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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"

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N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S 










Dr F. W. THOMAS, Ph.D. 



Made and Printed in Ortat Britain 


NOT much has been left to be said by way of in- 
troduction to the fourth volume of this splendid 
publication. The reader is familiar with the cir- 
cumstances of the Sanskrit author's life ; he knows what 
is necessary concerning the literary sources of the work ; 
he has considered the origin of the stories, whether Aryan 
or Dravidian, in India itself, and their affinities with beliefs 
and practices in later India ; and he has contemplated the 
important and difficult questions of transmission transmis- 
sion of stories and motifs from country to country, people 
to people, and the no less certainly attested inverse process 
of transmission from literary source to folk-lore. Then, 
again, the very march of the narrative has accustomed 
him to the ease of the author's style, fitting the matter like 
a glove, objective, impersonal and unmoved, whether the 
scene is earth or heaven or one of the various hells, an 
unvarying style equal to the burden of the long task. And 
the translator, as became a ripe scholar of fine literary taste, 
follows with a rendering as free from display as is the original 

It was by no means a matter of course that the Great 
Tale of Gunadhya should come down to us in so acceptable 
a form. The example of Ksemendra's Brhatkathd-maHjarl 
(" Great-Tale Cluster ") shows clearly that we might have 
had to be content with a much more restricted version by 
an author solicitous of poetical artifice rather than of the 
adequate presentation of the matter. Written in an old 
dialect little practised and contemned as vulgar, the work 
of Gunadhya was not safeguarded, like the Mahd-Bhdrata 
and Ramdyana, which Ksemendra subjected to the like 
treatment, by having been composed in the sacred language, 
by a theme relating to the great heroes of antiquity, by 
ancient fame and semi-divine character attaching to the 
author. Even as it is, the original prose story is presented 


to us with curtailments and amplifications of the most 
wholesale character. While the result has been, no doubt, 
favourable to the work as an Ocean of Story and a store- 
house of popular idea and folk-lore, and thus better adapted 
to the purposes contemplated in Mr Penzer's monumental 
edition, it is still a matter of some concern to the reader to 
realise rather more fully the vicissitudes through which the 
text has passed. 

Apart from the Kashmir redactions there exists a 
Sanskrit version of Gunadhya's work, bearing the title 
Brhatkathd : s'loka-samgraha i.e. the " Great Tale : Verse 
Epitome.'' In spite of its rather unassuming title, it must 
in its complete form have been for we possess only 
about six of the twenty-six labhas, " emprizes " of very 
considerable extent, say about 25,000 slokas or couplets. 
Its discoverer and editor, M. Felix Lacote, has published 
(Essai sur Gunadhya et la Brhatkathd, Paris, 1908) along 
with the text an elaborate discussion of all the questions 
of higher criticism relating to the Kathd-sarit-sdgara and 
the other recensions. M. Lacote's conclusions, which are 
developed with great perspicacity, may be summarised as 

The Sloka-samgraha " Verse Epitome " of which the 
MS. came from Nepal, is the work of a Nepalese writer, by 
name Budhasvamin, who is at pains to bring the poem 
into connection with his own country. It is of relatively 
early date, say the eighth to the ninth century a.d. and is 
based upon the Pai^aci original. In its arrangement, and 
still more in its contents, it differs widely from the Kashmir 
versions. The most significant feature of these differences, 
however, is that they are largely by way of defect. Great 
masses of the subsidiary tales in the Kathd-sarit-sdgara are 
wanting, and thus the main narrative stands out in much 
greater distinctness and amplitude. It is not that Kse- 
mendra and Somadeva have greatly perverted the story 
although there are some rather considerable dislocations, 
which deface its logical coherence. The chief difference is 
that the story is reduced to a rather slender trickle, which 
tends to be lost in the deluge of adventitious matter. The 


Paisaci original, though including, like other Indian narra- 
tives, a quota of incidental tales and episodes, was concerned 
predominantly with the actual adventures of Naravahana- 
datta, a hero of Gunadhya's own invention. A novel, in 
which the subordinate characters were largely middle-class 
people, it was distinguished by a great variety and abund- 
ance of incident. The author, who was a born story-teller 
and the real creator of the literary Kathd, appears to have 
travelled widely, perhaps chiefly on the great trade-route 
which connected Prayaga (Allahabad), Kausambi and Ujjain 
with the ports of Western and Eastern India. He had 
listened to the tales of wayfaring men and of voyagers 
from the great seas. He had visited the cities and learned 
the narratives of local fame : in the Kausambi country, 
even more than in Ujjain, the adventures of Udayana must 
have been the talk of the village greybeards. A portion 
of the matter relating to Udayana and Pradyota existed 
already, no doubt, in literary form, and it is preserved to 
us in Buddhist originals or adaptations. The composition 
of the poem in eighteen sections may have been imitative 
of the Mahd-Bhdrata. Is there anything in the idea, pro- 
pounded by M. Lacote, that its content, a narrative of 
travels and loves, was inspired by the Greek novel ? The 
supposition has no inherent improbability. The literary in- 
fluence of Greece in the East did not end with the Seleucid, 
or the Parthian, empire ; it has recently (by Prof. H. Jacobi 
in Antidoron, Festschrift Jacob Wackernagel, Gottingen, 1923, 
pp. 126 sqq.) been suggested that a far-off reflex of the 
hexameter metre (known, perhaps, in Gandhara) is traceable 
in some Jain poems composed in a rather late (Apabhram^a) 

M. Lacote subjects to a lengthy and penetrating criticism 
the composition of the Kashmir Brhat-kathd. Somadeva's 
claim to fidelity in the handling of his original is fully justified 
by a comparison with the work of his predecessor, Ksemendra. 
A Brhat-kathd such as he reproduces, a prose work in the 
Paisaci dialect, existed, therefore, in Kashmir. But it was 
no longer the book which Gunadhya had composed. It was 
a huge compilation, incorporating not only many particular 


stories from heterogeneous sources, but even whole books 
such as the Pancatantra, the "Twenty-five Tales of the 
Vampire " (Vetdla-pancavimsati) and the story of Nala. The 
charge of abridging, obscuring and dislocating the main 
narrative is valid, not against Somadeva and Ksemendra, 
but against predecessors, whose work of amplification had 
been completed, so far as completion can be predicated, 
perhaps two or three centuries earlier. The process has 
operated in the case of other compilations within and out- 
side India. All the rivers run into the sea ; and the rhap- 
sodists of different particular narratives were as urgent for 
inclusion in the Great Tale as the latter was hospitable in 
admitting them. We only wonder who were those com- 
pilers possessed of competence and goodwill to adorn the 
Pancatantra, Nalopdkhydna, and so forth, with a Paisaci 
dress, and for what audience they laboured. 

The reader will have remarked the intimate connection 
of the story with questions of dialect and of grammars. 
At the outset, in the Prologue (Kathd-pitha), which, however, 
can hardly be attributed to Gunadhya himself, we are con- 
fronted with a rivalry between the old Paninean grammar, 
which demanded twelve years for the acquisition of the 
Sanskrit language, and the new system of the Kdtantra, 
professing to accomplish the same result in six. A modicum 
of practical reality is here, no doubt, en jeu. The Paninean 
grammar, with its artificial system and its subtle com- 
mentaries, was doubtless better adapted for a lifelong study 
of the language than for practical instruction. As the 
classical language became more indispensable for worldly 
people of the middle class, previously content with dialects 
or the imperfect Sanskrit which we find exemplified in the 
early Buddhist texts, their ambition for culture might have 
been unequal to the difficulties presented by the venerable 
text of Panini, itself in various points out of correspondence 
with the current speech of the learned. With such aspirants 
the newer methods may have worked miracles. On the 
part of Gunadhya the recourse at such a period to a fresh, 
unheard-of literary speech may be challenged with wanton- 
ness. Such are the wilful ways of genius : have we not 


modern stories composed entirely in Chicago slang ? But, 
if we moderns are prepared to allow such liberty to authors 
generally, the compatriots of Gunadhya required for sanction 
the stipulations of a vow. This does not excuse us from 
demanding why and how the actual Gunadhya chose the 
Paisaci. There are too many, though sporadic, indications 
of " Paisaci " tendencies in various parts of India to allow 
the supposition of a wholly artificial form of speech. On the 
other hand, we have as yet no real evidence of the existence 
of any people or class known by the name Pisaca, which 
denotes a man-eating demon or spirit. What designation 
Gunadhya would have applied to the dialect we cannot say. 
The name Paisaci, though it appears in the oldest Prakrit 
grammar, that of Vararuci, is perhaps due to the story 
related of Gunadhya himself. In later times there were 
many varieties of Paisaci, bearing subsidiary designations of 
a local character. Since the earliest language of the group 
is described as coinciding in general with a particular local 
speech, the Sauraseni of the Ganges- Jumna Doab and the 
adjacent regions, it would seem as if the Paisaci, which is 
characterised chiefly by a few striking peculiarities of pro- 
nunciation, was properly a dialect of an inferior class, or of 
classes, in society. The class may have been of aboriginal 
origin, whether Dravidian or North- Western or otherwise 
there are many such in India and it may have been more 
widely than numerously represented : for instance, it may 
have been in one of those classes (such as couriers, ostlers 
and the like) with which travellers came into contact ; and 
this might explain the choice of it by the travelled author. 
It would be quite in accordance with Indian ways if, in this 
application, the term Paisaci were an intentional perversion 
of a class or tribe name : but to pursue this suggestion 
would be hazardous. A certain reality is lent to the Paisaci 
language by the further statement, perhaps itself concocted 
at no very early date, that it was adopted by a sect of 
Buddhists for their writings. 

As a grade of non-human creatures the PiSacas have 
already been discussed (see Vol. I, pp. 92-93). They are far 
from respectable, except on the ground of antiquity, wherein 


they may rival with the best, since the Veda recognises their 
existence. They are with difficulty distinguished from the 
Raksasas, or demons, and the distinction is not on the credit 
side, since, while smaller and less formidable, they are even 
more odious. If the Raksasa marriage is the forcible abduc- 
tion of a woman after killing her kinsmen and breaking into 
her dwelling, the Pi^aca marriage, the basest of all, is the 
overpowering of one asleep or tipsy, or disordered in intellect. 
Like the Raksasa, his meaner confrere was an eater of human 
flesh. Naturally also he was a night-walker ; in the books 
on logic he is the standing subject of the doubt : " Is it a 
Pis^ca or a tree stump ? " This gives us his probably 
essential character as the ordinary malignant spirit of the 
dusk, or more materialistically for he is attached to water 
as the salamander is to fire as Jack-o'-Lantern, the " will- 
o'-the-wisp." His name is, unfortunately, not etymologis- 
able with prudence ; and therefore the way is still open to 
those who would regard this part of his equipment as derived 
from some aboriginal people. That a differential dialect 
should be ascribed to the Pigaca we may ourselves (for do 
not ghosts " gibber " ?) find natural enough ; still more 
obvious was it to the ancient Hindus, who in their Brah- 
manas have, like Homer (^aX/n^a kikXi'ictkovo-l 6eol, avSfys 
3e vfjuvSiv, etc.), quoted for us specimens of the language of 
the gods. 

It happens that the present volume is largely concerned 
also with a second class of supernatural beings, regarding 
whom, therefore, a few remarks may not be out of place. 
These are the Vidyadharas " knowledge-holders " usually 
conceived of in connection with Kuvera and having a 
king, Cakradharman, who resides in Kuvera's palace. In 
general, however, they are spirits of the air : they scatter 
flowers over fighting warriors. They are devoted to music 
and dancing, and their females are of extraordinary beauty. 
They are weakly distinguished from the Gandharvas and 
Apsarases, who historically are their predecessors. In the 
Pali Tripitaka they are still preponderatingly, like the Gan- 
dharvas, spirits who seek to enter into women perhaps a 
far-off reminiscence of a stage when, as anthropologists really 


seem to admit, pregnancy was not known to be a consequence 
of marriage. 

The name of this class of divinities points to their origin. 
It is a constantly recurring phrase in the Brdhmanas that " he 
becomes " such and such " who knows this." The know- 
ledge, or secret, or wpanisad, was a key-knowledge, which 
afforded access to special powers, a talisman : and in later 
times there were very many vidyds and mahd-vidyas in the 
form of mantras, which were, in fact, nothing but spells. 
It follows from this that the Vidyadharas were, like the 
Siddhas, " those who had realised a certain attainment," 
not seldom recruited from the race of men. In the Harsa- 
carita of Bana (c. iii.) a certain celebrated saint completes 
his career by the performance of a nocturnal rite, whereby 
he acquires " the hair-lock, diadem, earring, necklace, 
armlet, girdle, hammer and sword " and becomes a Vidya- 
dhara : he is then rapt away through the firmament to 
his appointed station. Like our wizards (wise-ards), the 
Vidyadharas therefore are primarily the successful pene- 
trators of superhuman secrets : that in India they attained 
to a distinctive status in a divine hierarchy is in full harmony 
with the general tendencies of Indian thought. Perhaps 
Mr Penzer, who has enriched this fine work with so many 
valuable notes and dissertations, will consider the possibility 
of dealing somewhat fully with the literature of " spells," 
for which India supplies an inexhaustible material. 

The " hammer " (mudgara) of the Vidyadhara is not 
without an interest of its own. Mr A. B. Cook, in his Zens, 
vol. i (Cambridge, 1914), describes and illustrates (pp. 109- 
110) the class of beings called Kabeiroi, who were connected 
with the Muses : " they have bushy hair, a thick ring round 
the neck, a loin-cloth about the waist, and a heavy double- 
axe or hammer on the right shoulder." Since the Vidya- 
dharas are the subjects of Kuvera (Kabeiros), and since, like 
the Kabeiroi, they have a special mountain home, there is a 
good chance that the detail of the hammer may be not devoid 
of historical significance. Nor does the matter end here. 
If the Vidyadhara duplicates the Gandharva, his consort, 
the Vidyadhari, who is connected with music and arts, will 


h-ar a relation t( the Gandharva's feminine assoeiate, the 
Apsanis. When we have said Apsarases, we have practic- 
all\ said Mums, the "mountain goddesses," who in Greece 
eauie to he patronesses of music and literature. And the 
Apsaras, attain, in her timet ion of receiving the spirits of 
heroes falling >n the held of hattlc, seems to have more than 
a plausihle connection with the Northern Valkyrie. 

Mere than one reader, perhaps, will he surprised at the 
honourahlc and leading role played by the Asura Maya in 
the Surva-prahha story. In general the unorthodox classes 
of beings in Hindu cosmology are far from being definitely 
reprobate (see Hopkins. Epic Mythology, Strassburg, 1915, 
pp. .'i v stpp) : individuals in all the grades arc capable of 
meritorious works. Was not even Havana famous as an 
authority in medicine and grammar? In fact, the Hindu 
theory of rebirths pros ides no place for a final damnation. 
In the ease of the Asura Maya we arc dealing with a personage 
indeed, the great architect, inspircr of the Maya-tnata, who 
in the Maha-Bharata is the constructor of the splendid 
palaces there described. 

Finally, we need not demand why in so mundane a book 
as the Jirhut-kathd the chief hero's exploits should be directed 
to an ultimate sovereignty over a celestial realm. Even 
from our own media'val tales, even from the Greek romances, 
it would not be feasible to exclude a supernatural clement. 
Til-- art of storv-telling, which begins with gods for heroes, 

r"i o o 

does not quickly descend to a merely human level. 
Gunadhya may have thought that he had gone far enough 
when he accepted men and Yidvadharas in place of heroes 
an i *u xls; and centuries after his date the Kadambari, the 
touching story of Bana, still iinds its leading personages in 
tic- Gandharva world. 

July }'ji:, 



Author's Preface .... 


M(ain) story ..... 
62. Story of Suryaprabha and how 
Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas 

he attained 



62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . .17 

62a. The Brahman Kala and his Prayers . 23 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 25 


he attained 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 49 

62b. The Generous Danava Namuchi . 63 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 65 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how 
Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas 


he attained 





62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 75 

62c. Adventure of the Witch Sarabhanana . 82 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas 83 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 85 

62d. King Mahasena and his Virtuous 

Minister Gunasarman . . .85 

62dd. AdityaSarman, the Father of 

Gunasarman . . .96 

62d. King Mahasena and his Virtuous 

Minister Gunasarman . . 98 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 102 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained 

Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas . . 108 

M. Cord. ...... 121 


Invocation . . . . . .122 

M. Cord. . . . . . .122 

63. Story of Alankaravati . . . .123 

CHAPTER LI continued 




Cont. ..... 

. 125 


Story of Rama and Sita 

. 126 


Cont. ..... 

. 130 


Story of the Handsome King Prithvlriipa . 

. 130 


Cont. ..... 


. 136 


Cont. ..... 

. 138 


Story of Asokamala 

. 140 


Cont. ..... 

. 141 


Story of Sthiilabhuja 

. 142- 


Cont. ..... 

. 14a 


Story of Anangarati and her Four Suitors 

. 144 


Cont. ..... 

. 167 


M. Cont. . . . . . .16a 

69. Story of King Lakshadatta and his Dependent 

Labdhadatta . . . . .168 

M. Cont. ...... 172 

70. Story of the Brahman Viravara . . .173. 

70a. Suprabha and his Escape from Destiny 176 
70. Story of the Brahman Viravara . . .176. 

M. Cont. . . . . . .181 


M. Cont. .... 

71. Story of the Merchant Samudra^ura 
M. Cont. .... 



CHAPTER LIV continued 

7'J. Storv of King Chamarahala 

72a. Yasovarman and the Two Fortunes 
72. Stor\ of King Chamarabfda 
M. Cnnt. ..... 

r m.k 




M. (nt. ...... 202 

?:{. Story of Chiradiitri .... 203 

M. font. ...... 204 

71. Story of King Kanakavarsha and Madanasundari . 204 

M. Cunt. ...... 219 


M. Cnnt. 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 

Mahipala, and liis Daughter Chandravati 

T.").\. Prabhfikara and Vidyadhari 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 

Mahipala, and liis Daughter Chandravati 

7.m. Chakra and the Iron Wheel 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 

Mahipala. and his Daughter Chandravati 

T.m . The Hermit and the Faithful Wife 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 

Mahipala, and his Daughter Chandravati 

7.">d. The Treacherous Pilsupata Ascetic and 
King Tribhuvana 

Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 
Mahipala, and his Daughter Chandravati 
7">i.. Nala and DaniavantI 








CHAPTER L\I continued 


75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son 

Mahipala, and his Daughter ChandravatI . 250 

M. Cont. ...... 251 


Widow-Burning ..... 253 


Nala and DamayantI ..... 273 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . . 293 

Index II General ..... 303 



AS I mentioned in the Introduction to Volume I, 
the Ocean of Story is divided into one hundred 
and twenty-four chapters, called tarangas, " waves " 
or " billows " ; while Brockhaus, following Somadeva's 
metaphoric nomenclature, made a further and independent 
division into eighteen Books, which he called lambakas, 
" surges " or " swells." 

Following Brockhaus' text, Tawney issued his translation 
in two volumes, each containing nine Books. This volume 
takes us to the end of Book IX and, with the three previous 
volumes, corresponds to Tawney's first volume. Books 
X-XVIII, however, contain much more matter than the 
first nine Books, owing to the inclusion of such large cycles 
of stories as the Panchatantra (which will appear in my 
next volume) and the Vetdla-Panchavimsati. These Books 
will probably occupy five more volumes of the present 
edition, but I hope to be able to reserve Volume X for the 
accumulated indexes, etc. 

The first hundred and twenty-one pages of the present 
volume are taken up with the " Story of Suryaprabha and 
how he attained Sovereignty over the Vidyadharas," which, 
with its few sub-stories, constitutes Book VIII. It is much 
the longest tale we have had so far, although it is certainly 
not the most interesting. In fact, like the longest tale in 
the Nights " King Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman " it " has its 
longueurs and at times is longsome enough," dealing at first 
with somewhat wearisome accounts of how the hero abducted 
each of his brides and subsequently had to appease their 
angry and indignant fathers. Even when the actual fighting 
begins, we have a long drawn-out series of single combats, 
which are, however, relieved in places by some fine descrip- 
tions of battle scenes, reminding us of similar ones in the 
tale from the Nights mentioned above. 

There are also occasional passages of a lighter vein, which 


come as a welcome contrast. Such, for instance, is the 
conversation between Suryaprabha's wives on a night when 
their husband is too worried about the slaughter of his men 
to join them. They proceed to discuss the various qualities 
of beautiful women of different lands, for, as Somadeva 
says (D. text) : " . . . there is no occasion on which women 
would not talk of the chronique scandaleuse of their town " 
(see pp. 73, 74). 

The only sub-story of any length is No. 62d, " King 
Mahasena and his Virtuous Minister Gunasarman," which 
introduces the " Quintessence " and " Scorned Love of 
Women " motifs. 

Book IX contains several good stories, such as No. 68, 
" Anangarati and her Four Suitors " ; No. 69, " King 
Lakshadatta and his Dependent Labdhadatta," illustrating 
the doctrine of karma, or inevitable destiny ; and No. 74, 
" King Kanakavarsha and Madanasundari." 

The last tale in the Book, however, is the most important, 
for it contains one of the best-known stories in India, that 
of Nala and Damayanti. It is taken from the Mahdbhdrata, 
but has been considerably abbreviated by Somadeva. As 
several of the most beautiful parts have been omitted, I 
have given them in Appendix II, using H. H. Milman's 

It is a matter of much gratification that Dr Thomas 
so kindly consented to write the Foreword to the present 
volume ; for, apart from the advantages derived from the 
pen of so ripe a scholar, there is a further interest in the 
fact that Dr Thomas succeeded Mr Tawney as Librarian 
at the India Office. 

Once again I have to thank Dr Barnett for his continued 
proof-reading and constant advice on numerous points. 

Both Mr Fenton and Mr Marshall have been through 
the proofs from the general point of view, so that mistakes 
should now be reduced to a minimum. 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, 
3rd July 1925. 



VICTORY to the elephant- headed god, who, reddening 
the sky with the vermilion dye shaken off by the wind 
of his flapping ears, seems to create sunset, even when 
it is not due. 

[M] Thus Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of Vatsa, 
dwelt happily in his father's house, after he had won those 
wives. And one day, when he was in his father's assembly 
hall, he saw a man of heavenly appearance come there, 
descending from heaven. And after he and his father had 
welcomed the man, who bowed before him, he immediately 
asked him : " Who are you and why have you come ? " 
Then he answered : " There is a city in this earth on the 
ridge of Himavat, called Vajrakuta, 1 and rightly so called, 
as being all made of diamond. There I dwelt, as a king of 
the Vidyadharas named Vajraprabha, and my name too was 
rightly given me, because my body is framed of diamond. 
And I received this command from Siva (who was pleased 
with my austerities) : * If thou remainest loyal at the ap- 
pointed time to the emperor created by me, thou shalt 
become by my favour invincible to thy enemies.' Accord- 
ingly I have come here without delay to pay my respects to 
my sovereign, for I have already perceived, by means of my 
science, that the son of the King of Vatsa (who is born of 
a portion of the God of Love, and appointed by the god 
who wears a digit of the moon), though a mortal, shall be sole 
emperor over both divisions of our territory. 2 And though, 

1 I.e. diamond-peak. 

2 For ubhayavedyeka the Petersburg lexicographers read ubhayavedyardha. 
I have followed this reading. 

VOL. iv. 1 A 


by the favour of Siva, a prince of the name of Suryaprabha 
was ruler over us for a Kalpa of the gods, still he was only 
lord in the southern division, but in the northern division a 
prince called Srutaarman was emperor ; but your Majesty, 
being destined for great good fortune, shall be sole emperor 
here over the wanderers of the air, and your dominion shall 
endure for a Kalpa." 

When the Vidyadhara said this, Naravahanadatta, in the 
presence of the King of Vatsa, said to him again out of 
curiosity : " How did Suryaprabha, being a man, obtain of 
old time the sovereignty over the Vidyadharas? Tell us." 
Then in private that is to say, in the presence of the queens 
and ministers! the King Vajraprabha began to tell that tale. 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyadharas x 

Of old there was in the country of the people of Madra 
a town named Sakala 2 ; Chandraprabha, the son of Angara- 
prabha, was king of it, whose name expressed his nature, as 
he delighted the whole world, but he was like fire in that he 
scorched his enemies. By his wife, named Kirtimati, there 
was born to that king a son, whose future glory was indicated 
by his exceedingly auspicious marks. And when he was born 
a clear voice sounded from heaven, which rained nectar into 
the ears of King Chandraprabha : " This king, now born, 
named Suryaprabha, is appointed by Siva as the future 
emperor over the kings of the Vidyadharas." Then that 
Prince Suryaprabha grew up in the house of his father, who 
was distinguished by the delightful favour of the enemy of 
Pura,* and he, being very clever, gradually acquired, while 
still a child, all knowledge and all the accomplishments by 
sitting at the feet of a teacher ; and then, when he was 
sixteen years old, and captivated the subjects by his virtues, 

1 This story, with the usual sub-stories introduced, stretches to the end 
of Book VIII, p. 121. n.m.p. 

* Identified by General Cunningham with the Sangala of Alexander 
(Ancient Geography of India, p. 1 79 et seq.). 

I.e. iva. 


his father, Chandraprabha, appointed him Crown Prince, 
and he gave him the sons of his own ministers, many in 
number, Bhasa, Prabhasa, Siddhartha, Prahasta and others. 

And while he was bearing with them the burden of a 
crown prince's duty, one day a great Asura of the name of 
Maya came there, and Maya went up in the assembly hall to 
King Chandraprabha, who welcomed him, and said to him, 
in the presence of Suryaprabha : " King, this son of yours, 
Suryaprabha, has been appointed as the future emperor of 
the kings of the Vidyadharas by Siva ; so why does he not 
acquire the magic sciences that will put him in possession 
of the dignity ? For this reason I am sent here by the 
god Siva. Permit me to take him and teach him the right 
method of employing the sciences, which will be the cause 
of his obtaining the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas. For he 
has a rival in this business, a lord of the sky-goers, named 
Srutasarman ; he too has been appointed by Siva. But 
this prince, after acquiring the power of the sciences, shall 
conquer him with our help and become emperor over the 
lords of the Vidyadharas." 

When Maya said this, King Chandraprabha said : " We 
are fortunate ; let this auspicious one be taken by you 
wherever you wish." Then Maya took leave of the king, 
and quickly carried off to Patala Suryaprabha and his 
ministers, whom the king permitted to depart. There he 
taught the prince ascetic practices of such a kind that by 
means of them the prince and his ministers quickly acquired 
the sciences. And he taught him also the art of providing 
himself with magic chariots, so that he acquired a chariot 
named Bhiitasana. 

Then Maya brought Suryaprabha, mounted on that 
chariot, with his ministers, having acquired the sciences, 
back to his own city from Patala. And after he had led him 
into the presence of his parents he said to him : " Now I 
depart, enjoy here all the enjoyments given by your magic 
knowledge until I return." After saying this the Asura 
Maya departed, after having been duly honoured, and King 
Chandraprabha rejoiced in his son's having acquired the 


Then Suryaprabha, by virtue of the sciences, was con- 
tinually roaming through many countries in his chariot, with 
his ministers, to amuse himself. And wherever any princess 
beheld him she was immediately bewildered by 
marries love and chose him for her husband. The first was 

several the virgin daughter of the King of TamraliptI, 

who was called Virabhata ; her name was Madana- 
sena, and she was the first beauty of the world. The second 
was Chandrikavati, the daughter of Subhata, the emperor of 
the western border, who had been carried off by the Siddhas 
and left somewhere else. And the third was the famous 
daughter of Kumbhira, the king of the city of KanchI, 
Varunasena by name, remarkable for her beauty. And the 
fourth was the daughter of King Paurava, sovereign of 
Lavanaka, Sulochana, by name, with lovely eyes. And the 
fifth was the daughter of King Suroha, the lord of the land 
of China, Vidyunmala, with charming limbs, yellow as gold. 
And the sixth was the daughter of King Kantisena, ruler 
in the land of Srikantha, surpassing in beauty the Apsarases. 
And the seventh was Parapushta, the daughter of King 
Janamejaya, the lord of the city of Kausambi, a sweet- voiced 

And though the relations of these maidens, who were 
carried off by a surprise, found out what had happened, still, 
as the prince was confident in the might of his supernatural 
science, they were pliant as canes. These wives also ac- 
quired the sciences, and Suryaprabha associated with them 
all at the same time, taking many bodies x by his magic skill. 
Then he amused himself in the company of these wives, and 
of the ministers Prahasta and others, with roaming in the 
air, with concerts, drinking- parties and other amusements. 

Possessing heavenly skill in painting, he drew the Vidya- 
dhara females, and in that way, and by making sportive, 
sarcastic speeches, he enraged those charmers, and he was 
amused at their faces, furrowed with frowns, and with 

1 This division of personality (kdya-vyuha) is more usually practised by 
the gods. In the Mahabharata (iii, S05) Surya impregnates KuntI without 
destroying her virginity by transferring a portion of his own energy by means 
of his yoga power. See the note at the end of the next chapter. n.m.p. 


reddened eyes, and at their speeches, the syllables of which 
faltered on their trembling lips. And that prince went with 
his wives to TamraliptI, and roaming through the air sported 
in the gardens with Madanasena. 

And having left his wives there he went in the chariot 
Bhiitasana and, accompanied by Prahasta only, visited the 
city called Vajraratra. There he carried off the daughter 
of King Rambha before his eyes, Tar avail by name, who was 
enamoured of him and burning with the fire of love. And he 
came back to TamraliptI and there carried off again another 
maiden princess, by name Vilasinl. And when her haughty 
brother Sahasrayudha was annoyed at it he paralysed him 
by his supernatural power. And he also stupefied Sahasra- 
yudha's mother's brother, who came with him, and all his 
retainers, and made his head shorn of hair, because he wished 
to carry Off his beloved ones. But though he was angry he 
spared to slay them both, because they were his wife's relatives, 
but he taunted them, who were downcast on account of the 
overthrow of their pride, and let them go. Then Surya- 
prabha, surrounded by nine wives, having been summoned 
by his father, returned in his chariot to his city Sakala. 

And the King Virabhata sent from TamraliptI an 
ambassador to Suryaprabha's father, King Chandraprabha, 
and gave him the following message to deliver : " Your son 
The Kin 's nas carr ied on * mv * wo daughters, but let that be, 
Wish for a for he is a desirable husband for them, as he is a 
Proper master of supernatural sciences, but, if you love 

us, come here now, in order that we may make a 
friendship based upon the due performance of marriage rites 
and hospitality." 

Thereupon King Chandraprabha rewarded the messenger 
and determined that he would quickly start for that place 
on the morrow. But he sent Prahasta as an ambassador 
to Virabhata, in order to make sure of his sincerity, and gave 
him Bhiitasana to travel in. Prahasta went quickly and 
had an interview with King Virabhata and questioned him 
about the business, and was informed, and highly honoured 
by him, 1 and promised him, who smiled graciously, that his 

1 I read bodhitah. 


masters would come early next morning, and then he returned 
in a moment to Chandraprabha through the air. And he 
told that king that Vlrabhata was ready to receive him. 
The king, for his part, being pleased, showed honour to 
that minister of his son's. Then King Chandraprabha, with 
Queen Kirtimati, and Siiryaprabha, with VilasinI and 
Madanasena, mounted that chariot Bhutasana and went off 
early next day with retinue and ministers. In one watch 
only of the day they reached Tamralipti, being beheld, as 
they passed through the air, by the people with eyes the 
lashes of which were upraised through wonder. And 
descending from the sky they entered the city side by side 
with King Vlrabhata, who came out to meet them. The 
beautiful streets of the town were irrigated at every step 
with sandalwood water, and seemed to be strewed with 
blue lotuses by means of the sidelong glances of the city 
ladies. There Vlrabhata honoured his connection and his 
son-in-law, and duly performed the marriage ceremony of 
his daughters. And King Vlrabhata gave at the marriage- 
altar of those daughters a thousand loads of pure gold and 
a hundred camels laden with burdens of ornaments made of 
jewels, and five hundred camels laden with loads of various 
garments, and fifty thousand horses, and five thousand 
elephants, and a thousand lovely women adorned with 
beauty and jewels. And, moreover, he gratified his son-in- 
law Siiryaprabha and his parents with valuable jewels and 
territories. And he duly honoured his ministers, Prahasta 
and others, and he made a feast at which all the people of 
the city rejoiced. And Siiryaprabha remained there in the 
company of his parents and his beloved wives, enjoying 
delights, consisting of various dainties, wines and music. 

In the meanwhile an ambassador arrived from Rambha, 
in Vajraratra, and in the hall of assembly delivered this 
message from his master : " The Crown Prince Siiryaprabha, 
confiding in the might of his sciences, has insulted us by 
carrying off our daughter. But to-day we have come to 
know that he has undertaken to be reconciled to King Vlra- 
bhata, whose misfortune is the same as ours. If in the same 
way you agree to be reconciled to us, come here also quickly ; 


if not, we will in this matter salve our honour by death." 
When King Chandraprabha heard that, he honoured the 
ambassador, and said to him : " Go to that Rambha and 
give him this message from me : ' Why do you afflict yourself 
without cause? For Suryaprabha is now appointed, by 
Siva, the future emperor of the Vidyadharas, and inspired 
sages have declared that your daughter and others are to be 
his wives. So your daughter has attained her proper place, 
but you, being stern, were not asked for her. So be appeased, 
you are our friend ; we will come to your residence also.' " 

When Prahasta received this message from the king he 
went through the air and in a single watch he reached Vajra- 
ratra. There he told his message to Rambha, and having been 
gladly received by him he returned as he came and reported 
it to King Chandraprabha. Then Chandraprabha sent his 
minister Prabhasa, and had King Rambha 's daughter 
Taravali conducted to him from Sakala. Then he departed 
in the air chariot with Suryaprabha, being dismissed with 
great honour by King Vlrabhata and all others. And he 
reached Vajraratra, which was full of people awaiting his 
arrival, and was met by Rambha, and entered his palace. 

There Rambha, having performed the great feast of the 
marriage ceremony, gave his daughter countless stores of 
gold, elephants, horses, jewels and other valuables. And 
he gratified so lavishly his son-in-law, Suryaprabha, that he 
forgot all his own luxuries. And while they were remaining 
there, delighted with feasts, an ambassador came from the 
city of Kanchi to Rambha. Rambha, having heard his 
message, said to King Chandraprabha : " King, the lord of 
Kanchi, named Kumbhira, is my elder brother; he has to- 
day sent me a trustworthy messenger to speak this speech : 
* Suryaprabha first carried off my daughter, then yours. And 
now you have made friendship with him and his father, as 
I hear, so bring about my friendship also with them. Let 
them come to my house, that I may with my own hand give 
my daughter Varunasena to Suryaprabha.' So grant this 
request of my brother's." When Rambha made this request 
Chandraprabha granted it, and sent Prahasta and had 
Varunasena brought quickly from the city of Sakala to her 


father, Kumbhira. And the next day he and Suryaprabha 
and Rambha, and Virabhata and all, with their attendants, 
went to the city of Kanchi. And after they had been met 
by Kumbhira they entered the city of Kanchi, as it were 
the girdle of the earth, full of many jewels and adorned 
with excellences. 1 There Kumbhira bestowed his daughter 
on Suryaprabha, with the usual ceremonies, and gave much 
wealth to the young couple. 

And when the marriage had taken place, Prahasta, after 
taking food, said to Chandraprabha, who was all joy fulness, 
in the presence of all : " King, in the country of Srikantha 
I had an interview with the king of that land 2 ; there King 
Kantisena, whom I thus happened to see, said to me : * Let 
Suryaprabha come to my house with that daughter of mine 
whom he has carried off. I will perform the ceremony for 
him according to rule. If he refuses I will abandon the 
body, distracted by love for my daughter.' This is what he 
then said to me, and I have now mentioned it on the proper 
occasion." When Prahasta said this King Chandraprabha 
answered : " Go, then, take Kantimati to him ; we will go 
there also." When the king said this to him Prahasta went 
off that moment through the air and did as he had com- 
manded. And next morning Chandraprabha and all, with 
Kumbhira, went to the land of Srikantha in the air- travelling 
chariot. There King Kantisena came to meet them, and 
making them enter his palace performed the auspicious 
ceremony of his daughter's marriage. Then he gave to 
Kantimati and Suryaprabha an endless quantity of jewels, 
which excited the wonder of the kings. 

While they were all remaining there, enjoying all kinds 
of pleasure, a messenger came from KauSambi and said : 
44 King Janamejaya sends this message to your honours : 
4 My daughter, of the name of Parapushta, has been carried 
off by someone lately. And I have found out to-day that 

1 Kanchi means "girdle," guna, "excellence" and "thread." The last 
clause might be translated " made of threads." 

* The D. text reads prabhraman gatavan aham ; thus Prahasta says : " King, 
in the course of my wandering I arrived in the country of Srikantha. See 
Speyer, op. cit., p. 116. n.m.p. 


she has come into the power of Suryaprabha, so let him 
come with her to my house without fear. I will perform the 
marriage ceremony according to rule, and so dismiss him with 
his wife ; otherwise you will be my enemies and I shall be 
yours.'" Having thus delivered his master's message, the 
ambassador remained silent. Then King Chandraprabha 
said to them apart : " How can we go to the house of that 
king who sends such haughty messages ? " When the king's 
minister, named Siddhartha, heard that he said : " Do not 
entertain wrong notions, King, for he is justified in using 
such language. For that king is very generous, learned 
and sprung of a noble race, a hero, one who has offered the 
a&vamedha sacrifice, 1 ever unconquered by others. How can 
he have spoken anything unbecoming in speaking according 
to facts ? And as for the enmity which he threatens, he 
does that now on account of Indra. So you must go to his 
house, for he is a king faithful to his engagements. Never- 
theless, send someone to find out his intentions." When 
they heard this speech of Siddhartha 's they all approved it. 
Then King Chandraprabha sent Prahasta to sound Jana- 
mejaya, and honoured his messenger. And Prahasta went, 
and after making an agreement with the King of KauSambi 
brought a letter from him and satisfied Chandraprabha. 

The king quickly sent that Prahasta, and had Parapushta 
conducted from Sakala to Janamejaya. Then Chandra- 
prabha and the other kings, preceded by Suryaprabha, 8 with 
Kantisena, went to Kausambi in the chariot. There the 
King Janamejaya courteously honoured his son-in-law, and 
his connection, and all the others, by advancing to meet 
them, and other ceremonies. And after he had performed the 
ceremony of the marriage rite he gave five thousand elephants 
and one hundred thousand excellent horses, and also five 
thousand camels laden with full burdens of jewels, gold, 
precious apparel, camphor and aloes-wood. And he made 
such a feast that even the realm of Yama 8 was exclusively 

1 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 I read Suryaprabha for Suryachandra. 

3 What Yama, the judge of the dead, is doing here seems hard to under- 
stand. The D. text clears the difficulty by its reading of vadyanrittaikamayam 


engaged in dancing and music, a feast in which excellent 
Brahmans were honoured and all kings gratified. 

And in the meanwhile the heaven there suddenly became 
red, as if indicating that it would soon be dyed crimson 
with blood. And the sky suddenly became full of confused, 
The hurtling noises, as if terrified at beholding a 

luiyfulhura hostile army coming in the air. And a mighty 
Army wind immediately began to blow, as if exciting 

the inhabitants of earth to war against the wanderers of the 
air. And immediately a great Vidyadhara army was seen in 
the air, illuminating with brightness the circle of the horizon, 
loud- shouting, impetuous. And in the midst of it Suryaprabha 
and the others beheld with astonishment a very hand- 
some, heavenly youth. And at that moment the herald 
of the Vidyadharas proclaimed with a loud voice, in front of 
that youth, whose name was Damodara: "Victory to the 
Crown Prince Damodara, son of King Ashadha ! O mortal, 
dweller on the earth, Suryaprabha, fall at his feet. And do 
homage, O Janamejaya ; why have you given your daughter 
to an undeserver ? Propitiate, both of you, this god at once, 
otherwise he will not be appeased." When Suryaprabha 
heard this, and saw that army, he was wroth and, seizing 
his sword and shield, he flew up into the heaven by his 
science. And all his ministers flew up after him, with their 
weapons in their hands, Prahasta, and Prabhasa, and Bhasa, 
and Siddhartha, and Prajnadhya, and Sarvadamana, and 
Vitabhlti and Subhankara. And the Vidyadharas fought a 
great fight with them. And on one side Suryaprabha, and 
on the other Damodara advanced, not slaying their enemies 
with their swords, but receiving their weapons on their 
shields. Those men, few in number, and those air roamers, 
a hundred thousand in number, found equality in battle, 
fighting with one another. And all sword-blades there 
flashed red with blood, falling on the heads of heroes, like 
the glances of the God of Death. And the Vidyadharas 
fell on the earth, with their heads and their bodies, in front 

lokamahoUavam, which simply means that "he gave a great festival to his 
guests which entirely consisted of music and dancing." See Speyer, op. cit. f 
p. 116. N.M.P. 


of Chandraprabha, as if imploring protection out of fear. 
Siiryaprabha shone in the world with the glory of the Vidya- 
dharas which he had seen. The sky was red with blood, as 
if with vermilion shed abroad. And Siiryaprabha at last 
reached, and fought face to face with, Damodara, who was 
armed with a sword and a shield. And as he fought he 
broke through his enemy's guard by a skilful management 
of his weapons, and laid him on the earth, having cleft his 
shield with his sword. And while he was preparing to cut 
off the head of his struggling foe, Vishnu came and made 
a threatening sound in the sky. Then Siiryaprabha, having 
heard that sound, and having beheld Hari, prostrated him- 
self, and out of respect for the god spared to slay Damodara. 
Hari carried him off somewhere as his votary and saved him 
from death, for the adorable one delivers in this world and the 
next his faithful followers. And the troops of Damodara 
fled in different directions. Siiryaprabha, for his part, de- 
scended from heaven to his father's side. And his father, 
Chandraprabha, welcomed him on his returning unwounded 
with his ministers, and the other kings praised him now that 
his valour had been seen. 

And while they were all engaged in joyfully talking over 
the combat another ambassador, belonging to Subhata, 
arrived there. And he came and delivered a letter in the 
The other presence of Chandraprabha ; and Siddhartha, 
Kings seek opening it, read it out in the assembly. It ran 
o k fmiTriZ y e as follows: " The august King Chandraprabha, 
for their e the pearl- jewel of a noble race, is thus respectfully 
Daughters solicited by King Subhata in the Concan. We 
have learned that our daughter, who was carried off by 
some beings in the night, has come into the hands of thy 
son, and we rejoice thereat. Make an effort, thou and thy 
son Suryaprabha, to come with her to our house, without 
raising any objection, in order that we may behold our 
daughter returned, as it were, from the other world, and 
perform for her at once the ceremony required for marriage." 
When this letter was read by Siddhartha, the King Chandra- 
prabha, consenting, welcomed the messenger and rejoiced. 
And he quickly sent Prahasta to the western border and had 


Subhata's daughter, Chandrikavati, conducted into her 
father's presence. And the next morning they all went, 
with Suryaprabha in front, and in company with Jana- 
mejaya, in the chariot to the western border. There King 
Subhata, pleased at recovering his daughter, showed them 
much honour, and celebrated his daughter's marriage festival. 
And he bestowed on Chandrikavati jewels and other gifts 
in such liberal profusion that Vlrabhata and the others were 
ashamed at what they had given. Then, while Suryaprabha 
was remaining there in the house of his father-in-law, there 
came from Lavanaka also an ambassador belonging to King 
Paurava. He delivered to Chandraprabha this message 
from his master : " My daughter Sulochana has been carried 
off by the fortunate Prince Suryaprabha : that does not 
grieve me ; but why should he not be brought with her to 
my house, in order that we may perform the marriage 
ceremony ? " When King Chandraprabha heard that he 
honoured the messenger in his joy and had Sulochana escorted 
by Prahasta into the presence of her father. Then they, 
Subhata and all, in the company of Suryaprabha, went to 
Lavanaka in the chariot, that came as soon as it was thought 
of. There Paurava performed the joyful marriage ceremony, 
and bestowed jewels liberally on Suryaprabha and Sulo- 
chana, and honoured the kings also. And while they were 
remaining there in delight, entertained by the king, Suroha, 
the King of China, also sent an ambassador. That king, 
like the others, requested, by the mouth of the ambassador, 
that, as his daughter had been carried off, they would come 
with her to his palace. 

Then King Chandraprabha was delighted, and he had 
the King of China's daughter, Vidyunmala, also conducted 
by Prahasta to her father's house. And on the next day 
Chandraprabha and all went, including Paurava, together 
with Suryaprabha and his retinue, to the land of China. 
There the king came out to meet them, and led them into 
his own treasure- chamber, and there performed the marriage 
ceremony of his daughter. And he gave to Vidyunmala 
and Suryaprabha an immense quantity of gold, elephants, 
horses, jewels and silk garments. And, being invited by 


Suroha, Chandraprabha and the others continued there for 
some days in various enjoyments. And Suryaprabha, who was 
in the prime of youth, was adorned by that Vidyunmala, 1 
as the rainy season, when the clouds abound, is adorned by 
the lightning garland. 

Thus Suryaprabha and his relatives, accompanied by 
his various charmers, enjoyed delights here and there in 
the houses of his fathers-in-law. Then he took counsel with 
Siddhartha and his other ministers and dismissed one by one 
to their own lands Virabhata and the other kings, with num- 
bers of horses, and then took leave of that King Suroha, 
and, accompanied by his daughter, with his own parents 
and followers ascended that chariot Bhutasana and went 
triumphant to his own city of Sakala. In that city great 
rejoicing took place on account of his arrival ; in one place 
there was the occupation of dancing, in another the delight 
of music ; in one place the amusement of drinking, in another 
the toilet rites of fair-eyed ladies ; in another the voice of 
bards loud in the praise of him who had obtained what he 
desired. Then he had brought his other wives, who had 
remained in their fathers' houses, and with the stores of 
elephants and horses bestowed by their fathers, that were 
brought with them, and with the innumerable camels bowed 
down with burdens full of various jewels, he displayed in 
sport the wealth obtained by the conquest of the world, and 
aroused the wonder of his subjects. 

Then Sakala, inhabited by that fortunate one, appeared 
glorious, as if the chiefs of the gods, of the followers of Kuvera 
and of the snakes, 2 had made in it many deposits of much 
wealth. Then Suryaprabha dwelt there with Madanasena, 
enjoying the pleasures he desired, happy in that all blessings 
were fully bestowed upon him, in the society of his parents, 
with his ministers, accompanied by his other wives, expecting 
every day Maya, who had made a promise to return. 

1 Vidyunmala means " garland of lightning." 

2 The D. text reads . . . bhujaga-nagaraih instead of . . . bkujanga-varaih ; 
thus we get a better meaning : " . . . appeared, by its great wealth and heavy 
treasures, as if it were made up of the cities of the gods, of Kubera, and of the 
Snakes, put together." See Speyer, op. cit., p. II 6. n.m.p. 



The asvamedha, or " horse-sacrifice," is without doubt one of the most 
ancient and important sacrifices in the whole of Indian ritual. Its origin is 
uncertain, but evidence seems to point to Scythia as its home. We are 
naturally reminded of the Greek sacrifices of horses to the sea-god. Similar 
rites have been recorded of the Russians and Chinese (see Frazer, Pausanias, 
vol. iv, pp. 197-198). There has always been a close connection between 
horses and the sea-god, and also with the sun. The latter connection is 
due not merely, I think, to the fact that the horse was the " vehicle " of 
the sun-god, but because, through its swiftness, strength and activity, it was 
itself a symbol of the sun. 

In Rig- Veda days the horse was naturally a much prized animal, and it 
seems highly probable that horseflesh was eaten only at the asvamedha, and 
then not as flesh, but as a means of imparting to the eater the strength and 
endurance of the horse. 

The rite found its way into the Rig-Veda at a very early date, and two 
hymns (i, 162, 163) describe the sacrifice. The most complete account, 
however, occurs in the Satapatha-Brahmana (iii, 1-5) and the Taittiriya- 
Brahmana (iii, 8-9), as well as in certain ritualistic treatises, the Srautasutras. 

The asvamedha was the rite by which a king ratified his claim to suzerainty 
over his neighbours. It was, therefore, only performed by powerful monarchs 
whose strength, kingdom and wealth warranted such great privileges. 

Among such kings may be mentioned Pushyamitra, Samudragupta, 
Kumaragupta I, Adityasena, Rajadhiraja Chola and Sivaskandavarman. In 
some cases coins were struck to celebrate the event. A reproduction of one 
of those issued by Samudragupta will be found on the back cover of each 
volume of the Ocean of Story. 

Beginning first as a simple rite of sympathetic magic, the asvamedha 
increased in intricate detail until it assumed really huge dimensions, both as 
regards the time it took to perform and the expense it involved. The benefits 
resulting from the sacrifice were manifold : undisputed power, success in fresh 
enterprises, extension of empire, the attainment of all personal wishes and 
general increase of strength. 

Unlike other sacrifices, which were confined to the priesthood, the 
asvamedha became a great State function in which the populace took part, 
and into which were introduced secular and even obscene customs, all of 
which, however, are of the greatest interest. 

Although it is impossible here to give full details of the sacrifice, the 
following brief account will afford some idea of the main sequence of events. 

The most auspicious season for the commencement of the asvamedha was 
the spring, about six or seven days before the full moon of the month Phalguna. 
There were four principal officiating priests the hotri, whose duties usually 
consisted in reciting verses from the Rig-Veda; the adhvaryu, who did all 
manual labour connected with the sacrifice ; the brahman, who recited verses 


to Indra, the chief Vedic god of the Aryan warrior, whose chariot was drawn 
by tawny horses ; and the itdgdtri, a singer of the Sama-Veda school. 

The adhvaryu prepared a kind of rice-porridge (brahmaudana} sufficient 
for four persons, which the four priests ate. He then hung a gold ornament 
on the king who was making the sacrifice, and he, in his turn, presented the 
priests with four thousand cows and four gold plates of a hundred grains each 
(i.e. four hundred gold pieces). All these acts had symbolic meanings which 
helped to assure the success of the sacrifice and the full attainment of all 
desires of the sacrificer. In attendance on the king were four of his wives 
adorned with gold ornaments the consecrated queen, the favourite, a dis- 
carded wife and a Palagati i.e. low-caste daughter of a courier. 

He now entered the hall of the sacrificial fires by the eastern door, and his 
wives by the southern door. After the evening performance of the agniholra 
(see Vol. II, p. 257) had been completed, the king lay between the legs of 
his favourite wife, behind the garhapatya hearth, his head facing the north. 
He did not, however, enjoy her, so that his restraint might lend weight to a 
successful reign. The other wives sat behind, and silence was preserved 
throughout the night. The following morning various offerings were made 
with full symbolical ritual and appropriate verses. 

At this point the horse was led up. It had to be of pure breed, and was 
specially chosen for its speed, auspicious markings and colouring. Now the 
symbolical act of tethering to the sacrificial post began. A bridle of special 
length was anointed with the brahmaudana butter and put on its head, during 
which appropriate verses were recited. It was then led to a stagnant pool 
and ceremoniously sprinkled. A low-caste man took a " four-eyed " dog 
{i.e. with dark patches over each eye), killed it with a club of sidhraka wood, 
and placing the body on a mat or hoop of rattan let it float under the horse, 
at the same time pronouncing a formula to ensure the destruction of anyone 
attempting to hinder the consummation of the sacrifice. 

The horse was now led back to the fire, where oblations were offered 
corresponding to the number of drops falling from the horse in the process of 
drying. After a long series of ceremonies, including the offering of cakes 
(purodasas) to Savitri and gifts to the priests, on the third day the horse was 
released in a north-easterly direction. It could roam at its own sweet will 
for a whole year, and was accompanied by a hundred old horses. A hundred 
princes of the blood, a hundred high-born sons, and a hundred low-born sons 
of the officials, all armed according to their rank and fully instructed in their 
duties, were told off to guard it from any attempt at theft, from bathing in 
unclean water, from traps, or any connection with mares. Local battles or 
even wars might result from an attempt to steal the horse (cf. Mahabharala, 
XIV, lxxi, 14; and Mdlavilcagnimitra, Act V, Tawney's translation, p. 91). If 
it got lost or died another had to be taken and part of the previous ceremonies 

During the year of the horse's wanderings the secular element began to 
assert itself at home. Daily offerings were made to Savitri, and daily recitals 
were given by the hotri before the king and the three other chief priests, 
who were seated on golden thrones. Festivities of various kinds were freely 


indulged in by the people singing, lute-playing, dramatic entertainments, 
story-telling, etc. The recitations of the hotri and the rites preceding the 
first appearance of the horse were repeated daily for the year. On its return 
the main ceremony began. 

The dthshi'i, or consecration of the king, took place first. The place of 
sacrifice must lie to the east, with water in the vicinity. Twenty-one posts 
were erected, to each of which an animal was tied. The complete ceremony 
lasted three days. On the first day the animals were sacrificed to Agni-Soma 
and the heavenly Soma was pressed. On the second day, after singing hymns, 
the horse was yoked to a golden chariot with three other horses, all decked 
with gold, and driven to a pool, where it bathed. On its return the first three 
wives, according to their rank, anointed its fore, middle and hind quarters, at 
the same time weaving a hundred and one golden ornaments into its mane 
and tail, accompanied by the necessary formulae. A corn oblation was then 
offered the horse, which, if not eaten, was thrown into the water. 

At this juncture began the famous brahmodya, or asking of poetical riddles. 
Only the hotri and the brahman took part in this. (It is hard to explain the 
custom of asking riddles at certain times and in certain ceremonies as found 
in so many parts of the world. Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. ix, p. 121 3 , suggests 
that they might have originally been circumlocutions adopted at times when 
for certain reasons the speaker was forbidden the use of direct terms.) The 
horse was now bound with a he-goat to the sacrificial post, and several hundreds 
of other animals were bound to similar posts. 

The horse was then smothered with robes. The corpse was thereupon 
circumambulated three times from both directions, by the wives, who fanned 
it. The head queen proceeded to lie down next the horse and was covered 
with a cloak. In that position she performed a very obscene act with the 
horse symbolising the transmission to her of its great powers of fertility. 
Meanwhile the priests and women took part in a series of questions and 
answers, usually of a very free nature. 

On the queen getting up, the horse was cut up, the way of the knife being 
directed by the three wives with a hundred and one needles each, of gold, 
silver and copper, according to their respective ranks. Another series of 
riddle-asking followed, and then came the roasting of the horse and offering 
it to Prajapati. The third day was taken up with the purification of the 
sacrificer, and the giving of large presents, usually captured booty, to the 

For further details reference should be made to Eg^eling's translation of 
the oatapatha-Brahmana, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xliv, pp. 15 et seq., 
and 274-403; Bamett, Antiquities of India, pp. 169-171; K. Geldner, 
"Aivamedha," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, p. 160; and Hillebrandt, 
RUuaUitteratur, Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, vol. iii, 
part ii, pp. 149-152. n.m.p. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyadharas 

THEN, one day, when King Chandraprabha was in the 
hall of assembly, and Suryaprabha was there accom- 
panied by all his ministers, they called to mind Maya 
h propos of a remark made by Siddhartha, and suddenly the 
earth cleft open in the middle of the assembly. Then first 
a loud- sounding, fragrant breeze ascended from the aperture 
in the earth, and afterwards the Asura Maya rose up from it, 
looking like a mountain in the night, for his hair gleamed 
upon his black, lofty head like the potent herbs upon the 
mountain peaks, and his crimson robe resembled the flowing 
streams of cinnabar. 

And the King of the Danavas, after having been duly 
honoured by King Chandraprabha, spake from his seat on a 
jewelled throne : " You have enjoyed these delights of earth, 
and now it is time for you to enjoy others ; set yourselves 
now to prepare for acquiring them. Send out ambassadors, 
and collect your subordinate kings, and your friends and 
connections ; then we will unite with Sumeru, Prince of the 
Vidyadharas, and we will conquer Srutasarman, and win 
the sovereignty of the sky-goers. And Sumeru is our ally, 
considering us as friends, for he received at the outset a 
command from Siva to support Suryaprabha and give him 
his own daughter." 

When the Asura Maya said this, Chandraprabha sent, as 
ambassadors to all the kings, Prahasta and the other ministers 
that travelled through the air ; and, by the advice of Maya, 
Suryaprabha communicated the magic sciences to all his wives 
and ministers, on whom they had not been bestowed already. 
And while they were thus engaged the hermit Narada 
arrived, descending from the sky, illuminating the whole 
horizon with brightness. 

VOL. IV. 17 B 


And after he had received the argha he sat down and said 
to Chandraprabha : "I am sent here by Indra, and he sends 
this message to your Highness : * I have learned that, by 
the instigation of Siva, you purpose, with the assistance of 
the Asura Maya, being all of you deluded by ignorance, to 
obtain for this Siiryaprabha, of mortal frame, the great 
dignity of emperor of all the chiefs of the Vidyadharas. 
That is improper, for I have conferred it on Sruta^arman, 
and, besides, it is the hereditary right of that moon of the 
sea of the Vidyadhara race. And as for what you are doing 
in a spirit of opposition to me, and contrary to what is right, 
it will certainly result in your destruction. Moreover, before, 
when your Highness was offering a sacrifice to Rudra, I told 
you first to offer an a&uamedha sacrifice, but you did not do 
it. So the haughty enterprise you are engaged in, without 
regard to the gods, relying upon Siva alone, will not turn out 
to your happiness." 

When Narada had delivered in these words the message 
of Indra, Maya laughed and said to him : " Great hermit, the 
king of gods has not spoken well. For what he says about 
the fact of Siiryaprabha being a mortal is beside the point ; 
for who was not aware of that fact when he met Damodara 
in fight ? For mortals who possess courage can obtain all 
powers. Did not Nahusha and others of old time obtain the 
dignity of Indra ? And as for his saying that he bestowed 
the empire on Srutasarman, and that it is his hereditary 
right, that also is absurd, for where Siva is the giver, who has 
any authority ? Besides, did not he himself take away the 
sovereignty of the gods from Hiranyaksha, though it descended 
to him as the elder ? And as for his other remark about 
opposition, and our acting contrary to what is right, that is 
false, for he violently puts himself in opposition to us out of 
selfish motives; and wherein, pray, are we acting contrary 
to what is right ? for we are only striving to conquer our rival ; 
we are not carrying off a hermit's wife, we are not killing 
Brahmans. 1 

" And what he says about the necessity of first performing 

1 Alluding to Indra's slaying the demon Vritra, who was regarded as a 
Brahman, and to his conduct with Ahalya. 


an asvamedha sacrifice, and about contempt of the gods, is 
untrue, for when sacrifice to Siva has been performed, what 
need is there of other sacrifices ? And when Siva, the god 
of gods, is worshipped, what god is not worshipped ? And 
as for his remark that exclusive attention to Kudra is not 
becoming, I answer : Of what importance are the hosts of 
the other gods where Siva is in arms ? When the sun has 
risen, do the other luminaries give light ? So you must tell 
all this to the king of the gods, hermit, and we shall con- 
tinue to carry out what we are engaged in. Let him do what 
he can." 

When the Rishi Narada had been thus addressed by 
the Asura Maya, he said, " I will do so," and took back to 
the king of the gods that answer to his message. When 
that hermit had departed, the Asura Maya thus spake to 
King Chandraprabha, who was apprehensive on account of 
the message of Indra : " You must not be afraid of Indra ; 
even if he is on the side of Srutasarman in fight, with the 
hosts of the gods, out of hostility to us, still we Daityas and 
Danavas are countless in number, and, under the leadership 
of Prahlada, we are ranged together on your side. And if 
the destroyer of Tripura x favours us and is active on our 
side, what other miserable creature in the three worlds has 
any power ? So set about this expedition, heroes." 

When Maya said this, all those there were pleased, and 
considered that it was as he said. 

Then in accordance with the messages carried by the 
ambassadors, in course of time all the kings, Virabhata and 
the others, assembled there, and all the other friends and 
The Great relatives of Chandraprabha. When these kings 
Sacrifice to with their armies had been duly honoured, the 
Asura Maya again said to Chandraprabha : 
" Perform to-night, King, a great sacrifice in honour of 
Siva ; afterwards you shall do all as I direct." When he 
heard this speech of Maya's, King Chandraprabha immedi- 
ately had preparations made for a sacrifice to Siva. Then 
he went to the forest at night and, under the instructions of 
Maya, himself performed devoutly a sacrifice to Rudra. 

1 I.e. Siva. 


And while the king was engaged in the fire- offering there 
suddenly appeared there Nandin, the prince of the host of 
Bhutas. He was honoured duly by the delighted king, and 
said : " The god Siva himself sends this command by me : 
1 Through my favour thou needst not fear even a hundred 
Indras ; Suryaprabha shall become emperor of the sky- 
goers.' " After he had delivered this message, Nandin 
received a portion of the offering and disappeared with the 
hosts of Bhutas. Then Chandraprabha became confident 
in the future elevation of his son, and after completing the 
sacrifice, at the end of the fire- offering, re-entered the city 
with Maya. 

And the next morning, when King Chandraprabha was 
sitting in secret conclave together with the queen, his son, 
the kings and his ministers, the Asura Maya said to him : 
" Listen, King ; I will to-day tell you a secret long guarded. 
You are a Danava, Sunltha by name, my mighty son, and 
Suryaprabha is your younger brother, named Sumundika ; 
after you were slain in the war of the gods you were born 
here as father and son. That Danava body of yours has 
been preserved by me, skilfully embalmed with heavenly 
drugs and ghee. Therefore you must enter a cavern and 
visit Patala, and then return to your own body * by a charm 
which I will teach you. And when you have entered that 
body you will be so much superior in spirit and strength 
that you will conquer in fight the wanderers of the air. But 
Suryaprabha, who is an incarnation of Sumundika, with 
this same beautiful body which he now possesses, shall soon 
become lord of the sky-goers." 

When King Chandraprabha heard this from Maya, he 
was delighted, and agreed to it, but Siddhartha said this: 
" O excellent Danava, what ground of confidence have we if 
this doubt should arise, ' Why has the king entered another 
body ; has he then died ? ' And, moreover, will he forget 
us when he enters another body, like a man gone to the 
other world ? Who is he, and who are we ? " * 

1 See the note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

* Similar phrases of comparison are found throughout the East, especially 
in Egypt and Syria. The main uses of such expressions are to show the great 


When the Asura Maya heard this speech of Siddhartha's, 
he answered : " You yourselves must come and see him with 
your own eyes entering another body, of his own free will, 
by the employment of a charm. And hear the reason why 
he will not forget you. A man who does not die of his own 
free will, and is born in another womb, does not remember 
anything, as his memory is destroyed by old age and other 
afflictions, but whoever of his own free will enters another's 
body, penetrating by the employment of magic the internal 
organs and the senses, without his mind and intellect being 
impaired, and passes, as it were, from one house to another, 
that prince among Yogins has supernatural knowledge and 
remembers all. So do not feel doubtful ; so far from there 
being any reason for it, this king will obtain a great divine 
body, free from old age and sickness. Moreover, you are 
all Danavas, and by merely entering Rasatala, 1 and drinking 
nectar, you will obtain divine bodies free from sickness." 

When the ministers heard this speech of Maya's, they all 
said, " So be it," and consented to his proposal, abandoning 
their apprehensions out of the confidence they reposed in him. 
And by his advice Chandraprabha, with all the kings, went 
on the next day to the confluence of the Chandrabhaga 
and the Airavati. 2 There Chandraprabha left the kings 
outside, and committed to their care the wives of Surya- 
prabha, and then he entered in company with Siiryaprabha, 
the queen, and the ministers with Siddhartha at their head, 

social difference between two parties, or the distance of some far-off place. 
Readers will remember that in the Nights, at the end of each separate night, 
Shahrazad, on her sister saying how delightful she found the story, replies : 
" And what is this compared to what I can tell thee, the night to come, if I 
live, and the king spare me." In a note Burton compares this to the Indian : 
" Where is Rajah Bhoj and where is Ganga the oil-man ? " Cf. also Supp., 
vol. ii, p. 7 : " Where am I and where is the daughter of the Kazi Amin 
al-Hukm?" While in vol. vii, p. 344, great distance is expressed by, "but 
where is this land and where lies China-land ?" n.m.p. 

1 One of the seven underworlds the others being Mahatala, Atala, 

Sutala, Vitala, Talatala and Patala. They are, however, collectively known 
as Patalas, and lie directly above the six hells, and below Vasumati, the earth. 
For details see H. Jacobi, "Cosmogony and Cosmology (Indian)," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eih., vol. iv, pp. 155-161. n.m.p. 

* I.e. Acesines and Hydraotes. 


an opening in the water pointed out by Maya, and after 
entering he travelled a long distance, and beheld a heavenly 
temple, and entered it with all of them. 

And in the meanwhile the Vidyadharas descended with 
troops on those kings who were remaining there outside the 
opening; and paralysing the kings by supernatural arts, 
Suryaprabkas tnev carr ied on * tne wives of Suryaprabha, and 
Wmm are immediately a voice was heard from the sky : 
stolen Wicked Srutas*arman, if you touch these wives 

of the emperor you shall immediately perish with your host. 
So guard them respectfully, treating them like your mother ; 
there is a reason for my not immediately slaying you and set- 
ting them free; so let them remain as they are at present." 
And when the kings, Vlrabhata and the others, saw them 
carried off, they prepared to die by fighting with one another. 
But a voice from heaven forbade their attempt, saying : " No 
harm will befall these daughters of yours ; you shall obtain 
them again, so you must not act rashly ; prosperity befall 
you ! " So the kings remained waiting there. 

In the meantime Chandraprabha was in the temple in 
Patala surrounded by all his companions, and there Maya 
said to him : " King, listen attentively to this wonderful 
thing : I will show you the supernatural art of entering 
another body." 

He said this, and recited the Sankhya and the Yoga 
doctrine with its secrets, and taught him the magic art 
of entering another body ; and that chief of Yogins said : 
" This is the famous supernatural power, and the independ- 
ence of knowledge, the dominion over matter that is char- 
acterised by lightness and the other mystic properties. 1 
The chief of the gods, possessing this power, do not long for 
liberation ; in order to obtain this power others endure the 
hardship of muttering prayers and performing asceticism. 
Men of lofty soul do not love the pleasures of heaven 
even when attained. And listen, I will tell you a story in 
illustration of this. 

1 See note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 


62a. The Brahman Kdla and his Prayers 

In a former Kalpa there was a certain Brahman, of 
the name of Kala. He went to the holy bathing-place Push- 
kara and muttered prayers day and night. While he was 
muttering, two myriads of years of the gods passed away. 
Then there appeared a great light inseparable from his head, 
which, streaming forth in the firmament like ten thousand 
suns, 8 impeded the movement of the Siddhas and others 
there, and set the three worlds on fire. 

Then Brahma, Indra and the other gods came to him 
and said : " Brahman, these worlds are on fire with your 
brightness. Receive whatever boon you desire." He 
answered them : " Let me have no other pleasure than 
muttering prayers ; this is my boon, I choose nothing else." 
When they importuned him, that mutterer of prayers went 
far off and remained on the north side of the Himalayas, 
muttering prayers. jfc || |ji ty 

When this extraordinary brightness of his gradually 
became intolerable even there, Indra sent heavenly nymphs 
to tempt him. That self-restrained man did not care a 
straw about them when they endeavoured to seduce him. 
Then the gods sent him Death as plenipotentiary. He 
came to him and said : " Brahman, mortals do not live so 
long, so abandon your life ; do not break the law of nature." 
When the Brahman heard this, he said : "If the limit of 
my life is attained, why do you not take me ? What are you 
waiting for ? But I will not of myself abandon my life, O 
thou god with the noose in hand ; indeed, if I were wilfully 
to abandon my life, I should be a self-murderer." When he 
said this, and Death found that he could not take him on 
account of his power, he turned away from him and returned 
as he came. 

1 I.e. a day of Brahma consisting of 1000 Yugas. 

* Cf. the halo or aureole round the heads of Christian saints, the circle 
of rays and nimbus round the head of Greek divinities, and the beam that 
came out of Charles the Great's mouth and illumined his head (Grimm's 
Teutonic Mythologij, translated by Stallybrass, p. S2S). Cf. Livy, i, 39; and 
Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi (Burnouf), p. 4. 


Then Indra, repenting, seized that Kala, 1 who had con- 
quered Time the destroyer, in his arms and took him up to 
heaven by force. There he remained averse to the sensual 
enjoyments of the place, and he did not cease from mutter- 
ing prayers, so the gods made him descend again, and he 
returned to the Himalayas. 

And while all the gods were trying to induce him there to 
take a boon, the King Ikshvaku came that way. When he 
heard how affairs stood, he said to that muttercr of prayers : 
" If you will not receive a boon from the gods, receive one 
from me." When the mutterer of prayers heard that, he 
laughed, and said to the king : " Are you able to grant me 
a boon, when I will not receive one even from the gods ? ' 
Thus he spoke, and Ikshvaku answered the Brahman : " If 
I am not able to grant you a boon, you can grant me one ; 
so grant me a boon." Then the mutterer said : " Choose 
whatever you desire and I will grant it." When the king 
heard this, he reflected in his mind : " The appointed order 
is that I should give, and that he should receive ; this is 
an inversion of the due order, that I should receive what he 

Whilst the king was delaying, as he pondered over this 
difficulty, two Brahmans came there disputing ; when they 
saw the king they appealed to him for a decision. The first 
said : " This Brahman gave me a cow with a sacrificial fee : 
why will he not receive it from my hand when I offer to 
give it back to him ? " Then the other said : " I did not 
receive it first, and I did not ask for it, then why does he 
wish to make me receive it by force ? " When the king 
heard this, he said : " This complainant is not in the right ; 
why, after receiving the cow, do you try to compel the man 
who gave it to take it back from you ? " When the king 
said this, Indra, having found his opportunity, said to him : 
14 King, if you hold this view of what is right, then, after 
you have asked the Brahman, who mutters prayers, for a 
boon, why do you not take it from him when it is granted ? " 
Then the king, being at a loss for an answer, said to that 
muttering Brahman : " Revered sir, give me the fruit of 

1 Kala means Time, Fate, Death. 


half your muttering as a boon." Then the muttering Brah- 
man said : " Very well, receive the fruit of half my mutter- 
ing," and so he gave the king a boon. By means of that 
boon the king obtained access to all the worlds, and that 
muttering Brahman obtained the world of the gods called 
Sivas. 1 There he remained for many Kalpas, and then 
returned to earth, and by mystic contemplation obtained 
independence and gained everlasting supernatural power. 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyddharas 

" Thus this supernatural power is desired by wise men, 
who are averse to heaven and such low enjoyments ; and 
you have obtained it, O King ; so, being independent, enter 
your own body." When Maya said this to King Chandra- 
prabha, after communicating to him the doctrine of mystic 
contemplation giving supernatural power, 2 he and his wife 
and his son and his ministers rejoiced exceedingly. 

Then the king, with his son and companions, was led by 
Maya to a second underworld and made to enter a splendid 
city. And there they saw a gigantic hero, reclining at full 
length upon a beautiful couch, as if asleep, anointed with 
potent herbs and ghee, awful from the ghastly transformation 
of his features, surrounded by the daughters of the kings of 
the Daityas, with their lotus- faces full of melancholy. Then 
Maya said to Chandraprabha : " This is your body, sur- 
rounded by your former brides ; enter it." The king had 
recourse to the magic contemplation taught by Maya, and 
entered the body of that hero, abandoning his own frame. 8 

1 I divide sa sivakhyanam and take sa to be the demonstrative pronoun. 

2 I.e. the Yoga system. 

3 This superstition appears to be prevalent in China. See Giles's Strange 
Stories from a Chinese Studio, vol. i, p. 23, and other passages. It was no doubt 
carried there by the same wave of Buddhism that carried there many similar 
notions connected with the transmigration of souls, for instance the belief 
that children are born able to speak, and that this is very inauspicious. (Cf. 
Giles, op. cit., vol. i, p. 184, with the story of Dharmagupta and Chandraprabha 
in the seventeenth chapter of this work.) The existence of this latter belief 
in Europe is probably to be ascribed to the influence of Buddhism. 


Then the hero yawned slowly, opened his eyes and rose 
up from the bed, as if awaking out of sleep. Then a shout 
arose from the delighted Asura brides : " Happy are we 
that our husband, the god Sunitha, is to-day restored to life." 
But Suryaprabha and the others were immediately despond- 
ent, beholding the body of Chandraprabha lying lifeless. 
But Chandraprabha- Sunitha, appearing as if arisen from a 
refreshing sleep, saw Maya, and falling at his feet honoured 
his father. That father too embraced him, and asked him 
in the presence of all : " Do you remember both your lives, 
my son ? " He said : " I do remember them," and related 
what had happened to him in his life as Chandraprabha, and 
also what had happened to him in his life as Sunitha, and he 
comforted one by one Suryaprabha and the others, and also 
his queens, mentioning each by name, and also the Danava 
ladies, his wives in his first life. And he preserved the body 
which he had as Chandraprabha, carefully laid by, embalmed 
by means of drugs and ghee, saying : "It may possibly be 
useful to me." Then Suryaprabha and the others, tranquil 
now that they had gained confidence, bowed before him, and 
joyfully congratulated him. 

Then Maya, having conducted all of them in high delight 
out of that city, led them to another city adorned with gold 
and jewels. When they entered it they beheld a lake of the 
appearance of beryl, filled with nectar, and they all sat down 
on the bank of it. And they drank that nectarous draught 
there, more excellent than the Water of Life, in curiously 
ornamented cups formed of jewels, which were brought to 
them by the wives of Sunitha. And by that draught they 
all rose up, as from a sleep of intoxication, and became 
possessed of divine bodies, and of great strength and courage. 

Then the Asura Maya said to Chandraprabha- Sunitha : 
" Come, my son, let us go and see your mother after so long 
a separation." And Sunitha said : " So be it," and prepared 
LHavan, the * g conducted by Maya, and so proceeded to 
Wi ftof the fourth underworld with Suryaprabha and 
the others. There they beheld curious cities 
made of various metals, and at last they all reached a city 
built entirely of gold. There, on a pillar composed of jewels, 


adorned with every luxury, they beheld that mother of 
Sunitha, the wife of Maya, by name Lilavati, surpassing 
in beauty the nymphs of heaven, surrounded with Asura 
maidens, and adorned with all ornaments. The moment she 
beheld that Sunitha, she rose up in a state of excitement, 
and Sunitha, after saluting her, fell at her feet. Then 
she embraced with gushing tears the son whom she once 
more held in her arms after so long an interval, and again 
praised her husband Maya, who was the cause of her 
regaining him. 

Then Maya said : " Queen, your other son, Sumundika, 
has been born again as the son of your son, and here he is, 
Stiryaprabha by name. He has been appointed by the god 
Siva the future emperor of the Vidyadharas, and is destined 
to rule over them in the body which he now possesses." 

When Stiryaprabha heard this, and saw her look at him 
with an eye of longing affection, he and his ministers fell at 
her feet. And Lilavati gave him her blessing, and said 
to him : " My darling, you do not require the body of 
Sumundika ; in this you are sufficiently glorious." 

When his sons were thus triumphant, Maya called to 
mind his daughter Mandodari, and Vibhishana, and when 
called to mind, they came. And Vibhishana, welcomed 
with triumphant rejoicings, said to him : " O Prince of the 
Danavas, if you will listen to my advice, I will give it you. 
You are among the Danavas singularly virtuous and prosper- 
ous, so you ought not to take up a causeless enmity against 
the gods, for you will gain nothing but death from your 
hostility to them. For Asuras have been slain in battle by 
the gods, but not gods by Asuras." 

When Maya heard this, he said : " We are not forcing on 
war, but if Indra violently makes war on us, tell me, how 
can we remain passive ? And as for those Asuras who were 
slain by the gods, they were reckless ; but did the gods slay 
Bali and others who were not infatuated ? " That king of 
the Rakshasas having, with his wife Mandodari, been ad- 
dressed with these and similar speeches by Maya, took leave 
of him, and went to his own dwelling. 

Then Sunitha, with Suryaprabha and the others, was 


conducted to the third underworld to visit King Bali. In 
that world, which surpassed even heaven, they all beheld 
Bali, adorned with chain and tiara, surrounded with Daityas 
The Third and Danavas. Sunitha and his companions 
Underworld fell a t his feet in due order, and he honoured 
them with appropriate welcome. And Bali was delighted 
with the tidings related by Maya, and he quickly had 
summoned Prahlada and the other Danavas. Sunitha and 
the others honoured them also by falling at their feet, and 
they, being full of joy, congratulated them as they bent 
before them. Then Bali said : " Sunitha became Chandra- 
prabha on the earth, and is now restored to life for us by 
regaining his body. And we have also gained Suryaprabha, 
who is an incarnation of Sumundlka. And he has been 
appointed by Siva the future emperor of the Vidyadharas : 
and by the power of the sacrifice offered by Chandraprabha 
my bonds have been relaxed. So without doubt we have 
gained prosperity by recovering these." 

When Sukra, the spiritual adviser of the Danavas, heard 
this speech of Bali's, he said : "In truth, those who act 
according to right never fail of prosperity in any matter ; 
so act according to right, and do on this occasion also what 
I bid you." When the Danavas, the princes of the seven 
underworlds, who were assembled there, heard that, they 
agreed to it and bound themselves so to act. And Bali 
made a feast there, out of joy at the recovery of Sunitha. 

In the meanwhile the hermit Narada arrived there again, 
and after taking the argha he sat down, and said to those 
Danavas : "I have been sent here by Indra, and he in truth 
The Arrival says this to you : ' I am exceedingly delighted 
of Narada a t the fact that Sunitha has come back to 
life ; so you must not take up a causeless enmity against 
me, and you must not fight against my ally Srutagarman.' " 

When the hermit had thus delivered Indra 's message, 
Prahlada said to him : "Of course Indra is pleased that 
Sunitha has come back to life ; how could it be otherwise ? 
But we, at any rate, are not taking up causeless hostility. This 
very day we all took an engagement that we would not do 
so, in the presence of our spiritual adviser. But if Indra makes 


himself a partisan * of Sruta^arman, and violently opposes 
us, how are we to be blamed for it ? For Suryaprabha's ally, 
Siva, the god of gods, has long ago appointed him, because he 
propitiated him first. So what have we to do with this matter 
which has been settled by the lord Siva ? It is clear that 
this, which Indra says, is without cause and and not right." 

When Prahlada, the King of the Danavas, said this to 
Narada, he blamed Indra by expressing his agreement with 
it, and disappeared. When he had gone, Usanas * said to the 
kings of the Danavas : " Indra is evidently determined to 
oppose us in this matter. But, as Siva has decidedly girded 
up his loins to show us favour, what is his power, or what 
will his reliance upon Vishnu do ? " 

The Danavas heard and approved this speech of Sukra's, 
and, taking leave of Bali and Prahlada, went to their own 
homes. Then Prahlada went to the fourth underworld, 
his habitation, and King Bali, rising up from the assembly, 
retired within. And Maya and Sunitha and the others, 
Siiryaprabha and all, bowed before Bali, and went to their 
own habitations. 

After they had eaten and drunk there sufficiently, Llla- 
vati, the mother of Sunitha, came to him and said : " My 
son, you know that these wives of yours are the daughters 
of mighty ones, Tejasvati being the daughter of the God of 
Wealth, Mangalavati of Tumburu ; and as for KirtimatI, 
that wife that you married in your existence as Chandra- 
prabha, her you know to be the daughter of the Vasu Pra- 
bhava, so you must look upon these three with an equal eye, 
my son." After saying this, she commended to him his 
three principal wives. Then, that night, Sunitha entered 
his sleeping apartment with the eldest Tejasvati. 

But Siiryaprabha, in another chamber, with his ministers, 
reclined on a couch without any of his wives that night, and 
the Goddess of Sleep 8 did not come to him, who remained 

1 Here I read Srutasarma-sapakshatvam. 

2 Usanas here means Sukra, the spiritual guide of the Asuras. 

8 The word translated by Tawney as "goddess of sleep" is nidra-sM, 
but nidra, being feminine already, does not need stri as well. In the D. text 
it belongs to the next word, and the sense now becomes that the sleep-deity 


continually alone, saying to herself : " What is the use of 
this unloving man, who leaves his wives outside ? " And 
she would not approach Prahasta out of jealousy, as he was 
so exclusively in love with the cares of his official duties, 
but the other ministers around Suryaprabha went to sleep 

In the meanwhile Suryaprabha and Prahasta beheld an 
incomparable maiden entering, accompanied by a female 
friend. She was so beautiful that Providence seemed, after 
creating her, to have placed her in the lower regions in order 
that the nymphs of heaven, also his creation, might not be 
eclipsed by her. 

And while Suryaprabha was debating who she might be, 
she approached each of his friends, one by one, and looked at 
them ; and as they did not seem to possess the distinguishing 
marks of emperors, she left them, and seeing that Suryaprabha 
possessed them, she approached him, who was lying in the 
midst of them ; and she said to her friend : " Here he is, my 
friend ; so touch him on the feet, wake him up with those 
hands of yours cool as water." When her friend heard that, 
she did so, and Suryaprabha ceased to feign sleep, and opened 
his eyes, and beholding those maidens, he said : " Who are 
you, and why do you come here ? " 

When the friend of the lady heard that, she said to him : 
" Listen, King : in the second underworld there is a victori- 
ous king named Amila, a chieftain of the Daityas, the son of 
Hiranyaksha ; this is his daughter Kalavati, whom he loves 
more than life. Her father came back to-day from the Court 
of Bali, and said : ' I am fortunate in that I have to-day 
beheld Sunitha once more restored to life ; and I have also 
seen the young man Suryaprabha, an incarnation of Sumun- 
dika, who has been brought into the world by Siva as the 
future emperor of the Vidyadharas. So I will now offer a 
congratulatory tribute to Sunitha. I will give my daughter 
Kalavati to Suryaprabha, for she cannot be given to Sunitha 
because she belongs to the same family ; but Suryaprabha 
is his son in his birth as a king, not in his birth as an Asura, 

thus (considering) did not come to him who was in the habit of (enjoying) 
female company, though he was alone. See Speyer, op. cit., p. 117. n.m.p. 


and any honour paid to his son will be paid to him.' When 
my friend heard this speech of her father's, her mind being 
attracted by your virtues, she came here out of curiosity to 
see you." 

When that friend of the lady's said this, Suryaprabha 
pretended to be asleep in order to discover the real object 
of her wish. The maiden slowly approached the sleepless 
Prahasta, and after telling him all by the mouth of her friend, 
went out. And Prahasta advanced towards Suryaprabha 
and said : " King, are you awake or not ? " And he, open- 
ing his eyes, said to him : " My friend, I am awake, for 
how could I sleep to-day being alone ? But I will tell you a 
strange fact ; listen, for what can I hide from you ? I saw 
a moment ago a maiden enter here with her friend ; her 
equal is not beheld in these three worlds. And she departed 
in a moment, taking my heart with her. So look for her at 
once, for she must be somewhere hereabout." 

When Suryaprabha said this to him, Prahasta went out, 
and seeing the maiden there with her friend, he said to her : 
"I, to please you, have again awakened my master here, so 
you, to please me, must once more grant him an interview. 
Behold once more his form that gives satisfaction to your 
eyes, 1 and let him, who was overpowered by you as soon as 
he beheld you, behold you again. For when he woke up he 
said to me, speaking of you : Bring her from some place 
or other and show her to me, otherwise I cannot survive.' 
Then I came to you ; so come and behold him yourself." 

When she was thus addressed by Prahasta, she hesitated 
to go in boldly, owing to the modesty natural to a maiden, 
and reflected ; and then Prahasta, seizing her hand, led her 
into the presence of Suryaprabha. And Suryaprabha, when 
he saw that KalavatI had come near him, said : " Fair one, 
was this right of you to come in to-day and steal away my 
heart, as you did, when I was asleep ? So, thief, I will not 
leave you unpunished to-day." 

1 I read paiyasya rupam. This gives a better sense. It is partly sup- 
ported by a MS. in the Sanskrit College. The same MS. in the next line 

reads tvam tu pasyati chaiko'pi. I read tvam tu pasyatu chaishu'pi. The D. 

text has now proved this reading correct. n.m.p. 


When her sly friend heard this, she said to him : " Since 
her father knew of it before, and determined to assign this 
thief to you for punishment, who can forbid you to punish 
her ? Why do you not inflict on her to your heart's content 
the punishment due for thieving ? " When Suryaprabha 
heard that, he wanted to embrace her, but Kalavati, being 
modest, said : " Do not, my husband, I am a maiden." 
Then Prahasta said to her : " Do not hesitate, my queen, 
for the gdndharva marriage is the best of all marriages in the 
world." When Prahasta had said this, he went out with all 
the rest, and Suryaprabha that very moment made Kalavati, 
the maiden of the underworld, his wife. 

And when the night came to an end Kalavati went to 
her own dwelling, and Suryaprabha went to Sunitha and 
Maya. They all assembled and went into the presence of 
The Great Prahlada, and he, seated in the hall of audience, 
Ftati after honouring them appropriately, said to 

Maya : " We must do something to please Sunitha on this 
day of rejoicing, so let us all feast together." Maya said: 
" Let us do so ; what harm is there in this ? " 

And then Prahlada invited, by means of messengers, the 
chiefs of the Asuras, and they came there in order from all 
the underworlds. First came King Bali, accompanied by 
innumerable great Asuras. Close behind him came Amlla 
and the brave Duraroha and Sumaya, and Tantukachchha, 
and Vikataksha and Prakampana, and Dhumaketu and 
Mahamaya, and the other lords of the Asuras ; each of these 
came accompanied by a thousand feudal chiefs. The hall of 
audience was filled with the heroes, who saluted one another, 
and after they had sat down in order of rank Prahlada 
honoured them all. And when the time of eating arrived 
they all, with Maya and the others, after bathing in the 
Ganges, went to a great hall to dine. It was a hundred 
yqjanas wide, and had a pavement of gold and jewels, and 
was adorned with jewelled pillars, and full of curiously 
wrought jewelled vessels. There the Asuras, in the com- 
pany of Prahlada, and with Sunitha and Maya, and with 
Suryaprabha, accompanied by his ministers, ate heavenly 
food of various kinds, containing all the six flavours, solid, 


liquid and sweetmeats, and then drank the best of wine. 
And after they had eaten and drunk they all went to another 
hall, which was made of jewels, and beheld the skilful dance 
of the Daitya and Danava maidens. 

On that occasion Suryaprabha beheld the daughter of 
Prahlada, named Mahallika, who came forward to dance, by 
order of her father. She illuminated the world with her 
beauty, rained nectar into his eyes, and seemed like the 
moon-goddess come to the underworld out of curiosity. 
She had her forehead ornamented with a patch, 2 beautiful 
anklets on her feet, and a smiling face, and seemed as if all 
made of dancing by the Creator. With her curling hair, her 
pointed teeth, and her breasts that filled up the whole of 
her chest, 8 she seemed, as it were, to be creating a new style 
of dance. And that fair one, the moment she was beheld 
by Stiryaprabha, forcibly robbed him of his heart, though 
it was claimed by others. Then she also beheld him from a 
distance, sitting among the A sura princes, like a second God 
of Love made by the Creator, when the first God of Love 
had been burnt up by Siva. And when she saw him her 
mind was so absorbed in him that her skill in the expression 
of sentiments by gesture forsook her, as if in anger at be- 
holding her want of modesty. And the spectators beheld the 
emotion of those two, and brought the spectacle to an end, 
saying : " The princess is tired." 

Then Mahallika was dismissed by her father, looking 
askance at Stiryaprabha, and after she had bowed before 
the princes of the Daityas she went home. And the princes 
of the Daityas went to their respective houses, and Stirya- 
prabha too went to his dwelling at the close of day. 

And when the night came Kalavati again came to visit him, 
and he slept secretly within with her, with all his followers 
sleeping outside. In the meanwhile Mahallika also came 
there, eager to see him, accompanied by two confidantes. 
Then a minister of Suryaprabha's, named Prajnadhya, who 

1 Literally, " the shape of the moon " ; put for the moon, because the 
author is speaking of a woman. See Bohtlingk and Roth s.v. 
8 See Vol. II, p. 22n 3 . n.m.p. 
8 See Vol. I, p. SOn 2 . n.m.p. 
vol. IV. 33 c 


happened at that moment to have his eyes forsaken by sleep, 
saw her attempting to enter. And he, recognising her, rose 
up and said : " Princess, remain here a moment until I enter 
Kal&va&t and come out again." She, alarmed, said : " Why 
Secret Visit are we stopped, and why are you outside ? " 
Prajnadhya again said to her : " Why do you enter in this 
sudden way when a man is sleeping at his ease ? Besides, 
my lord sleeps alone to-night on account of a vow." Then 
the daughter of Prahlada, being ashamed, said : " So be it ; 
enter " ; and Prajnadhya went inside. 

Seeing that Kalavati was asleep, he woke up Siiryaprabha 
and himself told him that Mahallika had arrived. And 
Siiryaprabha, hearing of it, gently rose up and went out, and 
beholding Mahallika with two others, he said : " This person 
has been supremely blessed by your arrival ; let this place 
be blessed also ; take a seat." 

When Mahallika heard this, she sat down with her friends, 
and Siiryaprabha also sat down, with Prajnadhya by his 
side. And when he sat down he said : " Fair one, although 
you showed contempt for me by seeming to look on others 
in the assembly with respect, nevertheless, O rolling-eyed one, 
my eyes were blessed as soon as they beheld your dancing 
as well as your beauty." 

When Siiryaprabha said this, the daughter of Prahlada 
answered him : " This is not my fault, noble sir * ; he is in 
fault who made me ashamed in the hall of assembly by putting 
me beside my part in the pantomime." 

When Siiryaprabha heard this, he laughed and said : "I 
am conquered." And then that prince seized her hand with 
his, and it perspired and trembled, as if afraid of the rough 
seizure. And she said ; " Let me go, noble sir. I am a 
maiden under my father's control." 

Then Prajnadhya said to that daughter of the chief of 
the Asuras : " Is not there such a thing as the gandharva 
marriage of maidens ? And your father, who has seen your 
heart, will not give you to another ; moreover, he will 
certainly do some honour to this prince here ; so away with 
timidity ! Let not such a meeting be thrown away ! " 

1 I.e. aryaputra, used by a wife in addressing a husband. 


While Prajnadhya was saying this to Mahallika, Kalavati 
woke up within. And not seeing Suryaprabha on the bed, 
after waiting a long time, she was terrified and apprehensive, 
and went out. And seeing her lover in the company of 
Mahallika, she was angry and ashamed and terrified. Mahal- 
lika too, when she saw her, was terrified and angry and 
ashamed, and Suryaprabha stood motionless like a painted 
picture. Kalavati came to his side, thinking: "Now that 
I have been seen, how can I escape ? Shall I display shame 
or jealousy ? " And she said with a spiteful intonation to 
Mahallika : " How are you, my friend ; how comes it that 
you have come here at night ? " Then Mahallika said : 
" This is my house ; as you have arrived here from another 
mansion of the underworld, you are to-day my guest here." 

When Kalavati heard that, she laughed and said : " Yes, 
it is clearly the case that you entertain with appropriate 
hospitality every guest as soon as he arrives here." When 
Kalavati said this, Mahallika answered : " When I spoke to 
you kindly, why do you answer in such an unkind and spite- 
ful way, shameless girl ? Am I like you ? Did I, without 
being bestowed in marriage by my parents, come from a 
distance, and in a strange place sleep in the bed of a strange 
man alone at night ? I came to see my father's guest, as he 
was going away, in accordance with the duty of hospitality, 
a moment ago, accompanied by two female friends. When 
this minister entered, after first reproaching me, I guessed 
the real state of the case ; you have now of yourself 
revealed it." 

When thus addressed by Mahallika, Kalavati departed, 
looking askance at her beloved with an eye red with anger. 
Then Mahallika too said to Suryaprabha in wrath : " Now 
I will depart, man of many favourites," and went away. 
And Suryaprabha remained in heartless despondency, as 
was reasonable, for his heart, devoted to his loved ones, 
went with them. 

Then he woke up his minister Prabhasa and sent him to 
discover what Kalavati had done after she had separated 
from him in anger ; and in the meanwhile he sent Prahasta 
lo find out about Mahallika, and he remained with Prajnadhya 


awaiting their report. Then Prabhasa returned from in- 
vestigating the proceedings of Kalavati, and, being ques- 
tioned, he said as follows : " From this place I went to the 
private apartment of Kalavati in the second 
/olioics" underworld, concealing myself by my science. 
Kalavati by And outside it I heard the conversation of two 
the help of m aids. The one said : ' My friend, why is Kala- 
vati distressed to-day ? ' Then the second said : 
1 My friend, hear the reason. There is at present in the 
fourth underworld an incarnation of Sumundika, named 
Suryaprabha, who in beauty surpasses the God of Love ; 
she went secretly and gave herself to him. And when she 
had repaired to him to-day of her own accord at nightfall, 
Mahallika, the daughter of Prahlada, chose to come there 
too. Our mistress had a jealous quarrel with her, and was 
in consequence preparing to slay herself, when she was seen 
by her sister, SukhavatI, and saved. And then she went in- 
side, and, flinging herself down on a bed, she remained with that 
sister, who was despondent when she learnt by inquiry what 
had taken place.' When I had heard this conversation of the 
two maids, I entered the apartment, and beheld Kalavati 
and SukhavatI, who resembled one another exactly." 

While Prabhasa was saying this to Suryaprabha in private, 
Prahasta also came there, and, being questioned, he said as 
follows : " When I arrived from this place at the private 
apartment of Mahallika, she entered despondent with her 
two intimate friends. And I entered also, invisible, by the 
employment of magic science, and I saw there twelve friends 
like her ; and they sat round Mahallika, who reclined on a 
sofa ornamented with splendid jewels ; and then one said 
to her : 4 My friend, why do you seem to be suddenly cast 
down to-day ? What is the meaning of this despondency 
when your marriage is about to come off ? ' When the 
daughter of Prahlada heard that, she answered her friend 
pensively : * What marriage for me ? To whom am I be- 
trothed ? Who told you ? ' When she said that, they all 
exclaimed : * Surely your marriage will take place to-morrow, 
and you are betrothed, my friend, to Suryaprabha. And 
your mother, the queen, told us to-day when you were not 


present, and ordered us to decorate you for the marriage 
ceremony. So you are fortunate, in that you will have 
Suryaprabha for a husband, through admiration for whose 
beauty the ladies of this place cannot sleep at night. But 
this is a source of despondency to us what a gulf there will 
now be between you and us ! When you have obtained him 
for a husband, you will forget us.' When Mahallika heard 
this from their mouth, she said : Has he been seen by you, 
and is your heart attached to him ? ' When they heard 
that, they said to her : t We saw him from the top of the 
palace, and what woman is there that a sight of him would 
not captivate ? ' Then she said : ' Then I will persuade 
my father to cause all of you to be given to him. 1 So we 
shall live together and not be separated.' When she said 
this, the maidens were shocked, and said to her : ' Kind 
friend, do not do so. It would not be proper, and would 
make us ashamed.' When they said this, the daughter of 
the King of the Asuras answered them : Why is it not 
proper ? I am not to be his only wife ; all the Daityas and 
Danavas will give him their daughters, and there are other 
princesses on the earth whom he has married, and he will 
also marry many Vidyadhara maidens. What harm can it 
do to me that you should be married among these ? So far 
from it, we shall live happily in mutual friendship ; but 
what intercourse can I hold with those others who will be my 
enemies ? And why should you have any shame about the 
matter ? I will arrange it all.' While these ladies were 
thus conversing, with hearts devoted to you, I came out at 
my leisure and repaired to your presence." 

When Suryaprabha had heard this from the mouth of 
Prahasta, he passed that night in happiness, though he 
remained sleepless in his bed. 

In the morning he went to the Court of Prahlada, the 
King of the Asuras, with Sunitha and Maya and his ministers, 
to visit him. Then Prahlada said to Sunitha, after showing 
him respect : "I will give to this Suryaprabha my daughter 
Mahallika, for I must show him some hospitable entertain- 
ment which will be agreeable to you." 

1 A MS. in the Sanskrit College reads asau where Brockhaus reads amur. 


Sunltha received with joy this speech of Prahlada's. 
Then Prahlada made Suryaprabha ascend an altar-platform, 
in the middle of which a fire was burning, and which was 
Suryaprabha adorned with lofty jewelled pillars illuminated 
marries by the brightness of the flame, and there gave 

MahallM ^^ j^ s d aU ghter, with splendour worthy of the 
imperial throne of the Asuras. And he gave to his daughter 
and her bridegroom heaps of valuable jewels, obtained by 
his triumph over the gods, resembling the summit of Mount 

And then Mahallika boldly said to Prahlada : " Father, 
give me also those twelve companions whom I love." But 
he answered her : " Daughter, they belong to my brother, 
for they were taken captive by him, and I have no right to 
give them away." 

And Suryaprabha, after the marriage feast was ended, 
entered at night the bridal chamber with Mahallika. 

And the next morning, when Prahlada had gone to the 
hall of assembly with his followers, Amila, the King of the 
Danavas, said to Prahlada and the others : " To-day you 
And several must all come to my house, for I intend to enter- 
other Beauties tain there this Suryaprabha, and I will give him 
my daughter Kalavati, if you approve." This 
speech of his they all approved, saying : " So be it." 
Then they all went in a moment to the second under- 
world, where he dwelt, with Suryaprabha, Maya and others. 
There Amila gave, by the usual ceremony, to Suryaprabha 
his daughter, who had previously given herself. Surya- 
prabha went through the marriage ceremony in the house of 
Prahlada, and, surrounded by the Asuras, who had feasted, 
spent the day in tasting the enjoyments which they provided 
for him. 

On the next day Duraroha, Prince of the Asuras, invited 
and conducted them all to his own underworld, the fifth. 
There, by way of hospitality, he gave to Suryaprabha his 
own daughter Kumadavati, as the others had done, in the 
prescribed manner. There Suryaprabha spent the day in 
enjoyment with all these united. And at night he entered 
the apartment of Kumudavati. There he spent that night 


in the society of that lovely and loving woman, the beauty 
of the three worlds. 

And the next day Tantukachchha invited and conducted 
him, surrounded with his companions, headed by Prahlada, 
to his palace in the seventh underworld. There that king 
of the Asuras gave him his daughter ManovatI, adorned 
with splendid jewels, bright as molten gold. There Surya- 
prabha spent a highly agreeable day, and passed the night 
in the society of ManovatI. 

And the next day Sumaya, a prince of the Asuras, after 
presenting an invitation, conducted him with all his friends 
to his underworld, the sixth ; there he too gave him his 
daughter, by name Subhadra, with body black as a stalk of 
durvd grass, like a female incarnation of the God of Love ; 
and Suryaprabha spent that day with that black maiden, 
whose face was like a full moon. 

And the next day King Bali, followed by the Asuras, in 
the same way led that Suryaprabha to his own underworld, 
the third. There he gave him his own daughter, named 
Sundari, with complexion lovely as a young shoot, and 
resembling a cluster of mddhavi flowers. Suryaprabha 
then spent that day with that pearl of women in heavenly 
enjoyment and splendour. 

The next day Maya also in the same way reconducted 
the prince, who was in the fourth underworld, to his own 
palace, which possessed curiously adorned jewelled terraces, 
was constructed by his own magic power and, on account of 
its refulgent splendour, seemed to be new every moment. 
There he gave him his own daughter, named Sumaya, whose 
beauty was the wonder of the world, who seemed to be his 
own power incarnate, and he did not think that she ought to 
be withheld from him on account of his being a mere mortal. 
The fortunate Suryaprabha remained there with her. Then 
the prince divided his body by his magic science, 1 and lived 

1 The magical powers obtained by Yogis include also the ability to 
become invisible, to change one's size, to reach distant objects with ease, to 
be transported anywhere at will, etc. See R. Garbe, " Yoga," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Elh., vol. xii, pp. 831-833. Further details will be found in the 
note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 


at the same time with all those Asura ladies, but with his 
real body he lived principally with his best beloved, 
Mahallika, the daughter of the Asura Prahlada. 

And one night, when he was happy in her presence, he 
asked the noble Mahallika in the course of conversation : 
" My dear, those two female friends, who came with you, 
where are they ? I never see them. Who are they, and 
where have they gone ? " Then Mahallika said : " You 
have done well to remind me. My female friends are not 
only two, but twelve in number, and my father's brother 
carried them off from Indra's heaven. The first is named 
Amritaprabha, the second Keslni ; these are the auspiciously 
marked daughters of the hermit Parvata. And the third is 
Kalindi, the fourth Bhadraka, and the fifth is the noble 
Kamala with beautiful eyes. These three are the daughters 
of the great hermit Devala. The sixth is named SaudaminI, 
and the seventh Ujjvala ; these are both of them daughters 
of the Gandharva Haha. The eighth is by name Pivara, 
the daughter of the Gandharva Huhu. And the ninth is 
by name Anjanika, the daughter of the mighty Kala. And 
the tenth is Kes'aravali, sprung from the Gana Pingala. 
And the eleventh is Malini by name, the daughter of Kam- 
bala, and the twelfth is Mandaramala, the daughter of a 
Vasu. They are all heavenly nymphs, born from Apsarases, 
and when I was married they were taken to the first under- 
world, and I must bestow them on you, in order that I may 
be always with them. And this I promised them, for I love 
them. I spoke too to my father, but he refused to give 
them, out of regard for his brother." 

When Siiryaprabha heard this, he said to her with a 
downcast expression : " My beloved, you are very mag- 
nanimous, but how can I do this ? " When Siiryaprabha 
said this to her, Mahallika said in anger : "In my presence 
you marry others, but my friends you do not desire, separ- 
ated from whom I shall not be happy even for one moment." 
When she said this to him, Siiryaprabha was pleased, and 
consented to do it. Then that daughter of Prahlada im- 
mediately took him to the first underworld and gave him 
those twelve maidens. Then Siiryaprabha married those 


heavenly nymphs in order, commencing with Amritaprabha. 
And, after asking Mahallika's leave, he had them taken by 
Prabhasa to the fourth underworld and concealed there. And 
Suryaprabha himself went there secretly with Mahallika, but 
he went to the hall of Prahlada, as before, to take his meals. 

There the King of the Asuras said to Sunitha and Maya : 
" Go all of you to visit the two goddesses, Diti and Danu." 
They said : " So be it." And immediately Maya, Sunitha 
The Goddesses an( * Suryaprabha left the lower world, accom- 
Diti and panied by the Asuras in order of precedence, and 
Danu ascended the chariot Bhutasana, which came to 

them on being thought of, and repaired to the hermitage of 
Kas*yapa, situated on a ridge of Mount Sumeru. There they 
were announced by hermits who showed them all courtesy, 
and after entering they beheld in due order Diti and Danu 
together, and bowed their heads at their feet. And those 
two mothers of the Asuras cast a favourable look upon them 
and their followers, and after shedding tears and kissing 
them joyfully upon their heads, 1 and bestowing their blessing 
upon them, said to Maya : " Our eyes are to-day blessed, 
having seen this thy son Sunitha restored to life, and we 
consider thee one whose merits have procured him good 
fortune. And beholding with heartfelt satisfaction this pros- 
perous Sumundika, born again in the character of Surya- 
prabha, possessed of heavenly beauty and of extraordinary 
virtue, destined to be successful and glorious, abounding 
in unmistakable marks of future greatness, we openly adore 
him here with our bodies. Therefore rise up quickly, 
darlings, and visit Prajapati here, our husband ; from be- 
holding him you shall obtain success in your objects, and his 
advice will be helpful to you in your affairs." 

When Maya and the others received this order from the 
goddesses, they went as they were commanded, and beheld 
the hermit Kas*yapa in a heavenly hermitage. He was like 
pure molten gold in appearance, full of brightness, the refuge 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers remark that sampadad is "wohl 
fehlerhajl." A MS. in the Sanskrit College has sadarad. But this seems im- 
probable with sadare in the line above. Babu S. C. Mukhopadhyaya suggests 
sammadad, which I have adopted. This is confirmed by the D. text. n.m.p. 


of the gods, wearing matted locks yellow as flame, irresistible 
as fire. And, approaching, they fell at his feet with their 
followers, in order ; then the hermit gave them the customary 
blessing, and after making them sit down, out of delight at 
their arrival, said to them : "I am exceedingly glad that I 
have beheld all you my sons ; thou art to be praised, Maya, 
who, without diverging from the good path, art a treasure- 
house of all sciences ; and thou art fortunate, Sunitha, who 
hast recovered thy life though lost ; and thou, O Suryaprabha, 
art fortunate, who art destined to be the king of the sky- 
goers. So you must all continue now in the path of righteous- 
ness, and hearken to my word, by means of which you will 
obtain the highest fortune, and taste perpetual joys, and by 
which you will not again to conquered by your enemies ; for 
it was those Asuras, that transgressed law, that became a 
prey for the discus of the vanquisher of Mura. And those 
Asuras, Sunitha, that were slain by the gods are incarnate 
again as human heroes. He who was thy younger brother, 
Sumundika, has been born again now as Suryaprabha. And 
the other Asuras, who were your companions, have been 
born as his friends ; for instance, the great Asura named 
Sambara has been born as his minister Prahasta. And the 
Asura named Tri^iras has been born as his minister named 
Siddhartha. And the Danava named Vatapi is now his 
minister Prajnadhya. And the Danava named Uluka is 
now his companion named Subhankara, and his present 
friend Vitabhiti was in a former birth a foe of the gods, 
named Kala. And this Bhasa, his minister, is an incarna- 
tion of a Daitya by name Vishaparvan, and his minister 
Prabhasa is an incarnation of a Daitya named Prabala. 
He was a great-hearted Daitya, with a frame composed of 
jewels, who, when asked by the gods, though they were his 
enemies, hewed his body to pieces, and so passed into another 
state of existence, and from that body of his all the jewels 
in the world have originated. The goddess Durga. was so 
pleased at that that she granted him a boon, accompanied 
by another body, by virtue of which he has now been born as 
Prabhasa, mighty, and hard to be overcome by his enemies. 
And those Danavas, who formerly existed under the names 


of Sunda and Upasunda, 1 have been born as his ministers 
Sarvadamana and Bhayankara. And the two Asuras, who 
used to be called Vikataksha and Hayagriva, have been 
born as his two ministers here, Sthirabuddhi and Maha- 
buddhi. And the others connected with him, these fathers- 
in-law, ministers and friends of his, are also incarnations of 
Asuras, who have often vanquished Indra and his crew. So 
your party has again gradually acquired strength. Be of good 
courage ; if you do not depart from the right you shall 
obtain the highest prosperity." 

While the Rishi Kas*yapa was saying this, all his wives, 
the daughters of Daksha, headed by Aditi, arrived at the 
time of the midday sacrifice. When they had given their 
The Arrival blessing to Maya and the others, who bowed 
of Indra before them, and had performed their husband's 
orders for the day, Indra also came there with the Loka- 
palas 2 to visit the sage. And Indra, after saluting the 
feet of Kasyapa and his wives, and after having been 
saluted by Maya and the others, looking angrily at Surya- 
prabha, said to Maya : " This is the boy, I suppose, that is 
desirous of becoming emperor of the Vidyadharas ; how is 
he satisfied with so very little, and why does he not desire 
the throne of heaven ? " 

Wrien Maya heard this, he said : " The throne of heaven 
was decreed to you by Siva, and to him was appointed the 
sovereignty of the sky-goers." 3 When Indra heard this, he 
said, with an angry laugh : " This would be but a small 
matter for this comely shape of a youth who is furnished 
with such auspicious marks." Then Maya answered him : 
" If Srutasarman deserves the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas, 
then surely this shape of his deserves the throne of heaven." 

When Maya said this, Indra was angry, and rose and 
uplifted his thunderbolt, and then the hermit Kasyapa made 
a threatening noise of anger. And Diti and the other wives 
became enraged, and their faces were red with anger, and 
they loudly cried : " Shame ! " Then' Indra, afraid of being 

1 See Vol. II, pp. \:\-\ \n. n.m.p. 

2 The eight Lokapalas, or guardians of the world. 

3 I.e. the Vidyadharas. 


cursed, withdrew his weapon and sat down with bowed head. 
Then Indra fell at the feet of that hermit Kasyapa, the sire of 
gods and Asuras, who was surrounded by his wives, and after 
striving to appease him, made the following representation, 
with hands folded in supplication: " O reverend one, this 
Suryaprabha is attempting to take away from Srutasarman 
the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas, which I bestowed on him. 
And Maya is exerting himself in every way to procure it for 

When Prajapati heard that, he said, seated with Diti and 
Danu : "Thou lovest Srutasarman, () Indra, but Siva loves 
Suryaprabha, and his love cannot be fruitless, and he long 
ago ordered Maya to do what he has done. So what is all 
this outcry that thou art making against Maya ; what 
offence has he committed herein ? For he is one who abides 
in the path of right, wise, discreet, submissive to his spiritual 
superior. The fire of my wrath would have reduced thee to 
ashes, if thou hadst committed that sin, and thou hast no 
power against him. Dost thou not recognise his might ? " 

When that hermit with his wives said that, Indra was 
abashed with shame and fear, and Aditi said : " What is 
that Srutasarman like ? Let him be brought here and shown 
to us." 

When Indra heard this, he sent Matali l and had brought 
there immediately that Srutasarman, the prince of the sky- 
goers. The wives of Kasyapa, when they had seen that 
Srutasarman, who prostrated himself, looked at Suryaprabha, 
and said to the hermit Kasyapa : " Which of these two is 
the richer in beauty and in auspicious marks ? ' Then that 
chief of hermits said : " Srutasarman is not even equal to 
his minister Prabhasa ; much less is he equal to that incom- 
parable one. For this Suryaprabha is furnished with various 
heavenly marks of such excellence that, if he were to make 
the attempt, he would even find the throne of Indra easy to 
obtain.'" When they heard that speech of Kasyapa's, all 
there approved it, and said : " So it is." 

Then the hermit gave Maya a boon in the hearing of great 
Indra : ' Because, my son, thou didst remain undaunted, 

1 His charioteer. 


even when Indra lifted up his weapon to strike, therefore 
thou shalt remain unharmed by the plagues of sickness and 
old age, which are strong as the thunderbolt. Moreover, 
these two magnanimous sons of thine, who resemble thee, 
shall always be invincible by all their enemies. And this 
son of mine, Suvasakumara, resembling in splendour the 
autumn moon, shall come when thou thinkest of him, and 
assist thee in the night of calamity." 

When the hermit had thus spoken, his wives and the 
Rishis and the Lokapalas in the same way gave boons to 
them, to Maya and the rest, in the assembly. Then Aditi 
said to Indra : " Desist, Indra, from thy improper conduct ; 
conciliate Maya, for thou hast seen to-day the fruit of discreet 
conduct, in that he has obtained boons from me." 

When Indra heard that, he seized Maya by the hand and 
propitiated him, and Srutas*arman, eclipsed by Suryaprabha, 
was like the moon in the day. Then the king of the gods 
immediately prostrated himself before Ka^yapa, his spiritual 
guide, and returned as he came, accompanied by all the 
Lokapalas ; and Maya and the others, by the order of that 
excellent hermit, departed from his hermitage to meet 
success in their proposed undertaking. 



On page 22 we were told that magic art was founded on Samkhya and 
Yoga, and could be described as the " supernatural power, and the independ- 
ence of knowledge, the dominion over matter that is characterised by lightness 
and other mystic properties." 

Thus in a sentence we see the connecting link between philosophy and 
fiction, and we realise to what an extent magic has been enhanced by having 
such a philosophy for its foundation. If we briefly look into the teachings 
of this philosophy we shall see how easy and natural it was for the Hindu 
story-tellers to reach heights of imagination undreamt of by those of other 
nations, for they already had living examples of the strange powers acquired 
by Yoga practices. What some of these practices were we have already seen 
in Vol. I, p. 79a 1 . These, however, are largely examples of asceticism which 
can be witnessed any day in India, and many of them are, of course, merely 
pretexts for obtaining money. 

But if we look at the original teachings of the Yogasutras of Patanjali, 
and still more the later Yoga teachings, we shall see how supernatural powers, 
such as those described in this and the preceding chapter of the Ocean of 
Story, are not in themselves a means of obtaining perfection, but form 
merely one stage in a progressive course to the final goal of salvation and 

In the present work, however, the greatest stress must be laid upon the 
magical technique of the Yoga philosophy, because to be king of the Vidya- 
dharas, or magic-science holders, was the aim and destiny of our hero, 
Naravahanadatta. Moreover, we are continually reading of men practising 
asceticism in order to obtain some magic power, which, when obtained, may 
be used either for good or bad purposes. Sometimes a certain magic power is 
awarded by a deity pleased at the asceticism performed in his or her name ; 
such a power, as we have already seen (Vol. II, p. 212, 212m 1 ) is termed a 
v'tdya i.e. "science" or "art" hence, of course, the name of the immortal 
beings who hold these "arts" by divine right the Vidyadharas. The 
particular vidya with which we are concerned here is that of entering another's 
body. It is known by various names, such as parasarira-avesa, parapvrapravesa , 
parakdyapravesa ; the usual terms in the Katha are dehantara-avesa or any ad c- 
hapravesako yogah. 

There are two distinct ways of entering the body of another, which we 
might distinguish as active and passive. 

The active method is by far the commoner in folk-lore : a body is found 
abandoned, and another (often an enemy) enters into it, leaving the original 
occupant bodiless. There is, of course, the odd chance of the bodiless man 
finding the abandoned body of the other man and perforce entering it, and 
thus the two continue to dwell in each other's bodies. 

Readers will remember the incident of King Nanda in the Story of 
Vararuchi, the first of our collection. Here (Vol. I, p. 37 et sea.) Indradatta 


enters the body of the dead king and rules the kingdom before it is known 
that the real Nanda is dead. The minister Sakatala, however, suspects the 
truth and manages to destroy Indradatta's vacated body, thus compelling 
him to remain in the dead Nanda's body permanently. Cf. Tawney's 
translation of PrabandhacitUamani, p. 170. (In his article on this motif in 
Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., vol. lvi, 1917, p. 9, Bloomfield has, by mistake, referred 
to p. 271.) 

In other cases, a dead body hanging from a stake, or lying on a pyre in a 
burning-ground, is animated by some mischievous Vetala or Pisacha, who uses 
this as a means to achieve some nefarious object of his own, or merely to frighten 
the unwary soul who has wandered into the burning-ground. Such incidents 
usually lead to most gruesome and thrilling adventures, and (as we shall see in 
a later volume) sometimes form the frame-story of an important collection 
like the Vctdla-Panchanimsatikd. 

The passive method is what we might call the philosophical aspect, in 
which a man merely transfers his "mind-stuff" into that of another by 
concentration a kind of hypnotism. It is obvious what a much better folk- 
lore motif the former makes, although the latter has also good possibilities. 
(See e.g. Mahabharata, XIII, xl et seq., and to a lesser extent, XII, ccxc, and 
XV, xxvi.) 

In his interesting article "On the Art of Entering Another's Body," 
already referred to, Prof. Bloomfield gives numerous references to, and ex- 
tracts from, works in Sanskrit literature in which the motif under discussion 

A good example is found in the Kathdkoca (Tawney, p. 39 et seq.). Here 
Prince Amarachandra, wishing to test the extent of his wife's love, abandons 
his body (having recently been taught the art in return for a meritorious 
act), thus appearing dead. The faithful queen immediately prepares to ascend 
the funeral pyre, when the Prince reanimates his own body. 

The most important of all such stories are those which concern either 
King Mukunda or Vikrama. The chief parts are played by a devoted queen, 
a hunchback and a parrot. The outline of this cycle of stories is very briefly 
as follows : By a clever trick a hunchback manages to enter the abandoned 
body of the king, who has entered that of a dead Brahman. The queen 
suspects the truth owing to the false king's bad behaviour when in her 
presence, and finally obtains conclusive evidence on the point. After con- 
ferring with the chief minister she arranges a trap by means of a parrot which 
has just died. Lamentations fill the palace, and the queen calls aloud for 
some magician to make her pet live again, even if only for a short time. 
The false king, through conceit at his powers, at once abandons the king's 
body and enters that of the parrot. This is the moment the queen has been 
waiting for. She calls her husband, who is still in the dead Brahman's 
body. He immediately abandons it and re-enters his own, leaving the 
hunchback, we may suppose, the choice of his own body, the parrot or the 
dead Brahman. 

This story also occurs (though not so fully) in Bloomfield's Life and 
Stories of Pdrcvandtha, pp. 74-83. 


For variants see Frere, Old Deccan Days, p. 102 et seq. ; J. H. Knowles, 
Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs, p. 98 ; Anaryan (i.e. F. F. Arbuthnot), Early 
Ideas, p. 131 et seq. ; Butterworth, Zig-Zag Journeys in India, p. 167 ; E. J. W. 
Gibb, History of the Forty Vezirs, p. 313; Stein and Grierson, Hatim's Tales, 
p. xxxi ; and E. Cosquin, Etudes Folkloriques, 1922, p. 520 et seq. See also 
Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 288, for several variants to the tale as it appears in 
Les Mille et un Jours (vol. ii, p. 81, of the 1783 Lille edition). n.m.p. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 

over the Vidyddharas 

THEN Maya and Sunitha and Suryaprabha, all of 
them, left that hermitage of Kasyapa and reached 
the junction of the Chandrabhaga and Airavati, 
where the kings, the friends and connections of Suryaprabha, 
were awaiting him. And the kings who were there, when 
they saw Suryaprabha arrived, rose up weeping in despair, 
eager to die. Suryaprabha, thinking that their grief arose 
from not seeing Chandraprabha, told them the whole occur- 
rence as it happened. Then, as they still remained despond- 
ent, he questioned them, and they reluctantly related how 
his wives had been carried off by Srutagarman. And they 
also told him how they were preparing to commit suicide 
through grief at that outrage, when they were forbidden by 
a heavenly voice. Then Suryaprabha in wrath made this 
vow : " Even if Brahma and all the other gods protect 
Sruta^arman, I will certainly overthrow him, a villain who 
carries off the wives of others, addicted to treacherous 
insolence." And having made this vow, he appointed a 
moment fixed by the astrologers on the seventh day for 
marching to his overthrow. 

Then Maya, perceiving that he was determined, and had 
made up his mind to conquer his enemy, again confirmed 
him with his speech, and said to him : "If you really have 
made up your mind, then I will tell you this : it was I that 
on that occasion carried off your wives by magic, and I 
placed them in the underworld, thinking that thus you 
would set about your victorious expedition in an impetuous 
manner, for a fire does not of itself burn so fiercely as it 
does when fanned by a breeze. So come, let us go to the 
underworld; I will show you those wives of yours." 

When they heard that speech of Maya's, they all rejoiced, 
VOL. iv. 49 d 


and they entered again by the same opening as before, 
and went to the fourth underworld, Maya leading the way. 
There Maya brought those wives of Suryaprabha 's out of 
a dwelling-house and delivered them over to him. Then 
Suryaprabha, after receiving those wives, and the others, 
the daughters of the Asuras, went by the advice of Maya to 
visit Prahlada. He, having heard from Maya that Surya- 
prabha had obtained boons, and being desirous of proving 
him, took up his weapon and said with feigned anger as he 
bowed before him : " I have heard, wicked one, that you have 
carried off the twelve maidens captured by my brother, so I 
will slay you now ; behold me." 

When Suryaprabha heard that, he said to him, without 
changing countenance : " My body is at your disposal ; 
punish me, for I have acted improperly." When he said 
this, Prahlada laughed, and said to him : " As far as I have 
tested you, you have not a drop of pride in you. Choose a 
boon. I am pleased with you." 

When Suryaprabha heard this, he consented, and chose 
as his boon devotion to his superiors and to Siva. Then, 
all being satisfied, Prahlada gave to Suryaprabha a second 
daughter of his, named Yamini, and that prince of the 
Asuras gave him two of his sons as allies. Then Surya- 
prabha went with all the rest into the presence of Amila. 
He too was pleased on hearing that he had obtained boons, 
and gave him Sukhavati, his second daughter, and two of 
his sons to help him. 

Then Suryaprabha remained there during those days, 
accompanied by his wives, inducing other kings of the Asuras 
to make common cause with him. And he heard, in the 
company of Maya and the others, that the three wives of 
Sunltha and his own wives, the daughters of the kings, had 
all become pregnant, and when asked what they longed for, 
they all said, to see that great battle; and the Asura Maya 
rejoiced at it, perceiving that the Asuras who were slain in 
old time had been conceived again in them. "This," said 
he, " is the cause of their desire." 

So six days passed, but on the seventh Suryaprabha and 
the others, with their wives and all, set out from the under- 


world. Delusive portents, which their rivals displayed to 
impede them, were dissipated by Suvasakumara, who came 
when thought of. Then they anointed Ratnaprabha, the 
The Gathering son of Chandraprabha, king of the earth, and 
of the Forces ascended the chariot Bhtitasana, 1 and went all 
of them, by the advice of Maya, to a wood of ascetics on 
the bank of the eastern Ganges, the dwelling of Sumeru, 
the King of the Vidyadharas. There Sumeru received them 
with all honour, as they had come on a friendly visit, having 
been told the whole story by Maya, and remembering the 
previous command of Siva. And while Chandraprabha and 
the others were in that place, they summoned each of them 
all their own forces, and also their relations and friends. 
First came those princes, the sons of the fathers-in-law of 
Siiryaprabha, who had acquired from Maya the required 
sciences, eager for the fray. They were sixteen in number, 
headed by Haribhata, and each was followed by a force 
consisting of a myriad of chariots and two myriads of 
footmen. After them came the Daityas and Danavas, true 
to their agreement, brothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, friends 
and other connections of Siiryaprabha. 

Hrishtaroman, and Mahamaya, and Sinhadamshtra and 
Prakampana, and Tantukachchha and Duraroha, and 
Sumaya, and Vajrapanjara, and Dhumaketu, and Prama- 
thana, and the Danava Vikataksha, and many others came 
from as low down as the seventh underworld. One came 
with seven myriads of chariots, another with eight, another 
with six, and another with three, and the least powerful of 
all arrived with one myiard. One brought three hundred 
thousand footmen, another two hundred thousand, another 
one hundred thousand, and the pettiest potentate of all fifty 
thousand. And each brought a corresponding number of 
horses and elephants. And another innumerable host came, 
belonging to Maya and Sunltha. And Suryaprabha's own 
countless army also arrived, and those of Vasudatta and the 
other kings, and that of Sumeru. 

Then the Asura Maya addressed this question to the 

1 I read samarudha-Bhiitasana-vimanakah. This is confirmed by the 

D. text. N.M.p. 


hermit Suvasakumara, who came to him when thought of, 
in the presence of Siiryaprabha and the others : " Reverend 
sir, we cannot review this army here because it is scattered ; 
so tell me where we could get a view of the whole army 
at once extended in long array." The hermit answered : 
" Not more than a yqjana from here there is a place called 
Kalapagrama ; go there and behold it drawn up in line." 

When the hermit said that, all the princes went with him 
and Sumeru to Kalapagrama. There they made the armies 
of the Asuras and the kings take up their positions, and 
The Army going to an elevated spot they reviewed them 
w reviewed separately. Then Sumeru said : " Srutasarman 
has a larger force, for he has under him a hundred and one 
chiefs of the Vidyadharas. And every single one of these is 
lord of two and thirty kings. Never mind ! I will draw some 
away and make them join you. So let us go in the morning 
to the place named Valmika. For to-morrow is the eighth 
lunar day of the black fortnight of Phalguna, which is a high 
day. And on that day there is produced there a sign to show 
the future emperor, and for that reason the Vidyadharas are 
going there in a great hurry on that day." 

When Sumeru gave that opinion with regard to the army, 
they spent that day in accordance with the law, and went on 
the morrow to Valmika in chariots with their army. There 
they encamped with shouting forces on the southern plateau 
of the Himalayas, and beheld many Vidyadhara kings that 
had arrived. And those Vidyadharas had lighted fires there 
in fire-cavities, and were engaged in sacrificing, and some 
were occupied with muttering prayers. Then, where Surya- 
prabha made a fire- cavity, the fire burst forth of itself, owing 
to the power of his magic science. 

1 In the B. text we are not told what the sign is, but on page 54 we 
discover it was a quiver, which first appeared in the shape of a serpent. In 
the D. text, however, the quiver is actually mentioned, the reading being 
tunam instead of turnam, and in the next line we find sainyasamvidhino instead 
of sainye, suvidhina. Thus in translating the present text we should insert 
"quiver" after the word "emperor," and continue with: "After Sumeru had 
spoken thus, they spent that day with the arrangement of the army, and 
went on the morrow to Valmika in chariots with the army." This is according 
to Speyer, op. cit., pp. 117, 118. n.m.p. 


When Sumeru saw it he was pleased, but envy arose in 
the breasts of the Vidyadharas at the sight. Then one said 
to him : " For shame, Sumeru ! Why do you abandon 
your rank as a Vidyadhara and follow this inhabitant of 
earth named Suryaprabha ? " When Sumeru heard this, 
he angrily rebuked him. And when Suryaprabha asked 
his name, he said : " There is a Vidyadhara of the name of 
Bhima, and Brahma loved his wife at will ; from this con- 
nection he sprang. Since he sprang from Brahma in a secret 
way, he is called Brahmagupta. Hence he speaks in a style 
characteristic of his birth." 

After saying this, Sumeru also made a fire-cavity. And 
in it Suryaprabha sacrificed with him to the God of Fire. 
And in a moment there suddenly rose from the hole in the 
ground an enormous and terrible serpent. In his arrogance 
that chief of the Vidyadharas, named Brahmagupta, by 
whom Sumeru was blamed, ran to seize it. That serpent 
thereupon sent forth a hissing wind from its mouth, which 
carried Brahmagupta a hundred feet, and flung him down 
with such violence that he fell like a withered leaf. Then a 
chief of the Vidyadharas, named Tejahprabha, ran to seize 
it ; he was flung away by it in the same manner. Then a 
lord of the Vidyadharas, named Dushtadamana, approached 
it ; he was hurled back like the others by that blast from its 
mouth. Then a prince of the sky-goers, named ViriipaSakti, 
approached it ; he too was flung away as easily as a blade 
of grass by that breath. Then two kings, named Angaraka 
and Vijrimbhaka, ran towards it together, and it flung them 
to a distance with its breath. Thus all the princes of the 
Vidyadharas were flung away one after another, and rose 
up with difficulty, with their limbs bruised with stones. 

Then Srutasarman, in his pride, went forward to seize 
the serpent, but it hurled him back with the blast of its 
breath, like the others. He fell at a short distance, and rose 
up again, and ran again towards it, when it carried him a 
greater distance with its breath and flung him to earth. 
Then Srutasarman rose up abashed, with bruised limbs, and 
Sumeru sent Suryaprabha to lay hold of the serpent. And 
then the Vidyadharas ridiculed him, saying : " Look 1 he 


too is trying to catch the snake ! Oh, these men, thoughtless 
as monkeys, imitate whatever they see another doing." 

Even while they were mocking him, Suryaprabha went 
and seized the serpent, whose mouth was quiet, and dragged 
it out of the hole. But that moment the serpent became a 
Suryaprabha priceless quiver, and a rain of flowers fell from 
obtains the the sky on his head. And a heavenly voice 
Magic Quiver SOU nded aloud : " Suryaprabha, thine is this 
imperishable quiver equal to a magic power, so take it." 
Then the Vidyadharas were cast down, Suryaprabha seized 
the quiver, and Maya and Sunitha and Sumeru were 

Then Srutas*arman departed, accompanied by the host 
of the Vidyadharas, and his ambassador came to Surya- 
prabha and said : " The august Lord Srutas"arman thus 
commands : ' Give me that quiver, if you value your life.' : 
Then Suryaprabha said : " Ambassador, go and tell him 
this : ' Your body shall become a quiver, bristling all over 
with my arrows.' " When the ambassador heard this 
speech, he turned and went away, and all laughed at that 
furious message of Srutasarman's, 1 and Sumeru, joyfully 
embracing Suryaprabha, said to him : "I am delighted that 
that speech of Siva's has without doubt been fulfilled, for 
now that you have acquired this excellent quiver you have 
practically acquired sovereign empire ; so come and obtain 
now a splendid bow with calm intrepidity." 

When they heard Sumeru say this, and he himself led 
the way, they all, Suryaprabha and the others, went to the 
mountain Hemakiita. And on the north side of it they 
reached a beautiful lake named Manasa, which seemed to 
have been the first assay of the Creator's skill when making 
the sea, which eclipsed with its full-blown golden lotuses, 
shaken by the wind, the faces of the heavenly nymphs sport- 
ing in the water. And while they were contemplating the 
beauty of the lake, Srutas*arman and all the others came there. 

And then Suryaprabha made a sacrifice with lotuses 
and ghee, and immediately a terrible cloud rose up from that 

1 Reading rabhasokti for nabhasokti. Perhaps siddhimitam in //. 78a should 
be siddhamidam. 


lake. That cloud filled the heaven and poured down a great 
rain, and among the raindrops fell from the cloud a black 
serpent. By the order of Sumeru, Suryaprabha rose up 
The Magic and seized that serpent with a firm grasp, though 
Bow it resisted ; thereupon it became a bow. When 

it became a bow a second snake fell from the cloud, 
through fear of the fiery poison of which all the sky-goers 
fled. That serpent too, when seized by Suryaprabha, like 
the first, became a bow-string, and the cloud quickly dis- 
appeared. And after a rain of flowers a voice was heard 
from heaven : " Suryaprabha, you have won this bow, 
Amitabala, and this string which cannot be cut ; so take 
these priceless treasures." And Suryaprabha took that 
excellent bow with the string. Sruta^arman, for his part, 
went despondent to his wood of ascetics, and Suryaprabha 
and Maya and the others were delighted. 

Then they asked Sumeru about the origin of the bow, 
and he said : " Here there is a great and marvellous wood 
of bamboo canes " ; whatever bamboos are cut from it and 
thrown into this lake become great and wonderful bows ; 
and these bows have been acquired by several of the gods 
before yourself, and by Asuras and Gandharvas, and dis- 
tinguished Vidyadharas. They have various names, but the 
bows appropriated to emperors are all called Amitabala, 
and were in old time deposited in the lake by the gods. 
And they are obtained, through the favour of Siva, with these 
exertions, by certain men of virtuous conduct destined to 
be emperors. Hence it comes that Suryaprabha has to-day 
procured this great bow, and these companions of his shall 
procure bows suited to them. For they, being heroes who 
have acquired the sciences, are appropriate recipients for 
them, for they are still procured by worthy men, as is right." 

When the companions of Suryaprabha, Prabhasa and the 
others, heard this speech of Sumeru's they went to the bam- 
boo grove, and after defeating the King Chandradatta, who 
guarded it, they brought the bamboos and threw them into 
the lake. And these heroic men, by fasting on the bank of 
the lake, and muttering prayers, and sacrificing, obtained 

1 See Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 113. n.m.p. 


bows in seven days. When they returned and told their 
adventure, Suryaprabha returned with them and Maya 
and the others to that wood of ascetics, in which Sumeru 

Then Sumeru said to him : " It is strange that your 
friends have conquered Chandradatta, the king of the 
bamboo wood, though he is invincible. He possesses a 
science called the bewildering science ; for that reason he 
is hard to conquer. Surely he must have been keeping it 
to use against a more important enemy. For this reason he 
did not employ it against these companions of yours on the 
present occasion, for it can succeed only once in his hands, 
not repeatedly. For he employed it once against his spiritual 
preceptor to try its force ; thereupon he laid upon him this 
curse. So this matter should be thought upon, for the might 
of sciences is hard to overcome, and for that reason you should 
consult the revered Maya. What can I say in his presence ? 
Of what avail is a candle in the face of the sun ? " 

When Sumeru had said this to Suryaprabha, Maya said : 
" Sumeru has told you the truth in few words. Listen to 
this which I now say : From undeveloped matter there 
spring in this world various powers and subordinate powers. 
Among them the sound expressed by Anusvara arises from 
the power of breathing, and becomes a spell of force in magic 
sciences, when accompanied with the doctrine of the highest 
truth. And of those sciences which deal with spells, and 
which are acquired by supernatural knowledge, or austerity, 
or the holy command of holy men, the power is hard to resist. 
So, my son, you have obtained all the sciences except two, 
in which you are deficient namely, the science of bewilder- 
ing and that of counteracting. But Yajnavalkya knows 
them; therefore go and ask him to bestow them on you." 

When thus advised by Maya, Suryaprabha went into the 
presence of that Rishi. 

That hermit made him dwell for seven days in the serpent 
lake, and ordered him to perform austerities for three days 
in the midst of the fire. And he gave him the bewildering 
power when he had endured for seven days the bite of the 
snakes, and the counteracting power when he had resisted 


for three days the force of the fire. 1 And when he had 
obtained these sciences that hermit ordered him again to 
enter the fire-cavity, and he consented and did it. And 
The Two immediately there was bestowed on Suryaprabha 
Sciences a chariot in the form of a white lotus, that moved 

at the will of the possessor and travelled through the air, 
which was furnished with a hundred and eight 2 wings, and 
the same number of dwellings, and constructed of precious 
jewels of various kinds. And a voice from heaven addressed 
that resolute one : " You have obtained this chariot suitable 
for an emperor, and you must place your wives in all these 
dwellings, in order that they may be safe from your enemies." 
Then he, bending low, addressed this petition to his pre- 
ceptor, Yajnavalkya : " Tell me what fee I am to pay." The 
hermit answered him : " Remember me at the time when 
you are anointed emperor ; this in itself will be sufficient 
fee ; in the meanwhile go to your army." Then he bowed 
before that hermit, and ascended that chariot and went to 
his army, that was encamped in the place where Sumeru 
dwelt. There he told his story, and Maya and the others, 
with Sunitha and Sumeru, congratulated him, now that he 
had obtained a magic chariot. 

Then Sunitha called to mind that Suvasakumara, and 
he came and said to Maya and the others, with the kings : 
" Suryaprabha has obtained a chariot and all the magic 
sciences ; so why do you even now remain indifferent about 
conquering your enemies ? " When Maya heard that, he 
said : " Reverend sir, you have spoken rightly, but first let 
an ambassador be sent and let policy be employed." When 
Maya said this, the hermit's son said : " So be it ! What 
harm can this do ? Let this Prahasta be sent. He is dis- 
cerning, eloquent, and understands the nature of business 
and occasions, and he is stern and enduring ; he possesses 
all the qualities of an ambassador." All approved this 
speech of his, and after giving Prahasta instructions they 
sent him off as ambassador to Srutaarman. 

1 In the MS. lent me from the Sanskrit College I find sodhahidansasya 
and visodhavahnes. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 242n*. n.m.p. 


When he had gone, Suryaprabha said to all his followers : 
" Hear the strange, wonderful vision that I have had I 
remember I saw, toward the end of last night, that we were 
STtryaprabhas all carried away by a great stream of water, and 
Dream while we were swept away we kept dancing ; we 

did not sink at all. Then that stream was turned back by 
a contrary breeze. Then a certain man of fiery brightness 
drew us out and threw us into the fire, and we were not 
burned by the fire. Then a cloud rained a stream of blood, 
and that blood filled the whole sky ; then my sleep came to 
an end with the night." 

When he said this, Suvasakumara said to him : " This 
dream indicates success preceded by a struggle. The stream 
of water is battle ; it is due to valour that you did not sink, 
but danced, and were carried along by the water ; the wind, 
that turned back the water for you, is some saviour to whom 
men resort for protection ; and the man of fiery brightness, 
who drew you out of it, is Siva in bodily form. And that he 
threw you into the fire means that you are cast into a great 
war ; and that the clouds arose, that means the returning 
again of fear ; and the rain of a stream of blood, that means 
the destroying of fear ; and the filling of all the quarters 
with blood, that means great success for you. Now dreams 
are of many kinds, 1 the rich- sensed, the true- sensed and the 
senseless. A dream which quickly reveals its meaning is 
called rich- sensed, a dream in which a propitious god gives 
a command is called true- sensed, and one which is brought 
about by deep meditation and anxiety they call senseless. 
For a man under the influence of sleep, with mind bewildered 
by the quality of passion and withdrawn from outward 
objects, sees a dream on account of various causes. And it 
depends upon the time when it is seen whether it is fulfilled 
soon or late ; but this kind of dream which is seen at the end 
of the night is quickly fulfilled." 2 When Suryaprabha and his 
companions heard this from the hermit's son, they were much 
pleased, and, rising up, they performed the duties of the day. 

1 Reading aneko dhanyartho. 

* Cf. Odyssey, iv, 841, o>9 ol Ivapyts ovupov lirio-crxTo wurhs a/xokyy, where 
some suppose cuxoAyte to mean the four hours before daybreak. 


In the meanwhile Prahasta returned from the Court of 
Sruta^arman, and, when asked by Maya and the others, he 
described his adventures : "I went rapidly hence to the 
Prahasta CU T named Trikiitapataka, situated on the 
relates his mountain Trikiita, built of gold. And being 
Adventures introduced by the doorkeeper, I entered, and be- 
held Srutas*arman surrounded by various Vidyadhara kings, 
by his father Triktitasena, and also by Vikramagakti and 
Dhurandhara and other heroes, Damodara among them. 
And sitting down, I said to Srutas*arman : ' I am sent to 
visit you by the august Stiryaprabha ; and he commissioned 
me to give you this command : " By the favour of Siva I 
have obtained precious sciences, and wives and allies. So 
come and join my army, together with those chiefs of the 
sky-goers. I am the slayer of those that oppose, but the 
saviour of those that bend. And as for your carrying 
off from her relations * the maiden Kamachudamani, the 
daughter of Sunitha, who ought not to be approached, set 
her at liberty, for that is a deed of shame." ' When I said 
this, they all exclaimed in wrath : * Who is he that sends 
us this haughty command ? Let him give commands to 
mortals, but who is he compared with Vidyadharas ? Since 
he assumes such airs, though he is a miserable mortal, he 
should be destroyed.' When I heard that, I said : ' What, 
what ? Who is he ? Listen : he has been created by Siva 
as your future emperor. If he is a mortal, then mortals have 
attained divinity, and the Vidyadharas have seen the valour 
of that mortal ; moreover, if he comes here we shall soon see 
which party will be destroyed.' When I said this in wrath, 
that assembly was disturbed. And Srutagarman and Dhur- 
andhara rushed forward to slay me. And I said to them : 
* Come now, let me see your valour ! ' Then Damodara rose 
up and restrained them, exclaiming : * Peace ! An ambassador 
and a Brahman must not be slain.' Then Vikrama^akti said 
to me : ' Depart, ambassador, for we, like your master, are 
all created by Siva. So let him come, and we will see whether 
we are able to entertain him or not.' When he said this in a 

1 Instead of hrila jilateh the D. text reads hritajflate, "carried off 
stealthily." n.m.p. 


haughty manner, I laughed, and said : ' The swans utter their 
cries in the lotus bower and enjoy themselves much, until 
they see the cloud that comes darkening the heaven.' After 
saying this, I rose up in a contemptuous manner, left the 
court and came here." 

When Maya and the others heard this from Prahasta, 
they were pleased. And they all, Suryaprabha and the rest, 
determined on preparing for battle, and made Prabhasa, the 
impetuous in war, their general. And receiving the command 
from Suvasakumara, they all prepared that day with strict 
vows to consecrate themselves for the combat. 1 

And at night Suryaprabha, as he was lying sleepless, saw 
a wonderful and beautiful maiden enter the chamber, in 
which he was occupying a solitary couch in accordance with 
The Two his vow. She came boldly up to him, who pre- 
VitUors tended to be asleep, with his ministers sleeping 

round him, and said to her confidante, who was with her : 
" If he possesses such glorious beauty when he is asleep, and 
all the graceful motion of his body is still, what must it be, 
my friend, when he is awake ? So let be ! We must not 
wake him up. I have gratified the curiosity of my eyes. 
Why should I fix my heart too fondly on him ? For he will 
have a battle with Srutasarman, and who can say what will 
befall either party in it ? For the feast of battle is for con- 
suming the lives of heroes. And should he not be fortunate, 
we shall have to take some other resolve. 2 And how could 
one like me captivate the soul of a man who, when roaming 
in the air, beheld Kamachudamani ? " 

When she said this, her confidante answered : " Why do 
you say this ? Why, fair one, is it your duty not to allow 
your heart to attach itself to him ? Why should not he, 
the sight of whom captivated the heart of Kamachudamani, 
captivate the heart of any other lady, were she even Arun- 
dhati in bodily presence ? And do you not know that he 
will prosper in fight by the force of science ? And when he 
is emperor you and Kamachudamani and Suprabha, of the 

1 I read cha ranadlkshayam. 

2 The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads tatrasyastu siram tavat, "let him 
succeed in the battle." 


same family, are to be his wives ; so say the holy sages ; and 
in these very days he has married Suprabha. So, how can 
he be unsuccessful in fight ? For the predictions of the sages 
are never falsified. And will you not captivate the heart of 
the man whose heart was captivated by Suprabha ? For 
you, blameless one, exceed her in beauty. And if you hesi- 
tate through regard for your relations, that is not right, for 
good women have no relations but their husbands." 

That excellent maiden, when she heard this speech of 
her confidante's, said : " You have spoken truth, my friend ; 
I need no other relations. And I know my husband will 
conquer in fight by his science. He has obtained jewels 
and sciences, but my mind is grieved because, up to the 
present time, he has not obtained the virtuous herbs. Now 
they are all in a cave of the mountain Chandrapada. But 
they are to be obtained by an emperor possessing virtue. 
So, if he were to go there and procure those mighty drugs, 
it would be well, for his great struggle is nigh at hand, even 

When Stiryaprabha heard this, he flung off all his feigned 
sleep and, rising up, said respectfully to that maiden : 
" Lovely-eyed one, you have shown great favour to me, so 
I will go there ; tell me who you are." When the maiden 
heard that, she was abashed with shame and silent, thinking 
that he had heard all ; but her friend said : " This is a maiden 
named Vilasini, the daughter of Sumeru, the Prince of the 
Vidyadharas, who was desirous of beholding you." When 
her friend said this, Vilasini said to her : " Come, let us go 
now," and went out of the room. 

Then Stiryaprabha woke up his ministers, Prabhasa and 
the rest, and told them of that method of procuring the drugs 
which the lady spoke of. And he sent Prabhasa, a fit person 
to accomplish that, to tell it to Sunitha and Sumeru and Maya. 
And when they came and approved of it, Stiryaprabha, 
accompanied by his ministers, went with them in the night 
to the mountain Chandrapada. And as they were gradually 
advancing the Yakshas, Guhyakas and Kumbhandas, 1 being 
alarmed, rose up to bar their way, armed with numerous 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 202, 203. n.m.p. 


weapons. Some of them Suryaprabha and his friends be- 
wildered with weapons, some they paralysed by science, 
and at last they reached that mountain Chandrapada. 
When they reached the mouth of the cavern in that 
mountain, the Ganas " of Siva prevented them from 
entering, assuming strange, deformed countenances. Then 
Suvasakumara said to Suryaprabha and the others : " We 
must not fight with these, for the revered god Siva might 
be angry. Let us praise that giver of boons by his eight 
thousand names, and that will make the Ganas favourably 
disposed to us." 

Then they all agreed, and praised Siva ; and the Ganas, 
pleased at hearing their master praised, said to them : " We 
abandon this cave to you ; take its potent simples. But 
The Seven Suryaprabha must not enter it himself; let 
Magical Prabhasa enter it, for it will be easy for him to 
Herbs enter." Then that cave, as soon as Prabhasa 

entered it, though before enveloped in darkness, became 
irradiated with light. And four very terrible Rakshasas, who 
were servants there, rose up and, bending before him, said 
to him: "Enter." Then Prabhasa entered, and collected 
those seven divine herbs, and coming out, gave them all to 
Suryaprabha. And that moment a voice was heard from 
heaven, saying : " Suryaprabha, of great power are these 
seven drugs which you have obtained to-day." 

When Suryaprabha and the others heard that, they were 
delighted, and quickly returned to the dwelling of Sumeru 
to greet their army. Then Sunitha asked Suvasakumara : 
" Hermit, why was Prabhasa allowed by the Ganas to enter 
the cave, and not Suryaprabha, and why was he also welcomed 
by the servants ? " When the hermit heard that, he said 
in the hearing of all : " Listen, I will explain this Prabhasa 
is a great benefactor to Suryaprabha, being a second self 
to him ; there is no difference between them. Moreover, no 
one is equal in might and courage to Prabhasa, and this cave 
belongs to him on account of his good deeds in a former life ; 
and listen, I will tell you what sort of a person he was in a 
former existence. 

1 Sec Vol. I., pp. 202, 203. n.m.p. 


62b. The Generous Ddnava Namuchi 

In old times there was an excellent Danava named 
Namuchi, who was devoted to charity and very brave, and 
did not refuse to give anything to anybody that asked, even 
if he were his enemy. He practised asceticism as a drinker 
of smoke for ten thousand years, and obtained as a favour 
from Brahma that he should be proof against iron, stone and 
wood. Then he frequently conquered Indra and made him 
flee, so the Rishi Ka^yapa entreated him and made him 
make peace with the gods. Then the gods and Asuras, as 
their enmity was at an end, deliberated together, and went 
to the ocean of milk and churned it, with the mountain 
Mandara. And as Vishnu and the other gods received 
Lakshmi and other things as their shares, so Namuchi gained 
the horse Uchchaih^ravas ; and the other gods and Asuras 
received other various shares, appointed by Brahma, of 
the things that rose from the sea when churned. And the 
Amrita at last came up at the end of the churning, and the 
gods stole it, so a quarrel again took place between them and 
the Asuras. Then, as fast as the gods killed an Asura in 
their fight with them, the horse Uchchaih&avas immediately 
restored him to life by smelling him. The consequence was 
that the gods found it impossible to conquer the Daityas 
and Danavas. Then Brihaspati said in secret to Indra, who 
was in despair: "There is only one expedient left adopt 
it without delay ; go to Namuchi yourself and ask him for 
that excellent horse, for he will certainly give it to you, 
though you are his enemy, sooner than mar the glory of open- 
handedness, which he has been accumulating since his birth." 

When the preceptor of the gods said that to him, great 
Indra went with the gods and craved as a boon that horse 
Uchchaitisravas from Namuchi. Then the great-hearted 
Namuchi reflected : "I never turn back a suppliant, so I 
will not turn back Indra ; and how can I, as long as I am 
Namuchi, refuse to give him the horse ? If the glory of 
generosity, which I have long been acquiring in the worlds, 
were to wither, what would be the use to me of prosperity 
or life ? " Accordingly he gave the horse to Indra, although 


Sukra warned him not to do it. Then Indra, after he had 
been given the horse, lulled him to security, and as he could 
not be slain by any other weapon, killed him with foam of 
the Ganges, in which he had placed a thunderbolt. Alas! 
terrible in the world is the thirst for enjoyment, carried 
away by which even gods do not slirink from unbecoming 
and infamous conduct. 

When Danu, the mother of Namuchi, heard this, being 
afflicted with grief, she made by virtue of her asceticism a 
solemn resolve for the allaying of her sorrow : " May that 
mighty Namuchi be born again in my womb, and may he 
again become invincible by the gods in battle." Then he 
was again conceived in her womb, and born as an Asura 
composed all of jewels, named Prabala on account of his 
strength. Then he performed asceticism, and satisfying sup- 
pliants even with his life, became successful, and as Prince 
of the Danavas conquered Indra a hundred times. Then the 
gods took counsel together, and came to him, and said to him : 
" By all means give us your body for a human sacrifice." 1 

1 The word which I have translated "human sacrifice" is purushamedha. 
For the prevalence of human sacrifices among all nations of antiquity see 
Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, translated by Stallybrass, vol. i, pp. 44 et 
seq.', see also Tylor's Primitive Culture, vol. ii, pp. 246, 353, S6l, 365. Dr 
Rajendra Lai Mitra, Rai Bahadur, in an essay in the Journ. As. Soc. Bengal 
for 1876, entitled "Human Sacrifices in India," traces the history of the 
practice in India, and incidentally among the principal nations of antiquity. 
The following is his own summary of his conclusions with respect to the 
practice in India: (1) That, looking to the history of human civilisation, and 
the rituals of the Hindus, there is nothing to justify the belief that in ancient 
times the Hindus were incapable of sacrificing human beings to their gods. 
(2) That the Sunah^epha hymns of the Rig-Veda Sanhitd most probably refer 
to a human sacrifice. (3) That the Aitareya Brahmana refers to an actual, and 
not a typical, human sacrifice. (4) That the purushamedha originally required 
the actual sacrifice of men. (5) That the Satapatha Brahmana sanctions human 
sacrifice in some cases, but makes the purushamedha emblematic. (6) That 
the Taittirtya Brahmana enjoins the sacrifice of a man at the Horse Sacrifice. 
(7) That the Purdnas recognise human sacrifices to Chandika, but prohibit the 
purushamedha rite. (8) That the Tantras enjoin human sacrifices to Chandika 
and require that, when human victims are not available, an effigy of a human 
being should be sacrificed to her. Of the sacrifices to Chandika we have 
enough and to spare in the Katha Sarit Sagara. Strange to say, it appears 
that human sacrifices were offered in Greece on Mount Lykaion in Arcadia 


When he heard that, he gave them his own body, although 
they were his enemies ; noble men do not turn their backs 
on a suppliant, but bestow on him even their lives. Then 
that Danava Prabala was cut to pieces by the gods, and he 
has been again born in the world of men with the body of 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 

over the Vidyddharas 

" So Prabhasa was first Namuchi, and then he was 
Prabala, and then he became Prabhasa ; therefore on account 
of his merit he is hard for his enemies to conquer. And that 
cave of herbs, which belonged to that Prabala, is for that 
reason the property of Prabhasa, and is at his command with 
its servants. And below it there is Patala, 1 the mansion of 
Prabala, and in it there are his twelve head wives, beautifully 
adorned, and various jewels, and many kinds of weapons, 
and a wishing- stone, and a hundred thousand warriors, and 
also horses. This all belongs to Prabhasa, and was acquired 
by him in a former life. Such a hero is Prabhasa ; in him 
nothing is wonderful." 

When they heard this from the hermit's son, Surya- 
prabha and his followers, with Maya and Prabhasa, went 
immediately to that cavern belonging to Prabhasa, that 
led down to Patala, for the purpose of securing the jewels. 
Prabhasa alone went in by that entrance and secured his 

even in the time of Pausanias. [See Frazer's edition, vol. iv, p. 386.] Dim 
traditions with respect to the custom are still found among the inhabitants of 
that region (Bernhard Schmidt, Grieckiscke M'drchen, p. 27). Cf. the institution 
of the (ftap/xaKol connected with the worship of Apollo (Preller, Griechische 
Mythologie, vol. i, p. 202; see also pp. 240, 257, and vol. ii, pp. 310, 466); 
Herodotus, vii, 197; Plato, Minos, p. 315; and Preller, Romische Mythologie, 

p. 104. See Vol. I, p. 116/t 1 . The whole question of human sacrifice in all 

parts of the world has been fully treated by a number of scholars in Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vi, pp. 840-867. I would, however, add one useful 
reference: E. M. Loeb, "The Blood Sacrifice Complex," Memoirs of the Amer. 
Anth. Ass., No. 30, 1923. n.m.p. 

1 Cf. Chapter XLV. In Chapter LXXIII will be found another instance 
of a "rifted rock whose entrance leads to hell." Cf. the Hercules Furens of 
Seneca, v, 662 et seq. 



former wives, and the wishing-stone, and the horses, and 
the Asura warriors, and coming out again with all his wealth, 
he gave great satisfaction to Suryaprabha. Then that 
Suryaprabha, having quickly obtained what he wished, re- 
turned to his own camp with Maya and Sunitha and Pra- 
bhasa, followed by Sumeru and the other kings and the 
ministers. There, after the Asuras and kings and others 
had gone to their own quarters, he again was consecrated 
for the fight, restraining his passions, and spent the rest of 
the night on a bed of kuSa grass. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 

over the Vidyddharas 

EARLY the next morning Suryaprabha set out from 
the hermitage of Sumeru with his forces to conquer 
Sruta^arman. And arriving near the mountain of 
Trikuta, his dwelling-place, he encamped, driving away the 
enemy's army with his own force, which was established 
there. And while he was encamped there with Sumeru, 
Maya and others, and was in the hall of council, an ambassador 
came from the lord of Trikuta. And when he came he said 
to Sumeru, the Vidyadhara prince : " The king, the father 
of Srutasarman, sends you this message : ' We have never 
entertained you, as you were far off ; now you have arrived 
in our territory with guests, so now we will show you appro- 
priate hospitality.' " When Sumeru heard this scoffingly 
ambiguous message, he said in answer : " Bravo ! you will 
not get another guest such a fit object of hospitality as we 
are. Hospitality will not bear its fruit in the next world ; 
its fruit is in this. So here we are, entertain us." When 
Sumeru said this, the ambassador returned to his master as 
he came. 

Then Suryaprabha and the others, established upon an 
elevated place, surveyed their armies encamped separately. 
Then Sunitha said to his father-in-law, the Asura Maya : 
The Personnel " Explain to me the arrangement of the warriors 
of the Army m ur army." Then that all-knowing prince 
of the Danavas said: "I will do so; listen," and pointing 
them out with his finger he began to say : " These kings, 
Subahu, Nirghata, Mushtika, and Gohara, and Pralamba, 
and Pramatha, and Kankata, and Pingala, and Vasudatta 
and others, are considered half- power warriors. 1 And 

1 For a parallel to the absurdities that follow see Campbell's Tales of the 
West Highlands, p. 202. 


Ankurin, and Suvisala, and Dandin, and Bhushana, and 
Somila, and Unmattaka, and Deva^arman, and Pitri^arman, 
and Kumaraka, and Haridatta and others are all full-power 
warriors. And Prakampana, and Darpita, and Kumbhira, 
and Matripalita, and Mahabhata, and Virasvamin, and 
Suradhara, and Bhandira, and Simhadatta and Gunavarman, 
with Kitaka and Bhima and Bhayankara these are all 
warriors of double power. And Virochana, and Virasena, 
and Yajnasena, and Khujjara, and Indravarman, and Seva- 
raka, and Krurakarman, and Nirasaka these princes are 
of triple power, my son. And Sugarman, and Bahusalin, and 
Visakha, and Krodhana, and Prachanda these princes are 
warriors of fourfold power. And Junjarin, and Virasarman, 
and Praviravara, and Supratijna, and Mararama, and 
Chandadanta, and Jalika, and the three, Simhabhata, 
Vyaghrabhata and Satrubhata these kings and princes are 
warriors of fivefold power. But this Prince Ugravarman 
is a warrior of sixfold power. And the Prince Visoka, and 
Sutantu, and Sugama, and Narendra^arman are considered 
warriors of sevenfold power. And this King Sahasrayu is 
a great warrior. But this Satanika is lord of a host of great 
warriors. And Subhasa, Harsha and Vimala, the companions 
of Siiryaprabha, Mahabuddhi, and Achalabuddhi, Priyankara 
and Subhankara are great warriors, as also Yajnaruchi and 
Dharmaruchi. But Visvaruchi, and Bhasa and Siddhartha, 
these three ministers of Siiryaprabha, are chiefs of hosts of 
great warriors. And his ministers Prahasta and Mahartha 
are leaders of hosts of transcendent warriors. And Praj- 
nadhya and Sthirabuddhi are leaders of hosts of hosts of 
warriors ; and the Danava Sarvadamana, and Pramathana 
here, and Dhiimraketu, and Pravahana and Vajrapanjara, and 
Kalachakra, and Marudvega are leaders of warriors and tran- 
scendent warriors. Prakampana and Simhanada are leaders 
of hosts of leaders of hosts of warriors. And Mahamaya, and 
Kambalika, and Kalakampana here, and Prahrishtaroman, 
these four lords of the Asuras, are kings over chiefs of hosts 
of transcendent warriors. And this Prabhasa, the general 
of the army, who is equal to Siiryaprabha, and this son of 
Sumeru, Kunjarakumara these two are leaders of hosts of 


chiefs of hosts of great warriors. Such heroes are there in 
our army, and others besides, girt with their followers. 
There are more in the hostile army, but Siva being well 
disposed towards us, they will not be able to resist our host." 

While the Asura Maya was saying this to Sunitha another 
ambassador came from the father of Srutasarman and said 
thus to him : " The King of Trikiita sends this message to 
The vou : * This is a great feast for heroes the feast 

Formations of which goes by the name of battle. This ground 
the Army j s narrow f or ft, therefore let us leave it and go 
to a place named Kalapagrama, where there is a wide space.' " 
When Sunitha and the other chiefs with their soldiers heard 
this, they agreed, and all of them went with Suryaprabha 
to Kalapagrama. And Srutasarman and his partisans also, 
eager for battle, went to that same place, surrounded with 
the hosts of the Vidyadharas. When Suryaprabha and his 
chiefs saw elephants in the army of Srutasarman, they 
summoned their contingent of elephants, which was conveyed 
in the chariot that flew through the air. Then Damodara, 
that excellent Vidyadhara, drew up his army in the form of 
a large needle ; Srutasarman himself took up his position 
on the flank with his ministers, and Damodara was in front, 
and other great warriors in other places. And Prabhasa, the 
leader of Suryaprabha's army, arranged it in the form of a 
crescent ; he himself was in the centre and Kunjarakumara 
and Prahasta at the two horns ; and Suryaprabha and 
Sunitha and the other chiefs all remained in the rear. And 
Sumeru, with Suvasakumara, stood near him. Thereupon 
the war-drums were beaten in both armies. 

And in the meanwhile the heaven was filled with the 
gods come to see the battle, together with Indra, and the 
Lokapalas, and the Apsarases. And Siva, the lord of all, 
came there with Parvati, followed by deities, and the Ganas, 
and demons, and the mothers. 1 And holy Brahma came, 

1 The personified energies of the principal deities, closely connected with 
the worship of the god Siva. Professor Jacobi compares them with the Greek 
goddesses called /i7/t/js, to whom there was a temple in the Sicilian town of 

Engyion (Indian Antiquary, January 1880). The mothers are sixteen in 

number, and are worshipped at sacrifices, weddings, house-warmings, etc. At 


accompanied by the Vedas, incarnate in bodily form, be- 
ginning with the Gayatri, and the Sastras and all the great 
Rishis. And the god Vishnu came, riding on the king of 
birds, bearing his weapon the discus, accompanied by god- 
desses, of whom the Goddesses of Fortune, Glory and Victory 
were the chief. And KaSyapa came with his wives, and the 
Adityas and the Vasus, and the chiefs of the Yakshas, 
Rakshasas and snakes, and also the Asuras, with Prahlada 
at their head. The sky was obscured with them, and the 
The Bloody battle of those two armies began, terrible with 
Battle begins the clashing of weapons, accompanied with loud 
shouts. The whole heaven was darkened by the dense cloud 
of arrows, through which the flashes, made by the arrows 
striking against one another, played like lightning, and rivers 
of blood flowed, swollen with the gore of many elephants 
and horses wounded with weapons, in which the bodies of 
heroes moved like alligators. That battle gave great delight 
to heroes, jackals and goblins, that danced, waded and 
shouted in blood. 

When the confused melee, in which countless soldiers 
fell, had abated, Suryaprabha and the other chiefs gradually 
began to perceive the distinction between their own army 
and that of the enemy, and heard in order from Sumeru 
the names and lineage of the chiefs fighting in front of the 
enemy's host. Then first took place a single combat be- 
tween King Subahu and a chief of the Vidyadharas, named 
Attahasa. Subahu fought a long time, until Attahasa, after 
riddling him with arrows, cut off his head with a crescent- 
headed shaft. When Mushtika saw that Subahu was slain, 
he rushed forward in wrath ; he too fell, smitten by Attahasa 
with an arrow in the heart. When Mushtika was slain, a 
king named Pralamba in wrath rushed on and attacked 
Attahasa with showers of arrows, but Attahasa slew his 
retainers, and striking the hero Pralamba with an arrow in 

a wedding fourteen are worshipped in the house, one outside the village and 
one near the front door where the wedding is celebrated. As the mothers 
are supposed to be the planets which influence the unborn child, they are 
also worshipped to bring about an easy delivery. For further details see 
R. E. Enthoven, The Folk-Lore of Bombay, 1924, pp. 185-187. n.m.p. 


a mortal place, laid him low on the seat of his chariot. A king 
named Mohana, when he saw Praia mba dead, engaged with 
Attahasa and smote him with arrows. Then Attahasa cut 
his bow and slew his charioteer, and laid him low, slain with 
a terrific blow. When the host of Srutas*arman saw that the 
dexterous Attahasa had slain those four warriors, expecting the 
victory, they shouted for joy. When Harsha, the companion 
of Suryaprabha, saw that, he was wroth, and with his followers 
attacked Attahasa and his followers ; and with shafts he 
repelled his shafts, and he slew his followers and killed his 
charioteer, and two or three times cut his bow and his banner, 
and at last he cleft asunder his head with his arrows, so that 
he fell from his chariot on the earth, pouring forth a stream 
of blood. When Attahasa was slain there was such a panic 
in the battle that in a moment only half the two armies 
remained. Horses, elephants and footmen fell down there 
slain, and only the trunks of slaughtered men remained 
standing in the van of battle. 

Then a chief of the Vidyadharas, named Vikritadamshtra, 
angry at the slaughter of Attahasa, showered arrows upon 
Harsha. But Harsha repelled his arrows, struck down his 
The Single chariot horses, and his banner and his charioteer, 
Combats and cut off his head with its trembling earrings. 

continue But when Vikritadamshtra was killed a Vidya- 

dhara king, named Chakravala, in wrath attacked Harsha; 
he slew Harsha still fighting on, though fatigued with combat, 
after his bow had been frequently cut asunder and his other 
weapons damaged. Angry at that, King Pramatha attacked 
him, and he too was slain by that Chakravala in fight. In 
the same way four other distinguished kings, who attacked 
him one by one, were slain one after another by that 
Chakravala namely, Kankata, and Vi^ala, and Prachanda 
and Ankurin. 

When King Nirghata saw that, he was wroth, and attacked 
Chakravala, and those two, Chakravala and Nirghata, fought 
for a long time, and at last they broke one another's chariots 
to pieces and so became infantry soldiers, and the two, rush- 
ing furiously together, armed with sword and discus, cleft 
with sword-strokes one another's heads and fell dead on the 


earth. Then the two armies were dispirited, seeing those 
two warriors dead, but nevertheless a king of the Vidya- 
dharas, named Kalakampana, stepped forward to the front 
of the fight. And a prince, named Prakampana, attacked 
him, but he was in a moment struck down by that Kala- 
kampana. When he was struck down, five other warriors 
attacked Kalakampana namely, Jalika, and Chandadatta, 
and Gopaka, and Somila, and Pitri^arman ; all these let fly 
arrows at him at the same time. But Kalakampana deprived 
all five of their chariots, and slew them at the same time, 
piercing the five with five arrows in the heart. 

That made the Vidyadharas shout for joy, and the men 
and Asuras despond. Then four other warriors rushed upon 
him at the same time, Unmattaka and Pra^asta, Vilambaka 
and Dhurandhara ; Kalakampana slew them all easily. In 
the same way he killed six other warriors that ran towards 
him, Tejika, and Geyika, and Vegila, and Sakhila, and 
Bhadrankara and Dandin, great warriors with many followers. 
And again he slew five others that met him in fight, Bhlma, 
Bhishana, Kumbhira, Vikata and Vilochana. 

And a king, named Sugana, when he saw the havoc that 
Kalakampana had made in the battle, ran to meet him. 
Kalakampana fought with him until both had their horses 
and charioteers killed and were compelled to abandon their 
chariots ; then Kalakampana, reduced to fight on foot, laid 
Sugana, who was also fighting on foot, low on the earth with 
a sword-cut. Then the sun, having beheld that surprising 
struggle of Vidyadharas with men, went grieved to rest. 1 Not 
only did the field of battle become red, filled with streaming 
blood, but the heaven also became red, when evening set 
her footprints there. Then the corpses and demons began 
their evening dance, and both armies, stopping the battle, 
went to their camps. In the army of Sruta^arman were 
slain that day three heroes, but thirty-three distinguished 
heroes were slain in the army of Suryaprabha. 

Then Suryaprabha, grieved at the slaughter of his kins- 
men and friends, spent that night apart from his wives. 
And, eager for the fight, he passed that night in various 

1 For avaham I read ahavam. 


military discussions with his ministers, without going to 
sleep. And his wives, grieved on account of the slaughter 
of their relations, met together in one place that night, 
having come for the sake of mutual condolence. But even 
on that melancholy occasion they indulged in miscellaneous 
conversation ; there is no occasion on which women are not 
irrelevant in their talk. 1 In the course of this conversation 
one princess said : "It is wonderful ! How comes it that 
to-night our husband has gone to sleep without any of his 
wives ? " Hearing that, another said : " Our husband is 
to-day grieved on account of the slaughter of his followers 
in battle, so how can he take any pleasure in the society of 
women ? " Then another said : "If he were to obtain a 
new beauty he would that instant forget his grief." Then 
another said : " Do not say so ; although he is devoted to 
the fair sex, he would not behave in this way on such a sad 
occasion." While they were thus speaking, one said with 
wonder : " Tell me why our husband is so devoted to women, 
that, though he has carried off many wives, he is perpetually 
marrying new princesses and is never satisfied." 

One of the wives, a clever woman of the name of Mano- 
vati, said when she heard this : " Hear why kings have many 
loves. The good qualities of lovely women are different, 
The Charms varying with their native land, their beauty, 
of Women their age, their gestures and their accomplish- 
var y ments ; no one woman possesses all good qualities. 

The women of Karnata, of Lata, of Saurashtra and 
Madhyadesa please by the peculiar behaviour of their 
various countries. Some fair ones captivate by their faces 
like an autumn moon, others by their breasts full and firm 
like golden ewers, and others by their limbs, charming from 
their beauty. One has limbs yellow as gold, another is dark 
like a priyangu, another, being red and white, captivates the 
eyes as soon as seen. One is of budding beauty, another of 

1 Speyer {op. cit. } p. 118) considers Tawney's interpretation of apara$rayah 
by u not irrelevant in their talk " as being too forced. The D. text reads the 
last two words of the line as katha svapura^raya, which Speyer would translate, 
". . . there is no occasion on which women would not talk of the chronique 
scandaleuse of their town." n.m.p. 


full- developed youth, another is agreeable on account of her 
maturity, and distinguished by increasing coquetry. One 
looks lovely when smiling, another is charming even in anger, 
another charms with gait resembling that of an elephant, 
another with swan-like motion. One, when she prattles, 
irrigates the ears with nectar ; another is naturally beautiful 
when she looks at one with graceful contraction of the eye- 
brows. One charms by dancing, another pleases by singing, 
and another fair one attracts by being able to play on the 
lyre and other instruments. One is distinguished for good 
temper, another is remarkable for artfulness, another enjoys 
good fortune from being able to understand her husband's 
mind. But, to sum up, others possess other particular 
merits ; so every lovely woman has some peculiar good 
point, but of all the women in the three worlds none possesses 
all possible virtues. So kings, having made up their minds 
to experience all kinds of fascinations, though they have 
captured many wives for themselves, are for ever seizing 
new ones. 1 But the truly noble never, under any circum- 
stances, desire the wives of others. So this is not our 
husband's fault, and we cannot be jealous." 

When the head wives of Suryaprabha, beginning with 
Madanasena, had been addressed in this style by Manovati 
they made one after another remarks to the same effect. 
Then, in their merriment, they laid aside all the ties of 
reserve, and began to tell one another all kinds of secrets. 
For, unfortunately, there is nothing which women will not 
let out when they are met together in social intercourse and 
their minds are interested in the course of the conversation. 
At last that long conversation of theirs was somehow or 
other brought to an end, and in course of time the night 
passed away, during which Suryaprabha was longing to 
conquer the host of his enemies, for he was alone, intently 
waiting for the time when the darkness should depart. 2 

1 Labdhakakshyah is probably a misprint for baddhakakshyah. 
* I read abhikankshd for abhikanksho, which is found in Brockhaus's text. 
This is supported by a MS. in the Sanskrit College. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyddharas 

THE next morning Suryaprabha and his party, and 
Sruta^arman and his supporters, again went to the 
field of battle armed, with their forces. And again 
the gods and Asuras, with Indra, Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra, 
and with the Yakshas, snakes and Gandharvas, came to see 
the fight. Damodara drew up the troops of Srutasarman 
in the form of a discus, and Prabhasa drew up the troops of 
Suryaprabha in the form of a thunderbolt. Then the battle 
of those two armies went on, deafening the horizon with 
drums and the shouts of champions, and the sun hid him- 
self in flights of arrows, as if out of fear that the warriors 
smitten with weapons would certainly pierce his disk. Then 
Prabhasa, by command of Suryaprabha, broke the discus 
arrangement of the enemy's host, hard for another to break, 
and entered alone. And Damodara himself came and de- 
fended that opening in the line, and Prabhasa fought against 
him unaided. And Suryaprabha, seeing that he had entered 
alone, sent fifteen great warriors to follow him, Prakampana, 
and Dhiimraketu, and Kalakampana, and Mahamaya, and 
Marudvega, and Prahasta, and Vajrapanjara, and Kala- 
chakra, and Pramathana, and Simhanada, and Kambala, 
and Vikataksha, and Pravahana, and Kunjarakumaraka, 
and Prahrishtaroman, the heroic Asura prince : all those 
great warriors rushed forward to the opening in the line ; 
then Damodara exhibited his wonderful heroism, in that 
alone he fought with those fifteen. 

When Indra saw that, he said to the hermit Narada, who 
was at his side : " Suryaprabha and the others of his party 
are incarnations of Asuras, but Sruta^arman is a portion of 
me, and all these Vidyadharas are portions of the gods ; so 
observe, hermit, this is a disguised fight between the gods 


and Asuras. And observe, in it Vishnu is, as ever, the ally 
of the gods, for Damodara, who is a portion of him, is fighting 

While Indra was saying this, fourteen great warriors came 
to assist the general Damodara : Brahmagupta and Vayu- 
bala, and Yamadamshtra, and Suroshana, and Roshavaroha, 
and Atibala, and Tejahprabha, and Dhurandhara, and 
Kuveradatta, and Varuna^arman, and Kambalika, and the 
hero Dushtadamana, and Dohana and Arohana. And those 
fifteen heroes, joined with Damodara, fighting in front of the 
line, kept off the followers of Siiryaprabha. 

Then single combats took place between them. Prakam- 
pana carried on a missile fight with Damodara, and Dhum- 
raketu fought with Brahmagupta, and Mahamaya fought 
More Single with Atibala, the Danava Kalakampana fought 
Combats with Tejahprabha, and the great Asura Marud- 

vega with Vayubala, and Vajrapanjara fought with Yama- 
damshtra, and the heroic Asura Kalachakra with Suroshana ; 
Pramathana fought with Kuveradatta, and the King of the 
Daityas, named Simhanada, with Varunasarman. Pravahana 
fought with Dushtadamana, and the Danava Prahrishtaro- 
man fought with Roshavaroha ; and Vikataksha fought with 
Dhurandhara, Kambala fought with Kambalika, and Kun- 
jarakumaraka with Arohana, and Prahasta with Dohana, 
who was also called Mahotpata. 

When these pairs of warriors were thus fighting in the 
front of the line, Sunitha said to Maya : " Alas ! observe, our 
heroic warriors, though skilled in the use of many weapons, 
have been prevented by these antagonists from entering the 
enemy's line ; but Prabhasa entered before recklessly alone, 
so we do not know what will become of him there." 

When Suvasakumara heard this, he said : " All the gods, 
Asuras and men in the three worlds are not a match for this 
Prabhasa unaided ; much less, then, are these Vidyadharas. 
So why do you fear without reason, though you know this 
well enough ? " 

While the hermit's son was saying this, the Vidyadhara 
Kalakampana came to meet Prabhasa in fight. Then 
Prabhasa said to him : " Ha ! ha ! you have rendered me 


a great service, so let me now see your valour here." Saying 
this, Prabhasa let fly at him a succession of arrows, and 
Kalakampana in return showered sharp arrows upon him. 
Then that Vidyadhara and that man fought together with 
arrows and answering arrows, making the worlds astonished. 
Then Prabhasa, with a sharp arrow, struck down the banner 
of Kalakampana ; with a second he killed his charioteer, 
with four more his four horses, and with one more he cut his 
bow in half, with two more he cut off his hands, with two 
more his arms, and with two more his two ears, and with one 
sharp-edged arrow he cut off the head of his foe, and thus 
displayed wonderful dexterity. Thus Prabhasa, as it were, 
chastised Kalakampana, being angry with him because he 
had slain so many heroes in his own army. And the men 
and Asuras, when they saw that Vidyadhara chief slain, 
raised a shout, and the Vidyadharas immediately proclaimed 
their despondency. 1 

Then a king of the Vidyadharas, named Vidyutprabha, 
lord of the hill of Kalanjara, in wrath attacked Prabhasa. 
When he was fighting with Prabhasa, Prabhasa first cut 
asunder his banner, and then kept cutting his bows in two, 
as fast as he took them up. Then the Vidyadhara, being 
ashamed, by his delusive power flew up invisible into the 
sky, and rained swords, clubs and other weapons upon 
Prabhasa. Prabhasa, for his part, swept away his succession 
of missiles with others, and by the illuminating weapon made 
that Asura manifest, and then, employing the weapon of 
fire, he burned up Vidyutprabha with its blaze, and bringing 
him down from the heaven laid him dead on the earth. 

When Srutasarman saw this, he said to his warriors : 
" Observe, this man has slain two chiefs of hosts of great 
warriors. Now why do you put up with it ? Join together 
and slay him." 

When they heard that, eight warriors in anger sur- 
rounded Prabhasa. One was a king of the Vidyadharas 
named Urdhvaroman, a lord of hosts of warriors, dwelling 
in the great mountain named Vankataka. And the second 
warrior was a chief of the Vidyadharas named Vikrosana, the 
1 The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads jagme. 


king of the rock Dharanidhara. And the third was the hero 
Indramalin, a prince of the Vidyadharas, lord of a host of 
distinguished warriors, and his home was the mountain Lila. 
Prabhasa And the fourth was an excellent Vidyadhara 
is repeatedly named King Kakandaka, a chief of a host of 
attacked warriors, and his dwelling was in the mountain 

Malaya. And the fifth was Darpavaha by name, lord of 
the hill Niketa, and the sixth was Dhtirtavyayana, the lord 
of the mountain An j ana, and both these Vidyadharas were 
chiefs of excellent warriors. And the seventh one, whose 
chariot was drawn by asses, was named Varahasvamin, king 
of the mount Kumuda, and he was chief of a host of great 
warriors. And the eighth warrior was like him, Medhavara, 
King of Dundhubhi. 

Prabhasa repelled the numerous arrows which these eight 
came and discharged, and he pierced them all at the same 
time with arrows. And he slew the horse of one, and of 
one the charioteer, and he cut in half the banner of one, and 
the bow of another. But Medhavara he struck at the same 
time with four arrows in the heart, and at once laid him 
dead on the earth. And then he fought with the others, and 
cut off with an anjalika x the head of Urdhvaroman, with its 
curled and plaited hair ; and of the other six he killed the 
horses and charioteers, and at last laid themselves low, 
cutting off their heads with crescent-headed arrows. And 
then a rain of flowers fell on his head from heaven, en- 
couraging the kings of the Asuras, and discouraging the 

Then four more great warriors, armed with bows, sent 
by Srutagarman, surrounded Prabhasa : one was named 
Kacharaka, the lord of the mountain Kuranda ; the second 
Dindimalin, whose home was the hill of Panchaka; the 
third was Vibhavasu, king of the mountain Jayapura ; 
the fourth was named Dhavala, the ruler of Bhumitundika. 
Those excellent Vidyadharas, chiefs of hosts of great warriors, 
let fly five hundred arrows at the same time at Prabhasa. 
But Prabhasa easily disposed of all, one by one, each with 
eight arrows : with one arrow he cut down the banner, with 

1 Possibly an arrow with a head resembling two hands joined. 


one cleft the bow, with one he killed the charioteer, with four 
the horses, and with one more he cut off the head of the 
warrior, and then shouted triumphantly. 

Then another four Vidyadharas, by the order of Sruta- 
garman, assembled in fight against Prabhasa. The first was 
named Bhadrankara, dark as the blue water-lily, sprung 
from Mercury in the house of VisVavasu, but the second 
was Niyantraka, like the fire in brightness, sprung from 
Mars in the house of Jambaka, and the third was called 
Kalakopa, very black in hue, with tawny hair, sprung from 
Saturn in the house of Damodara. And the fourth was 
Vikrama^akti, like gold in brightness, sprung from the planet 
Jupiter in the house of the Moon. The three first were lords 
of hosts of lords of hosts of transcendent warriors, but the 
fourth was a great hero surpassing the rest in valour. And 
those haughty chiefs attacked Prabhasa with heavenly 
weapons. Prabhasa repelled their weapons with the weapon 
of Narayana and easily cut asunder the bow of each eight 
times ; then he repelled the arrows and clubs which they 
hurled, and slaying their horses and charioteers, deprived 
them all of their chariots. 

When Sruta^arman saw that, he quickly sent other ten 
lords of the Vidyadharas, chiefs of lords of hosts or lords of 
hosts of warriors, two called Dama and Niyama, who exactly 
resembled one another in appearance, two sons born to the 
Asvins in the house of the lord of Ketumala, and Vikrama 
and Sankrama, and Parakrama and Akrama, and Samraar- 
dana and Mardana, and Pramardana and Vimardana, the 
eight similar sons of the Vasus born in the house of Maka- 
randa. And when they came the previous assailants mounted 
other chariots. Wonderful to say, though all those fourteen 
joined together and showered arrows on Prabhasa, he alone 
fought with them fearlessly. Then, by the order of Surya- 
prabha, Kunjarakumara and Prahasta left the melee and, 
flying up from the front of the line, weapons in hand, white 
and black in hue, came to the aid of Prabhasa, like Rama 

1 There is probably a pun here. Kshetra, besides its astrological sense, 
means a wife on whom issue is begotten by some kinsman or duly appointed 
person, as in the Jewish law. 


and Krishna over again. They, though fighting on foot, 
harassed Dama and Xiyama by cutting asunder their bows 
and killing their charioteers. When they, in their fear, 
soared up to heaven Kunjarakumara and Prahasta soared 
up also, weapons in hand. 

When Suryaprabha saw that, he quickly sent them 
his ministers Mahabuddhi and Achalabuddhi to act as 
charioteers. Then Prahasta and Kunjarakumara discovered, 
by employing magic collyrium, those two sons of the Vidyft- 
dharas, Dama and Niyama, though they had made themselves 
invisible by magic power, and riddled them so with showers 
of arrows that they fled. And Prabhasa, fighting with the 
other twelve, cleft all their bows asunder, though they kept 
continually taking fresh ones. And Prahasta came and 
killed at the same time the charioteers of all, and Kunjara- 
kumara slew their horses. Then those twelve together, 
being deprived of their chariots, and finding themselves 
smitten by three heroes, fled out of the battle. 

Then Srutasarman, beside himself with grief, anger 
and shame, sent two more Vidyadharas, captains of hosts 
of warriors and distinguished warriors : one was called 
Chandragupta, born in the house of the lord of the great 
mountain Chandrakula, beautiful as a second moon ; and the 
second was his own minister, named Narangama, of great 
splendour, born in the house of the lord of the mountain 
Dhurandhara. They also, after discharging a shower of 
arrows, were in a moment deprived of their chariots by 
Prabhasa and his comrades, and disappeared. 

Then the men and Asuras shouted for joy ; but there- 
upon Srutasarman came himself, with four great warriors 
of mighty force, named Mahaugha, Arohana, Utpata and 
Vetravat, the sons respectively of Tvashtri, 1 Bhaga, Aryaman 
and Ptishan, born in the house of the four Vidyadhara kings, 
Chitrapada and others, that ruled over mount Malaya. 

1 Tvashtri is the Vulcan of the Hindus. Bhaga is an Aditya regarded in 
the Vedas as bestowing wealth, and presiding over marriage, his Nakshatra 
is the Uttara Phalguni. Aryaman is also an Aditya ; Pushan, originally the 
sun, is in later times an Aditya. The "canopy of arrows" reminds us of the 
saying of Dieneces, Herodotus, vii, 227, and of Milton, Paradise Lost, vi, 666. 


And Srutasarman himself, blinded with furious anger, was 
the fifth, and they all fought against Prabhasa and his two 
companions. Then the host of arrows, which they shot at 
one another, seemed like a canopy spread in the sky by the 
fortune of war in the full blaze of the sun. Then those 
other Vidyadharas, who had been deprived of their chariots 
and had fled from the battle, came back into the fight. 

Then Suryaprabha, seeing many of them assembled in 
fight, under the leadership of Srutasarman, sent other great 
warriors of his own to support Prabhasa and his comrades, 
The Fhht n ^ s own fri en ds with Prajnadhya at their head, 
becomes more and the princes of whom Satanika and Virasena 
general were the chief. They flew through the air, and 

Suryaprabha sent the other warriors also through the air in 
the chariot Bhiitasana. When all those archers had gone 
chariot-borne, the other Vidyadhara kings, who were on 
the side of Srutasarman, also came up. Then a fight took 
place between those Vidyadhara princes on the one side 
and Prabhasa and his comrades on the other, in which 
there was a great slaughter of soldiers. And in the single 
combats between the two hosts many warriors were slain 
on both sides, men, Asuras and Vidyadharas. Virasena 
slew Dhumralochana and his followers, but, having been 
deprived of his chariot, he was in his turn killed by Hari- 
garman. Then the Vidyadhara hero Hiranyaksha was 
killed by Abhimanyu, but Abhimanyu and Haribhata were 
slain by Sunetra. And Sunetra was killed by Prabhasa, who 
cut off his head. And Jvalamalin and Mahayu killed one 
another. But Kumbhiraka and Nirasaka fought with their 
teeth, after their arms were cut off, and so did Kharva and 
the mighty SuSarman. And the three, Satrubhata, Vyaghra- 
bhata and Simhabhata, were slain by Pravahana, the Vidya- 
dhara king. Pravahana was killed by the two warriors 
Suroha and Viroha, and those two were slain by Simhabala, 
the dweller in the cemetery. That very Simhabala, whose 
chariot was drawn by ghosts, and Kapilaka, and Chitraplda, 
the Vidyadhara king, and Jagajjvara, and the hero Kanta- 
pati, and the mighty Suvarna, and the two Vidyadhara 
kings, Kamaghana and Krodhapati, and King Baladeva 
vol. it. ? 


and Vichitraplda these ten were slain by the Prince 

When these heroes had been slain, SrutaSarman, beholding 
the slaughter of the Vidyadharas, himself attacked Satanika 
in his anger. Then a terrible fight took place between those 
two, lasting to the close of the day, and causing a great 
slaughter of soldiers, exciting the wonder even of the gods ; 
and it continued until hundreds of corpses, rising up all 
round, laid hold of the demons as their partners, when the 
time arrived for the joyous evening dance. At the close of 
day the Vidyadharas, depressed at the great slaughter of 
their army, and grieved at the death of their friends, and 
the men and Asuras having won the victory by sheer force, 
stopped the combat, and went each of them to their own 

At that time two Vidyadharas, chiefs of captains of bands 
of warriors, who had deserted the cause of Sruta^arman, 
came, introduced by Sumeru, and said to Suryaprabha, after 
bowing before him : " We are named Mahay ana 
and Sumaya, and this Simhabala was the third 
of us ; we had obtained magic power by having the rule of 
a great cemetery, and were unassailable by the other Vidya- 
dharas. While we, such as you have heard, were once taking 
our ease in a corner of the great cemetery, there came to us a 
good witch named Sarabhanana, of great and godlike power, 
who is always well disposed towards us. We bowed before 
her and asked her : ' Where have you been, honoured lady, 
and what have you seen there strange ? ' She thereupon 
related this adventure. 

62c. Adventure of the Witch Sarabhanana 

I went with the witches to visit my master, the god 
Mahakala, 1 and while I was there a king of the Vetalas came 
and reported : " See, O master, the chiefs of the Vidya- 
dharas have killed our commander-in-chief, named Agnika, 
and one named Tejahprabha is swiftly carrying off his lovely 
daughter. But the holy sages have foretold that she shall 

1 An epithet of Siva in his character of the destroying deity. 


be the wife of the Emperor of the Vidyadharas, so grant us 
a boon and have her released before he forcibly carries her 
off to a distance." 

When the god heard this speech of the afflicted Vetala, he 
said to me : "Go and set her free." Then I went through 
the air and came up with the maiden. Tejahprabha said : 
" I am carrying off the girl for our rightful emperor, Sruta- 
s*arman." But I paralysed him by my magic power, and 
bringing back the maiden, gave her to my master. And he 
made her over to her own family. I, in truth, went through 
this strange adventure. Then I remained there some days, 
and after taking a reverent farewell of the god I came here. 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 

over the Vidyadharas 

" When that witch Sarabhanana had said this, we said to 
her : ' Tell us, who is to be the future emperor of the Vidya- 
dharas ? You, in truth, know all.' She said : ' Suryaprabha 
will certainly be.' Whereupon Simhabala said to us: 'This 
is untrue, for have not the gods and Indra girded up their 
loins to support the cause of Srutasarman ? ' When the 
noble woman heard that, she said to us : ' If you do not 
believe this, listen. I tell you that soon there will be 
war between Suryaprabha and Srutagarman, and when this 
Simhabala shall be slain before your eyes by a man in battle 
you will recognise this token, and will know that this speech 
of mine is true.' When that witch had said this, she de- 
parted, and those days passed away, and now we have seen 
with our own eyes that in truth this Simhabala has been 
slain. Relying upon that, we think that you are indeed 
appointed emperor of all the Vidyadharas, and submitting 
ourselves to your rule, we have repaired to your two lotus- 
like feet." 

When the Vidyadharas Mahayana and Sumaya said this, 
Suryaprabha, in concert with Maya and the rest, received 
them into confidence and honoured them, and they rejoiced. 
When Srutas*arman heard that, he was in great consterna- 
tion, but Indra comforted him by a message, sending to him 


VisVavasu, and commissioning him to say : "Be of good 
cheer ! To-morrow I will aid thee with all the gods in the 
van of battle." This he said to him out of love, to comfort 
him. And Suryaprabha, having been encouraged by be- 
holding the breaking of his enemy's line, and having seen 
in the front of battle the slaughter of his rival's partisans, 
again forwent the society of his charmers, and entered his 
dwelling at night surrounded by his ministers. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyddharas 

THEN Suryaprabha, lying on his couch at night, eager 
for battle, apart from his wives, said to his minister 
Vitabhiti: "I cannot sleep, so tell me, my friend, 
some strange story of courage and endurance, to amuse me 
during the night." When Vitabhiti heard this request of 
Suryaprabha 's, he answered : "I will obey your order " ; and 
he told this story : 

62d. King Mahdsena and his Virtuous Minister Gunas'arman 

There is a city UjjayinI, the ornament of this earth, full 
of numberless jewels of pellucid water. In that city there 
lived a king named Mahasena, beloved by the virtuous, an 
unequalled treasury of accomplishments, having the beauty 
both of the sun and moon. He had a wife named A^okavati, 
whom he loved as his life ; there was not another woman in 
the three worlds equal to her in beauty. The king ruled 
his realm with her for consort, and he had besides a friend, a 
Brahman named Guna^arman, whom he respected and loved. 
And that Brahman was brave and very handsome, and, 
though young, had thoroughly mastered the lore of the 
Vedas, and knew the accomplishments, the Sastras, and the 
use of weapons, and was always in attendance on the king. 

And one day, as he was within the palace, a conversation 
arose about dancing, and the king and queen said to Guna- 
sarman, who was in attendance : " You know everything, 
there is no doubt about that ; so we have a curiosity to see 
you dancing. If you know how to dance, kindly exhibit 
your skill." When Guna^arman heard this, he said, with a 
smile on his face : "I know how to dance, but dancing is 
a thing not becoming in the king's court ; foolish dancing is 


generally ridiculous and is censured in the Sastras. And far 
from me be shame here in the presence of the king and queen." 
When Gunas*arman said that, the king answered him, being 
urged on to it by the queen out of curiosity : "This will not 
be like a dance on the stage, or in such places, which would 
make a man feel ashamed, but merely a private display of skill 
in the society of friends. And at present I am not your king ; 
I am your friend without ceremony ; so rest assured that I 
will not eat to-day until I have seen your skill in dancing." 

When the king pressed him in this style, the Brahman 
consented to do it. For how can servants refuse the request 
of an importunate lord ? Then that Gunas*arman danced 
so skilfully with his body that the hearts of both the king 
and queen danced for joy. And at the end of it the king 
gave him a lyre to play upon, and the moment he tested its 
tones he said to the king : " This lyre is not in good order, 
so give me another one ; there is a puppy inside this, your 
Majesty I know that by the indications of the twanging of 
the strings." Saying this, Gunas'arman let go the lyre from 
under his arm. Then the king sprinkled it, and unscrewed 
and examined it, and a puppy came out of it. 1 Then King 
Mahasena praised Guna^arman's omniscience, and was much 
astonished, and had another lyre brought. He played 
on that lyre, which, like the Ganges, that flows in three 
worlds, 2 was charming from its swift stream of music, 3 and 
purged the ear by its sound. Then in the presence of the 
king, who with his wife looked on astonished, he exhibited 
in turn his skill in the nobler studies. Then the king said to 
him : "If you are skilled in fighting, then show me a speci- 
men of the art of binding the enemy's limbs with your own 
hands unarmed." The Brahman answered him : " King, 
take your weapons and strike at me, that I may show you 
a specimen of my skill." Then, as fast as the king took a 
sword or other weapon and struck at him, Guna^arman, by 
that artifice of fettering the limbs, immediately disarmed 

1 Sec note on next page. n.m.p. 

1 There are three different styles of music called tara, udara and mudara. 
So the word marga contains a pun. 

* Ogha means "current," and also "quick time" in music. 


him with ease, and frequently fettered his hand and body, 
without receiving a wound. Then the king, seeing that he 
was capable of aiding him in his political affairs, praised that 
excellent Brahman of transcendent ability and honoured him 

But Queen A^okavati, having beheld again and again 
the beauty and abilities of that Brahman, suddenly fell in 
love with him. She thought to herself: "If I cannot ob- 
tain him, of what use is my life to me ? " Then she artfully 
said to the king : " Do me a kindness, my husband, and 
order this Gunas*arman to teach me to play on the lyre. 
For when I beheld to-day his skill in playing on the lyre I 
took a desperate fancy to the instrument." When the king 
heard this, he said to Gunasarman : " By all means teach 
the queen to play on the lyre." Then Gunasarman said : 
" I will do so, my sovereign ; we will begin the practising 
on an auspicious day." Then he took leave of the king 
and went home. But he put off for many days beginning 
to teach the queen the lyre, seeing the changed expression 
of the queen, and afraid of some mischief. 

One day he was standing near the king when he was 
eating, and when the cook was giving him some condiment 
he prevented him, saying : " Stop ! Stop ! " The king 
Gunasarman asked what this meant, then the discreet man 
saves the said : " This sauce is poisoned, and I detected it 
Kings Lije ky cer t a j n indications. 1 For when the cook was 
giving you the sauce he looked at my face, trembling 
with fear, and with an eye that rolled apprehensively. 
And we can at once find out whether I am right. Let 
this sauce be given to someone to eat and I will counter- 
act the effect of the poison." When he said this, the king 
made the cook eat the sauce, and immediately after he had 
eaten it he became senseless. Then Gunasarman counteracted 

1 This " Quintessence " or " Deduction " motif, as it might be called, is 
widely spread in Eastern folk-tales, and occurs in Chapter LXXXII, where I 
shall add a note on the subject. As we saw in my note on the " Story of 
Hari^arman " in Vol. Ill, pp. 75, 76, the " lucky guess " or " Dr Knowall " motif 
merges into the above in stories where the "guess" is changed into a 
" deduction." n.m.p. 


the effect of the poison on the cook by a spell, and when 
the king asked the cook the truth of the whole matter 
he said this : " King, your enemy, King VikramaSakti, 
sovereign of Gauda, sent me here to give you poison. I 
introduced myself to your Majesty as a foreigner skilful 
in the culinary art, and entered your kitchen. So to-day I 
have been discovered by that shrewd man in the act of 
giving you poison in sauce. Your Majesty knows what to 
do now." 

When the cook said this, the king punished him, and 
being much pleased, gave Gunasarman a thousand villages 
for saving his life. 

And the next day, as the queen kept vigorously pressing 
him, the king made GunaSarman begin to teach her the lyre. 
Then, while he was teaching her the lyre, the Queen ASoka- 
The Queen Vft ti indulged in perpetual coquetry, laughter 
declares her and mirth. One day, wounded with the arrow 
of love, she scratched him with her nails fre- 
quently in secret, and said to the chaste Gunasarman, 
who entreated her to desist : "It was yourself that I 
asked for, handsome man, under the pretext of learning 
to play the lute, for I am desperately in love with you, so 
consent to my wishes." When she said this, Gunasarman 
answered her : " Do not talk so, for you are my master's 
wife, and such a one as I am should not commit such 
treason ; desist from this reckless conduct." When Guna- 
sarman said this, the queen continued : " Why do you 
possess in vain this beauty and skill in accomplishments ? 
How can you look with a passionless eye on me who love 
you so much ? " 

When Gunasarman heard this, he answered sarcastic- 
ally : " You are right. What is the use of beauty and skill 
which is not tarnished with infamy by seducing the wife of 
another, and which does not in this world and the next cause 
one to fall into the ocean of hell ? " When he said this, the 
queen said to him, pretending to be angry : "I am deter- 
mined to die if you do not do what I say, so, being despised 
by you, I will slay you before I die." Then Gunasarman 
said : " By all means let it be so. For it is better to live for 


one moment, bound by the bonds of righteousness, than to 
live unrighteously for hundreds of crores of Kalpas. And 
it is far preferable for me to die without reproach, having 
done no wrong, than for me to have done wrong and to 
be put to death by the king, with reproach attaching to my 

When the queen heard that, she went on to say to him : 
" Do not commit treason against yourself and me. Listen, 
I will tell you something. The king does not neglect to do 
what I tell him, even if it is impossible ; so I will ask him 
and get territories given to you, and I will have all your 
servants made barons, so you will become a king, for you 
are distinguished for good qualities. So what have you to 
fear ? Who can overpower you and how ? So grant my 
wishes fearlessly, otherwise you will not live." 

When the king's wife said this, seeing that she was deter- 
mined, Gunasarman said to her artfully, in order to put her 
off for a moment : " If you are persistently set on this, then 
I will obey your command ; but it will not be advisable to 
do so immediately, for fear it should get abroad ; wait for 
some days ; believe that what I say is true. What object 
have I in incurring your enmity, which would ensure my 
destruction ? " Thus Gunasarman comforted her with that 
hope, and agreed to her request, and then departed with 
heart lightened. 

Then, in the course of some days, King Mahasena went 
and surrounded King Somaka in his treasure- city. And 
when the King of Gauda, Vikramasakti, knew that he had 
arrived there he went and surrounded King Mahasena; 
then King Mahasena said to Gunasarman : " While we 
are occupied in besieging one enemy we are besieged by 
another, so now how are we to fight with two enemies, as 
we are unequal in force ? And how long, being brave men, 
can we remain without fighting a battle ? So what are we 
to do in this difficulty ? " 

When Gunasarman, who was at the side of the king, was 
asked this question, he answered : " Be of good courage, my 
sovereign ; I will devise a stratagem that will enable us to 
get out of this situation, difficult as it is." He comforted 


the king with these words and put on his eyes an ointment 
that rendered him invisible, and at night went, without 
anyone seeing him, to the camp of Vikramas*akti. And he 
entered into his presence, and woke him up while 
resorts to asleep, and said : " Know, O King, that I am 
Magical come a messenger from the gods. Make peace 

with King Mahasena and depart quickly, other- 
wise you will certainly be destroyed here with your army. 
And if you send an ambassador he will agree to your pro- 
posals of peace. I have been sent by the holy Vishnu to 
tell you this. For you are a votary of his, and he watches 
over the safety of his votaries." 

When King Vikramasakti heard this, he thought : 
" Certainly this is true ; if he were any other, how could he 
enter this carefully guarded tent ? This is not what a mere 
mortal could accomplish." When the king had gone through 
these reflections he said : "I am fortunate in receiving such 
a command from the god ; I will do what he bids me." 
When the king said that, GunaSarman disappeared by the 
help of his magic collyrium, thus confirming the king's con- 
fidence in him, and went away. And he came and told King 
Mahasena what he had done ; he threw his arms round his 
neck and hailed him as the preserver of his life and throne. 
And the next morning Vikramasakti sent an ambassador to 
Mahasena, and after making peace with him returned home 
with his army. But Mahasena conquered Somaka, and having 
obtained elephants and horses, returned to Ujjayini a victor, 
thanks to GunaSarman. And while he was there GunaSarman 
saved him from a crocodile while bathing in the river, and 
from the poison of a snake-bite while in his garden. 

Then, after some days had passed, King Mahasena, 
having got together an army, went to attack his enemy 
Vikramasakti. And that king, as soon as he heard of his 
approach, marched out to meet him in fight, and a great 
battle took place between the two. And in the course of it 
the two kings met in single combat and disabled one another's 

1 In the Xights (Burton, vol. v, p. 308) we read of a similar magic 
ointment which has the power of conveying dry-shod over the water anyone 
who anoints his feet with it. n.m.p. 


chariots. Then, in their fury, they rushed forward sword 
in hand, and King Mahasena through carelessness stumbled 
and fell on the earth. Then the King Vikramasakti tried to 
strike him on the ground, but Gunasarman cut off his arm 
with a discus, sword and all, and striking him again in the 
heart with an iron mace, laid him low. And King Mahasena 
rose up, and was pleased when he saw his enemy dead, and 
said repeatedly to Gunasarman : " What am I to say ? 
This is the fifth time that you have saved my life, heroic 
Brahman." Then Mahasena conquered the army and 
kingdom of Vikramasakti, who had been slain by Guna- 
sarman, and after overcoming other kings by the aid of 
GunaSarman he returned to Ujjayini and dwelt there in 

But Queen ASokavati did not cease from importunately 
soliciting Gunasarman day and night. But he would never 
consent to that crime. Good men prefer death to immodest 
Scorned Love conduct. Then ASokavati, finding out that he 
of Woman was resolved, one day, out of enmity to him, 
affected to be unhappy, and remained with tearful counte- 
nance. 1 Then Mahasena, coming in, and seeing her in that 
condition, said : " What is this, my beloved ? Who has 
offended you ? Tell me the name of the man whose life 
and property I am to take by way of punishment ? " Then 
the unforgiving queen said with affected reluctance to the 
king, who had thus addressed her : " You have no power 
to punish the man who has injured me ; he is not a man 
you can chastise, so what is the good of revealing the injury 
to no purpose ? " When she said this, the king pressed her, 
and she said deceitfully : " My husband, if you are very 
anxious to know, listen; I will tell you. Gunasarman, 
who pretends to be a loyal servant,* made an agreement 
with the King of Gauda, and in order to get money from 
him undertook to do you an injury. The wicked Brahman 
secretly sent his confidential messenger to Gauda, to make 
the king hand over treasure and so on. Then a confidential 

1 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

2 Chhalahatah is a mistake for chhaladritah. See Bohtlingk and Roth 
(s.v. han with a). The MS. in the Sanskrit College has chhaladatah. 


servant, seeing the king despondent, said to him : 4 1 will 
manage this affair for you ; do not waste your wealth.' 
When the King of Gauda heard this, he had that messenger 
of GunaSarman's cast into prison x . . . and the cook who 
was to administer the poison came here, carefully keeping 
the secret. In the meanwhile GunaSarman's messenger 
escaped from prison and - came here to him. And he, 
knowing the whole story, revealed it all, and pointed 
out to GunaSarman" that cook, who had entered into our 
kitchen. Then that scoundrelly Brahman detected the cook 
in the act of administering the poison and denounced him 
to you, and so had him put to death. Then the mother and 
the wife and the younger brother of that cook came here to 
find out what had become of him, and the sagacious Guna- 
sarman, finding it out, put to death his wife and mother, 
but his brother escaped somehow or other and entered my 
palace. While he was imploring my protection and telling 
me the whole story, Gunasarman entered my apartment. 
When the brother of that cook saw Gunasarman and heard 
his name, he went out and fled from my presence, whither 
I know not. Gunasarman, for his part, when he saw him 
who had been previously pointed out to him by his servants, 
was abashed, and seemed to be thinking over something. 
And I, wanting to know what it was, said to him in private : 
* Gunasarman, why do you seem to be altered to-day ? ' 
And he, being anxious to win me over to his side, as he was 
afraid of the matter being revealed, said to me : ' Queen, I 
am consumed with passion for you, so consent to my wishes, 
otherwise I cannot live ; bestow on me life as a Brahman's 
fee.' When he had said this, as the room was empty, he 
fell at my feet. Then I drew away my foot and rose up in 

1 Here Brockhaus makes a hiatus. But Speyer (op. cit., pp. 119, 120) 
shows that there is no necessity for such a supposition, as, by the D. text, it 
is obvious that the cook is first mentioned in si. 104, not 105 thus instead of 
"servant " we should read "cook." Barnett would also change the adjective 
to "trusty." There is also some difficulty in si. 106". Speyer conjectures 
tadrakshacnpalt/enaiva into nirgatya bandhanat, "afterwards, having made his 
escape from prison in consequence of the negligence of his gaolers." For 
fuller details see Speyer as quoted above. n.m.p. 

2 I read Gunasarmanah or Gunasannane. 


bewilderment, and he, rising up, embraced me, a weak 
woman, by force. And my maid Pallavika came in at 
that very moment. The instant he saw her he fled out 
alarmed. If Pallavika had not come in the villain would 
certainly have outraged me. This is the injury he has done 
me to-day." 

When the queen had told this false tale, she stopped 
and wept. For in the beginning wicked women sprang from 
Lying Speech. 1 And the moment the king heard it he was 
all on fire with anger, for reliance upon the words of women 
destroys the discrimination even of the great. And he said 
to his dear wife : " Be comforted, fair one; I will certainly 
punish that traitor with death. But he must be slain by 
artifice, otherwise we might be disgraced, for it is well known 
that five times he has saved my life. And we must not 
proclaim abroad his crime of offering violence to you." 
When the king said this to the queen, she answered : "If 
that crime may not be published, may that other one of his 
be published, that out of friendship for the King of Gauda 
he attempted treason against his master ? " When she said 
this, he answered : " You are quite right." And so King 
Mahasena went to his hall of audience. 

Then all the kings and princes and barons came to 
visit the king. And in the meanwhile Gunaarman left his 
house to go to the court, and on the way he saw many 
unfavourable omens. There was a crow on his left hand, 
a dog ran from the left to the right, a snake appeared 
on his right, and his left arm and shoulder throbbed. 2 
He thought to himself : " These evil omens indicate 

1 In this sloka the D. text reads asatyavacanam pascaj instead of asatya- 
vacanat papa, thus meaning, " for in the beginning Lying Speech was born, 
thereafter wicked women." n.m.p. 

2 Cf. the English superstitions with regard to the raven, crow and mag- 
pie (Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, pp. 95 and 96; Hunt's 
Romances and Drolls of the West of England, p. 429 ; Thiselton Dyer, English 
Folk-Lore, pp. 80, 81). See also Horace, Odes, iii, 27. In Europe the 
throbbing or tingling of the left ear indicates calamity (Liebrecht, Zur Volks- 
kunde, p. 327; Hunt, op. cit., p. 430; Thiselton Dyer, op. cit., p. 279)- See 
also Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebrixuche aus Meklenburg, vol. ii, p. 313, and 
Birlinger, Aus Schwaben, pp. 374-378 and 404. For similar superstitions in 


calamity to me without doubt, so whatever happens 
to me, I hope no misfortune may befall the king, my 
master." With these thoughts he entered the hall of 
Gunasarman audience and prayed loyally that nothing un- 
it publicly toward might befall the palace. But when he 
Disgraced bowed and took his seat, the king did not salute 
him as before, but looked askance at him with an eye 
glowing with anger. And when Gunasarman was alarmed 
as to what it might mean, the king rose up from the seat 
of justice and sat at his side, and said to the astonished 
courtiers: "Hear what Gunasarman has done to me." x 

Then Gunasarman said : "I am a servant, you are my 
master, so how can our suit be equal ? Ascend your seat of 
judgment and afterwards give what order you like." When 
the resolute man said this, the king, by the advice of the 
other ministers, ascended the seat of judgment and said again 
to his courtiers : " You know that I made this Gunasarman 
equal to myself, preferring him to my hereditary ministers. 
Now hear what treason he attempted to commit against me, 
after making an agreement with the King of Gauda by send- 
ing messengers to and fro. " After saying this, the king related 
to them all the fictitious account of the matter which Asoka- 
vatl had given him. And the king also told to his confi- 
dential ministers, after dismissing the crowd, the lying tale 
of an attempt to outrage her, which she had told against 

Then Gunas*arman said : " King, who told you such a 

ancient Greece see Jebb's Characters of Theophrastus, p. 163 : "The super- 
stitious man, if a weasel run across his path, will not pursue his walk until 
someone else has traversed the road, or until he has thrown three stones 
across it. When he sees a serpent in his house, if it be the red snake, he will 
invoke Sabazius, if the sacred snake, he will straightway place a shrine on the 
spot. ... If an owl is startled by him in his walk, he will exclaim 'Glory be 

to Athene!' before he proceeds." Jebb refers us to Ar. Eccl., 792. For 

notes on unfavourable omens see Vol. Ill, pp. 46m 2 , 86m 1 , and for lucky omens 
pp. 122, 122m 1 , 171m 1 of this volume. For an interesting list of both auspicious 
and inauspicious omens see R. E. Enthoven, The Folklore of Bombay, 1924, 
pp. 249-253. n.m. p. 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads nyayam for praptam, "hear my suit 
against Gunasarman." This makes far better sense. 


falsehood, who painted this aerial picture ? " When the 
king heard that, he said : " Villain, if it is not true, how did 
you know that the poison was in the dish of rice ? " When 
Gunasarman said, " Everything is known by wisdom," the 
other ministers, out of hatred to him, said : " That is im- 
possible." Then Gunasarman said : " King, you have no 
right to speak thus without inquiring into the truth of the 
matter, and a king devoid of discrimination is not approved 
of by those who understand policy." When he repeated 
this over and over again, the king exclaimed that he was 
an insolent wretch, and aimed a sword-cut at him. But he 
avoided that blow by employing his trick of fence, and then 
the other followers of the king struck at him. And he eluded 
their swords by his artifices of fence and baffled the exertions 
of them all. And he fettered them, binding them with one 
another's hair, showing wonderful skill in the employment 
of his trick of disarming. And he made his way out by force 
from that hall of assembly of the king, and he killed about 
a hundred warriors, who pursued him. Then he put on his 
eyes that ointment serving to render him invisible, which 
he had in the corner of his garment, and immediately left 
that country without being seen. And he made towards 
the Deccan, and as he was going along he thus reflected 
on the way : " Surely that foolish king was set on by that 
Asokavati. Alas ! women whose love is slighted are worse 
than poison ! Alas ! kings who do not investigate the 
truth are not to be served by the good ! " 

While engaged in such reflections, Gunasarman came at 
last to a village ; there he saw a worthy Brahman under a 
banyan-tree teaching his pupils. He went up to him and 
hailed him. The Brahman, after welcoming him, immedi- 
ately asked him : " O Brahman, what recension of the Vedas 
do you recite? Tell me." Then Gunasarman answered 
that Brahman : " Brahman, I recite twelve recensions : two 
of the Sama Veda, two of the Rig-Veda, seven of the Yajur 
Veda, and one of the Atharva-Veda" Then the Brahman 
said: "You must be a god." And he went on to say to 
Gunasarman, whose shape revealed his excellence : " Tell 
me, what country and what family did you adorn by being 


born in them ? What is your name, and how did you learn 
so much ? " When Gunagarman heard this, he said to him : 

62dd. Adityasarman, the Father of Gunafarman 

In the city of Ujjayini there was a Brahman's son named 
Adityasarman, and when lie was a child his father died, 
and his mother entered the fire with her husband. 1 Then 
Adityasarman grew up in that city in his uncle's house, 
reading the Vedas and the books of knowledge, and also 
the treatises on accomplishments. And after he had acquired 
knowledge, and was engaged in a vow of muttering prayers, 
he struck up a friendship with a certain wandering hermit. 
That wandering hermit went with his friend Adityasarman 
and performed a sacrifice in a cemetery to get a Yakshini 
into his power. Then a heavenly maiden, beautifully 
adorned, appeared to him in a chariot of gold, surrounded 
with beautiful maidens. She said to him in a sweet voice : 
" Mendicant, I am a Yakshi named Vidyunmala, and these 
others are Yakshims. Take a suitable wife from my 
following according to your pleasure. So much have you 
obtained by your employment of spells ; you have not 
discovered the perfect spell for obtaining me ; so, as I 
am obtained by that only, do not take any further trouble 
to no purpose." 

When the Yakshi said this to him, the mendicant con- 
sented, and chose one Yakshini from her retinue. Then 
Vidyunmala disappeared, and Adityasarman asked that 
Yakshini, whom the hermit had obtained : "Is there any 
Yakshini superior to Vidyunmala ? " When the Yakshini 
heard that, she answered : " Yes, handsome man, there is. 
Vidyunmala, Chandralekha and Sulochana the third are the 
best among the Yakshims, and among these Sulochana." 

After saying that, the Yakshini departed, to return at the 
appointed time, and the mendicant went with Adityasarman 
to his house. There the loving Yakshini every day visited 
the hermit at the appointed time and granted him all that 

1 See Appendix I, where I have treated the subject of satt at some 
length. n.m.p. 


he desired. One day Adityasarman asked her this question 
by the mouth of that mendicant : " Who knows the proper 
spell for attracting Sulochana ? " And the Yakshini sent 
him this message by the mouth of the mendicant : " There 
is a place called Jambuvana in the south. There is a 
mendicant there, named Vishnugupta, who has made his 
dwelling on the banks of the Veni ; he is the best of Buddhist 
mendicants, and knows the spell at full length." 

When Adityasarman learned this from the Yakshini, he 
went in all eagerness to that country, followed by the mendi- 
cant out of love. There he duly searched for the Buddhist 
mendicant, and after he had approached him he served him 
devotedly for three years, and waited upon him continually. 
And by the help of that Yakshini, who was at the beck 
and call of the first mendicant, his friend, he provided him 
with heavenly luxuries, ministered seasonably. Then that 
Buddhist mendicant, being pleased, gave to that Aditya- 
sarman the spell for obtaining Sulochana, which he desired, 
together with the prescribed rites to accompany it. 

Then Adityasarman, having obtained that spell, and 
having duly employed it, went into a solitary place and per- 
formed there the final sacrifice according to the prescribed 
ritual, leaving no ceremony out. Then the Yakshini 
Sulochana appeared to him in an air-chariot, with world- 
enchanting beauty, and said to him : " Come ! come ! I 
have been won by you; but you must not make me your 
wife for six months, great hero, if you wish to have by me 
a son, who will be a favourite of fortune, marked with 
auspicious marks, all-knowing and invincible." 

When she said this, Adityasarman consented, and she 
took him off in her chariot to Alaka. And Adityasarman 
remained there, looking at her ever near him, with his sus- 
pense and doubts at an end, and performed for six months a 
vow as difficult as standing on the edge of a sword. Then 
the God of Wealth, being pleased, himself gave that Sulo- 
chana to Adityasarman, according to a heavenly ritual. I 
was born as that Brahman's son by her, and I was named 
GunaSarman by my father on account of my good qualities. 
Then in that very place I learned in succession the Vedas, 
vol. iv. a 


the sciences and the accomplishments, from a prince of the 
Yakshas named Manidara. 

Then, once upon a time, it happened that Indra came 
to the God of Wealth, and all who sat there rose up when 
they saw him. But, as fate would have it, Adityaarman, 
my father, was at that time thinking of something else, and 
did not rise up in a hurry. Then Indra, being angry, cursed 
him, and said : " Out, fool ! " Go to your own world of 
mortals, you are out of place here. Then Sulochana fell at 
his feet and propitiated him, and Indra answered : 4 Then 
let him not go to the world of mortals himself, but let this 
son of his go, for one's son is said to be a second self. Let 
not my word have been spoken in vain." 

When Indra had said so much he was satisfied. Then 
my father took me and deposited me in my uncle's house 
in Ujjayinl. For what is ordained to be a man's lot must be. 
There, as it happened, I struck up a friendship with the king 
of that place. And listen, I will tell you what happened to 
me there afterwards. 

62d. King Mahdsena and his Virtuous Minister Gunas'arman 

After saying this, he described to him what happened 
from the very beginning, and what A^okavati did, and what 
the king did, ending up with his fight. And he went on to 
say to him : " Brahman, thus I have fled away to go to a 
foreign land, and on my way, as I was journeying along, I 
have seen you." When the Brahman heard that, he said to 
Gunaarman : " And thus I have become fortunate by your 
visit, my lord. So now come to my house, and know that 
I am Agnidatta by name, and this village is my grant from 
the king ; be at ease here." 

After saying this, Agnidatta made Gunaarman enter 
his splendid mansion, in which were many cows, buffaloes 
and horses. There he honoured that guest with bath and 
unguents, and robes and ornaments, and with various kinds 
of food. And he showed him his daughter, Sundarl by 
name, whose beauty was to be desired even by the gods, 
on the pretence of getting him to inspect her marks. And 


Gunasarman, for his part, seeing that she was unsurpassed 
in beauty, said : " She will have rival wives. She has a 
mole on her nose, and consequently I assert that she must 
have a second one on her breast ; and men say that such is 
the result of spots in these two localities." When he said 
this, her brother, by command of her father, uncovered her 
breast and beheld there a mole. 

Then Agnidatta said in astonishment to Gunasarman : 
" You are all-knowing, but these moles of hers portend 
good fortune to us. For wives generally have many rivals 
when the husband is fortunate ; a poor man would find 
it difficult to support one, much more to support many." 
When Gunasarman heard this, he answered him : " It is 
as you say ; how could ill fortune befall a shape with such 
auspicious marks ? " When he had said this, Agnidatta 
took occasion to ask him concerning the meaning of moles 
and other marks; and he told him what moles and other 
marks portended on every single limb, both in men and 
women. 2 

Then Sundari, the moment she beheld Gunasarman, 
longed eagerly to drink him in with her eyes, as the female 
partridge longs to drink the moon. Then Agnidatta said in 
private to Gunasarman : " Illustrious one, I give you this 
my daughter Sundari. Do not go to a foreign land ; remain 
at ease in my house." When GunaSarman heard this speech 

1 Daridryo is probably a misprint for daridro. 

2 Cf. Thiselton Dyer's English Folk-Lore, p. 280. He remarks : " A 
belief was formerly current throughout the country in the significance of 
moles on the human body. When one of these appeared on the upper 
side of the right temple above the eye, to a woman it signified good and 
happy fortune by marriage." This superstition was especially believed in in 
Nottingham, as we learn from the following lines, which, says Mr Briscoe 
(author of Nottinghamshire Facts and Fictions), were often repeated by a poor 
girl at Bunny : 

" I have a mole above my right eye, 
And I shall be a lady before I die. 
As things may happen, as things may fall, 
Who knows but that I may be Lady of Bunny Hall ? " 

The poor girl's hopes, it is stated, were ultimately realised, and she 
became " Lady of Bunny Hall." See Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. hi, 
pp. 252-255. See Vol. I, p. 49\ for a short note on moles. n.m.p. 


of his, he said to him : " True, I should be happy to do so, 
but as I have been on a false charge scorched with the fire 
of the king's contempt, it does not please me. A lovely 
woman, the rising of the moon, and the fifth note of a lute, 
these delight the happy but afflict the miserable. And a 
wife who falls in love of her own accord with a man is sure 
to be chaste, but if she is given away by her father against 
her will she will be like A^okavatl. 1 Moreover, the city of 
Ujjayini is near to this place, so the king may perhaps hear 
of my whereabouts and oppress me. So I will wander round 
to holy places, and will wash off the stains of sin contracted 
ever since my birth, and will abandon this body, then I shall 
be at rest." 

When he said this, Agnidatta answered him, smiling : 
" If even you show so much infatuation, what are we to 
expect from others ? What annoyance can you, a man of 
, pure character, derive from the contempt of a 

is dissuaded iool ? Mud thrown at the heaven falls upon the 
from com- head of the thrower. The king will soon reap the 
mi mg.u e ^gjj. Q f j^g wan t f discrimination, for Fortune 
does not long wait upon a man blind with infatuation 
and wanting in discrimination. Besides, if you are dis- 
gusted with women from your experience of Asokavatl, 
do you not feel respect for them on beholding a good 
woman, for you know signs ? And even though Ujjayini 
be near this place, where you are now, I will take steps to 
prevent anyone's knowing that you are here. But if you 
desire to make a pilgrimage to sacred places, then I say : 
that is approved by the wise only for a man who cannot, 
according to the scriptures, attain happiness by performing 
the actions enjoined by the Vedas ; but he who can acquire 
merit by offerings to the gods, to the manes of deceased 
ancestors and to the fire, by vows and muttering prayers, 
what is the use of his wandering about on pilgrimages ? A 
pilgrim whose pillow is his arm, who sleeps upon the ground, 
and lives on alms, and drinks only water, is not free from 

1 Speyer (op. cii., p. 165) conjectures svavasa as the correct reading of 
svarasa, thus bringing out the contrast of the forced marriage and the 
love-match. n.m.p. 


cares, even though he has attained equality with hermits. 
And as for your desiring to abandon the body, 1 in this 
wise you are also led astray, for in the next world suicides 
suffer more severe pains than here. An unbecoming fault 
and folly is not to be committed by one so young and 
wise : decide for yourself : you must certainly do what I 
tell you. I will have made for you here a spacious and 
beautiful subterranean dwelling; marry Sundari, and live 
at ease in it." 

When he was thus diligently schooled by Agnidatta, 
GunaSarman agreed to his proposal, and said to him : " I 
accept your offer; for who would abandon a wife like 
Sundari ? 2 But I will not marry this your daughter till 
I have accomplished my ends. In the meanwhile I will 
propitiate some god with strict asceticism, in order that 
I may be revenged on that ungrateful monarch." 

When he said this, Agnidatta gladly consented, and 
Gunasarman rested there in comfort during the night. And 
the next day Agnidatta had a secret subterranean dwelling 
constructed for his comfort, called Patalavasati. 3 

And while he was there Gunasarman said in secret to 
Agnidatta : " Tell me, what god, granting boons to his 
worshippers, shall I propitiate here by performing vows, 
And after an d what spell shall I use ? " When the brave 
performing man said that, Agnidatta answered him : "I 
have a spell for propitiating the god Svamikum- 
ara, which was told me by a teacher ; so with that propitiate 
the general of the gods, the foe of Taraka, desiring whose 
birth the gods, oppressed by their enemies, sent Kama to 
Siva (and he, after burning him up, decreed that henceforth 
he should be born in the mind), whose origin they say was 
various, from Siva, from the fire-cavity, from fire, from the 

1 I read dehatyagam and vanchasi. There are also two other improve- 
ments in the D. text. In si. 229 read tadesha for na dosho, and in //. 231 
jnato should be added between yatha and icchasi. Speyer (p. 121) would trans- 
late : " And as for your striving for happiness by abandoning the body . . . 
Therefore, this folly is unbecoming to one so young and wise as you are ; 
decide for yourself ... at ease in it unknown." n.m.p. 

* I.e. " beautiful." There is a pun here. 

8 Patala = Hades i.e. the world below; vasati = dwelling. 


thicket of reeds and from the Krittikas, and who, as soon as 
he was born, made the whole world bend by his irresistible 
might, and slew the unconquered Asura Taraka." 

Then Gunagarman said : " Tell me that spell." And 
Agnidatta gave Guna^arman that spell. With it Guna- 
garman propitiated Skanda in the subterranean dwelling, 
unremitting in his vow, waited upon by Sundari. Then the 
six-faced god appeared to him in visible form and said : " I 
am pleased with you ; choose a boon. 1 . . . You shall possess 
an inexhaustible treasury, and, after conquering Mahasena, 
you shall, my son, advance irresistibly and rule the earth." 
After giving him this great boon Skanda disappeared, 
Marries and Guna^arman obtained inexhaustible treasure. 

Sundari Then the successful hero married, according to 

the prescribed rites, with splendour suited to his greatness, 
the daughter of the Brahman Agnidatta, who fell more in 
love with him every day, like his future good fortune in 
affairs come to him in bodily form. 

And then having collected, by virtue of his surpassing 
accumulation of inexhaustible treasure, an army consisting 
of many horses, elephants and foot- soldiers, he marched to 
Ujjayini, overrunning the earth with the forces of all the 
kings that crowded to his banner out of gratitude for his 
gifts. And after proclaiming there to the subjects that 
immodest conduct of AgokavatI, and after conquering King 
Mahasena in battle, and deposing him from the throne, 
he obtained the dominion of the earth. And King Guna- 
garman married many daughters of kings besides Sundari, 
and his orders were obeyed even on the shores of the sea, 
and with Sundari as his consort he long enjoyed pleasures to 
his heart's content. 

62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyddharas 

4 Thus King Mahasena, in old time, suddenly incurred 
calamity through being unable to discriminate the character 
of men, being a man of dull intellect, but the clear-headed 

1 Here Brockhaus supposes a hiatus. 


Gunas*arman, with the help of his own resolute character 
alone, obtained the highest prosperity." 

After Suryaprabha had heard this chivalrous tale at night 
from the mouth of his minister Vltabhiti, the royal hero, 
who was longing to traverse the great sea of battle, gained 
great confidence, and gradually dropped off to sleep. 



The " women whose love is scorned " motif has already been discussed in 
Vol. II, pp. 120- 124. The story of Gunasarman and Queen A^okavatl, in our 
present text (p. 87 et seq.), is a very good example of the motif, and closely 
resembles in its main outline that of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. It is 
interesting to note that in the Biblical (Authorised Version) story it is 
Joseph's skill in the interpretation of dreams that ultimately gets him out 
of prison and advances him so high in Pharaoh's estimation. So, too, it 
is Gunasarman' s skill that makes him so valuable and trusted a minister to 

There is, however, one great difference in the two tales. In the Indian 
story (and in practically every variant) the husband figures throughout, and 
finally discovers the truth. In the Biblical story the sudden interest of 
Pharaoh occurs quite by chance, and, without any questioning as to the cause 
of his imprisonment, Joseph is set over all the land of Egypt. We hear no 
more of Potiphar or his wife. 

Now, in the Koranic version, Potiphar is soon convinced that his wife's 
charge is false, because Joseph's garment is torn at the back. Accordingly he 
says : " O Joseph, take no further notice of this affair : and thou, O woman, 
ask pardon for thy crime, for thou art a guilty person." 

The scandal soon becomes the one topic of conversation among the 
women of the town, and to quiet them Potiphar's wife asks a number of them 
to a banquet, giving them each a knife. She then calls in Joseph, and, over- 
come by his beauty, they all cut their hands, exclaiming : " O God ! this is 
not a mortal ; he is no other than an angel deserving the highest respect." 
Thus her weakness for him is duly appreciated. 

In spite, however, of Joseph's proved innocence, it is thought better for 
him to be put in prison and thus the incident of dreams can be introduced. 

It was this Koranic version which Firdausi used for his Yusuf u Zulaikhd, 
a poem of 9000 couplets. 

Since the issue of Vol. II Professor Bloomfield has forwarded me a most 
valuable paper by himself on "Joseph and Potiphar in Hindu Fiction," which 
appeared in the Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc., vol. liv, 1923, pp. 141-167. Among 
others he speaks of the Kashmir version of the story now translated in Stein and 
Grierson's Hatim's Tales, pp. 33-37, with notes on pp. xxxiv and xxxv by Crooke. 

The chief point to notice in this version is the introduction of the motif 
of selecting a king by animal divination. I shall have more to say on this 
motif in Vol. V (Chaper LXV), where an elephant selects the merchant's son 
as king. 

The references given on p. 145 to the Mahdbharata have suffered from 
misprints. The incident of Satyavati and Bhlshma occurs in I, ciii, 1 et seq., 
and not I, liv, while that of Uttanka is to be found in I, iii. 

On p. l6l the variant of the Joseph motif in the Katha Sarit Sdgara 
should read xxxiii, 40 et seq. 


After giving extracts from several references mentioned in my note in 
Vol. II (pp. 120-124), Professor Bloomfield draws attention to the fact that the 
Jaina texts handle the " scorned love of women " motif more familiarly than 
any other branch of Hindu literature, in connection with their ethics, which 
are systematised to a degree not quite reached by any other Hindu religious 
sect. Among the five lighter vows (anutrala) to be observed as far as possible 
by the laity are discernment (t'iveka) and unbroken chastity (abrahmavirati) ; 
both forbid adultery, and consequently the Jaina texts contain stories showing 
the downfall of the wrongdoer and the ultimate triumph of chastity. 

Of the extracts quoted the most interesting story and the one in 
which the motif is developed to its highest point is undoubtedly that in 
Vijayadharmasuri's Mallinatha Caritra, vii, 198 et seq. As the circulation of 
the Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc, unfortunately appears to be small in England, I 
will quote Professor Bloomfield's account of the story in full : 

In Cam pa rules King Dadhivahana with his queen, Abhaya, who is 
attended by a sly duenna, named Pandita. In the same city lives a rich 
merchant, Vrishabhadasa (or Rishabhadasa), whose wife ArhaddasI bears him 
a son who is called Sudarsana, " Handsome." After growing into manhood, 
endowed with every bodily and spiritual perfection, he is married to a lovely 
maiden of good family, Manorama. After his father takes the Jaina vow 
(diksha), he is left in possession of all his belongings, and lives as a Sraddha 
of high quality, honoured alike by the king and his fellow-citizens. 

Now Sudarsana has an intimate friend, Kapila, chaplain (purodha) of the 
king. His beautiful wife, Kapila, clever, and endowed with the sixty-four 
accomplishments of a well-born lady, is rendered wayward by youth's love- 
fervour. One day Kapila praises his friend Sudarsana as " a galaxy of virtues, 
delightful even to the gods." From that moment Kapila knows no peace in 
her desire to see Sudarsana. Her husband happens to go to another town 
on the business of the king ; she scents opportunity, and instructs a duenna 
of hers to go to Sudarsana, and say to him that his friend, her husband, is 
sick ; why does he not come to make inquiry about him ? Sudarsana tenderly 
hastens over and says: "Wife of my brother, where is my brother?" She 
tells him that he is asleep in his chamber, let him quickly go there. Finding 
that his friend is not there, he reproves her : " Wife of my brother, why do 
you fool me like a child ? " She bares her heart, navel, breasts, and from her 
eyes dart the missiles of Kama upon him. She says : " From the moment 
that I heard an account of your beauty and all your other excellences, I have 
burned with the love of you. Quench my body with the ambrosia of your 
beauty, else it shall become a heap of ashes in the fire of Kandarpa." 
Craftily Sudarsana holds her off by claiming that he is a eunuch, though he 
goes about in the garb of a man. He makes his escape, reflecting that it is 
not safe to go to another's house whose inmates may be full of guile. 

Comes spring, when King Love awakes from his slumbers, when groves 
are alive with bees and birds, and on the branches of every tree hangs a 
pleasure-swing. To disport themselves in such a grove come King Dadhivahana 
and his retinue ; Sudarsana in all his beauty ; the Brahman Kapila with his 


wife Kapila ; Queen Abhaya ; and also Manorama, Sudarsana's wife, with 
her four children. When Kapila sees Manorama playing about, she asks her 
friend, Queen Abhaya, who she may be, and learns that Manorama and her 
children are Sudarsana's family. Kapila exclaims : " Gracious me, how clever 
are the wives of merchants ! Her husband is a eunuch ; however came the 
children ? As easily would a lotus grow in the sky, or the wind be tied up 
in the knot of a garment " [the ordinary Hindu pocket]. When the queen 
asks her to explain, she relates her escapade with Sudarsana. The queen 
laughs at her, and teases her by saying that though she thinks herself wise, 
she does not understand the true meaning of the science of love {kamasastrartha). 
" This merchant is ever a eunuch towards the beautiful loves of other men, 
as though they be sisters, but not towards his own wife. You have been 
tricked by the guile of this cunning man, you foolish woman." Kapila 
acknowledges the scorn, and at the same time points out ironically, we may 
guess, that the queen is brilliant with skill in the kamasastra. She therefore 
challenges her to try her hand : " I shall know for certain your cleverness in 
matters of love, if, O Queen, you shall make Sudarsana sport with you, without 
shame, just as if he were the king." 

Queen Abhaya accepts the dare, returns to the palace, and holds counsel 
with her old confidential nurse Pandita. She bids her play some deceptive 
trick (kaitavanataka) which would bring her together with Sudarsana. The 
duenna remonstrates : it is not proper that she, the beloved of the king, 
should do a thing which works mischief both in this and the next world. 
Moreover, Sudarsana is a pious householder, who regards others' wives as 
sisters (paranafisahodara). How is he to be brought to the palace like a 
noble elephant from the forest ? Yea, if he should come, he would not do 
as the queen desires. The queen insists that she has bet with Kapila, and 
the nurse finally proposes the following device : Sudarsana is in the habit 
of fasting on each day of the four changes of the moon, standing silently in 
some public place in the abstracted kayotsarga posture. She will then wrap 
him in the folds of her garment ; lead him roundabout two or three times ; 
and introduce him into the palace by pretending to the door-guards that he 
is an image of Kandarpa, the God of Love. All this happens as planned. 
When Queen Abhaya sees him, she begins to agitate him with the unfeathered 
yet sharp darts from her side-wise coquettish eyes. She asks him to take 
pity, and bestow upon her the ambrosial paradise pleasure of his embraces : 
"To what purpose do you, foolish man, practise the rigours of asceticism, 
now that you have me, who would be hard to reach even by ascetic vows." 
And afterwards : " Why do you spurn me, an unprotected female, that is 
being slain by the arrows of the God of Love ? Surely you can take pity 
on a woman. Thinking of you, my days became long as a hundred Kalpas ; 
my nights long as days of Brahma. In my far-roving dreams I have you 
before my eyes in a thousand shapes, single-shaped though you be." 

But dharma-devoted Sudarsana firmly spurns her. Abhaya keeps on all 
night, luring him with her body's charms and with artful songs. Dawn, 
gathering up the darkness with her hands (rays), rises, as if for the express 
purpose of looking at Sudarsana, pure in devotion to his wife. 


Sudarsana's obduracy drives Abhaya to threats : "This vow of yours shall 
not block fate ! I shall now tear my body with crores of nail scratches, and 
make a wild outcry [phutkarishyetaram]." When yet he is not shaken, she 
rouses the palace with her shrieks for devoted as well as disaffected women 
both kill : " Hear, ye guards. This fellow, forcibly bent upon showing me 
love, is tearing me with his sharp nails. Run quickly, run ! " The king 
comes to the spot, asks Sudarsana what he has to say, but he stands silent. 
The king orders him to be impaled upon a stake. To the ear-piercing cry of 
" Runner after other men's wives ! " the executioners set him on the back 
of an ass, a nimba-leaf turban upon his head, his body smeared with soot. 
Bitterly they mock him as they exhibit him through the great city, on the 
way to the " grove of the Fathers " i.e. the cemetery which is the place of 
execution. But Sudarsana keeps thinking on the fivefold obeisance to the 
Jaina Saviours (Arhats), the paiicanamaskrti. 

Now Manorama, Sudarsana's noble wife, hears his evil story. She does 
not believe that her wise, law-abiding and chaste husband can have made 
advances to the king's chief wife, but, on the contrary, suspects her of a trick, 
because, empty of soul, though lovely outside, she is a very treasury of guile. 
What will not an impure woman do when thwarted in her desires ? A woman 
loosed from the scabbard of her modesty becomes a fear-inspiring sword. 
Manorama then bathes, puts on white robes, and without delay worships an 
image of the Arhat. Before the Arhat's executive female divinity she makes 
by proxy a truth-declaration in behalf of her husband : " If this Sudarsana is 
indifferent to the wives of others, then let me be united with him at once ! " 

By the force of Manorama's spiritual power the Arhat's ancillary divinity 
arrives at the place of execution, where Sudarsana sits impaled upon the stake. 
She turns the stake into a throne. When the executioners hold their sharp 
swords to Sudarsana's throat, these turn into garlands, lovely with bees 
buzzing about them. The rope around his neck becomes a jewelled necklace. 
She produces by her magic a rock which she holds over the city, like a lid 
about to shut down on it. The divinity threatens to let down the rock upon 
sinful king, retinue and citizens alike. She chides the king for not having 
understood the character of his wife, and compels him to expiate his sin by 
placing Sudarsana upon a noble elephant, and holding, like an umbrella-bearer, 
the royal umbrella over his head. Thus Sudarsana, to the exultant shouts of 
the citizens, lauded by bards, to the beat of festal drums, returns to his home. 
The king then takes holy vows, but Abhaya hangs herself, and is reborn as a 
Vyantara demon. The pander-nurse, Pandita, flees to Pataliputra, where she 
lives in the house of the courtesan Devadatta. 

On p. 154 of his article on the " Potiphar" motif Bloomfield gives several 
other references to Jaina works. n.m.p. 


62. Story of Suryaprabha and how he attained Sovereignty 
over the Vidyddharas 

THEN Suryaprabha and his ministers rose up early 
in the morning and, accompanied by all the troops 
of the Danavas and their allies, went to the field 
of battle. And Srutasarman came, surrounded by all the 
forces of the Vidyadharas ; and all the gods, Asuras and 
others again came to look on. Both armies adopted the 
crescent formation, then there took place a battle between 
those two armies. The swift arrows, 1 winged with feathers, 
clashing against one another and cutting one another in 
pieces, also fought. The long sword-blades issued from the 
mouths of the scabbards, and drinking blood, and waving to 
and fro, appeared like the tongues of Death. The field of 
battle seemed like a lake, the full-blown lotuses of which were 
the faces of many heroes ; on those the shower of discuses 
descended like a flight of Brahmany ducks and so ruined the 
kingly swans. The combat appeared, with the severed heads 
of heroes flying up and down, like a game of ball, with which 
Death was amusing himself. When the arena of combat was 
cleared from the obscuring dust by the sprinkling of bloody 
drops, there took place on it the single combats of furious 
champions. 2 There Suryaprabha fought with Srutasarman, 
and Prabhasa fought with Damodara, and Siddhartha fought 
with Mahotpata, and Prahasta with Brahmagupta, and 
Vitabhi with Sangama, and Prajnadhya with Chandragupta, 
and Priyankara with Akrama, and Sarvadamana fought with 
Atibala, and Kunjarakumaraka fought with Dhurandhara, 
and other great champions fought with others respectively. 

1 Savara should probably be saraka. The D. text has proved Tawney's 

conjecture correct. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. the descriptions of similar battles with the Jann in the Nights 
(Burton, vol. ii, pp. 253, 271 ; vol. vii, p. 31, and vol. viii, p. 136). n.m.i. 



Then first Mahotpata silenced the arrows of Siddhartha 
with his arrows, and after cleaving his bow, slew his horses 
and charioteer. Siddhartha, though deprived of his chariot, 
The Single charged him angrily, and with a large iron mace 
Combats broke in pieces his chariot and horses. Then 

Siddhartha fought on foot with Mahotpata also on foot, and 
in a wrestling bout hurled him to the ground. But while 
he was trying to crush him, that Vidyadhara was delivered 
by his father, Bhaga, and flying up into the air left the 
battle-field. And Prahasta and Brahmagupta destroyed one 
another's chariots, and then fought with swords, showing 
various arts of fence ; and Prahasta cleft his foe's shield 
in the course of their sword-play, and with a dexterous 
sleight laid him low on the earth ; but when he was about 
to cut off his head as he lay on the ground he was forbidden 
by his father Brahma himself by a sign from a distance ; 
then all the Danavas laughed the gods to scorn, saying : 
" You gods have come to save your sons, not to behold 
the fray." 

In the meanwhile Vitabhaya, after cutting in two the 
bow of Sankrama, and slaying his charioteer, slew him by 
piercing his heart with the weapon of Kama. And Praj- 
nadhya, fighting on foot with Chandragupta, sword to 
sword, after both their chariots had been destroyed, killed 
him by cutting off his head. Then the Moon, angry at 
the death of his son, himself came and fought with Praj- 
nadhya, and the two combatants were evenly matched. 
And Priyankara, who had also had his chariot destroyed, 
cut him in two with one blow of his sword. And Sarva- 
damana easily killed Atibala in fight, for when his bow was 
cleft he threw his elephant hook and smote him in the 

Then Kunjarakumaraka in a contest, in which missiles 
were opposed by answering missiles, frequently deprived 
Dhurandhara of his chariot, and as frequently VikramaSakti 
brought him a chariot, and defended him in sore straits, 
repelling weapons with weapons ; then Kunjarakumaraka 
in wrath rushed forward and swiftly hurled a great rock 
on to the chariot of Vikrama^akti, and, when Vikrama^akti 


retired with broken chariot, he crushed Dhurandhara with 
that very stone. 1 . . . 

Then Suryaprabha, while fighting with SrutaSarman, being 
angry on account of the slaughter of Virochana, killed Dama 
with one arrow. Enraged at that, the two AsVins descended 
to the combat, but Sunitha received them with showers of 
arrows, and a great fight took place between him and them. 
And Sthirabuddhi slew Parakrama in fight with a javelin, 
and then fought with the eight Vasus enraged on account 
of his death. And Prabhasa, seeing Bhasa deprived of his 
chariot, though himself engaged in fighting with Damodara, 
killed Mardana with one arrow. The Danava Prakampana 
killed Tejahprabha in a missile combat, and then fought with 
the God of Fire enraged on account of his death. And 
when Dhumraketu had slain Yamadamshtra in fight he had 
a terrible combat with the enraged Yama. 2 And Simha- 
damshtra, having crushed Suroshana with a stone, fought 
with Nirriti 3 enraged on account of his death. Kalachakra 
also cut Vayubala in two with a discus, and then fought 
with Vayu 4 inflamed with rage thereat. And Mahamaya 
slew Kuveradatta, who deluded his foes by assuming the 
forms of a snake, a mountain and a tree, assuming himself 
the forms of Garuda, of the thunderbolt and of fire. Then 
Kuvera 6 himself fought with him in wrath. In the same 
way all the gods fought, angry on account of the slaughter 
of their sons. And then various other princes of the Vidya- 
dharas were slain by various men and Danavas, darting 
forward from time to time. 

And in the meanwhile a conflict went on between 
Prabhasa and Damodara, terrible from its unceasing 
exchange of missiles. Then Damodara, though his bow was 
cleft asunder and his charioteer slain, took another bow and 
fought on, holding the reins in his own hands. And when 

1 Here Brockhaus supposes a hiatus but this is wrong ; there is no 

gap. The D. text also reads straight on. n.m.p. 
1 The God of Death. 

* I.e. Destruction (a goddess of death and corruption). 

* I.e. the God of the Wind. 
The God of Wealth. 


Brahma applauded him Indra said to him : " Revered one, 
why are you pleased with one who is getting the worst of 
it ? " Then Brahma answered him : " How can I help 
The Prowess being pleased with one who fights for so long 
of Prabhasa with this Prabhasa ? Who but Damodara, who is 
a portion of Hari, would do this ? For all the gods would 
be a scant match for Prabhasa in fight. For that Asura 
Namuchi, who was so hard for the gods to subdue, and who 
was then born again as Prabala, one entire and perfect 
jewel, has now been born as the invincible Prabhasa, son of 
Bhasa, and Bhasa too was in a former birth the great Asura 
Kalanemi, who afterwards became Hiranyakasipu and then 
Kapinjala. And Siiryaprabha is the Asura who was called 
Sumundika. And the Asura who was before called Hiran- 
yaksha is now this Sunitha. And as for Prahasta and others, 
they are all Daityas and Danavas ; and since the Asuras 
slain by you have been born again in these forms, the other 
Asuras, Maya and others, have espoused their cause. And 
see, Bali has come here to look on, for his bonds have been 
broken by virtue of the great sacrifice to Siva, duly performed 
by Siiryaprabha and others, but, keeping his promise faith- 
fully, he remains content with the realm of Patala until your 
allotted period of rule is at an end, and then he will be Indra. 
These are now favoured by Siva, so it is not now a time of 
victory for you ; make peace with your foes." ' 

While Brahma was saying this to the king of gods, Pra- 
bhasa sent forth the great weapon of Siva. When Vishnu saw 
that terrible all- destroying weapon let loose, he also sent 
forth, out of regard for his son, his discus called Sudarsana. 
Then there took place between those divine weapons, which 
had assumed visible shape, a struggle which made the three 
worlds dread a sudden destruction of all creatures. Then 
Hari said to Prabhasa : " Recall your weapon and I will 
recall mine." And Prabhasa answered him : " My weapon 
cannot be launched in vain, so let Damodara turn his back 
and retire from the fight, and then I will recall my weapon." 

1 For B.'s reading, vigrakaih, the D. text has kirn grahaih, " What is the use 
of fighting ? " This is literal and seems correct, while T.'s translation is not a 
true rendering. n.m.p. 


When Prabhasa said that, Vishnu answered : " Then do 
you also honour my discus ; let not either of these weapons 
be fruitless." When Vishnu said this, Prabhasa, who 
possessed tact, said : " So be it ; let this discus of thine 
destroy my chariot." Vishnu agreed, and made Damodara 
retire from the fight, and Prabhasa withdrew his weapon, 
and the discus fell on his chariot. Then he mounted another 
chariot and went to Suryaprabha, and then Damodara, for 
his part, repaired to SrutaSarman. 

And then the single combat between SrutaSarman, who 
was puffed up by being a son of Indra, and Suryaprabha 
became exceedingly fierce. Whatever weapon Srutasarman 
The Final vigorously employed, Siiryaprabha immediately 
Duel repelled with opposing weapons. And whatever 

delusion Srutasarman employed was overmastered by Siirya- 
prabha with opposing delusion. Then Srutasarman in fierce 
wrath sent forth the weapon of Brahma, and the mighty 
Suryaprabha let loose the weapon of Siva. That mighty 
weapon of Siva repelled the weapon of Brahma, and, being 
irresistible, was overpowering Srutasarman when Indra and 
the other Lokapalas, being indignant, sent forth their tre- 
mendous weapons, beginning with thunderbolts. But the 
weapon of Siva conquered all those weapons, and blazed 
exceedingly, eager to slay SrutaSarman. Then Suryaprabha 
praised that great weapon, and entreated it not to kill 
SrutaSarman, but to take him prisoner and hand him over 
to himself. Then all the gods speedily prepared to fight, 
and the other Asuras also, who had come to look on, did the 
same, being eager to conquer the gods. 

Then a Gana named Vlrabhadra, sent by Siva, came and 
delivered this order of his to Indra and the other gods : "You 
came to look on, so what right have you to fight here ? 
The Gods Moreover, your overstepping the bounds of pro- 
join in the priety will produce other bad results." When the 
gods heard that, they said : " All of us have sons 
here that have been slain, or are being slain, so how can we 
help fighting ? l Love for one's offspring is a feeling hard 
to lay aside, so we must certainly revenge ourselves on their 

1 Cf. Homer's Iliad, Book XV, 1 13-141. 


slayers to the utmost of our power ; what impropriety is 
there in this ? " 

When the gods said this, Virabhadra departed, and a great 
fight took place between the gods and the Asuras : Sunitha 
fought with the two AsVins, and Prajnadhya fought with the 
Moon, and Sthirabuddhi with the Vasus, and Kalachakra 
with Vayu, and Prakampana with Agni, and Simhadamshtra 
with Nirriti, and Pramathana with Varuna, and Dhumra- 
ketu with Yama, and then Mahamaya fought with the God 
of Wealth, and other Asuras x at the same time fought 
with other gods, with missiles and opposing missiles. And 
finally, whatever mighty weapon any god sent forth Siva 
immediately destroyed with an angry roar. But the God 
of Wealth, when his club was uplifted, was restrained by 
Siva in a conciliatory manner, while various other gods, their 
weapons having been broken, fled from the field of battle. 
Then Indra himself, in wrath, attacked Suryaprabha, and 
let fly a storm of arrows at him and various other weapons. 
And Suryaprabha repelled those weapons with ease, and 
kept striking Indra with hundreds of arrows drawn back to 
the ear. 

Then the king of the gods, enraged, seized his thunder- 
bolt, and Siva made an angry noise and destroyed that 
thunderbolt. Then Indra turned his back and fled, and 
TheFight of ^ e Narayana himself, in wrath, attacked Prabhasa 
Two Mighty with sharp- edged a arrows. And he fearlessly 
Weapons fought with him, opposing those and other 
missiles with his own missiles; and when his horses were 
slain, and he was deprived of his chariot, he ascended 
another, and still fought with that enemy of the Daityas 
on equal terms. Then the god, enraged, sent forth 
his flaming discus. And Prabhasa sent forth a heavenly 
sword, after consecrating it with magic formulas. While 
those two weapons were contending, Siva, seeing that the 
sword was gradually being overpowered by the discus, made 
an angry roar. That caused the discus and sword to be 
both destroyed. 

1 For anyonyais I read anye'anyais. 

2 Or perhaps with arrows having ten million points. 


Then the Asuras rejoiced, and the gods were cast down, 
as Suryaprabha had obtained the victory, and SrutaSarman 
was taken prisoner. Then the gods praised and propitiated 
Sim stop* Siva, and the husband of Ambika, being pleased, 
the Fight gave this command to the gods : " Ask any boon 
but that promised to Suryaprabha. Who can set aside 
what has once been promised at a burnt-sacrifice ? ' The 
gods said : " But, Lord, let that also which we promised 
to SrutaSarman be fulfilled, and let not our sons perish." 
Then they ceased, and the Holy Lord thus commanded 
them : " When peace is made, let that be so ; and this is 
the condition of peace : let Srutas*arman with all his retinue 
do homage to Suryaprabha. Then we will issue a decree 
which shall be for the weal of both." 

The gods acquiesced in this decision of Siva's, and made 
SrutaSarman do homage to Suryaprabha. Then they re- 
nounced their enmity, and embraced one another; and the 
gods and Asuras also laid aside their enmity, and made peace 
with one another. Then, in the hearing of the gods and 
Asuras, the holy Siva said this to Suryaprabha : " You 
must rule yourself in the southern half-vedi, but the northern 
half- vedi give to Srutasarman. For you are destined, my 
son, soon to receive the fourfold sovereignty of all the 
sky-goers, Kinnaras and all. And when you receive this, 
as you will in a distinguished position, you must also give 
the southern half-vedi to Srikunjarakumara. And as for 
the heroes slain on both sides in the battle, let them all 
rise up alive with unwounded limbs." After saying this, 
Siva disappeared, and all those heroes who were slain in 
that battle rose up unwounded, as if they had awaked from 

Then Suryaprabha, the tamer of his foes, intent on 
observing the command of Siva, went to a remote extensive 
plain, and, sitting in full court, himself made Srutasarman, 
Peace and wno cam e to him, sit down on half of his throne. 
Friendship is And his companions, headed by Prabhasa, and 
proclaimed Srutagarman's companions, headed by Damo- 
dara, sat at the side of the two princes. And Sunitha 
and Maya, and the other Danavas, and the kings of 


the Vidyadharas too sat on seats in order of precedence. 
Then the Daityas, who were kings of the seven Patalas, 
headed by Prahlada, and the kings of the Danavas, came 
there out of joy. And Indra came with the Lokapalas, 
preceded by Brihaspati, and the Vidyadhara Sumeru with 
Suvasakumara. And all the wives of Kasyapa came, headed 
by Danu, and the wives of Suryaprabha in the chariot 
Bhutasana. When they had all sat down, after showing 
one another affection, and going through the prescribed 
courtesies, a friend of Danu's, named Siddhi, spoke to them 
as from her : " gods and Asuras, the goddess Danu says 
this to you : ' Say, if you have ever felt before the joy and 
satisfaction which we all feel in this friendly meeting ! so 
you ought not to wage against one another war, which is 
terrible on account of the sorrow it produces. Hiranyaksha 
and those other older Asuras, who waged it to obtain the 
empire of heaven, have passed away, and Indra is now 
the eldest, so what cause is there for enmity ? ' So let 
your antagonism drop, and be happy, in order that I 
may be pleased, and the prosperity of the worlds may be 

When they had heard this address of the revered Danu, 
uttered by the mouth of Siddhi, Brihaspati, Indra having 
looked him in the face, said to her : " The gods entertain no 
design against the Asuras, and are willing to be friends with 
them, unless they display a treacherous animosity against the 
gods." When the preceptor of the gods said this, Maya, 
the King of the Danavas, said : " If the Asuras entertained 
any animosity, how could Namuchi have given to Indra the 
horse Uchchaihsravas that resuscitates the dead ? And how 
could Prabala have given his own body to the gods ? And 
how could Bali have given the three worlds to Vishnu, 
and himself have gone to prison ? Or how could Ayodeha 
have given his own body to Visvakarman ? What more 
shall I say ? The Asuras are ever generous, and if they are 
not treacherously injured they cherish no animosity." When 
the Asura Maya had said this, Siddhi made a speech, which 
induced the gods and Asuras to make peace and embrace 
one another. 


In the meanwhile a female warder, named Jay a, 1 sent by 
Bhavani, came there and was honoured by all, and she said 
to Sumeru : "I am sent by the goddess Durga to you, and 
The Arrival she gives you this order : ' You have an un- 
of Jm/ti married daughter named Kamachudamani ; give 

her quickly to Suryaprabha, for she is a votary of mine.' : 
When Jaya, said this to Sumeru, he bowed, and answered 
her : "I will do as the goddess Durga commands me, for 
this is a great favour to me, and this very thing was long 
ago enjoined on me by the god Siva." When Sumeru 
answered Jaya on this wise, she said to Suryaprabha : " You 
must set Kamachudamani above all your wives, and she 
must be respected by you more than all the others ; this is 
the order given to you to-day by the goddess Gauri, being 
propitious to you." 

When Jaya had said this she disappeared, after hav- 
ing been honoured by Suryaprabha. And Sumeru quickly 
fixed upon an auspicious moment in that same day for the 
The Beauteous marriage, and he had an altar made there, with 
Kdmarku- pillars and pavement of refulgent jewels, furnished 
with fire that seemed, as it were, eclipsed by their 
rays. And he summoned there his daughter Kamachudamani, 
whose beauty was greedily drunk in by the eager eyes of 
gods and Asuras. Her loveliness was like that of Uma ; and 
no wonder; for if Parvati was the daughter of Himalaya, 
she was the daughter of Sumeru. Then he made her ascend 
the altar, fully adorned, resplendent from the ceremony of 
the marriage-thread, and then Suryaprabha took the lotus- 
hand of Kamachudamani, on which bracelets had been 
fastened by Danu and the other ladies. And when the 
first handful of parched grain 2 was thrown into the fire Jaya 
immediately came and gave her an imperishable celestial 
garland sent by Bhavani; and then Sumeru bestowed price- 
less jewels, and an excellent elephant of heavenly breed, 
descended from Airavata. And at the second throwing of 
parched grain Jaya bestowed a necklace, of such a kind 
that, as long as it is upon a person's neck, hunger, thirst 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 6, 7, 85. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Thiselton Dyer's English Folk-Lore, p. 203. 


and death cannot harm them ' ; and Sumeru gave twice 
as many jewels as before, and a matchless horse descended 
from Uchchaihsravas. And at the third throwing of grain 
Jaya gave a single string of jewels, such that, as long as 
it is on the neck, youth does not wither ; and Sumeru gave 
a heap of jewels three times as large as the first, and gave a 
heavenly pearl that bestowed all kinds of magic powers upon 
its possessor. 

Then, the wedding being over, Sumeru said to all present : 
44 Gods, Asuras, Vidyadharas, mothers of the gods, and all, 
to-day all of you must eat in my house ; you must do me 
this honour; I entreat you with palms folded above my 
head." They were all inclined to refuse Sumeru's invitation, 
but in the meanwhile Nandin arrived ; he said to them, who 
bowed humbly before him : " Siva commands you to feast 
in the house of Sumeru, for he is the god's servant, and if 
you eat his food you will be satisfied for ever." All of them, 
when they heard this from Nandin, agreed to it. 

Then there came there innumerable Ganas sent by Siva, 
under the heavenly leadership of Vinayaka, Mahakala, Vira- 
bhadra and others. They prepared a place fit for dining, and 
caused the guests to sit down in order, gods, Vidyadharas 
and men. And the divine beings, Virabhadra, Mahakala, 
Bhringin and others, ministered to them viands produced by 
Sumeru by magic, and others supplied by the cow Kama- 
dhenu, ordered to do so by Siva; and they waited upon 
every single guest according to his rank. And then there was 
a concert, charming on account of the dancing of heavenly 
nymphs, and in which the bards of the Vidyadharas kept 
continually joining out of delight. And at the end of the 
feast Nandin and the others gave them all celestial garlands, 
robes and ornaments. After they had thus honoured the 
gods and others, all the chiefs of the Ganas, Nandin and the 
others departed with all the Ganas as they had come. Then 
all the gods and Asuras, and those mothers of theirs, and 
Sruta^arman and his followers took leave of Sumeru and 
went each to his own place. But Suryaprabha and his wife, 

1 For note on magical articles see Vol. I, pp. 25-29, and Bolte, op. cit., 
Vol. I, p. 36l. N.M.P. 


accompanied by all his former wives, went in the chariot 
first to that ascetic grove of Sumeru. And he sent his 
companion Harsha to announce his success to the kings 
and to his brother Ratnaprabha. And at the close of day 
he entered the private apartments of his wife Kamachu- 
damani, in which were splendid jewelled couches, and which 
were admirably built. There he flattered her by saying : 
" Now other women dwell outside of me, but you alone live 
in my heart." Then the night and his sleep gradually came 
to an end. 

And in the morning Suryaprabha got up and went and 
paid compliments to his head wives, who were all together. 
And while they were rejecting him, as being in love with 
Preparations a new ^^ e with playfully sarcastic, sweet, affec- 
forthe tionate and bashful turns of speech, a Vidya- 

Coronatton dhara named Sushena came, announced by the 
warder, and after doing homage said to that triumphant 
king : " Your Highness, I have been sent here by all the 
princes of the Vidyadharas, the lord of Trikiita and others, 
and they make this representation to your Highness : c It 
is auspicious that your coronation should take place on 
the third day at the mountain Rishabha ; let this be 
announced to all, and let the necessary preparations be 
made.' " 

When Suryaprabha heard that, he answered the am- 
bassador : "Go and say to the King of Trikiita and the 
other Vidyadharas from me : ' Let your honours begin the 
preparations, and say yourselves what further is to be done ; 
I for my part am ready. But I will announce the day to 
all, as is fitting.' " Then Sushena departed, taking with 
him this answer. But Suryaprabha sent off his friends 
Prabhasa and the others, one by one, to invite all the gods, 
and the hermits, Yajnavalkya and others, and the kings, and 
the Vidyadharas, and the Asuras to the great festival of his 

He himself went alone to Kailasa, the monarch of moun- 
tains, in order to invite Siva and Ambika. And as he was 
ascending that mountain he saw that it gleamed white as 
ashes, looking like a second Siva to be adored by the Siddhas, 


Rishis and gods. After he had got more than half-way up 
it, and had seen that farther on it was hard to climb, he 
beheld on one side a coral door. When he found that, 
Sunaprabha though gifted with supernatural power, he could 
visits the not enter, he praised Siva with intent mind. 

Great Siva Then a man with an elephant's face opened the 
door, and said : " Come ! enter ! the holy GaneSa is satis- 
fied with you." Then Suryaprabha entered inly wondering, 
and beheld the god seated on a broad slab of jyotirasa, 1 
with one tusk, and an elephant's proboscis, in brightness 
like twelve suns, with pendent stomach, with three eyes, with 
flaming axe and club, surrounded by many Ganas with the 
faces of animals, and falling at his feet he adored him. The 
Vanquisher of Obstacles, being pleased, asked him the cause 
of his coming, and said to him with an affectionate voice : 
" Ascend by this path." 

Suryaprabha ascended by that path another five yqjanas, 
and saw another great door of ruby. And not being able 
to enter there either, he praised the god Siva by his thousand 
names with intent mind. Then the son of Skanda, called 
ViSakha, himself opened the door, proclaiming who he was, 
and introduced the prince into the interior. And Surya- 
prabha, having entered, beheld Skanda of the brightness 
of burning fire, accompanied by his five sons, like himself, 
Sakha, Visakha and their brothers, surrounded by in- 
auspicious planets and infant planets, 8 that submitted to 
him as soon as he was born, and by ten millions of Ganesas, 
prostrate at his feet. That god Karttikeya also, being 
pleased, asked the cause of his coming, and showed him the 
path by which to ascend the mountain. 

In the same manner he passed five other jewel- doors in 
succession, kept by Bhairava, Mahakala, Virabhadra, Nandin 
and Bhringin severally, each with his attendants, and at last 
he reached on the top of the mountain an eighth door of 
crystal. Then he praised Siva, and he was introduced 
courteously by one of the Rudras, and beheld that abode of 
Siva that excelled Svarga, in which blew winds of heavenly 

1 Probably some kind of sparkling gem. 

2 Said to mean planets or demons unfavourable to children. 


fragrance, in which the trees ever bore fruit and flowers, 1 in 
which the Gandharvas had begun their concert, which was 
all joyous with the dancing of Apsarases. Then, in one 
part of it, Suryaprabha beheld with joy the great god Siva, 
seated on a throne of crystal, three- eyed, trident in hand, in 
hue like unto pure crystal, with yellow matted locks, with a 
lovely half- moon for crest, adored by the holy daughter of the 
mountain, who was seated at his side. And he advanced, 
and fell at the feet of him and the goddess Durga. Then 
the adorable Hara placed his hand on his back, and made 
him rise up, and sit down, and asked him why he had come. 
And Suryaprabha answered the god : " My coronation is 
nigh at hand, therefore I desire the Lord's presence at it." 
Then Siva said to him : " Why have you gone through so 
much toil and hardship ? Why did you not think of me 
where you were, in order that I might appear there ? Be 
it so, I will be present." 

The god, who is kind to his votaries, said this, and calling 
a certain Gana, who stood near him, gave him the following 
command : " Go and take this man to the Rishabha moun- 
tain, in order that he may be crowned emperor, for that is 
the place appointed for the grand coronation of emperors 
such as he is." When the Gana had received this command 
from the holy god, he took in his lap with all respect Surya- 
prabha, who had circumambulated Siva. And he carried him 
and placed him on the Rishabha mountain by his magic 
power that very moment and then disappeared. 

And when Suryaprabha arrived there his companions 
came to him, and his wives with Kamachudamani at their 
head, and the kings of the Vidyadharas, and the gods with 
Indra, and the Asuras with Maya at their head, and Sruta- 
Sarman, and Sumeru with Suvasakumara. And Suryaprabha 
honoured them all in becoming fashion, and when he told 
the story of his interview with Siva they congratulated 

1 Cf. Odyssey, vii, 1 ] 7. The same is asserted by Palladius of the trees in 
the island of Taprobane, where the Makrobioi live. The fragment of Palladius, 
to which I refer, begins at the seventh chapter of the third book of the 
History of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, edited by Carolus Mueller. 


Then Prabhasa and the others brought the water of 
consecration with their own hands, mixed with various 
herbs, in pitchers of jewels and gold, taking it from male 
Ska arrives an( * female rivers, seas and holy places. In 
for the the meanwhile the holy Siva came there, accom- 

Coronatwn panied by Durga ; and the gods, and Asuras and 
Vidyadharas, and kings and great Rishis adored his foot. 
And while all the gods, and Danavas, and Vidyadharas 
uttered loud cries of, " Blessed be this day ! " the Rishis made 
Siiryaprabha sit on the throne, and pouring all the waters 
over him, declared him Emperor of the Vidyadharas. And 
the discreet Asura Maya joyfully fastened on his turban 
and diadem. And the drum of the gods, preceded by the 
dancing of lovely Apsarases, sounded joyfully in heaven, 
in unison with the cymbals of earth. And that assembly 
of great Rishis poured the water of consecration over Kama- 
chudamani also, and made her the appropriate queen consort 
of Siiryaprabha. 

Then, the gods and Asuras having departed, Siiryaprabha, 
the Emperor of the Vidyadharas, protracted his great 
coronation feast with his relations, friends and companions. 
And in a few days he gave to Srutasarman that northern 
half- vedi mentioned by Siva, and having obtained his other 
beloved ones, he enjoyed for a long time, together with his 
companions, the fortune of King of the Vidyadharas. 

[M] " Thus, by virtue of the favour of Siva, Siiryaprabha, 
though a man, obtained of yore the empire of the Vidya- 

Having told this story in the presence of the King of 
Vatsa, and having bowed before Naravahanadatta, Vajra- 
prabha, the King of the Vidyadharas, ascended to heaven. 
And after he had gone, that hero, King Naravahanadatta, 
together with his queen, Madanamanchuka, remained in 
the house of his father, the King of Vatsa, waiting to obtain 
the rank of Emperor of the Vidyadharas. 



WE bow before that Ganesa before whom, when 
dancing, even the mountains seem to bow, for 
they are made to stoop, owing to the earth being 
bent by the weight of Ni^umbha. 

[M] Thus Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of 
Vatsa, dwelt in Kausambi in the palace of his father, 
having heard with astonishment of the reign of the King 
of the Vidyadharas. And once on a time, having gone out 
hunting, he dismissed his army and entered a great forest, 
with Gomukha as his only companion. There the throbbing 
of his right eye indicated the approach of good fortune, 1 
and he soon heard the sound of singing, mixed with the 
notes of a heavenly lyre. After going a short distance to 
find whence the sound proceeded, he beheld a Svayambhu a 
temple of Siva, and after tying up his horse he entered it. 
And there he beheld a heavenly maiden, surrounded by 
many other lovely maidens, praising Siva with the harp. 
As soon as he saw her, with the effluent streams of her 
loveliness she disturbed his heart, as the orb of the moon 
disturbs the heart of the sea. She too looked on him with 
impassioned, loving and bashful eye, and had her mind 
solely fixed on him, and forgot to pour forth her notes. 

Then Gomukha, who read his master's soul, began to 
ask her attendants : " Who is she, and whose daughter is 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 144-145n. For a long list of lucky omens see Thurston, 
Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, 1906, pp. 239, 240, 242; and R. E. 
Enthoven, Folk-Lore of Bombay, 1924, p. 249. N.M.P. 

2 I.e. connected in some way with Buddha. See Bohtlingk and Roth s.v. 



she ? " But in the meanwhile a Vidyadhari of mature age, 
resembling her in feature, descended from heaven, preceded 
by a gleam red as gold. And she came down and sat by the 
side of that maiden, and then the maiden rose up and fell at 
her feet. And that mature dame blessed that girl, saying : 
" Obtain without impediment a husband, who shall be king 
of all the Vidyadharas." Then Naravahanadatta came to 
that gentle-looking Vidyadhari, and bowed before her, and 
after she had given him her blessing he slowly said to her : 
" Who is this maiden of thine, mother ? Tell me." Then 
that Vidyadhari said to him : " Listen, I will tell you. 

63. Story of Alankdravati 

There is on the mountain heights of the father of Gauri * 
a city named Srlsundarapura, and in it there dwells a king 
of the Vidyadharas named Alankaraslla. That lofty- souled 
king had a wife named Kanchanaprabha, and in course of 
time a son was born to the king by her. And when Uma 
announced to his father in a dream that he should be devoted 
to religion, he named him Dharmaslla. And in course of time 
that son Dharmaslla grew up to be a young man, and the 
king, having had him taught the sciences, appointed him 
Crown Prince. Then Dharmaslla, when appointed Crown 
Prince, being exclusively devoted to virtue, and self- controlled, 
delighted the subjects even more than did his father. 

Then the Queen Kanchanaprabha, the consort of King 
Alankaraslla, became pregnant again, and gave birth to 
a daughter. Then a heavenly voice proclaimed : " This 
daughter shall be the wife of the Emperor Naravahana- 
datta." Then her father gave her the name of Alankaravati, 
and the girl gradually grew like a digit of the moon. And 
in course of time she attained mature youth, and learned 
the sciences from her own father, and through devotion to the 
god Siva began to roam from temple to temple of Ills. 

In the meanwhile that brother of hers, Dharmaslla, who 
was saintly, though in the bloom of youth, said in secret 
to his father, Alankaraslla : " My father, these enjoyments, 

1 I.e. the Himalaya. 


that vanish in a moment, do not please me ; for what is 
there in this world which is not distasteful at the last ? 
Have you not heard on this point the saying of the hermit 
Worldi En- Vyasa ? 'All aggregations end in dissolution, 
joymetits are all erections end in a fall, all unions end in separa- 
but momentary tiorlj and jjf e en fe } n death.' So what pleasure 

can wise men take in these perishable objects ? Moreover, 
neither enjoyments nor heaps of wealth accompany one into 
the other world, but virtue is the only friend that never 
moves a step from one's side. Therefore I will go to the 
forest and perform a severe penance, in order by it to attain 
everlasting supreme felicity." 

When the king's son, Dharmasila, said this, his father, 
Alankarasila, was perturbed, and answered him, with tears 
in his eyes : " My son, what is this sudden delusion that has 
overtaken you while still a boy ? For good men desire a life 
of retirement after they have enjoyed their youth. This is 
the time for you to marry a wife, and rule your kingdom 
justly, and enjoy pleasures, not to abandon the world." 
When Dharmasila heard this speech of his father's, he 
answered : " There is no period for self-control or absence 
of self-control fixed by age ; anyone, even when a child, 
attains self-control if favoured by the Lord, but no bad man 
attains self-control even when old. And I take no pleasure 
in reigning, nor in marrying a wife ; the object of my life is 
to propitiate Siva by austerities." 

When the prince said this, his father, Alankarasila, seeing 
that he could not be turned from his purpose even by the 
greatest efforts, shed tears, and said : "If you, who are 
young, my son, display such freedom from passion, why 
should not I, who am an old man ? I too will go to the 
forest." He said this, and went to the world of men, and 
bestowed on Brahmans and the poor a myriad loads of gold 
and jewels. And returning to his city, he said to his wife 
Kanchanaprabha : " You must, if you wish to obey my 
commands, remain here in your own city and take care of 
that daughter of ours, AlankaravatI ; and when a year has 
passed there will be, on this very day, an auspicious moment 
for her marriage. And then I will give her in marriage to 


Naravahanadatta, and that son-in-law of mine shall be an 
emperor, and shall come to this city of ours." 

Having said this to his wife, the king made her take an 
oath, and then made her return, weeping, with her daughter, 
and himself went with his son to the forest. But his wife 
Kanchanaprabha lived in her own city with her daughter. 
What virtuous wife would disobey her husband's commands ? 
Then her daughter Alankaravati wandered about to many 
temples together with her mother, who accompanied her 
out of affection. And one day the science named Prajrlapti 
said to her : " Go to the holy places in Kas*mlra named 
Svayambhu, and there offer worship, for then you will obtain 
without difficulty, for a husband, Naravahanadatta, the sole 
emperor of all the Vidyadhara kings." 

After hearing this from the science she went with her 
mother to Kasmira, and worshipped Siva in all the holy 
places, in Nandikshetra, and Mahadevagiri, in Amarapar- 
vata, in the mountains of Suresvari, and in Vijaya, and 
Kapatesvara. After worshipping the husband of ParvatI 
in these and other holy places, that princess of the Vidya- 
dharas and her mother returned home. 

[M] " Know, auspicious youth, that this is that very 
maiden. Alankaravati, and that I am her mother Kanchana- 
prabha. And to-day she came to this temple of Siva without 
telling me. Then I, perceiving it by the Prajiiapti science, 
came here; and I was told by the same science that you 
had come here also. So marry this daughter of mine who 
has been ordained your wife by the god. And to-morrow 
arrives the day of her marriage appointed by her father, so 
return for this day, my son, to Kau^ambi, your own city. 
And we will go hence ; but to-morrow the King Alankarasila 
will come from the grove of asceticism and himself give you 
this daughter of his." 

When she said this, Alankaravati and Naravahanadatta 
were thrown into a strange state of distraction, for their 
eyes were full of tears, since their hearts could not bear that 


they should be separated from one another even for a night, 
and they were like Chakravakas when the end of the day is 
near. When Kanchanaprabha saw them in such a state, 
she said : " Why do you show such a want of self-restraint 
because you are to be separated for one night ? People who 
possess firmness endure for a long time mutual separation 
to which no termination is assigned ; hear in proof of this 
the tale of Ramabhadra and Sita. 

64. Story of Rama and Sita 

Long ago King Dasaratha, the sovereign of Ayodhya, 
had a son named Rama, the elder brother of Bharata, 
Satrughna and Lakshmana. He was a partial incarnation 
of Vishnu for the overthrow of Ravana, and he had a wife 
named Sita, the daughter of Janaka, the lady of his life. As 
fate would have it, his father handed over the kingdom to 
Bharata, and sent Rama to the forest with Sita, and Laksh- 
mana. There Ravana carried off his beloved Sita by magic, 
and took her to the city of Lanka, having slain Jatayus on 
the way. Then Rama, in his bereaved state, made Sugriva 
his friend by killing Balin, and by sending Hanuman to 
Lanka obtained news of his wife. And he crossed the sea 
by building a bridge over it, and slew Ravana, and gave the 
sovereignty of Lanka to Vibhishana, and recovered Sita. 
Then he returned from the forest, and while he was ruling 
his kingdom, that Bharata had made over to him, Sita 
became pregnant in Ayodhya. 

And while the king was roaming through the city at 
leisure, with a small retinue, to observe the actions of his 
subjects, he beheld a certain man turning his wife, whom he 
held by the hand, out of his house, and giving out that her 
fault was going to the house of another man. 1 And King 
Rama heard the wife saying to her husband : " King Rama 
did not desert his wife, though she dwelt in the house of the 
Rakshasa ; this fellow is superior to him, for he abandons 

1 This seems to agree with the story as told in the Bhagavata Puratui. 
For various forms of the Rama legend see the translation of the Uttara Rama 
Charita by M. Felix Neve. 


me for going to the house of a relation." So he went home 
afflicted, and, afraid of the slander of the people, he abandoned 
Sita in the forest. A man of reputation prefers the sorrow of 
separation to ill-repute. And Sita, languid with pregnancy, 
happened to reach the hermitage of Valmiki, and that Rishi 
comforted her, and made her take up her abode there. And 
the other hermits there debated among themselves : " Surely 
this Sita is guilty, otherwise how could her husband have 
deserted her ? So, by beholding her, everlasting pollution 
will attach to us. But Valmiki does not expel her from 
the hermitage out of pity, and he neutralises by means of 
his asceticism the pollution produced by beholding her ; so 
come, let us go to some other hermitage." When Valmiki 
perceived that, he said : " Brahmans, you need not have any 
misgivings about the matter ; I have perceived her by my 
meditation to be chaste." When, even then, they exhibited 
incredulity, Sita said to them : " Reverend sirs, test my 
purity by any means that you know of, and if I turn out to 
be unchaste let me be punished by having my head cut off." 

When the hermits heard that, they experienced an 
emotion of pity, and they said to her : " There is a famous 
bathing-place in this forest, called Tithibhasaras, for a certain 
chaste woman named Tithibhi, being falsely accused by her 
husband, who suspected her of familiarity with another man, 
in her helplessness invoked the goddess Earth and the Loka- 
palas, and they produced it for her justification. There let 
the wife of Rama clear herself for our satisfaction." 

When they said that, Sita went with them to that lake. 
And the chaste woman said : " Mother Earth, if my mind 
was never fixed even in a dream on anyone besides my 
The Act husband, may I reach the other side of the lake." 

of Truth And after saying this she entered the lake, and 
the goddess Earth appeared and, taking her in her lap, carried 
her to the other side. 1 Then all the hermits adored that 
chaste woman, and, enraged at Rama's having abandoned 
her, they desired to curse him. But Sita, who was devoted 
to her husband, dissuaded them, saying : " Do not entertain 

1 For notes on the "Act of Truth" motif see Vol. II, pp. 31-33, and 
Vol. Ill, pp. 179-182. n.m.p. 


an inauspicious thought against my husband. I beg you 
to curse my wicked self." The hermits, pleased with that 
conduct of hers, gave her a blessing which enabled her to 
give birth to a son, and she, while dwelling there, in good 
time did give birth to a son, and the hermit Valmiki gave 
him the name of Lava. 1 

One day she took the child and went to bathe, and the 
hermit, seeing that it was not in the hut, thought : " She is 
in the habit, when she goes to bathe, of leaving her child 
The Babe behind her, so what has become of the child ? 
of Grass Surely it has been carried off by a wild beast. I 
will create another, otherwise Sita, on returning from bath- 
ing, will die of grief." Under this impression, the hermit 
made a pure babe of kusa grass, resembling Lava, and placed 
him there ; and Sita, came, and seeing it, said to the hermit : 
" I have my own boy, so whence came this one, hermit ? " 
When the hermit Valmiki heard this, he told her exactly 
what had taken place, and said : " Blameless one, receive 
this second son, named Kus*a, because I by my power created 
him out of ku6a grass." When he said this to her, Sita 
brought up those two sons, Kusa and Lava, for whom Valmiki 
performed the sacraments. And those two young princes of 
the Kshatriya race, even when children, learned the use of all 
heavenly weapons and all sciences from the hermit Valmiki. 

And one day they killed a deer belonging to the hermitage, 
and ate its flesh, and made use of a linga, which Valmiki 
worshipped, as a plaything. The hermit was offended 
thereby, but at Slta's intercession he appointed for those 
youths the following expiatory penance : " Let this Lava 
go quickly and bring from the lake of Kuvera golden lotuses, 
and manddra a flowers from his garden, then worship, both 

1 The story of Genovesa in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbucher, vol. i, p. 371, 
bears a striking resemblance to that of Sita. The way in which Schmerzens- 
reich and his father retire to the forest at the end of the story is quite Indian. 
In the Greek novel of Hysminias and Hysmine the innocence of the heroine 
is tested by the fountain of Diana (Scriptores Erotici, p. 595). For parallels 
to the story of Genovesa or Genovefa see Prym and Socin, Syrische M'drchen, 
lii, and the Introduction, p. xxii. 

* One of the five trees of Paradise. For the golden lotuses see 
Chapter XXV. In Chapter LII we find trees with trunks of gold and leaves 


of you brothers, this liriga with those flowers ; in this way 
this crime of those two will be atoned for." 

When Lava heard this, he went, though a boy, to Kailasa, 
and invaded that lake and garden of Kuvera, and, after killing 
the Yakshas, brought back the lotuses and the flowers ; and 
as he was returning, being tired, he rested on the way under 
a tree. And in the meanwhile Lakshmana came that way, 
seeking a man with auspicious marks for Rama's human 
sacrifice. 1 He, according to the custom of Kshatriyas, 
challenged Lava to fight, and paralysed him by the stupefy- 
ing weapon, and, taking him prisoner, led him to the city of 

And in the meanwhile Valmiki comforted Sita, who was 
anxious about the return of Lava, and said to Kusa in his 
hermitage : " Lakshmana has taken prisoner the child Lava 
and has carried him off to Ayodhya ; go and deliver him from 
Lakshmana, after conquering him with these weapons." 

When the sage said this, and gave to Kusa a heavenly 
weapon, he went and with it attacked and besieged the 
sacrificial enclosure in Ayodhya, and he conquered in fight 
Lava meets that Lakshmana, who advanced to repel him, 
his Father by the help of those heavenly weapons. Then 
Rama advanced to meet him, and when he could not, though 
exerting himself to the utmost, conquer that Kusa, owing 
to the might of Valmiki, he asked him who he was and 
why he came. Then Kusa said : " Lakshmana has taken 
my elder brother prisoner and brought him here. I have 
come here to set him at liberty. We two are Kusa and 

and fruit of jewels. A similar tree is found in the mediaeval romance of 
King Alexander. Dunlop compares the golden vine carried away by Pompey. 
Liebrecht remarks that there was also a golden vine over the gate of the 
temple at Jerusalem, and compares the golden lotus made by the Chinese 
emperor Tunghwan. He refers also to Huon of Bordeaux, Ysaie le Triste, 
and Grimm's Kinder-und Hausmarchen, 130 and 133. (Liebrecht's Dunlop, 
p. 184.) See also Milton's Paradise Lost, iv, 220 and 256. Cf. Thalaba the 
Destroyer, Book I, 30. The passage in the Pseudo-Callisthenes will be found 

in iii, 28, Karl Midler's edition. For analogues to Grimm's 130th and 

133rd tales see Bolte, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder-und Hausmarchen der Bruder 
Grimm, vol. iii, p. 60 et. seq., and p. 78 et. seq. n.m.p. 
1 See pp. 6in l , 65n. n.m.p. 



Lava, the sons of Rama ; this is what our mother, the 
daughter of Janaka, says." Thereupon he told her story. 
Then Rama burst into tears, and summoned Lava, and 
embraced both, saying: "I am that same wicked Rama." 
Then the citizens assembled and praised Sita, beholding 
those two heroic youths, and Rama recognised them as his 
sons. And then he summoned the Queen Sita from the 
hermitage of Valmiki, and dwelt with her in happiness, 
transferring to his sons the burden of the empire. 

[M] " Thus heroic souls endure separation for so long a 
time, and how can you find it difficult to endure it for only 
one night ? " When Kanchanaprabha had said this to her 
daughter Alankaravati, who was eager to be married, and 
to Naravahanadatta, she departed through the air, with 
the intention of returning again, and took her daughter 
with her ; and Naravahanadatta, for his part, returned 
despondent to KauSambi. 

Then, as he could not sleep at night, Gomukha said to 
him to amuse him : " Prince, hear this story of Prithvlrupa, 
which I will relate to you. 

65. Story of the Handsome King Prithvlrupa 1 

There is in the Deccan a city named Pratishthana. In 
it lived a very handsome king named Prithvlrupa. Once 
on a time two discerning Buddhist hermits came to him, 
and seeing that that king was very handsome, they said to 
him : " King, we have travelled through the world and we 
have nowhere seen a man or woman equal to you in beauty, 
except the daughter of King Rupadhara and Queen Hema- 
lata, in the isle of Muktipura, Riipalata by name, and that 
maiden alone is a match for you, and you alone are a match 
for her ; if you were to be united in marriage it would be 
well." With these words of the hermit, which entered by his 
ears, the arrows of Love entered also and stuck in his heart. 

1 A similar story occurs on p. 207. n.m.p. 


Then King Prithviriipa, being full of longing, gave this 
order to his admirable painter, Kumaridatta by name : 
" Take with you my portrait, accurately painted on canvas, 
,, . . and with these two mendicants go to the isle of 

The Painter , 

and (he Muktipura, and there show it by some artifice 

Mendicants to the King Rupadhara and his daughter Rupa- 
lata. Find out if that king will give me his 
daughter or not, and take a likeness of Rupalata and bring 
it back." When the king had said this, he made the painter 
take his likeness on canvas, and sent him with the mendicants 
to that island. And so the painter and the mendicants set 
out, and in course of time reached a city named Putrapura 
on the shore of the sea. There they embarked on a ship, 
and going across the sea they reached in five days that island 
of Muktipura. There the painter went and held up at the 
gate of the palace a notice to the effect that there was no 
painter like him in the world. When the King Rupadhara 
heard of that, he summoned him, and the painter entered the 
palace, and bowing, he said : " O King, though I have travelled 
all over the earth, I have never seen my match as a painter, 
so tell me whom I am to paint of gods, mortals and Asuras." 
When the king heard that, he summoned his daughter 
Rupalata into his presence, and gave him the following order : 
*' Make a portrait of this daughter of mine and show it me." 
Then the painter Kumaridatta made a portrait of the 
princess on canvas and showed it, and it was exactly like 
the original. Then King Rupadhara was pleased, and think- 
ing him clever, he asked that painter, in his desire to obtain 
a son-in-law : " My good fellow, you have travelled over the 
earth, so tell me if you have anywhere seen a woman or a 
man equal to my daughter in beauty." When the king 
said this, the painter answered him : "I have nowhere in the 
world seen a woman or a man equal to her, except a king in 
Pratishthana, named Prithvirupa, who is a match for her; 
if she were married to him it would be well. Since he has 
not found a princess equal in beauty, he remains, though 
in his fresh youth, without a wife. And I, your Majesty, 
having beheld that king, dear to the eyes, took a faithful 
likeness of him, out of admiration of his beauty." 


When the king heard that, he said : " Have you that 
portrait with you ? " And the painter said : "I have," 
and showed the portrait. Thereupon the King Rupadhara, 
B thF th beholding the beauty of that King Prithvlrupa, 
and Daughter found his head whirl round with astonishment. 
are overcome by And he said : " Fortunate are we to have beheld 
the Painting that king eyen n ft picture . j felicitate those 

who behold him in the flesh." When Rupalata heard this 
speech of her father's, and saw the king in the picture, she 
was full of longing, and could neither hear nor see anything 
else. Then the King Rupadhara, seeing that his daughter 
was distracted with love, said to that painter Kumaridatta : 
" Your pictures exactly correspond to the original, so that 
King Prithvlrupa must be an appropriate husband for my 
daughter. So take this portrait of my daughter and set off 
immediately, and show my daughter to King Prithvlrupa, 
and tell him the whole incident as it took place, and if he 
pleases, let him come here quickly, to marry her." Thus the 
king spake, and honoured the painter with gifts, and sent him 
off with his ambassador, in the company of the mendicants. 

The painter, the ambassador and the mendicants crossed 
the sea, and all reached the Court of Prithvlrupa, in Pratish- 
thana. There they gave the present to that king, and told 
him the whole transaction as it took place, and the message 
of Rupadhara. And then that painter Kumaridatta showed 
to that king his beloved Rupalata in a painting. As the 
king gazed, 1 his eye was drowned in that sea of beauty, her 
person, so that he could not draw it out again. For the 

1 Cf. the story of Seyf ul Mulk in the Persian Tales and the Bahar-i- 
Danish, C, xxxv (Dunlop, vol. ii, p. 208, Liebrecht's translation, p. 335). See 
also Dunlop's remarks upon the Polexandre of Gomberville. In this romance 
Abdelmelec, son of the Emperor of Morocco, falls in love with Alcidiana by 
seeing her portrait (vol. ii, p. 276, Liebrecht's translation, p. 372). A similar 
incident is found in the romance of Agesilaus of Colchos (Liebrecht's trans- 
lation, p. 1 57). See Prym and Socin, Syrische M'drchen, p. 3 ; Rohde, Der 

Griechische Roman, p. 49 ; Coelho, Contos Populares Portugueses, p. 109. The 

idea is found in the Dasa Kumara Charita, whence it found its way into Persian 
and Arabic collections. See Clouston, The Book of Sindibad, pp. 166, and 
303 et seq. ; Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. i, p. 226), and the notes by Clouston in 
Supp., vol. ii, pp. 328, 329. Numerous references are given in Chauvin, op. cit.,. 
v, p. 132. See also Bolte, op. cit., vol. i, p. 43 et seq. n.m.p. 


king, whose longing was excessive, could not be satisfied 
with devouring her form, which poured forth a stream of 
the nectar of beauty, as the partridge cannot be satisfied 
with devouring the moonlight. And he said to the painter : 
" My friend, worthy of praise is the Creator who made this 
beauty, and yourself who copied it. So I accept the pro- 
posal of King Rupadhara. I will go to the island of Mukti- 
pura and marry his daughter." After saying this, the king 
honoured the painter, the ambassador and the hermits, and 
remained looking at the picture. 

And, afflicted with the sorrow of absence, the king spent 
that day in gardens and other places, and set out the 
next day on his expedition, after ascertaining a favourable 
moment. And the king mounted the great elephant Manga- 
laghata, and proceeded on his way with many horses and 
elephants, with chiefs and Rajputs, and with the painter 
and the hermits, together with the ambassador of Rupa- 
dhara, and in a few days he reached the entrance of the 
Vindhya forest, and encamped there in the evening. 

The next day the King Prithvirupa mounted an elephant 
named Satrumardana, and going on, entered that forest. 
And as he was slowly proceeding he beheld his army, which 
The Bhilias WM marching in front of him, suddenly fleeing. 
are Conquered And while he was perplexed as to what it could 
mean a Rajput named Nirbhaya, mounted on an elephant, 
came up and said to him : " King, a very large army of 
Bhilias attacked us in front there ; in the fight that ensued 
those Bhilias slew with their arrows just fifty of our elephants, 
and a thousand of our footmen, and three hundred horses ; 
but our troops laid low two thousand Bhilias, so that for 
every single corpse seen in our host two are seen in theirs. 
Then our forces were routed, galled with their arrows, which 
resemble thunderbolts." 

When the king heard that, he was angry, and advancing 
he slew the army of the Bhilias, as Arjuna slew that of the 
Kauravas. Then the other bandits were slain by Nirbhaya 
and his comrades, 1 and the king cut off with one crescent- 

1 For the vidruteshu of Brockhaus' edition I read nihateshu, which I find 
in the Sanskrit College MS. This is confirmed by the D. text n.m.p. 


headed arrow the head of the commander of the Bhillas. 
The king's elephant Satrumardana, with the blood flowing 
from arrow- wounds, resembled a mountain of collyrium 
pouring forth streams coloured with cinnabar. Then his 
whole army, that had been dispersed, returned, finding 
themselves victorious, and those Bhillas, that had escaped 
slaughter, fled in all directions. And the King Prithvlrupa, 
having brought the fight to an end, had his might extolled 
by the ambassador of Rupadhara, and, being victorious, en- 
camped in that very forest district, on the bank of a lake, 
to recruit the strength of his wounded troops. 

And in the morning the king set out thence, and slowly 
advancing he reached that city of Putrapura on the shore 
of the sea. There he rested for a day, being entertained in 
becoming fashion by the king of that place, named Udara- 
charita. And he crossed the sea in ships supplied by him, 
and in eight days reached the isle of Muktipura. 

And the King Rupadhara, hearing of it, came to meet 
him, delighted, and the two kings met and embraced one 
another. Then the King Prithvlrupa entered his city with 
him, being, to so speak, drunk in by the eyes of the ladies of 
the city. Then the Queen Hemalata and the King Rupa- 
dhara, seeing that he was a suitable husband for their 
daughter, rejoiced. And that King Prithvlrupa remained 
there, and Rupadhara honoured him with entertainment in 
accordance with his own magnificence. 

And the next day the long- desiring Riipalata ascended 
the altar in an auspicious moment, and he with exultation 
received her hand in marriage. And when they beheld one 
another's beauty the expanded eye of each was extended to 
the ear, as if to inform that organ that the report it had 
heard before was true. When the parched grain was thrown, 
Rupadhara gave jewels in such abundance to the happy 
couple that men thought he was a perfect mine of jewels. 
And after his daughter's marriage had taken place he 
honoured the painter and the two mendicants with dresses 
and ornaments, and bestowed gifts on all the others. Then 
that King Prithvlrupa, remaining in that city with his 
attendants, enjoyed the best meat and drink the isle could 


produce. The day was spent in singing and dancing, and 
at night the eager king entered the private apartments of 
Riipalata, in which jewelled couches were spread, which was 
adorned with jewelled pavement, the circuit of which was 
propped on jewelled pillars, and which was lit up with jewel- 
lamps. 1 And in the morning he was wakened by the bards 
and heralds reciting, and he rose up and remained as the 
moon in heaven. 

Thus King Prithvirupa remained ten days in that island, 
amusing himself with ever- fresh enjoyments furnished by 
his father-in-law. On the eleventh day the king, with the 
T , consent of the astrologers, set out with Rupa- 

Triumphant lata, after the auspicious ceremony had been 
Return with performed for him. And he was escorted by 
his father-in-law as far as the shore of the sea, 
and accompanied by his retainers he embarked on the ships 
with his wife. He crossed the sea in eight days, and 
his army, that was encamped on the shore, joined him, 
and the King Udaracharita came to meet him, and then he 
went to Putrapura. There King Prithvirupa rested some 
days, and was entertained by that king, and then he set 
out from that place. And he mounted his beloved Riipalata 
on the elephant Jayamangala, and he himself mounted an 
elephant named Kalyanagiri. 

And the king, proceeding by continual stages, in due 
course reached his good city of Pratishthana, where flags 
and banners were waving. Then, after beholding Riipa- 
lata, the ladies of the city lost at once all pride in their own 
beauty, and gazed on her with eyes unwinking from wonder. 
Then King Prithvirupa entered his palace, making high 
festival, and he gave to that painter villages and wealth, 
and he honoured those two hermits with wealth as they 
deserved, and gave complimentary presents to the chiefs, 
ministers and Rajputs. Then that king, having attained 
his object, enjoyed there this world's happiness in the society 
of Riipalata. 

1 See Vol. II, p. 169. n.m.p. 


[M] After the minister Gomukha had told Naravahana- 
datta this tale, with the object of amusing him, he went on 
to say to the impatient prince : " Thus the resolute endure 
painful separation for a long time, but how is it that you 
cannot endure it even for one night, O King ? For to- 
morrow your Highness shall marry Alankaravati." When 
Gomukha had said this, Marubhuti, the son of Yaugan- 
dharayana, came up at that instant, and said : " What 
stuff will you not prate, being ungalled, and never having 
felt the agony of love ? A man possesses firmness and dis- 
cernment and morality only so long as he does not come 
within the range of the arrows of Love. Happy in the 
world are SarasvatI, Skanda and Buddha, these three who 
have brushed off and flung away love, like a blade of grass 
clinging to the skirt of the robe." 

When Marubhuti said this, Naravahanadatta, perceiving 
that Gomukha was distressed, said in order to comfort him : 
" What Gomukha said to me was appropriate, and it was 
said to amuse me, for what loving friend exults over one 
in the agony of separation ? One afflicted by the pain of 
separation should be comforted by his friends to the best 
of their ability, and the sequel should be left to the disposal 
of the five-arrowed god." 

Talking in this style, and hearing various tales from 
his attendants, Naravahanadatta somehow managed to get 
through that night. And when morning came he rose up 
and performed his necessary duties, and saw Kanchana- 
prabha descending from heaven, accompanied by her 
husband Alankara^ila, and her son Dharmasila, and that 
Alankaravati her daughter ; and they all descended from 
the chariot and came near him, and he welcomed them as 
was fitting, and they saluted him in like manner. And in 
the meanwhile thousands of other Vidyadharas descended 
from heaven, carrying loads of gold, jewels and other valu- 
ables. And after hearing of this occurrence the King of 
Vatsa came there with his ministers and his queens, delighted 
at the advancement of his son. After the King of Vatsa 
had performed the rites of hospitality duly, the King Alan- 
karaslla said to him, bowing graciously : " King, this is 


my daughter Alankaravati, and when she was born she was 
declared by a voice, that came from heaven, to be destined 
to be the wife of this thy son, Naravahanadatta, the future 
emperor of all the Vidyadhara kings. So I will give her to 
him, for this is a favourable moment for them ; for this 
reason I have come here with all these." The King of Vatsa 
welcomed that speech of the Vidyadhara sovereign's, saying : 
" It is a great favour that you do me. 

Then the ruler of the Vidyadharas sprinkled with water, 
produced in the hollow of his hand by virtue of his science, 
the ground of the courtyard. Immediately there was pro- 
duced there an altar of gold, covered with a heavenly cloth, 
and a pavilion, not made with hands, for the preliminary 
ceremony, composed of various jewels. Then the successful 
King Alankarasila said to Naravahanadatta : " Rise up, 
the favourable moment has arrived bathe." After he had 
bathed, and had the marriage-thread put on, the King 
Alankarasila, being delighted, gave him with all his heart 
his daughter, after bringing her to the altar in her bridal 
dress. And when the grain was thrown into the fire he and 
his son gave to his daughter thousands of loads of jewels, 
gold, garments and ornaments and heavenly nymphs. And 
after the marriage was over he honoured them all, and then 
took his leave of them, and with his wife and son departed, 
as he came, through the air. Then the King of Vatsa, seeing 
his son destined to advancement, being honoured by the 
bending kings of the Vidyadharas, was delighted, and pro- 
longed that feast to a great length. And Naravahanadatta, 
having obtained Alankaravati, charming on account of her 
good conduct, and of noble virtues, like a skilful poet who 
has obtained a style, charming on account of its excellent 
metre, and of splendid merits, remained delighted with her. 1 

1 An elaborate pun. Rasika also means "full of (poetical) flavour." 


THEN Naravahanadatta, tlic son of the King of 
[M ] Vatsa. being united to Alankaravati, his new 
wife, remained in the house of his father, pleased 
with the heavenly dancing and singing of her maids, and 
enjoying banquets with his ministers. 

And one day his mother-in-law Kanchanaprabha, the 
mother of Alankaravati, came to him and said, after he had 
hospitably entertained her: "Come to our palace, behold 
that city of Sundarapura, and take your delight in its gardens 
with Alankaravati." When lie heard this he consented, and 
he informed his father, and by his advice took Vasantaka 
with him, and with his wife and his minister he ascended a 
splendid chariot created by his mother-in-law by her science, 
and set out through the air; and while in the chariot he 
looked down from heaven and beheld the earth of the size 
of a mound, and the seas small as ditches, and in due course 
he reached the Himalayas with his mother-in-law, wife and 
attendants, and it resounded with the songs of the Kinnaris, 
and was adorned with the companies of heavenly nymphs. 
There he saw a great many wonderful sights, and then he 
reached the city of Sundarapura. It was adorned with many 
palaces of gold and jewels, and thus, though it was on the 
Himalayas, it made the beholder suppose that he was looking 
on the peaks of Mount Mem. 1 And he descended from the 
heaven and. getting out of the carriage, entered that city, 

' Dim traditions (if this mountain seem to have penetrated to Greece 
and I'oiiif. Aristophanes {Avliurnuuis, v , Nsj) speaks ot the King ot Persia as 
endued tor eight months iVI \ji>'rwr t)fn',v. Clark tells us that Bcrgler quotes 
IMaiitiio, Stulm.\ -J -l : " Xct/ur HI,- mrrciit Prrsnrum sihi monies i/ni esse perhibrntur 
(turn I 'hi _' . ./ ' Juurmil, vol. viii. p. 1 .')-'). See also Terence, Vhormio, i, 2, 
Is : I'crv, in, !).") Naravahanadatta's journey through the air may remind the 
reader ot the air-voyage ot Alexander in the Pseudo-Callisthenes, ii, 11. He 
sees a serpent below him, and a uA(-i< in the middle of it. A divine being 
whom he meets, tells him that these objects are the earth and the sea. 



which, as it were, danced with the waving silk of its banners 
in its joy at having once more a king. And he entered that 
palace, with the auspicious ceremony performed for him by 
his mother-in-law, accompanied by Alankaravati, and with his 
favourites and Vasantaka. There the fortunate prince spent 
the day in his father-in-law's palace, in enjoyments which were 
provided for him by the power of his mother-in-law. 

And on the next day his mother-in-law Kanchanaprabha 
said to him : " There is in this city an image of the holy self- 
existent husband of Uma. 1 He, if visited and worshipped, 
gives enjoyment and even salvation. Around it the father 
of Alankaravati made a great garden, and brought down to 
it a holy water, rightly named the Ganges-pool. Go there 
to-day to worship the god and to amuse yourselves." 

When his mother-in-law said this to him, Naravahana- 
datta, accompanied by his wife Alankaravati, and followed 
by his attendants, went to that garden of Siva. It looked 
lovely with its golden-trunked trees, which were charming 
with their branches of jewels, the clear white flowers of which 
were clusters of pearls, and the shoots of which were coral. 2 
There he bathed in the Ganges-pool and worshipped Siva, 
and wandered round the tanks that were adorned with 
ladders of jewels and lotuses of gold. And, accompanied 
by his attendants, he amused himself with Alankaravati on 
their charming banks and in bowers of the wish-granting 
creeper. And in those he delighted his soul with heavenly 
banquets and concerts and amusing jokes caused by the 
simplicity of Marubhiiti. And so Naravahanadatta dwelt 
a month there, amusing himself in gardens, thanks to the 
resources of his mother-in-law. Then that Kanchanaprabha 
bestowed on him, his wife and his ministers garments and 
ornaments fit for gods, and with his mother-in-law and his 
attendants he returned in that same chariot to Kausambi, 
accompanied by his wife, and he gladdened the eyes of his 

There Alankaravati was thus addressed by her mother 

1 I.e. Siva. 

2 See note on p. 128 and Clouston, Eastern Romances, pp. 166, 167. 



in the presence of the King of Vatsa : " You must never 
by jealous anger make your husband unhappy, for the fruit 
of that fault, my daughter, is separation that causes great 
affliction. Because I was jealous in old time and afflicted 
my husband, I am now consumed with remorse, as he has 
gone to the forest." After saying this, she embraced her 
daughter, with eyes blinded with tears, and flying up into 
the air went to her own city. 

Then, that day having come to an end, the next morning 
Naravahanadatta, having performed the appropriate duties, 
was sitting with his ministers when a woman rushed into 
The Terrified the presence of Alankaravati and said : " Queen, 
Woman \ a m a woman in the utmost terror ; protect me, 

protect me ! For there is a Brahman come to slay me, and 
he is standing outside ; through fear of him I have fled and 
come in here to implore protection." The queen said : " Do 
not fear. Tell your tale. Who is he ? Why does he wish 
to slay you ? " When thus questioned, the woman began to 

66. Story of Atfokamdld 

My sovereign, I am the daughter of a Kshatriya in this 
city, named Balasena, and my name is Asokamala. When 
I was a virgin I was demanded from my father by a rich 
Brahman named Hathasarman, who was captivated by my 
beauty. And I said to my father : " I do not like this ugly, 
grim-visaged man for a husband ; if you give me to him I 
will not remain in his house." Though Hathasarman heard 
that, he sat in dharnd l at the door of my father's house until 
he gave me to him, being afraid of causing the death of a 
Brahman. Then the Brahman married me and carried me 
off reluctant, and I deserted him and fled to another man, 
the son of a Kshatriya. But that Hathasarman managed 
to crush him by the power of his wealth, and I went to 
another Kshatriya, who was well off. Then this Brahman 
went at night and set his house on fire. Then he abandoned 
me, and I went to a third Kshatriya, and this Brahman burnt 
his house also at night. Then I was abandoned by him also, 

1 Sec note in Chapter LV, p. SOSn 1 , of this volume. n.m.p. 


and I became a fugitive, flying in terror, as the sheep flies 
from the jackal, from that Hathasarman, who wishes to slay 
me, and follows me step by step. In this very city I entered 
the service of the mighty ViraSarman, your servant, a Rajput 
who protects the helpless. When the wicked Hathasarman 
found that out, he was miserable at having no hope of re- 
covering me, and, being afflicted with separation, he was re- 
duced to skin and bone. But the Rajput ViraSarman, when 
disposed to imprison him for my protection, was prevented 
by me, O Queen. To-day it chanced that I went outside the 
house, and Hathasarman, seeing me, drew his sword and 
rushed on me to kill me, but I thereupon fled here, and the 
female warder, melted with compassion, opened the door and 
let me enter, but he, I know, is waiting for me outside. 

[M] When she said this, the king had the Brahman 
Hathasarman summoned into his presence. He looked at 
Asokamala with an eye inflamed with anger ; his form was 
distorted, he held a sword in his hand, and the joints of his 
limbs trembled with rage. The king said to him : " Wicked 
Brahman, do you try to kill a woman and for her sake set 
on fire your neighbours' houses ? Why are you so wicked ? " 
When the Brahman heard that, he said : " She is my lawful 
wife. She has left my protection and gone elsewhere. How 
could I endure that ? " When he said this, Asokamala, in 
distress, exclaimed : " O guardians of the world, tell me 
this : did he not in your presence marry me and carry me 
off by force against my own will ? And did I not say at 
the time, ' I will not dwell in his house ' ? " When she 
said this, a heavenly voice said : " The statement of Asoka- 
mala is true. But she is not a woman. Hear the truth about 
her. There is a heroic king of the Vidyadharas named 
Asokakara. He had no sons, and once on a time it happened 
that a daughter was born to him, and she grew up in the 
house of her father, under the name of ASokamala. And 
when she arrived at an adult age, and he, desiring to per- 
petuate his race, offered her in marriage, she would not 


take any husband, through exceeding pride in her own 
beauty. For that reason her father, vexed with her ob- 
stinacy, denounced this curse on her: 'Become a mortal, 
and in that state thou shalt have the same name. And an 
ugly Brahman shall marry thee by force ; thou shalt abandon 
him, and in thy fear resort to three husbands in succession. 
Even then he shall persecute thee, and thou shalt take refuge 
with a mighty Kshatriya as his slave; but even then the 
Brahman shall not desist from persecuting thee. And he 
shall see thee, and run after thee, with the object of killing 
thee, but thou shalt escape, and entering the king's palace, 
shalt be delivered from this curse.' Accordingly that very 
Vidyadhari, Aokamala, who was in old time cursed by her 
father, has now been born as a woman under the same 
name. And this appointed end of her curse has now arrived. 
She shall now repair to her Vidyadhara home and enter 
her own body, which is there. There she, remembering her 
curse, shall live happily with a Vidyadhara prince named 
Abhiruchita, who shall become her husband." 

When the heavenly voice had said this it ceased, and 
immediately that Aokamala fell dead on the ground. But 
the king and Alankaravati, when they saw that, had their 
eyes suffused with tears, and so had their courtiers. But in 
HathaSarman grief overpowered anger and he wept, blinded 
with passion. Then his eyes suddenly became expanded with 
joy. All of them thereupon said to him: "What does 
this mean?" Then that Brahman said: "I remember my 
former birth and I will give an account of it. Listen. 

67. Story of Sthulabhuja 

On the Himalayas there is a splendid city named 
Madanapura ; in it dwelt a Vidyadhara prince named 
Pralambabhuja. He had born to him, my lord, a son 
named Sthulabhuja, and he in course of time became a 
handsome prince in the flower of youth. Then a king of the 
Vidyadharas, named Surabhivatsa, came with his daughter 
to the palace of that King Pralambabhuja, and said to him : 
I will give this daughter of mine, called Surabhidatta, to 


your son Sthulabhuja; let the accomplished youth marry 
her now." 

When Pralambabhuja heard this, he approved it, and 
summoning his son he communicated the matter to him. 
Then his son Sthulabhuja, out of pride in his beauty, said to 
him : "I will not marry her, my father, for she is not a first- 
class beauty." His father thereupon said to him : " What 
does her plainness matter ? For she is of high lineage and 
must be honoured on that account, and her father offered her 
to me for you, and I have accepted her, so do not refuse." 

Although Sthulabhuja was thus entreated a second time 
by his father, he would not consent to marry her. Then his 
father, in his anger, denounced against him the following 
curse : " On account of this your pride in your good looks, 
be born as a man, and in that state you shall be ugly and 
with a large mouth. And you shall acquire by force a wife 
named Asokamala, also fallen by a curse, and she, not liking 
you, shall leave you, and you shall experience the grief of 
separation. And as she shall be attached to another, you 
shall commit for her sake arson and other crimes, being 
maddened with passion and emaciated with grief." 

When Pralambabhuja had uttered this curse, that virtuous 
Surabhidatta clung to his feet, weeping, and entreated him : 
" Pronounce a curse on me also ; let our lot be the same; let 
not my husband alone suffer calamity owing to my fault." 
When she said this, Pralambabhuja was pleased, and, in order 
to comfort that virtuous woman, he appointed for her this end 
to his son's curse : " Whenever Asokamala shall be released 
from her curse, then he shall remember his birth and be 
released from this curse, and he shall regain his own body, 
and remembering his curse he shall be free from pride and 
soon marry you ; then he shall live with you in happiness." 
When the virtuous woman was thus addressed by him she 
managed to recover her self- composure. 

[M] "Know that I am that very Sthulabhuja, fallen 
here by a curse, and I have experienced great grief owing 


to the fault of pride. How can proud men have happiness 
in a previous or in a present state of existence ? And that 
curse of mine is now at an end." After saying this, Hatha- 
viriiinii abandoned that body and became a Vidyadhara 
youth. And he took by the might of his science the body 
of ASokamala and flung it, without its being seen, into the 
Ganges, out of compassion. And he sprinkled immediately 
the chamber of Alankaravati all round with water of the 
Ganges, brought by the might of his science, and after 
bending before Naravahanadatta, his future lord, he flew up 
into the heaven to his destined prosperity. 

All being astonished, Gomukha told this story of Anan- 
garati, which was appropriate to the incident : 

68. Story of Anangarati and her Four Suitors 

There is on the earth a city rightly named Stirapura, 1 and 
in it there lived a king named Mahavaraha, the destroyer 
of his foes. That king had a daughter named Anangarati, 
born to him by his wife Padmarati, owing to his having 
propitiated Gauri ; and he had no other children. And in 
course of time she attained womanhood, and, proud of her 
beauty, she did not wish to have any husband, though kings 
asked her in marriage. But she said decidedly : "I must 
be given to a man who is brave and handsome, and knows 
some one splendid accomplishment." 

Then there came from the Deccan four heroes, who, 
having heard tidings of her, were eager to obtain her, and 
they were furnished with the qualities which she desired. 
They were announced by the warder and introduced, and 
then King Mahavaraha asked them in the presence of Anan- 
garati : " What are your names ? What is your descent, 
and what do you know ? " When they heard this speech of 
the king's, one of them said : "I am Panchaphuttika by 
name, a Stidra ; I possess a peculiar talent ; I weave every 
day five pairs of garments ; one of them I give to a Brahman, 
and the second I offer to Siva, and the third I wear myself, 
and as for the fourth, if I had a wife, I would give it to her, 

1 I.e. city of heroes. See Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, p. 99- 


and the fifth I sell and live upon the proceeds." Then the 
second said : "I am a VaiSya named Bhashajna ; I know 
the language of all beasts and birds." Then the third said : 
" I am a Kshatriya named Khadgadhara, and no one sur- 
passes me in fighting with the sword." And the fourth said : 
" I am an excellent Brahman named Jivadatta ; by means 
of the sciences which I possess by the favour of Gauri, I can 
raise to life a dead woman." 2 When they had thus spoken, 
the Sudra, the VaiSya and Kshatriya, one after another, 
praised their own beauty, courage and might, but the Brah- 
man praised his might and valour and said nothing about 
his beauty. 

Then King Mahavaraha said to his doorkeeper : " Take 
all these now and make them rest in your house." The 
doorkeeper, when he heard the order, took them to his house. 
Then the king said to his daughter Anangarati : " My 
daughter, which of these four heroes do you prefer ? " When 
Anangarati heard that, she said to her father : " Father, I 

1 Cf. the properties of the magic ring given to Canace in the " Squire's 
Tale," and Grimm's story of " Die Drei Sprachen " (No. 33, Kinder-und 
Hausmdrcheii). See also Tylor's Primitive Culture, vol. i, pp. 18, 423. In the 
Edda, Sigurd learns to understand the language of birds by tasting the blood 
of Fafner. For other parallels see Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 184, and note 248. 
For analogues to Grimm's tale, see Bolte, op. cit., vol. i, p. 822 et seq. 


2 Cf. the seventy-seventh chapter of this work, the second in the Vetala 
Panchavinsati, and Ralston's exhaustive note in his Russian Folk-Tales, 
pp. 231, 232, 233. Cf. also Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Marchen, p. 114, 
and Bartsch's Sagen, Marchen und Gebr'duche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 486. 
The Pseudo-Callisthenes (Book II, chap, xl) mentions a fountain that restored 
to life a salt fish, and made one of Alexander's daughters immortal. This is 
perhaps the passage that was in Dunlop's mind when he said (p. 129 of 
Liebrecht's translation) that such a fountain is described in the Greek 
romance of Isinenias and Ismene, for which Liebrecht takes him to task. 
See the parallels quoted by Dunlop and Liebrecht. Wheeler, in his Noted 
Names of Fiction, tells us that there was a tradition current among the natives 
of Puerto Rico that such a fountain existed in the fabulous island of Bimini, 
said to belong to the Bahama group. This was the object of eager and long- 
continued quest to the celebrated Spanish navigator, Juan Ponce de Leon. 
By Ismenias and Ismene, Dunlop probably means Hysminias and Hysmine. 
See also Birlinger, Aus Schvcaben, p. 185. Kuhn, in his Herabkunfi des Feuers, 
traces this story back to the Satapatha Brdhmana. See Vol. II, p. 155n*. 




do not like any one of the four. The first is a Sudra and 
a weaver ; what is the use of his good qualities ? The 
second is a Vaigya, and what is the use of his knowing the 
language of cattle, and so on ? How can I give myself to 
them when I am a Kshatriya woman? The third, indeed, 
is a meritorious Kshatriya, equal to me in birth, but he is a 
poor man and lives by service, selling his life. As I am the 
daughter of a king, how can I become his wife ? The fourth, 
the Brahman Jivadatta, I do not like ; he is ugly and is ad- 
dicted to unlawful arts, and, as he has deserted the Vedas, he 
has fallen from his high position. You ought to punish him. 
Why do you offer to give me to him ? For you, my father, 
being a king, are the upholder of the castes and the various 
stages of life. And a king who is a hero in upholding religion 
is preferred to a king who is only a hero with the sword. A 
hero in religion will be the lord of a thousand heroes with 
the sword." When his daughter had said this, the king 
dismissed her to her own private apartments, and rose up to 
bathe and perform his other duties. 

And the next day the four heroes went out from the 
house of the doorkeeper and roamed about in the town 
out of curiosity. And at that very time a vicious elephant, 
Khadeadhara nam ed Padmakabala, broke his fastening and 
kills the in his fury rushed out from the elephant stable, 

Elephant trampling down the citizens. And that great 
elephant, when he saw the four heroes, rushed towards 
them to slay them, and they too advanced towards him 
with uplifted weapons. Then the one Kshatriya among 
them, named Khadgadhara, putting aside the other three, 
alone attacked that elephant. And he cut off with one blow 
the protended trunk of that roaring elephant with as much 
ease as if it had been a lotus- stalk. And after showing his 
agility by escaping between his feet, he delivered a second 
blow on the back of that elephant. And with the third he 
cut off both his feet. Then that elephant gave a groan 
and fell down and died. All the people were astonished when 
they beheld that valour of his, and King Mahavaraha was 
also amazed when he heard of it. 

The next day the king went out to hunt, mounted on an 


elephant, and the four heroes, with Khadgadhara at their 
head, accompanied him. There the king with his army 
slew tigers, deer and boars, and the lions rushed out upon 
him in anger, hearing the trumpeting of the elephants. 
Then that Khadgadhara cleft in twain, with one blow of his 
sharp sword, that first lion that attacked them, and the 
second he seized with his left hand by the foot, and dashing 
it on the earth, deprived it of life. And in the same way 
Bhashajna and Jivadatta and Panchaphuttika each dashed 
a lion to pieces on the earth. Thus in turn those heroes 
killed on foot many tigers and lions and other animals, with 
ease, before the eyes of the king. Then that king, being 
pleased and astonished, after he had finished his hunting, 
entered his city, and those heroes went to the house of the 

And the king entered the harem and, though tired, had 
his daughter Anangarati quickly summoned. And after de- 
scribing the valour of those heroes, one by one, as he had seen 
it in the chase, he said to her, who was much astonished : 
"Even if Panchaphuttika and Bhashajna are of inferior 
caste, and Jivadatta, though a Brahman, is ugly and addicted 
to forbidden practices, what fault is there in the Kshatriya 
Khadgadhara, who is handsome, and of noble stature, and is 
distinguished for strength and valour ; who slew such an 
elephant, and who takes lions by the foot and crushes them 
on the ground, and slays others with his sword ? And if it 
is made a ground of reproach against him that he is poor and 
a servant, I will immediately make him a lord to be served 
by others : so choose him for a husband, if you please, my 
daughter.'' When Anangarati heard this from her father, 
she said to him : " Well, then, bring all those men here, and 
ask the astrologer, and let us see what he says." When she 
said this to him, the king summoned those heroes, and in 
their presence he, accompanied by his wives, said to the 
astrologer with his own mouth : " Find out with which of 
these Anangarati has conformity of horoscope, and when a 
favourable moment will arrive for her marriage." 

When the skilful astrologer heard that, he asked the stars 
under which they were born, and after long considering the 


time he said to that king : "If you will not be angry with 
me, King, I will tell you plainly. Your daughter lias no 
conformity of lot with any of them. And she will not be 
married on earth, for she is a Vidyadharl fallen by a curse ; 
that curse of hers will be at an end in three months. So let 
these wait here three months, and if she is not gone to her 
own world then, the marriage shall take place." All those 
heroes accepted the advice of that astrologer, and remained 
there for three months. 

When three months had passed, the king summoned into 
his presence those heroes, and that astrologer, and Anan- 
garati. And the king, when he saw that his daughter had 
The Princess suddenly become exceedingly beautiful, rejoiced, 
leaves her but the astrologer thought that the hour of her 
Body death had arrived. And while the king was 

saying to the astrologer, " Now tell me what it is proper 
to do, for those three months are gone," Anangarati called 
to mind her former birth, and, covering her face with her 
garment, she abandoned that human body. The king 
thought : " Why has she put herself in this position ? " 
But when he himself uncovered her face he saw that she 
was dead, like a frost- smitten lotus-plant, for her eyes like 
bees had ceased to revolve, the lotus-flower of her face was 
pale, and the sweet sound of her voice had ceased, even as 
the sound of the swans departs. Then the king suddenly 
fell to earth motionless, smitten by the thunderbolt of grief 
for her, crushed by the extinction of his race. 1 And the 
Queen Padmarati also fell down to the earth in a swoon, and 
with her ornaments fallen from her like flowers, appeared 
like a cluster of blossoms broken by an elephant. The 
attendants raised cries of lamentation, and those heroes 
were full of grief; but the king, immediately recovering 
consciousness, said to that Jivadatta : "In this matter 
those others have no power, but now it is your opportunity ; 
you boasted that you could raise to life a dead woman ; if 
you possess power by means of science, then recall my 

1 Here there is an elaborate pun. " King" may also mean "mountain," 
"race" may mean "wings," and the whole passage refers to Indra's clipping 
the wings of the mountains. 


daughter to life. I will give her, when restored to life, to 
you as being a Brahman." 

When Jivadatta heard this speech of the king's he 
sprinkled that princess with water, over which charms had 
been said, and chanted this Arya verse : " O thou of the 
loud laugh, adorned with a garland of skulls, not to be gazed 
on, Chamunda, 1 the terrible goddess, assist me quickly." 
When, in spite of this effort of Jivadatta's, that maiden was 
not restored to life, he was despondent, and said : " My 
science, though bestowed by the goddess that dwells in the 
Vindhya range, has proved fruitless, so what is the use to 
me of my life that has become an object of scorn ? " When 
he had said this, he was preparing to cut off his head with a 
great sword when a voice came from the sky : " O Jivadatta, 
do not act rashly. Listen now. This noble Vidyadhara 
maiden, named Anangaprabha, has been for so long a time 
a mortal owing to the curse of her parents. She has now 
quitted this human body, and has gone to her own world, 
and taken her own body. So go and propitiate again the 
goddess that dwells in the Vindhya hills, and by her favour 
you shall recover this noble Vidyadhara maiden. But as 
she is enjoying heavenly bliss, neither you nor the king 
ought to mourn for her." When the heavenly voice had 
told this true tale it ceased. Then the king performed 
his daughter's rites, and he and his wife ceased to mourn 
for her, and those other three heroes returned as they had 

But hope was kindled in the breast of Jivadatta, and 
he went and propitiated with austerities the dweller in the 
Vindhya hills, and she said to him in a dream : "I am 
satisfied with thee, so rise up and listen to this that I am 
about to tell thee. 

There is a city on the Himalayas named Virapura, and 
in it there dwells a sovereign of the Vidyadharas named 
Samara. He had a daughter, named Anangaprabha, born 

1 A form of Durgit or Kali, which is especially connected with human 
sacrifice and tantric practices. See Vol. II, p. 214 et seq., where in the Malafi 
Mddhava the heroine is offered up as a sacrifice to Chamunda. For a list of 
Durga's other names see p. 179 of this volume. n.m.p. 


to him by his Queen Anangavatl. When, in the pride of 
her youth and beauty, she refused to have any husband, her 
parents, enraged at her persistence, cursed her : " Become 
a human being, and even in that state you shall not enter 
the happiness of married life. When you are a maiden of 
sixteen years you shall abandon the body and come here. 
But an ugly mortal, who has become such by a curse, on 
account of his falling in love with the daughter of a hermit, 
and who possesses a magic sword, shall then become your 
husband, and he shall carry you off against your will to 
the world of mortals. There you, being unchaste, shall 
be separated from your husband. Because that husband 
in a former life carried off the wives of eight other men, 
he shall endure sorrow enough for eight births. And you, 
having become a mortal by the loss of your supernatural 
science, shall endure in that one birth the sufferings of eight 
births. 1 For to everyone the association with the evil gives 
an evil lot, but to women the union with an evil husband 
is equivalent to evil. And having lost your memory of the 
past, you shall there take many mortal husbands, because 
you obstinately persisted in detesting the husband fitted for 
you. That Vidyadhara Madanaprabha, who, being equal in 
birth, demanded you in marriage, shall become a mortal 
king and at last become your husband. Then you shall be 
freed from your curse and return to your own world, and 

1 Cf. the remarkable passage which M. Leveque quotes from the works 
of Empedocles (Lm Mythes et Legendes de CInde et de la Perse, p. 90) : 

""Eicrriv dvdyKrjs xprjpxt, demv ifrq(f>i<Tfia iraAcuov, 
cuOiov, n-AaTcecrcri Ka.Tt(r<f>pr)yur[x*vov o/jkois, 
evre tis dpTrkaKiyari <p6v(t) <plka yvia p-rfvy 
a'ijiatTLV fj kvlopKov dp-apr/jo-as liropoao~Q 
Salfuov, ol T pate pauovos XtXd^acri ftioio, 
rpi<i p.i p.vpias w/Jas dnb pauedpiov dXdkrjcrOai, 
(pvopevov 7ravTO?a Sia \povov ciSca dmrjriov, 
a/yyaAas ^StOTOto p.iTaWdxrorovra Kt\t.vdov<i." 

I have adopted the readings of Ritter and Preller, in their Historia 
Philosophic?, in preference to those of M. Leveque. It is clear that Empedocles 
supposed himself to be a Vidyadhara fallen from heaven in consequence of a 
curse. As I observed in an article in the Calcutta Review of 1875, "The 
Bhagavad Gita and Christianity," his personality is decidedly Indian. 


you shall obtain that suitable match, who shall have returned 
to his Vidyadhara state." 

So that maiden Anangaprabha has become Anangarati 
on the earth, and returning to her parents has once more 
become Anangaprabha. So go to Vlrapuraand conquer in 
fight her father, though he is possessed of knowledge and 
protected by his high birth, and obtain that maiden. Now 
take this sword, and as long as you hold it in your hand you 
will be able to travel through the air; and, moreover, you 
will be invincible." Having said this, and having given the 
sword to him, the goddess vanished, and he woke up and 
beheld in his hand a heavenly sword. Then Jivadatta rose 
up delighted and praised Durga, 1 and all the exhaustion 
produced by his penance was removed by the refreshment 
caused by the nectar of her favour. And he flew up into 
the air with his sword in his hand, and after roaming all 
round the Himalayas he found that prince of the Vidya- 
dharas Samara in Virapura. He conquered him in fight, 
and then the king gave him his daughter Anangaprabha, 
and he married her and lived in heavenly felicity. And 
after he had remained there some time he said to his father- 
in-law Samara and to his beloved Anangaprabha : " Let us 
two go to the world of men, for I feel a longing for it ; for 
one's native land is exceedingly dear to living beings, even 
though it may be an inferior place." 2 

When the father-in-law heard that, he consented, but 
the far-seeing Anangaprabha was with difficulty induced 
to consent. Then Jivadatta descended from heaven to the 
world of mortals, taking that Anangaprabha in his arms. 
And Anangaprabha, beholding there a pleasant mountain, 
being wearied, said to him : " Let us immediately rest here." 
Then he consented, and descending there with her he produced 
food and drink by the power of the various sciences. Then 
Jivadatta, being impelled by Fate, said to Anangaprabha : 
"Dear one, sing some sweet song." When she heard that, 
she began to sing devoutly the praise of Siva, and with that 
sound of her singing the Brahman was sent to sleep. 

1 The D. text has natambikah, " and bowed to Durga." n.M.p. 
1 Cf. Odyssey, ix, 27, 28. 


In the meanwhile a king named Harivara, wearied out 
with hunting, came that way in search of spring water ; 
he was attracted by hearing the sound of that singing, as 
Jivadatta deer are attracted, and, leaving his chariot, he 
u deserted went there alone. The king first had happiness 
announced by omens, and then he beheld that Ananga- 
prabha like the real brightness of the God of Love. 
Then, as his heart was distracted with her song and her 
beauty, the God of Love cleft it at will with his arrows. 
Anangaprabha too, seeing that he was handsome, came 
within range of the god of the flowery bow, and said to 
herself : " Who is this ? Is he the God of Love, without 
his flowery bow ? Is he the incarnation of the favour of 
Siva towards me, being pleased with my song ? ' Then, 
maddened with love, she asked him : " Who are you, and 
how have you come to this forest ? Tell me." Then the king 
told her who he was and why he had come. Then he said 
to her : " Tell me, who are you, fair one ? And who is 
this, O lotus- faced one, who is sleeping here?" When he 
asked these questions, she answered him briefly : "I am a 
Vidyadharl, and this is my husband, who possesses a magic 
sword, and now I have fallen in love with you at first sight. 
So come, let us quickly go to your city before he awakes, 
then I will tell my story at length." 

When the king heard that he agreed, and felt as much 
delighted as if he had obtained the sovereignty of the three 
worlds. And Anangaprabha hurriedly thought in her heart : 
41 1 will take this king in my arms and quickly fly up to the 
heaven." But in the meanwhile her knowledge was stripped 
from her by her treachery to her husband, and, remembering 
her father's curse, she became at once despondent. When 
the king saw that, he asked the cause, and then said to her : 
4 This is not the time for despondency ; your husband here 
may awake. And you ought not to lament, my beloved, 
over this matter which depends on destiny. For who can 
escape from the shadow of his own head, or the course of 
destiny ? So come, let us depart." 

When the King Harivara said this, she consented to his 
proposal, and he took her quickly up in his arms. Then he 


went off quickly thence, as delighted as if he had obtained 
a treasure, and ascended his chariot, welcomed with joy by 
his servants. And he reached his city in that chariot, which 
travelled swift as thought, accompanied by his beloved, and 
he aroused curiosity in his subjects. Then King Harivara 
remained in heavenly enjoyments in that city, which was 
named after him, in the society of that Anangaprabha. And 
Anangaprabha remained there devotedly attached to him, 
forgetting all her supernatural power, bewildered by the 

In the meanwhile Jivadatta woke up on the mountain, 
and saw that not only Anangaprabha was gone, but his 
sword also. He thought : " Where is that Anangaprabha ? 
Alas ! Where is that sword ? Has she gone off with it ? 
Or were they both carried off by some being ? " In his 
perplexity he made many surmises of this sort, and he 
searched that mountain for three days, being consumed with 
the fire of love. Then he came down and wandered through 
the forests for ten days, but did not find a trace of her any- 
where. He kept crying out : " Alas, spiteful fortune, how 
did you carry off, together with the magic power of the sword, 
my beloved Anangaprabha, both of which you granted with 
difficulty ? " 

Thus employed, he wandered about without food and 
at last reached a village, and there he entered the opulent 
mansion of a Brahman. There the handsome and well- 
He leams dressed mistress of the house, Priyadatta by 
the Truth name, made him sit down on a seat and immedi- 
ately gave this order to her maids : " Wash quickly the 
feet of this Jivadatta, for to-day is the thirteenth day that 
he has gone without food on account of his separation." 
When Jivadatta heard that, he was astonished, and reflected 
in his own mind : " Can Anangaprabha have come here, or 
is this woman a witch ? " Thus he reflected, and after his 
feet were washed, and he had eaten the food that she gave, 
he humbly asked Priyadatta in his great grief: "Tell me one 
thing : how do you know my history, blameless one ? And 
tell me another thing : where are my sword and my beloved 
gone ? ' When the devoted wife Priyadatta heard that, she 


said : ** No one but my husband has any place in my heart, 
even in a dream, my son, and I look on all other men as 
brothers, and no guest leaves my house without entertain- 
ment ; by virtue of that I know the past, the present and the 
future. And that Anangaprabha of yours has been carried 
off by a king named Harivara, living in a town named after 
him, who, as destiny would have it, came that way while 
you were asleep, attracted by her song. And you cannot 
recover her, for that king is very powerful ; moreover, that 
unchaste woman will in turn leave him and go to another 
man. And the goddess Durga gave you that sword only 
that you might obtain that lady ; having accomplished 
that, the weapon, in virtue of its divine nature, has returned 
to the goddess, as the lady has been carried off. Moreover, 
how have you forgotten what the goddess was pleased to tell 
you when she told the story of the curse of Anangaprabha ? 
So why are you so distracted about an event which was 
destined to take place ? Abandon this chain of sins, which 
again and again produces extreme sorrow. And of what 
profit can be to you now, my brother, that wicked 
female, who is attached to another, and who has become 
a mortal, having lost her science by her treachery against 
you ? " 

When that virtuous woman said this to Jivadatta he 
abandoned all passion for Anangaprabha, being disgusted 
with her fickleness, and thus answered the Brahman lady : 
"Mother, my delusion has been brought to an end by this 
true speech of thine. Whom does not association with persons 
of virtuous conduct benefit ? This misfortune has befallen 
me in consequence of my former crimes, so I will abandon 
jealousy and go to holy places to wash them out. What 
can I gain by taking up an enmity with others on account 
of Anangaprabha? For one who has conquered anger 
conquers this whole world." While he was saying this, the 
righteous husband of Priyadatta, who was hospitable to 
guests, returned to the house. The husband also welcomed 
him, and made him forget his grief ; and then he rested, and 
taking leave of them both, started on his pilgrimage to holy 


Then, in course of time, he roamed round to all the holy 
bathing- places on the earth, enduring many toils in diffi- 
cult ways, living on roots and fruits. And after visiting 
Jtvadattas holy bathing-places he went to the shrine of the 
Former Life dweller on the Vindhya hills ; there he went 
through a severe penance, without food, on a bed of ku$a 
grass. And Ambika, satisfied with his asceticism, said 
to him, appearing in bodily form : " Rise up, my son, for 
you four are four Ganas of mine. Three are Panchamula, 
Chaturvaktra and Mahodaramukha, and thou art the fourth, 
last in order, and thy name is Vikatavadana. You four 
once went to the sand of the Ganges to amuse yourselves, 
and saw there a hermit's daughter bathing. She was called 
Chapalekha, the daughter of Kapilajata. And she was 
solicited by all of you, distracted with love. When she said : 
1 1 am a maiden ; go away all of you, ' the three others 
remained quiet, but thou didst forcibly seize her by the arm. 
And she cried out : ' Father, father, deliver me ! ' Then 
the hermit, who was near, came up in wrath. Then thou 
didst let go her arm ; then he immediately cursed you, 
saying : Wicked ones, be born, all of you, as human beings. ' 
Then you asked the hermit that the curse might end, and 
he said : ' When the Princess Anangarati shall be demanded 
in marriage by you, and shall go to the Vidyadhara world, 
then three of you shall be released from your curse. But 
when she has become a Vidyadhari, then thou, Vikatava- 
dana, shalt gain her, and lose her again, and then thou shalt 
suffer great sorrow. But after propitiating the goddess 
Durga for a long time thou shalt be released from this curse. 
This will happen to thee because thou didst touch the hand 
of this Chapalekha, and also because thou hast much guilt 
attaching to thee, on account of having carried off the wives 
of others.' You four Ganas of mine, whom that hermit 
thus cursed, became four heroes in the Deccan : Pancha- 
phuttika, and Bhashajna, and Khadgadhara, these three 
friends, and you the fourth, Jivadatta. Now the first three, 
when Anangarati returned to her own place, came here, and 
by my favour were freed from their curse. And thou hast 
propitiated me now ; therefore thy curse is at an end. So 


take this fiery meditation and abandon this body, and con- 
sume at once the guilt, which it would take eight births to 

When the goddess Durga had said this, she gave him the 
meditation and disappeared. And with that meditation he 
burned up his wicked mortal body, and at last was freed 
from the curse, and became once more an excellent Gana. 
When even gods have to endure so much suffering by 
associating with the wives of others, what must be the 
result of it to inferior beings ? 

In the meanwhile Anangaprabha became head queen in 
Harivara, the city of the King Harivara. And the king 
remained day and night with his mind fixed on her, and 
The Dancing entrusted the great burden of his kingdom to his 
Teacher minister named Sumantra. And once on a time 

there came to that king from Madhyadea a fresh teacher 
of dancing, named Labdhavara. The king, having seen 
his skill in music and dancing, honoured him, and made 
him the instructor in dancing of the ladies of the harem. 
He brought Anangaprabha so much excellence in dancing 
that she was an object of admiration even to her rival 
wives. And from associating with the professor of dancing, 
and from the delight she took in his teaching, she fell in 
love with him. And the professor of dancing, attracted 
by her youth and beauty, gradually learnt a new strange 
dance, 2 thanks to the God of Love. And once she ap- 
proached the professor of dancing secretly in the dancing- 
hall, and being desperately in love with him, said to him : 
" I shall not be able to live for a moment without you, 
and the King Harivara, when he hears of it, will not tolerate 
it ; so come, let us depart elsewhere, where the king will 
not find us out. You have wealth in the form of gold, 
horses and camels, given by the king, pleased with your 
dancing, and I have ornaments. So let us quickly go and 
dwell where we shall be secure." 

The professor of dancing was pleased with her proposal, 
and consented to this. Then she put on the dress of a man 

1 Comprising the modern provinces of Allahabad, Agra, Delhi and Oude. 

2 For anrityaia I should like to read anartyata. 


and went to the house of the professor of dancing, accom- 
panied by one female servant, who was exceedingly devoted 
to her. Thence she started on horseback, with that teacher 
She deserts of dancing, who placed his wealth on the back 
King Harivara f a camel. First she abandoned the splendour 
of the Vidyadharas, then of a throne, and now she put 
herself under the shelter of a bard's fortune. Alas ! fickle 
is the mind of women ! And so Anangaprabha went with 
the teacher of dancing and reached a distant city named 
Viyogapura. There she dwelt in happiness with him, and 
the distinguished dancer thought that by obtaining her his 
name of Labdhavara x had been justified. 

And in the meanwhile King Harivara, finding out that 
his beloved Anangaprabha had gone somewhere or other, 
was ready to abandon the body out of grief. Then the 
minister Sumantra said to the king to comfort him : " Why 
do you appear as if you do not understand the matter ? 
Consider it yourself. How, my sovereign, could you expect 
that a woman who deserted a husband that had by means 
of his sword obtained the power of a Vidyadhara, and re- 
paired to you as soon as she saw you, would be faithful even 
to you ? She has gone off with something that she has 
managed to get, having no desire for anything good, as one 
to whom a blade of grass is a sprout of jewels, falling in 
love at sight with a blade of grass. Certainly the teacher of 
dancing has gone off with her, for he is nowhere to be seen. 
And I hear that they both were in the concert-hall in the 
morning. So tell me, King, why are you so persistent about 
her, though you know all this ? The truth is, a fickle dame 
is like a sunset, momentarily aglow for everyone." 

When the minister said this to him, the king fell into a 
musing, and thought : " Yes, that wise man has told me 
the truth. For a fickle dame is like human life ; connection 
with her is unstable; she changes every moment, and is 
terrible, bringing disgust at the end. The wise man never 
falls into the power of deep rivers or of woman, both of 
which drown him who falls into their power, while they 
exhibit wanton sportfulness. Those men are truly masters 

1 I.e. one who has obtained a prize. 


of themselves who are free from excitement about pleasures, 
who are not puffed up in prosperity, and who are unshrink- 
ing in dangers : such men have conquered the world." After 
saying this, King Harivara abandoned his grief by the advice 
of his minister, and remained satisfied with the society of his 
own wives. 

And after Anangaprabha had dwelt some time with the 
teacher of dancing, in the city named Viyogapura, he, as 
fate would have it, struck up an acquaintance with a young 
The G bl g am bl er named SudarSana. Then the gambler, 
and the before the eyes of Anangaprabha, soon stripped 

Merchant the teacher of dancing of all his wealth. Then 
iranyagupa Anangaprabha deserted her husband, who was 
stripped of all his fortune, as if in anger on that account, 
and threw herself into the arms of Sudar^ana. Then the 
teacher of dancing, having lost his wife and his wealth, 
having no refuge, in disgust with the world, matted his hair 
in a knot and went to the banks of the Ganges to practise 
mortification of the flesh. But Anangaprabha, who was ever 
taking new paramours, remained with that gambler. But 
one night her lord Sudarsana was robbed of all that he had 
by some robbers, who entered his house in the darkness. 
Then Sudarsana, seeing that Anangaprabha was uncom- 
fortable and unhappy on account of their poverty, said to 
her : " Come and let us borrow something from a rich friend 
of mine, named Hiranyagupta, a distinguished merchant." 
After saying this he, being deprived of his senses by destiny, 
went with his wife and asked that great merchant Hiranya- 
gupta to lend him some money. And the merchant, when 
he saw her, immediately fell in love with her, and she also 
with him, the moment that she beheld him. And the 
merchant said politely to Sudarsana : " To-morrow I will 
give you gold, but dine here to-day." When Sudarsana 
heard this, beholding the altered bearing of those two, he 
said: "I did not come here to-day to dine." Then the 
great merchant said : "If this be the case, at any rate let 
your wife dine here, my friend, for this is the first time that 
she has visited my house." 

When Sudarsana was thus addressed by him, he remained 


silent in spite of his cunning, and that merchant went into 
his house with Anangaprabha. There he indulged in drink- 
ing and other pastimes with that fair one, unexpectedly 
thrown in his way, who was merry with all the wantonness 
of wine. But Sudarana, who was standing outside, waiting 
for her to come out, had the following message brought to 
him by the merchant's servants, in accordance with their 
master's orders : " Your wife has dined and gone home ; 
you must have failed to see her going out. So what are 
you doing here so long ? Go home." He answered : " She 
is within the house, she has not come out, and I will not 
depart." Thereupon the merchant's servants drove him 
away from the house with kicks. Then Sudar^ana went off 
and sorrowfully reflected with himself : " What ! has this 
merchant, though my friend, robbed me of my wife? Or, 
rather, in this very birth the fruit of my sin has in such a 
form fallen to my lot. For what I did to one, another has 
done to me. Why should I, then, be angry with another, 
when my own deeds merit anger ? So I will sever the chain 
of works, so that I may not be again humiliated." 

Thus reflecting, the gambler abandoned his anger, and 
going to the hermitage of Badarika, 1 he proceeded to perform 
such austerities as would cut the bonds of mundane existence. 

1 Badarinatha is a place sacred to Vishnu in the Himalayas. The 
Badarinatha peaks, in British Garhwal, form a group of six summits, from 
22,000 to 23,400 feet above the sea. The town of Badarinatha is fifty-five 
miles north-east of Srinagar, on the right bank of the Vishnuganga, a feeder 
of the Alaknanda. The temple is situated in the highest part of the town, 
and below it a tank, supplied by a sulphureous thermal spring, is frequented 
by thousands of pilgrims. The temple is 10,294 feet above the sea. (Akbar, 
an Eastern Romance, by Dr van Limburg-Brouwer, with an introduction by 

Clements Markham, p. 1, note.) The place derives its name from the 

worship of Vishnu in his manifestation as Badarinatha or Badarinarayana, 
<' Lord of the badari or jujube tree." Crooke (Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, 
p. 325) suggests that an ancient tree-cult is probably associated with the 
thermal spring mentioned above. The founder of the temple is said to have 
been the great teacher Sankaracharya, a Malabar Brahman, who lived about 
the beginning of the eighth century a.d. Crooke adds an interesting descrip- 
tion given by Atkinson {Himalayan Gazetteer, vol. iii, p. 24 et seu.): "The idol 
in the principal temple is formed of black stone or marble about three feet 
high. It is usually clothed with rich gold brocade, and above its head is a 


And Anangaprabha, having obtained that exceedingly 
handsome merchant for a dear husband, was as pleased as a 
bee that has lighted on a flower. And in course of time she 
attained undisputed control over the wealth, as well as over 
the heart, of that opulent merchant, who was deeply in love 
with her. But the King Virabahu, though he heard of the 
matchless beauty residing there, did not carry her off, but 
remained strictly within the limits of virtue. And in course 
of time the wealth of the merchant began to diminish, on 
account of the expenditure of Anangaprabha ; for, in a house 
presided over by an unchaste woman, Fortune pines as well 
as virtuous women. Then the merchant Hiranyagupta got 
together wares and went off to an island named Suvarna- 
bhumi to trade, and he took that Anangaprabha with him, 
out of fear of being separated from her, and journeying on 
his way he at last reached the city of Sagarapura. There he 
fell in with a chief of fishermen, a native of that place, Saga- 
ravira by name, whom he found in that city near the sea. 
He went with that seafaring man to the shore of the sea, and 
with his beloved embarked on a ship which he provided. 

And after the merchant had travelled in anxiety for 
some days over the sea in that ship, accompanied by Saga- 
ravira, one day a terrible cloud of doom appeared, with 

small mirror which reflects the objects from the outside. In front are several 
lamps always burning, and a table also covered with brocade. To the right 
are images of Nara and Narayana, and on the left those of Kuvera and Narada. 
The idol is adorned with one jewel, a diamond of moderate size, in the middle 
of its forehead, whilst the whole of the properties, including dresses, eating 
vessels, and other paraphernalia, are not worth more than Rs.5000 (333). 

" A good deal of ostentatious attention is paid to the personal comfort of 
the idol at Badari. It is daily provided with meals, which are placed before 
it ; the doors of the sanctuary are then closed, and the idol is left to consume 
its meals in quietness. The doors are not opened again till after sunset ; and 
at a late hour, its bed being prepared by the attendants, the doors are again 
closed until morning. The vessels in which the idol is served are of gold and 
silver, and a large establishment of servants is kept up, both male and female, 
the latter as dancing-girls and mistresses of the celibate priests. The only 
persons who have access to the inner apartments are the servants, and no one 
but the Rawal himself is allowed to touch the idol." 

For further details see Traill, Statistical Account of Kumaun, edit. Batten, 
p. 57 ; Panjdb Notes and Queries, vol. iv, p. 196; and Crooke, Tribes and Castes 
of the Sorth- Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. iv, p. 340. n.m.p. 


flashing eyes of lightning, filling them with fear of destruc- 
tion. Then that ship, smitten by a mighty wind, with a 
violent shower of rain, began to sink in the waves. That 
merchant Hiranyagupta, when the crew raised a 
cry of lamentation, and the ship began to break 
up like his own hopes, fastened his cloak round his loins 
and, looking at the face of Anangaprabha, exclaimed : " Ah ! 
my beloved, where art thou ? " and threw himself into the 
sea. And he oared himself along with his arms, and, as luck 
would have it, he reached a merchant- ship, and caught hold 
of it and climbed up into it. 

But that Sagaravira tied together some planks with a 
cord and quickly placed Anangaprabha upon them. And he 
himself climbed up upon them, and comforted that terrified 
woman, and went paddling along in the sea, throwing aside 
the water with his arms. And as soon as the ship had been 
broken to pieces the clouds disappeared from the heaven, 
and the sea was calm, like a good man whose wrath is 
appeased. But the merchant Hiranyagupta, after climbing 
up into the ship, which was impelled by the wind, as fate 
would have it, reached in five days the shore of the sea. 
Then he went on shore, grieved at the loss of his beloved ; 
but he reflected that the dispensations of Destiny were ir- 
remediable; and he went slowly home to his own city, and 
being of resolute soul, he recovered his self-command, and 
again acquired wealth and lived in great comfort. 

But Anangaprabha, seated on the plank, was piloted to 
the shore of the sea in one day by Sagaravira. And there 
that chief of the fishermen, consoling her, took her to his 
own palace in the city of Sagarapura. There Anangaprabha, 
reflecting that that chief of the fishermen was a hero who 
had saved her life, and was equal to a king in opulence, and 
in the prime of youth and good looks, and obedient to her 
orders, made him her husband. A woman who has lost her 
virtue does not distinguish between high and low. Then she 
dwelt with that chief of fishermen, enjoying in his house his 
wealth that he put at her disposal. 

One day she saw from the roof of the palace a handsome 
Kshatriya youth, named Vijayavarman, going along the high 



street of the town. Falling in love with his good looks, 
she went up to him and said : " Receive me, who am in 
love with you, for my mind has been fascinated by the 
sight of you." And he gladly welcomed that 
the Fisherman fairest woman of the three worlds, who had fallen 
for Vijaya- to him, as it were, from the sky, and took her 
home to his house. But Sagaravira, finding that 
his beloved had gone somewhere or other, abandoned all, 
and went to the River Ganges, intending to leave the body 
by means of ascetic practices. And no wonder that his grief 
was great, for how could a man of servile caste ever have 
expected to obtain such a Vidyadhari ? But Anangaprabha 
lived at ease in that very town with Vijayavarman, free from 

Then one day the king of that place, named Sagara- 
varman, mounted a female elephant and went out to roam 
round his city. And while the king was looking at that well- 
built city named after him, he came along the street where 
the house of Vijayavarman was. And Anangaprabha, find- 
ing out that the king was coming that way, went up to the 
top of the house, out of curiosity to behold him. And the 
moment she saw the king she fell so desperately in love with 
him that she insolently exclaimed to the elephant-driver : 
" Mahout, I never in my life have ridden on an elephant, so 
give me a ride on yours, and let me see how pleasant it is." 

When the elephant- driver heard this, he looked at the 
face of the king, and in the meanwhile the king beheld her, 
like the splendour of the moon fallen from heaven. And 
. ,,_ the king, drinking her in with insatiate eye like 

enters upon a partridge, having conceived the hope of gain- 
her Final Jng ner> sa i^ to his elephant-driver : " Take the 
elephant near and comply with her wish, and 
without delay seat this moon- faced dame on the elephant." 
When the king said this, the elephant - driver at once 
brought that elephant close under the house. When 
Anangaprabha saw that the elephant had come near, she 
immediately flung herself into the lap of the King Sagara- 
varman. How came it that, though at first she was averse 
to a husband, she now showed such an insatiable appetite 


for husbands ? Surely her father's curse made her exhibit 
a great change of character. And she clasped the king 
round the neck, as if afraid of falling, and he, when his 
limbs were irrigated with the nectar of her touch, was much 
delighted. And the king quickly carried off to his own 
palace her who had surrendered herself by an artifice, being 
desirous of being kissed. There he made that Vidyadhari 
enter his harem, and after she had told him her story he made 
her his principal wife. And then that young Kshatriya, 
finding out that she had been carried off by the king, came 
and attacked the king's servants outside the palace; and 
there he left his corpse, not turning his back in fight; for 
brave men do not submit to insult on account of a woman. 
And it seemed as if he was carried off to the abode of the 
gods by the nymphs of heaven, saying : " What have you 
to do with this contemptible woman ? Come to Nandana and 
court us." 

As for that Anangaprabha, when she had come into the 
possession of the King Sagaravarman, she roamed no more, 
but remained faithful to him, as rivers are at rest in the 
bosom of the sea. And owing to the force of destiny she 
thought herself fortunate in having obtained that husband, 
and he thought that his life was complete by having obtained 
her for a wife. 

And in some days Anangaprabha, the queen of that 
King Sagaravarman, became pregnant, and in due time gave 
birth to a son. And the king made a great feast on account 
The Birth ^ ^e birth of a noble son, and gave the boy the 
of Samudra- name of Samudravarman. And when that son 
varman attained his full stature, and became a young 

man distinguished for might, the king appointed him Crown 
Prince. Then he brought to his court Kamalavati, the 
daughter of a certain king named Samaravarman, to be 
married to him. And when that son Samudravarman was 
married, the king, being impressed by his virtues, gave him 
his own kingdom. That brave son Samudravarman, being 
thoroughly acquainted with the duties of Kshatriyas, when 
he had obtained the kingdom, said to his father, bowing 
before him : " Father, give me leave to depart ; I am setting 


out to conquer the regions. A lord of earth that is not in- 
tent on conquest is to be blamed as much as the effeminate 
husband of a woman. And in this world only that fortune 
of kings is righteous and glorious which is acquired by one's 
own strength after conquering the kingdoms. What is the 
use, father, of the sovereignty of those kings who hold it 
merely for the sake of oppressing the poor ? They devour 
their own subjects, ravenous like cats." ' 

When he had said this, his father Sagaravarman replied : 
" Your rule, my boy, is young ; so for the present secure 
that ; no demerit or disgrace attaches to one who rules his 
subjects justly. And war is not meet for kings without 
considering their power. Though you, my child, are a hero, 
and your army is numerous, still you ought not to rely upon 
the fortune of victory, which is fickle in fight." 

Though his father used these and similar arguments with 
him, the brave Samudravarman at last, with great difficulty, 
induced him to consent, and marched out to conquer the 
regions. And having conquered the regions in due course, 
and reduced the kings under his sway, he returned to his 
own city in possession of elephants, horses, gold and other 
tributes. And there he humbly honoured the feet of his 
delighted parents with great jewels produced in various 
regions. And the glorious prince gave, by their orders, to 
the Brahmans great gifts of elephants, horses, gold and 
jewels. Then he showered gold in such profusion upon 
suppliants and servants that the only thing in the country 
devoid of wealth was the word poor, which had become 
without meaning. 2 The King Sagaravarman, dwelling with 
Anangaprabha, when he beheld the glory of his son, considered 
that his objects in life had been accomplished. 

And the king, after spending those days in feasting, 
said to his son Samudravarman in the presence of the 
ministers : " I have accomplished, my son, what I had to 
accomplish in this birth. I have enjoyed the pleasures of 
rule, I have not experienced defeat from my enemies, and I 
have seen you in possession of sovereignty. What else does 

1 Praja means "subjects" and also "offspring." 

* The word artha means " wealth " and also "meaning." 


there remain for me to obtain ? So I will retire to a holy 
bathing-place, while my body retains strength. For see, 
old age whispers at the root of my ear : ' Since this body 
is perishable, why do you still remain in your house ? ' " 
Having said this, the King Sagaravarman, all whose ends 
were attained, went, though his son was opposed to it, to 
Prayaga with his beloved. And Samudravarman escorted 
his father there, and, after returning to his own city, ruled 
it in accordance with the law. 

And the King Sagaravarman, accompanied by his wife 
Anangaprabha, propitiated the god Siva in Prayaga with 
asceticism. And at the end of the night the god said to him 
The End of i n a dream : "I am pleased with this penance 
the Curse of yourself and your wife ; so hear this : this 
Anangaprabha and you, my son, are both of the Vidyadhara 
race, and to-morrow the curse will expire, and you will go 
to your own world." 

When the king heard that, he woke up, and Ananga- 
prabha, too, who had seen a similar dream, and they told 
their dreams to one another. And then Anangaprabha, 
delighted, said to the king : " My husband, I have now 
remembered all the history of my former birth. I am the 
daughter of Samara, a prince of the Vidyadharas, in the city 
of Virapura, and my name has always been Anangaprabha. 
And I came here owing to the curse of my father, having 
become a human being by the loss of my science, and I 
forgot my Vidyadhari nature. But now I have recovered 
consciousness of it." 

While she was saying this, her father Samara descended 
from heaven, and after he had been respectfully wel- 
comed by the King Sagaravarman he said to that daughter 
Anangaprabha, who fell at his feet : " Come, daughter, 
receive these sciences ; your curse is at an end. For you 
have endured in one birth the sorrows of eight births." ' 

1 The story of Anangaprabha may be the origin of the seventh novel of 

the second day in the Decameron of Boccaccio. Possibly, but the point of 

Boccaccio's story of the " Soldan of Babylon " is that, after all her intrigues, 
she is married to the King of Algarve as a virgin, thus it really comes under 
the " Deceitful Wives " motif, and the more lovers she has the more corrupt 


Saying this, he took her on his lap and gave her back 
the sciences. Then he said to the King Sagaravarman : 
" You are a prince of the Vidyadharas named Madana- 
prabha, and I am by name Samara, and Anangaprabha is 
my daughter. And long ago, when she ought to have been 
given in marriage, her hand was demanded by several 
suitors, but, being intoxicated by her beauty, she did not 
desire any husband. Then she was asked in marriage by 
you, who were equal in merit, and very eager to marry her, 
but, as fate would have it, she would not then accept even 
you. For that reason I cursed her, that she might go to the 
world of mortals. And you, being passionately in love with 
her, fixed your heart on Siva, the giver of boons, and wished 
intently that she might be your wife in the world of mortals, 
and then you abandoned your Vidyadhara body by magic 
art. Then you became a man, and she became your wife. 
Now return to your own world linked together." 

When Samara said this to Sagaravarman, he, remember- 
ing his birth, abandoned his body in the water of Prayaga 
and immediately became Madanaprabha. And Ananga- 
prabha was rekindled with the brightness of her recovered 
science, and immediately becoming a Vidyadhari, gleamed 
with that very body, which underwent a heavenly change. 
And then Madanaprabha, being delighted, and Ananga- 
prabha also, feeling great passion stir in both their hearts 
at the sight of one another's heavenly bodies, and the 
auspicious Samara, king of the sky-goers, all flew up into 
the air, and went together to that city of the Vidyadharas, 

and deceitful is woman shown to be. It has been suggested that the story 
has historical foundations somewhere between 1315 and 1320 (see Lami, 
Novelle Letterarie di Firenze, 1754, pp. 209, 225, 257, 273). The "False 
Virgin" motif is, however, a very old one in fiction (see, for instance, the 
Mahdbharata, Udyoga Parva, cxv et seq.). For other analogues see Lee, The 
Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, pp. 36-38. n.m.p. 

1 Prayaga Allahabad, the " place of sacrifice," ko.t ^oyrfv. Here the 

Ganga and Yamuna unite with the supposed subterranean Sarasvati. It is 

this triple junction (trivem) that accounts for the special holiness of AllahabAd. 
See further Fiihrer, Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions of the North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh, p. 127 et seq. See also Vol. II, p. 11 On 2 , of this work. 


Virapura. And there Samara immediately gave, with due 
rites, his daughter Anangaprabha to the Vidyadhara king, 
Madanaprabha. And Madanaprabha went with that be- 
loved, whose curse had been cancelled, to his own city, and 
there he dwelt at ease. 

[M] " Thus divine beings fall by virtue of a curse, and, 
owing to the consequences of their own wickedness, are 
incarnate in the world of men, and after reaping the fruit 
appropriate to their bad conduct they again go to their own 
home on account of previously acquired merit." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this tale from his minister 
Gomukha, he and Alankaravati were delighted, and then he 
performed the duties of the day. 


THEN, on the next day, Naravahanadatta's friend 
[M] Marubhuti said to him, when he was in the 
company of Alankaravati : " See, King, this miser- 
able dependent of yours remains clothed with one garment 
of leather, with matted hair, thin and dirty, and never 
leaves the royal gate, day or night, in cold or heat ; so why 
do you not show him favour at last ? For it is better that 
a little should be given in time, than much when it is 
too late; so have mercy on him before he dies." When 
Gomukha heard this, he said : " Marubhuti speaks well, 
but you, King, are not the least in fault in this matter ; for 
until a suitor's guilt, which stands in his way, is removed, 
a king, even though disposed to give, cannot give ; but when 
a man's guilt is effaced a king gives, though strenuously dis- 
suaded from doing so ; this depends upon works in a previous 
state of existence. And a propos of this I will tell you, O 
King, the story of Lakshadatta the king, and Labdhadatta 
the dependent. Listen. 

69. Story of King Lakshadatta and his Dependent 
Labdhadatta 2 

There was on the earth a city named Lakshapura. In 
it there lived a king named Lakshadatta, chief of generous 
men. He never knew how to give a petitioner less than a 
lac of coins, but he gave five lacs to anyone with whom he 
conversed. As for the man with whom he was pleased, he 
lifted him out of poverty ; for this reason his name was 

1 The word in the original is karpafika. Bohtlingk and Roth explain it 
in this passage as " ein im Dienste eines Fiirslen stehender Beltler." It appears 
from Taranga 81 that a .poor man became a karpa{ika by tearing a karpafa, a 
ragged garment, in a king's presence. The business of a karpafika seems to 
have been to do a service without getting anything for it. 

2 For a note on this story see the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 



called Lakshadatta. A certain dependent named Labdha- 
datta stood day and night at his gate, with a piece of leather 
for his only loin-rag. He had matted hair, and he never 
left the king's gate for a second, day or night, in cold, rain or 
heat, and the king saw him there. And though he remained 
there long in misery, the king did not give him anything, 
though he was generous and compassionate. 

Then one day the king went to a forest to hunt, and his 
dependent followed him with a staff in his hand. There, 
while the king, seated on an elephant, armed with a bow, 
and followed by his army, slew tigers, bears and deer, with 
showers of arrows, his dependent, going in front of him, alone 
on foot, slew with his staff many boars and deer. When 
the king saw his bravery, he thought in his heart, "It is 
wonderful that this man should be such a hero," but he did 
not give him anything. And the king, when he had finished 
his hunting, returned home to his city to enjoy himself, but 
that dependent stood at his palace gate as before. 

Once on a time Lakshadatta went out to conquer a 
neighbouring king of the same family, and he had a terrible 
battle. And in the battle the dependent struck down in 
front of him many enemies, with blows from the end of his 
strong staff of acacia wood. And the king, after conquering 
his enemies, returned to his own city, and though he had 
seen the valour of his dependent, he gave him nothing. In 
this condition the dependent Labdhadatta remained, and 
many years passed over his head, while he supported himself 
with difficulty. 

And when the sixth year had come King Lakshadatta 
happened to see him one day, and feeling pity for him, 
reflected : " Though he has been long afflicted I have not 
as yet given him anything, so why should I not give him 
something in a disguised form, and so find out whether the 
guilt of this poor man has been effaced or not, and whether 
even now Fortune will grant him a sight of her or not ? " 

Thus reflecting, the king deliberately entered his treasury 
and filled a citron with jewels, as if it were a casket. And 
he held an assembly of all his subjects, having appointed a 
meeting outside his palace, and there entered the assembly 


all his citizens, chiefs and ministers. And when the depend- 
ent entered among them the king said to him with an 
affectionate voice : " Come here." Then the dependent, 
on hearing this, was delighted, and coming near, he sat in 
front of the king. Then the king said to him : " Utter some 
composition of your own." Then the dependent recited 
the following Arya verse : " Fortune ever replenishes the full 
man, as all the streams replenish the sea, but she never even 
comes within the range of the eyes of the poor." 

When the king had heard this, and had made him recite 
it again, he was pleased, and gave him the citron full of 
valuable jewels. And the people said : " This king puts a 
The Citron stop to the poverty of everyone with whom he is 
of Jewels pleased ; so this dependent is to be pitied, since 
this very king, though pleased with him, after summoning 
him politely, has given him nothing but this citron. A 
wishing- tree, in the case of ill-starred men, often becomes 
a palda-tree" These were the words which all in the 
assembly said to one another in their despondency when 
they saw that, for they did not know the truth. 

But the dependent went out with the citron in his hand, 
and when he was in a state of despondency a mendicant 
came before him. And that mendicant, named Rajavandin, 
seeing that the citron was a fine one, obtained it from that 
dependent by giving him a garment. And then the mendi- 
cant entered the assembly and gave that fruit to the king, 
and the king, recognising it, said to that hermit 2 : " Where, 
reverend sir, did you procure this citron ? " Then he told 
the king that the dependent had given it to him. Then 
the king was grieved and astonished, reflecting that his guilt 
was not expiated even now. The King Lakshadatta took 
the citron, rose up from the assembly and performed the 
duties of the day. And the dependent sold the garment, 
and, after he had eaten and drunk, remained at his usual 
post at the king's gate. 

And on the second day the king held a general assembly, 
and everybody appeared at it again, citizens and all. And 

1 There is a pun here. The word palasa also means " cruel," " unmerciful." 
* The word used shows that he was probably a Buddhist mendicant. 


the king, seeing that the dependent had entered the assembly, 
called him as before and made him sit near him. And after 
making him again recite that very same Arya, verse, being 
pleased, he gave him that very same citron with jewels 
concealed in it. And all there thought with astonishment : 
" Ah ! this is the second time that our master is pleased 
with him without his gaining by it." And the dependent, 
in despondency, took the citron in his hand, and thinking 
that the king's good- will had again been barren of results, 
went out. At that very moment a certain official met him, 
who was about to enter that assembly, wishing to see the 
king. He, when he saw that citron, took a fancy to it, and, 
regarding the omen, 1 procured it from the dependent by 
giving him a pair of garments. And entering the king's 
court he fell at the feet of the sovereign, and first gave him 
the citron, and then another present of his own. And 
when the king recognised the fruit he asked the official where 
he got it, and he replied : " From the dependent." And the 
king, thinking in his heart that Fortune would not even now 
give the dependent a sight of her, was exceedingly sad. 
And he rose up from the assembly with that citron, and 
the dependent went to the market with the pair of garments 
he had got. And by selling one garment he procured meat 
and drink, and tearing the other in half he made two of it. 

Then on the third day also the king held a general 
assembly, and all the subjects entered, as before, and when 
the dependent entered, the king gave him the same citron 
again, after calling him and making him recite the Arya 
verse. Then all were astonished, and the dependent went 
out and gave that citron to the king's mistress. And she, 
like a moving creeper of the tree of the king's regard, gave 
him gold, which was, so to speak, the flower, the harbinger 
of the fruit. The dependent sold it and enjoyed himself 
that day, and the king's mistress went into his presence. 
And she gave him that citron, which was large and fine, and 
he, recognising it, asked her whence she procured it. Then 
she said: "The dependent gave it me." Hearing that, the 

1 Fresh fruit and flowers are both lucky omens, and are included in 
Thurston's and Enthoven's lists. See my note on p. 122n x of this volume. n.m.p. 


king thought : " Fortune has not yet looked favourably 
upon him ; his merit in a former life must have been slight, 
since he does not know that my favour is never barren of 
results. And so these splendid jewels come back to me 
again and again." Thus the king reflected, and he took that 
citron and put it away safely, and rose up and performed 
the duties of the day. 

And on the fourth day the king held an assembly in the 
same way, and it was filled with all his subjects, feudatories, 
ministers and all. And the dependent came there again, 
Labdhadatta's anc * a g am the king made him sit in front of him, 
Luck changes and when he bowed before him the king made 
at last him recite the Arya verse, and gave him the 

citron ; and when the dependent had half got hold of it he 
suddenly let it go, and the citron fell on the ground and 
broke in half. And as the joining of the citron, which 
kept it together, was broken, there rolled out of it many 
valuable jewels, illuminating that place of assembly. All 
the people, when they saw it, said : " Ah ! we were deluded 
and mistaken, as we did not know the real state of the case, 
but such is the nature of the king's favour." When the 
king heard that, he said : " By this artifice I endeavoured 
to ascertain whether Fortune would now look on him or 
not. But for three days his guilt was not effaced ; now 
it is effaced, and for that reason Fortune has now granted 
him a sight of herself." 

After the king had said this, he gave the dependent those 
jewels, and also villages, elephants, horses and gold, and made 
him a feudal chief. And he rose up from that assembly, in 
which the people applauded, and went to bathe ; and that 
dependent too, having obtained his ends, went to his own 

[M] " So true is it that, until a servant's guilt is effaced, 
he cannot obtain the favour of his master, even by going 
through hundreds of hardships." 

When Gomukha, the prime minister, had told this tale, 


he again said to his master Naravahanadatta : " So, King, 
I know that even now the guilt of that dependent of yours 
is not expiated, since even now you are not pleased with 

When the son of the King of Vatsa heard this speech 
of Gomukha's, he said : " Ha ! Good ! " And he immedi- 
ately gave to his own dependent, who was named Karpatika, 
a number of villages, elephants and horses, a crore of gold 
pieces, and excellent garments, and ornaments. Then that 
dependent, who had attained prosperity, became like a king. 
How can the attendance on a grateful king, who has excellent 
courtiers, be void of fruit ? 

When Naravahanadatta was thus employed there came 
one day, to take service with him, a young Brahman from 
the Deccan, named Pralambabahu. That hero said to the 
prince : "I have come to your feet, my sovereign, attracted 
by your renown, and I on foot will never leave your com- 
pany for a step, as long as you travel on the earth with 
elephants, horses and chariots ; but in the air I cannot 
go. I say this because it is rumoured that my lord will 
one day be Emperor of the Vidyadharas. A hundred gold 
pieces should be given to me every day as salary." 

When that Brahman, who was really of incomparable 
might, said this, Naravahanadatta gave him this salary. 
And thereupon Gomukha said : " My lord, kings have such 
servants. A propos of this, hear this story." 

70. Story of the Brahman Vlravara 1 

There is in this country a great and splendid city of the 
name of Vikramapura. In it there lived long ago a king 
named Vikramatunga. He was distinguished for statesman- 
ship, and though his sword was sharp, his rod of justice was 
not so ; and he was always intent on righteousness, but not 
on women, hunting, and so forth. And while he was king 
the only atoms of wickedness were the atoms of earth in 
the dust ; the only departure from virtue was the loosing 
of arrows from the string ; the only straying from justice 

1 This story is found in the Hilapadesa, p. 89 of Johnson's translation. 


was the wandering of sheep in the folds of the keepers of 
cattle. 1 

Once on a time a heroic and handsome Brahman, from 
the country of Malava, named Viravara, came there to take 
service under that king. He had a wife named Dharma- 
vati, a daughter named Viravati, and a son named Sattva- 
vara ; these three constituted his family ; and his attendants 
consisted of another three : at his hip a dagger, in one hand 
a sword, and in the other a polished shield. Though he had 
such a small following, he demanded from that king five 
hundred dinars 2 every day by way of salary. And the 
king gave him that salary, perceiving his courage, and think- 
ing to himself: "I will make trial of his excellence." And 
the king set spies on him, to find out what this man, with 
only two arms, would do with so many dinars. 

And Viravara, every day, gave his wife a hundred of 
those dinars for food and other purposes ; and with another 
hundred he bought clothes, and garlands, and so on ; and 
he appointed a third hundred, after bathing, for the worship 
of Vishnu and Siva ; and the remaining two hundred he 
gave to Brahmans, the poor and so on ; and so he expended 
every day the whole five hundred. And he stood at the 
palace gate of the king for the first half of the day, and after 
he had performed his daily prayers and other duties he came 
back and remained there at night also. The spies reported 
to the king continually that daily practice of his, and then 
the king, being satisfied, ordered those spies to desist from 
observing him. And Viravara remained day and night at 
the gate of the king's palace, sword in hand, excepting 

1 These two lines are an elaborate pun Am = " evil," and also "earth," 
guna = " virtue," and also " string," avichara = " injustice," also " the movement 

of sheep." Cj\ the punning verse in the Kathakoqa, p. 37, where "stick" 

also means " punishment," and "the pressure of hands " is also "oppressive 

taxes " : 

" In this city sticks were connected only with umbrellas, imprisonings with 

hair, and slaying of men was heard only in chess. 
Holes were picked in necklaces only : and hands paid the tribute of 

pressurejonly in marriage." 
P*!. See also p. 204 of this volume. n.m.p. 

* See Vol. I, p. 63n l . n.m.p. 


only the time set apart for bathing and matters of that 

Then there came a collection of clouds, bellowing terribly, 
as if determined to conquer that Vlravara, being impatient 
of his valour. And then, though the cloud rained a terrible 
arrow- shower of drops, Vlravara stood like a column and 
did not leave the palace gate. And the King Vikramatunga, 
having beheld him from the palace in this position, went up 
to the roof of the palace at night to try him again. And he 
called out from above : " Who waits at the palace gate ? " 
And Viravara, when he heard that, answered : "I am here." 
The king, hearing this, thought : " Surely this brave man 
deserves high rank, for he does not leave the palace gate 
though such a cloud is raining." 

While engaged in those reflections the king heard a woman 
weeping bitterly in the distance, and he thought : " There 
is not an afflicted person in my dominions, so why does 
The Weeping she weep ? " Thereupon he said to Viravara : 
Woman " Hark, Viravara, there is some woman weeping 

at some distance from this place, so go and find out who she 
is and what is her sorrow." When Viravara heard that, he 
set out, brandishing his sword, with his dagger at his side. 
Then the king, seeing that he had set out when such a cloud 
was blazing with lightning, and when the interval between 
heaven and earth * was full of descending drops of rain, 
being moved with curiosity and pity, came down from the 
roof of his palace and set out behind him, sword in hand, 

And Viravara, going in the direction of the wailing," 
followed unperceived by the king, reached a lake outside 
the city. And he saw a woman lamenting in the midst of 
it : " Ah, lord ! Ah, merciful one ! Ah, hero ! How shall 
I exist abandoned by thee ? " He asked her : " Who are 
you, and what lord do you lament ? " Then she said : 
" My son, know that I am this earth. At present Vikrama- 
tunga is my righteous lord, and his death will certainly take 

1 I follow the MS. in the Sanskrit College, which reads rodorandhre. 

2 Here with the Sanskrit College MS. I read ruditam for the unmetrical 
kranditam. This is confirmed by the D. text. n.m.p. 


place on the third day from now. And how shall I obtain 
such a lord again ? For with divine foresight I behold the 
good and evil to come, as Suprabha, the son of a god, did 
when in heaven. 

70a. Suprabha and his Escape from Destiny 

For he, possessing divine foresight, foresaw that in seven 
days he would fall from heaven on account of the exhaustion 
of his merits and be conceived in the body of a sow. Then 
that son of a god, reflecting on the misery of dwelling in the 
body of a sow, regretted with himself those heavenly enjoy- 
ments : " Alas for heaven ! Alas for the Apsarases ! Alas 
for the arbours of Nandana ! Alas ! How shall I live in the 
body of a sow, and after that in the mire ? " 

When the king of the gods heard him indulging in these 
lamentations he came to him and questioned him, and that 
son of a god told him the cause of his grief. Then Indra said 
to him : " Listen, there is a way out of this difficulty open 
to you. Have recourse to Siva as a protector, exclaiming : 
' Om ! x Honour to Siva ! ' If you resort to him as a pro- 
tector you shall escape from your guilt and obtain merit, so 
that you shall not be born in the body of a pig nor fall from 
heaven." When the king of the gods said this to Suprabha 
he followed his advice, and exclaiming, " Om ! Honour to 
Siva I " he fled to Siva as an asylum. After remaining 
wholly intent on him for six days, he not only by his favour 
escaped being sent into the body of a pig, but went to an 
abode of bliss higher than Svarga. And on the seventh day, 
when Indra, not seeing him in heaven, looked about, he found 
he had gone to another and a superior world. 

70. Story of the Brahman Viravara 

" As Suprabha lamented, beholding pollution impending, 
so I lament, beholding the impending death of the king." 

1 For a detailed account of the mystic syllable Om, see A. B. Keith, 
" Ora," Hastings' Ency. liel. Eth., vol. ix, pp. 490-492. n.m.p. 


When Earth " said this, Viravara answered her : " If there 
is any expedient for rescuing this king, as there was an 
expedient for rescuing Suprabha in accordance with the 
advice of Indra, pray tell it me." When Earth was thus 
addressed by Viravara, she answered him : " There is an 
expedient in this case, and it is in your hands." When the 
Brahman Viravara heard this, he said joyfully : " Then tell 
me, goddess, quickly ; if my lord can be benefited by the 
sacrifice of my life, or of my son or wife, my birth is not 
wasted." When Viravara said this, Earth answered him : 
" There is here an image of Durga near the palace ; if you 
offer to that image your son Sattvavara, then the king will 
live, but there is no other expedient for saving his life." 
When the resolute Viravara heard this speech of the goddess 
Earth, he said: "I will go, lady, and do it immediately." 
And Earth said : " What other man is so devoted to his lord ? 
Go, and prosper." And the king, who followed him, heard all. 
Then Viravara went quickly to his house that night, and 
the king followed him unobserved. There he woke up his 
wife Dharmavati and told her that, by the counsel of the 
goddess Earth, he must offer up his son for the sake of the 
king. She, when she heard it, said : " We must certainly 
do what is for the advantage of the king ; so wake up our 
son and tell him." Then Viravara woke up his son and 
told him all that the goddess Earth had told him, as being 
for the interest of the king, down to the necessity of his own 
sacrifice. When the child Sattvavara heard this, he, being 
rightly named, said to his father 8 : " Am I not fortunate, 

1 The Earth Goddess in India is worshipped mainly in connection with 
agricultural seasons. Her name in Vedic times was Prithivl (see Rig-Veda, 
v, 84). She is usually worshipped in conjunction with her husband, Dyaus, 
the Sky-Father. Parjanya is also given as the consort of Prithivl. He is 
the Vedic god of ther ain-cloud. Mention should also be made of Bhumi, the 
soil, to whom cakes and fruits are offered in certain villages. For further 
details see Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, p. 26 et seq., and ditto in "Dravidians 
(North India)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, pp. 5-1, where is traced the 
developing of the cult of the Earth-Mother into a general Mother-cult. See 
also R. E. Enthoven, Folk-Lore of Bombay, 1924, pp. 81-88. N.m.p. 

2 I read dhrishyan i.e. rejoicing, from hrish. 

8 The word sattvavara here means " possessing pre-eminent virtue." 



my father, in that my life can profit the king ? I must 
requite him for his food which I have eaten; so take me 
and sacrifice me to the goddess for his sake." When the boy 
Sattvavara said this, Viravara answered him undismayed : 
" In truth you are my own son." When King Vikramatunga, 
who was standing outside, heard this, he said to himself : 
" Ah ! the members of this family are all equally brave." 

Then Viravara took that son Sattvavara on his shoulder, 
and his wife Dharmavati took his daughter Viravati on 
her back, and the two went to the temple of Durga by 

And the King Vikramatunga followed them, carefully 
concealing himself. When they reached the temple, Sattva- 
vara was put down by his father from his shoulder, and, 
Viravara though he was a boy, being a store-house of 
sacrifices courage, he bowed before the goddess, and 
hu Son addressed this petition to her : " Goddess, may 

our lord's life be saved by the offering of my head ! And 
may the King Vikramatunga rule the earth without an 
enemy to oppose him ! " When the boy said this, Viravara 
exclaimed: "Bravo, my son!" And drawing his sword he 
cut off his son's head and offered it to the goddess Durga, 
saying: "May the king be prosperous!" Those who are 
devoted to their master grudge them neither their sons' 
lives nor their own. Then a voice was heard from heaven, 
saying : " Bravo, Viravara ! You have bestowed life on 
your master by sacrificing even the life of your son." 

Then, while the king was seeing and hearing with great 
astonishment all that went on, the daughter of Viravara, 
named Viravati, who was a mere girl, came up to the head 
of her slain brother, and embraced it, and kissed it, and 
crying out, " Alas ! my brother ! " died of a broken heart. 
When Viravara 's wife Dharmavati saw that her daughter also 
was dead, in her grief she clasped her hands together and 
said to Viravara : " We have now ensured the prosperity of 
the king, so permit me to enter the fire with my two dead 
children. Since my infant daughter, though too young to 
understand anything, has died out of grief for her brother, 
what is the use of my life, my two children being dead ? ' 


When she spoke with this settled purpose, Viravara said to 
her : " Do so ; what can I say against it ? For, blameless 
one, there remains no happiness for you in a world which will 
be all filled for you with grief for your two children ; so wait 
a moment while I prepare the funeral pyre." Having said 
this, he constructed a pyre with some wood that was lying 
there to make the fence of the enclosure of the goddess's 
temple, and put the corpses of his children upon it, and lit 
a fire under it, so that it was enveloped in flames. Then his 
virtuous wife Dharmavati fell at his feet, and exclaiming, 
" May you, my husband, be my lord in my next birth, and 
may prosperity befall the king ! " she leapt into that burning 
pyre, with its hair of flame, as gladly as into a cool lake. 
And King Vikramatunga, who was standing by unperceived, 
remained fixed in thought as to how he could possibly 
recompense them. 

Then Viravara, of resolute soul, reflected: "I have 
accomplished my duty to my master, for a divine voice was 
heard audibly, and so I have requited him for the food which 
I have eaten; but now that I have lost all the dear family 
I had to support x it is not meet that I should live alone, 
supporting myself only, so why should I not propitiate this 
goddess Durga by offering up myself? " 

Viravara, firm in virtue, having formed this determina- 
tion, first approached, with a hymn of praise, that goddess 
Durga, the granter of boons. " Honour to thee, O great 
Ftravara's goddess, that givest security to thy votaries ; 
Hymn of rescue me, plunged in the mire of the world, 
that appeal to thee for protection. Thou art 
the principle of life in creatures ; by thee this world moves. 
In the beginning of creation Siva beheld thee self-produced, 
blazing and illuminating the world with brightness hard to 
behold, like ten million orbs of fiery suddenly produced 
infant suns rising at once, filling the whole horizon with the 
circle of thy arms, bearing a sword, a club, a bow, arrows 
and a spear. And thou wast praised by that god Siva in 
the following words : ' Hail to thee, Chandi, Chamunda, 
Mangala, Tripura, Jaya, Ekanama, Siva, Durga, Narayani, 

1 In si, l6S (a) I read mama for mayd with the Sanskrit College MS. 


Sarasvati, Bhadrakali, Mahalakshml, Siddha, slayer of Rum ! 
Thou art Gayatrl, Maharajnl, Revati, and the dweller in the 
Vindhya hills ; thou art Uma and Katyayani, and the dweller 
in Kailasa, the mountain of Siva.' When Skanda, and 
Vasishtha, and Brahma, and the others heard thee praised, 
under these and other titles, by Siva well skilled in praising, 
they also praised thee. And by praising thee, O adorable 
one, immortals, Rishis and men obtained, and do now 
obtain, boons above their desire. So be favourable to me, 
O bestower of boons, and do thou also receive this tribute of 
the sacrifice of my body, and may prosperity befall my lord 
the king ! " 

After saying this, he was preparing to cut off his own 
head, 1 but a bodiless voice was heard at that moment from 
the air : " Do not act rashly, my son, for I am well pleased 
with this courage of thine; so crave from me a boon that 
thou desirest." When Viravara heard that, he said : " If 
thou art pleased, goddess, then may King Vikramatunga 
live another hundred years. And may my wife and children 
return to life." When he craved this boon there again 
sounded from the air the words : " So be it ! " And im- 
mediately the three, Dharmavati, Sattvavara and Viravati, 
rose up with unwounded bodies. Then Viravara was de- 
lighted, and took home to his house all those who had 
been thus restored to life by the favour of the goddess, and 
returned to the king's gate. 

But the king, having beheld all this with joy and 
astonishment, went and again ascended the roof of his 
palace unobserved. And he cried out from above : " Who is 
Viravara is on guard at the palace gate ? " When Viravara, 
rewarded wn o was below, heard that, he answered : " I am 
here ; and I went to discover that woman, but she vanished 
somewhere as soon as I saw her, like a goddess." When 
King Vikramatunga heard this, as he had seen the whole 
transaction, which was exceedingly wonderful, he reflected 
with himself alone in the night : " Oh ! surely this man is 
an unheard-of marvel of heroism to perform such an exceed- 
ingly meritorious action and not to give any account of it. 

1 The story as told in Chapter LXXVIII is somewhat different fom this. 


The sea, though deep and broad, and full of great monsters, 1 
does not vie with this man, who is firm even in the shock of 
a mighty tempest. What return can I make to him, who 
secretly redeemed my life this night by the sacrifice of his 
son and wife ? " 

Thus reflecting, the king descended from the roof of the 
palace, and went into his private apartments, and passed 
that night in smiling. And in the morning, when Viravara 
was present in the great assembly, he related his wonderful 
exploit that night. Then all praised Viravara, and the king 
conferred on him and his son a turban of honour. And he 
gave him many domains, horses, jewels and elephants, and 
ten crores of gold pieces, and a salary sixty times as great 
as before. And immediately the Brahman Viravara became 
equal to a king, with a lofty umbrella, 2 being prosperous, 
himself and his family. 

[M] When the minister Gomukha had told this tale, he 
again said to Naravahanadatta, summing up the subject : 
" Thus, King, do sovereigns, by their merit in a previous 
life, sometimes fall in with exceptionally heroic servants, 
who, in their nobility of soul, abandoning regard for their 
lives and all other possessions for the sake of their master, 
conquer completely the two worlds. And Pralambabahu, 
this lately arrived heroic Brahman servant of yours, is seen 
to be such, of settled virtue and character, a man in whom 
the quality of goodness is ever on the increase." When the 
noble-minded Prince Naravahanadatta heard this from his 
minister, the mighty- minded Gomukha, he felt unsurpassed 
satisfaction in his heart. 

1 There is a pun in this word mahdsattva. It means "noble," "good," 
"virtuous," and also "full of great monsters." 

2 See Vol. II, Appendix II, pp. 263-272. n.m.p. 



The story of King Lakshadatta and his dependent Labdhadatta (pp. 168- 
172) is told to show the unswerving power of Fate, which in Sanskrit is 
implied by such terms as kala, daiva, karma, vidhi, etc. 

In our text we read that the king, on perceiving his dependent's 
continued ill luck, remarked: "... his merit in a former life must have 
been slight, since he does not know that my favour is never barren of results." 
This is the doctrine of karma viz. all sins in a former life must be expiated in 
the present one. The conception is closely connected with the Indian theory 
of transmigration or metempsychosis, which pervades all post-Vedic religions 
and philosophical systems of India, and still exercises a powerful sway over 
the popular mind of the Hindu. (See J. Jolly, " Fate (Hindu)," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, p. 790 ; and L. de la Valine Poussin, " Karma," ditto, 
vol. vii, pp. 673-676.) 

In the course of this work we have continually come across people under- 
going hardships, suffering poverty, or enduring great privation owing to sins 
in a former life. There is no commoner motif 'in Hindu fiction. In the story 
under consideration the king realises that Labdhadatta is merely working out 
his karma, and persists in his attempts to help him, knowing that sooner or 
later his guilt will be expiated and Fortune will smile on him once again. 

A rather similar story is found in Western India and was told by 
Mrs Kabraji Putlibai D. H. Wadia in the Indian Antiquary, vol. xv, 1886, p. 221. 

The good fortune of a merchant has suddenly turned and he is smitten 
with dire poverty. Exhorted by his wife, the merchant takes his place with 
other beggars seeking audience of the king. In spite of his reduced circum- 
stances, the king recognises him, and asks him to wait till the others have 
left. He then fills a water-melon with gold coins and gives it to the merchant. 
Crestfallen, he thanks the king, and gives it to two tired travellers he meets 
on the way home. 

After months of poverty the merchant goes again to the court, with 
exactly the same result. Once more he goes to court, and this time the king 
tells him what were the contents of the water-melon and fills in his presence 
a third melon with rare jewels, telling him to be very careful with it. His 
evil star still pursues him, for on crossing the river in front of his house his 
foot slips and the jewels are lost in the water. He is now fully persuaded 
that it is the will of TsVara that he remain poor, until such a day as the change 
of his luck be made manifest. 

This story is quoted by Clouston, A Group of Eastern Romances, p. 489 
et seq., as a parallel to the Persian story of the "Unlucky Shoayb" (p. 118 
et seq. of the same volume not p. 110, as stated on p. 489). 

Shoayb was also a rich man who suddenly was plunged into extreme 
poverty and who brought bad luck on everyone with whom he associated. 
The Vizier realised this and warned the king of the great danger of having 
anything to do with him. The king, however, said it was all nonsense, and 


in vain tried to enrich him and render him every assistance in his power. 
Matters got worse and worse, and it was found that within the space of twelve 
days Shoayb had been the ultimate cause of the death of 1500 men, besides 
which a large number were injured and had lost their property. The king at 
last realised that the Vizier had been correct in his advice. 

The idea of proving to a man that his evil star is in the ascendant is a 
very common one in fiction, and numerous examples could be given in both 
Eastern and European collections. 

Perhaps the best known is that which forms the first novel of the tenth 
day of the Decameron. Here a certain wealthy Tuscan named Ruggieri de' 
Figiovanni attaches himself to the Court of Alfonso, King of Spain. Although 
he serves his new master in every possible manner he receives no remuneration 
whatsoever. In disgust he leaves the court, and gives vent to his feelings 
as he starts on his journey to Italy. A secret agent of Alfonso reports his 
remarks and leads Ruggieri before the king once again. The king thereupon 
points out that it is his own evil fortune which would not suffer the receipt of 
gifts, and in order to prove it he produces two caskets, one filled with jewels 
and the other with earth, saying that he is bound to chose the worthless one, 
which he accordingly does. The chief interest of this incident is, of course, 
connected with the use Shakespeare made of it in The Merchant of Venice. 
For numerous analogues and variants of the story both in Europe and the 
East see Lee, The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, p. 294 et seq. n.m.p. 


THUS Naravahanadatta dwelt in the house of his 
[M] father, the King of Vatsa, being attended by 
his affectionate ministers, Gomukha and the others, 
and amusing himself with his loving Queen Alankaravati, 
whose jealousy was removed by her great love, that refused 
to be hampered by female pride. Then, once on a time, he 
went to a forest of wild beasts, mounted on a chariot, with 
Gomukha seated behind him. And, with that heroic Brah- 
man Pralambabahu going in front of him, he indulged in 
sylvan sports, accompanied by his attendants. And though 
the horses of his chariot galloped at the utmost of their speed, 
Pralambabahu outstripped their swiftness, and still kept in 
front of them. The prince, from his position on the chariot, 
killed lions and tigers and other wild beasts with arrows, but 
Pralambabahu, going on foot, slew them with his sword. 
And Naravahanadatta, as often as he beheld that Brahman, 
said in astonishment : " What courage, and what fleetness 
of foot he possesses ! " 

And the prince, being wearied at the end of his hunting, 
and overcome with thirst, went in search of water, mounted 
on his chariot, with Gomukha and his charioteer, and pre- 
ceded by that champion Pralambabahu, and in the course 
of his search he reached another great forest far distant. 
There he came to a great and charming lake with full-blown 
lotuses, looking like a second sky on earth, studded with 
many solar orbs. 

There he bathed and drank water, and, after he and his 
companions had performed their ablutions and other duties, 
he beheld at one end of the lake, at a distance, four men 
The Four of heavenly appearance, dressed in heavenly 
Heavenly Men garments, adorned with heavenly ornaments, 
engaged in culling golden lotuses from that lake. And out 
of curiosity he approached them, and when they asked 



him who he was he told them his descent, his name and 
his history. And they, pleased at seeing him, told him 
their story when he asked them : 

" There is in the midst of the great sea a great, prosperous 
and splendid island, which is called the island of Narikela, 
and is renowned in the world for its beauty. 1 And in it 
there are four mountains with splendid expanses of land, 
named Mainaka, Vrishabha, Chakra and Balahaka ; in those 
four we four live. One of us is named Rupasiddhi, and he 
possesses the power of assuming various forms ; another is 
by name Pramanasiddhi, who can measure the most minute 
as well as the largest things ; and the third is Jnanasiddhi, 
who knows the past, the present and the future ; and the 
fourth is Devasiddhi, who possesses the power of calling 
down to his aid all the deities. We have now gathered these 
golden lotuses and are going to offer them to the god, the 
husband of Sri, in Svetadvipa. 2 For we are all of us devoted 
to him, and it is by his favour that we possess rule over 
those mountains of ours, and prosperity, accompanied with 
supernatural power. So come, we will show you the lord 
Hari in Svetadvipa ; we will carry you through the air, 
friend, if you approve." 

When those sons of gods said this, Naravahanadatta 
consented, and leaving Gomukha and the others in that 
place, where they could obtain water, fruits and so on, he went 

1 This reminds one of the description which Palladius gives of the happy 
island of Taprobane. St Ambrose in his version speaks of it as governed by 
four kings or satraps. The fragment begins at the seventh chapter of the 
third book of the History of the Pseudo-Callisthenes, edited by Carolus Mueller. 
See Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, p. 239. 

2 There is much uncertainty as to the identification of Svetadvipa. 
Tawney suspects it is an island, the same as the Whiteman's Land of the 
Icelandic chronicles. See Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages 
(new edition), p. 550 et seq. Weber put it in Alexandria, but the theory is 
unsupported. Sir George Grierson, in a letter to me on the subject, favours 
Central Asia, and is inclined to agree with Richard Garbe, who, in his Indien 
und das Ckristenlum, p. 192 et seq., suggests Lake Balkash as its true identity. 
Another suggestion made by Kennedy is Lake Issyk-kul, the first account of 
which was given by Hsiian-tsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim. It lies about 
three hundred miles south of Lake Balkash, both lakes being in the Russo- 
Turkestan province Semiryechensk. n.m.p. 


with them to Svetadvipa through the air, for Devasiddhi, 
one of the four brothers, carried him in his lap. There he 
descended from heaven, and beheld Vishnu, and approached 
him from a distance, introduced by those four sons of gods. 
The god was reclining upon the snake Sesha ; in front of 
him sat Garuda, at his side was the daughter of the sea, 1 at 
his feet was the Earth ; he was waited upon by the discus, 
the conch, the club and the lotus, incarnate in bodily form, 
and the Gandharvas, with Narada at their head, were piously 
chanting hymns in his honour, and the gods, Siddhas and 
Vidyadharas were bowing before him. To whom is not 
association with the good a cause of exaltation ? 

Then, after that lord had been honoured by those sons 
of gods, and praised by Kagyapa and others, Naravahana- 
datta thus praised him with folded hands : " All hail to 
Naravahana- ^ nee venerable one, the wishing-tree of thy 
datta praises worshippers, whose body is encircled with the 
Vtshnu wish-granting creeper of Lakshmi, who art the 

granter of all desires ; hail to thee, the divine swan, dwelling 
in the Manasa-lake of the minds of the good, 2 ever soaring 
and singing in the highest ether. Hail to thee, who dost tran- 
scend all, and dwell within all, who hast a form transcend- 
ing qualities, and whose shape is the full aggregate of the 
six kingly measures 3 ; Brahma is the bee on the lotus of thy 
navel, O Lord, humming with the soft sound of Veda- murmur, 
though from him spring many verses * ; thy foot is the earth, 
the heaven is thy head, the cardinal points are thy ears, the 
sun and moon are thy eyes ; thy belly is the egg of Brahma, 
the globe of the world ; thou art hymned by the wise as the 
infinite soul. From thee, the home of brightness, spring all 
these creatures, O Lord, as the host of sparks from the 
blazing fire, and when the time of destruction comes they 
again enter thy essence, as at the end of the day a flock of 

1 I.e. Lakshmi or Sri. 

1 Hatnsa means "swan" and also "supreme soul" i.e. Vishnu. 

8 War, peace, marching, encamping, dividing one's forces, seeking the 
alliance of a more powerful king. 

4 Or sects. The word used for "bee" means literally "the six-footed." 
The whole passage is full of double meanings, charana meaning " foot," " line " 
i.e. the fourth part of a stanza and also "sect." 


birds enters the great tree in which they dwell. Thou flash- 
est forth, and createst these lords of the world, who are parts 
of thee, as the ocean, disturbed with a continual flow, creates 
the waves. Though the world is thy form, thou art formless ; 
though the world is thy handiwork, thou art free from the 
bondage of works ; though thou art the support of the world, 
thou art thyself without support. Who is he that knows 
thy real nature ? The gods have obtained various stages of 
prosperity by being looked upon by thee with a favourable 
eye ; so be propitious, and look upon me, thy suppliant, with 
an eye melting with love." 

When Naravahanadatta had in these words praised 
Vishnu, the god looked upon him with a favourable eye, and 
said to Narada : " Go and demand back from Indra in my 
name those lovely Apsarases of mine, who long ago sprang 
from the sea of milk, and whom I deposited in his hand, and 
make them mount the chariot of Indra, and quickly bring 
them here." 

When Narada received this command from Hari, he said : 
" So be it." And with Matali he brought the Apsarases from 
Indra in his chariot, and then bowing he presented the 
Vishnu's Gift Apsarases to Vishnu, and the holy one spake 
of Beautiful thus to the son of the King of Vatsa : " Narava- 
Apsarases hanadatta, I give these Apsarases to thee, the 
future emperor of the kings of the Vidyadharas. Thou art a 
fitting husband for them, and they are fitting wives for thee, 
for thou hast been created by Siva as an incarnation of the 
God of Love." When Vishnu said that, the son of the King 
of Vatsa fell at his feet, delighted at having obtained favour, 
and Vishnu thus commanded Matali : " Let this Narava- 
hanadatta, together with the Apsarases, be taken back by 
thee to his palace, by whatever path he desires." 

When the holy one gave this command, Naravahana- 
datta, with the Apsarases and those sons of gods who invited 
him, mounted the chariot which was driven by Matali, and 
went to the island of Narikela, being envied even by gods. 
There the successful hero, honoured by those four sons 
of gods, Rvipasiddhi and his brethren, and accompanied 
by Indra's chariot, sported in succession on those four 


mountains on which they dwelt, Mainaka, Vrishabha and 
the others, that vied with heaven, in the company of those 
Apsarases. And he roamed, full of joy, in the thickets of 
their pleasure-grounds, the various splendid trees of which 
were in blossom on account of the arrival of the month of 
spring. And those sons of gods said to him : " See ! these 
clusters on the trees seem to be regarding with the expanded 
eyes of their open flowers their beloved spring that has 
arrived. See ! the full-blown lotuses shield the lake, as if 
to prevent their place of birth from being afflicted by the 
warmth of the sun's rays. See ! the bees, after resorting to 
a Karnikara splendid with blossoms, leave it again, finding 
it destitute of perfume, as good men leave a rich man of mean 
character. See ! a concert is being held in honour of spring, 
the king of the seasons, with the songs of the Kinnarls, the 
notes of the cuckoos and the humming of bees." 

With such words those sons of gods showed Naravahana- 
datta the range of their pleasure-grounds. And the son of 
the King of Vatsa amused himself also in their cities, be- 
holding the merry-makings of the citizens, who danced 
without restraint in honour of the spring festival. And 
he enjoyed with the Apsarases delights fitted for gods. 
Wherever the virtuous go, their good fortunes precede them. 

After remaining there for four days 1 thus occupied, 
Naravahanadatta said to those sons of gods, his friends : 
" I now wish to go to my own city, being anxious to behold 
my father 2 ; so come you also to that city and bless it with 
a visit." When they heard that, they said : " We have seen 
you, the choicest jewel in that town ; what more do we 
require ? But when you have obtained the sciences of the 
Vidyadharas you must not forget us." With these words 
they dismissed him, and Naravahanadatta said to Matali, 
who brought him the splendid chariot of Indra : " Take me 
to the city of KauSambi by a course leading past that lovely 
lake, on the bank of which I left Gomukha and the others." 
Matali consented, and the prince ascended the chariot with 

1 The D. text reads tricaturan instead of 'atra caturo, thus meaning " for 
three or four days." n.m.p. 

* Dariana utsukah should probably be read here for the sake of the metre. 


the Apsarases, and reached that lake, and saw Gomukha 
and the others, and said to them : " Come quickly by your 
own way. I will tell you all when I get home." 

Having said this, he went to Kau^ambi in the chariot 
of Indra. There he descended from heaven, and dismissed 
Matali after honouring him, and entered his own palace 
Karavahana- accompanied by those Apsarases. And leaving 
datta arrives them there, he went and prostrated himself 
Home before the feet of his father, who was delighted 

at his arrival, and also of Vasavadatta and Padmavati, and 
they welcomed him, and their eyes were never satisfied with 
gazing on him. And in the meanwhile Gomukha came, 
riding on the chariot, with the charioteer, and that Brah- 
man Pralambabahu. Then, being questioned by his father, 
Naravahanadatta related, in the presence of all his ministers, 
his very wonderful adventures. And all said : " God grants 
to that virtuous man, whom he wishes to favour, association 
with good friends." 

When all said this, the king was pleased, and ordered a 
festival for his son on account of the favour which Vishnu 
had showed towards him. And he and his wives saw those 
Apsarases, his daughters-in-law, obtained by the favour of 
Vishnu, whom Gomukha brought to fall at his feet, Deva- 
rupa, and Devarati, and Devamala, and the fourth Deva- 
priya, whose names he inquired by the mouth of their maids. 
And the city of Kau^ambi, making festival, appeared as if 
scattering red paint with its waving scarlet banners, as much 
as to say : " What am I that Apsarases should dwell in me ? 
Blessed am I that the Prince Naravahanadatta has made 
me a heavenly city upon earth." 

And Naravahanadatta, after he had rejoiced the eyes of 
his father, visited his other wives, who were anxiously await- 
ing him, and they, who had been emaciated by those four 
days, as if they were four years, exulted, relating the various 
woes of their separation. And Gomukha described the 
valour of Pralambabahu, while he was protecting the horses 
during their sojourn in the forest, in killing lions and other 
noxious beasts. Thus listening to pleasing, unrestrained 
conversation, and contemplating the beauty of his beloved 


ones, that was as nectar to his eyes, and making flattering 
speeches, and drinking wine in the company of his ministers, 
Naravahanadatta passed that time there in happiness. 

Once on a time, as he was in the apartments of Alankara- 
vati with his ministers, he heard a loud sound of drums 
outside. Then he said to his general, HariSikha : " What 
may be the cause of this sudden great noise of drums 
outside ? " When Hari^ikha heard this, he went out, and 
entering again immediately, said to the prince, the son of 
the King of Vatsa : " There is in this town a merchant of the 
name of Rudra, and he went to the island of Suvarnadvipa 
on a mercantile expedition. As he was returning, the hoard 
of wealth that he had managed to acquire was lost, being 
sunk in the sea by his ship foundering. And he himself 
happened to escape from the sea alive. And to-day is the 
sixth day since he arrived in misery at his own house. After 
he had been living here for some days in distress it happened 
that he found a great treasure in his garden. And the King 
of Vatsa heard of it from his relations, so the merchant came 
to-day and represented the matter to the king, saying : ' I 
have obtained four crores of gold pieces, with a multitude of 
valuable jewels, so, if the king commands me, I will hand 
them over.' The King of Vatsa thereupon gave this com- 
mand to the merchant : * Who that had any sense, 1 after 
seeing you in distress, plundered by the sea, would plunder 
you again, now that you have been supplied with wealth by 
the mercy of Providence ? Go and enjoy at will the wealth 
obtained from your own ground.' The merchant fell at 
the king's feet full of joy, and it is this very man that is now 
returning to his house, with his attendants beating drums." 
When HariSikha said this, Naravahanadatta praised the 
justice of his father, and said in astonishment to his ministers : 
" If Destiny sometimes takes away wealth, does she not 
sometimes give it ? She sports in a strange way with the 
raising and depressing of men." 8 When Gomukha heard 
that, he said : " Such is the course of Destiny ! And in 
proof of this hear the story of Samudra^ura. 

1 Here there is a pun. 

1 See Vol. II, p. 192^. n.m.p. 


71. Story of the Merchant SamudraSura 

In old times there was a splendid city, belonging to 
the King Harshavarman, called Harshapura, the citizens 
of which were made happy by good government. In this 
city there was a great merchant named Samudra^ura ; he 
was of good family, just, of resolute courage, a lord of much 
wealth. He was once compelled by his business to go to 
Suvarnadvipa, and reaching the shore of the sea he embarked 
on a ship. As he was travelling over the sea, when his 
journey was very nearly at an end, a terrible cloud arose 
and a wind that agitated the deep. The wind tossed the 
ship about with the violence of the waves, and it was struck 
by a sea monster and split asunder ; and then the merchant, 
girding up his loins, plunged into the sea. And after the 
brave man had made some way by swimming he found the 
corpse of a man long dead, driven hither and thither by 
the wind. And he climbed up on the corpse and, skilfully 
paddling himself along with his arms, he was carried to 
Suvarnadvipa by a favourable wind. There he got off that 
corpse on to the sand, and he perceived that it had a cloth 
tied round its loins, with a knot in it. When he unfastened 
the cloth from its loins, and examined it, he found inside it 
a necklace richly studded with jewels. He saw that it was 
of inestimable value, and he bathed and remained in a state 
of great felicity, thinking that the wealth he had lost in the 
sea was but a straw in comparison with it. 

Then he went on to a city called Kala^apura, and with 
the necklace in his hand entered the enclosure of a great 
temple. There he sat in the shade, and being exceedingly 
tired with his exertions in the water, he slowly dropped off to 
sleep, bewildered by Destiny. And while he was asleep the 
guards came and saw that necklace in his hand, exposed to 
view. They said : " Here is the necklace stolen from the 
neck of the Princess Chakrasena ; without doubt this is the 
thief." And so they woke the merchant up and took him 
to the palace. There the king himself questioned him, and 
he told him what had taken place. The king held out the 
necklace and said to the people present in court : " This man 


is speaking falsely; he is a thief; look at this necklace." 
And at that very moment a kite saw it glittering, and quickly 
swooping down from heaven, carried off the necklace, and 
disappeared where he could not be traced. 1 Then the king 
in his anger commanded that the merchant should be put 
to death, and he, in great grief, invoked the protection of 

Then a voice was heard from heaven : " Do not put this 
man to death ; he is a respectable merchant named Samu- 
dra^ura, from the city of Harshapura, that has landed on 
The Divine your territory. The thief who stole the necklace 
Voice fled, beside himself with fear of the police, and 

falling into the sea at night, perished. But this merchant 
here, when his ship foundered, came upon the body of that 
thief, and climbing up on it he crossed the sea and came 
here. And then he found the necklace in the knot of the 
cloth fastened round his loins ; he did not take it from your 
house. So let go, King, this virtuous merchant, who is not 
a thief; dismiss him with honour." Having said this, the 
voice ceased. When the king heard this he was satisfied, 
and revoking the capital sentence passed on the merchant, 
he honoured him with wealth and let him go. And the 
merchant, having obtained wealth, bought wares, and again 
crossed the terrible ocean in a ship, in order to return to his 
own native land. 

And after he had crossed the sea he travelled with a 
caravan, and one day, at evening time, he reached a wood. 
The caravan encamped in the wood for the night, and while 
SamudraSura was awake a powerful host of bandits attacked 
it. While the bandits were massacring the members of the 
caravan Samudrasura left his wares and fled, and climbed 

1 We have already (Vol. I, p. 118m 1 ) come across an innocent man who 
by chance becomes possessed of a stolen necklace. The motif is common in 
folk-tales, especially the incident about a kite or some other bird seizing a 
jewel, or turban containing a jewel or rarity of some kind or other. This is 
found in the Pantschatantra (Benfey, i, p. 172) and appears several times in the 
Sights (see Burton, vol. iii, p. 279, vol. vi, p. 182, and Supp., vol. iii, pp. 344, 
36S, 589). It also occurs in Hebrew literature (see Gaster, Exempla of the 
Itabbis, p. 124, with analogues on p. 246). See also Clouston, Popular Tales 
and Fictions, vol. i, p. 402. n.m.p. 


up a banyan-tree without being discovered. The host of 
bandits departed, after they had carried off all the wealth, 
and the merchant spent that night there, perplexed with 
fear and distracted with grief. In the morning he cast his 
eye towards the top of the tree and saw, as fate would have 
it, what looked like the light of a lamp, trembling among 
the leaves. And in his astonishment he climbed up the tree 
and saw a kite's nest, in which there was a heap of glittering 
priceless jewelled ornaments. He took them all out of it, 
and found among the ornaments that necklace, which he 
had found in Suvarnadvipa and the kite had carried off. He 
obtained from that nest unlimited wealth, and, descending 
from the tree, he went off delighted, and reached in course 
of time his own city of Harshapura. There the merchant 
Samudrasura remained, enjoying himself to his heart's con- 
tent with his family, free from the desire of any other wealth 

[M] " So you have that merchant's whelming in the sea, 
and that loss of his wealth, and the finding of the necklace, 
and again the losing of it, and his undeserved degradation 
to the position of a malefactor, and his immediate obtaining 
of wealth from the satisfied king, and his return voyage over 
the sea, and his being stripped of all his wealth by falling in 
with bandits on the journey, and at last his acquisition of 
wealth from the top of a tree. So you see, Prince, such is 
the various working of Destiny, but a virtuous man, though 
he may have endured sorrow, obtains joy at the last." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this from Gomukha, he 
approved it, and, rising up, he performed his daily duties, 
such as bathing and the like. 

And the next day, when he was in the hall of assembly, 
the heroic Prince Samaratunga, who had been his servant 
ever since he was a boy, came and said : " Prince, my 
relation Sangramavarsha has ravaged my territory, with 
the help of his four sons, Virajita, and the others. So I will 
go myself and bring them all five here as prisoners. Let my 
lord know this." 

VOL. IV. v 


After saying this he departed. And the son of the 
King of Vatsa, knowing that he had but a small force, and 
that those others had large forces, ordered his own army 
to follow him. But that proud man refused to receive this 
accession to his force, and went and conquered those five 
enemies in fight by the help of his own two arms only, and 
brought them back prisoners. Naravahanadatta honoured 
and praised his follower when he came back victorious, and 
said : " How wonderful ! This man has conquered his five 
enemies, though with their forces they had overrun his ter- 
ritory, and has done the deed of a hero, as a man conquers 
the senses when they have laid hold upon outward objects, 
and are powerful, and so accomplishes emancipation, the work 
of the soul." 1 When Gomukha heard that, he said: "If, 
Prince, you have not heard the tale of King Chamarabala, 
which is similar, listen, I will tell it. 

72. Story of King Chamarabala 

There is a city named Hastinapura, and in it there lived 
a king named Chamarabala, who possessed treasure, a fort 
and an army. And he had as neighbours to his territory 
several kings of the same family as himself, the chief of 
whom was Samarabala, and they put their heads together 
and reflected : " This King Chamarabala defeats us all, 
one by one ; so we will join together and accomplish his 
overthrow." After thus deliberating, those five kings, being 
anxious to march out against him to conquer him, secretly 
asked an astrologer when a favourable moment would come. 
The astrologer, not seeing a favourable moment, and not 
seeing good omens, said : " There is no favourable moment 
for you this year. Under whatever circumstances you set 
out on your expedition, you will not be victorious. And 
why are you so eager for the undertaking, beholding his 
prosperity ? Enjoyment is, after all, the fruit 2 of prosperity, 
and you have enjoyments in abundance. And now hear, if 
you have not heard it before, the story of the two merchants. 

1 This passage is an elaborate pun throughout. 

* I read phalam, which I find in the Sanskrit College MS., instead of param. 


72a. Yasovarman and the Two Fortunes 

There was in old time in this country a city named 
Kautukapura. In it there lived a king called Bahusuvar- 
naka, 1 rightly named. And he had a young Kshatriya 
servant named Yas*ovarman. To that man the king never 
gave anything, though he was generous by nature. When- 
ever, in his distress, he asked the king, the king said to 
him, pointing to the sun : "I wish to give to you, but this 
holy god will not permit me to give to you. Tell me what 
I am to do? " While he remained distressed, watching for 
an opportunity, the time for an eclipse of the sun arrived. 
Then Yasovarman, who had constantly served the king, 
went and said to him, when he was engaged in giving many 
valuable presents: "Give me something, my sovereign, 
while this sun, who will not permit you to give, is in the 
grasp of his enemy." a When the king, who had given 
many presents, heard that, he laughed, and gave garments, 
gold and other things to him. 

In course of time that wealth was consumed, and he, 
being afflicted, as the king gave him nothing, and having 
lost his wife, went to the shrine of the goddess that dwells 
The Choice in the Vindhya hills.* He said : " What is the 
of Boons use f this profitless body that is dead even 
while alive? I will abandon it before the shrine of the 
goddess, or gain the desired boon." Resolved on this 
course, he lay down on a bed of darbha grass in front of the 
goddess, with his mind intent on her, and fasting he per- 
formed a severe penance. And the goddess said to him in a 
dream : " I am pleased with thee, my son ; tell me, shall I 
give thee the good fortune of wealth or the good fortune of 
enjoyment ? " When Yasovarman heard this, he answered 
the goddess : "I do not precisely know the difference be- 
tween these two good fortunes." Then the goddess said 
to him: "Return to thy own country, and there go and 

1 I.e. possessor of much gold. 

2 See Vol. II, pp. 81-83. n.m.p. 

* I.e. Durga. For mritajatir I read mritajanir, which is the reading of the 
MS. in the Sanskrit College. In the next line JivitS should hejivatil. 


examine into the good fortunes of the two merchants, Artha- 
varman and Bhogavarman, and find out which of the two 
pleases thee, and then come here and ask a like fortune for 
thyself." When YaSovarman heard this he woke up, and 
next morning he broke his fast and went to his own country 
of Kautukapura. 

There he first went to the house of Arthavarman, 1 who 
had acquired much wealth, in the form of gold, jewels and 
other precious things, by his business transactions. Seeing 
that prosperity of his, he approached him with due politeness, 
and was welcomed by him and invited to dinner. Then he 
sat by the side of that Arthavarman and ate food appropriate 
to a guest, with meat- curry and ghee. But Arthavarman ate 
barley- meal, with half a pala of ghee and a little rice, and 
a small quantity of meat- curry. Yasovarman said to the 
merchant, out of curiosity : " Great merchant, why do you 
eat so little ? " Thereupon the merchant gave him this 
answer : " To-day out of regard for you I have eaten a 
little rice, with meat-curry and half a pala of ghee ; I have 
also eaten some barley-meal. But as a general rule I eat 
only a karsha of ghee and some barley- meal. I have a weak 
digestion, and cannot digest more in my stomach." 

When Yasovarman heard that, he turned the matter over 
in his mind, and formed an unfavourable opinion of that 
prosperity of Arthavarman 's, as being without fruit. Then, 
at nightfall, that merchant Arthavarman again brought 
rice and milk for Yasovarman to eat. And Yasovarman 
again ate of it to his fill, and then Arthavarman drank 
one paid of milk. And in that same place Yasovarman 
and Arthavarman both made their beds and gradually fell 

And at midnight Yasovarman suddenly saw in his sleep 
some men of terrible appearance, with clubs in their hands, 
entering the room. And they exclaimed angrily : " Fie ! 
why have you taken to-day one karsha more of ghee than 
the small amount allowed to you, and eaten meat- curry, 

1 Cf. the story of Dhanagupta and Upabhuktadhana, Benfey's Pantschat an- 
tra, vol. ii, p. 197. It is part of the fifth story, that of Somilaka. See Benfey, 
vol. i, p. 321, where he traces it to a Buddhist source. 


and drunk a paid of milk ? " Then they dragged Artha- 
varman by his foot and beat him with clubs. And they 
extracted from his stomach the karsha of ghee, and the 
The Demons milk, flesh and rice which he had consumed 
of Indigestion above his allowance. When Ya^ovarman had 
seen that, he woke up and looked about him, and lo ! Artha- 
varman had awakened and was seized with colic. Then 
Arthavarman, crying out, and having his stomach rubbed 
by his servants, vomited up all the food he had eaten 
above the proper allowance. After the merchant's colic 
was allayed Ya^ovarman said to himself : " Away with this 
good fortune of wealth, which involves enjoyment of such 
an equivocal kind ! This would be altogether neutralised by 
such misery of ill health." In such internal reflections he 
passed that night. 

And in the morning he took leave of Arthavarman and 
went to the house of that merchant Bhogavarman. There 
he approached him in due form, and he received him with 
politeness, and invited him to dine with him on that day. 
Now he did not perceive any wealth in the possession of 
that merchant, but he saw that he had a nice house, and 
dresses, and ornaments. While YaSovarman was waiting 
there, the merchant Bhogavarman proceeded to do his own 
special business. He took merchandise from one man and 
immediately handed it over to another, and without any 
capital of his own gained dinars by the transaction. And 
he quickly sent those dinars by the hand of his servant 
to his wife, in order that she might procure all kinds of 
food and drink. And immediately one of that merchant's 
friends, named Ichchhabharana, rushed in and said to him : 
" Our dinner is ready ; rise up and come to us, and let us 
eat, for all our other friends have assembled and are waiting 
for you." He answered: "I shall not come to-day, for I 
have a guest here." Thereupon his friend went on to say to 
him : " Then let this guest come with you ; is he not our 
friend also ? Rise up quickly." 

Bhogavarman, being thus earnestly invited by that 
friend, went with him, accompanied by Ya^ovarman, and 
ate excellent food. And after drinking wine he returned, 


and again enjoyed all kinds of viands and wines at his own 
house in the evening. And when night came on he asked 
his servants : " Have we enough wine left for the latter part 
of the night or not ? " When they replied, "No, master," 
the merchant went to bed, exclaiming : " How are we to 
drink water in the latter part of the night ? " 

Then Ya^ovarman, sleeping at his side, saw in a dream 
two or three men enter, and some others behind them. 
And those who entered last, having sticks in their hands, 
exclaimed angrily to those who entered first : ' You 
rascals ! Why did you not provide wine for Bhogavarman 
to drink in the latter half of the night ? Where have you 
been all this time ? " Then they beat them with strokes of 
their sticks. The men who were beaten with sticks said : 
" Pardon this single fault on our part." And then they and 
the others went out of the room. Then Yagovarman, having 
Enjoyment is seen * na * sight, woke up and reflected : 1C The 
preferable to good fortune of enjoyment of Bhogavarman, in 
Wealth which blessings arrive unthought of, is prefer- 

able to the good fortune of wealth of Arthavarman, which, 
although attended with opulence, is devoid of enjoyment." 
In these reflections he spent the rest of the night. 

And early the next morning Yasovarman took leave of 
that excellent merchant, and again repaired to the feet of 
Durga, the goddess that dwells in the Vindhya range. And 
he chose out of those two good fortunes mentioned by the 
goddess, when she appeared to him on a former occasion, 1 
while he was engaged in austerities, the good fortune of 
enjoyment, and the goddess granted it to him. Then Yaso- 
varman returned home and lived in happiness, thanks to the 
good fortune of enjoyment, which, owing to the favour of 
the goddess, continually presented itself to him unthought of. 

72. Story of King Chamarabdla 

"So a smaller fortune, accompanied with enjoyment, is 
to be preferred to a great fortune, which, though great, is 
devoid of enjoyment and therefore useless. So why are 

1 I read tapahstha-purva-drishtayas one word. 


you annoyed at the good fortune of King Chamarabala, 
which is combined with meanness, and do not consider your 
own fortune, which is rich in the power of giving and in 
enjoyment ? So an attack on him by you is not advisable, 
and there is no auspicious moment for commencing the 
expedition, and I do not foresee victory to you." Though 
those five kings were thus warned by the astrologer, they 
marched in their impatience against King Chamarabala. 

And when King Chamarabala heard that they had 
reached the border, he bathed in the morning, and he wor- 
shipped Siva duly by his auspicious names referring to 
sixty- eight excellent parts of the body, 1 his names that 
destroy sin and grant all desires. And then he heard a 
voice coming from heaven : " King, fight without fear ; 
thou shalt conquer thy enemies in battle." 

Then King Chamarabala was delighted, and girded on 
his armour, and, accompanied by his army, marched out to 
fight with those foes. In the army of his enemies there were 
thirty thousand elephants, and three hundred thousand 
horses, and ten million foot- soldiers. And in his own army 
there were twenty hundred thousand foot- soldiers, and ten 
thousand elephants, and a hundred thousand horses. Then a 
great battle took place between those two armies, and King 
Chamarabala, preceded by his warder Vira, 2 who was rightly 
named, entered that field of battle, as the holy Vishnu, in the 
form of the great boar, entered the great ocean. And though 
he had but a small army, he so grievously smote that great 
army of his foes that slain horses, elephants and footmen lay 
in heaps. And when King Samarabala came across him in the 
battle he rushed upon him and smote him with an iron spear, 
and drawing him towards him with a lasso 3 made him prisoner. 

1 Siva is invoked by a different name for each limb which he is asked to 
protect. See the quotations in Brand's Popular Antiquities (Bohn's edition, 
vol. i, pp. 365, 366) from Moresini Papatus and Melton's Astrologaster. Brand 
remarks : " The Romanists, in imitation of the heathens, have assigned 
tutelary gods to each member of the body." 

2 Vira means " hero." 

3 The lasso has been used in war and among herdsmen and shepherds 
from early Egyptian days. A curious form appears in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. vii, p. 6l 2 ). N.M.P. 


And in the same way he smote the second king, Samara- 
ura, in the heart with an arrow, and drawing him towards 
him with a noose made him also prisoner. And his warder, 
named Vira, captured the third king, named Samarajita, and 
brought him to him. And his general, named Devabala, 
brought and presented to him the fourth king, named 
Pratapachandra, wounded with an arrow. Then the fifth 
king, Pratapasena, beholding that, fell furiously upon King 
Chamarabala in the fight. But he repelled his arrows with 
the multitude of his own, and pierced him with three arrows 
in the forehead. And when he was bewildered with the 
blows of the arrows, Chamarabala, like a second Destiny, 
flung a noose round his neck, and dragging him along made 
him a captive. 

When those five kings had in this way been taken 
prisoner in succession, as many of their soldiers as had 
escaped slaughter fled, dispersing themselves in every 
The Beautiful direction. And King Chamarabala captured an 
Yasolekha is infinite mass of gold and jewels, and many wives 
captured belonging to those kings. And among them the 

head queen of King Pratapasena, called Yasolekha, a lovely 
woman, fell into his hands. 

Then he entered his city and gave turbans of honour to 
the warder Vira and the general Devabala, and loaded them 
with jewels. And the king made Yasolekha an inmate of 
his own harem, on the ground that she, being the wife of 
Pratapasena, was captured according to the custom of the 
Kshatriyas. And she, though flighty, submitted to him 
because he had won her by the might of his arm. In those 
abandoned to the intoxication of love the impressions of 
virtue are evanescent. 1 And after some days King Chamara- 
bala, being solicited by the Queen YaSolekha, let go those 
five captive kings, Pratapasena and the others, after they 
had learnt submission and done homage, and after honour- 
ing them, dismissed them to their own kingdoms. And then 
King Chamarabala long ruled his own wealthy kingdom, in 

1 The D. text reads sabala instead of chapala. Speyer (op. cit., p. 122) 
would translate : "... in those who act up to their desires or their delusion 
the impressions of virtue are impure." n.m.p. 


which there were no opponents, and the enemies of which 
had been conquered, and he sported with that Ya^olekha, 
who surpassed in form and loveliness beautiful Apsarases, 
being, as it were, the banner that announced his victory 
over his foes. 

[M] " Thus a brave man, though unsupported, conquers 
in the front of battle even many enemies coming against 
him in fight, distracted with hate, and not considering the 
resources of themselves and their foe, and by his surpassing 
bravery puts a stop to the fever of their conceit and pride." 

When Naravahanadatta had heard this instructive tale 
told by Gomukha, he praised it, and set about his daily 
duties of bathing and so on. And he spent that night, 
which was devoted to the amusement of a concert, 1 in sing- 
ing with his wives in such a ravishing way that Sarasvatl, 
from her seat in heaven, gave him and his beloved ones high 

1 The D. text reading is slightly different and means : "... as he was 
fond of music, he spent that night," etc. See Speyer, op. cit., p. 123. n.m.p. 


THEN, the next day, as Naravahanadatta was sitting 
[M] in the apartments of Alankaravati, a servant of 
Marubhiiti's, the brother of Sauvidalla, the guard of 
the prince's harem, came and said to him in the presence 
of all his ministers : " King, I have attended on Marubhuti 
for two years ; he has given food and clothing to me and my 
wife, but he will not give me the fifty dinars a year which 
he promised me in addition. And when I asked him for it 
he gave me a kick. So I am sitting in dharnd x against him 
at your Highness's door. If your Highness does not give 

1 We have already (Vol. I, p. I35n l ; Vol. II, p. 82) come across this 
curious method of intended suicide usually employed to retrieve a debt. 
It consists in the creditor sitting at the door of the debtor and undergoing 
a prolonged fast till the guilty one pays what he owes rather than have the 
man's blood on his hands, besides which the fear of his ghost for ever haunting 
his house is constantly before his eyes. This strange method of exacting 
justice is mentioned in Manu (V, iii, 49), and is well known in the Epics and 
Hindu fiction. Another way of practising dharnd was to thrust a spear-blade 
through both cheeks and in this state to dance before the debtor's house. 
Any sign of suffering shown would at once nullify the efficacy of the act. 
Again, the unappeased creditor sometimes stood with an enormous weight on 
his head, swearing never to alter his position until satisfaction was given, and 
pronouncing at the same time the most horrible execrations on his debtor 
should he suffer him to expire in that situation. This seldom failed to produce 
the desired effect, but should he actually die while in dharnd, the debtor's 
house was razed to the earth and he and his family sold for the satisfaction 
of the creditor's heirs. Another and more desperate form of dharnd, only 
occasionally resorted to, was to erect a large pile of wood before the house of 
the debtor, and after the customary application for payment had been refused 
the creditor tied on the top of the pile a cow or a calf, or very frequently an 
old woman, generally his mother or other relation, swearing at the same time 
to set fire to it if satisfaction was not instantly given. All the time the old 
woman pronounced the bitterest curses, threatening to persecute the wretched 
debtor both here and hereafter. (See Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Provinces, vol. ii, pp. 265, 266, who also gives further details on the subject.) 
See also ditto, vol. iv, p. 213, and the references in Westermarck, Origin and 
Development of the Moral Ideas, vol. ii, p. 245 6 . n.m.p. 



judgment in this case I shall enter the fire. What more 
can I say ? For you are my sovereign." 

When he had said this he stopped, and Marubhuti said : 
" I must give him the dinars, but I have not got the money 
at present." When he said this all the ministers laughed at 
him, and Naravahanadatta said to the minister Marubhuti : 
" What are you thinking about, you fool ? Your intentions 
are not over-creditable. 1 Rise up, give him the hundred 
dinars without delay." When Marubhuti heard this speech 
of his sovereign's he was ashamed, and immediately brought 
that hundred dinars and gave it to him. Then Gomukha 
said : " Marubhuti is not to be blamed, because the works 
of the Creator's hand have varying moods of mind. Have 
you not heard the story of King Chiradatri and his servant, 
named Prasanga ? 

73. Story of Chiradatri 

In old time there was a king named Chiradatri, sove- 
reign of Chirapura. Though he was an excellent man, his 
followers were extremely wicked. And that king had a 
servant, named Prasanga, who had come from another 
country, and was accompanied by two friends. And five 
years passed while he was performing his duties, but the 
king gave him nothing, not even when an occasion was 
presented by a feast or something of the kind. And owing 
to the wickedness of the courtiers he never obtained an 
opportunity of representing his case to the king, though his 
friends were continually instigating him to do so. 

Now one day the king's infant son died, and when he 
was grieved at it all his servants came and crowded round 
him. And among them the servant named Prasanga, out 
of pure sorrow, said to the king as follows, though his two 
friends tried to prevent him : " We have been your servants, 
your Highness, for a long time, and you have never given us 
anything ; nevertheless we have remained here because we 

1 In the D. text we read murkhabhavah as a single word, and Speyer 
(op. cit., p. 123) would translate the line with both sentences as interrogations : 
Is your stupidity [still] such ? Does your wit not exceed it ? " n.m.p. 


had hopes from your son ; for we thought that, although 
you have never given us anything, your son would certainly 
give us something. If Fate has carried him off, what is the 
use of remaining here now ? We will immediately take our 
departure." Thus he exclaimed, and fell at the feet of the 
king, and went out with his two friends. The king reflected : 
" Ah I though these men had fixed their hopes on my son, 
they have been faithful servants to me, so I must not 
abandon them." Thereupon he immediately had Prasanga 
and his companions summoned, and loaded them so with 
wealth that poverty did not again lay hold on them. 

[M] " So you see, men have various dispositions ; for 
that king did not give at the proper season, but did give 
in the unseasonable hour of calamity." When Gomukha, 
skilful in story-telling, had said this, he went on, at the 
instigation of the son of the sovereign of Vatsa, to tell the 
following tale : 

74. Story of King Kanakavarsha and Madanasundari 

There was in old time on the banks of the Ganges an 
excellent city named Kanakapura, the people of which were 
purified in the water of the river, and which was a delightful 
place on account of its good government. In this city the 
only imprisonment seen was the committing to paper of 
the words of poets, the only kind of defeat was the curling in 
the locks of the women, the only contest was the struggle of 
getting the corn into the granary. 1 

In that city there dwelt in old time a glorious king, 
named Kanakavarsha, who was born to Priyadarsana, the 
son of Vasuki, king of the snakes, by the Princess Yao- 
dhara. Though he bore the weight of the whole earth, he 
was adorned with innumerable virtues ; he longed for glory, 
not for wealth ; he feared sin, not his enemy. He was dull 
in slandering his neighbour, but not in the holy treatises; 

1 The puns here defy translation. 


there was restraint in the high-souled hero's wrath, not in 
his favour ; he was resolute- minded ; he was niggardly in 
curses, not in gifts ; he ruled the whole world ; and such 
was his extraordinary beauty that all women, the moment 
they saw him, were distracted with the pain of love. 

Once on a time, in an autumn that was characterised 
by heat, that maddened elephants, that was attended by 
flocks of swans, and delighted the subjects with rejoicings, 1 
The Painter he entered a picture gallery which was cooled by 
Roladeva winds that blew laden with the scent of lotuses. 
There he observed and praised the display of pictures, and 
in the meanwhile there entered the warder, who said to the 
king : " Your Majesty, an unequalled painter has arrived 
here from UjjayinI, boasting himself to be matchless in the 
art of painting. His name is Roladeva, and he has to-day 
set up a notice at the palace gate to the above effect." 

When the king heard that, he felt respect for him, and 
ordered him to be introduced, and the warder immediately 
went and brought him in. The painter entered, and beheld 
the King Kanakavarsha amusing himself in private with 
looking at pictures, reclining his body on the lap of beauti- 
ful women, and taking in carelessly crooked fingers the 
prepared betel. And the painter Roladeva made obeisance 
to the king, who received him politely, and sitting down said 
slowly to him : " O King, I put up a notice principally 
through the desire of beholding your feet, not out of pride 
in my skill, so you must excuse this deed of mine. And 
you must tell me what form I am to represent on canvas. 
Let not the trouble I took in learning this accomplishment 
be thrown away, O King." When the painter said this to 
the king, he replied : " Teacher, paint anything you will ; 
let us give our eyes a treat. What doubt can there be about 
your skill ? " 

When the king said this, his courtiers exclaimed : " Paint 
the king. What is the use of painting others, ugly in comparison 

1 Here the Sanskrit text has "and so resembled himself." Each of the 
Sanskrit compounds may be taken in another sense. The " heat " is valour ; 
the "swans" subject kings; the sight of the king delighted his subjects, and 
he possessed furious elephants. 


with him ? " When the painter heard this he was pleased, 
and painted the king, with aquiline nose, with almond- 
shaped fiery eye, with broad forehead, with curly black 
hair, with ample breast, glorious with the scars of wounds 
inflicted by arrows and other weapons, with handsome arms 
resembling the trunks of the elephants that support the 
quarters, with waist capable of being spanned with the hand, 
as if it had been a present from the lion-whelps conquered 
by his might, and with thighs like the post for fastening the 
elephant of youth, and with beautiful feet, like the shoots of 
the asoka. And all, when they beheld that life-like likeness 
of the king, applauded that painter, and said to him : " We 
do not like to see the king alone on the picture-panel, so 
paint on it one of those queens by his side, carefully choosing 
one that will be a worthy pendant to him. Let the feast of 
our eyes be complete." 

When they said this, the painter looked at the picture 
and said : " Though there are many of these queens, there 
is none among them like the king, and I believe there is no 
woman on the earth a match for him in beauty, except one 
princess. Listen, I will tell you about her. 

" In Vidarbha there is a prosperous town named Kundina, 
and in it there is a king of the name of Deva^akti. And he 
has a queen named Anantavati, dearer to him than life, and 
The Fair ^>y her there was born to him a daughter named 
Madana- Madanasundarl. How could one like me pre- 
sundan sume to describe her beauty with this one single 

tongue, but so much will I say : When the Creator had made 
her, through delight in her he conceived a desire to make 
another like her, but he will not be able to do it even in the 
course of yugas. That princess, alone on the earth, is a 
match for this king in shape, beauty and refinement, in age 
and birth. For I, when I was there, was once summoned 
by her by the mouth of a maid, and I went to her private 
apartments. There I beheld her, freshly anointed with 
sandal unguent, having a necklace of lotus-fibres, tossing on a 
bed of lotuses, being fanned by her ladies-in-waiting with the 
wind of plantain leaves, pale and emaciated, exhibiting the 
signs of love's fever. And in these words was she dissuading 


her ladies occupied in fanning her : ' O my friends, away 
with this sandal unguent, and these breezes wafted by 
plantain leaves; for these, though cool, scorch up unhappy 

" And when I saw her in this state I was troubled to 
divine the reason, and after doing obeisance I sat down in 
front of her. And she said : ' Teacher, paint such a form 
as this on canvas and give it me.' And then she made me 
paint a certain very handsome youth, slowly tracing out the 
form on the ground with trembling, nectar- distilling hand, 1 
to guide me. And when I had so painted that handsome 
youth I said to myself : ' She has made me paint the 
God of Love in visible form ; but, as I see that the flowery 
bow is not represented in his hand, I know that it cannot be 
the God of Love ; it must be some extraordinarily handsome 
young man like him. And her outburst of love- sickness 
has to do with him. So I must depart hence, for this king, 
her father, Devasakti, is severe in his justice, and if he heard 
of this proceeding of mine he would not overlook it.' Thus 
reflecting, I did obeisance to that Princess Madanasundari, 
and departed, honoured by her. 

" But when I was there, O King, I heard from her 
attendants, as they talked freely together, that she had 
fallen in love with you from hearing of you only. 2 So I 
have secretly taken a picture of that princess on a sheet 
of canvas, and have come here quickly to your feet. And 
when I beheld your Majesty's appearance my doubt was at 
an end, for it was clearly your Majesty that the princess 
caused to be painted by my hand. And as it is not possible 
to paint her twice, such as she is, I will not represent her in 
the picture as standing at your side, though she is equal to 
you in beauty." 

When Roladeva said this, the king said to him : " Then 
show her as she is represented on the canvas you have 
brought with you." Then the painter looked out a piece 
of canvas which was in a bag, and showed the king 

1 The D. text reads dhrtavartina instead of amrita-vartina, meaning a 
pencil-holding hand. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 128n. n.m.p. 


Madanasundari in a painting. And the King Kanakavarsha, 
seeing that even in a painting she was wonderfully beauti- 
ful, immediately became enamoured of her. And he loaded 
that painter with much gold, and taking the picture of his 
beloved retired into his private apartments. There he re- 
mained with his mind fixed on her alone, abandoning all 
occupations, and his eyes were never satisfied with gazing on 
her beauty. It seemed as if the God of Love was jealous 
of his good looks, for now that he had obtained an oppor- 
tunity he tormented him, smiting him with his arrows and 
robbing him of his self-control. And the love-pain, which 
he had inflicted on women enamoured of his handsome 
shape, was now visited on that king a hundredfold. 

And in the course of some days, being pale and emaciated, 
he told to his confidential ministers, who questioned him, the 
thought of his heart. And after deliberating with them 
The Formal he sent to the King Devasakti, as ambassador, 
Proposal to ask for the hand of his daughter, a trustworthy 
Brahman of good birth, named Sangamasvamin, who was 
skilled in affairs, knew times and seasons, and could speak 
in a sweet and lofty style. That Sangamasvamin went 
to Vidarbha with a great retinue and entered the city of 
Kundina. And there he had a formal interview with the 
King DevaSakti, and on behalf of his master asked for the 
hand of his daughter. 

And Devasakti reflected : "I must give away this daughter 
of mine to someone, and this King Kanakavarsha has been 
described as my equal, and he asks for her, so I will give her to 
him. ' ' Accordingly he granted the prayer of Sangamasvamin, 
and the king displayed to the ambassador the astonishing 
elegance in the dance of his daughter Madanasundari. 
Then the king sent away, after honouring him and promising 
to give his daughter, that Sangamasvamin, who was charmed 
with his sight of her. And he sent with him a counter- 
ambassador to say : " Fix an auspicious moment and come 
here for the marriage." And Sangamasvamin returned, 
accompanied by the counter- ambassador, and told the King 
Kanakavarsha that his object was effected. Then the 
king ascertained a favourable moment, and honoured that 


ambassador, and heard from him over and over again how 
Madanasundari was in love with him. 

And then the King Kanakavarsha set out for the city 
of Kundina, in order to marry her, with mind at ease on 
account of his own irresistible valour, mounted on the 
horse Aslkala, 1 and he smote the Savaras that inhabited 
the border forests, and took the lives of living creatures, 
like lions and other wild beasts. And he reached Vidarbha, 
and entered that city of Kundina with King DevaS'akti, who 
came out to meet him. Then he entered the king's palace, 
in which preparations had been made for the marriage, 
robbing the ladies of the city of the feast which he had 
given to their eyes. And there he rested a day with his 
retinue, pleased at the noble reception which King Deva- 
S'akti gave him. And on the next day Deva^akti gave him 
his daughter Madanasundari, together with all his wealth, 
retaining only his kingdom. 

And King Kanakavarsha, after he had remained there 
seven days, returned to his own city with his recently married 
bride. And when he arrived with his beloved, giving joy 
to the world, like the moon with the moonlight, that city 
was full of rejoicing. Then that Queen Madanasundari was 
dearer than life to that king, though he had many wives, as 
Rukmini is to Vishnu. And the wedded couple remained 
fastened together by their eyes with lovely eyelashes, which 
were fixed on one another's faces, resembling the arrows of 

And in the meanwhile arrived the lion of spring, with a 
train of expanding filaments for mane, tearing to pieces the 
elephant of female coyness. And the garden made ready 
The Arrival blossoming mango-plants, by way of bows for 
of Spring the God of Love, with rows of bees clinging to 
them by way of bow-string. And the wind from the Malaya 
mountain blew, swaying the love-kindled hearts of the 
wives of men travelling in foreign lands, as it swayed 
the suburban groves. And the sweetly speaking cuckoos 
seemed to say to men : " The brimming of the streams, the 

1 .The Sanskrit College MS. reads Astkalahayarudhah. 


flowers of the trees, the digits of the moon wane and return 
again, but not the youth of men. 1 Fling aside coyness and 
quarrelling, and sport with your beloved ones." 

And at that time King Kanakavarsha went with all his 
wives to a spring garden to amuse himself. And he eclipsed 
the beauty of the atiokas with the red robes of his attendants, 
and with the songs of his lovely ladies the song of the cuckoos 
and bees. There the king, though all his wives were with 
him, amused himself with Madanasundari in picking flowers 
and other diversions. And after roaming there a long time 
the king entered the Godavari with his wives to bathe, and 
began the water-game. His ladies surpassed the lotuses 
with their faces, with their eyes the blue water-lilies, with 
their breasts the couples of Brahmany ducks, with their hips 
the sandbanks, and when they troubled the bosom of the 
stream it showed frowns of anger, in the form of curling 
waves. Then the mind of Kanakavarsha took pleasure in 
them, while they displayed the contours of their limbs 
in the splashing-game. And in the ardour of the game 
he splashed one queen with water from his palms on her 

When Madanasundari saw it she was jealous, and got 
angry with him, and in an outburst of indignation said to 
him : " How long are you going to trouble the river ? ' 
Madana- ^nd g om g ou ^ f the water she took her other 
jrundari be- clothes and rushed off in a passion to her own 
comes Jealous pa i ace> telling her ladies of that fault of her 
lover's. Then Kanakavarsha, seeing her state of mind, 
stopped his water-game and went off to her apartments. 
Even the parrots in the cages warned him off in wrath 
when he approached, and entering he saw within the queen, 
afflicted with wrath, with her downcast lotus- like face 
supported on the palm of her left hand, with teardrops 
falling like transparent pearls. And she was repeating, with 
accents charming on account of her broken speech, in a 
voice interrupted with sobs, showing her gleaming teeth, 
this fragment of a Prakrit song : "If you cannot endure 
separation, you must cheerfully abandon anger. If you can 

1 Cf. the Lament of Moschos for Bion, i, 99-104. 


in your heart endure separation, then you must increase 
your wrath. Perceiving this clearly, remain pledged to 
one or the other ; if you can take your stand on both, you 
will fall between two stools." 

And when the king saw her in this state, lovely even 
in tears, he approached her bashfully and timidly. And 
embracing her, though she kept her face averted, he set 
himself to propitiate her with respectful words, tender 
with love. And when her retinue signified her scorn 
with ambiguous hints, he fell at her feet, blaming him- 
self as an offender. Then she clung to the neck of the 
king, and was reconciled to him, bedewing him with the 
tears that flowed on account of that very annoyance. And 
he, delighted, spent the day with his beloved, whose 
anger had been exchanged for good- will, and slept there at 

But in the night he saw in a dream his necklace suddenly 
taken from his neck, and his crest -jewel snatched from his 
head, by a deformed woman. Then he saw a Vetala, with a 
body made up of the limbs of many animals, and when the 
Vetala wrestled with him he hurled him to earth. And 
when the king sat on the Vetala 's back the demon flew up 
with him through the air, like a bird, and threw him into 
the sea. Then, after he had with difficulty struggled to the 
shore, he saw that the necklace was replaced on his neck, 
and the crest-jewel on his head. 

When the king had seen this he woke up, and in the 
morning he asked a Buddhist mendicant, who had come to 
visit him as an old friend, the meaning of the dream. And 
the mendicant answered clearly : "I do not wish to say 
what is unpleasant, but how can I help telling you when I 
am asked ? The fact that you saw your necklace and crest- 
jewel taken away means that you will be separated from 
your wife and from your son. And the fact that, after you 
had escaped from the sea, you found them again, means 
that you will be reunited with them, when your calamity 
comes to an end." Then the king said : "I have not a son 
as yet; let him be born first." Then the king heard from 
a reciter of the Rdmdyana, who visited his palace, how King 


Daiaratha endured hardship to obtain a son ; and so there 
arose in his mind anxiety about obtaining a son, and the 
mendicant having departed, the King Kanakavarsha spent 
that day in despondency. 

And at night, as he was lying alone and sleepless upon 
his bed, he saw a woman enter without opening the door. 
She was modest and gentle of appearance, and when the 
The King's king Dowe cl before her she gave him her blessing, 
Desire for and said to him : " Son, know that I am the 
a Son daughter of Vasuki, the king of the snakes, and 

the elder sister of thy father, Ratnaprabha by name. I 
always dwell near thee, invisible, to protect thee, but to- day > 
seeing thee despondent, I have displayed to thee my real 
form. I cannot bear to behold thy sorrow, so tell me the 

When the king had been thus addressed by his father's 
sister, he said to her : "I am fortunate, mother, in that you 
show me such condescension. But know that my anxiety 
is caused by the fact that no son is born to me. How can 
people like myself help desiring that, which even heroic 
saints of old days, like Dasaratha and others, desired for the 
sake of obtaining Svarga." When the Nagi * Ratnaprabha 
heard this speech of that king, she said to her brother's son : 
" My son, I will tell thee an admirable expedient ; carry it 
out. Go and propitiate Karttikeya with a view to obtain 
a son. I will enter thy body, and by my power thou shalt 
support the rain of Karttikeya falling on thy head to impede 
thee, difficult to endure. And after thou hast overcome a 
host of other impediments thou shalt obtain thy wish." 
When the Nagi had said this she disappeared, and the king 
spent the night in bliss. 

The next morning he committed his realm to the care 
of his ministers, and went, desiring a son, to visit the sole 
of Karttikeya 's foot. There he performed a severe penance 

1 I.e. female snake, somewhat of the nature of the Echidna of our 
boyhood : 

** ^/xuru fiiv vvfi<f>rfv kX.iKu>iri8a naWnrdpyov 
"q/iurv 8'afrrc irckwpov 5<f>iv, Seivov t pkyav T." 

Hesiod, Theog., 298. 


to propitiate that lord, having power given him by the Nagi 
that entered his body. Then the rain of Kumara fell on 
his head like thunderbolts, and continued without ceasing. 
But he endured it by means of the Nagi that had entered 
his body. Then Karttikeya sent Ganesa to impede him still 
further. And Ganesa created in that rain a very poisonous 
and exceedingly terrible serpent, but the king did not fear 
it. Then GaneSa, invincible 2 even by gods, came in visible 
form and began to give him bites on the breast. Then 
King Kanakavarsha, thinking that he was a foe hard to 
subdue, proceeded, after he had endured that ordeal, to 
propitiate Ganesa with praises. 

" Honour to thee, O god of the projecting belly, adorned 
with the elephant's ornament, whose body is like a swelling 
pitcher containing success in all affairs ! Victory to thee, 
Ganem is elephant- faced one, that makest even Brahma 
propitiated afraid, shaking the lotus, which is his throne, 
with thy trunk flung up in sport ! Even the gods, the 
Asuras and the chief hermits do not succeed unless thou 
art pleased, the only refuge of the world, O thou beloved of 
Siva ! The chief of the gods praise thee by thy sixty-eight 
sin- destroying names, calling thee the pitcher-bellied, the 
basket-eared one, 3 the chief of the Ganas, the furious mast 
elephant, Yama the noose-handed, the Sun, Vishnu and 
Siva. With these names to the number of sixty-eight, 
corresponding to so many parts of the body, do they praise 
thee. And when one remembers thee and praises thee, O 
lord, fear produced by the battle-field, by the king's court, 

1 Cf. the following passage which Wirt Sykes {British Goblins, p. 385) 
quotes from "The Mabinogion" : "Take a bowl and throw a bowlful of water 
on the slab," says the black giant of the wood to Sir Kai, "and thou wilt hear 
a mighty peal of thunder, so that thou wilt think that heaven and earth are 
trembling with its fury. With the thunder will come a shower so severe that 
it will be hardly possible for thee to endure and live. And the shower will 
be of hailstones ; and after the shower the weather will become fair, but every 
leaf that was upon the tree will have been carried away by the shower." Cf 
Prym and Socin, Syrische M'drchen, p. 1 1 6, and Gaal, Marchen der Magyaren, 
pp. 101, 102. 

2 I read with the Sanskrit College MS. ajayyah. 

3 Bohtlingk conjectures siirpa for surya ; surpa is a winnowing-basket. 


by gambling, by thieves, by fire, by wild beasts and other 
harms, departs." 

With these laudatory verses, and with many others of 
the same kind, King Kanakavarsha honoured that king 
of impediments. And the conqueror of impediments said : 
" I will not throw an impediment in thy way ; obtain a 
son," and disappeared then and there from the eyes of that 

Then Karttikeya said to that king, who had endured the 
rain : " Resolute man, I am pleased with thee, so crave a 
boon." Then the king, delighted, said to the god: "Let 
a son be born to me by thy favour." Then the god said : 
" Thou shalt have a son, the incarnation of one of my 
Ganas, and his name shall be Hiranyavarsha on the earth." 
And then the rider on the peacock summoned him to enter 
his inmost shrine, in order to show him special favour. 1 
Thereupon the Nagi left his body invisibly, for females do 
not enter the house of Karttikeya through dread of a curse. 
Then King Kanakavarsha entered the sanctifying temple of 
that god, armed only with his human excellence. When the 
god saw that he was deprived of the excellence he formerly 
had, because he was no longer inhabited by the Nagi, he 
reflected : " What can this mean ? " 

And Karttikeya, perceiving by his divine meditation 
that that king had performed a very difficult vow by the 
secret help of the Nagi, thus cursed him in his wrath : " Since 
thou didst make use of deceit, intractable man, 
thou shalt be separated from thy son, as soon as 
he is born, and from thy queen." When the king heard this 
curse, terrible as a thunderstroke, he was not amazed, but, 
being a mighty poet, praised that god with hymns. Then the 
six-faced god, pleased with his well-turned language, said to 
him : " King, I am pleased with thy hymns ; I appoint 
thee this end of thy curse : thou shalt be separated from 
thy wife and son for one year, but after thou hast been 
saved from three great dangers thou shalt come to an end 
of the separation." When the six- faced god had said this, 

1 This is the sense, but epsur cannot be right ; the Sanskrit College MS. 
reads echchhum. Perhaps echchhuh will do. 


he ceased to speak, and the king, satisfied with the nectar 
of his favour, bowed before him and went to his own city. 

Then, in course of time, he had a son born to him by 
Queen Madanasundari, as the nectar-stream is born of the 
light of the cold-rayed moon. When the king and queen 
saw the face of that son, being filled with great delight, they 
were not able to contain themselves. 1 And at that time 
the king made a feast, and showered riches, and made his 
name of Kanakavarsha 2 a literal fact on the earth. 

When five nights had passed, while guard was being kept 
in the lying-in house, on the sixth night a cloud suddenly 
came there. It swelled, and gradually covered the whole 
sky, as a neglected enemy overruns the kingdom of a careless 
king. Then the mast elephant of the wind began to rush, 
showering drops of rain like drops of ichor, and rooting up 
trees. At that moment a terrible woman, sword in hand, 
opened the door, though it was bolted, and entered that 
lying-in chamber. She took that babe from the queen as 
she was nursing it and ran out, having bewildered the 
attendants. And then the queen, distracted, and exclaim- 
ing, " Alas, a Rakshasi has carried off my child ! " pursued 
that woman, though it was dark. And the woman rushed 
on and plunged into a tank with the child, and the queen, 
pursuing her, plunged in also, eager to recover her offspring. 
Immediately the cloud disappeared, and the night came to 
an end, and the lamentation of the attendants was heard 
in the lying-in chamber. 

Then the King Kanakavarsha, hearing it, came to the 
lying-in chamber, and seeing it empty of his son and wife, 
was distracted. After he had recovered consciousness he 
began to lament : M Alas, my queen ! Alas, my infant 
son ! " And then he called to mind that the curse was to 
end in a year. And he exclaimed : " Holy Skanda, how 
could you give to ill-starred me a boon joined with a curse, 
like nectar mixed with poison ? Alas ! how shall I be able 

1 I read tada for pada, a conjecture of Babu S.C. Mookerjea's. The Sanskrit 

College MS. reads alyanandabhrite yuktam navarldam yadatmani. The D. text 

has atyanandasamayukte navartetam taddtmani. N.M.P. 

2 I.e. showerer of riches. 


to pass a year, long as a thousand years, without the Queen 
Madanasundari, whom I value more than my life?" And 
the king, though exhorted by the ministers, who knew the 
circumstances, did not recover his composure, which had 
departed with his queen. 

And in course of time he left his city, distracted with 
a paroxysm of love, and wandered through the Vindhya 
forest in a state of bewilderment. There, as he gazed on 
the eyes of the young does, he remembered the beauty of the 
eyes of his beloved, and the bushy tails of the chamaris l 
reminded him of the loveliness of her luxuriant hair, and 
when he marked the gait of the female elephant he called 
to mind the languid grace of her gait, so that the fire of 
his love broke out into a fiercer flame. And wandering 
about, exhausted with thirst and heat, he reached the foot 
of the Vindhya mountains, and, after drinking the water of 
a stream, he sat down at the foot of a tree. 

In the meanwhile a long-maned lion came out of a cavern 

of the Vindhya hills, uttering a roar which resembled a loud 

demoniac laugh, and rushed towards him to slay him. At 

that very moment a certain Vidyadhara descended rapidly 

from heaven and cleft that lion in two with a sword- stroke. 

And that sky-goer, coming near, said to the king : " King 

Kanakavarsha, how have you come to this region ? " When 

the king heard it, he recovered his memory, and said to 

him : " How do you know me, who am tossed with the wind 

of separation ? " Then the Vidyadhara said : "I, when 

in old time I was a religious mendicant, of the name of 

Bandhumitra, dwelt in your city. Then you helped me in 

my rites, when I respectfully asked you to do so, and so 

I obtained the rank of a Vidyadhara, by making a goblin 

my servant. Thus I recognised you, and being desirous to 

confer on you a benefit, by way of recompense, I have slain 

this lion which I saw on the point of killing you. And my 

name has now become Bandhuprabha." 

When the Vidyadhara said this, the king conceived an 
affection for him, and said : " Ah ! I remember ; and this 

1 For a note on the chowrie, or fly-whisk, see Vol. Ill, pp. 84', 85n. 


friendship has been nobly acted up to by you, so tell me 
when I shall be reunited with my wife and son." When 
the Vidyadhara Bandhuprabha heard that, he perceived it 
by his divine knowledge, and said to the king : " By a 
pilgrimage to the shrine of Durga, in the Vindhya hills, you 
will recover your wife and son, so go you to prosperity and 
I will return to my own world." When he had said this 
he departed, and King Kanakavarsha, having recovered his 
self-command, went to visit that shrine of Durga. 

As he was going along, a great and furious wild elephant, 
stretching out its trunk and shaking its head, charged him 
in the path. When the king saw that, he fled by a way full 
of holes, so that the elephant, pursuing him, fell into a chasm 
and was killed. Then the king, fatigued with toil and 
exertion, slowly going along, reached a great lake, full of 
lotuses with straight upstanding stalks. There the king 
bathed, drank the water of the lake, and ate the fibres of the 
lotuses, and lying tired at the foot of a tree was for a moment 
overpowered by sleep. And some Savaras, returning that 
way from hunting, saw that king with auspicious marks 
lying asleep. And they immediately bound him and took 
him to their King Muktaphala, in order that he might serve 
as a victim. 

The King of the Savaras, for his part, seeing that the 
king was a suitable victim, took him to the temple of Durga, 
to offer him up. And when the king saw the goddess he 
The Curse bowed before her, and by her mercy and the 
comes to an favour of Skanda his bonds fell off. When the 
End King of the Savaras saw that miracle he knew 

that it was a mark of the goddess's favour towards him, 
and he spared his life. So Kanakavarsha escaped the third 
danger, and accomplished the year of his curse. 

And in the meanwhile the NagI, the aunt of the king, 
came there, bringing the Queen Madanasundarl with her 
son, and said to the king: "O King, when I heard the 
curse of Karttikeya I took these away by an artifice to my 
own dwelling and preserved them there. Therefore, Kanaka- 
varsha, receive here your wife and son, and enjoy this empire 
of the earth, for now your curse is at an end." 


When the Nagi had said this to the king, who bowed 
before her, she disappeared, and the king looked upon the 
arrival of his wife and child as a dream. Then the grief of 
separation of the king and queen, who had so long been 
forced to live apart, trickled away in their tears of joy. 
Then Muktaphala, the King of the Savaras, fell at the feet 
of the King Kanakavarsha, on finding that he was his master, 
the lord of the whole earth. And after he had propitiated 
him, and persuaded him to visit his town, he furnished his 
wife and child with all kinds of luxuries, such as it was in 
his power to give. 

Then the king, remaining there, summoned by mes- 
sengers his father-in-law Devasakti and his army x from his 
own city. Then he sent on in front of him his beloved 
wife Madanasundari, mounted on a female elephant, and 
his son, who Karttikeya said was to be called Hiranya- 
varsha, and went with his father-in-law towards his 
father-in-law's house. 2 And in a few days he reached the 
residence of his father-in-law, a hermitage 3 in the country 
of Vidarbha, and after that his wealthy city of Kundina, 
and there he remained some time with his wife and son, and 
his army, being entertained by his father-in-law. And set- 
ting out thence he at last reached his own town of Kanaka- 
pura, where he was, as it were, drunk in by the eyes of the 
wives of the citizens, long desirous of beholding him again. 
And with his son and Madanasundari he entered the palace, 
like an embodied feast, accompanied with joy and splendour. 
And there he gave Madanasundari a turban of honour, and 
made her his head wife, and he honoured his subjects with 
gifts on this day of triumph. 4 And then King Kanakavarsha 

1 The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads svasainyam, which saves the 

* Svasuravesmavartmasritas is the reading of the MS. in the library of the 
Sanskrit College. 

* An error has crept in here. Asramam should read asritam of the D. 
text. Thus we get over the strange statement that Devasakti resided in 
a hermitage. The sense is then that Kanakavarsha reached Kundina, the 
capital of his father-in-law situated in Vidarbha, and stayed there for some 
days. See Speyer, op. cit., p. 124. n.m.p. 

4 I read manitaprakritih, following the MS. in the Sanskrit College. 


ruled this circle of the earth, four-limited by the sea, without 
opponents, in perpetual happiness, with his wife and son, 
without experiencing again the grief of separation. 

[M] When the Prince Naravahanadatta heard this 
magnificent tale from his head minister Gomukha, in the 
company of the fair Alankaravati, he was exceedingly 


THEN the Prince Naravahanadatta, with his beloved 
[M] by his side, being much pleased at the tale of 
Gomukha, but seeing that Marubhuti was quite put 
out, in order to pay him a compliment, said to him, at- 
tempting to conciliate him : " Marubhuti, why do you not tell 
a tale also?" Then he said: "Well, I will tell one," and 
with pleased soul began to relate the following story : 

75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son Mahipdla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

There once lived in a town called Devakamalapura, be- 
longing to the King Kamalavarman, an excellent Brahman 
named Chandrasvamin. And that wise man had a wife like 
himself, distinguished for modesty, and she was a worthy 
match for Sarasvati and Lakshmi. And to that Brahman 
was born a son with auspicious marks, and when he was 
born this voice was heard from heaven : " Chandrasvamin, 
you must call your son Mahipala, 1 because he shall be a king 
and long protect the earth." 

When Chandrasvamin heard this, he made a feast and 
called that son Mahipala. And in course of time Mahipala 
grew up, and was taught the science of missile and hand-to- 
hand weapons, and was at the same time instructed in all 
knowledge. And in the meanwhile his wife Devamati 
brought forth to Chandrasvamin another child, beautiful 
in all her limbs. And the brother and sister, Mahipala and 
Chandravati, grew up together in their father's house. 

Then a famine, caused by want of rain, sprang up in 
that country, the corn having been scorched up by the rays 
of the sun. And owing to that the king began to play the 
bandit, leaving the right path and taking wealth from his 

1 I.e. earth-protector, king. 



subjects unlawfully. Then, as that land was going rapidly 
to ruin, Chandrasvamin's wife said to her husband : " Come 
to my father's house, let us leave this city, for our children 
will perish here some day or other." When Chandrasvamin 
heard this, he said to his wife: "By no means; for flight 
from one's own country in time of famine is a great sin. So 
I will take these children and deposit them in your father's 
house, and do you remain here; I will return soon." She 
agreed, and then Chandrasvamin left her in his house, and 
taking those two children, the boy Mahlpala and the girl 
Chandravati, set out from that city for his father-in-law's 
house. And in course of time, as he roamed on, he reached 
a great wilderness, with sands heated by the rays of the sun, 
and with but a few parched- up trees in it. And there he 
left his two children, who were exhausted with thirst, and 
went to a great distance to look for water for them. 

Then there met him a chief of the Savaras, named Simha- 
damshtra, with his followers, going somewhere or other for 
his own ends. The Bhilla saw him and questioned him, 
and finding out that he was in search of water, said to his 
followers, "Take him to some water," at the same time 
making a sign to them. When they heard it, two or three 
of the Savara king's followers, perceiving his intention, took 
the innocent Chandrasvamin to the village and fettered him. 
And he, learning from them that he was fettered in order 
to be offered as a victim, lamented for his two children that 
he had left in the wilderness. " Ah, Mahlpala ! Ah, dear 
Chandravati ! Why did I foolishly abandon you in the 
wilderness and make you the prey of lions and tigers ? And 
I have brought myself also into a position where I am sure 
to be slain by bandits, and there is no escape for me." 

While he was thus lamenting in his terror he saw, to his 
delight, the sun. And exclaiming, " Ah ! I will fling aside 
bewilderment and fly for refuge to my own lord," the Brah- 
man began to praise the sun in the following verses : " Hail 
to thee, O Lord ! the brightness residing in the near and in 
the remote ether, that dispersest the internal and external 
darkness. Thou art Vishnu, pervading the three worlds ; 
thou art Siva, the treasure-house of blessings ; thou art the 


supreme lord of creatures, calling into activity the sleeping 
universe. Thou deposest thy brightness in fire and in the 
moon, out of pity, as it were, saying : ' Let these two dull 
things shine,' and so thou dispellest the night. When thou 
risest the Rakshasas disperse, the Dasyus have no power, 
and the virtuous rejoice. 1 So, thou matchless illuminator 
of the three worlds, deliver me, who take refuge with thee. 
Disperse this darkness of my grief, have mercy upon me." 

When the Brahman had devoutly praised the sun with 
these and other similar hymns, a voice was heard from 
heaven : " Chandrasvamin, I am pleased with thee, thou 
shalt not be put to death, and by my favour thou shalt be 
reunited with thy wife and children." When the divine voice 
had said this to Chandrasvamin, he recovered his spirits, and 
remained in a state of tranquillity, being supplied with 
bathing requisites and food by the Savaras. 

And in the meanwhile the boy Mahipala, left in the 
wilderness with his sister, as his father did not return, 
remained lamenting bitterly, supposing that some calamity 
The Children had befallen him. And in this state he was 
are rescued beheld by a great merchant, of the name of 
Sarthadhara, who came that way, and the merchant asked 
him what had happened to him. And feeling compassion, 
he consoled the boy, and observing that he had auspicious 
marks, he took him and his sister to his own country. There 
that Mahipala lived in the house of that merchant, who 
looked upon him with all the affection of a father for his son ; 
and though a boy, he was occupied in the rites of the sacred 

But one day the minister of the King Taravarman, who 
lived in the city of Tarapura, the excellent Brahman Anan- 
tasvamin, came that way on business, with his elephants, 
horses and foot-soldiers, and entered the house of that 
merchant, being a friend of his. After he had rested, he saw 
the handsome boy Mahipala, engaged in muttering prayers 
and in sacrificing to the fire, and asked his story ; then the 
Brahman minister, finding that the boy was of his own caste, 
as he had no children, begged the boy and his sister from 

1 Cf. for the idea Richard II, Act III, sc. 2, line 41 et seq. 


the merchant. Then the merchant, who was a Vaisya, gave 
him the children, and Anantasvamin went with them to 
Tarapura. There Mahlpala remained in the house of that 
minister, which abounded in wealth on account of its master's 
knowledge, and was treated by him as a son. 

And in the meanwhile Simhadamshtra, the King of the 
Bhillas, came to Chandrasvamin, who was in captivity in 
that village, and said to him : " Brahman, I have been 
ordered in a dream by the sun-god not to slay you, but to 
set you free, after doing you honour. So rise up and go 
where you please." After saying this he let him go, giving 
him pearls and musk, and supplying him with an escort 
through the forest. 

And Chandrasvamin, being thus set at liberty, not find- 
ing his son and his younger sister in the wood, wandered in 
search of them ; and as he wandered he found a city named 
Th K' Jalapura on the shore of the sea, and entered 

searches for as a guest the house of a certain Brahman. 
his lost There, after he had taken refreshment and 

then told his story, the Brahman, the master of 
the house, said to him : "A merchant named Kanaka- 
varman came here some days ago ; he found in the forest a 
Brahman boy with his sister, and he has gone off with those 
two very handsome children to the great island of Narikela, 
but he did not tell his name." When Chandrasvamin heard 
that, he made up his mind that those children were his, and 
he determined to go to that beautiful island. 

And after he had spent the night, and looked about 
him, he made acquaintance with a merchant named Vishnu- 
varman, who was about to go to the isle of Narikela. And 
with him he embarked in a ship, and went across the sea to 
the island, out of love for his children. When he began to 
inquire there, the merchants who lived there said to him : 
"It is true that a merchant named Kanakavarman did 
come here with two beautiful Brahman children whom he 
found in a wood. But he has now gone with them to the 
island of Kataha." When the Brahman heard that, he went 
in a ship with the merchant Danavarman to this island of 
Kataha. There he heard that the merchant Kanakavarman 


hail joiio from that island to an island named KarpQra. 
In the same way lie visited in turn the islands of Karpura, 
Suvarna and Siinhala with merchants, hut he did not find the 
merchant whom he was in search of. 1 Hut from the people 
of Siinhala he heard that that merchant Kanakavarman 
had gone to his own city, named Chitrakuta. 

Then Chandrasvfunin went with a merchant named 
Kotisvara to Chitrakuta. crossing the sea in his ship. And 
in that city he found the merchant Kanakavarman, and 
longing for his children, he told him the whole story. Then 
Kanakavarman, when he saw the cause of his grief, showed 
him the children, whom he had found in the forest and 
brought away. Hut when Chandrasvamin looked at those 
two children he saw that they were not his, but some other 
children. Then he. being afflicted with tears and grief, 
lamented in desperate mood : " Alas ! though I have 
wandered so far I have not found my son or my daughter. 
Malignant Providence, like a wicked master, has held out 
hopes to me. but has not fulfilled them, and has made me 
wander far and wide on a false surmise.'' 

While he was indulging in such lamentations he was at 
last, though with difficulty, consoled by Kanakavarman, and 
exclaimed in his grief : " If I do not find those children 

1 See my note on Kataha in Vol. I. p. I55n l . In the present passage we 
read of the island of Kataha and of various neighbouring islands. In a letter 
to me on the subject Mr C. (). Hlagden points out that we are not bound to 
assume that the writer of the passage had a perfect knowledge of the precise 
relative geographical positions of these islands lie may have known more or 
less vaguely that these places were all in the Indonesian region. Karpura- 
dvipa is the Camphor Island, either Borneo, or the north (especially the 
north-west side) of Sumatra, where lies the port Barus, from which to this 
d iv the Malays name the true camphor Kapur Hants. Blagden considers this 
latter region the most probable of the two. Suvarn a-dvipa is a recognised 
epijjraphicallv attested name tor South and Central Sumatra, from which 
there was a large export of gold. That two regions in different parts of this 
biir island should be mentioned in our text as separate islands is nothing 
remarkable. The same tiling happened with Sunda (West Java) and Java 
I the rest of the island) in the case of the early Portuguese travellers and 

See further (i. Ferrand, L' Empire sumatranais de Crlvijaya, and notes by 
(f. Coedes when reviewing it in the Bulletin de FEcole Francaise d'extreme ()riciit r 
vol. xxiii, luvj '., p. V~n. n.m.p. 


in a year, by wandering over the earth, I will abandon the 
body by austerities on the bank of the River Ganges. M 
When he said this, a certain seer there said to him : " Go, 
you will recover your children by the favour of Narayani.'' 
When he heard that, he was delighted, remembering the 
compassion shown him by the sun, and he departed from 
that city, honoured by the merchants. 

Then, searching the lands which were royal grants to 
Brahmans, and the villages and the towns, he reached one 
evening a wood with many tall trees in it. There he made 
a meal on fruits and water, and climbed up into a tree to 
spend the night there, dreading the lions, and tigers, and 
other noisome beasts. And being sleepless, he saw in the 
night at the foot of the tree a great body of divine Mothers 
assembled, with Narayani at their head, 1 waiting for the 
arrival of the god Bhairava, 2 having brought with them all 
kinds of presents suited to their resources. And thereupon 
the Mothers asked Narayani why the god delayed, but 
she laughed and gave no reason. And being persistently 
questioned by them, she thus answered them : 

75a. Prabhakara and Vidyddharl 

Although this story makes me feel shame, still, friends, 
I will tell it. There is here, in the city of Surapura, a king 
named Surasena. He has a daughter renowned for beauty, 
named Vidyadhari. 

When it was time for her to be given in marriage, the 
king heard that a son of King Vimala, named Prabhakara, 
was equal to her in beauty. While the king was willing to 
give her to Prabhakara, Vimala also learned that Surasena's 
daughter was worthy of his son. Thereupon Vimala, by the 
mouth of an envoy, asked Surasena to bestow his daughter 

1 For an account of the worship of the Great Mothers see Crooke, 
Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. i, pp. 111-1 12. n.m.p. 

2 A name of Siva, meaning " fearful." Eight or twelve forms are recog- 
nised in the classical side of his worship. The popular modern side of his 
character, however, is derived from the village god Bhairon, who in time 
appropriated the attributes of Bhairava. For details see E. Washburn. 
Hopkins, " Bhairava," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, pp. 538-539. n.m.p. 

vol. IV. p 


Vidyadhari upon his son. Surasena, for his part, his desires 
being attained, gave with due ceremony his daughter to 

Then, on reaching her father-in-law's city, named Vimala- 
pura, Vidyadhari at night went with her husband to their 
couch. There her husband' Prabhakara fell asleep without 
embracing her as she desired, and when she observed him she 
saw him to be a eunuch. " Alas ! I am undone ! How 
have I come by a eunuch as my lord ? " Grieved in her 
mind by such thoughts, the princess passed the night. She 
then wrote a letter to her father, saying, " How is it that 
you have, without making inquiry, given me to a eunuch ? ' 
and dispatched it to him. On reading the letter her father 
became angry with Vimala, thinking that he had deceived 
him by a trick. So King Surasena in the pride of his power 
sent to King Vimala a message by a letter, saying : "As 
you have induced me by fraud to give my daughter to your 
son, who is a eunuch, suffer the result thereof. Behold, I 
will come and slay you." 

Vimala with his ministers, understanding the purport 
of the letter, took counsel together, but could discover no 
way of meeting him, as he was invincible. Then a minister 
named Pingadatta said to Vimala : " There is one plan only 
in this case ; carry it out, your Majesty, and all will be well. 
There is a Yaksha named Sthulasiras, and I know a charm 
to propitiate him, by which he bestows the boon that one 
desires. By means of this charm acquired by me, propitiate 
now the Yaksha and ask him for genitals for your son : the 
strife will calm down at once." 

Thus addressed by the minister, the king took from him 
the charm, propitiated the Yaksha, and asked him for 
genitals for his son. The Yaksha then giving them, his son 
Prabhakara became a man, but the Yaksha became a 
eunuch. Vidyadhari, seeing Prabhakara to be a man, en- 
joyed the delights of love with her husband, and reflected : 
" I was misled by the fault of pride : my husband is not a 
eunuch, he is a perfect man ; there can be no other opinion 
about it." Having made this observation, she wrote again 
to her father to this effect, and thereby he became calmed. 


On learning of this event the god Bhairava, being angry 
now, caused the Guhyaka Sthulairas to be brought to 
him, and cursed him, saying : " As you have become a 
eunuch by giving up your genitals, so remain a eunuch 
throughout your life, and let Prabhakara be a man." Thus 
the Guhyaka, become a eunuch, is now suffering grief, and 
Prabhakara has become a man, so as to enjoy pleasure. 
And on account of that business some delay has taken place 
about his arrival, but know that he will be here soon. 

75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son Mahipdla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

While Narayani was saying this to the Mothers there 
came there Bhairava, the lord of the company of Mothers. 
And he, having been honoured with gifts by all the 
Mothers, spent some time in dancing, and sported with 
the witches. 1 

And while Chandrasvamin was surveying that from the 
summit of a tree he saw a slave belonging to Narayani, and 
she saw him. And, as chance would have it, they fell in 
love with one another, and the goddess Narayani perceived 
their feelings. And when Bhairava had departed, accom- 
panied by the witches, she, lingering behind, summoned 
Chandrasvamin, who was on the tree. And when he came 
down she said to him and her slave : " Are you in love 
with one another ? " And they confessed the truth, and said 
they were, and thereupon she dismissed her anger and said 
to Chandrasvamin: " I am pleased with thee for confessing 
the truth, so I will not curse thee, but I will give thee this 
slave. Live in happiness." 

When the Brahman heard this, he said : " Goddess, 

1 He seems to correspond to the Junker Voland, or Herr Urian of the 
Walpurgisnacht (see Bayard Taylor's notes to his translation of Goethe's 
Faust). See also, for the assembly of witches and their uncanny president, 
Birlinger, Aus Schwaben, pp. 323 and 372. In Bartsch's Sagen, M'drchen und 
Gebrduche aus Meklenburg, pp. 11-44, will be found the recorded confessions 
of many witches, who deposed to having danced with the Teutonic Bhairava 
on the Blocksberg. The Mothers of the second part of Faust probably come 
from Greece. 


though my mind is fickle, I hold it in check ; I do not 
touch a strange woman. For this is the nature of the mind, 
but bodily sin should be avoided." When that firm-souled 
Brahman said this, the goddess said to him : "I am pleased 
with thee, and I give thee this boon : thou shalt quickly find 
thy children. And receive from me this unfading lotus that 
destroys poison." 1 When the goddess had said this, she 
gave the Brahman Chandrasvamin a lotus and disappeared 
from his eyes. 

And he, having received the lotus, set out, at the end of 
the night, and roaming along reached the city of Tarapura, 
where his son Mahipala and his daughter were living in the 
Chandrasvamin h use of that Brahman minister Anantasvamin. 
finds his There he went and recited at the door of that 

Children minister, in order to obtain food, having heard 

that he was hospitable. And the minister, having been 
informed by the doorkeepers, had him introduced by 
them, and when he saw that he was learned, invited him 
to dinner. And when he was invited, having heard that 
there was a lake there, named Anantahrada, that washed 
away sin, he went to bathe there. While he was returning 
after bathing, the Brahman heard all round him in the 
city a cry of grief. And when he asked the cause the 
people said : " There is in this city a Brahman boy, of 
the name of Mahipala, who was found in the forest by the 
merchant Sarthadhara. The minister Anantasvamin, ob- 
serving that he had auspicious marks, with some difficulty 
begged him and his sister from the merchant, and brought 
them both here. And being without a son, he has adopted 
the boy, whose excellent qualities have endeared him to 
King Taravarman and his people. To-day he has been 
bitten by a poisonous snake ; hence the cry of grief in the 

When Chandrasvamin heard that, he said to himself : 

4 This must be my son." And reflecting thus, he went to 

the house of that minister as fast as he could. There he 

saw his son surrounded by all, and recognised him, and 

rejoiced, having in his hand the lotus that was an antidote 

1 For a short note on poison-detectors see Vol. I, p. HOn 1 . n.m.p. 


to snake-poison. And he put that lotus to the nose of 
that Mahipala, and the moment he smelt it he was free 
from the effects of poison. And Mahipala rose up, and was 
as one who had just awoke from sleep, 1 and all the people 
in the city and the king rejoiced. And Chandrasvamin 
was honoured with wealth by Anantasvamin, the king and 
the citizens, who said : " This is some incarnation of the 
divinity." And he remained in the house of the minister 
in great comfort, honoured by him, and he saw his son 
Mahipala and his daughter Chandravatl. And the three, 
though they mutually recognised one another, said nothing ; 
for the wise have regard to what is excellent, and do not 
discover themselves out of season. 

Then the King Taravarman, being highly pleased with 
the virtues of Mahipala, gave him his daughter Bandhumatl. 
Then that king, after giving him the half of the kingdom, 
being pleased with him, laid the whole burden of the king- 
dom upon him, as he had no other son. And Mahipala, after 
he had obtained the kingdom, acknowledged his father, and 
gave him a position next to his, and so lived in happiness. 

One day his father Chandrasvamin said to him : " Come, 
let us go to our own country to bring your mother. For if 
she hears that you are the occupant of a throne, having been 
long afflicted, she might think, ' How comes it that my son 
has forgotten me ? ' and might curse you in her anger. But 
one who is cursed by his father and mother does not long 
enjoy prosperity. In proof of this hear this tale of what 
happened long ago to the merchant's son. 

75b. Chakra and the Iron Wheel 2 

In the city of Dhavala there was a merchant's son named 
Chakra. He went on a trading voyage to Svarnadvipa 

1 Mukta for yukta, which is clearly a misprint. 

2 This story is identical with the story of " The Merchant who struck his 
Mother," as given by the Rev. S. Beal in the Antiquary for September 1880. 
It is also found in the Avadana Sataka : see Dr R. L. Mitra's Account of the 
Buddhist Literature of Nepal, p. 28, where the above MS. is described. See 
also Dr R. Morris' remarks in The Academy of the 27th August 1881. 


against the will of his parents. There he gained great 
wealth in five years, and in order to return embarked on the 
sea in a ship laden with jewels. And when his voyage was 
very nearly at an end the sea rose up against him, troubled 
with a great wind, and with clouds and rain. And the huge 
billows broke his vessel, as if angry because he had come 
against the wish of his parents. Some of the passengers 
were whelmed in the waves; others were eaten by sea- 
monsters. But Chakra, as his allotted term of life had not 
run out, was carried to the shore and flung up there by the 
waves. While he was lying there in a state of exhaustion 
he saw, as if in a dream, a man of black and terrible appear- 
ance come to him, with a noose in his hand. Chakra was 
caught in the noose by that man, who took him up and 
dragged him a long distance to a court presided over by a 
man on a throne. By the order of the occupant of the 
throne the merchant's son was carried off by that noose- 
bearer and flung into a cell of iron. 

In that cell Chakra saw a man being tortured by means 
of an iron wheel 1 on his head, that revolved incessantly. 
And Chakra asked him : " Who are you, by what crime did 
you incur this, and how do you manage to continue alive ? " 
And the man answered : " I am a merchant's son named 
Khadga, and because I did not obey the commands of my 
parents they were angry, and in wrath laid this curse upon 
me 2 : ' Because, wicked son, you torture us like a hot wheel 
placed on the head, therefore such shall be your punishment. ' 
When they had said this they ceased, and as I wept they 
said to me : ' Weep not, your punishment shall only last 
for one month.' When I heard that, I spent the day in grief, 
and at night when I was in bed I saw, as if in a dream, a 

1 A similar transferable wheel is found in the PaRchatantra, Book V, 
third story, Benfey's Pantschatantra, vol. ii, p. 331. 

1 Cf. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 358: "Great stress is laid in the 
skazkas and legends upon the terrible power of a parent's curse. The hasty 
word of a father or mother will condemn even an innocent child to slavery 
among devils, and when it is once uttered it is irrevocable." Throughout the 
present work curses appear to be irrevocable, but susceptible of modification 
and limitation. See Waldau's Bbhmische M'drchen, p. 537, and the remarks of 
Preller in his Griechische Mythologie, vol. ii, p. 345. 


terrible man come. He took me off and thrust me by force 
into this iron cell, and he placed on my head this burning 
and ever- revolving wheel. This was my parents' curse, 
hence I do not die. And the month is at an end to-day; 
still I am not set free." 

When Khadga said that, Chakra in pity answered him : 
" I too did not obey my parents, for I went abroad to get 
wealth against their will, and they pronounced against me 
the curse that my wealth, when acquired, should perish. So 
I lost in the sea my whole wealth, that I had acquired in a 
foreign island. My case is the same as yours. So what is 
the use of my life ? Place this wheel on my head. Let your 
curse, Khadga, depart." When Chakra said this, a voice was 
heard in the air : " Khadga, thou art released, so place this 
wheel on the head of Chakra." When Khadga heard this, he 
placed the wheel on the head of Chakra, and was conveyed 
by some invisible being to his parents' house. 

There he remained without disobeying again the orders 
of his parents ; but Chakra put that wheel upon his head 
and then spake thus : " May other sinners also on the earth 
be released from the result of their sins ; until all sins are 
cancelled, may this wheel revolve on my head." When the 
resolute Chakra said this, the gods in heaven, being pleased, 
rained flowers, and thus addressed him : " Bravo ! Bravo ! 
Man of noble spirit, this compassion has cancelled thy sin. 
Go; thou shalt possess inexhaustible wealth." When the 
gods said this, that iron wheel fell from the head of Chakra 
and disappeared somewhere. Then a Vidyadhara youth 
descended from heaven and gave him a valuable treasure of 
jewels, sent by Indra, pleased with his self-abnegation, and 
taking Chakra in his arms, carried him to his city named 
Dhavala, and departed as he had come. Then Chakra 
delighted his relations by his arrival at the house of his 
parents, and, after telling his adventures, remained there 
without falling away from virtue. 


75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvdmin, his Son Mahipclla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

When Chandrasvamin had told this story he said again 
to Mahipala : " Such evil fruits does opposition to one's 
parents' produce, my son, but devotion to them is a wishing- 
cow of plenty. In illustration of this hear the following 

75c. The Hermit and the Faithful Wife 

There was in old time a hermit of great austerity, who 
roamed in the forest. And one day a hen-crow, as he was 
sitting under the shade of a tree, dropped dirt upon him, so 
he looked at the crow with angry eyes. And the crow, as 
soon as he looked at it, was reduced to ashes ; and so the 
hermit conceived a vainglorious confidence in the might of 
his austerities. 

Once on a time, in a certain city, the hermit entered the 
house of a Brahman and asked his wife for alms. And 
that wife, who was devoted to her husband, answered him : 
" Wait a little, I am attending upon my husband." Then 
he looked at her with an angry look, and she laughed at 
him and said: "Remember, 1 I am not a crow." When the 
hermit heard that, he sat down in a state of astonishment, 
and remained wondering how she could possibly have come 
to know of the fate of the crow. Then, after she had attended 
upon her husband in the oblation to the fire and in other 
rites, the virtuous woman brought alms and approached 
that hermit. Then the hermit joined his hands in the 
attitude of supplication and said to that virtuous woman : 
" How did you come to know of my adventure with the 
crow in the forest ? Tell me first, and then I will receive 
your alms." When the hermit said this, that wife, who 
adored her husband, said : "I know of no virtue other than 
devotion to my husband ; accordingly by his favour I 
have such power of discernment. But go and visit a man 
here who lives by selling flesh, whose name is Dharma- 
vyadha ; from him thou shalt learn the secret of blessedness 

1 Perhaps we should read mrishyalam, "forgive me," "be patient." 


free from the consciousness of self." The hermit, thus ad- 
dressed by the all-knowing faithful wife, took the portion of 
a guest and, after bowing before her, departed. 

The next day he went in search of that Dharmavyadha, 
and approached him as he was selling flesh in his shop. And 
as soon as Dharmavyadha saw the hermit, he said : " Have 
Dharmavyadh a y u Deen sent here, Brahman, by that faithful 
the Righteous wife?" When the hermit heard that, he said 
Seller of Flesh* tQ Dharmavyadha in his astonishment: "How 
come you to have such knowledge, being a seller of flesh ? " 
When the hermit said this, Dharmavyadha answered him : 
" I am devoted to my father and mother ; that is my only 
object in life. I bathe after I have provided them with the 
requisites for bathing ; I eat after I have fed them ; I lie 
down after I have seen them to bed ; thus it comes to pass 
that I have such knowledge. And being engaged in the 
duties of my profession, I sell only for my subsistence the 
flesh of deer and other animals slain by others, not from 
desire of wealth. And I and that faithful wife do not in- 
dulge self-consciousness, the impediment of knowledge, so the 
knowledge of both of us is free from hindrance. Therefore 
do you, observing the vow of a hermit, perform your own 
duties, without giving way to self- consciousness, with a view 
to acquiring purity, in order that you may quickly attain 
the supreme brightness." 

When he had been thus instructed by Dharmavyadha, 
he went to his house and observed his practice, and after- 
wards he returned satisfied to the forest. And by his advice 
he became perfected, and the faithful wife and Dharmavyadha 
also attained perfection by such performance of their duties. 

75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvamin, his Son Mahipdla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

" Such is the power of those who are devoted to hus- 
band or father and mother. So come, visit that mother 
who longs for a sight of you." When thus addressed by 

1 This character is probably taken from the Mahahharata (see Dowson's 
Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, p. 90). 


his father t'handrasvfunin, Mahipala promised to go to his 
native land to please Ins mother. And he disclosed that of 
his own accord to Anantasvamin, his spiritual father, and 
when he took upon him the burden of his kingdom the king 
set out with his natural father by night. And at last he 
reached his own country, and refreshed his mother Deva- 
mati with a sight of him. as the spring refreshes the female 
cuckoo. And Mahipala stayed there some time with his 
mother, being welcomed by his relations, together with his 
father, who related their adventures. 

In the meanwhile in Tfiriipura the princess, his wife 
RandhumatI, who was sleeping within the house, woke up 
;ii the close of night. And discovering that her husband 
had gone somewhere, she was distressed at her lonely state, 
and could not find solace in the palace, the garden or any 
other place. Hut she remained weeping, shedding tears 
that seemed to double her necklace, intent on lamentation 
only, desiring relief by death. Hut the minister Ananta- 
svamin came and comforted her with hope-inspiring w r ords, 
saying : " Hefore your husband went he said to me : ' I am 
going away on some business and I will quickly return/ 
So do not weep, my daughter." 

Then she recovered her self-control, though with difficulty. 
Then she remained continually honouring with gifts excel- 
lent Brahmans, that came from a foreign country, in order 
to obtain news of her husband. And she asked a poor 
Brahman, named Sangamadatta, who came for a gift, for 
tidings of her husband, having told him his name and the 
signs by which to recognise him. Then the Brahman said : 
i have never beheld a man of that kind ; but, Queen, you 
must not give way to excessive anxiety on this account. 
Doers of righteous actions eventually obtain reunion with 
loved ones, and in proof of that I will tell you a wonder which 
I saw. Listen. 

75d. The Treacherous Pdsupata Ascetic and King Tribhiwana 

As I was wandering round all the holy places I came to 
the Manasa lake on the Himalayas, and in it I saw, as in a 


mirror, 1 a house composed of jewels, and from that building 
there came out suddenly a man with a sword in his hand, 
and he ascended the bank of the lake, accompanied by a 
troop of celestial females. There he amused himself with 
the females in a garden in the recreation of drinking, and I 
was looking on from a distance unobserved, full of interest 
in the spectacle. In the meanwhile a man of prepossess- 
ing appearance came there from somewhere or other. And 
when he met me I told him what I had seen. And with 
much interest I pointed out to him that man from a dis- 
tance, and when he beheld him he told me his own story in 
the following words : 

" I am a king named Tribhuvana, in the city of Tribhu- 
vana. There a certain Paupata ascetic for a long time paid 
me court. And being asked the reason by me, he at once 
asked me to be his ally in obtaining a sword concealed in a 
cavern, and I agreed to that. Then the Pasupata ascetic 
went with me at night, and having, by means of a burnt- 
offering and other rites, discovered an opening in the earth, 
the ascetic said to me : ' Hero ! enter thou first, and after 
thou hast obtained the sword, come out, and cause me also 
to enter ; make a compact with me to do this. ' When he 
said this, I made that compact with him, and quickly entered 
the opening, and found a palace of jewels. 2 And the chief 
of the Asura maidens who dwelt there came out from the 
palace, and out of love led me in, and there gave me a sword. 
She said : * Keep this sword, which confers the power of 
flying in the air, and bestows all magical faculties.' Then I 
remained there with her. But I remembered my compact, 
and going out with the sword in my hand I introduced that 
ascetic into the palace of the Asuras by that opening. 

"There I dwelt with the first Asura lady, who was sur- 
rounded by her attendants, and he dwelt with the second. 
One day when I was stupefied with drinking the ascetic 
treacherously took away from my side the sword and grasped 

1 I have followed the Sanskrit College MS., which gives adaria. 

* We naturally think of Aladdin. For numerous variants see Chauvin, 
Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes, v, pp. 66, 67. For a note on mine And 
cave spirits see Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 282, 283. n.m.p. 


it in his own hand. When he had it in his grasp he possessed 
great power, and with his hand he seized me and flung me 
out of the cavern. Then I searched for him for twelve years 
at the mouths of caverns, hoping that some time I might 
find him outside. And this very day the scoundrel has 
presented himself to my eyes, sporting with that very Asura 
lady who belongs to me." 

While the King Tribhuvana was relating this to me, 
O Queen, that ascetic, stupefied with drink, went to sleep. 
And while he was asleep the king went and took the sword 
from his side, and by its operation he recovered celestial 
might. Then the hero woke up that ascetic with a kick, 
and reproached the unfortunate man, but did not kill him. 
And then he entered the palace with the Asura lady and her 
attendants, recovered again like his own magic power. But 
the ascetic was much grieved at having lost his magic power. 
For the ungrateful, though long successful, are sure to fail 
at last. 

75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvdmin, his Son Mahipdla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

" Having seen this with my own eyes, I have now arrived 
here in the course of my wanderings ; so be assured, Queen, 
that you shall eventually be reunited to your beloved, like 
Tribhuvana, for the righteous do not sink." When Bandhu- 
mati heard that from the Brahman she was highly delighted, 
and made him successful by giving him much wealth. 

And the next day a distinguished Brahman came there 
from a distant land, and Bandhumati eagerly asked him for 
tidings of her husband, telling his name and the tokens by 
which he might be recognised. Then that Brahman said to 
her : " Queen, I have not seen your husband anywhere, but 
I, who have to-day come to your house, am named, not 
without reason, the Brahman Sumanas, 1 so you will quickly 
have your wishes satisfied ; thus my heart tells me. And 
reunions do take place, even of the long separated. In proof 
of this I will tell you the following tale. Listen, Queen. 

1 I.e. benevolent, and also satisfied at heart. 


75 e. Nala and Daniayanti l 

Of old time there lived a king named Nala, whose beauty, 
I fancy, so surpassed that of the God of Love that in disgust 
he offered his body as a burnt- offering in the fire of the eye 
of the enraged Siva. He had no wife, and when he made 
inquiries he heard that Damayanti, the daughter of Bhima, 
the King of Vidarbha, would make him a suitable wife. 
And Bhima, searching through the world, found that there 
was no king except Nala fit to marry his daughter. 

In the meanwhile Damayanti went down into a tank in 
her own city, to amuse herself in the water. There the girl 
saw a swan that had fed on blue and white lotuses, and by 
a trick she threw over it her robe and made it a prisoner in 
sport. But the celestial swan, when captured, said to her 
in accents that she could understand : " Princess, I will do 
you a good turn ; let me go. There is a king of the name 
of Nala, whom even the nymphs of heaven bear on their 
hearts, like a necklace strung with threads of merit. 2 You 
are a wife fitted for him and he is a husband suited for you, 
so I will be an ambassador of Love to bring like to like.'* 
When she heard that, she thought that the celestial swan 
was a polished speaker, and so she let him go, saying : " So 
be it." And she said : "I will not choose any husband but 
Nala," having her mind captivated by that prince, who had 
entered by the channel of her ear. 

And the swan departed thence and quickly repaired to 
a tank resorted to by Nala, when bent on sporting in the 
water. And Nala, seeing that the swan was beautiful, 
took it captive out of curiosity by throwing his robe over 
it in sport. Then the swan said : " Set me free, O King, 
for I have come to benefit you. Listen, I will tell you. 
There is in Vidarbha one Damayanti, the daughter of 
King Bhima, the Tilottama 3 of the earth, to be desired 
even by the gods. And she has chosen you as her future 
husband, having fallen in love with you on account of my 

1 This well-known story is fully treated in Appendix II, p. 275 etseq. n.m.p. 

2 Sadguna means "good quality," also "good thread." 

3 See Vol. II, p. 14. n.m.p. 


description of your virtues ; and I have come here to tell 

Nala was at the same time pierced with the words of 
that excellent swan, that were brightened by the splendid 
object they had in view, 1 and with the sharp arrows of the 
god of the flowery shafts. And he said to that swan : "I 
am fortunate, best of birds, in that I have been selected by 
her, as if by the incarnate fulfilment of my wishes." When 
the swan had been thus addressed by him, and let go, it 
went and related the whole occurrence to DamayantI, as it 
took place, and then went whither it would. 

Now DamayantI was longing for Nala ; so, by way of 
a device to obtain him, she sent her mother to ask her 
father to appoint for her the ceremony of the svayamvara. 
DamayanR's And her father Bhima consented, and sent 
Svayamvara messengers to all the kings on the earth, to 
invite them to the svayamvara. And all the kings, when 
they had received the summons, set out for Vidarbha, and 
Nala went also eagerly, mounted on his chariot. 

And in the meanwhile Indra and the other Lokapalas 
heard from the hermit Narada of the svayamvara of Dama- 
yantI, and of her love for Nala. And of them Indra, the 
Wind, the God of Fire, Yama and Varuna, longing for 
DamayantI, deliberated together, and went to Nala; and 
they found Nala setting off on the journey, and when he 
prostrated himself before them they said to him : " Go, 
Nala, and tell DamayantI this from us : ' Choose one of us 
five. What is the use of choosing Nala, who is a mortal ? 
Mortals are subject to death, but gods are undying.' And 
by our favour thou shalt enter where she is, unperceived 
by the others." Nala said, "So be it," and consented to do 
the errand of the gods. And he entered the apartments 
of DamayantI without being seen, and delivered that com- 
mand of the gods, exactly as it was given. But when the 
virtuous woman heard that, she said : " Suppose the gods 
are such, nevertheless Nala shall be my husband. I have 
no need of gods." When Nala had heard her utter this 

1 The epithet refers also to the arrows and means " bright with excellent 


noble sentiment, and had revealed himself, he went and 
told it, exactly as it was said, to Indra and the others ; 
and they, pleased with him, gave him a boon, saying : " We 
are thy servants from this time forth, and will repair to 
thee as soon as thought of, truthful man." 

Then Nala went delighted to Vidarbha, and Indra and 
the other gods assumed the form of Nala, with intent to 
deceive Damayanti. And they went to the Court of Bhima, 
assuming the attributes of mortals, and when the svayam- 
vara began they sat near Nala. Then Damayanti came, 
and leaving the kings, who were being proclaimed one by 
one by her brother, gradually reached Nala. And when she 
saw six Nalas, 1 all possessing shadows and the power of 
winking, 2 she thought in her perplexity, while her brother 
stood amazed : " Surely these five guardians of the world 
have produced this illusion to deceive me, but I think that 
Nala is the sixth here, and so I cannot go in any other 

When the virtuous one had thus reflected, she stood 
facing the sun, with mind fixed on Nala alone, and spoke 
thus : " guardians of the world, if even in sleep I have 
never fixed my heart on any but Nala, on account of that 
loyal conduct of mine, show me your real forms. And to 
a maiden any other men than her lover previously chosen 
are strangers, and she is to them the wife of another, so 
how comes this delusion upon you?" 3 When the five, 
with Indra at their head, heard that, they assumed their 
own forms, and the sixth, the true Nala, preserved his true 
form. The princess in her delight cast upon the king her 
eye, beautiful as a blown blue lotus, and the garland of 
election. And a rain of flowers fell from heaven. Then 
King Bhima performed the marriage ceremony of her and 
Nala. And the kings and the gods, Indra and the others, 

1 In the Mahdbharata version the numher is only five. n.m.p. 

2 So in Heliodorus, &thiopica, Lib. Ill, cap. xiii : " dXXa tois t 6<f>daX.fxois 
av yvbxrdtitv arevis Scokov fiktirovres kcu rb (3X.<f>apov ov iror' Vtyivom-e?." In 
the third canto of the Purgalorio Dante is much troubled at finding that 
Virgil, being a disembodied spirit, casts no shadow. 

8 For the "Act of Truth" see Vol. I, pp. 166, 167; Vol. II, pp. Sl-SS, 
and Vol. Ill, pp. 172 2 , 179-182. n.m.p. 


returned by the way that they came, after due honour had 
been done to them by the King of Vidarbha. 

But Indra and his companions saw on the way Kali and 
Dvapara, 1 and knowing that they had come for Damayanti, 
they said to them : " It is of no use your going to V T idarbha ; 
The Curse of we come thence ; and the svayamvara has taken 
the Dice place. Damayanti has chosen King Nala." 

Deities When the wicked Kali and Dvapara heard that, 

they exclaimed in wrath : " Since she has chosen that 
mortal in preference to gods like thyself, we will certainly 

1 Kali is the side of the die marked with one point. Dvapara is the 
side marked with two. They are personified here as demons of gambling. 
They are also the present i.e. the fourth and the third Yugas or Ages of the 

World. There are in the orthodox Hindu chronological system four Yugas 

or Ages of the World. They are in order Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali, and 
correspond roughly to the Gold, Silver, Brass and Iron Ages of the classics. 
The Sanskrit names are called after the sides of a die in descending order 
of their value in play. Thus Krita is the side with four dots, while Kali, being 
the side with only one dot, is always a certain loser. 

The connection between dice and the different eras of the world is 
perhaps not at first evident. It is well explained by H. Jacobi in " Ages of 
the World," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. i, p. 200 et. seq. 

The general idea, the same in all Brahmanical sources, is that the 
character, or, if the expression may be used, the proportion of virtue, and the 
length of each Yuga conform to the number on the side of a die, after which 
it is named. In the Krita Yuga, virtue (dharmd) was fully present in men, 
with all four feet, as it is expressed, but it diminished by one quarter or foot 
in every succeeding age, till in the Kali Yuga only one foot of dharma remains. 
The same proportion holds good with regard to the duration of the several 

The Krita Yuga lasts 4000 years, to which a dawn and a twilight of 
400 years each are added ; the same items in Treta are 3000 and 300 ; in 
Dvapara 2000 and 200; in Kali 1000 and 100 years. [Thus the die with 
its points of 4, 3, 2 and 1 came to have the symbolical meaning.] 

The period of the four Yugas together, technically called a Mahayuga 
or Chaturyuga, though commonly a Yuga, lasts 12,000 years (Manu, i, 69 
et seq. = Mahabharata, III, xii, 826 et seq.). The years in this statement are 
interpreted as Divine years, consisting each of 360 human years, giving thus 
a total of 4,320,000 years in each Mahayuga. The usual descriptions of the 
Krita Yuga reveal to us a happy state of mankind, when life lasted 4000 
years, when there were no quarrels nor wars, when the rules of caste and the 
precepts of the Vedas were strictly obeyed, when, in short, virtue reigned 
paramount. In the Kali Yuga just the reverse prevails. There is a confusion 
of castes and asramas [i.e. the four ascetic stages of student, householder, 


separate that couple." After making this vow they turned 
round and departed thence. 

And Nala remained seven days in the house of his father- 
in-law and then departed, a successful man, for Nishada, 
with his wife Damayanti. There their love was greater 
than that of Siva and Parvatl. Parvati truly is half of 
Siva, but Damayanti was Nala's self. And in due time 
Damayanti brought forth to Nala a son named Indrasena, 
and after that a daughter named Indrasena. 

And in the meanwhile Kali, who was resolved on effecting 
what he had promised, was seeking an occasion against Nala, 
who lived according to the Sastras. Then, one day, Nala lost 
his senses from drunkenness, and went to sleep without saying 
the evening prayer and without washing his feet. After Kali 
had obtained this opportunity, for which he had been watching 
day and night, he entered into the body of Nala. When Kali 
had entered his body King Nala abandoned righteous practices 
and acted as he pleased. The king played dice, he loved female 
slaves, he spoke untruths, he slept in the day, he kept awake 
at night, he became angry without cause, he took wealth 
unjustly, he despised the good and he honoured the bad. 

Moreover, Dvapara entered into his brother Pushkara, 
having obtained an opportunity, and made him depart 
from the true path. And one day Nala saw, in the house 
of his younger brother Pushkara, a fine white bull, named 
Danta. And Pushkara would not give the bull to his elder 
brother, though he wanted it and asked for it, because his 

anchorite and mendicant]. The Veda and good conduct gradually fall into 
neglect ; all kinds of vices creep in ; diseases afflict mankind ; the term of life 
grows shorter and shorter, and is quite uncertain ; barbarians occupy the 
land, and people kill one another in continual strife, till at the end of the 
Yuga some mighty king extinguishes the infidels. 

We can thus clearly see the connection between Yugas and dice, and 
understand that if Kali possessed Nala he was bound to lose everything, 
whether Dvapara possessed his opponent or not. Moreover, there seems to 
be considerable doubt in the original texts as to whether Dvapara entered 
into Pushkara at all, or merely stood by watching Nala being gradually 
ruined. The description of Nala's entire loss of all restraint through the 
influence of Kali, as described by Somadeva, is an addition of his own and 
not in the Mahabharata. See further Appendix II, p. 276. n.m.p. 
vol. IV. Q 


respect for him had been taken away by Dvapara. And 
he said to him : " If you desire this bull, then win it from 
me at once at play." When Nala heard that challenge, in 
his infatuation he accepted it, and then those two brothers 
began to play against each other. Pushkara staked the 
bull, Nala staked elephants and other things; and Push- 
kara continually won ; Nala as continually lost. In two or 
three days Nala had lost his army and his treasure, but he 
still refused to desist from gambling, though entreated to 
desist, for he was distracted by Kali. Damayanti, thinking 
that the kingdom was lost, put her children in a splendid 
chariot and sent them to the house of her father. In the 
meanwhile Nala lost his whole kingdom ; then the hypo- 
critical Pushkara said : " Since you have lost everything else, 
now stake Damayanti on the game against that bull of mine." 

This windy speech of Pushkara 's, like a strong blast, 
made Nala blaze like fire ; but he did not say anything 
unbecoming, nor did he stake his wife. Then Pushkara said 
to him : " If you will not stake your wife, then leave this 
country of mine with her. " When Nala heard this, he left that 
country with Damayanti, and the king's officers saw him as 
far as the frontier. Alas ! When Kali reduced Nala to such 
a state, say, what will be the lot of other mortals, who are 
like worms compared with him ? Curse on this gambling, the 
livelihood of Kali and Dvapara, without law, without natural 
affection, such a cause of misfortunes even to royal sages ! 

So Nala, having been deprived of his sovereignty by his 
brother, started to go to another land with Damayanti, 
and as he was journeying along, he reached the centre of 
Nala deserts a forest, exhausted with hunger. There, as he 
Damayanft was resting with his wife, whose soft feet were 
pierced with darbha grass, on the bank of a river, he saw 
two swans arrive. And he threw his upper garment over 
them, to capture them for food, and those two swans flew 
away with it. And Nala heard a voice from heaven : 
44 These are those two dice in the form of swans ; they have 
descended and flown off with your garment also." 

Then the king sat down despondent, with only one gar- 
ment on, and providently showed to Damayanti the way 


to her father's house, saying : " This is the way to Vidarbha, 
my beloved, to your father's house ; this is the way to the 
country of the Angas, and this is the way to Ko6ala." 
When Damayanti heard this, she was terrified, thinking to 
herself : " Why does my husband tell me the way, as if he 
meant to abandon me ? " Then the couple fed on roots 
and fruits, and when night came on lay down, both of them 
wearied, in the wood on a bed of ku4a grass. And Dama- 
yanti, worn out with the journey, gradually dropped off to 
sleep, but Nala, desiring to depart, kept awake, deluded 
by Kali. So he rose up with one garment, deserting that 
Damayanti, and departed thence, after cutting off half her 
upper garment and putting it on. 1 But Damayanti woke 
up at the end of the night, and when she did not see in 
the forest her husband, who had deserted her and gone, 
she thought for some time, and then lamented as follows : 
" Alas, my husband, great of heart, merciful even to your 
enemy ! You that used to love me so well, what has made 
you cruel to me ? And how will you be able to go alone 
on foot through the forests, and who will attend on you to 
remove your weariness ? How will the dust defile on the 
journey your feet, that used to be stained with the pollen 
of the flowers in the garlands worn on the heads of kings ? 
How will your body, that could not endure to be anointed 
with the powder of yellow sandal- wood, endure the heat of the 
sun in the middle of the day ? What do I care for my young 
son ? What for my daughter ? What for myself ? May the 
gods, if I am chaste, procure good fortune for you alone ! " 

Thus Damayanti lamented in her loneliness, and then 
set out by the path which her husband had shown her 
beforehand. And with difficulty she crossed the woods, 
forests, rivers and rocks, and never did she depart from her 
devotion to her husband in any point. And the might of 
her chastity preserved her on the way, 2 so that the hunter 

1 The reluctant parting of Nala is much more beautifully described in 
the Mahabhdrata. See Appendix II, pp. 278, 279- n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Milton's Comus, v, 421 et seq. The word "might" also means 
' fire." This "fire " burnt up the hunter. The pun in the previous sentence 
cannot be rendered in English. 


who, after delivering her from the serpent, fell in love with 
her for a moment was reduced to ashes. Then she joined a 
caravan of merchants, which she met on the way, and with 
them she reached the city of a king named Subahu. There 
the daughter of the king saw her from her palace, and, pleased 
with her beauty, had her brought and gave her as a present 
to her mother. Then she remained in attendance on the 
queen, respected by her, and when questioned she answered 
only : "My husband has abandoned me." 

And in the meanwhile her father Bhlma, having heard 
the tidings of Nala's misfortune, sent trustworthy men in 
every direction to make search for the royal couple. And 
r, m one of them, his minister named Suvena, as he 

Damayanti ; . . 

returns to was wandering about disguised as a Brahman, 
her Fathers reached that palace of Subahu. There he saw 
mg Damayanti, who always examined guests, and she 

saw with sorrow her father's minister. And having recognised 
one another, they wept together so violently that Subahu 's 
queen heard it. And the queen had them summoned, and 
asked them the truth of the matter, and then she found out 
that the lady was Damayanti, the daughter of her sister. 
Then she informed her husband, and after showing her 
honour she sent her to the house of her father with Suvena 
and an army. There Damayanti remained, reunited with 
her two children, inquiring under her father's guidance for 
news of her husband. And her father sent out spies to look 
for her husband, who was distinguished by preternatural 
skill in cooking and driving. And King Bhima commanded 
the spies to say : " Moon, where have you hid yourself so 
cruelly, deserting your young bride asleep in the forest, 
dear as a cluster of white lotuses, having taken a piece of 
her robe ? " x This he told them to utter wherever they 
suspected the presence of Nala. 

And in the meanwhile King Nala travelled a long way 
at night in that forest, clothed with the half-garment, and at 
last he saw a jungle- fire. And he heard someone exclaim : 
" Great-hearted one, take me away from the neighbourhood 
of this fire, in order that I, being helpless, may not be burned 

1 Here then is a pun. Ambara also means " the sky." 


up by it." When Nala heard this, he looked round, and 
beheld a snake coiled up near the fire, having his head 
encircled with the rays of the jewels of his crest, 1 as if seized 
on the head by the jungle-fire, with terrible flaming weapons 
in its hand. He went up to it, and in compassion put it 
on his shoulder, 2 and carried it a long distance, and when 
he wished to put it down the snake said to him : " Carry 
me ten steps farther, counting them as you go." 

Then Nala advanced, counting the steps, one, two, three, 
four, five, six, seven listen, snake eight, nine, ten, and 
when he said ten (daia 3 ) the snake took him at his word, 
and bit him in the front of the forehead, as he lay on his 
shoulder. That made the king small in the arms, deformed 
and black. Then the king took down the snake from his 
shoulder, and said to him : " Who art thou, and what kind 
of a return for my kindness is this which thou hast made ? " 
When the snake heard this speech of Nala's, he answered 
him : " King, know that I am a king of the snakes named 
Karkotaka, and I gave you the bite for your good ; that 
you will come to learn; when great ones wish to live con- 
cealed, a deformed appearance of body furthers their plans. 
Receive also from me this pair of garments, named the 
4 fire-bleached ' * ; you need only put them on and you will 

1 For the jewels in the heads of reptiles see the long note in Benfey's 
Pahtschatantra, vol. i, p. 214. The passage in As You Like It will occur to every- 
one. Snakes' crowns are mentioned in Grossler, Sagen aus der Grafschaft 
Mansfeld, p. 178, in Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, pp. 403-405, and in 

Grohmann, Sagen aus B'dhmen, pp. 219, 223. Reference should also be made 

to Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 143; Thurston, Ethnographic Notes in Southern 
India, p. 284, and especially W. W. Skeat, " Snakestones," Folk-Lore, vol. xxiii, 
1912, pp. 45-80; and W. R. Haliday in ditto, December 1921, pp. 262-271. 


2 Preller in his Griechische Mythologie, vol. ii, p. 475, refers to a Servian 
story, in which a shepherd saves the life of a snake in a forest fire. In return 
for this service the snake's father gives him endless treasures, and teaches 
him the language of birds. 

8 Dasa means " ten " and also " bite." 

4 In Prester John's letter quoted by Baring-Gould, Curious Myths oj the 
Middle Ages, new edition, p. 43, we find : " In one of our lands, hight Zone, 
are worms called in our tongue Salamanders. These worms can only live in 
fire, and they build cocoons like silk-worms, which are unwound by the ladies 


recover vour true form." When Karkotaka had said this, 
and had departed after giving those garments, Nala left that 
wood, and in course of time reached the city of Kos'ala. 

And going by the name of Hrasvabahu, he took service 
as a cook in the family of King Rituparna, the sovereign 
of Kosala. And he acquired renown by making dishes of 

exquisite flavour, and by his skill in chariot- 
/,iJfi,!!h"\nhi driving. And while Xala was living there, 
in xjutr or his under the name of Hrasvabahu, it happened that 

once upon a time one of the spies of the King 

Appearance . 

of V idarbha came there. And the spy heard men 
there saying : "In this place there is a new cook, of the 
name of Hrasvabahu. equal to Xala in his own special art 
and also in the art of driving." The spy suspected that 
the cook was Xala himself, and hearing that he was in the 
judgment-hall of the king, he went there and repeated the 
following Arya verse, taught him by his master : ' Moon, 
where have you hid yourself so cruelly, deserting your 
young bride asleep in the forest, dear as a cluster of white 
lotuses, having taken a piece of her robe ? 

The people present in the judgment-hall, when they 
heard that, thought that his words were those of a mad- 
man, but Xala, who stood there disguised as a cook, answered 
him : " What cruelty was there in the moon's becoming 
invisible to the lotus-cluster, when it reached and entered 
another region, after one part of the heaven * had become 
exhausted ? 

When the spy heard this, he surmised that the supposed 
cook was really Xala transformed by misfortune, and he 
departed thence, and when he reached Vidarbha he told 
King Bhima and his queen and Damayanti all that he had 
heard and seen. 

Then Damayanti. of her own accord, said to her father : 

'Without doubt that man is my husband disguised as a 

cook. So let this amusing artifice be employed to bring 

of our palace, and spun into cloth and dresses, which are worn by our 
Kxaltedncss. These dresses, in order to be cleansed anil washed, are cast into 

1 < >r robe. The pun is obvious. 


him here. Let a messenger be sent to King Rituparna, 
and the moment he arrives let him say to that king : 4 Nala 
has gone off somewhere or other, no tidings are heard of him ; 
The False accordingly to-morrow morning Damayanti will 
Svayamvara again make her svayamvara ; so come quickly to 
Vidarbha this very day.' And the moment the king hears 
his speech he will certainly come here in one day, together with 
that husband of mine, who is skilled in chariot- driving." 

Having thus debated with her father, Damayanti sent 
off that very moment a messenger to the city of Kosala 
with exactly this message. He went and told it, as it was 
given him, to Rituparna, and the king thereupon, being 
excited, said affectionately to his attendant Nala, who was 
disguised as a cook : " Hrasvabahu, you said : 4 1 possess 
skill in chariot-driving.' So take me this very day to 
Vidarbha if you have sufficient endurance." When Nala 
heard that, he said: "Good! I will take you there." 
And thereupon he yoked swift horses, and made ready the 
splendid chariot. He said to himself : " Damayanti has 
spread this report of a svayamvara in order to recover me, 
otherwise, I know, she would not have behaved in this way 
even in her dreams. So I will go there and see what happens. " 

With such reflections he brought to Rituparna the chariot 
ready. And as soon as the king had mounted it, Nala pro- 
ceeded to drive on that chariot with a speed exceeding even 
that of Garuda. Then Rituparna dropped his garment, 
and wished to stop the chariot in order to recover it, but 
Nala said to him : " King, where is that garment of yours ? 
Why, the chariot has in this moment left it many yqjanas 
behind." When Rituparna heard this, he said: "Well, 
give me this skill in chariot- driving, and I will give you my 
skill in dice, so that the dice shall obey your command, and 
you shall acquire skill in numbers. And now look ; I will 
give you a proof of the truth of what I say. You see this 
tree in front of us ; I will tell you the number of its leaves 
and fruits, and then do you count them for yourself and 
see." When he had said this, he told him the number of 
the leaves and fruits on that tree, and Nala counted them 
and found them exactly as many as he had said. Then 


Nala gave to Rituparna his skill in driving, and Rituparna 
gave to Nala his skill in dice and numbers. 

And Nala tested that skill on another tree, and found 
the number of leaves and fruits to be exactly what he had 
guessed. And while he was rejoicing a black man issued 
Kali leaves from his body,' and he asked him who he was. 
Xala's Body Then he said : "I am Kali ; when you were 
chosen by Damayanti, I entered your body out of jealousy, 
so you lost your fortune at play. And when Karkotaka 
bit you in the forest you were not consumed, but I was 
burnt, as you see, being in your body. For to whom is a 
treacherous injury done to another likely to be beneficial ? 
So I depart, my friend, for I have opportunities against 
others." After saying this, Kali vanished from his sight, 
and Nala at once became well disposed as before, and re- 
covered his former splendour. And he returned and re- 
mounted the chariot ; and in the course of the same day 
he drove King Rituparna into Vidarbha, so rapidly did he 
get over the ground, and there the king was ridiculed by 
the people, who asked the cause of his coming ; and he put 
up near the palace. 

And when he arrived Damayanti knew of it, having 
heard the wonderful noise of the chariot, and she inly re- 
joiced, as she suspected that Nala had come too. And she 
sent her own maid to find out the truth, and she inquired 
into it, and came back and said to her mistress, who was 
longing for her beloved lord : " Queen, I have inquired 
into the matter ; this King of Ko6ala heard a false report 
of your svayamvara and has come here, and he has been 
driven here in one day by Hrasvabahu, his charioteer and 
cook, who is famous for his skill in managing chariots. 
And I went into the kitchen and saw that cook. And he is 
black and deformed, but possesses wonderful powers. It is 
miraculous that water gushed up in his pots and pans with- 
out being put in, and wood burst into flames of its own 
accord without having been lighted, 1 and various cakes 

1 Cf. the twenty-eighth story of the first part of Sicilianische Marchen, 
Gonzenbach, "Von der Tochter der Sonne." Here Lattughina says: "Fire, 
be lighted," and immediately a clear fire burned upon the hearth. Then she 


were produced in a moment. After I had seen this great 
miracle I came back here." 

When Damayanti heard this from the maid, she reflected : 
" This cook, whom the fire and the water obey, and who 
knows the secret of chariot-driving, can be no other than 
my husband, and I suspect he has become changed and 
deformed on account of separation from me, but I will test 
him." When she had made this resolve, she sent, by way 
of stratagem, her two children with that same maid, to show 
them to him. And Nala, when he had seen his children 
and taken them on his knees, after a long separation, wept 
silently with a flood of tears. And he said to the maid: 
" I have two children like these in the house of their maternal 
grandfather. I have been moved to sorrow by recollecting 
them." The maid returned with the children and told all 
to Damayanti, and then she conceived much hope. 

And early the next day she gave her maid this order : 
" Go and tell that cook of Rituparna's from me : ' I hear 
that there is no cook like you in the world, so come and 
prepare my curry for me to-day.' " When the maid com- 
municated to Nala this politic request, he got leave from 
Rituparna and came to Damayanti. And she said : " Tell 
me the truth : are you the King Nala disguised as a cook ? 
I am drowned in a sea of anxiety, and you must to-day 
bring me safe to shore." When Nala heard that, he was 
full of joy, grief and shame, and with downcast face he 
spoke, in a voice faltering from tears, this speech suited 
to the occasion : "I am in truth that wicked Nala, hard as 
adamant, who in his madness behaved like fire in afflicting 

said: "Come along, pan," and a golden pan came and placed itself upon the 
fire ; " Come along, oil," and the oil came and poured itself into the pan. 
De Gubernatis (Zoological yiythology, vol. i, p. 158) remarks that service in 
the kitchen is especially dear to the young hero. Bhima disguises himself as 
a cook in the Virata Parvan of the Mahabharata. Pausanias tells us, Book I, 
chap, xvi : " 2<Acvk<jj yap, o? wpfidro <k Max (Soviets o~vv 'A\edv8p<p Bvovri ev Uekky 
ra Ait, to uAa ri rov fiwfiov Ketfieva irpovfirj rt avrofUiTa 7rpbs to ayaXpa, ko\ 
dvev irvpbs ij<f>dT]." 

In the " Story of Nur al-Din All and his Son," Nights (Burton, vol. i, 

p. 244), the hero is discovered by his skill in cooking. See Chauvin, op. cit., 
vi, p. 105. n.m.p. 


you." When he said this, Damayanti asked him: "If it 
is so, how did you become deformed ? " Then Nala told 
her the whole of his adventures, from his making friends 
with Karkotaka to the departure of Kali from him. And 
immediately he put on the pair of garments called the 
"fire-bleached," given him by Karkotaka, and recovered on 
the spot his own original shape. 

When Damayanti saw that Nala had resumed his own 
charming form, the lotus of her face quickly expanded, and 
she quenched, as it were, with the waters of her eyes the 
The Happy forest-fire of her grief, and attained indescribable, 
Reunion unequalled happiness. And Bhima, the King of 

Vidarbha, quickly heard that intelligence from his joyful 
attendants, and coming there he welcomed Nala, who showed 
him becoming respect, and he made his city full of rejoicing. 
Then King Rituparna was welcomed with the observance 
of all outward courtesy and every hospitable rite 1 by King 
Bhima, who in his heart could not help laughing, and after 
he had in return honoured Nala, he returned to Ko6ala. 
Then Nala lived there happily with his wife, describing to 
his father-in-law his outburst of wickedness due to the in- 
fluence of Kali. And in a few days he returned to Nishada 
with the troops of his father-in-law, and he humbled his 
younger brother Pushkara, beating him by his knowledge 
of dice, but, righteous as he was, he gave him a share of the 
kingdom again, after Dvapara had left his body, and glad 
at having recovered Damayanti, he enjoyed his kingdom 

75. Story of the Brahman Chandrasvdmin, his Son Mahipdla, 
and his Daughter Chandravati 

When the Brahman Sumanas had told this story to 
the Princess Bandhumati in Tarapura, whose husband was 
away, he went on to say to her : " Even thus, Queen, do 
great ones, after enduring separation, enjoy prosperity, and 
following the example of the sun, after suffering a decline, 
they rise again. So you also, blameless one, shall soon 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers think that somvrilti should be sadvritti. 


recover your husband returning from his absence ; use 
patient self-control, banish grief, and console yourself with 
the approaching gratification of your wishes in the return 
of your husband." When the virtuous Brahman had spoken 
these appropriate words she honoured him with much wealth, 
and taking refuge in patience, she remained there awaiting 
her beloved. And in a few days her husband Mahipala 
returned with his father, bringing that mother of his from 
a distant land. And when he returned, furnishing a feast 
to all eyes, he gladdened Bandhumati, as the full moon 
gladdens the lovely water of the ocean. Then Mahipala, 
on whom her father had already devolved the burden of the 
kingdom, enjoyed as a king desired pleasures with her. 

[M] When Prince Naravahanadatta, the son of the King 
of Vatsa, had heard in the company of his wife, from the 
mouth of his minister Marubhuti, this matchless romantic 
story, pleasing on account of its picture of affection, he was 
exceedingly pleased. 




The practice of burning the living widow with the corpse 
of the husband is stated to have been an ancient Indo- 
Germanic custom, based upon the belief that life in the 
next world is a reflex of this life, and consequently, in his 
new home, the deceased must be provided with what has 
been dear to him, or necessary to his comfort, while on earth. 

Apart from the prevalence of widow-burning in India 
(which I shall discuss at some length), there is early evidence 
of the practice both in Europe and the Far East. 

Procopius tells us (Bellum Goticwn, ii, 14 et seq.) that 
the Heruli retained many striking primitive customs, among 
which was the suicide of widows on their husbands' pyres. 
We may surmise that such immolations were of fairly fre- 
quent occurrence, for it was also a custom that when death 
seemed imminent, either through illness or old age, the men 
were stabbed by an executioner and burned on a pyre. 

Between the third and sixth centuries of our era this 
Teutonic tribe had migrated to many parts of Europe, from 
Sweden to the Black Sea, so that their customs must have 
been familiar over a wide area. 

Grimm states in his Deutsche Rechtsaltertiimer (p. 451) 
that the suicide of widows was a regular custom among the 
Scandinavians ; while Ralston, speaking of the Slavs, says : 
" The fact that in Slavonic lands, a thousand years ago, 
widows used to destroy themselves in order to accompany 
their dead husbands to the world of spirits, seems to rest on 
incontestable evidence." 2 

In the Norse versions of the Nibelung myth, which pre- 
serve more of the primitive traditions than the Nibelimgenlied, 

x O. Schrader, Prehistoric Antiquities of the. Aryan Peoples, Eng. trans., 

London, 1890, p. 391. 

2 W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, p. 327 et seq. This is 
quoted by Westermarck, The History of Human Marriage, vol. i, p. 319 et seq., 
who also mentions Dithmar of Merseburg, Chronicon, viii, 2 (Pertz, Monumenta 
Germanice historica, v, 86 1) ; and H. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 330. 


we have the account of the immolation of Brunhild. In 
the Volsungasaga, maddened by jealousy, she compasses 
the death of Sigurd, and then flings herself on his pyre, 
thereby assuring herself of a speedy reunion with him in the 
next world. (See Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. iii, p. 166.) 

In Greece we have the story of Evadne, the wife of 
Capaneus, one of the seven heroes who marched against 
Thebes. When climbing up to the walls of the city he was 
struck by a thunderbolt of Zeus, and when he was burning 
on the pyre his wife threw herself into the flames. (See 
Apollodorus, Library, iii, 6, 7 ; iii, 7, 1 ; Euripides, Sup- 
pliants, 1034 et seq. ; Zenobius, Cent, i, 30 ; Propertius, i, 
15, 21 et seq.) In some accounts of the death of Paris, his 
wife (Enone, distracted with grief at not having forgiven his 
desertion, threw herself on to his burning pyre. Herodotus 
tells us (v, 5) that among a certain polygamous Thracian 
tribe it was the custom, at the death of the husband, for 
the wives to vie with each other as to who was the most 
loved, so that she might have the honour of being slain 
(not burned) on her husband's tomb. (Cf. the account given 
by Diodorus later in this appendix.) The chosen woman was 
killed by her nearest relative, and buried with great honour 
beside her husband. Monier Williams (Indian Wisdom, 
p. 258ft 1 ) refers to Herodotus' (iv, 71) description of the 
burial of Scythian kings, where a concubine was strangled 
and placed on the pyre, together with servants and horses 
in fact, the necessities for the next life. In this custom he 
sees the possible origin of the rite of sati amongst the Hindus. 
It certainly seems quite probable that early immigrants 
brought the custom into India over the north-western passes. 
The date of its introduction must have been very early, for 
by the fourth century B.C. it was well established in the 

Suicide of widows seems also to have been known among 
the ancient Egyptians. Several bodies of women were 
found in the tomb of Amen-hetep II at Thebes, which 
proves that in the eighteenth dynasty favourite wives were 
either poisoned, strangled or allowed to commit suicide, so 
that their spirits might go to their husband in the other 
world and continue their wifely service to him. 

Such customs, however, seem to have belonged to the 
early dynasties, and it is only with bloodthirsty rulers like 
Amen-hetep II that the old customs were revived. The 


more usual practice was to bury a number of Ushabtiu or 
Shabti figures of stone, alabaster, wood, faience, etc., instead 
of living slaves, who in earlier dynasties were put in the 
tombs with their arms and legs broken at the joints. (See 
E. A. Wallis Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, 
2 vols., London, 1911, vol. i, pp. xxii, 224 and 229. On 
this latter page he cites as a modern African revival of sati 
a certain king of Oyo, Southern Nigeria, who died in 1859, 
at whose death four men were sacrificed and forty-two of 
his wives committed suicide.) 

Before speaking of the Indian sati I would draw attention 
to the prevalence of the custom in China. 

The remarriage of Chinese widows was always looked 
upon as an act of unchastity, while those who committed 
suicide at their husband's death had honorary gateways, 
known as p'ai lou or p'ai fang, erected in their honour by 
Imperial command. 1 De Groot 2 tells us that the instances 
of such suicides are so many that it would be useless to 
enumerate them in detail. The mode of death was usually 
poison often an overdose of opium but hanging, stabbing, 
starving and drowning were also employed. Owing to the 
rarity of the cremation of the dead, burning is not at all 
common, although a few cases have been recorded. 

Betrothals being considered as binding as the actual 
married state, we find many instances of suicide on the 
death of the affianced husband. 

Apart from the details to be found in De Groot 's work, 
Dr Giles tells me that Chinese scholars will find many 
interesting examples of widow- suicide in the great T'u Shu 
Chi CKeng, the Chinese Encyclopaedia 8 (of 745 volumes !). 
Section xvi, in which these examples occur (45-114), forms, 
says Dr Giles, a repertory of female biography such as no 
other nation, even at the present day, can make any pretence 
of rivalling. The sub- head, " Widows who Refuse to Marry a 
Second Time," with its 210 chiian, is in itself the equivalent 
of a voluminous work, being only exceeded in length by 
"Medicine," in section xvii. 

In Bali, an island in the East Indies, where Hinduism 
remains the accepted creed, the custom of widow-burning 
is still occasionally practised. At the death of a king all 

1 See E. T. C. Werner, China of the Chinese, 1919, pp. 42, 43. 

2 Religious System of China, vol. ii, p. 733 et seq. 

3 See L. Giles' Alphabetical Index to the Chinese Encyclopaedia, 1911. 


his wives and concubines were burned, amounting sometimes 
to over a hundred. (See J. Crawfurd, History of the Indian 
Archipelago, 1820, and Friederich, Verhandelingen van het 
Batav. Genootschap, xxiii, 10.) 

In some instances the customs were less exacting. Thus 
among certain American Indian tribes the practice of burn- 
ing the widow has been mitigated into a rule that she must 
lie beside her husband's corpse on the pyre till she is nearly 
suffocated, when she is allowed to withdraw. See Morse, 
Report on Indian Affairs, p. 339 et seq. He is quoted by 
Frazer (Pausanias, vol. iii, p. 200), who adds several other 
useful references. See also Westermarck, op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 320. 

Having thus briefly glanced at the evidence of widow- 
burning in places other than India, we will now consider the 
practice in India itself. 

It is known by the name of suttee, or, more correctly, sail. 
The Sanskrit word sail is a feminine noun meaning "good," 
" devout," " true," and consequently it denotes a person and 
not a practice. The application of the substantive to the 
act instead of to the person is European. 

Although the antiquity of sati cannot be denied, and is 
probably a relic of prehistoric barbarism preserved in 
aristocratic Kshatriya families, 1 it is, at first sight, a curious 
fact that the Rig- Veda is innocent of the practice. Further, 
it is not acknowledged in the Sutras or even alluded to in 
Manu. It is practically absent from the Rdmdyana and 
receives but little approbation in the Mahdbhdrata. Thus 
it was not a Brahmanic rite at all, and was only sanctioned 
in later days because it could not be suppressed. 

In order to understand how sati gradually became 
established in Hindu ritual it is necessary to remember 
exactly what the status of the widow was, and how 
dependent upon the priests the people were for the exact 
interpretation of the Vedas. 

From the earliest times the lot of the widow was miser- 
able and humiliating in the extreme. Although the laws were 
often contradictory, remarriage was generally not counte- 
nanced, and in most cases meant social ruin. On the death 
of her husband the widow passed under the protection of 
her sons, if adult ; otherwise she was dependent on her 

1 L. D. Barnett, Antiquities of India, p. 1 1 <). 


husband's nearest relatives. Her place in the household 
now became of the lowest. She had to lead a life of the 
greatest austerity. All her jewellery was removed, her head 
was shaved, she had but one meal a day, she was forced to 
sleep on a single mat, and was excluded from all festivities, 
family gatherings, etc. Her touch, in fact her very shadow, 
was contaminating. 

Nor is her lot less hard to-day. Her unhappy fate has 
been described recently by a lady whose researches have 
been carried on in a part of India where Brahman traditions 
have been most closely preserved. 

On the day of her bereavement the widow dons an old 
sari and sits alone in a corner of the room without taking 
any food. Here she sits for a whole year, eating very little, 
and only going out at twilight to answer the calls of nature. 
Her head is shaven and she is given the terrible name 
Randiranda (one who has been a prostitute), which testifies 
that she is now penalised for the sins of a previous life. On 
the thirteenth day after the death the widow's own mother 
brings her a sari, the four corners of which are dipped in 
water used during the sraddha ceremony (see Vol. I, p. 56U 1 ). 
She now leaves her corner and is invested in the sari by 
another widow. It is known as the pota sari, and is so un- 
lucky that none of her husband's relatives will even let the 
hem of the garment touch them. This has to be worn for 
a year. The family honour does not permit the widow to 
look happy, healthy or properly fed ; accordingly all the 
hard work is allotted to her, as little food as possible is given 
to her, while her fasts have to be often and rigid. If by 
this time she is really starving, her mother can take her 
away to her own house. If she has no mother her one 
chance of preservation is gone. A terrible fact is that the 
younger, and therefore the more unprotected and helpless, 
the widow is, the more it proves how vile her sin (in a previous 
life) must have been. Accordingly the fate of a widow of 
six or seven years old is better imagined than described. 

After wearing the pota sari for a year it is exchanged 
for a black one, which is worn until her death. All her 
clothes are black ; she carries bad luck with her wherever 
she goes, and even her friends will turn back if they meet 
her in the road. 

The widow's only chances of a tolerable existence are 

1 Mrs Sinclair Stevenson, The Rites of the Twice-Born, 1920, pp. 204-208. 


either that her age may be such that she can retain her 
senior position in the house, or else that her mother- in- law- 
has a kindly nature which ameliorates her unhappy lot. 

When making her numerous inquiries into the ques- 
tion of the lot of widows, Mrs Stevenson was answered 
more than once by the terrible saying : " Paraffin is 

We English," she concludes, " believe satl to be extinct ; 
reformers in certain districts of India will tell us differently. 
They know that there are easy methods of getting rid of 
an unwanted widow : simply to turn her out of house and 
home ; to push her down a well ; to give her poison ; to take 
her on a pilgrimage and either lose her or sell her ; or to set 
fire to her and burn her to death. 

"It is quite simple to soak a heavy wadded quilt in 
paraffin, to tie a young widow up in it, pour more oil over 
her, set fire to it and lock her up in a room. Then the 
neighbours can be told that she either accidentally caught 
fire when cooking, or, like a faithful wife, herself committed 
satl ; and only God, c the Judge of the fatherless and the 
widow,' knows on which side the door of that hellish room 
was locked. * Paraffin is cheap ' and the family honour has 
been saved." 

We are now in a better position to understand the horror 
with which the Indian woman must have looked upon the pos- 
sibility of becoming a widow, and terrible as satl was, we can 
well imagine many of them preferring to face the flames and 
so end their life in honour, than drag out a dreary existence 
in misery and humiliation. 

Apart from this, however, there were several inducements 
offered, which would doubtless appeal to the Hindu satl. 
She was promised as many years in Svarga as there are 
hairs on the human head i.e. thirty-five million. In 
addition to this, the act purified all members of both her 
own and her husband's family, even from the guilt of 
killing a Brahman. Finally, a white pillar, or memorial 
stone, would mark the place of her sacrifice and her spirit 
would be venerated. 

The satl stones, known as maha-satl-kal in the South, 
are generally sculptured with a pointed pillar or post, from 
which projects a woman's right arm, bent upwards at the 
elbow. The hand is raised, with fingers erect, and a lime- 
fruit is held between the thumb and forefinger. This is 


what is alluded to in the old inscriptions, where women 
are said to " have given arm and hand." Some of these 
memorials are accompanied with elaborate inscriptions. 

For further details and photographs of sati- stones see 
A. H. Longhurst, Hampi Ruins, Madras, 1917, pp. 36-39, 
from which the above is taken. 

As was only natural, the early Greek invaders of Northern 
India were struck with the curious practice of sati, and it 
is from them that we get our first accounts of the rite. 
Onesicritus spoke of it as specially a custom of the Kshatriyas 
(Cathaeans) (Strabo, xv, c. 700). 

A good account is given by E. R. Bevan in the Cambridge 
History of India, p. 415, of a sati which occurred at the 
time of Eumenes (316 B.C.). The leader of an Indian con- 
tingent which had gone to fight under Eumenes was killed 
in battle. He had with him his two wives. There was 
immediately a competition between them as to which was 
to be the sati. The question was brought before the Mace- 
donian and Greek generals, and they decided in favour of 
the younger, the elder being with child. At this the elder 
woman went away lamenting, with the band about her 
head rent, and tearing her hair, as if tidings of some great 
disaster had been brought her ; and the other departed, 
exultant at her victory, to the pyre, crowned with fillets by 
the women who belonged to her, and decked out splendidly 
as for a wedding. She was escorted by her kinsfolk, who 
chanted a song in praise of her virtue. When she came 
near to the pyre, she took off her adornments and distributed 
them to her familiars and friends, leaving a memorial of 
herself, as it were, to those who had loved her. Her adorn- 
ments consisted of a multitude of rings on her hands, set 
with precious gems of diverse colours, about her head golden 
stars not a few, variegated with different sorts of stones, 
and about her neck a multitude of necklaces, each a little 
longer than the one above it. In conclusion, she said fare- 
well to her familiars and was helped by her brother on to 
the pyre, and there, to the admiration of the crowd which 
had gathered together for the spectacle, she ended her life in 
heroic fashion. Before the pyre was kindled the whole army 
in battle array marched round it thrice. She meanwhile lay 
down beside her husband, and as the fire seized her no sound 
of weakness escaped her lips. The spectators were moved, 
some to pity and some to exuberant praise. But some of 


the Greeks present found fault with such customs as savage 
and inhumane. (Quoted from Diod., xix, 34.) 

The Greeks, we find, had a theory to account for the 
custom, whether of their own invention or suggested to 
them by Indian informants we cannot say. The theory 
was that once upon a tirne wives had been so apt to get 
rid of their husbands by poison that the law had to be intro- 
duced which compelled a widow to be burnt with her dead 

The question naturally arises as to how such a cruel 
custom, not enjoined by the Vedas, was adopted by Hindus 
in so many parts of India. It has been suggested that it 
is perhaps the extension of a royal custom, mentioned in 
the Epics, which gradually made the rule general, until 
later law and practice recommended sail for all. 

With the passing centuries it acquired the sanctity of a 
religious rite, and no one thought of challenging its authority. 
By this time the priests themselves knew little of the ancient 
Vedic texts, and the people, dependent on the priests for 
their religious knowledge, knew still less. Moreover, it 
does not seem to have been a practice which the priesthood 
would readily let drop, for there is ample evidence to show 
that certain of their members, at any rate, derived con- 
siderable benefit from the widow's immolation in both goods 
and property. 

It appears that occasionally the direct authority for 
sail in the Vedas was questioned, and accordingly the 
Brahman priests quoted a certain passage from the Rig- 
Veda, which, it was said, clearly enjoined the practice. 
Whether this passage was merely wrongly quoted on pur- 
pose, or actually forged and produced as evidence, is not at 
all clear. Scholars x have endeavoured to prove that such a 
forgery was perpetrated in the middle of the fifteenth century 
by one Raghunandana. The passage in question taken from 
the Rig-Veda text (x, 18, 7) is as follows : 

" Anasravo 'namivah su-ratnd a rohantu janayo yonim 

(" Without tears, without sorrow, bedecked with jewels, 
let wives go up to the altar first.") 

1 Sec H. H. Wilson, Joum. Roy. As. Soc., vol. xvi, 1828, p. 201 etseq.- y 
and Fitzedward Hall, ditto, vol. iii, N.S., 1867, p. 188 et seq. 


The word agre = " first " was altered to agneh = " fire," 
and hence the required authority was established. 

The corresponding passage in the Atharva-V eda 
(XVIII, iii, 1) definitely condemns sati and could not be 
altered so easily. 

According to the translation by W. D. Whitney, it reads : 

" Get up, O Woman, to the world of the living ; thou 
liest by this one who is deceased ; come ! to him who grasps 
thy hand, thy second spouse, thou hast now entered into the 
relation of wife to husband." 

Sati was not accepted throughout the whole of India 
by any means. It was strongest in Bengal, along the Ganges 
valley and in Rajputana. It was rare in the Panjab, and 
forbidden in Malabar. 

Many attempts were made to suppress the custom, but 
with little success. In the sixteenth century the Sikh Guru 
Amar Das (1552-1574) condemned the practice, saying : 
' They are not satis who burn themselves with the dead. 
The true sati is she who dieth from the shock of separation 
from her husband. They also ought to be considered satis 
who abide in chastity and contentment, who serve, and, 
when rising, ever remember their lord." 

Akbar also tried to suppress it, but only managed to 
declare the act voluntary. After capturing Goa one of the 
first acts of Albuquerque was to abolish sati (1510). It 
was not until the end of the eighteenth century that the 
British began to turn their attention to the subject. The 
question was first taken up by Sir C. Malet and Jonathan 
Duncan in Bombay, but little was done, as the Government 
refrained from interfering with such a time-honoured custom 
of the people. Even such authorities as Colebrooke and 
Wilson gave their opinion against any interference. This 
attitude, however, did more harm than good, and the number 
of satis increased. In 1817 the number of widows burned 
in Bengal alone was over seven hundred. In 1827 Lord 
William Bentinck became Governor- General of India, and 
one of his first reforms was to make sati illegal. He carried 
the regulation in Council on 4th December 1829, by which 
all who abetted sati were declared guilty of " culpable 
homicide." To the surprise of many people the action caused 
scarcely any discontent or remonstrance. 

In the native states, however, matters did not improve, 


and in the Oxford History of India, p. 689n a , V. A. Smith 
says that among the Sikhs in the Panjab the sail murders 
were atrocious. Four ladies were burned with Ranjit 
Singh ; one, against her will, with Kharak Singh ; two with 
Nao Nihal Singh ; 310 (10 wives and 300 unmarried ladies 
of his zenana) were sacrificed at the obsequies of Raja Suchet 
Singh ; in September 1845" four wives of Jawahir Singh were 
forced on the pyre by the soldiery ; and, after Sobraon, the 
widow of Sardar Shan Singh burnt voluntarily. Sir Lepel 
Griffin in 1898 described that as being the last case in the 

Although satis in the present century are rare, several 
cases have occurred. One, for example, was carried out in 
1904 in Behar, another in a small village in the Panjab in 
1905, and two in 1906 at Cawnpore and Calcutta. 

Turning now to actual descriptions of satis, the one 
which has the greatest interest for us is undoubtedly that 
of Queen Suryavati, who, in a.d. 1081, threw herself on the 
pyre of her husband Ananta. 

In my Introduction to Vol. I (p. xxxii) I referred to this 
sati of our author's patroness and to Ananta 's suicide 
through despair at the evil doings of his son Kalasa. 

In Kalhana's Rdjatarangini, or Chronicle of the Kings 
of Kasmir, is the following account of the queen's (her 
name is spelt Suryamati) sati (Stein's translation, 1900, vol. i, 
pp. 305-307) : 

Then she stood up, and as a Sati herself taking the 
stick, performed the office of doorkeeper for her husband 
while she had him adorned for the last [rites]. 

She first ordered a hundred mounted soldiers to watch 
there over her grandson ; then she sent forth her husband 
placed on a litter. 

Having thus passed one night and half-a-day, this devoted 
wife paid her reverence to [Siva] Vijayesdna (Vijaye^a) and 
proceeded outside seated in a litter. 

When the people saw those two going forth, the horizon 
was rent, as it were, by their tumultuous lamentations, 
which mixed with the vibrating sounds of the funeral 

The moving [images of the] people reflected in the orna- 
ments of the hearse, which was decorated with flags, made 


it appear as if they were close to the king and striving to 
follow him. 

Waving in the wind, the locks of the princes who had 
put their shoulders under the hearse appeared like splendid 
Chowries [held] over the king, who was placed in it. 

Viewing the last service of the troops, the queen reached 
the burning-ground as the day was sinking. 

Whether from maternal affection, which is hard to 
abandon, or for some other reason, she longed at that moment 
to see her son. 

Thinking that the dust which the wind had tossed up 
was raised by an armed force, she looked out, trembling with 
agitation, in the hope of Kalasa's coming. 

At that moment some people arrived by the road from 
the city (Srinagar). These she herself asked : " Well, has 
Kalasa come ? " 

But the son, who had wished to come to his mother, was 
kept back that time by the fomenters of the quarrel, who 
frightened him in various ways. 

After this the queen abandoned the hope of seeing her 
son, and asking for water from the Vitastd, recited the 
following verse : 

" But those who die with Vitastd water in their body, 
obtain for certain final deliverance, just like those who 
proclaim sacred learning." 

When she had drunk the water brought to her, and had 
sprinkled it [over parts of her body], she thus cursed those 
who had destroyed affection [between parents and son] by 
their calumnies : 

" May those who have caused the fatal enmity between 
us two and our son quickly be destroyed, together with their 
descendants ! " 

Through this unfailing curse of the afflicted [queen] 
Jayananda, Jinduraja and others found an early death. 

In order to put a stop to the slanderous rumours which 
had grown up with regard to Haladhara's position as her 
confidant, she, the Sati, took an oath in proper form, pledging 
[her happiness in a] future life. 

Having thus attested the purity of her moral character, she 
leaped with a bright smile from the litter into the flaming fire. 

The sky became encircled [and reddened] with sheets of 
flames, just as if the gods, in order to celebrate her arrival, 
had covered [it] with minium. 


The people did not notice the crackling of the fire owing 
to their lamentations, nor its heat owing to their hot grief. 
It thus appeared to them as if it were merely painted in a 

Gangadhara, Takkibuddha and the litter-carrier Dandaka, 
and of the female servants. Udda, Nonika and Valga, followed 

Senata and Kshemata, of the families of Bappata and 
Udbhata, who had been the king's favourites, renounced 
the world [and stopped as mendicants] at VijayesVara. 

The beings here do not last long, being fragile, as they 
are [mere] mechanical contrivances. The mind and the 
glass bottle have [both however] this one lasting quality, 
that the astonishing tale and the divine Ganga- water which 
are preserved in them [respectively] do not escape, nor 
become stale nor decrease. 

Before leaving Kashmir I would like to refer to a double 
sail which took place in a.d. 1111. King Uchchala had been 
treacherously murdered by conspirators just as he was on 
his way to the apartments of Bijjala, his favourite wife. 

Immediately after the murder, Radda, the chief con- 
spirator, seized the throne, but he occupied it only during 
the night of the murder and the following morning, for 
Gargachandra, one of Uchchala 's favourite ministers, killed 
him, together with the other conspirators. 

Now besides Bijjala the late king had a wife of low 
birth named Jayamati, and when affairs had reached this 
crisis she thought she would probably be expected to become 
a sat% so, being eager to live, she said coaxingly to Garga- 
chandra : "Brother, make an arrangement with me." He, 
however, took the words to be merely conventional, and 
began to prepare her funeral pyre. 

In the eighth book, 365-371, the Raj alar afiginl (Stein, 
vol. ii, p. 31) describes the efforts made by Bijjala to throw 
herself on the pyre first, and the disgraceful behaviour of 
the pilferers. The author first marvels at the mentality of 
these satis. 

Nobody can understand these women of unscrutable 
mind, in whose heart there is found, as it were, combined 
the waviness of their ample locks, the excessive unsteadiness 
of their eyes and the firmness of their round breasts. 

Though given to unfaithfulness and killing their husbands, 


yet they step with ease into the fire. In no manner can one 
be sure of women. 

While she, proceeding in a litter, was delaying on the 
road, Bijjala got in front of her and entered the pyre. 

Then as she ( JayamatI) was ascending the pyre her limbs 
were hurt by the pilferers who robbed her in eager desire of 
her ornaments. 

When the people saw the two queens being consumed by 
the flames, together with their Chowries and parasols, they, 
too, all raised lamentations, and their eyes were as if burning 
with pain. 

He (Gargachandra) then displayed his noble character 
in full purity, when, though requested by all, he did not seat 
himself on the throne. 

He looked out eagerly for certain persons in whose arms 
he wished to place King Uchchala's infant son, in order to 
have him consecrated as king. 

In Southern India the rites of sail seem to have reached 
their height of development during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries in the kingdom of Vijayanagar. Inter- 
esting accounts are given by Fernao Nuniz and Duarte 
Barbosa. That of Nuniz appears in Sewell's A Forgotten 
Empire, pp. 391-393, and gives a really graphic description 
of the rite : 

The women have the custom of burning themselves 
when their husbands die, and hold it an honour to do so. 
When, therefore, their husbands die, they mourn with their 
relations and those of their husbands, but they hold that 
the wife who weeps beyond measure has no desire to go in 
search of her husband ; and, the mourning finished, their 
relations speak to them, advising them to burn themselves 
and not to dishonour their generation. After that, it is 
said, they place the dead man on a bed with a canopy of 
branches and covered with flowers, and they put the woman 
on the back of a worthless horse, and she goes after them 
with many jewels on her, and covered with roses ; she 
carries a mirror in her hand and in the other a branch of 
flowers, and (she goes accompanied by) many kinds of music, 
and his relations (go with her) with much pleasure. A man 



goes also playing on a small drum and lie sings songs to her 
tilling Ikt that she is going to join Iut liusbnnd, and she 
answers also in singing that so she will do. As soon as she 
arrives at the place where they are always burned, she waits 
with the musicians till her husband is burned, whose body 
they place in a very large pit that has been made ready for 
it. covered with much firewood. I More they light the fire 
his mother or nearest relative takes a vessel of water on the 
head and a firebrand in the hand, and goes three times 
round the pit, and at each round makes a hole in the pot; 
and when these three rounds are done, breaks the pot, which 
is small, and throws the torch into the pit. Then they 
apo!y the lire, and when the bodv is burned comes the wife 
with ail the fcasters and washes her feet, and then a Brahman 
performs over her certain ceremonies according to their law : 
and when he has finished doing this she draws off with her 
own hand all the jewels that she wears, and divides them 
among her female relatives, and if she has sons she commends 
t!i<::i to her most honoured relatives. When they have 
taken off all she has on. even her good clothes, they put 
on her some yellow cloths, and her relatives take her hand 
anl she tikes a branch in the other, and goes singing and 
running to the pit where the lire is. and then mounts on some 
steps which are made high up by the pit. Before they do 
this they go up three times round the fire, and then she 
mounts the steps and holds in front of her a mat that prevents 
her from seeing the lire. They throw into the lire a cloth 
containing rice, and another in which they carry betel- 
leaves, and her comb and mirror with which she adorned 
1 1 rself, saying that all these arc needed to adorn herself by 
Ikt husband's side. Finally she takes leave of all, and puts 
a pot of oil on her head, and casts herself into the lire with 
such courage that it is a tiling of wonder : and as soon as she 
throws herself in. the relatives are ready with firewood and 
quickly cover her with it. and after this is done they all 
raise loud lamentations. When a captain dies, however 
many wives he has. they all burn themselves, and when the 
Kiiiii dies thev do the same. 

The spot where these cremations took place was probably 
at Ximbapurain. close to Talarigattu. where there is a large 
cinder mound covered over with rank vegetation and trees 
of considerable age. (Sec A. II. Longhurst, Ilampi Ruins, 
Madras. 1!17. p. H.) 


Barbosa's account affords an interesting comparison 
with that given above. The following details are taken 
from M. Longworth Dames' translation, Hakluyt Society, 
1918, vol. i, p. 213 et seq. : 

A great pit is dug in the burning- ground, in which a pile 
of wood burns. When the husband's body has been laid 
therein, and begins to burn, the widow, if poor and of low 
estate, throws herself into the midst of the fire. 

With a woman of high rank, the rites are much more 
costly and elaborate. 

After her husband's body has been burned, she enter- 
tains her friends and relations in as lavish a manner as 
possible. She then attires herself in her finest clothes and, 
wearing all her jewels, is led on a horse (white, if possible) 
through the whole city with great rejoicings, until the part}' 
arrives back at the spot where the husband has been burnt. 
They now cast a great quantity of wood into the pit itself 
and on its edge make a great fire. When it has burned up 
somewhat they erect a wooden scaffold with four or five 
steps, where they take her up just as she is. When she is 
on the top she turns herself round thereon three times, 
worshipping towards the direction of sunrise, and, this done, 
she calls her sons, kindred and friends, and to each she gives 
a jewel, whereof she has many with her, and in the same way 
every piece of her clothing until nothing is left except a 
small piece of cloth with which she is clothed from the waist 
down. All this she does and says so firmly, and with such 
a cheerful countenance, that she seems not about to die. 
Then she tells the men who are with her on the scaffold to 
consider what they owe to their wives, who, being free to 
act, yet burn themselves alive for the love of them, and the 
women she tells to see how much they owe to their husbands, 
to such a degree as to go with them even to death. Then 
she ceases speaking, and they place in her hands a pitcher 
full of oil, and she puts it on her head, and with it she again 
turns round thrice on the scaffold and again worships to- 
wards the rising sun. Then she casts the pitcher of oil into 
the fire and throws herself after it with as much goodwill 
as if she were throwing herself on a little cotton, from which 
she could receive no hurt. The kinsfolk all take part at 
once and cast into the fire many pitchers of oil and butter, 
which they hold ready for this purpose, and much wood on 
this, and therewith bursts out such a flame that no more 


can be seen. The ashes that remain after these ceremonies 
are thrown into running streams. 

In the case of the death of a king, Barbosa tells us that 
four or five hundred women burn themselves with him, as 
well as many men " who are his intimates." In a note on 
the passage Dames says that there is abundant testimony 
as to the number of satis at the death of a king of Vijaya- 
nagar. Nicolo Conti was told that the king had 12,000 wives, 
of whom 2000 or 3000 were chosen only on condition that 
at his death they should voluntarily burn themselves with 

Dames states in a note on page 213 that other interesting 
descriptions of satis in other parts of India are given by 
Mandelslo, Peter Mundy and Thomas Bowrey. In the case 
of Mandelslo the woman gave him one of her bracelets, no 
doubt in making a distribution of her jewels such as is 
described by Barbosa (Travels, English translation by John 
Davies, 1669, p. 32). In the same way Thomas Bowrey 
was given by the widow some flowers from her hair (Countries 
round the Bay of Bengal, edited by Sir R. Temple, Hakluyt 
Society, London, 1903, p. 38). His description refers to 
Careda, between Madras and Machhlipatam, in the year 
1672, while Mandelslo's refers to Kambayat. It is evident, 
therefore, that this custom was widely diffused. 

Peter Mundy 's account (Travels, edited by Sir R. C. 
Temple, Hakluyt Society, vol. ii, 1914, pp. 34-36) refers 
to a satl at Surat of a Banya's widow in 1630, of which he 
has left his own sketch. In none of these cases is there 
anything to show that the cremation took place, as at Vijaya- 
nagar, in a deep pit into which the widow threw herself 
either while her husband's body was burning, or, in the case 
of persons of high rank, afterwards, with a procession on 
horseback, and great ceremonies. The custom of performing 
the cremation in a pit, as described by Barbosa and Nuniz, 
was evidently common in Southern India. Tavernier alludes 
to it in the seventeenth century as prevailing on the coast 
of Coromandel. His account, though short, shows that the 
ceremony was identical with that described in the text 
( Tavernier 's Travels, English edition, 1678, Part II, bk. iii, 
p. 171). 

In general the cremation seems to have taken place on 
a pyre, and not in a pit, and such is the usage in cremations 
at the present day in Northern India. In Western India 


W. Crooke says (Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern 
India, vol. i, p. 188) a grass hut was erected in which the 
widow sat holding her husband's head in her lap, supporting 
it with her right hand and holding in her left a torch with 
which she kindled the hut. Such a sail is that described 
by Peter Mundy, and the hut or " cottage," as he calls it, 
is shown in the background of his sketch. See also Dellen's 
description of a sail in his Voyage to the East Indies, London, 
1698, pp. 48-50, which closely resembles Mundy 's account. 

In more modern days, although satis have been fairly 
numerous, the prescribed rites followed at such immolations 
differ but little in detail from what has already been said. 

In 1829, the very year in which satl was finally prohibited, 
Sir William Sleeman, in his Rambles and Recollections, de- 
scribes the amazing persistency which a certain old woman 
at Jubbulpore showed in her desire to ascend the pyre of 
her husband. Sir William did all he could to prevent it, 
and actually succeeded in delaying it for five days, but the 
miseries of the woman seemed so genuine that at last he 
let her have her way. 

"Satisfied myself," he writes, "that it would be un- 
availing to attempt to save her life, I sent for all the principal 
members of the family, and consented that she should be 
suffered to burn herself if they would enter into engagements 
that no other member of their family should ever do the 
same. This they all agreed to, and the papers having been 
drawn out in due form about midday, I sent down notice 
to the old lady, who seemed extremely pleased and thankful. 
The ceremonies of bathing were gone through before three, 
while the wood and other combustible materials for a strong 
fire were collected and put into the pit. After bathing she 
called for a pan (betel-leaf) and ate it, then rose up, and 
with one arm on the shoulder of her eldest son, and the 
other on that of her nephew, approached the fire. As she 
rose up fire was set to the pile, and it was instantly in a blaze. 
The distance was about one hundred and fifty yards ; she 
came on with a calm and cheerful countenance, stopped 
once, and casting her eyes upwards, said : ' Why have they 
kept me five days from thee, my husband ? ' On coming 
to the sentries her supports stopped, she walked round the 
pit, paused a moment, and while muttering a prayer threw 
some flowers into the fire. She then walked deliberately 


and steadily to the brink, stepped into the centre of the 
flame, sat down, and leaning back in the midst as if reposing 
upon a couch, was consumed without uttering a shriek or 
betraying one sign of agony." 

Fuller details will be found in Russell, Tribes and Castes 
of the Central Provinces, vol. ii, pp. 369-374. 

Further descriptions would be superfluous, but the few 
following references might be added to those already given 
in the course of this appendix : 

H. A. Rose, A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the 
Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Lahore, 1919, 
vol. i, pp. 200-201, 404 ; Indian Notes and Queries, vol. iv, 
p. 153 ; North Indian Notes and Queries, vol. ii, p. 726 ; 
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. ii, 1909, pp. 218, 498 ; 
Government of Madras Legislative Department, The Madras 
Sail Regulation (Madras Regulation No. 1 of 1830) (as 
modified up to October 1909), Madras, 1909 ; Henry Jeffreys 
Bushby, Widow- Burning, London, 1855 ; A. K. Coomar- 
aswamy, Sati : a Vindication of the Hindu Woman (a paper 
read before the Sociological Society, London, 12th November 
1912) ; G. T. Vigne, " Widow-Burning," Travels in Kashmir, 
2 vols., 1842, vol. i, pp. 82-94 ; " Suttee " in Yule and 
Burnell, Hobson Jobson : J. C. Oman, Brdhmans, Theists 
and Muslims of India, 1907, p. 191 et seq. 





On page 236 we saw that in order to console the unhappy 
Queen Bandhumati, and hearten her in her search for her 
husband, the Brahman Sumanas related the story of Nala 
and Damayantl. This tale, beautiful in its simplicity, its 
tender pathos and in its high tone of morality, is taken from 
the Mahdbhdrata (I, liii et seq.). 

There is, however, ample evidence in the tale itself to 
show that it dates back long before the Epic period, and can 
be assigned, with but little doubt, to Vedic days. 

As told by Somadeva it still retains its simple form, 
but has been abbreviated in many places. Some of these 
omitted portions are of considerable interest and beauty, 
and their absence is a distinct loss. I shall therefore give 
several passages later in this appendix. 

We will first consider the story as it appears in the 
Mahdbhdrata. It is called the Nalopdkhydna, or " Episode 
of Nala," and occupies sections 53-79 of the Vana Parva 
i.e. " Forest " Book. Yudhishthira has gambled away his 
kingdom, wife, and all his possessions. A further loss forces 
him to become an exile for twelve years, together with his 
wife and brothers. It is during this exile in the forest (vana) 
that the story of Nala is told. 

There are several points to be noticed in assigning it 
to a much earlier period than that of the work in which 
it appears. It forms no part of the main plot of the 
Mahdbhdrata and is inserted in exactly the same way as 
the Rig-Veda stories (e.g. Urvasl and Pururavas) are intro- 
duced by Somadeva. The language and textual forms 
agree much more with those employed in the Vedas than 
in the Epics. But perhaps the most important point is 
that all the gods mentioned are Vedic Indra, Agni, 
Varuna and Yama. There is no mention of Siva or Vishnu. 
In most cases these post- Vedic deities would have been 
substituted for the old ones, or else would have been 
added in addition. But in the case of such a popular story 


as Nala the transforming hand of the editor has been 

Somadeva, however, being a poet at a court where Saiva 
Hinduism was at its height, felt constrained to introduce 
the chief deity of his work, and so the love of Nala and 
Damayanti is said to be " greater than that of Siva and 
Parvati " (see p. 241). 

The following brief outline of the story as originally 
told in the Mahdbhdrata will show where Somadeva has 
made his alterations. The beginning is similar to our 
version, except that the swan appears to Nala first and not 
to Damayanti. It is Bhima himself who determines to 
celebrate his daughter's svayamvara. The gods who procure 
Nala's aid are only four Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama 
and Nala is merely told to announce their arrival and the 
fact that they are attending the svayamvara. Nala's inter- 
view with Damayanti is of considerable length. At the 
ceremony Damayanti sees only five Nalas, not six. 

The couple live twelve years in perfect happiness, until 
Kali has a chance of entering Nala's body. He does it, 
however, not when Nala is in a state of drunkenness, but 
when at last he has noticed some trifling neglect in a portion 
of his daily ablutions. 

When inviting his brother to play, Pushkara says : 
" Divyava vrisheiia" ("Let us play with the vrisha") i.e. 
with the principal dice known as the "bull." Somadeva has 
misunderstood the sense of vrisha and makes the brothers 
play for a bull as a stake (see p. 242). 

On being driven with his hapless wife into the forest 
Nala sees some " birds around him settling with their golden- 
tinctured wings " and vainly tries to catch them with his only 
garment. When the birds (not necessarily, or even likely, 
swans) are flying away with it they say : 

" Lo, we are the dice, to spoil thee thus descended, foolish king ! 
While thou hadst a single garment all our joy was incomplete." 

Broken-hearted, Nala returns to Damayanti, and it is 
because of his complete nakedness that he cuts off half of 
his wife's garment before deserting her while she is asleep. 

Vivid descriptions of the tropical forest are given, and 
the distracted appeals to animals and vegetation resemble 
those we read of as employed by Pururavas in his search for 


UrvasI (see Vol. II, pp. 258, 259). Damayanti's adventures 
are many and varied. In her imagination she comes to a 
hermitage where her speedy reunion with Nala is foretold. 
Later on she joins a band of merchants, but, owing to her in- 
herent bad luck, they are nearly all killed by a sudden attack 
of infuriated wild elephants. 

In the meantime Nala, transformed into a dwarf, has 
reached the Court of King Rituparna, and takes service as 
cook under the name of Bahuka. 

It is at this point that King Bhima sends out trustworthy 
men in all directions to look for his daughter. The minister's 
name is Sudeva. 

The accounts of how Damayanti is recognised by her 
auspicious mole, the prowess of the mysterious dwarf 
charioteer, the methods employed to discover Nala, and 
their final reunion are all told in greater detail than in the 
version of Somadeva. 

Before giving extracts from the more important of the 
omitted portions I would enumerate the other occurrences 
of the story of Nala in Sanskrit literature. 

There are two celebrated poems dealing with Nala's 
adventures. The first is called Nalodaya, the authorship 
of which is uncertain. For a long time it was considered 
to be the work of Kalidasa, but recent research shows the 
author to have been the Keraja poet called Vasudeva, who 
lived in the first half of the ninth century a.d. (A. S. Rama- 
natha Ayyar, "The Authorship of the Nalodaya," Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc, April 1925, pp. 263-275). The second is the 
Naishadha, by Sriharsha. The Nalodaya, or " Rise of 
Nala," deals in four cantos with Nala's restoration to power 
after his reunion with Damayanti. From our point of 
view it is of no value, being merely compiled to exhibit 
the author's amazing use of varied and artificial metres, 
endless puns and tricks of style and rhyming. Sriharsha 's 
Naishadha is also a " trick " production. Although punning 
is common, its chief characteristic is the consistent use of 
metaphors and long compound words, some running into 
two or three lines of ordinary printing. He has turned the 
simple style of the original into twenty-two cantos of the 
most elaborate Kavya (artificial poetry) style. The date 
of Sriharsha 's work is about the latter half of the twelfth 


Nala is also the subject of what Monier Williams describes 
as a very curious composition, half prose, half verse, called 
Nala-cham'pUy by an author named Trivikrama. Finally there 
is the Tamil Nala-Rdja and a Telugu poem by Raghava, 
written about a.d. 1650. They are both independent com- 
positions and not translations from the Sanskrit. 

I now proceed to the extracts from the Mahdbhdrata. 
The translation followed is that by H. H. Milman in Monier 
Williams' edition of 1860. 

Nala is torn between the power of Kali within him and 
his own nature. Finally Kali is successful and DamayantI 
deserted : 

Long within his heart he pondered, and again, again weighed 

Best he thought it DamayantI to desert, that wretched king. 
From her virtue none dare harm her in the lonely forest way, 
Her the fortunate, the noble, my devoted wedded wife. 
Thus his mind on DamayantI dwelt in its perverted thought, 
Wrought by Kali's evil influence to desert his lovely wife. 
Of himself without a garment, and of her with only one, 
As he thought, approached he near her to divide that single 

" How shall I divide the garment by my loved one unper- 

ceived ? " 
Pondering this within his spirit round the cabin Nala went ; 
In that narrow cabin's circuit Nala wandered here and there, 
Till he found without a scabbard, shining, a well-tempered 

Then when half that only garment he had severed, and put on, 
In her sleep Vidarbha's princess with bewildered mind he 

Yet, his cruel heart relenting, to the cabin turns he back ; 
On the slumbering DamayantI gazing, sadly wept the king ; 
Thou, that sun nor wind hath ever roughly visited, my love ! 
On the hard earth in a cabin sleepest with thy guardian gone. 
Thus attired in half a garment she that aye so sweetly smiled, 
Like to one distracted, beauteous, how at length will she 

awake ? 
How will't fare with Bhima's daughter, lone, abandoned by 

her lord, 


Wandering in the savage forest, where wild beasts and 

serpents dwell ? 
May the suns and winds of heaven, may the genii of the 

Noblest, may they all protect thee, thine own virtue thy 

best guard. 
To his wife of peerless beauty on the earth, 'twas thus he spoke. 
Then of sense bereft by Kali Nala hastily set forth ; 
And departing, still departing he returned again, again ; 
Dragged away by that bad demon, ever by his love drawn 

Nala, thus his heart divided into two conflicting parts, 
Like a swing goes backward, forward, from the cabin, to and 

Torn away at length by Kali flies afar the frantic king, 
Leaving there his wife in slumber, making miserable moans. 
Reft of sense, possessed by Kali, thinking still on her he left, 
Passed he in the lonely forest, leaving his deserted wife. 

At first Damayanti cannot believe she has been deserted. 
Perhaps Nala is playing a joke : 

" But thou'st had thy sport enough then, now desist, O 
king of men, 

Mock not thou a trembling woman, show thee to me, O my 

Yes, I see thee, there I see thee hidden as thou think'st 
from sight, 

In the bushes why conceal thee ? Answer me. Why speak'st 
thou not ? 

O ungentle prince of monarchs ! to this piteous plight re- 

Wherefore wilt thou not approach me to console me in my 
woe ? 

For myself I will not sorrow, nor for aught to me befalls. 

Thou art all alone, my husband, I will only mourn for thee." 

As Damayanti wanders on she penetrates deeper and 
deeper into the forest, which is thus graphically described : 

Full of lions, pards, and tigers, stags, and buffaloes, and 

Where all kinds of birds were flocking, and wild men and 

robbers dwelt. 


Thick with Sals, bamboos, ASwatthas, Dhavas, and the 

Ebon dark, 
Oily Inguds, KinSuks, Arjuns, Nim trees, Syandans, Sal- 

malas ; 
Full with Rose-apples and Mangoes, Lodh trees, Catechus 

and Canes, 
Blushing Lotuses, Kadambas, and the tree with massy 

leaves ; 
Close o'erspread with Jujubes, Bel trees, tangled with the 

holy Fig, 
Palms, Priyalas, Dates, Haritas, trees of every form and name. 
Pregnant with rich mines of metal many a mountain it 

Many a shady resonant arbour, many a deep and wondrous 

Many a lake, and pool, and river, birds and beasts of every 

She, in forms terrific round her, serpents, elves, and giants 

saw : 
Pools, and tanks of lucid water, and the shaggy tops of hills, 
Flowing streams and headlong torrents saw, and wondered 

at the sight. 
And the Princess of Vidarbha gazed where, in their countless 

Buffaloes and boars were feeding, bears, and serpents of the 

Safe in virtue, bright in beauty, glorious, and of high resolve, 
Now alone, Vidarbha 's daughter, wandering, her lost Nala 


After many adventures she falls in with a party of 
merchants, but during the night they are attacked by wild 
elephants : 

When the midnight came, all noiseless came in silence deep 
and still, 

Weary slept the band of merchants, lo, a herd of elephants, 

Oozing moisture from their temples, came to drink the 
troubled stream. 

When that caravan they gazed on, with their slumbering 
beasts at rest, 

The tame elephants they scented, those wild forest ele- 
phants ; 


Forward rush they fleet and furious, mad to slay, and wild 

with heat ; 
Irresistible the onset of the rushing ponderous brutes, 
As the peaks from some high mountain down the valley 

thundering roll. 
Strewn was all the way before them with the boughs, the 

trunks of trees ; 
On they rushed to where the travellers slumbered by the 

Trampled down and vainly struggling, helpless on the earth 

they lay. 
" Woe, oh, woe ! " shrieked out the merchants, wildly some 

began to fly, 
In the forest's thickets plunging ; some stood gasping, blind 

with sleep ; 
And the elephants down beat them with their tusks, their 

trunks, their feet. 
Many saw their camels dying, mingled with the men on foot, 
And in frantic tumult rushing wildly struck each other 

down ; 
Many miserably shrieking cast them down upon the earth, 
Many climbed the trees in terror, on the rough ground 

stumbled some. 
Thus in various wise and fatal, by the elephants assailed, 
Lay that caravan so wealthy, scattered all abroad or slain. 
Such, so fearful was the tumult, the three worlds seemed all 

" 'Tis a fire amid the encampment, save ye, fly ye, for your 

Lo, your precious pearls ye scatter, take them up, why fly 

so fast ? 
Save them, 'tis a common venture, fear ye not that I 

Thus t'each other shrieked the merchants as in fear they 

scattered round. 
" Yet again I call upon you, cowards ! think ye what ye do." 
All around this frantic carnage raging through the prostrate 

DamayantI soon awakened, with her heart all full of dread ; 
There she saw a hideous slaughter, the whole world might 

well appal. 
To such sights all unfamiliar gazed the queen with lotus-eyes, 
Pressing in her breath with terror slowly rose she on her feet. 


When finally DamayantI is recognised by Sudeva he 
describes her wasted frame : 

Like the full moon, darkly beauteous, with her fair and 

swelling breasts, 
Her, the queen, that with her brightness makes each clime 

devoid of gloom, 
With her lotus-eyes expanding, like Manmatha's queen 

divine ; 
Like the moonlight in its fullness, the desire of all the 

From Vidarbha's pleasant waters her by cruel fate plucked 

Like a lotus-flower uprooted, with the mire and dirt around : 
Like the pallid night, when Rahu swallows up the darkened 

moon : 
For her husband wan with sorrow, like a gentle stream dried 

Like a pool, where droops the lotus, whence the affrighted 

birds have fled, 
By the elephant's proboscis, in its quiet depths disturbed. 
Tender, soft-limbed, in a palace fit, of precious stones, to 

Like the lotus- stem, uprooted, parched and withered by the 

Fair as generous, of adornment worthy, yet all unadorned, 
Like the young moon's slender crescent in the heavens by 

dark clouds veiled. 

The rolling of Rituparna's chariot, driven by Nala, is 
heard approaching the city : 

With the evening in Vidarbha, men at watch, as they drew 

Mighty Rituparna's coming to King Bhlma did proclaim. 
Then that king, by Bhima's mandate, entered in Kundina's 

All the region round him echoing with the thunders of his 

But the echoing of that chariot when King Nala's horses 

In their joy they neighed and trampled, even as Nala's self 

were there. 


DamayantI too the rushing of King Nala's chariot heard, 
As a cloud that hoarsely thunders at the coming of the 

All her heart was thrilled with wonder at that old familiar 

On they seemed to come, as Nala drove of yore his trampling 

steeds : 
Like it seemed to Bhlma's daughter, and e'en so to Nala's 

On the palace-roofs the peacocks, th 'elephants within their 

And the horses heard the rolling of the mighty monarch's 

Elephants and peacocks hearing the fleet chariot rattling on, 
Up they raised their necks and clamoured, as at sound of 

coming rain. 

DamayantI spake : 

" How the rolling of yon chariot, filling, as it seems, the 

Thrills my soul with unknown transport ! It is Nala, king 

of men. 
If this day I see not Nala with his glowing moon-like face, 
Him, the king with countless virtues, I shall perish without 

If this day within th 'embraces of that hero's clasping arms 
I the gentle pressure feel not, without doubt I shall not 

If 'tis not, like cloud of thunder, he that comes, Nishadha's 

I this day the fire will enter, burning like the hue of gold. 
In his might like the strong lion, like the raging elephant, 
Comes he not, the prince of princes, I shall perish without 

Not a falsehood I remember, I remember no offence ; 
Not an idle word remember, in his noble converse free. 
Lofty, patient, like a hero, liberal beyond all kings, 
Nought ignoble, as the base-born, even in private, may he 

As I think upon his virtues, as I think by day, by night, 
All this heart is rent with anguish, widowed of its own be- 


Thus lamenting, she ascended, as with frenzied mind 

To the palace roof's high terrace to behold the king of men. 
In the middle court high seated in the car, the lord of earth, 
Rituparna with Varshneya and with Vahuka she saw. 
When Varshneya from that chariot, and when Vahuka came 

He let loose those noble coursers, and he stopped the glowing 

From that chariot seat descended Rituparna, king of men, 
To the noble monarch Bhima he drew near, for strength re- 
Him received with highest honour Bhima, for without due 

Deemed not he the Raja's visit, nor divined his daughter's 

"Wherefore com'st thou? hail and welcome!" thus that 

gracious king inquires ; 
For his daughter's sake he knew not that the lord of men had 

But the Raja Rituparna, great in wisdom as in might, 
When nor king within the palace, nor king's son he could 

Nor of svayamvara heard he, nor assembled Brahmans saw, 
Thus within his mind deep pondering spoke of Kosala the 

lord : 
" Hither, O majestic Bhima, to salute thee am I come." 
But King Bhima smiled in secret, as he thought within his 

mind : 
" What the object of this journey of a hundred yojanas ? 
Passing through so many cities for this cause he set not forth ; 
For this cause of little moment to our court he hath not 

'Tis not so ; perchance hereafter I may know his journey's 

After royal entertainment then the king his guest dismissed : 
" Take then thy repose," thus said he, " weary of thy journey, 

Ushered by royal servants, he to th 'appointed chamber went : 
There retired King Rituparna, with Varshneya in his suite. 
Vahuka, meantime, the chariot to the chariot-house had led, 
There the coursers he unharnessed, skilfully he dressed them 


And with gentle words caressed them, on the chariot-seat 

sate down. 
But the woeful Damayanti, when Bhangasuri she'd seen, 
And the charioteer Varshneya, and the seeming Vahuka, 
Thought within Vidarbha's princess : " Whose was that fleet 

chariot's sound ? 
Such it seems as noble Nala's, yet no Nala do I see. 
Hath the charioteer Varshneya Nala's noble science 

learned ? 
Therefore did the thundering chariot sound as driven by 

Nala's self ? 
Or may royal Rituparna like the skilful Nala drive ? 
Therefore did the rolling chariot seem as of Nishadha's king ? " 
Thus when Damayanti pondered in the silence of her soul, 
She, the beauteous, sent her handmaid to that king her 


Accordingly she sends her maid, Kesini, to find out who 
the mysterious deformed charioteer really is. After a few 
preliminary questions she broaches the subject of Nala : 

" Knows the charioteer Varshneya whither royal Nala went ? 
Of his fortune hath he told thee ? Vahuka, what hath he 
said ? " 

Vahuka spake : 

" He of the unhappy Nala safe the children borne away, 
Wheresoe'er he would departed, of King Nala knows he 

nought : 
Nothing of Nishadha's Raja, fair one ! living man doth 

Through the world, concealed he wanders, having lost his 

proper form. 
Only Nala's self of Nala knows, and his own inward soul, 
Of himself to living mortal Nala will no sign betray." 

Keslnl spake : 

" He that to Ayodhya's city went, the holy Brahman first, 
Of his faithful wife these sayings uttered once and once 

again : 
4 Whither went'st thou then, O gamester, half my garment 

severing off ; 


Leaving in the forest sleeping, all forsaken, thy belov'd ? 

Even as thou commanded 'st, sits she, sadly waiting thy 

Day and night, consumed with sorrow, in her scant half- 
garment clad. 

Oh ! to her for ever weeping, in the extreme of her distress, 

Grant thy pity, noble hero, answer to her earnest prayer.' 

Speak again the words thou uttered 'st, words of comfort to 
her soul, 

The renowned Vidarbha's princess fain that speech would 
hear again, 

When the Brahman thus had spoken, what thou answered 'st 
back to him, 

That again Vidarbha's princess in the self-same words would 

His heart wrung with sorrow and emotion, Nala is unable 
to restrain his tears. Keslni returns to her mistress to make 
her report. Damayanti is now more than ever certain that 
the charioteer is indeed Nala. However, she bids KeSini 
go again and watch his every action. On returning she 
relates the amazing things she has seen : 

" Very holy is he, never mortal man in all my life 

Have I seen, or have I heard of, Damayanti, like to him. 

He drew near the lowly entrance, bowed not down his stately 

head ; 
On the instant, as it saw him, up th 'expanding portal rose. 
For the use of Rituparna much and various viands came ; 
Sent, as meet, by royal Bhima, and abundant animal food. 
These to cleanse, with meet ablution, were capacious vessels 

set ; 
As he looked on them, the vessels stood, upon the instant, 

Then, the meet ablutions over, Vahuka went forth and took 
Of the withered grass a handful, held it upward to the sun : 
On the instant, brightly blazing, shone the all-consuming 

Much I marvelled at the wonder, and amazed am hither 

come ; 
Lo, a second greater marvel sudden burst upon my sight ! 
He that blazing fire stood handling, yet unharmed, unburned 



At his will flows forth the water, and as quickly sinks 

And another greater wonder, lady, did I there behold : 
He the flowers which he had taken gently moulded in his hands, 
In his hands the flowers, so moulded, as with freshening life 

Blossomed out with richer fragrance, stood erect upon their 

stems : 
All these marvels having noted, swiftly came I back to thee." 
Damayanti, when these wonders of the king of men she 

Thought yet more King Nala present, by his acts and mien 

She her royal lord suspecting in the form of Vahuka, 
With a gentle voice and weeping spake to Kesini again : 
" Go again, and whilst he heeds not, meat by Vahuka 

From the kitchen softly taking, hither, Kesini, return." 
She to Vahuka approaching, unperceived stole soft away 
Of the well- cooked meat a morsel ; warm she bore it in her 

And to Damayanti gave it Kesini without delay. 
Of the food prepared by Nala oft the flavour had she tried ; 
Tasting it she shrieked in anguish : " Nala is yon charioteer." 
Stirred by vehement emotion, of her mouth ablution made : 
She her pair of infant children sent with Kesini to him. 
Soon as he young Indrasena with her little brother saw, 
Up he sprang, his arms wound round them, to his bosom 

folding both ; 
When he gazed upon the children, like the children of the 

All his heart o'erflowed with pity, and aloud his tears broke 

Yet Nishadha's lord perceiving she his strong emotion 

From his hold released the children, and to Kesini spake 

thus : 
" Oh ! so like mine own twin children was yon lovely infant 

Seeing them thus unexpected have I broken out in tears. 
If so oft thou comest hither men some evil will suspect. 
We within this land are strangers ; beauteous maiden, part in 



Damayanti now decides on personal action and manages 
to have Bahuka summoned to the palace, where she obtains 
from him a confession that he is Nala. She then, by an " Act 
of Truth," calls on heaven to be witness to her pure life 
since her desertion by Nala. 

Thus adjured, a solemn witness, spake the wind from out 

the air ; 
" She hath done or thought no evil, Nala, 'tis the truth we 

speak : 
King, the treasure of her virtue in its fullness hath she 

Her we have watched and guarded ever closely for three 

livelong years. 
This unrivalled scheme she plotted only for thy absent 

sake ; 
In one day a hundred yojans who beside thyself may drive ? 
Thou hast met with Bhima's daughter, Bhima's daughter 

meets with thee, 
Cast away all jealous scruple, to thy bosom take thy wife." 
Even as thus the wind was speaking, flowers fell showering 

all around : 
And the gods' sweet music sounded on the zephyr floating 

As on this surpassing wonder royal Nala stood and gazed, 
Of the blameless Damayanti melted all his jealous doubts. 
Then by dust all undenled he the heavenly vest put on, 
Thought upon the King of Serpents, and his proper form 

In his own proud form her husband Bhima's royal daughter 

Loud she shrieked, the undespised, and embraced the king 

of men. 
Bhima's daughter, too, King Nala, shining glorious as of old, 
Clasped unto his heart, and fondled gently that sweet infant 

Then her face upon his bosom, as the lovely princess laid, 
In her calm and gentle sorrow, softly signed the long-eyed 

queen : 
He, that form still mire-defiled, as he clasped with smile 

Long the king of men stood silent, in the ecstasy of woe. 
All the tale of Damayanti, and of Nala all the tale, 


To King Bhima, in her transport, told Vidarbha's mother- 
Then replied that mighty monarch : " Nala, his ablutions done, 
Thus rejoined to Damayanti I to-morrow will behold." 
They the night in joy together passed, relating, each to each, 
All their wanderings in the forest, and each wild adventure 

In King Bhima 's royal palace, studying each the other's bliss, 
With glad hearts, Vidarbha's princess and the kingly Nala 

In his fourth year of divorcement, reunited to his wife, 
Richly fraught with every blessing, at the height of joy he 

Damayanti too re wedded, still increasing in her bliss, 
Like as the glad earth to water opens its half-budding fruits, 
She of weariness unconscious, soothed each grief, and full each 

Every wish fulfilled, shone brightly, as the night when high 
the moon. 

The rejoicing extends throughout the city, and all neces- 
sary explanations are duly made. Nala now thinks of revenge 
and hurries back to Nishada : 

There a month when he had sojourned, of King Bhima 

taking leave, 
Guarded he by few attendants to Nishadha took his way. 
With a single splendid chariot, and with elephants sixteen, 
And with fifty armed horsemen, and six hundred men on 

foot ; 
Making, as 'twere, earth to tremble, hastening onward, did the 

Enter awful in his anger, and terrific in his speed. 
Then the son of Virasena to King Pushkara drew near ; 
"Play we once again," then said he, "much the wealth I 

have acquired : 
All I have, even Damayanti, every treasure I possess, 
Set I now upon the hazard, Pushkara, thy kingdom thou : 
In the game once more contend we, 'tis my settled purpose 

Brother, at a single hazard, play we boldly for our lives. 
From another he who treasures, he who mighty realm hath 




'Tis esteemed a bounden duty to play back the counter 

If thou shrinkest from the hazard, be our game the strife 

of arms, 
Meet we in the single combat all our difference to decide. 
An hereditary kingdom may by any means be sought, 
Be rewon by any venture, this the maxim of the seers. 
Of two courses set before thee, Pushkara, the option make, 
Or in play to stand the hazard, or in combat stretch the 

By Nishadha's lord thus challenged, Pushkara, with smile 

As secure of easy victory, answered to the lord of earth : 
" Oh what joy ! abundant treasures thou hast won, again 

to play ; 
Oh what joy ! of Damayanti, now the hard- won prize is 

mine : 
Oh what joy ! again thou livest with thy consort, mighty- 
armed ! 
With the wealth I win bedecked soon shall Bhlma's 

daughter stand 
By my side, as by great Indra stands the Apsara in heaven. 
Still on thee hath dwelt my memory, still I've waited, King, 

for thee ; 
In the play I find no rapture but 'gainst kinsman like thy- 
When this day the round-limbed Princess Damayanti, un- 

I shall win, I rest contented, still within mine heart she 

Hearing his contemptuous language franticly thus pouring 

With his sword th 'indignant Nala fain had severed off his 

But with haughty smile, with anger glaring in his blood-red 

" Play we now, not talk thus idly ; conquered, thou 'It no 

longer talk." 
Then of Pushkara the gaming and of Nala straight began : 
In a single throw by Nala was the perilous venture gained ; 
Pushkara, his gold, his jewels, at one hazard all was won ! 
Pushkara in play thus conquered, with a smile the King 

rejoined : 


" Mine again is all this kingdom, undisturbed, its foes 

o'er come. 
Fallen king ! Vidarbha's daughter by thine eyes may ne'er 

be seen. 
Fool ! thou'rt now, with all thy household, unto abject 

slavery sunk. 
Not thyself achieved the conquest that subdued me here- 
tofore ! 
'Twas achieved by mightier Kali, that thou didst not, 

fool, perceive. 
Yet my wrath, by him enkindled, will I not 'gainst thee 

direct ; 
Live thou henceforth at thy pleasure, freely I thy life bestow, 
And of thine estate and substance give I thee thy fitting 

Such my pleasure, in thy welfare, hero, do I take delight, 
And mine unabated friendship never shall from thee depart. 
Pushkara, thou art my brother, may'st thou live an hundred 

years ! " 
Nala thus consoled his brother, in his conscious power and 

Sent him home to his own city, once embracing, once again. 
Pushkara, thus finding comfort, answered to Nishadha's lord, 
Answered he to Punyasloka, bowing low with folded hands : 
" Everlasting be thy glory ! may'st thou live ten thousand 

years ! 
That my life to me thou grantest, and a city for mine 

home ! " 
Hospitably entertained, there a month when he had dwelt, 
Cheered in spirit to his city, Pushkara, with all his kin, 
With a well-appointed army, of attendant slaves an host, 
Shining like the sun, departed, in his full meridian orb. 
Pushkara thus crowned with riches, thus unharmed, when he 

Entered then his royal city, with surpassing pomp, the king : 
As he entered, to his subjects Nala spake the words of peace, 
From the city, from the country, all, with hair erect with joy, 
Came, with folded hands addressed him, and the counsellors 

of state : 
" Happy are we now, O monarch, in the city, in the fields, 
Setting forth to do thee homage, as to Indra all the gods." 
Then at peace the tranquil city, the first festal gladness o'er, 
With a mighty host escorted, Damayanti brought he home. 


Damayanti rich in treasures, in her father's blessings rich, 
Glad dismissed the mighty-minded Bhima, fearful in his 

With the daughter of Vidarbha, with his children in his joy, 
Nala lived, as lives the sovereign of the gods in Nandana. 
Reascended thus to glory, he, among the kings of earth, 
Ruled his realm in Jambudwipa, thus rewon, with highest 

fame ; 
And all holy rites performed he with devout munificence. 

The following bibliography gives the chief editions and 
translations of Nala and Damayanti : 

Nalus, a Sanskrit Poem from the Mahdbhdrata, edited, with 
Latin translation and notes, by F. Bopp, 1819 ; Nal und 
Damajanti. Eine indische Geschichte, (bearbeitet) von F. 
Ruckert, Zweite Auflage, Frankfurt a/M, 1838 ; Nalas und 
Damajanti, eine indische Dichtung, aus dem Sanskrit ubersetzt 
von F. Bopp, Berlin, 1838 ; Nala und Damajanti, ubersetzt 
und erlautert von E. Meier, Stuttgart, 1847-1854; Nala 
och Damayanti, en indisk dikt ur Mahdbhdrata frdn originalet 
ofversatt och med forklarande note?; forsedd af H. Kellgren, 
Helsingfors, 1852 ; Nala, traduit en francais, par E. 
Burnouf, Nancy, 1856 ; Nala e Damaianti, tradotto per 
St Gatti, Napoli, 1858; Nionde och tionde sdngerna af Nala 
och Damayanti, frdn Sanskrit bfversatte och kommenterade, 
Akademisk afhandlung . . . af E. G. F. Olbers, Lund, 1862 ; 
Die GeschichU von Nala. Versuch einer Herstellung des 
Textes, von C. Bruce, St Petersburg, 1862 ; Nodes Indicce 
sive qucestiones in Nalum Mahdbhdrateum, L. Grasberger, 
Wirceburgi, 1868 ; Naladamayantikathdnaka, from the Nalo- 
pdkhydna, Lahore, 1871 ; Nal a Damajanti. Bdje Indicia, 
cesky vypravuje, J. Libansk^, etc., v Olomouci, 1875 ; Storia 
di Nalo, M. Kerbaker, Torino [printed], Firenze, 1878 ; The 
Story of Nala and Damayanti . . . translated . . . into English 
Prose, to which is added . . . notes, by Pandita Jaganatha, 
St Louis, [1881] ; Notes on the Nalopdkhydnam or Tale of Nala 
for the Use of Classical Students, 3. Peile, University Press, 
Cambridge, 1881 ; Nalopdkhydnam or The Tale of Nala, Text 
and Vocabulary, Th. Jarrett, Cambridge, 1882 ; 77 Re Nala r 
Trilogia drammatica, A. de Gubernatis, Firenze 1883 ; Nala 
and Damayanti: A Drama in Five Acts and in Prose and 
Verse, etc., Scottish Branch Press, Negapatam, 1894. 



The stands for " note and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

\bhayii. wife of King 

Dadhivahana. 105-107 
ibrahmmirati (unbroken 

chastity), 105 
mkoaryu, one of the four 
priests at an ahamedha, 14, 
Aditya. Aryaman an. 80, SOn 11 ,; 
Bhagaan, 80, SOn 1 ; Pushan 
originally the sun, later an, 
80, SOn 1 
Adityasarman, father of 

Gunasarman, 96-98 
Adityasena, horse - sacrifice 

performed by, 14 
Agneh ("fire"), 263 
Agni. God of Fire, 113, 275, 

Agnihotri, the ceremony of, 15 
Agni-Soma. animals sacrificed 

to, 16 
Agre{" first"), 263 
Aitareya Brahmana, the, 64ft 1 
Akbar, attempts to suppress 

tail by, 263 
Alankaravati (Book IX), 122- 

Alankaravati, Story of, 123- 

Alankaravati, wife of Narava- 
hanadatta, 123-126, 130, 
136-140, 167, 168, 184, 
190, 202, 219 
Albuquerque, attempt to 

abolish sail by, 263 
Allahabad, Agra, Delhi and 
Oude, the modern prov- 
inces of {i.e. Madhyade.4a) : 
156, 156H 1 
Allahabad (Prayaga, -place 

of sacrifice"), 166k 1 
Amar Das, the Sikh Guru, 
condemnation of sad by 
the, 263 
Ambara (the sky), 2Un x 
Ambika (Parvati, Durga, 
Gauri, etc.), 114, 118, 155 


Amen-hetep II at Thebes, 
bodies of women found in 
the tomb of, 256 
Anangaprabha, or Anangarati, 

149, 151-154, 156-167 
Anangarati and her four 

Suitors, Story of, 144-167 
Ananta of Kashmir, sad of 
Queen SuryavatI, widow 
of King, 264-266 
Anaryan (F. F. Arbuthnot), 
Early Ideas: A Group of 
Hindoo Stories, 48 
Anuvrata (the five lighter 

vows), 105 
Anyadehapravesako yogah (art 
Apollodorus, Library, 256 
Apsarases given to Narava- 

hanadatta, 187 
Arbuthnot, F. F (Anaryan), 
Early Ideas: A Group of 
Hindoo Stories, 48 
Argha (an oblation to gods 
and venerable men), 18, 
Arhats (Jaina Saviours), 107 
Aristophanes, Acharnians, 

138H 1 
A rtha ( ' ' wealth ' ' and ' ' m ean- 

ing "), 164n 
Arthavarman, the merchant, 

Aryaman, an Aditya, 80, SOn 1 
Aryaputra ("noble lord"), 
form of address from wife 
to husband, 34, 34^ 
Aslkala, the horse, 209 
Asokamala, 140-144 
ASokavati, wife of Mahasena, 
85, 87, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 
102, 104 
Atramas (the four ascetic 
stages of student, house- 
holder, anchorite and 
mendicant), 240n 1 , 241 n 

Asura ladies, the Paiupata 
ascetic and the, 235, 236 

Asura Maya, the, 3, 13, 17- 
22, 25-29, 32, 37-39, 41- 
45, 49-51, 56, 57, 59-61 

Ahamedha (horse-sacrifice), 
9, 14-16, 18 

Atala, one of the seven 
underworlds, 21 n 1 

Atharva-Veda. the, 95, 263 

Atharva- Veda. the. trans. 
W. D. Whitney, ed. C. R. 
I man. 263 

Atkinson, Himalayan Gazet- 
teer, 159n J 

Avadana Sataka, the, 229n* 

Avichara ("injustice" and 
"movement of sheep"), 

Ayodhya, 126, 129, 285 

" Badart or jujube tree. Lord 

of the" (Vishnu), 159n l 
Badarika, or Badarinatha, a 

place sacred to Vishnu, 

159, 159^, 160n 
Badarinatha, or Badarinarii- 

yana, manifestation of 

Vishnu. 159n l 
Bahar-i- Danish, the, 132n l 
Biihuka, or Vahuka, name of 

Nala when a cook, 277, 

284, 288 
Balahaka, the mountain, 185 
Bali (East Indies), widow- 
burning still practised in, 

257, 258 
Balkash, Lake, 185n 2 

229, 234. 236, 250, 251, 275 
Barbosa, Duarte. account of 

sad by, 269, 270 
Baring-Gould, Curious Myths 

of the Middle Ages, 185n, 

Barnett, L. D., 92n*; A*- 

tiauities of India, 16, 258n 



Bartsch, Sagen, M'drchen u. 

Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, 

93n, 145n, 227n l 
Beal, S., "The Merchant 

who struck his Mother," 

Ind. Ant., 229t 2 
Benfey, PaHtschatanlra, 192ft 1 , 

196ft 1 , 230n 1 , 245m 1 
Bengal, Ganges Valley and 

Rajputana, salt strongest 

in. 263 
Bentinck, Lord William, 

abolition of salt by, 263 
Bevan, . R-, "India in 

Early Greek and Latin 

Literature," Cambridge 

History of India, 261 
Bhadrakali (ParvatI, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
Bhaga, an Aditya, 80, 80ft 1 
Bhairava (Siva), 225, 225n 2 , 

227, 227ft 1 
Bhairon. the village god, 

225n 2 
Bhashajna,a Vaiya, 145, 147, 

Bhavabhuti, Malati Mddhava, 

Bhavani (ParvatI, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 116 
Bhima, King of Vidarbha and 

father of DamayantI, 237- 

240, 244, 246, 250, 276, 

277, 278, 282-284, 288, 289 
Bhogavarman, the merchant, 

Bhumi, the soil, 177ft 1 
Bhutas,Nandin, princeofthe, 

Bhutasana, the magic chariot, 

3-6, 8, 9, 12, 13 
Bijjala, favourite wife of 

King Uchchala of Kashmir, 

266, 267 
Birlinger, AusSchwaben, 93ft 2 , 

145n 2 , 227ft 1 
Blagden, C. O., 224ft 1 
Blocksberg, dancing with the 

Teutonic Bhairava on the, 

227ft 1 
Bloomfield, M., "Joseph and 

Potipharin Hindu Fiction," 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Ass., 104, 

107; Life and Stories of 

Parcvanatha, 47; "On the 

Art of entering Another's 

Body," Proc. Amer. Phil. 

Soc., 47 
Boccaccio, Decameron, 165n 1 , 

Bohtlingk, 213n s 

Bohtlingk and Roth, Sanskrit 

Dictionary, 33ft 1 , 41n x , 91n 2 , 

122ft 2 , 168ft 1 
Bolte, J., and G. Polivka, 

Anmerkungen su den Kinder 

u Hausm'drchen der Briider 

Grimm, 117ft 1 , 129n, 132ft 1 , 

145ft 1 
Bopp, F. , Nalasund Damajanti, 

eine indische Dichtung aus 

dem Sanskrit iibersetzt, 292; 

Xalus, a Sanskrit Poem from 

the Mahabharata, 292 
Borneo or Sumatra (Karpura- 

dvipa), 224ft 1 
Bowrey, T., Countries round 

the Bay of Bengal, ed. R. C. 

Temple, 270 
Brahma, 23, 49, 53, 63, 69, 

75, 109, 180, 186, 213 
Brahman, one of the four 

priests at an asvamedha, 14, 

Brahmaudana, a kind of rice- 
porridge eaten at the 

asvamedha, 15 
Brahmodya, or asking poetical 

riddles, 16 
Brand, Popular Antiquities, 

99n 2 , 199W 1 
Brihaspati (preceptor of the 

gods), 63, 115 
Briscoe, J. P., Nottinghamshire 

Facts and Fictions, 99ft 2 
Brockhaus text, Sin 1 , 52ft 1 , 

73ft 1 , 92ft 1 , 102ft 1 , 110ft 1 , 

llln 1 , 133ft 1 
Brou wer, van Limburg, Akbar, 

an Eastern Romance, 159ft 1 
Bruce, C, Die Geschichle von 

Nala. Versuch einer Herstel- 

lung des Textes, 292 
Brunhild in the Nibelung 

myth, immolation of, 255, 

Budge, E. A. Wallis, Osiris 

and the Egyptian Resurrec- 
tion, 257 
Burnell, A. C, H. Yule and, 

"Suttee," Hobson Jobson, 

Burnouf, E., Le Lotus de la 

Bonne Loi, 23n 2 
Burnouf, E., Nala, traduit en 

Francois, 292 
Burton, R. F., The 'Thousand 

Nights and a Night, 21ft, 

90H 1 , 108n 2 , 132ft 1 , 192ft 1 , 

Bushby, H. J ..Widow- Burning, 



Butterworth, Zig-Zag Journey 
in India, 48 

Campbell, J. F., Popular Ta 

oj the West Highland*, fl 
Camphor Island (Karpi 

dvipa), 224ft 1 
Canace, the magic ring 

Capaneus, suicide of Evadne 

wife of, 256 
Cathaeans (Greek form o 

Kshatriyas), 261 
Chakra and the Iron Wheel 

Chakra, the mountain, 185 
Chakrasena, necklace of 

Princess, 191, 192 
Chamarabala, Story of King 

194, 198-201 
Chamunda (ParvatI, Gauri. 

Uma] etc.), 149, 179 
Chandl (ParvatI, Gauri, lina. 

etc.), 179 
Chandika, human sacrifices to, 

64ft 1 
C h. ind ras vain in. his son 

Mahlpala and his daughter 

ChandravatI, Story of the 

Brahman, 220-225, 227- 

229, 232-234, 236, 250, 

ChandravatI, daughter of 

Chandrasvamin, 220, 221, 

Chapalekha, daughter of the 

hermit Kapilajata, 155 
Charana ("foot "and "line ''), 

186 : n* 
Chaturyuga, a {i.e. 4,320,000 

years), 240ft 1 
Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, 

145ft 1 
Chauvin, V., Bibliographic des 

Ouvrages Arabes, 48, 132ft 1 , 

235ft 2 , 249w 
China, custom of sati in, 257 
Chiradatri, Story of, 203, 204 
Clouston, Book of Sindibad, 

132ft 1 ; A Group of Eastern 

Romances and Stories, 139n 8 , 

182 ; Popidar Tales and 

Fictions, 192ft 1 
Coedes, G. [review by], 

Bulletin de I'Ecole Vrancaise 

a" extreme Orient, 224ft 1 
Coelho, Contos Populares 

Portuguezes, 132ft 1 
Coomaraswamy, A. K., Sail: 

a Vindication of the Hindu 

Woman, 272 



Cosquin, E., filudes Folk- 
loriques, 48 

Crawl urd, J., History of the 
Indian Archipelago, 258 

Crooke, VV. [" Badarinath "], 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
159-n 1 ; " Dravidians (North 
India)." Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., llln 1 ; Popular 
Religion and Folk-Lore of 
Northern India, 55m 1 , 177ft 1 , 
225^, 235n 2 , 245ft 1 , 271; 
Tribes and Castes of the 
Xorth- Western Provinces and 
Oudh, 160n 

Cunningham, A., Ancient 
Geography of India, 144/t 1 

Dadhivahana, King, 105, 106 

Daityas, 19. 25, 28, 30. 33, 37, 


' Daiva (fate), 182 

Damayanti, Nala and, 237- 

Damayanti, Nala and 

(Appendix II), 275-292 
Dames, M. L., The Book of 

Duarte Barbosa, 269, 270 
Damodara, son of King 

Ashadha, 10, 11, 18 
Danava Namuchi, the 

generous, 63-65 
Danavas, 19-21, 27-29, 33, 42, 

51. 63, 64, 108-115, 121 
Danavas, Maya ; King of the, 

Danta, white bull named, 241 
Dante. Purgatorio, 239n 2 
I Danu, mother of the gods, 64 
Darbha grass, Damayantl's 

feet cut by, 242 
Dasa Kumdra Charita, the, 

132ft 1 
Dasa ("ten" and "bite"), 

245, 245n 3 
Davies, John, trans, of 

Mandelslo's Travels, 270 
Dehantara-avesa (art of enter- 
ing another's body), 46 
Dellen, Poyage to the East 

Indies, 271 
Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan, 
Les Mil If el un Jours, 48, 
132/t 1 
Devamati, wife of Chandras- 

vamin, 220, 234 
Devasiddhi, one of the four 

heavenly men, 185, 186 
Dharma (virtue), 240ft 1 
Dharmavati, wife of Viravara, 
174, 177-180 

Dharmavyadha, a seller of 

flesh, 232. 233 
Dharna, sitting in, 140, 140n 1 , 

202, 202ft 1 
Dhavala, 229, 231 
Dhrishyan (rejoicing), 177n* 
Dtksha, consecration of the 

king, 16 
Dtksha (the Jaina vow), 105 
Diodorus, 256, 262 
Dithmar of Merseburg, 

Chronicon, 255n- 
Dowson, John, A Classical 

Dictionary of Hindu Myth- 
ology, 23371' 
Duarte Barbosa, account of 

sad by, 269, 270 
Duncan, Jonathan, question 

of salt taken up by, 263 
Dunlop, History of Fiction 

(Liebrecht's trans.), 129w, 

132ft 1 , 145ft 12 
Durga (Parvati, Gauri, Uma, 

etc.), 116, 120, 121, 149ft 1 , 

151, 155, 156, 177-179, 

195n 3 , 198, 217 
Durgaprasad text, 29ft 3 , Sin 1 , 

52ft 1 , 59ft 1 , 73ft 1 , 92ft 1 , 

93ft 1 , 101 n 1 , 108ft 1 , HOn 1 , 

llln 1 , 151ft 1 , 188ft 1 , 200/t 1 , 

201ft 1 , 203ft 1 , 207H 1 , 218w 3 
D vapara (demon of gambling) , 

240, 240m 1 , 241, 242, 250 
Dvapara (side of the die 

marked with two points), 

240H 1 
Dvapara (the third Yuga or 

Age of the World), 240 x 
Dyaus, the Sky- Father, 177m 1 
Dyer, Thiselton, English 

Fo/;t-Lore,93n 2 ,99n 2 ,116n 2 

Eggeling, J., Satapatha Brah- 

mana. Sacred Books of the 

East, 16 
Ekanamsa (Parvati. Durga, 

Uma', etc.), 179 
Empedocles, passage from 

the works of, 150/1 1 
Enthoven. R. E., Folk- Lore 

of Bombay, 70, 94n, 122H 1 , 

Hln 1 , llln 1 
Eumenes, a salt at the time 

of, 261 
Euripides, Suppliants, 256 
Europe, widow -burning in, 

255, 256 
Eustathius, Hysmine and 

Hysminias, 128V, 145n 8 
Evadne, wife of Capaneus, 

suicide of, 256 

Fernao Nuniz, account of tati 
by, 267, 268 

Ft-rrand ,G . . V Empire sumatra- 
nais de Cririjaya, 224n ! 

I irdausl, Yusuf u Zulaikhi, 

Fitzedward Hall ["The 
Source of Colebrooke't 
Essay ' On the Duties of a 
Faithful Hindu Widow' "1, 
Joum Roy. As. Soc., 262n* 

Frazer, The Golden Bough, 16; 
Pausanias' Description of 
Greece, 14, 65n, 249n, 258 

Frere, M., Old Deccan Days, 

Friederich, R., " Voorloopig 
V erhandelingen van het Bata- 
viaasch Genoolschap van 
Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 

Fiihrer, L. A., Monumental 
Antiquities and Inscriptions 
of the North Western Prov- 
inces and Oudh, 166n x 

Gaal, Mdrchen der Magyaren, 

213J1 1 
Gdndliarva form of marriage, 

the, 32, 43 
Ganesa, son of Siva and 

Parvati, 119, 122, 213 
Ganga river, 166H 1 
Ganges Valley and Rajputana, 
salt strongest in Bengal, 
Gar be, R., Indien u. das 
ChristentumASSn*; "Yoga," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
39a 1 
Garhapatya hearth, the, 15 
Garuda, 186, 247 
Gaster, M., Exempla of the 

Rabbis, 192ft 1 
Gauri (Parvati, Durga. Uma, 

etc.), 144, 145 
Gayatri( Parvati, Durga, Uma, 

etc.), 179 
Geldner, K., " Asvamedha," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 16 
Gibb, E. J. W., and Sheykh 
Zada, History of the Forty 
Vesirs, 48 
Giles, H. A., Strange Stories 
from a Chinese Studio, 25n 
Giles, L., 257; Alphabetical 
Index to the Chinese Encyclo- 
pedia, 257n 3 
Goethe, Faust (trans. Bayard 
Taylor), 227U 1 



Gomukha, minister of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 122, 130, 136, 

167, 168, 172, 173, 181, 


Gonzenbach, Sicilianische 

Marchen, 248m 1 
Grasberger, L.. Noctes Indica- 
tive quastiones in Xalitm 

Mahabharateum, 292 
Greece, human sacrifices in, 

64 x ; suicide of widows 

in. 256 
Grierson, Sir G. A., 185n 2 ; 

Stein and, Hatim's Tales, 

48, 104 
Griffin, Sir Lepel, 264 
Grimm, J. L. C, Deutsche 

Rechtsaltertiimer, 255; 

Kinder u. Hausin'drchen ; 

129n, 145ft 1 ; Teutonic 

Mythology (trans. J. S. 

Stallybrass), 23n 2 , 64ft 1 
(J roh man n. J. V., Sagen aus 

Bdhmen, 245ft 1 
Groot, J. J. M. de, The 

Religious System of China, 

257n 2 
Grossler, Sagen aus der Graf- 

schaft Mansfeld, 245ft 1 
Gubernatis, A. de, // Re Nala : 

Trilogoa drammatica, 292 ; 

Zoological Mythology, 249n 
Guest, Lady C, "The 

Mabinogion " [Llyfre Coch 

Hergest], 21 3V 
Guhyaka (Yaksha), 227 
Guna ("excellence" and 

"thread"), 8ft 1 ; ("virtue" 

and "string"), 174ft 1 
Gunasarman. King Mahasena 

and his virtuous minister, 

85-96, 98-102 

Hagen, F. H. v. d., Altdeutsche 

u. altnordische Helden-Sagen, 

256 * 

Hakluyt Society, 269, 270 
Halliday, W. R. ["Snake 

Stones"], Folk-Lore, 245ft 1 
Hamsa ("swan" and 

"supreme soul" i.e. 

Vishnu), 186w 2 
Hanuman, the monkey-god, 

Hari (Vishnu), 185, 187 
Harisikha. minister of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 190 
Hari vara, a king named, 152- 

154, 156-158 
Harshavarman , King, 191 

Hastinapura, 194 

Hastings' Encyclopaedia of 

Religion and Ethics, 16, 

21ft 1 , 39ft 1 , 65, 159ft 1 , 

176ft 1 , 177ft 1 , 182, 225ft, 

240ft 1 
Hathasarman, the Brahman, 

140, 144 
Heliodorus. jEthiopica, 239ft 2 
Henderson, W., Folk-Lore 

of the Northern Counties of 

England, 93w 2 
Herodotus, 65w, 80ft 1 , 256 
Herr Urian of the Walpur- 

gisnacht, 227ft 2 
Heruli, suicide of widows 

among the, 255 
Hesiod, Theogony, 212ft 1 
Hillebrandt, A., Ritualliter- 

utiir, Grundriss der Indo- 

Arischen Phil. u. altertums- 

kunde, 16 
Himalayas, the, 234 
Himavat. 1 
Hiranyagupta, a merchant, 

Hitopadesa, the (Johnson's 

trans.), 173ft 1 
Homer, Iliad, 112ft 1 ; Odyssey, 

58ft 2 , 120m 1 , 15bi 2 
Hopkins, E. Washburn, 

" Bhairava," Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 225ft 2 
Horace, Odes, 93ft 2 
Hotri, one of the four priests 

at an asvamedha, 14-16 
Hrasvabahu, name adopted 

by Nala, 246-248 
Hsiian-tsang, the Chinese 

Buddhist pilgrim, 185n 2 
Hunt, Romances and Drolls of 

the West of England, 93n 2 

India, salt in, 258-272 

Indra. 15, 18, 19, 23, 24, 27- 
29, 43-45, 63, 64, 69, 75, 
83, 111-113, 115, 176, 187, 
189, 231, 238-240, 275, 

Indrasena, daughter of Nala 
and Damayanti, 241, 287 

Indrasena, son of Nala and 
Damayanti, 241 

Issyk-kul, Lake, 185ft 2 

Isvara (Siva), 182 

Jacobi, H. ["On SulasA"], 
Ind. Ant., 69ft 1 ; " Ages of 
the World," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 240ft 1 ; "Cos- 
mogony and Cosmology 

Jacobi, H. continued 

(Indian)," Hastings' 7v<t/. 

Rel. Eth., 21ft 1 
Jaganatha, Pandita. The 

Story of Nala and Daina- 

yunt'i . . . trans, into . . . i 

English Prose, 292 
Jarrett, Th.. Sulupakhyanam, \ 

or Tale oj Sul a. 292 
Jawahir Singh, wives ^H 

forced on to the | 

Jaya, doorkeeper of Dur 

116, 116ft 1 , 117 
Jaya (ParvatI, Durgfi, L'ra 

etc.), 179 
Jayamati, wife of K 

Uchchala of Kashmir, 266, { 

Jebb, R. C, The Characters oj 

Theophrastus, 94ft 
Jerusalem, golden vine over 

the gate of the temple at, 

Jlvadatta, a Brahman. J 

149, 151, 153-155 
Jnanasiddhi, one of the four 

heavenly men, 185 
Johnson, F., trans, of the 

Hitopadesa, 173 ft 1 
Jolly, J., "Fate (Hindu)," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Joseph and Potiphar's wife, 

Jubbulpore, persistence of 

a would-be sail in, 271, 

Junker Voland, the, 227ft 1 

Kailasa, abode of Siva and 

ParvatI, 180 
Kaitavandlaka (a deceptm- 

trick), 106 
Kala and his Prayers, the 

Brahman, 23-25 
Kala (fate), 182 
Kala (Time, Fate. Death), 

24ft 1 
Kala -a. son of King Ananta 

of Kashmir, 264, 265 
Kalasapura, 191 
Kalhana, Rdjatarahgin'i M 

Chronicle of the Kings oj 

Kasmir, M. Aurel Stein's 

translation, 264, 266 
Kali (demon of gambling), 

240, 240rii, 241-243, 248, 

250, 276, 278, 279, 291 
Kali (Durga, ParvatI, Uma, 

etc.), 149ft 1 



Kali enters the body of Nala, 

Kali (side of the die marked 

with one point), 240n 1 
Kali (the fourth Yuga, or 

Age of the World), 240ft 1 
Kalpa (measure of time), 2, 

23, 23*1, 25, 106 
Kamaiiastrartha (science of 

love), 106 
Kanakavarsha and Madana- 

sundarl, Story of King, 

Kanchi (girdle), Sn 1 
Kandarpa (God of Love), 106 
Kapila chaplain of King 

Dadhivahana, 105 
Kapila, wife of Kapila. 105, 

Kapilajata, curse of the 

hermit, 155 
Kapur Barus (true camphor), 

224m 1 
Karkotaka, the snake, 245, 

246, 248, 250 
Karma (fate), 182 
Karpatika (dependent of a 

king), 168W 1 
Karpura, 224, 224n x 
Karpura-dvipa (Borneo or 

Sumatra), 224ft 1 
Karttikeya (son of Siva and 

Parvati), 119, 212-214, 217 
Kasyapa, 186 
Kataha, 223, 224ft 1 
Kathakoca, trans. C. H. 

Tawney, 47, 174ft 1 
KatyayanI (Parvati, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
KausambI, 122, 125, 130, 139, 

188, 189 
Kavaya (artificial poetry), 277 
Kaya-vyuka (division of per- 
sonality), 4ft 1 
Kayotsarga posture, the, 106 
Keith, A. B., "Om," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 176ft 1 
Kellgren, H., Nala och Dama- 
yanti, en dikt ur 

Mahabharata fr'dn originalet 

bfversatt . . . , 292 
Kerbaker, M., Storia di Nalo, 

Kesini, maid of Damayanti, 

Khadga, a merchant's son, 

230, 231 
Khadgadhara, a Kshatriya, 

145-147, 155 
Kharak Singh, lady burned 

against her will with, 264 

Knowles, J. H., Dictionary of 

Kashmiri Proverbs, 48 
Kosala, 243, 246-248, 250 
Krishna, 80 
Krita (the first Yuga, or Age 

of the World), 240ft 1 
Kshatriya families, safl 

customary in, 258 
Kshatriyas, Greek form of 

(Cathaeans), 261 
Ku ("evil" and "earth"), 

174 ft 1 
Kuhn, Herabkunjl des Eeuers 

u. des Gottertranks, 145 2 the rain of, 213, 

213ft 1 
Kumaragupta I , horse-sacri- 
fice performed by, 14 
Kusa grass, 155, 243 ; babe 

made of, 128 
Kusa, son of Slta, 128, 129 
Kuvera, God of Wealth. 13, 

110, 110n 6 , 128, 129, 160ft 

Labdhadatta, Story of King 
Lakshadatta and his De- 
pendent, 168-172 

Labdhavara, a dancing- 
teacher called, 156-158 

Lakshadatta and his Depen- 
dent Labdhadatta, Story of 
King, 168-172 

Lakshmana, brother of Rama, 
126, 129 

Lakshmi (wife of Vishnu), 
63, 186 

La mi. Novelle Letter arie di 
Firenze, 166ft 

Lanka besieged by Rama, 

Lanman, C. R., ed. of W. D. 
Whitney's trans, of the 
Atliarva-Veda, 263 

Lava, son of Slta, 128-130 

Lee, A. C, The Decameron, 
its Sources and Analogues, 
166n, 183 

Lev6que, Les Mythes et 
Legendes de Vlnde et de la 
Perse, 150/1 1 

Libafisky, J., Xal a Dama- 
janti. Bdje Indickd, Cesky 
vypravuje, 292 

Liebrecht, P., trans, of 
Dunlop's History of Fiction, 
129n. 132n l , 145n 12 ; Zur 
Volkskunde, 93n 2 

Livy, 23n* 

Loeb, E. M., "The Blood 
Sacrifice Complex," Mem. 
Amer. Anth. Ass., 65n 

Lokapalas, or guardians of 
the world, the eight, 43, 
43n*. 45, 69, 112, 238 

Longhurst, A. H., Hampi 
Ruins, 268 

Madanamanchuka, wife of 

Naravahanadatta. 121 
Madanasundarl, Story of King 

Kanakavarsha and, 204-219 
Madhyadesa (the modern 

provinces of Allahabad, 

Agra, Delhi and Oude), 

156, 156n! 
Mahabharata, the, in 1 , 15, 

47, 104, 166n,233n l ,239n>, 

240n!, 241n, 243ni, 249n, 

258, 275, 276, 278 
Mahalakshmi( Parvati, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
Maharajni (Parvati, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
Maha-satt-kal (salt stones), 

260, 261 
Mahdsattva ("noble," 

"good," "virtuous." and 

" full of great monsters "), 

180n 2 
Mahasena and his Virtuous 

Minister Gunasarman, 

King, 85-96, 98-102 
Mahatala, one of the seven 

underworlds, 21 n 1 
Mahavaraha. King, 144-146 
Mahayuga, a (4,320,000 

years), 240H 1 
Mahlpala, son of Chandra- 

svamin, 220-223. 228, 229, 

232, 234, 251 
Mainaka, the mountain. 185, 

Malabar, soft forbidden in, 

MdUifi Madhava, Bhavabhuti, 

Malavikdgnimilra, trans. C. H. 

Tawney, 15 
Malet, Sir C, question of 

sail raised by, 263 
Mallinatha Caritra, Vijaya- 

dharmasuri, 105 
Manasa lake, the, 234 
Mandnra, one of the five 

trees of Paradise, 128, 

128n 2 
Mandelslo, Travels, trans. 

John Davies, 270 
Mangala (Parvati, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
Manu, 202H 1 ; saft not alluded 

to in, 258 



Marubhuti. minister of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 136, 139, 168, 
802, 203, 220, 251 

Matali, charioteer of Indra, 

44, Un\ 187-189 

Mava. the Asura, 3, 13, 17- 
22, 25-29, 32, 37-39, 41- 

45, 49-51, 56, 57, 59-61 
Meier, E., Nala und Dama- 

janii, iibersetzt u. erlautert 
von, 292 

Melton, Astrologaster, 199/1 1 

Merseburg, Dithmar of, 
Chronicon, 255n 2 

Meru. Mount, 138, 138n* 

Milman, H. H trans, of 
Nalopdkhydnam , Story of 
Nala. ed. Monier Williams, 

Milton, Cornus, 243i 2 ; Para- 
dise Lost, 80H 1 , 129 

Mitra. R. L., Account of the 
Buddhist Literature of 
Nepal, 229n 2 ; "Human 
Sacrifices in India," Journ. 
As. Soc. Bengal, 64n* 

Monier Williams, Indian 
Wisdom, 256; ed. Nalo- 
pakhyanam, Story of Nala, 
trans. H. H. Milman, 278 

Morris, R. ["Jataka Stories 
the Myth of the Siren "], 
The Academy, 229w 2 

Morse. J., Report [to the Secre- 
tary of War of the United 
States] on Indian Affairs, 258 

Mrishyatdm (" forgive me," 
'be patient"), 232w* 

Muddra, one of the three 
different styles of music, 
86n 2 

Muktipura, the island of, 
130, 131, 133, 134 

Miiller, C.| History of the 
Pseudo Callisthenes, 120n x , 
129n, 185n x 

NagI Ratnaprabha, the, 212- 

214, 217, 218 
Naishadha, Sri harsh a, 277 
Nakshatra of Bhaga, the 

Uttara Phalguni, SOn 1 
Nala and Damayanti, Ap- 
pendix II, 275-292 
Nala and Damayanti, story 

of, 237, 250 
Nala-champii. Trivikrama, 278 
Naladamayanlikalhdndka, from 

the Nalopakhydna, 292 
Nala-Raja, the Tamil, 278 
Nalodaya, Vasudeva, 277 

Na/opdkhydna, or " Episode of 

Nala '* (Mahafihilrata), 275 
Nalopdkhydnam , Story of Nala, 

trans. H. H. Milman, ed. 

Monier Williams, 278 
Namuchi, the generous 

Danava, 63-65 
Nandin, prince of the Bhutas, 

Nao Nihal Singh, two ladies 

burned with, 264 
Nara, 160n 
Narada, the hermit. 17-19, 

28, 29, 160w, 186-188, 238 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 

King of Vatsa, 1, 2, 121- 

123, 124, 130, 136-140, 

167, 168, 173, 181, 184- 

190, 193, 194, 201-203, 

219, 220, 251 
Narayana (Vishnu), 113, 160ft 
Nfiravani (ParvatI, Durga, 

Uma,' etc.), 179. 225, 227 
Nigeria, salt of forty-two 

wives of a king of Oyo, 

Southern, 257 
Nimbapuram, near Talari- 

gattu, place of cremation, 

Nirriti (i.e. Destruction, a 

goddess of death and 

corruption), 110, 110w 3 , 

Nishada or Nishadha, 241, 

Nishadha, Nala, King of, 241, 

Nisumbha, 122 
Nuniz, account of salt by 

Fernao, 267, 268 

CEnone, suicide of, on the 

death of Paris, 256 
Olbers, E. G. F., Nionde och 

tionde sangerna af Nala och 

Damayanti fr&n Sanskrit 

iifversatt, 292 
Oman. J. C, Brahmans, Theists 

and Muslims of India, 272 
Onesicritus on sail, 261 
Oyo, Southern Nigeria, saCt 

of forty-two wives of a 

king of, 257 

PadmavatI, wife of the King 

of Vatsa, 189 
Pai lou. or p'aifang (honorary 

gateways erected in honour 

of Chinese saRs), 257 
Pa I a g a I i (i.e. low -caste 

daughter of a courier), 15 

Palasa ("cruel" and 'un- 
merciful "), 170n x 

Pan (betel-leaf), 271 

Paflcanamaskrti (the fivefold j 
obeisance to the Jaina 
Saviours), 107 

Panchaphuttika,aSudra. 1 1 i, 
147, 155" 

Pandita. duenna of Queen 
Abhaya, 105-107 

Pandita Jaganatha, The 
Story of Nala and Duma- 
yanh, trans, into English 
Prose, 292 

Pan jab, sad rare in the, 263 

Pafltschatanlra, the, Ben fey, 
192/1 1 , 196H 1 , 230H 1 , 21.)'' 

Parakdyapravesa (art of enter* 
ing another's body), 46 

Paranartsahodara (sisters), 106 

Parapurapravesa (art of enter- 
ing another's body), 46 

Parasarira-dvesa (art of enter- 
ing another's body), 46 

Paris, suicide of OZnone on 
the death of, 256 

Parjanya, consort of Prithivl, 

ParvatI (Durga, Gauri, Uma, 
etc.), 116, 125, 241, 276 

Pas u pa ta ascetic and King 
Tribhuvana, the treacher- 
ous, 234-236 

Patala, one of the seven 
underworlds, 20, 21m 1 , 22 

Patalas, collective name of the 
seven underworlds, 2b; 1 

Patanjali, teachings of the 
Yogasutras of, 46 

Peile, J.. Notes on the Nalo- 
pakhyanam, or Tale of Nala, 

Pertz, G. H., Monumenta Ger~ 
mania; historica, 255n 2 

Phalguna, the month of. 1 4 

Phutkarishyetardm (wild out- 
cry), 107 

Pingadatta, minister of 
Vimala, 226 

[Pioneer, "Badrinath" 
Indian Notes and Queries, 

Plato, Minos, 65n 

Plautus, Stichus, 138/1 1 

Polivka, G., J. Bolte and, 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
u. Hausmdrchen der Briider 
Grimm, Mn l , 129n 

Ponce de Leon, Juan, search 
by, for the fountain of life, 
145n 2 



Pota sari (a sari whose four 
corners have been dipped 
in water used in the 
srdddha ceremony), 259 
*otiphar's wife, Joseph and, 

'owlett, P. W., "Satti 
Worship in Rajputana "] 
North Indian Notes ana 
Queries, 272 
Prabandhacintdmani, trans. 

C. H. Tawney, 47 
Prabhakara and Vidyadhari. 

Prajd (" subjects " and " off- 
spring"), 164n x 
Prajapati, horse offered to, 

Pralambabiihu, a Brahman 
servant of Naravahana- 
datta, 173, 181, 184, 189 
Pramanasiddhi. one of the 

four heavenly men, 185 
Pratishthana, 130-132, 135 
Prayaga (Allahabad, the 
" place of sacrifice"), 166, 
166H 1 
Preller, L., Griechische Myth- 
ologie, 65n. 230n 2 , 245W 1 ; 
Romische Mythologie, 65n ; 
Ritter and. Historia Phil- 
osophise, 150H 1 
Prester John's letter, 245n 4 
Prithivi, the earth goddess, 

'177/1 1 
Prithvirupa. story of the 

handsome king, 130-135 
Procopius. Bellum Goticmn, 

Propertius. 256 
Prym and Socin, Syrische 
Mdrchen, 128n\ 132?* 1 , 
21 3n! 
Pura (Siva), 2, 2n 3 
Purdnas, the, 64n* 
Puroddsas (offering of cakes), 

Purodha (chaplain), 105 
Purushamedha (human sacri- 
fice), 64, 64n x 
Pushan. originally the sun, 

later an Aditya, 80, 80U 1 
Pushkara. brother of Nala, 
241. 242. 250, 276, 289-291 
Pushkara, the holy bathing- 
place. 23 
Pushymitra. horse - sacrifice 
performed by. 14 

Raghava. author of a Telugu 
Nala poem, 278 

Raghunandana, suggested 
forgery of Rig- Veda passage 
by, 262 
Raja Suchet Singh, three 
hundred and ten ladies 
burned with, 264 

Rajadhiraja Chola, horse- 
sacrifice performed by, 14 

Rajatarangini, or Chronicle of 
the Kings of Kasmir, Kal- 
hana, trans. M. Aurel 
Stein, 264, 266 

Rajputana, salt strongest in 
Bengal, Ganges valley and, 

Rakshasas. 27 ; Ravana, chief 
of the, 126 

Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 
145n 2 . 230n 2 ; Songs of the 
Russian People, 255n 2 

Rama, 79 ; and Slta, 126-130 

Ramanatha Ayyar, A. S., 
"The Authorship of the 
Nalodaya," Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc., 277 

Rdmdyana. the, 211, 258 

Rdndirdnda (one who has 
been a prostitute), name 
given to widows, 259 

Ranjit Singh, four ladies 
burned with, 264 

Rasika ("full of poetical 
flavour"), 137H 1 

Ratnaprabha, the Nagi, 212- 
214, 217, 218 

Ravana, chief of the Rak- 
shasas, 126 

RevatI (ParvatI, Durga, Uma, 
etc.), 179 

Rig-Veda, the, 14, 95. 258, 

" 262. 275 

Rig- VedaSanhitd, Sunahsepha 
hymns of the, 64n x 

Ritter and Preller, Historia 
Philosophise- ISOn 1 

Rituparna, King, 246-250, 

' 277, 282. 284, 285, 286 

Rohde, Der Griechische 
Roman, 132*1*, 185 l 

Rose. H. A., A Glossary of 
the Tribes and Castes of the 
Punjab and North - West 
Frontier Province, 272 

Roth, Bohtlingk and, San- 
skrit Dictionary. 33n l , 41n x , 
91 n 2 , 122n 2 , 168n l 

Riickert, F., Nal und Dama- 
janli. Fine indische Gex- 
chichte. bearbeitet von, 292 

Rudra, a merchant named, 

Rudra (Siva), 18, 19, 19n 2 
Rupalata, wife of Prithvirupa, 

Rupasiddhi, one of the four 

heavenly men, 185, 187 
Russell, Tribes and Castes of 

the Central Provinces, 202n x , 


Sadguna ("good quality" 
and "good thread ''), 237n* 

St Gatti, Nala e Damaianti, 
tradotto per, 292 

Sakala (the Sangala of Alex- 
ander), 2, 5, 7, 9, 13 

Santa Veda, the, 95 

Samkhya and Yoga, magic 
art founded on, 22, 46 

Samudragupta, horse- 
sacrifice performed by, 14 

Samudraura, story of the 
merchant, 191-193 

Sangala of Alexander 
(Sakala), 8*" 

Sarabhanana, adventure of 
the witch, 82, 83 

Saras vati river, the supposed, 

Sardar Shan Singh, voluntary 
burning of the wife of. 264 

Sari whose four corners have 
been dipped in water used 
in the srdddha ceremony 
{pota sari), 259 

Satapatha-Brdhmana, J. Egge- 
ling, Sacred Books of the 
East, 16 

Satapatha-Brdhmana. the, 14, 
64n\ 245n 2 

San, 96, 96, 156; antiquity 
of, 258; at Surat, a, 270; 
customary in Kshatriya 
families, 258; early attempt 
to suppress, 263; forbidden 
in Malabar, 263; ("good," 
"devout," "true "), 258; 
Greek theory to account 
for the custom of, 262 ; 
in China, custom of, 
257; in India, 258-272; 
in Kashmir, a double, 266, 
267; in the Atharva-Veda, 
condemnation of, 263 ; 
modern African revival of, 
257 ; murders among the 
Sikhs in the Panjab, 
atrocious, 264; not 
acknowledged in the Sutras 
or alluded to in Maim. 258; 
of Queen Suryavati, widow 
of King Ananta of Kashmir, 



Sati contin ucd 

264-266; rare in the 
Panjab, 263; stones (malm- 
sat't-kal), 260, Ml J 
strongest in Bengal, 
Ganges Valley and Raj- 
putana, 263 

Satis, honorary gateways {p'ai 
luu or p'ai fang) erected in 
honour of Chinese, 257 ; 
inducementsofferedto. 260; 
in more modern times, 271, 
272; in native states, 
recent, 264; in Vijaya- 
nagar, 267, 268 ; recent 
occurrences of, 264 

Sattvarara (possessing pre- 
eminent virtue), 177ft 8 

Sattvavara, son of Viravara, 
174, 177, 178, 180 

Savitri. offerings to, 15 

Schmidt. Bernhard, Griech- 
ische Marchen, Sagen u. 
Volkslieder, 65n, 145ft 2 

Schrader, O. , Prehistoric 
Antiquities of the Aryan 
Peoples, 255ft 1 

Seneca, Hercules Furens, 65ft 1 

Sesha. the serpent, 186 

Sewell , R. . A Forgotten Empire, 

Shabti or Ushabtiu figures 
buried with Egyptian kings, 

Shakespeare, As You Like It, 
245n x ; Merchant of Venice, 
183 ; Richard III, 222ft 1 

Sheykh Zada, E. J. W. Gibb 
and, History of the Forty 
Vezirs, 48 

Siddha (Parvati, Durga,Uma, 
etc.), 180 

Sikes. W. Wirt, British 
Goblins, 213ft 1 

Sikh Guru Amar Das. con- 
demnation of sail by the, 

Sikhs in the Panjab, atrocious 
saCi murders among the, 264 

Simhala, 224. 224ft 1 

Simrock. Die Deutschen Volks- 
biichcr, 128ft 1 

Slta and Rama, Story of, 126- 

Siva, 1, 2, 3, 17-20, 27-29, 
33, 43, 44, 51, 54, 55, 58, 
59, 69, 111-114, 116-125, 
139, 144, 151, 174, 176, 
179, 180, 187, 199, 199ft 1 , 
221, 237, 241, 265, 275, 

Siva (Parvati, Durga, Uma, 
etc.), 179 

Sivas, world of the gods 
called, 25, 25ft 1 

Sivaskandavarman, horse- 
sacrifice performed by, 14 

Skaiula, son of Siva and 
Parvati, 180, 215, 217 

Skeat, W. W., "Snake- 
stones," Folk-Lore, 245ft 1 

Sleeman, Jiambfes and Recol- 
lections, 271 

Smith, V. A., Oxford History 
of India, 264 

Socin, Prym and, Syrische 
Marchen, 128ft 1 , 132ft 1 , 
213ft 1 

Somadeva, 275, 276 

Southey, Thalaba the De- 
stroyer, 129m 

Speyer, J. S., "Studiesabout 
the Kathasaritsdgara," 
Ferhandelingen der Konink- 
lijke Akademie MM Weten- 
schappen te Amsterdam, 8m 2 , 
lOn, 13ft 2 , 30ft, 52ft 1 , 73ft 1 , 
92ft 1 , 100ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 200ft 1 , 
201ft 1 , 203ft 1 , 207ft 1 , 218ft 3 

Srdddha ceremony, sari whose 
four corners have been 
dipped in water used 
during the (pota sari), 259 

Srautasutras, the, 14 

Sri, wife of Vishnu, 185 

Srlharsha, Naishadha, 277 

Srinagar, 165 

Srisundarapura or Sundara- 
pura, 123, 138 

Srutasarman, an emperor of 
the Vidyadharas, 2, 17-19, 
22, 29 

Stallybrass, J. S., trans, of 
J. L. C. Grimm's Teutonic 
Mythology, 23ft 2 , 64w J 

Stein, M. Aurel, trans, of 
k a 1 liana's Rajatarangint, or 
Chronicle of the Kings of 
Kasmir. 264, 266 ; and 
G. A. Grierson. Hatim's 
Tales, 48, 104 
Stevenson, MrsS., Rites of the 
Twice-Born, 259, 259ft 1 , 260 
Sthulabhuja, Story of, 142- 

Sthulasiras, a Yaksha, 226. 

Strabo, 261 
Subahu, King, 244 
Suchet Singh, Raja, three 
hundred and ten ladies 
burned with, 264 

Sudarsana, 105-107 
Sudarsana, a gambler, 158, 

Sukra, spiritual advisor of the 

Danavas, 28, 64 
Sumanas, the Brahman, 236, 

Sumatra or Borneo (Karpura- 

dvipa), 224ft 1 
Sumeru. Prince of the V; 

dharas, 17, 51-57. 61-62- 

66-70, 82, 115-118, 120 
Sumundika. See Suryaprabha 
Sunahsepha hymns of the 

Rig- Fed a Sanhitti, 64ft 1 
Sundarapura, or Srisundara- 
pura, 123, 138 
Suprabha and his Escape 

from Destiny, 178 
Surasena, King, 225, 226 
Surat, a sati at, 270 
Suryaprabha, and how he 

attained Sovereignty over 

the Vidyadharas, Story of, 

2-13, 17-22, 25-45, 49-62, 

65-85, 102, 103, 108-121 
Suryaprabha (Book VIII), 

Suryavati (SuryamatI), widow 

of King Ananta of Kashmir. 

saCi of Queen, 264-266 
Sutala, one of the seven 

underworlds, 21m 1 
Sutras, sati not acknowleged 

in the, 258 
Suttee, European form of the 

word sati, 258 
Suvarna, 224, 224ft 1 
Suvarnadvlpa, 190, 191 
Suvena, minister of King 

Bhima, 244 
Svarga, abode of the blessed 

and city of Indra, 119, 212 
Svarnadvlpa, 229 
Svayambhu temple of Siva, a, 

122, 122ft 2 , 125 
Svayamvara (marriage by 
choice), Damayantl's. 238- 
240, 276 ; the false, 247 
Svetadvipa, 185, 185ft 2 , 186 

Taittiriya-Brdhmana, the, 14, 
64ft 1 

Talarigattu, place of crema- 
tion at Nimbapuram near, 

Talatala, one of the seven 
underworlds, 21ft 1 

Tantras, the 64ft 1 

Tara, one of the three dif- 
ferent styles of music, 86n' 



Taravarman, King, 222, 228, 

Tavemier, Jean Baptiste, 
Travels, 270 

Tawney, C. H.. 29n, 73ft 1 , 
108m 1 , 185n 2 ; 'The Bha- 
gavad Gita and Christian- 
ity," Calcutta Review, 150ft 1 ; 
trans, of Kat/iakoca, 47 ; 
trans, of M<~i/ariki~inimitra, 
15 j trans, of Prabandha- 
cintamani, 47 

Taylor, Bayard, trans, of 
Goethe's Faint, 227ft 1 

Temple, R. C, ed. of Thomas 
Bowrey's Countries round 
the Bay of Bengal, 270; 
ed. of Travels of Peter 
Mundy in Europe and Asia, 

Terence, Phormio, 138m 1 

Thebes, bodies of women 
found in the tomb of 
Amen-hetep II at, 256 

Thurston, E., Ethnographic 
Notes in Southern India, 
122ft 1 , 171ns 245ft 1 

Tilottama of the earth, 

PDamayantI the, 237, 237ft 3 
Traill, Statistical Account of 

Kumaun, 160n 
Treta (the second Yuga, or 

Age of the World), 240ft 1 
Tribhuvana, the treacherous 

Pasupata ascetic and King, 

Tripura (Parvati, Durga, 

Uma, etc.), 179 
Tripura, the destroyer (Siva), 

Triveni (triple junction), 166ft 1 
Trivikrama, Nala-champu, 278 
Tunghwan, golden lotus 

made by the Chinese 

emperor, 129ft 
Tvashtri, the Vulcan of the 

Hindus, 80, 80ft 1 
Tylor, Primitive Culture, 64ft 1 , 

145ft 1 

Uchchaihsravas, the horse, 

63, 115, 117 
Uchchala. King of Kashmir, 

266, 267 
Udara, one of the three 

(different styles of music, 
Udgatri. one of the four 
priests at an asvamedha, 

Ujjayini, 85, 90, 91, 98, 100, 

102, 205 
Uma (Parvati, Durga, Gauri, 

etc.), 116, 139, 179 
Urian of the Walpurgisnacht, 

Herr, 227ft 1 
Urva.41 and Pururavas, Story 

of, 275-277 
Ushabtiu or shabti figures 

buried with Egyptian 

kings, 257 
Uttara PhalgunI, the Nak- 

shatra of Bhaga, 80ft 1 

Vahuka, or Bahuka, name of 
Nala when a cook, 277, 
Vajrakuta (i.e. "diamond- 
peak'"'), 1 
Vajraprabha, a king of the 

Vidyadharas, 1, 2, 121 
Vallee Poussin, L. de la, 
" Karma," Hastings' Ency. 
Bel. Eth., 182 
Valmlki, hermitage of, 127- 

Van Limburg-Brouwer, Ak- 
bar, an Eastern Bomance, 
159ft 1 
Varuna, the divine judge, 

238, 275, 276 
Vasati (dwelling), 101ft 3 
Vasavadatta, wife of the King 

of Vatsa, 189 
Vasishtha, 180 
Vasudeva, Nalodaya, 211 
Vasuki, king of the snakes. 

204, 212 
VasumatI, the earth, 21ft 1 
Vatsa, the King of, 1, 2, 
121-122, 136-138, 140, 173, 
184, 187-190, 251 
Vayu (God of the Wind), 

110, 110ft 4 , 113 
Veckenstedt, Wendische 

Sagen, 245 ft 1 
Vetala Panchavinsati, the, 47, 

145w a 
Vibhlshana, King of the 

Rakshasas, 27, 126 
Vidarbha, Bhima. King of, 
and father of Damayanti, 
237-240, 243, 246-248, 
Vidhi (fate), 182 
Fidya ("science," "art"), 46 
Vidyadharas, 1-4, 10, 17, 22, 

28, 30 el sea. 
Vidyadharl, Prabhakara and, 

Vigne, G. T., " Widow- 
Burning," Travels in Kash- 
mir, 272 

Vijayadharmasuri , Mallinatha 
Caritra, 105 

Vijayanagar, sails in, 267, 

Vikramatunga, King, 173, 
175, 178-180 

Vimala, King, 225, 226 

Viravara, Story of the Brah- 
man, 173-181 

ViravatI, daughter of Vira- 
vara, 174, 178, 180 

Vishnu, 63, 70, 75, 159ft 1 , 
174, 186, 187, 189, 199, 
209, 213, 221, 275 

Vitala, one of the seven 
underworlds, 21 n 1 

Viveka (discernment), 105 

Vrislia (i.e. the dice known 
as the "bull"), 276 

Vrishabha, the mountain, 
185, 188 

Vulcan of the Hindus, 
Tvashtri the, 80, 80ft 1 

Wadia, P. D. H. ["Folklore 
in Western India"], Ind. 
Ant., 182 

Waldau, A.. Bohmisches 
Marchenbuch, 230* 

Walpurgisnacht. Herr Urian 
of the, 227ft 1 

Werner. E. T. C, China of 
the Chinese, 257ft 1 

Westermarck, History of 
Human Marriage, 255 2 
258 ; Origin and Develop- 
ment of the Moral Ideas, 
202ft 1 

Wheeler. W. D., Noted Names 
of Fiction, 145n 2 

Whiteman's Land of the Ice- 
landic Chronicles, identi- 
fication of Svetadvipa with, 

Whitney, W. D., trans, of 
Atharva-Veda, ed. C. R. 
I ..iiiin.iii. 263 

Williams, Monier, Indian 
Wisdom, 256 ; ed. of Nalo- 
pakhyanam, Start/ of Nala, 
trans. H. H. Milman, 

Yajur Veda, the, 95 
Yaksha named Sthulasiras,. 
226, 227 



Yama, God of Death, 9, 

9n, 110, 110n, 113, 213, 

238, 275, 276 
Yamuna river, 166n l 
Ya^ovarman and the two 

Fortunes, 195-198 
Yoga (magic), 4n* 
Yoga, magic art founded 

on Samkhya and, 22, 


Yogasutras of Pantafljali, 
teachings of the, 46 

Yogis, magical powers ob- 
tained by, 39, 39H 1 , 46- 

Yojanas (measures of dis- 
tance), 32, 247 

Yugas and dice, connection 
between the, 240n 1 , 241 n 

Yugas or Ages of the World, 

Yugas continued 

the four (Krita, Treta 

Dvapara, and Kali) 240n' 
Yule, H., and A. C Bunnell, 

"Suttee," Hobson Jobson, 


Zenobius, Cent., 256 
Zimmer, H., AltinduchM 

Leben, 255n 2 



Abode of Siva and Parvati, 

Kailasa, 180 
Abode of theblessed (Svarga), 

Abolish sati, attempt by 

Albuquerque to, 263 
Abolition of sati by Lord 

William Bentinck, 263 
Academy, The [" Jataka Stories 

the Myth of the Siren "], 

R. Morris, 229w 2 
Account for the custom of 

sati, Greek theory to, 

Account of ritual used at an 

asvamedha, 14-16; of sad 

by Duarte Barbosa, 269, 

270 ; of sati by Fernao 

Nuniz, 267, 268 ; of sati by 

Mandelslo, 270 ; of sati by 

Thomas Bowrey, 270 
Account of the Buddhist 

Literature of Nepal, R. L. 

Mitra, 229n 2 
Acharnians, Aristophanes, 

138ft 1 
Acquiring purity, the means 

of, 233 
" Act of Truth " motif, 127ft 1 ; 

of DamayantI, 239, 239w, 

288 ; of Manorama, 107 ; 

of Slta, 127 
Active method of entering 

another's body, 46, 47 
Adventure of the witch 

Sarabhanana, 82, 83 
Advisor of the Danavas, 

Sukra the spiritual, 28 
Mthiopica, Heliodorus, 239n 2 
African revival of sati , modern , 

"Ages of the World," H. 

Jacobi, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 240ft 1 
Ages of the World, or Yugas, 

the four (Krita, Treta, 

Dvapara and Kali), 240ft 1 
Air, the sword which enables 

one to fly through the, 

235, 236 
Aitareya Brahmana, the, 64ft 1 


Akbar, am Eastern Romance, 

van Limbourg - Brouwer, 

159m 1 
Alphabetical Index to the Ch ines 

Encyclopaedia, L. Giles, 

Altdeutsche u. altnordische 

Helden-Sagen, F. H. v. d. 

Hagen, 256 
A Itindisches Leben , H . Zim m er , 

255ft 2 
American Indian tribes, 

widow-burning among, 258 
Anchorite, one of the four 

ascetic stages (dsramas), 

240m 1 , 241 n 
Ancient Egyptians, suicide 

of widows among the, 

256, 257; Indo-Germanic 

custom, widow-burning an, 

255, 255w l 
Ancient Geography of India, 

A. Cunningham, 144ft 1 
Anger of Bhairava with the 

Yaksha, 227 
Angry look, reducing a bird 

to ashes by an, 232 
Animal divination, selecting 

a king by, 104 
Animals sacrificed to Agni- 

Soma, 16 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder-u. 

Hausm'drchen der Briider 

Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 

Polivka, 117ft 1 , 129ft, 132ft 1 , 

245n x 
Antidote to poison, a lotus 

that is an, 228, 229 
Antiquities of India, L. D. 

Barnett, 16, 258ft 1 
Antiquity of dsvamedha, or 

horse-sacrifice, 14; of saCt, 

258; of the use of the 

lasso, 199ft 8 
Appendix I: Widow-Burning, 

Appendix II: Nala and 

DamayantI, 275-292 
Arrival of Nala disguised as 

Bahuka, or Vahuka, in 

Vidarbha, 282, 283 

Art (vidya), 46 ; founded on 
Samkhyaand Yoga, magic, 
22, 46; of entering 
another's body {jmrasarira- 
avesa, parapurapravesa, 
par okay apravesa, deluintara- 
avesa, or anyadeliapravesako- 
yogah), 46 

"Art of Entering Another's 
Body, On the," M. Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 

Artificial poetry (Kavya), 277 

As You Like It, Shakespeare, 
245ft 1 

Ascetic and KingTribhuvana, 
the treacherous Pasupata, 

Ascetic stages of student, 
householder, anchorite and 
mendicant, the four 
(asramas), 240/1 1 , 241ft 

Asceticism practised to gain 
magic power, 46 

Ashes, reducing a bird to, 
by an angry look, 232; 
hunter reduced to, by the 
power of Damayanti's 
chastity, 244 

Asking poetical riddles, 
brahmodya, 16 

Astrologaster, Melton. 199ft 1 

"Asvamedha," K. Geldner, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Atliarva-Veda, the, 95, 263; 
trans. W. D. Whitney, ed. 
C. R. Lanman, 263 

Atrocious sati murders among 
the Sikhs in the Panjab, 264 

Attempts to suppress salt, 
early, 263 

Aureole or halo, 23n 2 

AusSchwaben, Birlinger, 93ft 2 , 
145ft 2 , 227ft 1 

Authority for m*, 262, 263 

" Authorshipof the Nalodaya, 
The," A. S. Ramanatha 
Ayyar, Joum. Roy. As. Soc., 

Avadana tiataka, the, 229n 2 



Babe made of Icusa grass, 128 
[" Badarinath "] W. Crooke, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

159,< l 
[" Badrinath," Pioneer] 

Indian Soles and (Queries, 


Bahar-i- Danish, the, 132H 1 
Barbarism, soft a relic of 

prehistoric, 258 
Barbosa, Book of Duarte, 

If. L. Dames, 269, 270 
Bathing-place, Pushkara the 

holy, 23 
Battle of King Chamarabala, 

199, 200 
Beasts' and birds' language 

understood by Bhiishajna, 

Belief in transmigration of 

souls, Buddhism and the, 

Bellum Goticum, Procopius, 

Benefits resulting from the 

asvamedha, 14 
Betel-leaf (pan), 271 
Bewildered by Destiny, 191 
Bewildering science, the, 56 
Bhairava," E. Washburn 

Hopkins, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 225n 2 
Biblical version of Joseph 

and Potiphar story, 104 
Bibliographic des Outrages 

Arabes, V. Chauvin, 48, 

132/1 1 , 235n 2 , 249n 
Bite (dasa), 245n 3 
Bite, Nala becomes deformed 

by a snake's, 245 
Bitten by a poisonous snake, 

Mahipala, 228, 229 
Blessed, abodeof the (Svarga), 

" Blood Sacrifice Complex, 

The," E. M. Loeb, Mem. 

Amer. Anlh. Ass., 65n 
Bloodthirsty rulers of early 

Egyptian dynasties, cus- 
toms connected with, 256, 

Bodies of women found in 

the tomb of Amen-hetep 1 1 

at Thebes, 256 
Body, charm to return to 

former, 20,21,25; laid by 

in case of need, old, 26; 

note on the power of enter- 
ing another's, 46-48 
Bbhmisches M'drchenbuch, A. 

Waldau, 230n* 

Book VIII (Suryaprabha), 

Book IX (AlankaravatI), 122- 

Book of Duarte Barbosa, The, 
M. L Dames, 269, 270 

Book of Siudibad, The, Clous- 
ton, 132n* 

Boons, the choice of two, 195 

Bow obtained by Surya- 
prabha^ a magic, 55 

Brahman Kala and his 
prayers, the, 23-25 

Br.. 1 1 in. -m ic rite ; satl not a, 258 

Brahmans, Theists and Muslims 
of India, J. C. Oman, 272 

Brass Age of the classics, 
Dvapara Hindu equivalent 
of the, 240W 1 

British Goblins, W. Wirt 
Sikes, 213/1 1 

Buddhism and the belief in 
transmigration of souls, 
25n 3 

Buddhist pilgrim, Hsiian- 
tsang the Chinese, 185/i 2 

"Bull," dice known as the 
(i.e. vrisha), 276 

Bull named Danta, a white, 

Bulletin de F Ecole Francaise 
d' extreme Orient, [review by] 
G. Coedes [in], 224 J 

Buried with early Egyptian 
kings, living slaves, 257 ; 
with Egyptian kings, 
Ushabtiu or Shabti figures, 

Burned with Kharak Singh 
against her will, one lady, 
264; with Nao Nihal 
Singh, two ladies, 264 ; 
with Raja Suchet Singh, 
three hundred and ten 
ladies, 264 ; with Ranjit 
Singh, four ladies, 264 

Burning an ancient Indo- 
Germanic custom, widow-, 
255, 255n* 

Burning of the wife of Sardar 
Shan Singh, voluntary, 264 

["Burning with the Dead 
by Men and Women Sati- 
Satu," W. J. D'Gruyther], 
Indian Notes and Queries, 

Cakes, offering of (pur- 
dasas), 15 

Calamity, throbbing indica- 
tive of, 93, 93n 2 

Cambridge History of India, 
" India in Early Greek and 
Latin Literature," 1 
Be van, 261 

Camphor, the true (Kapur 
Bams), 224n* 

Canterbury Tales, Chauc- 
145n l 

Castes, confusion of. in the 
Kali Yuga, 240n J 

Cavern, the sword concealed 
in a, 235 

Celestial swan, the, 237, 

Cell of iron, Chakra thrown 
into a, 230 

Cemetery (i.e. "Grove of I 
the Fathers "), 107 

Cent., Zenobius, 256 

Challenge of Pushkara to 
Nala, 242 

Chaplain (purodha), 105 

Characterof Bhairava, modern 
side of the, 225n a 

Characters of Theophrastus, 
The, R. C. Jebb, 94w 

Chariot Bhutasana. the magic, 
3-6, 8, 9, 12, 13 

Chariot-driving, Nala's skill 
in, 247, 248 

Chariot in the form of a white 
lotus, a, 57 

Charioteer of Indra, Matali, 
44, Un 1 , 187-189 

Charm to propitiate the 
Yaksha, the, 226; to re- 
turn to former body, 20, 
21, 25 

Chastity, might of Dama- 
yantl's, 243, 244; un- 
broken (abrahmavirati), 

Children of Chandrasvamin 
found, 228 

China of the Chinese, E. T. C. 
Werner, 257/1 1 

Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, 
Hsiian-tsang the, 185n 2 ; 
emperor Tunghwan, gol- 
den lotus made by the, 
129n; horse-sacrifices, 11; 
satis, honorary gateways 
(p'ai lou or p\ii fang) 
erected in honour of, 2 
widows, remarriage of, an 
act of unchastity, 2 
widows, methods of suicide 
of, 257 

Chinese Encye/o/xedia. The 
(Tu Shu Chi Ck< 



Choice, marriage by (svayarn- 
vara), Damayantl's, 238, 
240, 276; of two boons, 
the, 195 
Chronicle of the Kings of 
Kasmir, or RajataraAgini, 
Kalhana, trans. M. Aurel 
Stein, 264, 266 
Chronicon, Dithmar of Merse- 

burg, 255n a 
Citron filled with jewels, the, 

City of Indra (Svarga), 119 
Classical Dictionary of Hindu 
Mythology, etc., A, John 
Dowson, 233 n 1 
Cleansed, dresses cast into 

flames to be, 246 n 
Coins struck to celebrate 

horse-sacrifice, 14 
Collective name of the seven 
underworlds, Patalas, 21m 1 
Collyrium, the magic oint- 
ment, or, 90, 90m 1 
Comfort of the idol at Badari- 

natha, personal, 160n 
Comparison, phrases of, 20/1 1 , 

Compassion, the reward of, 

Comus, Milton, 243n 2 
Concubine strangled on the 
pyre of Scythian kings, 256 
Condemnation of salt by the 
Sikh Guru Amar Das, 263 ; 
in the Atharva-Veda, 263 
Conduct falls into neglect in 
the Kali Yuga, good, 241w 
Confession of Nala. 249, 

Confusion of castes in the 

Kali Yuga, 240w l 
Connection between the 
Yugas and dice. 240m 1 , 
Consecration of the king 

(dtksha), 16 
Contaminating touch, or 

shadow, of a widow, 259 
Contemplation, doctrine of 

mystic, 25, 25n 2 
Continual strife in the Kali 

Yuga, 241n 
Contos Populares Portuguezes, 

Coelho, 132n x 
Cook, Nala takes service with 

King Rituparna as, 246 
Cooking. Nala's skill in, 246, 

248, 249 
Corn oblation offered to horse, 


Corruption, Nirriti a goddess 

of death and," 108, 108n 3 
" Cosmogony and Cosmology 
(Indian)," H. Jacobi, 
Hastings' Ency. Hel. Eth., 

21m 1 
Countries round the Bay of 

Bengal, Thomas Bowrey, 

ed. R. C. Temple, 270 
Courier, Palagati, a low-caste 

daughter of a, 15 
Cremation, Nimbapuram near 

Talarigattu, place of, 268 
Cremations, a grass hut used 

for, 271; in a pit, 270; 

usually held on a pyre, 270 
Crow, raven and magpie, 

superstitions regarding 

the, 93w a 
Cruel (palasa), 170n x 
Cult of the Earth-Mother. 

177m 1 
Curious Myths of the Middle 

Ages, Baring-Gould, 185/t 2 , 

245m 1 
Curse, of gambling, the, 242 ; 

of the dice deities, the, 

240; of Karttikeya, 214; 

of the hermit Kapilajata, 

155; the parent's, 230, 

230n 2 , 231 
Custom of safi in China, 257 
Customs connected with 

bloodthirsty rulers of early 

Egyptian dynasties, 256, 


Dancing-teacher called 
Labdhavara, a, 156-158 

Dancing with the Teutonic 
Bhairava on the Blocks- 
berg, 227m 1 

Dangers, the three, 216, 217 

Dasa Kumara Charita, the, 
132m 1 

Date of introduction of salt 
into India, 256 ; of Nala 
and DamayantI story, early. 

Dead woman to life, power 
to raise a, 145, 145n 2 

Dead, Yama judge of the, 9, 

Death and corruption, Nirriti 
a goddess of, 108, 10S/'i 3 ; 
Fate, Time (kala), 24m 1 ; 
God of (Yama), 108n a ; of 
Paris, suicide of OZnone on 
the. 256; of the king, earth 
laments the predestined, 
175, 176 

Debt, sitting in dharna used 

to retrieve a, 102n x 
Decameron, Boccaccio, 165n x , 

Decameron, its Sources and 
Analogues, The, A. C. Lee, 
166n, 183 
"Deceitful Wives" motif, 

165m 1 , 166n 
Deceptive trick, a (kaitavand- 

taka). 106 
" Deduction " or " Quint- 
essence" motif, 86, 87, 
87m 1 
Deformed by snake's bite, 

Nala becomes, 245 
Deities, dice (Kali and Dva- 

para), 240, 240m 1 
Delay of Bhairava, reason for 

the. 225, 227 
Demon of gambling (Dva- 
para), 240, 240m 1 ; (Kali), 
240, 240m 1 
Demons of indigestion, the, 

196, 197 
Dependent of a king (karpa- 
tika), 168m 1 ; of Narava- 
hanadatta, the, 168, 173 
Description, falling in love 

by, 237, 238 
Description of Greece. 
Pausanias, trans. J. G. 
Frazer, 249 n 
Desertion of Damayanti by 

Nala, 243, 278, 279 
Destiny, bewildered by, 191 
Destiny, Suprabha and his 

escape from, 176 
Destroyer of Tripura (Siva), 

Destruction (Nirriti), a god- 
dess of death and corrup- 
tion, 108, 108n 8 
Detectors, poison, 228n x 
Deutsche Rechtsaltertumer, 

J. L. C. Grimm, 255 
Deutschen Volksbucher, Die, 

Simrock, 128m 1 
Devotion to a husband, virtue 
of, 232 ; to parents, virtue 
of, 233 
Devout (saa), 258 
Diamond -peak (i.e. Vajra- 

kuta), 1 
Dice, connection between the 
Yugas and, 240nS 241n; 
deities, curse of the, 240; 
deities (Dvaparaand Kali), 
240, 240n ; in the form of 
swans, 242 ; known as the 
"bull" (i.e. vrisha), 276 



Dice continued 

Nala loses all at, 242; 

Hituparna exchanges his 

skill in, "247, 248 
Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, 

etc., A Classical, John 

Dowson, 233 ; l 
Dictionary of Kashmiri Pro- 
verbs. J. H. Knowles, 48 
Die, side of the, marked with 

one point (Kali), 240H 1 ; 

side of the, marked with 

two points (Dvapara), 240ft 1 
Discernment (vivelca), 105 
Diseases afflict mankind in 

the Kali Yuga, 241 n 
Distance, measures of 

[i/o /anas). 32, 274 
Divination, selecting a king 

by animal, 104 
Divine Mothers, the, 225, 

225ft 1 , 227 
Divine years (360 human 

years), 240ft 1 
Division of personality (kdya- 

vyuha), 4n x ; of personality 

by Suryaprabha, 4, 4ft 1 
Doctrine of mystic contem- 
plation, 25, 25n 2 
Double sati in Kashmir, a, 

266, 267 
" Dravidians (North Indian)," 

W. Crooke, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel, Eth., 177ft 1 
" Drei Sprachen, Die," 

Grimm, Kinder-u. Haus- 

mdrchen, 145 ft 1 
Dresses cast into flames to be 

cleansed, 246ft 
Driving, Nala exchanges his 

skill in, 247, 248 
Dweller in the Vindhya hills 

(Parvati, Durga, U ma, etc.), 

Dwelling (vasati), 101 n 8 

Early attempts to suppress 
salt, 263 ; date of Nala and 
Damayant! story, 275 

Early Ideas : A Group of 
Hindoo Stories, Anaryan 
(F. F. Arbuthnot), 48 

Earth goddess, the (Prithivl), 
177ft 1 

Earth (hi), 174ft 1 ; laments 
the predestined death of 
the king, 175, 176; Vasu- 
mati, the, 21ft 1 

East, widow- burning in the 
Far, 255, 257 

Eastern Romances and Stories, 
A Group of, Clouston, 
139ft 2 , 182 
Edda, the, 145** 1 
Egyptian dynasties, customs 
connected with blood- 
thirsty rulers of early, 256, 
257 ; kings, Ushabtiu or 
S/uibti figures buried with, 
Egyptians, suicide of widows 
among the ancient, 256, 257 
Election, garland of, cast at 

Nala, 239 
Empire snmatranais de Crivi- 
jaya, L' . G. Ferrand, 224ft 1 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings' : " Ages 
of the World" H. Jacobi, 
240ft 1 ; " Asvamedha," 
K. Geldner, 16; [" Badar- 
Inath"] W. Crooke, 159ft 1 ; 
" Bhairava," E. Washburn 
Hopkins, 225ft 2 ; "Cos- 
mogony and Cosmology 
(Indian)," H. Jacobi, 21ft 1 ; 
"Dravidians (North 
Indian)," W. Crooke, 
177ft 1 ; "Fate (Hindu)," 
J. Jolly, 182; "Human 
Sacrifice," 65ft ; " Karma," 
L. de la Vallee Poussin, 
182; "Om," A. B. Keith, 
176ft 1 ; " Yoga," R. Garbe, 
39ft 1 
Energies of the principal 
deities, personified (the 
Mothers), 69, 69ft 1 
English Folk-Lore, Thiselton 

Dyer, 93n 2 , 99n 2 , 116n 2 
Enjoyment preferable to 

wealth, 198 
Entering another's body, art 
of (parasarlra-dvesa, para- 
purapravesa, parakdyapra- 
vesa, dehdntara-dvesa, or 
anyadehapravesakoyogah), 46 
Entering another's body, note 

on the power of, 46-48 
" Entering Another's Body, 
On the Art of," M. Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Phil. 
Soc., 47 
" Episode of Nala," or Nalo- 
pakhydna (Mahdbhdrata), 
Escape from Destiny, 

Suprabha and his, 176 
Ethnographic Notes in South- 
ern India, E. Thurston, 
122ft 1 , 171ft 1 , 245ft 1 

Etudes Folkloriques, E. 
Cosquin, 48 

Eunuch, Prabhakara dis- 
covered to be a, 226; 
Yaksha becomes a, 224fl 

European form of the word 
sail, suttee, 258 

Evil influence of Kali on 
Nala, 241, 242 

Evil (ku), 174ft 1 

Examples of entering an- 
other's body, 47 

Excellence (gttna), 8m 1 

Exempla of the Rabbis, M.J 
Gaster, 192ft 1 

Faithful wife, the hermit and 

the, 232, 233 
Falling in love, by description, 

237, 238 ; with a painting, 

131, 132, 132ft 1 , 207, 208 
False svayamvara, the, 247 
" False Virgin " motif, 166ft 
Far East, widow-burning in 

the, 255, 257 
Fate, Death, Time (kdla), 

24ft 1 ; (kala, daiva, karma, 

vidhi, etc.), 182 ; or Destiny, 

note on, 182, 183 
"Fate (Hindu)," J. Jolly, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

" Fathers, Grove of the I 

(i.e. cemetery), 107 
Faust, Goethe (trans. Bayard 

Taylor), 227ft 1 
Fight with the Vidyadharas, 

the, 10. 11 
Figures buried with Egyptian 

kings, Ushabtiu or Shabti, 

Fire (agneh), 263 
Fire, God of (Agni), 108 
" Fire -bleached," the pair 

of garments named. 245, 

245ft 4 , 250 
First (agre), 263 
Five lighter vows, the 

(anuvrata), 105 
Fivefold obeisance to the 

Jaina Saviours (pahcana- 

maskrti), 107 
Flames of its own accord, 

wood bursts into, 

248ft 1 ; to be cleansed, 

dresses cast into, 246fl 
" Flavour, full of (poetical) I 

(rasika), 137ft 1 
Flesh. Dharmavy/idha a 

seller of, 232, 233 

Flowers and fruit lucky 

omens, 171m 1 
Fly through the air, the 

sword which enables one 

to, 235, 236 
Folk- Lore ; [" Snake Stones "] 

W. R. Halliday, 245m 1 ; 

" Snakestones," W. W. 

Skeat, 245m 1 
["Folklore in Western 
* India"] P. D. H. Wadia, 

Ind. Ant., 182 
Folk-Lore of Bombay, R. E. 

Enthoven, 70ft, 94ft, 122m 1 , 

171ft 1 , 177ft 1 
Folklore of the Northern 

Counties of England, 

Henderson. 93n 2 
Foot (charana), 186 4 
Forbidden in Malabar, safi, 

Forced on to the pyre, wives 

of Jawfihir Singh, 264 
Forces of Suryaprabha, 

gathering of the, 51, 52 
Forest, Nala and Damayanti 

in the, 278-280 
Forgery of a portion of the 

Rig- Veda, 262, 263 
Forgive me (mrishyatam), 

232ft 1 
Forgotten Empire, A, R. 

Sewell, 267 
Form of address from wife to 

husband, "Noble lord" 

(aryaputra), 34, 34m 1 
Form of marriage, the gan- 

dharva, 32, 34 
Form of Nala, gods assume 

the, 239 
Former body, charm to re- 
turn to, 20, 21, 25 
Fountain of life. 145ft 2 
Four ascetic stages of student, 

householder, anchorite and 

mendicant (dsramas), 241n 
Fruit and flowers lucky 

omens, 171ft 1 ; and leaves 

of jewels, 128m 1 , 129n, 

139, 139n 2 
Full of great monsters 

(mahasattva), 180n 2 
"Full of (poetical) flavour" 

(rasika), 137ft 1 

Gambler named Sudarsana, 
a, 158, 159 

Gambling, demons of 
(Dvapara and Kali), 240, 
240m 1 ; the curse of, 242 


Garland of election cast at 
Nala, 239 

Garment, swan flies off with 
Nala's, 242; taken by 
Nala, half Damayanti's 
upper, 243, 278 

Garments named '-fire- 
bleached," the pair of, 
245, 245m*, 250 

Gateways, honorary (p'ail ou 
or p'ai fang), erected in 
honour of Chinese satis, 257 

Gathering of the forces of 
Suryaprabha, 51, 52 

Geographical positions of 
islands of Karpura, Su- 
varna. Sunhala, etc., 224m 1 

Geschichte von Nala, Die, 
Versuch einer Herstellung 
des Textes, C. Bruce, 292 

Getting rid of an unwanted 
widow, methods of, 260 

Girdle (kanchi), 8ft 1 

Glossary of the Tribes and 
Castes of the Punjab and 
North- West Frontier Prov- 
ince, H. A. Rose, 272 

God Bhairon, the village, 
225m 2 

God of Death (Yama), 110, 
110m 2 ; of Fire(Agni), 110, 
238; of Love (Kama), 1, 
106, 152, 156, 187, 207, 
209, 237; of the Wind 
(Vayu), 110ft, 238; of 
Wealth (Kuvera), 13, 110, 
110m 6 , 113 

Goddess of Death and cor- 
ruption (Nirriti), 110, 
110m 3 

Goddess, Prithivi, the earth-, 
177ft 1 

Gods and venerable men, an 
oblation to (argha), 18, 28, 
assume the form of Nala, 
239 ; called Sivas, world of 
the, 25, 25ft 1 ; king of the 
(Indra), 176 

Gold Age of the classics, 
Krita, the Hindu equiva- 
lent of the, 240m 1 

Golden Bough, The, G. Frazer, 
15, 16 

Golden lotuses, 128, 129n; 
vine over the gate of the 
temple at Jerusalem, 129n 

Good (sati), 258 ; conduct 
falls into neglect in the 
Kali Yuga, 241 n ; fortune, 
throbbing of right eye 
indicates, 122, 122ft 1 ; 


Good continued 

(mahasattva), 180m 2 ; quality 

(sadguna), 237m 2 ; thread 

(sadguna), 237ft 2 
Grass, Damayanti's feet cut 

by darbha, 242 ; hut used 

for cremations, 271 ; kuia, 

155, 243 
Great Mothers, worship of 

the, 225/, I 
Greek form of Kshatriyas 

(Cathaeans), 261 ; invaders 

of Northern India, view of 

the custom of sati by, 261 ; 

theory toaccountfor custom 

of sad, 262 
Griechische Mdrchen, Sagen u. 

V olkslieder, Bernhard 

Schmidt, 65ft, 145 2 
Griechische Mythologie, L. 

Preller, 65w, 230m 2 , 245ft* 
Griechische. Roman, Der, 

Rodhe, 132ft 1 , 185ft 1 
Group of Eastern Romances 

and Stories, A, Clouston, 

139n 2 , 182 
"Grove of the Fathers" 

(i.e. cemetery), 107 
Guardians of the world, the 

eight Lokapalas, or, 43, 

43ft 2 , 45 

Half Damayanti's upper gar- 
ment taken by Nala, 243, 

Halo or aureole, 23ft' 

Hampi Ruins, A. H. Long- 
hurst, 261,268 

Handsome King Prithvirupa, 
Story of the, 130-135 

Happy, healthy or well-fed, 
widows must not look, 
259 ; reunion of Nala and 
Damayanti, the, 250, 291 

Hard lot of the widow in 
India, 258-260 

Hatitns Tales, M. Aurel 
Stein and G A. Grierson. 
48, 104 

Head, light from the, 23, 
23ft 1 

Helden-Sagen, Altdeutsche u. 
altnordische, F. H. v. d. 
Hagen, 256 

Herabhinft des Fetters u. des 
Gottertranks. Kuhn, 145ft 2 

Herbs, the seven magic, 62 

Hercules Furens. Seneca, 65ft 1 

Hermit and the faithful wife, 
the, 232, 233 


Himalayan Gazetteer, Atkin- IIhoh uf llortleaux, I29n Introduction of sad into 

Mm l.V.oi 1 Husband. \irtuc of devotion India, date of the, 256 

Hindus human sacrifices to a 232 Invaders of Northern India, 

anion;' tin- nl/! ! Hut used for cremations, a view of the custom of 

Hist i I'hiliuophur, hitter grass. JT1 sail by Greek, 261 

anil I'reller, l"-",! 1 Ilvmn of praise to Durga, 1 79, Iron Age uf the classics, 

His! Futtttn. Duulop 1 S| > ; to (ianesa, 213, 211 Kali Hindu equivalent of 

I I.iehreeht's trans), 129/1, Hvpnotism, passive method the, 240 n' 

I -- ' 1 1"' t 1 : of entering another's hodv Iron Wheel, (hakra and the, 
//::, >f Human Mamas!?. a kind of. IT 229-231 

\N estermarck. -->>u : . 2.>S Hysmine and Ut/sinintas, 

Histum of the Forty le.irx. Kustathius. 12S l , 1 15;<- Jaina Saviours (Arhats). 107; 

F .' W (iihh and Sheykh fivefold oheisance to the 

/ill i I s Identification of Svetadvipa, {paiicanamaskrti), 107 

Hist 'he Indian Anhi- 1S5h- Jaina texts, frequent occur- 

pelag" ' t'rawfurd 2.">S Idol at Badarinatha. de- rence of 'scorned love of 

History of the I'xeudo- scription of the. 159/j 1 , women" motif in, 105 

( txtlienes. (' Midler, loO/i Jaina vow (diksna), 105 

12", '. 129/1, l^."),, 1 // He S'ata : Triloba dram- " Jataka Stories the Myth 

llitnttadiw'a. the (Johnson's matiea, A. de Gubernatis, of the Siren."' K. Morris, 

trans |. IT. - ;/* 1 292 Academy. 229m 2 

llidisun Johxon. " Suttee." Iliad. Homer, ill'/' 1 Jewelled crest, the snake 

II Yule and A (' Burnell. Immolation of Brunhild in the with the, 245, 245/i 1 

272 Nibelung myth, 255, 25(5 Jewels, a house composed of, 

Holiness of Allahabad. HWin 1 Imperial Gazetteer of India. 235; a water-melon filled 

Holv bathing-place. Push- 272 with. 182 ; fruit and leave* 

kara. 23 'India in Marly (ireek and of, 128n l , 129/1, 139, 139*] 

Honorary gateways (p'ai lou Latin Literature.'' K. U. the citron filled with. 109- 

or p'ai fans!), erected in Bevan, Cambridge History 172 

honour of Chinese satis, of India, 2G1 "Joseph and Potiphar in 
- Indian Antiquary [-Folklore Hindu Fiction." M. Bloom- 
Horror of Indian widowhood, in Western India"], field. Trans. Amer. PhiL 

->-'/ P. I). II. Wadia, 182; Ass., 104, 107 

Horse Asikala. the. 209; '-The Merchant who Journ. As. Soc. liengal, 

offered to Prajapati. 1 ) ; struck his Mother."' S. Human Sacrifices in 

sacrifice (asramedha). 9, 14- Beal. 229,/- ; ["On India." R. L. Mitra, 64/1 1 

In. I * ; sacrifice, sacrifice Sulasa '" ] Jacobi. tilt/, 1 Journ. Hoy. As. Soc.: "The 

of a man required at the, Indian Sates and Queries Authorship of the Nalo- 

''1' '; the vehicle" of [Burning with the Dead daya." A. S. Ramnnatha 

the sun-god. 11 by Men and Women Ayyar, 277; ["The 

House composed of jewels, a, Sati-Satu." D'Gruyther, Source of Colebrooke's 

'-'"' W.T .]. 272; [ Badrinath," Essay 'On the Duties of 

Householder, one of the four Pioneer]. 1*>"/, a Faithful Hindu Widow'"] 

ascetic stages [asramas), Indian tribes (American). Fitzed ward Hall, 2G2/1 1 

-l 11 ' 2il/i widow-burning among. 25iS Judge of the dead. Yama the, 

'Human Sacrifice " Hast- Indian Wisdom. Monier ( .*. 9,, 3 

m_ I'.mi/ h'el. Eth.. )") Williams 25*5 Jujube tree, lord of the 

Hum. in sacrifice {purusha- Indien u. dax Ckristentum, R. ftadari or " (Vishnu), 159n l 

median >' \ 1. 1,, 1 Garbe. IS5n- Junction, triple (triveni), 166* 1 

Human .acrificc-, in Greece, Indigestion, the demons of, 

: prevalence of. 01k' ; 19*5, 197 "Karma." L. de la Vallee 

to ('fiamuiida ll'.t/i 1 ; to I ndo-G ermanic custom. Poussin, Hastings' Ency. 

Chandika. t.l,. 1 widow-burning an ancient. lie/. Eth., 182 

" Human Sacrifices in India " 255, 255 />' Kathakoca. trans. C. H. 

K I. Mitra ./mini ./., \,, r Inducements offered to Tawney. 47. 1 17/t 1 

Hrngal, OIj salts. 2*50 Kinder-und Hausmarchem, 

Human year-, .''>'," (one Influence of Kali on Nala, (irimm. 129, 145n J 

Divine year) 2t*i evil. 211. 242 King of the gods (Indra), 

Hunter reduced to ashes by Injustice {avichara). 1 71 // l 17*5 

the power of Damayanti's Innocent man accused of King of the snakes, Vasuki, 

chastitv, 244 theft. 191. 192. 192/ t i 201, 212 



King of Vatsa. the, 1, 2, 121- 


187-190, 251 
Kite carries awav necklace, 

192, 192ft 1 
Koranic version of Joseph and 

Potiphar story, 104 

Ladies burned with Nao 

Xihal Singh, two, 264 ; 

with Raja Suchet Singh, 

three hundred and ten, 

264 ; with Ranjit Singh, 

four, 264 
Lady burned against her 

will with Kharak Singh, 

Lament of DamayantI, 243, 

Language of beasts and birds 

understood by Bhashajna, 

Lasso, antiquity of the use 

of the, 199, 199ft* 
Leaves and fruit of jewels, 

128ft 1 , 129n, 139, 139 2 
Library, Apollodorus, 256 
Life and Stories of Parcvandtha , 

M. Bloomfield, 47 
Life, fountain of, 145ft 2 ; 

grows shorter in the Kali 

Yuga, term of, 241ft 1 ; on 

the next world a reflex of 

this life, 255 
Light from the head, 23, 

23ft 2 
Lighter vows, the five 

(anuvraia), 105 
Limb, Siva invoked by 

different name for each, 

199, 199ft 1 
Limbs of Jayamati hurt by 

pilferers in ascending the 

pyre, 267 
Line (charana), 186ft 4 
Literature, other occurrences 

of the story of Nala in 

Sanskrit, 277, 278 
Living slaves buried with 

early Egyptian kings, 257 
[Llyfre Coch Hergest] 

"The Mabinogion," Lady 

C. Guest, 213H 1 
Look, reducing a bird to 

ashes by an angry, 232 
" Lord of the badari, or 

jujube tree" (Vishnu), 

159ft 1 
Loss of self-restraint of Nala 

owing to Kali, 141, 142 

Lot of the widow in India, 

hard, 258-260 
Lotus, chariot in the form of 

a white, 57 
Lotus de la Bonne Loi, I < . 

E. Burnouf, 23n 2 
Lotus that destroys poison, 

the unfading, 228, 229 
Lotuses, golden, 128, 129n 
Love by description, falling 

in, 237, 238; is scorned, 

women whose, 91, 104-107 ; 

science of (kamasdstrartha), 

106; the God of (Kama), 

1, 106, 152, 156, 187, 207, 

209, 237 ; with a painting, 

falling in, 131, 132, 132m 1 , 

207, 208 
Loves of Anangaprabha, the 

many, 152-162 
Low-caste daughter of a 

courier {Pdlagati), 15 
Lucky omens, 122, 122ft 1 , 

171ft 1 
Lying speech, wicked women 

sprung from, 93, 93ft 1 

" Mabinogion, The," Lady 
C. Guest [Llyfre Coch O 
Hergest], 213ft 1 

Madras Soft Regulation, The, 

Magic art founded on 
Samkhya and Yoga, 22, 
46 ; bow obtained by 
Suryaprabha, 55 ; chariot 
Bhiitasana, the, 3, 4, 6, 8, 
9, 12, 13; herbs, the seven, 
62 ; ointment or collyrium, 
the, 90, 90ft 1 ; power, 
asceticism practised to gain, 
46 ; quiver obtained by 
Suryaprabha, 54 ; ring of 
Canace, the, 145ft 1 ; {yoga), 
4ft 1 

Magical powers obtained by 
Yogis, the, 39, 39ft 1 , 46-48 

Magpie, raven and crow, 
superstitions regarding, 
93ft 2 

Mahdbhdrala, the. 4ft 1 , 15, 
47, 104, 166ft, 233ft 1 , 239ft 1 , 
240ft 1 , 241, 243ft 1 , 249w, 
258, 275, 276, 278 

Mdlafi Mddhava, Bhavabhuti, 
149ft 1 

Malavikagnimitra, trans. C. H. 
Tawney, 15 

Mallindtha Caritra, Vijaya- 
dharmasuri, 105 

Mankind afflicted with dis- 
ease in the Kali Yuga, 
241 n 

Many bodies taken by Surya- 
prabha, 4, 4ft 1 

Miirchen der Magyaren, Gaal, 
213ft 1 

Marriage, by choice (svayam- 
vara), Damayantl's. 238- 
240, 276; the gandhana 
form of, 32, 34 

Meaning (artha), 164n* 

Means of acquiring purity, 

Measure of time (Kalpa), 2, 
23, 23ft 1 , 25, 106 

Measures, of distance {yo- 
janas), 32, 247 ; the six 
kingly, 186, 186ft* 

Melon filled with jewels, a 
water-, 182 

Mem. Amer. Anth. Ass., "The 
Blood Sacrifice Complex," 
E. M. Loeb, 65w 

Memorial stone or pillar 
erected to satis, 260, 261 

Mendicant, one of the four 
ascetic stages (dsramas), 
240ft 1 , 241ri 

Merchant of Venice, Shake- 
speare, 183 

"Merchant who struck his 
Mother, The," S. Beal, 
Ind. Ant., 229ft 2 

Method of intended suicide 
(sitting in dharnd), 202ft 1 

Methodsof entering another's 
body, active and passive, 
46, 47 ; of getting rid of 
an unwanted widow, 260 ; 
of suicide of Chinese 
widows, 257 

Metrical version of the Story 
of Nala and DamayantI, 

Might of Damayantl's chas- 
tity, 243, 244 

Mille et un Jours, Les, Dervish 
Makhlis of Ispahan, 48, 
132ft 1 

Minos, Plato, 65 

Modern African revival of 
sad, 257 ; side of character 
of Bhairava, 225m 2 ; times, 
sads in more, 271, 272 

Moles on the human body, 
significance of, 99, 99 2 

Monkey-god, Hanuman the, 

Monsters, full of grea 
{mahdsattva), 180w 



Month of Phalguna, the, 

Monumenta Germania historica, 
G. H. Pertz, 255ft* 

Monumental Antiquities and 
Inscriptions of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, 
L. A. Fuhrer, 166m 1 

Mother of the gods, Danu 
the, 64 

Mothers, the Divine, 225, 
225k 1 , 226; the personified 
energies of the principal 
deities, 69, 69m 1 ; the 
planets which influence 
the unborn child, 70n 

Motif, the "Act of Truth," 
127ft 1 ; the "Deceitful 
Wives," 165m 1 , 166n; the 
" False Virgin," 166n; the 
"Quintessence," or "De- 
duction," 86, 87, 87m 1 

Mount Meru, 138, 138m 1 

Movement of sheep (avi- 
chdra), 17 4m 1 

Mundy, Travels of Peter, in 
Europe and Asia, ed. R. C. 
Temple, 270 

Murder of King Uchchala of 
Kashmir, 266 

Murders among the Sikhs in 
the Panjab, atrocious sati, 

Music, the three different 
styles of, 86m 2 

Mystic contemplation, doc- 
trine of, 25, 25n 2 ; syllable 
Om, the, 176, 176m 1 

Mythes el Legendes de l" Inde et 
de la Perse, Les, L^veque, 
150/1 1 

Naishadha, Sriharsha, 277 

Sal a Damajanti. Bdje In- 
dicted. Cesky vypravuje, J. 
Libansky\ 292 

Nal innl Damajanti. Eine in- 
dische Gescktchte, bearbeitet, 
von F. Ruckert, 292 

Nala and Damayanti : a Drama 
in Five Acts, 292 

Naladamay and/cat hanaka , from 
the Nalojxikhyana, 292 

Nala e Damaianti, tradotto 
per St Gatti, 292 

Nala och Damayanti, en indisk 
dikt ur Mahabharata fr'dn 
originalet bfversatt, H. 
Kellgren, 292 

Nala-Raja, the Tamil, 278 

Nala, traduit en francais, par. 

E. Burnouf, 292 
Nala mul Damajanti, iiber- 

setzt u. erliiutert von E. 

Meier, 292 
Nalas mul Damajanti, eine in- 

dische Dichtung aus dem 

Sanskrit iibersetzt, F. Bopp, 

Nalodaya, Vasudeva, 277 
Nalopakhyana, or "Episode 

of Nala" (Mahabharata), 

Nalopakhyanam, Story of Nala, 

trans. H. H. Milman, ed. 

Monier Williams, 278 
Nalopakhyanam, or Tale of 

Nala, Text and Vocabulary, 

Th. Jarrett, 292 
Nalus, a Sanskrit Poem from 

the Mahabharata, Latin 

trans. F. Bopp, 292 
Native states, recent satis in, 

Necklace of the Princess 

Chakrasena, the, 191, 192 
Neglect in the Kali Yuga, 

good conduct falls into, 

Next world a reflex of this, 

life in the, 255 
Nibelung myth, the immola- 
tion of Brunhild in the, 

255, 256 
Nights, The Thousand and 

One, R. F. Burton, 21n, 

90ft 1 , 108n 2 , 132n 1 , 192ft 1 , 

249ft 1 
Nimbus of Greek divinities, 

23ft 2 
Nionde och tionde sangerna af 

Nala och Damayanti, fran 

Sanskrit bfversatt, E. G. F., 

Olbers, 292 
"Noble Lord" (aryaputra), 

form of address from wife 

to husband, 34, 34w x 
Noble (mahasattva), 180w 2 
Nodes Indicoe sive qucestiones 

in Nalum Mahabharateum, 

L. Grasberger, 292 
North Indian Notes and Queries 

[" Satti Worship in Rajpu- 

tana," P. W. Powlett], 

Note on Fate or Destiny, 

182, 183 ; on the power 

of entering another's body, 

Noted Names of Fiction, W. D. 

Wheeler, 145w 2 

Notes on the Nalopakhyanam, 

or Tale of Nala, J. Peile, 

Nottinghamshire Facts and .F8H 

tions, J. P. Briscoe, 99n 2 
Novelle Letterarie <li Fit 

I -.u ii i . 166ft 
" Nur al-Dln Ali and his Son, 

Story of," Nights, Burton, 


Obedience to parents, duty 

of, 230, 231 
Obeisance to the Jaina 

Saviours, the fivefold (/;- 

canamaskrti), 107 
Oblation offered to horse, a 

corn, 16 ; to gods and 

venerable men, an (argha) ( 

18, 28 
Obscene act with the horse, 

performed by the queen, 

Obstacles, Vanquisher of 

(Ganesa), 119 
Ocean of Story, the, 14 
Odes, Horace, 93w 2 
Odyssey. Homer, 58ft 2 , 120ft l , 

i51ft 2 
Offering of cakes (purodasai), 

Offerings to Savitri, 15 
Offspring (praja), 164ft 1 
Ointment, or collyrium, the 

magic, 90, 90ft 1 
Old body laid by in case of 

need, 26 
Old Deccan Days, M. Frere, 

"Om," A. B. Keith, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 176ft 1 
Omens, lucky, 122, 122nS 

171ft 1 
Omens, unfavourable, 93, 

93ft 2 , 94w 
One point, side of the die 

marked with (Kali), 240n' 
Origin and Development of the 

Moral Ideas. Westermarck, 

202ft 1 
Osiris and the Egyptian Resur- 
rection, E. A. Wallis Budge, 

Outcry, wild (phutkarishye- 

taram), 107 
Oxford History of India, 

V. A. Smith ,'264 

Painting, falling in love with 
a, 131, 132, 132ft 1 , 207, 

Pair of garments named, 

"fire-bleached," the, 245, 

245n 4 , 250 
Punjab Sates and Queries. See 

Indian Notes and Queries 
Pantschatantra, the, Benfey, 

192n>, 196ns 230^, 245n x 
Paradise Lost, Milton, 80n l , 

Paradise, mandara one of the 

five trees of, 128, 128n 2 
Parent's curse, the, 230, 

230n 2 
Parents, duty to. 230, 231 ; 

virtue of devotion to, 233 
Passive method of entering 

another's body, 47 
Patient, be (mrishyatdm), 

Pausanias's Description of 

Greece. J. G. Frazer, 14, 

65,i, 249n, 258 
Persian Tales. See under 

Mille et un Jours 
Persistency of a would-be 

safi in Jubbulpore, 271, 

Personal comfort of the idol 

at Badarinatha, 160n 
Personality by Suryaprabha, 

division of, 4, 4n x ; division 

of (kaya-vyuha) , 4n x 
Peter Mundy in Europe and 

Asia, Travels of, R. C. 

Temple, 270 
Phonnio, Terence. 138n* 
Phrases of comparison. 20w x , 

Pilferers, limbs of Jayamati 

hurt by, in ascending the 

pyre, 267 
Pillar or memorial stone 

erected to satis, 260, 261 
Pit, cremations in a, 270 
Place of cremation Nimba- 

puram near Talarigattu, 

" Place of sacrifice," Prayaga 

(Allahabad), 166W 1 
Planets which influence the 

unborn child, mothers the, 

Poems dealing with Nala's 

adventures, 277, 278 
Poetical riddles, asking 

{brahmodya), 16 
Poetry, artificial (Kavya), 277 
Points of the die, symbolical 

meaning of the, 240n* 
Poison detectors, 228n x ; the 

unfading lotus that de- 


Poison continued 

stroys, 228, 229; usual 
mode of death for Chinese 
satis, 257 

Poisonous snake, Mahipala 
bitten by a, 228, 229 

Popular Antiquities, Brand, 
99? ( , 199n 

Popular Religion and Folk- 
Lore of Northern India, 
W. Crooke, 55^, 177nS 
225nS 235n 2 , 245n l , 271 

Popular Tales and Fictions, 
Clouston, 192n* 

Popular Tales of the West 
Highlands, J. F. Campbell, 

Possessing pre-eminent virtue 
(sattvavara), 177n 3 

Posture, the kayotsarga, 106 

Power, asceticism practised 
to gain magic, 46 ; of 
entering another's body, 
note on the, 46-48 ; of 
parent's curse, 230n 2 ; of 
winking, 239 ; to raise a 
dead woman to life, 145, 
145n 2 

Powers obtained by Yogis, 
magical, 39, 39n x , 46-48 

Prabandhacintamani, trans. 
C. H. Tawney, 47 

Prayers, the Brahman Kala 
and his, 23-25 

Predestined death of the 
king, earth laments. 175, 

Prehistoric Antiquities of the 
Aryan Peoples, O. Schrader, 
255 u 1 

Prehistoric barbarism, sati a 
relic of, 258 

Pride, punishment for, 142, 

Priests at an ahamedha, four, 
14, 15 

Primitive Culture, Tylor, 64-n 1 , 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., " On 
the Art of Entering An- 
other's Body," M. Bloom- 
field, 47 

Prostitute, one has been a 
(Randiranda), name given 
to widows, 259 

Pseud o-Callisthenes, the, 
138n l , 145n 2 

Punishment of pride, the, 
142, 143 

Puranas, the, 64n l 

Purgatorio, Dante, 239n 2 


Purity, the means of acquir- 
ing, 233 

Pyre, cremations usually held 
on a. 270 ; wives of Jawahir 
Singh forced on to the, 

Queen performs an obscene 
act with the horse, 16 

"Quintessence." or "De- 
duction " motif, the, 86, 
87, 87n* 

Quiver obtained by Surya- 
prabha, a magic, 54 

Rain of Kumara, the, 213, 

Raise a dead woman to life, 

power to, 145, 145n 2 
Rajatarangini, or Chronicle of 

the Kings of Kasmir, Kal- 

hana, trans. M. AurelStein, 

264, 266 
Ramayana, the, 211, 258 
Rambles and Recollections, W. 

Sleeman, 271 
Rare in the Panjab, sad, 

Raven, crow and magpie, 

superstitions regarding 

the, 93n 2 
Reason for the delay of 

Bhairava, 225, 227 
Recent satis in native states, 

Reducing a bird to ashes by 

an angry look, 232 
Reflex of this life, life in the 

next world a, 255 
Rejoicing (dhrishyan), 177n 2 
Relic of prehistoric barbarism, 

soft a, 258 
Religious System of China, 

The, J. J. M. de Groot, 

Remarriage of Chinese widows 

an act of unchastity, 257 ; 

of widows notcountenanced 

in India, 258 
Report to the Secretary of War 

of the United States on Indian 

A fairs, J. Morse, 258 
Return of DamayantI to her 

father, 244 ; to former body, 

charm to, 21. 25 
Reunion of Nala and Dama- 
yantI, the happy, 250 
Revenge of Nala, 291 
Revival of sail, modern 

African, 257 



Reward of compassion, the, 

231 ; of Viravara. 180 
Rice-porridge eaten at the 

asvamedha. brahmaudana a 

kind of, 15 
Richard III, Shakespeare, 

222ft 1 
Riddles, asking poetical, 

brahmodya, 16 
Rig-Veda,' the, 14, 95, 258, 

Rig-Veda Sanhita, Sunahsepha 

hymns of the, 64ft 1 
Ring of Canace, the magic, 

145ft 1 
Rites of the Twice-Born, Mrs 

S. Stevenson, 259, 259ft 1 , 

Ritual used at an asvamedha, 

account of the, 14-16 
Ritualliteratur, Gntndriss der 

Indo-Arischen Phitologie u., Hille- 

brandt, 16 
Romances and Drolls of the 

West of England, Hunt, 

93n 2 
Romische My thologie, L. 

Preller, 65n 
Russian Folk-Tales, Ralston, 

145n 2 , 230/t 2 
Russian horse-sacrifices, 14 

Sacred Books of the East, 
Sat a pat ha Brahmana, J. 
Eggeling, 16 

Sacred to Vishnu, Badarinatha 
a place, 159ft 1 , 160n 

Sacrifice, horse- (asvamedha), 
9, 14-16, 18; human- (puru- 
shamedka), 64, 64m, 1 ; of a 
man required at the horse- 
sacrifice, 64ft 1 ; of his son 
by Viravara, 178 

"Sacrifice, place of," Prayaga 
(Allahabad), 166ft 1 

Sacrifices, human, in Greece, 
64ft 1 ; prevalence of, 64ft 1 ; 
to Chandika, 64n x 

Sagen aus Bbhmen, J. V. 
Grohmann, 245ft 1 

Sagen aus der Grajschajt 
Mansfeld, Grossler, 245ft 1 

Sagen, Mdrchen u. Gebrduche 
aus Meklenburg, Bartsch, 
93n 2 , 145n 2 , 227ft 1 

Salamanders, worms called, 

Salary of Viravara, 174 

Sama-Veda, the, 95 

Sanskrit Dictionary, Bohtlingk 

Sanskrit Dictionary cont. 

and Roth, 33ft 1 , 41ft 1 , 91n a , 

122n, 168ft 1 
Satapatha BrShmana, the, 14, 
, 64ft 1 , 145n 2 
Satapatha Bralnnnna, J. 

Eggeling, Sacred Books of 

the East, 16 
Sati : a Vindication of the 

Hindu Woman, A. K. 

Coomaraswamy, 272 
["Satti Worship in Rajput- 
ana," P. W. Powlett] 

North Indian Notes ana 

Queries, 272 
Saviours, Jaina (Arhats), 107; 

fivefold obeisance to the 

(pancanamaskrti) , 107 
Scandinavians, suicide of 

widows among the, 255 
Science (vidya), 46 ; of love 

(kamasdstrartha), 106 ; the 

bewildering, 56 
Scorned love of woman, 91, 

Scriptores Erotici, 128ft 1 
Scythian kings, concubine 

strangled on the pyre of, 

Selecting a king by animal 

divination, 104 
Self-restraint, loss of Nala's, 

owing to Kali, 241, 242 
Seller of flesh, Dharmavyadha 

a, 232, 233 
Servants of the idol at 

Badarinatha, 160n 
Seven underworlds, the, 21ft 1 
"Seyf ul Mulk," Persian 
Tales (i.e. Les Mille et un 

Jours), 132ft 1 
Shadow of a widow, con- 
taminating, 259 
Shadows of the gods person- 
ating Nala, 239 
Sheep, movement of 

(avichdra), 174ft 1 
Sicilianische M'drchen, Gonzen- 

bach, 248ft 1 
Side of the die marked with 
one point (Kali), 240ft 1 ; 
two points (Dvapara), 240ft 1 
Silver Age of the classics, 
Tretathe Hindu equivalent 
of the, 240ft 1 
Sisters (parandrtsahodara), 106 
Site of Badarinatha, 159ft 1 
Sitting in dharna, 140, 140ft 1 , 

202, 202ft 1 
Six kingly measures, the, 
186, 186n 

Skill, in cooking, Nala's, 240, 

248,249; inchariot-driving, 

Nala's, 247, 248; in dice, 

Rituparna exchanges his, 

247, 248; in driving. Nala 

exchanges his. 247, 248 

Sky, the (ambara), 244ft 1 

Sky- Father, Dyaus the. 177ft 1 

Slaves buried with early 

Egyptian kings, living. 261 

Snake, Mahipala bitten by a 

poisonous, 228, 229; with 

jewelled crest, the, 245, 

245ft 1 

["Snake Stones"] W. R. 

Halliday, Folk-Ijore. 245ft 1 

Snake's bite, Nala becomes 

deformed by a, 21" 
Snakes, Vasuki, king of the, 

204, 212 
"Snakestones," W. W.Skeat, 

Folk-Lore, 245ft 1 
Soil, Bhumi the, 177/t 1 
" Soldan of Babylon. The," 
Boccaccio, Decameron, 
165ft 1 
Songs of the Russian People, 

W. R. S. Ralston. 255n 2 
["Source of Colebrooke's 
Essay ' On the Duties of 
a faithful Hindu Widow,' 
the "] Fitzedward Hall, 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 262ft 1 
Speech , wicked women sprung 

from lying, 93, 93ft 1 
Spies sent to look for Nala, 

244, 246 
Spiritual advisor of the 

Danavas, Sukra. 28 
"Squire's Tale. The," 
Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, 
145ft 1 
Srautasutras, the, 14 
Stages of student, house- 
holder, anchorite and 
mendicant, the four ascetic 
(asramas), 240ft 1 , 241 n 
States, recent sat'tx in native, 

Statistical Account of Kumaun, 

Traill. 160n 
Status of the widow in India, 

Stichus, Plautus. 133ft 1 
Storia di Nalo, M. Kerbaker, 

Story of AlankaravatI, 123- 
125 ; of Anangarati and 
her Four Suitors. 144-167; 
of Asokamala. 140, 141; 
ofChiradatri, 203, 204; of 



Story continued 

King Chamarabala, 194, 
198-201 ; of King Kanaka- 
varsha and Madanasundari, 
204-219 ; of King Laksha- 
datta and his Dependent 
Labdhadatta, 168-172; of 
Rama and Sita, 126-130; 
of Sthulabhuja, 142-144; 
of Suryaprabha and how he 
attained Sovereignty over 
the Vidyadharas, 2-13, 17- 
22, 25-45, 49-62, 65-85, 
102, 103, 108-121 ; of the 
Brahman Chandrasvamin, 
his son Mahlpala and his 
daughter ChandravatI, 220- 
225, 227-229, 232-234, 236, 
250, 251 ; of the Brahman 
Viravara, 173-181 ; of the 
handsome King Prith- 
virupa, 130-135 ; of the 
Merchant Samudra^ura, 

Story of Nala and Damayantl 
. . . trans, into English Prose, 
Pandita Jaganatha, 292 

Story of Nala, Nalapakhyanam, 
trans. H. H. Milman, ed. 
Monier Williams, 278 

M Story of Nur al-Dln All and 
his Son," Nights, Burton, 

Strange Stories from a Chinese 
Studio, Giles, 25n 3 

Strangled on the pyre of 
Scythian kings, concubine, 

Strife in the Kali Yuga, con- 
tinual, 241w 

String (guna), 174n 

Student, one of the four 
ascetic stages (asramas), 
240ns 241n 

"Studies about the Katha- 
sariisagara," J. S. Speyer, 
Verliandelingen der Konink- 
lijke Akademie van fVeten- 
schappen te Amsterdam, 8w 2 , 
10/*, 13n 2 , 30n, 52^, 73n l , 
92n\ lOOn 1 , lOln 1 , 200^, 
201 /t 1 , 203W 1 , 207n 1 , 218n 3 

Styles of music, the three 
different, 86n 2 

Subjects (praja), 164n x 

Suicide, method of intended 
(sitting in dharna), 202n* ; 
of Chinese widows, methods 
of, 257 ; of (Enone on the 
death of Paris, 256; of 
widows among the ancient 

Suicide continued 

Egyptians, 256, 257 ; of 

widows among the Heruli, 

255 ; of widows among the 

Scandinavians, 255; of 

widows in Greece, 256 ; 

of widows, Thracian custom 

of, 256 
Suitors of Anangarati, the 

four, 144-149 
["Sulasfi, On"] Jacobi, Ind. 

Ant., 69n x 
Sun-god, horse the "vehicle " 

of the, 14 
Sun, Pushan originally the, 

later an Aditya, 80, 80m 1 
Superstitions regarding the 

raven, crow and magpie, 

93n 2 
Suppliants, Euripides, 256 
Suppress sad, early attempts 

to, 263 
Supreme soul (hamsa), 186w 2 
"Suttee," Yule and Burnell, 

Hobson Jobson, 272 
Swan (hamsa), 186 2 ; flies 

off with Nala's garment, 

242; the celestial, 237, 

Swans, dice in the form of, 

Sword which enables one to 

fly through the air, the, 

235, 236 
Syllable " Om," the mystic, 

176, 176wi 
Symbolical meaning of points 

of the die, 240/1 1 
Syrische Marchen, Prym and 

Socin, 128W 1 , 132m 1 , 213n x 

Taittiriija-Brahmana, the, 14, 

64/1 1 
Tamil Nala-Rdja, the, 278 
Tantras, the, 64/t 1 
Tantric practices, Chamunda 

(Kali, Durga, Uma, etc.) 

connected with, 149, 149n x 
Teacher of dancing called 

Labdhavara, a, 156-158 
Teachings of the Yogasutras 

of Patanjali. 46 
Telugu Nala poem, Raghava, 

author of a, 278 
Temple at Jerusalem, golden 

vine over the gate of the, 

Ten (das'a), 245n 8 
Term of life grows shorter in 

the Kali Yuga, 241n 

Terrible power of parent's 

curse, 230n 2 
Teutonic Bhairava on the 

Blocksberg, dancing with 

the, 227n* 
Teutonic Mythology, J. L. C. 

Grimm, trans. J. S. Stally- 

brass, 23n 2 , 64H 1 
Thalaba the Destroyer, 

Sou they, 129n 
Theft, innocent man accused 

of, 191, 192, 192n 
Theogony, Hesiod, 2 1 2 it 1 
Theory to account for custom 

of sad, Greek, 262 
Thousand Nights and a Night. 

See Nights 
Thracian custom of suicide of 

widows, 256 
Thread (guna), 8n l 
Three dangers, the, 216, 

Throbbing indicative of 

calamity, 93, 93n 2 ; of right 

eye indicative of good 

fortune, 122, 122n x 
Time, Fate, Death (Icdla), 

2in l ; measure of (Kalpa), 

2, 23, 23/1 1 25, 106 
"Tochter der Sonne, Von 

der," Gonzenbach, Sicilian' 

ische Marchen, 248n x 
Tomb of Amen-hetep II at 

Thebes, bodies of women 

found in the, 256 
Touch of the widow, con- 
taminating, 259 
Tran. Amer. Phil. Ass. ' ' Joseph 

and Potiphar in Hindu 

Fiction," M. Bloomfield, 

104, 107 
Transferable wheel, the, 230, 

230/i 1 , 231 
Transmigration of souls, 

Buddhism and the belief 

in, 25n s 
Travels, Jean Baptiste Taver- 

nier, 270 
Travels, Mandelslo, trans. 

John Davies. 270 
Travels in Kashmir, " Widow- 
Burning," G. T. Vigne, 

Travels of Peter Mundy in 

Europe and Asia, ed. R. C. 

Temple, 270 
Treacherous Paiupata ascetic 

and Tribhuvana, the, 234- 

Tree-trunks of gold, 128n 2 , 

129n, 139, 139n* 



Trees of Paradise, mandAra 
one of the five, 128, 128n 2 

Trees which always bear 
fruit. 120. 120n l 

Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Pmmcm, Russell, 202n l , 


Tribes and Castes of the Xnrth- 

IVt'stern Provinces ami Oitdh, 

W. Crooke. IGOn 
Trick, a deceptive (kdita- 

vana(aka), 106 
Triple junction (trivent), 166H 1 
True (sail), 258 
"Truth, Act of," motif, 

127U 1 ; Damayanti's. 239, 

239 n s , 288 ; Sita's, 127 
Tu Shu Chi Ch'eng {The 

Chinese Encyclopaedia), 

Two points, side of the die 

marked with (Dvapara), 

240/* 1 

Unbroken chastity (abrahma- 

viraii), 105 
Unchastity, remarriage of 

Chinese widows an act 

of, 257 
Underworlds, the seven, 


Unfading lotus that destroys 

poison, the, 228, 229 
Unfavourable omens, 93, 

93n 2 , 94n 
'Unlucky Shoayb, The," 

Clouston, A Group of 

Eastern Romances and 

Stories, 182 
Unmerciful (paldsa), 170n x 
Unwanted widows, methods 

of getting rid of, 260 
Upper garment taken by 

Nala, half Damayanti's, 

243, 278 

Vanquisher of Obstacles 
(Ganesa), 119 

Vedic gods in the Nala and 
Damayantl story, 275 

"Vehicle" of the sun-god, 
the horse the, 14 

Venerable men, an oblation 
to gods and (argha), 18, 

Verliandelingen der Koninklijke 
Akademievan JVetensc happen 
te Amsterdam, "Studies 
about the Kathasarit- 
sagara," J. S. Speyer, 8n 2 , 

Verhandelingen, elc.cont. 
10/t, 13n*. 30n, 52n l , 73n l , 
92n, lOOn 1 , lOln 1 200n l , 
201 n 1 , 203n l , 207n 1 , 218n 

Verhandelingen van het liata- 
viaasch Genootschap van 
K u nsten en Wetenschappen 
[" Voorloopig Verslag van 
het eiland Bali," R. 
Friederich], 258 

Versions of the Joseph and 
Potiphar story, 104 

Vetala Panchavimsali, the, 47, 
145u 2 

Village god Bhairon, 225w 2 

Virtue (dharma), 240m 1 ; 
(guna), 174 1 ; of devotion 
to a husband, 232; of 
devotion to parents, 233 ; 
reigns paramount in the 
Krita Yuga, 240h x 

Virtuous (mahasattva), \S0n 2 

Volkskunde, Zur, Liebrecht, 
93 ' 

Volsungasaga, the, 256 

Voluntary burning of the 
wife of Sardar Shan Singh, 

"Von der Tochter der 
Sonne," Gonzenbach, 
Sicilianische M'drchen, 248n x 

[" Voorloopig Verslag van het 
eiland Bali," R. Friederich] 
Verhandelingen van het Bata- 
viaasch Genootschap van Kun- 
sten en Wetenschappen, 258 

Vow, the Jaina (diksha), 105 

Vows, the five lighter 
(anuvrata), 105 

Voyage to the East Indies, 
Dellen, 271 

Water gushes up in pots and 
pans of its own accord, 248, 
248/1 1 

Water-melon filled with 
jewels, the, 182 

Wealth (artha), 164w 2 ; en- 
joyment preferable to, 
198; Kuvera, God of. 13, 
110, 110n*, 113 

Weeping woman, the, 175 

Wendische Sagen, E. Vecken- 
stedt, 245H 1 

Wheel, Chakra and the iron, 

White bull named Danta, 

Wicked women sprung from 
Lying Speech, 93, 93m 1 

Widow-burning, Appendix I, 

Widow-burning among 
American Indian tribes. 
258 ; an ancient Indo- 
Germanic custom, 255,1 
255n x ; in Europe, 255, 

256 ; in the Far East 

257 ; still practised in Bali 
(East Indies), 257, 258 

Widow- Burning, H. J. Bush by, 

"Widow-Burning," G. T. 
Vigne, Travels in Kashmir, 

Widow in India, hard lot of 
the, and status of the, 
258-260 ; methods of get- 
ting rid of an unwanted, 
260; must not look happy. 
healthy or well-fed. 259 

Widows among the ancient 
Egyptians, suicide of. 266, 
257 ; among the Heruli, 
suicide of, 255 ; among the 
Scandinavians, suicide of, 
255 ; in Greece, suicide of, 
256 ; Thracian custom of 
suicide of, 256 

" Widows who Refuse to 
Marry a Second Time," 
Chinese Encyclopaedia, 257 

Wife, the hermit and the 
faithful, 232, 233 

Wild outcry (phutkarishye- 
taram), 107 

Wind, God of the (Vavu), 
110, 110n, 238 

Winking, the power of. 239 

Witch Sarabhanana adven- 
ture of the, 82. 83 

Witches, Bhairava and the, 
227, 227n* 

Wives of Jawahir Singh 
forced on to the pyre, 264; 
of Suryaprabha, 4 

Women, found in the tomb 
of Amen-hetep II at 
Thebes, bodies of, - : > ,; ; 
sprung from Lying Speech, 
wicked, 93, 93n x ; whose 
love is scorned, 91, 104- 

Wood bursts into flames 
of its own accord, 248, 

Working out one's Destiny, 

World, ages of the, or Yugas, 
the four (Krita. Treti, 
Dvapara and Kali). 240n l ; 



World- continued 

of the gods called Sivas, 

25, 25n* 
Worms called Salamanders, 

Worship of the Great 

Mothers, 225n* 
Would-be soft in Jubbulpore, 

persistency of a, 271, 272 
Wreck of Chakra's ship, 230 

Yajur-f'eda, the, 95 

Year, the horse roams for a 

year, 15, 16 
Years, Divine (360 human 

years), 240n* 
11 Yoga.'' R. Garbe, Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth., 39^ 
Yogasutras of Patanjali, 

teachings of the, 46 
Ysaie le Triste, 129n 

Yiisuf u Zulatkha, Firdausi, 

Zig-Zag Journeys in India 

Butterworth, 48 
Zoological Mythology, A. de 

Gubernatis. 249n 
Zur Volkskunde, Liebrecht, 

93ft 1 

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