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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"




^itf!; 



THE 
OCEAN OF STORY 



THE 

OCEAN OF STORY 

BEINO 

G. H. TAWNEY'S TRANSLATION 

OF 

SOMADEVA'S KATHA SARIT SAGARA 

(or ocean of streams of stort) 



NOW EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION, FRESH 

EXPLANATORY NOTES AND TERMINAL ESSAY 

BY 

N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 

MIMBIR or THK TOLX-LORB SOCICTY ', FELLOW OF THK 

ItOYAL ANTBROFOLOOICAL INSTITUTK ; MKMBKR 

OF THK ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIXTY, ETC. 

AUTHOR OF 

"AN AMKOTATKD BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SIR RICHARD FRANCIS 

BURTON," ETC. 



IN TEN VOLUMES 



VOL. V 



WITH A FOREWORD BY 

E. DENISON ROSS 




LONDON: PRIVATELY PRINTED FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY 
BY CHAS. J. SAWYER LTD.. GRAFTON HOUSE, W.l. MCMXXVI 



Made and Printed in Oreat Britain 



FOREWORD 

The Panchatantra and the " Fables of Bidpai " 

PART of the present volume of the Ocean of Story is 
occupied by Somadeva's version of the famous collec- 
tion of Indian stories known as the Panchatantra. The 
history of this work and its offshoots has been dealt with 
in Appendix I to this volume, and I shall confine myself in 
this place to supplementing what has there been set forth 
regarding the so-called " Fables of Bidpai," with special 
reference to the Kallla wa-Dimna of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* and its 
translations and adaptations in modern Persian literature. 

This Kallla wa-Dimna is claimed to have been translated 
in the middle of the eighth century from a Pahlavi or Old 
Persian original, which in its turn had been compiled from 
one or more Indian works. The legend about this Old Persian 
compilation has been handed down by a number of early 
Arabic writers, beginning in the eighth century with the 
translator Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' himself, and has been retold in 
a famous passage in Firdawsi's Shdhndma, The accounts 
furnished by al-Mas'udi and an-Nadim, both belonging to 
the tenth century, are well known, as is also the passage from 
the Shdhndma. Less well known is the following passage in 
ath-Tha'alibi's History of the Persian Kings, ^ which, as far as 
I am aware, has not been translated into English : 

" Anushirwan had twenty-five doctors, Greek, Indian and 
Persian. One of the most famous Persian doctors and the 
one who devoted the most time to the study of books was 
a certain Burzoe. Having read in a book that on a certain 
mountain in India there was a wonderful medicinal plant 
which had the property of bringing the dead back to life, 
he was continually revolving this matter in his mind, and 
determined to search for it and obtain it. Finally he told 

1 Zotenberg, H., Histoire des Rois des Perses. . . . Paris, 1900, p. 629. 
This work was composed in the eleventh century a.d. 



vi Tin: ()( KAN OF STORY 

Annslnruan cf liis intent ion. and l)c;:i;t(l the kin<,' to allow 
him to s( t uut and att( nij)l to lind tlic ()l)jcc't of his desires. 
IN rinission was dnl\ L:';iit cd, and provision was made for 
his jt>urn(\. lie also rccciNcd a httcr for the Kin^ of India, 
wiiieli sliiMild assure liini success. Hnr/oe set out in due 
course I't.r the capital of India, and on arrival presented 
Anushiruan's It tt( r to the kinn, who received him <rraeiously 
antl L:a\( ordi rs that Hnrzoi- should he allowed to do any- 
thini: he wislied. and enahled him to proceed in his seareh for 
the plants to the locality in \shich they were said to f^row. 

' Hur/.oe, aNoidinu no efforts or fati^aie, wore himself out 
in piekini^, collect ina', sorting- and eom})inin<^ these j)lants, so 
that he nii^ht ha\'e said with the j)eoj)le of Baghdad, ' We 
ha\e continually been busy with nothing at all, and now we 
ha\i' tinished.' 

" \U ( .\})cricncc(l nuieli grief and disappointment, ])ecause 
without attaining his object he had wasted his days, and he 
j)icturt(l to himself how greatly ashamed he would feel in 
the jiresencc of his master when he again appeared at eourt. 
lie therefore in(piired who was the greatest doetor and the 
niost learned man in India ; and they indieated to him a 
certain \ ( ry old man. liurzoe went and visited tiie old man 
and told him his story, referring to what he had read in a 
(( rtain book regarding the mountains of India on whieh grew 
the })lants that could bring the dead to life. 

'' The- old man said to him : ' Oh ! Bur/oi' ! thou hast learnt 
one thing, but other things ha\'e escaj)ed thee ' ; did you not 
und( rstand that this is an alkgory of the ancients ? By the 
mountains they meant the learned by the j)lants their 
salutary and pr(4itable words- l)y the dead they meant the 
ignorant. 'Jhey wished to say that when the learned instruct 
the ignorant by tlu ir maxims it is as if they l)rought the dead 
to life. Now these maxims arc contained in a book called 

^ Abu Nuw.is (.'). Tlic whoir verse runs: 



FOREWORD vii 

Kallla wa-Dimna, and this book is to be found only in the 
Treasury of the King.' 

" Burzoe thus delivered from his anxieties, and overjoyed 
with what he had heard, besought the king to lend him this 
book and thereby to place King Anushirwan under an obliga- 
tion of gratitude and thankfulness. The king replied : ' I 
will give the order for this book to be lent to you, by reason 
of my regard both for your king and for yourself ; but only 
on condition that you examine it in my presence and that 
you do not take a copy of it for yourself.' 

" Burzoe replied that to hear was to obey ; and thereafter 
he attended the king's court daily, and sending for the book 
studied it there. Each day he memorised what he had read, 
and when he returned to his dwelling wrote it out, until 
finally he had completed the whole work. He then begged 
the king's permission to return to his master's court. This was 
granted, and he was given presents and a robe of honour. 

" When he rejoined Anushirwan he told his story and 
announced the good news that he had got possession of the 
book, which he then presented to the king. The king was 
overjoyed and loaded Burzoe with gifts, and further ordered 
Buzurj-mihr ^ to translate the book into Pahlavi. Burzoe, 
with coaxing and entreaty, begged the king to allow his 
(Burzoe's) name and his biography to be prefixed to the first 
chapter. To this Anushirwan agreed. 

" The book remained always carefully guarded by the 
[Sasanian] kings of Persia, until finally Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' 
translated it into Arabic, and Rudaki turned it into Persian 
verse by the order of Amir Nasr ibn Ahmad [the Samanid]." 

Such is presumably the popular form the legend took in 
the time of ath-Tha'alibi, and it will be seen that it differs 
in many respects from the versions of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' and 
of Rudaki. The main points of difference are (1) regarding 
the manner in which the book was sought and found, and 
(2) regarding the work of translation into Pahlavi. 

1 Buzurjmihr, the great minister of Anushirwan, whom Noldeke regards 
as a hero rather in belles-lettres than in history (see Burzoe's Einleitung, 
Strassburg, 1912). 



viii TIIK OCEAN OF STORY 

Accord iiiLi to l-inlaw.sl, for example, it is tlie King of 
IVrsia who. luariiiL: of the existence of tliis wonderful book 
in India. dir< ets Ids minister to seek out a man versed in the 
Indian and 1\ rsian lan^nia^^es, who shoukl go to India and 
prtK-urc the hook. Hnr/.oi-, wlio is selected, after great diffi- 
cultKs fl)fains this hook and several others; hut fearing lest 
the Indian kini^ should demand their return, liimself trans- 
Iat(s tluin into Persian, and brings his translations back 
to ids master. AH \ irsions are agreed in stating that this 
1*( rsian translation was very jealously guarded by the 
Sasanian kings, and it was not till the time of the second 
Whhasid Caliph al-Mansur that it was rendered accessible 
by Ihnu l-Muciaffa'. In no recension of the text of Ibnu 
'l-Mucjaffa' is it specially mentioned from which language 
the Arabic translation was made, but we are led to presume 
that it was Pahlavi, not only from the context, but also 
from the statement made by an-NadIm and others that Ibnu 
'1-Mu(}affa' translated a number of other Pahlavi works, none 
of which, however, has survived.^ 

The Source of the BurzoS Legend 

Now the only original source for the Burzoe Legend is the 
Kallla iici-Dijuna of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' ; and the account found 
in the Persian translation by Nasrullah is, of course, based 
solely on this. It is interesting to compare these two versions 
as they have come down to us : bearing in mind that we have 
no copy of I})nu '1-Muqaffa' which dates back to the lifetime 
of Nasrullah, and that the copies of Nasrullah (MSS. and 
lithographs) show many differences. 

InNi: 'l-Muqaffa' Nasrullah (Ed. a.h. 1282) 

Eighth Centurjj Tivelfih Century 

r. LM). Anfishirwan, an excej)- P. 22. And the reason for, and 

tionally gifted king, hearing cause of, translating this book 

of the existence of the Indian and bringing it from Hindu- 

b(H)k, s( 1( ets liur/.oe who was stan to Ears was that God had 

skilled in Ears! and Hindi to endowed Anfishirwan with 

* See Keith-Falconer, Introduction, pp. xl, xli. 



FOREWORD 



IX 



Muqaffa' continued 
go on a mission to India to 
look for it. He is to get this 
book out of the Treasury of 
the Indian king, and from 
their learned men " complete 
perfect and written in Farsi." 
He is also told to get other 
books which were not to be 
found in Persia. 

P. 21. Burzoe, on arrival, 
makes friends with the nobles, 
merchants, and learned men 
of India and admits to his 
confidence a certain man 
named Adwayh [in Cheikho's 
text only] telling him the real 
object of his mission. 

P. 25. Finally, after a long dis- 
cussion on the keeping of se- 
crets, the Hindu shows Burzoe 
the books. " And when Burzoe 
set about the interpretation 
(tafslr) and copying (naskh) 
of these books he worked 
day and night and wore him- 
self out with fatigue and 
when he had completed this 
book [i.e. Kallla wa-Dimna] 
which he preferred to the 
other books, and it was in- 
deed the most learned of 
them he wrote to Anushir- 
wan telling him of his good 
fortune. Anushirwan, in 
reply, wrote and told Burzoe 
to return without delay, and 
to avoid the main roads. 



NasruUah continued 
special gifts of intelligence, 
justice, etc. And he sought 
for a man knowing Hindi and 
Farsi. 



P. 24. Burzoe, on arrival, 
makes friends with the nobles, 
merchants, and philosophers 
of India, and finally he con- 
fides his secret to a certain 
learned man. 



P. 25. The discussion between 
these two is very much shorter 
than in an Arabic text. 



P. 27. Finally the Hindu 
gives Burzoe the books, and 
Burzoe spends long days in 
writing (nibishtan) and in 
copying this and other books 
(in kitdb va kutub-i digar 
nu^khat girift). 

P. 27. Anushirwan receives 
news of Burzoe's success, and 
sends a messenger to him, with 
instructions to avoid the main 
road lest his letter should fall 
into enemy hands. Burzoe at 
once returns. 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Muqaffa* continued 
P. 27. Burzoe after presenting 
his work to Anushirwan re- 
fuses all gifts offered him 
except a robe of honour in 
QiShistfini style. He, however, 
makes one special request of 
the king, namely, that Buzurj- 
mihr should be ordered to 
write a chapter on Burzoe, 
which should form a part of 
the Book. 

P. 28. Buzurjmihr wrote a 
biography of Burzoe from his 
birth doivn to the time when he 
was sent on his mission to 
India.^ 



P. 29. Buzurjmihr refuses all 
gifts except a kingly robe. 



Nasrullah continued 
P. 27. Burzoe refuses all gifts 
from Anushirwan except a 
robe of honour in Khuzistani 
style. He requests, however, 
that a chapter on himself may 
be written by Buzurjmihr, 
and added to the Book. 



P. 30. Buzurjmihr's chapter 
is to recount the life of Burzoe 
down to the present moment 
(td In sd^at), 

P. 30. Buzurjmihr accepts no 
gift at all. 

There remains one important passage in Nasrullah 
(pp. 35, 36) which is altogether wanting from any of the 
Arabic texts I have been able to consult, though it is 
specifically claimed to be a quotation from Ibnu '1-Muqaffa'. 

" Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' says : ' Having heard that the Persians 
had translated this book from Hindi into Pahlavi, we desired 
that the people of Iraq, Syria and the Hejaz should also 
benefit by it, so we have translated it into Arabic, which is 
their language ; and as befitted such a work, we have done 
all that was possible to assist the student and to aid the 
reader by explanation and elucidation, so that the task of 
appreciating and understanding this Book may be the easier 
for those who peruse it.' " 

The difficulty with regard to the three Chapters in Ibnu 
1-Muqaffa* namely (1) The Mission of Burzoe, (2) The Life 
of Burzoe, and (3) The Presentation of the Book is that all 

* De Sacy's text refers to a previous journey to India made by Burzoe in 
search of medicinal herbs, in the course of which journey he learnt "their 
writing and language." 



FOREWORD xi 

three seem to be the work of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa*, while only the 
last is definitely attributed to him. 

The Mission of Burzoe is ascribed to Buzurjmihr, but 
according to the Arabic, Buzurjmihr only brought the Life of 
Burzoe down to the time of his Mission. The Life of Burzoe, 
on the other hand, is definitely attributed to Buzurjmihr in 
the Burzoe legend, and yet in all versions it is given as an 
autobiography in the words of Burzoe himself. 

Now the date of Burzoe's Mission was somewhere about 
the middle of the sixth century a.d., for Anushirwan reigned 
from A.D. 531 to 579. No trace has ever been found of this 
Pahlavi text of Kallla wa-Dimna, and it might be presumed 
that if it was so carefully guarded by Anushirwan and his 
successors that care was also taken that no copies should be 
made of it. We are nevertheless confronted with the strange 
fact that in a.d. 570 or thereabouts a Christian Persian of the 
name of Bud was able to translate Kallla wa-Dimna into 
Syriac. Benfey and other scholars seem quite satisfied from 
internal evidence that Bud's translation was made from the 
Pahlavi. On the other hand 'Ebed-Jesu, bishop of Nisibis, 
mentions in his Catalogue of Syriac Writings that Bud, who 
lived about a.d. 570, " translated from the Indian the book of 
Kalilag and Damnagy ^ 'Ebed-Jesu writing at the beginning 
of the fourteenth century a.d. probably knew nothing of 
Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* or of the Burzoe legend, and his statement 
has been discredited. This does not, however, remo^'e the 
difficulty of accounting for Bud's having had access to this 
carefully guarded book almost immediately after it was first 
lodged in the Royal Library.* 

Were it not for the reverence in which I hold such great 
scholars as Benfey and Noldeke I should be tempted to 
suggest that Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' never had before him a Pahla^i 
Kalila and Dimna but based his version on the Syriac of 
Bud, adding to it chapters which he derived from other 

* See Assemanni, Bib. Or., vol. iii, pt. i, pp. 219, 220. 

' Assemanni (Joe. cit.) tells us that Bud was Periodeutes in the time of 
the Patriarch Ezechiel, circa a.d. 570. As his duties comprised the super- 
vision of the Christians in Persia and India, this is no reason why he should 
not have known Indian languages. 



xii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Syriac and possibly Pahlavi sources.' For of Burzoe we know 
practically nothing, outside his legend, beyond the statement 
made by Ibn Abi Usaybi*a that he was born in Marv ush- 
Shahijan. The whole Burzoe legend might have been con- 
cocted by Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* in order to glorify his fatherland 
Persia : supposing it to have found a place in the first 
recension of his Kalila wa-Dimna. No text has, however, 
been found of an earlier date than the thirteenth century ; 
and seeing that the numerous MSS. differ very much from 
one another, it is only by the aid of Bud's Syriac and of the 
earliest translations into Persian, Spanish, Hebrew and Greek 
that an idea of the original form of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' can be 
obtained, and that the obscurities in the existing Arabic text 
can sometimes be explained. An edition based on all the 
available material still remains to be made : the most satis- 
factory text hitherto published is that edited by the learned 
father Cheikho, of Beyrout (1st ed. 1905, 2nd ed. 1923), where 
information will be found regarding all existing MSS. and 
editions. 

Before passing to the Persian recensions of Kalila wa- 
Dimna ^ I may point out that of the fourteen chapters com- 
prised in this work the following chapters represent more or 
less the five chapters of the Panchatantra : (1) The Lion and 
the Ox ; (3) The Ring Dove ; (4) The Owls and the Crows ; 
(5) The Tortoise and the Ape ; and (6) The Ascetic and the 
Weasel : and that all these chapters occur in Bud's Syriac 
version.* 

^ De Sacy in his day {Catila et Dimna, Paris, I8I6, pp. 36, 37) mooted the 
possibility that Bud and Burzoe were one and the same person, but as he could 
have no knowledge of the Old Syriac version he retained PahlavT as the 
language into which Bud's translation was made. 

' The fact that the animals who are the protagonists in the Indian 
versions are often changed to suit local conditions in the process of translation 
hag often been noted, but I am not aware (see the article by Sprengling in 
the American Journal of Semitic Languages, xl, p. 81 et seq., Jan. 1924) that 
attention has ever been called to the curious circumstances that neither in 
the Indian originals nor in any of their offshoots is the horse introduced as 
an actor. Being neither an Indianist nor a Folklorist I am not prepared to 
offer any explanation of this phenomenon. Was it that the horse was regarded 
as too sacred by the early Aryans to be treated with such familiarity, or was 



FOREWORD xiii 

RudakVs " Kallla wa-Dimna " 

The earliest translation of the Arabic Kallla wa-Dimna 
into Modern Persian is that referred to by Firdawsi in his 
Shahndma, where we are told that Abu '1-Fazl al-Bal*amI, the 
vazir of the Samanid Prince Nasr ibn Ahmad, ordered the 
Arabic of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* to be recited in Pars! and Dari 
(i.e, the court language). Later on Nasr ibn Ahmad, desiring to 
possess a written Persian version of this work, which should 
not only serve him as a guide, but might remain a permanent 
memorial to himself (k'azu yddgdri bovad dar jahdn)^ caused 
the blind poet Rudaki to put into Persian verse the Arabic 
prose of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', which was recited to him in the 
presence of the Prince. That a complete verse translation 
was made by Rudaki we know from a number of early 
independent sources,^ though the poem itself has quite 
disappeared, together with almost all the poet's other works. 

No explanation has ever been offered for the loss of 
Rudaki's Kallla wa-Dimna^ which certainly created a great 
stir in its o^vn day. I think we may assume that copies 
existed down to the fourteenth century, if only on account 
of two quotations, which seem to be at first hand, found 
in an anonymous work entitled Tuhfat ul-Muluk,^ which was 
written not later than that period. I do not know of a direct 
quotation in any later work. 

Rudaki, who is justly regarded as the " Father of Persian 
Poetry," flourished at the Samanid Court of Bukhara during 
the first half of the tenth century. He left behind him, 
in addition to a number of panegyrics and lyrics, certain 
narrative poems (masnavls) : notably Kallla wa-Dimna^ and 
possibly a Sindbadh Ndma. That all these poems should have 
disappeared entirely except for a few scattered quotations 
is the more remarkable when we remember that the in- 
ordinately long Epic of Kings of Firdawsi, completed only fifty 

it that the horse was known only as a domestic animal in India at the period 
when these fables first became current ? 

1 See ray article "Rudaki and Pseudo-Rudaki " (Joum. Roy. Ass. Soc., 
Oct. 1924). 

2 B. M. MSS. Or., 7863. 



xiv THE OCEAN OF STORY 

years after the death of Rudaki, has been preserved in its 
entirety. One can only suppose that the historical and 
national Epic made such a far stronger appeal to public taste 
than the Indian fables that the latter was completely eclipsed 
by the former. That any trace has been left of Rudaki's 
Kalila wa-Dimna is mainly due to the lexicographers. At a 
time when the Modern Persian language was in process of 
gaining literary status, and was being employed by patriotic 
Persians to replace the hitherto dominant literary medium 
Arabic, the poets loved to employ as far as possible old 
Persian words, although, owing to the fact that they had 
been supplanted in the popular vocabulary by an Arabic 
loan-word, they were not readily understood. It thus came 
about that from the very outset of this new literature, 
scholars were engaged in preparing little lexica (known as 
Farhangs) in which these obsolete or difficult words were 
explained with quotations from the poets in support. Even 
Rudaki himself wrote such a Farhang, which must have been 
mainly devoted to the explanation of his own writings ! 

Among these Farhangs there has been preserved to us 
one entitled Lu^hat-i FurSy written by Asadi the Younger in 
the eleventh century a.d. This little dictionary contains 
many quotations from the works of Rudaki, and among them 
no less than fifty-nine rhyming verses ^ in the ramal metre 

(_^ /_s^ /-v^-)> which, as we know, were the style and 

metre employed by Rudaki in his Kalila wa-Dimna. Of 
these verses sixteen, at any rate, seem to belong to Kalila 
wa-Dimna. Others are so vague that without further context 
nothing definite can be affirmed, while others again may, as has 
been suggested by Noldeke, belong to the Sindbadh legend. 
It would seem unlikely, however, that Rudaki should have 
^vritten more than one narrative poem in this particular 
metre, and it is therefore possible that all the fifty-nine verses 
belong to Kalila wa-Dimna, which in Rudaki's version may 
have embodied stories not found in Ibnu '1-Muqaffa'. 

Horn, in his edition of the Lughat-i Furs,^ has referred to 

* There is one other verse in this metre which does not, however, rhyme. 

* Atadta Neupersischet Worterbuch Lughat-i Furs, nach der einzigen vatikan- 
uchen Handtchrift, Paul Horn, Berlin, 1897, Abhandl. d. Kgl. Gesell. d. Wissen. 



FOREWORD XV 

passages in Keith-Falconer's translation of the Later Syriac 
version and in Wolff's translation of the Arabic, which seem 
to correspond to the sixteen verses referred to above. Seeing 
that these quotations from RudakI have never been translated 
or compared with Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', I think it may be of in- 
terest to my readers if I set side by side the two versions in 
the rare cases which admit of no doubt as to their identity.^ 

(1) Dimna-ra gufta ki ta in bang chi'st 

Ba nahib u sahm in [avay-i] ki'st [1.0.MS. faryad-i] 
Dimna guft u-ra : juz in ava digar 
Kar-i [tu na] hast u sahmi bishtar [i.o.ms. tu bar] 
Ab harchi bishtar nirti kunad 
Bandarugh-i sust-buda bif 'ganad 
Dil gusista dari az bang-i buland 

Ranjagi bashad-at [v'azar-i gazand]. [i.o.ms. v'azar u 
gazand] 

*' [The Lion] said to Dimna : What is this noise ? 
Whose is this voice full of terror and wrath ? 
Dimna said to him : Apart from this voice, something 

else 
Has worried you ; a greater danger. 
When a river attains to great force 
It sweeps away the worn-out dam. 
You have lost heart by reason of a loud noise 
So trouble, annoyance and harm have come upon you." 

There is no mistaking the identity of this passage, which, 
beyond its close similarity to Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', has the ad- 
ditional importance of enabUng us to establish the correct 
reading of a word which has troubled such scholars as de 
Sacy, Guidi and Cheikho. 

I will next give a translation of the corresponding passage 
in the Arabic which begins at line 3, p. 62, of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' : 

" Dimna said : It is not right that because a sound 
like this reaches the king he should leave his abode. 
For it has been said : Water damages a weak dam ; 

^ I have also utilised the MS. belonging to the India Office, which was 
unknown to Horn, and often has a better reading. 



xvi THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Conceit damages the intelligence ; secret whisperings 
damage friendship, and loud noises and 
commotion damage a weak heart." 

All editors have been in doubt regarding the passage 
which runs 

De Sacy in his notes to Kalila says : * Le mot y^ 

se prend souvent dans le sens de bonnes ceux/res, acte de 
bienfaisance" 

Cheikho (Ibn M., p. 41 of notes) says: "On peut lire 

V ,..l i c-k-d. le vin ou bien SZ^\ Ic barrage.** 

Thanks to Rudaki we now know that Cheikho's second 
suggestion ^namely, sikr, a dam is the correct reading. This 
corresponds with Panchatantra (Edgerton, trans., p. 283) and 
with Syriac I (text, p. 36b). Somadeva (see this volume, p. 45) 
has " bridge " for " dam." 

Syriac II (K-F., p. 14) has also understood the passage in 
Ibn '1-Muqaffa', but NasruUah and the Spaniard have left it 
alone, probably because they did not understand it. 

(2) Chun kashaf anbuh-i ghawgha'i bidid 
Bang u iakh-i marduman khashm avarid. 

" When the tortoise saw that noisy crowd 
The cries and shouts of the people enraged him." 

Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', p. 89 : 

*' And when the people saw her [the tortoise] 

they called out and said : liOok at this 

wonderful thing ! And when the tortoise 

heard their remarks and their surprise, she 

said : May God put out your eyes ! But 

when she opened her mouth to speak she 

fell to the ground and died." 

See also K-F., p. 49, lines 17, 18. 



FOREWORD xvu 

(3) Shab zamistan bud kappi sard yaft 
kirmaki shab-tab nagahi bitaft 
kappian atash hami pandashtand 
Pushta-i atash badu bar dashtand. 

" The night was wintry, a monkey felt cold : 
A little glow-worm suddenly showed its light, 
The monkeys thought it was a fire 
And placed a bundle of fire- wood on it." 

Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', p. 94 : 

" There was a party of monkeys on a hill, who 
seeing a fire-fly (bard^a ^ ) flying, thought it 
was a spark, and collecting some faggots 
placed them on the fire-fly." 

Nasrullah's text of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* must have had a 
slightly different reading to Cheikho, as he translates, " sud- 
denly they found a glow-worm (kirmi shab tab) which had 
fallen on one side," in which he agrees with Rudaki. The 
Spaniard has luziernega. 

By some strange misunderstanding the Anvdr-i Suhayli 
(see below, p. xxiii), and after it the ''lydr-i Ddnish (see 
below, p. xxv), both say that the monkeys were deceived by 
" a bit of glittering reed " (nay para-i rushan). Abu '1-Fazl, 
the author of the ^lydr-i Ddnish, had, as we know, Nasrullah's 
translation also before him, and it is therefore strange that 
he should have selected what to us must appear the less 
satisfactory reading. 

(4) V'az dirakht andar gavahi khvahad ui.' 
Tu badangah az dirakht andar bigu'i 
K'an tabanguy andaru dinar bud 
An sitad z'idar ki nahushyar bud. 

^ Bara'a^ according to the dictionaries i.e. cicindella. 

The I.O.MS, has only one verse representing these two namely, 

V'az dirakht andar gavahi khvahad u : 
Tu badangah az tabanguy baz ju. 
VOL. V. 6 



xviii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

" And if he wants a witness from within the tree i 

Then you must speak from within the tree 
Saying : the dinars were in that tray, 
He took them because he was unwise." 

Ibnu 'I-MuqaffaS p. 96 : 

[The dishonest partner says to his father] 
" I want you to go to-night and get inside 
the tree, and when the Qazi comes and asks 
the tree for its evidence, you will speak from j 

inside and say : The negligent partner took j 

the dinars. ... So the father went to the 
tree and hid in it. On the morrow the Qazi came with [ 

the two partners, etc." j 

See K-F., p. 57, line 21 et seq. ] 

(5) Mard-i dini raft u avardash kanand 

Chun hami mihman dar-i man khvast [kand]. [i.o.ms. 
wrongly, kard] 

" The Ascetic went and fetched him a spade j 

Since the guest wished to break into my house." | 

Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', p. 134 : 

" He asked for an axe, and the guest brought it \ 

. . . and cut into my lair till he reached ; 

the dinars." ] 

See K-F., p. 118, line 11. j 

(6) Guft dini-ra ki in dinar bud 

K' in fazagan mush-ra parvar bud. i 

" He said to the Ascetic : It was these dinars | 

which kept alive this loathsome mouse." I 

Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', p. 134 : i 

*' The husband said to the Ascetic : These dinars 
were what gave the mouse such strength ] 

in jumping ..." 

See K-F., p. 118, line 20. 



FOREWORD xix 

(7) Istada did anja duzd u ghul [i.o.ms. duzd ghul] 
Ruy-i zisht u chashmha hamchun du ghul. 

" The thief saw standing there the Devil 
with his ugly face and his eyes like a pair of devils." 

The exact equivalent of this passage does not occur in 
Cheikho's Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', though it clearly belongs to the 
story of the Devil and the Thief, who having quarrelled each 
in turn rouse the sleeping Ascetic they had intended to rob or 
destroy. See Ibnu '1-Muqaffa*, p. 156, and K-F., p. 145. 

In the Anvdr-i Suhayli it is related that the Devil wished 
to destroy the Ascetic because of the good influence exercised 
by this pious man over the inhabitants of the country, which 
had made the Devil's market dull ! 

(8) Shir ghazm avard u jast az jay-i khvish 
V'amad in khargush-ra alfaghda pish. 

" The Lion was enraged and made a plunge 
while the hare gained his object \i.e, escaped]." 

Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', p. 73 : 

" The Lion put down the hare, and made a 
spring to attack him i.e. the Lion reflected in 
the well and the hare escaped." 

See K-F., p. 27, line 28. 

The above eight extracts from Rudaki's Kallla wa-Dimna, 
comprising thirteen verses in all, by no means exhaust the 
list of possible identifications of Asadi's quotations with 
Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', but they will suffice to show that Rudaki 
followed the Arabic original fairly closely, and that had his 
poem come down to us it would have been of great value for 
the reconstruction of a definite text of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa'. 

The next Persian version in point of age which has come 
down to us is the prose Kallla wa-Dimna of Nasrullah, of 



XX THE OCEAN OF STORY 

which I shall now speak. It may be mentioned, however, 
that Nasrullah in his Introduction says : 

" Va in kitab-ra az pas-i tarjama-i 
Pisar-i Muqaffa* va nazm-i Rudaki 
tarjamaha karda and." 

'* And other translations have been made since the trans- 
lation of the son of Muqaffa' and the Poem of Rudaki." 

Nasrullah'' s ^' Kalila wa-Dimna''^ 

This excellent rendering of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' has been fully 
described by the great de Sacy in vol. x of Notices et Extraits 
des Manicscrits de la Bihlioiheque du Roi (pp. 94-139). De 
Sacy had before him several early MSS. of this work. One 
indeed (No. 375), though not dated, he thought might belong 
to the twelfth century a.d. Another (No. 376) was written 
in Baghdad in a.h. 678 (a.d. 1279-1280).i 

Abu '1-Ma'ali Nasrullah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abdi '1-Hamid 
held some humble position at the court of Bahram Shah, the 
great-grandson of the famous Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna. 
After enumerating the leading men of letters of his day at 
Ghazna he relates that a certain learned doctor of the law 
one day presented him with a copy of the Arabic Kallla 
wa-Dimna, " Than which," he says, " after the books of the 
Shar^a [Holy Law] there is no more valuable book." He 
mentions incidentally that there were many copies of it in 
Ghazna (Tehran lithograph, a.h. 1304, p. 14). 

He then goes on to explain his reasons for making this 
translation, saying (op. cit.t p. 19) that since the pubUc has 
grown indifferent to the reading of Arabic books, the wise 
sayings and admonitions [of KalUa wa-Dimna] have been 
neglected, nay almost entirely forgotten, and so it occurred 
to him to make a Persian translation. We know very little 
of Nasrullah, but the date of his death is given as a.d. 1152. 

* Quite recently a dealer in Paris obtained a very fine copy dated a.h. 6SS^ 
but, like so many other early Persian MSS., the text was destroyed for the 
sake of the illuminations. It is sad to think of the amount of literary- 
vandalism that has been perpetrated in our day in the name of Art. 



FOREWORD xxi 

His translation which, except for the numerous quotations 
in Arabic, is written in a direct and simple style follows Ibnu 
'1-Muqaffa' very closely, and includes the two Introductions 
(1) regarding the discovery of the Indian originals and how 
they were brought to Anushirwan, and (2) the account of 
Burzoe. It does not, however, even mention the spurious 
Introduction of " Bahnud ibn Sahwan " prefixed to many 
Arabic recensions.* There is nothing to show that NasruUah 
had ever actually seen Rudaki's Kallla wa-Dimna^ though he 
of course refers to it in his Introduction. Nasrullah's work 
has been lithographed several times in Tehran, but the text 
leaves much to be desired. A definite edition based on the 
oldest MSS. would be of great service, not only to students of 
Persian literature, but also to those interested in our present 
inquiry. 

QdniH^s ^^ Kallla wa-Dimna^* 

Next in order of date to NasruUah's prose version comes 
the versified rendering of Ahmad ibn Mahmud at-Tusi, whose 
poetical name was Qani'i. His poem, of which the unique 
manuscript copy exists in the British Museum, ^ is dedicated 
to *Izzu 'd-Din Kay Ka'us, son of Kay Khusraw, who succeeded 
his father in a.h. 642, when the Mongols were invading Asia 
Minor, and was probably composed about a.h. 618 (a.d. 1221). 
His Introduction contains, in addition to a narrative of con- 
temporary events, the story of the arrival of an Indian envoy 
at the Court of Anushirwan, who tells of the wonderful herb 
said to grow in India which bestows eternal life on those who 
eat of it. The herb is but an emblem of the book of wisdom 
which the kings of India keep as a sacred heirloom in their 
treasury. He entreats the king not to betray to his Indian 
master that he has disclosed this secret. On fol. 13a begins 
the story of Burzoe, and thereafter the order of Nasrullah is 
followed very closely. 

Qani'i does not anywhere mention the source from which 

^ See Noldeke's review of Keith-Falconer's Kalila and Dimna (^Gott. Gel, 
Anz., 1885, pp. 753-757), and his article in Z. d. M. G., vol. lix, p. 794. 

' Odd. 7766. This work has been described by Rieu in his Persian 
Catalogue, vol. ii, pp. 582-584. 



xxii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

his version is derived, but he evidently was following Nas- 
rullah rather than Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' or Rudaki. His general 
tendency is to expand rather than condense the narrative of 
his predecessors, and in many instances one is led to suspect 
that he derived, his details from other sources than those 
mentioned. His poem is written in the familiar mutaqdrib 

metre (v^ /^ j^ /w-/ employed by Firdawsi in his 

Shahnama. His style is simple and direct, but he does 
not impress one as a first-class poet. There is too much 
padding with conventional figures, and there is a paucity of 
rhyme which leads to constant repetitions of the same words. 
In view both of its subject and its date, Qani'i's poem never- 
theless deserves to be published and thus rescued from the 
oblivion of seven hundred years. He at times supplements 
the narrative of Nasrullah. For in the story of the Monkey 
and the Wedge, whereas the various Indian recensions 
{Panchatantra, Hitopade^a, and Kaihd-sarit-sdgara) all ac- 
count for the presence of the carpenters, by explaining that 
a rich man was having built either a temple or a playhouse, 
the Arabic Kalila wa-Dimna and its offshoots come straight 
to the story of the monkey without any introduction. Like- 
wise the Old Syriac only says, " Es war einmal ein Zimmer- 
mann, der spaltete Holz mit zwei Keilen " (see Schulthess 
trans., p. 3). It is therefore remarkable that Qani'i should 
have thought it necessary to give the story a setting, and 
that in doing so he should have hit upon the setting of the 
Indian versions. For he makes Kalila say : 

"I have heard that in former times in the country of 
Rum [Turkey] ^ 
Which country and land gives delight to the world 
A great man laid the foundations of a building 
So that he might raise a lofty palace in the town 
By the command of that prudent man of fame 
A Paradise sprang up on the face of the earth. 
Two fields had been surrounded by a wall (?) 

* It is interesting to note that in the story of the Lion and the Jackal 
the New Syriac version begins his story: "In the land of the Turks" (Keith- 
Falconer, p. xlviii). 



FOREWORD xxiii 

The carpenters were busy all day long 

The lord of that charming abode 

Kept an old monkey on a chain ; 

This monkey had been tied up near the carpenters 

And was quite contented to be thus tied up 

The monkeys observed that the carpenters across the 

trees 
Were drawing their saws, through that hard wood, etc." 

The coincidence is striking, and one wonders first how the 
setting came to be omitted in the Arabic and Syriac versions, 
and secondly whether Qani'i was reproducing details he had 
found in his copy of NasruUah. 



Anvdr-i Suhayli 

The most famous of all the versions of the so-called 
Semitic recension is undoubtedly the Persian prose work 
entitled Anvdr-i Suhayli, or The Lights of Canopus, composed 
in the fifteenth century by Husayn ibn 'Ali, the Preacher of 
Herat, known as al-Kashifi. [The title he gave to his version 
of Kalila and Dimna was chosen in order to commemorate 
one of the names of his patron, the Amir Shaykh Ahmad 
Suhayli, the vazir of Sultan Abu '1-Ghazi Husayn Bahadur 
Khan, a descendant of Tamerlane : while his own name of 
Kashifi was given to him on account of his being a com- 
mentator (kdshif) of the Qur'an.] Kashifi explains in his 
Preface that though he has adhered to the same arrangement 
as that of the Hindu sages, he has omitted the first two 
chapters, " which cannot be regarded as of much utility, and 
were not included in the original book " {i.e. in the original 
translated by Ibnu '1-Muqaffa'). He, however, considered 
it fitting to prefix to his own version a story which should 
serve as an introduction. 

This Introduction, which in the Cawnpore edition of 1880 
extends over no less than forty-eight pages, contains in 
addition to the story of the Emperor Humayun Fal and his 
Minister Khujista Rai, and of Dabshalim and his Minister 
Bidpay, five stories in the same style as the rest of Kalila and 



xxiv TIIK OCKAN OF STORY 

Diinna. the ori^Mii of wliicli lias not yt't been traeed, though 
tliev air j)idhal)ly also liuliaii. The stories themselves, like 
till- Intnuluttion. may he read in the translations of either 
Fast wick or NN'ollaston. 1 siiali merely j^ivc their titles in this 
place. 

Nt). I. The Two Pigeons, of whom one determined to 
adNinturc out into the world. 

No. II. 'i'he Young Hawk, who was reared in the nest of 
a Kite. 

No. III. The Old Woman's Cat who ventured into the 
kini,''s han(iuetinix hall. 

No. W. The Merchant's Son who became a soldier and 
(niKjuered many countries. 

No. V. The Leopard who recovered his father's lost 
kin^'dom. 

The avowed object of Kashifi in writinnf the Anvdr-i 

Suh(ii/ll Avas to preserve these Indian stories in a form which 

would make tlum more intelligible to the general reader. 

'i'he only Persian version which was known in his day was the 

Kalila 'ua-Di7)i7ia of Nasrullah, which in Kashifi's opinion was, 

in spite of its many excellences, too full of Arabic quotations 

and rare Arabic words : the book was indeed so difficult 

in style that according to Kashifi " it came near to being 

altogether neglected." It is a fact that Xasrullah's text 

abounds in Arabic quotations, but otherwise the style 

and language are exceedingly simple ; while Kashifi's text 

furnishes an example of that rhetorical hyperbole and ex- 

agg( rated metaphor which, though giving much pleasure to 

those who enjoy linguistic gynmastics and furnishing an 

admirable text -book for students of the Persian language, 

is wcarisonx in the extreme for those who merely wish to 

read the stori( s for their own sake. No doubt it constitutes 

a kind of fcnir dr force, and indicates a suj^rcme command 

of the P( rsian language ; but so often one cannot see the 

wood fur the trees. Kashifi was a famous preacher, and 

probably delighted in the sound of his own voice : and 

tliis practice very likely developed in him that taste for 

bombastic verbosity which reveals itself in his writings. In 



FOREWORD XXV 

my view his real object in adapting Nasrullah's Kallla wa- 
Dimna was not so much to simplify it as to let himself go, as 
it were, on material which seemed to lend itself to such treat- 
ment. A fatal example in the grand style had been set in 
the fourteenth century by the author of the TaWlkh-i Wassdf, 
a history of the Mongols in Persia, whose subject was totally 
unsuited to such style, and has set a baneful influence on most 
subsequent historical compositions in Persia.^ 



^lydr-i Danish 

Kashifi's version of the Indian tales no doubt had the 
effect of relegating Nasrullah's to comparative oblivion,* 
and it was not till the end of the sixteenth century that a 
really simple Persian version was published. This version, 
kno^\Tl by the title of ^lydr-i Danish^ was written by the 
famous historian of the Emperor Akbar, Abu '1-Fazl ibn 
Mubarak, at the request of his master. In his A^in-i Akbari 
(see Blochmann's translation, i, p. 106), Abu 'l-Fajl says : 
" By order of His Majesty, the author of this volume com- 
posed a new version of the Kallla wa-Dimna, and published 
it under the title of ^lydr-i Ddnish. The original is a master- 
piece of practical wisdom, but full of rhetorical difficulties ; and 
though Nasrullah-i Mustawfi and Mawlana Husayn-i Wa'iz 
had translated it into Persian, their style abounds in rare 
metaphors and difficult words." 

This version has, however, never enjoyed the same popu- 
larity as the Anvdr-i Suhayli, and though manuscript copies 
are fairly common, there is only one incomplete lithograph. 
The Hindustani translation by Mawlari Hafizu 'd-Din of 
Delhi, entitled Khirad-afruz, has been often lithographed. 
The ^lydr-i Ddnish differs from the Anvdr-i Suhayli in its 
introductory matter ; for in the place of Kashifi's long 

^ See . G. Browne, Persian Literature under Tartar Dotnmion, Cambridge, 
1920, pp. 67, 68. 

* Though several Turkish or Turki translations in prose and verse were 
made, the most popular of all has been the Humayun Sdma by 'All Chelebi, 
which is a fairly close translation of Anvdr-i Suhayh. It was dedicated to the 
great Ottoman Sultan Sulayman I, who reigned from a.d. 1512-1520. 



xxvi THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Introduction Abu '1-Fazl gives a paraphrase of the two 
chapters with which Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' and after him Nasrullah 
begin their versions : (I) on the nature of the book, and (II) 
on Burzoe, which were omitted by Kashifi. In order, however, 
to presence Kashifi's Introduction he has placed a paraphrase 
of it at the end of his Chapter 11.^ 

At the end of his Introductory Chapter he describes how 
and why he was entrusted by Akbar with the preparation of 
a simpHfied version. " When the eyes of that CaHph of the 
Age Abu '1-Fath Jalalu 'd-Din Muhammad Akbar, Padishah-i 
Ghazi, fell on this book, this ' bone-setting * of words and 
* story- telling ' of old maxims were blessed with the bestowal 
of exalted praise." He goes on to say that, although the 
Anvdr-i Suhayll is better suited to the public taste than the 
famous Kalila wa-Dimna [of Nasrullah], it still is not free 
from Arabic expressions and rare metaphors ; and therefore 
he was commanded to produce a version in a simple style 
which might become more generally useful, rejecting some 
of the [rarer] words and avoiding long-winded phrases 
(diraz-nafasiha-yi sukhan). 

That Abu '1-Fazl had NasruUah's Kalila wa-Dimna con- 
stantly before him is evident from numerous passages in 
which he has followed Nasrullah in preference to Kashifi. 

A full description of the ''lydr-i Danish with quotations 
from the text was published by de Sacy (Notices et Extraits, 
X, pp. 197-225). 

" Kalila wa-Dimna " in Arabic verse 

In conclusion I may be permitted to add a note on the 
various poetical renderings made in Arabic on the basis of 
Kalila wa-Dimna, of which no complete list has yet appeared 
in a European language. For my materials I am mainly in- 
debted to Jurji Zaydan's " TaWlkh dddbi H-lughati H-'arabiyya'' 
(Cairo, 1912, ii, p. 131 et seq.). 

* The name of the Emperor of Kashifi's story has been changed from 
"Humayun Fal" to " Farrukh-Fal," possibly out of consideration for the 
memory of Akbar's father. 



FOREWORD xxvii 

(1) The earliest rendering of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa* into Arabic 
verse was made by Abu Sahl al-Fazl ibn Nawbakht al-FarsI, 
who, like Ibnu '1-Muqaffa', was in the sendee of the 'Abbasid 
Caliph al-Mansur and afterwards in that of his son al-Mahdi 
and of Harun ar-Rashid. He translated a number of works 
from Persian into Arabic, which are enumerated on p. 674 of 
the Fihrist, where, however, his versified Kalila wa-Dimna is 
not mentioned. In the Kashfu '1-gunun (under title K. 
wa-D.) we read Abdullah ibn Hilal al-Ahwazi made a version 
of Kalila wa-Dimna for Yahya ibn Khalid, the Barmecide, 
in the reign of al-Mahdi, and Abu Sahl ibn Nawbakht made 
a translation in verse for Yahya ibn Khalid, the vazir of 
al-Mahdi and ar-Rashid, for which he received one thousand 
dinars as a reward. 

(2) Aban ibn *Abdi '1-Hamid al-Lahiqi made a poetical 
version of Kalila wa-Dimna, at the suggestion of his patrons 
the Barmecides, " in order that this work might be more 
easily memorised." Of Aban's poem only the first two fines 
have been preserved : 

X^\ <UJus3 'LXjLJ_^3 * A-lj aJ J Cjli?Lj>-l A3 

" This is a book of instructions and experience 
Which is called Kalila Dimna. 
In it (is found) cautions and uprightness 
It is a book composed by the Indians." 

Yahya ibn Khalid gave the poet ten thousand dinars and 
al-Fazl gave him five thousand dinars as a reward. Ja'far, 
however, gave him nothing, but merely said : " Is it not 
sufficient for you that I should memorise your poem, and 
thus become your Rawi ? " ^ 

(3) About the same period another poetic version was 
made by Ali ibn Da'ud, the secretary of Zubayda, the 

^ In the early centuries of Islam, Arabic and Persian poets each had their 
raiDi, or professed memoriser of their {K>ems. 



xxviii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

daui;httT (f Ja'far the Hannrcidc, and the wife of Ilarun 
ar-Hashid. 

(1) Portions of KiillUi (uul D'nnna were rendered into 
verse hv Hishr il)nu *1-Mu'tanii(l. 

('>) A shtrt nu'trieal \ crsion was made l)y Mnhaniinad ibn 
Muhammad ihn al-llabhariyva (ched a.m. oOl), wliieh is the 
tddest N t iM renderin^^ tliat lias been preserved to lis. Manu- 
scripts of this work exist in London and elsewliere, and a 
hthi;:raj>lied edition was j)nblishe(i in 15oml)ay in A.H. 1317, 
with iiiarLrinal notes and ^dosses by Sliaykli Ea/hiHali Haha'i, 
\\\u) tells us that the author's original MS. is in India. This 
\ I rsion l)ears the title of Nataijul-jitna ft nazm Kal'ila zva- 
Diuuui. It eomj)rises tlu'ee tliousand seven Inindred verses, 
Nvliieli tlie author says he wrote in ten days ! It is primarily 
basi-d on Ibnu "1-Mu(jaffa', but use was also made of Aban's 
l(tst })oem. This allusion to Aban is worth quotinfj : 

Sj^J. <_JL_> J'-^ (J^'li * ^S^-a^ iS^ ("^^ Cr^^ k^^ 

" I ha\ e also followed Aban al-Lahiqi 
liut though he is ahead of me he eannot eome up to me 
For in spite of his preccdinf,^ me in point of time 
I am superior to him as a j)oet." 

(0) Another version was made 1)}^ a certain Ibn Mamati 
al-Misrl, who died in a.ii. 600. 

(7j In the ninth century of tlie Hijra a metrical version 
of the Kalila and Dimna stories was made by Jalahi "d-Din 
an-Xaq(jash. Two copies of this poem are known to exist, 
one in the British Museum (Or. 3026). which has Ijcen de- 
scribed by Kieu, Supj)lcment Arabic Cat., p. 735 li scq., and 
another in the Library of the Catholic Fathers in Ikyrout. 
An-\a(j(jash makes no allusion to Ibnu 'l-^hujafhi', but only 
to Aban al-Iiihiqi. 

(8) Part of I})nu 'l-Mucjaffa' was versified })y Abdu 
'1-Mu'min ibn Hasan as-Saghani about a.d. 1242. Copies of 



FOREWORD xxix 

this work exists in Vienna and Munich. De Sacy had a copy 
made for himself of the Vienna MS., which is, he says, in a 
state of great disorder. It bears the title Durar ul-hikam 
Ji am^dli ^l-Hind wa H-*Ajam. 

The author says he knew Aban's poem by hearsay only, 
and that no one in his day had seen it. 



Concluding Remarks 

When I accepted Mr Penzer's flattering invitation to 
write the Foreword to the Panchatantra volume of the Ocean 
of Story it did not occur to me that I might become involved 
in controversy ; for, apart from a certain familiarity with the 
Arabic Kallla wa-Dimna and the Persian Anwar-i Suhayli, I 
was a stranger to the subject. The general reading necessary 
even for a comparison of the various modern Persian versions 
with the Arabic of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa' led me willy-nilly to a 
searching examination of the Burzoe Legend, and since these 
inquiries have resulted in opinions at variance with generally 
accepted views, I feel it is perhaps my duty to add a few 
further observations in support of my heterodoxy. 

First, with regard to the Indian king to whose court 
Burzoe was sent, I do not find that he is ever given a name 
or a place, but there is nothing which would imply that he 
was Dabshalim, the master of the Sage Bidpay, who is at the 
back of the Kalila and Dimna stories. Now the Chatrang 
Ndma^ a Pahlavi work of unknown date and provenance, 
brings King Dabshalim into correspondence with Anushirwan 
(Chosroes I) and into personal contact with Burzurjmihr, as 
will be seen from the following summary of the book made by 
West 1 : 

" Devasharm, king of the Hindus, sent to King 
Khusro-i Anoshak-ruban a set of chessmen ^ and other 

* See Grundriss der Iranischen Philologie, Band I, Lieferung 2, p. 119. 

2 The existence of chess in Persia is mentioned in another semi-historical 
Pahlavi work namely, the Kamamak of Artakhsir i Papakan, the founder of 
the Sasanian dynasty. 



XXX THE OCEAN OF STORY 

valuable presents, with a demand for an explanation 
of the game, or a heavy tribute. After three days' 
consideration, Vadshorg-Mitro, Khusro's prime- minister, 
explains the game, and invents that of backgammon, 
with which, and many valuable presents, he is sent to 
India to make similar demands from Devasharm, whose 
courtiers fail in explaining the new game after forty days' 
consideration, and their king has to pay tribute." 

Now in the Burzoe Legend, as we have seen, the wonder- 
ful book of which Anushirwan wished to obtain a copy was 
composed by Bidpay for his master the king, Dabshalim. 
There is no indication that it was a new work when it was 
first heard of in Persia. According to the Chatrang Ndma, 
Dabshalim and Anushirwan were contemporaries, and this 
would imply that the fables of Bidpay were composed in the 
sixth century, and that news of their existence reached Persia 
very soon after that event. Is it possible that in the oft 
repeating of the story, Buzurjmihr and Burzoe have been 
confused, and that in the original form it was Buzurjmihr 
who went to India for the book, and that the then king in 
India was the Dabshalim (Deva^arma) of the Fables, and 
that Bidpay ^ was the courtier who revealed the secret of 
the book to Buzurjmihr ? 

Another weak point in the legend is the secrecy with which 
this book was guarded by the Indian king. In the sixth 
century a.d. there were certainly many collections of these 
stories in various forms and under various titles, so there 
could be no question of the so-called " Kalila and Dimna " 
group existing in one particular copy only, or of any mystery 
attaching to its contents. And however useful the stories 
may have been found by the " Indian King," they certainly 
could not have been classed among the Sacred Books. 

Secondly, it is quite evident that these stories in their 
simplest Indian form were essentially popular in character, 
and represented the only form of literature in that day which 
might be enjoyed by women and children. Only a people to 
whom such fables were a novelty would trouble to invent such 

* The " Adwayh" of Cheikho' text of Ibnu '1-Muqaffa*. 



FOREWORD xxxi 

a childish setting, and I fail to understand how this particular 
point has been entirely ignored by those very scholars who 
have devoted so much labour to the co-ordination of the 
many Indian versions. Kashifi, in his Introduction, tells us 
that the Persian kings in their turn kept Burzoe's translation 
under lock and key. His object in making this statement is 
hke that of Ibn '1-Muqaffa' regarding the Indian original, 
obviously to give an additional importance to the book 
what we should nowadays call a publisher's " puff." 

Before dismissing the subject of the Pahlavi Kalila and 
Dimna, I wish to make it clear that in my view the linguistic 
arguments in favour of the existence of such a version, 
especially the Persian rendering given to certain Sanskrit 
names in Bud's Syriac translation, are of infinitely more 
importance than the Burzoe Legend, and indeed preclude 
the possibility of denying that there ever was a Pahlavi 
version. 



CONTENTS 

BOOK X: SAKTIYASAS 

CHAPTER LVII 

Author's Preface . . . 

Invocation . . . 

M(ain story) . . 

76. Story of the Inexhaustible Pitcher 
M. Cont. . . . 

77. Story of the Merchant's Son, the Courtesan, and 

the Wonderful Ape Ala . 
M. Cont. . . . 



PAOB 

xlvii 
1 
1 
8 
5 

5 
13 



CHAPTER LVIII 

M. Cont. ..- 

78. Story of King Vikramasimha, the Courtesan, and 

the Young Brahman . . 

M. Cont. .. 

79. Story of the Faithless Wife who Burnt herself with 

her Husband's Body . . 

M. Cont. ... 

80. Story of the Faithless Wife who had her Husband 

Murdered . . * 

M. Cont. ... 

81. Story ofVajrasara, whose Wife cut off his Nose 

and Ears . 

VOL. V. "^"i ^ 



15 

15 

18 

19 
19 

20 
20 

21 



< 



CONTENTS 

BOOK X: SAKTIYASAS 
CHAPTER LVII 

Author's Preface .... 

Invocation ..... 
M(ain story) ..... 

76. Story of the Inexhaustible Pitcher 
M. Cont. ..... 

77. Story of the Merchant's Son, the Courtesan, and 

the Wonderful Ape Ala . 

M. Cont. ..... 



PAGE 

xlvii 
1 
1 
3 
5 

5 
13 



CHAPTER LVIII 

M. Cont. . . . . . .15 

78. Story of King Vikramasimha, the Courtesan, and 

the Young Brahman . . . .15 

M. Cont. . . . . . .18 

79. Story of the Faithless Wife who Burnt herself with 

her Husband's Body . . . .19 

M. Cont. . . . . . .19 

80. Story of the Faithless Wife who had her Husband 

Murdered . . . . .20 

M. Cont. . . . . . .20 

81. Story ofVajrasara, whose Wife cut off his Nose 

and Ears . . . . .21 



VOL. V. 



XXXUl 



XXXIV 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 
CHAPTER LVIII continued 



M. Cont ..... 

82. Story of King Simhabala and his Fickle Wife 
M. Cont. ..... 



PAOB 

22 
23 
25 



CHAPTER LIX 



M. Cont. 



83. Story of King Sumanas, the Nishada Maiden, and 
the Learned Parrot .... 

83a. The Parrot's Account of his own Life as 
a Parrot .... 

83aa. The Hermit's Story of Soma- 
p r a b h a, Manorathaprabha, 
and Makarandika, wherein it 
appears who the Parrot was 
in a Former Birth 

83 AAA. Manorathaprabha and 
^ Ra^mimat 

83aa. The Hermit's Story of Soma- 
p r a b h a , Manorathaprabha, 
and Makarandika, wherein it 
appears who the Parrot was 
in a Former Birth 

83a. The Parrot's Account of his own Life as 

a Parrot .... 

83. Story of King Sumanas, the Nishada Maiden, and 

the Learned Parrot .... 

M. Cont. ...... 



26 



27 



28 



30 



32 



34 

37 

37 
38 



CONTENTS 



XXXV 



CHAPTER LX 

PAQK 

M. Cont, . . . .41 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 42 

84a. The Monkey that pulled out the Wedge 43 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 44 

84b. The Jackal and the Drum . . 46 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 46 

84c. The Crane and the Makara . . 48 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 49 

84d. The Lion and the Hare . .49 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 50 

84e. The Louse and the Flea . . 52 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 52 

84f. The Lion, the Panther, the Crow and 

the Jackal . . . .53 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 54 

84g. The Pair of Tittibhas . . .55 

84gg. The Tortoise and the Two Swans 55 

84g. The Pair of Tittibhas . . .56 

84GGG. The Three Fish . . 56 

84g. The Pair of Tittibhas . . .57 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 58 

84h. The Monkeys, the Firefly and the Bird . 58 
84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 59 

84i. Dharmabuddhi and Dushtabuddhi . 59 
84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 61 

84j. The Crane, the Snake and the Mungoose 61 
84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest . 61 

84k. The Mice that ate an Iron Balance . 62 



XXXVl 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 
CHAPTER LX continued 



84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 
M. Cont. . . . . 



PAOB 

63 
68 



CHAPTER LXI 



M. 
85. 

M. 

86. 
M. 
87. 
M. 
88. 
M. 
89. 
M. 
90. 
M. 
91. 
M. 
92. 

M. 
93. 
M. 
94. 
M. 



Cont. 



Story of the Foolish Merchant who made Aloes 
Wood into Charcoal 

Cont. ..... 

Story of the Man who sowed Roasted Seed 

K^\/Tti 

Story of the Fool who mixed Fire and Water 
Cont, ..... 



Story of the Man who tried to improve his Wife's Nose 68 
K^om. ..... 

Story of the Foolish Herdsman 

Cont. ..... 

Story of the Fool and the Ornaments 
Cont. ..... 

Story of the Fool and the Cotton . 

Cont. ..... 



Story of the Foolish Villagers who cut down the 
Palm-Trees 

Cont, ..... 

Story of the Treasure-Finder who was blinded 

Cont, ..... 

Story of the Fool and the Salt 

Cont. ..... 



67 

67 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 



69 
69 
69 
69 
70 
70 
70 

70 
71 
71 
71 
71 
72 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER LXl continued 



xxxvii 



PAOB 

95. Story of the Fool and his Milch-Cow . . 72 
M. Cont. , ^ . , , ,72 

96. Story of the Foolish Bald Man and the Fool who 

pelted him , . . , .72 

M. Cont. . . . . . .73 

97. Story of the Crow and the King of the Pigeons, 

the Tortoise and the Deer . . ,78 

97a. The Mouse and the Hermit , . 75 

97aa. The Brahman's Wife and the 

Sesame-Seeds . . 76 

97AAA. The Greedy Jackal . 77 

97aa. The Brahman's Wife and the 

Sesame-Seeds . 77 

97a. The Mouse and the Hermit . . 77 

97. Story of the Crow and the King of the Pigeons, 

the Tortoise and the Deer . . .78 

M. Cont. . . . . . .80 

98. Story of the Wife who falsely accused her 

Husband of murdering a Bhilla . . 80 

M. Cont. . . . . . .82 

99. Story of the Snake who told his Secret to a Woman . 82 
M. Cont. . . . . . .88 

100. Story of the Bald Man and the Hair-Restorer . 88 
M. Cont. , . . . ' . .84 

101. Story of a FooUsh Servant . . .84 
M. Cont. . . . . . .84 

102. Story of the Faithless Wife who was present at 

her own Sraddha . . . .84 

M. Cont. . . . . . .85 



XXXVIU 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 
CHAPTER LXI continued 



108. Story of the Ambitious Chandala Maiden 
M. Cord, 

104. Story of the Miserly King 
M. Cont, . ' 

105. Story of Dhavalamukha, his Trading Friend and 

his Fighting Friend 

M. Cont* 

106. Story of the Thirsty Fool that did not Drink 
M. Cont, . . . 

107. Story of the Fool who killed his Son 
M. Cont. . . 

108. Story of the Fool and his Brother 
M. Cont, ..... 

109. Story of the Brahmacharin's Son 
M. Cont, ..... 

110. Story of the Astrologer who killed his Son 
M. Cont, . . . . . 

111. Story of the Violent Man who justified his 

Character .... 

M. Cont, . . . 

112. Story of the Foolish King who made his Daughter 

grow ..... 

M. Cont. ..... 

118. Story of the Man who recovered half a Pana 
from his Servant 

M. Cont, ..... 

114. Story of the Fool who took Notes of a certain 
Spot in the Sea .... 



92 



CONTENTS xxxix 

CHAPTER LXIcontinued 

FAOI 

M. Cont. . . . . . .98 

115. Story of the King who replaced the Flesh . 98 
M. Cont. , . . . . .94 

116. Story of the Woman who wanted another Son . 94 
M. Cont, . . . . . .94 

117. Story of the Servant who tasted the Fruit . 94 
M. Cont. . . . . . .94 

118. Story of the Two Brothers Yajnasoma and 

Kirtisoma . . . . .95 

M. Cont. . . . . . . 96 

119. Story of the Fool who wanted a Barber . . 96 
M. Cont. . . . . .96 

120. Story of the Man who asked for Nothing at all . 97 
M. Cont. . . . . . .97 

CHAPTER LXII 
M. Cont. ...... 98 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 98 

12lA. The Ass in the Panther's Skin . . 99 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 100 

12lB. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds 

from choosing the Owl King . 100 

121BB. The Elephants and the Hares 101 

12lB. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds 

from choosing the Owl King . 102 

121BBB. The Bird, the Hare 
and the Cat . . 102 

12lB. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds 

from choosing the Owl King . 108 



xl THE OCEAN OF STORY 

CHAPTER LXn continued 



PAGB 



121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 104 

121c. The Brahman, the Goat and the 

Rogues . . . .104 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 104 

121D. The Old Merchant and his Young Wife 106 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 106 

121E. The Brahman, the Thief and the 

Rakshasa . . . .107 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 107 

121F. The Carpenter and his Wife . . 108 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 109 

12lG. The Mouse that was turned into a 

Maiden . . . .109 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 110 

12lH. The Snake and the Frogs . .112 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 112 
M. Cont. . . . . . .113 

122. Story of the Foolish Servant . . .113 
M. Cont. . . . . . .113 

123. Story of the Two Brothers who divided all that 

they had . . . . .114 

M. Cont. . . . . . .114 

124. Story of the Mendicants who became emaciated 

from Discontent . . . .114 

M. Cont. . . . . . .115 

125. Story of the Fool who saw Gold in the Water . 115 
M. Cont. . . . . . .115 

126. Story of the Servants who kept Rain off the 

Trunks . . . . .116 



CONTENTS xli ' 

CHAPTER LXJI continued j 

PACK ^ 

M. Cont ...... 116 ! 

127. Story of the Fool and the Cakes . . .116 ; 

128. Story of the Servant who looked after the Door . 117 i 
M. Cont. ...... 117 j 

129. Story of the Simpletons who ate the Buffalo .117 1 
M. Cont. ...... 118 l 

130. Story of the Fool who behaved like a Brahmany I 

Drake ...... 118 | 

131. Story of the Physician who tried to cure a i 

Hunchback . . . . .119 I 

M. Cont. ...... 119 



CHAPTER LXIII 

M. Cont. . . . . . .120 

182. Story of Ya^odhara and Lakshmidhara and the 

Two Wives of the Water-Spirit . .120 

132a. The Water-Spirit in his Previous 

Birth . . . .123 

132. Story of YaiSodhara and Laksmidhara and the 

Two Wives of the Water-Spirit . .124 

132b. The Brahman who became a Yaksha 125 

132. Story of YaiSodhara and Lakshmidhara and the 

Two Wives of the Water-Spirit . .125 

M. Cont. ...... 126 

133. Story of the Monkey and the Porpoise . .127 

133a. The Sick Lion, the Jackal and the Ass 130 
133. Story of the Monkey and the Porpoise . . 132 

M. Cont. . . . . . .132 



xlii 



THK OCEAN OF STORY 
CHAFrEU LXIII continufd 



184. Storv of tilt' Fool who ^mve a WTbal Reward to 

the Musician ..... 132 



M. C'ont. 



KJf). Story of tlu' TcaclR-r and his Two Jealous Pupils 133 

M. Cont. ..... 

I'M). Story of the Snake with Two Heads 

M. ('i>nt. ..... 

i;}7. Stor\ of the Fool who was nearly ehoked witl 
Rice ..... 

M. Cont. ..... 

13S. Story of the Boys that milked the Donkey 

M. Cont. ..... 



l.'il). Story of the Foolish Boy who went to the Village 
for Nothing .... 

M. Cont. ..... 



133 



134 
134 
135 

135 
136 
136 
136 

186 
137 



CHAPTER LXIV 

M, Cont. . . . . . .138 

140. Story of the Brahman and the Mungoose . 138 

M. Cont. . . . . . .139 

111. Story of the Fool that was his own Doetor . 139 
M. Cont. . . . . . .140 

112. Story of the Fool who mistook Hermits for 

Monkeys . . . . .110 

M. Cont. . . . . . .140 

113. Story of the Fool who found a Purse . . 140 
M. Cont. . . . . . .141 

111. Storv of the Fool who looked for the Moon . 141 



CONTENTS 
CHAPTER XIAW continued 



xliii 



PAOK 

141 



M. Cont. ..... 

145. Story of the Woman who escaped from the 

Monkey and the Cowherd , . .141 

M. Cont. . . . . .142 

146. Story of the Two Thieves, Ghata and Karpara . 142 
M. Cont, ...... 152 



CHAPTER LXV 

M. Cont. .... 

147. Story of the Ungrateful Wife 
M. Cont. .... 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Un 

grateful Woman 

148a. The Lion's Story 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Un 
grateful Woman 

148b. The Golden-Crested Bird's Story 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Un 
grateful Woman 

148c. The Snake's Story . 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Un 
grateful Woman 

148D. The Woman's Story 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Un 

grateful Woman 

M. Cont. .... 

149. Story of the Buddhist Monk who was bitten by 

a Dog .... 

M. Cont. .... 



153 
153 
156 

157 
159 

159 
160 

161 
161 

161 
162 

162 
164 

165 
165 



xliv THE OCEAN OF STORY 

CHAPTER LXV continued 

PAGB 

150. Story of the Man who submitted to be Burnt 

Alive sooner than share his Food with a Guest 165 

M. Cont. ...... 167 

161. Story of the Foolish Teacher, the Foolish 

Pupils and the Cat : . . . 167 

M. Cont. ...... 168 

152. Story of the Fools and the Bull of Siva . . 168 

M. Cont. ...... 170 

158. Story of the Fool who asked his Way to the Village 170 

M. Cont. ...... 171 

154. Story of Hiranyaksha and Mrigankalekha . 171 

M. Cont. ...... 174 



CHAPTER LXVI 

M. Cont. . . . . . .178 

155. Story of the Hermit and his Pupils . . 178 

155a. The Mendicant who travelled from 

Kai^mira to Pataliputra . .178 

155aa. The Wife of King Simhaksha, 
and the Wives of his Prin- 
cipal Courtiers . .180 

155a. The Mendicant who travelled from 

KaiSmira to Pataliputra . .182 

M. Cont. . . . . . .188 

156. Story of the Woman who had Eleven Husbands . 184 
M. Cont. . . . . . .185 

157. Story of the Man who, thanks to Durga, had 

always One Ox . . . .185 



CONTENTS xlv 
CHAPTER LXVI continued 

FAOB 

M. Cont. ...... 186 

158. Story of the Rogue who managed to acquire 

Wealth by speaking to the King . . 186 

M. Cont. ...... 188 

159. Story of Hemaprabha and Lakshmisena . . 188 
M. Cont. ...... 192 



BOOK XI; VELA 

CHAPTER LXVII 

Invocation ...... 196 

M. Cont. ...... 196 

160. Story of the Merchant and his Wife Vela . 198 

M. Cont. ...... 204 

APPENDIX I 

The Panchatantra ..... 205 

APPENDIX II 

The Origin of the Story of Ghata and Karpara . 248 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . 287 

Index II General ..... 803 



PREFACE 

THE importance of this volume will be realised after 
the most cursory glance. In the first place, it contains 
one of the world's most famous and loved books, the 
Panchatantra, or Fables ofPilpay. 

Secondly, the co-operation of Professor Franklin Edgerton, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, has enabled me to include 
the most elaborate and comprehensive genealogical table of 
Panchatantra tradition ever attempted. 

Thirdly, Sir Denison Ross has contributed a Foreword 
containing the results of his original research into the Persian 
and Arabic recensions of the Fables. 

His attempt to discredit the Burzoe legend, and conse- 
quently to doubt the existence of a Pahlavi version, will cause 
something of an emeute among Orientalists, who for genera- 
tions have been perfectly content to march in complaisant 
acquiescence under the standard of Benfey, Noldeke, etc. 

Before this volume appears Sir Denison Ross will have 
stated his case publicly at the Royal Society of Arts ; and 
I await, with no little interest, the dicta of the Learned. 

Apart from the Panchatantra, the present volume contains 
the " Tale of Ghata and Karpara," which I take to be a version 
of Herodotus' " Tale of Rhampsinitus." In Appendix II an 
attempt has been made to show that this tale can boast of 
an uninterrupted history of over 2300 years ! 

Once again I find myself heavily in the debt of Dr L. D. 
Barnett and Mr Fenton for their continued help, both in 
proof-reading and in general advice on innumerable points. 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 
2nd February 1926. 



zlvii 



BOOK X : I^AKTI Y A^ AS 
CHAPTER LVII 

INVOCATION 

WE worship the elephantine proboscis of Gane^a, not 
to be resisted by his enemies, reddened with ver- 
miUon, a sword dispelling great arrogance.^ May 
the third eye of Siva, which, when all three were equally 
wildly-rolling, blazed forth beyond the others, as he made 
ready his arrow upon the string, for the burning of Pura, 
protect you. May the row of nails of the Man-lion,^ curved 
and red with blood, when he slew his enemy, and his fiery 
look askance, destroy your calamities. 



[M] Thus Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of 
Vatsa, remained in Kausambi in happiness with his wives 
and his ministers. And one day, when he was present, a 
merchant living in the city came to make a representation 
to his father, as he was sitting on his throne. 

That merchant, of the name of Ratnadatta, entered, 
announced by the warder, and bowing before the king, said 
as follows : " O King, there is a poor porter here, of the 
The Porter i^^me of Vasundhara ; and suddenly he is found 
who found a of late to be eating, drinking, and bestowing 
Bracelet alms. So, out of curiosity, I took him to my 

house, and gave him food and drink to his heart's content, 
and when I had made him drunk, I questioned him, and he 
gave me this answer : ' I obtained from the door of the 
king's palace a bracelet with splendid jewels, and I picked 
out one jewel and sold it. And I sold it for a lakh of dinars 

^ I read mada for madya. 

* Narasimha, Vishnu assumed this form for the destruction of Hiranya- 
ka^ipu. 

VOL. V. 1 A 



2 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

to a merchant named Hiranyagupta ; this is how I come 
to be living in comfort at present.' When he had said this, 
he showed me that bracelet, which was marked with the 
king's name, and therefore I have come to inform your 
Majesty of the circumstance." 

When the King of Vatsa heard that, he had the porter 
and the merchant of precioUs jewels summoned with all 
courtesy, and when he saw the bracelet, he said of himself : 
" Ah ! I remember, this bracelet slipped from my arm when 
I was going round the city." And the courtiers asked the 
porter : " Why did you, when you had got hold of a bracelet 
marked with the king's name, conceal it ? " He replied : 
" I am one who gets his living by carrying burdens, and 
how am I to know the letters of the king's name ? When I 
got hold of it, I appropriated it, being burnt up with the 
misery of poverty." When he said this, the jewel-merchant, 
being reproached for keeping the jewel, said : "I bought 
it in the market, without putting any pressure on the man, 
and there was no royal mark upon it, though now it is said 
that it belongs to the king. And he has taken five thousand 
of the price, the rest is with me." When Yaugandharayana, 
who was present, heard this speech of Hiranyagupta's, he 
said : " No one is in fault in this matter. What can 
we say against the porter who does not know his letters ? 
Poverty makes men steal, and who ever gave up what he 
had found ? And the merchant who bought it from him 
cannot be blamed." 

The king, when he heard this decision of his prime 
minister's, approved it. And he took back his jewel from 
the merchant, paying him the five thousand dinars, which 
had been spent by the porter, and he set the porter at liberty, 
after taking back his bracelet, and he, having consumed 
his five thousand, went free from anxiety to his own house. 
And the king, though in the bottom of his heart he hated 
that merchant Ratnadatta, as being a man who ruined 
those that reposed confidence in him, honoured hun for his 
service. When they had all departed, Vasantaka came 
before the king, and said : " Ah ! when men are cursed 
by Destiny, even the wealth they obtain departs, for the 



THE MAGIC PITCHER 6 

incident of the inexhaustible pitcher ^ has happened to this 
porter. 



76. Story of the Inexhaustible Pitcher ^ 

For you must know that there lived long ago, in the 
city of Pataliputra, a man of the name of Subhadatta, and 
every day he carried in a load of wood from the forest, and 
sold it, and so maintained his household. 

Now one day he went to a distant forest, and, as it 
happened, he saw there four Yakshas with heavenly orna- 
ments and dresses. The Yakshas, seeing he was terrified, 
kindly asked him of his circumstances, and finding out that 
he was poor, they conceived pity for him, and said : " Remain 
here as a servant in our house ; we will support your family 
for you without trouble on your part." When Subhadatta 
heard that, he agreed, and remained with them, and he 
supplied them with requisites for bathing and performed 
other menial offices for them. When the time for eating 
came, those Yakshas said to him : " Give us food from this 
inexhaustible pitcher." But he hesitated, seeing that it was 
empty, and then the Yakshas again said to him, smiling : 
" Subhadatta, do you not understand ? Put your hand in 
the pitcher, and you will obtain whatever you want, for this 
is a pitcher that supplies whatever is required." When he 

^ For a long note on magical articles in folk-lore see Vol. I, pp. 25-29. 
Tawney quotes a few further references Gonzenbach, Sicilianische M'drchen, 
No, 52; Dasent, Popular Tales from the Norse, pp. xciv et seq., 12, 264, 293- 
295. In the tale on p. 12 ("Why the Sea is Salt") the hero lets out his 
secret under the influence of drink, as in our text. For the most ancient 
example of this kind of tale see Rhys Davids, Btiddhist Birth Stories, Intro- 
duction, pp. xvi-xxi. Cf. Prym and Socin, Syrische Mdrchen, p. 343 ; Grimm, 
Irische Mdrchen, No, 9, "Die Flasche," p, 42. In the Bhadra-Ghata Jdtaka, 
No. 291 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 29S-295), Sakko gives a pitcher, which 
is lost in the same way. Grimm in his Irische Elfenmdrchen, Introduction, 
p. xxxvii, remarks that "if a man discloses any supernatural power which 
he possesses, it is at once lost." A large number of further references to 
magical articles in folk-lore will be found in Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen 
2U den Kinder- und Hausmdrchen der Briider Grimm, vol. iii, p. 424. See also 
E. S. Hartland, The Science of Fairy Tales, p. 55 et seq,, and Chauvin, 
Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes, v, p. 143. n.m.p. 



4 TIIK OCKAX OF STORY 

heard tliat, \w \ni\ his hand in the pitclior, and immediately 
lit- hthcld all the food and drink that could be required. 
Anil Sul)hadatta >ut of that store su})plied them and ate 
liinist If. 

Thus waiting' on tlic Vakshas e\ try day with devotion 
and a\V(. Sui)hadatta remained in their j)resenee anxious 
ah(ut liis faniilx'. Hut iiis sorrowini,' family was comforted 
\)\ thtin in a dream, and this kindness on their part made 
him happy. At the termination of one month the Yakshas 
said to him : '* We are pleased with this devotion of yours, 
we will i:rant you a boon; say what it shall be." When 
he heard that, he said to them: "Then ii^ive me this 
inexhaustible pitcher." Then the Yakshas said to him : 
" You will not be abk- to kcej:) it, for, if broken, it de|)arts 
at once, so choose some other bot)n." Thou^^h they warned 
him in these words, Subhadatta would not choose any other 
boon, so they ^ave him that inexhaustible pitcher. Then 
Subhadatta bowed })efore them deliohted, and, taking that 
pitcher, (juickly returned to his house, to the joy of his 
relations. Then he took out of that pitcher food and drink, 
ami in order to conceal the secret he })laeed them in other 
vessels, and consumed them with his relations. And as he 
gave up carrying burdens, and enjoyed all kinds of delights, 
his kinsmen one day said to him, when he was drunk : 
" How (lid you manage to acquire the means of all this 
enjoyment ? "' lie was too nuicli ])uffed up with ])ride to 
tell them })lainly, but taking the wish-granting pitcher on 
his shoulder, he began to dance.' And as he was dancing 
the inexhaustible pitcher slipped from his shoulder, as his 
fet t trippid with over-al)undance of intoxication, and falling 
on the ground, was broken in })icees. And inunediately 
it was mended .'iLTain. and rcN'crted to its original j)ossessors, 
but Snl)ha(latta was reduced to his former condition, and 
filled with despondcncv. 

' In Hart (li^ >(/:.", Munhrn u. (irfiriiiic/ir (lus Mr/c/fnlmr;^, vol. i, p. H , ;i 
man [>os ( -sf s IiimscM oT an iiuxli;nistil)Ic beer-can. Hut as soon as he told 
liow ho ^ot it the l)orr (iis.ippcarcd. Another (p. 81-) spoils the cliarm by 
h>okinp into the msmI, at the bottom of which he sees a h)athsonie toad. 
This he hail brt-n cx{)rc-.^l_v fijrbiddcn to do. 



YAMAJIHVA, THE BAWD 5 

[M] " So you see that those unfortunate persons, whose 
intellects are destroyed with the vice of drinking, and other 
vices, and with infatuation, cannot keep wealth, even if they 
have obtained it." 

^ When the King of Vatsa had heard this amusing story 
of the inexhaustible pitcher, he rose up, and bathed, and set 
about the other duties of the day. And Naravahanadatta 
also bathed, and took food with his father, and at the end 
of the day went with his friends to his own house. There 
he went to bed at night, but could not sleep, and Marubhuti 
said to him in the hearing of the ministers : "I know, it is 
love of a slave-girl that prevents your summoning your wives, 
and you have not summoned the slave-girl, so you cannot 
sleep. But why in spite of your better knowledge, do you 
still fall in love with courtesans ? For they have no goodness 
of character. In proof that they have not, hear the following 
tale. 

77. Story of the Merchanfs Son, the Courtesan, and the 
Wonderful Ape Ala 

There is in this country a great and opulent city named 
Chitrakuta. In it there lived a merchant named Ratna- 
varman, a prince among the wealthy. He had one son 
born to him by propitiating Siva, and he gave that son the 
name of Isvaravarman. After he had studied the sciences, 
his father, the rich merchant, who had no other son but him, 
seeing that he was on the verge of manhood, said to himself : 
" Providence has created in this world that fair and frail 
type of woman, the courtesan, to steal the wealth and life of 
rich young men, blinded with the intoxication of youth. So I 
will entrust my son to some bawd, in order that he may learn 
the tricks of the courtesans and not be deceived by them." 

Having thus reflected, he went with his son Isvara- 
varman to the house of a certain bawd, whose name was 
Yamajihva. There he saw that bawd, with massive jaw, 
and long teeth, and snub nose, instructing her daughter 
in the following words : " Everyone is valued on account of 
wealth, a courtesan especially ; and courtesans who fall in 



6 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

love do not obtain wealth, therefore a courtesan should 
abandon passion. For rosy red, love's proper hue, is the 
harbinger of eclipse to the courtesan as to the evening twi- 
light ; a properly trained courtesan should exhibit love 
without sincerity, like a well-trained actress. With that 
she should gain a man's affections, then she should extract 
from him all his wealth ; when he is ruined, she should finally 
abandon him, but if he should recover his wealth, she should 
take him back into favour. A courtesan, like a hermit, is 
the same towards a young man, a child, an old man, a hand- 
some man, and a deformed man, and so she always attains 
the principal object of existence." ^ 

While the bawd was delivering this lesson to her daughter, 
Ratnavarman approached her, and after she had welcomed 
him, he took a seat by her side. And he said to her : 
" Reverend mother, teach my son this skill of the courtesans, 
in order that he may become clever in it. And I will give 
you a thousand dinars by way of recompense." When the 
bawd heard his desire, she consented, and he paid the 
dinars, and made over his son Isvaravarman to her, and 
then returned home. 

Then Isvaravarman, in the course of one year, learned 
in the house of Yamajihva all the graceful accomplishments, 
and then returned to his father's house. And after he had 
attained sixteen years, he said to his father : " Wealth gives 
us religion and love, wealth gives us consideration and 
renown." When his father heard this, he exclaimed in 
approval : " It is even so." And being delighted he gave 
him five crores by way of capital. The son took it, and set 
out on an auspicious day with a caravan, with the object of 
journeying to Svarnadvipa. And on the way he reached 
a town named Kanchanapura, and there he encamped in a 
garden, at a short distance outside the town. And after 
bathing and anointing himself, the young man entered the 
town, and went to a temple to see a spectacle. And there 

* Wealth in her case, salvation in that of the hermit. For full instruc- 
tions concerning courtesans and their behaviour towards their lovers under all 
conditions, see Vatsyayana's Kama SFitra, Book VI. Other references to similar 
works have already been given (Vol. I, pp. 234, 236 and notes). n.m.p. 



THE FAIR SUNDARI T 

he saw a dancing-girl, of the name of Sundari, dancing, 
like a wave of the sea of beauty ^ tossed up by the wind 
of youth. And the moment he saw her he became so 
devoted to her that the instructions of the bawd fled far 
from him, as if in anger. At the end of the dance, he sent 
a friend to solicit her, and she bowed and said : " I am 
highly favoured." 

And I^varavarman left vigilant guards in his camp to 
watch over his treasure, and went himself to the house of 
that Sundari. And when he came, her mother, named 
Makarakati, honoured him with the various rites of hospi- 
tality which became the occasion. And at nightfall she 
introduced him into a chamber with a canopy of flashing 
jewels and a bed. There he passed the night with Sundari,^ 
whose name expressed her nature, and who was skilled in 
all movements of the dance. And the next day he could 
not bring himself to part from her, as she showed great 
affection for him, and never left his side. And the young 
merchant gave her twenty-five lakhs of gold and jewels in 
those two days. But Sundari, with a false affectation of 
disinterestedness, refused to take them, saying : " I have 
obtained much wealth, but I never found a man like you ; 
since I have obtained you, what should I do with wealth ? '* 
But her mother, Makarakati, whose only child she was, 
said to her : " Henceforth, whatever wealth belongs to us 
is as much his as his own property, so take it, my daughter, 
as a contribution to our common stock. What harm is 
there in that ? " When Sundari's mother said this to her, 
she took it with affected unwillingness, and the foolish 
li^varavarman thought she was really in love with him. 
While the merchant remained in her house, charmed by 
her beauty, her dancing, and singing, two months passed, 
and in course of time he bestowed upon her two crores. 

Then his friend, named Arthadatta, of his own accord 
came to him and said : " Friend, has all that training of 
yours, though painfully acquired from the bawd, proved 
useless, now that the occasion has presented itself, as skill 

Cf. Winters Tale, Act IV, sc. 4, lines 140, 141. 
* I.e. beautiful. 



8 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

in the use of wtapons dois to a coward, in that you believe 
that thtTf is sinctrity in this love of a courtesan ? Is water 
e\ IT really foniul in desert mirages ? So let us ^^o belorc 
all vour wealth is eonsuined, for if your father were to hear 
of it hi- would he \ try ani^n-y." When his friend said this to 
him. the luerehant's son said : " It is true that no reliance 
can i>e placed uj)on courtesans as a rule; hut Sundarl is not 
like till- rest of her class, for if she were to lose sin;lit of nie 
for a moment, my friend, she would die. So do you break 
it tf> her. if we nuist in any case ^o."' 

Wiun he said this to Arthadatta, Arthadatta said to 
Sundarl. in the presence of Isvaravarnian and iier mother 
Makarakati : " You entertain extraordinary affection for 
Is\ ara\ arman. hut he nuist certainly ^o on a tradin^i; exi)edi- 
tion to S\arnad\lpa inunediately. There he will obtain so 
nuich wealth tiiat he will come and Ii\"e with you in happi- 
ness all his life. Consent to it. my friend." When Sundari 
heard this, she nazed on the lace of Isvaravarnian with 
tears in her eyes and assiuned desj)()ndency, and said to 
Arthadatta : " \\'hat am I to say ? You gentlemen know 
best. Wlio can rely on anyone before secino- the end ? 
Ne\ IT mind I Let Fate deal with me as it will ! '' 

When she said this, her mother said to her : " Do not 
be Lrrie\ fd. control yourself; your lover will certainly return 
when he has made his fortune ; he will not abandon you." 
In these words her mother consoled her, but made an agree- 
nient with her. and had a net secretly ])re])ared in a well 
that lay in tlie road they must take. And then Isvara- 
\armairs mind was in a state of trenmlous aLitation about 
partiuL'. and Sundarl, as if out of i^rief. took but little food 
and drink. And she showed no inclination for sinewing, 
nnisic or dancinLi. but she was c-onsolcd by Lsvaravarman 
with \arious affectionate attentions. 

Th( n. on the day named bv his friend, Isvaravarnian set 
out from the house of Sundarl, after the bawd had offered 
a prayer for his success. And Sundarl followed him weep- 
inir. with her mother, outside the city, as far as the well in 
which the net had been stretched. There he made Sundari 
turn back, and he was i)roce( dinir on his journey when she 



STRIPPED OF HIS WEALTH 9 

flung herself into the well on the top of the net. Then 
a loud cry was heard from her mother, from the female 
slaves, and all the attendants : " Ah ! my daughter ! Ah I 
mistress ! " 

That made the merchant's son and his friend turn round, 
and when he heard that his beloved had thrown herself into 
a well, he was for a moment stupefied with grief. And 
Makarakati, lamenting with loud cries, made her servants, 
who were attached to her, and in the secret, go down into 
the well. They let themselves down by means of ropes, 
and exclaiming, " Thank heaven, she is alive, she is alive I " 
they brought up Simdarl from the well. When she was 
brought up, she assumed the appearance of one nearly dead, 
and after she had mentioned the name of the merchant's 
son, who had returned, she slowly began to cry. But he, 
being comforted, took her to her house in great delight, 
accompanied by his attendants, returning there himself. 
And having made up his mind that the love of Sundari was 
to be relied on, and considering that, by obtaining her, he 
had obtained the real end of his birth, he once more gave 
up the idea of continuing his journey. And when he had 
taken up his abode there, determined to remain, his friend 
said to him once more : " My friend, why have you ruined 
yourself by infatuation ? Do not rely on the love of 
Sundari simply because she flung herself into a well, for the 
treacherous schemes of a bawd are not to be fathomed 
even by Providence. And what will you say to your father, 
when you have spent all your property, or where will you go ? 
So leave this place even at this eleventh hour, if your mind 
is sound." 

When the merchant's son heard this speech of his friend's, 
he paid no attention to it, and in another month he spent 
those other three crores. Then he was stripped of his all ; 
and the bawd Makarakati had him seized by the back of 
the neck and turned out of Sundari's house. 

But Arthadatta and the others quickly returned to 
their own city, and told the whole story, as it happened, 
to his father. His father Ratnavarman, that prince of 
merchants, was much grieved when he heard it, and in great 



10 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

distress went to the bawd Yamajihva, and said to her : 
" Though you received a large salary, you taught my son 
so badly that Makarakati has with ease stripped him of 
all his wealth." When he had said this, he told her all the 
story of his son. Then the old bawd Yamajihva said : 
" Have your son brought back here ; I will enable him to 
strip Makarakati of all her wealth." When the bawd 
Yamajihva made this promise, Ratnavarman quickly sent 
off that moment his son's well-meaning friend Arthadatta 
with a message, to bring him, and to take at the same time 
means for his subsistence. 

So Arthadatta went back to that city of Kanchanapura, 
and told the whole message to Isvaravarman. And he 
went on to say to him : " Friend, you would not do what 
I advised you, so you have now had personal experience 
of the untrustworthy dispositions of courtesans. After you 
had given that five crores^ you were ejected neck and crop. 
What wise man looks for love in courtesans or for oil in 
sand ? Or why do you put out of sight this unalterable 
nature of things ? ^ A man is wise, self -restrained, and 
possesses happiness, only so long as he does not fall within 
the range of women's cajoleries. So return to yom* father 
and appease his wrath." 

With these words Arthadatta quickly induced him to 
return, and encouraging him, led him into the presence of 
his father. And his father, out of love for his only son, 
spoke kindly to him, and again took him to the house of 
Yamajihva. And when she questioned him, he told his 
whole story by the mouth of Arthadatta, down to the 
circumstance of Sundarl's flinging herself into the well, and 
how he lost his wealth. Then Yamajihva said : " I indeed 
am to blame, because I forgot to teach him this trick. For 
Makarakati stretched a net in the well, and Sundari flung 
herself upon that, so she was not killed. Still there is a 
remedy in this case." 

Having said this, the bawd made her female slaves 
bring her monkey named Ala. And in their presence she 
gave the monkey her thousand dinars, and said : " Swallow 

* I find in the Sanskrit College MS. kimmtichyate for vimucht/ate. 



ALA THE APE 11 

these." And the monkey, being trained to swallow money, 
did so. Then she said : " Now, my son, give twenty to 
him, twenty-five to him, sixty to him, and a hundred to 
him." And the monkey, as often as Yamajihva told him 
to pay a sum, brought up the exact number of dinars, 
and gave them as commanded.^ And after Yamajihva had 
shown this device of Ala, she said to I^varavarman : " Now 
take with you this young monkey. And repair again to 
the house of Sundari, and keep asking him day by day for 
sums of money, which you have secretly made him swallow. 
And Sundari, when she sees Ala, resembling in his powers 
the wishing-stone, will beg for him, and will give you all 
she has so as to obtain possession of the ape, and clasp him 
to her bosom. And after you have got her wealth, make 
him swallow enough money for two days, and give him to 
her, and then depart to a distance without delay." 

After Yamajihva had said this, she gave that ape to 
Isvaravarman, and his father gave him two crores by way 
of capital. And with the ape and the money he went once 
more to Kanchanapura, and dispatching a messenger on in 
front, he entered the house of Sundari. Sundari welcomed 
him as if he were an incarnation of perseverance, which 
includes in itself all means for attaining an end, and his 
friend with him, embracing him round the neck, and making 
other demonstrations. Then Isvaravarman, having gained 
her confidence, said to Arthadatta in her presence in the 
house : " Go and bring Ala." He said, " I will," and 
went and brought the monkey. And as the monkey had 

* In La Fontaine's Contes et Nouvelles, iii, 13, there is a little dog qui secoue 
de Vargent et des pierreries. The idea probably comes from the Mahabhdrata. 
In this poem Srinjaya has a son named Suvarnashthivin. Some robbers 
treat him as the goose that laid the golden eggs was treated. There are also 
birds that spit gold in the Mahabhdrata. (See Lev^que, Les Mythes et Legendes 
de I'Inde et la Perse, pp. 289-294.) There is an ass with the same gift in 
Sicilianische Mdrchen, No. 52. For the wishing-stone see Dasent's Popular 
Tales from the Norse, Introduction, p. xcv. He remarks that the stone in his 
tale. No. 59, which tells the prince all the secrets of his brides, "is plainly 

the old Oskastein, or wishing-stone." See // Pentamerone (Burton's trans., 

vol. i, p. 13; and W, Crooke, " King Midas and his Ass's Ears," FoUc-Lore, 
vol. xxii, 1911, p. 184. N.M.p. 



12 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

before swallowed a thousand dinars, he said to him : " Ala, 
my son, give us to-day three hundred dinars for our eating 
and drinking, and a hundred for betel and other expenses, 
and give one himdred to our mother Makarakati, and a 
hundred to the Brahmans, and give the rest of the thousand 
to Sundari." When I^varavarman said this, the monkey 
brought up the dinars he had before swallowed, to the 
amounts ordered, and gave them for the various objects 
required. 

So by this artifice Ala was made to supply every day the 
necessary expenses, for the period of a fortnight, and in the 
meanwhile Makarakati ^ and Sundari began to think : " Why, 
this is a very wishing-stone which he has got hold of in the 
form of an ape, which gives every day a hundred dinars ; 
if he would only give it us, all our desires would be accom- 
plished." Having thus debated in private with her mother, 
Sundari said to that I^varavarman, when he was sitting at 
his ease after dinner : "If you really are well pleased with 
me, give me Ala." But when I^varavarman heard that, 
he answered laughingly : " He is my father's all in the 
world, and it is not proper to give him away." When he 
said this, Sundari said to him again : " Give him to me and 
I will give you five crores.^'' Thereupon Isvaravarman said 
with an air of decision : "If you were to give me all your 
property, or indeed this city, it would not do to give him 
you, much less for your crores^ When Sundari heard this, 
she said : "I will give you all I possess ; but give me this 
ape, otherwise my mother will be angry with me." And 
thereupon she clung to I^varavarman's feet. Then Artha- 
datta and the others said : " Give it her, happen what will." 
Then Isvaravarman promised to give it her, and he spent 
the day with the delighted Sundari. And the next day he 
gave to Sundari, at her earnest entreaties, that ape, which 
had in secret been made to swallow two thousand dinars, 
and he immediately took by way of payment all the wealth 
in her house, and went off quickly to Svarnadvipa to trade. 

And to Simdari's delight the monkey Ala, when asked, 
gave her regularly a thousand dinars for two days. But 

^ The reading should be Makarakatyevam. 



THE REVENGE COMPLETE 18 

on the third day he did not give her anything, though coaxed 
to do it. Then Sundari struck the ape with her fist. And 
the monkey, being beaten, sprang up in a rage, and bit and 
scratched the faces of Sundari and her mother, who were 
thrashing him. Then the mother, whose face was streaming 
with blood, flew into a passion and beat the ape with sticks, 
till he died on the spot. When Sundari saw that he was 
dead, and reflected that all her wealth was gone, she was 
ready to commit suicide for grief, and so was her mother. 
And when the people of the town heard the story, they 
laughed, and said : " Because Makarakati took away this 
man's wealth by means of a net, he in his turn has stripped 
her of all her property, like a clever fellow that he is, by 
means of a pet ; she was sharp enough to net him, but did 
not detect the net laid for herself." 

Then Sundari, with her scratched face and vanished 
wealth, was with difficulty restrained by her relations from 
destroying herself, and so was her mother. And Isvara- 
varman soon returned from Svarnadvipa to the house of 
his father in Chitrakuta. And when his father saw him 
returned, having acquired enormous wealth, he rewarded 
the bawd Yamajihva with treasure, and made a great feast. 
And Isvaravarman, seeing the matchless deceitfulness of 
courtesans, became disgusted with their society, and taking 
a wife remained in his own house. ^ 



[M] " So you see. King, that there never dwells in the 
minds of courtesans even an atom of truth, unalloyed with 
treachery, so a man who desires prosperity should not take 

^ There is a certain resemblance between this story and the tenth novel 
of the eighth day in Boccaccio's Decameron. Dunlop traces Boccaccio's story 
to the Disciplina Clericalis of Petrus Alphonsus (chap. xvi). It is also found in 
the Nights, in the Gesta Romanorum (chap, cxviii), and in the Cento Novelle Antiche, 
No. 74. See also Fletcher's Rule a Wife and have a Wife. (Dunlop's History 

of Fiction, p. 5Q, Liebrecht's German translation, p. 247.) The above 

references given by Tawney have little in common with the story of Ala, the 
ape. They are much closer variants to No. 45 (Vol. Ill, p. 1 18 e/ seq.\ where 
I have added a note on the motif. n.m.p. 



14 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

pleasure in them, as their society is only to be gained by the 
wealthy, any more than in uninhabited woods to be crossed 
only with a caravan." ' 

When Naravahanadatta heard, from the mouth of Maru- 
bhuti, the above story, word for word, of Ala and the net, 
he and Gomukha approved it, and laughed heartily. 

^ An elaborate pun. 



CHAPTER LVIII 

WHEN Manibhuti had thus illustrated the untrust- 
[M] worthy character of courtesans, the wise 
Gomukha told this tale of Kumudika, the lesson 
of which was the same. 



78. Story of King Vikramasimha, the Courtesan, and the 

Young Brahman 

There was in Pratishthana a king named Vikramasimha, 
who was made by Providence a lion in courage, so that his 
name expressed his nature. He had a queen of lofty lineage, 
beautiful and beloved, whose lovely form was her only 
ornament, and she was called Sasilekha. Once on a time, 
when he was in his city, five or six of his relations combined 
together, and going to his palace, surrounded him. Their 
names were Mahabhata, Virabahu, Subahu, Subhata and 
Pratapaditya, all powerful kings. The king's minister was 
proceeding to try the effect of conciliation on them, but the 
king set him aside, and went out to fight with them. And 
when the two armies had begun to exchange showers of 
arrows, the king himself entered the fray, mounted on an 
elephant, confiding in his might. And when the five kings, 
Mahabhata, and the others, saw him, seconded only by his 
bow, dispersing the army of his enemies, they all attacked him 
together. And as the numerous force of the five kings made 
a united charge, the force of Vikramasimha, being inferior 
in number, was broken. 

Then his minister Anantaguna, who was at his side, 
said : " Our force is routed for the present, there is no chance 
of victory to-day, and you would engage in this conflict 
with an overwhelming force in spite of my advice, so now 
at the last moment do what I recommend you, in order that 
the affair may turn out prosperously. Come now, descend 
from your elephant, and mount a horse, and let us go to 
15 



16 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

another country ; if you live, you will conquer your enemies 
on some future occasion." 

When the minister said this, the king readily got down 
from his elephant, and mounted on a horse, and left his 
army in company with him. And in course of time the 
king, in disguise, reached with his minister the city of 
Ujjayini. There he entered with his minister the house of 
a courtesan, named Kumudika, renowned for her wealth ; 
and she, seeing him suddenly entering the house, thought : 
" This is a distinguished hero that has come to my house : 
and his majesty and the marks on his body show him to be 
a great king,^ so my desire is sure to be attained if I can 
make him my instrument." 

Having thus reflected, Kumudika rose up and welcomed 
him, and entertained him hospitably, and immediately she 
said to the king, who was wearied : "I am fortunate, to-day 
the good deeds of my former life have borne fruit, in that 
your Majesty has hallowed my house by coming to it in 
person. So by this favour your Majesty has made me your 
slave. The hundred elephants, and two myriads of horses, 
and house full of jewels, which belong to me, are entirely 
at your Majesty's disposal." 

Having said this, she provided the king and his minister 
with baths and other luxuries, all in magnificent style. 

Then the wearied king lived in her palace, at his ease, 
with her, who put her wealth at his disposal. He consumed 
her substance and gave it away to petitioners, and she did 
not show any anger against him on that account, but was 
rather pleased at it.- Thereupon the king was delighted, 
thinking that she was really attached to him, but his minister 
Anantaguna, who was with him, said to him in secret : 
" Your Majesty, courtesans are not to be depended upon, 
though, I must confess, I cannot guess the reason why 
Kumudika shows you love." When the king heard this 
speech of his, he answered him : " Do not speak thus ; 
Kumudika would even lay down her life for my sake. 

* See Vol. II, pp. 7, 7n^, l62; and Chauvin, Bibliographic des Ouvrages- 
Arabe$, vi, p. 75. n.m.p. 

* For a note on prostitutes see Vol. Ill, p. 207*. n.m.p. 



THE TEST 17 

If you do not believe it, I will give you a convincing 
proof." 

After the king had said this to his minister, he adopted 
this artifice : he took little to eat and little to drink, and 
so gradually attenuated his body, and at last he made him- 
self as dead, without movement, prostrate on the ground. 
Then his attendants put him on a bier, and carried him 
to the huTiiing-ghat with lamentations, while Anantaguna 
affected a grief which he did not feel. And Kumudika, 
out of grief, came and ascended the funeral pyre with him, 
though her relations tried to prevent her. But before the 
fire was lighted, the king, perceiving that Kumudika had 
followed him, rose up with a yawn. And all his attend- 
ants took him home ^ with Kumudika to his lodging, ex- 
claiming : " Fortunate is it that our king has been restored 
to life." 

Then a feast was made, and the king recovered his normal 
condition, and said in private to his minister : " Did you 
observe the devotion of Kumudika ? " Then the minister 
said : " I do not believe even now. You may be sure that 
there is some reason for her conduct, so we must wait to get 
to the bottom of the matter. But let us reveal to her who 
we are, in order that we may obtain a force granted by her, 
and another force supplied by your ally, and so smite our 
enemies in battle." 

While he was saying this, the spy, that had been secretly 
sent out, returned, and when questioned, answered as 
follows : " Your enemies have overrun the country, and 
Queen Sasilekha, having heard from the people a false re- 
port of yoiu: Majesty's death, has entered the fire." When 
the king heard this, he was smitten by the thunderbolt of 
grief, and lamented : " Alas ! My queen ! Alas ! Chaste 
lady ! " 

Then Kumudika at last came to know the truth, and 
after consoling the King Vikramasimha, she said to him : 
" Why did not the king give me the order long ago ? Now 
punish your enemies with my wealth and my forces." When 
she said this, the king augmented the force by means of her 

^ For a similar test see Tawney, Kathako^Of p. 39. n.m.p. 

VOL. V. B 



18 TIIK (K'KAX OF STORY 

wraith, and rtpaircd to a pou trl'ul kiiiuf who was an ally 
(f his. Ami \\i- niar( lu(l with his forces and those forces of 
iiis own, and after killinLT those live enemies in battle, he 
^ot possession of (heir kiiiLjdorns into the l)ar<^ain. Then 
iu- was d( hu'lit*'!. and said to Knnnidika, who accompanied 
him : " I am pleased with yon, so tell me what I can do to 
L,M-atif\- you." Then Kunmdika, said: *' If you arc really 
pleasi'd. my lord, then extract from my heart this one thorn 
that has lonu: remained there. I ha\e an affection for a 
Hrfdiman's son, of the name of ^>ridhara, in UjjayinI, whom 
the kini: lias thrown into prison for a very small fault, so 
deliver him out of the kinu^'s hand. Because I saw by your 
royal marks that your Majesty was a glorious hero, and 
destined to be successful, and able to effect this object of 
mine, I waited on you with devoted attentions. Moreover, 
I ascended that pyre out of despair of attaining my object, 
considering that life was useless without that Brahman's 
son." 

When the courtesan said this, the king answered her : 
'' I will accomplish it for you, fair one ; do not despair." 
After saying this, he called to mind his minister's speech, 
and thought : " Anantaguna was right when he said that 
c()urtesans were not to be depended ui)on. But I nuist 
gratify the wish of this miserable creature." 

Thus resolved, he went with his troops to UjjayinI, and 
after getting Sridhara set at liberty, and giving him much 
wealth, he made Kumudika happy by uniting her with her 
beloved there. And after returning to his city he never 
disobeyed the advice of his minister, and so in time he came 
to enjoy tlie whole earth. 



fM] " .So you see, the hearts of courtesans are fathomless 
and hard to understand." 

Then (iomukha stopped, after he had told this story. 
But then Tapantaka said in the presence of Naravahana- 
datta : " Prince, you must never repose any confidence at 
all in women, for they are all light, even those that, being 



THE AMAZING SATI 19 

married or unmarried, dwell in their father's house, as well 
as those that are courtesans by profession. I will tell you 
a wonder which happened in this very place ; hear it. 



79. Story of the Faithless Wife who Burnt herself with her 

Husband's Body 

There was a merchant in this very city named Bala- 
varman, and he had a wife named Chandra^ri, and she beheld 
from a window a merchant's handsome son, of the name of 
Silahara, and she sent her female friend to invite him to 
her house, and there she used to have assignations with him 
in secret. And while she was in the habit of meeting him 
there every day, her attachment to him was discovered by 
all her friends and relations. But her husband Balavarman 
was the only one who did not discover that she was un- 
chaste. Very often men blinded by affection do not discover 
the wickedness of their wives. 

Then a burning fever seized Balavarman, and the 
merchant consequently was soon reduced to a very low 
state. But though he was in this state, his wife went every 
day to her friend's house to meet her paramour. And the 
next day, while she was there, her husband died. And on 
hearing of it she returned, quickly taking leave of her lover. 
And out of grief for her husband she ascended the pyre 
with his body, being firmly resolved, though her attendants, 
who knew her character, tried to dissuade her.^ 



[M] " Thus is the way of a woman's heart truly hard to 
understand. They fall in love with strange men, and die 
when separated from their husbands." 

When Tapantaka said this, Hari^ikha said in his turn : 
" Have you not heard what happened in this way to 
Devadasa ? 

^ For full details of widow-burning {taU) see Vol. IV, Appendix I. n.m.p. 



20 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

80. Story of the Faithless Wife who had her Husband 

Murdered 

Of old time there lived in a village a householder named 
Devadasa, and he had a wife named with good cause Duh^ila.^ 
And the neighbours knew that she was in love with another 
man. Now, once on a time, Devadasa went to the king's 
court on some business. And his wife, who wished to have 
him murdered, took advantage of the occasion to bring her 
paramom*, whom she concealed on the roof of the house. 
And in the dead of night she had her husband Devadasa 
killed, when he was asleep, by that paramour. And she 
dismissed her paramour, and remained quiet until the 
morning, when she went out, and exclaimed : " My husband 
has been killed by robbers." Then his relations came there, 
and after they had seen his body, they said : " If he was 
killed by thieves, why did they not carry off anything ? " 
After they had said this, they asked her young son, who 
was there : " Who killed your father ? " Then he said 
plainly : "A man had gone up on the roof here in the day ; 
he came down in the night, and killed my father before my 
eyes ; but first my mother took me and rose up from my 
father's side." 

When the boy said this, the dead man's relations knew 
that Devadasa had been killed by his wife's paramour, and 
they searched him out, and put him to death then and there, 
and they adopted that boy and banished Duh^ila. 



[M] " So you see, a woman whose heart is fixed on 
another man infallibly kills like the snake." 

When Hari^ikha said this, Gomukha said again : " Why 
should we tell any out-of-the-way story ? Listen to the 
ridiculous fate that befell Vajrasara here, the servant of the 
King of Vatsa. 



^ I.e. of bad character. 



THE SUSPECTED ADULTERY 21 

81. Story of Vajrasdrat whose Wife cut off his Nose and Ears 

He, being brave and handsome, had a beautiful wife 
that came from Malava, whom he loved more than his own 
body. Once on a time his wife's father, longing to see her, 
came in person, accompanied by his son, from Malava, to 
invite him and her. Then Vajrasara entertained him, and 
informed the king, and went, as he had been invited to do, 
to Malava with his wife and his father-in-law. And after 
he had rested a month only in his father-in-law's house, he 
came back here to attend upon the king, but that wife of 
his remained there. Then, after some days had passed, 
suddenly a friend of the name of Krodhana came to him, 
and said : " Why have you ruined your family by leaving 
your wife in her father's house ? For the abandoned woman 
has there formed a connection with another man. This was 
told me to-day by a trustworthy person who came from 
that place. Do not suppose that it is untrue ; punish her, 
and marry another." 

When Krodhana had said this, he went away, and 
Vajrasara stood bewildered for a moment, and then reflected : 
*' I suspect this may be true ; otherwise, why did she not 
come back, though I sent a man to summon her ? So I will 
go myself and bring her, and see what the state of the case 
is." 

Having formed this resolution, he went to Malava, and 
after taking leave of his father-in-law and his mother-in-law, 
he set out with his wife. And after he had gone a long 
distance, he eluded his followers by a trick, and going by 
the wrong path, entered with his wife a dense wood. He sat 
down in the middle of it, and said to her, out of hearing 
of anyone : "I have heard from a trustworthy friend that 
you are in love with another, and when I, remaining at 
home, sent for you, you did not come ; so tell me the truth ; 
if you do not, I will punish you." 

When she heard this, she said : "If this is your intention, 
why do you ask me ? Do what you like." When Vajrasara 
heard this contemptuous speech of hers, he was angry and 
tied her up, and began to beat her with creepers. But 



22 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

while he was stripping off her clothes, he felt his passion 
renewed, and asked her to forgive him, whereupon she said : 
" I will, if I may tie you up and beat you with creepers, in 
the same way as you tied me up and beat me, but not 
otherwise." Vajrasara, whose heart was made like stubble 
by love, consented, for he was blinded by passion.^ Then 
she bound him firmly, hand and foot, to a tree, and, when 
he was bound, she cut off his ears and nose with his own 
sword, and the wicked woman took his sword and clothes, 
and disguising herself as a man, departed whither she 
would. 

But Vajrasara, with his nose and ears cut off, remained 
there, depressed by great loss of blood, and loss of self-respect. 
Then a certain benevolent physician, who was wandering 
through the wood in search of healing herbs, saw him, and 
out of compassion unbound him, and brought him home 
to his house. And Vajrasara, having been brought round 
by him, slowly returned to his own house, but he did not 
find that wicked wife, though he sought for her. And he 
described the whole occurrence to Krodhana, and he related 
it in the presence of the King of Vatsa ; and all the people 
in the king's court mocked him, saying that his wife had 
justly taken away his man's dress and suitably punished 
him, because he had lost all manly spirit and faculty of 
just resentment, and so become a woman. But in spite of 
their ridicule he remains there with heart of adamant, proof 
against shame. So what confidence, your Royal Highness, 
can be placed in women ? 



[M] When Gomukha had said this, Marubhuti went on 
to say : " The mind of woman is unstable ; hear a tale in 
illustration of this truth. 

* The B. text seems corrupted here. The line in the D. text reads, 
tfinasarikrilal cilram Vajrasaro Manohhuva "it is a wonder, how a Vajrasara 
[ = one who has the hardness of the diamond] was transformed by Kama into 
a trinasara [ = one who has the hardness of stubble]." See Speyer, Studies 
about the Kathasarittagara, p. 125. n.m.p. 



WOMAN IS FICKLE 28 

82. Story of King Simhahala and his Fickle Wife 

Formerly there dwelt in the Deccan a king, of the name of 
Simhabala. And his wife, named Kalyanavati, the daughter 
of a prince of Malava, was dear to him above all the women 
of his harem. And the king ruled the realm with her as 
consort, but once on a time he was expelled from his kingdom 
by his powerful relations, who banded together against him. 
And then the king, accompanied by the queen, with his 
weapons and but few attendants, set out for the house of 
his father-in-law in Malava. 

And as he was going along through a forest, which lay 
in his road, a lion charged him, and the hero easily cut it in 
two with a stroke of his sword. And when a wild elephant 
came at him trumpeting, he circled round it and cut off with 
his sword its trunk and feet, and stripped it of its jewel, 
and killed it.^ And alone he dispersed the hosts of bandits 
like lotuses, and trampled them, as the elephant, lord of 
the forest, tramples the beds of white water-lilies. Thus he 
accomplished the journey, and his wonderful courage was 
seen, and so he reached Malava, and then this sea of valour 
said to his wife : " You must not tell in your father's house 
this that happened to me on the journey, it will bring shame 
to you, my queen; for what is there laudable in courage 
displayed by a man of the military caste ? " 

After he had given her this injunction, he entered his 
father-in-law's house with her, and when eagerly questioned 
by him, told his story. His father-in-law honoured him, 
and gave him elephants and horses, and then he repaired to 
a very powerful king named Gajanika. But being intent on 
conquering his enemies, he left his wife Kalyanavati there 
in her father's house. 

Some days after he had gone, his wife, while standing 
at the window, saw a certain man. The moment she saw 
him, he captivated her heart by his good looks ; and being 
drawn on by love, she immediately thought : "I know no 

^ The D. text reads muklarafim instead of muktaratnam, thus Simhabala 
makes the elephant fall down roaring, and does not deprive it of its jewel. 
For a note on this latter see Vol. II, p. 142, 142n^. n.m.p. 



24 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

one is more handsome or more brave than my husband, but 
alas I my mind is attracted towards this man. So let what 
must be, be. I will have an interview with him." 

So she determined in her own mind, and told her desire 
to a female attendant, who was her confidante. And she 
made her bring him at night, and introduce him into the 
women's apartments by the window, pulling him up with a 
rope. When the man was introduced, he had not courage 
to sit boldly on the sofa on which she was, but sat apart 
on a chair. The queen, when she saw that, was despondent, 
thinking he was a mean man, and at tfiat very moment a 
snake, which was roaming about, came down from the roof. 
When the man saw the snake, he sprang up quickly in fear, 
and taking his bow, he killed the snake with an arrow. And 
when it fell dead, he threw it out of the window, and in his 
delight at having escaped that danger, the coward danced for 

joy. 

When Kalyanavati saw him dancing, she was cast down, 
and thought to herself over and over again : " Alas ! Alas ! 
What have I to do with this mean-spirited coward ? " And 
her friend, who was a discerning person, saw that she was 
disgusted, and so she went out, and quickly returned with 
assumed trepidation and said : " Queen, your father has 
come, so let this young man quickly return to his own house 
by the way by which he came." When she said this, he went 
out of the window by means of the rope, and being over- 
powered by fear, he fell, but, as luck would have it, he was 
not killed. 

When he had gone, Kalyanavati said to her confidante : 
" My friend, you have acted rightly in turning out this low 
fellow.^ You penetrated my feelings, for my heart is vexed. 
My husband, after slaying tigers and lions, conceals it through 
modesty, and this cowardly man, after killing a snake, 
dances for joy. So why should I desert such a husband 
and fall in love with a common fellow ? Curse on my un- 
stable mind, or rather curse on women, who are like flies 
that leave camphor and haste to impurity ! " 

The queen spent the night in these self-reproaches, and 
* The Sanskrit College MS. inserts nicho after Ifritam. So in D. n.m.p. 



THE KING IS VICTORIOUS 25 

afterwards remained waiting in her father's house for the 
return of her husband. In the meanwhile Simhabala, having 
been suppHed with another army by King Gajanika, slew 
those five wicked relations. Then he recovered his king- 
dom, and at the same time brought back his wife from her 
father's house, and after loading his father-in-law with abun- 
dance of wealth, he ruled the earth for a long time without 
opposition. 



[M] " So you see, King, that the mind of even discerning 
women is fickle, and, though they have brave and handsome 
husbands, wanders hither and thither, but women of pure 
character are scarce." 

When Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of Vatsa, 
had heard this story related by Marubhuti, he sank off into 
a sound sleep and so passed the night. 



CHAPTER LIX 

EARLY the next day Naravahanadatta, after he had 
[M] performed his necessary duties, went to his gar- 
den by way of amusement. And while he was there 
he saw first a blaze of splendour descend from heaven, and 
after it a company of many Vidyadhara females. And in 
the middle of those glittering ones he saw a maiden charm- 
ing to the eye, like a digit of the moon in the middle of the 
stars, with face like an opening lotus, with rolling eyes like 
circling bees, with the swimming gait of a swan, diffusing 
the perfume of a blue lotus, with dimples charming like 
waves, with waist adorned with a string of pearls, like the 
presiding goddess of the lovely lake in Kama's garden, 
appearing in bodily form. 

And the prince, when he saw that charming, enamoured 
creature, a medicine potent to revive the God of Love, was 
disturbed like the sea, when it beholds the orb of the moon. 
And he approached her, saying to his ministers : " Ah ! 
extraordinary is the variety in producing fair ones that is 
characteristic of Providence ! " And when she looked at 
him with a sidelong look, tender with passion, he asked her : 
" Who are you, auspicious one, and why have you come 
here ? " When the maiden heard that, she said : " Listen, 
I will tell you. 

" There is a town of gold on the Himalayas, named 
Kanchana^ringa. In it there lives a king of the Vidya- 
dharas, named Sphatikaya^as, who is just, and kind to the 
wretched, the unprotected, and those who seek his aid. 
Know that I am his daughter, bom to him by the Queen 
Hemaprabha, in consequence of a boon granted by Gauri. 
And I, being the youngest child, and having five brothers, 
and being dear to my father as his life, kept by his advice 
propitiating Gauri with vows and hymns. She, being 
pleased, bestowed on me all the magic sciences, and deigned 
to address me thus : ' Thy might in science shall be tenfold 

26 



KING SUMANAS 27 

that of thy father, and thy husband shall be Naravahana- 
datta, the son of the King of Vatsa, the future Emperor of 
the Vidyadharas.' 

" After the consort of Siva had said this, she disappeared, 
and by her favour I obtained the sciences and gradually 
grew up. And last night the goddess appeared to me and 
commanded me : * To-morrow, my daughter, thou must 
go and visit thy husband, and thou must return here the 
same day, for in a month thy father, who has long enter- 
tained this intention, will give thee in marriage.' The god- 
dess, after giving me this command, disappeared, and the 
night came to an end ; so here I am come, your Highness, 
to pay you a visit. So now I will depart." 

Having said this, Saktiya^as flew up into the heaven 
with her attendants, and returned to her father's city. 

But Naravahanadatta, being eager to marry her, went 
in disappointed, considering the month as long as a Yuga.^ 
And Gomukha, seeing that he was despondent, said to him : 
*' Listen, prince, I will tell you a delightful story. 

83. Story of King Sumanas, the Nishdda Maiden, and the 

Learned Parrot^ 

In old time there was a city named Kanchanapuri, and 
in it there lived a great king named Sumanas. He was of 
extraordinary splendour, and, crossing difficult and inac- 
cessible regions, he conquered the fortresses and fastnesses 
of his foes. Once, as he was sitting in the hall of assembly, 
the warder said to him : " King, the daughter of the King 
of the Nishadas, named Muktalata, is standing outside the 
door with a parrot in a cage, accompanied by her brother 

^ I.e. 4,320,000 years. It is more correctly known as a Mahayuga, one 
thousand of which make a Kalpa. Thus a Kalpa is 4320 million years, and 
not 432 million as wrongly stated by Tawney in Vol. II, pp. 139"^, l63n-, 
where I should have corrected it. See further Vol. IV, pp. 240n^, 24l7i. 

N.M.P. 

2 Cf. the falcon in Chaucer's "Squire's Tale," and the parallels quoted by 

Skeat in his Introduction to the " Prioress's Tale . . .," p. xlvii. See W. 

Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 252, and 
the note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 



l>8 THK OCKAX OF STORY 

Vlrapnihha, and wislus to sic your Majesty." Tlic king 
saul : ** L( t lu r ciitir." And introduced l)y the \vardcr, 
the Hhilla maiden cnlcrcd the enclosure oi" [\\v kind's liall 
ir asseinhly. And all there, wlien tliey saw her beauty, 
thoULiht : '* 'I'his is not a mortal maiden ; surely this is 
some liea\-cnly nympii." And she bowed before the kin*,', 
and spoke as follows : '* Kini;, here is a parrot that knows 
the lour W'das, called Sastrapuija, a j)()et skilled in all the 
sciences and in the uraceful arts, and I have brou<,dit him 
here to-day by the order of Kinn' Maya, so receive liim." 

With these words she handed over the j)arr(jt, and it was 
broULihl by the warder near the kin<j^, as he had a curiosity 
to see it, and it recited the followini*" slokd : 

" Kini;-, this is natural, that the l^lack-faced smoke of thy 
valour should be continually increased by the windy sifjhs 
of the widows of thy enemies; but this is straufre, that the 
strctULj llame of thy valour blazes in the ten cardinal points 
all the more fiercely on account of the overflowing of the 
copious tears wruni,' from them by the humiliation of defeat." 

When the parrot had recited this sloka, it began to re- 
flect, and said again : " What do you wisli to know ? Tell 
me from what Sd.sfra I shall recite." 

Then the king was much astonished, l)ut his minister 
said : " I suspect, my lord, this is some Rishi of ancient 
days become a j)arrot on account of a curse, but owing to 
his piety he remembers his former birth, and so recollects 
what he formerly read." When the ministers said this to 
th( king, the king said to the parrot : " 1 feel curiosity, my 
good parrot, tell me your story. Where is your j)lace of 
birth Y How comes it that in your j)arrot condition you 
know the Sd.slrds ? Who are you ? " 

Then the piirrot shed tears, and slowly spoke: "The 
story is sad to tell, O King, but listen, I will tell it in 
obedience lo thy command. 

8.'3a. The Parrot's Account of his ozvn Life as a Parrot 

Near the Ilimfdayas, O King, there is a rohinl tree, 
which resembles the Vedas, in that many birds take refuge 



THE PARROT'S STORY 29 

in its branches that extend through the heaven, as Brahmans 
in the various branches of the sacred tradition.^ There a 
cock-parrot used to dwell with his hen, and to that pair I 
was born, by the influence of my evil works in a former life. 
And as soon as I was born, the hen-parrot, my mother, 
died, but my old father put me under his wing and fostered 
me tenderly. And he continued to live there, eating what 
remained over from the fruits brought by the other parrots, 
and giving some to me. 

Once on a time there came there to hunt a terrible army 
of Bhillas, making a noise with cow's horns strongly blown ; 
and the whole of that great wood was like an army fleeing 
in rout, with terrified antelopes for dust-stained banners, 
and the bushy tails of the chamari deer, agitated in fear, 
resembling chowrieSy as the host of Pulindas rushed upon it 
to slay various living creatures. And after the army of 
Savaras had spent the day in the hunting-grounds, in the 
sport of death, they returned with the loads of flesh which 
they had obtained. But a certain aged Savara, who had 
not obtained any flesh, saw the tree in the evening, and 
being hungry, approached it, and he quickly climbed up it, 
and kept dragging parrots and other birds from their nests, 
killing them, and flinging them on the ground. And when I 
saw him coming near, like the minister of Yama, I slowly 
crept in fear underneath the wing of my father. And in 
the meanwhile the ruffian came near our nest, and dragged 
out my father, and wringing his neck, flung him down on 
the ground at the foot of the tree. And I fell with my 
father, and slipping out from underneath his wing, I slowly 
crept in my fear into the grass and leaves. Then the rascally 
Bhilla came down, and roasted some of the parrots and ate 
them, and others he carried off to his own village. 

Then my fear was at an end, but I spent a night long 
from grief, and in the morning, when the flaming eye * of 

^ An elaborate pun on rfrya and sakhd. 

2 For the conception of the sun as an eye see Kuhn, Die Herabhunft des 
Feuers und des Gotteriranks, pp. 52, 5S. The idea is common in English poetry. 
See for instance Milton, Paradise Lost, v, 171 ; Spenser's Faerie Queene, 
i, 3, 4. For instances in classical poetry see Ovid, Metamorphoses, iv, 228 ;. 
Aristophanes, A'6m, 286 ; Sophocles, Trachinia, 101. 



80 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the world had mounted high in the heaven, I, being thirsty, 
went to the bank of a neighbouring lake full of lotuses, 
tumbling frequently, clinging to the earth with my wings, 
and there I saw on the sand of the lake a hermit, named 
Marlchi, who had just bathed,' as it were my good works in 
a former state of existence. He, when he saw me, refreshed 
me with drops of water flung in my face, and, putting me in 
the hollow of a leaf, out of pity, carried me to his hermitage. 
There Pulastya, the head of the hermitage, laughed when 
he saw me, and being asked by the other hermits why he 
laughed, having supernatural insight, he said : " When 
I beheld this parrot, who is a parrot in consequence of a 
curse, I laughed ^ out of sorrow, but after I have said my daily 
prayer I will tell a story connected with him, which shall 
cause him to remember his former birth, and the occurrences 
of his former lives." After saying this, the hermit Pulastya 
rose up for his daily prayer, and, after he had performed his 
daily prayer, being again solicited by the hermits, the great 
sage told this story concerning me. 

83aa. The Hermifs Story of Somaprabha, Manor athaprabhdf 
and Makarandikdy wherein it appears who the Parrot was 
in a Former Birth 

There lived in the city of Ratnakara a king named 
Jyotishprabha, who ruled the earth with supreme authority, 
as far as the sea, the mine of jewels. There was born to 
him, by his queen named Harshavati, a son, whose birth was 
due to the favour of Siva propitiated by severe asceticism. 
Because the queen saw in a dream the moon entering her 
mouth,* the king gave his son the name of Somaprabha. 
And the prince gradually grew up with ambrosial qualities, 
furnishing a feast to the eyes of the subjects. 

And his father Jyotishprabha, seeing that he was brave, 
young, beloved by the subjects, and able to bear the weight 
of empire, gladly anointed him Crown Prince. And he gave 
him as minister the virtuous Priyankara, the son of his own 

* See Vol. I, pp. 46n2, 47. n.m.p. 

* See Crooke, op. cit., vol. i, p. 14. n.m.p. 



THE CELESTIAL HORSE 31 

minister named Prabhakara. On that occasion Ma tali 
descended from the heaven with a celestial horse, and coming 
up to Somaprabha, said to him : " You are a Vidyadhara, 
a friend of Indra's, born on earth, and he has sent you an 
excellent horse named A^ui^ravas, the son of Uchchhaih^ravas, 
in memory of his former friendship ; if you mount it you 
will be invincible by your foes." 

After the charioteer of Indra had said this, he gave 
Somaprabha that splendid horse, and after receiving due 
honour, he flew up to heaven again. 

Then Somaprabha spent that day pleasantly in feasting, and 
the next day said to his father, the king : " My father, the duty 
of a Kshatriya is not complete without a desire for conquest, 
so permit me to march out to the conquest of the regions." 

When his father Jyotishprabha heard that, he was 
pleased, and consented, and made arrangements for his 
expedition. Then Somaprabha bowed before his father, 
and marched out on an auspicious day, with his forces, for 
the conquest of the regions, mounted on the horse given by 
Indra. And by the help of his splendid horse he conquered 
the kings of every part of the world, and, being irresistible 
in might, he stripped them of their jewels. He bent his 
bow and the necks of his enemies at the same time ; the bow 
was unbent again, but the heads of his enemies were never 
again uplifted. 

Then, as he was returning in triumph, on a path which 
led him near the Himalayas, he made his army encamp, 
and went hunting in a wood. And as chance would have 
it, he saw there a Kinnara, made of a splendid jewel, ^ and he 
pursued him on his horse given by Indra, with the object 
of capturing him. The Kinnara entered a cavern in the 
moimtain, and was lost to view, but the prince was carried 
far away by that horse. 

And when the sun, after diffusing illumination over the 
quarters of the world, had reached the western peak, where 
he meets the evening twilight, the prince, being tired, 
managed, though with difficulty, to return, and he beheld 
a great lake, and wishing to pass the night on its shores, 

* The D. text reads sad-ratna-khachitam '^ studded with goodly gems." n.m.p. 



82 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

he dismounted from his horse. And after he had given grass 
and water to the horse, and had taken fruits and water him- 
self, and felt rested, he suddenly heard from a certain quarter 
the sound of a song. Out of curiosity he went in the direc- 
tion of the sound, and saw at no great distance a heavenly 
nymph, singing in front of a linga of Siva. He said to 
himself in astonishment : " Who may this lovely one be ? '* 
And she, seeing that he was of noble appearance, said to him 
bashfully : " Tell me, who are you ? How did you reach 
alone this inaccessible place ? " When he heard this, he 
told the story, and asked her in turn : *' Tell me, who are 
you and what is your business in this wood ? " When he 
asked this question, the heavenly maiden said : "If you 
have any desire, noble sir, to hear my tale, listen, I will tell 
it." After this preface she began to speak with a gushing 
flood of tears. 



83AAA. Manorathaprabhd and Rasmimat 

There is here, on the table-land of the Himalayas, a 
city named Kanchanabha, and in it there dwells a king of 
the Vidyadharas named Padmakuta. Know that I am the 
daughter of that king by his Queen Hemaprabha, and that 
my name is Manorathaprabha, and my father loves me 
more than his life. I, by the power of my science, used to 
visit, with my female companions, the isles, and the principal 
mountains, and the woods, and the gardens, and after 
amusing myself, I made a point of returning every day at 
my father's meal-time, at the third watch of the day, to my 
palace. 

Once on a time I arrived here as I was roaming about, 
and I saw on the shore of the lake a hermit's son with his 
companion. And being summoned by the splendour of his 
beauty, as if by a female messenger, I approached him, and 
he welcomed me with a wistful look. And then I sat down, 
and my friend, perceiving the feelings of both, put this 
question to him through his companion : " Who are you, 
noble sir, tell me ? " And his companion said : " Not far 
from here, my friend, there lives in a hermitage a hermit 



THE MIND-BORN SON 33 

named Didhitimat. He, being subject to a strict vow of 
chastity, was seen once, when he came to bathe in this 
lake, by the goddess Sri, who came there at the same time. 
As she could not obtain him in the flesh, as he was a strict 
ascetic, and yet longed for him earnestly with her mind, she 
conceived a mind-born son. And she took that son to 
Didhitimat, saying to him : ' I have obtained this son by 
looking at you ; receive it.' And after giving the son to the 
hermit, Sri disappeared. And the hermit gladly received the 
son, so easily obtained, and gave him the name of Ra^mimat, 
and gradually reared him, and after investing him with 
the sacred thread, taught him out of love all the sciences. 
Know that you see before you in this young hermit that 
very Rasmimat, the son of Sri, come here with me on a 
pleasure journey." 

When my friend had heard this from the youth's friend, 
she, being questioned by him in turn, told my name and 
descent as I have now told it to you. 

Then I and the hermit's son became still more in love 
with one another from hearing one another's descent, and 
while we were lingering there, a second attendant came and 
said to me : " Rise up ; your father, fair one, is waiting for 
you in the dining-room of the palace." When I heard 
that, I said, " I will return quickly," and leaving the youth 
there, I went into the presence of my father out of fear. 
And when I came out, having taken a very little food, the 
first attendant came to me and said of her own accord : 
" The friend of that hermit's son came here, my friend, 
and standing at the gate of the court, said to me in a state 
of hurried excitement : ' Rasmimat has sent me here now, 
bestowing on me the power of travelling in the air, which 
he inherits from his father, to see Manorathaprabha : he 
is reduced to a terrible state by love and cannot retain his 
breath a moment longer without that mistress of his life.' " 

The moment I heard this, I left my father's palace, and, 
accompanied by that friend of the hermit's son, who showed 
me the way, and my attendant, I came here; and when I 
arrived here, I saw that that hermit's son, separated from me, 
had resigned, at the rising of the moon, the nectar of his life. 

VOL. V. 



84 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

So I, grieved by separation from him, was blaming my vital 
frame, and longing to enter the fire with his body. But at 
that very moment a man, with a body like a mass of flame, 
descended from the sky, and flew up to heaven with his body. 
Then I was desirous to hurl myself into the fire alone, 
but at that moment a voice issued from the air here : 
" Manorathaprabha, do not do this thing, for at the appointed 
time thou shalt be reunited to this thy hermit's son." On 
hearing this, I gave up the idea of suicide, and here I remain 
full of hope, waiting for him, engaged in the worship of Siva. 
And as for the friend of the hermit's son, he has disappeared 
somewhere. 



83aa. The HermiVs Story of Somaprabha, Manorathaprabha 
and Makarandikd, wherein it appears who the Parrot was 
in a Former Birth 

When the Vidyadhara maiden had said this, Somaprabha 
said to her : " Then why do you remain alone ; where is 
that female attendant of yours ? " When the Vidyadhara 
maiden heard this, she answered : " There is a king of the 
Vidyadharas, named Simhavikrama, and he has a matchless 
daughter named Makarandika ; she is a friend of mine, dear 
as my life, who sympathises with my grief, and she to-day 
sent her attendant to learn tidings of me. So I sent back 
my own attendant to her, with her attendant ; it is for that 
reason that I am at present alone." As she was saying this, 
she pointed out to Somaprabha her attendant descending 
from heaven. And she made the attendant, after she had 
told her news, strew a bed of leaves for Somaprabha, and 
also give grass to his horse. 

Then, after passing the night, they rose up in the morning, 
and saw approaching a Vidyadhara, who had descended 
from heaven. And that Vidyadhara, whose name was 
Devajaya, after sitting down, spoke thus to Manoratha- 
prabha : " Manorathaprabha, King Simhavikrama informs 
you that your friend, his daughter Makarandika, out of love 
for you, refuses to marry until you have obtained a bride- 
groom. So he wishes you to go there and admonish her, 



THE MARRIAGE IS ARRANGED 85 

that she may be ready to marry." When the Vidyadhara 
maiden heard this, she prepared to go, out of regard for her 
friend, and then Somaprabha said to her : " Virtuous one, 
I have a curiosity to see the Vidyadhara world ; so take me 
there, and let my horse remain here supplied with grass." 

When she heard that, she consented, and taking her at- 
tendant with her, she flew through the air, with Somaprabha, 
who was carried in the arms of Devajaya. 

When she arrived there, Makarandika welcomed her, 
and seeing Somaprabha, asked : " Who is this ? " And 
when Manorathaprabha told his story, the heart of Maka- 
randika was immediately captivated by him. He, for his 
part, thought in his mind, deeming he had come upon 
Good Fortune in bodily form : " Who is the fortunate man 
destined to be her bridegroom ? " 

Then, in confidential conversation, Manorathaprabha 
put the following question to Makarandika : " Fair one, 
why do you not wish to be married ? " And she, when she 
heard this, answered : " How could I desire marriage until 
you have accepted a bridegroom, for you are dearer to me 
than life ? " When Makarandika said this, in an affection- 
ate manner, Manorathaprabha said : "I have chosen a 
bridegroom, fair one ; I am waiting here in hopes of union 
with him." When she said this, Makarandika said : "I will 
do as you direct." ^ 

Then Manorathaprabha, seeing the real state of her feel- 
ings, said to her : " My friend Somaprabha has come here 
as your guest, after wandering through the world, so you 
must entertain him as a guest with becoming hospitality." 
When Makarandika heard this, she said : "I have already 
bestowed on him, by way of hospitality, everything but my- 
self, but let him accept me, if he is willing." When she 
said this, Manorathaprabha told their love to her father, and 
arranged a marriage between them. 

Then Somaprabha recovered his spirits, and, delighted, 
said to her : "I must go now to your hermitage, for possibly 
my army, commanded by my minister, may come there, 

^ I read tvadvakyam with the Sanskrit College MS. and ahUasanki tachcha 
in //. 141 with the same MS. So in the D. text. n.m.p. 



86 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

tracking my course, and if they do not find me they may 
return, suspecting something untoward. So I will depart, 
and after I have learned the tidings of the host I will return, 
and certainly marry Makarandika on an auspicious day." 
When Manorathaprabha heard that, she consented, and took 
him back to her own hermitage, making Devajaya carry him 
in his arms. 

In the meanwhile his minister Priyankara came there 
with the army, tracking his footsteps. And while Soma- 
prabha, in delight, was recounting his adventures to his 
minister, whom he met there, a messenger came from his 
father with a written message that he was to return quickly. 
Then, by the advice of his minister, he went with his army 
back to his own city, in order not to disobey his father's 
command, and as he started he said to Manorathaprabha and 
Devajaya : " I will return as soon as I have seen my father." 
Then Devajaya went and informed Makarandika of 
that, and in consequence she became afflicted with the 
sorrow of separation. She took no pleasure in the garden, 
nor in singing, nor in the society of her ladies-in-waiting, nor 
did she listen to the amusing voices of the parrots ; she did 
not take food; much less did she care about adorning her- 
self. And though her parents earnestly admonished her, she 
did not recover her spirits. And she soon left her couch 
of lotus-fibres, and wandered about like an insane woman, 
causing distress to her parents. And when she would not 
listen to their words, though they tried to console her, her 
parents in their anger pronounced this curse on her : " You 
shall fall for some time among the luifortunate race of the 
Nishadas, with this very body of yours, without the power 
of remembering your former birth." 

When thus cursed by her parents, Makarandika entered 
the house of a Nishada, and became that very moment a 
Nishada maiden. And her father Simhavikrama, the king 
of the Vidyadharas, repented, and through grief for her 
died, and so did his wife. Now that king of the Vidya- 
dharas was in a former birth a Rishi who knew all the ^dstras^ 
but now on account of some remnant of former sin he has 
become this parrot, and his wife also has been born as a 



SIVA'S COMMAND 37 

wild sow, and this parrot, owing to the power of former i 

austerities, remembers what it learned in a former life. i 

83a. The Parrofs Account of his own Life as a Parrot I 

" So I laughed,^ considering the marvellous results of his I 

works. But he shall be released as soon as he has told this i 

tale in the court of a king. And Somaprabha shall obtain ^ 

the parrot's daughter in his Vidyadhara birth, Makarandika, 
who has now become a Nishada female. And Manoratha- 
prabha also shall obtain the hermit's son Ra^mimat, who 
has now become a king ; but Somaprabha, as soon as he had 
seen his father, returned to her hermitage, and remains there 
propitiating Siva in order to recover his beloved." ; 

When the hermit Pulastya had said thus much, he ! 

ceased, and I remembered my former birth, and was plunged 1 

in grief and joy. Then the hermit Marlchi, who carried me 
out of pity to the hermitage, took me and reared me. And ' 

when my wings grew I flew hither and thither with the i 

flightiness natural to a bird,^ displaying the miracle of my . 

learning. And falling into the hands of a Nishada, I have \ 

in course of time reached your court. And now my evil 
works have spent their force, having been brought with me j 

into the body of a bird. i 

83. Story of King Sumanas, the Nishada Maiden and the I 

Learned Parrot 

When the learned and eloquent parrot had finished this ; 

tale in the presence of the court. King Sumanas suddenly ' 

felt his soul filled with astonishment, and disturbed with ' 
love. In the meanwhile Siva, being pleased, said to Soma- 
prabha in a dream : " Rise up. King, and go into the presence 
of King Sumanas ; there thou wilt find thy beloved. For 
the maiden, named Makarandika, has become, by the curse 
of her father, a Nishada maiden, named Muktalata, and she 

^ See Bloomfield, Amer. Orient. Soc., vol. xxxvi, p. 80. n.m.p. 

* Cf. Aristophanes, ^vc*, II. 1 69, 170: ' 

" avdpoiTTO^ opvii daTadfirfTos, TreTOfKVO?, 
drcK/xapros, ov8(V ovSiiroT* iv TavT<p fiivwv." 



88 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

has gone with her own father, who has become a parrot, to 
the court of the king. And when she sees thee, her curse 
will come to an end, and she will remember her existence 
as a Vidyadhara maiden, and then a union will take place 
between you, the joy of which will be increased by your 
recognising one another." 

Having said this to that king, Siva, who is merciful to 
all his worshippers, said to Manorathaprabha, who was also 
living in his hermitage : " The hermit's son Ra^mimat, 
whom thou didst accept as thy bridegroom, has been bom 
again under the name of Sumanas, so go to him and obtain 
him, fair one ; he will at once remember his former birth 
when he beholds thee." 

So Somaprabha and the Vidyadhara maiden, being 
separately commanded in a dream by Siva, went immediately 
to the court of that Sumanas. And there Makarandika, on 
beholding Somaprabha, immediately remembered her former 
birth, and being released from her long curse, and recovering 
her heavenly body, she embraced him. And Somaprabha, 
having by the favour of Siva obtained that daughter of 
the Vidyadhara prince, as if she were the incarnate fortune 
of heavenly enjoyment, embraced her, and considered him- 
self to have attained his object. And King Sumanas, having 
beheld Manorathaprabha, remembered his former birth, and 
entered his former body, that fell from heaven, and became 
Ra^mimat, the son of the chief of hermits. And once more 
united with his beloved, for whom he had long yearned, he 
entered his own hermitage, and King Somaprabha departed 
with his beloved to his own city. And the parrot, too, left 
the body of a bird, and went to the home earned by his 
asceticism. 



[M] " Thus you see that the appointed union of human 
beings certainly takes place in this world, though vast spaces 
intervene." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this wonderful, romantic 
and agreeable story from his own minister Gomukha, as he 
was longing for Saktiya^as, he was much pleased. 



THE STORY OF KING SUMANAS 89 



NOTE ON THE STORY OF KING SUMANAS, THE NISHADA 
MAIDEN AND THE LEARNED PARROT 

Taking for granted that Somadeva derived this story directly from the 
Brihat-kathd, it is interesting to compare it with Bana's Kadambari, which 
was, in all probability, derived from the same source. The two resulting 
productions differ in many ways ; not only do details of the story itself vary, 
bat a comparison between the length, styles and artistic treatment shows 
the totally different objects of the two poets. 

It would seem as if Somadeva was preserving the original form of the 
s:ory as found in the Brihat-kathd, while Bana, on the other hand, was using 
all his powers of artistic elaboration in the production of a work which, 
beginning as a comparatively short story, would finish as a volume. Luckily 
i; will not be necessary to go into details, for the Kadambari has been 
translated into English by C. M. Ridding and published by the Oriental 
Translation Fund of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1896. 

It will, therefore, suffice to give the short summary of the work as made 
by Miss Ridding on pp. viii-x of her Introduction. It should be remembered 
that Bana is one of the few early poets whose exact date we know, for he 
lived in the reign of Harsha-vardhana (a.d. 6o6), from whose reign dates the 
Harsha era, used in Nepal. 

The plot is as follows : 

A learned parrot, named Vaisampayana, was brought by a Chandala 
maiden to King Siidraka, and told him how it was carried from its birthplace 
in the Vindhya forest to the hermitage of the sage Jabali, from whom it 
learned the story of its former life. 

Jabali's story was as follows : Taraplda, King of UjjayinI, won by penance 
a son, Chandraplda, who was brought up with Vaisampayana, the son of his 
minister, Sukanasa. In due time Chandrapida was anointed as Crown Prince, 
and started on an expedition of world-conquest. At the end of it he reached 
Kailasa, and, while resting there, was led one day in a vain chase of a pair 
of Kinnaras to the shores of the Achchhoda Lake. There he beheld a 
young ascetic maiden, Mahasveta, who told him how she, being a Gandharva 
princess, had seen and loved a young Brahman Pundarika ; how he, returning 
her feeling, had died from the torments of a love at variance with his vow ; 
how a divine being had carried his body to the sky, and bidden her not to 
die, for she should be reunited with him ; and how she awaited that time 
in a life of penance. But her friend Kadambari, another Gandharva princess, 
had vowed not to marry while Mahaiveta was in sorrow, and Mahasveta 
invited the prince to come to help her in dissuading Kadambari from the 
rash vow. Love sprang up between the prince and Kadambari at first sight ; 
but a sudden summons from his father took him to UjjayinI without farewell, 
while Kadambari, thinking herself deserted, almost died of grief. 

Meanwhile news came that his friend Vai^mpayana, whom he had left 
in command of the army, had been strangely affected by the sight of the 



40 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Achchhoda Lake, and refused to leave it. The prince set out to find him, 
but in vain ; and proceeding to the hermitage of Mahaiveta, he found her in 
despair, because, in invoking a curse on a young Brahman, who had rashly 
approached her, to the effect that he should become a parrot, she learned 
that she had slain Vai^mpayana. At her words the prince fell dead from grief, 
and at that moment Kadambari came to the hermitage. 

Her resolve to follow him in death was broken by the promise of a voice 
from the sky that she and Maha^veta should both be reunited with their 
lovers, and she stayed to tend the prince's body, from which a divine radiance 
proceeded ; while King Tarapl^a gave up his kingdom, and lived as a hermit 
near his son. 

Such was Jabali's tale ; and the parrot went on to say how, hearing ft, 
the memory of its former love for Maha^veta was reawakened, and, thou^ 
bidden to stay in the hermitage, it flew away, only to be caught and takoi 
to the Chandala princess. It was now brought by her to King Sudraka, bet 
knew no more. The Chandala maiden thereupon declared to Sudraka thst 
she was the goddess LakshmT, mother of Pundarlka or Vaiiampayana, ani 
announced that the curse for him and Sudraka was now over. Then Sudraka 
suddenly remembered his love for Kadambari, and wasted away in longinj 
for her, while a sudden touch of Kadambari restored to life the Moon con- 
cealed in the body of Chandraplda, the form that he still kept, because in it 
he had won her love. Now the Moon, as Chandraplda and Sudraka, and 
Pundarlka, in the human and parrot shape of Vaii^ampayana, having both 
fulfilled the curse of an unsuccessful love in two births on earth, were at last 
set free, and, receiving respectively the hands of Kadambari and Maha^veta, 
lived happily ever afterwards. n.m.p. 



CHAPTER LX 

THEN the chief minister Gomukha, having told the 
[M] story of the two Vidyadhara maidens, said to 
Naravahanadatta : " Some ordinary men even, being 
kindly disposed towards the three worlds, resist with firm 
resolution the disturbance of love and other passions. 

"For the King Kuladhara once had a servant of distin- 
guished valour, a young man of good family, named Sura- 
varman. And one day, as he was returning from war, he 
Suravarman entered his housc suddenly, and found his wife 
who spared alonc with his friend. And when he saw it, he 
^'*^"*''.^ ^'^^ restrained his wrath, and in his self-control re- 
flected : ' What is the use of slaying this animal who has 
betrayed his friend ? Or of punishing this wicked woman ? 
Why, too, should I saddle my soul with a load of guilt ? ' 
After he had thus reflected, he left them both unharmed and 
said to them : ' I will kill whichever of you two I see again. 
You must neither of you come in my sight again.' When 
he said this and let them depart, they went away to some 
distant place, but Suravarman married another wife, and 
lived there in comfort. 

" Thus, Prince, a man who conquers wrath will not be 
subject to grief; and a man who displays prudence is 
never harmed. Even in the case of animals prudence pro- 
duces success, not valour. In proof of it, hear this story 
about the lion and the bull and other animals.^ 

* Here begins the PaJichntanlra, better known in England, through its 
various recensions, by such titles as The Fables of Pilpay, Kalilah and Dimnah, 
Lights of Canopus, The Morall Philosophic of Doni, etc. It is given here by 
Somadeva practically in its entirety, although not as a consecutive whole, but 
with occasional interruptions due to the insertion of a number of short stories 
having no connection with it whatever. The points where such intermissions 
occur will be duly noted as we proceed. 

In all the early versions there is an Introduction relating how the " Five 
Books " were told by a wise Brahman as a means of instilling knowledge into 
three desultory princes. Somadeva omits this, and makes the chief minister, 
41 



42 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

84. Story of the Bvll abandoned in the Forest ^ 

There was in a certain city a rich merchant's son. Once 
on a time, as he was going to the city of Mathura to trade, 
a draught-bull belonging to him, named Sanjivaka, as it was 
dragging the yoke vigorously, broke it, and so slipped in the 
path, which had become muddy by a mountain torrent flow- 
ing into it, and fell and bruised its limbs. The merchant's 
son, seeing that the bull was unable to move on account of 
its bruises, and not succeeding in his attempts to raise it up 
from the ground, at last in despair went off and left it there. 
And, as fate would have it, the bull slowly revived, and rose 
up, and by eating tender grass recovered from its former 
condition. And it went to the bank of the Yamuna, and 
by eating green grass and wandering about at will it became 
fat and strong. And it roamed about there, with full hump, 
wantoning, like the bull of Siva, tearing up ant-hills with its 
horns, and bellowing frequently. 

Now at that time there lived in a neighbouring wood a 

Gomukha, introduce the collection simply by the words : " Even in the case 
of animals prudence produces success, not valour. In proof of it, hear this 
story about the lion and the bull and other animals." 

The present chapter corresponds to Book I of the Panchatanlra, but 
omits four stories which appear in most recensions. These are given in full 
in Appendix I of this volume, where will also be found some account of the 
chief versions of the work. 

Tawney gave extracts from Benfey's Pantschatantra in notes on nearly 
every story. With very few exceptions I have omitted these as unnecessary 
and out of date. The simple page-references to Benfey which I have given 
will be quite sufficient, while results of recent research on the subject,^ 
together with full bibliographical notes, will be found in Appendix I. 

There is reason to believe that Somadeva's version closely resembles that 
in the lost Brihat-kathd, and is, moreover, a faithful reflex of the general sense 
of the original. As compared with several of the other known versions, the 
stories are told somewhat briefly, but none of the artistic workmanship is lost 
(as it is, for instance, in Kshemendra's version). In order to appreciate the 
complex ramifications of the different Pafichatanlra recensions and translations 
in every part of the world, special reference should be made to the genealogical 
tree given at the end of Appendix I. n.m.p. 

^ See Benfey, Pantschatantra, Leipzig, 1859, vol. i, p. 100; and J. 
Hertel, Tantrakhyayika, Leipzig, 1909, part i, p. 128; part ii, p. 4 et seq, 
N.M.P. 



THE INQUISITIVE MONKEY 43 

lion named Pingalaka, who had subdued the forest by his 
might ; and that king of beasts had two jackals for ministers : 
the name of the one was Damanaka, and the name of the 
other was Karataka. That lion, going one day to the bank 
of the Yamima to drink water, heard close to him the 
roar of that bull Sanjivaka. And when the lion heard the 
roar of that bull, never heard before, resounding through 
the air, he thought : " What animal makes this sound ? 
Surely some great creature dwells here, so I will depart, 
for if it saw me it might slay me, or expel me from the 
forest." Thereupon the lion quickly returned to the forest 
without drinking water, and continued in a state of fear, 
hiding his feelings from his followers. 

Then the wise jackal ^ Damanaka, the minister of that 
king, said secretly to Karataka, the second minister : " Our 
master went to drink water ; so how comes it that he has 
so quickly returned without drinking ? We must ask him 
the reason." Then Karataka said : " Wliat business is this 
of ours ? Have you not heard the story of the ape that 
drew out the wedge ? 

84a. The Monkey that pulled out the Wedge ^ 

In a certain town a merchant had begun to build a 
temple to a divinity and had accumulated much timber. The 
workmen there, after sawing through the upper portion of 
a plank, placed a wedge in it, and leaving it thus suspended, 
went home. In the meanwhile a monkey came there and 

1 Weber supposes that the Indians borrowed all the fables representing 
the jackal as a wise animal^ as he is not particularly cunning. He thinks 
that they took the Western stories about the fox, and substituted for that 
animal the jackal. Benfey argues that this does not prove that these fables 
are not of Indian origin. German stories represent the lion as king of beasts, 
though it is not a German animal. (Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 102, 103.) 

See also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, p. 1 22. Cf. Nights (Burton, 

vol. ix, p. 48n^). n.m.p. 

2 See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 105 et seq., and vol. ii, p. 9. He considers 
a fable of ^Esop, in which an ape tries to fish and is nearly drowned, an 
imitation of this. Cf. the trick which the fox played the bear in " Reineke 

Fuchs " (Simrock's Die Deutschen Volksbucher, vol. i, p. 148.) See also Hertel, 

op. cit., part i, pp. 128, 129, and part ii, p. 7. n.m.p. 



44 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

bounded up out of mischief, and sat on the plank, the halves 
of which were separated by the wedge. And lie sat over the 
gap between the two halves, as if in the mouth of death, and 
in purposeless mischief pulled out the wedge. Then he fell 
with the plank, the wedge of which had been pulled out, and 
was killed, having his parts crushed by the flying together 
of the separated halves. 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" Thus a person is ruined by meddling with what is not 
his own business. So what is the use of our penetrating the 
mind of the king of beasts ? " When the grave Damanaka 
heard Karataka say this, he answered : " Certainly wise 
ministers must penetrate and observe the peculiarities of 
their master's character. For who would confine his attention 
to filUng his belly ? " When Damanaka said this, the good 
Karataka said : " Prying for one's own gratification is not 
the duty of a servant." 

Damanaka, being thus addressed, replied : " Do not 
speak thus ; everyone desires a recompense suited to his 
character : the dog is satisfied with a bone only, the lion 
attacks an elephant." 

When Karataka heard this, he said : " And supposing 
under these circumstances the master is angry, instead of 
being pleased, where is your special advantage ? Lords, like 
mountains, are exceedingly rough, firm, uneven, difficult of 
access, and surrounded with noxious creatures." 

Then Damanaka said : " This is true ; but he who is wise 
gradually gets influence over his master by penetrating his 
character." 

Then Karataka said : " Well, do so " ; and Damanaka 
went into the presence of his master the lion. The lion 
received him kindly : so he bowed, and sat down, and im- 
mediately said to him : " King, I am an hereditary useful 
servant of yours. One useful is to be sought after, though 
a stranger, but a mischievous one is to be abandoned: a 
cat, being useful, is bought with money, brought from a 
distance, and cherished ; but a mouse, being harmful, is 



FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN 45 

carefully destroyed, though it has been nourished up in one's 
house. And a king who desires prosperity must listen to 
servants who wish him well, and they must give their lord 
at the right time useful counsel, even without being asked. 
So, King, if you feel confidence in me, if you are not angry, 
and if you do not wish to conceal your feelings from me, and 
if you are not disturbed in mind by my boldness, I would 
ask you a certain question." 

When Damanaka said this, the lion Pingalaka answered : 
" You are trustworthy, you are attached to me, so speak 
without fear." 

When Pingalaka said this, Damanaka said : " King, 
being thirsty, you went to drink water ; so why did you 
return without drinking, like one despondent ? " 

When the lion heard this speech of his, he reflected : " I 
have been discovered by him, so why should I try to hide the 
truth from this devoted servant ? " Having thus reflected, he 
said to him : " Listen, I must not hide anything from you. 
When I went to drink water, I heard there a noise which I 
never heard before, and I think it is the terrible roar of some 
animal superior to myself in strength. For, as a general 
rule, the might of creatures is proportionate to the sound 
they utter, and it is well known that the infinitely various 
animal creation has been made by God in regular gradations. 
And now that he has entered here I cannot call my body 
nor my wood my own ; so I must depart hence to some 
other forest." 

When the lion said this, Damanaka answered him : 
" Being valiant, O King, why do you wish to leave the 
wood for so slight a reason ? Water breaks a bridge, 
secret whisperings friendship, counsel is ruined by garrulity, 
cowards only are routed by a mere noise. There are many 
noises, such as those of machines, which are terrible till one 
knows the real cause. So your Highness must not fear 
this. Hear by way of illustration the story of the jackal 
and the drum. 



1^ 
46 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

84b. The Jackal and the Drum * 

Long ago there lived a jackal in a certain forest district. 
He was roaming about in search of food, and came upon a 
plot of ground where a battle had taken place, and hearing 
from a certain quarter a booming sound, he looked in that 
direction. There he saw a drum lying on the ground, a 
thing with which he was not familiar. He thought : " What 
kind of animal is this, that makes such a sound ? " Then 
he saw that it was motionless, and coming up and looking 
at it, he came to the conclusion that it was not an animal. 
And he perceived that the noise was produced by the parch- 
ment being struck by the shaft of an arrow, which was 
moved by the wind. So the jackal laid aside his fear, and 
he tore open the drum, and went inside, to see if he could 
get anything to eat in it, but lo ! it was nothing but wood 
and parchment. 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So, King, why do creatures like you fear a mere sound ? 
If you approve, I will go there to investigate the matter." 
When Damanaka said this, the lion answered : "Go there, 
by all means, if you dare." 

So Damanaka went to the bank of the Yamuna. While 
he was roaming slowly about there, guided by the sound, 
he discovered that bull eating grass. So he went near 
him, and made acquaintance with him, and came back, 

^ Cf. Benfey, op. cil., vol. ii, p. 21. In the first volume (p. 132 et seq.) he 
tells us that in the old Greek version of the fables of Bidpai, the fox, who 
represents the jackal, loses through fear his appetite for other food, and for a 
hen in the Anvdr-i-Suhaiti, 99. The fable is also found in Livre des Lumieres, 
p. 72 ; Cabinet des F^es, p. xvii, 183, and other collections. The Arabic version, 
and those derived from it, leave out the point of the drum being found on a 
battle-field. Cf. also Campbell's Tales from the West Highlands, p. 268 : " A 
fox being hungry one day found a bagpipe, and proceeded to eat the bag, 
which is generally made of hide. There was still a remnant of breath in the 
bag, and when the fox bit it, the drone gave a groan, when the fox, surprised, 

but not frightened, said: 'Here is meat and music.'" See also Hertel, 

op. dLy part i, p. 129, and part ii, pp. 14, 15. n.m.p. 



SANJIVAKA BECOMES FAVOURITE 47 

and told the lion the real state of the case. The lion 
Pingalaka was delighted, and said : " If you have really 
seen that great bull, and made friends with him, bring him 
here by some artifice, that I may see what he is like." So 
he sent Damanaka back to that bull. Damanaka went to 
the bull, and said : " Come ! Our master, the king of beasts, 
is pleased to summon you." But the bull would not consent 
to come, for he was afraid. 

Then the jackal again returned to the forest, and induced 
his master the lion to grant the bull assurance of protection. 
And he went and encouraged Sanjivaka with this promise 
of protection, and so brought him into the presence of the 
lion. And when the lion saw him come and bow before 
him, he treated him with politeness, and said : " Remain here 
now about my person, and entertain no fear." And the 
bull consented, and gradually gained such an influence over 
the lion that he turned his back on his other dependents, 
and was entirely governed by the bull. 

Then Damanaka, being annoyed, said to Karataka in 
secret : " See ! our master has been taken possession of by 
Sanjivaka, and does not trouble his head about us. He 
eats his flesh alone, and never gives us a share. And the 
fool is now taught his duty by this bull.^ It was I that 
caused all this mischief by bringing this bull. So I will 
now take steps to have him killed, and to reclaim our master 
from his unbecoming infatuation." When Karataka heard 
this from Damanaka, he said : " Friend, even you will not 
be able to do this now." Then Damanaka said : "I shall 
certainly be able to accomplish it by prudence. What can 
he not do whose prudence does not fail in calamity ? As 
a proof, hear the story of the makara^ that killed the 
crane.' 

^ I follow the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. : tnudhabuddhih prabhur 
nyayam ukshndnenadya sikshyate. This satisfies the metre, which Brockhaus' 
reading does not. 

* This word generally means "crocodile." But in the Hilopadesa the 
creature that kills the crane is a crab. 

' Here Somadeva omits four sub-tales : " The Monk and the Swindler " ; 
" The Rams and the Jackal " ; " The Cuckold Weaver and the Bawd " ; and " The 
Crows and the Serpent." They are given on pp. 223-227 of this volume. n.m.p. 



48 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

84c. The Crane and the Makara * 

Of old time there dwelt a crane in a certain tank rich in 
fish ; and the fish in terror used to flee out of his sight. 
Then the crane, not being able to catch the fish, told them 
a lying tale : " There has come here a man with a net who 
kills fish. He will soon catch you with a net and kill you. 
So act on my advice, if you repose any confidence in me. 
There is in a lonely place a translucent lake ; it is unknown 
to the fishermen of these parts ; I will take you there one 
by one, and drop you into it, that you may live there." 

When those foolish fish heard that, they said in their 
fear : " Do so ; we all repose confidence in you." Then the 
treacherous crane took the fish away one by one, and, putting 
them down on a rock, devoured in this way many of them. 

Then a certain makara dwelling in that lake, seeing him 
carrying off fish, said : " Whither are you taking the 
fish ? " Then that crane said to him exactly what he had 
said to the fish. The makara,^ being terrified, said : " Take 
me there too." The crane's intellect was blinded with the 
smell of his flesh, so he took him up, and soaring aloft carried 
him towards the slab of rock. But when the makara got 
near the rock he saw the fragments of the bones of the fish 
that the crane had eaten, and he perceived that the crane 

^ See Benfey, op. ciL, vol. i, p. 174 et seq., and vol. ii, p. 58 et sea. Cf. 
also Hertel, op. cit, part i, p. 131 ; part ii, pp. 22, 23. Only the versions of 
Kshemendra and those in the Southern Panchatantra and the Hitopadesa 
resemble Somadeva's ending. In all other versions the makara (nearly always 
taken to mean a crab) kills the crane before all the fish are devoured and 
returns to tell them of their enemy's destruction. An oral tale derived from 
these versions appears in Ramaswami Raju's Indian Fables, p. 88. Two other 
versions differ further. In Jdtaka No. 38, and Dubois' Pantcha-Tanlra, p. 76, 
the crane (or heron) makes the fish leave the pond by prophesying a drought, 
and not by pretending that fishermen are coming with nets. For oral tales 
derived from these see G. R. Subramiah Pantulu, Folklore of the Telugus 
(3rd edit.), p. 47, also Indian Antiquary, vol. xxvi, 1897, p. l68 ; Steele, Kusa 
Jatakaya, p. 251 ; Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 342 (three 
variants); W. W. Skeat, Fables and Folk-Tales from an Eastern Forest, p. 18. 
For further details see W. N. Brown, Joum. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xxxix, 
1919, pp. 22-24. N.M.p. 

' Here he is called njhasha, which means "large fish." 



THE SAGACIOUS HARE 49 

was in the habit of devouring those who reposed confidence 
in him. So no sooner was the sagacious makara put down on 
the rock than with complete presence of mind he cut off 
the head of the crane. And he returned and told the occur- 
rence, exactly as it happened, to the other fish, and they 
were delighted, and hailed him as their deliverer from death. 

84. Story of the Bvll abandoned in the Forest 

" Prudence indeed is power, so what has a man, devoid 
of prudence, to do with power ? Hear this other story of 
the lion and the hare. 

84d. The Lion and the Hare * 

There was in a certain forest a lion, who was invincible, 
and sole champion of it, and whatever creatures he saw in 
it he killed. Then all the animals, deer and all, met and 
deUberated together, and they made the following petition 
to that king of beasts : " Why by killing us all at once do 
you ruin your own interests ? We will send you one animal 
every day for your dinner." When the lion heard this, he 
consented to their proposal, and as he was in the habit of 
eating one animal every day, it happened that it was one 
day the lot of a hare to present himself to be eaten. The 
hare was sent off by the united animals, but on the way 
the wise creature reflected : " He is truly brave who does not 
become bewildered even in the time of calamity ; so, now that 
Death stares me in the face, I will devise an expedient." 

^ See the references given in Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p, 179 et seq.; and 
Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 131, and pt. ii, pp. 24, 25. Variants of this tale 
have found their way into a number of collections of oral tales. See Rouse, 
Talking Thrush, p. 130 ; Frere, Old Deccan Days, pp. 157-159 ; Pantulu, op. cit., 
p. 9- and Ind. Ant., vol. xxvi, p. 27 ; Butterworth, Zigzag Journeys in India, 
p. l6; Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from the Panjdb . . ., p. 154; Ramaswami 
Raj u, op. cit., p. 82; O'Connor, Folk-Tales from Tibet, p. 51 ; Parker, op. cit., 
vol. ii, p. 385 ; Skeat, op. cit., p. 28 ; Steel and Temple, " Folklore in the 
Panjfib," Ind. Ant., vol. xii, 1883, p. 177; and Dames, " Balochi Tales," Folk- 
Lore, vol. iii, p. 517. All the above have been duly chronicled by W. N. 
Brown, op. cit,, pp. 24-28. n.m.p. 

VOL. V. D 



50 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Thus reflecting, the hare presented himself before the 
lion late. And when he arrived after his time, the lion said 
to him : " Hola ! how is this that you have neglected to 
arrive at my dinner hour, or what worse penalty than death 
can I inflict on you, scoundrel ? " When the lion said 
this, the hare bowed before him, and said : " It is not my 
fault, your Highness; I have not been my own master 
to-day, for another lion detained me on the road, and only 
let me go after a long interval." When the lion heard that, 
he lashed his tail, and his eyes became red with anger, and 
he said : " Who is that second lion ? Show him me." The 
hare said : " Let your Majesty come and see him." The lion 
consented, and followed him. Thereupon the hare took him 
away to a distant well. " Here he lives, behold him," said 
the hare, and when thus addressed by the hare, the lion 
looked into the well, roaring all the while with anger. And 
seeing his own reflection in the clear water, and hearing the 
echo of his own roar, thinking that there was a rival lion 
there roaring louder than himself,^ he threw himself in a rage 
into the well, in order to kill him, and there the fool was 
drowned. And the hare, having himself escaped death by 
his wisdom, and having delivered all the animals from it, 
went and delighted them by telling his adventure. 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So you see that wisdom is the supreme power, not 
strength, since by virtue of it even a hare killed a lion. So 
I will effect my object by wisdom." 

When Damanaka said this, Karataka remained silent. 

Then Damanaka went and remained in the presence of 
the King Pingalaka, in a state of assumed depression. And 
when Pingalaka asked him the reason, he said to him in a 
confidential aside : "I will tell you. King, for if one knows 
anything one ought not to conceal it. And one should speak 

* Dr Kern conjectures abhigarjinam, but the Sanskrit College MS. reads 
matva iatrdtigarjitam itisimham: "thinking that he was outroared there" ; how- 
ever, the word simham must be changed if this reading is to be adopted. This- 
is the thirtieth story in my copy of the ^ukasaptati. 



DAMANAKA'S STRATEGY 51 

too without being commanded to do so, if one desires the 
welfare of one's master. So hear this representation of mine, 
and do not suspect me. This bull Sanjivaka intends to kill 
you and gain possession of the kingdom, for in his position of 
minister he has come to the conclusion that you are timid; 
and longing to slay you, he is brandishing his two horns, his 
natural weapons, and he talks over the animals in the forest, 
encouraging them with speeches of this kind : ' We will kill 
by some artifice this flesh-eating king of beasts, and then 
you can live in security under me, who am an eater of herbs 
only.' So think about this bull ; as long as he is alive there 
is no security for you." 

When Damanaka said this, Pingalaka answered : " What 
can that miserable herb-eating bull do against me ? But 
how can I kill a creature that has sought my protection, and 
to whom I have promised immunity from injury ? " When 
Damanaka heard this, he said : " Do not speak so. When 
a king makes another equal to himself, Fortune does not 
proceed as favourably as before.^ The fickle goddess, if she 
places her feet at the same time upon two exalted persons, 
cannot keep her footing long; she will certainly abandon 
one of the two. And a king who hates a good servant and 
honours a bad servant is to be avoided by the wise, as a 
wicked patient by physicians. Where there is a speaker and 
a hearer of that advice, which in the beginning is disagree- 
able, but in the end is useful, there Fortune sets her foot. 
He who does not hear the advice of the good, but listens to 
the advice of the bad, in a short time falls into calamity, and 
is afflicted. So what is the meaning of this love of yours for 
the bull, O King ? And what does it matter that you gave 
him protection, or that he came as a suppliant, if he plots 
against your life ? Moreover, if this bull remains always 
about your person, you will have worms produced in you 
by his excretions. And they will enter your body, which is 
covered with the scars of wounds from the tusks of infuriated 
elephants. Why should he not have chosen to kill you by 

^ I prefer the reading kas of the Sanskrit College MS., and would render : 
** Whom can the king make his equal ? Fortune does not proceed in that 
way." But D. has yas, as translated above. n.m.p. ; 



52 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

craft ? If a wicked person is wise enough not to do an 
injury ^ himself, it will happen by association with him. 
Hear a story in proof of it. 

84e. The LoiLse and the Flea* 

In the bed of a certain king there long lived undis- 
covered a louse, that had crept in from somewhere or other, 
by name Mandavisarpini. And suddenly a flea, named 
Tittibha, entered that bed, wafted there by the wind from 
some place or other. And when Mandavisarpini saw him, she 
said : " Why have you invaded my home ? Go elsewhere." 
Tittibha answered : " I wish to drink the blood of a king, 
a luxury which I have never tasted before, so permit me to 
dwell here." Then, to please him, the louse said to him : 
" If this is the case, remain. But you must not bite the 
king, my friend, at unseasonable times; you must bite him 
gently when he is asleep." When Tittibha heard that, he 
consented, and remained. But at night he bit the king hard 
when he was in bed, and then the king rose up, exclaiming : 
'* I am bitten." Then the wicked flea fled quickly, and the 
king's servants made a search in the bed, and finding the 
louse there, killed it. 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So Mandavisarpini perished by associating with Tittibha. 
Accordingly your association with Sanjivaka will not be for 
your advantage. If you do not believe in what I say, you 
will soon yourself see him approach, brandishing his head, 
confiding in his horns, which are sharp as lances." 

By these words the feelings of Pingalaka were changed 
towards the bull, and so Damanaka induced him to form in 
his heart the determination that the bull must be killed. 
And Damanaka, having ascertained the state of the lion's 
feelings, immediately went off of his own accord to Sanjivaka, 

* I read dosham for dosho with the Sanskrit College MS. 

See Benfey, op. cil., vol, i, pp. 122, 123, and vol, ii, p. 71 ; and Hertel, 
op. cit., pt. i, p. 131, and pt. ii, pp. 29, 30 ; and cf. Parker, op. cit., vol. iii, p. 80, 
<which closely follows the Textus Simplicior, i, 9- n.m.p. 



THE CAMEL 58 

and sat in his presence with a despondent air. The bull 
said to him : " Friend, why are you in this state ? Are 
you in good health ? " The jackal answered : " What can 
be healthy with a servant ? Who is permanently dear to a 
king? What petitioner is not despised? Who is not sub- 
ject to time ? " When the jackal said this, the bull again 
said to him : " Why do you seem so despondent to-day, 
my friend, tell me ? " Then Damanaka said : " Listen ; I 
speak out of friendship. The lion Pingalaka has to-day 
become hostile to you. So unstable is his affection that, 
without regard for his friendship, he wishes to kill you and 
eat you, and I see that his evilly disposed courtiers have 
instigated him to do it." The simple-minded bull, suppos- 
ing, on account of the confidence he had previously reposed in 
the jackal, that this speech was true, and feeling despondent, 
said to him : " Alas, a mean master, with mean retainers, 
though he be won over by faithful service, becomes estranged. 
In proof of it, hear this story. 

84f. The Lion, the Panther, the Crow and the Jackal * 

There lived once in a certain forest a lion, named Madot- 
kata, and he had three followers, a panther, a crow and a 
jackal. That lion once saw a camel, that had escaped from 
a caravan, entering his wood, a creature he was not famiUar 
with before, of ridiculous appearance. That king of beasts 
said in astonishment : " What is this creature ? " And the 
crow, who knew when it behoved him to speak,^ said : "It 
is a camel." Then the lion, out of curiosity, had the camel 

* See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 230, 231, and vol. ii, p. 80 ; Hcrtel, op. cit., 
pt. i, p. 132, and pt. ii, p. 37 et seq. 

2 I adopted this translation of desajna in deference to the opinion of a 
good native scholar, but might not the word mean simply "knowing countries".^ 
The crow then would be a kind of feathered Ulysses. Cf. Waldau's Bohmische 
Mdrcken, p. 255. The fable may remind some readers of the following lines 
in Spenser's Mother Hubberd's Tale : 

" He shortly met the Tygre and the Bore 
That with the simple Camell raged sore 
In bitter words, seeking to take occasion 
Upon his fleshly corpse to make invasion." 



54 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

summoned, and giving him a promise of protection, he made 
him his courtier, and placed him about his person. 

One day the lion was wounded in a fight with an elephant, 
and being out of health, made many fasts, though surrounded 
by those attendants who were in good health. Then the lion, 
being exhausted, roamed about in search of food, but not 
finding any, secretly asked all his courtiers, except the camel, 
what was to be done. They said to him : " Your Highness, 
we must give advice which is seasonable in our present 
calamity. What friendship can you have with a camel, 
and why do you not eat him ? He is a grass-eating animal, 
and therefore meant to be devoured by us flesh-eaters. And 
why should not one be sacrificed to supply food to many ? 
If your Highness should object, on the ground that you can- 
not slay one to whom you have granted protection, we will 
contrive a plot by which we shall induce the camel himself 
to offer you his own body." 

When they had said this, the crow, by the permission of 
the lion, after arranging the plot, went and said to that camel : 
" This master of ours is overpowered with hunger, and says 
nothing to us, so we intend to make him well disposed to us 
by offering him our bodies, and you had better do the same, 
in order that he may be well disposed towards you." When 
the crow said this to the camel, the simple-minded camel 
fegreed to it, and came to the lion with the crow. Then the 
crow said : " King, eat me, for I am my own master." Then 
the lion said : " What is the use of eating such a small 
creature as you ? " Thereupon the jackal said : " Eat me." 
And the lion rejected him in the same way. Then the 
panther said : " Eat me." And yet the lion would not eat 
him. And at last the camel said : " Eat me." So the lion 
and the crow and his fellows entrapped him by these deceit- 
ful offers, and taking him at his word, killed him, divided 
him into portions, and ate him. 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" In the same way some treacherous person has instigated 
Pingalaka against me without cause. So now Destiny must 



KAIVIBUGRIVA, THE TORTOISE 55 

decide. For it is better to be the servant of a vulture-king 
with swans for courtiers, than to serve a swan as king, if his 
courtiers be vultures, much less a king of a worse character, 
with such courtiers.'* ^ 

When the dishonest Damanaka heard Sanjivaka say that, 
he replied ; " Everything is accomplished by resolution. 
Listen, I will tell you a tale to prove this. 

84g. The Pair of Tittibhas ' 

There lived a certain cock iittibha on the shore of the sea 
with his hen. And the hen, being about to lay eggs, said to 
the cock : " Come, let us go away from this place, for if I 
lay eggs here, the sea may carry them off with its waves." 
When the cock-bird heard this speech of the hen's, he said to 
her : " The sea cannot contend with me." On hearing that, 
the hen said : " Do not talk so ; what comparison is there 
between you and the sea ? People must follow good advice, 
otherwise they will be ruined. 

84GG. The Tortoise and the Two Swans ^ 

For there was in a certain lake a tortoise, named Kambu- 
griva, and he had two swans for friends, Vikata and Sankata. 

^ See Benfey, op. ciL, vol. i, p. 231. 

* See ibid,, p. 235 et seq. ; A. Manwaring, Marathi Proverbs, Oxford, 
1899, No. 297, p. 41 ; Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, pp. 132, 133, and pt. ii, p. 40, and 
Das Paficatanlra, Leipzig, 1914, p. 277. fiffibka is nearly always translated 
as "strandbird." n.m.p. 

^ See ibid., p. 239 et seq. The original source is probably the Kachchhapa 
Jdtaka. See Rhys Davids' Introduction to his Buddhist Birth Stories, p. viii. 
In Coelho's Cantos Populares Portuguezes, p. 1 5, the heron, which is carrying 
the fox, persuades it to let go, in order that she may spit on her hand. [A 
similar incident appears on p. 170 of this volume.] Gosson in his Schoole of 
Abuse, Arber's Reprints, p. 43, observes : " Geese are foolish birds, yet, when 
they fly over Mount Taurus, they show great wisdom in their own defence, for 
they stop their pipes full of gravel to avoid gaggling, and so by silence escape 
the eagles." 

Cf. Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 133, and pt. ii, pp. 40, 41. In Dubois' 

Pardcha-T antra, p. 109, it is a fox who attracts the attention of the tortoise and 
so causes him to fall. Two oral tales are founded on this version viz. Pieris, 
"Sinhalese Folklore," Orientalist, vol. i, p. 134; and Parker, op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 234. N.M.P. 



56 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Once on a time the lake was dried up by drought, and they 
wanted to go to another lake ; so the tortoise said to them : 
" Take me also to the lake you are desirous of going to." 
When the two swans heard this, they said to their friend 
the tortoise : " The lake to which we wish to go is a tre- 
mendous distance off ; but, if you wish to go there too, you 
must do what we tell you. You must take in your teeth a 
stick held by us, and while travelling through the air you 
must remain perfectly silent, otherwise you will fall and be 
killed." 

The tortoise agreed, and took the stick in his teeth, and 
the two swans flew up into the air, holding the two ends of 
it. And gradually the two swans, carrying the tortoise, drew 
near that lake, and were seen by some men living in a town 
below ; and the thoughtless tortoise heard them making 
a chattering, while they were discussing with one another 
what the strange thing could be that the swans were carry- 
ing. So the tortoise asked the swans what the chattering 
below was about, and in doing so let go the stick from its 
mouth, and falling down to the earth, was there killed by 
the men. 



84g. The Pair of Tittihhas 

" Thus you see that a person who lets go common sense 
will be ruined, like the tortoise that let go the stick." When 
the hen-bird said this, the cock-bird answered her : " This is 
true, my dear ; but hear this story also. 

84GGG. The Three Fish 

Of old time there were three fish in a lake near a river, 
one was called Anagatavidhatri, a second Pratyutpannamati, 
and the third Yadbhavishya,^ and they were companions. 

* I.e. " the provider for the future," " the fish that possessed presence 

of mind," and "the fatalist who believed in kismet." Cf. Hertel, op. cit., 

pt. if p. 133, and pt. ii, p. 41 et seq. Edgerton (Panchatanira Reconstructed, 
vol. ii, p. 314) translates as "Forethought," "Ready-wit," and " Come-what- 
will." See Pantulu, op. cit., p. 53, and Ind. Ant., vol. xxvi, p. 224. n.m.p. 



THE THREE FISH 57 

One day they heard some fishermen, who passed that way, 
saying to one another : " Surely there must be fish in this 
lake." Thereupon the prudent Anagatavidhatri, fearing to 
be killed by the fishermen, entered the current of the river 
and went to another place. But Pratyutpannamati remained 
where he was, without fear, saying to himself : "I will take 
the expedient course if any danger should arise." And 
Yadbhavishya remained there, saying to himself : " What 
must be, must be." Then those fishermen came and threw 
a net into that lake. But the cunning Pratyutpannamati, 
the moment he felt himself hauled up in the net, made him- 
self rigid, and remained as if he were dead. The fishermen, 
who were killing the fish, did not kill him, thinking that he 
had died of himself, so he jumped into the current of the 
river, and went off somewhere else, as fast as he could. But 
Yadbhavishya, like a foolish fish, bounded and wriggled in 
the net, so the fishermen laid hold of him and killed him. 



84g. The Pair of Tittibhas 

" So I too will adopt an expedient when the time arrives ; 
I will not go away through fear of the sea." Having said 
this to his wife, the tittibha remained where he was, in his 
nest ; and there the sea heard his boastful speech. Now, 
after some days, the hen-bird laid eggs, and the sea carried 
off the eggs with his waves, out of curiosity, saying to him- 
self : " I should like to know what this tittibha will do to me." 
And the hen-bird, weeping, said to her husband : " The very 
calamity which I prophesied to you has come upon us." 

Then that resolute tittibha said to his wife : " See what 
I will do to that wicked sea ! " So he called together all the 
birds, and mentioned the insult he had received, and went 
with them and called on the lord Garuda for protection. 
And the birds said to him : " Though thou art our pro- 
tector, we have been insulted by the sea as if we were un- 
protected, in that it has carried away some of our eggs." 
Then Garuda was angry, and appealed to Vishnu, who dried 
up the sea with the weapon of fire, and made it restore the 
eggs. 



58 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So you must be wise in calamity and not let go resolu- 
tion. But now a battle with Pingalaka is at hand for you. 
When he shall erect his tail, and arise with his four feet 
together, then you may know that he is about to strike you. 
And you must have your head ready tossed up, and must 
gore him in the stomach, and lay your enemy low, with all his 
entrails torn out." 

After Damanaka had said this to the bull Sanjivaka, he 
went to Karataka, and told him that he had succeeded in 
setting the two at variance. 

Then Sanjivaka slowly approached Pingalaka, being de- 
sirous of finding out the mind of that king of beasts by his 
face and gestures. And he saw that the lion was prepared 
to fight, being evenly balanced on all four legs, and having 
erected his tail, and the lion saw that the bull had tossed 
up his head in fear. Then the lion sprang on the bull and 
struck him with his claws, the bull replied with his horns, 
and so their fight went on. And the virtuous Karataka, 
seeing it, said to Damanaka : " Why have you brought 
calamity on our master to gain your own ends ? Wealth 
obtained by oppression of subjects, friendship obtained by 
deceit, and a lady-love gained by violence, will not remain long. 
But enough; whoever says much to a person who despises 
good advice, incurs thereby misfortune, as Suchimukha from 
the ape. 

84h. The Monkeys^ the Firefly and the Bird ^ 

Once on a time there were some monkeys wandering in a 
troop in a wood. In the cold weather they saw a firefly and 

* See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 269, 270. In the Greek version Symeon 
Seth substitutes for the firefly Xidov oTiXPovra, while in the Turkish version, 

in the Cabinet des Fies, we read of " Un morceau de crystal qui brillait." It 

would, however, be more correct not to translate "firefly" with Tawney, 
but "glow-worm" with Benfey, Hertel and Edgerton. There has always 
been a certain amount of confusion between "firefly" and "glow-worm," 
owing chiefly to the fact that both terms are used indiscriminately. Correctly 
speaking, "firefly" is the term popularly used for the American click-beetle 



THE GLOW-WORM 59 

thought it was real fire. So they placed grass and leaves 
upon it, and tried to warm themselves at it, and one of them 
fanned the firefly with his breath. A bird named Suchi- 
mukha, when he saw it, said to him : " This is not fire, this 
is a firefly; do not fatigue yourself." Though the monkey 
heard that, he did not desist, and thereupon the bird came 
down from the tree, and earnestly dissuaded him, at which 
the ape was annoyed, and throwing a stone at Suchimukha, 
crushed him.^ 



84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So one ought not to admonish him who will not act 
on good advice. Why then should I speak ? You well 
know that you brought about this quarrel with a mischievous 
object, and that which is done with evil intentions cannot 
turn out well. 

84i. Dharmahuddhi and Dushtahvddhi ^ 

For instance, there were long ago in a certain village 
two brothers, the sons of a merchant, Dharmabuddhi and 
Dushtabuddhi by name. They left their father's house and 
went to another country to get wealth, and with great difficulty 
acquired two thousand gold dinars. And with them they 
returned to their own city. And they buried those dinars at 

{Pyrophorus) and is entirely confined to tropical America. It is interesting 
to note that American Indians of these latitudes sometimes keep "fireflies" 
in little cages for illumination at night. They are also used for personal 
adornment. The "glow-worm," on the other hand, is the iMtnpyris noctiluca, 
a wingless female beetle common throughout Europe and the East, some 
specimens of which can fly ; hence these have also been called " fireflies." 

N.M.P. 

^ See Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 257. n.m.p. 

* See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 275 et seq., where differences in the various 
recensions are detailed. The story was also found in Tibet by Babu Sarat 

Chandra Das, headmaster of the Bhutia school, Darjiling. Cf. Hertel, 

op. cit., pt. i, p. 134, and pt. ii, p. 51 et seq.; Pantulu, op. cit., p. 17, and 
Ind. Ant., vol. xxvi, p. 55 ; and K. N. Fleeson, Laos Folklore of Farther India, 
p. 108. See also F. Edgerton, "Evil-Wit, No- Wit and Honest- Wit," Joum. 
Amer. Orient. Sac., xl, 1920, p. 271. n.m.p. 



60 THE (U'EAN OF STORY 

the foot i)f a tree, with the exception of one hundred, which 
they (hvided hit \n ten thcni in ecjual parts, and so they hvcd 
in thtir fatlur's liousf. 

Hut one (lay l)uslital)uchlhi went l)y himself and dug up 
of his own aeeord those dinars whieh were huried at the foot 
of tlie tree, for lie was vieious and extravagant.' And after 
one month only had passed, he said to Dharmabuddhi : 
** Come, my ilder brother, let us divide those dinars; I have 
expensrs.' When Dharmabuddhi heard that, he consented, 
and wiiit and dug with him where he had deposited the 
dinars. And when they did not find any dinars in the plaee 
where they had buried them, the treacherous Dushtabuddhi 
said to Dharmabuddhi : " You have taken away the dinars^ 
so give me my half." But Dharmabuddhi answered : " I 
ha\e not taken them; you must have taken them." So a 
([uarrel arose, and Dushtabuddhi hit Dharmabuddhi on the 
head with a stone, and dragged him into the king's court. 
There they both stated their case, and as the king's officers 
could not decide it, they were proceeding to detain them both 
for the trial by ordeal. Then Dushtabuddhi said to the 
king's ollieers : " The tree at the foot of which these dinars 
were placed will depose, as a witness, that they were taken 
away by this Dharmabuddhi." And they were exceedingly 
astonished, but said : " Well, we will ask it to-morrow." 
Then they let both Dharmabuddhi and Dushtabuddhi go, 
after they had given bail, and they went separately to their 
house. 

Hut Dushtabuddhi told the whole matter to his father, 
and secretly giving him the money, said : " Hide in the 
trunk of the tree and be my witness." His father consented, 
so he took him and placed him at night in the capacious 
trunk of the tree, and returned home. And in the morning 
those two brothers went with the king's officers, and asked 
tlie tree who took away those dinars. And their father, who 
was hidden in the trunk of the tree, rej)licd in a loud clear 
voice : '* Dharnui})ud(lhi took away the dinars.''^ Wlien the 
king's oHicers heard this surprising utterance, they said : 
" Surely Dushtabuddhi must have hidden someone in the 

* I read with the Sanskrit College MS. [and D. text] asadvyayt. 



THE CRAB'S ADVICE 61 

trunk." So they introduced smoke into the trunk of the 
tree, which fumigated the father of Dushtabuddhi so, that 
he fell out of the trunk on to the ground, and died. When 
the king's officers saw this, they understood the whole 
matter, and they compelled Dushtabuddhi to give up the 
dinars to Dharmabuddhi. And so they cut off the hands 
and cut out the tongue ^ of Dushtabuddhi, and banished him, 
and they honoured Dharmabuddhi as a man who deserved 
his name.' 



84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" So you see that a deed done with an unrighteous mind 
is sure to bring calamity, therefore one should do it with a 
righteous mind, as the crane did to the snake. 

84j. The Crane, the Snake and the Mungoose^ 

Once on a time a snake came and ate the nestlings of a 
certain crane as fast as they were born. That grieved the 
crane. So, by the advice of a crab, he went and strewed 
pieces of fish from the dwelling of a mungoose as far as the 
hole of the snake, and the mungoose came out, and following 
up the pieces of fish, eating as it went on, was led to the hole 
of the snake, which it saw and entered, and killed him and 
his offspring. 

84. Story of the Bvll abandoned in the Forest 

" So by a device one can succeed. Now hear another 
story. 

* A well-known punishment for thieves. See Bloomfield^ " Art of 
Stealing," Amer. Joum. Phil., vol. xliv, p. 227. n.m.p. 

* /,e. "Virtuously-minded." His brother's name means "evil-minded." 

* Benfey (0/7. cit., vol. i, pp. 167-170) appears not to be aware that this 
story is in Somadeva. It corresponds to the sixth in his first book, vol. ii, 

p. 57 el seq. Cf. Phaedrus, i, 28 ; and Aristophanes, Aves, 652. See also 

Hertel, op. cit., pt. \, p. 1 34, and pt. ii, p. 53 ; and Steele, Ktua Jalakaya, 
p. 255. N.M.P. 



62 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

84k. The Mice that ate an Iron Balance^ 

Once on a time there was a merchant's son, who had 
spent all his father's wealth, and had only an iron balance 
left to him. Now the balance was made of a thousand palas 
of iron ; and depositing it in the care of a certain merchant, 
he went to another land. And when, on his return, he came 
to that merchant to demand back his balance, the merchant 
said to him : "It has been eaten by mice." He repeated : 
" It is quite true ; the iron of which it was composed was 
particular^ sweet, and so the mice ate it." This he said with 
an outward show of sorrow, laughing in his heart. 

Then the merchant's son asked him to give him some 
food, and he, being in a good temper, consented to give him 
some. Then the merchant's son went to bathe, taking with 
him the son of that merchant, who was a mere child, and 
whom he persuaded to come with him by giving him a dish 
of dmaldkas. And after he had bathed, the wise merchant's 
son deposited that boy in the house of a friend, and returned 
alone to the house of that merchant. And the merchant 
said to him : " Where is that son of mine ? " He replied : 
" A kite swooped down from the air and carried him off." 
The merchant in a rage said : " You have concealed my son." 
And so he took him into the king's judgment-hall ; and 
there the merchant's son made the same statement. The 
officers of the court said : " This is impossible ; how could 
a kite carry off a boy ? " But the merchant's son answered : 
" In a coiuitry where a large balance of iron was eaten by 
mice, a kite might carry off an elephant, much more a boy." ^ 
When the officers heard that, they asked about it, out of 
curiosity, and made the merchant restore the balance to the 
owner, and he, for his part, restored the merchant's child. 

* See the note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 The argument reminds one of that in "Die kluge Bauerntochter " 
(Grimm's Mdrchen, 9+). The king adjudges a foal to the proprietor of some 
oxen because it was found with his beasts. The real owner fishes in the 
road with a net. The king demands an explanation. He says : " It is just 
as easy for me to catch fish on dry land as for two oxen to produce a 
foal." See also " Das Marchen vom sprechenden Bauche," Kaden, [Inter den 
Olivenbiiumen, pp. 83, 84. 



THE BULL IS KILLED 63 

84. Story of the Bull abandoned in the Forest 

" Thus, you see, persons of eminent ability attain their 
ends by an artifice. But you, by your reckless impetuosity, 
have brought our master into danger." 

When Damanaka heard this from Karataka, he laughed 
and said : " Do not talk like this ! What chance is there 
of a lion's not being victorious in a fight with a bull ? There 
is a considerable difference between a lion, whose body is 
adorned with numerous scars of wounds from the tusk's of 
infuriated elephants, and a tame ox, whose body has been 
pricked by the goad." 

While the jackals were carrying on this discussion, the 
lion killed the bull Sanjivaka. When he was slain, Dama- 
naka recovered his position of minister without a rival, and 
remained for a long time about the person of the king of 
beasts in perfect happiness.^ 



[M] Naravahanadatta much enjoyed hearing from his 
prime minister Gomukha this wonderful story, which was 
full of statecraft, and characterised by consummate ability. 

^ For literary analogues see Sandhibheda Jdtaka, No. 349 (Cambridge 
edition, vol. iii, pp. 99)', Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 325; 
B. Jiilg, Mongolische M'drchen, p. 172 ; Busk, Sagas frovi the Far East, p. 192 ; 
Chavannes, Cinq Contes et Apologues, ii, p. 425. For oral versions see Parker, 
Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. iii, p. 22 ; and W. W. Skeat, Folk-Tales 
from an Eastern Forest, p. 30. For further details see W. N. Brown, Joum. 
Amer. Orient. Soc., vol. xxxix, 1919> pp. 18, 19, to whom I am indebted for 
the above references and many of those in notes to other tales in Book I of 
the Pahchatantra. n.m.p. 



64 THE OCEAN OF STORY 



NOTE ON THE "IMPOSSIBILITIES" MOTIF 

The story of the iron-eating mice corresponds to the twenty-first of the 
first book in Benfey's translation, vol. li, p. 120. For references to the various 
PaJlchatantra versions see Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 283. It is the first of the 
ninth book of La Fontaine's Fables, Le Depositaire Injidele. If Plutarch is to 
be believed, the improbability of the iron-eating mice story is not so very 
striking, for he tells us, in his Life of Marcellus, that rats and mice gnawed 
the gold in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 

The story is in all probability of Buddhistic origin, and first appears 

in Jataka No. 218 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 127, 128). It is, therefore, 
the earliest literary example of the " Impossibilities " motif. The motif has 
already occurred in Vol. Ill, p. 241, where I gave a few variants in a note on 
pp. 250, 251. 

In this note I shall first give references to the present story in Indian 
fiction, and then add a few further examples of the " Impossibilities " viotif. 

The "Story of the Mice that ate an Iron Balance" occurs in all the 
Pahchaiantra versions (see especially Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 134 ; pt. ii, p. 55) \ 
in the Suka Saptati Simplicior (R. Schmidt, 1894, No. 39); and in the Katha 
MaHjari as given in E. J. Robinson's Tales and Poems of South India, p. 281. 

The story, with slight variations, appears in the following collections of 
folk-lore stories : 

G. Jethabhai, Indian Folklore, p. 30 ; Knowles, Dictionary of Kashmiri 
Proverbs, p. 199 ; Upreti, Proverbs and Folklore of Kumaun and Garhwal, p. 403 ; 
O'Connor, Folk-Tales from Tibet, p. 23; and Steele, Kusa Jatakaya, p. 250, 

These are all described by W. N. Brown, op. cit., pp. 41-43. 

The last two examples quoted differ considerably from the story in our 
text. In O'Connor's tale a man leaves a bag of gold-dust in the care of a 
friend, who changes it for sand and tells his friend on his return home that 
the gold has turned into sand by itself Somewhat later the dishonest friend 
sets out on a journey himself, and entrusts his son to the other man. The 
latter procures a monkey and teaches it to say : " Worthy father, I am turned 
into this." The father returns, and on asking for his son is given the monkey, 
with the information that during his absence his son has changed into this. 
The monkey verifies this claim by continually exclaiming : " Worthy father, 
I am turned into this." Matters are then satisfactorily arranged. 

In Steele's Sinhalese story a gold pumpkin is alleged to have turned into 
brass during the owner's absence. The counter-trick with the monkey is 
employed with successful results, although it is not taught to say anything. 
(Cf. Goonetilleke's tale in the Orientalist, vol. i, p. 256 et seq., as quoted by 
Bloomfield, Amer. Joum. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, pp. 113, 114.) 

Brown gives the following very useful bibliographyof the "Impossibilities" 
motif : 

Mahosadha Jataka, No. 546, test 13 (Cambridge edition, vol. vi, p. l67); 
Schiefner and Ralston, Tibetan Tales, p. 140; Hertel, Das PoTicatantra, p. 145 ; 



THE " IMPOSSIBILITIES " MOTIF 65 

Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. i, p. 228, and vol. ii, p. 8 ; Knowles, 
Folk-Tales of Kashmir, p. 407 ; Knowles, Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs, 
p. 31 ; Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from the Panjab with Indian Nights' Entertain- 
ment, pp. 78, 31 1, 463 ; Hahn, Blicke in die Geisteswelt der heidnischen Kols, story 
17; Rouse, Talking Thrush, pp. 21, 199; Ramaswami Raju, Indian Fables, 
p. 45 ; Bom pas, Folk-Lore of the Santal Parganas, p. 49 ; D'Penha in Ind. Ant., 
vol. xxiii, p. 136; Haughton, Sport and Folk-Lore in the Himalaya, p. 294; 
Upreti, Proverbs and Folklore of Kumaun and Garhwal, p. 189. For further 
literary references see Hertel, Tantrakhydyika, Einleitung, p. 134. 

Sir George Grierson sends me the following story from Meerut. It is 
taken from the Linguistic Survey of India, vol. ix, i, p. 230 : 

"One day the Emperor Akbar told Birbal to bring him some bullock's 
milk ; * Otherwise,' said he, * I shall have you flayed alive.' [The procedure 
of this operation is to put the sufferer into an oil-press and squeeze him out 
of his skin. Hence Blrbal's reference to it later on. Birbal, as court-jester, 
should have made some witty retort, and thus got out of the difficulty. His 
ready tongue failed him on this occasion.] Filled with anxiety as to how he 
was to comply with this order, Birbal went home and lay down on his bed. 
His daughter wondered at his condition, and asked him what was the matter. 

* Nothing,' said he. She persisted in inquiring the secret cause of his evident 
trouble, and at length he said to her, * The Emperor has ordered me to bring 
him some bullock's milk, " Or else," says he, " I'll have you squeezed in an 
oil-press." I had no reply to make, and I have come home after having 
accepted the task.' Said she, ' Father, this is a matter of very slight im- 
portance. Don't worry about it.' So Birbal got up and went about his daily 
business. 

"Well, early next morning, what did this girl do but dress herself up 
in all her ornaments and fine apparel, and carry a lot of soiled clothes down 
to the bank of the Jamna, where it flowed below the Emperor's fort. The 
Emperor was taking a walk on the battlements and saw Blrbal's daughter 
washing clothes in the river. * My girl,' said he, * why have you come out 
to wash clothes so early in the morning.-'* *Your Majesty,' she replied, 

* because my father was brought to bed of a son this morning.' This made 
the Emperor angry, and he cried, * You impudent girl ; well, upon my word, 
who ever heard of men having babies ? ' She answered, * Well, upon my 
word, your Majesty, who ever heard of bullocks giving milk }' The Emperor 
had no reply to make to this retort, so he simply told her to tell her father 
to come to court the first thing the next morning. 

" Early next morning Birbal appeared in court, and the Emperor asked 
him if he had brought the bullock's milk. He replied, * Your Majesty, peace 
be upon you, I sent it yesterday by my daughter's hand.' The Emperor had 
no reply to make to this." 

The motif travelled westwards and is found several times in the Nights. 
See, for instance. Burton, Supp., vol. iii (i.r Supp., vol. iv, in the seventeen- 
volume editions), where the king is served with a cucumber containing pearls. 
He expresses astonishment at such a thing and refuses to believe in its genuine- 
ness. Whereupon, referring to a previous miscarriage of the king's justice^ 
VOL. V. B 



66 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the answer is given : " How much stranger then is it that thou wast not 
astonished to hear that the Queen, thy Consort, had, contrary to the laws of 
Allah's ordinance, given birth to such animals as dog, cat, and musk-rat." 

Again, in the "Story of the Khazi and the Bhang-Eater" (Burton, Supp., 
vol. V, pp. 240, 241), we find an incident closely akin to that in the Bihari 
tale already quoted in Vol. Ill, p. 250. Two men are brought before the 
Wazir, both claiming ownership of a certain colt. One of the men asserts 
it is the produce of his cow. The rightful owner brings a she-mouse before 
the Wazir and calls for a sack which he fills with earth, and then orders some 
men to load the sack upon the mouse. Whereupon they cry out ; " O our 
lord, 'tis impossible that a mouse carry a sack full of earth." ** How then," 
answers the other, " can a cow bear a colt ? And when a mouse shall be 
able to bear a sack, then shall a cow bear a colt." 

For a rather different use of the motif see Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. i, 
pp. 224, 225). See also Chauvin, op. cit., ii, p. 92, vi, p. 63, and vii, p. 99. 
In his Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, p. 59^*, W. A. Clouston cites an 
interesting parallel to the tale in our text from Crane's Italian Popular Tales. 

I might note in passing that there is a saying both in Greek and Latin, 
"Where mice nibble iron," apparently referring to the land of nowhere. 
(See Folk-Lore, vol. xviii, 1907, p. 21.) 

In Europe the " Impossibilities " motif has long been familiar to us 
from Grimm's " Die kluge Bauerntochter," No. 94, which appears in Margaret 
Hunt's edition (vol. ii, p. 39 et seq.) as "The Peasant's Wise Daughter." As 
seen from Tawney's note on page 62n^, the story closely resembles the one 
quoted above about the sack and the mouse, except that the man begins 
casting his net on dry land. For an exhaustive treatment of this story and 
numerous references, see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 370 et seq. n.m.p. 



CHAPTER LXI 

THEN ^ the minister Gomukha again said to Narava- 
[M] hanadatta, in order to solace him while pining 
for Saktiya^as : " Prince, you have heard a tale of a 
wise person ; now hear a tale about a fool. 

85, Story of the Foolish Merchant who made Aloes-Wood into 

Charcoal ^ 

A certain rich merchant had a blockhead of a son. He, 
once on a time, went to the island of Kataha to trade, and 
among his wares there was a great quantity of fragrant 
aloes-wood. And after he had sold the rest of his wares, he 
could not find anyone to take the aloes-wood off his hands, 
for the people who live there are not acquainted with that 
article of commerce. Then, seeing people buying charcoal 
from the woodman, the fool burnt his stock of aloes-wood 
and reduced it to charcoal. Then he sold it for the price 
which charcoal usually fetched, and returning home, boasted 
of his cleverness, and became a laughing-stock to everybody. 



[M] " I have told you of the man who burnt aloes- wood ; 
now hear the tale of the cultivator of sesame. 

86. Story of the Man who sowed Roasted Seed ' 

There was a certain villager who was a cultivator, and 
very nearly an idiot. He one day roasted some sesame 

^ Here Somadeva inserts twelve " noodle " stories. We do not begin 
Book II of the PaHchatantra till page 73. n.m.p. 

^ This is No. 84 in Stanislas Julien's translation of the Avaddnas. 

3 This is No. 67 in Stanislas Julien's translation of the Avaddnas. It is 
found in Coelho's Contos Populares Porluguezes, p. 112. So Ino persuaded the 
67 



68 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

seeds, and finding them nice to eat, he sowed a large number 
of roasted seeds, hoping that similar ones would come up. 
When they did not come up, on account of their having been 
roasted, he found that he had lost his substance, and people 
laughed at him. 



[M] " I have spoken of the sesame-cultivator ; now hear 
about the man who threw fire into water. 



87. Story of the Fool who mixed Fire and Water * 

There was a silly man, who, one night, having to perform 
a sacrifice next day, thus reflected : "I require water and 
fire, for bathing, burning incense, and other purposes ; so I 
will put them together, that I may quickly obtain them 
when I want them." Thus reflecting, he threw fire into 
the pitcher of water, and then went to bed. And in the 
morning, when he came to look, the fire was extinct, and the 
water was spoiled. And when he saw the water blackened 
with charcoal, his face was blackened also, and the faces of 
the amused people were wreathed in smiles. 



[M] " You have heard the story of the man who was 
famous on account of the pitcher of fire ; now hear the story 
of the nose-engrafter. 

88. Story of the Man who tried to improve his Wife's 

Nose 

There lived in some place or other a foolish man of be- 
wildered intellect. He, seeing that his wife was flat-nosed, 

women of the country to roast the wheat before it was sown (Preller, 
Griechische Mythologie, vol, ii, p. 312). To this Ovid refers. Fasti, ii, 628^ 

and iii, 853-854-. See also Clouston, Book of Noodles, p. 120. n.m.p. 

* This is No. 70 in Stanislas Julien's translation of the Avadanas. 



THE SILLY HERDSMAN 69 

and that his spiritual instructor was high-nosed/ cut off the 
nose of the latter when he was asleep ; and then he went and 
cut off his wife's nose, and stuck the nose of his spiritual 
instructor on her face, but it would not grow there. Thus he 
deprived both his wife and his spiritual guide of their noses. 



[M] " Now hear the story of the herdsman who lived in 
a forest." 

89. Story of the Foolish Herdsman 

There lived in a forest a rich but silly herdsman. Many 
rogues conspired together and made friends with him. 
They said to him : " We have asked the daughter of a rich 
inhabitant of the town in marriage for you, and her father 
has promised to give her." When he heard that, he was 
pleased, and gave them wealth, and after a few days they 
came again and said : " Your marriage has taken place." 
He was very much pleased at that, and gave them abundance 
of wealth. And after some more days they said to him : 
" A son has been born to you." He was in ecstasies at 
that, and he gave them all his wealth, like the fool that he 
was, and the next day he began to lament, saying : "I am 
longing to see my son." And when the herdsman began 
to cry, he incurred the ridicule of the people on account of 
his having been cheated by the rogues, as if he had acquired 
the stupidity of cattle from having so much to do with them. 



[M] " You have heard of the herdsman ; now hear the 
story of the ornament-hanger. 

90. Story of the Fool and the Ornaments ' 

A certain villager, while digging up the ground, found a 
splendid set of ornaments, which thieves had taken from the 

1 Cf. Shakespeare and Fletcher's The Tufo Noble Kinsmen, Act IV, 
sc. 2, line 110: 

" His nose stands high, a character of honour." 
* This is No. 57 in Stanislas Julien's translation of the Avadanas. 



70 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

palace and placed there. He immediately took them and 
decorated his wife with them : he put the girdle on her 
head, and the necklace round her waist, and the anklets on 
her wrists, and the bracelets on her ears. 

When the people heard of it, they laughed, and bruited 
it about. So the king came to hear of it, and took away 
from the villager the ornaments, which belonged to himself, 
but let the villager go unharmed, because he was as stupid 
as an animal. 



[M] " I have told you. Prince, of the ornament-finder ; 
now hear the story of the cotton-grower. 

91. Story of the Fool and the Cotton * 

A certain blockhead went to the market to sell cotton, 
but no one would buy it from him on the ground that it 
was not properly cleaned. In the meanwhile he saw in the 
bazaar a goldsmith selling gold, which he had purified by 
heating it, and he saw it taken by a customer. When the 
stupid creature saw that, he threw the cotton into the fire in 
order to purify it, and when it was burnt up, the people 
laughed at him. 



[M] " You have heard. Prince, this story of the cotton- 
grower ; now hear the story of the men who cut down the 
palm-trees. 

92. Story of the Foolish Villagers who cut down the Palm-Trees 

Some foolish villagers were summoned by the king's 
officers, and set to work to gather some dates in accordance 
with an order from the king's court.^ They, perceiving that 

* This is No. 71 in the Avadanas. 

' The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads rajakulddish{akharjurdnayanam. 
This is No. 45 in the Avadanas. 



THE TREASURE FINDER 71 

it was very easy to gather the dates of one date-palm that had 
tumbled down of itself, cut down all the date-palms in their 
village. And after they had laid them low, they gathered 
from them their whole crop of dates, and then they raised 
them up and planted them again, but they did not succeed 
in making them grow. And then, when they brought the 
dates, they were not rewarded, but on the contrary punished 
with a fine by the king, who had heard of the cutting down 
of the trees. ^ 



[M] " I have told you this joke about the dates ; now I 
am going to tell you about the looking for treasure. 

93. Story of the Treasure-Finder who was blinded 

A certain king took to himself a treasure-finder. And 
the wicked minister of that king had both eyes of the man, 
who was able to find the places where treasure was deposited, 
torn out, in order that he might not run away anywhere. 
The consequence was that, being blind, he was incapacitated 
from seeing the indications of treasure in the earth, whether 
he ran away or remained ; and people, seeing that,^ laughed 
at the silly minister. 



[M] " You have heard of the searching for treasure ; 
now hear about the eating of salt. 

94. Story of the Fool and the Salt 

There was, once on a time, an impenetrably stupid man 
living in a village.' He was once taken home by a friend 

* The reading of the Sanskrit College MS. is adritdnoparenate [D. 
adritdropanena te\, but probably the reading is ddjild no, panena te : " they were 
not honoured, but on the contrary punished with a fine." 

* I think tad should be tarn. The story is No. 58 in the Avaddnas. 

' The Sanskrit College MS. reads gahvaragrdmavasi, but below sa gahvarah. 
This story is No. 38 in the Avaddruu. 



72 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

who lived in the city, and was regaled on curry and other 
food, made savoury by salt. And that blockhead asked : 
" What makes this food so savoury ? " His friend told him 
that its relish was principally due to salt. He came to the 
conclusion that salt was the proper thing to eat, so he took 
a handful of crushed salt and threw it into his mouth, and 
ate it ; the powdered salt whitened the lips and beard of 
the foolish fellow, and so the people laughed at him till his 
face became white also. 



[M] " You have heard. Prince, the story of the devourer 
of salt ; now hear the story of the man who had a milch-cow. 

95. Story of the Fool and his Milch-Cow ^ 

There was once on a time a certain foolish villager, and 
he had one cow. And that cow gave him every day a 
hundred palas of milk. And once on a time it happened 
that a feast was approaching. So he thought : "I will 
take all the cow's milk at once on the feast-day, and so get 
very much." Accordingly the fool did not milk his cow for 
a whole month. And when the feast came, and he did begin 
to milk it, he found its milk had failed, but to the people 
this was an unfailing source of amusement. 



[M] " You have heard of the fool who had a milch-cow ; 
now hear the story of these other two fools. 

96. St(yry of the Foolish Bald Man and the Fool who pelted 

him 

There was a certain bald man with a head like a copper 
pot. Once on a time a young man, who, being hungry, had 
gathered wood-apples, as he was coming along his path, 
saw him sitting at the foot of a tree. In fun he hit him on 
the head with a wood-apple ; the bald man took it patiently 

^ This story is No. 98 in the Avaddnas, 



THE WOOD-APPLES 73 

and said nothing to him. Then he hit his head with all the 
rest of the wood-apples that he had, throwing them at him 
one after another, and the bald man remained silent, even 
though the blood flowed. So the foolish young fellow had 
to go home hungry without his wood-apples, which he had 
broken to pieces in his useless and childish pastime of pelting 
the bald man ; and the foolish bald man went home with 
his head streaming with blood, saying to himself : ** Why 
should I not submit to being pelted with such delicious 
wood-apples ? " And everybody there laughed when they 
saw him with his head covered with blood, looking like the 
diadem with which he had been crowned king of fools. 



[M] " Thus you see. Prince, that foolish persons become 
the objects of ridicule in the world, and do not succeed in 
their objects ; but wise persons are honoured." 

When Naravahanadatta had heard from Gomukha these 
elegant and amusing anecdotes, he rose up and performed 
his day's duties. And when night came on, the prince was 
anxious to hear some more stories, and at his request 
Gomukha told this story about wise creatures : 

97. Story of the Crow and the King of the Pigeons, the Tortoise 

and the Deer ^ 

There was in a certain forest region a great Salmali tree, 
and in it there lived a crow, named Laghupatin, who had 

^ Benfey shows that this introduction is probably of Buddhistic origin. 
He quotes from Upham's Sacred and Historical Books of Ceylon a story about 
some snipe, which escape in the same way, but owing to disunion are 
afterwards caught again. Cf. also Mahabhdrata, V (ii, 180), verse 2455 et seq. ; 
also Baldo, Fab. x, in Ed^lestand du M^ril, Poesies Inedites, pp. 229, 230 ; 

La Fontaine, xii, 15. (Benfey, vol. i, p. 304 et seq.) Cf. Hertel, op. cit., 

pt. i, p. 135; pt. ii, p. 59 et seq. This frame-story and its three sub-stories 
correspond to Book II of the Pahchatantra. Though considerably abbrevi- 
ated, with the exception of the " Deer's Captivity," no important parts of the 
stories are omitted, as Somadeva excludes only features which are not essential 
to the plot, and which in many cases prove rather tedious such as the verses 
on moralising and proverbial stanzas, etc. n.m.p. 



74 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

made his dwelling there. One day, as he was in his nest, 
he saw below the tree a terrible-looking man arrive with a 
stick, net in hand. And while the crow looked down from 
the tree, he saw that the man spread out the net on the 
ground, and strewed there some rice, and then hid himself. 

In the meanwhile the king of the pigeons, named Chitra- 
griva, as he was roaming through the air, attended by hundreds 
of pigeons, came there, and seeing the grains of rice scattered 
on the ground, he alighted on the net out of desire for food, 
and got caught in the meshes with all his attendants. When 
Chitragriva saw that, he said to all his followers : " Take 
the net in your beaks, and fly up into the air as fast as 
you can." All the terrified pigeons said : " So be it." And 
taking the net, they flew up swiftly and began to travel 
through the air. The fowler too rose up, and with eye fixed 
upwards, returned despondent. 

Then Chitragriva, being relieved from his fear, said to 
his followers : " Let us quickly go to my friend the mouse 
Hiranya ; he will gnaw these meshes asunder and set us at 
liberty." With these words he went on with those pigeons, 
who were dragging the net along with them, and descended 
from the air at the entrance of a mouse's hole. And there 
the king of the pigeons called the mouse, saying : " Hiranya, 
come out ; I, Chitragriva, have arrived." 

And when the mouse heard through the entrance, and 
saw that his friend had come, he came out from that hole 
with a hundred openings. The mouse went up to him, 
and when he had heard what had taken place, proceeded 
with the utmost eagerness to gnaw asunder the meshes that 
kept the pigeon king and his retinue prisoners. And when 
he had gnawed the meshes asunder, Chitragriva took leave 
of him with kind words, and flew up into the air with his 
companions. 

And when the crow, who had followed the pigeons, saw 
that, he came to the entrance of the hole, and said to the 
mouse, who had re-entered it : "I am Laghupatin, a crow ; 
seeing that you tender your friends dearly, I choose you 
for my friend, as you are a creature capable of delivering 
from such calamities." When the mouse saw that crow from 



HIRANYA, THE MOUSE 75 

the inside of his hole, he said : " Depart ! What friendship 
can there be between the eater and his prey ? " Then the 
crow said : " God forbid ! If I were to eat you, my hunger 
might be satisfied for a moment, but if I make you my 
friend my life will be always preserved by you." When the 
crow had said this, and more, and had taken an oath, and 
so inspired confidence in the mouse, the mouse came out, 
and the crow made friends with him. The mouse brought 
out pieces of flesh, and grains of rice, and there they both 
remained eating together in great happiness. 

And one day the crow said to his friend the mouse : 
"At a considerable distance from this place there is a river 
in the middle of a forest, and in it there lives a tortoise 
named Mantharaka, who is a friend of mine; for his sake 
I will go to that place where flesh and other food is easily 
obtained ; it is difficult for me to obtain sustenance here, 
and I am in continual dread of the fowler." When the 
crow said this to him, the mouse answered : " Then we will 
live together ; take me there also, for I too have an annoyance 
here, and when we get there I will explain the whole matter 
to you." 

When Hiranya said this, Laghupatin took him in his 
beak, and flew to the bank of that forest stream. And 
there he found his friend, the tortoise Mantharaka, who 
welcomed him, and he and the mouse sat with him. And 
after they had conversed a little, that crow told the tortoise 
the cause of his coming, together with the circumstances of 
his having made friends with Hiranya. Then the tortoise 
adopted the mouse as his friend on an equal footing with 
the crow, and asked the cause of the annoyance which drove 
him from his native place. Then Hiranya gave this account 
of his experiences in the hearing of the crow and the tortoise : 

97a. The Mouse and the Hermit ^ 

I lived in a great hole near the city, and one night I stole 
a necklace from the palace, and laid it up in my hole. And 

^ See Benfey, op. cU., vol. i, p. 3l6; and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 135 ; 
pt. ii, pp. 70, 71. N.M.p. 



76 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

by looking at that necklace I acquired strength,^ and a 
number of mice attached themselves to me, as being able 
to steal food for them. In the meanwhile a hermit had 
made a cell near my hole, and he lived on a large stock of 
food, which he had obtained by begging. Every evening 
he used to put the food which remained over, after he had 
eaten, in his beggar's porringer on an inaccessible peg, mean- 
ing to eat it next day.* And, every night, when he was asleep, 
I entered by a hole, and jumping up, carried it off. 

Once on a time another hermit, a friend of his, came 
there, and after eating, conversed with him during the night. 
And I was at that time attempting to carry off the food, so 
the first hermit, who was listening, made the pot resound 
frequently by striking it with a piece of split cane. And 
the hermit who was his guest said : " Why do you interrupt 
our conversation to do this ? " Whereupon the hermit to 
whom the cell belonged answered him : "I have got an 
enemy here in the form of this mouse, who is always jumping 
up and carrying off this food of mine, though it is high up. 
I am trying to frighten him by moving the pot of food with 
a piece of cane." When he said this, the other hermit said 
to him : "In truth this covetousness is the bane of creatures. 
Hear a story illustrative of this. 

97aa. The Brahman's Wife and the Sesame-Seeds^ 

Once on a time, as I was wandering from one sacred 
bathing-place to another, I reached a town, and there I 
entered the house of a certain Brahman to stay. And while 
I was there the Brahman said to his wife : " Cook to-day, 
as it is the change of the moon, a dish composed of milk, 
sesame and rice, for the Brahmans." She answered him : 
" How can a pauper like you afford this ? " Then the 
Brahman said to her : " My dear, though we should hoard, 

' For Jala we must rc&d jdta [as in D.]. Cf. for the power given by a 
treasure the eighteenth chapter of this work ; see also Benfey, vol. i, p. 320. 
2 The Sanskrit College MS. has ullambya: "having hung it upon a peg." 
' See Benfey, op. cU., vol. i, p. 318; and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 135; 
pt. ii, pp. 71, 72. N.M.p. 



THE SESAME-SEEDS 77 

we should not direct our thoughts to excessive hoarding. 
Hear this tale. 

97AAA. The Greedy Jackal * 

In a certain forest a hunter, after he had been hunting, 
fixed an arrow in a self-acting bow,^ and after placing flesh 
on it, pursued a wild boar. He pierced the wild boar with 
a dart, but was mortally wounded by his tusks, and died ; 
and a jackal beheld all this from a distance. So he came, 
but though he was hungry he would not eat any of the 
abundant flesh of the hunter and the boar, wishing to hoard 
it up. But he went first to eat what had been placed on the 
bow, and that moment the arrow fixed in it flew up, and 
pierced him so that he died. 

97aa. The Brahman's Wife and the Sesame-Seeds 

" So you must not indulge in excessive hoarding." When 
the Brahman said this, his wife consented, and placed some 
sesame-seeds in the sun. And while she went into the house, 
a dog tasted them and defiled them, so nobody would buy 
that dish of sesame-seeds and rice.' 

97a. The Mouse and the Hermit 

" So, you see, covetousness does not give pleasure ; it 
only causes annoyance to those who cherish it." When the 
hermit, who was a visitor, had said this, he went on to say : 
" If you have a spade, give it me, in order that I may take 
steps to put a stop to this annoyance caused by the mouse." 

Thereupon the hermit to whom the cell belonged gave 
the visitor a spade, and I, who saw it all from my place of 
concealment, entered my hole. Then the cunning hermit, 
who had come to visit the other, discovering the hole by 
which I entered, began to dig. And while I retired further 

^ See Benfey, op. cit., vol, i, pp. 319, 320; and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, 
p. 135 ; pt. i, p. 72 et seq. Cf. also Sagas from the Far East, p. 189. n.m.p. 

2 Perhaps we should read sayake. But the D. text reads shyakah. n.m.p. 

^ The point of the story is lost. See Edgerton, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 341. 

N.M.P. 



78 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

and further in, he went on digging, until at last he reached 
the necklace and the rest of my stores. And he said to the 
hermit who resided there, in my hearing : "It was by the 
power of this necklace that the mouse had such strength." 
So they took away all my wealth and placed the necklace on 
their necks, and then the master of the cell and the visitor 
went to sleep with light hearts. But when they were asleep 
I came again to steal, and the resident hermit woke up and 
hit me with a stick on the head. That wounded me, but, 
as it chanced, did not kill me, and I returned to my hole. 
But after that I had never strength to make the bound 
necessary for stealing the food. For wealth is youth to 
creatures, and the want of it produces old age ; owing to 
the want of it, spirit, might, beauty and enterprise fail. 
So all my retinue of mice, seeing that I had become intent 
on feeding myself only, left me. Servants leave a master who 
does not support them, bees a tree without flowers, swans 
a tank without water, in spite of long association. 

97. Story of the Crow and the King of the Pigeons^ the Tortoise 

and the Deer 

" So I have long been in a state of despondency, but 
now, having obtained this Laghupatin for a friend, I have 
come here to visit you, noble tortoise." 

When Hiranya had said this, the tortoise Mantharaka 
answered : " This is a home to you ; so do not be despondent, 
my friend. To a virtuous man no country is foreign ; a man 
who is content cannot be unhappy ; for the man of endurance 
calamity does not exist ; there is nothing impossible to the 
enterprising." 

While the tortoise was saying this, a deer, named Chit- 
ranga, came to that wood from a great distance, having been 
terrified by the hunters. When they saw him, and observed 
that no hunter was pursuing him, the tortoise and his com- 
panions made friends with him, and he recovered his strength 
and spirits. And those four, the crow, the tortoise, the 
mouse and the deer, long lived there happily as friends, 
engaged in reciprocal courtesies. 



THE HUNTER IS TRICKED 79 

One day Chitranga was behind time, and Laghupatin 
flew to the top of a tree to look for him, and surveyed the 
whole wood. And he saw Chitranga on the bank of the river, 
entangled in the fatal noose, ^ and then he came down and told 
this to the mouse and the tortoise. Then they deliberated 
together, and Laghupatin took up the mouse in his beak, 
and carried him to Chitranga. And the mouse Hiranya com- 
forted the deer, who was distressed at being caught, and in a 
moment set him at liberty by gnawing his bonds asunder.' 

In the meanwhile the tortoise Mantharaka, who was 
devoted to his friends, came up the bank near them, having 
travelled along the bed of the river. At that very moment 
the hunter who had set the noose arrived from somewhere or 
other, and when the deer and others escaped, caught and 
made prize of the tortoise. And he put it in a net, and went 
off, grieved at having lost the deer. In the meanwhile the 
friends saw what had taken place, and by the advice of the 
far-seeing mouse the deer went a considerable distance off, 
and fell down as if he were dead.* And the crow stood upon 
his head, and pretended to peck his eyes. When the hunter 
saw that, he imagined that he had captured the deer, as it 

^ The D. text reads kilapdqa instead of kdlapdsa, which is expressive of the 
kind of trap used, some pin or wedge being employed. See Speyer, op. cit., 

p. 126. N.M.P. 

2 As he does the lion in Babrius, 107. At this point several of the 

Pahchatantra versions insert the "Story of the Deer's Former Captivity." I 
have given it in full in Appendix I, p. 227 et seq. n.m.p. 

' Benfey compares J. Grimm, Reinhart Fuchs, cclxxxiv ; Renart, br. 25 ; 
Grimm, Kinder- und Hausin'drchen, 58 (iii, 100); Keller, Romans des Sept Sages, 
clii ; ditto, Dyocletiantts, Einleitung, p. 48 ; Conde Lucanor, xliii. (Benfey, 
vol. i, p. 332 et seq.) See also La Fontaine's Fables, xii, 15. This is, perhaps, 
the story which General Cunningham found represented on a bas-relief of the 
Bharhut Stupa. (See General Cunningham's Stupa of Bharhul, p. 67.) The 
origin of the story is no doubt the Birth-story of "The Cunning Deer," Rhys 
Davids' translation of the Jdtakas, pp. 221-223. The Kurunga-Miga Jataka 
(No. 206 in Cambridge, vol, ii, p. 106) is a still better parallel. In this the 
tortoise gnaws through the bonds, the crane (salapatto) smites the hunter on 
the mouth as he is leaving his house ; he twice returns to it on account of the 
evil omen ; and when the tortoise is put in a bag, the deer leads the hunter 
far into the forest, returns with the speed of the wind, upsets the bag, and 

tears it open. For analogues of the tale in Grimm, see Bolte, op. cil., 

vol. i, p. 515 et seq. n.m.p. 



80 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

was dead, and he began to make for it, after putting down the 
tortoise on the bank of the river. When the mouse saw him 
making towards the deer, he came up, and gnawed a hole 
in the net which held the tortoise, so the tortoise was set at 
liberty, and he plunged into the river. And when the deer saw 
the hunter coming near, without the tortoise, he got up and 
ran off, and the crow, for his part, flew up a tree. Then the 
hunter came back, and finding that the tortoise had escaped 
by the net's having been gnawed asunder, he returned home, 
lamenting that the tortoise had fled and could not be recovered. 
Then the four friends came together again in high spirits, 
and the gratified deer addressed the three others as follows : 
" I am fortunate in having obtained you for friends, for you 
have to-day delivered me from death at the risk of your lives." 
In such words the deer praised the crow and the tortoise and 
the mouse, and they all lived together delighting in their 
mutual friendship.' 



[M] " Thus, you see, even animals attain their ends by 
wisdom, and they risk their lives sooner than abandon their 
friends in calamity. So full of love is the attachment that 
subsists among friends ; but attachment to women is not 
approved, because it is open to jealousy. Hear a story in 
proof of this. 

98. Story of the Wife who falsely accttsed her Husband of 

murdering a Bhilla ^ 

There lived once on a time in a certain town a jealous 
husband, who had for wife a beautiful woman, whom he loved 
exceedingly. But, being suspicious, he never left her alone, 

^ This brings us to the end of Book II of the Pahchatantra. Book III 
begins on p. 98. The rest of this chapter is devoted to various short stories, 
chiefly of the "noodle" variety. n.m.p. 

2 For parallel stories see Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. S9 et seq., where he 
is treating of a tale in the De Nugis Curialium of Gualterus Mapes. The woman 
behaves like Erippe in a story related by Parthenius (VIII). In the heading 
of the tale we are told that Aristodemus of Nysa tells the same tale with 
different names. 



THE BHILLA LOVER 81 

for he feared that she might be seduced even by men in 
pictures. However, one day he had to go to another country 
on unavoidable business, and he took his wife with him. 
And seeing that a forest inhabited by Bhillas lay in his way, 
he left his wife in the house of an old Brahman villager, 
and proceeded on his journey. But, while she was there, she 
saw some Bhillas, who had come that way, and she eloped 
with a young Bhilla whom she saw. And she went with him 
to his village,^ following her inclinations, having escaped from 
her jealous husband, as a river that has broken a dam. 

In the meanwhile her husband finished his business, and 
returned, and asked the Brahman villager for his wife, and 
the Brahman answered him : " I do not know where she has 
gone ; so much only I know, that some Bhillas came here : 
she must have been carried off by them. And their village 
is near here ; go there quickly, you will find your wife there, 
without doubt." When the Brahman told him this, he wept, 
and blamed his own folly, and went to that village of Bhillas, 
and there he saw his wife. When the wicked woman saw him, 
she approached him in fear, and said : " It is not my fault ; 
the Bhilla brought me here by force." Her husband, bUnd 
with love, said : " Come along, let us return home, before 
anyone discovers us." But she said to him : " Now is the 
time when the Bhilla returns from hunting ; when he returns 
he will certainly pursue you and me, and kill us both. So 
enter this cavern at present, and remain concealed. But at 
night we will kill him when he is asleep, and leave this place 
in perfect safety." 

When the wicked woman said this to him, he entered 
the cave. What room is there for discernment in the heart of 
one blinded with love ? 

The Bhilla returned at the close of the day, and that 
wicked woman showed him her husband in the cave, whom 
his passion had enabled her to decoy there. And the Bhilla, 
who was a strong man, and cruel, dragged out the husband, 
and tied him firmly to a tree, in order that he might next 
day offer him to Bhavani. 

^ The Sanskrit College MS. reads paltim for pathim. This agrees with 

the D. text. n.m.p. 

VOL. V. f 



82 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

And he ate his dinner, and at night lay down to sleep by 
the side of the faithless wife, before the eyes of the husband. 
Then that jealous husband, who was tied to the tree, seeing 
him asleep, implored Bhavani to help him in his need, prais- 
ing her with hymns. She appeared and granted him a boon, 
so that he escaped from his bonds, and cut off the head of the 
Bhilla with his own sword. Then he woke up his wife, and 
said to her, " Come, I have killed this villain," and she rose 
up much grieved. And the faithless woman set out at night 
with her husband, but she secretly took with her the head 
of the Bhilla. And the next morning, when they reached 
a town, she showed the head, and laying hands upon her 
husband, cried out : " This man has killed my husband." 
Then the city police took her with her husband before the 
king. And the jealous husband, being questioned, told the 
whole story. Then the king inquired into it, and finding 
that it was true, he ordered the ears and nose of that faithless 
wife to be cut off,^ and set her husband at liberty. And he 
went home freed from the demon of love for a wicked woman. 



[M] " This, Prince, is how a woman behaves when over- 
jealously watched, for the jealousy of the husband teaches 
the wife to run after other men. So a wise man should 
guard his wife without showing jealousy. And a man must 
by no means reveal a secret to a woman if he desires pros- 
perity. Hear a story showing this. 

99. Story of the Snake who told his Secret to a Woman 

A certain snake,'' out of fear of Garuda,^ fled to earth, and 
taking the form of a man, concealed himself in the house of 

^ See Sir George Grierson's Foreword to Vol. II, p. xi, and p. 88n^ of the 
same volume. n.m.p. 

2 Naga in the original a fabulous serpent with a human face. Cf. 
Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. Q5 : " He flies as a fiery snake into his 
mistress's bower, stamps with his foot on the ground and becomes a youthful 
gallant." 

' See Vol. I, pp. 103-105 and p. 203. n.m.p. 



THE HAIR-RESTORER 88 

a courtesan. And that courtesan used to take as payment 
five hundred elephants,^ and the snake by his power gave her 
five hundred every day. And the lady importuned him to 
tell her how he acquired so many elephants every day, and 
who he was. And he, blinded with love, replied : " I am a 
snake hiding here from fear of Garuda; do not tell anyone." 
But the courtesan privately told all this to the bawd. 

Now Garuda, searching through the world for the snake, 
came there in the form of a man, and he came to the bawd 
and said : " I wish to remain to-day in your daughter's 
house; take my payment." And the bawd said to him: 
*' There is a snake living here, who gives us five hundred 
elephants every day. What do we care about one day's 
pay ? " Then Garuda, finding out that the snake was living 
there, entered as a guest that courtesan's house. And there 
he saw the snake on the flat roof, and revealing himself in 
his real form, he swooped down and killed him, and ate him. 



[M] " So a wise man should not recklessly tell secrets to 
women." Having said this, Gomukhatold him another story 
of a simpleton. 

100. Story of the Bald Man and the Hair-Restorer 

There was a bald man, with a head like a copper pot. 
And he, being a fool, was ashamed because, though a rich 
man in the world, he had no hair on his head. Then a rogue, 
who lived upon others, came to him and said : " There is a 
physician who knows a drug that will produce hair." When 
he heard it, he said : "If you bring him to me, I will give 
wealth to you and to that physician also." When he said 
this, the rogue for a long time devoured his substance, and 
brought to that simpleton a doctor who was a rogue also. 
And after the doctor, too, had long lived at his expense, he 
one day removed his head-dress designedly, and showed him 
liis bald head. In spite of that, the blockhead, without 

* Cf. Arrian's Indika, chap, xvii, McCrindle*s translation. 



84 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

considering, asked him for a drug which would produce hair. 
Then the physician said to him : " Since I am bald myself, 
how can I produce hair in others ? It was in order to explain 
this to you that I showed you my bald head. But out on 
you ! You do not understand even now." With these words 
the physician went away. 



[M] " So you see, Prince, rogues perpetually make sport 
of fools. You have heard the story of the simpleton and his 
hair ; now hear that of the simpleton and the oil. 

101. Story of a Foolish Servant 

A certain gentleman had a simpleton for a servant. His 
master sent him once to fetch oil from a merchant, and he 
received from him the oil in a vessel. And as he was return- 
ing with the vessel in his hand, a friend of his said to him : 
" Take care of this oil- vessel, it leaks at the bottom." When 
the blockhead heard this, he turned the vessel upside down to 
look at the bottom of it, and that made all the oil fall on the 
ground. When his master heard that, he turned out of his 
house that fool, who was the laughing-stock of the place. 



[M] " So it is better for a simpleton to rely upon his own 
sense, and not to take advice. You have heard about the 
simpleton and the oil; now hear the story of the simpleton 
and the bones." 

102. Story of the Faithless Wife who was present at her 
own Srdddha ^ 

There was once a foolish man, and he had an unchaste 
wife. Once on a time, when her husband had gone away for 
some business to another country, she placed in charge of 

^ This story corresponds to No. 43 in the Avadanas. 



THE FALSE SRADDHA 85 

the house a confidential servant of hers, a truly unique 
maid, after giving her instructions as to what she was to do, 
and went away alone to the house of her paramour, intent 
on enjoying herself without being interfered with. When 
the lady's husband returned, the maid, who had been well 
schooled beforehand, said with a voice choked with tears : 
" Your wife is dead and burnt." She then took him to the 
hurning-ghaty and showed him the bones belonging to the 
pyre of some other person ; the fool brought them home 
with tears, and after bathing at the sacred bathing-place, and 
strewing her bones there, he proceeded to perform her ^dddha. 
And he made his wife's paramour the officiating Brahman at 
the ceremony, as the maid brought him, saying that he was 
an excellent Brahman. And every month his wife came with 
that Brahman, splendidly dressed, and ate the sweetmeats. 
And then the maid said to him : " See, master, by virtue of 
her chastity your wife is enabled to return from the other 
world and eat with the Brahmans." And the matchless fool 
believed most implicitly what she said. 



[M] " In this way people of simple dispositions are easily 
imposed upon by wicked women. You have heard about the 
simpleton and the bones ; now hear the story of the Chandala 
maiden. 



103. Story of the Ambitiov^ Chandala Maiden 

There was once a simple but good-looking Chandala ^ 
maiden, and she formed in her heart the determination to 
win for her bridegroom a universal monarch. Once on a 
time she saw the supreme sovereign go out to make a pro- 
gress round his city, and she proceeded to follow him, with 
the intention of making him her husband. At that moment 
a hermit came that way, and the king, though mounted on 
an elephant, bowed at his feet, and returned to his own palace. 
When she saw that, she thought that the hermit was a 
greater man even than the king, and abandoning him, she 



86 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

proceeded to follow the hermit. The hermit, as he was 
going along, beheld in front of him an empty temple of Siva, 
and kneeling on the ground, he worshipped Siva, and then 
departed. Then the Chandala maiden thought that Siva was 
greater even than the hermit, and she left the hermit and 
attached herself to the god, with the intention of marrying 
him. Immediately a dog entered, and going up on to the 
pedestal of the idol, lifted up his leg, and behaved after 
the manner of the dog tribe. Then the Chandala maiden 
thought that the dog was superior even to Siva, and leaving 
the god, followed the departing dog, desiring to marry him. 
And the dog entered the house of a Chandala, and out of 
affection rolled at the feet of a young Chandala whom it knew. 
When she saw that, she concluded that the young Chandala 
was superior to the dog, and satisfied with her own caste, she 
chose him as her husband. 



[M] " So fools, after aspiring high, fall into their proper 
place. And now hear in a few words the tale of the foolish 
king. 

104. Story of the Miserly King 

There was a certain foolish king, who was niggardly, 
though he possessed an abundant treasure. And once on a 
time his ministers, who desired his prosperity, said to him : 
" King, charity here averts misery in the next life. So bestow 
wealth in charity ; life and riches are perishable." When 
the king heard this, he said : " Then I will bestow wealth, 
when I am dead, and see myself reduced to a state of misery 
here." Then the ministers remained silent, laughing in their 
sleeves. 



[M] " So, you see, a fool never takes leave of his wealth 
until his wealth takes leave of him. You have heard. Prince, 
of the fooUsh king; now hear the story of the two friends, 
by way of an episode in these tales of fools. 



THE TWO FRIENDS 87 

105. Story of Dhavalamukha, his Trading Friend and his 

Fighting Friend ^ 

There was a king in Kanyakubja, named Chandrapida. 
And he had a servant named Dhavalamukha. And he, 
whenever he came to his house, had eaten and drunk abroad. 
And one day his wife asked him : " Where do you always 
eat and drink before you come home ? " And Dhavalamukha 
answered her : "I always eat and drink with my friends 
before I come home, for I have two friends in the world. 
The one is called Kalyanavarman, who obliges me with food 
and other gifts, and the other is Virabahu, who would oblige 
me with the gift of his life." When his wife heard this, she 
said to Dhavalamukha : " Then show me your two friends." 

Then he went with her to the house of Kalyanavarman, 
and Kalyanavarman honoured him with a splendid enter- 
tainment. The next day he went with his wife to Virabahu, 
and he was gambling at the time, so he welcomed him and 
dismissed him. Then Dhavalamukha's wife, being full of 
curiosity, said to him : " Kalyanavarman entertained you 
splendidly, but Virabahu only gave you a welcome. So why 
do you think more highly of Virabahu than of the other ? " 
W^hen he heard that, he said : "Go and tell them both in 
succession this fabrication, that the king has suddenly be- 
come displeased with us, and you will find out for yourself." 
She agreed, and went to Kalyanavarman and told him that 
falsehood, and he answered : " Lady, I am a merchant's 
son, what can I do against the king ? " When he gave her 
this answer, she went to Virabahu, and told him also that 

^ This to a certain extent resembles the 1 29th story in the Gesta Roman- 
orum, "Of Real Friendship." Douce says that the story is in Alphonsus 
[see Hulme's English trans., Cleveland, Ohio, 1919]. A story more closely 
resembling that in the Gesta is current in Bengal, with this difference, that a 
goat does duty for the pig of the Gesta. A son tells his father he has three 
friends, the father says that he has only half a friend. Of course, the half 
friend turns out worth all the three put together. The Bengali story was told 
me by Pandit Syama Charan Mukhopadhyaya. See also Liebrecht's Dunlop, 
p. 291, and note 371 ; and Herrtage's English Gesta, p. 127, tale S3 [and 

pp. 469, 470]. See also E. Cosquin, Contes Populaires de Lorraine, vol. ii, 

p. 321, and Chauvin, op. cit., ix, pp. 15, I6. n.m.p. 



88 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the king was angry with her husband ; and the moment he 
heard it, he came running with his shield and his sword. 
But Dhavalamukha induced him to return home, saying that 
the king's ministers had pacified his resentment. And he 
said to his wife : " This, my dear, is the difference between 
those two friends of mine." And she was quite satisfied. 



[M] " So you see that a friend that shows his friendship 
by ceremonious entertainment only, is a different thing from 
a real friend ; though oil and ghee both possess the property 
of oiliness,^ oil is oil, and ghee is ghee." When Gomukha 
had told this story, he continued his tales of fools for the 
benefit of Naravahanadatta. 

106. Story of the Thirsty Fool that did not Drink 

A certain foolish traveller, tormented by thirst, having 
with difficulty got through a wood, reached a river ; however, 
he did not drink of it, but kept looking at the water. Some- 
one said to him : " Why do you not drink water though you 
are thirsty ? " But the blockhead answered : " How could 
I drink so much water as this ? " The other person ridiculed 
him, saying : " What ! will the king punish you if you 
drink it all up ? " But still the foolish man did not drink 
the water. 



[M] " So you see that in this world fools will not even 
do a part of a task to the best of their power if they are not 
able to complete it altogether. Now you have heard about 
the fool and the water, hear the story of the son-slayer. 

107. Story of the Fool who killed his Son 

There was once a foolish man, who was poor and had 
many sons. When one of his sons died, he killed another, 

' A perpetually recurring pun ! The word can either mean " oihness " 
or " affection." 



EVEN THE STONES LAUGHED 89 

saying : " How could this child go such a long journey 
alone ? " So he was banished by the people, as being a fool 
and a criminal. 



[M] " Thus a fool is as void of sense and discernment as 
an animal. You have heard of the son-killer ; now hear the 
story of the fool and his brother. 

108. Story of the Fool and his Brother 

A certain stupid fellow was talking in a crowd of men. 
Seeing a respectable man some way off, he said : " That man 
there is brother to me, so I shall inherit his property, but I 
am no relation to him, so I am not liable for his debts." 
When the fool said this, even the stones laughed at him. 



[M] " Thus fools show folly, and people blinded by the 
thought of their own advantage behave in a very wonderful 
way. So you have heard the story of the fool and his brother ; 
now hear the story of the man whose father followed a strict 
vow of chastity. 

109. Story of the Brahmachdrin's Son 

A certain fool was engaged in. relating his father's good 
qualities in the midst of his friends. And describing his 
father's superior excellence, he said : " My father has followed 
a strict vow of chastity from his youth ; there is no man who 
can be compared with him." When his friends heard that, 
they said : " How did you come into the world ? " He 
answered : " Oh ! I am a mind-born son of his." Where- 
upon the matchless fool was well laughed at by the people.^ 

* Cf. what Sganarelle says in Le Mariage Forc^ : " La raison ? Cest que 
Je ne me sens point propre pour le mariage, et que je veiix imiler mon pere et tons 

ceux de ma race, qui ne se sont jamais voulu marier." See (Euvres de MoUeret 

Paris, 1873-1900, vol. iv, p. 6ln^ n.m.p. 



90 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

[M] " Thus foolish people make self-contradictory state- 
ments with regard to others. You have heard the story of 
the son of the man who observed a strict vow of chastity; 
hear now the story of the astrologer. 



110. Story of the Astrologer who killed his Son 

There was a certain astrologer wanting in discernment. 
He left his own country with his wife and son, because he 
could not earn a subsistence, and went to another country. 
There he made a deceitful display of his skill, in order to gain 
complimentary presents by a factitious reputation for ability. 
He embraced his son before the public and shed tears. When 
the people asked him why he did this, the wicked man said : 
" I know the past, the present and the future, and that en- 
ables me to foresee that this child of mine will die in seven 
days from this time : this is why I am weeping." By these 
words he excited the wonder of the people, and when the 
seventh day arrived, he killed his son in the morning, as he 
lay asleep. When the people saw that his son was dead, 
they felt confidence in his skill, and honoured him with 
presents, and so he acquired wealth and returned leisurely 
to his own country. 



[M] " Thus foolish men, through desire of wealth, go so 
far as to kill their sons, in order to make a false display of 
prescience ; the wise should not make friends with such. 
Now hear the story of the foolish man who was addicted to 
anger. 

111. Story of the Violent Man who justified his Character 

One day a man was relating to his friends, inside a house, 
the good qualities of a man who was listening outside. Then 
a person present said : " It is true, my friend, that he 
possesses many good qualities, but he has two faults : he is 
violent and irascible." While he was saying this, the man 



THE MYSTERIOUS MEDICINE 91 

who was outside, overhearing him, entered hastily, and 
twisted his garment round his throat, and said : " You fool, 
what violence have I done, what anger have I been guilty 
of ? " This he said in an abusive way, inflamed with the fire 
of anger. Then the others who were there laughed, and said 
to him : " Why should he speak ? You have been good 
enough to give us ocular demonstration of your anger and 
your violence." 



[M] " So you see that fools do not know their own faults, 
though they are patent to all men. Now hear about the 
foolish king who made his daughter grow. 

112. Story of the Foolish King who made his Daughter 

grow ^ 

A certain king had a handsome daughter born to him. On 
account of his great affection for her, he wished to make her 
grow, so he quickly summoned physicians, and said politely 
to them : " Make some preparation of salutary drugs, in 
order that my daughter may grow up quickly, and be married 
to a good husband." When the physicians heard this, they 
said, in order to get a living out of the silly king : " There is 
a medicine which will do this, but it can only be procured in 
a distant country, and while we are sending for it, we must 
shut up your daughter in concealment, for this is the treat- 
ment laid down for such cases." When they had said this, 
they placed his daughter in concealment there for many 
years, saying that they were engaged in bringing that medicine. 
And when she grew up to be a young woman, they showed 
her to that king, telling him that she had been made to grow 

^ This story bears a certain resemblance to the European stories of 
grammarians who undertake to educate asses or monkeys. (See Lev^que, 
Les Mythes el Legendes de Flnde et la Perse, p. S20.) La Fontaine's 
Charlatan is perhaps the best known. This story is found in Prym and 
Socin's Syrische Mdrchen, p. 292, where a man undertakes to teach a camel 
to read 



92 TIIK OCKAX OF STORY 

by the nu'ditiiu- ; and lie was ])lease(l, and loaded them with 
heaps of wialtli. 



[M] "III this way rogues, l)y means of imposture, hve on 
foolish soNcrci^ns. Now licar tlie story of a man who sliowed 
his cltN n luss by r('coverin<x lialf a puna.'^ 

11.'}. Storij of the Man who rrcorrrcd half a Pana from 

his Servant ' 

There was onee on a time a man livin<jj in a town, who 
was \ain of his wisdom. And a eertain viUan^er, wlio had 
served iiim for a year, bein^- dissatisfied with his salary, left 
him and went home. x\nd when he had gone, the town-bred 
<:entleman said to his wife : " My dear, I hope you did not 
give him anything before he went ? " She answered : " Half 
a pana.'' Then he spent ten panas in provisions for the 
journey, and overtook that servant on the bank of a river, 
and reeovered from him that half pana. And when he 
related it as a proof of his skill in saving money, he became 
a publie laughing-stoek. 



[Mj " Thus men whose minds are blinded with wealth 
lling away mueh to gain little. Now hear the story of the 
man who took notes of the spot. 



111. St on/ of the Fool ivho took Notes of a certain Spot in 

the Sea ' 

A eertain foolisli person, while travelling by sea, let a 
silver vessel fall from his hand into the water. The fool 

' This story is No. .".I in the Avadntias. 

^ See Felix I,iel)re(ht, (Jrient mid Ocrident, vol. i, p. I. 'J.'), on the Aiadanas 
translated from the Chinese l>y Stanislas Julien, Paris, IS.*}}), where this .story 
is found (.No. (jf>). He compares a story of an Irishman who was hired by a 
Yarmouth maltster to assist in loading his ship. As the vessel was about to 



USELESS COMPENSATION 98 

took notes of the spot, observing the eddies and other signs 
in the water, and said to himself : " I will bring it up from 
the bottom when I return." He reached the other side of 
the sea, and as he was recrossing he saw the eddies and 
other signs, and thinking he recognised the spot, plunged 
into the water again and again to recover his silver vessel. 
When the others asked him what his object was, he told 
them, and got well laughed at and abused for his pains. 



[M] " Now hear the story of the king who wished to 
substitute other flesh for what he had taken away. 

115. Story of the King who replaced the Flesh ^ 

A foolish king saw from his palace two men below. And 
seeing that one of them had taken flesh from the kitchen, 
he had five palas of flesh cut from his body. When the 
flesh had been cut away, the man groaned and fell on the 
earth, and the king, seeing him, was moved with compassion, 
and said to the warder : " His grief cannot be assuaged 
because five palas of flesh were cut from him, so give him 
more than five palas of flesh by way of compensation." 
The warder said : " When a man's head is cut off, does 
he live even if you give him a hundred heads ? " Then 
he went outside and had his laugh out, and comforted the 
man from whom the flesh had been cut, and handed him 
over to the physicians. 

set sail, the Irishman cried out from the quay : " Captain, I lost your shovel 
overboard, but I cut a big notch on the rail-fence, round stern, just where it 
went down, so you will find it when you come back " (vol. ii, p. 544, note). 
Liebrecht thinks he has read something similar in the "'Acrreia " of Hierokles. 
See also Bartsch, Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebr'duche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 349. 

Tawney wrote a note on this subject to the Ind. Ant.,\o\. ix, 1880, pp. 51,52. 

Sir George Grierson tells me the story about the Irishman is well known in 
Kashmir, where the term navi-rakh, " the mark on the ship," is used to mean 
" stupidity." n.m.p. 

^ See Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 119, 120 ; also Benfey, op, cit., vol. i, 
p. 891 Nachtrage, ii, 543. This is No. 103 in the Avadanas. 



94 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

[M] " So you see, a silly king knows how to punish, but 
not how to show favour. Hear this story of the silly woman 
who wanted another son. 

116. Story of the Woman who wanted another Son * 

One day a woman with only one son, desiring another, 
applied to a wicked female ascetic belonging to an heretical 
sect. The ascetic told her that, if she killed her young son, 
and offered him to the divinity, another son would certainly 
be bom to her. When she was preparing to carry out this 
advice, another and a good old woman said to her in private : 
" Wicked woman, you are going to kill the son you have 
already, and wish to get another. Supposing a second is not 
born to you, what will you do ? " So the good old woman 
dissuaded her from crime. 



[M] " So women who associate with witches fall into 
evil courses, but they are restrained and saved by the advice 
of the old. Now, Prince, hear the story of the man who 
brought the dmalaka fruit. 

117. Story of the Servant who tasted the Fruit * 

A certain householder had a stupid servant. As the 
householder was fond of dmalakas, he said to his servant : 
" Go, and bring me some perfectly sweet dmalakas from the 
garden." The foolish fellow bit every one, to taste if it was 
sweet, and then brought them, and said : " Look, master, 
I tasted these and found them sweet, before bringing them." 
And his master, seeing that they were half eaten, sent them 
away in disgust and his stupid servant too. 



[M] " Thus a foolish person ruins his master's interests 
and then his own ; and here by way of episode hear the story 
of the two brothers. 

^ This is No. 49 in the Avaddnas. 

2 This is No. 37 in the Avaddnas. See Chauvin, op. cit., vii, p. 1 1 5. n.m.p. 



THE TWO BROTHERS 95 

118. Story of the Two Brothers Yajnasoma and Klrtisoma 

There were two Brahmans, brothers, in the city of PataU- 
putra ; the elder was called Yajnasoma and the younger 
Kirtisoma. And those two young Brahmans had much 
wealth derived from their father. Kirtisoma increased 
his share by business, but Yajnasoma exhausted his by 
enjoying and giving. Then, being reduced to poverty, he 
said to his wife : " My dear, how can I, who am reduced 
from riches to poverty, live among my relations ? Let us 
go to some foreign country." She said : " How can we go 
without money for the journey ? " Still her husband in- 
sisted, so she said to him : "If you really must go, then 
first go and ask your younger brother Kirtisoma for some 
money for the journey." 

So he went and asked his younger brother for his 
travelling expenses, but his younger brother's wife said to 
him : " How can we give even the smallest sum to this 
man who has wasted his substance ? For every one who 
falls into poverty will sponge on us." When Kirtisoma 
heard this, he no longer felt inclined to give anything to 
his elder brother, though he loved him. Subjection to bad 
women is pernicious ! 

Then Yajnasoma went away silent, and told that to his 
wife, and set out with her, relying upon the help of Heaven 
only. When they reached the wood, it happened that, as he 
was going along, he was swallowed by a monstrous serpent. 
And when his wife saw it, she fell on the ground and lamented. 
And the serpent said with a human voice to the lady : " Why 
do you lament, my good woman ? " The Brahman lady 
answered the snake : " How can I help lamenting, mighty 
sir, when you have deprived me in this remote spot of my 
only means of obtaining alms ? " When the serpent heard 
that, he brought out of his mouth a great vessel of gold 
and gave it her, saying : " Take this as a vessel in which 
to receive alms." ^ The good Brahman lady said : " Who 

^ In the original the husband is called a "vessel of alms" i.e. "receiver 
of alms " but the pun cannot be retained in the translation without producing 
obscurity. 



96 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

will give me alms in this vessel, for I am a woman ? " 
The serpent said : "If anyone refuses to give you alms in 
it, his head shall that moment burst into a hundred pieces. 
What I say is true." When the virtuous Brahman lady 
heard that, she said to the serpent : "If this is so, then give 
me my husband in it by way of alms." 

The moment the good lady said this, the serpent brought 
her husband out of his mouth alive and unharmed. As 
soon as the serpent had done this, he became a man of 
heavenly appearance, and being pleased, he said to the 
joyful couple : "I am a king of the Vidyadharas, named 
Kanchanavega, and by the curse of Gautama I was reduced 
to the condition of a serpent. And it was appointed that 
my curse should end when I conversed with a good woman." 
When that king of the Vidyadharas had said this, he im- 
mediately filled the vessel with jewels, and delighted flew up 
into the sky. And the couple returned home with abund- 
ance of jewels. And there Yajnasoma lived in happiness, 
having obtained inexhaustible wealth. 



[M] " Providence gives to every one in accordance with 
his or her character. Hear the story of the foolish man 
who asked for the barber. 



119. Story of the Fool who wanted a Barber 

A certain inhabitant of Karnata pleased his king by his 
daring behaviour in battle. His sovereign was pleased, 
and promised to give him whatever he asked for, but the 
spiritless warrior chose the king's barber. 



[M] " Every man chooses what is good or bad according 
to the measure of his own intellect : now hear the story of 
the foolish man who asked for nothing at all. 



NOTHING AT ALL 97 

120. Story of the Man who asked for Nothing at all 

A certain foolish man, as he was going along the road, 
was asked by a carter to do something to make his cart 
balance evenly. He said : " If I make it right, what will you 
give me ? " The carter answered : "I will give you nothing 
at all." Then the fool put the cart even, and said : " Give 
me the nothing-at-all you promised." But the carter laughed 
at him.^ 



[M] " So you see, King, fools are for ever becoming the 
object of the scorn and contempt and reproach of men, and 
fall into misfortune, while the good on the other hand are 
thought worthy of honour." 

When the prince, surrounded by his ministers, had 
heard at night these amusing stories from Gomukha, he 
was enabled to enjoy sleep, which refreshes the whole of the 
three worlds. 

^ This story is found in the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. v, pp. 210-212), 
but with an amusing sequel. A merchant of Bassorah bargains with a 
Persian about the price he wants for his stock-in-trade. The haggling con- 
tinues, and finally the Persian exclaims : " I will give nothing more than 
'Anaught.'" The bargain is closed. All is paid except the "Anaught." 
On the merchant's demanding it the Persian laughs, but the Bassorite fails 
to see the joke and refers the matter to the Sultan. The Sultan, however, 
cannot decide and offers a reward to anyone who can. One, Abu Kasim, says 
he will settle the matter. He accordingly fills a basin with water and bids 
the claimant dip his clenched hand into it. He then tells him to withdraw 
it and open his hand and asks what he found in the basin. " Anaught," 
answers the claimant. " Take thine * Anaught,' then, and wend thy ways," 
says the other. The Bassorite can do nothing but comply. n.m.p. 



VOL. V. 



CHAPTER LXII 

THE next morning Naravahanadatta got up, and 
[M] went into the presence of the King of Vatsa, 
his loving father. There he found Simhavarman, 
the brother of the Queen Padmavati and the son of the 
King of Magadha, who had come there from his own house. 
The day passed in expressions of welcome and friendly 
conversation, and after Naravahanadatta had had dinner 
he returned home. There the wise Gomukha told this 
story at night, in order to console him who was longing for 
the society of Saktiyaias : 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls ^ 

There was in a certain place a great and shady banyan- 
tree, which seemed, with the voices of its birds, to summon 
travellers to repose. There a king of the crows, named 
Meghavarna, had established his home, and he had an enemy 
named Avamarda, king of the owls. The king of the owls 
surprised the king of the crows there at night, and after 
inflicting a defeat on him, and killing many crows, departed. 
The next morning the king of the crows, after the usual 
compliments, said to his ministers, Uddivin, Adivin, Sandlvin, 

* From this point to page 113 the stories correspond to Book III of the 
PaHchatantra. See Benfey's edition, vol. ii, p. 213 et seq. He points out that 
in the Mahabharata Drona's son, one of the few Kauravas that had survived 
the battle, was lying under a sacred fig-tree, on which crows were sleeping. 
Then he sees one owl come and kill many of the crows. This suggests to 
him the idea of attacking the camp of the Pan^avas. In the Arabic text the 
hostile birds are ravens and owls. So in the Greek and Hebrew translation. 
John of Capua has sltimi, misunderstanding the Hebrew. (Benfey, vol. i, p. 334 
et seq.) Rhys Davids states in his Buddhist Birth Stories (p. 292, note) that 
the story of the lasting feud between the crows and the owls is told at length 

in UlOka Jaiaka, No. 270 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 242, 243). See also 

Hertel, op. cii., pt. i, p. 136 ; pt. ii, p. 101 et seq. n.m.p. 

98 



POLICY THE FOUNDATION OF EMPIRES 99 

Pradivin,^ and Chirajivin : " That powerful enemy, who 
has thus defeated us, may get together a hundred thousand 
soldiers, and make another descent on us. So let some 
preventive measure be devised for this case." 

When Uddivin heard this, he said : " King, with a 
powerful enemy one must either retire to another country 
or adopt conciliation." When Adivin heard this, he said : 
*' The danger is not immediate ; let us consider the intentions 
of the adversary and our own power, and do the best we can." 
Then Sandivin said : " King, death is preferable to sub- 
mission to the foe, or retiring to another country. We must 
go and fight with that feeble enemy ^ ; a brave and enter- 
prising king, who possesses allies, conquers his foes." Then 
Pradivin said : " He is too powerful to be conquered in 
battle, but we must make a truce with him, and kill him 
when we get an opportunity." Then Chirajivin said : " What 
truce ? Who will be ambassador ? There is war between 
the crows and the owls from time immemorial ; who will go 
to them ? This must be accomplished by policy. Policy is 
said to be the very foundation of empires." 

When the king of the crows heard that, he said to Chira- 
jivin : " You are old ; tell me if you know, what was origin- 
ally the cause of the war between the crows and the owls ? 
You shall state your policy afterwards." When Chirajivin 
heard this, he answered : " It is all due to an inconsiderate 
utterance. Have you never heard the story of the donkey ? 



121a. The Ass in the Panther's Skin* 

A certain washerman had a thin donkey ; so, in order to 
make it fat, he used to cover it with the skin of a panther and 

1 For Pradivin the Petersburg lexicographers would read Prajivin, as in 
the PaHchatantra. 

* More probably : " We must fight with that enemy who acted blamefully 
towards us," reading avadi/a as "blameful." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 127. 

N.M.P. 

' See Benfey, op. cit., vol, i, p. 346 et seq., and p. 462 ei seq. Cf. Hertel, 
op. cit., pt. i, pp. 136, 137; pt. ii, p. 109; and see Sihacamma Jataka, 
No. 189 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 76, 77), and note. n.m.p. 



100 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

let it loose to feed in his neighbour's corn. While it was 
eating the corn, people were afraid to drive it away, thinking 
that it was a panther. One day a cultivator, who had a 
bow in his hand, saw it. He thought it was a panther, and 
through fear bending down, and making himself humpbacked, 
he proceeded to creep away, with his body covered with a 
rug. When the donkey saw him going away in this style, 
he thought he was another donkey, and being primed with 
corn, he uttered aloud his own asinine bray. Then the 
cultivator came to the conclusion that it was a donkey, and 
returning, killed with an arrow the foolish animal, which had 
made an enemy with its own voice. 



121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" In the same way our feud with the owls is due to an 
inconsiderate utterance. 



121b. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds from choosing the 

Owl King ^ 

For once upon a time the birds were without a king. They 
all assembled together, and bringing an umbrella and a 
chowrie, were proceeding to anoint the owl king of the birds. 
In the meanwhile a crow, flying in the air above, saw it, 
and said : " You fools, are there not other birds, cuckoos 
and so on, that you must make this cruel-eyed, unpleasant- 
looking, wicked bird king ? Out on the inauspicious owl I 
You must elect an heroic king whose name will ensure 
prosperity. Listen now, I will tell you a tale. 

^ See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 347, 348 ; Liebrecht, Zur Volkshinde, 
p. 110; Veckenstedt's Wendische Sagen, p. 424; De Gubernatis, Zoological 
Mythology, vol, ii, p. 206. See also p. 246 for an apologue in which the owl 
prevents the crow being made king. See also Rhys Davids' Biiddhist Birth 
Stories, p. 292, and Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. iii, pp. 196, 197. In the 
Kosiya Jataka, No. 226 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 146, 147), an army 

of crows attacks an owl. Cf. Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 137; pt. ii, p. 110. 

For numerous parallels of the tale of " Der Zaunkonig " in Grimm see Bolte,^ 
op. cit., vol. iii, p. 278 et seq. n.m.p. 



THE AMBASSADOR OF THE MOON 101 

121BB. The Elephants and the Hares ^ 

There is a great lake abounding in water, called Chandra- 
saras, and on its bank there lived a king of the hares, 
named Silimukha. Now, once on a time, a leader of a herd 
of elephants, named Chaturdanta, came there to drink water, 
because all the other reservoirs of water were dried up in the 
drought that prevailed. Then many of the hares, who were 
the subjects of that king, were trampled to death by Chatur- 
danta's herd, while entering the lake. When that monarch 
of the herd had departed, the hare-king Silimukha, being 
grieved, said to a hare named Vijaya in the presence of the 
others : " Now that that lord of elephants has tasted the 
water of this lake, he will come here again and again, and 
utterly destroy us all, so think of some expedient in this case. 
Go to him, and see if you have any artifice which will suit 
the purpose or not. For you know business and expedients, 
and are an ingenious orator. And in all cases in which you 
have been engaged the result has been fortunate." 

When dispatched with these words, the hare was pleased, 
and went slowly on his way. And following up the track of 
the herd, he overtook that elephant-king and saw him, and 
being determined somehow or other to have an interview 
with the mighty beast, the wise hare climbed up to the top of 
a rock, and said to the elephant : "I am the ambassador of 
the moon, and this is what the god says to you by my mouth : 
' I dwell in a cool lake named Chandrasaras ; there dwell 
hares whose king I am, and I love them well, and thence I 
am known to men as the cool-rayed and the hare-marked ^ ; 

1 See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 348, 349 ; and De Gubernatis, Zoological 

Mythology, vol. ii, p. 76. See also Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 137; pt. ii, 

p. WO et seq. ; Clouston, Flowers from a Persian Garden, pp. 240, 241, and 278, 
279; Chauvin, op. cit., ix, p. 31 ; Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 50; and Nalapana 
Jdtaka, No. 20 (Cambridge edition, vol, i, p. 56). Most of the Panchatantra 
versions explain first how the chief of the elephants sent " swift runners " in 
all directions to look for water and how one came to Chandrasaras {i.e. Moon 
lake). See F. Edgerton, Panchatantra Reconstructed, 1924, vol. i, p. 292. n.m.p. 

* Common epithets of the moon. The Hindus find a hare in the moon 

where we find a "man, his dog, and his bush." See Vol. I, p. 109, 109^; 

Sasa Jdtaka (Cambridge edition, vol. iii, p. 34 et seq.) ; and T. Harley, 
Moon-Lore, London, 1885, p. 60. n.m.p. 



102 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

now thou hast defiled that lake and slain those hares of 
mine. If thou doest that again, thou shalt receive thy due 
recompense from me.' " 

When the king of the elephants heard this speech of the 
crafty hare's, he said in his terror : "I will never do so again : 
I must show respect to the awful moon-god." The hare said : 
" So come, my friend, I pray, and we will show him to you." 
After saying this, the hare led the king of elephants to the 
lake, and showed him the reflection of the moon in the water. 
When the lord of the herd saw that, he bowed before it timidly 
at a distance, oppressed with awe, and never came there 
again. And Silimukha, the king of the hares, was present, and 
witnessed the whole transaction, and after honouring that 
hare, who went as an ambassador, he lived there in security.^ 

121b. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds from choosing the 

Owl King 

When the crow had told this story, he went on to say to 
the birds : " This is the right sort of king, whose name alone 
ensures none of his subjects being injured. So why does this 
base owl, who cannot see in the day, deserve a throne ? And 
a base creature is never to be trusted. Hear this tale in proof 
of it. 

121BBB. The Bird, the Hare, and the Cat ^ 

Once on a time I lived in a certain tree, and below me in 
the same tree a bird, named Kapinjala, had made a nest and 

* This last sentence seems to be an addition of Somadeva's. See 
Edgerton, op. cit., vol. i, p. 301. n.m.p. 

^ See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 350-354. For the hypocritical cat com- 
pare Phaedrus, lib. ii, Fabula iv (recognovit Lucianus Mueller), " Aquila, Feles 
et Aper " ; La Fontaine, vii, l6. See also Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 121. 
The cat's tactics are much the same as those of the fox in " Reineke Fuchs" 
(Simrock, Die DciUschen P'olksbucher, vol. i, p. 138). See also De Gubernatis, 
Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, p. 54. This story is No. 125 in the Avadanas. 
From De Gubernatis, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 227-228, it appears that kapinjala 
means a heath-cock or a cuckoo. Here the word appears to be used as a 
proper name. There is a very hypocritical cat in Prym and Socin, Syrische 

Mdrchen, p. Ix. See especially p. 242 and cf. p. 319. See also Hertel, op. cit., 

pt. i, p. 137; pt. ii, pp. 114, 115, and Bloomfield, "False Ascetics and Nuns 
in Hindu Fiction," Joum. Amer. Oiient. Soc., vol. xliv, 1924, pp. 232-236. n.m.p. 



THE HYPOCRITICAL CAT 108 

lived. One day he went away somewhere, and he did not 
return for many days. In the meanwhile a hare came and 
took possession of his nest. After some days Kapinjala re- 
turned, and an altercation arose between him and the hare, 
as both laid claim to the nest, exclaiming : " It is mine, not 
yours." Then they both set out in search of a qualified 
arbitrator. And I, out of curiosity, followed them un- 
observed, to see what would turn up. After they had gone 
a little way they saw on the bank of a lake a cat, who pre- 
tended to have taken a vow of abstinence from injury to all 
creatures, with his eyes half closed in meditation. They 
said to one another : " Why should we not ask this holy cat 
here to declare what is just ? " Then they approached the 
cat and said : " Reverend sir, hear our cause, for you are a 
holy ascetic." When the cat heard that, he said to them in 
a low voice : "I am weak from self-mortification, so I cannot 
hear at a distance, pray come near me. For a case wrongly 
decided brings temporal and eternal death." With these 
words the cat encouraged them to come just in front of him, 
and then the base creature killed at one spring both the hare 
and Kapinjala. 



121b. How the Crow dissuaded the Birds from choosing the 

Owl King 

" So you see, one cannot confide in villains whose actions 
are base. Accordingly you must not make this owl king, for 
he is a great villain." 

When the crow said this to the birds, they admitted the 
force of it, and gave up the idea of anointing the owl king, 
and dispersed in all directions. And the owl said to the crow : 
" Remember, from this day forth you and I are enemies. 
Now I take my leave of you." And he went away in a 
rage. But the crow, though he thought that he had spoken 
what was right, was for a moment despondent. Who is not 
grieved when he has involved himself in a dangerous quarrel 
by a mere speech ? 



1U4 itiij UL^iiiATS ur aiUKY 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

** So you see that our feud with the owls arose from an 
inconsiderate utterance." 

Having said this to the king, Chirajlvin continued : " The 
owls are numerous and strong, and you cannot conquer them. 
Nmnbers prevail in this world. Hear an instance. 

121c. The Brahman^ the Goat and the Rogues ^ 

A Brahman had bought a goat, and was returning from 
a village with it on his shoulder, when he was seen on the 
way by many rogues, who wished to deprive him of the goat. 
And one of them came up to him, and pretending to be in a 
great state of excitement, said : " Brahman, how come you 
to have this dog on your shoulder ? Put it down." When 
the Brahman heard that, he paid no attention to it, but went 
on his way. Then two more came up and said the very same 
thing to him. Then he began to doubt, and went along 
examining the goat carefully, when three other rascals came 
up to him and said : " How comes it that you carry a dog 
and a sacrificial thread at the same time ? Surely you must 
be a hunter, not a Brahman, and this is the dog with the help 
of which you kill game." When the Brahman heard that, 
he said : " Surely some demon has smitten my sight and 
bewildered me. Can all these men be under the influence of 
an optical delusion ? " Thereupon the Brahman flung down 
the goat, and after bathing, returned home, and the rogues 
took the goat and made a satisfactory meal off it. 



121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

After Chirajivin had told this tale, he said to the king of 
the crows : " So you see. King, numerous and powerful foes 

1 See Benfey, op. cU., vol. i, pp. 355-357 [and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 137 ; 
pt. ii, p. 118]. See also "Till Eulenspiegel," chap. Ixvi, in Simrock's Die 
Deutschen Volksb'ticher, vol. x, p. 452. In the twentieth tale of the English Gesta 
Romanorum (ed. Herrtage) three " lechis" persuade Averoys that he is a " lepre"; 
and he becomes one from "drede," but is cured by a bath of goat's blood. The 



xxiJii i3 X xvi^ X rii^j I luo 



are hard to conquer. So you had better adopt, in this war 
with powerful foes, the following expedient, which I suggest. 
Pluck out some of my feathers,^ and leave me under this tree, 
and go to that hill there, until I return, having accomplished 
my object." The King of the crows agreed, and plucked out 
some of his feathers, as if in anger, and placed him under the 
tree, and went off to the mountain with his followers ; and 
Chirajivin remained lying flat under the tree which was his 
home. 

Then the king of the owls, Avamarda, came there at night 
with his followers, and he did not see a single crow on the 
tree. At that moment Chirajivin uttered a feeble caw below, 
and the king of the owls, hearing it, came down and saw him 
lying there. In his astonishment he asked him who he was, 
and why he was in that state. And Chirajivin answered, 
pretending that his voice was weak from pain : "I am 
Chirajivin, the minister of that king of the crows. And he 
wished to make an attack on you in accordance with the 
advice of his ministers. Then I rebuked those other ministers, 
and said to him : ' If you ask me for advice, and if I am 
valued by you, in that case you will not make war with the 
powerful king of the owls. But you will endeavour to pro- 
pitiate him, if you have any regard for policy.' When the 
foolish king of the crows heard that, he exclaimed : ' This 
fellow is a partisan of my enemies,' and in his wrath he and 
his followers pecked me, and reduced me to this state. And 
he flung me down under the tree, and went off somewhere or 
other with his followers." 

When Chirajivin had said this, he sighed, and turned his 
face to the ground. And then the king of the owls asked 
his ministers what they ought to do with Chirajivin. When 
his minister Diptanayana heard this, he said ^ : " Good people 

sixty-ninth tale in Coelho's Contos Populares Porlugtiezes, " Os Dois Mentirosos," 
bears a strong resemblance to this. One brother confirms the other's lies. 

^ Benfey (vol. i, pp. 338, 339) compares this with the story of Zopyrus. 
He thinks that the Indians learned the story from the Greeks, See also 

Avaddnas, No. 5, vol. i, p. 31. In most versions he is to be reviled and 

smeared with blood. See Edgerton, op. cit., vol. i, p. 318. n.m.p. 

^ Somadeva makes the five ministers tell their stories in a different 
order than that found in the majority of the Pahchatantra texts. See Edgerton, 



spare even a thief, though ordinarily he ought not to be 
spared, if they find that he is a benefactor. 



121d. The Old Merchant and his Young Wife ^ 

For once on a time there was a certain merchant in a 
certain town, who, though old, managed to marry by the 
help of his wealth a young girl of the merchant caste. And 
she was always averse to him on account of his old age, as 
the bee turns away from the forest tree when the time of 
flowers is past.^ And one night a thief got into his house, 
while the husband and wife were in bed ; and, when the wife 
saw him, she was afraid, and turned round and embraced 
her husband. The merchant thought that a wonderful piece 
of good fortune, and while looking in all directions for the 
explanation, he saw the thief in a corner. The merchant 
said : " You have done me a benefit, so I will not have you 
killed by my servants." And so he spared his life and sent 
him away. 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" So we ought to spare the life of this Chirajivin, as he is 
our benefactor." When the minister Diptanayana had said 
this, he remained silent. Then the king of the owls said to 
another minister, named Vakranasa : " What ought we to 
do ? Give me proper advice." Then Vakranasa said : " He 
should be spared, for he knows the secrets of our foes. This 
quarrel between the enemies' king and his minister is for our 
advantage. Listen, and I will tell you a story which will 
illustrate it. 

op. cit., vol. i, p. 322 et seq. The meanings of the ministers' names are 
given as follows : Diptanayana, " Flame-eye " ; Vakranasa, " Crooked-nose " ; 
Prakarakarna, "Wall-ear"; Kruralochana, "Cruel-eye"; and Raktaksha, 
" Red-eye." n.m.p. 

' See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 366; and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 141 ; 
pt. ii, pp. 15.5, 156; and cf. La Fontaine, ix, 15. n.m.p. 

' Dr Kern suggests vyalita-pushpa-kdlalvad [D. . . . kale 'tra\. The 
Sanskrit College MS. has the reading of Dr Brockhaus' text. 



12lE. The Brahman, the Thief and the Rdkshasa ^ 

A certain excellent Brahman received two cows as a 
donation. A thief happened to see them, and began plotting 
how to carry them off. At that very time a Rakshasa was 
longing to eat that Brahman. It happened that the thief 
and the Rakshasa, as they were going to his house at night 
to accomplish their objects, met, and telling one another 
their errands, went together. When the thief and the 
Rakshasa entered the Brahman's dwelling, they began to 
wrangle. The thief said : "I will carry off the oxen first, 
for if you lay hold of the Brahman first, and he wakes up, 
how can I get the yoke of oxen ? " The Rakshasa said : 
" By no means ! I will first carry off the Brahman, other- 
wise he will wake up with the noise of the feet of the oxen, 
and my labour will all be in vain." 

While this was going on, the Brahman woke up. Then 
he took his sword, and began to recite a charm for destroying 
Rakshasas, and the thief and the Rakshasa both fled. 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" So the quarrel between those two, Chirajivin and the 
king of the crows, will be to our advantage, as the quarrel 
between the thief and the Rakshasa was to the advantage of 
the Brahman." 

When Vakranasa said this, the king of the owls asked his 
minister Prakarakarna for his opinion, and he answered him : 
" This Chirajivin should be treated with compassion, as he 
is in distress, and has applied to us for protection : in old 
time Sivi offered his flesh for the sake of one who sought 
his protection." ^ 

When the king of the owls heard this from Prakarakarna, 
he asked the advice of his minister Kruralochana, and he gave 
him the same answer. 

^ See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 368; and Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 137; 
pt. ii, pp. 121, 122. N.M.P. 

* See Chapter V^II of this work. Vol. I, p. 84. Hertel's sub-recension ft 
of the Taiitrakhyayika gives the story in full at this point. n.m.p. 



108 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Then the king of the owls asked a minister named 
Raktaksha, and he, being a discreet minister, said to him : 
** King, these ministers have done their best to ruin you 
by impolitic advice. Those who know policy place no con- 
fidence in the acts of an hereditary enemy. ^ It is only a fool 
that, though he sees the fault, is satisfied with insincere 
flattery. 

12lF. The Carpenter and his Wife* 

For once on a time there was a carpenter, who had a wife 
whom he loved dearly ; and the carpenter heard from his 
neighbours that she was in love with another man ; so, wish- 
ing to test the fidelity of his wife, he said to her one day : 
" My dear, I am, by command of the king, going a long 
journey to-day, in order to do a job, so give me barley-meal 
and other things as provision for the journey." She obeyed 
and gave him provisions, and he went out of the house ; and 
then secretly came back into it, and with a pupil of his, hid 
himself under the bed. As for the wife, she summoned her 
paramour. And while she was sitting with him on the bed, 
the wicked woman happened to touch her husband with her 
foot, and found out that he was there. And a moment after, 
her paramour, being puzzled, asked her which she loved the 
best, himself or her husband. When she heard this, the 
artful and treacherous woman said to that lover of hers : 
" I love my husband best ; for his sake I would surrender 
my life. As for this unfaithfulness of mine, it is natural 
to women ; they would even eat dirt, if they had no 
noses." 

When the carpenter heard this hypocritical speech of the 
adulteress, he came out from under the bed, and said to his 
pupil : " You have seen, you are my witness to this ; though 
my wife has betaken herself to this lover, she is still devoted 
to me ; so I will carry her on my head." When the silly 
fellow had said this, he immediately took them both up, as 

* Kfitdvadyasya is obviously a misprint for kfitdvadyasya, where dvadya 
means " blameful." n.m.p. 

* See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 370 et seq. ; and Hertel, op. cif., pt. i, 
p. 1S8; pt. ii, p. 124. v.m.p. 



FLATTERY DECEIVES THE UNWARY 109 

they sat on the bed, upon his head, with the help of his pupil, 
and carried them about. 



121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" So an undiscerning blockhead, though he sees a crime 
committed before his eyes, is satisfied with hypocritical 
flattery, and makes himself ridiculous. So you must not 
spare Chirajivin, who is a follower of your enemy, for, if not 
carefully watched, he might slay your Majesty in a moment, 
like a disease." 

When the king of the owls heard Raktaksha say this, he 
answered : "It was in trying to benefit us that the worthy 
creature was reduced to this state. So how can we do other- 
wise than spare his life ? Besides, what harm can he do us 
unaided ? " ^ So the king of the owls rejected the advice 
of Raktaksha, and comforted that crow Chirajivin. Then 
Chirajivin said to the king of the owls : " What is the use to 
me of life now that I am in this state ? So have logs of wood 
brought me, in order that I may enter the fire. And I will 
ask the fire, as a boon, that I may be born again as an owl, 
in order that I may wreak my vengeance upon this king of 
the crows." 

When he said this, Raktaksha laughed and said to him : 
" By the favour of our master you will be well enough off : 
what need is there of fire ? Moreover, you will never become 
an owl, as long as you have the nature of a crow. Every 
creature is such as he is made by the Creator. 

1216. The Mouse that was turned into a Maiden* 

For once on a time a hermit found a young mouse, which 
had escaped from the claws of a kite, and pitying it, made 
it by the might of his asceticism into a young maiden. And 

^ This is one of the rare cases where Somadeva has expanded the speech. 
See Edgerton, op. cit., vol. i, p. 338. n.m.p. 

2 See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 373 [Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, pp. 138, 189; 
pt. ii, pp. 125, 126]; and also De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, 
p. 65. This bears a strong resemblance to "A Formiga e a Neve," No. 2 in 
Coelho's Contos Populares Portugueses. 



110 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

he brought her up in his hermitage ; and, when he saw that 
she had g^o^vn up, wishing to give her to a powerful husband, 
he summoned the sun. And he said to the sun : " Marry 
this maiden, whom I wish to give in marriage to some mighty 
one." Then the sun answered : " The cloud is more powerful 
than I; he obscures me in a moment." When the hermit 
heard that, he dismissed the sun, and summoned the cloud, 
and made the same proposal to him. He replied : " The 
wind is more powerful than I ; he drives me into any quarter 
of the heaven he pleases." When the hermit got this answer, 
he summoned the wind, and made the same proposal to him. 
And the wind replied : " The mountains are stronger than 
I, for I cannot move them." When the great hermit heard 
this, he summoned the Himalaya, and made the same pro- 
posal to him. That mountain answered him : " The mice 
are stronger than I am, for they dig holes in me." 

Having thus got these answers in succession from those 
wise divinities, the great Rishi summoned a forest mouse, 
and said to him : " Marry this maiden." Thereupon the 
mouse said : " Show me how she is to be got into my hole." 
Then the hermit said : " It is better that she should return 
to her condition as a mouse." So he made her a mouse again, 
and gave her to that male mouse. 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" So a creature returns to what it was, at the end of a 
long peregrination ; accordingly you, Chirajivin, will never 
become an owl." 

When Raktaksha said this to Chirajivin, the latter re- 
flected : " This king has not acted on the advice of this 
minister, who is skilled in policy. All these others are 
fools, so my object is gained." While he was thus reflect- 
ing, the king of the owls took Chirajivin with him to his 
own fortress, confiding in his own strength, disregarding 
the advice of Raktaksha. And Chirajivin, being about his 
person, and fed with pieces of meat and other delicacies by 
him, soon acquired as splendid a plumage as a peacock.^ 

* This reminds one of Babrius, Fabula Ixxii. 



THE OWLS ARE BURNT 111 

One day Chirajivin said to the king of the owls : " King, 
I will go and encourage that king of the crows and bring him 
back to his dwelling, in order that you may attack him this 
night and slay him, and that I may make ^ some return for 
this favour of yours. But do you all fortify your door with 
grass and other things, and remain in the cave where your 
nests are, that they may not attack you by day." 

When, by saying this, Chirajivin had made the owls 
retire into their cave, and barricade the door and the 
approaches to the cave with grass and leaves, he went back 
to his own king. And with him he returned, carrying a 
brand from a pyre, all ablaze, in his beak, and every one of 
the crows that followed him had a piece of wood hanging 
down from his beak. And the moment he arrived, he set 
on fire the door of the cave, which had been barricaded with 
dry grass and other stuff, and through which were those 
owls creatures that are blind by day. 

And every crow, in the same way, threw down at the 
same time his piece of wood, and so kindled a fire and burnt 
the owls, king and all.'' 

And the king of the crows, having destroyed his enemies 
with the help of Chirajivin, was highly delighted, and 
returned with his tribe of crows to his own banyan-tree. 
Then Chirajivin told the story of how he lived among his 
enemies to King Meghavarna, the king of the crows, and 
said to him : " Your enemy, King, had one good minister 
named Raktaksha ; it is because he was infatuated by 
confidence, and did not act on that minister's advice, that 

1 I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads bhajdmi, not hhanjdmi. 

' See Liebrecht's notes on the Avaddnas, translated by Stanislas Julien, 
on p. 110 of his Zur Volkskunde. He adduces an English popular superstition. 
**The country people to their sorrow know the Cornish chough, called 
Pyrrhocorax, to be not only a thief, but an incendiary, and privately to set 
houses on fire as well as rob them of what they find profitable. It is very 
apt to catch up lighted sticks, so there are instances of houses being set on 
fire by its means." So a parrot sets a house on fire in a story by Arnauld 
of Carcasses (Liebrecht's trans, of Dunlop's History of Fiction, p. 208). 
Benfey thinks that this idea originally came from Greece (op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 383). Cf. also Pliny's account of the incendiaria avis in Kuhn's Herabkunjt 
des Feuers, p. 31. 



112 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

I was allowed to remain uninjured. Because the villain did 
not act on his advice, thinking it was groundless, I was able 
to gain the confidence of the impolitic fool, and to deceive him. 
It was by a feigned semblance of submission that the snake 
entrapped and killed the frogs. 



12lH. The Snake and the Frogs * 

A certain old snake, being unable to catch frogs easily 
on the bank of a lake, which was frequented by men, 
remained there motionless. And when he was there, the 
frogs asked him, keeping at a safe distance : " Tell us, 
worthy sir, why do you no longer eat frogs as of old ? '* 
When the snake was asked this question by the frogs, he 
answered : " While I was pursuing a frog, I one day bit a 
Brahman's son in the finger by mistake, and he died. And 
his father by a curse made me a bearer of frogs. So how 
can I eat you now ? On the contrary I will carry you on my 
back." 

When the king of the frogs heard that, he was desirous 
of being carried, and putting aside fear, he came out of 
the water, and joyfully mounted on the back of the snake. 
Then the snake, having gained his goodwill by carrying him 
about with his ministers, represented himself as exhausted, 
and said cunningly : "I cannot go a step farther without 
food, so give me something to eat. How can a servant 
exist without subsistence ? " When the frog-king, who was 
fond of being carried about, heard this, he said to him : 
" Eat a few of my followers then." So the snake ate all 
the frogs in succession as he pleased, and the king of the 
frogs put up with it, being blinded with pride at being 
carried about by the snake. 

121. Story of the War between the Crows and the Owls 

" Thus a fool is deceived by a wise man who worms him- 
self into his confidence. And in the same way I ingratiated 

1 See Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. S84; and Hertel, op. ciU, pt. i, p. 139; 
pt. ii, pp. 131, 132. N.M.P. 



THE VALUE OF DISCRETION 118 

myself with your enemies and brought about their ruin. 
So a king must be skilled in policy and self-restrained. A 
fool is plundered by his servants and slain by his foes at will. 
And this Goddess of Prosperity, O King, is ever treacherous 
as gambling, fickle as a wave, intoxicating as wine. But 
she remains as persistently constant to a king, who is self- 
contained, well advised, free from vice, and knows differences 
of character, as if she were tied with a rope. So you must 
now remain attentive to the words of the wise, and, glad 
at the slaughter of your enemies, rule a realm free from 
opponents." 

When the minister Chirajivin said this to the crow-king 
Meghavarna, the latter loaded him with honours, and ruled 
as he recommended.^ 



[M] When Gomukha had said this, he went on to say 
to the son of the King of Vatsa : ** So you see. King, that 
even animals are able to rule prosperously by means of 
discretion, but the indiscreet are always ruined and become 
the laughing-stock of the public. For instance 



122. Story of the Foolish Servant 

A certain rich man had a foolish servant. He, while 
shampooing him, in his extreme folly, gave him a slap on his 
body (for he fancied, in his conceit, that he thoroughly 
understood the business, while he really knew nothing about 
it), and so broke his skin. Then he was dismissed by that 
master and sank into utter despair. 



[M] " The fact is, a man who, while ignorant, thinks 
himself wise, and rushes impetuously at any business, is 
ruined. Hear another story in proof of it. 

1 This is the end of Book III of the PaHchatantra. n.m.p. 
VOL. V. H 



114 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

123. Story of the Two Brothers who divided all that they had ^ 

In Malava there were two Brahman brothers, and the 
wealth they inherited from their father was left jointly 
between them. And while dividing that wealth, they 
quarrelled about one having too little and the other having 
too much, and they made a teacher learned in the Vedas 
arbitrator, and he said to them : " You must divide every 
single thing into two halves, in order that you may not 
quarrel about the inequality of the division." When the 
two fools heard this, they divided every single thing into 
two equal parts, house, beds, et cetera ; in fact all their 
wealth, even the cattle. They had only one female slave; 
her also they cut in two. When the king heard of that, he 
punished them with the confiscation of all their property. 



[M] " So fools, following the advice of other fools, lose 
this world and the next. Accordingly a wise man should not 
serve fools ; he should serve wise men. Discontent also does 
harm ; for listen to this tale. 



124. Story of the Mendicants who became emaciated from 

Discontent 

There were some wandering mendicants, who became 
fat by being satisfied with what they got by way of alms. 
Some friends saw this and began to remark to one another : 
" Well ! these mendicants are fat enough, though they do 
live on what they get by begging." Then one of them said : 
*' I will show you a strange sight. I will make these men 
thin, though they eat the same things as before." 

When he had said this, he proceeded to invite the 
mendicants for one day to his house, and gave them to eat 
the best possible food, containing all the six flavours.^ And 

* This is No. 17 in the Avaddnas. Cf. Grohmann, Sagen aus Bohmen, 
p. 35. 

' I.e. sweety salt, acid, astringent, bitter and pungent 



WHERE IGNORANCE IS BLISS 115 

those foolish men, remembering the taste of it, no longer 
felt any appetite for the food they got as alms ; so they 
became thin. So that man who had entertained them, 
when he saw these mendicants near, pointed them out to 
his friends, and said : " Formerly these men were sleek and 
fat, because they were satisfied with the food which they 
got as alms; now they have become thin, owing to disgust, 
being dissatisfied with their alms. Therefore a wise man, 
who desires happiness, should establish his mind in content- 
ment ; for dissatisfaction produces in both worlds intolerable 
and unceasing grief." When he had given his friends this 
lesson, they abandoned discontent, the source of crime. To 
whom is not association with the good improving ? 



[M] " Now, King, hear of the fool and the gold. 

125. SUrry of the Fool who saw Gold in the Water ^ 

A certain young man went to a tank to drink water. 
There the fool saw in the water the reflection of a golden- 
crested bird, that was sitting on a tree.^ This reflection 
was of a golden hue, and, thinking it was real gold, he entered 
the tank to get it, but he could not lay hold of it, as it kept 
appearing and disappearing in the moving water. But as 
often as he ascended the bank, he again saw it in the water, 
and again and again he entered the tank to lay hold of it, 
and stiU he got nothing. Then his father saw him and 
-questioned him, and drove away the bird, and then, when 
he no longer saw the reflection in the water, explained to 
Jiim the whole thing, and took the foolish fellow home. 



[M] " Thus foolish people, who do not reflect, are deceived 
by false suppositions, and become the source of laughter 
to their enemies, and of sorrow to their friends. Now hear 
Another tale of some great fools. 

^ This is No. 46 in the Avaddnas. 

* Naukaha should be, no doubt, 'anokaha on Dr Brockhaus' system. 



116 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

126. Story of the Servants who kept Rain off the Trunks ^ 

The camel of a certain merchant gave way under its load 
on a journey. He said to his servants : "I will go and buy 
another camel to carry half of this camel's load. And you 
must remain here, and take particular care that, if it clouds 
over, the rain does not wet the leather of these trunks, which 
are full of clothes." With these words the merchant left 
the servants by the side of the camel, and went off; and 
suddenly a cloud came up and began to discharge rain. 
Then the fools said : " Our master told us to take care 
that the rain did not touch the leather of the trunks.'* 
And after they had made this sage reflection, they dragged 
the clothes out of the trunks and wrapped them round the 
leather. The consequence was, that the rain spoiled the 
clothes. Then the merchant returned, and in a rage said 
to his servants : " You rascals ! Talk of water ! Why, the 
whole stock of clothes is spoiled by the rain." And they 
answered him : " You told us to keep the rain off the 
leather of the trunks. What fault have we committed ? " 
He answered : "I told you that, if the leather got wet, 
the clothes would be spoiled. I told it you in order to save 
the clothes, not the leather." Then he placed the load on 
another camel, and when he returned home, imposed a fine 
on his servants amounting to the whole of their wealth. 



[M] " Thus fools, with undiscerning hearts, turn things 
upside down, and ruin their own interests and those of other 
people, and give such absurd answers. Now hear in a few 
words the story of the fool and the cakes. 

127. Story of the Fool and the Cakes * 

A certain traveller bought eight cakes for a pana ; and 
he ate six of them without being satisfied, but his hunger 
was satisfied by eating the seventh. Then the blockhead 

* This is No. 104 in the Avadanas. ^ This is No. 66 in the Avaddnas^ 



THE SEVENTH CAKE 117 

exclaimed : " I have been cheated. Why did I not eat this 
cake, which has allayed the pangs of hunger, first of all ? 
Why did I waste those others ; why did I not store them 
up ? " In these words he bewailed the fact that his hunger 
was only gradually satisfied, and the people laughed at him 
for his ignorance. 



128. Story of the Servant who looked after the Door * 

A certain merchant said to his foolish servant : " Take 
care of the door of my shop, I am going home for a moment." 
After the merchant had said this, he went away, and the 
servant took the shop-door on his shoulder and went off to 
see an actor perform. And as he was returning, his master 
met him and gave him a scolding. And he answered : 
" I have taken care of this door as you told me." 



[M] "So a fool, who attends only to the words of an 
order and does not understand the meaning, causes detri- 
ment. Now hear the wonderful story of the buffalo and the 
simpletons. 

129. Story of the Simpletons who ate the Buffalo 

Some villagers took a buffalo belonging to a certain man, 
and killed it in an enclosure outside the village, under a 
banyan-tree, and, dividing it, ate it up. The proprietor of 
the buffalo went and complained to the king, and he had 
the villagers, who had eaten the buffalo, brought before 
him. And the proprietor of the buffalo said before the 
king, in their presence : " These foolish men took my buffalo 

^ Cf. the thirty-seventh story in Sicilianische Mdrcheii, pt. i, p. 249. 
Guifa's mother wished to go to the mass and she said to him : " Guifa, if you 
go out, draw the door to after you " {ziehe die Thiir hinter dir zu). Instead of 
shutting the door, Guifa took it off its hinges and carried it to his mother in 

the church. See Dr Kohler's notes on the story. For valuable notes and 

references ou "noodle" stories see Bolte, op. cil., vol. i, p. 525. n.m.p. 



118 TIIK OCKAX OF STORY 

under a hanyan-tn f near tlie tank, and killed it and ate it 
before niv eyes." Whereupon an old I'ool anion*; the 
villaL't rs said : '* 'rhcri- is no tank or banyan-tree in our 
villauf. lie says what is not true : ^\ here did we kill his 
buffaUt or cat it ? 

When the proprietor ol" the buffalo heard this, he said: 
" What I is tlure not a banyrin-t I'te and a tank on the east 
side of tile \ ilia^f ? Moreo\tr. you ate niy buffalo on the 
eii,dith day of the lunar month/' When the proprietor of 
the buffalo said this, the old fool re])lie(l : *" There is no east 
side or eighth (lav in our \ ilhrne." When the kini; heard 
this. \\c laughed, and said, to eneouram' the fool: "You 
are a truthful person, you never said an\thin^^ lalse, so tell 
nie the truth : did you eat thai buffalo or did you not ? " 
\\ hen the fool heard that, he said : " I was born three years 
after luy father died, and he tauoht nie skill in speaking. 
So I never say what is untrue, my sovereign ; it is true that 
Nve ate his ])uffalo. but all the rest that he alleges is false." 

\\ hen the king heard this, he and all his eourticrs eoiild 
not restrain their laughter; so the king restored the price 
of the buffalo to the plaintiff, and fined those villagers. 



[M| " So fools, in the eonc-eit of their folly, while they 
deny what need not ])e denied, reveal what it is their interest 
to suppress, in order to get themselves believed. 

l.'JO. Storji of the Fool wlio bcJidvcd like a Brahmany 

Dnike 

A etrtain foolish man had an angry wife, who said to 
liim : " 'I'o-morrow I shall go to my father's house; I am 
in\ it((i to a f(ast. So if you do not })ring me a garland of 
blue lotuses from somewhere or other, you will eease to be 
my husband, and I shall eease to be your wife." Accordingly 
he went at night to the king's tank to fetch them. And 
when lie ent( red it, the guards saw him, and cried out : 
" Who are you ? '' lie said : " I am a Brahmany drake." 



THE HUNCHBACK 119 

But they took him prisoner, and in the morning he was 
brought before the king, and when questioned, he uttered 
in his presence the cry of that bird. Then the king himself 
summoned him and questioned him persistently, and when 
he told his story, being a merciful monarch, he let the 
wretched man go unpunished. 



181. Story of the Physician who tried to cure a Hunchback 

And a certain Brahman said to a foolish physician : 
" Drive in the hump on the back of my son who is deformed." 
When the physician heard that, he said : " Give me ten 
panas ; I will give you ten times as many if I do not succeed 
in this." Having thus made a bet, and having taken the 
ten panas from the Brahman, the physician only tortured 
the hunchback with sweating and other remedies. But he 
was not able to remove the hump ; so he paid down the 
hundred panas ; for who in this world would be able to make 
straight a hunchbacked man ? 



[M] " So the boastful fashion of promising to accomplish 
impossibilities only makes a man ridiculous. Therefore a 
discreet person should not walk in these ways of fools." 

When the wise Prince Naravahanadatta had heard, at 
night, these tales from his auspicious-mouthed minister, 
named Gomukha, he was exceedingly pleased with him. 

And though he was pining for Saktiya^as, yet, owing 
to the pleasure he derived from the stories that Gomukha 
told him, he was enabled to get to sleep, when he went to 
bed, and slept surrounded by his ministers who had grown 
up with him. 



CHAPTER LXIII 

THE next morning Naravahanadatta woke up, and 
[M] thinking on his beloved Saktiya^as, became dis- 
tracted. And thinking that the rest of the month, 
imtil he married her, was as long as an age, he could not find 
pleasure in anything, as his mind was longing for a new 
wife. When the king, his father, heard that from the mouth 
of Gomukha, out of love for him, he sent him his ministers, 
and Vasantaka was among them. Then, out of respect for 
them, the Prince of Vatsa managed to recover his composure. 
And the discreet minister Gomukha said to Vasantaka : 
" Noble Vasantaka, tell some new and romantic tale to 
delight the mind of the Crown Prince." Then the wise 
Vasantaka began to tell this tale ; 

182. Story of Ya^odhara and Lakshmldhara and the Two 
Wives of the Water-Spirit 

There was a famous Brahman in Malava, named Sri- 
dhara, and twin sons, of like feature, were born to him. The 
elder was named Yasodhara, and his younger brother was 
Lakshmldhara. And when they grew up, the two brothers 
set out together for a foreign country to study, with the 
approval of their father. And as they were travelling along, 
they reached a great wilderness, without water, without the 
shade of trees, full of burning sand ; and being fatigued 
with passing through it, and exhausted with heat and thirst, 
they reached in the evening a shady tree laden with fruit. 
And they saw, at a little distance from its foot, a lake with 
cold and clear water, perfumed with the fragrance of lotuses. 
They bathed in it, and refreshed themselves with drinking 
the cold water, and sitting down on a slab of rock, rested 
for a time. And when the sun set, they said their evening 
prayers, and through fear of wild beasts they climbed up the 
tree, to spend the night there. 

120 



THE WATER-SPIRIT 121 

And in the beginning of the night, many men rose out 
of the water of that tank below them, before their eyes. 
And one of them swept the ground, another painted it, and 
another strewed on it flowers of five colours. And another 
brought a golden couch, and placed it there, and another 
spread on it a mattress with a coverlet. Another brought, 
and placed in a certain spot, under the tree, delicious food 
and drink, flowers and unguents. Then there arose from the 
surface of that lake a man wearing a sword, and adorned 
with heavenly ornaments, surpassing in beauty the God of 
Love.^ When he had sat down on the couch, his attendants 
threw garlands round his neck and anointed him with 
unguents, and then they all plunged again into the lake. 
Then he brought out of his mouth* a lady of noble form 
and modest appearance, wearing auspicious garlands, and 
ornaments, and a second, rich in celestial beauty, resplendent 
with magnificent robes and ornaments. These were both 
his wives, but the second was the favourite. Then the 
first and good wife placed jewelled plates on the table, and 
handed food in two plates to her husband and her rival. 
\Mien they had eaten, she also ate ; and then her husband 
reclined on the couch with the rival wife, and went to sleep. 
And the first wife shampooed his feet, and the second 
remained awake on the couch. 

When the Brahman's sons, who were in the tree, saw 
this, they said to one another : " Who can this be ? Let 
us go down and ask the lady who is shampooing his feet, 
for all these are immortal beings." Then they got down 
and approached the first wife, and then the second saw 
Ya^odhara : then she rose up from the couch in her in- 
ordinate passion, while her husband was asleep, and ap- 
proaching that handsome youth, said : " Be my lover." 
He answered : " Wicked woman, you are to me the wife of 
another, and I am to you a strange man. Then why do 

* For the superstition of water-spirits see Tylor's Primitive Culture, p. 191 
et seq. 

2 Does this throw any light upon the expression in Swift's Polite Con- 
versation: "She is as like her husband as if she were spit out of his mouth " 
(Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 495)? 



122 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

you speak thus ? '* She answered : " I have had a hundred 
lovers. Why are you afraid ? If you do not beheve it, 
look at these hundred rings, ^ for I have taken one ring from 
each of them." With these words she took the rings out 
of the corner of her garment, and showed them to him. 
Then Ya^odhara said : " I do not care whether you have 
a hundred or a hundred thousand lovers ; to me you are as 
a mother ; I am not that kind of a man." 

When the wicked woman was repelled by him in this 
way, she woke up her husband in her wrath, and, pointing 
to Yasodhara, said with tears : " This scoundrel, while you 
were asleep, used violence to me." When her husband 
heard this, he rose up and drew his sword. Then the first 
and virtuous wife embraced his feet, and said : " Do not 
commit a crime on false evidence. Hear what I have to say. 
This wicked woman, when she saw him, rose up from your 
side, and eagerly importuned him, and the virtuous man 
did not consent to her proposal. When he repelled her, 
saying, ' You are to me as a mother,' being unable to endure 
that, in her anger she woke you up, to make you kill him. 
And she has already before my eyes had a hundred lovers 
here on various nights, travellers who were reposing in this 
tree, and taken their rings from them. But I never told 
you, not wishing to give rise to unpleasantness. However, 
to-day, I am necessarily compelled to reveal this secret, lest 
you should be guilty of a crime. Just look at the rings 
in the corner of her garment, if you do not believe it. 
And my wifely virtue is of such a kind that I cannot tell 

^ This story found its way into tlie frarae-story of the Nights (see 
Burton, vol. i, p. 10 et seq.). Here the rings are 570 in number (i.e. in the 
Macnaughton text), while in others the number is reduced to 90- Burton 
considers the larger figure more in accordance with Oriental exaggeration. 
(See his note, vol. i, p. 12.) The story is repeated again in the Nights, as 
"The King's Son and the Ifrit's Mistress" (Burton, vol. vi, p. 199 et seq.). 
The chief differences in the Arabic versions are that the d&nouement is much 
less moral, as the wishes of the damsel (there is only one) are complied with 
and the jinni does not wake up. The tale is also found in some Arabic texts 
of the Seven Vazirs (see Clouston, Book of Sindibdd, p. 255). For parallels 
to "La Femme dans le Coffre de Verre" see Chauvin, op. cit., v, pp. 190, 
191. N.M.P. 



THE PROOF OF CHASTITY 128 

my husband what is untrue. In order that you may be 
convinced of my faithfulness, see this proof of my power." 

After saying this, she reduced that tree to ashes with 
an angry look, and restored it more magnificent than it was 
before with a look of kindness. When her husband saw that, 
he was at last satisfied, and embraced her. And he sent that 
second wife, the adulteress, about her business, after cutting 
off her nose, and taking the rings from the corner of her 
garment. 

He restrained his anger, when he beheld that student 
of the scripture, Ya^odhara, with his brother, and he said 
to him despondingly : " Out of jealousy I always keep 
these wives of mine in my heart. But still I have not 
been able to keep safe this wicked woman. Who can arrest 
the lightning ? Who can guard a disloyal woman ? As for 
a chaste woman, she is guarded by her modesty alone, and 
being guarded by it, she guards ^ her husband in both worlds, 
as I have to-day been guarded by this woman, whose patience 
is more admirable even than her power of cursing. By her 
kindness I have got rid of an unfaithful wife, and avoided 
the awful crime of killing a virtuous Brahman." 

When he had said this, he made Yasodhara sit down, 
and said to him : " Tell me whence you come and whither 
you are going." Then Yasodhara told him his history, 
and having gained his confidence, said out of curiosity : 
" Noble sir, if it is not a secret, tell me now who you are, 
and why, though you possess such luxury, you dwell in the 
water." 

When the man who lived in the water heard this, he said : 
" Hear ! I will tell you." And he began to tell his history 
in the following words : 

132a. The Water-Spirit in his Previous Birth 

There is a region in the south of the Himalaya, called 
Kasmira ; which Providence seems to have created in order 
to prevent mortals from hankering after Heaven ; where 
Siva and Vishnu, as self-existent deities, inhabit a hundred 

^ I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads rakshatyubhayalokatah. 



126 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

roaming about in foreign countries ? " When he had said 
this, he bestowed on them the sciences, and by his power 
they immediately possessed them. Then the Yaksha said 
to them : " Now I entreat you to give me a fee as your in- 
structor. You must perform, on my behalf, this uposhana 
vow, which involves the speaking of the truth, the observing 
of strict chastity, the circumambulating the images of the 
gods with the right side turned towards them,^ the eating 
only at the time when Buddhist mendicants do, restraint 
of the mind, and patience. You must perform this for one 
night, and bestow the fruit of it on me in order that I may 
obtain that divinity, which is the proper fruit of my vow, when 
completely performed." 

When the Yaksha said this, they bowed before him and 
granted his request, and he disappeared in that very same tree. 
And the two brothers, delighted at having accomplished 
their object without any toil, after they had passed the 
night, returned to their own home. There they told their 
adventures and delighted their parents, and performed that 
vow of fasting for the benefit of the Yaksha. Then that 
Yaksha, who taught them, appeared in a sky-chariot, and 
said to them : " Through your kindness I have ceased to 
be a Yaksha and have become a god. So you must now 
perform this vow for your own advantage, in order that at 
your death you may attain divinity. And in the meanwhile 
I give you a boon, by which you will have inexhaustible 
wealth." 

When the deity, who roamed about at will, had said this, 
he went to heaven in his chariot. Then the two brothers, 
Yasodhara and Lakshmidhara, lived happily, having per- 
formed that vow, and having obtained wealth and knowledge. 



[M] " So you see that, if men are addicted to righteous- 
ness, and do not, even in emergencies, desert their principles, 
even the gods protect them, and cause them to attain their 
objects." 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193, and Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 80. n.m.p. 



VALIMUKHA 127 

Naravahanadatta, while longing for his beloved Sakti- 
ya^as, was much delighted with this marvellous story told 
by Vasantaka; but having been summoned by his father 
at the dinner hour, he went to his palace with his ministers. 
There he took the requisite refreshment, and returned to 
his palace, with Gomukha and his other ministers. Then 
Gomukha, in order to amuse him, again said : " Listen, 
Prince, I will tell you another string of tales. 

133. Story of the Monkey and the Porpoise ^ 

There lived in a forest of udumharaSy on the shore of the 
sea, a king of monkeys, named Valimukha, who had strayed 

^ This is the beginning of the fourth book of the Panchatanlra. Benfey 
does not seem to have been aware that it was to be found in Somadeva's work. 
It is also found, with the substitution of a boar for the porpoise, in the 
Sindihad-Namah, and thence found its way into the Seven Wise Masters and 
other European collections. (Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 420 et seq.) See 
also Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 122, 123. For the version of the Seven 
IVise Masters see Simrock's Die Deutschen Volksbiicher, vol. xii, p. 139. It also 
occurs in the Mahdvastu Avaddna, p. 138 of the Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 
by Dr Rajendralala Mitra, Rai Bahadur. The wife of the kumblula in the 
Vdnariiida Jdtaka (57 in Fausboll's edition) has a longing for a monkey's heart. 
The original is, no doubt, the Sumstitndra Jdtaka in Fausboll, vol. ii, p. 158. 
See also Melusine, col. 179, where the story is quoted from Thorburn's Bannu 

or Ottr Afghan Frontier. Cf Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 139, pt. ii, p. 140 et seq. 

I have already (Vol. I, pp. 224, 225) given a short precis of the Sumsumdra 
Jalaka, when dealing with the Dohada motif, and notes on the " External 
Soul" motif {yo\. I, 38, 129-132). 

With regard to the story itself I quite agree with Clouston {Book of 
Sindibdd, p. 212) that there is little if any resemblance between the story in 
our text and versions in Siiidibdd, Libro de los Engahos, Syntipas, etc. In fact, 
the only points of resemblance at all appear to be in the introduction of a 
monkey and a tree of figs. Curiously enough, a much nearer variant is found 
in a Swahili collection. Here a monkey is in the habit of feeding a shark 
with fruit from a tree. One day the shark invited him to come to his home 
in the sea. Off they set, but on the way the shark said : " Our sultan is ill, 
and nothing can cure him but a monkey's heart." "But don't you know," 
replied the monkey, "that we always leave our hearts in trees, and go about 
with our bodies only ?" and so made good his escape. (See G. Ferrand, Contes 
Populaires Malagachcs, Paris, 1893, p. 77; and E. Steere, 5u;aAi7i Tales, 1870, 
p. 1.) There is also a Japanese story in which the monkey's liver is required 
for the Queen of the Sea. After he has been conducted to her palace beneath 
the waves, he is told this by the jelly-fish, and at once says that he always 



126 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

roaming about in foreign countries ? " When he had said 
this, he bestowed on them the sciences, and by his power 
they immediately possessed them. Then the Yaksha said 
to them : " Now I entreat you to give me a fee as your in- 
structor. You must perform, on my behalf, this uposhana 
vow, which involves the speaking of the truth, the observing 
of strict chastity, the circumambulating the images of the 
gods with the right side turned towards them,^ the eating 
only at the time when Buddhist mendicants do, restraint 
of the mind, and patience. You must perform this for one 
night, and bestow the fruit of it on me in order that I may 
obtain that divinity, which is the proper fruit of my vow, when 
completely performed." 

When the Yaksha said this, they bowed before him and 
granted his request, and he disappeared in that very same tree. 
And the two brothers, delighted at having accomplished 
their object without any toil, after they had passed the 
night, returned to their own home. There they told their 
adventures and delighted their parents, and performed that 
vow of fasting for the benefit of the Yaksha. Then that 
Yaksha, who taught them, appeared in a sky-chariot, and 
said to them : " Through your kindness I have ceased to 
be a Yaksha and have become a god. So you must now 
perform this vow for your own advantage, in order that at 
your death you may attain divinity. And in the meanwhile 
I give you a boon, by which you will have inexhaustible 
wealth." 

When the deity, who roamed about at will, had said this, 
he went to heaven in his chariot. Then the two brothers, 
Yasodhara and Lakshmidhara, lived happily, having per- 
formed that vow, and having obtained wealth and knowledge. 



[M] " So you see that, if men are addicted to righteous- 
ness, and do not, even in emergencies, desert their principles, 
even the gods protect them, and cause them to attain their 
objects." 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193, and Crooke, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 80. n.m.p. 



VALIMUKHA 127 

Naravahanadatta, while longing for his beloved Sakti- 
ya^as, was much delighted with this marvellous story told 
by Vasantaka; but having been summoned by his father 
at the dinner hour, he went to his palace with his ministers. 
There he took the requisite refreshment, and returned to 
his palace, with Gomukha and his other ministers. Then 
Gomukha, in order to amuse him, again said : " Listen, 
Prince, I will tell you another string of tales. 

133. Story of the Monkey and the Porpoise ^ 

There Uved in a forest of udumbaraSy on the shore of the 
sea, a king of monkeys, named Valimukha, who had strayed 

^ This is the beginning of the fourth book of the Panchatantra. Benfey 
does not seem to have been aware that it was to be found in Somadeva's work. 
It is also found, with the substitution of a boar for the porpoise, in the 
Sindibad-Namah, and thence found its way into the Seven Wise Masters and 
other European collections. (Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 420 et seq.) See 
also Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 122, 123. For the version of the Seven 
IVise Masters see Simrock's Die Deutscken Volksbiicher, vol. xii, p. 139. It also 
occurs in the Mahdvastu Avaddna, p. 138 of the Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 
by Dr Rajendralala Mitra, Rai Bahadur. The wife of the kumbhUla in the 
Vanarinda Jataka (57 in Fausboll's edition) has a longing for a monkey's heart. 
The original is, no doubt, the Sumsumdra Jataka in Fausboll, vol. ii, p. 158. 
See also Melusine, col. 119, where the story is quoted from Thorburn's Bannu 

or Oitr Afghan Frontier. Cf Hertel, op. cit., pt. i, p. 139, pt. ii, p. 140 et seq. 

I have already (Vol. I, pp. 224, 225) given a short precis of the Sumsumdra 
Jataka, when dealing with the Dohada motif, and notes on the "External 
Soul" motif {Vol I, 38re, 129-132). 

With regard to the story itself I quite agree with Clouston (Book of 
Sindibdd, p. 212) that there is little if any resemblance between the story in 
our text and versions in Sindibdd, Libro de los Engahos, Syntipas, etc. In fact, 
the only points of resemblance at all appear to be in the introduction of a 
monkey and a tree of figs. Curiously enough, a much nearer variant is found 
in a Swahili collection. Here a monkey is in the habit of feeding a shark 
with fruit from a tree. One day the shark invited him to come to his home 
in the sea. Off they set, but on the way the shark said : " Our sultan is ill, 
and nothing can cure him but a monkey's heart." " But don't you know," 
replied the monkey, " that we always leave our hearts in trees, and go about 
with our bodies only .-*" and so made good his escape. (See G. Ferrand, Conies 
Populaires Malagaches, Paris, 1893, p. 77; and E. Steere, -Su'aAi/i Tales, 1870, 
p. 1.) There is also a Japanese story in which the monkey's liver is required 
for the Queen of the Sea. After he has been conducted to her palace beneath 
the waves, he is told this by the jelly-fish, and at once says that he always 



128 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

from his troop. While he was eating an udumbara fruit, it 
fell from his hand, and was devoured by a porpoise that 
lived in the water of the sea. The porpoise, delighted at 
the taste of the fruit, uttered a melodious sound, which 
pleased the monkey so much that he threw him many more 
fruits. And so the monkey went on throwing fruits ^ and 
the porpoise went on making a melodious sound, until a 
friendship sprang up between them. So every day the 
porpoise spent the day in the water near the monkey, 
who remained on the bank, and in the evening he went 
home. 

Then the wife of the porpoise came to leam the facts, 
and as she did not approve of the friendship between the 
monkey and her husband, which caused the latter to be 
absent all day, she pretended to be ill. Then the porpoise 
was afflicted, and asked his wife again and again what was 
the nature of her sickness, and what would cure it. Though 
he importuned her persistently, she would give no answer, 
but at last a female confidante of hers said to him : " Al- 
though you will not do it, and she does not wish you to do it, 
still I must speak. How can a wise person conceal sorrow 
from friends ? A violent disease has seized your wife, of such 
a kind that it cannot be cured without soup made of the 
lotus-like heart of a monkey." ^ When the porpoise heard 
this from his wife's confidante, he reflected : " Alas ! how 
shall I obtain the lotus-like heart of a monkey ? Is it right 
for me to plot treachery against the monkey, who is my 

keeps his liver at home. " It is raining ; my liver will decay, and I shall die " ; 
so saying, he starts off, as he says, to fetch it, taking good care, however, 
not to return. (See Bastian, Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asiens, iv, p. 340 ; and 
W. E. Griffis, Japanese Fairy World, p. 144.) Both the above parallels are 
taken from J. A. Macculloch, Childhood of Fiction, pp. 131, 132. 

Dr Gaster refers me to his Beitrdge zur vergleichenden Sagen- und Marchen' 
kunde, Bucharest, 1883, pp. 53-57, where he deals with the subject in question. 
It is to be reprinted in his forthcoming Studies and Texts. See the analogues 
given by K. Campbell, Seven Sages of Rome, p. Ixxxiii. n.m.p. 

^ The Sanskrit College MS. reads cakshipan for B.'s ca kskipan. 

2 In Bemhard Schmidt's Griechische Marchen, No. 5, the Lamnissa 
pretends that she is ill and can only be cured by eating a goldfish into 
which a bone of her rival has been turned. Perhaps we ought to read sadyd 
for sddhya in //. 1 08. 



THE MONKEY'S HEART 129 

friend ? On the other hand, how else can I cure my wife,* 
whom I love more than my life ? " 

When the porpoise had thus reflected, he said to his 
wife : "I will bring you a whole monkey, my dear ; do not 
be unhappy." When he had said this, he went to his friend 
the monkey, and said to him, after he had got into conversa- 
tion : '* Up to this day you have never seen my home and 
my wife ; so come, let us go and rest there one day. Friend- 
ship is but hollow when friends do not go without ceremony 
and eat at one another's houses, and introduce their wives 
to one another." 

With these words the porpoise beguiled the monkey, 
and induced him to come down into the water, and took 
him on his back and set out. And as he was going along, 
the monkey saw that he was troubled and confused, and 
said : " My friend, you seem to be altered to-day." And 
when he went on persistently inquiring the reason, the 
stupid porpoise, thinking that the ape was in his power, 
said to him : " The fact is, my wife is ill, and she has been 
asking me for the heart of a monkey, to be used as a remedy ; 
that is why I am in low spirits to-day." When the wise 
monkey heard this speech of his, he reflected : " Ah ! This 
is why the villain has brought me here ! Alas ! this fellow 
is overpowered by infatuation for a female, and is ready to 
plot treachery against his friend. Will not a person possessed 
by a demon eat his own flesh with his teeth ? " 

After the monkey had thus reflected, he said to the 
porpoise : "If this is the case, why did you not inform me 
of this before, my friend ? I will go and get my heart for 
your wife. For I have at present left it on the udumbara 
tree on which I live." 

When the silly porpoise heard this, he was sorry, and he 
said : " Then bring it, my friend, from the udumbara tree." 
And thereupon the porpoise took him back to the shore of 
the sea. When he got there, he bounded up the bank, as 
if he had just escaped from the grasp of death, and climbing 

^ The D. text reads sakhya instead of sddhya, and the whole line can be 
translated : " What matters my friend to me ? It is my wife, forsooth, whom 
I love more than my life." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 127. n.m.p. 

VOL. V. I 



180 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

up to the top of the tree, said to that porpoise : " Off with 
you, you fool ! Does any animal keep his heart outside his 
body ? However, by this artifice I have saved my life, and 
I will not return to you. Have you not heard, my friend, 
the story of the ass ? 

18dA. The Sick Lioriy the Jackal and the Ass ^ 

There lived in a certain forest a lion, who had a jackal 
for a minister. A certain king, who had gone to hunt, once 
found him, and wounded him so sorely with his weapons 
that he with difficulty escaped to his den alive. When the 
king was gone, the lion still remained in the den, and his 
minister, the jackal, who had lived on his leavings, being 
exhausted for want of food, said to him : " My lord , why 
do you not go out and seek for food to the best of your 
ability, for your own body is being famished as well as your 
attendants' ? " When the jackal said this to the lion, he 
answered : " My friend, I am exhausted with wounds, and 
I cannot roam about outside my den. If I could get the 
heart and ears of a donkey to eat, my wounds would heal, 
and I should recover my former health. So go and bring 
me a donkey quickly from somewhere or other." 

The jackal agreed to do so, and sallied out. As he was 
wandering about, he found a washerman's ass in a solitary 

^ Benfey does not seem to have been aware of the existence of this story 
in Somadeva's work. For details as to variants see Benfey, op. cil., vol. i, 
p. 430 et seq. See also Weber's article in Indische Studien, vol. iii, p. 3'J8. He 
considers that the fable came to India from Greece. Cf. also De Gubernatis, 
Zoological Mythology, vol. i, p. 377. An ass is deceived in the same way in 
Prym and Socin, Syrische M'drchen, p. 279- In Waldau's Bohmische Mdrchen, 
p. 92, one of the boys proposes to say that the Gliicksvogel had no heart. 
Rutherford in the introduction to his edition of Babrius, p. xxvii, considers 
that the fable is alluded to by Solon in the following words : 

vfieu)V 8* cfs fiiv fKaa-Tos dkv')irKO<i i^^rtori ySatVct 
^vfiirarriv 5' vftlv Kov<f>os tv<m voos' 
s yap ykuxra-av 6paT Kal ts ros aloXov dvSpOi, 
<i5 (pyov 8' ov8(v yiyvofiivov f3\(irTt. 

But all turns upon the interpretation of the first line, which Schneidewin 

renders: " Singuli sapitu, cuncti desipitis." Cf. Hertel, op. cil., pt. i, p. 140; 

pt. ii, p. 145 et seq. n.m.p. 



THE DELUDED DONKEY 181 

place, and said in a friendly way : " Why are you so ex- 
hausted ? " The donkey answered : "I am reduced by 
perpetually carrying this washerman's load." The jackal 
said : " Why do you endure all this toil ? Come with me, 
and I will take you to a forest as delightful as heaven, 
where you may grow fat in the society of she-asses." 

When the donkey, who was longing for enjoyment, heard 
this, he went to the forest, in which that lion ranged, in the 
company of that jackal. And when the lion saw him, being 
weak from impaired vitality, he only gave him a blow with 
his paw behind, and the donkey, being wounded by the blow, 
was terrified and fled immediately, and did not come near the 
lion again, and the lion fell down confused and bewildered. 
And then the lion, not having accomplished his object, 
hastily returned to his den. Then the jackal, his minister, 
said to him reproachfully : " My lord, if you could not kill 
this miserable donkey, what chance is there of yoiu* killing 
deer and other animals ? " Then the lion said to him : "If 
you know how, bring that donkey again. I will be ready and 
kill him." 

When the Hon had dispatched the jackal with these 
words, he went to the donkey and said : " Why did you 
run away, sir ? " And the donkey answered : "I received 
a blow from some creature." Then the jackal laughed and 
said : " You must have experienced a delusion. There is 
no such creature there, for I, weak as I am, dwell there, in 
safety. So come along with me to that forest, where pleasure 
is without restraint." ^ 

When he said this, the donkey was deluded, and returned 
to the forest. And as soon as the lion saw him, he came out 
of his den, and springing on him from behind, tore him with 
his claws and killed him. And the lion, after he had divided 
the donkey, placed the jackal to guard it, and being fatigued, 
went away to bathe. And in the meanwhile the deceitful 
jackal devoured the heart and ears of that donkey, to gratify 
his appetite. The lion, after bathing, came back, and per- 
ceiving the donkey in this condition, asked the jackal where 
its ears and heart were. The jackal answered him : " The 

^ I have followed the Sanskrit College MS. in reading nirbddliasukham. 



182 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

creature never possessed ears or a heart, otherwise how 
could he have returned when he had once escaped ? " When 
the lion heard that, he believed it, and ate his flesh, and the 
jackal devoured what remained over. 

188. Story of the Monkey and the Porpoise 

When the ape had told this tale, he said again to the 
porpoise : " I will not come again. Why should I behave 
like the jackass ? " When the porpoise heard this from the 
monkey, he returned home, grieving that he had through 
his folly failed to execute his wife's commission, while he 
had lost a friend. But his wife recovered her former tran- 
quillity, on account of the termination of her husband's 
friendship with the ape. And the ape lived happily on the 
shore of the sea.^ 



[M] " So a wise person should place no confidence in a 
wicked person. How can he, who confides in a wicked 
person or a black cobra, enjoy prosperity ? " 

When Gomukha had told this story, he again said to 
Naravahanadatta, to amuse him : " Now hear in succession 
about the following ridiculous fools. Hear first about the 
fool who rewarded the minstrel. 



134. Story of the Fool who gave a Verbal Reward to the 

MtLsician ^ 

A certain musician once gave great pleasure to a rich man, 
by singing and playing before him. He thereupon called 

^ This finishes Book IV of the Panchalantra. n.m.p. 

- For parallels to this story compare Liebrecht, Zur Volkslaindc, p. 33, 
where he treats of the Avadanax, and the Japanese story in tlie Nachtriige. 
In this a gentleman who had much enjoyed the smell of fried eels pays for 
them by exhibiting his money to the owner of the cook-shop. See also jwige 
11 2 of the same work. M. Leveque shows that Rabelais' story of Ltr Facquin 
cl If ItoxlUsciir exactly resembles this as told in the Avaddmis. He thinks 
that La Fontaine, in his fable of L'Huilre et lex Plaidcurx, is indebted to the 



THE MUSICIAN'S REWARD 188 

his treasurer, and said in the hearing of the musician i 
** Give this man two thousand panasy The treasurer said : 
" I will do so," and went out. Then the minstrel went and 
asked him for those panas. But the treasurer, who had an 
understanding with his master, refused to give them. 

Then the musician came and asked the rich man for the 
panaSy but he said : ** What did you give me, that I should 
make you a return ? You gave a short-lived pleasure to 
my ears by playing on the lyre, and I gave a short-lived 
pleasure to your ears by promising you money." When the 
musician heard that, he despaired of his payment, laughed, 
and went home. 



[M] " Would not that speech of the miser's make even 
a stone laugh ? And now, Prince, hear the story of the two 
foolish pupils. 

185. Story of the Teacher and his Two Jealous Pupils * 

A certain teacher had two pupils who were jealous of 
one another. And one of those pupils washed and anointed 
every day the right foot of his instructor, and the other 
did the same to the left foot. Now it happened that one day 
the pupil whose business it was to anoint the right foot had 
been sent to the village, so the teacher said to the second 

story as told in Rabelais {Let Mythes ei Ugendes de CInde el de la Perse, pp. 547, 
548). See also Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, p. 370 (note). Gosson in 
his School of Abtue, Arbcr's reprint, pp. 68, 69, tells the story of Dionysius. 
A similar idea is found in the Hermotimus of Lucian, chaps. Ixxx and Ixxxi. 
A philosopher is indignant with his pupil on account of his fees being many 
days in arrear. The uncle of the young man, who is standing by, being a 
rude and uncultured person, says to the philosopher : " My good man, pray 
let us hear no more complaints about the great injustice with which you 
conceive yourself to have been treated, for all it amounts to is, that we 
have bought words from you, and have up to the present time paid you in 

the same coin." See the numerous references given by Chauvin, op. cU., 

viii, p. 158. N.M.p. 

^ There is a certain resemblance between this story and a joke in 
Philogelos, p. l6 (ed. Eberhard, Berlin 1869). Scholasticus tells his boots 
not to creak, or he will break their legs. 



134 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

pupil, whose business it was to anoint the left foot : " To-day 
you must wash and anoint my right foot also." When the 
foolish pupil received this order, he coolly said to his teacher : 
" I cannot anoint this foot that belongs to my rival." When 
he said this, the teacher insisted. Then that pupil, who 
was the very opposite of a good pupil, took hold of his 
teacher's foot in a passion, and exerting great force, broke 
it.^ Then the teacher uttered a cry of pain, and the other 
pupils came in and beat that wicked pupil, but he was 
rescued from them b> that teacher, who felt sorry for him. 

The next day the other pupil came back from the 
village, and when he saw the injury that had been done to 
his teacher's foot, he asked the history of it, and then he 
was inflamed with rage, and he said : " Why should I not 
break the foot that belongs to that enemy of mine ? " So 
he laid hold of the teacher's second leg and broke it. Then 
the others began to beat that wicked pupil, but the teacher, 
both of whose legs were broken, in compassion begged him 
off too. Then those two pupils departed, laughed to scorn 
by the whole country, but their teacher, who deserved so 
much credit for his patient temper, gradually got well. 



[M] " Thus foolish attendants, by quarrelling with one 
another, ruin their master's interests, and do not reap any 
advantage for themselves. Hear the story of the two-headed 
serpent. 

136. Story of the Snake with Two Heads ' 

A certain snake had two heads, one in the usual place 
and one in his tail. But the head that he had in his tail was 

* Here the B. reading is wrong. For vipakshah sncchishyat read vipaksha- 
lacchishya, and for halad gadhdt read baldd grnvnd, thus the passage should read : 
"Then this pupil, in a fit of anger at the (other) pupil, his rival, took hold 
of that foot of his master and broke it violently with a stone." See Speyer, 
op. cit., p. 128, N.M.p. 

- This corresponds to the fourteenth story in the fifth book of the Paflcha- 
tantra, Benfey, vol. ii, p. .360. At any rate the leading idea is the same. See 



THE GRAINS OF RICE 185 

blind; the head that was in the usual place was furnished 
with eyes. And there was a quarrel between them, each 
saying that it was the principal head. Now the serpent 
usually roamed about with his real head foremost. But 
once on a time the head in the tail caught hold of a piece of 
wood, and fastening firmly round it, prevented that snake 
from going on. The consequence was that the snake con- 
sidered this head very powerful, as it had vanquished the 
head in front. And so the snake roamed about with his 
blind head foremost, and in a hole he fell into fire, owing to 
his nqt being able to see the way, and so he was burnt. ^ 



[M] " So those foolish people, many in number, who are 
quite at home in a small accomplishment, through their at- 
tachment to this unimportant accomplishment, are brought 
to ruin. Hear now about the fool who ate the grains of rice. 

137. Story of the Fool who was nearly choked with Rice 

A certain foolish person came for the first time to his 
father-in-law's house, and there he saw some white grains 
of rice, which his mother-in-law had put down to be cooked, 
and he put a handful of them into his mouth, meaning to 
eat them. And his mother-in-law came in that very moment. 
Then the foolish man was so ashamed that he could not 
swallow the grains of rice, nor bring them up. And his 

Benfey, vol. i, pp. 537, 538. It has a certain resemblance to the fable of 
iMenenius. There is a snake in Bengal with a knob at the end of his tail. 
Probably this gave rise to the legend of the double-headed serpent. Sir Thomas 
Browne devotes to the Amphisbsena^ chap, xv of the third book of his Vulgar 
Errors, and craves leave to "doubt of this double-headed serpent, ' until he 
has " the advantage to behold, or itera'^ed ocular testimony." See also 
Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 120, where he treats of the Avadanns. The 
story is identical with that in our te.xt. .M. Levcque shows that this story, 
as found in the Avadanns, forms the basis of one of I^ Fontaine's fables, 
vii, 17. La Fontaine took it from Plutarch's LiJ'e oj' Agix. 

^ This story is No. jf) in Sir (i. Cornewall Lewis' edition of the 
Fnbfex of Babrius, pt. ii. The only difference is that the tail, wlien in 
difficulties, entreats the head to deliver it. 



186 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

mother-in-law seeing that his throat ^ was swollen and dis- 
tended, and that he was speechless, was afraid that he was 
iU, and summoned her husband. And he, when he saw his 
state, quickly brought the physician, and the physician, 
fearing that there was an internal tumour, seized the head 
of that fool and opened his jaw.* Then the grains of rice 
came out, and all those present laughed. 



[M] " Thus a fool does an unseemly act, and does not 
know how to conceal it. 

188. Story of the Boys that milked the Donkey 

Certain foolish boys, having observed the process of 
milking in the case of cows, got a donkey, and having sur- 
rounded it, proceeded to milk it vigorously. One milked 
and another held the milk-pail, and there was great emulation 
among them as to who should first drink the milk. And yet 
they did not obtain milk, though they laboured hard. 



[M] " The fact is. Prince, a fool who spends his labour 
on a chimera makes himself ridiculous. 

189. Story of the Foolish Boy who went to the Village for Nothing 

There was a certain foolish son of a Brahman, and his 
father said to him one evening : " My son, you must go to 

^ It wouldn't be his throat. The reading is gala in B., but in the D. text 
it is galla, "cheek," which is undoubtedly correct. n.m.p. 

I re^d fianum, the conjecture of Dr Kern. 

This story appears to have been known to Lucian. In his Demotiax (28) 
he compares the two unskilful disputants to a couple, one of whom is milking 
a goat, the other holding a sieve. So Aristophanes speaks of ovov iroKai 
and opvidtav yaAa. It must be admitted that some critics doubt Lucian 's 
authorship of the Demnnajc. Professor Aufrecht in his Beitrdge zur Kcnntniss 
Inditcher Dichter quotes a strophe of Amarasimha in which the following line 
occurs : 

" DugdhS set/am acheinnena jarati dugdhasaifdt sTtkan." 
Professor Aufrecht proposes to read gardabht for sukan. 



THE USELESS JOURNEY 187 

the village early to-morrow." Having heard this, he set 
out in the morning, without asking his father what he was 
to do, and went to the village without any object, and came 
back in the evening fatigued. He said to his father : " I 
have been to the village." " Yes, but you have not done 
any good by it," answered his father. 



[M] " So a fool, who acts without an object, becomes 
the laughing-stock of people generally ; he suffers fatigue, 
but does not do any good." 

When the son of the King of Vatsa had heard from 
Gomukha, his chief minister, this series of tales, rich in 
instruction, and had declared that he was longing to obtain 
Saktiya^as, and had perceived that the night was far spent, 
he closed his eyes in sleep, and reposed surrounded by his 
ministers. 



CHAPTER LXIV 

THEN, the next evening, as Naravahanadatta was 
[M] again in his private apartment, longing for 
union with his beloved, at his request Gomukha told 
the following series of tales to amuse him : 

140. Story of the Brahman and the Mungoose ^ 

There was in a certain village a Brahman, named 
Deva^arman ; and he had a wife of equally high birth, 
named Yajnadatta. And she became pregnant, and in 
time gave birth to a son, and the Brahman, though poor, 
thought he had obtained a treasure in him. And when she 
had given birth to the child, the Brahman's wife went to 
the river to bathe, but Deva^arman remained in the house, 
taking care of his infant son. In the meanwhile a maid 
came from the women's apartments of the palace to summon 
that Brahman, who lived on presents received for perform- 
ing inauguratory ceremonies. Then he, eager for a fee, 
went off to the palace, leaving a mungoose, which he had 
brought up from its birth, to guard his child. After he 
had gone, a snake suddenly came near the child, and the 
mungoose, seeing it, killed it out of love for his master. 

^ See Benfey, op. cil., vol. i, pp. 479-4'83. To EngHshmen the story 
suggests Llewellyn's faithful hound Gelert, from which the parish of 
Bethgelert in North Wales is named. This legend has been versified by 
W. R. Spencer. It is found in the English Cesta (see Bohn's Gexta Romanorum, 
Introduction, p. xliii. It is No. 26 in Herrtage's edition). The story (as 
found in the Seven Wise Masters) is admirably told in Simrock's Die Deutschen 
VoUcbiicher, vol. xii, p. 13.5. See also Baring-Gould, Curious M^lhs, 1869, p. 134 

et. Meq. See V\ertt\, op. dt., pt. i, p. 140; pt. ii, p. 148 rt seq. K. Campbell, 

Seven Sages of Rome, pp. Ixxix et seq., gives thirty-one analogues. This 
pathetic little tale forms the frame-story of the fifth (and last) book of the 
Pahchalanlra. Most texts have two sub-stories namely, " The Brahman who 
built Castles-in-thc-Air," and " The Barber who killed the Monks." These are 
omitted by Somadeva, but will be found in Appendix I, pp. 228-230. n.m.p. 

138 



FOOLS STEP IN . . . 189 

Then the mungoose saw DevaiSarman returning at a 
distance, and delighted, ran out to meet him, all stained 
with the blood of the snake. And Deva^arman, when he 
saw its appearance, felt certain that it had killed his young 
child, and in his agitation killed it with a stone. But 
when he went into the house, and saw the snake killed by 
the mungoose, and his boy alive, he repented of what he 
had done. And when his wife returned and heard what 
had happened, she reproached him, saying : *' Why did you 
inconsiderately kill the mungoose,^ which had done you a 
good turn ? " 



[M] " Therefore a wise man. Prince, should never do 
anything rashly. For a person who acts rashly is destroyed 
in both worlds. And one who does anything contrary to the 
prescribed method obtains a result which is the opposite of 
that desired. 

141. Story of the Fool that was his own Doctor 

For instance, there was a man suffering from flatulence. 
And once on a time the doctor gave him a medicine, to be 
used as a clyster, and said to him : " Go to your house, 
and bruise this, and wait till I come." The physician, after 
giving this order, delayed a little, and in the meanwhile the 
fool, having reduced the drug to powder, mixed it with 
water and drank it. That made him very ill, and when the 
doctor came, he had to give him an emetic, and with diffi- 
culty brought him roimd, when he was at the point of death. 
And he scolded his patient, saying to him : "A clyster is 
not meant to be drunk, but must be administered in the 
proper way. Why did you not wait for me ? " 

^ To the references on the mungoose already given in my note in 
Vol. Ill, pp. 1 15n', ll6, I would add Sir G. A. Grierson, ** Mongoose," Joum. 
Hoy. As. Soc, October 1923, pp. 6l9, 620, where the etymology of the word 
is discussed. n.m.p. 

^ Here ends the complete PaHchatantra as given by Somadeva. n.m.p. 



140 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

[M] " So an action, useful in itself, if done contrary to 
rule, has bad effects. Therefore a wise man should do no- 
thing contrary to rule. And the man who acts without 
consideration does what is wrong, and immediately incurs 
reproach. 

142. Story of the Fool who mistook Hermits for Monkeys 

For instance, there was in a certain place a foolish man. 
He was once going to a foreign country, accompanied by 
his son, and when the caravan encamped in the forest, the 
boy entered the wood to amuse himself. There he was 
scratched by monkeys, and with difficulty escaped with life, 
and when his father asked him what had happened, the 
silly boy, not knowing what monkeys were, said : " I was 
scratched in this wood by some hairy creatures that live 
on fruits." When the father heard it, he drew his sword in 
a rage, and went to that wood. And seeing some ascetics 
with long matted hair, picking fruits there, he ran towards 
them, saying to himself: *' These hairy rascals injured my 
son." But a certain traveller there prevented him from 
killing them, by saying : " I saw some monkeys scratch 
your son ; do not kill the hermits." So by good luck he 
was saved from committing a crime, and returned to the 
caravan. 



[M] " So a wise man should never act without reflection. 
What is ever likely to go wrong with a man who reflects ? 
But the thoughtless are always ruined and made the objects 
of public ridicule." 

143. Story of the Fool who found a Purse 

For instance, a certain poor man, going on a journey, 
found a bag of gold, that had been dropped by the head 
of a caravan. The fool, the moment he found it, instead 
of going away, stood still where he was, and began to count 



THE MONKEY AND THE COWHERD 141 

the gold. In the meanwhile the merchant, who was on 
horseback, discovered his loss, and galloping back, he saw 
the bag of gold in the poor man's possession, and took it 
away from him. So he lost his wealth as soon as he got it, 
and went on his way sorrowful, with his face fixed on the 
ground. 



[M] " Fools lose wealth as soon as they get it. 

144. Story of the Fool who looked for the Moon 

A certain foolish man, who wished to see the new moon, 
was told by a man who saw it to look in the direction of his 
finger. He averted his eyes from the sky, and stood staring 
at his friend's finger, and so did not see the new moon, but 
saw the people laughing at him. 



[M] " Wisdom accomplishes the impossible ; hear a story 
in proof of it. 

145. Story of the Woman who escaped from the Monkey and 

the Cowherd 

A certain woman set out alone to go to another village. 
And on the way a monkey suddenly came and tried to lay hold 
of her, but she avoided it by going to a tree and dodging 
round it. The foolish monkey threw its arms round the tree, 
and she laid hold of its arms with her hands and pressed 
them against the tree. The monkey, which was held tight, 
became furious, but at that moment the woman saw a cow- 
herd coming that way, and said to him : " Sir, hold this 
ape by the arms a moment, until I can arrange my dress 
and hair, which arc disordered." He said : " I will do so, if 
you promise to grant me your love." And she consented. 
And he held the monkey. Then she drew his dagger and 
killed the monkey, and said to the cowherd, " Come to a 



142 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

lonely spot," and so took him a long distance. At last they 
fell in with some travellers, so she left him and went with 
them to the village that she wished to reach, having avoided 
outrage by her wisdom. 



[M] " So you see that wisdom is in this world the 
principal support of men ; the man who is poor in wealth 
lives, but the man who is poor in intellect does not Uve. 
Now hear. Prince, this romantic, wonderful tale. 

146. Story of the Two Thieves y Ghata and Karpara ^ 

There were in a certain city two thieves, named Ghata 
and Karpara. One night Karpara left Ghata outside the 
palace, and breaking through the wall,* entered the bed- 

^ For full details of this story see Appendix II of this volume. n.m.p. 

* Breaking through the wall and digging a tunnel into a house are the 
recognised methods adopted by the Indian thief. The opening is known by 
several naraes^ such as khatra, chhidra, siimga, etc. This latter word, also 
written surungd, is apparently derived from the Greek (rvpiy^. Professor J. Jolly 
has kindly drawn my attention to a recent article on the subject by O. Stein, 
** 2i>pty^ und sunihgd," Zeit. f. Indo/ogie und Iranuttifc, vol. iii, pt. ii, 1925, pp. 
280-318. See also M. Winternitz, "Suruhga and the Kautilya Arthasastra," 
Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. i. No. 3, September 19^5, pp. 429-432. The 
actual shape of the breach is also variously named ; thus in the Mrichchhaka{ika 
(iii, 13) seven technical names are given : padmavydkosa, "blown like a lotus" ; 
bhdskara, " sun " ; bdlachandra, " crescent moon " ; vdpi, " cistern " ; vistirna, 
"extended"; svastika, "cruciform"; and purnakumbha, "full pot." The in- 
strument for digging is named phanimukha, or uragdsya, "snake mouth," in the 
Dasa Kutndra Charita (see Hertel's trans., 1922, vol. i, pp. 62, 173; vol. ii, 
pp. .55, 189). 

Sanskrit fiction abounds in references to the tunnel, several of which are 
given in Bloomiield's article, "The Art of Stealing in Hindu Fiction," Amer. 
Joum. Phil., vol. xliv, p. 11 6, from which the above has been taken. He 
quotes from Tawney's Prabandliacintdmani, p. 67, which is a misprint for 38, 
where we have the amusing incident of the poetical thief. King Bhoja 
suddenly wakes up in the middle of the night, and seeing the new moon, 
composes a half-stanza in its praise, but is unable to finish it. At this moment 
a thief who has entered the king's treasure-room by digging a tunnel into his 
palace, being unable to restrain the volume of his poetical inspiration, finishes 
the stanza. Bloomfield also quotes again from Mfichchhakaiika (iii, 1 2), where 



THE TWO THIEVES 148 

chamber of the princess. And the princess, who could not 
sleep, saw him there in a corner, and suddenly falling in 
love with him, called him to her. And she gave him wealth, 
and said to him : " I will give you much more if you come 
again." Then Karpara went out, and told Ghata what had 
happened, and gave him the wealth, and having thus got 
hold of the king's property, sent him home. But he him- 
self again entered the women's apartments of the palace. 
Who that is attracted by love and covetousness thinks of 
death ? There he remained with the princess, and be- 
wildered with love and wine, he fell asleep, and did not 
observe that the night was at an end. 

And in the morning the guards of the women's apart- 
ments entered, and made him prisoner, and informed the 
king, and he in his anger ordered him to be put to death. 
While he was being led to the place of execution, his friend 
Ghata came to look for him, as he had not returned in the 
course of the night. Then Karpara saw Ghata, and made 
a sign to him that he was to carry off and take care of the 

Sarvilaka shows that even the quality and state of the bricks through which 
the tunnel goes is by no means negligible : 

" Where is the spot which falling drops decayed ? 
For each betraying sound is deadened there. 
Where does the palace crumble ? Where the place 
That nitre-eaten bricks false soundness wear? 
Where shall I 'scape the sight of woman's face ? " 

He answers his own question : " Here is a spot weakened by constant 
sun and sprinkling, and eaten by saltpetre rot. And here is a pile of dirt 
thrown up by a mouse. . . . The blessed bearer of the Golden Lance (god 
Skanda, patron of thieves) has prescribed four varieties of breach, thus : if the 
bricks are baked, pull them out ; if they are unbaked, cut them ; if they are 
made of earth, wet them ; if they are made of wood, split them." 

With regard to the punishment inflicted on thieves, for some unexplained 
reason the sentences in fiction are nearly always very drastic, while those pre- 
scribed by the Sastras are comparatively lenient. We saw on page 6l of this 
volume that Dushtabuddhi had his hands cut off and his tongue cut out. In 
the Chulla-Paduma Jdlaka (No. 193) the thief s feet, nose and ears are also 
cut off.' The usual punishment, however, was death, and we have already 
(Vol. I, p. llSn^) seen how the thief was led to execution to the beat of the 
drum. The more usual form of execution was by impalement, either alive, or 
after decapitation, or mutilation. For further details see Bloomfield, op. cit., 
p. 228. N.M.p. 



144 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

princess. And he answered by a sign that he would do so. 
Then Karpara was led away by the executioners, and being 
at their mercy, was quickly hanged up upon a tree, and so 
executed. 

Then Ghata went home, sorrowing for his friend, and as 
soon as night arrived he dug a mine and entered the apart- 
ment of the princess. Seeing her in fetters there alone, he 
went up to her and said : "I am the friend of Karpara, 
who was to-day put to death on account of you. And out of 
love for him I am come here to carry you off, so come along 
before your father does you an injury." Thereupon she 
consented joyfully, and he removed her bonds. Then he went 
out with her, who at once committed herself to his care, by 
the imderground passage he had made, and returned to his 
own house. 

And next morning the king heard that his own daughter 
had been carried off by someone who had dug a secret mine, 
and that king thought to himself : " Undoubtedly that 
wicked man whom I punished has some audacious friend, 
who has carried off my daughter in this way." So he set 
his servants to watch the body of Karpara, and he said to 
them : " You must arrest anyone who may come here 
lamenting, to burn the corpse and perform the other rites, 
and so I shall recover that wicked girl who has disgraced 
her family." 

When those guards had received this order from the 
king, they said, " We will do so," and remained continually 
watching the corpse of Karpara. 

Then Ghata made inquiries, and found out what was 
going on, and said to the princess : " My dear, my comrade 
Karpara was a very dear friend to me, and by means of him 
I gained you and all these valuable jewels ; so until I have 
paid to him the debt of friendship I cannot rest in peace. 
So I will go and see his corpse, and by a device of mine 
manage to lament over it, and I will in due course burn the 
body, and scatter the bones in a holy place. And do not be 
afraid. I am not reckless like Karpara." 

After he had said this to her, he immediately assumed 
the appearance of a Pa^upata ascetic, and taking boiled 



THE DRUNKEN VILLAGER 145 

nee and milk in a pot, he went near the corpse of Karpara, 
as if he were a person passing that way casually, and when 
he got near it he slipped, and let fall from his hand and 
broke that pot of milk and rice, and began lamenting : " O 
Karpara full of sweetness," ^ and so on. And the guards 
thought that he was grieving for his pot full of food, that 
he had got by begging. And immediately he went home 
and told that to the princess. And the next day he made 
a servant, dressed as a bride, go in front of him, and he 
had another behind him, carrying a vessel full of sweetmeats, 
in which the juice of the Datura had been infused.^ And 
he himself assumed the appearance of a drunken villager, 
and so in the evening he came reeling along past those 
guards, who were watching the body of Karpara. They 
said to him : " Who are you, friend, and who is this lady, 
and where are you going ? " Then the cunning fellow 
answered them with stuttering accents : "I am a villager ; 
this is my wife ; I am going to the house of my father-in- 
law, and I am taking for him this complimentary present 
of sweetmeats. But you have now become my friends by 
speaking to me, so I will take only half of the sweetmeats 
there ; take the other half for yourselves." Saying this, 
he gave a sweetmeat to each of the guards. And they 
received them, laughing, and all of them partook of them. 
Accordingly Ghata, having stupefied the guards with Datura, 
at night brought fuel ^ and burnt the body of Karpara. 

The next morning, after he had departed, the king, 
hearing of it, removed those guards who had been stupefied, 
and placed others there, and said : " You must guard these 
bones, and you must arrest whoever attempts to take them 

1 Of course karpara is the Sanskrit for " pot." In fact the two friends* 
names might be represented in English by Pitcher and Pot. In modern 
Hindu funerals boiled rice is given to the dead. So I am informed by my 
friend Pandit Syama Charan Mukhof>adhyaya, to whom I am indebted for 

many kind hints. For details of the use of the pinda, or balls of rice, at 

Hindu funerals see Stevenson, Rites of the Twice-Born, 1920, pp. 159, 172, 
1 77, etc. N.M.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 160, l60ni. n.m.p. 

3 I read ahritendhanah [so in D.]. The Sanskrit College MS. seems to 
me to give hritendhana. 

VOL. V. K 



146 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

away, and you must not accept food from any outsider." 
When the guards were thus instructed by the king, they 
remained on the look-out day and night, and Ghata heard 
of it. Then he, being acquainted with the operation of a 
bewildering charm granted him by Durga, made a wandering 
mendicant his friend, in order to make them repose confidence 
in him. And he went there with that wandering mendicant, 
who was muttering spells, and bewildered those guards, 
and recovered the bones of Karpara. And after throwing 
them into the Ganges he came and related what he had 
done, and lived happily with the princess, accompanied by 
the mendicant. 

But the king, hearing that the bones had been carried 
off, and the men guarding them stupefied, thought that 
the whole exploit, beginning with the carrying off of his 
daughter, was the doing of a magician. And he had the 
following proclamation made in his city : "If that magician 
who carried off my daughter, and performed the other ex- 
ploits connected with that feat, will reveal himself, I will 
give him half my kingdom." 

When Ghata heard this, he wished to reveal himself, 
but the princess dissuaded him, saying : " Do not do so ; 
you cannot repose any confidence in this king, who treacher- 
ously puts people to death." ^ Then, for fear that, if he 
remained there, the truth might come out, he set out for 
another country with the princess and the mendicant. ^ 

And on the way the princess said secretly to the mendi- 
cant : " The other one of these thieves seduced me, and this 
one made me fall from my high rank. The other thief is 
dead. As for this Ghata, I do not love him; you are my 
darling." When she had said this, she united herself to the 
mendicant, and killed Ghata in the dead of night. Then, 
as she was journeying along with that mendicant, the wicked 

* So Frau Claradis in " Die Heimonskinder " advises her husband not to 
trust her father (Simrock's Die Deulschen P'olksb'iicher, vol. ii, p. 131). 

This is really the end of the story of Ghata, and, as shown in Appendix 
II of this volume, was probably taken from Herodotus' tale of Rhampsinitus, 
The subsequent incidents are separate tales collected by Somadeva and have 
Jill been moulded by him into a single story, although they hang together 
-very loosely. n.m.p. 



THE LOVER'S BASKET 147 

woman fell in with a merchant on the way, whose name 
was Dhanadeva. So she said : " Who is this skull-bearer ? 
You are my darling." And she left that mendicant while 
he was asleep, and went off with that merchant. And in the 
morning the mendicant woke up, and reflected : " There 
is no love in women, and no courtesy free from fickleness, 
for, after lulling me into security, the wicked woman has 
gone off, and robbed me too. However, I ought perhaps 
to consider myself lucky that I have not been killed like 
Ghata." After these reflections the mendicant returned to 
his own country. 

And the princess, travelling on with the merchant, 
reached his country. And when Dhanadeva arrived there, 
he said to himself : " Why should I rashly introduce this 
Dhanadeva s unchastc woman into my house ? " So, as it 
Unchaste Wife was evening, he went into the house of an old 
woman in that place, with the princess. And at night he 
asked that old woman, who did not recognise him : " Mother, 
do you know any tidings about the family of Dhanadeva ? " 
When the old woman heard that, she said : " What tidings 
is there except that his wife is always ready to take a new 
lover ? For a basket, covered with leather, is let down every 
night from the window here, and whoever enters it is drawn 
up into the house, and is dismissed in the same way at 
the end of the night. ^ And the woman is always stupefied 
with drink, so that she is absolutely void of discernment. 
And this state of hers has become well known in the whole 
city. And though her husband has been long away, he has 
not yet returned." 

When Dhanadeva heard this speech of the old woman's, 
lie went out that moment on some pretext, and repaired to 
his own house, being full of inward grief and uncertainty. 
And seeing a basket let down by the female servants with 
ropes, he entered it, and they pulled him up into the house. 
And his wife, who was stupefied with drink, embraced him 
most affectionately, without knowing who he was. But he 
was quite cast down at seeing her degradation. And there- 
upon she fell into a drunken sleep. And at the end of the 

^ See Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 241. n.m.p. 



118 THE OCEAX OF STORY 

niijht the tVinak- scrxants let liiin down aoain quickly from 
tlu' window in thr l)askit suspended willi ropes. And the 
nierehant relKcted in liis i^n'iel" : " Knou^di of tlie Tolly of 
heinLT a family man, for wonun in a house are a snare ! It 
is alwavs tliis story with tliein, so a life in the forest is nuicli 
to he prelVrreil." 

IlaxinL: fornu'd this resolve, l)hanade\ a ahandoned the 
j)riiieess into the haruain. and set out for a distant forest. 
And on the way lie met, and struek up a friendship with, a 
younu: Hrfdunan, named Uudrasoma, who had lately returned 
tVom a lonLi" ahsenee ahroad. 

When he told him his story, the Hrahman heeame anxious 
ahout his own wife ; and so he arrived in the eomj)any of 
that merehant at his own village in the evenini]^. 

And when he arri\ed there, he saw a cowherd, on the 
hank of the ri\er, near his house, sin<^ino- with joy, like one 
heside himself. So he said to him in joke : " Cowherd, is 
any youn^ woman in love with you that you 
luuiiiisnma ^"^f^' thus m your rapture, eountui^r the world 
has a siwiliir as stubblc ? " Whcu tlic cowlicrd heard that, 
\''!'>n-!Zr ^^^' lauohed and said: "I ha\e a great secret.' 
The head of this \ illage, a Brahman, named 
Rudrasoma. has been long away, and 1 ^isit his wife every 
night ; her maid introduces me into the house dressed as a 
woman.'" - ^Vhen Rudrasoma heard this, he restrained his 
anger, and wishing to find out the truth, he said to the 
eowhc-rd : " If such kindness is shown to guests here, give 
me this dress of yours, and let me go there to-night: I feel 
L:rt at curiosity about it." The cowherd said: " Do so ; take 
this black rug of mine, and this stick, and remain here until 
her maid comes. And she will take you for me, and will give 
you a female dress, and invite you to come; so go there 
b()ldl\' at night, and I will take rej)()se this night." 

When the cowherd said this, the Brfduiian Rudrasoma 
took from him the stick and the rug, and stood there, per- 
sonating him. And the cowherd stood at a little distance, 
witli that merchant Dhanadeva, and then the maid came. 

' Ttie S.iiiskrit ( ollc^e MS. lias mmna for the mai/a of I)r Brockhaus. 
* See Vol. I, pp. 4-7/1, iS/;. n.m.i*. 



THE AMOROUS LEPER 149 

She walked silently up to him in the darkness, and wrapped 
him up in a woman's dress, and said to him, " Come along," 
and so took him off to his wife, thinking that he was the 
cowherd. When his wife saw Rudrasoma, she sprang up 
and embraced him, supposing that he was the cowherd, and 
then Rudrasoma thought to himself : " Alas ! wicked women 
fall in love with a base man, if only he is near them, 
for this vicious wife of mine has fallen in love with a cow- 
herd, merely because he is near at hand." Then he made 
some excuse with faltering voice, and went, disgusted in 
mind, to Dhanadeva. And after he had told his adventure 
in his own house, he said to that merchant : " I too will go 
with you to the forest ; perish my family ! " So Rudrasoma 
and the merchant Dhanadeva set out together for the forest. 
And on the way a friend of Dhanadeva's, named Sa^in, 
joined them. And in the course of conversation they told 
him their circumstances. And when Sasin heard that, 
basin's Wife being a jealous man, and having just returned 
and the Leper from a long absence in a foreign land, he became 
anxious about his wife, though he had locked her up in a 
cellar. And Sasin, travelling along with them, came near his 
own house in the evening, and was desirous of entertaining 
them. But he saw there a man singing in an amorous mood, 
who had an evil smell, and whose hands and feet were eaten 
away with leprosy. And in his astonishment he asked him : 
" Who are you, sir, that you are so cheerful ? " And the 
leper said to him : " I am the God of Love." Sa^in answered : 
" There can be no mistake about that ! The splendour of 
your beauty is sufficient evidence for your being the God of 
Love." Thereupon the leper continued : " Listen, I will tell 
you something. A rogue here, named Sasin, being jealous 
of his wife, locked her up in a cellar with one servant to 
attend on her, and went to a foreign land. But that wife of 
his happened to see me here, and immediately surrendered 
herself to me, her heart being drawn towards me by love. 
And I spend every night with her, for the maid takes me on 
her back and carries me in. So tell me if I am not the God 
of Love. Who that was the favoured lover of the beautiful 
wife of Sa^in could care for other women ? " 



150 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

When Sa^in heard this speech of the leper's, he suppressed 
his grief, intolerable as a hurricane, and wishing to discover 
the truth, he said to the leper : " In truth you are the God 
of Love, so I have a boon to crave of your godship. I feel 
great curiosity about this lady from your description of her, 
so I will go there this very night disguised as yourself. Be 
propitious to your suppliant : you will lose but little, as you 
can attain this object every day.'* 

When Sa^in made this request, the leper said to him : 
" So be it ! Take this dress of mine and give me yours, 
and remain covering up your hands and feet with your 
clothes, as you see me do, until her maid comes, which will 
be as soon as it becomes dark. And she will mistake you 
for me, and put you on her back, and you must submit to 
go there in that fashion, for I always have to go in that way, 
having lost the use of my hands and feet from leprosy." 

Thereupon Sasin put on the leper's dress and remained 
there, but the leper and Sasin's two companions remained 
a Uttle way off. 

Then Sasin's wife's maid came, and supposing that he 
was the leper, as he had his dress on, said, " Come along," 
and took him up on her back. And so she took him at night 
into that cellar to his wife, who was expecting her paramour 
the leper. Then Sasin made out for certain that it was his 
wife, who was lamenting there in the darkness, by feeling 
her limbs, and he became an ascetic on the spot. And 
when she was asleep, he went out unobserved, and made his 
way to Dhanadeva and Rudrasoma. And he told them his 
experiences, and said in his grief : " Alas ! women are like 
torrents that flow in a ravine ; they are ever tending down- 
wards, capricious, beautiful at a distance, prone to turbid- 
ness, and so they are as difficult to guard as such rivers are 
to drink, and thus my wife, though kept in a cellar, has run 
after a leper. So for me also the forest is the best thing. 
Out on family life ! " 

And so he spent the night in the company of the merchant 
and the Brahman, whose affliction was the same as his. 
And next morning they all set out together for the forest; 
and at evening they reached a tree by the roadside, with a 



THE SNAKE-GOD 151 

tank at its foot. And after they had eaten and drunk, they 
ascended the tree to sleep, and while they were there they 
saw a traveller come and lie down underneath the tree. 

And soon they saw another man arise from the tank, 
and he brought out of his mouth a couch and a lady. Then 
he lay down on the couch beside that wife of his, and went 
The Snake-God to slccp, and the moment she saw it she went 
and his Wife i and embraced the traveller. And he asked her 
who they were, and she answered : " This is a snake-god, 
and I am his wife, a daughter of the snake race. Do not 
fear, I have had ninety-nine lovers among travellers, and 
you make the hundredth." But, while she was saying this, 
it happened that the snake-god woke up, and saw them. 
And he discharged fire from his mouth, and reduced them 
both to ashes. 

When the snake-god had gone, the thiee friends said to 
one another : " If it is impossible to guard one's wife by 
enclosing her in one's own body, what chance is there of 
keeping her safe in a house ? Out on them all ! " So 
they spent the night in contentment, and next morning 
went on to the forest. There they became completely 
chastened in mind, with hearts quieted by practising the 
four meditations, 2 which were not interfered with by their 
friendship ; and they became gentle to all creatures, and 
attained perfection in contemplation, which produces un- 
equalled absolute beatification ; and all three in due course 
destroyed the inborn darkness of their souls, and became 
liberated from the necessity of future births. But their 
wicked wives fell into a miserable state by the ripening of 
their own sin, and were soon ruined, losing both this and 
the next world. 

^ See p. 122n^ of this volume. n.m.p. 

2 Mr Gough has kindly pointed out to me a passage in the Sarvadarsana 
Samgraha which explains this. The following is Mr Gough's translation of 
the passage: ''We must consider this teaching as regards the four points of 
view. These are that 

"(1) Everything is momentary and momentary only ; 

" (2) Everything is pain and pain only ; 

" (3) Everything is individual and individual only ; 

" (4) Everything is baseless and baseless only." 



162 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

[M] " So attachment to women, the result of infatua- 
tion, produces misery to all men. But indifference to them 
produces in the discerning emancipation from the bonds of 
existence." 

When the prince, who was longing for union with 
Saktiya^as, had patiently listened to this diverting tale, 
told by his minister Gomukha, he again went to sleep. 



CHAPTER LXV 

THE next evening Gomukha told Naravahanadatta 
[M] this story to amuse him as before : 

147. Story of the Ungrateful Wife * 

In a certain city there lived the son of a rich merchant, 
who was an incarnation of a portion of a Bodhisattva. His 
mother died, and his father became attached to another 

^ This story is identical with the fifth in the fourth book of the Pancha- 
tantra in Benfey's translation, which he considers Buddhistic, and with which 
he compares the story of the Bhilla in Chapter LXI of this work [No. 98, 
p. 80 of this volume]. He compares the story of DhuminI in the Dasa 
Ktimdra Charita (Wilson's edition, p. 150), which resembles this story more 
nearly even than the form in the Panc/iatatilra. Also a story in Ardschi- 
Bordschi. [See B. Jiilg, Mongolische Marchen-Sammlung, 1 868, pp. 237, 238.] It 
will also be found on p. 305 of Sagas from the Far East. He quotes a saying 
of Buddha from Spence Hardy's Eastern Monachism, p. l66. Cf. Koppen, 
Religion des Buddha, p. 374. This story is also found in the Forty Vazirs, 
a collection of Persian tales (Behrnauer's translation, Leipzig, 1851, p. 325). 
It is also found in the Gesta Romanorum, chap. Ivi (but the resemblance 
is not very striking). Cf. also Grimm's Kinder- und Hausm'drchen, No. l6 

(Benfey, op. cit., vol. i, p. 436 et seq.). The story in our text does not belong 

to the original Panchatantra, but has been added at a much later date. Book IV 
had only one tale (see p. 130 of this volume) which is a sub-story to the 
frame-tale of " The Monkey and the Porpoise." Many of the analogues quoted 
above bear so little resemblance to our story as to be hardly worth quoting. 
The version in "The Forty Vazirs, a Collection of Persian Tales," forms 
the twenty-fourth vezir's story and is, of course, Turkish. See E. J. W. Gibb's 
translation (History of the Forty Vezirs, London, 1886), p. 331 et seq., and also 
Chauvin, op. cit., viii, pp. l6l, l62. A parallel to the Gesta Romanorum story 
is to be found in the Heptameron, tale 33. See the edition by the Society 
of English Bibliophilists, 1894, vol. iv, p. 17 et seq. The only resemblance of 
these stories to that in our text is that the wronged husband lives to see his 
wicked wife humiliated. For numerous analogues of Grimm's No. l6 see 
Bolte and Polfvka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 129. Much closer parallels will be found 
in the Chulla-Padumn Jataka, No. 193 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 81-85); 
Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 1882, No. 21, pp. 291-295. See also 
the Introduction, pp. Ixi-Ixiii. n.m.p. 
153 



154 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

wife, so he sent him away ; and the son went forth from 
his father's house with his wife to Hve in the forest. His 
younger brother also was banished by his father, and went 
with him, but as he was not of a chastened disposition the 
elder brother parted company with him, and went in another 
direction. And as he was going along he at last came to 
a great desert wilderness, without water, grass or tree, 
scorched by the fierce rays of the sun, and his supplies were 
exhausted. And he travelled through it for seven days, 
and kept his wife alive, who was exhausted with hunger 
and thirst, by giving her his own flesh and blood, and she 
drank the blood and ate the flesh. And on the eighth day 
he reached a mountain forest, resounding with the surging 
waters of a torrent, abounding in shady trees laden with 
fruit, and in delightful turf. There he refreshed his wife 
with water and fruits, and went down into the mountain- 
stream, that was wreathed with waves, to take a bath. And 
there he saw a man with his two feet and his two hands cut 
off, being carried along by the current, in need of assistance. 
Though exhausted with his long fast, the brave man entered 
the river, and rescued this mutilated person. And the 
compassionate man landed him on the bank, and said : 
" Who did this to you, my brother ? " Then the maimed 
man answered : " My enemies cut off my hands and feet, 
and threw me into the river, desiring to inflict on me a 
painful death. But you have saved me from the water.'* 
When the maimed man told him this, he bandaged his 
wounds, and gave him food, and then the noble fellow 
bathed and took food himself. Then this merchant's son, 
who was an incarnation of a Bodhisattva, remained in that 
wood with his wife, living on roots and fruits, and engaged 
in austerities. 

One day, when he was away in search of fruits and roots, 
his wife fell in love with that maimed man, whose wounds 
were healed. And determining to kill her husband, the 
wicked woman devised a plot for doing so in concert with 
that mutilated man, and she pretended to be ill. And she 
pointed out a plant growing in the ravine, where it was 
difficult to descend, and the river hard to cross, and said to 



THE MERCHANT IS ANOINTED KING 155 

her husband : "I may Hve if you bring me that sovereign 
plant, for I am sure that the god indicated to me its position 
in a dream." He consented, and descended into the ravine 
to get the plant, by the help of a rope plaited of grass and 
fastened to a tree. But when he had got down, she un- 
fastened the rope ; so he fell into the river, and was swept 
away by it, as its current was strong. And he was carried 
an enormous distance by the river, and flung up on the bank 
near a certain city, for his merits preserved his life. Then 
he climbed up on to the firm ground, and rested under a 
tree, as he was fatigued by his immersion in the water, and 
thought over the wicked behaviour of his wife. 

Now it happened that at that time the king of that city 
had just died, and in that country there was an immemorial 
custom, that an auspicious elephant was driven about by 
the citizens, and any man that he took up with his trunk 
and placed on his back was anointed king.^ The elephant, 
wandering about, came near the merchant's son, and, as if 
he were Providence pleased with his self-control, took him 
up, and put him on his back. Then the merchant's son, 
who was an incarnation of a portion of a Bodhisattva, was 
immediately taken to the city and anointed king by the 
people. When he had obtained the crown, he did not as- 
sociate with charming women of coquettish behaviour, but 
held converse with the virtues of compassion, cheerfulness 
and patience. 

And his wife wandered about hither and thither, carrying 
that maimed man, who was her paramour, on her back,' 
without fear of her husband, whom she supposed to have 
been swept away by the river. And she begged from village 
to village, and city to city, saying : " This husband of mine 
has had his hands and feet cut off by his enemies ; I am a 
devoted wife and support him by begging, so give me alms." 

At last she reached the town in which that husband of 

* See the note at the end of the chapter, n.m.p. 

' In the story of Kanakaratha in the Kathdko<;a, pp. 186, 187, the princess 
offers to carry her leprous husband on her back, while in the Kunala Jaiaka, 
No. 536 (Cambridge edition, vol. v, p. 228), Kanha abandons herself to a vile 
hunchback. n.m.p. 



156 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

hers was kini:. She l)rj:,HHl tliere in the same way, and, as 
she was lionoured hy the eitizens as a devoted wife, the fame 
of hiT \irtue reacht'd the ears of the kin<r. And tlie king 
had her siminioned, witli tlie maimed man on lier !)aek, and, 
when she came near, lie ri'eo^Miiscd her, and said : " Arc you 
that (ItAoted wife ? " And the wicked woman, not reeofr- 
nisiiiLT her husband, wlicn surrounded l)y tlie splendour of 
the kiuL^ly otlice, said : " 1 am that (le\()ted wife, your 
Majesty." Then that incarnation of a liodhisattva laughed, 
and said : " I too have had practical ex})erienee of your 
wifely dcNotion. I low comes it that, though I, your own 
husband, who {possess hands and feet, could not tame you, 
e\-en by iiiving you my own flesh and blood, which you 
kept feeding on like an ogress in human form, this maimed 
fellow, though defective in his limbs, has been able to tame 
you and make you his })east of burden ? Did you carry on 
your back your innocent husband, whom you threw into the 
river ? It is owing to that deed that you have to carry 
and support this maimed man."' 

When her hiis])and in these words revealed her past con- 
duet, she recognised him, and fainting from fear, became like 
a painted or dead woman. The ministers in their curiosity 
said : " Tell us. King, what this means."' Then the king 
told them the whole story. And the ministers, when they 
heard that she had conspired against her husband's life, cut 
off her nose and ears, and branded her, and banished her 
from the country with the maimed man. 

And in this matter Fate showed a becoming combination, 
for it united a woman without nose and ears with a man with- 
out hands and feet, and a man who was an incarnation of a 
portion of a IJodhisattva with the splendour of royalty. 



[M] '" 'J'iius tiic way of woman's heart, which is a thing 
full of hate, indiscriminating, j)rone to the base, is diflicult 
to fathom. And thus good fortune comes spontaneous and 
unexpected, as if j)leased with them, to those of noble soul, 
who do not swerve from virtue and who conquer anger." 



THE COMPASSIONATE ASCETIC 157 

When the minister Gomukha had told this tale, he 
proceeded to relate the following story : 



148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Woman ^ 

There was a certain man of noble soul, who was an in- 
carnation of a portion of a Bodhisattva, whose heart was 
melted by compassion only, who had built a hut in a forest 

^ This story is founds with the substitution of a man for a woman, on 
p. 128 of Benfey's PantschatatUra, vol. ii. See also vol. i, p. 191 t'/ seq., where 
he gives several useful references. Cf. RasavahinI, chap, iii (Spiegel's 
Anecdota Palicd). It is also found in the Karma Sataka. Cf. also Matthseus 
Paris, HiM. Maj., London, 1571, pp. 240-242, where it is told of Richard 
Cceur de Lion ; Gesta Ronianorum , chap, cxix ; Gower, Confessio Amantis, 
Book V ; E. Meier, Schwnbische Volksmarchen. Cf. also for the gratitude of 
the animals the fourth story in Campbell's Tales of the West Highlands. The 
animals are a dog, an otter and a falcon, p. 74 et seq. The Mongolian form 
of the story is to be found in Sagas from the Far East, tale 13. See also the 
twelfth and twenty -second of Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales. There is a strik- 
ing illustration of the gratitude of animals in Grimm's No. 62, and in Bartsch's 
Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebr'duche aus Meklenburg, vol. i, p. 483. De Gubernatis 
in a note to p. 129 of vol. ii of his Zoological Mythology mentions a story 
of grateful animals in Afanasief The hero finds some wolves fighting for a 
bone, some bees fighting for honey, and some shrimps fighting for a carcass ; 
he makes a just division, and the grateful wolves, bees and shrimps help him 
in need. See also p. 157 of the same volume. See " Die Dankbaren Thiere" 
in Gaal's Mdrchen der Magyaren, p. 175, and " Der Rothe Hund," p. 339. In 
the Saccamkira Jdtaka, No. 73 (Cambridge edition, vol. i, pp. 177-181), a hermit 
saves a prince, a rat, a parrot and a snake. The rat and snake are willing 
to give treasures, the parrot rice, but the prince orders his benefactor's 
execution, and is then killed by his own subjects. See Bernhard Schmidt's 
Griechische Mdrchen, p. 3, note. See also Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 
Introduction, pp. Ixiii-lxv, and 309 et seq. 

Tales in which grateful animals figure and help the hero or heroine 

out of difficulties, or perform seemingly impossible tasks imposed upon them, 
are found in nearly every collection of stories in existence. It would be little 
use to attempt to enumerate them all, even if such a thing were possible. 
The idea of a reward following a kind action done, when no reward is 
expected, is a moral lesson which has appealed to story-tellers in all parts of 
the world, and the " Grateful Animals " ynotif is another example of the non- 
migratory motifs. I have already (Vol. I, p. lOln^) given numerous references 
to stories of grateful snakes. The largest number of analogues to "grateful 
animals" stories of all kinds is to be found in Bolte and PoHvka, op. cit., 
vol. ii, pp. 19-29. Among the Italian references given, however, they make 



158 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

and lived there, performing austerities. He, while living 
there, by his power rescued living beings in distress, and 
Pi^achas and others he gratified by presents of water and 
jewels. One day, as he was roaming about in the wood to 
assist others, he saw a great well and looked into it. And 
a woman, who was in it, said to him in a loud voice : " Noble 
sir, here are four of us, myself a woman, a lion, and a golden- 
crested bird, and a snake, fallen into this well in the night ; 
so take us out ; have mercy upon us." When he heard 
this, he said : " Granted that you three fell in because the 
darkness made it impossible for you to see your way, but 
how did the bird fall in ? " The woman answered him : 
" It fell in by being caught in a fowler's net." 

Then the ascetic tried to lift them out by the super- 
natural power of his asceticism, but he could not ; on the 
contrary, his power was gone. He reflected : " Surely this 
woman is a sinner, and owing to my having conversed with 
her, my power is gone from me. So I will use other means 
in this case." Then he plaited a rope of grass, and so drew 
them all four up out of the well, and they praised him. 
And in his astonishment he said to the lion, the bird and the 
snake : " Tell me, how come you to have articulate voice, 
and what is your history ? " Then the lion said : " We 
have articulate speech and remember our former births, and 
we are mutual enemies ; hear our stories in turns." So the 
lion began to tell his own story as follows : 

no mention of Straparola, night 10, fable 3, which deals with the adventures 
of Cesarino di Berni and the three grateful animals, a lion, a bear and a wolf. 
(See The Nights, Straparola, trans. W. G. Waters, London, 1894, vol. ii, p. 182 
el seq., and the notes on p. 319 of the same volume.) They also omit the 
story of " The Large Crab-Louse, the Mouse and the Cricket " in the 
Pentamerone. It forms the fifth diversion of the third day (see Burton's trans., 
vol. ii, p, 283 et seq.). In Hindu fiction the goldsmith is always regarded as 
the thief par excellence, and in his article on "The Art of Stealing in Hindu 
Fiction" (Atner. Joum. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, p. 108 et seq.) Bloomfield gives a 
useful bibliography with extracts on the subject. The goldsmith takes the 
place of the ungrateful woman in our tale, and the grateful animals are three 
in number, as is nearly always the case. n.m.p. 



THE ARROGANT VIDYADHARA 159 

148a. The Lion's Story 

There is a splendid city on the Himalayas, called Vaidu- 
rya^ringa ; and in it there is a prince of the Vidyadharas 
named Padmave^a, and to him a son was born named 
Vajravega. That Vajravega, while he dwelt in the world 
of the Vidyadharas, being a vainglorious person, quarrelled 
with anybody and everybody, confiding in his courage. 
His father ordered him to desist, but he paid no attention 
to his command. Then his father cursed him, saying : " Fall 
into the world of mortals." Then his arrogance was extin- 
guished, and his knowledge left him, and smitten with the 
curse he wept, and asked his father to name a time when it 
should end. Then his father Padmave^a thought a little, 
and said immediately : " You shall become a Brahman's 
son on the earth, and display this arrogance once more, and 
by your father's curse you shall become a lion and fall into 
a well. And a man of noble character, out of compassion, 
shall draw you out, and when you have recompensed him 
in his calamity,^ you shall be delivered from this curse." 
This was the termination of the curse which his father 
appointed for him. 

Then Vajravega was born in Malava as Devaghosha, the 
son of Harighosha, a Brahman. And in that birth also he 
fought with many, confiding in his heroism, and his father 
said to him : " Do not go on in this way quarrelling with 
everybody." But he would not obey his father's orders, 
so his father cursed him : " Become immediately a foolish 
lion, over-confident in its strength." In consequence of 
this speech of his father's, Devaghosha, that incarnation 
of a Vidyadhara, was again born as a lion in this forest. 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Woman 

" Know that I am that lion. I was wandering about 
here at night, and as chance would have it, I fell into this 

^ " In his calamity " seems meaningless. Tawney translated upakardrpsa 
as if it were simply upakdra the meaning should be " . . . and you do him a 
service in return." See Speyer, op. cit., p. l66. n.m.p. 



160 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

well ; and you, noble sir, have drawn me up out of it. So 
now I will depart, and, if you should fall into any difficulty, 
remember me ; I will do you a good turn and so get released 
from my curse." 

After the lion had said this, he went away, and the 
golden-crested bird, being questioned by that Bodhisattva, 
told his tale. 



148b. The Golden-Crested Bird's Story 

There is on the Himalayas a king of the Vidyadharas, 
named Vajradamshtra. His queen gave birth to five 
daughters in succession. And then the king propitiated 
Siva with austerities and obtained a son, named Rajata- 
damshtra, whom he valued more than life. His father, out 
of affection, bestowed the knowledge of the sciences upon 
him when he was still a child, and he grew up, a feast to 
the eyes of his relations. 

One day he saw his eldest sister, by name Somaprabha, 
playing upon a pinjara. In his childishness he kept begging 
for the pinjara, saying : " Give it me, I too want to play 
on it." And when she would not give it him, in his flighti- 
ness he seized the pinjara, and flew up to heaven with it 
in the form of a bird. Then his sister cursed him, saying: 
" Since you have taken my pinjara from me by force, and 
flown away with it, you shall become a bird with a golden 
crest." 1 

When Rajatadamshtra heard this, he fell at his sister's 
feet, and entreated her to fix a time for his curse to end, and 
she said : " When, foolish boy, you fall, in your bird-form, 
into a blind well, and a certain merciful person draws you 
out, and you do him a service in return, then you shall be 
released from this curse." When she had said this to her 
brother, he was bom as a bird with a golden crest. 

^ This is in all probability the Hoopoe, round which many stories and 
superstitions have arisen. For the myth told by Arrian as to how it got its 
crest see Crooke, op. dt., vol. ii, p. 249. n.m.p. 



THE THREE-HEADED SNAKE 161 

148. Story of the Gratefvl Animals and the Ungrateful Woman 

" I am that same golden-crested bird, that fell into this 
pit in the night, and have now been drawn out by you, 
so now I will depart. Remember me when you fall into 
calamity, for by doing you a service in return, I shall be 
released from my curse.'* 

When the bird ' had said this, he departed. Then the 
snake, being questioned by that Bodhisattva, told his story 
lo that great-souled one. 

148c. The Snake's Story 

Formerly I was the son of a hermit in the hermitage of 
Kasyapa. And I had a companion there who was also the 
son of a hermit. And one day my friend went down into 
the lake to bathe, and I remained on the bank. And while 
I was there, I saw a serpent come with three heads. And, 
in order to terrify that friend of mine in fun, I fixed the 
serpent immovable on the bank, opposite to where he was, 
by the power of a spell. My friend got through his bathing 
in a moment, and came to the bank, and unexpectedly see- 
ing that great serpent there, he was terrified and fainted. 
After some time I brought my friend round again, but he, 
finding out by meditation that I had terrified him in this 
way, became angry, and cursed me, saying : " Go and become 
a similar great snake with three crests." Then I entreated 
him to fix an end to my curse, and he said : " When, in your 
serpent condition, you fall into a well, and at a critical 
moment do a service to the man who pulls you out, then 
you shall be freed from your curse." 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Woman 

*' After he had said this, he departed, and I became a 
serpent, and now you have drawn me out of the well ; so 
now I will depart. And when you think of me I will come ; 
and by doing you a service I shall be released from my 
curse." 

VOL. V. L 



162 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

When the snake had said this, he departed, and the 
woman told her story. 



148d. The Woman's Story 

I am the wife of a young Kshatriya in the king's employ, 
a man in the bloom of youth, brave, generous, handsome 
and high-minded. Nevertheless I was wicked enough to 
enter into an intrigue with another man. When my husband 
found it out, he determined to punish me. And I heard of 
this from my confidante, and that moment I fled, and entered 
this wood at night, and fell into this well, and was dragged 
out by you. 

148. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungraiefid Woman 

" And thanks to your kindness I will now go and main- 
tain myself somewhere. May a day come when I shall be 
able to requite your goodness." 

When the sinful woman had said this to the Bodhisattva, 
she went to the town of a king named Gotravardhana. She 
obtained an interview with him, and remained among his 
attendants, in the capacity of maid to the king's principal 
queen. But because that Bodhisattva talked with that 
woman, he lost his power, and could not procure fruits and 
roots and things of that kind. Then, being exhausted with 
hunger and thirst, he first thought of the lion. And, when 
he thought of him, he came and fed him with the flesh of 
deer,^ and in a short time he restored him to his former 
health with their flesh ; and then the lion said : " My curse 
is at an end, I will depart." When he had said this, the 
Bodhisattva gave him leave to depart, and the lion became 
a Vidyadhara and went to his own place. 

Then that incarnation of a portion of a Bodhisattva, 

^ In Giles' Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio a tiger, who has killed 
the son of an old woman, feeds her henceforth, and appears as a mourner at 
her funeral. The story in the text bears a faint resemblance to that of 
Androclus (Aulus Gellius, v, 14). See also Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. Ill, with 
the note at the end of the volume. 



THE CASKET OF JEWELS 163 

being again exhausted by want of food, thought upon tliat 
golden-crested bird, and he came, when thought of by him. 
And when he told the bird of his sufferings, the bird went 
and brought a casket full of jewels ^ and gave it him, and 
said : '' This wealth will support you for ever, and so my 
curse has come to an end, now I depart ; may you enjoy 
happiness ! " When he had said this, he became a young 
Vidyadhara prince, and went through the air to his o^vn 
world, and received the kingdom from his father. 

And the Bodhisattva, a;s he was wandering about to sell 
the jewels, reached that city where the woman was living 
whom he had rescued from the well. And he deposited 
those jewels in an out-of-the-way house belonging to an 
old Brahman woman, and went to the market, and on the 
way he saw coming towards him the very woman whom he 
had saved from the well, and the woman saw him. And 
the two fell into a conversation, and in the course of it 
the woman told him of her position about the person of the 
queen. And she asked him about his own adventures : so 
the confiding man told her how the golden- crested bird had 
given him the jewels. And he took her and showed her the 
jewels in the house of the old woman, and the wicked 
woman went and told her mistress, the queen, of it. 

Now it happened that the golden-crested bird had 
managed artfully to steal this casket of jewels from the 
interior of the queen's palace, before her eyes. And when 
the queen heard from the mouth of that woman, who knew 
the facts, that the casket had arrived in the city, she in- 
formed the king. And the king had the Bodhisattva pointed 
out by that wicked woman, and brought by his servants as 
a prisoner from that house with the ornaments. And after 
he had asked him the circumstances, though he believed his 
account, he not only took the ornaments from him, but he 
put him in prison. 

Then the Bodhisattva, terrified at being put in prison, 
thought upon the snake, who was an incarnation of the 
hermit's son, and the snake came to him. And when the 
snake had seen him, and inquired what his need was, he 

^ Cf. Gijjha-Jniaka, No. lf)4 (Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 34-36). 



164 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

said to the good man : " I will go and coil round the king 
from his head to his feet.' And I will not let him go until 
I am told to do so by you. And you must say here, in the 
prison : * I will deliver the king from the serpent.' And 
when you come and give me the order, I will let the king go. 
And when I let him go, he will give you half his kingdom." 

After he had said this, the snake went and coiled round 
the king, and placed his three hoods on his head. And the 
people began to cry out : " Alas I the king is bitten by a 
snake." Then the Bodhisattva said : " I will deliver the 
king from this snake." And the king's servants, having 
heard this, informed him. Thereupon the king, who was 
in the grasp of the snake, had the Bodhisattva summoned, 
and said to him : " If you deliver me from this snake, I will 
give yoii half my kingdom, and these my ministers are your 
guarantees that I will keep my promise." When his ministers 
heard this, they said, " Certainly," and then the Bodhisattva 
said to that snake : " Let the king go at once." Then the 
snake let the king go, and the king gave half his kingdom 
to that Bodhisattva, and thus he became prosperous in a 
moment. And the serpent, as its curse was at an end, be- 
came a young hermit, and he told his story in the presence 
of the court and went back to his hermitage. 



[M] " Thus you see that good fortune certainly befalls 
those of good dispositions. And transgression brings suffer- 
ing even upon the great. And the mind of women cannot 
be relied upon ; it is not touched even by such a service 
as rescue from death ; so what other benefit can move 
them ? " 

When Gomukha had told this tale, he said to the King 
of Vatsa : " Listen I will tell you some more stories of 
fools. 

' Cf. tlie forty-sixth story in (Jonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, where a 
snake coils round the throat of a king, and will not let him go till he promises 
to marry a girl whom he had violated. See also Benfey's Pantschatanlra, 
vol. i, p. 523. 



THE MONK'S KNEE 165 

149. Story of the Buddhist Monk who was bitten by a Dog 

There was in a certain Buddhist monastery a Buddhist 
monk of dull intellect. One day, as he was walking in the 
highroad, he was bitten by a dog on the knee. And when 
he had been thus bitten, he returned to his monastery and 
thus reflected : " Everybody, one after another, will ask 
me : ' What has happened to your knee ? ' And what a 
time it will take me to inform them all one by one ! So I 
will make use of an artifice to let them all know at once." 
Having thus reflected, he quickly went to the top of the 
monastery, and taking the stick with which the gong was 
struck, he sounded the gong. And the mendicant monks, 
hearing it, came together in astonishment, and said to him : 
" Why do you, without cause, sound the gong at the wrong 
time ? " He answered the mendicants, at the same time 
showing them his knee : " The fact is, a dog has bitten my 
knee, so I called you together, thinking that it would take 
a long time for me to tell each of you separately such a long 
story : so hear it all of you now, and look at my knee." 
Then all the mendicants laughed till their sides ached, and 
said : " What a great fuss he has made about a very small 
matter ! " 



[M] " You have heard of the fooUsh Buddhist monk ; 
now hear of the foolish Takka. 



150. Story of the Man who sicbmitted to be Burnt Alive sooner 
than share his Food with a Gtiest 

There lived somewhere a rich but foolish Takka,^ who was a 
miser. And he and his wife were always eating barley-meal 

^ The Petersburg lexicographers explain takka as Geizhals, Fils ; but say 
that the word thaka in Marathi means a rogue, cheat. The word kadarya also 
means "niggardly," "miserly." General Cunningham {AncieiU Geography of 
India, p. 152) says that the 'fakkas were once the undisputed lords of the 
Panjab, and still subsist as a numerous agricultural race in the lower hills 
between the Jhelum and Ravi. 



166 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

without salt. And he never learned to know the taste of 
any other food. Once Providence instigated him to say to 
his wife : " I have conceived a desire for a milk pudding : 
cook me one to-day." His wife said, " I will," and set 
about cooking the pudding, and the J'akka remained indoors 
concealed, taking to his bed, for fear someone should see him 
and drop in on him as a guest.^ 

In the meanwhile a friend of his, a Takka who was fond 
of mischief, came there, and asked his wife where her husband 
was. And she, without giving an answer, went in to her 
husband and told him of the arrival of his friend. And he, 
lying on the bed, said to her : " Sit down here, and remain 
weeping and clinging to my feet, and say to my friend : 
' My husband is dead.' ^ When he is gone, we will eat this 
pudding happily together." When he gave her this order, 
she began to weep, and the friend came in, and said to her : 
" What is the matter ? " She said to him : " Look, my husband 
is dead." But he reflected : " I saw her a moment ago 
happy enough cooking a pudding. How comes it that her 
husband is now dead, though he has had no illness ? The 
two things are incompatible. No doubt the two have in- 
vented this fiction because they saw I had come as a guest. 
So I will not go." 

Thereupon the mischievous fellow sat down, and began 
crying out : " Alas, my friend ! Alas, my friend ! " Then 
his relations, hearing the lamentation, came in and pre- 
pared to take that silly Takka to the burning-place, for he 
still continued to counterfeit death. But his wife came to 
him and whispered in his ear : *' Jump up, before these 
relations take you off to the pyre and burn you." But the 
foolish man answered his wife in a whisper : " No ! that 
will never do, for this cunning Takka wishes to eat my 
pudding. I cannot get up, for it was on his arrival that I 

* So in the Russian story of "The Miser" (Ralston, liussian Folk-Tales, 
p. 47) Marko the Rich says to his wife, in order to avoid the payment of 
a copeck: " Harkye, wife! I'll strip myself naked, and lie down under 
the holy pictures. Cover me up with a cloth, and sit down and cry, just as 
you would over a corpse. When the moujik comes for his money, tell him 
I died this morning." Ralston conjectures that the story came originally 
from the East. 



THE PUPIL'S CAT 167 

died. For to people like me the contemplation of one's 
possessions is dearer than life." Then that wicked friend 
and his relations carried him out, but he remained immov- 
able, even while he was being burned, and kept silence till 
he died. So the foolish man sacrificed his life, but saved 
his pudding, and others enjoyed at ease the wealth he had 
acquired with much toil. 



[M] " You have heard the story of the miser ; now hear 
the story of the foolish pupils and the cat. 

151. Story of the Foolish Teacliery the Foolish Pupils and the 

Cat 

In Ujjayini there lived in a convent a foolish teacher. 
And he could not sleep, because mice troubled him at night. 
And wearied with this infliction, he told the whole story to 
a friend. The friend, who was a Brahman, said to that 
teacher : " You must set up a cat ; it will eat the mice." 
The teacher said : " What sort of creature is a cat ? Where 
can one be found ? I never came across one." When the 
teacher said this, the friend replied : " Its eyes are like glass, 
its colour is a brownish grey, it has a hairy skin on its back, 
and it wanders about in roads. So, my friend, you must 
quickly discover a cat by these signs and have one brought." 
After his friend had said this, he went home. Then that 
foolish teacher said to his pupils : " You have been present 
and heard all the distinguishing marks of a cat. So look 
about for a cat, such as you have heard described, in the 
roads here." 

Accordingly the pupils went and searched hither and 
thither, but they did not find a cat anywhere. Then at 
last they saw a Brahman boy coming from the opening of a 
road ; his eyes were like glass, his colour brownish grey, 
and he wore on his back a hairy antelope-skin. And when 
they saw him they said : " Here we have got the cat accord- 
ing to the description." So they seized him, and took him 



168 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

to their teacher. Their teacher also observed that he had 
got the characteristics mentioned by his friend ; so he 
placed him in the convent at night. And the silly boy 
liimself believed that he was a cat, when he heard the 
description that those fools gave of the animal. 

Now it happened that the silly boy was a pupil of that 
Brahman who out of friendship gave that teacher the 
description of the cat. And that Brahman came in the 
morning, and, seeing the boy in the convent, said to those 
fools : " Who brought this fellow here ? " The teacher 
and his foolish pupils answered : " We brought him here 
as a cat, according to the description which we heard from 
you." Then the Brahman laughed, and said : " There is 
considerable difference between a stupid human being and 
a cat, which is an animal with four feet and a tail." When 
the foolish fellows heard this, they let the boy go, and said : 
" So let us go and search again for a cat such as has been 
now described to us." And the people laughed at those 
fools. 



[M] " Ignorance makes everyone ridiculous. You have 
heard of the fools and their cat ; now hear the story of 
another set of fools. 

152. Story of the Fools and the Bull of ^iva * 

There was in a certain convent, full of fools, a man who 
was the greatest fool of the lot. He once heard in a treatise 
on law, which was being read out, that a man who has a 
tank made gains a great reward in the next world. Then, 
as he had a large fortune, he had made a large tank full of 
water, at no great distance from his own convent. One 
day this prince of fools went to take a look at that tank of 
his, and perceived that the sand had been scratched up by 
some creature. The next day too, he came, and saw that 
the bank had been torn up in another part of that tank, and 

* See W. A. Clouston, Book of Noodles, p. 47. n.m.p. 



THE HEAVENLY BULL 169 

being quite astonished, he said to himself : " I will watch here 
to-morrow the whole day, beginning in the early morning, 
and I will find out what creature it is that does this." 

After he had formed this resolution, he came there early 
next morning, and watched, until at last he saw a bull de- 
scend from heaven and plough up the bank with its horns. 
He thought : " This is a heavenly bull, so why should I not 
go to heaven with it ? " And he went up to the bull, and 
with both his hands laid hold of the tail behind. Then the 
holy bull lifted up with the utmost force the foolish man, 
who was clinging to its tail, and carried him in a moment 
to its home in Kailasa. There the foolish man lived for 
some time in great comfort, feasting on heavenly dainties, 
sweetmeats, and other things which he obtained. And 
seeing that the bull kept going and returning, that king of 
fools, bewildered by destiny, thought : " I will go down 
clinging to the tail of the bull and see my friends, and after 
I have told them this wonderful tale, I will return in the 
same way." 

Having formed this resolution, the fool went and clung 
to the tail of the bull one day when it was setting out, and 
so returned to the surface of the earth. When he returned 
to the convent, the other blockheads, who were there, 
embraced him, and asked him where he had been, and he 
told them. Then all those foolish men, having heard the 
tale of his adventures, made this petition to him : "Be 
kind and take us also there, enable us also to feast on sweet- 
meats." He consented, and told them his plan for doing 
it, and the next day he led them to the border of the tank 
and the bull came there. And the principal fool seized the 
tail of the bull with his two hands, and another took hold 
of his feet, and a third in turn took hold of his. So, when 
they had formed a chain by clinging on to one another's 
feet, the bull flew rapidly up into the air. 

And while the bull was going along, with all the fools 
clinging to his tail, it happened that one of the fools said to 
the principal fool : *' Tell us now to satisfy our curiosity : 
how large were those sweetmeats which you ate, of which 
a never-failing supply can be obtained in heaven ? " Then 



170 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the leader had his attention diverted from the business in 
hand, and quickly joined his hands together like the cup of 
a lotus, and exclaimed in answer : *' So big." But in doing 
so he let go the tail of the bull. And accordingly he and 
all those others fell from heaven, and were killed, and the 
bull returned to Kailasa ; but the people, who saw it, were 
much amused.^ 



[M] '* Fools do themselves an injury by asking questions 
and giving answers without reflection. You have heard 
about the fools who flew through the air ; hear about this 
other fool. 



153. Story of the Fool who asked his Way to the Village 

A certain fool, while going to another village, forgot the 
way. And when he asked his way, the people said to him : 
" Take the path that goes up by the tree on the bank of the 
river." 

Then the fool went and got on the trunk of that tree, 
and said to himself : " The men told me that my way lay 
up the trunk of this tree." And as he went on climbing up 
it, the bough at the end bent with his weight, and it was all 
he could do to avoid falling by clinging to it. 

While he was clinging to it, there came that way an 
elephant, that had been drinking water, with his driver on 
his back. When the fool, who was clinging to the tree, 
saw him, he said with humble voice to that elephant-driver : 
" Great sir, take me down." And the elephant-driver let 
go the elephant-hook, and laid hold of the man by the feet 

^ This and the next story resemble the conclusion of the story of the 
tortoise Kainbugriva and the swans Vikata and Sankata, Book X, chap. Ix, 
xl. l6i). See also Ralston's liussian Folk-Tales, p. 2i)2. A similar story is told 
in Bartsch's Sagni, Marclicn u. Gehriiuclte mix Mekltfthnrg, vol. i, j). 349, of the 
people of Teterow. They adopted the same manu-uvre to get a stone out 

of a well. The man at the top then let go, in order to spit on his hands. 

See p. J.Td^ of this volume for further details of the story of Kambugrlva, 
which is the tenth tale of Book I of the Pailchalantra. n.m.p. 



FATAL APPLAUSE 171 

with both his hands, to take him down from the tree. In 
the meanwhile the elephant went on, and the elephant- 
driver found himself clinging to the feet of that fool, who 
was clinging to the end of the tree. 

Then the fool said urgently to the elephant-driver : 
" Sing something quickly, if you know anything, in order 
that the people may hear, and come here at once to take us 
down. Otherwise we shall fall, and the river will carry us 
away." When the elephant-driver had been thus appealed 
to by him, he sang so sweetly that the fool was much pleased. 
And in his desire to applaud him properly, he forgot what 
he was about, and let go his hold of the tree, and prepared 
to clap him with both his hands. Immediately he and the 
elephant-driver fell into the river and were drowned, for 
association with fools brings prosperity to no man. 



[M] After Gomukha had told this story, he went on to 
tell that of Hiranyaksha. 

154. Story of Hiranyaksha and Mrigdnkalekhd 

There is in the lap of the Himalayas a country called 
Ka^mira, which is the very crest- jewel of the earth, the 
home of sciences and virtue. In it there was a town named 
Hiranyapura, and there reigned in it a king named Kana- 
kaksha. And there was born to that king, owing to his 
having propitiated Siva, a son named Hiranyaksha, by his 
wife Ratnaprabha. The prince was one day playing at ball, 
and he purposely managed to strike with the ball a female 
ascetic who came that way. That female ascetic, possess- 
ing supernatural powers, who had overcome the passion of 
anger, laughed and said to Hiranyaksha, without altering the 
expression of her face ^ : "If your youth and other qualities 
make you so insolent, what will you become if you obtain 
Mrigankalekha for a wife ? " ' 

^ I follow l)r Kern's conjecture, aviknidnana. 

2 In the Sicilianische M'drchen, No. 14, a prince throws a stone at an 
old woman's pitcher and breaks it. She exclaims in her anger : *' May you 



172 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

When the prince heard that, he propitiated the female 
ascetic, and said to her : " Who is this Mrigankalekha, tell 
me, reverend madam ? " Then she said to him : " There 
is a glorious king of the Vidyadharas on the Himalayas, 
named Sa^itejas. He has a beautiful daughter, named 
Mrigankalekha, whose loveliness keeps the princes of the 
Vidyadliaras awake at night. And she will be a fitting wife 
for you, and you will be a suitable husband for her." When 
the female ascetic, who possessed supernatural power, said 
this to Hiranyaksha, he replied : " Tell me, reverend mother, 
how she is to be obtained." Thereupon she said : "I will 
go and find out how she is affected towards you, by talking 
about you. And then I will come and take you there. And 
you will find me to-morrow in the temple of the god here, 
named Amaresa, for I come here every day to worship him." 

After the female ascetic had said this, she went through 
the air by her supernatural power to the Himalayas, to visit 
that Mrigankalekha. Then she praised to her so artfully the 
good qualities of Hiranyaksha that the celestial maiden 
became very much in love with him,^ and said to her : 
" If, reverend mother, I cannot manage to obtain a husband 
of this kind, of what use to me is this my purposeless life ? " 
So the emotion of love was produced in Mrigankalekha, and 
she spent the day talking about him, and passed the night 
with that female ascetic. 

In the meanwhile Hiranyaksha spent the day in thinking 
of her, and with difficulty slept at night, but towards the 
end of the night Parvati said to him in a dream : " Thou art 
a Vidyadhara, become mortal by the curse of a hermit, and 
thou shalt be delivered from it by the touch of the hand of 
this female ascetic, and then thou shalt quickly marry this 
Mrigankalekha. Do not be anxious about it, for she was 
thy wife in a former state." Having said this, the goddess 

wander through the world until you find the beautiful Nzentola!" Nos. 12 
and 13 begin in a similar way. A parallel will be found in Dr Kohler's notes 
to No. 12. He compares the commencement of the Pejitamerone of Basilc 

(Burton's translation, vol. i, p. 3). Cf. also Vol. Ill, p. 259, of this work. 

N.M.P. 

1 Sec Vol. I, p. 128, 128n ; Vol. II, pp. 143, 144, and Vol. Ill, pp. 68, 
68nS 261, 26ln.--N.M.P. 



THE END OF THE CURSE 178 

disappeared from his sight. And in the morning the prince 
woke and rose up, and performed the auspicious ceremonies 
of bathing and so on. Then he went and adored Amare^a 
and stood in his presence, since it was there that the female 
ascetic had appointed him a rendezvous. 

In the meanwliile Miigankalekha fell asleep with difficulty 
in her own palace, and Par vat! said to her in a dream : '' Do 
not grieve, the curse of Hiranyaksha is at an end, and he 
will again become a Vidyadhara by the touch of the hand 
of the female ascetic, and thou shalt have him once more 
for a husband." When the goddess had said this, she dis- 
appeared, and in the morning Mrigankalekha woke up and 
told the female ascetic her dream. And the holy ascetic 
returned to the earth, and said to Hiranyakslia, who was 
in the temenos of Amaresa : " Come to the world of Vidya- 
dharas." When she said this, he bent before her, and she 
took him up in her arms, and flew up with him to heaven. 

Then Hiranyaksha's curse came to an end, and he became 
a prince of the Vidyadharas, and remembered his former 
birth, and said to the female ascetic : " Know that I was 
a king of the Vidyadharas named Amritatejas in a city 
named Vajrakuta. And long ago I was cursed by a hermit, 
angry because I had treated him with neglect, and I was 
doomed to live in the world of mortals until touched by 
your hand. And my wife, who then abandoned the body 
because I had been cursed, has now been born again as 
Mrigankalekha, and so has before been loved by me. And 
now I will go with you and obtain her once more, for I 
have been purified by the touch of your hand, and my curse 
is at an end." 

So said Amritatejas, the Vidyadhara prince, as he 
travelled through the air with that female ascetic to the 
Himalayas. There he saw Mrigankalekha in a garden, and 
she saw him coming, as he had been described by the female 
ascetic. Wonderful to say, these lovers first entered one 
another's minds by the ears, and now they entered them by 
the eyes, without ever having gone out again. 

Then that outspoken female ascetic said to Mriganka- 
lekha : " Tell this to your father with a view to your 



174 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

marriage.*' She instantly went, with a face downcast 
from modesty, and informed her father of all through her 
confidante. And it happened that her father also had been 
told how to act by Parvati in a dream, so he received 
Amritatejas into his palace with all due honour. And he 
bestowed Mrigankalekha on him with the prescribed cere- 
monies, and after he was married he went to the city of 
Vajrakuta. There he got back his kingdom as well as his 
wife, and he had his father Kanakaksha brought there, by 
means of the holy female ascetic, as he was a mortal, and 
he gratified him with heavenly enjoyments and sent him 
back again to earth, and long enjoyed his prosperity with 
Mrigankalekha. 



[M] " So you see that the destiny fixed for any creature 
in this world, by works in a former birth, falls, as it were, 
before his feet, and he attains it with ease, though apparently 
unattainable." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this tale of Gomukha's, he 
was enabled to sleep that night, though pining for Saktiyasas. 



PANCADIVYADHIVASA 175 



CHOOSING A KING BY DIVINE WILL 

On page 155 we read that in a certain city there was an immemorial custom 
that an auspicious elephant was driven about by the citizens, and any man 
that he took up with his trunk and placed on his back was anointed king. 

At first sight this may seem to be merely an interesting bit of animal 
folk-lore, showing the great deference paid to the elephant in India. Its 
prominent place in every aspect of Hindu life would naturally tend to support 
this view. But here the act of the elephant is simply the remnant of a much 
older custom mentioned as early as the Jalakas, which, on its entry into the 
folk-lore of India, preserved only that portion essential for the purposes of 
the story-teller. I refer to the rite of pahcadixyadhivasa, or choosing a king by 
divine will. 

The exact meaning of the term has puzzled lexicographers for years. 
Panca, of course, means " five " and presents no difficulties. Dixya is a neuter 
noun and in a legal sense means " ordeal," but in the present connection is 
used in a concrete instead of an abstract sense. Thus neither Jacobi's 
" insignia of royalt}'," nor Meyer's " divine things " exactly expresses the 
meaning. Edgerton (" Paiicadivyadhivasa, or Choosing a King . . .," Jonni. 
Am. Orient. Soc, vol. xxiii, 191^, p. i66) would translate, "instruments of 
divine test," which certainly conveys the meaning better. This view is also 
taken by Hertel, who, in Das Panchatantra, seine Geschichte und seine Verbreitvng, 
Leipzig, 191 4-, p. 374n^, says: " divya hat den Sinn' Atisserung des Schicksalswillens,' 
entspricht also etwa unsenn ' Gottesurteil,' und hedeutet in unserem besojtderen Falle 
* dasjenige, was ein solches GoUesurteil kund tut.' ' EiJigesetzt ' werden die divya, 
inn den neiien Kiinig zu hestivimen." 

There still remains adhivasa to be discussed. In the past many scholars 
have connected it with vdsa, " perfume," but recent research has shown it to 
be derived from the root t)as, " to dwell," with the preposition adhi. The 
complete term, then, refers to a ceremony by which a deity or divine power 
is invoked to take its proper place in a sacred object, either in the image 
of a god or in some other thing (in this case five things) which is to be 
consecrated to some divine purpose. (See Edgerton, op. cil., p. l64 el seq.) 

We have already seen (Vol. I, p. 255n2) that five was regarded as a mystical 
number, and as such entered largely into Hindu ceremonies and ritual. There 
were five emblems of royalty, (raja-) kakudani : the sword, umbrella, crown, 
shoes and chowrie. The Burmese regalia consisted of almost exactly the same 
articles (see Vol. II, p. 264). 

It is not surprising, therefore, to find that in the selection of a king by 
divine will the number of the articles employed is also five. The ceremony 
being really a coronation, the list of articles varies from that given above. 
Naturally the chosen man must be anointed, and so a pitcher of holy water 
takes the place of the sword, while the two royal animals, the elephant 
and the horse, usually replace the crown and shoes, though sometimes the 
umbrella. 



176 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

There are several examples of the divine selection of a king in the JStakas, 
although the method adopted is different. After special consecration a " festal 
car" proceeds riderless wherever the divine will guides it, until it stops before 
the man whose merit is sufficient for him to rule the kingdom. The musicians 
who have followed the car now sound a triumphant acclamation, and the 
chosen ruler is anointed, and made to mount the waiting chariot. Such 
is the method described in the Mnhajanaka Jalaka, No. 539 (Cambridge 
edition, vol. vi, p. 2.5), while similar accounts occur in Nos. 378, 445, 46l, 
465 and 529 (.. vol. iii, p. 157 ; vol. Iv, p. 25 ; 6., p. 80; U>., p. 95; vol. v, 
p. 128). 

The tradition of this ceremony has persii^ted in many different parts of 
India to the present day, and whs recently found by Sir Aurel Stein in a 
variant of the Joseph and Potiphar tale as told by a Kashmirian story-teller. 
In this case it is an elephant and a royal hawk who make the choice. (See 
Stein and Grierson, Ualim's Tales, p. Si.) 

In many instances only one or two of the emblems of royalty are 
mentioned. For example in the Kuthako<^a (Tawney, p. 4 and note) there 
is an elephant with a pitcher of water fastened to its temple. It roams for 
.seven days before it finds the chosen man, whereupon it empties the pitcher 
on his head. On p. 128 of the same collection the horse is also mentioned, 
while on p. 155 we read : " Now, it happened that the king of that city died 
in the course of the night without leaving issue. Then the ministers had 
recourse to the five ordeals. The mighty elephant came into the garden 
outside the city. There the elephant sprinkled Prince Amaradatta and put 
him on its back. Then the horse neighed. The two chowries fanned the 
prince. An umbrella was held over his head. A divine voice was heard in 
the air : * Long live King Amaradatta I ' " 

In the Prahandhacintainani (Tawney, p. 181) the elephant roams alone in 
the whole city and finally sprinkles a humble umbrella-bearer. Sometimes, 
as in Jacobi's Hindu Tales, p. 131, only a horse is mentioned, while in another 
story in the same collection (p. 212) we have all five : " Having seen him, the 
elephant trumpeted, the steed neighed, the golden pitcher sprinkled him, the 
chowries fanned him, and the parasol stood over him." 

It would be superfluous to give other examples from Hindu fiction. 
They have, moreover, been already enumerated. See Tawney, " Some Indian 
Methods of Electing Kings," Vntc. Roy. As. Soc. Bengal, Nov. 1891, p. 135 
el seq.; Meyer, Dasa Kionara Charila, 1902, p. 94; Bloomfield, Life and Stories 
of Parqvanatha, pp. 199-202; ditto, "Joseph and Potiphar in Hindu Fiction," 
Trans. Ainer. Phil. Ass., vol. liv, 1923, pp. 142, 143 ; Stein and Grierson, op. cil., 
p. XXXV. Reference should also be made to W. Crooke, Popular Religion and 
Folk' Lore of Northern India, vol. ii, p. 240; ditto, Tribes and Castes of the 
North- Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. ii, p. 380; and to R. V. Russell, Tribes 
and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. iv, p. 462, where the founder of the 
Gahlot clan in Mewar was proclaimed king by au elephant putting a garland 
thrice round his neck. 

The subject has been discussed by Hartland from a much wider point of 
view, and variants are given from many parts of Europe as well as Asia. He 



PANCADIVYADHIVASA 177 

also includes examples showing that in many countries the choice of a king 
actually depends on omens from animals. Thus it is said that in Senjero, a 
petty kingdom in the south of Abyssinia, when the king dies, the nobles 
assemble outside the city in the open plain and wait until a vulture or an 
insect settles on one of them, who is then saluted as king. 

Hartland first read a paper on this subject before the Folk-Lore Society 
(see "The Voice of the Stone of Destiny," Folk-Lore, vol. xiv, 19OS, pp. 28-60). 
It was later reprinted with a few small additions in his Ritual and Belief, 
London, 1914, pp. 290-328 {not p. 30 et seq. as stated in Hatim's Tales, p. xxxv). 

In the Nights no animal is mentioned in connection with the custom of 
choosing a king by divine will, but the underlying idea is the same. In the 
story of " Ali Shar and Zumurrud " (Burton, vol. iv, p. 210), Zumurrud enters 
the city disguised as a man and is immediately made king. The act is thus 
explained : " . . . it is the custom of the citizens, when the king deceaseth 
leaving no son, that the troops should sally forth to the suburbs and sojourn 
there three days : and whoever cometh from the quarter whence thou hast 
come, him they make king over them." See also Supp., vol. ii, where Clouston 
gives a useful note when quoting one of J. H. Knowles' tales from Ind. Ant., 
June 1886. 

For other references see Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 75, and Cosquin, Les 
Conies Indiens et L' Occident, Paris, 1922, p. 321. n.m.p. 



VOL. V. 



T 



CHAPTER LXVI 

HE next night Gomukha told the following story 
[M] to Naravahanadatta to amuse him : 



155. Story of the Hermit and his Pupils 

In the holy place of Siva, called Dhane^vara, there lived 
long ago a great hermit, who was waited upon by many 
pupils. He once said to his pupils : "If any one of you 
has seen or heard in his life a strange occurrence of any 
kind, let him relate it." When the hermit said this, a pupil 
said to him : " Listen, I will tell a strange story which I 
once heard, 

155a. The Mendicant who travelled from KaSmlra to 

Pdtaliputra 

There is in Kai^mira a famous holy place, sacred to 
Siva, called Vijaya. In it there lived a certain mendicant, 
who was proud of his knowledge. He worshipped Siva, and 
prayed, " May I be always victorious in controversy," and 
thereupon he set out for Pataliputra to exhibit his skill in 
dispute. 

And on the way he passed forests, rivers and mountains, 
and having reached a certain forest, he became tired, and 
rested under a tree. And immediately he saw, as he was 
refreshing himself in the cool breeze of the tank, a student 
of religion, who had come there dusty with a long journey, 
with his staff and water-pot in his hand. When he sat 
down, the wandering mendicant asked him whence he came 
and whither he was going. The student of religion answered : 
" I come from that seat of learning Pataliputra, and I am 
going to Ka^mira to conquer the Pandits there in discussion." 

When the mendicant heard this speech of the religious 
^student's, he thought : " If I cannot conquer this one man 

178 



THE YAKSHA AND HIS WIFE 179 

who has left Pataliputra, how shall I manage to go and 
overcome the many who remain there ? " So reflecting, 
he began to reproach that religious student : " Tell me, 
religious student, what is the meaning of this inconsistent 
conduct on your part ? How comes it that you are at the 
same time a religious student, eager for liberation, and a 
man afflicted with the madness of disputatiousness ? Do 
you seek to be delivered from the world by binding your- 
self with the conceit of controversy ? You are quenching 
heat with fire, and removing the feeling of cold with snow ; 
you are trying to cross the sea on a boat of stone ; you 
are striving to put out a fire by fanning it. The virtue 
of Brahmans is patience ; that of Kshatriyas is the rescue of 
the distressed ; the characteristic quality of one who desires 
liberation is quietism ; disputatiousness is said to be the 
characteristic of Rakshasas. Therefore a man who desires 
liberation must be of a quiet temperament, putting away 
the pain arising from alternations of opposites, fearing the 
hindrances of the world. So cut down with the axe of 
quietism this tree of mundane existence, and do not water 
it with the water of controversial conceit." 

When he said this to the religious student, he was pleased, 
and bowed humbly before him, and saying, " Be you my 
spiritual guide," he departed by the way that he came. 
And the mendicant remained, laughing, where he was, at 
the foot of the tree, and then he heard from within it the 
conversation of a Yaksha, who was joking with his wife.^ 
And while the mendicant was listening, the Yaksha in sport 
struck his wife with a garland of flowers, and she, like a 
cunning female, pretended that she was dead, and immedi- 
ately her attendants raised a cry of grief. And after a long 
time she opened her eyes, as if her life had returned to her. 

^ Cf. the Yaksha to whom Phalabhuti prays in Chapter XX. The belief 
in tree-spirits is shown by Tylor in his Primitive Culture to exist in many parts 
of the world (see the Index in his second volume). Grimm in his Teutonic 
Mijthology (p. 70 et seq.) gives an account of the tree-worship which pre- 
vailed amongst the ancient Germans. See also an interesting article by 

M. J, Walhouse in the Indian Antiquary, vol. ix, June 1880, pp. 150-153, 

For other references to this important subject see those already given in 
Vol. I, p. 144n^, and Vol. II, pp. 43n^, 96^ and 97n. n.m.p. 



180 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Then the Yaksha, her husband, said to her : " What have 
you seen ? " Then she told the following invented story : 

" When you struck me with the garland, I saw a black 
man come, with a noose in his hand, with flaming eyes, 
tall, with upstanding hair, terrible, darkening the whole 
horizon with his shadow. The ruffian took me to the abode 
of Yama, but his officers there turned him back, and made 
him let me go." 

When the Yakshini said this, the Yaksha laughed, and 
said to her : " Oh dear ! women cannot be free from decep- 
tion in anything that they do. Whoever died from being 
struck with flowers ? Whoever returned from the house of 
Yama ? You silly woman, you have imitated the tricks of the 
women of Pataliputra. 

155AA. The Wife of King Simhaksha, and the Wives of his 

Principal Courtiers 

For in that city there is a king named Simhaksha; and 
his wife, taking with her the wives of his minister, commander- 
in-chief, chaplain and physician, went once on the thirteenth 
day of the white fortnight to make a pilgrimage to the 
shrine of Sarasvati, the protecting deity of that land. There 
they, queen and all, met on the way sick persons, hump- 
backed, blind and lame, and were thus implored by them : 
" Give medicine to us wretched diseased men, in order that 
we may be delivered from our infirmity ; have mercy upon 
the distressed. For this world is wavering as a wave of 
the sea, transient as a flash of lightning, and its beauty is 
short-lived like that of a religious festival. So in this un- 
real world the only real thing is mercy to the wretched, and 
charity to the poor ; it is only the virtuous person that can 
be said truly to live. What is the use of giving to the rich 
or the comfortable ? ^ What does the cold moon profit a 
shivering man, or what is the use of a cloud when winter 

* The Sanskrit College MS. reads anena for asanena. Dr Kem wishes to 
read suhitast/api/ asmiena kim. This would still leave a superfluity of syllables. 

The D. text reads suhilasycuanena, thus preserving both the sense and. 

the metre. n.m.p. 



THE HUSBANDS GROW SUSPICIOUS 181 

has arrived ? So rescue us miserable creatures from the 
affliction of sickness." 

When the queen and the other ladies had been thus 
supplicated by these diseased persons, they said to one 
another : " These poor afflicted men say what is true, and 
to the point, so we must endeavour to restore them to 
health even at the cost of all our substance." Then they 
worshipped the goddess, and each took one of those sick 
people to her own house, and, urging on their husbands, 
they had them treated with the potent drugs of Mahadevi, 
and they never left off watching them. And from being 
always with them, they fell in love with them, and became 
so attached to them that they thought of nothing else in 
the world. And their minds, bewildered with love, never re- 
flected what a difference there was between these wretched 
sick men and their own husbands, the king and his chief 
courtiers. 

Then their husbands remarked that they had on them the 
marks of scratches and bites, due to their surprising intimacy 
with these invalids.^ And the king, the commander-in- 
chief, the minister, the chaplain and the physician talked 
of this to one another without reserve, but not without 
anxiety. Then the king said to the others : " You keep 
quiet at present ; I will question my wife dexterously." 
So he dismissed them, and went to his private apartments, 
and assuming an expression of affectionate anxiety, he 
said to his wife : " Who bit you on the lower lip ? Who 
scratched you on the breast ? ^ If you tell me the truth, it 
will be well with you, but not otherwise." 

When the queen was thus questioned by the king, she 
told him a fictitious tale, saying : " Ill-fated that I am, I 
must tell this wonder, though it ought not to be revealed. 
Every night a man, with a discus and club, comes out of 
the painted wall,'' and does this to me, and disappears into 
it in the morning. And though you, my husband, are alive, 

^ See note at end of chapter. n.m.p. 

2 So in the "Tale of the Fisherman and the Jinni," Nights (Burton, vol. i, 
p. 65)^ a black slave comes out of the wall when the magic fish are cooked. 
Cf. Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 56. n.m.p. 



182 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

he reduces to this state my body, which not even the sun or 
moon has ever beheld." 

When the fooHsh king heard this story of hers, told with 
much semblance of grief, he believed it, and thought that 
it was all a trick played by Vishnu. And he told it to the 
minister and his other servants, and they, like blockheads, 
also believed that their wives had been visited by Vishnu, 
and held their tongues. 



155a. The Mendicant who travelled from Kasmira to 

Pdtaliputra 

" In this way wicked and cunning females, of bad char- 
acter, by concurring in one impossible story, deceive silly 
people, but I am not such a fool as to be taken in." 

The Yaksha by saying this covered his wife with con- 
fusion. And the mendicant at the foot of the tree heard it 
all. Then the mendicant folded his hands, and said to that 
Yaksha : " Reverend sir, I have arrived at your hermitage, 
and now I throw myself on your protection. So pardon my 
sin in overhearing what you have been saying." By thus 
speaking the truth he gained the good will of the Yaksha. 
And the Yaksha said to him : "I am a Yaksha, Sarvasthana- 
gavata by name, and I am pleased with you. So choose a 
boon." Then the mendicant said to the Yaksha : " Let 
this be my boon, that you will not be angry with this wife of 
yours." Then the Yaksha said : " I am exceedingly pleased 
with you. This boon is already granted, so choose another." 
Then the mendicant said : " Then this is my second petition, 
that from this day forward you and your wife will look upon 
me as a son." When the Yaksha heard this, he immediately 
became visible to him with his wife, and said : "I consent ; 
my son, we regard you as our own child. And owing to 
our favour you shall never suffer calamity. And you shall 
be invincible in disputation, altercation and gambling." 
When the Yaksha had said this, he disappeared, and the 
mendicant worshipped him, and after spending the night 
there, he went on to Pataliputra. 

Then he announced to King Simhaksha, by the mouth of 



THE RIDDLE 183 

the doorkeeper, that he was a disputant come from Kai^mira. 
And the king permitted him to enter the hall of assembly, 
and there he tauntingly challenged the learned men to 
dispute with him. And after he had conquered them all 
by virtue of the boon of the Yaksha, he again taunted 
them in the presence of the king in these words : "I ask 
you to explain this. What is the meaning of this state- 
ment : ' A man with a discus and mace comes out of the 
painted wall, and bites my lower lip, and scratches my 
chest, and then disappears in the wall again.' Give me an 
answer." ^ 

When the learned men heard his riddle, as they did 
not know the real reference, they gave no answer, but looked 
at one another's faces. Then the King Simhaksha himself 
said to him : " Explain to us yourself the meaning of what 
you said." Thereupon the mendicant told the king of the 
deceitful behaviour of his wife, which he had heard about 
from the Yaksha. And he said to the king : " So a man 
should never become attached to women, which will only 
result in his knowing wickedness." 

The king was delighted with the mendicant, and wished 
to give him his kingdom. But the mendicant, who was 
ardently attached to his own native land, would not take it. 
Then the king honoured him with a rich present of jewels. 
The mendicant took the jewels, and returned to his native 
land of Kasmira, and there by the favour of the Yaksha he 
Uved in great comfort. 



[M] When Gomukha ^ had said this, he remarked : " So 
strange are these actions of bad women, and the dispensations 

1 This part of the story may be compared with the story of "As tres 
Lebres," Coelho's Contos Populares Porluguezes, p. 90, or that of the " Blind 
Man and the Cripple," Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, p. 240 et seq. 

For a long bibliography of tales containing riddles as one of the 

main incidents see Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 193, and vi, pp. 42, 43. n.m.p. 

2 We do not get back to No. 155 as we should, for it was really the pupil 
who told Nos. 155a and 155aa (see p. 178). n.m.p. 



184 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

of Providence, and the conduct of mankind. Now hear this 
story of another woman who killed eleven.* 

156. Story of the Woman who had Eleven Husbands 

There was in Malava a certain householder, who lived in 
a village. He had born to him a daughter, who had two 
or three elder brothers. Now as soon as she was born her 
mother died, and a few days after, one of the man's sons 
died. And then his brother was gored by an ox and died of 
it. So the householder named his daughter "Three-slayer," 
because, owing to the birth of this ill-omened girl, three had 
met their death. 

In course of time she grew up, and then the son of a rich 
man, who lived in that village, asked her in marriage, and 
her father gave her to him with the usual rejoicings. She 
lived for some time with that husband, but he soon died. 
In a few days the fickle woman took another husband. 
And the second husband met his death in a short time. 
Then, led astray by her youthful feelings, she took a third 
husband. And the third husband of this husband-slayer 
died like the others. In this way she lost ten husbands in 
succession. So she got affixed to her, by way of ridicule, 
the name of " Ten-slayer." Then her father was ashamed 
and would not let her take another husband, and she 
remained in her father's house avoided by people. 

But one day a handsome young traveller entered it, 
and was allowed by her father to stop as his guest for a 
night. When Ten-slayer saw him, she fell in love with him, 
and when he looked at that charming young woman, he too 
was captivated. Then Love robbed her of her modesty, 
and she said to her father : "I choose this traveller as one 
husband more ; if he dies I will then take a vow." She 
said this in the hearing of the traveller, but her father 

^ In the notice of the first ten Fasciculi of this translation which appeared in 
The Saturday Review (or May 1 882 the following interesting remark is made on this 
tory : " And the story of the woman who had eleven husbands bears a curious, 
but no doubt accidental, likeness to an anecdote related by St Jerome about a con- 
test between a man and his wife as to which would outlive the other, she having 
previously conducted to the grave scores of husbands, and he scores of wives." 



ALWAYS ONE OX 185 

answered her : " Do not think of such a thing, it is too dis- 
graceful ; you have lost ten husbands, and if this one dies 
too, people will laugh consumedly." 

When the traveller heard this, he abandoned all reserve, 
and said : "No chance of my dying ; I have lost ten wives, 
one after another. So we are on a par ; I swear that it is so 
by the touch of the feet of Siva." When the traveller said 
this, everybody was astonished. And the villagers assembled, 
and with one consent gave permission to Ten-slayer to marry 
the traveller, and she took him for her husband. And she 
lived some time with him, but at last he was seized with 
an ague and died. Then she was called "Eleven-slayer," 
and even the stones could not help laughing at her ; so she 
betook herself in despondency to the bank of the Ganges 
and lived the life of an ascetic. 



[M] When Gomukha had told this amusing story, he 
went on to say : " Hear also the story of the man who 
subsisted on one ox. 

157. Story of the Man who, thanks to Durgd, had always 

One Ox 

There was a certain poor householder in a certain village, 
and the only wealth he had in his house was one ox. He 
was so mean-spirited that, though his family was on the 
point of perishing for want of food, and he himself had to 
fast, he could not make up his mind to part with that ox. 
But he went to the shrine of Durga in the Vindhya hills, 
and throwing himself down on a bed of darbha grass, he 
performed asceticism without taking food, in order that he 
might obtain wealth. The goddess said to him in a dream : 
" Rise up ! your wealth shall always consist of one ox, and 
by selling it you shall live in perpetual comfort." So the 
next morning he woke, and got up, took some food, and 
returned to his house. But even then he had not strength 
of mind to sell that ox, for he thought that, if he sold it, he 
would have nothing left in the world, and be unable to live. 



186 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Then as, thin with fasting, he told his dream with refer- 
ence to the command of the goddess, a certain intelligent 
friend said to him : " The goddess told you that you should 
always have one ox, and that you should live by selling it, 
so why did you not, foolish man, obey the command of the 
goddess ? So sell this ox, and support your family. When 
you have sold this one, yoU will get another, and then 
another." The villager, on receiving this suggestion from 
his friend, did so. And he received ox after ox, and lived 
in perpetual comfort by selling them.^ 



[M] " So you see. Destiny produces fruit for every man 
according to his resolution. So a man should be resolute ; 
good fortune does not select for favour a man wanting in 
resolution. Hear now this story of the cunning rogue who 
passed himself off as a minister. 

158. Story of the Rogue who managed to acquire Wealth by 
speaking to the King ^ 

There was a certain king in a city in the Deccan. In 
that city there was a rogue who lived by imposing upon 

^ Thus the poor man escaped his fate of poverty, and the story forms an 
example of the " Escaping One's Fate " motif which is so common in Hindu 
fiction. It has been fully treated in an excellent paper by W. N. Brown in 
Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloom field, 1920, pp. 89-104. The story in our 
text is, as Brown states, a poor variant of a much more elaborate tale in 
Dhannakalpadruma, ii, 4, 109 et seq., of which both text and translation are 
given by Hertel in Zeit. d. d. morg. Gesell., Ixv, p. 445. In this story all three 
children of an unfortunate king escape their fate owing to the cleverness of 
a faithful minister. All are reduced to getting their own living the best way 
they can. The second son has but a single ox which he uses to drag a load 
of grass daily to market. This would have gone on indefinitely had not the 
minister found him and instructed him: "Every day sell your ox. When it 
is sold, Fate will again give you the means of livelihood." For fuller details 
and variants see Brown's article mentioned above. n.m.p. 

* So in the Novellce Morlini, No. 4, a merchant, who is deeply involved, 
gives a large sum of money to the king for the privilege of riding by his side 
through the town. Henceforth his creditors cease their importunities. 
(Liebrecht's Dunlop, p. 494.) 



THE ROGUE'S TRICK 187 

others. And one day he said to himself, being too ambitious 
to be satisfied with small gains : "Of what use to me is this 
petty rascality, which only provides me with subsistence ? 
Why should I not do a stroke of business which would bring 
me great prosperity ? " 

Having thus reflected, he dressed himself splendidly as 
a merchant, and went to the palace gate and accosted the 
warder. And he introduced him into the king's presence, 
and he offered a complimentary gift, and said to the king : 
" I wish to speak with your Majesty in private." The king 
was imposed upon by his dress, and much influenced in his 
favour by the present, so he granted him a private interview, 
and then the rogue said to him : " Will your Majesty have 
the goodness every day, in the hall of assembly, to take me 
aside for a moment in the sight of all, and speak to me in 
private ? And as an acknowledgment of that favour I will 
give your Majesty every day five hundred dinars, and I do 
not ask for any gift in return." 

When the king heard that, he thought to himself : 
" What harm can it do ? What does he take away from 
me ? On the contrary, he is to give me dinars every day. 
What disgrace is there in carrying on a conversation with a 
great merchant ? " So the king consented, and did as he 
requested, and the rogue gave the king the dinars as he had 
promised, and the people thought that he had obtained the 
position of a high minister. 

Now one day the rogue, while he was talking with the 
king, kept looking again and again at the face of one official 
with a significant expression. And after he came out, that 
official asked him why he had looked at his face so, and 
the rogue was ready with this fiction : " The king is angry 
because he supposes that you have been plundering his realm. 
This is why I looked at your face, but I will appease his 
anger." 

When the sham minister said this, the official went home 
in a state of anxiety, and sent him a thousand gold pieces. 
And the next day the rogue talked in the same way with 
the king, and then he came out and said to the official, who 
came towards him : "I appeased the king's anger against 



188 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

you with some judicious words. Cheer up ! I will now 
stand by you in all emergencies." Thus he artfully made 
him his friend, and then dismissed him, and then the official 
waited upon him with all kinds of presents. 

Thus gradually this dexterous rogue, by means of his 
continual conversations with the king, and by many artifices, 
extracted from the officials, the subordinate monarchs, the 
Rajputs, and the servants, so much wealth that he amassed 
altogether fifty millions of gold pieces. Then the scoundrelly 
sham minister said in secret to the king : " Though I have 
given you every day five hundred dinars, nevertheless, by 
the favour of your Highness, I have amassed fifty millions 
of gold pieces. So have the goodness to accept of this gold. 
What have I to do with it ? " Then he told the king his 
whole stratagem. But it was with difficulty that the king 
could be induced to take half the money. Then he gave 
him the post of a Cabinet Minister, and the rogue, having 
obtained riches and position, kept complimenting the people 
with entertainments. 



[M] " Thus a wise man obtains great wealth without 
committing a very great crime, and when he has gained the 
advantage, he atones for his fault in the same way as a man 
who digs a well." 

Then Gomukha went on to say to the prince : " Listen 
now to this one story, though you are excited about yoiu: 
approaching marriage. 



159. Story of Hemapi'abhd and Lakshmisena 

There lived in a city, named Ratnakara, a king, named 
Buddhiprabha, who was a very lion to the infuriated elephant- 
herd of his enemies. And there was born to him by his 
queen, named Ratnarekha, a daughter, named Hemaprabha, 
the most beautiful woman in the whole world. And since 
she was a Vidyadhari, that had fallen to earth by a curse, 



THE PRINCESS ABSCONDS 189 

she was fond of amusing herself by swinging/ on account 
of the pleasure that she felt in recalling the impressions of 
her roaming through the air in her former existence. Her 
father forbade her, being afraid that she would fall, but she 
did not desist, so her father was angry and gave her a slap. 

The princess was angry at receiving so great an indignity, 
and wishing to retire to the forest, she went to a garden 
outside the city, on the pretence of amusing herself. She 
made her servants drunk with wine, and roaming on, she 
entered a dense tree- jungle, and got out of their sight. 
And she went alone to a distant forest, and there she built 
herself a hut, and remained feeding on roots and fruits, en- 
gaged in the adoration of Siva. As for her father, he found 
out that she had fled to some place or other, and made 
search for her, but did not find her. Then he fell into great 
grief. And after some time the king's grief abated a little, so 
he went out hunting to distract his mind. And, as it happened, 
that King Buddhiprabha went to that distant forest, in which 
his daughter Hemaprabha was engaged in ascetic practices. 

There the king saw her hut, and he went into it, and 
unexpectedly beheld there his own daughter emaciated with 
ascetic practices. And she, when she saw him, rose up at 
once and embraced his feet, and her father embraced her 
with tears and seated her on his lap. And seeing one another 
again after so long a separation, they wept so that even the 
eyes of the deer in the forest gushed with tears. Then the 
king at last comforted his daughter, and said to her : " Why 
did you abandon, my daughter, the happiness of a palace 
and act thus ? So come back to your mother, and give up 
this forest." When her father said this to her, Hemaprabha 
answered him : "I have been commanded by the god to 
act thus. What choice have I in the matter ? So I will 
not return to the palace to indulge in pleasure, and I will 
not abandon the joys of asceticism." 

^ For a long note on "Swinging as a Magical Rite" see J. G. Frazer, 
Golden Bough, vol. iv {Dying God), pp. 277-285. He seems, however, to have 
missed the importance of the erotic element in swinging. For this and 
several useful references see Havelock Ellis, Psychology of Sex, Evolution of 
Modesty, p. 174. n.m.p. 



190 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

When the king discovered from this speech of hers that 
she would not abandon her intention, he had a palace made 
for her in that very forest. And when he returned to his 
capital, he sent her every day cooked food and wealth, for 
the entertainment of her guests. And Hemaprabha remained 
in the forest honouring her guests with wealth and jewels, 
while she lived herself on roots and fruits. 

Now one day there came to the hermitage of that 
princess a female mendicant, who was roaming about, 
having observed a vow of chastity from her earliest youth. 
This lady, who had been a mendicant from her childhood, 
was honoured by Hemaprabha, and when asked by her the 
reason why she took the vow, she answered : " Once, when 
I was a girl, I was shampooing my father's feet, and my eyes 
closed in sleep, and I let my hands drop. Then my father 
gave me a kick, and said : ' Why do you go to sleep ? ' 
And I was so angry at that that I left his house and 
became a mendicant." 

Then Hemaprabha was so delighted with the female 
mendicant, on account of the resemblance of her character 
to her own, that she made her share her forest life. And one 
morning she said to that friend : " My friend, I remember 
that I crossed in my dreams a broad river ; then I mounted 
a white elephant; after that I ascended a mountain, and 
there I saw in a hermitage the holy god Siva. And having 
obtained a lyre, I sang and played on it before him and 
then I saw a man of celestial appearance approach. When 
I saw him, I flew up into the sky with you, and when I had 
seen so much, I awoke, and lo ! the night was at an end." 
When the friend heard this, she said to Hemaprabha : 
" Undoubtedly, auspicious girl, you must be some heavenly 
being born on earth in consequence of a curse ; and this 
dream means that your curse is nearly at an end." When 
the princess heard this speech of her friend's, she received 
it with joy. 

And when the sun, the lamp of the world, had mounted 
high in the heaven, there came there a certain prince on 
horseback. When he saw Hemaprabha dressed as an 
ascetic, he dismounted from his horse, and conceiving 



THE CURSE IS AT AN END 191 

admiration for her, he went and saluted her respectfully. 
She, for her part, entertained him, and made him take a 
seat, and feeling love for him, said : " Who are you, 

Hemaprabha ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ " "^^^^ *^^ pHnce Said I " Noblc 
meets lady, there is a king of auspicious name called 

Lakshmisena Pratapascna. He was once going through a 
course of asceticism to propitiate Siva, with the view of 
obtaining a son. And that merciful god appeared to him, 
and said : ' Thou shalt obtain one son, who shall be an 
incarnation of a Vidyadhara, and he, when his curse is at 
an end, shall return to his own world. And thou shalt 
have a second son, who shall continue thy race and uphold 
thy realm.' When Siva said this to him, he rose up in high 
spirits, and took food. Then he had one son born to him 
named Lakshmisena, and in course of time a second named 
Surasena. Know, lovely one, that I am that same Lakshmi- 
sena, and that to-day, when I went out to hunt, my horse, 
swift as the wind, ran away with me and brought me here." 

Then he asked her history, and she told it him, and 
thereupon she remembered her former birth, and was very 
much elated, and said to him : " Now that I have seen you, 
I have remembered my birth and the sciences which I knew 
as a Vidyadhari,^ for I and this friend of mine here are both 
Vidyadharis, that have been sent down to earth by a curse. 
And you were my husband, and your minister was the 
husband of this friend of mine. And now that curse of me 
and of my friend has lost its power. We shall all meet again 
in the world of Vidyadharas." 

Then she and her friend assumed divine forms and flew 
up to heaven, and went to their own world. But Lakshmi- 
sena stood for a moment lost in wonder, and then his minister 
arrived, tracking his course. While the prince was telling 
the whole story to him. King Buddhiprabha arrived, anxious 
to see his daughter. When he could not see his daughter, 
but found Lakshmisena there, he asked for news of her, and 
Lakshmisena told him what had happened. Then Buddhi- 
prabha was cast down, but Lakshmisena and his minister 
remembered their former existence, their curse having spent 

* I follow the Sanskrit College MS,, which reads vidyabhih safia satpsmrita. 



192 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

its force, and they went to their own world through the 
air. 

He recovered his wife Hemaprabha, and returned with 
her, and then taking leave of Buddhiprabha, he went to 
his own town. And he went with his minister, who had 
recovered his wife, and told their adventures to his father 
Pratapasena, who bestowed on him his kingdom as his 
successor by right of birth. But he gave it to his younger 
brother Surasena, and returned to his own city in the country 
of the Vidyadharas. There Lakshmisena, united with his con- 
sort Hemaprabha, and assisted by his minister, long enjoyed 
the delights of sovereignty over the Vidyadharas. 



[M] By hearing these stories told one after another by 
Gomukha, Naravahanadatta, though he was excited about 
his approaching marriage with his new wife Saktiya^as, 
spent that night as if it were a moment. In this way the 
prince whiled away the days, until the day of his marriage 
arrived, when, as he was in the presence of his father the 
King of Vatsa, he suddenly saw the army of the Vidya- 
dharas descend from heaven, gleaming like gold. And he 
saw, in the midst of them, Sphatikaya^as, the King of the 
Vidyadharas, who had come out of love, holding the hand 
of his dear daughter, whom he wished to bestow on the 
prince, and he joyfully went towards him, and saluted him 
by the title of father-in-law, after his father had first enter- 
tained him with the arghya and other usual ceremonies. 
And the king of the Vidyadharas stated the object of his 
coming, and immediately created a display of heavenly 
magnificence becoming his high position, and by the might 
of his supernatural power loaded the prince with jewels, and 
then bestowed on him in due form his daughter previously 
promised to him. And Naravahanadatta, having obtained 
that Saktiya^as, the daughter of the king of the Vidyadharas, 
was resplendent as the lotus after collecting the rays of the 
sun. Then Sphatikaya^as departed, and the son of the King 
of Vatsa remained in the city of Kau^ambi, with his eyes 
fixed on the face of Saktiya^as, as the bee clings to the lotus. 



NAIL-MARKS AND TOOTH-BITES 198 



NOTE ON NAIL-MARKS AND TOOTH-BITES 

On jMige 181 we read that the illicit passions of the queen and the other 
ladies were discovered by the husbands noticing the marks of scratches and 
bites on different parts of their bodies. To the Western mind this may appear 
an unimportant, if not unnecessary, intimate detail which would have been 
better omitted. Not so, however, in Hindu ethics. Both scratching and 
biting are given important parts in Vatsyayana's Kama Sutra, which is one of 
the earliest works dealing with the political and social conditions of ancient 
India. Its date can be taken at about a.d. 250. The deductions for arriving 
at this conclusion will be found in an article by Haranchandra Chakladar, 
"Vatsyayana the Author of the Kdmasiilra: Date and Place of Origin," 
Journal of the Department of Letters of the Unitersiti/ of Calcutta, vol. iv, 
1921, pp. 85-122. See also my Annotated Bibliography of Sir Richard Burton, 
London, 1923, pp. 168-171. 

In the tenth or eleventh centuries a.d. Kalyana Malla wrote on the 
same subject in his Ananga-Ranga, basing his work on similar chapters in 
the Kama Sntra. 

As both these works are very hard to procure I herewith give a selection 
of extracts from them. For the Kama Sfdra I follow the translation by 
K. Rangaswami Iyengar, Lahore, 1921 ; and for the Ananga-Ranga that by 
"A. F. F. and B.F.R." (i.e. F. F. Arbuthnot and Sir Richard F. Burton), issued 
by the so-called Kama Shastra Society in 1885. 

Both works give a list of desirable qualities to be found in finger-nails. 
They are to be : 

"Without spots and lines, clean, bright, convex, hard, and unbroken. 
Wise men have given in the Shastras these six qualities of the nails" (^An. 
Ran., p. 104). 

Vatsyayana gives eight kinds of nakhavilekkana(m) " scratching with the 
finger-nails." They are as follows (Kd. Sfd., pp. 64-66) : 

(1) Achhuritaka{m) superficially touching. (See Burton's note in An. 
Ran., p. 105.) 

(2) Ardhachandra, or "crescent moon," is the curving cut produced with 
the finger-nails at the neck or on the breasts of the woman. 

(3) Mandaia(m) (in An. Ran., Mandalaka), or "full moon," is when a ptair 
of such cuts as described in (2) are produced opposite to one another on the 
above parts of the body. It can also be inflicted on the lower part of the 
navel, the surface of the buttocks and the joint of the thighs. 

(4) Rekhd (written Lekhd on p. 65), or "line of scratch," may be inflicted 
on all parts of the body. These should be short and never very long. 

(5) Vydghranakhaka{m), " like the tiger's claw," is the crooked form of 
the lekhd, or mere line of scratch. Its place of operation is the foreparts of 
the woman's breasts. (This variety is omitted in the An. Ran.) 

(6) May7irapadaka{m), " j>eacock's footprint," is made by joining the five 
fingers together and drawing them over the surface of the breasts towards the 

VOL. V. N 



194 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

nipple, and making short scratclies. The chister of lines so formed receives 
the al)ove name. 

Kalyana Malla describes il rather differently {.in. limi., p. lOr*). It is 
"made by placing the thumb ujKjn the nipple, and the four fingers upon the 
breast adjacent, at the same time pressing the nails till the mark resembles 
the trail of the peacock, which he leaves when walking upon mud." 

(7) Snsapli(iaka{vt), "the hopping of a hare," follows immediately on the 
above on the mistress expressing her approbation. The man inflicts five close 
finger-nail prints on the nipple itself.- 

(8; l'lpnlapntrak(i{m), " lotus-petal," is formed by nail prints resen)bling a 
lotus petal made on the base of the breast and all around the waist where the 
belt is worn. 

The Anaiiga-lianga omits the ulpa/apalrahi and substitutes the anvartha, 
which is mentioned separately in the Karna STilra, as it is only given when the 
husband or lover is going abroad. It consists of three deep marks or scratches 
made by the nails of the first three fingers on the back, the breasts and the 
parts about the ^o?ii {An. Ifan., pp. 105, 106), 

Among the concluding remarks given by Vatsyayana is one which the 
ladies in our story would have done well to have observed : 

"The aforesaid actions with the finger-nails should not be resorted to 
in the case of other men's wives or concubines, as otherwise the marks would 
betray their secret love." 

With regard to the Dasanchachhedya, or " biting with the teeth," both 
authors are nearly similar, except that Vatsyayana enumerates eight, instead 
of seven, varieties. 

We are first informed {Kdm. SFiL, p. 68) that the teeth should be even, 
and attractive of colour as in chewing betel leaves. They should have pointed 
ends. 

The varieties are as follows : ' 

(1) Gudhaka{>n), "secret," where the under-lip of the M'oman is caught 
between the lip and one tooth of the man and lightly pressed, rendering it 
slightly reddish without perforating the skin. (This was the actual variety 
of bite noticed by the king in our story.) 

(2) UchvhhTmakn[m), the same as (1), only effected with greater pressure 
so as to cause a swelling. It is also done on the left cheek. 

(3) Pravdlamnni, "coral," is the red spot or mark produced by the 
repeated applications of the tooth and lip on a particular part of the body 
of a woman, without, however, inflicting a cut. 

(4) Manimala, "garland," is a row o{ pravalamani marks. 

(5) Bindn, "point," is the name given to a tiny wound on that part of a 
woman's body where the skin is thin. It is pulled out a little and bitten 
by the application of two teeth (one lower and one upper), thus causing the 
wound. 

(6) Bindumd/n, " garland of dots," is a row of bindn marks. Kalyana Malla 
explains further that the "garland" is formed by the application of all the 
teeth, not merely two, as in (5). 

These two mains, continues Vatsyayana, are acts applicable to the neck, 



NAIL-MARKS AND TOOTH-BITES 195 

armpits and the surface of the yoni, on account of the looseness of the skin 
in these parts. 

(7) Khandnbhraka{m), "rugged cloud," a murk of the form of a rugged 
piece of cloud. It is to be effected on the base of the breast. Kalyana Malla 
says it can also be applied to the brow, cheek and neck. 

(8) Varah(uhiinitakn{in), " chewing of a boar." When a number of long 
teeth-marks are produced close to each other on the base of th.' breast of 
the woman, by the process of chewing its successive parts, the intervening 
spaces being rendered red by that action, the above name is applicable. 

In concluding these two .sections Vutsyayana .says that both the acts of 
scratching and biting are sometimes applied on certain articles of decoration 
to be sent to one's mistress, such as fisexhak-a (an ornamental cutting of a leaf 
for the decoration of the forehead) kaniapura (a flower ornament for the ear), 
pushpapida (a garland or bunch of flowei-s), tambulapalum (betel leaf), and a leaf 
of tamata. These are known as abhhfogika, or, preliminary acts done to signify 
love tending to the lovers' ultimate union. Thus it is a kind of language of 
signs, to which we have already referred (see Vol. I, pp. 80n*-82?/). For fuller 
details of nakhaviU'khana{in) and dnsmutchchhedya see R. Schmidt, Beitriige ztir 
vulischen Erotik : Das Uvheslehen des Stimkrih'olkes, 2nd edition, Berlin, 1911, 
pp. 356-379. N.M.J'. 



BOOK XI: VELA 
CHAPTER LXVII 

INVOCATION 

HONOUR to the elephant-headed god who averts 
all hindrances, who is the cause of every success, 
who ferries us over the sea of difficulties. 



[M] Thus Naravahanadatta obtained Saktiya^as, and 
besides he had those wives he married before, Ratnaprabha 
and others, and his consort the head wife Madanamanchuka, 
and with his friends he led a happy life at the court of his 
father in Kau^ambi. 

And one day, when he was in the garden, two brothers, 
who were princes, and who had come from a foreign land, 
suddenly paid him a visit. He received them cordially, 
and they bowed before him, and one of them said to him : 
" We are the sons by different mothers of a king in the city 
of Vai^akha. My name is Ruchiradeva and the name of this 
brother of mine is Potraka. 

" I have a swift female elephant, and he has two horses ; 
and a dispute has arisen between us about them. I say 
that the elephant is the fleetest, he maintains that his horses 
rru t, are both fleeter. I have agreed that if I lose 

1 he liace 

between the the racc, I am to surrender the elephant, but if 
^w/^"' ^^ ^^ loses, he is to give me both his horses. Now 
no one but you is fit to be a judge of their relative 
speed, so come to my house, my lord, and preside over this 
trial. Accede to our request. For you are the wishing- tree 
that grants all petitions, and we have come from afar to 
petition you about this matter." 

When the prince received this invitation from Ruchira- 
deva, he consented out of good nature, and out of the interest 

196 



THE FAIR JAYENDRASENA 197 

he took in the elephant and the horses. He set out in a 
chariot drawn by swift horses, which the brothers had 
brought, and he reached with them that city of Vai^akha. 
When he entered that splendid city, the ladies, bewildered 
and excited, beheld him with eyes the lashes of which were 
turned up, and made these comments on him : " Who can 
this be ? Can it be the God of Love newly created from his 
ashes without Rati ? Or a second moon roaming through 
the heaven without a spot on its surface ? Or an arrow of 
desire made by the Creator, in the form of a man, for the 
sudden complete overthrow of the female heart." 

Then the king beheld the all-lovely temple of the God 
of Love, whose worship had been established there by men 
of old time. He entered and worshipped that god, the 
source of supreme felicity, and rested for a moment, and 
shook off the fatigue of the journey. Then he entered as a 
friend the house of Ruchiradeva, which was near that temple, 
and was honoured by being made to walk in front of him. 
He was delighted at the sight of that magnificent palace, 
full of splendid horses and elephants, which was in a state 
of rejoicing on account of his visit. There he was enter- 
tained with various hospitalities by Ruchiradeva, and there 
he beheld his sister, of splendid beauty. His mind and 
his eyes were so captivated by her glorious beauty, that he 
forgot all about his absence from home and his separation 
from his family. She too threw lovingly upon him her 
expanded eye, which resembled a garland of full-blown blue 
lotuses, and so chose him as her husband.^ Her name was 
Jayendrasena, and he thought so much upon her that the 
Goddess of Sleep did not take possession of him at night, 
much less did other females. ^ 

The next day Potraka brought that pair of horses equal 
to the wind in swiftness ; but Ruchiradeva, who was skilled 
in all the secrets of the art of driving, himself mounted the 
female elephant, and partly by the animal's natural speed, 

^ An allusion to the custom of choosing a husband in the svayamvara 

ceremony, by throwing a garland on the neck of the favoured suitor. See 

Vol. IV, p. 238. N.M.p. 

* Dr Kern would read dsaia. 



198 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

partly by his dexterity in urging it on, beat them in the 
race. When Ruchiradeva had beaten those two splendid 
horses, the son of the King of Vatsa entered the palace, and 
at that very moment arrived a messenger from his father. 
The messenger, when he saw the prince, fell at his feet, and 
said : ** The king, hearing from your retinue that you have 
come here, has sent me to you with this message : ' How 
comes it that you have gone so far from the garden without 
letting me know ? I am impatient for your return, so 
abandon the diversion that occupies your attention, and 
return quickly.' " When he heard this message from his 
father's messenger, Naravahanadatta, who was also intent on 
obtaining the object of his flame, was in a state of perplexity. 
And at that very moment a merchant, in a great state 
of delight, came, bowing at a distance, and praised that 
prince, saying : " Victory to thee, O thou God of Love 
without the flowery bow ! Victory to thee, O Lord, the 
future Emperor of the Vidyadharas ! Wast thou not seen 
to be charming as a boy, and when growing up, the terror 
of thy foes ? So surely the god shall behold thee like 
Vishnu, striding victorious over the heaven, conquering 
Bali." With these and other praises the great merchant 
magnified the prince ; then having been honoured by him, 
he proceeded at his request to tell the story of his life. 

160. Story of the Merchant and his Wife Veld 

There is a city called Lampa, the crown of the earth ; 
in it there was a rich merchant named Kusuma^ara. I, 
Prince of Vatsa, am the son of that merchant, who lives 
and moves in religion, and I was gained by the propitiation 
of Siva. Once on a time I went with my friends to witness 
a procession of idols, and I saw other rich men giving to 
beggars. Then I formed the design of acquiring wealth 
to give away, as I was not satisfied with the vast fortune 
accumulated by my father. So I embarked in a ship, laden 
with many jewels, to go across the sea to another country. 
And my ship, impelled by a favourable wind, as if by Fate, 
reached that island in a few days. 



THE ISLAND OF LANKA 199 

There the king found out that I was an unknown man 
dealing in valuable jewels, and out of avarice he threw me 
into prison. While I was remaining in that prison, which 
resembled hell, on account of its being full of howling 
criminals, suffering from hunger and thirst, like wicked 
ghosts, a merchant, named Mahidhara, a resident in that 
town, who knew my family, went and interceded with the 
king on my behalf, and said : " King, this is the son of a 
great merchant, who lives in the city of Lampa, and, as he 
is innocent, it is not creditable to your Majesty to keep him 
in prison." On his making representations of this kind, the 
king ordered me to be released from prison, and summoned 
me into his presence, and honoured me with a courteous 
reception. 

So, by the favour of the king and the support of that 
merchant, I remained there doing a splendid business. 

One day I saw, at a spring festival in a garden, a hand- 
some girl, the daughter of a merchant named Sikhara. I 
was quite carried off my feet by her, who was like a wave 
of the sea of love's insolence, and when I found out who 
she was, I demanded her in marriage from her father. Her 
father reflected for a moment, and at last said to me : "I 
cannot give her to you myself; there is a reason for my 
not doing so. But I will send her to her grandfather by the 
mother's side, in the island of Lanka ; go there and ask for 
her again, and marry her. And I will send her there with 
such instructions that your suit will certainly be accepted." 
When Sikhara had said this, and had paid me the usual 
coiui:esies, he dismissed me to my own house. And the next 
day he put the maiden on board ship, with her attendants, 
and sent her to the island of Lanka, across the sea. 

I was preparing with the utmost eagerness to go there, 
when this rumour, which was terrible as a lightning-stroke, 
was spread abroad where I was : " The ship in which the 
daughter of Sikhara started has gone to pieces in the open 
sea, and not a soul has been saved out of it." That report 
altogether broke my self-command, and being anxious about 
the ship, I suddenly fell into a hopeless sea of despondency. 

So I, though comforted by my elders, made up my 



200 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

mind to throw away my property and prospects, and I 
determined to go to that island to ascertain the truth. Tlien, 
though patronised by the king, and loaded with all manner 
of wealth, I embarked in a ship on the sea and set out. 

Then a terrible pirate, in the form of a cloud, suddenly 
arose against me as I was pursuing my course, and dis- 
charged at me pattering drops of rain, like showers of arrows. 
, The contrary wind, which it brought with it, 

tossed my ship to and fro like powerful destiny, 
and at last broke it up. My attendants and my wealth were 
whelmed in the sea, but I myself, when I fell into the water, 
laid hold of a large spar.^ By the help of this, which seemed 
like an arm suddenly extended to me by the Creator, I 
managed to reach the shore of the sea, being slowly drifted 
there by the wind. I climbed up upon it in great affliction, 
exclaiming against destiny, and suddenly I found a little 
gold which had been left by accident in an out-of-the-way part 
of the shore. I sold it in a neighbouring village, and bought 
with it food and other necessaries, and after purchasing a 
couple of garments, I gradually began to get over, to a certain 
extent, the fatigue produced by my immersion in the sea. 

Then I wandered about, not knowing my way, separated 
from my beloved, and I saw the ground full of lingas of Siva 
formed of sand. And daughters of hermits were wandering 
about among them. And in one place I saw a maiden 
engaged in Avorshipping a linga, who was beautiful, although 
dressed in the garb of a dweller in the forest. I began to 
think : " This girl is wonderfully like my beloved. Can 
she be my beloved herself ? But how comes it that I am 
so lucky as to find her here ? " And while these thoughts 
were passing in my mind, my right eye throbbed frequently, 
as if with joy,^ and told me that it was no other than she. 

^ This seems strange, and is partly contradicted by the next sentence, 
where we find he willingly accepts "all manner of wealth from the king." 
The D. text reads cittajn ambhir aksipan, ''though comforted by my elders, 
/ cherished my mind with hope and determined . . ." See Speyer, op. cit., 
p. 129. N.M.P. 

* Cf. Book III of the novel of AchilUi Tatius, c. 5. 

Cf. Eustathius' novel Hysmine and Uysminias, Book IX, chapter iv : 
"'EjTt 5^ TovTOts trojiTiv 6<{>6aX.ixhs irJAaro fJLOv 6 S^t^, koi i^v fxoi rh a-ijtifMOV dya6or, 



THE HERMIT'S DAUGHTER 201 

And I said to her : " Fair one, you are fitted to dwell in 
a palace ; how comes it that you are here in the forest ? " 
But she gave me no answer. 

Then, through fear of being cursed by a hermit, I stood 
concealed by a bower of creepers, looking at her with an 
eye that could not have enough. And after she had per- 
formed her worship, she went slowly away from the spot, 
as if thinking over something, and frequently turned round 
to look at me with loving eye. When she had gone out of 
sight, the whole horizon seemed to be obscured with dark- 
ness, as I looked at it, and I was in a strange state of 
perturbation, like the Brahmany drake at night. 

And immediately I beheld the daughter of the hermit 
Matahga, who appeared unexpectedly. She was in bright- 
ness like the sun, subject to a vow of chastity from her 
earliest youth, with body emaciated by penance. She 
possessed divine insight, and was of auspicious countenance, 
like Resignation incarnate. She said to me : " Chandra- 
sara, call up all your patience and listen. There is a great 
merchant in another island named Sikhara. When a lovely 
girl was born to him, he was told by a mendicant, his 
friend, who possessed supernatural insight, and whose name 
was Jinaraksliita ^ : ' You must not give away this maiden 
yourself, for she has another mother. You would commit 
a crime in giving her away yourself; such is the righteous 
prescription of the law.' Since the mendicant had told 

Kui rh TTpofxavTiVfia St^twraTov." See also Theocritus, iii, 37 : " akXerai 6<^da\fio<i 
/Kvo Se^tik* apa y'i8i}crw avrdv " ; where Fritsche quotes P\a.ut.,Pseudol., I, i, 105. 
Brand in his Popular AntujnUies, vol. iii, p. 172, quotes the above passage from 
Theocritus, and a very apposite one from Dr Nathaniel Home's D(einonologie : 
" If their ears tingle, they say they have some enemies abroad that doe or are 
about to speake evill of them : so, if their right eye itcheth, then it betokens 
joyful laughter." Bartsch in his Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebr'duche aus Meklaiburg, 
says: "Throbbing in the right eye betokens joy, in the left, tears." In 
Norway throbbing in the right ear is a good sign, in the left a bad sign 
(Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. '327). Forcellini .v.t>. " Salisatores " quotes from 
Isidore, viii, 9 : *' Salisatores vocati sunt, (jui duni eis meinbrornm qiiaecwujue partes 

salierint, aliquid sibi exinde prosperum , sen triste significare praedicunt." For 

details of Isidore of Seville's Etytnologi(e, see Thorndike, History of Magic, 
vol. i, pp. 62.3-633. See also Vol. II, pp. 1 14n', 145n, n.m.p. 
^ I.e. under the protection of a Buddha. 



202 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

him this, the merchant wished to give his daughter, when 
she was of marriageable age, and you asked her hand, to 
you, by the agency of her maternal grandfather. Then she 
was sent off on a voyage to her maternal grandfather in 
the island of Lanka, but the vessel was wrecked, and she 
fell into the sea. And as she was fated not to die, a great 
wave brought her here like destiny, and flung her up upon 
the shore. Just at that time my father, the hermit Matariga, 
came to the sea to bathe with his disciples, and saw her 
almost dead. He, being of compassionate nature, brought 
her round, and took her to his hermitage, and entrusted her 
to me, saying : ' Yamuna, you must cherish this girl.' And 
because he found her on the shore {veld) of the sea, he called 
the girl, who was beloved by all the hermits. Vela. And 
though I have renounced the world by a vow of perpetual 
chastity, it still impedes my soul, on account of my affection 
for her, in the form of love and tenderness for offspring. 
And my mind is grieved, Chandrasara, as often as I look 
upon her, unmarried, though in the bloom of youth and 
beauty. Moreover, she was your wife in a former life. So 
knowing, my son, by the power of my meditation that you 
had come here, I have come to meet you. Now follow me 
and marry that Vela, whom I will bestow on you. Let the 
sufferings, which you have both endured, produce fruits of 
happiness." 

Speaking thus, the saintly woman refreshed me with 
her voice as with cloudless rain, and then she took me to 
the hermitage of her father, the great hermit Matanga. 
The Curse of And at her request the hermit bestowed on me 
ihe Hermit ^hat Vela, like the happiness of the kingdom of 
the imagination incarnate in bodily form. But one day, 
as I was living happily with Vela, I commenced a splashing 
match with her in the water of a tank. And I and Vela, 
not seeing the hermit Matariga, who had come there to 
bathe, sprinkled him inopportunely with some of the water 
which we threw. That annoyed him, and he pronounced a 
curse on me and my wife, saying : " You shall be separated, 
you wicked couple." Then Vela clung to his knees, and 
asked him with plaintive voice to appoint a period for the 



THE CONSEQUENCE OF A CURSE 203 

duration of our curse, and he, after thinking, fixed its end 
as follows : " When thou shalt behold at a distance, Nara- 
vahanadatta, the future mighty Emperor of the Vidyadharas, 
who shall beat * with a swift elephant a pair of fleet horses, 
then thy curse shall be at an end, and thou shalt be reunited 
with thy wife." 

When the Rishi Matanga had said this, he performed 
the ceremony of bathing and other ceremonies, and went to 
Svetadvipa through the air to visit the shrine of Vishnu. 
And Yamuna said to me and my wife : "I give you now 
that shoe covered with valuable jewels, which a Vidyadhara 
long ago obtained, when it had slipped off from Siva's foot, 
and which I seized in childish sport." Thereupon Yamuna 
also went to Svetadvipa. Then I having obtained my be- 
loved, and being disgusted with dwelling in the forest, 
through fear of being separated from my w ife, felt a desire 
to return to my own country. And setting out for my 
native land, I reached the shore of the sea ; and finding a 
trading vessel, I put my wife on board, and was preparing 
to go on board myself, when the wind, conspiring with the 
hermit's curse, carried off that ship to a distance. When 
the ship carried off my wife before my eyes, my whole nature 
was stunned by the shock, and distraction seemed to have 
foimd an opening in me, and broke into me and robbed me 
of consciousness. 

Then an ascetic came that way, and seeing me insensible, 
he compassionately brought me round and took me to his 
hermitage. There he asked me the whole story, and when 
he found out that it was the consequence of a curse, and 
that the curse was to end, he animated me with resolution 
to bear up. Then I found an excellent friend, a merchant, 
who had escaped from his ship that had foundered in the 
sea, and I set out with him in search of my beloved. And 
supported by the hope of the termination of the curse, I 
wandered through many lands, and lasted out many days, 
until I finally reached this city of Vaii^akha, and heard that 
you, the jewel of the noble family of the King of Vatsa, had 
come here. Then I saw you from a distance beat that pair 

^ See note at the end of the story. n.m.i*. 



204 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

of swift horses with the female elephant, and the weight of 
the curse fell from me, and I felt my heart lightened. ^ And 
immediately I saw that dear Vela coming to meet me, whom 
the good merchants had brought in their ship. Then I was 
reunited with my wife, who had with her the jewels bestowed 
by Yamuna, and having by your favour crossed the ocean 
of separation, I came here. Prince of Vatsa, to pay you my 
respects, and I will now set out cheerfully for my native 
land with my wife.^ 



[M] Wlien that excellent merchant Chandrasara, who 
had accomplished his object, had gone, after prostrating 
himself before the prince, and telling his story, Ruchiradeva, 
pleased at beholding the greatness of his guest, was still 
more obsequious to him. And in addition to the elephant 
and the pair of horses, he gave his sister, making the duty 
of hospitality an excuse for doing so, to the prince who was 
captivated by her beauty. She was a good match for the 
prince, and her brother had long desired to bestow her upon 
him in mamage. Naravahanadatta then took leave of 
Ruchiradeva, and with his new wife, the elephant, and the 
two horses, returned to the city of Kau^ambi. And he 
remained there, gladdening his father with his presence, 
living happily with her and his other wives, of whom 
Madanamanchuka was the chief. 

^ So Malegis in "Die Heimonskinder " represents that his blind brother 
will be freed from his affliction when he comes to a place where the horse 
Bayard is being ridden (Simrock's Die Deutschen Volksbiicher, vol. ii, p. 96). 

- At the beginning of the story we saw that Naravahanadatta m-hs merely 
a judge of the race between the elephant and the horses. As the tale 
proceeds, however, Somadeva apparently forgets this, and in two places the 
race is referred to as that of Naravahanadatta himself. The reading in the 
D, text is similar to that in B. n.m.p. 



APPENDIX I 



APPENDIX I 

THE PANCHATANTRA 

The Panchatantra is, without doubt, one of the world's 
most famous books, and has been recited, read and loved 
by countless generations throughout the ages. It is not to 
be wondered at, then, that such a work formed part of the 
Brihat-kathd, and so found its way into the Ocean of Story. 

To attempt to give here, even in brief, the history of this 
great collection would be impossible. Firstly, space would 
not allow, and secondly, the works of the scholars who have 
specialised in the subject are easily obtainable. 

I shall merely endeavour, therefore, to explain shortly 
the different recensions and the chief opinions held as to the 
original work itself. 

Owing to the kind help of Professor Edgerton, of the 
University of Pennsylvania, I have been able to include a very 
full and up-to-date genealogical tree of the Panchatantra ^ 
which is of the greatest value in tracing any particular 
edition or translation to its source as far as present research 
allows. 

Some idea of the enormous spread of the Panchatantra 
can be obtained from the fact that there are known to exist 
over two hundred different versions in over fifty languages. 
It reached Europe in the eleventh century, and before 1600 
existed in Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, English, 
Old Slavonic and Czech. ^ 

First of all there are a few general points to be noted. 

The meaning of the name given to the collection is *' Five 
Tantras " i.e, a work consisting of five tantras. Although 
it cannot be said with absolute certainty what tantra 
means, it is usually translated as " book " or *' section '* 
(of a work). 

There has been much difference of opinion with regard to 
the date of the work. Originally Hertel suggested 200 B.C., 

^ Johannes Hertel, Das Pancatantra, seine Geschichte und seine Verbreilung, 
Leipzig und Berlin, 191 '*, and F. Edgerton, The Panchatantra Reconstructed , 
Amer. Orient. Soc., 1924, vol. ii, p. 3. 
207 



208 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

but in his Das Pancatantra brought it down to a.d. 300, 
following Winternitz and Thomas. Edgerton {op. city 
vol. ii, p. 182) considers it is at present impossible to say 
more about the date than that it was earlier than the sixth 
century a.d., in which the Pahlavi translation was made, 
and later than the beginning of the Christian era. 

The home of the Panchatantra is unknown. Hertel would 
put it in Kashmir, while Edgerton inclines to favour the 
south, possibly the south-west of India, though with very 
little confidence. None of the evidence, however, appears 
convincing, and I feel that much research remains to be 
done on the subject before any definite statement can be 
made. 

The work was written in Sanskrit, and was in all prob- 
ability intended to serve as a kind of political vade mecum 
rather like the Secretum Secretorum (see Vol. II, pp. 285- 
291), but with the additional attraction of appealing to the 
masses as just a collection of excellent stories. If they were 
introduced by a maxim or finished with a moral, it would 
in no way detract from the tale itself. 

The original Sanskrit text of the Panchatantra is lost, and 
so are many of its immediate descendants. We must also 
remember that the Brihat-kaihd is lost. Thus our troubles 
begin, and we are forced to rely on subsequent versions to 
form an opinion as to what the original was really like. The 
latest research on this part of the subject has been carried 
out by Professor Edgerton, and the translations of those 
stories omitted by Somadeva given later in this appendix 
are from his translations of the supposed original text as 
reconstructed by him from evidence derived from a com- 
parison of the existing recensions. (I have already given 
a resume of Professor Edgerton's work. The Panchatantra 
Reconstructed, in Man, November 1925, pp. 182, 183.) 

With regard to the number of recensions emanating from 
the original text, opinions are divided. Hertel believes there 
are only two : Tantrdkhydyika, and what he calls " K," 
archetype of all other versions. He would trace both to 
Kashmir. Edgerton, on the other hand, thinks it possible to 
establish four independent streams of Panchatantra tradition : 
Tantrdkhydyika, Southern Panchatantra, the Brihat-kathd and 
the Pahlavi versions. 

It is necessary to consider the chief recensions under their 
several heads: 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 209 

Tantrdkhydyika 

This is a recension of the utmost importance, as it has been 
estimated to contain ninety-five per cent, of the original text, 
besides including a considerable amount of material which 
was not in the original. It was discovered by Hertel at the 
beginning of the present century. Full details will be found 
in his works on the subject. ^ The only MSS. discovered came 
from Kashmir. The version has two sub-recensions which, 
in the main, are nearly identical. Hertel would consider this 
as " the only version which contains the unabbreviated and 
not intentionally altered language of the author, which no 
other Indian Panchatantra version has preserved. . . .'* 

As Edgerton has pointed out (op. city vol. ii, pp. 14-16), 
the version is not really entitled to such a privileged position, 
and *' the difference between the Tantrdkhydyika and other 
versions, in their relations to the original, is a difference of 
degree, and not a difference of kind." 

Southern Panchatantra 

This version was also edited by Hertel," and, as its name 
shows, is characteristic of Southern India. Hertel groups 
the MSS. in five sub-recensions which differ considerably. 
Although the version has been described as an abstract of 
the original, a close study of what Hertel calls sub-recension a 
will show that its contents compare very favourably with the 
Tantrdkhydyika^ and in some cases probably bears even a 
closer resemblance to the original. 

There are but few interpolations to the Southern Pancha- 
tantra, and only one complete story (i, 12 : " The Shepherdess 
and her Lovers ") is added. 

A closely related offshoot of the version is the Nepalese, 
acquired and edited by Hertel.' \t contains the verses 
of a text which, though resembling the Southern Panchatantra^ 

^ Ueber das Tantrakhyayika, die kasmirische Rezension des PaHcatantra, 
Abhandlungen der Fhilologisch - historischen Klasse der kgl. sachsischen 
Gesell. d. Wissen., Leipzig, 1904; Tantrakhyayika, die alteste Fassung des 
PaHcatantra, Leipzig und Berlin, 1909- 

" Das siidliche PaHcatantra, Leipzig, 1906. 

' Edited by Hertel : Introduction and Bo(^s I-IIIi in the " Anmerkungen '* 
(p. 117 et seq.) to his edition of the Southern Paficatantra; Books IV and V on 
p. xxvii of the Introduction to his edition of the Tantrakhyayika, 

VOL. V, o 



210 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

must have been distinct from it, both, however, having a 
common archetype. This is evident from the different 
readings of the same verses found in the two versions. 

There is another very important version derived from 
the same text as the Nepalese the well-known Hitopade^ay 
or " Friendly Advice." It contains not only Panchatantra 
material, but stories from some other work (or perhaps 
works) of a similar nature. It thus practically constitutes a 
work by itself, and actually boasts of an author of its own 
one Narayana, who lived somewhere between 800 and 1393. 

In common with the Nepalese version, the Hitopade^a 
transposes Books I and II of the Panchatantra, while the rest 
of the work has been entirely remodelled and augmented. 
It contains only four books instead of five. Book III has 
a frame- story which bears but little resemblance to that in 
Book III of the Panchatantra^ while that of Book IV is quite 
new. The frame- and sub- stories of Book V of the Pancha- 
tantra now appear in Books III and IV, besides several 
others from Books I and III of the Panchatantra. Several 
stories are omitted, and others are substituted, taken, it 
is surmised, from the work or works other than the 
Panchatantra used by Narayana. 

In spite of the extent of these above alterations, the 
Hitopade^a preserves over half the entire sub-stories of the 
Panchatantra, and follows closely its archetype, which it 
shares with the Southern Panchatantra, as already explained. 

Although the Hitopade^a is specially connected with 
Bengal, where it probably originated, its popularity soon 
spread throughout India and migrated westwards. Of the 
numerous editions which appeared in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the best are those by Schlegel, 1829 ; Peter Peterson, 
Bombay, 1887 ; and Max Miiller, London, 1864 and 1865. 
The work was translated into many European languages, 
the chief English ones being those by Wilkins, 1797, 1885 ; 
Sir W. Jones, 1799 ; Johnson, 1845 ; and Sir E. Arnold, 
1861. For further details of editions and translations, see 
Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 39 et seq., and Chauvin, op. cit, 
ii, p. 47. 

The Brihat-kathd Versions 

As we have already seen (Vol. I, pp. xxxii, xxxiii), there 
were two works based on the lost JSrihat-kathd, the Brihat- 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 211 

kathd-manjari by Kshemendra and the Kathd-sarit-sagara 
of Somadeva. Both contain a version of the Panchatantra, 
and, as in other cases, it is Somadeva who retains the more 
complete work. The fact that both these poets have included 
the Panchatantra in their works does not necessarily mean 
that it existed in the lost original Brihat-kathd, and in fact 
scholars such as Lacote (see his Essai sur Gunddhya et la 
Brhaikathd, Paris, 1908), Hertel (Tantrdkhydyika^ 1909, 
p. 42) and Edgerton are inclined to the belief that it was 
a later interpolation. Lacote considers that although the 
original Brihat-kathd contained no version of the Pancha- 
tantra, it was included in a later recast of the work. This 
version, like the original, was also in Pai^aci-Prakrit. Its 
date is uncertain, but apparently it came from the North- 
West ^possibly Kashmir. 

As both the Brihat-kathd itself and any subsequent 
version of it which may have existed are lost, we are entirely 
dependent on its offshoots, the Brihat-kathd-manjarl and the 
Kathd-sarit-sdgaray for any attempt at its reconstruction. 

As the version in both these works lacks the introduc- 
tion and at least one story, and as both authors worked 
independently (see Vol. I, p. xxxiii), it seems permissible 
to assume that the version of the Panchatantra which both 
men followed was similarly abbreviated. Then again, most 
of the verses containing morals and proverbial advice are 
omitted. As these have nothing to do with the stories 
proper, this is not to be wondered at when we remember 
that they were needed merely to enrich a storehouse of 
tales already collected. They would simply form a stream 
in the Ocean of Story its actual source would not matter, 
nor would any of its tributaries count. 

Thus it seems probable that the two versions here con- 
sidered are the outcome of a double translation. In spite 
of this and of the fact that both versions were abbreviated 
and in verse, quite a large portion of the original appears 
to have been preserved. This is doubtless due to the fact 
that Pai^aci-Prakrit is closely allied to Sanskrit, and when 
retranslated into Sanskrit would have many words exactly 
corresponding to the lost Sanskrit original. 

We will consider Kshemendra's work first. 
The Bfihat-kaihd-manjarl was discovered by A. C. 
Burnell, who gave an account of it in The Academy^ 15th 



212 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

SeptenibtT ISTl. In tlie following year G. Biihler wrote 
an important articlf in tlu' Indian Antiquary, vol. i, p. 802 
ft stq., on another MS. of the same work which lie had 
ai'(juirr(l for the (it)vernment of Hombay. His judgment 
;il)(ut the work ai^n-eed with that of Hurnell : " His brevity 
n:akes him unintelligible and his style is far from being easy 
auii flowing. ' SeMral passages were given to show its great 
inh ii*>rity t(> the Kath(i-sayit-sii<iara. In 1885 Sylvain L6vi 
edited the lirst Unnbiika in the Journal Asiatiqut', and in the 
follouing year the lirst and second Vetfda tales appeared in 
the same pa{)er. 

In 18'.*J Leo von Maiikowski published the PamluiUnitra 
portion alone under the title Dir Auszug aus dem Paiica- 
tiUitra in Kshcftwudras Brihatlxuthdnuinjarl. Unfortunately 
.Mahkt)wski had but one imperfect MS. identical with one of 
thru' used by Levi. Several other MSS. were subsequently 
diseo\ered. and in 1901 the whole work was jjrinted in 
H(:iil)ay at the Nirnayasagara Press. It was edited by 
Mahamahoj)a(ihyaya Pandit Sivadatta and Ka^Inath Pan- 
durang Parab. The edition (Kavyamfda, 09) lacks preface, 
antl nothing is said of tlie MSS. used in its constitution. 
It is. moreover, full of careless l^lundcrs, while little or 
no use has been made of the portions })reviously edited. 
Details will be found in Spcyer's " Studies about the 
Kdihdstirihdgara,^^ p. 1.'3 et seq., to which we have referred 
so often in the present work. 

As has already been stated, Kshcmendra's work is a nmch 
ah})r<viated version of the Brihut-kathd, and it so happens 
that when he comes to the Panchatantra section he seems to 
ha\ ( been as brief as possible. Whether it was his personal 
ilislike for fables, or because he thought them too well known 
to give in lull, we cannot tell. The amazing way in which 
Ik has castrated the original as compared with Somadeva's 
\ersioii is clearly shown by Speyer {(jj). cii., p. 18), who 
says that the few niurkhakat/uls which are given "are so 
(((iidensrd that they can hardly be understood and have 
lost all their llavour." He refers to another example as a 
' sapless r<iiinant "' of the version given l)y Somadeva. 

At th<- same time the Prihat-kathd-nianjari contains 
certain things which the Kathd-sarit-sd<^ara does not. For 
instance. sc\< ral of his (lescri})tions of a woman's beauty 
are much longer tiian as given by Somadeva, and his praise 
for the bravery and strength of certain princes and the 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 218 

description of the cemetery in the first Vetala story are 
also more detailed. Furthermore, Kshemendra is inclined 
to dwell on religious matters more than Somadeva. Speyer 
{op. city pp. 19, 20) gives several examples of this. But of 
greatest importance is the fact that five stories are included 
which were not in the Brihat-kaihd. They are, however, 
found in the Tantrdkhydyika^ which, as Hertel has shown,, 
justifies us in believing that if Kshemendra 's principal arche- 
type was the North- Western Brihat - kathd^ he must have 
used also a MS. of the Tantrdkhydyika. Except for the fact, 
therefore, that Kshemendra contains a little matter not in 
Somadeva, his version would be practically valueless. 



We now pass on to Somadeva 's version. 

As already mentioned in this volume (p. 41n}), our author 
does not give the Panchatantra in one continuous whole, but 
interrupts the sequence of the books by introducing other 
tales, usually of the " noodle " variety. 

Whether this was an idea of Somadeva himself, or whether 
he was following the plan already adopted by the author of 
the Brihat-kathd text on which he was working, is impossible 
to say with absolute certainty. Hertel supports the latter 
view in his monograph, " Ein altindisches Narrenbuch." ^ 

In the first chapter of his work Somadeva says (Vol. I, 
p. 2) : " This book is precisely on the model of that from 
which it is taken, there is not even the slightest deviation, 
only such language is selected as tends to abridge the pro- 
lixity of the work ; the observance of propriety and natural 
connection, and the joining together of the portions of the 
poem so as not to interfere with the spirit of the stories, are 
as far as possible kept in view : I have not made this attempt 
through a desire of a reputation for ingenuity, but in order 
to facilitate the recollection of a multitude of various tales." 
I feel that when he wrote this Somadeva was thinking chiefly 
of the separate collections he had found in his text, and if 
the Panchatantra was abbreviated by him it was because he 
thought that the lengthy moralising matter was interfering 
with the " spirit of the stories." He takes special care to 
see that nothing is lost in the narrative itself, and his style 
is graceful and elegant. Edgerton (op. dt, p. 26) estimates 

^ Berichte ii. d. Ferhandlungen d. kgl. sachsischen Gesell. d. Wissenschaftetif 
philol.-hist. Klasse, 1912, vol. Ixiv, pt i. 



214 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



that he preserves at least traces of about three-fifths of the 
original prose, and that his text shows no signs of having 
been contaminated by the use of any extraneous version. 

As we have already seen, Somadeva omits the Intro- 
duction to the Panchatantra. Whether it was he who did 
this or the author of the North-Western Bfihat-kathd is 
impossible to say, but when including such a collection in 
the " Great Tale " its stories would fit in even better without 
any separate introduction. I have given this in full on p. 221 
et seq. of this appendix. The translations followed in this 
and the other extracts are those of Professor Edgerton in his 
Panchatantra Reconstructed. 

The next omission occurs in Book I with the three short 
tales of self-caused mishaps and that of " The Crows and the 
Serpent." These are given on pp. 223-227. 

.In Book II the story of " The Deer's Former Captivity '* is 
wanting, but is really only an incident in the frame-story of 
Book II, and may have been lost in the process of abbreviating 
from the original Brihat-kathd. 

The only other omission is the last two tales of Book V : 
"The Brahman who built Castles-in-the-Air," and "The 
Barber who killed the Monks." All these are given in full 
in the present Appendix. 

The following table will show at a glance the list of stories 
in the Panchatantra. Those not in Somadeva's version are in 
italics : 



Book I 









] 


*^o. of Story 


in Ocean 


Introductory Story Kathdmukha , 


Ox abandoned in the Forest (Frame-story) 


. 84 


Monkey and Wedge 


. 84a 


Jackal and Drum 








. 84b 


Monk and Swindler 








k 


Rams and Jackal . 








^ ^ 


Weaver and Bawd 











Craws and Serpent 











Crane and Makara 








84c 


Lion and Hare 








84d 


Louse and Flea . 








84E 


Lion, Panther, Crow and Jackal , 






84F 


Pair of Tittibhas . 








. 840 



APPENDIX I -THE PANCHATANTRA 



215 



Book I continued 







No. of Story 




in Ocean 


Tortoise and the Two Swans 


84GG 


The Three Fish . . . . . 


84GGG 


Monkeys, Firefly and Bird 


84h 


Dharmabuddhi and Dushtabuddhi 


841 


Crane, Snake and Mungoose 


84j 


Mice that ate Iron Balance 


84k 


Book II 




Crow, Pigeons, Tortoise and Deer (Frame-story) 


. 9T 


Mouse and Hermit 


. 97a 


Brahman's Wife and Sesame-Seeds 


97aa 


Greedy Jackal .... 


, 97AAA 


Deer's Former Captivity . * 





Book III 




War of Crows and Owls (Frame-story) 


. 121 


Ass in Panther's Skin 


. 12lA 


Crow and Owl King 




. 121b 


Elephants and Hares 




. 121BB 


Bird, Hare and Cat 




121BBB 


Brahman, Goat and Rogues 




. 121c 


Old Merchant and Young Wife 




. 121D 


Brahman, Thief and Rakshasa 




121E 


Carpenter and his Wife 




121F 


Mouse turned into Maiden 




1210 


Snake and Frogs . 




12lH 


Book IV 




Monkey and the Porpoise (Frame-story) . 


188 


Sick Lion, Jackal and Ass 


, , 


188a 



Book V 

Brahman and the Mungoose (Frame-story) 
Brahman who built Castles-in-the-Air 
Barber and the Monks 



140 



216 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

The numbers of the stories given above will show im- 
mediately where the interpolations of other tales occur. 

Turning to the editions of the Kathd-sarit-sdgaray we are 
already aware of the fact that it was Professor Brockhaus 
who first edited the work. His text is as good as Sanskrit 
scholarship of his day allowed, but it has now been super- 
seded by that printed at the Nirnayasagara Press of Bombay 
and edited by Pandit Durgaprasad and Ka^Inath Pandurang 
Parab, 1889, 2nd edition, 1903. Although this text is a great 
improvement on that of Brockhaus, it cannot be called a 
critical edition, as it also contains many inaccuracies. In 
fact, Speyer says that in places Brockhaus' text is still pre- 
ferable. It has, however, been found necessary to compare 
the two texts, not only in the Panchatantra section, but 
throughout the entire work. It will have been noticed that 
wherever variants of any great importance occur, I have 
added an explanatory note. 

The Jain Versions 

The Jain versions are two in number, the so-called 
" Simplicior " and Purnabhadra. They are both important 
and must be discussed separately. 

" Textus Simplicior " was the name given to this text by 
its first editor, Kosegarten (Bonn, 1848). It has now been 
superseded by that published in the Bombay Sanskrit Series, 
1868-1869, edited by G. Biihler and F. Kielhorn. The author 
is unknown, but was probably a Jain (see Hertel, Pane, p. 72 
et seq.). His date must be somewhere between a.d. 900 and 
1199, because the former date is that of Rudrata, a stanza of 
whose work he quotes, and the latter date is that of Purna- 
bhadra, who used the " Simplicior " as one of his main 
sources. 

His version became very popular in Central and Western 
India and was practically the oi:dy one known. It has under- 
gone much change since originally produced, and all the 
known MSS. show interpolations and the language of the 
original is considerably altered. Hertel has given full details 
of the various MSS.^ and would divide them into two groups : 
the H-class and o--class. The Biihler-Kielhorn MSS. belong 
to the former and the Kosegarten MSS. to the latter. 

' See pp. 1 1-13 of vol. xii of the Harvard Oriental Series, details of which 
are given on p. 2l7n*. 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 217 

The " Simplicior " version retains the original five books, 
but has made them of nearly equal length. The stories in 
Books III and IV are largely transposed and new tales are 
constantly added. These are chiefly taken from Kaman- 
daki (see Benfey, op. cit, vol. i, p. xvn*). Hertel states 
that " Simplicior " has many features in common with 
Buddhistic forms of these tales, which deviate from the old 
Pancliatantra texts. 

There are also other alterations. Book V is almost en- 
tirely new and has " The Barber who killed the Monks " as its 
frame-story, with its own original frame-story ("The Brah- 
man and the Mungoose ") as only a sub-story. " Simplicior " 
has the same archetype as Tantrdkhydyika, while both 
form the main sources of the next version to be discussed 
Purnabhadra. 

Purnabhadra was a Jaina monk who apparently com- 
posed his work in a.d. 1199. The condition of the text 
is good, and Hertel's version ^ must closely resemble the 
original. 

The text itself is formed mainly from those of the Tantrd- 
khydyika and "Simplicior," as can be at once seen from 
Hertel's Parallel Specimens mentioned in the footnote.^ In 
fact, as Edgerton has shown (op. cit, vol. ii, p. 71 et seq.), 
in some cases the work has been done so unskilfully that 
we sometimes find in Purnabhadra two different versions of 
the same passage, one copied from the Tantrdkhydyika and the 
other from the " Simplicior." 

There is some difference of opinion as regards the extent 
to which each of these versions was drawn upon. Hertel is 
of the opinion that the author used MSS. from both the 
" Simplicior " sub-recensions, H and o-, while Edgerton 
believes he had access to an older " Simplicior " version 
altogether. His arguments will be found in vol. ii, p. 31 
et seq. of his Panchatantra Reconstructed ; while full details 
of Hertel's views are in his works issued by the Harvard 
Oriental Series. 

^ The Panchatantra . . . in the Recension called Panchakhyanaka . . . of . . . 
Purnabhadra, critically edited by Dr J. Hertel, Camb., Mass., 1908, Harvard 
Oriental Series, vol. xi. The Panchatantra-Text of Purnabhadra, Critical Intro- 
duction and List of Variants, J. Hertel, Harvard Oriental Series, vol. xii, 
Camb., Mass, 1912; also Panchatantra-Text of Purriabhadra and its Relation to 
Texts of Allied Recensions as shown in Parallel Specimens, J. Hertel, Harvard 
Oriental Series, vol. xiii, Camb., Mass., 1912. 



218 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Speaking roughly, Purnabhadra tends to follow Tdntra- 
khydyika in the first two books, and " Simplicior " in the 
last three. But apart from this there is evidence to show 
that he must have had some other source or sources from 
which he also drew. Exactly what these sources were we 
cannot tell, except that they were not any of the other known 
versions. 

The whole question has been discussed by Hertel and 
Edgerton, and cannot be detailed here. 

The Pahlavi Version and its Descendants 

The importance of this group is twofold. In the first 
place the Pahlavi is one of the oldest versions known, and 
must have been translated from a very ancient Sanskrit text 
agreeing closely with the first Sanskrit original. 

In the second place it is the descendants of this version 
which have become so familiar to us under such names as 
The Fables of Pilpay^ Kalilah and Dimnah. Lights of 
Canopus, The Morall Philosophie of Doni, etc. 

But first of all we must speak of the Pahlavi version 
itself. In A.D. 531, at the death of his father, Kobad 
(Kavadh), Anushirwan or Noshirwan became King of Persia. 
He was known among the Arabs as Kisra, and as Chosroes I 
by Western writers. He was designated "the Just," and has 
been described as the most illustrious fig\u*e in the history 
of Iran. Apart from his military successes and administra- 
tive reforms he was deeply interested in literature and 
philosophy. Whether it was his famous vizier Buzurgmihr 
who drew the attention of Noshirwan to the importance of 
Sanskrit MSS. is apparently not known, but the introduction 
of the game of chess from India is said to have been due to 
his influence. 

However this may be, a Sanskrit MS. of the Pancha- 
tantra (among others) came into the king's hands and was 
given to a Court physician named BurzSe or Burzuyeh, with 
a command to make a translation into Pahlavi, the official 
language of Persia at the time. Unfortunately both the 
Sanskrit original and the translation are lost, and our 
knowledge of them is derived from the Syriac and Arabic 
translations of the Pahlavi version which have been 
preserved. 

Burzoe called his translation after the two jackals, 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 219 

Karataka and Damanaka, who appear in the first book, 
whence the Arabic " Kalilah wa Dimnah " and the Syriac 
*' Kalilag wa Damnag." 

For some unknown reason the Introduction is missing, to- 
gether with three stories (ii, 4 : " Deer's Former Captivity " ; 
iii, 1: "Ass in Panther's Skin"; and v, 2: "Barber who 
killed the Monks "), one story is transposed, and a new one 
(i, 3c: "The Treacherous Bawd ") is added. Apart from 
these details the Pahlavi version must have been a literal 
rendering of the Sanskrit, and Edgerton finds evidence that 
at least some parts of fully eighty per cent, of the original prose 
sentences and over seventy per cent, of the original verses 
have been preserved. 

As already mentioned, the two important translations of 
the Pahlavi version were those made into Syriac and Arabic. 

The old Sjnriac version was made by Bud about a.d. 570. 
It was put into German and edited (with an introduction by 
Benfey) by G. Bickell in 1876, but this has been superseded 
by Schulthess' Kalila und Dimna, Syrisch und Deutsch, 1911 
(with additions by Hertel). 

The Arabic version was the work of *Abdallah ibn 
Moqaffa, a convert from Mazdaism to Islam, executed 
about A.D. 750. Full details will be found in an article by 
Sprengling, American Journal of Semitic Languages, vol. xl, 
1924, p. 81 et seq. This Arabic translation became very 
popular, and, on the whole, the numerous Arabic MSS., 
translations and adaptions which soon came into being, can 
be looked upon as directly descended from Abdallah's work. 
It is impossible to mention them all, and it would, more- 
over, be mere repetition, owing to the full treatment already 
given by Hertel, Das Pancatantra, Leipzig and Berlin, 1914, 
and Chauvin, op. cit, ii. 

The oldest of the versions directly dependent on the 
Arabic is probably one in Syriac of the tenth century. This 
was edited by Wright in 1884, and is well known in England 
owing to Keith-Falconer's translation at Cambridge in 1885. 

There are three other branches of the Arabic descendants 
requiring particular notice: Greek, Persian and Hebrew. 
The Greek version was made by Symeon Seth in the eleventh 
century under the title " Zre^av/rj/y <aJ 'Ix'^^"''^*" It was 
edited by Stark in 1697 (2nd edition in 1851), and from 
it were derived Latin, Italian and Old Slavonic versions. 
Details of these are given by Chauvin, op, cit, ii, pp. 21-24, 



220 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

which must now be corrected, however, in accordance with 
Edgerton's remarks below (pp. 238-239). 

The Persian version was made by one Nar Allah in 1121, 
and its great importance lies in the fact that from it sprung 
the better-known Persian version, the Anzvdr-i Suhaill, which 
was soon translated into numerous European languages, and 
became known in England as the Lights of Canopus through 
the translations of Eastwick, 1854, and Wollaston, 1877 and 
1894. 

The French editions were mostly called Fables de Pilpay, 
and were constantly translated into English. 

The Hebrew version was composed, perhaps ^ by one 
Rabbi Joel, in the twelfth or thirteenth century, and was 
edited by J. Derenbourg with a French translation in 1881. 
Unfortunately the only manuscript known is fragmentary 
and the entire first book is lost. The value of the Hebrew 
version is, however, greatly enhanced by the fact that it 
served as the basis of the famous Latin version of John 
of Capua Directorium vitce humance. It was this version 
which contributed so largely to the spread of Oriental stories 
in Europe. It proved exceedingly popular in Germany, 
where it first appeared about 1480 as Buck der Beispiele 
der alien Weisen, by Anthonius von Pfor or Pforr. From 
that date to 1860 no less than twenty-one different editions 
appeared in Germany. 

It also proved exceedingly popular in Spain. It was a 
Spanish translation which formed the basis of Firenzuola's 
Discorsi degli Animali (sixteen editions, 1648-1895). Directly 
based on the Latin version was the work of Doni, which ap- 
peared under the title of La Moral Filosophia (three editions), 
and from this came Sir T. North's English version. The Morall 
Philosophic of Doni, in 1570. It was reprinted in 1601, while 
a recent edition was issued by David Nutt in 1888, with an 
introduction and useful " Pedigree of the Bidpai Literature " 
by Joseph Jacobs. 

Space will not allow any detailed account of all these 
different translations and editions. Reference should be 
made to the genealogical tree at the end of this appendix, 
where all the branches of Panchatantra tradition are clearly 
set out, and many past mistakes rectified. 

* Grave doubts exist as to the authorship and date of the Hebrew. See 
Steinschneider, Hehrdische Uebersetzungen, pp. 875-876, and other references in 
Chauvin, ii, p, 56n}. 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 221 

After thus touching briefly on the main Panchatantra 
versions, I shall close my portion of this appendix by giving 
translations of the Introduction and all stories omitted by 
Somadeva. 

As already stated, these translations are by Professor 
Edgerton, who has very kindly given me leave to repro- 
duce them here. They represent translations of the 
original Panchatantra, the text having been reconstructed 
by Professor Edgerton from the chief existing recensions. 

In order to understand fully the methods adopted in this 
reconstruction, reference should be made to his work. The 
Panchatantra Reconstructed, 2 vols., New Haven, Conn., 1924. 

The stories omitted by Somadeva are as follows : 

Introduction ^Kathamukha. 

The Monk and the Swindler. 

The Rams and the Foolish Jackal. 

The Cuckold Weaver and the Bawd. 

The Crows who tricked the Serpent. 

The Deer's Former Captivity. 

The Brahman who built Castles-in-the-Air. 

The Barber who killed the Monks. 



Introduction Kathdmukha 

To Manu, to Vachaspati, to Sukra, to Para^ara and his 
son, and to Chanakya the Wise to these authors of the 
books of the science of kingship be homage. 

Vishnui^arman has mastered the cream of all the treatises 
on the science of polity in the world ; and he too has com- 
posed a fascinating treatise in these five books. 

Thus runs the account of it. There was in the south 
country a city named Mahilaropya. There dwelt a king 
named Amarasakti. He was a Tree- of- Wishes granting the 
desires of all suppliants. His feet were illumined by a flood 
of radiant beams from the crown jewels of noble kings who 
bowed before him. He was completely skilled in all the 
arts and versed in all the science of polity. And he had 
three sons, named Vasu^akti, Ugra^akti and Anka^akti, 
who were utter fools. Now when the king saw that they 
were ignorant of political science, he called his ministers 
and took counsel with them : " Sirs, you know already that 
these my sons are utter fools. What profit is there in the 



222 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

birth of a son, if he be neither wise nor virtuous ? What can 
a man do with a cow which neither gives milk nor calves ? 

" Better a miscarriage ; better no intercourse whatsoever 
at the proper seasons ; better a stillborn child ; nay, better 
even that a daughter be born ; better a barren wife ; better 
to enter upon the homeless mendicant state of life than a 
foolish son, though he were handsome, rich, and powerful. 

** By what means, then, may their intelligence be 
awakened ? " 

At this some of them said : " Sire, it is well known that 
the study of grammar requires twelve years ; then, if that 
be in a measure mastered, after it the systematic study of 
religion, polity and love may be taken up. So this is a sore 
task even for intelligent folk ; how much more for the dull- 
witted I Now in matters like this there is a Brahman named 
Vishnu^arman, who knows all the facts of the science of 
polity, and whose fame is spread abroad by his many pupils. 
Summon him and let him take charge of the princes." 

This plan was adopted, and a minister summoned Vishnu- 
barman, who came and saluted the king with a benediction 
after the manner which Brahmans employ, and took his seat. 
And when he was comfortably seated the king said to him : 
" Brahman, I beg you to do me the favour of making these 
ignorant princes second to none in the science of polity, 
and I will requite you with a sum of money." Thus spoke 
the king ; but Vishnu^arman arose and said to the king : 
" Sire, hear this my lion's roar 1 I make this statement not 
as one covetous of money ; and since I am eighty years of 
age and my senses are all dulled, the time for me to enjoy 
wealth is over. But in order to help you I will undertake 
this as a trial of intellectual skill. So let this day be written 
down ! If within the space of six months I do not make 
your sons completely versed in the science of polity, then, 
sir, you may show me the door and banish me to a distance 
of a hundred hastas.'^ 

When the king and his ministers heard this unbelievable 
promise on the part of the Brahman, in delight and astonish- 
ment he gave over the princes to Vishnu^arman with all 
deference. But the latter began to teach the king's sons 
the science of polity under the guise of stories, for which 
purpose he composed Five Books entitled, The Separation 
of Friends, The Winning of Friends, The Story of the Crows 
and the Owls, The Loss of One's Gettings, and Hasty Action. 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 228 

The Monk and the Swindler 

In a certain region there was a monk named Deva^arman. 
In the course of time he had gained a large fortune through 
the acquisition of fine garments of excellence, which various 
pious people had presented to him. And he trusted no one. 
Now once upon a time a thief named Ashadhabhuti observed 
this money, which he carried in his waist-pocket, and medi- 
tated : " How can I steal this money from him ? " And he 
presented himself to the monk as a pupil, and in time won 
his confidence. Now once upon a time that monk started on 
a journey with this same Ashadhabhuti, to make a pilgrimage 
to holy places. And in the course of the journey in a 
certain wooded region he left Ashadhabhuti with the money 
near the bank of a river, and went aside to get water. 

The Rams and the Foolish Jackal 

And there by the edge of the water he saw a great fight 
of rams. And as they fought with all their strength and 
without rest, a great quantity of blood flowed from between 
their branching horns and fell upon the ground. A certain 
foolish jackal saw this, and his mind was aroused by the 
hope of eating it, and in his eagerness for meat he ran up 
between the two rams as they separated, leaving some 
distance between them, to get at the blood. And when 
they came together again he was killed by the shock of 
their impact. Then the monk was filled with amazement, 
and said : " The jackal by the rams' fight." 

The Monk and the Swindler 

And having purified himself he returned to that place ; 
but as for Ashadhabhuti, he had taken the whole pile of 
money and run away, and Deva^arman could not find him. 
But all he saw was a discarded triple staff, firewood, a water- 
vessel, a sieve, and a toothbrush. And he reflected : " Where 
is that Ashadhabhuti ? He must have robbed me." And 
in great distress he said : " And I by Ashadhabhuti." 

The Cuckold Weaver and the Bawd 

Then that monk, having nothing left but his half-skull 
used as drinking-vessel and the empty knot in his robe in 



224 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

which hf had cariicil tht- nu)ncy, went off searching for the 
rogue's tracks, ami as tiie sun was setting entered a certain 
village. As lie entered lie met a weaver who lived in the 
vdi^v of tin- \ illage and asked of him a lodging for the niglit. 
And he showed him to (juarters in a part of his house, and 
siiiil to his wife : *' While I am gone to town and am drinking 
licjuor with my friends, until I return, do you carefully tend 
the house. " Alter thus instructing her he departed. 

Now his wife was unchaste. And when a proeuress 
came and pressed her to go, she donned her adornments 
and started out to go to her lover. .lust then her husband 
caiiu home, his garments awry, with staggering gait, and so 
hadly under the intluence of li(pior that he could not speak 
his wc)rds ])lainly. And when she saw him, with presence of 
mind, she deftly toijk off her adornments and put on her 
ordinary garb as before, and licgan to wash the feet of the 
gu( st. prepare Jiis bed, and the like. But the weaver entered 
the house and began to scold her : " Harlot ! My friends 
ha\ e been telling me of your evil actions. All right ! I will 
})ay you back richly ! " So saying he beat her with blows 
of a stick until she was black and blue, and tied her fast 
with a rope to the j)ost in the middle of the house, and then 
went to sleep. At this time the procuress, a barber's wife, 
when she perceived that the weaver was asleep, eame in 
again, and said : " That fine fellow is consumed with the 
tire of longing for you, so that he is like to die. So I will 
release you and bind myself in your place ; do you go thither 
and console him you know whom and come back quickly." 

So the barber's wife released her from her bonds and 
sent her off to her lover. After this the weaver awoke, 
sobered, and began to scold her in the same way as before. 
But the procuress was frightened, and did not dare speak 
with her strange voice lest she be recognised, but she held 
lur peace. He, however, kept on saying the same things 
to her. And when she gave him no answer, at last he cried 
out angrily : " Are you so proud that you will not so much 
as answer what I say ? " And he arose and cut off her nose 
with a sharp knife, and sai(l : " Have that for your decora- 
tion 1 Who will be interested in you now ? " So saying he 
went to sleep again. Then the weaver's wife returned and 
asked the procuress : " What .news with you ? What did 
he say when he woke up ? Tell me, tell me ! " But the 
procuress, who had received th^ punishment, showed her 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 225 

her nose, and said in an ill humour : " You can see what 
the news is ! Let me loose and I will go." She did so, and 
she departed, taking her nose with her. The weaver's wife, 
however, arranged herself as she had been before, with a 
semblance of bonds. 

But the weaver awoke and began to scold her in the same 
way as before. Then she said to him angrily and reproach- 
fully : " Fie, wicked man ! Who could dare to disfigure 
me, a pure and faithful wife ? Hear me, ye Rulers of the 
World-regions ! As surely as I know even in my thoughts 
no strange man, no one other than the husband of my youth, 
by this truth let my face be undisfigured I " Having spoken 
thus, she said to her husband again : " O most wicked man ! 
Behold my face ! It has become just as it was before ! " 

Then that stupid man's mind was bewildered by her 
tricky words. He lighted a lamp, and beheld liis wife with 
her face undisfigured. His eyes bulged, his heart was 
filled with joy, and kissing her he released her from her 
bonds, and fell at her feet, and embraced her passionately 
and carried her to the bed. 

But the monk remained on the spot, having seen the 
whole occurrence from the very beginning. 

And that procuress, with her nose in her hands, went 
home, thinking : " What can I do now ? How can I con- 
ceal this great disaster ? " Now her husband, the barber, 
came back at dawn from another place, and said to his wife : 
" Bring me my razor- case, my dear ; I have to go to work 
in the king's palace." And she did not move from the 
inside of the house, but threw out to him a razor only. And 
because she did not hand him the whole razor- case, the 
barber's heart was filled with wrath, and he threw that same 
razor at her. Then she raised a loud cry of anguish, and 
rubbed her nostrils with her hand, and threw her nose 
dripping with blood on the ground, and said : " Help ! 
Help ! This wicked man has mutilated me, though he has 
found no fault in me ! " Then the policemen came, and 
saw that she was obviously mutilated, and beat the barber 
soundly with blows of their sticks and afterwards bound 
him firmly, and took him, along with her, to the seat of 
judgment. And the judges asked him : " Why did you 
maltreat your wife thus cruelly ? " And when, in spite of 
repeated questioning, he made no reply, then the judges 
ordered that he be impaled upon a stake. Now, as he was 

VOL. V. p 



226 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

being taken to the place of execution, the monk, who had 
observed the whole course of events, saw him, and went to 
the court and said to the judges : " This barber is innocent 
of wrongdoing; do not have him impaled. For hear these 
three marvels : 

" The jackal by the rams' fight, and I by Ashadhabhuti, 
and the procuress by the weaver : these three afflictions 
were self-caused." 

And when the judges had learned the true facts of the 
case, they spared the barber. 

The Crows who tricked the Serpent 

Once upon a time in a certain locality there was a tree, 
in which dwelt a pair of crows. But when they brought 
forth young, a cobra was in the habit of crawling up the 
hollow trunk of the tree and eating the young crows before 
they learned to fly. Then they, in despair, asked a close 
friend of theirs, a jackal who lived at the foot of another 
tree : " Friend, what, think you, would it be well for us to 
do in such a case ? Since our young are murdered, it is the 
same as if we, their parents, were slain." Said he: "Do 
not despair in this matter. Only by craft can that greedy 
creature surely be destroyed. After eating many fish, best, 
worst, and middling, a heron grew too greedy and so at last 
met his death by seizing a crab." 

Then the male crow said to the jackal : " What do you 
think it timely for us to do ? " Said he : " Get a gold chain 
that belongs to some rich man, a king or minister or the 
like, and put it in the snake's hole. The people who come to 
get it will kill the snake." So speaking the jackal departed. 
Then the two crows, hearing this, flew up and soared about 
at random looking for a gold chain. And soon the female 
crow came to a certain lake, and when she looked, she saw 
that the members of a king's harem were playing in the 
water of the lake, having laid aside near the water their gold 
chains, pearl necklaces, garments, and other finery. Then 
the female crow picked up a gold chain and set out through 
the air to her own home, but slowly, so as not to get out 
of sight. Thereupon when the chamberlains and eunuchs 
perceived the theft of the chain, they took their sticks and 
quickly pursued. But the female crow deposited the gold 
chain m the snake^'s hole, and waited a long way off. 



APPENDIX I -THE PANCHAT ANTRA 227 

Now when the king's officers climbed the tree, in the 
trunk they found the cobra with his hood expanded. And 
they killed him with blows of their sticks. When they had 
done this they took the gold chain and departed, going 
where they would. Biit the pair of crows from that time 
forth dwelt in peace. 

The Deer^s Former Captivity 

Once upon a time I was a six-months'-old foal. And I 
ran in front of all the rest, and easily going a long distance 
ahead I would act as guard to the herd. Now we have two 
kinds of gaits, the upright, hurdling, and the straight-away, 
running. Of these I was acquainted with the straight-away, 
but not with the upright gait. Now once upon a time as I 
ran along I lost sight of the herd of deer. My heart was 
terrified, and I gazed about in all directions to see where 
they had gone, and perceived them some distance ahead. 
For they, employing the upright gait, had all leaped over a 
snare and gone on ahead, and were waiting and looking for 
me. And I rushed forward, employing the straight-away 
gait, because I did not know how to go the upright gait, and 
was entangled in the net. Thereupon I was caught by the 
hunter when he came up. And he took me and brought me 
to the king's son for him to play with. But the king's son 
was greatly delighted at seeing me, and gave a reward to 
the hunter. And he petted and tended me with dainty food 
such as I liked, and with other attentions rubbing me with 
unguents, bathing and feeding me, and providing me with 
perfumes and ointments. And the women of the harem 
and the princes, finding me very interesting, passed me 
around from one person to another, and annoyed me greatly 
by pulling at my neck and eyes, hands, feet, and ears, and 
by the like attentions. 

Now once upon a time, during the rainy season, when I 
was right under the prince's bed, the longings of my heart 
were stirred by the sound of the thunder of the clouds and 
the sight of the lightning, so that my thoughts went back 
to my own herd, and I spoke as follows : " When shall it 
be my lot to follow behind the herd of deer as it runs hither 
and yon, driven about by the wind and rain ? " 

Thereupon the prince, who was alone, was astonished, 
and spoke as follows : " I am all alone ; who was it that 



228 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

spoke these words here ? " His heart was greatly troubled, 
and he looked all round, and noticed me. And when he 
saw me he thought : " It was no human being who said 
this, but a deer. Therefore this is a portent and I am surely 
undone.'* So thinking he became greatly agitated. His 
speech faltered, and with difficulty he ran out of the house, 
and he fell seriously ill, as if possessed of a mighty demon. 
Then in the morning, being stricken with a fever, he addressed 
himself to all the physicians and devil- doctors, stirring their 
cupidity with a promise of much money : " Whoever can 
cure this my disease, to him I will give no mean fee." But 
I was at this time being beaten by the thoughtless crowd 
with blows of sticks, bricks, and clubs, when a certain saintly 
man came to my rescue, as my life was not yet spent, and 
said : " Why are you killing this poor beast ? " And this 
noble man, who knew the meaning of all signs, said to the 
king's son : *' Sir, all the tribes of animals can speak, though 
you may not know it but not in the presence of men ; he 
gave expression to his heart's fancies in this way only because 
he did not see you. His longings were stirred by the rainy 
season, and his thoughts turned to his herd, and so he spoke 
as he did : ' When shall it be my lot to follow behind the 
herd of deer as it runs hither and yon, driven about by the 
wind and rain ? ' So there is no ground for your illness, 
sir; it is unreasonable." And when the king's son heard 
this, his feverish disease left him and he became whole as 
before. And he led me away and anointed me, and had my 
body washed with plenty of water, and set men to watch 
over me, and turned me loose in that same forest. And 
the men did just as he told them. Thus, though I suffered 
captivity before, I have now been captured again by the 
power of Fate. 

The Brahman who built Castles-in-the-Air 

There was a certain Brahman's son who was plying his 
studies. He received sacrificial offerings of food in the 
house of a certain merchant. And when he did not eat 
there, he received a measure of grits. This he took home 
and put it in a jar and saved it. And so, in the course of a 
long time, this jar of his became full of grits. One time the 
Brahman was lying on his bed underneath that jar, which 
he had hung on a wall-peg, having taken a nap in the day- 



APPENDIX I -THE PANCHATANTRA 229 

time and waked up again, and he was meditating thus : 
" Very high is the price of grain, and still higher grits, which 
are food all prepared. So I must have grits worth as much 
as twenty rupees. And if I sell them I can get as many as 
ten she-goats worth two rupees apiece. And when they are 
six months old they will bear young, and their offspring will 
also bring forth. And after five years they will be very 
numerous, as many as four hundred. And it is commonly 
reported that for four she-goats you can get a cow that is 
young and rich in milk, and that has all the best qualities, 
and that brings forth live calves. So I shall trade those 
same she-goats for a hundred cows. And when they calve, 
some of their offspring will be buUocks, and with them I 
shall engage in farming and raise plenty of grain. From the 
sale of the grain I shall get much gold, and I shall build a 
beautiful mansion of bricks, enclosed by walls. And some 
worthy Brahman, when he sees what a great fortune I have, 
with abundance of men-servants and maid-servants and all 
sorts of goods, will surely give me his beautiful daughter to 
wife. And in the course of time I shall beget on her body 
a boy that shall maintain my line ; strengthened by the 
merit I have acquired, he shall be long-lived and free from 
disease. And when I have performed for him the birth- 
rite and other ceremonies in prescribed fashion, I shall give 
him the name of Somasarman. And while the boy is running 
about my wife will be busy with her household duties at the 
time when the cows come home, and will be very careless 
and pay no heed to the lad. Then, because my heart is 
completely mastered by love for the boy, I shall brandish 
a cudgel and beat my wife with my cudgel." 

So in his reverie he brandished his cudgel and struck 
that jar, so that it fell down, broken in a hundred pieces 
all over himself, and the grits were scattered. Then that 
Brahman's body was all whitened by the powdered grits,^ 
and he felt as if awakened out of a dream and was greatly 
abashed, and the people laughed at him. 

The Barber who killed the Monks 

There was in a certain city a merchant's son of old, 
who had lost his wealth, his kinsfolk, and his fortune, and 
was ground down by poverty. Attended by his old nurse 
he had lived since childhood in a part of a broken-down 



230 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

dwelling, and he had been brought up by his old nurse, a 
slave-woman. Once early in the evening he meditated, 
sighing a long and earnest sigh : " Alas, when will there be 
an end to this my poverty ? " As he pondered thus he fell 
asleep ; and it was night. And towards morning he saw a 
dream. Three monks came and woke him and said to him : 
" Friend, to-morrow we shall come to visit you in this same 
form. For we are three heaps of treasure stored away by 
your forefathers, and when you slay us with a cudgel we 
shall turn into dinars. And you must show no mercy in 
doing this." So in the morning he awoke, still pondering 
on this dream, and said to the nurse : " To-day, mother, 
you must be well prepared all day for a solemn rite. Make 
the house ceremonially pure by smearing on cow-dung and 
so forth, and we will feed three Brahmans to the best of our 
ability. I for my part am going to get a barber." So it 
was done, and the barber came to trim his beard and nails. 
When his beard had been trimmed in proper fashion, the 
figures which he had seen in the dream came in. And as 
soon as the merchant's son saw these monks, he dealt with 
them as he had been commanded. And they became piles 
of money. And as he took in this mass of wealth, the 
merchant's son gave the barber three hundred dinars as a 
fee, and in order to keep the secret. But the barber, having 
seen him do this, went home and drew a hasty conclusion 
from what he had seen, and thought : " I too will kill three 
monks with a cudgel and turn them into three heaps of 
treasure." So he took a cudgel and stood in readiness ; 
and presently three monks, impelled by their previous deeds, 
came a-begging. Thereupon the barber smote them with 
the cudgel and killed them. And he got no treasure. 
Straightway the king's officers came and arrested the barber 
and took him away and impaled him. 



It is now my pleasure to introduce Professor Franklin 
Edgerton of the University of Pennsylvania. This scholar 
has most liberally and unreservedly given me full advantage 
of the results of his great research work into the intricacies 
of Pancfuitanira tradition. He has not only adopted my 
suggestion of preparing a detailed and comprehensive table 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 281 

of the chief MSS., editions, translations, etc., but has 
supplemented this by an " Explanatory Note," the value 
of which will at once be apparent. The work of previous 
scholars on the subject of Panchatantra Bibliography {e.g. 
Chauvin, Hertel, etc.) is of the greatest use and import- 
ance, but, especially owing to their ignorance of Slavonic 
languages and the consequent necessity of using second- 
and third- hand information, they were led into very serious 
errors. 



GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE 
PANCHATANTRA 

PREPARED BY 

FRANKLIN EDGERTON 

Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

LEGEND 

1. Languages are set in CAPITALS. 

2. Titles of works are set in italics ; except that the titles 
of certain versions of special historic importance (such as 
Kalilah wa-Dimnah, the Directorium Vitse Humanse, etc.) are 
given special prominence by being set in Q\t> jEn^ltsb. 

3. Modern European translations of antique versions 
are distinguished from older offshoots by being attached to 
a horizontal line drawn to the right from the middle of the 
perpendicular line of descent at the foot of which are placed 
the older offshoots. 

4. Occasional references are made to : 

" Chauvin "*=V. Chauvin, Bibliographie des ouvrages 
arabes . . ., vol. ii, Liege and Leip- 
zig, 1897. 

" Hertel " =J. Hertel, Das Pancatantra . . ., Leip- 
zig and Berlin, 1914. 

5. For the numbered footnotes (referred to in the Table 
by a dagger preceding an Arabic numeral viz. fO see 
pp. 286-242. 

EXPLANATORY NOTE TO THE TABLE 

Modern translations of Sanskrit versions are omitted from 
the Table. ^ With that exception, the Table undertakes to 

1 For the sake of completeness I refer briefly here to these omitted 
versions. (For fuller details^ see Hertel, Das Patlcatantra.) They are : 

1, From Somadeva's text: ENGLISH, Tawney (in K.S.S., vol. ii), 1884; 
reprinted in this volume. GERM AN (published since Hertel'sbook), 
Schacht. (^Indische Erzdhlungen. Aus dem Sanskrit zum erstenmal 
ins Deutsche iibertragen von Dr Hans Schacht . . . Lausanne and 

232 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 288 

refer, at least summarily, to all known works which are in whole 
or in considerable part descendants of the Panchatantra. 

This statement needs some qualification, or at least 
explanation, as regards the treatment of the late INDIC 
versions. There are known to exist in India, both in 
Sanskrit and in the vernaculars, and in Farther India, 
many relatively late versions of which little is known as yet. 
Most of them exist only in manuscripts or in uncritical and 
inaccessible Oriental editions. Virtually all the information 
about them now available can be found in Hertel's Panca- 
tantra (see above). It would be impossible to indicate with 
any confidence the precise affiliation of most of them. I 
have therefore contented myself with indicating the three 
or four groups into which these late Indie versions appear 
to fall, listing in each case all the languages in which any of 
them are known to exist. It will appear from the Table that 
these groups are as follows : 

1. A primarily South- Western group, centering originally 

in or near the Maratha country, and generally 
derived from contaminations of offshoots of the 
Southern Panchatantra with relatives of Group 2 
(see footnote %). 

2. A West Indie group, centering in Gujerat, mainly 

by Jain authors, and derived primarily from one or 
both of the older Jain versions, sometimes with con- 
tamination from other versions (see footnote fe)- 

Leipzig, 191 8. Consists of lambaka 10 = tarangas 57-66 of the Kaiha- 
saritsdgara, wherein are included all five books of the Panchatantra.) 

2. From Kshemendra's text: GERMAN, Marikowski, 1892. 

.S. From the Tantrakhyayika : GERMAN, Hertel, 1909. 

4. From the " Textus Simplicior " (Kielhorn-Biihler's edition) : GERMAN, 

Fritze, 1884. DUTCH, Van der Waals, 1895-1897. (? perhaps from 
the next) SPANISH, Bolufer, 1908. 
From the same, Kosegarten's edition (contaminated with Purnabhadra) : 
GERMAN, Benfey, 1859. FRENCH, Lancereau, 1871. DANISH, 
Rasmussen, 1893. ITALIAN, Pizzi, 1896. 

5. From Purnabhadra's text: GREEK, Galanos, 1852. GERMAN, 

Schmidt, n.d. (1901). ENGLISH, A. W. Ryder {The Panchatantra, 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1925). 

6. From the Hitopade^a: very many translations, both Oriental and 

Occidental (see Hertel, pp. 43-68, and p. 447): GERMAN, ENG- 
LISH, FRENCH, GREEK, DUTCH, RUSSIAN, PERSIAN, 
BENGALI, BRAJ BH AKH A, GUJERATI, HINDI, HINDUSTANI, 
MARATHI, NEWARI, TELUGU. 



284 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

8. Two groups derived principally from the Southern 
Panchatantra : one including primarily versions in 
South Indie (Dravidian) languages, and the other 
spreading over Farther India. According to Hertel, 
the South Indie original of this second group was 
contaminated with some offshoot of the Jain versions. 
This theory, while it may be correct, hardly seems to 
me sufficiently well established to require recognition 
in the Table. 

The descendants of the PAHLAVI version are listed in 
much greater detail. In a few cases minor Oriental versions 
are indicated group- wise instead of individually; but even 
then the number of versions recorded, as well as the language^ 
is always given. In general, each known version receives 
individual mention. 



SOURCES OF THE TABLE 

I. The affiliations of the Older Sanskrit versions are given 
in accordance with my own conclusions, as stated and de- 
fended in my Panchatantra Reconstructed (New Haven, 1924), 
vol. 2, passim (Table on p. 48). For Hertel's radically 
different views (criticised by me, op. cit.^ pp. 89-127), see his 
Pancatantra, 426ff. (Anhang II) and references there quoted. 
As to the later Indie versions, see the last paragraph but 
one. 

II. For the affiliations of the descendants of the Pahlavi, I 
am mainly indebted to the works of Chauvin and Hertel, men- 
tioned on page 232, to which the reader is referred for details 
about editions, etc. Hertel's work, as regards the Pahlavi 
versions, was almost wholly based on Chauvin, and by means 
of his indexes, and his references to Chauvin, the source of 
any of my statements, for which no other authority is given, 
can easily be found. 

I have, however, verified all the statements of my prede- 
cessors as far as I could with the bibliographical aids at my 
disposal. And I have been able to correct or supplement 
their statements in a considerable number of particulars, 
notably from the following sources (others will be mentioned 
in the Notes) : 

1. Brockelmann's article on "Kalila wa-Dimna " in the 
Encyclopedia of Islam. 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 285 

2. Sprengling's study on the manuscripts of the Arabic, 
in American Journal of Semitic Languages, 40, 81ff. 
(year 1924). 

8. Jacobs 's Table inserted at page Ixxx of his reprint 
of Sir Thomas North's Morall Philosophic of Doni 
(London, 1888). Though out of date and very mis- 
leading in many respects, this Table records a few 
versions which escaped the notice of both Chauvin 
and Hertel, neither of whom seems to have consulted 
Jacobs. 

4. Certain Russian and other Slavonic authorities, known 
but not consulted by Chauvin and Hertel ; by the 
use of them I have corrected, in particular, the very 
erroneous statements made by Chauvin and Hertel con- 
cerning the Slavonic recensions (see footnotes 16 and 
19 on pp. 238, 289). The chief of these authorities are : 

(a) Riabinin's Introduction to Attai's Russian translation 

of the Arabic Kalilah wa-Dimnah (Moscow, 1889). 

(b) Viktorov's edition of the Old Slavonic (Moscow, 1881 ; 

OLDP . [ = Obschestvo Liubitelei Drevnei Pismennosti] , 
vol. Ixxviii). 

(c) Danidid's edition of the same (not a Croatian trans- 

lation! cf. footnote 19, pp. 288, 289) in the journal 
Starine, Zagreb (Agram), 1870, vol. ii, 261ff. 

(d) A. Rystenko, "On the History of the Story of Ste- 

phanites and Ikhnelates in Byzantine and Slavo- 
Russian Literature," [in the Russian language] in 
Annals of the Historical-philological Society of the 
Imperial New Russian University [at Odessa], x. 
By zantino- Slavonic section vii, Odessa, 1902, pp. 
237-280. (This last was, of course, not known to 
Chauvin, being later in date than his work.) 

In the footnotes to the Table, which now follow, I furnish 
the grounds for all the statements in the Table except such as 
can be easily traced from the preceding general explanation. 

More especially I quote the authority for every statement 
regarding descendants of the Pahlavi which is not in accord 
with easily located statements in both Chauvin and Hertel. 

Where no footnote is given, it may be assumed that what 
the Table gives regarding the Pahlavi versions {not regarding 
the Indie versions 1) accords with both Chauvin and Hertel. 



236 THK OCEAN OF STORY 

For brt'vity, I refer to tlu' authorities named on page 232 
by names alone, thus : Cliauvin, Ilertel. lircM-kehnann, Spreng- 
hn<,', .Ia(()l)s, Hiahinin, < te. In cpioting Hroek<'huann's 
artiile 1 refir to the sections () into which it is (iivided, 

iiistead yA' to pa^^'es, 

FOOTNOTKS TO THK TAIJLK 

i 1 l-irst (d. SiKestre dc Sacy, ISKJ; l)ased mainly on 
an iiiftrior MS. Xuiiurous Oriental editions liave appeared 
since ; no really critical (Mie. based on a collation of a nundicr 
of MS.S.. rxists as y<'t. The Ixst (based on a single MS., but 
an old and good one) is that of L. Cheikho, Beyrouth, 
r.K),") ; L'nd edition, li'J.'J. Professor Martin S|)rengling, of 
the Oriental Institute, rni\-ersity of ("hicago, is making an 
exhaustive study of tlu- materials, preparatory to a delinitive 
edition. See his article (juoted on J^age '2.*35. 

t^ On this version (not known to Chauvin and Hertel) 
see Fliigel, Hadji Khalfa, v (1850), [). 2.'3S, and Sprengling, 
op. (//., especially j)p. S.l-SS, where is found an interesting 
discussion of the general (juestion of translations of the 
l*ahla\ i KdllUih (itid J)inin<ih into Arabic. It should be 
noted, however (and Sprengling seems not to pay sufficient 
attention to this })oint), that all the Arabic MSS. described 
in his article seem to })e derived (at least in part) from 
al-^b)C}affa. For they all contain chapter iii, whicli was 
composed l)y al-Mo(jaffa. 

t- Tills version, also unknown to Chauvin and Ilertel, is 
mentioned })y Hadji Klialfa, I.e., in a way which seems to 
suggest that it was a direct translation from the Pahlavi, 
rather than a \ crsitication of al-Moqaffa or al-Ahwazi. Yet 
the language is not clear, and moreover Iladji Khalfa may 
have been mistaken ; so it remains possible that we are 
dealing with a secondary Arabic versilieation only, like al- 
Falii(ji. (tc. ("/. S})rengling, p. <SS. 

+ . (iddz/atnuikah J\(ifhdsaritsd<!(ir(ih {i.e. "the K.S.S. in 
j)rose '"). by Jibananda N'idyasagara, Calcutta, l.SS.'j. (Not in 
JIcrt<l.) 1 have seen a copy in the JJcrlin '' Staatsbibliothek." 
Sanskrit ists. to whom the name of this redactor is only too 
well known, will not need t(^ be told that the work has no 
literary or scholarly value. 

i; 1 owe to the kindness of Dr O. Stein, of Prague, 
my information aljout these two Czech versions, neither 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 287 

of which I have seen. (Jacobs mentions " Trebowsky," but 
erroneously derives his version from the German translations of 
Sahid and Gaulmin's Pilpay of either 1802 or 1808, see below.) 
Dr Stein has kindly examined both the works in question 
for me, and gives their titles as follows : (1) Bdjky Bidpajovy 
(Fables of Bidpai) . . . od FrantiSka Trebovskeho, part 1, 
Olomouc (Olmutz), 1846 ; part 2, Brno (Briinn), 1850. 
This is a free rendering, with some changes and omissions, of 
Wolff's German, made by " Tfebovsky," whose real name 
was F. M. Klacel. (2) Bdjky Bidpajovy. Praha (Prague) 
n.d. (circa 1894). The title page mentions no translator, but 
a postscript states that it is the work of one Eduard Valecka 
and his father. It is a very literal translation of Wolff's 
German. (Both of these are ignored by Chauvin and Hertel.) 

"fao La Versione araba de Kalilah e Dimnah . . . N. Moreno. 
San Remo, 1910. (So Brockelmann, 4. Not in Hertel.) 

ts Hertel, pp. 250-290, and 307-338. 

fb Hertel, chapter 7, pp. 91-249. 

t? Hertel, pp. 291-307. The date of Klinkert's Dutch ver- 
sion is given as 1870 by Chauvin, p. 76 ; as 1871 by Hertel, 
p. 294, note 2. Dubois' FRENCH (Hertel, p. 803) is based 
on a contamination of Tamil, Telugu, and Canarese texts. 

fs Hertel, pp. 389-346. Hertel believes, as stated above, 
that the original of this group was contaminated with an 
offshoot of the Jain versions. 

fs See Hertel, pp. 363-366, for the close relations between 
the Old Spanish and this Hebrew version. 

tio Editions : (1) Gayangos, Madrid, 1860. (2) Allen, 
Macon, 1906. (8) Alemany, Madrid, 1915. (4) Solalinde, 
Madrid, 1917. 

|ii Doni's Italian descendant attributes this to a " Rabbi 
Joel," of whom nothing else is known ; Derenbourg inclines 
to accept the statement, but Steinschneider (Hebrdische Ueber- 
setzungen, pp. 875-876) is extremely sceptical of it, as well 
as of Derenbourg's dating of the work (twelfth century). 
According to Steinschneider, all we know is that the work 
is older than John of Capua. 

fii Full title : Liber Kelilce el Dimnce, Directorium, etc. 
Twice printed about 1480. Modern editions : (1) Puntoni, 
Pisa, 1884. (2) Derenbourg, Paris, 1889 ; with valuable 
critical and comparative notes. (3) Hervieux, Paris, 1899. 

ti3 Cf. Hertel, p. 397/. 

fi4 First printed circa 1480, and often reprinted. 



288 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Bibliography of MSS. and early editions in Godeke, Orient 
und Occident^ i, QSlff., and in Holland's edition, Das Buck 
der Beispiele . . ., Stuttgart, 1860. 

"fis Exemplario contra los enganos y peligros del mundo ; 
thirteen editions known before end of sixteenth century. 
Apparently used also the German Buck der Beispiele^ besides 
the Latin ; see Benfey, Orient und Occident^ i, ITOj^f. 

I16 The date is given by Riabinin, p. Ixx ; also, long ago, 
by Grimm, Reinhart Fuchs, p. cclxxvi. The Czech title, quoted 
by Hertel, p. 400, is a literal translation of the Latin Direc- 
iorium vita: humance. Chauvin's statements, pp. 24 (note 2) 
and 72 (copied by Hertel), are both incomplete and incorrect. 
There was only one early version in Czech, that recorded 
here ; it is not true that Riabinin quotes a Czech version 
based on a Slavonic original. For a fuller account of this 
question, see an article on the Slavonic recensions of the 
Panchatantra, which I hope soon to publish. 

fi? This work, in two parts, includes both Firenzuola 
and Doni. 

tie Ed. Stark, 1697 (reprinted Athens, 1851), without 
the " Prolegomena " or introductory chapters, which were 
edited by Aurivillius, 1780. New edition, Puntoni, " Roma 
^Firenze ^Torino " (Chauvin gives Rome alone, Hertel 
Florence alone), 1889. Symeon is often said to have been a 
Jew, but this is an error : Steinschneider, Hebrdische Ueber- 
setzungen, p. 873, note 148. It seems never to have been 
noticed that the order of the chapters in this version, which 
is in various points quite individual, agrees exactly with that 
in the Arabic metrical version of Muhammad b. al-Habbariya, 
as quoted (from Houtsma) by Hertel, p. 394. The latter 
omits two introductory chapters and the final chapter of 
Symeon; otherwise they agree absolutely. A comparison of 
the two in details might be worth while. Cf. next note. 

fis As stated above, Chauvin and Hertel rely wholly on 
secondary sources for the Slavonic recensions, and are full 
of errors. Except the one Czech version (see above, note 16), 
there was only one Slavonic recension before quite modern 
times ; this is the Old Slavonic derivative of the Greek, 
various MSS. of which have been edited by Viktorov, Danidic 
and others. It has never, so far as appears, been translated 
into any other language. The alleged Croatian translation 
(Chauvin, p. 24, No. 42) is an erroneous reference to Dani(5id's 
edition of the Old Slavonic. The other versions named 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 239 

separately by Chauvin, i.e., Nos. 89-41, and Hertel, p. 404, 
are editions of other MSS. of the same thing. The latest 
account of the Old Slavonic is found in Rystenko, op. cit. 
According to him, the Greek of Symeon goes back to a very 
old and good Araljic MS. ; the Slavonic was translated from 
a MS. of the shorter recension of the Greek, in the twelfth 
or thirteenth century, in Bulgaria. There was only one 
Slavonic translation ; divergences in MSS. are due to accidental 
or arbitrary changes made by Slavonic copyists. The 
Slavonic translator tried to be faithful and literal as a rule, 
paraphrasing or departing from his original apparently only 
when he did not understand it. See further my forthcoming 
article, mentioned in Note 16. 

tao Not from the Latin of Stark, as Jacobs states. The 
title, quoted by Chauvin, p. 23, indicates that it was trans- 
lated directly from the Greek. 

la So Steinschneider (see his Hebrdische TJebersetzungeriy 
pp. 878-882) spells the name, which Chauvin spells Elazar, 
and Hertel Eleazar. 

t22 See Hertel, p. 412/. 

I23 See Hertel, p. 415. Following Brandes, Hertel states 
that the South Indie original of the Malay version was a con- 
tamination of some offshoot of the Arabic with a Southern 
(probably Tamil) Panchatantra version. But he also says 
that it shows signs of influence from Na^rallah's Persian and 
the Anwari Suhaili. May not one of these two, or an Indie 
offshoot thereof, be the " unknown version " in question, 
rather than a direct translation from the Arabic ? 

t?? Ed. Gongrijp, 1876 ; 2nd edition, 1892. Possibly the 
same work may be contained in an earlier edition of a Malay 
text, cited at second hand by Chauvin, p. 76 : Kalilah en 
Daminah . . . P.P. Roorda van Eysinga, 1844. 

tz) Not in Hertel ; but see Chauvin, p. 76. 

fab This version was probably based on Nasrallah ; see 
Rieu, Cat. Pers. MSS. Brit. Mus., ii, 582j6f. 

t27 Besides various Oriental editions (see Chauvin, p. 28ff.)j 
ed. Ouseley, [Hertford,] 1851. 

fzB See Brockelmann, 8 (correction of Hertel, p. 407). 

fas See Brockelmann, 8. The translator's full name 
was 'Abd al-'Allam Faiz Khan Oghlu ; printed at Kazan, 
1889. It is a translation of the Arabic in the main, but 
with introduction borrowed from the Anwari Suhaili. 

|"29a Mr N. M. Penzer informs me that this was reissued 



240 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

as follows : The Anvdr-i Suhaili . . . rendered into Persian 
. . . literally translated by Edward B. Eastwick, Allahabad, 
1914. 

fso See Brockelmann, 9 (correction of Hertel, p. 414). 

fsi Completed by the author in 1803, but first printed 
(ed. Roebuck) 1815 ; Garcin de Tassy, Hist, de la Hit hindouie 
et hindoustaniCy 1st edition (1889), i, 40; 2nd edition (1870), 
i, 150/. 

|-32 Chauvin, p. 46, No. 67 G, quotes the name from 
Garcin de Tassy as " Marmol," and refers to M.'s Hindoostanee 
Reader (Calcutta, 1861). But the name is Manuel, and the 
book in question (which I have seen in Paris, in the library of 
the ^cole des Langues Orientales Vivantes) is : The Khirud- 
Ufroz : Translated from the Oordoo into English, and 
followed by a vocabulary of the difficult words and phrases 
occurring in the text, by Thomas Philip Manuel . . . Cal- 
cutta, Messrs Thacker, Spink & Co. . . . 1861. ^This was 
reprinted, as " 1st edition " (!), at Lucknow, Newul Kishore 
Press, 1892 (information furnished by Mr N. M. Penzer). 

fss Riabinin, p. Ixiv/. This is the book mentioned by 
Hertel, p. 414 ; and no doubt the text is the same as that 
from which extracts were given in the earlier work mentioned 
by Chauvin, p. 43, No. 64. Riabinin does not give the date 
when the translation was made. He says that the principal 
translator was King Vakhtan VI ; the verses were translated 
into verse by the monk Saba (Slukhan) Orbeliani. Published 
at Tiflis, 1886, from four MSS. ; title Khalila da Damaruiy 
but translated, in general very faithfully, from the Anwari 
Suhaili. Nevertheless the translator made some independent 
additions, among which Riabinin mentions three stories. 

|"34 The full title even of the first edition contains the 
name Pilpay ; Livre des lumieres ou la conduite des roys, com- 
posS par le sage Pilpay. European occurrences of the name 
in this form are traceable to Sahid and Gaulmin's work ; the 
form Bidpai goes back to Galland (and Cardonne). 

Iss So, without author's name, Chauvin, p. 40 (No. 58 B). 
Jacobs gives the date of the earliest English edition as 1699, 
and its author as J. Harris ; this edition is not noted in 
Chauvin. The work was constantly reissued, generally, it 
seems, anonymously (Chauvin, I.e.). ^Mr N. M. Penzer in- 
forms me that the earliest edition in the British Museum is 
that of J. Harris, London, 1699 {The Fables of Pilpay . . .). 
He adds that the latest is perhaps : Tales within Tales. 



APPENDIX I THE PANCHATANTRA 241 

Adapted from the Fables of Pilpai : Sir A. N. WoUaston, 
Romance of the East Series, London, 1909. Is Chauvin's 
1679 a misprint for 1699 ? On p. xxviii/. ot.his Bidpai, Joseph 
Jacobs speaks of " J. Taylor's translation . . . the first 
work with the title Fables of Pilpay^ 1699." It would appear 
that "Taylor" must be an accidental slip for "Harris," 
although I confess I cannot account for such a strange error 
on Jacobs 's part. 

t36 See Chauvin, p. 32. 

fs? Fabeln und Parabeln des Orients. Der tiirkischen 
Sammlung humajiin name entnommen und ins Deutsche 
iibertr. von Souby-Bey. Mit e. Vorwort von Prof. Dr Rieder 
Pascha, Berlin, F. Fontane & Co., 1903, xii + 130 pp. (Not in 
Hertel.) I quote the work from the Catalogue of the Berlin 
" Staatsbibliothek " ; unfortunately I was unable to see it 
there, as it was in use at the time when I applied for it. 

fss Erroneously quoted as Russian by Hertel, p. 409. 
Jacobs, who ignores this version, mentions a Polish version 
of 1819, which he derives from Galland and Cardonne ex- 
clusively (from which alone he also derives the Greek of 
Lampanitziotes). Chauvin mentions no second Polish 
edition. If Jacobs 's reference is right, the work in question 
was probably another edition of that of 1770, which was 
certainly a rendering of Esope en belle humeur, as the title 
shows (Chauvin, p. 38, No. 55 P ; Esop w wesolym humorze. 
Warsaw, 2 vols., 1770). 

t59 It appears that all the versions in the Table, with 
the possible exception of the MALAY and its derivatives, 
are taken from Galland alone, and not from Cardonne's con- 
tinuation. The German version of 1745 of course antedates 
Cardonne. The Dutch and Hungarian versions mention only 
Galland on their title pages (Chauvin, p. 53/., Nos. 76 E and 
76 H). On Jade's German see the next note. I have no 
means of determining whether Gongrijp's Malay included 
Cardonne or not. 

tw Aus dem Morgenlonde. Thicr-Novellen iiach Bidpai. 
Von Heinrich Jade, Leipzig, 1859. (Chauvin, p. 52; not in 
Hertel.) I have seen a copy in the Berlin " Staatsbibliothek." 
It is a work of little interest or scientific value. The intro- 
duction professes to tell something of the history of " Bidpai," 
and mentions the "Hitopadesa " and the " Pantschatantra. " 
But it discreetly fails to tell us the sources of the fables which 
follow. From a study of the Table of Contents and of 

VOL. V. Q 



242 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

certain parts of the work itself, I think it can be inferred 
with reasonable confidence that Jade printed a selection of 
stories, the prior and major part of which was taken from 
Galland's French, and the latter part from some European 
translation of the Hitopadesa. Some proper names, and 
the reference in the introduction to Huschenk's Testament 
(peculiar to the Anwari Suhaili and descendants), indicate 
Galland as the source of thfe first part ; and since this prior 
part follows Galland closely in order (with some omissions), 
and stops short where Galland stops, it seems evident that 
Jade did not know Cardonne's continuation. The second 
part contains several stories peculiar to the Hitopadei^a, and 
seems to have been drawn therefrom. 

Additional Note. ^The Armenian Fables of Vartan 
(thirteenth century) contain some fables taken from some 
Kalilah and Dimnah version, and have sometimes been 
classed as an offshoot (e.g. by Jacobs), but this seems to be 
an error; see Keith- Falconer's translation of the Younger 
Syriac, p. Ixxxiv/., and Chauvin, p. 43. 

Postscript (added in proof). Since the completion of this 
work I have seen in Asia Major, vol. ii, pp. 179-182 (1925), 
a review of a Russian work by B. J. Vladimirtsov, entitled 
(in German translation) : Eine Mongolische Sammlung 
Erzdhlungen aus dem Pancatantra (vol. v, part 2 of 
Publications du Musie d' Anthropologic et d' Ethnographic 
prds VAcadSmie des Sciences de Russie : Petrograd, 1921). 

It appears from the review that the Mongolian collection 
dealt with is a selection of Panchatantra stories, probably 
derived from a Tibetan source, which is otherwise unknown. 
Presumably the Tibetan original was derived from some 
late Indie version. I have not yet seen the Russian work 
in question, and the review gives no information which 
would enable one to guess what the precise affiliations of 
the collection are. 



APPENDIX II 



APPENDIX II 

THE ORIGIN OF THE STORY OF GHATA AND KARPARA 

The story of Ghata and Karpara as told by Somadeva 
(pp. 142-151) is composed of two distinct tales. The first, 
ending with the final success of Ghata 's tricks, is a Sanskrit 
version of the well-known tale of Rhampsinitus in Herodotus 
(ii, 121). The second consists of several incidents, quite likely 
of Kashniirian origin, dealing with the favourite subject 
among Orientals the inconstancy of woman. 

It is only with the first of these stories that we are here 
concerned. The general appeal of the tale of Rhampsinitus, 
added to the fact that it appears in what is perhaps the most 
interesting and popular book of Herodotus, has made it 
travel far and wide to the most diverse parts of the world. 

Versions of the story have found their way into nearly 
every important collection. To such an extent, indeed, has 
the tale circulated, that it would require a volume to give 
all the versions in their entirety. In the present appendix, 
then, I can do no more than give an occasional extract, but 
I shall add full references which will show the extensive 
ramifications of this most interesting story. Thus readers, 
who so wish, will be able to follow up the subject to any 
length. 

Before tracing the different versions in both Eastern and 
Western collections, it will be of considerable interest to try 
to determine whether the tale told to Herodotus was really 
Egyptian in origin or an early migrant from another country 
altogether. 

First, then, let us look at the story as told by Herodotus 
(ii, 121).^ 

This king [Rhampsinitus], they said, possessed a great 

* I choose the version from the Baehr text by Henry Gary, in Bohn's 
Classical Library, 1877, pp. 141-144. Apart from Rawlinson's translation (to 
be mentioned later), I would draw special attention to that by A. D. Godley, 
issued in 1920, in the Loeb Classical Library. Like all the volumes in this 
excellent " Library," the translations and the text are printed on opposite 
pages. The text followed is that of Stein. 
245 



246 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

quantity of money, such as no one of the succeeding kings 
was able to surpass, or even nearly come up to ; and he, 
wishing to treasure up his wealth in safety, built a chamber 
of stone, of which one of the walls adjoined the outside of 
the palace. But the builder, forming a plan against it, de- 
vised the following contrivance : he fitted one of the stones 
so that it might be easily taken out by two men, or even 
one. When the chamber was finished, the king laid up 
his treasures in it ; but in course of time the builder, find- 
ing his end approaching, called his sons to him, for he had 
two, and described to them how (providing for them that 
they might have abundant sustenance) he had contrived 
when building the king's treasury ; and having clearly ex- 
plained to them everything relating to the removal of the 
stone, he gave them its dimensions, and told them, if they 
would observe his instructions, they would be stewards of 
the king's riches. He accordingly died, and the sons were 
not long in applying themselves to the work ; but having 
come by night to the palace, and having found the stone in 
the building, they easUy removed it, and carried off a great 
quantity of treasure. 

When the king happened to open the chamber, he was 
astonished at seeing the vessels deficient in treasiu-e ; but 
he was not able to accuse anyone, as the seals were unbroken, 
and the chamber well secured. When, therefore, on his 
opening it two or three times, the treasures were always 
evidently diminished (for the thieves did not cease plunder- 
ing), he adopted the following plan : he ordered traps to 
be made, and placed them round the vessels in which the 
treasures were. But when the thieves came as before, and 
one of them had entered, as soon as he went near a vessel 
he was straightway caught in the trap. Perceiving, there- 
fore, in what a predicament he was, he immediately called 
to his brother, and told him what had happened, and bade 
him enter as quick as possible and cut off his head, lest, if 
he was seen and recognised, he should ruin him also. The 
other thought that he spoke well, and did as he was advised ; 
then, having fitted in the stone, he returned home, taking 
with him his brother's head. 

When day came, the king, having entered the chamber, 
was astonished at seeing the body of the thief in the trap 
without the head, but the chamber secure, and without any 
means of entrance or exit. In this perplexity he contrived 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 24T 

the following plan : he hung up the body of the thief from 
the wall, and having placed sentinels there, he ordered them 
to seize and bring before him whomsoever they should see 
weeping or expressing commiseration at the spectacle. 

The mother was greatly grieved at the body being sus- 
pended, and coming to words with her surviving son, 
commanded him, by any means he could, to contrive how he 
might take down and bring away the corpse of his brother ; 
but, should he neglect to do so, she threatened to go to the 
king, and inform him that he had the treasures. 

When the mother treated her surviving son harshly, and 
when with many entreaties he was unable to persuade her, 
he contrived the following plan : having got some asses, and 
having filled some skins with wine, he put them on the asses 
and then drove them along ; but when he came near the 
sentinels that guarded the suspended corpse, having drawn 
out two or three of the necks of the skins that hung down, 
he loosened them ; and when the wine ran out he beat his 
head and cried out aloud, as if he knew not to which of the 
asses he should turn first. But the sentinels, when they saw 
wine flowing in abundance, ran into the road, with vessels in 
their hands, and caught the wine that was being spilt, thinking 
it all their own gain ; but the man, feigning anger, railed 
bitterly against them all. However, as the sentinels soothed 
him, he at length pretended to be pacified, and to forgo his 
anger. At last he drove his asses out of the road, and set 
them to rights again. 

When more conversation passed, and one of the sentinels 
joked with him and moved him to laughter, he gave them 
another of the skins ; and they, just as they were, lay down 
and set to to drink, and joined him to their party, and in- 
vited him to stay and drink with them. He was persuaded, 
forsooth, and remained with them. And as they treated him 
kindly during the drinking, he gave them another of the 
skins ; and the sentinels, having taken very copious draughts, 
became exceedingly drunk, and being overpowered by the 
wine, fell asleep on the spot where they had been drinking. 

But he, as the night was far advanced, took down the 
body of his brother, and by way of insult shaved the right 
cheeks of all the sentinels ; then having laid the corpse on 
the asses, he drove home, having performed his mother's 
injunctions. 

The king, when he was informed that the body of the 



248 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

tliiff had bt't'ii stolrii, was <jxf('C(liii<^ly iiuli^iiant, and, 
rt'S()lvin<:j by any nu-ans to liiid out tlic contriver of this 
artiticf, had rocourso, as it is snid, to the following ])lan a 
d( si(,'n which to inc sccnis incredible : lie placed his own 
d;iiiLjht<T in a brothel, and ordered her to admit all alike to 
hei- embraces, but before they had intercourse with her, to 
compel eacii one to tell her wliat lie had done (lurin<^ his life 
most clever and most \s ickcd. and whostK'ver should tell her 
the facts rclatiuLj to tlic thief slie was to seize, and not suffer 
him to escape. 

W hen. thcicfor<'. tlic dau^ditcr did wiiat her fatlier com- 
manded, the thief havin;jj ascertained for wliat })urposc this 
contri\ancc was had recourse to. and being desirous t(> outdo 
tlic king in craftiness, did as follows : having cut ol'f the 
arm of a fresh corpse at the shoulder, he took it with him 
under his cloak, and liaving gone in to the king's daughter, 
and being ask<.cl tlu' same ({uestions as jdl tlic rest were. \\v. 
related that lie liad done the most wicked thing when lie cut 
off \\\> brother's head, who was caught in a tra}) in tlic king's 
treasury ; and the most clever thing wlicn, having made 
the sentinels drunk, he took away the corpse oi' his l)rother 
that was hung up. She. when she heard this, cndeax oured 
to sei/e him. but the thief in tlic dark held out to her the 
dead man's arm. and she seized it and licld it fast, imagining 
that she had gut hold of the man's own arm. Then the thief, 
ha\ ing let it go. made- his esc-a})e through the door. 

When this also was reported to tiie king, he was astonished 
at the shrewdness and daring of the man : and at last, send- 
ing throughout all the cities, he caused a })roclamation to be 
made, offering a free j)ardon, and promising great reward to 
tlic man, if he siiould discover himself. 'J'he th.ii'f. relying 
on this promise, went to the kings ])alace ; and Hhamp- 
sinitus greatly admired him. and ga\'e him his daughter in 
marriage, accounting him the most knowing of all men ; for 
that the Kgyj^tians are sujxrior to all others, but he was 
superior to the l']gy{)tians. 

Tiierc arc several points to notice about this story which 
seem to indicate that Herodotus heard onlv an abridged 
version of a more detailed tale, the conij)lete incidents of 
which had eithir been Ioul: since- forgotten or which his 
infornurs did not haj)})cn to know. 

In the first place tlie builder is represented as entirely 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 249 

devoid of all principles. Although he is apparently the 
chief architect at the court of the richest of all the Egyptian 
kings, and as such would be a very wealthy man, yet he 
deliberately arranges matters so that if necessary he can 
rob the king of all his treasures. Such a necessity, however, 
never arises ; but when on his death-bed he tells his secret 
to his two sons without any scruples, knowing that by doing 
so he is almost bound to turn them into a couple of thieves. 
Had there been some motive for such an action, such as 
revenge or poverty, it would be more comprehensible. 

Then, again, it seems curious that when the one brother 
is caught in the trap, the other cuts his head off without any 
expressions of sorrow whatever. As we shall see later, 
many suosequent versions (e.g. Dolopathos and its derivates) 
particularly mention the bitter anguish which fills his heart 
before he can bring himself to do such a terrible deed. 

But of most importance is the fact that we have a detailed 
description of how the king hung up the body of the thief, 
and surrounded it with guards, in the hope that some rela- 
tion of the dead man would give himself away by excessive 
grief at such a terrible sight. Yet we hear nothing more of 
this, and no one goes near it. The one person who would 
obviously be most likely to act thus is the mother, who, as 
far as we are given to understand, never leaves her house at 
all. Several writers seem to have noticed this, as in many 
versions we find the thief is nearly given away by this ruse. 
It seems such an obvious omission that because we find it 
restored in later versions, I do not think we need conclude 
for a moment that there was another, and hitherto unknown, 
source of the story. 

It will be seen that the difference between the tale of 
Herodotus and that of Somadeva is considerable. 

In fact, the only points of similarity, apart from the 
general outline being similar, are : 

1. The number of the thieves is two. 

2. One of them is caught. 

3. Guards watch the body to see if anyone laments. 

4. They are overcome by trickery. 

5. The king's efforts are futile. 

6. Pardon (or a reward) is offered. 

There is no mention in our tale of a treasury, and conse- 
quently the trap and beheading of the brother do not occur. 



250 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

No mother appears, and neither the shaving of the guards 
nor the prostitution of the king's daughter is found. 

The hand of the Hindu is clear, however, in many places. 
The favourite Indian methods of thieving digging through 
a wall and digging a mine into the house are brought in 
twice. The incident of a princess falling in love with the 
thief is not uncommon in Sanskrit literature, and occurs 
twice in the Ocean of Story (Chapters LXXXVIII and CXII). 

The incident of the guards waiting to see if anyone 
laments has a sequel, for the desire to pay the last homage 
to his dead friend makes Ghata conceive a plan by which he 
can personally lament and purify the body with milk. Here 
we have the gap in the Herodotus story filled. But accord- 
ing to Hindu ritual other rites have to be performed over 
the body, so our story-teller introduces a second device by 
which he can burn the corpse and throw the bones into the 
holy Ganges. 

The ending of the story has naturally been altered, 
because Somadeva is tacking on to it another story altogether, 
and does not want the princess and the thief to dwell happily 
together. 

We can now proceed to the crux of our inquiry. Was 
the tale of Rhampsinitus as told to Herodotus of true 
Egyptian origin ? 

The first question one naturally asks is whether the iden- 
tity of King Rhampsinitus can be ascertained. Is he purely 
legendary, or is he a real Pharaoh to whom the above story 
has been attributed, either rightly or wrongly ? The gener- 
ally accepted theory is that by Rhampsinitus is meant 
Rameses III, although nothing definite can be said on this 
point. 

The reasons for the supposition are twofold, etymological 
and general. 

The true etymology of Rhampsinitus is unknown, and 
thus we are handicapped from the start, but it seems to be 
connected in some way with Rameses. According to Brugsch 
it is a Greek form of Ramesu fa nuter, '* Rameses the God,'* 
but most scholars now agree with Maspero, who would derive 
the first half from Rameses III and the second half from 
Amasis II. Some further explanation is necessary. 

Rameses III was a Pharaoh of the twentieth dynasty, 
and had his capital at Thebes, with Amon as chief deity. 
Amasis II was a Pharaoh of the twenty-sixth dynasty, with 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 251 

his capital at Sai's, in the Delta, and Neith, the goddess of 
the hunt, as deity. 

The correct form of his name is Aah-mes-si-neit, aah 
meaning "moon," and si-neit, "son of Neith." Now in 
order to arrive at the Greek form Rhampsinitus, the two 
words si-neit must be added to Rameses, making Ra-mes-si- 
neit. Thus half the name belongs to one Pharaoh of one 
dynasty, and half to another Pharaoh of another dynasty. 
" It is," says Sir Flinders Petrie in a letter to me on the 
subject, "as if a cathedral verger talked now of ' our 
sailor King William III,* unconsciously borrowing from 
William IV." 

It is quite conceivable that the jumbled name was due to 
ignorance, and at any rate was good enough for foreigners. 

W^hen describing the ^gean coasts we may consider 
Herodotus to have had sufficient personal knowledge of what 
he was writing about to check any traditions he heard, or 
accounts he may have read. But in Egypt matters were 
very different. Here he went as an ordinary tourist, even 
without " letters of introduction," and, being unable to speak 
the tongue, he was dependent on the half-caste dragomans 
and any inferior temple- servants who were not above receiv- 
ing bakhshish for answering questions put to them by the 
inquisitive Greeks. 

Most of the ciceroni were Karians, who acted as inter- 
preters between natives and the travellers, like the Maltese 
in modern times. As Herodotus himself was born in Karia, 
we can imagine his preferring a fellow-countryman through 
whom to make his searching inquiries. 

Professor Sayce considers the tale to be " colonial Greek," 
and he explains this view in a letter to me. " It is," he 
says, " the kind of story the Greek tourist delighted to hear 
from his Karian or other semi-Greek dragoman. He was 
anxious about the origin or causes of what he saw, and the 
dragoman had a story to account for each of them which was 
sufficiently non-Oriental to appeal to the Greek mind." 

Supposing that Ra-mes-si-neit was the original form in 
which Herodotus heard the name, we must not be surprised 
at his accepting it, for he knew si-neit was a correct append- 
age to a royal name, as it is he who supplies us with most of 
our information about Amasis II. 

Turning to general considerations, the first thing to 
strike us in the story about the king is his great wealth and 



252 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the fact that he built a treasury. This could well refer to 
Rameses III, for, as the Papyrus Harris shows, his riches 
were enormous and not only did he build a treasury, but it 
has actually been discovered in the temple at Medinet Habu. 
In one record Rameses himself says : "I filled its treasury 
with the products of the land of Egypt : gold, silver, every 
costly stone by the hundred-thousand. ..." 

The great victories of Rarneses III against such Levantine 
peoples as the Thekel, Pulesti, Washasha, etc., and the con- 
sequent saving of the Egyptian Empire in Asia, would 
naturally make him the hero of many a tale. The increased 
wealth of the temples, the elaborate ritual observed and 
encouraged by Rameses, and, above all, the fact that Amon- 
Ra became the figurehead of the Egyptian religion, were all 
factors which would help to keep the memory of this Pharaoh 
green, especially when his death marked the beginning of the 
final catastrophe which led to the collapse of the Empire. 

Thus, quite apart from etymological evidence, Rhamp- 
sinitus might well be intended for Rameses III. 

There is, however, another point to be considered. 
Immediately following this story Herodotus (ii, 122) tells a 
further tale about the same king : 

*' After this they said, that this king descended alive into 
the place which the Greeks call Hades, and there played at 
dice with Ceres, and sometimes won, and other times lost ; 
and that he came up again and brought with him as a present 
from her a napkin of gold." 

This curious statement has an echo in the ancient 
Egyptian tales occurring in the cycle of Satni-Khamois 
(Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt, pp. 133, 134), 
where Satni descends into the tomb of Nenoferkephtah and 
plays dice for the magic book of Thoth. Plutarch, Isis et 
Osiris, records an old Egyptian myth connected with the 
birth of Osiris to account for the five supplementary days in 
the Egyptian calendar. The god Hermes (i.e. Thoth) played 
dice or draughts with the moon and won from her a seventy- 
second part of every day, and from these parts compounded 
the five intercalary days {cf. the Mayan "Uayeyab "). 

Now the connection of this dice-playing story with 
Rameses III may have arisen from the fact that on the outer 
wall of his palace at Medinet Habu is a relief of the king 
seated at draughts with a woman. 

Thus if the etymological derivation of Rhampsinitus is 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 253 

even only approximately correct, the fact that Herodotus 
heard the story of this king's descent into Hades and his 
playing dice would strengthen the supposition that the king 
referred to is none other than Ranieses III. 

We now pass on to the incidents in the story. It is these, 
as I have already emphasised (Vol. I, p. 29), which form the 
real clues to the origin or migration of a story. 

Several leading Egyptologists of the past century' (see 
e.g. G. Rawlinson, History of Herodotus, 4th edition, 4 vols., 
1880, vol. ii, p. 193n*) considered that the story under 
discussion could not be of Egyptian origin for the following 
reasons : 

1. Egyptians did not wear beards. 

2. The practice of hanging a criminal from a wall to the 

public gaze was unknown in Egypt. 

3. The idea of a Pharaoh prostituting his daughter is 

absurd. 

Let us take each of these points in turn. 

1. The note in Rawlinson's Herodotus, already referred 
to, was written by Wilkinson, and shows the results of a 
too hasty study of the monuments, for although the majority 
of pure Egyptians were clean-shaven, the custom was not 
compulsory, and monuments of all periods have revealed 
men with beards. But in this particular case we are dealing 
only with police, who were not all natives. They were 
usually recruited from a Nubian or Sudani tribe, called 
Mazaiu or Matiu by Maspero, and Matchaiu by Budge. All 
foreigners were exempt from general usages, so there is 
nothing surprising or un-Egyptian in the police being 
bearded. Wilkinson quoted the shaving of Joseph before 
entering the presence of Pharaoh (Gen. xli, 14) as showing 
it was customary to shave, but to me it rather proves that 
the lower-class Egyptian troubled little about shaving, and 
any sudden honour such as being taken before Pharaoh 
would necessitate shaving. This was, of course, exactly 
opposite to the customs of Babylon and Assyria, where 
commoners were clean-shaven and royalty heavily bearded. 
The veneration of the beard does not seem to have been 
nearly so developed in early Egypt as in other parts of the 
East and with the advent of Mohammedanism, although the 
false beard was worn by a Pharaoh as a symbol of dignity at 



254 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

certain festivals. In the present story, I feel the shaving of 
the beards was not done so much for insult (as in 1 Chron. 
xix, 4, etc.), as to show the consummate cleverness of the 
thief, a motif which has an international appeal. 

2. As another proof that the tale is not Egyptian, 
Wilkinson and other Egyptologists have stated that in a 
country where social ties were so much regarded, the civil 
law would not permit such an exhibition as stated to have 
been held by Rhampsinitus. 

It will suffice to quote the well-known case of Amen- 
hetep II, who hung the bodies of seven vanquished chiefs 
at the bow of his boat, and later exposed them on the walls 
of Thebes and Napata. (See Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian 
Resurrection, vol. i, p. xxii.) As Maspero says, that which 
was done by a real Pharaoh may well have been done by the 
Pharaoh of a romance, even if it were exceptional. 

8. The proceeding of the king in sending his daughter 
to a public brothel (oiKtiixa can only have this meaning 
here, it being most improbable that he would use a " certain 
room " in the palace for such a purpose, as translated by 
A. D. Godley in the Loeb Library edition) may seem strange 
to us, but it must not be dismissed as merely the invention 
of the ciceroni, nor must we believe, with Wilkinson, that it 
would be repeated by Greeks just because it gave them 
particular pleasure to recount such tales about kings and 
their daughters. 

Unfortunately our knowledge of the intimate social 
customs of the Egyptians is as yet very small, so that we 
are practically restricted to the evidence found in tales 
current at the time of Herodotus or incidents which occur 
in stories found in papyri. Sir Ernest Budge tells me, how- 
ever, that he believes certain classes of prostitutes were held 
in respect, but can give no details. 

I take it, however, that these are the sacred prostitutes 
such as were connected with the temple of Amon at Thebes 
in the twenty-first dynasty (see G. Maspero, Guide du Visiteur 
au Musie du Caire, p. 145. Cairo, 1920). 

According to Herodotus (ii, 126), when Cheops was in 
sore need of money " he prostituted his own daughter in a 
brothel, and ordered her to extort, they did not say how 
much ; but she exacted a certain sum of money, privately, 
as much as her father ordered her. ..." 

Apart from the possibility of such occurrences being 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 255 

historical, there are several examples in Egyptian tales of 
prostitution in order to obtain some desired end. 

For instance, in the " Adventure of Satni-Khamois with 
the Mummies " (Maspero, Popular Stories of Ancient Egypty 
pp. 137-140), Tbubui invites Satni into her chamber in order 
to get from him the magical book of Thoth at the cost of her 
body. 

Professor Elliot Smith considers it probable that the story 
of a king publicly prostituting his daughter is a perversion of 
the ancient myth of Osiris, the dead king, being seduced 
by Isis, his own daughter (and wife). 

However this may be, the incident of a Pharaoh acting 
in such a manner must not be dismissed as absurd, and even 
if such an action has no historical foundation, both Egyptian 
mythology and folk-tales can supply examples. 

Taking all the above evidence as a whole, I can see little 
to support the view that the tale in question is not of Egyptian 
origin. Gaston Paris, however, in an excellent monograph 
in the Revue de VHistoire des Religions, vol. Iv, 1907, pp. 151 
et seq., 267 et seq., does not believe in the Egyptian origin of 
the taie.^ Professor Maspero will not commit himself too far. 
He says that if it was not actually invented in Egypt, it 
had been Egypt ianised long before Herodotus wrote it down. 
The evidence of several of our leading Egyptologists appears 
to favour its being an Egyptian tale, and I am indebted to 
them for their valuable opinions. Sir Flinders Petrie con- 
siders it to be of late Egyptian origin, with some of its details 
affected by outside influence. Sir Ernest Budge says that 
to him the story smells Egyptian. Professor Griffith can see 
nothing seriously un-Egyptian in it, while Dr Hall says he 
has little doubt about its true Egyptian origin. 

CLASSICAL VERSIONS 

In classical Greece there was a story resembling the 
tale of Rhampsinitus in several points. It concerns the 
two master-builders, Agamedes and Trophonius. In some 
accounts Agamedes is described as the stepfather of Tro- 
phonius, whose own father was commonly said to be Apollo. 
In other versions it was Agamedes who was the son of Apollo 

* See also J. P. Lewis, Orientalist, vol. iii, 1888, pp. 148, 149. 



256 THK OC'KAX OF STOKV 

and Kpicastc, wliiU- 'I'loplionius uas ///,v son. Tlu' l)est- 
kn\\ii storw h(>\v<\(r, is that tlir two \\\tv sous of Kririnus. 
Kiii^ of ( )rilionuiiiis, and that tluv l)uilt u trcasiuy tor 
II\ruus. Kiii^ ot" Ilyria in lioujtia. 

I'aiisaiiias (i\, ;J7, 4, .")) tills us that altt-r the Minyae 
(tin MiiLimal inhabitants oj' ( )rihoincnus) had Ix-on coiujuort'd 
hy thr Ththans. iM'^inus made peace with Ilercuk'S, and 
i^Madually r<tri<\cd his I'oniur wealth. Hut in so doing he 
was o\erlaken hy a wifeless and eliildless old age. So he eon- 
suited the Oracle at Delphi, where the Pythian priestess bade 
hini marry and so '* put a new tip to the old plougii-tree." 

" So he married a young wife, according to tlic oracle, 
and had by her Troplionius and .\ganiedcs. Hut Trophonius 
is said to have been a son of Apollo, and not ot" Krginus, and 
I b(lie\e it. and so does e\ <ryone wIk) has gone to in{|uire of 
the t'raclc of Trophonius [for this sei' I'ausanias ix. IV,), 5-11, 
\\\[\\ Fra/.ers C'oninientary, vol. v, pp. liOl-'JOt, and under 
" oraeulum ' in Sniitii's Dicfionarf/ of (ircck and Umnan 
.1 hliijuitits]. It is said that when 'IVo})honius ami Agamedes 
w\re grown up they became skilful at builtiing sanctuaries 
for LTods and palaces for men ; for they built tlie temple at 
Delphi [see Pausanias x, ,"3, l.'Jj l"or Apollo and the treasury 
for llyrieus. In tlie treasury tliey contrived that one of the 
ston(s could l)c removed frt)m tlie outside, and they always 
kept })ilfering the lioard ; but llyrieus was speechless, seeing 
the keys and all the tokens undisturbed, but the treasures 
steadily decreasing. Wherefore over the coffirs in which 
were his silver and gold he set traps, or at any rate something 
that woukl hold fast anyone who should enter and meddle 
w ith the treasures. So when Agamedes entered lie was held 
fast in the snare ; but Tro})honius cut off his head, lest at day- 
break liis brother should be put to the torture and he himself 
ilctected as an accomplice in the crime. The earth yawned 
and recei\ (.(l Trophonius at that |)oint in the grove at Lebadea 
where is the pit of Agamedes, as it is called, with a monument 
V)esi(lc it."' (J. G. Frazers translation, vol. i, p. }-<)0 ct scq.) 

Aristophanes, Subis 5()S, speaks of the oracle of Tro- 
phonius. and the scholiast on the passage, (pioting from the 
historian C'harax, gives a version different from that of 
Pausanias. 

Agamedes, Prince of Stymphalus, had two sons. Tro- 
j)h()nius and Cercyon, by his wife Kpicastc. Tro{)honius 
was born out of wedlock, but Cercyon was legitimate. Now 



APPENDIX II-GHAfA AND KARPARA 257 

Agamedes and Trophonius were famed for their skill ; they 
built the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and they made a golden 
treasury for King Augeas at Elis. But they took care to 
leave a seeret entrance into the treasury, by means of which 
they and Ccrcyon used to enter and rob the king. Augeas 
was at a loss what to make of it, but by the advice of 
Dajdalus, who was staying with him, he set traps about his 
coffers. Agamedes was accordingly caught in one of them, 
but Trophonius, to prevent recognition, cut off his father's 
head and escaped with Cercyon to Orchomenus. Hither they 
were pursued by the messengers of Augeas ; so Cercyon 
fled to Athens and Trophonius to Lebadea, where he made 
for himself an underground chamber in which he lived. 
(Frazer, op. ciL, vol. v, p. 177.) 

For a useful note on the passage see Starkie's edition of 
the Clouds, 1911, pp. 325, 326. 

Apart from the mention of Trophonius by Aristophanes, 
later writings also show the antiquity of mythical tales about 
these two men. For instance, Plutarch, in his Consolatio ad 
Apollo7iium, 14, says that Pindar relates of Agamedes and 
Trophonius that after building the temple at Delphi, they 
asked Apollo to grant them a reward for their work. He 
replied that they would have one in seven days, but in the 
meanwhile they were to go on living freely and indulge their 
genius. Accordingly they obeyed the dictate, and on the 
seventh, night they died in their beds. 

The same legend is also mentioned by Cicero, Tusc. Disp.y 
i, 47, but here the interim is given as only three days. 

From the above evidence, then, we notice that whereas 
myths connected with the two master-builders were current 
in Greece from at least 500 b.c. (Aristophanes' Nubes was 
first produced in 423 b.c.) the incident of the robbery of the 
treasury as one of their exploits does not appear, as far as 
we know, till the time of Pausanias (second century a.d.), 
while the priest and historian Charax Pergamenus post-dates 
Caesar and Nero. 

All this seems to point to Herodotus as the introducer of 
the incident into Greece. I cannot see sufficient evidence 
to justify the view of K. O. Miillcr in his Geschichten helle- 
nischer Stdmme und Stddte : Orchomenos und die Minyer, 
Breslau, 1820-1824, p. 94 et seq.y where he states that it is 

VOL. V. B 



258 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

very probable that the tradition took its rise among the 
Minyae, was transferred from them to King Augeas, and 
was known in Greece long before the reign of Psammetichus 
(664-610 B.c), the Saite king of the twenty-fifth dynasty, dur- 
ing whose reign intimate relations between Egypt and Greece 
were opened. His theory may be correct, but until further 
evidence is available I am inclined to favour the Egyptian 
origin of the story. (See ^Iso his Fragmenta Ilistoricorum 
Grcecorum, Paris, 1849, vol. iii, p. 637.^) Herodotus wrote 
his History about 430 B.C., and it is only natiu'al to suppose 
that, as time went on, any arresting stories it contained would 
attach themselves to popular Greek myths already in exist- 
ence. It certainly seems quite probable that this is exactly 
what happened to the tale of Rhampsinitus. Here on the 
one hand was an old Greek legend, or number of legends, 
about two master-builders who constructed a famous temple 
at Delphi and after their death became divine (Trophonius 
was to some extent actually identified with Zeus) ; and on 
the other hand there was a clever Egyptian tale also about 
a master-builder (and his two sons), which, when generally 
known, was sure to appeal to the imagination of the Greeks. 
Any attractive incidents in the latter would become attached 
to the former, while those which proved less attractive 
would gradually drop out and be forgotten. 

Nor would such incidents be resurrected unless the 
original story chanced to be reintroduced through some 
fresh channel. In such a case forgotten incidents might be 
restored and the story would bear a much closer resemblance 
to its original than had formerly been the case. This seems 
to be what happened to the tale under discussion. The wave 
of Oriental story migration in the eleventh, twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries not only brought Indian, Persian and 
Arabian tales to Europe, but introduced a form of presenta- 
tion hitherto unknown in the West the " tale-within-tale " 
system. Its popularity was due not only to its novelty, but 
also to the opportunities it offered the story-teller, for he 
could add and subtract as he thought fit without altering 
the " frame " of the work in any way. The crusader, the 
pilgrim, and the merchant would, on their return home, 
relate any stories heard on their travels which had made a 

* For the latest general article on Trophonius see W. H, Roscher's 
Autfiihrliches Lexikon der Griechischen und Komischen Mythologie, vol. v, cols. 
1265-1278, Leipzig, 1916-1924. 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 259 

strong appeal to their imaginations, and as the stories 
circulated, the compilers would naturally enough substitute 
tales from their own stock-in-trade, if they liked them better, 
or if any tale had become confused and pointless in course 
of repetition. Thus many an Eastern collection has become 
greatly altered in the hands of Western editors, translators, 
and the like, so as to leave little of the Eastern original except 
the "frame." The husk would remain, but the kernel 
would be different. No better example of such alterations 
could be quoted than those connected with the great cycle 
of stories known as the Book of Sindihdd, to which we have 
referred several times in the course of this work. The col- 
lection was so called owing to the tradition that a certain 
Indian philosopher named Sindibad was its chief character. 
In all the main Eastern versions the name varies but little : 
the Syriac is Sindban, the Greek, Syntipas, and the Hebrew, 
Sendebar. Only eight Eastern versions survive and all have 
the same " frame " tale. Briefly this is as follows : 

A young prince is taught wisdom by his tutor. He 
learns but slowly, and the tutor realises that some evil star 
is for the time being in the ascendant. Further investiga- 
tions show that a fatal seven days is at hand, and accordingly 
the prince is warned not to speak a word during this period. 
The king is much concerned at his son's silence, and one of 
his wives says she will find out the reason. Accordingly she 
sees him alone, but tempts him to adultery with the promise 
of the kingdom. He repulses her, and realising her position 
if he does speak, she hastens to the king with the tale that 
he has attempted to ravish her. The king orders him to 
be killed, but seven wise men of the court each tell stories 
to show the wickedness of women. In reply the wife tells 
counter-stories, and thus the ill-omened period is past. The 
prince speaks and the queen is executed.^ 

MEDIEVAL VERSIONS 

Now when the Book of Sindibad reached Europe it 
retained this frame-story, but little else. The title was 

1 Readers will no doubt notice some resemblance between this tale and 
the story of A^oka and his son Kunald to which I have already referred in 
my first note on the " women whose love is scorned " motif (Vol. II, p. 120). 
Benfey was, I believe, the first scholar who drew attention to this (see his 
Orient und Occident, vol. iii, p. 177 et seq.). 



260 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

changed to The Seven Wise Masters or Seven Sages of Rome 
and Sindibad himself disappeared. 

Research seems to show that from India the work passed 
to Persia, Arabia, Syria and the Holy Land. Thence it was 
probably brought to Europe by some crusader who was 
attracted by the novelty and merit of the tales. Unfortun- 
ately the parent Western version is lost, so that we cannot 
say exactly which of the Eastern versions gave rise to the 
European version. Evidence is slightly in favour of the 
Hebrew version, but nothing? definite can be said on the point. 
The date of the parent Western version is probably not later 
than A.D. 1150.* 

The popularity of the work in Europe was enormous, 
and at least forty different versions have been preserved. 
So altered have been the tales in the Western versions that 
only four have survived from the East. Then again, in the 
Western versions the sages only tell one story each, and 
with the queen's counter-stories there are only fifteen, but 
in the Eastern versions the sages usually tell two stories. 

There are several other differences which need not be 
detailed here. The important point to notice is that the 
reason of the great difference must be that, whereas the 
Book of Sindibad was written, the Seven Sages derived its 
stories from oral tradition. In fact, the compiler probably 
never saw an Eastern version. 

Now among the tales which found their way into the 
Seven Sages was a version of the tale of Rhampsinitus. It 
might easily have been brought over from Egypt or Syria by 
some pilgrim or traveller and become incorporated with the 
" frame " story of the Seven Sages, and owing to its excellence 
as a good story, would quite naturally be chosen in lieu of 
many others known to the compiler. 

The oldest form in which the Western type is known 
to us is that bearing the title of Dolo])athos. It seems very 
probable, however, tliat the better-known Seven Sages of 
Rome, MSS. of which date from only a little later than the 
earliest MS. of Dolapathos, preserves more closely the original 
form of the Western parent version. It was under this form 
that it acquired its immense popularity. The Dolapathos 
exists in two versions, one in Latin prose by Joannes dc Alia 
Silva, and the other in an old French poem by Herbert. 

Silva, whose proper name was Jean de Hautcsville, 

* See Killis C.-impbell, The Seten Sages of Rome, p. xv. Hobton, 19^7. 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 261 

translated the work from the Greek. It was edited by 
Oesterley ^ in 1873, and by Hilka ^ in 1918, and contains the 
" Gaza " ^ or " treasure " story as its second tale. This 
version is very curious as containing numerous details which 
are found nowhere else. 

The lack of any motive for the treasurer turning thief, or 
making his sons thieves, must have struck the compiler, for 
at the beginning of the story we are told that the father had 
been driven to steal owing to the reckless extravagance of 
his son. After the theft has been detected, the king, on the 
advice of a blind old man who is an ex-thief himself, burns a 
pile of green grass in the treasury. Then, having closed the 
door, he walks round the building and notices smoke issuing 
from between the stones where the entrance had been made. 
The incident found its way into several variants, while in 
others the king shuts himself in the treasury and observes 
if any light comes in through the walls. The tricks of the 
thief in the Dolopathos version are elaborate. He first 
escapes by stabbing himself, then by stating that a child 
belonging to his family, who has been discovered crying, is 
only crying for its mother. But the method by which he 
retrieves his father's body is very curious. The blind old 
man tells the king to get forty men to guard the body, 
twenty in black armour on black horses, and twenty in white 
armour on white horses. It will then be impossible for any 
stranger to make his way unperceived to the body. The 
thief, however, is not to be put off so easily. 

At vero fur ille suum patrisque opprobrium ferre 
non volens, malensque semel mori, quam diu infeli- 
citer vivere, deliberavit in animo, quod aut patrem 
turpi ludibrio subtraheret, aut ipse cum eo pariter 
moreretur. Subtili ergo ingcnio arma partita fabri- 
cat, tota scilicet ab una parte alba, et nigra ab altera, 
quibus armatus equum hinc albo, inde nigro panno 
opertum ascendit. Sicque lucente luna per medios 
transit milites, ut nigra pars armorum eius viginti 

^ lohannis de Alia Silva Dolopathos, sive de Rege ei Septem Sapientihut. 
Slrasxburg, 1873. 

2 Historia Septein Sapientum, \\. Heidelberg, 1 J) 13. 

' The stories in the Western group are now always known by their Latin 
names : canu, gaza, senei, creditor, etc. They were first applied by Goedeke, 
Orient und Occident, 1886, vol. iii, p. 43. 



262 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

albos deluderet et alba pars deciperet nigros, putar- 
entque nigri unum esse ex albis, et albi unum ex 
nigris fore. Sic ergo pertransiens venit ad patrem 
depositumque a ligno asportavit. Facto autem mane 
milites videntes furem furtim sublatum sibi confusi 
redierunt ad regem, narrantes, quomodo eos miles 
albos nigrisque armis pertitus^ decepisset. Desperans 
ergo iam rex posse recuperari perdita et furem et 
thesaurum cessavit querere. 

At this point the Latin version ends, but the French 
version of Herbert adds other incidents which were copied 
largely in subsequent variants.'^ 

After the corpse has been recovered, the thief lies with 
the princess, who marks him with coloured dye for future 
identification. The following short extract will give some 
idea of the style of the Old French : 

La pucele nul mot ne dit 

Que ces p^res I'ot contredit, 

Qui la boiste li ot donnee 

Ou la coulor fu destrempree, 

Et ce li dist k'ele feist * 

Tout ce ke cil li requeist 

Tant k'el' front I'eust bien scignie, 

Einsi com li ot enseignie. 

La pucele s'en entremist, 

Et tele enseigne el' front li mist 

Que bien pot estre coneuz. 

Cil ne s'en est aperceuz ; 

Tant i demora longuement 

Qu'il s'en departi lieement ; 

A son ostel revint arri^re ; 

Biau semblant fist et bele chi^re. 

(Li Romans de Dolopathos, Brunet et 
Montaiglon, 1856, pp. 215, 216.) 

He marks everyone else and escapes detection. Then 
follows the incident of a child being employed to pick him 
out from a crowd by giving the " wanted " man a knife. 

* Hilka reads partitui, which is obviously correct. 

2 These two versions of Dolopalhos have not been sufficiently distinguished 
by Campbell and other authors on the subject. ' Si. * Qu'il refeist. 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 263 

He manages, however, to give the child a bird previously, 
and so the knife is looked upon as being merely a return gift. 
Finally he marries the princess. 

The Dolopatkos agrees with the Book of Sindibdd in that 
there is only one instructor. His name, however, is changed 
to Virgil. It preserves only one story from the Eastern 
version, but four stories (including gaza) which also occur in 
the Seven Sages. This fact seems to indicate that Silva was 
acquainted with some version of the latter. The contention 
that the work was derived from oral tradition is borne out 
by Silva's own statement that he wrote " non ut visa, sed 
ut audita." The Herbert version was made from the above 
somewhere about 1223, and was edited by Brunet and Mon- 
taiglon in 1856 under the title Li Romans di Dolopatkos. 
It is very long, being over 12,000 lines, and is written in the 
octo-syllabic couplet. 

For further details reference should be made to G. Paris, 
Deu.T Redactions du Roman des Sept Sages de Rome, Paris, 
1876 ; and to the work by ('ampbell already mentioned. 

We now come to the Seven Sages of Rome,, of which 
versions exist in nearly every European language. The 
earliest ones known are in French and must date from about 
1150, which, as we have already seen, is the latest date of 
the Western parent version. 

The usual number of stories is fifteen, and the scene of 
action is laid in Rome. The names of the Emperor, Prince 
and Sages vary considerably, but this is of no importance 
in our inquiry. The best work on the whole subject is still 
that by Gaston Pans mentioned above. 

The treasury story is nearly always the fifth, but in two 
versions it forms the ninth, and in one version the eleventh 
story. 

It is told much more simply than in Dolopatkos, and only 
one trick is employed the wounding of the thief in order 
to account for his mother's (or her children's) weeping. 

In one of the nine Middle English versions ^ (Cambridge 
University, MS. Dd. i, 17) the tale ends abruptly after the 
weeping incident. 

As an example of the language and style of these versions 

^ K. Campbell, Sliidti of Ihv Romance of the Seven Sages with Special 
Reference to the Middle English I'ersions, IHfjS. 



264 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

I will quote from the so-called Cotton Galba E. ix MS., following 
the edition by Campbell, Seven Sages of Rome, pp. 45-49. 

The tale is told of Octavian. He had " klerkes twa." 
One was liberal, but the other was a miser. Octavian 
chooses the miser to guard his treasures (there is no question 
of his building the treasury), but before long, with his son's 
help, the liberal man digs a tunnel and removes a portion of 
the gold, filling in the hole with the stone On discovering 
the loss, the miser digs a trench and fills it with tar and pitch, 
" ter and pile." 

The story then continues : 

" Al had ]?ai spended sone sertayn ; 
pe fader and ]?e son wendes ogayn. 
Bitwene )?am toke )?ai out y>e stane ; 
pe fader crepis in sone onane,^ 
And doun he fals in ter and pik, 
Wit ge wele, ]>at was ful wik.^ 
Loud he cried and said ' Alias ! * 
His son askes him how it was. 
He said : * I stand vp til )?e chin 
In pik, ]?at I mun ^ neuer out win.' 

* Alias,' said ye son, * what sal I do ? ' 
He said : ' Tak my swerd )?e vnto, \ 
And smite my heuid fra my body.' ' 
pe son said, ' Nai, sir, sekerly * ; i 
Are ' I sold my seluen sla. ' 

* Son,' he said, ' it most be swa, i 
Or else ]?ou and al ]?i kyn I 
Mun be shent,* bath mare and myn ' ; i 
And if mi heuid be smeten oway, j 
Na word sal men of me say. ] 
parfore, son, for mi benisown,* 

Smite of my heuid, and wend to town, | 

And hide it in som preue ' pit, i 

So )?at na man mai knaw it.' I 

His fader heuid of smate he )?are, j 

And forth with him oway it bare. 

Wele he thoght it for to hide. 

For shame )?at efter might bitide ; 



* At once. 


2 Wicked. 


3 Shall. 


* Certainly. 


* Sooner. 


Disgraced 


' Ofgreater and lesser importance. 


Blessing. 


Secret. 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 265 

For if men wist, it wald be wer/ 

And lath ^ him was to here it fer. 

Als he went biside a gang,' 

Into y>e pit ]?e heuid he slang. 

pan went he hame wightli * and sone, 

And tald his moder how he had done. 

pe whif weped, so was her wa ; 

So did his bre)>er and sister alswa. 

On ]?e morn ]?e senatoure 

Went arly vnto ]>e toure ; 

In ]?e pit he findes a hedles man, 

Bot knaw him for nothin[g] he can. 

He kowth noght ken ]?an his felaw 

pat he wont ful wele to knaw. 

He gert haue of ]?e pik bidene,' 

And wass ye body faire and dene. 

He loked byfore J>an and bihind ; 

Knawlageing kowth he none find. 

pan gert ' he bring twa stalworth hors, 

And bad ]?am draw ]?e hedeles cors ; 

And whoso )?ai saw sorow make, 

He bad biliue * )?ai sold ]?am take, 

And at* ]?ai war to preson led. 

For ]?ai er al his awin kinred. 

pat hedles body by ]?e fete 

Was drawen in Rome thorgh ilka ^^ strete, 

Vntil ]?ai come bifor ye dore 

Whare ]>e ded man wond " bifore ; 

pare ]?ai murned and made il chere, 

Whif and childer, al in fere.^^ 

pe seriantes toke )?arto gude kepe, 

pam for to tak ]?at )?ai saw wepe. 

pe childer ]?an war sare adred ; 

* Alias,' )?ai said, ' now er we ded I ' 

pe son, ]?at wist of al ]?e care, 

Hirt himseluen wonder sare ; 

He smate himseluen in pe cheke ; 

paire sorow sone so gan ]?ai eke. 

pai tald to ]?am ]?at wald )?am take, 

pat )?ai wepid for )?aire bro]?er sake. 

* Worse. "^ Averse. ' Privy, * Quickly. 

* Immediately. Means of identifying. ' Caused. ^ Quickly. 

That. " Every. " Dwplt. ^^ Together. 



266 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

pai shewed >>e wonde of J^aire bro)>er, 
And said ]?ai wepid for nane o\>t. 
pe seriantes saw y>e wound sertain ; 
pai trowed )?am wele and turned ogain." 

Apart from the nine Middle English versions already 
mentioned, there are numerous other versions of the Seven 
Sages which contain the stoty of the king's treasury. 

Although, even if space permitted, there is no need to 
discuss them here,^ mention must be made of the largest 
group of all that of which the Latin Historia Septem 
Sajnentuni is the type. It was from a version of this group 
that the English translation, printed by Wynkyn de Worde," 
was made, and from it were derived the metrical version of 
Holland,^ the Copland edition (now lost), and numerous other 
English versions, chiefly bearing the title of The Seven Wise 
Masters. 

The Historia became very popular in Europe and is found 
in nearly every language, including Icelandic and Armenian. 
A new version of the latter has lately been published with a 
posthumous introduction by Chauvin.* 

With at least forty versions of The Seven Sages penetrat- 
ing to every part of Europe, it is not surprising to find the 
story of the treasury appearing in all parts of the world. 

MODERN VERSIONS 

Several attempts have been made to enumerate all the 
modern versions of the tale of Rhampsinitus. 

A list of the chief references is given by Chauvin, op. cit., 
viii, pp. 185, 186. 

In his edition of Pausanias' Description of Greece, vol. v, 
pp. 176-179, J. G. Frazer gives a list of twenty-eight variants. 

^ These have been fully dealt with by G. Paris in his Deux Redactions^ 
where he classifies under eight different headings. See also Campbell, op. cit., 
pp. xxii, xxiii. 

- History of the Seven Wise Masters of Rome, edited by G. L. Gomme. 
Villon Society, London, 188.'). 

' The seuin Seagcx : Traiislatit aid of prois in Scottis meter be Inhne Rolland 
in Dalkeith. 1578 [15()0]. Reprinted by 1). Laing for the Bannatyne Club, 
Edinburgh, 1837. 

* Im Version Armenieime dt: L'flisloire des Sej)l Sages de Rome. Mise en 
Fran^'uis par F. Macler. Intro, by Chauvin. Paris, 1919> 



APPENDIX II-GIIATA AND KARPARA 267 

A much fuller list (of forty-one variants) appears in Campbell's 
Seven Sages of Rome, pp. Ixxxvi, Ixxxvii. 

The latest, and, as yet, by far the most comprehensive 
bibliography, however, is that by Bolte and Polivka in their 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Ilausmdrchen der Brilder 
Grimm, vol. iii, pp. 395-406. I have verified nearly every 
reference given, and except for a few minor misprints and 
the fact that some of the references are much too abbrevi- 
ated, it would be hard to conceive of a fuller or more care- 
fully compiled bibliography. The languages in which our 
story is found in one form or another include : English, 
Irish, Scotch, French, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish-Finnish, 
Finnish, Icelandic, Lettish, Polish, Czech, Gypsy, Italian, 
Portuguese, Dutch, numerous German and Austrian dialects, 
Greek, Armenian, Tartar, Rumanian, Serbian, Bulgarian, 
Russian, Hungarian, Arabic, Berber, Tibetan, etc. Precis 
of several of these are given by Clouston, Popular Tales and 
Fictions, vol. ii, pp. 121-165. See also his Book of Sindibdd, 
pp. 330-332. 

I shall here give selections from one or two versions from 
different countries which will illustrate the effect of local 
environment on the story and show the introduction of fresh 
incidents. 

First I select the story as told by Ser Giovanni in his II 
Pecorone. The exact date of this work and the true identity 
of the author has not yet been determined. The date given 
in the book itself in an introductory verse is 1378, but scholars 
consider the work is probably early fifteenth century. 

A translation appeared in Painter's Palace of Pleasure, I, 
No. xlviii, ed. J. Jacobs, II, p. 8 ^ seq., London, 1890 (see Bolte 
and Polivka, vol. iii, p. 399n ^). 

The following translation is taken from the English edition 
by W. G. Waters, London, 1897, p. 102 et seq. : 



A certain Florentine master-builder, named Bindo, under- 
takes to repair the campanile at Venice. So well does he do 
the work that the Doge gives him an order to build a palace 
containing a treasury. This Bindo does, but secretly builds 
a moving stone into one of the treasury walls. 

By this time Bindo and his family have moved to Venice, 



268 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

and his son, Ricciardo, becomes so extravagant that Bindo 
is forced to have resource to the treasury. He tells his son 
about the secret entrance and together they make their way 
into the treasury, and remove a valuable golden cup. 

The loss would not have been noticed had not a cardinal 
paid the Doge a visit, in whose honour the gold plate was to 
be used. The chamberlains, in whose keeping were the keys 
of the treasury, can find no explanation of the mystery. 
Grass is burnt in the treasury and the smoke reveals the 
loose stone. The Doge bids all keep silent and places a 
cauldron of boiling pitch just under the entrance. Bindo 
and his son soon call again, and the father is caught in the 
pitch. Ricciardo weeps bitterly when Bindo bids him cut 
off his head, but he finally does so. 

The body is dragged through the streets and Bindo's wife 
cries out with grief and Ricciardo only escapes by stabbing 
himself with a dagger and saying his mother is weeping at the 
sight of his wound. 

The body is now hung publicly in the piazza. Once 
again the mother weeps, demanding that Bindo's body be 
taken down and properly buried. At this point fresh 
incidents are introduced which are of considerable interest. 

The tale continues : 

When the young man perceived that his mother was 
minded to do this thing, he began to deliberate how he might 
best rescue from the gibbet his father's body. He procured 
twelve black hoods of the sort worn by friars ; next he went 
out one night to the harbour, and brought back with him 
twelve porters, whom he made enter the house by the door 
behind, and then he took them into a small room where he 
gave them to eat and drink all they could desire. And as 
soon as these fellows were well filled with wine, he made 
them dress themselves in the monks' hoods, and put on 
certain masks made in hideous imitation of the human face. 
Then he gave to each one of them a torch of lighted fire to 
bear in his hand, and thus they all seemed to be veritable 
demons of the pit, so well were they disguised by the masks 
they wore. And he himself leapt upon a horse, which was 
covered all over with black housings, the cloth thereof being 
all studded with hooks, to every one of which was fastened 
a lighted candle. Then having donned a mask, wrought in 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 269 

very wonderful fashion, he put himself at the head of his 
band, and said to them : *' Now every one of you must do 
what I do." And in this wise they took their way to the 
piazza, where the body was exposed on the gibbet ; and 
when they arrived there they all set themselves to run about 
the piazza, now here, and now there, the hour being well past 
midnight, and the night very dark. 

When the guards saw what strange thing had come to 
pass, they were all seized with dread, and faneied that the 
forms they espied must be those of devils from hell, and that 
he who sat upon the horse in such guise must be no other 
than great Lucifer himself. Wherefore, when they saw him 
making his way towards the gibbet, they all took to their 
heels through fright, while the young man seized the body 
and placed it in front of him upon the saddle-bow. Then he 
drove before him his troop, and took them back with him to 
his house. After he had given them a certain sum of money, 
and taken away from them the friars' hoods, he dismissed 
them, and then went and buried the corpse in the earth as 
privily as he could. 

The following morning the news was taken to the Doge 
how the body aforesaid had been snatched away ; where- 
upon he sent for the guards and demanded to know from 
them how the corpse could have been stolen. The guards 
said to him : " Signor, it is the truth that last night, after 
midnight had struck, there came into the piazza a great 
company of devils, amongst whom we distinctly saw the 
great Lucifer himself, and we believe that he seized) and 
devoured the body. On this account we all took to flight 
when we saw this great troop of devils coming against us to 
carry off the body." The Doge saw clearly that this theft 
had been done by some crafty dealing, and now set his wits 
to work to contrive how he might find out the one who had 
done it ; so he called together his secret council, and they 
determined to let publish a decree that for the next twenty 
days it should not be lawful for anyone to sell fresh meat 
in Venice, and the decree was issued accordingly, and all 
the people were greatly astonished at what the Doge had 
commanded to be done. 

But during this time he caused to be slaughtered a very 
delicate sucking calf, and ordered it to be offered for sale at 
a florin a pound, charging the man who was to sell the same 
that he should consider well all those who might come to 



270 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

buy the meat. He deliberated with himself and said : "As 
a rule the thief is bound to be a glutton as well ; therefore 
this fellow will not be able to keep himself long from coming 
for some of this meat, and it will never irk him to spend a 
florin for a pcund thereof." 

Then he made a proclamation setting forth that whoso- 
ever might desire any of the meat must come for it into the 
piazza. All the merchants and the gentlefolk of the city 
came to buy some of it, but not one of them deemed it to be 
worth a florin a pound, wherefore no one bought any of it. 
The news of what was being done was spread through all 
the place, and it soon came to the ears of the mother of the 
young man Ricciardo. As soon as she heard it she said to 
her son : " In sooth I feel very great longing for a piece of 
this veal." Then Ricciardo answered and said : " Mother, 
be not in too great a hurry, and let some others take the 
first cut therefrom. Then I will see that you get some of 
the veal ; but I do not desire to be the one who shall take 
the first portion." 

But his mother, like the foolish woman she was, kept on 
begging him to do her will, and the son, out of fear lest she 
might send someone else to purchase the meat, bade her 
make a pie, and himself took a bottle of wine and mixed 
in the same certain narcotic drugs ; and then when night 
had fallen he took some loaves of bread, and the pie, and the 
wine aforesaid, and, having disguised himself in a beard and 
a large cloak, he went to the stall where the carcass of the 
calf, which was still entire, was exposed for sale. 

After he had knocked, one of those who were on the 
watch cried out : " Who is there, and what is your name ? " 
Whereupon Ricciardo answered : " Can you tell me where 
I shall find the stall of a certain one named Ventura ? " 
The other replied : " What Ventura is it you seek ? " 
Ricciardo said : " In sooth I know not what his surname 
may be, for, as ill luck will have it, I have never yet come 
across him." Then the watchman went on to say : *' But 
who is it who sends you to him ? " " It is his wife, " answered 
Ricciardo, ** who sends me, having given me certain things 
to take to him in order that he may sup. But I beg you 
to do me a service, and this is, to take charge of these 
things for a little, while I go back home to inform myself 
better where he lives. There is no reason why you should 
be surprised that I am ignorant of this thing, forasmuch 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 271 

as it is yet but a short time since I came to abide in this 
place." 

With these words he left in their keeping the pie, and the 
bread, and the wine, and made pretence of going away, 
saying : " I will be back in a very short time." The guards 
took charge of the things, and then one of them said : " See 
the Ventura ^ that has come to us this evening " ; and then 
he put the bottle of wine to his mouth, and drank and passed 
it on to his neighbour, saying : " Take some of this, for you 
never drank better wine in all your life." His companion 
took a draught, and as they sat talking over this adventure, 
they all of them fell asleep. 

All this time Ricciardo had been standing at a crevice 
of the door, and when he saw that the guards were asleep he 
straightway entered, and took hold of the carcass of the calf, 
and carried it, entire as it was, back to his house, and spake 
thus to his mother : " Now you can cut as much veal as 
you like and as often as you like " ; whereupon his mother 
cooked a portion of the meat in a large broth -pot. 

The Doge, as soon as they had let him know how the 
carcass of the calf had been stolen, and the trick which had 
been used in compassing the theft, was mightily astonished, 
and was seized with a desire to learn who this thief might be. 
Therefore he caused to be brought to him a hundred poor 
beggars, and after he had taken the names of each one of 
them he said : " Now go and call at all the houses in Venice, 
and make a show of asking for alms, and be sure to keep a 
careful watch the while to see whether in any house there 
are signs of flesh being cooked, or a broth-pot over the fire. 
If you shall find this, do not fail to use such importunity 
that the people of the house shall give you to eat either of 
the meat or of the broth, and hasten at once to bring word 
to me, and whosoever shall bring me this news shall get 
twenty florins reward." 

Thereupon the hundred scurvy beggars spread themselves 
abroad through all the streets of Venice, asking for alms, 
and one of them happened to go into the house of Ricciardo ; 
and, having gone up the stairs, he saw plain before his eyes 
the meat which was being cooked, and begged the mother 
in God's name to give him somewhat of the same, and she, 
foolish as she was, and deeming that she had enough of meat 
and to spare, gave him a morsel. The fellow thanked her 

1 l.e. "Good Fortune." 



272 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

and said: "I will pray to God for your sake," and then 
made his way down the stairs. There he met with Ricciardo, 
who, when he saw the bit of meat in the beggar's hand, said 
to him : " Come up with me, and then I will give you some 
more." The beggar forthwith went upstairs with Ricciardo, 
who took him into the chamber and there smote him over the 
head with an axe. As soon as the beggar was dead, Ricciardo 
threw his body down through the jakes and locked the door. 

When evening was come all the beggars returned to the 
Doge's presence, as they had promised, and every one of 
them told how he had failed to find anything. The Doge 
caused the tale of the beggars to be taken, and called over 
the names of them ; w hereupon he found that one of them 
was lacking. This threw him into astonishment ; but after 
he had pondered over the affair, he said : " Of a surety this 
missing man has been killed." He called together his council 
and spake thus : " In truth it is no more than seemly that 
I should know who may have done this deed " ; and then 
a certain one of the council gave his advice in these words : 
" Signor, you have tried to fathom this mystery by an appeal 
to the sin of gluttony ; make a trial now by appealing to the 
sin of lechery." The Doge replied : " Let him who knows of 
a better scheme than this, speak at once." 

Thereupon the Doge sought out twenty-five of the young 
men of the city, the most mischievous and the most crafty 
that were to be found, and those whom he held most in sus- 
picion, and amongst them was numbered Ricciardo. And 
when these young men found that they were to be kept and 
entertained in the palace they were all filled with wonder, 
saying to each other : *' What does the Doge mean by main- 
taining us in this fashion ? " Afterwards the Doge caused 
to be prepared in a room of the palace twenty-five beds, one 
for every one of the twenty-five youths aforesaid. And 
next there was got ready in the middle of the same room a 
sumptuous bed in which the Doge's own daughter, a young 
woman of the most radiant beauty, was wont to sleep. And 
every evening, when all those young men had gone to rest, 
the waiting-woman came and conducted the Doge's daughter 
to the bed aforesaid. Her father, meantime, had given to 
her a basin full of black dye, and had said to her : " If it 
should happen that any of these young men should come to 
bed to you, see that you mark his face with the dye so that 
you may know him again." 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 278 

All the young men were greatly astonished at what the 
Doge had caused to be done, but not one of them had 
hardihood enough to go to the damsel, each one saying to 
himself : " Of a surety this is nothing but some trick or 
other." 

Now on a certain night Ricciardo became conscious of a 
great desire to go to the damsel. It was already past mid- 
night, and all the lights were extinguished; and Ricciardo, 
being quite mastered by his lustful desire, got out of his bed 
very softly and went to the bed where the damsel lay. Then 
he gently went in to her, and began to embrace and kiss her. 
The damsel was awakened by this, and forthwith dipped 
her finger into the bowl of dye, and marked therewith the 
face of Ricciardo, who perceived not what she had done. 
Then, when he had done what he had come to do and had 
taken the pleasure he desired, he went back to his own bed, 
and began to think : " What can be the meaning of this ? 
What trick may this be ? " 

And after a short time had passed he bethought him 
how pleasant was the fare he had just tasted, and again there 
came upon him the desire to go back to the damsel, which 
he did straightway. The damsel, feeling the young man 
about her once more, roused herself and again stained and 
marked him on the face. But this time Ricciardo perceived 
what she had done, and took away with him the bowl of dye 
which stood at the head of the bed in which the damsel lay. 
Then he went round the room on all sides, and marked with 
dye the faces of all the other young men that lay in their 
beds so softly that no one perceived what he was doing ; 
and to some he gave two streaks, and to some six, and to 
some ten, and to himself he gave foiu* over and above those 
two with which the damsel herself had marked him. Having 
done this he replaced the bowl at the head of her bed, and 
gathered her with the sweetest delight in a farewell embrace, 
and then made his way back to his own couch. 

The next morning early the waiting-woman came to the 
damsel's bed to help her dress, and when this was done they 
took her into the presence of the Doge, who at once asked 
her how the affair had gone. Then said the damsel : 
" Excellently well, forasmuch as I have done all you charged 
me to do. One of the young men came to me three times, 
and every time I marked him on the face with the dye " ; 
whereupon the Doge sent forthwith for the counsellors who 

VOL. V. B 



274 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

had advised him in the matter, and said to them : " I have 
hiid hands on my friend at last, and now I am minded that 
we should go and see for ourselves." 

When they had come into the room, and had looked 
around on this side and on that, and perceived that all the 
young men were marked in the face, they raised such a laugh 
as had never been raised before, and said : " Of a truth this 
fellow must have a wit more subtle than any man we have 
ever seen " ; for after a little they came to the conclusion 
that one of the young men must have marked all the rest. 
And when the young men themselves saw how they were 
all marked with dye they jested over the same with the 
greatest pleasure and jollity. 

Then the Doge made examination of them all, and, 
finding himself unable to spy out who had done this thing, 
he determined to fathom the same by one means or another. 
Therefore he promised to the one concerned that he would 
give him his daughter to wife, with a rich dowry, and a free 
pardon for all he had done; for he judged that this man 
must needs be one of excellent understanding. On this 
account Ricciardo, when he saw and understood what the 
Doge was minded to do, went to him privily and narrated 
to him the whole matter from beginning to end. The Doge 
embraced him and gave him his pardon, and then with much 
rejoicing let celebrate the marriage of Ricciardo and his 
daughter. Ricciardo pluc'ked up heart again and became a 
man of such worth and valour and magnanimity that well- 
nigh the whole of the government of the state fell into his 
hands. And thus he lived many years in peace and in the 
enjoyment of the love of all the people of Venice. 

The above version contains nearly all the important 
incidents found in so many later variants, but is clearly 
based on the French version of Dolopathos. 

The death of the beggar is not quite so common. It 
occurs, however, in a Sicilian, French, Kabail, Aramaic and 
Georgian version. 

The marking of the thief by the princess is found in 
several other versions : Old French, Dutch, South Siberian 
and Swedish-Finnish (see translation below on page 282). In 
another French version, as well as in two North African 
variants, the princess clips off a bit of his beard or moustache 
for future recognition. 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 275 

In an Italian tale in Comparetti's Novelline Popolari 
Italianey Torino, 1875, No. 13, p. 52 et seq.y she cuts off a 
portion of his clothes. 

This " marking the culprit " motif is, of course, very 
common in folk- tales : see Clouston, Popular Talcs and 
Fictions^ vol. ii, pp. 164-165 ; and the numerous examples 
given in Chauvin, (yp. cit.^ v, p. SSn^ ; A. C. Lee, The De- 
cameron^ its Sources and Analogues, 1909, pp. 67-70 ; and 
Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 543. 

We will now look at a Gypsy version from Roumania. 
It forms No. 6, " il dui cTor (cei doui Ho^i) " in Dr Barbu 
Constantinescu's Probe de Limba /fi Literatura J'iganilar din 
Romania, Bucharest, 1878, pp. 79-87. The stories are given 
in the original Rdmani with a Roumanian translation. It 
then appeared in English with notes by F. II. Groome in the 
Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, vol. iii, July, 1801, pp. 
142-151 (c/. also Academy, 29th November 1890, pp. 506-507). 

The " thief " variety of story appears to be very popular 
amongst the gypsies, for in his Gypsy Folk-Tales F. H. Groome 
gives no less than five " master thief " stories, one of which 
is a fairly close variant of the tale of Rhampsinitus. Tlie 
end of it, however, resembles Grimm's *' Meisterdieb," 
No. 192, and is found more complete in a Slovak-Gypsy 
story (see R. von Sowa's Mundart der Slovakischen Zigeuner, 
Gottingen, 1887, No. 8, p. 174). 

" The Two Thieves," as the story we are about to discuss 
is called, is one of the fifteen (not thirteen as stated by 
Groome, op. cit., p. liii) stories in Constantinescu's collection. 
As he notes in his most interesting Introduction, the gypsies 
form an important channel of story -migration, and one, 1 
would add, which folklorists have rather neglected. 

"The gypsies quitted India," says Groome, "at an un- 
known date, probably taking with them some scores of 
Indian folk- tales, as they certainly took with them many 
hundreds of Indian words. By way of Persia and Arnicniu, 
they arrived in the Greek- speaking Balkan Peninsula, and 
tarried there for several centuries, probably dissennnating 
their Indian folk-talcs, and themselves picking up (ireek 
folk-tales. . . . From the Balkan Peninsula they luue 
spread since 1417, or possibly earlier, to Siberia, Norway, 
Scotland, Wales, Spain, Brazil, and the countries between, 
everywhere probably disseminating the folk-tales they 



276 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

started with and those they picked up by the way, and 
everywhere probably adding to their store. Thus I take it 
they picked up the complete Rhampsinitus story in the 
Balkan Peninsula, and carried it thence to Roumania and 
Scotland." Space will not permit any further discussion of 
this fascinating and highly important question. 

I can merely give here the story of " The Two Thieves," 
which appears on pp. 41-46 of Groome's work. Reference 
should be made to pp. 46-53, where the Slovak-Gypsy variant 
of Grimm's story is given, followed by other versions and 
some useful notes on the story under discussion. 

There was a time when there was. There were two 
thieves. One was a country thief, and one a town thief. 
So the time came that the two met, and they asked one 
another whence they are and what they are. 

Then the country thief said to the town one : " Well, 
if you're such a clever thief as to be able to steal the eggs 
from under a crow, then I shall know that you are a thief." 

He said : " See me, how I'll steal them." 

And he climbed lightly up the tree, and put his hand 
under the crow, and stole the eggs from her, and the crow 
never felt it. Whilst he was stealing the crow's eggs, the 
country thief stole his breeches, and the town thief never 
felt him. And when he came down and saw that he was 
naked, he said : " Brother, I never felt you stealing my 
breeches ; let's become brothers." 

So they became brothers. 

Then what are they to do ? They went into the city, 
and took one wife between them. And the town thief said : 
" Brother, it is a sin for two brothers to have one wife. It 
were better for her to be yours. " 

He said : " Mine be she." 

" But, come now, where I shall take you, that we may 
get money." 

" CcMne on, brother, since you know." 

So they took and departed. Then they came to the 
king's, and considered how to get into his palace. And 
what did they devise ? 

Said the town thief : " Come, brother, and let us break 
into the palace, and let ourselves down one after the other." 

"Come on." 

So they got on the palace, and broke through the roof; 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 277 

and the country thief lowered himself, and took two hundred 
purses of money, and came out. And they went home. 

Then the king arose in the morning, and looked at his 
money, and saw that two hundred purses of money were 
missing. Straightway he arose and went to the prison, 
where was an old thief. And when he came to him, he 
asked him : " Old thief, I know not who has come into 
my palace, and stolen from me two hundred purses of money. 
And I know not where they went out by, for there is no 
hole anywhere in the palace." 

The old thief said : " There must be one, O King, only 
you don't see it. But go and make a fire in the palace, 
and come out and watch the palace ; and where you see 
smoke issuing, that was where the thieves entered. And do 
you put a cask of molasses just there at that hole, for the 
thief will come again who stole the money." 

Then the king went and made a fire, and saw the hole 
where the smoke issues in the roof of the palace. And he 
went and got a cask of molasses, and put it there at the hole. 
Then the thieves came again there at night to that hole. 
And the thief from the country let himself down again ; and 
as he did so he fell into the cask of molasses. And he said 
to his brother : " Brotlier, it is all over with me. But, not 
to do the king's pleasure, come and cut off my head, for I 
am as good as dead." 

So his comrade lowered himself down, and cut off his 
head, and went and buried it in a wood. 

So, when the king arose, he arose early, and went there 
where the thief had fallen, and sees the thief there in the 
cask of molasses, and Avith no head. Then what is he to do ? 
He took and went to the old thief, and told him : " Look you, 
old thief, I caught the thief, and he has no head." 

Then the old thief said : " There ! O King, this is a 
cunning thief. But what are you to do ? Why, take the 
corpse and hang it up outside the city gate. And he who 
stole his head will come to steal him too. And do you set 
soldiers to watch him." 

So the king went and took the corpse, and hung it up, 
and set soldiers to watch it. 

Then the tliief took and bought a white mare and a cart, 
and took a jar of twenty measures of wine. And he put it 
in the cart, and drove straight to the place where his comrade 
was hanging. He made himself very old, and pretended the 



278 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

cart had broken down, and the jar had fallen out. And he 
began to weep and tear his hair, and he made himself to cry 
aloud, that he was a poor man, and his master would kill 
him. The soldiers guarding the corpse said one to another : 
" Let's help to put this old fellow's jar in the cart, mates, 
for it's a pity to hear him." 

So they went to help him, and said to him : " Hullo ! 
old chap, we'll put your jar in the cart ; will you give us a 
drop to drink? " 

"That I will, deary." 

So they went and put the jar in the cart. And the old 
fellow took and said to them : " Take a pull, deary, for I 
have nothing to give it you in." 

So the soldiers took and drank till they could drink no 
more. And the old fellow made himself to ask : " And what 
is this ? " 

The soldiers said : " That is a thief." 

Then the old man said : " Hullo ! deary, I shan't spend 
the night here, else that thief will steal my mare." 

Then the soldiers said : '* What a silly you are, old 
fellow ! How will he come and steal your mare ? " 

" He will, though, deary. Isn't he a thief ? " 

*' Shut up, old fellow. He won't steal your mare ; and 
if he does, we'll pay you for her." 

" He will steal her, deary ; he's a thief." 

" Why, old boy, he's dead. W^e'll give you our written 
word that if he steals your mare we will pay you three 
hundred groats for her." 

Then the old man said : " All right, deary, if that's the 
case." 

So he stayed there. He placed himself near the fire, 
and a drowsy fit took him, and he pretended to sleep. The 
soldiers kept going to the jar of wine, and drank every drop 
of the wine, and got drunk. And where they fell there they 
slept, and took no thought. The old chap, the thief, who 
pretended to sleep, arose and stole the corpse from the gallows, 
and put it on his mare, and carried it into the forest and 
buried it. And he left his mare there and went back to the 
fire and pretended to sleep. 

And when the soldiers arose, and saw that neither the 
corpse was there nor the old man's mare, they marvelled, 
and said: "There! my comrades, the old man said rightly 
the thief would steal his mare. Let's make it up to him." 



APPENDIX II-GHATA AND KARPARA 279 

So by the time the old man arose they gave him four 
hundred groats, and begged him to say no more about it. 

Then when the king arose, and saw there was no thief 
on the gallows, he went to the old thief in the prison, and 
said to him : " There ! they have stolen the thief from the 
gallows, old thief ! What am I to do ? " 

" Did not I tell you, O King, that this is a cunning thief? 
But do you go and buy up all the joints of meat in the city. 
And charge a ducat the two pounds, so that no one will care 
to buy any, unless he has come into a lot of money. But 
that thief won't be able to hold out three days." 

Then the king went and bought up all the joints, and left 
one joint ; and that one he priced at a ducat the pound. So 
nobody came to buy that day. Next day the thief would 
stay no longer. He took a cart and put a horse in it, and 
drove to the meat-market. And he pretended he had damaged 
his cart, and lamented he had not an axe to repair it with. 
Then a butcher said to him : " Here, take my axe, and mend 
your cart." The axe was close to the meat. As he passed to 
take the axe, he picked up a big piece of meat, and stuck it 
under his coat. And he handed the axe back to the butcher, 
and departed home. 

The same day comes the king, and asks the butchers : 
" Have you sold any meat to any one ? " They said : " We 
have not sold to any one." 

So the king weighed the meat, and found it twenty 
pounds short. And he went to the old thief in prison, and 
said to him : " He has stolen twenty pounds of meat, and 
no one saw him." 

" Didn't I tell you, O King, that this is a cunning thief ? " 

" Well, what I am to do, old thief ? " 

" W^hat are you to do ? Why, make a proclamation, 
and offer in it all the money you possess, and say he shall 
become a king in your stead, merely to tell who he is." 

Then the king went and wrote the proclamation, just as 
the old thief had told him. And he posted it outside by the 
gate. And the thief comes and reads it, and thought how 
he should act. And he took his heart in his teeth and went 
to the king, and said : " O King, I am the thief." 

" You are ? " 

"I am." 

Then the king said : "If you it be, that I may believe 
you are really the man, do you see this peasant coming? 



280 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Well, you must steal the ox from under the yoke without his 
seeing you." 

Then the thief said : " I'll steal it, O King ; watch mc.'* 
And he went before the peasant, and began to cry aloud : 
** Comedy of Comedies ! " 

Then the peasant said : " See there, God ! Many a time 
have 1 been in tlie city, and have often heard * Comedy of 
Comedies,' and have never gone to sec wliat it is like." 

And he left his cart, and went off to the other end of 
the city ; and the thief kept crying out till he had got 
the peasant some distance from the oxen. Then the thief 
returns, and takes the ox, and cuts off its tail, and sticks 
it in the mouth of the other ox, and came away \vith tlie 
first ox to the king. Then the king laughed fit to kill liini- 
self. The peasant, when he came back, began to weep ; and 
the king called him, and asked : " What are you weeping 
for, my man ? " 

" Why, O King, whilst I was away to see the play, one 
of the oxen has gone and eaten up the other." 

When the king heard that, he laughed fit to kill himself, 
and he told his servant to give him two good oxen. And 
he gave him also his own ox, and asked him : " Do you 
recognise your ox, my man ? " 

"I do, O King." 

" Well, away you go home." 

And he went to the thief. " Well, my fine fellow, I will 
give you my daughter, and you shall become king in my 
stead, if you will steal the priest for me out of the church." 

Then the thief went into the town, and got three hundred 
crabs and three hundred candles, and went to the church, 
and stood up on the pavement. And as the priest chanted, 
the thief let out the crabs one by one, each with a candle 
fastened to its claw ; and he let it out. 

And the priest said : '* So righteous am I in the sight of 
God that lie sends His saints for me." 

The thief let out all the crabs, each with a candle fastened 
to its claw, and he said : '* Come, () priest, for God calls thee 
by His messengers to Himself, for thou art righteous." 

The priest said ; '* And how am I to go ? " 

'* Get into this sack." 

And he let down the sack ; and the priest got in ; and 
he lifted him up, and dragged him down the steps. And 
the priest's head went tronk, ironk. And he took him on 



APPENDIX IIGHATA AND KARPARA 281 

his back, and carried him to the king, and tumbled him down. 
And the king burst out laughing. And straightway he gave 
his daughter to the thief, and made him king in his stead. 

It will be seen that in its chief incidents the above 
gypsy version resembles the original Rhanipsinitus tale, but, 
like many other variants, has had portions of another story 
added to it. As in Dolopathos, and nearly a dozen other 
variants, it is an "old man," at one time a thief himself, 
who tells the king what schemes to employ in order to catch 
the thief. 

The incident of the meat is found in about ten variants, 
apart from the tale in II Pecorone. The incident of the one 
thief taking the breeches off the other occurs, with differ- 
ences, in the Kashmiri tale of " Shabrang, Prince and Thief " 
(J. H. Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir, 2nd edition, 1893, 
p. Ill), but here the thief has to secure the paijdmas of a 
labourer by sheer trickery. 

As has already been noticed, the latter part of the gypsy 
variant closely resembles Grimm's No. 192. Here the crabs 
crawl about the churchyard, and the thief, disguised as 
Peter, says they are the spirits of the dead who have just 
risen, and are now searching for their bones. 

Although the " crab and candle " incident is not in the 
main portion of the gypsy story, we have seen (p. 268) that 
in the version of Ser Giovanni candles are used on the horses' 
trappings to disguise the thief as Lucifer. And in three 
other versions (Sicilian, French and North African) the 
guards are frightened by a herd of goats to whose heads are 
attached pots containing candles. 

We will now contrast an interesting Finnish version in 
Old Swedish, which, as far as I know, has never before been 
translated into English. The story appears to have been 
very popular in Finland, where about fifteen versions are 
found (see Aarne, *' Verzeichnis der Marchentypen," Helsing- 
fors, 1910, and " Finnische Marchenvarianten," Hamina, 
1911, FF Communications 3, p. 40, and 5, p. 77). Bolte 
describes the version given below as Swedish, but in reality 
it is Finnish, being written in the Swedish spoken by the 
Finns about the fifteenth century. 

The version in question is to be found in Abcrg, Nyldndska 
Folksagor, 2 haftet, Ilelsingfors, 1887, and is here translated 



282 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

literally the somewhat disjointed style of the Old Swedish 
and constant use of short sentences being preserved. 

The Bank Thief 

Once there was a student. He went to a town to learn 
building. When they had built the bank, he said to his 
master : " Now we will go and steal in the bank to-night." 
" How is that to be done ? It is strongly built, and then 
there are guards," said the master. " I have made a secret 
door, and we can go through that," said the other. They 
went, and the two following nights the student entered, but 
on the third night he let the master go in. He went. But 
now the king had found out about the theft. So he put in 
a machine, that cut off the thief's head. But the student 
knew what to do, and took the head away. As the king 
could not recognise [the thief by] the body alone, he put it 
on a cart and drove it up and down the streets, thinking 
that somebody, his wife at least, would recognise the body, 
and, on seeing it, cry out loudly. When the student heard 
about this, he went up to the window and stood there looking 
out. Just when they were passing by with the headless 
body, he cut his chin a little. When the wife saw the body, 
she cried out. The king asked what all the noise was about. 
The student answered : " The mistress became so frightened 
when I cut my chin a little while shaving." As the king 
could not find out who was the thief in this way, he caused 
a watch-house to be built outside the town, and placed the 
body inside. Six men were put to guard it outside and six 
inside. The king thought that somebody would try to take 
the body away, and that this would be the one to whom it 
belonged. When the student heard about this, he ordered 
twelve clerical gowns to be made, and when he had got them, 
he went from one toll-gate to the other and bought a large 
amount of liquor. 

Then he went to the watch-house, asking if he might stay 
there for one night. But the guards were strictly forbidden 
to let anybody stay there, and dared not keep him over the 
night. He said : " Why can't you let me stay for one 
night? I will help you to guard, if you let me stay." Thus, 
he was allowed to stay. He then gave them some of the 
liquor. At first they would not touch it, but when he said 
that he would keep watch if they chanced to go to sleep, they 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 283 

took some of it. Before long they were all asleep. Then 
he dressed them all in the clerical gowns and took the corpse 
away. When the first guard awoke and saw what had 
happened, he called the others, saying to each of them : 
" Good morning, your Reverence ! That traveller has gone 
away with the corpse and now the devil will take us ! I 
suggest that we all go to the king and ask him for a parish 
each." So they did. The king thought : *' Where the devil 
have all these priests come from ? " However, he gave them 
a parish each. 

When the king could not find out the thief in this way, 
he arranged for a large party, to which he invited all his 
subjects. The student was there too. The king threw some 
money on the floor, saying to himself : " He who stole 
in the bank will not leave this alone either." When the 
student saw what had been done, he fixed something under 
his boots which caught up the money. Thus, when he saw 
a coin, he at once stepped on it, and going outside took it off. 

When the king was unable to find the thief in this way, 
he said : " Everybody that has been to this party must stay 
here to-night," thinking that he who was such a rascal could 
not leave the princess alone, but would go and sleep with 
her. He gave her a bottle [of colour (yr dye] so that she 
could mark the one who went to her. All happened [as 
had been expected] and the student slept with the princess. 
She marked him, but while she was asleep he took the bottle 
and marked her and all the others too. When the king 
woke up and saw this, he said to himself : " They have all 
been sleeping with the princess, so now I cannot find the 
thief. He must be a very clever man." Then he said to 
them : " He who has stolen in the bank and taken the head 
away from the body and the body away from the twelve 
guards and made them priests, and who dared to take the 
money from my floor, he shall be my son-in-law." Then 
the student went up to the king, bowed and said he had 
done it. " Oh, is it you, you rascal ? " said the king, and 
gave him his daughter and also the country. 



In the above version, the most noticeable divergence 
from other variants is the incident about the cutting off of 
the head, in that it is done by a machine put in the bank by 
the king and not by the son or accomplice. 



284 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

The main incidents from Herodotus still appear. A new 
addition is the amusing incident of the " priests " obtaining 
a parish each, although in the Old Dutch poem, "De Ueif 
van Brugghc " (see the reprint by G. \V. Dasent, Zeit. f. d. 
Alterth.y vol. v, 1845, p. 399), the guards are dressed in monks' 
clothing. The scattering of the money is found in several 
versions, modern Greek, Aramaic, South Siberian, Kabail 
and Georgian. The marking of the thief by the princess has 
already (p. 275) been referred to when dealing with the 
version of Ser Giovanni. 

Inquiries made at the University of Upsala convince me 
that the Finns and Swedes got the story from Russia, possibly 
in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, but certainly prior to 
the Russo-Swedish War of 1571-1577. 



In conclusion I would return to the East and mention 
the Tibetan version, which is of considerable interest, 
because we know it was directly derived from Sanskrit and 
was incorporated in the sacred Tibetan Canon the Ka-gyur 
(or Kanjur). 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries many Indian 
Buddhist refugees settled in Tibet, and, with the active 
assistance of the most learned of the Lamas, proceeded 
to translate the Sanskrit texts of Indian Buddhism into 
Tibetan. The huge work involved can be appreciated when 
we remember that the Ka-gyur runs to 100 volumes (or in 
some editions to 108, the sacred number). 

Details of these sacred texts will be found in the excellent 
Introduction by W. R. S. Ralston to Schiefner's Tibetan 
Tales, London, 1882. 

The Tibetan version occurs in the Ka-gyur, iv, 132-135, 
and appears on pp. 37-43 of the above work. It is also given 
nearly in full by Clouston, op. cit, vol. ii, pp. 145-148, so 
that there is no need to repeat it again here. I would, how- 
ever, give a brief resume of the tale owing to its relationship 
with that of Somadeva. 



A certain widow entrusts her son to a weaver, his uncle. 
In time the son learns that his uncle is a thief by night, 



APPENDIX II GHATA AND KARPARA 285 

and is anxious to join him in his adventures. The son soon 
proves his capabilities for such work. They start house- 
breaking and make a hole [cf. Somadeva's tale where they 
break through a wall into a house]. The nephew reproves 
his uncle for putting his head in the hole first instead of 
his feet. Hardly is the change effected when the cry of 
" Thieves ! " is raised. The son cuts off the head. The 
body is exposed and guarded. The son pretends he is mad 
and goes about embracing everybody and everything in- 
cluding, of course, the body of his uncle. He then drives 
up disguised as a carter with a load of wood, to which he sets 
fire and so burns the body. Next he assumes the garb of a 
Brahman and makes an oblation of cakes on the spot where 
the body was burned. He now appears as a Kapalika [see 
Ocean, Vol. II, p. 90n*] and so manages to fling the bones 
into the Ganges. By a further trick he enjoys the king's 
daughter and a son is born. Later the boy chooses his father 
out of the assembled populace and gives him a wreath of 
flowers. He is thus discovered, but the king considers he 
is far too clever to be killed, and the wedding takes place. 



In this version we see at once the close relationship with 
our story of Ghata and Karpara. Both versions have given 
prominence to the necessity for the proper Hindu burial rites 
to be performed, and it is only after their due completion that 
the thief can find contentment of mind. 

The Tibetan version, however, has the incident of the 
child and wreath of flowers. This occurs, with variations, 
in Dolopathos (French version), in a West Highland and in 
a Mingrelian (Caucasian) version. The Tibetan tale is un- 
usual in that the thief is caught by this ruse, most variants 
following DolopathoSy and allowing him to escape once again. 



To summarise briefly, I would regard the " Story of 
Ghata and Karpara " on pp. 142-146 of this volume as one 
of the numerous variants of the " Tale of Rhampsinitus '* 
as told by Herodotus (Book II, p. 121). 

Exactly how and when it got to India are questions I do 
not even hope to answer. My own opinion is that it found 
its way across the Indian Ocean in Ptolemaic times, very 



286 TIIK OCKAX OF STORY ; 

possibly during,' tlu- r<.'i^n of IMiiljuklplms (284-216 H.c). ' 
when tliv tracU' aiul cliploinatic rt'lations Ix'twccn Egypt 
aiul India wiTc in proi,n\'ss. The natural aj)pi'al of thv tale ! 
soon caustil it to l>f i^athcivd intt) (iunadiiya's net, and so it i 
a]){)iars in Soinadt'va. " 

As to tlu' ''Talc of llliainpsinitns " itself, until fresh evi- 
dence to the eontrary is produced, I \vouid look u})on it as of j 
real KLr\})tian origin. All tlu- main ineidi-nts are Egyptian, 
though minor alterations and fresh incidents might have 
been added by Karian dragomans as the centuries rolled 
bv. It seems quite possible that the tale may date back 
to an early dynasty and in some way be connected with the 
myths of Isis and Osiris. 

It found its way to (ireece somewhere about tr)0 Ji.c, 
when it ])ecame incorporati'd with ancient Cireek myths of 
})re-lIomeric date. It recei\'ed fresh impetus by its inclusion 
in the Sacn Sages, and kindred media'\al collections. The 
numerous languages into which these collections were trans- 
lated spread the tale of the Two Thieves all over Europe. 
This dissemination may have been considerably helped by the 
gypsies, who picked uj) the tale in the Halkans and included 
it in their general stock-in-trade of stories. 

The '"Tale of Rhampsinitus." therefore, affords one of the 
most inter<'sting and perfect examj^les of the longc\ity and 
migration of a really good tale, the history of which can be 
traced for over two thousand, three hundred years. 



INDEX I 



SANSKRIT WOUDS AND PROPER NAMES 

The n sUnds for " note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
18 no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previoub page. 



Aah-mes-si-neit, correct form 
of Amasis II, 251 

Aarne, A., " Verzeichnis der 
Marchentypen," FF Com- 
munications 3, Helsingfors, 

1910, 281 ; Finnische 
! Marchenvarianten," FF 
\ Communications 5, Hamina, 

1911, 281 

I'Abd al-'Allam Faiz Khan 
I Oghlu, Turkish translator 
I of Kalilah and Dimnah, 239 
*Abdalluh ibn MoqafTa, 219, 

236 
Aberg. G. A., Nyldndska 
Folksagor, Helsingfors, 
1887, 281 
Abhiijdgika., lovers' bites and 
i scratchings on leaves, 
I flowers, etc., 195 
Abu ^asim, 97n^ 
[Abyssinia, method of choos- 
ing new king in Senjero, 

177 

Achchhoda Lake, the, 39, 40 
ichhurilaka{m), "superficially 

touching " with the finger- 
nails, 193 
\chilles Tatius [The Loves of 

Clitopho ana Leucippe], 

200n2 
idhivasa, the meaning of, 175 
i^ivin, minister of Meg- 

havarna, 98, 99 
Esop's fable of the ape trying 

to fish, 43i 
Lfanasief, A. N. (or Afanasjev), 

collector of over three 

hundred Russian stories, 

157i 
L F. F. and B. F. R. (i.e. F. F. 

Arbuthnot and Sir R. F. 

Bu rton ) , A Ttanea - Ranea , 

193 
gamedes and Trophonius, 

two master-builders, 255- 

257 



Akbar, the Emperor, and his 
_ jester, Birbal, 65 
Ala, Story of the Merchant's 
Son, the Courtesan, and 
the Wonderful Ape, 
5-13 
Alemany [i.e. Jos^ Alemany 
Bolufer),iva Antiqua Version 
Caslellana del Calila Y 
Dimna . . ., Madrid, 1915, 
237 
Allen, C. G., U ancienne version 
espagnole de Kalila et 
Digtia . . ., Macon, 1906, 
237 
Al-MoqafFa. See under 

Moqaffa, Abdallah ibn 
Alphonsus, Petrus, Disciplina 
_ Clericalis, ISn^, 87n' 
Ajnalaka fruit, 94 
Amalakas, a dish of, 62 
Amara^akti, a king named, 

221 
Amarasimha, 136^3 
Amareia, the temple of, 172, 

173 
Amasis II, 250, 251 
Amen-hetep II, 254 
Amon, chief deity at Thebes, 

250, 252, 254 
Amritatejas, a king named, 

173, 174 
Anagatvidhatri, a fish named, 

56, 57 
Anantaguna, minister of 

Vikramasimha, 15-18 
Ahka^akti, 221 
Anushirwan or Noshirwan, 
"the Just," King of Persia, 
218 
Anvarlha, nail-mark made on 
the back, breasts and yoni 
of a woman. 194 
Apollo, 255-257 
Arber's English Reprints. S. 
Gosson's Schoole of Abuse, 
55n, 133u 



Arbuthnot, F. F.,and Burton, 

Sir R. F., Ananga-Iianga. 

See under A. F. F. and 

B. F. R. 
Ardhachandra, "crescent 

moon," mark produced by 

the finger-nails, 193 
Aristodemus of Nysa, 80n2 
Aristophanes, 136/1^ 
Aristophanes, Aves {Birds), 

37n2, 61 n3 ; Nubes {Clouds), 

29n2, 256, 257 
Arnauld of Carcasses, 11 In' 
Arnold, Sir E., trans, the 

Hitopadesa, 1861, 210 
Arrian's Indika, 83 w^, ISOni. 

See also McCrindle, J. W. 
Arthadatta, friend of I^vara- 

varman, 7-12 
Ashadhabhuti, thief named, 

223, 226 
A^oka and his son Kunala, 

259ni 
Assyria, the beard in, 253 
A^u^ravas, 31 
Aufrecht, Prof, Beitr'dge sur 

Kenntniss Indischer Dichter, 

136n 
Augeas, King, 257, 258 
Aurivillius, P. 1^., Prolegomena 
ad librum Sre^aviTT/s icat 
'IxvrjXdrrjs . . ., Upsala, 
1780, 238 

B. text of the K.S.S. Sec 

under B[rockhaus] 
Babrius, Fables, Sir G. Come- 

wall Lewis' ed.. 135n^; 

Fabula, 79n2, llQni 
Babu Sarat Chandra Das, 59n* 
Babylon, the beard in, 253 
Baka Jdtaka (No. 38), 48ni 
Balavarman, a city named, 

19 
Baldo [Alter Aesopus]. See 

further under M^ril, t.di- 

stand du 



288 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Bali (the king of the Daityas), 
198 

Bana, The Kadambariof, trt^ns. 
C. M. Kidding, Oriental 
Translation Fund, Roy. As. 
Soc, 1896,39 

Baring - Gou Id , S . , Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages, 
1869, l^ni 

Bartsch, K., Sagen, Marchen 
und Gebr'duche aus Meklen- 
burg, Vienna, 1879, 4ni, 
92n, I57n\ 170nS 201n 

Basile, G. B., // Pentamerone ; 
or, The Tale of Tales. 
Being a Translation by the 
Late Sir R. Burton, 2 vols., 
Ldn., 1893, lln\ 158n, 
172n 

Bassorah, a merchant of, 97n^ 

Bastian, A., Die Volker des 
ostlichen Asiens, Leipzig, 
1866-1871, 128n 

Behmauer, W. F. A., Die 
Vierzig Veziere, Leipzig, 
1851, 153ni 

Benfey, Theodor, 58n^ ; Pan- 
tschatantra, 2 vols., Leipzig, 
1859, 42n, 42ni, 43ni, 
43n2, 46ni, 48ni, 49ni, 
62n, 53ni, 55ni, 55n2, 
65n, 58i, 59n2, 61n, 
64, 73n^ 75ni, 76ni, 76n', 
77n^ 79n, 93ni,98ni,99n, 
lOOni, lOlni, 102n2, 104ni, 
106ni, 106ni, 107ni, 108n2, 
109n2, llln2, 112ni, 127ni, 
130ni, 134n2, 135n, 138ni, 
153ni, 157ni, 164ni, 217; 

t" Ueber die alte deutsche 
Jebersetzung des Kaltlah 
und Dimnah "1 Orient und 
Occident, 238; f" Zur Ver- 
breitung indiscner Fabeln 
und Erzahlungen "] Orient 
und Occident, 259ni ; Intro- 
duction to Bickell's Kalilag 
u. Damnag, 219 

Bengal, the probable home of 
the Hitopadesa, 210 

Bethgelert. the parish of, 
N. Wales, 138ni 

B. F. R. and A. F. F. {i.e. Sir 
R. F. Burton and F. F. 
Arbuthnot). See under 
A. F. F. and B. F. R. 

Bhadra-Gha(a Jaiaka, the (No. 
291), 3ni 

Bhavani, 81, 82 

Bhava^arman, Brahman 
named, 124 



Bhilla maiden, the, 28 

Bhillas, 28, 29 

Bhoja, King, 142n2 

Bickell, G., Kalilag und 
Damnag, Intro. T. Benfey, 
Leipzig, 1876, 219 

Bidpai and Pilpay, the first 
European use of the name, 
240 

Bidpai (or Pilpay), Fables of, 
41ni, 46ni, 218 

Bindo, a master-builder 
named, 267, 268 

Bindu, point," wound given 
by teeth on woman's body, 
194 

Binduitiala, "garland of dots," 
a row of teeth-marks on a 
woman's body, 194 

Birbal, court-jester of the 
Emperor Akbar, story of, 
65 

Bloomfield, Prof. M., 186ni; 
"The Art of Stealing in 
Hindu Fiction," Amer. 
Joum. Phil., 61 n^, 64, 
142n2, 143n, 158w; "False 
Ascetics and Nuns in 
Hindu Fiction," Joum. 
Amer. Orient. Soc., 102n2; 
" Joseph and Potiphar in 
Hindu Fiction," Trans. 
Amer. Phil. Ass., 176 ; The 
Life and Stories of the Jaina 
Savior Pdrgvandtha, Balti- 
more, 1919, 176; ["On 
Recurring Psychic Motifs in 
Hindu Fiction the Laugh 
and Cry Motif"] Joum. 
Amer. Orient. Soc., 37n* 

Boccaccio, Decamerone, 13n' 

Bodhisattva, a (one whose 
essence is perfect know- 
ledge), 153-157, 160, 161- 
164 

Bohn's [Antiquarian Library], 
edition of the Gesta 
Romanorum, 138n* ; Classi- 
cal Library, 245n^ 

Bolte, Johannes, und PoHvka, 
Georg, Anmerkungen zu den 
Kinder- und Hausmdrchen 
der Briider Grimm, 3 vols., 
Leipzig, 1913, 1915, and 
1918, 3ni, 66, 79n, 100n, 
117ni, 153ni, 167ni, 267, 
276 

Bombay Sanskrit Series, 216 

Bom pas, C. H., Folk-Lore of 
the Sanlal Parganas, Ldn., 
1909, 65 



Brand, J., Observations on 
Popular Antiquities of G: 
Britain, 3 vols., Ldn., 1 
lOOni, 201n 

Brandes, J., on the M 
version of Kalilah 
Dimnah, 239 

Bjfhatkatha, Essai sitrGtinddh 
et la, . Lac6te, 211' 

Brihal-katha, the, 207, 208 
one of the four independe: 
streams of the Paiichaiantrt 
(Edgerton), 208, Somadevti 
and, 39, 42n ; versions 
the PaHchatantra, 210-216 

Brihat-katkd-mafljari, Ksh 
mendra, 211-213 

Brockelmann, C, "Kalllawi 
Dimna," Encyclopaedia o 
Islam, 234, 236, 239, 240 

Brockhaus, Prof., 106n', 
115n2, 128ni, USn\ 216 

B[rockhaus] text of thi 
K.S.S., the, 22ni, 47^ 
106w2, 128ni, lMn\ 13 
148ni, 204n2, 216 

Brown, W. N., "The Pafica- 
tantra in Modern Indian 
Folk-Lore," Joum. Amer, 
Orient. Soc., 'lSn\ 49/i, 
63n^, 64n; "Escaping one'f 
Fate . . .," Studies in Hi 
oj Maurice Bloo7n/ield, 186ii*i 

Browne, Sir Thomas, " f^ul'\ 
gar Errors" i.e. Psetido*^ ^ 
doxia Epidemica, lAn., 
1646, 135n 

Brugsch, on the etymology 
of the name Rhampsinituii c 
250 

Bud, the old Syriac version I 
" Kalilag wa Dimnag," ^ 
219 

Buddhiprabha, a king named, ^ 
188-192 I 

Budge, Sir E. Wallis, 26S*| 
255 ; Osiris and the Egvptitm 4i 
Resurrection, 254 

Buhler, J. G. [" The Vrihat- i 
katha of Kshemendra "] 
Indian Antiquary, 212 

Biihler-Kielhorn MSS. of 
" Textus Simplicior " of tht 
PaHcIiatantra, 216 

Burnell, A. C, "The Brihat- 
katha-mafijari," Tht 
Academy, 211, 212 

Burton, R. F., The Thousand 
Nights and a Night, 1885, 
1886, 13i, 43n, 65, 66, 
97ni, 122ni, 177, 181n; /? 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



289 



Burton, R. F. continued 

Penlamerone ; or, The Tale of 

Tales . . . of G. B. Basile, 

Ldn.,1893, llnM58n,172n 
Burton, Sir R. F., and Arbuth- 

not, F. F., Ananga-lianga. 

See under A. F. F. and 

B. F. R. 
Burzoe or Burzuyeh, court 

physician, translator of the 

Pafichatanira into Persian, 

218 
[Busk, R. H.J Sagas from the 

Far East, Ldn., 1873, ^Zn\ 

nn\ \bZn\ 157ni 
Butterworth, H., Zigzag Jottr- 

neys in India ; or. The 

Antipodes of the Far East, 

Boston, 1887, 49/1^ 
Buzurgmihr, vizier of Noshir- 

wan or Chosroes I, King 

of Persia, 218 

Campbell, J. P., Popular 
Tales of the West Highlands, 
Edinburgh, 1860-1862, 
46ni, 157ni 

Campbell, Killis, The Seven 
Sages of Rome, 1907, 128n, 
138ni, 260n, 263, 264, 
266ni, 267 ; Study of the 
Romance of the Seven Sages 
wUh Special . . ., 1898, 263ni 

Capitolinus, the temple of 
Jupiter, 64 

Capua, John of, 98n^, 237; 
Directoriiim vitce humance, 
220 

Carcasses, Arnauld of, 11 In* 

Cardonne. See under Gal- 
land and Cardonne 

Carey, Henry, Herodotus, 
Bohn's Classical Library, 
1877, 245ni 

Cento Novelle Antiche (see 
Borghini's edition, Milan, 
1804), 13i 

Cercyon, son of Agamedes, 
256, 257 

Chakladar, H., "VatsyAyana 
the Author of the Kama- 
sfdra: Date and Place of 
Origin," Joum. of the Dept. 
of Letters of the University 
of Calcutta, 193 

Chamafi deer, 29 

Ch&nakya the Wise, 221 

Chan^ala maiden, 39, 40, 85, 
86 

Chan^ala Maiden-, Story of 
the Ambitious, 85-86 

VOL. V. 



Chandrapi(^a, king named, 87 
Chandrapi^a, son of Tfirapida, 

39, 40 
Chandrasara, a merchant 

named, 201, 202, 204 
Chandrasaras (t.^. Moon lake), 

101, 101 ni 
Chandra^rl, Balavarman's 

wife, 19 
Charax Pergamenus, priest 

and historian, 256, 257 
Chaturdanta, a leader of 

elephants, 101-102 
Chaucer, Prioress's Tale, 

Squires Tale, 27n2 . xhe 

Prioresses Tale . . . from 

the Canterbury Tales, W. W. 

Skeat, Oxford, 1874, 27n2. 

See also under W. W. Skeat 
Chauvin, Victor, 231, 232, 

234-236, 238, 241, 266n* ; 

Bibliographic des Ouvrages 

Arabes, 3ni, 16ni, 66, 87ni, 

94n2, 101 ni, 122ni, 133n, 

147ni, 153ni, 177, 181n, 

183ni, 210, 219, 220ni, 

232, 234-242, 266 
Chavannes, E., Citiq cent contes 

et apologues extraits du Trip- 

itaka chinois, 3 vols., Paris, 

1910-1911, 63ni 
Cheikho, L., ed. of Kattlah 

and Dimnah, Beyrouth, 

1905, 236 
Cheops prostitutes his own 

daughter, 254 
Chhidra, khatra, sumgd, etc., 

opening of Indian thief's 

tunnel, 142n^ 
Chirajlvin, minister of Meg- 

havarna, 99, 104-107, 109- 

113 
Chitragriva, the king of the 

pigeoAs, 74 
Chitrakuta, 5, 13 
Chitranga, a deer named, 

78-80 
Chosroes I (or Kisra), King 

of Persia, 218 
Chowrie, one of the five 

emblems of royalty, 175, 

176 
Chowrie (fly-whisk), 29, 100, 

175, 176; and umbrella for 

anointing a king, 100 
Chulla-Paduma Jataka (No. 

193), 143n, 153ni 
Cicero, Tusc. Disp., 257 
Clouston, W. A. ( Note in 

Burton's Nights), 177 ; Book 

of Noodles, Ldn., 1888, 68n, 



Clouston, W. A. continued 
168rti ; The Book of Sindu 
bad, Glasgow, 1884, 122nS 
127n, 267; Flowers from 
a Persian Garden Otui Other 
Papers, Ldn., 1890, lOltji; 
Popular Tales and Fictions, 
their Migrations and TranS' 
formations, 2 vols., Edin- 
burgh and London, 1887, 
66, 267, 275, 285 

Coelho, A., Contos Populares 
Portuguezes, Lisbon, 1879, 
55n, 67n, l06n, 109n2, 
183ni 

Comparetti, D., Novelline 
Popolari Italiane, 1875, 275 

Constantinescu, Dr Barbu, 
Probe de Limba ^i Literaiura 
Tiganilor din Romania, 1878, 
275 

Copland edition of the Seven 
Wise Masters, the, 266 

Cosquin, E., Les Conies Indiens 
et L'Occident, Paris, 1922, 
177 ; Contes PopuUdres de 
Lorraine, 87n^ 

Cowell, E. B., The JStaka; 
or. Stories of the Buddha's 
Former Births, translated 
by Various Hands, and 
edited by, 6 vols., Cam- 
bridge, 1895-1907, 3nS 
63ni, 64, 79n, 98ni, 99n, 
lOOni, lOlni-*, 155n2, 157ni, 
163ni, 176 

Cowell, E. B., and Gough, 
A. E., The Sarva-Darsana- 
Satjugraha, Triibner's 
Oriental Series, London, 
1882, 151 n 

Crane, T. F., Italian Popular 
Tales, Ldn., 1885, 66 

Crooke, W., "King Midas 
and his Ass's Ears," Folk- 
Lore, lln'; The Popular 
Religion and Folk-Lore of 
Northern India, 2 vols., 
Ldn., 1896, 27n, 30n, 
59ni, 101 ni, 126ni, 160ni, 
176; Tribes and Castes of 
the North- Western Provinces 
and Oudh, 4 vols., Calcutta, 
1896, 176 

Crorff ( 1 00 /iA*, orl 0,000,000), 
6, 7, 9-12 

Cunningham, General A., 
Stftpa of Bharhut, Ldn., 
1879, 79n; The Ancient 
Geography of India, Ldn., 
1871, 16&ni 



290 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



D. text of the K.S.S. See 

under D[urgaprasad] 
Dam&naka, a jackal named, 

43-45, 46, 47, 50-55, 58, 

63, 218 
Dames, M. Longworth, 

" Balochi Tales," Folk- 

Lore, 49ni 
Dani(fid, G., the Old Slavonic 

trans, of the Kalilah and 

Dimnah, Stnrine, Zagreb, 

1870, 235, 238 
Darbha grass, 185 
Darjiling, 59n2 

Das, Babu Sarat Chandra, 59/i2 
Dasamhachhedya, or " biting 

with the teeth," 194, 195 
Dasent, G. W., Popular Tales 

from the Norse, Edinburgh, 

1859, 3/ii, llni; ' De Deif 

van B r u g g h e," Zeit f. d. 

Alterlh., 284 
Datura, sweetmeats mixed 

with the juice of the, 145, 

145rt2 
Davids, T. W. Rhys, Buddhist 

Birth Stories, 2 vols., 

Triibner's Oriental Series, 

Ldn., 1880, 3n^, 55 n^, 19n^, 

98m1, lOOni 
Deccan, the, 23, 186 
De Gubematis. See under 

Gubematis, A. de 
Delphi, the Oracle at, 256; 

the temple at, 256-258 
Derenbourg, J., Deux versions 

hebra'iques du livre de KalilAh 

et Dimnah, 220 ; Johannis de 

Capua Directorium xitce 

humance, 237 
Devadasa, a householder 

named, 19, 20 
Devaghosha, Vajravega born 

as, 159 
Devajaya, a Vidyadhara 

named, 34-36 
Deva.4arman, a Brahman 

named, 138, 139 
Devaiarman, a monk named, 

223 
Dhanadeva, a merchant 

named, 147-150 
Dliane^vara, 178 
Dharmabuddhi ("virtuously- 
minded"), 59-61, 61 H* 
Dharmakalpadrtima, 186u^ 
Dhavalamukha, his Trading 

Friend and his Fighting 

Friend, Story of, 87-88 
Didhitimat, a hermit named, 

33 ; hermitage of, 32 



Dinars, 1, 2, 6, 10-12, 59, 60, 
61, 187, 188; the monkey 
that swallows, 10-13 
Diptanayana, minister of 
Avamarda ("Flame-eye"), 
105, 106, 106/j. 
Divya, the meaning of, 175 
Doge of Venice and the Thief, 

Story of the, 267-274 
Dohada motif, the, 127h1 
Doni, Lm Moral Filusophia, 

220, 237, 238 

Doni, The Morall Philosophie 
of, T. North, 220 

Douce, Francis, Illustrations 
of Shakspeare, 2 vols., Ldn., 
1807, 87ni 

D'Penha, G. F., " Folk-Loreof 
Salsette," Indian Antiqtiary, 
65 

Dubois, J. A., Le Pantcha- 
Tantra, 48/ii, 55n3, 237 

Du^iila, (/'.e. of bad character), 
Devadasa's wife, 20, 02^1 

Du, Meril. See under Meril, 
Edelestand du 

Dunlop, John, Geschichte der 
Prosadichtungen oder Ge- 
schichte der Roviane . . . 
Anmerkungen von Felix 
Liebreclit, Berlin, 1851, 
13n\ 87wS llln2, U2n^, 
186n2 

Durga (Parvatl, Gauri), wife 
of Siva, 146, 185 

D[urgaprasad] text of the 
K.S.S., the, 22^1, 23n\ 
24^S31ni, 35ni, 51ni, 60ni, 
71n\ 76ni, 77h2, 19n\ 8ln\ 
106n2, 129ni, 136n^ U5n^, 
180w2, 200n\ 204n2 

Dushtabuddhi ("evil- 
minded "), 59-61, 61n2, 
143n 

Eastwick, Edward B., trans. 
The Am<dr-i Suhaili ; or. The 
Lights of Canopus, 1854, 
220; Aliahabad, 1914, 240 

Eberhard, A., Philogelos Hier- 
ocles et Philagrii Facetice, 

^ Berolini, 1869, 133ni 

Edelestand du M^ril, Poesies 
Inddifes, Baldo, 73n^ 

Edgerton, Prof. Franklin, 
58ni, 207, 208, 219, 220, 

221, 230; "Evil-Wit, No- 
Wit and Honest -Wit," 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., 
59n- ; " Paflcadivyadhivasa, 
or Choosing a King . . . ," 



Edgerton continued 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc,^ 
175; The Panchal antra 11 
constructed, 2 vols., 1924, 
56nS 77n3, 101 n\ 102n^ 
105ni-2, 109nS 207^^, 208, 
209, 213, 214, 217, 221 

Egypt, custom of weannj^ 
beards in Ancient, 253 
254 

Egypt and Greece, intimat 
relations between (664-61 
D.c), 258 

Egypt and India, relation! 
between, 286 

Elasar, Elazar, or Eleazar, 
editor of Hebrew version^ 
of Kalilah and D'nnnah, 239?: 

Elliot Smith, Prof, on th 
tale of Rhampsinitus, 255 

Ellis, Havelock, The Psych- 
ology of Sex, 6 vols., 189n* 

Erginus, Kingof Orchomenus, 
256 

Europe, the Book of Sindihad 
brought to, 260 ; in the 
eleventh century the 
Pafichatantra reaches. 207 

Eustathius (or Eumathius/ 
surnamed Macrembolites), 
The Story of' Hysmine and 
Hysminius, 2Q0n^ 

" External Soul " jnotif, \21n^ 

Eysinga, P. P. Roorda van, 
Kalilah en Daminah Mw 
leisch, 1844, 239 

Falconer, Keith-. See Keith- 
Falconer, I. G. N. 
Fausb<^ll, v.. The Jntaka, 

together with its Commentary, 

7 vols., London and Kopen-. 

hagen, 1877-1897, 127h1 
Ferrand, G., Contes Populaires 

Malagaches, Paris, 1 893, 

127ni 
Firenzuola, A., Discorsi degli 

Animali, 220, 238 
Fleeson, K. N., Laos Folk-lA)re 

of Farther India, New 

York, 1899, 59n2 
Fletcher, John, Pule a Wife 

and hai'e a Wife, 13' 
Fletcher, John, and Shake 

speare, The Two Xoblt 

Kinsmen, 69h* 
Flinders Petrie, Sir, on th 

correct form of the nam^ 

Rhampsinitus, 251 ; on th 

origin of the tale of Rham 

sinitus, 255 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



291 



Fontaine, I^, Coiites el Xou- 
vcl/csMn^; Fables, 64, 73n, 
91 ni, 102n2, lOGn\ U2n^, 
135h 

Forcellini, Egidio, " Salisa- 
tores " [Totitis Latinitatis 
Lexicon^, 201 n 

Frazer, J. G., Golden Hough, 
189/1^; Pausanias's Descrip- 
tion of Greece, 256, 257, 
266 

Frere, Mary, Old Deccan 
Days, 49 rt^ 

Fritsche, A. T. A., Theocritus^ 
Idyllia, Leipzig, 1868-1869, 
2dbt 

Gaal, G., M'drchen der Mag- 

yaren, Vienna, 1822, 157;ti 
Gadyatmakah Kalhasaril- 

sdgarah, J. Vidyasagara, 

236 
Gahlot clan in Mewar, the, 

176 
Gajanika, a king named, 23, 

25 
Gal land, A., Les Contes el 

Fables indiennes de Bidpa'i 

el de Lohnan, 2 vols., Paris, 

1724, 241 
Galland's version of The 

Fables of Pilpay, 240-242 
Galland and Cardonne, 

Conies el Fables indiennes, de 

Bidpai el de Lokman, Paris, 

1778, 241 
Gandharva princess, 39 
Gane^a, son of Siva and 

Parvatl, 1 
Ganges, the river, 146, 185 
Garcin de Tassy. See under 

Tassy, Garcin de 
Garuda (son of Vinata), 57, 

82,'82n3 
Gaster, M., Beitrage zur 

vergleichenden Sagen- und 

Mdrchenkunde, Bucharest, 

1883, 128;t; Studies and 

Texts, 128h 
Gauhnin. See under Sahid, 

David 
Gauri (Parvati, Durga, etc.), 

wife of Siva, 26, 27 
Gautama, curse of, 96 
Gayangos, P. dc. Calila v 

Dynnia, de AMallah beii al- 

Mocaff'a, 237 
Gelert, Llewellyn's faithful 

hound, 138u* 
Gellius, Aulas [Nodes Attica], 

162ni 



Germans, tree -worship 
amongst the ancient, 179 

Ghata and Karpara, Story of 
the Two Thieves, 142, 
142/ii, 143-147; origin as 
told by Herodotus, 245- 
255 ; different versions of, 
245 ; languages in which 
found, 267 ; similarity be- 
tween Somadeva's story 
and Herodotus' tale of 
Rhampsinitus, 249 

Ghata's tricks andspells to be- 
wilder the guards, 145, 146 

Gibb, E. J. W., The Ilistoty 
of the Forty Vezirs, Ldn., 
1886, 153h1 

GijjhaJataka (No. 164), 163ni 

Giles, H. A., Strange Stories 
from a Chinese Studio, 2 
vols., Ldn., 1880, 162;ii 

Giovanni, Ser, // Pecorone 
(English ed.W.G. Waters), 
267, 281 

Godeke, Orient und Occident, 
238, 261n3 

Godley, A. D., Herodotus, 
Loeb Classical Library, 
245ui, 254 

Gomme, G. L., ed. History oj 
the Seven f^^ise Masters oJ 
Rovic, 266n2 

Gomukha, minister of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 14, 15, 18, 20, 
22, 27, 38, 41, 42n, 63, 67, 
73,83,88,97,98,113, 119, 
120, 127, 132, 137, 138, 
152, 153, 157, 164, 171, 
174, 178, 183, 185, 188, 
192 

Gongrijp, J. R. P. E.,Hhikajal 
Kalila dan Dantina . . . 
inalajoe, 239 

Gonzenbach, Laura, Sicilian- 
ische M'drchen, Mit Anmerk- 
ungen R. Kohler's, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1870, Zn^, lln^, 
117//1, 164^1, 17bt2 

Goonetilleke, W., "Compara- 
tive Folk-Lore," The Orien- 
talist, 64 

(josson, S., Schoole of Abuse. 
Edited by E. Arber in his 
English Reprints, 1868, 
553, 133 

Gotravardhana, king named, 
162-164 

Gough, A. E., The San'a- 
Darsana- Saingraha , 151 H*. 
See further under Cowell, 
E. B. 



Gower, John, Confessio 
avuintis, 157* 

Greece, intimate relations 
between Egypt ami, (664- 
610 u.c), 258; tale of 
Rhamp.sinitus in classical, 
255-258 

Grierson, Sir George, on cut- 
ting off ears and nose for 
faithlessness, 82/t'; on the 
stor}' about the Irishman, 
93/* ; Linguistic Survey oJ 
India, 65; "Mongoose," 
Joum. Boy. As. Soc., 139n^ 

Grierson and Stein, Sir Aurel. 
See under Stein 

Griffis, W. E., The Japanese 
Fairy World, Ldn., 1887, 
128/1 

Griffith, Prof F. L., on the 
origin of the tale of Rhamp- 
sinitus, 255 

Grimm, J., Reinhart Fuchs, 
Berlin, 1834, 783, 238 

Grimm, Jacob, Teutonic My th- 
ologtj, 4 vols., Ldn., 1880- 
1888, 179i 

Grimm, J. and W., Irische El- 
Jenmdrchen, Leipzig, 1826, 
Zn} ; Kinder- und Hausmdr- 
chen, Berlin, 1812-1815, 
62/i2, 66, 79/i3, 100/ii, isa^^i^ 
275, 281. See also under 
Bolte, J. 

Grohmann, J. V., Sagen aus 
Biihmen, Prag, 1863, 114i 

Groome, F. H., Gypsy Folk- 
Tales, Ldn., 1899, 275; 
Journal of the Gypsy- Lore 
Society, 275 

Gubematis, A. de. Zoological 
Mythology, 2 vols., Ldn., 
1872, 43/i, 100n\ 10ln\ 
102m2, 109n2, I30n\ 151n^ 

Gudhaka{ni), "secret," bite 
on woman's underlip, 194 

Guhyaka (subject of Kuvera, 
the God of Wealth), 125 

Guna^hya, author of the 
Brihat-katha, 286 

Hades, Rhampsinitus playing 

dice in. 252, 253 
Hadji Khalfa, 236 
Hahn, F., Blicke in die Geisies- 

welt der heidnischen Kols : 

. . ., Giitersloh, 1906, 65 
Hall, Dr H. R. E., on the 

tale of Hhampsir.itus, 255 
Haranchandra Chakladar. 

See under Chakladar, H. 



292 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Hardy, R. Spence, Eastern 
Monachism, London, 1860, 
153 

Harighosha, a Bruhman 
named, 159 

Hari^ikha, minister of Nara- 
vahanadatU. 19, 20 

Harley, T., Moon-Lore, Ldn., 
1885, 101 2 

Harris, J., ed. of The Fables 
ofPilpay . . ., Ldn., 1699, 
240 

Harsha era, the, 39 

Harsha-vardhana (a.d. 606), 
39 

Harshavati, Queen of Ratna- 
kara, 30 

Hartland, . S., Ritual and 
Belief, Ldn., 1914, 177; 
The Sciertce of Fairy Tales, 
Ldn., 1891, 3ni; "The 
Voice of the Stone of 
Destiny," Folk-Lore, 177 

Harvard Oriental Series, 
21 6n^ 217ni 

Hasta, measure of distance, 
222 

Haughton, H. L., Sport and 
Folk-Lore in the Himalaya, 
Ldn., 1913, 65 

Hautesville, Jean de (Joannes 
de AlU Silva), 260 

Havelock Ellis. See under 
Ellis, H. 

Hemaprabha, queen of King 
Padmakuta, 32 

Hemaprabha, daughter of 
Buddhiprabha, 188-192; 
the dream of, 190; and 
Lakshmlsena, Story of, 188- 
192 

Herbert, Li Romans de Dolo- 
pathos, 260, 262, 263, 274 

Hermes {i.e. Thoth) playing 
draughts with the moon, 
252 

Herodotus, 245, 248-251, 254, 
255, 257, 258 ; History, 245, 
258 ; tale of Rhampsinitus, 
146n2, 245, 285; similar 
points between Somadeva's 
Ghata and Karpara and 
tale of Rhampsinitus of, 
249 ; Story of Ghafa and 
Karpara as told by, 245- 
248 ; date when he wrote 
his History, 258 

Herodotus . , . from the Baehr 
Text, H. Gary, 245ni 

Herodotus . . . Loeb Classical 
Library, 245n^ 



Herrtage, S. J. H., The Early 
English Versions of the Gesta 
Romanorttvi, London, 1879, 
87i, 104i, 138^(1 

Hertel, Johannes, 58ni, 207- 

209, 213, 216, 217, 219, 
231,232,234-236,238-240; 
Dasa Kumdra Charita. Die 
zehn Prinzen Dandi, 3 vols., 
Leipzig, 1922, 142n2;"Ein 
altindisches Narrenbuch," 
Berichle il. d. Verhandlungen 
d. kgl. sachsisc/ien Gcsell. d. 
Wissenschafien, philol.-hist. 
Klasse, 213, 213^1; Das 
Pahcatantra, seine Geschichte 
und seine Ferbreitung, 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1914, 
55n2, 64, 175, 201n^ 208, 

210, 216, 219, 232-241; 
The Panchatantra . . . in the 
Recension, called Pancha- 
khyanaka . . ., 1908, 217i; 
The Panchatantra- Text of 
Pumabhadra, 1912, 2167ii, 
217ni; The Panchatantra- 
Text of Pumabhadra and 
its Relation to Texts . . ., 

1912, 217ni; Das sudliche 
PaHcatantra, Leipzig and 
Berlin, 1906, 209n2; 209n3 . 
Tantrdkhydyika, Die dlteste 
Fassung des PaHcatanfra, 
Leipzig and Berlin, 1909, 
42nS 43rt2, 46ni, 48ni, 49i, 
52n2, 53ni, 55n2, 55n, 56n\ 
59n2, 61 n, 64, 65, 73ni, 
7&ni, 76n, 77ni, 98ni, 99^3, 
lOOni, lOlni, 102n2, 104ni, 
106ni, 107ni-M08n2, 109n2, 
112ni, 127h1, 130ni, 138ni, 
209ni3, 211; (Jber das 
Tantrdkhydyika, die kasmir- 
ische ..., Leipzig and Berlin , 
1904, 209ni; "Die Erzah- 
lung vom Kaufmann Cam- 
paka," Zeit. d. d. Morg. 
Ges, Leipzig, 1911, 186ni 

Hervieux, L. [Les Fabulistes 
Latins], 5 vols., Paris, 1884- 
1899, 237 

Hierocles,<^iXo'ycX<i>s,a collec- 
tion of 'acTTtla (witticisms), 
93n. See also under 
Eberhard, A. 

Hilka, A., Historia Septem 
Sapientum, Heidelberg, 

1913, 261, 261n2 
Himalayas, the, 26, 28, 31, 

32, 110, 123, 159, 160, 171, 
172, 173 



Hiranya, a mouse named, 74 

75," 78-80 
Hiranyagupta, a merchanii 

named, 2 
Hiranyakusipu, destroyed byj 

Vishnu in form of Nara-1 

sirnha, In^ 
Hiranyaksha and Mriganka-j 

lek'ha. Story of, 171-174 
Hiranyapura, town in 

Kaimira, 171 
Hitopade.va, the, 47n2, 48n^ 
Hitopadesa, The, or " Friendly] 

Advice," Narayana, 210 
Holland, W. L., eil. of Das] 

Buch der Beispiele, An- 

thonius von Pfor or Pforr, , 

Stuttgart, 1860, 238 
Homes, Dr Nathaniel,] 

Dcemonologie, 1650, 201 n 
Hulme, W. H., Peter Al- 

phonse' sDisciplina ClericalisA 

87ni 
Hunt, Margaret, Grimm't\ 

Household Tales, 2 vols.,, 

Ldn., 1884, 66 
Hyria, King of, Hyrieus, 256] 
Hyrieus, King of Hyria, 256 

India, relations between 
Egypt and( 286 ; TakkasBnl 
agricultural race in, 165n*| 

Indra, the charioteer of 
(Matali), 31 

Isidoreof Seville[<yOTo/ogwc], I 
201 n 

Isis and Osiris, Myths ofj 
255, 286 

I^varavarman, son of Ratna- 
varman, 5-8, 10-13 

Iyengar, K. Rangaswami,] 
The Kdma-Sntra {or Scie 
of Love) of Sri VdtsydyanaA 
Lahore, 1921, 193 

Jabali, story of the sage, 39,| 
40 

Jacobi, H., Hindu TaletJ 
See under J. J. MeyerJ 
176 

Jacobs, Joseph, 236 ; Mo 
Philosophic of Doni, 220j 
235, 241; "Pedigree 
the Bidpai Literature,1 
220; Painter's Palace oj 
Pleasure, London, 18S 
267 

Jade, Heinrich, Aus dem Mo 
genlande, Thier - Novell* 
nach Bidpai, Leipzig, 185S 
241 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



293 



Jamna (Jumna, or Yamuna), 
the river, 65 

Jataka, The, 175; haka (No. 
38), 48/1^; Bhadra-ghafa 
(No. 291), 3n; Gijjha (No. 
164), 163n^ ; Kachchhapa 
(No. 179), 55u3; Kosiya 
(No. 266), lOOni; Kunala 
(No.536), 155/t2; Kuruhga- 
Miga (No. 206), 79h3; A'/7/a- 
Tflni/a (No. 218), 64 ; Maha- 
janaka (No. 539), 176; 
Mahosadha (No. 546), 64; 
Xalapana (No. 20), lOln^; 
Saccmiikira (No. 73), 157n^ ; 
Sandhibheda (No. 349), 
63i; Sasa (No. 316), 
101 n^; Sihacamma (No. 
189), 99/1^; Sumsumnra 
(No. 208), 127ni; f7/^fl, 
(No. 270), 98/ti ; Vdnarinda 
(No. 57), 127ni 

JStaka, Cambridge edition of 
the, 3n\ 63i. 64, 79n8, 
QSn\ 99, 100i, 101 ni- 2, 
155u2, 151 n\ 163ni, 176; 
Fausb<^irs edition of the, 
127ni 

Jaiakaithavannana. Buddhist 
Birth Stories; or Jataka 
Tales, . . . being the, T. W. 
Rhys Davids, 3nS 55n2, 
79^8, 98ui, 100i 

Jayendrasena, the beautiful, 
197 

Jerome, anecdote by St, 184n^ 

Jethabhai, G., Indian Folk- 
Lore, Limbdi, 1903, 64 

Jibananda Vidyasagara. See 
Vidyasagara 

Jinarakshita, a friend of 
Sikhara, 201, 201 n^ 

Joannes de Alta Silva (Jean 
de Hautesville), version of 
Dolopathos in Latin prose, 
260 

Joel, Rabbi, possible com- 
poser of the Hebrew 
version of the Persian 
Anvflri Suluiitt, 220, 237 

John of Capua, 98n^ 237; 
Directorium vita: humana:, 
220, 238 

Johnson, F., trans, of the 
Hitopadesa, 210 

Jolly, Prof J., 142*i2 

Jones, Sir W., trans. oT the 
Hitopadesa, 210 

Jtilg, B.. MongolischeM'drchen- 
sammlung, Innsbruck, 1868, 
63ni, 153ni 



Julien, Stanislas, Les Ava- 
ddnas, Contes et Apologues 
Indiens, 3 vols., Paris, 1859, 
67n2. 67/t3, 68i, 69/i2, 
70u'-2, 71h2.8^ 72n, 84nS 
92ni2, 93ni, 94ui, 94n2, 
102/i2, 105ni, llln2, 114nS 
ll5ui, 116u-2 

Jupiter Capitolinus, temple 
of, 64 

Jyotishprabha, a king named, 
30, 31 

Kachchhapa Jataka (No. 179), 

55n3 
Kadambari, The, of Bona, 

trans. C. M. Ridding, 1896, 

39 
Kadambari, a fiiend of 

Maha^veta, 39, 40 
Kaden, W., Unier den Oliven- 

bdumen, Leipzig, 1880, 62^2 
Kailasa, 39, 124, 169, 170 
Kalilah and Dimnah, 41 n^, 

218, 219 
Kalpa i.e'. one thousand 

Mahayugas, or 4320 

million years, 27n^ 
Kalyana Malla, Ananga- 

Ranga, 193-195 
Kalyanavarman, a friend of 

Dhavalamukha, 87 
Kalyanavati, wife of King 

Simhabala, 23-25 
Kama (the God of Love), 

22ui, 26 
Kama Shastra Society, the, 

193 
Kamandaki Nitisastra, the, 

217 
Kambugrlva, a tortoise 

named, 55, 56, 170ni 
Kanakaksha, king named, 

171, 174 
Kanchanabha, a city named, 

32 
Kanchanapura, 6, 10, 11 
Kanchanapuri, a city called, 

27 
Kanchana.4ringa, a town of 

gold on the Himalayas, 

26 
Kanchanavega, a king of the 

Vidyadharas, 96 
Kanyakubja, 87 
Kapinjala (heath-cock or 

cuckoo), 102/(2 
Kapinjala, a bird named, 102- 

103 
Karataka, a jackal named, 43- 

45i 47, 50, 58, 63, 218 



Karians as Ciceroni in Egypt, 
251 

Kanna Sataka, the, 157* 

Karnata, inhabitant of, 96 

Kai-jtara, the Sanskrit for 
" pot," 145;t ; Story of the 
Two Thieves, Ghata and, 
142, 142n^ 143-147 

Kashmir, possible home of the 
Briliat-kaihd, 211 ; possible 
home of the Pailchat antra, 
208 ; the Tanirdkht/dyika 
MSS. of the Pahchatantra 
found in, 209 

Ka^Inath Pan^urang Parab, 
co-editor of ed. of the 
Bfihat-kathS-mafiJari and 
Kathd-sarit-sdgara, 212, 216 

Kaimira, 178, 182, 183 

Ka^mira, the home of sciences 
and virtue, 171 ; to 
Pataliputra,The Mendicant 
who travelled from, 178- 
180, 182-183; region in 
the south of the Himalayas, 
123 

Ka^yapa, the hermitage of, 
161 

Kataka, the island of, 67 

Kathd Maajafi [Tan^ava- 
Raya Mudaliyar], 64. See 
the Bangalore ed. of 1850 
in Tamil and English 

KathaJcoqa, The; or. Treasury 
of Stories, trans. C. H. 
tawney, 1895, 17;i^ 125n, 
155/i2, 176 

Kathamukha, Introduction to 
Pahchatantra, 221-222 

Kathd-sarit-sdgara, Somadeva, 
211, 212-216 

Kathdsaritsdgara, Studies about 
the, T. S. Speyer, 11n\ 
79/tS 99 u*, 129ni, \Un\ 
\mn\ 2OO/1I, 212, 213 

Kauravas, the {Mahdbhdraia)^ 
98i 

Kau^ambl, 1, 192, 196, 204 

Kavadh (Kobad), King of 
Persia, 218 

Keith- Falconer, I. G. N., 
Kalilah and Dimnah ; or, The 
Fables of Bidpai, Cam- 
bridge, 1*885, 219, 242 

Keller, H. A., Dyocletianus 
lA:ben von Hans von B'lihel, 
1841, 79/i3; Romans des 
Sept Sages, Li, Tubingen, 
1836, 793 

Kern, Dr, 50n', 1062, 136n2, 
nin\ 180n, 197a 



29-1, 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Khaiulabhraka{m), " rugged 

cloud," tooth-mark on 

breast, 195 
Kkatra, chhidra, sttmga, etc., 

opening of Indian thieFs 

tunnel, l^2n- 
Khirud- Ufroz, The, trans. 

Thomas Manuel, Calcutta, 

1861, 240 
Kielhom, F., Biihler, G., and, 

editors of " Textus Simpli' 

dor," 1868-1869, 216 
Killis Campbell. See under 

Campbell, Killis 
Kinnaras (subjects of Kuvera, 

the God of Wealth), 31, 

39 
Kirtisoraa, a Brahman named, 

95 
Risra or Chosroes I, King of 

Persia, 218 
Klinkert, H. C, Pandja- 

Tandaran . . . Maleisch, 

Bommel, 1870, 237 
Knowles, J. H., A Dictionary 

of Kashmiri Proverbs and 

Sayings, Calcutta, 1885, 64, 

65 ; Folk- Tales of Kashmir, 

Trubner's Oriental Series, 

Ldn., 1888, 65, 281; 

tales from Ind. Ant. quoted 

by W. A. Clouston, 177 
Kobad (Kavadh), King of 

Persia, 218 
Koeppen, C. F., Die Religion 

des Buddha und Ihre 

Enlstehung, 2 vols., Berlin, 

1857, 153ni 
Kohler, R., notes to Gonzen- 

bach's Sicilianische Mdrchen, 

inn\ n2n 

Koppen. See Koeppen, C. F. 
Kosegarten, first editor of 

" Texliis Simplicior," 216 
Kosiya Jataka (No. 266), lOO/i^ 
Krodhana, a friend of 

Vajrasara, 21, 22 
Kruralochana, minister of 

Avamarda (" Cruel-eye "), 

106/1, 107 
Kshatriyas (warrior caste), 31, 

162, 179 
Kshemendra, Brihat-katha- 

manjarl, 211-213 
Kshemendra's version of the 

Parlchatantra, 42n2, 48i 
Kuhn, Adalbert, Die Herab- 

kunft des Fetters und des 

Gbttertranks, Berlin, 1859, 

29i, llln2 
Kuladhara, a king named, 41 



Kumudikfi, a courtesan 

named, 15-18 
Kunala Jataka (No. 536), 155^2 
Kurunga-Miga Jataka (No. 

206), 79/1=* 
Kusa jatakaya, T. Steele, 48/i^, 

61 /i3, 64 
Kusuma^ara, a merchant 

named, 198 
Kn(a- Fdnija Jataka (No. 218), 

64 

Lacote, F.,Essai sur Gunddhya 
et la Brhatkathd, Paris, 1908, 
211 

La Fontaine. See Fontaine, 
La 

Laghupatin, a crow named, 
73-75 

Lakh (100,000) o dinars, 1 ; of 
gold and jewels, 7 

Lakshmi, the goddess, 40_ 

Lakshmidhara, son of Sri- 
dhara, 120, 124, 126; and 
theTwoWivesof the Water- 
Spirit, Story of Ya^odhara 
and, 120-123, 124-125, 125- 
126 

Lakshmisena, son of Prata- 
pasena, 191-192; Story of 
Hemaprabha and, 188-192 

Lam pa, a city called, 198, 199 

Lanka, the island of, 199 

Lebadea, the Grove of, 256 

Lee, A. C, The Decameron, 
its Sources and Analogues, 
Ldn., 1909, 275 

L6v6que, E., Les Mythes et 
les Legendes de Ulnde et 
la Perse, Paris, 1880, lln^, 
91ni, 132/i2 I33n, 135n 

L^vi, Sylvain [" La Brihat- 
kathamaiijari de Kshe- 
mendra"], Journal 
Asiatique, 1885, 212 

Lewis, G. Cornewall, Babrii 
FabuUe jEsopce, Ldn., 1859, 
135ni 

Lewis, J. P. [" Note on the 
Story, of Rhampsinitus "], 
The Orientalist, 255n^ 

Liebrecht, F. [" Beitrage zum 
Zusammenhang indischer 
und europiiischer Miirchen 
und Sagen "], Orient und 
Occident, 92n^; trans, of 
Dunlop's History of Fiction, 
I3n\ 87 n\ lll/i^, 162n\ 
186/i2. See further under 
Dunlop, John. Zur Volks- 
kunde, Heilbronn, 1879, 



Liebrecht, F. continued 
80/i2, 93n\ lOO/ii, 102n,' 
lll/i2, 121/i2, 127ni, 132n, 
135/1, 201w 

Lihga of Siva, 32, 200 

Llewellyn's faithful hound 1 
Gelert, 138/ii 

Loeb Classical Library, the, i 
2i5n\ 254 

Longworth, Dames. See 
under Dames, M. Long- 
worth 

Lucian, Demonax, 136n'; 
Hermotimus, 133n 

Macculloch, J. A., The Child- 
hood of Fiction, Ldn., 1905,, 
128n 

Macler, F., trans, of Lai 
Version Armntienne de \ 
L'Histoire des Sept Sages de I 
Rome, Paris, 1919, 266n* 

Madanamanchuka, wife of j 
Naravahanadatta, 196, 204 

Madotkata, a lion named, 
53-54 

Magadha, the King of, 98 

Mahabhdrata, the, lln^, 1Zn\ 
98/ii 

Mahabhata, a relation of j 
Vikramasiipha, 15 

MahadevI (ParvatI, Durga, 
etc.), wife of Siva, 181 

Mahajanaka Jataka (No. 539), 
176 

Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit i 
Sivadatta, co-editor of the j 
Brihat-kathd-malljari, 212 

Maha^veta.an ascetic maiden, j 
39, 40 

Mahdvastu Avaddna (Ne pales 
Buddhist MS.), \21n^ 

Mahayuga, more correct fori 
of Yuga i.e. 4,320,000| 
years, 27n^ 

Mahldhara, merchant named, 
199 

Mahilaropya, city named, 
221 

Mahosadha Jataka (No. 546), 
64 

Makara (generally meaning 
"crocodile"), 47, 47^2 48, 
48/iS 49 

Makarakati, a bawd named, 
7-10, 12, 13 

Makarandika, daughter of 
King Simhavikrama, 34- 
38 ; wherein it appears who 
the parrot was in a Former 
Birth, The Hermit's Story 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



295 



Makarandika continued 
of Somaprabha, Manoratha- 
prabha and, 30-32, 34-37 

Malava, 21, 23, 114, 120, 
159, 184 

Malla, Kalyana, Ananga- 
lianga, 193-195 

Maiulala{m), "full-moon," 
mark produced by the 
finger-nails, 193 

MandavisarpinI, a louse 
named, 52 

Manmala, "garland," a row 
of teeth marks, 194 

Marfkowski, Leo von, Der 
Auszugans dent PaHcat antra 
in Rshemendras Brihat- 
kdlhamanjari, Leipzig, 1892, 
212 

Manorathaprabha, daughter 
of King Padmakuta, 32-33 ; 
and Makarandika, wherein 
it appears who the Parrot 
was in a Former Birth, The 
Hermit's Story of Soma- 
prabha, 30-32, 34-37; and 
Ra^mimat, 32-34 

Mantharaka, a tortoise 
named, 75, 78-80 

Manu, 221 

Manuel, T. P., trans, of The 
Khirud - Ufroz, Calcutta, 
1861, 240 

Manwaring, A., Marathi 
Proverbs, Oxford, 1899, 
65n2 

Mapes, Gualterus {i.e. Map, 
Walter), De Nugis Curi- 
alimn, SOn* 

Margaret, Queen of Navarre, 
The Heptameron, London, 
1894, 153ni 

Marichi, a hermit named, 30, 
37 

* Marmol." See under 
Manuel, T. P. 

Marubhuti, minister of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 5, 14, 15, 22, 
25 

Maspero, Prof. G., 250, 253- 
255 ; Guide du Visitenr au 
Mus^e du Caire, Cairo, 
1920, 254 ; Popular Stories 
of Ancient Egypt, 252, 255 

Matali, the charioteer of 
Indra, 31 

Mataiiga, a hermit named, 
201, 202, 203 

Mathurii, the city of, 42 

Matthseus Paris. See under 
Paris, Matthseus 



Maya, King, 28 

Mayan " Uayeyab," or the 
five intercalary days, 252 

MayFtrapadaka{m),"[ieaLCOck^8 
footprints," mark made 
by the finger-nails on a 
woman's breast, 193 

Mazaiu, Matiu or Matchaiu, 
a Sudani tribe, 253 

McCrindle, J. W., Ancient 
India as described by 
Megastheru'S and Arrian ; 
. . ., 1877, 83ni, IGOn^ 

Medinet Habu, the temple of 
Rameses III at, 252 

Meghavarna, a king of the 
Crows, 98, 99, 111, 113 

Meier, E., Deutsche Volks- 
m'drchen aus Schwaben, 
Stuttgart, 1852, 157ni 

Menenius, Agrippa.the Fable 
of the Belly and the Mem- 
bers, 135n 

M6ril, Ed^lestand du, Poesies 
Inidites du Moyen Age, Paris, 
1854, 73ni 

Meyer, J. J., ed. of Daia 
KumdraCharita,nQ; Hindu 
Tales, Ldn., 1909, 175, 176 

Milton, Paradise Lost, 29n^ 

Minyae, the original inhabit- 
ants of Orchomenus, 256, 
258 

Mitra, Rajendralala, The 
Sanskrit Buddhist Literature 
of Nepal, Calcutta, 1882, 
127ni 

Moli^re, QEuvres de, Le 
Mariage Ford, 89ni 

Moqaffa, ' Abdallah ibn, Arabic 
version of Kalilah wa 
Dimnah, 219, 236 

Moreno, N., La Versione araba 
de Kalilah e Dimnah, San 
Remo, 1910, 237 

Morlini, Novella, 1855, 186n2 

Mrichchhakafika, the, 142n' 

Mrigankalekha, Story of 
Hiranyaksha and, 171-174 

Muhammed b. al-Habbariya, 
238 

Mukhopadhyaya. Pandit 
Syama Charan, Sln\ U5n^ 

Muictalata, daughter of the 
King of the Nishadas, 27, 
37 

Miiller, K. O., Fragmenla His- 
toricorutn Groecorum, Paris, 
1849, 258 ; Geschichten 
hellenischer St'dmme und 
St'ddte : Orchomenos u. die 



Miiller, K. O. continued 
Minyer, Breslau, 1820-1824, 
257 

Miiller, Max, ed. of the 
Hitopadesa, 210 

Nagas (snake-gods), 82n2 
Nakhavilekhana{m) , ' ' scratch- 
ing with the finger-nails," 

193, 195 
Nalapana Jaiaka (No. 20), 

iOlni 
Narasimha (Man-lion), a form 

assumed by Vishnu, 1, In* 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 

King of Vatsa, 1, 5, 14, 18, 

25-27, 38, 41, 63, 67, 73, 

88, 98, 119, 120, 127, 132, 

137, 138, 153, 174, 178, 

192, 196, 198, 203, 204, 

204w 
Narayana, Hitopadesa, or 

"Friendly Advice," 210 
Nasr Allah, Persian version 

of Kalilah and Dimnah by, 

220, 239 
Navarre, Queen of. See under 

Margaret 
Navi-rakh, " the mark on the 

ship" and " stupidity," 93n 
Neith, the Egyptian goddess 

of the hunt, 251 
Nepal, 39 
Nepalese, an offshoot of the 

Southern PaJlchatantra, 209, 

209n3, 210 
Nirnayasagara Press of 

Bombay, the, 212, 216 
Nishada Maiden, and the 

Learned Parrot, Story of 

King Sumanas, the, 27-28, 

37-38 
Nishadas, 27, 36, 37 
North, T., The Morall PhiU 

osophie of Doni, Ldn. , 1570, 

220 
Norway, signs of ear-throb- 
bing in, 201 n 
Noshirwan or Anushirwan, 

" the Just," King of Persia, 

218 
Nutt, David, ed. of The 

Morall Philosophie of Doni, 

1888, 220 

O'Connor, W. F. T., Folk- 

Tales from Tibet, Ldn., 

1907, 49ni, 64 
Octavian, 264 
Oesterley, H., lohanni* de 

A It a Silva Dolopathos, 

261, 261 ni 



296 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Orbeliani, Saba (Slukhan), 
part-translator of Georgian 
version of Kalilah and 
Dimnah, 240 

Orchomenus, city of Boeotia, 
256, 257; Erginus, King 
of, 256 

Osiris, myths of Isis and, 
252, 255, 286 

Oskastein, or wishing-stone, 

Ouseley, J. W. J., Anvar-i 
suheli, Hertford, 1851, 239 

Ovid, Fasti, 68n ; Metamor- 
phoses, 29n* 

Padmakuta, king of the 
Vidyadharas, 32 

Padmavati, Queen, 98 

Padmaveia, a prince of the 
Vidyadharas, 159 

Pahlavi translation of the 
Pahcliatantra, 208 ; Version 
of the Parichatantra and 
its Descendants, 218-220; 
versions of the Paiichatantra 
considered as one of its 
original independent 
streams of tradition 
(Edgerton), 208 

Painter, Palace of Pleasure 
(ed. J. Jacobs), 267 

Pai^acI- Prakrit, the original 
and a later version of the 
Brihat-kathd written in, 
211 

Pala, measure of weight, 62, 
72, 93 

Pana, ancient Indian weight, 
92, 116, 119, 133 

Pahca, 'five," 175 

PaUcadwyadkivasa, or choosing 
a king by divine will, 175- 
177 

Pa/fcatantra, Pantschatantra, 
etc. See under Benfey, 
Dubois, Edgerton and 
Hertel 

Parichatantra, Panchatantra, 
or Panchatantra, the, 
41 ni, 42n, 63i, 79;i2, 99n, 
101 nS 105ft2, 134u2, 138ni, 
153, 170n, 207-242; 
Brihat-katha, versions of 
the, 210-216 ; date of the, 
207, 208; English names 
for, 41*; Genealogical 
Tal)le of, 232-242 ; genea- 
logical tree of. 42' ; Jlilo- 
podesa version of, 210 ; 
home of the, 208; Intro- 



Pafichatantra continued 
duction to, 41;i*, 214; the 
Jain versions of, 216-218; 
Kshemendra's version of, 
42, 48/t^ ; meaning of the 
name, 207 ; Nepalese, 209, 
209u3, 210; number of 
versions in existence of, 
207 ; oral tales derived 
from stories in, 48rt', 49n^, 
55/1^ 63rt^ ; original arche- 
types of, 208 ; original 
language of, 208 ; Pahlavi 
translation of, 208 ; Pahlavi 
Version of, 218-220; Soma- 
deva's omitted stories of, 
221-230; Somadeva's 
version of, 41-63, 41 n^ 
47>i3, 48ni, 61 n3, 73-80, 98- 
113, 102ni, 105/t2, 109hS 
127-132, 130ni, 138, 139, 
139n2, 208, 213-216; 
Southern, 48i, 209, 209n2- 3 ; 
Tantrakhyayika recensions 
of, 209, 209ni ; versions of 
the "Impossibilities" 7wo/t/' 
in the, 64 

Pandavas, the (^Mahdbhdrata), 

Pandit Syama Charan Mu- 
khopadyaya, 87w' 

Pantulu, G. R. Subramiah, 
Folklore of the 2'elugus, 
Madras, 1905, iSn\ i9n^, 
56ni, 59n2; "Some Notes 
on the Folklore of the 
Telugus," Indian Antiquary, 
48ni, i9n\ 56ni, 59^2 

Parab, Ka^Inath Pandurang, 
editor of the Brihat-katha- 
manjafi and the Kathd-sarit- 
sdgara, 212, 216 

ParA^ara and his son, 221 

Paris, Gaston, Deux Redac- 
tions du Roman des Sept 
Sages de Rome, Paris, 1876, 
263, 266h1; ["LeContedu 
Tr^sor du Roi Rhampsln- 
ite"], Reime de P Hisloire des 
Religions, vol. Iv, 1907, 255 

Paris, Matthaeus, Monachi 
AlhancTisis, Angli, Ilistoria 
Maior . . ., Ldn., 1571, 
157ni 

Parker, H., Village Folk-Tales 
of Ceylon, 3 vols., Ldn., 
1910-1914, 48ni,49i,52H2, 
55n, 63n, 65 

Parthenius of Nicsea, 80n2 

ParvatI (Gauri, Durga, etc.), 
wife of Siva, 172-174 



Pa^upata ascetic, 144 
Pataliputra, 3, 95, 178-180,^ 

182; The Mendicant who] 

travelled from Kasmlra toj 

178-180, 182-183 
Penha, G. F. D', " Folk-Lor 

of Salsette," Indian Anti* 

quary, 65 
Penzer, N. M., An Annotali 

Bibliography of Sir Richar 

Francis Burton, Ldn., 1923,! 

193; review of Prof.! 

Edgerton's Panchatantra 

Reconstructed, in Man, 208 
Peterson, Peter, ed. of the 

Hilopadesa, Bombay, 1887, 

210 
Petrie, Sir Flinders, on the 

etymology and the origin 

of the story of Rhampsin- 

itus, 251, 255 
Pfor or Pforr, Anthonius von, 

Buch der Beispiele der alien 

JVeisen, c. 1480, 220 
Phaedrus, The Fables of, 61n', 

102n2 
Phalabhuti and the Yaksha, ' 

179 
Philadelphus, the reign ofj 

(284-246 B.C.), 286 
Pieris, H. A., "Sinhalese 

Folklore " (The Fox and 

the Tortoise), The Orienta- . 

list, Ceylon, 1884, 55n8 
Pilpay, the first European use i 

of the name Bidpai and, 240 j 
Pilpay (or Bidpai), Fables oj, 

41rti, 46h1, 218 
Pilpay, The Fables of, J. 

Harris, Ldn., 1699, 240 
Pindar on story of Agamedesi 

and Trophonius, 257 
Pingalaka, a lion named, 43-| 

47, 50-55, 58, 63 
Pinjara, 160 
PiiSachas (demons), 158 
Plautus, Pseudolus, 201n 
Pliny's account of the ittce 

diaria avis, llln2 
Plutarch, Consolatio ad Ajtollo 

nium, 257 ; Isis et (Jsirit^ 

252; Life oJ Agis, lS5n\ 

Life of Marcel lus, 64 
PoHvka, G. See und 

Bolte, J. 
Potraka, son of a king, 196 

197 
Prabandhacintdmani, or Wisk 

ing-Stone of Narratives, Th 

C. H. Tawnev and 

Acarya, 142n2, 176 



INDEX I~SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



Prabhakara, minister of King 
Jyotishprabha, 31 

Pradlvin, minister of Me- 
ghavarna, 99, 99n^ 

Prakfirakarna, minister of 
Avamarda ("Wall-ear"), 
lOCrt, 107 

Pratapaditya, a relation of 
Vikramasimha, 15 

Pratapasena, king named, 
191, 192 

Pratishthana, 15 

Pratyutpannamati, a fish 
named, 56, 57 

Pravdlamani, "coral," bite 
given on woman's body, 
194 

Preller, L., Griechische Myth- 
ologies Berlin, 1875, &lrfi 

Priyankara, son of the min- 
ister Prabhakara, 30, 31, 36 

Prym, E., and Socin, A., Der 
Neu-Aramaeische Dialekl des 
Tur 'Ahdin, 2 vols., Gottin- 
gen, 1881, Vol. ii eon- 
tains a second title page, 
as follows : Syriscke Sagen 
und Maerchen mis dent Volks- 
munde . , 3ui,91i,102n2, 
130i 

Psammetichus, Saite king of 
the twenty-fifth dynasty, 
258 

Pulastya, a hermit named, 
30, 37 

Pulesti, a Levanite people, 
252 

Pulindas, 29 

Pundarlka, Brahman named, 
39, 40 

Puntoni, V., Direciorium huvi- 
ance vitw, alias paraholce anti- 
quorum sapienium, Pisa, 
1884, 237 ; ^Tcc^avtr?;? Kttt 
'IxiT/AuTT/s: quattio recensioni 
della versione greca . . ., 
1889, 238 

Pura, 1 

Purnabhadra's Jain version of 
the PaHchalantra, 216, 217 

Rabbi Joel. See under Joel, 
Rabbi 

Rabelais, F,, Le Facquin et le 
Rotisseur, 132/i^, lo3/i 

Rajatadacpshtra, son of Vaj- 
radamshtra, 160 

Rajendralala Mitra, Dr Rai 
Bahadur, Buddhist Litera- 
ture of Nepal. See under 
Mitra, Rajendralala 



Raju, R. See under Rama- 
swami Raju 

Rakshasas (demons), 179 

Raktaksha, minister of 
Avamarda ( ' ' Red -ey e " ) , 
106/1, 108, 109-111 

Ralston, W. R. S., Russian 
Folk- Tales, Ldn ., 1 873, 82^2, 
166ni, 170ni, 183ui 

Ralston, W. R. S., and 
Schiefner, F. A. von, 
Tibetan Tales derived from 
Indian Sources, Triibner's 
Oriental Series, Ldn., 1882, 
63n\ 64, 153ni, 157ni, 285 

Ramaswami Raju, P. V., 
Indian Fables, Ldn., 1887, 
48/ii, 49ni, 65 

Rameses III, identical with 
Rhampsinitus ? 250-253 

Ramesu pa nuter, " Rameses 
the God," 250 

Rangaswami Iyengar. See 
under Iyengar, K, Ranga- 
swami 

Ra^mimat, Manorathaprabha 
and, 32-34 ; son of the 
goddess Sri and the hermit 
Didhitimat, 33, 37, 38 

Rati (wife of the Go4 of 
Love), 197 

Ratnadatta, a merchant 
named, 1, 2 

Ratnakara, a city called, 30, 
188 

Ratnaprabha, wife of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 171, 196 

Ratnarekha,queennamed,188 

Ratnavarman, a merchant 
named, 5, 6, 9, 10 

Rawlinson, G., History of 
Herodotus, 4 vols., Ldn., 
1880, 2i5n\ 253 

Rekhd (or Lekhd), "line of 
scratch," inflicted by nails, 
193 

Rhampsinitus, King of Egypt, 
Classical versions of the 
tale of, 255-259, etymology 
of the name, 250, 251 ; 
Medieval versions of the 
tale of, 259-266; Modern 
versions of the tale of, 266- 
286 ; opinion of scholars 
on the tale of, 255 ; plays 
dice in Hades with Ceres, 
252; probably Greek adap- 
tion of the Ule of, 258; 
and the prostitution of his 
daughter, 254 ; story of, 
245-248 



297 

See 



Rhys Davids, T. W. 
under Davids, Rhys 

Riabinin, Intro, to Attai's 
Russian trans, of Kalilah wa- 
Dimnah, 235, 236, 238, 240 

Ricciardo, son of a master- 
builder, 268-274 

Richard Coeur de Lion, 157n* 

Ridding, C. M., Kadambafi of 
Bona, Orient. Trans. Fund, 
Roy. As. Soc, Ldn.. 1896, 39 

Rieu, C, Catalogue of the 
Persian Manuscripts in the 
British Museum, 3 vols, and 
suppl., Ldn., 1879-1895, 
239 

Rishi (holy sage), 28, 36, 110, 
' 203 

Robinson, E. J., Tales and 
Poems of South India, From 
the Tamil, Ldn., 1885, 64 

Roebuck, T., The Khirud- 
Ufroz . . ., Calcutta, 1815, 
240 

Rohde, E., Der Griechische 
Roman und Seine VorldufeTf 
Leipzig, 1876, 133n 

Rohint tree, 28 

Rolland in Dalkeith, lohne. 
The seuin Seages : Translatil 
1578, 266n3 

Roscher, W. H., Ausfiirliches 
Lexikon der Griechischen und 
Riimischen Mythologic, Leip- 
zig, 1916-1924, 258i 

Rouse, W, H. D., The Talking 
Thrush, and other Tales frotn 
India, Ldn., 1899, i9nK 65 

Roux de Lincy, M. le. The 
Heptanieron, 153i^. See 
further under Margaret, 
Queen of Navarre 

Ruchiradeva, son of a king, 
196-198, 204 

Rudrasoma, Brahman named, 
148-150 

Rudrata, the poet, 216 

Russell, R. v., and Rai 
Bahadur Hira Liil, The 
Tribes and Castes of the 
Central Provinces of India, 
4 vols., Ldn., 1916, 176 

Rutherford, W. G.. Bnbnus, 
edited with Introthiclory 
Dissertations ..., Ldn., 1883, 
130ni 

Rystenko, A., *' On the 
History of the Story of 
Stephanites and . . . ," 
Annals of the Historical- 
philological Society of the 



298 



TIIK OCEAN OF STORY 



Kvstfiiko, A. liintinutil 

Iniptiiid Sew liiiwiiUt I HI 
I crsttti , ( )(.! cs>a . 1 '.*< '"_' . 'J' >") , 

Siin iiniiiiit Ji'ittiLt (No T.'>), 

1 :.:,:' 

Sacv, Silvcstrc ilf. I'dliht rt 
Ihinna mt f (i/'lrs ilr ludjun. 
en itrnh,- ; . . .. Paris. 1 '^ IG, 

Saliul. D.iMiI, aiul M (laiil- 

uim, I.nrcilrs I .urituvis .... 

Tan-;, hUl, -J III 
St Jrnimr aiuciloti- rrlated 

by, 1^1' 
Saiiitshurv. deor^c. See 

iiiultr Marijaret. (^lu-t-ii of 

N i\arre 
Sais. capital of Aniasis II, 

'lU 1 
Saktiva-as ^Book X), 1-195; 

dautrhtt-r of King Sphati- 

kavavas. 27. 38. 67, 98. 

119. rjn. 127. 137. 152. 
,174. 192. 19<; 
SaliiKili tr<-e. 73 
Satnihihltedn JCitaka (No. 349), 

63/<' 
Sandivin. minister of Megha- 

varna, 98. 99 
Sanjivaka. a draught - bull 

named. 42. 43. 47, 51, 52, 

53, 55. 58. 03 
Sankata. a swan named, 55, 

50. i 70/(1 
Sarasvati. pilgrimage to the 

shrine of. 180 
Sarvastli inagavata. a Vakslia 

named. 1^2 
Sasa Jataka (No. 31(i), 101 '^ 
Saxapltit(ika{iii), " the Ikjj)- 

ping of a hare," nail mark 

made on a woman's nij)ple, 

194 
Sasilekha. wife of N'ikram- 

asimha. 15, 17 
Sasin, a friend of Dhanadeva, 

149-1 50 
Sa.sitejas, king of the \'idya- 

dharas, 1 72 
Sastraganja. a parrot that 

knows the four \'edas, 28 
Saslrnx (Hindu law books), 

28, 36. 143;- 
Sat'i (widow -burning), 19, 

19/)i 
Satni-Khamois, 252, 255 
Savaras. 29 
Savce, F'rof., on the tale of 

Uhampsinitus, 251, 255 



Sehitfncr. 1" A. Non. and 
Halslon. W. K S , Tilxtan 
I'lilts dtimd I it)tii Iiitlmn 
Siiitms. rnibiuTS Oriental 
Series. I.dii . 1882. 63*(', 
61. 153/<'. 157//>, 285 

Sehlegcl, -ditor of the llito- 
pndc.ui. 1829, 210 

Schmidt, H , Cirirc/iisc/if 
Miirt /tfri. Sdtrfu mill / i,/ks- 
lirdcr, Leipzig, 1877, 128/('-, 
157/(1 

Sehmidt, H., lieilriigr zur in- 
dixc/icn Eralik : Dtts I.iehrs- 
Ithoi di's Sduskntvolkcs, 
Herlin, 1911, 195; Die 
(^'ukdsdptdti. tfxtiis simpltcior, 
Kiel, 18'.4. 6i 

Schneidewin s translation of 
Solon, 130ni 

Sehulthess, ed. of Kaiila u. 
Dirntui Syrisch u. Dcutsch, 
1911, 219 

Sendebar, Hebrew form of 
Sindibad. 259 

Senjero, South Abyssinia, 
method of choosing new 
king in, 177 

Scth, Symeon, Greek version 
of Kalilah and Dhnriah, 
58/(1, 219 238, 239 

Seville, Isidore of. Etymologia', 
201/( 

Sganarelle, the hero of 
Moliere's Lc Mariagc Force, 
89// 1 

Shakespeare. ./ IVinlers Tale, 

Shakespeare and Fletcher, 
The Two X()/)le htnsiiien, 
69/(1 

Sheykh-Zada, T/ie Forty 
Tezirs, 153/(i. See further 
under (iibb, K. .1. W. 

Silidcdiiima Jdldku (No. 189), 
99 /r' 

Sikhara. a merchant named, 
199, 201 

Silahara, the son of a mer- 
chant, 19 

.SiUmukha. king of the hares, 
101-102 

Silva, Joannes de Alta (Jean 
de Hautesville), version of 
Dolopathos in Latin prose, 
26<) 

Silvestre de Sacy. See under 
Sacy, Silvestre de 

Siijtihabala and his Fickle 
Wife, Story of King, 23- 
25 



Simli.iksha, king named, 180-1 
l82, 183; and the Wivetj 
of his Principal Courtiers,] 
The Wife of King, 180- 
182 

Sindiavarmaii, son of the King] 
of .NL'.gadha, 98 

Siudiavikrama, a king of thej 
\ idyadharas, 34, 36 

Simrock. K , Die deutschen 
I oikshiicher, 13 vols., 

Frankfurt a. M., 1845-1865, 
43/('!, l02/(^ 104h1, 127/(', 
138/(1. 1. }(]!_ 204/i> 

Sindban, Syriac form of] 
Sindibad, 259 

Sindibad, Indian philosopher, 
127/(1, 259, 260; variation 
of the name of, 259 

Siva, 1, 5, 27, 30. 32, 34, 37, 

38, 42, 86, 107, 123, 160, 
168, 171, 178, 185, 189, 
190, 191, 198. 200, 203 

Sivadatta, Mahamahopi- 

dhyaya, Pandit, co-editor 
of ed. of the lirihat-katha- 
iiianjari, 212 

Skanda. god, patron of thieves, 
143/i 

Skeat, W. W., Chaucer. The 
Prioresses Tale. Sire Thopas, 
. . . The Stpiieres Tale, from 
the Canterbury Tales, Ox- 
ford, 1874, 27/r 

Skeat, W. W. (Jun), FabUi 
and Folk-Tales from an 
Eastern Forest, Cambridge, 
1901, 48/(1. 49,ii^ 63;ii 

Smith, Prof. F:iliot, 255 

Smith's Dictionary of Greek \ 
and Roman Antitptities, 256 

Socin, .\. See under Prym, 
K.. and Socin, A. 

Solalinde, Spanish ed. ofj 
Kalilah ^ Dimnah, Madrid, 
1917. 237 

Solon and the Fable of thej 
Sick Lion, 130n^ 

Somadeva, 204n2, 208, 212,] 
213, 221, 249, 250, 285, 
286 ; and the Brihat-kaih 

39, 42/i ; inserts " noodle*^ 
stories between Books 
and II of the Panchatantt 
67/(1 . Katha - sarit-sdgarA 
211, 212-216; omits foi 
sub-tales to Book I of tl 
Panchatantra, 47n'; omit 
Introduction to the Pa 
chatantra, 41n^ 214; omit 
one tale in Book II of tht 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



299 



Somadeva continued 

Panchalanira, 73/!^ ; omits 
two tales in Book V of the 
Paiichalantra, ISSn^ 

Somadeva's method of deal- 
ing with the separate col- 
lections of stories included 
in the Katha-saril-sagara, 
213; tales, 146/1^; Version 
of the Paiichalantra, 41-63, 
41 nS 47n3, 48ni, 61 n^, 73- 
80, 98-113, 102ni, 105n2, 
109ni, 127-132, 127ni, 
130^1, 138, 139, 139n2, 208, 
213-216 

Somaprabha, Manoratha- 
prabha, and Makarandika, 
wherein it appears who the 
Parrot was in a Former 
Birth, The Hermit's Story 
of, 30-32, 34-37; son of 
King Jyotishprabha, 30- 
32, 34-38 

Somaprabha, 160 

Somaiarman, 229 

Sophocles, Trachinice, 29n^ 

Souby-Bey, Der turkiscken 
Sammlung humajun name 
entnommen. Foreword by 
Dr Rieder Pascha, Berlin, 
1903, 241 

Sowa, R. von, Mundart der 
Slovakischen Zigeuner, Got- 
tingen, 1887, 275 

Spence, Hardy. See under 
Hardy, R. Spence 

Spencer, W. R.,Beth G^lert; 
or. The Grave of the Grey- 
hound," Poems, London, 
1835, 138ni 

Spenser, Edmund, The Faerie 
Queene, 29n2 ; Mother Hub- 
bard's Tale [in Complaints], 
1591, 53,t2 

Speyer, J. S., Studies about 
the KathasarUsasara, Am- 
sterdam, 1908, 22ni, 79nS 
99n2, 129ni, 134^1^ 159i^ 
200ni, 212, 213 

Sphatikayaias, king of the 
Vidyadharas, 26, 192 

Spiegel, F., Anecdota Palica, 
Leipzig, 1845, 157ni 

Sprengling, Prof. Martin 
["Kallla Studies"], Amer. 
Joum. Semitic Languages, 
219, 235 

SrSddha, the false, 85 ; Story 
of the Faithless Wife who 
was present at her own, 
84-85 



SrT, goddess of beauty and 

prosperity, 33 
Sridhara, Brahman named, 

120; lover of Kumudika, 

the courtesan, 18 
Srinjaya and his son Suvar- 

nashthivin (Mahdbharata), 

ilni' 
Stark, S. G., Specimen Sapi- 

entice Indorum veterum, 

Berlin, 1697, 219, 238 
Starkie, W. J. M., The Clouds 

of Aristophanes, London, 

1911, 257 
Steel, F. A., " Folklore in 

the Panj&b" (No. 21, The 

Jackal and the Tiger). 

Notes by Capt. R. C. 

Temple, Indian Antiquary, 

49ni 
Steele, T., Kusa Jatakaya, a 

Buddhistic Legend, Ldn., 

1871, 48ni, 61 n3, 64 
Steere, E., Swahili Tales, 

Ldn., 1870, 127ni 
Stein, Sir Autel, and Grier- 

son, Sir George A., Hatim's 

Tales, Ldn., 1923, 176, 177 
Stein, DrO., 236, 237, 245ni; 

" SG^iy^ und surungd," 

Zeit. J'. Indologie und Iran- 

istik, 142n2 
Steinschneider, M., Die 

Hebraeischen Uebersetzungen 

des Mittelalters . . ., Berlin, 

1893, 220ni, 237, 238. 239 

Greek version of Kalila 

and Dimna, by Syraeon 

Seth, 219 
Stevenson, Mrs Sinclair, The 

Rites of the Tufice-Boni, 

Oxford University Press, 

1920, 145ni 
Stokes, M., Indian Fairy Tales, 

Ldn., 1880, 157ni 
Straparola. See under 

Waters, W. G. 
Subahu, a relation of 

Vikramasimha, 15 
Subhadatta and the inex- 
haustible pitcher, 3, 4 
Subhata, a relation of 

Vikramasimha, 15 
Subramiah 'Pantulu. See 

under Pantulu, G. R. 

Subramiah 
Suchimukha, a bird named, 
, 59 
Sfidraka, king named, 39, 

40 



Sukanasa, minister of 

Tarapi^a, 39 
Sukasaptati, the, 50n^ 
Svka Saptati Simplicior, R. 

Schmidt, 1894, 64 
Sukra, 221 
Sumanas.the Nishada Maiden^ 

and the Learned Parrot, 

Story of King, 27-28, 37-38 
Stimsumara Jdiaka (No. 208), 

127ni 
Sundari, a dancing-girl, 7-13 
Surasena, son of Pratapasena, 

191, 192 
Suravarman, who spared his 

Guilty Wife, 41 
Sumga, chlddra, khdtra, etc., 

opening of Indian thiefs 

tunnel, 142n* 
Surungd, from 0%'piy^, 

"tunnel" or "opening," 

142n2 
Suvarnashthlvin and his 

father Srinjaya (Mahabhu' 

rata), lln^ 
Svarnadvipa, 6, 8, 12, 13 
Svayamvara, marriage bjr 

choice, 197, 197ni 
Svetadvlpa, 124, 203 
Swift, Jonathan, Poliie Con- 

versalion, 121n* 
Swynnerton, C, Romantic 

Tales from the Panjdb, loith 

Indian Nights^ Entertainment^ 

Ldn., 1908, 49ni, 65 
Syama Charan Mukhopa- 

dhyaya. Pandit, 81n\ 146ni 
Sylvain L^vi. See under 

L^vi, Sylvain 
Symeon Seth. See under 

Seth, Symeon 
Syntipas, Greek form of 

Sindibad, 127ni, 369 

Table of the Panchatantra, 

Genealogical, 232-242; 

Explanatory Note to the, 

232-234; Sources of the, 

234-236 ; Footnotes to the, 

236-242 

Takkas (agricultural race in 

* India), 165, 166nS 166 

Tantra i.e. " book " or 

"section," 207 
Tantrdkhydyika, Die dlteste 
Fassnng des PaHcatantra, 
J. Hertel, 42n\ A3n^, 46ni, 
48n\ 49n, 52n, 53n, 
66n- 3 56n^ 69n, 61n, 64, 
65, 73nS 75ni, 76n, 77n\ 
98ni, 99n^ lOOn*. 10ln\ 



300 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



TantrHkhyayika continued 
102n2;i(J4n. 106n, lOTn^-*, 
108n, 109n2, 112n, 127n, 
130ni. 138ni, 209ui-3, 21 1 

Tanlrakhyayika, one of the 
four independent streams 
of the PaHchatantra 
(Edgerton), 208; one of 
the two archetypes of the 
Panchatantra (Hertel), 208, 
213, 217; Kecensions of 
tlie PailchaUintra, The, 209 

Tanireu, work consisting of 
Five (i.e. Pa fichat antra), 207 

"Tantras, Fi\c," Panchatantra 
means, 207 

Tapantaka, 18, 19 

Tarapi^a, king of UjjayinI, 
39,40 

Tassy, Garcin de, Histoire de 
la litterattire hindouie et 
hindousianie, Paris, 1839, 
240 

Tatius, Achilles [The Loves 
of Clitopho and Leiicippe], 
2002 

Taurus, Mount, wisdom of 
geese when flying over, 
55n3 

Tawney, C. H., 3n\ 13ni, 
27nS 42n, b8n\ 66, 93n, 
159ni, 176; The Kathdkoga ; 
or, Treasury of Stories, 
Orient. Trans. Fund. Roy. 
As. Soc., 1895, 17ni, 125ni, 
155ji2, 176 ; The Prabandha- 
cintdmani, or Wishing-Stone 
of A'rtrro/ivcj.Calcu tta , 1 90 1 , 
i42n2, 176; "Some Indian 
Methods of Electing 
Kings," Proc. Roy. As. Soc. 
Bengal, 176 

Temple, R. C, '* Folklore in 
the Panjfib." See under 
Steel, F. A. 

Thebes, Amon chief deity at, 
250, 252, 254 

Thekel, a Levantine people, 
252 

Theocritus [The Idylls], 201 n. 
See also under Fritsche, 
A. T. A. 

Thomas, Dr, On the date of 
the Panchatantra, 208 

Thorburn, S. S., liannu or 
Our Afghan Frontier, Ldn., 
1876, 127ni 

Thorndike, Lynn, A History 
of Magic and Kxperiniental 
Science, Ldn., 1923, 201n 

Thoth, the magic book of, 252 



Tibet, 59n' ; Indian Buddhist 

refugees settling in, 284 
Xittibha, a flea named, 52 
TiUihhai.e. " Strandbird," 

65 II' 
Tiaibhas, The Pair of, 55-57 
Tfebovsk;^, F., Bnjky Bidpa- 

joty (Fables of Bidpai), 

2 vols., 1846 and 1850, 237 
Trinasdra i.e. one who has 

the hardness of stubble, 

22h1 
Trophonius, Agamedes and, 

two master-builders, 255- 

257 
Triibner's Oriental Series. 

See under Davids, T. W. 

Rhys; J. H. Knowles; 

Ralston and Schiefner 
Tylor, E. B. , Primitive Culture 

. . ., Ldn., 1871, 121ni, 

179^1 

" Uayeyab," the five Mayan 
intercalary days, 252 

Uchchhaih^ravas, a horse 
named, 31 

Uchchhunaka{m), bite given 

on left cheek, 194 

U44ivin, minister of Megha- 
varna, 98, 99 

Udumbara tree, 127-129 

Ugra^akti, 221 

UjjayinI, 16, 18, 39, 167 

Uluka Jdtaka (No. 270), 98ni 

Upham, E., The Mahdvansi, 
Rdjd-llaUi&cari,andRdjdvali, 
forming the Sacred and 
Historical Books of Ceylon 
. . ., 3 vols., Ldn., 1833, 
73ii 

Uposhana, vow called the 
fast, 124-126 

Upreti, G. D., Proverbs and 
Folklore of Kumaun and 
Garhwal, Lodiana, 1894, 
64, 65 

Utpafapatraka{m) , "lotus- 
])etal," mark made by the 
finger-nails on woman's 
breast and waist, 194 

Vachas|>ati, 221 
Vaiduryairinga, a city called, 

159 
Vai^kha, a city called, 196, 

197, 203 
Vai^ampiiyana, a learned 

parrot. 39, 40 
Vajradaipshtru, king named, 

160 



Vajrakuta, a city called, 173,1 

174 
Vajrasara {i.e. one who has! 

the hardness of u diamond), i 

20-22. 22h; whose Wife 

cut off his Nose and Ears,] 

Story of, 21, 22 
Vajravega, son of Padmave^,! 

159 
Vakhtan VI, King, translator 

of Georgian version of 

Kalilah and Dimnah, 240 
Vakranasa, minister of Ava- 

raarda ("Crooked-nose"), 

106, 106u, 107 
ValeJka, E., Bdjky Bidpajovy, 

Prague, N.D. (circa 1894), 

237 
Valimukha, king of monkeys] 

named, 127-130 
Vdnarinda Jdtaka (No, 57), 

127ni 
Vardhacharvitakafm), "chew- 
ing of a boar," tooth-marks] 

on base of woman's breast,] 

195 
Vartnn, the Armenian, /Vx6/ 

of, 242 
Vasantaka, minister of the 

King of Vatsa, 2, 120,1 

127 
Vasundhara, a porter named,] 

1, 2 
Vasu.4akti, 221 
Vatsa. the King of, 1, 2, 6, 

20,22,25, 27, 98, 113, 120J 

137, 164, 192, 198, 203 
Vatsyayana, Kdma Siitra, 6u*,l 

193-195 
Veckenstedt, E., Wendisck 

Sagen, Mdrchen und aberA 

glduhische Gebrduche, Gras,j 

1880, lOOni 
Vela (Book XI), 196-204] 

Story of the Merchant ani 

his Wife, 198-204 
Feld, shore, 202 
Victorov, editor of the OM 

Slavonic translation 

Kalilah and Dimnah, M< 

cow, 1881, 235 
Vidyadhara, 31, 34, 37, 

159, 162, 163, 172, 17J 

191, 203; female(s), (i.( 

Vidyadharl), 26, 34, 

38, 41 
Vidyadharas, 26, 27, 32, 

36, 96, 159, 160, 172, 1' 

191, 192, 198, 203 
Vidyadhari, fem. form 

Vidyadhara, 188, 191 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



801 



Vidyasagara, Jibananda, 
Gadydtmakah Kalhasarit- 
sagarah, Calcutta, 1883, 
236 

Vijaya, a hare named, 101 ; 
a holy place named, 178 

Vikata, a swan named, 55, 
56,' ITOiii 

Vikramasimha, the Courtesan 
and the Young Brahman, 
Story of King, 15-18 

Vindhya forest, the, 39 ; hills, 
the, 185 

Virabahu, a friend of Dhava- 
lamukha, 87 

Virabahu, a relation of Vikra- 
masimha, 15 

Viraprabha, son of the King 
of the Nishadas, 28 

Vishnu, 57, 123, 182, 197, 
203 ; assumes form of 
Narasimha, Iw^ 

Vishnu^rman, 221, 222 

Vitasta, the waters of the, 124 

Vladimirtsov, B. J., Eine 
Motigolische Sammlung aus 
dem PaHcatantra, 242 

Vyaghranakhaka[m), "like the 
tiger's claw," mark made 
by the finger-nails, 193 

Waldau, A., Bbhmischet 
Mdrchenhuch, Prague, 1860, 
53n2, 130ni 

Walhouse, M. J. ["Archaeo- 
logical Notes ' ], Indian 
Antiquary, 179n^ 

Was hash a, a Levantine 
people, 252 



Waters, W. G., The NighU 
of Straparola, 2 vols., Ldn., 
1894, 158n; The Pecorone oj 
Ser Giovanni, Ldn., 1897, 267 

Weber, A., theory regarding 
Indian " Jackal " stories, 
43/ii; [" Ueber den Zu- 
sammenhang indischer 
Fabeln mitgriechischen"], 
Indische Studien, 130n^ 

Wilkins, trans, of the Hito- 
padesa, 210 

Wilkinson, J. G., on the 
beards of the Ancient 
Egyptians, 253 

Wilson, H. H., Data Kumdra 
Charita ; or, Adventures of 
Ten Princes, Soc. Pub. 
Orient. Texts, Ldn., 1864, 
153ni 

Winternitz, M., on the date 
of the PaHchatantra, 208; 
" Surui\gaand the Kautilya 
Artha^stra," Indian His- 
torical Quarterly, 14271^ 

Wollaston, Sir A. N., The 
Anwar-i-Suhaili ; or. Lights 
of Canopus, commonly knovm 
as Kalilah and Dimnah . . ., 
Ldn., 1877, 220; Tales 
within Tales. Adapted from 
the Fables of Pilpay, Ldn., 
1909, 240, 241 

Worde, Wynkyn de, 266 

Wright, W., The Book of 
Kalilah and Dimnah, Oxford, 
1884, 219 

Yadbhavishya, a fish named, 

56,57 



Yajnadatta, wife of Deva- 

^arman, 133 
Yajnasoma, Brahman named, 

95,96 
Yaksha, The Brahman who 

became a, 125 ; named 

Sarvasthanagavata, 182 
Yakshas (subjects of Kuvera, 

the God of Wealth), 3, 4, 

125, 126, 179, 179n^ 180, 

182, 183 
Y a k s h i n i (fern, form of 

Yaksha), 180 
Yama (the Indian Pluto), 

29, 180 
Yamajihva, bawd named, 5, 

6, 10, 11, 13 
Yamuna (Jumna), the river, 

42, 43, 46, 202, 203, 204 
Yaiodhara, son of Sridhara, 

120-123, 124-126 
Ya^odhara and Lakshml- 

dhara and the Two Wives 

of the Water-Spirit, Story 

of, 120-126 
Yaugandharayana, minister 

of the King of Vatsa, 2 
Yoni, nail-marks and tooth- 
marks made on a woman's, 

194, 195 
Yuga, more correctly Mahi- 

yuga i.e. 4,320,000 years, 

27, 27ni 

Zada, Sheykh-, The Forty 
Vexirs, IbZn^. See further 
under Gibb, E. J. W. 

Zopyrus, the story of, 
105ni 



Academy, The, 211, 275 

Account of his own Life as 
a Parrot, The Parrot's, 28- 
30, 37 

"Act of Truth" motif, 124, 
124ni 

Adultery, the suspected, 21 

' ' Adventureof Satni-Khamois 
with the Mummies," 
Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, G. Maspero, 255 

Affected by sight of the 
Achchhoda Lake, 39, 40 

Afghan Frontier, Banni'i, or 
Our, S. S. Thorburn, 127ni 

Agis, Life of, Plutarch, 135 

Agricultural race in India, 
Takkas, an, 165m^ 

Air, power of travelling 
through the, 33, 35, 169, 
170, 172, 173, 191, 192; 
voice from the, 34, 40, 176 

Alf iMifhih wa Laylah. See 
under Nights 

" Ali Shar and Zumurrud," 
The Book of the Thousand 
Nights and a Night (trans. 
R. F. Burton), 177 

Aloes- Wood into Charcoal, 
Story of the Foolish 
Merchant who made, 67 

Alphonse's {Peter) Disciplina 
Clericalis (English Transla- 
tion). . ., W. H. Hulme, 87/ii 

** Altindisches Narrenbuch, 
Ein," Bcrichte ii.d. Verhandl. 
d. kgl. s'dclisischen Gesell. 
d. IVissenschaJlen, phil.-hist. 
Klasse, J. Hertel, 213, 
213ni 

Ambassador of the Moon, a 
hare as, 101, 102 

Ambitious Chandula Maiden, 
Story of the, "85-86 

American click-beetle (P^- 
phoms), 58nS 59/i 

American Journal of Philology, 

. " The Art of Stealing in 
Hindu Fiction," M. Bloom- 
field, 61 i, 64, 142n2, 143n, 
158/1 

303 



INDEX II 

GENERAL 

American Journal of Semitic 
Languages [" Kalfia 

Studies"], M. Sprengling, 
219, 235 

American Oriental Society, 
New Haven, Conn., 207^ 

American Oriental Society, 
Journal oj the, 37n^, 48/1*, 
49/ti, 59/i^ 63i, 64, 102n2, 
1 75. For fuller details, see 
under Joum. Avier. Orient. 
Soc. 

Ananga-Ranga, A. F. F. and 
B. F. R. (i.e. F. F. Arbuthnot 
and R. F. Burton), 193; 
Kalyana Malla, 193-195 

"Anaught" given as pay- 
ment, 97/1* 

Ancient Geography of India, 
A. Cunningham, 165u'^ 

Ancient India as described by 
Megastheni's and Arrian, 
J. W. McCrindle, 83>ii 

Androcles and the lion, 
162ni 

Anecdola Pdlica, F. Spiegel, 
157^1 

Anecdote by St Jerome, 
184h1 

Animals, prudence produces 
success, not valour, even 
in the case of, 41 ; tales 
of grateful, 157>i* ; and the 
Ungrateful Woman, Story 
of the Grateful, 157, 157iS 
158-164 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausm'drchcn der Briider 
Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 
PoHvka, 3n\ 66, 19n^ 
100i, 117/i, 153/i, 151n\ 
267, 275 

Annals of the Historical -philo- 
logical Society of the Imperial 
New Russian University 
(Odessa). 235 

Annotated Bibliography of Sir 
Richard Francis Burton, An, 
N. M. Penzer, 193 

Antiifuary, Indian. See under 
Indian Antiquary 



Antiquities of Great Britain, 
Popular, J. Brand, lOOuS 
201 

Anvdr-i-Suhaifi ; or, Lights of 
Canopus, 41 n, 46ni, 220, 
242 ; The, trans. Edward 
B. Eastwick, Allahabad, 
1914, 240 

Anwdri Suhaiti ; or, Lights of 
Canopus, 41 n^, 46n* 220, 
242 

Apartments by rope, man 
introduced into female, 
24 

Ape Ala, Story of the 
Merchant's Son, the Cour- 
tesan and the Wonderful, 
5-13 

Ape trying to fish, .Esop's 
fable of the, 43^2 

Applause, the fatal, 171 

Arabian Nights, The. See 
under Nights 

Arabic translation of the 
Pahlavi version of the 
Panchatantra, 218. 219 

Ard.schi-Bordschi Chan. See 
under Mongolische M'drchen 

Armenian Fables oj' Vartan, 
The, 242 

" Art of Stealing in Hindu 
Fiction," M. Bloomfield, 
Amer. Joum. Phil., 61 n*, 
64, 1422, 143/1, 158/ 

Articles, magical, 3h1 

Ascetic, Pa^upata, 144 ; prin- 
cess becomes an, 189, 
190 

Asia Major, review of work 
by Vladimirtsov, 242 

Asiatic Society, Royal. Ori- 
ental Translation Fund. 
New Series, 39 

Ass in the Panther's Skin, 
The, 99, 99/i3, 100, 219; 
The Sick Lion, the Jackal 
and the, 130, 130><, 131, 
132 

Asses and wine in tale of 
Rhampsinitus, trick of the, 
247 



804 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



" Ass's Elars, King Midas and 
his," W. Crookc, Folk-Lore, 
llni 

'AoTcra (witticisms), a col- 
lection of i.e. <fnX.6yeX.tiyi 
Hierocles. See also under 
Eberhard, A., 93n 

" As tres Lebres," Cantos 
Popnlarex Portuguezes, A. 
Coelho, 183ni 

Astrologer killing son as dis- 
play of prescience, 90; 
who killed his Son, Story 
of the, 90 

Aus dem Morgenlande, Thier- 
Novellen nach Bidpai, 
Heinrich Jade, Leipzig, 
1859, 241 

Aitsfuhrliches Lexicon der 
Griechiscken und Romischen 
Mythologie. W. H. Ros- 
cher, 258ni 

Auspicious elephant choosing 
king, 155, 155ni, 175 

Austerities, power of former, 
37 

Atusug aus dem Pancaiantra 
in Kshemendras Brihatkathd- 
rtiahjart, Der, Leo von Maii- 
kowski, 1892, 212 

Avaddkas, Les, Contes et 
Apologues Indien, Stanislas 
Julien's translation of, 
67h2-3, 6Su\ 69n2, 70ni-2, 
71n2-3, 72/iS 84ni, 92ni-2, 
93ni, 94ni-2, I02n2, 105ni, 
llln2,114nM15nM16ni-2; 
the, 132n2, 135n 

Aves {Birds), Aristophanes, 
37h2, 61n3 

P sub-recension of Hertel's 
Tantrdkhifayika, 107n2 

BabriiFabula: Msopece , Part II, 
G. Comewall Lewis, 135n'^ 

Babrius edited . . . 6y W. G, 
Rutherford, Ldn., 1883, 
130ni 

Bdjky Bidpajovy {Fables of 
Bidpai), Frantilka TJ'ebov- 
sk^ho, 237; Eduard Va- 
leika, 237 

Bald Man and the Fool who 
pelted him, Story of the 
Foolish, 72-73 

Bald Man and the Hair- 
Restorer, Story of the, 83- 
84 

"Balochi Tales," M. Long- 
worth Dames, Folk-Lore, 
49i 



Bank Thief, The. Finnish- 
Swedish version of the 
Rhampsinitus story, 282- 
283 

Bannii or Our Afghan Frontier, 
S. S. Thorbiirn, 121 n^ 

Barber who killed the Monks, 
The, 138ni, 214, 219, 229, 
230 

Barber, Story of the Fool 
who wanted a, 96 

Basket used by lover for en- 
tering a house, 147, 147ni 

Bawd, The Cuckold Weaver 
and the, 47w3, 223-226; 
named MakarakatI, 7-10, 
12, 13 ; Yamajihva, 5, 6, 
10, 11, 13 

Beards in Ancient Egypt, 
custom of wearing, 253, 
254 

Bearer of the Golden Lance 
(god Skanda, patron of 
thieves), 143n 

Beating wife with creepers, 
passion renewed while, 16 

Beauty, simile of Hindu, 7, 26 

Beer-can, inexhaustible, 4wi 

Beggar's death in the Rhamp- 
sinitus story, incident of 
the, 274 

Beitrdge zur indischen Erotik : 
Das Liebesleben des San- 
skritvolkes, R. Schmidt, 195 ; 
zur Kenntniss Indischer Dich- 
ter, Aufrecht, 136n3; zur 
vergleichenden Sagen- und 
Mdrchenkunde, M. Gaster, 
128n 

" Beitrage zum Zusammen- 
hang indischer und euro- 
paischer Marchen und 
Sagen," F. Liebrecht, 
Orient und Occident, 92n2 

Belief in tree-spirits, 179ni 

Bengal snake with a knob at 
the end of his tail, 135w 

Berichte ii. d. Verhandl. d. kgl. 
sachsiscken Gesell. d. Wissen- 
schajten, phil.-hist. Klasse, 
J. Hertel, 213ni 

Betel, 12; leaves, colour of 
teeth should be as when 
chewing, 194 

Bhilla, Story of the Wife who 
falselyaccused her H usband 
of murdering a, 80-82, 153n^ 

Bibliographie des Ou vrages 
Arabes, Victor Chauvin, 
3ni, 16 n\ 66, S7n\ 94n2, 
101 ni, 122nS 133n, U7n\ 



Bibliographie continued 
153/ti, 177, 181n2, 183ni 
210, 219, 220/i, 232, 234., 
242, 266 

Bibliography of Sir Richard 
Francis Burton,An Atinotated^' 
N. M. Penzer, 193 1 

Bird, the Hare, and the CaV 
The, 102, 102n2, 103; the 
Monkeys, the Firefly and 
the, 58, 59 ; named Kapin- 
jala, 102-103; natural 
flightiness of a, 37, 37n2 

Birds from choosing the Owl 
King, How the Crow dis- 
suaded the, 100, lOOni, 
102, 103 

Bird's Story, The Golden- 
Crested, 160 

Birth of King Siqihavikrama, 
former, 36 ; remembering 
former, 30, 36, 38, 124, 
158, 173, 191, 192; The 
Water-Spirit in a Previous, 
123-124 

BirthplaceofthePa^c^aia/i/rfl, 
208 

Bites, marks of scratches and,' 
181, 181ni, 193 

"Biting with the teeth," 
Dasanchachhedya, 194, 193 

Blicke iw die Geisieswelt der 
heidnischen Kols, F. Halui, < 
65 

" Blind Man and the Cripple, 
The," Russian Folk-Tales, 
W. R. S. Ralston, 183/ii 

Blue lotuses, eye resembling 
a garland of full-blown, 
197; garland of, 118 

Bodies of vanquished chiefs 
exposed by Amen-hetep II, 
254 

Body of thief dragged or 
driven through streets, 
268, 282; of thief hung 
from wall, 247; of thief 
stolen from wall, 248 j 

Bbhmisches Mdrchenbuch, A. 
Waldau, 53n2, ISOn^ 

Boiled rice given to the dead 
at Hindu funerals, 145ni 

Book X (Saktiya^s), 1-195; 
XI (Vela), 196-204 

Book of Noodles, W. A. 
Clouston, 68, 168ni 

' Book " or " section," tantra 
i.e. 207 

Book of Sindibdd, the, 25^, 
260, 263 ; W. A. Clouston, 
122h1, 127ni, 267 



IJNUiJiX 11 Gl^^JNll^KAL. 



305 



Book of the Thousand Nights 
and a Night. See under 
Nights 

' Books, Five," the {Paflcha- 
tantra), 41h^ 

Boy taken for a cat, Brahman, 
167, 168 

Boy who went to the Village 
for Nothing, Story of the 
Foolish, 136-137 

Boys that milked the Donkey, 
Story of the, 136, 136^3 

Bracelet, the porter who 
found a, 1, 2 

Brahmachilrin's Son, Story of 
the, 89 

Brahman boy taken for a cat, 
167,168; who built Castles- 
in-the-Air, The, 138/ti, 214, 
228-229; cheated to believe 
his goat isa dog, 104; cursed 
by Mahasveta,40; the Goat 
and the Rogues, The, 104, 
104h^ ; and the Mungoose, 
Story of the, 138, 138wi 
139, 217; named Deva^ar- 
man,138, 139; Harighosha, 
159; Pundarlka, 39, 40; 
Rudrasoma, 148-150 ; Sri- 
dhara, 120; Story of King 
Vikramasimha, the Cour- 
tesan and the Young, 15- 
18 ; the Thief and the Rak- 
shasa. The, 107, 107/4^; who 
became a Yaksha, The, 125 

Brahmans, knowledge of the 
sciences bestowed on two 
young, 125, 126 

Brahman's Wife and the 
Sesame-Seeds, The, 76, 77 

Brahmany Drake, Story of 
the Fool who behaved like 
a, 118-119 

Breach in thieving, names for 
the different shapes of the, 
142n2 

Breaking through walls and 
digging tunnels, Indian 
method of thieving, 142, 

1 142h2, 250 

Breasts of a woman, marks 
made with nails on the, 
193, 194 

Brothel, to catch thief, 
King's daughter put in a, 
248, 254 
Irothers who divided all that 
they had. Story of the Two, 
114, 114n^ ; Yajnasomaand 
Kirtisoma, Story of the 
Two, 95, 96 

VOL. V. 



Buch der Beispiele der alien 
IVeisen, Anthonius von 
Pfor or Pforr, 220 

Buch der Beispiele der alten 
Weusen, Das, Anth. von Pfor 
or Pforr, Holland's ed., 
Stuttgart, 1860, 238 

Buddhist Birth Stories or Jdtaka 
Tales, T. W. Rhys Davids, 
Triibner's Orient. Series, 
3/ii, 553, 79n3, 98\ lOOw^ 

Buddhist Literature of Nepal, 
The Sanskrit, Rajendralala 
Mitra, 121n^ 

Buddhist Monk who was 
bitten by a Dog, Story of 
the, 165 ; refugees settling 
in Tibet, Indian, 284 

Buddhistic origin of the 
"Impossibilities" motif 
probable, 64 

Buffalo, Story of the Simple- 
tons who ate the, 117-118 

Bull abandoned in the Forest, 
Story of the, 42-43, 44-45, 
46-47, 49, 50-52, 52-53, 54- 
55, 59, 61, 63 

Bull, descending from heaven, 
169; named Sanjivaka, 42, 
43, 47, 51, 52, 53, 55, 58, 
63;, of Siva, the, 42, 168; 
of Siva, Story of the Fools 
and the, 168, 168ni, 169, 
170, 170ni 

Burial rites for a Hindu, 
necessity of performing, 
144, 145, 250 

Burmese regalia, the, 175 

Burnt Alive sooner than share 
his Food with a Guest, 
Story of the Man who 
submitted to be, 165-167 ; 
herself with her Husband's 
body, Story of the Faithless 
wife who, 19 

Burton, An Annotated Bibli- 
ographic of Sir Richard 
Francis, N. M. Penzer, 193 

Buttocks, nail marks made on 
the surface of the, 193 

Cabinet des F4es, 41 vols., 
Geneva and Paris, 1785- 
1789, 46/ii, 58;ii 

Cake, hunger satisfied by eat- 
ing the seventh, 116, 117 

Cakes, Story of the Fool and 
the, 116, 162n2, 117 

Calendar, five supplementary 
days in the Egyptian and 
Mayan, 252 



Cambridge edition of the 

Jdtaka, 3S 63ni, 64, 79n3, 

98m1, 993, lOOnS lOln^-z, 

157ni, 163ni, 176 
Camel and the other animals, 

the, 53, 54 
Candles used for frightening 

the guards, lighted, 268, 

281 
Canon, the Tibetan, Ka-gyur 

(Kanjur), 284 
Canopus, Lights of, or Anvdr-i- 

Suhaitt, 41ni, 46i, 218, 

220 
Carpenter and his Wife, The, 

108, 108n2 
Casket of jewels, wealth in 

form of, 163, 163ni 
Cat, The Bird, the Hare and 

the, 102, 102n2, 103; 

Brahman boy taken for a, 

167, 168; the hypocritical, 

102n2, 103 
Catalogue of Persian MSS. 

British Museum, Ch. Rieu, 

239 
Celestial horse, A^u^ravas, 31 
Cento Novelle Antiche, 13/1* 
Ceylon, Sacred and Historical 

Books of E. Upham, 73ni 
Ceylon, Village Folk-Tales oj, 

H. Parker, 48ni, 49ni, 52/i2, 

553, 63ni, 65 
Channel of story migration, 

gypsies as a, 275, 276 
Charioteer of Indra, Matali, 

31 
" Charlatan, The," Fables, La 

Fontaine, 91^ 
Chastity, the proof of, 123 
Cheeks of sentinels shaved by 

way of insult, 247 
Chess introduced from India 

into Persia, 218 
Chewing betel leaves, colour 

of teeth should be as 

when, 194 
Childhood of Fiction, J. A. 

Macculloch, 128n 
Choosing a King by Divine 

Will, 175-177 
Cinq cent contes et apologues, 

E. Chavannes, 63;*^ 
Classical Versions of the tale 

of Rhampsinitus, 255-259 
Click-beetle, American {Pyro- 

phorus), 58ni, 59>i 
Clouds {Nubes), Aristophanes, 

29a 
Clouds of Aristophanes, The, 

W. J. M. Starkie, 257 



306 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Coiling round king, snake, 

164. 164i 
Colours, flowers of five, 121 
*' Come - what - will " i.e. 

Yadbhavishya, 56/t^ 
Comparison of Somadeva's 

story of Ghata and Karpara 

and Herodotus' tale of 

Rhampsinitus, 249, 250 
Composer of Purnahhndra, a 

version of the Pafichatantra, 

217 
Conde Lucanor [Don Juan 

Manuel], 79n3 
Confessio amatitis, John 

Gower, 157i 
Consolatio ad Apollonium, 

Plutarch, 257 
Contes Indiens et U Occident, 

Les, E. Cosquin, 177 
Contes et Nouvelles, La 

Fontaine, lln^ 
Conies Populaires de Lorraine, 

E. Cosquin, 87/1^ 
Contes Populaires Malagackes, 

G. Ferrand, 127ni 
Contos Populares Portuguezes, 

A. Coelho, 55n3, Q7n^ lQ5n, 

109h2, 183/ii 
Conversing with the king, 

trick of, 187 
Cotton Galba E. MS. of 

the Seven Sages of Rome, 

264 
Courtesan, named Kumudika, 

15-18; revealing secret, 

83 ; and the Wonderful Ape 

Ala, Storyofthe Merchant's 

Son, the, 5-13 ; and the 

Young Brahman, Story of 

King Vikramasimha, the, 

15-18 
Courtesan's love tested by 

assumed death, 17 
Courtesans, instructions for, 

5, 6, 6n}; learning the 

tricks of, 5, 6 ; the perfidy 

of, 5, 13, 14 
Cowherd brought into a house 

dressed as a woman, 148, 

148h2; Story of the Woman 

who escaped from the 

Monkey and the, 141-142 
Crab, the advice of a, 61 
Crane and the Makara, The, 

48-49 ; the Snake and the 

Mungoose, The, 61 
Creatures, wealth is youth to, 

78 
Crocodile i.e. makara, 47, 

47n2, 48, 48ni 



" Crooked-nose," Vakramasa, 
106ni 

Crow dissuaded the Birds 
from choosing the Owl 
King, How the, 100, lOOn^, 
102-104; and the Jackal, 
The Lion, the Panther, 
the, 53, 54 ; and the King 
of the Pigeons, the Tor- 
toise and the Deer, Story 
of the, 73-75, 78-80 ; named 
Laghupatin, 73-75, 78-79 

Crown, one of the five em- 
blems of royalty, 175 

Crows, Meghavarna, king of 
the, 98, 99, 111", 113; and 
the Owls, Story of the War 
between the, 98, 98ii, 99, 
100, 104-113; who tricked 
the Serpent, The, 47w3, 
214, 226, 227 

"Cruel-eye," Kruralochana, 
106h 

Cuckold Weaver and the 
Bawd, The, 47^3, 223-226 

Cucumber containing pearls, 
65 

^iikasaptati, Die, tejctus sim- 
plicior, R. Schmidt, 64 

"Culprit, marking the," 
motif, 274, 275. 284 

Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, S. Baring- Gould, 
138ni 

Curse of Destiny, 2 ; of 
Gautama, 96 ; of Hema- 
prabha and Lakshmisena 
at an end, 191, 192 

Curse of the Hermit, The, 
202, 203 ; Hiranyaksha 
released from his, 173; 
inflicted on a hermit, 161 ; 
on Makarandika inflicted 
by her parents, 36 ; Maka- 
randika and Simhavikraraa 
released from their, 38 ; 
Pundarika and Sudraka 
released from their, 40 ; 
on Rajatadramshtra, sister 
inflicts, 160 ; of an unsuc- 
cessful love, fulfil the, 40 ; 
on a Vidyadhara, inflicted by 
his father, 159 ; on a young 
Brahman, invoke a, 40 

Custom of hanging criminals 
on a wall, 254 

Cutting off" ears and nose of 
faithless wife, 82, 82n^ 
156; off hands and tongue, 
punishment for thieves, 
61, 61nS 143n; off" nose of 



Cutting continued 

faithless wife, 123; off the 

thief's head with a machine,] 

incident of, 283 
Czech versions of the Pan^J 

chatantra, 236, 237, 238 

Dee mo no logic, Nathaniel 
Homes, 201h 

Dancing-girl named Sundar 
7-13 

" Dankbaren Thiere, Die,*1 
M'drchen der Magyarenl 
Gaal, 157ni 

Dasa Kumdra Charila, the, 
transl. J. Hertel, 142?i2 

Dasa Kumdra Charita, the, 
transl. F. J. Meyer, 176 

Dasa Kumdra Charita, the, ed, 
H. H. Wilson, 153h 

Date of the History of Hero- 
dotus, 258 

Date of the Pahchatantra^ 
207, 208 ; of PFirnahhadra, 
a Jain version of the PaH' 
chatantra, 217; of the Seven 
Sages of Rome, 263 ; oi 
" Textus Simplicior," 216 

Daughter grow, medicine tc 
make, 91 ; of the hermit.F 
the beautiful, 201, 202 ;| 
Pharaoh prostituting his,! 
248, 254, 255 

Days in the Egyptian anc 
Mayan calendar, five sup-j 
plementary, 252 

Dead given rice at Hindi 
funerals, libn} ; wife prei 
tending being, 179, 180 

Death, assumed to test courJ 
tesan's love, 17 ; in the| 
Rhampsinitus story, inci- 
dent of the beggar's, 274 : 
for thieving, 143;i ; froi 
torments of love, 39 

Decameron, Boccaccio, 13^ 

Decameron, its Sources ant 
Analogues, The, A, C. Lecjj 
275 

Deccan Days, Old, M. Frere,! 
49^1 

Deer, the chamart, 29 ; namec 
Chitranga, 78-80 ; Story ol 
the Crow and the King o^ 
the Pigeons, the Tortoise 
and the, 73-75, 78-80 

Deer's Former Captivity, The] 
79n2, 214, 219, 227, 228 

"Deif van Brugghe, De,J 
G. W. Dasent, Zeit. f 
Alterth., vol. V, 1845, 284 



INDEX II GENERAL 



Danonax, Lucian, 136^^ 

De Xugis Curialium. See 

Nugis Curialium, De 
"Depositaire Infidele, Le," 

Fables, La Fontaine, 64 
Descending from heaven, 34. 

169 
Description of Greece, 
Pausanias's, J. G. Frazer, 
256, 257, 266 
Desirable qualities of finger- 
nails and teeth, 193, 194 
Destiny, the curse of, 2 
" Destiny, The Voice of the 
Stone of," E. S. Hartland, 
Folk-Lore, 177 
Deutsche Volksm'drchen aus 
Schicaheti, E. Meier, 157^1 
Deutschen Volksbucher, Die, K. 
Sinirock, 43/i2, I02n2, l04/ii, 
127i, 138ni, 146ni, 204^1 
Deux Redactions du Roman des 
Sept Sages de Rome, Gaston 
Paris, Paris, 1876, 263, 
266^^1 
Dharmakalpadruma, 186^^ 
Dice in Hades, Rhampsinitus 

playing, 252, 253 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman 

Antiquities, Smith, 256 
Dictionary of Kashmiri Pro- 
verbs, A, J. H. Knowles, 
64, 65 
I^'gging tunnels, breaking 
through walls and, Indian 
method of thieving, 142, 
142n2, 250 
Dimnah. See Kalilah and 

Dimnak, etc. 
Directorium vitas humance, John 
of Capua, 220, 232, 237, 
238 
Disciplina Clericalis, Peter 
Alphonse's (English Trans- 
lation), W. H. Hulme, 87ni 
Discipliim Clericalis, Petrus 

Alphonsus, 13^ 87ni 
Discontent produces grief. 

115 * 

Discorsi degli Animali, Agnolo 

Firenzuola, 220 
Disease to be cured by the 
heart of a monkey, 128, 
1282, 129 
Divine Will, Choosing a King 

by, 175-177 
Doctor, Story of the Fool 

that was his own, 139 
Dog, Brahman cheated to 
believe his goat is a, 104 ; 
Story of the Buddhist 



307 



Dog contin ued 

Monk who was bitten by 
a, 165 ; that swallows silver 
and gems, lln^ 
Dolopathos and its derivates, 
.249, 260-263, 274, 281, 285 
Doni, The Morall Philosophic 

of 41 Hi, 218, 220 
Donkey, Story of the Boys 
that milked the, 136, 136/^3 
Door, Story of the Servant 
who looked after the, 117. 
117ni 
Drake, Story of the Fool who 
behaved like a Brahmany, 
118-119 ^ 

Draught-bull named Sanji- 
vaka, 42, 43, 47, 51-53, 55, 
58, 63 
Dream of Hemaprabha, the, 
190; moon entering Har- 
shavati's mouth in a, 30 
Dressed as a woman, cowherd 
brought into a house, 148, 
148n2 
Drinking, results of the vice 

of, 4, 5 
Drum, beaten as thief is led 
to execution, 143/i; The 
Jackal and the, 46 
Drunk, secret let out when, 

1, 2, 3h1 
Dutch poem. Old, " De Deif 
van Brugghe," G. W 
Dasent, 284 
Dye used as a means of future 

recognition, 273, 283 
Dyocletianus Leben, H. A 
Keller, 79n2 



Early English Versions of the 

Gesta Romanorwn, S. J. H. 

Herrtage, Qln\ 104ni 

138i 
Ears, cut off for thieving, 

143n ; and nose cut off by 

his wife, Vajrasara's, 22; 

and nose of faithless wife, 

cutting off, 82, 82/ti, 156 
Ear-throbbing in Norway, 

signs of, 201 n 
Eastern Monachism, R. Spence 

Hardy, 153ni 
Eat iron, mice that, 62, 64 
Eating the seventh cake, 

hunger satisfied by, 116. 

117 
Editions of the Brihat-katha- 

maHjafi, 212; of PTtrna- 
bhadra, 217; and transla- 
tions of the Hilopades'a, 210 



Editors of ' TextusSimplicior" 
216, 217 

Egyptian origin, different 
opinions about the Rhamp- 
sinitus story being of, 263- 

Eight different kinds of nail- 
scratches, 193-194 

" Ein altindisches Narren- 
buch." See " Altindisches 
Narrenbuch, Ein " 

Elephant choosing king, aus- 
picious, 155, 155n^ 175; 
and the Horses, The Race 
between the, 196, 197, 198 

Elephant-headed god, the 
(Ganesa), 196 

Elephants, Chaturdanta, king 
of the, 101, 102; and the 
Hares, The, 101, 101 nM02 

Eleven Husbands, Story of 
the Woman who had, 184- 
185, 184ni 

Emblems of royalty, five, 175. 

176 
Empires, policy, the founda- 
tion of, 99 
Encyclopcedia of Islam, 

" Kalilah wa-Dimna," C. 

Brockelmann, 234 
English names for the 

Pafichatantra, 41 n^ ; versions 

of the Seven Sages of Rome, 

nine Middle, 263, 266 
Epithets of moon, 101 101n2 
Erotic element in swinging, 

the, 189ni 
"Escaping One's Fate" 

motif\ 186^1 
Esop w wesolym humorze, 2 

vols. Varsovie (Warsaw), 

1770, 241 
Esope en belle humeur, 241 
Essai sur Gunadhya et la 

Brhatkatha, F. Lacote, 211 
H-class MSS. of the " Tejctus 

Simplicior," 216, 217 
[Etymologia;] Isidore of 

Seville, 201n 
Etymology of the name 

Rhampsinitus, 250, 251 
" Eulenspiegel, Till." See 

"Till Eulenspiegel " 
European versions of the 

Pafichatantra, 207 
"Evil- Wit, No- Wit and 
Honest- Wit," F. Edgerton, 
Joum. Amer. Orient. Soc., 
592 

Evolution of Modesty, The, 
Havelock Ellis, 189n 



308 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Exemplario contra los engaHos 
y peltgros del mundo, 238 

Experience of Rudrasoma, 
the unhappy, 148, 149 

Explanatory Note to the 
Genealogical Table of the 
PanchaUntra, 232-234 

" External Soul " motif, 127 n^ 

Eye, resembling a garland of 
full-blown blue lotuses, 
197; throbbing in the right, 
200, 201 n; of the World, 
the flaming, 29, 29n, 30 



FF Communications, Helsing- 
fors and Hamina, 281 

Fabeln und Parabeln des 
Orients, trans. Souby-Bey, 
241 

Fable of Menenius (The Belly 
and the Members), 135/i 

Fables, Babrius, Sir G. Corne- 
wall Lewis' ed., 135n^; 
Rutherford's ed., ISOn^ 

Fables, La Fontaine, 64, 73^^, 
91 /ii, 102n2, 106^1, 132n2, 
135 

Fables of Bidpai, Bdjky 
Bidpajovy, FrantiSka 
Trebovsk^ho, 237 

Fables and Folk-Tales from an 
Eastern Forest, W. W. 
Skeat, 48nS 49wi, 63?ii 

Fables, Indian, Ramaswami 
Raja, 48ni, 49ni 

Fables of Phaedrus, 61n^, 
102n2 

Fables de Pilpay (French 
versions), 220 

Fables of Pilpay (or Bidpai), 
41ni,46ni,218,240; edited 
by J. Harris, 240 

Fables of Vartan, The Ar- 
menian, 242 

Fabula, Babrius, 79n2, llOwi 

Facquin et le Rostisseur, Le, 
Rabelais, 132n2, 133n 

Faerie Queene, The, Edmund 
Spenser, 29n2 

Faithless Wife who Burnt 
herself with her Husband's 
Body, Story of, 19 ; cutting 
off nose of, 123 ; cutting 
off nose and ears of, 82, 
82h1, 156; who had her 
Husband Murdered, Story 
of, 20 ; hypocrisy of, 108 ; 
who was present at her 
own Sraddha, Story of the, 
84-85 



" False Ascetics and Nuns 
in Hindu Fiction," M. 
Bloomfield, Journ, Amer. 
Orient. Soc, 102n- 

False sraddha, the, 85 

Farther Indian versions of 
the Panchatantra, 234 

Fasti, Ovid, 68n 

Fatal applause, the, 171 

" Fatalist who believed in 
Kismet^' i.e. Yadbha- 
vishya, 56n^ 

"Fate, Escaping One's," 
motif, 186i 

Fate of the thoughtless tor- 
toise, the, 56 

Father cursing son, 159 

Fear of the unknown, 45 

Feet cut off for thieving, 
143ri 

Female apartments, man in- 
troduced into, by rope, 24 

" Femme dans le Coffre de 
Vere, La," Bibliographic 
des Ouvrages Arabes, V. 
Chauvin, 122ni 

"Festal car" in ceremony 
of choosing a king by 
divine will, 176 

Fickleness of king's wife, 23, 
24 

Finger-nails, desirable quali- 
ties of, 193 

" Finnische Marchenvarian- 
ten," A. Aarne, FF Com- 
munications 5 . . ., 281 

Finnish, Swedish-, version of 
the story of Rhampsinitus, 
281-283 

Fire and Water, Story of the 
Fool who mixed, 68 

Firefly [Pyrophorus) ,:58ni, 59n ; 
and the Birds, The Mon- 
keys, the, 58-59 

"Fish that possessed pres- 
ence of mind, the " i.e. 
Pratyutpannamati, 56/1^ 

Fish, The Three, 56-57 

"Fisherman and the Jinni, 
Tale of the," Nights, Bur- 
ton, 181n2 

"Five Books," the {PaH- 
chatanlra), 41 w^ 

Five Books, entitled The 
Separation of Friends, The 
Winning of Friends, The 
Story of the Crows and the 
Owls, The LossofOne^s Get- 
tings, and Ha.'sty Action, com- 
posed by Vishnu^rman, 
222 



Five colours, flowers of, 121 ; 
emblems of royalty, 175, 
176; in Hindu ritual, 
mystical number of, 175 
supplementary days in 
the Egyptian and Mayan 
calendar, 252 

" Five," Pafica, 175 

" Five Tantras or Books " 
(i.e. Pafichatantra), 207 

" Five tantras," work consist- 
ing of (i.e. Panchatantra), 
207 

" Flame-eye," Diptanayana, 
106n 

Flaming eye of the world, 
the, 29, 29/i2, 30 

" Flasche, Die," Irische Elfen- 
mdrchen, J. and W. Grimm, 
3/ii 

Flavours, the six, 114, 114n* 

Flaying alive, the procedure 
of, 65 

Flea, The Louse and the, 52 ; 
named Tittibha, 52 

Flesh, Story of the King who 
replaced the, 93 

Flowers of five colours, 121 

Flowers from a Persian Garden, 
W. A. Clouston, 101 ni 

Flying through the air, 33, 
35, 169, 170, 172, 173, 191, 
192 

Folk-Lore, " Balochi Tales," 
M. Longworth Dames, 
49n^; "King Midas and 
his Ass's Ears," W. Crooke, 
lln^; [Presidential Ad- 
dress], W. H. D. Rouse, 
66 ; " The Voice of the 
Stone of Destiny," E. S. 
Hartland, 177 

Folklore of Farther India, Laos, 
K. N. Fleeson, 59n2 

Folk-Lore in the Himdlaya,Sport 
and, H. L. Haughton, 65 

Folklore, Indian, G. Jetha- 
bhai, 64 

Folklore of Kumaun and 
Garhwal, Proverbs and, G. D. 
Upreti, 64, 65 

Folk-Lore of Northern India, 
The Popular Religion and, 
W. Crooke, 272, 30^2, 59n\ 
101 wS 126n\ 160ni, 176 

"Folklore in the Panjab," 
Steel and Temple, Indian 
Antiquary, 49 n^ 

[" Folklore of Salsette"] G. D. 
D'Penha, hidian Antiquary, 
65 



INDEX II GENERAL 



309 



Folk-Lore of the Santal 
Parganas, C. H. Bompas, 
65 

"Folklore, Sinhalese," H. A. 
Pieris, The Orientalist, 55n3 

Folk-Lore of the Telugus, G. R. 
Subramiah Pantulu, 48n^, 
49nS 56/ii, 59n2 

" Folklore of the Telugus, 
Some notes on the," G. R. 
Subramiah Pantulu, Indian 
AntiqiMry, 48 /i\ 49 ft^, 56 n^, 
59/t2 

Folk- Tales of Ceylon, Village, 
H. Parker, ^n\ 49ni, b2n\ 
55n3, 63ni, 65 

Folk-Tales from an Eastern 
Forest, Fables and, W. W. 
Skeat, 48/iS 49ni, 63ni 

Folk-Tales oj Kashmir, J. H. 
Knowles, 65, 281 

Folk-Tales, Russian, W. R. S. 
Ralston, 82ii\ I66n\ nQn\ 
183ni 

Folk- Tales from Tibet, W. F. T. 
O'Connor, 49ni, 64 

Fool who wanted a Barber, 
Story of the, 96 ; who be- 
haved like a Brahmany 
Drake, Story of the, 118- 
119; and his Brother, 
Story of the, 89 ; and the 
Cakes, Story of the, 116- 
116/i2, 117; cheated to 
believe he is married and 
has a son, 69 ; and the 
Cotton, Story of the, 70 ; 
that was his own Doctor, 
Story of the, 139 ; that did 
not drink. Story of the 
Thirsty, 88 ; who mixed 
Fire and Water, Story of 
the, 68 ; who saw Gold in 
the Water, Story of the, 
115, 115 n} ; who mistook 
Hermits for Monkeys, 
Story of the, 140; and his 
Milch-Cow,Storyof the,72 ; 
who looked for the Moon, 
Story of the, 141 ; who 
took Notes of a certain 
Spot in the Sea, Story of 
the, 92-93 ; and the Orna- 
ments, Story of the, 69-70 ; 
who found a Purse, Story 
of the, 140-141 ; who was 
nearly choked with Rice, 
Story of the, 135-136; and 
the Salt, Story of the, 71- 
72 ; who killed his Son, 
Story of the, 88-89 ; stones 



Fool continued 

laugh at a, 89 ; who gave 
a Verbal Reward to the 
Musician, Story of the, 132, 
132n2, 133; who asked his 
Way to the Village, Story 
of the, 170, 171 

Foolish Bald Man and the 
Fool who pelted him. Story 
of the, 72-73 ; Boy who went 
to the Village for Nothing, 
136-137 ; Herdsman, Story 
of the, 69; King who made 
his Daughter grow. Story 
of the, 91, 91 ni, 92; Mer- 
chant who made Aloes- 
Wood into Charcoal, Story 
of the, 67; Servant, Story 
of a, 84 ; Servant, Story of 
the, 113 ; son, the curse of 
having a, 222; Teacher, 
the Foolish Pupils and the 
Cat, Story of the, 167-168; 
Villagers who cut down the 
Palm-Trees, 70-71 

Fools and the Bull of Siva, 
Story of the, 168, 16Sn\ 
169, 170, 170/ii; lose wealth 
as soon as they get it, 
141 

Footnotes to the Genea- 
logical Table of the 
Panchatantra, 236-242 

Forest, the Vindhya, 39 

" Forethought " i.e. Ana- 
gatavidhatri, 56/1^ 

Form assumed by Vishnu, 
Narasimha (Man-lion), 1, 
ln2 

Former austerities, power of, 
37 ; birth, remember, 30, 
36, 38, 124, 158, 173, 191, 
192 ; birth of King Simha- 
vikrama, 36 ; Birth, The 
Hermit's Story of Soma- 
prabha, Manorathaprabha 
and Makarandika, wherein 
it appears who the Parrot 
was in a, 30-32, 34-37 

** Formiga e a Neve, A," 
Contos Populares Portu- 
gtiezes, A. Coelho, 109n2 

Forty Vazirs (Behrnauer's 
translation). See further 
under Behrnauer, W. F. A., 
153ni 

Forty Vezirt, The History of 
the, E. .1. W. Gibb and 
Sheykh-Zada, 163n^ 

Foundation of empires, 
policy, the, 99 



Four books, the Hitopadesa 
containing, 210 ; inde- 
pendent streams of the 
Pafichatantra (Edgerton), 
208 ; meditations, the, 151, 
151ni 

Four Vedas, Parrot that 
knows the, 28 

Fox in Fables of Bidpai 
[Pilpay), tale of the, 46ni ; 
and the heron in a Portu- 
guese tale, 55n^; and 
jackal stories of East and 
West, 43n^ ; and tortoise, 
tale of the (Dubois' Pancha- 
T antra), 55 /i^ 

Fragmenta Historicorum Grce- 
corum, K. O. Muller, 258 

Fragrance of lotuses, lake 
perfumed with the, 120 

French version of the 
Dolopathos, poetical, 260, 
262, 263, 274, 285 

" Friendly Advice," the 
Hitopadesa or, Narayana, 
210 

Friends of Dhavalamukha, 
the two, 87 

" Friendship, Of Real," Gesta 
Romanorum, 87/1^ 

Frogs, The Snake and the, 
112, 112ni 

Fruit, Story of the Servant 
who tasted the, 94, 94^2 

Fulfil the curse of an un- 
successful love, 40 

Full of lotuses, a lake, 30 

Full-blown blue lotuses, eye 
resembling a garland of, 
197 

Funerals, boiled rice given 
to the dead at Hindu, 
145ni 

Gadyatmakah Kathasarit- 
sagarah, Jibananda Vidya- 
sagara, 236 

Garhwal, Proverbs and Folklore 
of Kumaun and, G. D. 
Upreti, 64, 65 

Garland of blue lotuses, 
118; of full-blown blue 
lotuses, eye resembling, 
197 

Garlands in the swayamvara 
(marriage by choice) cere- 
mony, throwing, 197n* 

" Gaze " or " treasure" story, 
the, 261, 261n3, 263 

Geese flying over Mount 
Taurus, wisdom of, 66n* 



310 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Gems, dog that swallows 
silver and, 11 n^ 

Genealogical Table of the 
Panchatantra by Franklin 
Edgerton, 232-242 

Genealogical tree of the 
Pahchatanira, 42n>, 207, 
220 

Geschichte der Prosadichliingen, 
John Dunlop, trans, into 
German by Felix Liebrecht, 
13n\ S7n\ llln^ lQ2n\ 
186n2 

Geschichten hellenischer Sl'dmme 
und Stddte : Orchometios und 
die Minver, K. O. Miiller, 
257 

Gesta Romanorwn, the, 13n^, 
87ni, 138ni, 153ni, 157ni; 
[edited by Wynnard 
Hooper], Bohn's Anti- 
quarian Library, 138w^ ; 
Early English Version of 
the, S. J. H. Herrtage,87ni, 
104ni, 138ni 

Gesta Romanorum, Disserta- 
tions on the . . . See under 
Douce, Francis 

Ghata and Karpara, Story of 
the Two Thieves, 142, 151 ; 
Origin of the Story of 
(App. II), 245-286 

Girl like a wave of the sea 
of love's insolence, a, 199 

Glow-worm (iMinpyris nocti- 
luca), 58/1^, 59 u 

Gliicksvogel, the heart of the, 
130/ii 

Goat is a dog, Brahman 
cheated to believe his, 
104 ; and the Rogues, The 
Brahman, the, 104, 104?ii 

God, the elephant - headed 
(Gane^a), 196 ; of Love, 
(Kama), 26, 121, 149, 197, 
198; Skanda, patron of 
thieves, 143h 

Goddess of Prosperity, 113 ; 
of Sleep, the, 197 

Gold in the Water, Story 
of the Fool who saw, 115, 
115ni 

Golden Bough, The, J. G. 
Frazer, lS9n^ 

Golden-Crested Bird's Story, 
The, 160 

Golden Lance, the bearer of 
the (god Skanda), 143n 

Goldsmith as thief in Hindu 
fiction, 158n 

Grass, darbha, 185 



"Grateful Animals" motif, 

157ni 
Grateful Animals and the Un- 
grateful Woman, Story of 

the, 157, 157ni, 158-164 
Great Tale, the i.e. Brihat- 

katha, 39, 42n, 214. * See 

further under Brihat-katha 
Greedy Jackal, The, 77 
Greek version of Kalilah and 

Dimnah, 'Symeon Seth, 

58ni, 219, 238. 239 
Griechische Marcheyi, Bernhard 

Schmidt, 128n2, 157ni 
Griechische Mt/lhologie, L. 

Preller, 67n3 
Griechische Roman, Der, E. 

Rodhe, 133)1 
Grief produced by discontent, 

115 
Grove of Lebadea, 256 
Guards, lighted candles used 

for frightening the, 268, 

281 
Guide du Visiteur au Musee du 

Caire, G. Maspero, 254 
Gunadhya et la Brhatkatha, F. 

Lacote, 211 
Gypsies as a channel of story 

migration, 275, 276 
Gypsy Folk- Tales, F. H, 

Groome, 275 
Gypsy version close variant 

of the tale of Rhampsinitus, 

275 

Hair- Restorer, Story of the 
Bald Man and the, 83-84 

Hands cut off and tongue cut 
out for thieving, 61, 61n\ 
143 

Hanging bodies of thief and 
of chiefs on wall, 248, 
254 

Hardness of a diamond, one 
who has the, Vajrasara, 
22w^ ; of stubble, one who 
has the, trinasdra, 22n^ 

Hare, and the Cat, The Bird, 
the, 102, 102n2, 103; The 
Lion and the, 49-50; in 
the moon, Hindus 6nd a, 
lOln^ ; named Vijaya, 
101 

Hares, The Elephants and 
the, 101, lOlni, 102; 
Silimukha, king of the, 
101-102 

Harlot. See Courtesan 

Harvard Oriental Series, 
216ni, 217ni 



Hasty Action, one of the Fi\ 
Books of the PaRchalanlral 
222 

Hatim's Tales, A. Stein ani 
G. Grierson, 176, 177 

Head of trapped thief cut o| 
by companion, 246, 257 j 
cut off* with a machine^ 
283 

Heads, snake with three, 161;1 
Story of the Snake with] 
Two, 134, 134n2, 135, 135ni 

Heart of the Gliicksvogel,' 
the, 130n^ ; of a monkey, 
disease to be cured by the,] 
128, 1282, 129 

Heaven, bull descending! 
from, 169 

Heavenly nymph, the storyl 
of the, 32 

Hebraeischen Uebersetsungen, 
M. Steinschneider, 220n\ 
237-239 

" Heimonskinder, Die," 
Die Deutschen Volksbiicher, 
K. Simrock, 146wi, 204wi 

Hen in the Anvdr-i-Suhaili, 
tale of the, 46w^ 

Heptameron of Margaret, : 
Queen of Navarre, the, < 
153n^ See further under 1 
Margaret, Queen of] 
Navarre 

Herabkunft des Feuers und de$ \ 
Gbttertranks, Die, A. Kuhn, 
29m2, llln2 

Herdsman, Story of the] 
Foolish, 69 

Hermit, the beautiful 
daughter of the, 201, 202; 
The Curse of the, 202, 203; 
curse inflicted on a, 161 ; 
The Mouse and the, 75-76, 
77-78; named Marichi, 30, 
37 ; named Matanga, 201- 
203; and his Pupils, Story j 
of the, 178 

Hermitage of Didhitimat,^ 
32 ; of the sage Jabali, 
39; of Kaiyapa, 161; o| 
Maha^veta,40; of Matanga 
202 ; Pulastya, head of the 
30, 37 

Hermit's laugh, the, 30, 
37, 37n^; son, Ra^mimat 
32-34, 38 ; Story of Soma 
prabha, ManorathaprabhJ 
and Makarandika, wherei 
it appears who the Parrc 
was in a Former Birtli 
The, 30-32, 34-37 



INDEX II GENERAL 



811 



Hermits for Monkeys, Story 
of the Fool who mistook, 
140 

Hennotimtts, Lucian, 133n 

Heron in a Portuguese tale, 
the fox and the, 55/1^ 

Hills, the Vindhya, 185 

Hindoostanee Reader, 240 

Hindu beauty, simile of, 7, 
26; burial rites, 250; 
fiction, goldsnlith as thief 
in, 158n; funerals, boiled 
rice given to dead at, 
145>(i; pun, 14, 29, 29ni; 
88, 88fti, 95, 95i 

Hindu Tales, H. Jacobi, 176 

Hindu Tales, 3. J. Meyer, 175, 
176 

Hindus find a hare in the 
moon, lOlw^ 

Historia Maior, Matthseus 
Paris, 157ni 

Historia Septem Sapientum, A. 
Hilka, 261, 261w2, 266 

History, Herodotus, 245, 258 

History of Fiction, John 
Dunlop, Liebrecht's trans., 
13ni, 87wi, llln2, 162S 
186n2 

History oj the Forty Vezirs, 
The, E. J. W. Gibb and 
Sheykh-Zada, 153;ii 

History of Herodotus, G. 
Rawlinson, 245 nS 253 

History of Magic and Experi- 
mental Science, A, Lynn 
Thorndyke, 201n 

History of the Pahlavi version 
of the Panchatantra, 218 

History of the Seven Wise 
Masters oJ Rojne, ed. G. L. 
Gomme, 266n2 

* History of the Story of 
Stephanites . . ., On the," 
A. Rystenko, Annals of the 
Historical-philologicalSociety 
of the Imperial New Russian 
University, 235 

Holy sage (Rishi), 28, 36, 
110, 203 

Home of the Panchatantra, 
the, 208 ; of sciences and 
virtue, KaiSmlra, the, 171 

Hoopoe, "the bird with a 
golden crest," 160ni 

Horse, A^u^ravas, a celestial, 
31; in the rite of choosing 
a king by divine will, 176 

Horses, The Race between 
the Elephant and the, 196- 
198 



How the Crow dissuaded the 

Birds from choosing the 

Owl King, 100, lOOnS 102, 

103-104 
Huitre et les Plaideurs, he. La 

Fontaine, 132^2 
Hunchback, Story of the 

Physician who tried to. 

cure a, 119 
Hunger satisfied by eating 

the seventh cake, 116, 

117 
Husband falsely accused by 

Wife of murdering a Bhilla, 

Story of, 80-82, 153/ii 
Husbands, Story of the 

Woman who had Eleven, 

184-185 
Hypocrisy of faithless wife, 

108 
Hypocritical cat, the, 102n2, 

103 
Hysmine and Hysminius, The 

Story of, Eustathius, 200n3 



Identity of King Rhamp- 
sinitus, 250 

[Idylls, The] Theocritus, 201n 

// Decatnerone. See under 
Decameron and Boccaccio 

Illustrations of Shakspeare 
. . . with Dissertations on the 
Gesta Romanorum, F. Douce, 
87ni 

II Pecorone, Ser Giovanni 
(English ed. by W. G. 
Waters), 267, 281 

// Pentamerone. See under 
Pentamerone, II 

"Impossibilities " MotiJ, Note 
on the, 64-66 

Incendiaria avis, Pliny's 
account of the, llln^ 

Incident of the beggar's 
death in the Rhampsinitus 
story, 274 

Inconstancy of woman, the, 
245 

Indian Antiquary, 93n ; " V^ri- 
hatkatha of Kshemendra," 
J. G. Buhler, 212 ; ["Folk- 
lore of Salsette"] G. F. 
D'Penha, 65; J. H. 
Knowles'tales,177; "Some 
Notes on the Folk-Lore of 
the Telugus," Pantulu, 
G. R. Subramiah, 48n^, 
49ni, 56ui, 59h2; "Folk- 
lore in the Panjfib," Steel 
and Temple, 49ni 



Indian Buddhist refugees 
settling in Tibet, 284 

Indian Fables, Ramaswami 
Itaju, 48i, 49n\ 65 

Indian Fairy Tales , M. Stokes, 
157ni 

Indian Folk-lore, G. Jet- 
habhai, 64 

Indian " Jackal " stories, 
Weber's theory regarding, 
43/1^ ; method of thieving, 
142, 142n2, 250 

Indie versions of the Pan- 
chatantra, Late, 233, 234 

Indika, Arrian's. See under 
McCrindle, J. W. 

Indische Studien [" Ueber den 
Zusammenhang indischer 
Fabaln mitgriechischen"], 
A. Weber, 130ni 

Indischen Erotik, Beitrage 2ur, 
R. Schmidt, 195 

Inexhaustible beer-can, the. 

Inexhaustible pitcher, the, 

3, Sn\ 4 
Inquisitive monkey, the, 43, 

44 
Insolence, a girl like a wave 

of the sea of love's, 199 
Instructions for courtesans, 

5, 6, Qn} 
Interruptions of the main 

story in the Panchatantra, 

213 
Introduction- Kathamukha, 

221-222 
Introduction to the PaHcha- 

tantra omitted by Soma- 

deva, 41ni, 214; to the 

" Prioress's Tale," W. W. 

Skeat, 27/i2 
Investing with the sacred 

thread, 33 
loannis de Alia Silva Dolo- 

pathos, sive Rege et Septem 

Sapientibus, H. Oesterley, 

261, 261ni 
Irische Eljenindrchen, J. and 

W. Grimm, 3n^ 
Iron-eating mice, 62, 64 
Isis et Osiris, Plutarch, 252 
Island of Lanka, the, 199 
Italian Popular Tales, T. F. 

Crane, 66 

Jackal and the Ass, The Sick 
Lion, the, 130, I30n\ 131, 
132 ; and the Drum, The, 
46 ; The Greedy, 77 ; The 
Lion, the Panther, the 



312 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Jackal continued 

Crow and the, 53, 54 ; The 
Rams and the Foolish, 
47/|3, 223 

Jackals, Damanaka and 
Karataka, the two, 43, 44, 
47, 50, 58, 63, 218 

Jain versions of the PaHcha- 
tantra, the, 216-218, 233, 
234 

Jaina monk, Pumabhadra, 
217 

Japanese Fairy World, The, 
W. E. Griffis, 128n 

Jealous Pupils, Story of the 
Teacher and his Two, 133, 
133ni, 134 

Jewel from elephant's head, 
23, 23ni 

Jewel-merchant and stolen 
bracelet, 2 

Jewels, wealth in form of a 
casket of, 163, 163/1^ 

"Jinni, Tale of the Fisher- 
man and the," Nights, 
Burton, 181 n2 

"Joseph and Potiphar in 
Hindu Fiction," Traits. 
Amer. Phil. Ass., M. Bloom- 
field, 176 

Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, "False Ascetics and 
Nuns in Hindu Fiction," 
M. Bloomfield, 102^2; 
[* ' Recurring Psychic Motifs 
in Hindu Fiction the 
Laugh and Cry motif"] 
M. Bloomfield, 37ni; "The 
Paiicatantra in Modern 
Indian Folklore," W. N. 
Brown, 48ni, 49ni, 63 w^, 
64; "Evil-Wit, No- Wit 
and Honest -Wit," F. 
Edgerton, 59n2 ; Paiica- 
divyadhivasa, or Choosing 
a King . . .," F. Edgerton, 
175 

Journal Asia lique , "La Brihat- 
kilthamanjari de Kshemen- 
dra," Sylvain L^vi, 212 

Journal of the Department of 
Letters of the lUniversity of 
Calcutta, " V^tsySyana 
the Author of the Kama- 
sutra . , .," H. Chaklader, 
193 

Journal of the Gypsy -Lore 
Society, F. H. Groome, 275 

Journal of Philology, Ameri- 
can, 61ni, 64, 142/i2, 158n 
For fuller details see under 



Journal continued 

American Journal of Phil- 
ology 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, " Mongoose," G. 
A. Grierson, 139n^ 

[Juan Manuel, Don] El 
Conde Lucanor [Libro de 
patronio), 79n3 



" K," one of the two arche- 
types of the Patichatantra 

(Hertel), 208 
Ka-gyur (Kanjtir), the Tibetan 

Canon, 284 
Kalila und Dimna, Syrisch mid 

Deulsch, Schulthess, 219 
" Kalila wa-Dimna," C. 

Brockelmann, Encyclopcedia 

of Islam, 234 
" Kalilag wa Dimnag " 

(Syriac version), 219 
Kalilah and Dimnah, 41 w^, 218, 

219 
Kalilah en Daminah, P. P. 

Roorda van Eysinga, 239 
"Kalilah wa Dimnah" 

(Arabic version), 219 
Kama Sutra, Vatsyayana, 6n^, 

193-195 
Kama Stdra . . . of Sri Vat- 
syayana, K. Rangaswami 

Iyengar, 193 
Kanjur [Ka-gyur), the Tibetan 

Canon, 284 
Kashmir, Folk-Tales of, J. H. 

Knowles, 65, 117, 281 
Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings, 

A Dictionary of, J. H. 

Knowles, 64, 65 
Kashmirian origin of the 

Story of Ghata and Karpara, 

possible, 245 
Kathdko^a, The, or Treasury 

of Stories, trans. C. H. 

Tawney, Orient. Trans. 

Fund, Roy. As. Soc, lln?-, 

125ni, 155^12, 176 
Khalila da Damana, Georgian 

version of Kalilah and 

Dimnah, 240 
Killing son as display of 

prescience, astrologer, 90 ; 

son to get another, 94 
Kinder- und Hausmarchen, 

Grimm, J. and W., 62n2, 66, 

79n3. See also under Bolte, 

J., 100i, 153^1^ 275 
Kinds of nail-scratches, eight 

different, 193, 194 



King, auspicious elepl 
choosing, 155, 155ni, ji 
Bhoja, 1422j ofthecroi 
Meghavarna, 98, 99, 11^ 
113; by Divine Wi 
Choosing a, 175-177; oftl 
elephants, Chaturdant 
101-102 ; Gajanika, 23, 28 
of the hares, Sillmukl 
101-102; of Magadha, th< 
98 ; mefchant anointc 
155 ; of the monkej 
Vallmukha, 127-130 

King named Amritatejas, 1731 
174; Buddhiprabha, IJ 
192; Chandrapida, Sl[ 
Gotravardhana, 162-1641 
Jyotishprabha, 30, 31 j 
Kanakaksha, 171, 174 ;J 
Kuladhara, 41 ; Padmakut 
32 ; Pratapasena, 191, 192! 
Simhaksha, 180 - 183 j 
Simhavikrama, 34, 36 1 
Vajradamshtra, 160 

King of the Owls, Avamarc 
98, 105; of the pigeoi 
Chitragrlva, 74 ; who re 
placed the Flesh, Story 
the, 93 ; Sirahabala at 
his Fickle Wife, Story ol 
23-25 ; snake coiling rounc 
164, 164n^ ; Somaprabhi 
38; Sphatikaya^as, 26, 1921 
Story of the Miserly, 86 j 
Sudraka, 39, 40 ; Sumanas," 
the Nishada Maiden, and 
the Learned Parrot, Story , 
of, 27-28, 37-38; Note on 
the Story of King Sumanas, 
the Nishada Maiden, and 
the Learned Parrot, 39, 
40 ; trick of conversing with 
the, 187; of UjjainI, Tfira- 
pi^a, 39, 40 ; of Vatsa, the, 
1, 2, 5, 20, 22, 25, 27, 98, 
113, 120, 137, 164, 192, 
198, 203; of the Vidya- 
dharas, Kanchanavega, 96 ; 
of the Vidyadharas, Sa.4ite- 
jas, 172 ; Vikramasiiuha, 
the Courtesan, and the 
Young Brahman, Story of, 
15-18 

" King Midas and his Ass's 
Ears," W. Crooke, Folk- 
Lore, lln* 

King's daughter placed in 
brothel to catch thief, 
248 

" King's son and the Ifrit's 
mistress," 122ni 



King's treasury robbed by 
thieves, 246 

Knowledge of the sciences 
bestowed on two young 
Brahmans, 125, 126; of 
the sciences bestowed on 
Rajatadamshtra, 160 

Kumaun mid Garhwal, Proverbs 
and Folklore of, G. O. 
Upreti, 64, 65 



Lack of original versions of 

the Paflckatanira, 208 
Lake, the Achchhoda, 39, 40 ; 

full of lotuses, 30 ; Moon, 

Chandrasaras, lOlw^; per- 
fumed with the fragrance 

of lotuses, 120 
Lamas, the, 284 
Lamp of the world, the sun, 

the, 190 
Lance, bearer of the Golden 

(god Skanda, patron of 

thieves), 143w 
Land "where mice nibble 

iron" i.e. nowhere, 66 
Language of signs, by bites 

and scratches, 195 
Languages in which the 

Ghata and Karpara story 

is to be found, 267 
LHnguages,late Indie versions 

of the Panchatantra in differ- 

ent, 233-234 
Laos Folklore of Farther India, 

K. N. Fleeson, 59n2 
Late Indie versions of the 

Panchatantra in different 

languages, 233-234 
Latin names for Western 

Versions of Seven Wise 

Masters, 26 In' 
Latin prose, version of Dolo- 

pathos in (Joannes de Alta 

Silva), 260-262 
Laugh, the hermit's, 30, SOn^, 

37, 37n^ ; making stones, 

89, 133, 185 
La versione Araba de Kalilah 

e Dimnah. See under 

Versione Araba . . . 
Learned Parrot, Story of King 

Sumanas, the Nishada 

Maiden, and the, 27-28, 

37,38 
Learning the tricks of courte- 
sans, 5, 6 
**Lebres, As tres," Contos 

Popiilares Portugueses, A. 

Coelho, 183ni 



INDEX II GENERAL 

Legend (explanation) of the 
Genealogical Table of the 
Panchatantra, 232 

Leprous lover, the, 149, 150 

Lessons for courtesans, 5, 6, 
6ni 

UHuUre et les Plaideurs. See 
under Huitre et . . . 

Liber Kalilce et Dimnae, Direc- 
torium, etc., 237 

Ubro de los Enganos, 127n^ 

Life of Agis, Plutarch, 135n 

Life of Marcellus, Plutarch, 
64 

Life as a Parrot, The Parrot's 
Account of his own, 28-30, 
37 

Life and Stories qfPdr^andtha, 
M. Bloomfield, 176 

Lights of Canopus, or Anvar-i- 
Suhaitt, 41ni, 46ni, 218, 
220 

Linguistic Survey of Ijidia, Sir 
George Grierson, 65 

Lion and the Hare, The 49- 
50 ; the Jackal and the 
Ass, The Sick, 130, 130ni, 
131, 132; named Pinjalaka, 
43-47, 50-55, 58, 63; the 
Panther, the Crow and the 
Jackal, The, 53-54 

Lion's Story, The, 159 

List of stories in the Pancha- 
tantra, Table giving, 214, 
215 

Litre des Lumieres, 46w^ 

Livres des lumieres ou la conduite 
des roys, compose par le sage 
Pilpay, 240 

Looking at a necklace, 
strength acquired by, 76, 
76;?! 

Lorraine, Contes Populaires de, 
E. Cosquin, 87wi 

Loss of One's Gettings, The, 
one of the Five Books of 
the Panchatantra, 222 

Lotuses, eye resembling a 
garland of full-blown blue, 
197; garland of blue, 118; 
lake full of, 30 ; a lake per- 
fumed with the fragrance 
of, 120 

Louse and the Flea, The, 52 ; 
named Mandavisarpini, 52 

Love by assumed death, test 
of courtesan's, 17; the 
curse of an unsuccessful, 
40; death from torments 
of, 39 ; fulfil the curse of 
an unsuccessful, 40; God 



313 

Love continued 

of (Kama), 26, 121, 149, 
197, 198 ; of goddess for 
mortal, 33; on mere men- 
tion, 172, 172ni 

"Love is scorned, women 
whose," motif, 259i 

Love for a slave-girl, Nara- 
vahanadatta's, 5 

Lover drawn up into a house 
in a basket, 147, 147 n^; 
the leprous, 149, 150 

Lover's bites and scratches, 
193-195 

Love's insolence, a girl like 
a wave of the sea of, 199 

Lucanor, Conde, Don Juan 
Manuel, 79n' 

Machine, cutting off the 
thiefs head with a, 282 

Magical articles, 3n^ 

Magyaren, M'drchen der, G. 
Gaal, 157ni 

Mahdbhdrata, the, lln^, 73nS 
98ni 

Maiden , as ascetic, Mahaiveta, 
39, 40 ; charming to the 
eye, a, 26 ; The Mouse 
that was turned into a, 
109, 109n2, 110; Story of 
the Ambitious Chan^ala, 
85-86 

Makara, The Crane and the, 
48,49 

Makarandika, The Hermit's 
Story of Somaprabha, 
Manorathaprabha, and, 
wherein it appears who 
the Parrot was in a Former 
Birth, 30-32, 34-37 

Malagaches, Contes Populaires, 
G. Ferrand, \21v} 

Man, A Monthly Record of 
Anthropological Science, Re- 
view of Prof. Eldgerton's 
Panchatantra Reconstructed, 
N. M. Penzer, 208 

Man who submitted to be 
Burnt Alive sooner than 
share his Food with a 
Guest, 165-167; who justi- 
fied his Character, Story of 
the Violent, 90-91; who, 
thanks to Durga, had 
always One Ox, Story of 
the, 185-186, 186n ; and 
the Fool who pelted him, 
Story of the Foolish Bald, 
72-73; and the Hair- 
Restorer, Story of the 



314 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Man continued 

Bald, 83-84 ; who asked 
for Nothing at all, Story 
of the, 97, 97ni ; who re- 
covered half a Pana from 
his Servant, Story of the, 
92, 92n8; who tried to 
improve his Wife's Nose, 
Story of the, 68-69 

Man-lion (Narasiipha, a form 
assumed by Vishnu), 1, In^ 

Manorathaprabhil and Maka- 
rnndika, wherein it appears 
who the Parrot was in a 
Former Birth,The Hermit's 
Story of Somaprabha, 30- 
32, 34-37 

Marathi Proverbs, A. Man- 
waring, 55 /i2 

Marcelltis, LXfe of, Plutarch, 
64 

Mdrchen der Magyareyi, G. 
Gaal, 157ni 

" Miirchen vom sprechenden 
Bauche, Das," Unter den 
Olivenb'dumen, W. Kaden, 
62;t- 

Mariage Ford, Le, Moli^re, 
89h1 

* Marking the culprit " motif, 
274, 275, 284 

Marks of scratches and bites, 
181, 181i, 193 

Marriage of Naravahanadatta 
and Saktiya^as, the, 192 

Master-builder, Bindo a, 267, 
268 

Master-builders, Agamedes 
and Trophonius, 255-257 

Mayan " Uayeyab," the, the 
five nameless, unlucky 
days in the Mayan calendar, 
252 

Meaning of the title Paflcha- 
tantra, 207 

Measure of distance, hasta, 
222; ofweight,pfl/a,62,72 

"Meat" incident in variants 
of the tale of Rhampsinitus, 
281 

Mediaeval Versions of the tale 
of Rhampsinitus, 259-266 

Medicine to make daughter 
grow, 91 

Meditations, the four, 151, 
161n 

* Meisterdieb, Der," Kinder- 
und Hausmarcken, J. and W. 
Grimm, 275 

Melusine ['* Traditions Popu- 
laires du Bannu "], 127n^ 



Mendicant, the riddle of the, 
183, 183ni; who travelled 
from Kai^mlra to Patali- 
putra. The, 178-180, 182- 
183 

Mendicants who became 
emaciated from Discon- 
tent, Story of the, 114-115 

Mention, love on mere, 172, 
172ni 

Merchant anointed king, 155; 
of Bassorah, a, 97n^; named 
Chandrasara, 201, 202, 204 ; 
Dhanadeva, 147-150 ; Hir- 
anyagupta, 2 ; Kusuma^ara, 
198 ; Ratnavarman, 5, 6, 9, 
10; Sikhara, 199, 201 ; and 
his Wife Vela, Story of 
the, 198-204; and his 
Young Wife, The Old, 106, 
106/ii 

Merchant's Son, the Courte- 
san, and the Wonderful 
Ape Ala, Story of the, 5- 
13 

Metamorphoses, Ovid, 29n^ 

Metaphor of the sun, 29, 2dn^, 
30 

Method of choosing new king 
in Senjero, Abyssinia, 177 ; 
of thieving, Indian, 142, 
142n2, 250 

Mice and rats gnawing gold, 
64 

" Mice nibble iron, where," 
the land i.e. nowhere, 66 

Mice that ate an Iron Balance, 
The, 62, 64 

Middle English versions of 
the Seve7i Sages of Rome, 
nine, 263, 266 

Migration, gypsies as a chan- 
nel of story, 275, 276; 
Oriental story, 258 ; west- 
wards of the Hitopadesa, 
210 

Milch-Cow, Story of the Fool 
and his, 72 

Mind-bom son, 33, 89 

Ministers of Avamarda, 105, 
106, 106, 107 ; of King 
Meghavarna, 98, 99 

"Miser, The," Russian Folk- 
Tales, W. R. S. Ralston, 
166ni 

Miserly King, Story of the, 
86 

Modem Translations of San- 
skrit versions omitted from 
the Panchatantra Table, 
232ni, 233 



Modern Versions of the taU 
of Rhampsinitus, 266-286 

Mongolische Marchensavimlunf, 
. . , des Siddhi-Ktir . . . dt 
Ardschi-liordschi, B. JttlgJ 
63mS 153/ii 

" Mongoose," G. A. Griei 
son, Joum. Roy. As. Soc.^ 
139/1^ See also undei 
Mungoose 

Monk who was bitten by a] 
Dog, Story of the Bud- 
dhist, 165 ; named Deva-] 
barman, 223, 225, 226;. 
and the Swindler, The, 
47n3, 223 

Monkey and the Cowherd, 
Story of the Woman who 
escaped from the, 141-142 ; 
disease to be cured by the 
heart of a, 128, 128nM29; 
and the Porpoise, Story of] 
the, 127, 127ni, 128-130,^ 
132; that pulled out thej 
Wedge, The, 43-44; that 
swallows dinars, the, 10-13 

Monkeys, the Firefly and thci 
Bird, The, 58-59; Story of ^ 
the Fool who mistook Her- 
mits for, 140 ; ValimukhaJ 
king of the, 127-130 

Monks' hoods used in thiefa 
trick, 268, 283 

Monks, The Barber who] 
killed the, 229-230 

Moon, as Chandraplda, the, 
40 ; entering Harshavati'l 
mouth in a dream, 30 j 
epithets of the, 101, 101 w| 
hare as ambassador of theJ 
101, 102; Hindus find 
Hare in the, lOln^ ; lakej 
Chandrasaras, lOlw^; Stoi 
of the Fool who looked fo 
the, 141 

Moon-Lore, T. Harley, 101 

Moral Filosophia, La, Dor 
220 

Morall Philosophie of Dc 
4l7ii, 218, 220 

Mortal loved by goddess, 32 

Mother Hubbard's Tale, 
mund Spenser, 63n^ 

Motif, " Act of Truth," 15 
124ni; Dohada, 127n* 
" Escaping One's Fate,1 
186ni; "External Soul,] 
127)1^; "Grateful Animals,! 
157n^; "Marking the ci 
prit," 274, 275, 284 ; Not 
on the " Impossibilities,! 



INDEX II GENERAL 



815 



Motif continued 

64-66 ; " Women whose 

love is scorned," 259m^ 
Mount Taurus, wisdom of 

geese when Hying over, 55n^ 
Mouse and the Hermit, The, 

75-76, 77-78 ; named 

Hiranya, 74-75, 78-80 ; that 

was turned into a Maiden, 

The, 109-110, 102n- 
Mouth, moon entering Har- 

shavatl's, in a dream, 30 
Mundarl der Slovakischen Zig- 

euner, R. von Sowa, 275 
Mungoose, the crane, the 

snake and the, 61 ; Story 

of the Brahman and the, 

138, 138ni, 139 
Musician, Story of the Fool 

who gave a Verbal Reward 

to the, 132, 132n2, 133 
Mystical number of five in 

Hindu ritual, 175 
Mythes et les Legendes de 

rinde et la Perse, Les, E. 

Leveque, llw^, 91n^, 132^2^ 

133, 135>i 
Mythology, Zoological, De 

Gubernatis, 43w^ 

Nail-marks and Tooth-bites, 

Note on, 193-195 
Nail-scratches, eight different 

kinds of, 193-194 
Names for the different shapes 

of the breach in thieving, 

142h2 
Names for the Panchatantra, 

English, 41wi 
Navel, nail-marks made on 

the lower part of the, 193 
Necessity of performing burial 

rites for a Hindu, 144, 145 
Necklace, strength acquired 

by looking at a, 76, 76n^ 
Nepal, The Sanskrit Btiddhist 

Literature of, Rajendralala 

Mitra, 127ni 
Net stretched in a well, 8, 9 
Neu-Aramaeische Dialekt des 

fur 'Ahdin, Der, E. Prym 

and A. Socin. For second 

title page, see under Syr- 

ische Sagen und Maerchen . . ., 

2,n\ 9bti, 102/i2, 1307ii 
Nights and a Night, The Book 

of the Thousand (trans. R. F. 

Burton), Un\ A3n\ 65, 66, 

97,i 122n\ 177, 181n2 
Nights, The, Straparola (trans. 

W. G. Waters), 158n 



Nipple, nail-marks made on 
a woman's, 194 

Noodle stories, 67-73, 80-97, 
113-119, 117Hi;Somadeva's 
version of the PaHchatantra 
interrupted by, 213 

Noodles, The Book of, W. A. 
Clouston, 68rt, 168n^ 

Nose cut off for thieving, 
143m ; and ears cut off by 
his wife, Vajrasara's, 22 ; 
and ears of faithless wife, 
cutting off, 82, 82;t^ 156 ; 
of faithless wife, cutting 
off, 123 

Noses, exchange of, 68, 69 

Note on the "Impossibilities" 
Motif, 64-66 ; Nail-marks 
and Tooth-bites, 193-195; 
the Story of King Sumanas, 
the Nishada Maiden, and 
the Learned Parrot, 39-40 

" Note on the Story of 
Rhampsinitus," J. P. Lewis, 
77ie Orientalist, 255n^ 

Notes to Gonzenbach's Sicil- 
ianische Mdrchai, R. Kohler, 
117hS 172/i 

Nothing at all. Story of the 
Man who asked for, 97 ; 
Story of the Foolish Boy 
who went to the Village 
for, 136-137 

Nouvelles, Contes et, La Fon- 
taine, lln^ 

Novellce Morlini, ISQn^ 

Novellini Popolari Italiane, 
Comparetti, 275 

Nubes (Clouds), Aristophanes, 
29 h2, 256, 257 

Nugis Curialium, De, Gual- 
terus Mapes (i.e. Walter 
Map), 80/i2. See further 
under Mapes 

Number of five in Hindu 
ritual, mystical, 175; of 
recensions from the original 
text of the Panchatantra, 
208 ; the sacred-, 108, 284 ; 
of versions in existence of 
the Parichatantra, 207 

Numerous editions of the 
Hitopadesa, the, 210 

Ny^andska Folksagor, G. A. 
Aberg, 281 

Nymph, the story of the 
heavenly, 32 

Obschestvo Liubitelei Drevnei 
Pismennosti i.e. O LD P, , 
235 



Observations on the Popular 
Antiquities of Great Britain, 
J. Brand, lOOfti, 201n 

Offshoot of the Southern Pan- 
chatantra Nepalese, 209^ 
209n3, 210 

Old Deccan Days, M. Frere, 
49ni 

Old Dutch poem, " De Deif 
van Brugghe," 284 

Old Merchant and his Young- 
Wife, The, 106, 106;ii 

Older Sanskrit versions of 
the Panchatantra, 234 

OLDP. i.e. Obschestvo Liu- 
bitelei Drevnei Pismennosti,. 
235 

Omissions in Herodotus' Tale 
of Rhampsinitus, possible^ 
248, 249 

Omitted from the Pancha- 
tantra Table, the modem 
translations of Sanskrit 
versions, 232ni, 233h 

" On the History of the Story 
of Stephanites. . . ." See 
" History of . . ." 

Opening of Indian thief's 
tunnel, khatra, chhidra,. 
sumga, etc., 142n2 

Opinions about the origin of 
the tale of Rhampsinitus,. 
different, 255 ; of PTirna- 
bhadra, different, 217 

Oracle at Delphi, the, 256 

Oral tales derived from Pafl- 
chatantra stories, 48n^, 49^, 
55n3, 63n^ 

Oral tradition, the Seven Sages 
of Rome from, 260 

Orient und Occident, " Ueber 
die alte deutsche Ueber- 
setzung des Kalilah und 
Dimnah," T. Benfey, 238; 
" Zur Verbreitung indischer 
Fabeln und Erzahlungen," 
T. Benfey, 259^1 ; " Liber 
de Septem Sapientibus," 
K. Godeke, 261;iS; < Zu 
Kalilah und Dimnah," K. 
Godeke, 238; " Beitrage 
zum Zusammenhang ind- 
ischer und europiiischer 
Marchen und Sagen," F. 
Liebrecht, 92n2 

Oriental Series, Triibner's. 
See under Davids, T. W. 
Rhys ; Ralston and Schief- 
ner ; J. H. Knowles 

Oriental Society, American, 
New Haven, Conn., 207ni 



316 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Oriental Sociely, Journal of 
the AmericaHy 37n^, 48rt^, 
49rti, 592, eSn\ 64, 102n2, 
175. For fuller details see 
under Joum. Amer. Orient. 
Soc. 

Oriental story migration, 258; 
Translation Fund, New 
Series, Royal Asiatic 
Society, 39 

Orientalist, The, " Comparative 
Folklore," W. Goone- 
tilleke, 64 ; " Sinhalese 
Folklore," H. A. Pieris, 
55^3 

Origin, different opinions 
about the Rhampsinitus 
story being of Egyptian, 
253-255 ; of the Story of 
Ghata and Karpara, The 
(Appendix II), 245-286 

Original home of the Hito- 
padesa Bengal, 210 ; lan- 
guage of the Pafichatantra, 
208; Sanskrit text of the 
Pahclmiantra lost, 208 ; ver- 
sions of the Pahchatantra 
lost, 208 

Ornaments, Story of the Fool 
and the, 69-70 

Osiris and the Egt/ptian Resur- 
rection, Sir VVallis Budge, 
254 

Owls, Avamarda, king of the, 
98, 105 ; Story of the War 
between the Crows and 
the, 98, 98n\ 99, 100, 104- 
113 

Ox, Story of the Man who, 
thanks to Durga, had al- 
ways One, 185-186, ISQn^ 

Paijdmas, pair of, 281 

Pair of Tittibhas, The, 55, 56, 

57 
Palace of Pleasure, W. Painter 

(or Paynter), 267 
Palm-Trees, Story of the 

Foolish Villagers who cut 

down the, 70-71 
"Paiicadivyadhivasa, or 

Choosing a King . . .," F. 

Edgerton, Joum. Anier. 

Orient. Soc., 175 
** Pancatantra in Modern 

Indian Folklore, The," 

W. N. Brown, Joum. Amer. 

Orient. Soc, 48n, 49ni, 

63n^ 64 
Pancatantra, seine Geschichte 

und seine Ferbreitung, Das, 



Pailcatantra continued 

J. Hertel, 55 n2, 64, 175, 
207ni, 208, 210, 216, 219, 
232-241 

Panchatanlra Reconstructed, 
The, F. Edgerton, Amer. 
Orient. Soc, 1924, 56i, 
77n3, 101 , 102ni, lOhii^'^, 
109nS 207nS 208, 209, 
213, 214, 217, 221 ; N. M. 
Penzer's jeview of, 208 

Panchalantra, The Southern, 
48^1, 209, 209n2-3; one of 
the four independent 
streams of the Panchalan- 
tra (Edgerton), 208 

Panchalantra in the Recension 
called Panchakhyanaka . . . 
of . . . Purnabhadra, The, 
J. Hertel, Harvard Oriental 
Series, 217ji1 

Pafichatantra-Text of Purna- 
bhadra, The, J. Hertel, Har- 
vard Oriental Series, 216^^, 
2l7n^ ; and its Relation to 
Texts of Allied Recensions as 
shovni in Parallel Specimens, 
J. Hertel, Harvard Oriental 
Series, 217ni 

" Panjfib, Folklore in the," 
Steel and Temple, Indian 
Antiquary, 49n^ 

Panjab, Romantic Tales from 
the, C. Swynnerton, 49n^ 

Panicha-Tantra,Le, M. I'Abbe 
J. A. Dubois, 48ni, 55^3,237 

Panther, the Crow, and the 
Jackal, The Lion, the, 53, 
54 

Panther's Skin, The Ass in 
the, 99, 99n3, 100 

Panischatantra,T. Benfey,42n, 
42wi, 43ni, 43;i2, 45^1^ 48ni, 
49ni, 52n2, 53wi, 55ni-2-3, 
58ni, 59n2, 61 n^, 64, 73m1, 
75ni, 76ni'3, 77ni, 79^3^ 
93ni, 98ni, 99^3, IOOh^, 
lOlni, 102n2, 104wi, io5,ii, 
106wi, 107ni, 108n2, 109n2, 
llln2, 112n\ 127n\ 130ni, 
134n2, 135n, 138ni, 153^1, 
157ni, 164ni, 217 

Papyrus Harris, the, 252 

Paradiie Lost, Milton, 29u2 

Parent Western version of 
the Book of Sindibad, lost, 
260 

Parents inflict curse on Maka- 
randikfi, 36 

Parrot, called Sastraganja, 
that knows the four Vedas, 



Parrot continued ^ 

28; named Vaiiampr 
a learned, 39, 40; Si. 
King Sumanas, the Nishada 
Maiden, and the Learn 
27-28, 37, 38 

Parrot's Account of his o' 
Life as a Parrot, The, 
30,37 

Passion renewed while b 
ing wife with creepers, 1 

Patron of thieves,god Skani 
143n 

Payment, " Anaught " gin 
as, 97ni 

Pearls inside a cucumber, 

Pecorone II, Ser Giovi 
267, 281 

" Pedigree of the Pid 
Literature," Joseph Jacol 
220 

Pentajnerone, II; or, The Tt 
of Tales . . . of Giovanni] 
Battisla Basile (trans. R. F. 
Burton), \\n\ 158n, 172n 

Perfidy of courtesans, 5, 13,^ 
14 

Persian versions of the Pn 
chatantra, 218-220 

Peter Alphonse's Disciplina 
Clericalis {English Transla- 
tion), W. H. Hulme, 87)'^ 

Pharaoh prostituting his 
daughter, 254, 255 

Philogelos Hieroclis, A. Eber- 
hard, 135ni 

Philology, American Journal of, 
61?ii, 64, 142n2, 158. For 
fuller details see under 
Amcrica7i Journal of Phil- 
ology 

Philosophic of Doni, 11 
Morall, 41ni, 218, 220 

Physician who tried to en 
a Hunchback, Story of the, 
119 

Pigeons, the Tortoise and the 
Deer, Story of the Crow 
and the King of the, 73-75, 
78-80 

Pilgrimage to the shrine of 
Saras vati, 180 

Pilpay, The Fables of, 41nS 
218, 240; J. Harri.s' ed., 
240 i 

Pitcher of holy water iBi 
anointing ceremony, 175, 
176 ; the inexhaustible, 3, 
3ni, 4 

" Pitcherand Pot" i.e. Gha?* 
and Karpara, 145nr^ ^ 



? 



INDEX II GENERAL 



Poem, Old Dutch, De Deif 
van Brugghe," G. W. 
Dasent, 284 
Poesies Inedites du Moyen Age, 
dele^tand du Meril, 73ni 
Poetical French version of 
Dolopathos (Herbert), 260, 
262, 263, 274; thief, the, 
142;r 
Points between Somadeva's 
Ghata and Karpara and 
Herodotus' Rhainpsinitus, 
similar, 249 
Policy, the foundation of 

empires, 99 
Polite Conversation, J. Swift, 

121n2 
Popular Antiquities of Great 
Britain, J. Brand, lOOni, 
201/i 
Popular Religion and Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, W. 
Crooke, 27n2, 30n2, mn\ 
lObii, 126nS 160;ii, 176 
Popular Stories oj Ancient 
Egi/pt. G. Maspero, 252, 
255 
Popular Tales and Fictions, 
W. A. Clouston, 66, 267, 
275, 284 
Popular Tales from the Norse, 

G. W. Dasent, 3^1, lln^ 
Popular Tales of the West 
Highlands, J. F. Campbell, 
46/ii, 157ni 
Porpoise, Story of the 
Monkey and the, 127, 127n\ 
128-130, 132 
Porter who found a bracelet, 

1,2 
Possible omission in Her- 
odotus' tale of Rhamp- 
sinitus, 248, 249 
' Pot, Pitcher and "i.e. 
Karpara. Ghata and, 145n^ 
Poverty makes men steal, 2 
Power of former austerities, 
37 ; of remembering former 
birth, 36 ; of travelling 
through the air, 33, 35, 
169,170, 172,173,191,192 
Prabandhacintdmani. the, C. H. 

Tawney, 142^2,' 176 
Prescience, astrologer killing 

son as display of, 90 
Previous birth of King Sim- 
havikrama, 36 ; Birth, The 
Water-Spirit in his, 123- 
124 
Primitive Culture, E. B. Tylor, 
121wi, 179ni 



Princess becomes an ascetic, 
189, 190; falling in love 
with a thief, 250 
"Prioress's Tale," Chaucer. 

27n2 
Probe de Liviba )?i Literature 
'figanilor din Romania, 275 
Proc. Roy. As. Sac. Bengal, 
" Some Indian Methods 
of Electing Kings," C. H. 
Tawney, 176 
Proof of chastity, the, 123 
Prose, version of Dolojjathos 
in Latin (Joannes de Alta 
Silva), 260-262 
Prosperity, the Goddess of, 

113 
Prostitute. See Courtesan 
Prostituting his daughter, 

Pharaoh, 248, 254, 255 
Proverbs and Folklore of 
Kumaun and Garhwal, G. 
D. Upreti, 64, 65 
Proverbs and Sayings, A Dic- 
tionary of Kashmiri, J. H. 
Knowles, 64, 65 
" Provider for the Future, 
The " i.e. Anagatavi- 
dhatri, 56>ii 
Prudence produces success, 
not valour, even in the case 
of animals, 41 
Pseudolus, Plautus, 201 n 
Psychology of Sex, Havelock 

Ellis, 189Aii 
Pun, Hindu, 14, 29, 29S 88, 

88^1, 95, 95/ii 
Punishment for thieves, 61, 

61ni, 143Ai 
Punjab. See Panjab 
Pupils and the Cat, Story 
of the Foolish Teacher, the 
Foolish, 167-168 
Pupils, Story of the Teacher 
and his Two Jealous, 133, 
133ni, 134 
Purnabhadra, one of the Jain 
versions of the PaHcha- 
tantra, 216-218 
Purse, Story of the Fool who 

found a, 140, 141 
Pythian priestess of the 
Oracle at Delphi, 256 



Qualities for finger-nails and 
teeth, desirable, 193, 194 

Queen of Navarre. See 
under Margaret; Padma- 
vatl, 98; Ratnarekha, 188; 
Sa^ilekha, 15, 17 



8ir 

Queen's illicit passion for 
diseased man, 181, 183 

Race between the Elephant 
and the Horses, The, 196- 
198 

Race in India, Takkas, an 
agricultural, 165/J^ 

Rain off the Trunks, Story- 
of the Servants who kept, 
116, 116ni 

Rakshasa, The Brahman, the 
Thief and the, 107, 107ni 

Rams and the Foolish Jackal, 
The, 47rt3, 223 

Rats and mice gnawing gold, 
64 

"Ready-wit" i.e. Pratyut- 
pannamati, 56n^ 

" Real Friendship, Of," Gesta 
Romanorum, 87/i^ 

Recensions from the original 
text of the PanchatarUra^ 
number of, 208; of the 
Panchatantra, Slavonic,. 
235, 238, 239 ; of the Pan- 
chatantra Tantrakhyayikoy 

" Red-eye," Raktaksha, 106n 
Refugees settling in Tibet, 
Indian Buddhist, 284 

Region in the south of the 
Himalaya, Ka^mira, a, 123 

Reign of Philadelphus, the 
(284-246 B.C.), 286 

"Reineke Fuchs," Die deut- 
schen Volksbiicher, K. Sim- 
rock, 43h2, 102n2 

Reinhart Fuchs, J. Grimm, 
79n3, 238 

Relations between Egypt and 
Greece (664-610 b.c), 258 ; 
between Egypt and India, 
286 

Released from their curse, 
Makarandika and Sim- 
havikrama, 38 ; Pun^anka 
and Sudraka, 40 

Religion des Buddha, Die, C. 
F. Koeppen, 153n^ 

Remembering former birth, 
30, 36, 38, 124, 158, 173, 
191, 192 

Renart, Roman de, 79> 

Review of Edgerton's Pancha- 
tantra Reconstructed, N. M. 
Penzer, Man, 208 

Revue de CHistoire des i?- 
ligions, " Le Conte du 
Tr^sor du Roi Rhamp- 
sinite," Gaston Paris, 255 



318 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



I' 



Reward to a Musician, Story 
of the Fool who gave a 
Verbal, 132, I32n^, 133 

Reifnard the Fox. lietiart, the 
French version of, 79n' 

" Rhampsinitus, Note on the 
Story of," J. P. Lewis, 
The Orientalist, 255/ii 

Rice given to the dead at 
Hindu funerals, boiled, 
145;j^; Story of the Fool 
who was nearly choked 
with, 135-136 

Rice-balls, pinda, W^"^ 

Riddle of the mendicant, the, 
183, 183i 

Right eye, throbbing in the, 
200, 201 w 

lUngs worn by wife of the 
water-spirit, number of, 
122, 122h1 

Rites for a Hindu, necessity 
of performing burial, 144, 
145 

lUtes of the Twice-Born, The, 
Mrs Sinclair Stevenson, 
145ni 

Bitual and Belief, E. S. Hart- 
land, 177 

River Ganges, the, 146, 185 

River Jamna (Jumna or 
Yamuna), 65 

Roasted Seed, Story of the 
Man who sowed, 67-68 

Rogue who managed to ac- 
quire Wealth by speaking 
to the King, Story of the, 
186-188, 186h1 

Rogues, The Brahman, the 
Goat and the, 104, 104ni 

Romans de Dolopathos, Li, 
Herbert, 260, 262, 263 

Romans des Sept Sages, H. A. 
Keller, 79n3 

Romantic Tales from the Pan- 
Jab, with Indian Nights' En- 
tertainment, C. Swynnerton, 
49ni, 65 

Rope used for introducing 
man into female apart- 
ments, 24 

" Rothe Hund, Der," M'drchen 
der Magyaren, G. Gaal, 
157ni 

Roxburghe Club. See under 
Herrtage, S. J. H. 

Royal Asiatic Society, 
Oriental Translation Fund, 
New Series, 39 

Royalty, five emblems of, 
175, 176 



Rule a fViJe and have a fViJe, 
John Fletcher, 13n^ 

Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 
Ralston, 82i2, I66ni, nOn\ 
183ui 

cr-class MSS. of the " Tcxtus 
Simpliciorr 216, 217 

Sacred and Historical Books of 
Ceylon, E. Upham, 73n^ 
See full title under 
Upham, . 

Sacred number, the, 108, 284; 
thread, investing with the, 
33 

Sagacious hare, the, 49, 50 

Sagas from the Far East [R. H. 
Busk], 63ni, 77ni, 153n\ 
157ni 

Sage, holy (Rishi), 28, 36, 
110, 203; jabali, the, 39, 
40 ; story of, 39, 40 

Sagen aus Bohmen, J. V. 
Grohmann, 114n^ 

Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrduche 
atis Meklenhurg, K. Bartsch, 
^n\ 92 n2, 157 n\ 170ni,201n 

" Salisatores," in Egidio 
Forcellini's Totius Latiiii- 
talis Lexicon, 201 

["Salsette, Folklore of"] G.F. 
D'Penha, Indian Antiquary, 
65 

Salt, Story of the Fool and 
the, 71-72 

Sanskrit College MS. of 
K.S.S., 10n\ 2in\ 35n\ 
47ni, 50n\ 51n\ 52n\ 60n\ 
70n2, 71ni-3, 76w2, 81 n^ 
106n2, lUn\ 123ni, 128nS 
131^1, 145/i3, 148wi, I80n\ 
191wi 

Sanskrit, original language 
of the Panchatantra, 208 ; 
Tibetan version of the 
Rhampsinitus story directly 
derived from, 284 ; ver- 
sions omitted from the 
Panchatantra Table, 
modern translations of, 
232wi, 233rt 

Saturday Review, The, May, 
1882, 184i 

Satva - Darsana - Samgraha or 
Review of the Different 
SystemsoJ Hindu Philosophy, 
E. B. Cowell and A. E. 
Gough, 151 n2 

"Scattering money" incident 
in modern versions of the 
tale of Rhampsinitus, 284 



Schoole of Abuse, S. Gosson,*' 
Arber's English Reprints, 
55n3, 133yt 

Schwaben, Deutsche J oiks' 
mdrchen aus, E. Meier, 
157m1 

Science of Fairy Tales, The, 
E. S. Hartland, 3n^ 

Sciences bestowed on two 
young Brahmans, know* 
ledge of the, 125, 126 ; be- 
stowed on Rajatadamshtra, 
knowledge of the, 160; 
obtained by Saktiyaias, 
27 ; and virtue, Ka^mlra,, 
the home of, 171 

Scratches and bites, marks of, 
181, 181ni, 193 

" Scratching with the finger- 
nails," nakhavilekhaua{m), 
193 

Sea is dried up by Vishnu, 
57 ; of love's insolence, a 
girl like a wave of the, 
199 

Secret, courtesan revealing, 
83 ; entrance to treasure- 
chamber, 246 ; let out when 
drunk, 1, 2, 3*1^; to a 
Woman, Story of the Snake 
who told his, 82-83 

Secretum Secretorum, the, 208 

" Section " or " book," tantra 
i.e., 207 

Selection of King by divine 
will, 175-177 

Sentinels intoxicated through 
thief s trick, 247 

Separation of Friends, The, one 
of the Five Books of the 
Panchatantra, 222 

Separation, Makarnndiki 
afflicted with the sorrow; 
of, 36 

Sept Sages, Romans des, H. A,] 
Keller, 79;i3 

Serpent, The Crows who 
tricked the, 47^3, 226- 
227 

Servant of the King Chan- 
draplda, Dhavalamukha, 
87-88*; who looked after 
the Door, Story of the, 117, 
117^1; who tasted the 
Fruit, Story of the, 94, 
94u2 ; Story of a Foolish, 
84 ; Story of the Foolish, 
113 

Servants who kept Rain off 
the Trunks, Story of the, 
116, 116ni 



INDEX II -GENERAL 



319 



Sesame-Seeds, The Brahman's 
Wife and the, 76, 77; 
roasted, 67 

Seuin Seages, The: Transl/ttit ..., 
lohne Holland in Dalkeith, 
1578, 266/i2 

Seven Sages of Rome, the, 260, 
263, 266, 286 

Seven Sages of Rome, The, 
Killis Campbell, 128n, 
138^1, 263, 264, 266ni, 267 

Seven Vazirs, The, 122ni 

Seven Wise Masters, the, 127n^ 
138h\ 260, 266 

Seven ff^ise Masters, The, the 
Copland edition of, 266 

Seventh cake, hunger satisfied 
by eating the, 116, 117 

"Shabrang, Prince and 
Thief," Folk-Tales of Kash- 
mir, J. H. Knowles, 281 

Shakspeare, Illustrations of . . ., 
Francis Douce, 87n^ 

Shapes of the breach in thiev- 
ing, names for the different, 
142n2 

Shaving of sentinel's cheeks 
when drunk by way of 
insult, 247 

' Shepherdess and her Lovers, 
The," 209 

Shoes, one of the five emblems 
of royalty, 175 

Shore, vela, 202 

Shrine of SarasvatI, pilgrim- 
age to the, 180 

Sicilianische Mdrchen, Laura 
Gonzenbach, with Notes 
by R. Kohler, Sn\ lln\ 
inn\ 164^1, 171n2 

Sick Lion, the Jackal and the 
Ass, The,^130-132, 130n^ 

Siddhi-Kitr. See under 
Mongolische Mdrchen 

Sight of the Achchhoda Lake, 
affected by, 39, 40 

Signs of ear-throbbing in 
Norway, 201n 

Silver and gems, dog that 
swallows, lln^ 

Similarity between Soma- 
deva's Ghata and Karpara 
and Herodotus' Rhamp- 
sinitus, 249 

Simile of Hindu beauty, 7, 
26; of the world, 180 

Simpletons who ate the Buf- 
falo, Story of the, 117-118 

" Simplicior," Jain version of 
the Pahchalanlra, 52n2, 216- 
217 



Sindibad, The Book of, 259, 
260, 263 

Sindibad, The Book of W. A. 
Clouston, 122nS 127/1^267 

Sindibdd-Namah, 127rt^ 

"Sinhalese Folklore," H. A. 
Pieris, The Orientalist, 56n' 

Sister inflicts curse on Raja- 
tadacnshtra, 160 

Six flavours, the, 114, IHn* 

Sky, voice from the, 40 

Slave-girl, Naravahanadatta's 
love for a, 5 

Slavonic recensions of the 
Panchatantra, 235, 238, 239 

Sleep, the Goddess of, 197 

Snake of Bengal with a knob 
at the end of his tail, 135n ; 
coiling round king, 164, 
164n^ ; and the Frogs, The, 
112, 112/ii; and the Mun- 
goose. The Crane, the, 61 ; 
who told his Secret to a 
Woman, Story of the, 82- 
83 ; with three heads, 161 ; 
with Two Heads, Story of 
the, 134, 134n2, 135, 135n 

Snake-God and his Wife, 
The, 151, 151ni 

Snake-gods (Nagas), 82rt2, 151 

Snake's Story, The, 161 

Snakes, Stories of grateful, 
157ni 

Society, the Kama Shastra, 
193 

"Some Indian Methods of 
Electing Kings," C. H. 
Tawney, Proc. Roy. As. Soc. 
Bengal, 176 

" Some Notes on the Folklore 
of the Telugus," G. R. 
Subramiah Pantulu, Indian 
Antiquary, 48n^, 49/1^ 

Son to get another, killing, 
94 ; the hermit's, Ra^- 
mimat, 32-34, 38 ; mind- 
born, 33, 89 ; Story of the 
Brahmacharin's, 89 ; of 
Tarapli^a, Chandra pida, 39 

Sorrow of separation, Maka- 
randika afflicted with the, 
36 

Sources of the Genealogical 
Table of the Panchatantra, 
234 

South Indie (Dravidian) ver- 
sions of the Panchatantra, 
234 

South- Western group (Mara- 
tha country) of Pancha- 
tantra versions, 233 



Southern India, the Pahcha- 
iantra in, 209 

Southern Panchatantra, 48n*, 
209, 209n2-3; one of the 
four independent streams 
of the Panchatantra (Edger- 
ton), 208 

Spells to bewilder the guards, 
Ghata 's tricks and, 145, 
146' 

Sport and Folk- Lore in the Hima- 
laya, H. L. Haughton, 65 

Spot in the Sea, Story of the 
Fool who took Notes of a 
certain, 92-93 

Spread of the PaTichatantrUf 
enormous, 207 

Squire's Tale, Chaucer, 27n' 

Starine, na sviet . . ., " Ind- 
ijske pri^e proyvane 
Stefanit i Ihnilat," G. 
Dani6i<<, 235 

Steal, poverty makes men, 2 

' Stealing in Hindu Fiction, 
The Art of," M. Bloomfield, 
Amer. Joum. Phil., 61n*, 
142n2, 158n 

" 2T^aVlT7JS KoX 'I^VJ/AaTT^,'* 

Symeon Seth's Greek ver- 
sion of Kalilah and Dimnah, 
219 

" Stone of Destiny, The Voice 
of the," E. S. Hartland, 
Folk-Lore, 177 

Stones laugh, making,89, 133, 
185 

Stories omitted by Somadeva, 
221-230; in the Pancha- 
tantra, list of, 214-215 

Story of the Ambitious Chan- 
dala Maiden, 85-86 ; of the 
Astrologer who killed his 
Son, 90 ; of the Bald Man 
and the Hair-Restorer, 83- 
84; of the Boys that milked 
the Donkey, 136, 136/1^; of 
the Brahmacharin's Son, 
89 ; of the Brahman and 
the Mungoose, 138, 138n*, 
139 ; of the Buddhist Monk 
who was bitten by a Dog, 
165; of the Bull abandoned 
in the Forest, 42-43. 44-45, 
46-47, 49, 50-52, 52-53, 54- 
55,59,61,63; of the Crow 
and the King of the 
Pigeons, the Tortoise and 
the Deer, 73-75, 78-80 ; of 
Dhavalamukha. hisTrading 
Friend and his Fighting 
Friend, 87-88; of the Faith- 



820 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Story continued 

less Wife who Burnt herself 
with her Husband's Body, 
19 ; of the Faithless Wife 
who had her Husband Mur- 
dered, 20; of the Faith- 
less Wife who was present 
at her own Sraddha, 84-85 ; 
of the Fool who wanted a 
Barber, 96; of the Fool 
who behaved like a Brah- 
many Drake, 118-119; of 
the Fool and his Brother, 
89; of the Fool and the 
Cakes, 116, 1162, 117; of 
the Fool and the Cotton, 
70 ; of the Fool that was 
his own Doctor, 139 ; of 
the Fool who mixed Fire 
and Water, 68 ; of the Fool 
who saw Gold in the Water, 
115, 115^1; of the Fool 
who mistook Hermits for 
Monkeys, 140 ; of the Fool 
and his Milch-Cow, 72 ; of 
the Fool who looked for 
the Moon, 141 ; of the Fool 
who took Notes of a cer- 
tain Spot in the Sea, 92- 
93; of the Fool and the 
Ornaments, 69-70 ; of the 
Fool who found a Purse, 
140-141 ; of the Fool who 
gave a Verbal Reward to 
the Musician, 132, 132n2, 
133 ; of the Fool who was 
nearly choked with Rice, 
135-136 ; of the Fool and 
the Salt, 71-72; of the Fool 
who killed his Son, 88-89 ; 
of the Fool who asked his 
Way to the Village, 170- 
171 ; of the Foolish Bald 
Man and the Fool who 
pelted him, 72-73 ; of the 
Foolish Boy who went to 
the Village for Nothing, 
136-137; of the Foolish 
Herdsman, 69 ; of the 
Foolish King who made 
his Daughter grow, 91, 
9bii, 92; of the Foolish 
Merchant who made Aloes- 
Wood into Charcoal, 67 ; of 
a Foolish Servant, 84 ; of 
the Foolish Servant, 113; 
of the Foolish Teacher, the 
Foolish Pupils and the Cat, 
167-168; of the Foolish 
Villagers who cut down 
the Palm-Trees, 70-71 ; of 



Story continued 

the Fools and the Bull of 
Siva, 168-170, 168hM70/i1; 
of Ghata and Karpara, 
Origin of the (App. II), 
245-286; of the Grateful 
Animals and the Ungrate- 
ful Woman, 157, 157ni, 
158,159-160,161,162-164; 
of Hemaprabhaand Laksh- 
mlsena, 188-192; of the 
Hermit and his Pupils, 
178 ; of Hiranyaksha and 
Mrigankalekha, 171-174; of 
the inexhaustible pitcher, 
3, 4 ; of the King who re- 
placed the Flesh, 93 ; of 
King Simhabala and his 
Fickle Wife, 23-25; of 
King Sumanas, the Nishada 
Maiden and the Learned 
Parrot, 27, 28, 37, 38; of 
King Sumanas, Note on 
the, 39, 40 ; of King Vik- 
ramasimha, the Courtesan, 
and the Young Brahman, 
15-18; The Lion's, 159; 
of the Man who submitted 
to be Burnt Alive sooner 
than share his Food with 
a Guest, 165-167 ; of the 
Man who, thanks to Durga, 
had always One Ox, 185- 
186, 186/ti; of the Man 
who asked for Nothing at 
all, 97, 97ni ; of the Man 
who recovered half a Pana 
from his Servant, 92, 92n^ ; 
of the Man who sowed 
Roasted Seed, 67-68 ; of 
the Man who tried to im- 
prove his Wife's Nose, 68- 
69 ; of the Mendicants 
who became emaciated 
from Discontent, 114-115; 
of the Merchant and his 
Wife Vela, 198-204; of 
the Merchant's Son, the 
Courtesan and the Wonder- 
ful Ape Ala, 5-13 ; migra- 
tion, gypsies as a channel 
of, 275-276 ; migration. 
Oriental, 258; of the 
Miserly King, 86 ; of the 
Monkey and the Porpoise, 
127-130, 127ni, 132; of 
the Physician who tried to 
cure a Hunchback, 119 ; of 
the Rogue who managed to 
acquire Wealth by speak- 
ing to the King, 186-188, 



Story continued 

186^1 ; of the sage Jsb&li, 
the, 39, 40 ; of the Servant 
who looked after the Door, 
117, 117/ii; of the Servant 
who tasted the Fruit, 94, 
94n2 ; of the Servants who 
kept Rain off the Trunks, 
116, 116/ti; of the Simple- 
tons who ate the Buffalo, 
117-118; of the Snake who 
told his Secret to a Woman, 
82-83 ; of the Snake with 
Two Heads, 134, 134n2, 
135, 135/t; The Snake's, 
161; of Somaprabha, 
ManorathaprabhS, and 
Makarandika, wherein it 
appears who the Parrot 
was in a Former Birth, 
The Hermit's, 30-32, 34- 
37 ; of the Teacher and his 
Two Jealous Pupils, 133, 
133ni, 134; of the Thirsty 
Fool that did not Drink, 
88 ; of the Treasure-Finder 
who was blinded, 71 ; of 
the Two Brothers who 
divided all that they had, 
114, 114i; of the Two 
Brothers Yajnasoma and 
Kirtisoma, 95-96 ; of the 
Two Thieves, Ghata and 
Karpara, 142-151 ; of the 
Ungrateful Wife, 153-156, 
153n^; of Vajrasara, whose 
Wife cut off his Nose and 
Ears, 21-22; of the Vio- 
lent Man who justified his 
Character, 90-91; of the 
War between the Crows 
and the Owls, 98, 98^1, 99, 
100, 104, 105, 106, 107- 
108,109,110-112,112-113; 
of the Wife who falsely 
accused her Husband of 
murdering a Bhilla, 80-82, 
153ni ; of the Woman who 
had Eleven Husbands, 
184-185; of the Woman 
who escaped from the 
Monkey and the Cowherd, 
141-142; of the Woman 
who wanted another Son, 
94, 94ni ; of Ya^odhara and 
Lakshmldhara and the Two 
Wives of the Water-Spirit, 
120-123, 124-125, 125-126 

StoTy of the Crows and the Owls, 
The, one of the Five Books 
of the Panchatantra, 222 



INDEX II GENERAL 



821 



" Story of Khazi and the 

Bhang-Eater," Nights, 

Burton, 66 
"Strandbird" i.e. TiUibha, 

55h 
Strange Stories from a Chinese 

Studio, H. A. Giles, 162ni 
Strategy of Chirajivin, the, 

105 
Strength acquired by looking 

at a necklace, 76, 76n^ 
Studies in Honor of Maurice 

Bloomfield, 186n^. See also 

under Brown, W. N. 
Stttdies about the Kathasarit- 

sdgara, T. S. Speyer, 22/i^, 

79/tS 99 /i2, 129nS 134ni, 

159i, 200n^, 212, 213 
Studies and Texts, M. Gaster, 

128n 
Studt/ of the Romance of the 

Seven Sages with Special 

Reference to the Middle 

English Versions, Kill is 

Campbell, 263ni 
StQpa of Bharhut, General A. 

Cunningham, 79n^ 
Success, not valour, even in 

the case of animals, prud- 
ence produces, 41 
Siidliche PaHcatantra, Das, J. 

Hertel, 209u2- 3 
Sun, the lamp of the world, 

the, 190; metaphor of the, 

29, 29n2, 30 
^wpty^. " pipe," " tube," 

"tunnel." etc., 142^2 
" "Zvpty^ und surunga," O. 

Stein, Zeit. f. Indologie und 

Iranistik, 142n* 
Supplemental Nights. See 

under Nights 
Supplementary days in the 

Egyptian and Mayan 

calendar, five, 252 
Swa/iili Tales, E. Steere, 

127ni 
Swallows dinars, the monkey 

that, 10-13 
Swans, The Tortoise and the 

Two, 55, 56, nOn^ 
Swedish- Finnish version of 

the story of Ghata and 

Karpara. 281-283 
Swindler, The Monk and the, 

47ft, 223 
Swinging, the erotic element 

in, 189n 
" Swinging as a Magical 

Rite," The Golden Bough, 

J. G. Frazer, 189ni 

VOL. V. 



Sword, one of the five em- 
blems of royalty, 175 

Syriac translation of the 
Pahlavi version of the 
PaJlchatantra, 218, 219 

Syrische Sagen und Maerchen 
aus dan Volksmunde, E. 
Prym and A. Socin, Zn}, 
91nS 102rt2, i30ni 

System, the ' Tale-within- 
Ule," 258 



Table showing list of stories 

in the Pafichatantra, 214, 

215 
" Tale of the Fisherman and 

the Jinni," Nights, Burton, 

181/1* 
Tale, The Great i.e. Brihat- 

kathd, 39, 42 ; of Rhamp- 

sinitus, Herodotus (ii, 121), 

245-248 
" Tale-within-tale " system of 

story - telling introduced 

into Europe, the, 258 
Tales and Poems of South 

India, E. J. Robinson, 64 
Tales within Tales. Adapted 

Jrom the Fables of Pilpai, 

Sir A. N. Wollaston, 241 
Tales oj the West Highlands, 

Popular, J. F. Campbell, 

4'6/ii, 157rti 
Talking Thrush, The, W. H. D. 

Rouse, 49rti, 55 
Teacher, the . Foolish Pupils 

and the Cat, Story of the 

Foolish, 167-168; and his 

Two Jealous Pupils, Story 

of the, 133, 133ni, 134 
Teeth, biting with the, 

Dasanchachhedya, 194, 195; 

desirable qualities of, 193, 

194 
Telugus, Folklore of the, 

G. R. S. Pantulu, iSn\ 

49nS 56i, 59rt2 
"Telugus, Some Notes on 

the Folklore of the," 

G. R. S. Pantulu, Indian 

Antiquary, 48n\ 49n, 56n\ 

59n2 
Temple of Amare^, the, 172, 

173; at Delphi, the, 266; 

of Jupiter Capitolinus, rats 

and mice gnawing gold in 

the, 64 ; at Medinet Habu, 

the, 252 
Test of courtesan's love by 

assumed death, 17 



Teutonic Mythology, J. Grimm, 
179rti 

Text of the Pahchatantra lost, 
original Sanskrit, 208 

Texts of the Katha-sarit- 
sagara. See under [B]rock- 
haus and [D]urgapra8ad 

Textus Simplicior, a Jain ver- 
sion of the Pahchatantra, 
622, 216, 217 

Theory regarding Indian 
" Jackal " stories, Weber's, 
43ni 

Thief in Hindu fiction, 
goldsmith as, 158n ; the 
poetical, 142/1^ ; and the 
Raksha&\, The Brahman, 
the, 107, 107h> 

Thiefs body hung on wall, 
247 ; body stolen from wall, 
248; head, cutting off, with 
a machine, 283 ; tunnel, 
opening of Indian, khatra, 
chhidra, sumga, etc., 142n* 

Thieves, cutting off hands 
and tongue out, punishment 
for, 61, 61n^, 143n ; enter 
treasure-chamber. 246, 257, 
268, 285 ; Ghata and Kar- 
para, Story of the Two, 
142-151 ; patron of, god 
Skanda, 143/( 

Thieving, Indian method of, 
142, 142;2, 250 

Thighs, nail-marks made on 
the joints of, 193 

Thirsty Fool that did not 
Drink. Story of the, 88 

Thoughtless tortoise, the fate 
of the, 56 

Thousand Nights and a Night. 
See under Nights 

Thread, investing with the 
sacred, 33 

Three Fish, The, 56-57 

Three heads, snake with, 161 

Throbbing in the right eye, 
200, 201 n 

Thntsh, The Talking, W. H. D. 
Rouse, 49n^ 65 

Tibet, Folk- Tales from, W. F. T^ 
O'Connor, 49hS 64 

Tibetan Canon, Ka-gyur 
{Kanjur), 284 ; version of 
the story of Ghata and 
Karpara directly derived 
from Sanskrit, 284 

Tibetan Tales, F. A. von 
Schiefner and W. R. S. 
Ralston, 63nS 64. I63n\ 
157n, 284 



z^ 



inHj U*^J1.AJ\ UJ? &1UKY 



" Till Eulenspiegel," DU 
deutschen Volkabucher, K. 
Simrock, 104n^ 

Tongue cut out and hands 
cut off for thieving, 61, 
61n^ 143n 

Tooth-bites, Note on Nail- 
marks and, 193-195; 
varieties of, 194, 195 

Tortoise and the Deer, Story 
of the Crow and the King 
of the Pigeons, the. 73-75, 
78-80; and the fox, Ule 
of the (Dubois' Panlcha- 
T antra), 55 h'; named 
Mantharaka, 75, 78-80 ; 
and the Two Swans, The, 
55-56, 170ni 

Trachinia:, Sophocles, 29h2 

Tradition, the Seven Sages of 
Rome from oral, 260 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Ass., 
" Joseph and Potiphar in 
Hindu Fiction," M. Bloom- 
field, 176 

Translationsofthe//tto/7a</e^a, 
numerous editions and. 
210; of the Pahlavi version 
of the Pauchatanlra, 218- 
219; of Sanskrit versions 
omitted from the Pancha- 
tantra Table, Modern, 
232wS 233n 

Trap catches thief in treasure- 
chamber, 246, 257 

Travelling through the air, 
33, 35, 169, 170, 172, 173, 
191, 192 

Treacherous bawd, the, 219 

Treachery of courtesans, 13, 
14 

Treasure-chamber entered by 
thieves, 246, 257, 268, 285 

Treasure - Finder who was 
Blindedj Story of the, 71 

Treasure" story, the 
'Gflca" or, 261,261n3 

Treasury robbed by thieves, 
the king's, 246 

Tree appealed to as arbitrator, 
60 

Tree of the PanchaUmtra, 
genealogical, ^207, 220; 
rohini, 28 ; Salmali, 73 ; 
udumhara, 127-129 

Tree-spirits, belief in, 179n^ 

Tree -of- Wishes, a King 
Amaraiakti, 221 

Tree-worship, 179n* 

Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Provinces R. V.Russell, 176 



Tribes and Castes of the North- 
Westem Provinces and Oudh, 
W. Crooke, 176 

Trick of asses and wine in 
the tale of Rhampsinitus, 
247 ; of conversing with 
the king, 187 

Tricks of courtesans, learn- 
ing the, 5, 6 ; and spells 
to bewilder the guards, 
Ghata's, 145, 146 

Trunks, Story, of the Servants 
who kept Rain off the, 116, 
116ni 

" Truth, Act of," motif, the, 
124, 124i 

Tunnel, opening of Indian 
thieFs, khatra, chhidra, 
sumga, etc., 142/1^ 

Tunnels, breaking through 
walls and digging, Indian 
method of thieving, 142, 
142n2, 143, 250 

Turkish version of Kalilah 
and Dimnah, 58/j^ 

Tusctilana: Disputationes, 
Cicero, 257 

Two Brothers who divided 
all that they had, Story of 
the, 114, 114ni; Brothers 
Yajnasoma and Kirtisoma, 
Story of the, 95-96; 
Thieves, Ghata and Kar- 
para, Story of the, 142- 
151 

Two Noble Kinsmen, Shake- 
speare and Fletcher, 69m^ 

" Two Thieves, The," Gypsy 
Folk-Tales, F. H. Groome, 
275-281 

[" Ueber die alte deutsche 
Uebersetzung des Kalilah 
und Dimnah "] T. Benfey, 
Orient und Occident, 238 

Ueber das Tantrakhyayika, die 
ka.smirische Rezension des 
Pahcatantra, J. Hcrtel, 
209ni 

[" Ueber den Zusammenhang 
indischer Fabeln mit 
griechischen "] A. Weber, 
Induiche Studien, 130/1^ 

Umbrella and chowrie for 
anointing a king, 100, 175, 
176; one of the five em- 
blems of royalty, 175 

Unchaste Wife, Dhanadeva's, 
147 

Ungrateful Wife, Story of the, 
153. 153x1, 156 



Ungrateful Woman, Story of 
the Grateful Anin>als and 
the, 157. 157/1', 158, 159- 
160, 161, 161-164 

Unhappy experience of Rud- 
rasoma, the, 148, 149 

Unknown, fear of the, 45 

Unter den Olivenb'dumen, W. 
Kaden, 62^2 

Variant of the tale of Rhamp- 
sinitus, gypsy version, close, 
275 

Variation of the name of 
Sindibad, 259 

Varieties of tooth-bites, 194, 
195 

" Vatsyayana the Author of 
the Kamasutra : Date and 
Place of Origin," Haran- 
chandra Chakladar, Journal 
of the Department of Letters 
of the University of Calcutta, 
193 

Vaz'trs, Forty (Behriiauer's 
translation), 153/t'. See 
further under Behrnauer, 
W. F. A. 

Vazirs, The Seven, 122n' 

Vedas, the, 114; Parrot that 
knows the four, 28 

Verbal Reward to the Musi- 
cian, Story of the Fool who 
gave a, 132, 132/1*, 133 

Verhandlungen der Kon. 
Akademie t. Amsterdam, 
Studies about the Katliasarit- 
sdgara, T. S. Speyer, 22n^, 
79n\ 99n2, l29nK 13in\ 
159ni, 200ni, 212, 213 

Version Anncniennc de Tf/fcr- 
tuire des Sept Sages de Home, 
La, trans. F. Mecler, 266n* 

Version close variant of the 
tale of Rhampsinitus, 
Gypsy, 275 ; of the Paiicha- 
tantra, Kshemendra's, 42n*, 
48n' ; of the story of Ghata 
and Karpara, directly 
derived from Sanskrit, 
TibeUn, 284 ; of the story 
of Ghata and Karpara, 
Swedish- Finnish, 281-283; 
of the Book of Sindibad, 
lost, the parent Western, 
260 

Versione Araha de Kalilah e 
Dimnah, La, N. Moreno, 
237 

Versions of the Brihat-KathS, 
210-216; Dolnpathns exist- 



Versions continued 

ing in two, 260 ; in exist- 
ence of the Panchatanira, 
number of, 207; of the 
*' Impossibilities " motif in 
the Pahchaiantra ; of the 
Pahlavi version of the 
Panchatanira, 218-220; of 
the story of Ghatand Kar- 
Mra, different, 245 ; of the 
Booi of Sindibdd, different, 
260-263; ofthe Seven Sages 
of liomc, 263-266; of the 
Panchatantra in different 
languages, late Indie, 
233-234; of the Pancha- 
tantra, The Jain, 216-218; 
of the tale of Rhampsin- 
itus, Classical, 255-259 ; of 
the tale of Rhampsinitus, 
Mediaeval, 259-266 ; of the 
tale of Rhampsinitus, 
Modern, 266-286 
"Verzeichnis der Marchen- 
typen," FF Communications 
3, A. Aarne, 281 
Vetala stories, the, 212, 213 
Vice of drinking, results of 

the, 4, 5 
Fiersig Vesiere oder Weisen 
Meister, Die, W. F. A. 
Behrnauer, 153ni 
riUage Folk-Tales of Ceylon, 
H. Parker, 48rti, 49i, 522 
553, 63ui, 65 
Village, Story of the Fool who 
asked his Way to the, 170- 
171 
Villagers who cut down the 
Palm-Trees, Story of the 
Foolish, 70-71 
Violent Man who justified 
his Character, Story of the, 
90-91 
Virtue, Ka^mira, the home of 

sciences and, 171 
Voice from the air, 34, 40, 176 
'Voice of the Stone of 
Destiny, The," E. S. Hart- 
land, Folk- Lore, 177 
Volker des OstUchen Asiens, 
Die, A. Bastian, 128/j 

Volkskunde,Zur,F. Liebrecht, 
80n^ 93^1^ 10o^i_ j^g^a^ 

llln2, 1212, 127n, 132n2, 
135n, 201 ni 
.'^ow called the fast uposhana 
124, 125, 126 '' ' 

Vrihatkatha of Kshcmen- 
dra, the"] J. G. Buhler, 
Indian Antiquary, 212 



INDEX II GENERAL 



Vulgar Errors, Sir Thomas 
Browne, 135n 



823 



" Wall-ear," Prakarakarna, 
106n 

Wall, hanging criminals on a. 

254 
Walls and digging tunnels, 
Indian method of thieving, 
breaking through, 142. 
142u, 250 
War between the Crows and 
the Owls, Story of the, 98, 
98ni, 99, 100, 104, 105, 
106,107-108,109. 110-112, 
112-113 
Water-Spirit in his Previous 

Birth, The, 123-124 
Water-Spirit. Story of Ya^o- 
dhara and Lakshmldhara 
and the Two Wives of the, 
120-123, 124-125, 125-126 
Wave of the sea of Love's 
insolence, a girl like a, 
199 
Wealth, in form of a casket 
of jewels, 163, 163i; as 
soon as they get it, fools 
lose, 141 ; by speaking to 
the King, Story of the 
Rogue who managed to 
acquire, 186-188, 186;<i; is 
youth to creatures, 78 
Weaver and the Bawd. The 

Cuckold ilii^, 223-226 
Wedge, The Monkey that 

pulled out the. 43-44 
Well, the lion and the, 50; 

net stretched in a, 8, 9 
Weiidischc S/tgen, E. Vecken- 

stedt, lOOni 
West Indie group (Gujerat) 
of Panchatantra versions 
233 

Western version of the Book 
of Sindibdd lost, the parent, 

260 ^ 

Westward migration of the 

Hitojxidesa, 210 
"Why the Sea is Suit." G. W. 

Dasent, Popular Tales from 

the \orse, 3n' 
Widow-burning (sati), 19, 

Wife. The Carpenter and his, 
108, 108n2; cutting off ears 
and nose of faithless, v'^2, 
82n'. 156; cutting off nose 
of faithless. 123; who 
falsely accused her Hus- 



Wife continued 

band of murdering a Bhilla, 
Story of the, 80-82, 163 ; 
hypocrisy of faithless, 108 ; 
of King Simhaksha and 
the Wives of his Princiijal 
Courtiers, The. 180-182; 
The Old Merchant and his 
Ytfung, 106, 106; who 
was present at her own 
Sraddha, Story ofthe Faith- 
less, 84-85 ; pretends being 
dead, 179-180; of the 
snake-god. the, 151 ; Story 
of the Ungrateful, 163, 
153/i, 164-156 
Will. Choosing a King by 

Divine, 175-177 
fVinning of Friends, The, one 
of the Five Books of the 
Paftchalantra, 222 
Winter's Tale, A, Shake- 
speare, 7/?i 
Wisdom of geese flying over 

Mount Taurus, 55/^ 
Wishes, a Tree-of-, King 

Amarasakti, 221 
IVishing-Stone of Narratives, 
The; or, the Praban- 
dhacintamani, C. H. Tawney 
and M. Acarya. 142/<2, lyy 
Wishing-stone, or Oskastein, 

11/ii 
Woman, cowherd brought 
into a house dressed as 
a. 148, 148//^; who had 
Eleven Husbands. Story of 
the, 184, 184 //I. 185; who 
escaped from the Monkev 
and the Cowherd. Stor'v 
of the, 141-142; the in- 
constancy of, 245; who 
wanted another Son, Story 
of the, 94, 94 : Story of 
the Grateful Animals and 
the Ungrateful. 157, 157//' 
158-164 
Woman's body, nail- and 
tooth - marks made on 
different i>arts of a, 193- 
195 
Woman's Story, The, 162 
" VV^omen whose love is 

scorned " motif. 259/i> 
Wonderful Ape Ala, Story of 
the .Merchants Son. the 
Courtesan and the, 5-13 
World, the flaming eye of 
the. 29. 29^-!, 30; simile 
of the, 180; the sun, the 
lamp of the, 190 



824 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Young Wife, The Old Mer- 
chant and his, 106, 106n^ 

Younger Syriac, the, Keith- 
Falconer's translation of, 
242 

Youth to creatures, wealth 
18,78 

" Zmmkonig, Der," J. Grimm. 

See Bolte and PoHvka, 

lOOni 
Zeilschrift der (Uuischen 

morgenldnduchen Getell- 

Khajt, " Die Erzahlung 



Zeilschrift continued 

vora Kaufmann Campaka," 

J. Hertel. 186ti 
Zeitung fur die AUerthumt- 

forschung, " Die Deif van 

Brugghe," G. W. Dasent, 

284 
Zeitung Jiir Indologie und 

Irarustik, " 2upfy^ und 

suruAga," O. Stein, 142* 
Zigzag Journey t in India, H 

Butterworth, 49rt 
Zoological Mythology, De 

Gubernatis, 43nS 100n, 



Zoological Mythology cont. i 
101 n, 102n, 109n*, 130. \ 
157ni 

'Zumurrud, Ali Shar and," 
The Nights, R. F. Burton, 
177 

["Zur Verbreitung indischert 
Fabelnund Erzahlungen"] i 
T. Benfey, Orient und Oca- 1 
dent, 259ni 

Zur Volkskunde, F. Liebrecht, i 
80n, 93ni, lOOnS 102n, 
llln, 121n, 127ni, 132nV i 
135n, 20 In j 



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