
worthless straw, much more should one offer up sordid pelf. 

1 The word taraka means also "a star." So here we have one of those 
puns in which our author delights. 

2 Also "full of affection." This is a common pun. See Vol. II, 

pp. 166-169. n.m.p. 

3 Because she cannot perform the sraddha, etc. Mohammedans describe 
a daughter by exactly similar expressions viz. "a domestic calamity," etc. 





And it was by such resolute asceticism that Buddha, having 
got rid of desire and obtained heavenly insight, attained the 
rank of a Buddha. Therefore a wise man should do what is 
beneficial to other beings, by abstaining from selfish aspira- 
tions even so far as to sacrifice his own body, in order that 
he may obtain perfect insight." 

34. Story of the Seven Princesses 

Thus, long ago, there were born in succession to a certain 
king named Krita seven very beautiful princesses, and even 
while they were still youthful they abandoned, in disgust 
with life, the house of their father, and went to the cemetery, 
and when they were asked why they did it they said to their 
retinue : " This world is unreal, and in it this body and 
such delights as union with the beloved are the baseless 
fabric of a dream ; only the good of others in this revolving 
world is pronounced to be real ; so let us with these bodies 
of ours do good to our fellow- creatures, let us fling these 
bodies, while they are alive, to the eaters of raw flesh * in 
the cemetery ; what is the use of them, lovely though they 

34a. The Prince who tore out his own Eye 

For there lived in old time a certain prince who was 
disgusted with the world, and he, though young and hand- 
some, adopted the life of a wandering hermit. Once on a 
time that beggar entered the house of a certain merchant, 
and was beheld by his young wife with his eyes long as the 
leaf of a lotus. She, with heart captivated by the beauty 
of his eyes, said to him : " How came such a handsome man 
as you to undertake such a severe vow as this ? Happy is 
the woman who is gazed upon with this eye of yours ! " 
When the begging hermit was thus addressed by the lady, 
he tore out one eye and, holding it in his hand, said : 
" Mother, behold this eye, such as it is ; take the loathsome 

1 Beasts of prey, or possibly Rakshasas. 


mass of flesh and blood, if it pleases you. 1 And the other is 
like it ; say, what is there attractive in these ? " When he 
said this to the merchant's wife, and she saw the eye, she 

1 Cf. the translation of the Life of St Brigit by Whitley Stokes {Three 
Middle Irish Homilies, p. 65) : 

" Shortly after that came a certain nobleman unto Dubthach to ask for 
his daughter in marriage. Dubthach and his sons were willing, but Brigit 
refused. Said a brother of her brethren named Beccan unto her : Idle is the 
fair eve that is in thy head not to be on a pillow near a husband.' 'The son 
of the Virgin knoweth,' said Brigit, ' it is not lively for us if it brings harm 
upon us.' Then Brigit put her finger under her eye and drew it out of her 
head till it was on her cheek, and she said : ( Lo, here is thy delightful eye, 
O Beccan.' Then his eye burst forthwith. When Dubthach and his brethren 
saw that, they promised that she should never be told to go to a husband. 
Then she put her palm to her eye and it was whole at once. But Beccan's 
eye was not whole till his death." 

That the biographers of Christian saints were largely indebted to 
Buddhist hagiology has been shown by Liebrecht in his "Essay on the 
Sources of Barlaam and Josaphat " (Zur Volkskunde, p. 441). In Mr Stokes' 
book, p. 34, will also be found a reference to the practice of showing reverence 
by walking round persons or things keeping the right hand towards them. 
This is pointed out by Mr Stokes in his Preface as an interesting link between 
Ireland and India. He has sent me the following quotation, in the Revue 
Celtique, vol. v, p. 130, from P. Cahier, Characteristiques des Saints, i, 105 : 

"A certain virgin Lucia (doubtful whether of Bologna or of Alexandria), 
se voyant frequemment suivie par un jeune homme qui affectait de I accompagner 
partout des q'elle quittait sa maison, lid demanda enfin ce qui Vattachait si fort d ses 
pas. Celui-ci ay ant repondu que c'etait le beaute de ses yeux, la jeune \fille se servit 
de son fuseau pour faire sortir ses yeux de leur orbile, et dit a son poursuivant quil 
pouvait les prendre et la laisser desormais en repos. On ajoute que cette generosite 
effrayante changea si fort le cceur du jeune homme quil embrassa la profession 
religieuse." The story of the ascetic who conquered anger resembles closely 
the Khantivadi- Jataka, No. 313 in Fausboll's edition, vol. iii, p. 39. It is also 
found in the Bodhisattva Avadana, under the title " Kshanti Jataka," and in the 
Mahavastu Avadana in a form closely resembling that of the Pali Jataka book. 
See Dr Rajendra Lai Mitra's Account of the Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 
pp. 55, 159, 160. 

In the seventeenth vezir's story of The History of the Forty Vczirs 
(E. J. W. Gibb, 1886, p. 191 et seq.) and Die Vierzig Veziere oder weisen 
Meister (W. F. A. Behrnauer, 1851, p. 212), we read of a woman in Mecca who 
had a store of wheat. She fell in love with a youth and promised to give him 
some if he would lie with her. He feigned to consent, and going alone into 
a room of the house prepared to castrate himself, when he was miraculously 
saved from his dilemma. In the story of " Penta the Handless" in the 
Pentamerone, third day, second diversion (Burton, vol. i, p. 249 et seq.), the King 


was despondent, and said : " Alas ! I, unhappy wretch that 
I am, have done an evil deed, in that I have become the cause 
of the tearing out of your eye ! " When the beggar heard 
that, he said : " Mother, do not be grieved, for you have 
done me a benefit ; hear the following example, to prove the 
truth of what I say : 

of Preta-secca wishes to commit incest with his sister. She can hardly believe 
he is really in earnest, but he makes this quite clear, declaring that her 
beautiful hands have especially fascinated him. She retires and gets a slave 
to cut off her hands. " Then she laid them in a faenza basin and sent them 
covered with a silken napkin to her brother, with a message that she hoped 
he would enjoy what he coveted most, and desiring him good health and 
twins, she saluted him." 

As is well known, self-mutilation has entered largely into religion from 
very early times, and even exists to-day, though it is now chiefly found only 
among the practices of modern savagery. The connection between the 
religious rite and savage practice is one of considerable interest and difficulty. 
An examination of examples of the two varieties will show a closer relation- 
ship than may be at first expected, for the crudest savage practice may be 
based on a religious foundation, and is, in fact, merely a form of asceticism. 
The subject has been fully discussed by Herbert Spencer, Ceremonial Institu- 
tions {Principles of Sociology, part iv), London, 1879, pp- 52-80. He would 
reduce both classes to a common denomination by the theory that the practices 
were for the purpose of securing and indicating the marks of subjugation of 
the conquered to his conqueror, and that they were repeated as religious rites 
for the same reason the subjugation of the worshipper to the god. 

Evidence, however, shows that this view cannot be accepted. See 
Lawrence Gomme, " Mutilations," Hastings' Ency. Eel. Eth., vol. ix, pp. 62, 63. 
Among other points Gomme notes that religious mutilations are personal and 
voluntary, in contradiction to savage practice, where mutilations are imposed 
by compulsion upon conquered enemies or enslaved peoples or persons. 
This contrast is illustrated by two independent pieces of evidence. Arnobius 
Orestes (adv. Gentes, v, 7) relates that the daughter of a Gallus cut off her 
breasts out of devotion to Aphrodite the mother. A curious passage in the 
Old Irish Treatise on the Law of Adamnan (ed. and trans. Kuno Meyer, Oxford, 
1905, p. 3) says that before Adamnan's time "it was the head of a woman or 
her two breasts which were taken as trophies." The trophy and the sacrifice 

in those two cases do not seem to belong to the same plane of thought, and 

yet they belong to the same range of civilisation. 

The list of mutilations is long and gruesome. It includes hair, scalp, 

eyes, nose, lips, cheeks, ears, jaws, fingers, circumcision, infibulation, excision, 

castration, blood-letting, etc. 

For further details reference should be made to J. A. Macculloch, 

" Austerities," Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth. 3 vol. ii, pp. 232-234 ; and V. Chauvin, 

op. cit.j viii, p. 136, under " Moyens pour echapper au danger." n.m.p. 


34 aa. The Ascetic who conquered Anger 

There lived long ago, in a certain beautiful garden on 
the banks of the Ganges, a hermit animated by the desire 
of experiencing all asceticism. And while he was engaged 
in mortifying the flesh it happened that a certain king came 
there to amuse himself with the women of his harem. And 
after he had amused himself he fell asleep under the influence 
of his potations, and while he was in this state his queens 
left him out of thoughtlessness and roamed about in the 
garden. And beholding in a corner of the garden that 
hermit engaged in meditation, they stood round him out of 
curiosity, wondering what on earth he could be. And as 
they remained there a long time, that king woke up, and not 
seeing his wives at his side, wandered all round the garden. 
And then he saw the queens standing all round the hermit, 
and being enraged he slashed the hermit with his sword out 
of jealousy. What crime will not sovereign power, jealousy, 
cruelty, drunkenness and indiscretion cause separately ; much 
more deadly are they when combined, like five fires. 1 Then 
the king departed, and though the hermit's limbs were 
gashed, he remained free from wrath ; whereupon a certain 
deity appeared and said to him : " Great- souled one, if you 
approve, I will slay by my power that wicked man who did 
this to you in a passion." When the hermit heard that, he 
said : " O goddess, say not so, for he is my helper in virtue, 
not a harmer of me. For by his favour I have attained the 
grace of patience. To whom could I have shown patience, 
O goddess, if he had not acted thus towards me ? What 
anger does the wise man show for the sake of this perishing 
body ? To show patience equally with regard to what is 
agreeable and disagreeable is to have attained the rank of 
Brahma." When the hermit said this to the deity, she 
was pleased, and after healing the wounds in his limbs she 

1 They are compared to the five sacred fires for which see p. I6O71 1 of 

this volume. n.m.p. 


34a. The Prince who tore out his own Eye 

"In the same way as that king was considered a bene- 
factor by the hermit, you, my mother, have increased my 
asceticism by causing me to tear out my eye." Thus spake 
the self- subduing hermit to the merchant's wife, who bowed 
before him, and being regardless of his body, lovely though 
it was, he passed on to perfection. 

34. Story of the Seven Princesses 

" Therefore, though our youth be very charming, why 
should we cling to this perishable body ? But the only 
thing which, in the eye of the wise man, it is good for is 
to benefit one's fellow- creatures. So we will lay down our 
bodies to benefit living creatures in this cemetery, the 
natural home of happiness." Having said this to their 
attendants, those seven princesses did so, and obtained 
therefrom the highest beatitude. 

[M] " Thus you see that the wise have no selfish affection 
even for their own bodies, much less for such worthless 
things 1 as son, wife and servants." 

When the King Kalingadatta had heard these and other 
such things from the religious teacher in the monastery, 
having spent the day there, he returned to his palace. And 
when he was there he was again afflicted with grief on account 
of the birth of a daughter to him, and a certain Brahman, 
who had grown old in his house, said to him : " King, why 
do you despond on account of the birth of a pearl of maidens ? 
Daughters are better even than sons, and produce happiness 
in this world and the next. Why do kings care so much 
about those sons that hanker after their kingdom and eat 
up their fathers like crabs ? But kings like Kuntibhoja 
and others, by the virtue of daughters like Kunti and others, 
have escaped harm from sages like the terrible Durvasas. 

1 Literally, " the worthless straw-heap of," etc. 


And how can one obtain from a son the same fruit in the 
next world as one obtains from the marriage of a daughter ? 
Moreover, I now proceed to tell the tale of Sulochana. Listen 
to it. 

35. Story of Sulochana and Sushena 

There was a young king named Sushena on the mountain 
of Chitrakuta, who was created like another God of Love 
by the Creator to spite Siva. He made at the foot of that 
great mountain a heavenly garden, which was calculated to 
make the gods averse to dwelling in the garden of Nandana. 
And in the middle of it he made a lake with full-blown 
lotuses, like a new productive bed for the lotuses with which 
the Goddess of Fortune plays. This lake had steps leading 
down into it made of splendid gems, and the king used to 
linger on its banks without a bride, because there were no 
eligible matches for him. 

Once on a time Rambha, a fair one of heaven, came 
that way, wandering at will through the air from the palace 
of Indra. She beheld the king roaming in that garden like 
an incarnation of the Spring in the midst of a garden of full- 
blown flowers. She said : " Can this be the moon that has 
swooped down from heaven in pursuit of the Goddess of 
Fortune fallen into a cluster of lotuses of the lake ? But 
that cannot be, for this hero's fortune in the shape of beauty 
never passes away. 1 Surely this must be the god of the 
flowery arrows come to the garden in quest of flowers. But 
where has Rati, his companion, gone ? " Thus Rambha 
described him in her eagerness, and descending from heaven 
in human form she approached that king. And when the 
king suddenly beheld her advancing towards him he was 
astonished, and reflected : " Who can this be of incredible 
beauty ? She cannot surely be a human being, since her 
feet do not touch the dust, and her eye does not wink ; there- 
fore she must be some divine person. But I must not ask 
her who she is, for she might fly from me. Divine beings who 
visit men for some cause or other are generally impatient 
of having their secrets revealed." While such thoughts 

1 Here there is a pun on the two meanings of Sri. 


were passing in the monarch's mind she began a conversation 
with him, which led in due course to his throwing his arms 
round her neck then and there. And he sported long there 
with this Apsaras, so that she forgot heaven. Love is more 
charming than one's native home. And the land of that 
king was filled with heaps of gold, by means of the Yakshinis, 
friends of hers, who transformed themselves into trees, 1 as 
the heaven is filled with the peaks of Meru. And in the 
course of time that excellent Apsaras became pregnant, and 
bore to King Sushena an incomparably beautiful daughter, 
and no sooner had she given her birth than she said to the 
king : " O King, such has been my curse, and it is now at an 
end ; for I am Rambha, a heavenly nymph that fell in love 
with you on beholding you ; and as I have given birth to a 
child I must immediately leave you and depart. 2 For such 
is the law that governs us heavenly beings ; therefore take 
care of this daughter ; when she is married we shall again 
be united in heaven." When the Apsaras Rambha had said 
this she departed, sorely against her will, and through grief 
at it the king was bent on abandoning life. But his ministers 
said to him : " Did Visvamitra, though despondent, abandon 
life when Menaka had departed after giving birth to 
Sakuntala ? " When the king had been plied by them with 
such arguments, he took the right view of the matter, and 
slowly recovered his self-command, taking to his heart the 
daughter who was destined to be the cause of their reunion. 
And that daughter, lovely in all her limbs, her father, who 
was devoted to her, named Sulochana, on account of the 
exceeding beauty of her eyes. 

In time she grew up to womanhood, and a young hermit, 
named Vatsa, the descendant of Kasyapa, as he was roam- 
ing about at will, beheld her in a garden. He, though he 
was all compact of asceticism, the moment he beheld that 

1 It is hard to understand why they had to turn themselves into trees. 
The explanation must be that Brockhaus misread vrishtair for vrikshair. Thus 
the meaning would be that the Yakshinis poured down the gold as rain from 
heaven, a much more likely interpretation. See Speyer, op. cit. } p. 109. 


2 This reminds us of a similar incident in Kalidasa's Vikramorvail. See 
Vol. II, p. 257. n.m.p. 


princess, felt the emotion of love, and he said to himself 
then and there : " Oh ! exceedingly wonderful is the beauty 
of this maiden. If I do not obtain her as a wife, what 
The Hermit t ner fruit of my asceticism can I obtain ? ' ; 
marries While thinking thus, the young hermit was beheld 

Sulochana fry Sulochana, and he seemed to her all glorious 
with brightness, like fire free from smoke. When she saw 
him with his rosary and water vessel she fell in love also, 
and thought : " Who can this be that looks so self-restrained 
and yet so lovely ? " And coming towards him, as if to 
select him for her husband, she threw over his body the 
garland * of the blue lotuses of her eyes, and bowed before 
that hermit. And he, with mind overpowered by the decree 
of Kama, hard for gods and Asuras to evade, pronounced 
on her the following blessing : " Obtain a husband." Then 
the excellent hermit was thus addressed by that lady, whose 
modesty was stolen away by love for his exceeding beauty, 
and who spoke with downcast face : "If this is your desire, 
and if this is not jesting talk, then, Brahman, ask the king, 
my father, who has power to dispose of me." 

Then the hermit, after hearing of her descent from her at- 
tendants, went and asked the King Sushena, her father, for her 
hand. He, for his part, when he saw that the young hermit 
was eminent both in beauty and asceticism, entertained him, 
and said to him : " Reverend sir, this daughter is mine by 
the nymph Rambha, and by my daughter's marriage I am 
to be reunited with her in heaven ; so Rambha told me when 
she was returning to the sky. Consider, auspicious sir, how 
that is to be accomplished." When the hermit heard that, 
he thought for a moment : " Did not the hermit Ruru, when 
Pramadvara, the daughter of Menaka, was bitten by a snake, 
give her the half of his life, and make her his wife ? 2 Was not 
the Chandala Trisanku carried to heaven by VisVamitra ? So 
why should not I do the same by expending my asceticism 
upon it ? " Having thus reflected, the hermit said : " There 

1 In the svayamvara the maiden threw a garland over the neck of the 
favoured suitor as in the case of Draupadl (Vol. II, p. 16). n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 188-189, where the form of the name is Prisha^varii. 



is no difficulty in it " ; and exclaimed : " Hearken, ye gods ! 
May this king mount with his body to heaven to obtain 
possession of Rambha by virtue of part of my asceticism." 
Thus the hermit spoke in the hearing of the court, and a 
distinct answer was heard from heaven : "So be it." Then 
the king gave his daughter Sulochana to the hermit Vatsa, 
the descendant of Kasyapa, and ascended to heaven. There 
he obtained a divine nature, and lived happily with that 
Rambha of god-like dignity, appointed his wife by Indra. 

[M] " Thus, O King, Sushena obtained all his ends by 
means of a daughter. For such daughters become incarnate 
in the houses of such as you. And this daughter is surely 
some heavenly nymph, fallen from her high estate owing to 
a curse, and born in your house ; so do not grieve, monarch, 
on account of her birth." 

When King Kalingadatta had heard this tale from the 
Brahman who had grown old in his house, he left off being 
distressed, and was comforted. And he gave to his dear 
young daughter, who gave pleasure to his eyes, as if she 
had been a digit of the moon, the name of Kalingasena. 
And the Princess Kalingasena grew up in the house of 
her father amongst her companions. And she sported in 
the palaces, and in the palace gardens, like a wave of the 
sea of infancy that is full of the passion l for amusement. 

Once on a time the daughter of the Asura Maya, named 
Somaprabha, as she was journeying through the sky, saw 
her on the roof of a palace engaged in play. And Soma- 
prabha, while in the sky, beheld her lovely enough to bewilder 
with her beauty the mind even of a hermit, and feeling 
affection for her, reflected : " Who is this ? Can she be the 
form of the moon ? If so, how is it that she gleams in the 
day ? But if she is Rati, where is Kama ? Therefore I 
conclude that she is a mortal maiden. She must be some 
celestial nymph that has descended into a king's palace in 
consequence of a curse ; and I am persuaded I was certainly 

1 Rasa also means "water." 


a friend of hers in a former life. For my mind's being full 
of exceeding affection for her tells me so. Therefore it is 
fitting that I should again select her as my chosen friend." 
Thus reflecting, Somaprabha descended invisible from heaven, 
in order not to frighten that maiden ; and she assumed the 
appearance of a mortal maiden to inspire confidence, and 
slowly approached that Kalingasena. Then Kalingasena, 
on beholding her, reflected : " Bravo ! Here is a princess 
of wonderful beauty come to visit me of her own accord. 
She is a suitable friend for me." So she rose up politely 
and embraced that Somaprabha. And making her take a 
seat, she asked her immediately her descent and name. And 
Somaprabha said to her: "Be patient, I will tell you all." 
Then in the course of their conversation they swore friend- 
ship to each other with plighted hands. Then Somaprabha 
said : " My friend, you are a king's daughter, and it is hard 
to keep up friendship with the children of kings. For they 
fly into an immoderate passion on account of a small fault. 
Hear, with regard to this point, the story of the prince and 
the merchant's son which I am about to tell you." 

36. Story of the Prince and the Merchant's Son who 
saved his Life l 

In the city of PushkaravatI there was a king named 
Gudhasena, and to him there was born one son. That 

1 This story is compared by Benfey (Orient und Occident, vol. i, p. 374) 
with that of the faithful servant Viravara in the Hitopadesa, which is also 
found in the Vetalapanchavinsati (see Chapters LI 1 1 and LXXVIII of this 
work). Viravara, according to the latter version, hears the weeping of a 
woman. He finds it is the king's fortune deserting him. He accordingly 
offers up his son, and finally slays himself. The king is about to do the 
same when the goddess Durga restores the dead to life. 

The story of " Der treue Johannes" will at once occur to readers of 
Grimm's tales (No. 6, vol. iii, pp. 16, 17). It also appears in the Pentamcrone, 
ninth diversion of the fourth day, as "The Crow" (Burton's trans., vol. ii, 
p. 4-4.9). See also Benfey, Panchatanlra, vol. i, p. 41 6. Sir G. Cox {Mythology 
of the Aryan Nations) compares the German story with one in Miss Frere's 
Old Deccan Days (No. 5, p. 66). Other parallels will be found in Grimm's 
third volume. A very striking one occurs in Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische 
Marchen, story No. 3, p. 68. In this story the three Moirai predict evil. 
The young prince is saved by his sister from being burned, and from falling 


prince was overbearing, and whatever he did, right or wrong, 
his father acquiesced in, because he was an only son. And 
once upon a time, as he was roaming about in a garden, he 
saw the son of a merchant, named Brahmadatta, who re- 
sembled himself in wealth and beauty. And the moment 
he saw him he selected him for his special friend, and those 
two, the prince and the merchant's son, immediately became 
like one another in all things. 1 And soon they were not able 
to live without seeing one another ; for intimacy in a former 
birth quickly knits friendship. The prince never tasted food 
that was not first prepared for that merchant's son. 

Once on a time the prince set out for Ahichchhatra in 
order to be married, having first decided on his friend's 
marriage. And, as he was journeying with his troops, in 
the society of that friend, mounted on an elephant, he 
reached the bank of the Ikshuvati, and encamped there. 
There he had a wine-party when the moon arose ; and after 
he had gone to bed he began to tell a story at the solicitation 
of his nurse. When he had begun his story, being tired 

over a precipice when a child, and from a snake on his wedding day. See 
also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, pp. 301-302. Cf. the con- 
clusion of Natesa Sastrl's Dravidian Nights where the faithful minister's son 
overhears two owls conversing. The male bird says : " My dear, the prince 
who is encamped under our tree is to die shortly by the falling on him of a big 
branch which is about to break." "And if he should escape this calamity?" 
quoth the female. "He will die to-morrow, then," replied the other, "in 
a river, in the bed of which he is to pitch his tent : the river will be dry at 
the time, but when midnight comes a heavy flood will rush down and carry 
him away." "And should he escape this second calamity also?" said the 
female. "Then," answered her mate, "he will surely die by the hands 
of his wife when he reaches his own city." "And should he escape this 
third calamity also?" "My dear love," said the male bird, "he cannot 
escape it. But if he does, he will reign as a king of kings for hundreds of 
years " ; adding that if anyone happened to know this secret and revealed 
it, his head should burst instantly into a thousand pieces. 

The incident occurs again in Day's Folk-Tales of Bengal, p. 40 et seq., 
where the conversation between the two immortal birds, Bihangama and 
Bihangami, is overheard ; cf. also Pedroso's Portuguese Folk-Tales, Folk-Lore 
Society, 1882, p. 26. For the "overhearing" motif see Note 2 at the end of 
the next chapter. n.m.p. 

1 The same idea is found in Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III, sc. 2, 
beginning: "We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, etc." 


and intoxicated, he was overcome with sleep, and his nurse 
also, but the merchant's son kept awake out of love for him. 
And when the others were asleep, the merchant's son, who 
was awake, heard in the air what seemed to be the voices 
of women engaged in conversation. The first said : " This 
wretch has gone to sleep without telling his tale, therefore 
I pronounce this curse on him. To-morrow he shall see a 
necklace, and if he take hold of it, it shall cling to his neck, 
and that moment cause his death." Then the first voice 
ceased and the second went on : " And if he escape that 
peril, he shall see a mango-tree, and if he eat the fruit of it he 
shall then and there lose his life." Having uttered this, that 
voice also ceased, and then the third said : " If he escape 
this also, then, if he enter a house to be married, it shall fall 
on him and slay him." Having said so much, that voice 
also ceased, and the fourth said : " If he escape this also, 
when he enters that night into his private apartments he 
shall sneeze a hundred times ; and if someone there does 
not a hundred times say to him, ' God bless you,' he shall 
fall into the grasp of death. And if the person who has 
heard all this, shall inform him of it in order to save his life, 
he also shall die." Having said this, the voice ceased. 1 

And the merchant's son having heard all this, terrible 
as a thunderstroke, being agitated on account of his affec- 
tion for the prince, reflected : " Beshrew this tale that was 
begun and not finished, for divinities have come invisible 
to hear it, and are cursing him out of disappointed curiosity. 
And if this prince dies, what good will my life do to me ? 

1 Cf. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, pp. 69, 71, for the three dangers. 
The custom of saying "God bless you," or equivalent words, when a man 
sneezes is shown by Tylor (Primitive Culture, vol. i, pp. 88-94) to exist in 
many parts of the world. He quotes many passages from classical literature 
relating to it. " Even the Emperor Tiberius, that saddest of men, exacted 
this observance." See also Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors, Book IV, 
chap, ix, " Of Saluting upon Sneezing." Cf. also Coelho's Contos Populares 
Portuguezes, No. 51, "Pedro e Pedrito," p. 118, and Grimm's Irische Mdrchen, 
pp. 106, 107. Zimmer in his Alt-Indisches Lehen, p. 60, quotes from the 

Atharva-Veda, " vor UngUick-bedeutendem Niesen." This curious custom 

merits more than this short note, so I have discussed it at greater length 
in Appendix I (pp. 303-315). n.m.p. 


So I must by some artifice deliver my friend, whom I 
value as my life. And I must not tell him what has taken 
place, lest I too should suffer." Having thus reflected, the 
merchant's son got through the night with difficulty 

And in the morning the prince set out with him on his 
journey, and he saw a necklace in front of him and wished to 
lay hold of it. Then the merchant's son said : " Do not take 
the necklace, my friend ; it is an illusion, else why do not 
these soldiers see it ? " When the prince heard that, he let 
the necklace alone, but going on further he saw a mango- 
tree, and he felt a desire to eat its fruit. But he was dis- 
suaded by the merchant's son, as before. He felt much 
annoyed in his heart, and travelling on slowly, he reached 
his father-in-law's palace. And he was about to enter a 
building there for the purpose of being married, but just as 
his friend had persuaded him not to do so, the house fell 
down. So he escaped this danger by a hair's-breadth, and 
then he felt some confidence in his friend's prescience. 

Then the prince and his wife entered at night another build- 
ing. But the merchant's son slipped in there unobserved. 
And the prince, when he went to bed, sneezed a hundred 
times, but the merchant's son, underneath it, said a hundred 
times, " God bless you " ; and then the merchant's son, having 
accomplished his object, of his own accord left the house in 
high spirits. But the prince, who was with his wife, saw him 
going out, and through jealousy, forgetting his love for him, 
he flew into a passion, and said to the sentinels at his gate : 
44 This designing wretch has entered my private apartments 
when I wished to be alone, so keep him in durance for the 
present, and he shall be executed in the morning." When 
the guards heard that, they put him under arrest, and he 
spent the night in confinement ; but as he was being led off 
to execution in the morning he said to them : 44 First take 
me into the presence of the prince, in order that I may tell 
him a certain reason which I had for my conduct, and then 
put me to death." When he said this to the guards, they 
went and informed the prince, and on their information 
and the advice of his ministers the prince ordered him to 
be brought before him. When he was brought, he told the 


prince the whole story, and he believed it to be true, for 
the fall of the house carried conviction to his mind. So the 
prince was satisfied, and countermanded the order for his 
friend's execution, and he returned with him to his own city, 
a married man. And there his friend, the merchant's son, 
married and lived in happiness, his virtues being praised by 
all men. 

[M] " Thus the children of kings break loose from restraint 
and, slaying their guides, disregard benefits, like infuriated 
elephants. And what friendship can there be with those 
Vetalas, who take people's lives by way of a joke ? There- 
fore, my princess, never abandon your friendship with me." 

When Kalingasena heard this story in the palace from 
the mouth of Somaprabha, she answered her affectionate 
friend : u Those of whom you speak are considered PiSachas, 
not the children of kings, and I will tell you a story of the 
evil importunity of Pisachas. 1 Listen. 

37. Story of the Brahman and the Pisdcha 

Long ago there was a Brahman dwelling on a royal grant, 
which was called Yajnasthala. He once upon a time, being 
poor, went to the forest to bring home wood. There a piece 
of wood, being cleft with the axe, fell, as chance would have 
it, upon his leg, and piercing it, entered deep into it. And 
as the blood flowed from him he fainted, and he was beheld 
in that condition by a man who recognised him and, taking 
him up, carried him home. There his distracted wife washed 
off the blood and, consoling him, placed a plaster upon the 
wound. And then his wound, though tended day by day, 
not only did not heal, but formed an ulcer. Then the man, 
afflicted with his ulcerated wound, poverty-stricken, and at 
the point of death, was thus advised in secret by a Brahman 
friend who came to him : "A friend of mine, named Yajna- 

1 There is a story illustrating the "pertinacity" of goblins in Wirt 
Sikes's British Goblins, p. 191. 


datta, was long very poor, but he gained the aid of a Pisacha 
by a charm, and so, having obtained wealth, lived in happi- 
ness. And he told me that charm; so do you gain, my 
friend, by means of it, the aid of a Pisacha ; he will heal 
your wound." 

Having said this, he told him the form of words, and 
described to him the ceremony as follows : " Rise up in 
the last watch of the night, and with dishevelled hair and 
naked, 1 and without rinsing your mouth, take two handfuls 
of rice as large as you can grasp with your two hands, and 
muttering the form of words go to a place where four roads 
meet, 2 and there place the two handfuls of rice and return 
in silence without looking behind you. Do so always until 
that Pisacha appears and himself says to you : ' I will put 
an end to your ailment.' Then receive his aid gladly, and 
he will remove your complaint." 

When his friend had said this to him, the Brahman did 
as he had been directed. Then the Pisacha, being concili- 
ated, brought heavenly herbs from a lofty peak of the 
Himalayas and healed his wound. And then he became 
obstinately persistent, and said to the Brahman, who was 
delighted at being healed : " Give me a second wound to 
cure, but if you will not I will do you an injury or destroy 
your body." 

When the Brahman heard that, he was terrified, and 
immediately said to him, to get rid of him : "I will give you 
another wound within seven days." Whereupon the Pisacha 
left him, but the Brahman felt hopeless about his life. 3 

1 See note on "Nudity in Magic Ritual/' in Vol. II, p. 117 et seq. n.m.p. 

2 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

3 Tawney omitted the rest of the story from this point, but, following 
the D. text, I have restored the missing portion, to make this edition of the 
Kathd Sarit Sdgara complete and unabridged in every detail. 

Tawney remarked in a note that Wilson stated the story in our text to 
be precisely the same as that of Le petit diable de Papefiguiere of La Fontaine. 
I think, however, it would be more correct to say that it resembles the French 
version. La Fontaine has rather missed the humour and harmless fun of 
Somadeva's tale, and, by his omission of the latter part of the story, his lines 
seem pointless. 

In the little Dutch edition of 1700 they read : 
VOL. in. n 


[M] Having reached this point in her story, Kalingasena 
broke off in the middle from shame at its immodest ending, 
but presently she spoke again to Somaprabha as follows : 

37. Story of the Brahman and the Pisacha 

Hereupon his cunning daughter, a widow, seeing her 
Brahman father downcast at being unable to find another 
wound, having questioned him, said : "I will delude this 
Pisacha. Go back to him and say : c Will you please heal 
my daughter's wound?' [Then leave the rest to me.]" 
Hearing this, and joyfully consenting, the Brahman went off 
and brought the Pisacha to his daughter. Thereupon she 
displayed to him her yoni, saying privily : " Gentle sir, pray 
heal this wound of mine." The stupid Pisacha repeatedly 

" A ces mots au folet, 
Elle fait voir. . . . Et quoy ? Chof e terrible. 
Le (liable en eut une peur taut horrible, 
Qu'il fe figna, penfa prefque tomber, 
One n'avoit vu, ne hi, n'oiii conter, 
Que coups de grife euffe femblable forme, 
Bref auffi-tot qu'il appe^ut l'enorme, 
Solution de continuity, 
II demeura fi fort epouvent6, 
Qu'il prit la fuite & laiffa la Perrette, 
Tous les voifins chommerent la defaite, 
De ce demon : le Clerge ne fut pas, 
Des plus tardifs a prendre part au cas." 

A version rather more closely resembling that of the original Sanskrit 
had already appeared, however, in Rabelais, Book IV, chap, lxvii. Tales of 
outwitting the devil occur in practically every large collection of stories 
throughout the world, while an incident similar to that in our text is found 
in quite a considerable number. See, for instance, O. Kallas, "Achtzig 
Miirchen der Ljutziner Esten," V erhandlungen der Gelehrten Estnischen Gcscll- 
schaft, vol. xx, pt. ii, p. 192, No. 67; L. Lambert, "Contes populaires du 
Languedoc," Revue des Langues Romanes, June 1885, 3rd series, vol. xiii. 
(vol. xxviii of the whole collection), pp. 47-48 ; Ernst Wolgemuth, Der 
Tr'dumende Musen-Freund, 1670, p. 83, No. 95; L. Foulet, " Le Roman de 
Renard," Bibliothcquc de Creole des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 1914, p. 486; 
Nicolaides, Contes Licencieux de Constantinople et de P Asie mineure, Paris, 1906, 
pp. 77 and 93; and Ant hropophy tela, vol. i, pp. 129, 154, 364 and 494. These 
two latter I have not personally verified. n.m.p. 


applied an ointment to the fissure, but was unable to heal 
it. As time passed he began to grow tired, and, raising 
her slightly, examined her to see whether the wound was 
healing or not. 

But as soon as he beheld beneath it another wound, 
he became greatly alarmed, and reflected : " Before the 
one wound is healed, lo ! here is another one that has 
arisen. It is indeed a true adage that says : ' When 
cracks appear, misfortunes multiply.' Who is capable of 
closing the opened path of life whence people arise and 
by which they perish ? " 

Musing thus, the silly Pisacha, from fear of imprisonment 
at having obtained an opposite end [to that which he had 
been trying to reach], fled away and disappeared. And 
thus the Brahman was released by his daughter deceiving 
the Pisacha, and remained in happiness, having surmounted 
his disease [of body and soul]. 

[M] " Such are Pisachas ; and some young princes are 
just like them, and, though conciliated, produce misfortune, 
my friend; but they can be guarded against by counsel. 
But princesses of good family have never been heard to be 
such. So you must not expect any injury from associating 
with me." 

When Somaprabha heard from the mouth of Kalinga- 
sena in due course this sweet, entertaining and amusing tale, 
she was delighted. And she said to her : " My house is 
sixty yojanas l distant hence, and the day is passing away ; 
I have remained long, so now I must depart, fair one." 
Then, as the lord of day was slowly sinking to the western 
mountain, she took leave of her friend, who was eager for 
a second interview, and in a moment flew up into the air, 
exciting the wonder of the spectators, and rapidly returned 
to her own house. And after beholding that wonderful 
sight Kalingasena entered into her house with much per- 
plexity, and reflected : " I do not know, indeed, whether my 

1 See Vol. I, p. 3n\ n.m.p. 


friend is a Siddha female, or an Apsaras, or a Vidyadhari. 
She is certainly a heavenly female that travels through the 
upper air. And heavenly females associate with mortal ones 
led by excessive love. Did not ArundhatI live in friend- 
ship with the daughter of King Prithu ? Did not Prithu 
by means of her friendship bring Surabhi from heaven to 
earth ? And did not he, by consuming its milk, return to 
heaven though he had fallen from it ? And were not thence- 
forth perfect cows born upon earth ? * So I am fortunate ; 
it is by good luck that I have obtained this heavenly creature 
as a friend ; and when she comes to-morrow I will dexter- 
ously ask her her descent and name." Thinking such 
thoughts in her heart, Kalingasena spent that night there, 
and Somaprabha spent the night in her own house, being 
eager to behold her again. 

1 See Vol. II, p. 241. n.m.p. 




In nearly all countries, and at all times, special significance has been 
attached to the place where roads cross one another. In Christian times it 
was the spot chosen for the burial of suicides and condemned criminals. This 
practice seems to have arisen, not merely because the roads form the sign 
of the cross and so make the ground the next best burial-place to a properly 
consecrated churchyard, but because the ancient Teutons erected altars at 
cross-roads on which they sacrificed criminals. Thus cross-roads were of old 
regarded as execution-grounds. The chief fact prompting the choice of the 
special locality must be, I think, that just as a circle commands every 
direction, so cross-roads, pointing north, south, east and west, command 
every main direction, and the actual point of crossing is the only point 
where people coming from every direction must pass. 

From a study of customs connected with cross-roads in different parts 
of the world, we find that the spot was particularly efficient in unburdening 
oneself of diseases, and, owing probably to its connection with illness and 
death, was a fit place to conjure up evil spirits. A few illustrations will 
explain these points. 

I will take India first. At the funeral of a Brahman, five balls of wheat- 
flour and water are offered to various spirits. The third ball is offered to the 
spirit of the cross-roads of the village through which the corpse will be 
carried (Stevenson, Rites of the Twice-born, 1920, p. 146). Lamps are also 
placed at cross-roads (Colebrooke, Essays, 1858, p. 102). Crooke tells us 
(" Indian Charms and Amulets," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iii, pp. 446- 
447) that at the marriage rite among the Bharvads in Gujarat a eunuch 
flings balls of wheat-flour towards the four quarters of the heavens, as a 
charm to scare evil spirits ; and in the same province, at the Holi festival, 
the fire is lighted at a quadrivium (JBombay Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. i, pp. 280, 
357). In Bombay seven pebbles, picked up from a place where three roads 
meet, are used as a charm against the evil eye. Some of the Gujarat tribes, 
apparently with the intention of dispersing the evil or passing it on to some 
traveller, sweep their houses on the first day of the month Karttik (November), 
and lay the refuse in a pot at the cross-roads (Campbell, Notes on the Spirit 
Basis of Belief and Custom, Bombay, 1885, pp. 208, 329). 

On the same principle, a common form of smallpox- transference is to lay 
the scabs or scales from the body of the patient at cross-roads, in the hope 
that some passer-by may take the disease with him. See W. Crooke, Popular 
Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, p. 164 et seq. ; and ditto, " Burial 
of Suicides at Cross-roads," Folk-Lore, vol. xx, pp. 88-89. 

The consecration of idols is naturally an elaborate and very important 
affair, and one to which much ceremony is attached. One of the final rites 
is particularly interesting. A procession is formed in which one of the 
Brahmans carries a pot containing black pulse, rice, areca nut, a copper coin, 
and a lamp filled with clarified butter. On arriving at the cross-roads, they 


sprinkle the junction with water for the purposes of purification, and leave 
the pot there as an offering to pacify any evil spirit that may happen to 
dwell at the cross-roads. When returning great care is taken never to look 
backwards (Stevenson,, op. cit., pp. 414, 415). 

We will now consider the custom in places other than India. 
In the ancient world we find the expression suk irbitti, "cross-roads," in 
Assyrian texts as the place where "atonement" is to be made (Campbell 
Thompson, Semitic Magic, pp. 200, 201, where numerous interesting references 
are given). In Hebrew medicine, in order to heal an issue of blood, the 
patient must sit at the parting of the ways with a cup of wine in her hand, 
and someone coming up behind her has to cry out suddenly : " Be healed of 
thine issue of blood" (Creighton, Ency. Bib/., 3006). This is, of course, an 
instance of sympathetic magic, the cup of wine resembling the blood, and the 
sudden start, which causes it to spill, typifying what will happen to the issue. 

In Africa cross-roads are largely used to effect cures. Thus among the 
Baganda there exists great fear of the ghosts of suicides, consequently their 
bodies were burned and removed to waste lands or cross-roads. Here, it was 
thought, the ghost would be incapable of doing harm, but in case it had 
survived the burning, grass and sticks were thrown on the spot by passers-by 
to prevent the ghost from catching them. The same precaution was taken 
with children born feet first. They were strangled and buried at cross-roads. 
(See J. Roscoe, The Baganda, pp. 20 et seq., 46* et seq., and 124 el seq.) 

In Tanganyika Territory the cross-roads play an important part in disease 
transference. Thus among the Wagogo when a man is ill the native doctor 
takes him to a cross-road, where he prepares a medicine, part of which is 
given to the patient and part buried under an inverted pot at the juncture 
of the roads. It is hoped that someone will step over the pot, catch the 
disease, and so relieve the original sufferer (J. Cole, " Notes on the Wagogo 
of German East Africa," Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. xxxiii, 1902, p. 313). 

The magical rites connected with cross-roads are fully appreciated by 
the Hausas of Tripoli and Tunis. Some of their games and contests have a 
magical connection, thus in the Koraiya contest if a youth wished to become 
invincible he first had to drink medicine for ten days and then undergo a 
test of courage. He was sent to cross-roads at midnight with orders to stay 
there, and after a time a bori (spirit) would come along with a short, heavy 
stick, with which he would poke at the boy. He must, however, take no 
notice. After other boris had likewise failed to produce any effect, a half- 
man would appear. Him the boy would catch hold of and demand what he 
wanted. While returning home he must not look behind him or speak to 
anyone until he has entered his own hut (H. J. N. Tremearne, The Ban of 
the Bon [19 14], pp. 208, 209). 

The use of cross-roads as a place for disease-transference is widespread : 
examples of the custom from Japan, Bali (Indian Archipelago), Guatemala, 
Cochin-China, Bohemia and England are given by Frazer {Golden Bough, 
vol. hi, p. 59; vol. ix, pp. 10, 49, 68, 144). 

Other useful references will be found in Westermarck, The Origin and 
Development of the Moral Ideas, vol. ii, pp. 256, 257. n.m.p. 


THEN in the morning Somaprabha took with her a 
[M] basket, in which she had placed many excellent 
mechanical dolls of wood * with magic properties in 
order to amuse her friend, and travelling through the air 
she came again to Kalingasena. And when Kalingasena saw 
her she was full of tears of joy, and rising up she threw her 
arms round her neck, and said to her, as she sat by her side : 
" The dark night of three watches has this time seemed 
to me to be of a hundred watches without the sight of the 
full moon of your countenance. 2 So, if you know, my friend, 
tell me of what kind may have been my union with you in a 
former birth, of which this present friendship is the result." 
When Somaprabha heard this, she said to that princess : 
" Such knowledge I do not possess, for I do not remember 
my former birth ; and hermits are not acquainted with this, 
but if any know, they are perfectly acquainted with the 
highest truth, and they are the original founders of the 
science by which it is attained." When she had spoken 
thus, Kalingasena, being full of curiosity, again asked her 
in private in a voice tender from love and confidence : 
" Tell me, friend, of what divine father you have adorned the 
race by your birth, since you are completely virtuous like 
a beautifully rounded pearl. 3 And what, auspicious one, is 
your name, that is nectar to the ears of the world ? What 
is the object of this basket ? And what thing is there in 
it ? " On hearing this affectionate speech from Kalingasena, 
Somaprabha began to tell the whole story in due course. 
" There is a mighty Asura of the name of Maya, 4 famous 

1 See Note 1 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 30, 30n\ n.m.p. 

3 Suvrittaya means "virtuous/' and "beautifully rounded." 

4 We have already (Vol. I, p. 22) met his two sons and his younger 
daughter (p. 27 et seq. of this volume). We shall hear much more about him 
in Vol. IV. n.m.p. 



in the three worlds. And he, abandoning the condition of 
an Asura, fled to Siva as his protector. And Siva having 
promised him security, he built the palace of Indra. But 
The Story of the Daityas were angry with him, affirming that 
Sojnaprdbha he had become a partisan of the gods. Through 
fear of them he made in the Vindhya mountains a very 
wonderful magic subterranean palace, which the Asuras 
could not reach. My sister and I are the two daughters 
of that Maya. My elder sister, named Svayamprabha, 
follows a vow of virginity, and lives as a maiden in my 
father's house. But I, the younger daughter, named 
Somaprabha, have been bestowed in marriage on a son 
of Kuvera, named Nadakuvara, and my father has taught 
me innumerable magic artifices, and as for this basket, I 
have brought it here to please you." 

Having said this, Somaprabha opened the basket and 
showed to her some very interesting mechanical dolls con- 
structed by her magic, made of wood. One of them, on a pin 
in it being touched, 1 went through the air at her orders and 
fetched a garland of flowers and quickly returned. Another 
in the same way brought water at will 2 ; another danced, 
and another then conversed. With such very wonderful con- 
trivances Somaprabha amused Kalingasena for some time, 
and then she put that magic basket in a place of security, 
and taking leave of her regretful friend, she went, being 
obedient to her husband, through the air to her own palace. 
But Kalingasena was so delighted that the sight of these 
wonders took away her appetite, and she remained averse to 
all food. And when her mother perceived that, she feared 
she was ill. However, a physician named Ananda, having 

1 Cf. Chaucer's Squires Tale, line 31 6: "Ye moten trille a pin, stant in 
his ere." See Note 1 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 This may remind the reader of the story of the pestle in Lucian's 
Philopseudes that was sent to fetch water. When the Egyptian sorcerer was 
away his pupil tried to perform the trick. But he did not know the charm 
for stopping the water-carrying process. Accordingly the house was flooded. 
In despair he chopped the pestle in two with an axe. That made matters 
worse, for both halves set to work to bring water. The story has been 

versified by Goethe, and the author of the lngoldsby Legends. See Crooke, 

Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, p. 50. N.M.P. 


examined the child, told her mother that there was nothing 
the matter with her. He said : " She has lost her appetite 
through delight at something, not from disease ; for her 
countenance, which appears to be laughing, with eyes wide 
open, indicates this." When she heard this report from 
the physician, the girl's mother asked her the real cause of 
her joy, and the girl told her. Then her mother believed 
that she was delighted with the society of an eligible 
friend, and congratulated her, and made her take her 
proper food. 

Then the next day Somaprabha arrived, and having 
found out what had taken place, she proceeded to say to 
Kalingasena in secret : "I told my husband, who possesses 
supernatural knowledge, that I had formed a friendship 
with you, and obtained from him, when he knew the facts, 
permission to visit you every day. So you must now obtain 
permission from your parents, in order that you may amuse 
yourself with me at will without fear." When she had said 
this, Kalingasena took her by the hand and immediately 
went to her father and mother, and there introduced her 
friend to her father, King Kalingadatta, proclaiming her 
descent and name, and in the same way she introduced 
her to her mother, Taradatta, and they, on beholding her, 
received her politely in accordance with their daughter's 
account of her. And both those two, pleased with her 
appearance, hospitably received that beautiful wife of the 
distinguished Asura out of love for their daughter, and 
said to her : " Dear girl, we entrust this Kalingasena to 
your care, so amuse yourselves together as much as you 

And Kalingasena and Somaprabha, having gladly welcomed 
this speech of theirs, went out together. And they went, in 
order to amuse themselves, to a temple of Buddha built by 
the king. And they took there that basket of magic toys. 
Then Somaprabha took a magic Yaksha, and sent it on a com- 
mission from herself to bring the requisites for the worship 
of Buddha. That Yaksha went a long distance through 
the sky, and brought a multitude of pearls, beautiful gems 
and golden lotuses. Having performed worship with these, 


Somaprabha, exhibiting all kinds of wonders, displayed the 
various Buddhas with their abodes. 

When the King Kalingadatta heard of that, he came 
with the queen and beheld it, and then asked Somaprabha 
about the magic performance. 

Then Somaprabha said : " King, these contrivances of 
magic machines, and so on, were created in various ways 
by my father in old time. And even as this vast machine, 
called the world, consists of five elements, so do all these 
machines. I will describe them one by one. That machine, 
in which earth predominates, shuts doors and things of the 
kind. Not even Indra would be able to open what had been 
shut with it. The shapes produced by the water-machine 
appear to be alive. But the machine in which fire pre- 
dominates pours forth flames. And the wind machine 
performs actions, such as coming and going. And the 
machine produced from ether utters distinct language. All 
these I obtained from my father; but the wheel-machine, 
which guards the water of immortality, my father knows 
and no one else." While she was saying this there arose 
the sound of conchs being blown in the middle of the day, 
that seemed to confirm her words. 

Then she entreated the king to give her the food that 
suited her, and taking Kalingasena as a companion, by per- 
mission of the king, she set out through the air for her 
father's house in a magic chariot, to return to her elder sister. 
And quickly reaching that palace, which was situated in 
the Vindhya mountains, she conducted her to her sister 

There Kalingasena saw that Svayamprabha, with her 
head encircled with matted locks, with a long rosary, a 
nun clothed in a white garment, smiling like Parvati, in 
whom love, the highest joy of earth, had undertaken a 
severe vow of mortification. And Svayamprabha, when 
the princess, introduced by Somaprabha, kneeled before her, 
received her hospitably, and entertained her with a meal 
of fruits. And Somaprabha said to the princess : " My 
friend, by eating these fruits you will escape old age, 
which otherwise would destroy this beauty, as the nipping 


cold does the lotus ; and it was with this object that I 
brought you here out of affection." 

Then that Kalingasena ate those fruits, and immediately 
her limbs seemed to be bathed in the Water of Life. And 
roaming about there to amuse herself, she saw the garden 
of the city, with tanks filled with golden lotuses, and trees 
bearing fruit as sweet as nectar : the garden was full of 
birds of golden and variegated plumage, and seemed to have 
pillars of bright gems ; it conveyed the idea of walls where 
there was no partition, and where there were partitions, of 
unobstructed space. Where there was water it presented 
the appearance of dry land, and where there was dry land 
it bore the semblance of water. It resembled another and 
a wonderful world, created by the delusive power of the 
Asura Maya. It had been entered formerly by the monkeys 
searching for Sita, which, after a long time, were allowed to 
come out by the favour of Svayamprabha. So Svayam- 
prabha bade her adieu, 1 after she had been astonished 
with a full sight of her wonderful city, and had obtained 
immunity from old age ; and Somaprabha, making Kalinga- 
sena ascend the chariot again, took her through the air to her 
own palace in Takshasila. There Kalingasena told the whole 
story faithfully to her parents, and they were exceedingly 

And while those two friends spent their days in this way, 
Somaprabha once upon a time said to Kalingasena : "As 
long as you are not married I can continue to be your friend, 
but after your marriage how could I enter the house of your 
husband ? For a friend's husband ought never to be seen 
or recognised. 2 ... As for a mother-in-law, she eats the 
flesh of a daughter-in-law as a she- wolf does of a sheep. And 
a propos of this hear the story of Kirtisena, which I am about 
to tell you. 

1 This is obviously wrong, as it was Somaprabha who had called on 
Svayamprabha. It is, however, quite clear in the D. text, where we find it 
is Kalingasena who takes her leave. n.m.p. 

2 Here Dr Brockhaus supposes a line to be omitted. The transition is 

somewhat abrupt. The D. text marks the hiatus of a line after the next 

paragraph, not before it. n.m.p. 


38. Story of Kirtisend and her Cruel Mother-in-Law 1 

Long ago there lived in the city of Pataliputra 2 a 
merchant named, not without cause, Dhanapalita, 3 for he 
was the richest of the rich. And there was born to him a 
daughter, named Kirtisena, who was incomparably beautiful, 
and dearer to him than life. And he took his daughter to 
Magadha and married her to a rich merchant named Deva- 
sena. And though Devasena was himself very virtuous, he 
had a wicked mother as mistress in his house, for his father 
was dead. She, when she saw that her daughter-in-law 
Kirtisena was beloved by her husband, being inflamed with 
anger, ill-treated her in her husband's absence. But Kirti- 
sena was afraid to let her husband know it, for the position 
of a bride in the power of a treacherous mother-in-law is a 
difficult one. 

Once upon a time her husband Devasena, instigated by 
his relations, was preparing to go to the city of Valabhi for 
the sake of trade. Then that Kirtisena said to her husband : 
" I have not told you for this long time what I am now going 
to say : your mother ill-treats me though you are here, but I 
do not know what she will do to me when you are in a foreign 
country." When Devasena heard that, he was perplexed, 
and being alarmed on account of his affection for his wife 
he went and humbly said to his mother : " Kirtisena is 
committed to your care, mother, now that I am going to a 
foreign land ; you must not treat her unkindly, for she is 
the daughter of a man of good family." 

When Devasena's mother heard that, she summoned 
Kirtisena and, elevating her eyes, said to him then and 
there : " What have I done ? Ask her. This is the way 
in which she eggs you on, my son, trying to make mischief 
in the house, but both of you are the same in my eyes." 

1 Cj. with the story of Kirtisena the substance of two modern Greek 

songs given in Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 187. There is a certain 

similarity to the first part of the third day, nov. ix, of the Decameron. See 
A. C. Lee, The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, 190.9, p. 105. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. II, p. S9i. n.m.p, 

3 I.e. wealth-preserved. 


When the good merchant heard that, he departed with his 
mind easy on her account. For who is not deceived by the 
hypocritically affectionate speeches of a mother ? 

But Kirtisena stood there silent, smiling in bewilderment ; 
and the next day the merchant set out for Valabhi. Then, 
when Kirtisena began to suffer torture at being separated 
from her husband, the merchant's mother gradually forbade 
the female slaves to attend on her. And making an agree- 
ment with a handmaid of her own, who worked in the house, 
she took Kirtisena inside and secretly stripped her. And 
saying to her, " Wicked woman, you rob me of my son," 
she pulled her hair and, with the help of her servant, mangled 
her with kicks, bites and scratches. And she threw her into 
a cellar that was closed with a trap-door and strongly 
fastened, after first taking out all the things that were in 
it previously. And the wretch put in it every day half-a- 
plate of rice, in the evening, for the girl who was in such a 
state. And she thought : "I will say in a few days, c She 
died of herself during her husband's absence in a distant 
land; take her corpse away.'" 1 Thus Kirtisena, who de- 
served all happiness, was thrown into a cellar by that cruel 
mother-in-law, and while there she reflected with tears : 
" My husband is rich, I was born in a good family, I am 
fortunately endowed and virtuous, nevertheless I suffer 
such calamity, thanks to my mother-in-law. And this is 
why relations lament the birth of a daughter, exposed to 
the terrors of mother-in-law and sister-in-law, marred with 
inauspiciousness of every kind." 

While thus lamenting, Kirtisena suddenly found a small 
shovel in that cellar, like a thorn extracted from her heart 
by the Creator. So she dug a passage underground with 
Kirtisena tnat i ron instrument, until by good luck she 
makes her rose up in her private apartment. And she was 
escape ^le to see that room by the light of a lamp that 

had been left there before, as if she were lighted by her own 
undiminished virtue. And she took out of it her clothes 
and her gold, and leaving it secretly at the close of the night 

1 Bohtlingk and Roth in their Dictionary explain the passage as follows : 
imam (i.e. patini) vyutthapya yatd iti } " she was unfaithful to her husband." 


she went out of the city. She reflected : " It is not fitting 
that I should go to my father's house after acting thus; 
what should I say there, and how would people believe me ? 
So I must manage to repair to my husband by means of my 
own ingenuity ; for a husband is the only refuge of virtuous 
women in this world and the next." Reflecting thus, she 
bathed in the water of a tank, and put on the splendid dress 
of a prince. Then she went into the bazaar, and, after 
exchanging some gold for money, she sojourned that day in 
the house of a certain merchant. 

The next day she struck up a friendship with a merchant 
named Samudrasena, who wished to go to Valabhi. And, 
wearing the splendid dress of a prince, she set out for Valabhi 
with the merchant and his servants in order to catch up her 
husband, who had set out beforehand. And she said to that 
merchant : "I am oppressed by my clansmen, 1 so I will go 
with you to my friends in Valabhi." 

Having heard that, the merchant's son waited upon her 
on the journey, out of respect, thinking to himself that she 
was some distinguished prince or other ; and that caravan 
preferred for its march the forest road, which was much 
frequented by travellers, who avoided the other routes 
because of the heavy duties they had to pay. 

In a few days they reached the entrance of the forest, 
and while the caravan was encamped in the evening a female 
jackal, like a messenger of death, uttered a terrific howl. 
Thereupon the merchants, who understood what that meant, 2 
became apprehensive of an attack by bandits, and the guards 
on every side took their arms in hand ; and the darkness 
began to advance like the vanguard of the bandits ; then 

1 Gotraja, nearly equivalent to the Gentile of Roman law, and applied to 
kindred of the same general family connected by offerings of food and water ; 
hence opposed to the Bandhu or cognate kindred. She represented that she 
was a prince whose clansmen were trying to disinherit him. 

2 Other unfavourable omens include a widow, lightning, fuel, smoky 
fire, pot of oil, leather, dog barking on a house-top, hare, crow flying from 
right to left, snake, new pot, blind man, lame man, sick man, salt, tiger, 
bundle of sticks, buttermilk, empty vessel, a quarrel, man with dishevelled 
hair, oil-man, leper and a mendicant. See Thurston, Ethnographic Notes in 
Southern India, pp. 242, 243. N.M.p. 


Kirtisena, in man's dress, beholding that, reflected : " Alas ! 
the deeds of those who have sinned in a former life seem 
to propagate themselves with a brood of evils ! Lo ! the 
calamity which my mother-in-law brought upon me has 
borne fruit here also ! First I was engulfed by the wrath of 
my mother-in-law as if by the mouth of death, then I entered 
the cellar like a second prison of the womb. By good 
fortune I escaped thence, being, as it were, born a second 
time, and having come here I have again run a risk of my 
life. If I am slain here by bandits, my mother-in-law, who 
hates me, will surely say to my husband : ' She ran off 
somewhere, being attached to another man.' But if some- 
one tears off my clothes and recognises me for a woman, 
then again I run a risk of outrage, and death is better than 
that. So I must deliver myself, and disregard this merchant, 
my friend. For good women must regard the duty of 
virtuous wives, not friends and things of that kind." Thus 
she determined, and, searching about, found a hollow like a 
house in the middle of a tree, as it were an opening made 
for her by the earth out of pity. There she entered and 
covered her body with leaves and suchlike things, and re- 
mained supported by the hope of reunion with her husband. 
Then, in the dead of night, a large force of bandits suddenly 
fell upon the caravan with uplifted weapons, and surrounded 
it on all sides. And there followed a storm of fight, with 
howling bandits for thunder-clouds, and the gleam of weapons 
for long- continued lightning-flashes, and a rain of blood. 
At last the bandits, being more powerful, slew the merchant- 
prince Samudrasena and his followers, and went off with all 
his wealth. 

In the meanwhile Kirtisena was listening to the tumult, 
and that she was not forcibly robbed of breath is to be 
ascribed to fate only. Then the night departed, and the 
keen-rayed sun arose, and she went out from that hollow in 
the middle of the tree. Surely the gods themselves preserve 
in misfortune good women exclusively devoted to their 
husbands, and of unfailing virtue ; for not only did a lion 
beholding her in the lonely wood spare her, but a hermit 
who had come from somewhere or other, when she asked 


him for information, comforted her and gave her a drink of 
water from his vessel, and then disappeared in some direction 
or other, after telling her the road to take. Then, satisfied 
as if with nectar, free from hunger and thirst, that woman, 
devoted to her husband, set out by the road indicated by the 

Then she saw the sun mounted on the western mountain, 
stretching forth his rays like fingers, as if saying : " Wait 
patiently one night " ; and so she entered an opening in the 
The Rakshasi root of a forest tree which looked like a house, 
and her Sons an( j closed its mouth with another tree. And in 
the evening she saw through the opening of a chink in the 
door of her retreat a terrible Rakshasi approaching, ac- 
companied by her young sons. She was terrified, thinking 
to herself : " Lo ! I shall be devoured by this Rakshasi 
after escaping all my other misfortunes." And in the 
meanwhile the Rakshasi ascended that tree. And her sons 
ascended after her, and immediately said to that Rak- 
shasi l : " Mother, give us something to eat." Then the 
Rakshasi said to her children : " To-day, my children, I 
went to a great cemetery, but I did not obtain any food, 

1 Cf Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, p. 341, cited before in Vol. I, p. 48n 2 , 
also Sagas from the Far East, p. 162. The Mongolian version supplies the 
connecting link between India and Europe. In the Sagas from the Far East 
the Rakshasas are replaced by crows. Cf also the way in which the gardener 
in "Das Rosmarinstrauchlein " (Kaden, Unter den Olivenbaumen, p. 12) acquires 
some useful information. The story of Kirtisena from this point to the cure 
of the king closely resembles the latter half of "Die Zauberkugeln " in the 
same collection. See also Waldau's Bohmische Marchen, p. 272 ; Gaal, Marchen 
der Magyaren, p. 178; Coelho, Contos Populares Portugueses, p. 47. In 
Waldau's story there is a strange similarity in the behaviour of the king, on 

first seeing the young physician, to that of Vasudatta. A striking parallel 

appears in the Pentamerone, second diversion of the second day (Burton, 
vol. i, p. 1/52), where Nella, hidden in a tree, overhears the ghul being per- 
suaded by the ghula to tell her how the wounded prince can be healed. 
"Now you must know," said the ghul, "that there is nought upon the face 
of the earth nor in the heavens that can save the prince from death, but by 
anointing the wounds with our own fat : that would detain the soul and 
hinder it from taking flight, and prevent it from forsaking its home, the 
body." By a clever trick Nella succeeds in making the necessary ointment. 
For a few specimens of the "overhearing" motif in Indian folk-tales see 
Note 2 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


and though I entreated the congregation of witches, they 
gave me no portion ; then grieved thereat I appealed to 
Siva in his terrific form, and asked him for food. And the 
god asked me my name and lineage, and then said to me : 
Terrible one, thou art of high birth as belonging to the race 
of Khara and Dushana x ; so go to the city of Vasudatta, 
not far from here. In that city there lives a great king 
named Vasudatta addicted to virtue ; he defends this whole 
forest, dwelling on its border, and himself takes duties and 
chastises robbers. Now one day, while the king was sleeping 
in the forest, fatigued with hunting, a centipede quickly 
entered his ear unobserved. And in course of time it gave 
birth to many others inside his head. That produced an 
illness which now dries up all his sinews. And the physicians 
do not know what is the cause of his disease, but if someone 
does not find out he will die in a few days. When he is dead, 
eat his flesh ; for by eating it you will, thanks to your magic 
power, remain satiated for six months.' In these words Siva 
promised me a meal that is attended with uncertainty, and 
cannot be obtained for a long time, so what must I do, my 

When the Rakshasi said this to her children, they 
asked her : "If the disease is discovered and removed, 
will that king live, mother ? And tell us how such a disease 
can be cured in him." When the children said this, the 
Rakshasi solemnly said to them : "If the disease is dis- 
covered and removed, the king will certainly live. And hear 
how his great disease may be taken away. First his head 
must be anointed by rubbing warm butter on it, and then it 
must be placed for a long time in the heat of the sun intensi- 
fied by noonday. And a hollow cane tube must be inserted 
into the aperture of his ear, which must communicate with 
a hole in a plate, and this plate must be placed above a 
pitcher of cool water. Accordingly the centipedes will be 
annoyed by heat and perspiration, and will come out of his 
head, and will enter that cane tube from the aperture of 
the ear, and desiring coolness will fall into the pitcher. In 
this way the king may be freed from that great disease." 

1 Names of Rakshasas mentioned in the llamayana. 


Thus spake the RakshasI to her sons on the tree, and 
then ceased ; and Kirtisena, who was in the trunk of the tree, 
heard it. And hearing it, she said to herself : " If ever I 
get safe away from here I will go and employ this artifice to 
save the life of that king. For he takes but small duties, 1 
and dwells on the outskirts of this forest ; and so all the 
merchants come this way because it is more convenient. 
This is what the merchant Samudrasena, who is gone to 
heaven, told me ; accordingly that husband of mine will be 
sure to return by this very path. So I will go to the city of 
Vasudatta, which is on the borders of the forest, and I will 
deliver the king from his sickness, and there await the arrival 
of my husband." Thus reflecting, she managed, though 
with difficulty, to get through the night; in the morning, 
the Rakshasas having disappeared, she went out from the 
trunk of the tree. 2 

1 The sense seems obscure. The D. text reads 'rati after prmitasthito, 
instead of vahih, thus meaning, " by the small duties he takes he is a bliss 
for this forest region." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 109. n.m.p. 

2 The extraordinary cure mentioned above is the outcome of ancient 
Indian medical beliefs which still exist to-day amongst certain castes. The 
earliest views on medicine are found in the Atharva-Feda, where most diseases 
are attributed to the influence of demons, but a large number are ascribed to 
the presence of worms (practically a form of demon) located in various parts 
of the body. They are most fantastically described (see, for instance, Atharva- 
Veda, ii, 31 and 32; v, 23). Headache and ear and eye diseases, as well as 
intestinal illnesses, were attributed to worms. The belief received impetus 
by the teachings of the great Buddhist physician Jivaka Komarabhachcha, a 
contemporary of the Buddha himself, whose cures included opening the skull 
and removing from the brain headache-producing centipedes. His treatises 
were translated into Tibetan, and stories of his cures appear in the Kah-Gyur. 
Thus in Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 103, we read: "At Vai^ali 
there lived a man into whose ear a centipede had crept, and had therein 
given birth to seven hundred young ones. Tormented by his pains in the 
ear, this man went to Jivaka and entreated him to cure him. Jivaka said to 
himself, ' Hitherto I have acted in accordance with my teacher's instructions, 
but now I will act according to my own intelligence.' He said to the man, 
1 Go and make a hut out of foliage, carpet it with blue stuff, place a drum 
underneath, and make the ground warm.' The man provided everything as 
he was told. Then Jivaka made the man lie down, sprinkled the ground with 
water, and beat the drum. Thereupon the centipede, thinking that the 
summer was come, crept out. Then Jivaka placed a piece of meat on the 
ear. The reptile turned back, but presently came out again with its young 


Then she travelled along slowly in the dress of a man, 
and in the afternoon she saw a good cowherd. He was 
moved to compassion by seeing her delicate beauty, and 
Kirtisena tnat sne na( * accomplished a long journey, and 
arrives at then she approached him, and said : " What 
Vasudatta country is this, please tell me?" The cowherd 
said : " This city in front of you is the city of Vasudatta, 
belonging to the King Vasudatta : as for the king, he lies 
there at the point of death with illness." When Kirtisena 
heard that, she said to the cowherd : "If anyone will 
conduct me into the presence of that king, I know how 

ones, and they all laid hold of the piece of meat. Whereupon Jivaka flung it 
into the flesh-pot, and the man recovered his health." 

In the great medical work of Susruta, produced about the commencement 
of the Christian era, we find remedies which " should be particularly employed 
in destroying the different classes of vermin which infest the regions of the 
head, heart, mouth and the nostrils. The liquid expressed out of horse-dung 
should be dried and then successively soaked several times in the decoction 
of Vidanga. The preparation should be blown into the nostrils." Similar 
treatment, we are told, should be used in cases of Dantada worms i.e. vermin 
that have taken lodgment in the teeth (see Susruta Samhiid, Bhishagratna's 
trans., Calcutta, vol. iii, 1916, pp. 342, 343). 

In modern India practically the same cure for carious teeth as that 
described in our text is still employed by the Bediya, Beriya (Beria or Bedia) 
caste. In an article on "The Gypsies of Bengal" (Memoirs read before 
the Anth. Soc. Ldn., vol. iii, 1870, p. 127) Babu Rajendralala Mitra describes 
the different tricks employed by the Bediyani : " Palmistry is her special 
vocation ; and cupping with buffalo-horns, and administering moxas and drugs 
for spleen and rheumatism, take a great portion of her time. She has a 
peculiar charm for extracting maggots from the root of carious teeth. When 
a boy, the writer of this note was subject to irritation and swelling of the 
gums from carious teeth, and for it the affection of a fond mother, and the 
general ignorance of the healing art at that time, suggested no better remedy 
than the mantra of the village Bediyani. On three different occasions we 
had to submit to her, and thrice she charmed out small communities of little 
maggots by dint of repeating a variety of most indecent verses. She used to 
apply a tube of straw to the root of the carious tooth, and every now and 
then bring out a maggot in its barrel. Once spun cotton was used instead of 
straw, but with no diminution of success. The operation was, no doubt, a 
deception, but the relief felt was unmistakable and permanent." 

For further details about this caste see Russell's Tribes and Castes of the 
Central Provinces, vol. ii, p. 220 et seq. I can find no exact analogues to the 
above in European folk-lore. Schiefner and Ralston (op. cit. y p. Ii) mention 
a modern Greek story in which a girl is relieved from the presence of a 


to remove his disease." When the cowherd heard that, he 
said : "I am going to that very city, so come with me, that 
I may point it out to you." Kirtisena answered, "So be 
it," and immediately that herdsman conducted her to the 
city of Vasudatta, wearing her male dress. And telling 
the circumstances exactly as they were, he immediately 
commended that lady with auspicious marks to the afflicted 
warder. And the warder, having informed the king, by his 
orders introduced the blameless lady into his presence. 

The King Vasudatta, though tortured with his disease, 
was comforted the moment he beheld that lady of wonderful 
beauty. The soul is able to distinguish friends from enemies. 
And he said to the lady who was disguised as a man : 
" Auspicious sir, if you remove this disease I will give you half 
my kingdom. I remember a lady stripped off from me in my 
dream a black blanket, so you will certainly remove this my 
disease." When Kirtisena heard that, she said : " This day is 
at an end, O King ; to-morrow I will take away your disease ; 
do not be impatient." Having said this, she rubbed cow's 
butter on the king's head ; that made sleep come to him, 
and the excessive pain disappeared. And then all there 
praised Kirtisena, saying : " This is some god come to us in 
the disguise of a physician, thanks to our merits in a previous 
state of existence." 

And the queen waited on her with various attentions, 
and appointed for her a house in which to rest at night, with 
female attendants. Then on the next day, at noon, before 
And aires the eyes of the ministers and ladies of the harem, 
the King Kirtisena extracted from the head of that king, 
through the aperture of the ear, one hundred and fifty 
centipedes, by employing the wonderful artifice previously 
described by the Rakshasi. And after getting the centipedes 

number of snakes which had taken up their abode within her, by being 
suspended from a branch of a tree above a cauldron of boiling milk, the vapour 
arising from which induced the reptiles to come forth. A cobra story, similar 
to that in our text, appears in Frere's Old Deccan Days (see p. 62). 

For details and further references on Indian medicine see J. Jolly, 
" Disease and Medicine (Hindu)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iv, pp. 753- 
755; and G. M. Boiling, "Disease and Medicine (Vedic)," idem, pp. 762-772. 




into the pitcher she comforted the king by fomenting him 
with milk and melted butter. 

The king having gradually recovered, and being free 
from disease, everybody there was astonished at beholding 
those creatures in the pitcher. And the king, on seeing 
these harmful insects that had been extracted from his 
head, was terrified, puzzled and delighted, and considered 
himself born again. And he made high feast, and honoured 
Kirtisena, who did not care for half the kingdom, with 
villages, elephants, horses and gold. And the queens and 
the ministers loaded her with gold and garments, saying that 
they ought to honour the physician who had saved the life 
of their sovereign. But she deposited for the present that 
wealth in the hand of the king, waiting for her husband, and 
saying : " I am under a vow for a certain time." 

So Kirtisena remained there some days in man's clothes, 
honoured by all men, and in the meanwhile she heard from 
the people that her own husband, the great merchant Deva- 
sena, had come that way from Valabhi. Then, as soon as 
she knew that that caravan had arrived in the city, she 
went to it, and saw that husband of hers as a peahen beholds 
the new cloud. And she fell at his feet, and her heart, weep- 
ing from the pain of long separation, made her bestow on 
him the argha 1 with her tears of joy. Her husband, for 
his part, after he had examined her, who was concealed by 
her disguise, like the form of the moon invisible in the 
day on account of the rays of the sun, recognised her. It 
was wonderful that the heart of Devasena, who was hand- 
some as the moon, did not dissolve like the moonstone 2 on 
beholding the moon of her countenance. 

Then, Kirtisena having thus revealed herself, and her 
husband remaining in a state of wonder, marvelling what 
it could mean, and the company of merchants being 
astonished, the King Vasudatta, hearing of it, came there 
full of amazement. And Kirtisena, being questioned by 

1 Water is the principal ingredient of the offering called argha or arghya. 

2 This gem is formed from the congelation of the rays of the moon, and 
dissolves under the influence of its light. There is, of course, an elaborate 
pun in chandrakdnta. 


him, told in the presence of her husband her whole adventure, 
that was due to the wickedness of her mother-in-law. And 
her husband Devasena, hearing it, conceived an aversion to 
his mother, and was affected at the same time by anger, 
forbearance, astonishment and joy. 

And all the people present there, having heard that 
wonderful adventure of Kirtisena, exclaimed joyfully : 
44 Chaste women, mounted on the chariot of conjugal affec- 
tion, protected by the armour of modesty, and armed with 
the weapon of intellect, are victorious in the struggle." 
The king too said : " This lady, who has endured affliction 
for the sake of her husband, has surpassed even Queen Sita, 
who shared the hardships of Rama. So she is henceforth 
my sister in the faith, as well as the saviour of my life." 
When the king said that, Kirtisena answered him : " O King, 
let your gift of affection, which I deposited in your care, 
consisting of villages, elephants and horses, be made over to 
my husband." When she said this to the king, he bestowed 
on her husband Devasena the villages and other presents, 
and, being pleased, gave him a turban of honour. Then 
Devasena, having his purse suddenly filled with stores of 
wealth, part of which was given by the king, and part 
acquired by his own trading, avoiding his mother and 
praising Kirtisena, remained dwelling in that town. And 
Kirtisena, having found a happy lot, from which her wicked 
mother-in-law was removed, and having obtained glory by 
her unparalleled adventures, dwelt there in the enjoyment of 
all luxury and power, like all the rich fruit of her husband's 
good deeds incarnate in a body. 

[M] u Thus chaste women, enduring the dispensation of 
hostile fate, but preserving in misfortune the treasure of 
their virtue, and protected by the great power of their good- 
ness, procure good fortune for their husbands and themselves. 
And thus, O daughter of a king, many misfortunes befall 
wives, inflicted by mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law, there- 
fore I desire for vou a husband's house of such a kind that 


in it there shall be no mother-in-law and no cruel sister- 

Hearing this delightful and marvellous story from the 
mouth of the Asura princess Somaprabha, the mortal prin- 
cess Kalingasena was highly delighted. Then the sun, seeing 
that these tales, the matter of which was so various, had 
come to an end, proceeded to set, 1 and Somaprabha, having 
embraced the regretful Kalingasena, went to her own palace. 

1 A really beautiful exaggeration, showing how, in the East, everything 
must give way to the telling of a tale. n.m.p. 



The mechanical dolls of wood and "contrivances of magic machines" 
mentioned in this chapter, as well as the city peopled by wooden automata 
which we shall come across in Chapter XLIII, give rise to the question as to 
when and where such objects originated. As is the case with nearly all such 
inquiries, we have very largely to be content with bringing together what 
fragmentary evidence we can find, in the hope that it may give rise to further 
research or attract to it fresh references from unexpected quarters. 

The earliest legends about moving figures, flying machines and so forth 
are connected with the mythical Greek architect and sculptor Dsedalus. He 
it was who built the hollow wooden cow, covered with hide, into which 
Pasiphae crept in order to satisfy her passion for the bull. He also constructed 
the famous Cretan labyrinth for King Minos, in which the Minotaur was 
confined, and made the wonderful bronze figure of a man which drove back 
the Argonauts. Incurring the anger of Minos, he built a pair of wings, by the 
help of which he fled, with his son Icarus, from Crete across the JEgean 
Sea to Sicily. He is regarded as the inventor of carpentry and of most of its 

The magic tripods, bellows, and golden handmaids of Hephaistos, the 
magic car of Medea drawn by dragons, the flying sandals of Hermes, and 
Pegasus, the famous winged horse which sprang from the headless trunk of 
Medusa, are all too legendary to have any place in this note. At the same 
time it is interesting to notice these early devices of Greek mythology, which, 
to a certain extent, correspond with the magic car, flying throne, Garuda 
bird, etc., of Hindu fiction. (See Burton, Nights, vol. v, p. 2w 2 , and Clouston, 
Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 373-380.) In a Mongolian story (Julg, 
Die Mdrchen des Siddhi-K'ur, 1866, first tale, p. 57 et seq.) the plot centres 
round a wooden Garuda bird made by a carpenter's son to help a friend of 
his to rescue his stolen wife. When inside it if the top is knocked the bird 
flies upwards, and if the bottom is struck it descends. We are, however, 
given no further details as to its mechanism. 

The first scientific inventor of such objects as are mentioned in our text 
was probably Archytas (c. 428-347 B.C.), the Greek philosopher of Tarentum. 
Apart from his mathematical inventions, he constructed a kind of flying 
machine, consisting of a wooden figure balanced by a weight suspended from 
a pulley, and set in motion by "hidden and enclosed air" (Aul. Gell., Noctes 
Attica?, X, xii, 9). This was apparently air escaping from a valve in fact, 
an anticipation of the hot-air balloon. Archytas is also regarded as the 
inventor of the kite. 

In the Middle Ages numerous attempts at inventing automata are 
recorded. In Europe the names of Ctesibius, Vitruvius, Hero of Alexandria, 
Regiomontanus, Roger Bacon and Albertus Magnus may be mentioned ; while 
those of Wilkins, Leonardo da Vinci, Fleyder, Borelli, etc., are all connected 
with early attempts at flying. 


Vitruvius was a Roman architect and engineer of the time of Julius Caesar. 
The tenth book of his famous De Architectura Decern is entirely devoted to 
mechanical inventions of all kinds. It is particularly interesting to note that, 
like Somaprabha in our text, he states that the influence of astrology on 
machines is of considerable importance and that all machinery is derived from 
nature, and is founded on the teaching and instruction of the revolution of 
the firmament (X, i, 4). He claims to have constructed the first water 
organs, that he "discovered the natural pressure of the air and pneumatic 
principles . . . devised methods of raising water, automatic contrivances, and 
amusing things of many kinds . . . blackbirds singing by means of waterworks, 
and angobatce, and figures that drink and move, and other things that have 
been found to be pleasing to the eye and the ear." 

Hero of Alexandria, now considered to have flourished in the second 
century a.d., invented numerous complicated magic jugs and drinking 
animals. He wrote many works on his inventions, including Catoptrica, 
Pneumatica, and Automatopoietica. Several inventions mentioned in the 
Pneumatica bear a certain resemblance to those in our text. There are 
mechanical birds made to sing by driving air through a pipe by the pressure 
of flowing water. In other chapters a dragon is made to hiss and a thyrsus 
to whistle by similar methods. By the force of compressed air water is made 
to spurt forth and automatons to sound trumpets. The heat of the sun's rays 
is used to warm air which expands and causes water to trickle out. In a 
number of cases as long as a fire burns on an altar the expansion of enclosed 
air caused thereby opens temple doors by the aid of pulleys, or causes statues 
to pour libations, dancing figures to revolve, and a serpent to hiss. The force 
of steam is used to support a ball in mid-air, revolve a sphere, and make a 
bird sing or a statue blow a horn. Inexhaustible lamps are described as well 
as inexhaustible goblets, and a self-trimmed lamp in which a float resting 
on the oil turns a cog-wheel which pushes up the wick as it and the oil are 
consumed. Floats and cog-wheels are also used in some of the tricks already 
mentioned. In another the flow of a liquid from a vessel is regulated by a 
float and a lever. Cog-wheels are also employed in constructing the neck of 
an automaton so that it can be cut completely through with a knife and yet 
the head not be severed from the body. A cupping glass, a syringe, a fire- 
engine pump with valves and pistons, a hydraulic organ and one worked by 
wind include the chief devices mentioned (Lynn Thorndike, A History of 
Magic and Experimental Science, vol. i, p. ] 92). 

In both the Middle and Far East the manufacture of automata of one 
sort or another was quite common at the royal courts, as we can judge by 
the casual mention of such articles by early travellers. 

Friar Odoric (1286-1331), in describing the palace of the Great Khan, 
says (Yule and Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. ii, p. 222, Hakluyt 
Society, 1913): "In the hall of the palace also are many peacocks of gold. 
And when any of the Tartars wish to amuse their lord then they go one 
after the other and clap their hands ; upon which the peacocks flap their wings 
and make as if they would dance. Now this must be done either by diabolic 
art, or by some engine underground." 


Then there is the work of Al-Jazarl to be considered. He was in the 
service of the Sultan Mahmud al-Malik as-Salih at Amida, and it was at his 
orders that in 1206 he wrote his Kitab ft ma'rifat al-hiyal al-handaslya ("Book 
of the Knowledge of Ingenious Contrivances "). The work is in six sections : 

1. On the construction of clocks from which can be told the passage of 
the regular secular hours (10 chapters). 

2. On the construction of vessels and figures suitable for use at carousals 
(10 chapters). 

:>. On the construction of ewers and cups for bloodletting and washing 
(10 chapters). 

4. On the construction of fountains in tanks which change their form, 
and on perpetual flutes (10 chapters). 

5. On the construction of instruments for raising water from shallow 
bodies of water, and from running water (5 chapters). 

6. On the construction of various things of different sorts (5 chapters). 
Eight of the plates accompanying the work have been recently published 

by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (The Treatise of Al-Jazarl oji Automata, 
Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, No. 6, 1924). It will suffice to give the descrip- 
tion of one of them (pp. 15, 16). It is a peacock apparatus for washing 
the hands, and occurs in the ninth chapter of the third section of Al-Jazari's 

The body of the peacock is filled with water; the ring at the tip of the 
tail is attached to a plug which closes the body chamber, preventing the entry 
of air, so that no water can flow out until the plug is lifted by pulling the 
ring. The peacock stands on a "castle," consisting of a chamber which rests 
on four columns standing in a basin which rests on a hollow base. The dirty 
water flows into the hollow base and can afterwards be drawn off by the faucet. 

The chamber ("castle") below the peacock has two doors side by side, 
each with two swinging wings opening very easily. Behind the first door 
stands a servant holding a bowl of alkaline vegetable ashes, used as soap. 
When the water enters the base of the apparatus it pushes up the lower float, 
and this raises the rod attached to it and pushes up the board on which the 
servant stands, so that the door opens and he emerges offering the "soap" 
for the king's use. Behind the second door stands another servant with a 
towel. When still more water has entered the lower chamber (and by this 
time most of the water in the peacock has been used, and the king will have 
completed his ablutions) the second float, which is attached to a shorter rod, 
will also be raised, and in the same way as before the second figure with the 
towel will emerge. When the dirty water is drawn off, the two floats fall and 
the figures retire. The total height of the apparatus would be about six spans. 

The above examples of early mechanical inventing are almost entirely 
confined to what we might describe as clever toys. They are, in fact, 
analogous to those which Somaprabha produced from her basket in order to 
amuse her friend Kalingasena. 

In Chapter XLIII, p. 281, Naravahanadatta comes across a city entirely 
populated by wooden automata that move as if they are alive. They had 
been made by one Rajyadhara, a carpenter, to compensate for his loneliness 


in the empty city which he had discovered. We are at once reminded of the 
Golem of Jewish legend, about which I am able to give a short account owing 
to the assistance of Dr Gaster. 

The first reference to a man created from clay in Rabbinical literature is 
found in the Talmud (Sanhedrin, f. 65b), where Rabba made a man of clay 
by means of the "Book of Creation" and sent him to the son of Rabbi 
Zira. The latter spoke to him, but received no reply, so he caused the 
automaton to return to its origin. 

There is no similar legend until the time of Aben Gabirol of the eleventh 
century. It is related that by means of the mystical name of God he was 
able to create a servant who did his bidding. He was denounced to the 
sultan, but was able to prove that it was only of a mechanical nature which 
derived its strength from the Divine Name placed either in the forehead or 
else in the mouth of the automaton. 

There was a certain Rabbi Elijah of Chelm, in Poland, who was credited 
with having the knowledge of the mystic creative name of God, and to have 
applied it for the purpose of making an automaton. The figure grew to such 
an extent that the people became frightened and he was forced to destroy it. 

The most famous of these automatons, however, is the one that lives in 
the legend connected with the name of the " Exalted Rabbi Low of Prague." 
He flourished at the end of the sixteenth century and fashioned a figure 
known as a Golem that is to say, "something rolled together," a "lump." 
This automaton worked on all days of the week, and was able to carry out 
the work by means of a plate placed under its tongue on which was in- 
scribed the Divine Name. Every Friday evening the plate was removed so 
that the Golem should not desecrate the Sabbath. On one occasion, however, 
Rabbi Low forgot to do this, and on that evening he stopped the service 
before intoning the introductory psalm to the Sabbath service in order to get 
hold of the Golem and remove the plate in time. But the Golem fell to bits, 
and legend has it that to this day the pieces are still preserved in the attic 
of the synagogue (A. M. Tendlau, " Der Golem des Hoch-Rabbi-Lbb," Das 
Buck der Sagen und Legenden Judischer Vorzeit, 184-5, 2nd edit., p. 16 et seq.). 

Rabbi H. B. Fassel in his Neun Derusch Vortr'dge, Gross Kanizsa, 1867, 
p. 93, refers to a similar legend where such a Golem is used and works by 
means of the Divine Name placed under his tongue all day, being removed 
at night. 

The most modern idea of the mechanical figure is, of course, the Robot 
invented by Karel Kapek. Robot is the Czech word to express a being with 
capacity for work, but not for thinking. It is interesting to note that it was 
also at Prague that Kapek first conceived the idea, for as he watched the 
crowds of men and women being herded in and out of the suburban trains, he 
began to think of them, not as individuals, or even animals, but as machines 
and so the idea of the Robot originated in the very town where, according 
to legend, the broken pieces of the Golem still repose. n.m.p. 



I have already given notes on this motif of overhearing in Vol. I, p. 4S/ l , 
and Vol. II, p. 107w l et seq. It also occurred in the "Story of the Golden 
City" (Vol. II, p. 219), and in Vol. Ill, pp. 48, 49. 

Several good examples of the motif are found in the Jatakas. In the 
Siri-Jataka, No. 284 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, p. 280), two cocks are 
overheard talking on a tree, their indiscretion being their undoing. They 
abuse one another, and one says : " What power have you ? " The other replies : 
" Anybody who kills me, and eats my flesh roasted on the coals, gets a thousand 
pieces of money in the morning ! " But the first cock continues : " Pooh, pooh, 
don't boast about a little thing like that ! Anybody who eats my fleshy parts 
will become king ; if he eats my outside, he'll become commander-in-chief or 
chief queen, according as he's a man or woman ; if he eats the flesh by my 
bones he'll get the post of royal treasurer, if he be a householder; or, if a 
holy man, will become the king's favourite ! " 

In the Kharaputta-Jataka, No. 386 (Cambridge edition, vol. iii, p. 175), 
which I consider to be the original of the well-known "Tale of the Bull and 
the Ass" in the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. 16 et seq.), four young Naga 
youths enter a king's room to "destroy him like chaff by the breath of 
their nostrils " and are luckily persuaded to desist from their intention by 
overhearing a conversation between the king and his consort. 

An ordinary case of human overhearing occurs in the Takkala-Jataka, 
No. 446 (Cambridge edition, vol. iv, p. 29). 

In Tawney's Kathakoqa (Oriental Translation Fund, New Series, ii, 
1895, Royal Asiatic Society) there are several examples of the motif under 
discussion. In the "Story of the Couple of Parrots" (p. 42 et seq.), which 
begins with the Dohada motif (see Vol. I, p. 224), the soul of the hen-parrot 
is troubled by discovering that her Vidyadhara brother has unwittingly 
carried off his own mother with the intention of marrying her. She wishes 
to save the situation in as tactful a manner as possible, and considers the best 
way is for them to overhear a conversation. They are sitting under a tree and 
so the hen-parrot assumes two forms, that of a male and that of a female ape, 
and comes to the tree. 

Then the male ape said to the female ape : " My dear, this is called the 
bathing-place of the aspirant : animals that plunge in this water attain the 
condition of humanity ; men that plunge in here acquire, owing to the virtue 
of this bathing-place of the aspirant, the condition of gods ; about this there 
is no doubt. Now there are two human beings sitting here in the shade of 
this fragrant mango-tree." The female ape said: "Think intently of their 
form, and leap into this well, that you may become a woman, and I will become 
a man." Then the monkey said : " Fie ! fie ! who would mention the name 
of this man who has carried off his mother with the idea of marrying her? 
What desire have we for the form of that villain ? " When they heard this 
speech of the monkey, both the Vidyadhara and his mother were astonished. 


The Vidyadhara said to himself: " How can I be her son ? " The queen said 
to herself: "How can this Vidyadhara be my son?" While they were both 
engaged in these reflections, the Vidyadhara said to the male monkey : 
"Great sir, how can this be true?" The monkey replied: "It is indeed 
true ; about this matter there can be no doubt ; if you do not believe it, in 
this mountain-thicket there is a hermit, who possesses absolute knowledge, 
now performing austerities in the statuesque posture ; go and ask him." When 
the two monkeys had finished this conversation they disappeared. Thereupon 
the Vidyadhara prince, accompanied by his mother, went into the mountain- 
thicket, and said to the hermit that possessed absolute knowledge : " Reverend 
sir, is the thing asserted by the monkey true ? " The hermit replied : " It is 
indeed true. . . ." 

The ingenious introduction of the motif in the above extract is a fine 
example of the story-teller's art. 

In the next story in the same collection Queen Madanavall is confined to 
a lonely palace in the middle of the forest owing to an evil bodily smell that 
nothing can eradicate. The queen bears her exile with fortitude, consoling 
herself with the thought that her fate must be due to evil actions in a former 
life. Here is an excellent opportunity for the "overhearing" motif. 

A hen-parrot and her mate are chatting in a fragrant mango-tree. The 
queen listens and is surprised to hear a recital of her present and former lives. 
The evil smell is discussed. "My lord," asks the hen-parrot, "is there any 
remedy for her complaint?" The cock-parrot said: "This evil smell has 
attached to her in this life because in a former birth she showed disgust at 
a hermit ; if for seven days she worships the mighty Jina three times with 
sweet-smelling substances, she will be relieved from this affliction in the 
form of an evil smell." Then Madanavall, hearing this, threw down all her 
ornaments as a present in front of the parrot couple ; but they, after holding 
this conversation, instantly disappeared. 

To quote a final tale from the Kathakoqa (p. 164), we find in the 
" Story of Lalitiinga" (already mentioned in Vol. I, p. 48 2 , and Vol. II, 
pp. 113m 1 and 220) that a blind prince is sitting under a banyan-tree when 
some bharnnda birds begin to converse. An old bird is relating to a young 
one the happenings in the neighbouring city, where the princess is also blind. 
"Father," says the young bird, "is there any means by which her eyes may 
be restored afresh ? " The old bird said : 

" My child, I will tell you in the day, after looking round, and not at night ; 
Very cunning people wander about under the banyan-tree, like Vararuchi. 

For that reason do not ask now ; at the time of dawn I will tell you of a 
means." The young bird would not desist from its importunity, but asked 
very persistently, saying : " I will not let you off without telling me." The 
old bird said : " A creeper embraces the root of this banyan-tree, and extends 
over it. If her eyes are sprinkled with the juice of that plant they will be 
restored again immediately." When the prince, who was under the banyan- 
tree, heard this speech of the bird, he first sprinkled that juice into the 
sockets of his own eyes. His eyes became clear as before. 


The prince then proceeds to the city, and cures the princess, receiving 
her arid half the kingdom as a reward. Cf. Suvabahuttar'ikalhu , 72 (J. Hertel, 
" Ueber die Suvabahuttarikatha," Festschrift fur Ernst Windisch, pp. 150-151). 

Similar tales occur in Frere's Old Deccan Days ; thus in the seventh story 
we read (p. 121) of a king who suffered agony owing to a cobra which 
had become lodged in his throat and could not be extracted. His bride 
happens to overhear two cobras talking about her affairs. " Can no one get 
it out?" asked the first cobra, referring to the snake in the king's throat 
" No," replied the other ; " because they do not know the secret." " What 
secret ? " asked the first cobra. " Don't you know ? " said the second. " Why, 
if his wife only took a few marking-nuts and pounded them well, and mixed 
them in coco-nut oil, and set the whole on fire, and hung the Rajah, her 
husband, head downwards up in a tree above it, the smoke, rising upwards, 
would instantly kill the cobra in his mouth, which would tumble down dead." 
" I never heard of that before," said the first cobra. " Didn't you ! " ex- 
claimed the second. "Why, if they did the same thing at the mouth of 
your hole they'd kill you in no time, and then, perhaps, they might find all 
the fine treasure you have there ! " " Don't joke in that way," said the first 
cobra, " I don't like it," and he crawled away quite offended, and the second 
cobra followed him. 

Needless to say the princess cures the king and gets the cobra's jewels. 
The cure somewhat resembles that in our present text (p. 49). Cf. with 
this story that in the Panchatantra (Benfey, vol. ii, pp. 257, 258) in which 
the princess learns, from overhearing the conversation of two snakes, secrets 
which bring about their own death. 

In story No. 9 of the same collection the Panch-Phul Ranee learns from 
two jackals how to restore her dead husband's life. The juice of the leaves 
of a tree is the medium of the miracle (p. 139). 

The fifth tale also contains the "overhearing" motif, where the owl tells 
Luxman's future adventures as he listens below the tree (p. 75). 

Very similar is an incident in the tale of Phakir Chand in Lai Behari 
Day's Folk-Tales of Bengal, p. 40 et seq. Both these latter references have 
already been given (p. 29) as analogues to the story of "The Prince and 
the Merchant's Son " (p. 28 et seq.). See also Day (op. cit., pp. 106, 107), where 
the Brahman overhears a conversation between two calves in the cow-house. 
As will be seen, this story is similar to that of the "Two Parrots" in the 
Kathdkoca already mentioned. 

In the story of Prince Sobur in the same collection (pp. 135, 136) 
the princess overhears from two divine birds, whom she has just saved from 
being devoured by a serpent, how she can bring back to health Prince Sobur, 
who is dying through a trick played on him by his sisters-in-law. 

To conclude, I would give one final example of this motif. It is found 
in Bernhard Jiilg's Mongolische Marchen Sammlung, Die Neun Marchen des 
Siddhi-Kiir und die Geschichte des Ardschi-Bordschi Chan, Innsbruck, 1868, 
tale 15, p. 147 et seq. 

Long ago there lived, in Western India, a king who had a very clever 
son. This son he sent with the minister's son into the Diamond Kingdom of 


Central India to learn every kind of wisdom. Here they stayed for many 
years as pupils of two wise lamas. Finally they started on their homeward 
journey. While they travelled along the minister's son thought to himself: 
"The king has been equally generous to us both, but his son has profited 
far more than I have/' and in this manner he plotted against the prince. 

One night they halted on the top of a mountain and there the minister's 
son killed the prince, who with his last breath cried out: " Abaraschika." 
Then the son of the minister returned to his country, where he reported that 
the prince had died suddenly of a fatal disease, and had only been able to 
utter the word "Abaraschika." Then the king commanded all the wise 
men of the land to come before him, and he asked them what that word 
meant, but no one could tell him. Thereupon they were given seven days 
in which to find out the meaning, after which, if they failed, they were all 
to be executed. 

Six days went by and the wise men were prepared to die. In the mean- 
time one of their number, a priest of little significance, had crept away and 
taken flight. He hid himself at the foot of a tree in the forest, and while 
he sat there a child began to cry in the top of the tree. His father cried : 
" Do not cry, my son ; to-morrow the king is to have a thousand men executed ; 
if we do not eat their flesh, who will do so?" After a time the child cried 
again: "I am hungry." Then his mother comforted him, saying : "Do not 
cry, my son ; to-morrow the king is to have a thousand men executed ; who 
but we will eat their flesh and blood ? " When the boy asked them why the 
thousand men were to be executed, the father answered : " Because they do 
not know the meaning of the word e Abaraschika.' " " What is the meaning ? " 
asked the boy. " The meaning," answered the father, " is easy. It is : ' This, 
my bosom friend, led me into a dense wood. There he wounded me and trod 
on my neck and beat me and cut off my head.' " 

Hardly had the priest heard that than he ran off and told the other wise 
men what he had heard. Thus the wicked minister's son was found out and 
duly punished for his crime. 

Other references to examples of the motif will be found in Bloomfield, 
Life and Stories of Pdrgvanatka, p. 185. For ancient Jewish legends con- 
taining the "Overhearing" motif see Gaster, Exempla of the Rabbis, Nos. 110, 
447 and 449 (pp. 79, 180 and 181), and the variants on p. 269. n.m.p. 


THEN Kalingasena out of love went to the top of a 
[M] palace on the highroad, to follow with her eyes 
the course of Somaprabha, who had set out for her 
own home, and by chance a young king of the Vidyadharas, 
named Madanavega, travelling through the air, had a near 
view of her. The youth, beholding her, bewildering the 
three worlds with her beauty, like the bunch of peacock 
feathers of the juggler Kama, was much troubled. He re- 
flected : " Away with the Vidyadhara beauties ! Not even 
the Apsarases deserve to be mentioned in presence of the 
surpassing loveliness of this mortal lady. So if she will not 
consent to become my wife, what is the profit of my life ? 
But how can I associate with a mortal lady, being a Vidya- 
dhara?" Thereupon he called to mind the science named 
Prajfiapti, 1 and that science, appearing in bodily form, thus 
addressed him : " She is not really a mortal woman ; she 
is an Apsaras, degraded in consequence of a curse, and born 
in the house of the august King Kalingadatta." When the 
Vidyadhara had been thus informed by the science, he went 
off delighted and distracted with love; and, averse from all 
other things, reflected in his palace : " It is not fitting for 
me to carry her off by force ; for the possession of women 
by force is, according to a curse, fated to bring me death. 
So, in order to obtain her, I must propitiate Siva by asceti- 
cism, for happiness is procurable by asceticism, and no other 
expedient presents itself." 

Thus he resolved, and the next day he went to the 
Rishabha mountain, and standing on one foot performed 
penance without taking food. 2 Then the husband of 
Ambika was soon won over by Madanavega 's severe 
asceticism, and appearing to him, thus enjoined him : 
' This maiden, named Kalingasena, is famous for beauty 
on the earth, and she cannot find any husband equal to 

1 See Vol. II, p. 212/1 1 . n.m.p. 2 See Vol. I, p. 79n\ n.m.p. 



her in the gift of loveliness. Only the King of Vatsa is a 
fitting match for her, and he longs to possess her, but, through 
fear of Vasavadatta, does not dare to court her openly. And 
this princess, who is longing for a handsome husband, will 
hear of the King of Vatsa from the mouth of Somaprabha, 
and repair to him to choose him as her husband. So, before 
her marriage takes place, assume the form of the impatient 
King of Vatsa and go and make her your wife by the 
gdndharva ceremony. 1 In this way, fair sir, you will obtain 
Kalingasena." Having received this command from Siva, 
Madanavega prostrated himself before him, and returned to 
his home on the slope of the Kalakuta mountain. 

Then Kalingasena went on enjoying herself in the city 
of Takshasila, in the society of Somaprabha, who went every 
night to her own home, and came back every morning to her 
friend, in her chariot that travelled through the air ; and 
one day she said to Somaprabha in private : " My friend, 
you must not tell anyone what I tell you. Listen, and I 
will give you a reason that makes me think the time of 
my marriage has arrived. Ambassadors have been sent here 
by many kings to ask me in marriage. And they, after an 
interview with my father, have always hitherto been dis- 
missed by him as they came. But now the king of the name 
of Prasenajit, who lives in Sravasti, has sent a messenger, 
and he alone has been received with honourable distinction 
by my father. And that course has been recommended by 
my mother, so I conjecture the king, my suitor, has been 
approved of by my father and mother as of sufficiently noble 
lineage. For he is born in that family in which were born 
Amba and Ambalika, the paternal grandmothers of the Kurus 
and Pandus. So, my friend, it is clear that they have now 
determined to bestow me in marriage on this King Prasenajit, 
in the city of Sravasti." 

When Somaprabha heard this from Kalingasena, she 
suddenly shed from grief a copious shower of tears, creat- 
ing, as it were, a second necklace. And when her friend 
asked her the cause of her tears, that daughter of the 
Asura Maya, who had seen all the terrestrial world, said to 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 87-88. n.m.p. 
vol. in. E 


her : " Of the desirable requisites in a suitor, youth, good 
looks, noble birth, good disposition and wealth, youth is 
of the greatest importance ; high birth, and so on, are of 
subordinate importance. But I have seen that King Pra- 
senajit, and he is an old man : who cares about his high 
lineage, as he is old, any more than about the birth of the 
jasmine flower ? You will be to be pitied when linked to 
him, who is white as snow, as the lotus-bed when linked 
to the winter, and your face will be a withered lotus. For 
this reason despondency has arisen in me, but I should be 
delighted if Udayana, the King of Vatsa, were to become 
your husband, O auspicious lady. For there is no king 
upon the earth equal to him in form, beauty, lineage, 
daring and riches. If, fair one, you should be married to 
that fitting mate, the display which the Creator has made in 
your case of his power to create beauty would have brought 
forth fruit." 

By means of these speeches, artfully framed by Soma- 
prabha, the mind of Kalingasena was impelled as if by 
engines, and flew towards the King of Vatsa. And then 
the princess asked the daughter of Maya : " Friend, how is 
it that he is called the King of Vatsa ? In what race was he 
born ? And whence was he named Udayana ? Tell me." 
Then Somaprabha said : " Listen, friend, I will tell you that. 

" There is a land, the ornament of the earth, named Vatsa. 
In it there is a city named Kaugambi, like a second Amara- 
vati ; and he is called the King of Vatsa because he rules 
The History tnere - And hear his lineage, my friend, related 
of the King by me. Arjuna of the Pandava race had a son 
of Vatsa named Abhimanyu, and he, skilled in breaking the 
close rings of the hostile army, destroyed the force of the 
Kauravas. From him there sprang a king named Parikshit, 
the head of the race of Bharata, and from him sprang 
Janamejaya, who performed the snake-sacrifice. His son 
was Satanika, who settled in KauiSambi, and he was slain 
in a war between the gods and Asuras after slaying many 
giants. His son was King Sahasranika, an object of praise 
to the world, to whom Indra sent his chariot, and he went 
to heaven and returned thence. To him was born this 


Udayana by the Queen Mrigavati, the ornament of the race 
of the Moon, a king that is a feast to the eyes of the world. 
Hear, too, the reason of his name. That Mrigavati, the 
mother of this high-born king, being pregnant, felt a desire to 
bathe in a lake of blood, and her husband, afraid of commit- 
ting sin, had a lake made of liquid lac and other coloured 
fluids, in which she plunged. Then a bird of the race of 
Garuda pounced upon her, thinking she was raw flesh, and 
carried her off, and, as fate would have it, left her alive on the 
mountain of the sunrise. And there the hermit Jamadagni 
saw her, and comforted her, promising her reunion with her 
husband, and she remained there in his hermitage. For such 
was the curse inflicted upon her husband by Tilottama, 
jealous on account of his neglecting her, which caused him 
separation from his wife for a season. And in some days 
she brought forth a son in the hermitage of Jamadagni, on 
that very mountain of the sunrise, as the sky brings forth 
the new moon. And because he was born on the mountain 
of the sunrise the gods then and there gave him the name 
of Udayana, uttering from heaven this bodiless voice : 
6 This Udayana, who is now born, shall be sovereign of the 
whole earth ; and there shall be born to him a son, who shall 
be emperor of all the Vidyadharas.' * 

" Sahasranika, for his part, who had been informed of 
the real state of the case by Matali, and had fixed his hope 
on the termination of his curse, with difficulty got through 
the time without that Mrigavati. But when the curse had 
expired the king obtained his token from a Savara who, as 
fate would have it, had come from the mountain of the sun- 
rise. And then he was informed of the truth by a voice 
from heaven, and making that Savara his guide, he went 
to the mountain of the sunrise. There he found his wife 
Mrigavati like the success of his wishes, and her son Uda- 
yana like the realm of fancy. With them he returned to 
Kausambi, and appointed his son crown prince, pleased with 
the excellence of his qualities ; and he gave him the sons 
of his ministers, Yaugandharayana and others. When his 

1 This has already been described in greater detail in Vol. I, pp. 97-100. 



son took the burden of the kingdom off his shoulders he 
enjoyed pleasures for a long time in the society of Mrigavati. 
And in time the king established his son, that very Udayana, 
on the throne, and being old went with his wife and ministers 
on the long journey. So Udayana has obtained that kingdom 
that belonged to his father, and having conquered all his 
enemies, rules the earth with the help of Yaugandharayana." 
Having in these words quickly told her in confidence the 
story of Udayana, she again said to her friend Kalingasena : 
" Thus that king is called the King of Vatsa, fair one, because 
he rules in Vatsa, and since he comes of the Pandava lineage, 
he is also descended from the race of the sun. And the gods 
gave him the name of Udayana because he was born on the 
mountain of the sunrise, and in this world even the God of 
Love is not a match for him in beauty. He alone is a husband 
fit for you, most beautiful lady of the three worlds, and he, 
being a lover of beauty, no doubt longs for you, who are 
famous for it. But, my friend, his head wife is Vasavadatta, 
the daughter of Chandamahasena. And she selected him 
herself, deserting her relations in the ardour of her passion, 
and so sparing the blushes of Usha, Sakuntala and other 
maidens. And a son has been born to him by her, called 
Naravahanadatta, who is appointed by the gods as the 
future emperor of the Vidyadharas. So it is through fear 
of her that the King of Vatsa does not send here to ask for 
your hand, but she has been seen by me, and she does not 
vie with you in the gift of beauty." When her friend Soma- 
prabha said this, Kalingasena, being in love with the King 
of Vatsa, 1 answered her: "I know all this; but what can 
I do, as I am under the power of my parents ? But in 
this you, who know all things and possess magic power, are 
my refuge." Somaprabha then said to her : " The whole 
matter depends on destiny ; in proof of it hear the 
following tale : 

1 For examples of falling in love by mere description see Chauvin, 
Bibliographic des Outrages Arabes, v, p. 132. The ten stages of Hindu love- 
sickness have already been described in Vol. II, p. 9n 2 . Cf. also the humorous 
story of "The Unwise Schoolmaster who fell in Love by Report," Nights, 
Burton, vol. v, pp. 117, 118 ; and ditto, vol. ix, p. 222, "Ibrahim and Jamilah." 


39. Story of Tejasvati 1 

Once on a time there lived in Ujjayini a king named 
Vikramasena, and he had a daughter named Tejasvati, 
matchless in beauty. And she disapproved of every king 
who sued for her hand. But one day, while she was on the 
roof of her palace, she saw a man, and, as fate would have 
it, she felt a desire to meet him as he was very handsome, 
and she sent her confidante to him to communicate to him 
her desire. The confidante went and entreated the man, 
who shrank from such an audacious step, and at last, with 
much difficulty, she made him, against his will, agree to an 
assignation, saying : " Await, good sir, the arrival of the 
princess at night in this retired temple which you see here." 
After saying this, she took leave of him, and went and told 
the Princess Tejasvati, who for her part remained watching 
the sun. But that man, though he had consented, fled some- 
where else out of fear : a frog is not capable of relishing the 
fibres of a bed of red lotuses. 

In the meanwhile a certain prince of high lineage came, 
as his father was dead, to visit the king, who had been his 
father's friend. And that handsome young prince, named 
Somadatta, whose kingdom and wealth had been taken by 
pretenders, arriving at night, entered by accident, to pass 
the night there, that very temple in which the confidante of 
the princess had arranged a meeting with the man. While 
he was there the princess, blind with passion, approached 
him, without distinguishing who he was, and made him her 
self- chosen husband. The wise prince gladly received in 
silence the bride offered him by fate, who foreshadowed his 
union with the future Fortune of Royalty. And the princess 

1 Cf. the Panchatantra, Benfey, vol. ii, p. 183 (first part of the fourth 
book), where the merchant's son becomes the lover of the princess in mistake 
for someone else. When she discovers her error she lets him go on his 
uttering a maxim about predestination being the lot of man. This resembles 
the saying of Somadatta in the "Story of Phalabhuti " (No. 24 of this work, 
Vol. II, p. 97). 

There is a very slight resemblance to the Decameron, day 2, nov. 2, 
where Rinaldo takes the place of the Marquis Azzo, but in this case the fair 
lady is merely using Rinaldo as a "second best." n.m.p. 


soon perceived that he was very charming, and considered 
that she had not been deceived by the Creator. Immedi- 
ately they conversed together, and the two separated accord- 
ing to agreement ; the princess to her own palace, while the 
king spent the rest of the night there. 

In the morning the prince went and announced his name 
by the mouth of the warder, and, being recognised, entered 
into the presence of the king. There he told his sorrow on 
account of his kingdom having been taken away, and other 
insults, and the king agreed to assist him in overthrowing 
his enemies. And he determined to give him the daughter 
he had long desired to give away, and then and there told 
his intention to the ministers. Then the queen told the king 
his daughter's adventure, having been informed of it before 
by herself, through the mouths of trusty confidantes. Then 
the king was astonished at finding that calamity had been 
averted and his desire attained by mere chance, as in the 
fable of the crow and the palm, 1 and thereupon one of 
the ministers said to the king : " Fate watches to ensure 
the objects of auspicious persons, as good servants of their 
masters, when the latter are not on the look-out. And to 
illustrate this I will tell you the following tale. Listen. 

39a. The Brahman Harisarman 

There was a certain Brahman in a certain village, named 
Harisarman. 2 He was poor and foolish and in evil case for 
want of employment, and he had very many children, that 
he might reap the fruit of his misdeeds in a former life. 
He wandered about begging with his family, and at last 
he reached a certain city, and entered the service of a rich 
householder called Sthuladatta. He made his sons keepers 
of this householder's cows and other possessions, and his 

1 This is well known in India now. A crow alighted on a palm-tree when 
just about to fall, and so it appeared that his weight made it fall. For this 
and many other hints I am indebted to Pandit S. C. Mookerjea, of the 
Hindu School. 

2 Benfey considers that this, as well as " Haripriya," means "blockhead " 
(Orient und Occident, vol. i, p. 374). 



wife a servant to him, and he himself lived near his house, 
performing the duty of an attendant. 

One day there was a feast on account of the marriage 
of the daughter of Sthuladatta, largely attended by many 
friends of the bridegroom, and merry-makers. And then 
Harisarman entertained a hope that he would be able to 
fill himself up to the throat with ghee and flesh and other 
dainties, together with his family, in the house of his patron. 
While he was anxiously expecting that occasion, no one 
thought of him. Then he was distressed at getting nothing 
to eat, and he said to his wife at night : " It is owing to 
my poverty and stupidity that I am treated with such dis- 
respect here ; so I will display, by means of an artifice, an 
assumed knowledge, in order that I may become an object 
of respect to this Sthuladatta, and when you get an oppor- 
tunity, tell him that I possess supernatural knowledge." 
He said this to her, and after turning the matter over in 
his mind, while people were asleep he took away from the 
house of Sthuladatta a horse on which his son-in-law rode. 
He placed it in concealment at some distance, and in the 
morning the friends of the bridegroom could not find the 
horse, though they searched in every direction. 

Then, while Sthuladatta was distressed at the evil omen, 
and searching for the thieves who had carried off the horse, 
the wife of Harisarman came and said to him : " My husband 
is a wise man, skilled in astrology and sciences of that kind, 
and he will procure for you the horse ; why do you not 
ask him ? " When Sthuladatta heard that, he called that 
Harisarman, who said : " Yesterday I was forgotten, but 
to-day, now the horse is stolen, I am called to mind." And 
Sthuladatta then propitiated the Brahman with these 
words : "I forgot you, forgive me," and asked him to tell 
him who had taken away their horse. Then Harisarman 
drew all kinds of pretended diagrams, and said : " The horse 
has been placed by thieves on the boundary line south from 
this place. It is concealed there, and before it is carried off 
to a distance, as it will be at close of day, quickly go and 
bring it." When they heard that, many men ran and brought 
the horse quickly, praising the discernment of Harisarman. 


Then HariSarman was honoured by all men as a sage, and 
dwelt there in happiness, honoured by Sthuladatta. 

Then, as days went on, much wealth, consisting of gold 
and jewels, was carried off by a thief from the palace of 
the king. As the thief was not known, the king quickly 
jr ., , summoned HariSarman on account of his reputa- 

Hansarman s i 

Supernatural tion for supernatural knowledge. And he, when 
Knowledge is summoned, tried to gain time, and said : "I will 
p " tell you to-morrow," and then he was placed in 

a chamber by the king and carefully guarded. And he was 
despondent about his pretended knowledge. 1 Now in that 
palace there was a maid named Jihva, 2 who, with the assist- 
ance of her brother, had carried off that wealth from the 
interior of the palace ; she, being alarmed at Harisarman's 
knowledge, went at night and applied her ear to the door 
of that chamber in order to find out what he was about. 
And Harisarman, who was alone inside, was at that very 
moment blaming his own tongue, that had made a vain 
assumption of his knowledge. He said : " O tongue, what 
is this that you have done, through desire of enjoyment ? 
Ill- conducted one, endure now punishment in this place." 
When Jihva heard this, she thought in her terror that she 
had been discovered by this wise man, and by an artifice 
she managed to get in where he was, and falling at his feet, 
she said to that supposed sage : " Brahman, here I am, that 
Jihva whom you have discovered to be the thief of the 
wealth, and after I took it I buried it in the earth in a garden 
behind the palace, under a pomegranate-tree. So spare me, 
and receive the small quantity of gold which is in my posses- 
sion." When Harisarman heard that, he said to her proudly : 
" Depart, I know all this ; I know the past, present and 
future ; but I will not denounce you, being a miserable 
creature that has implored my protection. But whatever 
gold is in your possession you must give back to me." When 
he said this to the maid, she consented, and departed quickly. 
But Harisarman reflected in his astonishment : " Fate, if 

1 A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads jnanavijna i.e. "the knowing 
one," " the astrologer." 

2 This word means "tongue." 


propitious, brings about, as if in sport, a thing that cannot 
be accomplished, for in this matter, when calamity was near, 
success has unexpectedly been attained by me. While I was 
blaming my tongue [jihvd] the thief Jihva flung herself at 
my feet. Secret crimes, I see, manifest themselves by means 
of fear." 

In these reflections he passed the night happily in the 
chamber. And in the morning he brought the king by 
some skilful parade of pretended knowledge into the garden, 
and led him up to the treasure, which was buried there, and 
he said that the thief had escaped with a part of it. Then 
the king was pleased, and proceeded to give him villages. But 
the minister, named Devajnanin, whispered in the king's 
ear : " How can a man possess such knowledge unattainable 
by men without having studied treatises ? So you may 
be certain that this is a specimen of the way he makes a 
dishonest livelihood, by having a secret intelligence with 
thieves. So it will be better to test him by some new artifice." 
Then the king of his own accord brought a new- covered 
pitcher, into which he had thrown a frog, and said to that 
Harisarman : " Brahman, if you can guess what there is in 
this pitcher I will do you great honour to-day." When the 
Brahman Harisarman heard that, he thought that his last 
hour had come, and he called to mind the pet name of "frog " 
which his father had given him in his childhood in sport, 
and impelled by the deity he apostrophised himself by it, 
lamenting his hard fate, and suddenly exclaimed there : 
" This is a fine pitcher for you, frog, since suddenly it has 
become the swift destroyer of your helpless self in this place." 
The people there, when they heard that, made a tumult of 
applause, because his speech chimed in so well with the 
object presented to him, and murmured : " Ah ! a great 
sage ; he knows even about the frog ! " Then the king, 
thinking that this was all due to knowledge of divination, 
was highly delighted, and gave Harisarman villages, with 
gold, umbrella, 1 and vehicles of all kinds. And immediately 
Harisarman became like a feudal chief. 

1 See Vol. II, p. 263 et seq. n.m.p. 


39. Story of Tejasvati 

" Thus good objects are brought about by fate for those 
whose actions in a former life have been good. Accordingly 
Fate made that daughter of yours, Tejasvati, approach 
Somadatta, a man of equal birth, and kept away one who 
was unsuited to her." Hearing this from the mouth of 
his minister, the King Vikramasena gave his daughter to 
that prince as if she were the Goddess of Fortune. Then the 
prince went and overcame his enemies by the help of his 
father-in-law's host, and being established in his own kingdom, 
lived happily in the company of his wife. 

[M] "So true is it that all this happens by the special 
favour of Fate; who on earth would be able to join you, 
lovely as you are, with the King of Vatsa, though a suitable 
match for you, without the help of Fate ? What can I do 
in this matter, friend Kalingasena ? " Kalingasena, hearing 
this story in private from the mouth of Somaprabha, became 
eager in her soul for union with the King of Vatsa, and, in 
her aspirations after him, began to feel in a less degree the 
fear of her relations and the warnings of modesty. Then 
the sun, the great lamp of the three worlds, being about to 
set, Somaprabha, the daughter of the Asura Maya, having 
with difficulty taken leave, until her morning return, of her 
friend, whose mind was fixed upon her proposed attempt, 
went through the air to her own home. 



The story of Harisarman resembles closely that of " Doctor Allwissend " 
in Grimm's Tales. It is shown by Benfey to exist in various forms in many 
countries. It is found in the Siddhi-Kur (Jiilg, No. 4, p. 73 et seq.), the 
Mongolian form of the Sanskrit Vetalapanchavinsati. In this form of the story 
the incident of the frog in the pot is omitted, and the other incidents are 
considerably altered. Instead of the king's treasure we find a magic gem, on 
which the prosperity of the country depends ; it is not stolen, but lost by the 
king's daughter. Instead of the horse we have the cure of a sick Khan who 
had been driven mad by evil spirits. The folly of the man who represents 
the Brahman consists in his choosing worthless presents for his reward. (The 
story is the fourth in Sagas from the Far East.) Benfey considers the fullest 
form of the story to be that in Schleicher's Lithuanian Legends. In this form 
of the story we have the stealing of the horse, but in other points it resembles 
the Mongolian version. The Brahman is represented by a poor cottager, who 
puts up over his door a notice saying that he is a doctor, who knows every- 
thing and can do everything. The third exploit of the cottager is the finding 
of a stolen treasure which is the second in the Indian story, but his second is 
a miraculous cure which is in accordance with the Siddhl-Kiir. The latter 
is probably a late work; and we may presume that the Mongols brought 
the Indian story to Europe, in a form more nearly resembling that in the 
Kathd Sarit Sdgara than that in the Siddhl-Kiir. In the third exploit of 
the cottager in the Lithuanian tale, which corresponds to the second in the 
Indian, the treasure has been stolen by three servants. They listen outside 
while the doctor is alone in his room. When the clock strikes one, he says : 
"We have one." When it strikes two, he says: "We have two." When it 
strikes three, he says : " We have now three." In their terror they go to the 
doctor and beg him not to betray them. He is richly rewarded. 

But, after all, Grimm's form of the tale is nearest to the Sanskrit. The 
dish with crabs in it, the contents of which the doctor has to guess, makes 
him exclaim : " Ach ich armer Krebs ! " This might almost have been translated 
from the Sanskrit, it is so similar in form. The guilty servants who stole 
the gold are detected by the doctor's saying to his wife, " Margaret, that is 
the first," meaning the first who waited at table, and so on. 

The story is also found in the Facetiae of Henricus Bebelius, 1506. Here 
a poor charcoal-burner represents the Brahman. He asks for three days to 
consider. The king gives him a good dinner, and while the first thief is 
standing at the window he exclaims : " Jam unus accessit ! " meaning, " one day 
is at an end." The next day the second thief comes to listen. The charcoal- 
burner exclaims : " Secundus accessit ! " and so with the third ; whereupon they 
all confess. 

Benfey conceives himself to have found the incident of the horse in 
Poggii Facetiae (86th edit., Cracov, 1592, p. 59). Here a doctor boasts 
a wonder-working pill. A man who has lost his ass takes one of these pills. 


It conducts him to a bed of reeds where he finds his ass. (The article from 
which I have taken these parallels is found in Benfey's Orient und Occident, 
vol. i, p. 371 et seq.) 

The story in Grimm is No. 98, and in Margaret Hunt's Grimm's 

Household Tales (Bohn Library, 2 vols., 1884) it appears in vol. ii, pp. 56, 
57, as "Doctor Knowall." Grimm's notes to this tale will be found on 
p. 401 of the same volume. See also J. Bolte, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder-und 
Hausm'drchen der Briider Grimm, vol. ii, p. 401 et seq. 

Apart from the Benfey reference already given, see also his Panchatantra , 
vol. i, p. 374. 

Cf. " The Tale of the Weaver who became a Leech by order of his Wife " 
in the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. i, pp. 282-287). In this tale the weaver learns 
the jargon of an itinerant quack, copies his methods, and makes quite a good 
living. This is as far as the "impostor" part goes, for the various clever 
deductions he makes are not guess-work or luck, so that this latter part of 
the story really belongs to the "quintessence" motif, which I shall discuss in 
a long note to Chapter LXXXII. In the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. ii, pp. 
341-343), W. A. Clouston refers to the tale of the charcoal-burner in Dasent's 
Tales from the Fjeld, and to the amusing story of Ahmed the Cobbler in 
Sir John Malcolm's Sketches of Persia, chap. xx. He gives a long extract from 
this latter story, which is supplementary to that already given in his Popular 
Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, pp. 413-421. Here will be found several other 
references, including one to Crane's Italian Popular Tales, pp. 293, 314; and 
to a Sinhalese variant translated by W. Goonetilleke in the Orientalist for 
February 1884. 

See also Cosquin, Contes populaires de Lorraine, vol. ii, pp. 187-193; 
Sebillot, Folk-Lore de France, vol. iii, p. 335 ; Montaiglon, Fabliaux, iii, p. 370 ; 
Kennedy, Fireside Stories, p. 1 16 ; Green, Modern Arabic Stories, p. 52; 
Lidzbarski, Geschichten und Lieder aus den neuaram'dischen Handschriften zu 
Berlin, 1 896, p. 65 ; Bompas, Folklore of the Santal Parganas, No. 68, p. 206 ; 
and Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, No. 23, p. 179. 

Cf. the sixth fable of night 1 3 of Straparola (trans. W. G. Waters, London, 
1894, vol. ii, pp. 277-279), in which the widow's foolish son Lucilio, mis- 
understanding his mother's meaning, goes to the city to look for " the good 
day." Three men, on their way to dig up a treasure they have found, wish 
him, in turn, a good day. Each time Lucilio says ; " Aha ! I have one of 
them ! " meaning one of the good days. The men become frightened, and 
Lucilio gets a good share of the treasure. Several analogues to the tale are 
given on p. 322 of the same volume. Those which have not already been 
mentioned are as follows : 

Morlini, Novellce fabulce et comedies, nov. 29, " De matre quae desidiosum 
filium ut repetiret bonum diem misit"; Visentini, Fiabe Mantovani, No. 41, 
" Gambara " ; Gonzenbach, Sicilianische Mdrchen, No. 57 ; and Irubriani, 
Novellaja Milanese, nov. 10. 

Chauvin, Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes, viii, pp. 105, 106, gives a few 
further references. n.m.p. 



The following metrical version of the Story of Harisarman was translated 
by the Rev. B. Hale Wortham and printed in the Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 
vol. xviii, N.S., 1886, pp. 16-20. It is reproduced here in full by kind 
permission of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Once on a time within a certain town 

There lived a Brahman ; he was very poor, 

And foolish too. Moreover, he had naught 

Wherewith to earn a livelihood ; his case 

Was altogether very bad. Besides he had 

No end of children ; thus the deity 

Would punish him for all the wicked deeds 

Committed in some former life. So then 

The Brahman (Harisarman was his name) 

Wandered about, with all his family, 

To beg for alms : and in his wanderings 

He chanced upon a village. There he stayed, 

And in a rich householder's family 

He entered into service. While his sons 

Tended the cows, and kept their master's goods, 

His wife served him, and in a dwelling near 

He lived himself, performing day by day 

The tasks appointed in his master's house. 

One day the daughter of the householder 

Was married, and a mighty feast was made, 

And friends from far and near invited came. 

Then was the Brahman pleased, because he thought 

That he would cram himself up to the throat 

With dainties ; but no one remembered him 

Nor asked him to the feast. When night had come, 

Filled with distress because his hopes had failed, 

He called his wife to him : " Stupid," he said, 

" And poor am I : men therefore with disdain 

Put me aside : now by an artifice 

Will I deceive them, and I shall appear 

Wise and discerning. This must be your part 

To tell my master, when you have the chance, 

That I am learned in magic art. Respect 

Shall then be paid me." So a plan he formed 

And secretly by night he stole the horse 

On which the bridegroom rode. When morning came, 

The bridegroom's men searched far and near, but found 

Him not, for Harisarman had concealed 


The horse in some far-distant place. Then came 

The Brahman's wife and said : " Why not consult 

My husband ? for he knows astrology 

And all the sciences. Lo ! he will find 

The horse for you." Therefore the householder 

Sent messengers to ask the Brahman's help. 

Then Hari^arman said : " To-day the horse 

Is stolen, and you call me to your house, 

'Twas only yesterday I was ignored." 

" I pray thee pardon," said the householder ; 

" Indeed we did forget " with such-like words 

He turned aside the Brahman's wrath, and said : 

" Tell me, where is the horse ? " The Brahman drew 

Elaborate diagrams, and feigned to make 

Deep calculations. " You will find the horse 

(At last he said) in such and such a place, 

Be quick and fetch him home, before the thieves 

Convey him further." Then they went and found 

The horse and brought him back, praising the skill 

Of Hari^arman. All men honoured him 

And took him for a sage. It came to pass 

After some time the palace of the king 

Was entered by a thief, who carried off 

Jewels and gold. Now HariSarman's fame 

Had reached the royal ears, therefore the king 

Sent for the Brahman. He, when summoned, came, 

But gave no answer, trying to evade 

The question. " When to-morrow comes," he said, 

" An answer I will give you." Then the king 

Locked Hariarman up within a room 

And placed a watch. Filled with despondency, 

The Brahman thought but little would avail 

All his pretended wisdom. In that place 

There was a maid called Jihva ; it so chanced 

That she, helped by her brother, was the thief. 

This maid, o'ercome with terror at the skill 

Of Hari^arman, listened at the door 

By night, intent on finding out, if possible, 

What he might be about. Just at that time 

The Brahman, who was in the room alone, 

Taking to task his tongue, which had assumed 

To know that which it knew not, said : "Alas! 

O Jihva, what is this that thou hast done 

Through lust of pleasure ? Evil one ! endure 

Thy punishment." The servant, terrified, 

Thought that her crime was known, and entering in, 

Fell at the Brahman's feet, whom she supposed 


To have all knowledge, and she said : " O sir, 

'Tis true ! I am the thief! I Jihva stole 

The gold and jewels, and I buried them 

Under the roots of a pomegranate-tree 

Behind the palace. Take the gold, I pray, 

Which I have left, and spare me ; I confess 

My crime." When Harisarman heard these words, 

He said with haughtiness : " I know all this ! 

Depart ! The future, past and present lie 

Within my ken ; but I will not denounce 

You as the thief, because you are a wretch 

Who have implored my mercy. Bring to me 

Whatever gold you have." Without delay 

The maid departed. Then the Brahman thought 

In wonder : " That which seemed impossible 

Fate has accomplished, as it were in sport 

Fate well disposed to me. Calamity 

Seemed close at hand, but yet I have attained 

Success beyond my hopes. I blamed my tongue, 

The cause of all my ills, when suddenly 

Before my very feet Jihva the thief 

Falls prostrate. Secret crimes are brought to light 

(This I perceive) by fear." With thoughts like these 

He passed the night rejoicing. Morning dawned, 

And then he led the king, with much pretence 

Of wisdom, to the garden where the gold 

Had been concealed. Showing him what remained, 

He said the thief had carried part away. 

Then was the king delighted, and he gave 

To Harisarman honours and rewards. 

But Devajnanin, the chief minister, 

Said to the king in private, whispering 

Into his ear : " How should a man possess 

Knowledge like this, which ordinary men 

May not attain, seeing his ignorance. 

He knows naught of the Sastras of the books 

Treating of science. So you may be sure 

He has a secret partnership with thieves, 

And makes his living by dishonest means. 

Try him again by some new artifice 

And test his wisdom." To this scheme the king 

Gladly assented, and he placed a frog 

Within a covered pitcher, newly bought, 

And said to Harisarman : " Tell me now, 

What is within this pitcher ? If you guess 

Aright, then will I honour you indeed." 

The Brahman heard these words, and thought his end 


Had come at length : then rose within his mind 

The name of " frog," by which in sportiveness 

His father used to call him ; suddenly, 

Impelled by some divinity, he spoke, 

Lamenting his untimely fate, and said, 

Addressing thus himself: " Poor little frog ! 

Surely this pitcher is the overthrow 

Of all your hopes, for on you in this place 

Destruction swiftly falls." Then all who heard 

The Brahman's words, with loud applause exclaimed 

" Indeed, a mighty sage ! he even saw 

Within the pitcher." Then, indeed, the king, 

Thinking that HariSarman's skill was due 

To magic art, gave to him villages 

And wealth, and outward marks of royal state. 

The humble Brahman thus became a prince. 


THE next morning Somaprabha arrived, and Kalinga- 
[M] sena said to her friend in her confidential con- 
versation : " My father certainly wishes to give me 
to Prasenajit ; I heard this from my mother ; and you have 
seen that he is an old man. But you have described the 
King of Vatsa in such a way in the course of conversation 1 
that my mind has been captivated by him entering in through 
the gate of my ear. So first show me Prasenajit, and then 
take me there, where the King of Vatsa is. What do I care 
for my father or my mother ? " When the impatient girl 
said this, Somaprabha answered her : "If you must go, then 
let us go in the chariot that travels through the air. But 
you must take with you all your retinue, for as soon as you 
have seen the King of Vatsa you will find it impossible to 
return. And you will never see or think of your parents, 
and when you have obtained your beloved you will forget 
even me, as I shall be at a distance from you. For I shall 
never enter your husband's house, my friend." When the 
princess heard that she wept, and said to her : " Then bring 
that King of Vatsa here, my friend, for I shall not be able 
to exist there a moment without you. Was not Aniruddha 
brought to Usha by Chitralekha ? And though you know 
it, hear from my mouth that story. 

40. Story of Usha and Aniruddha 

The Asura Bana had a daughter, famous under the name 
of Usha. And she propitiated Gauri, who granted her a 
boon in order that she might obtain a husband, saying to 

1 Tawney obviously found some difficulty in katharupe. In the D. text 
we read yatha rupe, which makes the sense much better: "but you have 

described the beauty of the King of Vatsa in such a way that " See 

Speyer, op. cit. } pp. 109, HO. n.m.p. 

vol. in. 81 F 


her: "He to whom you shall be united in a dream shall 
be your husband/' Then she saw in a dream a certain 
man looking like a divine prince. She was married to him 
according to the gandharva form of marriage, 1 and after 
obtaining the joy of union with him she woke up at the 
close of night. When she did not see the husband she had 
seen in her dream, but beheld the traces of his presence, she 
remembered the boon of Gauri, and was full of disquietude, 
fear and astonishment. And being miserable without the 
husband whom she had seen in her dream, she confessed 
all to her friend Chitralekha, who questioned her. And 
Chitralekha, being acquainted with magic, thus addressed 
that Usha, who knew not the name of her lover nor any 
sign whereby to recognise him : " My friend, this is the 
result of the boon of the goddess Gauri. What doubt can 
we allege in this matter ? But how are you to search 
for your lover, as he is not to be recognised by any token ? 
I will sketch for you the whole world, gods, Asuras and 
men, in case you may be able to recognise him 2 ; and 
point him out to me among them in order that I may 
bring him." 

Thus spoke Chitralekha, and when Usha answered, " By 
all means ! " she painted for her with coloured pencils the 
whole world in order. Thereupon Usha exclaimed joy- 
fully : " There he is ! " and pointed out with trembling 
finger Aniruddha, in Dvaravati, of the race of Yadu. Then 
Chitralekha said : " My friend, you are fortunate, in that 
you have obtained for a husband Aniruddha, the grand- 
son of the adorable Vishnu. But he lives sixty thousand 
yojanas 3 from here." When Usha heard that, she said to 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 87, 88. n.m.p. 

2 Cf Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 240. So Arthur in the Romance of 
Artus de la Bretagne (Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 107) falls in love with a lady he 
sees in a dream. Liebrecht in his note at the end of the book tells us that 
this is a common occurrence in romances, being found in Amadis of Greece, 
Palmerin of Oliva, the Romans dcs Sept Sages, the Fabliau of the Chevalier a la 
Trappe, the Nibelungenlied, etc., and ridiculed by Chaucer in his Rime of 
Sir Topas. He also refers to Athenasus, p. 575, and the Hermolimus of Lucian^ 
See also Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 132. n.m.p. 

3 See Vol. I, p. 3 l . n.m.p. 


her, overpowered by excessive longing : " Friend, if I cannot 
to-day repair to his bosom cool as sandal- wood, 1 know that 
I am already dead, being burned up with the uncontrollable 
fire of love." When Chitralekha heard this, she consoled her 
dear friend, and immediately flew up and went through the 
air to the city of Dvaravati ; and she beheld it in the middle 
of the sea, producing with its vast and lofty palaces an ap- 
pearance as if the peaks of the Churning Mountain 2 had again 
been flung into the ocean. She found Aniruddha asleep in 
that city at night, and woke him up, and told him that 
Usha had fallen in love with him on account of having seen 
him in a dream. And she took the prince, who was eager 
for the interview, looking exactly as he had before appeared 
in Usha's dream, 3 and returned from Dvaravati in a moment 
by the might of her magic. And flying with him through 
the air, she introduced that lover secretly into the private 
apartments of Usha, who was awaiting him. 

When Usha beheld that Aniruddha arrived in bodily 
form, resembling the moon, there was a movement in her 
limbs resembling the tide of the sea. 4 Then she remained 
there with that sweetheart who had been given her by her 
friend, in perfect happiness, as if with Life embodied in 
visible form. But her father Bana, when he heard it, was 
angry ; however, Aniruddha conquered him by his own 
valour and the might of his grandfather. Then Usha and 
Aniruddha returned to Dvaravati and became inseparable, 
like Siva and Parvati. 5 

1 Cf. Kamalavatl's outburst of grief when she thinks the parrot (Vikrama) 
is dead. Bloomfield, " On the Art of Entering Another's Body," Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, vol. lvi, 1917, p. 40. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. Mandara. See Vol. I, p. 3rc 2 . n.m.p. 

3 The B. text is obscure. The D. text reads asvapnavrittantam for 
svapnavatara ; thus the meaning is : " took him, having made him know the 
story of her dream, just as it was." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 1 10. n.m.p. 

4 Velata is evidently corrupt. It is indeed. The sloka in the D. text 

ends nangeshv avartata, the whole sense being : " When U. beheld A. arrived 
in bodily form, her limbs could not contain the emotion within her, as little as 
the sea-tide can do so under the influence of the moon." See Speyer, op. cit., 
p. 1 10. N.M.P. 

5 This is to be understood literally of Siva and Parvati, but metaphorically 
of Usha and Aniruddha. 


[M] " Thus Chitralekha united Usha with her lover in 
one day, but I consider you, my friend, far more powerful 
than her. So bring me the King of Vatsa here ; do not 
delay." When Somaprabha heard this from Kalingasena, 
she said : " Chitralekha, a nymph of heaven, might take up 
a strange man and bring him, but what can one like myself 
do in the matter, who never touch any man but my husband ? 
So I will take you, my friend, to the place where the King 
of Vatsa is, having first shown you your suitor Prasenajit." 
When Somaprabha made this proposal to Kalingasena, she 
consented, and immediately ascended with her the magic 
chariot prepared by her, and setting out through the air 
with her treasures and her retinue, she went off unknown to 
her parents. For women impelled by love regard neither 
height nor depth in front of them, as a horse urged on by his 
rider does not fear the keenest sword-edge. 

First she came to Sravasti, and beheld from a distance 
the King Prasenajit white with age, who had gone out to 
hunt, distinguished by a chowrie 1 frequently waved, which 

1 The chowrie or chowry (Skt. cluimara) is the fly-whisk made from the 
bushy tail of the Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens). It has already been mentioned 
several times in Vol. II (pp. 80, 90, 111 and 162). The chowrie has been an 
emblem of royalty in Asia from a very early date, where, with the umbrella, 
it forms part of the regalia. We noticed (Vol. II, p. 264) that it figured in 
the regalia of the Burmese kings. We also saw (Vol. II, p. 162) that the 
auspicious marks of Naravahanadatta at his birth were those on his feet which 
resembled umbrellas and chowries, at once showing his fitness to become a 
great king. 

As a fly-whisk it was often set in a costly gold, silver or ivory handle. 
Thus Mas'udI says : " They export from this country the hair named al-zamar 
(or al-chamar) of which those fly-flaps are made, with handles of silver or 
ivory, which attendants held over the heads of kings when giving audience " 
(I, 385). It was also used like a plume in the horse-trappings. Thus, in 
describing the great speed at which a horse is moving, Kfilidasa says in his 
Vikramorvasi (Act I) : 

"The waving chowrie on the steed's broad brow 
Points backward, motionless as in a picture." 

(Wilson, Theatre of the Hindus t vol. ii, 1827, pp. 17, 18.) 

Cosmas of Alexandria, the merchant and traveller who turned monk 
about a.d. 545, gives an amusing description of the yak in his Topographia 
Christiana (Book XI): 


seemed at a distance to repel her, as if saying : " Leave 
this old man." And Somaprabha pointed him out with 
a scornful laugh, saying : " Look ! this is the man to 
whom your father wishes to give you." Then she said 
to Somaprabha: " Old age has chosen him for her own, 
what other female will choose him? So take me away 
from here quickly, my friend, to the King of Vatsa." 
Immediately Kalingasena went with her to the city of 
Kausambi through the air. Then she beheld from a dis- 
tance with eagerness that King of Vatsa, pointed out by 
her friend, in a garden, as the female partridge beholds the 
nectar-rayed moon. 

With dilated eye and hand placed on the heart, she seemed 
to say : " He has entered my soul by this path." Then she 
exclaimed : " Friend, procure me a meeting here with the 
King of Vatsa this very day ; for having seen him I am 
not able to wait a moment." But when she said this her 
friend Somaprabha answered her : " I have seen to-day an 

"This Wild Ox is a great beast of India, and from it is got the thing 
called Tupha, with which officers in the field adorn their horses and pennons. 
They tell of this beast that if his tail catches in a tree he will not budge, 
but stands stock-still, being horribly vexed at losing a single hair of his tail ; 
so the natives come and cut his tail off, and then when he has lost it 
altogether he makes his escape ! Such is the nature of the animal." (See 
Yule and Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither, Hakluyt Society, vol. i, p. 223.) 
See also Yule and Cordier's interesting note on the wild and tame yak in 
their edition of Marco Polo, vol. i, pp. 277-279- 

In Book III, chap, xviii, Polo writes: "They have such faith in the 
ox, and hold it for a thing so holy, that when they go to the wars they 
take of the hair of the wild ox, whereof I have elsewhere spoken, and 
wear it tied to the necks of their horses ; or, if serving on foot, they hang 
this hair to their shields, or attach it to their own hair. And so this hair 
bears a high price, since without it nobody goes to the wars in any good 
heart. For they believe that anyone who has it shall come scatheless out 
of battle." In a note on this passage, Yule, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 359^ 6 , says : 
" The use of the Yak's tail as a military ornament had nothing to do with 
the sanctity of the Brahmani ox, but is one of the Pan-Asiatic usages, of 
which there are so many. A vivid account of the extravagant profusion 
with which swaggering heroes in South India used those ornaments will be 
found in P. delta Valle, ii, 662." 

For further references see Yule's Hobson Jobson, under "Chowry" 
and " Yak." n.m.p. 


unfavourable omen, 1 so remain, my friend, this day quiet 
and unobserved in this garden ; do not, my friend, send go- 
betweens backwards and forwards. To-morrow I will come 
v j. . and devise some expedient for your meeting ; 

Kalmgasena * / . 

is impatient to at present, O thou whose home is in my heart, 
meet the King \ desire to return to the home of my husband." 
Having said this, Somaprabha departed thence, 
after leaving her there ; and the King of Vatsa, leaving the 
garden, entered his palace. Then Kalingasena, remaining 
there, sent her chamberlain, giving him her message ex- 
plicitly, to the King of Vatsa ; and this she did, though 

1 On p. 4-6n 2 I gave a list of unfavourable omens from Southern India. I 
now add a few from various castes of Central India, taken from Russell's 
Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, 191 6. 

If a Gond, when starting on a journey in the morning, should meet a 
tiger, cat, hare, or a four-horned deer, he will return and postpone his journey 
(vol. iii, p. 105). Among the Korkus it is inauspicious when starting out on 
any business to see a black-faced monkey or a hare passing either on the 
left or right, or a snake crossing in front. It is also a bad omen for a hen to 
cackle or lay eggs at night (vol. iii, p. 564). The Parjas consider a snake, 
jackal, hare, or a dog wagging its ears are unlucky objects to see when 
starting a journey also a "dust devil" blowing along in front (vol. iv, 
p. 377). 

The following is a list of unfavourable omens given by a member of the 
Sansia caste of wandering criminals : 

" If we see a cat when we are near the place where we intend to commit 
a dacoity, or we hear the relations of a dead person lamenting, or hear a 
person sneeze while cooking his meal, or see a dog run away with a portion 
of any person's food, or a kite screams while sitting on a tree, or a woman 
breaks the earthen vessel in which she may have been drawing water, we 
consider the omen unfavourable. If a person drops his turban, or we meet a 
corpse, or the Jemadar has forgotten to put some bread into his waistbelt, or 
any dacoit forgets his axe or spear, or sees a snake whether dead or alive ; 
these omens are also considered unfavourable and we do not commit the 
dacoity" (vol. iv, p. 493). 

Another interesting list of unfavourable omens is given by Krishnaji, 
the author of Ratan-mala. In describing the reasons for the defeat of an army 
he says that on its way to the field, u First ... a man sneezed when he met 
them, a dog howled an omen not good a cat passed them on the right hand, 
a donkey brayed, and a kite cried terribly. Meeting them, came a widow 
and a Sunyasee, a Brahmin without a teeluk on his forehead, a person dressed 
in mourning garments, one who carried a plate of flour, and a woman with 
her hair dishevelled." (See Forbes, Rds Mala, edited by H. G. Rawlinson, 
vol. ii, 1924, p. 316.) n.m.p. 


previously forbidden by her friend, who understood omens. 
Love, when recently enthroned in the breasts of young 
women, is impatient of all restraint. And the chamberlain 
went and announced himself by the mouth of the warder, 
and immediately entering, thus addressed the King of Vatsa : 
" O King, the daughter of Kalingadatta, the king who rules 
over Takshasila, Kalingasena by name, having heard that 
you are most handsome, has come here to choose you for a 
husband, abandoning her relatives, having accomplished the 
journey in a magic car that travels through the air, together 
with her attendants ; and she has been conducted here by 
her confidante, named Somaprabha, who travels invisible, 
the daughter of the Asura Maya, the wife of Nadakuvara. 
I have been sent by her to inform you ; do you receive her ; 
let there be union of you two as of the moonlight and the 
moon." When the king heard this from the chamberlain, 
he welcomed him, saying : "I consent," and, being delighted, 
he honoured him with gold and garments. And summoning 
his chief minister, Yaugandharayana, he said to him : " The 
daughter of King Kalingadatta, who is called Kalingasena, 
has come of her own accord to choose me as a husband ; so 
tell me quickly, when shall I marry her ? for she is not to be 

The minister Yaugandharayana, when the King of Vatsa 
said this to him, regarding what would be best for his 
master in the long run, reflected for a moment as follows x : 
" Kalingasena is certainly famed for beauty in the three 
worlds ; there is no other like her ; even the gods are in 
love with her. If this King of Vatsa obtain her, he will 
abandon everything else, and then the Queen Vasavadatta 
will lose her life, and then the Prince Naravahanadatta will 
perish, and Padmavati out of love for him will find life 
hard to retain ; and then Chandamahasena and Pradyota, 
the fathers of the two queens, will lose their lives or become 
hostile ; and thus utter ruin will follow. On the other hand, 
it will not do to forbid the match, since the vicious passion of 
this king will increase if he is thwarted. So I will put off the 
time of his marriage in order to attain a favourable issue." 

1 I read evam for eva. 


Having thus reflected, Yaugandharayana said to the King 
of Vatsa : " O King, you are fortunate in that this Kalinga- 
sena has of her own accord come to your house, and the 
king, her father, has become your servant. So you must 
consult the astrologers, and marry her in accordance with 
good custom at an auspicious time, for she is the daughter 
of a great king. To-day give her a suitable palace to dwell 
in by herself, and send her male and female slaves, and robes 
and ornaments. " When his chief minister gave him this 
advice, the King of Vatsa approved it, and with glad heart 
performed it all with special attention. Then Kalingasena 
entered the palace assigned her for residence, a*nd considering 
her desire attained, was exceedingly delighted. 

The wise Yaugandharayana, for his part, immediately 
left the king's court, went to his own house, and reflected : 
" Often procrastination serves to avert an inauspicious 
Yaugandham- measure. For long ago, when Indra had fled 
yana tries to on account of having caused the death of a 
gam time Brahman, and Nahusha obtained the sovereignty 
over the gods, he fell in love with Sachi, 1 and she was 
saved by the preceptor of the gods, 2 to whom she had 
fled for refuge. For in order to gain time he kept saying, 
' She will come to you to-day or to-morrow,' until Nahusha 
was destroyed by the curse of a Brahman, uttered with an 
angry roar, and Indra regained the sovereignty of the gods. 
In the same way I must keep putting off my master." Having 
thus reflected, the minister secretlv made an arrangement 
with the astrologers that they were to fix a distant date. 

Then the Queen Vasavadatta found out what had taken 
place, and summoned the prime minister to her palace. 
When he entered and bowed before her, the queen said to 
him, weeping : " Noble sir, you said to me long ago : ' Queen, 
as long as I remain where I am you shall have no other rival 
but Padmavati,' and observe now, this Kalingasena is about 
to be married here ; and she is beautiful, and my husband 
is attached to her, so you have proved a prophet of false- 
hood and I am now a dead woman." When the minister 
Yaugandharayana heard this, he said to her : " Be composed, 

1 The wife of Indra. - I.e. Brihaspati. 


for how could this happen, Queen, while I am alive ? How- 
ever, you must not oppose the king in this matter, but must, 
on the contrary, take refuge in self-restraint, and show him 
all complaisance. The sick man is not induced to place 
himself in the physician's hands by disagreeable speeches, 
but he is by agreeable speeches, if the physician does his 
work by a conciliatory method. If a man is dragged against 
the current he will never escape from the stream of a river, 
or from a vicious tendency, but if he is carried with the 
current he will escape from both. So when the king comes 
into your presence, receive him with all attentions, without 
anger, concealing your real feelings. Approve at present of 
his marrying Kalingasena, saying that his kingdom will be 
made more powerful by her father also becoming his ally. 
And if you do this the king will perceive that you possess 
in a high degree the virtue of magnanimity, and his love 
and courtesy towards you will increase, and thinking that 
Kalingasena is within his reach, he will not be impatient, for 
the desire of a man for any object increases if he is restrained. 
And you must teach this lesson to Padmavati also, O blame- 
less one, and so that king may submit to our putting him 
off in this matter. And after this, I ween, you will behold 
my skill in stratagem. For the wise are tested in difficulty, 
even as heroes are tested in fight. So, Queen, do not be de- 
spondent." In these words Yaugandharayana admonished 
the queen, and, as she received his counsels with respect, he 
departed thence. 1 But the King of Vatsa, throughout that 
day, neither in light nor darkness entered the private apart- 
ments of either of the two queens, for his mind was eager 
for a new well- matched union with Kalingasena, who had 
approached him in such an ardour of spontaneous choice. 
And then the queen and the prime minister and the king and 
Kalingasena spent the night in wakefulness like that of a 
great feast, apart in their respective houses, the second couple 
through impatience for a rare delight, and the first through 
very profound anxiety. 

1 For san I should prefer sa, which is read in a MS. lent me by the Principal 
of the Sanskrit College. 


THEN the artful minister Yaugandharayana came the 
[M] next morning to the King of Vatsa, who was 
expecting him, and made the following representa- 
tion : " O King, why do you not immediately inquire about 
an auspicious moment for celebrating the happy marriage 
of your Highness with Kalingasena, the daughter of Kalinga- 
datta, the King of Takshasila ? " * When the king heard 
that, he said : " The same desire is fixed in my heart, for 
my mind cannot endure to remain a moment without her." 

Having said this, the simple-minded monarch gave orders 
to a warder, who stood before him, and summoned the 
astrologers. When he questioned them, they, having had 
their cue previously given them by the prime minister, said : 
" For the king there will be a favourable moment in six 
months from this time." 

When Yaugandharayana heard this, he pretended to be 
angry, and the cunning fellow said to the king : " Out on 

1 Takshasila has been identified by General Cunningham with the ruins 
of an ancient city near Shah-deri, one mile to the north-east of Kala-ka-serai. 
Mr Growse has pointed out to me that I made a mistake in stating (after 
Wilson), in a note, that the precise site of KausambI, the capital of the King 
of Vatsa, which Kalingasena reached in one day in the magic chariot, has not 
been ascertained. He says : " It has been discovered by General Cunningham. 
The place is still called Kosam, and is on the Yamuna, about thirty miles 
above Allahabad. The ruins consist of an immense fortress, with earthen 
ramparts from 30 to 35 feet high, and bastions considerably higher, forming 
a circuit of 23,100 feet, or exactly 4 miles and 3 furlongs. The parapets were 
of brick and stone, some of the bricks measuring If) by 12| by 2| inches, which 
is a proof of their great antiquity. In the midst of these ruins is a large 
stone monolith, similar to those at Allahabad and Delhi, but without any 
inscription. The portion of the shaft above-ground is 14 feet in length, and 
an excavation at the base for a depth of 20 feet did not come to the end of 
it. Its total length probably exceeds 40 feet. There was, I believe, some 
talk of removing it to Allahabad and setting it up there, but it was found to 
be too expensive an undertaking." SravastI, which Kalingasena passed on 
the way from Takshasila, has been identified by General Cunningham with 
Sahet-Mahet, on the south bank of the Rapti, in Oudh. 



these blockheads ! That astrologer whom your Highness 
previously honoured on the ground of his cleverness has not 
come to-day, ask him, and then do what is proper." When 
he heard this speech of his minister's, the King of Vatsa 
immediately summoned that very astrologer, with mind in 
an agony of suspense. He also stuck to his agreement, and 
in order to put off the day of the marriage he named, when 
asked, after some reflection, a moment six months off. Then 
Yaugandharayana, pretending to be distracted, said to the 
king : " Let your Majesty command what is to be done in 
this matter ! " 

The king, being impatient and longing for a favourable 
moment, said, after reflecting : " You must ask Kalingasena, 
and see what she says." When Yaugandharayana heard 
this, he took with him two astrologers and went into the 
presence of Kalingasena. She received him politely, and, 
beholding her beauty, he reflected : "If the king were to 
obtain her he would abandon the whole kingdom in his 
reckless passion." And he said to her : "I am come with 
these astrologers to fix the moment of your marriage ; so 
let these servants inform me of the particular star in the 
lunar mansions under which you were born." 

When the astrologers heard the lunar mansion stated 
by her attendants, they pretended to investigate the matter, 
and kept saying in the course of their calculations : " It is 
not on this side ; it must be after that." At last, in accord- 
ance with their agreement with the minister, they named 
again that very moment at the end of six months. When 
Kalingasena heard that distant date fixed she was cast down 
in spirit, but her chamberlain said : " You must first fix a 
favourable moment, so that this couple may be happy all 
their lives ; what matters it whether it be near or far off ? ,: 

When they heard this speech of the chamberlain's, all 
there immediately exclaimed : " Well said ! " And Yaugan- 
dharayana said: "Yes; and if an inauspicious moment 
is appointed for us the King Kalingadatta, our proposed 
connection, will be grieved." Then Kalingasena, being help- 
less, said to them all : " Let it be as you appoint in your 
wisdom," and remained silent. And at once accepting that 


speech of hers, Yaugandharayana took leave of her, and 
went with the astrologers into the presence of the king. 
Then he told the proceedings to the King of Vatsa, exactly 
as they had happened, and so, having settled his mind by an 
artifice, he went to his own house. 

So having attained his object of putting off the marriage, 
in order to complete the scheme he had in view, he called 
to mind his friend, the Brahman-Rakshasa, named Yoge3- 
The Marriage vara - 1 He, according to his previous promise, 
is successfully when thought of, readily came to the minister 
postponed and bowed before him and said : " Why am I 
called to mind ? " Then Yaugandharayana told him the 
whole incident of Kalingasena which was tempting his 
master to vice, and again said to him : "I have managed 
to gain time, my friend ; in that interval do you, remaining 
concealed, observe by your skill the behaviour of Kalinga- 
sena. For the Vidyadharas and other spirits are without 
doubt secretly in love with her, since there is no other woman 
in the three worlds equal to her in beauty. So, if she were 
to have an intrigue with some Siddha or Vidyadhara, and 
you were to see it, it would be a fortunate thing. And you 
must observe the divine lover, though he come disguised, 
when he is asleep, for divine beings when asleep assume 
their own form. 2 If in this way we are able to discover 
any offence in her by means of your eyes, the king will be 
disgusted with her, and will accomplish that object of ours." 

When the minister said this to him the Brahman-Rakshasa 
answered : " Why should I not by some artifice cause her 
to fall, or slay her ? " When the great minister Yaugan- 
dharayana heard that, he said to him : " This must not be 
done, for it would be a very wicked deed. And whoever 
goes his own way without offending against the God of 
Justice finds that that god comes to his assistance to enable 
him to attain his objects. So you must discover in her, my 

1 We met this gentleman in Vol. I, p. 13(>, when Yaugandharayana 
learned a charm to alter his shape. He appears again in the next chapter. 


2 An idea made familiar in Europe by the "Cupid and Psyche" and 
" Beauty and the Beast" cycles of stories. n.m.p. 


friend, a fault self- caused, in order that through your 
friendship the king's objects may be accomplished by me." 
Having received this order from the excellent minister, the 
Brahman - Rakshasa departed, and, disguised by magic, 
entered the house of Kalingasena. 

In the meanwhile Somaprabha, her friend, the daughter 
of the Asura Maya, went again into the presence of Kalinga- 
sena. And the daughter of Maya, after asking her friend 
what had happened in the night, said to her who had 
abandoned her relations, in the hearing of that Rakshasa : 
" I came here in the forenoon after searching for you, but I 
remained concealed at your side, seeing Yaugandharayana. 
However, I heard your conversation, and I understood the 
whole state of affairs. So why did you make this attempt 
yesterday though you were forbidden to do so by me ? 
For any business which is undertaken, my friend, without 
first counteracting the evil omen will end in calamity. As 
a proof of this hear the following tale : 

41. Story of the Brahman's Son Vishnudatta and his Seven 
Foolish Companions 

Long ago there lived in Antarvedi a Brahman named 
Vasudatta, and he had a son born to him named Vishnudatta. 
That Vishnudatta, after he reached the age of sixteen years, 
set out for the city of Valabhi in order to acquire learning. 
And there joined him seven other young Brahmans his 
fellows; but those seven were fools, while he was wise and 
sprung from a good family. After they had taken an oath 
not to desert one another, Vishnudatta set out with them at 
night without the knowledge of his parents. And after he 
had set forth he saw an evil omen * presenting itself in front 
of him, and he said to those friends of his who were travelling 
with him : " Ha ! Here is a bad omen ! It is advisable to 
turn back now. We will set out again with good hope of 
success when we have auspicious omens with us." 

When those seven foolish companions heard that, they 
said : " Do not entertain groundless fear, for we are not 

1 See notes on pp. 46n 2 and 86ft 1 . n.m.p. 


afraid of the omen. If you are afraid, do not go, but we will 
start this moment ; to-morrow morning our relations will 
abandon us when they hear of our proceedings." When 
those ignorant creatures said that, Vishnudatta set out with 
them, urged on by his oath, but he first called to mind Hari, 
the dispeller of sin. And at the end of the night he saw 
another evil omen, and again mentioned it, and he was 
rebuked by all those foolish friends of his in the following 
words : " This is our evil omen, you coward afraid to travel, 
that you have been brought by us, since you shudder at a crow 
at every step you take ; we require no other evil omen." 

Having reviled him in these words, they continued their 
journey, and Vishnudatta went with them, as he could not 
help it, but kept silence, reflecting : " One ought not to give 
advice to a fool bent on going his own crooked way, for it 
only entails ridicule, being like the beautifying of ordure. 
A single wise man fallen among many fools, like a lotus in 
the path of the waves, is surely overwhelmed. 1 So I must 
not henceforth give these men either good or bad advice, but 
I must go on in silence ; destiny will educe prosperity." 

Engaged in these reflections, Vishnudatta proceeded on 
the way with those fools, and at the end of the day he reached 
a Savara village. There he wandered about in the night 
and reached a certain house inhabited by a young woman, 
and asked the woman for a lodging there. She gave him a 
room, and he entered it with his friends, and those seven 
in a moment went to sleep. He alone remained awake, as 
he had entered a house belonging to a savage. For the 
stupid sleep resolutely ; how can the understanding sleep ? 

And in the meanwhile a certain young man secretly 
entered the inner apartment of the house, and went into 
the presence of that woman. And she remained in con- 
fidential conversation with him, and, as fate would have 
it, they both fell asleep. And Vishnudatta, perceiving it 
all through the half- open door by the light of a candle, 
reflected despondently : " Alas ! have we entered the 

1 In the D. text the simile is better brought out: "The one wise man 
fallen among many fools is like a lotus fallen on the waves." See Speyer, 
op. cit., p. 111. n.m.p. 


house of a profligate woman ? Surely this is her paramour, 
and not the husband of her youth, for otherwise we should 
not have this timid secret proceeding; I saw at the first 

Vishnudatta that she was of a fli g ht y disposition; but we 
ivitn'esses have entered here as mutual witnesses, for lack 
Strange f others." While he was thinking he heard 

appemngs ou t s ide a no i se f me n, and he saw entering a 
young chief of the Savaras with a sword, looking about 
him, while his attendants remained in the sleeping apartment. 

When the chief said : " Who are you ? " Vishnudatta, 
supposing him to be the master of the house, said in his 
terror : " We are travellers." But the Savara entered, and 
seeing his wife in such a position, he cut off with his sword 
the head of her sleeping paramour. But he did not punish 
or even wake his wife ; but placing his sword on the 
ground he went to sleep on another couch. Seeing that 
by the light of the candle, Vishnudatta reflected : " He did 
right not to kill his wife, but to kill the adulterer ; but 
that he should sleep here in confidence, after performing 
such a deed, is an act of surprising courage, characteristic 
of men of mighty minds." 

While Vishnudatta was thus reflecting, that wicked 
woman awoke and beheld her paramour slain 1 and that 
husband of hers asleep. So she rose up, and took on her 
shoulder the body of her lover, and carrying his head in one 
hand, she went out. And going outside quickly, she threw 
into an ash-heap the trunk with the head, and came secretly 
back. And Vishnudatta going out beheld it all from a 
distance, and again entering, remained as he was, in the 
midst of his sleeping companions. But the wicked woman 
came back and, entering the room, cut off with that very 
sword the head of her sleeping husband. And going out she 
raised a cry so as to make all the servants hear : " Alas ! 
I am ruined ; my husband has been slain by these travellers." 

Then the servants, hearing the cry, rushed forward, and 
beholding their master slain, ran upon Vishnudatta and his 
friends with uplifted weapons. And when those others, his 

1 Cf. the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor/' Nights, Burton, vol. i, p. 294. 


companions, rose up in terror, as they were about to be 
slain, Vishnudatta said quickly : " Cease your attempt to 
slay Brahmans ! We did not do this deed ; this wicked 
woman herself did it, being in love with another man. But 
I saw the whole affair from the very beginning through a 
half- open door, and I went out and observed what she did, 
and if you will have patience with me I will tell you." 

Vishnudatta with these words restrained the Savaras, 
and told them the whole affair from the beginning, and took 
them out and showed them the trunk with the head freshly 
severed, and thrown by the woman on that heap of refuse. 
Then the woman confessed the truth by the paleness of her 
face, and all there reviled the wanton, and said : " Whom 
will not a wicked woman kill, when won over by another 
man, like a sword in an enemy's hand, since enticed by 
love she commits reckless crime without being taught ? " * 
Having said this, they thereupon let Vishnudatta and his 
companions go; and then the seven companions praised 
Vishnudatta, saying : " You became to us, while we were 
asleep at night, a protecting jewel-lamp 2 ; through your 
kindness we escaped to-day from death produced by an evil 
omen." In these words they praised Vishnudatta, and 
ceased henceforth their reviling, and after bowing before 
him they set out in the morning on their errand, accompanied 
by him. 

[M] Having told this story to Kalingasena in their 
mutual conversation, Somaprabha again said to that friend 
of hers in Kausambi : " Thus, my friend, an evil omen 
presenting itself to people engaged in any undertaking, if 
not counteracted by delay and other methods, produces 
misfortune. And so people of dull intelligence, neglecting 
the advice of the wise, and acting impetuously, are afflicted 

1 The words "without being taught" seem strange here. The word in 
the B. text is asikshita, but in the D. text it is asankita, " without any scruple," 
which seems much more likely. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. II, p. 169. n.m.p. 


in the end. Accordingly you did not act wisely in sending 
a messenger to the King of Vatsa, asking him to receive 
you, when there was an inauspicious omen. May Fate grant 
you to be married without any impediment, but you came 
from your house in an unlucky moment, therefore your 
marriage is far off. And the gods too are in love with you, 
so you must be on your guard against this. And you must 
think of the minister Yaugandharayana, who is expert in 
politic wiles ; he, fearing that the king may become engrossed 
in pleasure, may throw impediments in your way in this 
business ; or he may even bring a charge against you after 
your marriage is celebrated : but no, being virtuous, he will 
not bring a false accusation ; nevertheless, my friend, you 
must at all events be on your guard against your rival wife. 
I will tell you a story illustrative of this. Listen. 

42. Story of Kadaligarbha 

There is in this land a city named Ikshumati, and by the 
side of it there runs a river called by the same name ; both 
were created by Visvamitra. And near it there is a great 
forest, and in it a hermit of the name of Mankanaka had 
made himself a hermitage and performed penance with his 
heels upwards. And while he was performing austerities 
he saw an Apsaras of the name of Menaka coming through 
the air, with her clothes floating on the breeze. 

Then his mind was bewildered by Kama, who had found 
his opportunity ; the holy man's seed fell upon a fresh 
plantain- flower, and there was born to him a daughter 
named Kadaligarbha, beautiful in every limb. And since 
she was born in the interior of a plantain, her father, the 
hermit Mankanaka, gave her the name of Kadaligarbha. 
She grew up in his hermitage like Kripi, the wife of Drona, 
who was born to Gautama on his beholding Rambha. And 
once on a time Dridhavarman, a king born in Madhyadesa, 1 
who in the excitement of the chase was carried away by 
his horse, entered that hermitage. He beheld Kadaligarbha 

1 The country lying between the Himalayas on the north, the Vindhya moun- 
tains on the south, Vinasana on the west and Prayaga (Allahabad) on the east. 


clothed in garments of bark, having her beauty exceedingly 
set off by the dress appropriate to the daughter of an ascetic. 
And she, when seen, captivated the heart of that king so 
completely that she left no room in it for the women of his 

While thinking to himself, " Shall I be able to obtain as 
a wife this daughter of some hermit or other, as Dushyanta 
obtained Sakuntala, the daughter of the hermit Kanva ? " 
the king beheld that hermit Mankanaka coming with fuel 
and kusa grass. And leaving his horse, he approached him 
and worshipped at his feet, and when questioned, discovered 
himself to that hermit. Then the hermit gave the following 
order to Kadaligarbha : " My dear child, prepare the argha l 
for this king our guest." She said, " I will do so," and bow- 
ing, prepared the hospitable offering, and then the king said 
to the hermit : " Whence did you obtain this maiden who is 
so beautiful ? " 

Then the hermit told the king the story of her birth, and 
her name, Kadaligarbha, which indicated the manner of it. 
Then the king, considering the maiden born from the hermit's 
thinking on Menaka to be an Apsaras, earnestly craved her 
hand of her father. And the sage gave him that daughter 
named Kadaligarbha, for the actions of the sages of old time, 
guided by divine insight, were without hesitation. 

And the nymphs of heaven, discovering the fact by their 
divine power, came there out of love for Menaka, and adorned 
her for the wedding. And on that very occasion they put 
mustard-seeds into her hand and said to her : " As you are 
going along the path, sow them, in order that you may know 
it again. 2 If, daughter, at any time your husband should 
scorn you, and you should wish to return here, then you will 
be able, as you come along, to recognise the path by these, 
which will have sprung up." When they had said this to 
her, and her marriage had been celebrated, the King Dridha- 
varman placed Kadaligarbha on his horse and departed 
thence. His army came up and escorted him, and in com- 
pany with that bride of his, who sowed the mustard-seeds all 
along the path, he reached his own palace. There he became 

1 See Vol. II, p. 77m 1 . n.m.p. 2 See note on p. 104n 2 . n.m.p. 



averse to the society of his other wives and dwelt with that 
Kadaligarbha, after telling her story to his ministers. 

Then his principal wife, being exceedingly afflicted, said 
to his minister in secret, after reminding him of the benefits 
she had conferred upon him : " The king is now exclusively 
The Queen attached to his new wife and has deserted me, 
becomes jealom so take steps to make this rival of mine depart." 
When that minister heard that he said : " Queen, it is 
not appropriate for people like me to destroy or banish 
their masters' wives. This is the business of the wives of 
wandering religious mendicants, addicted to jugglery and 
such practices, associating with men like themselves. For 
those hypocritical female ascetics, creeping unforbidden into 
houses, skilled in deception, will stick at no deed whatever." 

When he said this to her, the queen, as if abashed, said 
to him in affected shame : " Then I will have nothing to do 
with this proceeding disapproved of by the virtuous." But 
she laid up his speech in her heart, and, dismissing that 
minister, she summoned by the mouth of her maid a certain 
wandering female ascetic. And she told her all that desire 
of hers from the beginning, and promised to give her great 
wealth if the business were successfully accomplished. And 
the wicked female ascetic, from desire of gain, said to the 
afflicted queen : " Queen, this is an easy matter ; I will 
accomplish it for you, for I know very many expedients of 
various kinds." 

Having thus consoled the queen, that female ascetic 
departed ; and after reaching her house she reflected, as one 
afraid: "Alas! whom will not excessive desire of gain de- 
lude, since I rashly made such a promise before the queen? 
But the fact is, I know no device of the kind, and it is not 
possible to carry on any deception in the palace, as I do in 
other places, for the authorities might perhaps find it out 
and punish me. There may be one resource in this difficulty, 
for I have a friend, a barber, and as he is skilled in devices 
of the kind all may yet go well, if he exert himself in the 

After thus reflecting, she went to the barber and told 
liim all her plan that was to bring her prosperity. Then the 


barber, who was old and cunning, 1 reflected : " This is good 
luck, that an opportunity of making something has now 
presented itself to me. So we must not kill the king's new 
wife, but we must preserve her alive, for her father has 

1 The barber caste in India is known by several names e.g. Nai, Nao, 
Mhali, Hajjam, Bhandari, Mangala. He is an important personage, and 
combines with his duties as barber those of surgeon, masseur and matrimonial 
agent. His wife also assists at weddings, and usually acts as midwife, some- 
times in a barbarous and criminal fashion. 

The barber is, moreover, a great gossip and scandalmonger, and many 
proverbs have arisen about him in the East. The ordinary village barber has 
a leather bag containing a small mirror (arsi), a pair of iron pincers (chimta), a 
leather strap, a comb (kanghi), a piece of cloth about a yard square and some 
oil in a phial. Speaking of his duties at weddings, Russell (op. cif., vol. iv, 
p. 265 et seq., quoting from Nesfield's Brief View of the Caste System, pp. 42, 
4.'3) says, that besides acting as the Brahman's assistant on festival occasions, 
he is actually the matrimonial priest himself to the lower castes, who cannot 
employ a Brahman. The important part which he plays in marriage 
ceremonies has led to his becoming the match-maker among all respectable 
castes. He searches for a suitable bride or bridegroom, and is often sent to 
inspect the other party to a match and report his or her defects to his clients. 
He may arrange the price or dowry, distribute the invitations and carry the 
presents from one house to the other. He supplies the leaf plates and cups 
which are used at weddings, as the family's stock of metal vessels is usually 
quite inadequate for the number of guests. The price of these is about 
four annas (4d.) a hundred. He also provides the toraiis or strings of leaves 
which are hung over the door of the house and round the marriage-shed. 
At the feast the barber is present to hand to the guests water, betel-leaf and 
pipes as they may desire. He also partakes of the food, seated at a short 
distance from the guests, in the intervals of his service. He lights the lamps 
and carries the torches during the ceremony. Hence he was known as 
Masalchi, or torch-bearer, a name now applied by Europeans to a menial 
servant who lights and cleans the lamps and washes the plates after meals. 
The barber and his wife act as prompters to the bride and bridegroom, and 
guide them through the complicated ritual of the wedding ceremony, taking 
the couple on their knees if they are children, and otherwise sitting behind 
them. The barber has a prescriptive right to receive the clothes in which 
the bridegroom goes to the bride's house, as on the latter's arrival he is always 
presented with new clothes by the bride's father. As the bridegroom's 
clothes may be an ancestral heirloom, a compact is often made to buy them 
back from the barber, and he may receive as much as fifty rupees in lieu of 
them. When the first son is born in a family the barber takes a long bamboo 
stick, wraps it round with cloth and puts an earthen pot over it and carries 
this round to the relatives, telling them the good news. He receives a small 
present from each household. 

Russell also quotes (op. cit., p. 268) some interesting proverbs about 



divine insight, and would reveal the whole transaction. But 
by separating her from the king we will now batten upon the 
queen, for great people become servants to a servant who 
shares their criminal secrets. And in due time I will reunite 
her to the king, and tell him the whole story, in order that he 
and the sage's daughter may become a source of subsistence 
to me. And thus I shall not have done anything very wrong, 
and I shall have a livelihood for a long time." 

Having thus reflected, the barber said to the hypocritical 
female ascetic : " Mother, I will do all this ; but it would not 
be proper to slay that new wife of the king's by means of 
magic, for the king might some day find it out, and then he 
would destroy us all : besides, we should incur the sin of 

barbers, collected by Mr Low in the Balaghat District Gazetteer. As illus- 
trating his cunning is the saying : " A barber has thirty-six talents by which 
he eats at the expense of others." His loquacity is shown in the proverb : 
" As the crow among birds so the barber among men." The barber and the 
professional Brahman are considered to be jealous of their perquisites and 
unwilling to share with their caste-fellows, and this is exemplified in the 
proverb : " The barber, the dog, and the Brahman, these three snarl at 
meeting one of their own kind." The joint association of the Brahman priest 
and the barber with marriages and other ceremonies has led to the saying : 
"As there are always reeds in a river so there is always a barber with a 
Brahman." The barber's astuteness is alluded to in the saying: "Nine 
barbers are equal to seventy-two tailors." The fact that it is the barber's 
duty to carry the lights in the marriage processions has led to the proverb : 
" At the barber's wedding all are gentlemen and it is awkward to have to ask 
somebody to carry the torch." The point of this is clear, though no English 
equivalent occurs to the mind. And a similar idea is expressed by : " The 
barber washes the feet of others but is ashamed to wash his own." It would 
appear from these proverbs that the Nai is considered to enjoy a social position 
somewhat above his deserts. 

Although his intimate connection with high-caste clients makes him 
considered of pure caste, yet on the other hand his duties connected with 
blood-letting, cutting the nails and hair of corpses, etc., make him to a certain 
extent impure. 

The Eastern barber is familiar to European readers of the Thousand Nights 
and a Night, where he appears in all his glory in the " Tale of the Tailor," a 
sub-story of "The Hunchback's Tale." See Burton's Nights, vol. i, p. 304 
et seq. He gives interesting notes on depilatories, the removal of bodily hair, 
etc., in vol. ii, p. ]60ra 3 , vol. iv, p. 256m 1 , and vol. ix, pp. 139\ 157ft 1 . Apart 
from the article by Russell already quoted, see Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the 
North Western Provinces, under " Nai," and Thurston, Castes and Tribes of 
Southern India, under " Mangala" (vol. iv, p. 448 et seq.). n.m.p. 


woman-murder, and her father the sage would curse us. 
Therefore it is far better that she should be separated from 
the king by means of our ingenuity, in order that the queen 
may be happy and we may obtain wealth. And this is an 
easy matter to me, for what can I not accomplish by force of 
intellect ? Hear my ingenuity. I will relate a story which 
illustrates it. 

42a. The King and the Barber's Wife 

This King Dridhavarman had an immoral father. And 
I was then his servant, being engaged in the duties which 
belong to me. He one day, as he was roaming about here, 
cast eyes on my wife, and as she was young and beautiful 
his mind became attached to her. And when he asked his 
attendants who she was, they said : " The barber's wife." 
He thought : " What can the barber do ? " So the wicked 
king entered my house, and after enjoying my wife at will, 
departed. But, as it happened, I was away from my house 
that day, being absent somewhere or other. 

And the next day, when I entered, I saw that my wife's 
manner had altered, and when I asked her the reason she 
told me the whole story, being full of pride at what had 
occurred. And in that way the king went on puffing up my 
wife by continual visits, which I was powerless to prevent. 
A prince distracted by unholy passion makes no distinction 
between what is lawful and what is illicit. The forest is like 
straw to a sylvan fire fanned by the wind. So, not being 
in possession of any other expedient for restraining my 
sovereign, I reduced myself with spare diet, and took refuge 
in feigned sickness. And in this state I went into the 
presence of that king to perform my duties, sighing deeply, 
pale and emaciated. 

Then the king, seeing that I seemed to be ill, asked me 
meaningly the following question : " Holla ! tell me why 
you have become thus ? " And after he had questioned me 
persistently I answered the king in private, after imploring 
immunity from punishment : " King, my wife is a witch. 
And when I am asleep she extracts my entrails and sucks 


them, and then replaces them as before. This is how I have 
become lean. So how can continual refreshment and eating 
nourish me?" When I said this to the king he became 
anxious, and reflected : " Can she really be a witch ? Why 
was I captivated by her ? I wonder whether she will suck 
my entrails also, since I am well nourished with food. So 
I will contrive to test her this very night." Having thus 
reflected, the king caused food to be given me on the spot. 

Then I went home and shed tears in the presence of my 
wife, and when she questioned me I said to her : " My be- 
loved, you must not reveal to anyone what I am about to 
tell you. Listen ! That king has teeth as sharp as the edge 
of a thunderbolt, where teeth are not usually found, and 
they broke my razor to-day while I was performing my 
duties. And in this way I shall break a razor every time. 
So how am I to be continually procuring fresh razors ? This 
is why I weep, for the means of supporting myself in my 
home are destroyed." When I had said this to my wife she 
made up her mind to investigate the marvel of the concealed 
teeth while the king was asleep, since he was to visit her at 
night. But she did not perceive that such a thing had never 
been seen since the world was and could not be true. Even 
clever women are deceived by the tales of an impostor. 

So the king came at night and visited my wife at will, 
and, as if fatigued, pretended to go to sleep, remembering 
what I had said. Then my wife, thinking he was asleep, 
slowly stretched out her hand to find his concealed teeth. 
And as soon as her hand reached him the king exclaimed : 
" A witch ! A witch ! " and left the house in terror. Hence- 
forth my wife, having been abandoned by the king out of 
fear, became satisfied with me and devoted to me exclusively. 
In this way I saved my wife on a former occasion from the 
king by my intelligence. 

42. Story of Kadaligarbhd 

Having told this story to the female ascetic, the barber 
went on to say : " So, my good lady, this desire of yours 
must be accomplished by wisdom ; and I will tell you, 


mother, how it is to be done. Listen to me. Some old 
servant of the harem must be won over to say to this king 
in secret every day : 4 Your wife Kadallgarbha is a witch.' 
For she, being a forest maiden, has no attendants of her own, 
and what will not all alien servants do for gain, being easily 
corrupted ? Accordingly, when the king becomes appre- 
hensive on hearing what the old servant says, you must 
contrive to place at night hands and feet and other limbs in 
the chamber of Kadallgarbha. 1 Then the king will see them 
in the morning, and, concluding that what the old man says 
is true, will be afraid of Kadallgarbha and desert her of his 
own accord. So the queen will be delighted at getting rid 
of a rival wife, and entertain a favourable opinion of you, 
and we shall gain some advantage." 

When the barber said this to the female ascetic she con- 
sented, and went and told the whole matter to the king's 
head queen. And the queen carried out her suggestions, 
and the king, who had been warned, saw the hands and feet 
in the morning with his own eyes, and abandoned Kadall- 
garbha, thinking her to be wicked. So the female ascetic, 
together with the barber, enjoyed to the full the presents 
which the queen secretly gave to her, being pleased with 
her aid. 

So Kadallgarbha, being abandoned by Dridhavarman, 
went out from the palace, grieved because the king would 
be cursed. And she returned to the hermitage of her father 
by the same path by which she came, which she was able 
to recognise by the mustard- seeds she had sown, which had 
sprung up. 2 

1 Cf., for the artifice used to ruin Kadallgarbha, Dasent's Popular Tales 
from the Norse, pp. 65, 66. 

2 Cf. the fortieth story in Grimm's Kinder-und Hausmdrchen, where the 
girl finds her way by the peas and lentils which had sprung up. See also the 
second story in Gonzenbach's Sicilianiscke Mdrchen, where the girl scatters 
bran ; and the forty-ninth story in the same collection. See also Bartsch's 
Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, pp. 265, 313, 441-444 and 
447, where peas are used for the same purpose. See also De Gubernatis, 

Zoological Mythology, p. 165. The tale from Grimm referred to above is 

No. 40, "The Robber Bridegroom," and in the English edition by Margaret 
Hunt a note in vol. i, p. 389, states it is derived from two stories heard in 



Her father, the hermit Mankanaka, when he saw her 
suddenly arrived there, remained for some time suspecting 
immorality on her part. And then he perceived the whole 
occurrence by the power of contemplation, and after lovingly 
comforting her, departed thence with her. And he went and 
told the king, who bowed before him, the whole treacherous 
drama, which the head queen had got up out of hatred 
for her rival. At that moment the barber himself arrived, 
and related the whole occurrence to the king, and then pro- 
ceeded to say to him : "In this way, my sovereign, I sent 
away the lady Kadallgarbha, and so delivered her from the 
danger of the incantations which would have been practised 
against her, since I satisfied the head queen by an artifice." 

When the king heard that, he saw that the speech of the 
great hermit was certainly true, and he took back Kadall- 
garbha, recovering his confidence in her. And after respect- 
fully accompanying the departing hermit he rewarded the 
barber with wealth, thinking that he was attached to his 

Lower Hesse : in one, ashes are strewn on the road to mark it instead 
of peas and lentils. A third and less perfect version comes from the dis- 
trict of the Main. In this it is a king's daughter to whom the bridegroom 
shows the way by means of ribbons which he ties to every tree. See also 
J. Bolte, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder-und Hausm'drchen der Briider Grimm, vol. i, 
p. 370. 

The motif also occurs in Perrault's Le Petit Poucet, in which Hop-o'-my 
Thumb marks his way by the help of little white stones. In his Les Contes 
de Perrault, Paris, 1923, p. 306 et seq., Saintyves gives several analogues to 
the incident of the track. See, for instance, Le Pere H. Trilles, Proverbes, 
Legendes et Contes Fangs, Neuchatel, 1905, pp. 254-257, for a West African 
variant. Here the method is laying twigs at all places where paths cross. 
Ashes are found in numerous tales, while in a Gascon version (J. Blade, 
Contes de Gascogtie, vol. iii, pp. 41, 42) it is linseed; dried peas in a Picardy 
story (E. Cabnoy, Litterature Oralc de la Picardie, p. 254) ; bran and salt in a 
Breton version (Melusine, vol. iii, p. 309). In the Pentamerone, eighth diversion 
of the fifth day (Burton, vol. ii, pp. 541, 542), we have a rather unusual addition. 
First of all a track of ashes is made, and later one of bran. As chance would 
have it, an ass comes along and eats it all up, so that, in spite of their pre- 
cautions, the children are lost. In the tale of the " Fellah and his Wicked 
Wife" in the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. v, pp. 349, 350) we find bran again 
used as a track. See Chauvin, op. cit, vi, p. 1 79 x , where a few further 
references will be found. Finally, in an Assamese version husks are used to 
mark the way (see J. H. Hutton, "Folk-Tales of the Angami Nagas of 
Assam," Folk-Lore, vol. xxvi, 1915, p. 87). n.m.p. 


person : kings are the appointed prey of rogues. Then the 
king, being averse to the society of his queen, lived in great 
comfort with Kadaligarbha. 

[M] " Many false accusations of this kind do rival wives 
bring, O Kalingasena of irreproachable beauty. And you 
are a maiden, the auspicious moment of whose marriage is 
fixed at a distant date, and even the gods, whose goings 
transcend our thought, are in love with you. So do you 
yourself preserve yourself now, as the one jewel of the world, 
dedicated to the King of Vatsa only, from all assaults, for 
your own excellence brings you enmity. I, indeed, my 
friend, shall never return to you, since you are now estab- 
lished in the palace of your husband : good women do not 
visit the house of a friend's husband, O fair one ! Besides, 
I have been forbidden by my own lord. And it is not pos- 
sible for me to come here secretly, induced by my affection 
for you, inasmuch as my husband possesses divine insight 
and would find it out ; with difficulty, in truth, did I obtain 
his permission to come here to-day. And since I can be of 
no use to you now, my friend, I will return home ; but if my 
husband should give me permission I will come here again, 
disregarding modesty. ' ' 

Thus Somaprabha, the daughter of the Asura king, spake, 
weeping, to Kalingasena, the daughter of the mortal king, 
whose face also was washed with tears, and after embracing 
her, departed swiftly to her own palace, as the day was 
passing away. 


THEN the Princess Kalingasena, who had deserted 
[M] her own country and relations, remembering 
her dear friend Somaprabha, who had left her, and 
finding the great festival of her marriage with the King of 
Vatsa delayed, remained in Kausambi like a doe that had 
strayed from the forest. 

And the King of Vatsa, feeling a little bitter against the 
astrologers, who were so dexterous in deferring the marriage 
of Kalingasena, being despondent with love-longing, went 
that day, to divert his mind, to the private apartments 
of Vasavadatta. There the queen, who had been tutored 
beforehand by the excellent minister, let fall no sign of anger, 
but showed especial sedulity in honouring her husband with 
her usual attentions. 

And the king, wondering how it was that, even though 
she knew the episode of Kalingasena, the queen was not 
angry, being desirous of knowing the cause, said to her : 
" Do you know, queen, that a princess named Kalingasena 
has come here to choose me for her husband ? " The 
moment she heard it she answered, without changing the 
hue of her countenance : "I know it ; I am exceedingly 
delighted, for in her the Goddess of Fortune has come to 
our house ; for by gaining her you will also get her father, 
Kalingadatta, under your influence, and the earth will be 
more completely in your power. Now I am delighted on 
account of his great power and your pleasure, and long ago 
did I know this circumstance with regard to you. So am I 
not fortunate, since I have such a husband as you, whom 
princesses fall in love with, that are themselves sought by 
other kings ? " 

When thus addressed by Queen Vasavadatta, who had 

been previously tutored by Yaugandharayana, the king 

rejoiced in his heart. And after enjoying a drinking-bout 

with her he slept that night in her apartments, and waking 



up in the morning he reflected : " What, does the mag- 
nanimous queen obey me so implicitly as even to acquiesce 
in having Kalingasena for a rival ? But how could this 
same proud woman endure her, since it was owing to the 
special favour of destiny that she did not yield her breath 
even when I married Padmavati ? So if anything were 
to happen to her, it would be utter ruin ; upon her hang 
the lives of my son, my brother-in-law, my father-in-law 
and Padmavati, and the welfare of the kingdom. What 
higher tribute can I pay her ? So how can I marry that 
Kalingasena ? " 

Thus reflecting, the King of Vatsa left her chamber at 
the close of night and the next day went to the palace of the 
Queen Padmavati. She too, having been taught her lesson 
by Vasavadatta, showed him attentions after the very 
same fashion, and when questioned by him gave a similar 

The next day the king, thinking over the sentiments and 
speeches of the queens, which were completely in unison, 
commended them to Yaugandharayana. And the minister 
Yaugandharayana, who knew how to seize the right moment, 
seeing that the king was plunged in doubt, spake slowly to 
him as follows : "I know well the matter does not end where 
you think ; there is a terrible resolve here. For the queens 
spoke thus because they are steadfastly bent on surrendering 
their lives. Chaste women, when their beloved is attached 
to another, or has gone to heaven, become careless about all 
enjoyments and determined to die, though their intentions 
are inscrutable on account of the haughtiness of their char- 
acter. For matrons cannot endure the interruption of a 
deep affection, and in proof of this hear now, O King, this 
story of Srutasena. 

43. Story of Srutasena 

There lived long ago in the Deccan, in a city called 
Gokarna, a king named Srutasena, who was the ornament 
of his race and possessed of learning. And this king, though 
his prosperity was complete, had yet one source of sorrow, 


that he had not as yet obtained a wife who was a suitable 
match for him. And once on a time the king, while brood- 
ing over that sorrow, began to talk about it, and was thus 
addressed by a Brahman, named Agnisarman : " I have 
seen two wonders, O King. I will describe them to you. 
Listen ! Having gone on a pilgrimage to all the sacred 
bathing-places, I reached that Panchatirthi, in which five 
Apsarases were reduced to the condition of crocodiles by 
the curse of a holy sage, and were rescued from it by Arjuna, 
who had come there while going round the holy spots. There 
I bathed in the blessed water, which possesses the power of 
enabling those men who bathe in it, and fast for five nights, 
to become followers of Narayana. And while I was depart- 
ing I beheld a cultivator in the middle of a field, who had 
furrowed the earth with his plough, singing. That cultivator 
was asked about the road by a certain wandering hermit 
who had come that way, but did not hear what he said, being 
wholly occupied with his song. Then the hermit was angry 
with that cultivator, and began to talk in a distracted manner ; 
and the cultivator, Stopping his song, said to him : c Alas ! 
though you are a hermit you will not learn even a fraction 
of virtue ; even I, though a fool, have discovered what is the 
highest essence of virtue.' When he heard that, the hermit 
asked him out of curiosity : ' What have you discovered ? ' 
And the cultivator answered him : ' Sit here in the shade 
and listen while I tell you a tale. 

43a. The Three Brahman Brothers 

In this land there were three Brahman brothers, Brah- 
madatta, Somadatta and Visvadatta, of holy deeds. Of 
these two, the eldest, possessed wives, but the youngest was 
unmarried ; he remained as their servant without being 
angry, obeying their orders along with me ; for I was their 
ploughman. And those elder brothers thought that he was 
soft, and devoid of intellect, good, not swerving from the 
right path, simple and unenterprising. Then, once on a time, 
the youngest brother, Visvadatta, was solicited by his two 
brothers' wives, who fell in love with him, but he rejected 


their advances as if each of them had been his mother. 
Then they both of them went and said falsely to their own 
husbands : " This younger brother of yours makes love to 
us in secret." x This speech made those two elder brothers 
cherish anger against him in their hearts, for men bewildered 
by the speeches of wicked women do not know the difference 
between truth and falsehood. 

Then those brothers said, once on a time, to Visvadatta : 
" Go and level that ant-hill in the middle of the field ! " 
He said, " I will," and went and proceeded to dig up 
the ant-hill with his spade, though I said to him : " Do 
not do it ; a venomous snake lives there." Though he 
heard what I said, he continued to dig at the ant-hill, 
exclaiming, "Let what will happen!" for he would not 
disobey the order of his two elder brothers, though they 
wished him ill. 

Then, while he was digging it up, he got out of it a pitcher 
filled with gold, and not a venomous snake ; for virtue is an 
auxiliary to the good. So he took that pitcher and gave it 
all to his elder brothers out of his constant affection for them, 
though I tried to dissuade him. But they sent assassins, 
hiring them with a portion of that gold, and had his hands 
and feet cut off, in their desire to seize his wealth. But he 
was free from anger, and in spite of that treatment did not 
wax wroth with his brothers, and on account of that virtue 
of his, his hands and feet grew again. 

43. Story of Srutasena 

" ' After beholding that I renounced from that time all 
anger, but you, though you are a hermit, have not even 
now renounced anger. The man who is free from anger has 
gained heaven. Behold now a proof of this.' After saying 
this, the husbandman left his body and ascended to heaven. 
This is one wonder which I have seen. Hear a second, O 

After saying this to King Srutasena the Brahman con- 

1 For a note on women whose love is scorned see Vol. II, pp. 120-124. 



tinued : " Then, as I was roaming about on the shore of the 
sea to visit sacred places, I reached the realm of King Vasan- 
tasena. There, as I was about to enter an almshouse where 
cooked food is distributed by the king, the Brahmans said 
to me : c Brahman, advance not in that direction, for there 
the king's daughter is present ; she is called Vidyuddyota, 
and if even a hermit beholds her he is pierced by the arrow 
of love and, becoming distracted, ceases to live.' Then I 
answered them : * This is not wonderful to me, for I con- 
tinually behold King Srutasena, who is a second God of Love. 
When he leaves his palace on an expedition, or for some other 
purpose, women of good family are removed by guards from 
any place whence they may possibly see him, for fear they 
should infringe chastity.' When I said this, they knew I 
was a subject of your Majesty's, and the superintendent of 
the house of entertainment and the king's chaplain took me 
into the presence of the king, that I might share the feast. 
There I saw that Princess Vidyuddyota, looking like the 
incarnation of the magic art with which the God of Love 
bewilders the world. After a long time I mastered my 
confusion at beholding her, and reflected : ' If this lady 
were to become the wife of our sovereign, he would forget his 
kingdom. Nevertheless I must tell this tale to my master, 
otherwise there might take place the incident of Devasena 
and Unmadini.' 

43b. Devasena and Unmadini 

Once on a time, in the realm of King Devasena, there was 
a merchant's daughter, a maiden that bewildered the world 
with her beauty. Her father told the king about her, but 
the king did not take her in marriage, for the Brahmans, who 
wished to prevent him neglecting his duties, told him she 
had inauspicious marks. So she was married to his prime 
minister. 1 And once on a time she showed herself to the 
king at a window. And the king, struck by her with a 
poisonous look from a distance, as if she had been a female 

1 This is a repetition of the story of Devasena and Unmadini in 
Book III. See Vol. II, pp. 6-8. n.m.p. 


snake, 1 fainted again and again, enjoyed no pleasure, and 
took no food. And the righteous king, though entreated 
over and over again to marry her by the ministers, with her 
husband at their head, refused to do so, and, devoted to her, 
yielded up his breath. 

43. Story of Srutasena 

" Accordingly I have come to-day and told you this 
wonderful tale, thinking that if a similar distraction were to 
come upon you I should be guilty of conspiring against your 

When King Srutasena heard from that Brahman this 
speech, which was like the command of the God of Love, he 
became ardently attached to Vidyuddyota, so he immediately 
sent off the Brahman and took steps to have her brought 
quickly, and married her. Then the Princess Vidyuddyota 
became inseparable from the person of that king, as the 
daylight from the orb of the sun. 

Then a maiden of the name of Matridatta, the daughter 
of a very rich merchant, intoxicated with the pride of her 
beauty, came to select that king for her husband. Through 
fear of committing unrighteousness, the king married that 
merchant's daughter ; then Vidyuddyota, coming to hear of 
it, died of a broken heart. And the king came and beheld 
that dearly loved wife lying dead, and took her up in his 
arms and, lamenting, died on the spot. Thereupon Matri- 
datta, the merchant's daughter, entered the fire. And so 
the whole kingdom perished with the king. 

[M] "So you see, King, that the breaking off of long love 
is difficult to bear ; especially would it be so to the proud 

1 Cf. the " death-darting eye of cockatrice " in Romeo and Juliet. See 

also Schmidt's Shakespeare Dictionary, under the word "basilisk." Accounts 

of the basilisk are found in Pliny, XXIX, xix, and Heliodorus, Mthiopica, iii, 8. 
It is described as a serpent with a cock's head, whose look is fatal. See the 
section "The Fatal Look" in Appendix III on " Poison-Damsels" in Vol. II 
of this work, p. 298 et seq. n.m.p. 


Queen Vasavadatta. Accordingly, if you were to marry 
this Kalingasena, the Queen Vasavadatta would indubitably 
quit her life, and the Queen Padmavati would do the same, 
for their life is one. And then how would your son Narava- 
hanadatta live ? And, I know, the king's heart would not 
be able to bear any misfortune happening to him. And so 
all this happiness would perish in a moment, O King. But 
as for the dignified reserve which the queens displayed in 
their speeches, that sufficiently shows that their hearts are 
indifferent to all things, being firmly resolved on suicide. 
So you must guard your own interests, for even animals 
understand self-protection, much more wise men like yourself, 
O King." 

The King of Vatsa, when he heard this at length from 
the excellent minister Yaugandharayana, having now become 
quite capable of wise discrimination, said : "It is so ; there 
can be no doubt about it ; all this fabric of my happiness 
would be overthrown. So what is the use of my marry- 
ing Kalingasena ? Accordingly the astrologers did well in 
mentioning a distant hour as auspicious for the marriage; 
and there cannot, after all, be much sin in abandoning one 
who had come to select me as her husband." 

When Yaugandharayana heard this, he reflected with 
joy : " Our business has almost turned out according to our 
wishes. Will not that same great plant of policy, watered 
with the streams of expediency and nourished with due time 
and place, truly bring forth fruit ? " Thus reflecting, and 
meditating upon fitting time and place, the minister Yau- 
gandharayana went to his house, after taking a ceremonious 
farewell of the king. 

The king too went to the Queen Vasavadatta, who had 
assumed to welcome him a manner which concealed her 
real feelings, and thus spoke to her to console her : " Why 
do I speak ? You know well, O gazelle- eyed one, that your 
love is my life, even as the water is of the lotus. Could I 
bear even to mention the name of another woman ? But 
Kalingasena came to my house of her own impetuous motion. 
And this is well known, that Rambha, who came to visit 
Arjuna of her own impetuous will, having been rejected by 



him, as he was engaged in austerities, inflicted on him a 
curse which made him a eunuch. That curse was endured 
by him to the end, living in the house of the King of Virata 
in woman's garb for a year, though he displayed miraculous 
valour. 1 So I did not reject this Kalingasena when she 
came, but I cannot bring myself to do anything without 
your wish." 

Having comforted her in these words, and having per- 
ceived by the flush of wine which rose to her cheek, as if 
it were her glowing, passionate heart, that her cruel design 
was a reality, the King of Vatsa spent that night with the 
Queen Vasavadatta, delighted at the transcendent ability of 
his prime minister. 

And in the meanwhile that Brahman-Rakshasa named 
Yogesvara, who was a friend of Yaugandharayana's, and 
whom he had commissioned beforehand to watch day and 
night the proceedings of Kalingasena, came that very night 
of his own accord and said to the prime minister : "I remain 
ever at Kalingasena 's house, either without it or within it, 
and I have never seen man or god come there. But to-day 
I suddenly heard an indistinct noise in the air, at the com- 
mencement of the night, as I was lying hid near the roof of 
the palace. Then my magic science was set in motion to 
ascertain the cause of the sound, but prevailed not ; so I 
pondered over it and came to this conclusion : ' This must 
certainly be the voice of some being of divine power, 
enamoured of Kalingasena, who is roaming in the sky. 
Since my science does not succeed, I must look for some 
opening, for clever people who remain vigilant find little 
difficulty in discovering holes in their opponent's armour. 
And I know that the prime minister said : " Divine beings 
are in love with her." Moreover, I overheard her friend 
Somaprabha saying the same.' After arriving at this con- 
clusion I came here to make my report to you. This I have 
to ask you by the way, so tell me so much, I pray you. By 
my magic power I heard, without being seen, what you said 
to the king: 'Even animals understand self-protection.' 
Now tell me, sagacious man, if there is any instance of this." 

1 For details of Indian eunuchs see Appendix II of this volume. n.m.p. 


When Yogesvara asked him this question Yaugan- 
dharayana answered : " There is, my friend ; and to prove 
it I will tell you this tale. Listen. 

44. Story of the Ichneumon, the Owl, the Cat and the Mouse 

Once on a time there was a large banyan-tree outside the 
city of Vidisa. In that vast tree dwelt four creatures, an 
ichneumon, 1 an owl, a cat and a mouse, and their habitations 

1 Benfey found this story in the Arabic version of the Panchatantra and 
in all the translations and reproductions of it. He finds it also in the 
Mahabharata, xii (iii, 589), si. 4930 et seq. He expresses his opinion that it 
formed a portion of the original Panchatantra. See Benfey's Panchatantra, 
pp. 544-56'0 ; Orient una 1 Occident, vol. i, p. 383. The account in the 
Mahabharata is very prolix. 

The ichneumon is found in several animal stories in Eastern collec- 
tions, often in company with a mouse. See, for instance, Schiefner and 
Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 308, where there is a pathetic little story about 
an ichneumon, a mouse and a snake. The cunning of the former is shown 
in the tale of the " Mouse and the Ichneumon " in the Nights, Burton, vol. iii, 
pp. 147-148. (See Burton's note on p. 147.) It is unnecessary to speak of 
Kipling's Rikki-Tikki-Tavi. 

It would be more correct in our text to call the animal by the Indian 
name " mongoose " {Herpestes mungd), the Indian being smaller than the 
Egyptian variety (H. ichneumoii). The type genus has numerous species 
found all over Africa and throughout Southern Asia. In India the mongoose 
is especially famous as a serpent-killer, and owing to its successful encounters 
with even the deadliest snakes has been credited with immunity from snake- 
bites. The Hindus also say that, if bitten, the animal has recourse to a 
certain root which it uses as an antidote. It has been found, however, that 
the mongoose is affected by venom just like other animals, but owing to its 
extraordinary quickness, and the thickness of its skin and the protection 
afforded by its long stiff hair, which it erects in anger, it is a very formidable 
enemy to the snake. 

A spectator of a fight between a mongoose and a snake thus writes 
{Ency. Brit., vol. xiv, p. 242): "His whole nature appears to be changed. 
His fur stands on end, and he presents the incarnation of intense rage. The 
snake invariably attempts to escape, but, finding it impossible to evade the 
rapid onslaught of the mongoose, raises his crest and lashes out fiercely at 
his little persecutor, who seems to delight in dodging out of the way just 
in time. This goes on until the mongoose sees his opportunity, when like 
lightning he rushes in and seizes the snake with his teeth by the back of the 
neck close to the head, shaking him as a terrier does a rat. These tactics 
are repeated until the snake is killed." 

It was, however, in ancient Egypt that the ichneumon was most venerated, 


were apart. The ichneumon and the mouse dwelt in separate 
holes in the root, the cat in a great hollow in the middle of 
the tree ; but the owl dwelt in a bower of creepers on the 
top of it, which was inaccessible to the others. Among these 
the mouse was the natural prey of all three, three out of the 
four of the cat. The mouse, the ichneumon and the owl 
ranged for food during the night, the first two through fear 
of the cat only, the owl partly because it was his nature to 
do so. But the cat fearlessly wandered night and day 
through the neighbouring barley- field, in order to catch the 
mouse, while the others went there by stealth at a suitable 
time out of desire for food. 

One day a certain hunter of the Chandala caste came 
there. He saw the track of the cat entering that field, and 
having set nooses all round the field in order to compass 
its death, departed. So the cat came there at night to 
slay the mouse, and entering the field was caught in one of 
the hunter's nooses. The mouse, for his part, came there 
secretly in search of food, and seeing the cat caught in the 
noose, danced for joy. 

While it was entering the field the owl and ichneumon 
came from afar by the same path, and seeing the cat fast in 

the centre of the worship being at Heracleopolis. The principal cause of the 
respect paid to the animal is said to be on account of its great hostility to 
the crocodile, an animal especially feared and hated by the Heracleopolites. 
Living among the reeds on the banks of the Nile, it takes the eggs of young 
crocodiles which have been hidden in the sand. Diodorus (i, 87, etc.) tells us 
that it even kills full-grown crocodiles in a wonderful and almost incredible 
manner. Covering itself with a coat of mud, the ichneumon watches the 
moment when the crocodile, coming out of the river, sleeps (as is its custom) 
upon a sand-bank, with its mouth open (turned towards the wind), and, 
adroitly gliding down its throat, penetrates to its entrails. It then gnaws 
through its stomach, and, having killed its enemy, escapes without receiv- 
ing any injury (quoted by Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians, vol. iii, p. 280). 

Several other classical writers, Pliny, Strabo, Herodotus, Aelian, etc., 
have described the mode of attack of the ichneumon against the snake. 

The animal is often kept as a pet and becomes very tame, and usually 
has a wonderful temper, but its partiality for eggs and poultry makes it a bad 
substitute for the cat. It is the cat that is afraid of the mongoose rather 
than the opposite, as mentioned in our text. For further details see Wilkinson, 
op. cit., pp. 279-285, and Yule, Hobson Jobson, under "Mungoose." n.m.p. 


the noose, desired to capture the mouse. And the mouse, 
beholding them afar off, was terrified, and reflected : " If I 
fly to the cat, which the owl and the ichneumon are afraid of, 
that enemy, though fast in the noose, may slay me with one 
blow, but if I keep at a distance from the cat the owl and 
the ichneumon will be the death of me. So being compassed 
about with enemies, where shall I go, what shall I do ? Ah ! 
I will take refuge with the cat here, for it is in trouble and 
may serve me to preserve its own life, as I shall be of use 
to gnaw through the noose." 

Thus reflecting, the mouse slowly approached the cat and 
said to it : "I am exceedingly grieved at your being caught, 
so I will gnaw through your noose ; the upright come to 
love even their enemies by dwelling in their neighbourhood. 
But I do not feel confidence in you, as I do not know your 
intentions." When the cat heard that, he said : " Worthy 
mouse, be at rest ; from this day forth you are my friend, as 
giving me life." The moment he heard this from the cat 
he crept into his bosom ; when the owl and the ichneumon 
saw that, they went away hopeless. Then the cat, galled 
with the noose, said to the mouse : " My friend, the night 
is almost gone, so quickly gnaw through my bonds." The 
mouse for its part, waiting for the arrival of the hunter, 
slowly nibbled the noose and protracted the business, making 
a continual munching with its teeth, which was all pretence. 

Soon the night came to an end and the hunter came near ; 
then the mouse, at the request of the cat, quickly gnawed 
through the noose which held it. So the cat's noose was 
severed and it ran away, afraid of the hunter ; and the 
mouse, delivered from death, fled into its hole. But when 
called again by the cat it reposed no confidence in him, but 
remarked : " The truth is, an enemy is occasionally made a 
friend by circumstances, but does not remain such for ever." 

[M] " Thus the mouse, though an animal, saved its life 
from many foes ; much more ought the same thing to take 
place among men. You heard that speech which I uttered 


to the king on that occasion, to the effect that by wisdom 
he should guard his own interests by preserving the life 
of the queen. And wisdom is in every exigency the best 
friend, not valour, Yogesvara. In illustration of this hear 
the following story : 

45. Story of King Prasenajit and the Brahman who lost his 

Treasure 1 

There is a city named Sravasti, and in it there lived in old 
time a king of the name of Prasenajit, and one day a strange 
Brahman arrived in that city. A merchant, thinking he was 
virtuous because he lived on rice in the husk, provided him 

1 This story found its way into a Persian work, MahbFtb ul-Qulftb. It was 
translated by Edward Rehatsek, and appears in his Amusing Stories, Bombay, 
1871. It was reprinted as "The Hidden Treasure," by Clouston, in A Group 
of Eastern Romances and Stories, 1 88,0, p. 442 et seq., who gives some analogues 
(including the original story from our text) on pp. 558-561. There is also a 
similar tale in the Nights, " The Melancholist and the Sharper " (Burton, Supp., 
vol. i, pp. 264-266), in which the loser, suspecting a certain man of the theft, 
arranges to mutter to himself within his hearing : " In the pot are sixty ducats, 
and 1 have with me other twenty in such a place, and to-day I will unite the 
whole in the pot." The other returns what he has taken, thinking to get 
more in the end and so the lost property is recovered. In Burton's next 
volume (Supp., vol. ii, pp. 333-340) Clouston adds several analogues besides 
those already mentioned. There is one from Gladwin's Persian Moonshee, and 
a good Italian version from Sacchetti's Novelle (No. 198). His tales are not 
very well known in England, but are especially interesting as they are largely 
based on real incidents in domestic and public life in Florence in the fourteenth 
century. The tale in question, however, was taken from the Cento Novelle 
Antiche (No. 74). The motif is well represented in Jewish literature, as has 
recently been shown by Gaster, The Exempla of the Rabbis, 1924. In story 
No. 324 (p. 117) of this collection a man hides his money in a garden. It is 
stolen by a neighbour. He pretends not to know of the theft and asks the 
neighbour whether it would be wise to hide the other money in the same 
secret spot. The stolen money is then replaced by the neighbour so as not 
to arouse suspicion, and thus the owner recovers it. Numerous analogues are 
given on pp. 220 and 240. Similar stories also occur in the Discip/bia Clericalis 
of Alphonsus, chap, xvi ; the Gesta Romanorum (chap, cxviii i.e. tale 38, 
" Of Deceit," in vol. ii of Thomas Wright's edition of Swan's translation) ; 
and in the Decameron, day 8, nov. 10. Numerous analogues to this latter 
are given by Lee, The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, pp. 266-270. On 
p. 26*8 he mentions the tale of Ali Cogia in the Milte et une Nuits, but did 
not know it appeared in Burton's Nights, Supp., vol. in, p. 405 et seq., as " Ali 



a lodging there in the house of a Brahman. There he was 
loaded by him every day with presents of unhusked rice 
and other gifts, and gradually by other great merchants also, 
who came to hear his story. In this way the miserly fellow 
gradually accumulated a thousand dinars, and, going to the 
forest, he dug a hole and buried it in the ground, 1 and he 
went every day and examined the spot. 

Now one day he saw that the hole, in which he had hidden 
his gold, had been reopened, and that all the gold had gone. 
When he saw that hole empty his soul was smitten, and not 
only was there a void in his heart, but the whole universe 
seemed to him to be void also. And then he came crying to 
the Brahman in whose house he lived, and when questioned 
he told him his whole story ; and he made up his mind to go 
to a holy bathing-place and starve himself to death. Then 
the merchant who supplied him with food, hearing of it, 
came there with others and said to him : " Brahman, why 
do you long to die for the loss of your wealth ? Wealth, like 
an unseasonable cloud, suddenly comes and goes." 

Though plied by him with these and similar arguments, 
he would not abandon his fixed determination to commit 
suicide, for wealth is dearer to the miser than life itself. But 
when the Brahman was going to the holy place to commit 
suicide the King Prasenajit himself, having heard of it, 
came to him and asked him : " Brahman, do you know of 
any marks by which you can recognise the place where you 
buried your dinar si" When the Brahman heard that, he 
said : " There is a small tree in the wood there. I buried 
that wealth at its foot." When the king heard that, he said : 
" I will find that wealth and give it back to you, or I will 
give it you from my own treasury. Do not commit suicide, 

After saying this, and so diverting the Brahman from his 

Khwajah and the Merchant of Baghdad." Although it contains the incident 
of recovering stolen gold by a clever trick, the leading motif is that of 
"precocious children." Clouston gives several analogues on pp. 596-600 of 
the same volume of the Nights. These references should be added to those I 
have already given on "precocious children" in Vol. I, p. 186ft 1 . n.m.p. 
1 For nihatya I conjecture nikhanya. 


intention of committing suicide, the king entrusted him to 
the care of the merchant, and retired to his palace. There 
he pretended to have a headache, and sending out the door- 
keeper, he summoned all the physicians in the city by 
proclamation with beat of drum. And he took aside every 
single one of them and questioned him privately in the 
following words : " What patients have you here, and how 
many, and what medicine have you prescribed for each ? " 
And they thereupon, one by one, answered all the king's 
questions. Then one among the physicians, when his turn 
came to be questioned, said this : " The merchant Matri- 
datta has been out of sorts, O King, and this is the second 
day that I have prescribed for him ndgabald." 1 

When the king heard that, he sent for the merchant and 
said to him : " Tell me, who fetched you the ndgabald ? " 
The merchant said : "My servant, your Highness." When 
the king got this answer from the merchant, he quickly 
summoned the servant and said to him : " Give up that 
treasure belonging to a Brahman, consisting of a store of 
dinars, which you found when you were digging at the foot 
of a tree for ndgabald.'" When the king said this to him, 
the servant was frightened, and confessed immediately, and 
bringing those dinars left them there. So the king for his 
part summoned the Brahman and gave him, who had been 
fasting in the meanwhile, his dinars, lost and found again, 
like a second soul external to his body. 

[M] ' ' Thus that king by his wisdom recovered for the 
Brahman his wealth, which had been taken away from the 
root of the tree, knowing that that simple grew in such spots. 
So true is it, that intellect always obtains the supremacy, 
triumphing over valour ; indeed in such cases what could 
courage accomplish? Accordingly, Yogesvara, you ought 
to bring it to pass by your wisdom that some peccadillo 
be discovered in Kalingasena. And it is true that the 
gods and Asuras are in love with her. This explains your 

1 The plant Uraria Lagopodioides (Monier Williams). 


hearing at night the sound of someone being in the air. 
And if we could only obtain some pretext, calamity would fall 
upon her, not on us ; the king would not marry her, and yet 
we should not have dealt unrighteously with her." 

When the Brahman-Rakshasa Yogesvara heard all this 
from the sagacious Yaugandharayana he was delighted, and 
said to him : " Who except the god Vrihaspati can match 
thee in policy ? This counsel of thine waters with ambrosia 
the tree of empire. I, even I, will investigate with wisdom 
and might the proceedings of Kalingasena." Having said 
this, Yogesvara departed thence. 

And at this time Kalingasena, while in her palace, was 
continually afflicted by beholding the King of Vatsa roaming 
about in his palace and its grounds. Thinking on him, she 
was inflamed with love, and though she wore a bracelet and 
necklace of lotus fibres * she never obtained relief thereby, 
nor from sandal- ointment or other remedies. 

In the meanwhile the King of the Vidyadharas, named 
Madanavega, who had seen her before, remained wounded by 
the arrow of ardent love. Though he had performed a vow 
to obtain her and had been granted a boon by Siva, still 
she was not easy to gain, because she was living in the land 
of another, and attached to another, so the Vidyadhara 
prince was wandering about at night in the air over her 
palace, in order to obtain an opportunity. But, remember- 
ing the order of Siva, pleased with his asceticism, he assumed 
one night by his skill the form of the King of Vatsa. And 
in this shape he entered her palace, saluted with praises by 
the doorkeepers, who said : " Unable to bear delay, the 
king has come here without the knowledge of his ministers." 
And Kalingasena, on beholding him, rose up bewildered 
with agitation, though she was, so to speak, warned by her 
ornaments, which jingled out the sounds : " This is not the 
man." Then she by degrees gained confidence in him, and 
Madanavega, wearing the form of the King of Vatsa, made 
her his wife by the gdndharva rite. 2 

1 See Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, 
pp. 44, 45. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 87-88. n.m.p. 


At that moment Yogesvara entered, invisible by his 
magic, and, beholding the incident, was cast down, supposing 
that he saw the King of Vatsa before him. He went and 
told Yaugandharayana, who, on receiving his report, saw by 
his skill that the king was in the society of Vasavadatta. 
So by the order of the prime minister he returned delighted, 
to observe the shape of that secret paramour of Kalingasena 
when asleep. And so he went and beheld that Madanavega 
asleep in his own form on the bed of the sleeping Kalinga- 
sena, a heavenly being, the dustless lotus of whose foot was 
marked with the umbrella and the banner ; and who had 
lost his power of changing his form, because his science was 
suspended during sleep. 1 

Then Yogesvara, full of delight, went and told what he 
had seen, in a joyful mood, to Yaugandharayana. He said : 
" One like me knows nothing ; you know everything by the 
eye of policy ; by your counsel this difficult result has been 
attained for your king. What is the sky without the sun ? 
What is a tank without water ? What is a realm without 
counsel ? What is speech without truth ? " 

When Yogesvara said this, Yaugandharayana took leave 
of him, much pleased, and went in the morning to visit the 
King of Vatsa. He approached him with the usual rever- 
ence, and in course of conversation said to the king, who 
asked him what was to be done about Kalingasena : " She 
is unchaste, O King, and does not deserve to touch your 
hand. For she went of her own accord to visit Prasenajit. 
When she saw that he was old, she was disgusted, and came 
to visit you out of desire for your beauty, and now she even 
enjoys at her pleasure the society of another person." 

When the king heard this, he said : " How could a lady 
of birth and rank do such a deed ? Or who has the power 
to enter my harem ? " 

When the king said this, the wise Yaugandharayana 
answered him : "I will prove it to you by ocular testimony 
this very night, my sovereign. For the divine Siddhas and 
other beings of the kind are in love with her. What can a 
man do against them ? And who here can interfere with 

1 See note on pp. 126-127 of this volume. n.m.p. 


the movements of gods ? So come and see it with your own 

When the minister said this, the king determined to go 
there with him at night. 

Then Yaugandharayana came to the queen, and said : 
" To-day, O Queen, I have carried out what I promised, that 
the king should marry no other wife except Padmavati," 
and thereupon he told her the whole story of Kalingasena. 
And the Queen Vasavadatta congratulated him, bowing low 
and saying : " This is the fruit which I have reaped from 
following your instructions." 

Then at night, when folk were asleep, the King of Vatsa 
went with Yaugandharayana to the palace of Kalingasena. 
And, entering unperceived, he beheld Madanavega in his 
f proper form, sleeping by the side of the sleeping 
Vatsajinds Kalingasena. And when the king was minded 
Madanavega to slay that audacious one, the Vidyadhara 

h p 7rst7ti^)iimP Tince was roused *V his own ma S ic knowledge, 
and when awake he went out, and immediately 
flew up into the heaven. And then Kalingasena awoke 
immediately. And seeing the bed empty, she said : " How 
is this, that the King of Vatsa wakes up before me and 
departs, leaving me asleep ? " 

When Yaugandharayana heard that, he said to the 
King of Vatsa : " Listen. She has been beguiled by that 
Vidyadhara wearing your form. He was found out by me 
by means of my magic power, and now I have exhibited 
him before your eyes, but you cannot kill him on account of 
his heavenly might." After saying this, he and the king 
approached her, and Kalingasena, for her part, seeing them, 
stood in a respectful attitude. But when she began to say 
to the king, " Where, O King, did you go only a moment ago, 
so as to return with your minister ? " Yaugandharayana 
said to her : " Kalingasena, you have been married by some 
being, who beguiled you by assuming the shape of the King 
of Vatsa, and not by this lord of mine." x 

When Kalingasena heard this she was bewildered, and as 

1 For a note on the " Pretended Husband " motif see the end of this 
chapter. n.m.p. 


if pierced through the heart by an arrow she said to the King 
of Vatsa, with tear- streaming eyes : " Have you forgotten 
me, O King, after marrying me by the gdndharva rite, as 
Sakuntala long ago was forgotten by Dushyanta ? " * When 
the king was thus addressed by her, he said with downcast 
face : "In truth you were not married by me, for I never 
came here till this moment." When the King of Vatsa 
had said this, the minister said to him, " Come along," and 
conducted him at will to the palace. 

When the king had departed thence with his minister, 
that lady Kalingasena, sojourning in a foreign country, like 
a doe that had strayed from the herd, having deserted her 
relations, with her face robbed of its painting by kissing, as 
a lotus is robbed of its leaves by cropping, having her braided 
tresses disordered, even as a bed of lotuses trampled by an 
elephant has its cluster of black bees dispersed, now that her 
maidenhood was gone for ever, not knowing what expedient 
to adopt or what course to pursue, looked up to heaven 
and spake as follows : " Whoever that was that assumed 
the shape of the King of Vatsa and married me, let him 
appear, for he is the husband of my youth." 

When invoked in these words, that King of the Vidya- 
dharas descended from heaven, of divine shape, adorned 
with necklace and bracelet. And when she asked him who 
he was, he answered her : "I, fair one, am a prince of the 
Vidyadharas, named Madanavega. And long ago I beheld 
you in your father's house, and by performing penance 
obtained a boon from Siva, which conferred on me the 
attainment of you. So, as you were in love with the King 
of Vatsa, I assumed his form, and quickly married you by 
stealth, before your contract with him had been celebrated." 
By the nectar of this speech of his, entering her ears, the 
lotus of her heart was a little revived. 

Then Madanavega comforted that fair one, and made 
her recover her composure, and bestowed on her a heap of 
gold, and when she had conceived in her heart affection for 

1 For similar instances of forgetting in European stories, see Nos. IS, 14, 
54, 55 in the Sicilianische Mdrchen, with Kohler's notes, and his article in 
Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 103. 


her excellent husband, as being well suited to her, he flew 
up into the heaven, to return again. And Kalingasena, 
after obtaining permission from Madanavega, consented to 
dwell patiently where she was, reflecting that the heavenly 
home, the abode of her husband, could not be approached 
by a mortal, and that through passion she had left her 
father's house. 



The readiness with which no less a person than Siva himself becomes a 
party to the trick played upon Kalingasena may seem surprising, but perhaps 
we are to understand that, after such a penance as that performed by 
Madanavega on the Rishabha mountain, Siva was almost bound to grant a 
boon of whatever nature it might be. Yet, as we have already seen (Vol. II, 
pp. 45, 46), Indra did not scruple to enjoy Ahalya by disguising himself as 
her husband, Gautama. 

The motif found its way into Sanskrit literature at a very early date, 
and Benfey, Panckatantra (i, p. 299 et seq.\ traces the different versions found 
in Kalila and Dimna, John of Capua, Suka Saptati, Anvar-i-Suhaili, Bahar-i- 
Danish, etc., besides in well-known European collections, such as Le Livre des 
Lumieres, Cabinet des Fees and the Decameron. 

In nearly all these versions the wife is perfectly innocent of the cheat 
played upon her, and, on the return of the real husband, makes a similar 
remark to that in our text, such as : " Wherefore have you returned ? Did 
I not serve your wishes at the beginning of the night?" Similarly in the 
Decameron (day 3, nov. 2) the queen confronts her husband with : " My lord, 
what a surprise is this to-night! 'Twas but now you left me after an un- 
wonted measure of enjoyment, and do you now return so soon ? " The king 
behaves in a most diplomatic manner and pretends he had been with his wife 
earlier in the evening. He then attempts to find out the culprit, and although 
he is unsuccessful in this, he makes any repetition of the offence unlikely. 

In the version found in the Heptameron, however, the unhappy husband 
is unable to conceal his curiosity and resentment : " What do these words 
mean ? I know of a truth that I have not lain with you for three weeks, and 
yet you rebuke me for coming too often." Suddenly the terrible truth dawns 
upon the chaste lady. The husband rushes in pursuit of the wicked friar 
who has done the deed, but meanwhile his wife hangs herself and kills her 
child through shame and misery. Her brother hears the news, and, mis- 
understanding the details, runs his sword through the returning husband 
(see vol. iii, p. 97 et seq., of the English translation printed for the Society of 
English Bibliophilists, 1894). 

In all the above versions we notice that the cheat played upon the 
innocent wife is done by an ordinary human being, and not by a god or 
supernatural being, as in our text. We find, however, a closer analogue in 
Herodotus (vi, 69). Demaratus was deposed from the sovereignty and made 
a magistrate of Sparta, owing to the charge of bastardy made by Leutychides. 
He is later insulted by Leutychides at the Gymnopaediae, and, intending to 
get to the bottom of the whole matter, calls upon his mother with a mighty 
oath to tell the truth. She then explains: "When Ariston [her husband] 
had taken me to his own house, on the third night from the first, a spectre 
resembling Ariston came to me ; and having lain with me, put on me a crown 
that it had : it departed, and afterwards Ariston came ; but when he saw me 

with the 


the crown, he asked who it was that gave it me. I said he did, but he 
would not admit it ; whereupon I took an oath, and said that he did not well 
to deny it, for that having come shortly before and lain with me, he had 
given me the crown. Ariston, seeing that I affirmed with an oath, discovered 
that the event was superhuman : and, in the first place, the crown proved to 
have come from the shrine situate near the palace gates, which they call 
Astrabacus's ; and, in the next place, the seers pronounced that it was the 
hero himself. Thus, then, my son, you have all that you wish to know : for 
you are sprung either from that hero, and the hero Astrabacus is your father, 
or Ariston ; for I conceived you in that night ..." (Cary's trans. Bohn's 
edition, 1877, p. 379). 

There is also the legend of Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus, whose wife, 
Alcmene, gave birth to twin sons, Iphicles being that of Amphitryon, and 
Heracles that of Zeus, who had visited her in the guise of her husband while 
he was away fighting. 

The incident forms Plautus' comedy Amphitruo, whence Moliere adapted 
his Amphitryon. 

Lee, op. cit, pp. 62-67, gives several other analogues of the motif. See 
also Chauvin, op. cit., ii, p. 92. n.m.p. 


THEN the King of Vatsa, thinking on the peerless 
[M] beauty of Kalingasena, was one night seized 
with love, so he rose up and went, sword in hand, and 
entered her palace alone ; and she welcomed him and received 
him politely. Then the king asked her to become his wife, 
but she rejected his addresses, saying : " You should regard 
me as the wife of another." Whereupon he answered : 
" Since you are unchaste as having resorted to three men, I 
shall not, by approaching you, incur the guilt of adultery." 

When the king said this to Kalingasena, she answered 
him : " I came to marry you, O King, but I was married by 
the Vidyadhara Madanavega at his will, for he assumed your 
shape. And he is my only husband, so why am I unchaste ? 
But such are the misfortunes even of ordinary women who 
desert their relations, having their minds bewildered with 
the love of lawless roaming, much more of princesses. And 
this is the fruit of my own folly in sending a messenger to 
you, though I had been warned not to do so by my friend, 
who had seen an evil omen. So if you touch me by force 
I will abandon life; for what woman of good family will 
injure her husband ? And to prove this I will tell you a 
tale. Listen, O King. 

46. Story of King Indradatta 

There lived in old time in the land of Chedi a great king 
called Indradatta. He founded for his glory a great temple 
at the holy bathing-place of Papasodhana, desiring the body 
of good reputation, as he saw that our mortal body is 
perishable. And the king in the ardour of his devotion was 
continually going to visit it, and all kinds of people were 
continually coming there to bathe in the holy water. 

Now one day the king saw a merchant's wife, whose 
husband was travelling in foreign parts, who had come there 



to bathe in the holy water ; she was steeped in the nectar of 
pure beauty, and adorned with various charms, like a splendid 
moving palace of the God of Love. She was embraced on 
both her feet by the radiance of the two quivers of the five- 
arrowed god, as if out of love, believing that with her he 
would conquer the world. 1 The moment the king saw her 
she captivated his soul so entirely that, unable to restrain 
himself, he found out her house and went there at night. 
And when he solicited her, she said to him : " You are a 
protector of the helpless ; you ought not to touch another 
man's wife. And if you lay violent hands on me you will 
commit a great sin ; and I will die immediately ; I will 
not endure disgrace." Though she said this to him, the king 
still endeavoured to use force to her, whereupon her heart 
broke in a moment through fear of losing her chastity. 
When the king saw that, he was at once abashed, and 
went back by the way that he came, and in a few days 
died, out of remorse for that crime. 

[M] Having told this tale, Kalingasena bowed in timid 
modesty and again said to the King of Vatsa : " Therefore, 
King, set not your heart on wickedness that would rob me 
of breath ; since I have come here, allow me to dwell here ; 
if not, I will depart to some other place." Then the King of 
Vatsa, who knew what was right, hearing this from Kalinga- 
sena, after reflecting, desisted from his intention, and said 
to her : " Princess, dwell here at will with this husband of 
yours ; I will not say anything to you ; henceforth fear not." 

When the king had said this, he returned of his own 
accord to his house, and Madanavega, having heard the con- 
versation, descended from heaven, and said : " My beloved, 
you have done well ; if you had not acted thus, O fortunate 
one, good fortune would not have resulted, for I should not 
have tolerated your conduct." When the Vidyadhara had 
said this, he comforted her, and passed the night there, and 
continued going to her house and returning again. And 

1 This probably means in plain English that she wore glittering anklets. 
VOL. III. 1 


Kalingasena, having a King of the Vidyadharas for her 
husband, remained there, blessed even in her mortal state 
with the enjoyment of heavenly pleasures. As for the King 
of Vatsa, he ceased to think about her, and remembering the 
speech of his minister, he rejoiced, considering that he had 
saved his queens and kingdom and also his son. And the 
Queen Vasavadatta, and the minister Yaugandharayana were 
at ease, having reaped the fruit of the wishing-tree of policy. 

Then, as days went on, Kalingasena had the lotus of her 
face a little pale, and was pregnant, having longing produced 
in her. Her lofty breasts, with extremities a little dark, 
appeared like the treasure- vessels of Love, marked with his 
seal of joy. Then her husband Madanavega came to her 
and said * : " Kalingasena, we heavenly beings are subject 
to this law, that when a mortal child is conceived we must 
abandon it and go afar. Did not Menaka leave Sakuntala 
in the hermitage of Kanva ? And though you were formerly 
an Apsaras, you have now, goddess, become a mortal by the 
curse of Siva, inflicted on account of your disobedience. Thus 
it has come to pass that, though chaste, you have incurred 
the reproach of unchastity ; so guard your offspring ; I will 
go to my own place. And whenever you think upon me I 
will appear to you." 

Thus the prince of the Vidyadharas spake to the weep- 
ing Kalingasena, and consoled her, and gave her a heap 
of valuable jewels, and departed with his mind fixed on 
her, drawn away by the law. Kalingasena, for her part, 
remained there, supported by the hope of offspring as by 
a friend, protected by the shade of the King of Vatsa's 

In the meanwhile the husband of Ambika 2 gave the 
following order to Rati, the wife of the God of Love, who 
had performed penance in order to get back her husband 
with his body restored : " That husband of thine, who was 
formerly consumed, has been born in the palace of the King 
of Vatsa, under the name of Naravahanadatta, conceived 
in a mortal womb on account of disrespect shown to me. 

1 Cf. the conduct of the Meerweib in Hagen's Helden-Sagcn, vol. i, p. 55. 

2 I.e. Siva. 


But because thou hast propitiated me thou shalt also be born 
in the world of mortals, without being conceived in a mortal 
womb ; and then thou shalt be reunited to thy husband, once 
more possessing a body." 

Having said this to Rati, Siva then gave this command 
to the Creator 1 : " Kalingasena shall give birth to a son of 
divine origin. By thy power of illusion thou shalt remove 
Rati is her son and substitute in his place this very Rati, 

substituted as who shall abandon her heavenly body and be 

Child 8 6 * moulded b y thee in the form of a mortal maiden." 
The Creator, in obedience to the order of Siva, 2 
went down to earth, and when the appointed time came 
Kalingasena gave birth to a son. The Creator abstracted, 
by his divine power of illusion, her son, the moment he was 
born, and substituted Rati, whom he had turned into a girl, 
in his place, without the change being detected. And all 
present there saw that girl born, and she seemed like the 
streak of the new moon suddenly rising in broad daylight, 
for she illuminated with her splendour the lying-in chamber, 
and eclipsing the long row of flames of the jewel- lamps 3 

1 Prajapati. 

2 Literally, "placing it upon his head." 

3 The superstitious custom of lighting fires, lamps, etc., to protect 
children against evil spirits is found in many countries. Liebrecht (Zur 
Volkskunde, p. 31) refers us to Brand's Popular Antiquities, edited by Hazlitt, 
vol. ii, p. 144, for the prevalence of the practice in England. "Gregory 
mentions ( an ordinary superstition of the old wives who dare not trust a child 
in a cradle by itself alone without a candle.' This he attributes to their fear 
of the night-hag" (cf. Milton, Paradise Lost, ii, 662-665). He cites authorities 
to prove that it exists in Germany, Scotland and Sweden. In the latter 
country it is considered dangerous to let the fire go out until the child is 
baptized, for fear that the trolls may substitute a changeling in its place. 
The custom exists also in the Malay Peninsula, and among the Tajiks in 
Bokhara. The Roman custom of lighting a candle in the room of a lying-in 
woman, from which the goddess Candelifera derived her name (Tertullian, 
Adv. Nation., 2, 11), is to be accounted for in the same way. See also 
Veckenstedt, Wendische Sagen, p. 446. The same notion will be found in 
Bartsch's Sagen, M'drchen nnd Gebrauche mis Meklenburg, vol. i, pp. 17, 64, 89, 
91 ; vol. ii, p. 43. Cf. also the following passage from Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, vol. ii, p. 78 : " Borlase quotes from Martin's Western Islands. 
' The same lustration by carrying of fire is performed round about women 
after child-bearing, and round about children before they are christened, as 


robbed them of lustre, and made them, as it were, abashed. 
Kalingasena, when she saw that incomparable daughter born, 
in her delight made greater rejoicing than she would have 
made at the birth of a son. 

Then the King of Vatsa, with his queen and his ministers, 
heard that such a lovely daughter had been born to Kalinga- 
sena. And when the king heard of it he suddenly, under the 
impulsion of the god Siva, said to the Queen Vasavadatta, in 
the presence of Yaugandharayana : "I know this Kalinga- 
sena is a heavenly nymph, who has fallen to earth in con- 
sequence of a curse, and this daughter born to her will 
also be heavenly and of wonderful beauty. So this girl, 
being equal in beauty to my son Naravahanadatta, ought 
to be his head queen." 

When the Queen Vasavadatta heard that, she said to the 
king : " Great King, why do you suddenly say this now ? 
What similarity can there possibly be between this son of 
yours, of pure descent by both lines, and the daughter of 
Kalingasena, a girl whose mother is unchaste ? " 

When the king heard that he reflected, and said : " Truly, 
I do not say this of myself, but some god seems to have 
entered into me and to be forcing me to speak. And I seem 
to hear a voice uttering these words from heaven : c This 
daughter of Kalingasena is the appointed wife of Narava- 
hanadatta.' Moreover, that Kalingasena is a faithful wife, 
of good family, and her reproach of unchastity has arisen 
from the influence of her actions in a former birth." 

When the king had said this, the minister Yaugandhara- 
yana spoke : " We hear, King, that when the God of Love 
was consumed Rati performed asceticism. And Siva granted 
to Rati, who wished to recover her husband, the following 
boon: 'Thou shalt assume the condition of a mortal, and 
be reunited to thy husband, who has been born with a body 
in the world of mortals. 5 Now your son has long ago been 

an effectual means to preserve both the mother and the infant from the power 
of evil spirits.' " Brand compares the Amphidromia at Athens. See Kuhn's 
Westftilische Mdrchen, vol. i, pp. 125 and 28.9; vol. ii, pp. 17, 33-34. 

For fuller details see my note on " Precautions observed in the 

Birth-Chamber," Vol. II, pp. 1 66-1 6*9. n.m.p. 


declared by a heavenly voice to be an incarnation of Kama, 
and Rati, by the order of Siva, has to become incarnate in 
mortal form. And the midwife said to me to-day : ' I 
inspected previously the fetus when contained in the uterus, 
and then I saw one quite different from what has now 
appeared. Having beheld this marvel, I have come here to 
tell you.' This is what that woman told me, and now this 
inspiration has come to you. So I am persuaded that the 
gods have stolen the real child of Kalingasena and substituted 
this daughter not born in the ordinary way, who is no other 
than Rati, ordained beforehand to be the wife of your son, 
who is an incarnation of Kama, O King. To illustrate this, 
hear the following story concerning a Yaksha : 

47. Story of the Yaksha Virupdksha 

The God of Wealth had for servant a Yaksha named 
Virupaksha, who had been appointed chief guardian of lacs 
of treasure. 1 And he delegated a certain Yaksha to guard 
a treasure lying outside the town of Mathura, posted there 
like an immovable pillar of marble. And once on a time 
a certain Brahman, a votary of Pasupati, who made it his 
business to exhume treasures, went there in search of hidden 
wealth. While he was examining that place, with a candle 
made of human fat in his hand, the candle fell from his 
grasp. 2 By that sign he knew that treasure was concealed 
there, and he attempted to dig it up with the help of some 
other Brahmans, his friends. 

1 For treasures and their guardians see Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, 
pp. 356-374- and p. 394 ; also JBartsch's Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrauche aus 
Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 243 et seq. Preller, in his Rbmiscke Mythologie, p. 488, 
has a note on incubones or treasure-guarding spirits. Treasures can often be 
acquired by stealing the caps worn by these incubones as a symbol of their 
secret and mysterious character. See also Grohmann, Sagen aus Bohmen, 
p. 29 et seq., and Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Mdrchen, p. 28. The bug- 
bears were no doubt much of the kind found in Schoppner's Sagenbuch der 

Bayerischen Lande, vol. i, p. 87. The most usual guardians of treasures in 

Eastern tales are serpents and dragons, the latter being also found extensively 
in Greek legends. See Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, p. 126w 2 . 


2 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


Then the Yaksha who was told off to guard that treasure, 
beholding that, came and related the whole circumstance 
to Virupaksha. And Virupaksha, in his wrath, gave the 
following command to the Yaksha : " Go and slay im- 
mediately those mean treasure-hunters." Then the Yaksha 
went and slew by his power those Brahmans, who were 
digging for treasure, before they had attained their object. 

Then the God of Wealth came to hear of it, and being 
angry, he said to Virupaksha : " Why did you, evil one, 
recklessly order the slaughter of a Brahman ? What will 
not poor people, who are struggling for a livelihood, 1 do out 
of desire for gain ? But they must be prevented by being 
terrified with various bugbears ; they must not be slain." 

When the God of Wealth had said this, he cursed that 
Virupaksha as follows : " Be born as a mortal on account 
of your wicked conduct." Then that Virupaksha, smitten 
with the curse, was born on the earth as the son of a certain 
Brahman, who lived on a royal grant. Then the Yakshini, 
his wife, implored the Lord of Wealth : " god, send me 
whither my husband has gone ; be merciful to me, for I 
cannot live without him." When the virtuous lady addressed 
this prayer to him, Vaisravana said : " Thou shalt descend, 
without being born, into the house of a female slave of that 
very Brahman in whose house thy husband is born. There 
thou shalt be united to that husband of thine, and by thy 
power he shall surmount his curse and return to my service." 

In accordance with this decree of Vaisravana that virtuous 
wife became a mortal maiden, and fell at the door of that 
Brahman's female slave's house. And the slave suddenly 
saw that maiden of marvellous beauty, and took her and ex- 
hibited her to her master, the Brahman. And the Brahman 
rejoiced, and said to the female slave : " This is without 
doubt some heavenly maiden not born in the ordinary way ; 
so my soul tells me. Bring here this girl who has entered 
your house, for, I think, she deserves to be my son's wife." 
Then in course of time that girl and the son of the Brahman, 
having grown up, were smitten with ardent reciprocal 
affection at the sight of one another. Then they were 

1 There is probably a pun too on varti, "the wick of a lamp." 


married by the Brahman ; and the couple, though they did 
not remember their previous birth, felt as if a long separation 
had been brought to an end. Then at last the Yaksha died, 
and as his wife burnt herself with his mortal body his sins 
were wiped away by her sufferings and he regained his former 

[M] " Thus, you see, heavenly beings, on account of 
certain causes, descend from heaven to the earth, by the 
appointment of fate, and, because they are free from sin, 
they are not born in the usual way. What does this girl's 
family matter to you ? So this daughter of Kalingasena is, 
as I said, the wife appointed for your son by destiny." 

When Yaugandharayana had said this to the King of 
Vatsa and the Queen Vasavadatta, they both consented in 
their hearts that it should be so. Then the prime minister 
returned to his house, and the king, in the company of 
his wife, spent the day happily, in drinking and other 

Then, as time went on, that daughter of Kalingasena, 
who had lost her recollection of her former state through 
illusion, gradually grew up, and her dower of beauty grew 
with her ; and her mother and her attendants gave her the 
name of Madanamanchuka, because she was the daughter 
of Madanavega, saying : " Surely the beauty of all other 
lovely women has fled to her, else how could they have 
become ugly before her ? " 

And the Queen Vasavadatta, hearing she was beautiful, 
one day had her brought into her presence out of curiosity. 
Then the king and Yaugandharayana and his fellows beheld 
her clinging to the face of her nurse, as the candle-flame clings 
to the wick. And there was no one present who did not think 
that she was an incarnation of Rati when they beheld her 
matchless body, which was like nectar to their eyes. And 
then the Queen Vasavadatta brought there her son Narava- 
hanadatta, who was a feast to the eyes of the world. He 
beheld, with the lotus of his face expanded, the gleaming 
Madanamanchuka, as the bed of water-lilies beholds the 


young splendour of the sun. The girl gazed with dilated 
countenance upon that gladdener of the eyes, and could not 
gaze enough, as the female partridge can never be sated with 
gazing on the moon. Henceforth these two children could 
not remain apart even for a moment, being, as it were, 
fastened together with the nooses of glances. 

But in the course of time the King of Vatsa came to 
the conclusion that that marriage was made in heaven, 1 and 
turned his mind to the solemnisation of the nuptials. When 
Kalingasena heard that she rejoiced, and fixed her affection 
upon Naravahanadatta out of love for her daughter's future 
husband. And then the King of Vatsa, after deliberating 
with his ministers, had made for his son a separate palace 
like his own. Then that king, who could discern times and 
seasons, collected the necessary utensils and anointed his 
son as Crown Prince, since it was apparent that he possessed 
all praiseworthy qualities. First there fell on his head the 
water of his father's tears, and then the water of holy bathing- 
places, purified by Vaidik spells of mickle might. When 
the lotus of his face was washed with the water of inaugura- 
tion, wonderful to say, the faces of the cardinal points 
became also clear. When his mother threw on him flowers 
of the auspicious garlands, the heaven immediately shed a 
rain of many celestial wreaths. As if in emulation of the 
thunder of the drums of the gods, the echoes of the sound 
of the cymbals floated in the air. Everyone there bowed 
before him as soon as he was inaugurated as Crown Prince ; 
then by that alone he was exalted, without his own power. 

Then the King of Vatsa summoned the good sons of the 
ministers, who were the playfellows of his son, and appointed 
them to their offices as servants to the Crown Prince. He 
The Princes appointed to the office of the prime minister 
Servants are Marubhuti, the son of Yaugandharayana, and 
appointed then Harislkha, the son of Rumanvat,'to the 
office of commander-in-chief, and he appointed Tapantaka, 
the son of Vasantaka, as the companion of his lighter hours, 
and Gomukha, the son of Ityaka, to the duty of chamberlain 
and warder, and to the office of domestic chaplains the two 

1 Literally, "made by the gods." 


sons of Pingalika, Vaisvanara and Santisoma, the nephews of 
the king's family priest. 

When these men had been appointed by the king as 
servants to his son, there was heard from heaven a voice, 
preceded by a rain of flowers : " These ministers shall 
accomplish all things prosperously for the prince, and 
Gomukha shall be his inseparable companion." When the 
heavenly voice had said this, the delighted King of Vatsa 
honoured them all with clothes and ornaments ; and while 
that king was showering wealth upon his dependents, none 
of them could claim the title of poor on account of the ac- 
cumulation of riches. And the city was filled with dancing- 
girls and minstrels, who seemed to be invited by the rows of 
silken streamers fanned and agitated by the wind. 

Then Kalingasena came to the feast of her future son-in- 
law, looking like the Fortune of the Vidyadhara race which 
was to attend him, present in bodily form. Then Vasava- 
datta and Padmavati and she danced, all three of them, for 
joy, like the three powers 1 of a king united together. And 
all the trees there seemed to dance, as their creepers waved 
in the wind; much more did the creatures possessing sense. 

Then the Crown Prince Naravahanadatta, having been 
inaugurated in his office, ascended an elephant of victory 
and went forth. And he was sprinkled by the city wives 
with their upcast eyes, blue, white and red, resembling 
offerings of blue lotuses, parched grain and water-lilies. 
And after visiting the gods worshipped in that city, being 
praised by heralds and minstrels, he entered his palace with 
his ministers. Then Kalingasena gave him, to begin with, 
celestial viands and drinks far exceeding what his own 
magnificence could supply, and she presented to him and his 
ministers, friends and servants, beautiful robes and heavenly 
ornaments, for she was overpowered with love for her son- 
in-law. So the day passed in high festivity for all these, 
the King of Vatsa and the others, charming as the taste of 

Then the night arrived, and Kalingasena, pondering over 

1 I.e. prabhutva, "the majesty or pre-eminence of the king himself"; 
mantra, "the power of good counsel"; utsaha, "energy." 


her daughter's marriage, called to mind her friend Soma- 
prabha. No sooner had she called to mind the daughter 
of the Asura Maya than her husband, the much-knowing 
Nadakiivara, thus addressed that noble lady, his wife : 
" Dear one, Kalingasena is now thinking on thee with long- 
ing ; therefore go and make a heavenly garden for her 
daughter." Having said this, and revealed the future and 
past history of that maiden, her husband dismissed that 
instant his wife Somaprabha. 

And when she arrived her friend Kalingasena threw her 
arms round her neck, having missed her so long, and Soma- 
prabha, after asking after her health, said to her : " You 
have been married by a Vidyadhara of great power, and your 
daughter is an incarnation of Rati by the favour of Siva, 
and she has been brought into the world as the wife, in a 
previous state of existence, of an incarnation of Love, that 
has taken his birth from the King of Vatsa. He shall be 
Emperor of the Vidyadharas for a Kalpa of the gods ; and 
she shall be honoured above his other wives. But you have 
descended into this world, being an Apsaras degraded by 
the curse of Indra, and after you have brought your duties 
to completion you shall obtain deliverance from your curse. 
All this was told me, my friend, by my wise husband, so you 
must not be anxious ; you will enjoy every prosperity. And 
The Heavenly I will now make here for your daughter a heavenly 
Garden garden, the like of which does not exist on earth, 

in heaven, or in the nether regions." Having said this, 
Somaprabha made a heavenly garden by her magic power, 
and taking leave of the regretful Kalingasena, she departed. 
Then, at the dawn of day, people beheld that garden, look- 
ing like the garden of Nandana suddenly fallen down from 
heaven to earth. 

Then the King of Vatsa heard of it, and came there with 
his wives and his ministers, and Naravahanadatta with his 
companions. And they beheld that garden, the trees of 
which bore both flowers and fruits all the year round, 1 with 
many jewelled pillars, walls, lawns and tanks ; with birds 
of the colour of gold, with heavenly perfumed breezes, like 

1 Cf. Odyssey, vii, 1 1 6 ; Spenser's Faerie Queene, iii, 6, 42. 


a second Svarga descended to earth from the region of the 

The Lord of Vatsa, when he saw that wonderful sight, 
asked Kalingasena, who was intent on hospitality, what it 
was. And she thus answered the king in the hearing of all : 
" There is a great Asura, Maya by name, an incarnation of 
Visvakarman, who made the assembly hall of Yudhishthira 
and the city of Indra ; he has a daughter, Somaprabha by 
name, who is a friend of mine. She came here at night to 
visit me, and out of love made this heavenly garden by her 
magic power, for the sake of my daughter." 

After saying this, she told all the past and future fortunes 
of her daughter, which Somaprabha had revealed to her, let- 
ting the king know that she had heard them from her friend. 
Then all there, perceiving that the speech of Kalingasena 
tallied with what they previously knew, dismissed their 
doubts and were exceedingly delighted. And the King of 
Vatsa, with his wives and his son, spent that day in the 
garden, being hospitably entertained by Kalingasena. 

The next day the king went to visit a god in a temple, 
and he saw many women well clothed and with beautiful 
ornaments. And when he asked them who they were they 
said to him : " We are the sciences and these are the accom- 
plishments ; and we are come here on account of your son : 
we shall now go and enter into him." Having said this, 
they disappeared, and the King of Vatsa entered his house 
astonished. There he told it to the Queen Vasavadatta 
and to the circle of his ministers, and they rejoiced at that 
favour of the deity. 

Then Vasavadatta, by the direction of the king, took up 
a lyre as soon as Naravahanadatta entered the room. And 
while his mother was playing, Naravahanadatta said modestly 
to her: " This lyre is out of tune." His father said : "Take 
it and play on it." Whereupon he played upon the lyre so 
as to astonish even the Gandharvas. When he was thus 
tested by his father in all the sciences and the accomplish- 
ments, he became endowed with them all, and of himself 
knew all knowledge. 

When the King of Vatsa beheld his son endowed with 


all talents, he taught Madanamanchuka, the daughter of 
Kalingasena, dancing. As fast as she became perfect in 
accomplishments x the heart of the Prince Naravahanadatta 
was disturbed. So the sea is disturbed, as fast as the orb 
of the moon rounds off its digits. And he delighted in be- 
holding her singing and dancing, accomplished in all the 
gestures of the body, so that she seemed to be reciting the 
decrees of love. As for her, if she did not see for a moment 
that nectar-like lover, the tears rose to her eyes and she was 
like a bed of white lotuses, wet with dew at the hour of 
dawn. 2 

And Naravahanadatta, being unable to live without con- 
tinually beholding her face, came to that garden of hers. 
There he remained, and Kalingasena, out of affection, did all 
she could to please him, bringing her daughter to him. And 
Gomukha, who saw into his master's heart, and wished to 
bring about his long stay there, used to tell various tales 
to Kalingasena. The prince was delighted by his friend's 
penetrating his intentions, for seeing into one's lord's soul 
is the surest way of winning him. 

And Naravahanadatta himself perfected Madanaman- 
chuka in dancing and other accomplishments, giving her 
lessons in a concert hall that stood in the garden, and while 
his beloved danced he played on all instruments, so as to put 
to the blush the most skilful minstrels. And he conquered 
also various professors that came from all quarters and were 
skilful in managing elephants, horses and chariots, in the 
use of hand-to-hand and missile weapons, in painting and 
modelling. 3 In these amusements passed during childhood 
the days of Naravahanadatta, who was the chosen bridegroom 
of Science. 

Now once on a time the prince, with his ministers, and 
accompanied by his beloved, went on a pilgrimage to a 
garden called Nagavana. There a certain merchant's wife 
fell in love with Gomukha, and being repulsed, tried to kill 

1 The pun lies in the word kalTi, which means "accomplishment," and 
also "a sixteenth of the moon's diameter." 

2 This lotus is a friend of the moon's and bewails its absence. 

3 Or perhaps books. 



him by offering to him a poisoned drink. 1 But Gomukha 
came to hear of it from the lips of her confidante, and did 
not take that drink, but broke out into the following de- 
nunciation of women: "Alas! the Creator first created 
recklessness^ and then women in imitation of it ; by nature 
nothing is too bad for them to do. Surely this being they 
call woman is created of nectar and poison, for when she 
is attached to one she is nectar, and when estranged she is 
indeed poison. Who can see through a woman with loving 
face secretly planning crime ? A wicked woman is like a 
lotus-bed with its flowers expanded and an alligator concealed 
in it. But now and then there falls from heaven, urging on 
a host of virtues, a good woman that brings praise to her 
husband, like the pure light of the sun. But another, of 
evil augury, attached to strangers, not free from inordinate 
desires, wicked, bearing the poison of aversion, 2 slays her 
husband like a female snake. 

48. Story of Satrughna and his Wicked Wife 

For instance, in a certain village there was a man named 
Satrughna, and his wife was unchaste. He once saw in the 
evening his wife in the society of her lover, and he slew that 
lover of hers, when he was in the house, with his sword. 
And he remained at the door waiting for the night, keeping 
his wife inside, and at nightfall a traveller came there to ask 
for a lodging. He gave him refuge, and artfully carried away 
with his help the corpse of that adulterer at night, and went 
with it to the forest. And there, while he was throwing that 
corpse into a well, the mouth of which was overgrown with 
plants, his wife came behind him and pushed him in also. 

[M] " What reckless crime of this kind will not a wicked 
wife commit ? " In these words Gomukha, though still a 
boy, denounced the conduct of women. 

1 For a note on the motif, " Women whose Love is Scorned," see Vol. II, 
pp. 120-124. n.m.p, 

2 I read viraga-vishabhrid. 


Then Naravahanadatta himself worshipped the snakes 
in that grove of snakes, 1 and went back to his palace with 
his retinue. 

While he was there he desired one day to prove his 
ministers, Gomukha and the others, so he asked them, 
though he himself knew it well, for a summary of the policy 
of princes. They consulted among themselves, and said : 
" You know all things ; nevertheless we will tell you this, 
now that you ask us," and so they proceeded to relate the 
cream of political science 2 : 

" A king should first tame and mount the horses of the 
senses, and should conquer those internal foes, love, anger, 
avarice and delusion, and should subdue himself as a prep- 
aration for subduing other enemies, for how can a man who 
has not conquered himself, being helpless, conquer others ? 
Then he should procure ministers who, among other good 
qualities, possess that of being natives of his own country, 
and a skilful family priest, knowing the Atharva-Veda, gifted 
with asceticism. He should test his ministers with respect 

1 I.e. Nagavana. For serpent-worship see Tylor's Primitive Culture, 
vol. ii, pp. 2 1 7-220. The author of Sagas from the Far East remarks : " Serpent- 
cultus was of very ancient observance, and is practised by both followers of 
Brahmanism and Buddhism. The Brahmans seem to have desired to show 
their disapproval of it by placing the serpent-gods in the lower ranks of 
their mythology (Lassen, i, 544w 2 and 707). This cultus, however, seems to 
have received a fresh development about the time of A3oka, circa 250 b.c. 
(vol. ii, p. 467). When Madhyantika went into Kashmir and Gandhara to 
teach Buddhism after the holding of the third synod, it is mentioned that he 
found sacrifices to serpents practised there (ii, 234, 235). There is a passage 
in Plutarch from which it appears to have been the custom to sacrifice an old 
woman (previously condemned to death for some crime) to the serpent-gods 
by burying her alive on the banks of the Indus (ii, 467n 4 ). Ktesias also 
mentions the serpent-worship (ii, 642). In Buddhist legends serpents are 
often mentioned as protecting patrons of certain towns" [Sagas front the Far 
East, p. 355). See also Mr F. S. Growse's Mat hum: A District Memoir, p. 71. 

See also the references already given in Vol. I, pp. 144/* 1 , 203, 204 ; and 

Vol. II, p. 307w 2 , to which I would add Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-Lore, 
vol. ii, pp. 125-145; C. Staniland Wake, Serpent -Worship and other Essays, 
London, 1888; Anonymous, Ophiolatreia, privately printed, London, 188<). 
See also the Index Volume of Frazer's Golden Bough under "Serpent" and 
" Serpents," p. 455. n.m.p. 

2 For the duties of kings see Kautilya's Arthasastra (trans. Shamasastry, 
1915), Book I, chaps, xix, xx, xxi, pp. 42-50. n.m.p. 


to fear, avarice, virtue and passion, by ingenious artifices, 
and then he should appoint them to appropriate duties, 
discerning their hearts. He should try their speech, when 
they are deliberating with one another on affairs, to see if it 
is truthful, or inspired by malice, spoken out of affection, or 
connected with selfish objects. 

" He should be pleased with truth, but should punish 
untruth as it deserves, and he should continually inquire into 
the conduct of each of them by means of spies. Thus he 
should look at business with unhooded eye, and by rooting 
up opponents, 1 and acquiring a treasure, a force and the 
other means of success, should establish himself firmly 
on the throne. Then, equipped with the three powers of 
courage, kingly authority and counsel, he should be eager 
to conquer the territory of others, considering the difference 
between the power of himself and his foe. He should con- 
tinually take counsel with advisers, who should be trusty, 
learned and wise, and should correct with his own intellect 
the policy determined on by them in all its details. Being 
versed in the means of success 2 (conciliation, bribery and 
the others), he should attain for himself security, and he 
should then employ the six proper courses, of which alliance 
and war are the chief. 3 

" Thus a king acquires prosperity, and as long as he 
carefully considers his own realm, and that of his rival, he is 
victorious but never vanquished. But an ignorant monarch, 
blind with passion and avarice, is plundered by wicked 
servants, who show him the wrong path and, leading him 
astray, fling him into pits. On account of these rogues a 
servant of another kind is never admitted into the presence 
of the king, as a husbandman cannot get at a crop of rice 
enclosed with a palisade. For he is enslaved by those 
faithless servants, who penetrate into his secrets ; and con- 
sequently Fortune in disgust flies from him, because he does 

1 Literally, " thorns." 

2 The upayas which are usually enumerated are four viz. sowing 
dissension, negotiation, bribery and open attack. 

3 The six gunas peace, war, march, halt, stratagem and recourse to the 
protection of a mightier king. 


not know the difference between man and man. Therefore 
a king should conquer himself, should inflict due chastise- 
ment, and know the difference of men's characters, for in 
this way he will acquire his subjects' love and become thereby 
a vessel of prosperity. 

" In old time a king named Surasena, who relied implicitly 
upon his servants, was enslaved and plundered by his 
ministers, who had formed a coalition. Whoever was a 
Kin* Surasena faithful servant to the king the ministers would 
and his not give even a straw to, though the king wished 

Ministers ^ Q Des tow a reward upon him ; but if any man 
was a faithful servant to them, they themselves gave him 
presents, and by their representations induced the king to 
give to him, though he was undeserving. When the king 
saw that, he gradually came to be aware of that coalition of 
rogues, and set those ministers at variance with one another 
by a clever artifice. When they were estranged, and the 
clique was broken up, and they began to inform against one 
another, the king ruled the realm successfully, without being 
deceived by others. 

" And there was a king named Harisinha, of ordinary 
power, but versed in the true science of policy, who had 
surrounded himself with devoted and wise ministers, pos- 
King sessed forts and stores of wealth ; he made his 

Harisinha subjects devoted to him, and conducted him- 
self in such a way that, though attacked by an emperor, 
he was not defeated. Thus discernment and reflection are 
the main things in governing a kingdom : what is of more 
importance ? " 

Having said this, each taking his part, Gomukha and 
his fellows ceased. Naravahanadatta, approving that speech 
of theirs, though he knew that heroic action is to be thought 
upon, 1 still placed his reliance upon destiny, whose power 
surpasses all thought. 

Then he rose up, and his ardour being kindled by delay, 
he went with them to visit his beloved Madanamanchuka ; 
when he had reached her palace, and was seated on a throne, 
Kalingasena, after performing the usual courtesies, said with 

1 I read abhuagat with a MS. in the Sanskrit College. 

astonishment * to Gomukha : " Before the Prince Narava- 
hanadatta arrived, Madanamanchuka, being impatient, went 
to the top of the palace to watch him coming, accompanied 
by me, and while we were there a man descended from 
heaven upon it. He was of divine appearance, wore a tiara 
and a sword, and said to me : c I am a king, a lord of the 
Vidyadharas named Manasavega, and you are a heavenly 
nymph named Surabhidatta, who by a curse have fallen 
down to earth, and this your daughter is of heavenly origin ; 
this is known to me well. So give me this daughter of yours 
in marriage, for the connection is a suitable one.' When 
he said this, I suddenly burst out laughing, and said to him : 
* Naravahanadatta has been appointed her husband by the 
gods, and he is to be the Emperor of all you Vidyadharas.' 
When I said this to him the Vidyadhara flew up into the 
sky, like a sudden streak of lightning dazzling the eyes of 
my daughter." 

When Gomukha heard that, he said : " The Vidyadharas 
found out that the prince was to be their future lord from a 
speech in the air, by which the future birth of the prince was 
made known to the king in private, and they immediately 
desired to do him a mischief. What self-willed one would 
desire a mighty lord as his ruler and restrainer ? For which 
reason Siva has made arrangements to ensure the safety 
of this prince by commissioning his attendants to wait on 
him in actual presence. I heard this speech of Narada's 
being related by my father. So it comes to pass that the 
Vidyadharas are now hostile to us." 

When Kalingasena heard this, she was terrified at the 
thought of what had happened to herself, and said : " Why 
does not the prince marry Madanamanchuka now, before 
she is deceived, like me, by delusion ? " When Gomukha 
and the others heard this from Kalingasena, they said : 
"Do you stir up the King of Vatsa to this business." 

Then Naravahanadatta, with his heart fixed on Madana- 
manchuka only, amused himself by looking at her in the 
garden all that day, with her face like a full-blown lotus, with 
her eyes like opening blue water-lilies, with lips lovely as the 

1 I read vismita with a MS. in the Sanskrit College. 


bandhuka, with breasts like clusters of ma?iddras 9 with body- 
delicate as the sirtsha, like a matchless arrow, composed of 
five flowers, appointed by the God of Love for the conquest 
of the world. 

The next day Kalingasena went in person and preferred 
her petition to the king for the marriage of her daughter. 
The King of Vatsa dismissed her, and, summoning his 
ministers, said to them in the presence of the Queen Vasava- 
datta : " Kalingasena is impatient for the marriage of her 
daughter : so how are we to manage it ? for the people 
think that that excellent woman is unchaste. And we 
must certainly consider the people ; did not Ramabhadra 
long ago desert Queen Sita, though she was chaste, on 
account of the slander of the multitude ? Was not Amba, 
though carried off with great effort by Bhishma for the 
sake of his brother, reluctantly abandoned because she 
had previously chosen another husband ? In the same way 
this Kalingasena, after spontaneously choosing me, was 
married by Madanavega ; for this reason the people blame 
her. Therefore let this Naravahanadatta himself marry by 
the gdndharva ceremony her daughter, who will be a suitable 
wife for him." 

When the King of Vatsa said this, Yaugandharayana 
answered : " My lord, how could Kalingasena consent to 
this impropriety ? For I have often observed that she, as 
well as her daughter, is a divine being, no ordinary woman, 
and this was told me by my wise friend the Brahman- 

While they were debating with one another in this style 
the voice of Siva was heard from heaven to the following 
effect : " The God of Love, after having been consumed by 
the fire of my eye, has been created again in the form 
of Naravahanadatta, and having been pleased with the 
asceticism of Rati, I have created her as his wife in the form 
of Madanamanchuka. And dwelling with her as his head wife 
he shall exercise supreme sovereignty over the Vidyadharas 
for a Kalpa of the gods, after conquering his enemies by 
my favour." After saying this the voice ceased. 

When he heard this speech of the adorable Siva, the King 


of Vatsa, with his retinue, worshipped him, and joyfully 
made up his mind to celebrate the marriage of his son. 
Then the king congratulated his prime minister, who had 
before discerned the truth, and summoned the astrologers 
and asked them what would be a favourable moment, and 
they, after being honoured with presents, told him that 
a favourable moment would arrive within a few days. 
Again those astrologers said to him : " Your son will have 
to endure some separation for a short season from this wife 
of his ; this we know, O Lord of Vatsa, by our own scientific 

Then the king proceeded to make the requisite prepara- 
tions for the marriage of his son, in a style suited to his own 
magnificence, so that not only his own city but the whole 
The Marriage earth was made to tremble with the effort of 
Preparations ft a Then, the day of marriage having arrived, 
Kalingasena adorned her daughter, to whom her father had 
sent his own heavenly ornaments, and Somaprabha came in 
obedience to her husband's order. Then Madanamanchuka, 
adorned with a heavenly marriage-thread, looked still more 
lovely : is not the moon truly beautiful when accompanied 
by Kartika ? And heavenly nymphs, by the order of Siva, 
sang auspicious strains in her honour : they were eclipsed 
by her beauty and remained hidden as if ashamed, but the 
sound of their songs was heard. They sang the following 
hymn in honour of Gauri, blended with the minstrelsy of 
the matchless musicians of heaven, so as to make unequalled 
harmony : " Victory to thee, O daughter of the mountain, 
that hast mercy on thy faithful votaries, for thou hast 
thyself come to-day and blessed with success the asceticism 
of Rati." 

Then Naravahanadatta, resplendent with excellent 
marriage- thread, entered the wedding pavilion full of various 
musical instruments. And the bride and bridegroom, after 
accomplishing the auspicious ceremony of marriage, with 
intent care, so that no rite was left out, ascended the altar- 
platform, where a fire was burning, as if ascending the pure 
flame of jewels on the heads of kings. If the moon and the 
sun were to revolve at the same time round the mountain 


of gold * there would be an exact representation in the world 
of the appearance of those two, the bride and the bride- 
groom, when circumambulating the fire, keeping it on their 
right. 2 Not only did the drums of the gods in the air 
drown the cymbal- clang in honour of the marriage festival, 
but the rain of flowers sent down by the gods overwhelmed 
the gilt grain 3 thrown by the women. 

Then also the generous Kalingasena honoured her son- 
in-law with heaps of gold studded with jewels, so that the 
lord of Alaka was considered very poor compared with 
him, and much more so all miserable earthly monarchs. 
And then the bride and bridegroom, now that the delightful 
ceremony of marriage was accomplished in accordance with 
their long- cherished wishes, entered the inner apartments 
crowded with women, adorned with pure and variegated 
decoration, even as they penetrated the heart of the people 
full of pure and various loyalty. Moreover, the city of 
the King of Vatsa was quickly filled with kings, surrounded 
with splendid armies, who, though their valour was worthy 
of the world's admiration, had bent in submission, bringing 
in their hands valuable jewels by way of presents, as if with 
subject seas. 4 

On that high day of festival the king distributed gold 
with such magnificence to his dependents that the children 
in their mothers' wombs were at any rate the only beings 
in his kingdom not made of gold. 5 Then, on account of the 
troops of excellent minstrels and dancing-girls, that came 
from all quarters of the world, with hymns, music, dances 
and songs on all sides, the world seemed full of harmony. 

1 I.e. Mount Sumeru. The moon being masculine in Sanskrit, the words 
" form of the moon " are used in the original, to satisfy the requirements 
of classical Hindu rhetoric, according to which feminine things cannot be 
compared to masculine. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193. n.m.p. 

3 The D. text reads homa-laja, " sacrificial grain." n.m.p. 

* The sea is always spoken of as full of "inestimable stones, unvalued 
jewels." There is a double meaning throughout. Sadvdhini, when applied to 
the sea, may mean "beautiful rivers." 

5 Jdtarupa also means "having assumed a form," so that there is another 
pun here. I read abhavan for abhavad, in accordance with a MS. lent me from 
the Sanskrit College. 


And at that festival the city of Kausambi seemed itself to be 
dancing, for the pennons, agitated by the wind, seemed like 
twining arms, and it was beautiful with the toilettes of the 
city matrons, as if with ornaments. 

And thus waxing in mirth every day, that great festival 
continued for a long time, and all friends and relations, and 
people generally, were delighted by it, and had their wishes 
marvellously fulfilled. And that Crown Prince Naravahana- 
datta, accompanied by Madanamanchuka, enjoyed, though 
intent on glory, the long-desired pleasures of this world. 



For the candle of human fat see Benfey, Orient und Occident, vol. i, p. 383, 
and Bartsch, Sagen, M'drchen und Gebrduche aus Meklenburg, vol. ii, pp. 333 
and 335. Cf also Birlinger, Aus Schwaben, pp. 251, 262-270. It appears 
from Henderson's FoUc-Lore of the Northern Counties that in Europe a candle 
of human fat is used with the " Hand of Glory " by robbers for the purpose 
of preventing the inmates of a house from awaking. He gives several in- 
stances of its use. The following will serve as a specimen : " On the night of 
the 3rd of January 1831 some Irish thieves attempted to commit a robbery on 
the estate of Mr Napier of Loughcrew, Co. Meath. They entered the house 
armed with a dead man's hand with a lighted candle in it, believing in the 
superstitious notion that a candle placed in a dead man's hand will not be 
seen by any but those by whom it is used, and also that if a candle in a dead 
hand be introduced into a house, it will prevent those who may be asleep from 
awaking. The inmates, however, were alarmed, and the robbers fled, leaving 
the hand behind them." The composition of the candle is evident from the 
following extract from the Dictionnaire Infernal of Colin de Planey : " The 
1 Hand of Glory ' is the hand of a man who has been hanged, and is prepared 
in the following manner. Wrap the hand in a piece of winding-sheet, drawing 
it tight to squeeze out the little blood which may remain ; then place it in 
an earthenware vessel with saltpetre, salt and long pepper all carefully and 
thoroughly powdered. Let it remain a fortnight in this pickle, till it is well 
dried, then expose it to the sun in the dog-days till it is completely parched, 
or if the sun be not powerful enough, dry it in an oven heated with vervain 
and fern. Next make a candle with the fat of a hanged man, virgin wax, and 
Lapland sesame. The ' Hand of Glory ' is used to hold this candle when it is 
lighted. Wherever one goes with this contrivance, those it approaches are 
rendered as incapable of motion as though they were dead." Southey in 
Book V of his Thalaba the Destroyer represents a hand and taper of this kind 
as used to lull to sleep Zohak, the giant keeper of the caves of Babylon 
(see the extracts from Grose and Torquemada in the notes to Southey's poem). 
Dousterswivel in Sir Walter Scott's Antiquary tells us that the monks used the 
" Hand of Glory " to conceal their treasures (Henderson's Folk-Lore of the 
Northern Counties of England and the Borders, p. 200 et seq.\ 

The extracts from Grose and Torquemada mentioned in Tawney's 

note above need further comment. Francis Grose's work referred to is his 
Provincial Glossary, with a Collection of Local Proverbs and Popular Superstitions, 
London, 1811. Here we are told of the magical powers of the dried and 
pickled hand of a dead man, especially that of a criminal, and how everyone 
in the house continued sleeping, but, it is added, if anyone was awake in the 
house, it would at once be discovered by the fact that it would be impossible 
to light the thumb. Thus we see that in this case the fingers themselves 
were lit and not a candle held in the hand. 

F. Juan de Torquemada, in his Monarquia Indiana, mentions a similar 


superstition in Mexico regarding the left hand and arm of a woman who had 
died in her first child-bed. 

The subject is interesting, and warrants more attention than appears to 
have been given to it hitherto. 

There seem to be two distinct ideas connected with the use of the dead 
man's hand and the candle of human fat. The first, and much older, idea 
is that of homoeopathic magic of the dead, as practised in so many parts of 
the world ; and the second is the outcome of the various magical properties 
attributed to the mandrake, beginning in the Mediterranean region and 
gradually percolating through to the British Isles. 

Let us look at the homoeopathic magic of the dead first. We have 
already seen (Vol. I, p. 130) that the "external soul" motif is derived from 
the doctrine of sympathetic magic, according to which any portion of a living 
being, though severed, remains in mystic union with the bulk, and is affected 
by whatever affects the bulk. 

Again, in discussing the "overhearing" motif (Vol. II, pp. In 1 , 8n), I 
pointed out that the origin of acquiring the power of a victim could possibly 
be traced to a similar source. The eating of a portion of the animal or man 
would convey the required quality of the dead to the eater. Thus warriors 
of the Theddora and Ngarigo tribes in South-Eastern Australia used to eat 
the hands and feet of their slain enemies, believing that in this way they 
acquired some of the qualities and courage of the dead (A. W. Howitt, Native 
Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 573, quoted by Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. viii, 
p. 151, who gives several other examples). Working upon this idea, it is 
considered possible to use a portion of a dead person for nefarious ends. 
Frazer (op. cit., vol. i, pp. 147-14-9) explains this clearly : just as the dead can 
neither see nor hear nor speak, so you may on homoeopathic principles render 
people blind, deaf and dumb by the use of dead men's bones or anything else 
that is tainted by the infection of death. 

Among the examples quoted I would mention one from Java where a 
burglar takes earth from a grave and sprinkles it round the house which 
he intends to rob; this throws the inmates into a deep sleep (J. Knebel, 
"Amulettes javanaises," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-Land en Volkenkunde, 
xl, 1898, p. 506). 

Similarly, in Northern India, Crooke (op. cit., vol. i, p. 26l) states that 
it is believed when thieves enter a house that they throw over the inmates 
some Masan, or ashes, from a pyre, and make them unconscious while the 
robbery is going on. 

In Europe we find numerous similar beliefs (see Frazer, op. cit., p. 148 
et seq.). In a certain Ruthenian custom we get rather nearer our candle of 
human fat. Ruthenian burglars remove the marrow from a human shin-bone, 
pour tallow into it, and having kindled the tallow, march thrice round the 
house, with this candle burning, which causes the inmates to sleep a death- 
like sleep. Sometimes they will make a flute out of a human legbone and 
play upon it, whereupon all persons within hearing are overcome with 
drowsiness (R. F. Kaindl, " Zauberglaube bei den Rutenen," Globus, lxi, 1892, 
p. 282). 


All kinds of powers are attributed to fat or juices from the human 
body. In India a most potent charm, known as Momiai, can be obtained as 
follows : a boy, as fat and black as possible, is caught, a small hole is bored 
in the top of his head, and he is hung up by the heels over a slow fire. The 
juice or essence of his body is in this way distilled into seven drops of what 
is then called Momiai. This substance possesses healing properties of a 
supernatural kind. Sword-cuts, spear-thrusts, wounds from arrows and other 
weapons of warfare are instantly cured by its use, and he who possesses it 
is practically invulnerable. In Kumaun this substance is known as Narayan 
Tel, or Ram Tel, the "oil of Vishnu or llama " (Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 177). 

For numerous customs connected with the hand in homoeopathic magic 
see J. A. Macculloch, in Hastings' Ency, Rel. Eth., article " Hand," vol. vi, 
p. 496. 

In Europe there were many strange uses to which the hands, fingers, 
finger-joints, etc., of the dead could be put, to the benefit of the possessors. 
In the north of England it was believed that the only thing which could put 
out the " Hand of Glory " was milk. Thus, in the first of a collection of 
Yorkshire stories (collected by R. Blakeborough, and edited by J. Fairfax- 
Blakeborough, in 1924, entitled The Hand of Glory), we read of the servant 
girl's efforts to pour milk on the candle : "She straightway poured the whole 
of the contents of her jug over the hand and candle, the flame turned scarlet, 
the fingers twitched, then released their hold, and the taper fell with the 
light out." 

A somewhat similar legend is told, says the editor, of the Spital Inn, 
Stainmoor, a posting-house on the York-Carlisle Road. In this case the 
highwayman's incantation was overheard : 

" Let those who rest more deeply sleep ; 
Let those awake their vigils keep. 
O Hand of Glory, shed thy light, 
Direct us to our spoil to-night. 
Flash out thy light, O skeleton hand, 
And guide the feet of our trusty band." 

It is also stated that the " Hand of Glory " would cease to take effect, 
and thieves could not make use of it, if the threshold of the door of the house, 
and other places by which they might enter, were anointed with an unguent 
composed of the gall of a black cat, the fat of a white hen and the blood of 
a screech-owl ; which mixture must necessarily be prepared during the dog- 
days (quoted by Brand, Popular Antiquities of Great Britain, 189S, vol. iii, 
p. 279)- See also Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 405- 
409; Waldau, Bohmische Marchen, p. 360 ; and Kuhn, Westjalische Mdrchen, 
vol. i, p. 146. 

In the Middle Ages it appears that the most potent form of candle was 
that of a newly born child, which, anointed with grease and ignited, would 
make the thief invisible, and cause everyone in the house to fall fast asleep. 
In the seventeenth century it is recorded that, in order to get the most 


efficient candle possible, thieves were known to have murdered pregnant 
women in order to extract the unborn child's finger (see A. Wuttke, Der 
deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart, Berlin, 1900, p. 134; and references 
in Frazer, op. cit., vol. i, p. 149w 3 ). 

It seems very probable that all these modern survivals are partly the 
outcome of primitive ideas of homoeopathic magic, but there is also the second 
point to be considered the connection of the custom with the mandrake. 
That it has a very close connection is obvious on etymological grounds. 
The expression " Hand of Glory " is merely the translation of the French 
" Main de Gloire," which is a corruption of the old French Mandegloire 
i.e. mandragore, mandragora, the mandrake. 

A glance at the curious customs connected with this plant will show 
how closely they are allied to those of the " Hand of Glory " in North Britain. 

The plant itself is a native of the Levant, and is found in the Greek 
Islands of the Mediterranean. In a most interesting and important paper on 
"The Origin of the Cult of Aphrodite," Bidl. John Rylands Library, October to 
December 191 6 (and reprinted in his Ascent of Olympus), Dr J. Rendel Harris 
shows Aphrodite to be a personification of the mandrake or love-apple. It 
was, however, the root, and not the fruit, of the herb which entered so largely 
into European superstition and witchcraft. 

The most familiar mention of the mandrake is probably that in Genesis 
xxx, 14, where Rachel, having obtained Reuben's mandrakes, conceived and 
bore a son, Joseph. This is according to the original Hebrew tradition, and 
similar superstitions still linger in the Holy Land to-day. 

In Folk-Lore of the Old Testament, vol. ii, chap, vii, p. 372 et seq., Frazer 
has collected much useful material on mandrakes, so that there is no necessity 
to cover the ground again. It will suffice merely to say that owing to the 
peculiar shape of the root of the mandrake, in that it resembled the lower 
portion of the human body, all kinds of human attributes became attached to 
it. It gave forth terrible groans and yells when pulled up, usually causing 
death to the would-be possessor ; hence it was considered best to tie the tail 
of a dog to the root and entice the animal towards you the dog would be 
killed, but the herb would be yours. It was closely connected with death, 
and usually with that of a criminal, and originated in the juices from the 
hanged man's body. Hence it was always to be found under a gallows. 
This curious connection seems to have originated in mediaeval magical beliefs 
which saw in the strangely shaped root a diminutive replica of a human body 
the seed which germinated it being dropped on the ground from the hanged 
man. The powers attributed to the herb were many and varied. Some were 
particularly efficient in curing barrenness in women, and acted as love-charms ; 
others made the wearer invulnerable or inviolable, and most were capable of 
revealing the hidden treasures of the earth. 

It is very interesting to find the human-fat candle mentioned in 
Somadeva's tales, especially as it is connected with thieving ; but, as Bloom- 
field has shown ("Art of Stealing in Hindu Fiction," Amer. Journ. Phil., 
vol. xliv, 1923, pp. 118, 119), magical precautions enter largely into thieving 
practices of the East. 


Apart from the mandrake references given by Frazer, the following from 
Notes and Queries, 8th series, vol. iii, 24th June 1893, p. 498, will be found 
useful: Gerarde's Herbal, 1597; A. Dyce, Glossary to Shakespeare's Works; 
T. F. Thiselton-Dyer, Folk-Lore of Plants; A. S. Palmer, Folk Etymology; 
M. D. Conway, Mystic Trees and Flowers; Frazer s Magazine, 1870, vol. ii, 
p. 705 ; All the Year Round, 2nd series, vol. x, p. 520; vol. xxxvi, pp. 371, 
413 ; Dr Harris, Dictionary of the Natural History of the Bible ; Nares's Glossary, 
and Josephus's Wars of the Jews, cap. xxv, under " Baaras-root." 

There is a good collection of mandrakes at the Wellcome Historical and 
Medical Museum, Wigmore Street, W. The exhibit includes dried mandrakes, 
a specimen preserved in spirit, and numerous reproductions from old MSS. 
representing the " male " and " female " mandrakes, and showing the plant 
being uprooted by a dog as described above. n.m.p. 



MAY the head of Siva, studded with the nails of 
Gauri engaged in playfully pulling his hair, and 
so appearing rich in many moons, 1 procure you 

May the God of the Elephant Face, 2 who, stretching 
forth his trunk wet with streaming ichor, curved at the 
extremity, seems to be bestowing successes, protect you. 

[M] Thus the young son of the King of Vatsa, having 
married in Kausambi Madanamanchuka, whom he loved 
as his life, remained living as he chose, with his ministers 
Gomukha and others, having obtained his wish. 

And once on a time, when the feast of spring had arrived, 
adorned with the gushing notes of love- intoxicated cuckoos, 
in which the wind from the Malaya mountain set in motion 
by force the dance of the creepers, the feast of spring delight- 
ful with the hum of bees, the prince went to the garden with 
his ministers to amuse himself. After roaming about there, 
his friend Tapantaka suddenly came, with his eyes expanded 
with delight, and stepping up to him said : " Prince, I have 
seen not far from here a wonderful maiden, who has de- 
scended from heaven and is standing under an asoka-tree, 
and that very maiden, who illumines the regions with her 
beauty, advancing towards me with her friends, sent me here 
to summon you." 

1 The cedille under the c of candra should be erased in Dr Brockhaus's 

2 Ganesa, who bestows success or the reverse, and is invoked in all 
undertakings. I read karan danambhasa. 



When Naravahanadatta heard that, being eager to see 
her, he went quickly with his ministers to the foot of the tree. 
He beheld there that fair one, with her rolling eyes like bees, 
with her lips red like shoots, beautiful with breasts firm as 
clusters, having her body yellow with the dust of flowers, 
removing fatigue by her loveliness, 1 like the goddess of the 
garden appearing in a visible shape suited to her deity. 
And the prince approached the heavenly maiden, who bowed 
before him, and welcomed her, for his eyes were ravished 
with her beauty. 

Then his minister Gomukha, after all had sat down, asked 
her : " Who are you, auspicious one, and for what reason 
have you come here ? " When she heard that, she laid 
aside her modesty in obedience to the irresistible decree of 
Love, and frequently stealing sidelong glances at the lotus 
of Naravahanadatta 's face, with an eye that shed matchless 
affection, she began thus at length to relate her own history. 

49. Story of Ratnaprabhd 

There is a mountain- chain called Himavat, famous in 
the three worlds ; it has many peaks, but one of its peaks 
is the mount of Siva, which is garlanded with the brightness 
of glittering jewels, and flashes with gleaming snow, and, like 
the expanse of the heaven, cannot be measured. Its plateaux 
are the home of magic powers and of magic herbs, which 
dispel old age, death and fear, and are to be obtained by the 
favour of Siva. With its peaks yellow with the brightness 
of the bodies of many Vidyadharas, it transcends the glory of 
the peaks of Sumeru itself, the mighty hill of the immortals. 

On it there is a golden city called Kanchanasringa, which 
gleams refulgent with brightness, like the palace of the Sun. 
It extends many yojanas, 2 and in it there lives a king of the 
Vidyadharas named Hemaprabha, who is a firm votary of 
the husband of Uma. And though he has many wives he 
has only one queen, whom he loves dearly, named Alankara- 
prabha, as dear to him as Rohini to the moon. With her 
the virtuous king used to rise up in the morning and bathe, 

1 The word also means "shade." 2 See Vol. I, p. Sn 1 . n.m.p: 


and worship duly Siva and his wife Gauri, and then he would 
descend to the world of men, and give to poor Brahmans 
every day a thousand gold pieces mixed with jewels. And 
then he returned from earth and attended to his kingly 
duties justly, and then he ate and drank, abiding by his vow 
like a hermit. 

While days elapsed in this way, melancholy arose once 
in the bosom of the king, caused by his childlessness, but 
suggested by a passing occasion. And his beloved Queen 
Alankaraprabha, seeing that he was in very low spirits, asked 
him the cause of his sadness. Then the king said to her : 
" I have all prosperity, but the one grief of childlessness 
afflicts me, O Queen. And this melancholy has arisen in 
my breast on the occasion of calling to mind a tale, which I 
heard long ago, of a virtuous man who had no son." 

Then the queen said to him : "Of what nature was that 
tale ? " When asked this question, the king told her the 
tale briefly in the following words : 

49a. Sattvasila and the Two Treasures 

In the town of Chitrakiita there was a king named 
Brahmanavara, rightly named, for he was devoted to 
honouring Brahmans. He had a victorious servant named 
Sattvasila, who devoted himself exclusively to war, and 
every month Sattvasila received a hundred gold pieces from 
that king. But, as he was munificent, that gold was not 
enough for him, especially as his childlessness made the 
pleasure of giving the sole pleasure to which he was addicted. 
Sattvasila was continually reflecting : " The Disposer has 
not given me a son to gladden me, but he has given me the 
vice of generosity, and that too without wealth. It is better 
to be produced in the world as an old barren tree or a stone 
than as a poor man altogether abandoned to the vice of 
giving away money." 

But once on a time Sattvasila, while wandering in a 
garden, happened by luck to find a treasure ; and with the 
help of his servants he quickly brought home that hoard, 
which gleamed with much gold and glittered with priceless 


stones. Out of that he provided himself with pleasures, 
and gave wealth to Brahmans, slaves and friends, and thus 
the virtuous man spent his life. 

Meanwhile his relations, beholding this, guessed the 
secret, and went to the king's palace, and of their own accord 
informed the king that Sattvasila had found a treasure. 
Then Sattvasila was summoned by the king, and by order 
of the doorkeeper remained standing for a moment in a 
lonely part of the king's courtyard. There, as he was 
scratching the earth with the hilt of a lildvajra 1 that was 
in his hand, he found another large treasure in a copper 
vessel. It appeared like his own heart, displayed openly 
for him by Destiny, pleased with his virtue, in order that 
he might propitiate the king with it. So he covered it up 
again with earth as it was before, and when summoned by 
the doorkeeper entered the king's presence. 

When he had made his bow there, the king himself 
said : "I have come to learn that you have obtained a 
treasure, so surrender it to me." And Sattvasila for his part 
answered him then and there : " O King, tell me : shall I 
give you the first treasure I found, or the one I found to- 
day ? " The king said to him : " Give the one recently 
found." And thereupon Sattvasila went to a corner of the 
king's courtyard and gave him up the treasure. 

Then the king, being pleased with the treasure, dismissed 
Sattvasila with these words : " Enjoy the first- found treasure 
as you please." So Sattvasila returned to his house. There 
he remained, increasing the propriety of his name with gifts 
and enjoyments, and so managing to dispel somehow or 
other the melancholy caused by the affliction of childlessness. 

49. Story of Ratnaprabhd 

" Such is the story of Sattvasila, which I heard long ago, 
and because I have recalled it to mind I remain sorrowful 
through thinking over the fact that I have no son." When 
the Queen Alankaraprabha was thus addressed by her 

1 I have no idea what this word tllavajra means. It is translated by 
Bohtlingk and Roth : ein wie ein Donnerkeil aussehendes fVerkzeug. 


husband Hemaprabha, the King of the Vidyadharas, she 
answered him : " It is true. Fortune does assist the brave 
in this way. Did not Sattvasila, when in difficulties, obtain 
a second treasure ? So you too will obtain your desire by 
the power of your courage. As an example of the truth of 
this, hear the story of Vikramatunga. 

49b. The Brave King Vikramatunga 

There is a city called Pataliputra, the ornament of the 
earth, filled with various beautiful jewels, the colours of which 
are so disposed as to form a perfect scale of colour. In that 
city there dwelt long ago a brave king named Vikrama- 
tunga, who in giving 1 never turned his back on a suppliant, 
nor in fighting on an enemy. That king one day entered 
the forest to hunt and saw there a Brahman offering a 
sacrifice with vilva 2 fruits. When he saw him he was 
desirous to question him, but avoided going near him, and 
went off to a great distance with his army in his ardour for 
the chase. For a long time he sported with deer and lions, 
that rose up and fell slain by his hand, as if with foes, 3 and 
then he returned and beheld the Brahman still intent on 
his sacrifice as before, and going up to him he bowed before 
him, and asked him his name and the advantage he hoped 
to derive from offering the vilva fruits. 

Then the Brahman blessed the king and said to him : 
" I am a Brahman named Nagasarman, and hear the 
fruit I hope from my sacrifice. When the God of Fire is 
pleased with this vilva sacrifice, then vilva fruits of gold will 
come out of the fire- cavity. Then the God of Fire will 
appear in bodily form and grant me a boon ; and so 
I have spent much time in offering vilva fruits. But so 

1 Possibly there is a pun here ; dana, "giving/' also means "cutting." 

2 The fruit of the Bel, well known to Anglo-Indians. 

3 B. reads kanthakaih for kandukaih. Thus in the D. text the simile is 
one of playing with the ball. As the king kills in the sport of the chase so 
he gives the impression of playing with balls; utpatati denotes the "rising 
up " of the wounded or hunted deer and at the same time the jumping of the 
ball ; both patanti, the animals when hit and unable to arise from the ground, 
the balls when coming down. See Speyer, op. cit., p. 111. n.m.p. 


little is my merit that even now the God of Fire is not 
propitiated." 1 

When he said this, that king of resolute valour answered 
him : " Then give me one vilva fruit that I may offer it, and 
I will to-day, O Brahman, render the God of Fire propitious 
to you." Then the Brahman said to the king : " How will 
you, unchastened and impure, propitiate that God of Fire, 
who is not satisfied with me, who remain thus faithful to my 
vow and am chastened ? " 

When the Brahman said this to him, the king said to him 
again : " Never mind ; give me a vilva fruit and in a moment 
you shall behold a wonder." Then the Brahman, full of 
curiosity, gave a vilva fruit to the king, and he then and 
there meditated with soul of firm valour : "If thou art not 
satisfied with this vilva fruit, O God of Fire, then I will offer 
thee my own head," and thereupon offered the fruit. And 
the seven-rayed god appeared from the sacrificial cavity, 
bringing the king a golden vilva fruit as the fruit of his tree 
of valour. And the Fire God, present in visible form, said 
to that king : "I am pleased with thy courage, so receive a 
boon, O King." 

When the magnanimous king heard that, he bowed be- 
fore him, and said : " Grant this Brahman his wish. What 
other boon do I require ? " On hearing this speech of the 
king's the Fire God was much pleased, and said to him : 
" O King, this Brahman shall become a great lord of wealth, 
and thou also by my favour shalt have the prosperity of thy 
treasury ever undiminished." 

When the Fire God had, in these words, bestowed the 
boon, the Brahman asked him this question : " Thou hast 
appeared swiftly to a king that acts according to his own 
will, but not to me that am under vows : why is this, O 
revered one ? ' : Then the Fire God, the giver of boons, 

1 For references to fire-worship see Vol. II, pp. 256, 257. On p. 256 
I described the three fires as vadavagni, laukikagni and vrika. These are, 
however, the three fires of modern Brahman ritual. The Vedic fires which 
I should have mentioned are : garhapatya, dakshina and the ahavanlya. 
In Manu (iii, 100, 185) two additional fires are also given: sabhya and 
tlvasalhya; but the first three, collectively known as tretd, are the most 
important. n.m.p. 


answered : " If I had not granted him an interview this 
king of fierce courage would have offered his head in sacrifice 
to me. In this world successes quickly befall those of fierce 
spirit, but they come slowly, O Brahman, to those of dull 
spirit like thee." 

Thus spake the God of Fire, and vanished, and the Brah- 
man Nagasarman took leave of the king, and in course of 
time became very rich. But the King Vikramatunga, whose 
courage had been thus seen by his dependents, returned 
amid their plaudits to his town of Pataliputra. 

When the king was dwelling there, the warder Satrunjaya 
entered suddenly one day and said secretly to him : " There 
is standing at the door, O King, a Brahman lad, who says 
The his name is Dattasarman ; he wishes to make 

Philosopher's a representation to you in private." The king 
Stone g ave foe order to introduce him, and the lad was 

introduced, and after blessing the king he bowed before him 
and sat down. And he made this representation : " King, 
by a certain device of powder I know how to make always 
excellent gold out of copper. 1 For that device was shown 

1 The history of alchemy, or the pretended art of transmuting the base 
metals into noble ones, has occupied sages from the time of the Alexandrian 
Greeks in the early centuries of the Christian era. This eternal longing 
after wealth through the medium of so-called scientific research gave rise to 
the term "philosopher's stone," which possessed the wonderful property of 
^converting everything into solid gold. It was in searching for this treasure 
that Botticher stumbled on the invention of Dresden porcelain manufacture ; 
Roger Bacon on the composition of gunpowder; Geber on the properties 
of acids ; Van Helmont on the nature of gas ; and Dr Glauber on the 
" salts" which bear his name (Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 
p. 971). 

In India the legends connected with the " philosopher's stone " are many 
and varied. Crooke (op. cit., vol. ii, p. 15) tells one of the great Chandra 
Varma, who was born of the embraces of Chandrama, the moon-god, who 
possessed the power of converting iron into gold. Laliya, a blacksmith of 
Ahmadabad, made an axe for a Bhil, who returned and complained that it 
would not cut. Laliya, on looking at it, found that the blade had been turned 
into gold. On questioning the Bhil, he ascertained that he had tried to 
sharpen it on what turned out to be the philosopher's stone. Laliya, by 
possession of the stone, acquired great wealth, and was finally attacked by 
the king's troops. At last he was obliged to throw the stone into the 
Bhadra river, where it still lies, but once some iron chains were let 


me by my spiritual teacher, and I saw with my own eyes 
that he made gold by that device." 

When the lad said this, the king ordered copper to be 
brought, and when it was melted the lad threw the powder 
upon it. But while the powder was being thrown an in- 
visible Yaksha carried it off, and the king alone saw him, 
having propitiated the God of Fire. And that copper did 
not turn into gold, as the powder did not reach it ; thrice 
did the lad make the attempt and thrice his labour was in 
vain. Then the king, first of brave men, took the powder 
from the desponding lad and himself threw it on the melted 
copper ; when he threw the powder the Yaksha did not 
intercept it, but went away smiling. Accordingly the 
copper became gold by contact with that powder. Then 
the boy, astonished, asked the king for an explanation, and 
the king told him the incident of the Yaksha, just as he had 
seen it. And having learned in this way the device of the 
powder from that lad, the king made him marry a wife, and 

down into the water, and when they touched it the links were converted 
into gold. 

For another legend see Jarrett, A'ln-i-Akbari, vol. ii, p. 197. 

The literature and bibliographies on alchemy are, of course, very great, 
and cannot be given here. It will suffice merely to draw attention to a few 
general articles and the chief of the bibliographies. 

A useful introductory article is that by H. M. Ross in the Ency. Brit.,. 
vol. i, pp. 519-522, while fuller articles are those by E. Riess, Carra de Vaux,. 
and T. Barnes in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. i, pp. 287-298. Reference 
should also be made to Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science 
(see Indices in each volume under "Alchemy" and " Philosopher's Stone"); 
and Lewis Spence, Encyclopaedia of Occultism, 1920, pp. 232-233. For 
bibliographies of works on alchemy see Lenglet du Fresnoy, Histoire de In 
Philosophic Hermetique. Accompagnee d'un catalogue raisonne des icrivains de cette 
science, Paris et La Haye, 1740 (see particularly vol. iii) ; Hermann Kopp,. 
Die Alchemie in alterer und neuerer Zeit. Ein Beitrag zur Culturgeschichte, 
2 Thle, Heidelberg, 1886; H. C. Bolton, Catalogue of Works on Alchemy and 
Chemistry exhibited at the Grolier Club, New York, 1891 ; J. Ferguson, Bibliolheca 
Chemica, Glasgow, 1906; and A. E. Waite, The Hermetic and Alchemical 
Writings of Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombast, of Hohenheim, 2 vols., 
London, 1894. To this latter author I am indebted for several of the above 

We shall meet with the "philosopher's stone" again in the Ocean of 
Story, Chapter XLIII. n.m.p. 


gave him all he wished, and having his treasury prosperously 
filled by means of the gold produced by that device, he 
himself enjoyed great happiness, together with his wives, and 
made Brahmans rich. 

49. Story of Ratnaprabhd 

" Thus you see that the Lord grants their desires to men 
of fierce courage, seeming to be either terrified or pleased by 
them. And who, O King, is of more firm valour or more 
generous than you ? So Siva, when propitiated by you, 
will certainly give you a son ; do not sorrow." 

The King Hemaprabha, when he heard this noble speech 
from the mouth of Queen Alankaraprabha, believed it and 
was pleased. And he considered that his own heart, radiant 
with cheerfulness, indicated that he would certainly obtain 
a son by propitiating Siva. 

The next day after this he and his wife bathed and wor- 
shipped Siva, and he gave ninety millions of gold pieces to 
the Brahmans, and without taking food he went through 
ascetic practices in front of Siva, determined that he would 
either leave the body or propitiate the god, and continuing 
in asceticism he praised the giver of boons, the husband of 
the daughter of the mountain, 1 that lightly gave away the 
sea of milk to his votary Upamanyu, saying : " Honour to 
thee, O husband of Gauri, who art the cause of the creation, 
preservation and destruction of the world, who dost assume 
the eight special forms of ether and the rest. 2 Honour to 
thee, who sleepest on the ever- expanded lotus of the heart, 
that art Sambhu, the swan dwelling in the pure Manasa 
lake. 3 Honour to thee, the exceeding marvellous Moon, of 
divine brightness, pure, of watery substance, to be beheld by 
those whose sins are put away ; to thee whose beloved is 
half thy body, 4 and who nevertheless art supremely chaste. 

1 ParvatI or Durga, the wife of Siva. 

2 The others are the Sun, Fire, Water, Earth, Air, the Moon and the 
officiating Brahman. For the latter is sometimes substituted pasupati, or lord 
of animals. 

3 Possibly it also means "the swan of the temple of the mind." 

4 An allusion to the Ardha-narisvara form of Siva. 


Honour to thee, who didst create the world by a wish, and 
art thyself the world." 

When the king had praised Siva in these words, and fasted 
for three nights, the god appeared to him in a dream and 
spake as follows : " Rise up, O King. There shall be born 
to thee a heroic son that shall uphold thy race. And thou 
shalt also obtain by the favour of Gauri a glorious daughter, 
who is destined to be the queen of that treasure-house of 
glory, Naravahanadatta, your future emperor." When Siva 
had said this he disappeared, and Hemaprabha woke up, 
delighted, at the close of night. And by telling his dream 
he gladdened his wife Alankaraprabha, who had been told 
the same by Garni in a dream, and dwelt on the agreement 
of the two visions. And then the king rose up and bathed 
and worshipped Siva, and after giving gifts, broke his fast, 
and kept high festival. 

Then, after some days had passed, the Queen Alankara- 
prabha became pregnant by that king, and delighted her 
beloved by her face redolent of honey, with wildly rolling 
The Birth of eyes, so that it resembled a pale lotus with bees 
Vajraprabha hovering round it. Then she gave birth in due 
time to a son (whose noble lineage was proclaimed by 
the elevated longings of her pregnancy), as the sky gives 
birth to the orb of day. As soon as he was born the 
lying-in chamber was illuminated by his might, and so 
was made red as vermilion. And his father gave to that 
infant, that brought terror to the families of his enemies, 
the name of Vajraprabha, that had been appointed for him 
by a divine voice. Then the boy grew by degrees, being 
filled with accomplishments, and causing the exultation of 
his family, as the new moon fills out with digits l and causes 
the sea to rise. 

Then, not long after, the queen of that King Hema- 
prabha again became pregnant. And when she was pregnant 
she sat upon a golden throne and became truly the jewel of 
the harem, adding special lustre to her settings. And in a 
chariot, in the shape of a beautiful lotus, manufactured by 
help of magic science, she roamed about in the sky, since her 

1 Kala, "digit of the moon" and also "accomplishment." 


pregnant longings assumed that form. 1 But when the due 
time came a daughter was born to that queen, whose birth 
by the favour of Gauri was a sufficient guarantee of her 
loveliness. And this voice was then heard from heaven : 
" She shall be the wife of Naravahanadatta," which agreed 
with the words of Siva's revelation. And the king was just 
as much delighted at her birth as he was at that of his son, 
and gave her the name of Ratnaprabha. 

And Ratnaprabha, adorned with her own science, grew 
up in the house of her father, producing illumination in all 
the quarters of the sky. Then the king made his son Vajra- 
prabha, who had begun to wear armour, take a wife, and 
appointed him Crown Prince. And he devolved on him the 
burden of the kingdom, and remained at ease ; but still one 
anxiety lingered in his heart, anxiety about the marriage of 
his daughter. 

One day the king beheld that daughter, who was fit to 
be given away in marriage, sitting near him, and said to the 
Queen Alankaraprabha, who was in his presence : " Observe, 
Queen, a daughter is a great misery in the three worlds, even 
though she is the ornament of her family a misery, alas ! 
even to the great. For this Ratnaprabha, though modest, 
learned, young and beautiful, afflicts me because she has not 
obtained a husband." The queen said to him : " She was 
proclaimed by the gods as the destined wife of Narava- 
hanadatta, our future emperor ; why is she not given 
to him ? " When the queen said this to him, the king 
answered : "In truth the maiden is fortunate that shall 
obtain him for a bridegroom. For he is an incarnation of 
Kama upon earth. But he has not as yet attained his divine 
nature ; therefore I am now waiting for his attainment of 
superhuman knowledge." 2 

While he was thus speaking, Ratnaprabha, by means of 
those accents of her father, which entered her ear like the 
words of the bewildering spell of the God of Love, became as 
if bewildered, as if possessed, as if asleep, as if in a picture, 

1 For the dohada motif or " Longings of the Pregnant Woman " see 
Vol. I, Appendix III, pp. 221-228. n.m.p. 

2 The vidya of the Vidyadharas. I read pratikshyate. 


and her heart was captivated by that bridegroom. Then 
with difficulty she took a respectful leave of her parents, and 
went to her own private apartments, and managed at length 
to get to sleep at the end of the night. 

Then the goddess Gauri, being full of pity for her, gave 
her this command in a dream : " To-morrow, my daughter, 
is an auspicious day ; so thou must go to the city of Kau- 
sambl and see thy future husband ; and thence thy father, 
O auspicious one, will himself bring thee and him into this 
his city, and celebrate your marriage." So in the morning, 
when she woke up, she told that dream to her mother. Then 
her mother gave her leave to go, and she, knowing by 
her superhuman knowledge that her bridegroom was in the 
garden, set out from her own city to visit him. 

[M] " Thou knowest, O my husband, that I am that 
Ratnaprabha, arrived to-day in a moment, full of impatience, 
and you all know the sequel." When he heard this speech 
of hers, that in sweetness exceeded nectar, and beheld the 
body of the Vidyadhari that was ambrosia to the eyes, 
Naravahanadatta in his heart blamed the Creator, saying to 
himself : " Why did he not make me all eye and ear ? M 
And he said to her : " Fortunate am I ; my birth and life 
has obtained its fruit, in that I, O beautiful one, have been 
thus visited by thee out of affection ! " 

When they had thus exchanged the protestations of 
new love, suddenly the army of the Vidyadharas was be- 
held there in the heaven. Ratnaprabha said immediately : 
" Here is my father come." And the King Hemaprabha 
descended from heaven with his son. And with his son 
Vajraprabha he approached that Naravahanadatta, who 
gave him a courteous welcome. And while they stood for a 
moment paying one another the customary compliments, the 
King of Vatsa, who had heard of it, came with his ministers. 
And then that Hemaprabha told the king, after he had per- 
formed towards him the rites of hospitality, the whole story 
exactly as it had been related by Ratnaprabha, and said : 


" I knew by the power of my supernatural knowledge that 
my daughter had come here, and I am aware of all that has 
happened in this place. 1 ..... 

For he will afterwards possess such an imperial chariot. 
Pray consent, and then thou shalt behold in a short time 
thy son, the prince returned here, united to his wife 

After he had addressed this prayer to the King of 
Vatsa, and he had consented to his wish, that Hemaprabha, 
with his son, prepared that chariot by his own magic skill 
and made Naravahanadatta ascend it, together with Ratna- 
prabha, whose face was cast down from modesty, followed 
by Gomukha and the others, and Yaugandharayana, who 
was also deputed to accompany him by his father, and thus 
Hemaprabha took him to his own capital, Kanchanasringaka. 

And Naravahanadatta, when he reached that city of his 
father-in-law, saw that it was all of gold, gleaming with 
golden ramparts, embraced, as it were, on all sides with rays 
Namvahana- issuing out like shoots, and so stretching forth 
datta marries innumerable arms in eagerness of love for that 
Ratnaprabha son -in-law. There the King Hemaprabha, of 
high enterprise, gave Ratnaprabha with due ceremonies to 
him, as the sea gave Lakshmi to Vishnu. And he gave him 
glittering heaps of jewels, gleaming like innumerable wed- 
ding fires lighted. 2 And in the city of that festive prince, 

1 Here Professor Brockhaus suspects a hiatus. 

2 Cf this with the "jewel-lamps" in Vol. II, pp. 161-169, and on pp. 
131w 3 , 132w of this volume, and with the luminous carbuncle in Gesta Romano- 
rum, cvii. Sir Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar Errors, Book II, chap, v, says : 
"Whether a carbuncle doth flame in the dark, or shine like a coal in the 
night, though generally agreed on by common believers, is very much 
questioned by many." See also Simrock's Deutsche Volksbucher, vol. i, p. 301 ; 
vol. iii, p. 12 ; vol. vi, p. 289. Lucian in his De Dea Syria, chap, xxxii, speaks 
of a precious stone of the name of Xvxvis, which was bright enough to light 
up a whole temple at night. We read in the history of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, 
Book II, chap, xlii, that Alexander found in the belly of a fish a precious 
stone which he had set in gold and used at night as a lamp. See also 
Baring-Gould's Cfirimts Myths of the Middle Ages, p. 42 ; Gaal, Marchen der 

Magyaren, p. 155; Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, iii, 14. To the references 

given above I would add Clouston, Flotvers from a Persian Garden, 1894, 
pp. 196-197 ; and Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 4rc J . n.m.p. 


who was showering wealth, even the houses, being draped 
with flags, appeared as if they had received changes of 
raiment. And Naravahanadatta, having performed the 
auspicious ceremony of marriage, remained there enjoying 
heavenly pleasures with Ratnaprabha. And he amused 
himself by looking in her company at beautiful temples of 
the gods in gardens and lakes, having ascended with her the 
heaven by the might of her science. 

So, after he had lived some days with his wife in the city 
of the King of the Vidyadharas, the son of the King of Vatsa 
determined, in accordance with the advice of Yaugandhara- 
yana, to return to his own city. Then his mother-in-law 
performed for him the auspicious ceremonies previous to 
starting, and his father-in-law again honoured him and his 
minister, and then he set out with Hemaprabha and his 
son, accompanied by his beloved, having again ascended that 
chariot. He soon arrived, like a stream of nectar to the 
eyes of his mother, and entered his city with Hemaprabha 
and his son and his own followers, bringing with him his 
wife, who made the King of Vatsa rejoice exceedingly with 
delight at beholding her. The King of Vatsa, of exalted 
fortune, with Vasavadatta, welcomed that son, who bowed 
at his feet with his wife, and honoured Hemaprabha his new 
connection, as well as his son, in a manner conformable to 
his own dignity. Then, after that King of the Vidyadharas, 
Hemaprabha, had taken leave of the lord of Vatsa and his 
family, and had flown up into the heaven and gone to his own 
city, that Naravahanadatta, together with Ratnaprabha and 
Madanamanchuka, spent that day in happiness surrounded 
by his friends. 


WHEN that Naravahanadatta had thus obtained a 
[M] new and lovely bride of the Vidyadhara race, 
and was the next day with her in her house, there 
came in the morning to the door, to visit him, his ministers 
Gomukha and others. They were stopped for a moment at 
the door by the female warder and announced within ; then 
they entered and were courteously received, and Ratna- 
prabha said to the warder : " The door must not again be 
closed against the entrance of my husband's friends, for 
they are as dear to me as my own body. And I do not think 
that this is the way to guard female apartments." 

After she had addressed the female warder in these words, 
she said in turn to her husband : " My husband, I am going 
to say something which occurs to me, so listen. I consider 
that the strict seclusion of women is a mere social custom, 
or rather folly produced by jealousy. It is of no use what- 
ever. Women of good family are guarded by their own 
virtue as their only chamberlain. But even God Himself 
can scarcely guard the unchaste. Who can restrain a furious 
river and a passionate woman ? And now listen, I will tell 
you a story. 

50. Story of King Ratnddhipati and the White Elephant 


There is here a great island in the midst of the sea, named 
Ratnakuta. In it there lived in old times a king of great 
courage, a devoted worshipper of Vishnu, rightly named 
Ratnadhipati. 1 That king, in order to obtain the conquest 
of the earth, and all kings' daughters as his wives, went 
through a severe penance, to propitiate Vishnu. The ador- 
able one, pleased with his penance, appeared in bodily form 
and thus commanded him : " Rise up, King ; I am pleased 

1 I.e. supreme lord of jewels. 


with thee, so I tell thee this. Listen ! There is in the land 
of Kalinga a Gandharva, who has become a white elephant 
by the curse of a hermit, and is known by the name of 
Svetarasmi. On account of the asceticism he performed in 
a former life, and on account of his devotion to me, that 
elephant is supernaturally wise, and possesses the power of 
flying through the sky, and of remembering his former birth. 
And I have given an order to that great elephant, in accord- 
ance with which he will come of himself through the air and 
become thy beast of burden. That white elephant thou 
must mount, as the wielder of the thunderbolt mounts the 
elephant of the gods, 2 and whatever king thou shalt travel 
through the air to visit, in fear shall bestow on thee, who art 
of god-like presence, tribute in the form of a daughter, for I 
will myself command him to do so in a dream. Thus thou 
shalt conquer the whole earth, and all zenanas,* and thou 
shalt obtain eighty thousand princesses." 

When Vishnu had said this he disappeared, and the king 
broke his fast, and the next day he beheld that elephant, 
which had come to him through the air. And when the 
elephant had thus placed himself at the king's disposal he 
mounted him, as he had been bidden to do by Vishnu, and 
in this manner he conquered the earth and carried off the 
daughters of kings. And then the king dwelt there in 
Ratnakuta with those wives, eighty thousand in number, 
amusing himself as he pleased. And in order to propitiate 
Svetarasmi, that celestial elephant, he fed every day five 
hundred Brahmans. 

Now once on a time the King Ratnadhipati mounted 
that elephant, and, after roaming through the other islands, 
returned to his own island. And as he was descending from 
The Elephant the sky it came to pass that a bird of the race of 
is wounded Garuda struck that excellent elephant with his 
beak. And the bird fled when the king struck him with 
the sharp elephant-hook, but the elephant fell on the 
ground stunned by the blow of the bird's beak. The king 

1 For the great importance attached to the white elephant in the East 
see N. W. Thomas, " Animals," Hastings' Ency. ReL Eth., vol. i, p. .514. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. as Indra mounts Airfivata. 3 See Vol. II, p. l62. n.m.p. 


got off his back, but the elephant, though he recovered his 
senses, was not able to rise up, in spite of the efforts made 
to raise him, and ceased eating. For five days the elephant 
remained in the same place where it had fallen, and the 
king was grieved and took no food, and prayed as follows : 
" guardians of the world, teach me some remedy in this 
difficulty ; otherwise I will cut off my own head and offer 
it to you." 

When he had said this, he drew his sword, and was pre- 
paring to cut off his head, when immediately a bodiless voice 
thus addressed him from the sky : " O King, do nothing 
rash ; if some chaste woman touches this elephant with her 
hand it will rise up, but not otherwise." When the king 
heard that he was glad, and summoned his own carefully 
guarded chief wife, Amritalata. When the elephant did 
not rise up, though she touched it with her hand, the king 
had all his other wives summoned. But though they all 
touched the elephant in succession he did not rise up : the 
fact was, not one among them was chaste. 

Then the king, having beheld all those eighty thousand 
wives openly humiliated in the presence of men, being himself 
abashed, summoned all the women of his capital and made 
them touch the elephant one after another. And when in 
spite of it the elephant did not rise up, the king was ashamed, 
because there was not a single chaste woman in his city. 1 

1 This reminds us of the curious story in Herodotus (II, iii), in which 
a certain Pharaoh was cursed with blindness for ten years owing to an act 
of arrogance on his part. An oracle declared that in the eleventh year he 
would recover his sight by washing his eyes with the urine of a woman who 
had had intercourse with her own husband only, and had known no other 
man. He, therefore, made trial of his own wife first, and afterwards, when he 
did not recover his sight, he made trial of others indifferently ; and at length 
having recovered his sight, he collected the women of whom he had made 
trial, except the one by washing in whose urine he had recovered his sight, 
into one city, which is now called Erythrebolus, and when he had assembled 
them together he had them all burned, together with the city ; but the 
woman by washing in whose urine he recovered his sight he took to himself 
to wife. 

There is also a curious legend in Hebrew literature, in which King 
Solomon is upbraided by his mother for saying : "One man out of a thousand 
have I found, but a woman have I not found " (Eccles. vii, 28). A priest and 


And in the meanwhile a merchant named Harshagupta, 
who had arrived from Tamralipti, 1 having heard of that 
event, came there full of curiosity. And in his train there 
came a servant of the name of Silavati, who was devoted to 
her husband ; when she saw what had taken place, she said 
to him : "I will touch this elephant with my hand : and if 
I have not even thought in my mind of any other man than 
my husband, may it rise up." No sooner had she said this 
than she came up and touched the elephant with her hand, 
whereupon it rose up in sound health and began to eat. 2 
But when the people saw the elephant Svetarasmi rise up, 
they raised a shout and praised Silavati, saying : " Such are 
these chaste women, few and far between, who, like Siva, are 
able to create, preserve and destroy this world." The King 
Ratnadhipati also was pleased, and congratulated the chaste 
Silavati, and loaded her with innumerable jewels, and he also 
honoured her master, the merchant Harshagupta, and gave 
him a house near his own palace. And he determined to 
avoid all communication with his own wives, and ordered that 
henceforth they should have nothing but food and raiment. 

a woman get their hands stuck to a flask sealed with the Ineffable Name. 
They finally go to Solomon for help. Then he says: "Whichever woman has 
not sinned, let her place her hand upon the flask and the hands will be 
loosened." Not one came forward. He then asked his mother, and she 
shrank back, remembering her sin with David. He then asked the men, 
and only his faithful servant came forward and put his hand upon the flask. 
They were then released. King Solomon thus proved the truth of his 
statement. (See Gaster, The Exempla of the Rabbis, p. 1 29, and variants on 
p. 248 under the heading " Solomon and Worthless Woman.") n.m.p. 

1 The modern Tamluk. The district probably comprised the small but 
fertile tract of country lying to the westward of the Hughli river, from 
Bardwan and Kalna on the north to the banks of the Kosai river on the 
south (Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, p. 504). 

2 In the 11.5th tale of the Gesta Romanorum we read that two chaste 
virgins were able to lull to sleep and kill an elephant that no one else 

could approach. As already explained (Vol. I, p. 166), the incident in 

our text is an example of both a "test of chastity " and "act of truth" motif. 
The powers attributed to chastity have been fully enumerated by many 
writers and need not be detailed here. See, for instance, the various articles 
on " Chastity " by Crawley, Rhys Davids, Walshe, Maclean, etc., in Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iii, pp. 474-503. For a note on the " Act of Truth " motif 
see that at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


Then the king, after he had taken his food, sent for the 
chaste Silavati, and said to her at a private interview in the 
presence of Harshagupta : " Silavati, if you have any maiden 
The Kin* ^ Y our father's family, give her to me, for I 
disregards know she will certainly be like you." When 
the Omens ftie king said this to her, Silavati answered : "I 
have a sister in Tamralipti named Rajadatta ; marry her, 

King, if you wish, for she is of distinguished beauty." 
When she said this to the king, he consented, and said : 
" So be it." 

And having determined on taking this step, he mounted, 
with Silavati and Harshagupta, the elephant Svetarasmi, 
that could fly through the air, and going in person to Tamra- 
lipti, entered the house of that merchant Harshagupta. 
There he asked the astrologers that very day what would 
be a favourable time for him to be married to Rajadatta, 
the sister of Silavati. And the astrologers, having inquired 
under what stars both of them were born, said : "A favour- 
able conjuncture will come for you, O King, in three months 
from this time. But if you marry Rajadatta in the present 
position of the constellations she will without fail prove 

Though the astrologers gave him this response, the king, 
being eager for a charming wife, and impatient of dwelling 
long alone, thus reflected : " Away with scruples ! I will 
marry Rajadatta here this very day. For she is the sister of 
the blameless Silavati and will never prove unchaste. And 

1 will place her in that uninhabited island in the middle 
of the sea, where there is one empty palace, and that in- 
accessible spot I will surround with a guard of women ; so 
how can she become unchaste, as she can never see men ? " 

Having formed this determination, the king that very 
day rashly married that Rajadatta, whom Silavati bestowed 
upon him. And after he had married her, and had been 
received with the customary rites by Harshagupta, he took 
that wife and, with her and Silavati, he mounted Svetarasmi, 
and then in a moment went through the air to the land of 
Ratnakuta, where the people were anxiously expecting him. 
And he rewarded Silavati again so munificently that she 


attained all her wishes, having reaped the fruit of her vow 
of chastity. Then he mounted his new wife Rajadatta on 
that same air-travelling elephant Svetarasmi, and conveyed 
her carefully, and placed her in the empty palace in the island 
in the midst of the sea, inaccessible to man, with a retinue 
of women only. And whatever article she required, he con- 
veyed there through the air on that elephant, so great was 
his distrust. And being devotedly attached to her, he always 
spent the night there, but came to Ratnakuta in the day to 
transact his regal duties. 

Now one morning the king, in order to counteract an 
inauspicious dream, indulged with that Rajadatta in a 
drinking-bout for good luck. And though his wife, being 
intoxicated with that banquet, did not wish to let him go, 
he left her, and departed to Ratnakuta to transact his busi- 
ness, for the royal dignity is an ever-exacting wife. There 
he remained performing his duties with anxious mind, which 
seemed ever to ask him why he left his wife there in a state 
of intoxication. 

And in the meanwhile Rajadatta, remaining alone in 
that inaccessible place, the female servants being occupied 
in culinary and other duties, saw a certain man come in at 
the door, like Fate determined to baffle all expedients for 
guarding her, and his arrival filled her with astonishment. 
And that intoxicated woman asked him when he approached 
her : " Who are you, and how have you come to this in- 
accessible place ? " 

Then that man, who had endured many hardships, 
answered her : " Fair one, I am a merchant's son of Mathura 
named Yavanasena. And when my father died I was left 
Yavanasenas helpless, and my relations took from me my 
Adventures property ; so I went to a foreign country and 
resorted to the miserable condition of being servant to 
another man. Then I with difficulty scraped together a 
little wealth by trading, and as I was going to another 
land I was plundered by robbers who met me on the 
way. Then I wandered about as a beggar, and, with some 
other men like myself, I went to a mine of jewels called 
Kanakakshetra. There I engaged to pay the king his share, 

and al 


and after digging up the earth in a trench for a whole year 
I did not find a single jewel. So, while the other men, 
my fellows, were rejoicing over the jewels they had found, 
smitten with grief I retired to the shore of the sea and 
began to collect fuel. 

" And while I was constructing with the fuel a funeral 
pyre, in order that I might enter the flame, a certain merchant 
named Jivadatta happened to come there ; that merciful man 
dissuaded me from suicide, and gave me food, and as he 
was preparing to go in a ship to Svarnadvipa he took me 
on board with him. Then, as we were sailing along in the 
midst of the ocean, after five days had passed, we suddenly 
beheld a cloud. The cloud discharged its rain in large drops, 
and that vessel was whirled round by the wind like the head 
of a mast elephant. Immediately the ship sank, but as fate 
would have it I caught hold of a plank just as I was sinking. 
I mounted on it, and thereupon the thunder-cloud relaxed 
its fury, and, conducted by destiny, I reached this country, 
and have just landed in the forest. And seeing this palace 
I entered, and I beheld here thee, auspicious one, a rain 
of nectar to my eyes, dispelling pain." 

When he had said this, Rajadatta, maddened with love 
and wine, placed him on a couch and embraced him. Where 
there are these five fires, feminine nature, intoxication, 
privacy, the obtaining of a man, and absence of restraint, 
what chance for the stubble of character ? So true is it, 
that a woman maddened by the God of Love is incapable of 
discrimination ; since this queen became enamoured of that 
loathsome castaway. 

In the meanwhile the King Ratnadhipati, being anxious, 
came swiftly from Ratnakuta, borne along on the sky-going 
elephant ; and entering his palace he beheld his wife Raja- 
datta in the arms of that creature. When the king saw the 
man, though he felt tempted to slay him, he slew him not, 
because he fell at his feet and uttered piteous supplications. 
And beholding his wife terrified, and at the same time in- 
toxicated, he reflected : " How can a woman that is addicted 
to wine, the chief ally of lust, be chaste ? A lascivious 
woman cannot be restrained even by being guarded. Can 


one fetter a whirlwind with one's arms ? This is the fruit 
of my not heeding the prediction of the astrologers. To 
whom is not the scorning of wise words bitter in its after- 
taste ? When I thought that she was the sister of Silavati 
I forgot that the Kalaktita poison was twin-born with the 
Amrita. 1 Or rather who is able, even by doing the utmost 
of a man, to overcome the incalculable freaks of marvellously 
working Destiny ? " 

Thus reflecting, the king was not wroth with anyone, and 
spared the merchant's son, her paramour, after asking him 
the story of his life. The merchant's son, when dismissed 
thence, seeing no other expedient, went out and beheld a 
ship coming, far off in the sea. Then he again mounted 
that plank, and, drifting about in the sea, cried out, puffing 
and blowing : " Save me ! Save me ! " So a merchant, 
of the name of Krodhavarman, who was on that ship, drew 
that merchant's son out of the water and made him his 
companion. Whatever deed is appointed by the Disposer 
to be the destruction of any man dogs his steps whitherso- 
ever he runneth. For this fool, when on the ship, was 
discovered by his deliverer secretly associating with his 
wife, and thereupon was cast by him into the sea and 

In the meanwhile the King Ratnadhipati caused the 
Queen Rajadatta with her retinue to mount Svetarasmi, 
without allowing himself to be angry, and he carried her to 
Ratnakiita, and delivered her to Silavati, and related that 
occurrence to her and his ministers. And he exclaimed : 
" Alas, how much pain have I endured, whose mind has 
been devoted to these unsubstantial, insipid enjoyments ! 
Therefore I will go to the forest, and take Hari as my 
refuge, in order that I may never again be a vessel of such 

Thus he spake, and though his sorrowing ministers and 
Silavati endeavoured to prevent him, he, being disgusted 
with the world, would not abandon his intention. Then, 
being indifferent to enjoyments, he first gave half of his 
treasure to the virtuous Silavati, and the other half to the 

1 Both were produced at the Churning of the Ocean. 


Brahmans, and then that king made over in the prescribed 
form his kingdom to a Brahman of great excellence, named 
Papabhanjana. And after he had given away his kingdom 
The Unhappy he ordered Svetarasmi to be brought, with the 
King gives ' object of retiring to a grove of asceticism, his 
away his subjects looking on with tearful eyes. No sooner 
mg om was the eiepha^ brought than it left the body 
and became a man of god-like appearance, adorned with 
necklace and bracelet. When the king asked him who he 
was, and what was the meaning of all this, he answered : 

" We were two Gandharva brothers, living on the Malaya 
mountain; I was called Somaprabha, and the elder was 
Devaprabha. And my brother had but one wife, but she 
The Two was very dear to him. Her name was Rajavati. 
Brothers Q ne day he was wandering about with her in 

his arms, and happened to arrive, with me in his company, 
at a place called the dwelling of the Siddhas. There we 
both worshipped Vishnu in his temple, and began all of 
us to sing before the adorable one. In the meanwhile a 
Siddha came there, and stood regarding with fixed gaze 
Rajavati, who was singing songs well worth hearing. And 
my brother, who was jealous, said, in his wrath, to that 
Siddha : c Why dost thou, although a Siddha, cast a longing 
look at another's wife ? ' 

" Then the Siddha was moved with anger, and said to him 
by way of a curse : ' Fool, I was looking at her out of interest 
in her song, not out of desire. So fall thou, jealous one, into 
a mortal womb, together with her ; and then behold with 
thine own eyes thy wife in the embraces of another.' W T hen 
he had said this, I, being enraged at the curse, struck him, 
out of childish recklessness, with a white toy elephant of 
clay, that I had in my hand. Then he cursed me in the 
following words : ' Be born again on the earth as an elephant, 
like that with which you have just struck me.' 

" Then, being merciful, that Siddha allowed himself 
to be propitiated by that brother of mine, Devaprabha, and 
appointed for us both the following termination of the 
curse : ' Though a mortal, thou shalt become, by the favour 
of Vishnu, the lord of an island, and shalt obtain as thy 



servant this thy younger brother, who will have become an 
elephant, a beast of burden fit for gods. Thou shalt obtain 
eighty thousand wives, and thou shalt come to learn the 
unchastity of them all in the presence of men. Then thou 
shalt marry this thy present wife, who will have become a 
woman, and shalt see her with thine own eyes embracing 
another. Then thou shalt become sick in thy heart of the 
world, and shalt bestow thy realm on a Brahman, but when 
after doing this thou shalt set out to go to a forest of ascetics, 
thy younger brother shall first be released from his elephant 
nature, and thou also with thy wife shalt be delivered from 
thy curse.' This was the termination of the curse appointed 
for us by the Siddha, and we were accordingly born with 
different lots, on account of the difference of our actions in 
that previous state, and lo ! the end of our curse has now 

When Somaprabha had said this, that King Ratnadhi- 
pati remembered his former birth, and said : " True ! I am 
that very Devaprabha ; and this Rajadatta is my former 
wife Rajavati." Having said this, he, together with his wife, 
abandoned the body. In a moment they all became Gan- 
dharvas and, in the sight of men, flew up into the air and 
went to their own home, the Malaya mountain. Silavati 
too, through the nobleness of her character, obtained pros- 
perity and, going to the city of Tamralipti, remained in the 
practice of virtue. 

[M] "So true is it, that in no case can anyone guard a 
woman by force in this world, but the young woman of good 
family is ever protected by the pure restraint of her own 
chastity. And thus the passion of jealousy is merely a 
purposeless cause of suffering, annoying others, and so far 
from being a protection to women, it rather excites in them 
excessive longing." When Naravahanadatta had heard this 
tale full of good sense related by his wife, he and his ministers 
were highly pleased. 



We have already referred to this motif in Vol. I, pp. 166, 167 ; and 
discussed its meaning and religious significance in Vol. II, pp. 31-33. We 
shall here look at a few actual examples of the motif, chiefly taken from the 
numerous references collected by E. W. Burlingame (" The Act of Truth," 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, July 1917, pp. 429-467). 

Its occurrence in the Jatakas is common, and the uses to which it is put 
are varied. Thus in No. 7 it is used to prove the paternity of a child ; in 
No. 20 to obtain water to drink ; in No. 35 to cause a forest-fire to turn back ; 
in No. 62 to obtain safety in a fire-test ; in No. 75 as a rain-charm ; in No. 444 
to counteract poison ; in No. 463 to get a ship back to harbour ; in No. 489 
to obtain a son ; in No. 491 to free all captive animals ; in No. 513 to deliver 
a man from captivity; in No. 518 to ascertain the truth; in No. 519 to cure 
leprosy ; in No. 537 to heal wounds ; in No. 538 to obtain a son ; and in 
No. 450 to counteract poison. 

The actual declaration also differs widely, but it is usually some well- 
known religious truth or quotation, or else merely a true statement about 
the speaker's life or morals. Two examples from the above will be sufficient 
to explain this. 

In No. 463, Supparaka-Jataka (Cambridge edition, vol. iv, p. 90), when 
the ship is in danger of being lost, the Great Being, after purifying himself, 
repeated this stanza : 

" Since I can myself remember, since intelligence first grew, 
Not one life of living creature have I taken, that I knew : 
May this ship return to safety if my solemn words are true ! " 

Four months the vessel had been voyaging in far-distant regions ; and 
now, as though endued with supernatural power, it returned in one single 
day to the seaport town of Bharukaccha, and even upon the dry land it went, 
till it rested before the mariner's door, having sprung over a space of eleven 
hundred cubits. 

In No. 518, Pandara-Jataka (Cambridge edition, vol. v, pp. 47, 48), the 
snake-king accuses an ascetic of being a traitor with evil designs on an 
innocent friend, and causes due retribution to fall on the ascetic by turning 
the accusation into an " Act of Truth " ; he says : 

" Informer, traitor, that wouldst slay 
A guileless friend, be thy head riven 
By this my Act of Truth, I pay, 
Piecemeal, all into fragments seven." 
So, before the very eyes of the snake-king, the head of the ascetic was 
split into seven pieces, and at the very spot where he was sitting the ground 
was cleft asunder. 

There is a curious trick " Act of Truth " in Jataka No. 63 (Cambridge 
edition, vol. i, p. 155), where a faithless wife offers to prove her innocence by 


undergoing the ordeal of fire and making an "Act of Truth." She instructs 
her paramour to seize her hand just as she is about to step into the fire. 
Then, standing before all the people, she says to her husband : " No man's 
hand but thine, Brahman, has ever touched me ; and, by the truth of my 
asseveration I call on this fire to harm me not." So saying, she advanced to 
the burning pile when up dashed her paramour, who seized her by the hand, 
crying shame on the Brahman who could force so fair a maid to enter the 
flames ! Shaking her hand free, the girl exclaimed to the Brahman that what 
she had asserted was now undone, and that she could not now brave the 
ordeal of fire, as another man's hand had touched her. The husband, knowing 
himself tricked, drove her away with blows. 

Other trick " Acts of Truth " will be found in Hemachandra's Parisishta- 
parvan, ii, 533-545 (Hertel's translation, pp. 102, 103); Tantrakhyayika, i, 3 c; 
Hertel, "Ueber die Suvabahuttarlkatha," Festschrift fur Ernst Windisch, 1914, 
p. 144. 

A few further examples will show other cases of the motif under 

In a Tibetan tale, "The Two Brothers" (Schiefner and Ralston, p. 284), 
a princess says to her blind lover : 

" If it be true, and my asseveration is righteous, that I have been in love 
only with Prince Kshemankara and with you, but with none else, then 
through the power of this truth and my asseveration shall one of your two 
eyes become sound as before." 

So soon as this asseveration was uttered, one of his eyes came again just 
as it was before. Then he said : u I am Kshemankara. My brother Papan- 
kara reduced me to the state I was in." She said: "What proof is there 
that you are Prince Kshemankara ? " 

Then he too began to asseverate, saying : "If it be true, and my 
asseveration righteous, that although Papankara put out my eyes, I do not 
in the least bear him malice, then in consequence of the truth and affirmation 
may my other eye become sound as before." 

So soon as he had pronounced this asseveration, his other eye became as it 
had been originally. 

For another similar cure by the "Act of Truth" see Divyavadana, 
pp. 407-417. In this latter work (p. 472) is a curious story of the future 
Buddha when, in a previous existence, he was a woman named Rupavati. 
One day Rupavati comes upon a starving woman who is about to devour her 
new-born child, whereupon she cuts off her own breasts and gives them to 
the woman for food. When her husband learns of her act, he performs the 
following Act of Truth : " If it be true that so wonderful and marvellous a 
thing has never been seen before, or heard of before, then may your breasts 
be restored." Straightway her breasts are restored. 

The " Act of Truth " which most closely resembles that in our text is 
found in Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, pp. 227-228. Here the king's 
elephant, which was parturient, was unable to bring forth its young. The 
ministers advised that it should be led into the zenana, in order that it might 
be relieved of its pains by the asseverations of the king's wives. But although 


the elephant was introduced there, and the wives pronounced their assevera- 
tions, the pains did not come to an end, and the elephant uttered the most 
fearful cries. They were heard by a woman who was looking after some oxen 
near the palace, and who declared that by means of her asseveration the pains 
would be brought to an end. When the ministers had told this to the king, 
and he had ordered her to be brought into the zenana, she said : " If it is 
true that one husband is sufficient for me, and I have not two husbands, then 
as the result of this truth let the elephant be eased of its pains." Immediately 
after this utterance the elephant brought forth. When the king was informed 
of this, he declared that all his wives were of vicious habits, and ordered the 
herdswoman to be summoned. When she had replied in the affirmative to 
his question as to whether the elephant had been relieved of its pains in 
consequence of her asseveration, the king came to the conclusion that she 
must have a daughter like unto herself. This daughter, named Susroni, he 
took as his wife ; but fearing that, if he left her in the company of the other 
women of his court, she would undoubtedly contract bad habits, he begged 
the bird-king, Suparna (his younger brother), to convey her every day to 
Kaserudvipa, but to bring her back to him every night. Suparna agreed to 
this, and sent him every day wreaths of the odorous flower Timira, which 
grew at Kaserudvipa. 

A little later in the story a certain Brahman youth, Asuga, is driven by 
a storm to Kaserudvipa, clinging to a plank, just like Yavanasena in our text. 
Susroni does not follow after her chaste mother, and gladly welcomes to her 
embraces Asuga by day and King Brahmadatta by night. After various 
strange adventures, including being deprived of all her clothes and jewels, 
Susroni does penance in the water and is finally restored to her former 

The " Act of Truth " plays an important part in the best-known tale of 
the Mahabharata, that of Nala and Damayantl. When Damayanti is holding 
her svayamvara (marriage by choice) she finds her five suitors appear exactly 
alike, and she is unable to tell which of them is Nala. In despair she decides 
to appeal to the gods themselves by employing an " Act of Truth " : 

"As on hearing the speech of the swans I chose the King of the Nishadhas 
as my lord, for the sake of that truth, oh, let the gods reveal him to me. And 
as in thought or word I have never swerved from him, oh, let the gods, for 
the sake of that truth, reveal him to me. And as the gods themselves have 
destined the ruler of the Nishadhas to be my lord, oh, let them, for the sake 
of that truth, reveal him to me. And as it is for the sake of winning Nala 
that I have adopted this vow, for the sake of that truth, oh, let the gods reveal 
him unto me. Oh, let the exalted guardians of the worlds assume their own 
proper forms, so that I may know the King Punyasloka." 

Immediately Nala is revealed in his true mortal guise and Damayanti 
places the garland round his neck to show her choice. 

Later in the story, when Nala has deserted her and she is wandering 
distracted through the forest, a hunter meets her and, overcome by her 
beauty, tries to force her. She saves herself by having recourse to an "Act 
of Truth," asserting that if it is true that she loves Nala alone may the hunter 


fall down dead. He immediately falls lifeless to the ground " like a tree 
consumed by fire." In the new edition of Roy's Mahdbhdrata (Calcutta, 1919) 
the full story of Nala and DamayantI appears in vol. ii, pp. 120-16*9 i.e. 
Vana-parva, sections liii-lxxix. The above incident occurs in Chapter LVI of 
the Ocean of Story, but here the number of suitors is six, and the hunter is 
reduced to ashes. 

Although many other examples of this motif in Sanskrit fiction could 
be given, the above are sufficient to show the importance of the motif and 
the numerous uses to which it can be put. 

At the conclusion of this article on the motif, Burlingame (op. cit., 
pp. 466-467) gives the following additional references : Dhammapada Com- 
mentary, xvii, 3; iii, 310; Jiilg's Kalm'ukischc Mdrchen, p. 20, and Mongolische 
Mdrchen, last story ; Bompas, Folklore of the Santal Parganas, p. 118; Melanges 
asiatiques, 1876, p. 739; Busk, Sagas Jrom the Far East, p. 47; Steel and 
Temple, Wide-Awake Stories, p. 429; Dames, " Balochi Tales," Folk-Lore, iv, 
219; H. L. Haughton, Sport and Folk-Lore in the Himalaya, p. 101 ct seq.; 
Ind. Ant., iv, 262; vi, 224-225; xxxv, 148; " Maha Bodhi and the United 
Buddhist World," Journal of the Maha Bodhi Society, Colombo, vol. xix, 
p. 7. N.M.P. 


THEN Naravahanadatta's minister Gomukha said to 
[M] him, by way of capping the tale which had been 
told by Ratnaprabha : " It is true that chaste women 
are few and far between, but unchaste women are never to 
be trusted ; in illustration of this, hear the following story : 

51. Story of Nischayadatta 

There is in this land a town of the name of Ujjayini, 
famous throughout the world : in it there lived of old time 
a merchant's son, named Nischayadatta. He was a gambler 
and had acquired money by gambling, and every day the 
generous man used to bathe in the water of the Sipra and 
worship Mahakala x : his custom was first to give money 
to the Brahmans, the poor and the helpless, and then to 
anoint himself and indulge in food and betel. 

Every day, when he had finished his bathing and his 
worship, he used to go and anoint himself, in a cemetery 
near the temple of Mahakala, with sandalwood and other 
things. And the young man placed the unguent on a stone 
pillar that stood there, and so anointed himself every day 
alone, rubbing his back against it. In that way the pillar 
eventually became very smooth and polished. Then there 
came that way a draughtsman with a sculptor ; the first, 
seeing that the pillar was very smooth, drew on it a figure of 
Gauri, and the sculptor with his chisel, in pure sport, carved 
it on the stone. Then, after they had departed, a certain 
daughter of the Vidyadharas came there to worship Maha- 
kala, and saw that image of Garni on the stone. From 
the clearness of the image she inferred the proximity of 
the goddess, and, after worshipping, she entered that stone 
pillar to rest. 

In the meanwhile Nischayadatta, the merchant's son, 

1 A famous linga of Siva in Ujjayini. 


came there, and to his astonishment beheld that figure of 
Uma carved on the stone. He first anointed his limbs, and 
then, placing the unguent on another part of the stone, began 
to anoint his back by rubbing it against the stone. When 
the rolling-eyed Vidyadhara maiden inside the pillar saw- 
that, her heart being captivated by his beauty, she reflected : 
" What ! has this handsome man no one to anoint his back ? 
Then I will now rub his back for him." 

Thus the Vidyadhari reflected, and, stretching forth her 
hand from inside the pillar, she anointed his back then and 
there out of affection. Immediately the merchant's son 
felt the touch, and heard the jingling of the bracelet, and 
caught hold of her hand with his. And the Vidyadhari, 
invisible as she was, said to him from the pillar : " Noble 
sir, what harm have I done you ? Let go my hand." Then 
Nischayadatta answered her : " Appear before me, and say 
who you are, then I will let go your hand." Then the 
Vidyadhari affirmed with an oath : "I will appear before 
your eyes and tell you all." So he let go her hand. 

Then she came out visibly from the pillar, beautiful in 
every limb, and sitting down, with her eyes fixed on his face, 
said to him : " There is a city called PushkaravatI * on a 
peak of the Himalayas ; in it there lives a king named 
Vindhyapara. I am his maiden daughter, named Anuraga- 
para. I came to worship Mahakala, and rested here to-day. 
And thereupon you came here and were beheld by me 
anointing your back on this pillar, resembling the stupe- 
fying weapon of the God of Love. Then first my heart was 
charmed with affection for you, and afterwards my hand was 
smeared with your unguent, as I rubbed your back. 2 The 
sequel you know. So I will now go to my father's house." 

When she said this to the merchant's son, he answered: 
" Fair one, I have not recovered my soul which you have 

1 Perhaps the PushkalavatI described by General Cunningham in his 
Ancient Geography of India, p. 49. 

2 There is a studied ambiguity in all these words, the usual play on 
affection and oil being kept up. A marginal correction in a Sanskrit College 
MS. lent to me gives hridayam. The text has ranjitam sthathavan. The latter 
is a vox nihili. Brockhaus' text may be explained : " My hand full of my 
heart was steeped in affection for you." 


taken captive ; how can you thus depart, without letting 
go the soul which you have taken possession of ? " When 
he said this to her, she was immediately overcome with 
love, and said : "I will marry you, if you come to my city. 
It is not hard for you to reach ; your endeavour will be 
sure to succeed. For nothing in this world is difficult to the 

Having said this, Anuragapara flew up into the air and 
departed ; and Nischayadatta returned home with mind 
fixed upon her. Recollecting the hand that was protruded 
from the pillar, like a shoot from the trunk of a tree, he 
thought : " Alas ! though I seized her hand I did not win 
it for my own. Therefore I will go to the city of Pushkara- 
vati to visit her, and either I shall lose my life or Fate will 
come to my aid." 

So musing, he passed that day there in an agony of 
love, and he set out from that place early the next morn- 
ing, making for the north. As he journeyed, three other 
Nischayadatta merchants' sons, who were travelling towards 
starts on his the north, associated themselves with him as com- 
Adventures panions. In company with them he travelled 
through cities, villages, forests and rivers, and at last 
reached the northern region, abounding in barbarians. 

There he and his companions were found on the way by 
some Tajikas, who took them and sold them to another 
Tajika. He sent them in the care of his servants as a 
present to a Turushka, named Muravara. Then those 
servants took him and the other three, and hearing that 
Muravara was dead, they delivered them to his son. The 
son of Muravara thought : " These men have been sent me 
as a present by my father's friend, so I must send them to 
him to-morrow by throwing them into his grave." 1 Accord- 
ingly the Turushka fettered Nischayadatta and his three 
friends with strong chains, that they might be kept till the 
morning. Then, while they were remaining in chains at night, 

1 For "funeral human sacrifice for the service of the dead" see Tylor's 
Primitive Culture, pp. 413-422. Cf. Hagen's Helden-Sage?i, vol. iii, pp. 165, 

166. See Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, 

p. 167 el seq., and the references in this work, Vol. I, p. lien 1 . n.m.p. 


Nischayadatta said to his three friends, the merchants' sons, 
who were afflicted with dread of death : " What will you 
gain by despondency ? Maintain steadfast resolution. For 
calamities depart far away from the resolute, as if terrified 
at them. Think on the peerless, adorable Durga, that 
deliverer from calamity." 

Thus encouraging them, he devoutly worshipped that 
goddess Durga : " Hail to thee, O Goddess ! I worship thy 
feet that are stained with a red dye, as if it were the clotted 
gore of the trampled Asura clinging to them. Thou, as the 
all-ruling power of Siva, dost govern the three worlds, and 
inspired by thee they live and move. Thou didst deliver 
the worlds, O slayer of the Asura Mahisha ! Deliver me that 
crave thy protection, O thou cherisher of thy votaries ! " 

In these and similar words he and his companions duly 
worshipped the goddess, and then they all fell asleep, being 
weary. And the goddess Durga in a dream commanded 
Nischayadatta and his companions : " Rise up, my children, 
depart, for your fetters are loosed." Then they woke up at 
night and saw that their fetters had fallen off of themselves, 
and after relating to one another their dream they departed 
thence, delighted. 

And after they had gone a long journey the night came 
to an end, and then those merchants' sons, who had gone 
through such terrors, said to Nischayadatta : " Enough of 
this quarter of the world infested with barbarians ! We 
will go to the Deccan, friend, but do you do as you desire." 
When they said this to him, he dismissed them to go where 
they would, and set out alone vigorously on his journey, 
making towards that very northern quarter, drawn by the 
noose of love for Anuragapara, flinging aside fear. 

As he went along, he fell in, in course of time, with four 
Pasupata ascetics, and reached and crossed the River Vitasta. 
And after crossing it he took food, and as the sun was kissing 
the western mountain he entered with them a forest that lay 
in their path. And there some woodmen, that met them, 
said to them : " Whither are you going, now that the day is 
over ? There is no village in front of you ; but there is an 
empty temple of Siva in this wood. Whoever remains there 


during the night, inside or outside, falls a prey to a Yakshini, 
who bewilders him, making horns grow on his forehead, and 
then treats him as a victim and devours him." 

Those four Pasupata ascetics, who were travelling 
together, though they heard this, said to Nischayadatta : 
" Come along ! What can that miserable Yakshini do to 
us ? For we have remained many nights in various 
cemeteries." When they said this, he went with them, and 
finding an empty temple of Siva he entered it with them to 
pass the night there. In the court of that temple the bold 
Nischayadatta and the Pasupata ascetics quickly made a 
great circle with ashes, and entering into it, they lighted a 
fire with fuel, and all remained there, muttering a charm to 
protect themselves. 1 

Then at night there came there dancing the Yakshini 
Sringotpadini, 2 playing from afar on her lute of bones, and 
when she came near she fixed her eye on one of the four 
Pasupata ascetics, and recited a charm, as she danced out- 
side the circle. That charm produced horns on him, 3 and 

1 See Note 1 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. producer of horns. 

3 Cf. the thirty-first tale in Gonzenbach's SiciUanische Marchen (p. 209), 
where the black figs produce horns. There is also in the same story a 
pipe that compels all that hear its sound to dance. See Dr Reinhold 
Kohler's notes on the tale; also Grimm's No. 110, and his notes in his third 
volume. Cf. also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 65; Ralston's Russia?i 
Folk-Tales, p. 283; Bernhard Schmidt's Griechischc Marchen, No. 20, and 
Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 484. The incident in SiciUanische Marchen 
closely resembles one in the story of Fortunatus as told in Simrock's 
Deutsche Volksbucher, vol. iii, p. 175. There is a pipe that compels all the 
hearers to dance in Huon of Bordeaux, and a very similar fairy harp in 
Wirt Sikes' British Goblins, p. 97; and a magic fiddle in " Das Goldene 
Schachspiel," a story in Kaden's Unter den Olivenbdumen, p. l6'0. A fiddler in 
Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg (vol. i, p. 130) makes 
a girl spin round like a top. From that day she was lame. See also De 
Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. i, pp. 182, 288, and Baring-Gould, 
Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, 2nd series, p. 152. Kuhn, in his Westfdlischc 
Marchen, vol. i, p. 183, mentions a belief that horns grew on the head of 
one who looked at the Wild Huntsman. It is just possible that this notion 
may be derived from the story of Action. A statue found in the ruins of 
the villa of Antoninus Pius near Lavinium represents him with his human 
form and with the horns just sprouting {Engravings from Ancient Marbles in 


bewildered he rose up, and danced till he fell into the blaz- 
ing fire. And when he had fallen the Yakshini dragged him 
half- burnt out of the fire, and devoured him with delight. 
Then she fixed her eye on the second Pasupata ascetic, 
and in the same way recited the horn-producing charm and 
danced. The second one also had horns produced by that 
charm, and was made to dance, and falling into the fire was 
dragged out and devoured before the eyes of the others. 

In this way the Yakshini maddened one after another 
at night the four ascetics, and, after horns had been produced 
on them, devoured them. But while she was devouring the 
fourth it came to pass that, being intoxicated with flesh and 
blood, she laid her lute down on the ground. Thereupon 
the bold Nigchayadatta rose up quickly, and seized the lute, 
and began to play on it, and, dancing round with a laugh, 
to recite that horn-producing charm, which he had learned 
from hearing it often, fixing at the same time his eye on the 
face of the Yakshini. By the operation of the charm she 
was confused, and dreading death, as horns were just about 
to sprout on her forehead, she flung herself prostrate and 
thus entreated him : " Valiant man, do not slay me, a help- 
less woman. I now implore your protection ; stop the recital 
of the charm and the accompanying movements. Spare 
me ! I know all your story, and will bring about your wish ; 
I will carry you to the place where Anuragapara is." 

The bold Nischayadatta, when thus confidingly addressed 
by her, consented, and stopped the recital of the charm and 
the accompanying movements. Then, at the request of the 

the British Museum, plate xlv). Cf. also the story of Cipus in Ovid's Meta- 
morphoses, xv, 552-621. For the magic pipe see Grimm's Irische M'drchen t 
Einleitung, p. lxxxiii ; Rohde, Der Gricchische Roman, p. 264. Remarks on 
the pipe and horns will be found in Ralston's Tibetan Tales, introduction, 

pp. liv-lvi. For further analogues to Grimm's tale 110 see Bolte, op. cit., 

vol. ii, p. 490 ct seq., and for the significance of horns in mythology and 
folk-lore see Elworthy's Horns of Honour, and J. A. Macculloch, " Horns," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vi, pp. 791-796. For an extraordinary story 
about a wonderful reed flute, and a sultan who had horns on his head, see 
Stumme, M'drchen der Schluh von Tdzerwalt, p. 138. It is quoted by Crooke 
in "King Midas and his Ass's Ears," Folk-Lore, vol. xxii, 1911, pp. 189, 
190. N.M.P. 


Yakshini, he mounted on her back, and being carried by her 
through the air, he went to find his beloved. 1 

And when the night came to an end they had reached a 
mountain wood ; there the Guhyaki, bowing, thus addressed 
Nischayadatta : " Now that the sun has risen, I have no 
power to go upwards, 2 so spend this day in this charming 
wood, my lord ; eat sweet fruits and drink the clear water 
of the brooks. I go to my own place, and I will return at 
the approach of night ; and then I will take you to the city 
of Pushkaravati, the crown of the Himalayas, and into the 
presence of Anuragapara." Having said this, the Yakshini 
with his permission set him down from her shoulder, and 
departed, to return again according to her promise. 

When she had gone, Nischayadatta beheld a deep lake, 
transparent and cool, but tainted with poison, lit up by 
the sun, that, stretching forth the fingers of its rays, 
revealed it as an example illustrative of the nature of the 
heart of a passionate woman. He knew by the smell that 
it was tainted with poison, and left it, after necessary 
ablutions, and being afflicted with thirst he roamed all over 
that heavenly mountain in search of water. And as he was 
wandering about he saw on a lofty place what seemed to be 
two rubies glittering, and he dug up the ground there. 

And after he had removed the earth he saw there the 
head of a living monkey, and his eyes like two rubies. While 
he was indulging his wonder, thinking what this could be, 
that monkey thus addressed him with human voice : "I 
am a man, a Brahman transformed into a monkey ; release 
me, and then I will tell you all my story, excellent sir." As 
soon as he heard this he removed the earth, marvelling, and 
drew the ape out of the ground. When Nischayadatta had 
drawn out the ape, it fell at his feet, and continued : " You 
have given me life by rescuing me from calamity. So come, 
since you are weary, take fruit and water, and by your 
favour I also will break my long fast." Having said this, 
the liberated monkey took him to the bank of a mountain 

1 Cf. Grimm's Marchen, No. 193. The parallel between Grimm's story 
and that of Vidushaka in Chapter XVI 1 1 of this work is still more striking. 

2 All demons become powerless at cock-crow. See Vol. I, p. 77n\ n.m.p. 


torrent some distance off, where there were delicious fruits 
and shady trees. There he bathed and took fruit and water, 
and coming back he said to the monkey, who had broken his 
fast : " Tell me how you have become a monkey, being 
really a man." Then that monkey said : " Listen, I will tell 
you now. 

51a. Somasvamin and Bandhudatta 

In the city of Varanasi there is an excellent Brahman 
named Chandrasvamin. I am his son by his virtuous wife, 
my friend. And my father gave me the name of Somasvamin. 
In course of time it came to pass that I mounted the fierce 
elephant of love, which infatuation makes uncontrollable. 
When I was at this stage of my life the youthful Bandhu- 
datta, the daughter of the merchant Srigarbha, an inhabitant 
of that city, and the wife of the great merchant of Mathura, 
Varahadatta, who was dwelling in her father's house, beheld 
me one day as she was looking out of the window. She was 
enamoured of me on beholding me, and after inquiring my 
name she sent a confidential female friend to me, desiring 
an interview. Her friend came up secretly to me, who was 
blind with love, and, after telling her friend's desire, took 
me to her house. There she placed me, and then went 
and brought secretly Bandhudatta, whose eagerness made her 
disregard shame. And no sooner was she brought than she 
threw her arms round my neck ; for excessive love in women 
is your only hero for daring. Thus every day Bandhudatta 
came at will from her father's house and sported with me in 
the house of her female friend. 

Now one day the great merchant, her husband, came 
from Mathura to take her back to his own house, as she had 
been long absent. Then Bandhudatta, as her father ordered 
her to go, and her husband was eager to take her away, 
secretly made a second request to her friend. She said : 
" I am certainly going to be taken by my husband to the 
city of Mathura, and I cannot live there separated from 
Somasvamin. So tell me what resource there is left to me 
in this matter ? " 

When she said this, her friend Sukhasaya, who was a 


witch, answered her : "I know two spells 1 : by reciting 
one of them a man can be in a moment made an ape, if a 
string is fastened round his neck, and by the second, if the 
string is loosed, he will immediately become a man again ; 
and while he is an ape his intelligence is not diminished. So 
if you like, fair one, you can keep your lover Somasvamin ; 
for I will turn him into an ape on the spot ; then take him 
with you to Mathura as a pet animal. And I will show you 
how to use the two spells, so that you can turn him, when 
near you, into the shape of a monkey, and when you are 
in a secret place, make him once more a beloved man." 

When her friend had told her this, Bandhudatta con- 
sented, and sending for me in secret, told me that matter 
in the most loving tone. I consented, and immediately 
Sukhasaya fastened a thread on my neck and recited the 
spell, and made me a young monkey. And in that shape 
Bandhudatta brought and showed me to her husband, and 
she said : "A friend of mine gave me this animal to play 
with." And he was delighted when he saw me in her arms 
as a plaything, and I, though a monkey, retained my 
intelligence and the power of articulate speech. And I 
remained there, saying to myself with inward laughter : 
" Wonderful are the actions of women." For whom does 
not love beguile ? 

The next day Bandhudatta, having been taught that 
spell by her friend, set out from her father's house to go to 
Mathura with her husband. And the husband of Bandhu- 
datta, wishing to please her, had me carried on the back of 
one of his servants during the journey. So the servant and 

1 Cf Veckenstedt's Wendische Sageti, pp. 256, 394. See also No. 129 
in Giles' Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, vol. ii, p. 265, the title of 
which is "Making of Animals." Cf. with the string the gold rings in the 
"Volsunga Saga," Hagen's Helden-Sage?i, vol. iii, p. 30. In Ovid's Meta- 
morphoses, viii, 850 et seq., there is an account of Mestra's transformation. 
Neptune gave her the power of transforming herself whenever she was sold 
by her father. See also the story of Achelous and Hercules in Book IX of 
the Metamorphoses ; Prym and Socin's Syrische Marchen, p. 229, where we have 
the incident of the selling; Waldau, Bohmische Marchen, p. 125; Coelho, 
Contos Populares Portugueses, p. 32. For references to animal meta- 
morphoses in folk-lore see Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 199. The references to 
the Nights are numerous. n.m.p. 


I and the rest went along, and in two or three days reached 
a wood, that lay in our way, which was perilous from abound- 
ing in monkeys. Then the monkeys, beholding me, attacked 
me in troops on all sides, quickly calling to one another with 
shrill cries. And the irresponsible apes came and began to 
bite that merchant's servant, on whose back I was sitting. 
He was terrified at that, and flung me off his back on to 
the ground, and fled for fear, so the monkeys got hold of 
me then and there. And Bandhudatta, out of love for me, 
and her husband and his servants, attacked the apes with 
stones and sticks, but were not able to get the better of 
them. Then those monkeys, as if enraged with my evil 
actions, pulled off with their teeth and nails every hair from 
every one of my limbs as I lay there bewildered. 

At last, by the virtue of the string on my neck, and by 
thinking on Siva, I managed to recover my strength, and 
getting loose from them I ran away. And entering into the 
depths of the wood, I got out of their sight, and gradually, 
roaming from forest to forest, I reached this wood. And 
while I was wandering about here in the rainy season, blind 
with the darkness of grief, saying to myself : " How is it 
that even in this life adultery has produced for thee the fruit 
of transformation into the shape of a monkey, and thou hast 
lost Bandhudatta ? " Destiny, not yet sated with torment- 
ing me, inflicted on me another woe, for a female elephant 
suddenly came upon me and, seizing me with her trunk, 
flung me into the mud of an ant-hill that had been saturated 
with rain. I know it must have been some divinity in- 
stigated by Destiny, for, though I exerted myself to the 
utmost, I could not get out of that mud. 

And while it was drying up, 1 not only did I not die, but 
knowledge was produced in me, while I thought continually 
upon Siva. And all the while I never felt hunger nor thirst, 
my friend, until to-day you drew me out of this trap of dry 
mud. And though I have gained knowledge, I do not even 
now possess power sufficient to set myself free from this 
monkey nature. But when some witch unties the thread 

1 Pandit Syama Charana Mukhopadhyaya conjectures hsoshyamane. This 
I adopt unhesitatingly. 


on my neck, reciting at the same time the appropriate spell, 
then I shall once more become a man. 

51. Story of Nischayadatta 

" This is my story ; but tell me now, my friend, how you 
came to this inaccessible wood, and why." When Nischaya- 
datta was thus requested by the Brahman Somasvamin, he 
told him his story, how he came from Ujjayini on account 
of a Vidyadhari, and how he was conveyed at night by a 
Yakshini, whom he had subdued by his presence of mind. 
Then the wise Somasvamin, who wore the form of a monkey, 
having heard that wonderful story, went on to say : " You, 
like myself, have suffered great woe for the sake of a female. 
But females, like prosperous circumstances, are never faithful 
to anyone in this world. Like the evening, they display a 
short-lived passion, their hearts are crooked like the channels 
of rivers, like snakes they are not to be relied on, like lightning 
they are fickle. So that Anuragapara, though she may be 
enamoured of you for a time, when she finds a paramour 
of her own race, will be disgusted with you, who are only a 
mortal. So desist now from this effort for the sake of a 
female, which you will find like the fruit of the colocynth, 
bitter in its after-taste. Do not go, my friend, to Push- 
karavati, the city of the Vidyadharas, but ascend the back 
of the Yakshini and return to your own Ujjayini. Do what 
I tell you, my friend ; formerly in my passion I did not 
heed the voice of a friend, and I am suffering for it at this 
very moment. For when I was in love with Bandhudatta, 
a Brahman friend named Bhavasarman said this to me in 
order to dissuade me : c Do not put yourself in the power 
of a female ; the heart of a female is a tangled maze ; in 
proof of it I will tell you what happened to me. Listen ! 

51b. Bhavasarman and the Two Witches 

In this very country, in the city of Varanasi, there lived 
.a young and beautiful Brahman woman named Somada, 
who was unchaste and secretly a witch. And as Destiny 
vol. in. n 


would have it, I had secret interviews with her, and in the 
course of our intimacy my love for her increased. One 
day I wilfully struck her in the fury of jealousy, and the 
cruel woman bore it patiently, concealing her anger for the 
time. The next day she fastened a string round my neck, 
as if in loving sport, and I was immediately turned into a 
domesticated ox. Then I, thus transformed into an ox, was 
sold by her, on receiving the required price, to a man who 
lived by keeping domesticated camels. When he placed 
a load upon me, a witch there, named Bandhamochini, be- 
holding me sore burdened, was filled with pity. She knew 
by her supernatural knowledge that I had been made an 
animal by Somada, and when my proprietor was not looking 
she loosed the string from my neck. 1 

So I returned to the form of a man, and that master of 
mine immediately looked round, and thinking that I had 
escaped, wandered all about the country in search of me. 
And as I was going away from that place with Bandhamo- 
chini it happened that Somada came that way and beheld 
me at a distance. She, burning with rage, said to Ban- 
dhamochini, who possessed supernatural knowledge : " Why 
did you deliver this villain from his bestial transformation ? 
Curses on you! wicked woman, you shall reap the fruit of 
this evil deed. To-morrow morning I will slay you, together 
with this villain." 

When she had gone, after saying this, that skilful sorceress 
Bandhamochini, in order to repel her assault, gave me the 
following instructions : " She will come to-morrow morning 
in the form of a black mare to slay me, and I shall then 
assume the form of a bay mare. And when we have begun 
to fight you must come behind this Somada, sword in hand, 
and resolutely strike her. In this way we will slay her ; so 
come to-morrow morning to my house." After saying this, 
she pointed out to me her house. 

When she had entered it I went home, having endured 
more than one birth in this very life. And in the morning 

1 Cf. Sagas from the Far East, p. 35. This story very closely resembles 
that of Sidi Nu'uman in the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. iii, p. 325 et seq.), and 
The Golden Ass of Apuleius. 


I went to the house of Bandhamochini, sword in hand. 
Then Somada came there in the form of a black mare. 1 
And Bandhamochini, for her part, assumed the form of a 
bay mare ; and then they fought with their teeth and heels, 
biting and kicking. Then I struck that vile witch Somada 
a blow with my sword, and she was slain by Bandhamochini. 
Then I was freed from fear, and having escaped the calamity 
of bestial transformation, I never again allowed my mind to 
entertain the idea of associating with wicked women. Women 
generally have these three faults, terrible to the three worlds, 
flightiness, recklessness, and a love for the congregation of 
witches. 2 So why do you run after Bandhudatta, who is a 
friend of witches ? Since she does not love her husband, 
how is it possible that she can love you ? 

51. Story of Nischayadatta 

"Though my friend Bhavasarman gave me this advice, 
I did not do what he told me, and so I am reduced to this 
state. So I give you this counsel : do not suffer hardship 
to win Anuragapara, for when she obtains a lover of her 
own race she will, of a surety, desert you. A woman ever 
desires fresh men, as a female humble bee wanders from 
flower to flower ; so you will suffer regret some day, like 
me, my friend." This speech of Somasvamin, who had been 
transformed into a monkey, did not penetrate the heart of 
Nischayadatta, for it was full of passion. And he said to 
that monkey: "She will not be unfaithful to me, for she 
is born of the pure race of the Vidyadharas." 

Whilst they were thus conversing, the sun, red with the 
hues of evening, went to the mountain of setting, as if 
wishing to please Nischayadatta. Then the night arrived, as 

1 Cf. Campbell's Tales from the West Highlands, vol. ii, p. 422, and 
Sagas from the Far East, p. 4>. This part of the story comes under Mr Baring- 
Gould's "Magical Conflict" root (see his "Story Radicals" in the appendix 

to Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties). For details of the 

"Magical Conflict" or "Transformation Combat" motif see Note 2 at the 
end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 The word samvara, which I have translated "congregation," probably 
means "sorcery " ; see Bohtlingk and Roth s.v. 


the harbinger of the Yakshini SringotpadinI, and she herself 
came soon afterwards. And Nischayadatta mounted on her 
back, and went off to go to his beloved, taking leave of the 
ape, who begged that he might ever be remembered by him. 
And at midnight he reached that city of Pushkaravati, 
which was situated on the Himalayas, and belonged to the 
King of the Vidyadharas, the father of Anuragapara. At that 
very moment Anuragapara, having known by her power of 
his arrival, came out from that city to meet him. 

Then the Yakshini put down Nischayadatta from her 
shoulder, and pointing out to him Anuragapara, said : " Here 
comes your beloved, like a second moon giving a feast to 
your eyes in the night, so now I will depart." And bowing 
before him, she went her way. Then Anuragapara, full of 
the excitement produced by expectation, went up to her be- 
loved, and welcomed him with embraces and other signs of 
love. He too embraced her, and now that he had obtained 
the joy of meeting her after enduring many hardships, he 
could not be contained in his own body, and as it were 
entered hers. So Anuragapara was made his wife by the 
gdndharva ceremony of marriage, and she immediately by 
her magic skill created a city. In that city, which was out- 
side the metropolis, he dwelt with her, without her parents 
suspecting it, as their eyes were blinded by her skill. And 
when, on her questioning him, he told her those strange 
and painful adventures of his journey, she respected him 
much and bestowed on him all the enjoyments that heart 
could wish. 

Then Nischayadatta told that Vidyadhari the strange 
story of Somasvamin, who had been transformed into a 
monkey, and said to her : "If this friend of mine could by 
any endeavour on your part be freed from his monkey con- 
dition, then, my beloved, you would have done a good deed." 
When he told her this, Anuragapara said to him : " This is 
in the way of witches' spells, but it is not our province. 
Nevertheless I will accomplish this desire of yours, by asking 
a friend of mine, a skilful witch named Bhadrarupa." 

When the merchant's son heard that, he was delighted, 
and said to that beloved of his : " So come and see my 


friend ; let us go to visit him." She consented, and the 
next day, carried in her lap, Nischayadatta went through 
the air to the wood, which was the residence of his friend. 
When he saw his friend there in monkey form he went up 
to him with his wife, who bowed before him, and asked after 
his welfare. And the monkey Somasvamin welcomed him, 
saying : " It is well with me to-day, in that I have beheld 
you united to Anuragapara." And he gave his blessing to 
Nischayadatta's wife. Then all three sat down on a charming 
slab of rock there and held a conversation * about his story, 
the various adventures of that ape, previously discussed by 
Nischayadatta with his beloved. Then Nischayadatta took 
leave of that monkey and went to the house of his beloved, 
flying up into the air, carried by her in her arms. 

And the next day he again said to that Anuragapara : 
" Come, let us go for a moment to visit that ape our friend." 
Then she said to him : " Go to-day yourself; receive from 
me the science of flying up, and also that of descending." 
When she had said this to him, he took those two sciences 
and flew through the air to his friend the ape. And as he 
remained long conversing with him, Anuragapara went out 
of the house into the garden. While she was seated there 
a certain Vidyadhara youth, who was wandering at will 
through the air, came there. The Vidyadhara, knowing 
by his art that she was a Vidyadhari who had a mortal 
husband, the moment he beheld her, was overpowered with a 
paroxysm of love, and approached her. And she, with face 
bent on the ground, beheld that he was handsome and 
attractive, and slowly asked him out of curiosity who he was 
and whence he came. 

Then he answered her : " Know, fair one, that I am a 
Vidyadhara, by name Ragabhanjana, distinguished for my 
knowledge of the sciences of the Vidyadharas. The moment 
I beheld you, O gazelle- eyed one, I was suddenly overpowered 
by love, and made your slave, so cease to honour, O Goddess, 
a mortal, whose abode is the earth, and favour me, your 
equal, before your father finds out your intrigue." When 

1 I adopt kritam, the reading of a MS. lent me from the Sanskrit College, 
should put a comma after alapam, as that word is used in the masculine. 


he said this, the fickle-hearted one, looking timidly at him 
with a sidelong glance, thought : " Here is a fit match for 
me." When he had thus ascertained her wishes, he made 
her his wife : when two are of one mind what more does 
secret love require ? 

Then Nis'chayadatta arrived from the presence of 
Somasvamin, after that Vidyadhara had departed. And 
when he came, Anuragapara, having lost her love for him, 
Anuragapam did n t embrace him, giving as an excuse that 
tires of her she had a headache. But the simple-minded 
Mortal Lover man> bewildered by love, not seeing through her 
excuse, thought that her pain was due to illness and spent 
the day in that belief. But the next day he again went in 
low spirits to see his friend the ape, flying through the air 
by the force of the two sciences he possessed. 

When he had gone, Anuragapara's Vidyadhara lover 
returned to her, having spent a sleepless night without her. 
And embracing round the neck her who was eager for his 
arrival, owing to having been separated during the night, 
he was at length overcome by sleep. She by the power of 
her science concealed her lover, who lay asleep in her lap, 
and weary with having kept awake all night, went to sleep 
herself. In the meanwhile Nis'chayadatta came to the ape, 
and his friend, welcoming him, asked him : " Why do I 
seem to see you in low spirits to-day ? Tell me." 

Then Nischayadatta said to that ape : " Anuragapara 
is exceedingly ill, my friend ; for that reason I am grieved, 
for she is dearer to me than life." Then that ape, who 
possessed supernatural knowledge, said to him : " Go, take 
her in your arms, asleep as she is, and flying through the air 
by the help of the science she bestowed, bring her to me, in 
order that I may this very day show you a great marvel." 
When Nis'chayadatta heard this, he went through the air 
and lightly took up that sleeping fair one, but he did not see 
that Vidyadhara, who was asleep in her lap, and had been 
previously made invisible by the power of her science. And 
flying up into the air, he quickly brought Anuragapara to 
that ape. That ape, who possessed divine insight, immedi- 
ately showed him a charm, by which he was able to behold 


the Vidyadhara clinging to her neck. When he saw this, 
he exclaimed : " Alas ! what does this mean ? " And the 
ape, who was able to discern the truth, told him the whole 

Then Nischayadatta fell into a passion, and the Vidya- 
dhara, who was the lover of his wife, woke up, and flying up 
into the air, disappeared. Then Anuragapara woke up, and 
seeing that her secret was revealed, stood with face cast down 
through shame. Then Nischayadatta said to her, with eyes 
gushing with tears : " Wicked female, how could you thus 
deceive me who reposed confidence in you ? Although a 
device is known in this world for fixing that exceedingly 
fickle metal quicksilver, no expedient is known for fixing the 
heart of a woman." While he was saying this, Anuragapara, 
at a loss for an answer, and weeping, slowly soared up into 
the air, and went to her own home. 

Then Nischayadatta's friend, the ape, said to him : 
" That you are grieved is the fruit of the fierce fire of passion, 
in that you ran after this fair one, though I tried to dissuade 
you. For what reliance can be placed on fickle fortunes 
and fickle women ? So cease your regret. Be patient now. 
For even the Disposer himself cannot o'erstep Destiny." 
When Nischayadatta heard this speech from the ape he 
flung aside that delusion of grief and, abandoning passion, 
fled to Siva as his refuge. Then, as he was remaining in 
that wood with his friend the ape, it happened that a female 
hermit of the name of Mokshada came near him. She, see- 
ing him bowing before her, proceeded to ask him: "How 
comes this strange thing to pass that, though a man, you 
have struck up a friendship with this ape ? " 

Then he related to her his own melancholy story, and 
afterwards the sad tale of his friend, and thereupon thus 
said to her : "If you, reverend lady, know any incantation 
or spell by which it can be done, immediately release this 
excellent Brahman, my friend, from his ape- transformation." 
When she heard that, she consented, and employing a spell, 
she loosed the string from his neck, and Somas vamin 
abandoned that monkey form and became a man as before. 
Then she disappeared like lightning, clothed with celestial 


brightness, and in time Ni3chayadatta and the Brahman 
Somasvamin, having performed many austerities, attained 
final beatitude. 

[M] " Thus fair ones, naturally fickle, bring about a 
series of evil actions which produce true discernment, and 
aversion to the world. But here and there you will find a 
virtuous one among them, who adorns a glorious family, as 
the streak of the moon the broad sky." 

When Naravahanadatta, accompanied by Ratnaprabha, 
heard this wonderful tale from the mouth of Gomukha, he 
was highly pleased. 



Some idea of the religious significance attached to the circle has already 
been given in my note on deisul, or the circumambulation of sacred shrines, 
mountains, etc. (Vol. I, pp. 190-193), while its uses in magical practices were 
briefly mentioned in Vol. II, pp. 98-100//.. 

I shall, therefore, confine myself here to describing some of the more 
uncommon uses to which it is put. 

In the Panjab, about 1885, there was a severe attack of cattle disease. 
The Government took what steps it could to mitigate the calamity, and the 
disease soon disappeared. When, however, some time later the District 
Officer was in the locality it was explained that the natives could do nothing 
till the veterinary surgeons had left. Then they procured the services of a 
holy man, who drew a line on the ground right round the herd. He got on 
horseback and rode round the circle, sprinkling water and repeating mantras. 
It was this that had cured the cattle ! See Panjab Notes and Queries, vol. ii, 
1885, p. 148. In the note given on this page by the editor, the reference to 
"vol. xii, p. 36," of the Ind. Ant. should read, "vol. xi, pp. 35-36." 

Mention should also be made of the kar, the charmed circle of Hindu 
astrologers. There appears to be some doubt as to the etymology of this 
Panjabi word. In the Ind, Ant., vol. xi, 1 882, pp. 35-36, Sir Richard Temple 
would derive it from the Sanskrit kara, "a prison." The root kat means 
"to surround," whence kataka, "a zone"; Hindi, kara and karl, "ring," 
"bracelet"; thus the word may be of Prakrit origin. In Panjab Notes and 
Queries, vol. ii, 1885 (No. 758, p. 136), however, it was suggested that kar 
should be connected with karsha, "a scratch," "furrow," "trench," from the 
root krish, " to draw." 

The term kar is frequently employed to invoke protection (in much 
the same way as the Roman Catholic crosses himself when apprehensive of 
danger), and is in everyday use. It constantly occurs in charms and mantras. 
We also find it in the Ananda-ramayana (" Sara-Kanda," Sarga 7, verse 98 et seq.), 
a mediaeval composition, where Lakshmana draws a protective circle round 
Sita with the tip of his bow. 

Then there is the mandali, or debtor's circle, to be considered. It has 
been described by several early travellers in the East. See, for instance, 
Marco Polo, Book III, chap, xvii (Yule, vol. ii, p. 343), and note 14 on p. 350 ; 
G. P. Badger, Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, Hakluyt Society, 1863, p. 147 ; 
Hamilton, Journey throiigh Mysore, Canara and Malabar, 1807, vol. i, 318; 
Pere Bouchet, Lettres iZdijicantes, vol. xiv, p. 370 ; R. H. Major, India in the 
Fifteenth Century, Hakluyt Society, 1858, p. 14. 

Quotations from one or two of the above will make the use of the 
debtor's circle quite clear. 

Varthema (op. cit, p. 147) says: "And when anyone ought to receive 
money from another merchant, there appearing any writing of the scribes of 
the king (who has at least a hundred of them), they observe this practice : 


Let us suppose the case that someone has to pay me twenty-five ducats, and 
the debtor promises me to pay them many times, and does not pay them ; I, 
not being willing to wait any longer, nor to give him any indulgence, shall 
take a green branch in my hand, shall go softly behind the debtor, and with 
the said hand shall draw a circle on the ground surrounding him, and if I 
can enclose him in the circle, I shall say to him these words three times : 
' Bramini raza pertha polle ' that is, ' I command you, by the head of the 
Brahmins and of the king, that you do not depart hence until you have paid 
me and satisfied me as much as I ought to have from thee.' And he will 
satisfy me, or truly he will die there without any other guard. And should 
he quit the said circle and not pay me, the king would put him to death." 

The following account is given by Marco Polo (pp. cit, vol. ii, p. 343) : 
"They have the following rale about debts. If a debtor shall have been 
several times asked by his creditor for payment, and shall have put him off 
from day to day with promises, then if the creditor can once meet the debtor 
and succeed in drawing a circle round him, the latter must not pass out of 
this circle until he shall have satisfied the claim, or given security for its 
discharge. If he in any other case presume to pass the circle he is punished 
with death as a transgressor against right and justice. And the said Messer 
Marco, when in this kingdom on his return home, did witness a case of this. 
It was the King, who owed a foreign merchant a certain sum of money, and 
though the claim had often been presented, he always put it off with promises. 
Now one day the merchant found his opportunity, and drew a circle round 
both the King and his horse. The King, on seeing this, halted, and would 
ride no farther ; nor did he stir from the spot until the merchant was satisfied. 
And when the bystanders saw this they marvelled greatly, saying that the 
King was a most just King indeed, having thus submitted to justice." 

These customs explain the gambler's ring mentioned in the second act 
of the Mrichchhakatika, or Clay Cart, where a shampooer having got into debt 
is vainly called upon to pay. As a last resource the other draws a circle 
round him, saying triumphantly : "There, now you're bound by the gambler's 
ring." The shampooer replies: "What! Bound by the gambler's ring? 
Confound it ! There is a limit which we gamblers can't pass." 

Although a protective circle is usually made on the ground, this is not 
always the case. Thus among the negroes of Jamaica a circle in chalk 
marked on the door of the house acts as a protective charm to those within, 
and no duppy can enter. A duppy is a very curious kind of spirit with super- 
natural powers, and is said to be formed from a cloud of smoke which arises 
from the grave of a person who has been dead for three days (Folk-Lore, 
vol. xv, 1904, pp. 90 and 207). 

The circle is also used for practical purposes by means of homoeopathic 
magic. Thus in his Magie ct Religion dans VAfrique dtt Nord (Algiers, 1908, 
p. 244 el seq.) E. Doutte describes how, in order to bring back a runaway 
slave, an Arab of North Africa will trace a magic circle on the ground, stick 
a nail in the middle of it, and attach a beetle by a thread to the nail, taking 
care that the sex of the beetle is that of the fugitive. As the beetle crawls 
round and round it will coil the thread about the nail, thus shortening its 



tether and drawing nearer to the centre at every circuit. So by virtue of 
homoeopathic magic the runaway slave will be drawn back to his master. 

This is quoted by Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. i, p. 1 52 et seq. 

In conclusion I would again (see Vol. II, p. 99) refer readers to Crawley's 
article in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., where so many useful references are given. 
To those given by A. E. Waite I would add his The Book of Black Magic t 
London, 1898, where numerous rites of conjuration are given. n.m.p. 


The "Magical Conflict" or "Transformation Combat" motif dates from 
very early times, and in an ancient Egyptian tale, " The Veritable History of 
Satni-Khamois " (Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt, p. 166 et seq.), 
we find a long series of amazing transformations closely resembling those 
occurring in subsequent collections. 

In most examples of the motif there are two distinct transformation 
incidents. Firstly, someone is turned or learns how to turn himself into 
some kind of animal, and as such is sold to the highest bidder. The seller, 
usually the man's father, must on no account sell the halter or string round 
the animal's neck. It is a kind of "External Soul" and its surrender 
condemns the man to remain in his animal shape. And secondly, events lead 
to a " Magical Conflict " either between the hero and a magician (in many 
tales his former teacher), or the hero's rescuer and the magician. 

It will be seen that in our present text the string turned Bhavasarman into 
an ox which it was necessary to remove before he could recover his pristine 
shape. The conflict is only very short, but in most versions becomes long 
and complicated. In several cases one of the combatants takes the form of a 
pomegranate, a heap of grain, or a rose, and in each case the object becomes 
divided into a large number of separate parts, and it is not until each seed, 
stone, grain, leaf, or whatever it is, has been devoured by the adversary 
(usually in the form of a cock at this stage of the proceedings) that the other 
can be destroyed. 

One good example of this will suffice. 1 choose " The Second Kalendar's 
Tale" from the Nights (Burton, vol. i, pp. 134-135) : 

" . . . whereupon he changed to the form of a lion, and said, ' O traitress, 
how is it thou hast broken the oath we sware that neither should contraire 
other ! ' ' O accursed one,' answered she, ' how could there be a compact 
between me and the like of thee ? ' Then said he, f Take what thou hast 
brought on thyself ; and the lion opened his jaws and rushed upon her; but 
she was too quick for him ; and, plucking a hair from her head, waved it in 
the air muttering over it the while ; and the hair straightway became a 
trenchant sword-blade, wherewith she smote the lion and cut him in twain. 
Then the two halves flew away in air and the head changed to a scorpion and 
the Princess became a huge serpent and set upon the accursed scorpion, 
and the two fought, coiling and uncoiling, a stiff fight for an hour at least. 


Then the scorpion changed to a vulture, and the serpent became an eagle 
which set upon the vulture, and hunted him for an hour's time, till he became 
a black tom-cat, which miauled and grinned and spat. Thereupon the eagle 
changed into a piebald wolf, and these two battled in the palace for a long 
time, when the cat, seeing himself overcome, changed into a worm and crept 
into a huge red pomegranate, which lay beside the jetting fountain in the 
midst of the palace hall. Whereupon the pomegranate swelled to the size 
of a water-melon in air; and, falling upon the marble pavement of the palace, 
broke to pieces, and all the grains fell out and were scattered about till they 
covered the whole floor. Then the wolf shook himself and became a snow- 
white cock, which fell to picking up the grains, purposing not to leave one ; 
but by doom of destiny one seed rolled to the fountain-edge and there lay 
hid. The cock fell to crowing and clapping his wings and signing to us with 
his beak as if to ask, ' Are any grains left ? ' But we understood not what he 
meant, and he cried to us with so loud a cry that we thought the palace would 
fall upon us. Then he ran over all the floor till he saw the grain which had 
rolled to the fountain-edge, and rushed eagerly to pick it up, when behold, 
it sprang into the midst of the water and became a fish and dived to the 
bottom of the basin. Thereupon the cock changed to a big fish and plunged 
in after the other, and the two disappeared for a while, and lo ! we heard loud 
shrieks and cries of pain which made us tremble. After this the Ifrit rose 
out of the water, and he was as a burning flame ; casting fire and smoke from 
his mouth and eyes and nostrils. And immediately the Princess likewise 
came forth from the basin and she was one live coal of flaming lowe ; and 
these two, she and he, battled for the space of an hour, until their fires 
entirely compassed them about and their thick smoke filled the palace." 

After a final terrific struggle the Ifrit is killed, but his adversary 
succumbs to her wounds. 

The motif has been discussed by several writers. See, for instance, 
Hartland, Legend of Perseus, vol. ii, pp. 56, 57 ; Crooke, " Some Notes on 
Homeric Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 1908, p. 167 ; Clouston, Popular 
Tales and Fictions, vol. i, p. 413 et seq. ; W. R. Halliday, "The Force of 
Initiative in Magical Conflict," Folk-Lore, vol. xxi, 1910, p. 147 et seq.; 
Keightley, Tales and Popular Fictions, 1834, p. 123; Macculloch, Childhood oj 
Fiction, pp. 164-166; Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 199; viii, p. 149; Bolte, op. cit., 
vol. ii, p. 60 et seq. ; and Cosquin, " Les Mongols et leur Pretendu R6le dans 
la Transmission des contes Indiens vers L'Occident Europeen," Etudes 
Folkloriques, pp. 497-612. 

The following references will show how widely diffused is the motif 
under consideration, both in Europe and the East : 

N. Sastri, Dravidian Nights, pp. 8-18; Oesterley, Baital Pachisi, 174-175; 
Swynnerton, Indian Nights' Entertainments, No. 57 ; Juig, Die Marchen des 
Siddhi-Kiir, p. 51 et seq. ; Gibb, The History of the Forty Vezirs, pp. 253-256; 
Busk, Sagas from the Far East, p. 4 ; Spitta-Bey, Contes Arabes Modemes, 
pp. 1-11; A. Dozon, Contes Albanais, 1881, p. 135; Hahn, Griechische und 
Alhanesische Marchen, 1864, No. 68; Mijatovic, Serbian Folk-Lore, 1874, p. 211 
et seq. ; Wardrop, Georgian Folk-Tales, p. 1 ; Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 


p. 229; A. and W. Schott, Wallachian Stories, No. 18, p. 198; Straparola, The 
Nights, trans. Waters, vol. ii, p. 109 ; Lady Charlotte Guest, " The Mabinogion," 
from the Welsh of Llyfr Cock Hergest {The Red Book of Hergest), 1877, 
pp. 471-473; Campbeil, Tales of the West Highlands, vol. ii, p. 423; Thorpe, 
Yule-tide Stories, 1853, p. 364; Dasent, Popular Tales from the Norse, 1859, 
pp. 335-339; Grundtvig, Ddnische Volksm'drchen, 1878-1879, vol. i, p. 248; 
Petitot, Traditions Indiennes du Canada Nord-Ouest, 1886, p. 223. n.m.p. 


THEN Marubhuti, perceiving that Naravahanadatta 
[M] was pleased with the tale of Gomukha, in order 
to rival him, said : " Women are generally fickle, but 
not always, for even courtesans are seen to be rich in good 
qualities, much more others. In proof of this, King, hear 
this famous tale. 

52. Story of King Vikramdditya and the Courtesan 

There was in Pataliputra a king named Vikramaditya ; he 
had two cherished friends, the King Hayapati, 1 and the King 
Gajapati, 2 who had large armies of horses and elephants. 
And that proud sovereign had a mighty enemy named 
Narasinha, 3 the lord of Pratishthana, a king who had a large 
force of infantry. Being angry with that enemy, and puffed 
up on account of the power of his allies, Vikramaditya rashly 
made this vow : "I will so completely conquer that king, 
the lord of men, that the heralds and bards shall proclaim 
him at the door as my slave." Having made this vow, he 
summoned those allies, Hayapati and Gajapati, and, accom- 
panied with a large force, shaking the earth with elephants 
and horses, marched with them to make a fierce attack on 
the lord of men, Narasinha. 

When he arrived near Pratishthana, Narasinha, the lord 
of men, put on his armour and went out to meet him. Then 
there took place between the two kings a battle that excited 
wonder, in which footmen fought with elephants and horses. 
And at last the army of Vikramaditya was routed by the forces 
of Narasinha, the lord of men, which contained many scores 
of footmen. And Vikramaditya, being routed, fled to his city 
Pataliputra, and his two allies fled to their own countries. 
And Narasinha, the lord of men, entered his own city 
Pratishthana, accompanied by heralds who praised his might. 

1 I.e. lord of horses. 2 I.e. lord of elephants. 3 I.e. man-lion. 



Then Vikramaditya, not having gained his end, thought : 
' Well, as that enemy is not to be conquered by arms, I will 
conquer him by policy ; let some blame me if I they like, but 
let not my oath be made void." Thus reflecting, he entrusted 
his kingdom to suitable ministers, and secretly went out of 
the city with one chief minister, named Buddhivara, and 
with five hundred well-born and brave Rajputs, and in the 
disguise of a candidate for service x went to Pratishthana, 
the city of his enemy. There he entered the splendid 
mansion 2 of a beautiful courtesan named Madanamala, that 
resembled the palace of a king. It seemed to invite him with 
the silk of its banners, hoisted on the pinnacles of high 
ramparts, the points of which waved to and fro in the soft 

It was guarded at the principal entrance, the east door, 
day and night, by twenty thousand footmen, equipped with 
all kinds of weapons. At each of the other three doors, 
looking towards the other cardinal points, it was defended 
by ten thousand warriors ever on the qui vive. In such 
guise the king entered, proclaimed by the warders, the 

1 Karpatika : for the use of this word see Chapters XXIV, LXIII and 
LXXXI of this work. 

2 As we have already seen (Vol. I, pp. 233, 234, 249), Indian prostitutes 
often acquired great power and wealth, and were at certain periods held in 
high esteem. Many are the temples that have been enriched by their gifts, 
and the stone inscriptions that have been raised to their memory. See, 
for instance, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. i, Part II, 1896, pp. 372, 394; also 
L. D. Barnett, Epigraphia Indica, vol. xv, p. 81, where many references are 

Madanamala was obviously a ganika, the highest class of courtesan, 
corresponding to the Hetaerae of the Greeks (see Athenaeus, Book XIII). In 
fiction they hold an important place, and are often represented as highly 
intellectual, generous, and of noble character. Cf., for instance, the character 
of Vasantasena in the Mrichchhakatika ; Vasantatilaka, a great friend of 
Princess Ratnamanjari in the Kathakoga, p. 151 ; the maternal Kuberasena 
in the Parisishtaparvan, ii, 225 et seq. ; and the prostitute in the Prabandha- 
cintamani who was "a storehouse of intellect," and for whom the king con- 
sidered "a kingdom would be too small a present." In the same collection 
we read (p. 11 6) of Cauladevi, who is described as "a famous vessel of beauty 
and merit, excelling even matrons of good family." See further Bloomfield, 
" The Character and Adventures of Muladeva," Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. Hi, 
1913, pp. 630, 631. n.m.p. 


enclosure of the palace, which, was divided into seven 
zones. In one zone it was adorned with many long lines of 
horses. In another the path was impeded by dense troops 
The Wealthy of elephants. In another it was surrounded 
Courtesan with an imposing array of dense weapons. In 
another it was resplendent with many treasure-houses, 
that gleamed with the flash of jewels. In another a circle 
was always formed by a dense crowd of attendants. In 
another it was full of the noise of many bards reciting 
aloud, and in another resounding with the sound of drums 
beaten in concert. Beholding all these sights, the king at 
last reached, with his retinue, the splendid edifice in which 
Madanamala dwelt. 

She having heard with great interest from her attendants 
that, as he passed through the zones, the horses and other 
creatures were cured of their wounds, 1 thought that he must 
be some great one in disguise, and so she went to meet him, 
and bowed before him with love and curiosity, and bringing 
him in, seated him on a throne fit for a king. The king's 
heart was ravished by her beauty, gracefulness and courtesy, 
and he saluted her without revealing who he was. 

Then Madanamala honoured that king with costly baths, 
flowers, perfumes, garments and ornaments. And she gave 
daily subsistence to those followers of his, and feasted him 
and his minister with all kinds of viands. And she spent 
the day with him in drinking and other diversions, and sur- 
rendered herself to him, having fallen in love with him at 
first sight. Vikramaditya, being thus entertained by her, 

1 I follow sakutam, the reading of the MS. in the Sanskrit College. So 
the wounds of Sir Urre of Hungary were healed, as soon as they were handled 

by the valiant Sir Launcelot {La Mori d'Arthure, vol. Hi, p. 270). Cf. also 

Odyssey, xix, 457, and see Crooke, "Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore," 
Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 1908, p. 73. The B. text was faulty in this passage and 
Tawney made the best of it by following the MS. in the Sanskrit College, 
but, as Speyer (op. cit., p. 112) points out, the animal cures in the text seem 
quite out of place here, and the king was never represented as possessing 
any supernatural powers. The D. text shows that B.'s nirvrani(a is a misread 
nirvarnita. Thus the amended translation would be: "She having heard 
from her attendants that, as he passed through the zones, he contemplated 
with interest the horses and other animals." n.m.p. 


day by day, continued, though in disguise, to live in a style 
suited to an emperor. And whatever and howmuchsoever 
wealth he was in the habit of giving to suppliants, Madana- 
mala gladly furnished him with from her own store. And 
she thought her body and wealth well employed while enjoyed 
by him, and she remained averse to gain and to other men. 
For out of love to him she even kept off, by stratagems, 
Narasinha, the king of that land, who came there, being 
enamoured of her. 

While the king was being waited on in this fashion by 
Madanamala he one day said in secret to his minister Buddhi- 
vara, who accompanied him : "A courtesan desires wealth, 
and not even if she feels love does she become attached with- 
out it, for when Providence framed suitors he bestowed 
greed on these women. But this Madanamala, though her 
wealth is being consumed by me, through her great love is 
not estranged from me ; on the contrary, she delights in me. 
So how can I now make her a recompense, in order that my 
vow may in course of time be fully accomplished ? " When 
the minister Buddhivara heard this, he said to the king : 
" If this be so, give her some of those priceless jewels which 
the mendicant Prapanchabuddhi gave you." When the king 
heard that, he answered him : " If I were to give them all to 
her I should not have made her a recompense worth speaking 
of ; but I can free myself from obligation in another way, 
which is connected also with the story of that mendicant." 
When the minister heard this, he said : " King, why did 
that mendicant court you ? Tell me his story." When his 
minister Buddhivara preferred this request, the king said : 
" Listen ; I will tell you his story. 

52a. King Vikramdditya and the Treacherous Mendicant 

Long ago a mendicant named Prapanchabuddhi used to 
enter my hall of audience in Pataliputra every day and give 
me a box. For a whole year I gave these boxes, just as 
they were, unopened, into the hand of my treasurer. One day 
one of these boxes presented by the mendicant by chance fell 
from my hand on to the ground and burst open. And a great 

VOL. III. o 


jewel fell out of it, glittering like fire, and it appeared as if 
it were the mendicant's heart, which I had not discerned 
before, revealed by him. When I saw that, I took it, and I 
had those other boxes brought which he had presented to me, 
and opened them, and took a jewel out of every one of them. 
Then in astonishment I asked Prapanchabuddhi : " Why 
do you court me with such splendid jewels ? " Then the 
mendicant took me aside and said to me : "On the fourteenth 
day of the black fortnight now approaching I have to per- 
form a certain incantation at nightfall, in a cemetery outside 
this town. I desire you, my hero, to come and take part 
in that enterprise, for success is easily obtained when the 
obstacles to it are swept away by the aid of a hero." 

When the mendicant said this to me I agreed. So he 
went off delighted, and in a few days the fourteenth night 
of the black fortnight came and I remembered the speech 
of that ascetic. 1 Then I performed my daily observances 
and waited for the night, and after I had recited the 
evening prayer it happened that I rapidly fell asleep. 
Then the adorable Hari, who is compassionate to his 
votaries, appeared to me in a dream, mounted on Garuda, 
with his breast marked with a lotus, and thus commended 
me : " My son, this Prapanchabuddhi 2 is rightly named, 
for he will inveigle you into the cemetery to take part in 
the incantation of the circle 8 and will offer you up as a 
victim. So do not do what he tells you to do with the 
object of slaying you, but say to him : ' You do it first, and 
when I have learned the way I will do it.' Then, as he is 
showing you the way, take advantage of the opportunity 
and slay him immediately, and you will acquire the power 
that he desires to obtain." 

When Vishnu had said this he disappeared, and I woke 
up and thought : " By the favour of Hari I have detected 

1 Here the word Sramana is used, which generally means " Buddhist 

2 I.e. deceitful-minded. 

8 Cf. the story of Phalabhuti in the twentieth Taranga. I may here 
mention that Liebrecht points out a striking parallel to the story of Fulgentius 
(with which I have compared that of Phalabhuti) in the Nugce Curialium of 
Gualterus Mapes {Zur Volkskunde, p. 38). 


that magician, and this day I must slay him." Having thus 
reflected, when the first watch of the night was gone, I went, 
sword in hand, alone to that cemetery. There I beheld that 
mendicant, who had performed the ceremony of the circle 
incantation, and when the treacherous fellow saw me he 
welcomed me, and said: " King, close your eyes and fall at 
full length on the ground with your face downwards, and in 
this way both of us will attain our ends." Then I answered 
him : " Do it yourself first. Show me how to do it, and 
after I have learned I will do precisely as you do." * When 
the mendicant heard that, like a fool he fell on the earth, 
and I cut off his head with a stroke of my sword. 

Then a voice was heard from the air : " Bravo, King ! 
By offering up to-day this rascally mendicant thou hast ob- 
tained the power of going through the air, which he wished 
to obtain. I, the God of Wealth, that move about at will, 
am pleased with thy courage. So ask me for another boon, 
whatever thou mayest desire." After saying this he mani- 
fested himself, and I, bowing before him, said : " When I 
shall supplicate thee, adorable one, thou shalt appear on my 
thinking of thee, and grant me a suitable boon." The God 
of Wealth said : " So be it," and disappeared. And having 
obtained magic power, I went back quickly to my own palace. 

52. Story of King Vikramdditya and the Courtesan 

" Thus I have told you my adventure, so by means of that 
boon of Kuvera I must now recompense Madanamala. So 
you must now go back to Pataliputra, taking with you my 
disguised Rajput retinue, and I, as soon as I have in a novel 
way recompensed my beloved, will immediately go there, 
with the intention of returning here." 

Having said this, and having performed his daily duties, 

1 Cf. Sicilianische M'drchen, vol. ii, p. 46, where the giant treacherously 
lets fall his gauntlet, and asks his adversary to pick it up. His adversary, 
the hero of the story, tells him to pick it up himself, and when the giant 
bends down for the purpose, cuts off his head with one blow of his sword. 

Cf the incident of the Domba in the story of the cunning Siddhikari, 

Vol. I, p. 157 ; and see Bloomfield, " On False Ascetics and Nuns," Journ. Amer. 
Orient. Soc, vol. xliv, No. 3, p. 215. n.m.p. 


the king dismissed his minister with his retinue. He said, 
"So be it," and departed; and the king spent that night 
with Madanamala, anxious about his approaching separation. 
She too, embracing him frequently, because her heart seemed 
to tell her that he was going to a distance, did not sleep all 
that night. 

In the morning the king, having performed all his neces- 
sary duties, entered a chapel for the daily worship of the 
gods, on the pretence of repeating prayers. And there the 
God of Wealth appeared before him on his thinking of him, 
and bowing before him the king craved that boon formerly 
promised, in the following words : " O god, give me here 
to-day, in accordance with that boon which you promised 
me, five great indestructible golden figures of men, 1 such 
that, though their limbs may be continually cut off for any 
desired use, those limbs will grow again, exactly as before." 
The God of Wealth said : " Even so ; be there unto thee 
five such figures as thou desirest ! " Having said this, he 
immediately disappeared. And the king immediately beheld 
those five great golden figures of men suddenly standing in 
the chapel ; then he went out delighted, and, not forgetting 
his promise, he flew up into the air and went to his city of 
Pataliputra. There he was welcomed by his ministers and 
the citizens and his wives, and he remained engaged in his 
kingly duties, while his heart was far away in Pratishthana. 

In the meanwhile, in Pratishthana, that beloved of his 
entered that chapel to see her love, who had entered it long 
before. And when she entered she did not perceive that 
beloved king anywhere, but she beheld five gigantic golden 
figures of men. When she saw them, and did not find him, 
she reflected in her grief : " Surely that love of mine was 
some Vidyadhara or Gandharva, who bestowed upon me 
these men and flew away up to heaven. So what am I to 
do with these figures, which are all a mere burden, now that 
I am deprived of him ? " Thus reflecting, she asked her 
servants over and over again for news of him, and went out 
and roamed about her domain. And she found no satisfaction 

1 See the note on automata on pp. 56-59 of this volume, and Cosquin, Etudes 
Folkloriques, p. 609. N.M.P. 


anywhere, either in the palaces, the gardens, the chambers 
or other places; but she kept lamenting, grieved at being 
separated from her lover, ready to abandon the body. 

Her attendants tried to comfort her, saying : " Do not 
despair, mistress, for he is some god roaming about at will, 
and when he pleases he will return to you, fair one." With 
such hope-inspiring words did they at length so far console 
her that she made this vow : "If in six months he does not 
grant me to behold him I will give away all my property 
and enter the fire." With this promise she fortified herself, 
and remained every day giving alms, thinking on that 
beloved of hers. And one day she cut off both the arms 
The f one f those golden men and gave them to 

Indestructible the Brahmans, being intent on charity only. And 
figures fti e next day she perceived with astonishment 

that both arms had grown again, exactly as they were before. 
Then she proceeded to cut off the arms of the others, to give 
them away ; and the arms of all of them grew again as they 
were before. Then she saw that they were indestructible, 
and every day she cut off the arms of the figures and gave 
them to studious Brahmans, according to the number of 
Vedas they had read. 

And in a few days a Brahman, named Sangramadatta, 
having heard the fame of her bounty, which was spread 
abroad in every direction, came from Pataliputra. He, 
being poor, but acquainted with four Vedas, and endowed 
with virtues, entered into her presence desiring a gift, being 
announced by the doorkeepers. She gave him as many 
arms of the golden figures as he knew Vedas, after bowing 
before him with limbs emaciated with her vow and pale with 
separation from her beloved. Then the Brahman, having 
heard from her sorrow- stricken attendants the whole of her 
story, ending in that very terrible vow, was delighted, but 
at the same time despondent, and loading two camels with 
those golden arms went to his native city, Pataliputra. 

Then that Brahman, thinking that his gold would not 
be safe there unless guarded by the king, entered the king's 
presence and said to him, while he was sitting in the hall of 
judgment : " Here I am, great King, a Brahman who am 


an inhabitant of thy town. I, being poor, and desiring 
wealth, went to the southern clime, and arrived at a city 
named Pratishthana, belonging to King Narasinha. There, 
being desirous of a donation, I went to the house of 
Madanamala, a courtesan of distinguished fame. For with 
her there lived long some divine being, who departed some- 
where or other, after giving her five indestructible figures of 
men. Then the high-spirited woman became afflicted at his 
departure, and considering life to be poison- agony, and the 
body, that fruitless accumulation of delusion, to be merely 
a punishment for thieving, lost her patience, and being 
with difficulty consoled by her attendants, made this vow : 
' If in the space of six months he does not visit me, I must 
enter the fire, my soul being smitten by adversity.' 

u Having made this vow, she, being resolved on death, 
and desiring to perform good actions, gives away every day 
very large gifts. And I beheld her, King, with tottering 
feet, conspicuous for the beauty of her person, though it was 
thin from fasting; with hand moistened with the water of 
giving, surrounded with maids like clustering bees, sorely 
afflicted, looking like the incarnation of the mast condition 
of the elephant of love. 1 And I think that lover who deserts 
her, and causes by his absence that fair one to abandon the 
body, deserves blame, indeed deserves death. She to-day 
gave to me, who know the four Vedas, four golden arms of 
human figures, according to right usage, proportioning her 
gift to the number of my Vedas. So I wish to purify my 
house with sacrifice and to follow a life of religion here ; 
therefore let the king grant me protection." 

The King Vikramaditya, hearing these tidings of his 
beloved from the mouth of the Brahman, had his mind 
suddenly turned towards her. And he commanded his 
doorkeeper to do what the Brahman wished, and thinking 
how constant was the affection of his mistress, who valued 
her life as stubble, and in his impatience supposing that she 

1 Here there is an elaborate pun : kara means " hand " and also 
"proboscis''; dana, "giving" and "the ichor that exudes from the temples 
of a mast elephant." "Surrounded with clustering bees" may also mean, 
" surrounded with handmaids whose consolations worried her." 


would be able to assist him in accomplishing his vow, and 
remembering that the time fixed for her abandoning the 
body had almost arrived, he quickly committed his kingdom 
to the care of his ministers, and flying through the air reached 
Pratishthana, and entered the house of his beloved. There 
he beheld his beloved, with raiment pellucid like the moon- 
light, having given her wealth away to Pandits, 1 attenuated 
like a digit of the moon at the time of its change. 

Madanamala, for her part, on beholding him arrived 
unexpectedly, the quintessence of nectar to her eyes, was 
for a moment like one amazed. Then she embraced him, and 
threw round his neck the noose of her arms, as if fearing 
that he would escape again. And she said to him with a 
voice the accents of which were choked with tears : " Cruel 
one, why did you depart and forsake my innocent self? " 

The king said : " Come, I will tell you in private," and 
went inside with her, welcomed by her attendants. There 
he revealed to her who he was, and described his circum- 
stances, how he came there to conquer King Narasinha by 
an artifice, and how, after slaying Prapanchabuddhi, he 
acquired the power of flying through the air, and how he 
was enabled to reward her by a boon that he obtained from 
the Lord of Wealth, and how, hearing tidings of her from 
a Brahman, he had returned there. 

Having told the whole story, beginning with the subject 
of his vow, he again said to her : "So, my beloved, that 
King Narasinha, being very mighty, is not to be conquered 
by armies, and he contended with me in single combat, but 
I did not slay him, for I possess the power of flying in the 
air, and he can only go on the earth ; for who that is a true 
Kshatriya would desire to conquer in an unfair combat ? 
The object of my vow is, that that king may be announced 
by the heralds as waiting at the door ; do you assist me in 

When the courtesan heard this she said : " I am honoured 
by your request." And summoning her heralds she said to 
them : " When the King Narasinha shall come to my house, 
you must stand near the door with attentive eyes, and 

1 The word vibudha also means "gods" and the gods feed on the moon. 


while he is entering you must say again and again : ' King, 
Prince Narasinha is loyal and devoted to thee.' And when 
he looks up and asks : * Who is here ? ' you must immedi- 
ately say to him: 'Vikramaditya is here.'" After giving 
them these orders she dismissed them, and then she said to 
the female warder : " You must not prevent King Narasinha 
from entering here." 

After issuing these orders Madanamala remained in a 
state of supreme felicity, having regained the lord of her 
life, and gave away her wealth fearlessly. 

Then King Narasinha, having heard of that profuse 
liberality of hers, which was due to her possession of the 
golden figures, though he had given her up, came to visit 
Th Ob' t f ^ er nouse - And while he entered, not being 
King Vikrama- forbidden by the warder, all the heralds shouted 
ditya's Vow m a \o\xd voice, beginning at the outer door : 
" King, Prince Narasinha is submissive and 
devoted." When that sovereign heard that, he was angry 
and alarmed, and when he asked who was there, and found 
out that King Vikramaditya was there, he waited a moment 
and went through the following reflections : "So this king 
has forced his way into my kingdom and carried out the vow 
he made long ago, that I should be announced at his door. 
In truth this king is a man of might, since he has thus beaten 
me to-day. And I must not slay him by force, since he has 
come alone to a house in my dominions. So I had better 
enter now." Having thus reflected, King Narasinha entered, 
announced by all the heralds. And King Vikramaditya, on 
beholding him enter with a smile on his face, rose up also 
with smiling countenance and embraced him. Then those 
two kings sat down and inquired after one another's welfare, 
while Madanamala stood by their side. 

And in the course of conversation Narasinha asked 
Vikramaditya where he had obtained those golden figures. 
Then Vikramaditya told him the whole of that strange 
adventure of his, how he had slain the base ascetic and 
acquired the power of flying through the air, and how, by 
virtue of the boon of the God of Wealth, he had obtained 
five indestructible gigantic golden figures. Then King 


Narasinha chose that king for his friend, discovering that 
he was of great might, that he possessed the power of flying, 
and that he had a good heart. And having made him his 
friend, he welcomed him with the prescribed rites of hospi- 
tality, and taking him to his own palace, he entertained him 
with all the attentions paid to himself. And King Vikrama- 
ditya, after having been thus honoured, was dismissed by him 
and returned to the house of Madanamala. 

Then Vikramaditya, having accomplished his difficult vow 
by his courage and intelligence, determined to go to his own 
city. And Madanamala, being unable to remain separated 
from him, was eager to accompany him, and with the inten- 
tion of abandoning her native land she bestowed her dwelling 
upon the Brahmans. Then Vikramaditya, the moon of kings, 
went with her, whose mind was exclusively fixed on him, to 
his own city of Pataliputra, followed by her elephants, horses 
and footmen. There he remained in happiness (accompanied 
by Madanamala, who had abandoned her own country for 
his love), having formed an alliance with King Narasinha. 

[M] " Thus, King, even courtesans are occasionally of 
noble character and as faithful to kings as their own wives, 
much more than matrons of high birth." 

On hearing this noble tale from the mouth of Marubhuti, 
the King Naravahanadatta and his new wife Ratnaprabha, 
sprung from the glorious race of the Vidyadharas, were much 


WHEN Marubhuti had told this story there, the 
[M] commander-in-chief, Harislkha, said in the 
presence of Naravahanadatta : " It is true, good 
women value nothing more than their husbands, and in 
proof of it listen now to this still more wonderful tale. 

53. Story of firingabhuja and the Daughter of the Rdkshasa 

There is a city on the earth named Vardhamana, and in 
it there dwelt a king named Virabhuja, chief of righteous 
men. And though he had a hundred wives, one queen, of 
the name of Gunavara, was dearer to him than his life. And, 
in spite of his hundred wives, it happened, as Fate would 
have it, that not one of them bore him a son. So he asked 
a physician named Srutavardhana : "Is there any medicine 
able to bring about the birth of a son ? " When the physician 
heard that, he said : " King, I can prepare such a medicine, 1 
but the king must procure for me a wild goat." When he 
heard this speech of the physician's, the king gave an order 
to the warder and had a goat brought for him from the forest. 
The physician handed over the goat to the king's cooks and 
with its flesh prepared a sovereign elixir for the queens. 

The king went off to worship his god, after ordering the 
queens to assemble in one place. And ninety-nine of those 
queens did assemble in one place, but the Queen Gunavara 
alone was not present there, for she was at that time near 

1 Cf. the lichi in the fifteenth of Miss Stokes's Indian Fairy Tales, and 
the payasa in the sixteenth Sarga of the Ramayana. See also Gonzenbach, 
Sicilianische Mdrchen, p. 269, and Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Mdrchen, 
pp. 104, 117, 120. The beginning of this tale belongs to Mr Baring-Gould's 
"Gold-child" root. Another parallel is to be found in Kaden's Unter den 
Olivenh'dumen, p. 168. See also Sagas from the Far East, p. 268; Birlinger, 
Aus Schwaben, p. 105; and " Volsunga Saga" in Hagen's Helden-Sagen, 

vol. iii, pp. 8-9. See Vol. II, p. i36n l , to which I would add Crooke, op. cit. t 

vol. i, pp. 227-228. n.m.p. 



the king, who was engaged in praying to his god. And when 
they had assembled the physician gave them the whole of 
the elixir to drink, mixed with powder, not perceiving the 
absence of Gunavara. 

Immediately the king returned with his beloved, having 
performed his devotions, and perceiving that that drug was 
completely finished, he said to the physician : " What ! 
Did you not keep any for Gunavara? You have forgotten 
the principal object with which this was undertaken." 
After saying this to the abashed physician, the king said to 
the cooks : "Is there any of the flesh of that goat left ? " 
The cooks said : " The horns only remain." Then the 
physician said : " Bravo ! I can make an admirable elixir 
out of the centre of the horns." After saying this, the 
physician had an elixir prepared from the fleshy part of the 
horns, and gave it to Queen Gunavara mixed with powder. 

Then the ninety- nine wives of the king became pregnant, 
and all in time brought forth sons. But the head Queen 
Gunavara conceived last of all, and afterwards gave birth to 
a son with more auspicious marks than the sons of all the 
others. And as he was sprung from the juice of the fleshy 
part of the horns, his father, the king, gave him the name of 
Sringabhuja, and rejoiced greatly at his birth. He grew up 
with those other brothers, and though in age he was the 
youngest of all, he was superior to all in good qualities. And 
in course of time that prince became like the God of Love 
in beauty, and like Arjuna in his skill in archery, and like 
Bhima in strength. Accordingly the other queens, seeing 
that Queen Gunavara, now that she had this son, was more 
than ever dear to King Virabhuja, became jealous of her. 

Then an evil-minded queen among them, named Ayaso- 
lekha, deliberated with all the others and entered into a 
conspiracy ; and when the king came home one day she 
exhibited an assumed sadness in her face. The king asked 
her the reason, and she said, with apparent reluctance : " My 
husband, why do you endure patiently the disgrace of your 
house ? You avert disgrace from others, why do you not 
avert it from yourself ? You know the young superintendent 
of the women's apartments named Surakshita ; your Queen 


Gunavara is secretly devoted to him. Since no man but he 
can penetrate into the women's apartments, which are strictly 
watched by guards, she associates with him. And this is a 
well-known subject of gossip in the whole harem." When 
she said this to the king, he pondered and reflected, and went 
and asked the other queens one after another in private, and 
they were faithful to their treacherous plot, and told him the 
same story. 

Then that wise king conquered his anger, and reflected : 
" This accusation against these two is improbable, and yet 
such is the gossip. So I must not without reflecting reveal 
the matter to anyone . but they must by an artifice be 
separated now, to enable me to see the termination of the 
whole matter." 

Having determined on this, next day he summoned 
Surakshita, the superintendent of the women's apartments, 
into his judgment-hall and, with assumed anger, said to him : 
" I have learned, villain, that you have slain a Brahman, so 
I cannot endure to see your face until you have made a 
pilgrimage to holy places." When he heard that, he was 
amazed, and began to murmur : " How can I have slain a 
Brahman, my sovereign ? " But the king went on to say : 
"Do not attempt to brazen it out, but go to Kashmir to wash 
away your sin (where are those holy fields, Vijayakshetra, 
and Nandikshetra the purifying, and the kshetra l of the 
boar), the land which was hallowed by Vishnu, the bow- 
handed god, where the stream of the Ganges bears the name 
of Vitasta, where is the famous Mandapakshetra, and where 
is Uttaramanasa ; when your sin has been washed away by 
a pilgrimage to these holy places you shall behold my face 
again, but not till then." 

With this speech the King Virabhuja dismissed the 
helpless Surakshita, sending him to a distance on the pre- 
tence of a pilgrimage to holy places. Then the king went 
into the presence of that Queen Gunavara, full of love and 
anger and sober reflection. Then she, seeing that his mind 
was troubled, asked him anxiously : " My husband, why 
are you seized to-day with a sudden fit of despondency ? ' : 

1 Kshetra here means " a holy field " or sacred spot. 


When the king heard that, he gave her this feigned answer : 
" To-day, Queen, a great astrologer came to me and said : 
' King, you must place the Queen Gunavara for some time 
in a dungeon, and you must yourself live a life of chastity, 
otherwise your kingdom will certainly be overthrown, and 
she will surely die.' Having said this, the astrologer de- 
parted ; hence my present despondency." When the king 
said this, the Queen Gunavara, who was devoted to her 
husband, distracted with fear and love, said to him : 
" Why do you not cast me this very day into a dungeon, 
my husband ? I am highly favoured if I can benefit you 
even at the sacrifice of my life. Let me die, but let not my 
lord have misfortune. For a husband is the chief refuge 
of wives in this world and in the next." Having heard 
this speech of hers, the king said to himself, with tears in 
his eyes : "I think there is no guilt in her, nor in that 
Surakshita, for I saw that the colour of his face did not 
change and he seemed without fear. Alas ! nevertheless I 
must ascertain the truth of that rumour." 

After reflecting thus, the king in his grief said to the 
queen : " Then it is best that a dungeon should be made 
here, Queen ! " She replied : " Very good." So the king had 
The Queen a dungeon easy of access made in the women's 
is disgraced apartments and placed the queen in it. And he 
comforted her son Sringabhuja (who was in despair and asked 
the reason) by telling him exactly what he told the queen. 
And she, for her part, thought the dungeon heaven, because 
it was all for the king's good. For good women have no 
pleasure of their own ; to them their husbands' pleasure is 
pleasure. 1 

When this had been done, that other wife of the king's, 
named Ayasolekha, said of her own accord to her son, who 
was named Nirvasabhuja : "So our enemy Gunavara has 
been thrown into a dungeon, and it would be a good thing 
if her son were banished from this country. So, my boy, 
devise a scheme with the help of your brothers by which 
Sringabhuja may be quickly banished from the country." 

1 This part of the story reminds one of the "Clerk's Tale " in Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales. 


Having been addressed in this language by his mother, the 
jealous Nirvasabhuja told his other brothers and continued 
to ponder over a scheme. 

And one day, as the king's sons were practising with 
their weapons of war, they all saw an enormous crane in 
front of the palace. And while they were looking with 
The Rakshasa astonishment at that misshapen bird a Buddhist 
and the Golden mendicant, who possessed supernatural know- 
Arrow ledge, came that way and said to them : " Princes, 

this is not a crane ; it is a Rakshasa named Agnisikha, 
who wanders about in an assumed shape destroying towns. 
So pierce him with an arrow, that being smitten he may 
depart hence." When they heard this speech of the mendi- 
cant's the ninety- nine elder brothers shot their arrows, but 
not one struck the crane. 

Then that naked mendicant again said to them : " This 
younger brother of yours, named Sringabhuja, is able to 
strike this crane, so let him take a bow suitable for the 

When Nirvasabhuja heard that, the treacherous one 
remembered the injunction of his mother, an opportunity 
for carrying out which had now arrived, and reflected : 
" This will be a means of getting Sringabhuja out of the 
country. 1 So let us give him the bow and arrow belonging 
to our father. If the crane is pierced and goes off with our 
father's golden arrow sticking in it, Sringabhuja will follow 
it, while we are searching for the arrow. And when he does 
not find, in spite of his search, that Rakshasa transformed 
into a crane, he will continue to roam about hither and 
thither; he will not come back without the arrow." 

Thus reflecting, the treacherous one gave to Sringabhuja 
his father's bow with the arrow, in order that he might smite 
the crane. The mighty prince took it and drew it and 
pierced that crane with the golden arrow, the notch of which 
was made of a jewel. The crane, as soon as it was pierced, 
went off with the arrow sticking in its body, and flying away, 
departed with drops of blood falling from the wound. 

1 See Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 80, where numerous parallels are 
adduced. CJ. also Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, vol. i, p. 199- 


Then the treacherous Nirvasabhuja, and the other 
brothers, instigated by his hints, said to the brave Sringa- 
bhuja: "Give us back the golden arrow that belongs to 
our father, otherwise we will abandon our bodies before 
your eyes. For unless we produce it our father will banish 
us from this country, and its fellow is not to be made or 
obtained." When Sringabhuja heard that, he said to those 
crafty ones : "Be of good cheer ! Do not be afraid. 
Abandon your terror ! I will go and slay that miserable 
Rakshasa and bring back the arrow." Having said this, 
Sringabhuja took his own bow and arrows and went in the 
same direction in which the Rakshasa had gone, quickly 
following up the track of the drops of blood that had fallen 
on the ground. 

The other sons returned delighted to their mothers, and 
Sringabhuja, as he went on step by step, at last reached a 
distant forest. Seeking about in it, he found in the wood 
a great city, like the fruit of his own tree of merit fallen to 
him in due time for enjoyment. There he sat down at the 
root of a tree to rest, and as if in a moment beheld a maiden 
of wonderful beauty coming there, appearing to have been 
made by the Creator in some strange way of ambrosia and 
poison ; since by her absence she deprived of life, and by 
her presence she bestowed it. 

And when the maiden slowly approached him, and 
looked at him with an eye raining love, the prince fell in love 
with her, and said to her: " Gazelle- eyed one, what is the 
name of this city, and to whom does it belong ? Who are 
you, and why have you come here? Tell me." Then the 
pearly -toothed maid turned her face sideways, and fixed her 
eyes on the ground, and spake to him with sweet and loving 
voice : " This city is Dhumapura, the home of all felicity ; 
in it lives a mighty Rakshasa, by name Agnisikha ; know 
that I am his matchless daughter, Rupasikha by name, who 
have come here with mind captivated by your unparalleled 
beauty. Now you must tell me who you are and why you 
have come here." When she said this, he told her who he 
was, and of what king he was the son, and how he had come 
to Dhumapura for the sake of an arrow. 


Then Rupasikha, having heard the whole story, said : 
" There is no archer like you in the three worlds, since you 
pierced even my father with a great arrow when he was in 
the form of a crane. But I took that golden arrow for my 
own, by way of a plaything. But my father's wound was at 
once healed by the minister Mahadanshtra, who excels all men 
in knowledge of potent drugs for curing wounds. So I will 
go to my father, and after I have explained the whole matter 
I will quickly introduce you into his presence, my husband. 
So I call you, for my heart is now fully set upon you." 

Having said this, Rupasikha left Sringabhuja there and 
immediately went into the presence of her father, Agni&kha, 
and said : " Father, there has come here a wonderful prince 
named Sringabhuja, matchless for gifts of beauty, birth, 
character and age. I feel certain that he is not a man ; he 
is some portion of a god incarnate here below ; so if he does 
not become my husband I will certainly abandon my life." 

When she said this to him, her father, the Rakshasa, 
said to her : " My daughter, men are our appropriate food. 
Nevertheless, if your heart is set upon it, let it be so ; bring 
your prince here and show him to me." When Rupasikha 
heard that, she went to Sringabhuja, and after telling him 
what she had done she took him into the presence of her 
father. He prostrated himself, and Agnisikha, the father 
of the maiden, after saluting him courteously, said to him : 
" Prince, I will give you my daughter Rupasikha if you 
never disobey my orders." When he said this, Sringabhuja, 
bending low, answered him : " Good ! I will never disobey 
your orders." When Sringabhuja said this to him, Agnisikha 
was pleased, and answered : " Rise up ! Go and bathe, and 
return here from the bathroom." After saying this to 
him, he said to his daughter : " Go and bring all your sisters 
here quickly." When Agnisikha had given these orders to 
Sringabhuja and Rupasikha they both of them went out, 
after promising to obey them. 

Then the wise Rupasikha said to Sringabhuja : " My 
husband, I have a hundred sisters, who are princesses, and 
we are all exactly alike, with similar ornaments and dresses, 
and all of us have similar necklaces upon our necks. So 


our father will assemble x us in one place and, in order to 
bewilder you, will say : ' Choose your own love out of the 
midst of these.' For I know that such is his treacherous 
intention ; otherwise why is he assembling all of us here ? 
So when we are assembled I will put my necklace on my 
head instead of my neck ; by that sign you will recognise 
me ; then throw over my neck the garland of forest flowers. 
And this father of mine is somewhat silly ; he has not a 
discerning intellect ; besides, what is the use against me 
of those powers which he possesses by being a Rakshasa ? 
So, whatever he says to entrap you, you must agree to, and 
must tell it to me, and I shall know well enough what further 
steps to take." 

Having said this, Rupasikha went to her sisters, and 
Sringabhuja, having agreed to what she said, went to bathe. 
Then Rupasikha came with her sisters into the presence of 
her father, and Sringabhuja returned, after he 
had been washed by a female servant. Then 
Agnisikha gave a garland of forest flowers to Sringabhuja, 
saying : " Give this to that one of these ladies who is 
your own love." He took the garland and threw it round 
the neck of Rupasikha, 2 who had previously placed the 
necklace on her head by way of token. Then Agnisikha 
said to Rupasikha and Sringabhuja : "I will celebrate your 
marriage ceremony to-morrow morning." 

1 The D. text reads samghatayati instead of samghattayati. n.m.p. 

2 Cf the story of "The Golden Lion" in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 
Mdrchen, vol. ii, p. 76, where the lady places a white cloth round her waist. 
See Dr Kohler's note on the passage. Cf also the hint which Messeria gives 
to her lover in "The Mermaid," Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, p. 198, and the 
behaviour of Singorra on p. 214. See also "The Hasty Word," Ralston's 
Russian Folk-Tales, p. 368, and "The Water King and Vasilissa the Wise," 
p. 128; Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, pp. 256,258; and Liebrecht's Zur 
Volkskunde, p. 408, and Wirt Sikes' British Goblins, p. 39. The washing of 
the hero by a cheti is quite Homeric {Odyssey, xix, 386). In a Welsh story 
(Professor Rhys, Welsh Tales, p. 8) a young man discovers his lady-love by 
the way in which her sandals are tied. There are only two to choose from, 

and he seems to have depended solely upon his own observation. Cf also 

the Svayamvara of Damayanti, where she has to resort to an " Act of Truth " 
in order to discover which of her numerous suitors is Nala. See p. 181 of 
this volume. n.m.p. 

vol. in. P 


Having said this, he dismissed those two lovers and his 
other daughters to their apartments, and in a short time he 
summoned Sringabhuja and said this to him : " Take this 
yoke of oxen and go outside this town and sow in the earth 
the hundred khdris 1 of sesame -seed which are piled there in 
a heap." 

When Sringabhuja heard that he was troubled, and he 
went and told it to Riipaslkha, and she answered him as 
follows : " My husband, you need not be in the least despond- 
ent about this ; go there at once ; I will easily perform this 
by my magic power." When he heard this, the prince went 
there and, seeing the sesame-seeds in a heap, despondently 
began to plough the land and sow them, but while he was 
beginning he saw the land ploughed and all the seeds sown 
in due course by the might of his lady-love's magic power, 
and he was much astonished. 

So he went to Agnisikha and told him that this task was 
accomplished. Then that treacherous Rakshasa again said 
to him : " I do not want the seeds sown ; go and pile them 
up again in a heap." When he heard that, he again went 
and told Riipasikha. She sent him to that field, and created 
innumerable ants, 2 and by her magic power made them 

1 A khari = about three bushels. 

2 Cf. the way in which Psyche separated the seeds in The Golden Ass of 
Apuleius, Lib. VI, cap. x, and the tasks in Grimm's Mdrchen, Nos. 62, 186 
and 1 93. A similar incident is found in a Danish tale, w Svend's Exploits," 
p. 353 of Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories. Before the king will allow Svend to 
marry the princess, he gives him a task exactly resembling the one in our 
text. He is told to separate seven barrels of wheat and seven barrels of rye 
which are lying in one heap. The ants do it for him because he had on a 
former occasion crumbled his bread for them. So in No. 83 of the Sicilianische 
Mdrchen the ants help Carnfedda because he once crumbled his bread for 
them. See also the story of the beautiful Cardia, in the same collection, 
p. 188. The hero has first to eat a cellarful of beans; this he accomplishes 
by means of the king of ravens, his brother-in-law. He next disposes of a 
multitude of corpses by means of another brother-in-law, the king of the wild 
beasts ; he then stuffs a large number of mattresses with feathers by the 
help of a third brother-in-law, the king of the birds. See also Stokes' 
Indian Fairy Tales, tale xxii, and the note at the end of this chapter. The 
tasks are also found in the Peniamerone of Basile (Burton, vol. i, p. 196 
et seq. ; vol. ii, pp. 305 el seq. and 511 et seq.); in Gaal, Mdrchen der Magyaren, 
p. 182 (the title of the tale is " Die dankbaren Thiere " : some grateful ants 


gather together the sesame- seeds. When Sringabhuja saw 
that, he went and told Agnisikha that the seeds had been 
piled up again in a heap. 

Then the cunning but stupid Agnisikha said to him : 
" Only two yojanas from this place, in a southerly direction, 
there is an empty temple of Siva in a wood. In it lives 
my dear brother Dhumasikha. Go there at once, and say 
this in front of the temple : ' Dhumasikha, I am sent by 
Agnisikha as a messenger to invite you and your retinue : 
come quickly, for to-morrow the ceremony of Rupasikha's 
marriage is to take place.' Having said this, come back 
here to-day with speed, and to-morrow marry my daughter 
Rupasikha." When Sringabhuja was thus addressed by 
the rascal he said, "So be it," and went and recounted the 
whole to Rupasikha* 

The good girl gave him some earth, some water, some 
thorns and some fire, and her own fleet horse, and said to 
him : " Mount this horse and go to that temple and quickly 
repeat that invitation to Dhumasikha as it was told to you, 
and then you must at once return on this horse at full gallop, 
and you must often turn your head and look round ; and if 
you see Dhumasikha coming after you, you must throw this 
earth behind you in his way. If in spite of that Dhuma- 
sikha pursues you, you must in the same manner fling the 
water behind you in his path. If in spite of that he comes 
on, you must in like manner throw these thorns in his way. 
If in spite of them he pursues, throw this fire in his way ; 

are found at p. 339); in Grossler's Sagen aus der Grafschaft Mansfeld, 
pp. 60, 6l ; in Waldau's Bohmische Mdrchen, pp. 18, 142, 262; and in Kuhn's 
Westfdlische Mdrchen, vol. ii, p. 249, where frogs, ants and wasps help the 

Cf also Macculloch, Childhood of Fiction, pp. 17, 205, 240, 392; 

Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. v, p. 5); Crooke, "Some Notes on Homeric Folk- 
Lore," Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 1908, p. 158; Hartland, Legend of Perseus, vol. i, 
p. 49, and vol. iii, p. 102; Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, p. 237 
et seq. ; Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 200 ; Cosquin, Contes Populaires de Lorraine, 
vol. ii, p. 242 ; and Bolte, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 19 et seq., and vol. iii, pp. 338-339 
and 406 et seq. Cf. also Grimm No. 165 and its numerous analogues in Bolte, 
op. cit, vol. iii, p. 276 et seq. Some further examples of the "Tasks" motif 
will be found in the note on the " Magic Obstacles " motif at the end of this 
chapter, with which they are inseparably linked. n.m.p. 


and if you do this you will return here without the Daitya ; 
so do not hesitate go, you shall to-day behold the power 
of my magic." 

When she said this to him, Sringabhuja took the earth 
and the other things, and said, " I will do so," and mounting 
her horse went to the temple in the wood. There he saw an 
image of Siva, with one of Parvati on his left and one of 
Ganes*a on his right, and, after bowing before the Lord of 
the Universe, 1 he quickly addressed to Dhumaslkha the form 
of invitation told him by Agnisikha, and fled from the place 
at full speed, urging on his horse. And he soon turned his 
head and looked round, and he beheld Dhuma- 
sikha coming after him. And he quickly threw 
that earth behind him in his way, and the earth, so flung, 
immediately produced a great mountain. When he saw 
that the Rakshasa had, though with difficulty, climbed over 
that mountain and was coming on, the prince in the same 
way threw the water behind him. That produced a great 
river in his path, with rolling waves. The Rakshasa with 
difficulty got across it and was coming on when Sringa- 
bhuja quickly strewed those thorns behind him. They pro- 
duced a dense, thorny wood in Dhumasikha's path. When 
the Rakshasa emerged from it the prince threw the fire be- 
hind him, which set on fire the path with the herbs and 
the trees. When Dhuma&kha saw that the fire was hard 
to cross, like Khandava, 2 he returned home, tired and 
terrified. For on that occasion the Rakshasa was so be- 
wildered by the magic of Rupa&kha that he went and 
returned on his feet, and he did not think of flying through 
the air. 

Then Sringabhuja returned to Dhumapura, free from 
fear, commending in his heart that display of his love's 
magic power. He gave up the horse to the delighted Rupa- 
sikha, and related his adventure, and then went in to the 
presence of Agnisikha. He said : " I went and invited 
your brother Dhumaslkha." When he said this, Agnisikha, 

1 I.e. Siva. 

a A forest in Kurukshetra sacred to Indra and burnt by Agni the God 
of Fire with the help of Arjuna and Krishna. 


being perplexed, said to him : " If you really went there, 
mention some peculiarity of the place." 

When the crafty Rakshasa said this to Sringabhuja, he 
answered him : " Listen, I will tell you a token. In that 
temple there is a figure of Parvati on the left side of Siva, 
and of Ganesa on his right." When Agnisikha heard that 
he was astonished, and thought for a moment : " What ! 
Did he go there, and was my brother not able to devour 
him ? Then he cannot be a mere man ; he must be a 
god ; so let him marry my daughter, as he is a fitting match 
for her." After thus reflecting he sent Sringabhuja as a 
successful suitor to Rupasikha, but he never suspected that 
there was a traitor in his own family. So Sringabhuja went, 
eager for his marriage, and after eating and drinking with 
her managed somehow to get through the night. 

And the next morning Agnisikha gave to him Rupasikha 
with all the magnificence appropriate to his magic power, 
according to due form, in the presence of the fire. Little 
in common have Rakshasas' daughters and princes, and 
strange the union of such ! Wonderful indeed are the 
results of our deeds in a previous state of existence ! 

The prince, after he had obtained that beloved daughter 
of the Rakshasa, seemed like a swan who had got hold of a 
soft lotus, sprung from mud. And he remained there. with 
her, who was devoted to him alone, enjoying various dainty 
delights provided by the magic power of the Rakshasa. 

When some days had passed there, he said in secret 
to the Rakshasa's daughter : " Come, my beloved, let us 
return to the city of Vardhamana. For that is my capital 
city, and I cannot endure to be banished from my capital 
city by my enemies, for people like myself hold honour dear 
as life. So leave for my sake the land of your birth, though 
it is hard to leave ; inform your father, and bring that golden 
arrow in your hand." When Sringabhuja said this to 
Rupasikha she answered : "I must immediately obey your 
command. I care not for the land of my birth, nor for my 
relatives ; you are all those to me. 1 Good women have no 

1 ""JLktop, drap (tv fiot ecrcrt irarrip kol iroTVia prjTrjp rjSe KaviyvrjTos, <rv 8e (ooi 
OaXepbs TrapaKoiT-qs." Iliad, Book VI. 


other refuge than their husbands. But it will never do to 
communicate our intention to my father, for he would not 
let us go. So we must depart without that hot-tempered 
father of mine knowing of it. And if he hears from the 
attendants and comes after us, I will bewilder him by my 
knowledge, for he is senseless and like an idiot." 

When he heard this speech of hers, he set out delighted 
on the next day with her, who gave him the half of her king- 
dom, and filled a casket with priceless jewels, and brought 
that golden arrow ; and they both mounted her splendid 
horse Saravega, 1 having deceived the attendants by repre- 
senting that they were going for a pleasure excursion in the 
park, and journeyed towards Vardhamana. 

When the couple had gone a long distance the Rakshasa 
Agni&kha found it out, and in wrath pursued after them 
through the air. And hearing afar off the noise produced 
by the speed of his flight, Riipasikha said to Sringabhuja on 
the road : " My husband, my father has come to make us 
turn back, so remain here without fear ; see how I will 
deceive him. For he shall neither see you nor the horse, 
since I shall conceal both by my deluding power." After 
saying this, she got down from the horse and assumed by 
her deluding power the form of a man. 2 And she said 
to a woodcutter who had come to the forest to cut wood : 
"A great Rakshasa is coming here, so remain quiet for a 
moment." Then she continued to cut wood with his axe. 
And Sringabhuja looked on with a smile on his face. 

In the meanwhile that foolish Rakshasa arrived there, 
and lighted down from the air on beholding his daughter in 
the shape of a woodcutter, and asked her whether she had 
seen a man and woman pass that way. 3 Then his daughter, 
who had assumed the form of a man, said with great effort, 
as if tired : " We two have not seen any couple, as our eyes 
are fatigued with toil, for we two woodcutters have been 

1 I.e. " like an arrow in speed." 

2 For this part of the story see Sicilianische M'drchen, No. 14, with 
Dr Kohler's note. 

3 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, viii, 355, the dominns asks Mestra, who has 
been transformed into a fisherman, if she has seen herself pass that way. 


occupied here in cutting a great quantity of wood to burn 
Agnisikha, the King of the Rakshasas, who is dead." 

When that silly Rakshasa heard that, he thought : 
" What ! Am I dead ? What does that daughter matter 
to me? I will go and ask my own attendants at home 
whether I am dead or not." 1 

Thus reflecting, Agnisikha went quickly home, and his 
daughter set out with her husband as before, laughing as 
she went. 

And soon the Rakshasa returned in high spirits, for he 
had asked his attendants, who could not help laughing in 
their sleeves, whether he was alive, and had learnt that 
he was. Then Rupasikha, knowing from the terrible noise 
that he was coming again, though as yet far off, got down 
from the horse and concealed her husband as before by her 
deluding power, and taking letters from the hand of a letter- 
carrier who was coming along the road, she again assumed 
the form of a man. 

And so the Rakshasa arrived as before, and asked his 
daughter, who was disguised as a man : " Did you see a 
man and a woman on the road ? " Then she, disguised as 
a man, answered him with a sigh : "I beheld no such person, 
for my mind was absorbed with my haste, for Agnisikha, 
who was to-day mortally wounded in battle, and has only a 
little breath left in his body, and is in his capital desiring to 
make over his kingdom, has dispatched me as a messenger 
to summon to his presence his brother Dhumasikha, who is 
living an independent life." When Agnisikha heard that he 
said : " What ! Am I mortally wounded by my enemies ? " 

1 Cf. the story of " Die kluge Else," the thirty-fourth in Grimm's Kinder- 
und Hausmarchen, where the heroine has a doubt about her own identity and 
goes home to ask her husband ; and No. 59 in the same collection. Cf. also 
Campbell's Tales from the West Highlands, vol. ii, p. 375, where one man is 
persuaded that he is dead, another that he is not himself, and a third that 
he is dressed when he is naked. See also the numerous parallels given 
in Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 54. Liebrecht (Zur Volkskunde), p. 128, 
mentions a story in which a woman persuades her husband that he is dead. 
See also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 508. 
In Prym and Socin's Syrische Marchen, No. 62, p. 250, the flea believes 

himself to be dead, and tells everyone so. See also Clouston, The Book of 

Noodles, 1888, p. 157 et seq. n.m.p. 


And in his perplexity he returned home again to get informa- 
tion on the point. But it never occurred to him to say to 
himself: " Who is mortally wounded ? Here I am, safe and 
sound." Strange are the fools that the Creator produces 
and wonderfully obscured with the quality of darkness ! 
And when he arrived at home and found that the tale was 
false he would not expose himself again to the laughter of 
the people, tired of being imposed upon, and forgetting his 

And Rupasikha, after deluding him, returned to her 
husband as before ; for virtuous women know of no other 
good than the good of their husbands. Then Sringabhuja, 
a . ,, . mounted on the wonderful horse, again proceeded 

Sringabhuja . , . r 

and his ' rapidly with his wife towards the city of Var- 
Beloved arrive dhamana. Then his father Virabhuja, having 
heard that he was returning in company with 
her, went out much pleased to meet him. The king, when 
he saw him adorned with that wife, like Krishna with 
Bhama, considered that he had gained afresh the bliss of 
sovereign sway. 

And when his son got down from his horse and clung to 
his feet with his beloved, he raised him up and embraced 
him, and with his eyes, in which stood the water of joyful 
tears, performed in noble wise the auspicious ceremony that 
put an end to his own despondency, and then conducted him 
into his palace, making high festival. And when he asked 
his son where he had been, Sringabhuja told him his whole 
history from the beginning. And after summoning his 
brothers, Nirvasabhuja and all, into his father's presence 
he gave them the golden arrow. Then the King Virabhuja, 
after what he had heard and seen, was displeased with those 
other sons, and considered Sringabhuja his only true son. 

Then that wise king drew this true conclusion : "I sus- 
pect that, as this son of mine out of spite was banished 
by these enemies, brothers only in name, though he was all 
the while innocent, so his mother Gunavara, whom I love 
so well, was falsely accused by their mothers, and was all 
the while innocent. So what is the use of delay ? I will 
find out the truth of it immediately." 


After these reflections the king spent that day in per- 
forming his duties, and went at night to sift his other wife 
Ayasolekha. She was delighted to see him, and he made 
her drink a great quantity of wine, 1 and she in her sleep 
murmured out, while the king was awake : " If we had not 
falsely slandered Gunavara, would the king ever have visited 
me here ? " 2 

When the king heard this speech of the wicked queen, 
uttered in her sleep, he felt he had attained certainty, and 
rose up in wrath and went out ; and going to his own chamber 
he had the eunuchs summoned, and said to them : " Take 
that Gunavara out of the dungeon, and after she has bathed 
bring her quickly ; for the present moment was appointed 
by the astrologer as the limit of her stay in the dungeon for 
the purpose of averting the evil omens." When they heard 
that, they said: "So be it." And they went and quickly 
brought the Queen Gunavara into the presence of the king, 
bathed and adorned. Then that wedded pair, happy in 
having crossed the sea of separation, spent that night un- 
sated with mutual embraces. Then the king related to the 
queen with delight that adventure of Sringabhuja, and told 
his son the circumstances of his mother's imprisonment and 

In the meanwhile Ayasolekha, waking up, found out 
that the king was gone, and guessing that he had entrapped 
her with his conversation, fell into deep despondency. And 
in the morning the King Virabhuja conducted his son 
Sringabhuja, with his wife Rupasikha, into the presence of 
Gunavara. He came, and was delighted to behold his 
mother emerged from the dungeon, and with his new wife 
he worshipped the feet of his parents. Gunavara, embrac- 
ing her son, who had returned from his journey, and her 
daughter-in-law, obtained in the way above related, went 
from joy to joy. 

Then, by the order of his father, Sringabhuja related to 

1 Cf. Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. ii, p. 167, where Ake makes his wife 
Wolfriana intoxicated with the object of discovering her secret. 

2 Reading avadishyama. I find that this is the reading of a MS. in the 
Sanskrit College. 


her at length his own adventure, and what Rupasikha did. 
Then Queen Gunavara, delighted, said to him : " My son, 
what has not that Rupasikha done for you ? For she, a 
heroine of wonderful exploits, has given up and sacrificed for 
you her life, her family, her native land these three. She 
must be some goddess, become incarnate for your sake by the 
appointment of Destiny. For she has placed her foot on 
the head of all women that are devoted to their husbands." 
When the queen had said this, the king applauded her 
speech, and so did Rupasikha, with head modestly bent. 

Just at that moment the superintendent of the women's 
apartments, Surakshita, who had been long ago slandered 
by that Ayagolekha, returned home from visiting all the holy 
bathing-places. He was announced by the doorkeeper, and 
bowed delighted at the king's feet, and then the king, who 
now knew the facts, honoured him exceedingly. And by his 
mouth he summoned the other queens who were wicked, and 
said to him : " Go ! fling all these into the dungeon." When 
the Queen Gunavara heard that, and the terrified women were 
thrown into the dungeon, she said, out of compassion to the 
king, clinging to his feet : " King, do not keep them for a 
long time in the dungeon ! Have mercy, for I cannot bear 
to see them terrified." By thus entreating the king she 
prevented their imprisonment, for the only vengeance that 
the great make use of against their enemies is compassion. 
Then those queens, dismissed by the king, went ashamed 
to their houses, and would even have preferred to have been 
in the embrace of death. And the king thought highly of 
the great-hearted Gunavara, and considered, because he pos- 
sessed that wife, that he must have accomplished virtuous 
acts in a former state of existence. 

Then the king, determined to banish his other sons by an 
artifice, had them summoned, and spake to them this feigned 
speech : "I have heard that you villains have slain a 
Brahman traveller, so go and visit all the holy bathing-places 
in succession. Do not remain here." When the sons heard 
that, they were not able to persuade the king of the truth, 
for when a ruler is bent on violence who can convince him ? 
Then Sringabhuja, beholding those brothers departing, with 


his eyes full of tears produced by pity, thus addressed his 
father : " Father, pity their one fault ; have mercy upon 
them." Having said this, he fell at the feet of that king. 
And the king, thinking that that son was able to bear the 
burden of sovereignty, being even in his youth like an incar- 
nation of Vishnu, full of glory and compassion, hiding his real 
sentiments and cherishing his anger against them, nevertheless 
did what Sringabhuja asked. And all those brothers con- 
sidered their younger brother as the saviour of their lives. 
And all the subjects, beholding the exceeding virtue of 
Sringabhuja, became attached to him. 

Then the next day his father, King Virabhuja, anointed 
as crown prince Sringabhuja, who was the oldest in virtue 
of them all, though he had elder brothers. And then 
Sringabhuja, having been anointed, and having obtained the 
leave of his father, went with all his forces to conquer the 
world. And having brought back the wealth of numerous 
kings, whom he overcame by the might of his arm, he 
returned, having diffused the splendour of his glory through 
the earth. Then, bearing the weight of the realm with his 
submissive brothers, the successful Prince Sringabhuja, 
giving pleasure to his parents, who remained in the enjoy- 
ment of comfort, free from anxiety, and bestowing gifts 
on Brahmans, dwelt at ease with Rupasikha, as if with 
incarnate success. 

[M] " Thus virtuous women serve their husbands in 
every way, devoted to them alone, like Gunavara. and 
Rupasikha, the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law." 

When Naravahanadatta, in the society of Ratnaprabha, 
heard this story from the lips of Harisikha he was much 
delighted, and exclaimed : " Bravo ! " Then he rose up 
and quickly performed the religious ceremony for the day, 
and went with his wife into the presence of his father, the 
King of Vatsa, and after eating, and whiling away the after- 
noon with singing and playing, he spent the night with his 
beloved in his own private apartments. 



In a Norwegian tale, called "The Widow's Son," p. 295 of Thorpe's 
Yule-tide Stories, will be found an incident closely resembling the pursuit 
of Sringabhuja by Dhumasikha. The widow's son has, contrary to the orders 
of a Troll, in whose house he found himself, entered several chambers, in one 
of which he found a thorn-whip, in another a huge stone, and a water-bottle. 
In the third he found a boiling copper kettle, with which he scalded his 
finger, but the Troll cured it with a pot of ointment. In the fourth room he 
found a black horse in a stall, with a trough of burning embers at its head, 
and a basket of hay at its tail. The youth thought this cruel, so he changed 
their position. The horse, to reward him, informed him that the Troll on 
his return would certainly kill him, and then continued : " Lay the saddle 
on me, put on the armour, and take the whip of thorn, the stone, and the 
water-flask and the pot of ointment, and then we will set out." When 
the youth mounted the horse it set off at a rapid rate. After riding some 
time, the horse said : " I think I hear a noise ; look round, can you see 
anything? " " A great many are coming after us, certainly a score at least," 
answered the youth. " Ah ! that is the Troll," said the horse, ' he is coming 
with all his companions." They travelled for a time until their pursuers 
were gaining on them. " Throw now the thorn-whip over your shoulder," 
said the horse, " but throw it far away from me." The youth did so, 
and at the same moment there sprang up a large thick wood of briers. 

The youth now rode on a long way, while the Troll had to go home to 
fetch something wherewith to hew a road through the wood. After some 
time the horse again said: "Look back, can you see anything now?" 
"Yes, a whole multitude of people," said the youth, "like a church 
congregation." "That is the Troll; now he has got more with him; throw 
out now the large stone, but throw it far from me." 

When the youth had done what the horse desired, there arose a large 
stone mountain behind them. So the Troll was obliged to go home after 
something with which to bore through the mountain ; and while he was thus 
employed, the youth rode on a considerable way. But now the horse bade 
him again look back. He then saw a multitude like a whole army, they were 
so bright that they glittered in the sun. " Well, that is the Troll with all his 
friends," said the horse. " Now throw the water-bottle behind you, but take 
good care to spill none on me." The youth did so, but notwithstanding his 
caution he happened to spill a drop on the horse's loins. Immediately there 
arose a vast lake, and the spilling of a few drops caused the horse to stand 
far out in the water ; nevertheless he at last swam to the shore. When the 
Trolls came to the water, they lay down to drink it all up, and they gulped 
and gulped it down till they burst. (Folk-lore demons experience great 
difficulty in crossing water.) " Now we are quit of them," said the horse. 

In Laura von Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, vol. ii, p. 57, we find a 
similar incident. In the story of Fata Morgana, a prince, who carries off 


a bottle filled with her perspiration, but imprudently wakes her by kissing 
her, is pursued by her with two lions. He throws three pomegranates behind 
him : the first produces a river of blood, the second a thorny mountain, the 
third a volcano. This he does by the advice of his horse, who is really 
Fata Morgana's brother transformed by magic. See also vol. i, p. 343. 
Cf. also the seventy-ninth tale in Grimm's Kinder-und Hausmarchen (l6th 
edition in one volume), " Die Wassernixe." 

In Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 113, Dr Kohler, in his remarks on the 
Tales from the West Highlands, collected by J. F. Campbell, compares the 
story of Agnisikha with the second story in Campbell's collection, entitled 
" The Battle of the Birds." In this a king's son wishes to marry the youngest 
daughter of a giant. The giant sets him three tasks to do : to clean out a 
stable, to thatch it with feathers, and to fetch eggs from a magpie's nest in 
the top of a tree more than five hundred feet high. All these tasks he 
accomplishes by the help of the young lady herself. In the last task she 
makes a ladder of her fingers for him to ascend the tree by, but in so doing 
she loses her little finger. The giant requires the prince to choose his wife 
from among three sisters similarly dressed (see p. 225). He recognises her 
by the loss of the little finger. 

When bedtime came the giant's daughter told the prince that they 
must fly or the giant would kill him. They mounted on the grey filly in 
the stable. But before starting the daughter cut an apple into nine shares ; 
she put two at the head of the bed, two at the foot, two at the door of the 
kitchen, two at the house door, and one outside the house. The giant awoke 
and called, " Are you asleep ? " several times, and the shares answered : 
" No." At last he went and found the bed empty and cold, and pursued the 
fugitive couple. 

At the break of day the giant's daughter felt her father's breath burning 
her back. She told the prince to put his hand in the horse's ear and fling 
what he found behind him. He found a sprig of sloe, flung it behind him, 
and produced a wood twenty miles long. The giant had to go back for his 
axe and wood-knife. 

In the middle of the day the prince finds in the ear of the filly a piece 
of grey stone. This produces twenty miles of rock behind them. The giant 
has to go back for his lever and mattock. The next thing that the prince 
finds and flings behind him is a bladder of water. This produces a fresh- 
water loch twenty miles broad. In it the giant is happily drowned. The 
rest of the story has no bearing upon the tale of Sringabhuja. Kohler 
compares a story in William Carleton's stories of the Irish peasantry. Here 
there is a sprig, a pebble and a drop of water producing a wood, a rock and a 
lake. He compares also a Norwegian story, Ashbjornsen, No. 46, and some 
Swedish stories collected by Hylten Cavallius and G. Stephens. The three 
tasks are very different in the various forms of the tale. The ladder of fingers 
is only found in the Celtic form. 

It is only in the Gaelic and Irish forms that the objects thrown behind 
to check pursuit are found in the ear of the horse. 

In another variant of the story, "The Mermaid," Thorpe's Yule-tide Stories, 


p. 205, we have the pursuit with much the same incidents as in our text. 
See also Ralston's remarks on the story in our text, at pp. 132 and 143 of 
his Russian Folk-Tales. Cf also Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 21 6. An 
Indian parallel will be found in Miss Frere's Old Deccan Days, pp. 62, 63. 
A modern Greek one in Bernhard Schmidt's Giiechische Marchen, pp. 76-7.9. 
Cf. also for the tasks the story of Bisara, K ad en's Unter den Olivenbdumen, 
and that of " Die schone Fiorita." Herr Kaden aptly compares the story of 
Jason and Medea. Another excellent parallel is furnished by the story of 
" Schneeweiss-Feuerroth " in the same collection, where we have the pursuit 
much as in our text. The pursuit and tasks are found in the tale called 
" La Montagne Noire," on p. 448 of Melusine, a periodical which appeared 
in the year 1878, and in " Branca-flor," No. 14 in Coelho's Contos Populares 
Portugueses, and in Gaal's Marchen der Magyaren, p. 60. The pursuit also 
occurs in the Pentamerone of Basile (Burton, vol. i, p. 52 et seq., and 
pp. 145-146). 

The motif of the Magic Obstacles has appealed to story-tellers in all 

parts of the world, and examples of it are found in nearly every collection of 
stories extant. 

It would be superfluous to detail these variants, for not only would 
the list occupy too much space, but the ground has already been suffi- 
ciently covered. I would, therefore, merely give the chief references where 
variants are to be found, and a few remarks on the possible origin of the motif 

An important list of variants is that in Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen zu 
den Kinder-und Hausmdrchen der Briider Grimm, vol. ii, p. 140 et seq., while 
special reference should be made to V. Chauvin, " Les Obstacles Magiques," 
Revue des Trad. Pop., vol. xvi, 1901, p. 538 et seq. (see also p. 223 et seq. of 
the same volume). See also Cosquin, Contes Poptdaires de Lorraine, vol. i, 
story 3, p. 32 et seq., and p. 152 el seq.; ditto, Etudes Folkloriques, p. 591 
et seq. ; Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. i, pp. 439-443 ; Ralston, 
Russian Folk-Tales, p. 143; and Saintyves, Les Contes de Perrault, pp. 

Some very interesting variants Basuto, Kafir, Aino, Siamese, Samoan, 
etc. are to be found in Macculloch's Childhood of Fiction, p. 171 et seq. 
On p. 177 the author suggests that perhaps in the earliest form of the incident 
of the transformed objects there was no transformation at all, only some 
object thrown down delayed the pursuer, as Atalanta was delayed by the 
golden apples of Hippomenes. 

I feel, however, it would be better merely to recognise the early 
existence of this variety of the motif and not to take it as the original form 
of the motif. That it was not so is surely proved by the ancient Egyptian 
story of the "Two Brothers" (Maspero, Stories of Ancient Egypt, p. 8), which 
dates from the nineteenth dynasty. Here we read that when Baiti was 
pursued by his elder brother, Phra-Harmakhis caused a large piece of water 
full of crocodiles to appear as an obstacle to check the pursuit. 

The idea of hindering a pursuer, whether animal or human, is, I think, 
one of those motifs which would naturally occur to all peoples, both primitive 


and civilised. So natural, indeed, does the motif appear that it seems quite 
useless to attempt to attach any particular origin to it. 

Among primitive tribes the doctrines of totemism, the external soul, 
the belief in transformations, and, above all, sympathetic magic, can all be 
detected in the "Magic Obstacles" motif. 

In many of the variants we notice that the object resembles that into 
which it is transformed e.g. in the story of the "Flea," Pentamerone, fifth 
diversion of the first day (Burton, vol. i, p. 47 et seq.), a twig becomes a 
forest, a drop of water a river, a stone a fortress. In other variants a comb 
becomes a range of mountains, a mirror a lake, and so on. This is, of course, 
the outcome of the belief in sympathetic magic, and without doubt is a very 
important factor in this motif although it does not account for all the variants. 
Local environment and the individuality of the story-teller, adaptor, or scribe 
are probably responsible for variants where the objects bear no resemblance 
at all to what they produce. 

This motif, then, appears to be one which has not migrated, but is the 
spontaneous production of many different lands and of varying stages of 
civilisation. Variants may have travelled from country to country, but the 
basic idea of hindering a pursuer is universal. n.m.p. 


THEN, the next morning, when Naravahanadatta 
[M] was in Ratnaprabha's house, Gomukha and the 
others came to him. But Marubhuti, being a little 
sluggish with intoxication produced by drinking spirits, 
approached slowly, decorated with flowers and anointed 
with unguents. Then Gomukha, with face amused at his 
novel conception of statesman-like behaviour, out of fun 
ridiculed him by imitating his stammering utterance and 
staggering gait, and said to him : " How comes it that 
you, though the son of Yaugandharayana, do not know policy, 
that you drink spirits in the morning and come drunk into 
the presence of the prince ? " 

When the intoxicated Marubhuti heard this, he said to 
him in his anger : " This should be said to me by the prince 
or some superior. But tell me, who are you that you take 
upon you to instruct me, you son of Ityaka? " When he 
said this, Gomukha replied to him, smiling : " Do princes 
reprove with their own mouths an ill-behaved servant ? 
Undoubtedly their attendants must remind him of what is 
proper. And it is true that I am the son of Ityaka, but 
you are an ox of ministers l ; your sluggishness alone would 
show it. The only fault is that you have no horns." 

When Gomukha said this to him, Marubhuti answered : 
" You too, Gomukha, have much of the ox nature about 
you ; but you are clearly of mixed breed, for you are not 
properly domesticated." When all laughed at hearing this, 
Gomukha said : " This Marubhuti is literally a jewel, for who 
can introduce the thread of virtue 2 into that which cannot be 
pierced even by a thousand efforts ? But a jewel of a man 
is a different kind of thing, for that is easily penetrated. As 
an illustration, listen to the story of the bridge of sand. 

1 I.e. a great or distinguished minister. " Bull " is more literal than 
"ox," but does not suit the English idiom so well. Gomukha means "ox-face." 

2 Guna means "virtue" and also "a thread." Cf. Raghuvamsa, i. 4. 




54. Story of Tapodatta 

There lived in Pratishthana a Brahman of the name 
of Tapodatta. He, though his father kept worrying him; 
would not learn the sciences in his boyhood. Subsequently 
he found himself censured by all, and, being filled with 
regret, he went to the bank of the Ganges, in order to per- 
form asceticism for the acquisition of knowledge. There 
he betook himself to severe mortification of the flesh, and 
while he was thus engaged Indra, who had beheld him with 
astonishment, came to him to prevent him, disguised as a 
Brahman. And when he had come near him he kept taking 
grains of sand from the bank and throwing them into the 
billowy water of the Ganges. When Tapodatta saw that, he 
broke his silence, and asked him out of curiosity : " Brahman, 
why do you do this unceasingly ? " 

And Indra, disguised as a Brahman, when he had been 
persistently questioned by him, said : "I am making a 
bridge over the Ganges for man and beast to cross by." 
Then Tapodatta said : " You fool, is it possible to make 
a bridge over the Ganges with sand, which will be carried 
away at some future time by the current ? " 

When Indra, disguised as a Brahman, heard that he said 
to him : "If you know this truth, why do you attempt to 
acquire knowledge by vows and fasting, without reading or 
hearing lectures ? x The horn of a hare * may really exist, 
and the sky may be adorned with painting, and writing may 
be performed without letters, if learning may be acquired 
without study. If it could be so acquired, no one in this 
world would study at all." When Indra, disguised as a 
Brahman, had said this to Tapodatta, Tapodatta reflected, 
and thinking that he had spoken truth, put a stop to his 
self- mortification and went home. 

[M] " So, you see, a wise man is easily made to listen 
to reason, but the foolish Marubhuti cannot be induced to 

1 For examples of this "Impossibilities" motif see the note at the end 
of this chapter. n.m.p. 2 I read rupam for rupyam. 

VOL. ill. Q 


listen to reason, but when you admonish him he flies into a 
passion." When Gomukha said this, Hari&kha said before 
the company : " It is true, O King, that the wise are easily 
induced to listen to reason. 

55. Story of Virupasarman 

For instance, there lived of old time in Benares a 
certain excellent Brahman named Virupasarman, who was 
deformed and poor. And he, being despondent about his mis- 
shapen form and his poverty, went to the grove of ascetics 
there, and began to practise severe mortification of the flesh, 
through desire for beauty and wealth. 

Then the king of the gods 1 assumed the vile shape of a 
deformed jackal with a diseased body and went and stood 
in front of him. When he saw that unfortunate 2 creature 
with its body covered with flies, Virupasarman slowly 
reflected in his mind : " Such creatures are born into the 
world on account of actions done in a former life, so is it a 
small thing for me that I was made thus by the Creator ? 
Who can overstep the lot prescribed by Destiny ? " When 
Virupasarman perceived this, he brought self-mortification 
to an end and went home. 

[M] " So true is it, O King, that a wise man is instructed 
with little effort, but one whose mind is void of discernment 
is not instructed even with great exertion." 

Thus spoke Harisikha, and Gomukha assented, but Maru- 
bhuti, who was drunk and did not understand a joke, said in 
great anger : " There is power in the speech of Gomukha, but 
there is no might in the arms of men like you. A garrulous, 
quarrelsome, effeminate person makes heroes blush." 8 When 
Marubhuti said this, being eager for a fight, Prince Narava- 

1 I.e. Indra. 2 Literally, "having no auspicious marks." 

8 In the D. text we read vacalaih kalahah klibaih, and B.'s compound 
Gomukhavaci is written as two separate words. We thus get a much better 
rendering : " Men like you, Gomukha, have only strength in their tongue, 
not in their arms. It is blameful for heroes to quarrel with effeminate 
braggarts." See Speyer, op. cit. f p. 113. n.m.p. 


hanadatta, with a smile on his face, himself tried to appease 
him, and after dismissing him to his house, the prince, who 
loved the friends of his youth, performed the duties of the 
day, and so spent it in great comfort. 

And the next day, when all these ministers came, and 
among them Marubhuti bowed down with shame, his be- 
loved Ratnaprabha spake thus to the prince : " You, my 
husband, are very fortunate in that you have these pure- 
hearted ministers bound to you by the fetters of a love 
dating from early childhood, and they are happy in possess- 
ing such an affectionate master ; you have been gained by 
one another through actions in a former state of existence ; 
of that there can be no doubt." 

When the queen said this, Tapantaka, the son of Vasan- 
taka, the companion in amusements of Naravahanadatta, 
remarked : "It is true ; our master has been gained by our 
actions in a former life. For everything depends upon the 
power of actions in a former life. Hear in illustration of 
it the following tale : 

56. Story of King Vildsasila and the Physician Tarunachandra 

There dwelt in a city named Vilasapura, the home of 
Siva, a king rightly named Vilasasila. 1 He had a queen 
named Kamalaprabha, whom he valued as his life, and he 
long remained with her, addicted to pleasure only. Then 
in course of time there came upon the king old age, the thief 
of beauty, and when he beheld it he was sorely grieved. He 
thought to himself : " How can I show to the queen my face 
marred with grey hairs, like a snow- smitten lotus ? 2 Alas ! 
it is better that I should die." Busied with reflections 
like these, the king summoned into his hall of audience a 
physician named Tarunachandra 3 and thus spake to him 
respectfully: "My good man, because you are clever and 
devoted to me, I ask you whether there is any artifice by 
which this old age can be averted." 

1 I.e. fond of enjoyment. 

2 For a note on the "Grey Hair" motif see Vol. I, p. 121m 1 . n.m.p. 

3 I.e. new moon. 


When Tarunachandra, who was rightly named as being 
only of the magnitude of one digit, and desiring to become a 
full moon, heard that, the cunning fellow reflected : "I must 
make my profit out of this blockhead of a king, and I shall 
soon discover the means of doing it." 

Having thus reflected, the physician said to the king : " If 
you will remain in an underground chamber alone, O King, 
for eight months, and take this medicine, I engage to re- 
move your old age." * When the king heard this, he had 
such an underground chamber prepared ; for fools intent on 
objects of sense cannot endure reflection. But the ministers 
used arguments like the following with him : " O King, by 
the goodness and asceticism and self-denial of men of old 
time, and by the virtue of the age, elixirs were produced. 
But these forest remedies, 2 which we hear of now, O King, 
owing to the want of proper materials, produce the opposite 
effect to that which is intended, and this is quite in accord- 
ance with the treatises 3 ; for rogues do in this way make 
sport with fools. Does time past ever return, O king ? " 

Still these arguments did not penetrate into his soul, for 
it was encased in the thick armour of violent sensual desire. 
And, in accordance with the advice of that physician, he 
entered that underground chamber alone, excluding the 
numerous retinue that usually waits upon a king. And 
alone, with one servant belonging to that physician, he made 
himself a slave to the taking of drugs and the rest of the 
treatment. And the king remained there in that dark sub- 
terranean den, which seemed as if it were the overflowing, 
through abundance, of the ignorance of his heart. 

And after the king had spent six months in that 

1 In the Mahavastu Avadana (in Dr R. L. Mitra's Sanskrit Buddhist 
Literature of Nepal, p. 123) a girl named Amita is cured of leprosy by being 
shut up in an underground chamber. 

2 I suppose this must mean "prepared of the flesh of wild goats." A 
MS. in the Sanskrit College reads ramyani, " pleasant." 

3 In the D. text we have a slightly different reading, and Speyer (op. cit., 
p. 114) would translate : "But in the present time, King, these elixirs are only heard 
of [ = they do not exist in reality], and owing to the want of proper materials, 
produce the opposite effect to that which is intended. For this reason it is not 
fit [to do] so [as the physician advises]." n.m.p. 



underground chamber that wicked physician, seeing that his 
senility had increased, brought a certain young man who 
resembled him in appearance, with whom he had agreed 
that he would make him king. Then he dug a tunnel into 
that underground chamber from a distance, and after killing 
the king in his sleep he brought his corpse out by the under- 
ground passage and threw it into a dark well. All this was 
done at night. And by the same tunnel he introduced that 
young man into the underground chamber and closed that 

What audacious wickedness will not a low fellow, who 
is held in check by no restraints, commit when he gets a 
favourable chance of practising upon fools ? 

Then the next day the physician said to all the subjects : 
" This king has been made young again by me in six months, 
and in two months his form will be changed again. So show 
yourselves to him now at a little distance." Thus he spake, 
and brought them all to the door of the underground chamber, 
and showed them to the young man, telling him at the same 
time their names and occupations. By this artifice he kept 
instructing that young man in the underground chamber in 
the names of all the subjects every day for two months, not 
excepting even the inhabitants of the harem. 

And when a fitting time came he brought the young man, 
after he had been well fed, 1 out of the subterranean chamber, 
saying : " This king has become young again." And the 
The False young man was surrounded by the delighted 
Rejuvenation subjects, who exclaimed : " This is our own 
king restored by drugs." Then the young man, having thus 
obtained the kingdom, bathed; and performed with much 
pleasure, by the help of his ministers, the kingly duties. 
And from that time forth he lived in much felicity, trans- 
acting regal business and sporting with the ladies of the 
harem, having obtained the name of Ajara. 2 And all the 
subjects considered that he was their former king trans- 
formed by drugs, not guessing the truth, and not suspecting 
the proceedings of the physician. 

1 Plushta is a mistake for pushta ; see Bohtlingk and Roth v.s. 

2 I.e. free from old age. 


And King Ajara, having gained over the subjects and the 
Queen Kamalaprabha by kind treatment, enjoyed the royal 
fortune together with his friends. Then he summoned a 
friend called Bheshajachandra and another called Padma- 
darsana and made both of them like himself, satisfying them 
with gifts of elephants, horses and villages. And he honoured 
the physician Tarunachandra on account of the advancement 
he had conferred on him, but he did not repose confidence in 
him because his soul had fallen from truth and virtue. 

And once on a time the physician of his own motion said 
to the king : " Why do you make me of no account and act 
independently ? Have you forgotten the occasion on which 
I made you king? " When King Ajara heard that, he said 
to the physician : " Ha ! you are a fool. What man does 
anything for anyone, or gives anything to anyone ? My 
friend, it is our deeds in a former state of existence that give 
and do. Therefore do not boast yourself, for this elevation 
I attained by asceticism, and I will soon show you this by 
ocular proof." 

When he said this to the physician, the latter reflected 
as one terrified : " This man is not to be intimidated and 
speaks like a resolute sage. It is better to overawe that 
master, the secret of whose character is instability, 1 but that 
cannot be done with this man, so I must submit to him. In 
the meanwhile let me wait and see what he will show me 
so manifestly." Thus reflecting, the physician said, " It is 
true," and held his peace. 

And the next day King Ajara went out to roam about 
and amuse himself with his friends, waited on by Taruna- 
chandra and others. And as he was strolling he reached the 
bank of a river, and in it he saw five golden lotuses come 
floating down the current. And he made his servants bring 
them, and taking them and looking at them, he said to 
the physician Tarunachandra, who was standing near him : 

1 This clause seems unmeaning. Instead of yad rahasyam taraiigatvam of 
the B. text, we find in the D. text yad raha.syantarangatvam svamisaimanatiani, 
etc., "Even the most excellent means to gain one's master's favour, the 
possessing a secret in common, is useless with this man ; so I must submit 
to him." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 114. n.m.p. 


" Go up along the bank of this river and look for the place 
where these lotuses are produced ; and when you have seen 
it, return, for I feel great curiosity about these wonderful 
lotuses, and you are my skilful friend." 

When he was thus commissioned by the king the 
physician, not being able to help himself, said, "So be it," 
and went the way he was ordered. And the king returned 
to his capital ; but the physician travelled on, and in course 
of time reached a temple of Siva that stood on the bank 
of that river. And in front of it, on the shore of a holy 
bathing- place in that stream, he beheld a great banyan- 
tree, and a man's skeleton suspended on it. And while, 
fatigued with his journey, he was resting after bathing 
and worshipping the god, a cloud came there and rained. 
And from that human skeleton hanging on the branches 
of the banyan-tree, when rained upon by the cloud, there 
fell drops of water. 1 And when they fell into the water 
of the bathing-place in that river the physician observed 

1 This reminds one of the thirteenth story in the Gesta Romanorum. In 

this tale a man is walking through a meadow and on becoming thirsty seeks 
to quench his thirst in a rivulet of pure water, but the more he drinks the 
more thirsty he becomes. Amazed at this, he determines to trace the water 
to its source to see if he can satisfy his thirst there, and on his way he meets 
an old man to whom he explains his predicament. The old man points out 
the source of the stream and looking in the direction the other beholds a 
putrid dog, with its mouth wide open and its teeth black and decayed, through 
which the whole fountain gushes in a surprising manner. The man regards 
the stream with terror and confusion, and being apprehensive of poison is 
afraid to drink again. He is, however, encouraged to do so by the old man 
and finds to his surprise that the water immediately slakes his thirst. By 
this the old man explains that, in the same way, you should not abstain from 
going to Mass merely because you disapprove of the priest. 

In the Mahabharata (I, cxcix) we read of golden lotuses floating along 
the current, whereupon Indra, desirous of ascertaining whence they come, 
proceeds along the course of the stream and discovers that they emanate 
from a woman whose tear-drops, as they fall on the stream, are being 
transformed into golden lotuses. 

In one of Steel and Temple's Wide-Awake Stories, " Prince Lionheart and 
his Three Friends," the hero sees a stream down which rubies are floating. 
He follows the stream and finds a golden basket hanging from a tree in which 
lies the head of a beautiful maiden. The blood dropping from her throat 
turns into rubies and floats with the current. See also Crooke, Popular Religion 
and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, pp. 40-41. n.m.p. 


that those golden lotuses were immediately produced from 

The physician said to himself : " Ha ! what is this 
wonder ? Whom can I ask in the uninhabited wood ? Or, 
rather, who knows the creation of Destiny that is full of so 
many marvels ? I have beheld this mine of golden lotuses^ 
so I will throw this human skeleton into the sacred water. 
Let right be done, and let golden lotuses grow from its 
back." After these reflections he flung the skeleton down 
from the top of that tree ; and after spending the day 
there the physician set out the next day for his own 
country, having accomplished the object for which he was 

And in a few days he reached Vilasapura, and went, 
emaciated and soiled with his journey, to the court of King 
Ajara. The doorkeeper announced him, and he went in and 
prostrated himself at the feet of the king. The king asked 
him how he was, and while he was relating his adventure the 
king put everyone else out of the hall and himself said : 
" So you have seen, my friend, the place where the golden 
lotuses are produced, that most holy sanctuary of Siva ; and 
you saw there a skeleton on a banyan-tree ; know that that 
is my former body. I hung there in old time by my feet, 
and in that way performed asceticism, until I dried up my 
body and abandoned it. And, owing to the nobility of my 
penance, from the drops of rain-water that fall from that 
skeleton of mine are produced golden lotuses. And in that 
you threw my skeleton into the water of that holy bathing- 
place you did what was right, for you were my friend in a 
former birth. And this Bheshajachandra and this Padma- 
dar^ana, they also were friends, who associated with me in a 
former birth. So it is owing to the might of that asceticism, 
my friend, that recollection of my former birth and know- 
ledge and empire have been bestowed on me. By an artifice 
I have given you ocular proof of this, and you have described 
it with a token, telling how you flung down the skeleton ; 
so you must not boast to me, saying that you gave me the 
kingdom ; and you must not allow your mind to be discon- 
tented, for no one gives anything to anyone without the 


help of actions in a former life. From his birth a man eats 
the fruit of the tree of his former actions." 

When the king said this to the physician he saw that it 
was true, and he remained satisfied with the king's service, 
and was never afterwards discontented. And that noble- 
minded King Ajara, who remembered his former birth, 
honoured the physician becomingly with gifts of wealth, and 
lived comfortably with his wives and friends, enjoying the 
earth conquered by his policy, and originally obtained by 
his good actions, without an opponent. 

[M] " Thus in this world all the good and bad fortune 
that befalls all men at all times is earned by actions in a 
former life. For this reason I think we must have earned 
you for our lord in a former birth, otherwise how could you 
be so kind to us while there are other men in existence ? ' : 

Then Naravahanadatta, having heard in the company of 
his beloved, from the mouth of Tapantaka, this strangely 
pleasing and entertaining tale, rose up to bathe. And after 
he had bathed he went into the presence of his father, the 
King of Vatsa, frequently raining nectar into the eyes of his 
mother, and after taking food he spent that day and night 
in drinking and other pleasures with his parents and his 
wife and his ministers. 



This incident is found in the story of Yavakrita in the 135th chapter of 
the Mahabharata. 

The motif of proving the impossibility of one thing by showing the 

impossibility of another thing is not uncommon in folk-lore. Perhaps the 
most famous example is that of the iron-eating mice in Jdtaka No. 218. As 
this story occurs in the Ocean of Story (Chapter LX) I will reserve my remarks 
on it until we come to it. There are, however, several other analogues of 
the motif in our present text. 

First of all I should mention the legend of St Augustine. He tells us 
that one day he was wandering along the seashore deep in his meditations 
on the mystery of the Trinity. Suddenly he beheld a child who had dug 
a hole in the sand and was trying to fill it with sea-water. St Augustine 
asked the object of his task. " I am going to empty into the hole/' replied 
the boy, "all the water of the great deep." "Impossible," exclaimed 
St Augustine. " Not more impossible than for thee, O Augustine, to explain 
the mystery on which thou art now meditating." 

La Fontaine (Fables de la Fontaine, edit. Lemerre, vol. i, pp. 41-42, 45) 
in his translation of La Vie d'Esope le Phrygien related how the Pharaoh 
Nectanebo sent an ambassador to Lycerus, King of Babylon, and to his minister 
iEsop. " I have mares in Egypt that conceive by the neighing of the horses 
that are about Babylon : what have you to answer as to this? " The Phrygian 
took back his reply the next day, and when he arrived at his lodging he 
ordered children to take a cat and to whip it along the streets. The 
Egyptians, who adore that animal, were extremely scandalised at the treat- 
ment it received ; they rescued it from the hands of the children, and went 
to complain to the king. The Phrygian was brought into his presence. " Do 
you not know," said the king to him, " that this animal is one of our gods ? 
Why then have you caused it to be treated in this manner ? " " It is by 
reason of the crime that it has committed against Lycerus, for last night it 
strangled a cock of his that was very industrious, and crowed at all hours." 
"You are a liar," replied the king; "how is it possible for a cat to make 
so long a journey in so short a time?" "And how is it possible," said 
.Ssop, " for your mares to hear our horses neigh at so great a distance, and 
to conceive by hearing them ? " (See Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient 

E gypt> P- xxix 

In a Bihari tale translated by S. C. Mitra {Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb., vol. vi, 
1902, pp. 140, l4l) we read of a dispute about a horse which, according to 
popular rumour, had been produced from an oilman's press. A jackal is elected 
to decide the case. All are assembled to hear the evidence. The jackal is 
late in arriving, and explains that on the way he came across a tank full offish, 
and he set fire to the water so as to roast the fish, and the time passed as he 
stopped to eat them. The people exclaim that water could not take fire 
and roast fish. "Just as easily as an oil-press can give birth to a horse." 


Among the exempla of the Rabbis we find various similar legends. 
The following precis are found in Gaster's Exempla of the Rabbis, 1924, at the 
pages indicated. 

No. 12, p. 54. The Emperor in speaking to the Rabbi Gamliel expresses 
his doubt as to the existence of God. His answer, however, does not 
satisfy the Emperor, so on the next morning Gamliel slaps the face of his 
servant in his presence. The Emperor is wroth and thinks the Rabbi deserves 
punishment for acting so in his presence. Gamliel replies : " He brought me 
some extraordinary news ; a ship of mine, lost for seven years, has suddenly 
returned fully laden without sailors and without sails." The Emperor 
declares that it is impossible, and the Rabbi replies : " If so, how can a world 
created by God govern and feed itself alone, without the One who looks 
after it?" 

No. 329, p. 118. David's servants were eating eggs. One had eaten his, 
and was ashamed to sit with the others. So he borrowed an egg and promised 
to return, when asked, all that might come from one egg. After a time the 
man was brought by his creditor before King David, who condemned him to 
pay an enormous amount, as it was claimed that from the egg a chicken could 
be hatched which would lay eighteen eggs, from which eighteen chickens 
would be hatched and again eighteen. The man is met by Solomon, who, 
being told of the judgment, advised him to sow boiled peas in the field. 
When seen by David and asked how he could expect these to grow, he 
was to reply: " How can a boiled egg be hatched and produce chickens?" 

A similar legend is found on p. 124. See also the analogues given by 
Gaster on p. 246. n.m.p. 


AND the next day, as Naravahanadatta was in the 
[M] apartments of Ratnaprabha, talking over vari- 
ous subjects with his ministers, he suddenly heard 
a sound, which appeared to be like that of a man weeping 
outside in the courtyard of the palace. And when someone 
asked, " What is that ? " the female attendants came and 
said : " My lord, the chamberlain Dharmagiri is weeping 
here. For a foolish friend of his came here just now and 
said that his brother, who went on a pilgrimage to holy 
places, was dead in a foreign land. He, bewildered with 
grief, forgot that he was in the court and began to lament, 
but he has been just now taken outside by the servants 
and conducted to his own house." When the prince heard 
this he was grieved, and Ratnaprabha, moved with pity, said 
in a despondent tone : " Alas ! the grief which is produced 
by the loss of dear relatives is hard to bear ! Why did not 
the Creator make men exempt from old age and death ? ,: 
When Marubhuti heard this speech of the queen's he said : 
" Queen, how can mortals ever attain this good fortune ? 
For listen to the following story, which I will tell you, bearing 
on this question. 

57. Story of King Chirdyus and his Minister Ndgdrjuna 

In the city of Chirayus there was in old time a king, 
named Chirayus, 1 who was indeed long-lived, and the home 
of all good fortune. He had a compassionate, generous and 
gifted minister, named Nagarjuna, who was sprung from a 
portion of a Bodhisattva, 2 who knew the use of all drugs, 

1 I.e. long-lived. 

2 I.e. "one whose essence is perfect knowledge" (sattva = " essence," 
"own nature," svabhava). Although this is probably the original meaning of 
the word, historically a bodhisattva = " one who is on the way to the attainment 
of perfect knowledge " i.e. a future Buddha. For a full authoritative article 



and by making an elixir he rendered himself and that king 
free from old age, and long-lived. 

One day an infant son of that minister Nagarjuna, whom 
he loved more than any of his other children, died. He felt 
grief on that account, and by the force of his asceticism and 
knowledge proceeded to prepare out of certain ingredients 
the Water of Immortality, 1 in order to prevent mortals 
from dying. But while he was waiting for the auspicious 
moment in which to infuse a particular drug Indra found 
out what was going on. 

And Indra, having consulted with the gods, said to the 
two Asvins 2 : "Go and give this message to Nagarjuna on 
the earth from me : ' Why have you, though a minister, 
begun this revolutionary proceeding of making the Water 
of Life ? Are you determined now to conquer the Creator, 
who indeed created men subject to the law of death, since 
you propose to make men immortal by preparing the Water 
of Life ? If this takes place, what difference will there be 
between gods and men ? And the constitution of the uni- 
verse will be broken up, because there will be no sacrificer 
and no recipient of sacrifice. So, by my advice, discontinue 
this preparation of the Water of Life, otherwise the gods 
will be angry and will certainly curse you. And your son, 
through grief for whom you are engaged in this attempt, is 
now in Svarga.' " With this message Indra dispatched the 
two Asvins. And they arrived at the house of Nagarjuna, 

on the subject see " Bodhisattva," by L. de la Vallee Poussin, in Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, pp. 739-753. n.m.p. 

1 See chap. iv. of Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales; Veckenstedt's Wendische 

Sagen, p. 221 ; Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische M'drchen, p. 125. This 

is, of course, the Amrita which was produced at the Churning of the Ocean 
(see Vol. I, pp. Sn 1 , 55n x ). As is only natural, the " Water of Life " motif 
dates back from the very earliest ages, and was closely connected with 
the early Babylonian worship of Ishtar. For an interesting chapter on the 
Water of Life see Macculloch, Childhood of Fiction, p. 52 et. seq. Sir George 
Grierson tells us (Folk-Lore, vol. xi, 1900, pp. 433-434) that in Eastern 
Hindustan there is a universal belief that the Water of Life actually exists 
in everyone's little finger, and if he only knew how to do the trick he 
would be able to put it, so to speak, on tap. Bihari folk-lore is full of 
references to this. n.m.p. 

2 See the note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


and, after receiving the argha, 1 told Nagarjuna, who was 
pleased with their visit, the message of Indra, and informed 
him that his son was with the gods in heaven. 

Then Nagarjuna, being despondent, thought : " Never 
mind the gods ; but if I do not obey the command of Indra 
these Asvins will inflict a curse on me. So let this Water 
of Life go ; I have not accomplished my desire ; however, 
my son, on account of my good deeds in a former life, has 
gone to the abode of bliss." 

Having thus reflected, Nagarjuna said to these two gods, 
the Asvins : "I obey the command of Indra. I will desist 
from making the Water of Life. If you two had not come 
I should have completed the preparation of the Water of 
Life in five days and freed this whole earth from old age and 
death." When Nagarjuna had said this he buried, by their 
advice, the Water of Life, which was almost completed, in 
the earth before their eyes. Then the Asvins took leave of 
him and went and told Indra in heaven that their errand 
was accomplished, and the king of gods rejoiced. 

And in the meanwhile Nagarjuna's master, the King 
Chirayus, anointed his son Jivahara crown prince. And 
when he was anointed, his mother, the Queen Dhanapara, 
The Queen on n * s comm g m great delight to salute her, said 
schemes on her to him as soon as she saw him : " Why do you 
Sons behalf re j i ce without cause, my son, at having obtained 
this dignity of crown prince, for this is not a step to the 
attainment of the kingly dignity, not even by the help of 
asceticism ? For many crown princes, sons of your father, 
have died, and not one of them has obtained the throne; 
they have all inherited disappointment. For Nagarjuna 
has given this king an elixir, by the help of which he is 
now in the eighth century of his age. And who knows 
how many more centuries will pass over the head of this 
king, who makes his short-lived sons crown princes." 

When her son heard that he was despondent, and she 
went on to say to him : "If you desire the throne, adopt 
this expedient. This minister Nagarjuna every day, after 
he has performed the day's devotions, gives gifts at the time 

1 Water, rice, durva grass, etc., offered to guests. 


of taking food, and makes this proclamation : ' Who is a 
suppliant ? Who wants anything ? To whom can I give 
anything, and what ? ' At that moment go to him and say : 
' Give me your head.' Then he, being a truthful man, will 
have his head cut off ; and out of sorrow for his death this 
king will die, or retire to the forest ; then you will obtain the 
crown. There is no other expedient available in this matter." 

When he heard this speech from his mother the prince 
was delighted, and he consented, and determined to carry 
her advice into effect ; for the lust of sovereign sway is cruel 
and overcomes one's affection for one's friends. 

Then that prince went, the next day, of his own accord 
to the house of that Nagarjuna, at the time when he took 
his food. And when the minister cried out, " Who requires 
anything, and what does he require ? " he entered and asked 
him for his head. 

The minister said : " This is strange, my son. What can 
you do with this head of mine ? For it is only an agglomera- 
tion of flesh, bone and hair. To what use can you put it ? 
Nevertheless, if it is of any use to you, cut it off and take it." 
With these words he offered his neck to him. But it had 
been so hardened by the elixir that, though he struck at it 
for a long time, he could not cut it, but broke many swords 
over it. 

In the meanwhile the king, hearing of it, arrived, and 
asked him not to give away his head ; but Nagarjuna said to 
him : "I can remember my former births, and I have given 
away my head ninety- nine times in my various births. This, 
my lord, will be the hundredth time of my giving away my 
head. So do not say anything against it, for no suppliant 
ever leaves my presence disappointed. So I will now present 
your son with my head ; for this delay was made by me only 
in order to behold your face." Thus he spoke, and embraced 
that king, and brought a powder out of his closet, with which 
he smeared the sword of that prince. Then the prince cut 
off the head of the minister Nagarjuna with a blow of that 
sword, as a man cuts a lotus from its stalk. Then a great 
cry of wailing was raised, and the king was on the point of 
giving up his own life when a bodiless voice sounded from 


the heaven in these words : " Do not do what you ought not, 
King. You should not lament your friend Nagarjuna, for 
he will not be born again, but has attained the condition of a 

When King Chirayus heard this, he gave up the idea of 
suicide, but bestowed great gifts, and out of grief left his 
throne and went to the forest. There in time he obtained 
by asceticism eternal bliss. 

Then his son Jivahara obtained his kingdom ; and soon 
after his accession he allowed dissension to arise in his realm, 
and was slain by the sons of Nagarjuna, remembering their 
father's murder. Then through sorrow for him his mother's 
heart broke. How can prosperity befall those who walk in 
the path trodden by the ignoble ? 

And a son of that King Chirayus, born to him by another 
wife, named Satayus, was placed on his throne by his chief 

[M] " Thus, as the gods would not permit Nagarjuna to 
carry out the task of destroying death, which he had under- 
taken, he became subject to death. Therefore it is true that 
this world of living beings was appointed by the Creator 
unstable, and full of grief hard to ward off, and even with 
hundreds of efforts it is impossible for anyone to do anything 
here which the Creator does not wish him to do." 

When Marubhuti had told this story he ceased speak- 
ing, and Naravahanadatta rose up with his ministers and 
performed his daily duties. 



The Asvins are, perhaps, best described as twin deities of light. Both 
their origin and the reason for their various attributes are obscure. In 
Vedic mythology they are described as the sons of Dyaus, the Sky Father 
or Heaven (cf. the Greek Zeus), and also as the sons of Surya, the sun, or 
Savitri, the quickening activity of the sun. According to this latter version 
the sun married Saiijna, who, after bearing her husband two children, fled 
from him owing to his overpowering splendour. After numerous vicissitudes 
he reduced his splendour, disguised himself as a horse, and sought out his 
lost wife. Saiijna, not allowing him to approach her from behind, turned 
her head in his direction, and from the united breath of their nostrils were 
produced the two Asvins, who were hence called Nasatya. 

The meaning of this name is unknown, but in Yaska's Nirukta, a kind 
of Vedic etymological commentary, the word is said (vi, 13) to mean "true, 
not false," while Yaska himself suggests it may mean " nose-born " (nasika- 
prabhavas). The antiquity of the epithet was shown by Professor Winckler's 
discovery in 1907 of cuneiform tablets at Boghaz-Koi containing records of 
treaties between the Hittites and the kings of Mitani (c. 1400 B.C.). Among 
the gods called upon as witnesses was Na-a-at-ti-ia i.e. Nasatya. For a 
list of the numerous papers on this important discovery see the Cambridge 
History of India, vol. i, p. 320 2 . 

The question as to who the Asvins were is asked in Nirukta (xii, 1), 
but no definite answer is given, only various opinions can be quoted. They 
are said to be "Heaven and Earth," "Day and Night," "Sun and Moon," 
" two kings who perform holy acts," etc. They have also been described as 
the personification of two luminous points or rays imagined to precede the 
break of day. Modern scholars, however, see in them either the morning 
and evening stars, or twilight (one half light and one half dark). 

Although no less than fifty hymns are addressed to them in the Rig- 
Veda, there is little that is definite about them. They are described as 
riding in a golden chariot, which in most accounts is drawn by horses (the 
name Asvina means "the two horsemen"), but poets often say it was drawn 
by some kind of bird, a buffalo, or an ass. They are the precursors of the 
Dawn (Ushas), who appears at the yoking of their car. She is sometimes 
described as the sister and sometimes as the wife of the Asvins. More 
commonly, however, their joint wife is Surya, who rides with them in the 
car. In still other hymns (Rig-Veda, x, 85) Soma, the moon, is the husband 
of Surya, and the Asvins are only the groomsmen, who help to get her 
for Soma from her father Savitri. They lost one of the wheels of their 
chariot at this wedding and consequently we find references to their three- 
wheeled car. 

In different hymns of the Rig-Veda they are referred to as "Sons of the 
Sun," "Children of the Sky," "Bright Lords of Lustre," "Offspring of the 
Ocean," " Honey-hued," and so on. Thus it is obvious that they originally 


represented some twin phenomenon in cosmical mythology, but exactly what 
is hard to say. 

But there is another aspect of the Asvins to be considered. They are 
described as healers of disease, deliverers from distress (especially on the sea), 
lifters-up of the downtrodden, and friends of lovers. Such an office was 
considered rather infra dig. among the gods, and consequently they lost a 
certain amount of prestige. 

In Brahmanical mythology the cosmical element of the ASvins has dis- 
appeared and they remain as physicians of great kindness and personal beauty. 
Their names are now Nasatya and Dasra. The best-known story, found 
differently in the Satapatha Brahmana and the Mahabhdrata, is that of 
Chyavana, the old husband of the beautiful Sukanya. The Asvins fell in 
love with her and tried in vain to seduce her. They finally consented to 
rejuvenate her husband, and in return were given a share of the Soma. 
Again in Mahabhdrata (i, 111 ), on being invoked, they restore the eyesight 
of Upamanyu, who, becoming blind through eating certain forest leaves, had 
fallen into a pit. There are many other stories of their good deeds. They 
rescued Bhujyu from drowning and Atri from a fiery pit. When ViSpala lost 
her leg they furnished her with an iron one. 

It will be seen from the above varying scraps of mythology connected 
with the Asvins that it is very hard, if not quite impossible, to state their 
origin, or to say what is the connecting link which joins the cosmical and 
more human sides of their character. The one may have evolved from the 
other, the healing and vivifying power of the sun and light being the medium, 
or perhaps the healing attributes may have been added in the effort to 
preserve the memory of some real historical mortal physicians, or "kings 
who performed holy acts," whose deeds would otherwise have been lost in 
the oblivion of the ages. 

We cannot help seeing a certain likeness with the Aids nopo) of the 
Greeks, Castor and Pollux, who are also twin horsemen and act as saviour- 
gods to mankind. Dual gods or heroes are found in many mythologies and 
their association may possibly point to the syncretism of allied cults, or to 
the development of new cults out of a primitive cult epithet. (See further 
Crooke, "Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 1908, 
p. 163. For notes and references on the Castor and Pollux myth see Frazer's 
translation of Apollodorus, Loeb Classical Library, vol. ii, pp. 30, 31.) 

It is interesting to compare the post-Homeric attributes of Apollo as a 
god of healing and as a marine deity. The former side of his character is 
shown in such titles as Iatromantis and Oulios, and the latter in such names 
as Delphinius, Epibaterius, Euryalus, etc. n.m.p. 


THEN early the next day Naravahanadatta went off 
[M] to the forest for the purpose of hunting, sur- 
rounded with elephants, in the company of his father 
and his friends ; but before going he comforted his beloved 
Ratnaprabha, who was anxious about him, by saying that 
he would quickly return. 

Then the scene of the chase became like a garden adorned 
with lovely creepers for his delight, for in it the pearls that 
dropped from the claws of the lions, that had cleft the fore- 
heads of elephants, and now fell asleep in death, were sown 
like seeds ; and the teeth of the tigers that were cut out by 
the crescent-headed arrows were like buds, and the flowing 
blood of the deer seemed like shoots, and the wild boars, in 
which stuck the arrows adorned with heron feathers, seemed 
like clusters, and the fallen bodies of Sarabhas 1 showed like 
fruit, and the arrows falling with deep hum appeared like 

Gradually the prince became wearied, and desisted from 
the chase, and went on horseback to another wood with 
Gomukha, who was also riding. There he began to play at 
ball, and while he was thus engaged a certain female ascetic 
came that way. Then the ball slipped from his hand and 
fell on her head ; whereupon the female ascetic laughed 
a little, and said to him : "If your insolence is so great 
now, what will it be if you ever obtain Karpiirika for a 
wife ? " 2 

When Naravahanadatta heard this, he dismounted from 
his horse, and prostrating himself at the feet of that female 
ascetic, said to her : "I did not see you, and my ball fell 
on your head by chance. Reverend one, be propitiated, and 
pardon that fault of mine." When the female ascetic heard 
this she said : " My son, I am not angry with you " ; and 

1 Fabulous animals with eight feet. 

2 Cf. Sicilianische M'drchen, vol. i, p. 74. 


being victorious over her wrath she comforted him with 

And then, thinking that the wise, truthful ascetic was 
well disposed to him, Naravahanadatta respectfully asked 
her : " Who, reverend lady, is this Karptirika spoken of by 
you ? Condescend to inform me, if you are pleased with 
me, for I am curious on this head." 

When he said this, bending before her, the female ascetic 
said to him : " There is on the other side of the sea a 
city named Karpurasambhava l ; in it there is a king rightly 
named Karpuraka; he has a daughter, a lovely maiden, 
named Karptirika, who appears like a second Lakshmi, 
deposited in security there by the ocean, having seen that 
the first Lakshmi had been carried away by the gods after 
the Churning. And she, as she hates men, 2 does not desire 
to be married ; but she will desire it, if at all, when she sees 
you. So go there, my son, and you shall win that fair one ; 
nevertheless, while you are going there, you will suffer great 
hardship in the forest. But you must not be perplexed at 
that, for all shall end well." When the ascetic had said this 
she flew up into the air and disappeared. 

Then Naravahanadatta, drawn on by the command of 
Love uttered through her voice, said to his attendant 
Gomukha : " Come, let us go to Karptirika in the city of 
Karpurasambhava, for I cannot remain a moment without 
beholding her." When Gomukha heard that, he said : 
44 King, desist from your rashness. Consider how far off 
you are from the sea and from that city, and whether the 

1 I.e. camphor-produced. Mysterious Lands of Camphor and Camphor 

Islands are often mentioned in Eastern legend. In the tale of " Hasan of 
Bassorah" (Burton, Nights, vol. viii, p. 81), while searching for the Islands 
of Wak, Hasan calls upon the Lord of the Land of Camphor (see Chauvin, 
vii, p. lln 2 ), and Arabian writers speak of the white city of al-Barraqa, in 
which cries and songs were heard but no inhabitants seen. Sailors who 
landed there for water found it clear and sweet with an odour of camphor, 
but the houses receded as fast as approached and finally faded from view. 
See G. Ferrand, Relations de Voyage et Textes Gtographiques Arabes, Paris, 
1913, vol. i, pp. 145, 157, and vol. ii, pp. 570-573. For an interesting 
article on camphor see W. H. Schoff, Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., vol. xlii, 1922, 
pp. 355-370. n.m. p. 

2 Cf. Nights, Burton, vol. iii, p. 31, and vol. vii, pp. 209, 243. n.m.p. 


journey is worth taking for the sake of that maiden. Why, 
on merely hearing her name, 1 do you abandon celestial 
wives and alone run after a mere woman who is enveloped in 
doubt, owing to your not knowing what her intention is ? " 

When Gomukha said this to him, the son of the King 
of Vatsa said : " The speech of that holy ascetic cannot be 
false. So I must certainly go to find that princess." Having 
said this, he set out thence on horseback that very moment. 
And Gomukha followed him; silently, though it was against 
his wish. When a lord does not act on the advice of his 
servants their only course is to follow him. 

In the meanwhile the King of Vatsa, having finished his 
hunting, returned to his city thinking that that son of his was 
returning among his own armed followers. And the prince's 
The PHnce followers returned with Marubhuti and the others 
is lost to the city, supposing that the prince was with 

the armed followers of his father. When they arrived the 
King of Vatsa and the others searched for him, and finding 
that he had not returned, they all went to the house of 
Ratnaprabha. She at first was grieved at that news, but 
she called up a supernatural science and was told by it 
tidings of her husband, and said to her distressed father- 
in-law : " My husband heard the Princess Karpurika men- 
tioned by a female ascetic in the forest, and in order to 
obtain her he has gone to the city of Karpurasambhava. 
And he will soon have accomplished his object, and will 
return here with Gomukha. So dismiss anxiety, for this 
I have learned from a science." By these words she 
comforted the King of Vatsa and his retinue. And she 
dispatched another science to wait on her husband during 
his journey and dispel his fatigue : for good women who 
desire their husband's happiness do not nourish jealousy. 

In the meanwhile Naravahanadatta performed a long 
journey on horseback in that forest, accompanied by 
Gomukha. Then a maiden suddenly came up to him in 
his path and said to him : "I am a science, 2 sent by 

1 For falling in love on mere mention see Vol. I, p. 128, 128ft 1 , and 
Vol. II, pp. 143, 144. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. II, pp. 211, 211ft 1 , and 212, 212ft 1 . n.m.p. 


Ratnaprabha, named Mayavati ; I will guard you on the 
path without being seen, so proceed now without fear." 
Having said this, the incarnate science disappeared as he 
gazed at it. 

By virtue of it Naravahanadatta continued his journey 
with his thirst and hunger appeased, praising his beloved 
Ratnaprabha. And in the evening he reached a wood with 
a pure lake in it, and with Gomukha he bathed and took 
a meal of delicious fruit and water. And at night he tied 
up the two horses underneath a large tree, after supply- 
ing them with grass, and he and his minister climbed up 
into it to sleep. While reposing on a broad bough of the 
tree he was wakened by the neighings of the terrified 
horses, and saw a lion that had come close underneath. 
When he saw it he wished * to get down for the sake 
of the horses, but Gomukha said to him : " Alas ! you 
are neglecting the safety of your person and acting 
without counsel ; for kings the first duty is the preserva- 
tion of their persons, and counsel is the foundation of 
rule. How can you desire to contend with wild beasts 
armed with teeth and claws ? For it was to avoid these 
that we just now got up into this tree." 

When the king had been restrained from descending by 
these words of Gomukha 's, seeing the lion killing the horse, 
he immediately threw his sword at it from the tree, and 
succeeded in wounding it with the weapon, which was buried 
in its body. The mighty lion, though pierced with the 
sword, after killing that horse, slew the other also. Then 
the son of the King of Vatsa took Gomukha's sword 
from him and, throwing it, cut the lion in half in the 
middle. And descending he recovered his sword from the 
body of the lion, and ascending again to his sleeping-place 
he passed the night there in the tree. 

In the morning Naravahanahatta got down and set 
out to find Karpiirika, accompanied by Gomukha. Then 
Gomukha, beholding him travelling on foot, as the lion had 
slain his horse, in order to amuse him on the way, said : 

1 I find that a MS. in the Sanskrit College reads avatiflrshum . This is 
obviously the right reading. 


" Listen, King ; I will relate you this story, which is 
particularly appropriate on the present occasion. 

58. Story of King Parity dgasena, his Wicked Wife and his 

Two Sons 

There is in this world a city named Iravati, which 
surpasses Alaka * ; in it there dwelt a king named Paritya- 
gasena. And he had two beloved queens, whom he valued 
as his life. One was the daughter of his own minister, and 
her name was Adhikasangama ; and the other was of royal 
race, and was called Kavyalankara. And with those two 
the king propitiated Durga to obtain a son, and performed 
penance without food, sleeping on darbha grass. 

Then Bhavani, who is kind to her votaries,, pleased with 
his penance, appeared to him in a dream and gave him two 
heavenly fruits, and thus commanded him : " Rise up and 
give your two wives these two fruits to eat, and then, King, 
you will have born to you two heroic sons." 2 

Having said this, Gaurl disappeared, and the king woke 
up in the morning and rose delighted at beholding those 
fruits in his hand. And by describing that dream of his he 
delighted his wives, and bathed and worshipped the consort 
of Siva, and broke his fast. And at night he first visited 
that wife of his Adhikasangama, and gave her one of the 
fruits, and she immediately ate it. Then the king spent the 
night in her pavilion, out of respect for her father, who was 
his own prime minister. And he placed near the head of 
his bed the second fruit, which was intended for the other 

While the king was asleep the Queen Adhikasangama 
rose up, and desiring for herself two similar sons, she took 
from his head and ate that second fruit also. For women 
are naturally envious of their rivals. And in the morning, 

1 The city of Kuvera, the God of Wealth. 

2 Readers will remember that Vasavadatta received a fruit from Siva 
which brought about the birth of Naravahanadatta. See Vol. II, p. 136, 
136/I 1 , where several references to analogues are given. See also Hartland, 
Legend of Perseus, vol. i, p. 41, and Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, p. 228. n.m.p. 


when the king rose up and was looking for that fruit, she 
said : " I ate that second fruit also." 

Then the king went away despondent, and after spend- 
ing the day he went at night to the apartments of the second 
queen. And when she asked for that other fruit he said 
to her : " While I was asleep your fellow- wife treacherously 
devoured it." Then the Queen Kavyalankara, not having 
obtained that fruit which was to enable her to give birth 
to a son, remained silently grieved. 

In the course of some days that Queen Adhikasangama 
became pregnant, and in due time gave birth to twin sons. 
And the King Parity agasena rejoiced, and made a great 
feast, since his desire was fulfilled by their birth. And the 
king gave the name of Indivarasena to the elder of the two, 
who was of wonderful beauty and had eyes like a blue lotus. 
And he gave to the younger the name of Anichchhasena, 
because his mother ate the second fruit against his wish. 

Then Kavyalankara, the second wife of that king, on be- 
holding this, was angry, and reflected : " Alas ! I have been 
cheated by this rival wife out of having children ; so I must 
without fail revenge myself on her. I must destroy these sons 
of hers by my cunning." Having thus reflected, she remained 
thinking over a means of doing this. And as fast as those 
two princes grew, the tree of enmity grew in her heart. 

And in course of time those two princes, having attained 
manhood, and being mighty of arm, and desirous of con- 
quest, said to their father : " We have attained manhood, 
The T o anc * we h ave Deen trained in the use of weapons, 
Princes start so how can we remain here endowed to no profit 
on their with these mighty arms ? Out on the arms 

and the youth of a Kshatriya that longs not for 
victory ! So let us go now, father, and conquer the regions." 
When the King Parityagasena heard this request of his 
sons he was pleased, and consented, and made arrangements 
for their expedition. And he said to them : "If ever you 
are in difficulties you must think upon the goddess Durga, 
the remover of sorrows, for she gave you to me." Then the 
king sent forth those two sons on their expedition, accom- 
panied by his troops and feudal chiefs, after their mother 


had performed the auspicious ceremonies to ensure them 
success. And he sent after them his own sagacious prime 
minister, their maternal grandfather, whose name was 

Then those two mighty princely brothers, with their 
army, first marched in due order to the eastern quarter and 
subdued it. Then these two irresistible heroes of approved 
might, to whom many kings had joined themselves, went 
to the southern quarter to conquer it. And their parents 
rejoiced on hearing these tidings of them, but their second 
mother was consumed with the fire of concealed hate. 

The treacherous queen then got the following false 
dispatch written in the king's name to the chiefs in the 
princes' camp, by means of the Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 
whom she had bribed with heaps of treasure : " My two 
sons, having subdued the earth by the might of their arms, 
have formed the intention of killing me and seizing my 
kingdom ; so if you are loyal to me you must without 
hesitation put to death both those sons of mine." This 
letter Kavyalankara sent off secretly by a courier. 1 And 
the courier went secretly to the camp of those two princes 
and gave that letter to the chiefs. And they all, after 
reading it, reflecting that the policy of kings is very cruel, 
and considering that that command of their master must 
not be disobeyed, met and deliberated in the night, and, as 
they saw no way out of the difficulty, determined to kill 
those two princes, though they had been fascinated by their 
virtues. But their maternal grandfather, the minister, who 
was with them, heard of it from a friend that he had among 
the chiefs, and after informing the princes of the state of 
affairs he thereupon mounted them on swift horses and 
conveyed them safely out of the camp. 

The two princes, when conveyed away by the minister 
at night, travelled along with him, and entered the Vindhya 
forest out of ignorance of the true road. Then, after the 
night had passed, as they slowly proceeded on their way, 
about noon their horses died, overcome with excessive thirst, 

1 For a note on the " Letter of Death " see the end of this chapter. 



And that aged maternal grandfather of theirs, whose palate 
was dry with hunger and thirst, died exhausted with the 
heat before the eyes of those two, who were also weary. 
Then those afflicted brothers exclaimed in their sorrow : 
" Why has our father reduced to this state us who are 
innocent, and fulfilled the desire of that wicked second 
mother of ours ? " In the midst of their lamentation they 
thought upon the goddess Ambika, 1 whom their father had 
long ago pointed out to them as their natural protectress. 
That moment, by force of thinking on that kind protectress, 
their hunger, thirst and fatigue left them, and they were 
strong. Then they were comforted by faith in her, and 
without feeling the fatigue of the journey they went to visit 
that goddess who dwells in the Vindhya forest. And when 
those two brothers had arrived there, they began a course 
of fasting and asceticism to propitiate her. 

In the meanwhile those chiefs in the camp assembled 
together in a band, and went with the intention of doing 
the princes a mischief; but they could not find them, 
though they searched everywhere. They said : " The princes 
have escaped somewhere with their maternal grandfather " ; 
and fearing that the whole thing would come out, they 
went in a fright to the King Parityagasena, and, showing 
him the letter, they told him the whole story. He, 
when he heard it, was agitated, and said to them in his 
anger: " I did not send this letter; this is some deception. 
And how comes it that you did not know, you foolish 
creatures, that I should not be likely to put to death 
two sons obtained by severe austerities ? They have been 
put to death as far as you are concerned, but they were 
saved by their own merits, and their maternal grandfather 
has exhibited a specimen of his statesmanship." He said 
this to the chiefs, and though the Secretary who wrote the 
treacherous letter fled, the king quickly had him brought 
back by his royal power, and after thoroughly investigating 
the whole matter, punished him as he deserved. And he 
threw into a dungeon his wicked wife Kavyalankara, who 
was guilty of such a crime as trying to slay his sons. For 

1 The mother i.e. Durgu. 


how can an evil deed audaciously done, the end of which 
is not considered through the mind being blinded with ex- 
cessive hate, help bringing ruin ? And as for those chiefs 
who had set out with his two sons and returned, the king 
dismissed them and appointed others in their place. And 
with their mother he continued to seek for tidings of those 
sons, plunged in grief, devoted to righteousness, thinking 
upon Durga. 

In the meanwhile that goddess, who has her shrine in 
the Vindhya mountains, was pleased with the asceticism of 
the Prince Indivarasena and his younger brother. And she 
The Magic gave Indivarasena a sword in a dream, and ap- 
Sword pearing to him, thus addressed him: "By the 

power of this sword thou shalt conquer enemies hard to 
overcome, and whatever thou shalt think of thou shalt 
obtain, and by means of it you shall both gain the success 
you desire." 

When the goddess had said that she disappeared, and 
Indivarasena, waking up, beheld that sword in his hand. 
Then he comforted his younger brother by showing him that 
sword and describing to him his dream, and in the morning 
he and his brother broke their fast on wild fruits. Then 
he worshipped that goddess, and having his fatigue removed 
by her favour, he departed rejoicing, with the sword in his 
hand, in the company of his brother. 

And after he had travelled a long distance he found a 
great and splendid city, looking like the peak of Meru on 
account of its golden houses. There he beheld a terrible 
Rakshasa standing at the gate of the high street, and the 
hero asked him what was the name of the town, and who 
was its king. That Rakshasa said : " This city is called 
Sailapura, and it is possessed by our lord Yamadanshtra, 
the slayer of his foes, King of the Rakshasas." 

When the Rakshasa said this, Indivarasena attempted 
to enter, in order to slay Yamadanshtra, but the Rakshasa 
at the door tried to prevent him, upon which the mighty 
Indivarasena killed him, cutting off his head with one 
stroke of his sword. After slaying him the hero entered 
the royal palace, and beheld inside it the Rakshasa 


Yamadanshtra sitting on his throne, having a mouth terrible 
with tusks, with a lovely woman at his left hand, and a 
virgin of heavenly beauty on his right hand. And when 
Indivarasena saw him he went with the sword given him 
by Durga* in his hand and challenged him to fight, and the 
Rakshasa drew his sword and stood up to resist him. And 
in the course of the fight Indivarasena frequently cut off 
the Rakshasa's head, but it grew again. 1 Seeing that magic 

1 See Ralston's remarks on this story in his Russian Folk-Tales, p. 71. 
In Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 44, Hilda reunites as fast as she is cut 
in two, but at last Dietrich, by the advice of Hildebrand, steps between the 
two pieces and interferes with the vis medicatrix. Baring-Gould seems to 
identify this story of Indivarasena with that of St George. In his essay on 
that hero-saint (Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, p. 305) he observes : " In 
the Katha Sarit Sagara a hero fights a demon monster and releases a beautiful 
woman from his thraldom." The story, as told by Somadeva, has already 
progressed, and assumed a form similar to that of Perseus and Andromeda. 

The idea of the hero finding the person or animal he has killed coming 

to life again is one of the oldest motifs in fiction. It first appears on an 
Egyptian papyrus of Ptolemaic times, in the " Adventure of Satni-Khamois 
with the Mummies." Here we read (Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, p. 127): "He came to the place where the eternal serpent was; 
he attacked him, he slew him. The serpent came to life, and took his form 
again. He attacked the serpent a second time ; he slew him. The serpent 
came to life again. He attacked the serpent a third time ; he cut him in 
two pieces, he put sand between piece and piece ; the serpent died, and he 
did not again take his previous form." 

There is a curious variant in the Nights (Burton, vol. vii, p. 36l), where, 
in the story of " Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a al-Jamal," the hero cuts the ghul 
in half by a single stroke across his waist. Whereupon the ghul screams 
out: "O man, an thou desire to slay me, strike me a second stroke." He is 
just about to make the second stroke when a certain blind man who has 
befriended him calls out : " Smite him not a second time, for then he will 
not die, but will live and destroy us." He accordingly holds his hand, and 
the ghul dies. 

I notice another variant in a recent number of Folk-Lore (Dec. 1923, 
p. 302), which, although again different from that in our text, seems to have 
the same basic idea that in the case of supernatural beings or animals there 
is a kind of magical power making their life hard to destroy, but once the 
secret is discovered, and the magical properties annulled, they are slain like 
an ordinary human being or animal. 

The variant referred to appears in Buxton's "Some Navajo Folk-Tales 
and Customs," and is as follows: "Then the man used the lightning and 
killed the giant. The blood started to run out of his mouth, and flowed 
back in two streams behind his head. Nayezesegoni stuck his club into the 


power of his, and having had a sign made to him by the 
virgin at the Rakshasa's side, who had fallen in love with 
him at first sight, the prince, after cutting off the head of 
the Rakshasa, being quick of hand, again cut it in two with 
a stroke of his sword. Then the Rakshasa's magic was 
baffled by contrary magic, and his head did not grow again, 
and the Rakshasa died of the wound. 

When he was slain the lovely woman and the princess 
were delighted, and the prince with his younger brother sat 
down and asked them the following questions : " Why did 
this Rakshasa live in such a city as this, guarded by one 
warder only, and who are you two, and why do you rejoice 
at his being slain? " When they heard this, the virgin was 
the one that answered, and she spoke as follows : "In this 
city of Sailpura there lived a king of the name of Virabhuja, 
and this is his wife Madanadanshtra, and this Rakshasa came 
and devoured him by the help of his magic power. And 
he ate up his attendants, but he did not eat this Madana- 
danshtra, whom alone he spared because she was beautiful, 
but he made her his wife. Then he became disgusted with 
this city though beautiful, and building in it houses of gold 
he remained here sporting with Madanadanshtra, having 
dismissed his retinue. And I am the younger sister of this 
Rakshasa, and unmarried, but the moment I saw you I fell 
in love with you. Accordingly she is glad at his having been 
slain, and so also am I ; so marry me here now, my husband, 
since love makes me offer myself to you." 

When Khadgadanshtra said this, Indivarasena married 
her then and there by the gdndharva form of marriage. And 
he remained in that very city, having everything brought 
The Macric to him on his thinking of it, by the virtue of the 
Chariot sword of Durga, married and accompanied by 

his younger brother. And once on a time he made a chariot 
that would fly through the air, produced by thought through 

ground to prevent the two streams of blood joining, as if they had the giant 
would have come to life again." 

In some cases the head of the giant repeatedly flies on again until the 
secret of his "life-index" is discovered. See, for instance, R. B. Shaw, 
" On the Shighni (Ghalchah) Dialect," Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlvi, pt. i, 
No. 2, 1877, pp. 115-117. n.m.p. 


the virtue of his sword, that resembled in its powers the 
philosopher's stone, and placed in it his heroic brother 
Anichchhasena, and sent him off from his retreat to bear 
tidings of him to his parents. Anichchhasena, for his part, 
travelled quickly through the air in that chariot and reached 
Iravati, that city of his father. There he refreshed his grief- 
worn parents with the sight of him, as the moon refreshes 
the partridges when exhausted with severe heat. And he 
approached them and fell at their feet, and was embraced 
by them ; and when they questioned him he dispelled their 
apprehensions with good news of his brother. And he told 
in their presence the whole adventure of himself and his 
brother, which in the beginning was sad, but in the end was 
happy. And there he heard the treacherous device which 
his wicked second mother had, out of enmity, contrived for 
his destruction. 

Then Anichchhasena remained there in tranquillity, in 
the company of his delighted father and his mother, honoured 
by the subjects. But after some days had passed his fears 
were aroused by a threatening dream, and he yearned to 
see his brother again, and said to his father : "I will 
depart, and by telling my brother Indivarasena that you 
are anxiously awaiting him I will bring him back. Give 
me leave to depart, my father." 

When his father heard that, being anxious for the sight 
of his son, he and his wife gave Anichchhasena leave to 
depart, and he immediately mounted his chariot and reached 
through the air that city of Sailapura. And when he arrived 
there he entered the palace of that brother of his. He saw 
there his elder brother lying senseless in the presence of 
Khadgadanshtra and Madanadanshtra, who were weeping. 
In his perplexity he asked : " What does this mean ? " 
And then Khadgadanshtra said, with her eyes fixed on 
the ground, though the other blamed her for it : " When 
you were away your brother one day, on my going to bathe, 
had a secret intrigue with this Madanadanshtra, and I, on 
returning from bathing, found him with her, and abused 
him. Then he tried to propitiate me, but I, being exceed- 
ingly bewildered by unforgiving jealousy, that seemed to 



have possessed me, thought thus with myself : 6 Ah ! with- 
out taking me into account, he favours another. I believe 
he shows this insolence confiding in the magic properties of 
his sword, so I will hide this weapon of his.' After thus re- 
flecting, in my folly I thrust his sword into the fire at night 
while he was asleep. The consequence was that his sword 
was dimmed and he was reduced to this state. And I am 
grieved for this myself and upbraided by Madanadanshtra. 
So you have come here now when both our minds are 
blinded with grief and we have resolved on death. So take 
this sword and kill me with it, since I have proved true to 
the customs of my race and acted cruelly." 

When Anichchhasena was thus entreated by his brother's 
wife, he thought that he ought not to slay her on account 
of her repentance, but prepared to cut off his own head. 
But at that moment he heard the following voice from 
the air : " Do not act thus, prince ; your brother is not 
dead, but he has been struck senseless by Durga, who is 
angry at his not having taken sufficient care of the sword, 
and you must not impute guilt to Khadgadanshtra, for this 
circumstance is the consequence of your all having been 
born into this world on account of a curse. And they were 
both of them your brother's wives in a former life. So 
propitiate Durga in order to gain your object." 

Accordingly Anichchhasena gave up his intention of slaying 
himself. But he mounted that chariot, and took that fire- 
dimmed sword, and went to propitiate the soles of the feet of 
Durga, the dweller in the Vindhya range. There he fasted, and 
was about to propitiate the goddess with the offering of his 
head when he heard this voice from heaven : " Do not be rash, 
my son. Go ; thy elder brother shall live, and the sword shall 
become pure from stain, for I am pleased with thy devotion." 

When Anichchhasena heard this speech of the goddess he 
immediately saw that the sword in his hand had recovered 
its brightness, and he walked round the goddess, keeping his 
right hand towards her, and ascending his swift magic car, 
as if it were his own desire, 1 he returned in a state of anxious 
expectation to that Sailapura. There he saw that his elder 

1 The word literally means " chariot of the mind." There is a pun here. 


brother had just risen up, having suddenly regained con- 
sciousness, and, weeping, he seized his feet, and his elder 
brother threw his arms round his neck. And both the wives 
of Indivarasena fell at the feet of Anichchhasena and said : 
" You have saved the life of our husband." Then he told 
the whole story to his brother Indivarasena; who ques- 
tioned him, and he, when he heard it, was not angry with 
Khadgadanshtra, but was pleased with his brother. 1 

1 This resembles the German story of the two brothers as given in 
Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. i, p. 162. See also Gonzenbach's 
Sicilianische Mdrchen, Nos. 39 and 40, with Dr Kohler's note. He there 
refers us to his own remarks on the fourth of Campbell's West Highland Tales 
in Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 118, and to Grimm, Nos. 60 and 85, Hahn, 
No. 22, Widter- Wolf, No. 8, Vernaleken, No. 35, etc. In Grimm's No. 60 
we have a magic sword, and the temporary death of one of the brothers is 
indicated by the dimming of one side of a knife. This story resembles 
Grimm's more closely than that of Aokadatta and Vijayadatta in Chapter XXV. 
See also Bartsch's Sagen, M'drchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 474, 
and De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. i, p. 328; vol. ii, p. 317. The 
story of Amys and Amylion, in Ellis's Metrical Romances, resembles closely 
the tale as given by Grimm and Gonzenbach. So too do the seventh and 
ninth stories of the first day in the Pentamerone of Basile, and the fifty-second 
in Coelho's Contos Populares Portuguezes, p. 120. Perhaps the oldest pair of 
mythological brothers are the A3vins, who have their counterpart in the 
Dioscuri and in Heracles and Iphiclus. 

For further analogues to Grimm Nos. 60 and 85 see Bolte and 

Polivka, op. cit,, vol. i, p. 528, and vol. ii, p. 204. 

The " External Soul " motif has already been discussed (Vol. I, pp. 1 29-1 32) 
and numerous references have been given. In many of the examples found 
on those pages we saw that the "life" of the person was dependent on a 
bird, although in some cases it is an inanimate object like a ring, stone, 
necklace or sword (as in our present text). 

In Steel and Temple's Wide-Awake Stories, p. 47, the prince's life 
depends upon a sword, which the witch manages to get hold of. As soon 
as the sword is heated the prince becomes feverish, and tries to get his 
sword back. A rivet falls from the hilt, and as the hilt drops so does the 
prince's head. Barley plants which he had left behind as a "health (i.e. 
passive) index" show his unhappy condition to his friends. A new rivet is 
forged, the sword is polished and the prince is restored to life. Other 
examples of the sword as a " life-index " will be found in Shaikh Chilli, FoUc- 
Tales of Hindustan, p. 51 ; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 165 ; 
vol. ii, p. 162 et seq. ; vol. iii, p. 35 et seq. These are discussed by Norton, 
"The Life-Index," Studies in Honour of Maurice Bloomfield, 1920, pp. 214, 215. 
See also Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 13, and Chauvin, Bibliographic Arabe, v, 
p. 87m 1 . N.M.P. 


And when he heard from the lips of his brother that his 
parents were eager to see him, and of the fraud of his second 
mother, that had brought about his separation from them, 
Indivarasena ne to k tne sword which his brother handed to 
returns to his him, and mounted a large chariot, which came 
Native City to fc m t j ie momen t he thought of it, owing to 
the virtue of the sword, and with his golden palaces, and 
his two wives, and his younger brother, Indivarasena re- 
turned to his own city, Iravati. There he alighted from 
the air, beheld with wonder by the subjects, and entered the 
palace, and went with his attendants into the presence of 
the king. And in that condition he beheld his father and 
his mother, and fell at their feet with his eyes bathed in 
streaming tears. And they, the moment they beheld their 
son, embraced him and his younger brother, and having their 
bodies, as it were, bathed in nectar, they were relieved from 
their sorrow. 

And when their daughters-in-law, those two wives of 
Indivarasena, of heavenly beauty, fell at their feet, they 
looked on them with delight and welcomed them. And 
the parents, learning in course of conversation that they 
were said by a divine voice to have been appointed in a 
previous life as his wives, were exceedingly delighted. And 
they rejoiced with astonishment at the power of their son, 
which enabled him to travel through the air, and bring 
golden palaces, and do other things of this kind. 

Then Indivarasena remained, with those two wives and 
his attendants, in the society of his parents, causing delight 
to the subjects. And once on a time he took leave of his 
father, King Parityagasena, and went forth again to conquer 
the four quarters, accompanied by his younger brother. 
And the mighty-armed hero conquered the whole earth by 
the virtue of his sword, and came back, bringing with him 
gold, elephants, horses and jewels of conquered kings. 
And he reached his capital, followed out of fear by the 
conquered earth in the form of the army of dust, that his 
forces raised. And he entered the palace, where his father 
advanced to meet him, and he and his brother delighted 
their mother Adhikasangama by their return. And after 
vol. in. s 


he had honoured the kings, Indivarasena spent that day in 
pleasure, accompanied by his wives and followers. 

And on the next day the prince made over the earth to 
his father by way of tribute from the kings, and suddenly 
recollected his former birth. Then, like one waking up from 
sleep, he said to his father : " Father, I remember my former 
birth ; listen, I will tell you all about it. There is a city 
on the plateau of the Himalayas named Muktapura ; in it 
there lives a king named Muktasena, a king of the Vidya- 
dharas. And by a queen named Kambuvati he had born 
to him in course of time two virtuous sons, Padmasena 
and Rupasena. Then a maiden, named Adityaprabha, the 
daughter of a chief of the Vidyadharas, of her own accord, 
out of love, chose Padmasena for her husband. Hearing 
of that, a Vidyadhara maiden, of the name of Chandravati, 
became love- sick also, and came and chose him for her 

"Then Padmasena, having two wives, was continually 
worried by that wife Adityaprabha, who was jealous of 
her rival. And so Padmasena over and over again impor- 
tuned his father Muktasena to the following effect : ' I 
cannot endure every day the ill temper of my wife, who 
is blind with jealousy ; let me retire to a wood of ascetics 
to put an end to this misery. Therefore, father, give me 

"His father, annoyed at his persistence, cursed him and 
his wives, saying : ' What need is there of your going to a 
wood of ascetics ? Fall into the world of mortals. There 
this quarrelsome wife of yours, Adityaprabha, shall be born 
in the race of Rakshasas, and become your wife again. And 
this second, Chandravati, who is virtuous and attached to 
you, her husband, shall be the wife of a king, and the para- 
mour of a Rakshasa, and shall obtain you as her beloved. 
And since this Rupasena has been observed by me to follow 
you, his elder brother, with affection, he shall be your brother 
also in that world. There, too, you shall endure some 
affliction caused by your wives.' Thus he spoke and ceased, 
and appointed this as the termination of the curse : * When 
you, being a prince, shall conquer the earth and give it to 


your father, then you and they shall remember your former 
birth, and be freed from your curse.' 

" When Padmasena had been thus addressed by his own 
father, he went with those others to the world of mortals. I 
am that very Padmasena, born here as your son, Indivarasena 
by name, and I have done what I was appointed to do. 
And the other Vidyadhara prince, Rupasena, has been born 
as Anichchhasena, my younger brother. And as for my 
wives Adityaprabha * and Chandra vati, know that they have 
been born here as these two, Khadgadanshtra and Madana- 
danshtra. And now we have reached that appointed end 
of our curse. So let us go, father, to our own Vidyadhara 

Having said this, he, together with his brother and his 
wives, who remembered their former existence, abandoned 
the human and assumed the Vidyadhara form. And having 
worshipped the feet of his father, and taken his two wives 
in his arms, he went with his younger brother through the 
air to his own city, Muktapura. There the wise prince, 
gladly welcomed by his father Muktasena, a joy to the eyes 
of his mother, accompanied by his brother Rupasena, lived 
with his Adityaprabha, who did not again display jealousy, 
and with Chandra vati in happiness. 

[M] The minister Gomukha, having told this delightful 
tale on the road, again said to Naravahanadatta : " Thus 
the great must endure great pains and gain great glory, but 
others have little pain and little glory. But you, protected 
by the might of the science of Queen Ratnaprabha, shall 
without difficulty gain that Princess Karpurika." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this from the lips of the 
eloquent Gomukha, he set out on the path with him, in- 
sensible to fatigue. And as he travelled he came in the 
evening to a pellucid lake, the lotuses on which were in full 
bloom, and which was full of an abundant supply of cold 
water, delicious as nectar. Its banks were adorned with 

1 I.e. brightness of the sun. Chandravati means moon-like. 


pomegranate-trees, bread-fruit trees, and rows of mango- trees, 
and on it the swans sang sweetly. They bathed in it, and 
devoutly worshipped the beloved ' of the daughter of Hima- 
laya, and refreshed themselves with various fragrant, sweet- 
tasting, delightful fruits, and then the son of the King of 
Vatsa and his friend spent the night on the bank of the lake, 
sleeping on a bed strewn with soft young shoots. 

1 I.e. Siva, the beloved of Parvati. 



The well-known " Letter of Death " motif has already appeared twice in 
the present work firstly in the story of Sivavarman (1c), Vol. I, pp. 51, 52 ; 
and secondly in that of Phalabhuti (24), Vol. II, p. 114, where I added a 
short note on the titles given to the motif. 

They are : " Uriah letter," " Bellerophon letter " and " Mutalammis letter." 
As each of these has from time to time been considered the standard example 
of the motif it will, perhaps, be as well to describe them briefly. 

The familiar story of Uriah is told in 2 Sam. 11. After Uriah's wife, 
Bath-sheba, had become pregnant by David, he got Joab to send Uriah to 
him, on the pretence of asking details of the siege of Balbah. 

" And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, 
and sent it by the hand of Uriah. 

" And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the 
hottest battle, and retire ye from him, that he may be smitten, and die. 

"And it came to pass, when Joab observed the city, that he assigned 
Uriah unto a place where he knew that valiant men were. 

" And the men of the city went out, and fought with Joab : and there fell 
some of the people of the servants of David ; and Uriah the Hittite died also." 

The well-known story of Bellerophon occurs in the Iliad, vi, 155 et seq. 

Anteia, the wife of Proitos, became enamoured of Bellerophon, but her 
love was not reciprocated (see Vol. II, p. 1 20). 

" Then spake she lyingly to King Proitos : ' Die, Proitos, or else slay 
Bellerophon, that would have converse in love with me against my will.' 
So spake she, and anger gat hold upon the king at that he heard. To slay 
him he forbare, for his soul had shame of that ; but he sent him to Lykia, 
and gave him tokens of woe, graving in a folded tablet many deadly things, 
and bade him show these to Anteia's father, that he might be slain. So fared 
he to Lykia by the blameless convoy of the gods" (trans, by Lang, Leaf and 
Myers, 1912). 

On his arrival at Lykia, Anteia's father, in accordance with instructions 
given in the letter, considered the best way of getting rid of Bellerophon 
was to give him seemingly impossible tasks. Thus at this point the " Letter 
of Death" motif is blended with the "Tasks" motif After he had slain 
Chimaira and conquered the Solymi and the Amazons, the king realised that 
he was the brave offspring of a god, and so far from putting him to death, 
married him to his daughter. 

The title by which the motif is known in the Moslem East is, however, 
" Mutalammis letter." This phrase had its origin in one of the most cele- 
brated incidents of early Arab history. Al-Mutalammis, whose real name was 
Jarir, son of ' Abd al-Masih, was an eminent poet of the middle of the sixth 
century a.d. His name is inseparably linked with that of his nephew Tarafa, 
who has been described as the greatest poet of the Arabs after Imr al-Kais. 
From early youth his genius for poetry, and especially for satirical verse, was 


remarkable. As time went on he surpassed all his contemporary poets in a 
life of debauchery and gambling, and after many vicissitudes in Bahrayn, on 
the Persian Gulf, he set out with his uncle Mutalammis to f Amr ibn Hind, 
King of al-Hira (a.d. 554-570). This king was a warlike ruler and specially 
noted for his great cruelty. (For a bibliography of his life and times see the 
Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. i, 1913, p. 335.) 

'Arar appointed them to attend on his brother Kabus, who, however, 
treated the two poets with great indignity, which, as can be imagined, gave 
rise to some verses about him. They began : 

" Would that we had instead of 'Amr 
A milch-ewe bleating round our tent ! " 

Tarafa's brother-in-law was a very fat man, of whom he mockingly said : 
" There is naught good about him but his money, and that waist which is so 
slender when he stands." f Amr joked the brother-in-law about this and in 
return was informed of the verse that had been written about him. It was 
these incidents that started the trouble at the court. On another occasion 
Tarafa was seated at table opposite the king's sister. Struck with her beauty, 
he exclaimed : 

" Behold, she has come back to me, 
My fair gazelle whose earrings shine ; 
Had not the king been sitting here, 
I would have pressed her lips to mine." 
This further insult decided the king to take action. He summoned 
the two poets and gave them each a letter sealed with the royal seal and 
addressed to Abu Karib, governor of Hajar or Bahrayn. 

Taking the letters, the two men set out, but when they had passed 
outside the city and were proceeding along the banks of the Euphrates the 
suspicions of Mutalammis were aroused. He decided to open his letter and 
find out the contents. As neither of them could read he asked a boy of 
al-Hira to read it for him. It was a request to the governor to put the 
bearer to death some say by maiming and burying alive. Mutalammis 
immediately threw the letter into the river, and implored his nephew to do 
likewise, but the latter refused, disbelieving what the boy had read, fearing 
to break the royal seal, and thinking that f Arar would never offend the great 
tribe of Bakr by encompassing his death. All entreaties on the part of 
Mutalammis were unavailing, so they parted. Tarafa, continuing his journey, 
was immediately put to death, and Mutalammis, turning his camel westwards, 
escaped to Syria to the court of Ghassan. 

For various accounts of the life and works of Tarafa and Mutalammis 
see "Lettre sur les poetes Tarafah et al-Moutalammis, par M. A. Perron 
a M. Caussin de Perceval," Journal Asiatique, 3rd series, vol. xi, pp. 46-69 
and 215-257; Hammer-Purgstall, Literaturgeschichie der Araber, Part I, vol. i, 
Vienna, 1850, pp. 163-1 67; T. Chenery, The Assemblies of A I- Hariri, vol. i 
(1869), Oriental Translation Fund, Royal Asiatic Society, 1898, pp. 358-362 
(see also p. 162); C. J. Lyall, Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry, 1885, 
pp. 79-80; R. A. Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, 1907, pp. 107-109; 


G. Freytag, Arabian Proverbia, Bonn, 1838, i, 721 ; and Vullers, Tarafoe 
Moallaca cum Zuzenii Scholiis, Paris, 1 829. For the two latter references I am 
indebted to Professor D. S. Margoliouth. A short story about Mutalammis 
and his wife Umaymah occurs in the Nights (Burton, vol. v, pp. 74, 75), and 
Burton gives a note on the poet in Supp., vol. vi, p. 94, where an example of 
our motif occurs. 

None of the above three titles seems to be sufficiently explanatory to 
embrace the numerous varieties of the motif as they occur in folk-lore. In 
the Uriah story, the scheme succeeds and the victim is killed. In the Greek 
story of Bellerophon, the letter is delivered untouched and he only escapes 
because of his divine birth and consequent supernatural powers. In the 
Arabic story, Mutalammis, who appears only to have been drawn into the 
trouble owing to his relationship to Tarafa, never delivers the letter at all, 
but destroys it. Thus in each of the three stories the incidents vary con- 
siderably, and there appears to be no reason why any particular one should 
give its name to the motif But if we call it by a comprehensive name such 
as " Letter of Death " we can take all the above examples as different variants 
of the motif. 

In fiction the theme of tales introducing the " Letter of Death " is 
usually as follows. For some reason or other the hero is considered best 
out of the way. He is accordingly dispatched with a letter ordering the 
bearer to be killed. On his way he either meets his rival, who unknowingly 
delivers the letter for him, or else he falls asleep and the contents of the 
letter are altered either in ignorance or on purpose, and so the hero escapes 
his fate. 

In the Kathakoca (Tawney, p. 168 et seq.) is the " Story of Damannaka," 
which contains an interesting version which appears in several other 
collections. The merchant Sagarapota overhears certain hermits saying 
that the boy Damannaka, a penniless orphan, will be master of his house. 
He tries various means to get rid of the boy, all of which fail. On one 
occasion he sends the boy home to his wife with a letter. The story then 
proceeds as follows : 

Damannaka started on his journey. When he reached the garden of 
Rajagriha he was tired, and he lay down in the temple of the God of Love 
to refresh himself. Sleep fell upon him. In the meanwhile the daughter 
of that very merchant, Visha by name, came there to worship the God of 
Love. She saw Damannaka, with his broad eyes and broad chest ; and while 
she was looking at him her eye fell on her father's letter, so she took it from 
the end of his stick and read it. It ran as follows : " Health and prosperity ! 
Sagarapota from the cattle farm lovingly embraces Samudradatta, and tells 
him what is to be done : 

' Before he has time to wash his feet, you must immediately bestow 
on this man 
Visha (poison) and so make my heart free from the thorn of pain.' " 

She thought: "No doubt my father has found here a bridegroom fit 
for me ; as for the marriage having to be performed this very day, it means 


that to-day is an auspicious day, so the marriage must take place to-day. As 
for the order that Visha is to be given, in his eagerness he has written an 
anusvara instead of the long a, so I will put it right." Having thus reflected, 
she took some collyrium from her eyes and made the letter a instead of a 
dot ; and sealing the letter up again, she left it as it was, and went home. 
After a short time Damannaka reached the house. He gave the letter to 
Samudradatta. Samudradatta took the letter and read it and considered it. 
He said : " My father's order is law to me " ; so he collected all the necessary 
preparations for the marriage, and all the host of his relations assembled. 
On that very day, as soon as an auspicious moment arrived, Damannaka 
was married. 

The story appears in the Bhakta-mala of Nabhadasa, a work on the 
history of the saints of the Bhagavata reformation started chiefly by RamAnuja 
and Madhva about the same time as Somadeva wrote the Kathd Sarit Sdgara. 
See G. A. Grierson, " Gleanings from the Bhakta-Mala," Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 
April 1910, p. 295. (For the other two parts of the article see ditto, July 
1909, p. 6'07 et seq., and Jan. 1910, p. 87 et seq.) It was briefly related in 
Stein and Grierson's Hatim's Talcs, p. xlvi. Cf. also N. B. Godabole, " The 
Story of Chandrahasya," Ind. Ant, vol. xi, 1882, pp. 84-86. 

The story is also found in Bloomfield, Life and Stories of Parcvanalha, 
p. 160, where a useful note is given; in Hertel, "Die Erziihlung von 
Kaufmann Campaka," Zeit. d. d. Morg. GeselL, vol. lxv, 1911, pp. 458, 459; 
and ditto in vol. vii of Indische Erzdhler, p. 38 et seq. 

For other Eastern variants see Velten, Mdrchen und Erzdhlungen der 
Suaheli, 1898, p. 198; Lidzbarski, Geschichten und Lieder aus den neuara- 
m'dischen Handschriften der K. Bibliothek zu Berlin, 1 896, p. 267 et seq. ; Steel 
and Temple, Wide- Awake Stories, p. 410; Day, Folk-Tales of Bengal, p. 120; 
Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, pp. 53 et seq., and 1 84 et seq. ; Ind. Ant., vol. iii, 
p. 321. 

For variants from all parts of the world see Bolte, op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 276 el seq. 

The most comprehensive article, however, is that by Cosquin, " La 
Legende du Page de Sainte Elisabeth de Portugal," Etudes Folkloriques, p. 73 
et seq. n.m.p. 


THE next morning Naravahanadatta rose up from 
[M] the bank of that lake, 1 and setting out on his 
journey, said to his minister Gomukha : " My friend, 
I remember a certain princess of heavenly beauty, dressed 
in white garments, came to me towards the end of last night 
in a dream and said this to me : ' Lay aside your anxiety, 
dear one, for you will quickly reach a large and wonderful 
town situated in a forest, on the shore of the sea. And after 
resting there you shall with ease find that town Karpura- 
sambhava, and then win that Princess Karpurika.' Having 
said this, she disappeared, and I immediately woke up." 
When he said that, Gomukha was delighted and said to 
him : " King, you are favoured by the gods ; what is difficult 
to you ? So your enterprise will certainly succeed without 

When Gomukha had said this, Naravahanadatta hastened 
along the path with him. And in course of time he reached 
a city of vast extent on the shore of the sea, furnished with 
lofty mansions resembling the peaks of mountains, with 
streets and arches, adorned with a palace all golden like 
Mount Meru, looking like a second Earth. He entered that 
city by the market street, and beheld that all the population, 
merchants, women and citizens, were wooden automata, 2 that 
moved as if they were alive, but were recognised as lifeless 
by their want of speech. This aroused astonishment in his 
mind. And in due course he arrived with Gomukha near 
the king's palace, and saw that all the horses and elephants 
there were of the same material ; and with his minister he 
entered, full of wonder, that palace, which was resplendent 
with seven ranges of golden buildings. There he saw a 
majestic man sitting on a jewelled throne, surrounded by 

1 I read sarastirat for sarittirat. 

2 See note on pp. 55-59 of this volume. n.m.p. 


warders and women who were also wooden automata, the 
only living being there, who produced motion in those dull 
material things, like the soul presiding over the senses. 
He, for his part, seeing that that hero Naravahanadatta 
was of noble form, rose up and welcomed him, and made 
him sit down on his own seat, and sitting in front of 
him he thus questioned him : " Who are you ? How and 
why have you come to this uninhabited land with one 
companion ? " 

Then Naravahanadatta told his own story from the 
beginning, and asked that hero, who was prostrating himself 
before him : " Who are you, my good sir, and what is this 
wonderful city of yours ? Tell me." That man, when he 
heard that, began to tell his own story. 

59. Story of the Two Brothers Prdnadliara and Rajyadhara 

There is a city named KanchI possessed of great excel- 
lences, 1 which, like a girdle, well adorns the earth-bride. In 
it there was a famous king of the name of Bahubala, who 
won Fortune by the might of his arm, and imprisoned her 
in his treasury, though she is a gadding dame. We were 
two brothers in his kingdom, carpenters by trade, skilful 
in making ingenious automata of wood and other materials, 
such as Maya 2 first invented. My elder brother was by 
name Pranadhara, and he was infatuated with love for a 
fickle dame, and I, my lord, am named Rajyadhara, and I 
was ever devoted to him. That brother of mine consumed 
all my father's property and his own, and some portion of 
what I had acquired, which, melted by affection, I made 
over to him. 

Then he, being much infatuated about the lady, out of 
desire to steal wealth for her sake, made a couple of swans 
of wood with mechanism and strings attached to them. 
That pair of swans was sent out at night by pulling strings, 

1 Here there is a pun, as the words may also be construed "woven of 
excellent threads." 

2 Maya was the architect of the Daityas. According to some Maya = 
Ptolemaios. This latter theory is very unlikely. n.m.p. 


and entering by means of the mechanical contrivance into 
the king's treasury through a window; they took from it with 
their beaks jewels placed in a basket, and returned to the 
house of my brother. And my elder brother sold the jewels 
and spent the money so acquired with his paramour, and in 
that way he robbed the king's treasury every night, and 
though I tried to prevent him he would not give up that 
improper proceeding; for who, when blinded by passion, 
distinguishes between right and wrong ? 

And then the keeper of the treasury, as the king's treasure- 
house was plundered night after night without the bolt being 
moved, though there were no mice in it, for several days in 
succession inquired into the matter, without saying anything, 
out of fear, and then, being exceedingly vexed, went and told 
the matter plainly to the king. 

Then the king posted him and some other guards in the 
treasure-house at night, with orders to keep awake in order 
to find out the truth of it. Those guards went into the 
treasure-house at midnight, and while there saw my brother's 
two swans entering in by the window, impelled by strings. 
The swans moved round by means of their mechanism and 
took the jewels ; then the guards cut the strings and took 
the swans to show the king in the morning. And then my 
elder brother said in a state of bewilderment : " Brother, my 
two swans have been seized by the guards of the treasury, 
for the strings have become slack and the pin of the mechan- 
ism has dropped. So we must both of us leave this place 
immediately, for the king, when he hears of it in the morn- 
ing, will punish us as thieves. For we are both known to 
be skilled in mechanical contrivances. And I have here a 
chariot with a pneumatic contrivance, which quickly goes 
eight hundred yojanas, if you press a spring. Let us go by 
means of it to-day to a distant foreign land, though exile 
may be disagreeable ; for how can an evil deed, that is 
done in despite of good advice, bring pleasure to anyone ? 
This is the mature fruit of my wickedness in not obeying 
your advice, which has extended to innocent you as well 
as to me." 

After saying this my brother Pranadhara immediately 


mounted with his family that chariot that flew through the 
air. But though he urged me I would not mount it, as it 
was laden with many people, so he flew up in it to the sky 
and went off to some distant place. 

When that Pranadhara, 1 who was rightly named, had 
gone off somewhere, I, expecting that in the morning I singly 
should be exposed to danger at the hands of the king, 
Rajvadhara m o un ted another chariot with a pneumatic 
flies to the mechanism, which I had myself made, and 
empty City quickly travelled two hundred yojanas from that 
place. Then I again started that air-travelling chariot and 
went another two hundred yojanas. Then I left my chariot, 
terrified at finding that I was near the sea, and travelling on 
my feet reached in course of time this city, which was empty. 
And out of curiosity I entered this palace, which was filled 
with garments, ornaments and couches, and all the other 
conveniences for a king. 

And in the evening I bathed in the water of the garden 
lake, and ate fruits, and going to the royal bed reflected alone 
at night : " What am I to do in this uninhabited spot ? So 
to-morrow I will go hence to some place or other, for I no 
longer need fear danger from King Bahubala." When I 
had thus reflected I went to sleep, and towards the end of 
night a hero of divine appearance, mounted on a peacock, 
thus addressed me in a dream : " You must live here, good 
sir, you must not depart elsewhere, and at the time of 
meals you must go up to the middle court of the palace and 
wait there." Thus he spoke and disappeared, and I woke 
up and reflected : " Undoubtedly this heavenly place has 
been made by Karttikeya, and he has favoured me with this 
dream on account of my merits in a former life. I have 
turned up here because I am to be happy dwelling in this 

I conceived this hope and rose up, and said the prayer 
for the day, and at the time of eating I went up to the middle 
court, and while I was waiting there golden dishes were 
placed in front of me, and there fell into them from heaven 
food consisting of ghee, milk, rice, boiled rice and other 

1 I.e. holding life. 


things 1 ; and any other kinds of food that I thought of came 
to me as fast as I thought of them. After eating all this I 
felt comforted by the favour of the god. So, my lord, I took 
up my abode in this city, with kingly luxuries coming to me 
every day as fast as I wished for them. But I do not obtain 
wives and retinue by thinking of them, so I made all these 
people of wood. Though I am a carpenter, since I have 
come here I enjoy alone all the pleasures of a king by the 
power of Destiny, and my name is Rajyadhara. 2 

[M] " So repose, now, a day in this god-built town, and 
I will attend upon you to the best of my ability." After 
saying this, Rajyadhara led off with him Naravahanadatta 
and Gomukha to the city garden. There the prince bathed 
in the water of the lake and offered lotuses to Siva, and 
was conducted to the feasting-place in the middle court, and 
there he and his minister enjoyed viands which were placed 
before them by Rajyadhara, who stood in front of them, to 
whom they came as soon as he thought of them. Then the 
eating-ground was swept by some unseen hand, and after 
they had taken betel they drank wine and remained in great 

And after Rajyadhara had eaten, the prince retired to a 
gorgeous couch, astonished at the wonderful nature of the 
town, which resembled the philosopher's stone. 3 And when 
he could not sleep, on account of his recently conceived 
longing for Karpiirika, Rajyadhara, who was also in bed, 
asked her story, and then said to him : " Why do you not 
sleep, auspicious sir ? You will obtain your desired love. 

1 Cf. the Metamorphoses (Golden Ass) of Apuleius, Lib. V, cap. iii : 
" Visoquestatim semirotundo suggestu propter instrumentum ccenatorum, rata refectui 
suo commodum, libens accumbit. Et illico vifii nectarei eduliumque variorum fercula 
copiosa, nullo serviente, sed tantum spiritu quodam impulsa, subministrantur." See 
also the romance of Parthenopex of Blois in Dunlop's History of Fiction 
(Liebrecht's translation, p. 175). See the Pentamerone of Basile (Burton, 
vol. i, p. 39, third diversion of the first day). 

2 I.e. holding or possessing a kingdom. 

3 For a short note on this subject see p. 161m 1 . n.m.p. 


For a fair woman, like Fortune, of her own accord chooses 
a man of high courage. I have had ocular proof of this, so 
hear the story ; I will relate it to you. 

60. Story of Arthalobha and his Beautiful Wife 

That King of Kanchi, Bahubala, whom I mentioned to 
you, had a rich doorkeeper, rightly named Arthalobha. 1 He 
had a beautiful wife named Manapara. That Arthalobha, 
being by profession a merchant, and on account of his 
avarice distrusting his servants, appointed that wife of his 
to look after his business in preference to them. She, though 
she did not like it, being obedient to him, made bargains 
with merchants and captivated all men by her sweet form 
and speech. And Arthalobha, seeing that all the sales of 
elephants, horses, jewels and garments that she made brought 
in a profit, rejoiced exceedingly. 

And once on a time there came there from a distant 
foreign land a merchant, named Sukhadhana, having a 
large stock of horses and other commodities. The moment 
Arthalobha heard that he had come, he said to his wife : 
" My dear, a merchant named Sukhadhana has arrived from 
a foreign land ; he has brought twenty thousand horses, and 
innumerable pairs of excellent garments made in China, so 
please go and purchase from him five thousand horses 
and ten thousand pairs of garments, in order that with the 
thousands of horses I already possess and those other five, 
I may pay a visit to the king, and carry on my commerce." 

When commissioned in these words by that villain 
Arthalobha, Manapara went to Sukhadhana, whose eyes 
were captivated by her beauty, and who welcomed her 
gladly. And she demanded from him for a price those 
horses and garments. 

The merchant, overpowered with love, took her aside 
and said to her : "I will not give you one horse or garment 
for money, but if you will remain one night with me I will 
give you five hundred horses and five thousand garments." 
After saying this he solicited that fair one with even a larger 

1 I.e. greed of wealth. 


amount. Who does not fall in love with women who are 
allowed to go about without restraint ? Then she answered 
him : "I will ask my husband about this, for I know he 
will send me here out of excessive cupidity." 1 

After saying this she went home, and told her husband 
what the merchant Sukhadhana had said to her secretly. 
And that wicked, covetous husband Arthalobha said to 
her : " My dear, if you obtain five hundred horses and five 
thousand pairs of garments for one night, what is the harm 
in it ? So go to him now ; you shall return quickly in the 

When Manapara heard this speech of her mean-spirited 
husband's, she began to debate in her heart, and thus 
reflected : " Out on this base, spiritless husband of mine 
that sells his honour! By continually meditating on gain 
he has become all made up of the desire of gain. It is 
better that the generous man, who buys me for one night 
with hundreds of horses and thousands of pieces of China silk, 
should be my husband." Thus reflecting, she took leave of 
her base husband, saying, " It is not my fault," and went 
to the house of that Sukhadhana. And he, when he saw 
that she had come, after questioning her and hearing the 
whole story from her, was astonished, and considered himself 
fortunate in obtaining her. And he sent off immediately 
to her husband Arthalobha the horses and garments that 
were to purchase her, as agreed upon. And he remained that 
night with her, having all his wishes attained, for she seemed 
like the fortune which was the fruit of his own wealth, 
incarnate in bodily form, at last obtained by him. 

And in the morning the base Arthalobha sent, in his 
shamelessness, servants to summon her, whereupon Manapara 
said to them : " How can I return to be the wife of that 

1 Cf. " Die Sieben Weisen Meister," c. 18 (Simrock's Deutsche Volksb'iicher, 

vol. xii, p. 185). A close variant of this story forms the fifteenth novel 

of Masuccio's Novellino. (See Waters' translation, 1895, vol. i, pp. 227-237.) 
Here a cardinal falls in love with the fair Giacomina, who, however, remains 
true to her husband. The cardinal offers the husband a large sum for his 
wife's honour, and he, greedy for the money, finally persuades her to go to 
the cardinal for one night. When he tries to get her back in the morning 
she acts as does the lady in our text. n.m.p. 


man who sold me to another ? I am not as shameless as he 
is. Tell me yourselves if this would be becoming now. So 
depart ; the man that bought me is my husband." 

When the servants were thus addressed by her they went 
and repeated her words to Arthalobha with downcast faces. 
The mean fellow, when he heard it, wanted to recover her 
by force. Then a friend of the name of Harabala said to 
him : " You cannot recover her from that Sukhadhana, for 
he is a hero, and I do not behold in you manliness corre- 
sponding to his. For he is moved to heroism by a woman 
that loves him on account of his generosity, and he is mighty, 
and surrounded with other mighty men that have come 
with him. But you have been deserted by your wife, who 
separated from you because you sold her out of meanness, 
and scorn makes you timid, and being reproached you 
have become effeminate. Moreover, you are not mighty, 
and you are not surrounded by mighty friends, so how can 
you possibly be capable of vanquishing that rival ? And the 
king will be angry with you when he hears of your crime 
of selling your wife ; so keep quiet, and do not make a 
ridiculous blunder." 

Though his friend tried to dissuade him with these 
words, Arthalobha went and beset, in his anger, the house 
of Sukhadhana with his retainers. While he was thus en- 
gaged, Sukhadhana sallied out with his friends and retainers, 
and in a moment easily defeated the whole of Arthalobha's 

And Arthalobha fled, and went into the presence of the 
king. And concealing his own wicked conduct, he said to 
the king : " O King, the merchant Sukhadhana has carried 
Arthalobha off m Y wife b Y force." And the king in his 
appeals to rage wished to arrest that Sukhadhana. Then 
the Kwg a m i n i s ter of the name of Sandhana said to the 

king : " In any case, my lord, you cannot arrest him, for 
when his force is increased by that of the eleven friends 
who have come with him he will be found to have more 
than a hundred thousand excellent horses. And you have not 
discovered the truth about the matter ; for his conduct will 
turn out to be not altogether without cause. So you had 


better send a messenger and ask what it is that this fellow 
here is chattering about." 

When King Bahubala heard this he sent a messenger 
to Sukhadhana to ask about the matter. The messenger 
went and asked about the matter by the king's order, and 
thereupon Manapara told him her story. 

When Bahubala heard that wonderful tale he came to 
the house of Sukhadhana to behold the beauty of Mana- 
para, being filled with excessive curiosity. There he beheld, 
while Sukhadhana bent before him, Manapara, who with the 
wealth of her beauty would astonish even the Creator. She 
prostrated herself at his feet, and he questioned her, and 
heard from her own mouth how the whole thing happened, 
Arthalobha being present and listening. When he heard it 
he thought it was true, because Arthalobha was speechless, 
and he asked that fair one what was to be done now. Then 
she said decidedly : " How can I return to that spiritless, 
avaricious man, who sold me to another man without the 
excuse of distress ? " When the king heard this, he said : 
" Well said." 

And then Arthalobha, bewildered with desire, wrath and 
shame, exclaimed : " King, let him and me fight with our 
own retainers, without any auxiliary forces ; then let it be 
seen who is spirited and who is spiritless." When Sukha- 
dhana heard this he said : " Then let us fight in single 
combat ; what need is there of retainers ? Manapara shall be 
the prize of the victor." When the king heard this he said : 
" Good ! So let it be ! " Then, before the eyes of Manapara 
and the king, they both entered the lists mounted. And 
in the course of the combat Sukhadhana laid Arthalobha 
on the plain, by his horse's rearing on account of a lance- 
wound. Then Arthalobha fell three times more on the 
earth, on account of his horse being killed, but Sukha- 
dhana, who was a fair fighter, restrained himself and would 
not slay him. But the fifth time Arthalobha's horse fell 
upon him, and bruised him, and he was carried off by his 
servants motionless. 

Then Sukhadhana was cheered by all the spectators with 
shouts of applause, and the King Bahubala honoured him 
vol. in. t 


as he deserved. And he immediately bestowed a gift of 
honour upon the lady, and he confiscated the property of 
Arthalobha, which had been acquired by unlawful means ; 
and appointing another to his office, he departed pleased to 
his palace. For good men derive satisfaction from breaking 
off their connection with the bad. And Sukhadhana, having 
maintained his claim by force, remained enjoying himself in 
the society of Manapara, his loving wife. 

[M] " Thus wives and wealth leave the mean-spirited 
man and of their own accord come to the high-spirited 
man from every quarter. So dismiss anxiety. Go to sleep. 
In a short time, my lord, you will obtain that Princess Kar- 
purika." When Naravahanadatta heard that sound advice 
of Rajyadhara's he and Gomukha went off to sleep. 

And in the morning, while the prince was waiting awhile 
after his meal, the wise Gomukha addressed Rajyadhara as 
follows : " Make such an ingenious chariot for my master 
as that he shall be able by means of it to reach the city of 
Karpurasambhava and obtain his beloved." When thus 
supplicated, that carpenter offered Naravahanadatta the 
chariot with a pneumatic contrivance that he had made 
before. He ascended that sky-travelling chariot, swift as 
thought, together with Gomukha, and crossed the deep, the 
home of monsters, that agitated its waves as if exulting to 
behold his valour, and reached the city of Karpurasambhava 
on its shore. There the chariot descended from the sky, 
and he and Gomukha left it, and out of curiosity wandered 
about inside the town. And by questioning the people he 
found out that he had indeed without doubt reached the 
desired city, and, delighted, he went to the neighbourhood 
of the palace. There he found a splendid house occupied 
by an old woman, and he entered it to stay there, and she 
received him with respect. And eager to hit upon an artifice, 
he immediately asked that woman : " Noble lady, what is 
the name of the king here, and what children has he ? And 
tell us of their appearance, for we are foreigners." 


When he said this to the old woman, she, seeing that he 
was of excessively noble form, answered : " Listen, illustrious 
sir, I will tell you all. In this city of Karpurasambhava there 
is a king named Karpuraka ; and he, having no children, per- 
formed penance, with his wife Buddhikari, fasting, in honour 
of Siva, in order to obtain offspring. After he had fasted 
for three nights the god Siva commanded him in a dream : 
' Rise up ! A daughter shall be born to you who shall be 
superior to a son, and whose husband shall obtain the 
sovereignty of the Vidyadharas.' After receiving this order 
from Siva the king woke up in the morning ; and after 
communicating this dream to his wife Buddhikari he rose 
up and went off delighted, and with his queen broke his 
fast. And then in a short time that queen conceived by the 
king, and when the period was completed she brought forth 
a daughter beautiful in all her limbs. She surpassed in 
splendour the lights in the lying-in chamber, 1 and they, as 
it were, heaved sighs by discharging lamp-black. And her 
father made great rejoicings, and gave her the name of 
Karpurika, which is his own name made feminine. And 
gradually that moonlight of the eyes of the people, the 
Princess Karpurika, has grown up, and is now in the full 
bloom of youth. And her father, the king here, desires to 
have her married, but the haughty girl detests men and will 
not consent. And when my daughter, who is her friend, 
put this question to her, ' My dear, why do you not desire 
marriage, the only fruit of a daughter's birth ? ' she 
answered : ; My dear, I remember my former birth, and 
the cause is something which happened then. Hear it. 

61. Story of the Princess Karpurika in her Birth as a Swan 

On the shore of the ocean there is a great sandalwood- 
tree. Near it here is a lake adorned with full-blown lotuses. 
I was a female swan on that lake on account of my actions 
in a previous birth. Once on a time, out of fear of the sea, 
I made a nest in that sandalwood-tree, with my husband, 
who was a male swan. When I was dwelling in that nest I 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 166-169, and pp. 131rc 3 , 132w of this volume. n.m.p. 


had male offspring born to me, and suddenly a great wave of 
the sea came and carried them off. When the flood carried 
away my children, out of grief I wept and took no food, and 
remained in front of a linga of Siva on the shore of the sea. 
Then that male swan, my husband, came to me and said : 
" Rise up ! Why do you lament your children that are dead ? 
We shall get other ones. 1 As long as life is preserved every- 
thing can be obtained." His speech pierced my heart like 
an arrow; and I reflected: "Alas! males are thus wickedly 
regardless of their youthful offspring, and show no affection 
to, or compassion for, their females, though they are attached 
to them. So of what comfort is this husband to me ? Of 
what use is this body that brings only pain ? " Thus reflect- 
ing, I prostrated myself before Siva, and devoutly placed him 
in my heart, and then in front of his symbol, before the eyes 
of the swan, my husband, I uttered this prayer, " May I 
become in the next birth a princess remembering my former 
state," and thereupon I flung myself into the sea. Conse- 
quently I have been born in this life such as you see. And 
because I remember the cruelty of that husband in a former 
birth my mind does not feel inclined to any suitor. So I 
do not desire to be married. The rest is in the hands of 

[M] " This is what the princess said then in private to 
my daughter, and that daughter of mine came and told it to 
me. So, my son, I have told you what you asked me. And 
that princess is undoubtedly destined to be your wife. For 
she was long ago designated by the god Siva as the wife of 
the future Emperor of the Vidyadharas. And I see that you 
are marked with all the distinguishing signs of an emperor, 
such as the peculiar freckle, 2 and other marks. Perhaps you 
are some distinguished person brought here by Providence for 

1 Cf. Herodotus, iii, 119; Sophocles, Antigone, 11. 909-912. See also the 
Pcntamerone of Basile (Burton, vol. ii, ninth diversion of the fourth day, 
p. 454), and the Ucchanga-Jataka, No. 67 in Dr Fausboll's edition. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 49, 49n T , and Vol. II, pp. 4, 7, 7n\ n.m.p. 


that very purpose. Rise up ; for the present we will see 
what there is in my house in the way of provision." 

After the old lady had told him this she brought him 
food, and he and Gomukha spent the night there. And in the 
morning the prince deliberated in private with Gomukha as 
to the steps to be taken, and then he assumed the dress of a 
Pasupata ascetic, and, accompanied by Gomukha, he went to 
the king's gate and roamed about in front of it, crying out 
again and again : " Ah, my female swan ! Ah, my female 
swan ! " And the people gazed at him. And when the 
maids beheld him thus employed they went in astonishment 
and said to the Princess Karpiirika : " Your Highness, we 
have seen at the royal gate a Pasupata ascetic who, though 
he has a fellow, is unfellowed in beauty, 1 and he continually 
utters these words, ' Ah, my female swan ! Ah, my female 
swan ! ' which bewilders the minds of the women." 

When the princess heard this she, as having been a swan 
in a former birth, was filled with curiosity, and had him, just 
as he was, conducted by her maids into her presence. And 
she saw that he was adorned with infinite beauty, like a new 
God of Love that had taken a vow to propitiate Siva. And 
she said to him, when he looked at her with an eye expanded 
by curiosity : " What is this that you are continually say- 
ing : ' Ah, my female swan ! Ah, my female swan ! ' ? " 
Though she said this to him, he went on to say : " Ah, my 
female swan ! " 

Then his companion Gomukha answered her : "I will 
explain this in a few words. Listen, your Highness. In 
a former birth he was a swan on account of his actions 
in an anterior state of existence. Then he built himself 
a nest in a sandalwood-tree, on the bank of a great lake 
near the shore of the sea, and lived there with his female. 
And as it happened their offspring in that nest were swept 
away by a wave, and his female, distracted with grief, threw 
herself into the sea. Then he, being grieved at separation 
from her, and disgusted with his bird- nature, desirous of 
leaving that body, made a pious wish in his heart : ' May I 
be in a future life a prince remembering my former state, and 

1 A mere pun. 


may this virtuous female swan be my wife, remembering 
her former existence also.' Then he thought on Siva, and, 
scorched with the fire of grief, flung that body into the 
water of the sea. So he has been now born, my fair lady, 
as Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of Vatsa in Kau- 
sambi, with the power of recollecting his former existence. 
When he was born a voice said distinctly from heaven : 
' This prince shall be the emperor of all the kings of the 

" In course of time, when he had become Crown Prince, 
he was married by his father to the goddess Madanaman- 
chuka of heavenly appearance, who had been born for a 
certain reason as a woman. And then the daughter of a 
king of the Vidyadharas named Hemaprabha, the maiden 
Ratnaprabha, came of her own accord and chose him for 
a husband. Nevertheless, thinking on that female swan, he 
does not enjoy tranquillity ; and he told this to me, who 
have been his servant from my childhood. 

" Then, while he was out hunting, it happened that he 
and I had a meeting in the forest with a holy female 
hermit. And in the course of conversation she said to him, 
with favourable condescension : c Owing to the effect of his 
actions the God of Love, my son, became a swan. And a 
heavenly female, that had fallen through a curse, became 
his dear wife, when he was dwelling, as a swan, in a 
sandalwood-tree on the bank of the sea. But she threw her- 
self into the sea, through grief at her offspring having been 
carried away by the tide, and then the male swan flung 
himself into the sea also. He has now by the favour of 
Siva been born as yourself, the son of the King of Vatsa, 
and you know of that former birth of yours, my son, for 
you remember your former existence. And that female swan 
has been now born in Karpurasambhava, a city on the shore 
of the sea, as a princess, Karpurika by name. Therefore go 
there, my son, and win her to wife.' 

" When the holy female hermit had said this she flew up 
into the sky and disappeared. And this lord of mine, hav- 
ing heard this information, immediately set out with me to 
come here. And being attracted by love for you, he risked 


his life, and after traversing a hundred difficulties he reached 
the shore of the sea. There we had an interview with the 
carpenter, named Rajyadhara, who dwells in Hemapura, 
and who gave us an ingenious chariot. We have mounted 
on this terrible machine, as if it were our courage having 
taken shape, 1 and have crossed the perilous gulf of the sea 
and arrived at this town. For this reason, Queen, my master 
wandered about, exclaiming, ' Ah, my female swan ! ' until 
he came into your presence. Now, from the pleasing sight 
of the noble moon of your countenance, he enjoys the re- 
moval of the darkness caused by the presence of innumer- 
able woes. Now honour your noble guest with the blue lotus 
garland of your look." 

When Karpiirika heard this feigned speech of Gomukha's 
she thought it was true, relying on the fact that it harmonised 
with her own recollections. And she melted in her soul with 
love, and she thought : " After all, this husband of mine 
was attached to me, and my despondency was causeless." 
And she said : "I am in truth that very female swan, and I 
am fortunate in that my husband has for my sake endured 
suffering in two births. So now I am your slave, overcome 
by love." And saying this, she honoured Naravahanadatta 
with baths and other hospitalities. Then she informed her 
father of all this by the mouth of her attendants, and he 
the moment he heard it came to her. 

Then the king thought himself fortunate, having seen 
that his daughter had conceived a desire to be married, and 
that an appropriate suitor for her had at length arrived in 
Naravahanadatta, who was marked with all the signs of 
a great emperor. And he gave, with all due honour, his 
daughter Karpiirika to Naravahanadatta according to the 
prescribed form. And he gave to that son-in-law of his, at 
every circumambulation from left to right 2 of the sacred 
fire, thirty millions of gold pieces, and as many lumps of 

1 I read with a MS. in the Sanskrit College : bhayade ha murta iva 

2 This subject has already been dealt with in Vol. I, pp. 190-193. See 
also E. Peacock, "Sunwise Processions," Folk-Lore, vol. xi, 1900, p. 220; 
and W. H. R. Rivers, "Primitive Orientation," ditto, vol. xii, 1901, pp. 210- 
212. N.M.P. 


camphor, the heaps of which appeared like the peaks of 
Meru and Kailasa, that had witnessed the marriage of 
Parvati, come to behold his magnificence. 

Moreover, the King Karpuraka, who had attained his 
wish, gave Naravahanadatta a hundred millions of excellent 
garments and three hundred female slaves well adorned. 
And Naravahanadatta, after his marriage, remained with 
that Karpurika, as if with affection incarnate in bodily form. 
Whose mind was not delighted at the union of that couple, 
which resembled the marriage of the spring creeper and the 
spring festival ? 

And on the next day Naravahanadatta, who had attained 
his object, said to his beloved Karpurika : " Come, let us 
go to Kausambi." Then she answered him : " If it is to 
Karavahana- De so > wn Y should w e not go there immediately 
datta meets in this chariot of yours that flies through the 

Pranadhara air ? j f ft j g toQ smaU j wiU f unns h another 

large one, for there is living here a mechanic who makes 
ingenious chariots, who has come from a foreign land, 
Pranadhara by name ; I will cause him quickly to make 
such a chariot." After saying this she called the warder 
that kept the door and said to him : " Go and order that 
chariot- maker Pranadhara to prepare a large chariot, that 
will travel through the air, for us to start in." 

Then the Queen Karpurika, having dismissed the warder, 
informed her father by the mouth of a slave of her desire 
to depart. And while the king, on hearing it, was coming 
thither, Naravahanadatta thus reflected : " This Pranadhara 
is certainly the brother of Rajyadhara, whom he described 
as having run away from his native land through fear of his 

While he was thus thinking, the king quickly arrived, 
and that mechanic Pranadhara came with the warder, and 
said : "I have ready-made a very large chariot, which will 
easily carry at this instant thousands of men." When the 
mechanic said this, Naravahanadatta said, " Bravo ! " and 
asked him courteously : " Are you the elder brother of 
Rajyadhara, skilled in various very great mechanical con- 
trivances ? ' And Pranadhara answered him, bowing before 


him : "I am that very brother of his, but how does your 
Highness know about us ? " 

Then Naravahanadatta told him what Rajyadhara had 
told him, and how he had seen him. Then Pranadhara 
joyfully brought him the chariot, and he mounted it with 
Gomukha, after having been politely dismissed by his father- 
in-law the king, and after bidding farewell to him ; but first 
he placed in it the slaves, camphor and gold. And he took 
with him Pranadhara, whom the king permitted to depart, 
and that head warder, and his recently married wife Kar- 
purika ; and his mother-in-law uttered a solemn prayer for 
a blessing on his journey, and from those stores of splendid 
garments he bestowed gifts on the Brahmans ; and he said 
to Pranadhara : " First let us go to Rajyadhara on the shore 
of the sea, and then home." 

Then the chariot was driven on by Pranadhara, and the 
prince and his wife flew up into the air quickly by means of 
it, as if by his accomplished wish. 1 In a moment he crossed 
the sea, and reached again that city of Hemapura on its 
shore, the abode of that Rajyadhara. There Rajyadhara 
bowed before him, delighted at beholding his brother, and 
as he had no female slaves the prince honoured him with 
the gift of some, at which he greatly rejoiced. 

And after taking leave of Rajyadhara, whose tears 
flowed fast, as he could hardly bear to part from his elder 
brother, the prince reached Kausambi in that same chariot. 
The Prince Then the people, on beholding the prince un- 
retumsHome expectedly descend from heaven, riding in that 
splendid chariot, followed by his retainers, and accompanied 
by his new bride, were much astonished. And his father, 
the King of Vatsa, having gathered from the exultations 
of the citizens that his son had arrived, was delighted, and 
went out to meet him, accompanied by the queen, the 
ministers, his daughter-in-law, and other persons. And the 
king, beholding that son prostrate at his feet with his wife, 
received him gladly, and thought that the fact that he was 
to be the future emperor of the aerial spirits was clearly 
revealed by his coming in a flying chariot. 

1 " Wish " is literally " chariot of the mind/' so here there is a pun. 


His mother Vasavadatta, with Padmavati, embraced him, 
and she shed a tear, which dropped like the knot of pain 
loosened by seeing him. And his wife Ratnaprabha, and 
Madanamanchuka also, and their jealousy being overcome 
by love for him, they embraced his feet, and won his heart 
at the same time. And the prince delighted his father's 
ministers, headed by Yaugandharayana, and his own, headed 
by Marubhuti, when they bowed before him, by rewarding 
them as they severally deserved. 

And they all, with the King of Vatsa at their head, 
welcomed that new wife Karpurika, who bowed becomingly 
before them, like the Goddess of Fortune arrived surrounded 
by a hundred immortal nymphs, even the sister- shape 
Amrita, 1 openly brought by her husband, having crossed the 
sea adorned with its shore as a garment with a beautiful 
fringe. And the King of Vatsa honoured that warder of her 
father's, giving him many crores of gold pieces, garments 
and lumps of camphor, which had been brought in the 
chariot. And the king then honoured Pranadhara as the 
benefactor of his son Naravahanadatta, who had pointed 
him out as the maker of the chariot. And then the king 
honoured Gomukha, and asked him joyfully : " How did 
you obtain this princess ? And how did you start from this 
place ? " 

And then Gomukha deftly told the King of Vatsa, with 
his wives and ministers, in private, the whole adventure as 
it took place, beginning with their going to the forest to hunt 
how they met the female hermit, and how they crossed 
the sea by means of the chariot provided by Rajyadhara, 
and how Karpurika was obtained with her female attendants, 
though she was averse to marriage, and how they returned 
by the way by which they went, in a chariot which they had 
obtained by finding Pranadhara. 

1 Both Sri and the Amrita came out of the sea when it was churned. 

Sudasarha kftlena seems to be corrupt. All is, however, clear in the D. text ; 

see Speyer, op. cit., p. 115, who translates: "and they all welcomed her, 
arrived with her husband, the ornament of the illustrious family of the 
Dasarhas, who had brought her over sea, as a manifestation of the very sister 
of the Amrita, yea as if she were Sri accompanied by a hundred of ever-young 
nymphs." n.M.p. 


Then all of them, shaking their heads in astonishment 
and joy, said : "To think of the concurrence of all these 
circumstances, the chase, and the female ascetic, the car- 
penter Rajyadhara skilled in mechanical contrivances found 
on the shore of the sea, the crossing the ocean in the chariot 
that he made, and that another maker of these chariots 
should have previously reached the other side of the ocean ! 
The truth is, Destiny takes trouble to provide the fortunate 
with the means of obtaining prosperous success." 

Then all respectfully commended Gomukha for his de- 
votion to his lord. And they praised Queen Ratnaprabha, 
who by her knowledge protected her lord on his journey, 
for she produced general satisfaction by acting like a woman 
devoted to her husband. 

Then Naravahanadatta, having made his party of air- 
travellers forget the fatigues of their journey, entered his 
palace with his father and mother, his wives and other re- 
lations. Then his treasury was filled with heaps of gold by 
the friends and relations who came to see him, and whom he 
honoured, and he loaded Pranadhara and his father-in-law's 
warder with wealth. 

And Pranadhara, immediately after he had taken food, 
respectfully addressed this petition to him : " Prince, King 
Karpuraka gave us the following order : ' You must come 
back quickly as soon as my daughter has reached her hus- 
band's palace, in order that I may have early news of her 
arrival.' So we must certainly go there quickly this very 
moment. Give us a letter from Karpfirika to the king written 
with her own hand. For otherwise the heart of the king, 
which is attached to his daughter, will not take comfort. 
For he, never having mounted an air chariot, fears that we 
may have fallen from it. So give me the letter, and permit 
this head warder, who is desirous of ascending the chariot, 
to depart with me. But I will return here, Crown Prince, 
and will bring my family, for I cannot abandon the two 
ambrosial lotuses of your feet." 

When Pranadhara said this firmly, the son of the King of 
Vatsa immediately made Karpurika sit down to write that 
letter. It ran as follows : " My father, you must not feel 


anxious about me, since I share the happiness and possess 
the love of a good husband. Was the goddess Lakshmi an 
object of anxiety to the ocean after she had betaken herself 
to the Supreme Bridegroom? " When she had written the 
above letter with her own hand, and given it, the son of the 
King of Vatsa dismissed the warder and Pranadhara with 
honour. And they ascended the chariot, and produced 
astonishment in the minds of all, as they were seen going 
through the air, and crossing the sea they went to the 
city of Karpurasambhava. There they delighted the King 
Karpuraka by reading out his daughter's letter, which told 
that she had reached her husband's palace. 

The next day Pranadhara took leave of the king, and 
after visiting Rajyadhara repaired with his family into the 
presence of Naravahanadatta. Naravahanadatta, when he 
had returned thus quickly after accomplishing his mission, 
gave him a dwelling near his palace and an ample allow- 
ance. And he amused himself and his wives by going about 
in the flying chariots made by him, as if rehearsing future 
journeyings in the skies as Emperor of the Vidyadharas. 

Thus, having delighted his friends, followers and wives, 
and obtained a third wife, Karpurika, in addition to Ratna- 
prabha and Madanamanchuka, the son of the King of Vatsa 
spent those days in happiness. 




On page 30 we saw that when the prince went to sleep with- 
out telling his tale, the merchant's son overheard in the air 
what seemed to be voices of women engaged in conversation. 
Disappointed at not hearing the tale, they each pronounced 
a curse on him in turn ; that of the fourth was : "If he 
escape this also, when he enters that night into his private 
apartments he shall sneeze a hundred times ; and if someone 
there does not a hundred times say to him, ' God bless you ! ' 
he shall fall into the grasp of death. ..." 

It is this familiar benediction after sneezing which I am 
going to discuss in this appendix. 

The most usual form the benediction takes either is as in 
our text, or else is a wish for long life. As we shall see later, 
among some peoples no benediction is given at all, the sneeze 
being simply regarded as either a good or bad omen according 
to special circumstances. 

It is, I think, not at all surprising to find curious customs 
connected with sneezing in all parts of the world. We have 
already seen (Vol. II, p. 144W 1 ) that the twitching or itching 
of various parts of the body is regarded as ominous ; how 
much more, therefore, would such a violent and sudden 
thing as a sneeze be looked upon as caused by some unknown 
power, or as an omen to be most carefully regarded ? 

Halliday 1 has put this clearly : " It is per se a startling 
phenomenon to find the body, which in normal action is 
the slave and instrument of its owner's will and intention, 
behaving in a way independent of his desire or volition. 
Simply because it is involuntary, the twitching of the eyelid 
or the tingling of the ear must be miraculous. And primitive 
man finds a significance in everything which attracts his 
notice, particularly in cases where there is no obvious cause." 

I do not think we need look further for the explanation 
of sneezing customs, but the varying practices found in 
different countries and the strange myths invented to 

. x W. R. Halliday, Greek Divination, London, 1913, p. 175. 


explain these practices afford an interesting anthropological 

To begin with ancient India : the Buddha is described in 
the Gagga-J dtaka (No. 155) as reprimanding his disciples for 
crying " Long life! " after a sneeze. The Brethren then ask : 
" Sir, when did people begin to answer ' Long life ! ' by ' The 
same to you ' ? " Said the Master : " That was long, long 
ago " ; and he told them a tale of the olden time 1 : 

"Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta was King of 
Benares, the Bodhisatta came into the world as a brahmin's 
son of the kingdom of Kasi ; and his father was a lawyer by 
calling. When the lad was sixteen years old or so, his father 
gave a fine jewel into his charge, and they both travelled 
through town after town, village after village, until they 
came to Benares. There the man had a meal cooked in the 
gatekeeper's house ; and as he could find nowhere to put up 
he asked where there was lodging to be had for wayfarers 
who came too late. The people told him that there was 
a building outside the city, but that it was haunted ; but, 
however, he might lodge there if he liked. Says the lad to 
his father : ' Have no fear of any Goblin, father ! I will 
subdue him and bring him to your feet.' 

"So he persuaded his father, and they went to the place 
together. The father lay down upon a bench and his son 
sat beside him, chafing his feet. 

"Now the Goblin that haunted the place had received 
it for twelve years' service of Vessavana, 2 on these terms : 
that if any man who entered it should sneeze, and when 
long life was wished him should answer : ' Long life to 
you ! ' or ' The same to you ! ' all except these the Goblin 
had a right to eat. The Goblin lived upon the central rafter 
of the hut. 

"He determined to make the father of the Bodhisatta 
sneeze. Accordingly by his magic power he raised a cloud 
of fine dust, which entered the man's nostrils, and as he lay 
on the bench he sneezed. The son did not cry ' Long life ! ' 
and down came the Goblin from his perch, ready to devour 
his victim. But the Bodhisatta saw him descend, and then 
these thoughts passed through his mind : ' Doubtless it is 

1 W. H. D. Rouse, The Jataka, Cambridge, 1895, vol. ii, pp. 11-13. 

2 A monster with white skin, three legs and eight teeth, guardian of 
jewels and the precious metals, and a kind of Indian Pluto. 


he who made my father sneeze. This must be a Goblin that 
eats all who do not say " Long life to you." ' And addressing 
his father he repeated the first verse as follows : 

1 Gagga, live an hundred years aye, and twenty more, I 
May no goblin eat you up ; live an hundred years, I say ! ' 

"The Goblin thought: 'This one I cannot eat, because 
he said "Long life to you." But I shall eat his father'; 
and he came close to the father. But the man divined the 
truth of the matter. ' This must be a Goblin,' thought he, 
6 who eats all who do not reply, " Long life to you too ! " ' 
and so addressing his son he repeated the second verse : 

5 You too live an hundred years aye, and twenty more, I 
pray ; 
Poison be the goblin's food ; live an hundred years, I say ! ' 

"The Goblin, hearing these words, turned away, thinking: 
' Neither of these is for me to eat. ' But the Bodhisatta 
put a question to him : ' Come, Goblin, how is it you eat 
the people who enter this building ? ' 

I earned the right for twelve years' service of Vessa- 


What ! Are you allowed to eat everybody ? ' 
"'All except those who say "The same to you" when 
another wishes them long life.' 

" ' Goblin,' said the lad, ' you have done some wickedness 
in former lives, which has caused you to be born now fierce 
and cruel, and a bane to others. If you do the same kind of 
thing now you will pass from darkness to darkness. There- 
fore from this time forth abstain from such things as taking 
life.' With these words he humbled the Goblin, scared him 
with fear of hell, established him in the Five Precepts, and 
made him as obedient as an errand-boy. 

"Next day, when the people came and saw the Goblin 
and learned how that the Bodhisatta had subdued him, they 
went and told the king : ' My lord, some man has subdued 
the Goblin, and made him as obedient as an errand-boy.' 
So the king sent for him and raised him to be Commander- 
in-Chief, while he heaped honours upon the father. Having 
made the Goblin a tax-gatherer, and established him in the 
Bodhisatta's precepts, after giving alms and doing good he 
departed to swell the hosts of heaven." 
vol. in. u 


The Hindus of the North- West Provinces will still say 
"May you live a hundred years I " on hearing anyone sneeze. 
(See North Indian Notes and Queries, vol. iv, p. 388.) For 
other references to sneezing in the Jdtakas see vol. i, p. 279, 
and vol. v, p. 228. 

In more modern days we still find the belief that sneezing 
is due to demoniacal influence, although opinions differ as to 
whether it is caused by a Bhuta 1 entering or leaving the nose. 
The latter view is generally taken by Mohammedans because 
it is one of the traditions of the Prophet that the nose should 
be washed out with water, as the devil resides in it during 
the night. 2 Sneezing once is a good sign ; twice a bad sign. 
More than twice is not regarded. When a child sneezes 
those near it usually say "dirghdyus" ("long life"), or 
" satayus " ("a hundred years "). Adults who sneeze 
pronounce the name of some god, the common expression 
being " Srimad-rangam." When a Badaga baby is born it 
is a good omen if the father sneezes before the umbilical cord 
has been cut, and an evil one if he sneezes after its severance. 

In the Telugu country it is believed that a child who 
sneezes on a winnowing-fan or on the door-frame will meet 
misfortune unless balls of boiled rice are thrown over it ; 
and a man who sneezes during his meals, especially at night, 
will also be unlucky unless water is sprinkled over his face 
and he is made to pronounce his own name and that of his 
birthplace and his patron deity. 3 

The name of a deity is often uttered by the sneezer. 
Dubois 4 says that after sneezing a Hindu never fails to 
exclaim : " Rama ! Rama ! " Among the Chitari caste 
(painters of the Central Provinces) when a man sneezes he 
will say "Chhatrapati," which is said to be a name of Devi, 
but is used only on this occasion. When about to start on 
an expedition or to begin some new enterprise a sneeze is 
almost always considered an evil omen. 6 

1 See Vol. I, Appendix I, p. 206. 

2 W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, 
p. 240. 

3 Thurston, Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, 1906, p. 248; ditto, 
Omens and Superstitions of Southern India, 1912, pp. 25, 26. 

4 Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, 3rd edit., by Beauehamp, 
Oxford, 1906, p. 329 (vol. i, p. 465 of the 1825 Paris edition). 

5 Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. ii, p. 435 ; 
vol. iii, pp. 401, 564, and vol. iv, p. 362. 


The same idea is prevalent in many parts of the world. 
Thus in describing the Province of Lar (Gujarat and the 
northern Konkan) Marco Polo says 1 : 

" Moreover, if in going out he hears anyone sneeze, if it 
seems to him a good omen he will go on, but if the reverse 
he will sit down on the spot where he is, as long as he thinks 
that he ought to tarry before going on again." 

In Persia 2 to sneeze once when starting on any expedition 
is an evil omen, apparently whether the traveller himself or 
anyone else perpetrates the sneeze. Persians in such a case 
will stare hard at the sun 3 in order to induce a second or 
third sneeze. If they are unsuccessful in doing this they 
betake themselves to repeating a certain invocation to Allah, 
but most Persians will give up the expedition, believing 
firmly that it can end only in disaster. On the other hand, 
they believe that if they desire anything ardently and some- 
one sneezes at that moment, then their wish is sure to be 
granted. The demoniacal influence connected with sneezing 
is clearly shown by the Persian belief that accidents are 
often due to someone sneezing at the critical moment; thus 
Sir Percy Sykes' Persian secretary always attributed a bad 
accident he had while riding to the fact that someone had 
sneezed just as he was mounting his horse. 

In ancient Persia we read in the Sad Dar 4 that on sneez- 
ing it is requisite to recite one Yathd-ahu-vairyo and one 
Ashem-vohu (formulae in praise of righteousness), because 
there is a fiend in our bodies endeavouring to make mis- 
fortune and sickness. There is also a fire there too, called a 
disposition and the sneezing instinct. It is connected with 
the fiend. " Then, as the fire becomes successful over that 
fiend, and puts her to flight, a sneeze comes because that 
fiend comes out. Afterwards, because it is necessary, they 
recite these inward prayers and perform the benediction 
of the fire, so that it may remain for a long period while 
thou art keeping this fiend defeated. When another person 
hears the sneeze it is likewise requisite for him to utter 
the said prayers and to accomplish the benediction of that 

1 Yule, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, 1903, vol. ii, pp. 364, 365. 

2 Ella C. Sykes, "Persian Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, vol. xii, 1901, pp. 266, 

3 Cf the Prometheus myth given on p. 309. 

4 E. W. West, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxiv, pp. 265, 266. 


According to Father Tachard x the Siamese, " se persuad- 
ent que le premier juge des enfers, qu'ils appellent Prayamp- 
paban, a un livre ou la vie de chaque homme en particulier 
est ecrite, qu'il le relit continuellement et que, lorsqu'il est 
arrive a la page qui contient l'histoire de telle personne, elle 
ne manque jamais d'eternuer. C'est pour cela, disent-ils, que 
nous eternuons sur la terre; et de la est venue la coutume 
qu'ils ont de souhaiter une heureuse et longue vie a tous ceux 
qui eternuent." 

In Islam we find that Mohammed did not object to the 
custom of blessing the sneezer, as did many of the Christian 
teachers. Lane 2 tells us that on sneezing a man says : 
" Praise be to God ! " Each person present (servants 
generally excepted) then says to him : " God have mercy 
upon you " to which the former generally replies : " God 
guide us and guide you." 

Moslems believe that when Allah placed the Soul (life ?) 
in Adam, the dry clay became flesh and bone, and the First 
Man, waking to life, 8 sneezed and ejaculated "Al-hamdu 
li'llah ! " whereto Gabriel replied : " Allah have mercy 
upon thee, O Adam ! " The reason given for Mohammed's 
liking sneezing is that he realised that the act was accom- 
panied by lightness of body and openness of pores, and said 
of it : " If a man sneeze or eructate and say ' Al-hamdu li'llah ' 
he averts seventy diseases, of which the least is leprosy " 
(Juzam). 4 

Among the Hebrews the benedictions used are : " Your 
health ! " " May you live ! " " For life ! " " For a happy 
life ! " and " God bless you ! " The origin given for this 
custom is found in the Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer (chap, lii.), 
a fanciful history of creation and the patriarchs selected 
from the Pentateuch, composed in the eighth or ninth 

Briefly the account is as follows : At the creation of the 
world God made seven wonderful things, one of which was a 
law that a man should sneeze only once and then die, the 
sneeze signifying the rendering of the soul to God. Naturally 

1 Voyage de Siam des Peres Jesuit es envoy es par le Roy aux Indes et a la 
Chine, Amsterdam, 1688, p. 287, quoted by Saintyves (p. 29, see below). 

2 Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 5th edit., I860, p. 205. 

3 Cj. Elisha raising the dead child to life (2 Kings iv, 35), "and the 
child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes." 

4 R. F. Burton, Nights, vol. ix, p. 220m 1 . 


everyone went in fear of the fatal sneeze. Matters remained 
unchanged till the time of Jacob. He immediately saw the 
great disadvantages of such a law and, humbling himself 
before God, begged for a brief space to live after his sneeze 
so as to put his affairs in order. His wish was granted. 
Time passed and the day of his death drew nigh. He 
sneezed and did not die. The world was amazed at this 
phenomenon, which seemed to be changing the law of 
nature. Accordingly the princes of the earth ordained that 
in future when anyone sneezed he should immediately be 
wished "Long life," in the hope that the favour would be 
further extended. 1 

The Jews also believed in a pseudo- Greek myth told about 
Prometheus. Roughly the story is as follows 2 : 

When Prometheus had put the finishing touches to his 
clay figure he wished to give it life. To achieve this he had 
need of aid from heaven. He made a journey to the sky, 
conducted by Minerva. Having traversed various planets, 
where he collected certain influences which he deemed 
necessary for his object, he arrived at the sun. Then, and 
long before, this planet was regarded as the soul of the world, 
as the author of life and as the father of nature. He 
approached this sphere under the mantle of his patroness 
with a bottle of crystal. He quickly filled this with a portion 
of the sun's rays, and having hermetically sealed it he 
descended to his work. Without losing a moment he held 
his bottle to the nose of the statue, opened it and the rays 
of the sun, having lost none of their potency, entered by the 
respiratory organs into the spongy tissues with such speed 
that it produced the same effect as it does to-day when we 
look at the sun. It made the statue sneeze, after which it 
animated the whole figure. Prometheus, charmed with his 
success, began to pray ; he prayed for the work of his hands 
and for its preservation ; his pupil heard this and remembered 
it all. First impressions have a deep and lasting effect. 
During the rest of his life he repeated these same wishes on 

1 See R. Means-Lawrence, The Magic of the Horseshoe, London, 1898, 
p. 227, and P. Saintyves, U Eternnement et le Bdillement da?is la Magie, 
I' Ethnographic et le Folklore Medical, Paris, 1921, p. 32. 

2 Henri Morin, "Sur les souhaits en faveur de ceux qui eternuent," 
Mem. de I' Acad, des Ins., 1746, vol. iv, pp. 326, 327, reproduced in Leber, 
Collection des meilleures Dissertations, Paris, 1838, vol. viii, pp. 372-374 
(quoted by Saintyves, op. cit., p. 33). 


similar occasions, and this custom has descended from father 
to son to this day. 

The variants of this tale are many and need not be 
detailed here. 

With the Greeks sneezing was usually looked upon as 
a good omen and of heavenly origin. 1 Thus in Theocritus 
(vii, 96 ; Bohn trans., p. 42) we read : " On Simichidas indeed 
the Loves have sneezed." Again, in Idyll xviii, 16, it is said 
of Menelaus, the lucky bridegroom : " Blest husband, some 
lucky person sneezed on thee, as thou wentest to Sparta, that 
thou mightest accomplish thine object." Homer 2 makes 
Penelope say : " My son has sneezed a blessing on all my 
words." The usual saluation was igjOi, Zed o-waovl While 
Xenophon was addressing the assembly of the Ten Thousand 
someone sneezed, and the men immediately paid homage to 
Zeus, whereupon Xenophon continued : " Since, O soldiers, 
while we were discussing means of escape, an omen from Zeus 
the Preserver has manifested itself . . ." 3 

According to Abbott * the formula of salutation in Mace- 
donia to-day varies according to the occasion, the act of 
sneezing being interpreted in three different ways : 

First, sneezing is regarded as a confirmation of what the 
person speaking has just said. In that case he interrupts 
himself in order to address the sneezer as follows : " Health 
be to thee, for [thou hast proved that] I am speaking the 

truth ! " (Tern gov Ktj aXyOeia Aeyco). 

Secondly, it is taken as a sign that absent enemies are 
speaking ill of the sneezer, and the bystanders express the 
pious wish that those individuals, whoever they be, " may 

Split (va (tko.<tovv\. 

Thirdly, it is considered as an indication of health, 
especially if the sneezer is just recovering from an illness. 
The formula appropriate in this instance is, " Health to thee, 
and joy to thee ! " (Teid a-ov kou x a P<* " 0l/ )> to which some, 
facetiously inclined, add by way of a crowning happiness 
" and may thy mother-in-law burst ! " (kcu va aicd* ^ireOepd a-ov). 

He shows the salutation after sneezing to be common 
amongst the Turks, as well as among savage tribes in many 
parts of the world. 

1 Arist., Probl., xxxviii, 7. 

2 Odyssey, xvii, 541. 

3 Xenophon, Anab., Ill, ii, 9. 

4 G. F. Abbott, Macedonian Folk-Lore, Cambridge, 1903, pp. 113-116. 


The Roman salutation was " Salve ! " 1 and sneezing was 
considered auspicious. Thus in Catullus 2 we read : " When 
he said this, Love, who had looked upon him before from 
the left, now sneezed approvingly from the right." Likewise 
in Propertius 3 : "In thy new-born days, my life, did golden 
love sneeze, loud and clear, a favouring omen ? " 

In early Christian times the sign of the cross was made 
at a sneeze, thus ensuring protection against any evil influ- 
ences which might be at work. Later, however, the pagan 
origin of such beliefs was condemned, and St Augustine 
declared that any attention paid to sneezing was not only 
sacrilegious, but ridiculous. 

The custom of saying " God bless you ! " after sneezing 
received fresh impetus during the plague at Rome in 589-590. 
As is the case with many other diseases, the plague started 
with sneezing, whereupon anyone who heard it would flee, 
calling out " God bless you ! " or " God help you ! " The 
same applies to the plagues at Florence (1340-1349) ; France 
and England (1361-1362) ; and the Plague of London in 

The formulae used in different parts of Europe are all 
very similar e.g. " Helfiu Got!" "Christ in helfe ! " 
" Got helfe dir ! " " Deus te adjuvet ! " " Gesundheit ! " 
" God bless you ! " " Bless you ! " " Felicita ! " etc.* 

As is only to be expected, in many parts of Europe the 
peasants have invented tales to account for the custom. 
It will suffice here to give a translation of one current in 
Picardy. 5 

Near the road of Englebelmer (Somme) there lived long 
ago a man who passed every night in sneezing continually. 
At any hour at which one might pass in this neighbourhood 
one heard nothing but " Atchi ! Atchi ! " repeated without 
ceasing, until passers-by would merely comment : " It is 
the sneezer." Several times the young men of the neigh- 
bouring villages assembled to take him by surprise, but 
when they arrived on the spot, instead of hearing the usual 
" Atchi ! " they heard nothing at all, and the noise did not 

1 Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxviii, 2 ; Apuleius, Golden Ass, ii, 211. 

2 Carmina, xlv. 

3 Eleg., ii, 3, 23. 

4 See J. Grimm, Teutonic Mythology , trans. J. S. Stallybrass, London, 
1882-1888, vol. iii, p. 1116; vol. iv, p. 1637. 

5 E. H. Carnoy, Litterature orale de Picardie, Paris, 1883, pp. 42-44. 


start again until they were well on their way home. The man 
or the goblin took pleasure in making the young peasants 
run along the long road, and remained inaccessible. Finally 
everyone grew accustomed to the sneezer, and since he had 
never harmed anyone they lost their fear of passing along 
the road and contented themselves with making the sign of 
the cross on hearing the noise. 

One summer moonlight night a peasant was returning 
from the neighbouring market. Soon he heard the " Atchi ! " 
of the sneezer, but it did not alarm him. Doubtless the 
goblin had nothing else to do, since it pleased him to follow 
the peasant about a quarter of a league, with his incessant 
" Atchi ! ' : At last the peasant cried out, annoyed : " Will 
you never finish sneezing thus ? May God bless you, you 
and your cold ! " He had hardly said these words when a 
phantom, garbed in a big white robe, appeared before his 
eyes ; it was the sneezer. " Thank you, friend ; you have 
delivered me from great suffering. As a result of my sins 
God condemned me to wander round this village, sneezing 
without rest from evening to morning, until a charitable 
living man should deliver me by saying * God bless you.' 
Many years have passed since that time, and for at least 
five hundred years I have come here, sneezing when I see a 
traveller. No one has said to me, ' God bless you.' Happily, 
this evening I had the good idea of following you, and you 
have delivered me for all time. Once again, thank you and 
good-bye." The ghost disappeared at once, and the man 
reached Englebelmer, while the sneezer, freed from his misery, 
doubtless took the road to heaven. From that day onwards 
the " Atchi ! " of the goblin was heard no more. 

Before closing this appendix I would add a few sneezing 
customs from primitive races in different parts of the world. 

In Africa salutations of some kind or other are found 
from Tunis to Zululand, and from Gambia to Somaliland. 
In his works on the Hausas of North Africa, Tremearne 1 says 
that after sneezing a man will say " Thanks be to God ! " for 
he considers that by that act one expels some bori which has 
entered without his knowing it. In the bori dance, however, 
the expression is avoided, as it is necessary for the bori to 
enter the dancer's body. 

1 A. J. N. Tremearne, The Ban of the Bori [1914], pp. 79, 288; Hausa 
Superstitions and Customs, 1913, pp. 141, 532. 


Among the Bakongo 1 it is, as opposed to the Hausa tribes, 
considered unlucky for the spirit to depart as it does when 
one sneezes, so they say " Sazuka ! " ("Come quickly!") 
When a baby sneezes the mother calls out : " Come back 
quickly ! " 

A newly born Bantu baby is held in the smoke of a slow 
fire of aromatic woods till it sneezes and coughs, so that the 
mother may know it is not bewitched. 2 

In West Africa a sneeze of a child is of evil omen ; thus 
in old Calabar 3 the mother says : " Nsa, nsa,fu ! "["May 
danger or guilt be] far from you ! " 

The Zulus approve of sneezing. It shows that the 
idhlozhi (manes) are with the sneezer, and accordingly 
thanks are returned. If a child sneezes people say " Grow ! " 
as it is a sign of health. Christian Zulus say : " Preserve, look 
upon me ! " or " Creator of Heaven and Earth ! " 4 

Among the Indonesians 5 (i.e. the non-Malays of the 
Eastern Archipelago) sneezing denotes that the " soul- 
substance," or the vital force animating nature during life 
on this earth, is leaving or returning to the body. If a child 
sneezes the mother utters a prayer lest a spirit take away 
the " soul- substance " which has now been removed from 
the child. If a sick man sneezes it is good luck, because it 
shows the return of the " soul- substance." For the ordinary 
adult sneezing is a sign either that friends are thinking of 
them, or that enemies want to harm their " soul- substance." 
In order, however, to be on the safe side, it is usual to utter 

Among the Melanesians and Polynesians when a man 
sneezed they thought that someone had spoken his name. 
If he wished to sneeze and could not do so, he thought that 
someone meant to call him, but was unable to do so. If a 
man was sick and sneezed they said at once : " Oh, he will 
live. The spirit [niono] has returned to him." 

The New Britain people say "Lalaun!" ("May you 
live ! "). 

1 John H. Weeks, Among the Primitive Bakongo, 1914, p. 277 ; Folk-Lore, 
vol. xx, 1909, p- 59. 

2 M. L. Hewat, quoted in Folk-Lore, vol. xvii, 1906, p. 250. 

3 R. F. Burton, Wit and Wisdom from West Africa, 1 865, p. 373. 

4 H. Callaway, The Religious System of the Amazulu, p. 222 et seq. Natal, 

5 J. G. Frazer, " Indonesians," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vii, p. 236. 


The Samoans say " Soifua! " ("May you live ! ") and the 
answer given by the person who sneezes is " ola" the common 
word for life. 

The Fijians say " Bula ! " (" Mav you live ! ") and the 
answer given is " Mole! " (" Thanks'" ). 

In British New Guinea we find, once again, that sneezing 
is a sign that the soul is returning to the body, and if a man 
does not sneeze for many weeks together his friends look on 
it as a grave symptom. His soul, they imagine, must be a 
very long way off. 2 

The Hervey Islanders have the same beliefs, and in 
Rarotonga when a person sneezes the bystanders exclaim, as 
though addressing his spirit : " Ha, you have come back ! " 3 

Macculloch 4 remarks that, in connection with the idea 
that the soul is entering or leaving the body at sneezing, it is 
noticeable that some savages believe that it may find an exit 
by the nose, just as it does by the mouth. Hence the nostrils 
of a dead or dying man are sometimes held or closed (along 
with the mouth) to keep his soul in, either to benefit the man 
or to prevent its issuing forth and carrying off the souls of 
others. 5 In Celebes fish-hooks are attached to a sick man's 
nose to catch the issuing soul. 6 Eskimo mourners, or those 
who prepare the body for burial, plug the nostrils, lest the 
soul should find an exit and follow the dead. 7 Instances 
of a savage sleeping with nose and mouth covered to prevent 
the soul leaving are known. Again, as the breath from the 
mouth may contaminate sacred objects, so also may the 
breath from the nose. Hence both are covered in certain 

1 George Brown, Mela?iesians and Polynesians, 1910, p. 240. 

2 J. G. Frazer, The Belief in Immortality, vol. i, 1913, p. 194, quoting 
C. G. Seligmann, The Melanesians of British New Guinea, pp. 189-191- 

3 W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs from the South Pacific, p. 177. 

4 See his article " Nose," Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth., vol. ix, pp. 398, 399, 
to which I am indebted for several useful references. 

5 E. Modigliani, Un viaggio a Nias, Milan, 1890, p. 283; M. Radriguet, 
Jjes derniers Sauvages, Paris, 1882, p. 245 (Marquesans) ; Annates de la 
Prop, de la Foi, xxxii [i860], 439 (New Caledonians); A. d'Orbigny, L Homme 
Americain, Strassburg, 1840, ii, 241, 257 (Itonamas, Cayuvavas). 

r> Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. iii, p. 30. 

7 Bulletin of American Museum of Nat. Hist., xv [1901], part i, 144; 
Rpts. Bur. Ethn., Washington (6) [1888], p. 613 et seq.\ Rpls. Bur. Ethn. t 
Washington (9) [1892], p. 425. 


Apart from references already given, the following are 
worthy of attention : 

Charles Brisard, U titer nuement, Lyon [1896] ; Cabanes, 
" Dieu vous benisse ! Origine d'un dicton," Mceurs intimes 
du passe, 1st series, Paris [1898] ; J. Knott, " Origin of the 
Custom of Salutation after Sneezing," St Louis Medical 
Review, 1906, vol. liv, pp. 382-384 ; R. G. Haliburton, New 
Materials for the History of Man, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1863. 
(The article on sneezing contained in the latter reference 
originally appeared in the Nova Scotia Inst Nat. Sci., 
4th May 1863.) 

R. E. Enthoven gives interesting details of sneezing 
superstitions in the Bombay Presidency in his Folklore of 
Bombay, pp. 332-335, 1924. 




In order to discover the different methods of castration 
employed on the human male in the East from the earliest 
times, it is necessary to examine the etymology of the words 
used to express the state itself and the means by which the 
subject is reduced to that state. 

The method of crushing (mentioned in the Atharva-Veda, 
VI, cxxxviii, 2) is apparent in such words as Latin, 
capo, " capon," from Greek, kotttco, " strike " ; Greek, 
OXaOla?, OXifBlas, " eunuch," from OXdco, " crush " ; and 
Sanskrit, vadhri, " eunuch," from Sanskrit, vadh, " strike." 

Cutting is shown in Latin, castro, "castrate," from root 
kes, Sanskrit, sas, "cut"; Greek, to/j.lcl$, "eunuch," from 
TfjLvw, "cut"; and Sanskrit, nirasta, "castrated," from am, 
" edge " or " knife." 

Finally, the operation of dragging appears to be implied 
in such words as Greek, o-irdScov, " eunuch," from cnrdw, 
" drag." 

There still remains the Greek euvovxps, from which the 
best- known English term " eunuch " is derived. The old 
etymology by which the word means " one who is warder 
of the bed," from euvrj and ex^v, cannot now be accepted. 

Jensen (Zeit. f. Assyr., i, 20) regards ewoi^o? as a loan- 
word from the Semitic, the Hebrew being borrowed from 
the Assyrian &a rHi (rUi), " he who is the head or chief." 
Campbell Thompson tells me, however, that he has recently 
come across a word for "eunuch" in cuneiform (Cun. Texts, 
xxiii, 10), su-ut ri-e-H (ea alidi), "one who does not beget," 
which certainly conveys what we mean by " eunuch." 

For fuller details on the etymological side of the subject 
see Schrader, Reallex. der indogerm. Altertumskunde, Strass- 
burg, 1901, p. 919 ; Hirt, Indogermanen, Strassburg, 1905- 
1907, pp. 291, 658 ; and Louis H. Gray, "Eunuch," Hastings' 
Ency. Eel, Eth., vol. v, p. 579. 

The derivations of the terms connected with castration 
clearly show their Oriental origin, but where in the East the 


practice actually started is unknown, although Mesopotamia 
is usually considered to have been its first home. It was 
known in Assyria, Israel, Ethiopia, Egypt, Persia, India, 
China, Greece and Rome. (See the list of references at the 
end of this appendix.) 

In ancient India the social status of the eunuch was of 
the very lowest. Thus we read in the Mahdbhdrata (VIII, 
xlv, 25) : 

" Mlechchhas [barbarians, non- Aryans] are the dirt of 
humanity ; oil-men are the dirt of Mlechchhas ; eunuchs are 
the dirt of oil-men ; and they who appoint Kshatriyas as 
priests in their sacrifices are the dirt of eunuchs." 

The following references to eunuchs are taken from the 
article by Gray (op. cit., pp. 582-583). 

A eunuch, or "long-haired man," is neither man nor 
woman (Satapatha Brdhmana, V, i, 2, 14 ; IV, 1, 1/. ; 
XII, vii, 2, 12 ; cf. Mahdbhdrata, v, clx, 115 ; and the 
references given by Bloomfield, Sacred Books of the East, 
xlii, 538 et seq.), and there is reason to believe that they 
ministered to unnatural sensuality (R. Schmidt, Beitrdge 
zur indischen Erotik, Leipzig, 1902, p. 211). They could not 
inherit property (Apastamba Dharma Sdstra, II, vi, 14, 1 ; 
Gautama D. S., xxviii, 43 ; Vdsishtha D. S., xvii, 53 
et seq.), and were to be maintained by the king, who was 
to take what would have been their inheritance if they 
had been normal men (Vdsishtha D. 8., xix, 35 et seq.). 
They were excluded from the srdddha, or sacrifice to the 
manes (Manu, hi, 165), of which they were unworthy (ib., hi, 
150), even as they were unfit for the ordeal by sacred libation 
(Ndrada D. S. 9 i, 332). No Brahman might eat of a sacrifice 
performed by eunuchs (Manu, iv, 205 et seq.), nor might he 
consume any food prepared by them (ib., iv, 211 ; Vdsishtha 
D. S. 9 xiv, 2 ; Apastamba D. S. 9 I, vi, 18, 27 ; 19, 15), nor 
accept alms offered by them (Vdsishtha D. S. 9 xiv, 19). 
They were forbidden to serve as witnesses (Ndrada D. S. 9 
i, 179) and were deemed incapable of keeping a secret 
(Milindapanhd, IV, i, 6). In contempt for their effeminacy 
they might not be struck in battle (Manu, vii, 19), a special 
penalty being imposed for killing them (ib., xi, 134 ; Gautama 
D. 8. 9 xxii, 23). Being sterile, and so essentially ill-omened, 
the very sight of them was defiling (Manu, hi, 239 et seq.) 9 
and they were forbidden to be near the king during his 
consultations (Mahdbhdrata, xii, lxxxiii, 55), while the 


neat-herd Ganja laments (Temple, Legends of the Panjdb, 
Bombay, 1884-1900, ii, 396) : " When I was in my mother's 
womb eunuchs danced at the door ; and so I am lame, and 
have no hair on my head." 

A eunuch might not be converted (Milindapanhd, IV, 
vii, 53), nor might he be ordained (Mahdvagga, i, 61), and 
a bhikkhu was forbidden to castrate himself (Chullavagga, 
v, 7). Eunuchs were permitted to marry (Manu, ix, 79, 204). 
Dancers, who are of low caste in India, were castrated 
(Mahdbhdrata, iii, xlvi, 50), and the dancing of eunuchs is 
already referred to in Atharva-Veda, viii, vi, 11. In the 
purushamedha, or human sacrifice of the Vedic period, a 
eunuch was the victim offered to Misfortune [Papman] and 
in this case the victim being neither of Brahman nor of 
Siidra caste to Prajapati (Vdjasaneya Samh., xxx, 5, 22). 

In modern India, although dwindling in numbers, there 
still exist classes of eunuchs forming separate communities. 
The most widely known name under which they go is Hijra 
or Hijda, but numerous other names are found in different 
parts of India. Thus in the North- West Provinces they are 
also known as Mukhannas ; in the Bombay Presidency as 
Pavayas or Fatadas ; in the Central Provinces as Khasua ; 
and in Madras as Khoja. In some states where two distinct 
names are in use it has been suggested that one of them 
applies to natural and the other to artificially created eunuchs, 
but such a division seems arbitrary to a great extent. For 
instance, in Saugor it is said that the Hijras are artificial 
eunuchs, while in Madras it is they who are the natural ones. 
The point is, however, not an important one. 

The origin of the eunuch class in India is wrapped up in 
legend, as is the case with so many tribes and castes. In 
Gujarat tradition has it that they are the castrated votaries 
of the goddess Bouchera, Behechra, or Bahuchara, who was a 
sister of Devi. She is supposed to be the spirit of a martyred 
Charan or Bhat woman. Some Charan women were once 
travelling from Sulkhanpur to a neighbouring village when 
they were attacked and plundered by Kolis. One of the 
women, whose name was Bahuchara, snatched a sword from a 
boy who attended her and with it cut off both her breasts. She 
immediately perished and her two sisters committed suicide. 
vol. in. x 


All three became Devis and were worshipped in different 

Bahuchara was chiefly venerated at Chunval, and as 
she became deified through self- mutilation, so her votaries 
emasculate themselves, and by wearing female clothes and 
adopting feminine manners try to make themselves as near 
as they can to their goddess, not only in dress, but also 

For a short account of the Pavaya eunuchs see A. K. 
Forbes, Rds Mala (new edition by Rawlinson, 1924), vol. ii, 
pp. 95-99. 

We get further details of the origin and initiation rites 
of the Pavayas in Enthoven's Tribes and Castes of Bombay, 
vol. iii, 1922, p. 226 et seq. (largely taken from the Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. i, pp. 506-507). 

In Al^medabad, Panch Mahals, Kathiawar, Cutch and 
Khandesh the Pavaya caste is found in small numbers. 
They are recruited from both Hindus and Musalmans, who 
consider themselves the creatures, or rather the temples 
or houses, of the goddess Bahucharaji. Except that they 
do not dine together, Pavayas from Hindu and Musalman 
families bear a close resemblance. According to their 
traditions a king of Champaner named Baria was unhappy 
because he had no son. He was a devout worshipper of the 
goddess Bahucharaji, and through her favour a son was born 
to him and named Jeto. This Jeto was born impotent, and 
Baria, out of respect to the goddess through whose favour 
the son was obtained, set him apart for her service. 
Bahucharaji appeared to Jeto in a dream and told him to 
cut off his private parts and dress himself as a woman. 
Jeto obeyed the goddess, and this practice has since been 
followed by all who join the caste. 

Impotence is an indispensable qualification for admis- 
sion into the caste. When an impotent man desires to be 
admitted he applies to one of the Pavayas, who breathes into 
his right ear, bores both ears with the point of a needle, 
and administers to him a solemn oath never to steal and 
never to act as a procurator to any woman. The novice is 
then admitted on probation. He eats coarse sugar, puts 
on women's clothes, receives a new name, generally ending 
in "de," such as Dhanade, Jhinide, Ladude and Khimde. 
The probationary period lasts from six to twelve months, 
during which the conduct of the novice is carefully watched 


and the fact of his impotence thoroughly tested. When 
impotence is established the next ceremony is emasculation. 
For this purpose the novice bathes, dresses himself in clean 
clothes and worships the image of the goddess. He prays to 
her to grant a propitious day for the operation. It is believed 
that if the operation is performed on a day approved by the 
goddess the result is seldom fatal. Behind a screen set up 
for the purpose the cutting is performed with a razor by 
the person himself, without any assistance. This is held to 
correspond to a birth- ceremony, which makes the patient a 
member of the caste. After the operation the patient lies 
for three days on a cot on his back without moving. During 
that time thirty pounds of sesame oil is continuously poured 
on the parts affected. For ten days more, or till the wound 
is healed, it is washed with a decoction of the bor (Zizyphus 
jujuba) and babul {Acacia arabica) bark. On the sixth day 
after the operation coarse flour mixed with molasses and 
clarified butter is distributed among the caste people. The 
patient remains screened for forty days, during which he 
eats light food. Clarified butter is his chief nourishment, 
and he is forbidden the use of red pepper, oil and asafcetida. 

In 1880 the Gaikwar of Baroda forbade castration in his 
state, to the great sorrow of the Pavayas, who say that 
by thus remaining in their natural condition they displease 
the goddess, and that during seven lives they will remain 
impotent as a punishment for failing to sacrifice the useless 

The Pavayas keep images of Bahucharaji in their homes 
and worship them daily, and when on begging tours are 
careful to visit her shrines in the Chunval. They keep both 
Hindu and Musalman holidays. 

They bury their dead. After death the body is washed 
and laid on a cot covered with a sheet and perfumed. The 
body is shrouded in a clean coverlet for burial. As they are 
neither males nor females they do not touch the coffin, which 
is carried, and the burying performed, by Musalmans, the 
companions of the dead standing by mourning. On the 
dasa or tenth day and on the chdlisa or fortieth day after a 
death the dearest companion of the deceased is bound, on 
pain of expulsion, to feed the caste-people and the Musalman 
bier-bearers. A tomb is raised over the dead. 

Pavayas live as beggars, singing the praise of their patron 
goddess Bahucharaji. In begging they stand in front of 


some villager, clap their hands and offer the usual blessing : 
" May mother Bahucharaji do you and your children good," 
or " Bhavani " that is, "Rise, goddess Bhavani." 
If anyone fails to give them alms they abuse him, and if 
abuse fails they strip themselves naked, a result which is 
greatly dreaded, as it is believed to bring dire calamity. 
They beg in bands on certain beats and receive fixed yearly 
dues in kind or in cash from shopkeepers, carpenters, tailors, 
shoemakers, goldsmiths, Lohars, etc. They also receive fees 
from every Kunbi on the birth of a son, and in most parts of 
Gujarat when a son is born to a barren woman, or to a woman 
who has had no male issue, Pavayas are called in and made 
to dance in front of the house. 

In the Bombay Gazetteer, vol. ix, 1899, pt. ii, pp. 21-22, 
we get a rather different and more detailed account of the 
initiation ceremony. 

It takes place at the temple of the goddess Behechra, 
about sixty miles north-east of A^medabad, in the village of 
Sulkhanpur, where the neophyte repairs under the guardian- 
ship or adoption of some older member of the brotherhood. 
The lad is called the daughter of the old Hijda, his guardian. 
The emasculation takes place under the direction of the chief 
Hijda priest of Behechra. The rites are secret. It is said 
that the operation and initiation are held in a house with 
closed doors, where all the Hijdas meet in holiday dress. 
The fireplace is cleaned and the fire is lighted to cook a special 
dish of fried pastry called talan. While the oil in which the 
pastry is to be fried is boiling, some of the fraternity, after 
having bathed the neophyte, dress him in red female attire, 
deck him with flower-garlands, and, seating him on a stool 
in the middle of the room, sing to the accompaniment of 
a dhol or small drum and small copper cymbals. Others 
prepare the operating-room. In the centre of this room 
soft ashes are spread on the floor and piled in a heap. The 
operator approaches chewing betel-leaf. The hands and legs 
of the neophyte are firmly held by some one of the fraternity, 
and the operator, carelessly standing near with an uncon- 
cerned air, when he finds the attention of his patient other- 
wise occupied, with great dexterity and with one stroke 
completely cuts off the entire genital organs. He spits 
betel nut and leaf juice on the wound and stanches the 
bleeding with a handful of babul (Acacia arabica) ashes. 
The operation is dangerous and is not uncommonly fatal. 


Some North Gujarat Hijdas, though they hold themselves 
devotees of Behechra, neither suffer emasculation nor wear 
women's dress. They affect only the mincing talk and 
manners of lewd women. They marry and beget children, 
and are Hijdas only in name. They also perform plays at 
the birth of sons among the poorer Musalmans. Hijdas of 
the play-acting class are to be found in and about Ahmeda- 
bad. As a class Gujarat Hijdas enjoying independent means 
of livelihood have not to engage in sodomy to any active 
extent. As votaries of Behechra they hold fields and 
lands, and rights on lands awarded to them from of old 
by native chiefs, village communities and private persons. 
They have rights on communities also, receiving yearly 
payments from them. Woe betide the wight who opposes 
the demands of a Hljda ! The whole rank and file of the 
local fraternity besiege his house with indecent clamour and 

A few extra details will be found in Russell, Tribes and 
Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. hi, pp. 206-209 ; Crooke, 
Tribes and Castes of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, 
vol. ii, p. 495 ; and H. Ebden, " A Few Notes, with refer- 
ence to ' The Eunuchs ' to be found in the large Households 
of the State of Rajpootana," The Indian Annals of Medical 
Science, April 1856, No. vi, p. 520 et seq. 

In Southern India the eunuch caste is practically non- 
existent, and even in 1870 the numbers were only small. 

There is an interesting article by J. Shortt on the " Kojahs 
[sic] of Southern India " in the Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. ii, 
1873, pp. 402-407. It was largely used by Thurston in his 
" Kh5ja " article, Castes and Tribes of Southern India, 
vol. hi, p. 288 et seq., the medical details being, however, 
mostly omitted. 

A few extracts from Shortt 's article will serve as an 
interesting comparison "to the description already given in 
this appendix : 

" The true Kojahs, or eunuchs, are chiefly seen in the 
houses of wealthy Mussulman nobles, by whom they are 
placed at the head of their zenanas or harems. Sometimes 
they hold important charges with a considerable amount of 
general control. The ladies of the harem look upon them 
as their confidential advisers in all matters relating to their 
personal concerns, whilst to them is left the entire manage- 


ment, arrangement, and supplies, etc., of the interior. In 
fact, all that concerns the female apartment is confided to 
their care." 

The description of the initiatory rites is very similar to 
that practised in Gujarat, but we get fresh details of their 
clothing and behaviour: 

" The hair of the head is put up like women, well oiled, 
combed, and thrown back, tied into a knot, and shelved to 
the left side, sometimes plaited, ornamented, and allowed 
to hang down the back ; the whiskers, moustache and beard 
closely shaven. They wear the cholee or short jacket, the 
saree or petticoat, with an apron or scarf which they wrap 
around the shoulders and waist, and put on an abundance of 
nose, ear, finger and toe rings. They cultivate singing, play 
the dhole, a country drum of an oblong shape, and attitudinize. 
They go about the bazaars in groups of half-a-dozen or more, 
singing songs with the hope of receiving a trifle. They are 
not only persistent but impudent beggars, rude and vulgar 
in the extreme, singing filthy, obscene, and abusive songs 
to compel the bazaarmen to give them something. Should 
they not succeed they would create a fire and throw in a lot 
of chillies, the suffocating and irritative smoke producing 
violent coughing, etc., so that the bazaarmen are compelled 
to yield to their importunity and give them a trifle to get 
rid of their annoyance, as they are not only unable to retain 
their seats in the bazaars, but customers are prevented from 
coming to them in consequence. With the douceur they 
get they will move off to the next bazaar to resume the 
trick. While such were the pursuits in the day, at nightfall 
they resorted to debauchery and low practices by hiring 
themselves out to a dissipated set of Moslems, who are 
in the habit of resorting to these people for the purpose, 
whilst they intoxicate themselves with a preparation termed 
majoon, being a confection of opium and a kind of drink 
termed boja, a species of country beer manufactured from 
raji, which also contains bang ; in addition to this they 
smoke bang. The Higras are met with in most of the towns 
of southern India, more especially where a large proportion 
of Mussulmans is found." 

In Vol. I, p. 255 et seq. 9 we read some account of the 
dedication of basivis, who through their dedication to a 
deity assume masculine privileges. There is one goddess, 
Huligamma, to whom are dedicated not only basivis, but 


also men who are born as eunuchs or are in some way 
malformed. They dress exactly as women and might easily 
be mistaken for women. Fawcett (Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb., 
1890-1892, p. 343), writing in 1891, says that numbers of 
them may be seen at the goddess' temple on the left bank 
of the Tungabhadra river, Raichur, in the Nizam's territory. 
They carry on the head a circular basket, in the centre of 
which is a kind of kalisam, representing the goddess, and 
hung about it and in it are various feminine ornaments 
and toilet gear. 

Men who believe themselves temporarily or permanently 
impotent, as a form of vow assume female attire in the name 
of the goddess in the hope of restoration of virile power, and 
in many cases, as is only natural, this manifests itself sooner 
or later. 

After reading the above account of Indian eunuchs the 
reader will at once be struck with the similarity to the Galli, 
the eunuch priests of Artemis of Ephesus and the Syrian 
Astarte of Hierapolis. 

They too attempted to make themselves as much like 
their goddess as they could. The account given by Lucian 
(De Dea Syria, 50, 51) is very curious. 

" On certain days," says Lucian, " a multitude flocks 
into the temple, and the Galli in great numbers, sacred as 
they are, perform the ceremonies of the men and gash their 
arms and turn their backs to be lashed. Many bystanders 
play on the pipes the while many beat drums ; others sing 
divine and sacred songs. All this performance takes place 
outside the temple, and those engaged in the ceremony enter 
not into the temple. 

"During these days they are made Galli. As the Galli 
sing and celebrate their orgies, frenzy falls on many of them, 
and many who had come as mere spectators afterwards are 
found to have committed the great act. I will narrate what 
they do. Any young man who has resolved on this action 
strips off his clothes, and with a loud shout bursts into the 
midst of the crowd, and picks up a sword from a number of 
swords which I suppose have been kept ready for many years 
for this purpose. He takes it and castrates himself and then 
runs wild through the city, bearing in his hands what he has 


cut off. He casts it into any house at will, and from this 
house he receives women's raiment and ornaments. Thus 
they act during their ceremonies of castration." (See Strong 
and Garstang's The Syrian Goddess, 1913, pp. 84-85, and 
Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. v, p. 269 et seq.) 

Louis Gray (op. cit., p. 582) gives the various theories as 
to the explanation of the self- mutilation of Attis, but con- 
siders that the only one which seems to fit the facts is that of 
Farnell, Cult of the Greek States, vol. iii, p. 300 et seq. : 

" Even the self- mutilation necessary for the attainment 
of the status of the eunuch- priest may have arisen from the 
ecstatic craving to assimilate oneself to the goddess and 
to charge oneself with her power, the female dress being 
therefore assumed to complete the transformation." 

Although space will not permit my discussing the amazing 
history of Chinese and African eunuchs, I herewith append a 
bibliography on the subject which may be of use to those 
wishing to pursue it further. 

General. [Ancillon, C] Traite des Euneuques, dans 
leqnel on explique toutes les differ 'entes sortes d' euneuques, etc., 
1707 ; P[ierre] P[ierrugues], Glossarium Eroticum Linguae 
Latince, Parisiis, 1826, under " Eunuchus," etc., pp. 198-201 ; 
" Outidanos " [Sir R. F. Burton] and " Neaniskos " [L. S. 
Smithers], Priapeia, 1890, pp. 16, 54 ; R. F. Burton, 
Thousand Nights and a Night, vol. i, pp. 132ft 5 , 283ft 2 ; vol. ii, 
p. 50n 3 ; vol. v, p. 46ft 1 ; Supp., vol. i, pp. 70ft 1 , 71ft, 72ft ; 
E. B. Tylor, " Eunuch," Ency. Brit, vol. ix, p. 890 ; Have- 
lock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, vol. ii, pp. 327- 
328 ; vol. iii, pp. 9-10, 237-238 ; vol. v, pp. 183-184 ; 
vol. vi, pp. 612-614 ; Remondino, History of Circumcision, 
1891, pp. 82-104 ; Westermarck, Origin and Development of 
the Moral Ideas, vol. ii, pp. 408, 414, 488ft 6 ; Frazer, Golden 
Bough, vol. i, p. 38 ; vol. ii, pp. 144-145 ; vol. v, pp. 206, 
269, 270ft 2 , 278, 283 ; vol. vi, pp. 258, 272 ; vol. x, p. 430 ; 
H. H. Ploss, Das Kind, Leipzig, 1884, vol. i, p. 340; 
vol. ii, p. 418 ; C. Rieger, Kastration in rechtlicher, % socialer 
und vitaler Hinsicht, Jena, 1911 ; P. J. Mobius, Vbw die 
Wirkungen der Kastration, Halle, 1903. 

Classical. Herodotus, iii, 48 ; viii, 105 ; Xenophon, 
Cyrop., VII, v, 60-65 ; Martial, iii, 24, 58, 81 ; vi, 2, 67 ; xi, 
81 ; Juvenal, i, 22 ; vi, 365-366 ; Seneca, De Matrimonio, 
ed. Hase, p. 429 ; Ammianus Marcellinus, XIV, vi, 17. 

Biblical. Deut. xxiii, 1; 2 Kings ix, 32; xx, 18; 


Isaiah lvi, 3 ; xxxix, 7 ; Jerem. Hi, 25 ; xxix, 2 ; Dan. i, 3 ; 
Matt, xix, 12 ; Acts viii, 27. 

Various. Assyria : Jensen, Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie, 
vol. xxiv, 1910, p. 109ft 1 ; Klauber, " Assyr. Beamtentum," 
Leipziger sent. Studien, vol. v, 3, 1910, p. 117. Persia : 
Brisson, De Regio Persarum Principatu, ed. Lederlin, Strass- 
burg, 1710. Egypt : Rawlinson, History of Ancient Egypt, 
1881, chap, xxii ; A. von Kremer, JEgypten, 1863, vol. u, 
pp. 87-89 ; Quatremere, Hist, des sultans mamlouks de 
VEgypte, Paris, 1837, vol. i, 2, p. 132. Rome: Gibbon, 
chaps, vii, xix, xxxii, xxxiii. China : Yule and Cordier, 
The Book of Ser Marco Polo, vol. ii, pp. 115-116 ; ditto, 
Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. iv, p. 82 ; Dames, Book of 
Duarte Barbosa, vol. ii, p. 147 ; Stent, " Chinese Eunuchs," 
Journ. North China Branch Boy. As. Soc, N.S., xi, 1877, 
pp. 143-184 ; J. J. Matignon, Superstition, Crime, et Misere 
en Chine, "Les Eunuques du Palais Imperial de Pekin," 
1901; "Eunuchs of the Imperial Palace," T ( u Shu Chi 
Ch'Sng (The Chinese Encyclopaedia), x, 121-140; Muslim: 
Muradja d'Ohsson, Tableau gen. de V Empire othoman, 
Paris, 1820, iii, 302-304 ; C. Snouck Hurgronje, Mekka, 1889, 
vol. ii, p. 24. 



The n stands for " note" and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

" Abaraschika," ejaculation 

of, 63 
Abbott, G. F., Macedonian 

Folk-Lore, 310, 310ft 4 
A ben Gabirol, 59 
Abhavad, 148ft 5 
Abhavan, 148n 5 
A.bhimanyu, brother of 

Arjuna, 66 
Abhyagat, 144ft 1 
Abu Karib, Governor of 

Hajar or Bahrayn, 278 
Acacia arabica (babul), 323, 324 
Achelous and Hercules, 191ft 1 
Adhikasangama, Queen, 263, 

Adityaprabha, 274, 275 
Aelian, 116ft 
.Esop, 250 

Africa, cross-roads in, 38 
Agni (God of Fire), 13, 228ft 2 
Agnisikha, Rakshasa named, 

Ahalya, 126 
Ahavariiya, one of the five 

Vedic fires, 160ft 1 
Ahichchhatra, 29 
Ahmedabad, 161ft 1 , 324; 

Pavayas in, 322 
Airavata, 170ft 2 
Ajara, King, 145, 146, 148, 149 
Al-Barraqa, white city of, 

260ft 1 
Al-Hira, 'Anir ibn Hind, 

King of, 278 
Al-Jazari, Kitab f*i ma'rifat 

al-hiyal al-handasiya ( ' ' Book 

of the Knowledge of In- 
genious Contrivances "), 58 
Al-Mutalammis, 277-279 
Al-zamar (al-chamar), hair of 

which fly-whisks are made, 

84ft 1 
Alaka (the city of Kuvera), 

148, 263, 263ft 1 
Alankaraprabha, 156-158, 163- 



Albertus Magnus, 56 
Alcams, 127 
Alcmenes, 127 
Alexandria, Cosmas of, Topo- 

graphia Christiana, 84ft 1 , 85ft 
Alexandria, virgin Lucia of 

Bologna or, 20ft 1 
Allahabad (Prayaga), 90ft 1 , 

97ft 1 
Alphonsus, Disciplina Cleri- 

calis, 118ft 1 
Amaragupta, minister of 

Vikramasinha, 12 
Amaravati, 66 

Amba and Ambalika, grand- 
mothers of the Kurus and 

Pandus, 65 
Ambika (Durga, Parvatl, 

Gauri, etc.), 64, 130, 130ft 2 , 

266, 266ft 1 
Ammianus Marcellinus, 328 
Amoghasiddha, Tara, wife of 

the Buddha, 2ft 2 
Amphidromia at Athens, 132ft 
Amphitryon, legend of, 127 
'Amr ibn Hind, King of al- 

Hira, 278 
Am'rita (nectar), 176, 176ft 1 , 

253ft 1 , 298, 298ft 1 
Amritalata, 171 
Ananda, physician named, 
_ 40, 41 
Ananda-ramdyana, the " Sara- 

Kanda," 201* 
Ancillon, C, Traite des 

Euneuques, dans lequel on 

explique toutes les differentes 

sortes d'euneuques, 328 
Andromeda, Perseus and, 

268ft 1 
Anichchhasena, 264, 270-272, 

Aniruddha, story of Ushaand, 

Anita (a hook), 14ft 1 
Anonymous, Ophiolatreia, 

142ft 1 

Antarvedi, 93 

Anteia and Bellerophon, 

story of, 277 
Antoninus Pius, 287ft 3 
Anuragapara, 184, 185, 186, 

188, 189, 193, 195-199 
Anvar-i-Suhaiti, the, 126^ 
Apastamba Dharma Sastra, 

the, 320 
Aphrodite, breasts cut off 

out of devotion to, 21ft ; a 

personification of the man- 
drake or love-apple, 153 
Apsaras, 36, 138; conceived 

by Taradatta, 6 ; king falls 

in love with a, 25; Menaka, 

97, 98; Surabhidatta, 5-6 
Apsarases, 5, 64 
Apuleius, Golden Ass, 226ft 2 , 

285ft 1 , 311ft 1 
Ardha-narisvara, form of Siva, 

Argha or arghya, an oblation 

called, 53, 53ft 1 , 98, 254, 

254ft 1 
Argonauts, the, 56 
Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, 

167ft 2 
Ariston, 126, 127 
Aristotle, Problemata, 310ft 1 
Arjuna of the Pandava race, 

66, 113, 228ft 2 
Arnobius Orestes, Adversus 
_ Gentes. 21ft 

Arsi (small mirror), 100ft 1 
Artemis of Ephesus, 327 
Arthalobha and his beautiful 

wife, story of, 286-290 
Arthasdstra, the, Kautilya 

(trans. Shamasastry), 142ft 2 
Arundhati, 7, 36 
Asanhita ("without any 

scruple"), 96ft 1 
Ashbjornsen, Norwegian 

tales, 237 
Ashem-vohu (formula in praise 

of righteousness), 307 



Asoka, 142m 1 

Asoka-tree, 155 

Asri (edge or knife), 319 

Astarte of Hierapolis, 327 

Astrabacus, 127 

Asura Bana, the, 81, 83; 

Mahisha, 186; Maya, 27, 

39, 40, 43, 65, 74, 87, 93, 

138, 139, 282, 282n a 
Asuras (usually enemies of 

the gods), 26, 40, 66, 82, 

Asvins. the two, 253. 254, 

257-258, 272m 1 
Atalanta and the golden 

apples of Hippomenes, 

Atharva-Feda, the, 30m 1 , 50m 1 , 

142, 319, 321 
Athenseus, 82m 2 , 207m 2 
Athens, the Amphidromia at, 

Attis, self-mutilation of, 328 
Australia, Ngarigo and Thed- 

dora tribes of S.E., 151 
Avanti, 11 
Avasathija, one of the five 

Vedic fires, 160m 1 
Ayasolekha, 219, 221, 233, 


Babul {Acacia arabica), 323, 

Babylon, Zohak giant keeper 

of the caves of, 150 
Bacon, Roger, 56; invention 

of gunpowder by, 161m 1 
Badger, G. P., Travels of 

Ludovico di Varthcma, 201, 

Baganda, fear of ghosts 

among the, 38 
Bahdr-i-Danish, the, 126 
Bahrayn, 278 
Bahubala, King, 282, 284, 

286, 289 
Bahuchara, the goddess, 321 
Bahucharajl, the goddess, 

Bakonga, sneezing customs 

among the, 313 
Bali, disease-transference in, 

Bana, 12 

Bana, the Asura, 81, 83 
BandhamochinI the witch, 

Bandhu, or cognate kindred, 

46m 1 
Bandhudatta and Somas- 

vamin, 190-195 

Bandhuka, lips like the, 146 

Bantu s, sneezing customs 
among the, 313 

Bardwan, 172m 1 

[Barham] lnaoldsby Legends, 
40m 2 

Baring-Gould, 218m 1 ; Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages, 
152, 167m 2 , 187m 3 , 268m 1 ; 
"Story Radicals," Hender- 
son's Folk - Lore of the 
Northern Counties, 195m 1 

Barnes, T., "Alchemy," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Barnett, L. D., Ejrigraphia 
Indica, 207m 2 

Baroda forbids castration, 
Giiikwar of, 323 

Barraqa, white city of al-, 
260m 1 

Bartsch, Sagen, Marchen und 
Gebr'duche aus Mcklenburg, 
4m 1 , 104m 2 , 131m 3 , 133m 1 , 
150, 187m 3 , 231m 1 , 272m 1 

Basile, Pentamerone (Burton's 
trans.), 20ft 1 , 21m, 28m 1 , 
48m\ 105m, 226m 2 , 238, 239, 
272m 1 , 285m 1 , 292m 1 

Basivis, women dedicated to 
a deity, 326 

Bath-sheba, story of David 
and, 277 

Bebelius, Henricus, Facetiae, 

Beccan and Brigit, 20m 1 

Bedia caste, 51m 

Bediya caste, 51m 

Bediyani, tricks employed by 
the, 51m 

Behechra, the goddess, 321, 
324, 325 

Behrnauer, W. F. A., Die 
Vierzig Veziere oder weisen 
Meister, 20m 1 

Benares, Brahmadatta, King 
of, 304 

Benfey, 75 ; Orient und Occi- 
dent, 2m 2 , 28m 1 , 70m 2 , 76, 
115m 1 , 150; Paiichalantra, 
28n\ 62, 69m 1 , 76, 115m 1 , 

Beria caste, 51m 

Beriya caste, 51m 

Bhadra river, philosopher's 
stone thrown into the, 
161m 1 , 162m 

Bhadrarupa, a witch, 196 

Bhagavata reformation, a 
history of the saints of 
the, 280 

Bhukta-mala, Nabhadasa, 280 

Bhama, wife of Krishna, 232 

Bhandari (barber caste), lOOn 1 

Bharata, race of, 66 

Bharunda birds, 61 

Bharvads in Gujarat, marriage 
rites among the, 37 

Bhat woman, Bahucharajl the 
spirit of a martyred, 321 

BhavanI (Durga, ParvatI, 
Gaurl, etc.), 263, 324 

Bhavasarman and the two 
witches, 193-195 

Bheshajachandra, friend of 
Ajara, 246, 248 

Bhikkhu, 321 

Bhil (one of a wild tribe), 
161m 1 

Bhishagratna trans, of the 
Susruta Samhitd, 51m 

Bhuta (goblin), 306, 306m 1 

Bihangama and Bihangami, 
the two immortal birds, 29n 

Birlinger, Aus Schivaben, 150, 
218m 1 

Blade, J., Contes de Gascog?ie, 

Blakeborough, R., The Hand 
of Glory (ed. J. Fairfax- 
Blakeborough), 152 

Bloomfield, "On the Art of 
Entering Another's Body," 
Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. t 
83m 1 ; "Art of Stealing 
in Hindu Fiction," Amer. 
Journ. Phil., 153; "The 
Character and Adventures 
of Muladeva," Proc. Amer. 
Philos. Soc, 207m 2 ; "On 
False Ascetics and Nuns," 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., 
211m 1 ; Life and Stoi'ies of 
Pdrcvanatha, 63, 280 ; Sacred 
Books of the East, 320 

Boccaccio, Decameron, 44m 1 , 
69m 1 , 118m 1 , 126 

Bodhisatta, the, 304, 305 

B odhis attva Avadana, 
Kshanti Jataka," 20m 1 

Bodhisattva (a future Buddha), 
252m 2 

Bodhisattva, a (one whose 
essence is perfect know- 
ledge), 252, 252m 2 

Boghaz-Koi, 257 

Bohemia, disease - transfer- 
ence in, 38 

Bonn's edition of Herodotus, 

Bohn's edition of Theocritus, 



B' htlingk and Roth, Diction- 
-iry, 45ft 1 , 158ft 1 , 195ft 2 , 
245ft 1 

B }a (country beer), 326 

B khara, fire customs among 
the Tajiks of, 131ft 3 

B lling, G. M., " Disease and 
Medicine (Vedic)," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 52ft 

E )logna or Alexandria, a 
virgin Lucia of, 20ft 1 

I )lte, J., and G. Polivka, 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Bruder 
Grimm, 76, 105ft, 188ft, 204, 
227ft, 238, 272ft 1 , 280 

Folton, H. C, Catalogue of 
Works on Alchemy and Chem- 
istry exhibited at the Grolier 
Club, New York, 162ft 

Bompas, Folklore of the Sanial 
Parganas, 76, 182 

Bor (zizyphus jujnba), 323 


Bori (spirit), 38 

Bos grunniens (Tibetan yak), 
84ft 1 , 85ft 

Botticher's invention of 
Dresden porcelain, 161ft 1 

Eouchera, the goddess, 321 

Bouchet, Pere, Lettres difi- 
cantes, 201 

Brahma, 22 

Brahmadatta, 109 ; King of 
Benares, 304 ; a merchant's 
son, 29-32 

Brahmanavara, 157 

Brand, Popular Antiquities, 
131ft 3 , 152 

Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable, 161ft 1 

Brihaspati, preceptor of the 
'gods, 88, 88ft 2 

Brisard, Charles, L ' Eternue- 
ment, 315 

Brisson, De Regio Persarum 
Principatu, 329 

Brockhaus text, 15ft 1 , 43ft 2 , 
25ft 1 , 83ft 3 , 96ft 1 , 155ft 1 , 
159ft 3 , 167ft 1 , 184ft 1 , 208ft 1 , 
241ft 3 , 246ft 1 

Brown, George, Melanesians 
and Polynesians, 314, 314ft 1 

Browne, Sir Thomas, Vulgar 
Errors, 30ft 1 , 167ft 2 

Buddha, 18, 19, 50ft 1 , 304; 
Amoghasiddha, Tara, wife 
of the, 2ft 2 ; (bridegroom 
of Tara), 2, 2ft 2 ; a future 
{bodhisattva), 252ft 2 

Buddhivara, 209 

Burlingame, E. W., "The 
Act of Truth," Journ. Boy. 
As. Soc, 179, 182 

Burton, R. F., Nights, 56, 60, 
68ft 1 , 76, 95ft 1 , 101ft, 105ft, 
115ft 1 , 118ft 1 , 203, 227ft, 
260ft 1 - 2 , 268ft 1 , 279, 308, 
308ft 4 , 328; "Outidanos," 
Priapeia, 328 ; translation 
of Basile's Pentamerone, 
20ft 1 , 21ft, 28ft 1 , 48ft 1 , 105ft, 
226ft 2 , 238, 239, 272ft 1 , 285ft 1 , 
292ft 1 ; Wit and Wisdom 
from West Africa, 313, 
313ft 3 

Busk, Sagas from the Far 
East, 48ft 1 , 75, 142ft 1 , 182, 
195ft 1 , 204, 218ft 1 

Buxton, " Some Navajo Folk- 
Tales," Folk-Lore, 268ft 1 

Cabanes, "Dieu vous benisse! 

Origine d'un dicton," 

Moeurs intimes du passe, 315 
Cahier, P., Characteristiques 

des Saints, 20ft 1 
Callaway, H., The Religious 

System of the Amazulu, 313, 

Campbell, Notes on the Spirit 

Basis of Belief and Custom, 

Campbell, Tales from the 

West Highlands, 195ft 1 , 205, 

231ft 1 , 237, 272ft 1 
Campbell Thompson, 319 ; 

Semitic Magic, 38 
Camphor Islands, 260ft 1 
Candelifera, the goddess, 

131ft 3 
Capo (capon), 319 
Carnoy, E., Litterature Orale 

de la Picardie, 105ft, 311ft 5 
[Carpenter, G. H., "Ichneu- 
mon"] Ency. Brit., 115ft 1 
Castor and Pollux, 258 
Castro (castrate), 319 
Catullus, Carmina, 311, 311ft 2 
Chalisa (fortieth day), 323 
Chamara (chowrie), 84ft 1 
Chandala ascetic, 10-11 ; 

caste, 116; Trisanku, the, 

Chandamahasena, father of 

Vasavadatta, 68, 87 
Chandrakanta (moonstone), 53, 

53ft 2 
Chandrama, the moon - god, 

161ft 1 
Chandrasvamin, 190 
Chandra Varma, 161ft 1 

ChandravatI, 274, 275 

Charan woman, Bahucharajl 
the spirit of a martyred, 

Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, 
221ft 1 ; Rime of Sir Topas, 
82ft 2 ; Squire's 'Tale, 40ft 1 

Chauvin, V., Bibliographic des 
Ouvrages Arabes, in 1 , 21n, 
68ft 1 , 76, 82ft 2 , 105ft, 127, 
167ft 2 , 191ft 1 , 204, 227ft, 
260ft 1 , 272ft 1 ; "Les Ob- 
stacles Magiques," Revue 
des Trad. Pop., 238 

Chedi, the land of, 128 

Chelm, Rabbi Elijah of, 59 

Chenery, T., The Assemblies 
ofAl-Hariri, 278 

Cheti, 225ft 2 

Chevalier a la Trappe, 
Fabliau, 82ft 2 

Chhatrapati, a name of Devi, 

Chilli, Shaikh, Folk-Tales of 
Hindustan, 272ft 1 

Chimta (iron pincers), 100ft 1 

Chirayus and his minister, 
story of King, 252-256 

Chitari caste (painters), 306 

Chitrakuta, 24, 257 

Chitralekha, 81-84 

Choice (short jacket), 326 

Chowrie, 84, 84ft 1 , 85ft 

Chowry, 84ft 1 

Chullavagga, the, 321 

Chunval, Bahuchara vener- 
ated at, 322, 323 

Clouston, Book of Noodles, 
231ft 1 ; Flowers from a 
Persian Garden, 167ft 2 ; A 
Group of Eastern Romances 
and Stories, 118ft 1 ; Popular 
Tales and Fictions, 56, 76, 
133ft 1 , 204, 227ft, 238 

Cochin-China, disease-trans- 
ference in, 38 

Coelho, Contos Popular es 
Portuguezes, 30ft 1 , 48ft 1 , 
191ft l , 238, 272ft 1 

Cole, J., "Notes on the 
Wagogo of German East 
Africa," Journ. Anth. Inst., 

Colebrooke, Essays, 37 

Conway. M. D., Mystic Trees 
and Flowers, 154 

Coomaraswamy, A. K., 
Treatise of Al-Jazari on 
Automata, 58 

Cordier, Yule and, The Book 
ofSer Marco Polo, 85ft, 201, 



Cordier and Yule continued 
202, 307, 307m 1 , 329; Cathay 
and the Way Thither, 57, 
85m, 329 

Cosmas of Alexandria, Topo- 
graphia Christiana, 84m 1 , 85m 

Cosquin, E., Conies Populaires 
de Lorraine, 76, 227m, 238; 
Etudes Fo/kloriques, 212m 1 , 
238; "La Legende du 
Page de Sainte Elisabeth," 
Etudes Folkloriques, 280 ; 
" Les Mongols et leur 
Pretendu Role," Etudes 
Folkloriques, 204 

Cox, Mythology of the Aryan 
Nations, 28m 1 , 272m 1 

Crane, Italian Popular Tales, 

Crawley, A. E., "Chastity," 
Hastings' Ency. Eel. Eth., 
172m 2 ; [" Magical Circle "] 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Creighton, Ency. Bibl., 38 

Crooke, W., * "Burial of 
Suicides at Cross-roads," 
Folk-Lore, 37; "Charms 
and Amulets (Indian)," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
37; "King Midas and his 
Ass's Ears," Folk-Lore, 
188/1 ; Popular Religion and 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, 
37, 40m 2 , 121m 1 , 142m 1 , 151, 
152, 161m 1 , 185m 1 , 218m 1 , 
247m 1 , 263m 2 , 272m 1 , 306m 2 ; 
"Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, 204, 
208m 1 , 227m, 258; Tribes 
and Castes of the North- 
western Provinces and Oudh, 
101m, 325 

Crores of gold, 298 

Ctesibius, 56 

Cunningham, General, 90m 1 ; 
Ancient Geography of India, 
172m 1 , 184m 1 

Catch, Pavayas in, 322 

Daedalus, the Greek archi- 
tect, 56 

Daityas, enemies of the gods, 

Dakshina, one of the five 
Vedic fires, 160m 1 

DamayantI, 225m 2 

Dames, M. Longworth, 
" Balochi Tales," Folk- 
Lore, 182; The Book of 
Duartc Barbosa, 329 

Dana ("giving" and "cut- 
ting''), 159m 1 , 214m 1 
Dantada worms, 51m 
Darbha grass, 263 
Dasa (tenth day), 323 
Dasent, Tales from the Fjeld, 

76 ; Popular Tales from the 

Norse, 104m 1 , 205 
David, King, 172m, 251, 277 
Day, L. B., Folk-Talcs of 

Bengal, 29m, 62, 280 
Delhi, 90m 1 
Delphinius (form of Apollo), 

Demaratus, 126 
Devadasa, 7, 8 
Devajnanin, 73, 79 
Devaprabha, 177, 178 
Devasena, 44, 53, 54 
Devasena and Unmadini, 

story of, 111-112 
Devi (Durga, Parvati, Gaurl, 

etc.), 306, 321 
Dhanapalita (wealth - pre- 
served), 44, 44m 3 
Dhanapara, Queen, 254 
Dharmadatta and his wife 

Nagas>i, story of, 7-8. 
Dhol or dhole (small drum), 

324, 326 
Dhumapara, 223, 228 
Dhuma^ikha, brother of 

Agni&kha, 227, 228, 231 
Dinars, 119, 120 
Diodorus, 116m 
Dioscuri, the, 272m 1 
Dirghayus (" long life "), 306 
Divyavadana, the, 180 
Dohada motif, 60 
Domba, 211m 1 
t)onnerkeil aussehendes Werk- 

zeug, Ein wie ein (lilavajra), 

158m 1 
Doutte, E., Magie et Religion 

dans CAfrique du Nord, 202 
Dozon, A., Contes Albanais, 

Draupadi, 26m 1 
Dridhavarman, King, 97, 98, 

102, 104 
Drona, Kripi, wife of, 97 
Dubois, Hindu Manners, 

Customs and Ceremonies, 

306, 306m* 
Dunlop, History of Fictioti 

(Liebrecht's trans.), 82m 2 , 

285m 1 
Duppy (a Jamaican spirit), 202 
Durga (Parvati, Gaurl, etc.), 

28m 1 , 186, 263, 264, 266m 1 , 

267, 268, 269, 271 

Durgaprasad text, 12m 1 , 15m 1 , 
43m 2 , 50m 1 , 81m 1 , 83m 3 - 
94m 1 , 96m 1 , 148m 3 , 159m*, 
208m 1 , 225m 1 , 241m 3 , 244m 3 , 
246m 1 , 298m 1 

Durva grass, 254m 1 

Durvasas and Kunti, 8, 8m 1 , 

Dushana and Khara, race of, 
49, 49m 1 

Dushyanta, 98, 124 

DvaravatI, 82, 83 

Dyaus, the Sky Father or 
Heaven, 257 

Dyce, A., Glossary to Shake- 
speares Works, 154 

Dyer, T. F. Thiselton-, Folk- 
Lore of Plants, 154 

Ebden, H., "A Few Notes, 
with reference to ' The 
Eunuchs' to be found in 
the large Households of 
the State of Rajpootana," 
The Indian Annals of Medical 
Science, 325 

Egypt, ichneumon venerated 
in ancient, 115m 1 , 116m 

Elisha and the dead child, 
308m 3 

Ellis, Havelock, Studies in the 
Psychology of Sex, 328 

Ellis, Metrical Romances, 272m 1 

Elworthy, Horns of Honour, 

England, disease - transfer- 
ence in, 38 

Englebelmer (Somme), 311, 

Enthoven, R. E., Folk-Lore of 
Bombay, 315 ; Tribes and 
Castes of Bombay, 322 

Ephesus, Artemis of, 327 

Epibaterius, 258 

Erythrebolus, 171m 1 

Evvovxos (eunuch), 319 

Euphrates, 278 

Euryalus (form of Apollo), 

Fairfax-Blakeborough, J., ed. 
of R. Blakeborough's The 
Hand of Glory, 152 

Farnell, Cult of the Greek- 
States, 328 

Fassel, Rabbi H. B., New* 
Derusch Vortrdge, 59 

Fatada class of eunuchs, 321 

Fausboll ed. of the Jatakas, 
4m 3 , 292m 1 



F wcett [" Basivis : Women 
who through Dedication to 
a Deity assume Masculine 
Privileges"], Journ. Anth. 
Soc. Bomb., 327 

p jrguson, J., Bibliotheca 
Chemica, 162ft 

I errand, G., Relations de 
Voyages et Textes Geo- 
graphiques Arabes, 260ft 1 

I ijians, sneezing customs 
among the, 314 

1 leyder, 56 

] lorence, plague of, 311 

1 ontaine, La, Fables de la 
Fontaine, 250; Le Petite 
Diable de Papefiguiere,33n 3 ; 
La Vie d'Esope le Phrygien, 

Forbes, Ras Mala (ed. H. G. 
Rawlinson), 86ft 1 , 322 

Foulet, L., "Le Roman de 
Renard," Bibliotheque de 
I'icole des Hautes Etudes, 

Frazer, J. G., trans, of Apollo- 
dorus, 258; The Belief in 
Immortality, 314, 314ft 2 ; 
Folk-Lore of the Old Testa- 
ment, 153; Golden Bough, 
38, 142W 1 , 151, 153, 203, 
314, 314ft 6 , 328; "Indo- 
nesians," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 313, 313ft 5 
Frere, Old Deccan Days, 28ft 1 , 

52ft, 62, 238 
Fresnoy, Lenglet du, Histoire 
de la Philosophic Hermetique, 
Freytag, G., Arabum Pro- 
verbia, 279 

Gaal, M'drchen der Magyaren, 

48ft 1 , 167ft 2 , 226ft 2 , 238 
Gagga-Jataka, the, 304, 304ft 1 
Gaikwar of Baroda forbids 

castration, 323 
Galli, eunuch- priests, 327,328 
Gallus, daughter of, 21ft 
Gandhara, 142ft 1 
Gandharva, 170, 177, 178, 

Gandharva form of marriage, 

65, 82, 121, 124, 146, 196, 

Gandharvas, 139 
Ganesa (son of Siva and 

Parvati), 155, 155ft 2 , 228, 

Ganges river, 10, 11, 22, 

220, 241 

Ganika (prostitute), 207ft 2 

Gafija, 321 

Garhapatya, one of the five 

Vedic fires, 160ft 1 
Garstang, Strong and, The 

Syrian Goddess, 328 
Gar'uda bird, 56, 67, 170, 210 
Gaster, Dr, 59 ; Exempla of 
the Rabbis, 63, 118ft 1 , 172ft, 
Gaurl (Durga, Parvati, etc.), 
81, 82, 147, 155, 157, 163, 
163ft 1 , 164, 165, 166, 183, 
Gautama, 97, 126 
Gautama Dharma Sastra, the, 

Geber's researches on the 

properties of acids, 161ft 1 
Gellius, Aul., Noctes Attica;, 

Gerarde, Herbal, 154 
Germany, fear of the night- 
hag in, 131ft 3 
Ghassan, 278 
Gibb, E. J. W., The History of 

the Forty Vezirs, 20ft 1 , 204 
Gibbon, Decline and Fall of 

the Roman Empire, 329 
Giles, Strange Stories from a 

Chinese Studio, 191ft 1 
Gill, W. W., Myths and Songs 
from the South Pacific, 314, 
314ft 3 
Gladwin, Persian Moonshee, 

118ft 1 
Glauber, Dr, 161ft 1 
Godabole, N. B., "The Story 
of Chandranasya," Ind. 
Ant., 280 
Goethe, 40ft 2 
Gokarna, 108 

Golem (something rolled to- 
gether, a lump), 59; of 
Jewish legend, the, 59 
Gomme, Lawrence, " Mutila- 
tions," Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth., 21ft 
Gomukha, son of Ityaka, 136, 
137, 140-142, 144, 145, 155, 
156, 167, 169, 183, 200, 
259-262, 275, 281, 285, 290, 
293, 295, 297-299 
Gomukha ("ox-face"), 240ft 1 
Gonds, unfavourable omens 

among the, 86ft 1 
Gonzenbach, Sicilianische 
M'drchen, 76, 104ft 2 , 124ft 1 , 
187ft 3 , 211ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 222ft 1 , 
225ft 2 , 226ft 2 , 230ft 2 , 236, 
259ft 2 , 272ft 1 

Goonetilleke, W. ["Sinhalese 
Folk- Lore"], The Oriental- 
ist, 76 
Gotraja (Gentile), 46ft 1 
Gould, Baring-. See Baring- 
Gray, Louis H., "Eunuch," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
319, 320, 328 
Green, Modern Arabic Stories, 

Grierson, G. A., "Gleanings 
from the Bhakta - Mala," 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 280; 
"The Water of Life," Folk- 
Lore, 253ft 1 ; Stein and, 
Hatims Tales, 280 
Grimm, Irische M'drchen, 30ft 1 , 
188ft ; Kinder-und Haus- 
mdrchen, 28ft 1 , 75, 104ft 2 , 
187ft 3 , 188ft, 189ft 1 , 226ft 2 , 
227ft, 231ft 1 , 237, 272ft 1 ; 
Teutonic Mythology, 311ft 4 
Grohmann, Sagen aus Bohmen, 

133ft 1 
Grose, Francis, Provincial 
Glossary, with a Collection 
of Local Proverbs and Popu- 
lar Superstitions, 150 
Grossler, Sagen aus der Graf- 

schaft Mansfeld, 227ft 
Growse, F. S., 90ft 1 ; Mathurd: 

A District Memoir, 142ft 1 
Grundtvig, D'dnische Volks- 

mdrchen, 205 
Guatemala, disease-transfer- 
ence in, 38 
Gubernatis, De, Zoological 
Mythology, 92ft, 104ft 2 , 
187ft 3 , 272ft 1 
Gudhasena, King, 28 
Guest, Lady Charlotte, "The 
Mabinogion," Llyfr Coch O 
Hergest, 205 
Guhyaki (yakshim), 189 
Gujarat, eunuchs in, 321. 325; 
marriage rites among the 
Bharvads of, 37 ; sneezing 
superstitions in, 307 
Guna (string and virtue), 1ft 1 , 

240ft 2 
Gunas, the six measures of 

security, 143, 143ft 3 
Gunavara, Queen, 218-221, 

Gymnopaediae, the, 126 

Hagen, Helden-Sagen, 130ft 1 , 
185ft 1 , 191ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 233ft 1 , 
268ft 1 



Hahn, Griechische u. Albanes- 

ische Mdrchen, 204 
Hajar, 278 

Hajjam (barber caste), 100m 1 
Hale Wortham, Rev. B., 

"Metrical Version of the 

Story of Harisarman," 

Journ. Rot/. As. Soc, 77-80 
Haliburton, R. G., New 

Materials for the History oj 

Man, 315 
Halliday, W. R., "The Force 

of Initiative in Magical 

Conflict," Folk-Lore, 204; 

Greek Divination, 303, 303 m 1 
Hamilton, Journey through 

Mysore, Canara and Mala- 
bar, 201 
Hammer- Purgstall, Literatur- 

geschichte der Araber, 278 
Hari (Vishnu), 176, 210 
Haripriya (blockhead), 70m 2 
Harisarman (blockhead), 70n 2 
Harisarman, the Brahman, 

70-73, 75-80 
Harisinha, King, 144 
HariSkha, son of Rumanvat, 

136, 218, 235, 242 
Harivansa, the, 9m 1 
Harris, Dictionary of the 

Natural History of the Bible, 

Harris, J. Rendel, Ascent of 

Olympus, 153; "The Origin 

of the Cult of Aphrodite," 

Bull. John Rylands Library, 

Harshagupta, 172, 173 
Hartland, E. S., Legend of 

Perseus, 204, 227n, 263m 2 
Hastings' Encyclopaedia of 

Religion and Ethics, 2 In, 

37, 52m, 152, 162n, 170m 1 , 

172m 2 , 188^, 203, 253m, 

313m 5 , 314, 319, 320, 328 
Haughton, H. L., Sport and 

Folk-Lore in the Himalaya, 

Hausas, sneezing customs 

among the, 312 
Havelock Ellis, Studies in the 

Psychology of Sea:, 328 
Heliodorus, JFAhiopica, 112m 1 
Helmont, Van, researches on 

the nature of gas, 161m 1 
Hemachandra, Parisish tapar- 

van (ed. Hertel), 180, 

207m 2 
Hemaprabha, King, 156, 159, 

163, 164, 166-168, 294 
Hemapura, 297 

Henderson, Folk-Lore of the 
Northern Counties, 150, 195m 1 

Henricus Bebelius, Facetiae, 75 

Hephaistos, tripods, bellows 
and golden handmaids of, 

Heracleopolis, centre of the 
worship of the ichneumon, 

Heracles and Iphiclus, 127, 
272m 1 

Hermes, the flying sandals of, 

Hero of Alexandria, Auto- 
matopoietica, 56, 57 ; Catop- 
trica, 56, 57 ; Piieumatica, 

Herodotus, 116m, 126, 127, 
171m 1 , 292m 1 , 328 

Herpestes ichneumon (ichneu- 
mon), 115m 1 , 116m 

Herpestes mungo (mongoose), 
115m 1 , 116m 

Hertel, J., "Die Erziihlung 
vom Kaufmann Campaka," 
Zeit. d.d. morg. Gesell., and 
Indische Erzahler,28Q ; trans, 
of Hemachandra's Parisis- 
htaparvan, 180, 207m 2 ; 
" Ueber die Suvabahut- 
tarlkatha," Festschrift fur 
Ernst Windisch, 62, 180 

Hetaerai (prostitutes), 207n 2 

Hewat, M. L. [" Bantu Folk- 
Lore"], Folk-Lore, 313, 313m 2 

Hierapolis, Astarte of, 327 

Hljda, eunuch class, 321, 324, 

Hijra, eunuch class, 321 

Himalavas, 33, 97m 1 , 184, 189, 
196, 274, 276 

Himavat, 156 

Hippomenes, the golden 
apples of, 238 

Hirt, Indogermanen, 319 

Hitopadesa, the, 28m 1 

Holl festival, 37 

Homa-lajd (sacrificial grain), 

Homer, Iliad, 229m 1 , 277; 
Odyssey, 138m 1 , 208m 1 , 225m 2 , 
310, 310m 2 

Howitt, A. W., Native Tribes 
of South-East Australia, 151 

Hughli river, 172m 1 

Huligamma,.the goddess, 326, 

Hunt, M.. Grimm s Household 
Tales, 76, 104m 2 , 105m 

Hurgronje, C. Snouck, Mekka, 

Hutton, J. H., " Folk-Tales 
of the AngamI N\;<jas of 
Assam," Folk-Lore, 105m ] 

Hydaspes river (Vitasta or 
Jhelum), 2, 2a 1 

Iatromantis (form of Apollo),! 

Icarus, son of Daedalus, 56 
Idhlozhi [manes), 313 
Ikshumati, 97 
Ikshuvati river, 29 
Imra-al-Kais, 277 
Incubones or treasure-guarding] 

spirits, 133m 1 
India, diamond kingdom ofj 

Central, 62, 63 
Indlvarasena, 264, 267-270, j 

Indra, the king of the gods,] 

5, 6, 11m 2 , 24, 40, 42, 66, ! 

88, 126, 170m 2 , 228m 2 , 241,1 

242m 1 , 253, 254 
Indradatta, story of King,? 

Indus river, 142m 1 
Iphiclus, Heracles and, 127, 1 

272m 1 
IravatI, 263, 273 
Irubriani, Novellaja Milanese,] 

Ishtar, Babylonian worship 

of, 253m 1 
Ityaka, 136, 240 

Jarlr, son of 'Abd al-Masih 

(Mutalammis), 277 
Jarrett, A'in-i-Akbari, 162m 
Jason and Medea, story of, 

Jatakas, the, 60, 179, 250, 

304m 1 , 306 
Jdtarupa ("having assume! 

a form "), 148m 5 
Java, burglar's custom in, 151 
Jensen, Zeitschrifl fur Assyriol 

logic, 319, 329 
Jeto, the first Pavaya, 322 
Jhelum river (Hydaspes or 

Vitasta), 2, 2m 1 
Jihvii, maid called, 72, 72m 2 , 

Jihva (tongue), 72, 72m 2 , 73 
Jlvadatta, 175 
Jivahara, 254, 256 
Jlvaka Komarabhachcha, the 

Buddhist physician, 50m 1 
Jjlavavijna ("the knowing 

one," "the astrologer"), 

72m 1 
Joab, 277 



J< lly, J., " Disease and 
Medicine (Hindu)," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 59ft 

J> seph, 153 

J< seph us, Wars of the Jews, 

J lg, B.,Kal?niikische M'drchen, 
1 82 ; Die M'drchen des Siddhi- 
Kiir, 56, 62, 63, 75, 204; 
Mongolische M'drchen, 182 

J ivenal on eunuchs, 328 

B abus, brother of 'Amr ibn 
Hind, 278 

K adallgarbha, story of, 97- 
102, 103-106 

Kaden, Unter den Oliven- 
bdumen, 48ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 218ft 1 , 

Kah-Gyur, the, 50?t 

Kailasa, 11, 296 

Kaindle, R. F., "Zauber- 
glaube bei den Rutenen," 
Globus, 151 

Kala (accomplishment, and a 
sixteenth of the moon's 
diameter), 140, 140ft 1 , 
164ft 1 

Kala-ka-serai, 90ft 1 

Kalakuta mountain, 65 

Kalakuta poison, 176, 176ft 1 

Kalidasa, Vikramorvasi, 25ft 2 , 
84ft 1 

Katila and Dimna, 126 

Kalinga, land of, 170 

Kalingadatta, King, 2, 3, 5, 
6, 8, 11, 17, 18, 23, 27, 41, 
42, 64, 87, 90 

Kalingasena, daughter of 
Kalingadatta, 18, 27, 28, 32, 
34-36, 39-43, 55, 58, 64-66, 
68, 74, 81, 84-93, 96, 106- 
108, 113-114, 120-125, 128- 
133, 135-140, 145-148 

Kallas, O., " Achtzig Mar- 
chen der Ljutziner Esten," 
Verhandlungen d. Gelehrten 
Estnischen Gesellschaft, 34ft 

Kalna, 172ft 1 

Kalpa (measure of time), 138, 

Kama, the God of Love, 26, 
27, 64, 97, 133 

KamalavatI, 83ft 1 

KambuvatI, 274 

Kanchanasringa, 156, 167 

Kanchl, 282, 286 

Kanghi (comb), 100ft 1 

Kanva, the hermitage of, 

Kapek, Karel, 59 


Kar (charmed circle of Hindu 

astrologers), 201 
Kara (hand and proboscis). 

214ft 1 
Kara and Karl (ring, bracelet), 

Kara (prison), 201 
Karabhaka, 13 
Karpatika [dependent of a 

king], 207ft 1 
Karpuraka, King, 260, 291, 

296, 299, 300 
Karpurasambhava (camphor- 
produced), 260, 260ft 1 , 261, 

290, 291, 294, 300 
Karpurika, daughter of Kar- 
puraka, 259-262, 275, 281, 

285, 291, 293-296, 298- 

Karsha (scratch, furrow, or 

trench), 201 
Kartika, 147 
Karttik (November), 37 
Karttikeya, son of Siva and 

Parvati, 284 
Kaserudvipa, 181 
Kashmir, 142ft 1 , 220 
Kasi, 304 
Kasyapa, 25, 27 
Kat (to surround), 201 
Kataka (a zone), 201 
Kathakoga, the, Tawney, 60, 

61, 62, 207ft 2 , 279 
Katharupe, 81ft 1 
Hatha SaritSagara, the, Soma- 

deva, 33ft 3 , 268ft 1 , 280 
Kathiawar, Pavayas in, 322 
Kauravas, 66 
Kausambi, 66, 67, 85, 90ft 1 , 

96, 107, 149, 155, 166, 

296, 297 
Kautilya, Arthasastra (trans. 

Shamasastry), 142ft 2 
Kavyalankara, Queen, 263- 

Keightley, Tales of Popular 

Fictions, 204 
[Keller] Romans des Sept 

Sages, 82ft 2 
Kennedy, Fireside Stones, 76 
Khadgadanshtra, 269-272, 275 
Khan, palace of the Great, 

Khandesh, Pavayas in, 322 
Khantivadi-Jataka, the, 20ft 1 
Khara and Dushana, race of, 

49, 49ft 1 
Kharaputta-Jataka, the, 60 
Khari (three bushels), 226, 

226ft 1 
Khasua class of eunuchs, 321 

Khoja class of eunuchs, 321, 

Kipling, Rikki - Tikki - Tavi, 

115ft 1 
Kirtisena, story of, 44-54 
Klauber, "Assyr. Beamten- 

tum," Leipzigersem.Studien, 

Knebel, J., "Amulettes 

javanaises," Tijdschrift 

voor Indische Taal-Land en 

Volkenkunde, 151 
Knott, J., "Origin of the 

Custom of Salutation after 

Sneezing," St Louis Medical 

Review, 315 
Kohler, Dr, 187ft 3 ; Orient und 

Occident, 124ft 1 , 237, 272ft 1 
Kopp, Hermann, Die A Ichemie 

in alter er und neuerer Zeit, 

Kotttw (strike), 319 
Koraiya contest, 38 
Korkus, unfavourable omens 

among the, 86ft 1 
Kosai river, 172ft 1 
Kosala, 7 

Kosam (Kausambi), 90ft 1 
Kremer, A. von, JEgypten, 

Kripi, wife of Drona, 97 
Krish (to draw), 201 
Krishna, 228ft 2 , 232 
Krishnaji,7?/tfrc-?rca/<2, 86ft 1 
Krita,'King, 19 
Krodhavarman, 176 
' ' Kshanti Jataka," Bodhisattva 

Avadana, 20ft 1 
Kshemankara, Prince, 180 
Kshetra (holy field, or sacred 

spot), 220, 220ft 1 
Kuhn, Westfdlische M'drchen, 

132ft, 152, 187ft 3 , 227ft 
Kundina, 9 
Kunti, 8, 8ft 1 , 23 
Kuntibhoja, 23 
Kurukshetra, 228ft 2 
Kurus, 65 
Kusa grass, 98 
Kuvera, the God of Wealth, 

40, 211 

La Fontaine. See Fontaine, 

Lakshmana, 201 

Lakshmi, Goddess of Pros- 
perity, 167, 260, 300 

Lalaun ("May you live!"), 

Laliya, 161ft 1 




Lambert, L., "Contes Popu- 
lates du Languedoc," 

Revue des Langues Romanes, 

Lane, Manners and Customs 

of the Modem Egyptians, 

308, 308/ 2 
Lang, Leaf and Myers, trans. 

of Homer's Iliad, 277 
iMukikagni, one of the three 

fires, 160ft 1 
Lavinium, 187 3 
Leaf and Myers, Lang, trans. 

of Homer's Iliad, 277 
Leber, Collection des meilleures 

Dissertations, 309ft 2 
Lee, A. C, The Decameron, 

its Sources and Analogues, 

44a 1 , 118n l , 127 
Leonardo da Vinci, 56 
Leutychides, 126 
Levant, mandrake a native 

of the, 153 
Levque, Mythes et Lcgendes 

de r I tide et de la Perse, 

IJchi, 218ft 1 

Lidzbarski, Geschichten und 
Lieder aus den neuara- 
mdischen Handschriften zu 
Berlin, 76, 280 

Liebrecht, " Essay on the 
Sources of Barlaam and 
Josaphat," Zur Volkskunde, 
20k 1 ; trans, of Dunlop's 
History of Fiction, 82n 2 , 
286ft 1 ; Zur Volkskunde, 
44n\ 131ft 3 , 187ft 3 , 210ft 3 , 
225ft 2 , 231m 1 

Llliivajra (ein wie ein Donner- 
keil aussehendes Werkzeug), 
158, 158a 1 

IJnga of Siva, Mahakala a 
famous, 183, 183ft 1 , 184 

Lohanagara, 15 

London, Plague of, 311 

Low, Udlaghat I>istrict Gazet- 
teer, 10bi l 

Low, the Rabbi, 59 

Lucia of Bologna or Alex- 
andria, the virgin, 20ft 1 

Lurian. I)r Dea Syria, 167a 2 , 
327, 328; Hermotimus, 82 2 ; 
Philopsrudes, 40ft 2 

Lucilio, the widow's foolish 
son. 76 

Lyall. C J . Translations of 
Ancient Arabic Poetry, 278 

Lycerus, King of Babylon, 

Lykia, 277 

Macculloch, J. A., "Austeri- 
ties," Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Kth., 21/*: Childhood of 
Fiction, 204, 221 n, 238, 
253ft 1 ; "Hand," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 152ft; 
" Horns," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 188; "Nose," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
314, 314ft* 

Maclean, "Chastity," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 172n 2 

Madanadaiishtra, 269-271,275 

Madanamala, 207, 208, 209, 
211, 212, 214-217 

Madanamanchuka, Book VI, 

Madanamanchuka, daughter 
of Kalingasena, 135, 140, 
144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 
155, 168, 294, 298, 300 

Madanavali, Queen, 61 

Madanavega, King of the 
Vidyadharas, 64, 65, 121- 
125, 128-130, 146 

Madhava, 7 

Madhyadesa, 97, 97ft 1 

Madhyantika, 142ft 1 

Madva, 280 

Magadha, 44 

Magnus, Albertus, 56 

Mahabhdrata, the, 115ft 1 , 181, 

182, 247ft 1 , 250, 258, 320, 

Mahakala (an epithet, and a 
famous linga of Siva), lift 1 , 

183, 183ft 1 , 184 
Mahdvagga, the, 321 
Mahdvastu Avaddna, the, 20ft 1 , 

244ft 1 
Mahisha, the Asura, 186 
Mainaka, the mountain, lln 2 
Majoon (a confection of 

opium), 326 
Major, R. H., India in the 

Fifteenth Century, 201 
Malay Peninsula, ifire customs 

in the, 131ft 3 
Malaya mountain, 155, 178 
Malcolm, Sir J., Sketches of 

Persia, 76 
Manapara, 286, 287, 289, 

Manasa lake, 163 
Manasavega, 145 
Mandati, or debtor's circle, 

201, 202 
Man^apakshetra, holy field 

named, 220 
Mandara, the Churning moun- 
tain, 83, 83n 2 

Manddras, breasts like clusters 

of, 146 
Manes (idhlozhi), 313 
Mangala (barber caste), 100ft 1 , 

Mankanaka (the hermit), 97, 

98, 105 
Mantra (the power of good 

counsel), 137ft 1 
Mantras, 201 
Manu, 160ft 1 , 320 
Mapes, Gualterus, Nugtt 

Curialium, 210ft 3 
[Margaret of Navarre], Hep- 

tameron, 126 
Margoliouth, Prof. D. S., 179 
Martial, 328 

Martin, Western Islands, 131ft 3 
Marubhuti, son of Yaugan- 

dharayana, 136, 217, 218, 

240-243, 252, 258, 261, 298 
Masalchi (torch-bearer), 100ft 1 
Masan, or ashes from a pyre, 

Maspero, Popular Stories of 

Ancient Egypt, 203, 238, 

250, 268ft 1 
Mast elephant, 175; ichor 

from the temples of a 

(dana), 214ft 1 
Masuccio, Novellino (Waters' 

trans.), 287ft 1 
Masudi, 84ft 1 

Matali, charioteer of Indra, 67 
Mathura, 133, 174, 190, 191 
Matignon, J. J., Superstition, 

Crime, et Misere en Chine, 

Matridatta, 112, 120 
Maya, the Asura, 27, 39, 40, 

43, 65, 74, 87, 93, 138, 139, 

282, 282ft 2 
Mayavati, a science called, 

Means-Lawrence, R., The 

Magic of the Horseshoe, 309ft 1 
Medea, magic car of, 56 
Medusa, Pegasus sprung from 

the headless trunk of, 56 
Menaka, the nymph, 6, 25, 

26, 97, 98, 130 
Menelaus, sneezing legend of, 

Meru, the mountain, 25, 267, 

281, 296 
Mesopotamia considered first 

home of castration, 320 
Mestra's transformation, 

191ft 1 
Mexico, hand superstition in 



M< yer, Kuno, ed. of Old Irish 
"realise on the Law of 
Idamnan, 21ft 

MI ali (barber caste), 100ft 1 

Mi atovic, Serbian Folk-Lore, 

M, 'indapanha, the, 320, 321 

Mi ton, Paradise Lost, 131ft 3 

Mi lerva and Prometheus, 309 

M ios, King, 56 

M lotaur, the, 56 

M tra, B. R., "The Gypsies 
)f Bengal," Memoirs read 
tefore the Anth. Soc. Ldn., 

Mitra, R. L., Account of the 
Buddhist Literature of 
Nepal, 20ft 1 ; Sanskrit 
Literature of Nepal, 244ft 1 

Mitra, S. C. ["Bihari Tales"], 
Tourn. Anth. Soc. Bomb., 250 

Mlechchhas (barbarians, non- 
Aryans), 320 

iMobius, P. J., Ueber die 
Wirkungen der Kastration, 

Modigliani, E., Un viaggio a 
Nias, 314, 314ft 5 

Mohammed, 308 
jMoirai, the three, 28ft 1 
fMoksha, the soul's release 
from further transmigra- 
tion, 4ft 2 

Mokshada, a female hermit, 

oliere, Amphitryon, 127 
omiai, charm named, 152 
onier Williams, 2ft 2 
ontaiglon, Fabliaux, 76 
orin, Henri, "Sur les 
Souhaits en faveur de ceux 
qui eternuent," Mem. de 
VAcad. des Ins., 309ft 2 
orlini, Novellce fabulce et 
comedian, 76 

r richchhakatika, or Clay Cart, 
the, 202, 207ft 2 

MrigavatI, mother of the 
King of Vatsa, 67, 68 

Mukhannas, class of eunuchs, 

[Mukhopadhyaya. Syama 

Charana, 192ft 1 
IMuktapura, 274, 275 

Muktasena, 274, 275 

Muradja d'Ohsson, Tableau 
gen. de I'Empire othoman, 

Muravara, a Turushka named, 

Mutalammis, al-, 277-279 

Myers, Lang, Leaf and, trans, 
of Homer's Iliad, 211 

Nabhadasa, Bhakta-mala, 280 

Nadakuvara, son of Kuvera, 
40, 87, 138 

Nagabala ( Uraria Lago- 
podioides), 120, 120ft 1 

Nagarjuna, 252-256 

Nagasarman, 159. 161 

Nagasri, 7, 8 

Nagavana (grove of snakes), 
garden called, 140, 142, 
142ft 1 

Nahusha, 88 

Nai (barber caste), 100ft 1 , 101ft 

Nala and Damayanti, 225ft 2 

Nandana, the garden of the 
gods, 5, 6, 24, 138 

Nandikshetra, a holy field 
named, 220 

Nao (barber caste), 100ft 1 

Ndrada Dharma Sastra, the, 

Narada the hermit, 145 

Narasinha, King, 209, 215-217 

Naravahanadatta, son of the 
King of Vatsa, 58, 68, 84ft 1 , 
87, 130, 132, 135-140, 142, 
144-147, 149, 156, 164-169, 
178, 183, 200, 217, 218, 
235, 240, 243, 244, 252, 
256, 259-262, 275, 281, 282, 
285, 290, 294-300 

Narayan Tel ("the oil of 
Vishnu "), 152 

Narayana (Vishnu), 109 

Nare, Glossary, 154 

Na-sa-at-ti-ia (Nasatya), 257 

Nasatya (the A3vins), 257, 

Nasikdprabhavas ("nose- 
born"), 257 

[Navarre, Margaret of] Hep- 
tameron, 126 

Neptune and Mestra, 191ft 1 

Nesfield, Brief View of the 
Caste System, 100ft 1 

Ngarigo tribe of S.E. Aus- 
tralia, 151 

Nicholson, R. A., A Literary 
History of the Arabs, 278 

Nicolaides, Contes Licencieux 
de Constantinople et de VAsie 
mineure, 34ft 

Nigrahah (blaming one's re- 
lations without cause), 3ft 1 

Niono (spirit), 313 

Nirasta (castrated), 319 

Nirukta, the, Yaska, 257 

Nirvasabhuja, 221-223, 232 


Nischayadatta, story of, 183- 
190, 193, 195-200 

Nishadas (aboriginal tribes), 
10, 10ft 1 

North-West Provinces, sneez- 
ing customs in, 306 

Norton, "The Life-Index," 
Studies in Honour of Maurice 
Bloomfield, 272ft 1 

November (Karttik), 37 

Odoric, Friar, 57 

Oesterley, Baital Pachisi, 204 

Ohsson, Muradja d', Tableau 

gen. de I'Empire othoman, 

Orbigny, A. d', L'Homme 

Amercain, 314, 314ft 5 
Orestes, Arnobius, Adversus 

Gentes, 21ft 
Oudh, 90/1 1 

Oulios, title of Apollo, 258 
Ovid, Metamorphoses, 188ft, 

191ft 1 , 230rc 3 

Padmadarsana, 246, 248 
Padmasena, 274, 275 
PadmavatI, wife of the King 

of Vatsa, 87, 88, 89, 108, 

113, 123, 137, 298 
Palanca (Spanish pole for 

carrying loads), 14ft 1 
Palangki (Malay and Javanese 

palanquin), 14ft 1 
Palanquin {palankeen), 14, 

14ft 1 
Palkl (Hindustani palanquin), 

Un 1 
Pallanko (Pali palanquin), 14ft 1 
Palmer, A. S., Folk Etymology , 

Panch Mahals, Pavayas in, 

Panchatantra, the, Benfey, 

28ft 1 , 62, 69ft 1 , 76, 115ft 1 , 

Panch- Phul Ranee, 62 
Pandara-Jataka, 179 
Pandava race, 66, 68 
Pandora, Tilottama a kind of, 

6, 6ft 1 
Pandu, 12, 65 
Papankara, 180 
Papasodhana, holy bathing- 
place of, 128 
Papman (Misfortune), eunuch 

offered as victim to, 321 
Paravartmana (by another 

way), 15ft 1 
Pari (round), 14ft 1 
Parikshit, King, 66 



Parisishtaparvan, Hema- 

chandra (Hertel's trans.), 

180, 2U7n a 
Parityagasena, his wicked 

wife and his two sons, 

story of King, 263-275 
Parjas, unfavourable omens 

among the, 86n l 
Parker, tillage Folk-Tales of 

Ceylon, 76, 272m 1 
Parvati (Durga, Gaurl, etc.), 

wife of Siva, 42. 83, 83ft 5 , 

228, 229, 276/1 1 
ParyaHka (a bed), 14ft 1 
Pasiphae, 56 pat a ascetics, 186-188, 

Pasupati, a votary of, 133 

Pataliputra, 44, 159, 161, 209, 
211-213, 217, 206 

Pavaya class of eunuchs, 321- 

Payasa, 21 Sn 1 

Peacock, K., "Sunwise Pro- 
cessions," Folk-Lore, 295ft 2 

Pedroso, Portuguese Folk- 
Tales, 29/i 

Pegasus, origin of. 56 

Penelope, saying of, 310 

Perrault, Le Petit Poucet, 105 

Perseus and Andromeda, 
268a 1 

Petit At, Traditions Indiennes 
du Canada Xord-Ouest, 205 

Phakir Chand, tale of the, 

Phalabhuti, 210n 3 , 277 

Pharaoh Nectanebo, 250 

Pierrugues, Pierre, Glossarium 
Er oti cum Lingua La tin a', 328 

Retro della Valle [Travels], 

Pingalika, 137 

lia, story of the Brah- 
man and the, 32-35 

Pisachai (demons), 32 

Planey, Colin de, Dictionaire 
Infernal, 150 

Plautus, Amphitruo, 127 

Pliny, Nat. Ilist., 112n l , 116/i, 
.,11 > 

Plow, H. H., Das Kind, 328 

Plutarch. 142a 1 

Pluto, a kind of Indian, 
Vessavana, 304, 3<H- - 

Poland. Chelm in. 59 

Polivka, G., J. Bolte and, 
Anmrrkungm zu Kindcr-und 
HausmUrcken der Bru'der 
Grimm 76, I05n, 188, 204, 
227m, 238, 272 ! , 280 

Pollux, Castor and, 258 
Prabandhavintdmini, the, 207ft 2 
Prahhutva (the majesty or 

pre-eminence of the king 

himself), 137ft 1 
Pradyota, father of Padma- 

vati, 87 
Prague, the Golem in, 59 
Prajapati, the Creator, 131, 

131ft 1 , 321 
Prajfiapti, science named, 

64, 64ft 1 
Pramadvara, daughter of 

Menaka, 26, 26/i 2 
Pranadhara, 282-284, 296-300 
Pranadhara and Rajyadhara, 

story of the two brothers, 

Prapanchabuddhi the mendi- 
cant, 209, 210 
Prasenajit, King, 65, 81, 84, 

122, 118-120 
Pratishthana, 206, 207, 241 
Prayaga (Allahabad), 97ft 1 
Preller, Romischc Mythologie, 

133ft 1 
Preta-secca, King of, 21ft 
Prithu, King, 36 
Proitos and Bellerephon, 277 
Prometheus myth, 307ft 3 , 

309, 310 
Propertius, Elegies, 31 In 3 
Prym and Socin, Surische 

Marchen, 191ft 1 , 231ft 1 
Psyche's tasks, 226ft 2 
Purushamedha (human sacri- 
fice), 321 
Pushkalavati (Pushkaravati), 

184 ft 1 
Pushkaravati, 28, 184, 185, 

189, 193, 196 

Quatremere, Hist, des sultans 
mamlouks de VEgypte, 329 

Rabba, 59 

Rabelais [Gargantua], 34ft 

Rachel and the mandrakes, 

Radriguet, M., Lcs Dertiiers 

Sauvages, 314, 314ft 5 
Ragabhanjana, 197 
Raghuvamsa, the, 240ft 2 
Raichur, 327 
Rajadatta, sister of Silavati, 

173-176, 178 
Rajagriha, 279 
RajavaH, 177, 178 
Rajyadhara, a carpenter 

named, 58, 282-285, 290, 


Rakshasa, 267-269, 274: dis- 
guised as a crane, 222 ; 
story of Sringabhujaand the 
daughter of "the, 218-2 

Rakshasas (goblins), 19/t 1 , 
49/1 1 , 50, 267, 268 

RakshasI (female Rakshasa), 
48-50, 52 

Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 
4ft 1 , 30ft 1 , 82ft 2 , 187ft 3 , 20l 
222ft 1 , 225n 2 , 231ft 1 . 238, 
253/i 1 , 268ft 1 ; Schiefner 
and, Tibetan Tales, 50ll 
51ft, 115ft 1 , 180, 181, 188n 

Ram Tel ("Oil of Rama"), 

Rama, 54, 152 

Ramabhadra, 146 

Raman uja, 280 

Ramdyana, the, 49ft 1 , 218ft 1 

Rambha, a nymph, 24-27, 97, 

Rainy dni (pleasant), 244ft 2 

Rapti river, 90ft 1 

Ras Mdla, A. K. Forbes (ed. 
H. G. Rawlinson), 86ft 1 , 

Rasa (passion, and water), 27, 
27ft 1 

Ratan-mdld, Krishnajl, 86ft 1 

Rati, wife of the God of Love, 
24, 27, 130, 131, 132, 133, 
135, 138, 146, 147 

Ratnadatta, 2 

Ratnadhipati and the white 
elephant Svetarasmi, story 
of King, 169-178 

Ratnakuta, 169, 170, 173 

Ratnaprabha, Book VII. 155- 

Ratnaprabha, wife of Naravft- 
hanadatta, 156, 157, 159 
163-169, 183, 200, 217, 236 
294, 298, 299, 300 

Rawlinson, H. G., e< 
Forbes' Ras Mala, 86ft 1 , 
322 ; History of Anciern 
Egypt, 329 

Regiomontanus, 56 

Rehatsek, E., Amusing S 
118ft 1 

Remondino, History of Cir 
cutneision, 328 

Rendel Harris, J., Ascen, 
of Olympus, 153; "Til* 
Origin of the Cul 
Aphrodite," Bull. Join 
Ry lands Library, 153 

Reuben, 153 

Rhys, Welsh Tales, 225ft 2 



R'ys Davids, "Chastity," 
Hastings' Ency. Ret. Eth., 
1 72ft 2 

R eger, C Kastration in 
rechtlicher socialer und vitaler 
Hinsicht, 328 

R ess, E., "Alchemy," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 162ft 

R g-Veda, the, 257 

R shaba mountain, 64, 126 

B shis (holy sages), 1 

J vers, W. H, R., " Primitive 
Orientation," Folk-Lore, 
295ft 2 

hobot (a being with capacity 
for work, but not for think- 
ing), 59 

Roger Bacon, 56; invention 
of gunpowder by, 161m 1 

Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, 

Eohini, 156 

Eoscoe, J., The Baganda, 38 

Ross, H. M., "Alchemy," 
Ency. Brit., 162ft 

Roth, Bbhtlingk and, Dic- 
tionary, 45-w 1 , 158m 1 , 195ft 2 , 
245m 1 

Rouse, W. H. D., The Jataka, 
30471 1 

Rumanvat, 136 

Rupasena, 274, 275 

Rupasikha, daughter of Agni- 
sikna, 223-235 

Ruru, the hermit, 26, 26n 2 

Russell, Tribes and Castes of 
the Central Provinces, 14ft 1 , 
51n, 86ft 1 , 100ft 1 , 101ft, 
306ft 5 , 325 

Sabhya, one of the five Vedic 

fires, 160ft 1 
Sacchetti, Novelle, 118ft 1 
Sachl, wife of Indra, 5, 88 
Sad Dar, the, 307, 307ft 4 
Sadvahinl (beautiful rivers), 

148ft 4 
Sagarapota, 279 
Sahasranlka, father of the 

King of Vatsa, 66, 67 
Sahet-Mahet (Sravastl), 90ft 1 
Sailapura, 267, 269-271 
St Augustine, Confessions, 

6n 2 ; legend of, 250 
Saintyves, Les Conies de Per- 

rault, 105ft, 238 ; L'Eternue- 

ment et le Battlement dans la 

magie V Ethnographic et le 
t Folk-Lore Medical, 309ft 1 
Saiva religion, 2ft 2 
Sakuntala,25,68,98,124, 130 

Sambhu, 163, 163ft 3 
Samoans, sneezing customs 

among the, 314 
Samudradatta, 279-280 
Samudrasena, 46, 47 
Sam vara (congregation or 

sorcery), 195ft 2 
Sangramadatta, 213 
Sanjna, 257 
Sansia caste of wandering 

criminals, unfavourable 

omens among the, 86ft 1 
Santisoma, 137 
Sarabhas (fabulous animals 

with eight feet), 259, 

259ft 1 
Saravega, horse named, 230 
Saree (petticoat), 326 
Sa resi (riSi) ("he who is head 

or chief"), 319 
Sarmishtha, 6 
Sas (cut), 319 
Sastri, Natesa, Dravidian 

Nights, 29ft, 204 
Satanlka, 66 

Satapatha Brahmana, the, 258, 
, 320 

Satdyus (a hundred years), 
, 306 
Satrughna and his wicked 

wife, story of, 141 
Sattva (essence), 252ft 2 
Sattvaslla and the two 

treasures, 157-158 
Savara (one of a wild tribe), 

67, 94, 95, 96 
Savitri, 257 
Saznka ("come quickly"), 

Schiefner and Ralston, Tibetan 

Tales, 50ft 1 , 51ft, 115ft 1 , 

180, 181, 188ft 
Schleicher, Lithuanian, 

Legends, 75 
Schmidt, Bernhard, Griech- 
ische Marchen, 28ft 1 , 133ft 1 , 

187ft 3 , 218ft 1 , 238, 253ft 1 
Schmidt, R., Beitrage zur 

indischen Erotik, 320 
Schmidt, Shakespeare Diction- 
ary, 1121I 1 
Schoff, W. H., "Camphor," 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, 

260ft 1 
Schoppner, Sagenbuch [or 

Geschichte] der Bayerischen 

Lande, 133ft 1 
Schott, A. and W.. Wallachian 

Stories, 205 
Schrader, Real lex. der indo- 

germ. Altertumskunde , 319 

Scotland, fear of the night- 
hag in, 131ft 3 

Scott, Sir Walter, Antiquary, 

Sebillot, Folk-Lore de France, 

Seligmann, C. G., The Melan- 
esians of British New Guinea, 
314ft 2 

Seneca, De Matrimonio, 328 

Shah-deri, 90ft 1 

Shaikh, Chilli, Folk-Tales oj 
Hindustan, 272ft 1 

Shakespeare, Midsummer 
Night's Dream, 29ft 1 ; Romeo 
and Jidiet, 112ft 1 

Shamasastry, trans, of Kau- 
tilya's Arthasastra, 142ft 2 

Shaw, R. B., "On the Shighni 
(Ghalchah) Dialect," 
Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, 269ft 

Shortt, J., " Kojahs of South- 
ern India," Journ Anth. 
Inst., 325 

Siddha (independent super- 
human), 36, 92, 177, 178 

Siddhikarl, the cunning, 
211ft 1 

Sikes, Wirt, British Goblins, 

t 32ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 225ft 2 

Silavati, servant called, 172, 
173, 176, 178 

Simichidas, 310 

Simrock, Deutsche Volksbiicher, 
167ft 2 , 187ft 3 , 287ft 1 

Sipra river, 183 

Siri- Jataka, the, 60 

Sirisha, body like the, 146 

Slta, wife of Rama, 43, 54, 
146, 201 

Siva, 1, 2ft 2 , 6, 11, 12, 24, 40, 
49, 64, 83, 83ft 5 , 121, 124, 
126, 131, 132, 133, 138, 
145, 146, 147, 155, 156, 
157, 163, 164, 165, 183ft 1 , 
186, 187, 192, 199, 228, 
228ft 1 , 229, 243, 247, 248, 
263, 276ft 1 , 285, 292 

Sivavarman, 277 

Smithers, L. S., " Nean- 
iskos," Priapeia, 328 

Sobur, Prince, 62 

Socin, Prym and, Syrische 
Marchen, 191ft 1 , 231ft 1 

Solomon, King, 171ft 1 , 172ft, 

Soma (the moon), 257 

Somada, the witch, 193-195 

Somadatta, Prince, 69, 74, 109 

Somadeva, 153; Katha Sarit 
Sagara, 33ft 3 , 268ft 1 , 280 


Somaprabha, 177, 178 

Somaprabha, daughter of the 
Asura Maya, 27, 28, 32, 
34-36, 39-43, 55, 57, 58, 
64, 65, 66, 68, 74, 81, 84- 
87, 93, 96, 106, 107, 114, 
138-139, 147 

Somasvamin and Bandhu- 
dattf, 190-193, 195-200 

Sophocles, Antigone, 292n l 

Southey, Thalaba the De- 
stroyer, 150 

ordowv (eunuch), 319 

hrram (drag), 319 

Spence, Lewis, Encyclopaedia 

of Occultism, 162/t 

Spencer, Herbert, Ceremonial 
Institution* (Principles of 
Sociology), 21m 

Spenser, Faerie Queene, 138/t 1 

>\ye\er, Studies about the Kathd- 

saritsdgara, 12m 1 , 16m 1 , 

25m 1 , 50m 1 , 81m 1 , 83h 34 , 

94m 1 , 159m 3 , 208m 1 , 241m 3 , 

\ 246m 1 , 298m 1 

Spital Inn, Stainmoor, 152 

Spitta - Bey, Contes Arabes 
, Modernes, 204 

Sraddha, 18m 3 ; eunuchs ex- 
cluded from the, 320 

Sramanas (Buddhist ascetics), 
2, 2m 3 , 210m 1 

>r ivasti, 65, 84, 90m 1 , 118 

Sri (Goddess of Prosperity), 

. 24, 298m 1 

Srimad-rangam, 306 

Sringabhuja and the daughter 
of the Itakshasa, story of, 

SringotpadinI, the Yakshini, 
187, 187m*, 196 

Srutasena, story of, 108-112 

Stainmoor, Spital Inn, 152 

Stall y brass, trans, of Grimm's 
Teutonic Mythology, 311m* 

Steel and Temple, Wide- 
Axeake Stories, 182, 272m 1 , 
274 h 1 , 280 

Stein and Grierson, Hatim's 
Tales, 280 

Stent, "Chinese Eunuchs," 
Journ. North China Branch 
Hoy. As. Noc., 329 

Stevenson, Rites of the Twice- 
born. 37, 38 

SthuIadatU. 70-72 

Stokes. Indian Fairy Tales, 
218a 1 , 226n*, 280 

Strabo, 116a 

Straparola, The Sights, 76, 

206 * 

Strong and Garstang, The 

Syrian Goddess, 328 
Strutavardhana, 218, 219 
Stumme, Marchen der Schluh 

von Tazerwalt, 188m 
Suk irbitti (cross-roads), 38 
Suka Saptati, the, 126 
Sukhadhana, 286-290 
Sukhasaya, 190, 191 
Sulkhanpur, 321, 324 
Sulochanaand Sushena, story 

of, 24-27 
Sumeru (the mountain of 

gold), 148, 148m 1 , 156 
Sunyasee, a, 86m 1 
Suparna, the bird-king, 181 
Suppdraka- Jdtaka, the, 179 
Surabhi, 36 
Surabhidatta, the Apsaras, 

5-6, 145 
Surakshita, 219, 220, 234 
Surasena, King, 144 
Surya (the sun), 257 
Sushena and Sulochana, 

story of, 24-27 
Susruta Samhitd, the, 51n 
Su-ut ri-e-Si (ea alidi) ("one 

who does not beget"), 319 
Suvdbahuttarikathd, the, 62, 180 
Suvrittayd (virtuous and 

beautifully rounded), 39m 3 
Svabhdva (own nature), 252n 2 
Svarga (the abode of the 

blessed), 139, 253 
Svayamprabha, daughter of 

the Asura Maya, 40, 42, 

43, 43m 1 
Svayamvara (marriage by 

choice), 26, 26m 1 , 181, 
, 225m 2 
Svetarasmi, story of Ratna- 

dhipati and the white 

elephant, 169-178 
Sweden, fear of the night- 
hag in, 131m 1 
Swynnerton, Indian Nights' 

Entertainments, 204 
Sykes, Ella C, "Persian 

Folk -Lore," Folk -Lore, 

307, 307m 2 
Sykes, Sir Percy, 307 , 

Tachard, Father, Voyage de 
Siatn des Peres Jesuites 
envoyes par le Roy aux 
hides ei a la Chine, 308, 
308/1 1 

Ta j i k as, N i s c h a v a d a t ta 
captured by, 185 

Tajiks in Bokhara, fire cus- 
toms among the, 131m 3 

Takkala- Jdtaka, the. 60 
Takshasila (Taxila). 2, 

2m 2 , 6, 43, 65, 87, 90, 

91m 1 
Talan (fried pastry), 324 
Tamluk (Tamralipti, 172, 

172m 1 
Tamralipti, 172, 172m 1 , 173, 

Tanganyika, cross-roads in, 

Tantrdkhydyika, the, 180 
Tapantaka, son of Vasantaka, 

136, 155, 243 
Tapodatta, story of, 241 
Tara, Buddha bridegroom of, 

2, 2n 2 
Taradatta, wife of Kalinga- 

datta, 5, 6, 8, 11, 17, 18 
Tarafa, the poet, 277-279 
Tdrakd (star), 18m 1 
Tariivara (Siva ?), 2n 2 
Tarentum, 56 

Tarunachandra, 243, 244, 246 
Tawney, C. H., 15m 1 , 33m 3 , 

81m 1 , 208m 1 ; Kathdkoca, 60, 

61, 62, 207n 2 , 279 
Taxila (Takshasila), 2, 2m 12 
Tejasvati, story of, 69-70, 74 
Telapatta- Jdtaka, the, 4n 3 
Te/mo (cut), 319 
Temple, Sir Richard, 201 ; 

Legends of the Pan jab, 321 ; 

Steel and, Wide -Awake 

Stories, 182, 247m 1 , 272m 1 , 

Tendlau, A. M., " Der Golem 

des Hoch - Rabbi - Lob," 

Das Buch der Sagen und 

Legenden Jiidischer forfeit, 

Terence, Eunuchus, 6n 2 
Tertullian, Adv. Nation. 131a* 
Theddora tribe of South- East 

Australia, 151 
Theocritus, 310 
Thiselton-Dyer, T. F., Folk' 

Lore oj Plants, 154 
0A.a#tas (eunuch), 319 
0Aaa> (crush), 319 
Thomas, N. W., "Animals," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. t 

170m 1 
Thompson, Campbell, 319; 

Semitic Magic, 38 
Thorndike, History of Magic 

and Experimental Science, 

57, 162m 
Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories, 48m 1 , 

205, 225m 2 , 226m 2 , 236. 237 
Thurston, Castes and Tribtt 



hurston continued 
of Southern India, 101 ft, 
325 ; Ethnographic Notes 
in Soidhem India, 46 ft 2 , 
306ft 3 ; Omens and Super- 
stitions in Southern India, 
306w 3 

' 'iberius, the Emperor, 30ft 1 

' 'ilottama, a kind of Pandora, 

6, 6n\ 67 
.\>/u'as (eunuch), 319 
rorans (strings of leaves), 

100ft 1 
forquemada, F. Juan de, 
Monarquia Indiana, 150, 

Trappe, Chevalier a la, 
Fabliau, 82ft 2 

Tremearne, H. J. N., The 
Ban of the Bori, 38, 312, 
312ft 1 ; Hausa Superstitions 
and Customs, 312, 312ft 1 

Treta, name of the first three 
Vedic fires, 160ft 1 

Trilles, Pere H., Proverbes, 
Legendes et Contes Fangs, 

Tripoli and Tunis, cross-roads 
among the Hausas of, 38 

Trisanku the Chandala, 26 

Tungabhadra river, 327 

Tunis and Tripoli, cross-roads 
among the Hausas of, 38 

Tupha (yak), 85ft 

Turushka named Muravara, 

Tylor, E. B., "Eunuch," 
Encij. Brit., 328; Primitive 
Culture, 30ft 1 , 185ft 1 

Ucchanga-Jataka, the, 292ft 1 
Udayana, the King of Vatsa, 

1, 2, 65-68, 74, 81, 84-92, 

97, 107, 128-130, 132, 135- 

139, 145-148, 155, 166-168, 

235, 249, 261, 276, 297-300 
UjjayinI, 11, 13, 16, 69, 183, 

Uma (ParvatI, Durga, Gaurl, 

etc.), 1, 156, 184 
Umaymah, wife of Mutalam- 

mis, 279 
Unmadini, story of Devasena 

and, 111, 112 
Upamanyu, 163 
U pay as, or four means of 

success, 143, 143ft 2 
Uraria lagopodioides (naga- 

bald), 120, 120ft 1 
Uriah the Hittite, 277 
Usha, 68 

Usha and Aniruddha, story 

of, 81-83 
Ushas (the dawn), 257 
Utpatati (rising up), 159ft 3 
Utsaha (energy), 137ft 1 
Uttaramanasa, holy field 

named, 220 

Vadavagni, one of the three 

fires, 160ft 1 
Vadh (strike), 319 
Vadhri (eunuch), 319 
Vaidik spells, 136 
Vaisall, 50ft 1 

Vaisravana or Kuvera, 134 
Vaisvanara, 137 
Vajraprabha, 164-166 
Valabhi, 44-46, 53, 93 
Vallee Poussin, L. de la, 

" Bodhisattva," Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 253ft 
Vansa (race and bamboo), 1ft 1 
VaranasI, 190, 193 
Vararuchi, 61 
Vardhamana, 218, 229, 230, 

Varti (" the wick of a lamp "), 

134ft 1 
Vasantaka, 136, 243 
Vasavadatta, wife of the 

King of Vatsa, 1, 65, 68, 

87, 88, 107, 108, 113-114, 

122, 123, 130, 132, 135, 

137, 139, 146, 168, 263ft 2 , 

Vasishtha Dharma Sdstra, the, 

Vasudatta, 49-53, 93 
Vasudatta, city called, 49-51 
Vatsa, hermit called, 25, 27 
Vatsa, Udayana, King of, 1-2, 

65-68, 74, 81, 84-92, 97, 107, 

128-130, 132, 135-139, 145- 

148, 155, 166-168, 235, 249, 

261, 276, 297-300 
Vaux, Carra de, " Alchemy," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Veckenstedt, Wendische 

Sagen, 131ft 3 , 133ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 

191ft 1 , 225ft 2 , 238, 253ft 1 
Vedas, the, 2, 13 
Velten, Marchen und Erzah- 

lungen der Suaheli, 280 
Vernaleken [Oesterreichische 

Kinder - und Hausmarchen] , 

272ft 1 
Vessavana (a kind of Indian 

Pluto), 304, 304ft 2 
Vetalapanchavinsati, the, 28 n 1 , 


Vibudha (" gods"), 215ft 1 

Vidanga, decoction of, 51ft 

Vidisa, 115 

Vidya (superhuman know- 
ledge), 165, 165ft 2 

Vidyadhara (independent 
superhuman), 5, 6, 60, 61, 
64, 92, 121, 123, 128, 129, 
137, 138, 145, 197-199, 212 

Vidyadharas, 1, 64, 67, 68, 
92, 121, 130, 145, 156, 159, 
166, 168, 193, 195-197, 217, 
274, 275, 294 

Vidyadhari, 36, 166, 184, 193, 
196, 197 

Vidyuddyota, Princess, 111, 

Vijayakshetra, a holy field 
named, 220 

Vikrama, 83 

Vikramaditya and the courte- 
san, story of, 206-209, 211- 
217 ; and the mendicant, 

Vikramasena, King, 69, 74 

Vikramasinha (i.e. lion of 
valour), 11, lift 3 , 13, 16 

Vikramatunga, the brave 
king, 159-163 

Vikramorvasl, Kalidasa, 25ft 2 , 
84ft 1 

Vilasapura, 243 

Vilasasila and the physician, 
story of King, 243-249 

Vilva fruits (fruit of the Bel), 
159, 159ft 2 , 160 

Vinasana, 97ft 1 

Vindhya forest, 266 ; moun- 
tains, 40, 42, 97ft 1 , 267; 
range, 271 

Virabhuja, King, 218-220, 
232, 235, 269 

Virata, King, 114 

Viravara. the faithful servant, 
28ft 1 

Virupaksha, story of the 
Yaksha, 133-135 

Virupasarman, 242 

Visentini, Fiabe Mantovani, 76 

Visha, 279, 280 

Visha (poison), 279 

Vishnu, 12, 82, 152, 167, 169, 
170, 177, 210, 220 

Vishnudatta, story of the 
Brahman's son, 93-96 

Visvadatta, 109, 110 

Visvakarman, the architect of 
the gods, 139 

Visvamitra, 6, 25, 26, 97 

Vitasta river (Hydaspes, or 
Jhelum), 2, 2ft 1 , 186, 220 



Vitastadatta, 2 

Yitruvius, De Architectura 

Decern, 56, 57 
I'rika, one of the three fires, 

Yullers, Tarafce Moallaca cum 

Zuzenii Scholiu, 279 

Wagogo, cross-roads among 

the, 38 
Waite, A. E., The Book of 

Black Magic, 203; The 

Hermetic and Alchemical 

Writings of Philippus Aure- 

olus Theophratus Bombast 

of Hohenheim, 162h 
Wak, the Islands of, 260/1 1 
Wake, C. Staniland, Serpent- 

Worship and Other Essays, 

Waldau, Bohmische Mdrchen, 

48/, 152, 191 n 1 , 227n 
Walshe, "Chastity," Hast- 

tings' Kncy. Bel. Eth., 

Wardrop, Georgian Folk-Tales, 

Waters, W. G., trans, of 

Masuccio's Xorellino,287n l ; 

trans. of Straparola's 

Sights, 76, 205 
Weeks, J. H., Among the 

Primitive Bakongo, 313, 

313/1 1 ; ["Customs of the 

Lower Congo People "] 

Folk-Lore, 313, 313/1 1 
Wellcome Historical and 

Medical Museum, 154 
West. K. W . Sacred Books of 

the East, 307/i 
Westcrmarck, Origin and 

Development of the Moral 

Ideas, 38, 328' 

Whitley Stokes, " Life of St 

Brigit," Three Middle Irish 

Homilies, 20/1 1 
Widter, G., and A. Wolf 

[Volksmdrchen aits Venetieii], 

272n l 
Wilkins, 56 
Wilkinson, Manners and 

Customs of the Ancient 

Egyptians, 116u 
Williams, Monier, 2/t 2 
Wilson, H. H., 33n 3 , 90W 1 ; 

Select Specimens of the 

Theatre of the Hindus, 84m 1 
Winckler, discovery of cunei- 
form tablets by Prof., 257 
Wirt Sikes, British Goblins, 

32W 1 , 187n 3 , 225n 2 
Wolf, A., G. Widter and 

[Volksmdrchen aus Venetien'], 

272?! 1 
Wolgemuth, E., Der Trdu- 

niende Muscn-Freund, 34n 
Wortham, B. Hale, metrical 

version of the " Story of 

Harisarman," Journ. Roy. 

As. Soc, 77-80 
Wuttke, A., Der deutsche 

Volksaberglaube der Gegen- 

wart, 153 

Xenophon, Anabasis, 310?i 4 ; 
Cyropa'dia, 328 

Yadu, the race of, 82 
Yajnadatta, 32, 33 
Yajnasthala, royal grant 

named, 32 
Yaksha (a servant of the 

gods), 133-135, 162 
Yakshini. female Yaksha, 134, 

187-189, 193, 196 

YakshinTs turned into trees, 
25, 25m 1 

Yamadanshtra, King of the 
Rakshasas, 267, 268 

Yamuna river, 90ft 1 

Yaska, Nirukta, 257 

Yatha-ahu-vairyo (formula in 
praise of righteousness), 307 

Yaugandharayana, minister 
of the King of Vatsa, 67, 
68, 87, 88-93, 97, 107, 108, 
113-115, 121-123, 130, 132, 
135, 136, 146, 167, 168, 
240, 298 

Yavanasena, the castaway] 

Yayati, 6 

YogesVara, the Brahman- 
Rakshasa, 92, 92^, 93, 114, 
115, 118, 120-122, 146 

Yojanas (measures of dis- 
tance, 35, 82, 156, 227, 
283, 284 

Yudhishthira, the assembly- 
hall of, 139 

Yule, Hobson-Jobson, 14m 1 , 
85 n, HQn 

Y'ule and Cordier, The Book 
of Ser Marco Polo, 85n, 
201, 202, 307, 307n*, 329; 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 
57, 85, 329 

Zenana, 170, 180, 181 
Zeus, 127, 257, 310 
Zimmer, Alt-Indisches Leben, 

30ft 1 
Zizyphtu jujuba (bor), 323 
Zohak, the giant keeper of 

the caves of Babylon, 150 
Zulus, sneezing customs 

among the, 313 



Abode of the blessed (Svarga), 

139, 253 
Aboriginal tribes, Nishadas, 

10, 10ft 1 
Accomplishment (kala), 140, 

140ft 1 , 164ft 1 
Account of the Buddhist Liter- 
ature of Nepal, R. L. Mitra, 

20W 1 
" Achtzig Miirchen der Ljut- 

ziner Esten," O. Kallas, 

Verhandl. d. Gelehrten Est- 

nischen Gesell., 34ft 
Acids, Geber's researches on 

the properties of, 161ft 1 
Acquiring qualities of the 

dead, 151 ; the power of 

a victim, 151 
" Act of Truth " motif, 172ft 2 , 

"Act of Truth, The," E. W. 

Burlingame, Journ. Roy. As. 

Soc, 179, 182 
Acts, 329 
"Adventure of Satni-Kham- 

ois with the Mummies," 

Maspero, Popular Stories 

of Ancient Egypt, 268m 1 
Ad Nationes, Tertullian, 131ft 3 
Adversus Gentes, Arnobius 

Orestes, 21ft 
JEgypten, A. von Kremer, 329 
JEthiopica, Heliodorus, 112ft 1 
African sneezing salutations, 

312, 313 
Age, fruits which prevent old, 

42, 43 ; the thief of beauty, 

old, 243 
"Ahmed the Cobbler," Sir 

J. Malcolm, Sketches of 

Persia, 76 
A'ln-i-AkbarJ, Jarrett, 162ft 
Air, doll flies through the, 

40, 40ft 1 ; flying through 

the, 27, 35 
Alchemie in alter er und neuerer 

Zeit, Die, Hermann Kopp, 

Alchemy, 161ft 1 , 162ft 
"Alchemy," T. Barnes; ditto, 

Carra de Vaux ; E. Riess, 


" Alchemy " continued 

Hastings' Ency. Pel. Eth., 

162ft; ditto, H. M. Ross, 

Ency. Brit., 162ft 
"Ali'Cogia, Tale of," Mille 

et Une Nuits, 118ft ] 
" Ali Khwajah and the 

Merchant of Baghdad," 

Burton, Nights, 118ft 1 , 119ft 
All the Year Round, 154 
Altars erected by Teutons at 

cross-roads, 37 
Alt- Indisches Leben, Zimmer, 

30ft 1 
Amadis of Greece, 82ft 2 
Amazulu, The Religious System 

of the, H. Callawav, 313, 

313ft 4 
Amer. Journ. Phil., "Art of 

Stealing in Hindu Fiction," 

Bloomfield, 153 
Among the Primitive Bakongo, 

J. H. Weeks, 313, 313ft 1 
Amphitruo, Plautus, 127 
Amphitrrjon, Moliere, 127 
" Amulettes javanaises," J. 

Knebel, Tijdschrift voor 

Indische Taal- Land en 

Volkenkunde, 151 
Amusing Stories, E. Rehatsek, 

118ft 1 
Anabasis, Xenophon, 310ft 4 
Ananda - ramayana, " S a r a- 

Kanda," 201 ' 
Ancient Geography of India, 

Cunningham, 172ft 1 , 184ft 1 
Ancient India, eunuchs in, 

320, 321; medical beliefs 

in, 50ft 2 , 51ft, 52ft 
Anger, the ascetic who 

conquered, 22 
"Animals," N. W. Thomas, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

170ft 1 
Animals with eight feet, fabu- 
lous (Sarabhas), 259, 259ft 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 

und Hausm'drchen der Bruder 

Grimm, Bolte and Polivka, 

76, 105ft, 188ft, 204, 227ft, 

238, 272ft 1 280 

Annales de la Prop, de la Foi 

314ft 5 
Anointing Naravahanadatta 

as Crown Prince, 136 
Anthropophyteia, 34ft 
Antigone, Sophocles, 292ft 1 
Antiquary, Sir Walter Scott, 

Ants help Sringabhuja, 226 
Anvar-i-Suhaill, the.^ 126 
Apastamba Dharma Sastra, the, 

Apollodorus, trans. Frazer, 

Apparatus for washing the 

hands, peacock, 58 
Apples of Hippomenes, the 

golden, 238 
Arabum Proverbia, G. Freytag, 

Architect Daedalus, the Greek, 

Architectur a Decern, De, 

Vitruvius, 56, 57 
Arrow, the golden, 222, 223 
Arrows, god of the flowery 

(Kama), 24 
"Art of Entering Another's 

Body, On the," Bloomfield, 

Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 

83ft 1 
"Art of Stealing in Hindu 

Fiction, On the," Bloom- 
field, Amer. Journ. Phil., 

Art of transmuting base 

metals into gold, 161ft 1 , 

Arthasastra, Kautilya (trans. 

Shamasastry), 142ft 2 
Artus de la Bretagne, Romance 

of, 82ft 2 
Aryan Nations, Mythology of 

the, Cox, 28ft 1 , 272ft 1 
Ascent of Olympus, J. Rendel 

Harris, 153 
Ascetic, Buddhist (Sramana), 

2, 2ft 3 , 210ft 1 ; who con- 
quered anger, 22 ; a Pasu- 

pata, 293; the wicked 

female, 99-101, 104 



Ascetics, Pasupata, 186-188; 

Story of the Two, 10-11 
Ashes, a circle of, 187, l&ln 1 ; 

from a pyre, 151 ; strewn 

on the road, 105n 
Assemblies of Al-IJariri, The, 

T. Chenery, 278 

mbly-hall of Yudhi- 

shthira, 139 
Assistant, barber the 

H rah man's, lOOn 1 
Assumed a form, having 

(jdtarnjxi), 148/1 6 

tssyr. Beamtentum," 

Klauber, Isipziger sent. 

Studien, 329 
Astrologer (jildvavijua). 72n J 
Astrologers, kdr the charmed 

circle of Hindu, 201 
Atharta-l'eda, the, 30/t 1 , 50/t 1 , 

142, 319,321 
Attack of the ichneumon 

against crocodiles and 

snakes, 115/t 1 , 116u 
Aiis Sehwaben, Birlinger, 150, 

Auspicious marks of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 84n l 
"Austerities," J. A. 

Macculloch, Hastings' 

Encif. ltel. Eth., 21 n 
Automata, 212n' ; note on, 

56-59; wooden, 281, 282, 


Automatojxnctica, Hero of 
Alexandria, 56, 57 

Axe sharpened on the phil- 
osopher's stone, 161 n 1 ; 
wounds the Brahman's leg, 

Babylonian worship of Ishtar, 

Haganda, The, J. Roscoe, 38 
Hahdr-i- Danish, the, 126 
BttUiU PactoH, Oesterley, 204 
Hakongo. Atmmg I he Primitive, 

J H. Weeks, 313, 313n* 
Hdldghdt District Gazetteer, 

iw, loin 
"Balochi Tales," Dames, 

Folk-Lore, 182 
Bamboo {vans'a), !/>' 
Han of the lion. The. II . J. \. 

Tremean 12, 312n l 

Bantu Folklore"], M. L. 

Hewat, Folk-Ixfre, 313, 

Banyan* tree, 61, 115 
Baptised, fire must not go 

out till child is. 131 n 3 

Barbarians (Mlechchhas), 320 

Barber caste, notes on the, 

lOOn 1 , lOln; the cunning, 


Barber's wife, the king and 

the, 102-103 
Barbosa, The Book of Duarte, 

M. L. Dames, 329 
Barrenness, mandrake used 

to cure, 153 
Basilisk, 112/t 1 
[" Basivis : Women who 

through Dedication to a 

Deity assume Masculine 
Privileges"] Fawcett, 

Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb., 

Bathing - place of Papaso- 

dhana, holy, 128 
"Battle of the Birds," 

Campbell, Tales from the 
West Highlands, 237 
Beautifully rounded (suvrit- 

taya), 39n s 
"Beauty and the Beast" 

cycle of stories, 92n 2 
Beauty, old age the thief of, 

Bed (paryanka), 14n x 
Beer, country (boja), 326 
"Beget, one who does not" 

(Su-ut ri-e-Si) (ea alidi), 319 
Beggars, Pavayas live as, 

Being with capacity for work 

but not for th\v\Vmg{Robof), 

Beitrdge zur indischen Erotik, 

R. Schmidt, 320 
Bel, fruit of the (vilva), 159, 

159n 2 , 160 
Belief in Immortality, The, 

J. G. Frazer, 314, 314n 2 
Beliefs, Ancient Indian 

medical, 50/t 1 , bin, 52n 
" Bellerophon letter," 277, 

Bellows of Hephaistos, the 

magic, 56 
Benedictions after sneezing, 

Benefits obtained by marriage 

of a daughter, 24, 26 
Bhakta-mhla, Nabh&dasa, 280 
Bibliographic des Outrages 

A robes, Chauvin, in 1 , 21n, 

68/1 1 , 76, 82n 2 , 105;i, 127, 

167n*. LQln 1 , 204, 227n, 

26W, 272/1 1 
Bibliography on alchemy, 

Bibliophilists Society of 
English, 126 

Bibliotheca C hemic a, J. 

Ferguson, 162n 
Bibliotheque de VEcole des 

Hautes Etudes, " Le Roman 

de Renard," L. Foulet, 

["Bihari Tales"] S. I 

Mitra, Journ. Anth. Soc. 

Bomb., 250 
Biographers of Christian 

saints, 20n l 
Bird, Garuda, 56, 67, 170, 

Bird-king, Suparna, 181 
Birds, bharunda, 61 ; Bihan- 

gama and Bihangami, the 

two immortal, 29;i 
Birth of a daughter to 

Kalingadatta, 18 ; of a 

daughter to Sushena, 25 ; 

of the King of Vatsa, 67 ; 

of Madanamanchuka, 131 ; 

of Sringabhuja, 219; life 

in a former, 7, 8; as a 

swan, story of the Princess 

Karpurika in her, 292-293 
Birth - chamber, precautions 

observed in the, 131 n 3 , 

Black Magic, The Book of, 

A. E. Waite, 203 
Blaming one's relations with- 
out cause {nigrahah), 3/t 1 
Blessed, abode of the 

(Svarga), 139 
Blind prince, cure of the, 

Blindness cured by "Act of 

Truth," 180; cured by 

chaste woman, 171 n 1 
Blockhead (" Haripriya " or 

Harisarman "), 70n 2 
Blood of a screech-owl, un- 
guent of the, 152 
" Bodhisattva," L. de la 

Vallee Poussin, Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 253h 
Bodhisattva Avadana " Kshanti 

Jataka," 20ft 1 
Body like the sirisha, 146 
Bohmische Mdrchen, Waldau, 

48ni, 152, 191n\ 221n 
Bombay Gazetteer, 37, 207rt 2 , 

322, 324, 325 
Bones, the lute of, 187, 188 
Book VI, Madanamanchuka, 

Book VII, Ratnaprabha, 155- 




Book of Black Magic, The, 

A. E. Waite, 203 
" Book of Creation," the, 59 
Book of Duarte Barbosa, The, 

M. L. Dames, 329 
"Book of the Knowledge of 

Ingenious Contrivances," 

Kitab ft ma'rifat al-hiyal 

al-handaslya, Al-Jazari, 58 
Book of Noodles, Clouston, 

231ft 1 
Book of Ser Marco Polo, The, 

Yule and Cordier, 85ft, 

201, 202, 307, 307m 1 , 329 
Boon of Gaurl, the, 81, 82; 

golden fruits as, 159, 160 
Born in the interior of a 

plantain, 97; with feet 

first, children, 38 
Boxes containing jewels, 209, 

Boy's juices as charm, 152 
Bracelet (kara, kari), 201 ; of 

lotus fibres, 121* 121ft 1 
Brahman Brothers, The Three, 

Brahman Hari^arman, the, 

70-73, 75-80 
Brahman and the Piacha, 

Story of the, 32-35 
Brahman - Rakshasa Yoge- 

vura, the, 92, 92ft 1 , 93, 

114, 115, 118, 120-122, 146 
Brahman Somasvamin, the, 

193, 195-200 
Brahmanical lock, the, 2 
Brahman's assistant the 

barber, 100ft 1 
Brahman's son Vishnudatta, 

Story of the, 93-96' 
Brahmans who devoured the 

Cow, Story of the Seven, 

Brahmans slain by the 

Yaksha, 134 
" Branca-nor," Coelho, Contos 

Populares Portuguezes, 238 
Brave king Vikramatunga, 

Breasts cut off by Bahuchara, 

321 ; cut off out of devotion 

to Aphrodite, 21ft ; cut off 

to feed starving woman, 

180; like clusters of 

manddras, 146 
Breath of nostrils, Asvins pro- 
duced by the, 257 
Bribe, the mendicant's, 210 
Bride, choosing the, 225, 

225ft 2 ; the forgotten, 124, 

124ft 1 

Bridegroom of Tara (Buddha), 
2, 2ft 2 

Brief View of the Caste 
System, Nesfield, 100ft 1 

British Goblins, Wirt Sikes, 
32ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 225 ft 2 

"Brothers, The Two," 
Maspero, Popular Stories 
of Ancient Egypt, 238 

Brothers in folk-lore, 272ft 1 ; 
the Gandharva, 177, 178; 
Pranadhara and Rajya- 
dhara, 282-285 ; the three 
Brahmans, 109, 110 

Buch der Sagen und Legenden 
Judischer Vorzeit, Das, 
"Der Golem der Hoch- 
Rabbi Lob," A. M . Tendlau, 

Buddhist ascetics (Sramanas), 
2, 2ft 3 , 210ft 1 ; hagiology, 
20ft 1 ; King Kalingadatta 
a distinguished, 2; 
physician Jivaka Komara- 
bhachcha, 50ft 1 

Bugbears and treasure- 
guardians, 133ft 1 

"Bull and the Ass, Tale of 
the," Burton, Nights, 60 

Bulletin of American Museum 
of Nat. Hist., 314, 314?i 7 

Bull. John Ry lands Library, 
"The Origin of the Cult 
of Aphrodite," J. Rendel 
Harris, 153 

Burglar's custom in Java, 151 

Burial of criminals at cross- 
roads, 37 ; of suicides at 
cross-roads, 37 

" Burial of Suicides at Cross- 
roads," W. Crooke, Folk- 
Lore, 37 

Buried monkey, the, 189, 

Burying women alive, 142ft 1 

Bushels, three (a khari), 226, 
226ft 1 

Cabinet des Fees, 126 
Calamities escaped, 28-32 
Calamity brought when 

Pavaya, strips himself 

naked, 324 
" Calamity, a domestic," 

daughter, 18ft 3 
Cambridge History of India, 

" Campaka, Die Erzahlung 

vom Kaufmann." Hertel, 

Zeit. d. d. morg. Gesell., and 

Indische Erzdhler, 280 

Camphor-produced (Karpura- 

sambhava), 260ft 1 
"Camphor," W. H. Schoff, 

J own. Amer. Orient. Soc, 

260ft 1 
Candle of human fat, 133, 

150-154 ; lit in lying - in 

chamber, 131ft 3 ; made of 

newly born child, 152, 153 
Canterbury Tales, Chaucer, 

221ft 1 
Capacity for work but not for 

thinking (Robot), 59 
Capon (capo), 319 
Capua, John of, 126 
Carbuncle, the luminous, 

167ft 2 
Carious teeth in modern 

India, cure for, 51ft 
Carmina, Catullus, 311, 311ft 2 
Carpentry and its tools, 

Daedalus inventor of. 56 
Castaway, Yavanasena the, 

Caste, the Bediya, Beriya, 

Beria or Bedia, 51ft ; the 

Chandala, 116; notes on 

the 'barber, 100ft 1 , 101ft; 

of wandering criminals, 

unfavourable omens among 

the Sansia, 86ft 1 ; the 

Chitari (painters), 306 
Castes and Tribes of Southern 

India, Thurston , 101ft, 325 
Castrate (castro), 319 
Castrates (nirasta), 319 
Castration forbidden by the 

Gaikwar of Baroda, 323; 

Oriental origin of, 319, 

320 ; widespread in the 

East, 320 
Cat, unguent of the gall of a 

black, 152 
Catalogue of Works on Alchemy 

and Chemistry exhibited at 

the Grolier Club, New York, 

H. C. Bolton, 162ft 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 

Yule and Cordier. 57, 85ft, 

Catoptrica, Hero of Alex- 
andria, 56, 57 
Cattle disease cured by magic 

circle, 201 
Caves of Babylon, Zohak the 

giant keeper of the, 150 
Celler, Kirtisena, locked in 

the, 45 
Cento Novelle Antiche, 118ft 1 
Centipedes in the king's 

head, 49, 52 



Central India, diamond king- 
dom of, 62, 63 

Ceremonial Institutions {Prin- 
ciples of Sociology), 21n 

Ceremony of emasculation 
of Hijdis, 324, 325; of 
initiation of Pavayas, 323 

"Character and Adventures 
Vluladeva, The," Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Phil. Sac., 

( 'harmteristiques des Saints, 
P. Cahier, 20/j 1 

Chariot, a magic, 42; with a 
pn< umaticcontrivance,the, 
284, 290, 296, 297, 

Charioteer of Indra, Matali 
the. 67 

(harm against the evil eye, 
37 ; for extracting maggots 
from teeth, 51/i ; mandrake 
used as love-, 153; named 
Momiai, 152 ; to scare away 
evil spirits, 37 

Charmed circle of Hindu 
astrologers, kar the, 201 

'Charms and Amulets 
(Indian)," W. Crooke, 
Hastings' Emy. Itel. Eth., 

Chaste woman, blindness 
cured by, 171ft 1 ; fallen 
elephant raised by a, 
171-172; servant called 
Silavati, 172, 173, 176, 178 

M Chastity, *' Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 172n 2 

Chastity of Kalingasena, 128, 

"Chastity, Test of," motif, 
I72 a " 

Cheating the innocent wife, 
126, 127 

Chief, he who is head or 
(sa reft {risi)), 319 

Child, candle made of newly 
born, 152, 153 

Child bed, superstition re- 
garding left hand of a 
woman who has died in 
her first. 151 

Childhotxl of Fiction, Mac- 
colloch, 201, 227, 238, 
U ' 

Childlessness, the curseof, 157 

Children horn with feet first, 
. precocious, 1 19n 

"Chinese Eunuchs," Stent, 
m. North China Branch 
liny. As \ 

Choice, marriage by {svai/am- 

vara), 26, 26n', 181, 225 2 
Choosing the bride,225,225n 2 
Christian saints, biographers 

of, 20m 1 
Chullavagga, the, 321 
Churning Mountain (Man- 

dara), 83, 83m 2 
Churning of the Ocean, 176m 1 , 

253m 1 , 260 
Circle of ashes, 187, 187m 1 ; 

cattle disease cured by 

magic, 201 ; the debtor's 

or mandati, 201-202; the 

gambler's, 202 ; the magic, 

201-203 ; a protective, 201 ; 

used in homoeopathic magic, 

202, 203 
Circumambulating the fire, 

148, 148h 2 
Circumambulation, 295,295m 2 
Circ u m ci si on, History of, 

Remondino, 328 
Citizens of wood, the, 281, 

282, 285 
City of Indra (Svarga), 139 ; 

populated by wooden 

automata, 58, 59 ; the 

wonderful, 43 
Classes of eunuchs, 321 
Clay Cart or Mrichchhakatika, 

the, 202 
Clay figure of Prometheus, 

the, 309, 310 ; man created 

from, 59 
" Clerk's Tale," Chaucer, 

Canterbury Tales, 22 lw 1 
Cobra lodged in throat, 62 
Cockatrice, death-darting eye 

of, 112m 1 
Cognate kindred or Bandhu, 

46m 1 
Collection des meilleures Dis- 
sertations, Leber, 309n 2 
Collection of mandrakes at 

the Wellcome Historical 

and Medical Museum, 154 
Comb (kanghi), 100/1 1 
" Combat, Transformation," 

motif 195, 195m 1 , 203-205 
11 Come quickly" (sazuka), 313 
Concealed treasure, the, 133, 

Condemnation of eunuchs, 

320, 321 
Confection of opium, a 

[mqjoon), 326 
Confessions, St Augustine, 

6h 2 
"Conflict, Magical," motif, 

195, 195m 1 , 203-205 

Connection between religious 
rite and savage practice, 

Conquered enemies or en- 
slaved persons, mutilations 
forced on, 21 n 

Consecration of idols, 37, 38 

Contes Albanais, A. Dozon, 204 

Contes Arabes Mod ernes, Spitta.- 
Bey, 204 

Contes de Gascogne, J. Blade, 

Contes Licencieux de Constanti- 
nople et de VAsie rmneure, 
Nicolaides, 34m 

Contes de Perrault, Les, Saint- 
yves, 105n, 238 

"Contes Populaires du 
Languedoc," L. Lambert, 
Revue des Latigues Romanes, 

Contes Populaires de Lorraine. 
Cosquin, 76, 227n, 238 

Contes Populares Portugueses, 
Coelho, 30m 1 , 48?i 1 , 191?* 1 , 
238, 272n l 

Contest, the Koraiya, 38 

Copper, gold out of, 161, 
161ft 1 , 162m 

Counsel, power of good 
{mantra), 137n x 

Country beer {boja), 326 

Courage, test of, 38 

Courtesan, the faithful, 212- 
215; story of King Vikra- 
maditya and the, 206-209, 

Cow, Story of the Seven 
Brahmans who devoured 
a, 9, 10 ; the wooden, 56 

Cows born upon earth, 
perfect, 36 

Crane, Rakshasa disguised as 
a, 222 

Cream of political science, 
the, 142-144 

Creator, Prajapati the, 131, 

Cretan labyrinth, 56 

Criminals, buried at cross- 
roads, 37 ; unfavourable 
omens among the Sansia 
caste of wandering, 86n 1 

Crocodile, ichneumon's 
hostility to the, 116n 

Crossing water, demon's 
difficulty in, 236 

Cross-roads, burials at, 37; 
note on, 37-38; {.suk irbitti), 
38 ; transference of disease 
connected with, 37, 38 



"Crow, The," Basile, Pen- 
tamerone (Burton's trans.), 

Crow and the palm, fable of 

the, 70, 70ft 1 
Crown Prince, anointing of 

Naravahanadatta as. 136 
Cruel mother-in-law, the, 44, 

Crush (0A<o>), 319 
Cult of the Greek States, 

Farnell, 328 
Cuneiform tablets discovered 

by Prof. Winckler, 257 
Cun. Texts, 319 
Cunning barber, 99-104; 

daughter of the Brahman, 

34-35 ; lost treasure re- 

covered by, 118-120; 

Siddhikarl, the, 211ft 1 
"Cupid and Psyche" cycle 

of tales, 92ft 2 
Cure of the blind prince, 61 ; 

for carious teeth in modern 

India, 51ft; of the king, 

Curious Myths of the Middle 

Ages, Baring-Gould, 152, 

167w 2 , 187ft 3 , 268ft 1 
Curse of childlessness, 157 ; 

of the God of Wealth, 134; 

of Indra, 6 ; of Rambha, 

25;ofTilottania, 67; which 

made Arjuna a eunuch, 114 
Custom of salutation after 

sneezing, 30, 30ft 1 , 303-315 
Customs connected with 

cross-roads, 37-38 
["Customs of the Lower 

Congo People"] J. H. 

Weeks, Folk -Lore, 313, 

313ft 1 
Cut {sas), 319 

Cut (t[AV(i>), 319 

Cutting (dana), 159ft 1 
Cyropcedia, Xenophon, 328 

" Damannaka, Story of," 

Tawney, Kathdkoqa, 279- 

Damsels, poison-, 112ft 1 
Dance, pipe that compels 

all to, 187ft 3 
Dancers, castrated, 321 
Dangers, the three, 30-31 
Daniel, 329 
D'dnische V oiks march en, 

Grundtvig, 205 
"Dankbaren Thiere, Die," 

Gaal, Mdrchen der 

Magyar en, 226 ft 2 

Daughter of the Brahman, 
the cunning, 34-35 ; a 
"domestic calamity," and 
a "lump of grief," 18ft 3 ; 
of Gallus, 21ft ; of Kalinga- 
datta, Kalingasena, 18, 
27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 36, 39- 
43, 55, 58, 64, 65, 66, 68, 
74, 81, 84-93, 96, 106-108, 
113, 114, 120-125, 128- 
133, 135-140, 145-148; 
substituted for a son, 131 

Dawn, the (Ushas), 257 

"Day and Night" (the 
AsVins), 257 

Dea Syria, De, Lucian, 167ft 2 , 
327', 328 

Dead, acquiring qualities of 
the, 151 ; man's hand, 
homoeopathic magic con- 
nected with a, 151 ; not 
knowing if one is, 231, 
231ft 1 

Death, the fear of, 3-5; the 
letter of, 265, 277-280; 
preferable to poverty, 119; 
of Tarafa, 278 

Death-darting eye of 
Cockatrice, 112ft 1 

Debtor's circle or mandati, 

Decameron, Boccaccio, 44ft 1 , 
69ft 1 , 118ft 1 , 126 

Decameron, its Sources and 
Analogues, The, A. C. Lee, 
44ft 1 , 118ft 1 , 127 

Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, Gibbon, 329 

Decoction of vidanga, 51ft 

Deities of light, twin (the 
ASvins), 257 

Deity uttered by sneezer, 
name of a, 306 

Demoniacal influence, 
sneezing due to, 306 

Demons, diseases attributed 
to, 50ft 1 ; difficulty in 
crossing water, 236 

Dependent of a king (karpa- 
tika), 207ft 1 

Depilatories, 101ft 

Derniers Sauvages, Les, M. 
Radriguet, 314, 314ft 5 

Description, love by mere, 
68, 68ft 1 ; of machines by 
Somaprabha, 42 

Deserted city, the, 284 

Despondency of the king at 
the birth of a daughter, 23 

Destiny, 176 

Deuteronomy, 329 

Deutsche Volksaberglaube der 

Gcgenwart, Der, A. Wuttke, 

Deutsche Volksbucher, Simrock, 

167ft 2 , 187ft 3 , 287ft 1 
Devil, tales of outwitting the, 

33ft 3 , 34ft 
Devotion to Aphrodite, 

breasts cut off out of, 21ft 
Dhammapada Commentary, 182 
Diamond kingdom of Central 

India, 62, 63 
Dictionnaire Infernal, Colin de 

Planey, 150 
Dictionary, Bohtlingk and 

Roth, 45ft 1 , 158ft 1 , 195>i 2 , 

245ft 1 
Dictionary of the Natural 

History of the Bible, Harris, 

Dictionary of Phrase and 

Fable, Brewer, 161ft 1 
"Dieuvous benisse! Origine 

d'un dicton," Cabanes, 

Mceurs intimes du passe, 315 
Digit of the moon (kala), 

164ft 1 
Discipline Clericalis, Alphon- 

sus, 118ft 1 
Disease cured by magic circle, 

cattle, 201 
Disease, healers of (the A&- 

vins), 258 ; transference, 

cross-roads in, 37, 38 
"Disease and Medicine 

(Hindu)," J. Jolly, " Dis- 
ease and Medicine (V r edic)," 

G. M. Boiling, Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 52 ft 
Diseases attributed to 

demons, 50ft 1 
Disguise of Indra as Ahalya's 

husband, 126 
Distance, measure of 

(yojanas), 35, 82, 82ft 3 , 

227, 283, 284 
Divine beings assume their 

own -shape in sleep, 92, 

92ft 2 ; Name placed in the 

mouth or forehead of 

automaton, 59 
Divydvadana, the, 180 
' ' Doctor All wissend, ' ' Grimm , 

Kinder-u. Hausm'drchen, 75 
"Doctor Knowall." Grimms 

Household Tales, M. Hunt, 

"Doctor Knowall " motif, 75- 

Dog used to uproot the man- 
drake, 153 



Doll fetches water, 40, 40n* ; 
flies through the air, 40, 

Dolls of wood, mechanical, 

39, 00 

Domestic calamity," 

daughter a, 18m 3 
Double elopement, the, 13-16 
Doubt about own identity, 

I, i 
Drag "<>), 319 
Dragons and serpents most 

usual guardians of treasure, 

133 l 
Dravidian Xights, Natesa 

- >tri, 29/i, 204 
Draw, to (krish), 204 
Dream, married in a, 82, 83 
Dresden porcelain manufac- 
ture. 161n l 
Dressed as a prince, Kirti- 

Drum (dhol or dhole), 324, 326 
Dual gods. 257, 258 
Duarte Barbosa, Book of, 

M. L. Dames, 329 
Dungeon, king confined in a, 

244, 245 
[Duppy, The"] Folk-Lore, 

Duties of the barber, 100ft 1 ; 

of kings, 142, 142n 2 , 143, 


Earlv attempts at flying, 56 

Kart'h. magic. 227, 228; taken 
from a grave throws inmates 
of a house into sleep. 151 

Eastern Romances, A Group of, 
Clouston. 118/1 1 

Rating hands and feet of 
dead enemy, 151 

Eccles., 1T1,' 1 

Edge (asri) f 319 

rer, 40n 2 

Eight special forms of ether, 
; I63n* 

Righty thousand princesses 
married by Ratnadhipati, 

Kjaculation of' ' Abaraschika," 

Elegies. Propertius. 31 In 3 

Elephant Fare. God with the 
(Ganeia), 155, loon* 

Elephant, iehor from the 
temples of a mast (dana), 
214a 1 ; raised by chaste 
woman. 171-172*; Sveta- 
rasmi. Story of King 
Ratnadhipai and the 

Elephant c'onti 

White, 169-178; wounded 
by Garuda bird, 170 

Elixir of immortality, 253, 
254; to procure sons, 218, 

Elopement, the double, 13- 

Emasculation of Hijdas, 
ceremony of, 324, 325 ; of 
the votaries of Bahuchara, 

Emblem of royalty, the 
chowrie an, 84ft 1 

Emperor Tiberius, the, 30n l 

Empty city, the, 284 

Enchanted mango-tree, the, 
30, 31 ; necklace, the, 30, 

Ency. Biblio., 38 

Enajclopcedia Britannic a, 
"Alchemy," H. M. Ross, 
162ft ; "Eunuch," E. B. 
Ty lor, 328; [" Ichneumon," 
G. H. Carpenter], 115ft 1 

Encyclopaedia of Islam, 278 

Encyclopaedia of Occultism, 
Lewis Spence, 162ft 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings' " Al- 
chemy," T. Barnes ; ditto, 
Carra de Vaux ; ditto, E. 
Reiss, 162ft; "Animals," 
N. W. Thomas, HOn 1 ; 
"Austerities," J. A. Mac- 
culloch, 21ft; "Bodhi- 
sattva," L. de la Vallee 
Poussin, 253ft ; " Charms 
and Amulets (Indian)," 
W. Crooke, 37; "Chastity," 
172ft 2 ; " Disease and Medi- 
cine (Hindu)," J. Jolly; 
ditto(Vedic), G.M. Boiling, 
52ft; "Eunuch," Louis H. 
Gray, 319, 320, 328; 
" Hand," J. A. Macculloch, 
152; -Horns," J. A. 
Macculloch, 188ft; "Indo- 
nesians," J. G. Frazer, 313, 
313h 5 ; [" Magical Circle "] 
A. E. Crawley, 203; 
"Mutilations," Lawrence 
Gomme, 21ft; "Nose," 
J. A. Macculloch, 314, 

Endowed with sciences, 
Naravahanadatta, 139 

Energy {utsaha), 137ft 1 
Engravings from Ancient 
Marbles in the British 
Museum, 187n 3 , 188ft 

Epigraphia Indica, L. D. 

Barnett, 207ft 2 
Epithet of Siva, Mahakalaan, 

lift 1 
Enslaved persons, mutilations 

forced on, 21ft 
"Entering Another's Body, 

Art of," Bloomfield, Proc. 

Amer. Philos. Soc., 83ft 1 
Erotik, Beitr'dge zur indischen, 

R. Schmidt, 320 
" Erzahlung vom Kaufmann 

Campaka," Hertel, Zeit. 

d. d. morg. GeselL, and 

Indische Erzdhler, 280 
Escaping calamities, 28-32 
"Essay on the Sources of 

Barlaam and Josaphat," 

Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, 

20ft 1 
Essays, Colebrooke, 37 
Essence (sattva), 252ft 2 
Essence is perfect knowledge, 

one whose (a Bodhisattva), 

252ft 2 
Eternuement, U, Charles 

Brisard, 315 
Eternuement et le Baillement 

dans la Magie, I'Ethno- 

et le Folklore 
V, P. Saintyves, 

309ft 1 

Ether, eight special forms of, 
163, 163ft 2 

Ethnographic Notes in Southern 
India, 46ft 2 , 306w 3 

Etudes Folkloriques, E. 
Cosquin, 204, 212ft 1 , 238, 

Etymology of the word 
"eunuch," 319 

Eunuch (tvvovxos, orraoW, 
6Xa6ia<s, d\i/3ta<s, TOfitas) 
(vadhri), 319 ; class small in 
Southern India, 325; curse 
which made Arjuna a, 114 ; 
flings balls of wheat flour 
towards the four quarters 
of the heavens, 37 ; offered 
as victim to Misfortune 
(Papman), 321 ; priests, 
Galli, 327, 328 

"Eunuch," Louis H. Gray, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
319, 320, 328 ; ditto, E. B. 
Tylor, Ency. Brit., 328 

Eunuchs, classes of, 321 ; 
condemnation of, 320, 321 ; 
excluded from the sraddha, 
320 ; forbidden to serve as 
witnesses, 320 ; ill-omened.. 



iunuchs continued 

320, 321; Indian, Appen- 
dix II, 319-329; in ancient 
India, 320-321 ; in Gujarat, 

321, 325 ; in modern India, 
321 - 327 ; permitted to 
marry, 321 

'"Eunuchs' to be found in 
the large Households of 
the State of Rajpootana, 
A Few Notes with refer- 
ence to the," H. Ebden, 
The Indian Annals of 
Medical Science, 325 

"Eunuchs of the Imperial 
Palace," Tu Shu Chi Cheng 
{The Chinese Encyclopaedia), 

Eunuchus, Terence, 6ft 2 

"Eunuques du Palais Im- 
perial de Pekin," J. J. 
Matignon, Superstition, 
Crime et Misere en Chine, 

European sneezing saluta- 
tions, 311-312; supersti- 
tion and witchcraft, 153 

Evil bodily smell, 61 ; eye, 
charm against the, 37 ; 
omen, 93, 94 ; omen, sneeze 
an, 306 ; spirits, charm to 
scare away, 37 ; spirits, fires 
to protect from, 131ft 3 

"Exalted Rabbi Low of 
Prague," 59 

Excluded from the sraddha, 
eunuchs, 320 

Execution - grounds, cross- 
roads as, 37 

Exempla of the Rabbis, The, 
M. Gaster, 63, 118ft 1 , 172ft, 

"External soul" motif, 151, 
203, 272ft 1 

Extracting maggots from 
teeth, charm for, 51ft 

Eye, charms against the evil, 
37 ; the Prince who tore 
out his own, 19-21, 23; 
torn out by St Brigit, 20ft 1 ; 
torn out when admired, 19, 
20, 20ft 1 

Eyesight restored by the 
Asvins, 258 

Fable of the crow and the 

palm, 70, 70ft 1 
Fables de la Fontaine, La 

Fontaine, 250 
Fabliau, Chevalier a laTrappe, 

82ft 2 

Fabliaux, Montaiglon, 76 
Fabulous animals with eight 

feet (Sarabhas), 259, 259ft 1 
Facetice, Henricus Bebelius,75 
Faerie Queene, Spenser, 138ft 1 
Fairy harp, 187ft 3 
Faithful courtesan, the, 212- 

215 ; servant Viravara, the, 

28ft 1 
Faithless females, 193 
Fallen elephant raised by 

chaste woman, 171, 172 
Falling in love by mere 

mention, 261, 261ft 1 
" False Ascetics and Nuns, 

On," Bloomfield, Journ. 

Amer. Orient. Soc. t 211ft 1 
False rejuvenation of the 

king, 245 
Famine, cow eaten in time 

of, 9 
Fat, a candle of human, 133, 

150-153; powers attributed 

to human, 152 ; of a white 

hen, unguent of, 152 
Fatal look, the, 11 2?* 1 
Fear of death, the, 3-5; of 

ghosts among the Baganda, 

38; of the night-hag, 131ft 3 
Feet first, children born with, 

Feet and hands of dead 

enemy eaten, 151 
" Fellah and his Wicked Wife, 

The," Burton, Nights, 105ft 
Female ascetic, the wicked, 

99-101, 104 
Female clothes worn by 

eunuchs, 322, 325, 326, 328 
Female mandrake, 154 
Females, faithless, 193 
Festival, the Holi, 37 
Festschrift fur Ernst Windisch, 

J. Hertel, " Ueber die 

Suvabahuttarikatha," 62, 

Fiabe Mantovani, Visentini, 76 
Fiction, theme of "Letter of 

Death " motif in, 279 
Fiddle, magic, 187ft 3 
Fields, holy (kshetras), 220, 

220ft 1 
Fight between a mongoose 

and a snake, description 

of a, 115ft 1 
Figures, the indestructible 

golden, 212-214, 216 
Finger, Water of Life in 

little, 253ft 1 
Fire, circumambulating the, 

148, 148ft 2 

Fire, God of (Agni), 13, 159- 
162, 228ft 2 ; magic, 227, 
228; worship, 160ft 1 

Fires, thefive sacred, 22,22ft 1 ; 
of modern ritual, the three, 
160ft 1 

Fireside Stories, Kennedy, 76 

First child-bed, superstition 
regarding the left hand of 
a woman who has died in 
her, 151 

Five sacred fires, 22, 22ft 1 ; 
Vedic fires, 160ft 1 

"Flea, The," Basile, Pen- 
tamerone, 239 

Floating down-stream, the 
golden lotuses, 246-248 ; 
rubies, 247ft 1 

Flowers and fruits that grow 
all the year round, 138 

Flowers from a Persian Garden, 
Clouston, 167ft 2 

Flowery arrows, god of the 
(Kama), 24 

Flute out of human leg-bone, 

Flying, early attempts at, 56 ; 
sandals of Hermes, 56 ; 
through the air, 27, 35 

Fly- whisk (chowrie), 84ft 1 , 85ft 

Folk Etymology, A. S. Palmer, 
154 ' 

Folk-Lore, " Balochi Tales," 
Dames, 182; ["Bantu Folk- 
lore "] M. L. Hewat, 313, 
313ft 2 ; " Burial of Suicides 
at Cross-roads," W. Crooke, 
37; ["Customs of the 
Lower Congo People " 
J. H. Weeks, 313, 313ft 1 ; 
["The Duppy"] 202; 
"Folk-Tales of the An- 
gami Nagas of Assam," 
J. H. Hutton, 105ft ; "The 
Force of Initiative in 
Magical Combat," W. R. 
Halliday, 204; "King 
Midas and his Ass's Ears," 
W. Crooke, 188ft ; "Persian 
Folk-Lore," Ella C. Sykes, 
307, 307ft 2 ; "Primitive 
Orientation," W. H. R. 
Rivers, 295ft 2 ; "Some 
Navajo Folktales," Buxton, 
268ft 1 ; "Some Notes on 
Homeric Folk-Lore," W. 
Crooke, 204, 208ft 1 , 227ft, 
258; "Sunwise Proces- 
sions," E. Peacock, 295 2 ; 
["The Water of Life"] 
G. A. Grierson, 253ft 1 



Folklore of Bombay, R. E. 

Knthoven, 315 
Folk-Lore de France, S^billot, 

Folk - Lore of the Xorlhern 

Counties, Henderson, 150, 

Folk-L)re of the Old Testa- 
ment, Fraser, 153 
Folk-ljtre of Plants, T. F. 

Thiselton-Dyer, 154 
Folklore of the Santal Par- 

H/iuas, Bom pas, 76, 182 
Folk- Lore Society, 29a 
"Folk-Tales of the Angami 
u'as of Assam," J. H. 

Hatton, Folk-Lore, 105a 
Folk-Tales of Bengal, L. B., 

Day. 29n, 62, 280 
Fo Ik Ta let of Hindustan, 

Shaikh Chilli, 272m 1 
Followers of N a ray an a, 

Foolish Piiacha, the, 34-35 
I orceof Initiativein Magical 

Conflict. The." W. R. 

Halliday. Folk-Lore, 204 
Forehead or mouth of autom- 
aton, divine name placed 

in the. 59 
Forest, the Vindhya, 266 
Forgotten bride, the, 124, 

Form, having assumed a 

(jatarupa) , 1 48a 5 
Formation of the moonstone, 

53a 2 
Former birth, life in a, 7, 8 
Forms of ether, the eight 

special, 163, 163u 2 

Formula' in praise of right- 
eousness, 307 

Fortieth day (rhalisa), 323 

Fortune, the Goddess of, 24, 
74, 298 

Fortune of Royalty, 69 ; of 
the Vidyftdhara race, 137 

Four means of success. Cpd- 
>/as the, 1 13 143n 2 

lour quarters of the heavens, 
eunueh flings balls of wheat 
flour towards the. 37 

Frager's Magazine, 154 

Friar Odoric, 57 

Fried pastry (falan), 324 

Friend of the moon, the white 
lotus. 140, 140a 2 

Friends of lovers (the A.4vins), 

Friendship of Kalinga 
and Somaprabha. 27, 28 

Frog in a pot, 73, 75 

Fruits and flowers that grow 

all the year round, 138 
Fruits, the two heavenly, 263 ; 

which prevent old age, 42, 

Funeral human sacrifice, 

185a 1 
Furrow (karsha), 201 
Future Buddha, a (bodhi- 

taltva), 252a- 

Gagga-Jdtaka, the, 304, 304a 1 
Gall of a black cat, unguent 

of, 152 
Gambler's circle, 202 
Garden of the gods, Nan- 

dana, 5, 6, 24, 138 
Garden, the heavenly, 138; 

called Nagavana, 140, 142, 

142a 1 
[Gargantua] Rabelais, 34a 
Gas, Van Helmont's re- 
searches on the nature of, 

161 a 1 
Gautama Dharma Sastra, 320 
Genesis, 153 
Gentile (got raj a), 46 a 1 
Georgian Folk- Tales, Wardrop, 

Geschichte [or Sagenbuch] 

der Bayerischen Lande, 

Schoppner, 133m 1 
Geschichten und Lieder aus den 

neuaramdischen Hand- 

schrijien zu Berlin, Lidz- 

barski, 76, 280 
Gesta Romanorum, 4a 3 , 118m 1 , 

167a 2 , 172a 2 , 247a 1 
Ghosts among the Baganda, 

fear of, 38 
Giant keeper of the caves 

of Babylon, Zohak the, 

Giving [dana), 159m 1 , 214m 1 
" Gleanings from the Bhakta- 

Mala," G. A. Grierson, 

Journ. Rot/. As. Soc, 280 
Globus, "Zauberglaube bei 

den Rutenen," R. F. 

Kaindl, 151 
Glossarium Eroticum Lingua; 

Lathiaj, Pierre Pierrugues, 

Glossary, Nare, 154 
Glossary to Shakespeare's 

Works', A. Dyce, 154 
Goblin in the rafters, 304, 

Goblins, pertinacity of, 32a 1 
"God bless you!" 30, 31 

God, Chandrama, the moon-, 
161m 1 ; with the Elephant 
Face (Ganesa), 155. 1" 
of Fire (Agni), 13, 159-162, 
228a 2 ; of the flowery 
arrows (Kama), 24; of Jus- 
tice, 92; of Love (Kama), 
1, 24, 68, 111, 112, 129, 
130, 132, 146. 165. 175, 
184, 279, 294; mutilations 
to indicate subjugation to 
the, 21a ; servant created 
through the mystical name 
of, 59; of Wealth (Kuvera), 
133, 134, 211, 212, 216 

Goddess Candelifera. 131n 3 ; 
Bahucharaji, 322-324; 
Behechra, 321, 324, 325; 
Bouchera,321 ; of Fortune, 
24, 74, 298; Huligamma, 
326, 327 

Gods and Asuras, war between 
the, 66 

Gods, Brihaspati preceptor of 
the, 88, 88a 2 ; King of the 
(Indraffl.r.]); Nandana the 
garden of the, 5, 6, 24, 138; 
serpent-, 142a 1 ; (ribudha), 
215a 1 

"Gold -child" root. the 
218a 1 

Gold out of copper, 161, 
161a 1 , 162 a 

Gold, peacocks of, 57 

Golden arrow, the, 222, 223 

Golden Ass, Apuleius, 226a 2 , 
285a 1 , 31 In 1 

Golden Bough, Frazer, 38, 
142a 1 , 151, 153, 203, 314, 
314a 6 , 328 

Golden figures, the indestruct- 
ible, 212-214, 216; fruits 
as boon, 160; handmaid of 
Hephaistos, 56 ; lotuses 
floating down-stream, 246- 

" Golden Lion, The," Gonzen- 
bach, Sicilianische Mdrchen, 
225a 2 

"Goldene Schachspiel, Das," 
Kaden, Unter den Olimi- 
haumen, 187a 3 

"Golem des Hoch - Rabbi- 
Lob, Der," A. M. Tendlau, 
Das Buck der Sagen und 
Legenden J'udischer Vol 

Good omen, sneezing in 
Greece a, 310 

Grain, sacrificial (homa faja), 
148a 3 

C -andmothers of the Kurus 

and Pandus, Amba and 

Ambalika, 65 
C randson of Vishnu, 82, 83 
C rant named Yajnasthala, 

royal, 32 
C rass, darbha, 263 ; durva, 

254ft 1 ; kusa, 98 
( rave throws inmates of a 

house into sleep, earth 

taken from a, 151 
( reat Khan, palace of the, 

< rreek architect Daedalus, 

the, 56 
( Week Divination, W. R. 

Halliday, 303, 303ft 1 
' Grey Hair " motif, 243ft 2 
Griechische und Albanesische 

M'drchen, Hahn, 204 
Griechische M'drchen, B. 

Schmidt, 28ft 1 , 133ft 1 , 

187ft 3 , 218ft 1 , 238, 253ft 1 
Griechische Roman, Der, Rohde, 

Grief, daughter a lump of, 

18, 18ft 3 
Grimms Household Tales, 

M. Hunt, 76 
Group of Eastern Romances 

and Stories, A, Clouston, 

118ft 1 
Grove of snakes (Nagavana), 

140, 142, 142ft 1 
Guardian of jewels and 

precious metals, Vessavana 

a, 304, 304ft 2 
Guardians of treasure, 133, 

133ft 1 
Gunpowder, Roger Bacon's 

invention of, 161ft 1 
"Gypsies of Bengal," B. R. 

Mitra, Memoirs read before 

the Anth. Soc. Ldn., 51ft 

Hagiology, Buddhist, 20ft 1 
Hair of which fly-whisks are 

made {al-zamar or al- 

chamar), 84ft 1 
Hakluyt Society, 57, 85ft, 201 
Hand (kara), 214ft 1 
"Hand," J. A. Macculloch, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Hand of a dead man, magical 

power of dried and pickled, 

150; in homoeopathic 

magic, 152 
"Hand of Glory," note on 

the, 150-154 ; extinguished 

by milk, 152 



Hand of Glory, The, R. 

Blakeborough (ed. J. Fair- 

fax-Blakeborough), 152 
Hands cut off when admired, 

21ft ; and feet of dead 

enemy eaten, 151 ; peacock 

apparatus for washing the, 

Hanged man, candle made 

from the fat of a, 150; 

man's body, origin of the 

mandrake from juices from 

a, 153 
Harivansa, the, 9n x 
Harp, a fairy, 187ft 3 
" Hasan of Bassorah," Burton, 

Nights, 260ft 1 
" Hasty Word, The," Ralston, 

Russian Folk-Tales, 225ft 2 
Hates men, woman who, 260, 

260ft 2 
Hatims Tales, Stein and 

Grierson, 280 
Hausa Superstitions and 

Customs, A. J. N. Tre- 

mearne, 312, 312ft 1 
Hausas of Tripoli and Tunis, 

cross-roads among the, 38 
Head, centipedes in the 

king's, 49, 52 
Head or chief, he who is 

(Sa reSi (risi)), 319 
Head grows again on being 

cut off, 268, 268ft 1 , 269 
Healers of disease (the 

Asvins), 258 
Healing the Brahman's 

wound, 32; properties of 

boy's juices, 152 
"Health-index," 272ft 1 
Heaven, Dyaus the Sky 

Father or, 257 
"Heaven and Earth" (the 

ASvins), 257 
Heavenly garden, the, 138 
Heavens, eunuch flings balls 

of wheat flour towards 

the four quarters of the, 

Hebrew medicine, cross-roads 

in, 38 
Helden-Sagen, Hagen, 130ft 1 , 

185ft 1 , 191ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 233ft 1 , 

268ft 1 
Hen, unguent of the fat of a 

white, 152 
Heptameron [Margaret of 

Navarre], 126 
Herbal, Gerard e, 154 
Hermetic and Alchemical Writ- 

ings of Philippus Aureolus 


Hermetic continued 

Theophrastus Bombast of 

Hohenheim, A. E. Waite, 

Hermit wounded out of 

jealousy, 22 
Hermitage of Kanva, the, 130 
Hermotimus, Lucian, 82ft 2 
" Hidden Treasure, The," 

Clouston, A Group of East- 
ern Romances and Stories, 

118ft 1 
Hidden treasures, mandrake 

reveals, 153 
Highwayman's incantation, 

Hindu love-sickness, stages 

of, 68ft 1 
Hindu Manners, Customs and 

Ceremonies, Dubois, 306, 

Hindu Pavayas, 322 
Hindustani palki (palanquin), 

14ft 1 
Histoire de la Philosophic 

Hermetique, Lenglet du 

Fresnoy, 162ft 
Histoire des sultans mamlouks de 

I'Egypte, Quatremere, 329 
History of Ancient Egypt, 

Rawlinson, 329 
History of Circumcision, 

Remondico, 328 
History of Fiction, Dunlop 

(Liebrecht's trans.), 82ft 2 , 

285ft 1 
History of the Forty Vezirs, 

E. J. W. Gibb, 20ft 1 , 204 
History of Magic and Experi- 
mental Science, Thorndike, 

57, 162ft 
History of the King of Vatsa, 

History of the Saints of the 

Bhagavata reformation, 280 
Hitopadesa, the, 28ft 1 
Hobson Jobson, Yule, 14ft 1 , 

85ft, 116ft 
Holy bathing-place of Papa- 

sodhana, 128 
Holy fields (kshetras), 220, 

220ft 1 
Holy Land, mandrake super- 
stitions in the, 153 
Holy sages (Rishis), 1 
" Homeric Folk Lore, Some 
Notes on," W. Crooke, 
Folk-Lore, 204, 208ft 1 , 227ft, 
Homme Americain, U, A. 
d'Orbigny, 314, 314ft 5 



Homoeopathic magic, con- 
nected with the dead 
man's hand, 151 ; hand in, 
152; circle used in, 202, 
Hook (a,Ma), Un l 
Hop-o -my Thumb, 105/i 

Horns," J. A. Macculloch, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Etk., 

Horns growing on the head, 
187, 187M88. 188; pro- 
duced by figs, 187/j 3 ; pro- 
ducer of (Sringotpadini), 
187, 187n 

Horns of' Honour, Rlworthy, 

Horse, named Saravega, 230; 
the stolen, 71, 75; trap- 
pings, chowrie used as a 
plume in, Sin 1 , 85n 

Hostility to the crocodile, 
ichneumon's, l\Qn; of the 
Vidyadharas, 145 

Human body, resemblance of 
the mandrake to the, 153; 
fat, a candle of, 133, 150- 
154; fat, powers attributed 
to, 152; leg-bone flute out 
of a, 151 ; sacrifice, funeral, 
185H 1 ; sacrifice (purusha- 
medha), 321 

'Hunchback's Tale, The," 
Burton, Nights, 101 n 

" Hundred years, a " (satayus), 

Huon of Bordeaux, 187n 8 

Husband, disguise of Indra 
as Ahalyas, 126; the 
mean-spirited, 287 

Husband, the Pretended," 
motif, 126-127 

Ibrahim and Jamilah," 
Burton, Sights, 68n l 
Ichneumon, note on the, 
115n. 116n 

Ichneumon," G. H. Car- 
penter] Ency. lirit.. 115n l 

Ichneumon (Ilerpestes ichneu- 
mon), 115n, 116n 

Ichneumon, the Owl, the Cat 
and the Mouse, Story of 
the. 115-117 

Ichor from the temples of a 
mast elephant (dana), 214 l 

Identification of Takshasila, 

Identity, doubt about own, 
251 ' 

Idols, consecration of, 37, 38 

Iliad, Homer, 229n\ 277 
Ill-omened eunuchs, 320, 321 
Immortal birds, Bihangama, 

and Bihangami, the two, 

Immortality, elixir of, 253, 

Immunity of mongoose from 

snake-bite, 115n x 
Impersonation of Madanavega 

as the King of Vatsa, 121- 

"Impossibilities" motif, 

24b* 1 , 250-251 
Impotence a qualification for 

admission to Pavaya caste, 

Incantation, the highway- 
man's, 152 
Incarnation of Rati, the, 131, 

135, 138 
Indestructible golden figures, 

the, 212-214, 216 
India in the Fifteenth Century, 

R. H. Major, 201 
Indian Annals of Medical 

Science, The, "A Few 

Notes, with reference to 

1 The Eunuchs ' to be found 

in the large Households of 

the State of Rajpootana," 

H. Ebden, 325 
Indian Antiquary, 182, 201 ; 

"The Story of Chandra- 

hasya," N. B. Godabole, 

Indian Eunuchs, Appendix II, 

Indian Fain/ Tales, Stokes, 

218n*, 226n 2 , 280 
Indian medical beliefs, 

ancient, 50/i 1 , 51n, 52n 
Indian Nights' Entertainments, 

Swynnerton, 204 
Indian Pluto, Vessavana a 

kind of, 304, 304n 2 
Indian prostitutes, 207n 2 
Indische Erz'dhler, "Die 

Erziihlung vom Kaufmann 

Campaka," Hertel, 280 
Indogermanen, Hirt, 319 
" Indonesians," J. G. Frazer, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

313, 313n* 
Ingoldsbu Legends [Barhaml, 

40n* ' 
Initiation of Pavayas, cere- 
mony of, 323 
Initiatory rites of the Galli, 

327, 328; of the Kojahs, 


Innocent wife, cheating the 

Inventor, Archytas the 

scientific, 56 ; of carpentry 

and its tools, Daedalus, 56 
Invulnerable, mandrake 

renders wearer, 153 
Irische Mdrchen, Grimm, 30/i 1 , 

Iron-eating mice, the. 250 
Iron pincers {chinita), 100x * 
Isaiah, 329 
Island, queen confined to an. 

Islands, Camphor, 260n ! ; of 

Wak, 260w l 
Italian Popular Tales, Crane, 76 

Jacket, short (cholee), 326 

Jamaican spirit or duppy, 202 

Jatalca book, the Pali, 20k 1 

Jatakas, the, 60, 179, 250, 
304ft 1 , 306 

Javanese and M&\&y palatujuin, 
Palangki, lin 1 

Jealousy, hermit wounded out 
of, 22 ; punishment for, 
177, 178; of rival wives, 99 

Jeremiah, 329 

Jewel-lamps, 131?i 3 , 132n, 
167n 2 

Jewels, boxes containing, 
209, 210; and precious 
stones, Vessavana a guar- 
dian of, 304, 304n 2 

"Jewish Doctor, Tale of 
the," Burton, Nights, 95n x 

Jewish legend, the Golem of, 

John oj Capita, 126 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Sue, 
" Camphor," W. H. Schoff, 
260n x ; " On False Ascetics 
and Nuns," Bloomfield, 
211ft 1 

Journ. Anth. Inst., " Kojahs 
of Southern India," J. 
Shortt, 325; "Notes on 
the Wagogo of German 
E. Africa," J. Cole, 38 

Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb. 
["Basivis: Women who 
through Dedication to a 
Deity assume Masculine 
Privileges "], Fawcett, 327 ; 
["Bihari Tales"], S. C. 
Mitra, 250 

Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, "On 
the Shighni (Ghalchah) 
Dialect," R. B. Shaw, 



, ournal Asiatique, " Lettre sur 
les poetes Tarafah et al- 
Moutalammis, par M. A. 
Perron a M. Caussin de 
Perceval, 278 
ourn. MahaBodiSoc, "Mahii 
Bodhi and the United 
Buddhist World," 182 

, r ourn. North China Branch 
Roy. As. Soc, "Chinese 
Eunuchs," Stent, 329 
r ourn. Roy. As. Soc, "The 
Act of Truth," E. W. 
Burlingame, 179, 182 ; 
"Gleanings from the 
Bhakta - Mala," G. A. 
Grierson, 280; "Metrical 
Version of the Story of 
Harisarman," B. Hale 
Wortham, 77-80 

Journey through Mysore, 
Canara and Malabar, Hamil- 
ton, 201 

Juices from a hanged man's 
body, origin of the man- 
drake in, 153 ; powers attri- 
buted to human, 152 

Justice, God of, 92 

Kah-Gyur, the, 50ft 1 
Kalila and Dimna, 126 
Kalmiikische Marchen, B. Jiilg, 

Kastration in rechtlicher, 

socialer, und vitaler Hinsicht, 

C. Rieger, 328 
Katha Sarit Sagara, Somadeva, 

33ft 3 , 268ft 1 , 280 
Kathakoca, Tawney, 60-62, 

207ft 2 , 279 
Keeper of the caves of Baby- 
lon, Zohak the giant, 150 
Khantivadi-Jataka, the, 20ft 1 
Kharapidta-Jataka, the, 60 
" Killed person coming to 

life " motif, 268ft 1 
Kind, Das, H. H. Ploss, 328 
Kinder-und Hausm'drchen, 

Grimm, 28ft 1 , 75, 104ft 2 , 

187ft 3 , 188^, 189ft 1 , 226ft 2 , 

227ft, 231ft 1 , 237, 272ft 1 
Kindred, Bandhu or cognate, 

46ft 1 
[King, dependent of a] 

(karpatika), 207ft 1 
King of the Gods. See 

" King Midas and his Ass's 

Ears," Crooke, Folk-Lore, 

Kingdom given away, 177 

Kings, 308ft 3 , 329 ; duties of, 

Kitab fi maWifat al-hiyal at 
handaslya (Book of the 
Knowledge of Ingenious 
Contrivances), Al-Jazari, 58 

Kite, inventor of the, 56 

"Kluge Else, Die," Grimm, 
Kinder-und Hausm'drchen, 
231ft 1 

Knife (asri), 319 

"Knowall, Dr," motif, 75-76 

" Knowing one, the" (jnava- 
vijna), 72ft 1 

Knowledge, one whose es- 
sence is perfect (a Bodhi- 
sattva), 252ft 2 

Knowledge, pretended, 71- 
73 ; superhuman {vidya), 
165, 165ft 2 ; the test of, 

" Kojahs of Southern India," 
J. Shortt, Journ. Anth. Inst., 

" Kshanti Jataka," Bodhi- 
sattva Avadana, 20ft 1 

Labyrinth, the Cretan, 56 
Lac, lake made of liquid, 67 
Lake with full-blown lotuses, 

24; the Manasa, 163 
"Lalitanga, Story of," 

Tawney, Kathakoca, 61 
Lament of Kalingasena, 124 
Lamp, wick of a (varli), 134ft 1 
Lamps, jewel-, 131ft 3 , 132ft, 

167ft 2 
Land of Camphor, 260ft 1 ; of 

Chedi, 128 
Leaves, strings of (torans), 

100ft 1 
"Leech, Tale of the Weaver 

who became a," Burton, 

Nights, 76 
Leg- bone, flute out of a 

human, 151 
Legend, the Golem of Jewish, 

Legend of Perseus, Hartland, 

204, 227ft, 263ft 2 
Legend of St Augustine, 

' Legende du Page de Sainte 

Elisabeth, La," Cosquin, 

Etudes Folkloriques, 280 
Legends connected with the 

"philosopher's stone," 

161ft 1 , 162ft ; of moving 

figures, 56-59 
Legends of the Panjab, Temple , 


Leipziger sem. Studien, "Assyr. 

Beamtentum," Klauber, 

Lentils, track of peas or, 104, 

104ft 2 , 105ft 
Letter of Death, the, 265, 

Letters, the "Bellerophon," 

" Mutalammis," and 

" Uriah," 277-279 
"Lettre sur les poetes Tara- 
fah et al-Moutalammis, par 

M.A. Perron a M. Caussin 

de Perceval, Journal Asia- 
tique, 278 
Le tires Edificantes, Pere 

Bouchet, 201 
"Life -index" motif, 269ft, 

272ft 1 
"Life-Index, The," Norton, 

Studies in Honour of Maurice 

Bloomjield, 272ft 1 
Life in a former birth, 7, 8 
"Life of St Brigit," Whitley 

Stokes, Three Middle Irish 

Homilies, 20ft 1 
Life and Stories of Parg- 

vanatha, Bloomfield, 63, 

" Life, the Water of," motif, 

43, 253, 253ft 1 , 254 
Light, the twin deities of 

(the Asvins), 267 
Lion of valour( Vikramasinha), 

11, lift 3 
Lips like the bandhuka, 146 
List of mutilations, 21ft 
Literary History of the Arabs, 

A., R. A. Nicholson, 278 
Literature on alchemy, 162ft, 
Literaturgeschichte der Araber, 

Hammer-Purgstall, 278 
LithuanianLegends, Schleicher, 

Litterature Orale de la Picardie, 

E. Carnoy, 105ft, 311ft* 
"Live, May you" (lalaun), 

Livre des Lumieres, Le, 126 
Llyfr Cock Hergest, "The 

Mabinogion," Lady C. 

Guest, 205 
Lock, the Brahmanical, 2 
Loeb Classical Library, 258 
Long-haired man (eunuch), 

" Long life " (dlrghdyus), 306 
Look, the fatal, 112ft 1 ; the 

poisonous, 111, 112ft 1 
Lord of Wealth (Kuvera, q.v.), 




Lost treasure recovered by 
cunning, 118-120 

Lotus fibres, necklace and 
bracelet of, 121, 121ft 1 ; a 
friend of the moon, the 
white, 140, 140n 2 

Lotuses floating down-stream, 
the golden, 246-248; formed 
from drops from a skeleton, 
247, 248; lake with full- 
blown, 24 

Love, the God of (Kama), 1, 
24, 68, 111, 112, 129, 130, 
132, 146, 165, 175, 184, 279, 
294 ; of Kalingasena for the 
KingofVatsa,85; by mere 
mention, 68, 68m 1 , 261, 
261ft 1 ; scorned, 109-110 

Love-apple, Aphrodite a per- 
sonification of the man- 
drake or, 153 

Love-charm, mandrake used 
as, 153 

Love - sickness, stages of 
Hindu, 68/1 1 

Lover revealed by "Act of 
Truth," 181 

Lovers, friends of (the 
Asvins), 258 

Luminous carbuncle, the, 

Lump (Golem), 59 

"Lump of grief," daughter 
a, 18, 18ft 3 

Lute of bones, the, 187, 188 

Lying-in room, candle lit in, 

\1 ibinogion, The," Lady C. 
Guest, Lh/fr Cock Her- 

Ionian Folk- Lore, G. F. 
Abbott, 310, 310 4 

M.ichines described by Soma- 
prabha. 42 

Maggots from teeth, charm 
for extracting, 51 

Magic car of Medea, 56 ; 
chariot, 42; circle, 201-203; 
circle used for curing cattle 
disease, 201 ; earth, water, 
thorns and fire, 227, 228; 
fiddle. 187 3 ; the hand 
in homoeopathic, 152 ; in 
Obstacles" motif, sym- 
pathetic. 239; ritual. nudity 
in. 33. 33n> ; sword, the, 
271 ; sympathetic, 38; 
tripods, bellows and golden 
handmaids of Hephaistos, 

Magic of the Horseshoe, The, 

R. Means-Lawrence, 309ft 1 
"Magic Obstacles" motif, 

227ft, 228, 236-239 
["Magical Circle"] A. E. 

Crawley, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 203 
"Magical Conflict" motif, 

195, 195ft 1 , 203-205 
Magical power of dried and 

pickled hand of a dead 

man, 150; properties of 

the mandrake, 151 ; rites 

connected with cross-roads, 

Magie et Religion dans V Afrique 

du Word, E. Doutte, 202 
" Maha Bodhi and the United 

Buddhist World," Journ. 

Maha Bodhi Soc, 182 
Mahdbhdrata, the, 115ft 1 , 181, 

182, 247ft 1 , 250, 258, 320, 

Mahdvagga, the, 321 
Mahdvastu Avaddna, the, 20m 1 , 

244 ft 1 
Maid called Jihva, 72, 72n 2 , 73 
"Main de Gloire " (Mande- 

gloire, mandragore, man- 

dragora), the mandrake, 

153, 154 
Majesty or pre-eminence of 

the king (prabhutva), 137m 1 
Malay and Javanese palangki 

{palanquin), 14m 1 
" Male " mandrake, 154 
Man created from clay, 59 j 

turned into monkey, 191 
Mandragore ("Main de 

Gloire," mandrake), 153, 

Mandrake, Aphrodite a per- 
sonification of the, 153 ; 

connection of the "Hand 

of Glory" with the, 153, 

164; magical properties of 

the, 151 
Mango-tree, the enchanted, 

Manners and Customs of the 

Ancient Egyptians, Wilkin- 
son, 116ft 
Manner a and Customs of the 

Modern Egyptians, Lane, 

308, 308ft 2 
Man's clothes, woman in, 46, 

Manufacture of automata, 56, 

Mdrchen der Magyaren, Gaal, 

48ft 1 , 167ft*, 226ft, 238 

MdrcJien der Schluh con 7 
wait, Stumme, 188ft 

Mdrchen des Siddhi-k'ur Die, 
B. Jiilg, 56, 62. 03, 75, 

Mdrchen und Ersdhlungen der 
Suaheli, Velten, 280 

Marco Polo, The Book of Ser, 
Yule and Cordier. 85ft, 201, 
202, 307, 307ft 1 , 329 

Marks of Naravahanadatta, 
auspicious, 84ft 1 

Marriage by choice (.nw/am- 
vara), 26, 26ft 1 , 181,221 
gdndharva form of. 65, 82, 
121, 124, 146, 196, 269; of 
a daughter, benefits ob- 
tained by the, 24, 26; of 
Kalingasena to Madana- 
vega, 121 ; of Naravahana- 
datta to Mandanaman- 
chuka, 147, 148 ; of Nara- 
vahanadatta to R a t n a- 
prabha, 167, 168; rites 
among the Bharvads in 
Gujarat, 37 

Married in a dream, 82, 83 

Marry, eunuchs permitted to, 

Martyred Charan woman, 
Bahucharaji the spirit of a, 

Masseur, barber as, 100ft 1 

Mathurd : A District Memoir, 
F. S. Growse, 142ft 1 

Matrimonial agent, barber as, 
100ft 1 ; priest, barber as 
the, 100ft 1 

Matrimonii), De, Seneca, 329 

Matthew, 329 

"May you live ! " (lalaun), 313 

Mean-spirited husband, the, 

Measure of time (Kalpa), 138 

Measures of distance (yojanas), 
35, 82, 156, 227, 283, 284 

Mechanical dolls of wood .'^9. 
56 ; swans, the, 282, 283 

Medical beliefs, ancient 
Indian, 50ft 1 , 51n, 52ft 

Medicine, cross-roads in 
Hebrew, 38; to procure 
sons, 218, 219 

Mckka, C. Snouck Hurgronje, 

" Melancholist and the 
Sharper, The," Burton, 
Nights, 118ft 1 

Melanesian and Polynesia 
sneezing salutations, 313- 

. lelanesians of British New 

Guinea, The, C. G. Selig- 

mann, 314ft 2 
. lelanesians and Polynesians, 

George Brown, 314, 314ft 1 
. lelusine, 105ft, 238 
. lent, de V Acad, des Ins., " Sur 

les Souhaits en faveur de 

ceux qui eternuent," Henri 

Morin, 309ft 2 
VLemoirs read before the Anth. 

Soc. Ldn., "The Gypsies of 

Bengal," S. C. Mitra, bin 
vlendicant Prapanchabuddhi, 

209, 210 
'Mermaid, The," Thorpe, 

Yule-tide Stories, 225ft 2 , 237 
Metals, Vessavana a guardian 

of jewels and precious, 304, 

304?i 2 
Metamorphoses (Golden Ass), 

Apuleius, 226ft 2 , 285ft 1 , 

311ft 1 
Metamorphoses, Ovid, 188ft, 

191ft 1 , 230ft 3 
Method of preparing a "Hand 

of Glory," 150 
Metrical Romances, Ellis,l272ft 1 
"Metrical Version of the 

Story of Harisarman," B. 

Hale Wortham, Journ. Boy. 

As. Soc, 77-80 
Mice, the iron-eating, 250 
Midsummer Night's Dream, 

Shakespeare, 29ft 1 
Milindapanha, the, 320, 321 
Milk extinguishes the "Hand 

of Glory," 152 
Mille et une Nuits, Les, 118ft 1 
Mirror, a small (arsi), 100ft 1 
Misfortune (Papman), eunuch 

offered as victim to, 321 
Modern Arabic Stories, Green, 

Modern India, cures for 

carious teeth in, 51ft ; 

eunuchs in, 321-327 
Moeurs intimes du passe, " Dieu 

vous benisse ! Origine 

d'un dicton," Cabanes, 315 
Mohammedans, sneezing 

superstitions among the, 

306, 308 
Monarquia Indiana, F. Juan 

de Torquemada, 150, 151 
Mongolian form of "Doctor 

Knowall " story, 75; version 

of "Overhearing" motif, 

48ft 1 
Mongolische Miirchen, B. Jiilg, 



"Mongols, et leur pretendu 
Role dans la Transmission 
des Contes," Cosquin, 
Etudes Folkloriques, 204 

Mongoose (Herpestes mungo), 
115ft 1 , 116ft 

Monkey, the buried, 189, 
190; man turned into a, 

"Montagne Noire, La," 
Melusine, 238 

Moon (Soma), 257; digit of 
the (Jcala), 164ft 1 ; white 
lotus a friend of the, 140, 
140ft 2 

Moon-god, Chandrama, 161ft 1 

Moon's diameter, a sixteenth 
of the (kala), 140ft 1 

Moonstone (chandrakanta), 53, 
53ft 2 

Mort d'Arthure, La, 208ft 1 

Mother-in-law, the cruel, 44, 

Motif "Act of Truth," 
172ft 2 , 279-182; "Doctor 
Knowall," 75-76; " Do- 
hada," 60; "External 
Soul," 151, 272ft 1 ; "Grey 
hair," 243ft 2 ; "Impossibil- 
ities," 241ft 1 , 250-251 ; 
"Killed person coming to 
life," 268ft 1 ; "Letter of 
Death," 277-280; "Life- 
index," 272ft 1 ; "Magic 
Obstacles," 227ft, 228, 
236-239; "Magical Con- 
flict," 195, 195ft 1 , 203-205; 
"Overhearing," 29ft, 48, 
48ft 1 , 49, 60-63, 151 ; "Pre- 
tended Husband," 126- 
127; "Quintessence," 76; 
"Tasks," 226ft 2 , 227ft, 277; 
"Test of Chastity," 172ft 2 ; 
"Transformation Combat," 
195, 195ft 1 , 203 - 205 ; 
"Water of Life," 253, 
253ft 1 , 254 

Mountain, the Churning 
(Mandara), 83, 83ft 2 ; 
Kalakuta, 65 ; Mainaka, 
lift 2 ; Malaya, 155, 178; 
Meru, 281; Rishaba, 64, 
126 ; Sumeru (the mountain 
of gold), 148, 148ft 1 ; of the 
sunrise, 67 

Mountains, the Vindhya, 40, 
42, 97ft 1 , 267 

" Mouse and the Ichneumon, 
Tale of the," Burton, 
Nights, 115ft 1 

Mouse, the sagacious, 117 


Mouth or forehead of autom- 
aton, Divine Name placed 
in the, 59 

Moving figures, legends of, 

Mrichchhakatika, or Clay Cart, 
202, 207ft 2 

Musalman Pavayas, 322 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 

Mustard seeds sown along 
the path, 98 

"Mutalammis letter," 277- 

Mutilation in religion, self-, 

Mutilations forced on con- 
quered enemies or en- 
slaved persons, 21ft ; to 
indicate the subjugation to 
the god, 21ft ; list of, 21ft 

"Mutilations," Lawrence 
Gomme, Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 21ft 

Mystic Trees and Flowers, 
M. D. Conway, 154 

Mystical name of God, servant 
created through the, 59 

Myth, the Prometheus, 307ft 3 , 
309, 310 

Mythes et Legendes de V Inde et 
de la Perse, Lev&que, 9ft 1 

Mythology of the Aryan 
Nations, Cox, 28ft 1 , 272ft 1 

Myths and Songs from the 
South Pacific, W. W. Gill, 
314, 314ft 3 

" Nala and DamayantI," 

Mahabharata, 181 
Name of a deity uttered by 

sneezer, 306 
Narada Dharma Sastra, 320 
Native Tribes of South-East 

Australia, A. W. Howitt, 

Nature, own (svabhava), 252ft 2 
Nat. Hist., Pliny, 311ft 1 
"Navajo Folktales, Some," 

Buxton, Folk-Lore, 268ft 1 
"Neaniskos," L. S. Smithers, 

Priapeia, 328 
Necklace, the enchanted, 30, 

31; of lotus fibres, 121, 

121ft 1 
Nectar (Amrita), 176, 176ft 1 
Neun Derusch Vortr'dge, Rabbi 

H. B. Fassel, 59 
New Materials for the History 

of Man, R. G. Haliburton, 




Newly - born child, candle 
made of a, 152, 153 

Sibelungenlied, 82m 1 

Night-hag, fear of the, 131 m 3 

Sights, Straparola, 76, 205 

Sights, The Thousand and One, 
Burton, 56, 60, 68m 1 , 76, 
95m 1 , 101m 1 , 105m, 115/* 1 , 
118a 1 , 203, 227m, 260m 1 - 2 , 
268m, 279, 308, 308m*, 

Sirukta, Yaska, 257 

Socles Atticce, Aul. Gellius, 56 

Non - Aryans (Mlechchhas), 

Sorth Indian Sotes and Queries, 

Norwegian stories, Ashbjorn- 
sen. 237 

Nose," J. A. Macculloch, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
314, 314m 

e - bo rn " (ndsikapra- 
bhavas), 257 

Nostrils, Asvins produced by 
the breath of, 257 

Note on the " Act of Truth," 
motif, 179-182; on the 
Asvins, 257-258; on Au- 
tomata, 56-57; on Cross- 
roads, 37-38 ; on the " Doc- 
tor Knowall " motif, 75-76; 
on the " Hand of Glory," 
150-154; on theichneumon, 
115m 1 , 116m; on the "Im- 
possibilities" motif, 250- 
251; on the "Letter of 
Death" motif, 277-280; on 
the ' Magic Circle," 201- 
203; on the "Magical 
Obstacles " motif, 236-239 ; 
on the " Magical Conflict," 
203-205; on the "Pre- 
tended Husband " motif, 

Soles and Queries, 154 

Sotes on the Spirit Basis of 
Belief' and Custom. Camp- 
bell. 37 

Notes on the Wagogo of 

man East Africa," J. 

Cole, Journ. Anth. Inst., 38 

'<v f'atmla; et corned iw , 

Morlini, 76 

Sovellaja Milanese, Irubriani, 

Soirllr. Sachetti, 118m 1 

. Masuccio (Waters' 

trans.), 287m 1 
Nudity in magic ritual, 33, 

33m 1 

Sugce Curialium, Gualterus 

Mapes, 210m 3 
Nymph Rarabhii, the, 24-27 ; 

Surabhidatta, 145 

Objects of reverence, walking 

round, 20m 1 
Oblation offered to guests, 

argha an, 98, 254, 254m 1 
"Obstacles, Magic," motif, 

227, 228, 236-239 
"Obstacles Magiques, Les," 

Chauvin, Rente des Trad. 

Pop., 238 
Ocean, Churningof the, 176m 1 , 

253m 1 , 260 
Ocean of Story, The, 6m 3 , 162n, 

Odyssey, Homer, 138m 1 , 208m 1 , 

225m 2 , 310, 310m 2 
[Oesterreichische Kinder-und 

Hausmarchen] Verna- 

leken, 272m 1 
Offering called argha or 

arghya, 53, 53m 1 ; of eunuch 

as victim to Misfortune 

(Papman), 321; to the 

Fire God, 159, 160; to the 

spirit of the cross-roads, 

Oil, perambulating the city 

with a vessel of, 4, 5 ; of 

Rama ( Ram Tel); of Vishnu 

(Nariiyan Tel), 152 
Old age, the thief of beauty, 

243 ; fruits which prevent, 

Old Deccan Days, Frere, 28m 1 , 

52m, 62, 238' 
Old Irish Treatise on the Law 

of Adamnan, Ed. Kuno 

Meyer, 21n 
Omen, an evil, 93, 94 
Omens connected with sneez- 
ing, 303, 306, 307, 308; 

disregarded, 173; unfav- 
ourable, 46, 46m 2 , 86, 86m 1 
Omens and Superstitions in 

Southern India, Thurston, 

306m 3 
"One who does not beget" 

(su-ut ri-e-si (ea alidi)), 319 
Operation of Pavayas, 323 
Ophiolatreia, Anon., 142m 1 
Opium, a confection of 

(viajoon), 326 
Orient uvd Occident, Benfey, 

2m 2 , 28m 1 , 70m 2 , 76, 115m 1 , 
Orient und Occident, Kohler, 
124m 1 , 237, 272m 1 

Oriental origin of castration, 

319, 320 
Oriental Translation Fund, 

Roy. As. Soc., 60, 278 
Orientalist, The ["Sinhalese 

Folklore"], W. Goonetil- 

leke, 76 
Origin of castration, 319, 320; 

of the mandrake in juices 

from hanged man's body, 

153 ; of the word palanquin, 

14m 1 
"Origin of the Cult of 

Aphrodite, The," J. Rendel 

Harris, Bull. John Ry lands 

Library, 153 
"Origin of the Custom of 

Salutation after Sneezing," 

J. Knott, St Louis Medical 

Review, 315 
Origin and Development of the 

Moral Ideas, Westermarck, 

38, 328 
Orlando Furioso, Ariosto, 167 m 2 
" Outidanos," R. F. Burton, 

Priapeia, 328 
Outwitting the devil, tales of, 

33m 3 , 34m 
"Overhearing" motif, 29m, 

48,48m 1 , 49,60-63/151 
Owl, unguent of the blood 

of a screech-, 152 
Own nature (svabhava), 252n 2 
Ox, transformation into an, 

Ox-face (Gomukha), 240m 1 

Pains cured by "Act of 

Truth," 180, 181 
Painter caste (Chitari), 306 
Palace of the Great Khan, 57 
Palankeen (palanquin, palan- 

owM, etc.), 14, 14m 1 
Pall Jataka book, the, 20m 1 
Pali pallanko (palanquin), 14m 1 
Palm, fable of the crow and 

the, 70, 70m 1 
Palmerin of Oliva, 82m 2 
Panchatantra, the, Benfey, 

28m 1 , 62, 69m 1 , 76, 115m 1 , 

Pandara- Jataka, the, 179 
Punjab Sotes and Queries, 201 
Paradise Lost, Milton, 131 a 1 
Parisishfaparvan, Hiina- 

chandra (Hertel's trans.), 

180, 207n 2 
"Parrots, Story of the Couple 

of," Tawney, Kathakoca, 

60, 62 
Passion (rasa), 27, 27m 1 



5 astry, fried {talan), 324 
3 ath, mustard seeds sown 

along the, 98 
3 atrons of towns, serpents 

protecting, 142m 1 
Peacock apparatus for wash- 
ing the hands, 58 
Peacocks of gold, 57 
Peas or lentils, track of, 104, 

104ft 2 , 105tt 
"Penta the Handless," 

Basile, Pentamerone, 20ft 1 , 

Pentamerone, Basile (trans. 

Burton), 20ft 1 , 21ft, 28ft 1 , 

48ft 1 , 105ft, 226ft 2 , 238, 

239, 272ft 1 , 285ft 1 , 292ft 1 
Pentateuch, the, 308 
Perambulating the city with 

a vessel of oil, 4, 5 
Perfect cows born upon 

earth, 36 
"Persian Folk-Lore, " Ella 

C. Sykes, Folk-Lore, 307, 

307ft 2 
Persian Moonshee, Gladwin, 

118ft 1 
Pertinacity of goblins, 32ft 1 
Pestle that fetched water, 40ft 2 
Petit Diable de Papefiguiere , 

Le, La Fontaine, 33n 3 
Petit Poucet, Le, Perrault, 105ft 
Petticoat (saree), 326 
Philopseudes, Lucian, 40ft 2 
Philosopher's stone, the, 

161ft 1 , 162ft 
Physician, Jivaka Komara- 

bhachcha, the Buddhist, 

50ft 1 
Pill, a wonder-working, 75, 

Pincers, iron (chimta), 100ft 1 
Pipe that compels all to 

dance, 187ft 3 
Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 308 
Place where four roads meet, 

33, 37-38 
Plague of Florence ; ditto of 

London, 311 
Plantain, born in the interior 

of a, 97 
Pleasant {ramyani), 244ft 2 
Plume in horse-trappings, 

chowrie used as, 84ft 1 , 85ft 
Pneumatic contrivance , 

chariot with a, 283, 284, 

290, 296, 297, 300 
Pneumatica, Hero of Alex- 
andria, 56, 57 
Poet Tarafa, the, 277-279 
Poggii Facetiae, 75 

Poison, the Kalakuta, 175ft 1 ; 

(visha), 279 
Poison-damsels, 112ft 1 
Poisoned drink offered to 

Gomukha, 141 
Poisonous look, the, 111, 

112ft 1 
Pole to carry loads on, Spanish 

palanca, 14ft 1 
Political science, the cream 

of, 142-144 
Popular Antiquities, Brand, 

131ft 3 , 152 
Popular Religion and Folk- 
Lore of Northern India, 

W. Crooke, 37, 40ft 2 , 121ft 1 , 

142ft 1 , 151, 152, 161ft 1 , 

185ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 247ft 1 , 263ft 2 , 

272ft 1 , 306ft 2 
Popular Stories of Ancient 

Egypt, Maspero, 203, 238, 

250, 268ft 1 
Popular Tales and Fiction, 

Clouston, 56, 76, 133ft 1 , 

204, 227ft, 238 
Popular Tales from the Norse, 

Dasent, 104ft 1 , 205 
Porcelain manufacture, 

Dresden, 161ft 1 
Portuguese Folk-Tales, Ped- 

roso, 29ft 
Portuguese palaquim, 14ft 1 
Pot, frog in the, 73, 75 
Poverty, death preferable to, 

Power of dried and pickled 

hand of a dead man, 

magical, 150; of good 

counsel {mantra), 137ft 1 ; of 

a victim, acquiring the, 151 
Powers attributed to human 

fat or juices, 152; of a 

king, the three, 137, 137ft 1 
Prabandhacintdmani, the, 

207ft 2 
Praise of righteousness, 

formulae in, 307 
Precautions observed in the 

birth-chamber, 131ft 3 , 132ft 
Preceptor of the gods, 

Brihaspati, 88, 88ft 2 
Precious stone, temple lit by 

one, 167ft 2 
Precocious children, 119ft 
Pre-eminence or majesty of 

the king (prabhutva), 137ft 1 
Pregnant women murdered 

to obtain child's finger for 

candle, 153 
Preparing a " Hand of Glory," 

method of, 150 

" Pretended Husband " 

motif, 126-127 

Pretended knowledge, 71- 

Preventing inmates of house 
from waking, "Hand of 
Glory" used for, 150 

Priapeia, "Neaniskos," L. S. 
Smithers ; "Outidanos," 
R. F. Burton, 328 

Priest, barber as the matri- 
monial, 100ft 1 

Primitive Culture, Tylor, 30ft 1 , 
185ft 1 

"Primitive Orientation," 
W. H. R. Rivers, Folk-Lore, 
295ft 2 

Primitive races, sneezing 
customs of, 312-314 

Prince, cure of the blind, 61 ; 
saved by his sister, 28ft 1 , 
29ft ; who tore out his own 
eye, 19-21, 23 

"Prince Lionheart and his 
Three Friends." Steel and 
Temple, Wide-Awake 
Stories, 247ft 1 

Princesses, Story of the Seven, 

{Principles of Sociology), Cere- 
monial Institutions, Spencer, 

Prison {kara), 201 

Probationary period of 
Pavaya, 322, 323 

Problemata, Aristotle, 310ft 1 

Proboscis {kara), 214ft 1 

Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, "On 
the Art of Entering 
Another's Body," Bloom- 
field, 83ft 1 ; "The Character 
and Adventures of Mula- 
deva," Bloomfield, 207ft 2 

Producer of horns (Sringot- 
padinl), 187, 187ft 2 

Prostitute {ganikd), 207 'ft 2 

Prostitutes. Indian, 207ft 2 

Protecting patrons of towns, 
serpents, 142ft 1 

Protection invoked by term 
kar, 201 

Protective circle, 201 

Proverbes, Legendes et Conies 
Fangs, Pere H. Trill es, 

Proverbs about barbers, 
100ft 1 , 101ft 

Provincial Glossary with a 
Collection of Local Proverbs 
and Popular Superstitio?is, 
Francis Grose, 150 


Proving one impossibility by 

another, 241, 250-251 
Pseudo-Callisthenes, 167n 2 
Pseudo-Greek myth, a, 309, 

Psychology of Sex, Studies in 

the, Havelock Ellis, 328^ 
Punishment for jealousy, 177, 

Pursuit of Sringabhuja, 228, 

Pyre, ashes from a, 151 

Qualification for admittance 
to Pavaya caste, 322 

Qualities of the dead, acquir- 
ing the, 151 

"Quintessence" motif, 76 

Rabbi Elijah of Chelm; Rabbi 

Low ; Rabbi Zira, 59 
Rabbinical literature, 59 
Rabbis, Exampla of the, Gaster, 

63. 118m 1 , 172m 1 , 251 
Race of Bharata, 66; of 

I'.mdava, 66, 68; of Yadu, 

Race (vansa), In 1 
Rafters, the goblin in the, 

Ragkuvamsa, the, 240n 2 
Ramduana, the, 49n l , 218m 1 
Range, the Vindhya, 271 
Rds .Wild, Forbes (ed. H. G. 

Rawlinson), 86m 1 , 322 
Ratan-mdld, Krishnajl, 68 n 1 
Real I ex. Her indogerm. Alter- 

tumskunde, Schrader, 319 
Red Book of Hergest {Llyfr 

Cod, Hergest), 205 
Regio Persarum Principatu, De, 

ion, 329 
Rejuvenation of the king, the 

false. 245 
Relations de Voyage et Textes 
grapMque* Arabes, G. 

Ferrand, 260m 1 
Release from further trans- 
migration. Moksha the 

soul's. 4>< 2 
Religion, self-mutilation in, 

Religious mutilations personal 
mil voluntary, 2b); rite 
and savage practice, 21/? 

Religious System of the 
Amazulu, The. H. Callaway, 
313. 313* 

Reports of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, 314, 314n 7 

Requisites of a suitor. 66 


Reveals hidden treasure, 

mandrake, 153 
Revue Celtique, 20m 1 
Revue des Langues Romanes, 

"Contes populaires du 

Languedoc," L. Lambert, 

Revue des Trad. Pop., " Les 

Obstacles Magiques," 

Chauvin, 238 
Right hand towards them, 

walking round objects with 

the, 20/j 1 
Righteousness, formulae in 

praise of, 307 
Rig- Veda, the, 257 
Riklci- Tikki- Tavi, Kipling, 

115m 1 

Rime oj Sir Topas, Chaucer, 

82m 2 
Ring (/card, kari), 201 
Rising up (utpatati), 159w 3 
Rites connected with cross- 
roads, magical, 38 
Rites of the Twice-born, 

Stevenson, 37, 38 
Ritual, nudity in magic, 33, 

33m 1 ; three fires of modern, 

160m 1 
Rival wives, jealousy of, 99 
Rivers, beautiful (sadvdhini), 

148m 4 
Roads, cross-, 33, 37-38; meet, 

place where four, 33 
"Robber Bridegroom, The," 

Grimm, M'drchen, 104m 2 , 

Robbers, "Hand of Glory" 

used by, 150 
Rolled together, a lump 

(Golem), 59 
Roman Empire, The Decline 

and Fall of the, Gibbon, 329 
"Roman de Renard, Le," 

L. Foulet, Bibliotheque de 

VEcole des Haute* Etudes, 

Romance of Artus de la 

Bretagne, 82m 2 
Romanes des Sept Sages 

[Keller], 82n 2 
Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare, 

R'dmisc/ie Muthologie, Preller, 

133m 1 
" Rosmarinstrauchlein, Das," 

Kaden. Unter den Oliven- 

bdumen. 48m 1 
Round (pari), Ik 1 
Royal Asiatic Society, 60, 77, 


Royal grant named Yajnas- 

thala, 32 
Royalty, chowrie an emblei 

of, 84m 1 ; Fortune of, 69 
Rubies floating down-stream, 

247ft 1 
Ruse of Gomukha, 293-295 
Russian Folk- Tales, Ral s t o . 

4m 1 , 30m 1 , 82m 2 , 187n 3 . 21 

222ft 1 , 225m 2 , 231m 1 , 

253m 1 , 268m 1 
Ruthenian custom of candle 

of human fat, 151 

Sabbath, Golem desecrates 

the, 59 
Sacred Books of the East, 

Bloomfield, 320; ditto. K. 

W. West, 307ft 4 
Sacred fires, the five, 22, 22ft 1 , 

160ft 1 
Sacred spot or holy field 

(kshetra), 220, 220ft 1 
Sacrifice, funeral human, 

185m 1 ; human (puru- 

shamedha), 321 ; of an old 

woman, 142ft 1 ; the snake, 

Sacrifices to serpents, 142ft 1 
Sacrificial grain (homa-ldja), 

148ft 3 
Sad Dar, the, 307, 307m 4 
Sagacious mouse, the, 117 
Sagas from the Far East, Busk, 

48ft 1 , 75, 142ft 1 , 182, 195m 1 , 

204, 218m 1 
Sagen aus B'ohmen, Grohmann, 

133ft 1 
Sage?i aus der Grafscha 

Mansfeld, Grossler, 227ft* 
Sagenbuch [or Geschich 

der Bayerischen La fide 

Schbppner, 133ft 1 
Sagen, M'drchen und Gebr'duck 

aus Meklenburg, Bartsch, 

4ft 1 , 104n 2 , 131ft 3 , 133m 1 , 

150, 187ft 3 , 231ft 1 , 272ft 1 
Sages, holy (Rishis), 1 
St Louis Medical Review, 

"Origin of the Custom of 

Salutation after Sneezing," 

J. Knott, 315 
Saints of the Bhagavata 

reformation, a history of 

the, 280 
Saints, biographers of Chris- 
tian, 20m 1 
Salts, Dr Glauber's, 161ft 1 
Salutation after sneezing, 30, 

31, 303-315 
Samuel, 277 




Sandals of Hermes, the flying, 

Sanskrit Literature of Nepal, 

R. L. Mitra, 244ft 1 
" Sara-Kanda," Ananda rama- 
^ yana, 201 
Satapatha Brdhmana, the, 258, 

"Satni-Khamois, The Veri- 
table History of," Maspero, 

Popular Stories of Ancient 

Egypt, 203 
"Satni-Khamois with the 

Mummies, Adventure of," 

Maspero, Popular Stories of 

Ancient Egypt, 268ft 1 
Savage practice and religious 

rite, connection between, 

Saved by his sister, the prince, 

28ft 1 , 29ft 
"Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a 

al-Jamal," Burton, Nights, 

" Schneeweiss-Feuerroth," 

Kaden, Unter den Oliven- 

b'dumen, 238 
' 'Schone Fiorita, Die, "Kaden, 

Unter den Olivenb'dumen, 238 
Science bestowed on Narava- 

hanadatta, 261, 262, 
Science, the cream of politi- 
cal, 142-144; named Praj- 

napti, 64, 64ft 1 
Sciences enter into Narava- 

hanadatta, 139 
Scientific inventor Archytas, 

Scorned love of women, 109, 

Scratch (karska), 201 
"Scruple, without any" 

(as'ankita), 96ft 1 
"Second Kalendar's Tale," 

Burton, Nights, 203, 204 
Second wound demanded by 

Pisacha, 33 
Security, the six means of 

(gunas), 143, 143ft 3 
Seeds sown along the path, 

mustard, 98 
Select Specimens of the Theatre 
of the Hindus, H. H. Wilson, 

84ft 1 
Self-mutilation of Attis, 328 ; 

in religion, 21ft 
Semitic Magic, R. Campbell 

Thompson, 38 
Serbian Folk-Lore , Mijatovic, 

Serpent-gods, 142m 1 

Serpent-killer, mongoose 
famous as a, 115ft 1 

Serpent-worship, 142ft 1 

Serpent - Worship and other 
Essays, C. Staniland Wake, 
142ft 1 

Serpents and dragons most 
usual guardians of treasure, 
133ft 1 

Servant called Silavati, 172, 
176, 178; created by the 
mystical name of God, 
59 ; Viravara the faithful, 
28ft 1 

Servants of the prince ap- 
pointed, 136, 137 

Seven Princesses, Story of 
the, 19, 23 

Shakespeare Dictionary, 
Schmidt, 112ft 1 

Shape in sleep, divine beings 
assume their own, 92, 92ft 2 

" Shighni (Ghalchah) Dia- 
lect, On the," R. B. Shaw, 
Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 269ft 

Short jacket (cholee), 326 

Siamese sneezing supersti- 
tion, 308 

Sicilianische Marchen, Gonzen- 
bach, 76, 104ft 2 , 124ft 1 , 
187ft 3 , 211ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 222ft 1 , 
225ft 2 , 226ft 2 , 230ft 2 , 236, 
259ft 2 , 272ft 1 

Siddhi-Kiir, Die Marchen des, 
B. Jiilg, 56, 62, 63, 75, 204 

"Sieben Weisen Meister, 
Die," Simrock, Deidsche 
Volksbucher, 287ft 1 

Significance of cross - roads, 

Silly Pisacha, the, 33-35 

["Sinhalese Folklore"] W. 
Goonetilleke, The Oriental- 
ist, 76 

Siri-Jataka, the, 60 

Sister, prince saved by his, 
28ft 1 , 29ft 

Site of Kausambi, Sravasti 
and Takshasila, 90ft 1 

Six means of security, the 
{gunas), 143, 143ft 3 

Skeleton, lotuses formed from 
drops from a, 247, 248 

Sketched by Chitralekha, the 
world, 82 

Sketches of Persia, Sir J. 
Malcolm, 76 

Skill in stratagem, Yaugan- 
dharayana's, 89-91 

Sky Father or Heaven, Dyaus 
the, 257 

Slain by the Yaksha, 
Brahmans, 134 

Slave caught by magic, 202, 

Small mirror (arsi), 100ft 1 

Smallpox - transference at 
cross-roads, 37 

Smell, evil bodily, 61 

Snake - bite, immunity of 
mongoose from, 115ft 1 

Snake-sacrifice, 66 

Snakes, grove of (Nagavana), 
140, 142, 142ft 1 

Sneezer, name of a deity 
uttered by, 306 

Sneezing customs among the 
Bantus, Bakongos, Hausas 
and Zulus, 312, 313; of 
primitive races, 312-314 

Sneezing Salutations, Ap- 
pendix I, 303-315 

Sneezing salutations among 
the Hebrews, Greeks, 
Romans and Early 
Christians, 308-311 ; in 
Africa, Melanesia and 
Polynesia, 312-314 ; in 
India, Persia and Islam, 

Society of English Biblio- 
philists, 126 

"Some Navajo Folktales," 
Buxton, Folk-Lore, 268?! 1 

"Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," W. Crooke, 
Folk- Lore, " 204, 208ft 1 , 
227ft, 258 

Son of Kalingasena substi- 
tuted for a daughter, 131 ; 
of Kuvera, 40 ; elixir to 
procure a, 218, 219 

Sorcerer, the Egyptian, 40ft 2 

Sorcery (samvara), 195ft 2 

" Souhaits en faveur de ceux 
qui eternuent, Sur les," 
Henri Morin, Mem. de 
V Acad, des Ins., 309ft 2 

Soul's release from further 
transmigration, Moksha, 4ft 2 

Spanish pole to carry load, 
palanca, 14ft 1 

Spells, Vaidik, 136 

Spirit (bori), 38 ; ditto (niono), 
313 ; of the cross-roads, 
offering to, 37 ; of martyred 
Charan or Bhat woman, 
Bahucharaji a, 321 

Spirits, charm to scare away 
evil, 37 ; fires to protect 
from evil, 131ft 3 ; incubones 
or treasure-guarding, 133ft 



Spoilt prince, the, 28-32 
Sport and Folk-Lore in the 

Himalaya, H . L. Haughton, 

Sj\ set ujwn Kalingasena, 

Squire's Tale, Chaucer, 40W 1 
Stagesof Hindulove-sickness, 

Star {tarakd), 18/t 1 
Starving woman, breasts cut 

off to feed, 180 
Status of eunuch low in 

ancient India. 320 
"Stealing in Hindu Fiction, 

Art of," Bloomfield, Amer. 

J num. Phil., 153 
Stolen horse, the, 71, 75 
Stone, the philosopher's, 

161 n\ 162n 
Story of Arthalobha and his 
Beautiful Wife, 286-290; 
of the Brahman and the 
.cha, 32-35; of the 
Brahman's Son Vishnu- 
datta, 93-96; of Devasena 
and LJnmadini, 111-112; of 
the Ichneumon, the Owl, 
the Cat and the Mouse, 
115-117; of Kadaligarbha, 
97-102, 103-106; of King 
Dharmadatta and his Wife 
7-8; of King 
Indradatta, 128-129; of 
King Chirayus and his 
Minister, 252-256; of King 
Paritvagasena, his Wicked 
Wife and his Two Sons, 
263-276 ; of King Prasenajit 
and the Brahman, 118-120; 
of King Ratnadhipati and 
the White Elephant Sveta- 
r. mi, 169-178; of King 
Vikramaditya and the 
Courtesan, 206-209, 211- 
217; of King Vikramasinha 
and the Two Brahman s, 11- 
13, 16; of King Vilaaailla 
and the Physician, 243-249 ; 
of KirtisenA, 44-54; of 
Nidchayadatta, 183-190; 
193, 196-200; of Phala- 
blititi, 69m 1 ; of the Prince 
and the Merchant's Son, 
28-32; of the Princess 
Karpurikn iti her Birth as 
a Swan, 291-292; oflUtna- 
prabha, 166-169, 163-166; 
of Satruahna and his 
Wicked Wife, 111 ; of the 
Seven Brahmans who de- 

voured a Cow, 9-10; of 
the Seven Princesses, 19, 
23 ; of Somaprabha, 39-40 ; 
of Sringabhuja and the 
Daughter of the Riikshasa, 
218-235 ; of Srutasena, 
108-109, 110-111, 112; of 
Sulochana and Sushena, 
24-27 ; of Tapodatta, 241 ; 
of TejasvatI, 69-70, 74 ; of 
the Two Ascetics, 10-11 ; 
of the Two Brothers Prana- 
dhara and Rajyadhara, 
282-285; of Usha and 
Aniruddha, 81-83; of 
Virupa^arman, 242 ; of the 
Yaksha Virupaksha, 133- 

"Story of Chandrahasya, 
The," N. B. Godabole, 
Ind. Ant., 280 

"Story of the Couple of 
Parrots," Tawney, 

Kathakoca, 60, 62 

"Story of Damannaka," 
Tawney, Kathakoca, 279-280 

' ' Story of Lalitanga, ' ' Tawney, 
Kathakoca, 61 

"Story Radicals," Baring- 
Gould, Henderson's Folk- 
Lore of the Northeim Comities, 
195n l 

Strange Stories from a Chinese 
Studio, Giles, 191ft 1 

Stratagem, Yaugandhara- 
yana's skill in, 89-91 

Strike (kotttw), 319; (vadh), 

String (guna), 1ft 1 ; round the 
neck, transformation by a, 

Strings of leaves (torans), lOOn 1 

Studies about the Kathdsarit- 
sdgara, Speyer, 12ft 1 , 16ft 1 , 
25ft 1 , 50/1 1 , 81ft 1 , 83>i 3 *, 
94H 1 , 159n 3 , 208H 1 , 241ft, 
244/i, 246ft 1 , 298ft 1 

Studies in Honour of Maurice 
Bloomfield, "The Life- 
Index," Norton, 272ft 1 

Studies in the Psycliology of 
Sex, Havelock Ellis, 328 

Subjugation to the god, 
mutilations to indicate, 21ft 

Substitution of a daughter 
for a son, 131 

Success, updifas or four means 
of, 143, 143>i 2 

Suicides buried at cross-roads, 

Suitor, requisites of a, 66 

Suka Saptati, the, 126 

Sun, the (Surya), 257; and 

Moon (the ASvins), 257 
Sunrise, mountain of the, 67 
"Sunwise Processions." E. 

Peacock, Folk-Lore, 295/t 2 
Superhuman knowledge 

(vidya), 165, 165w 2 
Superstition, Crime et Misere 

en Chine, J. J. Matignon, 

Superstition, root of the 

mandrake in European, 153 
Suppdraka-Jdtaka, the, 179 
Surgeon, barber as, lOOn 1 
Surround, to {ka(), 201 
Susruta Samhita, the, 51 n 
Suvabahuttarikatha, the, 62 
" Suvabahuttarikatha, Ueber 

die," Hertel, Festschrift 

fur Ernst Windisch, 62, 180 
" Svend's Exploits," Thorpe, 

Yule-tide Stories, 226n 2 
Swan, Story of the Princess 

Karpurika in her Birth as a, 

Swans, the mechanical, 282, 

Swedish stories of Cavallius 

and Stephens, 237 
Sword, the magic, 267, 271 
Sympathetic magic. 38; in 

"Obstacles" motif 239 
Syrian Goddess, The. Strong 

and Garstang, 328 
Syrische Marchen, Prym and 

Socin, 191, 231 

Tableau gen. de /' Empire 

othoman, Muradjad'Ohsson, 

"Tailor, Tale of a," Burton, 

Nights, 101 n 
Takkala-Jataka, the, 60 
Tale, the unfinished, 29-30 
" Tale of AH Cogia," Milk 

et une Nuits, 118ft 1 
"Tale of the Bull and the 

Ass," Burton, Nights, 60 
"Tale of the Jewish Doctor," 

Burton, Nights, 95ft 1 
" Tale of the Mouse and the 

Ichneumon," Burton, 

Nights, 115ft 1 
Tale of the Phakir Chand, 

"Tale of the Weaver who 

became a Leech," Burton, 

Nights, 76 
Tales from the Field, Dasent, 




Tales and Popular Fictions, 

Keightley, 204 
Tales from the West Highands, 

Campbell, 195, 205, 231ft 1 , 

237, 272ft 1 
Talmud, the, 59 
Tantrakhydyika, the, 180 
Tarafoe Moallaca cum Zuzenii 

Scholiis, Vullers, 279 
Tasks assigned to Sringa- 

bhuja, 224-228; 'motif, 

226ft 2 , 227ft, 277 
Tearing an eye out, 20ft 1 
Teeth in modern India, cure 

for carious, 51 ft 
Telapatta-Jdtaka, the, 4ft 3 
Temple lit by one precious 

stone, 167ft 2 
Temples of the Goddess 

Bahucharaji, Pavayas the, 

Tenth day (dasa), 323 
"Test of Chastity" motif, 

172ft 2 
Test of courage, 38; of know- 
ledge, 73 
Teutonic Mythology, Grimm, 

31 In 4 
Teutons, altars built at cross- 
roads by, 37 
Thalaba the Destroyer, 

Southey, 150 
Theme of " Letter of Death " 

motif in fiction, 279 
Thief of beauty, old age, 

Thieving practices of the 

East, 153 
Thorns, magic, 227, 228 
Thousand Nights and a Night. 

See Nights 
Thread (guna), 240ft 2 
Three Brahman Brothers, The, 

Three dangers, the, 30-31; 

fires of modern ritual, 

160ft 1 ; Moirai, the, 28ft 1 ; 

powers of a king, 137, 

137ft 1 
Three Middle Irish Homilies, 

"Life of St Brigit," 

Whitley Stokes, 20ft 1 
Throat, cobra lodged in, 62 
Thumb of " Hand of Glory " 

will not light if anyone is 
awake, 150 
Tibetan Tales, Schiefner and 
Ralston, 50ft 1 , 51ft, 115ft 1 , 
180, 181, 188ft 
Tibetan yak (bos grunniens), 
84ft 1 , 85ft 

Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- 

Land en Volkenkunde, 

" Amulettes javanaises," 

J. Knebel, 151 
Time, measure of (Kalpa), 

Titles of " Letter of Death " 

motif, 277-279 
Tongue (jihvd), 72, 72n 2 , 

Torch-bearer (Masalchi), 

100ft 1 
Track of peas or lentils, 104, 

104ft 2 , 105ft 
Traditions Indiennes du Canada 

Nord-Ouest, Petitot, 205 
Traite des Euneuques, dans 

lequel on explique toutes les 

differentes sortes d' eunueques , 

C. Ancillon, 328 
Transference, disease-, 37, 

u Transformation combat " 

motif, 195, 195ft 1 , 203-205 
Transformation into an ox, 

Translations of Ancient Arabic 

Poetry, C. J. Lyall, 278 
Transmigration, Moksha the 

soul's release from further, 

4ft 2 
TrdumendeMusen-Freund, Der, 

E. Wolgemuth, 34ft 
Travels of Ludovico di Var- 

thema, G. P. Badger, 201, 

[Travels] Pietro della Valle, 

Treasure, the concealed, 133, 

134 ; recovered by cun- 
ning, 118-120 
Treasure-guarding spirits or 

incubones, 133ft 1 
Treasures, mandrake reveals 

hidden, 153; Sattvasila and 

the Two, 157-158 
Treaties of Al-Jazari on Auto- 
mata, A. K. Coomaraswamy, 

Tree, Asoka, 155 
Trees, Yakshinis turned into, 

25, 25ft 1 
Trench (karsha), 201 
"Treue Johannes, Der," 

Grimm, Marchen, 28ft 1 
Tribes and Castes oj Bombay, 

Enthoven, 322 
Tribes and Castes of the Cen- 
tral Provinces, Russell, 14ft 1 , 
51ft, 86ft 1 , 100ft 1 , 101ft, 225, 
306ft 5 , 325 

Tribes and Castes of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, 
W. Crooke, 101ft, 325 

Trick of Gomukha, 293-295 

Tricks employed by the 
Bediyani, 51ft 

Tripods of Hephaistos, the 
magic, 56 

Trolls, 131ft 3 

"Truth, Act of," motif, 172ft 2 , 
179-182, 225ft 2 

Tu Shu Chi Ch'tng (The 
Chinese Encyclopaedia), 
" Eunuchs of the Imperial 
Palace," 329 

Twin deities of light (the 
Asvins), 257 

Two Asvins, the, 253, 254, 

"Two Brothers, The," Mas- 
pero, Popular Stories of 
Ancient Egypt, 238 

"Two Brothers, The," Schief- 
ner and Ralston, Tibetan 
Tales, 180 

Ucchanga-Jdtaka, the, 292ft 1 
" Ueber die Suvabahuttarl- 

katha," Hertel, Festschrift 
fur Ernst Windisch, 62, 

Unfavourable omens, 46, 46n 2 , 

86, 86ft 1 
Unfinished tale, the, 29, 30 
Unguent of gall of a black 

cat, fat of a white hen and 

blood of a screech - owl, 

Unter den Olivenb'dumen, 

Kaden, 48ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 218ft 1 , 

"Unwise Schoolmaster who 

fell in Love by Report, 

The," Burton, Nights, 

68ft 1 
"Uriah letter," the, 277, 

Uses of "Act of Truth," 


Valour, Lion of (Vikrama- 
sinha), 11, lift 3 

Variants of "Magic Ob- 
stacles " motif, 238 

Varieties of "Letter of 
Death " motif, 279 

Varthema, Travels of 
Ludovico di, G. P. Badger, 
201, 202 

Vdsishtha Dharma Sastra, 320 



Vedas, the, 2, 13 

Vedic fires, the five, 160/1 1 

\'eneration of ichneumon in 
ancient Kgypt, 115ft 1 , 116ft 

Vengeance of a passionate 
woman, 15 

Verhandlungen der Gelehrten 
Estnischen Gesell. , ' Achtzig 
Marchen d. Ljutziner 
Esten," O. Kallas, 34n 
\ < ritable History of Satni- 
Khamois, The," Maspero, 
Popular Stories of Ancient 
Bpt, 203 

\ ermin infesting the body, 

Vessel of oil, perambulating 
the city with a, 4, 5 

I'etalapanchavinsati, the, 28ft 1 , 

I'iaggio a Sias, Un, E. 
Modigliani, 314, 314n 5 

Victim, acquiring the power 
of a. 151 

Fie d'Esope ie Phrygien La, 
La Fontaine, 250 

t'irrzig Veziere oder Weisen 
Meister, Die, W. F. A. 
Behrnauer, 20n l 

Vikramorvasi Kalidasa, 25?l 2 , 
84n l 

Village Eolk-Talcs of Ceylon, 
Parker, 76, 272ft 1 

Virgin Lucia of Bologna or 
Alexandria. 20/i 1 

Virginity, a vow of, 40 

Virtue (guna), In 1 , 240 2 

Virtuous (surrittayd), 39ft 3 

\ oicei overheard by mer- 
chant's son. 30 

f'olksahrrglauhe der Gegenwart, 
drutsche, A. VVuttke, 

[FoUumHrchen aut Venetien] 
G Widtcr and A. Wolf, 

"Volsunga Saga," Hagen, 
Hrldcn-Sagen, 191ft 1 , 218m 1 

Voluntary religious mutila- 
tions. 21n 

Votaries of Bahuchara etnas- 
culatc themselves. 322 

Votary of Pasupati. 1 ''> ''> 

Vow of virginity. 40 

r dr Siam des Peres 
Jtnates entoyes par lr Roy 
tuu hides ct a In Chine, 
Father Tachard. 308, 

Vulgar Errors, Sir Thomas 
Browne. 30n l . 167n a 

Waking, -Hand of Glory" 

prevents inmates of a house 

from, 150 
Walking round objects with 

right hand towards them, 

20m 1 
IVallachian Stories, A. and W\ 

Schott, 205 
War between the gods and 

Asuras, 66 
Wars of the Jews, Joseph us, 

Washing the hands, peacock 

apparatus for, 58 
" Wassernixe, Die," Grimm, 

M'drchen, 237 
Water (rasa), 27, 27ft 1 ; 

demon's difficulty in cross- 
ing, 236; fetched by a 

doll, 40, 40n 2 ; magic, 227, 

228; pestle that fetched, 

40n 2 
"Water King and Vasilissa 

the W T ise, The," Ralston, 

Russian Folk- Tales, 225n 2 
"Water of Life," motif, 43, 

253, 253ft 1 , 254 
["Water of Life, The"] 

G. A. Grierson, Folk-Lore, 

253ft 1 
Wealth, God of (Kuvera), 

133, 134, 211, 212, 215, 

Wealth -preserved (Dhana- 

pjilita), 44, 44ft 3 
"Weaver who became a 

Leech, Tale of the," 

Burton, Nights, 76 
Weddings, barber's duties at, 

lOOn 1 
Weekdays, Golem works 

only on, 59 
Welsh Tales, Rhys, 225ft 2 
Wendische Sagen, Vecken- 

stedt, 131ft 3 , 133ft 1 , 187ft 3 , 

191ft 1 , 225ft 2 , 238, 253ft 1 
Western Islands, Martin, 

131ft 3 
Westfalische M'drchen, Kuhn, 

132ft, 152, 187ft 3 , 227ft 
White city of al - Barraqa, 

260U 1 ; F:iephant Sveta- 

rasmi, Story of King Ratna- 

dhipati and the, 169-178; 

lotus a friend of the moon, 

140. 140n 2 
Wick of a lamp (varli), 

134ft 1 
Wicked female ascetic, the, 

99-101, 104; wife, the, 


f V id e- Awake Stories, Steel and 
Temple, 182, 247ft 1 , 280 

Widow's foolish son Lucilio, 

"Widow'sSon, The, "Thorpe, 
Yule-tide Stories, 236 

Wife, cheating the inno- 
cent, 126-127 ; the wicked, 

Wine - party, the prince's, 

Wings of Daedalus, 56 

JVirkungen der Kastration, 
Ueber die, P. J. Mobius, 

Wit and Wisdom from West 
Africa, R. F. Burton, 313, 
313?i 3 

Witch, Kadallgarbha accused 
of being a, 104 

Witchcraft, root of the man- 
drake in European, 153 

Witches, Bhavaarman and 
the Two, 193-195 

"Without any scruple," 
(asankita), 96ft 1 

Witnesses, eunuchs forbidden 
to serve as, 320 

Wives, jealousy of rival, 99 

Woman who hates men, 260, 
260ft 2 ; in man's clothes, 
46, 47; sacrifice of an old, 
142ft 1 ; vengeance of a 
passionate, 15 

Women murdered to obtain 
child's finger for candle, 
pregnant, 153 ; whose love 
is scorned, 109-110 

Wonderful city, the, 43 

Wonder-working pill, 75, 76 

Wood, the citizens of, 281, 
282, 285 ; mechanical dolls 
of, 39, 56 

Wooden automata, city popu- 
lated by, 58, 59, 281, 282, 
285 ; cow, the, 56 ; Garuda 
bird that flies, 56 

Work, but not for thinking, 
being with a capacity for 
(Golem), 59 

World sketched by Chitra- 
lekha, 82 

Worms, Dantada, 51ft 

Worship, fire-, 160ft 1 ; of the 
ichneumon, Heracleopolis 
the centre of the, 116n; 
of Ishtar, Babylonian, 
253ft 1 ; serpent-, 142ft 1 

Wound, the Brahman's, 32 ; 
of the Brahman's daughter, 



Yak, fly- whisk from the tail 

of the, ten 1 , 85ft 
Yule-tide Stories, Thorpe, 48m 1 , 

205, 225ft 2 , 226ft 2 , 236, 


Zauberglaube bei den Rutenen, 
R. F. Kaindl, Globus, 151 

"Zauberkugeln, Die," 
Kaden, Unter den Oliven- 
b'dumen, 48ft 1 

Zeit d.d. morg. Gesell., "Die 
Erzahlung vom Kaufmann 
Campaka," Hertel, 280 

Zeitschrift fur Assyrologie, 
Jensen, 319, 329 

Zone (kataka), 201 
Zoological Mythology, De 

Gubernatis, 29ft. 104ft 2 , 

187ft 3 , 272ft 1 
Zur Volkskunde, Liebrecht, 

20ft 1 , 44ft 1 , 131ft 3 , 187ft 3 , 

210ft 3 , 225ft 2 , 231ft 1 

Printed in Great Britain 

by The Riverside Press Limited 





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