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(or ocean of streams of story) 




N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 










A. R. WRIGHT, F.S.A., LS.O. 




Made and Printed in Great Britain 



MY own acquaintance with the late Mr C. H, Tawney, 
around whose translation of Somadeva's Kaihd Sarit 
Sdgara Mr Penzer is building his volumes, was of 
the slightest, but from my correspondence with him I was 
impressed with the same image of modest learning, and a 
notable personality, which is limned for us by Mr Penzer in 
the Introduction to the first volume of this series. Forty years 
ago I acquired, with some difficulty and after a serious inroad 
upon the contents of a purse but poorly supplied, a copy of 
the original and only previous edition of Mr Tawney 's trans- 
lation of what he chose to render as the Ocean of the Streams 
of Story, in two volumes, printed for him in 1880 and 1884 at 
the Baptist Mission Press in Calcutta. I remember still my 
joy at the acquisition, and the eagerness with which I turned 
over the pages and savoured these old, old stories, less wild 
but even more varied and wonderful than those I had just 
then finished reading in Forbes' translation from the Persian 
of The Adventures of Hatim Tai, another work now hardly 
accessible outside certain libraries. I found that, as in the 
twelfth tale of the vetdla (Volume VII), there arose from the 
Ocean a wishing-tree which was, like the Kalpa tree of Indra's 
Paradise, the Granter of Desires, yielding fruit to please all 
tastes, in tales of kings and courtesans, gamblers and porters, 
gods and heroes, beggars and barbers, Vidyadharas of super- 
natural powers and man-devouring Rakshasas, Naga serpent- 
demons and vampires, swan-maidens and witches, of cities 
and hermitages, paradises and deserts, palaces and hovels, of 
strange austerities that conquer the very gods, of fleas and 
elephants, hares and tortoises, of inexhaustible pitchers and 
poison damsels, of riddles and remedies, and of an infinite 
number of other interesting matters. The two volumes 
which are the portals of this world of magic and of mystery 
are now somewhat scarce, and would, I suppose, be difficult 
to acquire to-day ; they have maintained their pride of 


place in the folk-tale section of my library and in my 

With the present volume, the sixth, Mr Penzer begins the 
second half of his great task of annotation and revision, but 
his fourth volume completed the reprint of the first of Mr 
Tawney's volumes, of which the second volume is about a 
tenth longer than the first. Mr Penzer's new edition is also 
expanded by the inclusion (in its second half) of valuable 
appendixes giving long accounts of, and notes upon, those 
portions of Somadeva's verses which have appeared separately 
under the names respectively of the Panchatantra and Vetdla- 
panchavimsatu The index of subjects in Mr Tawney's second 
volume is, like those in all old, and I fear I might quite justly 
add nearly all modern, works of its class, very short (13| pages 
of index to 1220 pages of text) and imperfect, so that it is 
often of small utility in tracing any particular story or in- 
cident to which one may desire to refer. The Cambridge 
Press edition of The Jdtaka has endeared itself to scholars 
by its final volume containing an elaborate index of the 
whole, and Mr Penzer promises to earn our gratitude in like 
fashion by a tenth and final volume containing not only a 
Bibliography but also an exhaustive Cross-Index, which will 
come as a boon and a blessing to students of comparative 
storyology, whether like Benfey and the late very erudite 
Emmanuel Cosquin they believe in the ultimate birthplace 
in India of the general mass of folk-tales, or whether they 
regard Indian folk-tales themselves as showing, in some cases 
at least, signs either of a primitive common origin with 
European folk-tales or of Western influence or contact, such 
as, for example, the probable derivation of the vetdla or 
vampire, to whom relate the last eight stories in the present 
volume, from Southern Russia and Central Europe, as already 
suggested by Sir Richard Temple.^ 

The Forewords to the five earlier volumes have dealt with 
the Aryan and non- Aryan elements in the tales ; with what 
is known of Somadeva, the composer of The Ocean of Story 
after the lost Brihat Kathd of Gunadhya, and of his literary 
sources and the vicissitudes through which the text has passed; 

^ Vol. I, p. XXV. 



with the origin and affinities of the stories themselves, and 
their diffusion ; and with the Persian and Arabic recensions 
of the Fables of Bidpai. These, and thirteen appendixes 
already printed, and ranging from "Mythical Beings" to 
"Umbrellas," and "Sneezing" to " Widow-Bm^ng, " seem 
to leave little of a general character to be said, by anyone who 
is not an Orientalist, which will not find its more appropriate 
place in an Appendix yet to come or in the Terminal Essay. 

For comparative purposes, and as a preliminary step, col- 
lections of folk-tales might be divided into two main groups 
viz. those having a literary form or dress, and those recorded 
exactly as taken down from the mouths of the folk. By the 
former group I do not mean merely the output, so often 
worthless, of the industrious but unintelligent collector who 
publishes the naive tales of the peasant or savage tastelessly 
selected, rearranged, draped, and even, now and then, mis- 
fitted with very artificial " morals " duly appended for the 
instruction of youth and as inappropriate as those invented 
by the mediaeval preachers to " moralise " very similar tales 
in their exempla. Many a valuable ingathering has been 
utterly spoiled for any use as evidence of diffusion or of origin 
by such well-meaning but unhallowed blundering, committed 
on the plea of making the tales suitable for the English 
nursery. But I have more in mind such publications as the 
Histoires ou Contes du Terns PassS of Perrault, whose first 
contes were in verse, like the tales of Somadeva ; some have 
insisted that the boy Perrault fils was the real author and a 
faithful reporter of his nurse's stories, and that these were 
neither rewritten nor edited by his courtier father, the 
versatile man of letters and sycophant of Le Roi Soleil^ but 
such features as the importation of the supernatural aid of 
the fairy godmother, found solely in the Perrault version 
of Cinderella and other tales, and there replacing the dead 
mother or the helpful beast or tree (which may or may not be 
a reincarnation of the mother) in most folk versions, seem 
decisive that Perrault's is a literary form of the Mdrchen, and 
belongs to the first group. An example of the second group 
would be the famous Kinder- und Hausmdrchen of the Brothers 


India is exceptionally rich in both groups of publications. 
In the oral tradition group she has, for instance, Miss Bartle 
Frere's Old Deccan Days ; Miss Marie Stokes' Indian Fairy 
Tales; Sir Richard Temple's four books (Wideawake Stories, 
and the three volumes of The Legends of the Panjdb) ; the 
Rev. Charles Swynnerton's The Adventures of the Panjdb 
Hero Raja Easdlu and other Folk-Tales of the Panjdb, and 
Indian Nights Entertainments ; Pandit Natesa Sastri's Folk- 
Lore in Southern India ; the Rev. Lai Behari Day's Folk- 
Tales of Bengal ; and numerous others in English, as well as 
many translations into other European languages, such as 
J. P. Minaef 's Indyeishiya skazki i legendui, etc, (an important 
Russian collection from Kumaon which has not, so far as I 
know, yet been made available in English). Collections of the 
first, or literary, group are also, as might be expected from 
the ancient and unbroken civilisation of India, unusually 
abundant, in translations of The Jdtaka, The Hitopadesa, 
The Rig-Veda, The Panchatantra, The Mahdbhdrata, The 
Rdmdyana, etc. The Kathd Sarit Sdgara is probably the 
most important of all the literary group, and it is hardly 
necessary to enlarge on Mr Penzer's service in rendering it 
again, or perhaps really for the first time, accessible to scholars 
by his new edition. I may nevertheless permit myself to 
point out below two directions in which this accessibility 
may prove of special utility. 

One of the many interesting problems in connection with 
the transmission of folk-tales is the exact part which has 
been played by literary versions. It is a commonplace to 
say that folk-tales have passed with changes ^now and then 
becoming " something rich and strange " in the alembic 
of genius into literature, and thence they have again de- 
scended amongst the common people, the folk, and have 
been worked over once more by the popular taste and fancy, 
which have selected what appealed to them, and have effected 
still further changes and adaptations. In later ages the 
literary vehicle has probably been the most effective of the 
means of transmission from people to people, where in earlier 
ages the captured warrior and wife, the slave passing from 
hand to hand, and the trader and traveller were the colporteurs 


of folk- tales to fresh fields and pastures new. The gypsy also 
has played his part, though he has not yet received the full 
credit due to him as the spreader of folklore, and it could be 
shown, if need be, that drolls, or stories with a humorous 
appeal, have naturally leaped national or racial boundaries 
more easily than stories depending for their point on custom 
or belief. Several writers have already pointed out the 
obvious influence of the wide circulation and popularity of 
Perrault's contes upon the genuine Mdrchen of neighbouring 
countries, but the general questions of the effects and extent 
of literary transmission of tales have hardly yet been inten- 
sively studied or appreciated, even in the case of the greatest 
of all literary disseminators, Boccaccio and Straparola. 
The Kathd Sarit Sdgara will now be available for the study 
of its relation to popular tradition, and the influence of 
its contents, chiefly through Persian, Arabian, and sometimes 
Jewish recensions, upon the folk-tales diffused through the 
West and reconverted into popular Mdrchen by mediaeval 
jongleurs, pilgrims, preachers, merchants and pedlars. 

So long ago as 1909, Dr Gaster, in his Presidential Address 
to the Folk-Lore Society,^ suggested that the discarded 
literature of the classes does not disappear, but filters down 
slowly to the masses. "The ancient Romances have thus 
been turned into Chap-books, which the chapman takes in 
his sack and carries to the village fair ; or they are flattened 
out still further and they become broadsides, the original of 
our illustrated sheets and political cartoons. These quaint, 
peculiar, popular little books of stories are the last representa- 
tives of the romances of old. . . . There can be no doubt 
that much of the popular literature of to-day in the widest 
sense of the word was the literature of the upper classes of 
the preceding centuries, remodelled by the people in accord- 
ance with the innate instincts and disposition of each nation. 
The elements surging up from the depth of antiquity meet 
newer elements coming down from above, and so shape and 
mould popular taste and popular feeling." This suggestion 
of literary contribution to, as well as literary influence upon 
the form of, folk-tales did not then receive much attention 

1 Folk-Lore, vol. xx (1909), p. 12. 


or support; but with the whirligig of time the opinion of 
experts has developed more favourably, and now Professor 
W. R. Halliday maintains^ that, in folk literature as handed 
down by oral tradition, " the amount of invention or original 
creation is negligible." He expresses the opinion that "the 
folk-stories of Europe, as we know them, took their present 
form between the ninth and thirteenth centuries after Christ " 
a period which, it will be observed, includes the probable 
date of Somadeva's compilation. In the centuries named, he 
suggests, a victorious invasion of Europe by Oriental stories 
took place, which he ascribes to the comparatively higher 
civilisation of Islam at that date and the high development 
of the art of story-telling in India. He excepts beast fables 
from his dictum, and points out, in the course of his argu- 
ment, that " the coincidences between the popular stories 
of the classical world and the corpus of Indo-European 
folk-tales are relatively few." One may remark, in passing, 
that many of the classic myths found in the mouths of 
the people of modern Greece, by Mr J. C. Lawson {Modern 
Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion) and others, are 
suspected with good reason of having been taught by the 
modern schoolmaster, and to have no real roots in the 
soil or claim to be regarded as " survivals " from ancient 

This revolutionary theory, which questions and rejects 
the common assumption of a dateless antiquity for such 
archaic features as the cannibalism " surviving " in the man- 
eaters of many European folk-tales (converted by Perrault 
into ogres and ogresses), is perhaps a little exaggerated in 
its statement for the sake of emphasising the new views. 
It does not profess to explain Polynesian and other savage 
folk-tales in so far as they cannot have been diffused, but 
confines itself to the bulk of European stories. I think that 
it would be going much too far to take the folk to be without 
their fair share of story-telling genius and invention, and the 
village and kraal to be places "where the Rudyards cease 
from kipling, and the Haggards ride no more." The gift of 

1 "Notes upon Indo-European Folk-Tales and the Problem of their 
Diffusion," Folk-Lore, vol. xxxiv (1923), p. 117. 


imagination is far from being a monopoly of the literate. 
Indeed it cannot even be asserted with any confidence that 
education does not dull, rather than brighten, the creative fire 
in mediocre minds, and the story-teller who is himself of the 
folk is the more likely to evolve the tale that will appeal to 
his neighbours and be preserved in traditional recollection, 
to become a part of the local folklore. While it may be ad- 
mitted that the seed of invention must have been born " once 
upon a time " in an individual brain, it must fall upon good 
ground in order to bear its fruit in due season as a folk- tale ; 
and the seed varnished by literary skill is for that reason 
likely perhaps to be preserved for a while longer from Time 
the devourer, but is also less likely to germinate and more 
likely to find the ground too stony to cherish it, or to be 
choked by the thistles of unfriendly folk beliefs. However 
this may be, Professor Halliday's theory is entitled to very 
respectful consideration, and someone much better qualified 
than myself, and in addition an expert Orientalist, could 
now very usefully examine Mr Penzer's presentment of 
Somadeva's material, together with its relatives and possible 
descendants, with a view to using their evidence to throw 
light upon the very interesting questions raised by Professor 
Halliday as regards date and derivative relationship. 

Professor Minaef, whose translations of Indian folk-tales 
into Russian, published in St Petersburg in 1877, 1 have already 
mentioned, found no professional story-tellers in Kumaon 
and Gurhwal, but tells us that the greater part of the people 
do not understand Sanskrit, but nevertheless pay Brahmans 
to read the Harivansd or Bhdvayavata Purdna to them on a 
holiday, and afterwards the reading is explained, " so that 
the old literary material is constantly making its way into the 
minds of the people." The stories, he noted, were sometimes 
abridged versions of the Panchatantra. 

So much for the first direction in which Mr Penzer's 
publication may be opportune and of advantage. The second 
direction I proposed to mention is that of folk-tale classifica- 
tion. The records of tales have accumulated to such an 
enormous mass of late years by the industry of multitudinous 
gatherers that the matter of classification has become one of 


the most extreme urgency if any use is to be made of the 
accumulation otherwise than in a very dilettante fashion. I 
am somewhat inclined to thank Mr Penzer because he has not 
increased unduly the number of footnotes by performing the 
easy, if tedious, task of rummaging published collections for 
the innumerable parallels and variants to Somadeva's stories. 
Someone has likened footnotes in general to runaway knocks 
which call you downstairs for nothing, and the mere piling up 
of references is less useful than detailed studies of particular 
points by appendixes or by general notes at the end of in- 
dividual stories. The majority of the schemes of classifica- 
tion which have hitherto been attempted are purely analytical 
in character, and dissect the folk-tale into its constituent 
incidents, so that the result is pretty much what one finds in 
the gruesome vaults of the Capuchin Campo Santo, which is 
one of the less-known " sights " of Rome and a bonehouse in 
which all the details of our poor human skeletons are separated 
from each other and arranged in groups of the corresponding 
parts from many different bodies here a neat pattern of 
knuckle bones, there another fashioned out of tendons, else- 
where thigh bones and skulls, and so on. From such a system 
of classification may be learned the variations in dimensions of, 
say, thigh bones, and the limits of such variation, and some 
other comparative facts of man's anatomy; but unless one 
has the imaginative skill of a Richard Owen the mind fails to 
reach any real conception of the living organism as a whole. 
Such splitting up of folk-tales into incidents may enable us 
to distinguish the different elements from old stories put to- 
gether by what may be called the professional story-teller, 
who " invents " a new story by shaking up together his 
favourite stock incidents to form new patterns, just as he 
might shake the pieces of glass in a kaleidoscope. But his 
stories are those least worth classifying, and they might all be 
thrown into a separate miscellaneous or hybrid class of their 
own, instead of confusing our vision and hiding from sight 
the stories that really matter. It seems to me that these 
analytical schemes of classification have been mooted prob- 
ably as the result of the classifier's greater familiarity with 
modern collections, including examples of the story-tellers' 

FOREWORD . xiii 

inventive art/ or with the simple plots of most of the Mdrchen 
of the Brothers Grimm. A more satisfactory plan, in my 
opinion, would be to found a classification upon the tales in 
the most ancient records, Sanskrit, Babylonian and Egyptian, 
and to provide as far as possible for the classification of each 
tale as a whole, leaving the story-teller's combinations of old 
incidents, which cannot sometimes be designated as a whole 
simply for lack of a dominant motif, to be dealt with in a 
hybrid or miscellaneous group. To classify according to 
single incidents, which may have been imported into the 
main tale, and may not affect its principal course and essential 
features, is, I think, misleading. For the preparation and 
testing of a classification the tales of Somadeva's Ocean 
would be a really admirable starting-point. It contains few 
or no tales which are only fresh groupings of trite incidents 
already used in other connections, and in the process of 
classification on the same lines of later collections we should 
be simultaneously arranging our materials for the study of 
the Ocean as a source and influence. Perhaps Mr Penzer, or 
another, may be able to give us such a classification in his 
concluding volume. 

Dr Gaster has thrown out the suggestion ^ that oral popular 
tales can " all be reduced to a very limited number of types, 
not exceeding a hundred, and in all probability very much 
less " ; and Dr Joseph Jacobs, in revising a classification of 
folk- tales made by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould for the first 
edition of Henderson's Notes on the Folklore of the Northern 
Counties, increased his total number of types to seventy. 
The latter list, although useful at the date when it was devised, 
would now need a very large supplement to cover either the 
Ocean or the recent additions to our knowledge of Indo- 
European tales, and a still larger supplement to cover all our 

^ Excellent specimens of the story-teller's recombinations of incidents 
already known in other arrangements to their audience will be found in 
Bishop Karekin Servantzdiantz's Manand and other collections of Armenian 
stories, which have been translated in part by Mrs J. S. Wingate {Folk-Lore, 
vols, xxi-xxiii (1910-1912), and M. Macler {Contes Armeniens, Coll. de Contes, 
etc., torn. xix). 

2 Vol. Ill, Foreword, p. xviii. 


vast gatherings during the last few years, especially in Africa 
and Polynesia, and from the Eskimo and Siberian tribes. 
The seventy types do not even make provision for such well- 
known stories as the Tar Baby, of which there are many 
variants, or the Fishing up of Islands by the Mauis. 

Previous Forewords have all been written by Oriental 
scholars, and I hope that it has not been out of place to 
supplement their criticism and explanations by setting out 
briefly some of the many grounds for lively gratitude to 
Mr Penzer on the part of the plain English folklorist, into 
whose hands have been put the keys of a paradise of 
delights, with apples of knowledge hung thickly on its trees. 
Nowadays the folklorist cannot afford to confine himself 
within any narrow national boundaries. He cannot hope 
to master more than a few languages and the folklore 
recorded in them, though a wide knowledge is a necessary 
equipment for even comprehension of the complex problems 
of his science, and he must depend for his information very 
largely on the scholars who translate for him, and especially 
on those who bring him such gifts as the Ocean in his own 

I must leave to others the tempting theme of the Ocean as 
literature, and the love of puns which is a prominent feature 
of it, and devote the small remainder of my space to a 
mention of the more important contents of the present 
volume. It contains the first part of the tales of a vetdla or 
vampire, of which the framework is the removal of a vampire- 
animated corpse from its tree by King Trivikramasena and 
its repeated escape from his back when the king answers the 
puzzle question put to him by the vetdla at the conclusion of 
each story of the kind represented in modern literature by 
Frank Stockton's The Lady or the Tiger? These tales 
occupy fifty-seven pages, and Mr Penzer's very valuable 
Appendix on The Twenty-five Tales of a Vetdla occupies 
another seventy pages, and provides a bibliography of the 
principal recensions, incidentally dealing faithfully with 
Burton's well-known Vikram and the Vampire as being more 
original Burton than translation. Mr Penzer also writes of 
the necessity of an edition of the numerous versions of the 


vetdla stories arranged for comparative purposes, and, as 
these versions are sometimes apparently independent and 
of various dates down to the Bditdl Pachtsi, such an edition 
would be particularly suitable for the examination of literary 
influence on popular stories which is suggested above. Mr 
Penzer promises us another Appendix on the vetdla in Volume 
VII, a large part of which will be filled by the seventeen (or 
really sixteen) remaining stories of the Vetdlapanchavimsati, 
As the material is not yet complete, it would be premature to 
discuss Mr Penzer 's results. 

Beast fables are peculiarly associated with Buddhist 
writings, if not originating there being often adapted and 
provided with Buddhist "morals," and have certainly had a 
wide diffusion from their Indian home. There are not many 
of them in the present volume, but there is a good deal about 
Buddhist doctrine, with references to bodhisattvas and arhats, 
side by side with tales involving caste, sati, human sacrifice to 
Durga, and Brahmanic ceremonies. The comparative date 
and relation of these different religious elements would repay 

Important notes deal with "Maya," "The Magic String," 
"The Magic Seed," "Food Taboos in the Underworld," and 
"Vampires," and few points for useful comment have been 
overlooked. On page 118 there is mention of Yakshas "with 
feet turned the wrong way," and this curious attribute of 
supernatural beings, if not already treated in some note in 
a previous volume, is worth discussion.^ 

There are many sidelights on Indian ideals, amongst 
which generosity seems almost as much one of the greatest 
virtues as with the Yemen Arabs of Hatim Tat, while 
asceticism is continually set out as the high road to magical 
power, and gambling and uxoriousness as the downhill paths 
to ruin. The ups and downs of life under irresponsible rulers 
are often illustrated, in one tale a thief being appointed at 
a bound chief magistrate but of course this might not 
require him to abandon his profession. There is also the 
curious suggestion (p. 20) that the last thing seen or dwelt on 

^ See Crawford Cree, "Back-footed Beings/' Folk-Lore, vol. xvii (1906),. 
p. 131. 


at the moment of death determines the form taken by the 
dying creature in its next incarnation. 

The general framework of the stories, which is of like 
kind with that of L^ Grand Cyre and other tedious seventeenth- 
century romances, in which tales revolve one within the other 
like the multiple perforated balls of the patient Chinese ivory- 
carver, is obviously of purely literary origin ; but in the stories 
themselves, besides their interest as examples of typical 
folk-tales, the folklorist will find all manner of material for his 
use about such things as the magical effect of curses, shape- 
shifting by witchcraft or charms or the power of an ascetic, 
foretelling dreams, witches white and black, striking with 
the hand, magic rings and wishing- trees, and talismans. This 
store and lore will pleasantly occupy his time and assuage for 
a while his longing for the remaining volumes of Mr Penzer's 
and Mr Tawney's magnificent work. 

A. R. Wright. 

\&h September 1926. 




Author's Preface .... 

. XXlll 

Invocation ..... 


M(ain story) ..... 


161. Story of the Jackal that was turned into an 

Elephant .... 


M. Cont ..... 


162. Story of Vamadatta and his Wicked Wife 


M. Cont, ..... 



M. Cont. ...... 9 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .10 

163a. King Bhadrabahu and his Clever 

Minister . . . .12 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .14 

163b. Pushkaraksha and Vinayavati . 14 

163BB. The Adventures of Pushka- 
raksha and Vinayavati in a 
Former Life . .17 

163b. Pushkaraksha and Vinayavati . 20 

163BBB. Lavanyamanjari . 20 
163b. Pushkaraksha and Vinayavati . 21 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . . 22 

VOL. VI. xvii b 



163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .23 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .36 

163c. Kamalakara and Hamsavali . , 40 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . .55 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .67 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .69 

163DD. The Holy Boar, the Monkey 

and the Lions . . 78 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .80 

163DDD. The Brahman Deva- 
bhtiti and his Chaste 
Wife . . 83 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .84 

163d (I). The Generous Induprabha 84 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .86 

163d (2). The Parrot who w^as taught 
Virtue by the King of the 
Parrots . . .86 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .87 

163d (3). The Patient Hermit Subha- 

naya . . .88 


CHAPTER LXXIl continued 


163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .89 

163d (4). The Persevering Young 

Brahman . . 89 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .89 

163d (5). The Merchant who fell in 

Love with a Painting . 90 
163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .92 

163d (6). The Robber who won over 

Yama's Secretary . 92 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy 

Man . . . .96 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . . 98 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 100 

163e. Sridarsana's Story . . . 102 

163EE. Saudamini's Story . . 102 

163e. Sridarsana's Story . . . 104 

163EEE. The Adventures of 

King Bhtinandana 106 

163e. Sridarsana's Story . . . 114 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .131 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 141 

163f. Akshakshapanaka and the Wooden Doll 151 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 153 




Invocation . . . . . .164 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 164 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 165 

163g (1). How the Prince obtained a 
Wife by the Help of his 
Father's Minister . 168 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 177 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 179 
163g (2). The Three Young Brahmans 
who restored a Dead 
Lady to Life . . 179 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 181 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 183 
163G (3). The King and the Two Wise 

Birds . . .183 

163G(3a). The Maina's Story 184 
163G (3). The King and the Two Wise 

Birds . . .186 

163G {3b). The Parrot's 

Story . 186 

163G (3). The King and the Two Wise 

Birds . . .189 



CHAPTER LXXVIl continued 



163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .190 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 191 
163G (4). The Adventures of Viravara 191 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 199 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 200 
163g (5). Somaprabha and her Three 

Suitors . . . 200 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 203 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 204 
163G (6). The Lady who caused her 
Brother and Husband to 
change Heads . , 204 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 208 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
canL . . . . 



CHAPTER LXXXI~conti7iued 

The Twenty- five Tales of a Vetala 


163g (7). The King who married his 

Dependent to a Nereid . 209 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 216 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 217 
163G (8). The Three Fastidious Men . 217 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 220 


Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names 
Index II General . . . . 



SO far each volume has contained two or three Appen- 
dixes, but in both this and the next volume there will 
be only one. This is due to the subject-matter which 
they contain. I refer to that most interesting cycle of 
vampire stories known as the Vetdlapanchavirhsati. Eight 
of them occur in the present volume, while the remaining 
sixteen (really fifteen) will appear in Volume VII. 

With but few exceptions all the tales are important and 
worthy of fairly extensive notes. This would mean over- 
crowding of footnotes or " end of chapter " notes. The 
history of the collection itself, as well as the frame-story^ 
both require considerable attention. Thus I have decided 
on the course intimated above. 

Once again I have been fortunate in obtaining the valu- 
able services of an expert in the writing of the Foreword 
Mr A. R. Wright, President of the Folk-Lore Society. His 
treatment of the subject is interesting, as it approaches the 
Indian tales from the standpoint of the European folklorist 
rather than the Oriental scholar. 

Both Dr Barnett and Mr Fenton continue to render 
me invaluable service, both by proof-reading and expert 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 
September 1926. 




MAY Ganesa protect you, who, when he sports, 
throws up his trunk, round which plays a continual 
swarm of bees, like a triumphal pillar covered with 
letters, erected on account of the overthrow of obstacles ! 

We worship Siva, who, though free from the hue of 
passion, abounds in colours, the skilful painter who is ever 
producing new and wonderful creations. Victorious are the 
arrows of the God of Love, for, when they descend, though 
they are made of flowers, the thunderbolt and other weapons 
^re blunted in the hands of those who bear them. 

[M] So the son of the King of Vatsa remained in Kau- 
sambi, having obtained wife after wife. But though he had 
so many wives, he ever cherished the head queen, Madana- 
manchuka, more than his own life, as Krishna cherishes 
Rukmini. But one night he saw in a dream that a heavenly 
maiden came and carried him off. And when he awoke he 
found himself on a slab of the tdrkshya gem, on the plateau 
of a great hill, a place full of shady trees. And he saw that 
maiden near him, illuminating the wood, though it was night, ^ 

^ See Vol. II, p. 4<3n^. So Balder is said to be so fair of countenance and 
bright that he shines of himself. (Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, translated by 
Stallybrass, p. 222.) In Tennyson's Vivien we find 

" A maid so smooth, so white, so wonderful, 
They said a light came from her when she moved." 

See Tawney's Katkdkoga, p. 35 (second note). For fuller details regard- 
ing the Balder myth see Frazer's Balder the Beautiful (vols, x and xi of The 
Golden Bough)', and A. H. Krappe, "The Myth of Balder," Folk-Lore, 
vol. xxxiv. No. 3, September 1923, pp. 184-215. n.m.p. 

VOL. VI. 1 A 


like a herb used by the God of Love for bewildering the 
world. ^ He thought that she had brought him there, and 
he perceived that modesty made her conceal her real feel- 
ings ; so the cunning prince pretended to be asleep, and in 
order to test her he said, as if talking in his sleep : " Where 
are you, my dear Madanamanchuka ? Come and embrace 
me." When she heard it, she profited by his suggestion, 
and assumed the form of his wife, and embraced him with- 
out the restraint of modesty. Then he opened his eyes, 
and beholding her in the form of his wife, he said, " O how 
intelligent you are ! " and smiling threw his arms round her 
neck. Then she dismissed all shame, and exhibiting herself 
in her real shape, she said : " Receive, my husband, this 
maiden, who chooses you for her own." And when she said 
that, he married her by the gdndharva form of marriage. ^ 

But next morning he said to her, by way of an artifice to 
discover her lineage, about which he felt curious : " Listen, 
dear one, I will tell you a wonderful story. 

161. Story of the Jackal that was turned into an Elephant 

There lived in a certain wood of ascetics a hermit, named 
Brahmasiddhi, who possessed by meditation supernatural 
power, and near his hermitage there was an old female jackal 
dwelling in a cave. One day it was going out to find food, 
having been unable to find any for some time on account of 
bad weather, when a male elephant, furious on account of 
its separation from its female, rushed towards it to kill it* 
When the hermit saw that, being compassionate as well as 
endowed with magical power, he turned the female jackal 
into a female elephant, by way of a kindness, to please 
both. Then the male elephant, beholding a female, ceased 
to be furious, and became attached to her, and so she escaped 

Then, as he was roaming about with the jackal trans- 

^ In the corresponding passage in Brihat-kathd-manjarl (lamb, ix) 
Kshemendra expatiates on the beauty of the heavenly maiden. This is one 
of the very few cases where he is more prolix than Somadeva. n.m.p. 

2 See note in Vol. I, pp. 87, 88. n.m.p 


formed into a female elephant, he entered a tank full of the 
mud produced by the autumn rains, to crop a lotus. He 
sank in the mud there, and could not move, but remained 
motionless, like a mountain that has fallen owing to its wings 
having been cut off by the thunderbolt. ^ When the female 
elephant, that was before a jackal, saw the male in this dis- 
tress, she went off that moment and followed another male 
elephant. Then it happened that the elephant's own mate, 
that he had lost, came that way in search of her spouse. 
The noble creature, seeing her husband sinking in the mud, 
entered the mud of the tank in order to join him. At that 
moment the hermit Brahmasiddhi came that way with his 
disciples, and was moved with pity when he saw that pair. 
And he bestowed by his power great strength on his dis- 
ciples, and made them extricate the male and female from 
the mud. Then the hermit went away, and that couple of 
elephants, having been delivered from both separation and 
death, roamed where they would. 

^ This refers to a curious myth about Indra cutting off the wings of 
the mountains with his thunderbolt (yajra). Although there is a possible 
reference to it in the Rig-Veda (iv, 54, 5), the first account is found in the 
Maitrayani Samhitd (i, 10, 13). References to it in classical literature are 
numerous. Kalidasa mentions it both in Raghuvamsa (see Johnstone's trans., 
iii, 177, 204, pp. 25, 26) and KumdraSambhava (see Griffith's Birth of the War- 
God, pp. 4, 5). 

According to the myth it appears that originally the mountains flew 
about like birds, and, owing to their constant moving about, upset the balance 
of the earth. Thereupon Indra cut off their wings with his vajra, thus forcing 
them to settle down permanently where they were. Only Mainaka, son of 
Himalaya and Mena, escaped ; he hid himself in the ocean, where he was 
protected by Sagara. (See A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 62, and 
cf. Pischel, Vedische Studien, vol. i, p. 174.) 

The full explanation of the myth is not easy to discover. Tales of flying 
mountains are not uncommon among the Indo-Aryans, and as they appear to 
be usually told about hills situated away from the great mountain ranges, 
we can probably explain part of the myth geologically. The hills south of the 
Vindhyas are prominences left standing while the surrounding land has sunk 
by gradual denudation. These "outliers" might well have called for an 
explanation from an unscientific people, and it seems not unlikely, as Sten 
Konow has suggested {Aryan Gods of the Mitani People, 1921, p. 29), that the 
myth is of pre-Aryan origin and originally related to a pre-Aryan deity. At 
a later date it became known to the Aryans, and was immediately attributed 
to Indra. n.m.p. 


[M] "So you see, dear one, that even animals, if they are 
of a noble strain, do not desert a lord or friend in calamity, 
but rescue him from it. But as for those which are of low 
origin, they are of fickle nature, and their hearts are never 
moved by noble feelings or affection." When the Prince of 
Vatsa said this, the heavenly maiden said to him : " It is 
so, there can be no doubt about this. But I know what 
your real object is in telling me this tale : so in return, my 
husband, hear this tale from me. 

162. Story of Vdmadatta and his Wicked Wife 

There was an excellent Brahman in Kanyakubja, named 
Stiradatta, possessor of a hundred villages, respected by the 
King Bahusakti. And he had a devoted wife, named Vasu- 
mati, and by her he begot a handsome son, named Vamadatta. 
Vamadatta, the darling of his father, was instructed in all 
the sciences, and soon married a wife, of the name of Sasi- 
prabha. In course of time his father went to heaven, and 
his wife followed him,^ and the son undertook with his wife 
the duties of a householder. But without his knowledge 
his wife was addicted to following her lusts, and by some 
chance or other she became a witch possessed of magical 

One day, when the Brahman was in the king's camp, 
engaged in his service, his paternal uncle came and said to 
him in secret : " Nephew, our family is disgraced, for I have 
seen your wife in the company of your cowherd." When 
Vamadatta heard this, he left his uncle in the camp in his 
stead, and went, with his sword for his only companion, 
back to his own house. He went into the flower-garden and 
remained there in concealment, and in the night the cowherd 
came there. And immediately his wife came eagerly to meet 
her paramour, with all kinds of food in her hand. After he 
had eaten, she went off to bed with him, and then Vama- 
datta rushed upon them with uplifted sword, exclaiming : 
" Wretches, where are you going ? " When he said that. 

^ This probably means that she was burnt with his corpse. 
2 Bohtlingk and Roth read sdkimsiddhisamvard. 




his wife rose up and said, " Away, fool ! " and threw some 
dust in his face. Then Vamadatta was immediately changed 
from a man into a buffalo, but in his new condition he still 
retained his memory. Then his wicked wife put him among 
the buffaloes, and made the herdsman beat him with sticks. ^ 

And the cruel woman immediately sold him in his helpless 
bestial condition to a trader, who required a buffalo. The 
trader put a load upon the man, who found his transforma- 
tion to a buffalo a sore trial, and took him to a village near 
the Ganges. He reflected : "A wife of very bad character 
that enters unsuspected the house of a confiding man is never 
likely to bring him prosperity, any more than a snake which 
gets into the female apartments." While full of these 
thoughts he was sorrowful, with tears gushing from his eyes ; 
moreover he was reduced to skin and bone by the fatigue of 
carrying burdens, and in this state he was beheld by a certain 
white witch. She knew by her magic power the whole trans- 
action, and sprinkling him with some charmed water, she 
released him from his buffalo condition. And when he had 
returned to human form, she took him to her own house and 
gave him her virgin daughter, named Kantimati. And she 
gave him some charmed mustard-seeds, and said to him : 
" Sprinkle your wicked former wife with these, and turn her 
into a mare." Then Vamadatta, taking with him his new 
wife, went with the charmed mustard-seeds to his own house. 
Then he killed the herdsman, and with the mustard-seeds he 
turned ^ his former wife into a mare, and tied her up in the 
stable. And in order to revenge himself, he made it a rule 
to give her every day seven blows with a stick, before he took 
any food. 

One day, while he was living there in this way with 
Kantimati, a guest came to his house. The guest had just 
sat down to his meal, when suddenly Vamadatta got up 
and rushed quickly out of the room without eating anything, 

^ We have had many transformations of this kind and shall have many 
more. A very amusing story of a transformation is found in Campbell's 
Tales of the West Highlands, vol. ii, p. 60, which may be compared with this. 
See the note at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 

2 I read kritvd for klrtvd. 


because he recollected that he had not beaten his wicked wife 
with a stick that day. And after he had given his wife, in 
the form of a mare, the appointed number of blows, he came 
in with his mind easy, and took his food. Then the guest, 
being astonished, asked him, out of curiosity, where he had 
gone in such a hurry, leaving his food. Thereupon Vama- 
datta told him his whole story from the beginning, and his 
guest said to him : " What is the use of this persistent 
revenge ? Petition that mother-in-law of yours, who first 
released you from your animal condition, and gain some ad- 
vantage for yourself." When the guest gave this advice to 
Vamadatta, he approved it, and the next morning dismissed 
him with the usual attentions. 

Then that witch, his mother-in-law, suddenly paid him a 
visit, and he supplicated her persistently to grant him a boon. 
The powerful witch instructed him and his wife in the method 
of gaining the life-prolonging charm, with the proper initia- 
tory rites.^ So he went to the mountain of Sri and set about 
obtaining that charm; and the charm, when obtained, 
appeared to him in visible shape, and gave him a splendid 
sword. And when the successful Vamadatta had obtained 
the sword, he and his wife Kantimati became glorious Vidya- 
dharas. Then he built by his magic power a splendid city on 
a peak of the Malaya mountain, named Rajatakuta. There, 
in time, that prince among the Vidyadharas had born to him 
by his queen an auspicious daughter, named Lalitalochana. 
And the moment she was born she was declared by a voice, 
that came from heaven, to be destined to be the wife of the 
future Emperor of the Vidyadharas. 

[M] " Know, my husband, that I am that very Lalita- 
lochana, and that knowing the facts by my science, and being 

^ Professor Cowell informs me that there is a passage in the Sankara-dig- 
vijaya which explains this. A seer by means of this vidyd gains a life equivalent 

to eleven years of Brahma. It seems to be a life-prolonging charm. The 

above-mentioned work has not yet been translated. See L. D. Barnett, 
Supplementary Catalogue of Sanskrit . . . Books in the . , , British Museum j Ldn., 
1908, col. 633. N.M.p. 


in love with you, I have brought you to this very Malaya 
mountain, which is my own home." When she had in these 
words told him her story, Naravahanadatta was much pleased, 
and entertained great respect for his new wife. And he 
remained there with her. And immediately the King of Vatsa 
and his entourage learnt the truth, by means of the super- 
natural knowledge of Ratnaprabha, and the other wives of 
Naravahanadatta that possessed the same powers. 



This story contains several fiction motifs, which are to be found in the 
Nights, where, however, they have been used in three quite distinct tales. 

The first part of our story resembles the " Tale of the Ensorcelled Prince,'* 
a sub-story of "The Fisherman and the Jinni." (See Burton, vol. i, pp. 
69-80.) Here the wife appears at first to be very loving, and it is only 
due to the introduction of the overhearing motif that the husband becomes 
cognizant of her infidelity. The lover is a negro. The husband sees them 
together and badly wounds the negro. Later he tries to kill him, but his 
wife utters some unintelligible words and turns his lower half to stone. In 
this helpless condition she beats him with a hundred stripes a day. Finally 
he is rescued by a king who impersonates the negro. Rather similar is the 
"History of Sidi Nu'uman" (Burton, Supp., vol. iii, p. 325 et seq.), where the 
husband discovers that his wife is a corpse-eater. She thereupon turns him 
into a dog. He is finally released by being sprinkled with water by a " white " 
witch. He is then taught a charm by which he turns his wife into a mare, 
which he whips and stirrups without mercy. A similar story is current at 
Palena, in Abruzzi. (See Vol. II, p. 202n^, of this work.) 

The second part of our tale appears, with certain differences, in "The 
Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad," which is the very next tale to 
" The Fisherman and the Jinni." 

Here two black bitches are led into the room and scourged by the lady 
of the house till her wrists fail her. She then hugs and kisses them. Later 
the Caliph demands an explanation, and this explanation forms " The Eldest 
Lady's Tale" (Burton, vol. i, pp. 162-173). She had been disgracefully treated 
by her two sisters, and on her saving a serpent's life they are changed into 
dogs. The serpent says, however, that if she fails to deal them three hundred 
stripes a day, she herself will share a like fate. 

In a Kalmuck tale (No. II of Busk and Jiilg, p. 183 et seq. of Coxwell) 
a Khan and his minister take their revenge on two women who had ill- 
treated them, by turning them into asses. In this shape they work for 
three years, till out of pity they are made to resume their former shape. 
As Coxwell has shown in his notes on this story (p. 238), the punishment 
of women by changing them into various animals is a motif found in many 
Russian collections. In the Votyak (Finnish tribe, N.-E. Russia) tale, "The 
Magic Bird," three girls are turned into black mares and harnessed to heavy 
loads (Coxwell, p. 591). In the Mordvin (Finno- Turkish people between 
the Volga and Oka) tale "Enchanter and Enchantress" (p. 570) the wicked 
wife becomes a mare. In the Ossetian (S. Caucasian) tale "Tsopan" (p. 1011) 
the hero, after being turned successively into a duck and a dog, comes into 
possession of a felt whip, by the help of which he turns his wife and her 
new giant-husband into asses. In a Finnish tale, "The Merchant's Son" 
(p. 647), the tsar's daughter is punished by being turned into a beautiful 
horse, on which both sons ride. n.m.p. 



THEN Naravahanadatta, having obtained that new 
[M] bride, LaUtalochana, sported with her on that 
very Malaya mountain, dehghtful on account of the 
first burst of spring, in various forest purHeus adorned with 
flowering trees. 

And in one grove his beloved, in the course of gathering 
flowers, disappeared out of his sight into a dense thicket ; and 
while he was wandering on, he saw a great tank with clear 
water, that, on account of the flowers fallen from the trees 
on its banks, resembled the heaven studded with stars. ^ 

And he thought : "I will wait until my beloved, who is 
gathering flowers, returns to me ; and in the meanwhile I 
will bathe in this lake and rest for a little upon its bank." 
So he bathed and worshipped the gods, and then he sat down 
on a slab of rock in the shade of a sandalwood-tree. While 
sitting there he thought of his beloved Madanamanchuka, 
who was so far off, beholding the gait of the female swans 
that rivalled hers, and hearing the singing of the female 
cuckoos in the mango-creepers that equalled hers, and seeing 
the eyes of the does that recalled hers to his mind. And as 
soon as he recollected her, the fire of love sprang up in his 
breast, and tortured him so that he fainted ; and at that 
moment a glorious hermit came there to bathe, whose name 
was Pisangajata. He, seeing the prince in such a state, 
sprinkled him with sandal-water, refreshing as the touch of 
his beloved. Then he recovered consciousness and bowed 
before the hermit. But the hermit said to him : " My son, 
in order that you may obtain your wish, acquire endurance, 
for by means of that quality everything is acquired. And in 
order that you may understand this, come to my hermitage 
and hear the story of Mrigankadatta, if you have not already 
heard it." When the hermit had said this, he bathed and 

^ So "one who dwelt by the castled Rhine" called the flowers "the 
stars that in earth's firmament do shine " [Longfellow, Flowers]. 


took the prince to his hermitage, and quickly performed his 
daily prayers. And Pisangajata entertained him there with 
fruits, and ate fruits himself, and then he began to tell him 
this tale of Mrigankadatta. 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta ^ 

There is a city of the name of Ayodhya famous in the 
three worlds. In it there lived in old time a king named 
Amaradatta. He was of resplendent brightness, and he had 
a wife named Surataprabha, who was as closely knit to him 
as the oblation to the fire.^ By her there was born to 
him a son named Mrigankadatta, who was adored for his ten 
million virtues, as his bow was bent by the string reaching 
the notches.^ 

And that young prince had ten ministers of his own: 
Prachandasakti and Sthulabahu, and Vikramakesarin, and 
Dridhamushti, and Meghabala and Bhimaparakrama, and 
Vimalabuddhi, and Vyaghrasena and Gunakara, and the 
tenth, Vichitrakatha. They were all of good birth, young, 
brave and wise, and devoted to their master's interests. And 
Mrigankadatta led a happy life with them in his father's 
house, but he did not obtain a suitable wife. 

And one day his minister Bhimaparakrama said to him 
in secret : " Hear, Prince, what happened to me in the night. 
I went to sleep last night on the roof of the palace, and I 
saw in a dream a lion, with claws terrible as the thunderbolt, 
rushing upon me. I rose up, sword in hand, and then the 
lion began to flee, and I pursued him at my utmost speed. 
He crossed a river, and stuck out his long tongue * at me, 
and I cut it off with my sword. And I made use of it to 
cross that river, for it was as broad as a bridge. And there- 

1 This story extends to the end of Book XII i.e. we do not get back to 
the Main Story again till the very end of the next volume. This is chiefly 
due to the introduction of the Vetala stories. n.m.p. 

2 The word tejas also means "courage." 

^ An elaborate pun, only intelligible in Sanskrit. 

* Cf. the long black tongue which the horrible black man protrudes in 
Wirt Sikes' British Goblins^ p. 177. In Birlinger's Aus Schwaben, vol. i, p. 341, 
the fahrende Schiller puts out his tongue in a very uncanny manner. 


upon the lion became a deformed giant. I asked him who he 
was, and the giant said : ' I am a Vetala, and I am deHghted 
with your courage, my brave fellow.' Then I said to him : 
' If this is the case, then tell me who is to be the wife of my 
master Mrigankadatta.' When I said this to the Vetala, he 
answered : ' There is in Ujjayini a king named Karmasena. 
He has a daughter, who in beauty surpasses the Apsarases, 
being, as it were, the receptacle of the Creator's handiwork 
in the form of loveliness. Her name is Sasankavati, and 
she shall be his wife, and by gaining her he shall become king 
of the whole earth.' When the Vetala had said this he dis- 
appeared, and I came home : this is what happened to me 
in the night, my sovereign." 

When Mrigankadatta heard this from Bhimaparakrama, 
he summoned all his ministers, and had it told to them, and 
then he said : " Hear what I too saw in a dream. I thought 
we all entered a certain wood ; and in it, being thirsty with 
travelling, we reached with difficulty some water ; and when 
we wished to drink it, five armed men rose up and tried to 
prevent us. We killed them, and then in the torments of our 
thirst we again turned to drink the water, but lo ! neither 
the men nor the water were to be seen. Then we were in a 
miserable state ; but on a sudden we saw the god Siva come 
there, mounted on his bull, resplendent with the moon on his 
forehead ; we bent before him in prayer, and he dropped from 
his right eye a teardrop on the ground. That became a sea, 
and I drew from it a splendid pearl necklace and fastened it 
round my neck. And I drank up that sea in a human skull 
stained with blood. And immediately I awoke, and lo ! the 
night was at an end." 

When Mrigankadatta had described this wonderful sight 
that he had seen in his dream, the other ministers rejoiced, 
but Vimalabuddhi said : " You are fortunate, Prince, in 
that Siva has shown you this favour. As you obtained the 
necklace and drank up the sea, you shall without fail obtain 
Sasankavati and rule the whole earth. But the rest of the 
dream indicates some slight amount of misfortune." 

When Vimalabuddhi had said this, Mrigankadatta again 
said to his ministers : " Although the fulfilment of my dream 


will no doubt come to pass in the way which my friend 
Bhimaparakrama heard predicted by the Vetala, still I must 
win from that Karmasena, who confides in his army and his 
forts, his daughter Sasankavati by force of policy. And the 
force of policy is the best instrument in all understanding. 
Now listen, I will tell you a story to prove this. 

163a. King Bhadrabdhu and his Clever Minister 

There was a king in Magadha named Bhadrabahu. He 
had a minister named Mantragupta, most sagacious of men. 
That king once said of his own accord to that minister : 
" The King of Varanasi, named Dharmagopa, has a daughter 
named Anangalila, the chief beauty of the three worlds. I 
have often asked for her in marriage, but out of hostility 
that king will not give her to me. And he is a formidable 
foe, on account of his possessing an elephant named Bhadra- 
danta. Still I cannot bear to live any longer without that 
daughter of his. So I have no measure which I can adopt in 
this business. Tell me, my friend, what I am to do." When 
the king said this, his minister answered him ; " Why, King, 
do you suppose that courage and not policy ensures success ? 
Dismiss your anxiety ; I will manage the matter for you by 
my own ingenuity." 

So, the next day, the minister set out for Varanasi, dis- 
guised as a Pasupata ascetic, and he took six or seven com- 
panions with him, who were disguised as his pupils,^ and 
they told all the people, who came together from all quarters to 
adore him, that he possessed supernatural powers. Then, 
as he was roaming about one night to find out some means 
of accomplishing his object, he saw in the distance the wife 
of the keeper of the elephants leave her house, going along 
quickly through fear, escorted in some direction or other by 
three or four armed men. He at once said to himself : 
*' Surely this lady is eloping somewhere, so I will see where 
she is going." So he followed her with his attendants. And 

1 For a most interesting paper, "On False Ascetics and Nuns in 
Hindu Fiction," see Bloomfield, Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xliv, 1924, 
pp. 202-242. N.M.p. 


he observed from a distance the house into which she went, 
and then he returned to his own lodging. 

And the next day, as the elephant-keeper was wandering 
about in search of his wife, who had gone off with his wealth, 
the minister contrived to send his own followers to meet him. 
They found that he had just swallowed poison because he 
could not find his wife, and they counteracted by their 
knowledge the effect of the poison, pretending that they did 
it out of pure compassion. And they said to him, " Come 
to our teacher, for he is a seer and knows everything"; 
and so they brought him to the minister. And the elephant- 
keeper fell at the feet of the minister, who was rendered more 
majestic by the insignia of his vow, and asked him for news 
of his wife. The minister pretended to meditate, and after a 
time told him the place where she was taken by the strange 
men at night, with all the signs by which he might recognise 
it. Then the elephant-keeper bowed again before him, and 
went with a host of guards and surrounded that place. And 
he killed those wicked men who had carried off his wife, and 
recovered her, together with her ornaments and his wealth. 

And the next day he went and bowed before, and praised, 
that supposed seer, and invited him to an entertainment. 
And as the minister did not wish to enter a house, and said 
that he must eat at night, he made an entertainment for 
him at nightfall in the elephant-stables. So the minister went 
there and feasted with his followers, taking with him a con- 
cealed serpent, that he had by means of a charm got to enter 
the hollow of a bamboo. Then the elephant-keeper went 
away, and, while the others were asleep, the minister intro- 
duced, by means of the bamboo, the serpent into the ear 
of the elephant Bhadradanta, while it was asleep. And he 
spent the night there, and in the morning went back to 
Magadha, his native land. But the elephant died from the 
bite of the snake. 

When the clever minister returned, having smitten down 
the elephant as if it were the pride of that King Dharmagopa, 
the King Bhadrabahu was in ecstasies. Then he sent off an 
ambassador to Varanasi to ask for the hand of Anangalila. 
The king, who was helpless from the loss of his elephant. 


gave her to him ; for kings, who know times and seasons, bend 
like canes, if it is expedient to do so. 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

" So, by the sagacity of that minister Mantragupta, the 
King Bhadrabahu obtained Anangalila. And in the same 
way I must obtain that wife by wisdom." When Mriganka- 
datta said this, his minister Vichitrakatha said to him : " You 
will succeed in all by the favour of Siva which was promised 
you in a dream. What will not the effective favour of the 
gods accomplish ? Hear in proof of it the story I am now 
going to tell. 

163b. Pushkardksha and Vinayavati 

There was in the city of Takshasila a king of the name of 
Bhadraksha. He, desiring a son, was worshipping Lakshmi 
every day with one hundred and eight ^ white lotuses upon a 
sword. One day, as the king was worshipping her without 
breaking silence, he happened to count the lotuses mentally, 
and found that there was one missing. He then gave the 
goddess the lotus of his heart spitted on the sword, and she 
was pleased and granted him a boon that would ensure his 
having a son that would rule the whole earth. And she 
healed the wound of the king and disappeared. Then there 
was bom a son to the king by his queen, and he possessed 
all the auspicious marks. And the king called him Push- 
karaksha, because he obtained him by the gift of the lotus 
of his heart. And when the son, in course of time, grew up 
to manhood, Bhadraksha anointed him king, as he possessed 
great virtues, and himself repaired to the forest. 

Pushkaraksha, for his part, having obtained the kingdom, 
kept worshipping Siva every day, and one day, at the end of 
his worship, he asked him to bestow on him a wife. Then 
he heard a voice come from heaven, saying : " My son, thou 

1 See Vol. I, p. 242w3. The number of beads in both Tibetan and 
Burmese rosaries is usually one hundred and eight. Colonel L. A. Waddell 
refers me to his article "Burmese Buddhist Rosaries/' Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, 
December 1892, pp. 189-191, and to his Buddhism of Tibet, pp. 203, 204. n.m.p. 



shalt obtain all thy desire." Then he remained in a happy 
state, as he had now a good hope of success. And it happened 
that one day he went to a wood inhabited by wild beasts, to 
amuse himself with hunting. There he saw a camel about to 
eat two snakes entwined together, and in his grief he killed 
the camel. The camel immediately became a Vidyadhara, 
abandoning its camel body, and, being pleased, said to 
Pushkaraksha : " You have done me a benefit. So hear 
what I have to tell you. 

"There is, King, a mighty Vidyadhara named Ranku- 
malin. And a beautiful maiden of the Vidyadhara race, 
named Taravali, who admired good looks, saw him and fell 
in love with him, and chose him for her husband. ^ And 
then her father, angry because they had married without 
consulting anything but their own inclination, laid on them 
a curse that would separate them for some time. Then the 
couple, Taravali and Rankumalin, sported, with ever-growing 
love, in various regions belonging to them. 

" But one day, in consequence of that curse, they lost sight 
of one another in a wood, and were separated. Then Tara- 
vali, in her search for her husband, at last reached a forest 
on the other side of the western sea, inhabited by a hermit 
of supernatural powers. There she saw a large jamhu tree 
in flower, which seemed compassionately to console her with 
the sweet buzzing of its bees. And she took the form of a 
bee, and sat down on it to rest, and began to drink the 
honey of a flower. And immediately she saw her husband, 
from whom she had been so long separated, come there, 
and she bedewed that flower with a tear of joy. And she 
abandoned the body of a bee, and went and united herself 
to her husband Rankumalin, who had come there in search 
of her, as the moonlight is united to the moon. 

" Then she went with him to his home : but from the 
jamhu flower bedewed with her tear ^ a fruit was produced.^ 

^ I.e. by the gdndharva form of marriage. n.m.p. 

^ The original Sanskrit word, which I translate "tear," is virya. 

^ Cf. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 15, Giles' Strange Stories from a 
Chinese Studio, vol i, p. 294, and the classical legend of the birth of Adonis. A 
similar story will be found in Liebrecht, Zur Volkshunde, p. 306. In Bernhard 


And in course of time a maiden was produced inside the 
fruit. Now once on a time the hermit, who was named Viji- 
tasu, was wandering about in search of fruits and roots, and 
The Birth of came there ; and that fruit, being ripe, fell from 
Vinayavaii the jambu tree and broke, and a heavenly maiden 
came out of it, and respectfully bowing, saluted the feet of 
that hermit. That hermit, who possessed divine insight, 
when he beheld her, at once knew her true history, and being 
astonished, took her to his hermitage, and gave her the name 
of Vinayavati. Then in course of time she grew up to 
womanhood in his hermitage, and I, as I was roaming in 
the air, saw her, and being infatuated by pride in my own 
good looks and by love, I went to her, and tried to carry her 
off by force against her will. At that moment the hermit 
Vijitasu, who heard her cries, came in, and pronounced this 
curse upon me : ' O thou whose whole body is full of pride 
in thy beauty, become an ugly camel. But when thou shalt 
be slain by King Pushkaraksha, thou shalt be released from 
thy curse. And he shall be the husband of this Vinayavati.' 

'' When cursed in these words by the hermit I became a 
camel on this earth, and now, thanks to you, my curse is at 
an end ; so go to that forest on the other side of the western 
sea, named Surabhimaruta, and obtain for a wife that 
heavenly creature, who would make Sri herself lose all pride 
in her own beauty." 

When the heavenly Vidyadhara had said this to Pushka- 
raksha, he flew up to the sky. Then Pushkaraksha returned 

E. Schmidt's Griechiscke Mdrchen, No. 5, three maidens come out of a citron, 
and one of them again out of a rose-bush. For other parallels see the notes 
to No. 21 in Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales. Cf. "Das Rosmarinstrauch- 
lein" in Kaden's Unter den Olivenh'dumen (Stories from the South of Italy), 
p. 10; Rohde, Der Grieckische Roman, p. 195; and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 

p. Hi. See the references already given in Vol. II, p. 136n^, and Vol. Ill, 

p. 2l8n^ To the Chauvin reference I would add see also p. 294. In 
Basile's // Pentamerone (Ninth Diversion of the Fifth Day) is the tale of "The 
Three Citrons," in which each time a citron is cut a beautiful fairy appears 
and demands something to drink. The prince is too overcome to give it at 
once and the fairy disappears. The third time, however, he is more lucky, 
and, after the usual vicissitudes, marries the fair maiden (Burton's translation, 
vol. ii, pp. 546-558). See also Cosquin, Les Contes Indiens et rOccidefit, 1922, 

p. 72. N.M.P. 


to his city, and entrusted his kingdom to his ministers, and, 
mounting his horse, went off alone at night. And at last he 
reached the shore of the western sea, and there he reflected ; 
" How shall I cross over this sea ? " Then he saw there an 
empty temple of Durga, and he entered it, and bathed, and 
worshipped the goddess. And he found there a lyre, which had 
been deposited there by someone, and he devoutly sang to it 
in honour of the goddess songs composed by himself. And then 
he lay down to sleep there. And the goddess was so pleased 
with his lyric worship that in the night she had him conveyed 
across the sea by her attendant demons, while he was asleep. 

Then he woke up in the morning on the other side of the 
sea, and saw himself no longer in the temple of Durga, but 
in a wood. And he rose up in astonishment, and wandered 
about, and beheld a hermitage, which seemed to bow before 
him hospitably by means of its trees weighed down with 
fruit, and to utter a welcome with the music of its birds. So 
he entered it, and saw a hermit surrounded by his pupils. 
And the king approached the hermit, and bowed at his feet. 
The hermit, who possessed supernatural insight, received 
him hospitably, and said to him : " King Pushkaraksha, 
Vinayavati, for whom you have come, has gone out for a 
moment to fetch firewood, so wait a little : you shall to-day 
marry her who was your wife in a former life." Then 
Pushkaraksha said to himself : " Bravo ! this is that very 
hermit Vijitasu, and this is that very wood; no doubt the 
goddess has had me carried across the ocean. But this that 
the hermit tells me is strange, that she was my wife in a 
previous state of existence." Then he asked the hermit in 
his joy the following question : " Tell me, reverend sir, how 
was she my wife before ? " Then the hermit said : " Listen, 
if you feel curious on the point. 

163BB. The Adventures of Pushkaraksha and Vinayavati 
in a Former Life 

There was in old time a merchant in Tamralipti, named 
Dharmasena, and he had a beautiful wife named Vidyullekha. 
As it happened he was robbed by bandits and wounded with 



weapons by them, and longing for death, he went out with 
his wife to enter the fire. And the two saw suddenly a 
beautiful couple of swans coming through the air. Then 
they entered the fire, and died with their minds fixed on 
those swans, and so the husband and wife were bom in the 
next birth as swans. 

Now, one day in the rains, as they were in their nest in 
a datepalm-tree, a storm uprooted the tree and separated 
them. The next morning the storm was at an end, and the 
male swan went to look for his female, but he could not 
find her in the lakes or in any quarter of the sky. At last 
he went, distracted with love, to the Manasa lake, the proper 
place for swans at that season of the year, and another female 
swan, that he met on the way, gave him hopes that he would 
find her there. There he found his female, and he spent 
the rainy season there, and then he went to a mountain-peak 
to enjoy himself with her. There his female was shot by a 
fowler. When he saw that, he flew away, distracted with 
fear and grief. The fowler went off, taking with him the 
dead female swan, and on the way he saw many armed men 
at a distance coming towards him, and he thought that they 
would perhaps take the bird from him, so he cut some grass 
with his knife, and covering up the bird with that, left her 
on the ground. After the men had gone, the fowler returned 
to take the female swan. But it happened that among the 
grass which he had cut was a herb which possessed the power 
of raising the dead to life. By means of the juice of this 
herb the female swan was restored to life,^ and before his 
eyes she flung off the grass, and flew up into the sky, and 

^ See the story of Polyidus, in Preller, Griechische Mythologie, vol. ii, 
p. 478. Preller refers to Nonnus, xxv, 451 et seq. The story terminates 
^vxq 3' d<s Se/xas -^XOe rh Sevrepov. See also Baring Gould's Curious Myths of 
the Middle Ages, new edition, 1869, pp. 399-402, and Rohde, Der Griechische 

Roman, pp. 112 and 126. See also Cosquin, Contes Populaires de Lorraine, 

vol. i, p. 80^ and Chauvin, op. cit.^ vi, p. 74. For the story of Polyidus see 
ApoUodorus' Library, 111, iii, i (Frazer's trans, in Loeb Classics, vol. i, p. 313 
and note). From it was derived Grimm's No. l6, Die drei Schlangenb latter^ 
For numerous analogues see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 126 et seq. 



But in the meanwhile the male swan went and settled on 
the shore of a lake among a flock of swans, distracted with 
grief at seeing his mate in this state. ^ Immediately a certain 
fisherman threw a net, and caught all those birds, and there- 
upon sat down to take his food. Then the female swan came 
there in search of her husband, and found him caught in the 
net, and in her grief she cast her eyes in every direction. 
Then she saw on the bank of the lake a necklace of gems, 
which a certain person, who had gone into the water to bathe, 
had laid on the top of his clothes. She went and carried off 
the necklace without that person seeing her do it, and she 
flew gently through the air past the fisherman, to show him 
the necklace. The fisherman, when he saw the female swan 
with the necklace in her beak, left the net full of birds and 
ran after her, stick in hand. But the female swan deposited 
the necklace upon the top of a distant rock, and the fisherman 
proceeded to climb up the rock to get the necklace. When 
the female swan saw that, she went and struck in the eye 
with her beak a monkey that was asleep on a tree, near where 
her husband lay caught in the net. The monkey, being 
terrified by the blow, fell on the net and tore it, and so all the 
swans escaped from it. Then the couple of swans were re- 
united, and they told one another their adventures, and in 
their joy amused themselves as they would. The fisherman, 
after getting the necklace, came back to fetch the birds, and 
the man whose necklace had been taken away met him as he 
was looking for it ; and as the fact of the fisherman's being 
in possession of the necklace was revealed by his fear, he 
recovered it from him and cut off his right hand with his 
sword. And the two swans, sheltering themselves under 
one lotus by way of umbrella, rose up in the middle of the 
day from the lake and roamed in the sky. 

And soon the two birds reached the bank of a river 
haunted by a certain hermit, who was employed in wor- 
shipping Siva. Then the couple of swans were shot through 
with one arrow by a fowler, as they were flying along, and 
fell together to the earth. And the lotus, which they had 
used as an umbrella, fell on the top of a linga of Siva, while 

^ Dr Kern conjectures evam. 


the hermit was engaged in worship. Then the fowler, seeing 
them, took the male swan for himself, and gave the female 
swan to the hermit, who offered it to Siva.^ 

163b. Pushkardksha and Vinay avail 

" Now you, Pushkaraksha, were that very male swan ; 
and by the virtue of that lotus, which fell on the top of the 
liriga, you have been now born in a royal family. And that 
female swan has been born in a family of Vidyadharas as 
Vinayavati, for Siva was abundantly worshipped with her 
flesh. Thus Vinayavati was your wife in a former birth." 
When the hermit Vijitasu said this to Pushkaraksha, the 
king asked him another question : " How comes it, hermit, 
that the entering the fire, which atones for a multitude of 
sins, produced in our case the fruit of birth in the nature 
of a bird?" Thereupon the hermit replied: "A creature 
receives the form of that which it was contemplating at the 
moment of death. 

163BBB. Ldvanyamanjari 

For there was in the city of Ujjayini a holy Brahman 
virgin of the name of Lavanyamanjari, who observed a vow 
of perpetual chastity ; she once saw a Brahman youth of the 
name of Kamalodaya, and her mind was suddenly attracted 
to him, and she was consumed with the fire of love, but she 
did not abandon her vow. She went to the shore of the 
Gandhavati and abandoned her life in a holy place, with 
her thoughts intently fixed on his love. 

I But on account of that intent meditation she was born 
in the next birth as a courtesan, of the name of Rupavati, in 
a town named Ekalavya. However, owing to the virtue of 
her vow and of the holy bathing-place, she remembered her 
former birth, and in conversation she related that secret of 
her former birth to a Brahman named Chodakarna, who 
was always engaged in muttering prayers, in order to cure 
bim of his exclusive devotion to muttering; and at last, 

^ In Bengal no animal sacrifices are offered to Siva at the present day. 


though she was a courtesan, as her will was purified, she 
attained blessedness. 

163b. Pushkardksha and Vinayavatl 

" So, King, you see that a person attains similarity to 
that which he thinks of." Having said this to the king, the 
hermit dismissed him to bathe, and he himself performed his 
midday ablutions. 

But King Pushkaraksha went to the bank of the river, 
that flowed through the forest, and saw Vinayavatl there 
gathering flowers. Her body gleamed as if she were the light 
of the sun come to visit the wood out of curiosity, as it had 
never been able to penetrate its thickets. He thought to 
himself : " Who can this be ? " And she, as she was sitting 
in conversation with her maid, said to her; "My friend, 
the Vidyadhara, who wished long ago to carry me off, came 
here to-day released from his curse, and announced the ar- 
rival of my husband." When the friend heard that, she 
answered the hermit-maiden : " It is true, for this morning 
the hermit Vijitasu said to his pupil Munjakesa : ' Go and 
bring here quickly Taravali and Rankumalin, for to-day will 
certainly take place the marriage of their daughter Vina- 
yavatl to King Pushkaraksha.' When Munjakesa received 
this order from his teacher, he said, ' I obey,' and started 
on his journey. So come, my friend, let us now go to the 

When she said this, Vinayavatl departed, and Push- 
karaksha heard the whole conversation from a distance 
without being seen. And the king returned quickly to the 
hermitage of Vijitasu, after he had plunged in the river, as if 
to cool the burning heat of love. There Taravali and Ranku- 
malin, who had arrived, honoured him when he bent before 
them, and the hermits gathered round him. Then, on an 
altar-platform illuminated by the great hermit Vijitasu with 
his austerities, as if by a second fire in human form, Ranku- 
malin gave that Vinayavatl to the king, and he bestowed on 
him at the same time a heavenly chariot, that would travel 
in the sky. And the great hermit Vijitasu conferred on him 


this boon : " Rule, together with her, the earth with its four 

Then, with the permission of the hermit, the King 
Pushkaraksha took his new wife with him, and mounted that 
heavenly chariot that travelled through the air, and, cross- 
ing the sea, went quickly to his own city, being like the rising 
of the moon to the eyes of his subjects. 

And then he conquered the earth and became emperor 
of it by virtue of his chariot, and lived a long time in 
enjoyment with Vinayavati in his own capital. 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

" So a task, which is very difficult in itself, succeeds in 
this world if the gods are propitious, and so. King, you may 
be certain that your enterprise also will succeed soon by the 
favour of the god Siva, promised you in a dream." 

When Mrigankadatta had heard this romantic story 
from his minister, being very eager to obtain Sasankavati, 
he made up his mind to go to Ujjayini with his ministers. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

ACCORDINGLY Mrigankadatta, being desirous to ob- 
tain Sasankavati, the daughter of King Karmasena, 
who had been described by the Vetala, planned with 
his ministers to leave his city secretly, disguised as a 
Pasupata ascetic, in order to travel to Ujjayini. And the 
prince himself directed his minister Bhimaparakrama to 
bring the necessary staves like bed-posts, the skulls, and so 
on. And the head minister of the king, his father, found out, 
by means of a spy, that Bhimaparakrama had collected all 
these things in his house. And at that time it happened 
that Mrigankadatta, while walking about on the top of his 
palace, spat down some betel-juice. And as ill-luck would 
have it, it fell on the head of his father's minister, who 
happened to be walking below, unseen by the prince.^ But 
the minister, knowing that Mrigankadatta had spat down 
that betel-juice, bathed, and laid up in his heart a grudge 
against Mrigankadatta on account of the insult. 

Now it happened that the next day King Amaradatta, 
the father of Mrigankadatta, had an attack of cholera, and 
then the minister saw his chance, and, after imploring an 
assurance of safety, he said in secret to the king, who was 
tortured with his sudden attack of disease : " The fact is, 
my sovereign, your son Mrigankadatta has begun incanta- 
tions against you in the house of Bhimaparakrama ; that is 
why you are suffering. ^ I found it out by means of a spy, 

1 In the "First Kalandar's Tale" in the Nights (Burton, vol. i, p. 107) the 
Wazir bears a similar grudge. The prince had put one of his eyes out by 
accident. I have already (Vol. II, p. IVln^) given a note on unintentional 
injuries. n.m.p. 

2 Kuhn in his Westfdlische Mdrchen, vol. i, p. 141, quotes a very early 
instance of this belief from Livy, viii, 18. The historian informs us that 



and the thing is obvious for all to see, so banish your son 
from your realm and your disease from your body at the 
same time." 

When the king heard that, he was terrified, and sent his 
general to the house of Bhimaparakrama, to investigate the 
matter. And he found the hair, and the skulls, and other 
articles,^ and immediately brought those very things and 
showed them to the king. And the king in his anger said 
to the general : " That son of mine is conspiring against 
me, because he wishes to reign himself, so expel him from 
the kingdom this very moment without delay, together with 

one hundred and fifty Roman ladies were condemned as guilty of poisoning 
their husbands. That the death of their husbands was supposed to be brought 
about by witchcraft is clear from the whole passage, and particularly from the 
words ; " Secuti indicem et coquentes quaedam medicameida et recondita alia in- 
venerunt." In Brand's Popular Antiquities will be found much curious informa- 
tion on this subject. King James in his Dcemonologie , Book II, chap. 5, tells 
us that " the devil teacheth how to make pictures of wax or clay, that by 
roasting thereof, the persons, that they bear the name of, may be continually 
melted or dried away with sickness." See Servius on the eighth eclogue of 
Virgil; Theocritus, Idyll, ii, 22; Hudibras, Part II, canto ii, 1. 31; Ovid, 
Heroid. Ep., vi, 91. See also Grafton's Chronicle, p. 587, where it is laid to 
the charge, among others, of Roger Bolinbrook, a cunning necromancer, and 
Margery Jordane, the cunning witch of Eye, "that they at the request of 
Eleanor, duchess of Gloucester, had devised an image of wax representing the 
king [Henry the Sixth] which by their sorcery a little and little consumed ; 
intending thereby in conclusion to waste and destroy the king's person." 
Shakespeare mentions this, 2 Henry VI, Act I, sc. 4. Andrews, in his con- 
tinuation of Henry's History of Great Britain, 4to, p. 93, tells us, speaking of 
Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth died by poison : 
"The credulity of the age attributed his death to witchcraft. The disease 
was odd and operated as a perpetual emetic ; and a waxen image, with hair like 
that of the unfortunate earl, found in his chamber, reduced every suspicion to 
certainty" (Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. iii, pp. 11 and 12). See also 
Shakespeare's Richard III, Act III, sc. 4, 11. 61-75; King John, Act V, 
sc. 4, 11. 25, 26 ; Bartsch, Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, 

vol. ii, pp. 24, 26, SQ; Birlinger, Aus Schwaben, vol. i, pp. 153 and 177. 

Most readers will recognise in the above note examples of that section of 
magic called by Frazer "Sympathetic Magic." It will suffice here merely to 
mention vol. i of his Golden Bough {The Magic Art), where the whole question 
is discussed (pp. 52-219), with numerous examples from all parts of the 
world. N.M.p. 

1 I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads kesakapdladi ; perhaps 
for kesa we should read vesa. The skulls have been mentioned before. 



his ministers." For a confiding ^ king never sees through 
the wicked practices of his ministers. So the general went 
and communicated that order of the king's, and expelled 
Mrigankadatta from the city, together with his ministers.^ 

Then Mrigankadatta was delighted^ at having obtained 
his object, and he worshipped Ganesa, and mentally took a 
humble leave of his parents, and started off. And after they 
had gone a great distance from the town of Ayodhya, the 
prince said to Prachandasakti and the other nine ministers 
who were travelling with him : " There is here a great king 
of the Kiratas, named Saktirakshita ; he is a student in the 
sciences, observing a vow of chastity, and he is a friend of 
mine from childhood. For, when his father was long ago 
captured in battle, he sent him here to be imprisoned as a 
substitute for himself, in order to obtain his own release. 
And when his father died, his relations by his father's side 
rose against him, and at my instigation my father established 
him on the throne of his father with a military force. So 
let us go to him, my friend, and then we will travel on to 
Ujjayini, to find that Sasankavati." 

When he said this, all the ministers exclaimed, " So be 
it," and he set out with them and reached in the evening 
a great wilderness. It was devoid of trees and water, and 
it was with difficulty that at last he found a tank, with one 
withered tree growing upon its banks. There he performed 
the evening ceremonies, and drank water, and being fatigued 
he went to sleep with his ministers under that dry tree. 
And in the night, which was illuminated by the moon, he 
woke up, and saw that the tree first put forth abundance 
of leaves, then of flowers, then of fruit. And when he saw 
its ripe fruit falling, he immediately woke up his ministers, 
and pointed out that marvel to them. Then they were 
astonished, and as they were hungry, he and they ate the 
delicious fruits of that tree together, and after they had 

^ For dsvasto I read vihasto. Perhaps we ought to read asvastho i.e. 
"sick/' "ill." 

^ The wanderings of Herzog Ernst are brought about in a very similar 
manner. See Simrock, Die Deutschen Folksbiicher, vol. iii, p. 278. 

^ See Tawney, Kathdko^a, p. 126. n.m.p. 



eaten them, the dry tree suddenly became a young Brahman, 
before the eyes of them all.^ And when Mrigankadatta 
questioned him, he told his tale in the following words : 

" There was an excellent Brahman in Ayodhya named 
Damadhi. I am his son, and my name is Srutadhi. And 
once in a time of famine he was wandering about with me, 
Srutadhi and and he reached this place almost dead.^ Here 
the Five Fruits j^g gQ^ fiy^ fruits which somcouc gavc him, and 
though he was exhausted with hunger, he gave three to me, 
and set aside two for himself. Then he went into the water 
of the lake to bathe, and in the meanwhile I ate all the five 
fruits, and pretended to be asleep. He returned after bath- 
ing, and beholding me cunningly lying here as motionless as 
a log he cursed me, saying : ' Become a dry tree here on the 
bank of the lake. And on moonlight nights flowers and 
fruit shall spring from you, and when once on a time you 
shall have refreshed guests with fruits, you shall be delivered 
from your curse.' ^ As soon as my father had pronounced 
this curse on me, I became a dry tree, but now that you 
have tasted my fruit I have been delivered from the curse, 
after enduring it for a long time." 

After Srutadhi had related his own story, he asked 
Mrigankadatta for his, and he told it him. Then Srutadhi, 
who had no relations, and was well read in policy, asked 
Mrigankadatta to permit him, as a favour, to attach himself 
to his service. So, after he had spent the night in this way, 
Mrigankadatta set out next morning with his ministers. 
And in the course of his journey he came to a forest named 

^ See the numerous references to tree-metamorphoses given by W. 
Crooke, "King Midas and his Ass's Ears/' Folk-Lore, vol. xxiii, 1911, 
pp. 196, 197. N.M.P. 

2 Here Brockhaus has a misreading. The D. text has mritajdnih instead 
of mritajdtih, thus the meaning is "having lost his wife by death" (see 
Barnett, Golden Town, p. 61). This reading is supported by the correspond- 
ing passage of Kshemendra, who says she starved to death after giving her 
food to a beggar. See Speyer, op. cit.^ pp. 129, 130. n.m.p. 

3 Compare the myths of Attis and Cyparissus. In the story called " Der 
rothe Hund," Gaal, Mdrchen der Magyaren, p. 362, the queen becomes a dry 
mulberry-tree. See also Grohmann, Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 11 6. In Ovid's 
Metamorphoses J xiv, 517, an abusive pastor is turned into an oleaster. 


Karimandita. There he saw five wild-looking men with long 
hair, who aroused his wonder. Then the five men came and 
respectfully addressed him as follows : 

" We were born in the city of Kasi as Brahmans who lived 
by keeping cows. And during a famine we came from that 
country, where the grass was scorched by drought, with our 
cows, to this wood, which abounds in grass. And here we 
found an elixir in the form of the water of a tank, continually 
flavoured with the three kinds of fruits ^ that drop from the 
trees growing on its bank. And five hundred years have 
passed over our heads in this uninhabited wood, while we 
have been drinking this water and the milk of cows. It is 
thus. Prince, that we have become such as you see, and 
now destiny has sent you to us as guests, so come to our 

When thus invited by them, Mrigankadatta went with 
them to their hermitage, taking his companions with him, 
and spent the day there living on milk. And he set out from 
it in the morning, and in course of time he reached the 
country of the Kiratas, seeing other wonderful sights on the 
way. And he sent on Srutadhi to inform his friend Sakti- 
rakshita, the King of the Kiratas, of his arrival. When 
the sovereign of the Kiratas heard of it, he went to meet 
Mrigankadatta with great courtesy, and conducted him with 
his ministers into his city. Mrigankadatta told him the 
cause of his arrival, and remained there for some days, being 
entertained by him. And the prince arranged that Sakti- 
rakshita should be ready to assist him in his undertaking 
when the proper time came, and then he set out, on an 
auspicious day, for Ujjayini, with his eleven companions, 
having been captivated by Sasankavati. 

And as he went along, he reached an uninhabited forest 
and saw standing under a tree an ascetic, with ashes on his 
body, a deer-skin, and matted hair. So he went up to him, 

^ Triphald, according to Professor Monier Williams, means the three 
myrobalans i.e. the fruits of Termifia'ua Chebula, T. Bel/erica and Phyllanthus 
Emhlica ; also the three fragrant fruits, nutmeg, areca-nut and cloves ; also 
the three sweet fruits, grape, pomegranate and date. The first interpretation 
seems to be the one usually accepted by the Pandits of Bengal. 


with his followers, and said to him : " Reverend sir, why do 
you live alone in this forest in which there is no hermitage ? " 
Then the hermit answered him : "I am a pupil of the great 
sage named Suddhakirti, and I know innumerable spells. 
Once on a time I got hold of a certain Kshatriya boy with 
auspicious marks, and I exerted all my diligence to cause 
him to be possessed, while alive, by a spirit, and, when the 
boy was possessed I questioned him, and he told me of many 
places for potent drugs and liquors, and then said this : 
' There is in this Vindhya forest in the northern quarter a 
solitary asoka tree,^ and under it there is a great palace of 
a snake-king. 2 In the middle of the day its water is concealed 
with moistened dust, but it can be discovered by the couples 
of swans sporting there together with the water-cranes.' 
There dwells a mighty chief of the snakes, named Parava- 
taksha, and he obtained a matchless sword from the war of 
the gods and Asuras, named Vaiduryakanti ; whatever man 
obtains that sword will become a chief of the Siddhas and 
roam about unconquered, and that sword can be obtained 
only by the aid of heroes.' When the possessed boy said 
this, I dismissed him. So I have wandered about over the 
earth desirous to obtain that sword, and caring for nothing 
else, but, as I have not been able to find men to help me, in 
disgust I have come here to die." 

When Mrigankadatta heard the ascetic say this, he said 
to him : "I and my ministers will help you." The ascetic 
gladly accepted this offer, and went with him and his 
followers, by the help of an ointment rubbed on the feet, to 
the dwelling-place of that snake. There he found the sign 
by which it could be recognised, and he placed there at 
night Mrigankadatta and his companions, duly initiated, 

^ Barnett translates this simsapa tree. See his Golden Town, p. 6l. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. Naga, a kind of snake-demon. See Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, 
p. 65, Veckenstedt's Wendische M'drchen, pp. 400-409, Prym und Socin, Syrische 
Mdrchen, pp. 100, 101. The sword with a name may remind the reader of 

Balmung, Excalibar, Durandal, etc. For details of the Nagas see Vol. I, 

pp. 203, 204, and for a note on sword-names see p. lOpn^ of the same 
volume. N.M.P. 

3 The Sanskrit College MS. reads sdmpusdraih, perhaps for sdmhusarasaih 
i.e. " with the water-cranes." 



fixed with spells ; and throwing enchanted mustard-seed he 
cleared the water from dust, and began to offer an oblation 
with snake-subduing spells. And he conquered by the power 
of his spells the impediments, such as earthquakes, clouds, 
and so on. 

Then there came out from that asoka tree a heavenly 
nymph, as it were, murmuring spells with the tinkling of her 
jewelled ornaments, and approaching the ascetic she pierced 
his soul with a sidelong glance of love. And then the ascetic 
lost his self-command and forgot his spells ; and the shapely 
fair one, embracing him, flung from his hand the vessel of 
oblation. And then the snake Paravataksha had gained his 
opportunity, and he came out from that palace like the dense 
cloud of the day of doom. Then the heavenly nymph 
vanished, and the ascetic beholding the snake terrible with 
flaming eyes, roaring horribly, died of a broken heart. 

When he was destroyed, the snake laid aside the awful 
form, and cursed Mrigankadatta and his followers, for help- 
ing the ascetic, in the following words : " Since you did 
what was quite unnecessary after all coming here with this 
man, you shall be for a certain time separated from one 
another." Then the snake disappeared, and all of them at 
the same time had their eyes dimmed with darkness, and 
were deprived of the power of hearing sounds. And they 
immediately went in different directions, separated from one 
another by the power of the curse, though they kept looking 
for one another and calling to one another. And when the 
delusion of the night was at an end, Mrigankadatta found 
himself roaming about in the wood without his ministers. 

And, after two or three months had passed, the Brahman 
Srutadhi, who was looking for him, suddenly fell in with 
him. Mrigankadatta received him kindly, and asked for news 
of his ministers, whereupon Srutadhi fell at his feet weeping, 
and consoled him, and said to him : "I have not seen them, 
Prince, but I know they will go to Ujjayini, for that is the 
place we all have to go to." With these and similar speeches 
he urged the prince to go there, so Mrigankadatta set out with 
him slowly for Ujjayini. 

And after he had journeyed a few days, he found his own 


minister Vimalabuddhi, who suddenly came that way. When 
the minister saw him, he bowed before him with eyes filled 
with tears at seeing him, and the prince embraced him, and, 
making him sit down, he asked him for tidings of the other 

Then Vimalabuddhi said to that prince, who was so beloved 
by his servants : " I do not know. King, where each of them 
has gone in consequence of the curse of the snake. But hear 
how I know that you will find them again. 

" When the snake cursed me, I was carried far away by 
the ciu-se, and wandered in the eastern part of the forest. 
And being fatigued, I was taken by some kind person to the 
^, ^ ^ hermitage of a certain hermit, named Brahma- 

The Adventures J j* mi ^ . i i .1 

of Vimala- dandm. There my latigue was removed by the 
buddhi after he fruits and Water which the sage gave me, and, 
^roJth^^Prin ^^^^^S ^^^ away from the hermitage, I saw a vast 
cave. I entered it out of curiosity, and I saw 
inside it a palace made of jewels, and I began to look into 
the palace through the lattice- windows. And lo ! there was in 
it a woman causing to revolve a wheel with bees, and those 
bees made some of them for a bull, and others for a donkey, 
both which creatures were standing there. And some drank 
the foam of milk sent forth by the bull, and others the 
foam of blood sent forth by the donkey, and became white 
and black, according to the colour of the two objects on which 
they settled; and then they all tiu'ned into spiders. And 
the spiders, which were of two different colours, made two 
different coloured webs with their excrements. And one set 
of webs was hung on wholesome flowers, and the other on 
poisonous flowers. And the spiders, that were clinging to 
those webs as they pleased, were bitten by a great snake 
which came there, having two mouths, one white, and the 
other black. Then the woman put them in various pitchers, 
but they got out again, and began to occupy the same webs 
again respectively. Then those that were on the webs at- 
tached to the poisonous flowers began to cry out, owing 
to the violence of the poison. And thereupon the others, 
that were on the other webs, began to cry out also. But the 
noise interrupted the meditation of a certain merciful ascetic 



who was there, who discharged fire at the webs.^ Then the 
webs, in which the spiders were entangled, were burnt up, 
and the spiders entered a hollow coral rod, and disappeared 
in a gleaming light at the top of it. In the meanwhile the 
woman disappeared with her wheel, her bull, and her donkey. 

" When I had seen this, I continued to roam about there 
in a state of astonishment ; and then I saw a charming lake, 
which seemed by means of its lotuses, round which bees 
hummed, to summon me thither to look at it. And while I 
sat on the bank and looked at it I beheld a great wood inside 
the water, and in the wood was a hunter, and the hunter had 
got hold of a lion's cub with ten arms, which he brought up, 
and then banished from the wood in anger, on the ground 
that it was disobedient. ^ The lion then heard the voice of a 
lioness in a neighbouring wood, and was going in the direction 
of the sound, when his ten arms were scattered by a whirl- 
wind. Then a man with a protuberant belly came and 
restored his arms as they were before, and he went to that 
forest in search of the lioness. He endured for her sake much 
hardship in that forest, and at last obtained her whom he 
had had for a wife in a former state, and with her returned 
to his own forest. And when that hunter saw that lion 
retiu-n with his mate to the forest, which was his hereditary 
abode,^ he resigned it to him and departed. 

" When I had seen this, I returned to the hermitage and 
described both those very wonderful spectacles to Brahma- 
dandin. And that hermit, who knows the past, present and 
future, kindly said to me : ' You are fortunate ; Siva has 
shown you all this by way of favour. That woman whom 
you saw is Maya,* and the wheel which she caused to revolve 
is the wheel of mundane existence, and the bees are living 
creatures. And the bull and the donkey are respectively 

^ Read "and he made flames burst forth from his forehead." As the 
D. text shows, the reading is kendpi hhdlato 7nukid, etc., instead of B.'s 
kendpi jdlato muktd, etc. Cf. the blazing eye of Siva in the Invocation of 
Chapter CIV. of this work, where hhdlekshana is used. See Speyer, op. cit.j 

p. 130. N.M.P. 

2 Andyata is a misprint for andyatta. 

3 I read kulamandiram with the MS. in the Sanskrit College. 
* See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 


symbols of Righteousness and Unrighteousness, and the 
foam of milk and the foam of blood discharged by them, to 
which the bees repaired, are typical of good and evil actions. 
And they acquired properties arising from the things on 
which they respectively settled, and became spiders of two 
kinds, white and foul respectively ; and then with their 
energy, which was symbolised by excrement, they produced 
entangling nets of two kinds, such as offspring and so on, 
which were attached to wholesome and poisonous flowers, 
which signify happiness and misery. And while clinging 
each to its own web they were bitten by a snake, typical of 
Death, ^ with its two mouths, the white set with the white 
mouth symbolical of good fortune, the other with the black 
mouth symbolical of evil fortune. 

" ' Then that female, typifying Maya, plunged them into 
various wombs, typified by the jars, and they again emerged 
from them, and assuming forms white and black, correspond- 
ing to what they had before, they fell into entangling webs, 
which are symbolical of sons and other worldly connections, 
resulting in happiness and misery. Then the black spiders, 
entangled in their webs, being tortured by the poison, 
symbolical of pain, began in their affliction to invoke the 
supreme lord as their help. When the white spiders, who 
were in their own webs, perceived that, they also became 
averse to their state, and began to invoke that same lord. 
Then the god, who was present in the form of an ascetic, 
awoke from his trance, and consumed all their entangling 
webs with the fire of knowledge. Accordingly they ascended 
into the bright coral tube, typical of the orb of the sun, 
and reached the highest home, which lies above it. And 
then Maya vanished, with the revolving wheel of births, 
and with her ox, and her ass, typical of Righteousness and 

" ' Even thus in the circle of existence revolve creatures, 
fair and foul according to their actions, and they are liberated 
by propitiating Siva ; and this spectacle has been shown to 
you by Siva to teach you this lesson, and to put an end to 
your delusion. 

1 Barnett, op. cit., p. 64, translates "time." n.m.p. 


" ' As for that sight which you saw in the water of the 
ank, this is the explanation of it. The holy god produced 
this apparent reflection in the water, in order to teach you 
what was destined to befall Mrigankadatta. For he may 
be compared to a young lion- whelp, and he was brought up 
with ten ministers round him resembling ten arms, and he 
was banished in anger by his father (typified by the hunter) 
from his native land (typified by the forest) ; and on hear- 
ing the report of Sasankavati (who may be compared to a 
lioness) coming from the land of Avanti (symbolised by the 
other wood ^), he made towards her, and the wind which 
stripped him of his arms is the curse of the snake, which 
separated him from his ministers. 

" ' Then Vinayaka ^ appeared as a man with a pendulous 
belly, and restored to him his arms (that is to say, his 
ministers), and so he recovered his former condition. Then 
he went and, after enduring great hardship, obtained from 
another place the lioness (that is, Sasankavati), and returned. 
And when the hunter (that is, his father) saw him coming near 
with his wife, having swept away the obstacles which his foes 
put in his way,^ he resigned to him the whole of his forest 
(that is, his kingdom), and retired to a grove of ascetics. 
Thus has Siva shown you the future as if it had already taken 
place. So you may be sure your master will recover you, 
his ministers, and obtain his wife and his kingdom.' When 
the excellent hermit had thus instructed me, I recovered 
hope and left that hermitage, and travelling along slowly I 
have met you here. Prince, to-day. So you may rest assured. 
Prince, that you will recover Prachandasakti, and your other 
ministers, and gain your object : you certainly gained the 
favour of Ganesa by worshipping him before you set out." 

When Mrigankadatta had listened for a while to this 
strange story of Vimalabuddhi's he was much pleased, and 
after he had again deliberated with him he set out for the 
city of Avanti, with the double object of accomplishing his 
enterprise and recovering his other ministers. 

^ For vanopammn I conjecture vanopamdt. 
2 I.e. Ganesa. 

2 Or "the elephants of his enemies." Here there is probably a pun. 



The interesting allegory on pp. 30, 31 of our text propounds the doctrine 
of mdyd and of the power of tapas (austerities) and dhydna (meditation) to 
destroy the weavings of Karma (acts and their retribution). The doctrine of 
mdyd forms such an important tenet in the great Vedanta philosophy that the 
following short account may prove interesting to readers unacquainted with 
a doctrine which still pervades the philosophy of the great mass of thinkers 
in India to-day. 

The word mdyd is a term used in Vedanta philosophy to denote "cosmic 
illusion," the creation of the world of experience, which in reality is merely 
an illusion of the soul, due to avidyd (ignorance, or false knowledge). In 
Rig- Veda times the word meant "cunning," "mysterious will-power," "magic 
wiles," and such like. 

It was only in the Upanishads that it began to assume the meaning 
of "cosmic illusion," when the doctrine of the dtman was introduced. The 
dtman can be described as signifying " the self in contrast to that which is 
not self." In its philosophical sense, therefore, it is both relative and negative. 
It points to something which is not the dtman, while its positive sense lies 
in that which is to be excluded, or in other words, the concept states only 
what the principle is 7iot, and not what it is. Being thus empty of content, 
the value of such terms in the science of metaphysics is obvious. Many words 
(e.g. a/)x>i) ov, substantia, etc.) have been invented to signify the inner principle 
of the universe, exclusive of the whole content of the phenomenal world, but 
dtman alone " touches the precise point at which the inner, obscure, never- 
appearing essence of things reveals itself." There is another word used in 
close association with dtman, the word brahman. Originally meaning " prayer," 
it came to signify "the essential principle of the world." It will thus be seen 
that the two words largely coincide. Wherever a difference is observable 
Brahman means the eternal principle as realised in the whole world, and dtman 
the same principle as realised in ourselves. As Brahman and dtman are alone 
real, all else, including the universe, is mdyd. 

Whereas in the Upanishads the existence of the world is granted, although 
the dtman still remains the sole reality, we find that in the Vedanta a system 
of advaita i.e. " non-duality " is advocated. This is the main difference 
between the Vedanta and its great rival philosophy the Sankhya. Of the early 
work in the Vedanta, one of the most important is the Kdrikd of Gaudapada 
(eighth century a.d.). He strongly supports the doctrine of mdyd. The 
universe does not exist. The waking world is no more real than the world 
of dreams. The dtman is both the knower and the known ; his experiences 
exist within him through the power of mdyd. As a rope in a dim light is 
mistaken for a snake, so the dtman is mistaken for the variety of experience 
(fiva). When the rope is recognised, the illusion of the snake at once dis- 
appears ; when true knowledge of the dtman is attained, the illusion which 
makes us think of it as a multiplicity of experiences vanishes. The world has 

MAYA 85 

no more real existence than the snake, and, as one cannot remove or cast off 
what does not exist, it is wrong to speak of obtaining freedom from it. The 
dtman cannot be said to create or cause the universe any more than the rope 
creates the snake. Production would be either from the existent or from the 
non-existent ; but the former is impossible, for it would be producing what 
already exists, and the latter is equally impossible, for the non-existent e.g. 
the son of a barren woman cannot be the cause of anything ; it cannot even 
be realised by the mind. 

The doctrine received its final form in the commentaries of Sarikara. 
The phenomenal world is real so long as the unity of the dtman is not realised, 
just as the creations of a dream are thought to be real till the dreamer awakes. 
Just as a magician (indydvin) causes a phantom, having no existence apart from 
him, to issue from his body, so the dtman creates a universe which is a mere 
mirage and in no way affects the self. It is through mdyd that plurality is 
perceived where there is really only the dtman. Multiplicity is only a matter 
of name and form, which are the creations of ignorance, being neither the 
dtman nor different from it, through the power of illusion {mdydsakti). The 
Highest One manifests himself in various ways by avidyd as a magician 
assumes various forms by his wiles. 

Without going further into this intricate philosophy, I would note that 
the doctrine of mdydy as propounded by Sankara, still forms one of the main 
tenets of his Advaitist school. Further details will be found in the article 
" Maya," by J. Allan, in Hastings' Enc. Rel. Etk, vol. viii, pp. 503-505, to 
which I am indebted for part of the above. Apart from the references given 
here, see also the bibliography added by R. Garbe, at the end of his article 
-* Vedanta," ditto, vol. xii, p. 598. n.m.p. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN, as Mrigankadatta was journeying to Ujjayini, 
with Srutadhi and Vimalabuddhi, to find Sasankavati, 
he reached the Narmada which lay in his path. 
The fickle stream, when she beheld him, shook her waves 
like twining arms, and gleamed white with laughing foam^ 
as if she were dancing and smiling because he had so for- 
tunately been reunited with his ministers. And when he 
had gone down into the bed of the river to bathe, it hap- 
pened that a king of the Savaras, named Mayavatu, came 
there for the same purpose. When he had bathed, three 
water-spirits ^ rose up at the same time and seized the 
Bhilla, whose retinue fled in terror. When Mrigankadatta 
saw that, he went into the water with his sword drawn, and 
killed those water-spirits, and delivered that king of the 

When the king of the Bhillas was delivered from the 
danger of those monsters, he came up out of the water and 
fell at the feet of the prince, and said to him : " Who are 
you, that Providence has brought here to save my life on 
the present occasion ? Of what virtuous father do you adorn 
the family ? And what is that country favoured by fortune 
to which you are going ? " When he said this, Srutadhi told 
him the prince's whole story from the beginning, and then 
the Savara king showed him exceeding respect, and said to- 
him : " Then I will be your ally in this undertaking which 
you have in view, as you were directed by the god, and with 
me will come my friend Durgapisacha, the King of Matangas. 

1 Literally, "water-men." Perhaps they were of the same race as Grendel,. 
the terrible nicor. See also Veckenstedt's Wendische Marchen, p. 185 et seq. ;. 
Grimm's Irische Mdrchen, p. cv ; Kuhn's Westfdlische M'drchen, vol. ii, p. 35 ;. 
Waldau's Bokmische Mdrchen, p. 187 et seq., and the 6th, 20th and 58th Jdtakas. 
See also Grohmann's account of the " Wassermann," Sagen aus Bohmen, p. 148.. 



So do me the favour, my lord, of coming to my palace, since 
I am your slave." 

Thus he entreated Mrigankadatta with various humble 
speeches, and then took him to his own village. And there 
he entertained the prince fittingly with all the luxuries he 
could command, and all the people of the village showed him 
respect. And the King of Matangas came and honoured 
him as the saviour of his friend's life, and placed his head 
on the ground to show that he was his slave. Then Mrigan- 
kadatta remained there some days, to please that Mayavatu, 
the king of the Bhillas. 

And one day, while he was staying there, that king of 
the Savaras began to gamble with Chandaketu, his own 
warder. And while he was playing, the clouds began to 
roar, and the domestic peacocks lifted up their heads and 
began to dance, and King Mayavatu rose up to look at them. 
Then the warder, who was an enthusiastic gambler, said to 
his sovereign : " What is the use, my master, of looking at 
these peacocks which are not skilled in dancing ? I have a 
peacock in my house to which you would not find an equal 
in the world. I will show it you to-morrow, if you take 
pleasure in such things." When the king heard that, he said 
to the warder, " You must certainly show it to me," and then 
he set about the duties of the day. And Mrigankadatta, 
when he heard all that, rose up with his companions and 
performed his duties, such as bathing and eating. 

And when the night came, and thick darkness was diffused 
over the face of things, the prince went out alone and self- 
impelled from the chamber in which his companions were 
The Ad sleeping, in search of adventures, with his body 

ofMrigdn- smeared with musk, wearing dark blue garments 
kadaita and and with his sword in his hand.^ And as he was 
the Warder coaming about, a certain man, who was coming 
along the road and did not see him on account of the dark- 
ness, jostled against him, and struck his shoulder against his. 

^ These nocturnal adventures remind us of similar habits of Harun-al- 
Rashld, in the Nights. In his extremely entertaining paper, "The Art of 
Stealing in Hindu Fiction" {Amer. Journ. Phil, vol. xliv, 1923, p. 194 et seq.), 
Bloomfield has collected several " Harun " tales. n.m.p. 


Then he rushed at him angTily and challenged him to fight. 
But the person challenged, being a man not easily abashed, 
made an appropriate reply : " Why are you perplexed by 
want of reflection ? If you reflect, you will see that you 
ought to blame the moon for not lighting up this night, or 
the Governor of the world for not appointing that it should 
rule with full sway here,^ since in such darkness causeless 
quarrels take place." 

Mrigankadatta was pleased with this clever answer, and 
he said to him : " You are right. Who are you ? " The 
man answered : "I am a thief." Whereupon the prince 
said falsely : " Give me your hand, you are of the same 
profession as myself." And the prince made an alliance 
with him, and went along with him out of curiosity, and 
at last reached an old well covered with grass. And there 
the man entered a tunnel, and Mrigankadatta went along it 
with him and reached the harem of that King Mayavatu. 
And when he got there he recognised the man by the 
light of the lamp, and lo ! it was the warder Chandaketu, 
and not a robber. But the warder, who was the secret 
paramour of the king's wife, did not recognise the prince, 
because he had other garments on than those he usually 
wore,^ and kept in a corner where there was not much 

But the moment the warder arrived, the king's wife, 
who was named Manjumati, and was desperately in love with 
him, rose up and threw her arms round his neck. And she 
made him sit down on a sofa, and said to him : " Who is 
this man that you have brought here to-day ? " Then he 
said to her : " Make your mind easy ; it is a friend of mine." 
But Manjumati said excitedly : " How can I, ill-starred 
woman that I am, feel at ease, now that this king has been 
saved by Mrigankadatta, after entering the very jaws of 
death ? " When the warder heard her say that he answered : 
" Do not grieve, my dear ! I will soon kill the king, and 
Mrigankadatta too." When he said this she answered, as 
fate would have it : " Why do you boast ? When the king 

^ The MS. in the Sanskrit College seems to me to read purno'sya. 

2 I read ' nyavesastham^ which is the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. 


was seized ^ that day by monsters in the water of Narmada, 
Mrigankadatta alone was ready to rescue him ; why did you 
not kill him then ? The fact is, you fled in fear. So be 
silent, lest someone hears this speech of yours, and then you 
would certainly meet with calamity at the hands of Mrigan- 
kadatta, who is a brave man." When she said this, her 
paramour, the warder, lost his temper with her. He said : 
" Wretched woman ! you are certainly in love with Mrigan- 
kadatta, so receive now from me the just recompense of 
that taunt." And he rose up to kill her, dagger in hand. 
Then a maid, who was her confidante, ran and laid hold of 
the dagger with her hand and held it. In the meanwhile 
Manjumati escaped into another room. And the warder 
dragged the dagger out of the maid's hand, cutting her 
fingers in the process, and returned home by the way which 
he came, somewhat confused, with Mrigankadatta, who was 
much astonished. 

Then Mrigankadatta, who could not be recognised in the 
darkness, said to the warder: "You have reached your own 
house, so I will leave you." But the warder said to the 
prince : " Sleep here to-night, without going farther, for you 
are very tired." Then the prince consented, as he wished 
to learn something of his goings on ; and the warder called 
one of his servants and said to him : " Take this man to the 
room where the peacock is, and let him rest there, and give 
him a bed." The servant said, " I will do as you command,'* 
and took the prince to the room and placed a light in it, and 
gave him a bed. He then departed, fastening the outer 
door with a chain, and Mrigankadatta saw the peacock 
there in a cage. He said to himself, " This is the very pea- 
cock that the warder was speaking of," and out of curiosity 
he opened its cage. And the peacock came out and, after 
looking intently at Mrigankadatta, it fell down and rolled 
at his feet again and again. And as it was rolling, the prince 
saw a string tied round its neck and at once untied it, think- 
ing that it gave the bird pain. The peacock, the moment that 

^ Tawney translates dghrdto 'bhTitj " was smelt," as if it were dkrdnto 'bhut, 
"was seized." The latter proves to be the reading in D., and must, of course, 
be the correct one. n.m.p. 


the thread was loosened from its neck, became before his 
eyes his minister Bhimaparakrama.^ Then Mrigankadatta 
embraced the affectionate minister, who bowed before him, 
and in his astonishment said to him : " Tell me, friend, 
what is the meaning of this ? " Then Bhimaparakrama said 
to him in his delight : " Listen, Prince, I will tell you my 
story from the beginning. 

'*When I was separated from you by the curse of the 

Naga I wandered about in the wood until I reached a Sdlmali 

tree. 2 And I saw an image representing Ganesa carved in 

the tree, which I worshipped, and then I sat down 

of Bhimapard-^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ t^^^' being tircd, and I said 
krama after to mysclf : ' All this mischicf has been brought 
his Separation ^^^^^ . . telHng my master that time the 

jromtne Jrrince , j ' j tj j 

incident of the Vetala which took place at night. 
So I will abandon here this my sinful body.' In this frame 
of mind I remained there, fasting, in front of the god. And 
after some days an old traveller came that way and sat 
in the shade of that tree. And the good man, seeing me, 
questioned me with much persistence, saying : ' Why do 
you remain in this solitary place, my son, with such a down- 
cast face ? ' Then I told him my story, exactly as it took 
place, and the old traveller kindly said to me, to encourage 
me : ' Why, being a man, are you killing yourself like a 
woman? Moreover, even women do not lose their courage 
in calamity ; hear the following tale in proof of it. 

163c. Kamalakara and Hamsdvali 

In the city of Kosala there was a king named Vimalakara, 
and he had a son named Kamalakara, who was made by 
the Creator admirable in respect of the qualities of courage, 
beauty and generosity, as if to outdo Skanda, Kandarpa and 
the wishing-tree of heaven. Then one day a bard, whom 
he had known before, came and recited a certain stanza in 
the presence of that prince, who deserved to be praised by 
bards in all the regions of the world. " Where can the row 

^ See Note 1 at the end of this chapter. n.m.p. 
2 The silk-cotton tree. 


of swans ^ obtain satisfaction, until it reaches the lotus-bed, ^ 
round which sings a host of many noisy birds ^ delighted at 
obtaining the lotus-flower ? " * When the bard, named 
Manorathasiddhi, had frequently recited this stanza. Prince 
Kamalakara questioned him, and he said to him : " Prince, 
as I was roaming about, I reached the city of King Megha- 
malin, named Vidisa, the pleasure-ground of the Goddess of 
Prosperity. There I was staying in the house of a professor 
of singing, named Dardura, and one day he happened to 
say to me : ' To-morrow the daughter of the king, named 
Hamsavali, will exhibit in his presence her skill in dancing, 
which she has lately been taught.' 

" When I heard that, I was filled with curiosity, and 
managed to enter the king's palace with him the following 
day, and went into the dancing-hall. There I saw the 
slender- waisted Princess Hamsavali dancing before her father, 
to the music of a great tabor, looking like a creeper of the 
tree of love agitated by the wind of youth, shaking her 
ornaments like flowers, curving her hand like a shoot. Then 
I thought : ' There is no one fitted to be the husband of this 
fa^vn-eyed one except the Prince Kamalakara; so, if she, 
being such, is not joined to him, why has the God of Love 
taken the trouble of stringing his bow of flowers thus fruit- 
lessly ? So I will adopt some expedient in this matter.' 
Thus minded I went, after I had seen the spectacle, to the 
door of the king's court, and I put up a notice with this 
inscription on it : ' If there is any painter here who is a 
match for me, let him paint a picture.' When no one else 
dared to tear it down, the king, coming to hear of it, ap- 
pointed me to paint his daughter's bower. Then I painted 
you and your servants. Prince Kamalakara, on the wall of 
the bower of that Hamsavali. 

" I thought to myself : ' If I declare the matter openly, 

^ Or Hamsavali. 

2 Or Kamalakara. 

^ It may also mean a host of Brahmans, or many birds and bees. It is an 
elaborate pun. 

* Another pun ! It may mean " by obtaining good fortune in the form 
of wealth." 


she will know that I am scheming, so I will let the princess 
know it by means of an artifice.' So I persuaded a handsome 
fellow, who was an intimate friend of mine, to come near 
the palace and pretend to be mad, and I arranged with him 
beforehand how he was to behave. Now he was seen a long 
way off by the princes, as he was roaming about singing and 
dancing, and they had him brought into their presence to 
make game of him. Then Harnsavali saw him, and had him 
brought by way of a joke into her bower, and when he saw 
the picture of you, which I had painted there, he began to 
praise you, saying : ' I am fortunate in beholding this 
Kamalakara, who is, like Vishnu, an endless store of virtues, 
with his hand marked with the lotus and conch, the object of 
the favour of the Goddess of Fortune.' 

" When the princess heard him singing such songs, as 
he danced, she said to me : ' What does this fellow mean ? 
Who is it that you have painted here ? ' When she asked 
me this persistently, I said : ' This mad fellow must have 
previously seen this prince, whom I have painted here out 
of regard for his beauty.' And then I told her your name, 
and described to her your good qualities. Then the young 
tree of passion grew up in the heart of Harnsavali, which was 
irrigated by the overflowing streams of gushing love for you. 
Then the king, -her father, came and saw what was going on, 
and in wrath had the pretended madman, who was dancing, 
and myself, both turned out of doors. After that she pined 
away day by day with longing, and was reduced to such a 
state that, like a streak of the moon during the wane, she 
had only her beauty left. And on the pretence of illness 
she went to a temple of Vishnu that dispels calamity, and so 
managed to live a solitary life by the permission of her father. 
And being unable to sleep, owing to thinking on you, she 
could not endure the cruel moonlight, and remained there 
ignorant of the changes of day and night. Then she saw 
me one day from a window,^ as I was entering there, and she 
summoned me, and honoured me respectfully with dresses 
and ornaments. And then I went out and saw this stanza, 

^ For vdtayanoddesdt the Sanskrit College MS. reads chdyatanoddesdt 
[so also the D. text] ; perhaps it means " entering to visit the temple." 


which I have repeated to you, written on the border of a 
garment that she had given me : hear it again : ' Where can 
the row of swans obtain satisfaction, until it reaches the 
lotus -bed, round which sings a host of many noisy birds 
delighted at obtaining the lotus-flower ? ' And when I read 
it, I knew for certain how she felt towards you, and I came 
here to inform you, and recited the stanza in your presence, 
and here is the garment on which she wrote the stanza." 

When Kamalakara heard the speech of the bard, and saw 
the stanza, he joyed exceedingly, thinking of Hamsavali, 
who had entered his heart, he knew not whether by eye or 

Now it happened that, while he was thinking with eager 
longing about the best means of obtaining this princess, his 
father summoned him and said to him : " My son, unenter- 
prising kings perish like snakes arrested by a charm, and 
how can kings rise up again when they have once perished ? 
But you have been addicted to pleasures, and up to the 
present time you have not been visited by any longing for 
conquest ; so arouse yourself, and fling off sloth : advance 
and conquer that enemy of mine the King of Anga, who has 
left his own country on an enterprise against me, and I will 
remain at home." When the brave Kamalakara heard this, 
he agreed to undertake the enterprise, being desirous of 
marching towards the country of his beloved. Then he set 
out with the forces which his father assigned him, making 
the earth and the hearts of his enemies tremble. And he 
reached in a few marches the army of the King of Anga, and 
when that prince turned round to make a counter-attack he 
fought with him. And the brave hero drank up his army, 
as Agastya ^ did the water of the sea, and, being victorious, 

^ Agastya is the reputed author of some Vedie hymns (Rig-Veda, i, l65- 
191). His miraculous birth and various exploits are related in the Mahd- 
bhdrata and Ramdyana. His drinking up of the ocean is thus related in the 
Mahdhhdrata (iii. 103 et seq.) : 

The Kalakeyas or Kaleyas, a class of Asuras, had fought under Vritra 
against the gods. After the death of their leader they hid themselves in the 
ocean, where the gods could not reach them, and determined to extirpate the 
Brahmans and holy men ; for thus, they thought, they would bring about 
the end of the world. The gods, alarmed by their raids, were advised by 


captured the king alive. And he sent that enemy in chains 
to his father, committing him to the care of the principal 
warder, in accordance with a letter which he sent him. But 
he commissioned the warder to give the following message 
by word of mouth to the king : "I now leave this place, my 
father, to conquer other enemies." So he went on conquer- 
ing other enemies, and with his army augmented by their 
forces he at last arrived in the vicinity of the city of Vidisa. 
And encamping there he sent an ambassador to Megha- 
malin, the father of Harnsavali, to ask for her in marriage. 
When that king learned from the ambassador that he had 
come, not as an enemy, but for the sake of his daughter, he 
paid a friendly visit to him in person. The prince welcomed 
him ; and Meghamalin, after he had complimented the 
prince, said to him : " Why did you take the trouble of 
coming in person about a business which might have been 
negotiated by an ambassador ? For I desire this marriage : 
hear the reason. Seeing that this Harnsavali was even in her 
childhood devoted to the worship of Vishnu, and that she had 
a frame delicate as a sirisha, I became anxious about her, 
and kept saying to myself : ' Who will be a fitting husband 
for this girl ? ' And as I could not think of a suitable husband 
for her, I was deprived of my sleep by my anxiety about the 
matter, and contracted a violent fever. And in order to 
allay it I worshipped and petitioned Vishnu, and one night, 
when I was only able to sleep a little on account of pain, 
Vishnu said to me in a dream : ' Let that Harnsavali, on 
account of whom you have contracted this fever, touch you 
with her hand, my son ; then your fever will be allayed. 
For her hand is so holy from worshipping me, that when- 
ever she touches anyone with it, his fever, even though 
incurable, will certainly pass away. And you need have no 
more anxiety about her marriage, since Prince Kamalakara 

Vishnu to implore Agastya for help. The Rishi, accordingly, drank up the 
water of the ocean, and thus laid bare the Kalakeyas, who were then slain 
by the gods. The ocean continued a void till Bhagiratha led the Ganga to it 
and thus filled it again with water. 

For further details see H. Jacobi, "Agastya," Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. i, 
pp. 180, 181. N.M.p. 


is destined to be her husband. But she will endure some 
misery for a short time.' When I had been thus instructed 
by Vishnu in a dream, I woke up at the end of the night. 
Then my fever was removed by the touch of Hamsavali's 
hand. And so the union of you two is appointed by the 
god. Accordingly I bestow on you Hamsavali." When he 
had said this, he had an auspicious moment fixed for the 
marriage, and returned to his capital. 

There he told all that he had done, and when Hamsavali 
had heard it, she said in secret to her confidante, named 
Kanakamanjari : "Go and see with your own eyes whether 
that prince, to whom I am to be given, is the same as he 
who, when painted here by the artist, captivated my heart. 
For it is just possible that my father may wish, out of fear, 
to bestow me as a gift on some prince of the same name that 
has come here with an army." With these words she sent off 
Kanakamanjari, acting in accordance with her own will only. 

And the confidante, having assumed the complete dis- 
guise of an ascetic, with rosary of Aksha beads, deer-skin 
and matted hair, went to the camp of that prince, and entered 
introduced by his attendants, and beheld him looking like 
the god that presides over the weapon with which the God 
of Love conquers the world. And her heart was fascinated 
by his beauty, and she remained a moment looking as if she 
were in profound meditation. And full of longing she said 
to herself: "If I am not united with this charming prince, 
I shall have been born in vain. So I will take the necessary 
steps to ensure that, whatever comes of it." Then she went 
up to him and gave him her blessing, and bestowed on him 
a jewel, and he received the gem politely and sat down. 
Then she said to him : " This is an excellent jewel, of which 
I have often seen the properties tested. By holding it in 
your hand you can render ineffectual the best weapon of your 
enemy. And I give it you out of regard for your excellence, 
for it is not of so much use to me. Prince, as it is to you." 
When she said this the prince began to speak to her, but she 
forbade him, on the ground that she had vowed an exclusive 
devotion to the fife of a beggar, and departed thence. 

Then she laid aside the dress of a female ascetic, and 


assumed a downcast expression of face and went into the 
presence of Hamsavali, and, when questioned by her, made 
the following false statement: "I must, out of love for you, 
reveal the king's secret, although it is a matter which ought 
to be concealed. When I went from here to the camp of the 
prince, dressed as a female ascetic, a man came up to me of 
his own accord and said in a low voice : ' Reverend madam, 
do you know the rites for exorcising demons ? ' When I 
heard that I said to him, looking upon him as the warder : 
' I know them very well. This is a trifling matter for me.' 
Then I was immediately introduced into the presence of that 
Prince Kamalakara. And I saw him crouching, possessed 
by a demon, having horns on his head,^ and his attendants 
were trying to restrain him ; besides, he had herbs and a 
talismanic jewel on him. I performed certain pretended 
ceremonies to avert evil, and went out immediately, say- 
ing : ' To-morrow I will come and take away his affliction.' 
Accordingly, being exceedingly grieved with the sight of such 
an unexpected calamity, I have come here to tell you ; it is 
for you to decide what you will do next." 

When the unsuspecting Hamsavali heard this trumped- 
up tale of her maid's, terrible as a thunderstroke, she was 
distracted, and said to her : " Out on the spite of Destiny ! 
she brings trouble on her handiwork, even when full of excel- 
lencies 2 ; indeed the spot on the moon is a disgrace to him 
who created it. As for this prince, I chose him as my 
husband ; but I cannot see him, so it is best for me to die, 
or to retire into some forest. So tell me what I had better 
do in this matter." When the guileless lady said this, the 
treacherous Kanakamanjari answered : " Have some maid 
of yours, dressed in your clothes, married to him, and we will 
escape to some place of refuge ; for the people of the palace 
will be all in a state of excitement at that time." When the 

1 See Vol. Ill, pp. 187^3, 188w. n.m.p. 

2 As Speyer suggests {op. cit, p. 131), Tawney could not have been happy 
about the translation here. B.'s text reads : gunavatydm svasrishtav apy anho ; 
dhig matsaro vidheh 1 but that of D., transliterated witli punctuation^ gunavatyam 
svasrshidv apy alio dhifi matsaro vidheh ! Thus Hamsavali cries out : "Oh ! what 
a pity that Destiny feels jealousy towards her creation, even when full of 
excellencies ! " n.m.p. 


princess heard that, she said to her wicked confidante : 
" Then do you put on my clothes and marry that prince ; 
who else is as faithful to me as you ? " The wicked Kana- 
kamanjari answered : " Cheer up ; I will manage to effect 
this by a stratagem, happen to me what may. But when 
the time comes, you must do as I direct you." When she 
had consoled her with these words she went and told an 
intimate friend of hers, named Asokakari, her secret object. 
And with her she waited during three days on the desponding 
Hamsavali, who agreed with them on the measures to be 

And when the wedding day came, the bridegroom, Kama- 
lakara, arrived at night, with a train of elephants, horses 
and footmen. While all the people of the palace were 
occupied with festal rejoicing, Kanakamanjari, keeping by 
an artifice the other maids out of the way, quickly took 
Harasavali into her chamber, ostensibly for the purpose of 
decking her, and put the princess's dress on herself, and 
clothed her in the dress of Asokakari, and put her own dress 
on her accomplice Asokakari ; and, when night came, said to 
Harasavali : "If you go out only the distance of a cos from 
the western gate of this city, you will find an old hollow 
Sdlmali tree. Go and hide inside it, and await my arrival. 
And after the business is accomplished I will certainly come 
there to you." When Hamsavali heard these words of her 
treacherous friend she agreed, and went out from the female 
apartments at night clad in her garments, and she passed 
out unperceived by the western gate of the city, which was 
crowded with the bridegroom's attendants, and reached the 
foot of that Sdlmali tree. But when she saw that the 
hollow of it was black with thick darkness she was afraid to 
go into it, so she climbed up a banyan-tree near it. There 
she remained hidden by the leaves, watching for the arrival 
of her treacherous friend, for she did not see through her 
villainy, being herself of a guileless nature. ^ 

^ Cf. "Die Gansemagd/' Grimm's Kinder- und Hausmarchen, No. 89. 
See also Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales, No. 1 ; Bernhard. Schmidt, Griechische 
Marchen, p. 100; and Gonzenbach, Sicilianische M'drchen, Nos. SS and 34' 
(see Kohler's notes). In the Introduction to Basile's Pentamerone (Burton, 


In the palace meanwhile, the auspicious moment having 
arrived, the king brought Kanakamanjari, who was dressed 
as Hamsavali, and placed her on the sacrificial platform, and 
Kamalakara married that fair-hued maid; and on account 
of its being night nobody detected her. And the moment 
the marriage was over, the prince set out for his own camp 
at full speed by that same western gate of the city, in order 
to gain the benefit of propitious constellations, and he took 
with him the supposed Hamsavali, together with Asokakari, 
who was personating Kanakamanjari. And as he went 
along he came near that Sdlmali tree, in the banyan-tree 
near which was concealed Hamsavali, who had been so 
cruelly deceived. And when he arrived there, the supposed 
Hamsavali, who was on the back of the elephant, which the 
king had mounted, embraced him, as if she were terrified. 
And he asked her eagerly the reason of that terror ; where- 
upon she artfully replied, with gushing tears : " My husband, 
I remember that, last night, in a dream, a woman like a 
Rakshasi rushed out from this tree and seized me to eat 
me. Then a certain Brahman ran forward and delivered me, 
and after he had consoled me he said : ' My daughter, you 
should have this tree burnt, and if this woman should come 
out of it she must be thrown back into it. So all will turn 
out well.' When the Brahman had said this he disappeared, 
and I woke up. Now that I have seen this tree I remember 
it. That is why I am frightened." 

When she said this, Kamalakara immediately ordered 
his servants to bum the tree, and the woman too. So they 
burned the tree ; and the pretended Hamsavali thought that 
her mistress was burned in it, as she did not come out of it. 

vol. i, p. 5 et seq.), a Moorish slave supplants the Princess Zoza. See also 
" The Three Citrons/' the ninth diversion of the fifth day, in the same collec- 
tion {op. cit., vol. ii, p. 55S et seq.), The " supplanted bride " motif was first 
treated in detail by P. Arfert, Das Motiv von der unterschohenen Braut in der 
internationalen Erzdkbmgs-Litteratur . . . , 1897, pp. 8-71, and recently by 
E. Cosquin, Contes Indiens et P Occident, 1922, pp. 61-85. See also P. Saintyves, 
Les Contes de Perrault, 1923, pp. 48, 50-52. Bolte and Polfvka {op. cit., vol. ii, 
pp. 273-285) give numerous analogues to the well-known tale of the " Goose 
Girl," mentioned above. References to the motif under consideration occur 
on pp. 284, 285 (see especially the notes). n.m.p. 




Then she was satisfied, and Kamalakara returned with her 
to the camp, thinking that he had got the real Hamsavali. 
And the next morning he returned rapidly from that place 
to his city of Kosala, and he was anointed king by his father, 
who was pleased at his success. And after his father had 
gone to the forest, he ruled the earth, having for his wife 
Kanakamanjari, the pretended Hamsavali. But the bard 
Manorathasiddhi kept at a distance from the palace, because 
he feared for his own safety in case she were to find out who 
he was. 

But when Hamsavali, who remained that night in the 
banyan-tree, heard and saw all that, she perceived that she 
had been tricked. And she said to herself, as soon as Kama- 
lakara had departed : " Alas ! my wicked confidante has 
robbed me of my lover by treachery. Alas ! she even desires 
to have me burned in order to ensure her own peace of mind. 
But to whom is reliance upon treacherous people not a source 
of calamity ? So I will throw my unlucky self into the 
glowing ashes of the Sdlmali tree, that was burnt for me, 
and so pay my debt to the tree." After these reflections she 
descended from the tree, determined to destroy herself, but 
as fate would have it, she returned to her sober reason, and 
thought thus within herself : " Why should I destroy myself 
without reason ? If I live, I shall soon be revenged on that 
betrayer of her friend. For when my father was seized with 
that fever, Vishnu appeared to him in a dream, and after 
saying that he was to be healed by the touch of my hand, 
said this to him : ' Hamsavali shall obtain Kamalakara, who 
will be a suitable husband for her, but she shall endure 
calamity for a short time.' So I will go somewhere and 
wait a little." When she had formed this resolution, she set 
out for an uninhabited forest. 

And after she had gone a long distance, and was weary, 
and her steps began to falter, the night disappeared, as if 
out of pity, in order to let her see her way. And the heaven 
being, as it were, moved with compassion at beholding her, 
let fall a flood of tears in the form of drops of dew. And the 
sun, the friend of the virtuous, rose up so as to comfort her, 
by revealing to her both hopes and the face of the country, 



and stretched out the fingers of his rays to wipe away her 
tears. Then the princess, being a Uttle consoled, went on 
slowly by bypaths, avoiding the sight of men ; and wounded 
by the spikes of kusa grass, she at last reached with difficulty 
a certain forest, full of birds which seemed to be singing : 
" Come here ! come here ! " She entered the wood, fatigued, 
and was, as it were, courteously fanned by the trees with 
their creepers waving in the wind. So she, full of longing 
for her beloved, beheld that wood in all the pomp of spring, 
where the cuckoos cooed sweetly on fragrant mango-trees in 
full blossom. And in her despondency she said to herself : 
" Although this breeze from the Malaya mountain, red with 
the pollen of flowers, scorches me like a fire, and these showers 
of flowers falling from the trees, while the bees hum, strike 
me like showers of the arrows of love, still I will remain 
here worshipping with these flowers the husband of Rama,^ 
and by so doing purge away my sin." Having formed 
this resolution, she remained bathing in tanks and living 
on fruit, devoted to the worship of Vishnu, in order to gain 

In the meanwhile it happened that Kamalakara was 
seized with a chronic quartan fever. Then the wicked 
Kanakamanjari, who personated Hamsavali, was terrified, 
and thought thus in her heart : "I have always one fear in 
my heart, lest Asokakari should reveal my secret, and now a 
second has come on the top of it. For the father of Hamsa- 
vali said to my husband, in the presence of a large number 
of persons, that the touch of his daughter's hand removed 
fever ; and as soon as in his present attack he shall call that 
to mind, I shall be exposed, as not having that power, and 
ruined. So I will perform on his behalf with all due rites 
an incantation for obtaining control over an imp of the fever- 
demon, who has the power of removing fever, and who was 
mentioned to me long ago by a certain witch. And I will by 
a stratagem kill this Asokakari, in front of the imp, in order 
that the offering to him may be made with human flesh, 
and so he may be enlisted in my service and bring about 
the desired result. So the king's fever will be cured and 

^ Le. Vishnu. 


Asokakari removed at the same time, and both my fears will 
be ended ; I do not see any chance of a prosperous issue in 
any other way." 

Having formed this resolution, she told Asokakari all the 
harmless points of her plan, taking care to omit the neces- 
sity of slaying a human being. Then Asokakari consented, 
and brought the necessary utensils, and Kanakamanjari by 
an artifice dismissed her attendants, and, accompanied by 
Asokakari only, went out from the women's apartments 
secretly at night by a postern-door, and, sword in hand,^ 
made for a deserted temple of Siva, in which there was one 
linga. There she killed with the sword a goat, and anointed 
the linga with its blood, and made an offering to it of its 
flesh, and threw the animal's entrails round it by way of a 
garland, and honoured it by placing on its summit the goat's 
lotus-like heart, and fumigated it with the smoke of its eyes, 
and lastly presented to it the animal's head by way of obla- 
tion. Then she smeared the front of the sacrificial platform 
with blood and sandalwood, and painted on it with yellow 
paint a lotus having eight leaves, and on its pericarp she 
traced with crushed mango a representation of the demon 
of fever, with three feet and three mouths, and with a 
handful of ashes by way of weapon ; and she represented on 
the leaves the fever's attendant imps in proper form, and 
summoned them with a spell which she knew.^ And then 

i^he sword seems to be essential in these rites: compare Book VI of 
the jEthiopica of Heliodorus, where the witch Cybele raises her son to life, in 
order that he may prophesy. [See the edition of the " Tudor Translations," 
1895, trans. T. Underdowne, p. l69, or Bohn's edition, p. 146.] Cf. also the 
story of " Sundaraka and the Witches," sub-story 24b of this work. Vol. II, 
p. 106, 106w*. 

2 Such black magic conjurations are doubtless connected with some of 
the Hindu and Buddhist Sastras, called Tantras. In a note at this point 
Tawney speaks of "The debased form of Buddhism found throughout this 
-work " as being " no doubt the Tantra-system introduced by Asanga in the 
sixth century of our era." This statement is very misleading and could not 
possibly have any justification. In the first place we cannot speak of a 
""Tantra-system" the phrase is meaningless. There are many schools of 
Agama to which the Tantras belong. But the material we have does not 
allow of definite historical conclusions, and any confident statements are as 
jet impossible. How can any decision be reached before the materials are 


she wished to make an offering to them, preparatory to 
bathing, with human flesh, as I said before, so she said to 
Ai^okakari : " Now, my friend, prostrate yourself flat on the 
earth before the god, for thus you will obtain prosperous 

Then she consented, and flung herself flat on the earth, 
and the wicked Kanakamanjari gave her a cut with the 
sword. As it happened, the sword only wounded her slightly 
on the shoulder, and she rose up terrified and ran away ; and 
seeing Kanakamanjari pursuing her, she exclaimed again and 
again: "Help! help!" And thereupon some guards, who 
happened to be near, ran to her assistance. When they 
saw Kanakamanjari pursuing her, sword in hand, with a 
ferocious expression of countenance, they thought she was 
a Rakshasi, and slashed her with their swords till she was 
almost dead. But when they heard from the lips of Asoka- 
kari the real state of the case, they took both the women to 
the king's court, with the governor of the town at their head. 
When King Kamalakara heard their story, he had that 
wicked wife and her confidante brought into his presence. 
And when they were brought, what with fear and the severe 
pain of her wounds, Kanakamanjari died on the spot. 

known ? In the West for years it has been the custom for scholars to establish 
a close connection between so-called "Tantrism" and the worse examples of 
Hindu and Buddhist paganism black magic, left-handed sex worship and 
every kind of excess imaginable. So far as such practices are not to be found 
in Buddhism outside the Rgyud {Tantra), they are correct, but T antra covers, 
a large field, and one as yet but little explored. In the Rgyud are texts solely 
concerned with the building of stupas, the consecration of idols, the stotras or 
hymns, and daily offerings, etc. Sir John Woodroffe, perhaps the greatest 
European authority on these works in question, would see in them " the re- 
pository of a high philosophic doctrine, and of means whereby its truth may 
through bodily, psychic and spiritual development be realised." 

Yet the leading idea in the Saivite type of Tantras omnia sancta sajictis 
is a dangerous one, and has led to most disastrous consequences. Without 
going into further detail, I would refer readers to the works of Sir John 
Woodroffe, published under the no7n de plume of Arthur Avalon. These 
include: Tantra of the Great Liberation (^Mahdnirvdna Tantra), 1913; Hymns 
to the Goddess, 1913; Piinciples of Tantra (Tantra-tattva), 1914-1916, and 
Shakti and Shcikta, second edition, London and Madras, 1922. See also the 
authoritative article by L. de la Vallee Poussin, "Tantrism (Buddhist)," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. xii, pp. 193-197. n.m.p. 



Then the king, in great despondency, said to Asokakari, 
who was wounded : " What is the meaning of this ? Tell 
me without fear." Then Asokakari related from the very 
beginning the history of the daring treachery accomplished by 
Kanakamanjari. Then King Kamalakara, having found out 
the truth, thus bewailed his lot on that occasion : " Alas ! 
I have been deceived by this supposed Hamsavali with my 
own hand, fool that I was ! Well ! this wicked woman has 
met the just reward of her actions, in that, after becoming 
the wife of a king, she has been thus put to death. But 
how came I to permit cruel Destiny to deceive me with 
mere outward appearances, like a child, and so to rob me 
by taking away my jewel and giving me glass instead ? 
Moreover, I did not remember that touch of the hand of 
Hamsavali, of which Vishnu spoke to her father, which has 
given evidence of its power to remove fever." 

While Kamalakara was thus lamenting, he suddenly 
recollected the words of Vishnu, and said to himself: "Her 
father, Meghamalin, told me that Vishnu said she should 
obtain a husband, but that she should suffer some little 
affliction, and that word of the god, made known to men, 
will not have been spoken in vain. So it is quite possible 
that she may have gone somewhere else, and be still alive, 
for who knows the mysterious ways of a woman's heart, 
any more than those of Destiny ? So in this matter the bard 
Manorathasiddhi must once more be my refuge." 

Thus reflecting, the king sent for that excellent bard, 
and said to him: "How is it, my good friend, that you 
are never seen in the palace ? " But how can those obtain 
their wishes who are deceived by rogues ? When the bard 
heard that, he said : " My excuse is that this Asokakari 
was well-nigh slain, out of fear that she would reveal the 
secret. But you must not be despondent about Hamsavali, 
for Vishnu revealed that she would suffer calamity for a 
short time. And he certainly protects her, because she is 
ever intent on worshipping him ; for virtue prevails : has it 
not been seen in the present instance ? So I will go. King, 
to obtain tidings of her." When the bard said this to the 
king, he answered him : "I myself will go in search of her 


with you. For otherwise my mind cannot be at rest even 
for a moment." 

When the king had said this, he resolved on the course 
to be taken, and next day he entrusted his kingdom to the 
care of his minister Prajnadhya. And though the minister 
did all he could to dissuade him, the king left the town 
unobserved with Manorathasiddhi. And he went round to 
many holy places, hermitages and forests in search of her, 
disregarding physical suffering, for weighty is the command 
of love. And it happened that he and Manorathasiddhi 
at last reached the wood where Hamsavali was performing 
austerities. There he saw her at the foot of a red Asoka 
tree, thin and pale, but yet charming, like the last digit of the 
gleaming moon. And he said to the bard : " Who is this 
silent and motionless, engaged in meditation ? Can she be a 
goddess, for her beauty is more than human ? " When the 
bard heard that, he looked and said : " You are fortunate, 
my sovereign, in finding Hamsavali ; for it is she herself that 
is standing there." When Hamsavali heard that, she looked 
at them, and recognising that bard, she cried out with renewed 
grief : " Alas, my father, I am ruined ! alas, my husband, 
Kamalakara ! alas, Manorathasiddhi ! alas, Destiny, source ^ 
of untoward events ! " 

Thus lamenting she fell on the ground in a faint, and when 
Kamalakara heard and saw her, he too fell on the earth over- 
powered with grief. Then they were both brought round by 
Manorathasiddhi ; and when they had recognised one another 
for certain, they were much delighted, and, having crossed 
the ocean of separation, they experienced indescribable joy, 
and they told one another in due course all their adventures. 
Then Kamalakara returned with Hamsavali and that bard to 
the city of Kosala. There he received in marriage her hand 
that had the power of removing disease, after summoning her 
father, the famous Meghamalin. Then Kamalakara shone 
exceedingly bright, being united with Hamsavali, both whose 

^ Nidhi means " treasury," not " source," but Tawney sacrificed the true 
meaning for the sense. The D. text, however, explains the difficulty by its 
reading viparitavidhe vidhe " Alas ! she cries. Destiny, operator of wrong 
decisions!" See Speyer, oj). cit., p. 131. n.m.p. 

wings were piire.^ And having attained his object in Hfe, 
he lived happily with her whose endurance had borne fruit, 


I 163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

'' *So you see those who do not lose heart, even in calamity, 
obtain all they desire, and on the same principle you should 
abstain from suicide, for, if you live, you will be reunited 
to that lord.' With these words the old traveller closed his 
tale, and after dissuading me from death, departed whither 
he would." 

After Bhimaparakrama had told all this to Mrigankadatta 
at night in the house of Chandaketu, he went on to say : 

" So, having received useful admonition, I left that forest 
and went to the city of Ujjayini, for which I knew you were 
making, to find you. When I did not find you there, I 
Continuation f^^^^^^^ the housc of a Certain woman to lodge, 
the Adventures as I was wom out, and gave her money for food. 
ofBhimapard- g^e gQcve me a bed, and being tired I slept for 
some time, but then I woke up, and out of 
curiosity I remained quiet, and watched her, and while I 
was watching, the woman took a handful of barley, and 
sowed it all about inside the house, her lip trembling all the 
time with muttering spells. Those grains of barley immedi- 
ately sprang up, and produced ears, and ripened, and she cut 
them down, and parched them, and ground them, and made 
them into barley- meal. And she sprinkled the barley-meal 
with water, and put it in a brass pot, and, after arranging her 
house as it was before, she went out quickly to bathe. ^ 

'' Then, as I saw that she was a witch, I took the liberty of 
rising up quickly ; and taking that meal out of the brass pot, 
I transferred it to the meal-bin, and took as much barley- meal 
out of the meal-bin, and placed it in the brass vessel, taking 

^ Here there is a pun, as Kamalakara means "a bed of lotuses," the 
yfordipaksha meaning "wing" and also "side." She was of good lineage by 
her father's and mother's side. Manorathasiddhi means " the attainment of 

2 See Note 2 at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 


care not to mix the two kinds. Then I went back again to 
bed, and the woman came in, and roused me up, and gave 
me that meal from the brass pot to eat, and she ate some 
herself, taking what she ate from the meal-bin, and so she 
ate the charmed meal, not knowing that I had exchanged 
the two kinds. The moment she had eaten that barley- 
meal she became a she-goat; then I took her and sold her 
by way of revenge to a butcher.^ 

" Then the butcher's wife came up to me and said angrily : 
' You have deceived this friend of mine you shall reap the 
fruit of this.' When I had been thus threatened by her, I 
went secretly out of the town, and being weary I lay down 
under a banyan-tree, and went to sleep. And while I was 
in that state, that wicked witch, the butcher's wife, came 
and fastened a thread on my neck. Then the wicked woman 
departed, and immediately I woke up, and when I began to 
examine myself, lo ! I had turned into a peacock, though I 
still retained my intelligence. ^ 

" Then I wandered about for some days much distressed, 
and one day I was caught alive by a certain fowler. He 
brought me here and gave me to this Chandaketu, the 
principal warder of the king of the Bhillas, by way of a 
complimentary present. The warder, for his part, immediately 
made me over to his wife, and she put me in this house as 
a pet bird. And to-day, my Prince, you have been guided 
here by fate, and have loosened the thread round my neck, 
and so I have recovered my human shape. 

^ Cf. "The Soldier's Midnight Watch" in Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, 
p. 274. 

* In The Golden Ass of Apuleius, Pamphile turns herself into an owl ; 
when Apuleius asks to be turned into an owl, in order to follow her, Fotis 
turns him by mistake into an ass. See also the Ass of Lucian. The story of 
Circe will occur to everyone in connection with these transformations. See 
also Baring-Gould's iW^^A* of the Middle Ages, pp. 151, 152. Reference to 
animal metamorphoses in folk-tales are much too numerous to attempt to 
exhaust in a single note. One of the best-known tales is perhaps Grimm's 
" Der Krautesel " (" Donkey Cabbage "). Bolte and Polivka {op. cit., vol. iii, 
pp. 3-9) give a long list of analogues. See also the references given by 
Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 199, and especially P. Saintyves, Les Conies de Perrault, 
pp. 408-416. In Note 1 at the end of this chapter will be found some account 
of the use of the magic string in metamorphoses. n.m.p. 



" So let us leave this place quickly, for this warder always 
murders next morning ^ the companions of his midnight 
rambles, for fear his secrets should be disclosed. And to-day 
he has brought you here, after you have been a witness of 
his nightly adventures, so fasten, my Prince, on your neck 
this thread prepared by the witch, and turn yourself into 
a peacock, and go out by this small window ; then I will 
stretch out my hand and loosen the thread from your neck, 
which you must put up to me, and I will fasten it on my own 
neck and go out quickly in the same way. Then you must 
loosen the thread round my neck, and we shall both recover 
our former condition. But it is impossible to go out by the 
door, which is fastened from outside." 

When the sagacious Bhimaparakrama had said this, 
Mrigankadatta agreed to his proposal and so escaped from 
the house with him ; and he returned to his lodging where his 
other two friends were; there he and his friends all spent 
the night pleasantly in describing to one another all their 

And in the morning Mayavatu, the Bhilla king, the head 
of that town, came to Mrigankadatta, and after asking him 
whether he had spent the night pleasantly, he said to amuse 
him : " Come, let us play dice." Then Mrigankadatta's 
friend Srutadhi, observing that the Bhilla had come with his 
warder, said to him : " Why should you play dice ? Have you 
forgotten ? To-day we are to see the dance of the warder's 
peacock, which was talked about yesterday." 

When the Savara king heard that, he remembered, and 
out of curiosity sent the warder to fetch the peacock. And the 
warder remembered the wounds he had inflicted, ^ and thought 
to himself : " Why did I in my carelessness forget to put to 
death that thief, who witnessed my secret nightly expedition, 

^ I read pratah for pray ah. 

2 In order to make sense Tawney has supplied " he had inflicted " after 
the word " wounds." But he was misled by the B. text. Instead of smritvd 
'udghdtdn, read with the D. text, sinrtvodghdtdt. Udghdta (now in the abl. sing.) 
literally means " something that is made to rise up suddenly [in your mind] " 
i.e. "a hint," "suggestion," or "allusion." Thus we should translate 
"By this allusion the warder remembered [the affair] and thought to 
himself . . ." n.m.p. 


though I placed him in the peacock's house ? So I will go 
quickly, and do both the businesses." And thereupon he went 
quickly home. 

But when he reached his own palace, and looked into the 
house where the peacock was, he could not find either the 
thief or the peacock. Then terrified and despondent he re- 
turned, and said to his sovereign : " My lord, that peacock 
has been taken away in the night by a thief." Then Srutadhi 
said, smiling : " The man who took away your peacock is 
renowned as a clever thief." And when Mayavatu saw them 
all smiling, and looking at one another, he asked with the 
utmost eagerness what it all meant. Then Mrigankadatta 
told the Savara king all his adventures with the warder: 
how he met him in the night, and how the warder entered 
the queen's apartment as a paramour, and how he drew 
his knife in a quarrel ; how he himself went to the house of 
the warder, and how he set Bhimaparakrama free from his 
peacock transformation, and how he escaped thence. 

Then Mayavatu, after hearing that, and seeing that the 
maid in the harem had a knife- wound in the hand, and that 
when that thread was replaced for a moment on the neck 
of Bhimaparakrama he again became a peacock, put his 
warder to death at once as a violator of his harem. But he 
spared the life of that unchaste queen, on the intercession 
of Mrigankadatta, and renouncing her society, banished her 
to a distance from his court. And Mrigankadatta, though 
eager to win Sasankavati, remained some more days in the 
Pulinda's town, treated with great consideration by him, look- 
ing for the arrival of the rest of his friends and his reunion 
with them. 



We have already (Vol. Ill, p. 191) come across this form of animal 
metamorphosis, where several references are given. It will be remembered that 
in that case Sukhasaya, the witch, teaches the spells to her friend Bandhudatta 
in order that she can turn her lover into a monkey at will without her husband 
suspecting the intrigue. There are, however, two spells which have to be 
recited one in order to turn the man into the monkey, and another to change 
him back again to his former condition. Furthermore, we see (Vol. Ill, p. 192) 
that the cord or string itself possessed protective powers, for after the lover 
in his monkey form has been nearly killed by a troop of real monkeys, he 
says : " At last, by the virtue of the string on my neck ... I managed to 
recover my strength, . . ." 

In the very next story (p. 1.94) we saw that Bhavasarman was turned into 
an ox merely by a magical string being placed round his neck. We hear 
nothing of the necessity for the recitation of spells or of the virtue of the 
string itself. The same applies to the story in our present text (p. 40). 

Thus we notice that in no case is there any mention of a talisman or 
amulet, but merely a string or cord which possesses magical properties. That 
the mere string suffices in Indian fiction should not surprise us, as it enters 
into such important Hindu ceremonies as upanayana, the rite of initiation 
at which the Brahman is invested with the sacred thread {yajnopavltd). (For 
details see Stevenson, Rites of the Twice-Born, pp. 27-45.) There is also the 
manga lasfdramf or lucky thread fastened round the neck at marriages in 
Southern India (see Padfield, The Hindu at Home, Madras, 1896, pp. 126 et seq., 
239). Closely analogous to this is the rite of the tying of the tali, to which 
we have already had numerous references in the Ocean (see e.g. Vol. I, pp. 255- 
264 ; Vol. II, pp. 17, 18). Then there is the rdkhi, which is a cord tied by a 
woman or by Brahmans on the wrists of men at the Salono or Rakshabandhan 
feast, held on the full moon of the month Sravana (July- August). The use 
of cords and strings to obviate sterility and for medicinal curative purposes 
is found not only in many parts of India, but all over the world. See, for 
instance, W. Crooke, "Charms and Amulets (Indian)," Hastings' Enci/. Rel. 
Eth., vol. iii, p. 444; ditto, Religion and Folklore of Northern India, new edition 
(1926), pp. 304-306; J. G. Frazer, Golden Bough, vol. iii {Taboo and the Penis 
of the Soul), pp. 32 et seq., 43, 51. The colour of the string or cord is often of 
importance as well as the material of which it is made. (See the following 
articles by Theodor Zachariae, "Zum altindischen Hochzeitsritual," Wiener 
Zeitschrift f d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, vol. xvii, pp. 135 et seq., 211 et seq.; 
"Verwandlung durch Umbinden eines Fadens," op. cit vol. xix, pp. 240-243. 
The last article is also to be found in his Kleifie Schriften, pp. 228-230.) 

The uses of the noose or necklace of string in magical connections are, 
therefore, numerous and the practice widespread. Yet in nearly every case 
we can discern a distinct connection with the magic circle a line of endless 


continuity, a barrier past which nothing can escape and into which nothing 
can enter. 

Thus, in our present text the modus operandi of the magic string is clear. 
It possesses the power of holding a person in a certain prescribed state or 
condition until it is removed. The person when released from the enthralling 
properties of the string immediately returns to his former condition. A few 
analogues to our present text will show the different forms in which the 
" magic string " motif is found. In the Utiama-charitra-kathdnaka (a Jain tale 
the only copy in the British Museum is in Sanskrit, from the Gujarati), 
Anangasena, the courtesan, is madly in love with Prince Uttama-charitra. 
Unable to obtain him any other way, she manages to tie a magic thread 
round his leg. He is immediately turned into a parrot, and thus can be 
kept in close confinement, only being released to quench the fire of her 

A rather curious, and in many ways similar, story appears in a small 
Burmese collection translated by C. J. Bandow, The Precedents of Princess 
Thoodamma Tsari, Rangoon, 1881. Story No. XVII, "The Case of the Thoo- 
Hte's Son and his Three Wives," can be summarised as follows. A man is 
bitten by a snake and dies. In accordance with his instructions he is placed 
upon a raft and set adrift on the river. The body is found by three sisters 
many miles downstream. Their father restores the dead man to life, and all 
the daughters claim him. Finally, they agree to let him depart, but place a 
thread round his neck which immediately turns him into a small parrot. He 
flies home, and settles in the king's garden. He steals the fruit, is captured, 
and given as a present to the princess. One day she notices the thread round 
the bird's neck and removes it in play. The transformation at once takes place, 
and the couple become enamoured of one another. In time the princess 
becomes pregnant, and the parrot thinks it about time to make his exit. In 
doing so, however, the thread catches in the window and the metamorphosis 
occurs at this most inopportune moment. The man makes good his escape and 
rushes into a neighbouring house, where the family, liking his looks, pretend 
he is their son-in-law. Subsequently he marries the daughter. His original 
wife hears of his return to life. And (as in the Vetala tales which begin on 
p. 165 of this volume) the story ends with a question, in this case put to the 
wise Princess Tsari : " Whose husband should he be that of his original wife, 
the princess, or the stranger's daughter ? " Similar to the tale of Prince Uttama- 
charitra is a Kashmiri story, found in Knowles, Folk-Tales of Kashmir (2nd ed., 
1893, p. 71). Here a witch's daughter falls in love with a prince, and leading 
him away from the princess throws a cord round his neck, and turns him into 
a ram, releasing him only at night. 

In a Persian collection by Shayk h*Izzat Ullah, known as "The Rose of 
Bakawali" (see Clouston, Eastern Romances, pp. 34-6 and 545), we find prac- 
tically the same tale again. Ruh-afza is madly in love with Bahram, and in 
order to have him always with her fastens round his neck a talisman which 
changes him into a bird. Here, for the first time, we have the string or cord 
playing but a secondary part. It is now the talisman which is the important 
thing. As we now begin to get further away from Hindu environment, the 


sacredness and power of the string would lose its point in effecting trans- 
formations, while the magical talisman (the word itself is derived from the 
Arabic iilsam, pi. taldsivi), so well known throughout Mohammedan countries, 
would take its place. 

The use of talismans for the purposes of conjurations, etc., was not 
original with the Arabs. They derived their knowledge almost entirely from 
Gnostic and Talmudic sources, merely adding invocations from the Qur'an. 
When we come to Christian countries we note a further change still, for the 
cord, string or talisman has become a bridle. It is not surprising that the 
talisman is rare in Christian collections of folk-tales, for the underlying ideas 
of all charms and talismans is little less than a negation of the Unity of God. 
In early Christian times the efforts to crush all superstition and magic were 
for a time effective, and it is very interesting to read Augustine {De Civ. Dei, 
viii, 16-22) in his attack on Apuleius. It was only in later days that the 
belief in magic was recognised in Catholic communities, thus proving it had 
been crushed only temporarily, and was merely awaiting a more propitious 
moment to reassert itself. 

But in the case of transformations in European folk-tales the bridle is 
the magical article usually employed. After serving an apprenticeship with 
a magician, the hero learns how to turn himself into any animal he pleases, 
but in nearly every case becomes a horse or donkey, which is to be taken to 
market and sold. Great care, however, has to be taken to remember to 
remove the bridle after the sale is completed, otherwise the man cannot 
return to his former shape. It is quite natural that a European village com- 
munity would much more readily appreciate a tale of a magic bridle than a 
string, or even a talisman worn round the neck. (The bridle, however, does 
occur in Eastern tales. See, e.g.. Nights, Burton, vol. vii, p. 304>n}, and Kirby's 
note in Supp., vol. vi, p. 353.) 

The best-known " bridle " story is undoubtedly Grimm's No. 68, '* De 
Gaudeif un sien Meester," but here, as in so many of its analogues, the 
tale runs into the "Magical Conflict" motifs already treated in Vol. Ill, 
pp. 203-205. 

For both motifs see Bolte {op. cif., vol. ii, pp. 60-69). 

In conclusion, I would mention those Eastern variants in which no con- 
nection with the magic circle is possible, as nothing circular is used for 
the transformation. I refer to those tales in which a pin is inserted or 
taken out of the head of the man or animal (see Cosquin, Contes Indiens 
et ['Occident, p. 58 et seq.). A well-known example will be found in the 
second story of Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy TaleSy "The Pomegranate King" 
(see pp. 12-14 of the 1880 edition). Here the dead wife prays to be 
allowed to see her husband and children. Her prayer is granted, but 
she can come only as a bird with a pin in her head. As soon as it is 
extracted, however, she will at once turn into a woman again. It has also 
found its way to Sarawak, and occurs in a modern tale by the Ranee of 
Sarawak, "The Pontianak," included in her recent book. The Cauldron. 
Her Highness tells me she founded it entirely on a local legend. The 
Pontianak is well known throughout the Malayan region as a kind of flying 


vampire created by the death of a woman in childbirth. Full details will be 
found in Skeat, Malay Magic, London, 1900, p. 327, and Skeat and Blagden, 
Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, London, I906, vol. i, pp. 698, 699, and 
vol. ii, p. 14. N.M.P. 


The curious magical ceremony described on pp. 55-56 will remind many 
readers of a similar incident in the Nights (Burton, vol. vii, pp. 302, 330). Here, 
in the story of " Julnar the Sea-born and her Son," we read : 

" Presently, about midnight she rose from the carpet-bed and King Badr 
Basim was awake ; but he feigned sleep and watched stealthily to see what 
she would do. She took out of a red bag a something red, which she planted 
a-middlemost the chamber, and it became a stream, running like the sea; 
after which she took a handful of barley and strewing it on the ground watered 
it with water from the river ; whereupon it became wheat in the ear, and she 
gathered it and ground it into flour. Then she set it aside and, returning to 
bed, lay down by Badr Basim till morning, when he arose and washed his 
face and asked her leave to visit the Shaykh his uncle." 

Badr Basim is then given some parched corn by his uncle, with instructions 
only to pretend to eat her parched grain, and then make her eat of his corn. 
As soon as she has eaten even but a grain, Basim must throw water in her 
face and by simple declaration will be able to change her into any animal 
he likes. 

All is duly accomplished, and Queen Lab (the sorceress) is turned into 
a dapple mule. The aged mother of the queen manages to restore her to 
her original shape, and in revenge turns Basim into a fowl, which is put in 
a cage and kept in the palace, until the final release and triumph of the hero 
finishes the story. 

Chauvin, op. cit., v, 150, notices the likeness between these two tales, 
but adds no other analogues. 

Owing to the kindness of Dr D. B. Macdonald, probably the greatest 
living authority on the Nights, I am able to state that similar tales occur in 
several Arabic works dating from about a.d. 850 to 1200. 

The story first occurs in the celebrated collection of proverbs of al- 
Mufaddal ibn Salama (Jl. second half of ninth century a.d.), called the Fdkhir. 
The proverb in question is " A hadith of Khurafa." This is said to signify that 
the speaker considers something he has heard is "a story with no truth in it." 
The saying arose from the adventures of a certain good man named Khurafa. 
It resembles the first tale of the Nights, in that Khurafa is saved from the jinn 
by the marvellous tales of three chance travellers. It is the third tale that 
interests us here. It is quoted thus from al-Mufaddal by Sharishi {d. 619/1222) 
in his commentary on the Maqamat of Hariri (ed. Cairo, a.h. 1314, vol. i, p. 56 
et seq.). The translation is by D. B. Macdonald, Joum, Roy. As. Sac, July 1 924, 
pp. 374-375 : 


"*I had an evil mother' then he said to the mare on which he rode, 
' Was it thus ? ' and she said with her head, ' Yes ' he said, ' and I suspected 
her with this black slave ' and he pointed to the horse on which his ghuldm 
rode [and said to it], ' Was it thus ? ' and it said with its head, ' Yes.' So I 
sent one day on one of my affairs this ghuldm of mine who is riding ; but she 
shut him up with herself. He fell asleep and saw in his sleep as though 
she uttered a cry, and lo ! there was a large field rat which had come out. She 
said ' Bend down thy head ! ' and he bent it down. Next she said, ' Plough ! ' 
and it ploughed. Next she said, ' Thresh ! ' and it threshed. Next she 
summoned a handmill and it ground a cupful of sawiq. She brought it to the 
ghuldm and said to him, 'Take it to thy master.' He brought it to me, but 
I used guile towards the two of them until I had made them drink the cupful, 
and lo ! she was a mare and he was a stallion.' He said, ' Was it thus ? ' 
The mare with her head said, ' Yes,' and the stallion with his head said, 
'Yes.' Then they said, 'This is the most wonderful thing we have heard; 
thou art our partner.' So they agreed and freed Khurafa. Then he came 
to the prophet and told him this narrative. So whatever occurs of jesting 
narratives is referred back to Khurafa to whom this narrative goes back." 

In the text of the Fdkhir edited by C. A. Storey (Leyden, 1915) the 
magic scene is somewhat different. After the appearance of the large field 
rat it continues : 

" She said, ' Cleave ! ' and it cleft. Next she said, ' Repeat ! ' and it 
repeated. Next she said, ' Sow ! ' and it sowed. Next she said, ' Reap ! ' 
and it reaped. Next she said, * Thresh ! ' and it threshed." 

Although the Nights and al-Mufaddal describe a similar scene it would 
be hard to find two accounts so different. 

"It is noteworthy," says Macdonald, "that al-Mufaddal makes no 
reference to the Nights in any form, although we should have expected 
something of the kind in the context. It seems almost unescapable that he 
did not know the Nights," 

I now proceed to another version of the story which has been found by 
Dr Macdonald in five places, and has been very kindly translated by him for 
this work. 

The story is connected with Harut and Marut of Babil (Babel), the two 
angels who teach magic to mankind, without, however, concealing the fact 
that they are tempting them. Reference should be made to the Qurdn, ii, 96, 
which is the Muslim locus classicus for magic. 

The five places in which Dr Macdonald found the story in question are : 

I. The Mukhtalif al-hadlth. of Ibn Qutaiba {d. a.h. 276 i.e. a.d. 889), 
ed. Cairo, 1326, pp. 232-234. 

II. The Tafslr (Qur'an commentary) of Tabari {d. 310/923), ed. Cairo, 
vol. i, p. 347, 1. 23 to p. 348, 1. 10 ; on Qur. ii, 9Q. 

III. The Qiscus al-anbiya ofTha'labI (d. 427/1036), ed. Cairo, 1314, p. 30, 
U. 16-31. 


IV. The 'Mafmh algh-aib (Qur'an commentary) of Razi (d, 606/1209), 
ed. Cairo, 1307, vol. i, p. 434, 11. 19-28 ; on Qur. ii, 96. 

V. Commentary by Sharishi (d. 619/1222) on Maqdmdt of Hariri, ed. 
Cairo, 1314, vol. i, p. 211. 

Of these III, IV and V seem to be dependent upon II. I is a much 
shorter form and stands by itself. 

The following translations, by Dr Macdonald, are, therefore, of Nos. I 
and II : 


A woman came seeking an opinion in canon law, but she found that the 
Prophet had died and she found only one of his wives it is said that she was 
'A'isha. So she said to her, " O Mother of the Believers, a woman said to 
me, * Do you wish that I should do something for you by which the face 
of your husband will be turned to you .'* ' " (And I think he [the narrator of 
the tradition] said), " Then she brought two dogs ; she rode one and I rode 
the other. Then we journeyed as long as Allah willed. Thereafter she said, 
* Do you know that you are in Babil }'" And [the story goes on that] she 
went in to a man or, she said, two men and they said to her, " Make 
water upon those ashes." She [the original teller of the story to 'A'isha] said, 
"So I went, but I did not make water, and I returned, and they said to 
me, 'What did you see.^' I said, * I have not seen anything.' They said, 
'You are still at the beginning of your affair.'" She said, "So I returned 
and plucked up my courage, then made water and there came out from me 
the likeness of a helmeted horseman, and it ascended into the sky. Then I 
returned to them and they said to me, ' What have you seen ?' So I told 
them and they said, 'That was your Faith which has left you.' And I 
went out to the woman and said, 'By Allah, they did not teach me any- 
thing and they did not say to me how I should act.' She said, ' But what 
did you see }' So I told her and she said, ' You are [now] the greatest 
magician of the Arabs ; act and wish ! ' (So she said.) Then she cut 
furrows and said, ' It showed ears.* And lo, it was seed produce, shaking. 
Then she said, ' It began to ripen.' And lo, it was dry and hard. (So she 
said.) Then she took it and husked it and gave me it and said, ' Pound 
this and make into sawlq and give it to your husband to drink.' But I did 
not do any such thing ; the affair reached this point only. So is there any 
repentance for me } " 

This is translated very literally from a text which probably is not too 
sound. The insertions in square brackets have been added by Dr Macdonald, 
and, like the inverted commas, are purely conjectural. 


From 'Urwa, sister's son of 'A'isha, that she said : " There came to me 
a woman of the people of Dumat al-Jandal. She came desiring to meet the 
Messenger of Allah, shortly after his death, to ask him about a thing into 
which she had entered of the matter of magic ; and she did not know of his 


death." 'A'isha said to *Urwa, " O my sister's son, then I saw her weeping 
when she did not find the Messenger of Allah that he might deal with her 
case ; she was weeping until I had compassion upon her, and she was saying, 
* I fear I am lost. I had a husband and he deserted me ; so I went to an old 
woman and I complained to her of that. She said, " If you will do what I 
command you I will make him come to you." So when it was night she came 
to me with two black dogs ; she rode one of them and I rode the other ; and 
it was no time until we arrived at Babil. And lo, there were two men, hung 
up by their feet, and they said, " What has brought you ? " I said, " I would 
learn magic." Then they said, " We are only a temptation ; so be not an un- 
believer, but go back." But I was unwilling and refused. So they said, " Go 
to that oven (tannur) and make water in it." So I went, but I was afraid and 
did not do it. Then I returned to them and they said, " Did you do it ? " 
I said, " Yes." They said, '' Did you see anything ? " I said, " I saw nothing." 
Then they said to me, " You did not do it ; go back to your own country and 
do not be an unbeliever." But I was unwilling ; so they said, " Go to that 
oven and make water in it." So I went, but I shuddered and feared ; then 
I returned to them and said, " I have done it." Then they said, " And have 
you not seen anything } " I said, " I saw nothing." Then they said, " You lie ; 
you did not do it ; go back to your own country and be not an unbeliever, 
for you are at the point of accomplishing your affair." [Or "for you are 
(only) at the beginning of your affair."] But I was unwilling; so they said, 
" Go to that oven and make water in it." So I went and made water in it, 
and I saw a horseman with an iron helmet who came out from me until he 
went away into the sky, and he departed from me until I did not see him. 
So I came to them and said, "I have done it." They said, "What did you 
see?" I said, "A horseman with an iron helmet who came out from me, 
and he went away into the sky until I did not see him." They said, " You 
have spoken the truth. That was your faith which came out from you. Go 
away." Then I said to the woman, " By Allah, I do not know anything and 
they have not said anything to me." But she said, " Nay, you will never will 
a thing but it will happen. Take this wheat and scatter it." So I scattered 
it. Then I said, "Spring up!" Then it sprang up. I said, "Show ears!" 
Then it showed ears. Thereafter I said, " Begin to ripen ! " Then it began 
to ripen. Thereafter I said, " Turn dry and hard ! " Then it turned dry and 
hard. Thereafter I said, " Be ground ! " Then it was ground. Thereafter 
I said, " Be baked to bread 1 " Then it was baked to bread. So when I saw 
that I could not will a thing but it happened, I was confounded and repented. 
And by Allah, O Mother of the Believers! I have never done anything 
magical and will never do anything.' " 

Dr Macdonald can give no explanation of the differences between these 
two versions. The story does not occur in any of the standard collections 
of "traditions." Professor Wensinck of Leyden, under whose direction an 
" Index to Traditions " is being compiled, has looked for some reference to 
the story, but in vain. Thus it is clear that the tale has not good technical 
standing as a Muslim tradition, so it seems curious that Tabari should have 


used it. He was an historian, a traditionist and an exegete of the first rank ; 
he is regarded as dependable in a high degree, and as the story is not 
" of faith " for Islam, his use of it is specially curious. Ibn Qutaiba was a man 
of literature in the traditionalist wing of Muslim theology, he, also, is of high 
reputation. Both, no doubt, gave the story as it reached them. The others evi- 
dently abbreviated and developed from Tabarl. For them all, see Nicholson's 
lAterary History of the Arabs. Razi (No. IV) has one curious development ; 
" You will never will a thing so as to picture it in your imagination, but it will 
happen." Cf. Macdonald's " Wahm " article in Journ. Roy. As. Soc. for October 
1922, p. 514 et seq. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to trace 
the story step by step, Dr Macdonald agrees that its starting-place was 
undoubtedly India. n.m.p. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatla 

" "W" 'T'HILE Mrigankadatta was thus residing in the 
%/%/ palace of Mayavatu, the king of the Bhillas, ac- 
y companied by Vimalabuddhi and his other friends, 
one day the general of the Bhilla sovereign came to him in a 
state of great excitement, and said to him in the presence of 
Mrigankadatta : " As by your Majesty's orders I was search- 
ing for a man to offer as a victim to Durga, I found one so 
valiant that he destroyed five hundred of your best warriors, 
and I have brought him here disabled by many wounds." 

When the Pulinda chief heard that, he said to the general : 
'' Bring him quickly in here, and show him to me." Then 
he was brought in, and all beheld him smeared with the 
blood that flowed from his wounds, begrimed with the dust 
of battle, bound with cords, and reeling, hke a mad elephant 
tied up, that is stained with the fluid that flows from his 
temples ^ mixed with the vermilion painting on his cheek. 

^ The mast (must, or musth) state of the elephant plays a large part in the 
metaphor and hyperbolical descriptions of Hindu poets. Special mention is 
usually made of the ichor or mada, a dark oily matter which exudes from the 
temporal pores of the elephant when in a must state. 

In Vol. I, p. 182, we read of the King of Vatsa being "followed by huge 
elephants raining streams of ichor that seemed like moving peaks of the 
Vindhya range accompanying him out of affection." 

In Vol. II, pp. 92 and 93, we have similar references: "Though his 
-elephants drank the waters of the Godavari . . . they seemed to discharge 
them again sevenfold in the form of ichor," The must condition and the 
mada itself also appear in punning descriptions of the hero's strength or 
degree of pas&ion. (See Vol. II, p. 125w*, and Vol. Ill, p. 214^1.) 

Owing to the kindness of Major Stanley Flower, introduced to me by 
Dr Chalmers Mitchell, I am able to add some very interesting notes on must 
elephants. The Indian elephant has four (not two, as often stated) glands 
on the forehead, an upper and a lower pair. In Rajputana the mahouts call 
the upper gland " Daan," and the lower gland " Khamuka." ^Vhether the dis- 
charge from these glands, or pores, is necessarily coincident with the animal 


Then Mrigankadatta recognised him as his minister Guna- 
kara, and ran and threw his arms round his neck, weeping. 
Then the king of the Bhillas, hearing from Mrigankadatta's 
friends that it was Gunakara, bowed before him, and com- 
forted him as he was cUnging to the feet of his master, 
and brought him into his palace, and gave him a bath, and 
bandaged his wounds, and supphed him attentively with 
wholesome food and drink, such as was recommended by the 
physicians. Then Mrigankadatta, after his minister had 
been somewhat restored, said to him : " Tell me, my friend, 
what adventures have you had ? " Then Gunakara said in the 
hearing of all : " Hear, Prince, I will tell you my story. 

"At that time when I was separated from you by the 
curse of the Naga, I was so bewildered that I was conscious 
of nothing, but went on roaming through that far-extending 
wilderness. At last I recovered consciousness and thought 
in my grief : ' Alas, this is a terrible dispensation of unruly 

being must, or in a state of sexual excitement, is a matter on which observers 
disagree. The most recent, and reliable, article on the subject is that by 
J. C. C. Wilson in the Joum. Bomh. Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. xxviii, 1922, pp. 1128- 
1129. He points out that it is not necessary for the bull to be must to 
reproduce his kind, and that an immature bull which has never been inust 
can get a calf. Must elephants are most dangerous, both to other elephants 
and to man, so much so that they have to be chained up and starved till 
their condition becomes normal again. Luckily the glands of the temple 
swell some days before the discharge commences, and thus give warning of 
the approaching condition. If a cow in season can be provided for the bull> 
his must is reduced, but he will drive off, or even gore, a cow not in season. 
A curious fact is that the cow herself, when in season, has a slight discharge 
from the glands between the eye and ear similar to that of the bull. 

A healthy bull should come on must at least once a year. Among 
wild tuskers the state usually occurs in December or January, while in tame 
herds, which are worked to about the end of February, must does not 
come on till later, after the elephants have had time to rest and get in good 
condition again. The mahouts, a most unscrupulous set of men, sometimes 
quiet the must condition by the use of opium and other drugs. The ichor, 
or mada, is looked upon as a great perquisite, and is sold by the mahout, 
sometimes for high prices, as an aphrodisiac for human consumption. 

Reference might also be made to the following : G. H. Evans, A Treatise 
on Elephants: Their Treatment in Health and Disease, Rangoon, 1901; ditto, 
Elephants and their Diseases, Rangoon, 1910; and S. E. Wilmot, The Life of 
an Elephant, Ldn., 1912. n.m.p. 


destiny. How will Mrigankadatta, who would suffer even 
in a palace, exist in this desert of burning sand ? And 
how will his companions exist ? ' Thus reflecting frequently 

in my mind, I happened, as I was roaming 
ofGundkara^^^^^^^^ ^^ come upon the abode of Durga. And 
after his I entered her temple, in which were offered day 

Separation ^^^ night many and various living creatures, 

and which therefore resembled the palace of the 
God of Death. After I had worshipped the goddess there, 
I saw the corpse of a man who had offered himself, and 
who held in his hand a sword that had pierced his throat. 
When I saw that, I also, on account of my grief at being 
separated from you, determined to propitiate the goddess 
by the sacrifice of myself. So I ran and seized his sword. 
But at that moment some compassionate female ascetic, 
after forbidding me from a distance by a prohibitive shake 
of the head, came up to me, and dissuaded me from death, 
and after asking me my story said to me : ' Do not act so, 
the reunion of the dead has been seen in this world, much 
more of the living. Hear this story in illustration of it. 

163d. How King Vimtamati became a Holy Man 

There is a celebrated city on the earth, of the name of 
Ahichchhatra ^ ; in it there dwelt of old time a mighty 
king, of the name of Udayatunga. And he had a noble warder 

^ Also known as Ahikshetra, Ahikshatra and Adhichhatra. The later 
form is found in the inscriptions (see Epigraphia hidica, vol. ii, p. 243). It 
is referred to in the Mahahharata, Adiparva, sect, clxviii, as Chhatravati, and 
is the 'O-hi-chi-ta-lo of Hiuen Tsiang (a.d. 629). For his account see S. Beal, 
Buddhist Records of the Western World, vol. i, pp. 200-201. It has been 
identified by Cunningham {Ancient Geography of India, vol. i, p. 359 et seq.) 
with Ramnagar, twenty miles west of Bareli, in Rohilkhand. The name 
Ahichchhatra is now confined to the great fortress in the lands of 'Alampur 
Kot and Nasratganj. It was the capital of North Pafichala or Rohilkhand. 
(See Fuhrer, Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions in the N.-W. Provinces and 
Oudhj p. 26 et seq. ; and Nundolal Dey, " Geographical Dictionary of Ancient 
and Mediaeval India," hidian Antiquary, vol. xlviii, 1919, Supp., pp. 2-3.) In 
Jaina works it is described as the chief town of Jangala, another name for 
North Paiichala (Weber, Indische Studien, vol. xvi, p. 398). n.m.p. 


named Kamalamati. This warder had a matchless son named 
Vinitamati. The lotus, in spite of its threads, and the bow, 
in spite of its string, could not be compared to that youth 
who possessed a string of good qualities, for the first was 
hollow and the second crooked. One day, as he was on 
a platform on the top of a palace white with plaster, he saw 
the moon rising in the beginning of the night, like a splendid 
ear-ornament on the darkness of the eastern quarter, made 
of a shoot from the wishing-tree of love. And Vinitamati, 
seeing the world gradually illuminated with its numerous 
rays, felt his heart leap within him, and said to himself : 
" Ha ! the ways are seen to be lighted up by the moonlight, 
as if whitened with plaster, so why should I not go there 
and roam about?" Accordingly he went out with his bow 
and arrows, and roamed about, and after he had gone only a 
kos,^ he suddenly heard a noise of weeping. He went in the 
direction of the sound and saw a certain maiden of heavenly 
appearance weeping, as she reclined at the foot of a tree. 
And he said to her : " Fair one, who are you ? And why 
do you make the moon of your countenance like the moon 
when flecked with spots, by staining it with tears ? " When 
he said this to her, she answered : " Great-souled one, I am 
the daughter of a king of the snakes named Gandhamalin, 
and my name is Vijayavati. Once on a time my father fled 
from battle, and was thus cursed by Vasuki ^ : ' Wicked one, 
you shall be conquered and become the slave of your enemy.' 
In consequence of that curse my father was conquered by his 
enemy, a Yaksha named Kalajihva, and made his servant, 
and forced to carry a load of flowers for him. Grieved 
thereat, I tried for his sake to propitiate Gauri with 
asceticism, and the holy goddess appeared to me in visible 
form, and said this to me : ' Listen, my child ; there is 
in the Manasa lake a great and heavenly lotus of crystal 

1 Or more correctly Krosa (literally^ a "shout," as expressing the range 
of the voice). It is usually taken as representing one and an eighth miles. 
See Fleet, "Imaginative Yojanas/' Jotim. Roy. As. Soc, 1912, p. 237. n.m.p. 

2 The serpent who, at the Churning of the Ocean, acted as a rope by twin- 
ing round Mount Mandara, which was used as the churning-stick. According 
to the Rdmayana, his city, Bhogavati, lies between Kunjara and Rishabha, two 
of the five mountains of Ceylon. n.m.p. 


expanded into a thousand leaves. Its rays are scattered 
abroad when it is touched by the sunbeams, and it gleams 
like the many-crested head of Sesha,^ yellow with the rays of 
jewels. Once on a time Kuvera beheld it, and conceived a 
desire for that lotus, and after he had bathed in the Manasa 
lake, he began to worship Vishnu in order to obtain it. And 
at that time, the Yakshas, his followers, were playing in the 
water, in the shapes of Brahmany ducks and geese, and other 
aquatic creatures. And it happened that the elder brother 
of your enemy Kalajihva, a Yaksha named Vidyujjihva, was 
playing with his beloved in the form of a Brahmany drake, 
and while flapping his wings, he struck and upset the argha 
vessel 2 held in the extremity of Kuvera's hand. Then the 
God of Wealth was enraged, and by a curse made Vidyujjihva 
and his wife Brahmany ducks ^ on this very Manasa lake. 
And Kalajihva, now that his elder brother is so transformed 
and is unhappy at night on account of the absence of his 
beloved, assumes out of affection her form every night to 
console him, and remains there in the day in his own natural 
form, accompanied by your father Gandhamalin, whom he 
has made a slave. So send there, my daughter, the brave 
and enterprising Vinitamati, of the town of Ahichchhatra, 

^ Or Ananta, the giant cobra on which Vishnu is often represented 
sleeping. He has a thousand heads, and supports the earth on his hood. 
With Vasuki and Takshaka he rules the Nagas. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. II, p. 77wi. N.M.P. 

^ More usually spelt Brahminy. This is the Tadorna Casarca or Casarca 
rutila, the ruddy sheldrake of English authors. It appears in Barbary, South- 
East Europe and Central Asia. In colour the bird is bay, with the quill-feathers 
of the wings and tail black. The male has also a black ring round the neck. 
There seems to be foundation for the Hindu belief that the male and female 
stay apart during the night, calling to one another from opposite banks. This 
strange behaviour was not lost on Hindu poets, who explained it by telling 
a story of how two lovers were transformed into birds and condemned to 
separate at night. References to the three leading accounts of the Brahminy 
Duck are as follows: E. C. Stuart Baker, The Indian Ducks and their Allies, 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, 19O8, pp. 114-122 (good coloured plate) ; J. C. Phillips, 
A Natural History of the Ducks, vol. i, London, 1923, pp. 230-246 (coloured plate 
and map of distribution) ; R. G. Wright and D. Dewar, The Ducks of India, 
London, 1925, pp. 187-196. Reference might also be made to T. C. Jerdon, 
The Birds of India, vol. iii, 1864, pp. 791-793; and Sarat Chandra Mitra, 
Quarterly Journal Mythic Society, vol. xvi, pp. 125-128. n.m.p. 


the son of the warder, and take this sword ^ and this horse, 
for with these that hero will conquer that Yaksha, and will 
set your father at liberty. And whatever man becomes the 
possessor of this excellent sword will conquer all his enemies 
and become a king on the earth.' After saying this the 
goddess gave me the sword and the horse, and disappeared. 
So I have come here to-day in due course to excite you to the 
enterprise, and seeing you going out at night with the favour 
of the goddess, I brought you here by an artifice, having 
caused you to hear a sound of weeping. So accomplish for 
me that desire of mine, noble sir ! " When Vinitamati was 
thus entreated by her, he immediately consented. 

Then the snake- maiden went at once and brought that 
swift white horse, that looked like the concentrated rays of 
the moon rushing forth into the extreme points of the earth 
to slay the darkness, and that splendid sword, equal in 
brightness to the starlight sky, appearing like a glance of the 
Goddess of Fortune in search of a hero, and gave them both 
to Vinitamati. And he set out with the sword, after mount- 
ing that horse with the maiden, and thanks to its speed he 
reached that very Lake Manasa. The lotus-clumps of the 
lake were shaken by the wind, and it seemed by the plaintive 
cries of its Brahmany ducks to forbid his approach out of 
pity for Kalajihva. And seeing Gandhamalin there in the 
custody of some Yakshas, he wounded those miserable 
creatures with his sword and dispersed them, in order to set 
him at liberty. When Kalajihva saw that, he abandoned 
the form of a Brahmany duck and rose from the middle of 
the lake, roaring like a cloud of the rainy season. In the 
course of the fight Kalajihva soared up into the air, and 
Vinitamati, with his horse, soared up after him, and seized 
him by the hair. And when he was on the point of cutting 
off his head with his sword, the Yaksha, speaking in a plain- 

^ The sword may be compared with that of Chandamahasena in Chapter 
XI, and with Morglay, Excalibar, Durandal, Gram, Balmung, Chrysaor, etc. 
(See Sir G. Cox's Mythology of the Aryan Nations, vol. i, p. 308.) The same 
author has some remarks upon Pegasus and other magic horses in his 
second volume, p. 287 et seq. See also Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 256 

et seq. For the magic sword see Vol. I, p. 109n^, and cf. Mahdjanaka-Jdtaka, 

No. 5S9 (Cambridge edition, vol. vi, p. 26). n.m.p. 


live voice, implored his protection. And being spared, he 
gave him his own ring, that possessed the power of averting 
all the calamities called tti,^ and with all marks of deference 
he released Gandhamalin from slavery, and Gandhamalin, 
in his delight, gave Vinitamati his daughter Vijayavati, and 
returned home. Then Vinitamati, being the possessor of a 
splendid sword, ring, horse and maiden, returned home as 
soon as the day broke. There his father welcomed him and 
questioned him, and was delighted at the account of his 
exploits, and so was his sovereign, and then he married that 
Naga maiden. 2 

And one day his father Kamalamati said in secret to the 
youth, who was happy in the possession of these four priceless 
things, and of many accomplishments : " The King Udaya- 
tunga here has a daughter named Udayavati, well taught in 
all the sciences, and he has publicly announced that he will 
give her to the first Brahman or Kshatriya who conquers her 
in argument. And by her wonderful skill in argument she 
has silenced all other disputants, as by her beauty, which is 
the theme of the world's wonder, she has put to shame the 
nymphs of heaven. You are a distinguished hero, you are a 
disputant of the Kshatriya caste ; why do you remain silent ? 
Conquer her in argument, and marry her."^ 

^ Excessive rain, drought, rats, locusts, birds and foreign invasion. 

2 I have before referred to Ralston's remarks on snakes in his Russian 
Folk-Tales i p. 65. Melusina is a clear instance of a snake-maiden in European 
folk-lore. See her story in Simrock's Die Deutschen Volksbiicher, vol. vi. 

There is a similar marriage in Prym and Socin, Syrische Mdrchen, p. 246. 

Many references will be found in Vols. I and II of this work. n.m.p. 

3 Compare the commencement of the story of "The Blind Man and 
the Cripple" in Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 240, and Waldau's Bohmische 

Mdrchen, p. 445. This tale appears to belong to the Atalanta cycle. 

These " wit combats," which sometimes take the form of a series of riddles, 
appear to have been a common feature of entertainment at the courts of 
Asiatic monarchs, and are found throughout Eastern fiction. They form a 
most useful "motif" in prolonging the final triumph of the hero, and afford 
a formidable obstacle for him to overcome. 

The account given by Somadeva of how the femme savante was defeated 
in argument by Vinitamati is very disappointing, and reads rather as if it 
had been cut down from a longer account in the original tale as given by 

In Vol. V, p. 183^, I gave references to tales containing riddles in 


When Vinitamati's father said this to him, he answered : 
" My father, how can men like me contend with weak 
women ? Nevertheless I will obey this order of yours." 
When the bold youth said this, his father went to the 
king, and said to him : " Vinitamati will dispute with the 
princess to-morrow." And the king approved the proposal, 
and Kamalamati returned home, and informed his son 
Vinitamati of his consent. 

The next morning the king, Uke a swan, took up his 
position in the midst of the lotus-bed of the assembly of 
learned men, and the disputant Vinitamati entered the hall, 
resplendent like the sun, and being gazed on by the eyes of 
all the accomplished men who were assembled there, that were 
turned towards him, he, as it were, animated the lotus-bed 
with circling bees. And soon after the Princess Udayavati 
came there slowly, like the bow of the God of Love bent 
with the string of excellence ; adorned with splendid sweetly 
tinkling ornaments, that seemed, as it were, to intimate her 
first objection before it was uttered. ^ A pure streak of the 

Chauvin. To them I would add vii, pp. 118, 119- Here Chauvin gives a 
large number of analogues to the tale of " Abu Al-Husn and his Slave-Girl 
Tawaddud " in the Nights (see Burton, vol. v, pp. 1 89-245), where the long 
series of questions on every imaginable subject occupies nearly the entire 
text. One is naturally reminded of the Queen of Sheba who " came to prove 
the wisdom of Solomon with hard questions," and also of his putting the 
judges to shame by his questions to which they could make no reply. See 
Clouston, Flowers from a Persian Garden, pp. 218, 273, 274, and the references 

For the riddles of the Queen of Sheba see S. Schechter, Folk-Lore^ 
vol. i, pp. 349-358; J. Issaverdens, Uncanonical Writings of the O.T. found in 
the Armenian MSS. of the Library of St Lazarus, Venice, 1901, pp. 205-207, 
211-215; W. Hertz, Gesammelte Ahhandlungen, 1905, pp. 412-455; P. Cassel, 
An Explanatonj Commentary on Esther, Edinburgh, 1888, pp. 283-285; and 
St John D. Seymour, Tales of Kiiig Solomon, pp. 145-146. 

In Hindu fiction one of the best-known series of riddles (and charades) 
occurs in Parsvanatha's account of Vikrama's adventures as a parrot. See 
Bloomfield, " On the Art of Entering Another's Body," Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 
vol. Ivi, 1917, pp. 31-35. N.M.p. 

^ The passage is full of puns, which it is impossible to translate; the 
"ornaments" may be rhetorical ornaments, there is also a reference to the 
gunas of rhetorical writers. " Sweetly tinkling " might mean " elegant words." 
Gundkrisktd, in sloka 76a, may also mean that the princess was attracted by the 
good qualities of her opponent. 


moon in a clear heaven would give some idea of her 
appearance when she was seated on her emerald throne. 
Then she made her first objection, stringing on the threads 
of her glittering teeth a chain of elegant words like jewels. 
But Vinitamati proved that her objection was based upon 
premises logically untenable, and he soon silenced the fair 
one, refuting her point by point. Then the learned audience 
commended him, and the princess, though beaten in argu- 
ment, considered that she had triumphed, as she had gained 
an excellent husband. And Udayatunga bestowed on Vini- 
tamati his daughter, whom he had won in the arguing match. 
Then the king loaded Vinitamati with jewels and he lived 
united to the daughter of a snake and the daughter of a king. 

Once on a time, when he was engaged in gambling, and 
was being beaten by other gamblers, and much distressed in 
mind thereat, a Brahman came and asked him for food with 
great importunity. 

He was annoyed at that, and whispered in the ear of his 
servant, and caused to be presented to the Brahman a vessel 
full of sand wrapped up in a cloth. The simple-minded 
Brahman thought, on account of its weight, that it must be 
full of gold, and went to a solitary place and opened ^ it. 
And seeing that it was full of sand, he flung it down on the 
earth, and saying to himself, "The man has deceived me," 
he went home despondent. But Vinitamati thought no more 
of the matter, and left the gambling, and remained at home 
with his wives in great comfort. 

And in course of time, the King Udayatunga became 
unable to bear the burden of the empire, as his vigour in 
negotiations and military operations was relaxed by old 
age.'^ Then, as he had no son, he appointed his son-in-law 
Vinitamati his successor, and went to the Ganges to lay down 
his body. And as soon as Vinitamati obtained the govern- 
ment, he conquered the ten cardinal points by the virtue of 
his horse and his sword. And, by the might of his calamity- 

^ Dr Kern conjectures udaghatayat, which is, as far as I can make out, the 
reading of the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 There is probably a pun here. It may mean that his joints and body 
were relaxed by old age. 


averting ring, his kingdom was free from sickness and famine, 
like that of Rama. 

Now, once on a time, there came to that king from a 
foreign country a mendicant, named Ratnachandramati, who 
was among other disputants Hke the hon among elephants. 
The king, who was fond of accomplished men, entertained 
him, and the mendicant challenged him to dispute on the 
following terms, which he uttered in the form of a verse : 
" If thou art vanquished, O King, thou must adopt the law 
of Buddha ; if I am vanquished, I will abandon the rags 
of a Buddhist mendicant, and listen to the teaching of the 
Brahmans." The king accepted this challenge, and argued 
with the mendicant for seven days, and on the eighth day 
the mendicant conquered that king, who in the dispute with 
Udayavati had conquered the " Hammer of Shavelings." ^ 
Then faith arose in the breast of the king, and he adopted 
the Buddha law taught by that mendicant, which is rich in 
the merit of benefiting all creatures ; and becoming devoted 
to the worship of Jina, he built monasteries and almshouses 
for Buddhist mendicants, Brahmans, and other sectaries, and 
all men generally. 

And being subdued in spirit by the practice of that law, 
he asked that mendicant to teach him the rule for discipline 
leading to the rank of a Bodhisattva, a rule which involves 
benefits to all. And the mendicant said to him : " King, 
the great discipline of a Bodhisattva is to be performed by 
those who are free from sin, and by no others. Now you 
are not tainted with any sin which is palpable, and therefore 
visible to men like myself, but find out, by the following 
method, if you have any minute sin, and so destroy it." 
With these words the mendicant taught him a charm ^ for 
producing dreams, and the king, after having had a dream, 
said to the mendicant in the morning : " Teacher, I fancied 

^ The practice of tonsure among Buddhists is well known. It is interest- 
ing to note that it became unpopular in China chiefly because it was an 
outward sign of the celibate priesthood, and so adverse to the Chinese idea 
of the importance of domestic life. See the various articles on the subject 
in Hastings' Erwy. Rel. Eth., vol. vii, pp. 385-388. n.m.p. 

2 This seems to be the meaning of mdnava here. See Bohtlingk and 
Roth s.v. 


in my dream last night that I went to the other world, and 
being hungry I asked for some food. And then some men 
with maces in their hands said to me : ' Eat, O King, these 
numerous grains of hot sand earned by you, which you gave 
long ago to the hungry Brahman, when he came to beg of 
you. If you give away ten crores of gold, you will be liberated 
from this guilt.' When the men with maces had said this 
to me, I woke up, and lo ! the night had come to an end." 

When the king had related his dream, he gave away, by 
order of the mendicant, ten crores ^ of gold as an atonement 
for his sin, and again employed the charm for producing 
dreams. And again he had that dream, and in the morning 
when he got up he related it, and said : " Last night also 
those mace-bearers in the other world gave me sand to eat, 
when I was hungry, and then I said to them : ' Why should 
I eat this sand, though I have bestowed alms ? ' Then they 
said to me : ' Your gift was of no avail, for among the gold 
coins was one belonging to a Brahman.' When I heard this 
I woke up." Having told his dream in these words, the king 
gave away another ten crores of gold to beggars. 

And again, when the night came, he used that charm for 
producing dreams, and again he had a dream, and next morn- 
ing when he got up he related it in the following words : 
" Last night too those men in the other world gave me sand 
to eat in my dream, and when I questioned them, they said 
this to me : ' King, that gift of yours also is of no avail, for 
to-day a Brahman has been robbed and murdered in a forest 
in your country by bandits, and you did not protect him, so 
your gift is of no avail on account of your not protecting 
your subjects ; so give to-day double the gift of yesterday.' 
When I heard this I woke up." After the king had related 
his dream to his spiritual guide in these words, he gave double 
his former gift. 

Then he said to the mendicant : " Teacher, how can men 
like myself obey in this world a law which admits of so many 
infractions ? " 

1 Sansk. koti, and Hindus, karor. One hundred lakhs i.e. 10,000,000. 
A crore of rupees was originally worth a million sterling, but when the rupee 
was fixed at fifteen to \ its value sank to jQQQ,6QQ. n.m.p. 


\^Tien the mendicant heard that, he said : " Wise men 
should not allow such a little thing to damp their ardour in 
the keeping of the law of righteousness. The gods themselves 
protect firm men, endowed with perseverance, that swerve not 
from their duty, and they bring their wishes to fulfilment. 
Have you not heard the story of the adorable Bodhisattva 
in his former birth as a boar ? Listen, I will tell you. 

163DD. The Holy Boar, the Monkey and the Lions 

Long ago there dwelt in a cavern in the Vindhya 
mountains a wise boar, who was an incarnation of a portion 
of a Buddha, together with his friend a monkey. He was a 
benefactor of all creatiu-es, and he remained always in the 
society of that friend, honouring guests, and so he spent the 
time in occupations suited to him. But once on a time there 
came on a storm lasting for five days, which w^as terrible, in 
that it hindered with its unintermitting rainfall the move- 
ments of all Uving creatm*es. On the fifth day, as the boar 
was lying asleep with the monkey at night, there came to 
the door of the cave a lion with his mate and his cub. Then 
the lion said to his mate : " During this long period of bad 
weather we shall certainly die of hunger from not obtaining 
any animal to eat." The lioness answered : " It is clear that 
himger will prevent all of us from surviving, so you two 
had better eat me and so save your Kves. For you are my 
lord and master, and this son of ours is our very life ; you 
will easily get another mate like me, so ensure the welfare of 
you two by devouring me." 

Now, as chance would have it, that noble boar w^oke up 
and heard the conversation of the Uon and his mate. And 
he was deUghted and thought to himself : " The idea of my 
recei\dng such guests on such a night in such a storm ! Ah ! 
to-day my merit in a former state of existence has brought 
forth fruit. So let me satiate these guests with this body 
that perishes in a moment, while I have a chance of doing so." 
Having thus reflected, the boar rose up, and went out, and 
said to the Uon wdth an affectionate voice : " My good friend, 
do not despond. For here I am ready to be eaten by you and 


your mate and your cub : so eat me." When the boar said 
this the Uon was deHghted, and said to his mate : " Let this 
cub eat first, then I will eat, and you shall eat after me." 
She agreed, and first the cub ate some of the flesh of the boar, 
and then the lion himself began to eat. And while he was 
eating, the noble boar said to him : " Drink my blood quickly, 
before it sinks into the ground, and satisfy your hunger with 
my flesh, and let your mate eat the rest." 

While the boar was saying this, the lion gradually de- 
voured his flesh until nothing but bones was left, but still 
the virtuous boar did not die, for his life remained in him, 
as if to see what would be the end of his endurance. And in 
the meanwhile the Honess, exhausted with hunger, died in the 
cave, and the lion went off somewhere or other with his cub, 
and the night came to an end. 

At this juncture his friend the monkey woke up, and went 
out, and seeing the boar reduced to such a condition said to 
him, in the utmost excitement : " Who reduced you to such 
a state ? Tell me, my friend, if you can." Thereupon the 
heroic boar told him the whole story. Then the monkey 
prostrated himself at his feet, and said to him with tears : 
" You must be a portion of some divinity, since you have 
thus rescued yourself from this animal nature : so tell me 
any wish that you may have, and I will endeavour to fulfil 
it for you." When the monkey said this to the boar, the 
boar answered : " Friend, the only wish that I have is one 
difficult for even Destiny to fulfil. For my heart longs that 
I may recover my body as before, and that this unfortunate 
lioness, that died of hunger before my eyes, may return to life, 
and satiate her hunger by devouring me." 

While the boar was saying this, the God of Justice ap- 
peared in bodily form, and stroking him with his hand, turned 
him into a chief of sages possessing a celestial body. And he 
said to him : "It was I that assumed the form of this lion, 
and lioness, and cub, and produced this whole illusion, because 
I wished to conquer thee, who art exclusively intent on 
benefiting thy fellow-creatures ; but thou, possessing perfect 
goodness, gavest thy life for others, and so hast triumphed 
over me, the God of Justice, and gained this rank of a chief 


of sages." The sage, hearing this, and seeing the God of 
Justice standing in front of him, said : " Holy lord, this 
rank of chief of sages, even though attained, gives me no 
pleasure, since my friend this monkey has not as yet thrown 
off his animal nature." When the God of Justice heard this, 
he turned the monkey also into a sage. Of a truth, associa- 
tion with the great produces great benefit. Then the God of 
Justice and the dead lioness disappeared. 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy Man 

" So you see. King, that it is easy for those who in the 
strength of goodness do not relax their efforts after virtue, 
and are aided by gods, to attain the ends which they desire." 
When the generous King Vinitamati had heard this tale 
from the Buddhist mendicant, he again used, when the night 
came, that charm for obtaining a dream. And after he had 
had a dream, he told it the next morning to the mendicant : 
" I remember a certain divine hermit said to me in my dream : 
' Son, you are now free from sin, enter on the discipline for 
obtaining the rank of a Bodhisattva.' And having heard 
that speech I woke up this morning with a mind at ease." 
When the king had said this to the mendicant, who was his 
spiritual guide, he took upon himself, with his permission, that 
difficult vow on an auspicious day ; and then he remained 
continually showering favours on suitors, and yet his wealth 
proved inexhaustible, for prosperity is the result of virtue. 

One day a Brahman suitor came and said to him : " King, 
I am a Brahman, an inhabitant of the city of Pataliputra. 
There a Brahman-Rakshasa has occupied my sacrificial fire- 
chamber and seized my son, and no expedient which I can 
make use of is of any avail against him. So I have come 
here to petition you, who are the wishing-tree of suppliants ; 
give me that ring of yours that removes all noxious things, 
in order that I may have success." When the Brahman 
made this request to the king, he gave him without reluctance 
the ring he had obtained from Kalajihva. And when the 
Brahman departed with it, the fame of the king's Bodhisattva- 
vow was spread abroad throughout the world. 


Afterwards there came to him one day another guest, a 
prince named Indukalasa, from the northern region. The 
self-denying king, who knew that the prince was of high 
hneage, showed him respect, and asked him what he desired. 
The prince answered : " You are celebrated on earth as the 
wishing-stone of all suitors; you would not send away dis- 
appointed a man who even asked you for your life. Now 
I have come to you as a suppliant, because I have been 
conquered and turned out of my father's kingdom by my 
brother, whose name is Kanakakalasa. So give me, hero, 
your excellent sword and horse, in order that by their virtue I 
may conquer the pretender and obtain my kingdom." When 
King Vinitamati heard that, he gave that prince his horse 
and his sword, though they were the two talismanic jewels 
that protected his kingdom ; and so unshaken was his self- 
denial that he never hesitated for a moment, though his 
ministers heaved sighs with downcast faces. So the prince, 
having obtained the horse and sword, went and conquered 
his brother by their aid, and got possession of his kingdom. 

But his brother Kanakakalasa, who was deprived of the 
kingdom he had seized, came to the capital of that King 
Vinitamati ; and there he was preparing in his grief to enter 
the fire, but Vinitamati, hearing of it, said to his ministers : 
" This good man has been reduced to this state by my fault, 
so I will do him the justice which I owe him, by giving him 
my kingdom. Of what use is this kingdom to me, unless it 
is employed to benefit my fellow-creatures ? As I have no 
children, let this man be my son and inherit my kingdom." 
After saying this, the king summoned Kanakakalasa, and in 
spite of the opposition of his ministers gave him the kingdom. 

And after he had given away the kingdom, he immediately 
left the city with unwavering mind, accompanied by his two 
wives. And his subjects, when they saw it, followed him dis- 
tracted, bedewing the ground with their tears, and uttering 
such laments as these : " Alas ! the nectar-rayed moon had 
become full so as to refresh the world, and now a cloud has 
suddenly descended and hid it from our eyes. Our king, the 
wishing-tree of his subjects, had begun to satisfy the desires 
of all living creatures, when lo ! he is removed somewhere 



or other by fate." Then Vinitamati at last prevailed on them 
to return, and with unshaken resolution went on his way, with 
his wives, to the forest, without a carriage. 

And in course of time he reached a desert without water 
or tree, with sands heated by the sun, which appeared as if 
created by Destiny to test his firmness. Being thirsty and 
exhausted with the fatigue of the long journey, he reclined 
for a moment in a spot in this desert, and both he and his 
two wives were overtaken by sleep. When he woke up and 
looked about him, he beheld there a great and wonderful 
garden, produced by the surpassing excellence of his own 
virtue. It had in it tanks full of cool pure water adorned 
with blooming lotuses, it was carpeted with dark green grass, 
its trees bent with the weight of their fruit, it had broad, 
high, smooth slabs of rock in shady places ; in fact it seemed 
like Nandana drawn down from heaven by the power of the 
king's generosity. The king looked again and again, and was 
wondering whether it could be a dream, or a delusion, or 
a favour bestowed on him by the gods, when suddenly he 
heard a speech uttered in the air by two Siddhas, who were 
roaming through the sky in the shape of a pair of swans : 
" King, why should you wonder thus at the efficacy of your 
own virtue ? So dwell at your ease in this garden of perennial 
fruits and flowers." When King Vinitamati heard this speech 
of the Siddhas, he remained in that garden with mind at ease, 
practising austerities, together with his wives. 

And one day, when he was on a slab of rock, he beheld 
near him a certain man about to commit suicide by hang- 
ing himself. He went to him immediately, and with kindly 
The Thief s words talked him over, and prevailed on him not 
Siory to destroy himself, and asked him the reason of 

his wishing to do so. Then the man said : " Listen, I will 
tell you the whole story from the beginning. I am the son 
of Nagasura, Somasura by name, of the race of Soma. It 
was said by those versed in the study of astrology that my 
nativity prognosticated that I should be a thief, so my father, 
afraid that that would come to pass, instructed me diligently 
in the law. Though I studied the law, I was led by associa- 
tion with bad companions to take to a career of thieving. 


For who is able to alter the actions of a man in his previous 
births ? 

" Then I was one day caught among some thieves by the 
guards, and taken to the place of impalement, in order to be 
put to death. At that moment a great elephant belonging 
to the king, which had gone mad, and broken its fastening, 
and was killing people in all directions, came to that very 
place. The executioners, alarmed at the elephant, left me and 
fled somewhere or other, and I escaped in that confusion 
and made off. But I heard from people that my father 
had died on hearing that I was led off to execution, and that 
my mother had followed him. Then I was distracted with 
sorrow, and as I was wandering about despondent, intent on 
self-destruction, I happened to reach, in course of time, this 
great uninhabited wood. No sooner had I entered it than 
a celestial nymph suddenly revealed herself to me, and 
approached me, and consoling me, said to me : ' My son, 
this retreat, which you have come to, belongs to the royal 
sage Vinitamati, so your sin is destroyed, and from him you 
shall learn wisdom.' After saying this, she disappeared ; 
and I wandered about in search of that royal sage, but not 
being able to find him, I was on the point of abandoning the 
body, out of disappointment, when I was seen by you." 

When Somasura had said this, that royal sage took him 
to his own hut, and made himself known to him, and honoured 
him as a guest ; and after he had taken food, the kingly 
hermit, among many pious discourses, told him, as he listened 
submissively, the following tale, with the object of dissuading 
him from ignorance. 

163DDD. The Brahman Devabhuti and his Chaste Wife 

Ignorance, my son, is to be avoided, for it brings harm 
in both worlds upon men of bewildered intellects : listen 
to this legend of sacred story. There lived in Panchala, of 
old time, a Brahman named Devabhuti, and that Brahman, 
who was learned in the Vedas, had a chaste wife named 
Bhogadatta. One day when he had gone to bathe, his wife 
went into the kitchen-garden to get vegetables, and saw a 


donkey belonging to a washerman eating them. So she 
took up a stick and ran after the donkey, and the animal 
fell into a pit, as it was trying to escape, and broke its 
hoof. When its master heard of that, he came in a passion, 
and beat with a stick and kicked the Brahman woman. 
Accordingly she, being pregnant, had a miscarriage ; but 
the washerman returned home with his donkey. 

Then her husband, hearing of it, came home after bathing, 
and after seeing his wife, went, in his distress, and com- 
plained to the chief magistrate of the town. The foolish man 
immediately had the washerman, whose name was Balasura, 
brought before him, and, after hearing the pleadings of both 
parties, delivered this judgment : " Since the donkey's hoof 
is broken, let the Brahman carry the donkey's load for the 
washerman until the donkey is again fit for work. And let 
the washerman make the Brahman's wife pregnant again, 
since he made her miscarry. Let this be the punishment 
of the two parties respectively." When the Brahman heard 
this, he and his wife, in their despair, took poison and died. 
And when the king heard of it, he put to death that incon- 
siderate judge, who had caused the death of a Brahman, and 
he had to be born for a long time in the bodies of animals.^ 

163d. How King Vinitamati became a Holy Man 

" So people, who are obscured by the darkness of ignor- 
ance, stray into the evil paths of their vices, and not setting 
in front of them the lamp of sound treatises, of a surety 
stumble." When the royal sage had said this, Somasura 
begged him to instruct him further, and Vinitamati, in order 
to train him aright, said : " Listen, my son, I will teach you 
in due order the doctrine of perfections. 

163d (1). The Generous Induprabha ^ 

There lived a long time ago in Kurukshetra a king of the 
name of Malayaprabha. One day the king was about to give 

^ For tales of Jugements insenses see Chauvin, op. cit., viii, p. 203. n.m.p. 

2 Here, when the royal sage introduces six stories illustrating the six 
Perfections, a slightly different method of numbering is necessary. Thus the 
constant reduplication of the " d " will be avoided. n.m.p. 


money to his subjects in a time of famine. But his ministers 
dissuaded him from doing so, out of avarice ; thereupon his 
son Induprabha said to him : " Father, why do you neglect 
your subjects at the bidding of wicked ministers ? For you 
are their wishing-tree, and they are your cows of plenty." 
When his son persisted in saying this, the king, who was 
under the influence of his ministers, got annoyed, and said 
to him : " What, my son ! do I possess inexhaustible wealth ? 
If, without inexhaustible wealth, I am to be a wishing-tree to 
my subjects, why do you not take upon yourself that office ? " 
When the son heard that speech of his father's, he made 
a vow that he would attain by austerities the condition of a 
wishing-tree, or die in the attempt. 

Having formed this determination, the heroic prince went 
off to a forest where austerities were practised, and as soon 
as he entered it, the famine ceased. And when Indra was 
pleased with his severe austerities, he craved a boon from 
him, and became a wishing-tree in his own city. And he 
seemed to attract the distant, and to summon suitors with 
his boughs stretched out in all directions, and with the songs 
of his birds. And every day he granted the most difficult 
boons to his petitioners. And he made his father's subjects 
as happy as if they were in Paradise, since they had nothing 
left to wish for. 

One day Indra came to him and said to him, tempting 
him : " You have fulfilled the duty of benefiting others ; 
come to Paradise." Then that prince, who had become a 
wishing-tree, answered him : " When these other trees with 
their pleasing flowers and fruits are for ever engaged in 
benefiting others, regardless of their own interests, how can 
I, who am a wishing-tree, disappoint so many men, by 
going to heaven for the sake of my own happiness ? " 
When Indra heard this noble answer of his, he said : 
" Then let all these subjects come to heaven also." Then 
the prince, who had become a wishing-tree, replied : "If 
you are pleased with me, take all these subjects to heaven; 
I do not care for it : I will perform a great penance for 
the sole object of benefiting others." When Indra heard 
this, he praised him as an incarnation of Buddha, and being 


pleased, granted his petition, and returned to heaven, taking 
those subjects with him. And Induprabha left the shape of 
a tree, and living in the forest, obtained by austerities the 
rank of a Bodhisattva. 

163d. How King Vinltamati became a Holy Man 

" So those who are devoted to charity attain success. 
And now I have told you the doctrine of the perfection of 
charity, hear that of the perfection of chastity. 

163d (2). The Parrot who was taught Virtue by the 
King of the Parrots 

A long time ago there lived on the Vindhya mountain a 
continent king of parrots, named Hemaprabha, who was an 
incarnation of a portion of a Buddha, and was rich in chastity 
that he had practised during a former birth. He remembered 
his former state and was a teacher of virtue. He had for 
warder a parrot named Charumati, who was a fool enslaved 
to his passions. Once on a time a female parrot, his mate, 
was killed by a fowler, who was laying snares, and he was 
so much grieved at being separated from her, that he was 
reduced to a miserable condition. Then Hemaprabha, the 
wise king of the parrots, in order by an artifice to rescue him 
from his grief, told him this false tale for his good : " Your 
wife is not dead, she has escaped from the snare of the fowler, 
for I saw her alive a moment ago. Come, I will show her to 
you." Having said this, the king took Charumati through 
the air to a lake. There he showed him his own reflection 
in the water, and said to him : " Look ! here is your wife ! " 
When the foolish parrot heard that, and saw his own reflection 
in the water, he went into it joyfully, and tried to embrace 
and kiss his wife. But not being embraced in return by his 
beloved, and not hearing her voice, he said to himself : " Why 
does not my beloved embrace me and speak to me ? " Sup- 
posing therefore that she was angry with him, he went and 
brought an dmalaka fruit, and dropped it on his own reflection, 
thinking that it was his beloved, in order to coax her. The 
dmalaka fruit sank into the water, and rose again to the 


surface, and the parrot, supposing that his gift had been 
rejected by his beloved, went full of grief to King Hema- 
prabha and said to him : " King, that wife of mine will not 
touch me or speak to me. Moreover she rejected the dmalaka 
fruit which I gave her." 

When the king heard that, he said to him slowly, as 
if he were reluctant to tell it : "I ought not to tell you 
this, but nevertheless I will tell you, because I love you so 
much. Your wife is at present in love with another, so how 
can she show you affection? And I will furnish you with 
ocular proof of it in this very tank." After saying this, 
he took him there and showed him their two reflections 
close together in the tank. When the foolish parrot saw 
it, he thought his wife was in the embrace of another male 
parrot, and turning round disgusted, he said to the king : 
"Your Majesty, this is the result of my folly in not 
listening to your advice. So tell me, now, what I ought 
to do." When the warder said this. King Hemaprabha, 
thinking that he had now an opportunity of instructing 
him, thus addressed him: "It is better to take Halahala 
poison,^ it is better to wreathe a serpent round one's neck, 
than to repose confidence in females, a calamity against 
which neither charms nor talismanic jewels avail. Females 
being, like the winds, very changeful, and enveloped with 
a thick cloud of passion, ^ defile those who are walking in 
the right path, and disgrace them altogether. So wise men, 
of firm nature, should not cleave to them, but should prac- 
tise chastity, in order to obtain the rank of sages who have 
subdued their passions." Charumati, having been thus in- 
structed by the king, renounced the society of females, and 
gradually became continent like Buddha. 

163d. How King Vinltamati became a Holy Man 

" So you see, those that are rich in chastity deliver 
others. And now that I have instructed you in the perfection 
of chastity, listen to the perfection of patience. 

^ This was the poison that was swallowed by Siva at the Churning of the 
Ocean. See Vol. I, p. \ii^. n.m.p. 
2 The word also means dust. 


163d (3). The Patient Hermit Suhhanaya 

There lived on the Kedara mountain a great hermit, 
named Subhanaya, who was for ever bathing in the waters of 
the Mandakini, and was gentle and emaciated with penance. 
One night some robbers came there to look for some gold, 
which they had previously buried there, but they could 
not find it anywhere. Accordingly, thinking that in that 
uninhabited place it could have been carried off only by the 
hermit, they entered his cell and said to him : " Ah ! you 
hypocritical hermit, give up our gold, which you have taken 
from the earth, for you have succeeded in robbing us, who 
are robbers by profession." When the hermit, who had not 
taken the treasure, was falsely reproached in these words by 
the robbers, he said : "I did not take away your gold, and I 
have never seen any gold." Then the good hermit was beaten 
with sticks by those robbers, and yet the truthful man con- 
tinued to tell the same story ; and then the robbers cut off, 
one after another, his hands and his feet, thinking that he 
was obstinate, and finally gouged out his eyes. But when 
they found that, in spite of all this, he continued to tell the 
same tale without flinching, they came to the conclusion that 
someone else had stolen their gold, and they returned by the 
way that they came. 

The next morning a king, named Sekharajyoti, a pupil of 
that hermit's, who had come to have an interview with him, 
saw him in that state. Then, being tortured with sorrow 
for his spiritual guide, ^ he questioned him, and found out 
the state of the case, and had a search made for those 
robbers, and had them brought to that very spot. And he 
was about to have them put to death, when the hermit said 
to him : " King, if you put them to death, I will kill myself. 
If the sword did this work on me, how are they in fault ? 
And if they put the sword in motion, anger put them in 
motion, and their anger was excited by the loss of their gold, 
and that was due to my sins in a previous state of existence, 
and that was due to my ignorance, so my ignorance is the 
only thing that has injured me. So my ignorance should be 

^ Or " by great sorrow." 


slain by me. Moreover, even if these men deserved to be 
put to death for doing me an injury, ought not their lives 
to be saved on account of their having done me a benefit ? 
For if they had not done to me what they have done, there 
would have been no one with regard to whom I could have 
practised patience, of which the fruit is emancipation. So they 
have done me a thorough benefit." With many speeches of 
this kind did the patient hermit instruct the king, and so 
he delivered the robbers from punishment. And on account 
of the excellence of his asceticism his body immediately 
became unmutilated as before, and that moment he attained 

163d. How King Vinltamati became a Holy Man 

" Thus patient men escape from the world of births. I 
have now explained to you the perfection of patience ; listen 
to the perfection of perseverance. 

163d (4). The Persevering Young Brahman 

Once on a time there was a young Brahman of the name 
of Maladhara : he beheld one day a prince of the Siddhas 
flying through the air. Wishing to rival him, he fastened to 
his sides wings of grass, and continually leaping up, he tried 
to learn the art of flying in the air. And as he continued to 
make this useless attempt every day, he was at last seen by 
the prince while he was roaming through the air. And the 
prince thought : "I ought to take pity on this boy who 
shows spirit in struggling earnestly to attain an impossible 
object, for it is my business to patronise such." Thereupon, 
being pleased, he took the Brahman boy, by his magic power, 
upon his shoulder, and made him one of his followers. 

163d. How King Vinltamati became a Holy Man 

" Thus you see that even gods are pleased with perse- 
verance. I have now set before you the perfection of 
perseverance ; hear the perfection of meditation. 


163d (5). The Merchant who fell in Love with a Painting 

Of old time there dwelt in the Carnatie a rich merchant, 
named Vijayamalin, and he had a son named Malay amalin. 
One day Malayamalin, when he was grown up, went with his 
father to the king's court, and there he saw the daughter of 
the King Indukesarin, Induyasas by name. That maiden, 
like a bewildering creeper of love, entered the heart of the 
young merchant as soon as he saw her. Then he returned 
home, and remained in a state of pallor, sleepless at night, 
and during the day cowering with contracted limbs, having 
taken upon himself the kumuda vow.^ And thinking continu- 
ally of her, he was averse to food and all other things of the 
kind, and even when questioned by his relations he gave no 
more answer than if he had been dumb. 

Then, one day, the king's painter, whose name was 
Mantharaka, an intimate friend of his, said to him in 
private, when in this state owing to the sorrow of separation : 
" Friend, why do you remain leaning against the wall like 
a man in a picture ? Like a lifeless image, you neither eat, 
nor hear, nor see." When his friend the painter asked him 
this question persistently, the merchant's son at last told him 
his desire. The painter said to him : " It is not fitting that 
you, a merchant's son, should fall in love with a princess. 
Let the swan desire the beautiful face ^ of the lotuses of all 
ordinary lakes, but what has he to do with the delight of en- 
joying the lotus of that lake which is the navel of Vishnu ? " 
Still the painter could not prevent him from nursing his 
passion ; so he painted the princess on a piece of canvas, and 
gave her picture to him to solace his longing, and to enable 
him to while away the time. And the young merchant spent 
his time in gazing on, coaxing, and touching and adorning 
her picture, and he fancied that it was the real Princess 
Induyasas, and gradually became absorbed in her, and did 

^ The kumuda remains with its petals closed during the day. ] 

2 The D. text would read sukha, " mouth," instead of viukha, as in the 
B. text. The word Tawney translated " delight," lakshmi, is probably meant 
as a pun_, the word also referring to the wife of Vishnu. See Speyer, op. cit., 
pp. 131, 132. N.M.p. 




all that he did under that belief. ^ And in course of time 
he was so engrossed by that fancy that he seemed to see her, 
though she was only a painted figure, talking to him and kiss- 
ing him. Then he was happy, because he had obtained in 
imagination union with his beloved, and he was contented, 
because the whole world was for him contained in that piece 
of painted canvas. ^ 

One night, when the moon was rising, he took the picture 
and went out of his house with it to a garden, to amuse him- 
self with his beloved. And there he put down the picture at 
the foot of a tree, and went to a distance to pick flowers for 
his darling. At that moment he was seen by a hermit, named 
Vinayajyoti, who came down from heaven out of compassion, 
to rescue him from his delusion. He by his supernatural 
power painted in one part of the picture a live black cobra, 
and stood near invisible. In the meanwhile Malayamalin 
returned there, after gathering those flowers, and seeing the 
black serpent on the canvas, he reflected : " Where does this 
serpent come from now ? Has it been created by fate to 
protect this fair one, the treasure-house of beauty ? " Thus 
reflecting, he adorned with flowers the fair one on the canvas ; 
and fancying that she surrendered herself to him, he em- 
braced her, and asked her the above question, and at that 
very moment the hermit threw an illusion over him, which 
made him see her bitten by the black snake and unconscious. 
Then he forgot that it was only canvas, and exclaiming, " Alas ! 
alas ! " he fell distracted on the earth, like a Vidyadhara 
brought down by the canvas acting as a talisman. But soon 
he recovered consciousness, and rose up weeping, and deter- 
mined on suicide, and climbed up a lofty tree and threw 
himself from its top. But, as he was falling, the great hermit 
appeared to him, and bore him up in his hands, and consoled 
him, and said to him : " Foolish boy ! do you not know that 
the real princess is in her palace, and that this princess on 
the canvas is a painted figure devoid of life ? So who is it 
that you embrace, or who has been bitten by the serpent ? Or 
what is this delusion of attributing reality to the creation of 

1 I follow the Sanskrit College MS. reading dhritya. 

2 See Vol. IV, pp. 131-132, 132wi, 207-208. n.m.p. 


your own desire that has taken possession of your passionate 
heart ? Why do you not investigate the truth with equal 
intensity of contemplation, in order that you may not again 
become the victim of such sorrows ? " 

When the hermit had said this to the young merchant, 
the night of his delusion was dispersed, and he recovered his 
senses, and, bowing before the hermit, he said to him : " Holy 
one, by your favour I have been rescued from this calamity ; 
do me the favour of rescuing me also from this changeful 
world." When Malayamalin made this request to the 
hermit, who was a Bodhisattva, he instructed him in his own 
knowledge and disappeared. The Malayamalin went to the 
forest, and by the power of his asceticism he came to know 
the real truth about that which is to be rejected and that 
which is to be chosen, with the reasons, and attained the 
rank of an Arhat.^ And the compassionate man returned, 
and, by teaching them knowledge, he made King Indukesarin 
and his citizens obtain salvation. 

163d. How King Vinltamati became a Holy Man 

" So even untruth, in the case of those mighty in 
contemplation, becomes true. I have now explained the 
perfection of contemplation; listen to the perfection of 

163d (6). The Robber who won over Yama^s Secretary ^ 

Long ago there lived in Simhaladvipa a robber, of the 
name of Simhavikrama, who since his birth had nourished 

^ Le. a "venerable" a candidate for Nirvana. See Monier Williams, 
Indian Wisdom, pp. 128, 129. n.m.p. 

^ This story is a good example of the "Escaping One's Fate" motif, and 
belongs to the class of stories where fate is overcome by the person's wit in 
obtaining divine aid, or putting the deity in such a position that it is practically 
impossible for him to withhold his aid. One of the best-known variants is 
that of the astrologer whose son Atirupa was doomed to die at the age of 
eighteen. See Natesa Sastri, Indian Folk-tales, p. S6Q. Numerous other 
versions are given in W. N. Brown's article, " Escaping One's Fate," in Studies 
in Honor of Maurice Bloonifield, -pp. 100-103. n.m.p. 


his body with other men's wealth stolen from every quarter. 
In time he grew old, and desisting from his occupation, he re- 
flected : " What resources have I in the other world ? Whom 
shall I betake myself to for protection there ? If I betake 
myself to Siva or Vishnu, what value will they attach to me, 
when they have gods, hermits and others to worship them ? 
So I will worship Chitragupta,^ who alone records the good 
and evil deeds of men. He may deliver me by his power, 
for he, being a secretary, does alone the work of Brahma 
and Siva : he writes down or erases in a moment the whole 
world, which is in his hand." Having thus reflected, he 
began to devote himself to Chitragupta ; he honoured him 
specially, and, in order to please him, kept continually feeding 

While he was carrying on this system of conduct, one day 
Chitragupta came to the house of that robber, in the form 
of a guest, to examine into his real feelings. The robber 
received him courteously, entertained him, and gave him a 
present, and then said to him : " Say this : ' May Chitra- 
gupta be propitious to you.' " Then Chitragupta, who 
was disguised as a Brahman, said : " Why do you neglect 
Siva and Vishnu, and the other gods, and devote yourself 
to Chitragupta ? " When the robber Simhavikrama heard 
that, he said to him : " What business is that of yours ? I 
do not need any other gods but him." Then Chitragupta, 
wearing the form of a Brahman, went on to say to him : 
" Well, if you will give me your wife, I will say it." When 
Simhavikrama heard that, he was pleased, and said to 
him : " I hereby give you my wife, in order to please the 
god whom I have specially chosen for my own." When 
Chitragupta heard that, he revealed himself to him, and 
said : "I am Chitragupta himself, and I am pleased with 
you, so tell me what I am to do for you." 

Then Simhavikrama was exceedingly pleased, and said to 

^ A being recording the vices and virtues of mankind in Yama's world. 
Kuhn, in his Westfalische Sagen, p. 71, speaks of "a devil who records the evil 
deeds of men." Bohtlingk and Roth say that utpumsayati in si. 323 should be 

utpdnsayati. One cannot help noticing the similarity between the duties of 

Chitragupta and those of Thoth, the advocate of Osiris. n.m.p. 


him : " Holy one, take such order as that I shall not die." 
Then Chitragupta said : " Death is one from whom it is 
impossible to guard people ; but still I will devise a plan to 
save you : listen to it. Ever since Death was consumed by 
Siva, being angry on account of Sveta, and was created again 
in this world because he was required,^ wherever Sveta lives, 
he abstains from injuring other people, as well as Sveta him- 
self, for he is restrained by the command of the god. And 
at present the hermit Sveta is on the other side of the eastern 
ocean, in a grove of ascetics beyond the River Tarangini. 
That grove cannot be invaded by Death, so I will take you 
and place you there. But you must not return to this side 
of the Tarangini. However, if you do return out of careless- 
ness, and Death seizes you, I will devise some way of escape 
for you, when you have come to the other world." 

When Chitragupta had said this, he took the delighted 
Simhavikrama and placed him in that grove of asceticism 
belonging to Sveta, and then disappeared. And after some 
time Death went to the hither bank of the River Tarangini, 
to carry off Simhavikrama. While there, he created by his 
delusive power a heavenly nymph, and sent her to him, as 
he saw no other means of getting hold of him. The fair one 
went and approached Simhavikrama, and artfully enslaved 
him, fascinating him with her wealth of beauty. After some 
days had passed, she entered the Tarangini, which was dis- 
turbed with waves, giving out that she wished to see her 
relations. And while Simhavikrama, who had followed her, 
was looking at her from the bank, she slipped in the middle 
of the river. And there she uttered a piercing cry, as if 
she were being carried away by the stream, exclaiming : " My 
husband, can you see me carried away by the stream with- 
out saving me ? Are you a jackal in courage, and not a lion 
as your name denotes ? " When Simhavikrama heard that 
he rushed into the river, and the nymph pretended to be 
swept away by the current, and when he followed her to 
save her, she soon led him to the other bank. When he 
reached it. Death threw his noose over his neck and 

^ Cf. the story in Waldau's B'dhmische MdrcheUf p. 242, Gut, doss es den 
Tod auf Erden gibt ! 


captured him; for destruction is ever impending over those 
whose minds are captivated by objects of sense. 

Then the careless Simhavikrama was led off by Death to 
the hall of Yama, and there Chitragupta, whose favour he 
had long ago won, saw him, and said to him in private ^ : 
" If you are asked here whether you will stay in hell first or 
in heaven, ask to be allowed to take your period in heaven 
first. And while you live in heaven, acquire merit, in order 
to ensure the permanence of your stay there. And then 
perform severe asceticism, in order to expiate your sin." 
When Chitragupta said this to Simhavikrama, who was 
standing there abashed, with face fixed on the ground, he 
readily consented to do it. 

And a moment afterwards Yama said to Chitragupta : 
" Has this robber any amount of merit to his credit or 
not ? " Then Chitragupta said : " Indeed he is hospitable, 
and he bestowed his own wife on a suitor, in order to please 
his favourite deity ; so he has to go to heaven for a day of the 
gods." When Yama heard this, he said to Simhavikrama : 
" Tell me, which will you take first, your happiness or your 
misery ? " Then Sirnhavikrama entreated that he might 
have his happiness first. So Yama ordered his chariot to 
be brought, and Sirnhavikrama mounted it and went off to 
heaven, remembering the words of Chitragupta. 

There he rigidly observed a vow of bathing in the Ganges 
of heaven, and of muttering prayers, and remained indif- 
ferent to the enjoyments of the place, and so he obtained 
the privilege of dwelling there for another year of the gods. 
Thus in course of time he obtained a right to perpetual resi- 
dence in heaven, by virtue of his severe asceticism ; and 
by propitiating Siva his sin was burnt up, and he obtained 
knowledge. Then the messengers of hell were not able to 
look him in the face, and Chitragupta blotted out the record 
of his sin on his birch-bark register, and Yama was silent. 

^ Cf, the speech of Chi, the scribe of the realms below, in Giles' Strange 
Stories from a Chinese Studio, vol. i, p. S66. 


163d. How King Vimtamati became a Holy Man 

" Thus Simhavikrama, though a robber, obtained eman- 
cipation by virtue of true discernment; and now I have 
explained to you the perfection of discernment. And thus, 
my son, the wise embark on these six perfections taught 
by Buddha, as on a ship, and so cross the ocean of temporal 

While Somasura was being thus instructed in the forest 
by King Vinitamati, who had attained the rank of a Bodhi- 
sattva, the sun heard these religious lessons, and became 
subdued, and assuming the hue of sunset as a red robe of a 
Buddhist, entered the cavern of the western mountain. Then 
King Vinitamati and Somasura performed their evening 
rites, according to pious usage, and spent the night there. 
And the next day Vinitamati went on to teach Somasura 
the law of Buddha, with all its secrets.^ Then Somasura 
built a hut at the foot of a tree, and remained there in the 
wood, sitting at the feet of that instructor, absorbed in con- 
templation. And in course of time those two, the teacher 
and the pupil, attained supernatural powers, the result of 
abstraction, and gained the highest illumination. 

And in the meanwhile Indukalasa came, out of jealousy, 
and by the might of his sword and horse ejected his brother 
Kanakakalasa from the kingdom of Ahichchhatra also, which 
Vinitamati gave him when he was afflicted at losing his 
first kingdom. He, having been deposed from his throne, 
wandered about with two or three of his ministers, and, as 
chance would have it, reached the grove which was the 
retreat of Vinitamati. And while he was looking for fruits 
and water, as he suffered from severe hunger and thirst, 
Indra burnt up the wood by his magic power, and made it 
as it was before, wishing to entrap Vinitamati, by making it 
impossible for him to show such hospitality to every way- 
farer. ^ And Vinitamati, beholding the grove, which was his 
retreat, suddenly turned into a desert, roamed about hither 
and thither for a short time, in a state of bewilderment. 

1 I substitute Bauddham for bodhum. [So in the D. text.] 

2 I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads lopatah for lohhatah. 


And then he saw Kanakakalasa, who in the course of his 
wanderings had come there with his followers, and was now 
his guest, and he and his train were all on the point of death 
from hunger. And the hospitable Bodhisattva approached 
the king, when he was in this state, and asked him his story, 
and then he exerted his discernment, and said to him : 

" Though this wood has become a desert, and affords no 
hospitable entertainment, still I can tell you an expedient 
for saving your lives in your present state of hunger. Only 
half a kos from here there is a deer, which has been killed by 
falling into a hole ; go and save your lives by eating its flesh." 

His guest, who was suffering from hunger, took his advice, 
and set out for that place with his followers, but the Bodhi- 
sattva Vinitamati got there before him. He reached that 
hole, and by his supernatural power assumed the form of a 
deer, and then he threw himself into it, and sacrificed his life 
for the sake of his petitioner. 

Then Kanakakalasa and his followers slowly reached that 
hole, and found the deer lying dead in it. So they pulled it out, 
and made a fire with grass and thorns, and roasted its flesh, 
and devoured it all. In the meanwhile the Bodhisattva's 
two wives, the daughter of the Naga and the princess, see- 
ing that the wood of their retreat had been destroyed, and 
not seeing their husband, were much distressed, and went 
and told what had happened to Somasura, whom they 
roused from deep meditation. He soon discerned by con- 
templation what his spiritual teacher had done, and he told 
the news to his wives, distressing as it was to them. And he 
quickly went with them to that hole, in which his spiritual 
guide had sacrificed himself for his guests. There the 
princess and the Naga's daughter, seeing that only the bones 
and horns of the deer, into which their husband had turned 
himself, remained, mourned for him. And the two ladies, 
who were devoted to their husband, took his horns and 
bones, and brought a heap of wood from their hermitage, 
and entered the fire. And then Kanakakalasa and his com- 
panions, who were there, being grieved when they heard the 
story, entered the fire also. 

When all this had taken place, Somasura, unable to 



endure the grief which he felt for the loss of his spiritual 
teacher, took to a bed of darbha grass with the intention of 
yielding up his breath. And then Indra appeared to him in 
person and said to him : " Do not do so, for I did all this 
to try your spiritual teacher. And I have now sprinkled with 
amrita the ashes and bones, which were all that remained of 
him, and his wives, and his guests, and restored them all to 
life." ^ 

When Somasura heard Indra say this, he worshipped 
him, and rose up delighted, and went and looked, and lo ! 9 
his spiritual guide the Bodhisattva Vinitamati had risen 
up again alive, with his wives, and Kanakakalasa, and his 
attendants. Then he honoured with an inclination of the 
head, and worshipped with gifts of flowers and respectful 
speeches, his spiritual father, who had returned from the 
other world with his wives, and feasted his eyes upon him. 
And while Kanakakalasa and his followers were respectfully 
testifying their devotion to him, all the gods came there, 
headed by Brahma and Vishnu. And pleased with the good- 
ness of Vinitamati, they all gave him by their divine power 
boons earned by his disinterestedness, and then disappeared. 
And Somasura and the others told their history, and then 
Vinitamati went with them to another and a heavenly wood 
of ascetics. 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

'"So you see that in this world even those who are reduced 
to ashes meet again, much more men who are alive and can 
go where they will. So, my son, no more of abandoning the 
body ! Go, for you are a brave man, and you shall certainly 
be reunited with Mrigankadatta.' When I had heard this 
tale from the old female ascetic, I bowed before her, and set 
out, sword in hand, with renewed hope, and in course of time 

^ This idea is found in the story of Jimutavahana (No. 27). See Vol. II, 
p. 155w*. Cf. also "Das Wasser des Lebens," Grimm, 97 ; and Herrtage's 

edition of the English Gesta, p. 344. Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, 

pp. 394-401, give a very comprehensive bibliography of stories from all parts 
of the world containing the " water of life " motif. n.m.p. 



I reached this forest, and was, as fate would have it, captured 
by these Savaras, who were seeking a victim for Durga. And 
after wounding me in fight, they bound me, and brought 
me as a prisoner to this king of the Savaras, Mayavatu. 
Here I have found you, my sovereign, accompanied by two 
or three of your ministers, and by your favour I am as happy 
as if I were in my own house." 

When Mrigankadatta, who was in the palace of the Savara 
prince, had heard this story of the adventures of his friend 
Gunakara told by himself, he was much pleased, and after 
he had seen the proper remedies applied to the body of that 
minister who had been wounded in fight, as the day was 
advancing, he rose up with his other friends, and performed 
the duties of the day. 

And he remained there for some days engaged in restor- 
ing Gunakara to health, though eager to go to Ujjayini, in 
order to be reunited with his other friends and to obtain 

^ I read ulldghayan, which is found in the Sanskrit College MS, [So in 
the D. text.] 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN Gunakara's wounds healed, and he recovered 
his health, so Mrigankadatta took leave of his friend 
the King of the Savaras, and set out from his town 
on a lucky day for Ujjayini, to find Sasankavati. 

But his friend followed him a long way with his 
retinue, accompanied by his ally Durgapisacha, King of the 
Matangas, and made a promise to come to his assistance. 
And as he was going along with his friends Srutadhi, and 
Vimalabuddhi, and Gunakara, and Bhimaparakrama, and 
searching for his other friends in that Vindhya forest, it 
happened that he slept one day on the road with his ministers 
at the foot of a certain tree. And he suddenly awoke, and 
got up, and looked about him, and beheld there another man 
asleep. And when he uncovered his face,^ he recognised him 

^ His face was covered during sleep, not merely as a protection against 
insects, etc., but very possibly because of the ill-effects of moonshine. In an 
interesting note on the subject {Nights, vol. ii, p. 47i*) Burton quotes Psalm 
cxxi, 6, " The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night," and 
adds, "Easterners still believe in the blighting effect of the moon's rays,, 
which the Northerners of Europe, who view it under different conditions, 
are pleased to deny. I have seen a hale and hearty Arab, after sitting an hour 
in the moonlight, look like a man fresh from a sickbed ; and I knew an 
Englishman in India whose face was temporarily paralysed by sleeping with 
it exposed to the moon." 

Cf. also the following passage from J. Came, Letters from the East, p. 77 : 
" The effect of the moonlight on the eyes in this country [Egypt] is singularly 
injurious ; the natives tell you, as I found they also afterwards did in Arabia,, 
always to cover your eyes when you sleep in the open air. The moon here 
really strikes and affects the sight, when you sleep exposed to it, much more 
than the sun ; indeed the sight of a person who should sleep with his face 
exposed at night would soon be utterly impaired and destroyed." (See T. 
Harley, Moon-Lore, p. 207.) 

It is strange that Frazer fails to record these facts, for after quoting 
(Golden Bough {Adonis, Attis, Osiris), vol. ii, p. 148) examples from Greece, 
Armenia and Brazil of the belief in the baneful effects of the moon's rays on. 



as his own minister Vichitrakatha, who had arrived there. 
And Vichitrakatha too woke up, and saw his master Mrigan- 
kadatta, and joyfully embraced his feet. And the prince 
embraced him, with eyes wide open with delight at seeing 
him so unexpectedly, and all his ministers woke up and 
welcomed him. Then all in turn told him their adventures, 
and asked him to tell his, and Vichitrakatha began to relate 
his story as follows : 

" At that time, when you were dispersed in all directions 
by the ciu'se of Paravataksha, I too in my bewilderment 
wandered about alone for a long time. And after I had 
^^ ^ , roamed far, still unconscious, I suddenly reached 

The Adventures . ,, p.i .j it j.'j 

of Vichitra- ^^ *^^ course oi the next day, when I was tired 
hatha after his out, a great and heavenly town on the outskirts 
^thePrhZ^'''''^^^ the forest. There a godlike being, accom- 
panied by two consorts, beheld me, and had me 
bathed with cool water, and restored my strength. And he 
made me enter his city, and carefully fed me with heavenly 
food; then he ate himself, and those two wives of his ate 
after him. And after the meal,^ being refreshed, I said to 
him : ' Who are you, sir, and why have you thus saved the 
life of me, who am resolved on death ? For I must certainly 
abandon the body, as I have lost my master.' When I 
had said this, I told him my whole story. Then that noble 
and kind being said to me : ' I am a Yaksha, these are my 
wives, and you have come here to-day as my guest, and you 
know that it is the duty of householders to honour guests 
to the utmost of their power. I have accordingly welcomed 
you. But why do you wish to abandon the body ? For this 
separation of yours is due to the curse of a Naga, and will 

children, he adds, that they might certainly be thought to "peak and pine'* 
with the moon's dwindling light. "But," he continues, "it is less easy to 
see why the same deleterious influence on children should be ascribed to 
moonlight in general." 

In the case of half-witted children, the effect on their health immediately 
after the full moon has often been noticed. I had first-hand information 
as to this fact from institutions, both in England and France, as recently as 
February 1926. Cf. the use of the English mooristruck, or lunatic, and the 
G erman mondsiichtig. n . m. p. 

^ I read, with the MS. in the Sanskrit College, bhuktottaram. 



last only a short time. And you will certainly be all reunited, 
when the curse pronounced on you has spent its force. And 
reflect, my good man : who is born free from sorrow in this 
world ? Hear what sorrow I have gone through, though I 
am a Yaksha. 

163e. Srldarsana's Story 

There is a city named Trigarta, the garland that adorns 
the head of this bride the earth, strung with virtues as with 
flowers. 1 In it there lived a young Brahman named Pavi- 
tradhara, who was himself poor in worldly wealth, but rich 
in relations, high birth, and other advantages. That high- 
spirited Brahman, living in the midst of rich people, reflected : 
" Though I live up to the rules of my caste, I do not cut a 
good figure in the midst of these rich people, like a word 
without meaning ^ among the words of some splendid poem ; 
and being a man of honour, I cannot have recourse to service 
or donations. So I will go into some out-of-the-way place 
and get into my power a Yakshini,^ for my spiritual teacher 
taught me a charm for accomplishing this." Having formed 
this resolution, the Brahman Pavitradhara went to the 
forest, and according to the prescribed method he won for 
himself a Yakshini, named Saudamini. And when he had 
won her, he lived united with her, like a banyan-tree, that has 
tided through a severe winter, united to the glory of spring. 
One day the Yakshini, seeing her husband Pavitradhara in a 
state of despondency, because no son had been born to him, 
thus addressed him : " Do not be despondent, my husband, 
for a son shall be born to us. And now hear this story which 
I am about to tell you. 

163EE. SauddminVs Story 

There is on the confines of the southern region a range of 
tamdla forests, dark with clouds that obscure the sun, looking 

^ It also means " the virtues of good or learned men." 

2 It also means "without wealth " ; vritta also means "metre." 

3 I.e. female Yaksha. 


like the home of the monsoon. In it dwells a famous Yaksha 
of the name of Prithudara, and I am his only daughter, 
Saudamini by name. My loving father led me from one 
mighty mountain to another, and I was for ever amusing 
myself in heavenly gardens. 

And one day, as I was sporting on Mount Kailasa with 
my friend Kapisabhru, I saw a young Yaksha named Atta- 
hasa. He too, as he stood among his companions, beheld 
me ; and immediately our eyes were mutually attracted by 
one another's beauty. When my father saw that, and ascer- 
tained that the match would be no mesalliance, he summoned 
Attahasa, and arranged our marriage. And after he had 
fixed an auspicious day, he took me home, and Attahasa 
returned to his home with his friends in high spirits. But 
the next day my friend Kapisabhru came to me with a 
downcast air, and when I questioned her, she was at length 
induced to say this : " Friend, I must tell you this bad news, 
though it is a thing which should not be told. As I was 
coming to-day, I saw your betrothed Attahasa in a garden 
named Chitrasthala, on a plateau of the Himalayas, full of 
longing for you. And his friends, in order to amuse him, 
made him in sport King of the Yakshas, and they made his 
brother Diptasikha personate Nadakuvara his son, and they 
themselves became his ministers. While your beloved was 
being solaced in this way by his friends, Nadakuvara, who 
was roaming at will through the air, saw him. And the son 
of the King of Wealth, being enraged at what he saw, sum- 
moned him, and cursed him in the following words : ' Since, 
though a servant, you desire to pose as a lord, become a 
mortal, you villain ! As you wish to mount, fall ! ' When 
he had laid this curse on Attahasa, he answered despond- 
ingly : ' Prince, I foolishly did this to dispel my longing, not 
through aspiring to any lofty rank, so have mercy upon me.' 
When Nadakuvara heard this sorrowful speech of his, he 
ascertained by meditation that the case was so, and said 
to him by way of fixing an end for the curse ^ : ' You shall 

1 This clearly shows that, even if it has been uttered hastily, a curse 
once inflicted can never be annulled, only shortened as to its period of 
operation. n.m.p. 


become a man, and beget on that Yakshini, with whom you 
are in love, your younger brother Diptai^ikha by way of son,^ 
and so you shall be delivered from your curse, and obtain 
your own rank once more, together with your wife, and this 
brother of yours shall be born as your son, and after he 
has reigned on earth, he shall be released from his curse.' 
When the son of the God of Wealth had said this, Attahasa 
disappeared somewhere or other by virtue of the curse. And 
when I saw that, my friend, I came here to you grieved." 
When my friend said this to me, I was reduced to a terrible 
state by grief, and after I had bewailed my lot, I went and 
told it to my parents, and I spent that time in hope of a 
reunion with my beloved. 

163e. Srldarsana^s Story 

" You are Attahasa born again as a Brahman, and I am 
that Yakshini, and we have been thus united here, so we 
shall soon have a son born to us." When the Brahman Pavi- 
tradhara's wise wife Saudamini said this to him, he conceived 
the hope that he would have a son, and was much delighted. 
And in course of time a son was born to him by that 
Yakshini, whose birth cheered up their house and his mind. 
And when Pavitradhara saw the face of that son, he immedi- 
ately assumed a celestial shape and became again the Yaksha 
Attahasa. And he said to that Yakshini : " My dear, our 
ciu'se is at an end. I have become Attahasa as before, come, 
let us return to our own place." 

When he said this, his wife said to him : " Think what is 

^ The notion which Lucretius ridicules in his famous lines (Book III, line 
776 et seq.), 

" Denique conubia ad Veneris partusque ferarum 
Esse animas prcesto deridiculum esse videtuVj 
Expectare immortales mortalia membra" etc., 
would, it is clear, present no difficulty to the mind of a Hindu. Nor would 
he be much influenced by the argument in lines 670-674 of the same book : 

*' Prceterea si immortalis natura animdi 
Constat, et in corpus nascentibus insinuetur, 
Cur super anteactam cetatem meminisse nequimus. 
Nee vestigia gestarum rerum ulla tenemus ? " 


to become of the child, your brother, who through a curse has 
been born as your son." When Attahasa heard that, he saw 
what was to be done by means of his powers of contem- 
plation, and said to her : " My dear, there is in this town 
a Brahman of the name of Devadarsana. He is poor in 
children and in wealth, and, though he keeps up five fires, 
hunger makes two others burn more fiercely namely, the 
fire of digestion in his own stomach and in that of his wife. 
And one day, as he was engaged in asceticism to obtain wealth 
and a son, the holy God of Fire, whom he was propitiating, 
said to him in a dream : ' You have not a son of your own, 
but you shall have an adopted son, and by means of him. 
Brahman, your poverty shall come to an end.' On account 
of this revelation of the God of Fire, the Brahman is at the 
present moment expecting that son, so we must give him this 
child of ours, for this is the decree of fate." After Attahasa 
had said this to his beloved, he placed the child on the top of 
a pitcher full of gold, and fastened round its neck a garland 
of heavenly jewels, and deposited it in the house of that 
Brahman at night when he and his wife were asleep, and 
then went with his beloved to his own place. 

Then the Brahman Devadarsana and his wife woke up, 
and beheld that yoimg moon of a child glittering with re- 
splendent jewels, and the Brahman thought in his astonish- 
ment : " What can be the meaning of this ? " but when he 
saw the pot of gold he remembered what the God of Fire 
had told him in his dream, and rejoiced. And he took that 
young son given him by fate, and that wealth, and in the 
morning he made a great feast. And on the eleventh day 
he gave the child the appropriate name of Sridarsana.^ 
Then the Brahman Devadarsana, having become very rich, 
remained performing his sacrificial and other ceremonies, and 
enjoying the good things of this world at the same time. 

The brave Sridarsana grew up in his father's house, and 
acquired great skill in the Vedas and other branches of 
learning, and in the use of weapons. But in course of time, 
when he had grown up, his father Devadarsana, who had gone 
on a pilgrimage to sacred bathing-places, died at Prayaga. His 

^ I.e. vision of the Goddess of Fortune : something like Fortunatus. 



mother, hearing of that, entered the fire, and then Sridarsana 
mourned for them, and performed on their behalf the cere- 
monies enjoined in the sacred treatises. But in course of 
time his grief diminished, and as he was not married, and had 
no relations, he became, though well educated, devoted to 
gambling. And in a short time his wealth was consumed by- 
means of that vice, and he had difficulty in obtaining even 

One day, after he had remained in the gambling-hall 
without food for three days, being unable to go out for shame, 
as he had not got a decent garment to wear, and refusing to 
eat the food which others gave him, a certain gambler, named 
Mukharaka, who was a friend of his, said to him : " Why are 
you so utterly overwhelmed ? Do you not know that such is 
the nature of the sinful vice of gambling ? Do you not know 
that the dice are the sidelong loving looks of the Goddess of 
111 Luck ? Has not Providence ordained for you the usual 
lot of the gambler ? His arms are his only clothing, the dust 
is his bed, the cross-roads are his house, ruin is his wife.^ 
So why do you refuse to take food ? Why do you neglect 
your health, though you are a wise man ? For what object 
of desire is there that a resolute man cannot obtain, as long 
as he continues alive ? Hear in illustration of this truth the 
following wonderful story of Bhunandana. 

163EEE. The Adventures of King Bhunandana 

There is here a region named Kasmira, the ornament of 
the earth, which the Creator made as a second heaven, after 
creating the first heaven, for men who have done righteous 
deeds. The difference between the two is that in heaven 
delights can only be seen, in Kasmira they can be actually 
enjoyed. The two glorious goddesses Sri and Sarasvati 
both frequent it, as if they vied with one another, saying : " I 
have the pre-eminence here." " No, it is I." The Himalaya 
encircles it with its embrace, as if to prevent Kali, the adver- 
sary of virtue, from entering it. The Vitasta adorns it, and 

^ I read bahu and vidhvastatd: kim tad in si. 78 should probably be 
tat kim. 


repels sin with its waves, as if they were hands, and seems to 
say : " Depart far from this land which is full of waters sacred 
to the gods." In it the long lines of lofty palaces, whitened 
with silvery plaster, imitate the cliffs at the foot of the neigh- 
bouring Himalaya. In this land there lived a king, named 
Bhunandana, who upheld as a spiritual guide the system of 
the castes and the prescribed stages of life, learned in science 
and traditional lore, the moon that delighted his subjects. 
His valour was displayed in the kingdoms of his foes, on 
which he left the impress of his nails. He was a politic 
governor, and his people were ever free from calamity ; he 
was exclusively devoted to Krishna, and the minds of his 
people took no pleasure in vicious deeds. ^ 

Once on a time, on the twelfth day of the month, the 
king, after duly worshipping Vishnu, saw in a dream a Daitya 
maiden approach him. When he woke up he could not see 
her, and in his astonishment he said to himself : " This is no 
mere dream ; I suspect she is some celestial nymph by whom 
I have been cajoled." Under this impression he remained 
thinking of her, and so grieved at being deprived of her 
society that gradually he neglected all his duties as a king. 
Then that king, not seeing any way of recovering her, said 
to himself : " My brief union with her was due to the favour 
of Vishnu, so I will go into a solitary place and propitiate 
Vishnu with a view of recovering her, and I will abandon 
this clog of a kingdom, which without her is distasteful." 
After saying this, King Bhunandana informed his subjects 
of his resolution, and gave the kingdom to his younger brother 
named Sunandana. 

But after he had resigned the kingdom he went to a 
holy bathing-place named Kramasaras ; which arose from 
the footfall of Vishnu, for it was made by him long ago in 
his Dwarf incarnation. ^ It is attended by the three gods 

^ In the original there is a most elaborate pun : " free from calamity " 
may mean also "impolitic" or "lawless." 

2 It was as Vamana, the dwarf, his fifth incarnation, that Vishnu appeared 
to Bali and asked for as much land as could be covered in three paces. On 
his request being granted, in two paces he strode over heaven and earth. 
See R. Shama Sastry, " Vishnu's Three Strides : the Measure of Vedic 
Chronology," Bombay Br. Roy, As, Soc, vol. xxvi, pp. 40-56. n.m.p. 


Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, who have settled on the top of 
the neighbouring mountains in the form of peaks. And the 
foot of Vishnu created here in Kasmira another Ganges, 
named Ikshuvati, as if in emulation of the Vitasta. There 
the king remained, performing austerities, and pining without 
desire for any other enjoyment, like the chdtaka in the hot 
season longing for fresh rain-water. 

And after twelve years had passed over his head, while he 
remained engaged in ascetic practices, a certain ascetic came 
that way who was a chief of sages : he had yellow matted 
hair, wore tattered garments, and was surrounded by a band 
of pupils; and he appeared like Siva himself come down 
from the top of the hills that overhang that holy bathing-place. 
As soon as he saw the king he was filled with love for him, 
and went up to him, and, bowing before him, asked him his 
history, and then reflected for a moment and said : 

" King, that Daitya maiden that you love lives in 
Patala, so be of good cheer, I will take you to her. For I 
am a Brahman named Bhurivasu, the son of a sacrificing 
Brahman of the Deccan, named Yajuh, and I am a chief 
among magicians. My father communicated his knowledge 
to me, and I learned from a treatise on Patala the proper 
charms and ceremonies for propitiating Hatakesana.^ And 
I went to Sriparvata and performed a course of asceticism 
there for propitiating Siva, and Siva, being pleased with it, 
appeared to me and said to me : ' Go ; after you have 
married a Daitya maiden and enjoyed pleasures in the 
regions below the earth, you shall return to me; and 
listen; I will tell you an expedient for obtaining those de- 
lights. There are on this earth many openings leading to 
the lower regions; but there is one great and famous one 
in Kasmira made by Maya, by which Usha the daughter 
of Bana introduced her lover Aniruddha into the secret 
pleasure-grounds of the Danavas, and made him happy 
there. And Pradyumna, in order to deliver his son, laid 
it open, making a door in one place with the peak of a 
mountain, and he placed Durga there, under the name of 
Sarika, to guard that door, after propitiating her with 

^ A name of Siva. 


hundreds of praises. Consequently even now the place is 
called by the two names of Peak of Pradyumna and Hill of 
Sarika. So go and enter Patala with your followers by that 
famous opening, and by my favour you shall succeed there.' 
" When the god had said this, he disappeared, and by his 
favour I acquired all the knowledge at once, and now I have 
come to this land of Kasmira. So come with us. King, to 
that seat of Sarika, in order that I may conduct you to 
Patala, to the maid that you love." When the ascetic had 
said this to King Bhunandana, the latter consented, and 
went with him to that seat of Sarika. There he bathed in the 
Vitasta, and worshipped Ganesa, and honoured the goddess 
Sarika, and performed the ceremony of averting evil spirits 
from all quarters by waving the hand round the head ^ and 
other ceremonies. And then the great ascetic, triumphing 
by the favour of the boon of Siva, revealed the opening by 
scattering mustard-seeds in the prescribed manner, and the 
king entered with him and his pupils, and marched along 
the road to Patala for five days and five nights. ^ And on 

^ My native friends tell me that the hand is waved round the head, and 

the fingers are snapped four or ten times. " This is/' says Crooke {op. cit.j 

vol. ii, p. 24), "perhaps one explanation of the use of flags at temples and 
village shrines, though in some cases they appeared to be used as a perch, on 
which the deity sits when he makes his periodical visits." In Upper India 
the custom at Hindu weddings connected with the waving away of spirits is 
called Parachhan. Fans and branches of sacred trees are also largely used 
to dispel spirits, but practically anything passed round the head (usually 
seven times) and then thrown away, or scattered in all directions, will have 
the desired effect. n.m.p. 

2 Possibly this story is the same as that of Tannhauser, for which see 
Baring-Gould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 209-229. He remarks 

that the story of Tannhauser is a very ancient myth christianised. The 

Mountain of Venus appears in German literature before its connection 
with Tannhauser, for which see Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan und Isolde, 
1. 4805 et seq. For the Tannhauser myth itself reference should be made to 
P. S. Barto, Tannhauser and the Mountain of Venus, Oxford University Press, 
New York Branch, 191 6, which contains ten pages of useful bibliography. 
Professor R. Priebsch draws my special attention to E. Elster, Tannhauser 
in Geschichte, Sage und Dichtung, Bromberg, 1908 ; W. Gother, Zur deutschen 
Sage und Dichtung. Gesammelte Aujs'dtze, Leipzig, 1911; and F. Rostock, 
Mittelhochdeutsche Dichterheldensage, Halle, 1925, pp. 12-15, with a good 
bibliography. n.m.p. 


the sixth day they all crossed the Ganges of the lower regions, 
and they beheld a heavenly grove on a silver plain. It had 
splendid coral, camphor, sandal and aloes trees, and was per- 
fumed with the fragrance of large full-blown golden lotuses. 
And in the middle of it they saw a lofty temple of Siva. It 
was of vast extent, adorned with stairs of jewels ; its walls 
were of gold, it glittered with many pillars of precious stone ; 
and the spacious translucent body of the edifice was built 
of blocks of the moon-gem. 

Then King Bhtinandana and the pupils of that ascetic, 
who possessed supernatural insight, were cheered, and he said 
to them : " This is the dwelling of the god Siva, who inhabits 
the lower regions in the form of Hatakesvara, and whose 
praises are sung in the three worlds, so worship him." Then 
they all bathed in the Ganges of the lower regions, and 
worshipped Siva with various flowers, the growth of Patala. 
And after the brief refreshment of worshipping Siva, they 
went on and reached a splendid lofty jambu tree,^ the fruits 
of which were ripe and falling on the ground. And when 
the ascetic saw it, he said to them : " You must not eat the 
fruits of this tree, for, if eaten, they will impede the success 
of what you have in hand." In spite of his prohibitions one 
of his pupils, impelled by hunger, ate a fruit of the tree, and, 
as soon as he had eaten it, he became rigid and motionless. ^ 

Then the other pupils, seeing that, were terrified, and no 
longer felt any desire to eat the fruit; and that ascetic, 
accompanied by them and King Bhtinandana, went on 
only a kos^ farther, and beheld a lofty golden wall rising 
before them, with a gate composed of a precious gem. On 
the two sides of the gate they saw two rams with bodies 
of iron, ready to strike with their horns, put there to pre- 
vent anyone from entering. But the ascetic suddenly struck 
them a blow on their heads with a charmed wand, and 

^ This is the rose-apple, Eugenia jamholana, found throughout India. The 
bark is used as an astringent, while the seed or stone of the fruit has acquired 
some reputation as a cure for diabetes. See Kanny Lall Dey, Indigenous 
Drugs of India, 2nd edition, Calcutta, 1896, p. 123. n.m.p. 

2 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

3 See p. lOn}. n.m.p. 




drove them off somewhere, as if they had been struck by a 
thunderbolt. Then he and his pupils and that king entered 
by that gate, and beheld splendid palaces of gold and gems. 
And at the door of every one they beheld warders terrible 
with many teeth and tusks, ^ with iron maces in their hands. 
And then they all sat down there under a tree, while the 
ascetic entered into a mystic contemplation to avert evil. 
And by means of that contemplation all those terrible warders 
were compelled to flee from all the doors, and disappeared. 

And immediately there issued from those doors lovely 
women with heavenly ornaments and dresses, who were the 
attendants of those Daitya maidens. They approached 
separately all there present, and the ascetic among them, 
and invited them in the name of their mistresses into their 
respective palaces. And the ascetic, having now succeeded 
in his enterprise, said to all the others : " You must none of 
you disobey the command of your beloved after entering 
her palace." Then he entered with a few of those attendants 
a splendid palace, and obtained a lovely Daitya maiden and 
the happiness he desired. And the others singly were in- 
troduced into magnificent palaces by other of the attendants, 
and were blessed with the love of Daitya maidens. 

And the King Bhunandana was then conducted by one 
of the attendants, who bowed respectfully to him, to a palace 
built of gems outside the wall. Its walls of precious stones 
were, so to speak, adorned all round with living pictures, 
on account of the reflections on them of the lovely waiting- 
women. It was built on a platform of smooth sapphire, and 
so it appeared as if it had ascended to the vault of heaven, in 
order to outdo a sky-going chariot. ^ It seemed like the house 
of the Vrishnis,^ made rich by means of the power of Vishnu. 
In it sported fair ones wild with intoxication, and it was full 
of the charming grace of Kama. Even a flower, that cannot 

^ The Sanskrit College MS. has dantadrishtddharotkatdn. Perhaps drishta 
should be dashta. It would then mean "terrible because they were biting 
their lips." 

^ The Sanskrit College MS. reads vimdnavijigishayd. 

^ Descendants of Vrishni and relatives of Krishna. In Achyuta there is 
a pun: the word may mean "Vishnu" and also "permanent": rdmam may 
also refer to Balarama, who is represented as a drunkard. 



bear the wind and the heat, would in vain attempt to rival 
the delicacy of the bodies of the ladies in that palace. It 
resounded with heavenly music, and when the king entered 
it he beheld once more that beautiful Asura maiden whom 
he had seen in a dream. Her beauty illuminated the lower 
world which has not the light of the sun or the stars, and made 
the creation of sparkling jewels, and other lustrous things, an 
unnecessary proceeding on the part of the Creator. ^ 

The king gazed with tears of joy on that indescribably 
beautiful lady, and, so to speak, washed off from his eyes 
the pollution which they had contracted by looking at others. 
And that girl, named Kumudini, who was being praised by 
the songs of female attendants, ^ felt indescribable joy when 
she saw the prince. She rose up, and took him by the hand 
and said to him, " I have caused you much suffering," and 
then with all politeness she conducted him to a seat. And 
after he had rested a little while he bathed, and the Asura 
maiden had him adorned with robes and jewels, and led him 
out to the garden to drink. Then she sat down with him 
on the brink of a tank filled with wine, and with the blood 
and fat of corpses, that hung from trees on its banks, and she 
offered that king a goblet, full of that fat and wine, to drink, 
but he would not accept the loathsome compound. And she 
kept earnestly saying to the king : " You will not prosper if 
you reject my beverage." But he answered : "I certainly will 
not drink that undrinkable compound, whatever may happen." 
Then she emptied the goblet on his head and departed ; and 
the king's eyes and mouth were suddenly closed, and her 
maids took him and flung him into the water of another tank. 

And the moment he was thrown into the water he found 
himself once more in the grove of ascetics, near the holy 
bathing-place of Kramasaras, where he was before.^ And 
when he saw the mountain there, as it were, laughing at him 

^ Patala, like Milton's lower world, " wants not her hidden lustre, gems, 
and gold." 

2 Kumudini means an assemblage of white water-lilies : female attendants 
may also mean bees, as the Sandhi will admit of ali or ali : rdjendram should 
probably be rdjendwny moon of kings, as the kumudini loves the moon. 

3 C/. the story of Saktideva in Vol. II, pp. 223-224 ; and see p. 279 of 
this volume.- 




with its snow,^ the disappointed king, despondent, astonished, 
and bewildered, reflected as follows : " What a difference 
there is between the garden of the Daitya maiden and this 
mountain of Kramasaras. Ah ! what is this strange event ? 
Is it an illusion or a wandering of the mind ? But what 
other explanation can there be than this, that undoubtedly 
this has befallen me because, though I heard the warning 
of the ascetic, I disobeyed the injunction of that fair one. 
And after all the beverage was not loathsome ; she was only 
making trial of me ; for the liquor, which fell upon my head, 
has bestowed on it heavenly fragrance. So it is indubitable 
that, in the case of the unfortunate, even great hardships 
endured bring no reward, for Destiny is opposed to them." 

While King Bhunandana was engaged in these reflections, 
bees came and surrounded him on account of the fragrant 
perfume of his body, that had been sprinkled with the liquor 
offered by the Asura maiden. When those bees stung the 
king he thought to himself : " Alas ! so far from my toils 
having produced the desired fruit, they have produced dis- 
agreeable results, as the raising of a Vetala does to a man 
of little courage." ^ Then he became so distracted that he 
resolved on suicide. 

And it happened that, at the very time, there came a 
young hermit that way, who, finding the king in this state, 
and being of a merciful disposition, went up to him and 
quickly drove away the bees, and after asking him his story 
said to him : " King, as long as we retain this body, how can 
woes come to an end ? So the wise should always pursue 
without distraction the great object of human existence. 
And until you perceive that Vishnu, Siva and Brahma are 
really one, you will always find the successes that are gained 
by worshipping them separately short-lived and uncertain. 
So meditate on Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, in the light of 
their unity, and patiently perform asceticism here for another 
twelve years. Then you shall obtain that beloved, and 
eventually everlasting salvation; and observe, you have al- 
ready attained a body possessing heavenly fragrance. Now 

^ By the laws of Hindu rhetoric a smile is regarded as white. 
2 We have an instance of this a little farther on. 



receive from me this skin of a black antelope, to which a 
charm is attached, and if you wrap yourself up in it you will 
not be annoyed here by bees. ' ' When the hermit had said this, 
he gave him the deerskin and the charm, and departed ; and 
the king accepted his advice, and taking to himself patience, 
so lived in that place. And after the king had lived there 
twelve years, and propitiated Siva by penance, that Daitya 
maiden, named Kumudini, came to him of her own accord. 
And the king went with that beloved to Patala, and after 
he had lived with her a long time in happiness, he attained 

163E. Srldarsana's Story 

" So those fortunate ones, whose characters are free from 
perturbation, and who betake themselves to patient endur- 
ance, obtain again their own rank, though they may have 
fallen far from it.^ And since you, Sridarsana, are a man 
fated to be prosperous, being covered with auspicious marks, 
why do you, out of perturbation, allow yourself to go with- 
out food ? " When Sridarsana, who was fasting, was thus 
addressed in the gambling-hall by his friend Mukharaka, he 
said to him : " What you say is true ; but being a man of 
good family, I cannot for shame go out into this town, as I 
am reduced so low by gambling. So if you will permit me, 
my friend, to go to some other country this very night, I will 
take food." When Mukharaka heard that, he consented, and 
brought food and gave it to him, and he ate it. And after 
Sridarsana had eaten it, he set out for another country with 
that friend of his, who followed him out of affection. 

And as he was going along the road at night, it happened 
that the two Yakshas, Attahasa and Saudamini, his father 
and mother, who had deposited him, as soon as he was 
born, in the house of the Brahman, saw him while they were 
roaming through the air. When they saw him in distress, 
impoverished by the vice of gambling, and on his way to a 
foreign country, affection made them say to him, while still 

^ I read durahhrashtd. The reading of the Sanskrit College MS. is duram 



remaining invisible, the following words : " Sridarsana, your 
mother, the wife of Devadarsana, buried in her house some 
jewels. Take those, and do not omit to go with them to 
Malava, for there is a magnificent prince there of the name 
of Srisena. And since he was much afflicted in his youth 
by miseries arising from gambling, he has made a large and 
glorious asylum for gamblers. There gamblers live, and are 
fed with whatever food they desire. So go there, darling, and 
you shall be prosperous." 

When Sridarsana heard this speech from heaven, he went 
back to his house with his friend, and found those ornaments 
in it, in a hole in the ground. Then he set out delighted 
for Malava, with his friend, thinking that the gods had shown 
him favour. So in that night and the succeeding day he went 
a long distance, and the next evening he reached with his 
friend a village named Bahusasya. And being weary, he 
sat down with his friend on the bank of a translucent lake, 
not far from that village. While he remained for a brief 
period on the bank of that lake, after washing his feet and 
drinking water, there came there a certain maiden, matchless 
in beauty, to fetch water. Her body resembled a blue lotus 
in colour, and she seemed like Rati left alone, and blackened 
by the smoke from the body of the God of Love, when he had 
just been consumed by Siva. Sridarsana was delighted to 
behold her, and she went up to him, and looked at him with 
an eye full of love, and said to him and his friend : " Worthy 
sirs, why have you come hither to your death ? Why, 
through ignorance, have you fallen like moths into burning 
fire ? " When Mukharaka heard this, he said to the maiden, 
without the least trepidation : " Who are you ? And what 
is the meaning of what you say ? Tell us." Then she said : 
" Listen, both of you ! I will tell you the whole story in few 

" There is a large and famous royal grant to Brahmans 
named Sughosha. In it there dwelt a Brahman named 
Padmagarbha, who possessed a thorough knowledge of the 
Vedas. He had a wife of very good family, named Sasikala. 
And the Brahman had two children by that wife, a son of the 
name of Mukharaka, and myself, a daughter of the name of 


Padmishtha. My brother Mukharaka was ruined by the vice 
of gambUng in early youth, and left his home and went off to 
some other country. My mother died of grief on that account, 
and my father, afflicted with two sorrows, abandoned the 
state of a householder. And he roamed about from place to 
place, with no other companion than myself, to look for that 
son, and, as it happened, he reached this village. Now in 
this village there lives a great bandit, the chief of a gang of 
robbers, called Vasubhtiti, a Brahman only by name. When 
my father arrived here, that ruffian, with the help of his 
servants, killed him, and took away the gold he had about 
his person. And he made me a prisoner and carried me off 
to his house, and he has made arrangements to give me in 
marriage to his son Subhuti. But his son has gone off some- 
where to plunder a caravan, and, owing to my good fortune, 
the result of good deeds in a former birth, he has not yet 
returned ; now it remains for Destiny to dispose of me. 
But, if this bandit were to see you, he would certainly do 
you some violence : so think of some artifice by which you 
may escape him." 

When the maiden said this, Mukharaka recognised her, 
and at once clasping her round the neck said to her : " Alas, 
my sister Padmishtha ! I am that very brother of yours, 
Mukharaka, the murderer of his relations. Alas ! wretched 
that I am, I am ruined." When Padmishtha heard this, and 
saw her elder brother, pity caused her to be, as it were, sud- 
denly encircled with all sorrows. Then Sridarsana comforted 
the brother and sister, who were lamenting their parents, 
and addressed a timely admonition and encouragement to 
them. He said : " This is not the time for lamentation ; we 
must save now our lives even at the cost of our wealth, 
and by means of it we must protect ourselves against this 
bandit." When Sridarsana said this, they checked their 
grief with self-control, and all agreed together what each was 
to do. 

Then Sridarsana, being thin by reason of his former fasts,, 
flung himself down on the bank of that tank, and pretended 
to be ill. And Mukharaka remained holding his feet and 
weeping : but Padmishtha immediately repaired to that 


bandit chief, and said : "A traveller has arrived, and is lying 
B ill on the border of the tank, and there is another there who 
is his servant." When the bandit chief heard that, he sent 
some of his followers there. They went, and, seeing the two 
men as had been described, asked Mukharaka why he wept 
so much for his companion. When Mukharaka heard this, 
he said with affected sorrow : " This Brahman, who is my 
elder brother, left his native land to visit holy bathing-places, 
but was attacked by disease, and slowly travelling along he 
has arrived here, accompanied by me. And the moment he 
got here he became incapable of movement, and he said to 
me : ' Rise up, my dear brother, and quickly prepare for me 
a bed of darbha grass. And fetch me some virtuous Brah- 
man from this village. On him I will bestow all my wealth, 
for I cannot live through this night.' When he said this to 
me, in this foreign country after sunset, I felt quite puzzled 
as to what I ought to do, and, being afflicted, I had recourse 
to weeping. So bring here some Brahman while he is alive, 
in order that he may bestow on him with his own hand 
whatever wealth we possess. For he will certainly not live 
through the night, and I shall not be able to survive the 
sorrow of his loss, so to-morrow I shall enter the fire. So do 
for us this which we ask, since we have met with you here 
as compassionate men and friends without any cause." 

When the bandits heard that, pity arose in their minds, 
and they went and told the story, exactly as they had heard 
it, to their master Vasubhuti, and went on to say : "So 
come and receive, as a pious gift, from this Brahman, who is 
eager to bestow it on you, the wealth which ordinarily is to 
be obtained only by killing its possessor." When they said 
this to Vasubhuti he said : " What course is this which you 
suggest ? It is highly impolitic for us to take wealth without 
killing its possessor, for, if he is deprived of his wealth with- 
out being killed, he will certainly do us an injury." When 
the villain said this, those servants answered him : " What 
is there to fear in this ? There is some difference in taking 
wealth by force, and receiving it as a gift from a dying man. 
Besides, to-morrow morning we will kill these two Brahmans, 
if they are still alive. Otherwise, what is the use of incurring 


needlessly the guilt of killing a Brahman ? " When Vasu- 
bhuti heard this he consented, and in the night he came to 
Sridarsana to receive his pious gift, and Sridarsaiia concealed 
a part of his mother's ornaments, and gave him the rest, 
assuming a faltering voice. Then the bandit, having got what 
he wanted, returned home with his followers. 

Then Padmishtha came at night to Sridarsana and 
Mukharaka, while the bandits were asleep. Then they 
quickly deliberated together, and set off at once from that 
place for Malava by a path not frequented by the robbers. 
And during that night they went a long distance, and 
reached a wood that seemed to be afraid of the roaring 
lions, tigers and other wild beasts within it. It seemed by 
its thorns to be in a state of perpetual horripilation, and 
by its roaming black antelopes to be rolling its eyes. The 
dry creepers showed that its body was dried up from fear, 
and the shrill whistling of the loose bark was its screams of 
terror. And while they were journeying through the forest, 
the sun, that had observed their sufferings all day, withdrew 
its light as if in compassion, and set. 

Then they sat down weary and hungry at the foot of 
a tree, and in the early part of the night they saw in the 
distance a light, as of fire. And Sridarsana said : " Can 
there possibly be a village here? I will go and look." 
So he went in the direction of the light. And when he 
reached it, and looked at it, lo ! it was a great palace of 
jewels, and its splendour produced that light as of fire.^ And 
he saw inside it a Yakshini of heavenly beauty, surrounded 
by many Yakshas, with feet turned the wrong way and 
squinting eyes. And the brave man, seeing that they had 
brought there all kinds of meat and drink, went up to the 
Yakshini, and asked her to give him his share as a guest. 
And she was pleased with his courage and gave him what he 
asked for : enough food and water to satisfy himself and his 
two companions. The refreshment was placed on the back 
of a Yaksha ordered off by her for that duty, and Sridarsana 
returned with it to his friend and Padmishtha. And then he 

1 See Vol. Ill, p. 167, l67w-, also Prym and Socin, Syrische Mdrchen, p. 36, 
and Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer, Book I, p. 30, with notes. 


dismissed the Yaksha, and partook there with them of all that 

H splendid food of various kinds, and drank pure cold water. 

K Then Mukharaka was pleased, perceiving that he must 

H be an incarnation of a divinity, as he was so rich in courage 

B and might, and, desiring his own prosperity, he said to him : 

B " You are some incarnation of a divinity, and this sister of 

^ft mine, Padmishtha, is the greatest beauty in the world, so I 

^m now give her to you as a wife meet for you." 

^B When Sridarsana heard that, he was delighted, and said to 

his friend : "I accept with joy this offer of yours, which I have 

long desired. But when I reach my goal I will marry her in 

proper form." This he said to those two, and then passed 

the night in a joyful state of mind. And the next morning 

they all set out from that place, and reached in due course 

the city of that King Srisena, the sovereign of Malava. And 

arriving tired, they immediately entered the house of an old 

Brahman woman to rest. And in the course of conversation 

they told her their story and their names ; and then they 

saw that the old woman was much disturbed, and when they 

questioned her she said to them : 

" I am the well-born wife of a Brahman here, named 
Satyavrata, who was a servant of the king's, and my name 
is Yasasvati. And after my husband died, the compassion- 
ate king gave me the fourth part of his salary to live upon, 
as I had not a son to support me. But now this moon of 
kings, though his virtues are great, and though he is generous 
enough to give away the whole world, has been seized by a 
consumption ^ which the physicians cannot cure. And the 
drugs and charms of those skilled in such things do not 
prevail against it ; but a certain enchanter made this promise 
in his presence : ' If I could only get a hero, equal to the 
task, to help me, I would certainly put an end to this illness 
by getting a Vetala into my power.' Then proclamation was 
made by beat of drum, but no such hero was found. Then 
the king gave the following order to his ministers : ' You 
must look out for some daring gambler, who comes to reside 
in the great and well-known asylum which I built for such. 

^ The moon suffers from consumption in consequence of the curse of 
Daksha, who was angry at his exclusive preference for Rohini. 



For gamblers are reckless, abandoning wife and relations, 
fearless, sleeping at the foot of trees and in other exposed 
places, like ascetics.' When the king gave this order to his 
ministers, they instructed to this effect the superintendent 
of the asylum, and he is now on the look-out for some brave 
man who may come there to reside awhile. Now you are 
gamblers, and if you, Sridarsana, feel able to accomplish the 
undertaking, I will take you to-day to that asylum. And 
you will be well treated by the king, and you will confer a 
benefit on me, for grief is killing me." 

When the old lady said this, Sridarsana answered her : 
" Agreed ! I am able to accomplish this, so lead me quickly 
to that asylum." When she heard this, she took him, and 
Padmishtha, and Mukharaka, to that asylum, and there said 
to the superintendent : " Here is a Brahman gambler arrived 
from a foreign land, a hero who is able to assist that enchanter 
in performing incantations for the good of the king." When 
the superintendent heard this, he questioned Sridarsana, and 
when he confirmed the words of the old lady he treated him 
with great respect, and led him quickly into the presence of 
the king. 

And Sridarsana, being introduced by him, beheld the 
king, who was thin and pale as the new moon. And King 
Srisena observed that Sridarsana, who bowed before him and 
sat down, was of a taking appearance, and, pleased with 
his look, he felt comforted, and said to him : "I know that 
your exertions will certainly put an end to my disease ; my 
body tells me this, for the mere sight of you has quieted 
its sufferings. So aid the enchanter in this matter." When 
the king said this, Sridarsana said to him : " The enterprise 
is a mere trifle." 

Then the king summoned the enchanter, and said to him : 
" This hero will aid you ; do what you said." 

When that enchanter heard that, he said to Sridarsana : 
" My good sir, if you are able to assist me in raising a Vetala, 
come to me in the cemetery at nightfall this very day, the 
fourteenth of the black fortnight." When the ascetic, who 
practised magic, had said this, he went away, and Sridarsana 
took leave of the king and returned to that asylum. 


There he took food with Padmishtha and Mukharaka, 
and at night he went alone, sword in hand, to the cemetery. 
It was full of many ghosts, empty of men, inauspicious, full 
of roaring jackals, covered with impenetrable darkness, but 
showed in some places a faint gleam where the funeral pyres 
were.^ The hero Sridarsana wandered about in that place of 
horrors and saw the enchanter in the middle of it. His whole 
body was smeared with ashes, he had a Brahmanical thread 
of hair, he wore a turban made of the clothes of the dead, and 
he was clad in a black garment. Sridarsana approached 
him, and made himself known to him, and then, girding up 
his loins, he said : " Tell me, what shall I do for you ? " The 
enchanter answered in high spirits : " Half a kos only to the 
west of this place there is an asoka tree, the leaves of which 
are burned with the hot flame of funeral pyres. At the foot 
of it there is a corpse ; go and bring it here unharmed." 

Then Sridarsana said: "I will"; and going quickly to 
the place he saw someone else taking away the corpse. So he 
ran and tried to drag it from the shoulder of that person, 
who would not let it go, and said to him : " Let go this corpse : 
where are you taking my friend whom I have to burn ? " 
Then that second person said to Sridarsana : "I will not 
let the dead man go ; I am his friend ; what have you to do 
with him ? " While they were dragging the corpse from one 
another's shoulders, and making these mutual recriminations, 
the corpse itself, which was animated by a Vetala, uttered 
a terrible shriek. That terrified the second person so that 
his heart broke, and he fell down dead, and then Sridarsana 
went off with that corpse in his arms. Then the second man, 
though dead, rose up, being possessed by a Vetala, and tried 
to stop Sridarsana, and said to him : " Halt ! do not go off 
with my friend on your shoulder." Then Sridarsana, know- 
ing that his rival was possessed by a Vetala, said to him : 
" What proof is there that you are his friend ? He is my 
friend." The rival then said : " The corpse itself shall 
decide between us." Then Sridarsana said ; " Well ! Let 
him declare who is his friend." Then the corpse that was on 
his back, being possessed by a Vetala, said : "I am hungry, 

^ Here there is a pun : upachitam means also "concentrated." 



so I decide that whoever gives me food is my friend ; let him 
take me where he likes." When the second corpse, that was 
also possessed by a Vetala, heard this, he answered : "I have 
no food ; if he has any, let him give you some." Sridarsana, 
hearing this, said : " I will give you food " ; and proceeded 
to strike with his sword at the second corpse, in order to 
procure food for the Vetala that was on his shoulder. ^ But 
that second corpse, which was also possessed by a Vetala, the 
moment he began to strike it, disappeared by its supernatural 

Then the Vetala that was on Sridarsana's shoulder said 
to him : " Now give me the food that you promised me." 
So Sridarsana, not being able to obtain any other flesh to give 
him to eat, cut off with his sword some of his own flesh, 
and gave it to him.^ This pleased the Vetala, and he said to 

^ Cf. a story in the Nugce Curialium of Gualterus Mapes, in which a 
corpse, tenanted by a demon, is prevented from doing further mischief by a 
sword-stroke, which cleaves its head to the chin. (Liebrecht's Zvr Volkskunde, 
p. 34 et seq.) 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 84n2, 85n; Vol. II, p. 235. Mention should be made of 
a group of stories in which the hero gives flesh from his own body to an eagle 
or other large bird which carries him from the underworld. Grimm No. 91 > 
" Dat Erdmanneken," can be taken as the standard version, of which numerous 
variants will be found in Bolte, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 297 et seq. (jtiotif E). In 
Lorraine the corresponding stories are "Jean de I'Ours" (Cosquin, Conies 
Populaires de Lorraine, vol. i, pp. 1-27) and " La Canne de Cinq Cents Livres " 
(ditto, vol. ii, p. 137, and pp. 141-143, where several other variants are given). 
In a tale from Ulaghatsh, in the Cappadocian area of Asia Minor, called " The 
Underworld Adventure," is an interesting variant of the motif. That portion 
which concerns us is thus translated by R. M. Dawkins {Modern Greek in Asia 
Minor, Cambridge, 191 6, pp. 373-374): 

" The mother of the chicks said to the scaldhead [6 Ka(rL87]<s = bald man] : 
* When I say " Lak ! " give me water, when I say " Lyk ! " give me meat. In 
this way I will take you out to the surface of the earth.' The scaldhead put 
the meat on her wing ; the water he put on her other wing. And the scald- 
head mounted on her. When she says ^ Lak ! ' he gives her meat ; when she 
says ' Lyk ! ' he gives her water. Thus and thus she brought him half way. 
The meat and the water came to an end. ' Lak ! ' says she ; there is no 
water. ' Lyk ! ' says she ; there is no meat. The scaldhead with his knife 
took a little flesh from his leg. He gave it to her ; and she refused it. She 
did not eat it. She brought him out to the surface of the earth. 

" The mother of the chicks said to the scaldhead : 'Just rise up and walk ! ' 
That scaldhead said : ' Out upon you : can I walk ? ' She said : ' Just walk ! * 



him : "I am satisfied with you, brave man ; let your body 
be restored whole as before. Now take me off ; this enter- 
prise of yours shall succeed, but that ascetic enchanter shall 
be destroyed, for he is a great coward." When Sridarsana 
was thus addressed by the Vetala, he immediately became 
whole as before, and taking the corpse he handed it to the 
magician. He received it joyfully, and honoured it with 
unguents and garlands of blood, and he placed the corpse, 
possessed by the Vetala, on its back in a great circle marked 
out with powdered human bones, in the corners of which were 
placed pitchers of blood, and which was lighted up with lamps 
fed by oil from the human body. And he sat on the breast 
of the corpse, and holding in his hand a ladle and spoon of 
human bone, he began to make an oblation of clarified butter 
in its mouth. Immediately such a flame issued from the 
mouth of that corpse possessed by the Vetala that the sorcerer 
rose up in terror and fled. When he thus lost his presence of 
mind, and dropped his spoon and ladle, the Vetala pursued 
him, and opening his mouth swallowed him whole. ^ 

When Sridarsana saw that, he lifted up his sword and 
attacked the Vetala, but the Vetala said to him : " Sridar- 
sana, I am pleased with this courage of yours, so take these 
mustard -seeds produced in my mouth. If you place these 
on the head and hands of the king, the malady of consump- 
tion will immediately leave him, and you in a short time will 
become the king of the whole earth." When Sridarsana 
heard this, he said : " How can I leave this place without 

He rose up to walk. He is lame. The mother of the chicks saw he was 
lame. She brought out the flesh from underneath her tongue. She put it on 
the wound and licked it. ' Just rise up and walk ! ' she said. He rose up ; he 

Cf. with the above, " Asphurtzela," in M. Wardrop's Georgian Folk Tales, 
p. 82, and see the notes by W. R. Halliday on pp. 274-275 of Dawkins' work 
mentioned above. 

Very similar stories are found in Siberia. Thus in a Kirghiz (N.E. of 
the Caspian) tale the huge bird Karakus is fed by flesh from the hero's thigh, 
and in an Ostyak (N.W. Siberia) story the Fiery-bird consumes both calves 
of its rider. See C. F. Coxwell, Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, London, 1925, 
pp. SQ^^ 531. N.M.p. 

^ See note at end of chapter. n.m.p. 



that sorcerer ? The king is sure to say that I killed him out 
of a selfish regard to my own interests." When Sridarsana 
said this to the Vetala, he answered : "I will tell you a 
convincing proof, which will clear you. Cut open the body 
of this corpse, and show inside it this sorcerer dead, whom 
I have swallowed." When the Vetala had said this, he gave 
him the mustard-seeds, and went off somewhere or other, 
leaving that corpse, and the corpse fell on the ground. 

Then Sridarsana went off, taking with him the mustard- 
seeds, and he spent that night in the asylum in which his 
friend was. And the next morning he went to the king, 
and told him what had happened in the night, and took and 
showed to the ministers that sorcerer in the stomach of the 
corpse. Then he placed the mustard-seeds on the head and 
the hands of the king, and that made the king quite well, as 
all his sickness at once left him. Then the king was pleased, 
and, as he had no son, he adopted as his son Sridarsana, who 
had saved his life. And he immediately anointed that hero 
Crown Prince ; for the seed of benefits, sown in good soil, 
produces abundant fruit. Then the fortunate Sridarsana 
married there that Padmishtha, who seemed like the Goddess 
of Fortune that had come to him in reward for his former 
courting of her, and the hero remained there, in the company 
of her brother Mukharaka, enjoying pleasures and ruling the 

One day a great merchant, named Upendrasakti, found 
an image of Ganesa, carved out of a jewel, on the border of a 
tank, and brought it and gave it to that prince. The prince, 
seeing that it was of priceless value, out of his fervent piety 
set it up in a very splendid manner in a temple. And he 
appointed a thousand villages there for the permanent 
support of the temple, and he ordained in honour of the idol 
a festive procession, at which all Malava assembled. And 
Ganesa, being pleased with the numerous dances, songs and 
instrumental performances in his honour, said to the Ganas 
at night : " By my favour this Sridarsana shall be a universal 
emperor on the earth. Now there is an island named Hamsa- 
dvipa in the western sea ; and in it is a king named Anango- 
daya, and he has a lovely daughter named Anangamanjari. 



And that daughter of his, being devoted to me, always offers 
to me this petition, after she has worshipped me : ' Holy 
one, give me a husband who shall be the lord of the whole 
earth.' So I will marry her to this Sridarsana, and thus 
I shall have bestowed on both the meet reward of their 
devotion to me. So you must take Sridarsana there, and 
after you have contrived that they should see one another, 
bring him back quickly; and in course of time they shall 
be united in due form ; but it cannot be done immediately, 
for such is the will of Destiny. Moreover I have determined 
by these means to recompense Upendrasakti, the merchant, 
who brought my image to the prince." 

The Ganas, having received this order from Ganesa, took 
Sridarsana that very night, while he was asleep, and carried 
him to Hamsadvipa by their supernatural power. And there 
they introduced him into the chamber of Anangamanjari and 
placed him on the bed on which that princess was lying 
asleep. Sridarsana immediately woke up, and saw Ananga- 
manjari. She was reclining on a bed covered with a quilt of 
pure white woven silk, in a splendid chamber in which flashed 
jewel lamps, and which was illuminated by the numerous 
priceless gems of the canopy and other furniture, and the 
floor of which was dark with the rdjdvarta stone. As she lay 
there pouring forth rays of beauty like the lovely effluence 
of a stream of nectar, she seemed like the orb of the autumn 
moon lapped in a fragment of a white cloud, in a sky adorned 
with a host of bright twinkling stars, gladdening the eyes. 
Immediately he was delighted, astonished and bewildered, 
and he said to himself : "I went to sleep at home and I 
have woke up in a very different place. What does all this 
mean ? Who is this woman ? Surely it is a dream ! Very 
well, let it be so. But I will wake up this lady and find out." 
After these reflections he gently nudged Anangamanjari on 
the shoulder with his hand. And the touch of his hand made 
her immediately awake and roll her eyes, as the kumudvatl 
opens under the rays of the moon, and the bees begin to 
circle in its cup. When she saw him, she reflected for a 
moment : " Wlxo can this being of celestial appearance be ? 
Surely he must be some god that has penetrated into this 


well-guarded room ? " So she rose up, and asked him 
earnestly and respectfully who he was, and how and why he 
had entered there. Then he told his story, and the fair one, 
when questioned by him, told him in turn her country, name 
and descent. Then they both fell in love with one another, 
and each ceased to believe that the other was an object seen 
in a dream, and, in order to make certain, they exchanged 

Then they both became eager for the gdndharva form of 
marriage,^ but the Ganas stupefied them, and laid them to 
sleep. And as soon as Sridarsana fell asleep they took him 
and carried him back to his own palace, cheated by Destiny 
of his desire. Then Sridarsana woke up in his own palace, 
and seeing himself decked with the ornaments of a lady he 
thought : " What does this mean ? At one moment I am 
in that heavenly palace with the daughter of the King of 
Hamsadvipa, at another moment I am here. It cannot be a 
dream, for here are these ornaments of hers on my wrist, so 
it must be some strange freak of Destiny." While he was 
engaged in these speculations, his wife Padmishtha woke 
up, and questioned him, and the kind woman comforted him, 
and so he passed the night. And the next morning he told 
the whole story to Srisena, before whom he appeared wearing 
the ornaments marked with the name of Anangamanjari. 
And the king, wishing to please him, had a proclamation 
made by beat of drum, to find out where Hamsadvipa was, 
but could not find out from anyone the road to that country. 
Then Sridarsana, separated from Anangamanjari, remained 
overpowered by the fever of love, averse to all enjoyment. 
He could not like his food while he gazed on her ornaments, 
necklace and all, and he abandoned sleep, having ceased to 
behold within reach the lotus of her face.^ 

In the meanwhile the Princess Anangamanjari, in Hamsa- 
dvipa, was awakened in the morning by the sound of music. 
When she remembered what had taken place in the night, 
and saw her body adorned with Sridarsana's ornaments, 
longing love made her melancholy. And she reflected : 
" Alas, I am brought into a state in which my life is in danger, 

^ See Vol. I^ pp. 87, 88. ^ A series of elaborate puns. 



by these ornaments, which prove that I cannot have been 
deluded by a dream, and fill me with love for an unattainable 

While she was engaged in these reflections, her father, 
Anangodaya, suddenly entered, and saw her wearing the 
ornaments of a man. The king, who was very fond of her, 
when he saw her covering her body with her clothes, and 
downcast with shame, took her on his lap and said to her : 
'" My daughter, what is the meaning of these masculine 
decorations, and why this shame ? Tell me. Do not show 
a want of confidence in me, for my life hangs on you." 
These and other kind speeches of her father's allayed her 
feeling of shame, and she told him at last the whole story. 

Then her father, thinking that it was a piece of super- 
natural enchantment, felt great doubt as to what steps he 
ought to take. So he went and asked an ascetic of the 
name of Brahmasoma, who possessed superhuman powers, 
and observed the rule of the Pasupatas, and who was a great 
friend of his, for his advice. The ascetic by his powers of 
contemplation penetrated the mystery, and said to the 
king : " The truth is that the Ganas brought here Prince 
Sridarsana from Malava, for Ganesa is favourably disposed 
both to him and your daughter, and by his favour he shall 
become a universal monarch. So he is a capital match for 
your daughter." When that gifted seer said this, the king 
bowed, and said to him : " Holy seer, Malava is far away 
from this great land of Hamsadvipa. The road is a difficult 
one, and this matter does not admit of delay. So in this 
matter your ever-propitious self is my only stay." 

When the ascetic, who was so kind to his admirers, 
had been thus entreated by the king, he said, " I myself will 
accomplish this," and he immediately disappeared. And he 
reached in a moment the city of King Srisena, in Malava. 
There he entered the very temple built by Sridarsana, and, 
after bowing before Ganesa, he sat down and began to praise 
him, saying : " Hail to thee of auspicious form, whose head 
is crowned with a garland of stars, so that thou art like the 
peak of Mount Meru ! I adore thy trunk flung up straight in 
the joy of the dance, so as to sweep the clouds, like a column 


supporting the edifice of the three worlds. Destroyer of 
Obstacles, I worship thy snake-adorned body, swelling out into 
a broad pitcher-like belly, the treasure-house of all success." 

While the ascetic was engaged in offering these praises 
to Ganesa in the temple, it happened that the son of the 
merchant-prince Upendrasakti, who brought his image, 
entered the temple as he was roaming about. His name was 
Mahendrasakti, and he had been rendered uncontrollable by 
long and violent madness, so he rushed forward to seize the 
ascetic. Then the ascetic struck him with his hand. The 
merchant's son, as soon as he was struck by the charm- 
bearing hand of that ascetic, was freed from madness and 
recovered his reason. And as he was naked he felt shame, 
and left the temple immediately, and covering himself with 
his hand, he made for his home. Immediately his father, 
Upendrasakti, hearing of it from the people, met him, full 
of joy, and led him to his house. There he had him bathed, 
and properly clothed and adorned, and then he went with 
him to the ascetic Brahmasoma. And he offered him much 
wealth as the restorer of his son, but the ascetic, as he 
possessed godlike power, would not receive it. 

In the meanwhile King Srisena himself, having heard 
what had taken place, reverently approached the ascetic, 
accompanied by Sridarsana. And the king bowed before 
him, and praised him, and said : " Owing to your coming, 
this merchant has received a benefit, by having his son 
restored to health, so do me a benefit also by ensuring the 
welfare of this son of mine, Sridarsana." When the king 
craved this boon of the ascetic, he smiled and said : " King, 
why should I do anything to please this thief, who stole at 
night the heart and the ornaments of the Princess Ananga- 
manjari, in Hamsadvipa, and returned here with them ? 
Nevertheless I must obey your orders." With these words 
the ascetic seized Sridarsana by the forearm, and disappeared 
with him. He took him to Hamsadvipa, and introduced him 
into the palace of King Anangodaya, with his daughter's 
ornaments on him. When Sridarsana arrived, the king 
welcomed him gladly, but first he threw himself at the feet 
of the ascetic and blessed him. And on an auspicious day 


he gave Sridarsana his daughter Anangamanjari, as if she 
were the earth garlanded with countless jewels. And then 
by the power of that ascetic he sent his son-in-law, with his 
wife, to Malava. And when Sridarsana arrived there, the king 
welcomed him gladly, and he lived there in happiness with 
his two wives. 

In the course of time King Srisena went to the next world, 
and that hero took his kingdom and conquered the whole 
earth. And when he had attained universal dominion he had 
two sons by his two wives, Padmishtha and Anangamanjari. 
And to one of them the king gave the name of Padmasena, 
and to the other of Anangasena, and he reared them up to 

And in course of time King Sridarsana, as he was sitting 
inside the palace with his two queens, heard a Brahman 
lamenting outside. So he had the Brahman brought inside, 
and asked him why he lamented. Then the Brahman showed 
great perturbation and said to him : " The fire that had 
points of burning flame (Diptasikha) has been now destroyed 
by a dark cloud of calamity, discharging a loud laugh 
(Attahdsa), together with its line of brightness and line of 
smoke {Jyotirlekhd and Dhumalekhd),^' ^ The moment the 
Brahman had said this he disappeared. And while the king 
was saying in his astonishment, " What did he say, and where 
has he gone ? " the two queens, weeping copiously, suddenly 
fell dead. 

When the king saw that sudden calamity, terrible as 
the stroke of a thunderbolt, he exclaimed in his grief, " Alas ! 
alas ! what means this ? " and fell on the ground wailing. 
And when he fell, his attendants picked him up and carried 
him to another place, and Mukharaka took the bodies of the 
queens and performed the ceremony of burning them. At 
last the king came to his senses, and after mourning long 
for the queens, he completed, out of affection, their funeral 
ceremonies. And after he had spent a day darkened by 
a storm of tears he divided the empire of the earth be- 
tween his two sons. Then, having conceived the design of 
renouncing the world, he left his city, and turning back his 

^ The significance of these names will appear further on. 


subjects who followed him, he went to the forest to perform 

There he lived on roots and fruits ; and one day, as he 
was wandering about at will, he came near a banyan-tree. As 
soon as he came near it, two women of celestial appearance 
suddenly issued from it with roots and fruits in their hands, 
and they said to him : " King, take these roots and fruits 
which we offer." When he heard that, he said : " Tell me now 
who you are." Then those women of heavenly appearance 
said to him : " Well, come into our house and we will tell 
you the truth." When he heard that he consented, and 
entering with them, he saw inside the tree a splendid golden 
city. There he rested and ate heavenly fruits, and then those 
women said to him : " Now, King, hear. 

" Long ago there dwelt in Pratishthana a Brahman, of the 
name of Kamalagarbha, and he had two wives : the name 
of the one was Pathya, and the name of the other Abala. 
Now in course of time all three, the husband and the wives, 
were worn out with old age, and at last they entered the fire 
together, being attached to one another. And at that time 
they put up a petition to Siva from the fire : ' May we be 
connected together as husband and wives in all our future 
lives ! ' Then Kamalagarbha, owing to the power of hi& 
severe penances, was born in the Yaksha race as Diptasikha, 
the son of the Yaksha Pradiptaksha, and the younger brother 
of Attahasa. His wives too, Pathya and Abala, were born 
as Yaksha maidens ^that is to say, as the two daughters of 
the king of the Yakshas named Dhumaketu and the name 
of the one was Jyotirlekha, and the name of the other 

" Now in course of time those two sisters grew up, and 
they went to the forest to perform asceticism, and they pro- 
pitiated Siva with the view of obtaining husbands. The god 
was pleased, and he appeared to them and said to them : 
' That man with whom you entered the fire in a former birth, 
and who you asked might be your husband in all subsequent 
births, was born again as a Yaksha named Diptasikha, the 
brother of Attahasa ; but he has become a mortal owing to 
the curse of his master, and has been born as a man named 



Sridarsana, so you too must go to the world of men and 
be his wives there; but as soon as the curse terminates, 
you shall all become Yakshas, husband and wives together.' 
When Siva said this, those two Yaksha maidens were born 
on the earth as Padmishtha and Anangamanjari. They be- 
came the wives of Sridarsana, and after they had been his 
wives for some time, that Attahasa, as fate would have it, 
came there in the form of a Brahman, and by the device of 
employing an ambiguous speech he managed to utter their 
names and remind them of their former existence, and this 
made them abandon that body and become Yakshinis. 
Know that we are those wives of yours, and you are that 
Diptasikha." When Sridarsana had been thus addressed 
by them, he remembered his former birth, and immediately 
became the Yaksha Diptasikha, and was again duly united 
to those two wives of his. 

" ' Know therefore, Vichitrakatha, that I am that Yaksha, 
and that these wives of mine are Jyotirlekha and Dhuma- 
lekha. So if creatures of godlike descent, like myself, have 
to endure such alterations of joy and sorrow, much more 
then must mortals. But do not be despondent, my son, for 
in a short time you shall be reunited to your master Mrigan- 
kadatta. And I remained here to entertain you, for this is 
my earthly dwelling. So stay here; I will accomplish your 
desire, then I will go to my own home in Kailasa.' 

163. Story of Mrigdnhadatta 

" When the Yaksha had in these words told me his story, 
he entertained me for some time. And the kind being, know- 
ing that you had arrived here at night, brought me and laid 
me asleep in the midst of you who were asleep. So I was 
seen by you, and you have been found by me. This, King, 
is the history of my adventures during my separation from 

When Prince Mrigankadatta had heard at night this tale 
from his minister Vichitrakatha, who was rightly named, ^ 
he was much delighted, and so were his other ministers. 

^ The word may mean "man of romantic anecdote." 



So, after he had spent that night on the turf of the forest, 
he went on with those companions of his towards Ujjayini, 
having his mind fixed on obtaining Sasankavati; and he 
kept searching for those other companions of his, who were 
separated by the curse of the Naga, and whom he had not 
yet found. 



The belief that it is dangerous for mortals to eat and drink when in the 
underworld is widespread, and can in all probability be traced to primitive 
ideas connected with food-taboos. Among many savage races there exists a 
highly developed ritual connected with eating, the most common idea being 
that the taking of food with a stranger is a form of covenant and establishes 
kinship. The basis of the idea is sympathetic magic. Frazer explains this 
clearly {Golden Bough {Taboo and the Perils of the Soul), p. 130): "By partici-^ 
pation in the same food two men give, as it were, hostages for their good 
behaviour ; each guarantees the other that he will devise no mischief against 
him, since, being physically united with him by the common food in their 
stomachs, any harm he might do to his fellow would recoil on his own head 
with precisely the same force with which it fell on the head of his victim." 
See further W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, London, 1 894, p. 269^ 
et seq., and J. A. Macculloch, "Covenant,'* Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iv, 
p. 207 et seq. 

The same rules which hold good in the land of the living also apply to 
the underworld. Hence when a mortal visits the Shades for one reason or 
another (usually either to visit or rescue a relation, to get some precious object, 
to obtain some boon, or merely out of curiosity) he should take great care to 
touch no food or drink offered him by the dwellers in that dreary land, or he 
will, ipso facto, become one of their countrymen and unable to return to the 
world above. 

The most famous classical example of a person doomed to remain in 
Hades is undoubtedly that of Proserpine (Gr. Persephone), who was carried 
off by Pluto to be his queen. Demeter, her sorrowing mother, sought her in 
vain, and in her despair forbade the earth to yield its increase. For fear of 
a universal famine Zeus forced Pluto to give up Proserpine. Before doing so, 
however, he gave her a pomegranate to eat, and by merely tasting of its seeds 
(some accounts mention a certain number three or seven) she was bound to 
return to him periodically. 

Thus the introduction of a recognised mythological law the food- taboo 
in the underworld served as an excellent peg on which to hang the poetical 
description of the gradual decay of vegetation in the autumn, and of its sub- 
sequent return to life in the spring. For the story of Proserpine see Homeric 
Hymn to Demeter, p. 371 et seq., p. 411 et seq. ; and Apollodorus, Library, i, v. In 
his translation of the latter (vol. i, pp. 39-41) Frazer gives other references, 
and also several analogues to tales about eating in the underworld. Some 
of them will be referred to later in this note. For the significance of the 
pomegranate see Frazer, Pausanias' Description of Greece, vol. iii, pp. 184, 185. 

That the knowledge of the danger of eating in another world was fully 
recognised in the earliest times known to us is clear from a curious use made 
of it in a Babylonian myth. The motif occurs in the Adapa Legend, as 
described and translated by M. Jastrow, Religion oj Babylonia and Assyria, 



Boston, 1898, pp. 544-555. The beginning of the story is missing, but when 
the tablet becomes intelligible we find Adapa, a fisherman, engaged in a 
contest with the South wind, which is represented in the form of a bird. 
In anger Adapa breaks the wings of the South wind, and for seven days 
[i.e. an indefinite period] the wind does not blow. Anu, the God of Heaven, 
inquires into this strange phenomenon, and on hearing the reason, summons 
the fisherman into his presence. The god Ea is told to yield him up. 
Before doing so, however, Ea gives him advice as to how he should behave 
before Anu. Among other injunctions he says ; 

" When thou comest before Anu they will offer thee food of death. Do 
not eat. They will offer thee waters of death. Do not drink. They will 
offer thee a garment. Put it on. They will offer thee oil. Anoint thyself. 
The order that I give thee do not neglect. ..." 

Adapa follows his instructions carefully, but as he has now viewed the 
secrets of heaven, there is nothing left for the gods to do but to admit him 
to their circle. Accordingly they must make him immortal, and the story 
continues : 

" Now what shall we grant him } Offer him food of life, that he may eat 
of it. They brought it to him, but he did not eat. Waters of life they 
brought him, but he did not drink. A garment they brought him. He put 
it on. Oil they brought him. He anointed himself." 

Adapa has followed his instructions too carefully, and has failed to notice 
the trick that Ea has played on him. It was food and waters of death he was 
not to touch, but Adapa was following the principle of taboo for personal 
safety. Ea, as the god of humanity, would not want his creatures to gain 
immortality, and so adopted a plan he knew would work. 

It is interesting to compare the tree of life in Genesis iii and the 
precautions taken by God that mortals should not eat of it. 

We also find our motif in Ancient Egypt, although in this case we are 
dealing with the dead. On his way to the spirit-land the soul of a dead 
person was met by a goddess who would offer him food, the taking of which 
would make his return difficult (not entirely impossible, as Frazer implies in 
ApollodoruSf vol. i, p. 40). The words of Maspero, which Frazer quotes from 
Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de l' Orient Classiques. Les Origines, Paris, 1895, 
p. 184 (see also note 4) are : 

" Une deesse, Nouit, Hathor or Nit, sortait du feuillage a mi-corps, lui 
tendant un plat convert de fruits et de pains, un vase rempli d'eau : des qu'il 
avait accepte ces dons, il devenait I'hote de la deesse et ne pouvait plus revenir 
sur ses pas, a moins de permission speciale." 

See also G. Maspero, J^tudes egyptiennes, Paris, 1879^ etc., vol. ii, pp. 

Similar beliefs are found among primitive races. For instance the New 
Caledonians say that when a man dies, messengers come from the other world 
to guide his soul through the air and over the sea to the spirit-land. There 
he is welcomed by the other souls and bidden to a banquet, where he is offered 
food, especially bananas. If he tastes them, his doom is sealed and he can 
never return to earth. (See Gagniere, Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, 


xxxii, Lyons, I860, p. 439 et seq.) In Melanesia such stories are common. 
In one tale (given by R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, Oxford, 1891, 
p. 277 et seq.) a woman descended to Panoi, or the underworld, to see her 
dead brother, after giving herself a death-like smell by using water in 
which a dead rat had been soaked. She pretended to be a ghost, and thus 
managed to converse with her brother, who warned her to touch no food, 
or else she would be permanently retained. (See further on p. 286 of 

In New Zealand there is a beautiful story which tells of how Pane died 
for the love of Hutu. Hutu prayed to the gods for permission to visit her 
in Reinga. This was granted, but they warned him not to touch any food 
he might be offered there. See Clarke, Maori Tales, 1 896, p. 1 et seq. ; cf. 
also p. 1 26. For other similar New Zealand tales see E. Shortland, Traditions 
and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, London, 1856, pp. 150-152; and 
R. Taylor, Te Ika A Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants, 2nd edition, 
London, 1870, p. 271. 

Without aggregating further examples it will be seen that the motif under 
consideration was well known in antiquity and is widespread among savage 
races. It is then only natural that it is also found largely disseminated 
through epic romances and fairy tales of Europe. In some cases the taboo 
is put on drink. For instance, in the sixteenth rune of the great Finnish 
epic, Kalevala, we read : 

" Wiiinamoinen, old and trusty, 
Gaz'd awhile upon the tankard ; 
Lo ! within it frogs were spawning. 
Worms about its sides were lying. 
Words in this wise then he utter'd : 
' Not to drink have I come hither 
From the tankard of Manala, 
Not to empty Tuoni's beaker; 
They who drink of beer are drowned. 
Those who drain the can are ruin'd.' " 

See E. S. Hartland, Science of Fairy Tales, p. 45, and A. Lang, Custom and 
Myth, p. 171. 

In the Danish Saxo Grammaiicus we read of King Gorm who went with 
several companions to seek a treasure-land in the north ruled by King 
Geirrod in the underworld. After many adventures they reached the hall 
of Gudmund, Geirrod's brother, where Thorkill, the guide and adviser to the 
expedition, warned them not to touch food or drink. In spite of the warning 
some were tempted and were unable to return. In chapter iii of his Science 
of Fairy Tales, Hartland gives Swabian, Lapp, Swedish, Manx, Scottish and 
Jewish versions. The chief Scottish analogue appears in connection with 
Thomas of Erceldoune, the Rhymer. See also J. G. Campbell, Superstitions 
of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, Glasgow, 1900, p. 17. 

The Jewish version is apparently found in several forms, one of which is 


given by Keightley, Fairy Mythology, pp. 506-510. Another version, probably 
originating in Prague, was told me by Dr Gaster, as follows : 

"There lived in a town a pious man, famed as an expert Mohel {i.e. a 
man who performed the religious ceremony of circumcision). One night 
someone knocked at his window and asked him to come urgently to perform 
such a ceremony. Being dark, he did not see the face of the man who 
called him, but he followed him, and did not notice the way he went. 
Suddenly he found himself in a house, richly appointed, and in a room there 
lay a young woman with a new-born babe. He took the child and performed 
the ceremony, and brought the child back to the mother. She then whispered 
to him : ' Take heed, you are here among demons. I am a young Jewess. 
They have stolen me away, and I am now living here with them. Beware 
now lest you eat or drink of anything they offer you, for then you will have 
to remain here. Find some excuse, and do not touch anything.' He got 
very frightened, and when they pressed food and drink upon him, as is 
customary on such occasions, he steadfastly refused, and excused himself by 
saying that he always fasted whenever he had to perform such a ceremony. 
When he was on the point of leaving they said to him : ' Take at least some 
of the coals that are lying about.' These, not being food, he wrapped into 
his coat-tails, and was quickly deposited at the gate of the city, and running 
home, he dropped some of the coal on the road. In the morning, to his 
great astonishment, the coal had turned into lumps of gold. The same 
happened to the pieces he had dropped on the road. They also turned into 
gold, and hence the street in which they were found was named * the Golden 
Street.' " 

The part about the coals turning to gold also occurs in the Swabian 
version. n.m.p. 


Cf. the vampire stories in Ralston's Russian Folk'Tales, especially that of 
"The Soldier and the Vampire," p. 314. It seems to me that these stories 
of Vetalas disprove the assertion of Hertz quoted by Ralston (p. 318), that 
among races which burn their dead, little is known of regular corpse-spectres, 
and of Ralston, that vampirism has made those lands peculiarly its own which 
have been tenanted or greatly influenced by Slavonians. Vetalas seem to be 
as troublesome in China as in Russia (see Giles' Stra7ige Stories from a Chinese 
Studio, vol. ii, p. 195). In Bernhard Schmidt's Griechische Marchen, p. 139, 
there is an interesting story of a vampire who begins by swallowing fowls, 
goats and sheep, and threatens to swallow men, but his career is promptly 
arrested by a man born on a Saturday. A great number of vampire stories 
will be found in the notes to Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer, Book VIII, p. 10. 
See also his poem of Roprecht the Robber, Part III. For the lamps or candles 
fed with human oil see Vol. Ill, pp. 150-154, and Brand's Popular Antiquities, 
vol. i, p. 312, Waldau's Bohmische Mdrchen, p. 360, and Kuhn's Westf'dlische 
M'drchen, p. 146. Tawney is, of course, correct in not accepting the assertions 



of Hertz and Ralston with regard to vampires. They exist, in one form or 
another, in nearly every part of the world, although their nature varies con- 
siderably. The method of disposing of the dead must not be regarded as a 
factor in determining whether a particular race believes in the existence of 
vampires or not. All races at all times have naturally shown the utmost interest 
in the condition of the dead and their behaviour in the unknown land. The 
manner of the person's death, the mode of his life, or any unusual phenomena 
noticed immediately after his death are all important factors which have 
helped to foster the belief that the spirit of the dead man, being unable to 
rest in peace, comes to visit the scenes of his former life, perhaps with the 
intent of revenge, or through dissatisfaction with his present abode. Hence 
ghosts, spirits and vampires play a very important part in the beliefs and 
superstitions throughout the world, and we find it hard to classify either the 
spirits or the beliefs. 

One definite and widespread belief is that the dead, who for one reason 
or another are discontented, wish to return to the world of the living. Blood 
being the vehicle, or sign, of life, it is only reasonable that the first thing the 
pallid ghost wants is a fresh supply of blood. Naturally he can only get this 
by taking it from the living ; hence he returns to the scenes of his former life 
and sucks blood from people in their sleep. This is the generally recognised 
idea of a vampire. Thus when the lack of medical knowledge among certain 
peoples failed to account for the gradual weakening and wasting away of a 
person, they imagined that a demon must be stealing his blood. 

The thirst of the dead for human blood is well known from the classical 
example of Odysseus in Hades (Od., xi, 34 et seq.) and the trouble he had in 
keeping the shades from reviving their strength by drinking his blood. In 
order to prevent the dead from robbing the living in this way, the custom 
has arisen of pouring blood over graves. (See Frazer, Golden Bough {The 
Magic Art), vol. i, p. 98 ; ditto {Belief m Immortality), vol. i, p. 159 et seq.) 

In order to understand to what extent the Vetala of Hindu folk-tales is 
a vampire, we must try to define the term rather more closely. In his article 
''Vampire," in Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. xii, pp. 589-59^, J. A. Macculloch 
says that a vampire may be defined as (1) the spirit of a dead man, or (2) 
his corpse, reanimated by his own spirit or by a demon, returning to sap the 
life of the living, by depriving them of blood or of some essential organ, in 
order to augment its own vitality. It will consequently be realised how widely 
the term vampire can be applied and how impossible it would be to differ- 
entiate, with any degree of exactness, between a demon, evil spirit, ghost 
and vampire. The vampire, as a demon that revitalises the corpses of 
perfectly innocent people, is found throughout Greece, Russia, India and 
China, and also in Polynesia, Melanesia and Indonesia. The more usual form 
of vampire, however, is a corpse reanimated by his own spirit and dealing out 
death and destruction in whatever unlucky household he chooses to pay his 
nocturnal visits. 

Numerous hair-raising tales are to be found throughout Europe, especially 
in the Balkans and Russia. A number of these tales will be found in a popular 
little work by Dudley Wright, Vampires and Vampirism, 2nd edition, 1924. 


Consequent on the belief of the terrible results brought about by vampires 
is the assurance of the power to put a stop to their evil deeds if the necessary 
rites of riddance are carried out. These again differ largely with the locality. 
The usual method, however, is to pierce the body of the supposed vampire 
with a sharpened stake, and to reduce it to ashes. 

The body must be transfixed by a single blow, for two blows would restore 
it to life. (For this curious idea cf. OceaUy Vol. Ill, p. 268. To the notes given 
on that page I would add : Hartland, Legend of Perseus, vol. iii, p. 23 ; Dawkins, 
Modem Greek in Asia Minor, pp. 226, 373.) Great care had to be taken to 
push back into the flames any creature, however small, that was seen to issue 
from them while the body was being reduced to ashes, for the vampire might 
have easily embodied itself in one of them. It was easy to recognise a 
vampire once suspicions had been aroused, because the corpse would be found 
in a state of perfect preservation, with blood freely flowing through the body, 
and often with a bloody mouth, fresh from its last feast of human flesh. In 
many cases the skin and nails of the body would be found loose, and would 
fall away when touched, but underneath a perfectly new skin and new nails 
would appear. 

The reasons given to account for vampires in European countries are 
numerous. People who had been excommunicated, who had committed 
suicide, who had died under peculiar conditions, or in a state of" uncleanliness," 
who were thought to have been witches or magicians all these were likely 
to become vampires. Furthermore, they were always anxious to swell their 
ranks, and a perfectly innocent corpse might nolens volens become a vampire 
through some animal, especially a cat, jumping over its grave. 

Whether the blood-sucking vampire had its origin in Europe is, of course, 
impossible to say ; but such evidence as exists seems to favour some ancient 
Balkan people, rather than the Slavs, as the creators of the belief the very 
word vampire is of Serbian origin. It is found among all Balkan nations and 
in Rumania, where it is known as strigoiu, which stands in close connection 
with similar words like strega in the Romance, Slavonic, Albanian and Greek 
languages. Dr Gaster refers me to Buerger's Leonora, the famous ballad, 
round which so many vampire tales have arisen. See L. ^Sinenu, Basmele 
Romdne, Bucuresti, 1895, p. 874 et seq. It is interesting to note that there 
is no trace of vampires in Jewish literature. 

The vampires found in the East and among primitive races do not possess 
such clearly defined attributes as attach themselves to those of Eastern 
Europe. They can better be classified under the general heading of " demons " 
or " spirits of the departed," though in some cases, as with the Langsuir and 
Pontianak of the Malay Archipelago, the vampire element shows itself 

The earliest references to unmistakable vampires are those in the Assyrian 
tablets translated by Campbell Thompson in his Devils and Evil Spirits of 
Babylonia (see vol. i, p. 71). Here we hear of the "Seven Spirits" who are 
described in a charm as saying : " We go on our hands, so that we may eat 
flesh, and we crawl upon our hands, so that we may drink blood." Their 
vampire nature is still better shown in the Assyrian incantation : 



Knowing no mercy, they rage against mankind, 

They spill their blood like rain, 

Devouring their flesh and sucking their veins . . . 

They are demons full of violence. 

Ceaselessly devouring blood. 

Invoke the ban against them. 

That they no more return to this neighbourhood. 

By Heaven be ye exorcised ! 

By Earth be ye exorcised ! " 

For an actual representation of an Assyrian vampire, Mr Campbell 
Thompson refers me to the reproduction of a seal in Revue d' Assyriologie, 
vol. vii, 1910, p. 61. 

Space will not permit even the mention of the vampire-type of spirit in 
other countries, but in every case their deeds are of the bloodiest, and they 
are altogether most objectionable creatures. 

Now when we come to compare the extra-Indic vampire with the Hindu 
variety, we notice certain marked differences. As far as the Ocean of Story 
is concerned, the '^Demons" which appear are Rakshasa, Pisacha, Vetala, 
Bhuta, Dasyus, Kumbhanda and Kushmanda (see Vol. I, p. 197 et seq.). Of 
these that most resembling the European vampire is probably the Rakshasa, 
and readers will remember the horrible description in Vol. II, pp. 197, 198, 
and the way in which Vijayadatta became a Rakshasa. 

In real Indian life, however, these form but a very insignificant part of the 
huge array of demons and spirits known and feared throughout the country, 
particularly by forest tribes and lower castes. It would be impossible to 
enumerate them all. In South India they are known by the collective term 
Bhuta, which includes three classes Bhuta, Preta and Pisacha. For the 
description of them see M. J. Walhouse, Joum. Anth. Inst., vol. v, 1876, p. 408 
et seq. In Gujarat both the Bhuta and Preta reanimate corpses and cause no 
end of trouble. 

Now the Vetala, which is seen in all its glory in the present work, is a 
curious individual. He is the Deccan Guardian, in which capacity he sits on 
a stone smeared with red paint, or is found in the prehistoric stone circles 
scattered over the hills. In fiction, however, he appears as a mischievous 
goblin, and that is how we find him in the Ocean. A study of his actions will 
show him to be quite above the ordinary run of such demons. He is always 
ready to play some rather grim, practical joke on any unwary person who 
chances to wander near burning-ghats at night, for here are corpses lying 
about or hanging from stakes, and what more effective means could be formed 
to frighten the life out of humans than by tenanting a corpse ! 

I would describe the Vetala as "sporting," in that he has an innate 
admiration for bravery and is perfectly ready to own himself beaten, and even 
to help and advise. In the Vetala tales, which begin on p. l65 of this volume, 
we shall see that as soon as the Vetala discovers the persistence and bravery 
of Trivikramasena, he at once warns him of the foul intents of the mendicant. 
We have also seen that even the Rakshasa can become quite tame, and act the 
part of a kind of Arabian Jmw who appears on thought (Vol. I, p. 50). Thus 



we see that the Vetala of Hindu fiction is by no means an exact counterpart 
of the blood-sucking vampire of Eastern Europe who never had a good in- 
tention or decent thought in his whole career. 

Apart from the references already given, much information will be found 
in the numerous articles on " Demons and Spirits " in Ency. Rel. Eih., vol. iv, 
pp. 565-636. See also R. Andree, Ethnographiscke Parallelen und Vergleiche, 
Stuttgart, 1878-1889; A. Calmet, Traite sur les apparitions des esprits et sur les 
vampires, Paris, 1751 (Engl, trans.. The Phantom World, London, 1850) ; S. Hock, 
Die Vajnpyrsagen und ihre Verwertung in der deutschen Litteratur, Berlin, 1900 ; 
Hovorka and Kronfeld, Vergleichende Volksmedizin, Berlin, 1908-1909; and 
Ranft, Tractat von dem Kauen und Schmalzen der Todten in Grdbern, Leipzig, 
1734. N.M.p. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN Mrigankadatta, as he gradually travelled 
along in the Vindhya forest, accompanied by those 
ministers, Srutadhi and the four others, reached a 
wood, which was refreshing with the shade of its goodly fruit- 
laden trees, and in which there was a tank of very pure sweet 
cold water. He bathed in it with his ministers and ate many 
fruits, and lo ! he suddenly thought that he heard conversa- 
tion in a place shut in with creepers. So he went and looked 
into that bower of creepers, and he saw inside it a great 
elephant, which was refreshing a blind way-worn man by 
throwing over him showers of water from his trunk, by giv- 
ing him fruits, and fanning him with his ears. And like a 
kind man, the elephant said to him lovingly, over and over 
again, with articulate voice : " Do you feel at all better ? " 
When the prince saw that he was astonished, and he said to 
his companions : " Look ! how comes it that a wild elephant 
conducts itself like a man ? So you may be sure that this is 
some higher being translated into this form for some reason. 
And this man is very like my friend Prachandasakti. But 
he is blind. So let us keep a sharp look-out." 

When Mrigankadatta had said this to his friends, he 
remained there concealed, and listened attentively. In the 
meanwhile the blind man recovered a little, and the elephant 
said to him : " Tell me, who are you, and how did you come 
here, being blind ? " Then the blind man said to that mighty 
elephant : " There is in this land a king of the name of Amara- 
datta, lord of the city of Ayodhya ; he has a son of excellent 
qualities, named Mrigankadatta, of auspicious birth, and I 
am that prince's servant. For some reason or other his 
father banished him from his native land, with us his ten 
companions. We had set out for Ujjayini to obtain Sasan- 
kavati, when we were separated in the forest by the curse 


of a Naga. And I was blinded by his curse, and wandering 
about I have arrived here, living on the fruits, and roots, and 
water I could get on the way. And to me death by falling 
into a chasm, or in some other way, would be most desirable, 
but alas ! Providence has not bestowed it on me, but makes 
me endure calamity. However I feel convinced that, as my 
pangs of hunger have been to-day assuaged by your favour, 
so my blindness also will be somewhat alleviated, for you are 
a divinity." When he said this, Mrigankadatta felt certain who 
he was, and with a mind wavering between joy and grief 
he said to those ministers : "It is our friend Prachanda- 
j^akti that is reduced to this melancholy state, but it will 
not do for us to be in a hurry to greet him immediately. 
Perhaps this elephant will cure his blindness. But if he 
were to see us, he would flee away ; so we must stop here 
and look at him." When the prince had said this, he re- 
mained listening with his followers. Then Prachandasakti 
said to that elephant : " Now, great-souled one, tell me your 
history : who are you ? How comes it that, though you 
are an elephant, and are subject to the fury of elephants, 
you speak in this gentle way ? " When the great elephant 
heard this he sighed, and said to him : " Listen ! I will 
tell you my story from the beginning. 

"Long ago, in the city of Ekalavya, there was a king 
named Srutadhara, and he had two sons by two wives. When 
the king went to heaven, his younger son, named Satyadhara, 
Bhimahhata ^xpcllcd the elder son, named Siladhara, from the 
and throne. Siladhara was angry on that account, 

Samarahhata g^ j^^ went and propitiated Siva, and craved the 
following boon from the god, who was pleased with his 
asceticism : ' May I become a Gandharva, in order that I 
may be able to move through the air, and so slay with ease 
that kinsman of mine, Satyadhara ! ' When the holy god 
Siva heard this, he said to him : ' This boon shall be granted 
to thee, but that enemy of thine has to-day died a natural 
death. And he shall be again born in the city of Radha, 
as Samarabhata, the favourite son of King Ugrabhata. But 
thou shalt be born as Bhimabhata, his elder brother by a 
different mother, and thou shalt kill him and rule the kingdom. 


But because thou didst perform these ascetic penances under 
the influence of anger, thou shalt be hurled from thy rank 
by the curse of a hermit and become a wild elephant that 
remembers its birth and possesses articulate speech, and 
when thou shalt comfort a guest in distress and tell him thy 
history, then thou shalt be freed from thy elephant-nature 
and become a Gandharva, and at the same time a great 
benefit will be conferred upon that guest.' When Siva had 
said this he disappeared, and Siladhara, seeing that his body 
was emaciated by long penance, flung himself into the Ganges. 
"At this point of my tale it happened that, while that 
king named Ugrabhata, whom I have before mentioned, was 
living happily in the city of Radha with his wife Manorama, 
who was equal to him in birth, there came to his court from 
a foreign country an actor named Lasaka. And he exhibited 
before the king that dramatic piece in which Vishnu, in the 
form of a woman, carries off the amrita from the Daityas. 
And in that piece the king saw the actor's daughter Lasavati 
dancing in the character of Amritika. When he saw her 
beauty, that was like that of the real Amrita, with which 
Vishnu bewildered the Danavas, he fell in love with her. 
And at the end of the dance he gave her father much wealth, 
and immediately introduced her into his harem. And then 
he married that dancer Lasavati, and lived with her, having 
his eyes riveted upon her face. One day he said to his chap- 
lain named Yajuhsvamin : " I have no son, so perform a sacri- 
fice in order to procure me a son." The chaplain obeyed, 
and performed duly, with the help of learned Brahmans, a 
sacrifice for that king's benefit. And, as he had been previ- 
ously gained over by Manorama, he gave her to eat, as being 
the elder queen, the first half of the oblation purified with 
holy texts. 1 And he gave the rest to the second queen, Lasa- 
vati. Then those two, Siladhara and Satyadhara, whom I 
have before mentioned, were conceived in those two queens. 
And when the time came, Manorama, the consort of that king, 
brought forth a son with auspicious marks. And at that 
moment a distinct utterance was heard from heaven : ' This 
child who is born shall be a famous king under the name of 

1 Cf. Vol. Ill, pp. 218, 218^1, 219. 


Bhimabhata.' On the next day Lasavati also brought forth 
a son, and the king, his father, gave him the name of Samara- 
bhata. And the usual sacraments were performed for them, 
and the two boys gradually grew up. But the elder, Bhima- 
bhata, surpassed the younger in all accomplishments, and 
rivalry in these increased the natural ill-feeling between them. 

"One day, as they were engaged in wrestling, Samara- 
bhata, being jealous, struck Bhimabhata with his arm with 
great force on the neck. Then Bhimabhata was enraged, 
Bhimabhata ^^^ immediately throwing his arms round Samara- 
banished from bhata, he lifted him up and flung him on the 
his Fathers ground. The fall gave him a severe shock, and 
his servants took him up, and carried him to his 
mother, discharging blood from all the apertures in his body. 
When she saw him, and found out what had taken place, she 
was alarmed on account of her love for him, and she laid her 
face close to his and wept bitterly. At that moment the king 
entered, and when he saw this sight he was much troubled 
in mind, and asked Lasavati what it meant, and she gave the 
following answer : ' This son of mine has been reduced to 
this state by Bhimabhata. And he is always ill-treating him, 
but I have never told you. King ; however, now that I have 
seen this, I must say I cannot ^ understand how your Majesty 
can be safe with such a son as this: but let your Majesty 
decide.' When King Ugrabhata was thus appealed to by 
his favourite wife, he was angry, and banished Bhimabhata 
from his court. And he took away from him his allowance, 
and appointed a hundred Rajputs with their retainers to 
guard that Samarabhata. And he put his treasury at the 
disposal of the younger son, but he drove the elder son from 
his presence, and took away all that he possessed. 

" Then his mother, Manorama, sent for him and said : 
' Your father has thrown you over, because he is in love with 
a dancer. So go to the palace of my father in Pataliputra, 
and when you arrive there, your grandfather will give you 
his kingdom, for he has no son. But if you remain here, your 
enemy, this Samarabhata, will kill you, for he is powerful.' 
When Bhimabhata heard this speech of his mother's, he said : 

^ The Sanskrit College MS. reads na for tu. 


' I am a Kshatriya, and I will not sneak away from my native 
land, like a coward. Be of good cheer, mother ! what wretch 
is able to injure me ? ' When he said this, his mother 
answered him : ' Then procure a numerous body of com- 
panions to guard you, by means of my wealth.' When 
Bhimabhata heard this proposal, he said : ' Mother, this is 
not becoming ; for if I did this I should be really opposing 
my father. You may be quite at your ease, for your blessing 
alone will procure me good fortune.' When Bhimabhata had 
encouraged her with these words he left her. In the mean- 
while all the citizens came to hear of it, and they thought, 
' Alas ! a great injustice has been done to Bhimabhata by 
the king. Surely Samarabhata does not think he is going to 
rob him of the kingdom. Well, it is an opportunity for us 
to do him a service before he comes to the throne.' Having 
formed this resolution, the citizens secretly supplied Bhima- 
bhata with such abundance of wealth that he lived in great 
comfort with his servants. But the younger brother was 
ever on the look-out to kill his elder brother, supposing 
that this was his father's object in furnishing him with a 

" In the meanwhile a heroic and wealthy young Brahman, 
of the name of Sankhadatta, who was a friend of both brothers, 
came and said to Samarabhata : ' You ought not to carry 
on hostility with your elder brother ; it is not right, and you 
cannot do him an injury : on the contrary the result of a 
quarrel would be disgraceful to you.' When he said this, 
Samarabhata abused and threatened him ; good advice given 
to a fool does not calm but rather enrages him. Then the 
resolute Sankhadatta went away indignant at this treatment, 
and made a strict friendship with Bhimabhata, in order to 
have the opportunity of conquering Samarabhata. 

" Then a merchant, of the name of Manidatta, came there 
from a foreign country, bringing with him an excellent horse : 
it was as white as the moon ; the sound of its neighing was 
as musical as that of a clear conch or other sweet-sounding 
instrument ; it looked like the waves of the sea of milk 
surging on high ; it was marked with curls on the neck ; 
and adorned with the crest- jewel, the bracelet, and other 



signs, which it seemed as if it had acquired by being born 
in the race of the Gandharvas. 

" When Bhimabhata heard of that splendid horse, which 
was mentioned to him by Sankhadatta, he went and bought 
it for a high price from that merchant-prince. At that 
moment Samarabhata, hearing of it, came and tried to 
buy the horse from the merchant for double the price. 
But he refused to give it him, as it had already been sold 
to another. Then Samarabhata, out of envy, proceeded to 
carry it off by force. Then there took place a fierce combat 
between those two princes, as the adherents of both came 
running up with weapons in their hands. Then the mighty 
arm of Bhimabhata laid low the attendants of Samarabhata, 
and he himself abandoned the horse, and began to retire 
through fear of his brother. But as he was retiring, Sankha- 
datta, full of overpowering anger, pursued him, and laying 
hold of his hair behind, was on the point of killing him, when 
Bhimabhata rushed up and prevented him, saying : ' Let 
be for the present ; it would be a grief to my father.' Then 
Sankhadatta let Samarabhata go, and he fled in fear, dis- 
charging blood from his wounds, and repaired to his father. 

" Then the brave Bhimabhata took possession of the horse, 
and immediately a Brahman came up to him and, taking him 
aside, said to him : ' Your mother the queen Manorama, 
and the chaplain Yajuhsvamin, and Sumati, the minister of 
your father, send you the following advice at this juncture : 
" You know,^ dear boy, how the king is always affected to- 
wards you, and he is especially angry with you at present, 
now this misfortune has happened. So if you feel disposed 
to save your own life, and to preserve glory, and justice in- 
violate, if you have any regard for the future, if you consider 
us well disposed towards you, leave this place unobserved 
this very evening, as soon as the sun has set, and make for 
the palace of your maternal grandfather, and may good 
fortune attend you." This is the message they gave me 
for you, and they sent you this casket full of precious jewels 
and gold : receive it from my hand.' When the wise Bhima- 

1 I read jdndsi with the Sanskrit College MS. instead o{ jdndmi which 
Dr Brockhaus gives in his text. 



bhata heard this message, he accepted it, saying : ' I consent 
to act thus ' ; and he took that casket of gold and valuable 
jewels. And he gave him an appropriate message to take 
back, and then dismissed him, and mounted that horse, sword 
in hand. And Sankhadatta took some gold and jewels, and 
mounted another horse. And then Prince Bhimabhata set 
out with him, and after he had gone a long distance he 
reached at dead of night a great thicket of reeds that lay 
in his way. As he and his companion pursued their course 
through it without stopping, a couple of lions, roused by the 
noise which the reeds made when trampled by the horses' 
hoofs, rushed out roaring, with their cubs, and began to rip 
up the bellies of the horses with their claws. And immedi- 
ately the hero and his companion cut off the limbs of the 
lions with their swords, and killed them. 

"Then he got down with his friend to look at the state 
of the two horses, but as their entrails were torn out, they 
immediately fell down dead. When Bhimabhata saw that 
he felt despondent, and he said to Sankhadatta : ' Friend, by 
a great effort we have escaped from our hostile relatives. Tell 
me where, though by a hundred efforts, shall we find an escape 
from Fate, who has now smitten us even here, not so much as 
allowing us to retain our horses. The very horse for which 
I abandoned my native land is dead ; so how can we travel on 
foot through this forest at night ? ' When he said this, his 
friend Sankhadatta answered him : ' It is no new thing for 
hostile Fate to conquer courage. This is its nature, but it is 
conquered by firm endurance. What can Fate do against a 
firm unshaken man, any more than the wind against a moun- 
tain ? So come, let us mount upon the horse of endurance and 
so plod on here.' When Sankhadatta said this, Bhimabhata 
set out with him. Then they slowly crossed that thicket, 
wounding their feet with the canes, and at last the night 
came to an end. And the sun, the lamp of the world, ^ arose, 
dispelling the darkness ofnight, and the lotus-flowers in the 

1 See Vol. V, p. 19O. With us it is the moon that is the "lamp of 
Heaven," while Milton {Comus, 200-204) calls the stars "lamps." But 
Shakespeare refers to the setting sun as a "sleepy lamp" {AlVs Well, ii, 1, 
167), and in Greek mythology we have the "Lamp of Phoebus." n.m.p. 


lotus-clumps, by the side of their path, with their expanding 
cups and the sweet murmur of their bees, seemed to be look- 
ing at one another and saying : ' It is a happy thing that 
this Bhimabhata has crossed this thicket full of lions and 
other dangerous animals.' 

" So travelling on, he at last reached with his friend the 
sandy shore of the Ganges, dotted with the huts of hermits. 
There he drank its sweet waters, which seemed to be impreg- 
nated with the nectar of the moon, from dwelling on the 
head of Siva, and he bathed in them, and felt refreshed. And 
he ate, by way of sustenance, some venison, which they had 
bought from a hunter whom they happened to meet, and which 
Sankhadatta brought to him roasted. And seeing that the 
Ganges was full and difficult to cross, for with its waves up- 
lifted like hands it seemed again and again to warn him back, 
he proceeded to roam along the bank of the river. And there 
he saw a young Brahman in the court of an out-of-the-way 
hut, engaged in the study of the Vedas. So he went up to him 
and said : ' Who are you, and what are you doing in this, 
solitary place ? ' Then the young Brahman answered him : 

" ' I am Nilakantha, the son of a Brahman named Sri- 
kantha, who lived at Varanasi ; and after all the ceremonies had 
been performed for me, and I had learnt knowledge in the 
The Reward family of my spiritual preceptor, I returned home 
of Virtue and found all my relations dead. That left me 
helpless and poor ; and as I was not in a position to carry on 
the duties of a householder I became despondent, and repaired 
to this place, and had recourse to severe asceticism. Then 
the goddess Ganga gave me some fruits in a dream, and said 
to me : " Remain here, living on these fruits, until you obtain 
your desire." Then I woke up and went and bathed, and 
when the morning came, I found in the water some fruits,, 
that had been washed here by the stream of the Ganges. I 
brought those fruits, delicious as nectar, into my hut, and 
ate them there, and so I remain here engaged in asceticism,, 
receiving these fruits day by day.' 

" When he said this, Bhimabhata said to Sankhadatta : 
' I will give this virtuous youth enough wealth to enable him 
to enter the householder-state.' Sankhadatta approved his. 


speech. Whereupon the prince gave the Brahman the wealth 
that his mother gave him. For what is the use of the great- 
ness of great ones, who have abundant courage and wealth, 
if they do not put a stop to the sufferings of their neighbour 
as soon as they hear of them ? 

"And after he had made the fortune of the Brahman, 
Bhimabhata searched in every direction for some means of 
crossing the Ganges, but could not find any. Then he tied 
his ornaments and sword on his head, and plunged in with 
Sankhadatta to swim across it. 

" And in the middle of the river the current carried his 
friend to a distance from him, and he himself was swept away 
by the waves, and reached the bank with difficulty. When 
he reached the other side he could not see his friend Sankha- 
datta, and while he was looking for him the sun set. Then 
he began to despair, and exclaimed in bitter grief : ' Alas 
my friend ! ' And it being now the beginning of the night, he 
prepared to drown himself in the waters of the Ganges. He 
said : ' Goddess Jahnavi, you have taken from me my life 
in the form of my friend, so now receive also this empty vessel 
of my body ' ; and he was on the point of plunging in, when 
Ganga appeared to him from the middle of the flood. And 
pleased with his violent agitation, she said to him then and 
there : ' Do not act rashly, my son ! your friend is alive, and 
in a short time you shall be united with him. Now receive 
from me this charm, called "Forwards and Backwards." If 
a man repeats it forwards, he will become invisible to his 
neighbour, but if he repeats it backwards, he will assume 
whatever shape he desires. ^ Such is the force of this charm 

1 For European methods of attaining invisibility see Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, vol. i, p. 315 ; Bartsch. Sagen, Mdrchen und Gehr'duche aus Meklenburg, 
vol. ii, pp. 29, 31 ; Kuhn, Westfdllsche Mdrchen, vol. i, p. 276; ii, p. 177. The 
virtues of the Tarnkappe are well known. In Europe great results are 
expected from reciting certain sacred formulae backwards. A somewhat 
similar belief appears to exist among the Buddhists. Milton's "backward 

muttering of disserving charms" is perhaps hardly a case in point. This 

principle was well known in Ancient India from the Rigvidhdna, i, 15, 4-6. 
See also Caland, Altindisches Zauherritual, Amsterdam, 1900, p. 184. Crooke 
{pp. cit,, vol. ii, pp. 278-279) describes an interesting form of black magic 
among Mohammedans of Northern India. When the death of an enemy is 


only seven syllables long, and by its help you shall become 
a king on this earth.' When the goddess Ganga had said 
this, and given him the charm, she disappeared from his 
eyes, and he gave up the idea of suicide, now that he had 
got a hope of regaining his friend and of other successes. 
And being anxious to regain his friend, he passed the night 
in impatience, like the lotus-flower, and the next morning 
he set out in search of him. 

'' Then, as he was travelling about in search of Sankhadatta, 
he one day reached alone the district of Lata,^ where, though 
the colours of the castes are not mixed, the people lead a 
diversified and richly coloured life, which, though a seat of 
fine arts, is not reputed a home of crimes.^ In this city he 
wandered about, looking at the temples and the dwelling- 
houses, and at last he reached a hall of gamblers. He entered 
it and saw a number of fraudulent dice-players, who, though 

desired, a doll is made from earth taken from a grave, and various sentences 
of the Quran are read backwards over twenty-one small wooden pegs. The 
officiant is to repeat the spell three times over each peg, and is then to strike 
them so as to pierce various parts of the body of the image. See, further, 
Herklots' Qdnun-i- Islam , p. 222 et seq. The custom of repeating prayers or 
verses backwards has been noticed in English folk-lore. See, e.g., Henderson, 
Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, p. 32, and Gregor, Folk-Lore of North-east 
Scotland, p. 183. J. F. Blade, Quatorze superstitions populaires de la Gascogne, 
Agen, 1883, p. l6 et seq., quotes a curious means of taking revenge among 
unscrupulous Gascon peasants. They find a wicked priest who will say the 
Mass of St Secaire, which has to take place at midnight in an old and deserted 
church. One of the chief features of the ritual is that the mass has to be 
said backwards, and after all the rites are duly performed the victim will die 
gradually of an unexplained and puzzling malady. n.m.p. 

^ This corresponds to Southern Gujarat, including Khandesh, situated 
between the River Mahi and the Lower Tapti. It is the AapLKTj of Ptolemy, 
the Lathika of the Dhauli inscription, and the Rashtika (Rishtika) of the Girnar 
inscription of Asoka. Marco Polo speaks of the Province of Lar, and Yule 
{Marco Polo, vol. ii, p. 367n^) says Lat-desa "was an early name for the 
territory of Guzerat and the northern Konkan, embracing Saimur, Tana and 
Baroch." He adds : " The sea to the west of that coast was in early Mahomedan 
times called the Sea of Lar, and the language spoken on its shores is called 
by Mas'udi Lar." For further references see Nundolal Dey, op. cit. ; Ind. Ant., 
vol. li, 1922, p. 114 N.M.P. 

^ An elaborate pun ! varna = caste and also colour : kald = digit of the 
moon and accomplishment, or fine art: doshdkara = mine of crimes and also 
the moon. 


they were clothed in a loin-rag only, showed by their hand- 
some, well-shaped, stout limbs, which indicated good living 
and plenty of exercise, that they were men of rank though 
they concealed it, and that they had resorted to that occupa- 
tion for the sake of making money. They began to talk to 
him, so he sat down to play with them, and they fancied that 
they would make a fine thing out of him and his ornaments 
Then he beat them at the dice-play, and won from the rogues 
all the wealth which they had acquired by cheating others. 

"Then those gamblers, having lost their wealth, were 
preparing to go home, when Bhimabhata set his arms against 
the door and stopped them, and said to them : ' Where are 
you going ? Take back this wealth ; I do not want it. I must 
give it away to my friends, and are not you my friends ? 
Where can I find ^ such dear friends as you ? ' When he 
said this, and they declined to take the money out of shame, 
a gambler there, of the name of Akshakshapanaka, said : 
' Undoubtedly it is the definition of gambling that what is won 
is not returned ; but if this gentleman becomes our friend, 
and gives us of his own accord wealth which he has fairly won, 
why should we not take it ? ' The others, when they heard 
this, exclaimed : ' It is fitting, if he makes such an eternal 
friendship with us.' When they said this he came to the 
conclusion that they were men of spirit, and he at once con- 
sented to swear eternal friendship to them, and gave them 
back their wealth. And at their request he went into a 
garden with them and their families, and refreshed himself 
with food, and wine, and other luxuries, supplied by them. 
Then, at the request of Akshakshapanaka and the others, he 
told his name, race and history, and asked them also for 
theirs. Then Akshakshapanaka told him the story of his life. 

163f. Akshakshapanaka and the Wooden Doll 

There lived in Hastinapura a Brahman named Siva- 
datta, a very rich man, and I am his son, and my real name 
is Vasudatta. And in my youth I learnt skill in arms as 
well as in the Vedas. Then my father made me marry a 

^ I read 'prdpnomyahanif the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. 


wife from a family equal in rank to my own. But my mother 
was a great scold, implacable, and very passionate. And she 
worried my father so intolerably that as soon as I was married 
he left his home and went away to some place where he 
could not be traced. When I saw that, I was afraid, and I 
earnestly enjoined on my wife to study carefully my mother's 
disposition, and she, being terrified, did so. But my mother 
was bent on quarrelling, and it was impossible for my wife 
to please her in any way. The ill-natured woman inter- 
preted her silence as contempt, her plaintive lamentation 
as hypocrisy, and her attempts at explanation as wrangling. 
For who can deprive the fire of its tendency to burn ? Then 
her disagreeable behaviour in a short time worried my wife also 
so much, that she left the house and fled I know not where. 

Then I was so despondent that I made up my mind to 
abandon family life; but my wretched relations assembled 
together and forced me to take another wife. That second 
wife of mine also was so worried by my mother, that she 
committed suicide by hanging herself. Then I was exceed- 
ingly vexed, and I determined to go to another country. And 
when my relations tried to prevent me, I told them of the 
wickedness of my mother. They assigned another reason for 
my father's leaving the country, and would not believe my 
story; so I adopted the following artifice. I had a wooden 
doll made, and pretended to marry it privately as a third 
wife, and I brought it and placed it in another secluded 
house which I locked up. And I made another female puppet 
to guard her, dressed like a servant. And I said to my 
mother : "I have put this wife of mine in a separate house ; 
so you and I must for the present remain apart from her in 
our own house : you must not go there and she must not 
come here. For she is timid as yet, and does not know how 
to win your affection." To this arrangement my mother 
gave her consent. 

After some days had elapsed, my mother, finding that she 
could not manage anyhow to get at that supposed daughter- 
in-law of hers, who was in a private house kept always locked, 
took a stone one day and struck herself on the head, and 
remained in the courtyard in front of her own house, streaming 


with blood, and lamenting with loud cries. Then I and all 
my relations came in, hearing the cries, and when we saw 
her we said : " Tell us, what is the matter ? " When we 
asked her this question, she said spitefully : " My daughter- 
in-law came without any reason and reduced me to this state ; 
so now my only remedy is death." When my relations heard 
this, they were furious, and they took her and me with them 
to the house where I kept the wooden doll. They removed 
the fastening, and opened the door, and went in, and lo ! they 
saw nothing there but a wooden doll. Then they laughed at 
my mother, who was covered with shame, having imposed 
on no one but herself, and they began to repose confidence 
in what I had said, and so they went away again. 

And I left that country and travelled about till I came 
to this region, and here I happened to enter a gambling-hall. 
And there I saw these five men playing ^this man named 
Chandabhujanga, and that Pasupata, and this Smasana- 
vetala, and that Kalavarataka, and this Sariprastara heroes 
equal in valour. And I gambled with them on this mutual 
understanding, that whoever was conquered should be the 
slave of the conqueror. Then they became my slaves by 
being beaten by me in gambling, but I have become their 
slave by being won over by their good qualities. And 
dwelling with them I have forgotten my woes. 

So know that here I bear the name of Akshakshapanaka,^ 
a name suited to my condition. Here I have lived with these 
excellent men of good family, who conceal their real position, 
and now you have joined us. So now you are our chief; and 
it was with this view that we took that money of yours 
originally, being charmed with your virtues. 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

"When Akshakshapanaka had told his story in these 
words, all the others in succession also told their adventures. 
And Prince Bhimabhata perceived that his friends were heroes, 
who had disguised their real character by taking up gambling 
practices for the sake of gaining wealth, so he had much more 

^ I.e. dice-mendicant. 


pleasant chat with them, and spent the day in amusement ; 
and then seeing that the eastern quarter had adorned its face 
with the rising moon, as with an ornamental patch, ^ he went 
from that garden with Akshakshapanaka and the other six 
to their dwelling. And while he was there with them the 
rainy season arrived, seeming to announce with the roarings 
of its joyous clouds his recovery of his friend. And then the 
impetuous river there, named Vipasa, that flowed into the 
sea, was filled with an influx of sea- water and began to flow 
backwards, and it deluged that shore with a great inunda- 
tion, and then, owing to the cessation of that influx, ^ it seemed 
to flow on again to the sea. Now at that time the sudden 
influx of sea-water brought in a great fish, and on account 
of its unwieldy size it was stranded on the bank of the river. 
And the inhabitants, when they saw the fish stranded, ran 
forward with all kinds of weapons to kill it, and ripped open 
its stomach. And when its stomach was cut open, there 
came out of it alive a young Brahman ; and the people, 
astonished at that strange sight, raised a shout.^ When 
Bhimabhata heard that, he went there with his friends, and 
saw his friend Sankhadatta, who had just issued from the 
inside of the fish. So he ran and embraced him, and bedewed 
him with copious tears, as if he wished to wash off the evil 
smell he had contracted by living in the gulf of the fish's 
maw.* Sankhadatta, for his part, having escaped that 
calamity, and having found and embraced his friend, went 
from joy to joy. Then being questioned out of curiosity by 
Bhimabhata, he gave this brief account of his adventures. 

" ' On that occasion, when I was swept out of your sight 
by the force of the waves of the Ganges, I was suddenly 
swallowed by a very large fish. Then I remained for a long 
time inside the capacious habitation of his stomach, eating 

^ I.e. tikli, or more possibly tilaka. For details see Vol. II, pp. 22w3, gg^^ 


2 I conjecture oghaprasdntyaiva. 

3 Cf. No. Ixvi in the English Gesta, p. 298 of Herrtage's edition, and 
the end of No. xii of Miss Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales. See also Prym and 
Socin, Syrische M'drchen, pp. 83, 84. See Vol. II, pp. 192, 193, 193wi. n.m.p. 

4 Cf. Odyssey, Book IV, pp. 441-442. 


in my hunger his flesh, which I cut off with a knife. 
To-day Providence somehow or other brought this fish 
here, and threw it up upon the bank, so that it was killed 
Sankhadatta ^Y thcsc men and I was taken out of its stomach. 
is swallowed I havc Seen again you and the light of the sun ; 
by a Fish ^^le horizon has been once more illuminated for 
me. This, my friend, is the story of my adventures ; I 
know no more than this.' 

" When Sankhadatta said this, Bhimabhata and all that 
were present exclaimed in astonishment : ' To think that he 
should have been swallowed in the Ganges by a fish, and that 
that fish should have got into the sea, and then that from the 
sea it should have been brought into the Vipasa, and that it 
should have been killed, and then that Sankhadatta should 
have come out of it alive ! Ah ! the way of fate is inscrut- 
able, and wonderful are its works ! ' While uttering such 
remarks with Akshakshapanaka and the others, Bhimabhata 
took Sankhadatta to his own dwelling. And there in the 
high delight he entertained, with a bath, clothes and other 
needful things, his friend, who had, as it were, been born a 
second time with the same body from the belly of a fish. 

"And while Bhimabhata was living with him in that 
country, there came on there a festive procession in honour 
of Vasuki, the King of the Snakes. In order to see it, the 
prince went, surrounded with his friends, to the temple of 
that chief of the snakes, where great crowds were assembling. 
He worshipped there in the temple, where his idol was, which 
was full of long wreaths ^ of flowers in form like serpents, 
and which therefore resembled the abyss of Patala; and 
then going in a southerly direction, he beheld a great lake 
sacred to Vasuki, studded with red lotuses, resembling the 
concentrated gleams of the brilliance of the jewels on snakes' 
crests, 2 and encircled with blue lotuses, which seemed like 
clouds of smoke from the fire of snake-poison, overhung with 
trees, that seemed to be worshipping with their flowers blown 
down by the wind. When he saw it, he said to himself in 

^ I read ddmabkik for dhdmahhih. 

2 Benfey {Pantschatantra, vol. i, p. 214w) traces this superstition through 
all countries. See Vol. IV, p. 245, 2457i^. n.m.p. 


astonishment : ' Compared with this expanded lake, that 
sea from which Vishnu carried off the Goddess of Fortune 
seems to me to be only worthy of neglect, for its fortune of 
beauty is not to be taken from it by anything else.' ^ In the 
meanwhile he saw a maiden, who had come there to bathe, 
by name Hamsavali, the beautiful daughter of Chandraditya, 
King of Lata, by Kuvalayavati ; her mortal nature, which 
was concealed by all her other members moulded like those 
of gods, was revealed by the winking of her rolling eye. She 
had ten million perfections darting forth from her flower-soft 
body, she was with her waist, that might be spanned with the 
hand, a very bow of Kama, and the moment she looked at 
Bhimabhata she pierced him in the heart with the sidelong 
arrows of her eyes, and bewildered him.^ He too, who was 
a thief of the world's beauty, entered by the oblique path of 
her eyes the treasure-chamber of her heart, and robbed her 
of her self-control. Then she sent secretly a trustworthy 
and discreet maid, and inquired from his friends his name and 
residence. And after she had bathed she was taken back to 
her palace by her attendants, frequently turning round her 
face to fix her eyes on him. And then Bhimabhata, accom- 
panied by his friends, went to his dwelling, with faltering 
steps, for he was entangled with the net which his beloved 
had cast over him. 

" And immediately the Princess Hamsavali sent that maid 
to him as an ambassadress of love, with the message for which 
he longed. The maid came up to him and said to him in 
secret : ' Prince, the Princess Hamsavali solicits you thus : 
" When you see me, who love you, being carried away by the 
stream of love, you should rescue me quickly ; you should not 
remain indifferent upon the bank." ' ^ 

" When Bhimabhata heard from the messenger the nectar 
of his beloved's message, he was delighted at having his life 
saved, and said to her : ' I am in the current, I am not upon 

^ This passage is a concatenation of puns. 

^ The whole passage is an elaborate pun. The lady is compared to a 
bow, the string of which vibrates in the notches, and the middle of which is 
held in the hand. 

3 I read, with the MS. in the Sanskrit College, dnitain anuddhritya for 
drutam anugatya. 



the bank : does not my beloved know that ? But, now that 
I have obtained some hope to cHng to,^ I will gladly do her 
bidding. I will this night come and wait upon her in her 
private apartments, and no one shall see me, for I will enter 
concealed by a charm.' When he said this to the maid she 
was pleased, and went and told it to Hamsavali, and then 
she remained anxiously expecting an interview with him. 

" And he, in the early part of the night, went adorned with 
heavenly ornaments, and making himself invisible, by repeat- 
ing forwards the charm bestowed on him by Ganga, entered 
Bhimahhata ^^^ Splendid chamber, which suggested thoughts of 
makes Use of lovc, which was pcrfumcd with aloes and adorned 
t e arm ^ith noscgays of flowers of five hues arranged 
there, and which therefore resembled the garden of the God 
of Love, where he beheld that lovely one exhaling heavenly 
fragrance, like a blossom put forth by the creeper of the 
wonderful charm bestowed by Ganga. And then the hand- 
some prince recited the charm backwards, and immediately 
became visible to that princess. 

" When he beheld her timidly trembling with a joyful agita- 
tion that made her hair stand on end,^ his ornaments immedi- 
ately tinkled like musical instruments, and he seemed to be 
dancing with joy to their music. And the maiden hid her face 
with the shame of love, and seemed to be asking her heart, that 
caused all that display of emotion, what she was to do now. 
Then Bhimabhata said to her : ' Fair one, why do you allow 
your heart to exhibit shame, though its feelings have been 
already revealed ? It does not deny the state of affairs ; besides, 
how is it possible to conceal this trembling of the limbs and this 
bursting bodice ? ' Then Bhimabhata with such words, and 
other loving persuasions, made the fair one forget her modesty, 
and married her by the gdndharva form of marriage. And 
after he had spent that night with her, in sporting like a bee 
round the lotus of her mouth, he at last tore himself away, 
and saying, 'I will come again at night,' returned to his 

"And when the chamberlains belonging to Hamsavali 

1 As a life-buoy to prevent him from drowning. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 120, 120n\ 184. n.m.p. 


entered her chamber the next morning, they saw that her 
lover had been with her. The ends of her curls were dis- 
ordered, she had marks of moist teeth and nails, ^ and she 
seemed as if the God of Love had appeared in person and 
afflicted her with the wounds of all his arrows. They im- 
mediately went and reported the matter to the king, and he 
secretly appointed spies to watch at night. And Bhimabhata 
spent the day with his friends in their usual employments, 
and in the beginning of the night again repaired to the bower 
of his beloved. When the spies saw that he had entered with- 
out being seen, by virtue of his charm, and discovered that 
he had supernatural powers, they went out and told the king, 
and he gave them this order : ' The being who has entered 
a well-guarded room without being seen cannot be a mere 
man ; so bring him here, that I may see what this means. 
And say to him politely from me : " Why did you not 
openly ask me for my daughter ? Why did you make a 
secret of it ? For it is difficult to obtain a bridegroom for 
my daughter as accomplished as yourself." ' 

" When the king had sent off the spies with this message, 
they went as he commanded, and stood at the door and 
delivered this message to Bhimabhata. And the resolute 
prince, perceiving that the king had discovered him, answered 
them boldly from inside : ' Tell the king from me that to- 
morrow I will enter his hall of audience and tell him the truth, 
for now it is the dead of night.' They then went and gave 
this message to the king, and he remained silent. And in the 
morning Bhimabhata went to rejoin his friends. And putting 
on a magnificent costume, he went with those seven heroes 
to the hall of King Chandraditya. When the king saw his 
splendour, his resolute bearing and handsome appearance, 
he received him kindly, and made him sit on a throne equal 
to his own ; and then his friend, the Brahman Sankhadatta, 
said to the king : ' King, this is the son of Ugrabhata, the 
King of Radha, Bhimabhata by name ; his might is irresist- 
ible on account of the wonderful power of the charm which 
he possesses. And he has come here to sue for the hand 
of your daughter.' 

1 See Vol. V, pp. 193-195. n.m.p. 


" When the king heard that, he remembered the occur- 
rence of the night ; and seeing that he was a suitable 
match for his daughter, he exclaimed, ' I am fortunate in- 
deed ! ' and accepted the proposal. And after he had made 
splendid preparations for the marriage, he bestowed his 
daughter Hamsavali on Bhimabhata with much wealth. 
Then Bhimabhata, having obtained many elephants, horses 
and villages, remained there in great comfort, possessed of 
Hamsavali and the Goddess of Fortune. And in a few days 
his father-in-law gave him that kingdom of Lata, and, being 
childless and old, retired to the forest. Then the successful 
Bhimabhata, having obtained that kingdom, ruled it admir- 
ably with the help of those seven heroes, Sankhadatta and 
the others. 

" Then, in the course of some days, he heard from his spies 
that his father. King Ugrabhata, had gone to Prayaga and died 
there ; and that when he was intent on death he had anointed 
his younger son, Samarabhata, the son of the dancing-girl, 
king of Radha. Then he mourned his father, and performed 
his funeral ceremonies, and sent a messenger to that Samara- 
bhata with a letter. And in the letter he sent the following 
message to the pretender who was treating him unjustly : 
' Foolish son of a dancing-girl, what business have you to sit 
on my father's throne ? for it belongs to me, though I have 
this kingdom of Lata ; so you must not ascend it.' And the 
messenger went, and, after announcing himself, delivered the 
letter to that Samarabhata, when he was in the hall of 
assembly. And when Samarabhata read this letter of such 
an import, under his brother's sign manual, he was angry, 
and answered : ' This baseless presumption is becoming in 
this ill-conducted man, who was long ago banished by my 
father from the country because he was not fit to remain in 
it. Even the jackal apes the lion, when he is comfortably 
ensconced in his native cavern ; but when he comes within 
view of the lion, he is discovered to be only a jackal.' Such 
was the answer he roared forth, and he wrote to the same 
effect in a letter, and sent his return-messenger to carry it 
to Bhimabhata. 

" So the return- messenger went and gave, when introduced 


by the warder, that letter to the King of Lata. And when 
Bhimabhata had read that letter, he laughed loudly, and said 
to the return-messenger of his brother : ' Go, messenger, 
DL- LL . and tell that dancing-girl's son from me: "On 

Bhimabhata , i . -i 

sets out to con- that former occasion when you tried to seize the 
quer his Brother i^QYse, I savcd you from Sankhadatta, because you 
a a ^gp^ ^ child and dear to my father, but I will no 
longer endure your insolence. I will certainly send you to my 
father who is so fond of you. Make ready, and know that 
in a few days I shall have arrived." ' With these words he 
dismissed the messenger, and then he began his expedition. 

" When that moon of kings, glorious in his magnificence,* 
mounted his elephant, which resembled a hill, the great sea of 
his army was agitated, and surged up with a roar, and the 
horizon was filled with innumerable feudal chiefs and princes 
arrived for war,^ and setting out with their forces ; and the 
earth, swiftly trampled by the elephants and horses troop- 
ing along in great numbers, groaned and trembled under 
the weight, as if afraid of being cleft open. In this fashion 
Bhimabhata marched, and came near Radha, eclipsing the 
light of the sun in the heavens with the clouds of dust raised 
by his army. 

"In the meanwhile King Samarabhata heard of it, and 
became indignant ; and armed himself, and went out with his 
army to meet him in battle. And those two armies met, like 
the eastern and western seas, and a great battle took place 
between the heroes on both sides, awful as the destruction of 
the world. Then the fire, produced by the loud clashing of 
swords, which seemed as if it had been kindled by the gnash- 
ing of the teeth of the angry God of Death, hid the sky ; and 
javelins flew with their long points resembling eyelashes, and 
seemed like the glances of the nymphs of heaven, as they 
gazed on the warriors. Then the field of battle appeared 
like a stage ; its canopy was dust, its music was the shout- 
ing of the army, and its dancers palpitating trunks. And 
a furious^ torrent of blood, sweeping along heads, and 

^ When applied to the moon, it means "glorious in its rising." 

2 Bohtlingk and Roth give upasankhya as uberzdhlig (?). 

^ I adopt pramattd, the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. 


garlanded with trunks, carried off all living creatures, like the 
night of destruction at the end of the world. 

" But the archer Bhimabhata soon routed the army of his 
enemies, by means of a combined attack of the mighty warriors 
Sankhadatta and Akshakshapanaka and Chandabhujanga and 
his fellows skilled in wrestling, resembling impetuous elephants. 
And Samarabhata was furious when his army was routed, 
and he dashed forward on his chariot and began to churn the 
sea of battle, as Mount Mandara churned the ocean. ^ Then 
Bhimabhata, who was mounted on an elephant, attacked him, 
and cut his bow in two with his arrows, and also killed all the 
four horses of his chariot. Then Samarabhata, being pre- 
vented from using his chariot, ran and struck with a javelin 
on the forehead the splendid elephant of Bhimabhata, and 
the elephant, as soon as it was struck, fell dead on the ground. 
Then both of them, being deprived of their means of convey- 
ance, had to fight on foot. And the two angry kings, armed 
with sword and shield, engaged in single combat. But Bhima- 
bhata, though he might have made himself invisible by 
means of his charm, and so have killed him, out of regard for 
fairness would not kill his enemy in that way. But being a 
skilful swordsman, he contended against him in open fight, and 
cut off with his sword the head of that son of the dancing- 

" And when that Samarabhata was slain with his soldiers, 
and the bands of the Siddhas had applauded from the heavens, 
and the fight had come to an end, Bhimabhata with his friends 
entered the city of Radha, being praised by heralds and 
minstrels. Then returning from a long absence, after slaying 
his enemy, he delighted his mother, who was eager to behold 
him, as Rama did Kausalya. And the citizens welcomed 
him ; and then he adorned the throne of his father, and took 
his seat on it, honoured by his father's ministers, who loved 
his good qualities. And then he honoured all his subjects, 
who made high festival. And on a lucky day he gave to 
Sankhadatta the kingdom of Lata. And he sent him to 

1 The gods and Asuras used it as a churning-stick at the Churning of the 
Ocean for the recovery of the Amrita and other precious things lost during 
the Deluge. 



the territory of Lata, escorted by a force composed of 
natives of that country; and he gave villages and wealth 
to Akshakshapanaka and his fellows, and he remained sur- 
rounded by them, ruling his ancestral realm, with that Queen 
Hamsavali, the daughter of the King of Lata. And, in course 
of time, he conquered the earth, and carried off the daughters 
of kings, and became exclusively addicted to the enjoyment of 
their society. And he devolved his duties on his ministers, 
and amused himself with the women of his harem, and never 
left his precincts, being engrossed with drinking and other 

" Then one day the hermit Uttanka came of his own accord 
to visit him, as if he were the time of accomplishment of the 
previous decree of Siva. And when the hermit came to the 
Ho Kin door, the king, being blinded with passion, intoxi- 
Bhimahhata cation and pride of sovereignty, would not listen, 
became a Wild though the wardcrs announced his arrival. Then 
ep an ^^^ hermit was angry, and denounced this curse 

on the king : ' O man blinded with intoxication, you shall 
fall from your throne and become a wild elephant.' When 
the king heard that, fear dispelled his intoxication, and he 
went out and, prostrating himself at the feet of the hermit, 
began to appease him with humble words. Then the anger 
of the great sage was calmed, and he said to him : ' King, you 
must become an elephant: that decree cannot be altered.^ 
But when you shall have relieved a minister of Mriganka- 
datta's, named Prachandasakti, afflicted with the curse of 
a Naga and blinded, who shall become your guest, and shall 
tell him your story, you shall be delivered from this curse ; 
and you shall return to the state of a Gandharva, as Siva 
foretold you, and then that guest of yours shall recover the 
use of his eyes.' When the hermit Uttanka had said this, 
he returned as he came, and Bhimabhata was hurled from 
his throne, and became an elephant. 

"So know, my friend, that I am that very Bhimabhata 
become an elephant, and you are Prachandasakti. I know 
that my curse is now at an end." When Bhimabhata had 
jsaid this, he abandoned the form of an elephant, and at once 

1 See p. 103^1. n.m.p. 


became a Gandharva of heavenly might. And immediately 
Prachandasakti recovered, to his intense delight, the use of 
his eyes, and looked upon that Gandharva there. And in 
the meanwhile the discreet Mrigankadatta, who had heard 
their conversation from the bower of creepers, with his 
other ministers, having discovered that it was indeed his 
friend, rushed quickly and impetuously forth, and threw 
his arms round the neck of his minister Prachandasakti. 
And Prachandasakti looked at him, and feeling as if his 
body had been irrigated with a sudden flood of nectar, 
immediately embraced the feet of his lord. 

Then the Gandharva Bhimabhata comforted those two, 
who were weeping, both deeply moved at being reunited after 
so long a separation. And Mrigankadatta, bowing, said to 
that Gandharva : " That I have recovered this friend of 
mine, and that he has recovered his eyesight, is all due to 
your wondrous might. Honour to you ! " When the Gan- 
dharva heard that, he said to that prince : " You shall soon 
recover all your other ministers, and obtain Sasankavati as 
a wife, and become king of the whole earth. So you must 
not lose heart. Now, auspicious one, I depart; but I will 
appear to you when you think of me." 

When the matchless chief of the Gandharvas had said this 
to the prince, and so testified his friendship for him, as his 
curse was at an end, and he had obtained prosperous felicity, 
he flew swiftly up into the sky, making the whole air resound 
with the tinkling of his beautiful bracelet and necklace. 

And Mrigankadatta, having recovered Prachandasakti, 
and so regained his spirits, spent that day in the wood, 
accompanied by his ministers. 



VICTORY to Ganesa, who, when dancing, makes a 

shower of stars, resembling a rain of flowers, fall 
from the sky, by a blow of his trunk ! 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

Then Mrigankadatta, having passed that night, set out in 
the morning from that wood, together with Prachandasakti 
and his other affectionate ministers, making for Ujjayini in 
order to gain Sasankavati, and looking out for the rest of 
his ministers. 

And as he was going along on his way, he saw his minister 
Vikramakesarin being carried through the air by a hideously 
deformed man. And while he was eagerly pointing him out to 
his other ministers, that minister alighted from the air near 
him. And quickly dismounting from the shoulder of that 
man, he came up and embraced the feet of Mrigankadatta,. 
with his eyes full of tears. And the delighted Mrigankadatta 
embraced him in return, and so did his ministers, one after 
another, and then Vikramakesarin dismissed that man, saying : 
" Come to me, when I think of you." 

Then Mrigankadatta out of curiosity asked Vikrama- 
kesarin for the story of his adventures, and he sat down 
in the forest and related them. 

" When I had been separated from you on that occasion 
by the curse of the Naga, and had wandered about for many 
days in search of you, I said to myself, ' I will make for 
The Ujjayini, for they will go there quickly,' and 

Adventures of having formed this intention, I set out for that 
Vikramakesarin ^^^y^ ^^^ ^^ coursc of time I reached a village 
near it, named Brahmasthala, and there I sat down on the 
bank of a lake at the foot of a tree. There an old Brahman, 
afflicted with the bite of a serpent, came up to me and said i 



* Rise up from this place, my son, lest you incur my fate. 
For there is a great serpent here, and I am so tortured by the 
bite which he has given me that I am now about to drown 
myself in this lake.' When he said this, I dissuaded him, 
out of compassion, from committing suicide, and I then and 
there counteracted the effect of the poison by my knowledge 
of antidotes. 

" Then the Brahman eagerly, but with due politeness, asked 
me the whole story of my life, and when he knew the facts, 
said to me kindly : ' You have to-day saved my life, so receive, 
hero, this charm for mastering Vetalas, which I inherited 
from my father. For it is suitable to you who possess all 
powers, but what, I pray, could a feeble creature like me 
do with it ? ' When I heard that, I answered that noble 
Brahman : ' What use can I make of Vetalas, now that I 
am separated from Mrigankadatta ? ' When the Brahman 
heard that, he laughed, and went on to say to me : ' Do you 
not know that you can obtain from a Vetala all that you 
desire ? Did not King Trivikramasena obtain of old time 
the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas by the favour of a Vetala ? 
Listen now, I will tell you his story in proof of it. 

163g.^ King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

On the banks of the Godavari there is a place named 
Pratishthana. In it there lived of old time a famous king, 
named Trivikramasena, the son of Vikramasena, equal to 
Indra in might. Every day, when he was in his hall of 
audience, a mendicant named Kshantisila came to him, to 
pay him his respects, and presented him with a fruit. And 
every day the king, as soon as he received the fruit, gave it 

^ Here begins the Vetdlapanchavimsati, or Twenty-Jive Tales of a Vetala. 
The collection occupies the rest of this volume and three-quarters of Vol. VII, 
finishing in Chap. CXIX. As notes are to be given not only on the collection 
itself, but on its "frame-story" and on each individual tale, it has been con- 
sidered advisable to print them all together as an appendix. Thus the Appendix 
in the present volume contains a general account of the Vetdlapanchavimsati, 
its various recensions and editions, followed by notes on the "frame-story'* 
and on the first eight tales. The remaining seventeen tales will be discussed 
in the Appendix to Vol. VII. n.m.p. 


into the hand of the superintendent of his treasury who was 
near him. In this way ten years passed. But one day, when 
the mendicant had left the hall of audience, after giving the 
fruit to the king, the king gave it to a young pet monkey, 
that had escaped from the hands of its keepers, and happened 
to enter there. While the monkey was eating that fruit 
it burst open, and there came out of it a splendid priceless 

When the king saw that, he took up the jewel, and asked 
the treasurer the following question : " Where have you put 
all these fruits which I have been in the habit of handing 
over to you, after they were given to me by the mendi- 
cant ? " When the superintendent heard that, he was full 
of fear, and he said to the king : "I used to throw them 
into the treasury from the window without opening the 
door. If your Majesty orders me, I will open it and look 
for them." When the treasurer said this, the king gave 
him leave to do so, and he went away, and soon returned, 
and said to the king : "I see that those fruits have all 
rotted away in the treasury, and I also see that there is a 
heap of jewels there resplendent with radiant gleams." 

When the king heard it, he was pleased, and gave those 
jewels to the treasurer; and the next day he said to the 
mendicant, who came as before : " Mendicant, why do you 
court me every day with great expenditure of wealth ? I 
will not take your fruit to-day until you tell me." When 
the king said this, the mendicant said to him in private : "I 
have an incantation to perform which requires the aid of a 
brave man. I request, hero, that you will assist me in it." 
When the king heard that, he consented, and promised him 
that he would do so. Then the mendicant was pleased, and 
he went on to say to that king : " Then I shall be waiting 
for you at nightfall in the approaching black fortnight, in 
the great cemetery here, under the shade of a banyan-tree, 
and you must come to me there." The king said : " Well, 
I will do so." And the mendicant Kshantisila returned 
delighted to his own dwelling. 

Then the heroic monarch, as soon as he had got into the 
black fortnight, remembered the request of the mendicant 


which he had promised to accomplish for him, and as soon as 
night came, he enveloped ^ his head in a black cloth, and left 
the palace unperceived, sword in hand, and went fearlessly 
to the cemetery. It was obscured by a dense and terrible 
pall of darkness, and its aspect was rendered awful by the 
ghastly flames from the burning of the funeral pyres, and it 
produced horror by the bones, skeletons and skulls of men 
that appeared in it. In it were present formidable Bhutas 
and Vetalas, joyfully engaged in their horrible activity, and 
it was alive with the loud yells of jackals, ^ so that it seemed 
like a second mysterious tremendous form of Bhairava. And 
after he had searched about in it, he found that mendicant 
under a banyan-tree, engaged in making a circle,^ and he went 
up to him and said: "Here I am arrived, mendicant; tell 
me, what can I do for you ? " 

When the mendicant heard that, and saw the king, he was 
delighted, and said to him : " King, if I have found favour in 
your eyes, go alone a long way from here towards the south, and 
you will find a simsapd tree. On it there is a dead man hanging 
up ; go and bring him here : assist me in this matter, hero." 

As soon as the brave king, who was faithful to his 
promise, heard this, he said, " I will do so," and went 
towards the south. And after he had gone some way in 
that direction, along a path revealed by the light of the 
flaming pyres, he reached with difficulty in the darkness 
that simsapd tree. The tree was scorched with the smoke of 
funeral pyres, and smelt of raw flesh, and looked like a Bhuta, 
and he saw the corpse hanging on its trunk, as it were on 
the shoulder of a demon. So he climbed up, and cutting the 
string which held it, flung it to the groimd. And the moment 
it was flung down it cried out, as if in pain. Then the king, 
supposing it was alive, came down and rubbed its body out 
of compassion ; that made the corpse utter a loud demoniac 
laugh. Then the king knew that it was possessed by a Vetala, 

^ Here the reading is doubtful. According to D. the king dressed himself 
in black. See further, Speyer, op. cit., p. 133. n.m.p. 

'^ Here there is probably a pun. The word translated "jackal" also 
means the god Siva. Bhairava is a form of Siva. 

3 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193 ; Vol. U, pp. 98-lOOw ; and Vol. HI, pp. 201-203. 



and said, without flinching : " Why do you laugh ? Come, 
let us go off." And immediately he missed from the ground 
the corpse possessed by the Vetala, and perceived that it 
was once more suspended on that very tree. Then he 
climbed up again and brought it down, for the heart of 
heroes is a gem more impenetrable than adamant. Then 
King Trivikramasena threw the corpse possessed by a Vetala 
over his shoulder, and proceeded to go off with it, in silence. 
An(J as he was going along, the Vetala in the corpse that 
was on his shoulder said to him : " King, I will tell you a 
story to beguile the way. Listen. 

163g (1). How the Prince obtained a Wife by the Help of his 

Father's Minister 

There is a city named Varanasi, which is the dwelling- 
place of Siva, inhabited by holy beings, and thus resembles 
the plateau of Mount Kailasa. The River Ganges, ever full 
of water, flows near it, and appears as if it were the necklace 
ever resting on its neck. In that city there lived of old time 
a king named Pratapamukuta, who consumed the families 
of his enemies with his valour as the fire consumes the forest. 
He had a son named Vajramukuta, who dashed the God of 
Love's pride in his beauty, and his enemies' confidence in their 
valour. And that prince had a friend, named Buddhisarira, 
whom he valued more than his life, the sagacious son of a 

Once on a time that prince was amusing himself with 
that friend, and his excessive devotion to the chase made him 
travel a long distance. As he was cutting off the long-maned ^ 
heads of lions with his arrows, as it were the chowries that 
represented the glory of their valour, he entered a great 
forest. It seemed like the chosen home of love, with singing 
cuckoos for bards, fanned by trees with their clusters of 
blossoms waving like chowries. In it he and the minister's 
son saw a great lake, looking like a second sea, the birthplace 

^ I read satdlani, which I find in the Sanskrit College MS., instead of 
sajdldni. The mistake may have arisen from the blending of two readings, 
satdldni and jatdldni. 


of lotuses ^ of various colours ; and in that pool of gods there 
was seen by him a maiden of heavenly appearance, who had 
come there with her attendants to bathe. She seemed to fill 
the splendid tank with the flood of her beauty, and with her 
glances to create in it a new forest of blue lotuses. With her 
face, that surpassed the moon in beauty, she seemed to put 
to shame the white lotuses, and she at once captivated with 
it the heart of that prince. The youth too, in the same way, 
took with a glance such complete possession of her eyes, that 
she did not regard her own modesty, or even her ornaments. 

And as he was looking at her with his attendants, and 
wondering who she was, she made, under pretence of pastime, 
a sign 2 to tell him her country and other particulars about 
her. She took a lotus from her garland of flowers and put 
it in her ear, and she remained for a long time twisting it 
into the form of an ornament called dantapatra, or tooth-leaf, 
and then she took another lotus and placed it on her head, 
and she laid her hand significantly upon her heart. The 
prince did not at that time understand those signs, but his 
sagacious friend the minister's son did understand them. 

The maiden soon departed, being led away from that 
place by her attendants, and when she had reached her own 
house she flung herself down on a sofa, but her heart remained 
with that prince, to justify the sign she had made. 

The prince, for his part, when without her, was like a 
Vidyadhara who has lost his magic knowledge, and, return- 
ing to his own city, he fell into a miserable condition. And 
one day the minister's son questioned him in private, speak- 
ing of that beauty as easy to obtain, whereupon he lost his 
self-command and exclaimed : " How is she to be obtained, 
when neither her name, nor her village, nor her origin is 
known ? So why do you offer me false comfort ? " When 
the prince said this to the minister's son, he answered : 
" What ! did you not see what she told you by her signs ? ^ 

^ In this there is a pun ; the word translated "lotus" may also refer to 
Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu. 

2 See the note on this story in the Appendix, p. 247 et seq. n.m.p. 

3 The B. text seems corrupt, though Tawney has expressed the exact 
meaning of the Sanskrit. The D. text restores the genuine wording: 
. . . tvayd tad y at . . . etc. n.m.p. 


By placing the lotus in her ear she meant to say this : ' I 
live in the realm of King Karnotpala.' By making it into 
the tooth-leaf ornament she meant to say : ' Know that 
I am the daughter of an ivory-carver ^ there.' By lifting up 
the lotus she let you know her name was Padmavati ; and 
by placing her hand on her heart she told you that it was 
yours. Now there is a king named Karnotpala in the country 
of Kalinga ; he has a favourite courtier, a great ivory-carver 
named Sangramavardhana, and he has a daughter named 
Padmavati, the pearl of the three worlds, whom he values 
more than his life. All this I knew from the talk of the 
people, and so I understood her signs, which were meant to 
tell her country and the other particulars about her." ^ 

When that prince had been told all this by the minister's 
son, he was pleased with that intelligent man, and rejoiced, 
as he had now got an opportunity of attaining his object ; 
and, after he had deliberated with him, he set out with him 
from his palace on the pretence of hunting, but really in 
search of his beloved, and went again in that direction. 
And on the way he managed to give his retinue the slip by 
the speed of his swift horse, and he went to the country 
of Kalinga accompanied by the minister's son only. There 
they reached the city of King Karnotpala, and searched for 
and found the palace of that ivory-carver. And the prince 
and the minister's son entered the house of an old woman, 
who lived near there, to lodge. 

The minister's son gave the horses water and fodder, and 
placed them there in concealment, and then said to that old 
woman in the presence of the prince : " Do you know, mother, 
an ivory-carver named Sangramavardhana ? " When the old 

^ Tawney was persuaded to translate dantaghataka as dentist, but no 
dictionary supports this. The "tooth-leaf" ornament was probably a special 
kind of carved ear-ring. Besides, the dentists in Somadeva's time, as in many 
parts of India to-day, were low-caste men, usually barbers. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. the way in which Pushpadanta's preceptor guesses the riddle on 
pp. 81-82 in Vol. I of this work; so Prince Ivan is assisted by his tutor 
Katoma in the story of " The Blind Man and the Cripple," Ralston's Russian 
Folk-Tales, p. 240. The rapid manner in which the hero and heroine fall in 
love in these stories is quite in the style of Greek romances. See Rohde, 
Der Griechische Roman, p. 148. 


woman heard that, she said to him courteously : "I know 
him well ; I was his nurse, and he has now made me attend 
upon his daughter as a duenna. But I never go there at 
present, as I have been deprived of my clothes; for my 
wicked son, who is a gambler, takes away my clothes as 
soon as he sees them." 

When the minister's son heard this, he was delighted, 
and he gratified the old woman with the gift of his upper 
garment and other presents, and went on to say to her : 
*' You are a mother to us, so do what we request you to do 
in secret. Go to that Padmavati, the daughter of the ivory- 
carver, and say to her : ' The prince, whom you saw at the 
lake, has come here, and out of love he has sent me to tell 
you.' " When the old woman heard this, she consented, 
being won over by the presents, and went to Padmavati, 
and came back in a moment. And when the prince and 
the minister's son questioned her, she said to them : "I 
went and told her secretly that you had come. When she 
heard that, she scolded me, and struck me on both cheeks 
with her two hands smeared with camphor. So I have come 
back weeping, distressed at the insult. See here, my children, 
these marks of her fingers on my face." 

When she said this the prince was despondent, as he 
despaired of attaining his object ; but the sagacious minister's 
son said to him in private : " Do not despond, for by keeping 
her own counsel and scolding the old woman, and striking 
her on the face with her ten fingers white with camphor, 
she meant to say : ' Wait for these remaining ten moonlight 
nights of the white fortnight, for they are unfavourable to 
an interview.' " 

After the minister's son had comforted the prince with 
these words he went and sold secretly in the market some 
gold which he had about him, and made that old woman 
prepare a splendid meal, and then those two ate it with that 
old woman. After the minister's son had spent ten days in 
this fashion, he again sent the old woman to Padmavati, to 
see how matters stood. And she, being fond of delicious 
food, liquor and other enjoyments of the kind, went again 
to the dwelling-house of Padmavati, to please her guests, 


and returned and said to them : "I went there to-day and 
remained silent, but she of her own accord taunted me with 
that crime of having brought your message, and again struck 
me here on the breast with three fingers dipped in red dye, 
so I have returned here thus marked by her." When the 
minister's son heard this, he said, of his own accord, to the 
prince : " Do not entertain any despondent notions, for by 
placing the impression of her three fingers marked with red 
dye on this woman's heart, she meant to say : ' I cannot 
receive you for three nights.' " 

When the minister's son had said this to the prince, he 
waited till three days had passed, and again sent the old 
woman to Padmavati. She went to her palace, and Padma- 
vati honoured her and gave her food, and lovingly enter- 
tained her that day with wine and other enjoyments. And 
in the evening, when the old woman wished to go back to 
her house, there arose outside a terrible tumult. Then the 
people were heard exclaiming : " Alas ! alas ! a mad ele- 
phant has escaped from the post to which he was tied, and 
is rushing about, trampling men to death." 

Then Padmavati said to that old woman : " You must 
not go by the public road, which is rendered unsafe by 
the elephant, so we will put you on a seat, with a rope 
fastened to it to support it, and let you down by this broad 
window here into the garden of the house ; there you must 
get up a tree and cross this wall, and then let yourself down 
by another tree and go to your own house." After she had 
said this she had the old woman let down from the window 
by her maid into the garden, by means of that seat with a 
rope fastened to it. She went by the way pointed out to 
her, and related the whole story, exactly as it happened, 
to the prince and the minister's son. Then the minister's 
son said to the prince : " Your desire is accomplished, for 
she has shown you by an artifice the way you should take ; 
so go there this very day, as soon as evening sets in, and by 
this way enter the palace of your beloved." 

When the minister's son said this, the prince went with 
him into the garden, by the way over the wall pointed out 
by the old woman. There he saw that rope hanging down 


with the seat, and at the top of it were some maids, who 
seemed to be looking out for his arrival. So he got on to 
the seat, and the moment those female servants saw him 
they pulled him up with the rope, and he entered the presence 
of his beloved through the window. When he had entered, 
the minister's son returned to his lodging. And when the 
prince entered, he beheld that Padmavati with a face like a 
full moon, shedding forth beauty like beams, like the night 
of the full moon remaining concealed through fear of the 
black fortnight.^ As soon as she saw him, she rose up 
boldly and welcomed him with affectionate embraces and 
other endearments natural in one who had waited for him 
so long. Then the prince married that fair one by the 
gdndharva form of marriage, ^ and all his wishes being now 
fulfilled, remained with her in concealment. 

And after he had lived with her some days, he said to her 
one night : " My friend the minister's son came with me and 
is staying here, and he is now left alone in the house of your 
duenna ; I must go and pay him a visit, fair one, and then 
I will return to you." When the cunning Padmavati heard 
that, she said to her lover : " Come now, my husband, I 
have a question to ask you : did you guess the meaning of 
those signs which I made, or was it that friend of yours the 

1 This is another point at which Kshemendra expatiates on the beauty 
of the loved one. (See p. 2n^ of this vol.) For Somadeva's one sloka he has 
six. It is interesting to compare this passage of the Brihatkathd-manjarl 
(ix, 120-1 26a). Dr Barnett translates : 

" He entered the jewelled dwelling, which had bounds of marble attached. 
In it, which was like Patala, yellow with rays of lamp-jewels and had the circle 
of chamberlains [or snakes] slumbering, he beheld the Snake-maiden. As 
she rose, and modestly bent down, the prince said to her, as she made a 
display of fearlessness with hand laid upon her quivering breast: 'Prithee, 
O moonlight to the milk-ocean of the soul, uplift the face bent down in 
shame, let all the regions of space be filled with lotus-flowers.' On these 
words the lady with a smile like jasmine-flowers gave him to drink from a 
jewel-bowl \tdm seems to be a mistake for tmn], and he drank mddhvtka of 
intense fragrance. Then with relish he kissed her, as her eyes were half 
closed with delight at his passionate embrace of her neck and her cheeks 
red with rapture. She appeared like a lotus-pool invaded by a bull-elephant, 
which has lines of grouped swans as its ringing girdle. . . ." n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 87-88. N.M.P. 


minister's son ? " When she said this, the prince said to 
her: "I did not guess anything at all, but that friend of 
mine, the minister's son, who is distinguished for super- 
human insight, guessed it all, and told it to me." When 
the fair one heard this^ she reflected, and said to him : 
" Then you have acted wrongly in not telling me about 
him before. Since he is your friend, he is my brother, and 
I must always honour him before all others with gifts of 
betel and other luxuries." 

When she had dismissed him with these words, the prince 
left the palace at night by the way by which he came, and 
returned to his friend. And in the course of conversation he 
told him that he had told his beloved how he guessed the 
meaning of the signs which she made. But the minister's 
son did not approve of this proceeding on his part, con- 
sidering it imprudent. And so the day dawned on them 

Then, as they were again talking together after the ter- 
mination of the morning prayer, the confidante of Padmavati 
came in with betel and cooked food in her hand. She asked 
after the health of the minister's son, and after giving him 
the dainties, in order by an artifice to prevent the prince 
from eating any of them, she said, in the course of conversa- 
tion, that her mistress was awaiting his arrival to feast and 
spend the day with her, and immediately she departed un- 
observed. Then the minister's son said to the prince : " Now 
observe. Prince, I will show you something wonderful." 
Thereupon he gave that cooked food to a dog to eat, and 
the dog, as soon as he had eaten it, fell dead upon the spot. 
When the prince saw that, he said to the minister's son : 
" What is the meaning of this marvel ? " And he answered 
him : " The truth is that the lady has found out that I am 
intelligent, by the fact that I guessed the meaning of her 
signs, and so she has sent me this poisoned food in order to 
kill me, for she is deeply in love with you, and thinks that 
you, Prince, will never be exclusively devoted to her while I 
am alive, but, being under my influence, will perhaps leave 
her, and go to your own city. So give up the idea of being 
angry with her, persuade the high-spirited woman to leave 


her relations, and I will invent and tell you an artifice for 
carrying her off." 

When the minister's son had said this, the prince said to 
him : " You are rightly named Buddhisarira, as being an 
incarnation of wisdom." And at the very moment that he 
was thus praising him, there was suddenly heard outside a 
general cry from the sorrowing multitude : " Alas ! alas ! 
the king's infant son is dead." The minister's son w^as much 
delighted at hearing this, and he said to the prince : " Repair 
now to Padmavati's palace at night, and there make her 
drink so much that she shall be senseless and motionless 
with intoxication, and apparently dead. And when she 
is asleep, make a mark on her hip with a red-hot iron 
spike, and take away all her ornaments, and return by 
letting yourself down from the window by a rope ; and 
after that I will take steps to make everything turn out 

When the minister's son had said this, he had a three- 
pronged spike made, with points like the bristles of a boar, 
and gave it to the prince. And the prince took in his hand 
that weapon which resembled the crooked hard hearts of his 
beloved and of his friend, which w^ere firm as black iron ; 
and saying, " I will do as you direct," went at night to 
the palace of Padmavati as before, for princes should never 
hesitate about following the advice of an excellent minister. 
There he made his beloved helpless with drink, and marked 
her on the hip with the spike, and took away her ornaments, 
and told him what he had done. Then the minister's son 
considered his design as good as accomplished. 

And the next morning the minister's son went to the 
cemetery and promptly disguised himself as an ascetic, and 
he made the prince assume the guise of a disciple. And he 
said to him : "Go and take the pearl necklace which is part 
of this set of ornaments and pretend to try to sell it in the 
market, but put a high price on it, that no one may be willing 
to buy it, and that everyone may see it being carried about ; 
and if the police here should arrest you, say intrepidly : ' My 
spiritual preceptor gave it me to sell.' " 

When the minister's son had sent off the prince on this 


errand, he went and wandered about in the market-place, 
publicly showing the necklace. And while he was thus en- 
gaged, he was seen and arrested by the police, who were on 
the look-out for thieves, as information had been given about 
the robbery of the ivory-carver's daughter. And they im- 
mediately took him to the chief magistrate of the town ; and 
he, seeing that he was dressed as an ascetic, said to him 
courteously : " Reverend sir, where did you get this necklace 
of pearls which was lost in this city, for the ornaments of 
the ivory-carver's daughter were stolen during the night ? " 
When the prince, who was disguised as an ascetic, heard this, 
he said : " My spiritual preceptor gave it me ; come and 
question him." Then the magistrate of the city came to the 
minister's son, and bowed, and said to him : " Reverend sir, 
where did you get this pearl necklace that is in the possession 
of your pupil ? " 

When the cunning fellow heard that, he took him aside 
and said : "I am an ascetic, in the habit of wandering 
perpetually backwards and forwards in the forests. As 
chance would have it, I arrived here, and as I was in the 
cemetery at night, I saw a band of witches collected from 
different quarters. And one of them brought the prince, 
with the lotus of his heart laid bare, and offered him to 
Bhairava. And the witch, who possessed great powers of 
delusion, being drunk, tried to take away my rosary, while I 
was reciting my prayers, making horrible contortions with 
her face. And as she carried the attempt too far, I got 
angry, and heating with a charm the prongs of my trident, 
I marked her on the loins. And then I took this necklace 
from her neck. And now I must sell this necklace, as it does 
not suit an ascetic." 

When the magistrate heard this, he went and informed 
the king. When the king heard it, he concluded that that 
was the pearl necklace which had been lost, and he sent a 
trustworthy old woman to see if the ivory-carver's daughter 
was really marked with a trident on the loins. The old 
woman came back and said that the mark could be clearly 
seen. Then the king made up his mind that she was a witch, 
and had really destroyed his child. So he went in person to 


that minister's son, who was personating an ascetic, and 
asked him how he ought to punish Padmavati. And by his 
advice he ordered her to be banished from the city, though 
her parents lamented over her. And when she was banished, 
and was left in the forest, though naked, she did not abandon 
the body, supposing that it was all an artifice devised by the 
minister's son. And in the evening the minister's son and 
the prince, who had abandoned the dress of ascetics, and 
were mounted on their horses, came upon her lamenting. 
And they consoled her, and mounted her upon a horse, and 
took her to their own kingdom. There the prince lived 
happily with her. But the ivory-carver, supposing that his 
daughter had been devoured by wild beasts in the forest, 
died of grief, and his wife followed him. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had said this, he went on to say to 
the king: "Now I have a ^oubt about this story; resolve 
it for me : Was the minister's son guilty of the death of 
this married couple, or the prince, or Padmavati? Tell me, 
for you are the chief of sages. And if. King, you do not tell 
me the truth, though you know it, this head of yours shall 
certainly split in a hundred pieces." 

When the Vetala said this, the king, who discerned the 
truth, out of fear of being cursed, gave him this answer: 
" O thou skilled in magic arts, what difficulty is there about 
it ? Why, none of the three was in fault, but the whole of 
the guilt attaches to King Karnotpala." The Vetala then 
said : " Why, what did the king do ? Those three were in- 
strumental in the matter. Are the crows in fault when the 
swans eat the rice ? " Then the king said : " Indeed no one 
of the three was in fault, for the minister's son committed 
no crime, as he was forwarding his master's interests, and 
Padmavati and the prince, being burnt with the fire of the 
arrows of the God of Love, and being therefore undiscerning 
and ignorant, were not to blame, as they were intent on their 
own object. But King Karnotpala, as being untaught in 
treatises of policy, and not investigating by means of spies 



the true state of affairs even among his own subjects, and 
not comprehending the tricks of rogues, and inexperienced in 
interpreting gestures and other external indications, is to 
be considered guilty, on account of the indiscreet step which 
he took." 

When the Vetala, who was in the corpse, heard this, as 
the king by giving the correct answer had broken his silence, 
he immediately left his shoulder and went somewhere un- 
observed by the force of his magic power, in order to test his 
persistence ; and the intrepid king at once determined to 
recover him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went to the Mm^apd 
tree to fetch the Vetala. And when he arrived there, 
and looked about in the darkness by the help of 
the light of the funeral pyres, he saw the corpse lying on the 
ground groaning. Then the king took the corpse, with the 
Vetala in it, on his shoulder, and set out quickly and in silence 
to carry it to the appointed place. Then the Vetala again 
said to the king from his shoulder : " King, this trouble 
into which you have fallen is great and unsuitable to you ; 
so I will tell you a tale to amuse you. Listen. 

163g (2). The Three Young Brdhmans who restored a Dead 

Lady to Life ^ 

There is, on the banks of the River Yamuna, a district 
assigned to Brahmans, named Brahmasthala. In it there 
lived a Brahman, named Agnisvamin, who had completely 
mastered the Vedas. To him there was born a very beauti- 
ful daughter named Mandaravati. Indeed, when providence 
had created this maiden of novel and priceless beauty, he was 
disgusted with the nymphs of heaven, his own precious 
handiwork. And when she grew up, there came there from 
Kanyakubja three young Brahmans, equally matched in all 
accomplishments. And each one of these demanded the 
maiden from her father for himself, and would sooner sacrifice 
his life than allow her to be given to another. But her father 
would not give her to any one of them, being afraid that, if he 
did so, he would cause the death of the others ; so the damsel 
remained unmarried. And those three remained there day 
and night, with their eyes exclusively fixed on the moon of 

^ See the notes on this story in the Appendix, p. 26l et seq. n.m.p. 


her countenance, as if they had taken upon themselves a vow 
to imitate the partridge. ^ 

Then the maiden Mandaravati suddenly contracted a 
burning fever, which ended in her death. Whereupon the 
young Brahmans, distracted with grief, carried her when 
dead, after she had been duly adorned, to the cemetery, and 
burnt her. And one of them built a hut there and made 
her ashes his bed, and remained there, living on the alms he 
could get by begging. And the second took her bones and 
went with them to the Ganges; and the third became an 
ascetic, and went travelling through foreign lands. 

As the ascetic was roaming about, he reached a village 
named Vajraloka. And there he entered as a guest the 
house of a certain Brahman. And the Brahman received 
him courteously. So he sat down to eat ; and in the mean- 
while a child there began to cry. When, in spite of all efforts 
to quiet it, it would not stop, the mistress of the house fell 
into a passion, and taking it up in her arms threw it into the 
blazing fire. The moment the child was thrown in, as its 
body was soft, it was reduced to ashes. When the ascetic, 
who was a guest, saw this, his hair stood on end, and he 
exclaimed : " Alas ! alas ! I have entered the house of a 
Brahman-demon. So I will not eat food here now, for such 
food would be sin in a visible material shape." When he 
said this, the householder said to him : " See the power of 
raising the dead to life inherent in a charm of mine, which 
is effectual as soon as recited." When he had said this, he 
took the book containing the charm and read it, and threw 
on to the ashes some dust, over which the charm had been 
recited. That made the boy rise up alive, exactly as he was 

Then the mind of the Brahman ascetic was quieted, and 
he was able to take his meal there. And the master of the 
house put the book up on a bracket, and, after taking food, 
went to bed at night, and so did the ascetic. But when the 
master of the house was asleep, the ascetic got up timidly and 
took the book, with the desire of restoring his beloved to life. 

And he left the house with the book, and travelling day 

^ The Chakora is fabled to subsist upon moonbeams. 


and night at last reached the cemetery where that beloved 
had been burnt. And at that moment he saw the second 
Brahman arrive there, who had gone to throw her bones into 
the River Ganges. And having also found the one who re- 
mained in the cemetery sleeping on her ashes, having built a 
hut over them, he said to the two : " Remove this hut, in 
order that by the power of a certain charm I may raise up 
my beloved alive from her ashes." Having earnestly solicited 
them to do this, and having overturned that hut, the Brah- 
man ascetic opened the book and read the charm. And after 
thus charming some dust, he threw it on the ashes, and that 
made Mandaravati rise up alive. And as she had entered 
the fire, she possessed, when resuscitated, a body that had 
come out of it more splendid than before, as if made of gold.^ 
When the three Brahmans saw her resuscitated in this 
form, they immediately became love- sick, and quarrelled with 
one another, each desiring her for himself. And the first 
said : " She is my wife, for she was won by the power of my 
charm." And the second said : " She belongs to me, for 
she was produced by the efficacy of sacred bathing-places." 
And the third said : " She is mine, for I preserved her ashes, 
and resuscitated her by asceticism." 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

"Now, King, give judgment to decide their dispute. )i^ 
Whose wife ought the maiden to be ? If you know and do 
not say it, your head shall fly in pieces." 

When the king heard this from the Vetala, he said to him : 
" The one who restored her to life by a charm, though he 
endured hardship, must be considered her father, because 
he performed that office for her, and not her husband ; and he 
who carried her bones to the Ganges is considered her son ; but 
he who out of love lay on her ashes, and so remained in the 
cemetery embracing her and practising asceticism, he is to be 
called her husband, for he acted like one in his deep affection." ^ 

1 Nishkdntam is perhaps a misprint for nishkrantarrij the reading of the 
Sanskrit College MS. 

2 Cf. Sagas from the Far East, p. 303. 


When the Vetala heard this from King Trivikramasena, 
who had broken silence by uttering it, he left his shoulder 
and went back invisible to his own place. But the king, who 
was bent on forwarding the object of the mendicant, made 
up his mind to fetch him again ; for men of firm resolution do 
not desist from accomplishing a task they have promised to 
perform, even though they lose their lives in the attempt. 




163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN the heroic King Trivikramasena again went to 
the simsajpd tree, to fetch the Vetala. And he found 
him there in the corpse, and again took him up on 
his shoulder, and began to return with him in silence. And 
as he was going along, the Vetala, who was on his back, said 
to him : " It is wonderful, King, that you are not cowed with 
this going backwards and forwards at night. So I will tell 
you another story to solace you. Listen. 

163G (3). The King and the Two Wise Birds ^ 

There is on the earth a famous city named Pataliputra. 
In it there lived of old time a king named Vikramakesarin, 
whom providence made a storehouse of virtues as well as 
of jewels. And he possessed a parrot of godlike intellect, 
knowing all the sdstras, that had been born in that condition 
owing to a curse, and its name was Vidagdhachudamani. And 
the prince married as a wife, by the advice of the parrot, 
a princess of equal birth, of the royal family of Magadha, 
named Chandraprabha. That princess also possessed a 
similar hen-mama, ^ of the name of Somika, remarkable for 
knowledge and discernment. And the two, the parrot and 

^ See the Appendix, p. 267 et seq. n.m.p. 

2 One of the species known as viynas, mainas and minors, found in India^ 
Assam and Burma. It is the Acridotheres tristis, a member of the starling 
family, largely known by the name Graekle. Jerdon {Birds of India, vol. i, 
pp. 325, 326) describes the maina as a household bird, very commonly 
domesticated. It becomes tame and familiar, often following its master 
about like a dog. It is a good imitator, and soon learns to pick up words and 
sentences. It is not surprising, then, that the story-teller would introduce a 
conversation between a maina and a parrot in which humans join. See also 
A. Newton, Dictionary oj Birds, London, 1893-1896, pp. 378, 379^ and Ency. 
Brit, nth edition, vol. xiv, p. 3816. n.m.p. 


the maina, remained there in the same cage, assisting with 
their discernment their master and mistress. 

One day the parrot became enamoured of the mainay 
and said to her : " Marry me, fair one, as we sleep, perch and 
feed in the same cage." But the maina answered him : " I 
do not desire intimate union with a male, for all males are 
wicked and ungrateful." The parrot retorted : "It is not 
true that males are wicked, but females are wicked and 
cruel-hearted." And so a dispute arose between them. 
The two birds then made a bargain that if the parrot won, 
he should have the maina for wife, and if the maina won, 
the parrot should be her slave; and they came before the 
prince to get a true judgment. The prince, who was in his 
father's judgment-hall, heard the point at issue between 
them, and then said to the maina : " Tell me, how are males 
imgrateful?" Then the maina said: "Listen"; and, in 
order to establish her contention, proceeded to relate this 
story illustrating the faults of males. 

163g (3a). The Maina' s Story ^ 

There is on the earth a famous city of the name of Ka- 
mandaki. In it there was a rich merchant of the name of 
Arthadatta. And he had a son born to him of the name of 
Dhanadatta. When his father died, the young man became 
dissipated. And rogues got round him and plunged him in 
the love of gambling and other vices. In truth the society 
of the wicked is the root of the tree of vice. In a short time 
his wealth was exhausted by dissipation, and being ashamed 
of his poverty, he left his own country, to wander about in 
foreign lands. 

And in the course of his travels he reached a place 
named Chandanapura, and desiring food, he entered the 
house of a certain merchant. As fate would have it, the 
merchant, seeing that he was a handsome youth, asked 
him his descent and other things, and finding out that he 
was of good birth, entertained him, and adopted him as a 
protege. And he gave him his daughter Ratnavali, with a 

^ See the Appendix, p. ^69, n.m.p. 


dower, and thenceforth Dhanadatta lived in his father-in- 
law's house. 

And in the course of some days he forgot in his present 
happiness his former misery, and having acquired wealth, 
and longing for fresh dissipation, he wished to go back to 
his own land. Then the rascal with difficulty wrung a per- 
mission from his unwilling father-in-law, whose daughter 
was his only child, and taking with him his wife, covered 
with ornaments, accompanied by an old woman, set out from 
that place, a party of three in all. And in course of time he 
reached a distant wood, and on the plea that there was danger 
of robbers he took those ornaments from his wife and got them 
into his own possession. Alas! Observe that the heart of 
ungrateful males, addicted to the hateful vice of dicing and 
drabbing, is as hard as a sword. 

Then the villain, being determined to kill his wife, though 
she was virtuous, for the sake of her wealth, threw her and 
the old woman into a ravine. And after he had thrown 
them there he went away. The old woman was killed, but 
his wife was caught in a mass of creepers and did not die. 
And she slowly climbed up out of the chasm, weeping bitterly, 
supporting herself by clinging to grass and creepers, for the 
appointed end of her life had not yet come. And asking 
her way step by step, she arrived, by the road by which she 
came, at the house of her father, with difficulty, for her limbs 
were sorely bruised. When she arrived there suddenly in 
this state, her mother and father questioned her eagerly. 
And the virtuous lady, weeping, told this tale. " We were 
robbed on the way by bandits, and my husband was dragged 
away bound. The old woman died, but I survived, though 
I fell into a ravine. Then I was dragged out of the ravine by 
a certain benevolent traveller who came that way, and by 
the favour of destiny I have arrived here." When the good 
Ratnavali said this, her father and mother comforted her, 
and she remained there, thinking only of her husband. 

And in course of time her husband Dhanadatta, who had 
gone back to his own country, and wasted that wealth in 
gambling, said to himself : "I will go and fetch more wealth, 
begging it from my father-in-law, and I will tell him that I 


have left his daughter in my house here." Thinking thus in 
his heart, he set out for that house of his father-in-law, and 
when he drew near, his wife beheld him from a distance, and 
she ran and fell at his feet, though he was a villain. For, 
though a husband is wicked, a good wife does not alter her 
feelings towards him. And when he was frightened, she told 
him all the fictitious story she had previously told her parents 
about the robbery, her fall, and so on. Then he entered 
fearlessly with her the house of his father-in-law ; and his 
father-in-law and mother-in-law, when they saw him, wel- 
comed him joyfully. And his father-in-law called his friends 
together and made a great feast on the occasion, exclaiming : 
"It is indeed a happy thing that my son-in-law has been let 
go with life by the robbers." 

Then Dhanadatta lived happily with that wife of his, 
Ratnavali, enjoying the wealth of his father-in-law. But, 
fie ! what the cruel man did one night, though it should not 
be told for shame, must still, for the story's sake, be related. 
He killed his wife when asleep in his bosom, and took away 
all her ornaments, and then went away unobserved to his 
own country. So wicked are males ! 

163G (3). The King and the Two Wise Birds 

When the maina had said this, the king said to the 
parrot : " Now say your say." Then the parrot said : 
" King, females are of intolerable audacity, immoral and 
wicked ; hear a tale in proof of it. 

163G (3&). The Parrot's Story ^ 

There is a city of the name of Harshavati, and in it there 
was a leading merchant named Dharmadatta, possessed of 
many crores. And that merchant had a daughter named 
Vasudatta, matchless in beauty, whom he loved more than 
his life. And she was given to an excellent young merchant 
named Samudradatta, equal to her in rank, distinguished for 

1 The following story is the tenth in Sagas from the Far East. For fuller 
details see p. 269 et seq. of this volume. n.m.p. 


wealth and youth, who was an object that the eyes of lovely 
women loved to feast on, as the partridges on the rays of the 
moon, and who dwelt in the city of Tamralipti, which is in- 
habited by honourable men. Once on a time the merchant's 
daughter, while she was living in her father's house, and her 
husband was in his own country, saw at a distance a certain 
young and good-looking man. The fickle woman, deluded by 
Mara,^ invited him by means of a confidante, and made him 
her secret paramour. And from that time forth she spent 
every night with him, and her affections were fixed upon 
him only. 

But one day the husband of her youth returned from 
his own land, appearing to her parents like delight in bodily 
form. And on that day of rejoicing she was adorned. But 
she would have nothing to say to her husband, in spite of her 
mother's injunctions; and when he spoke to her she pre- 
tended to be asleep, as her heart was fixed on another. And 
then her husband, being drowsy with wine and tired with 
his journey, was overpowered with sleep. 

In the meanwhile, as all the people of the house, having 
eaten and drunk, were fast asleep, a thief made a hole in the 
wall ^ and entered their apartment. At that very moment 
the merchant's daughter rose up, without seeing the thief, and 
went out secretly, having made an assignation with her lover. 
When the thief saw that, his object being frustrated, he said 
to himself : " She has gone out in the dead of night adorned 
with those very ornaments which I came here to steal ; so 
I will watch where she goes." When the thief had formed 
this intention, he went out and followed that merchant's 
daughter Vasudatta, keeping an eye on her, but himself 

But she, with flowers and other things of the kind in her 
hands, went out, accompanied by a single confidante, who was 
in the secret, and entered a garden at no distance outside the 
city. And in it she saw her lover, who had come there to meet 
her, hanging dead on a tree, with a halter round his neck ; for 

^ The great tempter of Gautama Buddha. For the numerous legends 
connected with Mara see Windisch's Mar und Buddha, Leipzig, 1895. n.m.p. 
2 See Vol. V, p. 14272._n.m.p. 


the city-guards had caught him there at night and hanged 
him, on the supposition that he was a thief. Then she 
was distracted and beside herself, and exclaiming, " I am 
ruined," she fell on the ground and lamented with plaintive 
cries. Then she took down her dead paramour from the 
tree, and placing him in a sitting position she adorned him 
with unguents and flowers, and, although he was senseless, 
embraced him, with mind blinded by passion and grief. 
And when in her sorrow she raised up his mouth and kissed 
it, her dead paramour, being animated by a Vetala, suddenly 
bit off her nose.^ Then she left him in confusion and agony ; 
but still the unfortunate woman came back once more, and 
looked at him to see if he was still alive. And when she 
saw that the Vetala had left his body, and that he was dead 
and motionless, she departed slowly, weeping with fear and 

In the meanwhile the thief, who was hidden there, saw all, 
and said to himself : " What is this that this wicked woman 
has done ? Alas ! the mind of females is terrible and black 
like a dark well, unfathomable, exceedingly deep for a fall.^ 
So I wonder what she will do now." After these reflections 
the thief again followed her at a distance, out of curiosity. 

She went on and entered her own chamber, where her 
husband was asleep, and cried out, weeping : " Help ! Help ! 
This wicked enemy, calling himself a husband, has cut off my 
nose, though I have done nothing wrong." Then her hus- 
band, and her father, and the servants, hearing her repeated 
cries, woke up, and arose in a state of excitement. Then her 
father, seeing that her nose had been recently taken off, was 
angry, and had her husband bound, as having injured his 
wife. But even while he was being bound he remained 
speechless, like a dumb man, and said nothing, for all the 
listeners, his father-in-law and the others, had all together 
turned against him.^ 

When the thief had seen all this, he slipped away nimbly, 
and the night, which was spent in tumult, gradually passed 

1 See Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 100. n.m.p. 

2 A pun difficult to render in English. 

3 The Sanskrit College MS. reads vibuddheshvatha i.e. being awake. 


away ; and then the merchant's son was taken by his father-in- 
law to the king, together with his wife who had been deprived 
of her nose. And the king, after he had been informed by 
them of the circumstances, ordered the execution of the 
young merchant, on the ground that he had maimed his own 
wife, rejecting with contempt his version of the story. Then, 
as he was being led to the place of execution, with drums 
beating,^ the thief came up to the king's officers and said to 
them : " You ought not to put this man to death without 
cause ; I know the circumstances. Take me to the king, that 
I may tell him the whole story." 

When the thief said this, they took him to the king, 
and after he had received a promise of pardon, he told him 
the whole history of the night from the beginning. And he 
said : "If your Majesty does not believe my words, look 
at once at the woman's nose, which is in the mouth of 
that corpse." When the king heard that, he sent servants 
to look; and finding that the statement was true, he gave 
orders that the young merchant should not suffer capital 
punishment. But he banished his wicked wife from the 
country, after cutting off her ears also,^ and punished his 
father-in-law by confiscating all his wealth; and being 
pleased with the thief, he made him chief magistrate of 
the city. 

163G (3). The King and the Two Wise Birds 

" So you see that females are naturally wicked and 
treacherous." When the parrot had told this tale, the curse 
imposed on him by Indra lost its force, and he became once 
more the Gandharva Chitraratha, and assuming a celestial 
form, he went to heaven. And at the same moment the 
maina^s curse came to an end, and she became the heavenly 
nymph Tilottama, and went at once to heaven. And so 
their dispute remained undecided in the judgment-hall. 

1 See Vol. I, p. 118, llSw^, and Vol. V, p. 143w. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Vol. V, pp. 82, 82n\ 156. n.m.p. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this tale, he again said to the 
king : "So let your Majesty decide which are the worst, 
males or females. But if you know and do not say, your 
head shall split in pieces." 

When the king was asked this question by the Vetala, 
that was on his shoulder, he said to him : " Chief of magi- 
cians, women are the worst. For it is possible that once in 
a way a man may be so wicked, but females are, as a rule, 
always such everywhere." When the king said this, the 
Vetala disappeared, as before, from his shoulder, and the 
king once more resumed the task of fetching him. 



163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went at night to 
that simsapd tree in the cemetery ; and he fearlessly 
took that Vetala that was in the corpse, though it 
uttered a horrible laugh, and placed it on his shoulder, and 
set out in silence. And as he was going along, the Vetala, 
that was on his shoulder, said to him again : " King, why do 
you take all this trouble for the sake of this wicked mendi- 
cant ? In truth you show no discrimination in taking all this 
fruitless labour. So hear from me this story to amuse you 
on the way. 

163g (4). The Adventures of Vlravara ^ 

There is a city on the earth rightly named Sobhavati. In 
it there lived a king of great valour, called Sudraka. The 
fire of that victorious king's might was perpetually fanned 
by the wind of the chowries waved by the captured wives of 
his enemies. I ween that the earth was so glorious during the 
reign of that king, owing to the uninterrupted practice of 
righteousness that prevailed, that she forgot all her other 
sovereigns, even Rama. 

Once on a time a Brahman of the name of Viravara 
came from Malava to take service under that king who 
loved heroes. His wife's name was Dharmavati, his son was 
Sattvavara, and his daughter was Viravati. These three 
composed his family ; and his attendants were another three : 
at his side a dagger, a sword in one hand, and a splendid 
shield in the other. Although he had so small a retinue, he 
demanded from the king five hundred dinars a day by way 
of salary. And King Sudraka, perceiving that his appear- 
ance indicated great courage, gave him the salary he desired. 

^ See the Appendix, pp. 272-273. n.m.p. 


But he felt curious to know whether, as his retinue was so 
small, he employed so many gold coins to feed his vices, 
or lavished them on some worthy object. So he had him 
secretly dogged by spies, in order to discover his mode of life. 
And it turned out that every day Viravara had an interview 
with the king in the morning, and stood at his palace gate 
in the middle of the day, sword in hand ; and then he went 
home and put into the hand of his wife a hundred dinars ^ 
of his salary for food, and with a hundred he bought clothes, 
unguents and betel, and after bathing he set apart a hun- 
dred for the worship of Vishnu and Siva, and he gave two 
hundred by way of charity to poor Brahmans. This was the 
distribution which he made of the five hundred every day. 
Then he fed the sacrificial fire with clarified butter and per- 
formed other ceremonies, and took food, and then he again 
went and kept guard at the gate of the palace alone at night, 
sword in hand. 

When King Sudraka heard from his spies that Viravara 
always followed this righteous custom, he rejoiced in his 
heart ; and he ordered those spies, who had dogged his path, 
to desist ; and he considered him worthy of especial honour 
as a distinguished hero. 

Then in course of time, after Viravara had easily tided 
through the hot weather, when the rays of the sun were 
exceedingly powerful, the monsoon came roaring, bearing 
a brandished sword of lightning, as if out of envy against 
Viravara, and smiting ^ with raindrops. And though at 
that time a terrible bank of clouds poured down rain day 
and night, Viravara remained motionless, as before, at the 
gate of the palace. And King Sudraka, having beheld him 
in the day from the top of his palace, again went up to it 
at night, to find out whether he was there or not ; and he 
cried out from it : " Who waits there at the palace gate ? " 
When Viravara heard that, he answered : "I am here, your 
Majesty." Then King Sudraka thought to himself : " Ah ! 
Viravara is a man of intrepid courage and devotedly attached 

^ See Vol. I, p. 6^71^. n.m.p. 

2 I conjecture prakdrl for the pahdn of Brockhaus' edition. In dhdra there 
is a pun, as it also means the " edge of a sword." 


to me. So I must certainly promote him to an important 
post." After the king had said this to himself, he came 
down from the roof of his palace, and, entering his private 
apartments, went to bed. 

And the next evening, when a cloud was violently rain- 
ing with a heavy downfall, and black darkness was spread 
abroad, obscuring the heaven,^ the king once more ascended 
the roof of the palace to satisfy his curiosity, and being alone, 
he cried out in a clear voice : " Who waits there at the palace 
gate ? " Again Viravara said : "I am here." And while 
the king was lost in admiration at seeing his courage, he 
suddenly heard a woman weeping in the distance, distracted 
in despair, uttering only the piteous sound of wailing. 
When the king heard that, pity arose in his mind, and he said 
to himself : " There is no oppressed person in my kingdom, 
no poor or afflicted person ; so who is this woman, that is 
thus weeping alone at night ? " Then he gave this order to 
Viravara, who was alone below: "Listen, Viravara. There 
is some woman weeping in the distance ; go and find out 
who she is and why she is weeping." 

When Viravara heard that, he said, " I will do so," and 
set out thence with his dagger in his belt, and his sword in 
his hand. He looked upon the world as a Rakshasa ^ black 
with fresh clouds, having the lightning flashing from them 
by way of an eye, raining large drops of rain instead of 

And King Sudraka, seeing him starting alone on such a 
night, and being penetrated with pity and curiosity, came 
down from the top of the palace, and taking his sword, set 
out close behind him, alone and unobserved. And Viravara 
went on persistently in the direction of the weeping, and 
reached a tank outside the city, and saw there that woman 
in the middle of the water uttering this lament : " Hero ! 
Merciful man! Generous man! How can I live without 

^ I read with the Sanskrit College MS. gupta-hhuvane kdlatamasi. 

2 The D. text is different, and certainly makes better sense. Reading 
na ca for nava, Raksorupam for Raksho jlvam, etc., the meaning becomes: "He 
did not mind that Rakshasa-like darkness, black with fresh clouds. ..." 
See Speyer, op. cit, p. 134. n.m.p. 



you ? " And Viravara, who was followed by the king, said 
with astonishment : " Who are you, and why do you thus 
weep ? " Then she answered him : " Dear Viravara, know 
that I am this Earth, and King Sudraka is now my righteous 
lord; but on the third day from this his death will take 
place, and whence shall I obtain such another lord ? So I 
am grieved, and bewail both him and myself." ^ When Vira- 
vara heard this, he said, like one alarmed : "Is there then, 
goddess, any expedient to prevent the death of this king, who 
is the protecting amulet of the world ? " 

When Earth heard this, she answered : " There is one 
expedient for averting it, and one which you alone can em- 
ploy." Then Viravara said : " Then, goddess, tell it me at 
once, in order that I may quickly put it in operation : other- 
wise what is the use of my life ? " When Earth heard this, 
she said : " Who is as brave as you, and as devoted to his 
master ? So hear this method of bringing about his wel- 
fare. If you offer up your child Sattvavara to this glorious 
goddess Chandi, famous for her exceeding readiness to mani- 
fest herself to her votaries, to whom the king has built a 
temple, 2 in the immediate vicinity of his palace, the king 
will not die, but live another hundred years. And if you 
do it at once, his safety will be ensured ; but if not, he will 
assuredly have ceased to live on the third day from this 

When the goddess Earth said this to Viravara, he said : 
*' Goddess, I will go and do it this very instant." Then 
Earth said, "May success attend you!" and disappeared; 
and the king, who was secretly following Viravara, heard all 

Then Viravara went quickly in the darkness to his own 
house, and King Sudraka, out of curiosity, followed him un- 
observed. There he woke up his wife Dharmavati, and told 
her how the goddess Earth had directed him to offer up his 
son for the sake of the king. When she heard it, she said : 
" My lord, we must ensure the prosperity of the king ; so 

^ Cf, the way in which the Banshi laments in Grimm's Irische Mdrchen, 
j)p. 121, 122. 

* I read kritapratishthd, which I find in the Sanskrit College MS. 


wake up this young boy of ours and tell it him yourself." 
Then Viravara woke up his young son Sattvavara, who was 
asleep, and told him what had occurred, and said to him : 
" So, my son, the king will live if you are offered up to the 
goddess Chandi ; but if not, he will die on the third day." 

When Sattvavara heard it, though he was a mere child, 
he showed an heroic soul, and justified his name.^ He said : 
" I shall have obtained all I desire, if the sacrifice of my life 
saves that of the king, for so I shall have repaid him for 
his food which I have eaten. So why should there be any 
delay ? Take me and offer me up immediately before the 
adorable goddess. Let me be the means of bringing about 
the happiness of my lord." 

When Sattvavara said this, Viravara answered : " Bravo ! 
you are in truth my own son." And the king, who had fol- 
lowed them, and heard all this conversation from outside, said 
to himself : " Ah ! they are all equal in courage." 

Then Viravara took his son Sattvavara on his shoulder, 
and his wife Dharmavati took their daughter Viravati, and 
they both went that very night to the temple of Chandi, and 
King Sudraka followed them unobserved. Then Sattvavara 
was taken down by his father from his shoulder and placed 
in front of the idol, and the boy, who was full of courage, 
bowed before the goddess, and said : " May the sacrifice of 
my head ensure the life of King Sudraka ! May he rule un- 
opposed, goddess, for another hundred years ! " When the 
boy Sattvavara said this, Viravara exclaimed, " Bravo ! " and 
drew his sword and cut off his son's head, and offered it to 
the goddess, saying : " May the sacrifice of my son save the 
king's life ! " Immediately a voice was heard from the air : 
*' Bravo ! Viravara ! What man is as devoted to his sove- 
reign as thou, who, by the sacrifice of thy noble only son, 
hast bestowed on this King Sudraka life and a kingdom ? " 
Then that young girl Viravati, the daughter of Viravara, 
came up, and embraced the head of her slain brother, and 
weeping, blinded with excessive grief, she broke her heart 
and so died. And the king saw and heard all this from his 

^ Sattvavara means "distinguished for courage." 


Then Viravara's wife Dharmavati said to him : " We have 
ensured the prosperity of the king, so now I have something 
to say to you. Since my daughter, though a child and know- 
ing nothing, has died out of grief for her brother, and I 
have lost these two children of mine, what is the use of life 
to me ? Since I have been so foolish as not to offer my own 
head long ago to the goddess for the welfare of the king, give 
me leave to enter the fire with my children's bodies." When 
she urged this request, Viravara said to her : " Do so, and 
may prosperity attend you ; for what pleasure could you 
find, noble woman, in continuing a life that would for you 
be full of nothing but grief for your children ? But do not 
be afflicted because you did not sacrifice yourself. Would 
not I have sacrificed myself, if the object could have been 
attained by the sacrifice of any victim but our son ? So wait 
until I have made a pyre for you with these pieces of timber, 
collected to build the fence round the sanctuary of the 

When Viravara had said this, he made a funeral pyre 
with the timber, and placed on it the bodies of his two 
children, and lighted it with the flame of a lamp. Then his 
virtuous wife Dharmavati fell at his feet, and, after wor- 
shipping the goddess Chandi, she addressed to her this 
prayer : " May my present husband be my husband also in 
a future birth ! And may the sacrifice of my life procure 
prosperity for the king his master ! " When the virtuous 
woman had said this, she threw herself into the burning pyre, 
from which the flames streamed up like hair. 

Then the hero Viravara said to himself : "I have done 
what the king's interests required, as the celestial voice 
testified, and I have paid my debt to my master for his food 
which I have eaten : so as I am now left alone, why should I 
thus cling to life ? It does not look well for a man like me to 
nurse his own life only, after sacrificing all his dear family, 
which it is his duty to maintain. So why should I not gratify 
Durga by sacrificing myself ? " Having thus reflected, he 
first approached the goddess with this hymn of praise : 

" Hail to thee, thou slayer of the Asura Mahisha, de- 
stroyer of the Danava Ruru, trident-bearing goddess ! Hail 


to thee, best of mothers, that causest rejoicing among the 
gods, and upholdest the three worlds ! Hail thou whose feet 
are worshipped by the whole earth, the refuge of those that 
are intent on final beatitude ! Hail thou that wearest the 
rays of the sun, and dispellest the accumulated darkness of 
calamity ! Hail to thee, Kali, skull-bearing goddess, wearer 
of skeletons ! Hail, Siva ! Honour to thee ! Be propitious 
now to King Sudraka on account of the sacrifice of my head ! " 
After Viravara had praised the goddess in these words, he cut 
off his head with a sudden stroke of his sword. 

King Sudraka, who was a witness of all this from his 
place of concealment, was full of bewilderment, sorrow and 
astonishment, and said to himself : " This worthy man and 
his family have performed for my sake a wonderful and diffi- 
cult exploit never seen or heard of anywhere else. Though 
the world is wide and various, where could there be found a 
man so resolute as secretly to sacrifice his life for his master, 
without proclaiming the fact abroad ? And if I do not re- 
quite this benefit, what is the use of my sovereignty, and of 
my protracting my life, which would only be like that of an 
animal ? " 

When the heroic king had thus reflected, he drew his 
sword from the sheath, and approaching the goddess, 
prayed thus to her : "Be propitious to me now, goddess, 
on account of this sacrifice of my head, and confer a boon 
on me, thy constant votary. Let this Brahman Viravara, 
whose acts are in accordance with his name, and who sacri- 
ficed his life for my sake, be resuscitated with his family ! " 
After uttering this prayer. King Sudraka was preparing to 
cut off his head with his sword, but at that moment a voice 
was heard from the air : " Do not act rashly ; I am pleased 
with this courage of thine : let the Brahman Viravara be 
restored to life, together with his wife and his children!" 
Having uttered so much, the voice ceased, and Viravara rose 
up alive and unwounded, with his son, his daughter, and his 
wife. When the king, who quickly concealed himself again, 
saw that marvel, he w^as never tired of looking at them with 
an eye full of tears of joy. 

And Viravara quickly awoke as if from sleep, and 


beholding his children and wife alive, and also himself, he 
was confused in mind. And he asked his wife and children, 
addressing them severally by name : " How have you returned 
to life after having been reduced to ashes ? I too cut off my 
head. What is the meaning of my being now alive ? Is 
this a delusion, or the manifest favour of the goddess ? " 
When he said this, his wife and children answered him : 
" Our being alive is due to a merciful interposition of the god- 
dess, of which we were not conscious." Then Viravara came 
to the conclusion that it was so, and after worshipping the 
goddess, he returned home with his wife and children, having 
accomplished his object. 

And after he had left his son, wife and daughter there, he 
returned that very night to the palace gate of the king, and 
stood there as before. King Sudraka, for his part, who had 
beheld all unobserved, again went up to the roof of his palace. 
And he cried out from the roof : " Who is in attendance at 
the palace gate ? " Then Viravara said : " I myself am in 
waiting here, your Majesty. And in accordance with your 
orders I went in search of that woman, but she disappeared 
somewhere as soon as seen, like a Rakshasi." 

When the king heard the speech of that Viravara, he was 
very much astonished, as he had himself seen what took 
place, and he said to himself: " Indeed people of noble spirit 
are deep and self-contained of soul as the sea, for when they 
have performed an unparalleled exploit, they do not utter 
any description of it." Thus reflecting, the king silently de- 
scended from the roof of the palace and entered his private 
apartments, and there spent the rest of the night. 

And the next morning Viravara came to present himself 
at the time of audience, and then the delighted king related 
to the ministers all that Viravara had gone through during 
the night ; so that they were all, as it were, thunderstruck 
with wonder. Then the king gave to Viravara and his son 
the sovereignty over the provinces of Lata and Karnata, as 
a token of his regard. Then the two kings, Viravara and 
Sudraka, being equal in power, lived happily in the inter- 
change of mutual good offices. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this exceedingly wonderful 
story, he went on to say to King Trivikramasena : " So 
tell me, King, who was the bravest of all these ; and if you 
know and do not tell, the curse, which I before mentioned, 
shall descend upon you." 

When the king heard this, he answered the Vetala : 
" King Sudraka was the greatest hero of them all." Then 
the Vetala said : " Was not Viravara greater, for his equal 
is not found on earth ? And was not his wife braver, who, 
though a mother, endured to witness with her own eyes the 
offering up of her son as a victim ? And was not his son 
Sattvavara braver, who, though a mere child, displayed such 
pre-eminent courage ? So why do you say that King Sudraka 
was more heroic than these ? " 

When the Vetala said this, the king answered him : " Do 
not say so ! Viravara was a man of high birth, one in whose 
family it was a tradition that life, son and wife must be 
sacrificed to protect the sovereign. And his wife also was of 
good birth, chaste, worshipping her husband only; and her 
chief duty was to follow the path traced out for her by her 
husband. And Sattvavara was like them, being their son. 
Assuredly, such as are the threads, such is the web produced 
from them. But Sudraka excelled them all, because he was 
ready to lay down his life for those servants, by the sacrifice 
of whose lives kings are wont to save their own." 

When the Vetala heard that speech from that king, he at 
once left his shoulder and returned invisibly to his former 
place by his supernatural power ; but the king resolutely set 
out on his former path in that cemetery at night to bring him 
back again. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena went back again to that 
sim^apd tree, and saw the Vetala in the corpse again 
hanging on it as before, and took him down, and, after 
showing much displeasure with him, set out again rapidly 
towards his goal. And as he was returning along his way, 
in silence as before, through the great cemetery by night, 
the Vetala on his shoulder said to him : " King, you have 
embarked on a toilsome undertaking, and I liked you from 
the moment I first saw you ; so listen, I will tell you a tale 
to divert your mind, 

163g (5). Somaprabhd and her Three Suitors ^ 

In Ujjayini there lived an excellent Brahman, the dear 
dependent and minister of King Punyasena, and his name 
was Harisvamin. That householder had by his wife, who 
was his equal in birth, an excellent son like himself, Devas- 
vamin by name. And he also had born to him a daughter, 
famed for her matchless beauty, rightly named Somaprabha.^ 
When the time came for that girl to be given away in marriage, 
as she was proud of her exceeding beauty, she made her 
mother give the following message to her father and brother : 
*' I am to be given away in marriage to a man possessed of 
heroism and knowledge, or magic power ^ ; you must not give 
me in marriage to any other, if you value my life." 

When her father Harisvamin heard this, he was full of 
anxiety, trying to find for her a husband coming under one 
of these three categories. And while so engaged, he was 

^ See Appendix, p. 273 et seq. n.m.p. ^ I-e. moonlight. 

3 Vijndna appears to have this meaning here. In the Peniamerone of 
Basile (Burton's translation, vol. i, p. 241) a princess refuses to marry, unless 
a bridegroom can be found for her with a head and teeth of gold. 



sent as ambassador to King Punyasena to negotiate a treaty 
with a king of the Deccan, who had come to invade him. And 
when he had accomplished the object for which he was sent, 
a noble Brahman, who had heard of the great beauty of his 
daughter, came and asked him for her hand. Harisvamin 
said to the Brahman suitor : " My daughter will not have 
any husband who does not possess either valour, knowledge, 
or magic power ; so tell me which of the three you possess." 
When Harisvamin said this to the Brahman suitor, he an- 
swered : "I possess magic power." Thereupon Harisvamin 
rejoined : " Then show me your magic power." So that 
possessor of supernatural power immediately prepared by 
his skill a chariot that would fly through the air. And in a 
moment he took Harisvamin up in that magic chariot and 
showed him heaven and all the worlds. And he brought 
him back delighted to that very camp of the king of 
the Deccan, to which he had been sent on business. Then 
Harisvamin promised his daughter to that man possessed 
of magic power, and fixed the marriage for the seventh 
day from that time. 

And in the meanwhile another Brahman in Ujjayini came 
and asked Harisvamin's son Devasvamin for the hand of 
his sister. Devasvamin answered : " She does not wish to 
have a husband who is not possessed of either knowledge, or 
magic power, or heroism." Thereupon he declared himself 
to be a hero. And when the hero displayed his skill in 
the use of missiles and hand-to-hand weapons, Devasvamin 
promised to give him his sister, who was younger than him- 
self. And by the advice of the astrologers he told him, as 
his father had told the other suitor, that the marriage should 
take place on that very same seventh day, and this decision 
he came to without the knowledge of his mother. 

At that very same time a third person came to his mother, 
the wife of Harisvamin, and asked her privately for the hand 
of her daughter. She said to him : " Our daughter requires 
a husband who possesses either knowledge, or heroism, or 
magic power." And he answered : " Mother, I possess know- 
ledge." And she, after questioning him about the past and 
the future, promised to give the hand of her daughter to that 


possessor of supernatural knowledge on that same seventh 

The next day Hafisvamin returned home, and told his 
wife and his son the agreement he had made to give away 
his daughter in marriage ; and they told him separately 
the promises that they had made, and that made him feel 
anxious, as three bridegrooms had been invited. 

Then, on the wedding day, three bridegrooms arrived in 
Harisvamin's house the man of knowledge, the man of 
magic power, and the man of valour. And at that moment 
a strange thing took place : the intended bride, the maiden 
Somaprabha, was found to have disappeared in some in- 
explicable manner, and, though searched for, was not found. 
Then Harisvamin said eagerly to the possessor of knowledge : 
" Man of knowledge, now tell me quickly where my daughter 
is gone." When the possessor of knowledge heard that, he 
said : " The Rakshasa Dhumrasikha has carried her off to 
his own habitation in the Vindhya forest." When the man 
of knowledge said this to Harisvamin, he was terrified, and 
said : " Alas ! alas ! how are we to get her back, and how is 
she to be married ? " When the possessor of magic power 
heard that, he said : " Be of good cheer ! I will take you in 
a moment to the place where the possessor of knowledge says 
that she is." 

After he had said this, he prepared, as before, a chariot 
that would fly through the air, provided with all kinds of 
weapons, and made Harisvamin, and the man of know- 
ledge, and the brave man get into it, and in a moment he 
carried them to the habitation of the Rakshasa in the 
Vindhya forest, which had been described by the man 
of knowledge. The Rakshasa, when he saw what had hap- 
pened, rushed out in a passion, and then the hero, who 
was put forward by Harisvamin, challenged him to fight. 
Then a wonderful fight took place between that man and 
that Rakshasa, who were contending for a woman with 
various kinds of weapons, like Rama and Ravana. And in 
a short time the hero cut off the head of that Rakshasa 
with a crescent-headed arrow, though he was a doughty 
champion. When the Rakshasa was slain, they carried 


off Somaprabha, whom they found in his house, and they 
all returned in the chariot of the suitor who possessed the 
magic power. 

When they had reached Harisvamin's house, the marriage 
did not go forward, though the auspicious moment had 
arrived, but a great dispute arose between the man of know- 
ledge, the man of magic power, and the man of valour. The 
man of knowledge said : " If I had not known where this 
maiden was, how could she have been discovered when con- 
cealed ? So she ought to be given to me." But the man of 
magic power said : " If I had not made this chariot that can 
fly through the air, how could you all have gone and returned 
in a moment like gods ? And how could you, without a 
chariot, have fought with a Rakshasa, who possessed a 
chariot ? So you ought to give her to me, for I have secured 
by my skill this auspicious moment." The brave man said : 
" If I had not slain the Rakshasa in fight, who would have 
brought this maiden back here in spite of all your exertions ? 
So she must be given to me." While they went on wrangling 
in this style, Harisvamin remained for a moment silent, being 
perplexed in mind. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

" So tell me. King, to whom she ought to have been given ; 
and if you know, and do not say, your head shall split 
asunder." When Trivikramasena heard this from the Vetala, 
he abandoned his silence, and said to him : " She ought to be 
given to the brave man ; for he won her by the might of his 
arms, at the risk of his life, slaying that Rakshasa in combat. 
But the man of knowledge and the man of magic power were 
appointed by the Creator to serve as his instruments : are 
not calculators and artificers always subordinate assistants 
to others ? " 

When the Vetala heard this answer of the king's, he left 
his seat on the top of his shoulder and went, as before, to his 
own place ; and the king again set out to find him, without 
being in the slightest degree discomposed. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went to the Hm- 
sapd tree, and carried off from it that Vetala on his 
shoulder, as before, and began to retm-n with him 
swiftly in silence. And on the way the Vetala again said to 
him : " King, you are wise and brave, therefore I love you, 
so I will tell you an amusing tale, and mark well my question. 

163g (6). The Lady who caused her Brother and Husband 
to change Heads ^ 

There was a king famous on the earth by the name 
of Yasahketu, and his capital was a city of the name of 
Sobhavati. And in that city there was a splendid temple of 
Gauri, and to the south of it there was a lake, called Gauri- 
tirtha. And every year, during a feast on the fourteenth day 
of the white fortnight of the month Ashadha, large crowds 
came there to bathe from every part of the world. ^ 

And once there came there to bathe, on that day, a young 
washerman of the name of Dhavala, from a village called 
Brahmasthala. He saw there the virgin daughter of a man 
named Suddhapata, a girl called Madanasundari, who had 
come to bathe in the sacred water.^ His heart was captivated 

^ See Appendix, pp. 276-277. n.m.p. 

2 The word sukldydm, which is found in the Sanskrit College MS., is 
omitted by Professor Brockhaus. 

^ So in the Hero and Leander of Musaeus the two lovers meet in the 
temple of Venus at Sestos, and in the Mthiopica of Heliodorus Theagenes 
meets Chariclea at a festival at Delphi. Petrarch met Laura for the first time 
in the chapel of St Clara at Avignon, and Boccaccio fell in love with Maria, 
the daughter of Robert of Naples, in the church of the barefooted friars in 
Naples (Dunlop's History of Fiction, trans, by Liebrecht, p. 9). Rohde remarks 
that in Greek romances the hero and heroine usually meet in this way. Indeed 




by that girl who ecHpsed the beauty of the moon, and after 
he had inquired her name and family, he went home love- 
smitten. There he remained fasting and restless without 
her ; but when his mother asked him the cause, he told her 
the truth about his desire. ^ She went and told her husband 
Vimala, and when he came and saw his son in that state, he 
said to him : " Why are you so despondent, my son, about 
an object so easily attained ? Suddhapata will give you his 
daughter, if I ask him. For we are equal to him in family, 
wealth and occupation. I know him and he knows me ; so 
this is not a difficult matter for me to arrange." 

With these words Vimala comforted his son, and induced 
him to take food, and other refreshments ; and the next day 
he went with him to the house of Suddhapata. And there 
he asked his daughter in marriage for his son Dhavala, and 
Suddhapata courteously promised to give her. And so, after 
ascertaining the auspicious moment, he gave his daughter 
Madanasundari, who was of equal birth with Dhavala, in 
marriage to him the next day. And after Dhavala had 
been married, he returned a happy man to his father's house, 
together with his wife, who had fallen in love with him at 
first sight. 

And one day, while he was living there in happiness, 
his father-in-law's son, the brother of Madanasundari, came 
there. All received him courteously, ^ and his sister embraced 
him and welcomed him, and his connections asked him how 
he was ; and at last, after he had rested, he said to them : " I 
have been sent here by my father, to invite Madanasundari 
and his son-in-law, since we are engaged in a festival in 
honour of the goddess Durga." And all his connections and 
their family approved his speech, and entertained him that 
day with appropriate meats and drinks. 

it was scarcely possible for two young people belonging to the upper classes 
of Greek society to meet in any other way (Der Griechische Roman, p. 146 and 
note). See also pp. 385 and 486. Cf. Tawney's Kathakoga, p. 72. n.m.p. 

1 For tai/d in //. lOb the Sanskrit College MS. reads tatkd. As the 

D. text shows, the true correction is mdtrdrtayd for mdtrd tayd ''when his 
mother, distressed, asked him the cause (of his strange behaviour) ..." See 
Speyer, op. cit., p. 134. n.m.p. 

2 Prasnayah in Professor Brockhaus' text should be prasrayah. 


Early the next day Dhavala set out for his father-in-law's 
house with Madanasundari and his brother-in-law. And he 
reached, with his two companions, the city of Sobhavati, 
and he saw the great temple of Durga when he arrived near 
it ; and then he said to his wife and brother-in-law, in a fit 
of pious devotion : " Come and let us visit the shrine of this 
awful goddess." When the brother-in-law heard this, he said 
to him, in order to dissuade him : " How can so many of us 
approach the goddess empty-handed ? " Then Dhavala said : 
" Let me go alone, and you can wait outside." When he had 
said this, he went off to pay his respects to the goddess. 

When he had entered her temple, and had worshipped, 
and had meditated upon that goddess, who with her eighteen 
mighty arms had smitten terrible Danavas, and who had 
flung under the lotus of her foot and trampled to pieces the 
Asura Mahisha, a train of pious reflection was produced in 
his mind by the impulse of Destiny, and he said to himself : 
" People worship this goddess with various sacrifices of living 
creatures, so why should not I, to obtain salvation, appease 
her with the sacrifice of myself ? " After he had said this to 
himself, he took from her inner shrine, which was empty of 
worshippers, a sword which had been long ago offered to her 
by some pilgrims, and, after fastening his own head by his 
hair to the chain of the bell, he cut it off with the sword, 
and when cut off it fell on the ground. 

And his brother-in-law, after waiting a long time, without 
his having returned, went into that very temple of the god- 
dess to look for him. But when he saw his sister's husband 
lying there decapitated, he also was bewildered, and he cut 
off his head in the same way with that very same sword. 

And when he too did not return, Madanasundari was 
distracted in mind, and then she too entered the temple 
of the goddess. And when she had gone in, and seen her 
husband and her brother in sueh a state, she fell on the 
ground, exclaiming : " Alas ! what is the meaning of this ? 
I am ruined." And soon she rose up and lamented those two 
that had been so unexpectedly slain, and said to herself: 
" Of what use is this life of mine to me now ? " And being 
^ager to abandon the body, she said to that goddess : " O 


thou that art the chief divinity presiding over blessedness, 
chastity and holy rule, though occupying half the body of 
thy husband Siva,^ thou that art the fitting refuge of all 
women, that takest away grief, why hast thou robbed me at 
once of my brother and my husband ? This is not fitting on 
thy part towards me, for I have ever been a faithful votary 
of thine. So hear one piteous appeal from me who fly to 
thee for protection. I am now about to abandon this body 
which is afflicted with calamity, but grant that in all my 
future births, whatever they may be, these two men may 
be my husband and brother." 

In these words she praised and supplicated the goddess, 
and bowed before her again ; and then she made a noose of 
a creeper and fastened it to an asoka tree. And while she 
was stretching out her neck, and putting it into the noose, 
the following words resounded from the expanse of air: "Do 
not act rashly, my daughter ! I am pleased with the exceed- 
ing courage which thou hast displayed, though a mere girl : 
let this noose be, but join the heads of thy husband and thy 
brother to their bodies, and by virtue of my favour they 
shall both rise up alive." 

When the girl Madanasundari heard this, she let the 
noose drop, and went up to the corpses in great delight; 
but being confused, and not seeing in her excessive eager- 
ness what she was doing, she stuck, as fate would have it, her 
husband's head on to her brother's trunk, and her brother's 
head on to her husband's trunk, and then they both rose up 
alive, with limbs free from wound, but, from their heads 
having been exchanged, their bodies had become mixed 

Then they told one another what had befallen them, and 
were happy; and after they had worshipped the goddess 
Durga, the three continued their journey. But Madana- 
sundari, as she was going along, saw that she had changed 
their heads, and she was bewildered and puzzled as to what 
course to take. 

^ An allusion to the Ardhanari^a {i.e. half male, half female) representation 
of Siva. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

" So tell me, King, which of the two people, thus mixed 
together, was her husband ; and if you know and do not tell, 
the course previously denounced shall fall on you ! " When 
King Trivikramasena heard this tale and this question from 
the Vetala, he answered him as follows : " That one of the two, 
on whom her husband's head was fixed, was her husband, 
for the head is the chief of the limbs, and personal identity 
depends upon it." When the king had said this, the Vetala 
again left his shoulder unperceived, and the king again set 
out to fetch him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena went back to the sim^apd 
tree, and again found the Vetala there, and took him 
on his shoulder. As he was going along with him, 
the Vetala said to him on the way : " King, listen to me. I 
will tell you a story to make you forget your fatigue. 

163g (7). The King who married his Dependent to a Nereid ^ 

There is a city on the shore of the eastern sea, named 
Tamralipti. In that city there was a king of the name of 
Chandasimha; he turned away his face from the wives of 
others, but not from battle-fields ; he carried off the fortune 
of his foes, but not the wealth of his neighbours. 

Once on a time a popular Rajput of the Deccan, named 
Sattvasila, came to the palace gate of that king. And he 
announced himself, and then, on account of his poverty, he 
and some other Rajputs tore a ragged garment in the presence 
of that king. Thus he became a dependent, ^ and remained 
there for many years perpetually serving the king, but he 
never received any reward from him. And he said to him- 
self : " If I have been born in a royal race, why am I so 
poor ? And considering my poverty is so great, why did 
my Creator make my ambition so vast ? For though I serve 
the king so diligently, and my followers are sorely afflicted, 
and I have long been pining with hunger, he has never, up 
to the present time, deigned to notice me." 

While such were the reflections of the dependent, the king 

1 See Appendix, pp. 278-285. n.m.p. 

2 The word translated "ragged garment" is karpata. The word trans- 
lated "dependent" is kdrpatika. Cf. story No. 69, "King Lakshadatta 

and his Dependent Labdhadatta" (Vol. IV, pp. 168-172) and the note on 
pp. 182-183 of the same volume. n.m.p. 

VOL. VI. 209 o 


one day went out to hunt. And he went, surrounded with 
horses and footmen, to the forest of wild beasts, while his 
dependent ran in front of him bearing a stick. And after 
he had hunted for some time, he followed up closely a boar 
that had escaped, and soon he reached another distant wood. 
And in that vast jungle, where the path was obscured with 
leaves and grass, the king lost the boar, and he became ex- 
hausted, and was unable to find his way. And the dependent 
was the only one that kept up with him, running on foot, 
regardless of his own life, tortured with hunger and thirst, 
though the king was mounted upon a horse swift as the 

And the king, when he saw that dependent had followed 
him, in spite of his being in such a condition, said to him in 
a kind voice : " Do you know the way by which we came ? " 
When the dependent heard that, he put his hands together in 
an attitude of supplication, and said : " I do know it. But 
let my lord rest here for some time; for the sun, which is 
the centre- jewel of the girdle of the sky-bride, is now burning 
fiercely with all its rays flickering forth." When the king 
heard this, he said to him graciously : " Then see if you can 
find water anywhere here." The dependent said, " I will," 
and he climbed up a high tree and saw a river, and then he 
came down again, and led the king to it. And he took the 
saddle off his horse and let him roll, and gave him water 
and mouthfuls of grass, and so refreshed him. 

And when the king had bathed, he brought out of a corner 
of his garment delicious ^ dmalaka fruits, and washed them, 
and gave them to him. And when the king asked where he 
got them, he said to him, kneeling with the dmalakas in his 
hand : " Ten years have now passed since I, living continually 
on these fruits, have been performing, in order to propitiate my 
sovereign, the vow of a hermit that does not dwell in solitude." 
When the king heard that, he answered him: "It cannot 
be denied that you are rightly named Sattvasila." And being- 
filled with compassion and shame, he said to himself: "A 
curse on kings who do not see who among their servants is 
comfortable or miserable, and a curse on their courtiers who 

^ Hridaydni should of course be hridydni, as in the Sanskrit College MS. 


do not inform them of such matters ! " Such were the king's 
thoughts. But he was at last induced by the importunity 
of the dependent to take two dmalakas from him. And after 
eating them and drinking water, he rested for a while in the 
company of the dependent, having satiated his hunger and 
thirst on fruits and water. 

Then his dependent got his horse ready, and he mounted 
it, and the dependent went in front of him to show him the 
way; but however much the king entreated him, he would 
not get up on the horse behind him, and so the king returned 
to his own city, meeting his army on the way. There he 
proclaimed the devotion of the dependent; and he loaded 
him with wealth and territories, and did not consider even 
then that he had recompensed him as he deserved. Then 
Sattvasila became a prosperous man, and discarding the life 
of a dependent, he remained henceforth about the person of 
King Chandasimha. 

And one day the king sent him to the island of LaAka, to 
demand for him the hand of the king's daughter. He had 
to go there by sea ; so he worshipped his patron divinity, 
and went on board a ship, with the Brahmans whom the king- 
appointed to accompany him. And when the ship had gone 
half-way, there suddenly arose from the sea a banner that 
excited the wonder of all in the ship. It was so lofty that its 
top touched the clouds ; it was made of gold, and emblazoned 
like a waving flag of various hues. And at that very moment 
a bank of clouds suddenly arose and began to pour down rain, 
and a mighty wind blew. And the ship was forced on to that 
flag by the rain and the wind, and thus fastened to it, as 
elephant-drivers force on an elephant and bind him to a post. 
And then the flag began to sink with the ship in the billowy sea. 

And then the Brahmans in the ship, distracted with fear, 
called on their King Chandasimha, crying out for help. And 
when Sattvasila heard their cries, so great was his devotion 
to his master that he could not restrain himself, but with his 
sword in his hand, and his upper garment girded round him, 
the brave fellow daringly plunged into the billows, following 
the flag, in order to counteract the violence of the sea, not 
suspecting the real cause. And as soon as he had plunged in, 


that ship was carried to a distance by the wind and waves, 
and all the people who were in it fell into the mouths of the 

And when Sattvasila, who had fallen into the sea, began to 
look about him, he found that he was in a splendid city, but 
he could not see the sea anywhere. That city glittered with 
palaces of gold supported on pillars of jewels, and was adorned 
with gardens in which were tanks with steps of precious gems, 
and in it he beheld the temple of Durga, lofty as Mount Meru, 
with many walls of costly stones, and with a soaring banner 
studded with jewels. There he prostrated himself before the 
goddess, and praised her with a hymn, and sat down wondering 
whether it was all the effect of enchantment. 

And in the meanwhile a heavenly maiden suddenly 
opened a door, and issued from a bright enclosure in front of 
the temple of the goddess. Her eyes were like blue lotuses, 
her face full-blown, her smile like a flower ; her body was soft 
like the taper fibre of a water-lily's root, so that she resembled 
a moving lotus-lake. And waited on by a thousand ladies, 
she entered the inner shrine of the goddess and the heart of 
Sattvasila at the same time. And after she had worshipped, 
she left the inner shrine of the goddess, but nothing would make 
her leave the heart of Sattvasila. And she entered once more 
into the shining enclosure, and Sattvasila entered after her. 

And when he had entered, he beheld another splendid 
city, which seemed like a garden where all the enjoyments 
of the world had agreed to meet. In it Sattvasila saw that 
maiden sitting on a couch studded with gems, and he went 
up to her and sat down by her side. And he remained with 
his eyes fixed on her face, like a man in a painting, expressing 
his passion by his trembling limbs, the hairs on which stood 
erect. And when she saw that he was enamoured of her, she 
looked at the faces of her attendants, and then they, under- 
standing the expression of her face, said to him : " You have 
arrived here as a guest, so enjoy the hospitality provided by 
our mistress. Rise up, bathe, and then take food." 

When he heard that, he entertained some hope, and he 
rose up, though not without a struggle, and he went to a 
tank in the garden which they showed him. And the 


moment that he plunged into it he rose up, to his astonish- 
ment, in the middle of a tank in the garden of King 
Chandasimha in Tamralipti. And seeing himself suddenly 
arrived there, he said to himself: "Alas! what is the 
meaning of this ? Now I am in this garden, and a moment 
ago I was in that splendid city; I have exchanged in an 
instant the nectarous vision of that fair one for the grievous 
poison of separation from her. But it was not a dream, for 
I saw it all clearly in a waking state. It is clear that I was 
beguiled like a fool by those maidens of Patala." 

Thus reflecting, he wandered about in that garden like 
a madman, being deprived of that maiden, and wept in the 
anguish of disappointed passion. And the gardeners, when 
they beheld him in that state, with body covered with the 
yellow pollen of flowers wafted by the wind, as if with the 
fires of separation, went and told King Chandasimha, and 
he, being bewildered, came himself and saw him; and after 
calming him, he said to him : " Tell me, my friend, what is 
the meaning of all this ? You set out for one place and 
reached another; your arrows have not struck the mark at 
which they were aimed." When Sattvasila heard that, he 
told the king all his adventures, and he, when he heard 
them, said to himself : " Strange to say, though this man is 
a hero, he has, happily for me,^ been beguiled by love, and I 
now have it in my power to discharge my debt of gratitude to 
him." So the brave king said to him : " Abandon now your 
needless grief, for I will conduct you by the same course into 
the presence of that beloved Asura maiden." With these 
words the king comforted him, and refreshed him with a bath 
and other restoratives. 

The next day the king entrusted the kingdom to his 
ministers, and, embarking on a ship, set out on the sea with 
Sattvasila, who showed him the way. And when they had 
got to that half-way spot, Sattvasila saw the wonderful flag- 
staff rising out of the sea with the banner on it, as before, 
and he said to the king : " Here is that great flagstaff with 
such wonderful properties, towering aloft out of the sea : I 
must plunge in here, and then the king must plunge in also 

1 More literally "through my merits in a former state of existence." 


and dive down after the flagstaff." After Sattvasila had 
said this, they got near the flagstaff, and it began to sink. 
And Sattvai^ila first threw himself in after it, and then the 
king also dived in the same direction, and soon after they had 
plunged in, they reached that splendid city. And there the 
king beheld with astonishment and worshipped that goddess 
Parvati, and sat down with Sattvai^ila. 

And in the meanwhile there issued from that glittering 
enclosure a maiden, accompanied by her attendant ladies, 
looking like the quality of brightness in concrete form. 
Sattvasila said, " This is that fair one," and the king, be- 
holding her, considered that his attachment to her was amply 
justified. She, for her part, when she beheld that king with 
all the auspicious bodily marks, said to herself: "Who can 
this exceedingly distinguished man be ? " 

And so she went into the temple of Durga to pray, and 
the king contemptuously went off to the garden, taking 
Sattvasila with him. And in a short time the Daitya 
maiden came out from the inner shrine of the goddess, 
having finished her devotions, and having prayed that she 
might obtain a good husband ; and after she had come out, 
she said to one of her attendants : " My friend, go and see 
where that distinguished man is whom I saw, and entreat 
him to do us the favour of coming and accepting our hospi- 
tality, for he is some great hero deserving special honour." 
When the attendant had received this order, she went and 
looked for him, and, bending low, delivered to him in the 
garden the message of her mistress. Then the heroic king 
answered in a carelessly negligent tone : " This garden is 
sufficient entertainment for me : what other entertainment do 
I require ? " When that attendant came and reported this 
answer to the Daitya maiden, she considered that the king was 
a man of a noble spirit and deserving of the highest regard. 

And then the Asura maiden (being, as it were, drawn 
towards himself with the cord of his self-command by the 
king, who showed a lofty indifference for hospitality far 
above mortal desert) went in person to the garden, thinking 
that he had been sent her by way of a husband, as a fruit 
of her adoration of Durga. And the trees seemed to honour 


her, as she approached, with the songs of various birds, with 
their creepers bending in the wind Hke arms, and showers of 
blossoms. And she approached the king and, bowing cour- 
teously before him, entreated him to accept of her hospitality. 
Then the king pointed to Sattvasila, and said to her : "I 
came here to worship the image of the goddess of which this 
man told me. I have reached her marvellous temple, guided 
to it by the banner, and have seen the goddess, and, after 
that, you ; what other hospitality do I require ? " When the 
maiden heard that, she said : " Then come, out of curiosity, 
to see my second city, which is the wonder of the three 
worlds." When she said this, the king laughed and said : 
" Oh ! he told me of this also, the place where there is a tank 
to bathe in." Then the maiden said : " King, do not speak 
thus; I am not of a deceitful disposition, and who would 
think of cheating one so worthy of respect ? I have been 
made the slave of you both by your surpassing excellence ; 
so you ought not thus to reject my offer." 

When the king heard this, he consented, and taking Sattva- 
sila with him, he accompanied the maiden to that glittering 
enclosure. And the door of it was opened, and she conducted 
him in, and then he beheld that other splendid city of hers. 
The trees in it were ever producing flowers and fruits, for all 
seasons were present there at the same time ^ ; and the city 
was all composed of gold and jewels like the peak of Mount 
Meru. And the Daitya maiden made the king sit down on a 
priceless jewelled throne, and offered him the arghya in due 
form, and said to him : " I am the daughter of Kalanemi, 
the high-souled king of the Asuras, but my father was sent 
to heaven by Vishnu, the discus-armed god. And these two 
cities, which I inherit from my father, are the work of 
Visvakarman; they furnish all that heart can wish, and 
old age and death never invade them. But now I look upon 
you as a father, and I, with my cities, am at your disposal." 
When she had in these words placed herself and all that she 

1 Cf. Spenser's Faerie Queene, Book III, canto 6, stanza 42 : 

" There is continual spring, and harvest there 
Continual, both meeting at one tyme." 

Cf. also Odyssey, vii, 117 ; and Milton, Paradise Lost, iv, 148. 



possessed at the king's disposal, he said to her : " If this be 
so, then I give you, excellent daughter, to another to the hero 
Sattva^ila, who is my friend and relation." When the king, 
who seemed to be the favour of the goddess Durga in bodily 
form, said this, the maiden, who understood excellence when 
she saw it, acquiesced submissively. 

When Sattvai^ila had attained the wish of his heart by 
marrying that Asura maiden, and had had the sovereignty 
of those cities bestowed on him, the king said to him : 
" Now I have repaid you for one of those dmalakas which I 
ate, but I am still indebted to you for the second, for which 
I have never recompensed you." When the king had said 
this to Sattvai^ila, who bowed before him, he said to that 
Daitya maiden : " Now show me the way to my own 
city." Then the Daitya maiden gave him a sword named 
"Invincible," and a fruit to eat, which was a remedy against 
old age and death, and with these he plunged into the tank 
which she pointed out, and the next thing that happened to 
him was that he rose up in his own land with all his wishes 
gratified. And Sattvasila ruled as king over the cities of 
the Daitya princess. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

" Now tell me : which of those two showed most courage 
in plunging into the water ? " When the Vetala put this 
question to the king, the latter, fearing to be cursed, thus 
answered him : "I consider Sattvasila the braver man of the 
two, for he plunged into the sea without knowing the real 
state of the case and without any hope ; but the king knew 
what the circumstances were when he plunged in, and had 
something to look forward to, and he did not fall in love with 
the Asura princess, because he thought no longing would win 
her." When the Vetala received this answer from the king, 
who thereby broke silence, he left his shoulder, as before, and 
fled to his place on the simsapd tree. And the king, as before, 
followed him quickly to bring him back again ; for the wise 
never flag in an enterprise which they have begun until it is 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena returned to the simsapd 
tree and again caught the Vetala, and put him on 
his shoulder, and set out with him. And as he was 
going along, the Vetala again said to him from his shoulder : 
" King, in order that you may forget your toil, listen to this 
question of mine. 

163g (8). The Three Fastidious Men ^ 

There is a great tract of land assigned to Brahmans in the 
country of Anga, called Vrikshaghata. In it there lived a 
rich sacrificing Brahman named Vishnusvamin. And he 
had a wife equal to himself in birth. And by her he had three 
sons born to him, who were distinguished for preternatural 
acuteness. In course of time they grew up to be young men. 
One day, when he had begun a sacrifice, he sent those three 
brothers to the sea to fetch a turtle. So off they went, and 
when they had found a turtle, the eldest said to his two 
brothers : " Let one of you take the turtle for our father's 
sacrifice; I cannot take it, as it is all slippery with slime." 
When the eldest brother said this, the two younger ones 
answered him : "If you hesitate about taking it, why should 
not we ? " When the eldest heard that, he said : " You two 
must take the turtle ; if you do not, you will have obstructed 
our father's sacrifice, and then you and he will certainly sink 
down to hell." When he told the younger ones this they 
laughed, and said to him : "If you see our duty so clearly, 
why do you not see that your own is the same ? " Then the 
eldest said : " What ! do you not know how fastidious I am ? 
I am very fastidious about eating, and I cannot be expected 
to touch what is repulsive." The middle brother, when he 

1 See Appendix, pp. 285-291.. n.m.p. 


heard this speech of his, said to his brother : " Then I am a 
more fastidious person than you, for I am a most fastidious 
connoisseur of the fair sex." When the middle one said this, 
the eldest went on to say : " Then let the younger of you 
two take the turtle ! " Then the youngest brother frowned, 
and in his turn said to the two elder : " You fools ! I am 
very fastidious about beds, so I am the most fastidious of 
the lot." 

So the three brothers fell to quarrelling with one another, 
and being completely under the domination of conceit, they 
left that turtle and went off immediately to the court of the 
king of that country, whose name was Prasenajit, and who 
lived in a city named Vitankapura, in order to have the dis- 
pute decided. There they had themselves announced by 
the warder, and went in, and gave the king a circumstantial 
account of their case. The king said : " Wait here, and I 
will put you all in turn to the proof " ; so they agreed and 
remained there. 

And at the time that the king took his meal, he had 
them conducted to a seat of honour and given delicious 
food fit for a king, possessing all the six flavours. ^ And 
while all were feasting around him, the Brahman who was 
fastidious about eating, alone of all the company, did not 
eat, but sat there with his face puckered up with disgust. 
The king himself asked the Brahman why he did not eat 
his food, though it was sweet and fragrant, and he slowly 
answered him : "I perceive in this cooked rice an evil smell 
of the reek from corpses, so I cannot bring myself to eat it, 
however delicious it may be." 

When he said this before the assembled multitude, they 
all smelled it by the king's orders, and said : " This food is 
prepared from white rice, and is good and fragrant." But 
the Brahman who was so fastidious about eating would not 
touch it, but stopped his nose. Then the king reflected, 
and proceeded to inquire into the matter, and found out 
from his officers ^ that the food had been made from rice 

1 See Vol. V, p. 114.n2. n.m.p. 

2 Niyogajanitas is a misprint for niyogijanatas, as is evident from the 
Sanskrit College MS. 


which had been grown in a field near the burning-^Aa^ of 
a certain village. Then the king was much astonished and, 
being pleased, he said to him : "In truth you are very 
particular as to what you eat, so eat of some other dish." 

And after they had finished their dinner, the king dis- 
missed the Brahmans to their apartments and sent for the 
loveliest lady of his court. And in the evening he sent that 
fair one, all whose limbs were of faultless beauty, splendidly 
adorned, to the second Brahman, who was so squeamish 
about the fair sex. And that matchless kindler of Kama's 
flame, with a face like the full moon of midnight, went, 
escorted by the king's servants, to the chamber of the Brah- 
man. But when she entered, lighting up the chamber with 
her brightness, that gentleman who was so fastidious about 
the fair sex felt quite faint, and stopping his nose with his 
left hand, said to the king's servants : " Take her away : if 
you do not, I am a dead man ; a smell comes from her like 
that of a goat." 

When the king's servants heard this, they took the be- 
wildered fair one to their sovereign, and told him what had 
taken place. And the king immediately had the squeamish 
gentleman sent for, and said to him : " How can this lovely 
woman, who has perfumed herself with sandalwood, camphor, 
black aloes, and other splendid scents, so that she diffuses 
exquisite fragTance through the whole world, smell like a 
goat ? " But though the king used this argument with the 
squeamish gentleman, he stuck to his point. And then the 
king began to have his doubts on the subject, and at last, 
by artfully framed questions, he elicited from the lady her- 
self that, having been separated in her childhood from her 
mother and nurse, she had been brought up on goat's milk. 

Then the king was much astonished, and praised highly 
the discernment of the man who was fastidious about the 
fair sex, and immediately had given to the third Brahman 
who was fastidious about beds, in accordance with his taste, a 
bed composed of seven mattresses placed upon a bedstead. 
White smooth sheets and coverlets were laid upon the bed, 
and the fastidious man slept on it in a splendid room. But 
before half a watch of the night had passed he rose up from 



that bed, with his hand pressed to his side, screaming in an 
agony of pain. And the king's officers, who were there, saw 
a red crooked mark on his side, as if a hair had been pressed 
deep into it. And they went and told the king, and the 
king said to them : " Look and see if there is not some- 
thing under the mattresses." So they went and examined 
the bottom of the mattresses one by one, and they found 
a hair in the middle of the bedstead underneath them all. 
And they took it and showed it to the king ; and they also 
brought the man who was fastidious about beds, and when 
the king saw the state of his body ^ he was astonished. And 
he spent the whole night in wondering how a hair could 
have made so deep an impression on his skin through seven 

And the next morning the king gave three hundred 
thousand gold pieces to those three fastidious men, because 
they were persons of wonderful discernment and refinement. 
And they remained in great comfort in the king's court, for- 
getting all about the turtle ; and little did they reck of the 
fact that they had incurred sin by obstructing their father's 
sacrifice. 2 

1636. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, seated on the shoulder of the king, had 
told him this wonderful tale, he again asked him a question 
in the following words : " King, remember the curse I pre- 
viously denounced, and tell me which was the most fastidious 
of these three, who were respectively fastidious about eating, 
the fair sex, and beds ? " When the wise king heard this, he 
gave the Vetala the following answer : " I consider the man 
who was fastidious about beds, in whose case imposition was 
out of the question, the most fastidious of the three, for the 
mark produced by the hair was seen conspicuously manifest 

^ Read dnkam instead of ahgam. The king was astonished on beholding 
that mark. n.m.p. 

2 The B. text here is corrupt owing to the improper expression 
yajndrtham helopdrjita-pdtakdh. The reading in the D. text would give us 
the meaning : " . . . though they had incurred sin by obstructing the success 
of their father's sacrifice." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 135. n.m.p. 


on his body, whereas the other two may have previously 
acquired their information from someone else." When the 
king said this, the Vetala left his shoulder, as before, and 
the king again went in quest of him, as before, without being 
at all depressed. 




Introductory Remarks 

The Vetdlapanchavimsati, or Twenty-five (tales) of a Vetala, 
is a very old collection of Hindu tales which is as well known 
in India as the Panchatantra, and, like it, has made an im- 
portant contribution to the popular stories of the world. It 
exists not only in the great Kashmir works of Somadeva ^ 
and Kshemendra,^ but is found as an independent collection 
in two distinct recensions. The most important of these is 
that attributed to Sivadasa, who gives us a mixture of prose 
and poetry. This appears to be the original form, although, 
as we have only the different versions of later date to go by, 
we cannot make any definite statement on this point.^ It 
has been edited, together with an anonymous recension, by 
Heinrich Uhle.^ The other recension is that of Jambhala- 
datta, edited by Pandit Jibananda Vidyasagara, Calcutta, 
1873. It contains no verse, and more closely resembles the 
older Kashmirian versions.^ 

But the great popularity of the Vetala stories is due to 
the fact that they have been translated into so many Indian 

The first translation from the Sanskrit was into Braj- 
bhasha (the standard dialect of Western Hindi spoken around 
Mathura and Agra) early in the eighteenth century. It was 

1 About half of Somadeva's version was translated separately into German 
by F. von der Leyen, Indische Mdrchen, Halle, 1898. See also his Introduction 
dealing with the collection in general. 

2 Brihat-kathd-manjari, ix, 2, 19-1221. See S. Levi, Journal Asiatique, 
8th ser., vol. vii, 1886, pp. 190-216, and cf. Speyer, oj). cit., pp. 37, 38. 

3 See M. Winternitz, Geschichte der indischen Litteratur, vol. iii, p. 331. 

* " Die Vetalapancaviri9atika in den Recensionen des Qivadasa und eines 
Ungenannten," Ahhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. viii, 1884, 
pp. XXX + 1-236. The anonymous version is merely an abbreviated translation 
of Kshemendra. For references to V. Bettei's Italian translation of Sivadasa 
see Winternitz, op. cit., p. 331 n'^. 

5 For further details see Winternitz as cited above. 
VOL. VI. 225 p 


made by Surati Misar, during the reign of Muhammad Shah, 
under orders from Jai Singh Sawai, Raja of Jaipur ^ (1699- 
1743). The Baital Pachisi, as it was now called, was next 
translated from Braj-bhasha into " High Hindi " by Lallu 
Lai in 1805. He can be regarded as the actual creator of 
this language, which is really a modern literary development 
of the dialect of Western Hindi spoken from Delhi to the 

There were also several other translations made e,g, 
those by Sambhu Nath and Bhola Nath. For details of 
these see Grierson, The Modern Vernacular Literature of 
Hindustan, Calcutta, 1855, pp. 97, 166, 167. 

The English version of Kali Krishna, published at Cal- 
cutta in 1834, was derived from the Hindi version of Lallu, 
as was also the better-known edition by W. B. Barker and 
E. B. Eastwick, Hertford, 1855. On this latter was based 
the German translation by Oesterley, Leipzig, 1873, so 
often quoted by Tawney in his edition of the present work. 
Mention should also be made of the French translation by 
Lancereau, Journal Asiatique, 4th ser., vol. xviii, 1851, 
pp. 5-36, 366-410, vol. xix, 1852, pp. 333-365; and of the 
Swedish by Hilding Andersson.^ 

There are also translations in Bengali, Kanarese, Telugu, 
Gujarati, Tamil, Marathi, and other vernaculars. Of these 
the best known in England are the last two. The Tamil 
version was translated into English by B. G. Babington.^ 
Its different form of " frame-story " will be discussed later. 

The Marathi version was translated by Sadasiv Chhatre 
in 1830. An English rendering by C. A. Kincaid * appeared 
as recently as 1921. In a short preface Kincaid speaks of 
Burton's translation into English of the Hindi version. He 
says that after comparing it with the Marathi he found that 
they either differed very widely or else Burton had expanded 

1 He is described as one of the most learned scientific men that India 
has ever produced. See Tod's Rajasthdn, vol. ii, pp. 356-368, or vol. iii, 
pp. 1341-1356 in the new edition edited by Crooke, 1920. 

2 Likspokets Tjugufem Berdttelser , Goteborgs Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Fitter- 
hetssamhdlles Handlingarj 4 foljden, iii, Gothenburg, 1901. 

3 The Vedala Cadai, being the Tamul Version of a Collection of Ancient Tales 
in the Sanscrit Language, 90 pp. Although sometimes bound up separately, it 
forms the fourth paper in volume otig^ oi Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental 
Languages, London, 1831. Printed for the Oriental Translation Fund. 

* Tales of King Vikrama, Oxford University Press, 1921. 


his work until little resemblance between the two remained. 
There have been many references to this work of Burton, 
but no one appears to have said what it really is and if it 
should be considered as a true translation of the Hindi 
version. Even Macdonell {Sanskrit Literature, p. 375) dis- 
tinctly gives the impression that Vikram and the Vampire 
is the standard English version of these tales, whereas really 
this is far from the truth. As I have stated more fully else- 
where,^ Burton's work was not a translation, but an adapta- 
tion, and a very free adaptation too. In his Introduction he 
says : " It is not pretended that the words of these Hindu 
tales are preserved to the letter. ... I have ventured to 
remedy the conciseness of their language, and to clothe the 
skeleton with flesh and blood." This is putting it very 
mildly. What Burton has really done is to use a portion 
of the Vetala tales as a peg on which to hang elaborate 
"improvements" entirely of his own invention. Anyone as 
steeped in his works as I am myself could not possibly read 
a page of Vikrama and the Vampire without knowing who 
had written it. The height of his inventive powers is reached 
in his " Eleventh Story which Puzzles Raja Vikram " (p. 290 
t seq,). It is supposed to be a prognostication of the coming 
of the British into India ! 

Further details of the other vernacular translations will 
be found in Oesterley.^ 

There still remains the necessity for an edition of the 
Vetdlapanchavirhsati in its different recensions, arranged for 
comparative purposes, in the same manner as the Vikrama- 
charita has been edited by Edgerton (see later, p. 228). There 
would then be some chance of studying the texts with a view 
to ascertaining the original form of the work. From the 
data we have at present it would seem that the work must 
be considered as composed of ancient Hindu tales, in which 
more attention has been paid to the magical than to the 
religious element. Some of them have doubtless been altered 
in the course of time, and we can pick out those which show 
a Buddhistic influence and those which are purely Saivic or at 

1 Annotated Bihliography of Sir R. F. Burton, p. 80 et seq. It was first 
issued in Frazers Magazine, vols. Ixxvii, Ixxviii^ 1868. It then appeared in 
'book form : Vikram and the Vampire, or Tales of Hindu Devilry, London, 1870. 
Reprinted in the "Memorial Edition" of 1893. 

2 Bibliothek Orientalischer Mdrchen und Erzdhlungen in deutscker Bearbeitung 7, 
Baitdl Pachlsl, Leipzig, 1873. 


any rate Brahmanic in character. Then again, there is the 
Jain element to be considered, especially as our information 
about Vikrama himself is confined to ancient Jain tradi- 
tions. Attention will be drawn to any religious tendency 
displayed in the tales when they are dealt with separately in 
this Appendix (Nos. 1-8) and in that to be given in Vol. VII 
(No. 9 to the end). 

There still remains an interesting point to discuss the 
identity of the hero of the Vetdlapanchavirhsati. His name 
appears in slightly different forms, and Somadeva, un- 
doubtedly following the Kashmirian version of the Brihat- 
kathd, calls him " Trivikramasena, the son of Vikramasena." 
I In all cases, however, the king referred to is the semi-legendary 
Vikrama or Vikramaditya of Jain tradition. Whether such 
a king actually existed is unknown, and scholars are by no 
means agreed in their opinions one way or the other. 

In order, however, that we may be in a position to ap- 
preciate the difficulties of making any definite statement it 
is necessary to glance at the Jain traditions and see exactly 
what is known about Vikrama. Apart from the work under 
discussion, Vikrama is the hero of several other collections 
of tales, the most important of which is that known as 
Vikrama-charita (Vikrama' s Adventures) or Sinhdsanadvd- 
trinsikd {Thirty-Two Tales of the Throne). This work, which 
in all probability dates from a time not earlier than the thir- 
teenth century, has recently been edited in four different 
recensions of the Sanskrit original, and published together 
with an English translation by Franklin Edgerton.^ Now 
in the Jain recension we find,^ as is only to be expected, an 
account of Vikrama's conversion to Jainism by Siddhasena 
Divakara. This account has been inserted as a section of 
the frame-story, and ends with the following words : " Thus 
reflecting in his heart, the noble King Vikrama paid the debts 
of the whole earth by an enormous largess, sufficient to fulfil 
to the extent of their desires the petitions of multitudes of 
beggars ; and (in so doing) he introduced a turning point [i.e. 
a change] in the era of Vardhamana [Mahavira, the founder 

1 Vikrama's Adventures , or The Thirty -Two Tales of the Throne, Harvard 
Oriental Series, vols, xxvi, xxvii, Cambridge, Mass., 1926. The method of 
presentation of the text and translation for comparative purposes as adopted 
by Edgerton is ideal, and sets a standard in scholarly research that will be 
hard to rival. 

2 Edgerton, vol. i, p. 251 et seq. 



of Jainism]." Like other passages peculiar to the Jain 
recension, the above was obviously a subsequent insertion, 
emanating from the same Jainistic book of legends which 
Merutunga used later for his Vikrama chapter in the Pra- 
handhacintdmani} Thus we see that, according to Jain 
tradition, Vikrama's act of generosity caused the commence- 
ment of a new era. Other sources of Jain tradition cor- 
roborate this statement and place the change in the year 470 
after Mahavira's nirvana.^ 

Now the well-known Vikrama era begins with 58 or 57 B.C., 
and as Mahavira lived about the end of the sixth or the be- 
ginning of the fifth century B.C., the two statements agree. 
Thus the possibility of the Vikrama era being founded to 
commemorate the deeds of the king Vikrama of Jain tradition 
cannot be doubted. This does not, however, say that the 
collections of stories about a king bearing the same name also 
refer to the Jainistic Vikrama. Confused and contradictory 
statements about Vikrama, in fact about many Vikramas, soon 
made scholars sceptical, especially when it was discovered 
that the name was used by several kings merely as a title. 
Then different theories were put forward as to which king 
was really meant by " Vikrama." First the Vikramaditya 
who defeated the Huns in a.d. 544 was proposed, but records 
dated earlier in the era have been found, and so disproved the 
theory. Then Kanishka, the Kushan king, was suggested, 
and for a time received fairly wide support among scholars. 
But Sir John Marshall proved ^ by archaeological evidence 
that Kanishka could not have been living in 58 B.C. He 
further proposed that the new era really was founded by 
Azes I, the Saka king of Gandhara. The evidence for this 
is very slender, however, as it entirely depends on the inter- 
pretation of the word ayasa in the Takshasila inscription. If 
the word does mean " of Azes " the evidence is strong, as the 
dates are in agreement with the existing traditions; but if, 
as considered much more probable by Bhandarkar, Konow 
and Edgerton, it merely corresponds to the Sanskrit ddyasya, 
" of the first " (month Asadha), the whole theory falls to the 
ground. But apart from this, neither the exact date of Azes nor 

^ See Tawney's translation, p. 2 et seq. For evidence that the Jainistic 
recension of the Vikrama- charita is not Merutunga's original see Edgerton, 
vol. i, p. XXX vii et seq. 

2 Edgerton, vol. i, p. lixw^. 

3 Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 1914., p. 973 et seq. ; 1915, p. 191 et seq. 


that of the inscription is known with certainty. If the theory 
advanced by Kielhorn, that the era was known in early days 
by the name of Malava and not Vikrama, be accepted, there is 
still no reason to discard the Jain tradition. As Vikrama was 
king of Malava, and as at first the era was used only locally, 
why should it not have been known as the Malava era ? 

We may, then, at once admit that no evidence exists 
to prove that a real king Vikrama did not exist. The point 
is, however, that if he did exist, why are not traditions and 
inscriptions forthcoming? Might not the simplest answer 
be the correct one namely, that a famous king who used 
the title " Vikrama " is responsible for the popular legends 
being connected with the name? The fact that there was 
also a Vikrama era would merely add to the fame of the hero. 
The most famous king who bore the title of Vikrama was 
undoubtedly Chandragupta II of the Gupta dynasty ^the 
golden age of Indian history. His principal conquests were 
effected between a.d. 388 and 401, and included the crush- 
ing of the Saka (Scythian) power in Malwa, Gujarat and 

Now another Jain tradition ^ tells of events which happened 
just prior to the foundation of the Vikrama era in 58 or 57 B.C. 
The Jain saint Kalaka was insulted by King Gardabhilla of 
Ujjayini, and by way of revenge overthrew the dynasty with 
the aid of some Saka satraps. A few years later Vikrama, the 
son of Gardabhilla, overcame the invaders and re-established 
the dynasty. It was at this point that the new Vikrama 
era was introduced. So runs the legend. Professor Rapson 
{Cambridge History of India, vol. i, p. 532) considers that its 
historical setting is not inconsistent with what is known of the 
political circumstances of Ujjayini of this period. As it was 
Chandragupta II who is historically known as the conqueror 
of the Sakas, it is not surprising that he took the additional 
title of Vikramaditya (" Sun of power ") in later life. The 
glories of his reign and conquests would remain, but events 
connected with the original Vikrama would become confused 
with those of the Gupta monarch. Legends would soon 
accumulate round this " Vikrama," who was really a purely 
fictitious character created from ancient Jain traditions of 
the original Vikrama on the one hand, and from historical 
memories of Chandragupta II on the other hand. 

^ " The Kalakacharyakathanaka," H. Jacobi, Zeit. d. morg. Ges., vol. xxxiv, 
p. 247 et seq. 


We return to Somadeva. He places the hero of the 
Vetala tales in Pratishthana on the banks of the Godavari. 
The author of the Vikrama-charita, however, makes him king 
of Ujjayini. Now tradition connects him with both these 
places, so the mention of different localities need not surprise 
us. Vikrama is represented as coming from Pratishthana to 
Ujjayini, and so was probably connected with the Andhras 
(or Telugus), who under Satakarni had pushed northwards 
from their capital, Pratishthana, and wrested Ujjayini from 
Pushyamitra, the first Sunga king. 

Having now briefly stated what we know about the hero 
of the Vetdlapanchavimsati, we can proceed to the frame- 
story, which occurs in various forms. 


Here we are told of the ruse by which the mendicant 
secures the king's help in the carrying out of certain tantric 
conjurations. With the sacrifice of the king's life he hopes 
to obtain the sovereignty of the Vidyadharas. The dauntless 
Trivikramasena consents to assist the mendicant, and is asked 
to fetch a dead body from a tree. He finds it possessed by 
a Vetala, and the twenty-five tales (really twenty-four) are 
told by the demon during the same number of attempts on 
the part of the king to secure the body for the mendicant's 
nefarious purposes. 

This is a very brief summary of the story we have already 
read on pp. 165-168. It occurs twice in the Vikrama-charita, 
first very briefiy in the frame-story,^ and more fully in the 
tale of the thirty-first statuette. ^ As the collection of tales 
became popular, it was translated into many languages, with 
the result that in some cases an Introduction got tacked on 
to the frame-story. In other cases the collection was used 
for religious purposes and an entirely different frame-story 
was substituted. We shall mention some of these alternative 
versions in detail. 

The Tamil version begins with a conversation between 
Indra and Narada, in which we are informed (very much as 
in the commencement of the Ocean) how Siva was once asked 
by Parvati to tell her a collection of stories. He at once did 

^ See Edgerton, vol. i, p. 14 et seq. ^ lUd.^ p. 236 et seq. 


so, but a Brahman overheard the stories and repeated them 
to his wife. Thus they became common property. Siva, 
through his omniscience, learned what had occurred and 
cursed the Brahman to become a Vetala. When asked by 
the unhappy man when his curse might end, Siva repUed : 
" By whomsoever the questions contained in these tales shall 
be answered, by the same shall thy curse be removed." The 
Brahman instantly assumed the form of a Vetala, and was 
transported into the midst of a wilderness, where he remained 
suspended, head downwards, on a Muruca tree.^ Then follows 
the frame-story proper, which closely resembles that in our 
own text. The differences are interesting, though not im- 
portant. The mendicant brings pomegranates. One day the 
king's son offers one to a crab, and as the animal is eating it 
a shower of priceless jewels falls out. All the pomegranates 
are accordingly brought and split open, only to reveal more 
jewels. The rest follows as in Somadeva. 

In the well-known Hindi version, and also in the Marathi, 
there is an Introduction to the frame-story, but in this case 
it is elaborate, and for several reasons is well worth repro- 
ducing in full. I choose the translation by Barker ^ : 

There was a city named Dharanagar, the king of which 
was Gandharbsen, who had four queens, and by them six 
sons, each of whom was more learned and powerful than the 
other. It happened that, after some days, this king died, 
and his eldest son, who was named Shank, became king in 
his stead. Again, after some days, Bikram, his younger 
brother, having killed his elder brother (Shank), himself 
became king, and began to govern well. Day by day his 
dominion so increased that he became king of all India ; 
and having established his government firmly, he instituted 
an era. After some days the king thought to himself : " I 
ought to visit those countries whose names I am hearing." 

Having resolved upon this in his mind, he committed the 
government to the charge of his younger brother Bharthari, 
became a devotee (Yogi), and began to travel from country 
to country and from forest to forest. A certain Brahman 
practised austere devotion in that city. One day a god 
brought and gave him the fruit of immortality. Having 
brought this home, he said to his wife : " Whosoever shall 
eat this shall become immortal ; the deity told me this at 

1 B. G. Babington, Vedala Cadai, p. 18. 

2 The Baital PackM, or Twenty-Jive Tales of a Demon, Hertford, 1855. 


the time he gave me the fruit." The Brahman's wife, having 
heard, wept, and began to say : "It has fallen to us to suffer 
for a great crime, since if we become immortal, for how long 
shall we ask alms ! But death would be preferable to this. 
If we were to die, we should escape the pains of this world." 
The Brahman replied, saying : '' I have accepted the fruit, and 
brought it here, but having heard your speech, my intellect 
has wasted away ; now will I do whatever thou mayst point 
out." Then the Brahman's wife said to him : " Give the fruit 
to the king, and receive instead thereof wealth, by means of 
which you may promote your present and future welfare." 

Having heard these words, the Brahman went to the 
king and gave him his blessing. After having made an 
explanation of the circumstances connected with the fruit, 
he said : " O great king ! be pleased to accept this fruit, and 
be pleased to bestow some wealth upon me. I shall be happy 
in your living long." Then the king gave the Brahman a 
lakh of rupees and, having dismissed him, retired into the 
harem, and having given this fruit to his best-beloved queen, 
said : " O queen ! eat this, that you may be immortal, and 
may always remain young." The queen, having heard this 
speech, took the fruit, and the king went into his court. 
The queen had for her lover a kotwal : to him she gave the 
fruit. It happened that the kotwal had a friend who was 
a courtesan ; he gave her the fruit, explaining to her its 
good qualities. The courtesan reflected : " This fruit is a 
fit present for the king." Having thus mentally resolved, 
and having gone to the king, she presented the fruit. He be- 
stowed on her great wealth, and dismissed her ; and, looking 
at the fruit, he became dissatisfied with the world, and began 
to say : " The wealth of this world is a delusion. The 
affection of this world is of no use, since in consequence of 
it at last we fall into hell. Hence it is better to practise 
devotion, and keep Bhagwan in remembrance, that it may 
be good for us in a future state." 

Having thus determined, he went into the harem and 
asked the queen : " What didst thou with the fruit ? " She 
said : " I ate it." Then the king showed the fruit to her. 
She, looking at it, stood aghast, and could not make any 
answer. The king went out and, having had the fruit washed, 
ate it ; and, having quitted the throne, became a Yogi, and 
without communicating with anyone departed into the forest. 
The government of Bikram remained empty. 


When this news reached King Indr, he sent a demon as 
guardian over Dharanagar, who kept guard day and night 
over the city. At length the rumour of this state of things 
was spread abroad, that King Bharthari, having abdicated 
his throne, had gone away (into the forest). When King 
Bikram also heard this news, he immediately returned to his 
own land. It was midnight, and at the time he was entering 
the city the demon called out : " Who art thou ? and where 
art thou going ? Stand and give thy name ! " 

Then the king said : "I am King Bikram, and am come 
to my own city. Who art thou who stoppest me ? " The 
demon answered : " The gods have sent me to guard this 
city ; if you really are King Bikram, first fight with me, 
and then enter the city." The king, immediately on hearing 
this, tightened his girdle, and challenged the demon, who 
came opposite to him, and the combat began. At length 
the king threw down the demon and sat on his breast. The 
demon cried out : " O King ! thou hast overthrown me, but 
I grant thee thy life." The king, smiling, said : " Surely 
thou art mad : to whom dost thou grant life ? If I desire 
I can kill thee ; how, then, dost thou grant me my life ? " 
The demon replied : " O King ! I will save thee from death ; 
but first listen to one speech, and then govern the whole 
earth without anxiety." The king then quitted his hold, 
and began to listen with all his heart to his discourse. 

The demon said to him : " There was in this city a very 
generous king, named Chandr-bhan. It happened that he one 
day went out into the jungle and saw what ? a devotee sus- 
pended head-downwards from a tree, who continued inhaling 
smoke. He received nothing from anyone, nor did he speak 
to anyone. The king, having seen his condition, came home, 
and having sat down in his court, said : ' If anyone will bring 
this devotee, he shall receive a lakh of rupees.' A certain 
courtesan who heard this speech approached the king, and 
represented, saying : ' If I receive the great king's command, 
I will, after bearing a child by this devotee, bring it riding 
on his shoulders.' The king, on hearing this speech, was 
astonished, and gave betel-nut to the courtesan (in token 
that he held her to her promise) ; and permitted her to de- 
part. She went into the forest, and, arriving at the devotee's 
dwelling, saw what ? that, in fact, the devotee was hang- 
ing head-downwards. He ate nothing, drank nothing, and 
was shrivelled up. At length the courtesan, having prepared 


a confection, put it into the mouth of the devotee ; when he 
tasted it sweet, it was pleasant to his palate (and he licked it 
in). Then she made more and gave him. In this manner 
for two days she made him taste the confection, and he, by 
eating it, acquired strength. Then having opened his eyes, 
he came down from the tree and asked her : ' Why hast thou 
come here ? ' The courtesan said : ' I am the daughter of a 
deity, and have practised religious observances in the heavenly 
regions. I have now come into this forest.' That devotee 
said : ' Show me where thy hut is.' The courtesan, having 
brought the devotee to her hut, caused to be prepared the 
six kinds of food. Then the devotee gave up inhaling smoke, 
and began to eat and drink every day. At length Kamdev 
(the Hindu Cupid) began to worry him, and he had connec- 
tion with the courtesan, and lost (the reward of) his penance. 
The courtesan became pregnant. The full time being accom- 
plished, a boy was born. Some months passed : then the 
woman said to the devotee : ' O holy saint ! be pleased to 
perform a pilgrimage to some holy place, that all the sins of 
your body may be taken away.' By such speeches as these 
having cajoled him, she put the boy on his shoulder and came 
to the court of the king, whence she had set out (having 
taken up betel in token of), undertaking to perform this very 
thing. At the time she arrived in the king's view he recog- 
nised her at a distance, and saw the child mounted on the 
devotee's shoulder. He began to say to the people of the 
court : ' Behold ! this is the very courtesan who went forth 
to bring the devotee.' They said : ' O great king ! thou 
speakest truly : this is the very same woman ; and be pleased 
to observe that whatever things she, having petitioned (to 
be allowed to undertake), went forth (to do), all these have 
come to pass.' 

" The Yogi, having heard the speeches of the king and of 
his courtiers, thought to himself : ' The king has done this for 
the sake of taking away (the fruits of) my penance.' Thus 
thinking, he turned back thence and departed from the city, 
killed the boy, and began to practise devotion in the jungle. 
After some days the death of that king happened, and the 
Yogi accomplished his penance. 

" In short, the history of the matter is, that you three 
men were born in the same city, in the same lunar mansion, 
in the same division of the great circle described upon the 
ecliptic, and in the same period of time (equal to two gharls. 



or forty-eight minutes). You were born in the house of a 
king ; the second was born in the house of an oilman ; the 
third, the Yogi, in the house of a potter. You have dominion 
here. The oilman's son was ruler of the infernal regions. 
The potter, having performed his penance well, and having 
killed the oilman, has turned him into a spectre (evil spirit) 
in a cemetery, and kept him suspended head-downwards in 
a siris tree (mimosa sirissa), and is plotting your destruction. 
If you should escape, you will have royal power. I have 
given you information of this matter do not be negligent 

Having thus spoken, the demon departed, and the king 
entered his harem. In the morning the king, having come 
forth, sat down, and gave command for a general Darbar 
(or court). As many domestics small and great as there 
were all came into his presence and presented gifts, and 
rejoicings began to take place. The whole town was extra- 
ordinarily joyful and happy; in every place and in every 
house dancing and singing was going on. After this the 
king began to administer the government justly. 

It is said that one day a devotee, Shant-shll (calm- 
disposition) by name, came to the king's court bringing a 
fruit in his hand, which fruit he gave into the king's hand, 
and having spread his prayer-carpet in that place, sat down. 
Presently, after about a quarter of an hour, he (got up and) 
went away. When he had gone, the king reflected in his 
mind : " This is perhaps the very man of whom the demon 
spoke." Suspecting this, he did not eat the fruit, but call- 
ing his house-steward he gave it to him (telling him), to keep 
it in a very careful manner. The devotee, however, con- 
tinued to come in the same manner, and every day gave him 
a fruit. It happened that one day the king went forth for 
the purpose of looking at his stable, and some of his asso- 
ciates were with him. At this time the devotee also arrived 
there, and in the usual manner gave into the king's hand a 
fruit, which he began to toss up, till once it fell from his hand 
on to the ground, and a monkey, having picked it up, tore it 
in pieces. A ruby of such a quality came forth, that the king 
and his companions, beholding its brilliancy, were astonished. 

Then the king said to the devotee : " Why hast thou given 
this ruby to me ? " The devotee replied : " O great king ! 
it is written in the Shastr that one should not go empty- 
handed to the following places: to a king, a spiritual pre- 


ceptor, an astrologer, a physician, or to a young girl ; since 
gifts to these are always conjoined with rewards to oneself. 
O King ! why dost thou speak of one ruby only, since in each 
of the fruits I have given thee there is a jewel." Having 
heard this speech, the king said to the steward of his house- 
hold : " Bring all the fruits which I have given thee." The 
steward, on receiving the king's command, immediately 
brought them, and, having split them, there was found in each 
one of those fruits a ruby. The king, when he beheld so 
many rubies, was excessively pleased, and having sent for a 
jeweller (lapidary) began to examine the rubies, and said to 
him : " We cannot take anything with us out of this world. 
Virtue is a noble quality (to possess) here below, so tell justly 
what is the value of each of these gems." 

Having heard this speech, the jeweller said : " O great 
king ! thou hast spoken truly ; whoever possesses virtue 
possesses everything virtue indeed accompanies us always, 
and is of advantage in both worlds. Hear, O great king ! 
Each gem, in colour, quality and beauty, is perfect. If I were 
to say that the value of each was ten million crores (karor) of 
rupees, even then you are not able (to imagine its true value). 
In fact, each ruby is worth one (of the seven) regions (into 
which the world is divided)." The king, on hearing this, was 
delighted, and having bestowed a robe of honour on the 
jeweller, permitted him to depart ; and taking the devotee 
by the hand, set him on a throne and began to say : " My 
entire kingdom is not of the value of one of these rubies. 
Tell me the reason why you, who are naked, have given me 
so many jewels." 

The Yogi said : " O King ! the speaking of such matters 
(as the following) in public (lit. 'manifestly') is not right; 
these matters incantations, spells, medicinal drugs, good 
qualities, household affairs, the eating of forbidden food, 
scandal we may have heard of our neighbour should not be 
spoken of in full assembly. In private I will speak of them. 
This is the usual way. When an affair comes to six ears {i,e. 
three persons) it does not remain secret ; if a matter (is 
confided) to four ears, no one hears of it ; and if to two ears, 
even Brahma does not know it : how then can any rumour 
of it come to man ? " 

Having heard this speech, the king, having taken the 
Yogi aside, began to ask him, saying : '' O holy saint ! you 
have given me so many rubies, and even for a single day have 


not eaten food. I am exceedingly ashamed : tell me what you 
desire." The Yogi said : " O King ! I will perform various 
spells, incantations and magical rites on the bank of the 
River Godavari, in a large cemetery, by means of which the 
eight Siddhis will come into my possession. This thing I 
ask as an alms, that you will remain one whole day with me. 
By your remaining near me, my incantations will be success- 
ful." The king replied : " Good ! I will come : tell me on 
what day." The devotee said : "On the evening of a Tues- 
day, the fourteenth of the dark half of the month Bhadon 
(August), armed and alone, you are to come to me." The 
king said : " Do you go away, I will certainly come alone." 
In this manner, having received a promise from the king, 
and having taken leave, the devotee went into the temple, and 
having made preparations, and taken all the necessary things, 
went into the cemetery and sat down. The king, on the 
other hand, began to reflect. At this moment the time 
arrived (for his starting). Then the king, having girded on 
his sword, and fastened on his langot, arrived alone at night 
at the Yogi's, and saluted him. 

The Yogi said : " Come, sit down." Then the king, hav- 
ing sat down there, sees ^what ? ^that on all sides demons, 
ghosts and witches of various kinds, having assumed fright- 
ful shapes, are dancing, and the Yogi, seated in the midst, is 
playing on two skulls. The king, having seen these things, 
was not frightened nor alarmed, and asked the Yogi : 
" What commands are there for me ? " The Yogi replied : 
" O King ! since you have come, just execute one piece of 
business. About two kos in a southerly direction hence there 
is a place where dead bodies are burned : in that place there 
is a siris tree on which a corpse is hanging ; bring it to me 

Having sent the king thither, he himself sat down and 
began to say his prayers. First, the darkness of the night 
was frightful. Secondly, there began to be such continued 
showers of rain that one might have said that it would never 
rain again after that day ; and unclean goblins were making 
such a tumult and noise that even a brave man would have 
faltered : yet the king kept on his way. Snakes kept cling- 
ing round his legs, but these, by reciting a spell, he caused 
to loosen hold. At length, somehow or other having passed 
over a very difficult road, the king arrived in that place where 
dead bodies were burned. Then he saw that goblins, having 


seized hold of men, were killing them ; witches were chew- 
ing the livers of boys ; tigers were roaring, and elephants 

In short, when he looked at that tree, he saw that, from 
the root to the top, every branch and every leaf was burn- 
ing furiously, and on every side a clamour continued to be 
raised (and voices crying) : " Kill him ! kill him ! Take him ! 
take him ! Take care that he does not get away ! " The 
king, having beheld this state of things, was not afraid, but 
was reflecting in his mind : " This may be that very Yogi 
of whom the demon spoke to me." Having gone near, he 
beheld a corpse hanging head-downwards, tied by a rope. 

Having seen the corpse, the king was pleased, saying : 
" My trouble has been productive of fruit." Having taken 
his sword and shield, he fearlessly climbed that tree, and 
struck such a blow with his sword that the cord was cut and 
the corpse fell down ; and immediately on falling, gnashing 
its teeth, it began to weep. The king, having heard the 
sound (of his lamentation), was pleased, and began to say to 
himself : " This man must be alive." Then, descending 
from the tree, he asked : " Who art thou ? " The corpse, on 
hearing (this question), burst out laughing. The king was 
greatly astonished at this circumstance. Then the corpse 
having (again) climbed the tree, became suspended. The 
king also, immediately, having climbed the tree, took the 
corpse under his arm and brought it down, saying : " O 
wretch ! tell me who thou art." The corpse gave no answer. 
The king, having reflected in his mind, said : " This is, per- 
haps, the very oilman whom the demon said the Yogi kept 
confined in a cemetery." Thus thinking, he tied the corpse 
up in a cloth and took it to the Yogi. Whatever man such 
resolution shall show will certainly be successful. Then the 
Baital said : " Who art thou ? and where art thou taking 
me ? " The king answered : "I am King Bikram, and I am 
taking thee to a Yogi." The Baital said : "I will go on one 
condition viz. that if you speak on the road, I shall return." 
The king agreed to his condition, and took him on. Then the 
Baital said : " O King ! when people are learned, clever and 
wise, then they spend their days in the delight of songs and 
of the Shastras. But the time of simpletons and fools is 
spent in ease and sleep. On this account, it is better that 
this journey be spent in discourse of profitable things. O 
King ! listen to the tale I am going to relate. 


There are several points worth mentioning in the above. 
The circulation of the fruit of immortality occurs in the other 
great cycle of Vikrama stories, the Vikrama-charita,^ The 
order of the recipients is the same in all recensions, but slight 
differences occur in the denouement. Thus in the Southern 
Recension the list is : Brahman, king, queen, groom, slave- 
girl, cowherd, and girl carrying cow-dung. There is no men- 
tion of the apple being given back to the king. In the Brief 
Recension the " cowherd " becomes a " doorkeeper," who 
gives the apple to " another woman " and she to " another 
man," and in the Jain Recension the " slave-girl " is described 
as a " harlot." The denouement is found in two forms. In 
both the Jain and Brief Recensions the " harlot " or " another 
man " gives the fruit back to the king as in the Baitdl Pachisl, 
but in the other recensions he sees it himself quite by chance 
on the top of the basket of cow-dung which the girl is carrying 
on her head. 

The story appears also in the " Histoire des Rois de 
I'Hindoustan apres les Pandavas, traduite du texte hindou- 
stani de Mir Cher-i Ali Afsos." ^ Here it is a " precieux fruit 
d'amn/," and the recipients are : king, queen, groom, harlot, 
and back to the king. 

It is interesting to compare the rather similar story told 
of Eudocia Augusta, the wife of Theodosius II. Through the 
jealousy of her sister-in-law, Pulcheria, on her return from 
Antioch she was accused of an intrigue with her protege 
Paulinus. Eudocia was apparently given an apple by her 
husband, which she passed on to Paulinus, and he in his 
turn gave it back to the Emperor. Paulinus was beheaded 
in A.D. 440, and Eudocia retired to Jerusalem, where she died 
about 460. 

A large number of references and subsequent variants will 
be found in Oesterley, Bihlioiheh Orientalischer Mdrchen und 
Erzdhlungen /, Baitdl PacMst, 

Mention might also be made of " The Tale of the Three 
Apples " in the Nights (Burton, vol. i, pp. 186-194). In this 
tale a sick woman expresses a desire for an apple. The 
dutiful husband, after enormous trouble and expense, secures 
three from the garden of the Commander of the Faithful at 

1 See Edgerton's edition, vol. i, pp. Ixvii, Ixviii, and 5-14. 

2 L'Abbe Bertrand, Journal Asiatique, ser. iv, torn, iii, 1844, pp. 245- 
246. See also Garcin de Tassy, Histoire de la litterature Hindoni et Hindoustaniy 
vol. 11, p. 273. 


Bassorah. By this time the longing has departed, as the 
malady has increased. The husband meets a black slave 
with one of the apples in his hand. On being questioned he 
boasts that he got it from his mistress, whose fool of a husband 
had obtained three from Bassorah. In her weakness the 
woman pleads ignorance of what has happened to the apple, 
and is killed by the angry husband. Later it transpires that 
his eldest son had taken the apple and the slave had snatched 
it from the boy, at the same time ascertaining its history. 
Ja'far, the famous wazir of Harun al-Rashid, is commanded 
to find the slave, or be hanged in his stead. In despair he 
presses his favourite daughter to his breast in a final embrace. 
In doing so he feels something round in the bosom of her 
dress. It is the apple ! The slave, who turns out to be 
Ja'far's own slave, had given it to the girl for two dinars of 
gold. (See further Chauvin, op, ciL, pp. 141, 142.) 

Then there is the incident of the "Horrors on the Way" 
encountered while reaching the Vetala. While only casually 
referred to in Somadeva, they are described in much more 
detail in the Hindi version. We shall shortly see, however, 
that in the Tibetan and Mongolian variants obstacles are 
continually met with and have to be overcome by following 
strictly the instructions of " the Master." 

As to the number of stories enclosed by the frame there 
are really only twenty-four, the killing of the mendicant by 
Trivikramasena being counted in Somadeva's version as the 
twenty-fifth. This discrepancy was noticed by compilers of 
subsequent versions, and a clumsy attempt has been made 
to rectify the omission. Thus in the Hindi we find the 
twenty-fourth story has become the twenty-fifth, and the 
twenty-second has been repeated with very little difference 
as the new twenty-fourth. The numbering of several of 
the other stories varies considerably in the different versions, 
but is really of little importance. The same applies to the 
^' Conclusion," which will be dealt with more fully in the 
Appendix to Vol. VII. 

So far we have examined only variants in which altera- 
tions or additions have been made to the frame-story, while 
the tales themselves remained practically the same. Such, 
however, was far from the case when the collection made its 
way northwards to Tibet and later to Mongolia. Here we 
find that not only is the frame-story entirely altered, but 
fresh tales have taken the place of the original ones. At 



present but little is known about the Tibetan version, except 
what has been recently published by Francke under the title 
of " Die Geschichten des toten l^o-rub-can." ^ The MS. 
unfortunately contains only the frame-story and three tales 
of No-rub-can, which name corresponds to the Kalmuck 
" Siddhi-Kiir " (a dead body furnished with magic power). 
The one tale translated by Francke corresponds to No. 2 in 
Jiilg's Kalmuck collection, to which reference will be made 

The point to notice here is that the frame-story of both 
the Tibetan and the Kalmuck is the same, except for a few 
minor differences, which will be duly enumerated after we 
have given the Kalmuck version in full. 

As mentioned above, the Mongolian (Kalmuck) version is 
known by the name of Siddhi-Kiir, and has been referred 
to several times in the Ocean already. It was rendered into 
German by B. Jiilg, and published in two portions. ^ Appar- 
ently Jiilg's translation was not available to Tawney, and he 
had to content himself with Miss Busk's Sagas from the Far 
East^ which purports to be an English rendering of Jiilg. A 
comparison with the German will at once show what liberties 
Miss Busk has taken with the text and how much is entirely 
her own invention. In giving the Kalmuck frame-story I 
have, therefore, avoided Miss Busk, and have followed the 
recent translation of Coxwell, Siberian and Other Folk-tales, 
pp. 175-179, merely giving a more literal translation in the 
few passages where he is rather too free. 

In a central kingdom of India there lived seven brothers, 
who were magicians. At a distance of a mile from them 
dwelt two brothers, who were sons of a khan. The elder of 
these set out to learn the art of sorcery from the magicians, 
but, although he received instruction during seven years, the 
magicians did not teach him the secret of magic. Once, 
when the younger brother had gone with a stock of food to 
his elder brother, he glanced through the chink of a door and 
discovered the secret of the magic art ; then, forsaking the 

1 Zeit. d. d. morg. Gesell, vol. Ixxiv, Leipzig, 1920, pp. 72-96. 

2 Kalmi'tckische M'drchenj Leipzig, I860 (Introduction and first thirteen 
tales), and Mongolische Mdrchen, Innsbruck, 1868 (the last nine tales and 



provisions, the two brothers hastened to their royal dweUing. 
The younger brother said to the elder : " The magicians will 
perhaps become aware that we know the art of magic. Now, 
there is a good horse in our stable : bridle him, but do not go 
in the direction of the seven magicians ; lead him elsewhere, 
sell him, and bring back the money." Having spoken thus, 
almost the next moment the younger brother turned himself 
into a horse. 

The elder brother did not follow the younger brother's 
directions. He said to himself : " Although I have been in- 
structed during seven years in the art of magic, I have acquired 
no knowledge of it : my young brother has now got hold of a 
fine horse ; why should I not ride him ? " With these ideas 
in his head, he mounted. But scarcely had he reached the 
saddle when it happened that, as a result of enchantment, 
he failed to direct his steed, and found himself at the home of 
the magicians. He wished to depart, but could not, and the 
notion occurred to him that he might sell the horse to the 
magicians. He said to them : " My brother has found this 
magnificent horse. Will you look at him ? " The magicians 
understood that the horse was enchanted, and thought : "If 
everyone learns the magic art in this way, we must perish, 
in spite of our reputation, for we shall excite no more aston- 
ishment. Let us take the horse and kill him ! " With this 
intention they purchased the horse, paid the large sum which 
was demanded, and took possession. Next they tethered 
the magic horse in a dark stable. When the time arrived 
to take the horse's life they led him forth by the bridle, 
and, in order that their plan should succeed, one of the 
brothers held him fast by the head, one by the mane, one by 
the tail, one by the front feet, and one by the rump. As he went 
along the horse thought: "Ah, my brother should not have 
come here. I have fallen into the hands of the magicians, 
but I will effect a transformation and appear as some other 

Scarcely had this idea occurred to the horse when, look- 
ing into the water, he saw a fish swimming towards him; 
he changed himself into this fish. The seven magicians 
became seven seagulls, and were on the point of overtaking 
the fish, when the latter looked up and saw a pigeon flying 
towards him. He transformed himself into this pigeon. The 
magicians now became hawks, and pursued the pigeon over 
hill and stream ; but when they were on the point of catching 


him he fled to a shining mountain in the southerly land of 
Beed and descended into the interior of a stony grotto, called 
the " Giver of Consolation " ; lastly he settled down into the 
lap of one tarrying there, the Master Nagarjuna. The seven 
hawks immediately placed themselves before the entrance of 
the grotto and took the shape of seven men clothed in cotton. 
The Master reflected thus : " Why have seven hawks pur- 
sued this pigeon?" After pondering, he said: "Tell me, 
pigeon, why do you exhibit such fear and distress ? " Here- 
upon the pigeon related in detail all that had occurred, and 
proceeded to say : "At this moment seven men clad in 
cotton stand before the entrance of this grotto. They will 
come before you, Master, and ask for the rosary which you 
have in your hand. At that moment I will change myself 
into the chief bead of the rosary : if then you. Master, shall 
part with the rosary, condescend to take the chief bead into 
your mouth before scattering the rosary." 

So spoke the pigeon, and, in accordance with its predic- 
tion, seven men appeared in cotton garments and asked for 
the Master's rosary. The Master took the chief bead into his 
mouth and scattered the other beads before him ; immedi- 
ately they were transformed into worms. The seven men 
clad in cotton changed into hens and gobbled up these worms. 
Then the Master, without delay, let the chief bead of the 
chaplet fall out of his mouth ; forthwith a man, holding in 
his hand a stick, rose from the ground. As soon as this man 
had killed the seven hens they became seven dead human 
bodies. Then the Master grew sad at heart, and said : " While 
I have preserved but a single life, I have helped to take the 
lives of these seven men ; that is terrible ! " 

At this remark the man said : "I am the son of a khan. 
As the Master, in order to save my life, has condemned others 
to death, I will, in order to blot out this sin and render thanks 
to the Master, obey joyfully all your orders and faithfully 
carry them out." The Master replied : " Then know that 
Siddhi-Kiir (the body with supernatural might) is to be found 
in the cool grove in the place for bodies (Sltavana) ; he is of 
gold from the waist upwards and of emerald downwards ; he 
has a head of mother-of-pearl surrounded by a fillet : in such 
a way is he constituted. Fetch him, as a penance ! If you 
can perform the task, you will enable me to acquire much 
gold, for through him the people of Jambudvipa could live 
a thousand years and attain the most wonderful perfection." 


The khan's son gave a promise to carry out the undertak- 
ing, and said further : " Deign to inform me concerning the 
way I should take and the manner in which I am to proceed : 
please tell me what provisions and other things I shall need ; 
I will obey your injunctions." 

The Master answered : " When you have gone about a 
mile from here you will reach a mountain stream, and come 
upon a number of large dead bodies at a dark, wooded and 
terrible pass. When you arrive at the spot, the bodies, with- 
out exception, will rise up and approach you. Call out to 
them : ' All you great bodies, hala, hala, svaha ! ' and, at 
the same time, scatter among them these consecrated barley 
grains. Repeat magical words. Farther on, at a river, are 
lying numerous small dead bodies. Calling out, ' All you small 
bodies, hulu, hulu, svaha ! ' you must make them a similar 
offering. Still farther on exist a number of dead persons in 
the form of children. Give them also an offering while you 
cry : ' You dead, in the form of children, rira phad ! ' Siddhi- 
Kur will rise from their midst, leave them, and, clambering 
upon a mango-tree, there seat himself. If you grasp this axe, 
which is called ' White Moon,' and show a threatening counten- 
ance at the foot of the tree, he will come down. Put him in 
this coloured sack, in which there is room for a hundred, lace 
it up with this hundred-threaded bright cord, partake of 
this inexhaustible butter-cake, lift the dead man upon your 
back, walk off without uttering a single word, and return 
here ! Your name is Khan's son ; but, as you have reached 
the Consolation-giving grotto, you shall in future be called 
' the khan who has taken the fortunate path.' " - 

Bestowing this name, the Master indicated the way and 
sent the young man on his mission. After the khan's son 
had fortunately overcome the terrors of the road, as described 
by the Master, and reached the very spot, Siddhi-Kiir ap- 
peared and clambered up the mango-tree ; the khan at once 
pursued him. He stepped to the foot of the tree and cried 
out loudly : " My master is Nagarjuna Garbha, and my axe 
is called ' White Moon.' My traveller's provisions consist 
of inexhaustible butter- cake. My case is a sack of many 
colours in which there is room for a hundred. My cord is 
bright and of a hundred threads. I myself am ' the khan 
who has taken the fortunate path.' Dead man, descend, 
or I will hew down the tree ! " 

Siddhi-Kiir replied : " Do not fell the tree ! I will come 


down." Then he came down, and the khan's son put him in 
the sack, fastened the latter securely with the cord, tasted 
his butter-cake, took his load upon his back, and began a 
journey lasting many days. At last Siddhi-Kiir said : " The 
day is long and tedious for both of us ; relate a story, or 
I will relate one." But the khan's son walked on without 
speaking. Then Siddhi-Kiir began anew, thus : "If you 
are willing to relate, nod your head ; but if, on the contrary, 
you wish me to relate, toss your head backwards ! " Without 
saying a word the khan's son conveyed the proper sign that 
he was ready to listen. Then Siddhi-Kiir began the following 

It will be seen that the above story consists of the well- 
known motif of the magician and his pupil, followed by the 
second part of the Sanskrit frame-story presented in Bud- 
dhist dress. The use of the former is curious and must, I 
think, be accounted for simply by the fact that it appeared 
to the Buddhists more suitable than the original one. 
Benfey, Pantschatantra, vol. i, p. 411 et seq,, looked upon this 
tale as a proof of the way in which Indian tales travelled 
westwards, but Cosquin ^ has clearly shown that Mongolia 
has played a small part, if any, in such a transmigration. 

We shall now briefly enumerate the differences found in 
the Tibetan version as translated into German by Francke. 

The seven magician brothers live in a great country, whose 
king has two sons. When their parents die they are left 
penniless. Both decide to call on the magicians, and the 
elder remains to learn the magic art. He is taught how to 
turn earth into stones and vice versa, to imitate the voices of 
the partridge, goat and sheep, but nothing else. The course 
lasts six weeks, not seven years. The younger one returns 
to see how his brother has got on, and, looking through the 
window, learns all their secrets. Later he meets his elder 
brother coming down from the hills with the goats. They 
return home, and the younger one turns himself into a horse. 
Subsequently the horse is sold to the magicians for two 
hundred rupees, and they offer another fifty rupees for the 
bridle, which he had been particularly told not to sell. This, 
however, he does, but discovers later that the money has 
turned into stone. The magicians keep the horse without 

^ ''Les Mongols et leur pretendu role dans la transmission des Contes 
Indians vers I'occident Europeen," Etudes Folklorique, 1922, pp. 497-612. 


food for seven days. Then follows the transformation com- 
bat as in the Kalmuck, except that instead of seagulls it is 
otters. The mendicant lives in a hermitage, not a stony grotto. 
The rosary is of pearls and the magicians become birds. After 
their death the mendicant describes the way to the land of 
dry corpses, where he must fetch No-rub-can. On the way 
he will meet many dry corpses which will offer to accompany 
him, but he is to take only the one who does not offer. The 
axe, sack and cord are then given the hero, together with 
a magic pot and fork for obtaining anything he may want. 
The conclusion is the same as in the Kalmuck. 

A curious feature common both to the Tibetan and 
Kalmuck versions is that at the end of each tale the Vetala 
does not ask questions, and the hero merely makes some 
exclamation of surprise at the events in the story. 

Having now briefly examined the various forms of the 
frame-story we can proceed to a consideration of the tales 

The Prince who was helped to a Wife by his Father^ s Minister 

{Vetala 1 pp. 168-177) 

This story is a combination of two distinct tales, or 
rather it consists of a well-known motif prefixed to a tale 
which in other collections has stood alone and really has no 
need of the motif to introduce it. It will be best to consider 
these two separately. 

1. The " Language of Signs " Motif 

This has always been a most useful motif in the hands of 
the story-teller, and is used chiefly to bring together lovers 
who would not otherwise have the chance of meeting. It is, 
of course, impossible to say at what period the motif became 
connected with the "Supposed Witch" story, but it was 
certainly unconnected in the fifth or sixth century in Dandin's 
Dasd'kumdra-charita (see infra). This fact, however, proves 
nothing, for Dandin might well have taken his story from an 
early version of the Vetdlapanchavirhsati now unknown to us. 

Once the two did become connected they remained so, and 
Somadeva, finding them thus in the Vetala section of the 


Kashmirian recension of the Brihat-kathd, followed his usual 
rule, and left them as he found them. The " language of 
signs " is already familiar to us. In Vol. I, p. 78 et seq., we 
read the story of Pushpadanta (No. 3), in which Devadatta 
falls in love with a princess whom he sees at a window. She 
conveys a message to him by signs, which he fails to under- 
stand, until later they are interpreted for him by his preceptor. 
When questioned by the princess, Devadatta owns that it was 
not he who had guessed the meaning of the signs ; where- 
upon she leaves him in disgust. At this point Siva takes 
a hand in affairs, and, by disguising himself as a woman, 
Devadatta attains the object of his desires. By a further trick 
the king is led to give his daughter to Devadatta in marriage. 

This is a typical example of the way in which the 
" language of signs " motif is used in Hindu fiction. 

It will be seen that in the story under discussion the 
sequence of events is quite similar, except that the princess 
is prepared to let nothing stand in the way of herself and 
the object of her affections. Hence the introduction of the 
attempt at poisoning the minister's son. As I have already 
shown (Vol. I, pp. 80n}-82n), the "language of signs" is a 
favourite motif in the East. It occurs in a story in Arji-Borji 
Khan, the Mongolian version of the Sinhdsanadvdtrinsikd, 
or Thirty-Two Tales of a Lion-Seat {i.e. throne). It was trans- 
lated into German by Jiilg {Mongolische Mdrchensammlung, 
Innsbruck, 1868, p. 240 et seq.), and into English by Busk 
(Sagas from the Far East, pp. 315-323) and Coxwell {Siberian 
Tales, pp. 227-231). 

In the story in question Naran Gerel (" sunshine "), the 
strictly guarded princess, espies the minister Ssaran on a 
balcony. On seeing him Naran holds one of her fingers 
upwards and circles it with her other hand, then she clasps 
her hands together and separates them. Next she lays two 
fingers together and points with them towards the palace. 
The minister becomes alarmed, and tells his wife he has 
been threatened by the princess. On hearing details his wife 
says : 

" She has not threatened you at all. The signs which 
you describe have this significance : the lifting up of one 
finger tells you that near her house there rises a tree ; when 
she made a circle with her hand round the finger she meant 
to convey to you the idea of a wall ; when she clasped and 
unclasped her hands she implied: 'Come into the flower 


garden ' ; the laying of the two fingers together said : ' I 
would receive a visit from you.' " 

It would be superfluous to give further examples here. 
We might note in passing that the story-teller naturally wants 
to give the meaning of the signs, and the simplest way of 
doing this is for the hero not to understand them, thus neces- 
sitating the full explanation from a third party. If he did 
interpret them, it would be necessary for someone to ask 
how he managed to guess the meaning. We have already 
had an example of this in the very first story of our collection 
(Vol. I, pp. 45-46), where Vararuchi answers the five-finger 
sign by showing two fingers. Sakatala immediately asks for 
an explanation. (See Chauvin, op. cit, viii, p. 126.) 

I have come across one instance where the sign-language 
was satisfactorily answered, although misunderstood. This 
occurs in a sub- story to the " Lady's Ninth Story " of The 
Forty Vezirs (E. J. W. Gibb, p. 116 et seq,). 

A monk is trying to avoid the paying of tribute for him- 
self and his people by asking the king a sign-question which 
he cannot answer. 

The monk first opened the five fingers of his hand and held 
the palm opposite the folk, then he let the five fingers droop 
downward, and said : " What means that ? Know ye ? " And 
all the doctors were silent and began to ponder; and they 
reflected, saying : " What riddles can these riddles be ? There 
is no such thing in the Commentaries or the Traditions." 
Now there was there a learned wanderer, and forthwith he 
came forward and asked leave of the king that he might 
answer. The king gladly gave leave. Then that wanderer 
came forward and said to the monk : " What is thy question ? 
What need for the doctors ? Poor I can answer." Then the 
monk came forward and opened his hand and held it so before 
the dervish ; straightway the dervish closed his fist and held 
it opposite the monk. Then the monk let his five fingers 
droop downward ; the dervish opened his fist and held his 
five fingers upward. When the monk saw these signs of the 
dervish, he said, " That is the answer," and gave up the 
money he had brought. But the king knew not what these 
riddles meant, and he took the dervish apart and asked him. 
The dervish replied : " When he opened his fingers and held 
his hand so to me it meant, ' Now I strike thee so on the face ' ; 
so I showed him my fist, which meant, ' I strike thy throat 


with my fist ' ; he turned and let his fingers droop downward, 
which meant, ' Thou dost so, then I strike lower and seize 
thy throat with my hand ' ; and my raising my fingers up- 
ward meant, ' If thou seekest to seize my throat, I too shall 
grasp thy throat from underneath ' ; so we fought with one 
another by signs." Then the king called the monk and said : 
" Thou madest signs with the dervish, but what meant those 
signs ? " The monk replied : "I held my five fingers opposite 
him ; that meant : ' The five times ye do worship, is it right ? ' 
The dervish presented his fist, which meant : 'It is right.' 
Then I held my fingers downward, which meant : ' Why does 
the rain come down from heaven ? ' The dervish held his 
fingers upward, which meant : ' The rain falls down from 
heaven that the grass may spring up from the earth.' Now 
such are the answers to those questions in our books." Then 
he returned to his own country. And the king knew that the 
dervish had not understood the monk's riddles. But the king 
was well pleased for that he had done what was suitable, and 
he bestowed on the dervish a portion of the money which the 
monk had left. 

It will thus be seen that in some cases the sign has to be 
answered by another sign, while in others there is only one 
which is a call for immediate action. 

The story in our present text has passed in its entirety, 
via the Baitdl PacMsl, to the repertoire of the ayah, and in 
the middle of the nineteenth century was told by a very old 
ayah to Miss Stokes' mother. It forms the twenty-seventh 
story of her collection (Indian Fairy Tales ^ 1880, pp. 208-215) 
and is called " Panwpatti Rani." Although told some eight 
hundred years after Somadeva, it has undergone but com- 
paratively few alterations. 

The Ram puts a rose to her teeth, sticks it behind her ear, 
and then lays it at her feet. The prince's friend, the son of 
the Raja's kotwal (chief police officer in the town), interprets 
this as follows : 

" When she put the rose to her teeth, she meant to tell 
you her father's name was Raja Dant [Raja Tooth] ; when 
she put it behind her ear she meant you to know her country's 
name was Karnatak [on the ear] ; and when she laid the 
rose at her feet, she meant that her name was Panwpatti 
[Foot-leaf]. ..." 


The second part of this story will be detailed when we 
consider the final trick of Buddhisarira, to which we now 

2. The Trick of the Supposed Witch 

As already mentioned, this second part of our story has 
really no need of the " language of signs " motif as a prefix. 
It contains quite sufficient incident to stand alone, and must 
surely have done so in its original form. Apart from its occur- 
rence in the Vetdlapanchavimsati, it appears in Dandin's Dasa- 
kumdra-charita as an independent story. It is an interesting 
version, although it differs only in detail from that in the 

The first English translation was made by Wilson, Oriental 
Quarterly Magazine, vol. vii, Calcutta, 1827, pp. 291-293. 
It was reprinted in his Works, vol. iv, and Essays, vol. ii, 
pp. 256-260. The translation was, however, very free besides 
being incomplete. I therefore use the recent German ren- 
dering by Hertel, Die zehn Prinzen, Leipzig, 1922, Indische 
Erzdhler, Band ii, pp. 118-125. The translation is a literal 


In the country of Surasena there is a town called Mathura. 
In it there lived a young man of distinguished family who 
found more pleasure in social life and courtesans than he 
ought to ; and as he merely by the strength of his arm had 
fought many a fight for his friends, the rowdies had given 
him the nickname of " Fighting-thorn," ^ under which he was 
generally known. 

One day " Fighting- thorn " saw a picture in the hands of 
a foreign painter, which represented a young woman ; and 
looking at the picture was enough to set his heart on fire. He 
said to the painter : 

" This lady, dear master, whom you have painted here, 
seems to combine the most obvious contrasts. For her body 
is of a beauty that is hardly seen in ladies of good family, and 
yet her modest bearing clearly indicates her noble origin. 
The colour of her face is pale, the charm of her body has not 
suffered from excessive caresses, and what a depth of longing 

1 He is the " thorn " which the rowdies find in fighting when they pick 
a quarrel with his friends. 


for love her eyes have ! And yet her husband cannot be far 
from her, because neither a plait of her hair nor anything 
else points to that. Besides, she wears a pearl on her right 
side.^ And yet I think you have painted her with extra- 
ordinary skill and quite life-like. She obviously is the wife 
of an old merchant, who no longer possesses much manly 
vitality, so that she suffers from lack of embracing, which 
rightly was due to her." 

The painter praised his appreciation of art and said : 

" You have hit it ! The lady is Nitambavati,^ and rightly 
she bears this name. She lives in Ujjayim, the capital of 
Avanti, and is married to the caravan- owner Anantakirti. 
Her beauty filled me with amazing admiration, so I have 
painted her as you see her here." 

" Fighting-thorn " was no longer master of his senses. 
He must see Nitambavati himself, and therefore he set out at 
once for Ujjayini. Passing himself off as an astrologer, ^ he 
entered her house under the pretence of asking for food, and 
caught a glimpse of her. 

Her appearance intensified his longing for her still more. 
He went to the elders of the town, asked for the post of 
watcher over the place where the corpses were burned, and 
obtained it. The shroud and other things with which the 
mourners rewarded him for his services he gave to a nun 
Arhantika,* and induced her to go to Nitambavati and by her 
words secretly ingratiate her in his favour. But Nitamavati 
dismissed the procuress with indignation. 

From the nun's report he understood that his beloved 
behaved in a way proper for a lady of good family, and that 
it was impossible to seduce her. Therefore he secretly gave 
the procuress the following instructions : 

" Once more go and see the merchant's wife ; and when 
you get her alone, say to her : ' How could you seriously be- 
lieve that a woman like me can really mean to tempt ladies 
of good families to unchastity ! Just because I have realised 
the wickedness of worldly life, I have dedicated myself to 
mortification, and all I strive for is redemption. I only 

^ Wives whose husbands are away wear a plain plait of hair hanging down 
their backs and put on no jewellery. 

^ KaAXiTTvyos. 

3 He would also have disguised himself as a Saiva ascetic, as the sequel 

* The name indicates a Jaina nun. 


wanted to test you, and see if even you, with your great 
wealth, your supernatural charm, and your extreme youth, 
have been infected with levity, to which other women so 
quickly succumb. I rejoice now that you are so totally un- 
corrupted, and from my heart I wish you the happiness of 
motherhood. Unfortunately your husband is in the clutches 
of a demon, so that he is seized with jaundice and is weakened 
and unable to embrace you. If you do not succeed in oppos- 
ing the hindering influence of this demon, you must abandon 
every hope of obtaining a child by your husband. Do me, 
therefore, the favour and come out to your garden quite alone. 
I will bring there a man versed in magic. On his hand you 
must place your foot ; nobody will see it ! He will pronounce 
a charm over it. Then you must pretend to be angry with 
your husband and kick him on his chest with your foot; 
thereby he will be able to beget perfect, healthy and vigorous 
descendants, and he will do you homage as he would to a 
goddess. There is nothing indelicate in the matter.' 

" If you speak to her in that way, she will certainly come. 
You lead me into the garden first, after nightfall, and then 
bring her out there too. This is the only service that I beg 
of you." 

The nun declared herself ready to do this service. Then 
he was beside himself with joy, and the following night he 
went into the garden. The nun succeeded, but not without 
trouble, in persuading Nitambavati to go. And when this 
was done, " Fighting-thorn " took the lady's foot in his hand, 
and while he pretended to stroke it gently, quickly deprived her 
of a golden anklet, wounded her slightly with a knife on the 
upper part of the thigh, and then made his escape. 

Nitambavati was frightened to death. She reproached 
herself for her improper behaviour, and felt she wanted to 
kill the nun. Then she washed the wound in a pond adjoin- 
ing the house, dressed it, and removed the corresponding ring 
from the ankle of her other foot, and stayed in bed for three 
or four days, on the plea of indisposition, without allowing 
anybody to visit her. 

But the rascal took the stolen anklet, went to Anantakirti, 
and offered to sell him the piece of jewellery. Hardly had he 
seen it than he said to " Fighting-thorn " : 

" This anklet is the property of my wife. How has it come 
into your possession ? " 

The more "Fighting-thorn" hesitated to answer the 


more the merchant plied him with questions. At last he 
said : 

" I shall render you an account of it, but only before the 
assembled body of merchants." 

This was his final word. Now the merchant went to his 
wife, and requested her to send him her two anklets. 

Beside herself with anxiety and shame she sent him the 
only anklet she had, with the message : 

" I lost one anklet, the clasp of which was very loose, last 
night in the garden, where I had gone out to get some fresh 
air. In spite of all my searching, I have not been able to find 
it yet. Here is the other." 

When the merchant heard that, he ordered " Fighting- 
thorn " to precede him, and went with him before the 
assembled guild of merchants. ^ The rogue was examined, 
assumed a very submissive air, and made his statement : 

" You gentlemen are aware that I have been entrusted 
with guarding the ' grove of ancestors,' ^ that I live there and 
get my livelihood from the post entrusted to me. Even at 
night when I sleep I remain on the burning-ground ; for I 
must take into consideration the fact that my mere appear- 
ance frightens niggardly people, and that they therefore try 
to burn their dead at night. ^ 

" So recently I saw in the night a black female figure 
approaching a funeral pyre and forcibly trying to drag out of 
it a half -burnt corpse.* Greed made me conquer my fear of 
the witch. I interfered and laid hold of her. It so happened 
that by accident I scratched her slightly with my knife on 
the upper part of her thigh ^ ; I managed, however, to pull 
this bangle from her ankle. Then she ran off as fast as she 

" In this way I got hold of the anklet. The verdict, 
gentlemen, is in your hands." 

^ The court of the Vaisya caste, which consists of merchants. 

2 The place where the dead are burned. 

^ These words contain a pun. Among superstitious people the burning- 
ground is believed to be the place where all ghosts live, and nobody dares 
to visit these grounds at night. " Fighting-thorn" means that the meanness 
in some people may be so great that they fear the corpse-guards more than 
the ghosts, because they owe him his fees, and that they therefore burn their 
dead at night so as to cheat him of them. 

* See Hertel, Indische Marchen, Jena, 1921, Pref., p. 8. 

^ The witch is imagined to be naked. 


The assembly of merchants deliberated together, and the 
result of the council was the unanimous decision of the guild 
of citizens ^ that Nitambavati was a witch. 

Her husband repudiated her. So the following night she 
went weeping to the same " grove of ancestors " to hang 
herself there. 

The rogue, however, detained her and managed to soothe 

" My beautiful child," he said, " your charm drove me 
mad, so that I tried to win you for myself. All my sugges- 
tions which should have led to it, and which I sent you through 
the mouth of the nun, failed to attain the object of my desire. 
Then I had recourse to this means which would lead to the 
happiness of owning you all my life. Now grant me your 
affection. Behold, I am your slave, and the happiness of my 
whole life lies in your hands ! " 

In this way he tried to persuade her ; he repeatedly fell at 
her feet, and proved himself inexhaustible in finding means 
to propitiate her, and as there was nothing else for her but 
to gratify him,^ she became his. 

Therefore I say : "By artifice the most difficult things are 

The story travelled westwards and found its way into the 
Arabic version of the Book of Sindibdd, known as the Seven 
Vazlrs. It was subsequently included in the Nights, where 
it appears with little alteration in the various texts. The 
Arabic version was first made known to us by J. Scott, who 
translated it as the " Story of the Painter " in Tales, Anec- 
dotes and Letters, translated from the Arabic and Persian, 
Shrewsbury, 1800, pp. 108-115. (Reprinted with slight 
alterations by Clouston, Book of Sindibdd, pp. 166-170.) The 
hero of the story, however, is usually a goldsmith, and, follow- 
ing the Macnaghten text. Burton (vol. vi, p. 156 et seq.) 
calls it " The Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-girl." 

^ This is identical with the assembly of merchants, which is the most 
important caste. The so-called 'Hown-merchant " had an official position 
corresponding to that of our mayors. The Sudra, or fourth caste, had no 
rights and was not taken into consideration. The nobility i.e. the Bramans 
and the Kshatriyas (warriors) are above the citizens. 

- As a witch she was naturally excluded from all human community in 
her native town ; and in a foreign place, without a man's protection, she might 
at the best have lived as a prostitute 


The title is important because of the mention of Kashmir. 
In some texts, including that used by Scott, the locality has 
been altered to Isfahan. See further Chauvin, op, cit, viii, 
p. 47, under " Mahmoud (La sorci^re)." As translated by 
Burton the Arabic version is as follows : 

There lived once, in a city of Persia, a goldsmith who 
delighted in women and in drinking wine. One day, being 
in the house of one of his intimates, he saw painted on the 
wall the figure of a lutanist, a beautiful damsel; beholder 
never beheld a fairer or a more pleasant. He looked at the 
picture again and again, marvelling at its beauty, and fell so 
desperately in love with it that he sickened for passion and 
came near to die. It chanced that one of his friends came to 
visit him, and sitting down by his side, asked how he did and 
what ailed him; whereto the goldsmith answered: "O my 
brother, that which ails me is love, and it befell on this wise. 
I saw the figure of a woman painted on the house-wall of my 
brother such an one, and became enamoured of it." Here- 
upon the other fell to blaming him, and said : " This was of 
thy lack of wit : how couldst thou fall in love with a painted 
figure on a wall, that can neither harm nor profit, that seeth 
not, neither heareth, that neither taketh nor withholdeth ? " 
Said the sick man : " He who painted yonder picture never 
could have limned it save after the likeness of some beautiful 
woman." "Haply," rejoined his friend, "he painted it 
from imagination." " In any case," replied the goldsmith, 
" here am I dying for love of the picture, and if there live 
the original thereof in the world, I pray Allah Most High to 
protect my life till I see her." 

When those who were present went out, they asked for 
the painter of the picture and, finding that he had travelled 
to another town, wrote him a letter complaining of their 
comrade's case, and inquiring whether he had drawn the 
figure of his own inventive talents or copied it from a living 
model. To which he replied : "I have painted it after a 
certain singing-girl belonging to one of the wazirs in the 
city of Cashmere in the land of Hind." 

When the goldsmith heard this, he left Persia for Cashmere 
city, where he arrived after much travail. He tarried awhile 
there till one day he went and clapped up an acquaintance 
with a certain of the citizens who was a druggist, a fellow of 
sharp wit, keen, crafty ; and, being one eventide in company 


with him, asked him of their king and his poHty. To which the 
other answered, saying : " Well, our king is just and righteous 
in his governance, equitable to his lieges and beneficent to his 
commons, and abhorreth nothing in the world save sorcerers ; 
but whenever a sorcerer or sorceress falls into his hands, he 
casteth them into a pit without the city and there leaveth 
them in hunger to die." Then he questioned him of the 
king's wazirs, and the druggist told him of each minister, 
his fashion and condition, till the talk came round to the 
singing-girl, and he told him : " She belongeth to such a 
wazir." The goldsmith took note of the minister's abiding- 
place, and waited some days till he had devised a device to 
his desire ; and one night of rain and thunder and stormy 
winds he provided himself with thieves' tackle and repaired 
to the house of the wazir who owned the damsel. Here he 
hanged a rope-ladder with grappling-irons to the battlements 
and climbed up to the terrace-roof of the palace. Thence he 
descended to the inner court and, making his way into the 
Harim, found all the slave-girls lying asleep, each on her own 
couch ; and amongst them, reclining on a couch of alabaster 
and covered with a coverlet of cloth-of-gold, a damsel, as she 
were the moon rising on a fourteenth night. At her head 
stood a candle of ambergris, and at her feet another, each in 
a candlestick of glittering gold, her brilliancy dimming them 
both ; and under her pillow lay a casket of silver, wherein 
were her jewels. [Scott has : " a rich veil, embroidered with 
pearls and precious stones. ' '] He raised the coverlet and, draw- 
ing near her, considered her straitly, and behold ! it was the 
lutanist whom he desired and of whom he was come in quest. 
So he took out a knife and wounded her in the back parts, 
a palpable outer wound, whereupon she awoke in terror ; but 
when she saw him, she was afraid to cry out, thinking he 
came to steal her goods. So she said to him : " Take the 
box and what is therein [Scott : " Take this embroidered 
veil "], but slay me not, for I am in thy protection and 
under thy safeguard, and my death will profit thee nothing." 
Accordingly he took the box and went away. [Night 587.] 
And when morning morrowed he donned clothes after the 
fashion of men of learning and doctors of the law and, tak- 
ing the jewel-case, went in therewith to the king of the city, 
before whom he kissed the ground, and said to him : " O King, 
I am a devout man, withal a loyal well-wisher to thee, and 
come hither a pilgrim to thy court from the land of Khorasan, 



attracted by the report of thy just governance and righteous 
dealing with thy subjects and minded to be under thy stan- 
dard. I reached this city at the last of the day and, finding 
the gate locked and barred, threw me down to sleep without 
the walls ; but, as I lay betwixt sleep and wake, behold, 
I saw four women come up : one riding on a broomstick, 
another on a wine- jar, a third on an oven-peel, and a fourth 
on a black bitch [as Burton says, these vehicles suggest 
derivation from European witchery, but Scott reads : " One 
mounted upon an hyaena, another upon a ram, a third upon 
a black bitch, and the fourth upon a leopard "], and I knew 
that they were witches making for thy city. One of them 
came up to me and kicked me with her foot and beat me with 
a fox's tail [Scott : " with a whip, which appeared like a 
flame of fire "] she had in her hand, hurting me grievously, 
whereat I was wroth and smote her with a knife I had with 
me, wounding her in the back parts as she turned to flee from 
me. When she felt the wound she fled before me, and in her 
flight let drop this casket [Scott : " veil "], which I picked 
up, and opening, found these costly jewels therein. So do 
thou take it, for I have no need thereof, being a wanderer in 
the mountains who hath rejected the world from my heart 
and renounced it and all that is in it, seeking only the face of 
Allah the Most High." Then he set the casket before the 
king and fared forth. The king opened the box, and, empty- 
ing out all the trinkets it contained, fell to turning them over 
with his hand, till he chanced upon a necklace whereof he 
had made gift to the wazir to whom the girl belonged. See- 
ing this, he called the minister in question and said to him : 
" This is the necklace I gave thee ? " He knew it at first 
sight, and answered : " It is ; and I gave it to a singing-girl 
of mine." Quoth the king : " Fetch that girl to me forth- 
with." So he fetched her to him, and he said : " Uncover 
her back parts and see if there be a wound therein or no." 
The wazir accordingly bared her backside, and finding a 
knife-wound there, said : " Yes, O my lord, there is a wound." 
Then said the king, " This is the witch of whom the devotee 
told me, and there can be no doubt of it," and bade cast her 
into the witches' well. So they carried her thither at once. 

As soon as it was night, and the goldsmith knew that his plot 
had succeeded, he repaired to the pit, taking with him a purse 
of a thousand dinars, and entering into converse with the 
warder, sat talking with him till a third part of the night was 



passed, when he broached the matter to him, saying : " Know, 
O my brother, that this girl is innocent of that they lay to her 
charge, and that it was I who brought this calamity upon 
her." Then he told him the whole story, first and last, add- 
ing : " Take, O my brother, this purse of a thousand dinars 
and give me the damsel, that I may carry her to my own land, 
for these gold pieces will profit thee more than keeping her in 
prison ; moreover Allah will requite thee for us, and we too 
will both offer up prayers for thy prosperity and safety." 

When the warder heard this story, he marvelled with 
exceeding marvel at that device and its success ; then, taking 
the money, he delivered the girl to the goldsmith, condition- 
ing that he should not abide one hour with her in the city. 
Thereupon the goldsmith took the girl and fared on with her, 
without ceasing, till he reached his own country, and so he 
won his wish. 

When we compare these three versions of the same tale 
we notice that the chief incidents (namely, the wounding of 
the girl, the stealing of her jewels, and selling or giving them 
to the person who would cause her to be banished from the 
town) occur in every case. 

It is only the less important incidents which have changed. 
In Somadeva's version the use of the " language of signs " 
motif has necessitated the minister playing the chief part 
throughout, while in the other versions the man (not a prince) 
relies entirely on his own cleverness. It is interesting to note 
that the variant in the Nights seems to have borrowed from 
both Somadeva and Dandin, for from the former it has 
borrowed the incident of the rope (although it is the gold- 
smith who puts up the rope, not the girl who hangs it down), 
and from the latter the incident of falling in love with the 
painting. Other minor differences will be apparent on com- 
parison. It is necessary to mention only one other point. 
In Dandin the object of the young man's affection is a re- 
spectable married woman. After stealing the anklet he goes 
straight to her husband and offers to sell it to him. Her 
guilt is apparently proved and the wife is immediately 
divorced. Now, this part of the story bears some resem- 
blance to a series of tales known by the generic name of 
the " Concealed Robe " or " Burnt VeH." The former title 
is taken from the version in the Book of Sindibdd,^ while the 

^ See Clouston, op. cit., p. 73 et seq., and cf, 253. 


latter is derived from the Arabic variants found in the Seven 
Vazlrs and the Nights ^ 

In both cases the plot centres round an amorous youth who 
enjoys the love of a woman through the scheming of a third 
party who deceives the husband into leaving or divorcing 
his wife. Thus far the connection with our story is clear. 
The incriminating article is a robe or veil instead of a piece 
of jewellery and mark on the thigh. It should, however, be 
noticed that in Scott's " Story of the Painter " it actually is 
a veil which is stolen as evidence. 

The following is a brief resume of the Arabic version : 

A youth takes a house in Baghdad at a very low rental, 
and later learns the reason. It is because if the owner but 
looks through a certain window in the upper part of the house 
he would see a girl so fair that he would die of longing for her. 
Curiosity makes him see for himself. He falls madly in love, 
and secures the help of a go-between to bring about their 
union. She explains that the girl is the wife of a rich 
merchant. The would-be lover is to buy a veil from him 
and give it her. This done, she gets into the beauty's house 
by a ruse and hides the veil, which she has purposely burnt 
in three places, under the merchant's pillow. He finds it and 
divorces his wife. The old woman arranges a liaison, and the 
pair remain together for a week. The wrong is then righted 
by the lover blaming the old woman for not having his veil 
mended after it had been burnt. She confesses to having 
left it by mistake in the merchant's house. This conversa- 
tion is specially held before the wronged husband, and all 
ends in forgiveness and reconciliation. 

Reference might also be made to another cycle of stories 
similar to that of the Seven Vazlrs, known under the title of 
" King Shah Bakht and his Wazir-Rahwan." Here we find 
the above story appearing again, but this time the incriminat- 
ing object is a turban. Burton, following the Breslau text 
(Supp., vol. i, p. 309), calls it " The Story of the Crone and 
the Draper's Wife." See also Chauvin, ojp, ciL, viii, p. 109, 
under " Le turban brule." 

In conclusion I would briefly refer to the second part 
of Miss Stokes' story of Panwpatti Rani (see p. 250). Here 

^ See Scott, op, ciL, p. l68 et seq. ; Burton, op. cit, vol. vi, p. 188 et seq. ; 
Clouston, op. ciL, p. igs et seq. ; Rene Basset, Joum. Asiatique, ser. 10, vol. ii,^ 
pp. 67, 77, and Chauvin, op. cit., viii, pp. 57, 58. 


we notice the changes that our story has undergone in the 
hands of the ayahs through the centuries, although the main 
incidents of Somadeva's version remain. In the first place 
the couple get properly married. The prince goes to visit 
his friend, the kotwal's son, and Panwpatti becomes jealous. 
The poisoned sweets are sent on the prince's next visit, but 
are given to some crows and then to a dog. In the final 
episode the kotwal's son seizes the jewels while the princess 
is asleep, and wounds her in the leg. Later, the Raja's servants 
arrest the pretended Yogi, but are not nearly so courteous 
as in Somadeva's version. When relating his story he says 
he was sitting by a river, and that at midnight one woman 
arrived and pulled a dead body out of the river, and began 
to eat it. In anger he had taken her jewels and wounded 
her in the leg. The girl is cast out into the jungle and there 
rescued by the prince and his friend. There is, of course, no 
mention of her parents dying. This last incident was intro- 
duced by Somadeva in order that the Vetala could ask his 
question about who was the guilty party. 

In the Tamil version the girl is wounded between the 
breasts, and gives a pearl necklace as a bribe to prevent her 
secret love of eating corpses being divulged. Both parents 
die here as in Somadeva. 

The Three Young Brdhmans who restored a Dead Lady 

to Life 

{Vetala 2 pp. 179-181) 

As explained by Uhle,^ Sivadasa's recension varies in its 
texts both in the present story and also in No. V. According 
to Lassen ^ there are four Brahmans ; the first three act as in 
our version, and the fourth merely goes home. He it is who 
is judged to be the true husband, as the others had acted re- 
spectively as father, brother and servant. In Gildemeister's 
text, which is that chiefly used by Uhle, and in all other 
versions, the Brahmans are only three in number. As Lassen's 
reading in this case was based on a single MS., it cannot stand 
against the others as the original version. And Uhle points 
out i^on a later page ^ that it must be regarded merely as a 

' Abhandl.f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, viii, No. 1, p. xxi. 

2 Anthologia sanscritica, Bonnae ad Rhenum, 1838. 

3 Op, cit.,p. 113. 



clever improvement on the original, for it cannot be denied 
that the king's choice of the fourth Brahman, who merely 
goes home, contains a decided touch of humour. 

It is, however, interesting to note that in a moralised 
version forming the SddhusUa Jdtaka, No. 200 (Cambridge 
edition, vol. ii, pp. 96, 97), the number of suitors is four. 
They wooed the four daughters of a Brahman. He was in 
doubt as how best to dispose of them. One of the suitors 
was fine and handsome, one was old, the third a man of good 
family, and the fourth was good. Accordingly he approached 
the Master, saying : 

"One is good, and one is noble; one has beauty, one has 
Answer me this question, Brahman : of the four, which best 
appears ? " 

Hearing this, the teacher replied : "Even though there be 
beauty and the like qualities, a man is to be despised if he 
fail in virtue. Therefore the former is not the measure of a 
man ; those that I like are the virtuous." And in explanation 
of this matter he repeated the second couplet : 

" Good is beauty : to the aged show respect, for this is 
right : 
Good is noble birth ; but virtue virtue, that is my de- 

When the Brahman heard this, he gave all his daughters 
to the virtuous wooer. 

Before referring to variants found in the vernaculars we 
shall first consider the story as given by Somadeva. The 
chief motif is that of " Resuscitation." In this particular 
case it is brought about by^the^aTdroTa stolen book containing 
a magical charm. Although I am unable to give any exact 
analogue to this, we find in the Latin version of the Gesta 
Romanorum ^ a tale of a magic book of charms stolen from a 
necromancer by his pupil. The best-known method is by aid 
of the " Water of Life," which is one of the oldest and most 
widespread motifs in the world. We have already had several 
references to this (see Vol. II, p. 155n\ and Vol. Ill, p. 253n'), 

^ See H. Oesterley, Gesta Romanorum, 1872, pp. 66^ and 748; and 
S. J. H. Herrtage, Early English Versions of the Gesta Romanorum, Appendix, 
No. cclx, Early English Text Society, Ex. vol. No. xxxiii, 1879. 


but by far the largest number is to be found in Bolte and 
Polivka, op. cit, vol. ii, pp. 394-401 i,e. No. 97, "Das Wasser 
des Lebens." Sir Richard Temple is at present engaged on a 
work dealing with this interesting subject. ^ 

Now in this present story three men claim to have been 
the direct cause of the resuscitation, the first because he 
possessed the charm, the second because he had taken her 
bones to the Ganges and the efficacy of sacred bathing-places 
was absolute, while the third claims that it was the power of 
his asceticism which had raised the dead to life. Thus the 
story is really an unusual form of the well-known "Joint 
Efforts " motif, as it might be called. The usual form is that 
found in the Vetala's fifth story all the suitors can do some- 
thing wonderful : suddenly the bride disappears and the joint 
application of their gifts is successful in bringing back the 
lost bride. I shall discuss this further when dealing with the 
story in question (see p. 273 et seq.). The motif occurs also ' 
in the Vetala's twenty-second story, where three Brahmans 
bring a lion back to life. The present tale is weak because ^ 
the claims of the first two Brahmans are so feeble. The third 
Brahman had already obtained clear proof of the efficacy of 
the charm, and needed no help from the others at all. In the 
" Joint Efforts " motif, however, all the suitors do something 
which is a sine qua non to the result, but useless by itself ; 
accordingly the question as to who can rightly claim the girl 
for a bride is a very open one. But of this more anon. 

The "Five Sons," which forms the seventh diversion of 
the fifth day in Basile's Pentamerone (Burton, vol. ii, p. 532 
et seq,), although really an example of the " Joint Efforts " 
motif, warrants mention here because one of the sons has dis- 
covered a herb which can cause the dead to live again. But 
it would have been useless until the others had rescued her 
from the ghul's power. The end of the tale is unusual. The 
king is unable to decide who deserves the hand of the princess. 
Each man (they are brothers) puts forward his claim. Then 
the father of the boys puts forward his claim. " I think I have 
done a great deal in the matter," he said, "having made men 
of these my sons, and having by the strength of first teachings 
obliged them to learn the craft they know, otherwise they 
would be senseless fools, where now they have brought forth 
such pleasant fruits." The father marries the princess. 

^ Zinda Peer, the Everlivmg Saint of India. A Discourse on some Ramifications 
of the Belief in the Water of Immortality. 



A story from Siddhi-Kiir also deserves mention. It 
forms No. 2 of Jiilg, tale 9 of Busk (p. 105 et seq.) and 
No. 4 of Coxwell (p. 179 et seq,). In this tale six men go to 
seek their fortunes in different directions. One of them, a 
rich man's son, is killed. The others, by their several accom- 
plishments, find his body, and by a wonderful draught one of 
them restores his life. The rich man's son tells his adventures, 
and how his wife must be rescued from the hands of a power- 
ful khan. This is successfully done, and each claims the 
woman. The tale ends curiously : " They strove thus each 
for himself, and could not come to an agreement. ' Now,' 
said they, ' if there is this difficulty, let us all take her ' ; 
and crying out ' Strike ! strike ! ' they cut her to pieces with 
their knives." 

In fact, all the story-tellers have experienced much diffi- 
culty in settling the question that this story leads up to. In 
Somadeva's tale the question is naturally put to Trivikrama- 
sena, and he, being a pious and exemplary king, gets out of 
the difficulty by saying that he who stayed in the cemetery 
and practised asceticism acted so out of deep affection and 
so must be considered her husband. The other two act the 
parts of father and son respectively. This resembles the 
end of a story in the Kalmuck Arji-Borji (see Busk, op, ciL^ 
p. 298 et seq,). 

Four young shepherds combine in making a life-like 
wooden carving. The first did the actual sculpturing, the 
second painted it, the third infused into it wit and under- 
standing, the fourth breathed life into it, and behold ! it was 
woman ! They all claimed her for themselves. The question 
was who had the best claim. After several futile answers 
had been given the wise Naran-Dakini replied : 

"... The youth who first fashioned the figure of a 
block of wood, did not he stand in the place of a father ? 
He who painted it with tints fair to behold, did not he 
stand in place of the mother ? He who gave wit and under- 
standing, is he not the Lama ? But he who gave a soul that 
could be loved, was it not he alone who made woman ? To 
whom, therefore, else should she have belonged by right of 
invention? And to whom should woman belong if not to 
her husband ? " 

In the Hindi version the girl dies of a snake-bite, and 
various sorcerers, etc., are brought to charm away the poison. 
Having seen the girl, however, they are of the unanimous 


opinion that the case is hopeless. Then follows a curious 
passage about snake-poison : 

The first said : "A person does not live who has been 
bitten by a snake on the fifth, sixth, eighth, ninth and 
fourteenth day of the lunar month." The second said : " One 
who has been bitten on a Saturday or Tuesday does not sur- 
vive." The third said: "Poison infused during the Rohini, 
Magha, Aslesha, Vishakha, Mula, and Krittika mansions of 
the moon, cannot be got under." The fourth said : " One 
who has been bitten in any organ of sense the lower lip, the 
cheek, the neck, abdomen, and navel cannot escape death." 
The fifth said : " In this case Brahma even could not restore 
life of what account, then, are we ? Do you perform the 
funeral rites we will depart." 

The rest is almost similar to Somadeva's version. 

In the Tamil Vedala Cadai, and also in the Turkish 
Tuti-ndmah,^ the girl dies through anxiety of mind, while the 
others are disputing as to whom she should rightly marry. 
The curious feature in the latter is that the girl is brought 
back to life by being beaten. The first suitor opens the 
grave, the second advises the use of the cudgel, and the third 
brings it into operation. The suitors fight, but the girl refuses 
them all. 

Restoring life by beating is certainly uncommon in stories. 
It is found, however, in a Persian tale included by J. Uri in 
his Epistolce Turcicce ac Narrationes Persicce editce et Latine 
conversce,^ Oxonii, 1771, pp. 26, 27. Flagellation during mar- 
riage ceremonies is quite common in India, and is also found 
in other countries.^ The fundamental idea is quite possibly the 

^ Rosen, Tuti-Nameh, vol. ii, p. 53. See also Wickerhauser, Papagei- 
marcherij p. 188. 

2 Uri calls the book from which the tale is taken Post nubila Phoebus, which 
is merely a parodied title of the Arabic work Al Faraj ba'dash-shiddah (Joi/ 
after Hardship), by Muhassin ibn 'All at-Taniikhi (died a.h. 384). See the 
Arabic text published in Cairo, 1903-1904, vol. ii, pp. 98, 99- The tale is 
also found in an early Persian translation lithographed in Bombay, a.h. 1276 
(1859), pp. 383, 384. Tanukhi states that the story in question was received 
from a certain Muhammad as-Salihi, the Scribe, a contemporary. Mr A. G. 
Ellis, who has kindly supplied the above information, adds that Uri's text is 
loosely abridged from the Persian version above mentioned. 

^ See, e.g., Crooke, op. cit. (new edition, 1926), pp. 136, 137 ; Journ. Anth. 
Inst., vol. xxix, pp. 78, 97; Westermarck, History of Human Marriage, vol. ii, 
pp. 517, 518; and Frazer, Golden Bough, Index vol., pp. 182, 183. 



same as in the case of raising the dead by flogging namely, 
to expel the evil spirit which has caused the catastrophe, 
or in the case of a marriage, which might cause the catastrophe 
(of barrenness). 

To conclude, I would quote a Burmese version of our story 
found in a collection known under the title of The Precedents 
of Princess Thoodama Tsari (or Sudhammachari). The trans- 
lation is by R. F. St A. St John, Folk-Lore Journal, vol. vii, 
1889, p. 309 et seq.^ 

Once there were, in the country of Kamboja, four vai^yas 
who were great friends ; three of them had a son and the 
other had a very beautiful daughter. Each of the three 
young men sent a message to the parents of the girl. The 
first said : " If your daughter should die before she reaches 
the age of fifteen, I will give her a grand funeral." The 
second said : " If she die before the age of fifteen, I will collect 
her bones after the body is cremated and bear them to the 
burial-ground." The third said : "If your daughter die 
before she reaches the age of fifteen, I will watch in the burial- 
ground." To these proposals the parents of the girl gave 
their consent. 

Now it came to pass that the girl died before she was 
fifteen, and her parents called upon the young men to fulfil 
their promises, and they did so. Whilst the third was walk- 
ing in the burial-gTound a Yogi came that way, on his road to 
Himavanta, and, seeing him, asked if he would like the girl 
to be made alive again ; and on his saying that he would, he 
restored her to him alive and with all her former beauty. 
The other two young men on hearing of this said that, as 
they had performed their promises, they had also a right to 
have her in marriage. After arguing the matter between 
themselves, they agreed to go to Princess Sudhammachari 
and abide by her decision : 

" One of you performed the funeral ceremonies and went 
his way ; the other carried the bones to the burial-ground 
and departed ; but the third remained watching in the burial- 
ground. The man who constituted himself a guardian of the 
burial-ground is debased for seven generations, and, inasmuch 
as the girl came to life when he still remained with her though 
dead, he has an undoubted right to her now that she has 
come to life again." 

^ Cf, the translation by C. J. Bandow, Rangoon, 1881, pp^ 53-55. 


The King and the Two Wise Birds 

{Vetdla 3 pp. 183-189) 

In Sivadasa's recension (Uhle, op, cit, p. 13) we get further 
details about the wedding of the royal couple who possessed 
the clever birds. So, too, in the Hindi version, where it forms 
the fourth story, ^ we get considerably more details. Barker ^ 
translates as follows : 

The Baital spoke, saying : " O King ! there was a city 
called Bhogwati, whose king was named Rupsen, and he had 
a parrot named Churaman. One day the king asked that 
parrot : ' What dost thou know ? ' The parrot replied : 
' Great king ! I know everything.' The king said : ' If 
thou knowest everything, tell me where there is a beautiful 
damsel, my equal in rank.' The parrot said : ' Great king ! 
there is in the country of Magadh a king, Magadheshwar by 
name, and he has a daughter, whose name is Chandravati. 
You will marry her ; she is very beautiful and very learned.' 
The king, on hearing the parrot's speech, sent for an as- 
trologer, whose name was Chandrakant, and asked him : 
' Whom shall I marry ? ' The astrologer ascertained by his 
art, and said : " Chandravati is the name of the maiden, and 
your marriage with her will certainly take place.' 

"The king, having heard this, summoned a Brahman 
and explained everything to him. When he sent him to King 
Magadheshwar, he thus enjoined him : ' If you arrange this 
affair of our marriage satisfactorily, we will reward you.' 
The Brahman then took leave. King Magadheshwar's 
daughter had a Maina (gracula religiosa), whose name was 
Madana-manjari (love-garland). The princess in the same 
way had consulted Madana-manjari, and asked her : ' Where 
shall I find a suitable husband ? ' The Maina replied : 
' Rupsen is king of the city of Bhogwati he shall be thy 
husband.' Thus, though neither had seen the other, they 
were mutually in love. In a few days' time the Brahman 
whom Rupsen had sent arrived in Magadh and delivered his 
sovereign's message to King Magadheshwar. The king agreed 
to his proposal, and having summoned a Brahman of his own, 

1 For the different order of numbering in the various versions see the 
table at the end of the Appendix in Vol. VII. 

2 Baital Pachmy.pp. 96-102. 



and entrusted to him the nuptial gifts and the customary 
presents, he sent him with the other Brahman, and bade him, 
' Greet King Rupsen on my behalf, and, having made the 
customary mark on his forehead (the tilak), return quickly. 
When you come back I will make preparations for the 

" These two Brahmans, therefore, set forth, and in a few 
days they arrived at the Court of King Rupsen, and related 
everything that had happened. The king was greatly 
pleased, and, making all the necessary preparations, departed 
to claim his betrothed. In the course of a few days he arrived 
in that country, and having been married, and having re- 
ceived the wedding gifts and dowry, took leave of King 
Magadheshwar, and set out for his own country. His queen 
also brought away with her Madana-manjari in a cage. 
They arrived in due course at their journey's end, and began 
to live happily. One day the cage of the parrot (Churaman) 
and of the Maina (Madana-manjari) were both placed near 
the throne, and the king and queen, in the course of conversa- 
tion, said : ' No one can live happily in solitude, therefore it 
would be better to marry the parrot to the Maina, and putting 
them into one cage, they will then live happily together.' 
They then had a large cage brought and put them in it. 

"After some little time had elapsed, the king and queen 
were one day sitting together in conversation when the 
parrot said to the Maina : ' Sexual intercourse is the one 
thing in this world, and whoever has passed his life without 
it has been born in vain ; therefore you must grant me this 
favour.' The Maina said : ' I have no desire for a male.' 
The parrot asked : ' Why ? ' She replied : ' Men are sinful, 
irreligious, treacherous, and women- slayers.' The parrot 
replied : ' So also are women treacherous, false, ignorant, 
avaricious, and murderers.' 

" When the king heard them thus wrangling, he inquired : 
' What are you quarrelling about ? ' The Maina replied : 
' Great king ! men are sinful women-slayers, hence I have no 
wish for them. Great king ! listen while I tell a tale to prove 
that men are such as I say.' " 

The Tamil version (sixth story i) is much shorter, but not 
as condensed as in Somadeva. Here the birds are described 
as being both parroquets, and after his successful marriage 

^ Babington, Vedala Cadai, p. 39 et seq 


Parakramakesari, the prince, suggests that the two birds 
ought also to be happily married. Accordingly they are put 
in the same cage, and the quarrelling commences as in the 
other version. 

The Maind's Story 

This tale occurs in the Turkish Tuti-ndmah,^ where the 
principal difference is that the parents of the wicked man die 
after his first crime. After he has squandered all his wealth 
he is reduced to begging in a cemetery, where he suddenly 
meets his wife. They live together for some time, and then 
set out once more for the husband's home. On the way they 
pass the old well, and there he murders her. 

Oesterley refers to the eleventh story of Siddhi-Kur,^ but 
there s little in comimon here, except that the poor man 
vainly attempts to murder his wife, whom he has acquired 
by a trick, and then to sell the jewels that he had obtained 
with her. 

The Parrofs Story 

In the Tamil version ^ there is no real thief in the case 
at all. The lover is discovered by the city guards, and being 
mistaken for a thief is mortally wounded by an arrow. At 
this moment the girl arrives, and getting no answer from her 
lover, imagines he is angry with her. While kissing him he 
bites off her nose in the agony of death and falls down dead. 
She returns home and, taking the betel-cutter from her 
husband's pouch, smears it with blood. She then raises the 
alarm, accusing her husband of having bitten off her nose. 
Just as he is going to be put to death the city guards, who 
have apparently witnessed the whole proceedings, come for- 
ward and give their evidence. The woman is bound and cast 
into the fire. 

The story is one of the few in the Vetdlapanchavimsati 
that has passed with but comparatively few alterations into 
the Kalmuck version. It is told of two brothers who lived 
in a country named Odmilsong. They married sisters, but 

^ Rosen, vol. ii, p. 102, and Wickerhauser, p. 214. 

2 Busk, op. cit.j pp. 120-125. It is No. 11 in Jiilg, and No. 13 in 
Coxwell, where the translation from Jiilg is better than Busk's rendering. 
See his Siberian Folk-J'ttles, pp. 217-221, and the notes on p. 257. 

3 Babington, op. cit., p. 45 et seq. 


somehow or other were never very friendly. The elder brother 
grew rich, and when giving a great banquet omitted to ask 
his younger brother. Deeply offended, he determined to 
steal something valuable from his elder brother, and with 
this intention managed to conceal himself in the store-room. 
The tale then proceeds as follows (Coxwell, pp. 215-216) : 

The people had drunk spirits till it became dark, and 
lay intoxicated and asleep. The elder brother's wife led her 
husband in a stupefied condition into the store-room, there 
to slumber with him. After a while, however, she arose and 
cooked a meal. Taking with her meat and several kinds of 
food, such as garlic and onions, and other eatables, she went 
out. The man in concealment did not yet venture on his evil 
deed, and said to himself, " I will carry out my theft later ; 
first of all I will observe these people," and he followed the 
woman. Behind the house she mounted a high hill, on which 
was a gloomy graveyard. As she climbed upwards he walked 
behind her and almost in her footsteps. In the middle of 
an evergreen expanse of turf was a stone slab, to which she 
hurried, to find on it, lying stretched out and rigid, a man who 
had been her lover. In her devotion she could not let him 
serve as food for birds and rapacious beasts, so she sought 
the dead and from afar called him by name ; and finally, on 
reaching him, threw herself round his neck. The younger 
brother sat near by and observed everything. The woman 
set the food before the dead man and offered it to him, but 
his teeth were firmly pressed together and would not crush 
the food, so she opened them with a copper spoon, and, 
having chewed the food, she sought with her tongue to intro- 
duce it into his mouth. But suddenly the spoon, being 
gripped by the dead man's teeth, broke, and struck off the 
tip of the woman's nose ; at the same time a small portion 
of her tongue was bitten off. With blood upon her face she 
retreated and took away her eatables. The younger brother 
was the first to reach home, and he hid in the store-room. 
Arriving later, the woman lay down beside her husband, 
and after a while, when the husband began to speak and 
sigh in his sleep, she cried: "Woe! woe! What have 
you done ? " The man cried : " What has happened ? " To 
which words she replied: "You have bitten off the tip of 
my nose and of my tongue ; what can I do in such a 
calamity ? " 


The sequel to the story is the same as in other cases, and 
here it is the brother who comes forward to give evidence. 
The woman is fastened to a stake and then killed. 

The tale appears also in the Tutl-ndmah ^ with slight 
differences. The loving couple are surprised by the town 
guards, and according to their custom the man is crucified, 
but the woman is allowed to go home unpunished. In a final 
embrace the lover bites off his beloved's nose, and she accuses 
her husband of having done it. The husband is sentenced 
to the loss of his nose, but, as in Somadeva's version, a 
thief saves the situation, and the wife is thrown into the 

That portion of the story about the husband being 
accused of cutting off the wife's nose will naturally remind 
readers of "The Cuckold Weaver and the Bawd," which is 
one of the Panchatantra tales that does not appear in Soma- 
deva's version. I gave it in full, however, in Vol. V, pp. 223- 
226. This story became exceedingly popular, and is found in 
numerous collections in both the East and West. The sub- 
ject has been treated fully by Bedier^ under the title of " Le 
Fabliaux des Tresses," as in Western versions the mutilation 
of the nose has given place to the cutting off of hair, a severe 
beating, or other similar punishment. Boccaccio included 
the tale in his Decameron, where it forms the eighth novel 
of the seventh day. The chief point of all these versions 
is the cuckolding of the husband by the substitution of 
another woman in his bed. He vents his anger on her, 
thinking it is his wife, who later proves her innocence by 
showing her person untouched. Lee ^ gives a large number 
of analogues, including versions in English literature, where 
the tale is found in Massinger's Guardian and Fletcher's 
Woman Pleased. 

After the two birds have finished their tales the frame- 
story ends by the parrot becoming once more the Gandharva 
Chitraratha, as Indra's curse has now lost its force. At the 
same moment the Maina becomes no less a person than the 
heavenly nymph Tilottama. Both ascend to heaven. 

So, too, in Sivadasa's recension they both become 

1 Rosen, op. cit, vol. i, p. 96 ; Wickerhauser, op. cit., p. 212. 

2 Les Fabliaux, 4th edition, 1925, vi, pp. 164-199. Facing the latter page 
is a table showing the ramifications of both Eastern and Western versions. 

3 The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, London, 1902, pp. 222-230. 


Vidyadharas. In the Hindi and Tamil versions, however, the 
frame-story does not appear again. 

The Adventures of Vlravara 
(Vetala 4 pp. 191-198) 

This is practically identical with No. 70, "Story of the 
Brahman Vira vara" (see Vol. IV, p. 173 et seq.), Cf, also 
No. 36, "Story of the Prince and the Merchant's Son 
who saved his Life " (Vol. Ill, p. 28 et seq.), where the 
" Overhearing " motif is introduced. Several useful refer- 
ences will be found in the note beginning on p. 28n\ In 
Sivadasa's recension Vira vara demands a thousand dinars 
every day, which can be compared with the wonderful archer 
in the Asadisa Jdtaka, No. 181, who demands for wages " a 
hundred thousand a year." 

In the Hindi it forms No. 3 and in the Tamil No. 7. The 
versions differ only in unimportant details. 

It also appears in both the Persian ^ and Turkish ^ 
Tutl-ndmah, For further details see Oesterley, Baitdl Pachlsi, 
pp.' 185-187. 

The story belongs to the "Faithful Servant" motif, and 
merges into another large cycle of tales which might be called 
the " Perfect Friends " or " Friendship and Sacrifice " motif 

The motif reached Europe about the very time that 
Somadeva wrote, where it appeared as the second story, 
" The Two Perfect Friends," in the Disciplina Clericalis of 
Peter Alphonse.^ It then became incorporated with The 
Seven Sages of Rome, where it occurs under the name of 
amici in connection with Vaticinium. The tale is confined 
to that immense group of MSS. of which the Latin Historia 
Septem Sapientum is the type.* Under the title of Amicus et 
AmeliuSf it appeared in the Speculum historiale ^ of Vincent 
de Beauvais. 

It found its way into French literatiu-e, and eventually 

^ Iken, Touti Nameh, eine Sammlung Persischen Mdrchen von Nechschehi, 
1882, pp. 17 and 89. 

2 Rosen, op. ciL, p. 42, and Wickerhauser, p. 28. 

^ W. H. Hulme, "Peter Alphonse's Disciplina Clericalis," Western Univ. 
Bull., vol. xxii, 1919, p. 15 et seq. 

* Killis Campbell, Seven Sages of Rome, pp. xxiv, cxii. 

5 Lib. xxiii, cap. 162-1 66 and I69. 


became attached to the Carolingian cycle in the twelfth- 
century chanson de geste of Amis et Amiles. In the early 
forms the story was simple : Amis and Amiles were two 
friends. Amis committed perjury to save his friend and was 
smitten with the curse of leprosy. He was informed in a 
vision that the only possible cure necessitated his bathing 
in the blood of Amiles' children. ^ Hearing this, Amiles at 
once slew them; but after his friend had been cured they 
were miraculously restored to life. In time the story became 
elaborated and gradually spread all over Europe. ^ 

The best-known story in which the motif occurs (among 
others) is undoubtedly Grimm's " Der getreue Johannes," 
No. 6.3 Faithful John is a servant who, after the death of 
the king, brings up the young prince and guards him against 
numerous dangers at the peril of his own life. There is no 
need to give this well-known tale in detail. It represents 
one of the two great varieties of stories dealing with friend- 
ship and sacrifice. In the first of these the friendship and 
love are mutual, and usually exist between two youths, often 
brothers. In the second variety the love is that of a trusted 
and faithful servant, and the feeling is not necessarily recipro- 
cated at all. Both, however, point to the same moral the 
inestimable value of trust, friendship, sacrifice and love. 

Somaprabhd and her Three Suitors 
(Vetdla 5 pp. 200-203) 

As already mentioned (p. 261), the texts of Sivadasa's 
recension differ. According to Lassen,* the girl is finally 
awarded to the " man of knowledge," while in Gildemeister's 
text,^ and in all other versions, she is given to the hero who 
kills the Rakshasa. 

In the Hindi version ^ the hero " possessed the art of 
discharging an arrow, which should strike what was heard, 

1 Vol. I, p. 97n^. 

2 See Chauvin, viii, 194-1 96 ; Dawkins and Halliday, Modem Greek in Asia 
Minor, pp. 253, 254 and 523 ; Coxwell, Siberian and other Folk-Tales, pp. 768- 
775 and 880, and especially A. H. Krappe, "The Legend of Amicus and 
Amelius," Mod. Lang. Rev, vol. xviii, Cambridge, 1923, pp. 152-161. 

3 Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 42-57. 

* Op. cit., pp. 35-38. ^ Uhle, op. cit., p. xxi. 

6 Barker, op. cit., p. 139 ; Oesterley, op. cit., p. 69. 


though not seen," while in the Tamil ^ we are given no details 
as to his abilities. The only deviation in this latter version 
is that it is a giant who carries off the damsel. 

The story is in all probability the original of that mass 
of similar ones which exist in nearly all parts of the world. 
Some idea of its enormous distribution can be conceived 
when we read the dozen odd pages of analogues given by Bolte 
and Polivka^ to the well-known German tale of "The Four 
Skilful Brothers." 

In this versioil four brothers go out into the world to 
earn their living. One becomes an expert thief, the second 
possesses a wonderful telescope, the third is an expert archer, 
and the fourth can sew anything so that no stitch can be 
seen. The king's daughter suddenly disappears, and the 
joint efforts of the brothers restore her safely to her father. 
No decision is arrived at as to who deserves the girl in 

This outline represents roughly the plot of the different 
versions so widely spread all over Europe and the East. The 
commencement varies, but usually falls under one of the four 
following headings : 

1. The girl states she will marry only a man who has 
certain qualifications, which she proceeds to enumerate. 

2. Several suitors fall in love with the girl and each states 
his particular qualification. 

3. The girl disappears and several men volunteer to save 

4. A number of brothers go out to earn a living and each 
returns with some wonderful gift as possession. 

In each case it is the " joint efforts " of the brothers or 
suitors that bring back the girl who has suddenly dis- 
appeared or been seized by a jinn, div, khan, or other 
similar personage. 

As I have already pointed out in my notes to Vetala 2, the 
choice of husband by the embarrassed princess or her father 
usually ends very unsatisfactorily. In some cases no decision 
is made and the king merely gives a reward, in others the 
girl chooses the handsomest, while in still others the results 
are fatal. In several versions one of the men is a wonderful 
physician, and possesses a magic herb, ointment or healing 
draught. In the Nights (Burton, Supp., vol. iii, p. 439) and 

^ Babington, op. cit., p. 35. 
* Op. city vol. iii, pp. 45-50, 


an Icelandic ^ version it is a magic apple that saves the girl. 
Sometimes she is merely ill, but in several cases she actually 
dies. It will be noticed that in Vetala 5 this does not occur, 
for it has already formed the chief motif of Vetala 2. Thus 
we can say that all versions of this form of the " Joint Efforts " 
motif can be traced back to these two Indian tales. 

As an example of another form of the motif reference 
should be made to Grimm's " How Six Men got on in the 
World," No. 71.2 n f^Hg under the fourth heading as given 
above, and tells how six chance acquaintances overcome all 
difficulties by their joint efforts. 

The twenty-second story in the Persian ^ TUtl-ndmah 
closely resembles the story in our text. It also occurs with 
but little variation in the Turkish recension of the same 

The Tuti-ndmah ^ also contains a story which appears 
to be made up of Vetalas 2, 5 and 21. It is really a more 
elaborate version of a similar tale in Arji-Borji, to which 
I have already referred (p. 264). 

Four companions combine in creating a woman. One 
of them, a carpenter, hews a figure from a block of wood ; 
another, a goldsmith, adorns it with gems ; the third, a tailor, 
clothes it ; while the fourth, a monk, gives it life. They 
quarrel about her, each claiming her for himself. They agree 
to consult a dervish, but he claims the girl himself. They 
then go to the chief of police, and to the Kazi, but each wants 
the girl. Finally the matter is referred to a divinity, and the 
lady once more becomes wood. 

^ Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions^ vol. i, p. 285, and see the appendix 
by the same author in Burton's Nights, Supp., vol. iii, p. 608 et seq. Further 
analogues appear in Chauvin, vi, 133, and viii, 76. 

2 See Bolte and Polivka, op. ciL, vol. ii, p. 79 et seq. 

3 I ken, op. cit., p. 93. 

* Rosen, op. cit., vol. ii, p. l65. 

5 Iken, op. cit., p. 37, and Rosen, op. cit., vol. i, p. 151. 


The Lady who caused her Brother and Husband to change Heads 
(Vetdla 6 pp. 204-207) 

In the Hindi version ^ the husband is so long in the temple 
that his " friend " goes in to see what has happened. On 
finding him decapitated he thinks to himself : " This world is 
a very difficult place to live in ; no one will suppose that he 
has died by his own hand, but they will say that this is my 
treachery, and that, to obtain possession of his wife, who is 
very beautiful, I have killed him. It is better that I should 
die, than thus live disgraced." When the wife enters she too 
fears disgrace, and is about to kill herself, when the goddess 

In the Tamil version, ^ which is No. 5, it is "a certain 
individual " who falls in love with the girl. He promises the 
goddess to give her his head as an ofiering if she will help 
him to obtain the girl as a bride. The rest follows as in 
Somadeva, except for the king's reply to the question of the 
Vetala, which is : "... whichever of the two, immediately 
on perceiving the girl, should pay her attention as his wife, 
he it is that ought to be her husband." 

The tale also occurs in both the Persian^ and Turkish* 
recensions of the Tutl-ndmah with but slight differences. The 
hero is a prince instead of a washerman, and the second suicide 
is a priest instead of a brother-in-law or a friend. In the 
Turkish version the priest does not make his appearance till 
after the prince's suicide. 

Benfey has already shown ^ that Goethe took that part 
of his Legende {Werke, 1840, vol. i, p. 200) which is based 
on this tale from Iken's translation. Briefly the story is as 
follows : 

A Brahman's wife goes to fetch water from the Ganges. 
There she sees a vision of a beautiful youth who follows her* 
Nevertheless she tries to fill her pitcher, but is unable to 
do so as the water continually flows away. Frightened, she 
returns home with her pitcher still empty. Her husband 
grows suspicious and, dragging her to the place of public 

^ Barker, op. cit, p. 143 et seq. 

- Babington, op. cit., p. 36 et seq. 

3 Iken, No. 102. 

* Rosen, op. cit., vol. ii, p. I69. 

5 Orient und Occident, vol. i, p. 719. 


execution, kills her with his sword. The son sees the sword 
dripping with blood, and on hearing the truth expresses his 
desire to follow her. The father prevents him, saying that if 
he puts the body and head together she will return to life. 
The son hastens to the spot where his mother has been killed 
and, in his hurry to achieve his object, puts her head by mis- 
take on the trunk of a female criminal, that was lying on the 
same place. The mother rises to life, but reproaches the son 
for his hasty action, at the same time pointing out it is by the 
workings of Brahma. 

Although putting decapitated heads upon wrong bodies 
is of rare occurrence in folk-lore, ^ there are numerous ex- 
amples of a head being cut off and fastened on again. See, 
for example, Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, vol. i, p. 185; 
B. Schmidt, Griechische Mdrchen, p. Ill ; Wirt Sykes, 
British Goblins, pp. 8-10; Waldau, Bohmische Mdrchen, 
p. 108 ; A. Coelho, Contos Populares Portuguezes, No. 26, 
" O Colhereiro," in which the third daughter fastens on with 
blood the heads of her decapitated sisters ; and De Guber- 
natis. Zoological Mythology, vol. i, pp. 303 and 304. The 
most curious tale connected with the fastening on of heads 
occurs in Giles, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (vol. i, 
pp. 97-101 of the 1880 edition, pp. 60-62 of the second edition, 
1909) : 

Mr Chu has made friends with Lu, the Infernal Judge, 
who has given him a new and much better heart. Chu then 
asks for a further favour. Could Lu possibly give his wife a 
new head, for although her figure is not bad, she is very ugly. 
Lu laughs and promises to do what he can. One night he 
calls and shows the amazed Chu the head of a handsome 
young girl, freshly severed. After having cut off the wife's 
head the judge fixes on that of the young girl in its place. 
Imagine the surprise of Mrs Chu in the morning ! It further 
transpires that the pretty daughter of an official named Wu 
had been murdered by a burglar, and it was her head that the 
judge had procured. Both Mr and Mrs Wu are informed in 
a dream [as so often occurs in Hindu fiction] of the true state 
of things, and Chu is accordingly exonerated from any charge 
of murder. 

1 See T. Zachariae, Kleine Schriften, 1920, p. 120. 


The King who married his Dependent to a Nereid 
(Vetdla 7 pp. 209-216) 

The Hindi version ^ differs considerably from Somadeva. 
It forms No. 8. The man seeking service is a Rajput, but 
does not get employment though he waits a whole year. 
Nevertheless, he attaches himself to the king's suite when 
they go hunting, and is the only one who never loses sight 
of the king. When questioned he quotes various maxims on 
the lot of man, etc., and proceeds to kill a deer and prepare a 
meal for the king. He is rewarded, and given a responsible 
position. One day he is sent " on some business " to the 
seashore and enters a temple of Devi. A beautiful maiden 
follows him in and speaks to him. She says : "If you wish 
to have anything to do with me, you must bathe in this 
pool. . . ." The rest follows as in Somadeva, but there is no 
mention of any city or wealth of the damsel, and the pair 
return to the palace. 

In the Tamil version ^ (also No. 8) we also have no sub- 
aqueous city, although it resembles our text more closely than 
the Hindi. The " individual, whose name was Karpadigan," 
gets employment at once. The incident of the two fruits, 
and the mission to Ceylon follow as in Somadeva. But 
there is no banner rising from the sea : instead, the hero 
is swallowed by a large fish. He manages to cut the belly 
open and swim safely to shore, where he enters a temple of 
Kali. There he meets " a beautiful princess, surrounded 
by a numerous train of damsels." The rest follows as in our 
text, except that the girl turns out to be " the daughter 
of the King of the Serpent World," and Vikrama's decision 
is the opposite to that in both Somadeva and the Hindi 

" If a person be in the employ of another," he says, " it 
is but justice that he should do all in his power to serve him : 
that the king should resign to his servant a damsel whom he 
adored is the more meritorious act." 

It will thus be seen that both the leading vernacular 
versions have dropped the most important point of the 
story namely, that the hero's adventures take place under 
the sea. 

^ Barker, op. cit., p. l63 et seq. 
^ Babington, op. cit., ip. 51 et seq. 


Probably the closest analogue to our story is that found 
in the sixth fable of the second chapter of the Hitopadesa ^ : 

"I am Kandarpa-Ketu, son of Jimuta-Ketu, King of 
Singhala-dwipa (Ceylon). One day as I was in the pleasure- 
garden, I heard from a voyaging merchant, that on the 
fourteenth day of the month, in the midst of the sea which 
was near, beneath what had the appearance of a Kalpa-tree, 
ther was to be seen, seated on a couch variegated with the 
lustre of strings of jewels, a certain damsel, as it were the 
goddess Lakshmi, bedecked with all kinds of ornaments, and 
playing on a lute. I therefore took the voyaging merchant, 
and, having embarked in a ship, went to the place specified. 
On reaching the spot, I saw her exactly as she had been 
described ; and, alliu-ed by her exquisite beauty, I leaped 
after her into the sea. In an instant I reached a golden city ; 
where, in a palace of gold, I saw her reclining on a couch, 
and waited upon by youthful sylphs. When she perceived 
me at a distance she sent a female friend, who addressed 
me courteously. On my inquiry, her friend said : ' That is 
Ratna-Manjari, the daughter of Kandarpa-keli, King of the 
Vidyadharas. She has made a vow to this effect : " Who- 
soever shall come and see the city of gold with his own eyes, 
shall marry me." ' Accordingly I married her by that form 
of marriage called Gandharva : after the conclusion of which 
I remained there a long while delighted with her. One day 
she said to me in private : ' My beloved husband, all these 
things may be freely enjoyed ; but that picture of the fairy 
Swarna-rekha must never be touched.' Some time after- 
wards, my curiosity being excited, I touched Swarna-rekha 
with my hand. For doing so I was spurned by her, although 
only a picture, with her foot beautiful as the lotus, and found 
myself alighted in my own country." 

For this latter incident of instantaneous transportation 
by breaking some taboo, falling into magic water, etc., see 
Ocean, Vol. II, pp. 223, 223n\ and cf, Losaka Jdtaka 2 (where 
there are four subaqueous palaces), and Waldau, Bohmische 
Mdrchen, p. 410. 

1 F. Johnson, Hitopadesa, or Sahitary Counsels of Fishnusarman, London, 
Hertford, 1847, p. 57. The Sanskrit Text with a Grammatical Analysis had been 
issued in 1847. 

* Cambridge edition, vol. i, p. 11 0. 


In the history of the famous Arab, Hatim Ta'i, is a story 
of his adventures at the bottom of a well.^ He enters it to 
recover a man who has fallen in, but soon finds himself on 
a broad plain. A wonderful castle appears, in which he dis- 
covers the lost man in company with a maiden of marvellous 
beauty. After sundry adventures he arranges for the youth 
to return to his relatives. Subaqueous palaces are found 
throughout European literature. C/. that of Morgan le Fay 
in the Orlando Innamorato,^ canto 36 ; also the continuation 
of the romance of Huon de Bourdeaux ^ ; and the romance of 
Ogier le Danois,* A similar sea-castle occurs in Prym and 
Socin, Syrische Mdrchen, p. 125. Our present story resembles 
in many points " Der rothe Kund " in Gaal's Mdrchen der 

Tales in which human beings marry dwellers in the water 
are common enough in Europe. See Ralston, Russian Folk- 
Tales, p. 116 et seq, ; Coxwell, Siberia and Other Folk-Tales, 
p. 466 et seq, ; Weckenstedt, Wendische Mdrchen, p. 192, and 
La Motte Fouqu6's Undine. In Hagen's Helden-Sagen, 
vol. i, p. 53, King Wilkinus marries a " Meerweib." Philo- 
stratus relates ^ how Menippus married a female of the 
Rakshasi type and was saved only just in time by his friend 
Apollonius : 

** *H ')(jpw^h i^i>iu^<p^ l^loL Toov efjiirovcrSiv ccttlv, a? XajULiag re kcu 
/jLOpjULoXvKiag ot iroWoi ^yovvrat. epwcn ^^avrcu, kol a(ppoSi(rLWv /xeV, 
a-apKwv Se fjcaXia-ra avOpcoTreioov epwa-i Koi iraKevova-L TOig a<ppoSi(r[oi9, 
0V9 civ 6i\co(ri Sai(ra(rdai,^^ 

Thus it will be seen that stories of the " fairy palace under 
the sea " type are closely allied to that widely spread cycle of 
tales of which the sirens of Greek legend can be taken as the 
standard example. 

Before speaking further of the sirens themselves I would 

^ Duncan Forbes, Adventures of Hatim Ta'i, Oriental Translation Fund, 
1830, pp. 197-199. 

2 Originally by Boiardo, but famous owing to its recasting {Rifacimento) 
by Bemi (1497-1535). See Dunlop, History of Fiction, p. l68, and Liebrecht's 
translation, p. 76. 

3 Dunlop, op. oit., p. 262, Liebrecht, p. 128. 
* Dunlop, op. cit., p. 286, Liebrecht, p. 141. 

5 Life of Apollonius of Tyana, iv, 25. See Conybeare's translation in the 
Loeb Classics, vol. i, p. 407. 


give an extract from an interesting letter of Mr David 
Fitzgerald printed in The Academy ^ : 

" The Sirens' tale like many other episodes of the Iliad 
and the Odyssey ^reappears in various forms, one of the most 
ciu'ious of which is perhaps to be found in Ireland. I borrow 
it from O'Curry. Ruad, son of Rigdonn, a king's son, cross- 
ing over to North-land with three ships and thirty men in 
each, found his vessel held fast in mid-sea. [C/. our tale of 
Vidtishaka, Ocean, Vol. II, p. 72.] At last he leaped over the 
side to see what was holding it, and sinking down through 
the waters, alighted in a meadow where were nine beautiful 
women. These gave him nine boatloads of gold as the price 
of his embraces, and by their power held the three vessels 
immovable on the water above for nine days. Promising 
to visit them on his return, the young Irish prince got away 
from the Sirens and their beds of red bronze, and continued 
his course to Lochlann, where he stayed with his fellow-pupil, 
son to the king of that country, for seven years. Coming 
back, the vessels put about to avoid the submerged isle, and 
had nearly gained the Irish shore, when they heard behind 
them the song of lamentation of the nine sea-women, who 
were in vain pursuit of them in a boat of bronze. One of 
these murdered before Ruad's eyes the child she had borne 
him, and flung it head foremost after him. O'Curry left a 
version of this tale from the Book of Ballymote, I have 
borrowed a detail or two given in the Tochmarc Emere 
(fol. 21b) e,g, the important Homeric feature of the watery 
meadow (machaire). The story given by Gervaise of Tilbury 
(ed. Liebrecht, pp. 30, 31), of the porpoise-men in the Medi- 
terranean and the young sailor ; the Shetland seal-legend in 
Grimm's edition of Croker's tales (Irische Elfenmdrchen, 
Leipzig, 1826, p. xlvii et seq,) ; and the story found in Vin- 
centius Bellovacensis [Vincent of Beauvais] and elsewhere, of 
the mermaid giantess and her piu-ple cloak, may be named 
as belonging or related to the same cycle. These legends are 
represented in living Irish traditions, and the purple cloak 
just referred to appears, much disguised, in the story of 
Liban in the Book of the Dun.^^ 

As mentioned above, there is a distinct relationship 
between the sea-maiden and the siren. If her nature is 

1 3rd September 1881, p. 182. It was also given by Tawney, vol. ii, 
p. 6S8. 


not that of a vampire she is a nereid (as in our present story), 
but if she has a weakness for leading travellers astray and 
then eating them, she becomes a siren. Both varieties have 
their analogies in Indian mythology. 

For the sake of comparison we should remember that 
Homer presents the sirens to us as beautiful maidens of 
normal appearance, who by their enchanting songs lead 
mariners to their death. Like the Hindu Rakshasis they 
delight in blood and human flesh. No mention is made of 
their ornithological aspect. It is this very point, however, 
that later classical writers especially mention. Thus Apol- 
lonius Rhodius ^ (221-181 B.C.) describes them as partly 
virgins and partly birds; Apollodorus ^ (140 B.C.) says that 
from the thighs they had the forms of birds ; Ovid ^ and 
Hyginus * (a.d. 4) give them the feet and feathers of birds 
with beautiful virgin faces ; and Aelian ^ says they are re- 
presented as winged maidens with the feet of birds. Various 
suggestions to explain the phenomenon have been put for- 
ward, none of which is wholly satisfactory. If we interpret 
the Homeric ^eipfjveg as the treacherous calm of the ocean 
concealing hidden dangers beneath its smiling surface, we 

^ Argonautica, iv, 898 et seq. 

2 Bi/3XLo6rJKrj, Epitoma, vii, 19- 

3 Metamorphoses, v, 552-562. 
* Fab., 125, 141. 

^ De Naturd Animalium, xvii, 23. 

^ L, Stephani, Compte-Rendu de la Commission Imperiale Archeologique 
(St Petersburg), 1866, p. 9 etseq. ; ditto, 1870-1871, p. 143 et seq. ; J. F. Cerquand, 
" Les Sirenes," Revue Archeologique, N.S., x, 1846, pp. 282-303; H. Schrader, 
Die Sirenen, Berlin, 1868 ; G. Weicker, De Sirenibus qucestiones selectee, Leipzig, 
1895 ; J. P. Postgate, " A Philological Examination of the Myth of the Sirens," 
Joum. Phil., ix, 1880, p. 109 et seq. ; W. E. Axon, R. Morris and D. Fitzgerald, 
The Academy, Nos. 484, 486, 487, 1881 ; A. Baumeister, Denkm'dler des klassichen 
Altertums, iii, 1888; J. E. Harrison, Myths of the Odyssey, 1882, p. 146 
et seq. ; ditto. Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens, London, 1 890, 
p. 582 et seq. ; ditto, Joum. Hellenic Soc, vol. vi, p. 19 et seq. ; ditto. Pro- 
legomena to the Study of Greek Religion, 2nd edition, Cambridge, 1908, 
p. 197 et seq.; R. Unger, "Zur Sirenensage," Philologus, xlvi, 1888, pp. 
770-775; W. Crooke, "Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore," Folk-Lore, 
vol. xix, 1908, p. 171 et seq.; J. G. Frazer, Pausaniass Description of Greece, 
vol. V, 2nd edition, 1913, p. 171 ; ditto, Apollodorus, The Library, vol. ii, 
Loeb Classics, No. 122, 1921, pp. 290, 291; G. Weicker "Die Seirenen," 
Roscher's Lexikon der Griechischen u. Romischen Mythologie, vol. iv, p. 602 et seq. ; 
P. Shorey, "Sirens," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, pp. 577-579. 


need not be surprised if we find them connected with death 
due to normal causes. Such proves to be the case, and they 
are constantly represented on tombs and painted on lekythi, 
sometimes in their Homeric form, but more usually as half- 
birds. Writing on this subject Miss Harrison ^ says : "As 
monuments on tombs, the Sirens seem to have filled a double 
function ; they were sweet singers, fit to be set on the grave 
of poet or orator, and they were mourners to lament for the 
beauty of youth and maiden. It is somewhat curious that 
they are never sculptured on Attic tombs in the one function 
that makes their relation to death intelligible i.e, that of 
death-angels. The Siren of the Attic graves must surely be 
somehow connected with the bird death-angels that appear 
on the Harpy tomb, but her function as such seems to have 
been usurped for Attica by the male angels Death and Sleep." 

Thus there appears to be a distinct affinity between the 
sirens and the keres, erinyes and harpies. 

The conception of the soul-bird is widespread, ^ but has 
nowhere become so important as in the Malay Archipelago. 
In Malaya, Java, Sumatra, Borneo and Celebes we find a host 
of curious customs in which rice is placed on the head of 
persons whose soul-bird seems, for one reason or another, 
to show signs of departing. ^ In two of the sculptures of 
Boro-Budur in Java, one of the architectural marvels of 
the world, one represents * two beings, half -human, half-bird. 
To the right stands a king with a retinue which is sitting 
on the ground. Leemans described the two bird-maidens as 
"un couple de Gandharvis celestes dont Tune accompagne le 
chant de I'autre sur un instrument a cordes." In the recently 
issued edition of Krom and Erp,^ however, they are called 
Kinnaras. As we have already seen (Ocean, Vol. I, p. 202), 
Kinnaras are usually represented with horses' heads, but are 

1 Mi/th. and Mon., p. 584. 

* G. Weicker, Der Seelenvogel in der alien Literatur und Kunst, Leipzig, 

3 J. G. Frazer, Golden Bough {Taboo and the Perils of the Soul), p. 33 et seq. ; 
ditto (Spirits of the Com and the Wild), vol. 1, pp. 181, 182n^. 

* C. Leemans, J. F. G. Brumond and F. C. Wilsen, Boro-Boedoer op het 
Eiland Java. See vol. ii of the plates, Nos. civ (178) and cv (180). 

5 N. J. Krom and T. von Erp, Beschrijving van Barahudur, Archaeologisch 
Onderzoek in Nederlandsch- Indie, 3 vols., 1920. See Pt. I, 4th Div., Ser. 1. b., 
Plate XLV, Nos. 89 and 90; and cf. Plate XIII, No. 102, Ser. O. The 
corresponding pages in the text volume are 271, 272. 


also divine musicians. Neither of the above terms seems 
exactly to describe the siren-like beings of the sculptures, but 
their occurrence at Boro-Budur is of considerable interest. 

Turning now to ancient Buddhist siren legends, we notice 
that, as in the case of Somadeva's story of the nereid, the 
scene of action is in Ceylon or its immediate neighbourhood. 
Doubtless the shipwrecks occur among the numerous shoals 
and islands in Palk Strait. 

In the Valdhassa Jdtaka'^ we read of a city in Ceylon 
called Sirisavatthu, entirely inhabited by Rakshasis. It was 
their custom to entice shipwrecked mariners into their city, 
where, after a period of love and dalliance, their real nature 
would assert itself. On one occasion five hundred merchants 
were wrecked, and subsequently taken to Sirisavatthu. They 
all paired off, and in the middle of the night the chief Rak- 
shasi left her man in order to eat the flesh of a previous lover 
who now lay in magic chains in the house of torment. After 
her meal she returned, but it had had the effect of making 
her body cold. When about to embrace her, the merchant 
noticed the change and guessed the truth. In the morning 
he warned his companions, but only half the number were 
willing to try to effect an escape. The Bodhisattva sud- 
denly appeared in the form of a flying white horse and took 
the two hundred and fifty merchants to a place of safety. 
The others were devoured by the Rakshasis. 

An interesting version of the above story is given by 
Hiuen Tsiang (a.d. 629) in his Si-yu-ki (or Hsi-yu-chi)J 
Here the Rakshasis dwell in a great iron city in Ratnadvipa 
(Ceylon). They have the habit of erecting on the towers of 
the city two flagstaffs with lucky or unlucky signals according 
to circumstances. As soon as a possible prey is sighted, they 
change themselves into beautiful women, and approaching 
their victims with flowers and scents, entice the men to enter 
their city with the sound of sweet music. The rest of the tale 
resembles the Jataka, but only the hero finally escapes on 
the " divine horse." 

Whether this seventh Vetala story is based on any of the 

^ No. 196, Cambridge edition, vol. ii, pp. 89-91. See also H. T. Francis 
and E. J. Thomas, Jataka Tales, pp. l66, l67, where references are given to 
several other versions, including ones from China, Tibet and Java. 

2 S. Beal, Buddhist Records of the Western World, vol. ii, p. 240 et seq. 
Among the numerous ways of spelling the famous pilgrim's name may be 
mentioned Hsiian Tsang, Hiouen Thsang, Yuan-Tsang and Yuan-Chwang. 


early Buddhist legends dealing with maidens-of-the-sea is 
impossible to say. I have merely attempted to present very 
briefly the different forms of Indian siren stories, drawing 
attention to possible analogies with the well-known l^eip^veg 
of Greek mythology. 

The Three Fastidious Men 
{Vetdla 8 pp. 217-221) 

In the Hindi version ^ the story is No. 23. Here a Brahman 
named Gobind has four sons, the eldest of whom dies. In 
despair Gobind determines to perform acts of charity and 
devotion. Accordingly he asks his sons to fetch him a tor- 
toise for his first sacrifice. They tip a fisherman to get one, 
but find they cannot bring themselves to touch it. A quarrel 
ensues, and the brothers are taken before the king for him 
to decide which is the most dainty and fastidious. The rest 
follows as in our tale. 

In the Tamil version ^ the story is No. 3. It is much 
curtailed and begins very abruptly. There are just two points 
worth mentioning. The king, not being a Brahman, orders 
the food test to be held in a Brahman's house, and a report 
to be made to him later. The second man sleeps on a bed 
stuffed with flowers deprived of their stalks. He is sore all 
over his body in the morning, and a hair is found amongst 
the flowers. Babington's modesty forced him to omit any 
mention of the gentleman who specialised in women ! 

The story contains two distinct motifs, which will have 
to be considered separately. 

The first concerns the gift of being able to discover the 
fundamental origin of a thing merely by eating, smelling, 
drinking it, etc. This merges into another form of the motif, 
in which the process of " deduction " plays the principal part. 
It is not easy to find a term to cover both varieties, but I shall 
deal with them under the common title of " Quintessence " 
motif, ^ 

The second is concerned with the hypersensitiveness of 
people, often occasioned by luxurious living. This I shall 
call the " Sybarite " motif. 

^ Barker, op. cit., p. 344 et. seq. 
^ Babington, op. cit., pp. SS, 34. 
3 Ocean, Vol. IV, p. 87^i\ 


It will be seen at once that in the tale under discussion 
the first two brothers qualify for the " Quintessence " and the 
last one for the " Sybarite " motif. 

In Vetala 11 (see Appendix to Volume VII) we shall 
meet three very sensitive ladies who also come under the 
" Sybarite " motif. 

The " Quintessence " Motif 

In our present text we read that the first brother cannot 
eat the food offered him by the king as he perceives in it an 
evil smell of the reek from corpses. It transpires that the 
food had been made from rice grown near a hurning-ghat. 
The second brother notices the smell of a goat coming from the 
beautiful lady of the court. It is proved later that in child- 
hood she had been separated from her mother and nurse, and 
had been brought up on goat's milk. 

Both the above incidents have found their way into 
similar stories all over the East, and have gradually migrated 
westwards. After being included by the great Arabian his- 
torians, Mas'udi and Tabari, the story appeared in the Nights, 
in two different versions. In " The Tale of the King who 
Kenned the Quintessence of Things " ^ (Burton, Supp., vol. i, 
pp. 215-217) the old king judges between two pearls, and 
says that one must contain a teredo, or boring- worm. He 
then shows himself a wonderful judge of horses, and finally 
accuses the king of being the son of a baker. Everything 
proves to be correct. All the above are examples of the 
" deduction " variety of the motif under consideration. In 
"The Story of the Sultan of Al-Yaman and his Three Sons " 
{Nights, Burton, Supp., vol. iv, p. 1 et seq.) we first of all 
have the well-known lost-camel incident, in which the three 
men deduct the exact appearance of the animal, what it 
was carrying, etc. Arrived at the king's court, one of them 
notices that a cake has been baked by a woman who was 
unwell, the second that the taste of a bit of kid proves that 
it has been suckled by a bitch, and the third that the sultan 
must be a bastard. All turn out to be correct. These two 
examples from the Nights may be taken as typical of that 
great mass of stories on the same subject found so widely 
spread in both East and West. 

The largest list of analogues is probably that given by 

^ For analogues see ditto, Supp., vol. ii, p. 320 et seq. 


Chauvin ^ to the tale of the Sultan of Yemen. After dealing 
with the Persian and Arabian versions, he gives references 
to Indian, Jewish, Greek, French, Danish, Russian and other 
versions. In dealing with the Chevalier de Mailli's version 
of the three princes of Serendip, Fischer and Bolte^ give 
many useful references. In this tale, after the lost-camel 
incident, the three princes are sitting at the table of the 
Emperor Behram, eating a leg of mutton and drinking 
some excellent wine. The eldest maintains that the wine was 
made of grapes that grew in a cemetery, the second that the 
lamb was brought up on dog's milk, and the third says that 
the emperor had put the wazir's son to death, and that the 
wazir now planned vengeance. All the statements turn out 
to be well grounded. 

With regard to the lost-camel incident, apart from ana- 
logues to be found in the references already given, Clouston ^ 
gives a version from the Tamil Alakesa Kathd, and Gaster 
records an interesting Jewish version.* It is as follows : 

Two Jews were carried away captive from Mount Carmel. 
The captor following them overheard one saying to the other : 
" A she-camel has passed before us, she is blind of one eye 
and on one side she carries wine and on the other vinegar, 
and two men lead her, the one a heathen and the other 
a Jew." The captor said : " O ye sons of 'a stiff-necked 
people, whence do ye know that ? " They replied : " We 
recognise a she-camel by the footprints, the blindness because 
she feeds only off grass on one side of the road, the wine 
dropping down has soaked into the earth, the vinegar makes 
bubbles, and the heathen is not so careful in his manners as 
the Jew\" The captor ran after them and found the words 
true. Walking farther they said : " We smell the pots boil- 
ing four hundred miles off in Judaea." He replied : " You 
are too clever for me, your god cannot stand you and how 
can I ? " He brought them home and his mother killed a she- 
lamb and placed it before them and gave them wine to drink. 

1 Op. ciL, yii, 158-1 6l. 

2 Die Reise der Sohie Giaffers aus dem Italienischen des Christoforo Armeno 
uhersetzt durch Jokann Wetzel, 1583, Bihliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in 
Stuttgart, ccvii, Tubingen, 1895. For the English translations see Travels and 
Adventures of Three Princes of Sarendip, London, 1722. 

3 Eastern Romances, p. 19^ et seq., with several variants on pp. 511-513. 
* Exempla of the Rabbis, 1 924, pp. 63-64. 



One said to the other : " This flesh smells of the dog and the 
wine of the corpse." The man asked his mother, who explained 
that the lamb had been suckled by a bitch and the vine had 
grown on the grave of his father. After they had eaten, the 
man began to dance and they said : "That is an illegitimate 
child." He frightened his mother and she owned that she 
had once made a mistake with a dancer, and then he came 
back and said unto them ; " Blessed is the Lord Who has 
selected the seed of Abraham and has given them of his 
wisdom. Wherever you go you will be the masters of your 
master." And he gave them gifts and set them free, and 
they returned to their own country. 

Reference should be made to pages 195 and 196, where 
twelve other Jewish references are added, as well as a long 
list from other parts of the world. Dr Caster also gives a 
" quintessence " story on page 138, with numerous analogues 
on page 251. 

Nearly all the above-mentioned lists include the decisions 
of Hamlet in Saxo Grammaticus^ Here the bread tastes of 
blood (the corn had been grown on a battle-field), the drink 
tastes of iron (the malt was mixed with water taken from a 
well in which some rusty swords had lain), the bacon tastes 
of corpses (the pig had eaten a corpse), and, finally, the king 
is a servant and his wife a serving-maid. 

The " Sybarite " Motif 

We now come to the man who was fastidious about 
beds, and who had so tender a skin that a hair marked his 
body through seven mattresses. Readers will at once think 
of Andersen's well-known story "The Princess on the Pea." 

So far from passing over it with a mere reference, I shall 
not only give a new translation of the tale from the first 
edition, but will make its occurrence here an excuse for 
saying a few words about Andersen himself, and drawing 
attention to the complete absence of any scientific research 
on his stories in the English language, or even of a reliable 
translation of his work. The following is a literal rendering 
of the story in question.^ 

^ O. Elton, First Nine Books of the Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus, 
Folk-Lore Society, 1874, Book XIII, p. 113 et seq. 

2 It has been carefully corrected by Mr J. H. Helweg, who is a great 
authority on Andersen. 


There was once a prince ; he wanted to marry a princess, 
but it must be a real princess. So he travelled round the 
whole world to find one, but everywhere there was something 
wrong. There were plenty of princesses, but whether they 
were real princesses he could not find out : there was always 
something that was not quite right. Then he came home 
again and was so sad, because he did so wish to have a real 

One evening a terrific storm came on ; it lightened and 
thundered; the rain poured down; it was quite dreadful! 
Then there was a knock at the town gate, and the old king 
went out to open it. 

It was a princess who was standing outside. But, lord, 
how she looked, from the rain and the bad weather ! The 
water ran down from her hair and clothes, and it ran in at 
the points of her shoes and out by the heels ; and yet she said 
that she was a real princess. 

" Yes, that we shall soon find out ! " thought the old queen, 
but she did not say anything, went into the bedroom, took 
off all the bedclothes, and put a pea on the bottom of the 
bed ; then she took twenty mattresses and laid them on top 
of the pea, and then another twenty eiderdowns on top of the 

There the princess was to lie during the night. 

In the morning they asked her how she had slept. 
" Oh, dreadfully badly ! " said the princess. " I have 
scarcely closed my eyes all night long. God knows what 
there was in the bed ! I have been lying on something 
hard, so I am quite black and blue all over my body ! It is 
quite dreadful ! " 

Now they could see that she was a real princess, as she 
had felt the pea through the twenty mattresses and the 
twenty eiderdowns. Nobody but a real princess could be so 

The prince then made her his wife, because now he 
knew that he had a real princess, and the pea was put in 
the museum, where it is still to be seen, unless somebody 
has taken it. 

Now, this is a real story ! 

" Prindsessen paa a^rten " was one of the first four tales 
published by Andersen. The other three were to become 
equally famous : " The Tinderbox," " Little Claus and Big 



Claus," and " Little Ida's Flowers." These appeared in 
1835 under the title of Eventyr fortalte for Bfrn, or Stories for 
Children. The book contained sixty-one pages, and was only 
a small edition, the price being four skilling, or about fourpence- 
halfpenny. The simple style and naivete of the stories was 
specially chosen to resemble oral diction rather than the 
written story. ^ At first critics were very hard on Andersen 
none more so, perhaps, than Johan Ludvig Heiberg, the 
greatest critic in Northern Europe of that day. It is, there- 
fore, interesting to recall that it was he who, after reading 
the " Princess on the Pea," declared that at last Andersen 
had struck into the road that led to immortality. 

In later years Andersen explained that he had heard 
some of the earlier tales (amongst others, the "Princess") as 
a child in the spinning-room of the workhouse of his native 
Odense, or during hop-picking in the neighbourhood of Odense, 
where his mother had once taken him. This statement, 
however, although made by Andersen himself, has received 
little credence by Danish authorities. Thus G. Christensen ^ 
points out that even if the story of the pea did exist in a 
Danish version, it certainly was not known among the class 
of people Andersen refers to. Much more likely it was told 
him by his father, who read him so many stories from both 
Eastern and European collections. It was not until the end 
of his life that Andersen turned his attention seriously to 
Oriental tales. He was especially interested in Pilpay, and 
his deathbed was strewn with translations and commentaries 
of his earlier fellow- craftsman, 

" Prindsessen paa serten " has been traced to a Swedish 
story, the first part of which it closely resembles. It comes 
from Vestergotland, and is entitled " Prinsessan som lag pd 
sju arter." ^ The tale begins exactly as in Andersen, but 
the queen subjects the princess to several tests, one of which 
is the bed episode. She makes the bed with seven mattresses 
and puts a pea between each of them. The princess sleeps 
in perfect comfort, but her companion, a wise dog, advises 
her to complain of great discomfort. This she accordingly 
does, and all is well. Here, then, we are bordering on the 

1 For the personal element hidden in the story see H. Brix, H, C. Andersen 
og hans Eventyr, pp. 228-230. 

2 "H. C. Andersen og de Danske Folkeeventyr/' Danske Studier, 
^Copenhagen, 1906, p. 169 et seq. 

3 See J. Sunblad, Gammaldags Seder ock bruk, 1888, pp. 191-195. 



great " helpful animals " motif, with which we are already 

Now the " bed test " incident is well known in Sweden, 
and occurs in other earlier collections, but always in conjunc- 
tion with some animal, usually a cat, and so we come to our 
old friend " puss-in-boots." ^ Perhaps the best known of 
these stories in Sweden is Grundtvig, No. 43, "Katteprinsen." 
This " Herreper " story, as it is called, appears in numerous 
forms. Thus Hylten-Cavallius ^ quotes a large number, 
over half of which contain the " bed test." The usual in- 
cidents are as follows. A crofter's (or farmer's) daughter 
leaves her home with a cat and dog, and duly arrives at the 
king's court. In order to discover if she is really of royal 
descent, as she declares, she has to submit to three tests, 
which vary in the different versions. They are, however, 
all connected with objects placed in the bed. In one version 
the articles on successive nights are beans, peas and straw. In 
a version from Uppland they are an apple, a nut and a pea. 
In one from Vestergotland there are gravel, peas and grain. 
In another Uppland variant they have become peas, grain 
and pin-heads. In a South- West Finland version there are 
peas, knitting-needles and a lump of peat. 

The " Princess on the Pea " also found its way to Germany, 
and was included by the brothers Grimm in their edition of 
1843 (No. 182), under the title " Die Erbsenprobe." ^ All the 
charm of Andersen's story has disappeared, such a delicate 
theme fitting uneasily into a German mdrchen, and at once 
betraying its foreign origin. In fact, Grimm left it out in all 
subsequent editions, reahsing it was merely Andersen's tale 

There is, however, another German story * called " Erbsen- 
finder," in which a poor boy, in reality owning but a single 
pea, makes himself out to the king to be possessed of great 
wealth. In order to test the truth of his story he is made to 
sleep on a bed of straw. During the night the boy loses his 

1 For a detailed study of " Le Chat Botte," see P. Saintyves, Les Contes 
de Perrault, Paris, 1923, pp. 461-498 ; G. Polivka, Le Chat Botte : Etude comparee, 
Sophia, 1900 [in Bulgarian] ; Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 325-334. 

2 G. O. Hylten-Cavallius and G. Stephens, Svenska folksagor och dventyr, 
2 Tols., Stockholm, 1844-1849. See also B. Thorpe, Yuletide Stories, p. 64. 

3 See Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. iii, pp. 330-332. 

* J. Haltrich, Deutsche Volksm'drchen aus dem Sachsenlande in Siebenbiirgen, 
4th edition, Vienna, 1915, No. 33. 


pea among the straw and the noise he makes in searching 
for it is mistaken by the Ustening servants as a proof of his 
claim to wealth, as no rich person could possibly lie peacefully 
on such an uncomfortable bed. The story is also found in 
several other European collections/ 

And here arises an interesting question. Certainly the 
story is as un-Germanic as any story could be, but so also is 
it un-European. Why did it appeal to the Swedes so much, 
and by what route did it reach them ? As Christensen has 
already stated, the route would in all probability be the one 
by which so many Oriental tales have travelled to Scandinavia 
namely, via Greece, Tyrol, Hungary and Saxony. The 
nature of the tale is not such as would appeal to the hardier 
races of a colder clime, especially the Teutons. But the 
Swedes possess a highly developed sense of humour and 
imagination, and such a tale would be much more likely to 
find immediate acceptance. We should remember that it 
was the Swedes who adopted Oriental massage more than any 
other European nation. There may be a connection. 

It was by pure chance that the tale became so well known 
in Denmark. This was entirely due to Andersen, who picked 
out the " pea " incident from Swedish tales he had heard 
in his childhood. I do not suppose for a moment he had the 
least idea it was an Oriental story dating back to perhaps 
the beginning of the Christian era. 

As already stated, I shall deal further with the " Sybarite " 
motif in Vol. VII. Here I have confined my remarks to the 
" bed " incident. 

Before leaving Andersen I would like to draw attention 
to the lack of any scholarly work in the English language 
either on the man himself or on his stories. There is not 
even a complete and accurate translation. The best English 
one which has appeared so far is undoubtedly that by H. L. 
Braekstad, with an introduction by Edmund Gosse, and ex- 
cellent Danish illustrations by Hans Tegner (2 vols., London, 
1900-1901). The most complete English translation is that 
by W. A. and J. K. Craigie, issued in 1914 by the Oxford 
University Press. As the translators are good Danish 

^ J. Kriza, Vadrozsdk, Kolozsvartt, 1863, No. 73; W. H. Jones and 
L. Kropf. Folk-Tales of the Magyars, London, 1889, pp. 76 and 354; M. 
Kremnitz, RmnMische Mdrchen, Leipzig, 1883, p. 196; J. G. von Hahn, 
Griechische und albanesische M'drchen, Leipzig, 1864, No. 17; J. Pio, Conte^ 
populaires grecSf Copenhagen, 1879, p. 193. 


scholars, it was disappointing to find that most of the old 
mistakes had been faithfully copied, and in many cases the 
bad work of Mrs Paull, Miss Peachey, etc., had been repro- 
duced nearly verbatim. England is far from being alone 
in its neglect of one of the world's greatest story-tellers ; in 
fact, it is only quite recently that the Danes themselves have 
begun scientific research on the tales. See H. Schwanenfliigel, 
Hans Christian Andersen, Et Digterliv, Copenhagen, 1905, 
and Hans Brix, H. C. Andersen og hans Eventyr, Copenhagen, 
1907. Some of Brix's theories were opposed ex officio by 
Valdemar Vedel, whose criticisms were published as an article 
in the Tilskueren, 1907, pp. 494-502, under the title, " Den 
Andersenske Eventyrdigtning : H. Brix : H. C. Andersen 
og hans Eventyr," and should be read in connection with 
Hans Brix's book. At the Hans Andersen Exhibition in 
Berlin, 1925, Professor Vedel read a very interesting paper 
on "H. C. Andersen's Eventyr i europseisk Belysning" (pub- 
lished in Tilskueren, 1926, p. 43 et seq,). Other useful refer- 
ences are P. V. Rubow's " Ide og Form i H. C. Andersen's 
Eventyr," D en Ntje Litter atur, 1925, pp. 185, 214, 237 and 270; 
K. Larsen's H, C, Andersen i Tehst og Billeder, Copenhagen, 
1925, and V. A. Schmitz's H. C, Andersen's Mdrchendichtung, 
Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte d, dan, Spdtromantik, Nordische 
Studien, vii, Greifswald, 1925. 

We now turn to another story of a " bed " sybarite, which 
appears to be based on historic facts. It is recorded both by 
Tabari ^ and Mas'udi.^ I take the following account from 
the former historian, who gives us considerably more details 
than Mas'udi. 

Shapur I, King of Persia (a.d. 240-271), had been besieging 
the fortress of el-Hadr (Hatra) for four years. All his efforts 
proved futile. One day Nadhira, the beautiful daughter of 
Daizen, the besieged king, caught sight of Shapur and fell 
violently in love with him. On his promising to marry her, 
she told him the only, and most curious, way in which the 
fortress could be taken. Accordingly, el-Hadr was razed to 
the ground, and Shapur kept his promise.^ One night they 

^ M. H. Zotenberg, Chronique de . . . Tabari, traduite sur la version 
Persane d'Ahou-'Ali Mo'hammed Bel' Ami. . . . Paris, 1869, vol. ii, pp. 83, 84. 

2 C. Barbier de Meynard, Magoudi : Les Prairies D'Or, Societe Asiatique, 
Paris, 1865, vol. iv, pp. 84, 85. 

3 But see Sykes, History of Persia^ 2nd edition, 1921, vol. i, p. 400. 


slept on a bed composed of ten Chinese silk mattresses, 
but Nadhira complained it was so hard that she was in 
constant pain all night. In the morning Shapur examined 
her, and discovered that both she and the bed were soaked 
in blood. A rose-leaf had pressed against her side and had 
rubbed her skin till the bones showed ! On being questioned 
as to her upbringing, Nadhira said she had been nourished 
on cakes made of marrow-fat, butter, honey and flour. She 
had never eaten bread and had drunk only wine all her life. 
At this Shapur grew angry. " As you have betrayed your 
father, who brought you up in this way, and have shown 
him no gratitude, nobody can rely on you." So he had her 
tied by the hair to a horse and cut to pieces on the stones. 

Princess Nadhira and the rose-leaf finds her equal in 
Smindyrides, the Sybarite. Herodotus and several other 
classical writers ^ tell how this man even outdid the Sybarites 
themselves in luxury. Once he chose to sleep on a bed of 
roses, but he passed a miserable night on such a hard couch ! 
In the morning his body was covered with blisters. 

In conclusion I would mention the test of the tutors in 
the introduction to the Seven Sages of Rome, In order to 
see how their pupil had progressed in general science, they 
secretly placed four ivy leaves ^ under each post of his bed. 
On awaking in the morning, he surveyed the room with 
astonishment ^ : 

" Par fay ! " he said, " a ferli* cas ! 
Other ich am of wine drunk. 
Other the firmament is sunk, 
Other wexen is the ground ^ 
The thickness of four leaves round ! 
So much, to-night, higher I lay, 
Certes, than yesterday." 

^ Herodotus, vi, 127; Aelian, ix, 24; Athenaeus, vi, 105, and xii, 5^y 
Seneca, De Ira, ii, 25, 2. 

2 The Cotton MS. reads " iubarb," the houseleek. See Killis Campbell, 
Seven Sages of Rome, pp. 8, 9 and 153. 

3 G. Ellis, Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances, London, 1848, 
pp. 412, 413. 

* Wonderful. 

^ Or grown is the earth. 



The n stands for " note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

Abala, wife of Kamalagarbha, 

Achyuta, 111^3 
Acridotheres tristis, myna, 

maina or minor, 183^2 
Adapa legend, the, 133, 134 
Adhichhatra (Ahikshetra or 

Ahikshatra), city called, 

Adonis, the legend of the 
birth of, 15n3 

Advaita, " non-duality," 34 

Aelian, 294t^l 

Aelian, De Natura Animalium, 
282, 282n5 

Agastya drinking the water 
of the sea, 43, 43n\ 44w 

Agastya. reputed author of 
some hymns in the Rig- 
Veda, 43^1 

Agnisvamin, Brahman named, 

Agra, dialect spoken in, 

Ahichchhatra, city called, 69, 
697ii, 71, 96 

Ahikshetra (Ahichchhatra, 
Ahikshatra or Adhich- 
hatra), 69^1 

Aksha beads, rosary of, 45 

Akshakshapanaka [i.e. dice- 
mendicant), gambler 
named, 151, 153, 153^1, 
154, 155, 161, 162 

Akshakshapanaka and the 
Wooden Doll, 151-153 

Alakesa Kathd, the, 287 

Allah, 64, 65 

Allen, J.,'' Maya," Hastings' 
Ency. ReL Etk., vol. viii, 

Al-Mufaddal ibn Salama, 
collection of proverbs called 
the Fakhir, 62, 63 

Alphonse, Peter, Disciplina 
Clericalis, 272, 272^^. See 
also under Hulme, W. H. 

Amalaka fruit, 86, 87, 210 


Amalakas, 210, 211, 216 
Amaradatta, king named, 10, 

23, 141 
Amrita, 161n^ 
Amrita from the Daityas, 

Vishnu taking the, 143 ; 

restore to life by sprinkling 

with, 98, 98^1 
Amritika, 143 
Anangalila, daughter of Dhar- 

magopa, 12, 13, 14 
Anangamanjari, daughter of 

Anangodaya, 124, 125, 126, 

128, 129, 131 
Anangasena, son of Srldar- 

^ana, 129 
Anangasena turning her lover 

into a parrot, 60 
Anangodaya, king named, 

124, 127,, 128 
Ananta or Sesha, giant cobra 

with a thousand heads, 71, 

Andersen, H. C, Eventyr fort- 

alte for Bfrn (or Stories for 

Children), Copenhagen, 

1835, 288, 290. See also 

the General Index 
Andersson, Hilding, Lik- 

spbkets Tjugufem Ber'dttel- 

ser, Goteborgs Kungl. Vet- 

enskaps- och Vitterhetssam- 

hdlles Handlingar, 4 foljden, 

iii, Gothenburg, 1901, 226, 

Andree, R., Ethnogrqfische 

Parallelen und Vergleicke, 

Stuttgart, 1878-1889, 140 
Andrews, James P., History 

of Great Britain continued 

from Death of Henry Fill 

to Accession of James VI of 

Scotland, 1796, 24n 
Anga, the country of, 217; 

the king of, 43 
Aniruddha, 108 
Anu, the God of Heaven in 

Babylonian mythology, 134 

ApoUodorus, The Library, 

18^1, 133, 134, 282, 2%2n\ 

See also under Frazer, J.G., 

Apollonius Rhodius, Argo- 

naidica, 282, 282^1 
Apsarases, 11 
Apuleius, 61 ; The Golden 

Ass, bQrfi 
Arabia, covering eyes when 

sleeping in the open in, 

Ardhanarii^a representation of 

Siva, the, 207n^ 
Arfert, P., Das Motiv von der 

unterschobenen Braut in der 

intemationalen Erzdhlungs- 

Litteratur, Schwerin, 1897, 

Argha vessel, the, 71, 71^^ 
Arghya (or argha, an oblation 

to gods and venerable 

men), 215 
Arhat, candidate for Nirvana, 

an, 92, 92^^ 
Arthadatta, merchant named, 

Asadisa Jdtaka (No. 181), 272 
Ashadha, the month, 204 
Ai^oka, the Girnar inscription 

of, 150^1 
Asoka tree, 28, 2^n\ 29, 54, 

121, 207 
A^okakari, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 

Asura maiden, 112, 113, 213, 

214, 216 
Asuras (enemies of the gods), 

28, 161^1, 196, 206, 215 
Athenaeus, 294w^ 
Atirupa, story of, 92%^ 
Atman, connection between 

the words brahman and, 34 ; 

the doctrine of the, 34, 35 
Attahdsa i.e. "loud laugh,'* 

Attahasa, Yaksha named, 103, 

'i04, 105, 114, 130, 131 



Attis and Cyparissus, the 
myths of, 2.Qn'^ 

Augustine, De Civitate Dei, 61 

Avalon, Arthur (Sir John 
Woodroffe), Hymns to the 
Goddess, Ldn., 1913 ; Prifi- 
ciples of Tantra {Tantra- 
tattva), Ldn., 1914-1916; 
Shakti and Shdkta, 2nd ed., 
Ldn. and Madras, 1922; 
Tantra of the Great Libera- 
tion {Manhdnirvdna Tantra), 
Ldn., 1913, b2n 

Avanti, the city of, 33 ; the 
land of, 33, 252 

Avidyd, ignorance or false 
knowledge, 34, 35 

Axon, W. E., Morris, R., 
and Fitzgerald, D., The 
Academy, Nos. 484, 486, 
487, 1881, 282n 

Ayasa, interpretations of the 
word, 229 

Ayodhya, city called, 10, 25, 
26, 141 

Azes I, suggested as founder 
of the Vikrama era, 229 

Babil (Babel), Harut and 
Marut of, 63 

Babington, B. G., The Vedala 
Cadaif being the Tamul Ver- 
sion of a Collection of Ancient 
Tales in the Sanscrit Lan- 
guage, Ldn., 1831, 226, 
226^3, 232^1, 268%i, 269*i3, 
274^1, 276n2, 278^2, 285^2 

Bahu^akti, King of Kany- 
kubja, 4 

Bahusasya, 115 

Baitdl Pachisl, the first trans- 
lation of the Sanskrit 
Vetdlapanchavhhsati, 226, 

Baitdl Pachm, Bibliothek 
Orientalischer Mdrchen und 
Erzdhlungen, vol. i, H. 
Oesterley, 226, 227, 227^2, 
240, 269, 272, 273%^ 

Baitdl Pachlsi, or Twenty-five 
Tales of aBemon, The, W.B. 
Barker and E. B. Eastwick, 
226, 232n2, 267^2^ 273^6, 
276ni, 278/ii, 2d>bn^ 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, The 
Indian Ducks and their Allies, 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, 
1908, 71^3 

Balarama (brother of Krishna), 

Balasura, 84 

Balder, illuminating beauty 
of, 1^1 

Bali(king of the three worlds), 

Balkan, possibly the original 
home of the vampire belief, 

Balmung, the sword, 28*i2, 

Bana, 108 

Bandhudatta turning her 
lover into a monkey, 59 

Bandow, C. J., The Precedents 
oj \Princess Thoodamma 
Tsari, Rangoon, 1881, 60, 

Banyan-tree, 47, 48, 49, 56, 
102, 130, 166, 167 

Barbier de Meynard, C. See 
under Meynard, C. Barbier 

Bareli, 69wi 

Baring- Gould, S., Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages, 
new ed., Ldn., Oxford and 
Cambridge, 1869, ISn^, 
56n2, 109ii2 

Barker, W. B., and Eastwick, 
E. B., The Baitdl Pachisl, 
or Twenty-five Tales of a 
Demon, Hertford, 1855, 
226, 232, 2327^2, 267, 267^2, 
273^6, 276%!, 278^1, 285^^ 

Barne^t, Dr L. D., on a pass- 
age of the Brihat-kaihd- 
manjan, nSn^ ; The Golden 
Town and other Tales, 
Romance of the East Series, 
Ldn., 1909, 26^2, 28^1, 
S2n^ ; A Supplementary Cata- 
logue of Sanskrit, Pali and 
Prakrit Books in the Library 
of the British Museum (1892- 
1906), Ldn., 1908, 6n^ 

Barto, P. S., Tannhduser and 
the Mountain of Venus, 
Oxford University Press, 
1916, 109?^2 

Bartsch, K., Sagen, Mdrchen 
und Gebrduche aus Meklen- 
burg, 2 vols., Vienna, 1879, 
24w, 149^1 

Basile, G. B., // Pentamerone, 
16n, 200^3, 263. See also 
under Burton, R. F. 

Basset, Rene [" Deux Manu- 
scrits d'une Version Arabe 
inedite du Recueil des Sept 
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Behram, the Emperor, 287 

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Bengal, animal sacrifices to 
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[Bennett, A. L.] ["Ethno- 
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Bhadradanta, elephant called, 
12, 13 

Bhadraksha, king named, 14 

Bhagiratha, 44w 

Bhairava, form of Siva, 167, 
167i2, 176 

Bhandarkar, on interpreting 
the word ayasa in the 
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Bhavasarman, the transforma- 
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Bhillas, Mayavatu, king of 
the, 36, 37, 56", 57, 67, 68 

Bhimabhata, son of Ugra- 
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Bhimaparakrama, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 10-12, 23, 
24*, 40, 55, 57, 58, 100 

Bhogadatta, wife of Deva- 
bhuti, 83 

Bhogavati, the city of the 
serpent Vasuki, lOti^ 

Bhola Nath, translator of the 
VetdlapaTichaviriisati, 226 

Bhunandana,The Adventures 
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Bhurivasu, Brahman named, 

Bhutas (demons), 139, 167 
Bikram, son of Gandharbsen, 

232-234, 239 
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Bodhisattva (one whose es- 
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96, 97, 98, 284 

Bohtlingk, O., and Roth, R. 
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Boiardo, Orlando Innamorato, 


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Boro-Budur in Java, sculp- 
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Brahma, Qn^, 93, 98, 108, 
113, 265, 277 

30, 31 

Brahman and dtman, connec- 
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Brahmasiddhi, hermit named, 

Brahmasoma, ascetic named, 
127, 128 

Brahmasthala, 164, 179, 204 

Braj-bhasha dialect, the San- 
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Brihat-kathd, the, 228, 248 

Brihat-kathd-manjarl, Kshe- 
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'' Brihatkathamanjari de 
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Brix, Hans, H. C. Andersen 
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B[rockhaus] text of the 
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57^2, 90^2, 146^1, 169^3, 
192n2, 204i2, 205^12, 220^2 

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Buddha, Gautama, 187w^ ; 
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Buddhisarira, 168, 175 

Buerger, G. A., Leonora, 138 

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1888, 23^1, S7n\ 61-63, 
74w, 100^1, 240, 255, 256, 
258, 260, 260nS 274, 275wi, 
286, 286^1 . yikram and the 
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[Busk, R. H.] Sagas from 
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Campbell, J. G., Superstitions 
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Campbell, Killis, The Seven 
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Carnatic, the, 90 

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Cass el. P., An Explanatory 
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G. O. 

Cerquand, J. F., " Les Sir- 
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N.S., vol. x, 1846, 282^6 

Ceylon, the five mountains of, 
70^2 ; the scene of the 
ancient Buddhist siren 
legends, 284 

Chalmers Mitchell, Dr, 67l^l 

Chandabhujanga, 153, 161 

Chandaketu, warder of Maya- 
vatu, 37, 38, 55, 56 

Chandanapura, 184 

Chandasimha, king named, 
209, 211, 213 

Chandi, the goddess, 194, 

Chandra Mitra, Sarat. See 
under Mitra, Sarat Chandra 

Chandraditya, king named, 
156, 158 

Chandragupta II, suggested 
as the legendary '' Vi- 
krama," 230 

Chandraprabham, 183 



Chandravati, 267 

Chiirumati, parrot named, 86, 

Chataka, 108 

Chatre, Sadashiv, translator 
of the Vetalaparlchavimsati 
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Chauvin, Victor, Bibliographie 
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1892-1909, 16w, lSn\ 66n^ 
62, 74n, 84ni, lSSn\ 241, 
249, 256, 260, 260^1, 273^2, 
216n\ 287, 287ni 

Chevalier de Mailli's version 
of the Three Princes of 
Serendip, 287. For details 
see under Mailli, Chevalier 

ChhatravatT, 697^^ 

Chi, the scribe of the Chinese 
underworld, 96n^ 

Chitragupta, recorder of good 
and evil deeds, 93, 93ni 

Chitraratha, 189 

Chitrasthala, garden called, 

Chodakarna, Brahman named, 

Chowries, blossoms of trees 
waving like, 168 

Christensen, G., " H. C. 
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290, 290^2, 292, 293 

Chrysaor, the sword, 72wi 

Chtiraman, parrot named, 267, 

Clarke, K. M., Maori Tales j 
1896, 135 

Clouston, W. A., The Book oj 
Sindibdd [Glasgow], 1884, 
255, 259^1, 260^1 ; Flowers 
from a Persian Garden and 
Other Papers, Ldn., 1890, 
74n ; A Group of Eastern 
Romances and Stories, 1889, 
60, 287, 287w3; Popular 
Tales and Fictions, their 
Migrations and Transforma- 
tions, 2 vols., Edinburgh 
and Ldn., 1887, 275ni 

Codrington, R. H., TheMelan- 
esians, Oxford, 1891, 135 

Coelho, A., Cojitos Populares 
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ConybearC; F. C, Philostratus, 
Life of Apolloniusof Tirana, 
Loeb Classics, 280^^ 

Cordier, H., Yule, H., and 
The Book ofSer Marco Polo, 
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Cosquin, E., Les Conies Indiens 
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16w, 48w ; Contes Populaires 
de Lorraine, 2 vols., Paris, 
1886, 18/ii, 122^2; hudes 
Folklorique, Paris, 1922, 
246, 246ni 

Cowell, Professor, QrO- 

Cox, G. W., Mythology of the 
Aryan Nations, 1870, 72n^ 

Coxwell, C. F., Siberian and 
Other Folk -Tales, Ldn., 

1925, 123w, 242, 248, 264, 
269^2, 270, 273^2, 280 

Craigie, W. A., and J. K., 
Fairy Tales and Other 
Stories, by H. C. Andersen j 
Oxford University Press, 
1914, 292 

Crooke, W., Annals and Anti- 
quities of Rajasthan . . . 
by James Tod, 3 vols., 
Oxford University Press, 
1920,226^1; ''Charms and 
Amulets (Indian)," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 59 ; 
" King Midas and his Ass's 
Ears," Folk -Lore, 1911, 
26^1 ; The Popular Religion 
and Folk- Lore of Northern 
India, 2 vols., new ed., 
Westminster, 1896, 59, 
109n\ 149^1; new ed., 

1926, 265?i3; "Some Notes 
on Homeric Folk -Lore," 
Folk-Lore, 1908, 282^6 

Crore (100 lakhs i.e. 

10,000,000), 77, 77^1, 186 
Cunningham, A., The Ancient 

Geography of India, Ldn., 

1871, 69ni 
Cybele, the witch, 61n^ 
Cyparissus, the myths of 

Attis and, 26%^ 

Daitya maiden, 107, 108, 114, 

214, 215, 216 
Daityas (enemies of the gods), 

111, 143 
Daksha (a chief of the gods), 

Damadhi, Brahman named, 

Danavas (enemies of the 

gods), 108, 143, 196, 206 
Dandin, Dasa-kumdra-charita, 

247, 251, 259 

Daniapatra, ornament called, 

Darbha grass, 98, 117 Mk 

Dardura, 41 ^ 

Dasa-kumdra-charita, Dandin, 
247, 251 

Dasyus (demon), 139 

Dawkins, R. M., Modern Greek 
in Asia Minor, with a chapter 
by H. R. Halliday, Cam- 
bridge, 1916, 122^2, 123w, 
138, 273n^ 

Deccan,108,201,209; Guar- 
dian, the Vetala the, 139 

De Gubernatis. See under 
Gubernatis, A. de 

Delhi, 226 

Delphi, 204^3 

Demeter, 133 

Devabhuti and his Chaste 
Wife, the Brahman, 83-84 

Devadarsana, Brahman 
named, 105, 115 

Devadatta, 248 

Devasvamin, son of Hari- 
svamin, 200, 201 

Dewar, D., Wright, R. G., 
and. The Ducks of India, 
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Dey, Kanny Lall, Indigenous 
Drugs of India, 2nd ed., 
Calcutta, 1896, llOn^ 

Dey, Nundolal, " Geographi- 
cal Dictionary of Ancient 
and Mediaeval India," 
Indian Antiquary, 69^1, 

Dhanadatta, son of Artha- 
datta, 184, 185, 186 

Dharmadatta, merchant 
named, 186 

Dharmagopa, king named, 
12, 13 

Dharmasena, merchant 
named, 17 

Dharmavati, wife of Viravara, 
191, 194-196 

Dhauli inscription, 150?ii 

Dhavala, 204-206 

Dhumaketu, king named, 

Dhumalekhd {i.e. line of 
smoke), 129, 130, 131 

Dhumra^ikha, a Rakshasa 
named, 202 

Dhyana, meditation, 34 

Dinars, 258, 259, 272 ; daily 
salary of five hundred, 191, 

Dlptasikha {i.e. burnim 
flame), 129 



ipta^ikha, brother of Atta- 
hasa, 103, 104, 130, 131' 

Divakara, Siddhasena, 228 

Dridhamushti, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 10 

Dunlop, John, History of 
Fiction, 280n2> 3. 4, gee also 
Liebrecht's German trans- 

Durandal, the sword, 28?i2j 

Durga (Parvati, Gauri, Uma, 
etc., wife of Siva), 17, 67, 
69, 99, 108, 196, 204wi, 

Durgapi^acha, King of 
Matangas, 36, 100 

D[urgaprasad] text of the 
K,S.S., the, 26^2, 31^1, 
39ni, 42^1, 46^2, 54ni, 57^2, 
90w2, 96^1, 99^1, 167^1, 
169^3, 193^2^ 205^1, 220^2 

Ea, the god, 134 

Eastwick,E.B., Barker, W.B., 
and, The Baitdl Pachisl, 
or Twenty-Jive Tales of a 
Demon, Hertford, 1855, 

226, 232^2^ 267^2, 273^6, 
276ni, 278711, 285ni 

Edgerton, Franklin, on in- 
terpreting the word ayasa 
in the Takshasila inscrip- 
tion, 229 

Edgerton, Franklin, Fi^rma'* 
Adventures, or The Thirty- 
Two Tales of the Throne, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1926, 

227, 228, 228^1' 2, 229, 
2297ii' 2, 231wi' 2, 2407ii 

Egypt, food taboo in ancient, 

Ekalavya, city called, 20, 142 

Eleanor, Duchess of Glouce- 
ster, 24n 

EUis, A. G., 165?^2 

Ellis, G., Specimens of Early 
English Metrical Romances, 
Ldn., 1848, 294^3 

Elster, E., Tannhauser in 
Geschichte, Sage und Dich- 
tung, Bromberg, 1908, 

Elton, O., First Nine Books 
of the Danish History of 
Saxo Grammaticus, Folk- 
Lore Soc, 1874, 288^^1 

Erceldoune, Thomas of, the 
Rhymer, 135 

Ernst, the wanderings of 
Herzog, 257^2 

Erp, T. von, Krom, N. J., 
and, Beschrijving van Bara- 
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Eudocia Augusta, the wife of 
Theodosius II, 240 

Europe, bridal, the magical 
article used in, 61 

Evans, G. H., Elephants and 
their Diseases, Rangoon, 
1910, 6871; A Treatise on 
Elephants : Their Treatment 
in Health and Disease, 
Rangoon, 1901, 6871 

Excalibar, the sword, 28^2, 

Fay, the subaqueous palace 
of Morgan le, 280, 2807i2 

Ferdinand, Earl of Derby, 

Fischer, H., and Bolte, J., 
Reise der S'ohne Giaffers aus 
dem Italienische des Christo- 
foro Aimeno libersetzt durch 
Johann Wetzel, 1583, Tubin- 
gen, 1895, 287, 2877^2 

Fitzgerald, David, letter in 
The Academy about sirens, 
281, 281ni 

Fitzgerald, David, Axon, 
W. E., Morris, R., and. 
The Academy, Nos. 484, 
486, 487, 1881, 282n 

Fleet, J. F., " Imaginative 
Yojanas," Journ. Roy. As. 
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Fletcher, John, Woman 
Pleased, 271 

Flower, Major Stanley, on 
must elephants, 67%^, 68n 

Forbes, Duncan, Adventures 
of Hatim Ta'i, Oriental 
Translation Fund, 1830, 

Fouque, La Motte, Undine, 

Francis, H. T., and Thomas, 
E. J., Jdtaka Tales, Cam- 
bridge, 1916, 284^1 

Francke, A. H., "Die Ge- 
schichten des toten No- 
rub-can," Zeit. d. d. morg. 
Gesell, Leipzig, 1921, 242, 

Frazer, J. G., Apollodorus, 
The Library, 2 vols., Loeb 
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18ni, 133, 134, 282n6 ; The 
Belief in Immortality,^ vols., 
Ldn., 1913, 22, 24, 137; 

Frazer continued 

The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 
12 vols., Ldn., 1911-1915, 
Ini, 24n, 59, lOOn^, 133, 
137, 265w3, 283n3; Pau- 
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1913, 133, 282n6 

Fiihrer, A., Monumental An- 
tiquities and Inscriptions in 
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Gaal, G., Mdrchen der Mag- 
yar en, Vienna, 1822, 26ri3- 

Gagni^re, Annales de la Pro" 
pagation de la Foi, Lyons, 
1860, 134, 135 

Ganas (attendants of Siva), 

Gandhamalin, king of the 
snakes, 70-73 

Gandhara, Azes I, king of, 

Gandharva, 142, 143, 162, 
163, 189 

Gandharva form of marriage, 
2, 15, 15wi, 126, 126wS 
157, 173, 279 

Gandharvas, 146, 163 

Gandhavati, thC; 20 

Ganesa (son of Siva and Par- 
vati), 1, 25, 33, 33ii2, 40-, 

109, 124, 125, 127, 128, 

Ganga, the {i.e. the Ganges), 
44w ; the goddess, 148-150-, 

Ganges, the, 5, 75, 95, 108, 

110, 143, 148, 149, 154, 
168, 180, 181, 263 

Garbe, R., " Vedanta," Hast- 
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Gardabhilla of Ujjayini, King, 

Gaster, M., on food taboo 

story from Prague, 136 
Gaster, M., The Exempla of 
the Rabbis, Leipzig and 
Ldn., 1924, 287, 287^*, 
Gaudapada, Kdrikd, 34 
Gauri (Durga^ Parvati, etc.), 
wife of Siva, 70, 204, 
Gaurltirtha, lake called, 204 
Gautama Buddha, 187^^ 
Geirrod, King, of the under- 
world, 135 



Gerel, Naran ("sunshine"), 

story of, 248, 249 
Oervaise of Tilbury, 281 
<jibb, E. J. W., The History 

of the Forty Vezirs, Ldn., 

1886, 249 
Gildemeister, J., new ed. of 

Lassen's Anthologia sans- 

critica, 261, 273 
Giles, H. A., Strange Stories 

from a Chinese Studio, 2 

vols., Ldn., 1880, 15n3, 

95/ii, 136, 277 
Girnar inscription of A^oka, 

the, 150^1 
Gobind, Brahman named, 

Godavarl, the, 67ni, 165,231, 

Goethe, Legende, S'dmmtliche 

Werke, Stuttgart and Tub- 
ingen, 1840, 276 
Gonzenbach, Laura, Sicilian- 

ische Mdrchen, with notes 

by R. Kohler, 2 vols., 

Leipzig, 1870, 47^1 
Gosse, Edmund, introduction 

to Braekstad's English 

edition of Andersen's Fairy 

Tales, 292 
Gother, W., Zur deutschen 

Sage und Dichtung Gesam- 

melte Aufsatze, Leipzig, 

1911, 109?i2 
Gould, S. Baring-. See under 

Baring-Gould, S. 
Grafton, R., Chronicle, ^in 
Gram, the sword, 72?z^ 
Gregor, Walter, Notes on the 

Folk -Lore of North -East 

Scotland, Ldn., 1881, IbOn 
Grierson, G. A., The Modern 

Vernacular Literature o f 

Hindustan, Calcutta, 1889, 

Griffith, R. T. H., Birth of 

the War-God, 1918, 3# 
Grimm, J. and W., Irische 

Elfenmdrchen, Leipzig, 

1826, 36>2i, 194^1, 281; 

Kinder- und Hausmdrchen, 

18^1, 47/21, mrfi, 61, 98%!, 

\12n^. See also under 

Bolte and Polivka 
Grimm, J., Teutonic Mythology, 

trans. J. S. Stallybrass, 
Ldn., 1880 - 1888, \n^, 
Grohmann, J, V., Sagen aus 
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Grundtvig, S. [Register: Dan- 

jnarks Folkeaeventyr], 1861- 

1863, 291 
Gubernatis, A. de. Zoological 

Mythology, 2 vols., Ldn., 

1872, 277 
Gujarat, 139, 150^1, 230 
Gunadhya, 73?i3 
Gunakara, minister of Mrigna- 

kadatta, 10, 68, 99, 100 
Gupta dynasty, the, 230 

Hades, Odysseus in, 137 ; 
Prosperine in, 133 

Hadr, al- (Hatra), 293 

Hagen, F. H. v. d., Altdeutsche 
u. AltnordischeHelden-Sagen, 
3 vols., Breslau, 1872-1880, 

Hahn, J. G. von, Griechische 
und albanesische Mdrchen, 
Leipzig, 1864, 292^ii 

Halahala poison, 87, ^In^ 

Halliday, W. R., notes to R. 
M. Dawkins' Modern Greek 
in Asia Minor, 123n, 273%^ 

Haltrich, J., Deutsche Volks- 
mdrchen aus dem Sachsen- 
lande in Siehenhilrgen, 4th 
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Hamsadvipa, an island in the 
western sea, 124-128 

Hamsavali, daughter of Chan- 
dkditya, 156,157, 159,162; 
Kamalakara and, 40-55 

Hariri, Sharishi, commentary 
on the Maqdmdt of, 62, 64 

Harisvamin, Brahman named, 

Harley, T., Moon-Lore, Ldn., 
1885, lOOni 

Harrison, J. E., Journ. Hellenic 
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Odyssey, Ldn., 1882, 282# ; 
Mythology and Monuments 
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1890, 282^ 283, 283^1; 
Prolegomena to the Study of 
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Harshavati, city called, 186 

Hartland, E. S., Legeiid of 
Perseus, 3 vols., Ldn., 1894- 
1896, 138 ; The Science of 
Fairy Tales, Ldn., 1891, 135 

Harun-ar-Rashid, nocturnal 

adventures of, 37/1^ 
Harut and Marut of Babil, 
two angels teaching magic 
to mankind, 63 
Hastinapura, 151 

Hastings' Encyclopcedia of 
Religion and Ethics, 35, 44n, 

52w, 59, 76ni, 133, 13' 



Hatakeiana (Siva), 108, 10 

Hatakesvara (Siva), 110 

Hatim Ta'i, the adventurer 
of, 280, 280?ii 

Heiberg, Johan Ludvig, 290 

Heliodorus, JEthiopica, 204n3 . 
Bohn's edition, 51^^ ; trans. 
Underdowne, Tudor Trans- 
lations, 1895, 51 ni 

Helweg, J. H., 288ii2 

Hemaprabha, king of parrots, 

Henderson, W., Notes on the 
Folk- Lore of the Northern 
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Henry, Robert, History of 
Great Britain, ^An 

Herklots, G. A., Islam in India, 
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Herodotus, 294, 294^1 

Herrtage, S. J. H., The 
Early English Versions of 
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Hertel, Johannes, Die zehn 
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Indische Mdrchen, Jena, 
1921, 254w4 

Hertz, W., on vampirism, 136, 
137 ; Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen, Stuttgart and Berlin, 
1905, 74w 

Himalaya, the, 106, 107, 226 ; 
father of Mainaka, 2tn^ 

Himalayas, the, 103 | 

Hiouen Thsang. See Hiuen 

Hitopadesa, the, 279, 279ni 

Hitopadesa, or Salutary Coun- 
sels of Vishnusarman, F. 
Johnson, 279%^ 

Hiuen Tsiang, Ahichchhatra, 
the 'O-hi-chi-ta-lo of, 69ni ; ; 
Si-yu-ki (or Hsi-yii-chi), 284, | 
2S4:n^ j 

Hock, S., Die Vampyrsagen^ 
und ihre Verwertung in der 
deutschen Litteratur, Berlin, j 
1900, 140 
Hovorka, O., and Kronfeld, 
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Hsiian Tsang. See Hiuen 

Hulme, W. H., Peter Al- 
phonses Disciplina Clericalism 
Western University Bulle- 
tin, 1919, 272/^3 

Hutu, story of Pane and, 

Hyginus, Fabulce, 282, 282w* 

Hylten-Cavallius, G. O., and 
Stephens, G., Svenskafolk- 
sagor och aventyr, 2 vols., 
Stockholm, 1844-1849,291, 

Ibn Qutaiba, Mukhtalif al- 
hadith, 63, 66 

Iken, C. J. L., Touti Nameh, 
eine Sammlung Persischer 
Marchen von Nechschebi, 
Stuttgart, 1882, 272^1, 
275^3, 5^ 276^3 

Ikshuvatl, 108 

India, array of demons and 
spirits feared in, 139 ; form 
of black magic among 
Mohammedans in North- 
ern, 149^1, IbOn 

Indo-Aryans, tales of flying 
mountains among, 2tn^ 

Indra, 85, 96, 98, 165, 189, 
231 ; cutting off the wings 
of the mountains, myth 
about, Zn^ 

Indukala^a, prince named, 
81, 96 

Indukesarin, king named, 90, 

Induprabha, the generous, 
84, 84w2, 85, 86 

Induyasas, daughter of In- 
dukesarin, 90 

Issaverdens, J., Uncanonical 
Writings of the Old Testa- 
ment found in the Armenian 
MSS. of the Library of St 
Lazarus, Venice, 1901, lin 

Iti, calamities called (exces- 
sive rain, drought, etc.), 
73, 73?^l 

'Izzat Ullah, Shaykh, "The 
RoseofBakawali," 60 

Jacobi, H., " Agastya," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 44w ; 
"The Kalakacharyakatha- 
naka," Zeit. d. d. morg. 
GeselL, 230n^ 
Jahnavi, the goddess, 149 
Jai Singh Sawai, Raja of 
Jaipur, 226, 226/ii 

Jambhaladatta, recension of 
the Vetalapanchavimsati, 
225, 225%5 

Jambu flower, 15 ; tree, 15, 
16, 110, llOni 

James I, King, Dcemonologie, 


Jastrow, M., Religion of Baby- 
lonia and Assyria, Boston, 
1898, 133, 134 

Jdtaka, the, Asadisa (No. 181), 
272 ; [Devadhamrna] (No. 
6), 3Qn^; Losaka (No. 41), 
279; Mahajanaka (No. 539), 
72^1 ; [Nalapana] (No. 20), 
36#; Sdd'huslla (No. 200), 
262; [Tayodhamma^ (No. 
58), 36^1 ; Valdhassa (No. 
196), 284, 284^1; Cam- 
bridge edition of, 262, 
279^2^ 284^1 

Jdtaka Tales, H. T. Francis 
and E. J. Thomas, 284^1 

Jerdon, T. C, The Birds of 
India, 2 vols., Calcutta, 
1862-1864, 71^3 

Jibananda Vidyasagara, edi- 
tion of Jambhaladatta's 
recension of the Vetala- 
panchavimsati, 225, 225?^5 

Jina, the worship of, 76 

Jinn, similarity between a 
Rakshasa and an Arabian, 

Jiva, experience, 34 

John, R. F. St A. St [" Indo- 
Burmese Folklore "], Folk- 
Lore Journal, 1889, 266 

Johnson, F., Hitopadesa, or 
Salutary Counsels of Vishnu- 
sarman, Ldn. and Hert- 
ford, 1847, 279/ii 

Johnstone, P. de Lacy, The 
Raghuva7iga . . . by Kdli- 
ddsa, Ldn., 1902, 3^1 

Jones, W. H., and Kropf, L., 
Folk- Tales of the Magyars, 
Ldn., 1889, 292ni 

Jordane, Margery, the 
cunning witch of Eye, 


Jiilg, Bernhard, Kalmukische 
Marchen. Die Marchen des 
Siddhi-Kiir, Leipzig, 1866, 
242, 242^2, 264, 2697^2 ; 
Mongolische Mdrchen-Samm- 
lung. Die Neu7i Marchen 
des Siddhi-Kiir und die Ge- 
schichte des Ardschi-Bordschi 
Chan, Innsbruck, 1868, 
242, 242^2 248 

Jyotirlekhd (line of bright- 
ness), 130, 131 

Kaden, W., Uiiter den Oliven- 

bdumen, Leipzig, 1880, 16w 
Kailasa, Mount, 103, 131, 168 
Kalaba, Jain saint, 230 
Kalajihva, Yaksha named, 70, 

71, 72, 80 
Kalakeyas or Kaleyas, a class 

of Asuras, 43^^, 44?i 
Kalanemi, king of the Asuras, 

Kali (demon), the adversary 

of virtue, 106 
Kali (Durga, ParvatT, etc., 

wife of Siva), 197, 278 
Kalidasa, Kumdra-Sambhava, 

3^1 ; Raghuvarnsa, 2>Yi}- 
Kali Krishna, English version 

of the Vetdlapanchaviihsati, 

Kalinga, 170 
Kama (the God of Love), 11, 

156, 219 
Kamalagrabha, Brahman 

named, 130 
Kamalakara and Hamsavall, 

Kamalamati, 70, 73, 74 
Kamalodaye, Brahman 

named, 20 
Kamandaki, city called, 184 
Kanakakalasa, prince named, 

81, 96-98 
Kanakamanjarl, 45-53 
Kandarpa (God of Love), 40 
Kanishka, suggested as the 

king " Vikrama " of Jain 

tradition, 229 
Kan timati, wife of Vamadatta, 

Kanyakubja, 4, 179 
Kapi^abhru, 103 
Kdrikd, Gaudapada, 34 
Karimandita, forest called, 

26, 27 ' 
Karma, acts and their retri- 
bution, 34 
Karmasena, king named, 11, 

Karnata, province of, 198 
Karnotpala, king named, 170, 

Karor, Hindustani for crore, 

Karpata, " ragged garment,'* 

Kdrpatika, " dependent,'* 

Kasi, city called, 27 



Kai^mira, the ornament of the 

earth, 106, 108, 109 
Kaihdkoga, C. H. Tawney, Iw^, 

25n3, 205>i 
Kau^alya, 161 
Kau^ambi, 1 

Kedara mountain, the, 88 
Keightley, Thomas, The 

Fairy Mythology, London, 

1850, 136 
Kern, Dr, 19ni, 75ni 
"Khamuka," one of the 

glands on the forehead of 

an elephant, 67^^ 
Khandesh, 150^1 
Khurafa, the tale of, 62, 63 
Kielhorn, F., theory about 

the Vikrama era, 230 
Kincaid, C. A., Tales oj King 

Vikrama, Oxford Univer- 

Kronfeld, E., Hovorka, O., 

and, Vergleichende Volks- 

medizitiy Berlin, 1908-1909, 

Kropf, L., Jones, W. H., and, 

Folk-Tales of the Magyars j 

Ldn., 1889, 292ni 
Krosa (or kos)^ generally one 

and an eighth mile, 70 
Kshantii^ila, mendicant 

named, 165, 166 
Kshatriya (warrior caste), 73, 

Kshemendra, Brihat-katha- 

manjari, 2n^, 2^Qn^, n3n\ 

Kuhn, A., Sagen, Gehr'duche 

u. M'drchen aus Westfalen, 

2 vols., Leipzig, 1859, 23^2, 

36^1, 93< 136, 149^1 



sity Press, 1921, 226, 226^* Kumdra - Sambhava, Kalidasa, 

Kinnaras, 283 

Kiratas, 27 ; king of the, 25, 

Kirby, note to Burton's 

Supplemental Nights, 61 
Knowles, J. H., Folk-Tales 

of Kashmir, Ldn., 1888, 

Kohler, R., notes to L. 

Gonzenbach's Sicilianische 

Mdrchen, 47^^ 
Konow, Sten, on interpret- 
ing the word ayasa in the 

Taksha^ila inscription, 229; 

Aryan Gods of the Mitani 

People, 1921, 3ni 
Kos, generally one and an 

eighth mile, 47, 70, 70^1, 

97, 110, 110n3, 121 
Kosala, city called, 40, 49, 

Koti, Sanskrit for crore, 71n^ 
Kramasaras, mountain and 

holy bathing-place, 107, 

112, 113 
Krappe, A. H., "The Myth 

of Balder," i^o/A:-Lore, 1923, 

Kremnitz, M., Rumdnische 

Mdrchen, Leipzig, 1883, 

Krishna, 1, 107, 111^3 
Krishna, Kali, See under 

Kali Krishna 
Kriza, J., Vadrozsdk, Koloz- 

svartt, 1863, 292^1 
Xrom, N. J., and Erp, T. 

von, Beschrijving van Bara- 

budur, 3 vols., 1920, 283, 



Kumbhanda (demon), 139 
Kumuda vow, the, 90, 90?^l 
Kumudini [i.e. assemblage of 

white water-lilies), 112, 

112^^2, 114 
Kumudvati, the, 125 
Kunjara, one of the five 

mountains of Ceylon, 70^2 
Kurukshetra, 84 
Kusa grass, 50 
Kushmanda (demon), 139 
Kuvalayavati, 156 
Ku vera, the God of Wealth, 71 

Lakh (100,000), 77^1 

" Lakshadatta and his De- 

pendent Labhadatta, 

King," 209^2 
Lakshmi (Goddess of Pros- 

Lasaka, 143 

LasavatI, wife of Ugrabhata, 
143, 144 

Lassen, Christian, Anthologia 
sanscritica, Bonnae ad Rhe- 
num, 1838, 261, 261w^ 273 

Lata, the kingdom of, 150, 
i50nS 156, 159, 160-162, 

Lat-desa, 150w^ 

Lathika (Lata), 150n^ 

Lavanyamanjari, 20-21 

Lee, A. C, The Decameron, 
its Sources and Analogues, 
Ldn., 1909, 271, 271^3 

Leemans, C, Brumond, J. F. 
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Leiden, 1873, 283w* 

Levi, S., " La Brihatkatha- 
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Journal Asiatique, 1886, 

Leyen, F. von der, Indische 
Mdrchen,HaUe, 1898, 225%^ 

Liebrecht, Felix, edition of 
Gervaise of Tilbury, 281 ; 
Geschichte der Prosadich- 
tungen oder Geschichte der 
Romane . . . (German 
translation of Dunlop'sjffw- 
tory of Fiction), Berlin, 
1851,204^3, 280^2- 3. 4 . 2^;. 

Volkskunde, Heilbronn, 

1879, 15^3, 122^1 m 

Linga of Siva, 19, 51 "J 

Livy, 24w 
Loeb Classical Library, ISn^, 

280, 282716 
Longfellow, H. W., Flowers, 


perity and wife of Vishnu), I^osaka Jataka (No. 41), 279, 

14, 90712, 169^1 
Lalitalochana, heavenly 

maiden named, 6, 9 
Lallu Lai, Sri, translator of 

the Vetdlapanchavirhsati into 

'^High Hindi," 226 
La Motte Fouque. See under 

Motte Fouque, La 
Lancereau, E,. Journal 

Asiatique, 226 
Lang, A., Custom and Myth, 

Ldn., 1884, 135 
Lanka, the island of (Ceylon), 

Lar, the Sea of, 150^^; the 

(Lata), 150711 
Larsen, K., H. C. Andersen i 

Tekst og Billeder, Copen- 
hagen, 1925, 293 

Lu, the Chinese infernal 

judge, 277 
Lucian, The Ass, 56^2 
Lucretius, 104^^ 

Macculloch, J. A., "Cove- ' 
nant," Hastings' jEwcy. i?e/. 
Eth., 133; "Vampire," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Macdonald, Dr D. B., 62, 63- 
66 ; Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 
July 1924, 62; " Wahm," 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, Oct. 
1922, 66 

Macdonell, A. A., A History 
of Sanskrit Literature, Ldn., 




Macdonell continued 

1909,227; Vedic Mythology, 

Strassburg, 1897, 2>n^ 
Mada, ichor or, from the 

temples of a mast elephant, 

67^1, 68w 
Madanamanchuka, queen of 

Naravahanadatta, 1, 2, 9 
Madana-manjari (love -gar- 
land), Maina called, 267, 

Madanasundari, daughter of 

Suddhapata, 204-207 
Mddhvika, 11 3n^ 
Magadha, 12, 13, 183 
Mahdjanaka Jdtaka (No. 539), 

Mahavira (Vardhamana), the 

founder of Jainism, 228, 

Mahendrai^akti, son of Upen- 

drasakti, 128 
Mahi, the river, IhOn?- 
Mahisha, 196, 206 
Mailli, Chevalier de, Voyages 

et A ventures des trois Princes 

de Sarendip, Traduits du 

Persan, 287 
Maina, bird of the starling 

family,183, 183^2,184, 186, 

I ^9 ; called Somika, 183, 

Maina's Story,the, 184, 184^^, 

Mainaka, son of Himalaya 

and Mena, 3^^ 
Maitrdyand Samhitd, the, 3w^ 
Maladhara, Brahman named, 

Malava, 115, 118, 119, 124, 

127, 129, 191 
Malay Archipelago, the soul- 
bird in the, 283 
Malaya mountain, the, 6, 7, 9, 

Malaymalin, son of Vijaya- 

malin, 90-92 
Malayprabha, king named, 84 
Manasa lake, the, 18, 70, 71, 

Mandakini, the waters of the, 

Mandara, Mount, used as a 

churning-stick, 70^2, 161, 

Mandaravati, daughter of 

Agnisvamin, 179-181 
Mangalasutram, or lucky 

thread, the, 59 
Manidatta, merchant named, 


ManjumatI, wife of Mayavatu, 

38, 39 
Manorama,wife of Ugrabhata, 

143, 144, 146 
Manorathasiddhi, bard 

named, 40, 41, 49, 53, 54, 

55, 55^1 
Mantharaka, painter named, 

Mantragupta, ministernamed, 

12, 14 
Mapes, Gualterus {i.e. Map, 

Walter), De Nugis Curi- 

alium, 133w^ 
Mara, the tempter of Gau- 
tama Buddha, 187, 187^1 
Margery Jordane, the cunning 

witch of Eye, 24w 
Marshall, John ["The Date 

of Kaniska "], Joum. Roy. 

As. Soc.y 1914, 1915, 229, 


Marut and Harut of Babil, 
two angels teaching magic 
to mankind, 63 

Maspero, G., Etudes egypti- 
ennes, Paris, 1879, 134 ; 
Histoire Ancienne des Peuples 
de r Orient Classiques, Les 
Originesj Paris, 1895, 134 

Massinger, Philip, Guardian, 

Mast {must or musth) state of 
an elephant, 67^1, 68w 

Mas'udi, Arabian historian, 
286, 293 

Matangas, king of the, 36, 

37, 100 
Mathura, 225, 251 

Maya, 108 ; Note on, 34-35 ; 

woman representing, 31, 

Mdyd, the doctrine of, 34, 35 ; 

meaning of the word, 34 
Mdydsakti, power of illusion, 

Mayavatu, king named, 36- 

38, 57, 58, 67, 99 
Mdydvin, magician, 35 
Meghabala, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 10 
Meghamalin, king named, 41 , 

44, 53, 54 
Melanesia, food taboo in, 

Melusina, a snake-maiden in 

European folk-lore, 73^2 
Mena, wife of Himalaya, 3n^ 
Meru, Mount, 127, 212, 215 
Merutunga, Prabandhacin- 

tdmani, 229, 229^1 

Meynard, C. Barbier de, 
Magoudi: Les Prairies D' Or 
9 vols., Paris, 1865, 293^2, 

Milton, 49?ii, 112^1 ; Comus, 
147%!; Paradise Lost, 21511^ 

Minor, bird of the starling 
family, 183^2 

Misar, Surati, first translator 
of the VetdlapaTichavimsati 
from Sanskrit, 226 

Mitchell, Dr Chalmers, 67/1^ 

Mitra, Sarat Chandra, Quar- 
terly Journal Mythic Society ^ 

Mongolia in the transmigra- 
tion of Indian stories, part 
played by, 246 

Morgan le Fay, the subaque- 
ous palace of, 280, 280^2 

Morglay, the sword, 72^^ 

Morris, R., Axon, W. E., 
and Fitzgerald, D., The 
Academy, Nos. 484, 486, 
487, 1881, 282^6 

Motte Fouque, La, Undine, 

Mrigankadatta, Story of, 10- 
12, lOni, 14, 22, 23-33, 
36-40, 55-58, 67-69, 98-99, 
100-102, 131-132, 141-151, 
153-163, 164-165 

Muhammad as - Salihl, the 
Scribe, 265?i2' 

Muhammed Shah, 226 

Muhassin ibn'Ali at-Tanukhi, 
Al Faraj ha^dd'sh-shiddah 
{Joy after Hardship), 265^2 

Mukharaka, gambler named, 
106, 114-121, 124, 129 

Munjakesa, 21 

Muruca tree, 232 

Musaeus, Hero and Leander, 

Must {musth or mast) state of 
an elephant, 67ni, 68w 

Myna, bird of the starling 
family, 183^2 

Nadakuvara, 103 

Nadhira, 293, 294 

Nagas, snake-demons, 2Sn'^, 

Nagai^ura, 82 

Nandana (the garden of the 

gods), 82 
Narada (the messenger of the 

gods), 231 
Naran Gerel ("sunshine"), 

story of, 248, 249 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 

King of Vatsa, 7, 9 



Narmada, the, 36, 39 
Natesa Sastri, hidian Folk- 
Tales, Madras, 1908, 92/^^ 
Nath, Sambhu, and BhSlfi 

Nath, translators of the 

Vetrilapanchavimmtiy 226 
Newton, A.j A Dictionary of 

Birds, Ldn., 1893-1896, 

New Zealand, story about 

food taboo in, 135 
Nicholson, R. A., A Literary 

Histonj of the Arabs, Ldn., 

1907, 66 
Nllakantha, Brahman named, 

148 ' 
Nirvana, 92?i^ 

Nitambavati, story of, 251-255 
No7mus, ISn^ 
Nundolal Dey. See under 

Dey, Nundolal 

O'Curry, Eugene, a siren's 
tale from, 281 

Odmilsong, country called, 

Odysseus in Hades, 137 

Oesterley, Hermann, Biblio- 
thek Orientalischer Mdrchen 
und Erzdhlungen, Vol. I, 
BaitdlPachisi, Leipzig,! 873, 
226, 227, 227^2, 240, 269, 
272, 273/^ ; Gesta Roman- 
orum, Berlin, 1872, 262^1 

'0-hi-chi-ta-lo of Hiuen 
Tsiang, Ahichchhatra the, 

Osiris, 93wi 

Ovid, Heroidum Episiolce, 24w; 
Metamorphoses, 26^1^, 282, 

Padfield, J. E., The Hindu at 
Home, Madras, 1896, 59 

Padmagarbha, Brahman 
named, 115 

Padmasena, son of Sridarsana, 

PadmavatI, the daughter of 
an ivory-carver, 170-175, 

Padmishtha, daughter of Pad- 
magarbha, 116, 118-121, 
124, 129, 131 

Palena, in Abruzzi, trans- 
formation story from, 8 

Panchala (or Rohilkhand), 
69^1, 83 

Panchatantra, the, 225, 271 

Pane and Hutu, story of, 135 

Panoi (the Melanesian under- 
world), 135 
Parachhan, custom of waving 
away spirits at Hindu 
weddings, I09n^ 

Paravataksha, snake named, 
28, 29, 101 

Par^vanatha, 74% 

Parvati (Durga, Gauri, etc., 
wife of Siva), ^Oin\ 214, 

Pa^upata, 153 ; ascetic, dis- 
guising as a, 12, 12^1, 13, 23 

Pa^upatas, 127 

Patala (the underworld), 108- 
110,112^1, 114, 155,173^1, 

Pataliputra, the city of, 80, 
i44, 183 

Pavitradhara, Brahman 
named, 102, 104 

Pegasus, Sir G. Cox's remarks 
on, IZn^ 

Penzer, N. M., An Annotated 
Bibliography of Sir R. F. 
Burton, Ldn., 1923, 227ni 

Persephone, the classical 
myth of, 133 

Phillips, J. C, A Natural 
History of the Ducks, Ldn., 
1923, 71n3 

Philostratus, Life of Apol- 
lonius of Tyana, 280, 280^5 

" Phoebus, Lamp of," in Greek 
mythology, the, 147i^ 

Pio, J., Contes popidaires grecs, 
Copenhagen, 1879, 292%^ 

Pisacha (demon), 139 

Pisangajata, hermit named, 

Pischel, R., and Geldner, 
K. F., Vedische Studien, 3 
vols., Stuttgart, 1888-1889, 

Pluto, the ruler of Hades, 133 

PoHvka, G., Le Chat Botte : 
Etude comparee, Sophia, 
1900, 291^1 

Polivka, G., and Bolte, J., An- 
merkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Briider 
Grimm, 3 vols., Leipzig, 
1913, 1915, 1918, 18^1, 
48w, 56^2, 61, 98ni, 122^2, 
263, 273^3, 274*12, 275^2, 

Polo, Marco. See under Marco 
Polo in General Index 

Polyidos, the story of, 18%^ 

Postgate, J. P., ''A Philo- 
logical Examination of the 

Postgate continued 

Myth of the Sirens," Joiim. 
Phil., 1880, 282n 

Poussin, V. de la Vallee, 
" Tantrism (Buddhist)," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Prabandhaci?itdmani, Meru- 
tunga, 229, 229/1^ 

Prachanda^akti, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 10, 25, 33, 
141, 142, 162, 163, 164 

Pradlptaksha, Yaksha named, 

Pradyumna, 108, 109 M 

Prague, story about foSP 
taboo in the underworld 
from, 136 

Prajnadhya, ministerof Kama- 
lakara, 54 

Prasenajit, king named, 218 

Pratapamukuta, king named, 

Pratishthana, 130, 165, 231 

Prayaga, 105, 159 

Preller, L., Griechische Myth- 
ologie, 2 vols., 3rd ed., 
Berlin, 1872-1875, 18^1 

Preta (demon), 139 

Priebsch, Professor R., 109^2 

Prithudara, Yaksha named, 

Proserpine, the classical myth 
of, 133 

Prym, E., and Socin, A. [Der 
Neu-Aramaeische Dialekt des 
Tiir 'Abdm], 2 vols., Gottin- 
gen, 1881 ; vol. ii also en- 
titled Syrische Sagen und 
Mdrchen aus dem Volks- 
munde, 28n^, 73n^, 118wi, 
154^3, 280 

Ptolemy, 150^1 

Punyasena, king named, 200, 

Pushkaraksha and VinyavatI, 
14-17, 20, 21-22; in a 
Former Life, The Adven- 
tures of, 17-20 

Pushyamitra, 231 

Qutaiba, Ibn, Mukhtalif al- 
hadith, 63, 66 

Radha, city called, 142, 143, 

158, 159, 161 
Rajatakuta, city called, 6 
Rdjdvarta stone, 125 
Rdkhi, cord tied round tl 

wrists of men, 59 



Rakshasa (demon), 139, 193, 
193n^, 202, 203; and an 
Arabian Jinn, similarity 
between a, 139 

Rakshasi and a Greek siren, 
similarity between a Hindu, 

Rakshasis, city in Ceylon en- 
tirely inhabited by, 284 

Rakstrabandhan or Salono 
feast, tying cords at the, 

Ralston, W. R. S., Russian 
Folk-Tales, Ldn., 1873, 
15w3, 28n2, 56^11, 72wi, 
73n2-3, 136, 170n2, 280 

Ralston, W. R. S., and Schief- 
ner, F. A. von, Tibetan 
Tales, Ldn., 1882, 16w 

Rama, 76, 161, 191, 202j 

Rama (wife of Vishnu), 50 

Ramnagar, Ahichchhatra 
identified by Cunningham 
as, 69^1 

Ranee of Sarawak, The Cauld- 
ron, Ldn., 1925, 61 

Ranft, M., Tractat von dem 
Kauen und Schmatzen der 
Todten in Gr'dhem . . . , 
Leipzig, 1734, 140 

Rankumalin, Vidyadhara 
named, 15, 21 

Rapson, E. J. [" Indian 
Native States after the 
Period of the Maurya Em- 
pire "], The Cambridge His- 
tory of India, Cambridge, 
1922, 230 

Rashtika or Rishtika (Lata), 

Rati (wife of the God of 
Love), 115 

Ratnachandramati, mendi- 
cant named, 76 

Ratnadvipa (Ceylon), Raksha- 
sis living in an iron city in, 

Ratnaprabha, wife of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 7 

Ratnavall, 184-186 

Ravana (a Rakshasa), 202 

Razi, the ^Mafdtih al-ghaib 
(Qur'an commentary )r 64, 

Rishabha, one of the five 
mountains of Ceylon, 70^2 

Ristika or Rastika (Lata), 

Robertson Smith, W. See 
under Smith, W. Robert- 


Roger Bolinbrook, a necro- 
mancer, 24w 

Rohde, E., Der Griechische 
Roman und Seine Vorldufer, 
Leipzig, 1876, 16w, 18wi, 
170712, 2057i 

RohinI (a star), W^n^ 

Roscher, W. H., Ausfiihrliches 
Lexikon der Griechischen und 
Romischen Mythologie, Leip- 
zig, 1916-1924, 258ni,282w6 

Rosen, Georg, Tuti-Nameh. 
Das Papageienbuch, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1858, 265wi, 269wi, 
271wi, 272^2, 275w4' s, 276w* 

Rostock, F., Mittelhochdeutsche 
Dichterheldensage, Halle, 
1925, 109^2 

Roth, R., Bohtlingk, O., and 
[Sanskrit Dictionary^ 4^2, 
76^2, 93^1, 160^2 

Ruad (son of King Rigdonn) 
and the sirens, 281 

Rubow, P. v., " Ide og Form 
i H. C. Andersen's Even- 
tyr," Den Nye Litter atur, 
1925, 293 

Rukmini, 1 

Rupavati, courtesan named, 

Rupsen, king named, 267, 

Ruru, 196 

Sadashiv Chhatre, translator 

of the V etdlapanchavimsati 

into Marathi, 226 
Sddhusila Jdtaka (No. 200), 262 
Sagara (God of the Sea), 3^^ 
l^ainenu, L., Basmele Romdne, 

Bucharest, 1895, 138 
Saintyves, P., Les Contes de 

Perrault, Paris, 1923, 48w, 
, 56w2, 291^1 

Saktideva, the story of, \12n^ 
Saktirakshita, king named, 
^ 25, 27 
Sdlmalitree (silk-cotton tree), 

40, 40^2, 47, 48, 49 
Salono or Rakshabandhan 

feast, tying cords at the, 

Samarabhata, son of Ugra- 

bhata, 142, 144-146, 159, 

160, 161 
Sambhu Nath, translator of 

the V etdlapanchavimsati, 226 
Samudradatta, 186 
Sankara, commentaries on the 
^ doctrine of mdyd, 35 
Sankara-dig-vijaya, the, 6^^ 

Sankhadatta, Brahman 
named, 145-149, 154, 155, 
159, 160, 161 

Sankhya and the Vedanta 
philosophy, main differ- 
ences between the, 34 

Sarasvati, the goddess, 106 

Sarat Chandra Mitra. See 
under Mitra, Sarat Chandra 

Sarawak, the Ranee of. The 
Cauldron, Ldn., 1925, 61 

Sarika (Durga), 108, 109 

Sariprastara, 153 

Sa^ankavati (Book XII), 1- 
221 ; daughter of Karma- 
sena, 11, 12, 22-25, 27, 33, 
36, 58, 99, 100, 132, 141, 
163, 164 

Sasikala, wife of Padma- 
garbha, 115 

Sa^iprabha, wife of Vama- 
^ datta 4 

Sdstras, the, 183 

Sastri, Natesa, Indian Folk- 
Tales, Madras, 1908, 92w2 

Sastry, R. Shama, " Vishnu's 
Three Strides: the Measure 
of Vedic Chronology," Bom- 
bay Br. Roy. As. Soc, 107^2 

Satakami, 231 

Sattvaslla, Rajput named, 

Sattvavara, son of Viravara, 
191, 194, 195, 195wi,,199 

Satyadhara, son of Sruta- 
dhara, 142, 143 

Satyavrata, Brahman named, 

SaudaminI, YakshinI named, 

Saudamini's Story, 102-104 

Savaras, Mayavatu, king of 
the, 36, 37, 57,' 99, 100 

Sawai, Jai Singh, Raja of 
Jaipur, 226, 226wi 

Scandinavia, the route of 
Oriental stories to, 292 

Schechter, S., Folk -Lore, 

Schiefner, F. A. von, Ralston, 
W. R. S., and, Tibetan 
Tales, Ldn., 1882, 16w 

Schmidt, Bernhard R., Griech- 
ische Mdrchen, Sagen und 
Volkslieder, Leipzig, 1877, 
16n, 47wi, 136, 277 

Schmitz, V. A., H. C. Ander- 
sen's Mdrchendichtung. Ein 
Beitrag zur Geschichte d. dan. 
Spdtromantik, Greifswald, 
1925, 293 



Schrader, H., Die Sirenen, 
Berlin, 1868, 282^6 

Schwanenfliigel, H., Hans 
Christian Andersen. Et Dig- 
terliv, Copenhagen, 1905, 

Scott, J., Tales, Anecdotes and 
Letters, translated from the 
Arabic and Persian, Shrews- 
bury, 1800, 255, 256, 257, 
258, 260, 260^1 

S6caire, said backwards. Mass 
of St, 150n 

Sekharajyoti, king named, 88 

Seneca, De Ira, 2Un^ 

Servius, commentary on Vir- 
gil, 24w 

Sesha or Ananta, giant cobra 
with a thousand heads, 71, 

Sestros, Venus at, 204^^ 

Seymour, St John D., Tales 
of King Solomon, Ldn., 
1924, 74w 

Shah, Muhammed, 226 

Shakespeare, All's Well that 
Ends Well, Uln^; King 
Henri/ VI, 24w ; Life and 
Death of King John, 24w ; 
Life and Death of King 
Richard III, 24w 

Shapur I, King of Persia, 

Sharishi, commentary on the 
Maqdmdt of Hariri, 62, 64 

Sheba, riddles of the Queen 
of, ^in 

Shorey, P., " Sirens," Hast- 
ings' Enci/. Rel. Eth., 2827i 

Shortland, E., Traditions and 
Superstitions of the New 
Zealanders, Ldn., 1856, 135 

Siddhas (independent super- 
humans), 28, 82, 89, 161 

Siddhasena Divakara, 228 

Sikes, W. Wirt, British Gob- 
lins, Ldn., 1880,, lOn*, 277 

Slladhara, son of Srutadhara, 
142, 143 

Simhaladvipa, 92 

Simhavikrama, robber named, 

Simrock, K., Die deutschen 
Volksbiicher, 13 vols., Frank- 
furt a. M., 1845-1865, 25^2, 
^ 73w2 

Siijisapd tree, 28/1^, 167, 179, 
183, 191, 200, 204, 209, 
216, 217 

Singh Sawal, Jai. See under 
Jai or Sawai 

Sirlsavatthu, a city entirely 
inhabited by Rakshasis, 
iSirisha, body like a, 44 

Siva, 1,11,14,19,20,22, 31, 
31n\ 32, 33, 51, 87n\ 93, 
94, 95, 108, 109, 110, 113, 
114, 115, 130, 131, 142, 
143, 148, 162, 167, 167^2, 
168, 192, 204wi, 207, 207wi, 

, 231, 232, 248 

Siva (Parvati, wife of Siva), 

Sivadasa, recension of the 
Fetdlapanchavimsati, 225, 

, 225?i3.4^261, 267, 271-273 

Sivadatta, Brahman named, 

Skanda (son of Siva and Par- 
vati), 40 

Skeat, W. W., Malay Magic, 
Ldn., 1900, 62 

Skeat, W. W., and Blagden, 
C. O., Pagan Races of the 
Malay Peninsula , Ldn . , 
1906, 62 

Smasanavetala, 153 

Smindyrides, the sybarite, 

Smith, W. Robertson, Re- 
ligion of the Semites, Ldn., 

, 1894, 133 

Sobhavati, city called, 191, 
204, 206 

Socin, A., Prym, E., and, Der 
Neu-Aramaeische Dialekt des 
Tur 'Abdin, 2 vols., Gottin- 
gen, 1881 ; vol. ii also en- 
titled Syrische Sagen und 
Maerchen aus dem Volks- 
munde, 28^2, 73^2, 118^1, 
154n3, 280 

Solomon, the Queen of Sheba 
testing the wisdom of, 

Somadeva, 2wi, 73^3, 170^1, 
n3n^,250,212^; Katha-sarit- 
5gra,225,225wi, 228, 231, 

Somaprabha and her Three 
Suitors, 200, 20071^, 202, 
203, 273-275 

Soma^ura, son of Naga^ura, 
82-84, 96-98 

Somika, maina called, 183 

Southey, Robert, Roprecht the 
Robber, 136 ; Thalaha the 
Destroyer, llSn^, 136 

Spenser, Edmund, The Faerie 
Queen, 215^1 

Speyer, J. S., Studies about 
the KathdsarUsdgara, Am- 
sterdam, 1908, 26^2, 31nS 
46n2, 54>iS 90^2, 167ni, 

, 193n2, 205^1, 220^'^ 225n2 

Sravana, the month (July- 
August), 59 

Sri (Goddess of Prosperity), 
16, 106 ; the mountain of, 6 

Sridar^ana {i.e. vision of the 
Goddess of Fortune), 105ni 

Sridar^ana's Story, 102, 104- 
106, 114-131 

Srikantha, 148 

Sri Lallu Lai, translator of 
the Vetdlapanchavimsati into 

, High Hindi," 226 

Sriparvata, 108 

Srisena, king named, 115, 

Srutadhara, king named, 142 

Srutadhi, son of Damadhi, 
26, 27, 29, 36, 57, 58, 100, 

Stally brass, J. S., trans, of 
Teutonic Mythology, J. 
Grimm, In^. For details 
see under Grimm, J. 

Stephani, L., Compte-Rendu 
de la Commission Imperiale 
Archeologique (St Peters- 
burg), 1866 and 1870-1871, 

Stephens, G., Hylten-Caval- 
lius, G. O., and, Svenska 
Folksagor och dventyr, 2 vols., 
Stockholm, 1844-1849, 

Stevenson, Mrs Sinclair, The 
Rites of the Twice-Born, 
Oxford University Press, 
1920, 59 

Sthtilabahu, minister of Mri- 
gankadatta, 10 

Stokes, M., Indian Fairy Tales, 
Ldn., 1880, IQn, 4:ln^, 61, 
154#, 250, 260 

Storey,C. A.,ed.of the Fdkhir, 
Leyden, 1915, 63 

Stotras, or hymns in the 
Rgyud, 52w 

Strassburg, G. von, Tristan 
und Isolde, 109^2 

Strega (vampire), 138 

Strigoui (vampire), 138 

Stuart Baker, E. C. See 
under Baker, E. C. Stuart 

Stupas in the Rgyud, texts 
about building of, 52n 

Subhanaya, The Patient Her- 
mit, 88-89 



Subhuti, 116 

Suddhakirti, sage named, 

, 28 

Suddhapata, 204, 205 

Sudhammacari, the princess, 

Sudraka, king named, 191- 

195, 197-199 
Sughosha, 115 
Sukhasaya, witch named, 59 
Sumati, minister of Ugra- 

bhata, 146 
Sunandana, 107 
"Sundaraka and the 

Witches," story of, 51n^ 
Sundblad, J., Gammaldags 

seder och bruk, 1888, 290^3 
Surabhimaruta, forest on the 

other side of the western 

sea, 16 
SQradatta, Brahman named, 

Surashtra, 230 
Sarataprabha, wife of Amara- 

datta, 10 
Surati Misar, first translator 

of the Sanskrit Vetdlapafi- 

chaviihsatiy 226 
Sveta, the hermit, 94 
Sykes, Percy, A History of 

Persia, 2nd ed., 2 vols., 

Ldn., 1921, 293^3 

Tabari, 286, 293 ; the Tafsir 
(Qur'an commentary), 63, 

Ta'i, Hatim, the adventures 
of, 280, 280ii 

Takshaka, ruler of the Nagas, 

Taksha^ila, city called, 14; 
inscription, interpretation 
of the word ayasa in the, 

Tall, ceremony of tying the, 

Tamdla forests, 102 

Tamralipti, city called, 17, 
187, 209, 212 

Tannhauser, the myth of, 

(Tantra), Rgyud, the, 52w 

" Tantrism " and Hindu and 
Buddhist paganism, con- 
nection between, 51^^, 52w 

Tapas, austerities, 34 

Tapti, the Lower, 150w 

Tarangini, the River, 94 

Taravali, maiden of the Vid- 
yadhara race, 15, 21 

Tdrkshya gem, 1 

Tassy, Garcin de, Histoire de 
la litterature Hindoui et Hin- 
dousta?ii, 2nd ed., 3 vols., 
Paris, 1870-1871, 240^2 

Tawney, C. H., 39^1, 46^2, 
51^2, 54wi, 57w2, 90n2, 136, 
169^3, 170^1, 242, 28l7ii; 
The Kathdkoga, or Treasury 
of Stories, Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1895, ln\ 26n^ 
205n; The Prahandhacintd- 
mani or Wishing-stone of 
Narratives, by Merutunga 
Acarya, Calcutta, 1901, 

Taylor, R., Te Ika A Mauri, 
or New Zealand and its In- 
habitants, 2nd ed., Ldn., 
1870, 135 

Tejas, "fire," or "courage," 
10, 10n2 

Temple, R. C, Zinda Peer, the 
Everliving Saint of India, 
A Discourse on some Rami- 
fications of the Belief in the 
Water of Immortality (not 
published yet), 263, 263wi 

Tennyson, A., Vivien, In^ 

Tha'labi, the Qisas al-anbiyd, 

Theocritus, The Idylls, 24w 

Theodosius II, 240 

Thomas of Erceldoune, the 
Rhymer, 135 

Thomas, E. J., Francis, H. T., 
and, Jdtaka Tales, Cam- 
bridge, 1916, 284^1 

Thompson, Campbell, Devils 
and Evil Spirits oj Babylonia, 
Ldn., 1904, 1905, 138 

Thorkill, 135 

Thorpe, B., Yule-tide Stories, 
Ldn., 1853, 291^2 

Thoth, the advocate of Osiris, 

Tikli, ornamental patch, 154^1 

Tilak, mark on the forehead, 

Tilaka (caste-mark), 154%^ 

Tilbury, Gervaise of, 281 

Tillotama, heavenly nymph, 

Tilsam, pi. taldsim, the word 
" talisman " derived from, 

Tod, James, Rdjdsthdn, 226w^. 
See also under Crooke, W. 

Trigarta, city called, 102 

Triphald, the three myro- 
balans (Professor Monier 
Williams), 27^1 

Trivikramasena and the Men- 
dicant, King, 165, 165^1- 
166-168, 177-178, 179, 181- 
182, 183, 190, 191, 199, 

200, 203, 204, 208, 209, 
216, 217, 220-221 

Tsiang, Hiuen. See under 
Hiuen Tsiang 

Udayatunga, king named, 69, 
73, 75 

Udayavati, daughter of 
Udayatunga, 73, 74, 76 

Ugrabhata, king named, 142- 
144, 158, 159 

Uhle, Heinrich, " Die Vetala- 
paiicavin9atika in den 
Recensionen des (Jivadasa 
und eines Ungenannten," 
Abhandlungen f. d. Kunde d. 
Morgenlandes, 1884, 225w*, 
261, 261?ii- 3, 267, 273/i4' 5 

Ujjayinl, city of, 11, 20, 22, 
23, 25, 27, 29, 36, 55, 99, 
100, 132, 141, 164, 200, 

201, 230, 231, 253 
Ullah, Shaykh *Izzat, "The 

Rose of Bakawali," 60 

Underdowne, trans, of Heli- 
odorus' jEthiopica, Tudor 
translations, 1895, 51w^ 

Unger, R., " Zur Sirenen- 
sage," Philologus, 1888, 

Upanayana, initiation cere- 
mony of a Brahman, 59 

Upanishads, meaning of the 
word mdyd in the, 34 

Upendra^akti, merchant 
named, 124, 125, 128 

Uri, J., Epistolce Turcicce ac 
Narrationes Persicce editce et 
Latine converses, Oxonii, 
1771, 265, 265w2 

Usha, daughter of Bana, 108 

Utta?na-charitra-kathdnaka, the, 

Uttanka, hermit named, 162 

Vaiduryakanti, sword named, 

28, 28^2 
Vajra, thunderbolt of Indra, 

Vajraloka, village called, 180 
Vajramukuta, son of Pratapa- 

mukuta, 168 
Valdhassa Jdtaka (No. 196), 

284, 284^1 
Vallee Poussin, L. de la. 

See under Poussin, L. de 

la Vallee 



Vamadatta, changed into a 
buffalo by his wife, 5, 5w^ ; 
and his Wicked Wife, Story 
of, 4-6 

Vamana, the Dwarf incarna- 
tion of Vishnu, lOTn^ 

Varanasi, city called, 148, 
168 ; the King of, 12, 13 

Vardhamana (Mahavira), the 
era of, 228 

Vasubhuti, 116-118, 

Vasudatta, son of Sivadatta, 

Vasudatta, daughter of Dhar- 
madatta, 186, 187 

Vasuki, a serpent used as a 
rope at the Churning of 
the Ocean, 70, 70^2, 71wi, 

Vasumati, wife of Suradatta, 

Vatsa, the King of, 1, 7; 
the Prince of, Naravahana- 
datta, 4 

Veckenstedt, E., Wendische 
Sagen, Mdrcken und aber- 
glaubische Gehr'duche, Graz, 
1880, 282, 36wi, 280 

Vedanta philosophy, the doc- 
trine of mdyd in the, 34, 
35 ; and the Sankhya phil- 
osophy, main difference 
between the, 34 

Vedel, Valdemar, *< Den 
Andersenske Eventyrdigt- 
ning: H. Brix: H. C. 
Andersen og bans Even- 
tyr," Tilskueren, 1907, 293 ; 
" H, C. Andersen's Even- 
tyr in europaeisk Belys- 
ning," Tilskueren,1926,293 

Venus, the Mountain of, 
109*12 ; at Sestros, 204^3 

Vetala (demon), 23, 40, 119, 
120, 139, 165 ; corpse pos- 
sessed by a, 121, 122, 122ni, 
123, 124, 167, 168, 177, 
178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 
188, 191, 200; in Hindu 
fiction, the, 139, 140; the 
prediction of the, 11, 12; 
stories, the, 165-221; 
stories, Appendix on the, 

Vetdlapahchavirhsati, or Twenty - 
Jive Tales of a Feidla, the, 
165^1, 225, 227, 231, 247, 
251, 269; as an indepen- 
dent collection, different 
recensions of, 225, 225w3> 4-5; 
first translation from San- 

Vetdlapanchavimsati emit. 
skrit of, 225, 226 ; part of 
the works of Somadeva and 
Kshemendra, 225, 225wi' 2 ; 
identity of the hero of, 
228-231 ; numbering of 
stories in the " frame " of, 
241, 267wi; the original 
form of (probably), 225, 
225^3 ; various translations 
of, 226 

Vetala's questions, the, 177, 
181, 190, 199, 203, 208, 
216, 220 

Vetalas, charm for mastering, 

Vichitrakatha, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 10, 14, 101, 

Vidagdhachudamani, parrot 
named, 183 

Vidisa, city called, 41, 44 

Vidyd, gaining long life 
through a, 6n^ 

Vidyadhara, 21, 91, 169; 
cursed to become a camel, 
16 ; named Rankumalin, 
15, 16 ; race, beautiful 
maiden of the, 15 

Vidyadharas, 6, 20, 165, 279 

Vidyasagara, Jibananda, edi- 
tion of Jambhaladatta's 
recension of the Vetdla- 
panchavimsati, 225, 225^5 

Vidyujjihva, Yaksha named, 

Vidyullekha, wife of Dhar- 
masena, 17 

Vijayadatta, 139 

Vijayamalin, merchant 
named, 90 

Vijayavati, daughter of Gan- 
dhamalin, 70, 73 

Vijitasu, hermit named, 16, 
17, 20, 21 

Vikrama era, the founding 
of the, 228, 229 ; son of 
Gardabhilla, 230 ; used as 
a title, the name of, 229 ; 
or Vikramaditya of Jain 
tradition, the identity of 
King, 228-231 

Vikrama-charita {Vikrama s 
Adventures ) or Sinhdsana- 
dvdtrinsikd {Thirty-two Tales 
of the Throne), 227, 228, 
231,240; date of the, 228; 
four different Sanskrit 
recensions of the, 228 ; 
"frame-story" occurs twice 
inthe, 231, 231wi'2 

Vikramaditya {i.e. " Sun 

power"), 230; suggest 

as the king " Vikrama 

Jain tradition, 229 
Vikramake^arin, king nami 

183 ; minister of Mrig 

kadatta, 10, 164 
Vikramasena, king namei 

Vimala, 205 
Vimalabuddhi, minister 

Mrigankadatta, 10, 11, 30] 

33', 36, 67, 100 
Vimalakara, king named, 40 
Vinayajyoti, hermit named, 

Vinayaka {i.e. Gane^a), 33, 

33n2 ' " 

Vinayavati in a Former Life^ 

The Adventures of Push 

karaksha and, 17-20 ; Push' 

karaksha and, 14-17, 20, 


Vincent de Beauvais, Speculum 

histoHale, 272, 272w5 
Vincentius Bellovacensis {i.e, 

Vincent of Beauvais), 281 
Vindhya forest, the, 28, 100; 

141, 202 ; mountain, the. 

86 ; range, the, 67wi 
Vindhyas, the, 371^ 
Vinitamati became a Holj 

Man, How King, 69-78, 

80-83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92| 

Vipasa, 154, 155 
Viravara, The Adventures ofi 

191, 19l7ii, 192-198, 272- 

Viravati, daughter of Viravara, 

191, 195 
Virgil, Eclogue, 24w 2 

Virya, " tear," 15^2 ^ 

Vishnu, 42, 44, 44w, 49, 50, 

50^1, 53, 71, 90^2, 93, 98, 

107, 108, 111, 111^3, 113, 

143, 156, 169^1, 192, 215 
Vishnusvamin, Brahman 

named, 217 
Vii^vakarman, cities built by, 

Vitankapura, city called, 218 
Vitasta, the River, 106, 108, 

Vrikshaghata, 217 
Vrishni, llln^ 
Vrishnis (descendants 

Vrishni,) 111, lllw^ 
Vritra, 44w 
Vyaghrasena, minister o\ 

Mrigankadatta, 10 




Waddell, L. A., Buddhism of 
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1895 [1894], 14wi; ''Bur- 
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Proc. As. Soc. Bengali 
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Waldau, A., B'dhmisches Mcir- 
ckenbuchy Prague, 1860, 
36n\ 73w3, Un\ 136, 277, 

Wardrop, M., Georgian Folk- 
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Weber, A., Indische Studieny 
17 vols., Berlin, 1850-1885, 

Weicker, G., Der Seelenvogel 
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iiCww*^, Leipzig, 1902, 283^2; 
" Die Seirenen," Roscher's 
Lexikon der Griechischen u. 
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De Sirenibus qucestiones se- 
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Wensinck of Leyden, Pro- 
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Westermarck, E., The History 
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Wickerhauser, M ., Die Papa- 
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265ni, 269wi, 271^^, 272w' 

Wilkinus marrying a ''Meer- 
weib," story of King, 280 

Williams, Professor Monier, 
on the three kinds of fruit, 
27n^ ; Indian Wisdom, or 
Eoccmpla of the Religious, 
Philosophical and Ethical 
Doctrines of the Hindus, 
Ldn., 1875, 92wi 

Wilmot, S. E., The Life of an 
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Wilsen, F. C, Leemans, C, 
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Wilson, H. H. " Nitambavati," 
The Quarterly Oriental Maga- 
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8 vols., Ldn., 1862-1866; 
Works, 8 vols., Ldn., 1862- 
1866, 251 

Wilson, J. C. C, Journ. Bomb. 
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Winternitz, M., Geschichte der 
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1922, 225w3-4-5 

Wirt Sikes, W. , British Goblins, 

Ldn., 1880, lO/i*, 277 
WoodrofFe, Sir John. See 

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Wright, Dudley, Vampires and 

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1924, 137 
Wright, R. G., and Dewar, 

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Yajuh, Brahman named, 108 

Yajuhsvamin, 143, 146 

Yaksha named Attahasa, 103- 

105, 114, 130, 131 ; Dipta- 

sikha, 103, 104, 130, 131 ; 

Kalajihva, 70, 71, 72, 80; 

Pradiptaksha, 130 ; Prithu- 

dara, 103 ; Vidyujjihva, 71 

Yakshas (subjects of Kuvera, 
the God of Wealth), 71, 72, 
102, 103, 114, 118, 119, 
130, 131 

Yakshini, female Yaksha, 102, 
102n3, 104, 118, 131 

Yama (the Indian Pluto), 
93n\ 95 

Yama's Secretary, The Rob- 
ber who won over, 92-95, 

Yamuna, the River, 179 

Ya^ahketu, king named, 

Yai^asvati, wife of Satyavrata, 

Yemen, the tale of the Sultan 
of, 287 

See Hiuen Tsiang 

Yule, H., and Cordier, H., 
The BookofSer Marco Polo, 
2 vols., Ldn., 1903, 150wi 

Zachariae, Theodor, Kleine 
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" Verwandlung durch Um- 
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Wiener Zeitschrift f. d. 
Kunde d. Morgenlandes, 59 ; 
" Zum altindischen Hoch- 
zeitsritual," Wiener Zeit. 
f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, 

Zealand, New, food taboo 
story from, 135 

Zeus, 133 

Zotenberg, M. H., Chronique 
de . . . Tabari, traduite sur la 
version Persane d'Abou-^Ali 
Mo^ hammed Bel 'Ami . . ., 
4 vols., Paris, 1869, 293ni 



Ahhandlungen fur die Kunde 
des Morgenlandes, ** Die 
Vetalapancavin9atika in 
den Recensionen des Civa- 
dasa . . ./' Heinrich Uhle, 
1884, 225n4, 261wi- 3, 267 

" Abu Al-Husn and his Slave- 
Girl Tawaddud," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 74w 

Academy, The, W. E. Axon, 
R. Morris and D. Fitz- 
gerald, 282^6; David Fitz- 
gerald on sirens in a letter 
in, 281, 281ni 

Acts and their retribution, 
Karma, 34 

(Adonis, Attis, Osiris) The 
Golden Bough, J. G. Frazer, 

Adopted son, the, 105 

Adultery of the Brahman's 
wife and the cowherd, 4 ; 
ears cut off as punishment 
for, 189, 189^2 

Adventures at the bottom of 
the sea, SattvaMa's, 212, 
213 ; of King Bhunandana, 
The,106-114; ofMriganka- 
datta, the nocturnal, 37, 
37n\ 38, 39, 40 ; of Push- 
karaksha and Vinayavati in 
a Former Life, The, 17-20 ; 
of Viravara, The, 191-198, 
191^1, 272-273 

Adventures of Hatim Tdiy 

Duncan Forbes, 280n 

jEthiopica, Heliodorus, 51w^, 

* Agastya," H. Jacobi, Hast- 
ings' Eiicy. Rel. Eth., 44w 

Age and death, a fruit as 
remedy against old, 216 

Air, chariot that travels in 
the, 21, 22,201, 202,203; 
Vikramakesarin carried 
through the, 164 ; voice 
from the, 207 

Alakesa Katha, the, 287 

Al Faraj ba'da^sh-shiddah [Joy 
after Hardship), Muhassin 
ibn *AlI at-Tanukhi, 265w2 

Alive in the belly of a fish, 

Sankhadatta found, 154, 

All seasons present at the 

same time, 215, 215^1 
Allegory of life, the, 30-32 
AlVs Well that Ends Well, 

Shakespeare, X^lrO- 
Aloes, black, 219 
Altdeutsche ti. Altnordische 

Helden-Sagen, F. H. v. d. 

Hagen, 280 
Altindisches Zauherritual, W. 

Caland, 149^1 
American Journal of Philology, 

** The Art of Stealing in 

Hindu Fiction," M. Bloom- 
field, 37w^ ; Oriental Society, 

Journal of the, 12^ (for 

fuller details see under 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc.) ; 

Phil. Soc. Proc, 74w (for 

details see under Proc, 

Amer. Phil. Soc.) 
Amicus et Amelius, Speculum 

historiale, Vincent de Beau- 

vais, 272, 272^5 
Amis et Amiles, the Carolin- 

gian cycle of, 273 
Analogues to " food taboo " 

story, various, 135 ; to the 

" Quintessence " motif, 

286, 287 
Ancient Egypt, food taboo in, 

Ancient Geography of India, 

The, A. Cunningham, 69n^ 
" Andersen og de Danske 

Folkeeventyr, H. C," G. 

Christensen, Danske Studier, 

290^2, 292, 293 
Andersen, Et Digterliv, Hans 

Christian, H. Schwanen- 

flugel, 293 
Andersen og hans Eventyr, 

H. C, Hans Brix, 2.90n\ 

Andersen i Tekst og Billeder, 

H. C, K. Larsen, 293 
" Andersen's Eventyr i euro- 

paeisk Belysning, H. C," 

Andersen continued 

ValdemarVedel, Tilskuert 

Andersen's M'drchendichtun^ 
Ein Beitrag zur Geschicht 
d. dan. Sp'dtromantik, V. A.' 
Schmitz, 293 

Angels teaching magic to 
mankind, Hartitand Marut, 
two, 63 i 

Animal sacrifices to Siva in 
Bengal, 20, 20wi; trans-^ 
formations, 5, bri^, 8, 40,! 
50ni, 56, 56wi' 2, 57, 59, 

" Animals, helpful," motif J 
291 ' 

Anmerkungen zu den Kind^ 
und Hausmdrchen der Br'iid 
Grimm, J. Bolte and G, 
Polivka, 18wi, 48w, 56n2,' 
61, 98wi, 122n2, 263, 273n3, 
274w2, 275^2, 291ni' 3 

Annales de la propagation de 
Foi, Gagniere, 134, 135 

Annals and Antiquities of Raj - 
asthdn, or the Central and 
Western Rajput States of 
India, James Tod, W. 
Crooke, 226^1 

Annotated Bibliography of Si 
R. F. Burton, N. M. Penzer, 

Annulled, a curse once in- 
flicted cannot be, 103n^ 

Answers to the Vetala's ques- 
tions. King Vikrama's, 177, 
178, 181, 182, 190, 199, 
203, 208, 216, 220, 221 

Anthologia sanscritica, C Lar- 
sen, 261w2, 273 

Apollodorus, The Library, 
J. G. Frazer, 18^1, 133, 
134, 282^6 

Appearance of the snake- 
king, the, 29 

Appendix: The Twenty-fiv 
Tales of a Vetala, 225-294 

' Apples, The Tale of th 
Three," The Nights, R. F 
Burton, 240, 241 



Arabian ni 

Lrabian jinn, similarity be- 
tween a Rakshasa and an, 
139 ; knowledge of magic, 
derivation of the, 61 

Arabic version of the Book of 
Sindibdd, Seven Vazirs the, 
255 ; the word " talisman " 
derived from the, 61 

Areca-nut, one of the three 
fragrant fruits, 21n^ 

Argonautica, Apollonius Rho- 
dius, 282ni 

Argument, princess possess- 
ing wonderful skill in, 73, 
73w3, 74, 74w, 75 

Arji-Bordji Khan, Mongolian 
version of the Sihhasana- 
dvdtriMkd, 248, 264, 275 

Array of demons feared in 
India, 139 

" Art of Stealing in Hindu 
Fiction, The," M. Bloom- 
field, Amer. Joum. Phil., 

Artifice of Mantragupta, the, 
12, 13 

Aryan Gods of the Mitani 
People, Sten Konow, 3n^ 

Aryans and the pre-Aryan 
myth of the flying moun- 
tains, 3n^ 

Ascetic named Brahmasoma, 
127, 128 ; disguising as an, 
12, 12wi, 13, 23, 45, 175, 

Asiatic courts, wit combats as 
entertainment at, 73n^ 

Asiatic Society, Journal of the 
Royal, 62, ^^, lOn^. For 
further details see under 
Journal of 

Aspect of sirens, bird-like, 

*' Asphurtzela," Georgian 
Folk-Tales, M. Wardrop, 

Ass, The, Lucian, 56w^ 

Assuming any form by repeat- 
ing charm backwards, 149, 
149^1, 150w, 157 

Assyrian tablets, earliest re- 
ferences to vampires in, 
138, 139 

Asylum for gamblers, 115, 
119, 120 

Attaining a certain form 
through contemplation, 20, 
21 ; invisibility by repeat- 
ing charm forwards, 149, 
149^1, 157 ; supernatural 
powers, 96 


Attempt at flying, the, 89 
Aus Schwaben, A. Birlinger, 

lOwS Un 
Auspicious marks, 28 
Austerities, tapas, 34 ; the 

power of, 85 
Author of some hymns in 
the Rig-Veda, Agastya, 
reputed, 43/1^ 
Averting evil spirits, cere- 
mony for, 109, 109ni 

Babylonian myth about eating 
in the underworld, 133, 

" Backwards, Forwards and," 
charm called, 149, 149^^, 
150w, 157, 158 

Baitdl Pachisi, the first trans- 
lation from the Sanskrit 
Vetdlapanchavimsati, 226, 

Baitdl Pachisi, or Twenty-five 
Tales of a Demon, The, W. B. 
Barker and E. B. East- 
wick, 226, 232n2, 267^2, 
273^6, VQn\ 27Sn\ 2S6n^; 
Bibliothek Orientalischer 

Mdrchen und Erzdhlungen I, 
Hermann Oesterley, 226, 
227, 227/12, 240, 269, 272, 

" Bakht and his Wazir- 
Rahwan, King Shah," 
cycle of stories called, 260 

(Balder the Beautiful) The 
Golden Bough, J. G. Frazer, 

" Balder, The Myth of," A. 
H. Krappe, Folk-Lore, \n^ 

Ballymote, the Book of, 281 

Bananas in the underworld, 
eating, 134 

Banner in the sea, ship forced 
on to a, 211, 214 

Bard named Manorathasiddhi, 
40, 41, 49, 53 

Barley, the magic, 55, 55^2, 

Basmele Romd,7ie, L. Sainenu, 

Bathing-place called Krama- 
saras, 107, 112 

Battle, the great, 160, 161 

" Bawd, The Cuckold Weaver 
and the," one of the Pan- 
chatantra tales omitted by 
Somadeva, 271 

Beads, rosary of Aksha, 45 ; 
in Tibetan and Burmese 
rosaries, number of, 14%^ 


Beating, bringing back to 

Hfe by, 265, 265^2. 3^ 266 ; 

drum when thief is led to 

execution, 189, 189w^ 

Beautiful lake of Vasuki, the, 

155, 155^2 
Beauty, face of girl surpassing 
the moon in, 169 ; maiden 
of illuminating, 1, In^, 2n^, 
112; simile of Hindu, 125 
Bed with seven mattresses, 

the, 219, 220 
" Bed sybarite " story, ana- 
logues to the, 288-292, 293- 
** Bed test " story from the 
Orient to Scandinavia, the 
route of the, 292 
Beds, fastidiousness about, 

218-220, 288-294 
Bees and spiders as symbols 

of living creatures, 31, 32 
Behaviour of Brahmany ducks, 
Hindu explanation of the 
strange, 71w^; of Padma- 
vati, the strange, 171, 
Belief in Immortality, The, 

J. G. Frazer, 137 
Belly of a fish, Sankhadatta 
found alive in the, 154, 
154713- 4 
Beschrijving van Barabudur, 
N. J. Krom and T. von Erp, 
Betel, 192; gifts of, 174 
Betel-juice on a person, insult 

of spitting, 23, 23/ii 
Beverage of fat and wine, 

112, 113 
Bibliographic des Ouvrages 
Arabes, Victor Chauvin, 
16n, 18wi, 56^2, 62, 74n, 
84ni, 188^1, 241, 249, 256, 
260, 260^1, 273w2, 275^1, 
Bibliothek des litterarischen 
Vereins in Stuttgart, 287w2 ; 
Orientalischer M'drchen und 
Erzdhlungen, I, Baitdl 
Pachisi, Hermann Oester- 
ley, 226, 227, 227^2, 240, 
269, 272, 273^6 
Bi/SXioOy^KT] Apollodorus, 

Bird-maidens on the sculp- 
tures of Boro-Budur in 
Java, 283 
Birds with human flesh, feed- 
ing, 122w2, 123n; The 
King and the Two Wise, 



Birds continued 

183, lii3n\ 184, 186, 189, 

Birds, A Dictionary of, A. 
Newton, 183w2 

Birds of India, The, T. C. 
Jerdon, 71w3, 183w2 

Birth of Adonis, the legend 
of the, 15n3 ; remembering 
former, 86 

Birth of the War-God, R. T. H. 
Griffith, 3i 

Bitten off, nose of faithless 
wife, 188, 188ni 

Black aloes, 219 ; cobra on a 
picture, painting a live, 
91 ; magic rites, perform- 
ing, 51, 51^2, 52w, 123, 
149w^, 150n; tongue, man 
protruding long, lOn* 

Blazing eye of Siva, the, 31ni 

** Blind Man and the Cripple, 
The," Russian Folk-Tales, 
W. R. S. Ralston, 73n3, 

Blood over graves, custom of 
pouring, 137 ; thirst of 
vampires for human, 137 

Blood-sucking vampires, 137, 
138, 140 

Blossoms of trees waving like 
chowries, 168 

Blue lotus, body resembling 
a, 115; lotuses, eyes like, 

Body, giving away flesh from 
one's own, 122, 122^2, 
123/1; gleaming like the 
light of the sun, 21 ; pos- 
sessing heavenly fragrance, 
113 ; resembling a blue 
lotus, 115 ; like a sirisha, 

Bohmisches Mdrchenbuch, A. 
Waldau, 3Qn\ 73n^ 94wS 
136, 277, 279 

Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc, 
" Vishnu's Three Strides : 
the Measures of Vedic 
Chronology," R. Shama 
Sastry, 107^2 

Book containing charm for 
raising the dead to life, 
180, 181 ; XII (Sasankav- 
atl), 1-221 

Book of Ballymote, the, 281 ; 
of the Dun, the, 281 ; Ser 
Marco Polo, the, H. Yule 
and H. Cordier, 150^1; 
Sindihad, the, W. A. Clous- 
ton, 255, 259ni, 260^1 

Bdr6 - Boedoer op het Eiland 
Java, C. Leemans, J. F. G. 
Brumond and F. C. Wilsen, 

Bottom of the sea, Sattvai^lla's 
adventures at the, 212, 

BourdeauXj Huon de, the ro- 
mance of, 280, 280w3 

Brahman Devabhuti and his 
Chaste Wife, The, 83-84; 
the faithful, 192, 193; 
named Agnisvamin, 179 ; 
named Bhurivasu, 108 ; 
named Chodakarna, 30 ; 
named Damadhi, 26 ; 
named Devadarsana, 105, 
115 ; named Gobind, 285 ; 
named Harisvamin, 200- 
203 ; named Kamalagarbha, 
130 ; named Kamalodaya, 
20; named Maladhara, 89; 
named Nilakantha, 148 ; 
named Padmagarbha, 115 ; 
named Pavitradhara, 102, 
104; named Sankhadatta, 
145-149, 154, 155, 159, 160, 
161 ; named Satyavrata, 
119 ; named Sivadatta, 
151 ; named Suradatta, 
4 ; named Vishnusvamin, 
217; named Yajuh, 108; 
The Persevering Young, 89; 
possessing heroism, 201- 
203 ; possessing magic 
power, 201-203 ; the sacred 
thread in the initiatory 
ceremony of a, 59; turned 
into a tree, 26, 26^^ 

Brahmanical thread of hair, 

Brahman's wife becomes a 
witch, 4 

Brahmans, the hermitage of 
the five, 27 ; who restored 
a Dead Lady to Life, The 
Three Young, 179, 179^^, 
180, 181, 261-266 

Brahmany (Brahminy) ducks, 
71, 71^3, 72 

Branches of sacred tree used 
to dispel spirits, 109n^ 

Bride, the substituted, 47, 
47i, 48w 

" Bride, supplanted," motif, 
the, 47, 47nS 48w 

Bridge, the cut-off tongue of 
a lion used as a, 10 

Bridle, the magical article 
used in Europe, 61 

Brihat-katha, the, 228, 248 



Brihat kathd-manjari, KshI 
'mendra, 2n^ 26^2, 173,11' 

" Brihatkathamailjarl de 
Kshemendra, La," S. Le^ 
Journal Asiatique, 225w2 

British Goblins, W.Wirt Sik< 
10w4, 277 

British Museum, the only 
copy of the Uttama-charitra- 
kathdnaka, in the, 60 

Brother and Husband to 
change Heads, The Lady 
who caused her, 204-207, 
204^1, 276-277 

Buddhism in Tibet, L. A. 
Waddell, 14wi 

Buddhist and Hindu pagan- 
ism, connection between 
"Tantrism" and, 51^2, 
62n; siren legends, the 
scene of the ancient, Cey- 
lon, 284 

Buddhist Records of the Wes- 
tern World, S. JBeal, 69/ii, 

Buddhists, tonsure amongst, 

Buffalo, Vamadatta changed 
by his wife into a, 5, 5w^ 

Bull of Siva, the, 11 ; sym- 
bolical of Righteousness, 

" Burmese Buddhist Rosa- 
ries," L. A. Waddell, Proc. 
As. Soc. Bengal, lin^ 

Burmese andTibetan rosaries, 
number of beads in, 14%^ 

" Burnt Veil," series of tales 
known as the, 259, 260, 

Calamities called Iti (excessive 
rain, drought, etc.), 73, 

Caledonians, food taboo 
amongst the New, 134 

Cambridge History of India, 
The, 6 vols., Cambridge, 
1922, etc., 230 

Camel inflicted on Vidya- 
dhara, curse to become a, 

Camphor, 219 ; 

" Canne de Cinq Cents Livres, i 
La," Contes Populaires de 
Lorraine, E. Cosquin, 1222 

Cardinal points with a magic 
horse and sword, conquer- 
ing the ten, 75 

Carolingian cycle of Amis and 
Amiles, the, 273 



" Case of the Thoo-Hte's Son 
and his Three Wives, The," 
The Precedents of Princess 
Thoodamma Tsari, C. J. 
Bandow, 60 

Catalogue of Sanskrit . . . 
Books in the . . . British 
Museum, A Supplementary, 
L. D. Barnett, 6^1 

Cauldron, The, the Ranee of 
Sarawak, 61 

Causes for foundation of the 
Vikrama era in Jain tra- 
dition, 228-230 

Centre-jewel of the girdle of 
the sky-bride, the sun the, 

Ceremonies, flagellation dur- 
ing marriage, 265, 266 

Ceremony for averting evil 
spirits, 109, 109^^; of a 
Brahman, the sacred thread 
in the initiation, 59 

Chakora subsisting on moon- 
beams, the, 180^1 

Challenge, the mendicant's, 

Chariot travelling in the air, 
21, 22, 201, 202, 203 

Charity, the perfection of, 

Charm attached to a deer- 
skin, 114; called "For- 
wards and Backwards,"149, 
149^1, 150/1, 157 ; for mas- 
tering Vetalas, 165 ; ob- 
taining life-prolonging, 6, 
6w^; obtaining a sword by 
a, 6 ; for producing dreams, 
76, 77, 80 ; for raising the 
dead to life, 180, 181; 
transformation through 
repeating a, 8, 59 

Charmed mustard-seeds, 5, 
29, 109, 123, 124; water, 
sprinkling with, 5, 8, 62 

Charms and Amulets (In- 
dian)," W. Crooke, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Bel. Etk., 59 

Chaste Wife, The Brahman 
Devabhuti and his, 83- 

Chastity, the perfection of, 

<' Chat Botte, Le," Les Contes 
de Perrault, P. Saintyves, 

Chat Botte : Etude comparee, 
Le, G. Polivka, 291^1 

Children affected by the 
moon's rays, lOOw^ lOln 

Chinese Buddhists, tonsure 
amongst, 76^^ 

Chronicle, R. Grafton, 24n 

Chronique de . . . Tabari, tra- 
duite sur la version Persane 
d^Ahou-^Ali Mo'hammed Bel 
^Ami . . ., M. H. Zoten- 
berg, 293^1 

Churning of the Ocean, lOn'^, 
S7n\ 161wi 

Churning-stick, Mount Man- 
dara used as a, lOn^, 161, 

Circle, connection between 
the magic string and the 
magic, 59, 60 ; magic, 167, 

Circulating fruits in folklore 
and reality, 240, 241 

Cities at the bottom of the 
sea, the two, 212, 214-216 

Citron, three maidens coming 
out of a, IQn 

"Citrons, The Three," 11 
Pentamerone, G. B. Basile, 
IQn, 48/1 

City of Avanti, the, 33 ; 
called Ahichchhatra, 69, 
69^1, 71 ; called Ayodhya, 
10, 25, 26, 141; called 
Ekalavya, 20, 142; called 
HarshavatI, 186 ; called 
Kamandaki, 184 ; called 
KasI, 27 ; called Ko^ala, 40, 
49,54; called Radha, 142, 
143, 158, 159, 16i ; called 
Rajatakuta, 6 ; called 
Sobhavati, 191, 204, 206; 
called Taksha^ila,14; called 
Tamralipti, 17, 187, 209, 
213 ; called Trigarta, 102 ; 
called Varanasi, 148, 168 ; 
called Vidisi, 41, 44; called 
Vitankapura, 218 ; entirely 
inhabited by RakshasTs, 
Sirlsavatthu, a, 284 ; inside 
a tree, a golden, 130 ; 
Mrigankadatta expelled 
from his father's, 25, 25^2 ; 
of Pataliputra, the, 80, 144, 
183; ofUjjayini,ll,20,22, 
23, 25, 27, 29, 36, 55, 99, 
132, 141, 164, 200, 201 

Classics, the Loeb, ISn^ 

Classical myth of Proserpine, 
the, 133 

" ClausandBigClaus, Little," 
H. C. Andersen, 289, 290 

Clever swan, the, 19 

Clove, one of the three 
fragrant fruits, 27ni 

Coals turning into gold, 136 

Cobra on a picture, painting 
a live black, 91; with a 
thousand heads, Sesha or 
Ananta, a giant, 71n^ 

Collection of proverbs called 
the Fdkhir by al-Mufaddal 
ibn Salama, 62, 63 ; the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati as an 
independent, 225 

Colour of a magical string, 
importance of the, 59 

Colours, flowers of five, 157 

Combat, the fierce, 146 

Combats as entertainment at 
Asiatic courts, wit, 73^^ 

Commencement of the Vi- 
krama era, 228, 229 

Commentaries on the doctrine 
of mdyd, SaAkara's, 35 ; on 
the Qur^dn, 63, 64 

Commentary on the Maqdmdt 
of Hariri, Sharlshi, 62, 64 

Compte-Rendu de la Commission 
Imperiale Archeologique, L. 
Stephanie, 282^6 

Comus, Milton, 147w^ 

" Concealed Robe," series of 
tales known under the 
name of, 259, 259^1 

Connection between the 
magic circle and the magic 
string, 59, 60 ; between 
" Tantrism " and Hindu 
and Buddhist paganism, 
51^2, 52w ; between the 
words Brahman and dtman, 

by the power of spells, 29 ; 
the ten cardinal points with 
a magical horse and sword, 

Consecration of idols in the 
Rgyud, texts about the, 52n 

Consequence of eating the 
jamhu fruit, the, 110, llOn^ 

Consumption, the moon suffer- 
ing from, 119^1 

Contemplation, attaining a 
certain form through, 20, 
21 ; the perfection of, 89- 
92; the power of, 105, 111, 

Contes Indienset V Occident, Les, 
E. Cosquin, 16w, 48w ; de 
Perrault, Les, P. Saintyves, 
A&n, 56^2, 291w^ ; populaires 
grecs, J. Pio, 292^1 ; Popu- 
laires de Lorraine, E. Cos- 
quin, lSn\ 122^2 



Contos Populares Portuguezes, 
A. Coelho, 277 

Cord round the neck, tying 
and loosing a, 39, 56, 56w"^, 
57, 59, 60 

Cords and strings used for 
medicinal purposes, 59 

Corn, transformation through 
eating magic, 56, 56n^, 62, 

Corpse animated by a Vetala, 
121, 122, 122ni, 123, 124, 
167, 168, 178, 179, 183, 
188, 191, 200; vampire in 
form of own spirit or of a 
demon reanimating, 137 

Cotton MS. of the Seven Sages 
of Borne, the, 294^2 

Counteractingof snake poison, 

Countries, vampire stories in 
various, 137 

Country of the Kiratas, 27 

" Courage," or " fire," tejas, 
10, 10^2 

Courtesan named Rupavati,20 

Courts, wit combats as enter- 
tainment at Asiatic, 13n^ 

'* Covenant," J. A. Maccul- 
loch, Hastings' Enci/. ReL 
Eth., 133 

Covering face during sleep in 
the East, lOO^i 

Cowherd and Brahman's wife, 
adultery of, 4 

Creatures, bees and spiders 
as symbols of living, 31, 32 

Cruel husband, the, 185, 186 

Crystal, heavenly lotus of, 

" Cuckold Weaver and [the 
Bawd, The," one of the 
stories left out in Soma- 
deva's version of the Pan- 
chatantra, 271 

Cure for diabetes, the seed of 
the rose-apple a, llOw^ 

Curiojis Myths oj the Middle 
Ages,S. Baring-Gould, 18wi, 
56w2, 109^2 

Curse on Attahasa, the, 103, 
103n^, 104 ; to become a 
camel inflicted on a Vidya- 
dhara, 16 ; on Bhimabhata, 
the, 162; on Mrigan- 
kadatta and his ministers, 
snake inflicts a, 29 ; once 
inflicted cannot be annulled, 
103^1, 162, 162ni 

Custom and Myth, A. Lang, 

Custom of pouring blood over 
graves, 137 

Customs connected with the 
soul - bird in the Malay 
Archipelago, 283, 283^3 

Cutting off right hand as 
punishment for thieving, 
19 ; off* the wings of the 
mountains, Indra, 3?i^ 

Cycle of stories called '* King 
Shah Bakht and his Wazir- 
Rahwan," 260 

" Daan," one of the glands 
on the forehead of an ele- 
phant, 67ni 

Daily gift of a fruit, 165, 
166 ; salary of five hundred 
dlndrsy 191, 192 

Dancing princess, simile of a, 

Danger of sleeping exposed 
to the moon, lOOw^ 

Danish Saxo Grammaticus, 
the, 135 

Danois, Ogier le, the romance 
of, 280, 280^4 

Danske Studier, " H. C. 
Andersen og de Danske 
Folkeeventyr," G. Chris- 
tensen, 1906, 290^2, 292, 

Dasa-kumdra-charitay Dandin, 
247, 251 

"Dat Erdmanneken," 
Kinder- und Haiismarchen, 
J. and W. Grimm, 122^2 

["Date of Kaniska, The"] 
John Marshall, Joum. Roy. 
As. Soc, 229, 229713 

Date, one of the three sweet 
fruits, 27^1 

Date of the first translation 
of the Sanskrit Vetdlapan- 
chavimsati, 225 ; of the 
Vikrama-charita, 228 

Dead Lady to Life, The 
Three Young Brahmans 
who restored a, 179, 179ri^ 
180, 181, 261-266 ; to life, 
charm for raising the, 180, 
181 ; to life, herb possess- 
ing power of raising the, 
18, 18^1 

Death, a fruit as remedy 
against old age and, 216 ; 
the God of (Yama), 69, 
160 ; snake symbolical of, 
32, 32wi; of the wicked 
Kanakamanjarl, the, 52 
Decameron, Boccaccio, 271 

Decamerony its Sources 

Analogues, The, A. C. L 

De Civitate Dei, Augusti 

Deerskin, charm attached 

a, 114 
Definitions of vampires, 13' 
" De Gaudeif un sien Me 

ter," Kinder- und Ha 

mdrchen, J. and W. Grimi 


De Ira, Seneca, 294wi 
Demeter, Homeric Hymn to, 

Demon reanimating a corpse, 

vampire in the form of a, 
Dcemonologie, King James I, 

Demons, evil spirits, ghosts 

and vampires, similarity 

between, 137; feared in 

India, array of, 139 
" Demons and Spirits," Hast- 
ings' Ency. ReL Eth., 140 
" Den Andersenske Even- 

tyrdigtning ..." Valdemar 

Vedel, Tilskueren, 293 
De Natura Animalium, Aelian,. 

Denkmdler des klassischen Altera- 

turns, A. Baumeister, 282w* 
De Nugis Curialium, Gualterus 

Mapes, 122wi 
Den Nye Litter atur, " Ide og 

Form i H. C. Andersen's 

Eventyr," P. V. Rubow, 

1925, 293 
Dependent to a Nereid, The 

King who married his, 209, 

209^1, 210-216, 278-285 
Derivation of the Arabian 

knowledge of magic, 61 ; 

of the word " talisman," 

Description oj Greece, Pau- 

sanias\ J. G. Frazer, 133, 

Descriptions of mast elephants- 

in Hindu poetry, 67^^ ; of 

sirens, Greek, 282 
De Sirenibus qucestiones selectosr 

G. Weicker, 282w 
Destroyer of Obstacles 

(Gane^a), 128 
Destroying people by witch- 
craft, 24w 
Deutsche Volksmdrchen aus dem 

Sachsenlande in Siebenhiirgen, 

J. Haltrich, 291%* 


feutscken Folksbitcher, Die, 

K. Simrock, 25^2 
Devils and Evil Spirits of 

B aby Ionia, Campbell 

Thompson, 138 
Diabetes, the seed of the 

rose-apple a cure for, llOw^ 
Dialects, translations of the 

Vetdlapanchaviihsa ti into 

Indian, 225, 226 
Dice-mendicant, Akshaksha- 

panaka i.e., 153^1 
Dictionary of Birds, A, A. 

Newton, 182^2 
Difference between the 

Vedanta and the Sankhya 

philosophy, main, 34 
Different recensions of the 

V etdlapanchavirhsati as an 

independent collection, 

225, 225n3- 4- 5 ; theories 

about the Vikrama era, 

229, 230 
Disciplina Clericalis, Peter 

Alphonse^s, W. H. Hulme, 

272, 272^3 
Discovering and removing all 

sins, method of, 76 
Disguising as an ascetic, 12, 

12ni, 13, 23, 45, 175, 176 
Dispute between the maina 

and the parrot, the, 184 ; 

between the three suitors, 

the, 203 ; between Vini- 

tamati and UdayavatI, the, 

Doctrine of the dtman, the, 

34, 35 ; of mdyd, the, 34, 35 
Doctrines of perfection, the, 

84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 96 
Doll, Akshakshapanaka and 

the Wooden, 151-153 
("Donkey Cabbages") * Der 

Krautesel," Kinder- und 

Hausmdrchen, J. and W. 

Grimm, 56^2 
Donkey symbolical of Un- 
righteousness, 31, 32 
Dream of Mrigankadatta, the, 

Dreams, charm for producing, 

76, 77, 80; the king's, 77, 

"Drei Schlangenblatter, 

Die," Kinder- und Haus- 
mdrchen, J. and W. Grimm, 

Drinking up the sea in a 

dream, Mrigankadatta, 11; 

in the underworld, taboo 

on, 135 


Drum beaten when thief is 
led to execution, 189, 

Ducks, Brahmany (Brahminy), 
71, 71^3, 72 

Ducks of India, The, R. G. 
Wright and D. Dewar, l\n^ 

Dun, Book of the, the, 281 

Dust used to cause metamor- 
phosis, 5 

Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, 

107, 107^2 

["Earlier History of the 
Arabian Nights"] D. B. 
Macdonald, Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc, July 1924, 62 

Earliest references to vam- 
pires, 138, 139 

Early English Versions of 
the Gesta Romanorum, The, 
S. J. H. Herrtage, 9Sn\ 
154^3, 262^1 

Ear-ornament made of a shoot 
from the wishing-tree of 
love, 70 

Ears of faithless wife, cutting 
off, 189, 189^2 

Earth leading to the under- 
world, openings in the, 

108, 109 ; the weeping, 
193, 194 

Earthquakes, etc., by the 
power of spells, conquer- 
ing, 29 

Eastern opinions about the 
ill -effects of the moon, 

Eastern Romances and Stories, 
A Group of, W. A. Clous- 
ton, 60, 287w3 

Eating, among savage races, 
rituals connected with, 
133 ; fastidiousness about, 
217-219, 287, 288; the 
jambu fruit, the conse- 
quence of, 110, 110712; 
magic corn, transformation 
through, 56, 6Qn\ 62, 63 

Eclogae, Virgil, 2471 ; the, 
in Greek mythology, 282, 

" Efforts, Joint," motif, the, 
263, 274, 275 

"Eldest Lady's Tale," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 8 

Elephant, called Bhadra- 
danta, 12, 13 ; by a curse, 
Bhimabhata becomes an, 
162 ; four glands on the 
forehead of an Indian, Q7n\ 


Elephant continued 

QSn ; Story of the Jackal 
that was turned into an, 2-3 

Elephants and their Diseases, 
G. H. Evans, 68w 

Elephants in mast {must or 
7nusth) state, Qln^, 68w 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th 
ed., 183w2 

Encyclopcedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings', 76wi ; 
" Agastya," H. Jacobi, 
44n ; " Charms and Amu- 
lets (Indian)," W. Crooke, 
59; "Covenant," J. A. 
Macculloch, 133; "Demons 
and Spirits," 140 ; "Maya," 
J. Allen, 35 ; " Sirens," P. 
Shorey, 282w ; " Tantrism 
(Buddhist)," la Vallee 
Poussin, 52*1 ; " Vampire,'* 
J. A. Macculloch, 137; 
"Vedanta," R. Garbe, 35 

End, hair standing on, 157, 
157^2, 180, 212 

Endurance, the importance 
of acquiring, 9 

English translations of the 
Vetdlapaiichavimsati, 226, 

English Versions of the Gesta 
Romanorum, The Early, 
S. J. H. Herrtage, 98wi, 
154w3, 262wi 

" Ensorcelled Prince, Tale of 
the," The Nights, R. F. 
Burton, 8 

Entertainment at Asiatic 
courts, wit combats as, 73n3 

Entrances on the earth to the 
underworld, 108, 109 

Epic Kalevala, taboo on drink 
in the Finnish, 135 

Epigraphia Indica, 69n^ 

Epistolce Turcicce ac Narra- 
tiones Persicce editce et Latine 
conversce, J. Uri, 265, 265w2 

Era, the founding of the 
Vikrama, 228, 229; of 
Vardhamana ( Mahavira ), 

" Erbsenfinder," 291 

" Erbsenprobe, Die," Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen, J. and W. 
Grimm, 291, 291^3 

" Escaping One's Fate ** 
motif 927l2 

" Escaping One's Fate " 
W. N. Brown, Studies in 
Honor of Maurice Bloomr 
feld, 92n2 



Essays, H. H. Wilson, 1862- 
1866, 251 

Ethnogrqfische Parallelen und 
Fergleiche, R. Andree, 140 

Etudes egi/ptienneSf G. Mas- 
pero, 134 

Etudes Folklorique, E. Cosquin, 

Eugenia jambolanafrose-a,pp\e, 

European folklore, Melusina 
a snake-maiden in, 73n^ 

European literature, sub- 
aqueous palaces in, 280 

European methods of attain- 
ing invisibility, 149n^ 

Evejityr fortalte for B^m (or 
Stories for Children) , H. C. 
Andersen, 290 

Evil-smelling rice, the, 218 

Evil spirits, ceremony for 
averting, 109, 109wi ; 
spirits, demons, ghosts 
and vampires, similarity 
between, 137 

Exeinpla of the Rabbis, The, 
M. Gaster, 287^*, 288 

Existence, wheel represent- 
ing mundane, 31 

Expelled from his father's 
city, Mrigankadatta, 25, 

Experience, Jwflr, 34 

Explanation, of the sight in 
the lake, 33 ; of the strange 
behaviour of Brahmany 
ducks, Hindu, 71^^ 

Eocflanatory Commentary on 
Esther, An, P. Cassel, 74n 

Eye, Margery Jordane, the 
cunning witch of, 24w; of 
Siva, the blazing, Zlri^ 

Eyes like blue lotuses, 212 

Eyesight affected by sleep- 
ing exposed to the moon, 

Fabliaux, Les, J. Bedier, 

Fabulce, Hyginus, 282w* 
Face, during sleep in the 

East, covering, lOOw^ ; of 

girl surpassing the moon 

in beauty, 169 ; like a full 

moon, 173 
Faerie Queene, The, Edmund 

Spenser, 215wi 
Fahrende Schiller putting out 

his tongue, the, lOw* 
Fair sex, fastidiousness about 

the, 218, 219 

Fairy Mythology, The, T. 
K e i g h 1 1 e y, 136 ; I'ales, 
Indian, M. Stokes, 16n, 
47wi, 61, 154^3, 250, 260; 
Tales and Other Stories by 
Hans Christian Andersen, 
W. A. and J. K. Craigie, 
292 ; Tales, The Science of, 
E. S. Hartland, 135 

Faithful Brahman, the, 192, 

" Faithful Servant " motij, 
272, 273 

Faithless wife's nose bitten 
off, 188, 188ni 

Faithlessness, ears cut off as 
punishment for, 189, 189w2 

Fdkhir, the, by al-Mufaddal 
ibn Salama, collection of 
proverbs called, 62, 63 ; 
C. A. Storey's edition of, 63 

Falling in love with a picture, 
90, 91, 91n2 

False ascetics, 12, 12n\ 13, 
23, 45 ; knowledge, avidyd, 
ignorance or, 34 

" False Ascetics and Nuns in 
Hindu Fiction," M. Bloom- 
field, Journ. Amer. Orient. 
Soc, 12ni 

Family, the resuscitation of 
Viravara and his, 197 

Fans used to dispel spirits, 

Fastidious Men, The Three, 
217-220, 2\ln\ 285-294 

Fat and wine, liquor of, 112, 

Fickleness of women, the, 

Fiction, riddles in Hindu, 
lin ; the Vetala in Hindu, 
139, 140 

Fierce combat, the, 146 

Fifth incarnation of Vishnu, 
107, 107^2 

Finnish epic Kalevala, taboo 
on drink in the, 135 

*' Fire," or " courage,^' tejas, 
10, 10^2 

Fire of the eye of Siva, the, 
31^1 ; the God of, 105 ; of 
love, the torture of the, 9 

" First Kalandar's Tale," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 23wi 

First Nine Books of the Danish 
History of Saxo Grammat- 
icus, 6. Elton, 288^1 

First translation of the San- 
skrit Vetdlapanchavimsati, 
225, 226 

Fish, Sankhadatta foi 
alive in the belly of 
154, 154^3- 4 

" Fisherman and the Jii 
Tale of the," The Nigh 
R. F. Burton, 8 

Five Brahmans, the hermit- 
age of the, 26 ; hues, 
flowers of, 157 ; mountains 
of Ceylon, the, 70^2 ; places 
in which the story of the 
magic corn is found, 63, 64 

Flag in the sea, ship forced 
on to a, 211, 214 

Flagellation during marriage 
ceremonies, 265, 266 

Flags at temples, explanation 
for use of, 109w^ 

Flavours, the six, 218, 218ni 

Flesh of own body, giving 
away, 122, 122^2, 123n 

Flogging, resuscitation 
through, 265, 265w2- 3, 266 

Flower, jambu, 15 ; smile like 
a, 212 

Flowers, H. W. Longfellow, 

Flowers from a Persian Garden 
and Other Papers, W. A. 
Clouston, 74w 

Flowers of five hues, 157; 
simile of, 9, 9ii^ 

Fluid from the temples of an 
elephant, 67, 67^1, 68w 

Flying, the attempt at, 89 ; 
mountains among Indo- 
Aryans, tales of, 3w^; 
through the air, chariot, 
201-203 ; vampire known 
in the Malayan region, 
Pontianak, a, 61, 62 

Folk-Lore, " King Midas and 
his Ass's Ears," W. Crooke, 
26ni; "The Myth of 
Balder/' A. H. Krappe, Iri^; 
"Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," W. Crooke, 
282^6 ; S. Schechter, lin 

Folk-Lore Journal, " Indo- 
Burmese Folklore," R. F. 
St A. St John, 1889, 266 

Folk-lore, Melusina, a snake- 
maiden in European, 73^2 

Folk-Lore of the North-east j 
of Scotland, Notes on the, ^ 
Walter Gregor, 150w i 

Folk - Lore of the Northern | 
Counties, Notes on the, W. j 
Henderson, 150w j 

Folk-Lore of Northern India, 
The Popular Religion and, I 


Folk-Lore continued 

W. Crooke, 59, 109ni, 

Folk-Lore Society, 2SSn^ 

Folk Tales J Georgian^ M. 
Wardrop, 123ri 

Folk-Tales of Kashmir ^ J. H. 
Knowles, 60 

Folk-Tales of the Magyars, 
W. H. Jones and L. Kropf, 

Folk-Tales, Russian, W. R. S. 
Ralston, 15^3, 28^2, 56wi, 
72wi, 73w2. 3, 136, ITOri^, 

Folk- Tales, Siberian and Other, 
C. F. Coxwell, 123w, 242, 
248, 264, 269^2, 270, 273^2, 

Folk-tales, Indian, Natesa 
Sastri, 92^2 

Food, gift of poisoned, 174; 
of six flavours, 218, 218^1 

Food-Taboo in the Under- 
world, Note on, 133-136 

Foolish judge, the, 84 ; 
parrot, the, 86, 87 

Forehead of an Indian ele- 
phant, four glands on the, 
67^1, 68w; mark on the, 
tilak, 268 

Forest, called Karimandita, 
26, 27; of horrors, the, 
118; on the other side of 
the western sea, Surabhim- 
aruta, a, 16 ; the Vindhya, 
28, 100, 141, 202 

Forests, a range of tamdla, 102 

Form of black magic among 
Mohammedans of Northern 
India, 149^1, i50n ; of 
marriage, the gdndharva, 2, 
15, 15ni, 126, 126^1, 157, 
173, 279 ; through contem- 
plation, attaining a certain, 
20, 21 ; of the Vetdlapan- 
chavimsati, the original, 
225, 225n3 

Former birth, remembering, 
86 ; Life, The Adventures 
of Pushkaraksha and Vina- 
yavati in a, 17-20 

Forms of vampires, different, 

Fortune, the Goddess of, 42, 
72, 105n\ 124, 156, 159 

Foiiy Vezirs, The History of 
the, E. J. W. Gibb, 249 

** Forwards and Backwards," 
charm called, 149, 149^^, 
150w, 157 


Founder of Jainism, Maha- 
vira, the, 228, 229 

Founding of the Vikrama era, 
the, 228, 229 

Four different Sanskrit recen- 
sions of the Vikrama-charita, 
228 ; glands on the fore- 
head of an Indian elephant, 
67^1, 68n 

" Four Skilful Brothers," the 
German tale of, 274 

Fragrance, body with 
heavenly, 113 

Fragrant fruits, the three, 

Frame- story of the Vetdla- 
panchaviihsati, 165-168, 231- 

Frazers Magazine, Vikram and 
the Vampire, R. F. Burton, 
1868, 227^1 

French translation of the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati, 226 

" Friendship and Sacrifice " 
motif, the, 272, 273 

Fruit, dmalaka, 86, 87; daily 
gift of a, 165, 166; 
heavenly maiden produced 
inside a, 15*1^, 16, 16w; of 
the jambu tree, the con- 
sequence of eating the, 
110, llOw^; as a remedy 
against old age and death, 
a, 216 

Fruits, circulating, in folk-lore 
and reality, 240, 241 ; con- 
taining priceless jewels, 
166 ; the three fragrant, 
21n^', the three sweet, 
21n^ ; water flavoured with 
three kinds of, 27, 27^1 

Full moon, face like a, 173 

Gambler named Akshaksha- 
panaka, 151, 153, IbSn^, 
154, 155, 161, 162 ; named 
Mukharaka, 106, 114-121, 
124, 129 

Gamblers, asylum for, 115, 
119, 120 

Gambling, the vice of, 106, 

Gammaldags seder och bruk, 
J. Sundblad, 290# 

" Gansemagd, Die," Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen, J. and W. 
Grimm, 47%^ 

Garden called Chitrasthala, 
103; produced by the 
power of virtue, the, 82 

Gem, the tdrkshya, 1 


Gems, palace of. 111 

Generous Induprabha, The, 
84, 84^2, 85, 86 

Genesis, 134 

" Geographical Dictionary of 
Ancient and Mediaeval 
India," Nundolal Dey, 
Indian Antiquary, 69w^, 150wi 

Geological explanation of 
myths about flying moun- 
tains, possible, 3wi 

Georgian Folk Tales, M. 
Wardrop, \22>n 

German translation of the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati, 226 

Gesammelte Abhandlungen, W. 
Hertz, 74w 

Geschichte der indischen Litter- 
atur, M. Winternitz, 
225^3- 4. 5 

Geschichte der Prosadicht- 
ungen oder Geschichte der 
Romane . . . , Felix Lie- 
brecht (trans, of Dunlop's 
History of Fiction), 204wJ 

" Geschichten des toten No- 
rub-can, Die," A. H. 
Francke, Zeit. d. d. mors. 
Gesell, 242, 242^1 

Gesta Romanorum, the, 262, 

Gesta Romanorum, H. Oester- 
ley, 262^1 

Gesta Romanorum, English 
edition of the, 98wi, 154^3. 
See also under Herrtage, 
S. J. H. 

Ghosts, evil spirits, demons 
and vampires, similarity 
between, 137 

Gift of a fruit, daily, 165, 
166 ; of poisoned food, 174 

Girdle of the sky-bride, the 
sun, the centre -jewel of 
the, 210 

Girl, smells like a goat, 219 ; 
surpassing the moon in 
beauty, face of a, 169 

Glands on the forehead of an 
Indian elephant, four, 67w^, 

Goat, girl smells like a, 219 ; 
woman turned into a, by 
eating magic barley, 56, 
56wi' 2 

God of Death, the, 69, 160 ; 
of Fire, the, 105 ; of Just- 
ice, the, 79, 80 ; of Love, 
1, 2, 41, 45, 74, 115, 157, 
158, 168, 177 ; of Wealth, 
the (Kuvera), 71, 104 




Goddess Chandl, the, 194- 
196 ; of Fortune, the, 42, 
72, 106n\ 124, 156, 159; 
Ganga, the, 148-150 ; of 111 
Luck, 106 ; Jahnavl, the, 
149; of Prosperity, the 
(Sri), 41 

Gold, coals turning into, 136 

Golden Ass, The, Apuleius, 

Golden Bought The, J. G. 
Frazer, 24w, 59, 100n\ 
133, 137, 265w3, 283w3 

Golden city inside a tree, 130 

Golden Town, and other Tales, 
The, L. D. Barnett, 26^2, 
28ni, 32ni 

** Goldsmith and the Cash- 
mere Singing-girl," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 255- 

"Goose Girl," the tale of 
the, 48n 

Grackle, Acridotheres tristis, 

Gracula religiosa, Maina, 267 
Grape, one of the three sweet 

fruits, 27ni 
ijraiss, darbha, 98, 117; kusa, 
, 50 
Graves, custom of pouring 

blood over, 137 
Greek descriptions of sirens, 

282 ; mythology, the 

" Lamp of Phoebus " in, 

147w^; mythology, sirens 

in, 282, 283 
Griechische und alhanesische 

M'drchen, J. G. von Hahn, 

Griechische M'drchen, Bernhard 

R. Schmidt, 16w, 47wi, 136, 

Griechische Mythologie, L. 

Preller, 18^^ 
Griechische Roman, Der, E. 

Rohde, 16w, lSn\ llOn^, 

Group of Eastern Romances 

and Stories, A, W. A. 

Clouston, 60, 287^3 
Guardian, Philip Massineer, 

Guardian, the Vetala, the 

Deccan, 139 

*'Hadith of Khurafa, A," a 
proverb in the collection 
called the Fdkhir, 62, 63 

Hair standing on end, 157, 
157^2, 180, 212 

Halahala poison, 87, 87wi 

Half-witted children, moon's 
effect on, lOln 

*' Hammer of Shavelings," 
conquering the, 76, 76w^ 

Hand round the head to 
dispel spirits, waving the, 
109, 109^1; for thieving, 
cutting off the right, 19 

Hans Christian Anderse?i. Et 
Digterliv, H. Schwanen- 
flugel, 292 

Head to dispel spirits, 
waving the hand round 
the, 109, 109wi; transforma- 
tion through inserting or 
extracting a pin in the, 

Heads, The Lady who caused 
her Brother and Husband 
to change, 204-207, ^Oin\ 
276-277 ; Sesha or Ananta, 
snake with a thousand. 

Heaven, lamp of, the moon 
called the, 147n^; a voice 
from, 6, 14; the wishing- 
tree of, 40 

Heavenly chariot that travels 
in the sky, 21, 22; frag- 
rance, body possessing, 
113; lotus of crystal, 70, 
71 ; maiden, 212 ; maiden 
of illuminating beauty, 1, 
Iri^, 2.n^; maiden produced 
inside a fruit, 15^3, 16, 
16w ; nymph, 94 ; nymph 
coming out of a tree, 29 ; 
nymph, Tillotama, a, 189 

Helden-Sagen, Altdeutsche und 
Altnordische, F. H. v. d. 
Hagen, 280 

"Helpful animals "Two^i/, 291 

Henry VI, King, Shakespeare, 

Herb possessing power of 
raising the dead to life, 
18, 18^1 

Hermit named Brahma- 
dandin, 30, 31 ; named 
Brahmasiddhi, 2, 3 ; named 
Pisangajata, 9, 10 ; named 
Uttanka, 162 ; named Viji- 
tasu, 16, 17, 20, 21 ; named 
Vinayajyoti, 91 ; Subha- 
naya, the Patient, 88-89 ; 
Sveta, the, 94 

Hermitage of Brahmadandin, 
30, 31 ; of Brahmasiddhi, 
2 ; of the five Brahmans, 
27; of Pisangajata, 9, 10; 

Hermitage continued 

of Vijitasu, 16, 17, 21 ; o\ 
Vinitamati, 97 

Hero, the Brahman, 201-203; 
of the Fetalapanchavimsatii 
identity of the, 228-231 

Hero and Leander, Musaeus, 

Heroidum Epistolce, Ovid, 24*i 

Herzog Ernst, the wander- 
ings of, 25n2 

Hill of Sarika, an opening to 
the underworld, 109 

Hindi version of the Vetdla- 
panchavimsati, 226, 232, 
241, 264, 265, 267, 272, 
273, 276, 276^1, 278, 278wi, 
285, 285/11 

Hindu beauty, simile of, 
125 ; and Buddhist pagan- 
ism, connection between 
" Tantrism" and, 51^2, 52i; 
explanation of the strange 
behaviour of Brahmany 
ducks, lln^ ; fiction, riddles 
in, 74w; poetry, descrip- 
tion of mast elephants in, 
67^1 ; poetry, the smile in, 
113^1; pun, 10, lOn^'^; 
33,33^3,41, 41wi2.3.4, 55^ 
55wi, 74, 74^1, 75, 75^2, 
90n2,107,107wi, 111, 111^3, 
121, 121wi, 126, 126^2, 
150^2, 156, 156^1- 2, 167, 
167n2, 169, U9n\ ISSnS 
192/^2; weddings, Parach-j 
han, custom of waving j 
away spirits at, 109^1 

Hindu at Home, The, J. E. 
Padfield, 59 

Hip, trident, mark on the, 
175, 176 

Histoire Ancienne des Peuples 
de F Orient Classiques. Les 
Origines, G. Maspero, 134 

Histoire de la litterature 
Hindoui et Hindoustani, 
Garcin de Tassy, 240 

" Histoire des Rois de 
I'Hindoustan apres les 
Pandavas," L'Abbe Ber- 
trand. Journal Asiatique, 
240, 240^2 

Historia SeptemSapientum,272, 

History of the Arabs, A Liter- 
ary, R. A. Nicholson, 66 

Historij of Fiction, John Dun- 
lop,' 204^3, 280^2- 3. 4 

History of the Forty Vezirs, 
The, E. J. W. Gibb, 249 


History of Great Britain . . . , 

James P. Andrews (con- 
tinuation of R. Henry's 

History . . .)> 24w 
History of Great Britain^ 

written on a new plan ^ Robert 

Henry, 24n 
History of Human Marriage, 

The, E.Westermarck, 265^3 
History of Persia, A, Percy 

Sykes, 293w3 
History of Sanskrit Literature, 

A, A. A. Macdonell, 227 
" History of Sidi Nu'uman," 

The Nights, R. F. Burton, 8 
Hitopadesa, the, 279, 279^1 
Hitopadesa, or Salutary 

Counsels of Vishnusarman, 

F. Johnson, 279ni 
Hole in wall, thief making a, 

187, 187w2 
Holy Man, How King Vinlta- 

mati became a, 69-78, 80- 

83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 

Home of the vampire-belief, 

Balkan, the possible, 138 
Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 133 
Horripilation, 157, 157^2, 180, 

Horrors, the forest of, 118 
Horse, the wonderful white, 

Horses, magic, 72, 72*1^ 
How King Vinitamati became 

a Holy Man, 69-78, 80-83, 

84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 96-98 
How the Prince obtained a 

Wife by the Help of his 
Father's Minister, 168-177 
Hudihras [Samuel Butler], 24w 
Hues, flowers of five, 157 
Hugements insenses, 84w^ 
Human blood, thirst of vam- 
pires for, 137 ; flesh, giving 
away of, 122, 122^2, 123n ; 
wishing-tree, 80, 81, 85 
Huon de Bourdeaux, the 

romance of, 280, 280^3 
Husband and Brother to 
change Heads, The Lady 
who caused her, 204-207, 
204ii, 276-277 ; the cruel, 
185, 186 
Husbands by witchcraft, 
Roman ladies accused of 
poisoning their, 24n 
Hymn to Demeter, Homeric, 

.Hymns to the Goddess, Arthur 
Avalon, 52w 

Hymns in the Big - Veda, 
Agastya, reputed author of 
some, 43wi ; stotras or, in 
the Rgyud, 52n 

Icelandic version of the " Joint 
Efforts " motif, 275, 275^1 
Ichor or mada from the 
temples of a mast elephant, 
67^1, 68/1 
" Ide og Form i H. C. Ander- 
sen's Eventyr," P. V. 
Rubow, Den Nye Litteratur, 
Identification of the city of 

Ahichchhatra, 69ri^ 
Identity of King Vikrama 
in the Vetdlapanchavimsati, 
Idols in the Rgyud, texts 
about the consecration of, 
Idylls, The, Theocritus, 24w 
Ignorance orfalse knowledge, 

avidya, 34 
Iliad, the, 281 
Ill-effects of the moon. Eastern 

opinions about the, lOOw^ 
111 Luck, the Goddess of, 

Illness, the king's,119,119ni; 

the pretended, 117 
Illuminating beauty, maiden 
of, 1, \n^, %n^, 112; power 
of Balder, Iri^ 
Illusion, power of, mdyasakti, 


Images of wax made by 

witches and magicians, 24w 

" Imaginative Yojanas," J. F. 

Fleet, t/bwrw. Roy. As. Soc, 


Immortality, the fruit of, 232, 

233, 240 
Incarnation of Buddha, 85, 
86; of Vishnu, the fifth 
(Dwarf), 107, 107^2 
Independent collection, the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati as an, 
Indian Antiquary, " Geo- 
graphical Dictionary of 
Ancient and Mediaeval 
India," Nundolal Dey, 
mn^, 150%! 
Indian Ducks and their Allies, 
The, E. C. Stuart Baker, 
Indian Fairy Tales, M. Stokes, 
16n, 47ni, 61, 154^3, 250, 


Indian Folk - tales, Natesa 
Sastri, 92^2 

Indian Wisdom, Monier Wil- 
liams, 92%! 

Indian elephant, four glands 
on the forehead of an, 67^^, 

Indian method of thieving, 
187, 187^2; origin, the 
" magic seed " story un- 
doubtedly of, 66 ; vernac- 
ulars, translations of the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati into, 
225, 226 

Indigenous Drugs of India, 
Kanny Lall Dey, llOwi 

Indische Erzdhler, Die zehn 
Prinzen, J. Hertel, 251 

Indische Mdrchen, J. Hertel, 

Indische Mdrchen, F. von der 
Leyen, 225wi 

Indische Studien, A. Weber, 

Inflicted curse cannot be 
annulled, an, 103w^ 

Initiation ceremony of a 
Brahman, the sacred thread 
in the, 59 

Initiatory rites for obtaining 
life-prolonging charm, 6, 

Injuries, unintentional, 23, 

Insult of spitting betel-juice 
on a person, 23, 23n^ 

Interpretation of the language 
of signs, 170 

Introduction to the frame- 
story of the Vetdlapancha- 
vimsati, in the Hindiversion, 
232-239; in the Marathi 
version, 232 ; in the Tamil 
version, 231-232 

Investing with the sacred 
thread (upanayana), 59 

" Invincible," sword named, 

Invisibility by repeating 
charm forwards, attaining, 
149, 149^1, 157 

Ira, De, Seneca, 294ni 
Irische Elfenmdrchen, J. and 
W. Grimm, 36wi, lUn\ 
Irish prince and the sirens, 

story of the, 281 
Iron city in Ratnadvlpa, 
Rakshasis living in an, 
284; spike, the mark of 
the, 175, 176 



Islam in hidia, or the Qdnun-i- 

Islam, Ja'Far Sharif, 150n. 

See also under Herklots, 

G. A. 
Ivory-carver named Sangra- 

mavardhana, 170, ItOn^ 

Jackal that was turned into 
an Elephant, Story of the, 

Jain traditions. King Vi- 
krama or Vikramaditya of, 
228, 229, 230 

Jainism, Mahavira, the 

. founder of, 228, 229 

Jataka Tales, H. T. Francis 
and E. J. Thomas, 284wi 

"Jean de I'Ours," Contes 
Populaires de Lorraine, E. 
Cosquin, 122^2 

Jewels, fruits containing 
priceless, 166; palace of, 

Jewish literature, no trace of 
vampires in, 138; story 
about food taboo in the 
underworld, 135, 136 

" Johannes, Der getreue," 
Kinder- und Hausm'drchen, 
J. and W. Grimm, 273, 

"Joint Efforts" motif, 263, 
274, 275 

Journ. of the American Oriental 
Society, ** False Ascetics 
and Nuns in Hindu 
Fiction," M. Bloomfield, 

Journ. of the Anthropological 
Institute [" Ethnographical 
Notes on the Fang," A. L. 
Bennet], 1899, 265^3 ; 
M. J. Walhouse, 1876, 139 

Journ. Asiatique, " La Brihat- 
kathamanjari de Kshe- 
mendra," S. Levi, 1886, 
225n2 ; [" Deux Manuscrits 
d'une Version Arabe in- 
edite du Recueil des Sept 
Vizirs "] Rene Basset, 1903, 
260^1 ; " Histoire des Rois 
de I'Hindoustan apres les 
Pandavas, traduite . . . ," 
L'Abbe Bertrand, 1844, 
240^2 ; E. Lancereau, 1851 
and 1852, 226 

Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, 
J. C. C. Wilson, 68w 

Journ. Hellenic Society, J. E. 
Harrison, 282i 

Journ. Mythic Society, Quarterly, 
7 1 w^. For details see under 

Journ. oj^ Philology, " A Philo- 
logical Examination of the 
Myth of the Sirens," J. P. 
Postgate, 1880, 282w 

Journ. of Philology, American, 
37w^. For details see under 
American Journal 

Journ. of the Royal Asiatic 
Society ["The Date of 
Kaniska "], John Marshall, 
1914, 1915, 229w3; [.^xhe 
Earlier History of the 
Arabian Nights"] D. B. 
Macdonald, July 1924, 62; 
" Imaginative Yojanas," 
J. F. Fleet, 70^1; "Wahm," 
D. B. Macdonald, 66 

(Joy after Hardship) A I Faraj 
ba'da^sh-shiddah, Mubassin 
ibn *Ali at-Tanukhi, '265^2 

Judge, the foolish, 84 

" Julnar the Sea-born and 
her Son," The Nights, 
R. F. Burton, 62 

Justice, the God of, 79, 80 

" Kalakacharya - kathanaka," 

H. Jacobi, Zeit. d. d. morg. 

GeselL, 230^1 
Kalevala, taboo on drink in 

the Finnish epic, 135 
Kalmuck (Mongolian) version 

of the Vetdlapanchavimsati, 

241-247, 275 
Kalmiikische Mdrchen. Die 

Mdrchen des Siddhi-Kur, B. 

Jiilg, 242w2, 264, 269?i2 
Karakus, a huge bird fed on 

human flesh, 123n 
Kdrikd, Gaudapada, 34 
Kathdkoga, C. H. Tawney, In^, 

25^3, 205n 
" Katteprinsen " [Register], 

S. Grundtvig, 291 
" Khamuka," one of the 

glands on the forehead of 

an elephant, 67^^ 
Kinder- und Hausm'drchen, J. 

and W. Grimm, 47^^, 56n2, 

61, 98wi, 122^2 
Kinds of vampires, different, 

King of Anga, the, 43; 

Bahusakti, 4 ; Bhadrabahu 

and his Clever Minister, 

12-14; Bhunandana, The 

Adventures of, 106-114; 


King of Anga continued 
James the First, Dcemono 
logic, 24n ; Kalenemi of th. 
Asuras, 215; who marriei 
his Dependent to a Nereid 
The, 209, 209wi, 210 
216,278-285; ofMatangas 
Durgapi^acha, the, 36, 37 

King Henry VI, Shakespeare 

King John, Life and Death oj 
Shakespeare, 24w 

" King Lakshadatta and hi 
Dependent Labdhadatta,' 

" King Midas and his Ass'; 
Ears," W. Crooke, Folk 
Lore, 26/1^ 

King named Amaradatta, 10 
23, 141 ; Anangodaya, 124 
127, 128 ; Bhadraksha, 14 
Chandasimha, 209, 211 
213; Chandraditya, 156. 
158 ; Dhumaketu, 130 ; 
Gandhamalin, 70-73: 
Indukesarin, 90, 92; Kal- 
anemi, 215 ; Karmasena, 
11, 12; Karnotpala, 170, 
177; Pratapamukuta, 165; 
Malayaprabha, 84 ; Me- 
ghamalin, 41, 44; Prase- 
najit, 218; Punyasena, 200, 
201; Rupsen, 267, 268; 
Saktirakshita, 25, 27: 
Sekharajyoti, 88 ; Srisena, 
115, 119, 120, 126, 127, 
128, 129; Srutadhara, 142; 
Sudraka, 191-195, 197- 
199 ; Udayatunga, 69, 73 ; 
Ugrabhata, 142-144, 158, 
159 ; Vikramakei^arin, 183 ; 
Vikramasena, 165 ; Vima- 
lakara, 40 ; Ya^ahketu, 204 

King of the Parrots, Hema- 
prabha, 86, 87; of the 
Savaras (Bhillas) named 
Mayavatu, 36-38, 56-58, 67, 
68, 99,' 100; Trivikrama- 
sena and the Mendicant, 
165, 165^1, 166-168, 177- 
178, 179, 181-182, 183, 190, 
191, 199, 200, 203, 204, 
208, 209, 216, 217, 220- 
221; and the Two Wise 
Birds, The, 183, \^2>n\ 
184, 186, 189, 267-272 ; of 
Varanasi named Dharma- 
gopa, 12, 13; of Vatsa, 
the, 1, 7; Vinitamati 
became a Holy Man, How, 

Ang continued 
69-78, 80-83, 84, 86, 87, 
89, 92, 96-98 

King's answers to the Vetala's 
questions, the, 177, 178, 
181, 182, 190, 199, 203, 
208,216,220,221; dreams, 
the, 77, 80; illness, the, 
119, 119wi 

Kleine SchrifteUy Theodor 
Zachariae, 59 

Knowledge, avidyd, ignorance 
or false, 34 ; of magic, deri- 
vation of the Arabian, 61 ; 
possessor of supernatural, 

" Krautesel, Der " (" Donkey 
Cabbages "), Kinder- und 
Hausm'drchen, J. and W. 
Grimm, 56^^ 

Kumara-Sambkava, Kalidasa, 

Ladies accused of poisoning 

their husbands by witch- 
craft, Roman, 24w 
"Ladies of Baghdad, The 

Porter and the Three," The 

Nights, R. F. Burton, 8 
Lady who caused her Brother 

and Husband to change 

Heads, The, 204, 204^% 

205-207, 276-277 
*' Lady's Ninth Story," The 

History of the Forty VezirSy 

E. J. W. Gibb, 249 
Lake called Gauritirtha, 204 ; 

the Manasa, 18, 70-72 ; of 

Vasuki, the beautiful, 155, 

155^2 ; the vision seen in 

the, 31, 33 
*' Lamp of Heaven," the 

moon called the, liln^ 
" Lamp of Phoebus " in Greek 

mythology, the, 147^1 
Lamp of the world, the sun 

the, 147, 147wi 
*' Lamps," calling stars, 147^^ 
Land of Avanti, the, 33 
Langsuir and Pontianak in 

the Malay Archipelago, 

the, 138 
Language of signs, the, 169, 

"Language of Signs" motifs 

AapLKT], the (Lata), 150%^ 
Laughing mountain, the, 112, 

Leander, Hero and, Musaeus, 



Legend of the birth of 
Adonis, the, 15n^ ; about 
eating in the underworld, 
the Adapa, 133, 134; 
about the introduction of 
the Vikrama era, Jain, 230 

Legend of Perseus, E. S. 
Hartland, 138 

Legende, ^er^e, Goethe, 1840, 

Legends, the scene of the 
ancient Buddhist siren, 284 

Leonora, G. A. Buerger, 138 

Letters from the East, J. Carne, 

Lexikon der Griechischen und 
Romischen Mythologie, Aus- 
fiihrliches, W. H. Roscher, 
258^1, 282^6 

Library, The, ApoUodorus, 
18^1, 133, 134, 282ii. See 
also under J. G. Frazer, 

Life, The Adventures of 
Pushkaraksha and Vinaya- 
vati in a Former, 17-20 ; 
the allegory of, 30-32 ; by 
beating, bringing back to, 
265, 265^2. 3, 266 ; charm 
for raising the dead to, 
180, 181 ; herb possessing 
power of raising the dead 
to, 18, 18^1 ; for a peti- 
tioner, Vinitamati sacrifices 
his, 97 ; The Three Young 
Brahmans who restored a 
Dead Lady to, 179, 179wi, 
180-181, 261-266 ; the tree 
of, 134 

Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 
Philostratus, 280, 280^5 

Life and Death of King John, 
Shakespeare, 24n 

Life and Death of King 
Richard HI, Shakespeare, 

Life of an Elephant, The, 
S. E. Wilmot, 68w 

" Life, Water of," motif 98, 
9Sn\ 262, 263, 263^1 

Life-prolonging charm, ob- 
taining, 6, Qn^ 

Light of the sun, body gleam- 
ing like the, 21 

Likspokets Tjugufeyn Berdt- 
telser, Hilding Andersson, 
Gbteborgs Kungl. Veten- 
skaps- och Fitter hetssamhdlles 
Handlingar, 226, 226^2 

Liquor of fat and wine, the, 
112, 113 


Literary History of the Arabs, 

A, R. A. Nicholson, 66 
Literature, no trace of 

vampires in Jewish, 138; 

subaqueous palaces in 

European, 280 
" Little Claus and Big Claus," 

H. C. Andersen, 289, 290 
Little Ida's Flowers," H. C. 

Andersen, 290 
Live black cobra on a picture, 

painting a, 91 
Loin, trident-mark on the, 

175, 176 
Loosing a string round the 

neck, tying and, 39, 56, 

56^2, 57, 59, 60 
Lorraine, Contes Populaires de, 

E. Cosquin, 18n\ 122n^ 
Lotus, body resembling a 

blue, 115 ; of crystal, 

heavenly, 70, 71 ; used as 

an umbrella falling on the 

top of a linga of Siva, 19 
Lotuses, eyes like blue, 212 
Love, ear-ornament made of 

a shoot from the wishing- 

tree of, 70; the God of 

(Kama), 1, 2, 41, 45, 74, 

115, 157, 158, 168, 177; 

with a painting, falling in, 

90, 91, 91?^2; the torture 

of the fire of, 9 
Lovers' meetings in Old 

Greece, 204w^ 205n 
Lucky thread, the mangala- 

sutram or, 59 
" Lunatic," or "moonstruck," 

use of the words, lOln 

Maqoudi : Les Prairies U Or, 
C. Barbier de Meynard, 

^Mafdtih al-ghaib, the (Qur'an 
commentary), Razi, 64 

(Magic Art, The) The Golden 
Bough, J. G. Frazer, 24n, 

Magic barley, the, 55, 55^2, 
56; circle,the, 167, 167^3; 
circle and the magic string, 
connection between the, 
59, 60; horses, 72, 72^1; 
power. Brahman possessing, 
201-203 ; power, ring pos- 
sessing, 73 ; rites, perform- 
ing black, 51, 51^2, 52w, 
123, 149^1, \mn; Seed, 
The, 62-66; String, The, 
59-62; swords, 28, 28ri2, 
72, 72711 




" Magic, Sympathetic," 24n, 

** Magical Conflict " motifs 61 
Magical power acquired by 

meditation, 2 ; rites, sword 

essential in, 51, 51n^ 
Magician, mdydvm, 35 
Magicians, images of wax 

made by witches and, 24w 
Magyars, Folk-Tales of the, 

W. H. Jones and L. Kropf, 

Mahabharata, the, 43nS 69^1 
" MahmoAd (La sorciere)," 

Bibliographie des Ouvrages 

Arabcs, V. Chauvin, 256 
Mahouts, the, 67^1, 68w 
Maiden, coming out of a 

rose-bush, 16w ; the Daitya, 

107, 108; heavenly, 212; 

of illuminating beauty, 1, 

In^, 2n}, 112 ; produced in- 
side a fruit, heavenly, 1571^, 

16, 16w ; of the Vidyadhara 

race, beautiful, 15 
Maidens coming out of a 

citron, three, 16w 
Maina, bird of the starling 

family, 183, 183^^, 184, 

186, 189; called Somika, 

184, 184^1, 185-186 
Mainas Story, The, 184, 

184^1, 185-186 
Maitrdt/am Samhiid, the, 3n^ 
Malay Archipelago, the Lang- 

suir and Pontianak in the, 

Malay Magic, W. W. Skeat, 

Malayan region, Pontianak, 

a flying vampire known in 

the, 61, 62 
Man, How King Vinitamati 

became a Holy, 69-78, 80- 

83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 96- 

Mankind, Hartit and Marut, 

two angels teaching magic 

to, 63 
Maori Tales, K. M. Clark, 

Maqdmdt of J^arirl, Sharishi, 

commentary on the, 62, 

Mdra und Buddha, E. Wind- 

isch, 187^1 
Marathi version of the Vetdla- 

panchavimsati, 226, 226w*, 

Mdrchen der Magyaren, G. 

Gaal, 26^3, 280 

Marco Polo, The Book of Ser, 
H. Yule and H. Cordier, 

Mare, transformation of 
wicked wife into a, 5, 8 

Mark, on the forehead, tilak, 
268; of the trident, the, 
175, 176 

Marks, auspicious, 28 ; of 
moist teeth and nails, 158, 

Marriage ceremonies, flagel- 
lation during, 265, 266 ; 
gdndharva form of, 15, 15w^, 
126, 126ni, 157, 173, 279 

Marriages in Southern India, 
lucky thread fastenedround 
the neck at, 59 

Mass of St Secaire said back- 
wards, 150n 

Mastering Vetalas, charm for, 

Material of a magical string, 
importance of the, 59 

Matter exuding from an ele- 
phant in mast state, dark 
and oily, 67w^, 68w 

Mattresses, bed with seven, 

" Maya," J. Allen, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 35 

Meaning of the language of 
signs, the, 170 ; of the 
name Vikramaditya, 230 ; 
of the sight in the lake, 33 

Meanings of the word mdyd, 
diff'erent, 34 ; of the words 
brahman and dtman, 34 

Medicinal purposes, cords and 
strings used for, 59 

Meditation, attaining a cer- 
tain form through, 20, 21 ; 
dhydna, 34 ; magical power 
acquired by, 2 ; the per- 
fection of, 89, 90-92 

" Meerweib," story of King 
Wilkinus marrying a, 280 

Melanesians, The, R. H. Cod- 
rington, 135 

Men, The Three Fastidious, 
217, 217^1, 218-220, 285- 

Mendicant, King Trivikrama- 
sena and the, 165, 165^1^, 
166-168, 177-178, 179, 181- 
182, 183, 190, 191, 199, 
200, 203, 204, 208, 209, 
216, 217, 220-221 ; named 
Kshantisila, 165, 166 ; 
named Ratnachandramati, 

Mendicant's challenge, the. 
76 Jj 

Merchant who fell in L<mv 
with a Painting, The, 90- 
92 ; named Arthadatta, 
184 ; named Dharmadatta, 
186 ; named Dharmasena, 
17 ; named Manidatta, 145 ; 
named Samudradatta, 186 ; 
named Upendra^akti, 124, 
125, 128 ; named Vijaya- 
malin, 90 

Metamorphoses, Ovid, 2611^, 

Metamorphoses, animal, 5, 
5^1, 8, 40, 40wi, 56, 56ni-2, 
57,59,60,61,62,63; tree, 
26, 26ni'3 

Metaphor of the sun, 147, 
147ni, 210 

Method of discovering and 
removing all sins, 76 ; of 
thieving, Indian, 187, 187^2 

Methods of attaining invisi- 
bility, 149, 149wi ; of get- 
ting rid of vampires, 138 

Million perfections, Hamsa- 
vali possessor of ten, 156 ; 
virtues, Mrigankadatta, 
possessor of ten, 10 

Minister, How the Prince 
obtained a Wife by the 
help of his Father's, 168- 
177, 247-261 

Ministers of Mrigankadatta, 
the ten, 10, 25 

Minor, bird of the starling 
family, 183^2 

" Mir Cher-i Ali Afsos, His- 
toire des Rois de I'Hin- 
doustan apres les Pandavas, 
traduite du texte hindou- 
stani," L'Abbe Bertrand, 
Journal A siatique, 240,240^2 

Miscellaneous Translatio7is from 
Oriental Languages, vol. i. 
The Vedala Cadai, B. G. 
Babington, 1831, 226, 226^3 

Mittelhochdeutsche Dichterhel- 
densage, F. Rostock, 109w2 

Modern Greek in Asia Minor, 
R. M. Dawkins, 122^2^ 
123w, 138, 273^2 

Modei-n Vernacular Literature 
of Hindustan, The, G. A. 
Grierson, 226 

Mohammedans in NortheM 
India, form of black magic 
among, 149^1, 150 

Moist teeth and nails, marks 
of, 158, 158^1 




ondmchtig, use of the Ger- 
man word, 101 71 

Mongolian (Kalmuck) version 
of the Vetdlapanchavimsati 
(the Siddki-KUr), 241-247 
Die Neun Mdrchen des 
Siddhi-Kur, B. Jiilg, 242^2, 

" Mongols et leur pretendu 
role dans la transmission 
des Contes Indiens vers 
I'occident Europeen, Les," 
Etudes Folkloriques, E. Cos- 
quin, 246w^ 

Monkey, through spells, lover 
turned into a, 59 

Month Ashadha, the, 204 

Monumental Antiquities and 
Inscriptions in the North- 
West Provinces and Oudh, 
A. Fuhrer, 69w^ 

Moon called the "lamp of 
Heaven," the, 14771^; 
Eastern opinions about the 
ill-effects of the, lOOw^ ; in 
beauty, face of girl sur- 
passing the, 169 ; face like 
a full, 173 ; simile of the 
rising, 70 ; suffering from 
consumption, the, 119*1^ 

Moonbeams, the Chakora 
subsisting on, 180w^ 

Moon-Lore, T. Harley, lOOw^ 

Moon's effect on the health of 
half-witted children, lOlw 

** Moonstruck," or " lunatic," 
use of the words, lOlw 

Mother, the wicked, 152, 153 

Motif, " Escaping One's 
Fate," 92^2; ''Faithful 
Servant," 272, 273; "Help- 
ful Animals," 291 ; " Joint 
Efforts," 263, 274, 275; 
" Language of Signs," 247- 
251 ; " Magic String," 59- 
62; "Magical Conflict," 
61 ; " Overhearing," 8, 
272 ; " Perfect Friends," or 
"Friendship andSacrifice," 
272, 273 ; "Quintessence," 
285-288 ; " Resuscitation," 
262, 263 ; " Supplanted 
Bride," 47, 4:ln\ 48w ; 
" Sybarite," 285, 286, 288- 
294 ; " Water of Life," 98, 
98wS 262, 263, 263wi 

Motiv V071 der unterschohenen 
Braut in der internationalen 
Erzdhlungs-Litteratur . . . , 
Basy P. Arfert, 48w 


Mount Kailasa, 103, 131, 168; 
Mandaraused asachurning- 
stick, 70^2, 161, 16l7ii; 
Meru, 127, 212, 215 

Mountain Kedara, the, 88; 
of Kramasaras, 113; the 
laughing, 112, 113; the 
Malaya, 6, 7, 9, 50 ; of Sri, 
the, 6 ; of Venus, the, 
109^2 ; the Vindhya, 86 

Mountains among Indo- 
Aryans, tales of flying, 3wi ; 
of Ceylon, the five, 70^2 ; 
myth about Indra cutting 
off the wings of the, 3*1^ 

Mukhtalif al-hadltji, Ibn 
Qutaiba, 63 

Mulberry-tree, queen be- 
comes a, 26^3 

Mundane existence, wheel 
representing, 31 

Mustard-seeds, charmed, 5, 
29, 109, 123, 124 

Myrobalans, triphald, the 
three (Professor Monier 
Williams), 27^1 

Mystical number, the, 14, 

Myth of Balder, the, In^ ', 
about cutting off the wings 
of the mountains, 3, 3wi; 
about eating in the under- 
world, Babylonian, 133, 
134 ; of Proserpine, the 
classical, 133 ; of Tann- 
hauser, the, 109^2 

" Myth of Balder, The," A. H. 
Krappe, Folk-Lore, In^ 

Mythic Society, Quarterly 
Journal of the, lln^. For 
details see under Quarterly 

Mythology, the " Lamp of 
Phoebus " in Greek, 147^1 ; 
sirens in Greek, 282, 283 

Mythology of the Aryan Nations, 
G. W; Cox, 72/1-"^ 

Mythology, The Fairy, T. 
Keightley, 136 

Mythology and Monuments of 
Ancient Athens, J. E. Harri- 
son, 282ri6, 283, 2S3n^ 

Mythology, Teutonic, 5. Grimm, 
trans, by J. S. Stallybrass, 
Ini, 277 

Mythology, Vedic, A." A. Mac- 
donell, 3w^ 

Mythology, Zoological, A. de 
Gubernatis, 277 

Myths of Attis andCyparissus, 
the, 26w3 


Myths of the Middle Ages, 
Curious, S. Baring-Gould, 
18ni, 56^2, 109^2 

Myths of the Odyssey, J. E. 
Harrison, 282^6 

Nails, marks of moist teeth 
and, 158, 158ni 

Name of Vikrama used as a 
title, the, 229 

Names of swords, 28^2, 72w^, 

Natural Animalium, De, Aelian, 

Natural History of the Ducks, 
J. C. Phillips, lln^ 

Neck, tying and loosing a 
string round the, 39, 40, 
40wi, 56, 56fi2, 57, 59, 60 

Necklace, the stolen, 176 

Necromancer, Roger Bolin- 
brook, a, 24n 

Negro lover in tale from the 
Nights, 8 

Nereid or sea-maiden, 282 ; 
the King who married his 
Dependent to a, 209,209^1, 
210-216, 278-285 

\Neu- Arameische Dialekt des 
Th' 'Abdin, Der] E. Prym 
and A. Socin (second title 
page is Sy rise he Sagen . . .), 
28^2, 73^2, 118^1, 154#,280 

New Zealand and its Inhabi- 
tants, Te Ika A Maui, or, 
R. Taylor, 135 

New Zealanders, Traditions 
and Super stitio7is of the, 
E. Shortland, 135 

Nights and a Night, The Thou- 
sand, R. F. Burton, 8, 23^% 
37wi, 61-63, Un, lOOn^ 
240, 255, 256, 258, 260, 
260n\ 274, 21bn\ 286, 

" Nitambavati," H. H. Wil- 
son, Essays, Works, etc., 

Nocturnal adventures of 
Mrigankadatta, the, 37, 
37w\ 38-40; transportation, 
the, 125, 126 

" Non-duality," advaita, 34 

Non-existence of the universe 
(the doctrine of may a), 34, 

North Paiichala or Rohilk- 
hand, 69/11 

Northern India, form of black 
magic among Mohamme- 
dans in, 1497ii, 150w 



Nose of faithless wife bitten 
off, 188, 188wi 

Note on Food-Taboo in the 
Underworld, 133-136; on 
the Magic Seed, 62-66 ; on 
the Magic String, 59-62; 
on May a, 34-35 ; on the 
Story of Vamadatta, 8 ; on 
Vampires, 136-140 

Notes on the Folk-Lore of the 
North-east Scotla?id, Walter 
Gregor, 150w 

Notes on the Folk-Lore of the 
Northern Counties^ W. Hen- 
derson, 150w 

No trace of vampires in 
Jewish literature, 138 

Nugis Curialium, De. See 
under De Nugis Curialium 

Number of beads in Tibetan 
and Burmese rosaries, lin^; 
the mystical, 14, Hn^ 

Numbering of stories in the 
" frame " of the Vetdla- 
panchavimsati, 241, 26 7n^ 

Nutmeg, one of the three 
fragrant fruits, 21n^ 

Nymph coming out of a tree, 
heavenly, 29 ; heavenly, 
94 ; Tillotama, a heavenly, 

Observations on the Popular 

Antiquities of Great Britain, 

J. Brand, 24/1, 136, 149^1 
Obstacles, Destroyer of 

(Gane^a), 128 
Ocean, Churning of the, 70^^, 

87^1, 161^1 
Odyssey, the, 137, 154^*, 

215^1, 281 
Ogier le Danois, the romance 

of, 280, 280w4 
Oily matter exuding from an 

elephant in mast state, dark, 

67^1, 68w 
Old age and death, a fruit as 

remedy against, 216' 
Openings in the earth leading 

to Patiila, 108, 109 
Opinions about the ill-effects 

of the moon, Eastern, lOOw^ 
Opium, quieting 7nast ele- 
phants with, 68w 
Orient und Occident, Theodor 

Benfey, 3 vols., 1860-1866, 


Oriental Magazine, The Quar- 
terly, "Nitambavati,"H.H. 
Wilson, 1827, 251 

Oriental Society, Journal of the 

American, \2.n^. For details 

see under Joum. Amer. . . . 
Origin, the '' magic seed " 

story undoubtedly of 

Indian, 66 
Original form of the Vetdla- 

panchavimsati, 225, 225^^; 

home of vampires, the, 

Orlando Innamorato (Boiardo), 

Berni, 280, 280^2 
Ornament called dantapatra, 

or tooth-leaf, 169 
Ornamental patch, tikh, 154, 

Ornithological aspect of 

sirens, 282 
" Overhearing " motif, the, 8, 

Own spirit reanimating 

corpse, vampire in form 

of, 137 
Ox by the power of a magical 

string, Bhavai^arman turned 

into an, 59 

Pagan Races of the Malay 
Peninsula, W. W. Skeat 
and C. O. Blagden, 62 

Paganism, connection be- 
tween " Tantrism " and 
Hindu and Buddhist, 51^^, 

Painter named Mantharaka, 

'' Painter, Story of the," 
Tales, Anecdotes and Letters, 
translated from the Arabic 
and Persian, J. Scott, 255, 
257, 258, 260, 260^1 

Painting, falling in love with 
a, 90, 91, 91^2 

Painting a live black cobra 
on a picture, 91 

Palace of gems. 111 ; of 
jewels, 118; by rope, 
Vajramukuta introduced 
into a, 173 

Palaces in European litera- 
ture, subaqueous, 280 

Panchatantra, the, 225, 271 

Pantschatantra, Theodor Ben- 
fey, 155^2, 246 

*' Panwpatti Rani," Indian 
Fairy Tales, M. Stokes, 
250, 260, 261 

Papageimdrchen, Die, M. 
Wickerhauser, 266n^,2Q2n\ 
211n\ 272^2 


Parable of mundane exist-^ 
ence, the, 30-32 

Paradise Lost, Milton, 215n^ 

Parrot, Anangasena turning 
her lover into a, 60 ; the 
foolish, 86, 87 ; knowing 
the Sdstras, 183 ; named 
Churaman, 267, 268 ; who 
was taught Virtue by the 
King of the Parrots, The, 

Parrot's Story, The, 186, 
186wi, 187-189 

Patch, ornamental, tikli, 154, 

Patience, the perfection of, 

Patient Hermit Subhanaya, 
The, 88-89 

Pausa?iias^ Description of 
Greece, J. G. Frazer, 133, 

Peacock, loosing the string 
tied round the neck of a, 
39, 40, 40^1, 56, 56^2 

Peak of Pradyumna, an open- 
ing to the underworld, the, 

Pentamerone ; or. The Tale of 
Tales . . . of Giovanni. 
Battista Basile, II, R. F. 
Burton, 16w, 47%^, 48w, 
200n3, 263 

"Perfect Friends" motif y 
272, 273 

Perfections, Hamsavali pos- 
sessor of ten million, 156 ; 
the six, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 

Perseverance, the perfection 
of, 89 

Persevering Young Brahman, 
The, 89 

Persian "bed sybarite" 
story, 293, 294 ; version of 
the Tutl-ndmah, 272, 272w\ 
275, 275^3, 276, 276?i3 

Peter Alphonse's DiscipUna 
Clericalis, W. H. Hulme, 

Phantom World, The, Engl, 
trans, of A. Calmet's Traite 
sur les apparitions des esprits 
et sur les vampires, 140 

" Philological Examination 
of the Myth of the Sirens, 
A," J. P. Postgate, Joum. 
Phil, 282^6 

Philologus, " Zur Sirenen- 
sage," R. Unger, 1888, 



Philology, American Journal of , 
2>ln^. For details see under 
Amer. Journ. Phil. 

Philosophy, the doctrine of 
mdyd in the Vedanta, 34, 
35 ; main difference be- 
tween the Vedanta and the 
Sankhya, 34 

Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 
of Tyana, F. C. Conybeare, 
280, 280^5 

Picture, falling in love with 
a, 90, 91, 91^2; painting a 
live black cobra on a, 91 

Pin in the head, transforma- 
tion through inserting or 
extracting a, 61 

Places iii which the story of 
the magic corn is found, 
five, 63, 64 

Poetry, descriptions of mast 
elephants in Hindu, 67w^ ; 
the smile in Hindu, 113w^ 

Points with a magic horse 
and sword, conquering the 
ten cardinal, 75 

Poison, counteracting of 
snake-, 165 ; swallowed by 
Siva at the Churning of 
the Ocean, Halahala, 87, 

Poisoned food, gift of, 174 

Poisoning their husbands by 
witchcraft, Roman ladies 
accused of, 24w 

Pomegranate, one of the three 
sweet fruits, 27w^ ; in the 
underworld, eating a, 133 

" Pomegranate King, The," 
Indian Fairy Tales, M. 
Stokes, 61 

Pontianak, a flying vampire 
known in the Malayan 
region, 61, 62; and Lang- 
suir in the Malay Archi- 
pelago, the, 138 

' Pontianak, The," The Caul- 
dron, the Ranee of Sarawak, 

Popular Antiquities of Great 
Britain, Observations on the, 
J. Brand, 24w, 136, 149^1 

Popular Religion and Folk- 
Lore of Northern India, The, 
W. Crooke, 59, 109wi, 
149^1, 265n3 

Popular Tales and Fictions, 
W. A. Clouston, 275^1 

Popular Tales of the West 
Highlands, J. F. Campbell, 

Pores or glands on the fore- 
head of an Indian elephant, 
67^1, 68n 

*' Porter and the Three 
Ladies of Baghdad, The," 
The Nights, R. F. Burton, 

Possessor often million per- 
fections, Ha^savali, 156 ; 
of ten million virtues, 
Mrigankadatta, 10 ; of 
supernatural knowledge, 
the, 201-203 

Post nubila Phoebus, parodied 
title oi Al Faraj Ba^da'sh- 
shiddah, 265^^ 

Pouring blood over graves, 
custom of, 137 

Power, acquired by medita- 
tion, magical, 2 ; of austeri- 
ties, the, 85 ; Brahman 
possessing magic, 201-203 ; 
of contemplation, 105, 
111, 127; of illusion, wa^- 
sakti, 35 ; of a magic string, 
59 ; of raising the dead to 
life, 18, 18^1, 180, 181, 
262-266 ; of remembering 
former birth, 86 ; ring pos- 
sessing magic, 73; of spells, 
conquering earthquakes, 
etc., by the, 29 ; of travel- 
ling through the air, 201- 
203 ; of virtue, garden 
produced by the, 82 

Powers, attaining supernatu- 
ral, 96 

Prabandhacintdmani, Meru- 
tunga, 229, 229^1. See also 
under Tawney, C, H. 

Prayers backwards, repeat- 
ing, 150w 

Precedents of Princess Thoo- 
dama Tsari, The, Burmese 
collection of stories called, 
266, 266^1 

Precedents of Princess Thoo- 
damma Tsari, The, C. J. 
Bandow, 60, 266wi 

Prediction of the Vetala, the, 
11, 12 

Pretended illness, the, 117 

Previous birth, remembering, 

Priceless jewels, fruits con- 
taining, 166, 232, 236, 237 

Prince named Indukalasa, 
81 ; named Kanakakala^a, 
81; obtained a Wife by 
the Help of his Father's 
Minister, How the, 168- 

Prince continued 

177, 247-261; of Vatsa, 
Naravahanadatta, the, 4 

Princes ofSarendip, The Three, 
Chevalier de Mailli's ver- 
sion of, 287 

" Princess on the Pea, The," 
H. C. Andersen, 288-291 

Princess possessing know- 
ledge of all the sciences, 
73 ; simile of a dancing, 

Principles of Tantra {Tantra- 
tattva), Arthur Avalon, 52w 

" Prindsessen paa aerten," 
H. C. Andersen, 289, 290 

" Prinsessan som lag p^ sju 
arter," Gammaldags seder 
och bruk, J. Sundblad, 290, 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, " On 
the Art of Entering An- 
other's Body," M. Bloom- 
field, 74w 

Proc. As. Soc. Bengal, " Bur- 
mese Buddhist Rosaries," 
L. A. Waddell, Dec. 1892, 

Producing dreams, charm 
for, 76, 77, 80 

Prolegomena to the Study of 
Greek Religion, J. E. Harri- 
son, 282n6 

Prolixity of Kshemendra's 
text, 2^1 

Prosperity, the Goddess of 
(Sri), 41 

Protective power of the magic 
string, 59 

Proverbs called the Fdkhir 
by al-Mufaddal ibn Salama, 
collection of, 62, 63 

Pun, Hindu, 10, 10^2- 3, 33, 
33w3, 41, 41wi'2.3.4^ 55^ 
55^1, 74, nn\ 75, 75n2, 
90^2, 107, 1077*1, 111^ 
111^3, 121, 121ni, 126, 
126^2, 150^2, 156, IbQn^' 2, 
167, 167w2, 169, 169^1, 
188n2, 192^3 

Punishment for faithlessness, 
189, 18971^ 

Punishment for thieving, 19 

" Puss-in-boots," story of, 
291, 291^1 

Qdnun-i-Isldm, Islam in India, 
or the, Ja'Far Sharif, trans. 
G. A. Herklots, 150w 

Qisas al- anbiyd' , the, Tha'labi, 



Quarterly Joiimal of the Mythic 
Society, Sarat Chandra 
Mitra, lln^ 

Quarterly Oriental Magazine, 
Review and Register, ThCy 
*'Nitambavati," H. H. 
Wilson, 1827, 251 

Quatorze superstitions popu- 
laires de la Gascogne, J. F. 
Blade, 150w 

Queen, becomes a mulberry- 
tree, 26n^ ; Madanaman- 
chuka, 1, 2, 9; of Sheba, 
riddles of the, 74n 

Questions, the Vetala's, 177, 
181, 190, 199, 203, 208, 
216, 220 

** Quintessence " motif, 285, 

. 286-288 

Quran, the, 61, 63 ; commen- 
taries on, 63, 64 

Races, rituals connected with 
eating among savage, 133 

Raghuvamsa, Kalidasa, 2>n^. 
See also under Johnstone, 
P. de Lacy 

Rajasthan, Annals and Anti- 
quities of, James Tod, 226n^ 

Rajput named SattvaMa, 209- 

Rdmdyana, the, 437ii, 70^2 

*' Ram, PanwpattI," Indian 
Fairy Tales, M. Stokes, 
250, 260, 261 

Reasons for the existence of 
vampires, 138 

Recensions of the Vetdlapan- 
chavirhsati as an indepen- 
dent collection, 225, 
225^3' 4. 5. of the Vikrama- 
charita, four different San- 
skrit, 228 

References to vampires, 
earliest, 138, 139 

Reise der S'dhne Giaffers aus den 
Italienischen des Christoforo 
Armeno tihersetzt durch 
Johann Wetzel, 1583, H. 
Fischer and J. Bolte, 287^2 

Relationship between a siren 
and a sea-maiden, 281, 282 

Religion oj Babylonia and 
Assyria, M, Jastrow, 133, 

Religio?i of the Semites, W. 
Robertson Smith, 133 

Remedy against old age and 
death, a fruit as, 216 

Remembering former birth, 

Removing all sins, method of 
discovering, and, 76 

'* Resuscitation " motif, 262, 

Resuscitation, power of, 180, 
181; through beating, 265, 
265w2-3, 266; of Viravara 
and his family, the, 197 

Revue Archeologique, " Les 
Sirenes," J. F. Cerquand, 
1846, 282n 

Revue d* Assyriologie, 1910, 
reproduction of a seal in, 

Reward of virtue, the, 148, 

Rgyud (Tantra), the, 52w 

Rice, the evil-smelling, 218 

Richard III, Life and Death 
of King, Shakespeare, 24w 

Riddlesused as entertainment 
at Asiatic courts, 73^^ ; in 
Hindu fiction, 74n ; of the 
Queen of Sheba, l^n 

Right hand for thieving, 
cutting off, 19 

Righteousness and Upright- 
eousness, bull and donkey 
symbolical of, 31, 32 

Rig-Veda, the, 3^^, 43^1 

Rig-Veda times, meaning of 
the word mdyd in, 34 

Rigvidhdna, the, 14971^ 

Ring possessing magic power, 

Rising moon, simile of the, 70 

Rites, for obtaining life- 
prolonging charm, 6, 6^^; 
for obtaining a son, 14 ; 
performing black magic, 
51, 51n2, 52w, 123, U^n\ 
150i; sword essential in 
magical, 51, 51%^ 

Rites of the Twice-Born, The, 
Mrs S. Stevenson, 59 

Rituals connected with eating 
among savage races, 133 

River Tarangini, the, 94 

Robber who won over Yama's 
Secretary, 92, 92ii2, 93-95 

Roman ladies accused of 
poisoning their husbands 
by witchcraft, 24w 

Romance of Huon de Bour- 
deaux, the, 280, 2807i3; of 
Ogier le Danois, the, 280, 

Rope, Vajramukuta intro- 
duced into a palace by, 173 

Roprecht the Robber, Robert 
Southey, 136 


Rosaries, number of beads in 

Tibetan and Burmese, 14%^ 
Rosary of Aksha beads, 45 
"Rose of Bakawali, Th 

Shaykh 'Izzat Ullah, 60 
Rose-apple {Euge?iia jam 

lana), WOn^ 
Rose-bush, maiden comi: 

out of a, 16w 
'* Rosmarinstrauchlein, Das," 

Unter den Olivenbaumen, W. 

Kaden, IQn 
" Rothe Hund, Der," Mdrchen 

der Magyaren, G. Gaal, 

26w3, 280 
Route of Oriental stories to 

Scandinavia, 292 
Royal Asiatic Society, Journal 

of the, 62, 66, 70^*1. For 

details see under Journal . . . 
Ruddy sheldrake, the, Ta- 

doma Casarca rutila, 71n^ 
Rumdnische Mdrchen, M. 

Kremnitz, 292wi 
Rupees, value of a crore of, 

Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 

Ralston, 15^3, 2Sn\ 56ni, 

12n\ 73^2 

3, 136, 170w2, 

Sacred number, the, 14, lin^ ; 

thread, the, yajnopavlta^ 59 
Sacred trees used to dispel 

spirits, branches of, 109*1^ 
" Sacrifice, Friendship and," 

motif 272, 273 
Sacrifice of Viravara, the, 195, 

Sacrifices, for obtaining a son, 

143 ; to Siva in Bengal, 

animal, 20, 20^1 
Sacrificing his life for a peti- 
tioner, Vinitamati, 97 

from the Far East, 

R. H. Busk, 182wS lSQn\ 

242, 248, 264, 269^2 
Sage named Suddhakirti, 28 
Sagen aus Bohmen, J. V. Groh- 

mann, 2Qn^, 36n^ 
Sagen, Gebrauche U7id Mdrchen 

aus Westfahlen, A. Kuhn, 

23^2, 36^1, 93^1, 136, 149^1 
Sagen, Mdrchen und Gebrduche 

aus Meklenburg, K. Bartsch, 

2471, 149^1 
St Secaire said backwards, 

Mass of, 150n 
Salary of five hundred dindrs, 

daily, 191, 192 
Sand, the vessel of, 75 



Sandalwood, 219 

Sankara-dig-vijaya, the, 6w^ 

Sanskrit . . . Books in the . . . 
British Museum, A Supple- 
mentary Catalogue of, L. D. 
Barnett, 671^ 

Sanskrit College MS. of the 
K.S.S., the, 24^1, 28^3, 
31w3, 38wi- 2, 42^1, 75ni, 
91ni, 967i2, 99^1, loiwi, 
151^1, 156^3, 160^3, 168ni, 
169^3, 181^1, 188^3, 193^1, 
194n2, 204^2, 205/ii, 210w^ 

Sanskrit Literature, A History 
of, A. A. Macdonell, 227 

Sarendip, The Travels and 
Adventures of Three Princes 
of [H. Stanley], Ldn., 
1722, 287n2 

Savage races, rituals con- 
nected with eating among, 

Saxo Grammaticus, 135 

Saxo Grammaticus, First Nine 
Books of the Danish History 
of O. Elton, 288 

Scene of the ancient Buddhist 
siren legends^ the, 284 

Schiller, der fahrende, putting 
out his tongue, lOn* 

Science of Fairy Tales, The, 
E. S. Hartland, 135 

Sciences, princess possessing 
knowledge of all the, 73 

Scottish analogue of food 
taboo story, 135 

Sculptures of bird-maidens in 
Boro-Budur in Java, 283 

Sea, Agastya drinking up the 
water of the, 43, 43^1, 
44w ; in a dream, Mriganka- 
datta drinking up the, 11 ; 
of Lar, the, 150^^ ; Sattva- 
sila's adventures at the 
bottom of the, 212, 213 ; 
ship forced on to a banner 
in the, 211, 214 

Sea-maiden, relationship be- 
tween a siren and a, 281, 

Seasons present at the same 
time, all, 215, 215i 

Secretary, The Robber who 
won over Yama's, 92, 92^2, 

Seed, The Magic, 62-66 

Seeds, transformation through 
eating magic, 56, 56wi, 62, 

Seelenvogel in der alten Liter atur 

und Kunstf Der, G. Weicker, 

"Seirenen, Die," G. Weicker, 

Roscher's Lexikon der 

Griechischen und Romischen 

Mythologie, 282^6 
Seirenen, the, in Greek 

mythology, 282, 285 
Self-sacrifices 195, 197, 206, 

Serbian origin, the word 

vampire of, 138 
Sarendip, The Three Princes 

of, Chevalier de Mailli's 

version of, 287 
Series of tales under the name 

of " Concealed Robe " or 

" Burnt Veil," 259, 2b9n\ 

260, 260*11 
Serpent on a picture, painting 

a live black, 91 ; used as a 

rope at the Churning of 

the Ocean, Vasuki, a, 70, 

*' Servant, Faithful," motif, 

272, 273 
Setting sun called a *' sleepy 

lamp/' 147^1 
Seven mattresses, bed with, 

219 ; syllables, charm of, 

Seven Sages of Rome, the, 272, 

Seven Sages of Rome, The, 

Killis Campbell, 272%4, 

"Seven Spirits," the Assyrian, 

138, 139 
Seven Vazirs, the Arabic ver- 
sion of the Book ofSindihdd, 

255, 260 
Sex, fastidiousness about the 

fair, 218, 219 
" Shah Bakht and his Wazir- 

Rahwan, King," cycle of 

stories called, 260 
Shakti and Shdkta, Arthur 

Avalon, 52w 
" Shavelings, Hammer of," 

conquering the, 76, 

Sheldrake, theruddy, Tadorna 

Casarca ridila, 71^3 
Shining properties of Balder, 

Ship forced on to a banner in 

the sea, 211, 214 
Shoot from the wishing-tree 

of love, ear-ornament made 

of a, 70 

Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, 
C. F. Coxwell, 123w, 242, 
248, 264, 269^2, 270, 273^2, 

Sicilianische Mdrchen, L. Gon- 
zenbach, 47%^ 

Siddhi-Kiir (dead body fur- 
nished with magic power), 
the Kalmuck, 242, 244-246, 

Sight in the lake, the, 31, 33 

Signs, the language of, 169, 

" Signs, Language of," motif, 

Similarity between demons, 
evil spirits, ghosts and 
vampires, 137 ; between 
Hindu Rakshasis and Greek 
sirens, 282 ; between a 
Rakshasa and an Arabian 
jinn, 139 

Simile of Agastya drinking 
the water of the sea, 43, 
43^1; ofa dancing princess, 
41 ; of flowers, 9, 9^1 ; of 
Hindu beauty, 125 ; of the 
rising moon, 70 

Sindihdd, Book of, the, 255, 

Sinhasanadvdtrihsikd ( Thirty- 
Two Tales of the Throne), or 
Vikrama-charita ( Vikramas 
Adventures), 228, 248 

Sins, method of discovering 
and removing all, 76 

Siren legend, the scene of the 
ancient Buddhist, 284 ; a 
sea-maiden with vampire- 
nature, 281, 282 ; similarity 
between a Hindu Rakshasi 
and a Greek, 282 

Sirenen, Die, H. Schrader, 

''Sirenes, Les," J. F. Cer- 
quand, Revue Archeologique, 

Sirenibus quoestiones selectee, 
De, G. Weicker, 282^6 

Sirens in Greek mythology, 
282, 283 ; story of Prince 
Ruad and the, 281 

"Sirens," P. Shorey, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 282w 

Six flavours, food of, 218, 
21Sn^ ; perfections, the, 
84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 96 

"Six Men got on in the 
World, How," Kinder- und 
Hausmdrchen, J. and W. 
Grimm, 275, 275^2 



Si-yu-ki (or Hsi-yu-chi), Hiuen 
tsiang, 284, 284w2 

Skill in argument, princess 
possessing wonderful, 73, 
73w3, 74, 74n, 75 

Skull-bearing goddess 
(Durga, or Kali), 197 

Sky-bride, the sun the centre- 
jewel of the girdle of the, 

Sleeping exposed to the 
moon, eyesight affected 
by, lOOwi 

"Sleepy lamp," setting sun 
called a, 147ni 

Smile like a flower, 212 ; in 
Hindu poetry, 113w^ 

Snake curses Mrigankadatta 
and his ministers, 29 ; 
named Paravataksha, 28, 
29, 101 ; poison, counter- 
acting of, 165 ; symbolical 
of Death, 32, 32ni ; with a 
thousand heads, Sesha or 
Ananta, a, lln^ 

Snake-demons, Nagas, 28^^, 

Snake-king, the terrible ap- 
pearance of the, 29 

Snake-maiden in European 
folk-lore, Melusina a, 12tn^ 

Snakes, Gandhamalin, king 
of the, 70-73 

" Soldier and the Vampire, 
The," Russian Folk-Tales, 
W. R. S. Ralston, 136 

*' Soldier's Midnight Watch," 
Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 
Ralston, 56^^ 

*' Some Notes on Homeric 
Folk-Lore," W. Crooke, 
Folk-Lore, 282^6 

Son, the adopted, 105 ; rites 
for obtaining a, 14 ; sacri- 
fices for obtaining a, 143 

Soul-bird in folk-lore, the, 
283, 283^2 

Southern India, lucky thread 
fastened round the neck 
at marriages in, 59 

Specimens of Early English 
Metrical Romances, G. Ellis, 

Speculum kistoriale, Vincent 
de Beauvais, 272, 272^5 

Spells, animal-transformations 
through, 8, 59; conquering 
earthquakes, etc., by the 
power of, 29 

Spiders and bees as symbols 
of living creatures, 31, 32 

Spike, the mark of the iron, 
175, 176 

Spirit reanimating corpse, 
vampire in form of own, 

Spirits, ceremony for avert- 
ing evil, 109, 109wi; and 
demons feared in India, 
array of, 139 

(Spirits of ike Corn and the 
Wild) The Golden Bough, 
J. G. Frazer, 283^3 

" Spirits, Seven," the As- 
syrian, 138, 139 

Spitting betel -juice on a 
person, insult of, 23, 23n^ 

Sprinkling with amrita, re- 
store to life by, 98, 9Sn^ ; 
with charmed mustard- 
seeds, transformation by, 
5 ; with charmed water, 
transformation by, 5, 8, 62 

Starling family, maina, bird 
of the, 183712 

Stars, "lamps," Milton calls 
the, Wn^ 

State of an elephant, mast 
(must or musth), 67n^, 68w 

Stolen necklace, the, 176 

Stone, rdjdvarta, 125 

Stories called *' King Shah 
Bakht and his Wazir- 
Rahwan," cycle of, 260; 
in the "frame" of the 
VetdlapaJichavimsati, num- 
bering of, 241, 267^1 

Stories from a Chinese Studio, 
Strange, H. A. Giles, Ibn^, 
96n\ 136 

Story of Atirupa, the, 92^2 ; 
of the Jackal that was 
turned into an Elephant, 
2-3; The Maina's, 184, 
184^1, 185-186, 269; of 
Mrigankadatta, 10, lOn^, 
11-12, 14, 22, 23-33, 36- 
40, 55-58, 67-69, 98-99, 
100-102, 131-132, 141-151, 
153-163, 164-165 ; The 
Parrot's, 186, 186^1, igy. 
189, 269-271 ; of Polyidus, 
the, ISn^; of the Prince 
and the Merchant's Son 
who saved his Life, 272; 
of Prince Ruad and the 
Sirens, 281 ; of Saktideva, 
the, 112#; Saudamini's, 
102-104 ; Sridarsana's, 102, 
104-106, 114-131; of 
"Sundaraka and the 
Witches," bln^ 

Story of Vamadatta and hij 
Wicked Wife, 4-6 

" Story of the Crone and 
the Draper's Wife, The," 
The Nights, R. F. Burton, 

"Story of the Painter," Tales, 
Anecdotes and Letters trans- 
lated from the Arabic and 
Persian, J. Scott, 255, 257, 
258, 260, 260^1 

" Story of the Sultan of Al- 
Yaman and his Three 
Sons," The Nights, R. F. 
Burton, 286 

Strange behaviour of Brah- 
many ducks, Hindu ex- 
planation of the, 71n3; 
behaviour of Padmavati, 
the, 171, 172 

Strange Stories from a Chinese 
Studio, H. A. Giles, 15^3^ 
95^1, 136, 277 

Strides of Vishnu, the three, 

String, The Magic, 59-62; 
round the neck, tying and 
loosing a, 39, 56, 56^2^ 57, 

Strings and cords used for 
medicinal purposes, 59 

Studies in Honor of Maurice 
Bloom/ield, "Escaping One's 
Fate," W. N. Brown, 92^2 

Studies about the Kathdsarit- 
sdgara, J. S. Speyer, 26^2, 
3l7i\ 46^2^ 54^1, 90/12, 
167/11, 193/12, 205/ii, 220n2, 

Subaqueous palaces in Euro- 
pean literature, 280 

Substituted bride, the, 47, 
47/^1, 48/1 

Suitors, Somaprabha and her 
Three, 200, 200/1^, 202- 
203, 273-275 

Sultan of Yemen, the tale of 
the, 287 

Sun, body gleaming like the 
light of the, 21 ; the lamp 
of the world, the, 147, 
147/1^; metaphor of the, 

Supernatural knowledge, the 
possessor of, 201-203; 
powers, attaining, 96 

Superstitions of the Highlands 
and Islands of Scotland, J. G. 
Campbell, 135 

"Supplanted bride" rnotif, 
the, 47, 47/ii, 43^ 

ilementary Catalogue of 
Sanskrit . . . Books in the . . . 
British Museum, A, L. D. 
Barnett, 6n^ 

Supposed Witch, The Trick 
of the, 251-261 

Svenska folksagor och aventyr, 
G. O. Hylten-Cavallius and 
G. Stephens, 291^2 

Swallowing Sankhadatta, 
large fish, 155 

Swan, the clever, 19 

Swedish translation of the 
Vetdlapanchavhhsati, 226 ; 
versions of the ** bed 
sybarite " story, 290, 291 

Sweet fruits, the three, 27%^ 

Swelling of the glands of an 
elephant denotes approach- 
ing mast condition, 68w 

Sword by a charm, obtaining 
a, 6 ; essential in magical 
rites, 51, b\n^\ named 
" Invincible," 216 ; named 
Vaiduryakanti, 28, 28^2 

Swords called by names, 28^2, 
72< 216 ; magic, 28, 28/1^ 
72, 72^1 

" Sybarite " motif, the, 285, 
286, 288-294 

Syllables, charm of seven, 

Symbols of living creatures, 
bees and spiders, 31, 32 ; 
of Righteousness and 
Unrighteousness, bull and 
donkey, 31, 32 

*' Sympathetic Magic," 24n, 

Syrische Sagen tind Maercheii 
aus dem Volksmu?ide, E. 
Prym and A. Socin, 2Sn'^, 
73w2,118nM54w3,280. See 
also under Neu-Aramae- 
ische . . . 

Tablets, earliest references to 

vampires in Assyrian, 138, 

Taboo on drinking in the 

underworld, 135 ; in the 

Underworld, Note of Food-, 

(JFaboo and the Perils of the 

Soul) The Golden Bough, 

J. G. Frazer, 59, 133, 283^3 
Tadorna Casarca [Casarca) 

rutila, the ruddy sheldrake, 

Tafslr (Qur'an commentary), 

the, 'fabari, 63 


"Tale of the Ensorcelled 

Prince," The Nights, R. F. 

Burton, 8 
*' Tale of the Fisherman and 

the Jinni," The Nights, 

R. F. Burton, 8 
" Tale of the King who 

Kenned the Quintessence 

of Things," The Nights, 

R. F. Burton, 286, 286^1 
" Tale of the Three Apples, 

The," The Nights, R. F. 

Burton, 240, 241 
Tale of the "Goose Girl," 

the, 48w ; of Khurafa, the, 

Tales of flying mountains 

among Indo- Aryans, 3n^ ; 

known under the name of 

"Concealed Robe" or 

" Burnt Veil," series of, 

259, 259ni, 260, 260^^ 
Tales, Anecdotes and Letters, 

translated from the Arabic 

and Persia?i, J. Scott, 255, 

256-258, 260^1 
Tales of King Solomon, St John 

D. Seymour, 74w 
Tales of King Vikrama, C. A. 

Kincaid, 226, 226^4 
Tales of a Vetdla, the Vetdla- 

pafichavimsati, or Twenty-Jive, 

Tales of the West Highlands, 

Popular, J. F. Campbell, 

Talismans used for the pur- 
pose of spells, etc., 60, 61 

Tamil version of the Vetdla- 
panchavirhsati, 226, 226%^, 
231, 232, 261, 265, 268, 
269, 269n3, 272, 274, 276, 
276n2, 278, 278^2, 285, 

Taimhduser in Geschichte, Sage 
und Dichtung, E. Elster, 

Tannhduser and the Mountain 
of Venus, P. S. Barto, 109^2 

Tantra of the Great Liberation 
[Mahdnirvdna Tantra), 
Arthur Avalon, 52/i 

"Tantrism (Buddhist)," L. 
de la Vallee Poussin, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

" Tarnkappe," the virtues of 
the, 149^1 

" Tear," virya, 15^2 

Teeth and nails, marks of 
moist, 158, 158^1 


Te Ika A Mauri, or New Zealand 
and its Inhabitants, R. Taylor, 
135 ^ 

Temple of Durga, 17, 69, 204, 
206, 212, 214; in Patala, 
the wonderful, 110, 111 ; of 
Siva, 51, 110; of Vishnu, 

Temples of an elephant in 
mast state, ichor or mada 
from, 67wS 68w 

Temples, explanation for use 
of flags at, 1097*1 

Ten cardinal points with a 
magical horse and sword ,^ 
conquering the, 75; milhon 
perfections, HamsavalT 
possessor of, 156;* million 
virtues, M rigankadatta 
possessor of, 10 

Tests of the three fastidious- 
men, the, 218-220 

Teutonic Mythology, J. L. 
Grimm, trans. J. S. Stally- 
brass, In^, 277 

Thalaba the Destroyer, Robert 
Southey, 118^^, 136 

Theories about the Vikrama 
era, different, 229, 230 

Thieving, cutting off right 
hand for, 19 ; Indianmethod 
of, 187, 187w2 

Thirst of vampires for human 
blood, 137 

Thirty-Two Tales of the Throne j 
or Sinhdsanadvdtrinsikd, 228, 

Thoodama Tsari (Sudhamma- 
cari). The Precedents of 
Princess, Burmese story- 
collection called, 60, 266, 

Thoroughfare for Indian 
stories, Mongolia as a, 246 

Thousand heads, Sesha or 
Ananta, snake with a, llri^ 

Thousand Nights and a Night, 
The, R. F. Burton, 8, %?>nK 
2,ln\ 61-63, lin, 1007ii,240- 
255, 256, 258, 260, 260^1, 
274, 275^1, 286, 286wi 

Thread of hair, Brahmanical- 
121 ; investing with the 
sacred {yajFiopavita), 59 ; 
round the neck, tying and 
loosing a, 39, 56, 56w2, 57, 

Threads and cords used for 
medicinal purposes, 59 

Threats, the Vetala's, 177, 
181, 190, 203, 208, 220 




^' Three Citrons, The," // 
Pentamerone, G. B. Basile, 
16w, 48n 

Three Fastidious Men, The, 
217, 2\ln\ 218-220, 285- 

Three kinds of fruits, water 
flavoured with, 27, 27wi ; 
maidens coming out of a 
citron, 16n ; myrobalans, 
triphald, the (Professor 
Monier Williams), 27w ; 
stridesof Vishnu, the, 107w2; 
Suitors, Somaprabha and 
her, 200, 200ni, 202, 203, 
273-275 ; Young Brahmans 
who restored a Dead Lady 
to Life, The, 179, 179ni, 
180-181, 261-266 

Three Princes of Sarendip, 
The, Chevalier de Mailli's 
version of, 287 

Thunderbolt of Indra {vajra)y 

Tibetan Tales, W. R. S. 
Ralston and F. A. von 
Schiefner, 16w 

Tibetan and Burmese rosaries, 
number of beads in, 14w^ ; 
version of the Vetdlapancha- 
viihsati, 241, 242, 246, 247 

Tilskueren, ' ' Den Andersenske 
Eventyrdigtning . . . ," 
Valdemar Vedel, 1907, 
293; -H. C. Andersen's 
Eventyr i europaeisk Belys- 
ning," Valdemar Vedel, 
1926, 293 

Time of the mast condition of 
elephants, 68n 

^'Tinderbox, The," H. C. 
Andersen, 289 

Tochmarc Emere, the, 281 

Tongue of a lion used as a 
bridge, the cut-off, 10; 
putting out the, 10, 10* 

Tonsure amongst Buddhists, 

Tooth-leaf, ornament called 
dantapatra or, 169 

Top of a linga of Siva, lotus 
used as an umbrella falling 
on the, 19 

Torture of the fire of love, 
the, 9 

Touti Nameky eine Sammlung 
PersischenMdrchenvon Nech- 
schebi, C. J. L. Iken, 272n\ 
275w3. 6^ 276^3 

Trace of vampires in Jewish 
literature, no, 138 

Tractat von dem Kauen und 
Schmatzen der Todten in 
Gr'dbern, M. Ranft, 140 

Traditions, King Vikrama or 
Vikramiiditya in the Jain, 

Traditions and Superstitions 
of the New Zealanders, 
E. Shortland, 135 

Traite sur les apparitions des 
esprits et sur les vampires, 
A. Calmet (Engl, trans. : 
The Phantom World), 140 

Transformation into animals, 
5,5wi,8, 40,40ni,56.56wi'2, 
57, 59, 60-63; by eating 
magic seeds, 56, 56^1, 62, 
63 ; through inserting or 
extracting a pin in the 
head, 61 ; through repeat- 
ing charms, 8, 59 ; by 
sprinkling with charmed 
water or mustard-seeds, 5, 
62 ; by tying and loosing a 
thread round the neck, 39, 
40, 40i, 56, 56w2, 57 

Translation of the Sanskrit 
first, 225, 226 

Translations of the Vetdlapan- 
chavirhsati, different, 225, 
226, 227 

Transportation, the nocturnal, 
125, 126 

Travelling in the air, chariot, 
2, 22, 201-203 

Travels and Adventures of Three 
Princes of Sarendip, The 
[H. Stanley], Ldn., 1722, 

Treachery of Kanakamanjari, 
the, 48, 49 

Treatise on Elephants : Their 
Treatment in Health and 
Disease, A, G.H. Evans, QSn 

Tree, asoka, 28, 2Sn\ 29, 54, 
121, 207; banyan, 47-49, 
56, 102, 130, 166, 167; 
Brahman turned into a, 26, 
2Qn^ ; golden city inside a, 
130; heavenly nymph 
coming out of a, 29 ; jambu, 
15, 16, 110, llOwi; of life, 
the, 134; Muruca, 232; 
Sdlmali (silk-cotton tree), 
40, 40^2, 47 ; simsapd, 287ii, 
167, 179, 183,* 191, 200, 
204, 209, 216, 217; the 
wonderful, 25, 26, 26wi 

Tree-metamorphoses, 26, 



Trees used to dispel spirit 

branches of sacred, 109wi; 

waving like chowries, 

blossoms of, 168 
Trick of the Supposed Witch, 

The, 251-261 
Trident, the mark of the, 

175, 176 
Trident-bearing goddess, the 

(Durga), 196 
Tristan und Isolde, G. von 

Strassburg, 109n2 
"Turban brule, Le," Biblio- 
graphic des Ouvrages Arabes, 

V. Chauvin, 260 
Tuti-ndmah, the, 271, 271ni, 

275,275^5; Persian version 

of the, 272, 272ii, 275, 

275713, 276,276/13; Turkish 

version of the, 265, 265wi, 

269, 269/11, 272, 272/^2, 276, 

Tuti-Nameh, G. Rosen, 265wi, 

269^1, 271ni, 272^2, 275w4-5, 

Twenty-Jive Tales of a Vetdla, 

the Fetdldpauchavimsati or, 

" Two Perfect Friends, The," 

Disciplina Clericalis, Peter 

Alphonse, 272 
Two Wise Birds, The King 

and the, 183, 183/ii, 184, 

186, 189, 267-272 
Tying and loosing a string 

round the neck, 39, 56, 

567*2, 57 59 60 

Umbrella, lotus used as an, 

Uncanonical Writings of the 
Old Testament found in the 
ArmenianMSS. oftheLibrary 
of St Lazarus, J. Issaverdens, 

" Underworld Adventure, 
The," Modern Greek in Asia 
Minor, R. M. Dawkins, 

Underworld, bird carrying 
man from the, 122/^2 ; Note 
on Food-Taboo in the, 133- 
136 ; openings in the earth 
leading to the, 108, 109 

Undine, La Motte Fouque, 280 

Unintentional injuries, 23, 

Universe, non-existence of 
the (the doctrine of may a), 

Unrighteousness, bull and 
donkey symbolical of 
Righteousness and, 31, 32 

Unter den Olivenbaumen, W. 
Kaden, 16n 

Upanishads, meaning of the 
word mdi/d in the, 34 

Use of flags at temples, ex- 
planation for the, 109^2 

Use of the words " moon- 
struck" or "lunatic" and 
mondsuchtig, lOln 

Uttama-charitra-katkdnaka, the, 

Vadrdzsdk, J. Kriza, 292^1 
Value of a crore of rupees, 

Vampire known in the 
Malayan region, Pontianak, 
a flying, 61, 62 

*' Vampire," J. A. Macculloch, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Vampire of Serbian origin, the 
word, 138 

Vampire-nature, sirens, sea- 
maidens with, 281, 282 

Vampires, blood-sucking, 137, 
138, 140; definitions of, 
137 ; demons, evil spirits 
and ghosts, similarity be- 
tween, 137 ; in Jewish 
literature, no trace of, 138 ; 
Note on, 136-140; the 
origin of, 138 

Vampires and Vampirism, 
Dudley Wright, 137 

Vampyrsagen und ihre Ver- 
wertung in der deutschen 
Litteratury Die, S. Hock, 

Various analogues to food 
taboo story, 135 

Vaticinium, 272 

Vedala Cadai, the Tamil ver- 
sion of the Vetdlapanchavim- 
sati, 265 

Vedala Cadai, The, B. G. 
Babington, 226, 226w3, 
232^1, 268wi, 269w3, 274wi, 
276n2, 278^2, 285^2 

*' Vedanta," R. Garbe, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 35 

Vedas, the, 83, 105, 115, 148, 
151, 179 

Vedic Mythology, A. A. Mac- 
donell, 3ni 

Vedische Studien, R. Pischel 
and K. F. Geldner, 3^1 


Vergleickende Volksmedizin, O. 
Hovorka and E. Kronfeld, 

Vernaculars, translations of 
the V etdlapanchavimsati into 
Indian, 225, 226 

Verses backwards, repeating, 

Versions of the tale of the 
Sultan of Yemen, different, 
287; oitYiQV etdlapanchavim- 
sati, different, 225-227 

*' Verwandlung durch Um- 
binden eines Fadens," 
Theodor Zachariae, Wiener 
Zeitschrift f. d. Kunde d. 
Morgenlandes, 59 

Vessel, the argha, 71, 71^2; 
of sand, the, 75 

" Vetalapancavin9atika in den 
Recensionen des ^ivadasa 
und eines Ungenannten, 
Die," H. Uhle, Ahhandl. 
f. d. Kunde d. Morgen- 
landes, 225w*, 261^1- 3, 267, 
273W4' 5 

Vice of gambling, the, 106, 

Vikram and the Vampire, or 
Tales oj Hindu Devilry, 
R. F. Burton, 226, 227, 

Vikrama-charita ( Vikrama's Ad- 
ventures) or Sihhdsanadvdt- 
rinsikd {Thirty-Two Tales of 
the Throne), 227, 229, 231, 
240 ; date of the, 228 ; four 
different Sanskrit recen- 
sions of the, 228 ; " frame- 
story " occurs twice in the, 

Vikrama^s Adventures, or The 
Thirty- Two Tales of the 
Throne, Franklin Edgerton, 
227, 228, 228^1, 228^2, 229, 
229*ii'2^ 23l7ii'2^ 240, 2i0n^ 

Virtue, garden produced by 
the power of, 82 ; by the 
King of the Parrots, The 
Parrot who was taught, 
86-87 ; the reward of, 148, 

Virtues, Mrigankadatta pos- 
sessor of ten million, 10 

Virtues of the "Tarnkappe," 
the, 149^1 

'Vishnu's Three Strides : the 
Measure of Vedic Chron- 
ology," R. Shama Sastry, 
Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc, 


Vision of the Goddess of For- 
tune, Sridarsana, i.e., 105%^ ; 
seen in the lake, the, 31, 33 

Vivien, A. Tennyson, In^ 

Voice from the air, 207 ; from 
heaven, 6, 14 

Volkskunde, Zur, F. Liebrecht, 
Ibn^ 122iii 

Vow, the kumuda, 90, 90w^ 

''Wahm," D. B. Macdonald, 

Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 66 
Wall, thief making a hole in, 

187, 187^2 
Wanderings of Herzog Ernst, 

the, 25^2 
War-God, Birth of the, R. T.H. 

Griffith, 3wi 
"Wasser des Lebens, Das," 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 

und Hausmdrchen der Briider 

Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 

Polivka, 98wi, 263 
" Wassermann, Der," Sagen 

aus B'dhmen, J. V. Groh- 

mann, 36^^ 
Water, flavoured with three 

kinds of fruits, 27, %ln^ ; 

of the sea, Agastya drink- 
ing up the, 43, 43^1, 44w ; 

transformation through 

sprinkling with charmed, 

5, 8, 62 
"Water of Life" motif, 98, 

98^1, 262, 263, 263wi 
Water-spirits, the fierce, 36, 

Waving away of evil spirits, 

109, 109^1 
Wax-images made by witches 

and magicians, 24w 
Wealth, the God of (Kuvera), 

71, 104 
" Weaver and the Bawd, The 

Cuckold," one of the Pan- 

chatantra tales omitted by 

Somadeva, 271 
Wedding-day, Somaprabha's, 

202, 203 
Weddings, Parachhan, cus- 
tom of waving away spirits 

at Hindu, 109wi 
Weeping earth, the, 193, 

Wendische Sagen, Mdrchen und 

aherglauhische Gebrduche, 

E. Veckenstedt, 28^2, 36wi, 

Werke, Sdmmtliche, Goethe, 




Westfahletij Sageii, Gebrauche 

und M'drchen aiis, A. Kuhn, 

23w2, 36ni, 93n\ 136, U9n^ 

West Highlands, Popular 7 ales 

of the, J. F. Campbell, 5n^ 

Wheel representing mundane 
existence, 31 

White horse, the wonderful, 
145-147; smile, the, 112, 
113, 113wi; witch, the, 5 

Wicked mother, the, 152, 153; 
Wife, Story of Vamadatta 
and his, 4-6 
Wiener Zeitschrift f. d. Kunde 
d. Morgenlandes, *' Verwand- 
lungdurch Umbinden eines 
Fadens," " Zum altind- 
ischen Hochzeitsritual," 
Theodor Zachariae, 59 

Wife becomes a witch, Brah- 
man's, 4 ; The Brahman 
Devabhuti and his Chaste, 
83-84 ; by the Help of his 
Father's Minister, How the 
Prince obtained a, 168-177, 
247-261 ; Story of Vama- 
datta and his Wicked, 4-6 

Wife's nose bitten off, the 
faithless, 188, I8871I 

Wine, liquor of fat and, 112, 

Wings of the mountains, 
myth about cutting off 
the, 3, 3ni 

Wisdom, the perfection of, 
92-95 ; of Solomon, the 
Queen of Sheba testing 
the, 74w 

Wise Birds, The King and the 
Two, 183, 183rii, 184, 186, 
189, 267-272 

Wishing-tree of heaven, the, 
40; the human, 80, 81, 
85 ; of love, ear-ornament 
made of a shoot from the, 

Wit combats as entertainment 
at Asiatic courts, 73w^ 

Witch Cybele, the, 51^^; of 
Eye, Margery Jordane, the 
cunning, 24w ; Sasiprabha 
becomes a, 4 ; The Trick 
of the Supposed, 251-261 

Witchcraft, destroying people 
with, 24w 

Witches and magicians, im- 
ages of wax made by, 24/1 

Woman, the fickleness of, 87 

Woman representing Maya, 
31, 32 

Woma7i Pleased, J. Fletcher, 

Women, fastidiousness about, 
218, 219 

Wonderful temple in Patala, 
the, 110, 111 ; tree, the, 
25, 26, 26ni ; white horse, 
the, 145-147 

Wooden Doll, Akshaksha- 
panaka and the, 151-153 

Word vampire of Serbian 
origin, the, 138 

Works, H. H. Wilson, 1862- 
1866, 251 

World, the sun, the lamp of 
the, 147, 147^1 

Wrists of men, rdkhi, a cord 
tied round the, 59 


Young Brahman, The Perse- 
vering, 89 

Yuletidc Stories, B. Thorpe, 

Zehn Prinzen, Die, J. Hertel, 

Indische Erzahler, 251 
Zeitschrift d. d. morg. GeselL, 
" Die Geschichten des 
toten No-rub-can," A. H. 
Francke, 24271^; "The 
K alakacharyakathanaka, ' ^ 
H. Jacobi, 230ni 
Zinda Peer, the Everliving 
Saint of India . A Discourse 
on some Ramifications of the 
BelieJ in the Water of Im- 
mortality, R. C. Temple, 
Zoological Mythology, A. de 

Gubernatis, 277 
"Zum altindischen Hoch- 
zeitsritual," Theodor Zach- 
ariae, Wiener Zeitschrift f. 
d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, 
Zur deutschen Sage und Dich- 
tung. Gesammelte Aufsdtze, 
W. Gother, 109^2 
"ZurSirenensage," R. Unger, 

Philologus, 282w 
Zur Volkskunde, F. Liebrecht, 
15^3, 122^1 

Printed in Great Britain 

BY The RivEEfiiDE Press Limited 






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