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IfXil I 

















N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 











M.A., PH.D., HON. LL.D. 




Made and Printed in Great Britain 


Scope of Hindu Fiction Literature 

THE Brihat-Kdthd, or Great Story collection of 
Gunadhya, as well as the supposed excerpt from it, 
Somadeva's Ocean, are pretty nearly unique both in 
size and in the wealth and welter of story-telling. If I am 
not mistaken, even Somadeva's Ocean has no equal or superior 
in these respects in the fiction literature of the world ; yet 
it is by no means a complete expression of what we might 
call the fiction genius of India. There are many other 
Brahmanical collections of importance, as well as equally im- 
pressive Buddhist and Jaina collections Jatakas, Avadanas, 
Charitras, Kavyas and Kathanakas known all over India 
and the Asiatic countries which, chiefly owing to the spread 
of Buddhism, have become intellectual tributaries of India. 
In a paper the part-title of which is, " On Recurring Psychic 
Motifs in Hindu Fiction," * I have sketched very briefly the 
scope of this literature, as far as India is concerned. The total 
of fiction contained in these books is enormous ; it reflects 
both fancy and fact, though incidental sketches of and allusions 
to real life render Hindu fiction a scarcely less valuable 
record of Hindu life than the more schematic treatises which 
deal with customs, manners and institutions. 2 

Suggestions as to Encyclopcedic Treatment 

I am sure that the idea of a complete catalogue or clearing- 
house of these stories and the organic motifs which enter into 
their composition has flitted across the mind of many readers 
and students of this fascinating subject. Benfey began the 

1 Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xxxvi, pp. 54>ff. 

2 As an example of this kind of fructification of fiction we may take 
Fick's Die Sociale Gliederung im nordostlichen Indien, which is based almost 
entirely upon the Buddhist Jatakas. 



" scientific " study of fiction by following the Panchatantra 
stories in their wanderings all over the world. He thereby 
generated an instinct or urge to do something similar in 
every editor or translator of a fable, fairy tale or novel. 

Since there is nothing new under the sun, it scarcely 
happens that any writer on these subjects is so forgetful as 
not to remember parallels that he has seen before, or so 
repressed or abstemious as not to allude or refer to them. 
In connection with the Ocean both Tawney and Penzer have 
brought into play their wide reading and learning to show 
how farspread are these ideas, how varied their manipula- 
tion, and how dependent their sense and real meaning upon 
their universal use, in distinction from their use in any one 
particular connection. 

A future Science (vidyd) of fiction casts its shadow before : 
it were idle to say that it is now present in person, as the 
Hindus occasionally say of their vidyds. Here and there an 
important salient motif stands out very clearly, so that we 
seem to see it in all its bearings ; but in the main there are 
mere disjecta membra. Classifications, such as those pro- 
posed by the FF. Folk-Lore Society, or by the English Folk- 
Lore Society, are, in the main, tentative and one-sided. The 
materials at our disposal are fragmentary ; their original 
value obscured by varied handling ; the time and place of 
their origination for the most part unknown. I shall illustrate 
this quite fully below. 

The uses of fiction-study so far have been rather in 
the direction of Comparative Literature or the History 
of Literature. Here they help regularly to appreciate the 
character and origin of literary composition. In a voice 
that is at the same time both sprightly and authoritative 
they tell us whence a given composition has derived its 
material foundation, whether these compositions be Western 
Oriental, Italian novelle, or the dramatic and poetic motifs of 
Shakespeare and Goethe. 


Future Science of Fiction 

But fiction must develop in the end into a self-centred 
science whose real philosophical or psychological meaning is 
as yet unstatable. A prerequisite is obviously the collec- 
tion, assortment and critical appraisal of all the materials 
that appertain to the subject. I have long thought that 
such study should rest upon encyclopaedic treatment, 
undertaken country by country, and have had in mind 
particularly (in accord with my own studies and those of 
my school) an "Encyclopaedia of Hindu Fiction" which 
might serve as a pattern for similar works undertaken in 
respect to other countries. Our work has been haphazard, 
opportunistic and tentative, but, I think, it begins to show 
its ultimate significance. I would refer the attentive reader 
of these pages, first of all, to the List of Papers at the end 
of this Foreword ; it will show how the separate items of 
such an Encyclopaedia have emerged, one by one, from the 
titanic mass of Hindu fiction themes. Any one of these 
papers will also reveal how different is the look of a given 
story or idea when treated with the relative finality of 
such a purpose, as compared with the sporadic, reminiscent 
and unsifted observations of most authors who handle such 

The "Dohada" Motif 

Mr Penzer has graciously credited my article, " On the 
Dohada, or Craving of Pregnant Women," by basing upon it 
his lengthy Appendix III in Vol. I of the Ocean. The reader 
of fiction who has seen this idea flit across his pages will 
certainly be amazed at its previously unsuspected persistence 
and, so to speak, organic development. I have since found 
that Jaina writers scarcely ever let pass the opportunity of 
ascribing to noble women, pregnant with a future Saint or 
Emperor (Arhat or Chakravartin), longings to perform good 
deeds while in this condition. It is with those authors not a 
bright invention, but a cut-and-dried cliche. When they arrive 
at this point in the course of their chronicles (Charitras) they 


take the motif out of its pigeon-hole, to put it back again for 
use on the next similar occasion. 

Soon after the appearance of my article Dr Alfred Ela of 
Boston published (from the medical point of view) an article, 
" Longings of the Pregnant, viewed in Light from the East," 1 
in which he makes extensive use of the materials and their 
classification in my article, and combines them, very learnedly, 
with previously reported medical observations. 

The "Overhearing" Motif in Encyclopedic Treatment 

Mr Penzer, in Vol. Ill, pp. 60 ff., of the Ocean, has a long 
note on the motif " Overhearing," with reference to fiction 
in general. He had not at that time seen my treatment of 
the same theme in a 26-page article, " On Overhearing as 
a Motif of Hindu Fiction," American Journal of Philology, 
vol. xli, pp. 309 ff. The materials gathered there have made 
it possible to state a sort of preliminary psychology or philos- 
ophy of the motif. On the whole the imaginary conversation 
of birds is the standard source of information. " A little 
bird told me " seems to be the rock-bottom of the notion, 
founded upon the sincere folk-lore feeling that the chirp and 
twitter and cluck of birds is the prime and natural source of 
otherwise inaccessible information. But many other pairs of 
beings divine, cosmic or animal are overheard. 

The motif is in the nature of a deus ex machina, designed, 
or rather intuitively produced, to save from death, disease 
or catastrophe ; to procure fairy-tale wealth and success ; or 
to furnish helpful information or instruction in perplexing 
situations. Whenever and wherever the hero is in danger or 
trouble, he happens to overhear a conversing pair who tell him 
how to extricate himself. If the hero is destined to emerge 
from poverty or low station, usually quite abysmal, to unex- 
pected and not to be expected wealth or glory, the conversing 
pair point the way. And again, if someone in the story needs 
guidance, moral or worldly-wise, his course will be determined 
by what two say to each other in conversation. 

The motif is for the most part progressive. Rarely is a 

1 Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. clxxxiii, pp. 576 ff. (1920). 


story designed around overhearing ; the motif enters when 
there is a hitch at a point where the hearer or reader is 
perplexed as to what will come next, meaning, how will 
the narrator extricate himself, or save the situation. Just 
at that point the principal person, or his companion or con- 
fidant, will overhear to his advantage. The story has come 
to an impasse ; the motif releases the standstill. 

Important Role of Organised Brigandage in Hindu Fiction 

The pages of the Kathd-sarit-sagara are full of accounts of 
wild robber tribes : Bhillas, Savaras, Kiratas, Pulindas, etc. 
These accounts are often quite conflicting and paradoxical. 
Bhillas are robbers, but sometimes low-caste persons peace- 
fully engaged : usually low-born and rude, they are some- 
times quite noble and distinguished ; they sacrifice victims 
to bloody Durga, but are open to kind impulses and the 
sense of gratitude. My most recently published encyclopaedic 
article x has gathered and sifted the statements of Hindu 
fiction literature in general that pertain to this theme. 

The resulting mosaic, as it were, is perfectly clear in out- 
line and amazingly definite in detail. The activities of these 
robber folk, which often seem to be paradoxical, turn out 
to be quite logical ; the theme, though essentially romantic, 
carries with it a fairly accurate history of their doings from 
the time of the Veda up to the modern thugs and dacoits, 
who are doubtless their offspring in direct descent. Of 
immediate practical importance is, that a given Bhilla story 
often depends for its proper understanding upon some other 
of its kind, or owes its flavour to the impressions pro- 
duced by this class of stories in the approximate whole of 

On the tessellated pages of the Ocean there is many a story 
and many a motif which can be properly understood only in 
the light of related items. The stories of any one given 
collection are, at times, mere torsos or fragments of those 
of another. One or two illustrations will make this clear : 

1 "On Organized Brigandage in Hindu Fiction," American Journal of 
Philology, vol. xlvii, pp. 205 ff. 


The Story of Balavinashtaka as Part of a Cycle of Stories 

The story of the clever boy, Balavinashtaka, is told in 
Ocean, Vol. I, pp. 184 jff., under the caption " Story of the 
Clever Deformed Child." The boy has a stepmother, who 
neglects and starves him : he owes his name to the fact that 
people say this child {bala) is deformed (vinashtaka). This 
analysis of the name is dubious. Sir Richard Temple's 
definition of the boy as an enfant terrible (p. xxiv of the 
Foreword to Vol. I) does not quite get its point : the story 
belongs to the large cycle of stories of the clever, shrewd, 
resourceful lad who figures especially in India in the 
Mahaushadha and Rohaka cycles, more particularly in the 

Mr Penzer, in his note on p. 186, correctly defines and 
compares the story as being a clever lad story, but does not 
seem to be acquainted with the Rohaka cycle from which it 
is derived. 

The cycle of stories connected with the shrewd boy 
Rohaka (Balavinashtaka of the present story) occurs in many 
Jaina texts and commentaries. Professor Pulle, I think, 
first drew attention to this cycle in his valuable essay, " Un 
Progenitore Indiano del Bertoldo" (Venezia, 1888), Studi 
Italiani di Filologia Indo-Iranica (Firenze, 1898), pp. 1-18. 
The stories occur in the Commentators to the Avasyaka and 
Nandi; in the Upadesapada, by Haribhadra; and in Rajase- 
khara's Antarakathdsarhgraha ; also in the Old Gujarat! 
Kathakallola, by Ratnasundara, a version of the Pancha- 
tantra which Hertel has translated in Das Pancatantra, 
pp. 194 jff. 1 It is also woven into Jfianasagara's novel Ratna- 
chuda, a Jaina text which has been translated recently by 
Professor Hertel in his series Indische Erzahler, vol. vii, 
PP- 99 jff. In the Preface to that volume, pp. 10 jff., he gives 
an account of other Jaina versions of the Ratnachuda story. 
The same boy's series of clever acts and devices I have 
found in Ajitaprabha's Santinatha Charitra, published in 
Bhavnagar by the Jain Dharmaprasarak Press, Virasamvat 
2443 (a.d. 1917). In the Ratnachuda Rohaka is the son of an 

1 Cf. Zachariae, Kleine Schriften, pp. 66, 9ff., 190n. 



actor named Kusilava 1 ; he is maltreated by his stepmother, 

The story introduces some traits that are wanting in the 
Kathd-sarit-sdgara, but winds up similarly with the boy's point- 
ing to his father's shadow, by way of reassuring him that his 
wife is not keeping company with another man. This he had 
suspected on account of the boy's previous wily innuendoes. 

Rohaka, in the sequel, performs a long list of clever acts, 
such as making, by the king's order, a rope of sand 2 ; and 
many other " stunts " with which we are familiar from the 
Buddhist Epic, the Mahdummagga Jdtaka (546). The king 
contemplates making Rohaka his chancellor, just as in the 
Buddhist story. Rohaka is clearly the Jaina imitation of 
or parallel to the Buddhist Mahosadha (Mahaushadha). The 
Balavinashtaka story seems to be a mere extract from a 
cycle of such stories which were afloat prior to the composition 
of the Brihatkathd. In any case the nature of that story 
cannot be determined without reference to the clever lad 
cycles. Moreover the clever lad cycle has many points of 
contact with the clever lass cycle, upon which I have touched 
in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xxxvi, 
pp. 65 ff. 

The Rupinikd Story made up of a Variety of Independent 


The engaging story of the devoted hetcera, Rupinika, 
Kathds, xii (Ocean, Vol. I, pp. 138 ff.), reads, at first sight, like 
a well-constructed, concinnate composition that might come 
from the head of an unusually clever and inventive narrator. 
But it is, in reality, a mixtum compositum, consisting of four 
distinct tales : 

(1) The story of Rupinika's devoted love. 

(2) The journey in the elephant's cadaver. 

(3) The weaver as Vishnu. 

(4) The bawd on the pillar. 

1 In the Kathdkallola the boy is called Roho ; his father, the actor, is 

2 This he dodges by asking the king to send him a piece of old sand-rope 
as a pattern. 


Mr Penzer has not pointed out that the story as a whole, 
but with totally different motifs substituted for (2), (3) and (4), 
is the most important element in the biography of the re- 
doubtable Hindu hero Miiladeva, the outstanding romantic 
figure of Hindu fiction : versed in the arts, practices and 
tricks of love and all its accessories ; cultivated conversa- 
tionalist ; brilliant narrator ; marvellous musician ; expert 
in massage, perfumes and ointments ; knowing how to send 
a lady a present in fact, man of the world and arbiter 
elegantice, or, according to the Hindu Love Bibles, a 
typical ndyaka, or "hero." He is, in addition, master-thief 
and resourceful thief-catcher, great magician and furious 
gambler. 1 

What is the actual relation of Miiladeva to Lohajangha of 
the Rupinika story ? Miiladeva figures under that name very 
interestingly in the Kathd-sarit-sdgara, chapters lxxxix, xcviii 
and cxxvii, but he is not brought into contact with Rupinika. 
On the other hand the Jaina handling of the theme, as told 
in Devendra's Maharashtri version, in his vritti to the Uttard- 
dhyayana Sutra, brings Miiladeva into contact with the noble 
hetcera Devadatta. This version of the theme is more widely 
known, 2 but even Devendra's version has the ear-marks of very 
secondary handling. It is, moreover, laid under suspicion, 
because the Jainas have exalted Miiladeva to the station of a 
typical religious, whose chief glory is that he once, in the course 
of his adventures, fed a starving ascetic in the Jaina view 
a superlatively meritorious act, which results in Miiladeva's 
kingship. Even after all diligent watch we are still in the 
dark as to the prime story, and certainly the version which 

1 Miiladeva's artistry is proverbial; see Hertel, Paid und gopala, p. 109. 

2 We are indebted for our knowledge of Miiladeva primarily to Professor 
Pavolini of Florence in Giornale della Societa Asiatica Italiana, ix, 175 ff. Other 
treatments and other matters pertaining to this subject are discussed in my 
article, "The Character and Adventures of Miiladeva," Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society, 1913, lii, pp. 6l6 ff. See also Journal of the 
American Oriental Society, xliii, 266, and the small drama (bhana), called Padma- 
prabhritakam, ascribed to Sudraka. This is one of four such Bhanas, by 
different authors, published under the title Chaturbhani, by the Pandits 
M. Ramakrishna Kavi and S. K. Ramanatha Sastri, in Sivapurl (Trichur) in the 
year 1922. Here figure all the personages of the Miiladeva cycle: Miiladeva 
himself, his love Devadatta, his friend Saa, and others. 


substitutes the adventures of Rupinika and Lohajangha for 
Devadatta and Mtiladeva is an obvious rifacimento from a 
later time. 

The " Show Me How " Motif 

Dann hat er die Teile in seiner Hand, 
Fehlt leider nur das geistige Band. 

Goethe's Faust, First Part. 

Who has not at one time or another seen a Punch and 
Judy show ? Punch, after an unimaginably nefarious life, in 
the course of which he makes away with his own wife, Judy, 
is finally taken off by the policeman to be hanged. Arrived 
at the tree from which he is to be suspended, Punch pretends 
not to know how to put the noose around his neck, and asks 
the policeman to show him. The policeman puts the noose 
around his own neck, Punch instantly pulls the rope, and up 
goes the policeman to the agonised joy of the small boys 
assembled. This is the widely diffused motif, " Show me 
how," and the story of the wily female Siddhikari, as told in 
the Ocean, Vol. I, pp. 157 ff. (Kathd-sarit-sdgara, chapter xiii), 
is but a single expression of it. 

The motif belongs to the class which I have rubricated as 
psychic motifs l : in this class the mental processes are the 
same, but the actors and real properties differ in almost every 
case. One of the features of the " Show Me How " motif 
is that the quick wit (matiprakarsha) of a successful rogue 
sometimes wins the sympathy of the hearer, no matter how 
reprehensible his act or his character. 

Thus in Parker's Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, vol. iii, 
pp. 346 ff., figures a thief, Matalana by name, son of the 
king by a concubine. The king gives orders to a carpenter 
to make a pair of stocks for Matalana, though he has not yet 
been caught. Matalana comes along, asks the carpenter the 
purpose of the stocks, and, when he is told, requests to be 
shown how it is done. The carpenter shows how, the thief 
locks him into the stocks, and spices his confinement with 
blows and jeers. In this story persons and things are all 

1 See Journal of the American Oriental Society, xxxvi, 54 ff. 


different, but the psychology is so much like that of the 
Siddhikari story as to suggest dependence of one story upon 
the other. 

A variant of the Siddhikari story in the Southern Texlus 
Simplicior of Panchatantra \ is clearly a secondary derivative 
of that story. A neglected merchant's wife runs away with 
his jewels. She rests under a banyan-tree, where a drummer 
(maddali) observes her and finds out her story. Wishing to 
possess himself of her jewels, he tells her that her conduct is 
unseemly, that she would suffer from the wives of her brothers, 
and advises her to commit suicide. She says she does not 
know how : he shows her how to do it with a drum-cord. 
She is to fasten the cord to the tree, put her head into the 
noose, and then move her feet. At her request he shows her 
how, inadvertently pushes the drum away from himself, and 
hangs by the neck. The woman returns to her husband. 

The "Show Me How" motif is applied with great pre- 
dilection in stories in which a wicked ascetic (kdpdlika, yogin, 
etc.) desires to sacrifice a noble man for his own purposes, 
notably to obtain magic power. I have touched upon this 
aspect of the motif, which appears more than once in the 
Ocean, in my encyclopaedic article, " On False Ascetics and 
Nuns," Journal of the American Oriental Society, xliv, 
213 ff. Thus in Kaihas, xcviii, 69 jf. ; xcix, 15 jf. ; Vetala- 
panchavimsati, 24, 25, the Vetala warns King Vikrama against 
the Kapalika who has sent him to fetch the corpse from the 
tree : " That wicked mendicant for whom you have fetched 
the corpse, wishing to offer you as victim, will say to you : 
6 King, prostrate yourself on the ground in such a way that 
eight limbs will touch it.' Then, great King, you must say 
to that ascetic, 'Show me how to do it,' and I will do it as 
you do it. Then he will fling himself on the ground and 
show you how to perform the prostration, and that moment 
you must cut off his head with the sword." In due course 
Vikrama cuts off the head of the ascetic, and he tears and 
drags the lotus of his heart out of his inside. 

Another phase of the "Show Me How" motif still has 
the wicked ascetic, but introduces in addition the feature that 

1 See Hertel , Zeitschrift der Deittschen Morgenlandischen Gescllschaftyhii,^. 


he is (a la Hansel and Gretel) thrown into a boiling pot. 
This story occurs in the Vikrama-charita. As early as the 
year 1878 Professor Weber, in Indische Studien, vol. xv, 
pp. 215 jf., 277, published an account of it, making the proper 
comparisons with Western analogues. 1 A pretty version of 
the story may be read in the rather inaccessible Lescallier's 
he Trone Enchante, p. 177 (tenth story), which I would repeat 
here in digest : 

King Bekermaditjet (Vikramaditya) is lost while on a 
hunt. He meets an old woman, about to load a bundle of 
faggots upon her head, and essays to help her. Out of grati- 
tude she tells him of a Queen Abnonly, and the king deter- 
mines to find her. He travels until he comes to a district 
strewn with human heads. One of the heads laughs, and he 
asks for the occasion of its merriment. The head responds : 
" I laugh because in a few hours your head will keep company 
with ours. A short distance from here lives a demon in the 
guise of a Djogui (Yogi). He addresses passers-by pleasantly, 
and tells them that he will show them a curious thing. He 
tells them to take an iron pot full of black peas, put it upon 
a fire, and let him know when it is boiling. Then the demon 
throws him into the pot, eats him, and throws the head upon 
the ground." The laughing head then advises him to request 
the demon at the crucial moment to show him how to do it, 
to seize him, and throw him into the pot. Then he is to take 
some of the peas and scatter them upon the skulls, whereupon 
they will come to life and become his servants. All this 
happens as prescribed, and after further adventures Vikrama, 
with the help of his newly acquired friends, obtains the Queen 

The " Show Me How " Motif in the Beast Fable 

The motif finally crops out in a beast fable, again with 
every actor or real property changed. In the Southern 

1 Cf. Dasent's " East of the Sun and West of the Moon " story of Buttercup, 
who is to be cooked for dinner by the ogre's daughter. But she does not 
know how to go about executing him, so he tells her to lay her head on the 
block ; he would show her. Whereupon he cuts off her head. 


Textus Simplicior of Panchatantra, 1 a Brahman makes a 
pilgrimage to Kasi (Benares). On the way he sees a tiger 
which had been caught and put into a box by a soldier, who 
had then wandered off in search of water. The tiger implores 
the Brahman to release him, and no sooner done than the 
tiger seizes the Brahman to devour him. The Brahman 
remonstrates : they appeal to arbiters. The first is an old 
cow who is all for ingratitude ; she has borne ten calves for 
her owner, and given him a daily drona of milk. Now that 
she is old and unprofitable, he beats and starves her. They 
next appeal to an old Sudra woman, who is similarly im- 
pressed with the absence of gratitude as illustrated by her 
own life. Lastly they consult a jackal, who declines to pass 
judgment, because he is the friend of both litigants, but 
finally consents to express an opinion if they will return to 
their former positions. The tiger releases the Brahman and 
crawls back into the box, into which he is now fastened by 
the Brahman. 

In Dubois, Le Pantcha-T antra, p. 49, a crocodile asks a 
Brahman to carry it to the Ganges in order that it may live 
in its holy waters. The Brahman puts the crocodile into his 
travelling bag. As he is about to place it into the water the 
crocodile catches hold of the Brahman's leg. The Brahman 
reproaches it for its ingratitude, but the crocodile points to 
the spirit of the times, in which virtue and gratitude consist 
in devouring one's supporter. They appeal to a mango-tree 
and an old cow, who support the crocodile's thesis. Then 
they appeal to a fox, who also at first decides against the 
Brahman. But the fox wishes to see how they carried out 
their journey together. The crocodile crawls back into the 
bag, is killed, and devoured by the fox. 

This story has run a wide career both in Hindu " Folklore " 
and in the West ; see Benfey, Pantschatantra, i, 113 jf. ; Orient 
und Occident, iii, 481 ; Jacobs, Indian Fairy Tales, p. 242 ; 
Krohn, K., Mann und Fuchs Helsingfors, 1871 ; Kohler, 
Kleinere Schriften, i, 199; Indian Antiquary, xii, 170jfiT., 177; 
Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, i, 339 ; iii, 348 ; Frere, 
Old Deccan Days, p. 198 ; Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, p. 17 ; 

1 See Hertel, Zeitschrift der Dadschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, lxi, 32. 


Steel and Temple, Wide- Awake Stories, p. 116 ; Butterworth, 
Zigzag Journeys in India, p. 128 ; O'Connor, Folk-Tales 
from Tibet, p. 12 ; Smeaton, Karens of Burma, pp. 126, 131 ; 
Rouse, Talking Thrush, p. 65 ; Campbell, Santal Folk-Tales, 
p. 40 ; Bompas, Folklore of the Santal Parganas, pp. 149, 312 ; 
Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from the Panjdb, pp. 303 ff. ; 
Skeat, Fables and Folk-Tales from an Eastern Forest, p. 20. 
There are in these versions wide variations and tangles with 
other motifs, and it is curious to observe that a sort of " Cage " 
motif emerges from the mass as a scarcely intelligible remnant 
of the " Show Me How " motif. I cannot see in any other 
light, for instance, the inconsequential story in Hemavijaya's 
Katharatndkara, story 167, 1 in which a lioness warns her son 
against black-heads. He roams the forest and asks all the 
animals jackal, sambara, hare, antelope, and even tiger : 
" Art thou the black-head, art thou the black-head ? " And 
they answer : " We are no black-heads." He finally meets 
a carpenter, whom he asks the same question. The carpenter 
says : "If you do as I tell you, I will show you the black- 
head." The lion agrees. The carpenter builds a strong cage ; 
the lion enters it : the carpenter rams iron bolts into the door 
of the cage, then shows him his head, saying : "I am the 
black-head." The lion perishes miserably. 

The motif of the cow neglected in her old age is similarly 
worked up, quite by itself, flimsily in Dadhadhamma-J dtaka 
(409), where a discarded old elephant complains of the in- 
gratitude of the king, its master, and is restored to honour 
by the intercession of the Bodhisat. 

Chronology of Stories and Motifs 

The chronology of stories and motifs is, as a rule, indeter- 
minate. I am not speaking now of the legends of the gods 
and demigods which have persisted from Veda, Epic and 
Purana to this day, such as, e.g., the legend of Purtiravas 
and Urvasi, Indra and Ahalya, and the like. I mean the 
mdrchen, fables, noodle-stories, anecdotes, pranks, etc., which 
make up the stock of Hindu narrative of Brahmanical, 

1 Hertel's translation, ii, 147 ff. 
vol. vii. b 


Buddhist and Jaina times. We find many starts in the Epic ; 
notably the Mahdbhdrata has a fairly developed beast fable, 
which is treated there with Epic breadth, quite distinct from 
the style of the Panchatantra cycle. 1 

Vedic Beginnings : The " Overhearing " Motif 

Rarely a fiction motif of the kind I have in mind goes 
back to Vedic times. Thus the " Overhearing " motif figures 
in Chhdndogya Upanishad (iv, 1, 2) quite amazingly in the 
service of theosophy : Janasruti is a pious man, devoted to 
charity " spending much ; cooking much ; causing rest- 
houses to be built everywhere, so that people from every- 
where might be entertained by him." Some flamingos 
(harhsa birds) fly by at night ; one says to the other : " I 
say, blear-eye, don't you see Janasruti's brilliance is spread 
out like the heavens ; don't touch it, don't burn yourself ! " 
The other harhsa replies : " What sort is he of whom you 
speak as though he were Raikva with the push-cart ? " 
Janasruti overhears, searches for Raikva, and finds him 
sitting under the push-cart, scratching his itch. For all 
that, he owns the great Upanishad doctrine which Janasruti 
extracts from him only at the price of one thousand cows, a 
gold necklace, a wagon with mules, and his own daughter. 

The " Drinking Apart " Motif 

The harhsa bird figures once more in a fairy-tale concep- 
tion that goes back to Vedic times, endures persistently 
during later Hindu times, but has then lost its fairy-tale 
character altogether. I allude to the well-known magic by 
virtue of which this distinguished bird " drinks apart " milk 
from water. 2 All attempts to explain this as a feature of the 

1 Professor Jacobi, Mahdbhdrata, p. 241, cites the fables of the Great Epic. 

2 Noted, very early, by Colebrooke, Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
i, 159^-" "Because the bird seems, as the Hindus apprehend, to extract his 
food by suction from solution in water; wherefore a bird of this genus is 
considered an emblem of discrimination, as being capable of discriminating 
milk from water." 


natural history of the hamsa are, in my opinion, fatuous, 
because the hamsa is not alone in " drinking apart " i.e. 
separating two substances in drinking. 

There is, to begin with, the bird krunc, which, in addition 
to the hamsa, performs the same " stunt " in Mditrayani Sam- 
hitd, iii, 11,6, and parallel Yajur texts. As a matter of fact, 
in these Vedic texts it is the bird krunc, " curlew," that " drinks 
apart " milk and water (adbhyah kshiram) ; the hamsa " drinks 
apart " soma and water {adbhyah somam). Lanman, in 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, xix, 157, quotes 
two passages from Pali Buddhist texts, in which the 
krunc continues to do this at a very late time. 1 The Mdi- 
trayani passage, cited above, contains more cases of " drinking 
apart," pertaining to spiritual matters. And, anent Rig- 
Veda, x, 131, 4, 5, it seems that the Asvins, the heavenly 
physicians, aided by Sarasvati, cured Indra's "katzen jammer," 
when he had mixed his drinks, by taking surd (brandy) on 
the top of his accustomed soma. The brandy had been ad- 
ministered to him by his tricky enemy, the demon Namuchi. 2 
And again, from Rig-Veda times, ants have the power of 
" drinking apart " water from the desert sands ; see Rig-Veda, 
i, 112, 15, vamrdm vipipdndm, "the ant which drinks apart," 
and Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva Veda, Introductions 
to 2, 3, and 6, 100 ; American Journal of Philology, vii, 
4>S2ff. 3 I have always thought it curious that this motif is 
lost in later literature, except as an illustration of discern- 
ment (viveka) ; it could have been applied fruitfully e.g. to 
the many cases of poisoning in which fiction abounds. 

Stories that contain the Motif of the Rebounding Bow 

There is one motif of rather varied application which 
figures in stories that go back to the Veda. These are widely 

1 Udana, viii, 7 : Vidva pajahati papakain konco khirapako va ninnagam } " The 
wise man leaves evil as the milk-drinking curlew leaves water." 

2 Bloomfield, Journal of the American Oriental Society, xv, 148 ff., 15.9; 
Oldenberg, Nachrichten von der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu 
Gottingen, 1893, No. 9. 

3 Cf., as a late echo of this conception, Uvasagadasao, Appendix on 
Gosala, p. 4. 


scattered, so that the motif is scarcely recognised by students 
of fiction as having become standard. The Kathd-sarit- 
sdgara has it only in a rather unintelligible version of the 
Panchatantra fable of " The Greedy Jackal " (Ocean, Vol. V, 
p. 77). Kshemendra's version, in Brihat-kathd-manjari, ii, 
20 jf., is even more garbled. 1 

These two versions, as will appear below, show clearly 
how important it is to know a story in all its occurrences. 
The older Panchatantra versions rule out the Brihatkathd 
forms of this fable, automatically, as it were ; cf. Penzer, 
Vol. V, pp. 212 Jf. It will be profitable to exhibit this singular 
motif in all its occurrences from Veda to the North Buddhist 
texts to wit : 

The Vedic Story of the Rebounding Bow 

Satapatha Brdhmana (XIV, i, Iff.). Once upon a time 
Agni, Indra, Soma, Makha, Vishnu and the Visve Devas, except 
the two Asvins, held a sacrificial session in Kurukshetra, that 
they might attain excellence and become glorious, and eaters 
of food. It was agreed that the first to compass the end of 
the sacrifice should be considered the most excellent. Vishnu 
won, but was unable to restrain his desire for glory. Taking 
his bow and three arrows he stepped forth in defiance of the 
others. As he stood with his head resting upon the end of 
his bow, none dared to accept the challenge and make the 
attack. Then said the ants (vamri) to them : " What would 
you give to him that should gnaw the bowstring ? " " Food 
would we give to him, and he should find water even in the 
desert." 2 " So be it," said the ants. Then they proceeded 
to gnaw the bowstring. The ends of the bow sprang apart 
and cut off the head of Vishnu. . . . Then the Devas gave 
to those ants all food to be eaten, but all food is water. 

Variants of this storyette are familiar in the Vedic writ- 
ings : Mditrdyani Samhitd, IV, v, 9 ; Panchavimsa Brdhmana, 
VII, v, 6 ; Tdittiriya Aranyaka, I, v, 2 ; and Sayana in his 
commentary to Big-Veda, X, clxxii, 2, where Indra assumes 
the form of an ant, and gnaws Rudra's bow r string so that it 

1 See Marikowski, pp. 1 7, 47. 2 Cf. the preceding rubric, 


cuts off his head. See for these Vedic stories, Oliphant in the 
Proceedings of the American Philological Association, vol. xli, 

PP- lv j(F- 

Later Stories of the Rebounding Bow 

The same motif appears next in Panchatantra, ii, 3, which 
may now be surveyed in Professor Edgerton's translation : 
The Panchatantra Reconstructed, vol. i, pp. 220 jf. ; vol. ii, 
pp. 340jfjf. A hunter kills successively a deer and a boar, but 
the boar in his agony also kills the hunter. A jackal comes 
along, sees the three carcases, piles them up, but, instead of 
eating of them, out of too great greed gnaws the sinew-end 
at the tip of the hunter's bow. Whereupon, as the cord is 
severed, he is pierced by the bow in the throat, and perishes. 

The Oriental and Western offshoots of this story are 
sketched by Benfey, Pantschatantra, vol. i, pp. S19jf. In 
Somadeva's version (Ocean, Vol. V, p. 77) the operation of 
the motif, as well as the greed of the jackal, is somewhat 
obscured : " He went first to eat what had been placed on 
the bow, and that moment the arrow fixed in it flew up and 
pierced him so that he died." Kshemendra is no better. 
These versions are based upon the kindred motif of the auto- 
matic bow which we know from Das a Kumar a Charita : see 
now Hertel's translation, vol. i, p. 33 ; vol. ii, p. 7. Cf. also 
Hertel, Das Pancatantra, pp. 169 Jf., 185 jf. 

In Ralston, Tibetan Tales, pp. 286 jf., this motif is coupled 
conveniently with another quite common motif of excessive 
greed namely, " Mutual Poisonings." A jackal, seeing the 
bodies of five hundred robbers who had poisoned one another 
out of greed for the booty which belonged to them in common, 
exclaims : "As an extremely large amount of booty has 
accrued to me, I will take each part of it in turn." So he 
seizes a bow with his jaws, gnaws the knots of the bowstring, 
the string snaps, and the end of the bow strikes the roof of 
his mouth so hard that the jackal dies. 

Next, the motif is used, quite ingeniously, in a story ette 
in which the bowstring is burned by fire, and the rebounding 
bow kills, so as to revenge an injury done by its victim. In 


the Southern Textus Amplior of the Panchatantra, iii, 13, a 
hunter king lives, surrounded by a thousand Kiratas. He 
falls in love with Sumukhi, the wife of one of his Kiratas, 
kills the latter, and compels his pregnant . widow to cohabit 
with him. She begets her son, whom the king believes to 
be his own, and brings up tenderly. When the boy is five 
years of age he happens to sit with other boys around a fire 
in the forest. The king comes there too, and stretches out 
before the fire, placing his strung bow by his side. The boy 
places a burning faggot upon the bowstring, so that the 
string is burned, and the rebounding bow hits the king in 
the head and kills him. See Hertel in Z.D.M.G., lxi, 72 
(ad p. 65). 

Finally, Julg, Mongolische Mdrchen, p. 169 jff., reports the 
motif in a very faded form and unexpected connection. A 
poor young weaver has destroyed by Kakataliya luck x a 
hostile army marching against a king. Returning with 
immense booty, the king is ready to accept him as a husband 
for his daughter, but the queen insists that he must demon- 
strate his personal courage by killing a big fox. Unable to 
find the fox, he returns, but, on nearing the castle, he notices 
that he has lost his bow. In the meantime the fox has found 
the bow, has bitten its string in two, and has been killed by 
its rebounding end. When the "hero" comes there, the fox 
lies dead ; he returns with his pelt in triumph. He finally 
marries the princess, and rules half the kingdom. Julg's 
version of the story is corroborated by a report of it which 
Benfey has printed, as coming from Schiefner's pen, in Pan- 
tschatantra, ii, 541. Here also the hero finds " den fuchs 
durch den bogen, dessen sehne er aufzupressen versucht 
hatte, getodtet." 

Minor Motifs 

The Encyclopedist of Fiction will ultimately experience, 
perhaps, his most striking impression from what may be 

1 See the author in American Journal of Philology, xl, 1 2 ff., 25 ; Hertel, "Zum 
Marchen vom tapferen Schneiderlein," Zeitschrift des Vcreins fur Volkskunde in 
Berlin, 1.913, xxiii, 51-57. 



called the " minor motifs" These flit across every page of 
fiction. When first met with they appear to be mere acci- 
dents of narration, devices of a given story-teller who, of 
course, is sure to draw to some extent upon his own resources 
of imagination, else how would he come to be a story-teller ? 
Such are, e.g., the runaway horse, often of reversed training * 
not understood by his master, the king or prince, who is then 
carried off to the jungle, where he experiences his real adven- 
ture. Or, the hero meets, on the banks of a beautiful lake 
a veritable mdnasa lake a correspondingly beautiful maiden, 
usually princess, accompanied by her confidante or duenna. 
Or, the hero saves some maiden from the onslaught of an 
infuriated elephant, either by courageously or trickily con- 
quering him, or by taming him through the lure of his lute. 
Again, the hero, utterly penniless, is received lovingly by a 
disinterested and very beautiful hetcera, much to the disgust 
of her " mother," the old bawd (akkd, kuttani or kuttini), 
ultimately to elevate the hetcera to his own exalted station. 
Or, both hero and heroine are carried by a fairy bird (bhar- 
anda, bherunda or garuda) to a far distance, which brings the 
denouement of their adventures. And so on ad infinitum. 
Pretty nearly all these adventures, which seem at first sight 
flowers of the imagination, prove in the end to be stencilled, 
pigeon-holed cliche. The mass or total of fiction is really not 
inventive, even though the first expression of a given motif 
must have been an act of imaginative creation. To find its 
place and time is a delicate task, because the beginnings of 
fictional ideas are not revealed by existing literature, and are 
doubtless with primitive folk-lore ideas of which we have 
no record. The so-called folk-lore books of India, of which 
we have some sixty or more, are certainly not, for the over- 
whelming part of them, mythogenic ; they are, as a rule, 
popular recasts of stories from Panchatantra, Jdtaka, etc., as 
well as, of course, of many foreign sources. 

A few of these ideas are salient enough to have received 
some kind of notice or rubrication at the hands of fiction 
observers. But the great mass has been passed by unnoticed. 
I shall pick here a couple of them, not unknown to the readers 

1 See my Life and Stories of the Jaina Savior Parcvanatha, pp. 204 ff. 


of the Ocean, but of such fleeting incidental character as not 
to impress him with their real significance in the technique of 
either Somadeva or other fiction writers. 

Looking for Water 

Quite en passant, in these pages (above, p. xvi) appears, 
very irrelevantly, a soldier who had placed a tiger in a box 
and then wandered off in search of water. The motif is 
introduced simply to give the Brahman a chance to come 
in contact with the tiger. It is at least as early as the Epic : 
in Mahdbharata, iii, 36, 136, the Brahman Yavakri, who has 
attempted to seduce Raibhya's daughter-in-law, is deprived 
by magic of his water-pot, and roams in vain in search for 
water, until he is killed by a demon. 

Looking for water appears as a progressive motif in the 
Kathd-sarit-sdgara four times, if not oftener. Thus, x, 128 jf. 
(Ocean, Vol. I, p. 115), Mrigankavati, beloved of the young 
Brahman Sridatta, while roaming in the Vindhya forest, 
becomes exhausted with fear and exertion, and is very 
thirsty withal. Sridatta goes in search of water, loses his way, 
and passes the night in the forest. When he arrives in the 
morning on the spot where he left the princess she is nowhere 
to be seen. And Kathds., lvi, 12 jf. (Ocean, Vol. IV, p. 221), 
the Brahman Chandrasvamin, impoverished by famine, 
undertakes to bring his two children to his father-in-law's 
house. They reach a wilderness, where he leaves the two 
children, exhausted by thirst, to look for water. He is cap- 
tured by the Bhilla chief Simhadamshtra to be sacrificed to 
Durga. But by the favour of the sun-god all turns out well. 
These two passages show how incidental, yet how effective 
at the bottom, is the motif, but it has not as yet been recog- 
nised as such by the fictionists. Yet the motif is perfectly 
standard ; it occurs twice more in the Kathd-sarit-sdgara, 
liv, 9 (Ocean, Vol. IV, p. 187), and Hi, 196 (Ocean, Vol. IV, 
p. 152). These two Kathd-sarit-sdgara occurrences are so 
mechanical as to entitle one to say that whenever Somadeva 
wishes to separate two people or parties, all he has to do is 
to make one of them go in search for water. The motif is 


everywhere in fiction : see, e.g., Devendra's stories, J. J. Meyer, 
Hindu Tales, pp. 24, 33, 42, 68 ; Jtilg, Mongolische Mdrchen, 
p. 165 ; Jiilg, Kalmukische Mdrchen, p. 32 ; Kathdkoga, in 
Tawney's translation, pp. 99 jf., 141, 206 ; Samarddityasam- 
kshepa, v, 283 ff. ; Charpentier, Paccekabuddhageschichten, 
p. 126 ; Hertel, Indische Mdrchen, p. 91 ; Lescallier, Le 
Trone Enchante, i, 71, bottom; Parker, Village Folk-Tales 
of Ceylon, i, 81, 96; Frere, Old Deccan Days, pp. 18, 59, 198. 
See also Hertel, Das Pancatantra, p. 109, note 4. Note 
especially Hemavijaya's Kathdratndkara, story 21 (Hertel's 
translation, i, 58jf.), in which this haphazard motif, that 
ordinarily glides into the story almost unperceived, is made the 
pivot of a rather exquisite anecdote belonging to the riddle 
sphere. The four brothers of Yudhishthira go successively 
in search for water, are asked riddles which they are unable 
to answer, and therefore sink to the ground in a faint. Yudhi- 
shthira follows, is also asked a profound cosmic riddle, which 
he answers correctly, and the four brothers are restored to 

Deserted City 

Scarcely less significant for the technique of story -telling, 
though not as frequent, is the city which has become deserted, 
because its inhabitants have been devoured by some demon. 
I have noted only two occurrences of this motif one in 
Kathd-sarit-sdgara, x, 71 (Ocean, Vol. I, p. Ill) : Sridatta and 
his friend Nishthuraka meet on the road a weeping woman 
who professes to have lost her way while travelling to Ujjayini. 
Sridatta invites her to join them, and they halt by day in a 
certain deserted town. Sridatta wakes up in the night and 
sees that the woman has slain Nishthuraka, and is devouring 
his flesh. Sridatta seizes her by the hair. The woman turns 
out to be, not an original RakshasI, but a heavenly nymph 
under a curse, because she had been induced by Kubera 
to interfere with Visvamitra's austerities. Visvamitra had 
cursed her into a RakshasI : it is she who has eaten all 
the inhabitants of the deserted city. The curse ends when 
Sridatta takes hold of her. 


In Pdrsvandtha Charitra, ii, 315 ff., Prince Bhima 
(Bhimasena) and his friend Matisagara come to a deserted city, 
where they see a lion with a man in his paws, about to devour 
him. The city is Hemapura; its king was Hemaratha, who 
had a Purohrita, Chanda (" Cruel "), hated of all men. The 
king also was cruel by nature. An enemy of Chanda spread 
the report that he was intimate with a low-born woman 
(mdtangi). 1 The king consulted an oracle, and, though he 
did not determine the truth, had Chanda wrapped in hemp 
and boiled in oil. Chanda had no chance, before he died, to 
wear away his sins, therefore was reborn as a Rakshasa, 
named Sarvagila (" All-Devourer "). Remembering the hos- 
tilities of his former birth, he came to that city, hid away 
its people, and, having assumed the shape of a lion, carried 
off King Hemaratha. Bhima rescues Hemaratha.; the lion 
is appeased and brings back the people of Hemapura. 

I should like especially to draw the attention of the reader 
to the mechanical and paradoxical way in which this funda- 
mentally tragic motif is blended with a satirical use of the 
" Laugh and Cry * motif in Swynnerton's Romantic Tales from 
the Panjab (p. 87), as quoted by Mr Penzer on p. 261 of the 
present volume. 2 

The motif figures also in Kathds., xliii (Ocean, Vol. Ill, 
p. 281 ; cf. pp. 58, 59), where a deserted city is peopled by 
automata ; and also in Pdrsvandtha Charitra, vi, 314 ; 
Tawney's Kathdkoga, p. 129; in the story of Bambhadatta 
(Jacobi, Ausgewdhlte Erzdhlungen, p. 7, 1. 28 ; J. J. Meyer, 
Hindu Tales, p. 26) ; Panchadandachhatlraprabandha, ii, p. 27 ; 
Divydvaddna, pp. 9, 19 ; Hertel, Indische Mdrchen, pp. 142, 
187 ; Geschichte von Pdla und Gopdla, p. 70 ; Panchdhhydnod- 
dhdra, in the story of Ratnapala; Hertel, Das Pancatantra, 
p. 109, note 4 ; Jiilg, Mongolische Mdrchen, p. 26. 

1 This also is a fairly standard, yet unlisted motif of fiction ; see my 
Life of Pargvanatha, p. 195. 

2 [I should here point out that Professor Bloomfield's reference is to 
Swynnerton's Romantic Tales from the Panjab, with Indian Nights' Entertainment, 
Ldn., 1908 ; while my reference on p. 26 1 is from his previous work, Romantic 
Tales from the Panjab, Ldn., 1903. n.m.p.] 



Concluding Remarks 

The preceding remarks are not intended as a systematic 
statement of a plan for such an Encyclopaedia as I have in 
mind. They are intended rather to establish the conviction 
in the mind of the reader that an Encyclopedia of Fiction, 
whatever form and scope it may ultimately assume, is plainly 
a sine qua non of fruitful we might say final Fiction study. 
I am very grateful to Mr Penzer for giving these ideas a 
permanent habitat in his great work, and by the side of 
the many elaborate notes and comments with which he has 
very wisely enriched it. The time will come when concerted 
academic action will produce a work hardly less exigent 
than Dr Hastings' Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics : it 
will be in the main the work of a future generation, but the 
present generation need not hesitate to prepare its way by 
suggestion and illustrative example. 

Maurice Bloomfield. 

Johns Hopkins University, 
October 1926. 





Encyclopaedia of Hindu Fiction 

By Professor Bloom field 

"The Character and Adventures of Muladeva": Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society, Hi, 616-650. 

" On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction " : Festschrift fur Ernst Windisck, 349-361. 

" On Recurring Psychic Motifs, and The Laugh and Cry Motif" : Journal of 

the American Oriental Society, xxxvi, 54-89. 
1* On the Art of Entering Another's Body ; a Hindu Fiction Motif" : Proceedings 

of the American Philosophical Society, lvi, 1-43. 

"The Fable of the Crow and the Palm-Tree; a Psychic Motif in Hindu 
Fiction" : American Journal of Philology, xl, 1-36. 

"The Dohada, or Craving of Pregnant Women; a Motif of Hindu Fiction" : 
Journal of the American Oriental Society, xl, 1-24. 

"On the Practice of giving Animals Intoxicating Drink" : ibid., 336-339- 

u On Overhearing as a Motif of Hindu Fiction " : American Journal of Philology, 
xli, 309-335. 

" Joseph and Potiphar in Hindu Fiction " : Transactions of the American 
Philological Association, liv, 141-176. 

" The Art of Stealing in Hindu Fiction " : American Journal of Philology, xliv, 
97-133, 193-229. 

" On False Ascetics and Nuns in Hindu Fiction " : Journal of the American 
Oriental Society, xliv, 202-242. 

" On Organized Brigandage in Hindu Fiction " : American Journal of Philology, 
xlvii, 205-233. 

By Dr E. W. Burlingame 

"The Act of Truth (Saccakiriya) ; a Hindu Spell and its Employment as a 
Psychic Motif in Hindu Fiction " : Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
July 1917, pp. 429-467. 



By Dr W. N. Brown 

"The Wandering Skull " : American Journal of Philology, xl, 423-430. 

" Escaping One's Fate ; a Hindu Paradox and its Use as a Psychic Motif in 
Hindu Fiction " : Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomjield, 89-104. 

" Vyaghramarl, or the Lady Tiger-Killer; a Study of the Motif of Bluff in 
Hindu Fiction " : American Journal of Philology, xlii, 122- J 51. 

"The Silence Wager" : ibid., xliii, 289-317. 

"The Tar-Baby at Home" : Scientific Monthly, xv, 228-234. 

By Dr Ruth Norton 

The Life-Index; a Hindu Fiction Motif": Studies in Honor of Maurice 
Bloomfield, 211-224. 


Author's Preface .... 



I63g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .1 

163g (9). Anangarati and her Four 

Suitors . . .1 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .4 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant ... .5 

163g (10). Madanasena and her Rash 

Promise . . 5 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 9 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .10 

163g (11). King Dharmadhvaja and 
his Three Very Sensitive 
Wives . . .10 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .12 





163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .13 
163g (12). King Yasahketu, his Vid- 
yadhari Wife and his 
Faithful Minister . 13 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .25 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .29 
163g (13). The Brahman Harisvamin, 
who first lost his Wife, 
and then his Life . 29 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .33 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .35 
163g (14). The Merchant's Daughter 
who fell in love with a 
Thief . . .35 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .39 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .40 
163g (15). The Magic Pill . . 40 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . .48 




163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .49 
163g (16). The Sacrifice of Jimuta- 

vahana . . .49 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .63 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .66 

163g (17). The Beautiful Unmadini . 66 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .69 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .71 

163g (18). The Brahman's Son who 
failed to acquire the 
Magic Power . . 71 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .77 


163G. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . 

163G (19). The Thief's Son . 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . 

vol. vn. 






163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .87 
163g (20). The Brahman Boy who 
offered himself up to 
save the Life of the King 87 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .96 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .98 
163g (21). Anangamanjari, her Hus- 
band Manivarman and 
the Brahman Kamala- 
kara . . .98 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 104 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .108 
163g (22). The Four Brahman Brothers 
who resuscitated the 
Lion . . . 108 
163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... Ill 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 112 
163g (23). The Hermit who first Wept 

and then Danced , 112 


CHAPTER XCVII continued 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 115 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant .... 116 

163g (24). The Father that married 
the Daughter and the Son 
that married the Mother 117 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendi- 
cant . . . .120 


163g (25). Conclusion of King Trivi- 
kramasena and the 
Mendicant . . 122 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . . 125 


Invocation . . . . . .128 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .128 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 134 

163h. Sundarasena and Mandaravati . 137 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . ... . 161 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta . . . .162 




163. Story of Mrigankadatta .... 175 
M(ain story) ...... 192 


The Twenty-five Tales of a Vetala (cont.) . . 199 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . 271 

Index II General . . . . .283 


/ % one Appendix to the present volume. 
m It consists of notes on the remaining seventeen 
(really sixteen 1 ) vampire stories. 

The collection, as given by Somadeva, is obviously in 
the form in which he found it, and it has been presented in 
its entirety, despite the fact that several of the tales had 
already appeared ; and others we shall meet again later. 

So far from being superfluous, I consider this repetition is 
both interesting and valuable. It shows what was probably 
the form of the story in the original Brihat-kathd, and the 
form it had after it had found its way into other collections. 

The Foreword to the present volume is of the greatest 
importance, as it represents a definite step in the study of 
Fiction motifs. 

Although the tabulating and explaining of " incidents " 
in folk-tales was begun in 1884 by Sir Richard Temple in 
Wide-Awake Stories, folklorists seem to have made but little 
headway. Professor Bloomfield, whose work I have quoted 
so often, now takes up the cudgels himself, and has honoured 
my work by a most original and suggestive Foreword. 

Dr Barnett and Mr Fenton still gallantly sail with me on 
the Ocean, though at times I fear I have taken them on a 
long voyage ; but the terrors of the deep seem to leave them 
unmoved ! 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 
December 1926. 

By mistake I said "sixteen (really fifteen) " in the Preface to Volume VI. 





163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

SO King Trivikramasena again went to the simsapd tree, 
and taking the Vetala down from it, placed him on his 
shoulder, and set out. Then the Vetala said to him : 
' King, this wandering about in a cemetery at night is in- 
consistent with your kingly rank. Do you not see that this 
place of the dead * is full of Bhutas, 2 and terrible at night, 
and full of darkness as of the smoke of funeral pyres? 
Alas, what tenacity you display in this undertaking you 
have engaged in, to please that mendicant! So listen to 
this question from me, which will render your journey more 

163g (9). Anangarati and her Four Suitors 3 

There is in Avanti a city built by gods at the beginning 
of the world, which is limitless as the body of Siva, and re- 
nowned for enjoyment and prosperity, even as his body is 
adorned with the snake's hood and ashes. 4 It was called 
Padmavati in the Krita Yuga, Bhogavati in the Treta Yuga, 
Hiranyavati in the Dvapara Yuga, and Ujjayini in the Kali 
Yuga. 5 And in it there lived an excellent king, named 
Viradeva, and he had a queen named Padmarati. The king 

1 Literally, "grove of ancestors" i.e. cemetery. The German 

"Ahnenhain." See Vol. VI, p. 254. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 206 ; Vol. VI, p. 1 29 ; and Crooke, Religion and Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, new edition, 1926, p. 190 et seq. n.m.p. 

3 See Appendix, p. 199. n.m.p. 

4 Here we have one of the puns in which our author delights. 

5 For a note on the four Yugas, or Ages of the World, see Vol. IV,, 

p. 240/1 1 . N.M.P. 

VOL. VII. 1 A 


went with her to the bank of the Mandakini, 1 and propitiated 
Siva with austerities, in order to obtain a son. And after 
he had remained a long time engaged in austerities, he per- 
formed the ceremonies of bathing and praying, and then 
he heard this voice from heaven, uttered by Siva, who was 
pleased with him : " King, there shall be born to thee a 
brave son to be the head of thy family, and a daughter, who 
with her matchless beauty shall put to shame the nymphs 
of heaven." When King Viradeva had heard this voice from 
heaven, he returned to his city with his consort, having 
gained all he desired. 

There he first had a son born to him, named Suradeva, 
and after a time Queen Padmarati gave birth to a daughter. 
And her father gave her the name of Anangarati, on the 
ground that she was beautiful enough to inspire love in 
the breast of Kama. And when she grew up, in his desire 
to procure for her a suitable husband, he had brought the 
portraits of all the kings of the earth, painted on canvas. 
And as no one of them seemed a match for her, he said to 

1 This river joins the Alaknanda at Rudraprayag, and rises at Kedarnath, 
the famous temple in the Garhwal District of the United Provinces of Agra 
and Oudh (see Vol. VI, p. 88). It should not be confused with a river of 
the same name mentioned by Kalidasa in the Malavikagnimitra (see Tawney's 
translation, p. 7w 2 , where he points out that the Narmada is probably meant 

The twin peaks of Kedarnath and Badarinath (see Ocean, Vol. IV, p. 159W 1 ) 
rise at a distance of ten miles apart, and between these lies the temple, which 
ranks as one of the twelve famous linga shrines in India. Although it was 
an important religious centre in Buddhist times, it was not until the arrival 
of the Saiva reformer, Sankaracharya, about the beginning of the eighth 
century, that it attained its greatest sanctity as a place of holy pilgrimage. 
Situated at a height of over 11,000 feet, among roses and syringa bushes on 
the eternal snow, it is said to have a strange effect on pilgrims. 

Crooke tells us (Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth.,vo\. vii,p. 680) that the sanctity 
of the place has been explained by the fact that pilgrims become overpowered 
by the strong scent of the flowers. "This," he continues, "combined with 
the rarity of the air, produces a sense of faintness, which is naturally attributed 
to spirit agency, while the strange sounds produced by falling avalanches and 
rendings of the ice and snow doubtless contribute to the same belief." For 
further details concerning Kedarnath and other sacred places in the neigh- 
bourhood, see Crooke (op. cit. sup.) and the numerous references there given 



his daughter, in his tenderness for her : "I cannot find a 
suitable match for you, my daughter, so summon all the 
kings of the earth, and select your own husband." When 
te princess heard that, she said to her father : " My father, 
I am too modest to select my own husband, but I must be 
given in marriage to a good-looking young man, who is a 
perfect master of one art ; I do not want any other better 

When the king heard this speech of his daughter Anan- 
garati, he proceeded to search for a young man such as she 
had described, and while he was thus engaged, there came 
to him from the Deccan four magnificent men, brave and 
skilful, who had heard from the people what was going on. 
Those four suitors for the hand of the princess were received 
with respect by the king, and one after another they told to 
him in her presence their respective acquirements. 

The first said : " I am a Sudra, Panchaphuttika by name. 
I make every day five splendid pairs of garments : the first 
of them I give to my god, and the second to a Brahman, the 
third I retain for my own wearing, 1 the fourth I should give 
to my wife, if this maid here were to become my wife, the 
fifth I sell, and procure myself meat and drink. As I possess 
this art, let Anangarati be given to me." 

When he had said this, the second man said : "I am a 
Vaisya, Bhashajna by name. I know the speech of all beasts 
and birds, 2 so let the princess be given to me." 

When the second had said this, the third said : "I am a 
Kshatriya king, by name Khadgadhara, renowned for might 
of arm : my equal in the art of swordmanship does not exist 
upon the earth, so bestow this maiden on me, O King." 

When the third had said this, the fourth said : "I am 

1 More literally, "for my own two garments." A Hindu wears two 
pieces of cloth. 

2 See Vol. IV, p. 145W 1 ; Herrtage's edition of the English Gesta Roman- 
orum, p. 55; the Greek fable of Teiresias, Waldau, B'dhmische Marchen, p. 1 
[see Frazer, Apollodorus, The Library, vol. i, p. 363] ; and Hagen's Helden- 
Sagen, vol. ii, p. 24. We are told that Melampus buried the parents of a 
brood of snakes, and they rewarded him by licking his ears so that he 
understood the language of birds (Preller, Griechiscke Mythologie, vol. ii, 
p. 474). 


a Brahman, named Jivadatta, and I possess the following 
art : I can restore to life dead creatures, and exhibit them 
alive * ; so let this maiden obtain for a husband me, who am 
renowned for daring exploits." 

When they had thus spoken, the King Viradeva, with his 
daughter by his side, seeing that they were like gods in shape 
and dress, remained lost in doubt. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story, he said to King 
Trivikramasena, menacing him with the before -mentioned 
curse : "So tell me, King, to which of these four ought 
the maiden Anangarati to be given ? " 

When the king heard this, he gave the Vetala the following 
answer : " You are thus repeatedly making me break silence 
simply in order to waste time ; otherwise, master of magic, 
how r could you possibly ask such an absurd question ? How 
can a woman of Kshatriya caste be given to a Sudra weaver ? 
Moreover, how can a Kshatriya woman be given to a Vaisya ? 
And as to the power of understanding the language of beasts 
and birds, which he possesses, what is the practical use of it ? 
And as for the fourth, the Brahman, who fancies himself such 
a hero, of what worth is he, as he is a sorcerer, and degraded 
by abandoning the duties of his caste ? Accordingly the 
maiden should be given to the third suitor, the Kshatriya 
Khadgadhara, who is of the same caste, and distinguished 
for his skill and valour." 

When the Vetala heard this, he left the king's shoulder, 
as before, and quickly returned by the power of his magic to 
his own place ; and the king again pursued him, as before, 
to recover him, for despondency never penetrates into a 
hero's heart, that is cased in armour of fortitude. 

1 See Vol. VI, p. 1 8w 1 . n.m.p. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN Trivikramasena went and took the Vetala 
from the simsapd tree, and put him on his shoulder 
once more, and set out ; and as he was going along, 
the Vetala said from the top of his shoulder: "You are 
weary, King, so listen to this tale that is capable of dispelling 

163g (10). Madanasena and her Bash Promise 1 

There was an excellent king of the name of Virabahu, 
who imposed his orders on the heads of all kings. He had a 
splendid city named Anangapura, and in it there lived a rich 
merchant named Arthadatta ; that merchant -prince had for 
elder child a son named Dhanadatta, and his younger child 
was a pearl of maidens, named Madanasena. 

One day, as she was playing with her companions in 
her own garden, a young merchant, named Dharmadatta, a 
friend of her brother's, saw her. When he saw that maiden, 
who with the full streams of her beauty, her breasts like 
pitchers half-revealed, and three wrinkles like waves, re- 
sembled a lake for the elephant of youth to plunge in in 
sport, he was at once robbed of his senses by the arrows of 
love, that fell upon him in showers. He thought to himself : 
" Alas, this maiden, illuminated with this excessive beauty, 
has been framed by Mara, 2 as a keen arrow to cleave asunder 
my heart." While engaged in such reflections, he watched 
her long ; the day passed away for him as if he were a chakra- 
vdka. 3 Then Madanasena entered her house, and grief at 

1 See Appendix, pp. 199-204. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. VI, p. I87n\ n.m.p. 

3 See Vol. VI, p. 7lw 3 . For a note on the name "Brahmani" see Crooke, 
Ind. Ant., vol. x, 1881, p. 293, and also his new edition of Religion and Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, p. 374. N.M.P. 



no longer beholding her entered the breast of Dharmadatta. 
And the sun sank red into the western main, as if inflamed 
with the fire of grief at seeing her no more. And the moon, 
that was surpassed by the lotus of her countenance, knowing 
that that fair-faced one had gone in for the night, slowly 
mounted upward. 

In the meanwhile Dharmadatta went home, and thinking 
upon that fair one, he remained tossing to and fro on his 
bed, smitten by the rays of the moon. 1 And though his 
friends and relations eagerly questioned him, he gave them 
no answer, being bewildered by the demon of love. And in 
the course of the night he at length fell asleep, though with 
difficulty, and still he seemed to behold and court that loved 
one in a dream ; to such lengths did his longing carry him. 
And in the morning he woke up, and went and saw her once 
more in that very garden, alone and in privacy, waiting for 
her attendant. So he went up to her, longing to embrace 
her, and falling at her feet he tried to coax her with words 
tender from affection. But she said to him with great earnest- 
ness : "I am a maiden betrothed to another. I cannot now 
be yours, for my father has bestowed me on the merchant 
Samudradatta, and I am to be married in a few days. So 
depart quietly : let not anyone see you ; it might cause 
mischief." But Dharmadatta said to her : " Happen what 
may, I cannot live without you ! " 

When the merchant's daughter heard this, she was afraid 
that he would use force to her, so she said to him : " Let my 
marriage first be celebrated here, let my father reap the long- 
desired fruit of bestowing a daughter in marriage ; then I will 
certainly visit you, for your love has gained my heart." 

When he heard this, he said : "I love not a woman who 
has been embraced by another man : does the bee delight 
in a lotus on which another bee has settled ? " When he 
said this to her, she replied : " Then I will visit you as 
soon as I am married, and afterwards I will go to my 
husband." But though she made this promise, he would 
not let her go without further assurance, so the merchant's 
daughter confirmed the truth of her promise with an oath. 

1 See Vol. VI, pp. lOOn 1 , 101n. n.m.p. 


Then he let her go, and she entered her house in low 

And when the lucky day had arrived, and the auspicious 
ceremony of marriage had taken place, she went to her 
husband's house and spent that day in merriment, and then 
retired with him. But she repelled her husband's caresses 
with indifference, and when he began to coax her she burst 
into tears. He thought to himself, " Of a truth she cares not 
for me," and said to her, " Fair one, if you do not love me, 
I do not want you ; go to your darling, whoever he may 
be." When she heard this, she said slowly, with downcast 
face : I love you more than my life, but hear what I have 
to say. Rise up cheerfully, and promise me immunity from 
punishment ; take an oath to that effect, my husband, in 
order that I may tell you." 

When she said this, her husband reluctantly consented, 
and then she went on to say with shame, despondency and 
fear : " A young man of the name of Dharmadatta, a friend 
of my brother's, saw me once alone in our garden, and smitten 
with love, he detained me ; and when he was preparing to 
use force, I, being anxious to secure for my father the merit 
giving of a daughter in marriage, and to avoid all scandal, 
made this agreement with him : ' When I am married, I will 
pay you a visit before I go to my husband ' ; so I must now 
keep my word. Permit me, my husband. I will pay him a 
visit first, and then return to you, for I cannot transgress the 
law of truth which I have observed from my childhood." 

When Samudradatta had been thus suddenly smitten by 
this speech of hers, as by a down-lighting thunderbolt, being 
bound by the necessity of keeping his word, he reflected for 
a moment as follows : " Alas ! she is in love with another 
man ; she must certainly go ! Why should I make her break 
her word ? Let her depart ! Why should I be so eager to 
have her for a wife ? " After he had gone through this train 
of thought, he gave her leave to go where she would ; and 
she rose up and left her husband's house. 

In the meanwhile the cold-rayed moon ascended the great 
eastern mountain, as it were the roof of a palace, and the 
nymph of the eastern quarter smiled, touched by his finger. 


Then, though the darkness was still embracing his beloved 
herbs in the mountain caves, and the bees were settling on 
another cluster of kumudas, a certain thief saw Madanasena 
as she was going along alone at night, and rushing upon 
her, seized her by the hem of her garment. He said to her : 
" Who are you, and where are you going ? " When he said 
this, she, being afraid, said : " What does that matter to you ? 
Let me go ! I have business here." Then the thief said : 
" How can I, who am a thief, let you go ? " Hearing that, 
she replied : " Take my ornaments." The thief answered 
her : " What do I care for these gems, fair one ? I will not 
surrender you, the ornament of the world, with your face 
like the moonstone, your hair black like jet, your waist like 
a diamond, 1 your limbs like gold, fascinating beholders with 
your ruby-coloured feet." 

When the thief said this, the helpless merchant's daughter 
told him her story, and entreated him as follows : " Excuse 
me for a moment, that I may keep my word, and as soon as I 
have done that, I will quickly return to you, if you remain 
here. Believe me, my good man, I will never break this 
true promise of mine." When the thief heard that, he let 
her go, believing that she was a woman who would keep her 
word, and he remained in that very spot, waiting for her 

She, for her part, went to that merchant Dharmadatta. 
And when he saw that she had come to that wood, he asked 
her how it happened, and then, though he had longed for her, 
he said to her, after reflecting a moment : " I am delighted at 
your faithfulness to your promise ; what have I to do with 
you, the wife of another ? So go back, as you came, before 
anyone sees you." When he thus let her go, she said, " So 
be it," and leaving that place, she went to the thief, who was 
waiting for her in the road. He said to her : " Tell me what 
befell you when you arrived at the trysting-place." So she 
told him how the merchant let her go. Then the thief said : 
" Since this is so, then I also will let you go, being pleased 
with your truthfulness : return home with your ornaments ! ,; 

So he too let her go, and went with her to guard her. 

1 The word vajra also means thunderbolt. 


And she returned to the house of her husband, delighted at 
having preserved her honour. There the chaste woman entered 
secretly, and went delighted to her husband. And he, when 
he saw her, questioned her ; so she told him the whole story. 
And Samudradatta, perceiving that his good wife had kept 
her word without losing her honour, assumed a bright and 
cheerful expression, and welcomed her as a pure-minded 
woman, who had not disgraced her family, and lived happily 
with her ever afterwards. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story in the cemetery to 
King Trivikramasena, he went on to say to him : "So tell 
me, King, which was the really generous man of those three, 
:he two merchants and the thief? And if you know and 
do not tell, your head shall split into a hundred pieces." 

When the Vetala said this, the king broke silence, and 
said to him : "Of those three the thief was the only really 
generous man, and not either of the two merchants. For 
of course her husband let her go, though she was so lovely 
and he had married her : how could a gentleman desire to 
keep a wife that was attached to another ? And the other 
resigned her because his passion was dulled by time, and he 
was afraid that her husband, knowing the facts, would tell 
the king the next day. But the thief, a reckless evildoer, 
working in the dark, was really generous, to let go a lovely 
woman, ornaments and all." 

When the Vetala heard that, he left the shoulder of the 
king and returned to his own place, as before ; and the king, 
with his great perseverance no whit dashed, again set out, as 
before, to bring him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went and took 
that Vetala from the simsapa tree and put him on 
his shoulder, and set out with him ; and as he was 
going along, the Vetala on his shoulder said to him : " Listen, 
King, I will tell you an interesting story. 

163g (11). King Dharmadhvaja and his Three Very 
Sensitive Wives ^ 

There lived of old in Ujjayini a king of the name of 
Dharmadhvaja ; he had three wives, who were all daughters 
of kings, and whom he held very dear. The first of them 
was called Indulekha, the second Taravali, and the third 
Mrigankavati ; and they were all possessed of extraordinary 
personal charms. And the successful king, who had con- 
quered all his enemies, lived happily, amusing himself with 
all those three queens. 

Once on a time, when the festival of the spring season 
had arrived, he went with all those three wives to the garden 
to amuse himself. There he beheld the creepers weighed 
down with flowers, looking like Kama's bows, with rows of 
bees for strings, strung for him by the spring. And the king, 
who resembled the mighty Indra, hearing the notes which 
the cuckoos uttered on the sprays of the garden trees, like the 
edict of Love, the god of enjoyment, betook himself with 
his wives to wine, which is the very life of that intoxication 
by which Kama lives. And he joyed in drinking the liquor 
first tasted by them, perfumed with their sighs, red as their 
bimba lips. 2 

1 See Appendix, pp. 204-211. n.m.p. 

2 See Ocean, Vol. I, p. 31n 2 ; also Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, 
vol. ii, p. 68. n.m.p. 



Then, as Indulekha was playfully pulling the hair of 
the king, a blue lotus leaped from her ear and fell on her 
lap. Immediately a wound was produced on the front of 
her thigh by the blow, and the delicate princess exclaimed, 
Oh ! Oh ! " and fainted. When the king and the attend- 
ants saw that, they were distracted with grief, but they 
gradually brought her round with cold water and fanning. 
Then the king took her to the palace and had a bandage 
applied to the wound, and treated her with preparations 
made by the physicians. 

And at night, seeing that she was going on well, the king 
etired with the second, Taravali, to an apartment on the 
oof of the palace exposed to the rays of the moon. There 
the rays of the moon, entering through the lattice, fell on the 
>ody of the queen, who was sleeping by the king's side, where 
it was exposed by her garment blowing aside. Immediately 
she woke up, exclaiming, "Alas, I am burned ! " and rose up 
from the bed rubbing her limbs. The king woke up in a 
state of alarm, crying out : " What is the meaning of this ? " 
ten he got up and saw that blisters had been produced 
on the queen's body. And the Queen Taravali said to him 
when he questioned her : " The moon's rays falling on my 
exposed body have done this to me." When she said this, 
and burst into tears, the king, being distressed, summoned 
her attendants, who ran there in trepidation and alarm. And 
he had made for her a bed of lotus leaves, sprinkled with 
water, and sandalwood lotion applied to her body. 

In the meanwhile his third wife Mrigankavati heard of it, 
and left her palace to come to him. And when she had got 
into the open air, she heard distinctly, as the night was still, 
the sound of a pestle pounding rice in a distant house. The 
moment the gazelle-eyed one heard it she said, " Alas, I am 
killed ! " and she sat down on the path, shaking her hands 
in an agony of pain. Then the girl turned back, and was 
conducted by her attendants to her own chamber, where she 
fell on the bed, and groaned. And when her weeping attend- 
ants examined her, they saw that her hands were covered 
with bruises, and looked like lotuses upon which black bees 
had settled. So they went and told the king. The King 


Dharmadhvaja arrived in a state of consternation, and 
asked his beloved what it all meant. Then the tortured 
queen showed him her hands, and said to him: "As soon 
as I heard the sound of the pestle, these became covered 
with bruises." Then the king, filled with surprise and de- 
spondency, had sandalwood 1 unguent and other remedies 
applied to her hands, in order to allay the pain. 

He reflected : " One of my queens has been wounded by 
the fall of a lotus, the second has had her body burned even 
by the rays of the moon, and alas ! the third has got such 
terrible bruises produced on her hands by the mere sound of 
a pestle. By a dispensation of fate the excessive delicacy, 
which is the distinguishing excellence of my queens, has now 
become in them all, at one and the same time, a defect." 
Engaged in such reflections the king wandered round the 
women's apartments, and the night of three watches passed 
for him as tediously as if it had consisted of a hundred 
watches. But the next morning the physicians and surgeons 
took measures which caused him soon to be comforted by the 
recovery of his wives. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this very wonderful story, he 
put this question to King Trivikramasena from his seat on 
his shoulder : " Tell me, King, which was the most delicate 
of those queens ; and the curse I before mentioned will take 
effect if you know and do not say." 

When the king heard that, he answered : " The most 
delicate of all was the lady upon whose hands bruises were 
produced by merely hearing the sound of the pestle, without 
touching it. But the other two were no match for her, 
because the wound of the one and the blisters of the other 
were produced by contact with the lotus and the rays of the 
moon respectively." 

When the king had said this, the Vetala again left his 
shoulder and returned to his own place, and the persevering 
king again set out to fetch him. 

1 See note on pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went to the 
simsapd tree, and recovered the Vetala, and placed 
him on his shoulder, and set out with him again 
silently, as before. Then the Vetala again said to him from 
his seat on his shoulder : " King, I love you much because you 
are so indomitable ; so listen, I will tell you this delightful 
story to amuse you. 

163g (12). King Yasahketu, his Vidyadhari Wife and his 
Faithful Minister- l 

In the land of Anga 2 there was a young king named 
asahketu, like a second and unburnt God of Love come to 
earth to conceal his body. 3 He conquered by his great valour 
all his enemies ; and as Indra has Brihaspati for a minister, 
he had Dirghadarsin. Now, in course of time, this king, 
infatuated with his youth and beauty, entrusted to that 
minister his realm, from which all enemies had been eradi- 
cated, and became devoted to pleasure only. He remained 
continually in the harem 4 instead of the judgment-hall ; he 
listened to delightful songs in the women's apartments 
instead of hearkening to the voice of his well-wishers ; in his 
thoughtlessness he was devoted to latticed windows and not 
to the affairs of his kingdom, though the latter also were full 
of holes. 

But the great minister Dirghadarsin continued unweariedly 

1 See Appendix, pp. 211-212. n.m.p. 

2 The country around Bhagalpur. Its capital was Champapuri. Its 
western boundary was the juncture of the Ganges and the Sarayu. n.m.p. 

3 Or, "to protect the realm of Anga"; a shameless pun! The God of 
Love was consumed by the fire of Siva's eye. 

4 See Vol. II of the Ocean, pp. l6lw 4 , l62n, l63n. n.m.p. 


upholding the burden of his kingdom's cares, day and night. 
And a general rumour spread to the following effect : 
" Dirghadarsin has plunged in dissipation the sovereign, who 
is satisfied with the mere name of king, and so he manages 
now to enjoy himself all his master's power." Then the 
minister Dirghadarsin said of himself to his wife MedhavatI : 
" My dear, as the king is addicted to pleasure, and I do his 
work, a calumny has been circulated among the people 
against me, to the effect that I have devoured the realm. 
And a general rumour, though false, injures even great men 
in this world : was not Rama compelled by a slanderous 
report to abandon his wife Slta ? So what course must I 
adopt in this emergency ? " When the minister said this, 
his firm-souled wife MedhavatI, 1 who was rightly named, 
said to him : " Take leave of the king on the pretext of a 
pilgrimage to holy bathing-places ; it is expedient, great- 
minded sir, that you should go to a foreign land for a 
certain time. So you will be seen to be free from ambition, 
and the calumny against you will die out. And while you 
are absent the king will bear the burden of the kingdom 
himself, and then this vicious tendency of his will gradually 
diminish, and when you return you will be able to discharge 
your office of minister without blame." 

When Dlrghadarsin's wife said this to him, he said, " I 
will do so " ; and he went and said to King Yasahketu in the 
course of conversation : " Give me leave to depart, King, I 
am going on a pilgrimage for some days, for my heart is set 
on that religious duty." When the king heard that, he said : 
" Do not do so ! Cannot you, without going on pilgrimages, 
perform in your house noble religious duties, such as charity 
and so on, which will procure you heaven ? " When the 
minister heard this, he said : " King, that purity which 
comes of wealth is sought by charity and so on, but holy 
bathing-places have an everlasting purity. And a wise man 
must visit them while he is young, for otherwise how can 
he be sure of reaching them, as this body cannot be relied 
on ? " While he was saying this, and the king was still 
trying to dissuade him, a warder entered, and said to the 

1 I.e. wise. 


King, the sun is plunging into the middle of the lake 
heaven, so rise up, this is the hour appointed for you to 
bathe in, and it is rapidly passing away." When the king 
heard this, he immediately rose up to bathe, and the minister, 
whose heart was set on pilgrimage, bowed before him, and 
went home to his own house. 

There he left his wife, whom he forbade to follow him, 
and managed cunningly to set out in secret, without even 
his servants suspecting his departure. And alone he wan- 
dered from country to country with resolute perseverance, 
and visited holy bathing-places, and at last he reached the 
land of Paundra. 1 In a certain city in that country not 
far from the sea he entered a temple of Siva, and sat 
down in a courtyard attached to it. There a merchant named 
Nidhidatta, who had come to worship the god, saw him ex- 
hausted with the heat of the sun's rays, dusty with his long 
journey. The merchant, being a hospitable man, seeing that 
the traveller, who was in such a state, wore a Brahmanical 
thread, 2 and had auspicious marks, concluded that he was 
a distinguished Brahman, and took him home to his own 
house. There he honoured him with a bath, food and other 
refreshments in the most luxurious style, and when his 
fatigue was removed, he said to him : " Who are you, whence 
do you come, and where are you going ? " And the Brahman 
gave him this reserved answer : "I am a Brahman of the 
name of Dirghadarsin ; I have come here on pilgrimage from 
the land of Anga." Then the merchant -prince Nidhidatta 
said to him : "I am about to go on a trading expedition to 
the Island of Gold, 3 so you must live in my house until I 
return ; and then you will have recovered from the fatigue 
which you have incurred by roaming to holy places, and you 
can go home." When Dirghadarsin heard that, he said : 
' Why should I remain here ? I will go with you, great 
merchant, if you like." The good man said, "So be it," 

1 This corresponds to Bengal Bihar, the country of the sugar-cane. 


2 See note at the end of chapter. n.m.p. 

3 I.e. Suvarnadvipa, probably Sumatra. Suvarnabhumi, mentioned in 
Kautilya's Arthasastra, is usually identified with Lower Burma. n.m.p 


and then the minister, who had long discarded the use of 
beds, 1 spent that night in his house. 

The next day he went with that merchant to the sea, 
and embarked on a ship laden with his merchandise. He 
travelled along in that ship, and beheld the awful and 
wonderful ocean, and in course of time reached the Isle of 
Gold. What had a man holding the office of prime minister 
to do with sea- voyages ? But what will not men of honour do 
to prevent their fame from being sullied ? So he remained 
some time in that island with that merchant Nidhidatta, who 
was engaged in buying and selling. 

And as he was returning with him on the ship, he sud- 
denly saw a wave rise up, and then a wishing-tree 2 arise 
out of the sea; it was adorned with boughs glittering with 
gold, which were embellished with sprays of coral, and bore 
lovely fruits and flowers of jewels. And he beheld on its 
trunk a maiden, alluring on account of her wonderful beauty, 
reclining on a gem-bestudded couch. He reflected for a 
moment : " Aha ! What can this be ? " And thereupon the 
maiden, who had a lyre in her hand, began to sing this song : 
" Whatever seed of works any man has sown in a former life, 
of that he, without doubt, eats the fruit ; for even fate cannot 
alter what has been done in a previous state of existence." 

When the heavenly maiden had sung this song, she im- 
mediately plunged into that sea, with the wishing-tree, and 
the couch on which she was reclining. Then Dirghadarsin 
reflected : " I have to-day seen a wonderful sight ; one 
would never have expected to find in the sea a tree, with 
a heavenly maiden singing on it, appearing and disappearing 
as soon as beheld. Or rather, this admirable treasure-house 
of the sea is ever the same : did not Lakshmi, and the moon, 
and the Parijata tree, and other precious things come out of 
it ? " But the steersman and the rest of the crew, perceiving 

1 The D. text reads cirad avaptamyano . . . instead of B.'s cirad apasta- 
sayano . . . , which appears to be the better reading. Dirghadarsin has been 
sleeping in the open during his pilgrimage, and now enjoys the welcome 
luxury of a bed. Thus the D. text means, "... after a long time he had 
again got a bed in which to pass the night. ..." See Speyer, op. cit., 
p. 135. N.M.P. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 144W 1 . 


that Dirghadarsin was astonished and puzzled, said to him : 
" This lovely woman always appears here in the same way, and 
sinks down again at once ; but this sight is new to you." 

This is what they said to the minister, but he still con- 
tinued in a state of wonder, and so he reached in course of 
time on the ship, with that Nidhidatta, the coast for which 
they were making. There the merchant disembarked his 
wares, gladdening the hearts of his servants, and the minister 
went in high spirits with him to his house, which was full 
of mirth at his arrival. And after he had remained there 
a short time, he said to Nidhidatta : " Merchant -prince, I 
have long reposed comfortably in your house, now I wish to 
return to my own land ; I wish you all happiness." With 
these words he took leave of the merchant -prince, who was 
sorely unwilling to let him go, and with his virtue for his 
only companion he set out thence ; and having in course of 
time accomplished the long journey, he reached his own 
native land of Anga. 

There the spies, who had been placed by King Yasahketu 
to watch for his return, saw him coming, before he entered 
the city, and informed the king; and then the king, who 
had been much afflicted by his absence, went out from the 
city to meet him, and came up to him and welcomed him with 
an embrace. Then the king conducted into the palace his 
minister, who was emaciated and begrimed with his long 
journey, and said to him : " Why did you leave me, bringing 
your mind to this cruel heartless step, and your body into 
this squalid state from its being deprived of unguents ? 1 
But who knows the way of the mighty god Fate, in that you 
suddenly fixed your mind on a pilgrimage to holy waters 
and other sacred places ? So tell me, what lands have you 
wandered through, and what novel sights have you seen ? " 
Then Dirghadarsin described his journey to the Island of 
Gold, in all its stages, and so was led to tell the king of that 
maiden, the jewel of the three worlds, whom he had seen 
rise out of the sea and sit on the wishing-tree singing. All 
this he narrated exactly as it took place. 

The moment the king heard this, he fell so deeply in love 

1 One of our author's puns. 


with her * that he considered his kingdom and life valueless 
without her. And taking his minister aside, he said to him : 
" I must certainly see that maiden, otherwise I cannot live. 
I w r ill go by the way which you have described, after wor- 
shipping Fate. And you must not dissuade, and you must 
by no means follow me, for I will travel alone incognito, and 
in the meanwhile you must take care of my kingdom. Do not 
disobey my order, otherwise my death will lie at your door." 
Thus spake the king, and refused to hear his minister's answer, 
and then dismissed him to his own house to see his relations, 
who had long been wishing for his return. There, in the midst 
of great rejoicing, Dirghadarsin remained despondent : how can 
good ministers be happy when their lord's vices are incurable ? 
And the next night King Yasahketu set out, disguised as 
an ascetic, having entrusted his kingdom to the care of that 
minister. And on the way, as he was going along, he saw a 
hermit, named Kusanabha, and he bowed before him. The 
hermit said to the king who was disguised as an ascetic : 
" Go on your way boldly : by going to sea in a ship with the 
merchant Lakshmldatta you shall obtain that maiden whom 
you desire." This speech delighted the king exceedingly, 
and bowing again before the hermit, he continued his 
journey. And after crossing many countries, rivers and 
mountains, he reached the sea, which seemed to be full of 
eagerness to entertain him. Its eddies looked like eyes ex- 
panded to gaze at him, eyes of which waves were the curved 
brows, and which were white with shrill-sounding conchs for 
pupils. On the shore he met the merchant Lakshmldatta, 
spoken of by the hermit, who was on the point of setting out 
for the Isle of Gold. The merchant prostrated himself be- 
fore him when he saw the signs of his royal birth, such as the 
discus-marked footprint and so on ; and the king embarked 
on the ship with him, and set out with him on the sea. And 
when the ship had reached the middle of the ocean, that 
maiden arose from the water, seated on the trunk of the 
wishing-tree, and while the king was gazing at her, as a par- 
tridge at the moonlight, she sang a song, which the accom- 
paniment of her lyre made more charming : " Whatever seed 
1 See Vol. I, p. 128W 1 . n.m.p. 


of works any man has sown in a former life, of that he, with- 
out doubt, eats the fruit; for even fate cannot alter what 
has been done in a previous state of existence. So a man is 
helplessly borne along to experience precisely that lot which 
fate has appointed for him, in that place and in that manner 
which fate has decreed ; of this there can be no doubt." 

When the king heard her singing this song, and thus set- 
ting forth the thing that must be, he was smitten with the 
arrow of love, and remained for some time motionless, gazing 
at her. Then he began, with bowed head, to praise the sea 
in the following words : " Hail to thee, storehouse of jewels, 
of unfathomable heart, since by concealing this lovely nymph 
thou hast cheated Vishnu out of Lakshmi ! So I throw my- 
self on thy protection, thou who canst not be sounded even 
by gods, the refuge of mountains * that retain their wings ; 
grant me to obtain my desire." While he was uttering this, 
the maiden disappeared in the sea, with the tree, and when 
the king saw that, he flung himself into the sea after her, as 
if to cool the flames of love's fire. 

When the merchant Lakshmidatta saw that unexpected 
sight, the good man thought the king had perished, and was 
so afflicted that he was on the point of committing suicide, 
but he was consoled by the following utterance, that came 
from the heavens : " Do not act rashly ; he is not in danger 
though he has plunged into the sea : this king, Yasahketu 
by name, has come, disguised as an ascetic, to obtain this very 
maiden, for she was his wife in a former state of existence, 
and as soon as he has won her he shall return to his realm of 
Anga." Then the merchant continued his intended voyage, 
to accomplish his purposes. 

But when King Yasahketu plunged into the sea, he sud- 
denly beheld to his astonishment a splendid city. It gleamed 
with palaces that had bright pillars of precious stones, walls 
flashing with gold, and latticed windows of pearl. It was 
adorned with gardens in which were tanks with flights of 
steps composed of slabs of every kind of gem, and wishing- 

1 The word that means "mountain" also means "king." For the 

myth about Indra cutting off the wings of the mountains, see Vol. VI, p. Sri 1 . 



trees that granted every desire. He entered house after 
house in that city, which, though opulent, was uninhabited, 
but he could not find his beloved anywhere. Then, as he was 
looking about, he beheld a lofty jewelled palace, and going 
up to it he opened the door and went in. And when he 
had entered it, he beheld a solitary human form stretched 
out upon a gem-bestudded couch, with its whole length 
covered with a shawl. Wondering whether it could be that 
very lady, he uncovered her face with eager expectation, 
and saw his lady-love. Her beautiful moonlike countenance 
smiled when the black robe fell from it like darkness, and 
she seemed like a night, illumined with moonlight, gone to 
visit Patala in the day. At sight of her the king was in a 
state of ecstasy, like that which a man, travelling through 
a desert in the season of heat, experiences on beholding a 
river. She, for her part, opened her eyes, and, when she saw 
that hero of auspicious form and bodily marks thus suddenly 
arrived, sprang from her couch in a state of excitement. She 
welcomed him, and with downcast countenance seemed to 
honour him by flinging on his feet the full-blown lotuses of 
her wide-expanded eyes ; and then she slowly said to him : 
" Who are you, and why have you come to this inaccessible 
lower region ? And why, though your body is marked with 
the signs of royalty, have you undertaken the vow of an 
ascetic ? Condescend to tell me this, distinguished sir, if I 
have found favour in your sight." 

When the king had heard this speech of hers, he gave 
her this answer : " Fair one, I am the King of Anga, by 
name Yasahketu, and I heard from a friend, on whom I can 
rely, that you were to be seen here every day in the sea. 
So I assumed this disguise, and abandoned my kingdom for 
your sake, and I have come here, and followed you down 
through the sea. So tell me who you are." 

When he said this, she answered him with mixed feelings 
of shame, affection and joy : " There is a fortunate king 
of the Vidyadharas named Mrigankasena ; know that I am 
his daughter, Mrigankavati by name. That father of mine, 
for some reason unknown to me, has left me alone in 
this city of his, and has gone somewhere or other with his. 




subjects. So I, feeling melancholy in my solitary abode, 
rise up out of the sea on a movable 1 wishing-tree, and sing 
of the decrees of fate." 

When she had said this, the brave king, remembering the 
speech of the hermit, courted her so assiduously with speeches 
tender with love that she was overpowered with affection, and 
promised to become his wife at once, but insisted on the 
following condition : " My husband, for four days in every 
month, the fourteenth and eighth of the white and black fort- 
nights, I am not my own mistress 2 ; and whithersoever I may 
go on those days, you must not question me on the subject nor 
forbid me, for there is a reason for it." 3 When the heavenly 
maiden had stated in these words the only condition on 
which she would consent to marry the king, he agreed to it, 
and married her by the gdndharva form of marriage. 

And one day, while the king was living happily with 
MrigankavatI, she said to him : " You must stop here, while 
I go somewhere for a certain business, for to-day is the four- 
teenth day of the black fortnight of which I spoke to you. 
And while you are waiting here, my husband, you must not 
enter this crystal pavilion, lest you should fall into a lake 
there and go to the world of men." When she had said this 
she took leave of him, and went out of that city, and the 
king took his sword and followed her secretly, determined to 
penetrate the mystery. 

Then the king saw a terrible Rakshasa approaching, look- 
ing like Hell embodied in a human shape, with his cavernous 
mouth, black as night, opened wide. That Rakshasa uttered 
an appalling roar, and swooping down on MrigankavatI, put 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads y antra for Brockhaus' yatra. The 
wishing-tree was moved by some magical or mechanical contrivance. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. reads anayatta, which Dr Kern has conjectured. 

3 This part of the story may remind the reader of the story of Melusina, 
the European snake-maiden. See Simrock's Deutsche Volksb'ucher, vol. vi. It 
bears a certain resemblance to that of the Knight of Stauffenberg (Simrock, 
op. cit.,\o\. iii). Cf. also "Ein Zimmern und die Meerfrauen," in Birlinger, 
Aus Schwaben, p. 7, and De Gubernatis, Zoological Mythology, vol. ii, p. 206. 
There is a slight resemblance in this story to the myth of Cupid and Psyche. 

For the "Taboo" motif \ which first appeared in the tale of Urvasi and 

Pururavas, see Vol. II, pp. 252-253. n.m.p. 


her in his mouth and swallowed her. When the mighty 
king saw that, he was at once, so to speak, on fire with 
excessive anger, and rushing forward with his great sword, 
black as a snake that has cast its slough, 1 drawn from 
the sheath, he cut off with it the head of the charging 
Rakshasa, the lips of which were firmly pressed together. 
Then the burning fire of the king's anger was quenched by 
the stream of blood that poured forth from the trunk of 
the Rakshasa, but not the fire of his grief at the loss of his 
beloved. Then the king was blinded with the darkness of 
bewilderment, and at a loss what to do, when suddenly 
Mrigankavati cleft asunder the body of that Rakshasa, 
which was dark as a cloud, and emerged alive and uninjured, 
illuminating all the horizon like a spotless moon. When the 
king saw his beloved thus delivered from danger, he rushed 
eagerly forward and embraced her, exclaiming : " Come ! 
Come ! " And he said to her : " My beloved, what does all 
this mean ? Is it a dream or a delusion ? " When the king 
asked the Vidyadhari this question, she remembered the 
truth, and said : " Listen, my husband ! This is no delusion, 
nor is it a dream ; but such was the curse imposed upon me 
by my father, a king of the Vidyadharas. For my father, 
who formerly lived in this city, though he had many sons, was 
so fond of me that he would never take food when I was not 
present. But I, being devoted to the worship of Siva, used 
always to come to this uninhabited place on the fourteenth 
and eighth days of the two fortnights. 

" And one fourteenth day I came here and worshipped 
Gauri for a long time ; and, as fate would have it, so ardent 
was my devotion that the day came to an end before my 
worship was finished. That day my father ate nothing and 
drank nothing, though he was hungry and thirsty, as he 
waited for me, but he was very angry with me. And 
when I returned in the evening with downcast countenance, 
conscious of my fault, his love for me was so completely 
overpowered by the force of Destiny that he cursed me in 
the following words : c As owing to your arrogance I was 

1 For bhujagah the Sanskrit College MS. reads bhujaga, which seems to 
give a better sense than the reading in Brockhaus' text. 


devoured to-day by hunger, so on the eighth and fourteenth 
days of the fortnights of every month, and on those days only, 
a Rakshasa named Kritantasantrasa shall swallow you, 
when you go to that place outside the city to worship Siva ; 
and on every occasion you shall make your way through his 
heart and come out alive. But you shall not remember the 
curse, nor the pain of being swallowed ; and you shall remain 
alone here.' When my father had uttered this curse, I 
managed gradually to propitiate him, and after thinking a 
little, he appointed this termination to my curse : ' When 
a king named Yasahketu, lord of the land of Anga, shall 
become your husband, and shall see you swallowed by the 
Rakshasa, and shall slay him, then you shall issue from his 
heart, and shall be delivered from your curse, and you shall 
call to mind your curse and the other circumstances, and all 
your supernatural sciences.' 

" When he had appointed this end of my curse, he left 
me alone here, and went with his retinue to the mountain 
of Nishadha in the world of men. And I remained here, thus 
engaged, bewildered by the curse. Rut that curse has now 
come to an end, and I remember all. So I will immediately 
go to my father on the Nishadha mountain ; the law that 
governs us celestial beings is, that when our curse is at an 
end we return to our own place. You are perfectly free to 
remain here or go to your kingdom, as you like." 

When she had said this, the king was sorry, and he made 
this request to her : " Fair one, do me the favour not to go 
for seven days. Let us in the meanwhile cheat the pain of 
parting by amusing ourselves here in the garden. After that 
you shall go to your father's abode, and I will return to 
mine." When he made this proposal, the fair one agreed 
to it. Then the king diverted himself with her for six days 
in the gardens, and in tanks, the lotus-eyes of which were 
full of tears, and that seemed to toss aloft their waves like 
hands, and in the cries of their swans and cranes to utter 
this plaintive appeal : " Do not leave us ! " And on the 
seventh day he artfully decoyed his darling to that pavilion 
where was the tank that served as a magic gate x conducting 

1 I follow the reading of a MS. in the Sanskrit College yantradvaravapika. 


to the world of men ; and throwing his arms round her neck 
he plunged into that tank, and rose up with her from a tank 
in the garden of his own city. When the gardeners saw 
that he had arrived with his beloved, they were delighted, 
and they went and told his minister Dirghadarsin. And the 
minister came and fell at his feet, and, seeing that he had 
brought with him the lady of his aspirations, he and the 
citizens escorted him into the palace. And he thought 
to himself : " Ah ! I wonder how the king has managed to 
obtain this celestial nymph, of whom I caught a transient 
glimpse in the ocean, as one sees in the heaven a lightning 
flash. But the fact is, whatever lot is written for a man 
by the Disposer, in the inscription on his forehead, 1 infallibly 
befalls him, however improbable." 

Such were the reflections of the prime minister; while 
the rest of his subjects were full of joy at the return of the 
king, and of astonishment at his having won the celestial 
nymph. But Mrigankavati, seeing that the king had returned 
to his own kingdom, longed, as the seven days were com- 
pleted, to return to the home of the Vidyadharas. But 
the science of flying up into the air did not appear to her, 
though she called it to mind. Then she felt as one robbed of 
a treasure, and was in the deepest despondency. And the king 
said to her : " Why do you suddenly appear despondent ? 
Tell me, my darling ? " Then the Vidyadhari answered him : 
" Because I remained so long, after I had been released from 
my curse, out of love for you, my science has abandoned 
me, and I have lost the power of returning to my heavenly 
home." When King Yasahketu heard this, he said, " Ha ! 
I have now won this Vidyadhari," and so his rejoicing was 

When the minister Dirghadarsin saw this, he went home, 
and at night, when he was in bed, he suddenly died of a 
broken heart. And Yasahketu, after he had mourned for 

1 The vulgar belief is that man's fate is written upon his skull, the 
sutures being the writing. Thus in the Nights (Burton, vol. iii, p. 123) the pea- 
hen says to the duck : " That which is on our foreheads we must indeed 
fulfil, and when our doomed day draweth near, who shall deliver us ? But 
not a soul departeth except it have accomplished its predestined livelihood 
and term." n.m.p. 



him, remained long bearing the burden of empire himself, 
with Mrigankavati for his consort. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, seated on the shoulder of King Trivi- 
kramasena, had told him this story on the way, he went on 
to say to him : "So tell me, King, why did the heart of 
that great minister suddenly break, when his master had 
thus succeeded so completely ? Did his heart break through 
grief at not having won the nymph himself? Or was it 
because he longed for the sovereign power, and thus was 
disappointed at the king's return ? And if you know this, 
King, and do not tell me on the spot, your merit will at once 
disappear, and your head will fly in pieces." When King 
Trivikramasena heard that, he said to the Vetala : " Neither 
of these two feelings actuated that excellent and virtuous 
minister. But he said to himself : ' This king neglected his 
kingdom out of devotion to mere human females, much more 
will he do so now that he is attached to a heavenly nymph. 
So, though I have gone through much suffering, the disease 
has been aggravated by it, instead of being cured, as I had 
hoped.' It was under the influence of such reflections that 
the minister's heart broke." 

When the king had said this, that juggling Vetala returned 
to his own place, and the resolute king ran swiftly after him, 
to bring him back again by force. 



The rite of investiture with the sacred thread is known as upanayana, and 
is the most important ceremony in a Brahman's life. Before it takes place he 
is only a Sudra, but now he becomes a Brahman and enters the ranks of the 
Twice-born. From a boy dependent on women, he now becomes a man, 
and henceforth can eat only with men. But of the greatest importance is the 
fact that until upanayana no Brahman can marry, and consequently cannot 
raise up seed so necessary for the performance of Sraddha and other similar 

The investiture generally takes place when the boy is eight years of age, 
if a Brahman, eleven if a Kshatriya and twelve if a Vaisya. Interesting 
descriptions of the ceremony will be found as follows : J. Campbell, Bombay 
Gazetteer, vol. ix, pt. i, pp. 14m 1 , 36-39, 141 ; vol. xv, pt. i, pp. 152-154, 170, 
174, 196, 198, 343; vol. xviii, pt. i, pp. 116-120, 187-189, 226-228; vol. xxiv, 
pp. 48-50, 140, 141. See also J. Jolly, " Recht und Sitte," 56, Encyclopaedia 
of Indian Philology, 1896, and L. D. Barnett, Antiquities of India, pp. 140-142. 

The most recent account, however, and certainly the most detailed, 
appears in Mrs Stevenson's Rites of the Twice-Born, pp. 27-45. Although 
reference should be made there for full details, I shall give a few extracts 
dealing with the most important parts of the ceremony. 

The date on which so great a rite can take place has to be carefully 
selected. Firstly, it must start only on a Monday, Wednesday, Thursday or 
Friday. Secondly, the chosen day must fall in the bright fortnight. The 
month can only be Magna, Phalguna, Chaitra or Vaisakha. Invitations are sent 
out about ten days before the ceremony. 

The first act is the setting up of a booth on four posts. There is also a fifth 
post, quite small, which represents Brahma. Ganesa is fully worshipped, after 
which the fifteen divine mother-goddesses are installed and worshipped. The 
seven other goddesses are also worshipped and four Brahmans recite a hymn 
from a different Veda. The boy has to spend the night preceding the actual 
ceremony in absolute silence, with his body smeared with a yellow substance 
(pifi). In the morning the child is led to the booth, where the sacrificial fire 
is burning on the altar. He is now shaved, washed, and eats with his mother 
for the last time. After several other minor acts the actual investiture takes 
place. But first we must describe the thread itself. It is of cotton spun by 
a Brahman virgin and twisted by a Brahman. The colour varies, in accordance, 
it is said, with the mind of the caste of the weaver. Thus the Brahmans wear 
white, the Kshatriyas red, and the Vai^yas yellow. Originally the cord of a 
Brahman was of munja grass, that of Kshatriyas was a bowstring or of kasa 
grass, and that of Vai^yas of wool, hemp or murva. The length of the cord 
is ninety-six times the breadth of the four fingers of a man, the reason being 
that a man's height is ninety-six times the breadth of one finger ; and each of 
his four fingers represents one of the four states his soul experiences viz. 
waking, dreaming, dreamless sleep, and the state of the Absolute Brahma. 



The cord must be threefold, because there are three qualities out of which 
our bodies are compounded : reality, passion, darkness. The twist of the 
thread must be upward, so that the good quality may predominate, and so 
the wearer may rise to great spiritual heights. The threefold thread must be 
twisted three times, lest the bad quality, the darkness, should strive to gain 
ascendancy and pull the soul down. The whole cord is tied together by a 
knot called Brahmagranthi, which has three parts, representing Brahma, Vishnu, 
and Siva, and in addition to this, extra knots are made in the cord to repre- 
sent the various Pravaras to be found in the particular gotra or lineage of the 
candidate. We proceed to the actual investiture. 

The boy faces the sun, holding the thread by the thumb and little finger 
of each hand, in such a way that it passes in front of the three middle fingers. 
The left hand must be held higher than the right. The preceptor repeats a 
mantra, at the conclusion of which the boy slips the thread over his own head. 
He now receives a staff, varying in size and wood according to his caste. He 
then sits on a stool facing west and receives water poured into his joined 
hands. He now looks at the sun, offers a coconut and receives a new name, 
to be used only at the ceremony. A series of questions and answers follows, 
concluding with the teaching of the most famous of all mantras, the gayatfi. 
So sacred is the verse that both the boy and his guru are covered with a silk 
shawl, lest any sound be overheard. The right ear of the child into which 
the verse is repeated becomes holy for life after merely hearing it. It usually 
takes three days for the verse to be learned perfectly. The boy now offers nine 
pieces of wood dipped in clarified butter to the fire, with appropriate prayers 
to Agni, Sarasvati, and the Sun. 

The initiate is now a Twice-born Brahman, and ceremonially pure, so he 
touches all the different parts of his own body to purify them also. In the 
evening, for the first time in his life, the boy can perform the evening worship, 
Sandhya, which hereafter never must be omitted. 

This important part of the ceremony used to occur at the end of the 
second day, the complete investiture taking three days. In modern times, 
however, the three days' ceremonies are usually performed in a single day. 
During the night of the second day the initiate has to observe many rules of 
self-denial, such as absolute silence, sleeping on the floor, avoiding any food 
containing salt, etc. On the third day he pours clarified butter nine times 
into the sacred fire, begins the study of the Vedas, and has a bath. This bath 
makes him eligible for marriage. The water for it is fetched by eight " lucky " 
women in eight new water-pots, containing rice, red powder and flowers. He 
dons new clothes, wears a bigger loin-cloth, and partakes of a little food. The 
symbols of his studentship are given away and his mother marks his eye- 
lashes with lamp-black and makes a smudge of it near his right ear. This is 
the final chance on the part of the mother to safeguard her son against evil 
influences. The boy can now look in a mirror, carry an umbrella, and wear 
shoes. In place of his student's staff he is given a green bamboo tied with the 
yellow loin-cloth he had worn before the initiation. Then follows the staging 
of a little comedy, in which the boy pretends he is making a pilgrimage to 
Benares. The pilgrimage is interrupted and the boy is taken home. There 


are still certain rules he is expected to observe. He should not play or sing, 
look down into deep water, climb a tree for fruit, walk streets in the evening, 
leap from high cliffs, or ever speak unworthily. He must admire the glow of 
the sun both night and morning. He must never make fun of a woman, or 
spit towards the sun, and should keep away as far as possible from all low- 
caste persons and women. At night he should always have a light when he 
dines to prevent him from injuring any living thing in the dark. Finally, he 
must always tell the truth. He is now a man in every sense of the word, and 
must never dine with women, and sleep only in the men's part of the house. 

The above is an outline of a much fuller description given by Mrs 
Stevenson, as already stated. n.m.p. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN the king went back to the simsapd tree, and 
taking the Vetala from it, placed him on his shoulder, 
and brought him along, and as he was going along 
with him, the Vetala again said to the king : " Listen, King. 
I will tell you a short story. 

163g (13). The Brahman Harisvamin, who first lost his Wife, 

and then his Life 1 

There is a city of the name of Varanasi, 2 the abode of 
Siva. In it there lived a Brahman, named Devasvamin, 
honoured by the king. And that rich Brahman had a son 
named Harisvamin ; and he had an exceedingly lovely wife, 
named Lavanyavati. I think the Disposer must have made 
her after he had acquired skill by making Tilottama and the 
other nymphs of heaven, for she was of priceless beauty and 

Now, one night Harisvamin fell asleep, as he was reposing 
with her in a palace cool with the rays of the moon. At that 
very moment a Vidyadhara prince, by name Madanavega, 
roaming about at will, came that way through the air. He 
saw that Lavanyavati sleeping by the side of her husband, and 
her robe, that had slipped aside, revealed her exquisitely 
moulded limbs. His heart was captivated by her beauty ; 
and blinded by love, he immediately swooped down, and 
taking her up in his arms asleep, flew off with her through 
the air. 

Immediately her husband, the young Harisvamin, woke 

1 See Appendix, pp. 212-215. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. Benares, the religious capital of Hinduism. To-day Hindus call 
it either Kasi or Bandras. The former name was originally that of a tribe 
living between the Ganges and the Ghaghra. Hiuen Tsiang writes Po-lo-na-se 
( = Varanasi or Baranasi). n.m.p. 



up, and not seeing his beloved, he rose up in a state of dis- 
traction. He said to himself : " What can this mean ? 
Where has she gone ? I wonder if she is angry with me ? 
Or has she hidden herself to find out my real feelings, and is 
making fun of me ? " Distracted by many surmises of this 
kind, he wandered hither and thither that night, looking for 
her on the roof, and in the turrets of the palace. He even 
searched in the palace garden, and when he could not find 
her anywhere, being scorched with the fire of grief, he sobbed 
and lamented : " Alas ! my beloved with face like the moon's 
orb, fair as the moonlight, did this night grudge your 
existence, hating your charms that rival hers ? * That very 
moon, that, vanquished by your beauty, seemed to be in 
fear, and comforted me with its rays cool as sandalwood, 2 
now that I am bereaved of you, seems to have seen its 
opportunity, and smites me with them, as if with burning 
coals, or arrows dipped in poison." While Harisvamin was 
uttering these laments, the night at last slowly passed away ; 
not so his grief at his bereavement. 

The next morning the sun dispelled with his rays the 
deep darkness that covered the world, but could not dispel 
the dense darkness of despondency that had settled on him. 
The sound of his bitter lamentations, that seemed to have 
been reinforced by wailing power bestowed on him by the 
chakravdkas, whose period of separation was at an end with 
the night, was magnified a hundredfold. The young Brah- 
man, though his relations tried to comfort him, could not 
recover his self-command, now that he was bereaved of his 
beloved, but was all inflamed with the fire of separation. 
And he went from place to place, exclaiming with tears : " Here 
she stood, here she bathed, here she adorned herself and here 
she amused herself." 

But his friends and relations said to him : " She is not 
dead, so why do you kill yourself? If you remain alive, 
you will certainly recover her somewhere or other. So adopt 
a resolute tone, and go in search of your beloved ; there is 
nothing in this world that a resolute man, who exerts himself, 

1 Dvesha must be a misprint for dveshat. 

2 See note on pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 



cannot obtain." When Harisvamin had been exhorted in 
these terms by his friends and relations, he managed at last, 
after some days, to recover his spirits by the aid of hope. 
And he said to himself : "I will give away all that I have to 
the Brahmans, and visit all the holy waters, and wash away 
all my sins. For if I wipe out my sin, I may perhaps, in the 
course of my wanderings, find that beloved of mine." 

After going through these reflections, suitable to the occa- 
sion, he got up and bathed, and performed all his customary 
avocations ; and the next day he bestowed on the Brahmans 
at a solemn sacrifice various meats and drinks, and gave away 
to them all his wealth without stint. 

Then he left his country, with his Brahman birth as 
his only fortune, and proceeded to go round to all the holy 
bathing-places in order to recover his beloved. And as he 
was roaming about, there came upon him the terrible lion of 
the hot season, with the blazing sun for mouth, and with a 
mane composed of his fiery rays. And the winds blew with 
excessive heat, as if warmed by the breath of sighs furnaced 
forth by travellers grieved at being separated from their 
wives. And the tanks, with their supply of water diminished 
by the heat, and their drying white mud, appeared to be 
snowing their broken hearts. And the trees by the road- 
side seemed to lament 1 on account of the departure of the 
glory of spring, making their wailing heard in the shrill 
moaning of their bark, 2 with leaves, as it were lips, parched 
with heat. 

At that season Harisvamin, wearied out with the heat of 
the sun, with bereavement, hunger and thirst, and continual 
travelling, disfigured, 3 emaciated and dirty, and pining for 
food, reached, in the course of his wanderings, a certain 
village, and found in it the house of a Brahman called Pad- 
manabha, who was engaged in a sacrifice. And seeing that 
many Brahmans were eating in his house, he stood leaning 

1 For arudanniva the Sanskrit College MS. reads abhavanniva. 

2 Bohtlingk and Roth, s.v., say that chira in Taranga 73, sloka 240, is 
perhaps a mistake for chlrl, grasshopper ; the same may perhaps be the case 
in this passage. 

3 For virupa the Sanskrit College MS. gives viriiksha. 


against the doorpost, silent and motionless. And the good 
wife of that Brahman named Padmanabha, seeing him in 
this position, felt pity for him, and reflected : " Alas, 
mighty is hunger ! Whom will it not bring down ? For 
here stands a man at the door, who appears to be a house- 
holder, desiring food, with downcast countenance ; evidently 
come from a long journey, and with all his senses impaired 
by hunger. So is not he a man to whom food ought to be 
given ? " 

Having gone through these reflections, the kind woman 
took up in her hands a vessel full of rice boiled in milk, with 
ghee and sugar, and brought it, and courteously presented 
it to him, and said : "Go and eat this somewhere on the 
bank of the lake, for this place is unfit to eat in, as it is 
filled with feasting Brahmans." 

He said," I will do so," and took the vessel of rice, and 
placed it at no great distance under a banyan-tree on the 
edge of the lake ; and he washed his hands and feet in the 
lake, and rinsed his mouth, and then came back in high 
spirits to eat the rice. But while he was thus engaged, a 
kite, holding a black cobra with its beak and claws, came 
from some place or other, and sat on that tree. And it so 
happened that poisonous saliva issued from the mouth of 
that dead snake, which the bird had captured and was carry- 
ing along. The saliva fell into the dish of rice which was 
placed underneath the tree, and Harisvamin, without observ- 
ing it, came and ate up that rice. As soon as in his hunger 
he had devoured all that food, he began to suffer terrible 
agonies produced by the poison. He exclaimed : " When 
fate has turned against a man, everything in this world 
turns also ; accordingly this rice dressed with milk, ghee and 
sugar has become poison to me." 

Thus speaking, Harisvamin, tortured with the poison, 
tottered to the house of that Brahman, who was engaged in 
the sacrifice, and said to his wife : " The rice, which you gave 
me, has poisoned me ; so fetch me quickly a charmer who 
can counteract the operation of poison ; otherwise you will 
be guilty of the death of a Brahman." 

When Harisvamin had said this to the good woman, who 



was beside herself to think what it could all mean, his eyes 
closed, and he died. 

Accordingly the Brahman, who was engaged in a sacrifice, 
drove out of his house his wife, though she was innocent and 
hospitable, being enraged with her for the supposed murder 
of her guest. The good woman, for her part, having incurred 
groundless blame from her charitable deed, and so become 
branded with infamy, went to a holy bathing-place to perform 

Then there was a discussion before the superintendent of 
religion, 1 as to which of the four parties, the kite, the snake, 
or the couple who gave the rice, was guilty of the murder of 
a Brahman ; but the question was not decided. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

" Now you, King Trivikramasena, must tell me which was 
guilty of the murder of a Brahman ; and if you do not, you 
will incur the before-mentioned curse." 

When the king heard this from the Vetala, he was forced 
by the curse to break silence, and he said : " No one of them 
could be guilty of the crime ; certainly not the serpent, for 
how could he be guilty of anything, when he was the helpless 
prey of his enemy, who was devouring him ? To come to 
the kite ; what offence did he commit in bringing his natural 
food, which he had happened to find, and eating it, when 
he was hungry ? And how could either of the couple that 
gave the food be in fault, since they were both people ex- 
clusively devoted to righteousness, not likely to commit a 
crime ? Therefore I think the guilt of slaying a Brahman 

1 I.e. Dharmaraja, possibly the officer established by Asoka in his fifth 
edict (see Senart, Les Inscriptions de Piyadasi, p. 125). The term Dharmaraja 
is applied to Yudhishthira and Yama. It means literally king of righteousness 
or religion. There is a Dharma Raja in Bhutan. Bohtlingk and Roth seem to 
take it to mean Yama in this passage. The succession of the Dharma Raja 
in Bhutan is arranged on the reincarnation theory. On his death his spirit is 
supposed to transmigrate into the body of a newly born male child, who has 
to be searched for and identified by omens. Thus the succession can be kept 
entirely in the hands of the Lhasa priests. See further L. A. Waddell, 
" Bhutan, Buddhism in," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, p. 562. n.m.p. 
vol. VII. C 



would attach to any person who should be so foolish as, 
for want of sufficient reflection, to attribute it to either of 

When the king had said this, the Vetala again left his 
shoulder, and went to his own place, and the resolute king 
again followed him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena went to the simsapd 
tree, and again got hold of the Vetala, and took him 
on his shoulder ; and when the king had set out, the 
Vetala again said to him : " King, you are tired ; so listen, 
I will tell you an interesting tale. 

163g (14). The Merchant's Daughter who fell in love with 

a Thief 1 

There is a city of the name of Ayodhya, which was the 
capital of Vishnu, when he was incarnate as Rama, the 
destroyer of the Rakshasa race. In it there lived a mighty 
king, of the name of Viraketu, who defended this earth, as a 
rampart defends a city. During the reign of that king there 
lived in that city a great merchant, named Ratnadatta, who 
was the head of the mercantile community. And there 
r as born to him, by his wife Nandayanti, a daughter named 
latnavati, who was obtained by propitiating the deities. 
And that intelligent girl grew up in her father's house, and 
as her body grew, her innate qualities of beauty, gracefulness 
and modesty developed also. And when she attained woman- 
hood, not only great merchants, but even kings, asked her in 
marriage from her father. But she disliked the male sex 
so much that she did not desire even Indra for a husband, 
and would not even hear of marriage, being determined to 
die sooner than consent to it. That made her father secretly 
sorrow much, on account of his affection for her, and the 
report of her conduct spread all over the city of Ayodhya. 

At that time all the citizens were continually being 
plundered by thieves, so they assembled together, and made 
this complaint to King Viraketu : " Your Majesty, we are 

1 See Appendix, pp. 215-221. n.m.p. 


continually being robbed by thieves every night, and we 
cannot detect them, so let your Highness take the necessary 
steps." When the king had received this petition from the 
citizens, he stationed watchmen in plain clothes all round 
the city, in order to try to discover the thieves. 

But they could not find them out, and the city went 
on being robbed ; so one night the king himself went out to 
watch ; and as he was roaming about, armed, he saw in a 
certain part of the town a single individual going along the 
rampart. He showed great dexterity in his movements, as 
he made his footfall perfectly noiseless, and he often looked 
behind him with eyes anxiously rolling. The king said to 
himself : " Without doubt, this is the thief, who sallies out 
by himself and plunders my city." So he went up to him. 
Then the thief, seeing the king, said to him : . " W T ho are 
you ? " And the king answered him : "I am a thief." Then 
the thief said : " Bravo ! you are my friend, as you belong 
to the same profession as myself ; so come to my house ; 
I will entertain you." When the king heard that, he con- 
sented, and went with him to his dwelling, which was in 
an underground cavern in a forest. It was luxuriously and 
magnificently furnished, illuminated by blazing lamps, and 
looked like a second Patala, not governed by King Bali. 

When the king had entered, and had taken a seat, the 
robber went into the inner rooms of his cave-dwelling. At 
that moment a female slave came and said to the king : 
" Great sir, how came you to enter this mouth of death ? 
This man is a notable thief; no doubt, when he comes out 
of those rooms, he will do you some injury : I assure you, 
he is treacherous ; so leave this place at once." When the 
king heard this, he left the place at once, and went to his 
own palace and got ready his forces that very night. 

And when his army was ready for battle, he came and 
blockaded the entrance of that robber's cave with his troops, 
who sounded all their martial instruments. 1 Then the brave 
robber, as his hold was blockaded, knew that his secret had 
been discovered, and he rushed out to fight, determined to die. 
And when he came out he displayed superhuman prowess 

1 I prefer the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. turyakulaih. 



in battle ; alone, armed with sword and shield, he cut off 
the trunks of elephants ; he slashed off the legs of horses 
and lopped off the heads of soldiers. When he had made 
this havoc among the soldiers, the king himself attacked 
him. And the king, who was a skilful swordsman, by a 
dexterous trick of fence forced his sword from his hand, and 
then the dagger which he drew. And as he was now disarmed, 
the king threw away his own weapon and, grappling with him, 
flung him on the earth, and captured him alive. And he 
brought him back as a prisoner to his own capital, with all 
his wealth. And he gave orders that he should be put to 
death by impalement next morning. 

Now, when that robber was being conducted with beat of 
drum 2 to the place of execution, that merchant's daughter, 
Ratnavati, saw him from her palace. Though he was 
wounded, and his body was begrimed with dust, she was dis- 
tracted with love as soon as she saw him. So she went and 
said to her father, Ratnadatta: "I select as my husband 
this man here, who is being led off to execution, so ransom 
him from the king, my father. If you will not, I shall follow 
him to the other world." When her father heard this he 
said : " My daughter, what is this that you say ? Before you 
would not accept suitors endowed with all virtues, equal to 
the God of Love. How comes it that you are now in love 
with an infamous brigand chief ? " Though her father used 
this argument, and others of the same kind, with her, she 
remained fixed in her determination. Then the merchant 
went quickly to the king, and offered him all his wealth, if he 
would grant the robber his life. But the king would not make 
over to him, even for hundreds of crores of gold pieces, that 
thief who had robbed on such a gigantic scale, and whom 
he had captured at the risk of his own life. Then the father 
returned disappointed, and his daughter made up her mind 
to follow the thief to the other world, though her relations 
tried to dissuade her ; so she bathed and got into a palan- 
quin, 2 and went to the spot where his execution was taking 
place, followed by her father and mother and the people, all 

1 See Vol. I, p. 118w 2 . n.m.p. See Vol. Ill, p. 14w 1 . n.m.p. 


In the meanwhile the robber had been impaled by the 
executioners, and as his life was ebbing away on the stake 
he saw her coming there with her kinsfolk. And when he 
heard the whole story from the people he wept for a moment, 
and then he laughed a little, and then died on the stake. 
Then the merchant's virtuous daughter had the thief's body 
taken down from the stake, and she ascended the funeral 
pyre with it. 1 

And at that very moment the holy Siva, who was in- 
visibly present in the cemetery, spake from the air : " Faithful 
wife, I am pleased with thy devotedness to thy self-chosen 
husband, so crave a boon of me." When she heard that, 
she worshipped, and prayed the god of gods to grant her the 
following boon : " Lord, may my father, who has now no sons, 
have a hundred, for otherwise, as he has no children but me, 
he would abandon his life." 2 When the good woman had 
said this, the god once more spake to her, saying : " Let thy 
father have a hundred sons ! Choose another boon ; for such 
a steadfastly good woman as thou art deserves something more 
than this." 

When she heard this, she said : "If the Lord is pleased 
with me, then let this husband of mine rise up alive, and 
be henceforth a well-conducted man ! " Thereupon Siva, 
invisible in the air, uttered these words : "Be it so ; let thy 
husband rise up alive, and lead henceforth a life of virtue, and 
let King Viraketu be pleased with him ! " And immediately 
the robber rose up alive with unwounded limbs. 

Then the merchant Ratnadatta was delighted, and aston- 
ished at the same time; and with his daughter, Ratnavati, 
and the bandit his son-in-law, and his delighted relations, 
he entered his own palace, and as he had obtained from the 
god the promise of sons, he held a feast suitable to his own 
joy on the occasion. 

And when King Viraketu heard what had taken place 
he was pleased, and he immediately summoned that heroic 

1 See Appendix I, on Widow -burning, in Vol. IV, pp. 255-272. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Mahabhdrata, Vanaparva ; section 297 (Pativrata-mahatmya), si. 39. 
See vol. ii, p. 637, of the new edition of Roy's translation, Calcutta, 1919, 
etc. N.M.P. 



thief, and made him commander of his army. And thereupon 
the heroic thief gave up his dishonest life, and married the 
merchant's daughter, and led a respectable life, honoured by 
the king. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, seated on the shoulder of King Trivikra- 
masena, had told him this tale, he asked him the following 
question, menacing him with the before-mentioned curse : 
" Tell me, King, why that thief, when impaled, first wept 
and then laughed, when he saw the merchant's daughter 
come with her father." Then the king said : " He wept for 
sorrow that he had not been able to repay the merchant 
for his gratuitous kindness to him ; and he laughed out of 
astonishment, as he said to himself : ' What ! has this 
maiden, after rejecting kings who asked for her hand, fallen 
in love with me ? In truth a woman's heart is an intricate 
labyrinth.' " 

When the king had said this, the mighty Vetala, by 
means of the magic power which he possessed, again left 
the king's shoulder and returned to his station on the tree, 
and the king once more went to fetch him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went back to the 
simsapd tree and took the Vetala from it, and set out 
with him once more; and as the king was going 
along, the Vetala, perched on his shoulder, said to him : 
" Listen, King, I will tell you another story. 

163g (15). The Magic Pill 1 

There was in the kingdom of Nepala a city named Siva- 
pura, and in it there lived of old time a king rightly named 
Yasahketu. 2 He devolved upon his minister, named Prajna- 
sagara, the burden of his kingdom, and enjoyed himself in the 
society of his queen, Chandraprabha. And in course of time 
that king had born to him, by that queen, a daughter named 
Sasiprabha, bright as the moon, the eye of the world. 

Now in course of time she grew up to womanhood, and 
one day, in the month of spring, she went to a garden, with 
her attendants, to witness a festive procession. And in a 
certain part of that garden a Brahman, of the name of 
Manahsvamin, the son of a rich man, who had come to see the 
procession, beheld her engaged in gathering flowers, raising 
her lithe arm, and displaying her graceful shape ; and she 
looked charming when the grasp of her thumb and fore- 
finger on the stalks of the flowers relaxed. When the young 
man Manahsvamin saw her, she at once robbed him of his 
heart, and he was bewildered by love and no longer master 
of his feelings. 3 He said to himself : " Can this be Rati 
come in person to gather the flowers accumulated by spring, 
in order to make arrows for the God of Love ? Or is it the 
presiding goddess of the wood, come to worship the spring ? " 

1 See Appendix, pp. 222-233. n.m.p. 

2 His name means " Glory-banner." n.m.p. 

8 His name, Manahsvdmifi, would imply that he ought to be. 




While he was making these surmises, the princess caught 
sight of him. And as soon as she saw him, looking like 
a second God of Love created with a body, she forgot her 
flowers, and her limbs, and her own personal identity. 

While those two were thus overpowered by the passion of 
mutual love at first sight, a loud shout of alarm was raised, 
and they both looked with uplifted heads to see what it could 
mean. Then there came that way an elephant, rushing 
along with its elephant-hook hanging down, that driven 
furious by perceiving the smell of another elephant * had 
broken its fastenings, and rushed out in a state of frenzy, 
breaking down the trees in its path, and had thrown its 
driver. The princess's attendants dispersed in terror, but 
Manahsvamin eagerly rushed forward, and took her up alone 
in his arms, and while she clung timidly to him, bewildered 
with fear, love and shame, carried her to a distance, out of 
reach of the elephant. Then her attendants came up and 
praised that noble Brahman, and conducted her back to her 
palace. But as she went she frequently turned round to look 
at her deliverer. There she remained, thinking regretfully of 
that man who had saved her life, consumed day and night 
by the smouldering fire of love. 

And Manahsvamin then left that garden, and seeing that 
the princess had entered her private apartments, he said to 
himself, in regretful longing : "I cannot remain without her, 
nay, I cannot live without her : so my only resource in this 
difficulty is the cunning Mtiladeva, who is a master of magic 
arts." Having thus reflected, he managed to get through that 
day, and the next morning he went to visit that master of 
magic, Mtiladeva. And he saw that master, who was ever 
in the company of his friend Sasin, full of many marvellous 
magic ways, like the sky come down to earth in human shape. 2 
And he humbly saluted him, and told him his desire ; then 
the master laughed, and promised to accomplish it for him. 
Then that matchless deceiver Mtiladeva placed a magic pill in 

1 For gaja the Sanskrit College MS. reads mada. For a note on 

elephants in the state of must see Vol. VI, pp. 67W 1 , 68n. n.m.p. 

2 The word siddha also means a class of demigods who travel through the 
sky : Sasin means " moon." 


his mouth, 1 and transformed himself into an aged Brahman; 
and he gave the Brahman Manahsvamin a second pill to put 
in his mouth, and so made him assume the appearance of a 
beautiful maiden. 

And that prince of villains took him in this disguise to 
the judgment-hall of the king, the father of his lady-love, 
and said to him : " O King, I have only one son, and I 
asked for a maiden to be given him to wife, and brought 
here from a long distance ; but now he has gone somewhere or 
other, and I am going to look for him ; so keep this maiden 
safe for me until I bring back my son, for you keep safe under 
your protection the whole world." 2 When King Yasahketu 
heard this petition he granted it, fearing a curse if he did 
not, and summoned his daughter, Sasiprabha, and said to 
her : " Daughter, keep this maiden in your palace, and let her 
sleep and take her meals with you." The princess agreed, 
and took Manahsvamin, transformed into a maiden, to her 
own private apartments ; and then Muladeva, who had assumed 
the form of a Brahman, went where he pleased, and Manah- 
svamin remained in the form of a maiden with his beloved. 

And in a few days the princess became quite fond of and 
intimate with her new attendant ; so, one night, when she 
was pining at being separated from the object of her affec- 
tions, and tossing on her couch, Manahsvamin, who was on a 
bed near her, concealed under a female shape, said secretly 
to her : " My dear Sasiprabha, why are you pale of hue, and 
why do you grow thinner every day, and sorrow as one 
separated from the side of her beloved ? Tell me, for why 
should you distrust loving modest attendants ? From this 
time forth I will take no food until you tell me." 

When the princess heard this she sighed, and slowly told 
the following tale : " Why should I distrust you of all people ? 
Listen, friend, I will tell you the cause. Once on a time I 
went to a spring garden to see a procession, and there I beheld 

1 He does not swallow the pill, but keeps it in his mouth, as the sequel 
shows. Cf. the piece of wood, by the help of which Preziosa, in the Pent- 
amerone, turns herself into a bear (see Burton's translation, vol. i, p. 185). As 
soon as she takes it out of her mouth she resumes her human form. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Vol. I, p. 83. 



a handsome Brahman man, who seemed like the month of 
spring, having the loveliness of the moon free from dew, 
kindling love at sight, adorning the grove with play of light. 
And while my eager eyes, drinking in the nectarous rays of 
the moon of his countenance, began to emulate the partridge, 
there came there a mighty elephant broken loose from its 
bonds, roaring and distilling its ichor like rain, looking like 
a black rain-cloud appearing out of season. My attendants 
dispersed terrified at that elephant, but when I was be- 
wildered with fear that young Brahman caught me up in his 
arms and carried me to a distance. Then contact with his 
body made me feel as if I were anointed with sandalwood * 
ointment, and bedewed with ambrosia, and I was in a state 
which I cannot describe. And in a moment my attendants 
reassembled, and I was brought back reluctant to this my 
palace, and seemed to myself to have been cast down to 
earth from heaven. From that time forth I have often in- 
terviews in reveries with my beloved, that rescued me from 
death, and even when awake I seem to see him at my side. 
And when I am asleep I see him in dreams, coaxing me and 
dispelling my reserve with kisses and caresses. But, ill-fated 
wretch that I am, I cannot obtain him, for I am baffled by 
ignorance of his name and other particulars about him. So 
I am consumed, as you see, by the fire of separation from the 
lord of my life." 

When Manahsvamin's ears had been filled with the nectar 
of this speech of the princess's, that Brahman, who was 
present there in female form, rejoiced, and considered that 
his object was attained, and that the time had come for re- 
vealing himself, so he took out the pill from his mouth, and 
displayed himself in his true form, and said : " Rolling-eyed 
one, I am that very Brahman whom you bought with a look 
in the garden, and made your slave in the truest sense of the 
word. And from the immediate interruption of our acquaint- 
ance I derived that sorrow, of which the final result was my 
taking, as you see, the form of a maiden. Therefore, fair 
one, grant that the sorrow of separation, which both of us 
have endured, may not have been borne in vain, for Kama 

1 See note, pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


cannot endure beyond this point." When the princess sud- 
denly beheld her beloved in front of her, and heard him utter 
these words, she was at once filled with love, astonishment 
and shame. So they eagerly went through the gdndharva 
ceremony of marriage. Then Manahsvamin lived happily in 
the palace, under two shapes ; keeping the pill in his mouth 
during the day, and so wearing a female shape, but at night 
taking it out, and assuming the form of a man. 1 

Now, as days went, the brother-in-law of King Yasah- 
ketu, named Mrigankadatta, gave his own daughter, named 
Mrigankavati, in marriage to a young Brahman, the son 
of the minister Prajnasagara : and with her he bestowed 
much wealth. And the Princess Sasiprabha was invited, on 
the occasion of her cousin's marriage, to her uncle's house, 
and went there accompanied by her ladies-in-waiting. And 
among them went the young Brahman, Manahsvamin, wear- 
ing the attractive form of a young maiden of exquisite 

Then that minister's son beheld him disguised in female 
form, and was deeply pierced with the shafts of the archer 
Love. And when he went to his house, accompanied by his 
bride, it seemed to him to be empty ; for he was robbed of 
his heart by that seeming maiden. Then he continued to 
think of nothing but the beauty of that supposed maiden's 
face, and, bitten by the great snake of fierce passion, he 
suddenly became distracted. The people who were there 
ceased from their rejoicing, and in their bewilderment asked 
what it meant, and his father, Prajnasagara, hearing of it, 
came to him in haste. And when his father tried to com- 
fort him, he woke up from his stupor, and uttered what was 
in his mind, babbling deliriously. And that father of his 
was very much troubled, as he thought that the matter was 
one altogether beyond his power. Then the king heard of 
it, and came there in person. And at once he saw that the 
minister's son had been in a moment reduced by strong 
passion to the seventh 2 stage of love-sickness ; so he said to 

1 Cf. the story of Bandhudatta (Vol. Ill, p. 191), who turns her lover 
into a monkey by placing a cord round his neck. n.m.p. 

2 For the ten stages of love-sickness see Vol. II, pp. 9w 2 , lOn. 



his ministers : " How can I give him a maiden whom a 
Brahman left in my care ? And yet, if he does not obtain 
her, he will without doubt reach the last stage. If he dies, his 
father, who is my minister, will perish ; and if he perishes, 
my kingdom is ruined, so tell me what I am to do in this 

When the king said this, all those ministers said : " They 
say that the special virtue of a king is the protection of the 
virtue of his subjects. Now the root of this protection is 
counsel, and counsel resides in counsellors. If the counsellor 
perishes, protection perishes in its root, and virtue is certain 
to be impaired. 1 Moreover, guilt would be incurred by caus- 
ing the death of this Brahman minister and his son, so you 
must avoid doing that, otherwise there is a great chance of 
your infringing the law of virtue. Accordingly you must 
certainly give to the minister's son the maiden committed 
to your care by the first Brahman, and if he returns after the 
lapse of some time, and is angry, steps can be taken to put 
matters right." 

When the ministers said this to the king, he agreed to 
give that man, who was palming himself off as a maiden, to 
the minister's son. And after fixing an auspicious moment, 
he brought Manahsvamin, in female form, from the palace 
of the princess ; and he said to the king : "If, King, you 
are determined to give me, whom another committed to your 
care, to a person other than him for whom I was intended, I 
must, I suppose, acquiesce ; you are a king, and justice 
and injustice are matters familiar to you. 2 But I consent to 
the marriage on this condition only, that I am not to be con- 
sidered as a wife until my husband has spent six months in 
visiting holy bathing-places, and returns home ; if this con- 
dition is not agreed to, know that I will bite my own tongue 
in two, and so commit suicide." 

When the young man, disguised in female form, had 

1 Here the MS. in the Sanskrit College has mantrinase mTdanasad rakshya 
dharmakshatir dhruvam, which means, " we should certainly try to prevent 
virtue from perishing by the destruction of its root in the destruction of the 

2 Read with the D. text . . . tavadya tau, "... from hence the 
righteousness or injustice is yours." n.m.p. 


prescribed this condition, the king informed the minister's son 
of it, and he was consoled, and accepted the terms ; and he 
quickly went through the ceremony of marriage, and placed 
in one house Mrigankavati, his first wife, and his second 
supposed wife, carefully guarded, and, like a fool, went on a 
pilgrimage to holy bathing-places, to please the object of his 

And Manahsvamin, in female form, dwelt in the same 
house with Mrigankavati, as the partner of her bed and 
board. And one night, while he was living there in this way, 
Mrigankavati said to him secretly in the bedchamber, while 
their attendants were sleeping outside : " My friend, I cannot 
sleep ; tell me some tale." When the young man disguised 
in female form heard this he told her the story, how in old 
time a royal sage, named Ida, of the race of the sun, assumed, 
in consequence of the curse of Gauri, a female form that 
fascinated the whole world, and how he and Buddha fell in 
love with one another at first sight, meeting one another in 
a shrubbery in the grounds of a temple, and were there united, 
and how Pururavas was the fruit of that union. When the 
artful creature had told this story, he went on to say : "So 
by the fiat of a deity, or by charms and drugs, a man may 
sometimes become a woman, and vice versa, and in this way 
even great ones do sometimes unite impelled by love." 

When the tender fair one, who regretted her husband, 
who had left her as soon as the marriage had taken place, 
heard this, she said to her supposed rival, in whom she had 
come to confide by living with her : " This story makes my 
body tremble, and my heart as it were sink ; so tell me, 
friend, what is the meaning of this ? " When the Brahman 
disguised in female form heard this he went on to say : " My 
friend, these are violent symptoms of love ; I have felt 
them myself, I will not conceal it from you." When he 
said this, Mrigankavati went on slowly to say : " Friend, I 
love you as my life, so why should I not say what I think 
it is time to reveal ? Could anyone by any artifice be intro- 
duced into this palace ? " When the pupil of that master- 
rogue heard this, he took her meaning, and said to her : "If 
this is the state of affairs, then I have something to tell you. 



I have a boon from Vishnu, by which I can at pleasure 
become a man during the night, so I will now become one 
for your sake." So he took the pill out of his mouth, and 
displayed himself to her as a handsome man in the prime 
of youth. And so the Brahman lived with the wife of the 
minister's son, becoming a woman in the day, and resuming 
his male form at night. But hearing in a few days that the 
son of the minister was on the point of returning, he took 
the precaution of eloping with her from that house during the 

At this point in the story, it happened that his teacher, 
Muladeva, heard all the circumstances ; so he again assumed 
the form of an old Brahman, and accompanied by his friend 
Sasin, who had assumed the form of a young Brahman, he 
went and respectfully said to King Yasahketu : "I have 
brought back my son ; so give me my daughter-in-law." 
Then the king, who was afraid of being cursed, deliberated 
and said to him : " Brahman, I do not know where your 
daughter-in-law has gone, so forgive me ; as I am in fault, 
I will give you my own daughter for your son." When the 
king had said this to that prince of rogues, disguised in the 
form of an old Brahman, who asserted his false claim with 
the sternness of assumed anger, he gave his daughter with 
all due ceremonies to his friend Sasin, who pretended to be the 
supposed Brahman's son. Then Muladeva took the bride 
and bridegroom, who had been thus united, off to his own 
home, without showing any desire for the king's wealth. 

And there Manahsvamin met them, and a fierce dispute 
took place between him and Sasin in the presence of that 
Muladeva. Manahsvamin said : " This Sasiprabha should be 
given to me, for long ago, when she was a maiden, I married 
her by the favour of the master." Sasin said : " You fool, 
what have you to do with her ? She is my wife, for her 
father bestowed her on me in the presence of the fire." So 
they went on wrangling about the princess, whom they had 
got hold of by means of magic, and their dispute was never 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

" So tell me, King, to which of the two does that wife be- 
long ? Resolve my doubt. The conditions of non-compliance 
are those which I mentioned before." 

When King Trivikramasena was thus addressed by the 
Vetala on his shoulder, he gave him this answer : "I con- 
sider that the princess is the lawful wife of Sasin, since she 
was openly given to him by her father in the lawful way. 
But Manahsvamin married her in an underhand way, like a 
thief, by the gdndharva rite ; and a thief has no lawful title 
to the possessions of another." 

When the Vetala heard this answer of the king's, he 
quickly left his shoulder, and went back to his own place, 
and the king hurried after him. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena went back to the 
simsapd tree, and again took the Vetala from it, and 
set out with him on his shoulder ; and as he was 
returning from the tree, the Vetala once more said to him : 
" Listen, King, I will tell you a noble story. 

163g (16). The Sacrifice of Jimutavahana l 

There is in this earth a great mountain named Himavat, 
where all jewels are found, which is the origin of both Gauri 
and Ganga, the two goddesses dear to Siva. Even heroes 
cannot reach its top 2 ; it towers proudly above all other 
mountains ; and as such its praises are sung in strains of 
sooth in the three worlds. On the ridge of that Himavat 
there is that city rightly named the Golden City, which 
gleams like a mass of the sun's rays deposited by him on 

Of old there lived in that splendid city a fortunate lord 
of the Vidyadharas, named Jlmutaketu, who dwelt there like 
Indra on Meru. In his palace garden there was a wishing- 
tree, which was an heirloom in his family, which was well 
known as the Granter of Desires, and not named so without 
reason. The king supplicated that divine tree, and obtained 
by its favour a son, who remembered his former birth, and 
was the incarnation of a portion of a Bodhisattva. He was 
a hero in munificence, of great courage, compassionate to 
all creatures, attentive to the instructions of his spiritual 
adviser, and his name was Jimutavahana. And when he 
grew up to manhood, his father, the king, made him crown 
prince, being impelled thereto by his excellent qualities, and 
the advice of the ministers. 

1 See the Appendix, pp. 233-240. n.m.p. 

2 The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads surasandrishtaprishlas. 
VOL. vn. 49 D 


And when Jimutavahana was made crown prince, the 
ministers of his father, desiring his welfare, came to him and 
said : " Prince, you must continually worship this wishing- 
tree invincible by all creatures, 1 which grants all our desires. 
For, as long as we have this, not even Indra could injure us, 
much less any other enemy." 

When Jimutavahana heard this, he inly reflected : " Alas ! 
our predecessors, though they possessed such a divine tree, 
never obtained from it any fruit worthy of it ; some of them 
asked it for wealth and did nothing more ; so the mean creatures 
made themselves and this noble tree contemptible. Well, I 
will make it inserve a design which I have in my mind." 

After the noble prince had formed this resolution he 
went to his father, and gained his good will by paying him 
all kinds of attentions, and said to him in private, as he 
was sitting at ease : " Father, you know that in this sea 
of mundane existence, all that we behold is unsubstantial, 
fleeting as the twinkling of the wave. Especially are the twi- 
light, the dawn, and fortune shortlived, disappearing as soon 
as revealed ; where and when have they been seen to abide ? 
Charity to one's neighbour is the only thing that is perman- 
ent in this cycle of change ; it produces holiness and fame 
that bear witness for hundreds of Yugas. So with what 
object, father, do we keep for ourselves such an unfailing 
wishing-tree, as all these phenomenal conditions are but 
momentary ? Where, I ask, are those, our predecessors, 
who kept it so strenuously, exclaiming : ' It is mine, it is 
mine ' ? Where is it now to them ? For which of them 
does it exist, and which of them exists for it ? So, if you 
permit, father, I will employ this wishing-tree, that grants 
all desires, for attaining the matchless fruit of charity to 
one's neighbour." 

His father gave him leave, saying : " So be it ! " And 
Jimutavahana went and said to the wishing-tree : " O god, 
thou didst fulfil all the cherished wishes of our predecessors, 
so fulfil this one solitary wish of mine ! Enable me to be- 
hold this whole earth free from poverty ; depart, and good 

1 I adopt the reading of the Sanskrit College MS., adhrisya for adhrishya, 
invincible, instead of adrisya, invisible. 


luck attend thee ; thou art bestowed by me on the world that 
desires wealth." When Jimutavahana had said this, with 
joined hands, a voice came forth from the tree : " Since 
thou hast relinquished me, I depart." And in a moment 
the wishing- tree flew up to heaven, and rained wealth on the 
earth, so plenteously that there was not one poor man left 
on it. Then the glory of that Jimutavahana spread through 
the three worlds, on account of that ardent compassion of his 
for all creatures. 

That made all his relations impatient with envy ; and 
thinking that he and his father would be easy to conquer, as 
they were deprived of the calamity-averting tree which they 
had bestowed on the world, they put their heads together and 
formed a design, and then girded on their harness for war, 
to deprive Jimutavahana and his father of their realm. 

When Jimutavahana saw that, he said to his father : 
" Father, what other has might, when thou hast taken up 
arms ? But what generous man desires to possess a realm, 
if he must do so by slaying his relations for the sake of this 
wicked perishable body ? So of what use is sovereignty to 
us ? We will depart to some other place, and practise virtue 
that brings happiness in both worlds. Let these miserable 
relations that covet our kingdom, joy their fill ! " 

When Jimutavahana said this, his father, Jimutaketu, 
answered him : " My son, I desire a realm for your sake 
only ; if you, being penetrated with compassion, give it up, 
of what value is it to me, who am old ? " When Jimuta- 
vahana's father agreed to his proposal, he went with him and 
his mother to the Malaya mountain, abandoning his kingdom. 
There he made him a retreat in the valley of a brook, the 
stream of which was hidden by sandalwood-trees, and spent 
his time in waiting on his parents. And there he made a 
friend of the name of Mitravasu, the son of Visvavasu, the 
King of the Siddhas, who dwelt on that mountain. 

Now, one day, as Jimutavahana was roaming about, he 
went into a temple of the goddess Gauri, that was situated 
in a garden, in order to worship in the presence of the 
image. And there he saw a beautiful maiden, accompanied 
by her attendants, playing on the lyre, intent on pleasing 


the daughter of the mountain. 1 And the deer were listening 
to the sweet sound of the lyre in the musical performance, 
standing motionless, as if abashed at beholding the beauty 
of her eyes. 2 She had a black pupil in her white eye, and 
it seemed as if it strove to penetrate to the root of her ear. 3 
She was thin and elegant in her waist, which appeared as 
if the Creator had compressed it in his grasp when making 
her, and deeply impressed on it the marks of his fingers 
in the form of wrinkles. 4 The moment Jimutavahana saw 
that beauty, it seemed as if she entered by his eyes and stole 
away his heart. And when the maiden saw him, adorning the 
garden, producing longing and disturbance of soul, looking 
as if he were the God of Spring retired to the forest through 
disgust at the burning up of the body of the God of Love, 
she was overpowered with affection, and so bewildered that 
her lyre, as if it had been a friend, became distracted and 

Then Jimutavahana said to an attendant of hers : " What 
is your friend's auspicious name, and what family does she 
adorn ? " When the attendant heard that, she said : " She 
is the sister of Mitravasu, and the daughter of Visvavasu, the 
King of the Siddhas, and her name is Malayavatl." When 
she had said this to Jimutavahana, the discreet woman 
asked the son of the hermit, who had come with him, his 
name and descent, and then she made this brief remark to 
Malayavatl, smiling as she spoke : " My friend, why do you 
not welcome this prince of the Vidyadharas who has come 
here ? For he is a guest worthy of being honoured by the 
whole world." When she said this, that daughter of the 
King of the Siddhas was silent, and her face was cast down 
through shame. Then her attendant said to Jimutavahana : 

1 I.e. Parvati or Durga. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 90, and Baring-Gould's remarks in his Curious Myths of 
the Middle Ages, new edition, "The Piper of Hamelin," p. 417 et seq. For 
numerous analogues see Chauvin, op. cit., viii, pp. 155-156. n.m.p. 

3 Here there is an insipid pun about the army of the Pandavas penetrating 
by the help of Arjuna the host of Karna. There seems to be an allusion to 
Krishna also. For vivikshathn the Sanskrit College MS. reads vimathnatim. 

4 Kshemendra's description is much more detailed. See note at the end 
of the chapter. n.m.p. 


" The princess is bashful, permit me to show you the proper 
courtesy in her place." So she alone gave him a garland with 
the arghya. Jimutavahana, as soon as the garland was given 
to him, being full of love, took it, and threw it round the 
neck of Malay avati. And she, looking at him with loving, 
sidelong looks, placed, as it were, a garland of blue lotuses 
on him. 

Thus they went through a sort of silent ceremony of 
mutual election, and then a maid came and said to that 
Siddha maiden : " Princess, your mother desires your 
presence ; come at once." When the princess heard that, 
she withdrew regretfully and reluctantly from the face of her 
beloved her gaze, that seemed to be fastened to it with the 
arrows of love, and managed, not without a struggle, to return 
to her house. And Jimutavahana, with his mind fixed on 
her, returned to his hermitage. 

And when Malayavati had seen her mother, she went at 
once and flung herself down on her bed, sick of separation 
from her beloved. Then her eyes were clouded, as it were, 
by the smoke of the fire of love that burnt in her bosom, she 
shed floods of tears, and her body was tortured with heat ; 
and though her attendants anointed her with sandalwood 
unguent, 1 and fanned her with the leaves of lotuses, she 
could not obtain any relief on the bed, in the lap of her 
attendant or on the ground. Then the day retired some- 
where with the glowing evening, and the moon ascending 
kissed the laughing forehead of the east, and though urged 
on by love she was too bashful to send a female messenger 
to her chosen one, or to adopt any of the measures that 
lovers usually take ; but she seemed loth to live. And she 
was contracted in her heart, and she passed that night, which 
the moon made disagreeable to her, like a lotus which closes 
at night, and bewilderment hung round her, like a cloud of 

And in the meanwhile Jimutavahana, who was tortured 
at parting with her, though lying on his bed, spent the night 
as one who had fallen into the hands of Kama ; though his 
glow of love was of recent birth, a pallid hue began to show 

1 See note, pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


itself in him ; and though shame made him dumb, he uttered 
the pain which love produced. 

Next morning he returned with excessive longing to that 
temple of Gauri where he had seen the daughter of the King 
of the Siddhas. And while distracted with the fire of passion 
he was being consoled by the hermit's son, who had followed 
him there. Malay avati also came there ; for, as she could 
not bear separation, she had secretly gone out alone into a 
solitary place to abandon the body. And the girl, not seeing 
her lover, who was separated from her by a tree, thus prayed, 
with eyes full of tears, to the goddess Gauri : " Goddess, 
though my devotion to thee has not made Jimutavahana 
my husband in this life, let him be so in my next life ! " As 
soon as she had said this, she made a noose with her upper 
garment, and fastened it to the branch of the asokd tree in 
front of the temple of Gauri. And she said : " Prince 
Jimutavahana, lord renowned over the whole world, how is 
it that, though thou art compassionate, thou hast not 
delivered me ? " When she had said this, she was proceed- 
ing to fasten the noose round her throat, but at that very 
moment a voice spoken by the goddess came from the air : 
" Daughter, do not act recklessly, for the Vidyadhara prince, 
Jimutavahana, the future emperor, shall be thy husband." 

When the goddess said this, Jimutavahana also heard 
it, and seeing his beloved he went up to her, and his friend 
accompanied him. And his friend, the hermit's son, said to 
the young lady : " See, here is that very bridegroom whom 
the goddess has in reality bestowed upon you." And Jimuta- 
vahana, uttering many tender loving speeches, removed with 
his own hand the noose from her neck. Then they seemed 
to have experienced, as it were, a sudden shower of nectar, 
and Malayavati remained with bashful eye, drawing lines 
upon the ground. And at that moment, one of her com- 
panions, who was looking for her, suddenly came up to her, 
and said in joyful accents : " Friend, you are lucky, and 
you are blessed with good fortune in that you have obtained 
the very thing which you desired. For, this very day, Prince 
Mitravasu said to the great king your father, in my hearing : 
' Father, that Vidyadhara prince, Jimutavahana, the object 



of the world's reverence, the bestower of the wishing-tree, 
who has come here, should be complimented by us, as he is 
our guest ; and we cannot find any other match as good as 
him ; so let us pay him a compliment by bestowing on him 
this pearl of maidens, MalayavatL' The king approved, 
saying, ' So be it,' and your brother, Mitravasu, has now gone 
to the hermitage of the illustrious prince on this very errand. 
And I know that your marriage will take place at once, so 
come back to your palace, and let this illustrious prince also 
return to his dwelling." When the princess's companion said 
this to her, she departed slowly from that place, rejoicing 
and regretful, frequently turning her head. 

And Jimutavahana also returned quickly to his hermitage, 
and heard from Mitravasu, who came there, his commission, 
which fulfilled all his wishes, and welcomed it with joy. And 
as he remembered his former births, he gave him an account 
of one in which Mitravasu was his friend, and Mitravasu's 
sister his wife. 1 Then Mitravasu was pleased, and informed 
the parents of Jimutavahana, who were also delighted, and 
returned, to the joy of his own parents, having executed his 
mission successfully. And that very day he took Jimuta- 
vahana to his own house, and he made preparations for the 
marriage festival with a magnificence worthy of his magic 
power, and on that very same auspicious day he celebrated 
the marriage of his sister to that Vidyadhara prince ; and 
then Jimutavahana, having obtained the desire of his heart, 
lived with his newly married wife, Malayavati. And once on 
a time, as he was roaming about out of curiosity with Mitra- 
vasu on that Malaya mountain, he reached a wood on the 
shore of the sea. There he saw a great many heaps of bones, 
and he said to Mitravasu : " What creatures are these whose 
bones are piled up here ? " Then his brother-in-law, Mitra- 
vasu, said to that compassionate man : " Listen, I will tell 
you the story of this in a few words. Long, long ago, Kadru, 
the mother of the snakes, conquered Vinata, the mother of 
Garuda, in a treacherous wager, and made her a slave. 
Through enmity caused thereby, the mighty Garuda, 2 though 

1 See Vol. II, p. 141. n.m.p. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. has baldd for the ball of Brockhaus' edition. 



he had delivered his mother, began to eat the snakes of the 
sons of Kadru. He was thenceforth continually in the habit 
of entering Patala, and some he smote, some he trampled, and 
some died of fright. 

" When Vasuki, the king of the snakes, saw that, he feared 
that his race would be annihilated at one fell swoop, so he 
supplicated Garuda, and made a compact with him, saying : 
4 King of birds, I will send you one snake every day to this 
southern sea for your meal. But you must by no means 
enter Patala, for what advantage will you gain by destroying 
the snakes at one blow ? ' When the king of the snakes said 
this, the mighty Garuda saw that the proposal was to his 
advantage, and agreed to it. And from that time forth the 
king of birds eats every day, on the shore of the sea, a snake 
sent by Vasuki. So these are heaps of bones of snakes de- 
voured by Garuda, that have gradually accumulated in course 
of time, and come to look like the peak of a mountain." 

When Jimutavahana, that treasure-house of courage 
and compassion, had heard, inly grieving, this story from the 
mouth of Mitravasu, he thus answered him : " One cannot 
help grieving for King Vasuki, who, like a coward, offers up 
every day his subjects to their enemy with his own hand. As 
he has a thousand faces and a thousand mouths, why could 
he not say with one mouth to Garuda : ' Eat me first ' ? And 
how could he be so cowardly as to ask Garuda to destroy 
his race, and so heartless as to be able to listen continually, 
unmoved, to the lamentation of the Naga women ? * And 
to think that Garuda, though the son of Kasyapa and a hero, 

the "wager" see Vol. II, p. 150. For a note on the Garuda bird, see 

Vol. I, pp. 103-105. In his review on my first volume, in Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 
October 1924, Mr R. P. Dewhurst queries the statement that the fabulous 
bird becomes the eorosh of the Zend {i.e. Avestan) literature, as there is no 
such word in either of the two Avestan dictionaries. Subsequent correspon- 
dence with Mr Dewhurst has shown that the word eorosh (quoted by Burton, 
Nights, vol. vi, p. 16ft 1 ) is probably due to a combination of a misreading and 
a misprint, and that it should be chanmrosh (also written chamrosh), which is 
a Pahlavi word occurring in the Bundehesh (50-58) and in the Mainyo i-Khirad 
(lxii, 37), and means a mythological bird which is said to be the chief of all 
birds, and to sit on the summit of Mount Alburz. n.m.p. 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads Tarkshyan nanakranda nityakarnana 


and though sanctified by being the bearer of Krishna, should 
do such an evil deed ! Alas the depths of delusion ! " When 
the noble-hearted one had said this, he formed this wish in 
his heart : " May I obtain the one essential object in this 
world by the sacrifice of the unsubstantial body ! May I 
be so fortunate as to save the life of one friendless terrified 
Naga by offering myself to Garuda ! " 

While Jimutavahana was going through these reflections, 
a doorkeeper came from Mitravasu's father to summon them, 
and Jimutavahana sent Mitravasu home, saying to him : " Go 
you on first, I will follow." And after he had gone, the com- 
passionate man roamed about alone, intent on effecting 
the object he had in view ; and he heard afar off a piteous 
sound of weeping. And he went on, and saw near a lofty 
rocky slab a young man of handsome appearance plunged 
in grief : an officer of some monarch seemed to have just 
brought him and left him there, and the young man was 
trying to induce by loving persuasions 1 an old woman, who 
was weeping there, to return. 

And while Jimutavahana was listening there in secret, 
melted with pity, eager to know who he could be, the old 
woman, overwhelmed with the weight of grief, began to look 
again and again at the young man, and to lament his hard 
lot in the following words : " Alas, Sankhachuda, you that 
were obtained by me by means of a hundred pangs ! Alas, 
virtuous one ! Alas, son, the only scion of our family, where 
shall I behold you again ? Darling, when this moon of your 
face is withdrawn, your father will fall into the darkness 
of grief; and how will he live to old age? How will your 
body, that would suffer even from the touch of the sun's 
rays, be able to endure the agony of being devoured by 
Garuda ? How comes it that providence and the king of 
the snakes were able to find out you, the only son of ill- 
starred me, though the world of snakes is wide ? " When 
she thus lamented, the young man, her son, said to her : " I 
am afflicted enough, as it is, mother ; why do you afflict me 
more ? Return home ; this is my last reverence to you, 
for I know it will soon be time for Garuda to arrive here." 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. has sanunayam. 


When the old woman heard that, she cast her sorrowful eyes 
all round the horizon, and cried aloud : " I am undone ; who 
will deliver my son ? " 

In the meanwhile Jimutavahana, that portion of a 
Bodhisattva, having heard and seen that, said to himself, 
being profoundly touched with pity : "I see this is an 
unhappy snake, of the name of Sankhachuda, who has now 
been sent by King Vasuki, to serve as food for Garuda. And 
this is his aged mother, whose only son he is, and who had 
followed him here out of love, and is lamenting piteously 
from grief. So, if I cannot save this wretched Naga by 
offering up this exceedingly perishable body, alas ! my birth 
will have been void of fruit." 

When Jimutavahana had gone through these reflections 
he went joyfully up to the old woman, and said to her : 
" Mother, I will deliver your son." When the old woman 
heard that, she was alarmed and terrified, thinking that 
Garuda had come, and she cried out: "Eat me, Garuda; 
eat me!" Then Sankhachuda said : " Mother, do not be 
afraid. This is not Garuda. There is a great difference 
between this being, who cheers one like the moon, and the 
terrible Garuda." When Sankhachuda said this, Jimuta- 
vahana said : U Mother, I am a Vidyadhara, come to deliver 
your son ; for I will give my body, disguised in clothes, to the 
hungry Garuda; and do you return home, taking your son 
with you." 

When the old woman heard that, she said : " By no means, 
for you are my son in a still higher sense, because you have 
shown such compassion for us at such a time." When 
Jimutavahana heard that, he replied : " You two ought 
not to disappoint my wish in this matter." And when he 
persistently urged this, Sankhachuda said to him : "Of a 
truth, noble-hearted man, you have displayed your com- 
passionate nature, but I cannot consent to save my body 
at the cost of yours ; for who ought to save a common stone 
by the sacrifice of a gem ? The world is full of people like 
myself, who feel pity only for themselves, but people like 
you, who are inclined to feel pity for the whole world, are 
few in number ; besides, excellent man, I shall never find it 


in my heart to defile the pure race of Sankhapala, as a spot 
defiles the disk of the moon." 

When Sankhachuda had in these words attempted to 
dissuade him, he said to his mother : " Mother, go back, and 
leave this terrible wilderness. Do you not see here this rock 
of execution, smeared with the clotted gore of snakes, awful as 
the luxurious couch of death ! But I will go to the shore 
of the sea, and worship the lord Gokarna, and quickly return, 
before Garuda comes here." When Sankhachuda had said 
this, he took a respectful leave of his sadly wailing mother, 
and went to pay his devotions to Gokarna. 

And Jimutavahana made up his mind that, if Garuda 
arrived in the meantime, he would certainly be able to carry 
out his proposed self-sacrifice for the sake of another. And 
while he was thus reflecting, he saw the trees swaying with 
the wind of the wings of the approaching king of birds, and 
seeming, as it were, to utter a cry of dissuasion. So he came 
to the conclusion that the moment of Garuda's arrival was 
at hand ; and, determined to offer up his life for another, he 
ascended the rock of sacrifice. And the sea, churned by 
the wind, seemed with the eyes of its bright-flashing jewels 
to be gazing in astonishment at his extraordinary courage. 
Then Garuda came along, obscuring the heaven, and swoop- 
ing down, struck the great-hearted hero with his beak, and 
carried him off from that slab of rock. And he quickly 
went off with him to a peak of the Malaya mountain, to eat 
him there ; and Jimutavahana 's crest- jewel was torn from his 
head, and drops of blood fell from him, as he was carried 
through the air. And while Garuda was eating that moon 
of the Vidyadhara race, he said to himself : " May my body 
thus be offered in every birth for the benefit of others, and 
let me not enjoy heaven or liberation, if they are dissociated 
from the opportunity of benefiting my neighbour." And 
while he was saying this to himself, a rain of flowers fell 
from heaven. 

In the meanwhile his crest- jewel, dripping with his blood, 
had fallen in front of his wife Malayavati. When she saw 
it, she recognised it with much trepidation as her husband's 
crest- jewel, and as she was in the presence of her father-in- 


law and mother-in-law she showed it them with tears. And 
they, when they saw their son's crest-jewel, were at once 
beside themselves to think what it could mean. Then 
King Jimutaketu and Queen KanakavatI found out by their 
supernatural powers of meditation the real state of the case, 
and proceeded to go quickly with their daughter-in-law to the 
place where Garuda and Jimutavahana were. In the mean- 
while Sankhachuda returned from worshipping Gokarna and 
saw, to his dismay, that that stone of sacrifice was wet with 
blood. Then the worthy fellow exclaimed with tears : " Alas, 
I am undone, guilty creature that I am ! Undoubtedly 
that great-hearted one, in the fullness of his compassion, 
has given himself to Garuda in my stead. So I will find 
out to what place the enemy has carried him off in this 
moment. If I find him alive, I shall escape sinking in the 
mire of dishonour." While he said this, he went following 
up the track of the drops of blood, that he saw lying close 
to one another on the ground. 

In the meanwhile Garuda, who was engaged in devouring 
Jimutavahana, saw that he was pleased ; so he immediately 
stopped, and said to himself : " Strange ! This must be 
some matchless hero ; for the great-hearted one rejoices 
even while I am devouring him, but does not lose his life. 
And on so much of his body as is not lacerated he has all 
the hairs erect, as it were a coat of mail ; and his look is 
lovingly fixed on me, as if I were his benefactor. So he can- 
not be a snake ; he must be some saint ; I will cease from 
devouring him, and question him." While Garuda was thus 
musing, Jimutavahana said to him : " King of birds, why 
do you desist ? There is flesh and blood in my body, and 
you are not satisfied as yet, so go on eating it." When the 
king of birds heard this, he asked him with much astonish- 
ment : " Great-souled one, you are not a snake, so tell me 
who you are." But Jimutavahana answered Garuda: "In 
truth I am a Naga ; what is the meaning of this question of 
yours ? Do according to your kind, for who that is not foolish 
would act 1 contrary to the purpose he had undertaken ? ' : 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads vidadhyad. This is the reading which 
I follow here, in preference to that of Brockhaus. 


While he was giving this answer to Garuda, Sankhachuda 
came near, and called out to Garuda from a distance : 
" Do not do a rash and criminal deed, son of Vinata. What 
delusion is this that possesses you ? He is not a snake ; lo ! 
I am the snake designed for you." When Sankhachtida had 
said this he came up quickly, and standing between those 
two, and seeing Garuda bewildered, he went on to say : 
" Why are you perplexed ; do you not see that I have hoods 
and two tongues ; and do you not observe the charming 
appearance of this Vidyadhara ? " While Sankhachuda 
was saying this, the wife and parents of Jimutavahana came 
there with speed. And his parents, seeing him mangled, 
immediately cried out : " Alas, son ! Alas, Jimutavahana ! 
Alas, compassionate one, who have given your life for others ! 
How could you, son of Vinata, do this thoughtless deed ? " 

When Garuda heard this, he was grieved, and he said : 
" What ! Have I in my delusion eaten an incarnation of a 
Bodhisattva ? This is that very Jimutavahana who sacri- 
fices his life for others, the renown of whose glory pervades 
all these three worlds. So, now that he is dead, the time has 
arrived for my wicked self to enter the fire. Does the fruit 
of the poison- tree of unrighteousness ever ripen sweet ? " 
While Garuda was distracted with these reflections, Jimuta- 
vahana, having beheld his family, fell down in the agony of 
his wounds, and died. 

Then his parents, tortured with sorrow, lamented, and 
Sankhachuda again and again blamed his own negligence. 
But Jimutavahana's wife, Malayavati, looked towards the 
heavens, and in accents choked with tears thus reproached 
the goddess Ambika, who before was pleased with her, and 
granted her a boon : "At that time, O goddess Gauri, thou 
didst promise me that I should have for husband one destined 
to be paramount sovereign over all the kings of the Vidya- 
dharas, so how comes it that thou hast falsified thy promise 
to me?" When she said this, Gauri became visible, and 
saying, " Daughter, my speech was not false," she quickly 
sprinkled Jimutavahana with nectar from her pitcher. 1 

1 Cf. Waldau's Bohmische Marchen, p. 594, and see Bernhard Schmidt's 
Griechische Marchen, p. 106. 


That made the successful hero Jimutavahana at once rise 
up more splendid than before, with all his limbs free from 

He rose up, and prostrated himself before the goddess, 
and then all prostrated themselves, and the goddess said to 
him : " My son, I am pleased with this sacrifice of thy body, 
so I now anoint thee with this hand of mine emperor over 
the Vidyadharas, and thou shalt hold the office for a kalpa." 
With these words Gauri sprinkled Jimutavahana with water 
from her pitcher and, after she had been worshipped, dis- 
appeared. And thereupon a heavenly rain of flowers fell on 
that spot, and the drums of the gods sounded joyously in 
the sky. 

Then Garuda, bending low, said to Jimutavahana : 
" Emperor, I am pleased with thee, as thou art an un- 
paralleled hero, since thou, of soul matchlessly generous, 
hast done this wonderful deed, that excites the astonishment 
of the three worlds, and is inscribed on the walls of the egg 
of Brahma. So give me an order, and receive from me 
whatever boon thou dost desire." When Garuda said this, 
the great-hearted hero said to him : " Thou must repent, and 
never again devour the snakes ; and let these snakes, whom 
thou didst devour before, whose bones only remain, return 
to life." Thereupon Garuda said : " So be it ; from this day 
forth I will never eat the snakes again ; heaven forfend ! 
As for those that I ate on former occasions, let them return 
to life." 

Then all the snakes that he had eaten before, whose 
bones alone remained, rose up unwounded, restored to life by 
the nectar of his boon. Then the gods, the snakes and the 
hermit bands assembled there full of joy, and so the Malaya 
mountain earned the title of the three worlds. And then all 
the kings of the Vidyadharas heard by the favour of Gauri 
the strange story of Jimutavahana ; and they immediately 
came and bowed at his feet, and after he had dismissed 
Garuda, they took him to the Himalayas, accompanied by 
his rejoicing relations and friends, a noble emperor, whose 
great inauguration ceremony had been performed by Gauri 
with her own hands. There Jimutavahana, in the society 


of his mother and father, and of Mitravasu and Malayavati, 
and of Sankhachuda, who had gone to his own house, and 
returned again, long enjoyed the dignity of emperor of 
the Vidyadharas, rich in jewels, which had been gained by 
his marvellous and extraordinarily heroic action. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

Having told this noble and interesting tale, the Vetala 
proceeded to put another question to King Trivikramasena : 
" So tell me, which of those two was superior in fortitude, 
Sankhachuda or Jimutavahana ? And the conditions are 
those which I mentioned before." When King Trivikrama- 
sena heard this question of the Vetala's he broke his silence, 
through fear of a curse, and said, with calm composure : 
" This behaviour was nowise astonishing in Jimutavahana, 
as he had acquired this virtue in many births, but Sankha- 
chuda really deserves praise, for that, after he had escaped 
death, he ran after his enemy Garuda, who had found another 
self-offered victim 1 and had gone a long distance with him, 
and importunately offered him his body." 

When that excellent Vetala had heard this speech of that 
king's he left his shoulder and again went to his own place, 
and the king again pursued him as before. 

1 The MS. in the Sanskrit College reads any am vrittatmanam : any am at 
any rate must be right. 



In the passage on p. 52, describing the beauty of Malayavati, we have 
one of the few places where Kshemendra is more prolix than Somadeva. It 
is a good example of the difference in purpose of the two authors. Somadeva 
aims at giving an exact copy of the work before him, and does not indulge in 
rhetorical elaborations of his own invention whenever opportunity offers. This, 
on the other hand, is just what Kshemendra does, and whenever a chance 
occurs for expatiating on a woman's beauty or some rather arresting natural 
or unnatural phenomena, he is unable to let the opportunity slip. 

In this instance he takes twelve slokas to describe Malayavati's beauty, 
beginning at the soles of her feet and ending with the hair of her head. The 
following translation has been specially made by Dr L. D. Barnett : 

Brihatkathamanjari Slokas 792-803 

792. Hearing this, being attracted by curiosity, he entered the residence of 

the Mountain's Daughter and beheld a lotus-eyed maiden, the quint- 
essence of the world. 

793. Bright was the pair of her lotus-feet, coloured like buds of coral, as 

though it had moisture clinging to it from treading an ocean of passion 
[i.e. raga ; lit. red colour]. 

794. The female swan of beauty was brightly displayed in the pair of her 

slender legs, which were like a couple of young stalks in the lotus-pool 
of loveliness. 

795. She bore hips which were rods of the plantain-tree for the peacock of 

dalliance, resembling an arch of lovely ivory in the city of the God 
of the Flower-bow, 

796. which were a pair of sandbanks in the river of beauty, a couple of litters 

for Rati. Her loins were Kama's own city, of which the moat was her 

797. Kama, when disturbed by the fire of Siva's wrath, had plunged into the 

eddies of the pool of her navel, and was traceable there by the smoky 
streak of its line of hairs. 

798. Because of the buds of rays from her brilliant pearl-necklace her breasts 

had become like a pair of ruddy geese having sprouts of young lotus- 
stalks stuck in their mouths. 

799. Her arms, graceful as creepers on the sandal-tree of youth, were adorned 

with snakes consisting of rays from the sapphires of the bracelets on 
her upper and lower arms. 

800. By the beauties of her lips the sylvan line of leaf-buds created, as it were, 

by Spring, Kama's young son, became dusky. 

801. The crowd of her ogling glances, coming under the sunshade of her 

brow high above the clear-cut upright rod of her nose, attained the 
nature of unboundedly generous givers of lotuses. 



802. She bore a line of curls like a row of bees on the lotus of her face. 

Seeing her, who was like a eulogy on the king Good Fortune presented 
by Kama, 

803. he became engrossed in her, having his eyes staring with wonder, speedily 
stirred to trembling by Kama in his new incarnation. 



163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN the brave King Trivikramasena went back 
once more to the simsapd tree, and taking the Vetala 
from it, carried him off on his shoulder. And when 
he had set out, the Vetala said to him, from his perch on his 
shoulder : " Listen, King ; to cheer your toil, I will tell you 
the following tale. 

163g (17). The Beautiful Unmddini * 

There was a city of the name 2 of Kanakapura situated 
on the bank of the Ganges, in which the bounds of virtue 
were never transgressed, and which was inaccessible to the 
demon Kali. In it there was a king rightly named Yaso- 
dhana, who, like a rocky coast, protected the earth against 
the sea of calamity. When Destiny framed him, she seemed 
to blend together the moon and the sun, for although he 
delighted the world, the heat of his valour was scorching, 
and the circle of his territory never waned. This king was 
unskilled 3 in slandering his neighbour, but skilled in the 
meaning of the Sastras, he showed poverty in crime, not in 
treasure and military force. His subjects sang of him as 
one afraid only of sin, covetous only of glory, averse to the 
wives of others, all compact of valour, generosity and love. 

In that capital of that sovereign there was a great 
merchant, and he had an unmarried daughter, named 
Unmadini. Whoever there beheld her was at once driven 
mad by the wealth of her beauty, which was enough to be- 
wilder even the God of Love himself. And when she attained 
womanhood, her politic father, the merchant, went to King 

1 See the Appendix, pp. 241-244. n.m.p. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. reads prdg for nama. 

3 The Sanskrit College MS. gives mandyam for maurkhyaw. 



Yasodhana, and said to him : " King, I have a daughter 
to give in marriage, who is the pearl of the three worlds ; I 
dare not give her away to anyone else, without informing 
your Majesty. For to your Majesty belong all the jewels on 
the whole earth, so do me the favour of accepting or rejecting 

When the king heard this report from the merchant, he 
sent off, with due politeness, his own Brahmans, to see 
whether she had auspicious marks or not. The Brahmans 
went and saw that matchless beauty of the three worlds, 
and were at once troubled and amazed ; but when they had 
recovered their self-control they reflected : " If the king gets 
hold of this maiden the kingdom will be ruined, for his 
mind will be thrown off its balance by her, and he will not 
regard his kingdom ; so we must not tell the king that she 
possesses auspicious marks." When they had deliberated 
to this effect, 1 they went to the king, and said falsely to 
him : " She has inauspicious marks." Accordingly the king 
declined to take that merchant's daughter as his wife. 

Then, by the king's orders, the merchant, the father of the 
maiden Unmadini, gave her in marriage to the commander of 
the king's forces, named Baladhara. And she lived happily 
with her husband in his house, but she thought that she had 
been dishonoured by the king's abandoning her on account 
of her supposed inauspicious marks. 

And as time went on, the lion of spring came to that 
place, slaying the elephant of winter, that, with flowering 
jasmine creepers for tusks, had ravaged the thick-clustering 
lotuses. And it sported in the wood, with luxuriant clusters 
of flowers for mane, and with mango buds for claws. At that 
season King Yasodhana, mounted on an elephant, went out 
to see the high festival of spring in that city of his. And then 
a warning drum was beaten, to give notice to all matrons 
to retire, as it was apprehended that the sight of his beauty 
might prove their ruin. 

When Unmadini heard that drum, she showed herself to 
the king on the roof of her palace, to revenge the insult he 
had offered her by refusing her. And when the king saw 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. gives mankshu for mantram. 


her, looking like a flame shooting up from the fire of love, 
when fanned by spring and the winds from the Malaya 
mountain, he was sorely troubled. And gazing on her 
beauty, that pierced deep into his heart, like a victorious 
dart of Kama, he immediately swooned. His servants 
managed to bring him round, and when he had entered his 
palace he found out from them, by questioning them, that 
this was the very beauty who had been formerly offered to 
him, and whom he had rejected. Then the king banished 
from his realm those who reported that she had inauspicious 
marks, and thought on her with longing, night after night, 
saying to himself: "Ah ! how dull of soul and shameless is 
the moon, that he continues to rise, while her spotless face 
is there, a feast to the eyes of the world ! " Thinking thus 
in his heart, the king, being slowly wasted by the smoulder- 
ing fire of love, pined away day by day. But through 
shame he concealed the cause of his grief, and with difficulty 
was he induced to tell it to his confidential servants, who 
were led by external signs to question him. Then they said : 
" Why fret yourself ? Why do you not take her to yourself, 
as she is at your command ? " But the righteous sovereign 
would not consent to follow their advice. 

Then Baladhara, the commander-in-chief, heard the 
tidings, and, being truly devoted to him, he came and flung 
himself at the feet of his sovereign, and made the following 
petition to him : " King, you should look upon this female 
slave as your slave girl, not as the wife of another; and I 
bestow her freely upon you, so deign to accept my wife. Or 
I will abandon her in the temple here ; then, King, there 
will be no sin in your taking her to yourself, as there might 
be if she were a matron." When the commander-in-chief 
persistently entreated the king to this effect, the king 
answered him, with inward wrath : " How could I, being a 
king, do such an unrighteous deed ? If I desert the path 
of right, who will remain loyal to his duty ? And how can 
you, though devoted to me, urge me to commit a crime, which 
will bring momentary pleasure, 1 but cause great misery in the 

1 Duhkhavahe, the reading of Brockhaus' edition, is obviously a misprint 
for sukhavahe,, which I find in the Sanskrit College MS. 


next world ? And if you desert your lawful wife I shall not 
allow your crime to go unpunished, for who in my position 
could tolerate such an outrage on morality ? So death is for 
me the best course." With these words the king vetoed 
the proposal of the commander-in-chief, for men of noble 
character lose their lives sooner than abandon the path of 
virtue. And in the same way the resolute-minded monarch 
rejected the petition of his citizens, and of the country people, 
who assembled, and entreated him to the same effect. 

Accordingly, the king's body was gradually consumed 
by the fire of the grievous fever of love, and only his name 
and fame remained. 1 But the commander-in-chief could 
not bear the thought that the king's death had been brought 
about in this way, so he entered the fire ; for the actions of 
devoted followers are inexplicable. 2 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, sitting on the shoulder of King Trivi- 
kramasena, had told this wonderful tale, he again said to 
him : "So tell me, King, which of these two was superior in 
loyalty, the general or the king ; and remember, the previous 
condition still holds." When the Vetala said this, the king 
broke silence, and answered him : "Of these two the king 
was superior in loyalty." When the Vetala heard this, he 
said to him reproachfully : " Tell me, King, how can you 
make out that the general was not his superior ? For, 
though he knew the charm of his wife's society by long 
familiarity, he offered such a fascinating woman to the king 
out of love for him ; and when the king was dead he burnt 
himself ; but the king refused the offer of his wife without 
knowing anything about her." 

When the Vetala said this to the king, the latter laughed, 
and said : " Admitting the truth of this, what is there as- 
tonishing in the fact that the commander-in-chief, a man of 

1 May we compare this king to Daphnis, who rbv avrw avv Trucpov e/xoTa, 
kolL cs reXos avvt fxocpas ? 

2 Cf. the behaviour of the followers of the Emperor Otho, who threw 
themselves on his pyre, after he had killed himself in his tent. 


good family, acted thus for his master's sake, out of regard 
for him ? For servants are bound to preserve their masters 
even by the sacrifice of their lives. But kings are inflated 
with arrogance, uncontrollable as elephants, and when bent 
on enjoyment they snap as under the chain of the moral law. 
For their minds are overweening, and all discernment is 
washed out of them when the waters of inauguration are 
poured over them, and is, as it were, swept away by the 
flood. And the breeze of the waving chowries fans away 
the atoms of the sense of scripture taught them by old 
men, as it fans away flies and mosquitoes. And the royal 
umbrella keeps off from them the rays of truth, as well as 
the rays of the sun ; and their eyes, smitten by the gale of 
prosperity, do not see the right path. And so even kings 
that have conquered the world, like Nahusha and others, have 
had their minds bewildered by Mara, and have been brought 
into calamity. But this king, though his umbrella was para- 
mount in the earth, was not fascinated by Unmadini, fickle 
as the Goddess of Fortune ; indeed, sooner than set his foot 
on the wrong path, he renounced his life altogether ; therefore 
him I consider the more self-controlled of the two." 

When the Vetala heard this speech of the king's, he again 
rapidly quitted his shoulder by the might of his delusive 
power, and returned to his own place ; and the king followed 
him swiftly, as before, to recover him : for how can great 
men leave off in the middle of an enterprise which they have 
begun, even though it be very difficult ? 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN in that cemetery, full of flames of funeral 
pyres, as of demons, flesh- devouring, with lolling 
tongues of fire, the undaunted King Trivikramasena 
went back that same night to the simsapd tree. 

And there he unexpectedly saw many corpses of similar 
appearance hanging upon the tree, and they all seemed to 
be possessed by Vetalas. The king said to himself : " Ah ! 
what is the meaning of this ? Is this deluding Vetala doing 
this now in order to waste time ? For I do not know which 
of these many corpses here I ought to take. If this night 
shall pass away without my accomplishing my object I will 
enter the fire, I will not put up with disgrace." But the 
Vetala discovered the king's intention, and pleased with his 
courage he withdrew that delusion. Then the king beheld 
only one Vetala on the tree in the corpse of a man, and he 
took it down, and put it on his shoulder, and once more 
started off with it. And as he trudged along, the Vetala 
again said to him : " King, your fortitude is wonderful ; so 
listen to this my tale. 

163g (18). The Brahman's Son who failed to acquire the 

Magic Power 1 

There is a city called Ujjayini, inferior only to BhogavatI 
and Amaravati, which Siva, who was won by the toilsome 
asceticism of Gauri, being in love with the matchless pre- 
eminence of its excellence, himself selected as his habitation. 
It is full of various enjoyments, to be attained only by dis- 
tinguished well-doing ; in that city stiffness and hardness 
is seen only in the bosoms of the ladies, 2 curvature only in 

1 See Appendix, pp. 244-24-9. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, p. 30w 2 , 31m. n.m.p. 


their eyebrows, 1 and fickleness only in their rolling eyes ; 
darkness only in the nights ; crookedness only in the am- 
biguous phrases of poets ; madness only in elephants ; and 
coldness only in perils, sandalwood juice and the moon. 

In that city there was a learned Brahman, named Deva- 
svamin, who had offered many sacrifices, and possessed great 
wealth, and who was highly honoured by the king, whose 
name was Chandraprabha. In time there was born to that 
Brahman a son, named Chandrasvamin, and he, though he 
had studied the sciences, was, when he grew up, exclusively 
devoted to the vice of gambling. 2 Now once on a time that 
Brahman's son, Chandrasvamin, entered a great gambling- 
hall to gamble. Calamities seemed to be continually watch- 
ing that hall with tumbling dice for rolling eyes, like the 
black antelope in colour, and saying to themselves : " Whom 
shall we seize on here ? " And the hall, full of the noise of 
the altercations of gamblers, seemed to utter this cry : " Who 
is there whose wealth I could not take away ? I could im- 
poverish even Kuvera, the lord of Alaka." Then he entered 
the hall, and playing dice with gamblers, he lost his clothes 
and all, and then he lost borrowed money in addition. And 
when he was called upon to pay that impossible sum, he 
could not do it, so the keeper of the gambling-hall seized 
him and beat him with sticks. 3 And that Brahman's son, 
when beaten with sticks all over his body, made himself 
motionless as a stone, and to all appearance dead, and 
remained in that state. 

When he had remained there in that condition for two 
or three days, the proprietor of the gambling establishment 
got angry, and said, in the gambling-hall, to the gamblers 
who frequented it : " This fellow has begun to try on the 
petrifaction dodge, so take the spiritless wretch and throw 
him into some blind well ; but I will give you the money." 

1 Bhanga also means defeat. 

2 This vice was prevalent even in the Vedic age. See Zimmer, Alt- 
Indisches Leben, pp. 283-287 ; Muir's Sanskrit Texts, vol. v, pp. 425-430. It 
is well known that the plot of the Mahabharata principally turns on this 
vice. See Ocean, Vol. II, pp. 231a 1 , 232w. n.m.p. 

3 Compare the conduct of Mathura in the Mrichchhakatika. For the 
penniless state of the gambler see p. 1 95, and Gaal, Marchen der Magyaren, p. 3. 



When the proprietor said this to the gamblers they took 
up Chandrasvamin, and carried him to a distant wood, to look 
for a well. There an old gambler said to the others : " This 
fellow is all but dead ; so what is the good of throwing him 
into a well now ? So let us leave him here, and say that we 
left him in a well." All approved his speech, and agreed to 
do as he recommended. 

Then the gamblers left Chandrasvamin there and went 
their ways, and he rose up and entered an empty temple of 
Siva that stood near. There he recovered his strength a little, 
and reflected in his grief : " Alas ! being over- confiding, I 
have been robbed by these gamblers by downright cheating, 
so where can I go in this condition, naked, cudgelled and 
begrimed with dust ? What would my father, my relations 
or my friends say of me, if they saw me ? So I will remain 
here for the present, and at night I will go out, and see how 
I can make shift to get food, to satisfy my hunger." While 
he was going through these reflections, in hunger and naked- 
ness, the sun abated his heat, and abandoned his garment the 
sky, and went to the mountain of setting. 

Thereupon there came there a Pasupata ascetic, with his 
body smeared with ashes, with matted hair and a trident, 
looking like a second Siva. When he saw Chandrasvamin 
he said to him : " Who are you ? " Thereupon Chandra- 
svamin told him his story, and bowed before him, and the 
hermit, when he heard it, said to him : " You have arrived 
at my hermitage, as an unexpected guest, exhausted with 
hunger; so rise up, bathe and take a portion of the food 
I have obtained by begging." When the hermit said this 
to Chandrasvamin he answered : " Reverend sir, I am a 
Brahman ; how can I eat a part of your alms ? " 

When the hospitable hermit, who possessed magic powers, 
heard that, he entered his hut, and called to mind the science 
which produced whatever one desires, and the science ap- 
peared to him when he called it to mind, and said : " What 
shall I do for you ? " And he gave it this order : " Provide 
entertainment for this guest." The science answered : "I 
will." And then Chandrasvamin beheld a golden city rise 
up, with a garden attached to it, and full of female attendants. 


And those females came out of that city, and approached 
the astonished Chandrasvamin, and said to him : " Rise 
up, good sir; come, eat and forget your fatigue." Then 
they took him inside, and made him bathe, and anointed 
him ; and they put splendid garments on him, and took 
him to another magnificent dwelling. And there the young 
man beheld a young woman who seemed their chief, who was 
beautiful in all her limbs, and appeared to have been made 
by the Creator out of curiosity to see what he could do. 
She rose up, eager to welcome him, and made him sit 
beside her on her throne ; and he partook with her of heavenly 
food, and ate with much delight betel-nut, flavoured with 
five fruits. 

And next morning he woke up, and saw only that temple 
of Siva there, and neither that city, nor that heavenly lady, 
nor her attendants. Then the hermit came out of the hut, 
smiling, and asked him how he had enjoyed himself in the 
night, and the discreet Chandrasvamin, in his despondency, 
said to the hermit : " By your favour, reverend sir, I spent 
the night happily enough ; but now, without that heavenly 
lady, my life will depart." When the hermit heard that, 
being kind-hearted, he laughed and said to him : " Remain 
here ; you shall have exactly the same experiences this 
night also." When the hermit said this, Chandrasvamin 
consented to stay, and by the favour of the hermit he was 
provided, by the same means, with the same enjoyments 
every night. 

And at last he understood that this was all produced by 
magic science, so, one day, impelled by destiny, he coaxed 
that mighty hermit and said to him : " If, reverend sir, you 
really take pity on me, who have fled to you for protection, 
bestow on me that science, whose power is so great." When 
he urged this request persistently, the hermit said to him : 
" You cannot attain this science ; for it is attained under 
the water, and while the aspirant is muttering spells under 
the water, the science creates delusions to bewilder him, so 
that he does not attain success. For there he sees himself 
born again, and a boy, and then a youth, and then a young 
man, and married, and then he supposes that he has a son. 



And he is falsely deluded, supposing that one person is his 
friend and another his enemy, and he does not remember 
this birth, nor that he is engaged in a magic rite for acquir- 
ing science. But whoever, when he seems to have reached 
twenty-four years, is recalled to consciousness by the science 
of his instructor, and, being firm of soul, remembers his real 
life, and knows that all he supposes himself to experience is 
the effect of illusion, and though he is under the influence 
of it enters the fire, attains the science, and rising from the 
water sees the real truth. But if the science is not attained 
by the pupil on whom it is bestowed, it is lost to the teacher 
also, on account of its having been communicated to an unfit 
person. You can attain all the results you desire by my 
possession of the science ; why do you show this persistence ? 
Take care that my power is not lost, and that your enjoyment 
is not lost also." 

Though the hermit said this, Chandrasvamin persisted in 
saying to him : "I shall be able to do all that is required * ; 
do not be anxious about that." Then the hermit consented 
to give him the science. What will not good men do for the 
sake of those that implore their aid ? Then the Pasupata 
ascetic went to the bank of the river, and said to him : " My 
son, when, in repeating this charm, you behold that illusion, 
I will recall you to consciousness by my magic power, and 
you must enter the fire which you will see in your illusion. 
For I shall remain here all the time on the bank of the river 
to help you." When that prince of ascetics had said this, 
being himself pure, he duly communicated that charm to 
Chandrasvamin, who was purified and had rinsed his mouth 
with water. 

Then Chandrasvamin bowed low before his teacher, and 
plunged boldly into the river, while he remained on the 
bank. And while he was repeating over that charm in 
the water, he was at once bewildered by its deluding 
power, and cheated into forgetting the whole of that birth. 
And he imagined himself to be born in his own person in 
another town, as the son of a certain Brahman, and he 
slowly grew up. And in his fancy he was invested with the 

1 I read sakshyami, with the Sanskrit College MS. 


Brahmanical thread, and studied the prescribed sciences, and 
married a wife, and was absorbed in the joys and sorrows of 
married life, and in course of time had a son born to him, 
and he remained in that town engaged in various pursuits, 
enslaved by love for his son, devoted to his wife, with his 
parents and relations. 

While he was thus living through in his fancy a life other 
than his real one, the hermit, his teacher, employed the 
charm whose office it was to rouse him at the proper season. 
He was suddenly awakened from his reverie by the employ- 
ment of that charm, and recollected himself and that hermit, 
and became aware that all that he was apparently going 
through was magic illusion, and he became eager to enter 
the fire, in order to gain the fruit which was to be attained 
by the charm ; but he was surrounded by his elders, friends, 
superiors and relations, who all tried to prevent him. Still, 
though they used all kinds of arguments to dissuade him, 
being desirous of heavenly enjoyment, he went with his 
relations to the bank of the river, on which a pyre was pre- 
pared. There he saw his aged parents and his wife ready 
to die with grief, and his young children crying; and in his 
bewilderment he said to himself : " Alas ! my relations will 
all die if I enter the fire, and I do not know if that promise 
of my teacher's is true or not. So shall I enter the fire ? Or 
shall I not enter it ? After all, how can that promise of 
my teacher's be false, as it is so precisely in accordance with 
all that has taken place ? So, I will gladly enter the fire." 
When the Brahman Chandrasvamin had gone through these 
reflections, he entered the fire. 

And to his astonishment the fire felt as cool to him as 
snow. Then he rose up from the water of the river, the 
delusion having come to an end, and went to the bank. 
There he saw his teacher on the bank, and he prostrated 
himself at his feet, and when his teacher questioned him, he 
told him all his experiences, ending with the cool feel of the 
fire. Then his teacher said to him : " My son, I am afraid you 
have made some mistake in this incantation, otherwise how 
can the fire have become cool to you ? This phenomenon 
in the process of acquiring this science is unprecedented." 


When Chandrasvamin heard this remark of the teacher's 
he answered : " Reverend sir, I am sure that I made no 

Then the teacher, in order to know for certain, called 
to mind that science, and it did not present itself to him or 
his pupil. So, as both of them had lost the science, they left 
that place despondent. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story, he once more put 
a question to King Trivikramasena, after mentioning the 
same condition as before : " King, resolve this doubt of 
mine ; tell me, why was the science lost to both of them, 
though the incantation was performed in the prescribed 
way ? ' : When the brave king heard this speech of the 
Vetala's he gave him this answer : " I know, lord of magic, 
you are bent on wasting my time here ; still I will answer. 
A man cannot obtain success, even by performing correctly 
a difficult ceremony, unless his mind is firm, and abides in 
spotless courage, unhesitating and pure from wavering. But 
in that business the mind of that spiritless young Brahman 
wavered, even when roused by his teacher, 1 so his charm 
did not attain success, and his teacher lost his mastery over 
the charm, because he had bestowed it on an undeserving 

When the king had said this, the mighty Vetala again 
left his shoulder and went back invisible to his own place, 
and the king went back to fetch him as before. 

1 Prabodhya should, I think, be prabudhya. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went and took 
the Vetala from the simsapd tree, and putting him 
on his shoulder set out with him ; and as he was 
returning from the tree, the Vetala once more said to him : 
" Listen, King. I will tell you a delightful tale. 

163g (19). The Thief s Son 1 

There is a city named Vakrolaka, equal to the city of the 
gods ; in it there dwelt a king named Suryaprabha, equal 
to Indra. He, like Vishnu, rescued this earth, and bore it a 
long time on his arm, gladdening all men by his frame ever 
ready to bear their burdens. 2 In the realm of that king 
tears were produced only by contact with smoke ; there was 
no talk of death except in the case of the living death of 
starved lovers, and the only fines were the fine gold sticks 
in the hands of his warders. He was rich in all manner of 
wealth, and he had only one source of grief namely, that, 
though he had many wives, no son was born to him. 

Now, at this point of the story, there was a merchant, 
of the name of Dhanapala, in the great city of Tamralipti, 
the wealthiest of the wealthy. And he had born to him one 
daughter only, and her name was Dhanavati, who was shown 
by her beauty to be a Vidyadhari fallen by a curse. When she 
grew up to womanhood, the merchant died ; and his relations 
seized his property, as the king did not interfere to protect it. 3 

1 See Appendix, pp. 249, 250. n.m.p. 

2 It also means, in the case of Vishnu, " by his incarnation in the form 
of a boar." 

3 Both the D. text and also the corresponding passage in Kshemendra 
read the contrary to the B. text namely, that it was his relations, backed 
by the king, who tried to seize the wife's inheritance. See Speyer, op. cit., 
p. 136. N.M.P. 




Then the wife of that merchant, who was named Hiran- 
yavati, took her own jewels and ornaments, which she 
had carefully concealed, and left her house secretly at the 
beginning of the night, with her daughter DhanavatI, and 
fled, to escape from her husband's relations. And with 
difficulty did she get outside the town, leaning upon the 
hand of her daughter, for without her was the darkness of 
night, and within her the darkness of grief. And as she went 
along in the thick darkness outside the town, it chanced, so 
fate would have it, that she ran her shoulder against a thief 
impaled on a stake, whom she did not see. He was still 
alive, and his pain being aggravated by the blow he received 
from her shoulder, he said : " Alas ! who has rubbed salt 
into my wounds ? " The merchant's wife then and there 
said to him : " Who are you ? " He answered her : "I am 
a detected thief impaled here, 1 and though I am impaled, 
my breath has not yet left my body, wicked man that I am. 
So tell me, lady, who you are and whither you are going in 
this manner." When the merchant's wife heard this, she 
told him her story ; and at that moment the eastern quarter 
adorned her face with the outshining moon, as with a beauty- 

Then, all the horizon being lighted up, the thief saw the 
merchant's daughter, the maiden DhanavatI, and said to 
her mother : " Listen to one request of mine : I will give 
you a thousand pieces of gold ; come, give me this maiden 
daughter of yours to wife." She laughed, and said : " What 
do you want with her ? " Then the thief replied : "I am 
now as good as dead, and I have no son ; and you know, a 
sonless man does not inherit the worlds of bliss. But, if you 
agree to my proposal, whatever son she may give birth to 
by my appointment, whoever may be his father, will be the 
issue raised up to me. This is the reason why I ask for 
her, but do you accomplish that desire of mine." When the 
merchant's widow heard this, she consented to it out of 
avarice. And she brought water from somewhere or other, 
and poured it on the hand of that thief, and said : "I give 
you this my maiden daughter in marriage." 

1 There is probably a pun in suchitah. 


He then gave to her daughter the command aforesaid, 
and then said to the merchant's widow : " Go and dig at the 
foot of this banyan-tree, and take the gold you find there ; 
and when I am dead, have my body burned with the usual 
ceremonies, and throw my bones into some sacred water, 
and go with your daughter to the city of Vakrolaka. There 
the people are made happy by good government under King 
Suryaprabha, and you will be able to live as you like, free 
from anxiety, as you will not be persecuted." When the 
thief had said this, being thirsty he drank some water which 
she brought ; and his life came to an end, spent with the 
torture of impalement. 

Then the merchant's widow went and took the gold 
from the foot of the banyan-tree, and went secretly with 
her daughter to the house of a friend of her husband's ; and 
while she was there, she managed to get that thief's body 
duly burned, and had his bones thrown into sacred water, 
and all the other rites performed. And the next day she took 
that concealed wealth and went off with her daughter, and 
travelling along reached in course of time that city Vakrolaka. 
There she bought a house from a great merchant named 
Vasudatta, and lived in it with her daughter, Dhanavati. 

Now at that time there lived in that city a teacher of 
the name of Vishnusvamin. And he had a pupil, a very 
handsome Brahman, of the name of Manahsvamin. And 
he, though he was of high birth, and well educated, was so 
enslaved by the passions of youth that he fell in love with 
a courtesan of the name of Hamsavali. But she demanded a 
fee of five hundred gold dinars, and he did not possess this 
sum, so he was in a state of perpetual despondency. 

And one day that merchant's daughter, Dhanavati, saw 
him from the top of her palace, such as I have described, 
with attenuated but handsome frame. Her heart was cap- 
tivated by his beauty ; so she called to mind the injunction 
of that thief her husband, and artfully said to her mother, 
who was near her : " Mother, behold the beauty and youth 
of this young Brahman, how charming they are, raining 
nectar into the eyes of the whole world." When that mer- 
chant's widow heard this, she saw that her daughter was in 


love with the young Brahman, and she thought thus in her 
mind : " My daughter is bound by the orders of her husband 
to choose some man, in order to raise up issue to her husband, 
so why should she not invite this one ? " When she had 
gone through these reflections, she entrusted her wish to a 
confidential maid, and sent her to bring the Brahman for her 

The maid went and took that Brahman aside, and com- 
municated her mistress's wish to him, and that young and 
dissolute Brahman said to her : "If they will give me five 
hundred gold dinars for Hamsavali, I will go there for one 
night." When he said this to the maid, she went and com- 
municated it to the merchant's widow, and she sent the 
money to him by her hand. When Manahsvamin had re- 
ceived the money, he went with the maid to the private 
apartments of the widow's daughter, Dhanavati, who had 
been made over to him. Then he saw that expectant fair 
one, the ornament of the earth, as the partridge beholds the 
moonlight, and rejoiced ; and after passing the night there, 
he went away secretly next morning. 

And Dhanavati, the merchant's daughter, became preg- 
nant by him, and in due time she brought forth a son, whose 
auspicious marks foreshadowed his lofty destiny. She and 
her mother were much pleased at the birth of a son ; and 
then Siva manifested himself to them in a dream by night, 
and said to them : " Take this boy, as he lies in his cradle, 
and leave him, with a thousand gold pieces, early in the 
morning, at the door of King Sfiryaprabha. In this way all 
will turn out well." The merchant's widow and the mer- 
chant's daughter, having received this command from Siva, 
woke up, and told one another their dream. And relying 
upon the god, they took the boy and the gold, and laid them 
together at the gate of King Suryaprabha's palace. 1 

1 So in the legend of Pope Gregory the child is exposed with a sum of 
gold at its head, and a sum of silver at its feet {English Gesta, edited by 
Herrtage, No. lxi). The story will also be found in Simrock's Deutsche Volks- 
bilcher, vol. xi ; here we have the gold and silver, as in the Gesta. See also 
No. 85 in Gonzenbach's Sicilianishe M'drchen, with Dr Kohler's notes. Cf. 
Nos. v and vi in Prym and Socin's Syrische M'drchen for stories of exposed 

children who attain wealth and power. In folk-tales the u exposed child " is 

VOL. VII. p 


In the meanwhile Siva thus commanded in a dream King 
Suryaprabha, who was tormented with anxiety to obtain 
a son : " Rise up, King, somebody has placed at the gate of 
your palace a handsome child and some gold, take him as 
he lies in his cradle." When Siva had said this to the king, 
he woke up in the morning, and at that moment the warders 
came in and told him the same, and so he went out him- 
self, and seeing at the gate of the palace that boy with a 
heap of gold, and observing that he was of auspicious appear- 
ance, having his hands and feet marked with the line, the 
umbrella, the banner and other marks, he said, " Siva has 
given me a suitable child," and he himself took him up in 
his arms, and went into the palace with him. And he made 
a feast, and gave away an incalculable amount of wealth, so 
that only the word " poor " was without its proper wealth 
of signification. And King Suryaprabha spent twelve days in 
music, and dancing, and other amusements, and then he gave 
that son the name of Chandraprabha. 

And gradually Prince Chandraprabha increased in stature 
as well as in excellent character, delighting his dependents 
by both. And in course of time he grew up, and became 
capable of bearing the weight of the earth, winning over the 
subjects by his courage, his generosity, his learning and 
other accomplishments. And his father, King Suryaprabha, 
seeing that he possessed these qualities, appointed him his 
successor in the kingdom, and being an old man, and having 
accomplished all his ends in life, he went to Varanasi. And 
while that son of his, distinguished for policy, was ruling the 
earth, he abandoned his body at Varanasi, in the performance 
of severe asceticism. 

And that pious King Chandraprabha, hearing of the 
death of his father, lamented for him, and performed the 
usual ceremonies, and then said to his ministers : " How can 
I ever pay my debt to my father ? However I will make one 
recompense to him with my own hand. I will take his bones 

usually set adrift on a river by jealous relations, and subsequently rises to great 
prosperity. For this widely spread motif see Chauvin, op. cit., vii, p. 95 el seq., 
and Cosquin, "Le Lait de la Mere et le Coffre Flottant/' Etudes Folkloriques 
pp. 199-264. n.m. p. 


and duly fling them into the Ganges, and I will go to Gaya, 
and offer an obsequial cake to all the ancestors, and I will 
diligently perform a pilgrimage to all sacred waters, as far as 
the eastern sea." When the king said this, his ministers 
said to him : " Your Majesty, kings ought never to do these 
things, for sovereignty has many weak points, and cannot 
subsist a moment without being upheld. So you must pay 
this debt to your father by the instrumentality of another. 
What visiting of holy waters, other than the doing of your 
duty, is incumbent upon you ? Kings, who are ever carefully 
guarded, have nothing to do with pilgrimage, which is ex- 
posed to many dangers." When King Chandraprabha heard 
this speech of his ministers he answered them : " Away 
with doubts and hesitations ! I must certainly go for my 
father's sake; and I must visit the sacred waters while I 
am young and strong enough. Who knows what will take 
place hereafter, for the body perishes in a moment ? And you 
must guard my kingdom until I return." When the ministers 
heard this resolve of the king's they remained silent. So the 
king got ready all the requisites for the journey. 

Then, on an auspicious day, the king bathed, made offerings 
to the fire, gave complimentary presents to Brahmans, and 
ascended a chariot to which the horses were yoked, subdued 
in spirit and wearing the dress of an ascetic, 1 and started 
on his pilgrimage. With difficulty did he induce the feudal 
chiefs, the Rajputs, the citizens and the country people, who 
followed him as far as the frontier, to return, much against 
their will; and so, throwing the burden of his realm upon 
his ministers, King Chandraprabha set out in the company of 
his private chaplain, attended by Brahmans in chariots. He 
was diverted by beholding various garbs, and hearing various 
languages, and by the other distractions of travel ; and so, 
seeing on his way all kinds of countries, in course of time he 
reached the Ganges. And he gazed upon that river, which 
seemed with the ridges of its waves to be making a ladder 
for mortals to ascend into heaven by ; and which might be 
said to imitate Ambika, since it sprang from the mountain 

1 I read with the Sanskrit College MS. prayatah for prayatah. The latter 
reading, however, gives a fair sense. In si. 67 I read tishthaty. 


Himavat, and playfully pulled in its course the hair of Siva, 
and was worshipped by the divine Rishis and the Ganas. So 
he descended from his chariot, and bathed in that river, and 
threw into it, in accordance with pious custom, the bones of 
King Suryaprabha. 

And after he had given gifts, and performed the srdddha* 
he ascended the chariot, and set out, and in course of time 
reached Prayaga, 2 celebrated by Rishis, where the meeting 
streams of the Ganges and Yamuna gleam for the welfare of 
men, like the line of flame and the line of smoke of the sacri- 
ficial butter blending together. There King Chandraprabha 
fasted, and performed, with various pious actions, such as 
bathing, distribution of wealth, and so on, the solemn cere- 
mony of the srdddha, and then he went on to Varanasi, which 
seemed by the silken banners of its temples, tossed up and 
down by gusts of wind, to cry out from afar : " Come and 
attain salvation." 

In that city he fasted for three days, and then worshipped 
Siva with various meat-offerings, as became his own rank, 
and then set out for Gaya. As he travelled through the 
woods, the trees, which were bent down by the weight of their 
fruit, and in which the birds were sweetly singing, seemed at 
every step to be bowing before him and praising him at the 
same time ; and the winds, throwing about the woodland 
flowers, seemed to honour him with posies. And so he 
crossed the forest districts and reached the sacred hill of 
Gaya. 3 And there he duly performed a srdddha, in which he 

1 See Vol. I, p. 5671 1 . n.m.p. 

2 The modern Allahabad. See Vol. II, p. 11 On 1 , and Vol. IV, p. l66n\ 


3 Literally, "head of Gaya." When Gayasura was engaged in devotion 
on the hill Kolahal, about thirty miles from Gaya, Brahma and the other gods 
came to him, and asked him what object he had in view. He said that his 
wish was that his body might become the holiest thing in the world, so that 
all who touched it might at once obtain salvation. The request was granted. 
But Yama complained to Brahma that no one now came to hell, so that his 
position had become a sinecure. Thereupon Brahma, after taking counsel 
with the other gods, went to Gayasura, and asked him to give his body for 
a place on which to perform a sacrifice. He consented. Then Brahma per- 
formed his sacrifice on the body of Gayasura, placed several gods on it, and 
made it immovable. His body now lies with its head towards the north and 



bestowed many gifts on Brahmans, and then he entered the 
Holy Wood. And while he was offering the sacrificial cake 
to his father in the well of Gaya, there rose out of it three 
human hands to take the cake. When the king saw this, he 
was bewildered, and said to his own Brahmans : " What does 
this mean ? Into which hand am I to put the cake ? " They 
said to him : " King, this hand, in which an iron spike is seen, 
is certainly the hand of a thief ; and this second hand, which 
holds a colander, 1 is the hand of a Brahman ; and this third 
hand, which has a ring and the auspicious marks, is the hand 
of a king. So we do not know into which hand the sacrificial 
cake is to be put, or what it all means." When the Brahmans 
said this to the king, he was unable to arrive at any certain 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, on the shoulder of the king, had told 
this wonderful tale, he said to King Trivikramasena : " Now 
into whose hand should the cake have been put ? Let your 

its feet towards the south. It is therefore called Gayakshetra. The area of 
Gayakshetra is ten square miles. The interior part of Gayakshetra, about 
two square miles in extent, is called Gayasirah, or the head of Gaya. A more 
usual form appears to be Gayasirah, the head of the Asura Gaya. It is a little 
south-west of Bishnu Pad. The pilgrims offer pindas there. The principal 
part of Gayasirah is called Gayamukha. Sraddhas are performed there. 
Dharmaranya, which I have translated " Holy Wood," is a place in the east 
of Bodh Gaya, where Dharmaraja performed a sacrifice. Gayakupa, or the 
well of Gaya, is in the south-west of Gayasirah. Here pindas are offered to 
ancestors who have been great sinners. The above note is summarised from 
some remarks by Babu Sheo Narain Trivedi, Deputy Inspector of Schools, 
made for my information, at the request of W. Kemble, Esq., C.S., Magistrate 
of Gaya. Pandit Mahesa Chandra Nyayaratna has pointed out to me that 
there is an account of the glories of Gaya in the Vayu Purana, and another 
in the Padma Purana. [These agree pretty nearly with that given above.] 

See also Barth's Religions of India, p. 278, note 2. It would be hard to 

overestimate the sacredness of the little village of Gaya in the eyes of 
Buddhists. It "is now," says Sir George Grierson (in a most interesting 
article, "Gaya," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vi, p. 182), "the most holy 
spot on the earth to something like a hundred and forty millions of people." 
The whole article should be read. n.m.p. 

1 Used for filtering the soma-juice, see Bohtlingk and Roth, s.v. 


Highness tell me that ; and remember the previous condition 
is still binding on you." 

When King Trivikramasena, who was well versed in law, 
heard this from the Vetala, he broke silence, and answered 
him : " The sacrificial cake should have been placed in the 
hand of the thief, for King Chandraprabha was his son, 
raised up to him by his appointment, and he was not the son 
of either of the other two. For though the Brahman begot 
him, he cannot be considered his father, as he sold himself 
for money for that one night. However, he might have been 
considered the son of King Stiryaprabha, because he had 
the sacraments performed for him, and brought him up, if the 
king had not received his wealth for this purpose. For the 
gold which was placed at the head of the child in the cradle 
was the price paid to King Suryaprabha for bringing him 
up, and other services. Accordingly King Chandraprabha was 
the son, begotten by another man, of that thief, who received 
his mother with the pouring of water over the hands, who 
gave the order for his being begotten, and to whom all that 
wealth belonged ; and he ought to have placed the sacrificial 
cake in the thief's hand ; this is my opinion." 

When the king said this, the Vetala left his shoulder, and 
went to his own place, and King Trivikramasena again went 
after him to bring him back. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena went and took down 
that Vetala from the simsapd tree, and, putting him 
on his shoulder, started off with him again. And 
when he had set out in silence, the Vetala spake to him from 
his shoulder : " King, what is the meaning of this persistency 
of yours ? Go, enjoy the good of the night ; it is not fitting 
that you should carry me to that wicked mendicant. How- 
ever, if you are obstinately bent on it, so be it ; but listen to 
this one story. 

163g (20). The Brahman Boy who offered himself up to save 

the Life of the King l 

There is a city called Chitrakuta, 2 rightly so named, where 
the established divisions of the castes never step across the 
strict line of demarcation. In it there lived a king, named 
Chandravaloka, the crest- jewel of kings, who rained showers 
of nectar into the eyes of those devoted to him. Wise men 
praised him as the binding-post of the elephant of valour, 
the fountain-head of generosity and the pleasure-pavilion of 
beauty. There was one supreme sorrow in the heart of that 
young prince, that, though he enjoyed all kinds of prosperity, 
he could not obtain a suitable wife. 

Now, one day, the king, accompanied by mounted at- 
tendants, went out to a great forest to hunt, in order to dispel 
that sorrow. There he cleft with continual shafts the herds 
of wild swine, as the sun, shining in the dun sky, 3 disperses 
the darkness with his rays. Surpassing Arjuna in strength, 

1 See Appendix, pp. 250-256. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. wonderful peak. 

3 Here there is probably a pun. The phrase may mean that the king 
delighted in the dark grey skins of the pigs. 



he made the lions, impetuous in fight, and terrible with their 
yellow manes, repose upon beds of arrows. Like Indra in 
might, he stripped of their wings l the mountain-like 
Sarabhas, and laid them low with the blows of his darts hard 
as the thunderbolt. In the ardour of the chase he felt a 
longing to penetrate into the centre of the wood alone, so he 
urged on his horse with a smart blow of his heel. The horse, 
being exceedingly excited by that blow of his heel, and by 
a stroke of the whip, cared neither for rough nor smooth, 
but darting on with a speed exceeding that of the wind, in 
a moment traversed ten yojanas, and carried the king, the 
functions of whose senses were quite paralysed, to another 

There the horse stopped, and the king, having lost his 
bearings, roamed about wearied, until he saw near him a 
broad lake, which seemed to make signs to him to approach 
with its lotuses, that, bent down towards him and then 
raised again by the wind, seemed like beckoning hands. 2 So 
he went up to it, and relieved his horse by taking off its 
saddle and letting it roll, and bathed and watered it, and 
then tied it up in the shade of a tree, and gave it a heap of 
grass. Then he bathed himself, and drank water, and so he 
dispelled his fatigue, and then he let his eye wander hither 
and thither in the delightful environs of the lake. And in 
one part he saw, at the foot of an asoka tree, a wonderfully 
beautiful hermit's daughter, accompanied by her friend. 
She wore garlands of flowers, and a dress of bark, which 
became her well. And she looked exceedingly charming on 
account of the elegant way in which her hair was plaited 
together after the hermit fashion. And the king, who had 
now fallen within the range of the arrows of love, said to him- 
self : " Who can this be ? Can it be Savitri come to bathe 
in the lake ? Or can it be Gauri, who has slipped away from 
the arms of Siva, and again betaken herself to asceticism ? 

1 This alludes to Indra's clipping with his bolts the wings of the moun- 
tains. The Sarabha is a fabulous eight-legged animal. See Vol. VI, p. Sn l . 


2 The natives in India beckon in this way. This is the general practice 

not only in India but throughout the East. Our form of beckoning means 
"Go away ! " to the Eastern. See Burton, Nights, vol. vi, p. 109 2 . n.m.p. 



Or can it be the beauty of the moon that has taken upon 
herself a vow, as the moon has set, now that it is day ? 
So I had better approach her quietly and find out." Having 
thus reflected, the king approached that maiden. 

But when she saw him coming, her eyes were bewildered 
by his beauty, and her hand relaxed its grasp on the garland 
of flowers, which she had before begun to weave, and she 
said to herself : " Who is this that has found his way 
into such a wood as this ? Is he a Siddha or a Vidyadhara ? 
In truth his beauty might satisfy the eyes of the whole 
world." When these thoughts had passed through her mind 
she rose up, and modestly looking askance at him she pro- 
ceeded to go away, though her legs seemed to want all power 
of movement, 

Then the polite and dexterous monarch approached her and 
said : " Fair one, I do not ask you to welcome and entertain 
a person seen for the first time, who has come from a dis- 
tance, and desires no fruit other than that of beholding you ; 
but how is your running away from him to be reconciled 
with the obligations of hermit life ? " When the king said 
this, the lady's attendant, who was equally dexterous, sat down 
there, and entertained the king. 

Then the eager king said to her, with an affectionate 
manner : " Worthy lady, what auspicious family is adorned 
by this friend of yours ? What are the ear-nectar-distilling 
syllables of her name ? And why does she torture in this 
wilderness, with the discipline appropriate to ascetics, her 
body, which is soft as a flower ? " When her friend heard 
this speech of the king's she answered : " This is the maiden 
daughter of the great hermit Kanva, borne to him by Menaka ; 
she has been brought up in the hermitage, and her name is 
Indivaraprabha. She has come here to bathe in this lake by 
permission of her father, and her father's hermitage is at no 
great distance from this place." 

When she said this to the king he was delighted, and he 
mounted his horse, and set out for the hermitage of the hermit 
Kanva, with the intention of asking him for that daughter 
of his. He left his horse outside the hermitage, and then he 
entered with modest humility its enclosure, which was full of 


hermits with matted hair, and coats of bark, thus resembling 
in appearance its trees. And in the middle of it he saw the 
hermit Kanva surrounded with hermits, delighting the eye 
with his brightness, like the moon surrounded with planets. 
So he went up to him, and worshipped him, embracing his 
feet. The wise hermit entertained him and dispelled his 
fatigue, and then lost no time in saying to him : " My son 
Chandravaloka, listen to the good advice which I am about 
to give you. You know how all living creatures in the world 
fear death : so why do you slay without cause these poor 
deer ? The Disposer appointed the weapon of the warrior 
for the protection of the terrified. So rule your subjects 
righteously, root up your enemies, and secure fleeting Fortune 
and her gifts by the warlike training of horse, and elephant, 
and so on. Enjoy the delights of rule, give gifts, diffuse your 
fame through the world ; but abandon the vice of hunting, 
the cruel sport of death. What is the profit of that mis- 
chievous hunting, in which slayer, victim and horse x are 
all equally beside themselves ? Have you not heard what 
happened to Pandu ? " 

The intelligent King Chandravaloka heard and accepted 
cheerfully this advice of the hermit Kanva, and then answered 
him : " Reverend sir, I have been instructed by you ; you 
have done me a great favour ; I renounce hunting, let living 
creatures be henceforth free from alarm." When the hermit 
heard that, he said : "I am pleased with you for thus grant- 
ing security to living creatures ; so choose whatever boon 
you desire." When the hermit said this, the king, who knew 
his time, said to him : "If you are satisfied with me, then 
give your daughter Indivaraprabha." When the king made 
this request, the hermit bestowed on him his daughter, who 
had just returned from bathing, born from an Apsaras, a wife 
meet for him. Then the wives of the hermits adorned her, 
and the marriage was solemnised, and King Chandravaloka 
mounted his horse and set out thence quickly, taking with 
him his wife, whom the ascetics followed as far as the limits 
of the hermitage with gushing tears. And as he went along, 
the sun, seeing that the action of that day had been pro- 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads vahyasya, which I have followed. 



longed, 1 sat down, as if wearied, on the peak of the mountain 
of setting. And in course of time appeared the gazelle-eyed 
nymph of night, overflowing with love, veiling her shape in a 
violet robe of darkness. 

Just at that moment the king found on the road an 
asvattha tree, on the bank of a lake, the water of which was 
transparent as a good man's heart. And seeing that that 
spot was overshadowed with dense boughs and leaves, and 
was shady and grassy, he made up his mind that he would 
pass the night there. Then he dismounted from his horse, and 
gave it grass and water, and rested on the sandy bank of the 
lake, and drank water, and cooled himself in the breeze ; 
and then he lay down with that hermit's daughter, under 
that tree on a bed of flowers. And at that time the moon 
arose, and removing the mantle of darkness, seized and 
kissed the glowing face of the East. And all the quarters of 
the heaven were free from darkness, and gleamed, embraced 
and illuminated by the rays of the moon, so that there was 
no room for pride. 2 And so the beams of the moon entered 
the interstices in the bower of creepers, and lit up the space 
round the foot of the tree like jewel-lamps. 

And the next morning the king left his bed, and, after 
the morning prayer, he made ready to set out with his wife to 
rejoin his army. And then the moon, that had in the night 
robbed the cheeks of the lotuses of their beauty, lost its 
brightness, and slunk, as if in fear, to the hollows of the 
western mountain ; for the sun, fiery red with anger, as if 
desirous to slay it, lifted his curved sword in his outstretched 
fingers. 3 At that moment there suddenly came there a 
Brahman demon, black as soot, with hair yellow as the 
lightning, looking like a thunder- cloud. He had made 
himself a wreath of entrails ; he wore a sacrificial cord of 
hair ; he was gnawing the flesh of a man's head, and drinking 
blood out of a skull. The monster, terrible with projecting 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. gives duradhva-gamana-klantam vikshya tarn 
nripatim lada : "having seen that the king was wearied with his long journey." 

2 The passage is full of puns : " darkness " means the quality of darkness 
in the mind ; and "illuminated " means also "calmed." 

3 There is also an allusion to the circle of the sun's rays. 


tusks, uttered a horrible loud laugh, and vomiting fire with 
rage, 1 menaced the king in the following words : " Villain ! 
know that I am a Brahman demon, Jvalamukha by name, and 
this asvatiha tree my dwelling is not trespassed upon even by 
gods, but thou hast presumed to occupy and enjoy it with thy 
wife. So receive from me, returned from my nightly wander- 
ings, the fruit of thy presumption. I, even I, O wicked one, 
will tear out and devour the heart of thee, whose mind love 
has overpowered, aye, and I will drink thy blood." 

When the king heard this dreadful threat, and saw that 
his wife was terrified, knowing that the monster was invul- 
nerable, he humbly said to him in his terror : " Pardon the 
sin which I have ignorantly committed against you, for I am 
a guest come to this your hermitage, imploring your protec- 
tion. And I will give you what you desire, by bringing a 
human victim, whose flesh will glut your appetite ; so be 
appeased, and dismiss your anger." When the Brahman 
demon heard this speech of the king's he was pacified, and 
said to himself : " So be it ! That will do." Then he said 
to the king : "I will overlook the insult you have offered me 
on the following conditions. You must find a Brahman boy, 
who, though seven years old and intelligent, is of so noble 
a character that he is ready to offer himself for your sake. 
And his mother and father must place him on the earth, 
and hold him firmly by the hands and feet, while he is being 
sacrificed. And when you have found such a human victim 
you must yourself slay him with a sword-stroke, and so 
offer him up to me, on the seventh day from this. If you 
comply with these conditions, well and good ; but if not, King, 

1 This is another example of the " unintentional injuries " motif, which we 
have already had in No. 27a, Vol. II, p. 147. To the references given in the 
note on that page I would add an ancient Egyptian story of the twelfth 
dynasty, called by Maspero (Popular Stories of the Ancient Egypts, p. 101), "The 
Shipwrecked Sailor." After the hero has satisfied his hunger on the island 
he makes a fire-lighter, lights a fire, and offers a burnt-offering to the gods. 
Immediately a voice like thunder is heard, the earth trembles, and an enor- 
mous serpent appears. It commands him to say who has brought him to the 
island. In a note, Maspero suggests that among the plants collected for the 
fire there may have been some that acted as a summons to the genius loci, 
while he himself had no intention of performing a magic rite. n.m.p. 


I will in a moment destroy you and all your court." When 
the king heard this, in his terror he agreed at once to the 
conditions proposed, and the Brahman demon immediately 

Then King Chandravaloka mounted his horse, and set 
out with Indivaraprabha in quest of his army, in a state 
of the utmost despondency. He said to himself : " Alas, 
I, bewildered by hunting and love, have suddenly incurred 
destruction like Pandu 1 ; fool that I am ! For whence can I 
obtain for this Rakshasa a victim such as he has described ? 
So I will go in the meantime to my own town, and see what 
will happen." While thus reflecting, he met his own army, 
that had come in search of him, and with that and his wife 
he entered his city of Chitrakuta. Then the whole kingdom 
rejoiced, when they saw that he had obtained a suitable 
wife, but the king passed the rest of the day in suppressed 

The next day he communicated to his ministers in secret 
all that had taken place, and a discreet minister among them 
said to him : " Do not be downcast, King, for I will search 
for and bring you such a victim, for the earth contains many 

When the minister had consoled the king in these words, 
he had made with the utmost rapidity a golden image of a 
seven-years-old child, and he adorned its ears with jewels, 
and placed it on a chariot, 2 and had it carried about in the 
towns, villages and stations of herdsmen. And while that 
image of a child was being carried about, the minister had 
the following proclamation continually made in front of it, 
with beat of drum : " If a Brahman boy of seven years old 
will willingly offer himself to a Brahman demon for the good 
of the community, and if his mother and father will permit 
the brave boy to offer himself, and will hold his hands 
and feet while he is being slain, the king will give to that 
boy, who is so eager to benefit his parents as to comply with 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 126, 127. 

2 The B. text has a corrupted reading. For karne ratharpitam it has karnl- 
ratharpitam ; thus we must translate ". . . and dressed it with ornaments, then 
he placed it in a palankeen . . ." See Speyer, op. cit., pp. 136, 137. n.m.p. 


these conditions, this image of gold and gems, together with 
a hundred villages." 

Now it happened that a certain seven-years-old Brahman 
boy, living on a royal grant to Brahmans, who was of great 
courage and admirable character, heard this proclamation. 
Even in his childhood this boy had always taken pleasure in 
benefiting his fellow-men, as he had practised that virtue in 
a former life ; in fact, he seemed like the ripe result of the 
merits of the king's subjects incarnate in bodily form. So he 
came and said to the men who were making this proclama- 
tion : "I will offer myself up for your good ; but first, I will 
go and inform my parents; then I will return to you." 
When he said this to them they were delighted, and they 
let him go. So he went home, and folding his hands in an 
attitude of supplication, he said to his parents : "I wish to 
offer for the good of the community this perishable body of 
mine ; so permit me to do so, and put an end to your poverty. 
For if I do so, the king will give me this image of myself, 
made of gold and gems, together with a hundred villages, 
and on receiving them I will make them over to you. In 
this way I shall pay my debt to you, and at the same time 
benefit my fellow-men ; and your poverty will be at an end 
and you will have many sons to replace me." 

As soon as he had said this, his parents answered him : 
" What is this that you say, son ? Are you distracted with 
wind ? Or are you planet-struck ? Unless you are one of 
these, how could you talk in this wild way ? Who would 
cause his son's death for the sake of wealth ? What child 
would sacrifice its body ? " When the boy heard this speech 
of his parents he rejoined : "I do not speak from a dis- 
ordered intellect ; hear my speech, which is full of sense. 
This body, which is full of indescribable impurities, which is 
loathsome by its very birth, and the abode of pain, will soon 
perish 1 anyhow. So wise men say that the only solid and 
permanent thing in a fleeting universe is that merit which is 
acquired by means of this very frail and perishable body. 2 
And what greater merit can there be than the benefiting of 

1 Vinasyaiva should be vinasyeva. 

2 I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads etenatyasarena. 



all creatures ? So, if I do not show devotion to my parents, 
what fruit shall I reap from my body ? " By this speech, 
and others of the same kind, the resolute boy induced his 
weeping parents to consent to his wish. And he went to the 
king's servants, and obtained from them that golden image, 
together with a grant of a hundred villages, and gave them to 
his parents. Then he made the king's servants precede him, 
and went quickly, accompanied by his parents, to the king in 

Then King Chandravaloka, beholding arrived the boy, 
whose courage x was so perfect, and who thus resembled a 
bright protecting talisman, was exceedingly delighted. So he 
had him adorned with garlands, and anointed with unguents, 
and, putting him on the back of an elephant, he took him with 
his parents to the abode of the Brahman demon. 

Then the chaplain drew a circle 2 near the asvattha tree, 
and performed the requisite rites, and made an oblation to 
the fire. And then the Brahman demon, Jvalamukha, ap- 
peared, uttering a loud laugh, and reciting the Vedas. His 
appearance was very terrible ; he was drunk with a full 
draught of blood, yawning, and panting frequently ; his eyes 
blazed, and he darkened the whole horizon with the shadow 
of his body. Then King Chandravaloka, beholding him, 
bent before him, and said : " Adorable one, I have brought 
you this human sacrifice, and it is now the seventh day, 
gentle sir, since I promised it you ; so be propitious, receive 
this sacrifice, as is due." When the king made this request, 
the Brahman demon looked at the Brahman boy, licking the 
corners of his mouth with his tongue. 3 

At that moment the noble boy, in his joy, said to himself : 
" Let not the merit which I acquire by this sacrifice of my 
body gain for me heaven, or even a salvation which involves 
no benefits to others, but may I be privileged to offer up my 
body for the benefit of others in birth after birth ! " While he 
was forming this aspiration, the heaven was suddenly filled 
with the chariots of the heavenly host, who rained flowers. 

1 Tejas means "courage/' and also "brightness." 

2 See Vol. IV, p. 98w 4 and Vol. Ill, p. 201 et. seq.K.M.P. 

3 Asrikkanim is probably a misprint for srikkcmim. 


Then the boy was placed in front of the Brahman demon, 
and his mother took hold of his hands and his father of 
his feet. Then the king drew his sword, and prepared to 
slay him ; but at that moment the child laughed so loudly 
that all there, the Brahman demon included, abandoned the 
occupation in which they were engaged, and in their astonish- 
ment put their palms together and, bowing, looked at his face. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this entertaining and romantic 
tale, he once more put a question to King Trivikramasena : 
" So tell me, King, what was the reason that the boy laughed 
in such an awful moment as that of his own death ? I feel 
great curiosity to know it ; so, if you know, and do not tell 
me, your head shall split into a hundred pieces." - 

When the king heard this from the Vetala, he answered 
him : " Hear what was the meaning of that child's laugh. It 
is well known that a weak creature, when danger comes upon 
it, calls upon its father or mother to save its life. And if its 
father and mother be gone, it invokes the protection of the 
king, who is appointed to succour the afflicted, and if it cannot 
obtain the aid of the king, it calls upon the deity under whose 
special protection it is. Now, in the case of that child, all 
those were present, and all behaved in exactly the opposite 
manner to what might have been expected of them. The 
child's parents held its hands and feet out of greed of gain, 
and the king was eager to slay it to save his own life, and the 
Brahman demon, its protecting deity, was ready to devour it. 
The child said to itself : ' To think that these should be thus 
deluded, being led so much astray for the sake of the body, 
which is perishable, loathsome within, and full of pain and 
disease ! Why should they have such a strange longing for 
the continuance of the body, in a world in which Brahma, 
Indra, Vishnu, Siva, and the other gods, must certainly 
perish.' Accordingly the Brahman boy laughed out of joy 
and wonder, joy at feeling that he had accomplished his 
object, and wonder at beholding the marvellous strangeness 
of their delusion." 


When the king had said this he ceased, and the Vetala 
immediately left his shoulder and went back to his own 
place, disappearing by his magic power. But the king, 
without hesitating a moment, rapidly pursued him : the 
hearts of great men, as of great seas, are firm and unshaken. 



163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again went and took the 
Vetala from the simsapd tree, and carried him along 
on his shoulder. And as he was going along, the 
Vetala again said to the king : " Listen, King, I will tell you 
a story of violent attachment. 

163g (21). Anangamanjari, her Husband Manivarman 
and the Brahman Kamaldkara 1 

There is a city called Visala, which is like a second city of 
Indra, made by the Creator on earth, for the sake of virtuous 
people who have fallen from heaven. In it there lived a 
fortunate king, named Padmanabha, who was a source to 
good men, and excelled King Bali. 2 In the reign of that king 
there lived in that city a great merchant, named Arthadatta, 
who surpassed in opulence the God of Wealth. And to him 
there was born a daughter named Anangamanjari, who was 
exhibited on earth by the Creator as a likeness of a heavenly 
nymph. And that merchant gave her to the son of a dis- 
tinguished merchant dwelling in Tamralipti, and named 
Manivarman. But as he was very fond of his daughter 
Anangamanjari, because she was his only child, he would not 
let her leave his house, but kept her there with her husband. 
But Anangamanjari's husband Manivarman was as distaste- 
ful to her as a biting bitter medicine to a sick man. But 
that lovely one was dearer than life to her husband, as wealth 
hardly won and long hoarded is to a miser. 

Now once on a time that Manivarman, longing to see his 

1 See Appendix, pp. 256-258. n.m.p. 

2 Tawney seems not to have appreciated the punning comparison to 
Vishnu, his weapons and defeat of Bali, that runs through this sentence. See 
further Speyer, op. cit., p. 137. n.m.p. 



parents, went to his home in Tamralipti to visit them. After 
some days had passed, the hot season descended upon the 
land, impeding the journey of men absent from home with 
the sharp shafts of the sun's rays. The winds blew laden 
with the fragrance of the jasmine and trumpet-flower, and 
seemed like the hot 1 sighs of the cardinal points on account 
of the departure of spring. Lines of dust raised by the wind 
flew up to heaven, like messengers sent by the heated earth 
to hasten the approach of the clouds. The days passed 
slowly, like travellers exhausted by the severe heat, and 
longing for the shade of the trees. The nights, pale-gleaming 
with moonbeams, became exceedingly 2 reduced owing to the 
loss of the spring with all its happy meetings. 

One day in that season, that merchant's daughter 
Anangamanjari was sitting with her intimate friend in a lofty 
window of her house, white with sandalwood ointment, 3 and 
elegantly dressed in a thin garment of silk. While there, she 
saw a young Brahman, named Kamalakara, the son of the 
king's chaplain, passing by, and he looked like the God of 
Love, risen from his ashes, going to find Rati. And when 
Kamalakara saw that lovely one overhead, like the orb 
of the moon, 4 he was full of joy, and became like a cluster 
of kumuda flowers. The sight of those two young persons 
became to one another, by the mighty command of Kama, a 
priceless 6 fascination of the mind. And the two were over- 
come by passion, which rooted up their modesty, and carried 
away by a storm of love-frenzy, which flung their minds to 
a distance. And Kamalakara's companion, as soon as he saw 
that his friend was love-smitten, dragged him off, though 
with difficulty, to his own house. 

As for Anangamanjari, she inquired what his name was, 
and, having no will of her own, slowly entered the house with 
that confidante of hers. There she was grievously afflicted 
with the fever of love, and thinking on her beloved, she 

1 Ushma should probably be ushna. 

2 In the Sanskrit College MS. ati is inserted before durbalatam. 

3 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

4 The moon is the patron of the kumuda ; the sun of the kamala, or lotus. 
Kamalakara means a collection of kamalas. 

5 The Sanskrit College MS. reads achurnam "without powder." 


rolled on the bed, and neither saw nor heard anything. 
After two or three days had passed, being ashamed and 
afraid, unable to bear the misery of separation, thin and pale, 
and despairing of union with her beloved, which seemed a 
thing impossible, she determined on suicide. So one night, 
when her attendants were asleep, she went out, drawn, as it 
were, by the moon, which sent its rays through the window 
like fingers, and made for a tank at the foot of a tree in her 
own garden. There she approached an image of the goddess 
Chandi, her family deity, that had been set up with much 
magnificence by her father, and she bowed before the goddess, 
and praised her, and said : " Though I have not obtained 
Kamalakara for a husband in this life, let him be my husband 
in a future birth ! " When the impassioned woman had 
uttered these words in front of the goddess, she made a noose 
with her upper garment, and fastened it to an asoka tree. 

In the meanwhile it happened that her confidante, who 
was sleeping in the same room, woke up, and not seeing her 
there, went to the garden to look for her. And seeing her 
there engaged in fastening a noose round her neck, she cried 
out, " Stop ! stop ! " and running up, she cut that noose 
which she had made. Anangamanjari, when she saw that 
her confidante had come and cut the noose, fell on the ground 
in a state of great affliction. Her confidante comforted her, 
and asked her the cause of her grief, and she at once told 
her, and went on to say to her : " So you see, friend Malatika, 
as I am under the authority of my parents and so on, and 
have little chance of being united to my beloved, death is my 
highest happiness." While Anangamanjari was saying these 
words she was exceedingly tortured with the fire of Love's 
arrows, and being overpowered with despair, she fainted away. 

Her friend Malatika exclaimed : " Alas, the command 
of Kama is hard to resist, since it has reduced to this state 
this friend of mine, who was always laughing at other mis- 
guided women who showed a want of self-restraint. 1 " 
Lamenting in these words, she slowly brought Ananga- 
manjari round with cold water, fanning, and so on ; and, in 

1 I take anyavinitavanitahasinl as one word, and read vilapantl instead of 


order to allay her heat, she made her a bed of lotus leaves, 
and placed on her heart a necklace cool as snow. Then 
Anangamanjari, with her eyes gushing with tears, said to her 
friend : " Friend, the necklace and the other applications do 
not allay my internal heat. But do you by your cleverness 
accomplish something which will really allay it. Unite me 
to my beloved, if you wish to preserve my life." When she 
said this, Malatika lovingly answered her : " My friend, the 
night is now almost at an end, but to-morrow I will make an 
arrangement with your beloved, and bring him to this very 
place. So in the meanwhile control yourself, and enter your 
house." When she said this, Anangamanjari was pleased, 
and drawing the necklace from her neck, she gave it to her as 
a present. And she said to her : " Now go to your house, 
and early to-morrow go thence to the house of my beloved ; 
and may you prosper ! " Having dismissed her confidante 
in these words, she entered her own apartments. 

And early next morning her friend Malatika went, with- 
out being seen by anyone, to the house of Kamalakara, and 
searching about in the garden, she saw him at the foot of a 
tree. He was rolling about, burning with the fire of love, 
on a bed of lotus leaves moistened with sandalwood juice, 1 
and a confidential friend of his was trying to give him relief 
by fanning him with a plantain leaf. She said to herself : 
" Is it possible that he has been reduced to this stage of 
love's malady by separation from her ? " So she remained 
there in concealment, to find out the truth about it. 

In the meanwhile that friend of Kamalakara's said to 
him : " Cast your eye, my friend, for a moment round this 
delightful garden, and cheer up your heart. Do not give 
way to despondency." When the young Brahman heard 
this, he answered his friend : " My friend, my heart has 
been taken from me by Anangamanjari, the merchant's 
daughter, and my breast left empty ; so how can I cheer up 
my heart ? Moreover, Love, finding me robbed of my heart, 
has made me a quiver for his arrows ; so enable me to get 
hold of that girl, who stole it." 

When the young Brahman said that, Malatika's doubts 

1 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 


were removed, and she was delighted, and showed herself, 
and went up to him, and said : " Happy man, Anangaman- 
jari has sent me to you, and I hereby give you her message, 
the meaning of which is clear : ' What sort of conduct is this 
for a virtuous man, to enter a fair one's bosom by force, and 
after stealing away her heart, to go off without showing 
himself ? ' It is strange too that though you have stolen 
the lady's heart, she now wishes to surrender to you her- 
self and her life. For day and night she furnaces forth hot 
sighs, which appear like smoke rising from the fire of love in 
her burning heart. And her teardrops, black as collyrium, 
fall frequently, looking like bees attracted by the fragrance 
of her lotus-like face. So if you like, I will say what will be 
for the good of both of you." 

When Malatika said this, Kamalakara answered her : 
" My good lady, this speech of yours, though it comforts me 
by showing that my beloved loves me, terrifies me, as it tells 
that the fair one is in a state of unhappiness. So you are our 
only refuge in this matter ; do as you think best." When 
Kamalakara said this, Malatika answered : "I will to-night 
bring Anangamanjari secretly into the garden belonging to 
her house, and you must take care to be outside. Then I 
will manage by some device of mine to let you in, and so 
you will be able to see one another in accordance with your 
wishes." When Malatika had by these words delighted the 
young Brahman, she went away, having accomplished her 
object, and delighted Anangamanjari also. 

Then the sun, in love with the twilight, departed some- 
where or other, together with the day, and the heaven 
adorned itself, placing the moon on its western quarter like 
a patch on the forehead. And the pure white kumuda 
cluster laughed joyously with the cheerful faces of its opened 
flowers, as if to say : " Fortune has left the lotus cluster 
and come to me." Thereupon the lover Kamalakara also 
adorned himself, and, full of impatience, slowly approached 
the outside of the door that led into the garden of Ananga- 
manjari's house. Then Malatika managed to bring into that 
garden Anangamanjari, who had with difficulty got through 
the day. And she made her sit in the middle of it, in a bower 



of mango-trees, and went out and brought in Kamalakara 
also. And when he entered he beheld Anangamanjari in 
the midst of dense-foliaged trees, as gladly as the traveller 
beholds the shade. 

While he was advancing towards her she saw him, and 
as the violence of her passion robbed her of shame, she 
eagerly ran forward and threw her arms round his neck. 
She faltered out, " Where are you going ? I have caught 
you," and immediately her breath was stopped by the weight 
of excessive joy, and she died. And she fell on the ground, 
like a creeper broken by the wind. Alas ! strange is the 
course of love, that is terrible in its consequences. When 
Kamalakara beheld that misfortune, which was terrible as 
a thunderstroke, he said, " Alas ! what is this ? " and fell 
senseless on the ground. In a moment he recovered con- 
sciousness ; and then he took his beloved up in his arms 
and embraced and kissed her, and lamented much. And 
then he was so violently oppressed by excessive weight of 
sorrow that his heart burst asunder at once, with a crack. 
And when Malatika was lamenting over their corpses, the 
night, seeing that both these lovers had met their end, came 
to an end, as if out of grief. And the next day the relations 
of both, hearing from the gardeners what had happened, 
came there distracted with shame, wonder, grief and be- 
wilderment. And they remained for a long time doubtful 
what to do, with faces downcast from distress : bad women 
are a grievous affliction, and a source of calamity to their 

At this moment Manivarman, the husband of Ananga- 
manjari, came, full of longing to see her, from his father's 
house in Tamraliptl. When he reached his father-in-law's 
house, and heard what had taken place, he came running to 
that garden, his eyes blinded with tears. There, beholding 
his wife lying dead beside another man, the passionate man 
at once yielded up his breath, that was heated with the 
fire of grief. Then the people there began to cry out, and 
to make an uproar, and all the citizens heard what had 
taken place, and came there in a state of astonishment. 

Then the goddess Chandi, who was close at hand, having 


been called down into that garden long ago by the father 
of Anangamanjari, was thus supplicated by her Ganas : 
" Goddess, this merchant Arthadatta, who has established 
an image of thee in his garden, has always been devoted to 
thee, so have mercy upon him in this his affliction." When 
the beloved of Siva, the refuge of the distressed, heard this 
prayer of her Ganas, she gave command that the three 
should return to life, free from passion. So they all, by her 
favour, immediately arose, as if awaking from sleep, free 
from the passion of love. Then all the people were full of 
joy, beholding that marvel ; and Kamalakara went home, 
with his face downcast from shame ; and Arthadatta, hav- 
ing recovered his daughter 1 Anangamanjari, who looked 
thoroughly ashamed of herself, together with her husband, 
returned to his house in high spirits. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story that night on the 
way, he again put a question to King Trivikramasena. He 
said : " King, tell me, which of those three, who were blinded 
by passion, was the most infatuated ? And remember, the 
curse before-mentioned will take effect if you know and do 
not say." 

When the king heard this question of the Vetala's he 
answered him : "It seems to me that Manivarman was the 
most infatuated with passion of the three. For one can 
understand those two dying, as they were desperately in 
love with one another, and their amorous condition had 
been fully developed by lapse of time. But Manivarman was 
terribly infatuated, for when he saw his wife dead of love 
for another man, and the occasion called for indignation, 
he was so far from being angry that, in his great love, he 
died of grief." 

When the king had said this, the mighty Vetala again left 
his shoulder, and departed to his own place, and the king 
again went in pursuit of him. 

1 I insert sutam at the beginning of the line. The su is clear enough in 
the Sanskrit College MS., but the rest of the word is illegible. 



On p. 99 of this chapter we read of the fair Anangamanjarl being " white 
with sandalwood ointment." Then again on p. 101 the love-sick Kamalakara 
vainly tries to quench the fire of love by lying on "a bed composed of lotus 
leaves moistened with sandalwood juice. " So too in the eleventh Vetala one of 
the princesses has "sandalwood lotion applied to her body" (p. 11), while the 
third unfortunate lady " had sandalwood unguent and other remedies applied 
to her hands, in order to allay the pain" (p. 12). See also the references 
on pp. 30, 43, 53 and 72. We thus see that there appears to be two distinct 
uses to which sandalwood was put : as a face-cream for cooling and perfuming 
the skin, and as a medicinal application to relieve pain, burns, fever, etc. 

It will be interesting to see how far this is confirmed by the historical 
evidence that exists with reference to sandalwood. All forms of the word as 
found in English (Sandal, Sandle, Sanders, Sandahvood) are derived from the 
Sanskrit chandana, "refreshing," through the Persian sandal, chandal, the 
Arabic sandal, sandali-aswad t the Greek cravraXov, o-dv8a\ov, Low Latin santalum, 
and French sandal, santal. 

Sandalwood is the wood of the Santalum album, Linn., order Santalaceae, 
which is a small evergreen tree native in the dry regions of South India 
(e.g. Western Ghats, Mysore and Coimbatore), while in Bombay, Poona, 
Gujarat, and several localities in Northern India it is chiefly a cultivated 
plant. The fragrance for which the wood is so prized depends on the presence 
of essential oil, situated chiefly in the dark central wood of the tree. It is 
the roots which yield the largest quantity and finest quality oil. It is pale 
yellow in colour, transparent, with a resinous taste and a peculiarly fragrant 
and penetrating odour. The outer parts of old trunks and young trees are 
almost entirely without scent, hence the sandal-cutters carefully remove the 
outer and generally lighter portion of the wood, which they term the "sap." 
The heartwood is cut into small chips, and distillation is slowly carried on 
for ten days, at the end of which period the whole of the oil is extracted. 

According to one authority 100 parts of sandalwood yield, upon distillation 
with steam, 1-25 to 2*8 parts of the essential oil (Watt, Economic Products of 
India, vol. vi, pt. ii, p. 464). Another author (Seemann, Intellectual Observer, 
vol. iv, p. 74) states that a pound of wood yields about two drachms of oil. 
In Hindu medical works sandalwood is described as bitter, cooling, astringent, 
and useful in biliousness, vomiting, fever, thirst and heat of the body (Dutt, 
Materia Medica of the Hindus, p. 225 of the 1877 edition). The wood ground 
up with water to the consistence of paste is a common application among the 
natives to erysipelous and local inflammations, to the temples in fevers, and 
to allay heat in cutaneous diseases. In remittent fevers it acts as a diaphoretic 
(Drury, Useful Plants of India, p. 383). The paste is also used for painting 
the body after bathing, and is employed for making the Shardana, or caste- 
marks, especially in Southern India. Sandalwood powder mixed with coconut- 
water is used in bathing to cool the body, and is especially efficient in the 


case of headache, prickly heat, etc. Watt (op. cit., p. 465) gives several 
references to accounts of the effective use of the oil in venereal diseases. 

We pass on to the value of the wood for other domestic and religious 
purposes. In these cases it is the perfume of the distilled oil which is so 
important. As mentioned above, the oil from the roots is the finest, although 
an oil is expressed from the seeds, but this is a thick, viscid oil used only by 
the poorer classes in lamps. The essential oil constitutes the basis of the 
majority of attars distilled in India, and, mixed with pure alcohol, forms 
the perfumer's Extrait de bois de Santal. In order to sweeten it for use on the 
handkerchief a slight addition of rose is required. It mixes well with soap. 
With charcoal and a little nitre it forms sandal pastilles for perfuming 
apartments, but much of the odour is lost in the preparation (Seemann, op. cit. t 
p. 74). 

The wood is used chiefly in the carving industry boxes, cabinets, work- 
tables, walking-sticks, fans, picture-frames, etc., being some of the more usual 
articles so made. The Kanara district is the chief home of the sandalwood- 
carving industry. For the possible identification of the Algum or Almug trees 
of 1 Kings x, 11, 12, and 2 Chronicles ii, 8; ix, 10, 11, see the article by 
G. E. Post in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i, p. 63, and W. H. SchofF, 
The Ship Tyre," 1920, pp. 27, 28. 

Turning to its sacred uses, we find that idols are carved from the wood. 
It is interesting to notice that among the treasures brought from India by 
Hiuen Tsiang were two sandalwood figures of Buddha, the larger of which 
was modelled on one made by the desire of Udayana, King of Kausambi (see 
Beal, Life oj Hiuen Tsiang, pp. 213, 214). An emulsion of the wood is given 
as an offering to the gods, and an incense made of it is burned before them. 
A considerable export for making incense followed in the wake of Buddhism, 
and the amount used in this fashion by China was, and still is, particularly 
large. The Parsis consume large quantities, usually of an inferior variety, in 
their fire-temples. The relatives of the deceased who can afford to buy the 
wood, do so for cremation purposes, while all Hindus add at least one piece 
of it to the funeral pyre. 

Although sandalwood was used in India from at least the fifth century B.C., 
it was almost entirely confined to Buddhist and Hindu peoples. In the 
West it appears not to have been known until the beginning of the Christian 
era, the earliest Roman reference being in the famous Periplus of the Erythrcean 
Sea (circa a.d. 80). Here we read (36) of two market-towns on the Persian 
Gulf called Apologus [Obollah of Saracen times], and Ommana [Oman] : 

"To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from 
Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and 
logs of blackwood and ebony" (see SchofTs edition, 1912, pp. 36, 152, and 
further, Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, vol. i, p. 287). 

Barygaza is the modern Broach in the Gulf of Cambay, the Greek 
. name being from the Prakrit Bharukachchha, a corruption of the Sanskrit 

The wood is mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes (sixth century a.d.) 
under the name Tzandana, and frequently by the early Arab traders who 


visited India and China. Both Cosmas and the Arabs attributed the wood to 
China, the mistake arising from the fact that the Chinese vessels trading with 
the merchants of Bagdad had picked up cargoes of the wood at Ceylon and 
such Indian ports as Broach. (See M'Crindle's edition, Hakluyt Soc., 1897, 
p. 366.) As was only to be expected with a people so fond of perfumes as 
the Mohammedans, sandalwood became a great favourite with them, and 
caused a considerable spread of its use in the Middle and Near East. 

For early European references see Yule and Burnell, Hobson Jobson, 
under "Sandal." (The article in the 1903 edition adds nothing to that of 

With regard to the modern sandalwood trade of both India and the 
various islands of the Malay Archipelago and the Pacific we are not concerned, 
but a good idea of this may be got from the following : 

Watt, op. cit., vol. iv, pt. ii, pp. 466, 467 ; Seemann, op. cit., p. 78 et seq. ; 
"C.B.," Leisure Hour, 1869, pp. 598-600; and the anonymous articles in The 
Practical Magazine, vol. vii, 1877, pp. 373, 374, and in Scientific American, vol. 
cviii, 1913, p. 558, which deals largely with the need for great and more 
careful cultivation of the tree, and finally in the Annual Statement oj the Sea- 
borne Trade of British India, the most recent copies of which show that the 
export trade has steadily increased since 1921, and now stands at about eight 
hundred tons per annum. 

So far, we have spoken only of the Santalum album, which is the one 
referred to in the Ocean. Mention, however, should also be made of the Red 
Sanders Tree, Pterocarpus santalinus, which is used chiefly as a dye. Owing, 
however, to the modern introduction of aniline dyes, its use in this capacity 
has been very considerably curtailed. See further, Watt, op. cit., vol. vi, pt. i, 
p. 359 et seq.; and D. Hooper, "Caliature Wood," Nature, vol. lxxxvi, 1911* 
pp. 311, 312. n.m.p. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN King Trivikramasena again fetched the Vetala 
from the top of the simsapd tree, and put him on 
his shoulder, and as he was going along, the Vetala 
said to him on the way : " King, you are good and brave, 
so hear this matchless tale. 

163g (22). The Four Brahman Brothers who resuscitated 

the Lion x 

There lived once on the earth a king, named Dharani- 
varaha, who was lord of the town of Pataliputra. 2 In his 
realm, which abounded in Brahmans, there was a royal grant 
to Brahmans named Brahmasthala ; and on it there lived a 
Brahman of the name of Vishnusvamin. He had a wife 
that was as well suited to him as the oblation to the fire. 
And in course of time he had four sons by her. And when 
they had learned the Vedas, and passed their childhood, 
Vishnusvamin went to heaven, and his wife followed him. 

Then all his sons there, being in a miserable state, as 
they had no protectors, and having had all their property 
taken from them by their relations, deliberated together, and 
said : " We have no means of support here, so why should 
we not go hence to the house of our maternal grandfather 
in the village named Yajnasthala ? " Having determined 
on this, they set out, living on alms, and after many days 
they reached the house of their maternal grandfather. Their 
grandfather was dead, but their mother's brothers gave them 
shelter and food, and they lived in their house, engaged in 

1 See Appendix, pp. 258-260. n.m.p. 

2 I read with the Sanskrit College MS. Kusumapurakhyanagareharah. But 
Kusumapurakhye nagare svardt, the reading of Professor Brockhaus' text, would 
mean "an independent monarch in the city of Pataliputra," and would give 
almost as good a sense. 



reading the Vedas. But after a time, as they were paupers, 
their uncles came to despise them, and neglected to supply 
them with food, clothes and other necessaries. 

Then their hearts were wounded by the manifest con- 
tempt shown for them by their relations, and they brooded 
over it in secret, and then the eldest brother said to the rest : 
1 Well ! brothers, what are we to do ? Destiny performs 
everything ; no man can do anything in this world at any 
place or time. For to-day, as I was wandering about in a 
state of distraction, I reached a cemetery ; and in it I saw 
a man lying dead on the ground, with all his limbs relaxed. 
And when I saw him I envied his state, and I said to myself : 
4 Fortunate is this man, who is thus at rest, having got rid 
of his burden of grief.' Such was the reflection that then 
occurred to me. So I determined to die, and I tried to hang 
myself by means of a rope fastened to the branch of a tree. 
I became unconscious, but my breath did not leave my 
body; and while I was in this state the rope broke, and I 
fell to the earth. And as soon as I recovered consciousness 
I saw that some compassionate man was fanning me with his 
garment. He said to me : ' Friend, say, why do you allow 
yourself to be thus afflicted, though you are wise ? For joy 
springs from good deeds, and pain from evil deeds ; these 
are their only sources. If your agitation is due to pain, 
then perform good deeds. How can you be so foolish as to 
desire to incur the pains of hell by suicide ? ' With these 
words that man consoled me, and then departed somewhere 
or other ; but I have come here, having abandoned my design 
of committing suicide. So you see that, if Destiny is 
adverse, it is not even possible to die. Now I intend to go 
to some holy water, and there consume my body with aus- 
terities, in order that I may never again endure the misery 
of poverty." 

When the eldest brother said this, his younger brothers 
said to him : " Sir, why are you, though wise, afflicted with 
pain merely because you are poor ? Do you not know that 
riches pass away like an autumn cloud. Who can ever 
count on retaining fortune or a fickle woman, though he 
carry them off and guard them carefully, for both are 


insincere in their affection and secretly hostile to their pos- 
sessor ? So a wise man must acquire by vigorous exertion 
some eminent accomplishment, which will enable him fre- 
quently to bind 1 and lead home by force riches, which are 
like bounding deer." When the eldest brother was addressed 
in this language by his brothers, he at once recovered his 
self-control, and said : " What accomplishment of this kind 
should we acquire ? " Then they all considered and said 
to one another : " We will search through the earth and 
acquire some magic power." So having adopted this resolu- 
tion, and fixed upon a trysting-place at which to meet, the 
four separated, going east, west, north and south. 

And in course of time they met again at the appointed 
spot, and asked one another what each had learned. Then 
one of them said : "I have learned this magic secret : if I 
find a bit of a bone of any animal, I can immediately produce 
on it the flesh of that animal." When the second heard 
this speech of his brother's, he said : " When the flesh of 
any animal has been superinduced upon a piece of bone, I 
know how to produce the skin and hair appropriate to that 
animal." Then the third said : " And when the hair and 
flesh and skin have been produced, I am able to create the 
limbs of the animal to which the bone belonged." And the 
fourth said : " When the animal has its limbs properly 
developed, I know how to endow it with life." 

When they had said this to one another, the four brothers 
went into the forest to find a piece of bone on which to dis- 
play their skill. There it happened that they found a piece 
of a lion's bone, and they took it up without knowing to 
what animal it belonged. Then the first covered it with the 
appropriate flesh, and the second in the same way produced 
on it all the requisite skin and hair, and the third completed 
the animal by giving it all its appropriate limbs and it became 
a lion, and then the fourth endowed it with life. Then it rose 
up a very terrible lion, furnished with a dense shaggy mane, 
having a mouth formidable with teeth, 2 and w T ith hooked claws 

1 I follow the Sanskrit College MS., which reads baddhvd for buddhya. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. gives the reading sadamshtrasankatamukhah, 
which I follow. 


at the end of its paws. And charging the four authors of 
its being, it slew them on the spot, and then retired glutted 
to the forest. So those Brahmans perished by making the 
fatal mistake of creating a lion ; for who can give joy to his 
own soul by raising up a noisome beast ? 

So, if Fate be not propitious, an accomplishment, though 
painfully acquired, not only does not bring prosperity, but actu- 
ally brings destruction. For the tree of valour only bears 
fruit, as a general rule, when the root, being uninjured, 1 is 
watered with the water of wisdom, and when it is surrounded 
with the trench of policy. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala, sitting on the shoulder of the king, had 
told this tale on the way, that night, to King Trivikramasena, 
he went on to say to him : " King, which of these four was 
guilty in respect of the production of the lion, that slew them 
all ? Tell me quickly, and remember that the old condition 
is still binding on you." 

When the king heard the Vetala say this, he said to 
himself : " This demon wishes me to break silence, and so 
to escape from me. Never mind, I will go and fetch him 
again." Having formed this resolution in his heart, he 
answered that Vetala : " That one among them who gave 
life to the lion is the guilty one. For they produced the 
flesh, the skin, the hair and the limbs by magic power, 
without knowing what kind of animal they were making; 
and therefore no guilt attaches to them on account of their 
ignorance. But the man who, when he saw that the 
animal had a lion's shape, gave life to it, in order to display 
his skill, was guilty of the death of those Brahmans." 

When the mighty Vetala heard this speech of the king's, 
he again left his shoulder by magic power and went back to 
his own place, and the king again went in pursuit of him. 

1 I read avikrite, with the Sanskrit College MS. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN the noble King Trivikramasena went back, 
and again took down that Vetala from the simsapd 
tree, and though the Vetala transformed himself in 
all possible ways, he put him on his shoulder and started off 
with him in silence, and then the Vetala said to him : " King, 
though the business in which you are engaged is not becoming 
to you, you exhibit in it undaunted perseverance ; so listen, 
I will tell you a tale to dispel your fatigue. 

163g (23). The Hermit who first Wept and then Danced 1 

There is in the land of Kalinga a city named Sobhavati, 
like the city of Indra in heaven, the abode of those that act 
aright. It was ruled by a king named Pradyumna, whose 
sway was mighty, and who, like the god Pradyumna, was 
celebrated for his exceeding power and valour. The only 
detraction heard in his realm was that of the string from 
the bow, the only pressure that of the fingers on the cymbal ; 
vice was only known in the name of the age, 2 and keenness 
only in the pursuit of knowledge. 

In a certain part of that town there was a grant named 
Yajnasthala, given by that king, on which many Brahmans 
were settled. There lived on it a very wealthy Brahman 
who had mastered the Vedas, whose name was Yajnasoma. 
He maintained a sacrificial fire, and honoured guests and the 
gods. After his youth was past, there was born to him by 
his wife, who was in every way a suitable match for him, an 
only son, the child of a hundred wishes. And that promising 

1 See Appendix, pp. 260, 26 1. n.m.p. 

2 Guna means ** virtue " and also " string " ; kara, " finger " and "tribute " ; 
the kaliyuga, or w age of vice," is the last and worst. Vaikritam in //. 2 may 
perhaps mean " anger," as in 79 SL 2 : see Bohtlingk and Roth s.v. 



boy grew up in his father's house, and the Brahmans duly 
called him Devasoma. And when he had attained the age 
of sixteen years, that boy, who captivated all by his know- 
ledge, modesty and other good qualities, suddenly died of 
a fever. Then Yajnasoma, together with his wife, remained 
lovingly embracing that dead boy, and lamenting over him, 
and refused for a long time to let him be taken away to be 

Then the old men assembled and reproved that Brahman 
in the following words : " Brahman, are you not aware, 
though you know what is near and far, that the condition of 
this Fata Morgana of a world is frail as a bubble on water ? 
Look at those kings who filled the earth with their armies, 
and enjoyed themselves in this world, deeming themselves 
immortal, lying on jewelled couches on the delightful summits 
of palaces, that resounded with the warbling of music, having 
their bodies anointed with sandalwood ointment and other 
fragrant unguents, and begirt with beautiful women. Even 
these no one could save from being consumed by flesh- 
devouring flames, lying alone on the funeral pyre in the 
cemetery, whither the dead are followed by weeping friends, 
and when their extremities had been shrivelled, from being 
at last devoured by the jackals : much less can any others 
escape this fate. So tell us, wise man, what mean you by 
embracing that corpse ? " Many other speeches of this kind 
did they address to him. 

At last, with difficulty, his relations got him to stop cling- 
ing to his dead son ; and then, after the body had been laid 
out, they put it on a bier, and with loud lamentations carried 
it to the burning-place, accompanied by many people, who 
shed tears on account of the calamity. 

Now at that time there was dwelling in that cemetery 
an old Pasupata ascetic possessing supernatural power, who 
lived in a hut. His name was Vamasiva. His body was 
emaciated with age and excessive asceticism, and bound round 
with veins, as if with fear that it would break. He was 
covered all over with hair white with ashes, his matted locks 
were yellow as lightning, and he looked like a second Siva. 
When that hermit heard in the distance the lamentation of 

VOL. VII. h 


those people outside his hut, he said to the pupil that lived 
with him : " Rise up ! go and find out the meaning of this 
confused noise outside in the cemetery, such as I never heard 
before, and come back quickly and tell me." 

Now this pupil was one who had taken a vow of living 
on the products of begging ; he was a fool, and a rogue, and 
an egoist, puffed up with contemplation, magical powers and 
other things of the kind, and at this time he was annoyed 
because his teacher had rebuked him. So, when his teacher 
gave him this order, he answered him : "I will not go ! Go 
yourself, for my time for begging is fast slipping away." 
When the teacher heard that, he said : " Out on you, fool, 
devoted to your belly ! Only half one watch of the day has 
passed ; how can it be your time for begging now ? " When 
the wicked pupil heard that he was angry, and said to his 
teacher : " Out on you, you decrepit old creature ! I am no 
longer your pupil, and you are no longer my teacher. I will 
go elsewhere : carry this vessel yourself." When he had said 
this, he put down in front of him his stick and water- vessel, 
and got up and went away. 

Then the hermit left his hut, laughing as he went, and 
came to the place where the young Brahman had been 
brought to be buried. And when the hermit saw him with 
the people lamenting for the flower of his youth, being 
afflicted with old age, and possessed of magical powers, he 
determined to enter his body. So he quickly went aside, 
and first wept aloud, and immediately afterwards he danced 
with appropriate gesticulations. Then the ascetic, longing 
to be young again, abandoned his own body, and at once 
entered by magic power that young Brahman's body. And 
immediately the young Brahman on the pyre, which was 
ready prepared, returned to life, and rose up with a yawn. 
When his relations and all the people saw that, they raised 
a loud shout of " Hurrah ! he is alive ! he is alive ! " 

Then that ascetic, who was a mighty sorcerer, and had 
thus entered the young Brahman's body, not intending to 
abandon his vow, told them all the following falsehood : 
" Just now, when I went to the other world, Siva himself 
restored my life to me, telling me that I must take upon me 


the vow of a Pasupata ascetic. And I must this moment go 
into a solitary place and support this vow, otherwise I cannot 
live; so depart you, and I also will depart." Saying this to 
all those present, the resolute votary, bewildered with mixed 
feelings of joy and grief, dismissed them to their own homes. 
And he himself went and threw that former body of his into 
a ravine ; and so that great magician, who had taken the vow, 
having become young, went away to another place. 

163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story that night "[on the 
way, he again said to King Trivikramasena : " Tell me, King, 
why did that mighty magician, when entering another body, 
first weep, and then dance ? I have a great desire to know 

When that king, who was a chief of sages, heard this 
question of the Vetala's, fearing the curse, he broke silence, 
and gave him this answer : " Hear what the feelings of that 
ascetic were. He was grieved because he thought that he 
was just going to abandon that body, which had grown up 
with him through many years, by living in which he had 
acquired magic power, and which his parents had fondled 
when he was a child, so he wept violently, for affection for 
one's body is a deeply rooted feeling. But he danced for joy 
because he thought that he was about to enter a new body, 
and that by means of that he would acquire greater magic 
power ; for to whom is not youth pleasing ? " 

When the Vetala, who was inside that corpse, heard this 
speech of the king's, he left his shoulder and went back to 
that simsapd tree ; but that exceedingly undaunted monarch 
again ran after him to recover him, for the resolution of 
determined men surpasses in firmness the mighty mountains, 
and remains unshaken even at the end of a kalpa. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

THEN the brave King Trivikramasena, disregarding 
the awful night, which in that terrible cemetery 
assumed the appearance of a Rakshasi, being black 
with darkness, and having the flames of the funeral pyres 
for fiery eyes, again went to the simsapd tree, and took 
from it the Vetala, and put him on his shoulder. 

And while he was going along with him, as before, the 
Vetala again said to that king : " King, I am tired out 
with going backwards and forwards, though you are not ; 
so I will put to you one difficult question, and mind you 
listen to me. 

163g (24). The Father that married the Daughter and the 
Son that married the Mother 1 

There was in the Deccan a king of a small province, who 
was named Dharma ; he was the chief of virtuous men, but 
he had many relations who aspired to supplant him. He 
had a wife named Chandravati, who came from the land of 
Malava ; she was of high lineage, and the most virtuous of 
women. And that king had born to him by that wife one 
daughter, who was not without cause named Lavanyavati. 2 

And when that daughter had attained a marriageable age, 
King Dharma was ejected from his throne by his relations, 
who banded together and divided his realm. Then he fled 
from his kingdom at night with his wife and that daughter, 
taking with him a large number of valuable jewels, and he 
deliberately set out for Malava, the dwelling-place of his 
father-in-law. And in the course of that same night he 
reached the Vindhya forest with his wife and daughter. And 
when he entered it, the night, that had escorted him thus 

1 See Appendix, p. 262. n.m.p. 2 I.e. possessed of beauty. 




far, took leave of him with drops of dew by way of tears. 
And the sun ascended the eastern mountain, stretching forth 
its first rays, like a warning hand, to dissuade him from 
entering that brigand-haunted wood. Then he travelled 
through it with his wife and daughter, having his feet 
wounded with sharp points of kusa grass, and he reached a 
village of the Bhillas. It was full of men who robbed their 
neighbours of life and property, and shunned by the virtuous, 
like the strong city of Death. 

Then beholding the king from a distance with his dress 
and ornaments, many Savaras, armed with various weapons, 
ran to plunder him. When King Dharma saw that, he said 
to his daughter and wife : " The barbarians will seize on you 
first, so enter the wood in this direction." When the king 
said this to them, Queen Chandravati and her daughter 
Lavanyavati, in their terror, plunged into the middle of the 
wood. And the brave king, armed with sword and shield, 
killed many of the Savaras, who came towards him, raining 
arrows. Then the chief summoned the whole village, and 
falling on the king, who stood there alone, they slashed his 
shield to pieces and killed him ; and then the host of bandits 
departed with his ornaments. And Queen Chandravati, 
concealed in a thicket of the wood, saw from a distance her 
husband slain ; so in her bewilderment she fled with her 
daughter, and they entered another dense forest a long 
distance off. There they found that the shadows of the 
trees, afflicted by the heat of midday, had laid themselves 
at their cool roots, imitating travellers. So, tired and sad, 
the queen sat down weeping with her daughter, in a spot on 
the bank of a lotus-lake, under the shade of an asoka tree. 

In the meanwhile a chief, who lived near, came to that 
forest on horseback, with his son, to hunt. He was named 
Chandasimha, and when he saw their footsteps imprinted in 
the dust, he said to his son Sinhaparakrama : " We will 
follow up these lovely and auspicious tracks, and if we find 
the ladies to whom they belong, you shall choose whichever 
you please of them." When Chandasimha said this, his son 
Sinhaparakrama said to him : "I should like to have for a 
wife the one that has these small feet, for I know that she 


will be young and suited to me. But this one with large 
feet, being older than the other, will just suit you." When 
Chandasimha heard this speech of his son's, he said to him : 
" What is this that you say ? Your mother has only recently 
gone to heaven, and now that I have lost so good a wife, how 
can I desire another ? " When Chandasimha's son heard 
that, he said to him : " Father, do not say so, for the home 
of a householder is empty without a wife. Moreover, have 
you not heard the stanza composed by Muladeva ? ' Who 
that is not a fool enters that house in which there is no 
shapely love eagerly awaiting his return, which, though 
called a house, is really a prison without chains.' So, father, 
my death will lie at your door if you do not take as your 
wife that companion of the lady whom I have chosen." 

When Chandasimha heard this speech of his son's, he 
approved it, and went on slowly with him, tracking up their 
footsteps. And he reached that spot near the lake, and saw 
that dark Queen Chandravati, adorned with many strings of 
pearls, 1 sitting in the shade of a tree. She looked like the 
midnight sky in the middle of the day, and her daughter, 
Lavanyavati, like the pure white moonlight, seemed to il- 
lumine her. And he and his son eagerly approached her, and 
she, when she saw him, rose up terrified, thinking that he was 
a bandit. 

But the queen's daughter said to her : " Mother, do not 
be afraid ; these are not bandits ; these two gentle-looking, 
well-dressed persons are certainly some nobles come here to 
hunt." However, the queen still continued to hesitate ; and 
then Chandasimha got down from his horse and said to the 
two ladies : " Do not be alarmed : we have come here to see 
you out of love ; so take confidence 2 and tell us fearlessly 
who you are, since you seem like Rati and Priti fled to this 
wood in sorrow at Kama's having been consumed by the 
flames of Siva's fiery eye. And how did you two come to 

1 By reading muktdtdraughamanditam, with the D. text, we see it was rather 
the great splendour of the orients (pearls of the finest water) that attracted 
Chandasimha. n.m.p. 

2 I read visvasya, with the Sanskrit College MS., in place of visramya, which 
means "having rested." 


enter this unpeopled wood ? For these forms of yours are 
fitted to dwell in a gem-adorned palace. And our minds are 
tortured to think how your feet, that deserve to be supported 
by the lap of beautiful women, can have traversed this ground 
full of thorns. And, strange to say, the dust raised by the 
wind, falling on your faces, makes our faces lose their bright- 
ness from despondency. 1 And the furious heat of the beams 
of the fierce-rayed sun, as it plays on your flower-soft bodies, 
burns us. So tell us your story ; for our hearts are afflicted : 
we cannot bear to see you thus abiding in a forest full of wild 

When Chandasimha said this, the queen sighed, and, full 
of shame and grief, slowly told him her story. Then Chanda- 
simha, seeing that she had no protector, comforted her and 
her daughter, and coaxed them with kind words into be- 
coming members of his family. And he and his son put the 
queen and her daughter on their horses, and conducted them 
to their rich palace in Vittapapuri. And the queen, being 
helpless, submitted to his will, as if she had been born again 
in a second life. What is an unprotected woman, fallen into 
calamity in a foreign land, to do ? Then Sinhaparakrama, the 
son of Chandasimha, made Chandravati his wife, on account 
of the smallness of her feet. And Chandasimha made her 
daughter, the Princess Lavanyavati, his wife, on account of 
the largeness of her feet. For they made this agreement 
originally, when they saw the two tracks of the small foot- 
steps ; and who ever swerves from his plighted word ? 

So, from the mistake about the feet, the daughter became 
the wife of the father, and the mother the wife of the son ; 
and so the daughter became the mother-in-law of her own 
mother, and the mother became the daughter-in-law of her 
own daughter. And in course of time both of them had by 
those husbands sons and daughters, and they also had sons 
and daughters in due course of time. So Chandasimha and 
Sinhaparakrama lived in their city, having obtained as wives 
Lavanyavati and Chandravati." 

1 I adopt Dr Kern's conjecture of hata for ahata. 


163g. King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 

When the Vetala had told this story on the way at night, 
he again put a question to King Trivikramasena : " Now, 
King, about the children who were in course of time born to 
the mother and daughter by the son and the father in those 
two lines what relationship did they bear to one another ? 
Tell me if you know. And the curse before threatened will 
descend on you if you know and do not tell." 

When the king heard this question of the Vetala's, he 
turned the matter over and over again in his mind, but he 
could not find out, so he went on his way in silence. Then 
the Vetala in the dead man's body, perched on the top of 
his shoulder, laughed to himself, and reflected : " Ha ! ha ! 
the king does not know how to answer this puzzling ques- 
tion, so he is glad, and silently goes on his way with very 
nimble feet. Now I cannot manage to deceive this treasure- 
house of valour any further, 1 and this is not enough to make 
that mendicant stop playing tricks with me, so I will now 
deceive that villain, and by an artifice bestow the success, 
which he has earned, upon this king, whom a glorious future 

When the Vetala had gone through these reflections, he 
said to the king : " King, though you have been worried with 
so many journeys to and fro in this cemetery terrible with 
black night, you seem quite happy, and you do not show 
the least irresolution. I am pleased with this wonderful 
courage that you show. 2 So now carry off this body, for I 
am going out of it ; and listen to this advice which I give 
you for your welfare, and act on it. That wicked mendicant, 
for whom you have fetched this human corpse, will imme- 
diately summon me into it, and honour me. And wishing to 
offer you up as a victim, the rascal will say to you : ' King, 
prostrate yourself on the ground in such a way that eight 

1 I read param, with the MS. in the Sanskrit College. 

2 This idea is found also in European story-books. See Kuhn's Sagen mis 
Westfalen, p. 277 : " Diese Unerschrockenheit gefiel dem Tetifel so sehr, dass sich 
sein Zom nicht nur legte, sondern" etc. See also Grimm's Irische Elfenmarchen 
(which is based on Croker's Tales), p. 8. 



limbs will touch it.' Then, great King, you must say to 
that ascetic 1 : ' Show me first how to do it, and then I will 
do exactly as you do.' Then he will fling himself on the 
ground, and show you how to perform the prostration, and 
that moment you must cut off his head with the sword. 
Then you will obtain that prize which he desires, the sove- 
reignty of the Vidyadharas. Enjoy this earth by sacrificing 
him ! But otherwise that mendicant will offer you up as 
a victim. It was to prevent this that I threw obstacles in 
your way for such a long time here. So depart ; may you 
prosper ! " When the Vetala had said this, he went out of 
that human corpse that was on the king's shoulder. 

Then the king was led by the speech of the Vetala, who 
was pleased with him, to look upon the ascetic Kshantisila 
as his enemy, but he went to him in high spirits, where he 
sat under the banyan- tree, and took with him that human 

1 Sramana. 


163g (25). Conclusion of King Trivikramasena and the 

Mendicant l 

THEN King Trivikramasena came up to that mendi- 
cant Kshantisila, carrying that corpse on his shoulder. 
And he saw that ascetic, alone at the foot of a tree, 
in the cemetery that was terrible with a night of the black 
fortnight, eagerly awaiting his arrival. He was in a circle 
made with the yellow powder of bones, the ground within 
which was smeared with blood, and which had pitchers full 
of blood placed in the direction of the cardinal points. 2 It 
was richly illuminated with candles of human fat, 8 and near 
it was a fire fed with oblations ; it was full of all the necessary 
preparations for a sacrifice, and in it the ascetic was engaged 
in worshipping his favourite deity. 

So the king went up to him, and the mendicant, seeing 
that he had brought the corpse, rose up delighted, and said, 
praising him : " Great King, you have conferred on me a 
favour difficult to accomplish. To think that one like you 
should undertake this enterprise in such a place and at such 
a time ! Indeed they say with truth that you are the best 
of all noble kings, being a man of unbending courage, 4 since 
you forward the interests of another with such utter dis- 
regard of self. And wise men say that the greatness of 
great ones consists in this very thing, that they swerve not 
from what they have engaged i to do, even though their lives 
are in danger." 

With these words the mendicant, thinking he had gained 

1 See Appendix, p. 263. n.m.p. 

2 I read, with the MS. in the Sanskrit College, lipta for klipta, and purna 
for purva. 

3 See Vol. Ill, pp. 150-154. n.m.p. 

4 The Sanskrit College MS. reads nishkampam. But perhaps we ought 
to read nishkampa, " O fearless one." Satyam must be used adverbially. 
Kulabhubhritam also means (e of great mountains." 


his end, took the corpse down from the shoulder of that 
king. And he bathed it, and anointed it, and threw a gar- 
land round it, and placed it within that circle. And he 
smeared his limbs with ashes, and put on a sacrificial thread 
of hair, and clothed himself in the garments of the dead, 
and thus equipped he continued for a time in meditation. 
Then the mendicant summoned that mighty Vetala by the 
power of spells, and made him enter the corpse, and pro- 
ceeded to worship him. He offered to him an argha x of 
white human teeth in a skull by way of an argha vessel ; 
and he presented to him flowers and fragrant unguents ; and 
he gratified him with the savoury reek of human eyes, 2 
and made an offering to him of human flesh. And when he 
had finished his worship, he said to the king, who was at his 
side : " King, fall on the ground, and do obeisance with all 
your eight limbs to this high sovereign of spells who has 
appeared here, in order that this bestower of boons may 
grant you the accomplishment of your heart's desire." 

When the king heard that, he called to mind the words 
of the Vetala, and said to the mendicant : " I do not know 
how to do it, reverend sir ; do you show me first, and then I 
will do exactly as you." Then the mendicant threw himself 
on the ground, to show the king what he was to do, and then 
the king cut off his head with a stroke of his sword. And 
he tore and dragged 3 the lotus of his heart out of his inside, 
and offered his heart and head as two lotuses to that Vetala. 

Then the delighted hosts of goblins uttered shouts of 
applause on every side, and the Vetala said to the king from 
inside the corpse : " King, the sovereignty of the Vidya- 
dharas, which this mendicant was aiming at, shall fall to your 
lot after you have finished the enjoyment of your earthly 
sway. Since I have given you much annoyance, choose 
whatever boon you desire." When the Vetala said this, the 
king said to him : " Since you are pleased with me, every 

1 In the I), text "very pure human blood" (sunirmalaih nararaktaih) is offered 
as an argha, an oblation to gods and venerable men, generally consisting of 
water, rice and durva grass. n.m.p. 

2 I read nctraiseha for netre cha, with the Sanskrit College MS. 

3 Perhaps patitat would give a better sense. 


boon that I could desire is obtained ; nevertheless, as your 
words cannot be uttered in vain, I crave this boon of you : 
may these first twenty-four questions and answers, charming 
with their various tales, and this conclusion, the twenty- 
fifth of the series, be all famous and honoured on the earth ! ' : 
When the king made this request to the Vetala, the latter 
replied : " So be it ! And now listen, King ; I am going to 
mention a peculiar excellence which it shall possess. This 
string of tales, consisting of the twenty-four first, and this 
final concluding tale, shall become, under the title of c The 
Twenty-five Tales of a Vampire,' famous and honoured on 
the earth, as conducing to prosperity ! Whosoever shall 
read respectfully even a sloka of it, or whosoever shall hear 
it read, even they two shall immediately be freed from their 
curse. And Yakshas, and Vetalas, and Kushmandas, and 
witches, and Rakshasas, and other creatures of the kind 
shall have no power where this shall be recited." When 
the Vetala had said this, he left that human corpse, and 
went by his supernatural deluding power to the habitation 
he desired. 

Then Siva, being pleased, appeared, accompanied by all 
the gods, to that king, visibly manifest, and said to him, as 
he bowed before him : " Bravo, my son, for that thou hast 
to-day slain this hypocritical ascetic, who was so ardently in 
love with the imperial sovereignty over the Vidyadharas ! I 
originally created thee out of a portion of myself, as Vikra- 
maditya, in order that thou mightest destroy the Asuras, 
that had become incarnate in the form of Mlechchhas. And 
now thou hast again been created by me as an heroic king 
of the name of Trivikramasena, in order that thou mightest 
overcome an audacious evildoer. So thou shalt bring under 
thy sway the earth with the islands and the realms below, 
and shalt soon become supreme ruler over the Vidyadharas. 
And after thou hast long enjoyed heavenly pleasures, thou 
shalt become melancholy, and shalt of thy own will abandon 
them, and shalt at last without fail be united with me. 
Now receive from me this sword named Invincible, by means 
of which thou shalt duly obtain all this." When the god 
Siva had said this to the king, he gave him that splendid 


sword, and disappeared after he had been worshipped by him 
with devout speeches and flowers. 

Then King Trivikramasena, seeing that the whole business 
was finished, and as the night had come to an end, entered 
his own city Pratishthana. There he was honoured by his 
rejoicing subjects, who in course of time came to hear of 
his exploits during the night, and he spent the whole of that 
day in bathing, giving gifts, in worshipping Siva, in dancing, 
singing, music and other enjoyments of the kind. And in a 
few days that king, by the power of the sword of Siva, came 
to enjoy the earth, that was cleared of all enemies, together 
with the islands and the lower regions ; and then by the ap- 
pointment of Siva he obtained the high imperial sovereignty 
over the Vidyadharas, and after enjoying it long, at last be- 
came united with the blessed one, so attaining all his ends. 1 

163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

When that minister Vikramakesarin, meeting in the way 
the successful 2 Prince Mrigankadatta, after he had been long 
separated from him by a curse, had told him all this, he 
went on to say to him : " So, Prince, after that old Brahman 
had told me in that village this story, called c The Twenty- 
five Tales of a Vampire,' he went on to say to me: 'Well, 
my son, did not that heroic King Trivikramasena obtain 
from the favour of a Vetala the thing that he desired ? So 
do you also receive from me this spell, and laying aside your 
state of despondency win over a chief among the Vetalas, in 
order that you may obtain reunion with Prince Mriganka- 
datta. For nothing is unattainable by those who possess 
endurance : who, my son, will not fail, if he allows his 
endurance to break down ? So do what I recommend you 

1 Here ends the Vetalapaiichavimsati, which began in Vol. VI, p. 165. 


2 The Sanskrit College MS. reads sa kritartham, But surely Mriganka- 
datta could hardly be described as "successful" before he had obtained 
Sasankavati. The difficulty, however, vanishes if instead of B.'s svakritartham 
nijagada rajaputram we read prakrtartham nijagada rajaputram with D. The 
translation then would be "spoke to the prince (again) of the present 
subject." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 138. n.m.p. 


to do out of affection ; for you kindly delivered me from the 
pain of the bite of a poisonous serpent.' 1 When the Brah- 
man said this, I received from him the spell with the practice 
to be employed with it, and then, King, I took leave of him, 
and went to Ujjayim. There I got hold of a corpse in the 
cemetery at night, and I washed it and performed all the 
necessary processes with regard to it, and I summoned a 
Vetala into it by means of that spell, and duly worshipped 
him. And to satisfy his hunger, I gave him human flesh to 
eat ; and being greedy for the flesh of men, he ate that up 
quickly, and then said to me : ' I am not satisfied with this ; 
give me some more.' And as he would not wait any time, I 
cut off my own flesh, 2 and gave it to him to please him ; 
and that made that prince of magicians exceedingly pleased 
with me. Then he said to me : ' My friend, I am much 
pleased now with this intrepid valour of thine, so become 
whole in thy limbs as thou wast before, and crave from me 
whatever boon thou desirest.' When the Vetala said this 
to me, I answered him then and there : * Convey me, god, 
to that place where my master Mrigankadatta is ; there is 
no other boon which I desire more than this.' Then the 
mighty Vetala said to me : ' Then quickly get up on my 
shoulder, that I may carry thee rapidly to that master of 
thine.' When the Vetala said this, I consented, and eagerly 
climbed up on his shoulder, and then the Vetala, that was 
inside that human corpse, rapidly set out through the air, 
carrying me with him. And he has brought me here to- 
day, King; and when that mighty Vetala saw you on the 
way, he brought me down from the air, and thus I have 

1 The B. text is corrupt here. Read with the D. text tvam me bandhuh 
sarpadamsartiharia, " I hold you for my kinsman, since you have rescued me 
of the pain of a serpent's bite." See Speyer, op. cit., p. 138. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 84, 84W 1 , 85, and also Vol. VI, pp. 122, 122w 2 , 123w. To 
the references given in Vol. I, I would add F. Panzer, Beowulf, 1 910, p. 191 ; 
and to those in Vol. VI, the tale of " La Montagne Noire," Melusine, vol. ii, 
p. 447. Here the hero rides on the back of a crow, to whom he has to give 
flesh as often as he says " couac." At last he has to give him flesh from his 
own thighs. The wounds are healed instantaneously by means of a "Jiole 
de graisse" which he carries with him. Cf. also No. 6l of Gonzenbach's 
Sicilianische M'drchen with Dr Kohler's notes. n.m.p. 


been made to reach the sole of your foot. And I have to-day 
been reunited with my master, and the Vetala has departed, 
having accomplished what was required of him. This, 
bestower of honour, 1 is my great adventure, since I was 
separated from you by the curse of the Naga." 

When Mrigankadatta, as he was going to UjjayinI to 
win his beloved, had heard, on the way, from his minister, 
Vikramakesarin, this account of his adventures since he had 
been separated from him, that prince rejoiced, as he had in 
course of time found some of his ministers, who were separated 
from him by the curse of Paravataksha, and as he augured 
therefrom success in all that he had in hand. 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads kopita for mdnada i.e. "Since I was 
separated from you by the curse of the enraged Naga." 



HONOUR to the vanquisher of obstacles, 1 round 
whose knees, when he is dancing at night, there 
winds a garland of stars, which appears as if it had 
fallen from the globes on his forehead ! 

163. Story of Mrigankadatta 

Then, the story being ended, the delighted Mrigankadatta 
rose up from the middle of the path and set out again for 
Ujjayini, for which he had long ago started in order to find 
Sasankavati, with a party of eight, including himself, having 
recovered Vikramakesarin, accompanied by Gunakara, and 
Vimalabuddhi, and Vichitrakatha, and Bhimaparakrama, and 
Prachandasakti, and the Brahman Srutadhi, and he kept 
looking out for those of his companions separated from him 
by the curse of the Naga whom he had not yet recovered. 

And in course of time he reached a treeless desert, all 
the water in which had been dried up by the heat, and which 
was full of sand heated by the fierce blaze of the sun. And 
as the prince was traversing it, he said to his ministers : 
" Observe how long, terrible and difficult to cross is this 
great desert ; for it has in it no refuge : it is pathless and 
abandoned by men, and the blaze of its fire of grief seems 
to ascend in these sandy mirages ; its rough and dishevelled 
locks are represented by the dry, rustling blades of grass, 
and its thorns make it appear to have its hair standing on 
end through fear of the lions, tigers and other noisome 
beasts ; and it laments in the cries of its deer exhausted 
by the heat and longing for water. So we must cross this 
terrible desert as quickly as we can." 

When Mrigankadatta had said this, he quickly crossed 
that desert with his ministers, who were afflicted with 

1 Ganesa, who is represented with the head of an elephant. In si. 8 I 
read, with the Sanskrit College MS., vibhrashtapatha. 



hunger and thirst. And he beheld in front of him a great 
lake filled with pellucid and cold water, looking like streams 
that had flowed down from the moon after it had been melted 
with the heat of the sun. It was so broad that it filled the 
whole horizon, and it looked like a jewel-mirror made by 
the Fortune of the three worlds, in order to behold in it the 
reflection of herself. That lake resembled the Mahabharata, 
for in it the Dhartarashtras x were making a disturbance, 
and many Arjuna-trees were reflected 2 ; and it was refresh- 
ing and sweet to the taste ; it was like the churned sea of 
doom, for its precious fluid was drunk by the blue-necked 
jays that assembled near it, 3 and Vishnu might have resorted 
to it to find the Goddess of Beauty 4 : it resembled an 
earthly Patala, for its profound cool depths were never 
reached by the rays of the sun, and it was an unfailing 
receptacle of lotuses. 5 

And on the western shore of that lake the prince and 
his ministers saw a great and wonderful tree. Its numerous 
far-reaching boughs, agitated by the wind, appeared like 
arms, and the cloud-stream that clung to its head was like 
the Ganges, so that it resembled Siva dancing. With its 
lofty top, that pierced the sky, it seemed to be standing 
erect out of curiosity to see the beauty of the garden of 
Nandana. It was adorned with fruit of heavenly flavour, 
that clung to its branches, and so it looked like the wishing- 
tree of heaven, with goblets of nectar suspended on it by the 
gods. It waved its shoots like finger-tips, and seemed with 
the voices of its birds to say again and again : " Let no one 
question me in any way ! " 6 

1 This word means "the sons of Dhritariishtra," and also "geese with 
black legs and bills." 

2 This also means "in which Arjuna was displaying great activity." 

3 There is also an allusion to Siva's having drunk the poison that was 
produced by the Churning of the Ocean. 

4 There is an allusion to Vishnu's having obtained Lakshml from the 
ocean when churned. The passage may also mean that the beauty of the 
lake was permanent. 

5 This expression also means that " it rested on the head of the serpent 
Ananta" : which was true of Patala or Hades. 

6 Instead of B.'s prakshid iti read sprakshtd, with the D. text, "Let no one 
touch me in any way !" See Speyer, op. cit., p. 138. n.m.p. 

vol. VII. I 


While Prince Mrigankadatta was looking at that tree, 
his ministers, worn out with hunger and thirst, ran towards 
it, and the moment they saw those fruits on it, they climbed 
The Wonder- U P to eat tnem > anc * immediately they lost their 
Jul Tree thai human form, and were all six suddenly turned 
transforms Men m ^ fruits. Then Mrigankadatta was bewildered 
at not seeing those friends of his, and he called 
on every one of them there by name. But when they gave 
no answer, and could not be seen anywhere, the prince ex- 
claimed in a voice agonised with despair : " Alas ! I am 
undone ! " and fell on the ground in a swoon. And the 
Brahman Srutadhi, who had not climbed up the tree, was 
the only one left at his side. 

So the Brahman Srutadhi at once said to him by way of 
consolation : " Why, my sovereign, do you lose your firm- 
ness, and despair, though you have learned wisdom ? For it 
is the man who is not distracted in calamity that obtains 
prosperity. Did you not find those ministers, after they had 
been separated from you by the curse of the Naga ? In like 
manner shall you again recover them, and get back the others 
also, and moreover you shall soon be united with Sasan- 
kavati." When Srutadhi said this to the prince, he answered 
him : " How can this be ? The truth is that all this train of 
events was arranged for our ruin by the Disposer. If it was 
not so arranged, how came the Vetala to appear in the night 
and Bhimaparakrama to do as he did, and how came it to 
pass that I heard about Sasankavati through the conversa- 
tion that took place between them, and that I set out from 
Ayodhya to fetch her ? How came it to pass also that we 
were all separated from one another in the Vindhya forest by 
the curse of the Naga, and that some of us were in course of 
time reunited, and that this second separation has now taken 
place and with that the ruin of all my plans ? It all tallies 
together, my friend. The fact is they have been devoured 
in that tree by a demon, and without them what is Sasan- 
kavati to me, or what is my life worth to me ? So away 
with delusions ! " When Mrigankadatta had said this, he rose 
up to throw himself into the lake out of sorrow, although 
Srutadhi tried to prevent him. 



At that moment a bodiless voice came from the air : " My 
son, do not act rashly, for all will end well for thee. The god 
Ganesa himself dwells in this tree, and he has been to-day 
insulted by thy ministers unwittingly. 1 For they, King, 
being pinched with hunger, climbed up into the tree in which 
he dwells, to pick its fruits, in a state of impurity, having 
neither rinsed their mouths nor washed their hands and feet ; 
so the moment that they touched the fruits they became 
fruits themselves. For Ganesa inflicted on them this curse : 
4 Let them become that on which their minds are fixed ! ' 
Moreover, thy four other ministers, who, the moment they 
arrived here, climbed up the tree in the same way, were 
turned into fruits by the god. Therefore do you propitiate 
Ganesa with ascetic practices, and by his favour thou shalt 
attain all thy objects." 

When Mrigankadatta had been thus addressed by the 
voice from the air, that seemed to rain nectar into his ears, 
hope again sprang up in his bosom, and he gave up all idea of 
suicide. So he bathed in the lake, and worshipped Ganesa, 
who dwelt in that tree, without taking food, and joining his 
palms in an attitude of supplication praised him in the follow- 
ing words : " Hail, thou elephant-faced lord, who art, as it 
were, worshipped by the earth, that with its plains, rocks 
and woods bows under the crushing weight of thy tumultuous 
dance ! Hail, thou that hast the twin lotuses of thy feet 
worshipped by the three worlds, with the gods, Asuras and 
men that dwell in them ; thou whose body is in shape like a 
pitcher for the abundant storing of various splendid successes ! 
Hail, thou, the flame of whose might blazes forth like twelve 
fierce suns rising at once ; thou that wast a premature day 
of doom to the race of the Daityas, whom Siva, Vishnu, 
and Indra found hard to conquer ! Hail, thou that wardest 
off calamity from thy votaries ! Hail, thou that diffusest 
a blaze of flame with thy hand, while it glitters with thy 
mighty axe, that seems anxious to illuminate thee in sport ! 
I fly for refuge to thee, Ganesa, that wast worshipped even 
by Gauri, in order that her husband might successfully ac- 
complish his undertaking in the conquest of Tripura ; honour 

1 Another unintentional injury. See p. 92W 1 , and Vol. II, p. 147ft 1 . n.m.p. 


to thee ! " When Mrigankadatta had in these words praised 
Ganesa, he spent that night fasting, on a bed of kusa grass 
under that tree. In the same way that prince spent eleven 
nights, being engaged in propitiating Ganesa, the king 
of impediments ; and Srutadhi remained in attendance on 

And on the night of the twelfth day Ganesa said to him in 
a dream : " My son, I am pleased with thee ; thy ministers 
shall be released from their curse, and thou shalt recover 
them ; and with them thou shalt go and win Sasankavati in 
due course ; and thou shalt return to thy own city, and rule 
the whole earth." After Mrigankadatta had been thus in- 
formed in a dream by the god Ganesa, he woke up, when the 
night came to an end, and told Srutadhi the vision that he 
had seen. Srutadhi congratulated him on it; and then, in 
the morning, the prince bathed and worshipped Ganesa, and 
proceeded to walk round the tree in which the god dwelt, 
with his right hand towards it, 1 and while he was thus 
engaged all his ten ministers came down from the tree, 
having been released from the form of fruits, and fell at his 
feet. Besides the six who were mentioned before, there were 
Vyaghrasena and Sthiilabahu, and Meghabala, and the fourth, 

Then the prince, having recovered all those ministers at 
the same instance, with eye, with gestures, 2 and with voice 
agitated by the workings of joy, looked at his ministers, one 
by one, again and again, exceedingly lovingly, and embraced 
them, and then spoke to them ; having successfully attained 
his object. And they, beholding with tears in their eyes 
their master, who, after the asceticism which he had gone 
through, was slender as a new moon, and having been told 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193. n.m.p. 

2 The Petersburg lexicographers read kalanaya for kalataya. The three 

verbs correspond to the three nouns. Speyer (op. cit., p. 139), however, 

considers pramadamanthanarambha also corrupt. He would translate the passage 
as follows: "Then the prince, having recovered all those ministers at the 
same instance, looked at them with his eyes, embraced them with impetuous- 
ness and then spoke to them with a faltering voice, owing to the emotion of 
his exceeding love ; so he saluted them one by one, again and again, happy 
by his success." n.m.p. 


the true explanation of the whole by Srutadhi, felicitated 
themselves on having truly a protecting lord. 

Then Mrigankadatta, having attained good hope of 
accomplishing his enterprise, joyfully broke his fast with 
those ministers, who had performed all necessary ablutions 
in the tank. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN Mrigankadatta, refreshed by breaking his fast, 
sat down with those ministers of his on the bank 
of that lake. Then he courteously asked those four 
ministers, whom he had recovered that day, for an account 
of their adventures during the time that he was separated 
Vvashrasena fr m them. Thereupon that one of them who 
relates the was called Vyaghrasena said to him : " Listen, 
Adventures Prince, I now proceed to relate our adventures. 
MinisterTafter When I was carried to a distance from you by 
their Separation the curse of the Naga Paravataksha, I lost my 

from the Prince sense ^ and ^ thaf . ^^ j wandered through the 

forest by night. At last I recovered consciousness, but the 
darkness, which enveloped me, prevented me from seeing 
where the cardinal points lay, and what path I ought to 
take. At last the night, that grief made long, 1 came to 
an end ; and in course of time the sun arose, that mighty 
god, and revealed all the quarters of the heaven. Then I 
said to myself : ' Alas ! Where can that master of mine 
be gone ? And how will he manage to exist here alone 
separated from us ? And how am I to recover him ? Where 
shall I look for him ? What course shall I adopt ? I had 
better go to Ujjayini ; for I may perhaps find him there ; 
for he must go there, to find Sasankavati.' With such hopes 
I set out slowly for Ujjayini, threading that difficult forest 
that resembled calamity, scorched by the rays of the sun, that 
resembled showers of fiery powder. 

" And at last, somehow or other, I reached a lake, with 
full-blown lotuses for expanded eyes, that seemed to hold con- 
verse with me by means of the sweet cries of its swans and 
other water-birds ; it stretched forth its ripples like hands ; 

The Sanskrit College MS. reads dinayam for dirghayam. 



its surface was calm and broad 1 ; the very sight of it took 
away all grief ; and so in all points it resembled a good man. 
I bathed in it, and ate lotus-fibres, and drank water ; and 
while I was lingering on its bank I saw these three arrive 
there, Dridhamushti, and Sthulabahu and Meghabala. And 
when we met, we asked one another for tidings of you. And 
as none of us knew anything about you, and we suspected the 
worst, we made up our minds to abandon the body, being 
unable to endure separation from you. 

" And at that moment a hermit-boy came to bathe in that 
lake ; his name was Mahatapas, and he was the son of Dirgha- 
tapas. He had matted hair, he diffused a brightness of his 
own, and he seemed like the God of Fire, blazing with mighty 
flame, become incarnate in the body of a Brahman, in order to 
consume once more the Khandava forest 2 ; he was clothed in 
the skin of a black antelope, he had an ascetic's water- vessel 
in his left hand, and on his right wrist he bore a rosary of 
Aksha seeds by way of a bracelet ; the perfumed earth that 
he used in bathing was stuck on the horns of the deer that 
came with him, and he was accompanied by some other 
hermit-boys like himself. The moment he saw us about to 
throw ourselves into the lake he came towards us for the 
good are easily melted with compassion, and show causeless 
friendship to all. And he said to us : 6 You ought not to 
commit a crime characteristic of cowards, for poltroons, with 
their minds blinded with grief, fall into the gulfs of calamity, 
but resolute men, having eyes enlightened by discernment, 
behold the right path, and do not fall into the pit, but as- 
suredly attain their goal. And you, being men of auspicious 
appearance, will no doubt attain prosperity ; so tell me what 
is your grief ? For it grieves my heart to see you thus.' 

" When the hermit-boy had said this, I at once told 
him the whole of our adventure from the beginning ; then 
that boy, who could read the future, 3 and his companions 
exhorted us with various speeches, and diverted our minds 

1 When applied to the good man, it means "his heart was benevolent 
and large." 

2 See Vol. Ill, p. 228, 228w 2 . 

3 I follow the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. ayati-daj-sina. 


from suicide. Then the hermit-boy, after he had bathed, took 
us to his father's hermitage, which was at no great distance, 
to entertain us. 

" There that hermit's son bestowed on us the arghya, and 
made us sit down in a place in which even the trees seemed to 
have entered on a course of penance, for they stood aloft on 
platforms of earth, and lifted on high their branches like arms, 
and drank in the rays of the sun. And then he went and 
asked all the trees in the hermitage, one after another, for 
alms. And in a moment his alms-vessel was filled with fruits 
that of themselves dropped from the trees ; and he came 
back with it to us. And he gave us those fruits of heavenly 
flavour, and when we had eaten them, we became, as it were, 
satisfied with nectar. 

" And when the day came to an end, and the sun de- 
scended into the sea, and the sky was filled with stars as if 
with spray flung up by his fall and the moon, having put on 
a white bark-robe of moonlight, had gone to the ascetic grove 
on the top of the eastern mountain 1 as if desiring to with- 
draw from the world on account of the fall of the sun we 
went to see the hermits, who had finished all their duties and 
were sitting together in a certain part of the hermitage. We 
bowed before them, and sat down, and those great sages wel- 
comed us, and with kindly words at once asked us whence 
we came. Then that hermit-boy told them our history until 
the time of our entering the hermitage. Then a wise hermit 
there, of the name of Kanva, said to us : ' Come, why have 
you allowed yourselves to become so dispirited, being as you 
are, men of valour ? For it is the part of a brave man to 
display unbroken firmness in calamity, and freedom from 
arrogance in success, and never to abandon fortitude. And 
great men attain the title of great by struggling through 
great difficulties by the aid of resolution, and accomplish- 
ing great things. In illustration of this, listen to this story 
of Sundarasena, and hear how he endured hardship for the 
sake of Mandaravati.' When the hermit Kanva had said 
this, he began, in the hearing of us and of all the hermits, to 
tell the following tale. 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. gives prachyam saila-sringa-tapovanam. 



163h. Sundarasena and Manddravati 1 

There is a country named Nishadha, that adorns the face 
of the northern quarter ; in it there was of old a city of the 
name of Alaka. In this city the people were always happy 
in abundance of all things, 2 and the only things that never 
enjoyed repose were the jewel-lamps. In it there lived a 
king of the name of Mahasena, and not without reason was 
he so named, for his enemies were all consumed by the 
wonderful and terrible fire of his valour, which resembled 
that of the God of War. That king had a prime minister 
named Gunapalita, who was like a second Sesha, for he was 
a mine of valour, and could bear up, like that serpent, the 
weight of the earth. The king, having destroyed his enemies, 
laid upon him the weight of his kingdom and devoted himself 
to pleasure ; and then he had a son born to him by his Queen 
Sasiprabha, named Sundarasena. Even when he was a child, 
he was no child in good qualities, and the goddesses of 
Valour and Beauty chose him for their self-elected husband. 

That prince had five heroic ministers, equal in age and 
accomplishments, who had grown up with him from their 
childhood, Chandaprabha, and Bhimabhuja, and Vyaghra- 
parakrama, and the heroic Vikramasakti, and the fifth was 
Dridhabuddhi. And they were all men of great courage, 
endowed with strength and wisdom, well born, and devoted 
to their master, and they even understood the cries of birds. 3 
And the prince lived with them in his father's house without 
a suitable wife, being unmarried, though he was grown up. 
And that heroic Sundarasena and his ministers reflected : 
" Courage invincible in assault, and wealth won by his own 
arm, and a wife equal to him in beauty, become a hero on this 
earth. Otherwise, what is the use of this beauty ? " 

And one day the prince went out of the town to hunt, 
accompanied by his soldiers, and by those five companions ; 

1 In his Golden Town, L. D. Barnett treats this as a separate stor}\ 
See pp. 37-56. n.m.p. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. reads sukhitejane. The sense is the same. 

3 See Vol. II, pp. 107ft 1 , 108w; Vol. IV, p. 145n T , and Grohmann, Sagen 
aus Bohmen, p. 242. 



and as he was going out, a certain famous female mendicant 
named Katyayani, bold from the maturity of her age, who 
had just returned from a distant foreign country, saw him, 
and said to herself, when she beheld his superhuman beauty : 
" Is this the moon without Rohini or the God of Love without 
Rati ? " But when she asked his attendants, and found out 
that it was the prince, she was astonished, and praised the 
marvellousness of the creation of the Disposer. 1 Then she 
cried out to the prince from a distance with a shrill and far- 
reaching voice: "Be victorious, O Prince!" and so saying 
she bowed before him. But at that moment the mind of the 
prince was wholly occupied by a conversation which he had 
begun with his ministers, and he went on without hearing the 
female ascetic. But she was angry, and called out to him in 
such a loud voice that he could not help hearing her : " Ho ! 
Prince ! Why do you not listen to the blessing of such a one 
as I am ? What king or prince is there on the earth that does 
not honour me 2 ? But if your youth and other advantages 
render you so proud now, it is certain that, if you obtain for 
a wife the maiden Mandaravati, the daughter of the King of 
Hansadvipa, you will be too much puffed up with arrogance 
to listen to the speech of Siva, 3 the great Indra, and other 
gods, much less to the words of wretched men." 

When the ascetic had said this, Sundarasena, being full 
of curiosity, called her to him, and bent before her and pro- 
pitiated her. And being anxious to question her, he sent her 
under the care of his servants to rest in the house of his 
minister Vikramasakti. Then the prince went off, and after 
he had enjoyed the sport of hunting, he returned to his palace, 
and said his daily prayers, and took his food, and then he 
sent for the ascetic, and put the following question to her : 
" Reverend mother, who is this maiden named Mandaravati, 
that you spoke of to-day ? Tell me, for I feel great curiosity 
about her." 

When the ascetic heard this, she said to him : " Listen, I 
will tell you the whole story. I am in the habit of wandering 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads dhatuh samagryya (sic) vaichitryam. 

2 See Vol. Ill, p. 259. n.m.p. 

3 The Sanskrit College MS. reads manye (I think) for Hara. 


about the whole of this earth and the islands, for the sake of 
visiting sacred bathing-places and other holy spots. And in 
the course of my travels I happened to visit Hansadvipa. 
There I saw the daughter of King Mandaradeva, a suitable 
match for the sons of gods, not to be beheld by those who 
have done evil works ; she bears the name of MandaravatI, 
and has a form as charming as the presiding goddess of 
the garden of the gods ; the sight of her kindles love, and she 
seems like another moon all composed of nectar, created by 
the Disposer. There is no other beauty on the earth equal 
to hers 1 ; only you, Prince, I think, emulate her wealth of 
loveliness. As for those who have not seen her, their eyes 
are useless, and they have been born in vain." 

When the prince heard this from the mouth of the female 
ascetic, he said : " Mother, how are we to get a sight of her 
beauty, which is so surpassing ? " When the female ascetic 
heard this speech of his, she said : "I took such interest in 
her on that occasion that I painted a picture of her on canvas, 
and I have it with me in a bag ; if you feel any curiosity 
about it, look at it." When she had said this, she took the 
picture out of her bag, and showed it to the gratified prince. 
And Sundarasena, when he beheld that maiden, who, though 
she was present there only in a picture, seemed to be of 
romantic beauty, and like a flowing forth of joy, immediately 
felt his limbs covered all over with hairs erect from hor- 
ripilation, as if he had been pierced with the dense arrows 
of the god of the flowery bow. 2 He remained motionless, 
hearing nothing, speaking nothing, seeing nothing ; and, with 
his whole heart fixed on her, was for a long time as if painted 
in a picture. 

WTien the prince's ministers saw that, they said to that 
female ascetic : " Reverend mother, paint Prince Sundara- 
sena on this piece of canvas, and let us have a specimen of 
your skill in catching likenesses." The moment she heard 
that, she painted the prince on canvas. And when they saw 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads sadrisl and anyatra. 

2 For falling in love with a picture see Vol. IV, p. 132/* 1 . For the 
conventional signs of love in the Greek romances see Rohde, Der Griechiscke 
Roman, p. 157 et seq. 


that it was a striking likeness, all who were present there, 
said : " The reverend lady's likenesses exactly resemble the 
originals, for when one looks at this picture, one thinks that 
one sees the prince himself; so the beauty of the Princess 
Mandaravati is sure to be such as it is represented in the 

When the ministers had said this, Prince Sundarasena took 
the two pictures, and being pleased, honoured that female 
ascetic. Leaving her befittingly dwelling in a separate 
place, he entered the inner chamber, carrying the portrait of 
his beloved. " Can it be a face," [he mused] " or the moon 
with the blackness of its markings purged by loveliness ? 
Are these the two pitchers of Kama's regal coronation, or a 
pair of breasts ? Are these waves of the ocean of beauty," 
[or] " a triple belly-dimple like creeping plants ? Is this 
a hip, or Rati's litter of sport ? " In this way studying 
Mandaravati, limb by limb, though he had only her painted 
form before him, he remained fallen upon his couch ; and 
in this state he continued day after day, abstaining from 
meat and drink ; and so in the course of a few days he was 
completely exhausted by the pain of love's fever. 1 

When his parents, Sasiprabha and Mahasena, found that 
out, they came of their own accord and asked his friends the 
cause of his indisposition. And his companions told them 
the whole story, as it had happened, how the daughter of 
the King of Hansadvipa had come to be the cause of his 
complaint. Then Mahasena said to Sundarasena : " My 
son, why do you so improperly conceal this attachment of 
yours ? For Mandaravati is a pearl of maidens, and she will 
be a good match for you. Besides, her father, Mandaradeva, 
is a great friend of mine. So why do you torment yourself 
about a matter of this kind, which is quite becoming, and 
can be easily arranged by an ambassador ? " When King 
Mahasena had said this, he deliberated, and sent off an 
ambassador named Surathadeva to Hansadvipa, to ask for 
the daughter of King Mandaradeva. And he put into his 

1 Tawney has merely made a paraphrase of this passage describing 
Mandaravati' s beauty, and with the kind help of Dr Barnett I have made an 
entirely new and complete translation. n.m.p. 


hand the portrait of Sundarasena, executed on canvas by 
that female ascetic, which showed how wonderfully handsome 
he was. 

The ambassador travelled quickly, and reached the city 
of King Mahendraditya on the shore of the sea, named 
Sasankapura. There he embarked on a ship, and after 
some days he reached the palace of King Mandaradeva in 
Hansadvipa. He was announced by the warders and entered 
the palace, and saw that king, and after he had in due 
form delivered to him the present, he said to him : " Great 
monarch, King Mahasena sends you this message : ' Give your 
daughter to my son Sundarasena ; for a female ascetic, of 
the name of Katyayani, made a portrait of her, and brought 
it here, and showed it to my son, as the picture of a pearl of 
maidens. And as Sundarasena's beauty so nearly resembles 
hers, I felt a desire to have his form painted on canvas also, 
and herewith I send the picture. Look at it. Moreover, 
my son, who is of such astonishing beauty, does not wish 
to be married, unless he can find a wife that resembles him, 
and nobody but your daughter is a match for him in appear- 
ance.' This is the message the king entrusted to me, when 
he put this portrait into my hand. Look at it, King ; let 
the spring-flower be united to the spring." 

When the king heard this speech of the ambassador's, 
he was delighted, and he sent for his daughter Mandaravati 
and the queen her mother. And in their company he opened 
and looked at that portrait, and immediately he ceased to 
cherish the proud thought that there was no fitting match for 
his daughter on the earth. And he said : " My daughter's 
beauty will not have been created in vain, if she is united to 
this prince. She does not look her best without him, nor is 
he complete without her ; what is the lotus-bed without the 
swan, and what is the swan without the lotus-bed ? " 

When the king said this, and the queen expressed her 
complete approbation of it, Mandaravati suddenly became 
bewildered with love. She remained with her wide-expanded 
eyes immovably fixed on the picture, as if possessed, as if 
asleep (though she was wide awake), as if herself a paint- 
ing. Then Mandaradeva, seeing his daughter in that state, 


consented to give her in marriage, and he honoured that 

And on the next day the king sent off his counter- 
ambassador, who was a Brahman named Kumaradatta, to 
King Mahasena. And he said to the two ambassadors : 
" Go quickly to that King Mahasena, the lord of Alaka, 
and say to him from me : ' I give you my daughter out of 
friendship ; so tell me, will your son come here, or shall I 
send my daughter to you ? ' " When the two ambassadors 
had received this message from the king, they immediately 
started off together on the sea in a ship ; and they reached 
Sasankapura, and thence they travelled by land, and reached 
that opulent city of Alaka, which seemed like the original 
Alaka. 1 They went to the king's palace and entered with 
the usual courtesies, and saw King Mahasena, who welcomed 
them. And they told that king the answer which Mandara- 
deva entrusted to them ; and when the king heard it, he was 
pleased, and showed both of them great honour. 

Then the king found out the star under which the prin- 
cess was born, from her father's ambassador ; and he asked 
his astrologers when a favourable time would arrive for the 
marriage of his son. And they answered that an auspicious 
time would present itself in three months for bridegroom 
and bride, on the fifth day of the white fortnight of the 
month Kartika. And so the King of Alaka informed Man- 
daradeva that the marriage ought to take place on that 
day, and that he would send his son, and this he wrote in 
a letter, and committed it to the care of the ambassador 
Kumaradatta, and another ambassador of his own named 
Chandrasvamin. So the ambassadors departed, and gave the 
letter as they were directed, and told the King of Hansadvipa 
all that had taken place. The king approved, and after 
honouring Chandrasvamin, the ambassador of Mahasena, 
he sent him back to his master. And he returned to Alaka, 
and reported that the business was satisfactorily settled ; 
and then all on both sides remained eagerly expecting the 
auspicious day. 

And in the meanwhile Mandaravati, in Hansadvipa, who 

1 The capital of the God of Wealth. 



had long ago fallen in love with the prince from seeing his 
picture, thought that the auspicious day for the marriage 
was a long way off, and felt unable to endure so much delay ; 
and being affectionate, she became desperately enamoured, 
and was grievously tormented with the fire of love. And 
in the eager longing of her heart for Sundarasena, even the 
anointing with sandalwood ointment became a shower of hot 
coals on her body, and a bed of lotus leaves was to her a 
bed of hot sand, and the rays of the moon seemed like the 
scorching points of flame of a forest conflagration. She re- 
mained silent, avoiding food, adopting a vow of loneliness ; 
and when her confidante questioned her in her anxiety, she 
was at last, with difficulty, induced to make the following 
avowal : " My friend, my marriage is far off, and I cannot 
bear to wait for the time, separated from my intended 
husband, the son of the King of Alaka. Distant is the time, 
and the place, and various is the course of fate ; so who 
knows what will happen to any one here in the meantime ? 
So I had better die." Saying this, MandaravatI, being sick 
with separation, passed immediately into a miserable state. 

When her father and mother heard that from the mouth 
of her confidante, and saw her in such a condition, they 
deliberated with the ministers, and came to the following 
conclusion : " That King Mahasena, the sovereign of Alaka, 
is on good terms with us, and the Princess MandaravatI is 
unable to endure the delay here, so why should we feel any 
delicacy about it ? Happen what will, let us send her to 
Alaka, for when she is near her beloved, she will be able 
patiently to endure the delay." When King Mandaradeva 
had gone through these deliberations, he comforted his 
daughter MandaravatI, and made her embark on a ship with 
wealth and attendants, and after her mother had recited a 
prayer for her good fortune he sent her off from Hansadvlpa 
by sea on an auspicious day. to travel to Alaka, in order that 
she might be married there ; and he sent with her a minister 
of his own, named Vinltamati. 

And after the princess, travelling in a ship on the ocean, 
had left Hansadvlpa some days' sail behind her, there sud- 
denly rose up against her a roaring cloud, as it were a bandit, 


showering raindrops like arrows, that sang terribly in the 
whistling wind. And the gale, like mighty fate, in a moment 
dragged her ship to a distance, and smote it, and broke it 
in pieces. And those attendants were drowned, and among 
them Vinitamati ; and all her treasure was whelmed in the 

But the sea lifted up the princess with a wave, as it were 
with an arm, and flung her up alive in a forest on the shore, 
near the scene of the shipwreck. To think that she should 
have fallen into the sea, and that a towering wave should 
have landed her in a forest ! Behold now, how nothing 
is impossible to Destiny ! Then she, in such a situation, 
terrified and confused, seeing that she was alone in a solitary 
wood, was again plunged in a sea, but this time it was the sea 
of grief. She exclaimed: "Where have I arrived? Surely 
it is a very different place from that for which I set out ! 
Where, too, are those attendants of mine ? Where is Vini- 
tamati ? Why has this suddenly happened to me ? Where 
shall I go, ill-starred as I am ? Alas ! I am undone ! 
What shall I do ? Cursed Fate, why did you rescue me 
from the sea ? Ah, father ! Ah, mother ! Ah, husband, 
son of the King of Alaka ! Look ; I am perishing before I 
reach you ; why do you not deliver me ? " While uttering 
these and similar exclamations, Mandaravati wept copiously 
with tears that resembled the pearls of a broken necklace. 

And at that very time a hermit named Matanga came 
there from his hermitage, which was not far off, to bathe in 
the sea. That sage, who was accompanied by his daughter 
named Yamuna, who had observed a vow of virginity from 
her childhood, heard the sound of Mandaravatf s weeping. 
And with his daughter he approached her kindly, and he 
saw her, looking like a doe separated from a herd of deer, 
casting her sorrowing eyes in every direction. And the great 
sage said to her with an affectionate voice : " Who are you, 
and how did you get into this wood, and why do you weep ? " 
Then Mandaravati, seeing that he was a compassionate man, 
slowly recovered herself, and told him her story, with face 
dejected with shame. 

Then the hermit Matanga, after meditating, said to her : 


" Princess, cease to despair ; recover your composure ! 
Though you are delicate of body as a sirisha flower, the 
calamity of sorrow afflicts you : do misfortunes ever con- 
sider whether their victim is tender or not ? But you shall 
soon obtain the husband you desire ; so come to this hermit- 
age of mine, which is at no great distance from this place, 
and remain there with this daughter of mine as in your own 
house." When the great hermit had comforted her with 
these words, he bathed, and, accompanied by his daughter, 
led Mandaravati to his hermitage. There she remained lead- 
ing an ascetic life, longing to meet her husband, delighting 
herself with waiting upon that sage, accompanied by his 

And in the meanwhile Sundarasena, who was emaciated 
with long expectation, remained killing the time in Alaka, 
continually counting the days, eager for his marriage with 
Mandaravati, and his friend Chandaprabha and the rest 
were trying to console him. And in course of time, as the 
auspicious day drew nigh, his father, the king, made pre- 
parations for his journey to Hansadvipa. And after prayers 
had been offered for a prosperous journey, Prince Sundara- 
sena started from his home on an auspicious day, shaking 
the earth with his armies. 

And as he was marching along with his ministers he 
reached in course of time, to his delight, that city Sasan- 
kapura, which adorned the shore of the sea. There King 
Mahendraditya, hearing of his approach, came to meet him, 
bowing humbly; and the prince entered the city with his 
followers, and, mounted on an elephant, he reached the 
palace of the king. 

And as he went along, the splendour of his beauty fluttered 
the hearts of the ladies of the city, as the hurricane flutters 
the lotus-bed. In the palace King Mahendraditya showed 
him every attention, and promised to accompany him ; and 
so he rested there that day. And he spent the night in such 
thoughts as these : " Shall I ever get across the sea, and win 
that blushing bride ? " 

And next morning he left his army in that very city, 
and went with King Mahendraditya to the shore of the 



sea. There he and his ministers, together with that king, 
embarked on a large ship, that was well supplied with food 
and water. And the prince made the small retinue, that he 
could not help taking, embark on a second ship. Then the 
ship was let go, and its flag fluttered in the wind, and those 
two kings, who were in it, shaped their course towards the 
south-western quarter. 

And after two or three days had passed, as they were 
sailing on the sea, there suddenly arose a great hurricane. 
And the ranges of forest on the shores of the sea shook to 
and fro, as if in astonishment at the unprecedented character 
of the gale. And the waters of the sea, inverted by the wind, 
were turned upside down, again and again, as affections are 
by lapse of time. And an offering of jewels was made to 
the sea, 1 accompanied by a loud cry of woe ; and the pilots 
let loose the sail and relaxed their efforts at the same time, 
and all excitedly flung out very heavy stones on all sides, 
fastened by chains, and flung away their hopes of life at the 
same time ; and the two vessels, driven to and fro by the 
waves, as elephants by elephant-drivers, 2 wandered about in 
the sea, as if in the melee of a battle. 

Then Sundarasena, beholding that, was moved from 
his seat, as if from his self-command, 8 and said to King 

1 Offerings to the sea are still common among tribes on the coast. In 
parts of Kathiawar a fire is lighted on the seashore, butter is thrown into it, 
and milk and sugar are poured into the sea. The fishing caste, particularly 
at the end of the monsoon, when fishing craft put out to sea, pour milk, 
spirits, flowers and coco-nuts into the sea. Their festival at the close of 
the stormy weather is generally known as the Narali-purnima, or coco-nut 
festival, held at the full moon of Savan or August, when people go to the 
shore, offer coco-nuts, and have their foreheads marked with red by a Brahman. 
Koli women on the Bombay coast wear glass bangles only on the left wrist, 
because on their wedding-day the right-arm bangles are taken off and thrown 
into the sea to win its favour for their husbands. W. Crooke, Religion and 
Folklore of Northern India, 1926, pp. 55, 56. See also the same author, 
a Water, Water-Gods (Indian)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. xii, p. 717. 


2 Bohtlingk and Roth give ndgabandha in this passage as " eine Schlange 
als Fessel." I do not quite see how to bring in this translation, though I fear 
that my own is not correct. 

3 I read dhairydd for adhairyad. 


Mahendraditya : " It is through my demerits in former births 
that this day of doom has suddenly come upon you. So I 
cannot endure to witness it ; I will fling myself into the sea." 
When the prince had said this, he quickly girt his upper 
garment round his loins, and flung himself then and there into 
the sea. And when his five friends, Chandaprabha and the 
others, saw that, they too flung themselves in, and Mahen- 
draditya did the same. And while, having recovered their 
presence of mind, they were swimming across the ocean, they 
all went in different directions, being separated by the force 
of the waves. And immediately the wind fell, and the sea 
became hushed and calm, and bore the semblance of a good 
man whose wrath is appeased. 1 

And in the meanwhile Sundarasena, with whom was 
Dridhabuddhi, found a ship that had been driven from some- 
where or other by the wind, and with that minister of his as 
his only companion he climbed up on it, as it were on a 
second swing of incertitude oscillating between rescue and 
destruction. Then, having lost all courage, he drifted, not 
knowing his bearings, looking on the whole world as made 
of water, confiding in his god ; and the ship, which was 
wafted along by a gentle and favourable breeze, as if by 
a deity, carried him to the shore in three days. There it 
stuck fast, and he and his companion sprang to shore and 
to a hope of life at the same moment. 

And when there, he recovered breath, and said to 
Dridhabuddhi : " I have escaped even from the sea, from 
the infernal regions, though I went below ; but since I 
have not been able to do so without causing the death of 
my ministers Vikramasakti, and Vyaghraparakrama, and 
Chandaprabha, and Bhimabhuja, such fine fellows as they 
were, and also of King Mahendraditya, who became with- 
out cause so good a friend to me of all these how 
can I now live with honour ? " When he said this, his 
minister Dridhabuddhi said to him : " Prince, recover 
your composure; I am persuaded that we shall have good 
fortune, for they may perhaps make their way across the 

1 Storms play an important part in Greek [and Arabian] romances. See 
Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, pp. 428-468. 


sea, as we have done. Who can discern the mysterious way 
of Destiny ? " 

While Dridhabuddhi was saying this, and other things of 
the same kind, two hermits came there to bathe. The good 
men, seeing that the prince was despondent, came up to him 
and asked him his story, and said kindly to him : " Wise sir, 
even the gods are not able to alter the mighty influence of 
actions in a previous state of existence, that bestow joy and 
sorrow. So a resolute man, who wishes to take leave of 
sorrow, should practise right -doing ; for right -doing is the 
true remedy for it, not regrets, nor emaciation of the body. 
So abandon despondency, and preserve your body by resolute 
endurance : as long as the body is preserved, what object of 
human endeavour cannot be attained ? Moreover, you pos- 
sess auspicious marks ; you are certain to enjoy prosperity." 
Saying this the hermits consoled him, and took him to their 

And Prince Sundarasena remained waiting there for some 
days, accompanied by Dridhabuddhi. 

And in the meanwhile his ministers Bhimabhuja and 
Vikramasakti, having swam across the sea, reached the shore 
in a separate place. And hoping that perhaps the prince 
might have escaped from the sea like themselves, they entered 
that great forest and searched for him bewildered with grief. 
And his other two ministers, Chandaprabha and Vyaghra- 
parakrama, and King Mahendraditya, in the same way 
escaped from the sea, and sorrowfully sought for Sundarasena, 
and when they did not find him were afflicted ; and at last 
they found their ship unharmed and went to Sasankapura. 
Then those two ministers, and the army that had been left 
in that city, hearing what had happened, 1 went weeping to 
their own city Alaka. And when they arrived without the 
prince, lamenting their loss, the citizens wept, and one 
universal wail was heard in the city. When King Mahasena 
and his queen heard that news of their son, they were in 
such a state that they would have died, if it were not that 
their allotted term of life had not yet expired. And when 
the king and the queen were bent on suicide, the ministers 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. has jnata-vrittanta. 



dissuaded them with various speeches, which gave them reasons 
for entertaining hope. Then the king remained in a temple 
of Svayambhu, 1 outside the town, engaged in asceticism with 
his attendants, inquiring for news of his son. 

And in the meanwhile King Mandaradeva, in Hansadvipa, 
heard the news of the shipwreck of his daughter, and of that 
of his proposed son-in-law. And he also came to know that his 
son-in-law's two ministers had arrived in Alaka, and that 
King Mahasena there was keeping himself alive by hope, 
being engaged in practising austerities. Then that king 
also, who was afflicted by grief for the loss of his daughter, 
and was only prevented by his ministers from committing 
suicide, entrusted to them the care of his kingdom, and with 
his Queen Kandarpasena, went to the city of Alaka to visit 
King Mahasena, who was his partner in misfortune. And 
he made up his mind that he would do whatever that king 
did as soon as he had trustworthy intelligence with regard 
to the fate of his son. And so he came to King Mahasena, 
who was still more grieved when he heard of the fate of 
Mandaravati, and sorrowed in sympathy with him. Then 
that King of Hansadvipa remained practising austerities 
with the King of Alaka, restraining his senses, eating little, 
sleeping on darbha grass. 

When they had been all scattered in this way in different 
directions by the Disposer, as leaves by a wind, it happened 
that Sundarasena set forth from the hermitage in which he 
was, and reached that hermitage of Matanga, in which 
Mandaravati was staying. There he beheld a lake of clear 
water, the bank of which was thickly planted with trees bent 
down with the weight of many ripe fruits of various flavours. 
As he was weary, he bathed in that lake, and ate sweet fruits, 
and then walked on with Dridhabuddhi, and reached a forest 
stream. And going along its bank, he saw some hermit 
maidens engaged in gathering flowers near a temple contain- 
ing a linga. And in the midst of them he beheld one hermit 
maiden, who seemed to be the peerless beauty of the world, 
illuminating the whole wood with her loveliness, as if with 
moonlight, making all the regions full of blown blue lilies 

1 " The self-existent/' a name of Siva, Vishnu and Buddha. 


with her glance, and sowing with her footfalls a thicket of 
lotuses in the forest. 

Then the prince said to Dridhabuddhi : " Who can this 
be ? Can she be a nymph of heaven worthy of being gazed 
upon by the hundred-eyed Indra ; or is she the presiding 
goddess of the forest, with her shoot-like fingers clinging to 
the flowers ? Surely the Creator framed this very wonderful 
form of hers after he had perfected his skill by continual 
practice in creating many nymphs of heaven. And lo ! she 
exactly resembles in appearance my beloved Mandaravati, 
whose beauty I beheld in a picture. Why should she not be 
the lady herself? But how can this be? She is in Hansa- 
dvipa, far away from this heart of the forest. So I cannot * 
conceive who this fair one is, and whence she comes, and 
how she comes to be here." And Dridhabuddhi, when he 
saw that fair maid, said to the prince : " She must be whom 
you suppose her to be, otherwise how could her ornaments, 
though made of forest flowers, thus resemble a necklace, a 
zone, a string of bells, and the other ornaments usually worn ? 
Moreover, this beauty and delicacy are not produced in a 
forest ; so you may be certain that she is some heavenly 
nymph, or some princess, not the daughter of a hermit. Let 
us rise up and stand here 2 a moment to find out." When 
Dridhabuddhi had said this, they both of them stood there 
concealed by a tree. 

And in the meanwhile those hermit maidens, having 
gathered their flowers, went down into that river with that 
lovely girl to bathe. And while they were amusing them- 
selves by splashing about in it, it happened that a crocodile 
came and seized that lovely girl. When those maidens saw 
that, they were bewildered, and they cried out in their sorrow : 
" Help, help, ye woodland deities ! For here is Mandaravati, 
while bathing in the river, suddenly and unexpectedly seized 
by a crocodile, and perishing." When Sundarasena heard 
that, he thought to himself, " Can this really be that beloved 
of mine ? " and rushing forward he quickly killed that croco- 
dile with his dagger. And when she fell from the monster's 

1 I read tanna, which I find in the Sanskrit College MS., for tatra. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. has ehi for iha. 



mouth, as it were from the mouth of Death, he carried her up 
on the bank and comforted her. 

And she, for her part, having got over her fear, and see- 
ing that he was a charming person, said to herself : " Who 
is this great-hearted one that my good fortune has brought 
here to save my life ? Wonderful to say, he bears a close re- 
semblance to that lover of mine whom I saw in a picture, the 
high-born son of the King of Alaka. Can he possibly be that 
very man ? But out on my evil thought ! Heaven forfend ! 
May such a man never be an exile from his native land ! So 
it is not fitting for me now to remain in the society of a 
strange man. Accordingly I will leave this place : may 
prosperity be the lot of this great-souled one ! " After going 
through these reflections, Mandaravati said to those com- 
panions of hers : " First take a respectful leave of this noble 
gentleman, and then come with me ; we will now depart." 

When Prince Sundarasena, whose doubts were before 
unsatisfied, heard this, he conceived great confidence from 
merely hearing his own name, and he questioned one of her 
companions, saying to her : " Auspicious one, whose daughter 
and of what condition is this friend of yours ? Tell me, for I 
feel a great desire to know." When he questioned the hermit 
maiden in these words she said to him : " This is the Princess 
Mandaravati, the daughter of the King Mandaradeva, the 
sovereign of Hansadvlpa. She was being conducted to the 
city of Alaka to be married to Prince Sundarasena, when 
her ship was wrecked in the sea, and the waves flung her 
up upon the shore ; and the hermit Matanga found her there 
and brought her to his hermitage." 

When she said this, Sundarasena's friend Dridhabuddhi, 
dancing like one bewildered with joy and despondency, said 
to the prince : "I congratulate you on having now been 
successful in obtaining the Princess Mandaravati, for is not 
this the very lady of whom we were thinking ? " When he 
had said this, her companions, the hermit maidens, questioned 
him, and he told them his story ; and they gladdened with 
it that friend of theirs. Then Mandaravati exclaimed, " Ah, 
my husband ! " and fell weeping at the feet of that Sundara- 
sena. He, for his part, embraced her and wept, and while 


they were weeping there, even stocks and herbs wept, melted 
with compassion. 

Then the hermit Matanga, having been informed of all 
this by those hermit maidens, came there quickly, accom- 
panied by Yamuna. He comforted that Sundarasena, who 
prostrated himself at his feet, and took him with Mandaravati 
to his own hermitage. And that day he refreshed him by 
entertaining him, and made him feel happy ; and the next 
day the great hermit said to that prince : " My son, I must 
to-day go for a certain affair to Svetadvipa, so you must 
go with Mandaravati to Alaka ; there you must marry this 
princess and cherish her, for I have adopted her as my 
daughter, and I give her to you. And you shall rule the 
earth for a long time with her ; and you shall soon recover 
all those ministers of yours." When the hermit had said 
this to the prince and his betrothed, he took leave of them, 
and went away through the air with his daughter Yamuna, 
who was equal to himself in power. 

Then Sundarasena, with Mandaravati, and accompanied 
by Dridhabuddhi, set out from that hermitage. And when 
he reached the shore of the sea, he saw coming near him 
a lightship under the command of a young merchant. And 
in order to accomplish his journey more easily he asked the 
young merchant, who was the owner of that ship, through 
Dridhabuddhi hailing him from a distance, to give him a 
passage in it. The wicked merchant, who beheld Mandara- 
vati, and was at once distracted with love, consented, and 
brought his ship near the shore. Then Sundarasena first 
placed his beloved on board the ship, and was preparing to 
get on board himself from the bank where he stood, when 
the wicked merchant, coveting his neighbour's wife, made a 
sign to the steersman, and so set the ship in motion. And 
the ship, on board of which the princess was crying piteously, 
rapidly disappeared from the view of Sundarasena, who stood 
gazing at it. 

And he fell on the ground crying out, " Alas, I am 
robbed by thieves ! " and wept for a long time ; and then 
Dridhabuddhi said to him : " Rise up ! Abandon despond- 
ency ! This is not a course befitting a hero. Come along ! 


Let us go in that direction to look for that thief : for even 
in the most grievous hour of calamity the wise do not take 
leave of their fortitude." When Sundarasena had been thus 
exhorted by Dridhabuddhi, he was at last induced to rise up 
from the shore of the sea and set out. 

And he went on his way weeping, and crying out, " Alas, 
Queen ! Alas, Mandaravati ! " continually scorched by the 
fire of separation, fasting, accompanied only by the weeping 
Dridhabuddhi ; and almost beside himself with distraction 
he entered a great wood. And when in it he paid no atten- 
tion to the wise counsels of his friend, but ran hither and 
thither, thinking only of his beloved. When he saw the 
creepers in full bloom, he said : " Can this be my beloved 
come here, adorned with blown flowers, having escaped 
from that merchant-robber ? " When he saw the beautiful 
lotuses, 1 he said : " Can she have dived into a tank in her 
fear, and is she lifting up her face with long-lashed eyes 
and looking at me ? " And when he heard the cuckoos 
singing, concealed by the leafy creepers, he said : "Is the 
sweet- voiced fair one here addressing me ? " Thus raving 
at every step, he wandered about for a long time, scorched 
by the moon, as if it were the sun ; and so to him the night 
was the same as the day. 

And at last the prince, with Dridhabuddhi, emerged from 
that wood, though with difficulty, and, having lost his 
way, reached a great wilderness. It was perilous with fierce 
rhinoceroses, dangerous as being inhabited by lions, and so 
was as formidable 2 as an army, and moreover it was beset 
by a host of bandits. When the prince entered this wilder- 
ness, which was refugeless, and full of many misfortunes, 
like misery, he was set upon with uplifted weapons by some 
Pulindas, who happened to be on the look-out for human 
victims to offer to Durga, by order of Vindhyaketu, the king 

1 Instead of B.'s abjeshu sdlishu read with the D. text abjeshu salishu, "the 
lotuses with their bees." See Speyer, op. cit., pp. 139, 140. n.m.p. 

2 I read sudurdharsham ; the Sanskrit College MS. reads senanlm (sic) iva 
durdharskam; the word translated " rhinoceros " can also mean "sword "5 
the adjective before it may mean "uplifted/' and the word translated 
"inhabited by lions" may perhaps mean "commanded by a king." 



of the Pulindas, who lived in that region. When the prince 
was tormented with five fires of misfortune, exile, the grief 
of separation, that affront from a base man, fasting, and the 
fatigue of the journey alas ! Fate created a sixth fire in 
the form of an attack of bandits, as if in order to exhaust his 

And when many of the bandits rushed towards him to 
seize him, showering arrows, he, with only one companion to 
help him, killed them with his dagger. When King Vindhya- 
ketu discovered that, he sent forward another force, and 
Sundarasena, being skilled in fighting, killed a great many 
bandits belonging to that force also. At last he and his 
companion fainted from the exhaustion of their wounds ; 
and then those Savaras bound them, and took them and 
threw them into prison. The prison was full of multitudes 
of vermin, filthy with cobwebs, and it was evident that snakes 
frequented it, as they had dropped there the skins that clung 
to their throats. 1 The dust in it rose as high as the ankle, 2 
it was honeycombed with the holes and galleries of mice, 
and full of many terrified and miserable men that had been 
thrown into it. In that place, which seemed the very birth- 
place of hells, they saw those two ministers Bhimabhuja and 
Vikramasakti, who, like themselves, had entered that wilder- 
ness after escaping from the sea, in order to look for their 
master, and had been already bound and thrown into prison. 
They recognised the prince and fell weeping at his feet, and 
he recognised them, and embraced them, bathed in tears. 

Then their woes were increased a hundredfold by seeing 
one another ; but the other prisoners there said to them, in 
order to console them : " Enough of grief! Can we avoid the 
effect of acts done in a previous state of existence ? Do you 
not see that the death of all of us together is imminent ? 
For we have been collected here by this king of the Pulindas 
in order that he may offer us up to Durga on the coming 

1 This seems practically nonsense. For galalambibhih we should read 
gartalambibhih, which would mean that the snake-skins clung to the holes in 
the prison-walls. n.m.p. 

2 I follow the reading of the Sanskrit College MS., which gives daghna 
instead of lagna. 



fourteenth day of the month. So why should you grieve ? 
The way of Fate, that sports with living beings, is strange ; 
as she has given you misfortune, she may in the same way 
give you prosperity." When the other prisoners had said this 
to them, they remained there bound with them : it is terrible 
to see how little respect calamities show even for the great. 

And when the fourteenth day arrived, they were all taken 
thence, by the orders of the king, to the temple of Durga to 
be sacrificed. It seemed like the mouth of Death, the flame 
of the lamp being its lolling tongue, the range of bells being 
its row of teeth, to which the heads of men clung. 1 Then 
Sundarasena, when he saw that goddess, bowed before 
her, and praised her with mind humbled by devotion, and 
uttered this prayer : " thou goddess that didst quell the 
oppression of the Asuras with thy blood-streaming trident, 
which mangled haughty Daityas, thou that givest security to 
thy votaries, look upon me, goddess, that am burned up with 
the forest-fire of grief, with a favourable nectar-shedding eye, 
and refresh me. Honour to thee ! " 

While the prince was saying this, Vindhyaketu, that king 
of the Pulindas, came there to worship the goddess Durga. 
The moment the prince saw the king of the Bhillas he re- 
cognised him, and, being bowed down with shame, said 
of his own accord to his friends : " Ha ! this is that very 
Vindhyaketu, the chief of the Pulindas, who comes to my 
father's court to pay him homage, and is the lord of this 
vast wilderness. Whatever may happen, we must not say 
anything here, for it is better for a man of honour to die 
than to make known who he is under such circumstances." 

While the prince was saying this to his ministers, King 
Vindhyaketu said to his servants : " Come now, show me 
this heroic human victim who killed so many of my warriors 
when he was being captured." As soon as his servants heard 
this, they brought Sundarasena, smeared with clotted blood 
and defiled with wounds, into the presence of that king. 
When the king of the Bhillas saw him, he half recognised 
him, and, being terrified, said to him : " Tell me, who are 
you, and whence do you come ? " Sundarasena answered 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. reads vyasaktavirasirasain. 



the king of the Bhillas : " What does it matter who I am, or 
whence I come ? Do what you are about to do." 

Then Vindhyaketu recognised him completely by his voice, 
and exclaiming excitedly, " Alas ! alas ! " fell on the ground. 
Then he embraced the prince, and said : " Alas, great King 
Mahasena, see what a fitting return I, villain that I am, 
have now made for your numerous benefits, in that I have 
here reduced to such a state your son, whom you value 
as your life, Prince Sundarasena, who has come here from 
somewhere or other ! " This and many other such laments 
he uttered in such a way that all there began to shed tears. 
But the delighted companions of Sundarasena comforted 
the Bhilla king, saying to him : " Is not this much, that you 
recognised the prince before any misfortune had happened ? 
What could you have done after the event had taken place ? 
So why do you despond in the midst of this joy ? " 

Then the king fell at the feet of Sundarasena and lovingly 
honoured him, and Sundarasena got him to set all the human 
victims free. And after he had shown him all due respect 
he took him to his village, and his friends with him, and 
proceeded to bandage his wounds and administer medicines 
to him ; and he said to him : " Tell me, Prince, what brought 
you to this place, for I have a great desire to know." Then 
Sundarasena related to him all his adventures. And that 
prince of the Savaras, being astonished, said to him : " What 
a wonderful chain of events ! That you should have set 
out to marry Mandaravati, and that you should then have 
been wrecked * in the sea, and that this should have led to 
your reaching the hermitage of Matanga and to your meeting 
your beloved there, and that this merchant, in whom you 
confided, should have carried her off from you, and that 
you should have entered the wilderness and have been im- 
prisoned for sacrifice, and recognised by me and delivered 
from death how strangely does all this hang together ! 
Therefore honour, by all means, to mysteriously working 
Destiny ! And you must not feel anxious about your 
beloved, for, as Destiny has done all this, she will also do 
you that other service soon." 

1 I read, with the Sanskrit College MS., patah for praptih. 



While the king of the Pulindas was saying this, his 
commander-in-chief came quickly in a state of high delight, 
and entering, said to him : " King, a certain merchant entered 
this wilderness with his followers, and he had with him much 
wealth and a very beautiful lady, a very gem of women ; 
and when I heard of this, I went with an army and seized 
him and his followers, with the wealth and the lady, and I 
have them here outside." When Sundarasena and Vindhya- 
ketu heard this, they said to themselves : " Can these be 
that merchant and Mandaravati ? " And they said : " Let the 
merchant and the lady be brought in here at once." And 
thereupon the commander-in-chief brought in that merchant 
and that lady. When Dridhabuddhi saw them, he ex- 
claimed : " Here is that very Princess Mandaravati, and 
here is that villain of a merchant ! Alas, Princess, how 
came you to be reduced to this state, like a creeper scorched 
by the heat, with your bud-lip dried up, and with your 
flower-ornaments stripped off ? " While Dridhabuddhi was 
uttering this exclamation, Sundarasena rushed forward 
and eagerly threw his arms round the neck of his beloved. 
Then the two lovers wept for a long time, as if to wash off 
from one another, by the water of a shower of tears, the 
defilement of separation. 

Then Vindhyaketu, having consoled them both, said to 
that merchant : " How came you to carry off the wife of 
one who confided in you ? " Then the merchant said, with 
a voice trembling with fear : "I have fruitlessly done this, to 
my own destruction, but this holy saint was preserved by her 
own unapproachable splendour. I was no more able to touch 
her than if she had been a flame of fire ; and I did intend, 
villain that I was, to take her to my own country, and after 
her anger had been allayed, and she had been reconciled 
with me, to marry her." When the merchant had said this, 
the king ordered him to be put to death on the spot ; but 
Sundarasena saved him from execution. However, he had 
his abundant wealth confiscated a heavier loss than that 
of life ; for those that have lost their wealth die daily, not 
so those that have lost their breath. 

So Sundarasena had that merchant set at liberty, and the 



wretched creature went where he would, pleased at having 
escaped with life ; and King Vindhyaketu took Mandaravati, 
and went with her and Sundarasena to the palace of his own 
queen. There he gave orders to his queen, and had Mandara- 
vati honoured with a bath, with clothes and with unguents ; 
and after Sundarasena had been in the same way bathed and 
adorned, he made him sit down on a splendid throne, and 
honoured him with gifts, pearls, musk, and so on. And on 
account of the reunion of that couple, the king made a great 
feast, at which all the Savara women danced delighted. 

Then the next day Sundarasena said to the king : " My 
wounds are healed and my object is attained, so I will now 
go hence to my own city ; and, please, send off at once to 
my father a messenger with a letter, to tell the whole story 
and announce my arrival." 1 When the Savara chief heard 
this, he sent off a messenger with a letter, and gave him the 
message which the prince suggested. 

And just as the letter-carrier was reaching the city of 
Alaka, it happened that King Mahasena and his queen, 
afflicted because they heard no tidings of Sundarasena, were 
preparing to enter the fire in front of a temple of Siva, 
surrounded by all the citizens, who were lamenting their ap- 
proaching loss. Then the Savara who was bearing the letter, 
beholding King Mahasena, came running up, proclaiming 
who he was, stained with dust, bow in hand, with his hair 
tied up in a knot behind with a creeper, black himself, and 
wearing a loin-cincture of vilva leaves. That letter-carrier 
of the Bhillas said : " King, you are blessed with good 
fortune to-day, as your son Sundarasena has come with 
Mandaravati, having escaped from the sea ; for he has 
arrived at the court of my master Vindhyaketu, and is on 
his way to this place with him, and has sent me on before." 
Having said this, and thus discharged his confidential 2 

1 Vrittantam should probably be vrittanta, and should be joined with the 
words that follow. 

2 If confidential, how was it that "all the people there" knew all about 
it at once ? The B. text reads rarak-sucih, which obviously troubled Tawney, 
as he omitted the second word entirely. But if we read haran cusam, with the 
D. text, all becomes plain, as the messenger speaks his words aloud before the 
whole court. See further Speyer, op. cit. } p. 140. n.m.p. 



commission, the letter-carrier of the Bhilla king laid the letter 
at the monarch's feet. Then all the people there, being 
delighted, raised a shout of joy ; and the letter was read 
out, and the whole of the wonderful circumstances became 
known. And King Mahasena recompensed the letter-carrier, 
and abandoned his grief, and made great rejoicings, and 
entered his palace with all his retainers. And the next day, 
being impatient, he set out to meet his son, whose arrival 
he expected, accompanied by the King of Hansadvipa. And 
his force of four arms marched along with him, innumerable, 
so that the earth trembled, dreading insupportable weight. 

In the meanwhile Sundarasena set out from that village 
of the Bhillas for his own home, with Mandaravati. And he 
was accompanied by his friends Vikramasakti and Bhima- 
bhuja, whom he found in the prison, and Dridhabuddhi too 
was with him. He himself rode on a horse swift as the 
wind, by the side of Vindhyaketu, and seemed by the hosts 
of Pulindas that followed him to be exhibiting the earth as 
belonging to that race. And as he was marching along, in a 
few days he beheld on the road his father coming to meet 
him, with his retinue and his connections. Then he got 
down from his horse, and the people beheld him with joy, 
and he and his friends went up and fell at the feet of his 
father. His father, when he beheld his son looking like the 
full moon, felt like the sea, which surges with throbbings of 
joy and overflows its bounds, and could not contain himself 
for happiness. 1 And when he saw Mandaravati, his daughter- 
in-law, bowing at his feet, he considered himself and his 
family prosperous, and rejoiced. And the king welcomed 
Dridhabuddhi and the other two ministers of his son, who 
bowed at his feet, and he received Vindhyaketu with still 
warmer welcome. 

Then Sundarasena bowed before his father-in-law Man- 
daradeva, whom his father introduced to him, and rejoiced 
exceedingly ; and beholding his ministers Chandaprabha and 
Vyaghraparakrama, who had arrived before, clinging to his 
feet, he considered that all his wishes were accomplished. 
And immediately King Mahendraditya, who was delighted 

1 An allusion to the phenomenon of the tides. 


at hearing what had happened, came there from Sasanka- 
pura out of affection. Then Prince Sundarasena, mounted 
on a splendid horse, escorting his beloved, as Nadakuvara 
did Rambha, went with all those to his own home, the city 
of Alaka, the dwelling-place of all felicities, abounding in 
virtuous men. And accompanied by his beloved he entered 
the palace of his father, being sprinkled, as he passed through 
the city, by the wives of the citizens, who were all crowding 
to the windows, with the blue lotuses of their eyes. And in 
the palace he bowed at the feet of his mother, whose eyes 
were full of tears of joy, and then spent that day in rejoicings, 
in which all his relations and servants took part. 

And the next day, in the long-desired hour fixed by the 
astrologers, the prince received the hand of Mandaravati, 
who was bestowed on him by her father. And his father- 
in-law, King Mandaradeva, as he had no son, bestowed on 
him many priceless jewels, in his joy, and the reversion of 
his kingdom after his own death. And his father, King 
Mahasena, without exhausting the earth, made a great feast, 
in a style suitable to his desires and means, in which all 
prisoners were released, 1 and a rain of gold was seen. 2 And 
having beheld Sundarasena prosperous by his union with 
Mandaravati, and having taken part in his wedding festivi- 
ties, in which all the women danced to song, and having been 
honoured by King Mahasena, King Mandaradeva returned 
to his own territory, and the King of Sasankapura returned to 
that city, and Vindhyaketu, the lord of the great wilderness, 
returned to his domain. 

And after some days had elapsed, King Mahasena, per- 
ceiving that his son Sundarasena was virtuous and beloved by 
the subjects, established him in his throne, and went himself to 
the forest. And Prince Sundarasena, having thus obtained the 
kingdom, and having conquered all his enemies by the might 
of his arm, ruled with those ministers the whole earth, and 
found his joy in the possession of Mandaravati ever increasing. 

1 For references to this custom, both in Eastern and European tales, see 
Chauvin, op. cit. vi, p. 101?* 2 . n.m.p. 

2 The Sanskrit College MS. gives vrishta-hiranya-vastram in which gold 
and garments were showered on the people. 


163. Story of Mrigankadatta 

When the minister Vyaghrasena had told this story on 
the bank of the lake to Mrigankadatta, he went on to say to 
him : " This wonderful tale, Prince, did the hermit Kanva 
relate to us in the hermitage, and at the end of the tale the 
compassionate man said to us, to comfort us : ' So, my sons, 
those who endure with resolute hearts terrible misfortunes 
hard to struggle through, attain in this way the objects they 
most desire ; but those others whose energies are paralysed by 
loss of courage, fail. Therefore abandon this despondency, 
and go on your way. Your master also, Prince Mriganka- 
datta, shall recover all his ministers, and shall long rule the 
earth, after having been united with Sasankavati.' When 
that great hermit had said this to us, we plucked up 
courage and spent the night there, and then set out from 
that hermitage, and in course of time reached this wood, 
travel- worn. And while here, being tortured with excessive 
thirst and hunger, we climbed up this tree sacred to Ganesa 
to get fruits, and we were ourselves turned into fruits ; and we 
have now, Prince, been released from our fruit-transformation 
by your austerities. Such have been the adventures of us 
four during our separation from you, 1 brought about by 
the curse of the Naga ; and now that our curse is expired, 
advance, united with us all, towards the attainment of your 

When Mrigankadatta had heard all this from his minister 
Vyaghrasena, he conceived hopes of obtaining Sasankavati, 
and so passed that night there. 

1 I read sapopanite, with the Sanskrit College MS. 



163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN, the next morning, Mrigankadatta rose up 
from the shore of that beautiful lake, together with 
all his ministers, who had rejoined him, and in 
company with them, and the Brahman Srutadhi, set out for 
Ujjayini, to win Sasankavati, after he had paid his orisons 
to that tree of Ganesa. 1 

Then the heroic prince, accompanied by his ministers, 
again crossed various stretches of woodland which contained 
many hundreds of lakes and were black with tamdla trees 2 
throughout their whole expanse, looking like nights in the 
rainy season when the clouds collect ; and others which had 
their canes broken by terrible infuriated elephants roaming 
through them, in which the arjuna trees formed a strong 
contrast to the tamdla trees, 3 and which thus resembled so 
many cities of King Virata ; and ravines of mighty moun- 
tains, which were pure, though strewn with flowers, and 
though frequented by subdued hermits were haunted by 
fierce beasts ; and at last came near the city of Ujjayini. 

Then he reached the River Gandhavati, and dispelled 
his fatigue by bathing in it ; and after crossing it, he arrived 
with his companions in that cemetery of Mahakala. There 
he beheld the image of mighty Bhairava, black with the 

1 See the Dummedha Jdtaka, Cambridge edition, No. 50, vol. i, p. 1 26 et seq. ; 
Burton's translation of the Pentamerone of Basil e, vol. i, p. 59, and Vol. II of 
this translation, pp. 96, 96n l , 97 ; also Ralston's Tibetan Tales, Introduction, 
p. Hi. 

2 Or " black as tamala." 

3 Or " which were of opposite appearance, being white." The word arjuna 
(white) also refers to the hero Arjuna, one of the Pandavas, who lived dis- 
guised as a eunuch in the city of King Virata. Kichaka (cane) was the leader 
of the host of King Virata, and was conquered by Bhlma (terrible). The 
passage contains another pun which will be obvious to those acquainted with 
Hindu customs. 



smoke from neighbouring pyres, surrounded with many 
fragments of bones and skulls, terrible with the skeletons 
of men which it held in its grasp, worshipped by heroes, 
frequented by many troops of demons, dear to sporting 

And after crossing the cemetery, he beheld the city of 
Ujjayini, a yuga old, ruled by King Karmasena. Its streets 
were watched by guards with various weapons, who were 
themselves begirt by many brave high-born Rajputs ; it was 
surrounded with ramparts resembling the peaks of mighty 
mountains ; it was crowded with elephants, horses and 
chariots, and hard for strangers to enter. 

When Mrigankadatta beheld that city, which was thus 
inaccessible on every side, he turned his face away in de- 
spondency, and said to his ministers : " Alas, ill-starred man 
that I am ! though it has cost me hundreds of hardships to 
reach this city, I cannot even enter it : what chance then 
have I of obtaining my beloved ? " When they heard this, 
they said to him : " What ! Do you suppose, Prince, that 
this great city could ever be stormed by us, who are so few 
in number ? We must think of some expedient to serve in 
this emergency, and an expedient will certainly be found : 
how comes it that you have forgotten that this expedition 
has frequently been enjoined by the gods ? " 

When Mrigankadatta had been thus addressed by his 
ministers, he remained for some days roaming about outside 
the city. 

Then his minister Vikramakesarin called to mind that 
Vetala which he had long ago won over, intending to employ 
him to fetch the prince's love from her dwelling-house. And 
the Vetala came, black in hue, tall, with a neck like a camel, 
elephant-faced, with legs like a bull, eyes like an owl, and 
the ears of an ass. But finding that he could not enter the 
city, he departed : the favour of Siva secures that city against 
being invaded by such creatures. 

Then the Brahman Srutadhi, who was versed in policy, 
said to Mrigankadatta, as he was sitting in gloom, sur- 
rounded by his ministers, longing in his heart to enter the 
city : " Why, Prince, though you know the true principles 


of policy, do you remain bewildered, like one ignorant of 
them ? Who will ever be victorious in this world by dis- 
regarding the difference between himself and his foe ? For 
at every one of the four gates of this city two thousand 
elephants, twenty-five thousand horses, ten thousand chariots 
and a hundred thousand footmen remain harnessed and 
ready, day and night, to guard it ; and they are hard to 
conquer, being commanded by horses. So, as for a handful 
of men, like ourselves, entering it by force, that is a mere 
chimerical fancy, 1 not a measure calculated to ensure success. 
Moreover, this city cannot be overthrown by a small force ; 
and a contest with an overwhelming force is like fighting on 
foot against an elephant. So join with your friend Maya- 
vatu, the king of the Pulindas, whom you delivered from 
the terrible danger of the water-monsters in the Narmada, 
and with his friend Durgapisacha, the very powerful king 
of the Matangas, who is attached to you on account of his 
alliance with him, 2 and with that king of the Kiratas, named 
Saktirakshita, who is famous for his valour and has observed 
a vow of strict chastity 3 from his youth upwards, and let them 
all bring their forces, and then do you, thus strengthened 
by allies, fill every quarter with your hosts, and so accom- 
plish the object you have in view. Moreover, the king 
of the Kiratas is awaiting your coming from a distance in 
accordance with your agreement ; how have you come to 
forget this ? And no doubt Mayavatu is ready awaiting 

1 I.e. patangavritti. The word seems to mean "subsistence of birds." 
Cf. Macbeth, iv, 2, 33. Pandit Rama Chandra of Alwar points out that the 
reference in patangavritti is to the "rushing of a moth into a candle." In the 
text, therefore, "would be a mere reckless rushing on destruction" should be 
substituted for " is a mere chimerical fancy." Cf. Jataka, 544, and Bloom- 
field, "Art of Stealing," Amer. Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, p. 117. n.m.p. 

2 I find tat-sambandhanuragina in three India Office MSS. kindly lent me 

by Dr Rost. The incident of Mayavatu's deliverance appeared in Vol. VI, 

p. 36. N.M.P. 

3 The D. text reads balasabrahmacarina instead of balisa-brahmacarina. 
That this is the more correct reading is clear from the previous mention of 
Saktirakshita (Vol. VI, p. 25), where he is described as "a student in the 
sciences, observing a vow of chastity, ... a friend of mine from childhood." 
Here the B. text has bala-siihrid, etc. n.m.p. 


your arrival, in the territory of * the king of the Matangas, 
for you made this agreement with him. So let us go to the 
castle named Karabhagriva, on the southern slope of the 
Vindhyas, in which that chief of the Matangas dwells. And 
let us summon there Saktirakshita, the king of the Kiratas, 
and united with them all make a fortunate expedition with 
every chance of success." 

When Mrigankadatta and his ministers heard this speech 
of Srutadhi's, which was full of sense and such as the wise 
would approve, they eagerly accepted it, saying : " So be it." 
And the next day the prince adored that unresting traveller 
of the sky, the sun, the friend of the virtuous, that had just 
arisen, revealing every quarter of the world, 2 and set out for 
the abode of Durgapisacha, king of the Matangas, on the 
southern slope of the Vindhya range. And his ministers 
Bhimaparakrama, and Vyaghrasena, and Gunakara and 
Meghabala with Vimalabuddhi, and Sthulabahu with Vichi- 
trakatha, and Vikramakesarin, and Prachandasakti, and 
Srutadhi and Dridhamushti followed him. With them he 
successively crossed forests wide-ranging as his own under- 
takings, and stretches of woodland profound as his own 
schemes, with no better refuge at night than the root of a 
tree 3 on the shore of a lake, and reached and ascended the 
Vindhya mountain lofty as his own soul. 

Then the prince went from the summit of the mountain 
down its southern slope, and beholding afar off the villages 
of the Bhillas, full of elephants' tusks and deer-skins, he said 
to himself : " How am I to know where the dwelling of that 
king of the Matangas is ? " While engaged in such reflec- 
tions, he and his ministers saw a hermit-boy come towards 
them, and after doing obeisance to him, they said : " Fair 
sir, do you know in what part of this region the palace of 

1 I read Matangarajadesagato ; the reading of the India Office MS., 
No. 1882, is rajadesagato, which would mean: "by the invitation of the king 
of the Matangas." For duragamana, in si. 31, No. 2166 reads dutagamana i.e. 
"the coming of your messenger." This makes better sense. 

2 A pun ! It also means " holding prosperity, and holding out hopes to 
the world." 

3 All the three India Office MSS., which Dr Rost has kindly lent me, 
read nisasrayah. 



Durgapisacha, the king of the Matangas, is ? For we wish 
to see him." 

When that good young ascetic heard this, he said : " Only 
a kos distant from this place is a spot called Panchavati, and 
not far from it was the hermitage of the hermit Agastya, who 
with small effort cast down from heaven the haughty King 
Nahusha ; where Rama, who by command of his father took 
up his dwelling in a forest, accompanied by Lakshmana and 
his wife Sita, long waited on that hermit ; where Kabandha, 1 
who guided Rama to the slaughter of the Rakshasas, pro- 
ceeded to attack Rama and Lakshmana, as Rahu does the 
sun and moon, whose arm, a yojana in length, Rama felled, 
so that it resembled Nahusha in his serpent form come to 
supplicate Agastya ; where even now the Rakshasas hear- 
ing the roaring of the clouds at the beginning of the rainy 
season call to mind the twanging of the bow of Rama ; 
where the aged deer, that were fed by Sita, beholding the 
regions deserted in every direction, with eyes filling with 
tears, reject the mouthful of grass ; where Maricha, who 
brought about Sita's separation from her husband, assumed 
the form of a golden deer and enticed away Rama, as if to 
save from slaughter those deer that were still left alive ; 
where, in many a great lake full of the water of the Kaveri, 
it appears as if Agastya had vomited up in driblets the sea 
that he swallowed. 2 Nor far from that hermitage, on a 
tableland of the Vindhya, is a stronghold tangled and in- 
accessible, named Karabhagriva. In it dwells that mighty 
Durgapisacha of terrible valour, chief of the Matangas, 
whom kings cannot conquer. And he commands a hundred 
thousand bowmen of that tribe, every one of whom is 
followed by five hundred warriors. With the aid of those 
brigands he robs caravans, destroys his enemies, and enjoys 
this great forest, caring nought for this or that king." 3 

When Mrigankadatta had heard this from the young 
hermit, he took leave of him, and went quickly, with his 

1 Professor Monier Williams refers us to Ramayana, iii, 75. 

2 See Vol. VI, pp. 43/1 1 , 44n. n.m.p. 

3 So, in the eighty-ninth chapter of the u Wilkina Saga," Heime goes off 
to join the robber chief Ingram (Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 242). 


companions, in the direction indicated by him, and in course 
of time he arrived in the environs of Karabhagriva, that 
stronghold of the king of the Matangas, which were crowded 
with Bhilla villages. And within them he beheld near at 
hand on every side crowds of Savaras, adorned with pea- 
cocks' feathers and elephants' teeth, clothed in tigers' skins, 
and living on the flesh of deer. When Mrigankadatta saw 
those Bhillas, he said to his ministers : " See ! These men 
live a wild forest life like animals, and yet, strange to say, 
they recognise Durgapisacha as their king. There is no race 
in the world without a king ; I do believe the gods introduced 
this magical name among men in their alarm, fearing that 
otherwise the strong would devour the weak, as great fishes 
eat the little." * And while he was saying this, and trying 
to find the path that led to the stronghold Karabhagriva, 
the scouts of Mayavatu, the king of the Savaras, who had 
already arrived there, recognised him, having seen him 
before. They immediately went and told that Mayavatu 
of his arrival, and he with his army went to meet him. 

. _ And when that king of the Pulindas came near, 

dattTarrkes an( * saw tne prince, he alighted from his horse, 
at the Camp and ran forward and fell at his feet. And he 
th pS^^ em k raeec * tne P rm ce, w ho asked after his health, 
and then mounted him and his ministers on 
horses, and brought them to his own camp. And that king 
of the Savaras sent his own warder to inform the king of 
the Matangas of the prince's arrival. 

And Durgapisacha, the king of the Matangas, quickly 
came there from his own place, and his appearance justified 
his name. 2 He seemed like a second Vindhya range, for 
his body was firm as a rocky peak, his hue was black as 
tamdla, and Pulindas lay at his foot. His face was rendered 
terrible by a natural three-furrowed frown, and so he ap- 
peared as if Durga, the dweller in the Vindhya range, had 

1 The India Office MS., No. 21 66, reads matsyanyayabhayodayat. The 

B. text was hopelessly corrupt. D. reads matsyanyayabhayad ayam (viz. rajas- 
abdak). n.m.p. 

2 His name means " Wild Man of the Stronghold " or " Demon of the 


marked him with the trident, to claim him as her own. 
Though young, he had seen the death of many " secular 
birds " ; though black, he was not comely ; and he crouched 
to none, though he hugged the foot of a mountain. 1 Like 
a fresh cloud, he displayed the peacock-tail and the gay- 
coloured bow ; like Hiranyaksha, 2 his body was scarred by 
the furious boar ; like Ghatotkacha, he was mighty and 
possessed a haughty and terrible shape 3 ; like the Kali age, 
he allowed those born under his sway to take pleasure in 
wickedness and break through the bonds of rule. And the 
mass of his host came filling the earth, like the stream of 
the Narmada when let loose from the embrace of Arjuna. 4 
And so the aggregated army of the Chandalas moved on, 
blackening all the horizon with a dark hue, making those 
who beheld it say in perplexity to themselves : " Can this be 
a mass of rock rolling down from the Anjana mountain, 5 or 
is it a premature bank of the clouds of the day of doom that 
has descended upon the earth ? " 

And their chief, Durgapisacha, came up to Mrigan- 
kadatta, placing his head upon the ground even when at a 
distance, and bowed before him, and said : " To-day the 
goddess Durga is pleased with me, in that your Highness, of 
such a noble race, has come to my house. On that account 
I consider myself fortunate and successful." When the king 
of the Matangas had said this, he gave him a present of pearls, 
musk and other rarities. And the prince kindly accepted 
it with the usual courtesies. Then they all encamped there. 
That great forest was covered all over with elephants fastened 
to posts, with horses in stables, and tented footmen ; and 
was scarcely able to contain itself, being confused with its 
good fortune in thus being assimilated to a city, which was 
unprecedented in the course of its existence. 

1 The passage is full of puns : vayas means " age " and " bird " ; krishna 
" black " and also the god of that name ; bhubhrit " king " and also " mountain." 

2 Killed by Vishnu in the form of a boar. 

3 Another play on words. It may mean "was the son of the Pandava 

4 See note at the end of the chapter. n.m.p. 

5 Anjana is a black pigment applied to the eyes. See Vol. I, p. 211 

et seq. n.m.p. 


Then in that wood, when Mrigankadatta had bathed in 
the river for good fortune, and had taken food, and was 
sitting at his ease in a secluded spot, surrounded by his 
ministers, Mayavatu also being present, Durgapisacha said 
to Mrigankadatta, in the course of conversation, speaking 
in a tone softened by affection and regard : " This King 
Mayavatu came here a long time ago, and has been remain- 
ing here with me, my lord, awaiting your orders. So where, 
my Prince, have you all remained so long ? And what have 
you done ? Tell me, now, the business that detained you ? " 

When the prince heard this speech of his, he said : 
" After I had left the palace of our friend here, Mayavatu, 
with Vimalabuddhi and Gunakara, and Srutadhi, and Bhima- 
parakrama, whom I had also recovered, I found on my way 
this Prachandasakti and Vichitrakatha, and in course of 
time also this Vikramakesarin. Then these men here found 
on the border of a beautiful lake a tree sacred to Ganesa, 
and climbed up it to pick its fruit, and so were turned into 
fruits themselves by the curse of the god. Then I propiti- 
ated Ganesa, and not without difficulty set them free, and 
at the same time I delivered these four other ministers of 
mine, Dridhamushti and Vyaghrasena and Meghabala and 
Sthulabahu, who had previously suffered the same trans- 
formation. With all these thus recovered, I went to 
Ujjayini ; but the gates were guarded, and we could not 
even enter the town, much less could we think of any 
device for carrying off Sasankavati. And as I had no army 
with me, I had no locus standi for sending an ambassador. 
So we deliberated together, and came here to you. Now, 
my friend, you and your allies have to decide whether we 
shall attain our end or no." 

When Mrigankadatta had related his adventures in these 
words, Durgapisacha and Mayavatu said : "Be of good 
courage ; this is but a little matter for us to accomplish at 
once ; our lives were originally created for your sake. We 
will bring here that King Karmasena in chains, and we will 
carry off his daughter Sasankavati by force." 

When the king of the Matangas and Mayavatu said this, 
Mrigankadatta said lovingly and very respectfully : " What 



will you not be able to accomplish, for this resolute courage 
of yours is a sufficient guarantee that you will carry out that 
furtherance of your friend's interests which you have under- 
taken. When the Creator made you here, he infused into your 
composition qualities borrowed from your surroundings, the 
firmness of the Vindhya hills, the courage of the tigers, and 
the warm attachment to friends of the forest l lotuses. So de- 
liberate, and do what is fitting." While Mrigankadatta was 
saying this, the sun retired to rest on the summit of the moun- 
tain of setting. Then they also rested that night in the royal 
camp, as was meet, sleeping in booths made by the workmen. 
And the next morning Mrigankadatta sent off Gunakara 
to bring his friend Saktirakshita, the king of the Kiratas. 
He went and communicated the state of affairs to that 
sovereign ; and in a very few days the king of the Kiratas re- 
turned with him, bringing a very large force. Ten hundred 
thousand footmen, and two hundred thousand horses, and a 
myriad of furious elephants on which heroes were mounted, 
and eighty-eight thousand chariots followed that king, who 
darkened the heaven with his banners and his umbrella. 
And Mrigankadatta, with his friends and ministers, went to 
meet him in high spirits, and honoured him, and conducted 
him into the camp. And in the meanwhile other friends 
and relations of the king of the Matangas, and all those of 
King Mayavatu, having been summoned by messengers, came 
in. 2 And the camp swelled like an ocean, giving joy to the 
heart of Mrigankadatta, with shouts rising up like the roar 
of the waves, and hundreds of battalions pouring in like 
rivers. And Durgapisacha honoured 3 those assembled kings * 
with musk, and garments, and pieces of flesh, and spirits 

1 Vana might mean "water." 

2 Two of the India Office MSS. read cha te datta diitah, the other reads 
cha taddattadutah. I think these readings give a better sense. The king of 
the Matangas is here Durgapisacha. 

3 I read samamanayat, the conjecture of Dr Kern. I find it in MSS. 
Nos. 1882 and 21 66. 

4 Speyer (op. cit., p. 141) suspects a misreading in the B. text. For 
yuktan, etc., the D. text has mulcta, etc. Thus, instead of u . . . those assembled 
kings with musk . . .," we should read "... those kings with pearls, 
musk . . ." n.m.p. 



distilled from fruits. And Mayavatu, the king of the Savaras, 
gave them all splendid baths, unguents, food, drink and beds. 
And Mrigankadatta sat down to eat with all those kings who 
were seated in their proper places. 1 He even went as far as 
to make the king of the Matangas eat in his presence, though 
at a little distance from him : the fact is, it is necessity and 
place and time that take precedence, not one man of another. 

And the next day, when the newly arrived force of Kiratas 
and others had rested, Mrigankadatta, sitting on a throne of 
ivory in the assembly of the kings, where he had been duly 
honoured, after he had had the place cleared of attendants, 
said to his friends, the king of the Matangas, and the others : 
" Why do we now delay ? Why do we not quickly march 
towards Ujjayini with the whole of this force ? " 

When the Brahman Srutadhi heard this, he said to 
that prince : " Listen, Prince, I now speak according to the 
opinion of those who know policy. A king who wishes to 
be victorious must first see the distinction between what 
is practicable and what is not practicable. What cannot be 
accomplished by an expedient, he should reject as impractic- 
able. That is practicable which can be accomplished by an 
expedient. Now expedients in this matter are of four kinds, 
and are enumerated as conciliation, gifts, division and force. 
This order represents their comparative advantages, the first 
being better than the second, and so on. So, my prince, you 
ought first to make use of conciliation in this business. For, 
as King Karmasena is not greedy of gain, gifts are not likely 
to succeed ; nor is division likely to be of any use, for none 
of his servants is angry or covetous, or indignant with 
him on account of having been treated with neglect. As for 
force, its employment is risky ; as that king lives in a difficult 
country, he has a very formidable army, and has never been 
conquered by any king before. Moreover, even mighty ones 
cannot always be assured of having the fortune of victory on 
their side in battles ; besides, it is not becoming in one who 
is a suitor for a maiden's hand to slaughter her relations. 
So let us send an ambassador to that monarch, adopting the 

1 Being a man of high caste, he ate with men that had none, or next 
to none. Dr Kern wishes to read karye, but all the MSS. have Mryam. 



method of conciliation. If that does not succeed, the method 
of force shall be employed as being unavoidable." All there, 
when they heard this speech of Srutadhi's, approved it, and 
praised his statesmanship. 

Then Mrigankadatta deliberated with them all, and sent 
a servant of the king of the Kiratas, a noble Brahman, Suvi- 
graha by name, who possessed all the requisites of a diploma- 
tist, to King Karmasena, as an ambassador to communicate 
the result of their deliberations, and he carried with him a 
letter, and was also entrusted with a verbal message. The 
ambassador went to Ujjayini, and, being introduced by the 
warder, entered the king's palace, the interior of which looked 
very magnificent, as its zones were crowded with splendid 
horses and with elephants ; and he saw that King Karma- 
sena, sitting on his throne, surrounded by his ministers. He 
did obeisance to that sovereign, who welcomed him ; and 
after he had sat down, and his health had been inquired 
after, he proceeded to deliver to him his letter. And the 
king's minister, named Prajnakosa, took it, and broke the seal, 
and unfolding the letter, proceeded to read it out to the 
following effect : " All hail ! The auspicious Mrigankadatta, 
ornament of the circle of the earth, son of the great king 
of kings who is lord of the city of Ayodhya, the fortunate 
Amaradatta, from the slope of the forest at the foot of the 
castle of Karabhagriva, where he now is, with kings sub- 
missive and obedient to him, sends this plain message to 
the great King Karmasena in Ujjayini, who is the moon 
of the sea of his own race, with all due respect : You have 
a daughter, and you must without fail give her to another, 
so give her to me, for she has been declared by the gods a 
suitable wife for me ; in this way we shall become allies, and 
our former enmity will be at an end. If you do not consent, I 
will appeal to my own strong arms to give me this object of 
my desires." When the letter had been thus read by the 
minister Prajnakosa, King Karmasena, inflamed with rage, 
said to his ministers : " These people are always hostile to 
us ; and observe, this man, not knowing his place, has on 
the present occasion worded his communication in an objec- 
tionable form. He has put himself first and me last, out of 


contempt ; and at the end the conceited fellow has bragged 
of the might of his arm. So, I do not consider that I ought 
to send any reply. As for giving him my daughter, that is 
out of the question. Depart, ambassador ! let your master 
do what he can." * 

When King Karmasena said this, that Brahman am- 
bassador Suvigraha, being a man of spirit, gave him an 
answer well suited to the occasion : " Fool, you boast now, 
because you have not seen that prince. Make ready ; when 
he arrives, you will learn the difference between yourself 
and your opponent." When the ambassador said this, the 
whole court was in a state of excitement ; but the king, 
though in wrath, said: "Away with you! Your person 
is inviolable, so what can we do ? " Then some of those 
present, biting their lips and wringing their hands together, 
said one to another : " Why do we not follow him and kill 
him this moment ? " But others, being masters of them- 
selves, said : " Let the young fool of a Brahman go ! Why 
do you trouble yourselves about the speech of this babbler ? 
We will show what we can do." Others again, appearing 
to foreshadow by their frowns the speedy bending of their 
bows, remained silent, with faces red with rage. 

The whole court being thus incensed, the ambassador 
Suvigraha went out, and repaired to Mrigankadatta in his 
camp. He told him and his friends what Karmasena had 
said ; and the prince, when he heard it, ordered the army 
to march. Then the sea of soldiers, set in motion by the 
order of the commander, as by a violent gust of wind, in 
which men, horses and elephants moved like bounding sea- 
monsters, exciting satisfaction in the mind of the allied 
monarchs, 2 assumed an agitation terrifying to the minds 
of timid men. Then Mrigankadatta, making the earth miry 
with the foam of high-mettled horses and the frontal ichor 
of elephants, and deafening the world with the noise of his 
drums, moved on slowly to Ujjayini to victory. 

1 Cf. the way in which King Melias receives the proposals of Osantrix in the 
fifty-third chapter of the " Wilkina Saga " (Hagen's Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 182). 

2 Or "of the mountains that retained their wings" i.e. by taking refuge 
from Indra in the sea. The pun is, of course, most intentional. 




This refers to an incident in the " Uttarakanda," or last book of the 
Ramayana. It is really only an appendix and deals with incidents antecedent 
to those in the poem itself. Ravana, after defeating numerous kings, attacks 
Arjuna or Karttavlrya, King of Mahishmati, on the banks of the Narmada, and 
is defeated, captured and imprisoned by Arjuna. Griffith (Ramayana, vol. v, 
p. 322), following the works of Signor Gorresio and Muir, places the incident 
in sections xxi and xxii, but in the complete prose translation by M. N. Dutt 
it appears in sections xxxvi-xxxviii, as related by Agastya to Rama. 

Section xxxvi contains a beautiful description of the holy River Narmada 
(Dutt calls it Nerbuda ; it is the Narbada or Nerbudda of modern atlases, the 
Namados of Pliny, and Nammadios of the Periplns), followed by the bathing 
of Ravana and his worship of Siva. The worship, however, is interrupted by 
an overwhelming current of the stream, flowing in an opposite direction. 
Some of Ravana' s retinue go to discover the cause of this strange phenomenon 
and report as follows : 

" O lord of Rakshasas, an unknown person, huge as a Sdla tree, is sport- 
ing with females obstructing the course of Nerbuda like unto a dam. And 
being withheld by the thousand arms of that man, the waters of Nerbuda 
are continually throwing up high waves." 

At this Ravana advances to fight Arjuna, and several of the latter's 
ministers are killed. Arjuna thereupon "rose up from the waters like an 
elephant," and the waters thus released from this human dam flowed on 
their accustomed way. [This is the actual incident referred to in our text.] 
A terrible duel ensues. " And taking up their clubs, Arjuna and Ravana 
begin to fight with one another, emitting cries like the mutterings of clouds, 
like unto two huge bulls fighting for a cow, two agitated oceans, two moving 
mountains, two effulgent Adityas, two burning flames, two proud elephants, 
two proud lions, and like the very Rudra and Kala." 

Eventually Ravana is overcome, bound and carried off by Arjuna. n.m.p. 


163. Story of Mrigdnkadatta 

THEN Mrigankadatta, accompanied by his friends, 
crossed the Vindhya range, and, with his army ready 
for battle, reached the frontier of Ujjayini. When 
the brave King Karmasena heard that, he also made ready 
for the fight, and with his army moved out from the city 
to meet him. And when those two armies came to close 
quarters, and could see one another, a battle took place be- 
tween them that gladdened heroes. The battlefield seemed 
like the dwelling-place of Hiranyakasipu, as it was full of 
timid demons dispersed in terror by the roar of the Man- 
lion x ; the continued dense shower of arrows flying through 
the air, and cutting one another, descended on brave warriors, 
like locusts on the tender herb. Dense clouds of pearls 
gleamed as they sprang from the frontal globes of elephants 
struck with swords, resembling the necklace of the Fortune 
of that battle broken in her agitation. That place of combat 
appeared like the mouth of Death ; and the sharp points of 
spears, that seized on men, horses and elephants, were like 
his fangs. The heads of strong-armed warriors, cut off with 
crescent-headed arrows, flew up to heaven, as if leaping up 2 
to kiss the heavenly nymphs ; and at every moment trunks 
of brave heroes danced, as if in delight at the battle of their 
noble leader being gloriously illuminated ; and so for five 
days that hero-destroying battle went on, with flowing rivers 
of blood, rich in mountains of heads. 

And in the evening of the fifth day the Brahman Srutadhi 

1 Krishna, in the form of a man-lion, destroyed Hiranyakasipu. The 
word man-lion also refers to brave soldiers. For sashpeshu No. 1882 reads 

2 I read, with India Office MS. No. 1882, dividattordhvajhampani ; the two 
other MSS. agree in the reading jampdni. For bhruvasalinam I read bhujasalinam, 
which I find in the three India Office MSS. 


came secretly to Mrigankadatta when he was closeted with 
his ministers, and said to him : " While you were engaged 
in fighting, I went away from the camp, in the disguise of 
a mendicant, and entered Ujjayini, the gates of which were 
almost deserted : and now listen ; I will tell you truly what 
I observed, being myself all the while, though near at hand, 
unseen in virtue of my knowledge. As soon as King Karma- 
sena went out to battle, Sasankavati, with the permission of 
her mother, also left the palace, and repaired to a temple of 
Gauri in that city to propitiate the goddess, in order to ensure 
her father's success in combat. And while she was there, 
she said in secret to a devoted confidante : ' My friend, it is 
for my sake that my father has become involved in this 
war. And if he is conquered he will give me to that prince ; 
for kings disregard love for offspring altogether when the 
interests of their kingdoms are at stake. And I do not know 
whether that prince is a suitable match for me in respect of 
personal appearance or not. I would sooner meet my death 
than marry an ugly husband. I think a good-looking 
husband, even though poor, is to be preferred to an ugly one, 
though he be emperor over the whole earth. So you must go 
to the army and see what he is like, and then return. For, 
my fortunate friend, Chaturika 1 is your name, and Prudence 
is your nature.' 

" When the princess had given this order to her confidante, 
that girl managed to come to our camp, and after seeing you, 
Prince, went and said to that princess : ' My friend, I can say 
nothing but this : even Vasuki 2 himself has not got a tongue 
able to describe the beauty of that prince. So far, however, I 
can give you an idea of it : as there is no woman in the world 
equal to you in good looks, so there is no man equal to him. 
But alas ! that is but a feeble description of him ; I believe 
in these three worlds there is no Siddha, or Gandharva, or 
god like him.' By this speech of her confidante's Sasan- 
kavati's heart was fixed on you, and at the same moment it 
was nailed to you by the God of Love with his arrows. And 

1 I.e. Prudence." 

2 The king of the snakes. See for his thousand mouths and thousand 
tongues p. 56 of this volume. 


from that time forth she has remained desiring the welfare 
of you and also of her father, becoming gradually attenuated 
by penance and grief of separation from you. 

"So go secretly this very night and carry off that 
princess from that sanctuary of Gauri, which is now un- 
frequented, and bring her here without being observed. Let 
her be conveyed to the palace of Mayavatu ; and then these 
kings, after securing your rear against the fury of the foe, 
shall come there with me. Let this fighting be put an end to. 
Do not allow any further slaughter of soldiers. And ensure 
the personal safety of yourself and the king your father-in- 
law. For war, that involves a great waste of human life, is 
an inexpedient expedient, and sages affirm it to be the worst 
of all political measures." 

When Srutadhi had said this to Mrigankadatta, that 
prince and his ministers mounted their horses and set out 
secretly at night. And the prince arrived at the city of 
Ujjayini, in which only women and children and sleepy 
men were left, and entered it easily, as the gates were kept 
by only a few drowsy guards. 1 And then he proceeded to 
that famous sanctuary of Gauri, which was easily discovered 
by the description which Srutadhi had given of it. It was 
situated in a great garden called Pushpakaranda, and was 
just then illuminated by the rays of the moon, which at that 
time adorned the face of the East. 2 

In the meanwhile Sasankavati, who remained sleepless, 
though her companions, worn out by attendance and other 
fatigues, were sleeping around her, was saying to herself : 
" Alas ! for my sake brave kings and princes and heroes are 
being slain every day in battle in both these armies. More- 
over, that prince, who has appealed to the ordeal of battle 
for my sake, was long ago designated as my husband by the 
goddess Durga in a dream ; and the God of Love has with 
unfailing aim cut out my heart with a continual shower 3 of 

1 No. 1882 has mattairasamvritadvaram. 

2 There is an intentional pun in this passage, which may be translated 
" illuminated by the moon with his rays " or " pointed out by the moon with 
his fingers." 

3 For parasparam I read paramparam, following Bohtlingk and Roth. 
This is the reading of MS. No. 1882. 



arrows, and taken it and presented it to him. But, ill- 
starred girl that I am, my father will not give me to that 
prince, on account of the previous enmity between them, 
and his own pride : so much I gathered from his letter. So 
what is the use of a sure revelation by a goddess in a dream, 
when Fate is adverse ? The fact is, I see no chance of obtain- 
ing my beloved in any way. So why should I not abandon 
my hopeless life, before I hear of some misfortune happening 
to my father or to my lover in battle ? " 1 With these words 
she rose up, and in her grief went in front of Gauri and made 
a noose with her outer garment, fastening it to an asoka tree. 

In the meanwhile Mrigankadatta, with his companions, 
entered that garden and fastened his horse to a tree in front 
of the temple and sanctuary of Gauri. Then Mrigankadatta 's 
minister Vimalabuddhi, seeing the princess near, said of his 
own accord to the prince : " Look, Prince, here is some 
lovely girl trying to hang herself; now, who can she be?" 
When the prince heard that, he looked at her and said : 
" Aha ! who can this girl be ? Is she the goddess Rati ? 
Or is she happiness incarnate in bodily form ? Or is she the 
beauty of the moon, having taken shape, 2 or the command of 
Kama living and walking ? Or is she a nymph of heaven ? 
No, that cannot be. For what can make heavenly nymphs 
hang themselves ? So let us remain here for a time concealed 
by trees, until we find out for certain, somehow or other, 
who she is." When he had said this, he and his ministers 
remained there in concealment ; and in the meanwhile the 
despondent Sasankavati offered this prayer to the goddess : 
" O adorable Gauri, that deliverest the afflicted from their 
pain, grant that, though, owing to my sins in a former state 
of existence, Prince Mrigankadatta has not become my 
husband in this birth, he may become such in a future life." 
When the princess had said this, she bowed before the god- 
dess, and fastened the noose round her neck, with eyes moist 
with tears. 

At that moment her companions woke up, and, distressed 
at not seeing her, began to look for her, and quickly came 

1 I read vd rane, the conjecture of Dr Kern. 

2 Sakara is a misprint for Sakara, which I find in MS. No. 1882. 


where she was. And they said : " Alas, friend, what is this 
that you have undertaken ? Out on your rashness ! " With 
these words they removed the noose from her neck. So, 
while the girl was standing there ashamed and despondent, 
a voice came from the inner shrine of Gauri's temple : " Do 
not despond, my daughter Sasankavati ; that word, fair one, 
that I spake to thee in a dream, cannot prove false. Here is 
that husband of thine in a former life, Mrigankadatta, come 
to thy side : go and enjoy with him the whole earth." 

When Sasankavati heard this sudden utterance, she 
slowly looked aside a little confused, and at that moment 
Vikramakesarin, the minister of Mrigankadatta, came up to 
her, and pointing out the prince with his finger, 
ofMrivanka- said to her: "Princess, Bhavani has told you 
datta and the truth, for here is the prince, your future hus- 

band, come to you, drawn by the cords ot love. 
When the princess heard that, she cast a sidelong glance, 
and beheld that noble lover of hers, 1 standing in the midst 
of his companions, looking like the moon having descended 
from heaven begirt by the planets, like the standard by which 
beauty is tested in others, raining nectar into the eyes. 

Then she remained motionless as a pillar, and every hair 
stood erect with joy on all her limbs, so that they appeared 
to be covered with the feathers at the end of Kama's arrows 
raining upon her. And at that moment Mrigankadatta came 
up to her, and, in order to dispel her shame, he addressed to 
her, with a voice raining the honey of love, the following 
speech appropriate to the occasion 2 : " Fair one, you have 
made me leave my own country and kingdom and relations, 
and brought me from a distance, enslaving me and binding 
me with the chain of your virtues. So now I have gained 
this fruit of my dwelling in the forest, and of my sleeping 
on the ground, and of my living on wild fruits, and endur- 
ing the fierce heat of the sun, and of my emaciation with 
asceticism, that I have beheld this form of yours which 

1 Dr Kern prefers tejasvinam to tejasvindm. I have adopted this conjecture, 
which is supported by two of the India Office MSS. 

2 I read kalochitam, the conjecture of Dr Kern ; it is found in the three 
MSS. lent me by Dr Rost. 


rains nectar into my eyes. And if you love me enough to 
care to please me, bestow also, gazelle-eyed one, that feast 
of the eyes upon the ladies of our city. Let the war cease ; 
let the welfare of both armies be ensured ; let my birth be 
made a success, and let my father's blessing be gained for 
me at the same time." 

When Mrigankadatta had said this to Sasankavati, she 
slowly answered, with eyes fixed on the ground : "I indeed 
have been purchased with your virtues and made your slave, 
so do, my husband, what you think will be for our good." 
When Mrigankadatta had been refreshed by this nectar-like 
speech of hers, and saw that his point was gained, he praised 
the goddess Gauri and bowed before her, and then he made 
the princess get up behind him on his horse, and his ten " 
ministers mounted and took her ladies-in-waiting up behind 
them ; and then the prince, with his sword drawn, set out 
from that city at night, accompanied by them, sword in 
hand. And though the city-guards saw those eleven heroes, 
they did not dare to stop them, for they looked as formidable 
as so many angry Rudras. And leaving Ujjayini, they went 
with Sasankavati to the palace of Mayavatu, in accordance 
with the advice of Srutadhi. 

While the guards were exclaiming in their distraction, 
" Who are these, and whither are they gone ? " it gradually 
became known in Ujjayini that the princess had been car- 
ried off. And the queen-consort hurriedly dispatched the 
governor of the city to the camp, to tell King Karmasena what 
had taken place. But in the meanwhile the head of the 
scouts came to King Karmasena in the camp there at night, 
and said to him : " King, Mrigankadatta and his ministers 
left the army secretly in the early part of this night, and 
went on horseback to Ujjayini, to carry off Sasankavati, who 
is in the temple of Gauri. So much I have discovered for 
certain : your Highness knows what step it is now desirable 
to take." 

When King Karmasena heard this, he sent for his general, 
and communicated to him privately the information he had 
received, and said to him : " Choose five hundred swift 

1 Dasibkik is a misprint for dasabhih, the reading of the MSS. 


horses, and set picked men on them, and go with them 
secretly to Ujjayini, and wherever you find that villain 
Mrigankadatta, kill him, or make him prisoner : know that 
I will follow you quickly, leaving my army behind me." 

When the general received this order from the king, he 
said, " So be it," and set out by night for Ujjayini with the 
prescribed force. And on the way he met the governor of 
the town, from whom he heard that the princess had been 
carried off by some daring men in another direction. Then 
he returned with the governor of the town, and told King 
Karmasena what had taken place. When the king heard 
it, he thought it impossible, and remained quiet during the 
night, without making an attack. And in the camp of 
Mrigankadatta, Mayavatu and the other kings passed the 
night under arms, by the advice of Srutadhi. 

And next morning the sagacious King Karmasena found 
out the real state of the case, and sent off an ambassador to 
the kings in the camp of Mrigankadatta ; and he instructed 
the ambassador to give this message by word of mouth : 
" Mrigankadatta has carried off my daughter by a stratagem : 
never mind that ; for what other man would be as suitable 
a match for her ? So now let him come to my palace, and 
do you come too, in order that I may celebrate my daughter's 
marriage with appropriate ceremonies." * And the kings 
and Srutadhi approved of this proposal, 2 and said to the 
ambassador : " Then let your master retire to his own city, 
and we will ourselves go and bring the prince there." When 
the ambassador heard that proposal, he went and reported 
it to his master ; and Karmasena agreed to it, and left for 
Ujjayini with his army. When the kings saw that, they 
went, with Mayavatu at their head, and accompanied by 
Srutadhi, to Mrigankadatta. 

And in the meanwhile Mrigankadatta, with Sasankavati, 
had reached the palace of Mayavatu in the city of Kanchana- 
pura. There the queens of Mayavatu welcomed him, and 

1 So King Nidung, in the "Wilkina Saga" (chapter cxxxi), asks King 
Sigmund to come to his palace if he wishes to marry his daughter (Hagen's 
Helden-Sagen, vol. i, p. 322). 

2 Dr Kern points out that Sraddhatus is a misprint for Sraddadhus. 



his companions, and his beloved, with becoming hospitality, 
and he rested there with them, having successfully accom- 
plished his object. And the next day the kings came there 
with Srutadhi : the heroic king of the Kiratas, Saktirakshita, 
with his army, and the mighty King Mayavatu, leader of the 
Savaras, and the hero Durgapisacha, lord of the host of the 
Matangas ; and all of them, when they beheld Mriganka- 
datta united to Sasankavati, like the white water-lily to the 
night, rejoiced and congratulated him. And after they had 
shown him the honour he deserved, they told him the message 
of Karmasena, and how he had gone to his own palace. 

Then Mrigankadatta, having established there his camp, 
that was like a moving city, sat down with them all to take 
counsel. And he said to the kings and to his ministers : 
j. . _ . , " Tell me, shall I go to Uiiayini to be married 

Mrigankadatta ' & . JJ J 

takes counsel of or not ? ' : And they with one accord gave the 
his Ministers following answer : " That king is a villain ; so 
how can a visit to his palace turn out well ? * 
Moreover, there is no need of it, as his daughter has arrived 
here." Then Mrigankadatta said to the Brahman Srutadhi : 
" Why do you remain silent, Brahman, like one taking no 
interest in the proceedings ? Tell me, do you approve of this 
step or not ? " 

Then Srutadhi said : "If you will listen, I will tell you 
what I think : my opinion is that you ought to go to the 
palace of Karmasena. For he sent you this message because 
he saw no other way out of the difficulty 2 ; otherwise, how 
would a powerful prince like that, when his daughter had 
been carried off, give up fighting, and go home ? Moreover, 
what could he do to you when you arrived at his court, 
since you would take your army with you ? On the con- 
trary, if you go there, he will be well disposed to you, and 
he will again be one of your chief allies out of love for his 
daughter. The reason he makes this proposal, which is a 

1 Here No. 1882 reads griheshu kritavairasya gamane. 

2 Thus Tawney paraphrases asadhyena. But if we read asathyena, with the 
D. text, the sense is much improved : "... it cannot be with an insidious 
purpose that he sent you this message ; otherwise . . ." etc. See Speyer, 
op. cit. t p. 141. n.m.p. 


perfectly legitimate one, is that he does not wish his daughter 
to be married in an irregular manner. So I think it advis- 
able that you should go to Ujjayini." When Srutadhi said 
this, all who were present approved his speech, and said : 
" Bravo ! Bravo ! " 

Then Mrigankadatta said to them : "I admit the truth 
of all this ; but I do not like to marry without my father 
and mother. So let someone be sent off from this place to 
summon my father and mother ; and when I have learnt 
their wish, I will do what is proper." When the -hero had 
said this, he took the advice of his friends, and then and 
there sent off his minister Bhlmaparakrama to his parents. 

And in the meanwhile his father, King Amaradatta, in 
the city of Ayodhya, found out in course of time from his 
subjects that the charge which Vinitamati brought against 
the prince, and which caused his banishment from his native 
land, was wholly groundless. Then, in his wrath, he put 
to death that wicked minister and his family, and fell into 
a pitiable state, being terribly afflicted on account of the 
banishment of his son. And he left his capital, and remained 
in a sanctuary of Siva, outside the city, called Nandigrama ; 
and there he and his wives gave themselves up to severe 

After he had remained there some time, Bhlmaparakrama, 
whose approach was announced by scouts, arrived, thanks 
to the speed of his swift horse, at the city of Ayodhya. He 
beheld that city plunged in despair, on account of the absence 
of the prince, as if it were once more going through the 
painful agitation caused by the exile of Rama. Thence he 
went to Nandigrama, surrounded by citizens who asked him 
for news of the prince, and hearing from their mouths what 
had happened to the king. There he beheld King Amara- 
datta, with his body emaciated by asceticism, surrounded by 
his queens, eager for news of his beloved son. 

Bhlmaparakrama went up to him and fell at his feet, 
and the king embraced him, and asked for news of his son ; 
and thereupon Bhlmaparakrama said to him with tears : 
" Your son Mrigankadatta has won by his valour the Princess 
Sasankavati, the daughter of King Karmasena. But, as he 


is devoted to his parents, it does not seem at all becoming 
to him to marry her, unless the king and the queen can be 
present at the ceremony. So your son, placing his head 
upon the ground, has sent me to request you to come to him. 
And he awaits your Highness's arrival, in Kanchanapura, in 
the palace of King Mayavatu, the monarch of the Savaras. 
Now hear the story of our adventures." And thereupon 
Bhimaparakrama began with the banishment of his master, 
and related all his various and wonderful adventures, 
involving the long story of the misfortunes of their forest 
sojourn and their separation, with the war, and winding up 
with the prince's reconciliation with Karmasena. 

When King Amaradatta heard that, he made up his 
mind that it was well with his son, and in his joy he announced 
that he would set out that moment. He mounted an 
elephant, and accompanied by his queen, his subject kings 
and his ministers, and followed by a force of elephants and 
cavalry, he started full of eagerness to join his son. And, 
travelling uninterruptedly, the king reached in a few days his 
son's camp, that was pitched in the territory of the monarch 
of the Savaras. 

And when Mrigankadatta, who had long been yearning 
for his father, heard of his approach, he went out to meet 
him with all the kings. And he saw him from a distance, 
and dismounted from his horse, and fell at the feet of his 
father, who was seated on an elephant, and at the feet of his 
mother. And when embraced by his father, he filled with 
his body his clasping arms, with satisfaction his heart, and 
his eyes with tears. His mother too folded him in a long 
embrace, and looking at him again and again was for some 
time unable to let him go, as if fearing a second separation. 
And Mrigankadatta introduced to his father Amaradatta 
the kings his friends, and they bowed before him and the 
queen. And that couple, the king and the queen, received 
lovingly those friends who had stood by their only son in 
his difficulties. 

Then Amaradatta entered the palace of Mayavatu and 
saw Sasankavati, his future daughter-in-law, who bowed at 
his feet. And after accepting a present, he departed with 


the queen and that daughter-in-law, and took up his quarters 
in his own camp. And there he took food with his son and 
all the kings, and spent that day agreeably with song, music 
and dancing. And he thought that all his objects in life had 
been gained, thanks to his son Mrigankadatta, the future 
emperor, who had attained so much glory. 

And in the meanwhile the wise King Karmasena, after 
deliberating, sent off an ambassador to Mrigankadatta with 
the following message, which was contained in a letter, and also 
intended to be delivered by word of mouth : " I know that 
you will not come to Ujjayini, so I will send to you my own 
son Sushena ; he will bestow on you with due ceremonies his 
sister Sasankavati : so you ought not, blameless one, to marry 
her in an irregular manner, if you value my friendship." 

And when the prince had heard this message delivered in 
the royal hall of audience, his father the king himself gave 
this answer to the ambassador : " Who but King Karma- 
sena would send such a gracious message ? That excellent 
monarch is truly well disposed to us, so let him send here 
his son Sushena ; we will so order matters as that his 
daughter's marriage shall give him satisfaction." When the 
king had given this answer, and dismissed the messenger 
with due honours, he said to his son, and Srutadhi, and the 
kings : " We had better go now to Ayodhya ; that is the 
place where the marriage can be performed with most eclat ; 
and there we can entertain Sushena with becoming mag- 
nificence. And let King Mayavatu wait here for Sushena ; 
when that prince arrives he can come on after us to Ayodhya 
with him. But we will go on in front to make the necessary 
preparations for the marriage." And all present approved 
this speech of the king's. 

Then, the next day, the king with the queen and his 
soldiers, and Mrigankadatta with the kings and his ministers, 
started off with Sasankavati, exulting in their success, leaving 
Mayavatu to wait there for Sushena. Their army moved 
on like a deep and terrible sea, agitated with hundreds of 
waves in the form of troops of bounding horses, filling all 
the horizon with a flood of countless marching footmen, 
rendering all other sounds inaudible with the confused din 



that arose from it. And gradually advancing, father and son 
reached the palace of Saktirakshita, the king of the Kiratas, 
that lay in their course. 

There they and their attendants were courteously and 
generously welcomed, with heaps of valuable jewels, gold, 
and splendid garments. And they stayed there one day with 
their army, taking food and resting, and then they set out 
and reached in course of time their city of Ayodhya. It 
seemed like a lake in windy weather as they entered it ; for 
the ladies of the city who had climbed up to the windows of 
the palaces, as they moved to and fro, seemed like swaying, 
full-blown lotuses, sending forth shoots of beauty ; and their 
rolling eyes, eager to behold the prince, who after a long 
absence had returned, bringing a bride with him, were like 
dancing blue lilies : it was crowded with assembling kingly 
swans, and tossing with wavy banners. And father and son 
looked grand as they sat on thrones being blessed by the 
Brahmans, praised by heralds, and hymned by bards. 

And when the people there saw the great beauty of 
Sasankavati, they exclaimed, in their astonishment : "If 
they were to behold this daughter of Karmasena, the Ocean 
would cease to boast of the beauty of his daughter Lakshmi, 
and the Himalaya would no longer pride himself on Gaurl." 
And then, when the festival came on, the quarters, re-echoing 
the sound of the auspicious drums of rejoicing, as it were, 
gave notice to the kings. And the whole city was full of 
exultation, and the vermilion colours that covered it through- 
out seemed like its red glow of affection overflowing in 
external form. 

The next day the astrologers fixed an auspicious date 
for the prince's marriage, and his father, King Amaradatta, 
began to make preparations for it. And the city was filled 
so full of various jewels, coming from all quarters, that it 
put to shame the city of Kuvera. 

And soon a servant of King Mayavatu came to the 
sovereign in high spirits, introduced by the warder, and 
said to him : " King, Prince Sushena and King Mayavatu 
have arrived, and they are both waiting on the frontier of 
this realm of Ayodhya." When King Amaradatta heard 


that, he sent his own general with a body of soldiers to meet 
Sushena. And Mrigankadatta, out of regard for his friend, 
also went out with the general from Ayodhya to meet the 
prince. And both of those princes dismounted, while yet 
a great distance apart, and met together, embracing one 
another and asking after one another's health. And out of 
love they entered the city in the same chariot, giving a great 
feast to the eyes of the ladies of the city. 

And there Sushena had an interview with the king, and 
was received by him with much respect, and then he went 
to the private apartments of his sister Sasankavati. There 
she rose up weeping and embraced him, and he sat down and 
said to the princess, who was overwhelmed with shame : " My 
father directs me to tell you that you have done nothing 
unbecoming, for he has just come to learn that Prince Mrigan- 
kadatta was appointed your husband by the goddess Gauri 
in a dream, and it is the highest duty of women to follow the 
steps of their husbands." When he had said this to the girl 
she dismissed her shame, looking at her heart with downcast 
face, as if to tell it that its desire was gained. 

Then Sushena brought and gave to Sasankavati in the 
presence of the king her own accumulated wealth : two 
thousand bhdras l of gold, five camels heavily laden with 
jewelled ornaments, and another treasure of gold. And he 
said : " This is her own private property, but, as for what 
her father has sent, I will give it her in due course at the 
marriage altar." Then they all ate and drank, and spent 
the day there in the king's presence in great comfort, with 
Mrigankadatta and his suite. 

The next day dawned, the day fixed as auspicious, and 
Mrigankadatta performed his own daily ceremony, of bath- 
ing and so on ; in which the king himself displayed the 
The Royal utmost interest, in his joy at the occasion. And 
Wedding then Sasankavati, though her beauty was suffi- 
cient bridal ornament, was solemnly adorned by the ladies, 
only out of regard for the good old custom, not because 
anything of the kind was needed. Then the bride and 

1 A bhara = 20 ialas. The equations, however, vary. See L. D. 

Barnett, Antiquities of India, pp. 207, 209. n.m.p. 



bridegroom left the room in which the previous ceremony took 
place, and in which Sushena presided, and ascended the altar- 
platform, where a fire was burning. And on it the prince 
received the hand of the princess, which was resplendent 
with the hues of a lotus that she held, as Vishnu the hand 
of Lakshmi. And when they circumambulated the fire, 
the face of Sasankavati was red and tearful from heat and 
smoke, though anger was far from her. And the handfuls 
of parched grain, thrown into the fire, appeared like the 
laughs of the God of Love, pleased with the success of his 
scheme. And when the first handful was thrown, Sushena 
gave the five thousand horses, and a hundred elephants, 
and two hundred bhdras of gold, and twenty camels laden 
with loads of splendid raiment, valuable gems and pearl - 
ornaments. And at each subsequent sprinkling of grain 
Sasankavati's brother gave her a portion of the wealth 
gained by the conquest of the earth, double that given at 
the preceding. 1 

Then Mrigankadatta, the auspicious ceremony having 
been performed, entered his own palace with his newly 
married bride, Sasankavati, while the sound of festal drums 
rose up in the air. And the king, his father, gratified his 
ministers and the citizens of his capital with presents of 
elephants, horses, garments, ornaments, meat and drink, 
suited to the worth of the recipient, beginning with the 
circle of dependent monarchs, and ending with the parrots 
and pet mainas. And the king displayed on this occasion 
such exceedingly lavish generosity that even the trees had 
garments and gems fastened to them, and presented the 
appearance of earthly wishing-trees. 

Then the king and Mrigankadatta feasted with the kings 
and Sasankavati and Sushena, and spent the rest of the day 
in a wine-party. Then, after the inhabitants of the palace 
had eaten and drunk well, and enjoyed music and dancing, 
the sun, having accomplished his journey, and having drunk 
up the moisture of the earth, entered the cavern of the 
western mountain. And the glory of the day, seeing that 

1 For a full description of all the intricate rites of a Hindu marriage 
ceremony, see Mrs Stevenson, Rites of the Twice-Born, chapter iv. n.m.p. 


he had departed somewhere or other with the evening that 
was all ablaze with a warm glow, ran after him in a fit 
of jealous anger, and the birds flying to and fro seemed 
like her agitated zone. 1 And then in due course appeared 
advancing the wanton nymph Night, beautiful with her 
waving black robe of darkness, and showing a face in which 
stars rolled for eyeballs, and the God of Love waxed 
mighty. And the moon, own brother to the curved corner 
of an angry, long-eyed beauty's eye, arose, and, glowing 
with fresh rosy colour, made itself the driving-hook of the 
elephant of the eastern mountain. And the eastern quarter, 
that was clear and bright with the departure of the dark- 
ness, bore a laughing face, to which the moon, like a new 
shoot of the twining plant of love, formed an extemporised 

And at night Mrigankadatta, after performing his 
evening devotions, retired to his luxuriously appointed bed- 
chamber with his bride Sasankavati. And during it, that 
fair one's moonlike countenance, dispelling the darkness 
and lighting up the pictured panels of the room, seemed to 
render unnecessary the lamps hanging there, that were 
made of precious stones. 2 And the next morning Mriganka- 
datta was aroused by the soft sweet strains of the following 
song : " The night has passed ; leave your bed, Prince, for 
the breezes of morning are blowing, fanning the perfumed 
locks of the gazelle-eyed fair ones. And the dewdrops 
collected on the points of the blades of durvd grass sparkle 
brilliantly, looking like pearls fallen from the necklace of 
the night quickly following the moon. And observe, Prince, 
the bees that long sported in the cups of the white water- 
lilies, opening when touched by the beams of the moon, and 
drank the honey, and were joyous at having obtained an 
entrance, now that the water-lilies are closed and their glory 
is departing, are seeking some other retreat ; for to whom 

1 The words are, by a misprint, wrongly divided in Brockhaus' text. 

2 Cf. Heliodorus, III, v, irXkov airo rQtv ocftOaXfxtov o-tXas -q twv SctSoyv 

a.7T7jvya^eVj quoted by Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, p. 152, note. See 

Vol. II, p. 169. Mr A. H. Krappe kindly sends me the following additional 
references : Bartsch, Herzog Ernst, p. cl et seq. ; Schroder, Sand Brandon, 
p. 104; A. N. Ram baud, La Russe epiqne, pp. 387, 405. n.m.p. 



are black souls faithful in calamity ? And the God of Love, 
seeing that the lip of the night has been adorned by the 
finger of the sun, has stripped it of the moon, which served 
it for a beauty-patch, and has gradually dissipated the 
darkness, which was a black powder to set it off." 

Aroused by these strains at the hour of dawn, Mriganka- 
datta cast off sleep, and, leaving Sasankavati, at once started 
up from his couch. And he rose and performed the cere- 
monies of the day, his father having made all the arrange- 
ments that devolved on him ; and accompanied by his 
beloved he passed many more days in similar rejoicing. 

Then his father Amaradatta first inaugurated the prince's 
brother-in-law Sushena with the holy waters, and placed a 
turban of honour on his head, and bestowed on him as a 
mark of respect a suitable territory, and elephants, horses, 
quantities of gold and garments, and a hundred beautiful 
women. And then the king complimented the king of the 
Savaras and the king of the Kiratas, Mayavatu and Sakti- 
rakshita, with their relations and wives, and that King 
Durgapisacha, the leader of the host of the Matangas, and 
the ministers of Mrigankadatta with Srutadhi, by giving 
them territories, cows, horses, gold and garments. Then 
King Amaradatta dismissed the king of the Kiratas and 
the other monarchs, with Sushena, to their own dominions, 
and ruled his realm in happiness, at ease because his valour 
was so well known. Mrigankadatta, for his part, having 
conquered his enemies, and attained his ends, remained in 
happiness with his wife Sasankavati, whom he had gained 
after a long struggle, and with Bhimaparakrama and his 
other ministers. 

And in course of time old age, slowly creeping on, 
approached the root of the ear of that King Amaradatta, 
appearing as if it had taken form in order to say to him : 
" You have enjoyed the good things of fortune : your age 
is fully ripe ; surely it is now time to retire from the world." 
Then the king's mind became averse to enjoyment, and he 
said to his ministers : " Listen, I will now tell you the 
scheme I have in my mind. My life has passed : that grey 
hue which is the harbinger of death has just now twitched 


my locks * ; and when old age once arrives, a vicious clinging 
to enjoyment on the part of persons like myself, when all the 
zest is gone, is mere vanity. And though in some people 
a mad passion of avarice and lust goes on increasing with 
increasing age, that is without doubt the natural tendency 
of base souls, and the good do not acquire it. Now I have 
this son here, Mrigankadatta, who has gained glory by con- 
quering the sovereign of Avanti and his allied kings, 2 who 
abounds in good qualities, is beloved by his subjects, and 
has excellent friends. So I propose to make over to him 
my mighty kingdom, and to retire to a holy water for morti- 
fication of the flesh : conduct in conformity with the laws 
laid down for the various periods of life, that their enemies 
cannot blame, becomes men of great soul." 

When the calm and resolute ministers heard this deter- 
mined speech of the king's, they, and in due course the queen 
and the citizens, all approved it, saying : "So let it be ! " 
Then the king performed the joyful ceremony of the corona- 
tion 3 of his son Mrigankadatta at a moment fixed by the 
astrologers, on a day selected by the chief Brahmans as- 
sembled together. And on that day the palace of the king 
was full of people running hither and thither at the order 
of the warder, and all the officials in it had their hands full, 
and it reeled with the merriment of famous bards and of 
lovely women who were dancing there. And while the 
water of holy places was being poured in copious showers 
upon the head of Mrigankadatta and his wife, a second flood 
seemed to gush from the eyes of his joyful parents. And 
when that new king, of lionlike might, mounted his lion- 
seat, it seemed as if his enemies, bowed down by fear of 
his wrath, crouched on the ground in a fashion other than 

Then his father, King Amaradatta, prolonged for seven days 
the great feast, in which the king's highway was decorated, 

1 See M. Bloomfield, "On Recurring Motifs in Hindu Fiction," Journ. 
Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xxx, pp. 57, 58. n.m.p. 

2 For Sarajakavarti I read Sarajakavanti ; Mrigankadatta might be said by 
an admiring father to have conquered the King of Ujjayini. 

3 It corresponds to the European ceremony of coronation, though 
performed with water. 


and the subject-kings honoured according to their worth. 
And on the eighth day he went out of the city with his wife, 
and after turning back Mrigankadatta and the citizens, who 
followed him with tearful faces, he went with his ministers 
to Varanasi. There the king remained with his body steeped 
in Ganges water, worshipping Siva three times a day, per- 
forming penance, like a hermit, by living on roots and fruits ; 
and his wife shared all his devotions and privations. 

But Mrigankadatta, for his part, having obtained that 
kingdom broad and pure as the sky, which the sun takes as 
his domain, and having overwhelmed the kings with imposi- 
tion of numerous tributes, as the sun does the mountains 
with showers of rays, began to blaze forth with increasing 
heat of valour. And associated with his lieutenants Maya- 
vatu and Karmasena and the others, and with . his own 
ministers headed by Srutadhi, he conquered this circle of 
the earth, with all its continents, as far as the four cardinal 
points, and ruled it under one umbrella. 1 And while he 
was king, such calamities as famine and the dread of robbers 
and of foreign invaders were heard of only in tales ; and the 
world was ever joyous and happy, and enjoyed unparalleled 
felicity, so that it seemed as if the gentle reign of Rama the 
good were renewed. And so the monarch established him- 
self in that city of Ayodhya with his ministers, and kings 
came from various quarters to worship the lotus of his foot, 
and he long enjoyed with his beloved Sasankavati pleasures, 
the joy of which no enemy marred. 2 

[M] When the hermit Pisangajata had told this story 
in the wood on the Malaya mountain to Naravahanadatta, 
who was separated from his beloved, he went on to say to 
him : " So, my son, as Mrigankadatta in old time gained 
Sasankavati after enduring affliction, you also will regain 
your Madanamanchuka." When Naravahanadatta had 

1 See Vol. II, p. 267.N.M.P. 

2 This is the conclusion of the story of Mrigankadatta, which begins in 
Vol. VI, p. 10. 


heard this nectarous utterance of the mighty hermit Pisan- 
gajata, he conceived in his heart the hope of regaining 
Madanamanchuka. And with his mind fixed on her, he 
took leave of that good hermit, and roamed about on the 
Malaya mountain, looking for Lalitalochana, the fair one 
that originally brought him there. 





After the completion of Book XII, the longest in the whole work, we 
once again return to Naravahanadatta, whom we had nearly forgotten, and 
to whom the hermit Pisangajata was telling the tale of Mrigankadatta. Let 
us look back for a moment at the circumstances which led up to the tale. 

We read (Vol. VI, p. l) that Naravahanadatta . remained at Kausambi 
with his numerous wives, but " ever cherished the head queen, Madanaman- 
chuka, more than his own life. . . ." One night he sees in a dream a 
heavenly maiden carry him off. But it proves to be no dream, and on wak- 
ing he finds himself on the plateau of a great hill with a beautiful maiden 
by his side. The prince pretends to be still asleep to see what will happen. 
She first assumes the form of Madanamanchuka, but, on seeing there is no 
need for such a stratagem, marries him in her own shape by the gandharva 
form of marriage. Naravahanadatta, anxious to discover the identity of the 
fair charmer, proceeds to tell her a tale. In reply she tells him one which 
is really her own history. It transpires that her name is Lalitalochana and 
that through love she has brought him to the Malaya mountain on which 
they now are. They live together happily (his other wives knowing all about 
it by their magical powers), but one day he loses sight of his loved one as 
she disappears into a dense thicket. He decides to wait for her on the bank 
of a lake, after bathing and worshipping the gods. He muses as he sits 
longing for reunion with Madanamanchuka. He seems already to have forgotten 
Lalitalochana. So deeply does his grief at separation from his first wife affect 
him that he faints. At that moment the hermit Pisangajata arrives on the 
scene and revives him, and leading him to his hermitage tells him the tale 
of Mrigankadatta (Vol. VI, p. 10 e/ seq.) in order to cheer him up. This long 
tale with its numerous sub-tales finishes on p. 192 of the present volume with 
the following words : 

"When the hermit Pisangajata had told this story in the wood on the 
Malaya mountain to Naravahanadatta, who was separated from his beloved. ..." 

The "beloved" we naturally take to be Lalitalochana, because she has 
wandered off somewhere picking flowers, and Madanamanchuka has been 
mentioned only once, quite casually. But, strange to say, our text continues : 

" He went on to say to him, ' So, my son, as Mrigankadatta in old time 
gained Sasankavati after enduring affliction, you also shall regain your 
Madanamanchuka. . . 

This seems quite inexplicable. We know nothing about Madanamanchuka 
being lost. As far as we are able to judge she is staying quietly at Kausambi 
awaiting her husband's return. There is no possibility of an error in the 
original text, for it continues : 

"When Naravahanadatta had heard this nectarous utterance of the 
mighty hermit Pisangajata, he conceived in his heart the hope of regaining 
Madanamanchuka. And with his mind fixed on her, he took leave of that 
good hermit. . . ." 


So Madanamanchuka was lost, but when and where is a mystery. The 
Kashmirian compilers, whom Somadeva so carefully copied, do not seem to 
have noticed this, or at any rate they did not let it worry them at all. We 
are not allowed to forget, however, that Lalitalochana is lost too, for the 
text concludes : 

" And roamed about on the Malaya mountain, looking for Lalitalochana, 
whom he had lost, the fair one that originally brought him there." 

She was obviously only a momentary love pour passer le temps, like so 
many of our hero's other wives ; but with Madanamanchuka it was quite 
different. She was his first and chief love, and, as we shall see in Book XV, 
she is the only one to be crowned with him at his coronation. We can well 
understand that he would be much more concerned if Madanamanchuka were 
lost than if it were only Lalitalochana. But apparently both are lost ! 

In order to find a solution to the problem we must look ahead at the 
Books immediately following. Book XIII, which is very short, leaves us in 
no doubt whatever as to whose loss the prince is worrying so much about. 
It begins (Vol. VIII, p. 1) as follows : 

"Then Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of Vatsa, afflicted with 
separation, being without Madanamanchuka . . . found joy nowhere." 

He meets two Brahmans to whom he relates the story of his great loss. 
They cheer him up by telling him how they have surmounted seemingly im- 
passable obstacles and gained the object of their desires. At this moment 
Gomukha and others of the prince's retinue suddenly arrive, and, " accompanied 
by Lalitalochana," all return to the city. 

So ends the Book. Thus we are no nearer a solution, but, if anything, 
rather more muddled. For not a word is said as to how, when or where 
Lalitalochana was found. Naravahanadatta apparently does not care one way 
or the other. There she is, so she might as well come along too ! 

We turn to the next Book (XIV) and find that our hero is quietly living 
in KausambI with all his wives, including Madanamanchuka ! But immediately 
afterwards the whole mystery is solved, for we read : 

u Then it happened one day that he could not find his principal charmer, 
Madanamanchuka, anywhere in the female apartments, nor could her 
attendants find her either." 

The whole court is thrown into confusion by this sudden loss, and vain 
efforts are made to find her. Naravahanadatta is tricked into marrying an 
amorous Vidyadhari named Vegavati, but obtains information and help from 
her in recovering his lost love. He sets out on his search and is led into 
several other amorous adventures which result in as many marriages. After 
each one, however, the prince continues his search for Madanamanchuka. 

Thus we see that Book XII is clearly in its wrong position. It must come 
after the loss of Madanamanchuka. The same, of course, applies to Book XIII. 
In fact, it seems clear that the adventure with Lalitalochana is merely one 
of the many which occur in Book XIV. Yet why has she the honour of 
a Book to herself, while the others are all crammed together? This and 
many other questions which arise will be discussed further in the Terminal 
Essay in Vol. IX, where each Book is dealt with separately. Here it is 



sufficient to note that a clear mistake in the order of events has occurred. 
We have a number of distinct adventures all dependent on the loss of 
Madanamanchuka, and one of them, that with Lalitalochana, has got out of 
place and been used as a kind of frame-story for the story of Mrigankadatta. 
The fact may appear somewhat trifling, but on the contrary, it is of the utmost 
importance in determining the original form of the Katha-sarit-sagara, and the 
changes it has undergone in the hands of its Kashmirian redactors. n.m.p. 





Anangarati and her Four Suitors 
(Vetala 9 pp. 1-4) 

This story is practically a verbatim repetition of the first part 
of No. 38 (Vol. IV, p. 144 et seq.), which bears exactly the same 
title. It also has several points of resemblance to Vetala 2 
(Vol. VI, pp. 179-181 and 261-266). Sufficient references have 
already been given at the above pages. 

In the Hindi version * the tale is No. 7. The differences 
are trifling. We first get a more detailed inventory of the 
lady's charms : " Her face was like the moon, her hair like 
clouds, her eyes like those of a deer, her eyebrows like a bent 
bow, her nose like a parrot's, her neck like that of a pigeon, 
her teeth like pomegranate-grains, the red colour of her lips 
like that of a gourd, her waist like the leopard's, her hands 
and feet like soft lotuses, her complexion like the Champa : 
in short, the splendour of her youth increased daily." She 
stipulates that her husband must be possessed of good looks, 
good qualities and good sense. The first suitor can make a 
certain cloth for which he can obtain five rubies. He dis- 
poses of them the same way as the Stidra does in our version. 
The second understands the language of animals. The third 
knows all the Sastras, while the fourth is a wonderful archer. 
They all draw attention to their good looks. No mention is 
made of what castes they belong to, but in his reply to the 
Vetala the king shows to what castes each must belong, and 
that the princess should naturally marry the one of her own 

The story does not appear in the Tamil version, another 
one entirely different being substituted. See B. G. Babington, 
Veddla Cadai, pp. 55-57. 

Madanasend and her Rash Promise 
(Vetala 10 pp. 5-9) 

This is the ninth story in the Hindi version. 2 It is more 
condensed than in Somadeva. The thief is no gallant, as in our 

1 W. B. Barker, Baital Packisi, pp. 157-173. 2 Ibid., pp. 174-1 8 k 




text, and thinks only of securing the jewels which Madana- 
sena is wearing. The would-be lover, by name Som(a)datt(a), 
is amazed at the girl keeping her word. " This affair," he 
says, " is like jewels without a suitable dress, or food without 
ghi, or singing without melody ; they are all alike unnatural. 
In the same way dirty clothes will mar beauty ; bad food 
will undermine strength ; a bad wife will worry one to death ; 
a disreputable son will ruin his family ; an enraged demon will 
kill. A woman, whether she love or hate, will be a source 
of pain. There are few things a woman will not do, for she 
never brings to her tongue what is in her heart, never speaks 
out what is on her tongue, never tells what she is doing : the 
deity has created woman in this world a strange creature." 

On returning home her husband has ceased to feel any 
affection for her, and says : " The beauty of a cuckoo is its 
note, of a woman is chastity ; an ugly man's beauty is know- 
ledge, and a devotee's beauty is forgiveness." The reply to 
the Vetala's question is the same in both versions. 

Once again Babington's l modesty intervenes, and he 
entirely omits the tale in the Tamil version as " being unfit 
for publication " ! 

As a matter of fact the tale is highly moral, and is a lesson 
in magnanimity. As such it has migrated towards the West 
and has found a place in every important literature in the 
world. In fact, it is one of the most interesting stories with 
which we have to deal, and a volume could easily be written 
on its ramifications and the different uses of its chief motifs. 
In these present notes I shall give ample reference for the 
preparation of such a volume, but will be able to deal briefly 
with only some of the most important variants. 

Although in Somadeva the story appears complete in 
itself, in most of its other forms it is nearly always a sub- 
story, being quoted by some clever person in order to find a 
thief by noting what different answers are given to the ques- 
tion put at the end of the tale. Thus in this case the original 
form of the story has been preserved, although, of course, it 
is no longer the Vetala who asks the question. 

Let us examine some Indian parallels first. In Hema- 

we read of Cillana, the wife of 
wonderful garden. It contains a 

vijaya's Kathdratndkara 2 
King Srenika, who has a 

1 Babington, op. cit., p. 57. 

2 J. Hertel, Kathdratndkara. 
Erz'dhlungen von Hemavijaya, vol. 

Das Mdrchenmeer. Eine Sammlung indisaher 
1920, p. 233 et seq. 


fine mango-tree, from which a thief has been stealing fruit 
to satisfy the pregnant cravings (see Vol. I, pp. 221-228) of 
his wife. This he successfully accomplishes by magically 
making the tree bend towards him. The matter is reported 
to the king, who seeks advice from his minister Abhaya. 
This astute man manages to attend a meeting of all the 
worst characters of the city. They have a concert and get 
very merry. Abhaya volunteers to tell them a story, which 
he proceeds to do : 

" An old spinster, longing for a husband, steals flowers 
from a garden, wherewith to worship the God of Love. She 
is caught in the act by the gardener, who bids her do his will 
for ransom. She agrees to come to him after her wedding. 
After she has succeeded in obtaining a husband she starts, 
arrayed in her best, to fulfil her contract, but is successively 
held up by robbers, who crave her jewels, and by a hungry 
Rakshasa, both of whom she tells of her engagement with 
the gardener. She promises to return after she has been 
with the gardener. When she comes to each in turn, they 
are so much struck with her honesty that they allow her to 
return unharmed to her husband." 

At the completion of the story Abhaya turns to the 
company and asks which character had displayed the most 
magnanimity. Various answers are given, but the mango- 
thief, who is also present, at once votes for the robbers. Hence 
Abhaya spots the thief. 

The story is quoted by Bloomfield * in " The Art of Steal- 
ing in Hindu Fiction," to which excellent article I must now 
refer more fully. As already stated above, the chief theme 
of the story is magnanimity. To such an extent is this gospel 
preached that it is made to affect not only people in the 
ordinary walks of life, but thieves also. So the "Noble 
Thief " becomes one of those lesser motifs, which, however, 
merits individual consideration. Professor Bloomfield has 
treated the subject with his accustomed scholarly elucida- 
tion. The following extracts, therefore, are to be found in 
his article mentioned above, pp. 218-220. 

The Robin Hood of Indian fiction is Apaharavarman, who, 
in the second story of the Dasa-kumdra-charita, not only 
plunders the rich to give to the poor, but also aids a loving 
couple, by first bringing them together, and then steering them 
into the haven of happiness. 

1 Amer. Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, pp. 200-201. 



Then in the Satapatta Jdtaka, No. 279, we read of a 
generous robber who lets off a poor man who has collected 
a debt of a thousand pieces. 

In the Daridravarnana, " desciiption of poverty," in the 
Sdrngadhara Paddhati, stanza 9, a poor man says to his wife : 
" Hand me the rag, or take the boy into your own lap." 
The wife responds : " There is nothing here on the floor, 
husband, but behind you there is a heap of straw." A thief, 
come to steal, hears them, throws a strip of cloth, which he has 
got elsewhere, over the boy, and goes off in tears. 

In Viracharita, adhyaya 26 (Indische Studien, xiv, 138), five 
robbers come from Ayodhya to Mount Satasringa. There lives 
an ascetic, Sutapas, who, during a famine, has gone from home, 
leaving his family behind. The robbers, out of pity, support 
the family, and thus save its life. After twelve years Sutapas 
returns, rejoices to find, contrary to expectation, that his 
family is alive, and rewards the robbers with magic gifts. 

In Pdrsvandtha Ckaritra, ii, 619 et seq., a young thief, 
Mahabala, son of a good family, to be sure, decides to steal in 
the house of a merchant, Datta. As he peeks into the house 
through a lattice window he hears Datta quarrelling bitterly 
with his son over some trifling disagreement of accounts. 
Out of decency he reflects that a man who will abandon sleep 
in the middle of the night and quarrel with his diligent and 
proper son over such a trifle, will die of a broken heart if he 
were to steal his property. So he goes to the house of a 
courtesan, Kamasena. He sees her lavish her professional 
ministrations upon a leprous slave as though he were a god. 
He decides that he cannot steal from anyone as greedy for 
money as all that. Then he goes to the house of a Brahman, 
and sees him sleeping with his wife on a couch. A dog urin- 
ates into the Brahman's outstretched hand, who says " Thank 
you " as he rises with a start. The thief reflects that such is 
the Brahman's greed for alms that it persists even while he is 
asleep. He, therefore, must not steal there. He then decides 
to eschew mean folk, and breaks into the king's palace. 

In Prabandhacintdmani (Tawney, p. 17), Vanaraja, des- 
tined by his horoscope for kingship, is temporarily a thief. 
Once he digs a tunnel into a merchant's house, and is stealing 
his wealth, when his hand slips into a bowl of curds. He 
says to himself, " I have eaten in this house," and so he 
leaves all the merchant's possessions there and goes out. 

Apart from the " Noble Thief " motif our tale contains 


another one which is found throughout folklore stories of all 
lands namely, the " Promise to Return " motif. How often 
have we read of people caught by ogres, giants, ghouls, etc., 
who have been released on the understanding that in a certain 
time and at a certain place they will return ! Examples 
have already occurred in the Ocean (see, e.g., Vol. Ill, p. 33), 
and abound in the Nights and all European collections. 
Here it is only necessary to note the occurrence in passing. 
The motif has been fully treated by Bloomfield * as far as 
Hindu fiction is concerned. 

Now, to return to the story of the damsel's rash promise, 
we find that it soon spread to neighbouring countries Burma, 2 
Persia, 3 Palestine, 4 Arabia, 5 and so on to Turkey 6 and across 
to Europe. Here it was given new impetus by being included 
by Boccaccio first in his Filocolo 7 and later in the Decameron. 8 
It was included in numerous French versions, and used by 
Chaucer for the Franklin's Tale. 

I have, of course, mentioned only the chief milestones 
on the road of its progress, but they are quite sufficient to 
show its wide circulation both in the Orient and Occident. 

The story has been studied chiefly by students of Chaucer 
and Boccaccio. Of Chaucer articles I would mention the 
one by Clouston, Originals and Analogues of some of Chaucer's 
Canterbury Tales, part iv, No. 16, The Chaucer Society, 
2nd series, 20, London, 1886, pp. 291-340. Here will be 
found translations of most of the above-named versions, all 
given as variants of the Franklin's Tale. See also W. H. 
Schofield, " Chaucer's Franklin's Tale," Modern Language 
Ass. Amer., vol. xvi (N.S.), vol. ix, pp. 405-449. 

1 Life and Stories of the Jaina Savior Parcvanatha, Baltimore, 1919. p. 183 
et seq. See also his " Art of Stealing . . .," op. cit., p. 218w 28 . 

2 See J. Bandow, Precedents of Princess Thoodamma Tsari, 1881, p. 18 et seq. 

3 Tutl-namah, India Office MS. See Clouston, Originals and Analogues, 
Chaucer Soc., 2nd series, 20, p. 310 et seq. ; J. Malcolm, Sketches of Persia, 1828, 
chap, xx, vol. ii, pp. 164-171 ; J. Scott, Bahar-Danush, vol. ii, p. 295. 

4 M. I. Levi, Melusine, vol. ii, 1885, cols. 542-546; Gaster, Exempla of the 
Rabbis, pp. 79, 206. 

5 Nights, from the Tunis MS. of Habicht. See Chauvin, op. cit, viii, 
pp. 123, 124. 

6 Rosen, Tnti-nameh, vol. i, pp. 243-258; cf. vol. ii, p. 168 et seq. and 
p. 174; J. Hammer, Rosenbl, vol. ii, p. 277; Gibb, Forty Veziers, p. 105. 

7 Book IV, question 4, vol. ii, p. 48 of the Moutier edition, 1829. 

8 Day 10, novel 5, u Madonna Dianora and Messer Ansaldo." 



The author supports the view that Chaucer based his 
story on an old Breton lay, as indeed he says himself in The 
Prologe of the Frankeleyns Tale : 

" Thise olde gentil Britons in hir dayes 
Of divers aventures maden layes, 
Rymeyed in hir firste Briton tonge ; 
Which layes with hir instruments they songe, 
Or elles redden hem for hir plesaunce ; 
And oon of hem have I in remembrance. ..." 

A large number of useful references will be found in A. C. 
Lee's The Decameron, its Sources and Analogues, pp. 322-328. 

The Russian variant of Radloff, Proben der Volkslitteratur 
der Turkischea Stamme Slld-Slbiriens, vol. hi, p. 389, besides 
being in Clouston, op. cit. sup., p. 320 et seq., is included by 
Coxwell, Siberian and Other Folk Tales, p. 351 et seq. 

King Dharmadhvaja and his Three Very Sensitive Wives 
(Vetdla 11 pp. 10-12) 

In the Hindi version * this story forms No. 10, and No. 11 
in the Tamil. 2 The Hindi merely mentions the three sensitive 
wives in the last few lines of the story. The rest is taken 
up with a lengthy exposition of the Jain religion. It is well 
worth giving in full : 

In the country of Gaur there was a city, Bardhaman by 
name, of which Gunsekhar was king. His minister was a 
Jain, named Abhaichand, and he had converted the king to 
the Jain religion by his arguments. He, in consequence, 
prohibited the worship of Siva and of Vishnu, and gifts of 
cows, and of land, and of pinds 3 ; put an end to gambling 
and wine-drinking ; and would not allow anyone to convey 
bones to the Ganges. And the minister who was charged to 
see to all those things proclaimed throughout the city, by 
sound of drum, that if anyone should commit those acts which 
were forbidden, his property should be confiscated, and he 
would receive punishment and be sent out of the country. 

One day the minister said to the king : " Great King, 
be pleased to hear the decisions (or judgments) of religion. 
Whoever takes the life of another, loses his own life in the 

1 Barker, op. cit., pp. 184-191. 

2 Babington, op. cit., pp. 58-59- 

3 Sanskrit, pinda. See Vol. I, p. o6n l . 


next world : the life and death of one who has been born 
into this world are not exempt from the penalty of sin ; again 
and again he is born and dies. Hence it is right for every- 
one who receives birth into this world to practise religion. 
Behold ! Brahma, Vishnu and Mahadev, overpowered by 
love, anger, avarice and fascination, have descended to 
earth in various forms ; but more excellent than all these, 
a cow, free from enmity, anger, intoxication, rage, avarice 
and inordinate affection, is supporting the people and those 
who are her sons; and solacing the creatures of the earth 
in many ways is cherishing them. Hence gods and Munis 
reverence the cow, and for this reason it is not right to regard 
the gods. In this world reverence the cow. And it is 
righteous to protect beasts and birds, from the elephant to 
the ant. In this world there is no righteousness greater 
than this. Those men who increase their own flesh by eat- 
ing the flesh of other creatures, in the final period will surely 
fall into hell. Hence it is right that a man should protect 
animals. Those who do not sympathise with the griefs of 
other creatures, but kill and eat them, their lives will be 
short in this world ; and in the next life they will be born 
maimed, lame, one-eyed, blind, dwarfed, humpbacked or 
deficient in bodily proportions. All such as eat the bodies 
of beasts and birds will hereafter destroy their own bodies. 
And from drinking wine and eating flesh great sin arises, 
and hence both are wrong." 

In this manner the minister, having explained his own 
sentiments, gained over the king to the Jain religion, and 
henceforward that monarch governed his kingdom accord- 
ing to the precepts of that religion paying no respect to 
Brahmans, Yogis, Sannyasis, or fakirs of any kind. One 
day, overcome by death, he gave up the throne to Dharm- 
dhwaj, his son, who, having ordered his father's minister 
Abhaichand to be seized, caused all his hair to be shaved 
off but seven locks, had his face blackened, and mounting 
him upon an ass, with drums beating, sent him on a circuit 
through the city, and then banished him the country. 
Henceforward he governed free from anxiety. 

The Tamil version resembles that in our present text much 
more closely. There is a slight difference in the mishap 
which befell the first of the three queens. She was walking 
with the king in a flower garden, when a bee came and settled 


upon a flower which was interwoven with the braiding of 
her hair. She immediately fainted away and fell down. Her 
female attendants raised her up, and recovered her from her 

We have already discussed the " Bed " sybarite, 1 and 
will now consider analogues to the present story of the three 
sensitive queens. 

For the earliest historical examples we must go back to 
the people who are responsible for the word " sybarite." 
The ancient city of Sybaris lay in Magna Graecia, on the Gulf 
of Tarentum, between two rivers, the Sybaris and the Crathis. 
It was the oldest Greek colony in the region, being founded 
about 720 B.C. As time went on the city became great and 
opulent, with numerous dependencies and a highly important 
trade both on land and sea. The luxury and magnificence 
of the Sybarites soon became proverbial, and in the sixth 
century no Greek city could approach it in wealth and 
splendour. But such enormous opulence was too great, and 
had been acquired in too short a time, to be sustained for 
long. The great industry the Sybarites displayed in the 
development of their trade, agriculture, irrigation, etc., soon 
gave way to the luxury and effeminacy with which they are 
chiefly connected to-day. The story of their fall does not 
concern us here, and readers are referred to the excellent 
chapter on " Sybaris " contained in Lenormant's fine work, 
La Grande-Grece. 2 In 510 b.c. Sybaris was razed to the 
ground by the Crotoniats, and the channel of the River 
Crathis was diverted so as to flow over the ruins. In the 
days of Herodotus Sybaris was only a memory, but the story 
of its luxury lived on, and the word sybarite found its way 
into nearly every European language. 

As is only natural, stories of the amazing luxury and 
effeminacy of the Sybarites found their way into the works 
of ancient classical writers, which were repeated again and 
again by subsequent authors. Hence we find Athenaeus, in 
his Deipnosophists, 3 quoting Sybarite tales from Timaeus, the 
Greek historian of about 300 B.C. Of particular interest to 

1 Vol. VI, pp. 288-294. 

2 F. Lenormant, La Grande-Grece. Pay sages et Histoire, 3 vols., Paris, 
1881-1884. See vol. i, pp. 246-330, especially pp. 282-289. 

8 Book xii, 15-20. See the English translation by C. D. Yonge, in 
Bohn's Classical Library, vol. iii, pp. 830-835. 


us is the fact that one of the tales resembles the unfortunate 
experience of the third sensitive wife in Somadeva viz. the 
witnessing, or merely hearing, work being done, causing 
physical suffering to the person in question. 

A few extracts from Athenseus will give a good idea of 
the kind of stories current over two hundred years after the 
sacking of Sybaris : 

4 'And why need we mention the Sybarites, among whom 
bathing men and pourers of water were first introduced in 
fetters, in order to prevent their going too fast, and to pre- 
vent also their scalding the bathers in their haste ? And the 
Sybarites were the first people to forbid those who practised 
noisy arts from dwelling in their city : such as braziers, and 
smiths, and carpenters, and men of similar trades ; provid- 
ing that their slumbers should always be undisturbed. And 
it used to be unlawful to rear a cock in their city. 

"And Timaeus relates concerning them that a citizen of 
Sybaris, once going into the country, seeing the husband- 
men digging, said that he himself felt as if he had broken his 
bones by the sight ; and someone who heard him replied : 
1 1, when I heard you say this, felt as if I had a pain in 
my side. . . .' But they had carried their luxury to such 
a pitch that they had taught even their horses to dance at 
their feasts to the music of the flute. Accordingly the people 
of Crotona, knowing this, and being at war with them, as 
Aristotle relates in his History of the Constitution of Sybaris, 
played before their horses the air to which they were accus- 
tomed to dance ; for the people of Crotona also had flute- 
players in military uniform. And as soon as the horses 
heard them playing on the flute, they not only began to 
dance, but ran over to the army of the Crotonians, carrying 
their riders with them. . . . And one of the Sybarites, once 
wishing to sail over to Crotona, hired a vessel to carry him 
by himself, on condition that no one was to splash him, and 
that no one else was to be taken on board, and that he might 
take his horse with him. And when the captain of the ship 
had agreed to these terms, he put his horse on board, and 
ordered some straw to be spread under the horse." 

Athenseus then quotes the twenty-fifth book of the 
History of Phylarchus, where, after dealing with the strict 
rules of etiquette in vogue at Syracuse, he proceeds to 


compare the customs of the Sybarites which violate all the 
traditional social customs of Greece : 

"The Sybarites, having given loose to their luxury, made 
a law that women might be invited to banquets, and that 
those who intended to invite them to sacred festivities must 
make preparation a year before, in order that they might 
have all that time to provide themselves with garments and 
other ornaments in a suitable manner worthy of the occasion, 
and so might come to the banquet to which they were invited. 
And if any confectioner or cook invented any peculiar and 
excellent dish, no other artist was allowed to make this for a 
year ; but he alone who invented it was entitled to all the 
profit to be derived from the manufacture of it for that time, 
in order that others might be induced to labour at excelling 
in such pursuits. And in the same way, it was provided that 
those who sold eels were not to be liable to pay tribute, nor 
those who caught them either. And in the same way the 
law exempted from all burdens those who dyed the marine 
purple and those who imported it." 

For an explanation of the obvious exaggeration of some 
of the above tales, see Lenormant, op. cit, pp. 286-288. 

The question arises as to whether the source of the Indian 
tales under discussion can be correctly attributed to these 
historiettes of Timseus, which must have greatly amused the 
Athenians for whom he wrote. 

Even if we date the Vetdlapanchavimsati as early as the 
very beginning of the Christian era, there would have been 
three hundred years for the motif to migrate ! But as 
Lenormant has said : " Ce qui est certain, c'est que les 
Sybarites usaient de leur richesse pour entretenir un luxe 
inoui', bien plus conforme aux habitudes de l'Asie qu'a celles 
de la Grece." It seems impossible that the luxury and 
opulence of so many of the ancient Indian courts should not 
have given rise to the " Sybarite " motif, without any necessity 
for importation. At the same time, if the tales did travel 
from West to East, they would surely have met with an 
appreciative reception in India. 

In a Siamese story * three out of four ladies suffer merely 
from seeing things happen, while the fourth is the same as 
the second lady in our text. The first gets swollen hands on 

1 A. Bastian, Geographische nnd ethnologische Bilder, Jena, 1 873, pp. 267, 268. 


seeing someone crushing rice ; the second feels as if her 
breast was being beaten to bits on hearing a drum being 
played ; and the wrist of the third becomes tired on seeing 
someone fetching water ; while the fourth is covered with 
bruises where the rays of the moon fall on her. 

Similar stories are found in several European collections, 1 
with but trifling differences. In a seventeenth-century col- 
lection by A. le Metel d'Ouville 2 we find some fresh and 
rather curious details, including another " bed " sybarite. 
Here four women, who were neighbours, all claimed to be the 
most delicately sensitive. Finally they decided to go before 
a judge and each to state her case. 

The first one said that one fresh summer's morning, 
clad in only her chemise and a pair of bedroom slippers, 
having stretched out her foot to catch the dew, a rose leaf 
fell on it, thereby causing her to limp for more than three 

The second said that one day her maid in making her bed 
had carelessly left a small crease in the middle of the sheet, 
which was of the finest Dutch linen. Having lain down on 
this crease somewhat roughly, she broke three ribs, and was 
in the doctor's hands for three months. 

The third said that she had always been careful in in- 
structing her maid to comb her hair in such a way that 
exactly the same number of hairs should be on each side 
of the parting, well knowing how serious it might be if she 
made a mistake. One day she inadvertently put three or 
four more hairs on one side than on the other, thus causing 
her head to remain sideways for over six weeks. 

The fourth addressed the other three : " Now then, ladies, 
there is not one of you who at least once a day hasn't got to 
perform the acts of nature, for it is a thing so necessary to 
life that without it you could not exist. However, speaking 
of that, there happened to me the day before yesterday some- 
thing that hasn't happened to any of you others. While 
faisant mes affaires, although I do it as gently as possible, to 
show you the extent of my delicacy, I burst a vein du derriere, 
and no doctor can heal it without damaging all the others. 

1 Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. iii, p. 238. 

2 L' Elite des Contes du Sieur d'Ouville, edited with notes by G. Brunet, 
Paris, 1883, vol. ii, pp. 149-151. See also Contes a rire, ou Recreations Frangaises, 
new edition, Paris, 1769, vol. ii, pp. 169-171 ; or vol. ii, pp. 109-111 of the 
Amsterdam edition of 1732. 

VOL. vii. O 


Consequently I prefer to remain with this blemish rather 
than make worse the thing that I want to heal." 

The judge is quite at a loss as to what decision he ought 
to give, and the reader is asked to decide for himself. 

It cannot be denied that some of the misfortunes which 
befell the fair sybarites mentioned above tax our credibility 
rather heavily. In fact, in many cases we are led to suspect 
fraud and hypocrisy ; and as the sequel shows, our charges 
would not have been without justification, for in the 
Sukasaptati we find * that the supposed sensitiveness of 
Kamalila, the beloved wife of King Vikramaditya, is used 
as a cloak to her unchastity. Balapandita, the clever 
daughter of the king's private chaplain, realises why the 
fish laughed, but hesitates to say. After several digressions, 
which form subsequent tales, a learned Brahman, by name 
Pushpahasa, who had never been known to laugh himself, 
is asked to solve the mystery. 2 On hearing the details he 
bursts out laughing and strikes the queen in the face with 
some flowers. She at once falls unconscious, and is tended 
by the enraged king. On calling for an explanation of his 
extraordinary conduct, Pushpahasa answers : "I laugh 
because during the night the queen was struck by her lover 
with canes and did not feel any ill effects, yet now, when 
struck with a few flowers, she has fallen (or pretends to have 
fallen) unconscious." The king is not at first convinced of 
the truth of the story, but at Pushpahasa's advice he takes 
off her bodice 3 and sees the marks of the canes. 

On this story was based another one, included in Cristo- 
foro Armeno's Persian (?) collection. 4 Here we read that King 
Behram possesses a wonderful silver statue which laughs 
if anyone tells a lie in its presence. The king is anxious to 
marry a girl as modest as she is beautiful, but will not brook 
of any sort of deception. Accordingly he determines to test 
each one in the presence of the statue. 

Four beautiful maidens are brought forward. The king 
chats to the first of these ladies, and throws some rose leaves 

1 R. Schmidt, Die (Julcasaptati (Textus Simplicior), Kiel, 1894, tale 5, p. 11. 
I have already (Vol. I, p. 4>6n 2 ) referred to it in connection with " the fish that 

2 R. Schmidt, ibid., tale 9, p. 22. 

3 This is doubtless the angiga, or kurtd of Kashmir. See Vol. II, p. 50w 5 . 

4 H. Fischer and J. Bolte, Die Reise der S'dhne Giaffers, p. 119 et seq. 


on her breast. A tiny twig chances to hit her in the face, 
whereupon she behaves as if about to die. With trouble 
Behram revives her and takes her to the window in front 
of the statue. Immediately the statue bursts out laughing. 
The lady is in no way perturbed, but covers her face with her 
hands, as if in the presence of a man other than the king. 
At this the statue laughs again. 

The second lady comes forward. Behram, who has now 
donned a garment embroidered with fur, proceeds to embrace 
her, but she at once draws back in pain, for the hairs of the 
fur have hurt her so much. The statue laughs. The king 
leads her to a mirror, but she immediately covers her face, as 
she does not consider it becoming that anyone but he should 
see her face. At this absurdity the statue laughs again. 

The third lady also gives two proofs of her amazing 
delicacy. Behram leads her into the garden, and on passing 
a sheet of water she covers her face. On the king demanding 
an explanation, she says that as the water contains many 
fishes, some of them are sure to be of the male sex, and he 
alone should look on her face. He looks back at the statue 
and sees it laughing. A great wind suddenly arises, and a 
little boat on the water is sunk with all hands. At this 
sight the girl sinks unconscious to the ground. Once again 
the statue laughs. 

The fourth lady is genuinely modest, but in no exagger- 
ated way. The statue does not laugh, and the king selects 
her as his bride. It transpires that the other three girls, so 
far from being delicate or modest, have paramours whose 
sadistical cravings they willingly satisfy. 

King Yasahketu, his Vidyddhari Wife, and his Faithful 


(Vetala 12 pp. 13-25) 

In the Hindi version * the story is No. 11. It is much 
more condensed than in Somadeva. The minister has all 
his adventures entirely alone, and sees the magic tree from 
the seashore. The rest follows practically as in our text. 

The Tamil version 2 (No. 12) begins as in Somadeva. The 
minister makes friends with the merchant, and goes on board 
with him. Suddenly a storm arises, and the boat is tossed 
about at the mercy of the waves. Finally they arrive at a 

1 Barker, op. cit., pp. 192-204. 2 Babington, op. cit., pp. 59*64. 


little island, and disembark. They find a temple, and under 
a tree, opposite the temple, a raised throne, upon which they 
perceive a beautiful woman reclining. They think she is a 
goddess and return immediately. On returning, the king 
sets out for the island, but in company with the minister. 
The " giant " swallows the damsel, but the king kills him, 
tears open his entrails, and rescues the girl alive, whereupon 
she tells her story as in our text, and all ends happily. The 
question and answer at the end are the same in all versions. 

There is little to be said about the story that has not 
already been noted elsewhere. The subaqueous palace has been 
discussed in Vol. VI (pp. 279-281), while the " Wishing-tree " 
and "Taboo " motifs have been referred to in Vol. I (p. 144n x ) 
and Vol. II (pp. 252-253) respectively. The woman's tale about 
the Rakshasa and her father's curse somewhat resembles " The 
Story of the Twelfth Statuette " in Vikrama's Adventures. (See 
Edgerton's translation, pp. lxxxiv and 117-125.) The versions 
differ slightly, but the main incidents are the same the woman 
had been the wife of a Brahman, but he did not love her 
(in some versions she was unfaithful), and cursed her at his 
death, saying that every night she should be tormented by 
a Rakshasa. On asking for mercy he granted release from 
the curse when some hero should kill the Rakshasa. 

The Brahmin Harisvdmin, who first lost his Wife, 
and then his Life 

(Vetdla 13 pp. 29-34) 

This story is No. 12 in the Hindi version, 1 which has 
several slight differences. For instance the ravisher is a 
" Gandharb " and carries off Lavanyavati in a chariot. 
When the distracted husband reaches the house of the 
Brahman there is no mention of the wife till the end of 
the tale ; the man himself fills Harisvamin's cup with " rice- 
milk." The food is poisoned by a black serpent instead of 
a dead cobra in the clutches of a kite. The ending is the 
same as in our text. 

In the Tamil version 2 the tale, which is No. 16, is much 
more condensed. The hero is called Arjuna Svami, and his 
wife is named Vanapadi. The incidents, however, closely 
resemble those in Somadeva. The details about the food 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 204 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit., p. 68 et seq. 


differ slightly : " She accordingly brought and gave him 
some rice and savoury food, which he received in a leaf and 
wrapped up in a bundle. So one evening, after bathing and 
finishing his devotions, he sprinkled water on the rice which 
he had kept in his bundle, and was in the act of eating it 
when, even as a sickness visiting the flower of youth, and as 
death coming in the hour of full enjoyment, and as a danger 
coming upon one who is alone, a kite, which, urged by hunger, 
had seized upon a cobra de capella ..." Babington adds 
an interesting note in which he attributes the king's evasive 
answer to his deference to Garuda, the king of the birds, and 
also to the Nagas, so widely worshipped in Northern India. 
See also Oesterley, Baitdl Pachisi, p. 202. 

The chief motif of the story, food being poisoned by 
animals, is found in several collections of stories. The 
majority of these have been noted by Benfey, Pantschatantra, 
vol. i, p. 362, and Chauvin, op. cit., viii, p. 60. 

A few examples will show the different uses made of the 
motif. I notice a curious one in Bloomfield's Life and Stories 
of the Jaina Savior Pdrgvandtha, pp. 34-35. I give it in full : 

" In a great forest in the Vindhya mountains, on a banyan- 
tree, lived a pair of parrots. Theirs was a beloved young 
parrot. One day it flew off, but being very young, it fell 
upon the ground. A hermit picked it up, took it to his 
hermitage, fed it, educated it, and treated it like a son. One 
day the young parrot overheard the abbot of the hermitage 
tell his pupils that in the middle of the sea there was an island, 
Harimela, in the north-east corner of which stood a large 
mango-tree, bedewed with ambrosia ; and that the fruit of 
this tree restored youth by curing deformities, diseases and 
old age. The young parrot, remembering his decrepit parents, 
considered that he might now pay the debt of their love. He 
flew to the magic tree and fetched one of the mangoes, but, 
on returning, grew tired and fell into the ocean, keeping the 
fruit in his bill. A merchant by the name of Sagara picked 
him up ; the parrot, out of gratitude, presented him with 
the fruit, after which he flew away to get another. The 
merchant decided to make the virtue of the fruit universally 
accessible. When he arrived at Jayapura he presented it to 
the king then ruling, who had it planted, in order to repro- 
duce the fruit for the benefit of his people. But a serpent, 
carried in the beak of a bird, happened to drop poison upon 


one of the mangoes, so that it ripened and fell to the ground. 
The keeper of the garden joyously took it to the king, who 
gave it to his chaplain, and he ate of it and died. The 
king in rage had the tree cut down. But a host of men, 
afflicted with incurable diseases, ate of its fruit for euthanasia 
(sukhamrityave), and became thereby like unto the God of 
Love. The king, discerning the true state of things, regretted 
his rash act, and lost pleasure in his kingdom." 

In the Satrumjaya Mdhdtmyam, xiv, 207, * death does not 
follow, and the man in question himself relates the circum- 
stances to Javada, upon thinking of whom he was saved from 
the fatal effects of the poison. 

The motif found its way into the Book of Sindibdd and the 
Seven Vazlrs. In the former of these works 2 it forms the 
first of the prince's tales told after the story of the seventh 
vazir. It tells of a most generous host who . welcomed 
everyone who came to his house : 

"He received them after the fashion of the generous, for 
this was ever his custom. A slave-girl went to fetch milk, 
that he might feast his guests with sugar and milk two 
very good things. She covered not the top of the milk-dish. 
Hearken to these words, and take warning : A stork was 
passing in the air, having snatched up an old "snake from the 
desert. How can one fly from the decrees of fate ? Saliva 
dropped from the mouth of that viper, and that milk was 
mixed with poison ; and whoever took any of that milk fell 
down, and there died forthwith." 

The prince asks who is to blame. Various answers are 
given, but he replies : " All these opinions are mistaken. No 
one was to blame ; it was the decree of God." 

An abbreviated form of the same story occurs in the 
conclusion of the Seven Vazlrs, 3 

In the Bahdr-i-Ddnish of 'Inayatu-'llah 4 the motif is 
used in quite a different manner. Here an adulterous wife 
has been discovered by her husband, but when asleep she 

1 A. Weber, " Ueber das f atrunjaya Mahatmyam. Ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte der Jaina," Abh. f. d. Kunde d. Morg., Leipzig, 1858, pp. 43-44. 

2 Clouston, Book of Sindibdd, p. 89. 

3 Ibid., p. 213. See also pp. 26*3-266, where our version and one or two 
others are given. 

4 J. Scott, Bahar-Damish, vol. i, p. 78 et seq. 


suspends him head downwards from a tree and proceeds to 
carry on an orgy with her lover in full view of the unfortun- 
ate husband. The couple finally become dead drunk and 
fall senseless on the ground. At this point a snake glides 
dow T n the tree, passes by the frightened husband, and spits 
venom into the cup of the lovers. Presently they awake 
from their drunken stupor; the man drinks of the cup 
and dies, while the wife is finally persuaded to release her 
husband, who becomes an ascetic. 

To conclude, I would mention the variant in the Tamil 
Alakesa Kathd. Here a Brahman pilgrim offers food to an 
old Brahman. Unknown to both a serpent carried in a kite's 
mouth poisons it. The old man eats the food and dies. The 
youth is accused of murdering him and is put in prison and 
flogged. He prays to Kali in his misery, and she destroys 
the whole village where the young Brahman has been im- 
prisoned. Kali then " infuses herself into the person of one 
of the villagers " and tells them the whole truth, whereupon 
the youth is released and all is well. 

The motif, being really only applicable to snake-infested 
countries, is not one which found ready acceptance in 
Western collections. 

The Merchant's Daughter who fell in love with a Thief 
(Vetdla 14 pp. 35-39) 

There are several differences in each of the two chief 
vernacular versions. 

In the Hindi 1 (No. 13) version no mention is made of the 
girl's dislike for men. In searching for the thief it is the king 
who asks the other man who he is. On finding they are both 
of the same profession they proceed to rob several houses. 
They take their loot to a well outside the city, which proves 
to be really an entrance to Patala, where the real thief dwells. 
The king is warned by a female servant and, being shown 
the way back, effects his escape. Another day the complete 
army go down the well and surround the thief's house. He 
manages, however, to escape to a demon who is lord of the 
city and implores his aid. Accordingly, remembering past 
benefits, the demon destroys most of the army. The king 
is in flight, when the thief calls out : " Hola ! thou a Rajput, 
and fleeing from combat ? " At this the king stops, fights 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 211 et seq. 


the thief, and finally overcomes him. He then has the thief 
bathed, finely clad, and paraded through the streets on a 
camel, and so to be led to the stake of impalement. The 
girl's father offers the king five lakhs for the thief's release, 
but in vain. When she is about to become a Sati, the goddess 
Devi appears and grants a boon. The girl immediately 
craves that life be restored to the thief. There is no men- 
tion of the request about her father having a hundred sons. 
The answer to the Vetala's question will be discussed later. 

In the Tamil version * the story is No. 17 of the collection. 
It begins as in Somadeva : the king, however, does not 
trouble to have the city watched, but goes to see to matters 
for himself at once, apparently without any kind of disguise. 
He meets the thief who was the chief of all the robbers, 
with his body blackened, 2 his head bare, girded with a black 
cincture, and wearing a weapon to cleave asunder those who 
opposed him." When asked by the king who he is, the thief 
replies : " I am the son of Bhadra Kali, the tutelary goddess 
of this neighbourhood, and I am going my rounds about the 
town." " Very well," replied the king, " come and be chief 
guard of my palace." 

The thief can do nothing but comply. He makes, how- 
ever, an attempt to secure assistance, by calling to some of 
his accomplices in thieves' language. He is overheard, the 
other thieves are slain, and he himself is led off, smeared 
in sandalwood, with a garland round his neck, to the place of 
impalement. Then follows the incident of the daughter's 
request to her father as in our version. He presents himself 
before the king and offers a cat's-eye (chrysoberyl) as a 
present, and promises to give " great riches " if his Majesty 
will release the thief. The king refuses indignantly, saying : 
" You must be yourself a thief, who come thus to speak 
in behalf of a robber. Get out of my presence ! " When 
she was about to become a Sati, Siva and his consort, " who 
had viewed all these transactions from the sky, called out to 
the damsel from the bull-vehicle on which they were seated, 

1 Babington, op. cit., p. 71 et seq. 

2 In a note Babington points out that the blackened bodies of thieves 
were also anointed [with grease ?], so that the police would have difficulty in 
catching hold of them. In order to obviate this the " tiger's-claw," a sort of 
knuckle-duster with curved claws, is employed. This baghnakh or wagnuck 
was the weapon with which Sivaji murdered Afzal Khan. See Duffs History 
of the Mahrattasy vol. i, p. 172. 


and said : ' Ask whatever gift you desire ' ; to which she 
replied : ' I wish you to raise up this robber and present 
him to me.' They were delighted with her constancy, and 
having resuscitated the robber, delivered him over to her, 
and went to Cailasam." Once again there is no mention of 
the girl's first request about her father. 

Although the above versions differ in several minor in- 
cidents from that of our text, no new motifs are introduced. 
Somadeva alone makes the distracted girl think first of her 
father, although about to die. The tale contains several 
interesting motifs. Almost at the commencement we read 
of the heroine's hatred of men. This motif occupies a very 
minor place in the story, and, as we have seen above, dis- 
appears entirely in the Hindi version. No explanation is 
given as to why she hated men or to account for her sudden 
passion for the thief. In the Nights, however, the motif 
assumes a more important form, and the hatred of men by 
the princess is accounted for by a dream in which she sees 
the cruelty and desertion of the male sex. It is only after a 
clever trick of the lover that the princess is persuaded that 
she was mistaken. The two stories in which this occurs are 
" Tale of Taj al-Muluk and the Princess Dunya " (Burton, 
vol. iii, p. 31 et seq.) and " Ardashir and Hayat al-Nufus " 
(idem., vol. vii, p. 227 et seq.). 

We pass on to the more important motifs. An appro- 
priate name for the thieving motif occurring in our story, 
and also later in Chapter CXII, is hard to express in a single 
short sentence. I have chosen " tracking the thief," but 
it really covers only one aspect of the motif namely, the 
tracking of the thief by the king in disguise somewhat 
similar to the nocturnal adventures indulged in by Harun 
al-Rashid in the Nights. (See the Ocean, Vol. VI, p. 37nK) 
Although the famous Caliph might well be regarded as the 
stock type for such habits, his name cannot be given to 
the motif, as so many of his rambles were made in order 
to discover what the people really thought about him, or 
merely in the hope of finding some amusing adventure. 

With the scope of the motif thus qualified, I proceed. 

As mentioned in Vol. II, p. 183W 1 , the arch-thief of Hindu 
fiction is Miiladeva, who figures personally in the next Vetala 
story. Although the great majority of stories about him 
deal with his clever tricks and wonderful escapes, there is 
a tale in Jacobi's Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Mdhdrdshtri 


which tells how Muladeva became King of Bennayada under 
the name of Vikramaraja. He was elected to the throne by 
the rite of pancadivyddhivdsa. The passage (from Meyer's 
translation, Hindu Tales, p. 212) has already been given 
in my note on the rite (Vol. V, p. 176). In his new role of 
king Muladeva soon proves himself an exemplary protector 
of his land, and, following the dictum laid down in the 
Arthasdstra, 1 becomes the terror of thieves and rogues. It 
is at this point of his career that he acts like King Viraketu 
of our text. 

The story well merits reproduction 2 : 

In the city of Bennayada lived a beggar, named Mandiya, 
addicted to stealing other people's property. He spread the 
report that he was suffering from loathsome sores, and kept 
his knees covered with ointment ; and swathed in bandages, 
he hobbled along with apparent difficulty, supporting his feet 
with a staff. 

By day he begged, by night he dug breaches into houses 
[see Vol. V, p. 142n 2 ], stole much property, and deposited it 
in a cave [Meyer reads " an underground dwelling "] in the 
environs of the town. There also lived his sister, a maiden. 
In the middle of the cave was a well. And every accomplice 
whom the thief enticed by means of money and brought 
there as a carrier of the loot, his sister bade sit down on a 
seat previously placed near the well, and taking hold of their 
feet, under the pretext of washing them, she pushed them 
into the well, where they perished. 

Thus Mandiya continued in his robberies, the guards 
being unable to catch him. The citizens' complaints reached 
Miiladeva's ears, so he appointed a new chief of the guard ; 
but he also could not catch the thief. Then Muladeva him- 
self, clad in a dark robe, went out that night and sat down 
near a certain gambling-hall [Meyer : " shed "]. Mandiya 
came along and asked : " Who sits here ? " Muladeva 
answered : " I am a beggar." Mandiya said : " Come, I'll 
make a man of you ! " Muladeva got up. A breach was dug 
into the house of a rich man, and the thief took out great 

1 "The king should protect his subjects against the rascalities of thieves, 
robbers, cheats and other rogues" (Kautilya's Arthasastra, iv, 6). 

2 I follow Bloomfield's translation (see later) of Jacobi's work already- 
cited, supplemented by Meyer's rendering in Hindu Tales, p. 223 et seq. 


treasures, which he loaded upon Muladeva. They proceeded 
outside the city, Muladeva in front, the thief with drawn 
sword behind. 

When they had arrived at the cave, Mandiya began to 
bury the treasure. He said to his sister: "Wash the feet 
of this guest." She bade him sit down on the seat at the 
brink of the well, and took hold of his foot, under pretence 
of washing it. Observing its delicacy, she guessed that he 
was a person of quality [Meyer : " limbs were weakly "], and 
pity sprung up in her heart. She made a signal on the flat 
of his foot, "Flee, lest you die ! " So he did, and she cried 
after him: "He has fled! He has fled! " Mandiya drew 
his sword, and pursued the king on the highway. When 
Muladeva perceived that Mandiya was close upon him, he 
hid behind a linga of Siva on the square. The thief mis- 
took it for the figure of a man, cleft it, and returned to his 
underground dwelling [Meyer: "having stayed there over- 
night]. In the morning he begged in the market-place. 
Thence the king had him brought to his presence, treated 
him courteously, and asked his sister for wife. Mandiya 
gave her to the king with a dowry. After a time the king 
told Mandiya that he needed money. Mandiya procured it, 
and was honoured by the king. The king kept asking for more, 
until he learned from the sister (his wife) that Mandiya had 
no more. Thereupon the king returned the goods to their 
rightful owners, and ordered Mandiya to be impaled upon a 

The similarity of the above with our tale is considerable, 
and it does not lose by the omission of the girl's sudden love 
for the thief. Cf Natesa Sastri's Folklore in Southern India, 
p. 53 et seq. 

The motif also occurs in two other tales in Jacobi's work 
mentioned above. They concern the means by which Agala- 
datta (Agadadatta) tracks down a thief who is constantly 
pillaging the city. Some idea of the usual lurking-places of 
thieves is given when Agaladatta starts on his search : 

"In the houses of prostitutes, in taprooms, in gambling 
places, and in the stalls of the bakers ; in sheds of the parks, 
where one can get water to drink, in the huts of ascetics, in 
empty temples, in the squares, in bazaars and markets, he 
fearlessly stalked his prey." 


The thief turns out to be a mendicant who behaves as 
does Mandiya in the story quoted above. The mendicant 
is killed, and his daughter is taken off by Agaladatta, who 
receives the king's daughter as a reward. Without giving 
further examples of the use of the " catching the thief " 
motif I would refer readers to Bloomfield's excellent article 
" The Art of Stealing in Hindu Fiction," Amer. Journ. Phil, 
vol. liv, 1923, pp. 194-202. He deals with the " Romance " 
part of the story on pp. 221-225, to which we now proceed. 

In the Kathdkoga (Tawney, p. 215) the Princess Dava- 
danti takes pity on a condemned thief and by means of an 
" act of truth breaks his bonds and scatters the guards. 
Cf. also p. 126 of the same work. " Pity's akin to love," 
as we soon discover in following the development of our 

In the Kanavera Jdtaka (No. 318, Cambridge edition, 
vol. iii, p. 42) Sama, the chief courtesan of the King of 
Benares, falls in love 1 with a thief who is being led off to 
execution. She accordingly bribes the governor to say that 
the thief is her brother and must therefore be allowed to 
escape. He consents, but only if a substitute be found. 

Now the price of Sanaa's favours was a thousand pieces, 
and that night a rich young merchant calls at her house with 
the required sum. Sama places the money in her lap and 
bursts into tears. On the merchant's inquiring the cause, 
she replies : " My lord, this robber is my brother, though he 
never comes to me, because people say I follow a vile trade. 
When I sent a message to the governor, he intimated that 
for a thousand he would let the prisoner go. And now I 
cannot find anyone to go." The youth volunteers to take 
the money. He is mistaken for the substitute and executed. 
Sama then lives with the thief in luxury. The sequel is 
most dramatic. As time goes on the thief thinks that a 
woman who was capable of such an amazing act might easily 
turn on him if she found another love she preferred. He 
therefore leads her into a thicket and chokes her, leaving her 
for dead. On regaining consciousness Sama harbours no 
thought of revenge, but still wants her lover. She sends out 
strolling actors with a message in verse. At last they find 
the thief, but he is taking no risks, and sends back a verse of 
refusal. The actors return and make a full report. Where- 

1 For the " Devoted Hetaera " motif see Bloomfield, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 
vol. Hi, p. 630 et seq. 


upon Sama plunges once more into a life of debauchery and 

The story occurs again in the Jdtakas, 1 but the ending is 
different. The thief tells the girl of his evil intentions, and 
she begs as a mark of final devotion to be allowed to circum- 
ambulate him. This request he grants, and when Sulasa is 
behind him flings him down a mountain precipice with 
superhuman strength. 

For further parallels see Burlingame, Buddhist Legends 
(Harvard Oriental Series, vol. xxix), vol. ii, p. 227. 

There still remains the " Laugh and Cry " motif to be con- 
sidered, but as this occurs again in Vetala 23, and the " Laugh " 
motif alone in Vetala 20, I shall leave the discussion of both 
its varieties till we deal with these tales in question (see pp. 
253, 260). Suffice it to point out here that the answer given 
to the Vetala 's question as to why the thief first wept and 
then laughed differ in Hindi and Tamil versions. In both 
of these he laughs first, which I consider less dramatic than 
as in our text. In the Hindi, however, the reply changes 
the order, for the text says, " He first burst out laughing, 
and then began to weep bitterly," while the explanation 
given is : " He reflected that he could not requite her kind- 
ness in being willing to give up her whole property to save 
his life, and this reflection deeply grieved him. Then it 
struck him as very odd that she should fall in love with a 
man just about to suffer death : that the proceedings of the 
Deity were inscrutable ; that he bestows prosperity on the 
inauspicious ; knowledge on one destitute of high lineage ; 
a beautiful wife on a fool ; and showers upon hills : thus 
reflecting, he laughed." 

In the Tamil version the order remains throughout. 
" First he laughed," replied the king, " to think that such an 
extraordinary event should have taken place, although the girl 
had not been previously acquainted with him ; then he wept, 
being moved to compassion, when he saw the affliction of her 
father and mother." 

1 Sulasa Jataka, No. 419, Cambridge edition, vol. iii, p. 260 et seq. 


The Magic Pill 
(Vetdla 15 pp. 40-48) 

The story of the magic pill is practically the same in the 
Hindi version (No. 14). 1 The incident of the infuriated 
elephant is omitted. The daughter's name, not the queen's, 
is Chandraprabha. Muladeva and Sasin are described as 
" two learned and deeply read Brahmans " who come quite 
by chance on the love-sick youth as he lies swooning from 
excess of love in their path. When Muladeva returns to the 
court to claim his " daughter," and is told she is gone, he 
demands the princess in marriage for his son. As the king 
will otherwise be cursed, he grants the request immediately. 
The Vetala's question is rather more elaborate, for, on the 
king deciding that Sasin was the lawful husband, he replies : 
" Being pregnant by the Brahman Manasvl " (so he is called), 
"how could she be the wife of Sasi ? " The king replies : 
" No one was aware that she was with child by Manas vi, 
and Sasi married her before five or ten people ; on this 
account, then, she remains his wife, and that child also will 
possess the right of performing the funeral obsequies." 

The Tamil version (No. 18) 2 is reduced to a mere skeleton, 
lacking all interest and importance, and is quite unworthy of 
any discussion. 

The story occurs in a more complicated form in the 
Turkish Tuti-ndmah, 3 where a sorceress gives the love-sick 
youth a magic seal. By putting it in his mouth he is turned 
into a girl. In this form he marries the king's son. Thus 
he has easy access to the princess, and finally escapes with 
her. The princess keeps the seal in her mouth during the day 
and is thus turned into a man, but at night they both revert 
to their original shapes. The sorceress demands back her 
"daughter" from the king, who pays a thousand gold pieces 
by way of compensation. 

In the Persian Tuti-ndmah * the tale is much more simple. 
A pill is used as in our text, but there is no mention of any 
claim for the " daughter." 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 225 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit. 3 p. 76 et seq. 

3 Rosen, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 178. In Wickerhauser's version, p. 240, 
compensation is obtained in the shape of a magic purse that always contains 
a thousand dinars. 

4 Iken, Touti Nameh, Stuttgart, 1 822, p. 97. 


We turn to the one motif the story contains : the change 
of sex. I cannot find this exact method used in other tales 
to change sex, but it is employed for rather similar purposes. 
For instance, in one tale our friend Muladeva turns himself 
into a dwarf by means of a magic pill. 1 

In the Kathdkoga (Tawney, p. 110) a girl puts a magic 
plant in her ear and immediately becomes a man. But in 
Indian literature perhaps the best-known case of change of 
sex, or in this case exchange of sex, occurs in the Mahdbhdrata, 
Udyoga Parva, sects, cxc-cxciv 2 : 

King Drupada longs for a son in order to revenge himself 
on Bhlshma. Siva at last says he shall have a child which 
shall be female and male. In due course a daughter is born, 
but trusting in Siva's promise, Drupada and his wife announce 
the birth of a son, whom they call Sikhandin, and bring up 
the girl as if she were a boy. She attains the age of puberty 
and the question of marriage arises. The daughter of a power- 
ful king is selected, and the ceremony is performed. When the 
bride discovers that she has been tricked, and her husband 
is really a girl, her father is furious, and marches against 
Drupada to drive him from the throne and kill Sikhandin. 

Meanwhile the unhappy Sikhandin decides on suicide, 
and goes into the forest to put her plan into action. There 
she meets a Yaksha who takes pity on her and agrees to 
exchange sex with her until the danger has passed. All is 
arranged satisfactorily and the two kings are reconciled. 
But Kuvera discovers what the Yaksha has done and curses 
him so that he must always remain a woman. On the 
request of other Yakshas, however, the curse is allowed to 
end on the death of Sikhandin. The prince returns to the 
Yaksha in accordance with his bargain, but is told of 
Kuvera' s curse and returns in happiness to his wife. 

1 Meyer, Hindu Tales, p. 193. See also his translation of Dasa- 
kwndra-charita, p. 83. 

2 It occurs in vol. hi, pp. 529-538 of the new edition of Roy's trans- 
lation. It should be remembered that in the story quoted from the Maha- 
bharata, Sikhandin was a subsequent birth of Amba, the eldest daughter of 
the King of Kasi, who, after being carried off by Bhlshma, tried in vain to 
be accepted as wife by King Saubha. Through asceticism she obtained the 
promise that she would kill Bhlshma, and became a man in her next birth 
in order to do so. For full references see Sorensen, Index to Names in the 
Mahdbhdrata, under "Amba" and "(Jikhandin." 


Several versions of this tale exist in different parts of India. 
One was written in Persian by 'Izzat Ullah in 1712 under 
the title of Gul-i Bakdwali, 1 while another, based on a 
Tamil version, appeared in Dubois' Pantcha-T antra, p. 15. 
Cf. No. 14 of Dozon's Contes Albanais, and No. 58 of Hahn's 
Griechische und albanesische Mar chert. 

So far the transformations have been made either by a 
magic pill, seal or plant, or merely by mutual agreement 
with a superhuman being. We have already seen (Vol. VI, 
p. 59 el seq.) that the most usual, and certainly less com- 
promising, method of enjoying illicit intercourse by magical 
means was by temporarily changing the man into some animal 
whose presence would incite no comment. As the motif 
travelled westwards it seems that water became the more 
usual medium. Sometimes it was an enchanted spring, or else 
a lake or well, by bathing in which the change was effected. 

A story of a sex-changing well is found in all versions of 
the Book of Sindibdd, 2 and so in the Nights (Burton, vol. vi, 
p. 145 el seq.). 

A certain prince is to marry the daughter of a neighbour- 
ing king. Her cousin is jealous and bribes the prince's vazir 
to do what he can to prevent the marriage. The vazir 
accompanies the prince to his fiancee's kingdom, and on the 
way leads him to " a certain spring of running water in the 
mountains there, called Al-Zahra, whereof whosoever drank 
from a man became a woman." The prince stays on the 
spot bemoaning his sad fate, while his rival rejoices at the 
news. By chance a cavalier rides up, who proves to be a 
king's son of the Jann. He takes pity on the prince and 
conveys him to the Black Country, where, after obtaining 
leave from the king, one Zu'l Janahayn, he drinks of a stream 
and is turned back again to his original shape. Variants of 
the tale occur in the Hebrew and Spanish texts. See further 
Clouston, op. cit., p. 300. 

In another tale of the Nights 3 we read of a magic cauldron 

1 Garcin de Tassy, Allegories Recits Poetiques, 2nd edit., 1876, pp. 349, 
350 and 372-374 ; also Clouston, Eastern Romances, pp. 279 and 532 et seq. 

2 See Chauvin, op. cit., viii, p. 43 ; Clouston, Book of Sindibad, pp. 80, 
156 and 299. 

3 "The Tale of Warlock and the Young Cook of Baghdad," Burton, 
Supp., Nights, vol. vi, p. 137. See also the note on pp. 121 and 354. Lane was 
told a version of the story in Cairo. See his Manners and Customs of the 
Modern Egyptians, 5th edit., I860, pp. 468-469. 


full of water, into which a vizier plunges at the bidding of a 
sorcerer. Immediately * he finds himself in the sea, and on 
coming to dry land discovers he has turned into a woman. 
He marries and becomes a mother of seven. " She " tires of 
the life, and flinging "herself" into the sea comes up again 
in the cauldron in his original sex, to find that he has really 
been absent only a few seconds. (See further, p. 245.) 

A curious Arabic story introducing our motif occurs in the 
collection of proverbs of al-Mufaddal ibn Salama, called the 
Fakhir. When dealing with "The Magic Seed " in Vol. VI, 
p. 62, I quoted the third sub-story of it. The following 
forms the first sub-story, and is told by the stranger in the 
hopes of saving Khurafa's life 2 : 

I was in prosperous circumstances, then they ceased and 
I was ridden with debt. So I went out, fleeing, and a terrible 
thirst befell me ; so I journeyed to a well and alighted that 
I might drink. Then someone called out to me from the 
well, " Stand ! " so I went away from it and did not drink. 
But the thirst overcame me and I returned ; then he called 
out to me. Again I returned a third time and drank, and 
paid no attention to him. Then he said : " O Allah ! if it 
is a man transform him into a woman, and if it is a woman 
transform her into a man." And lo ! I was a woman. I 
went to a certain city and a man married me and I bore him 
two children. Thereafter I returned to my own country, 
and I passed by the well of which I had drunk and I alighted. 
He called out to me as he had called at first, but I drank 
and paid no attention to him. So he prayed as at first, and 
I became a man as I had been. Then I came to my own 
country and married a wife and begat on her two children. 
So I have two sons of my loins and two of my womb. 

Stories of sex-changing water cannot, however, be re- 
garded as of common occurrence in folk-tales, the most usual 
use of magical water, streams, wells, etc., being as an eau de 
jouvence, or " water of life." 

There is a curious gipsy tale in which a second curse 

1 This instantaneous transportation has occurred more than once in the 
Ocean; see Vol. II, pp. 223, 823ft 1 , and Vol. VI, pp. 213 and 279. 

2 D. B. Macdonald, "The Earlier History of the Arabian Nights," Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc, July 1924, p. 373. 



neutralises the effect of the first. It is included in one of 
von Wlislocki's works 1 : 

A youth pleases a beautiful river-nymph, daughter of the 
moon-king, by his piping, to which she has been dancing. In 
return she gives him a silver sickle, promising him yet fairer 
gifts if he will come again. Alas ! he is late for the tryst, 
and finds her dead on the ground, heart-broken at his breach 
of faith ; for these ladies' hearts are very fragile. Her sister 
appears from the river and curses him, if a man, to become 
a woman, if a woman, to become a man. She then carries 
the dead nymph back into the river, and, as it seems, there 
restores her to life, for immediately afterwards a magnifi- 
cent black steed stands before the desolate youth (now 
become a girl) and declares that she is sent by the deceased 
maiden to bear him where his fortune blossoms. Mounted 
on the steed, he is borne through the air like lightning to the 
aid of a king's daughter, given to a dragon who dwells in a 
fountain and requires a maid once a year for dinner. He 
slays the dragon with the sickle, and the king in his joy 
gives him his daughter to wife. He accepted the lady amid 
the general excitement, without thinking that he was no 
longer a man, but a woman. This was awkward. The bride 
complained to her father, who was afraid to attempt his life 
by direct means. Wherefore he sent him instead to rob the 
cloud-king of three golden apples, which had the property, 
one of them of making wealthy, another of making lucky, and 
the third of making healthy. His steed helps him to accom- 
plish the task. But when the monster, half-man, half-dog, 
that guards the apples finds that he has been cozened he 
flings the curse after the robber : " If a man, become woman ; 
if a woman, become man." The curse sets matters right again. 
"I don't know what has happened, dearest father," says the 
bride to the king, "but my husband is a man after all." 

There is also an Albanian version 2 in which the dragon- 
slayer is born a girl. She kills a lamia to whom the king has 
given his son, and is rewarded with a magical steed. Later 
on she wins another king's daughter in marriage by a feat 
of athletics, and, as in the last tale, is guilty of the thought- 
lessness of taking the bride. Being prescribed a series of 

1 Volksdichtungen der siebenbiirgischen und siidungarischen Zigeuner, Vienna, 
1 890, No. 34, p. 260. 

2 Dozon, Contes Albanais, No. 14, p. 109. 


tasks by the king, with the same object of getting rid of her, 
she at last is cursed by some serpents with the requisite 
change of sex. 

Now, both the above tales are also versions of the great 
Andromeda cycle, 1 and could be quoted in connection with 
the sacrifice of Jimutavahana, which is the next Vetala tale 
with which we shall deal. (See p. 233 et seq.) 

Before discussing our motif from an anthropological point 
of view we should see whether Greek mythology can offer us 
any similar tales for comparison. Foremost among such 
legends is that of Tiresias, or Teiresias. He was a famous 
Theban soothsayer, son of Everes and a nymph Chariclo, 
and he was blind. One of the causes given for his blindness 
was that once on Mount Cyllene (some accounts say Mount 
Cithaeron, in Bceotia) he saw two snakes copulating, and that 
having wounded them (or having killed the female) he was 
turned from a man into a woman, but that on observing the 
same snakes (or another pair) copulating on another occasion 
(many accounts make him kill the male) he regained his 
original sex. " Hence," continues the account given by 
Apollodorus, 2 " when Hera and Zeus disputed whether the 
pleasures of love are felt more by women or by men, they 
referred to him for a decision. He said that if the pleasures 
of love be reckoned at ten, men enjoy one and women nine. 
Wherefore Hera blinded him, but Zeus bestowed on him the 
art of soothsaying." 

It is interesting to note that the ill-luck attached to 
anyone who sees snakes coupling is by no means confined 
to Greek mythology, and we find the superstition fully de- 
veloped in India. Frazer, op. cit. sup., gives references to 
works quoting the superstition from North and South India, 
Burma and the East Indian Islands. I confess I can offer 
no explanation for the belief, unless it is based on the fact 
that as the Nagas are so widely worshipped in India, a 
devotee so indiscreet as to remain a witness of any personal 
and intimate relationship between them would naturally 
incur their wrath. The idea is quite an accepted fact in 

1 S. Hartland, Legend of Perseus, vol. iii, pp. 28-29. 

2 See Frazer's trans., Loeb Classics, vol. i, p. 365 et seq. The story is also 
found in Phlegon, Mirabilia, 4 ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron, 683 ; Ovid, 
Metamorphoses, iii, 31 6 et seq.; Hyginus, Fab. 75, and in several other works 
given by Frazer. 


mythology, and another account given to explain the blind- 
ness of Tiresias himself was that he had chanced to see 
Athena bathing naked. 

Then there was Caeneus, 1 one of the Lapithse, who was 
originally a girl called Caenis. She was seized by Poseidon 
and dragged to his watery abode, where she became his 
mistress. Having tasted the joys of his new love, Poseidon 
asked her to choose whatever she most longed for. Caenis 
replied (Ovid, Met., xii, 200 et seq.) : " The wrong that you 
have done me calls for a mighty prayer, the prayer that I 
may never again be able to suffer so. Grant me that I be 
not woman ! So grant all my prayers." Not only did her 
sex change, but the new Caeneus was made invulnerable in 
battle. At his death, according to some of the accounts, he 
was changed back to a woman again. This change of sex 
at death will be referred to a little later. 

Finally there is the story of Iphis, daughter of Ligdus 
and Telethusa of Phaestus in Crete. 2 Ligdus longed for a 
son, and told his wife that if it was a girl she was to be killed. 
Just previous to the birth the " daughter of Inachus " 
(i.e. Io, worshipped as the goddess Isis) appeared to her in 
a dream, telling her to save the child whatever sex it was, 
finishing with the words : "I am the goddess who brings 
help and succour to those who call upon me, nor shall you 
have cause to complain that you have worshipped a thank- 
less deity." A girl was duly born, but Telethusa pretended 
it was a boy, and Ligdus, being deceived, had it brought 
up as a boy, and named it Iphis. Now Iphis is a name of 
common gender, so Telethusa rejoiced. Time passed, and 
Iphis was betrothed to Ianthe, daughter of Telestes. The 
distracted mother postponed the marriage as long as pos- 
sible and prayed fervently to Isis. " The goddess seemed to 
move, nay, moved her altar, the doors of the temple shook, 
her moon-shaped horns shot forth gleams of light, and the 
sistrum rattled noisily." The omen proved auspicious, and 
lo ! Iphis had become a man. 

The similarity between the above Greek legend and the 
tale of Drupada in the Mahdbhdrata and its numerous 
variants is at once noticeable. 

1 See, for example, Apollodorus, Library, Epitome i, 22; Apollonius 
Rhodius, Argon, i, 57-64 ; Ovid, Met., xii, 459-532 ; Virgil, Aen., vi, 448 et seq. 

2 Ovid, Metamorphoses, ix, 666 et seq. I use the edition in the Loeh- 
Classics, by F. J. Miller, vol. ii, pp. 51-61, 1922. 


Surveying all the tales noted above, we find that the 
" Change of Sex " motif is employed in several different 
ways. The question naturally arises as to what originated 
such ideas. Was it the result of the story-tellers' imagina- 
tion, or can the motif find its basis in real religious and 
anthropological beliefs ? 

In Indian folk-lore we find evidence of the actual belief 
in change of sex, quite apart from pretended change of sex 
usually employed as a prophylactic. In the Bombay dis- 
trict it is generally believed among the village inhabitants 
that the performance of certain rites can change sex, as well 
as the incantations of Yogis, and the blessings or curses of 
Mahatmas (Enthoven, Folklore of Bombay, p. 340). 

There are also numerous legends current in different 
parts of India which involve a change of sex. In some cases 
the selection of the tribal deity has its origin in such legends. 
Here are examples of the kind of legends to which I refer. 

At Bateswar (Bateshar), 1 a small place on the right bank 
of the Jumna, forty-three miles south-east from Agra, an 
immense number of temples line the banks of the river for 
over a mile. The local legend regarding these temples is 
that at the time when the first of the line of Bhaduria Rajas 
reigned it was the rule for each Raja to send a princess for 
the seraglio of the Emperor of Delhi. The Bhaduria Raja 
had a daughter, but not wishing to send her to the harem of 
the Delhi king he represented that he had no daughter : the 
other Rajas, who had sent their daughters, were indignant 
at this, and informed the Delhi emperor, who thereupon 
ordered a search to be made. In this extremity the daughter 
of the Raja fled alone to Bateswar, and prayed to the Devi 
at the temple to save her from the pollution of a Mohammedan 
seraglio. Her sex was accordingly changed, and she emerged 
from the temple a boy ! On this the grateful Raja diverted the 
river and built the temples along its banks which now exist. 

Another version of the story says that one Raja Hara, of 
some place unknown, and Raja Badan, the Bhaduria Raja, 
once made an agreement with each other to marry their 
children should one have a son and the other a daughter. 
Both, however, had daughters, but the Bhaduria Raja con- 
cealed the circumstance, and proclaimed that he had a 
son. Accordingly, in due time, the daughter of Raja Hara 
was married to the supposed son of Bhaduria Raja. The 

1 Cunningham, Arch. Survey Ind. } vol. vii, pp. 5, 6. 


imposition was, however, soon found out, and Raja Hara ad- 
vanced with an army to avenge the injury, when the daughter 
of the Bhaduria Raja, to save her father from the imminent 
danger, determined to die and end the strife. Accordingly she 
jumped into the Jumna : but to the surprise of all, instead of 
drowning, she emerged a boy ; and Raja Hara, finding that 
the Bhaduria Raja really had a son to whom his daughter had 
been married, retired pacified. The grateful Bhaduria Raja 
then diverted the Jumna from the spot where his daughter 
had jumped in, and instituted a great annual fair in honour 
of the circumstance, and built those temples all along the 
Jumna which we see now. 

In the Baroda volume of the Gazetteer of the Bombay 
Presidency (vol. vii, 1883, p. 612) we find another legend 
similar to the latter. The Chavada king of Pattan and the 
Solanki king of Kabri resolved on forming a royal alliance. 
But, by evil chance, both kings had daughters ; neither had 
a son. Thereupon the Kabri Raja fraudulently passed off 
his girl as a boy and a marriage was duly celebrated. Diffi- 
culties ensued, and the girl-husband found herself constrained 
to flee from Pattan. In the forest of the Devi she rested a 
while. Her dog [bitch] plunged into a pool, and to the wonder 
of the princess changed her sex on the spot ; her mare jumped 
and came forth a stallion ; the princess herself then tried the 
magic of the water, and lo! she, too, changed into a man. 
From that time the Solanki Rajputs followed the Devi. 1 

Among the Dhanwar, a primitive tribe in the wild country 
of Bilaspur adjoining Chota Nagpur, it is believed that the 
sex of a person may change in transmigration, for male 
children are sometimes named after women relatives and 
female after men. 2 Such a belief is not confined to India, 
as we have already seen in the case of Caeneus. It conforms, 
says Frazer, 3 to an observation of Plato or Aristotle that the 
sex of a person generally changes at each transmigration of 
his soul into a new body. A similar belief is found among the 
Urabunna and Waramunga tribes of Central Australia. 4 

1 For another version see Enthoven, Folklore of Bombay, pp. 339-340, 
reprinted from hid. Ant., vol. xlv, 191 6, Supp., p. 124. The tale is also told 
of Lake Mansarovar; see Enthoven, hid. Ant., vol. xli, 1912, p. 42. See also 
Crooke, Religion and Folklore of Northern India (new edition), p. 279. 

2 Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. ii, p. 500. 

3 Apollodorus, vol. ii, p. 150w l . 

4 Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 148. 


We now come to the pretended change of sex. The 
necessity for dressing a boy as a girl and vice versa at certain 
critical times of their life is a well-recognised and strictly 
observed custom not only in India but in the most diverse 
parts of the world. Westermarck * and Frazer 2 have given 
abundant examples of such customs, chiefly employed at 
marriage ceremonies in order to avert the Evil Eye and to 
deceive any demons who might attempt to harm either of the 
happy couple at such an auspicious and dangerous time. 

References to the authorities already given will at once 
show that in many countries it is the custom for priests to 
change their sex to all intents and purposes. In the Pelew 
Islands, for example, a man who is inspired by a goddess 
immediately dresses and behaves like a woman for the rest 
of his life. He is, moreover, henceforth treated and actually 
regarded as a woman. This pretended change of sex, says 
Frazer, 3 may explain a widespread custom whereby men dress 
and live like women. He gives numerous references, and 
suggests that such transformations were often carried out in 
obedience to intimations received in dreams or in a state of 
ecstasy. Such inspirations act with both sexes, and many cases 
of women dressing and behaving as men, after having received 
their " call," could be given. 4 But apart from worshippers 
seeking to assimilate themselves with their deities, there is also 
the example of the gods themselves to be considered. 

From the early days of the Babylonians and Assyrians 
the sex of deities has been known to undergo change. And 
this change has been dependent on a human anthropological 
change that from a matriarchate to a patriarchate. Thus, 
whereas the goddess Ishtar of the Babylonians and Assyrians, 
and the 'Ashtar(t) of the Canaanites, Hebrews and Phoeni- 
cians was a divine counterpart of the human matriarch, we 
find that where the laws of society changed, the sex of the 
deity also became changed. 5 Thus among the Semites of 

1 History of Human Marriage, vol. ii, p. 518 et seq. 

2 Golden Bough (Adonis, Attis, Osiris), vol. ii, p. 253 et seq. 

3 Op. cit, pp. 254, 255. 

4 See my Appendix, " Indian Eunuchs," Vol. Ill, pp. 322 and 327 ; also 
Crawley, "Dress," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, p. 71. 

5 See Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, pp. 58, 478 ; Sayce, 
Babylonians and Assyrians, p. 240 ; Paton, " Ashtart," and u Ishtar," Ency. Rel. 
Eth., vol. ii, p. 115 et seq., and vol. vii, p. 429; Tremearne, Ban of the Bori, 
pp. 418,419. 


Southern Arabia she has turned into the masculine 'Athtar ; 
so also in Abyssinia, Moab and North Africa. 

The change of sex of a deity is usually an etymological 
change, and in some cases both genders apply to a single 
deity representing male and female principles. This re- 
minds us of the Ardhanarlsvara form of Siva and the Greek 
Hermaphroditus. Such religious beliefs, if not the basis of 
similar ideas in folk-tales, at least give assurance of their 
unquestioned reception and use as a fiction motif. 

In conclusion I would quote a passage from Pliny's 
Naturalis Historia, as showing the beliefs generally held 
and quoted by so eminent a writer of the first century a.d. 
The genuineness of his conviction is surely enhanced when 
we remember that his views of nature and of God were 
undoubtedly Stoic, and that he considered any use of the 
magical arts an act of violence against nature (ii, 114; xxx, 3). 
The passage in question is from Book VII, chapter iii, 
section 4 * : 

" The change of females into males is undoubtedly no fable. 
We find it stated in the Annals that, in the consulship of 
P. Licinius Crassus and C. Cassius Longinus [Consuls a.u.c. 
581], a girl, who was living at Casinum with her parents, was 
changed into a boy ; and that, by the command of the 
Aruspices, he was conveyed away to a desert island. Licinius 
Mucianus informs us that he once saw at Argos a person 
whose name was then Arescon, though he had been formerly 
called Arescusa : that this person had been married to a man, 
but that, shortly after, a beard and marks of virility made 
their appearance, upon which he took to himself a wife. He 
had also seen a boy at Smyrna to whom the very same thing 
had happened. I myself saw in Africa one L. Cossicius, a 
citizen of Thysdris, who had been changed into a man the 
very day on which he was married to a husband." 

In commenting on this passage Bostock says that a 
similar case is mentioned by Ambrose Par6, the great French 
surgeon of the sixteenth century. The subject in question 
was brought up as a girl, but, in consequence of a sudden 
muscular exertion, the organs of the male were developed, 
which had previously been concealed internally. 2 He con- 
cluded by remarking that most similar cases of a supposed 

1 I quote from the six-volume edition, trans. Bostock and Riley, Bonn's 
Classical Library, 1885, 1886. 

2 Cf. Montaigne, Essays, Book I, cap. 20. 


change of sex are from the female to the male, evidently of 
the kind mentioned by Pare ; that cases of the contrary 
kind have also occurred ; and even of the sex being doubt- 
ful, or of both existing together. Modern research, however, 
rather proves that such recorded changes of sex are from the 
male to the female, due to an abnormal development of the 
clitoris. 1 But here we reach the threshold of teratology in 
its most modern and scientific sense, and this is beyond the 
scope of our present inquiry. 

Sufficient has, I think, been already said to show that the 
" Change of Sex " motif, which figures in the fifteenth tale 
of the Vetala, is not to be dismissed as a fantastic invention 
of the story-teller, but is to be regarded as one which has 
ample justification for its existence, having its roots firmly 
embedded in ancient religious beliefs and in the legends and 
rites of many primitive peoples. Modern surgery has only 
shown that apparent change of sex can occur, and has occurred. 
How readily, then, would the unscientific mind be prepared 
to accept such a miracle ! 

The Sacrifice of Jimutavahana 
{Vetala 16 pp. 49-63) 

This story has already appeared in Vol. II, p. 138 et seq., 
but here we had two sub-stories included : the first (27a) 
giving the hero's adventures in a former life, and the second 
(27b) dealing with the dispute about the colour of the sun's 
horses. 2 Apart from this the two tales are almost identical. 

Turning to the Hindi version 3 (No. 15) we find that, 
although the story is shorter, there are but few deviations 
the son offers to go forth and conquer the relations who 
would seize the throne after the " kalpa-briksh " has made 
everyone equally rich, but his father points out the frailty 
of the body and both go to the Malyachal hill and live in 
a cottage. There is no incident of Malayavati attempting 
suicide. Details about Garuda are omitted, and when he 

1 See, for instance, R. F. Burton, " Notes on an Hermaphrodite," Mem. 
Anth. Soc. Ldn., vol. ii, pp. 262-263. For a complete study of the modern 
developments of teratology, see E. Schwalbe, Morphologie der Missbildungen. 

2 See M. Winternitz, "The Serpent Sacrifice mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata," Journ. Bombay Branch Roy. As. Soc, August 1926, pp. 74-91 
(especially p. 80). 

3 Barker, op. cit., p. 250 et seq. 


alights to seize his prey, he has to make a second attempt, 
as " the first time the prince escaped." It is a bracelet, 
instead of a crest- jewel, which drops at the feet of Jimuta- 
vahana's wife. He does not actually die, as in the text of 
Somadeva's version, but is apparently left in a mangled state, 
to get home as best he can. Although Garuda restores the 
snakes to life, there is no appearance of Gauri to heal Jimuta- 
vahana's wounds. The Vetala's question is the same in 
both cases, but the answer is different. In Somadeva the 
king says that the reason why Jimutavahana's action was 
not so great as that of Sankhacuda was because he had 
already acquired virtue in previous births, but the Hindi 
version merely says it was because he was of the Kshatriya 
caste, and such an action would be a small matter for him. 

The Tamil version 1 is, as usual, very much abbreviated. 
The story (No. 19) begins straight away with the petition 
to Garuda, whom Babington calls a Brahmany kite. When 
the hero offers himself in place of the proper victim, Garuda 
at once grants him a boon without doing him any harm. 
The question of the Vetala is : " Which, therefore, was the 
greater of these two ? " i.e. the " kite " or the king. The 
reply is : " The king was a man and understood all things, 
in consequence of which he promised to give up his life. 
The kite was in the habit of feeding on whatever it seized : 
that a charitable thought should come across it, and that it 
should promise to abandon its prey, was the greatest action." 

A version of the tale occurs in the Sinhdsanadvdtrinsika, 2 
where it forms the story of the Eleventh Statuette. 

The following outline, as given by Edgerton, is based on 
the Southern Recension, which comes nearest to the original 

While Vikrama was wandering about the earth, he stopped 
once by night under a tree where dwelt a venerable bird 
named Long-lived (Cirarhjivin). At night his bird-friends 
gathered together, and he asked them about their doings 
during the day. One of them was in great grief this night. 
Being asked to declare the cause, he at first refused, on the 
ground that it would do no good. But being urged, on the 
ground that sorrow is relieved by the telling of it, he told a 
story of a city subject to a Rakshasa, where each household 

1 Babington, op. cit., p. 78 et seq. 

2 See Edgerton, Vikrama s Adventures, pt. i, p. lxxxiii. 


in turn had to give a man a day as food for the Rakshasa. 
The turn had now come to a Brahman, a friend of the speak- 
ing bird in a former birth, who must sacrifice himself or his 
only son. Therefore the bird was grieved, as befits a friend. 
The king, hearing this, went thither by his magic sandals, and 
took his seat upon the sacrificial rock, waiting for the Rak- 
shasa. The Rakshasa came, and was astonished to see his 
cheerful expression, and, learning that he was giving himself 
for others, offered to grant him any desire. The king obtained 
from him the promise to abstain from eating men henceforth. 

Then there is the tale of the Rakshasa Baka in the 
Mahdbhdrata, 1 who protected the town and the country, accept- 
ing as his fee a cartload of rice, two buffaloes, and the human 
being who brought them to him. The turn had now come 
to a poor Brahman who could not afford to buy a man, and 
would not willingly part with any of his family. Accordingly 
he decides to go to the Rakshasa with his whole family. 
Kunti says that one of her sons will go instead, and Bhima 
willingly agrees to the proposal. He takes the food and 
begins to eat it himself on the way. After a fearful struggle 
he overcomes Baka ; and his relatives, other Rakshasas, 
promise never to molest human beings again. 

The Rakshasas soon become dragons; and even in one 
of the Kalmuck tales 2 we read of two such creatures who, 
not satisfied with robbing the people of the water needed for 
irrigation, exacted a yearly toll of a man alternately of high 
and low degree. The turn of the Khan had come, but his son 
goes in his stead. On his way he is joined by a friend of his, 
a poor man's son, who offers to go in his place. Finally they 
agree to go together, but through overhearing the dragons 
talking about how easily they could be killed, if people only 

1 For full references see Sorensen's Index, under " Baka." 

2 Jiilg, Siddhi-Kiir, No. 2 ; corresponding to Coxwell, Siberian and Other 
Folk-Tales, No. 4, p. 183 et seq. ; and to Busk, Sagas from the Far East, No. 2, 
p. 18 et seq. In error Tawney thought it was the same as Busk's 5th tale, 
" How the Serpent-gods were propitiated," but this is also No. 5 of Jiilg and 
No. 7 of Coxwell, where it is called "Sunshine and his Younger Brother." 
The tale tells of a lake guarded by dragons who had to be propitiated yearly 
by a youth born in a certain month. The hero and the princess, who has 
fallen in love with him, are sewn in a skin together and thrown to the dragons. 
They are touched by the mutual love of the couple and set them free, at the 
same time allowing the water to irrigate the land. 


knew, they manage to overcome them, and the country be- 
comes fruitful once again. The rest of the story is composed 
of a long series of stock motifs introduced one after the other, 
and does not concern us. 

But before going any further into tales dealing with 
human sacrifices necessary for the propitiation of gods, 
dragons, etc., we should look rather closer at our tale of 
Jimutavahana . 

It has always been regarded as a Buddhist legend of 
ancient date which was utilised by Gunadhya in the Brihat- 
kathd, and also found its way into the Vetdlapanchavirhsati ; 
hence it appears twice, although rather differently, in Soma- 
deva. In the first half of the seventh century a.d. it became 
the subject of Harsha's drama, the Ndgdnanda. 

In order to try to discover the origin of the legend we 
must bear in mind that the chief characters are Nagas, 
Garuda and the hero who saves the former from destruction. 

Now, in a paper on the Nagas, 1 C. F. Oldham points out 
that in most of the temples dedicated to Vasuki (king of 
the snakes, often mentioned in the Ocean), or Basdeo, in the 
Chenab Valley there is, besides the figure of the Naga Raja, 
a representation of his Vezier, who is called Jimutavahana. 
Legend says that Basdeo was engaged in war with Garuda, 
and that, on one occasion, the Naga chief was surprised by 
the enemy and had a narrow escape. In fact, he was saved 
only by the devotion of his minister, who gave his own life 
to save that of his master. This probably means that 
Jimutavahana was killed in covering the retreat of the Raja. 
Basdeo escaped to the Kailas Kund, a mountain lake some 
13,000 feet above the sea, between the Chenab and Ravi 
valleys. Meantime an army was raised, by which Garuda 
was defeated. The Naga Raja, in his gratitude, ordered 
that in future Jimutavahana should be worshipped in the 
same temple with himself. It would seem from this that 
Vasuki, like other Solar kings, received divine honours during 
his lifetime. 

The legend just referred to seems to relate to some of the 
struggles between the unregenerate and the Aryanised tribes. 
It is probably founded on fact. At all events, a great 
festival is held annually at the Kailas Kund, which is attended 
by all the population of the surrounding country. 

1 " The Nagas : a Contribution to the History of Serpent Worship " 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, July 1901, pp. 461-473, with seven illustrations. 


The fact that Harsha (i.e. Siladitya Harshavardhana, 
Raja of Thanesar and Kanauj, a.d. 606-647 *) wrote a drama 
based on the legend must have added greatly to its dis- 
semination, especially when we remember that Hiuen Tsiang 
spent about eight years (635-643) in his dominions. It is 
related by I-Tsing, who lived about a.d. 670, that Harsha 
kept all the best writers, especially poets, at his court, and 
that he used to join in the literary recitals personally. He 
would take the part of Jimutavahana in his own play amid 
the sound of song and instrumental music. 2 It is also in- 
teresting to note that a version of our tale is related by Hiuen 
Tsiang about a great river (the Karakash, or possibly the 
Khotan-daria) flowing 200 li or so south-east of K'iu-sa-ta-na 
(Khotan, Eastern Chinese Turkestan). 

The story tells how the people took advantage of the 
river to irrigate their lands, but after a time the waters 
ceased to flow. Having inquired the reason from an Arhat, 
the king learned that the stoppage was caused by a dragon, 
and that the offering of sacrifices and prayers would cause 
the water to flow again. The king acted accordingly, when 
a woman emerged from the stream, saying that her husband 
had just died, and that without a lord to issue orders the 
current of the stream would remain arrested. If, however, 
she obtained one of the king's ministers as a second husband, 
all would be well. The king returned to the royal apart- 
ments and informed the ministers of what had happened. 
One of the chief ministers volunteered to save the country, 
and after due rejoicings entered the river clad in white and 
riding a white horse ; but as he advanced into the stream he 
did not sink, and whipping it with his lash the water opened 
and he disappeared. Shortly afterwards the white horse 
came up alone and floated on the water, carrying on his back 

1 See V. A. Smith, Early History of India, 1904, pp. 282-302; ditto, 
Oxford History of India, 2nd edit., 1923, pp. 165-171 ; and R. Mookerji, 
Harsha, Rulers of India Series, Ldn., 1926, p. 152 et seq. 

2 See S. Beal, Buddhist Records of the Western World (Hiuen Tsiang) 
vol. i, p. 210w 18 ; and A. B. Keith, Sanskrit Drama, 1924, pp. 170, 171. The 
Nagananda has been translated with a metrical version of Somadeva's tale (from 
chap, xxii, not chap, xc) by B. Hale Wortham. The latter, with a metrical 
version of the story of HariSarman (see Ocean, Vol. Ill, p. 77 et seq.), appeared 
in Journ. Roy. As. Soc, vol. xviii, 1886, p. 1 et seq. Numerous native editions, 
translations and partial translations will be found catalogued in the new 
Supplement to the Catalogue of Sanskrit . . . Books, Brit. Mus., 1926. 


a great sandalwood drum, in which was a letter saying that 
all was well with the minister, and that the drum was sent 
for the king to suspend at the south-east of the city ; if an 
enemy approached, it would begin to roll. The river started 
to flow in its accustomed manner, and the country was pros- 
perous once again. " Many years and months have elapsed 
since then," says Hiuen Tsiang in conclusion, "and the place 
where the dragon-drum was hung has long since disappeared, 
but the ruined convent by the side of the drum-lake still remains, 
but it has no priests and is deserted." 

Before speaking of the numerous variants of our story 
in the West, I would draw attention to a very curious and 
interesting tale from the Japanese, Ko-ji-ki. The great im- 
portance of this work lies in the fact that " it has preserved 
for us more faithfully than any other book the mythology, 
the manners, the language and the traditional history of 
Ancient Japan." It marks the point of the great change 
in the history not only of Japanese literature but of Japan as 
a whole. I refer, of course, to the great influence of Chinese 
civilisation and literature. The date of the completion of 
the Ko-ji-ki was a.d. 712, and although Buddhism had 
reached Japan, via China and Korea, by a.d. 538, it appears 
to owe nothing to its introduction. The sole object of the 
work as originally proposed by the Emperor Temmu (673-686) 
was to collect together the annals of the chief families of 
Japan, before they were covered by the dust of oblivion. 
The following story, therefore, is of undoubted interest. The 
translation is that made by B. H. Chamberlain in 1882. 2 It 
forms section xviii and is called " The Eight-forked Serpent " : 

So, having been expelled, [His-Swift-Impetuous-Male- 
Augustness] descended to a place [called] Tori-Kami at the 
head-waters of the River Hi in the Land of Idzumo. At 
this time some chop-sticks came floating down the stream. 
So His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness, thinking that there 
must be people at the head-waters of the river, went up it 
in quest of them, when he came upon an old man and an 
old woman two of them who had a young girl between 
them, and were weeping. Then he deigned to ask : " Who 
are ye ? " So the old man replied, saying : "I am called 
an Earthly Deity, a child of the Deity Great-Mountain- 

1 Beal, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 320-322. 

2 Trans. As. Soc. Japan, vol. x : Supplement, reprinted February 1920. 


Possessor. I am called by the name of Foot-Stroking-Elder, 
my wife is called by the name of Hand- Stroking Elder, and 
my daughter is called by the name of Wondrous- Inada- 
Princess." Again he asked : " What is the cause of your 
crying ? " The old man answered, saying : "I had origin- 
ally eight young girls as daughters. But the eight-forked 
serpent of Koshi has come every year and devoured one, and 
it is now its time to come : wherefore I weep." Then he 
asked him : " What is its form like ? " [The old man] 
answered, saying : "Its eyes are like akahagachi [the winter- 
cherry], it has one body with eight heads and eight tails. 
Moreover on its body grows moss, and also chamcecyparis 
[a coniferous tree] and cryptomerias. Its length extends 
over eight valleys and eight hills, and if one looks at its belly 
it is all constantly bloody and inflamed." Then His-Swift- 
Impetuous-Male-Augustness said to the old man : "If this 
be thy daughter, wilt thou offer her to me ? " He replied, 
saying : " With reverence, but I know not thine august 
name." Then he replied, saying : " I am elder brother to 
the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Deity. So I have now 
descended from Heaven." Then the Deities Foot-Stroking- 
Elder and Hand-Stroking-Elder said : " If that be so, with 
reverence will we offer her to thee." So His-Swift-Impetuous 
Male-Augustness, at once taking and changing the young 
girl into a multitudinous and close-toothed comb, which he 
stuck into his august hair-bunch, said to the Deities Foot- 
Stroking-Elder and Hand-Stroking-Elder : " Do you distil 
some eightfold refined liquor. Also make a fence round 
about. In that fence make eight gates; at each gate tie 
together eight platforms, on each platform put a liquor- 
vat, and into each vat pour the eightfold refined liquor, 
and wait." So as they waited, after having thus prepared 
everything in accordance with his bidding, the eight-forked 
serpent came truly as the old man had said, and immediately 
dipped a head into each vat, and drank the liquor. There- 
upon it was intoxicated with drinking, and all the heads lay 
down and slept. Then His-Swift-Impetuous-Male-Augustness 
drew the ten-grasp sabre, that was augustly girded on him, 
and cut the serpent in pieces, so that the River Hi flowed on 
changed into a river of blood. . . . 

We leave the East, and on arriving in Europe find the 
story of a hero sacrificing himself or endangering his life for 


that of some hapless person whose turn it is to be destroyed 
by a monster. So extensive is the cycle in European folk- 
tales that many volumes would be required to give them all. 
E. S. Hartland has already written three volumes on the 
subject, and he has far from exhausted the variants, still less 
has he discussed all possible sources of the motif. Frazer 
also has given us a useful list of forty-one different versions, 
the first five of which are all from ancient Greek mythology. 2 
He has added to this list in the Golden Bough* and discusses 
the possible origin of the custom of sacrifices to water-spirits. 
Following his usual style he brings together a large number 
of customs from all parts of the world showing various aspects 
of the worship of water-spirits. 

Their conception as serpents or dragons is widespread, 
and in many cases animal or human sacrifices are needed as 
an offering. In other cases they are looked upon as kindly 
disposed to humans and the dispensers of fertility. They 
bestow offspring on barren women, and, in Greek mythology 
especially, we meet with similar ideas of the procreative 
power of water. Marriages of human beings of both sexes 
to water-deities are continually found a motif which appears 
to be based partly on the idea that a cruel god must be paci- 
fied, and partly on the belief of sympathetic magic the 
generative act would be sure to produce fertility in the earth 
and among both men and animals. It will thus be seen that 
it would be mere folly to attempt to attribute such a wide- 
spread motif to any one origin. The customs marshalled for 
us by Frazer certainly show certain definite lines of belief 
which have a distinct connection with, or which may be 
looked upon as variants of, the story under consideration. 

At the same time the origin of a Buddhist legend may 
well rest on true historical fact, far back in the dim ages of 
the early struggles between the Aryans and the dark-skinned 
races they encountered in their migration through Northern 

1 The Legend of Perseus, 3 vols., 1894-1896. 

2 Pausanias's Description of Greece, vol. v, pp. 143-144. 

3 Vol. ii (The Magic Art), pp. 155-170. 


The Beautiful Unmddini 
(Vetdla 17 pp. 66-70) 

The Hindi version l (No. 16) differs but little from our 
text. During the argument between the king and his 
commander-in-chief, the latter threatens to turn Unmadini 
into a prostitute, so that she can no longer be regarded as his 
wife. Then he will lead her to the palace. The king promises 
punishment if such a step is taken. Finally, both the 
husband and his wife throw themselves on a funeral pyre. 
The question that follows is naturally : "Of these three, 
whose was the greatest virtue ? " The answer is as in 

The Tamil version 2 (No. 20) is much abbreviated. The 
king sends for a " soothsayer," who examines the girl's 
horoscope, apparently without any deception, and reports 
that if he married her he would lose his kingdom. The 
tale then ends in a few lines. The king's action is considered 
the noblest, as in the other versions. 

It occurs as No. 26 in the Persian Tuti-ndmah. 3 Here 
the discussion about the moral aspect of the situation is 
carried on in the presence of the counsellors only, and the 
king is the only one who dies. In the Turkish Tuti-ndmah 4 
it is not the father, but a procuress, who first offers the girl 
to the king. The girl also dies on hearing of the king's 

As compared with the early versions of our story in Bud- 
dhist literature, that of Somadeva is decidedly condensed. 

In the Pali Jdtaka 5 the lady's name is Ummadanti, the 
beautiful daughter of a rich merchant named Tiritavaccha. 
On his offering her to the king, he sends Brahmans to see 
if she has auspicious marks. The effect of her presence on 
the Brahmans is amazing. On catching sight of her, they 
completely lost their self-control, just as if they were in- 
toxicated with passion, and forgot that they had left their 
meal unfinished. Some of them took a morsel, and thinking 
they would eat it put it on their heads. Some let it fall on 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 271 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit., p. 81 et seq. 

3 Iken, op. cit., p. 109. 

4 Rosen, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 191, and Wickerhauser, op. cit., p. 253. See 
also Oesterley, op. cit., pp. 207, 208. 

6 Cambridge edition, No. 527, vol. v, 1905, p. 108. 


their hips. Others threw it against the wall. Everyone was 
beside himself. When she saw them thus she said, "They 
tell me these fellows are to test the character of my marks," 
and she ordered them to be taken by the scruff of their 
necks and thrust out. And they were sorely annoyed, and 
returned to the palace in a great rage with Ummadanti, 
and they said : " Sire, this woman is no mate for you ; she 
is a witch." The king thought, " They tell me she is a 
witch," and he did not send for her. She is accordingly 
married to Ahiparaka, a high court official. 

At this point the story is interrupted by our being told 
how the girl had become so beautiful, and her actions in a 
previous birth are recounted. 

The tale continues. Ahiparaka warns his wife not to show 
herself during the coming Kattika festival, when the king is 
sure to be near the house. But this is the very chance the 
slighted Ummadanti has been waiting for, and she makes her 
plans accordingly. 

At night the town is en fete, and the king rides in a 
magnificent car through the streets. As he approaches 
the house, Ummadanti throws flowers at the king, and on 
catching sight of her he is unable to continue the procession. 
He discovers her name, returns to his palace, and lies like 
" a mad, haunted man " on his couch, saying : 

"A lily maid, with eyes soft as a doe's, 
In the full moon's clear light before me rose, 
Beholding her in robe of dovelike hue, 
Methought two moons at once came into view. 

Darting one glance from her bright, lovely eyes, 
The temptress took me captive by surprise, 
Like woodland elf upon some mountain height, 
Her graceful motion won my heart at sight. 

So dark and tall and fair the maid, with jewels in her ears, 
Clad in a single garment, like a timid doe, appears. 

With long-tressed hair and nails all stained red, 
O'er her soft arms rich sandal essence shed, 
With tapering fingers and a gracious air, 
When will she smile on me, my charmer fair ? 


When will Tiriti's slender- waisted maid, 
A gold adornment on her breast displayed, 
With her soft arms embracing cling to me, 
E'en as a creeper to some forest tree ? 

When will she stained with dye of lac so bright, 
With swelling bosom, maiden lily-white, 
Exchange a kiss with me, as oft a glass 
Will from one toper to another pass ? 

Soon as I saw her standing thus, so fair to outward view, 
No longer master of myself, reason away I threw. 

When Ummadanti I beheld, with jewelled ear-rings bright, 
Like one amerced right heavily, I slept not day nor night. 

Should Sakka grant a boon to me, my choice were quickly 

I would be Ahiparaka one night or haply twain, 
And Ummadanti thus enjoyed, he might o'er Sivi reign." 

Ahiparaka is aghast at the condition of the king and does 
all in his power to make him accept her. A long series of 
stanzas follows, repeated alternately between the king and 
Ahiparaka, until finally the right mode of action is borne upon 
the king, and he overcomes his infatuation. 

The story also occurs at length in the Jdtaka-mdld, 1 and 
follows the Pali version fairly closely. The occasion of the 
girl's revenge is during the Kaumudi festival, which appar- 
ently begins in the daytime, for we have a fine description 
of the town : "Its streets and squares had been sprinkled 
and cleansed ; their white ground was strewed with many- 
coloured flowers : gay flags and banners were floating aloft ; 
everywhere there was dancing and singing, representations 
of burlesques, ballets and music ; the mingled scents of 
flowers, incense, odoriferous powders, perfumes, garlands, 
strong liquors, also of the perfumed water and the ointments 
used in ablutions, filled the air with fragrance ; lovely articles 
were being exposed for sale ; the principal streets were 
thronged by a merry crowd of townsmen and landsmen in 
their best dress." 

1 J. S. Speyer, Gatakamata, Sacred Books of the Buddhists, vol. i, 1895, 
No. 13, p. 114 et seq. 


The ending is slightly different. The minister is appeased 
by the unwavering constancy of the king, and pours praises on 
such a virtuous ruler. 

In fact, in all Buddhist versions the endings are merely 
moralistic, and only in the Hindu versions do we get the 
dramatic sequel. Cf. also the version in the Burmese collec- 
tion, Buddhaghosha's Parables (Story of the Rahandama 

Reference should also be made to an interesting passage 
in Kalhana's Rdjataranginl 1 (Book IV, verses 17-37). Here 
we read of Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya II who fell violently 
in love with a rich merchant's wife: "Though he had not 
touched her, he felt as if she, who was like the nectar of 
bliss, were fixed [in him] even to the very marrow." 

For long he fights against his all-consuming passion, but 
his illness grows on him until he is near to death. The 
merchant begs the king to accept his wife, and adds that if 
he still refuses he will put her in a temple as a dancing-girl, 
whence she can easily be removed. At last the king gives 
in and marries the object of his passion, who in time bears 
him three children. 

The Brahman's Son who failed to acquire the Magic Power 

(Vetdla 18 pp. 71-77) 

In theJHindi version 2 the tale (No. 17) is considerably 
abbreviated. We get no details of the gambling at all. The 
Brahman's son, here called Gunakar, is quite willing to eat 
any food the ascetic has to offer, until he sees it is prepared 
in a human skull. It is a Yakshini who produces the illusion 
of the palace. She stays with him during the night, and in 
the morning he wants to acquire possession of the Science. 
He is told that in order to do this he must sit at midnight 
in the middle of the water for forty days. This Gunakar 
accomplishes, and is then told to do the same in fire. He 
gets leave to visit his family, but on returning completes the 
ordeal. As in our version, the object is not gained owing to 
instability of mind and intention. 

1 Stein, vol. i, p. 1 22. 

2 Barker, op. cit., p. 285 el seq. On p. 290 the first line of the footnote 
translation is in its wrong place and should be moved to the same position on 
p. 289. 


In the Tamil version * (No. 13) the tale is reduced to a 
mere precis, and the incidents are either omitted or so altered 
that the whole point of the story is lost. The Brahman is 
represented as dying of hunger when a " devotee " rescues 
him by offering him rice, which he eats till he is satisfied. 
Then, without his even asking, the ascetic instructs him in 
magic. The Brahman goes to bathe and sees a vision of a 
child standing before him. On finishing his bathe he returns 
to the ascetic and explains that the vision lasted only while 
his head was under the water. This completes the story. 
To the Vetala's question the king answers that such magical 
deeds can be accomplished only by those bent on bestowing 
charity to Brahmans. 

Apart from the obvious moral contained in our story, the 
only incident worth noticing 2 is the illusion produced when 
immersed in water, both as to place and the passing of time. 

When dealing with the " Change of Sex " motif in 
Vetala 15, I quoted (p. 225) a story from the Nights in which 
a vizier plunges into a cauldron, and, in the few minutes 
that his head is covered by the water, imagines, by the power 
of illusion, that he has spent many years as a woman in 
a fisherman's hut. In a note on p. 224 I mentioned that 
Lane heard a similar tale in Cairo. The tale in question 
concerned the means by which a certain Sultan, who scoffed 
at the story of the Mi'raj, or Ascension of Muhammed, was 
finally converted to the Faith. It was obviously an abbre- 
viated account of the widely circulated tale which found its 
way into the Forty Vazlrs, and so appears in the collections 
of Petis de la Croix 3 and Cazotte and Chavis. 4 It is of con- 
siderable interest as a later variant of our Indian original, 
particularly because of the use to which the motif has been 

Before speaking of the possible origin of such illusions 
as to time and place I will give such portions of the tale as 
concern our inquiry. I borrow from Gibb's translation of the 
Forty Vazirs, p. 16 et seq. The tale forms the First Vazir's 
story : 

1 Babington, op. cit., pp. 64, 65. 

2 I have already (Vol. II, pp. 23 m 1 , 232n) given a note on gambling 
to No. 29d, " Devadatta the Gambler," which commences like the Vetala's 
18th tale. 

3 Histoire de la Sultane de Pe?'se t et des Visirs. Conies Turcs, Paris, 1707. 

4 Cabinet des Fees, vols, xxxviii-xli, Paris, 1788-1793. 


" One day the doctors of the law were assembled in the 
council of the King of Egypt and were talking over the details 
of the Ascension. They said : c The Most Noble Apostle 
made the Ascension, and God Most High showed him the 
Seven Heavens, the Eight Paradises, and the Seven Hells, 
and spake with him ninety thousand words ; and when he 
returned to his place he found his bed still warm, and the 
water had not wholly run out of an ewer which had been 
upset beside him, so he straightway raised the ewer from the 
ground.' The King of Egypt marvelled thereat and said : 
' These words which ye speak are remote from reason : the 
depth of each of theSeven Heavens is a five-hundred-years' 
journey, and the distance between each is a five-hundred-years' 
journey, yet ye say that he traversed the Heavens, and the 
Eight Paradises, and the Seven Hells, and conversed to the 
extent of ninety thousand words and came back again and 
found his bed warm and his ewer not empty that is remote 
from reason.' Although they insisted with him that God Most 
High was almighty, it was in vain. When the assembly broke 
up, news of this reached Sheykh Shihab-ud-Din." 

He hastened to the king's presence, and through the 
power of illusion, by merely opening and shutting windows, 
displayed in turn an army, the city in flames, the Nile over- 
flowing its banks, and a garden like unto Paradise. The tale 
then continues : 

" The sheykh let open again the shut windows, and nothing 
was visible. Then he bade bring a tub and fill it with water ; 
and the king told them to obey, so they brought it. The 
sheykh said : ' O King, hold about thee a towel, and plunge 
once into this water, then come out and sit down, and I will 
show thee a wonder.' Then the king held about him a 
towel and went into the tub and plunged in it, and when he 
put out his head he saw himself on the skirt of a trackless 
mountain by the seashore. Then was the king bewildered, 
and he cried : ' Dost thou see ? The sheykh, he has by 
magic cast me into the desert and seized my throne ! ' Thus 
thinking, he looked about and saw some persons cutting 
wood on the mountain. He went up to them and saluted 
them, and they returned the salute, and asked : ' What man 
art thou ? ' The king said : ' I am a merchant. The ship 
in which I was sank in the sea ; I laid hold of a plank and was 


saved, and am come here.' Then had they compassion on 
him, and each of them gave him some old garment, and they 
clothed him. The king said to them : Who are ye and 
whence are ye ? ' They replied : ' Behind this mountain 
is a city; we belong to it.' Then the king went with them 
to that city, and while he was wandering through the bazaar 
he happened on the shop of an aged farrier. The farrier 
said to him : ' O youth, whence art thou come ? ' And 
the king again declared that he was a merchant whose ship 
had sunk, and that he had managed to save himself; and 
he asked for advice. The old man said : ' As thou art a 
stranger, go sit at the door of the bath, and ask of every 
woman that comes out if she have a husband, and according 
to the custom of the city, whatsoever woman says to thee 
that she has no husband shall be thy wife.' So the poor 
king went and sat at the door of the bath and asked the 
ladies that came out ; but they each answered, ' I have a 
husband,' and went away. Of a sudden a lady attended by 
several servants came out, and when he said to her, c Hast 
thou a husband? ' she replied, 'No,' and passed on. After- 
ward one of that lady's servants returned and took the king 
and brought him to her. She said, By the command of 
God I am become thy wife ' ; and the king was thankful for 
that event. He lived seven years with that lady and had 
two sons and a daughter. At length all her means were 
used up and they had nothing left to eat, and the lady said 
to him : ' O man, go earn something, that we and our chil- 
dren may live.' Then the king was sad, and he went to the 
farrier and told him how things stood with him, and the 
farrier asked him if he knew any trade. The king replied 
that he knew none, so the farrier put a few pence into his 
hand and said : c Go buy a rope and sit among the porters, 
and he whose load thou carriest will give thee two or three 
pence, and so thou shalt live.' The king did as the farrier 
told him, and, having no other resource, was for some days 
a porter and carried loads. When he took up the loads the 
rope would cut his shoulders, and he would think on the 
estate he had enjoyed and weep. One day, while strolling 
along, he came upon the seashore. Now ablution had be- 
come necessary for the king, so he went into the water and 
plunged in it, and when he put his head out he beheld him- 
self in his own palace, and the sheykh was sitting looking 
at him. ..." 


In a note at this point Gibb states that the trick of 
making one imagine that he has in a few seconds experienced 
adventures that seem to have lasted over a long period 
appears to have been a favourite one with the dervishes. 
Several instances of it occur in the tales of 'All 'Aziz that 
he has published under the title of The Story of Jewdd (see, 
e.g., pp. 29, 30). "It may have been effected," says Gibb, 
" by means of some intoxicating preparation like hashish." 

I believe that he has really hit upon the true origin of 
such tales, and consequently I have looked for descriptions 
of the effect of hashish which exhibit such phenomena as 
shown in our text. 

In the second article, under the title of " Les Poisons de 
l'lntelligence," Revue des Deux Mondes, March 1877, p. 816 
et seq. 9 M. Charles Richet deals with " Le Hachich L' Opium 
Le Cafe." In describing the effect of hashish he points 
out how completely all idea of place and time is lost : 

" Le temps parait d'une longueur demesuree. Entre deux 
idees nettement concues, on croit en concevoir une infinite 
d'autres, mal determinees et incompletes, dont on a une 
conscience vague, mais qui remplissent d 'admiration par 
leur nombre et leur etendue. II semble done que ces idees 
sont innombrables, et, comme le temps n'est mesure que par 
le souvenir des idees, le temps parait prodigieusement long. 
Par example, imaginons, comme e'est le cas pour le hachich, 
que dans l'espace d'une seconde nous concevions cinquante 
pensees differentes ; comme en general pour concevoir 
cinquante pensees differentes il faut plusieurs minutes, il nous 
semblera que plusieurs minutes se sont passees, et ce n'est 
qu'en faisant a Pinflexible horloge qui nous marque les heures 
la constatation reguliere du temps ecoule que nous nous 
apercevrons de notre erreur. Avec le hachich, la notion du 
temps est compltement bouleversee, les secondes sont des 
annees et les minutes des siecles. . . ." 

Everything seen tends to be extraordinarily exaggerated : 
an ordinary staircase appears as a flight of steps leading to 
the heavens, a small stream becomes a great sea, a single 
soldier is a mighty army, the slightest noise is like a crash of 
thunder. The senses of appreciation are strangely affected. 
Thus a discordant sound seems like celestial music, the most 
commonplace garden becomes a heavenly Nandana surpass- 
ing mortal description. Finally, as the effect of the drug 
loses its hold, if an overdose has not been taken, the memory 


is not impaired, and all the experiences seen and felt can be 
described in detail. 

With regard to the drug making people insensible to heat, 
Burton notes (Nights, vol. hi, p. 91ft 1 ) its use among stokers. 
Herklots gives a description of the numerous preparations of 
the drug. 1 

Doubtless an extensive bibliography could be made on 
hashish and its effects, 2 but the above is quite sufficient for 
our purposes, as it shows beyond a doubt that the reports of 
hashish-takers are quite sufficient to give rise to a story such 
as we have been considering above. 

The Thief s Son 
(Vetdla 19 pp. 78-85) 

The Hindi version 3 (No. 18) commences as in our text, but 
after the thief has been married by the daughter's circum- 
ambulation of the stake four times, he asks the mother 
to deliver her over to a handsome Brahman and offer him 
five hundred gold muhars. Thus a son will be born. The 
daughter, by name Mohani, soon sees a Brahman who 
attracts her, and the mother offers him a hundred ashrafis 
if he will spend the night with Mohani and give her a son. 
There is no question of marriage, and the courtesan does 
not appear. The story then continues : 

He agreed to remain. As they were conversing, night 
came on. She set before him a sumptuous supper. It is a 
true proverb that enjoyment is of eight kinds : first, per- 
fume ; second, woman ; third, dress ; fourth, singing ; 
fifth, betel ; sixth, food ; seventh, the couch ; and eighth, 
ornaments ; and all these were now at hand. 

When three hours were passed, he went into the chamber 
destined for voluptuous enjoyment, and the whole night 
passed in pleasure. When morning came, he went home ; 
and she, arising, came to her companions. One of them 
asked her what pleasure she had had with her lover. She 
replied : " When I went and sat near him, I felt a palpitation 
in my frame ; but when, smiling and looking lovingly, he 

1 Qanun-i-Islam, new edition, Crooke, 1921, p. 326 et seq. 

2 See Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, vol. ii, p. 1 03 et seq., 
and the numerous references given. The latest work on the subject I have 
seen is Jules Giraud, Testaments d'un Haschischeen, Paris [1913]. 

3 Barker, op. cit. f p. 295 et seq. 


took my hand, he quite overcame me, and I know not what 
afterwards happened." It has been said that a woman for- 
gets not either in this or any other birth a husband who is 
illustrious, or brave, or clever, or a chief, or generous, or who 
protects his wife. The result was that she became pregnant ; 
and when her time was accomplished, a boy was born. On 
the sixth night after her delivery his mother beheld in a 
vision a Yogi with matted hair, a shining moon on his fore- 
head, ashes of cow-dung rubbed over his body, having a 
white Brahmanical thread ; sitting upon an as an of white 
lotuses, with a necklace of human heads round his neck, and 
a bandlet of white serpents thrown over his shoulders, holding 
a shell in one hand, and in the other a trident, assuming a 
very frightful form, he appeared before her, saying : " To- 
morrow, at midnight, put this child, together with a purse 
of a thousand gold muhars, in a large basket, and place it 
at the gate of the palace." When she awoke in the morning 
she narrated the dream to her mother, detailing all the circum- 
stances. The mother, next day, did as had been suggested. 

The remainder of the tale follows Somadeva, but in a 
much abbreviated form, details of the pilgrimage to Gaya 
being entirely absent. The question and answer are the 

The story is not found in the Tamil version, and another 
tale altogether has been substituted. 1 

In Sivadasa's recension Dhanavati does not bump into 
the thief at all, but speaks to him out of idle curiosity. There 
are also a few other trifling differences. See further Oesterley, 
op. cit., p. 209. 

The story is not a very interesting one from the point of 
view of annotation, the only motif (already noticed on pp. 81n, 
82n) being a variant of the " exposed child." 

The Brahman Boy who offered himself up to save the Life 

of the King 

(Vetala 20 pp. 87-97) 

The Hindi version 2 (No. 19) is more abbreviated than 
that in Somadeva, but certain incidents are fuller. Thus 
the hermit, after reproving the king for indulging in the vice 
of hunting, quotes the following from the Dharma-sdstras 

1 Babington, op. cit., pp. 85-86. 

2 Barker, op. cit., p. 311 et seq. 


as particularly applicable to the case in point : " Austere 
devotion is not equal to a forgiving spirit, nor is pleasure 
so desirable as content, nor wealth as friendship, nor justice 
as mercy. He who is zealous in the discharge of his religious 
duties, and who has attained wealth, good qualities, knowledge, 
celebrity and influence, who knows no pride, is contented with 
his own wife, and is truthful, will obtain final emancipation 
and absorption ; and he who slays devotees with matted 
hair, and those who are without clothing, and the inoffensive, 
will at death descend into hell. And the monarch who does 
not punish the oppressor of his people will also suffer the 
torments of Naraka. And he who has intercourse with a 
king's wife, or his friend's wife, or a maiden, or a woman 
in advanced pregnancy, will surely fall into the nethermost 
hell." The hermit marries his daughter to the king by the 
gdndharva form of marriage. The adventure with the demon 
occurs at midnight, and not on the following morning. No 
reason at all is given as to why the demon is so angry, and 
he says immediately, " O King, I will devour thy wife ! " 
and then continues, " If thou wilt cut off with thine own 
hand the head of a Brahman's son of seven years of age, and 
give it me, I will not devour her." Neither the king himself 
nor his court is in any way implicated. The golden image 
is taken to the cross-roads, and on the third day a poor Brah- 
man decides to sacrifice one of his three sons. He discusses 
the matter with his wife : he will not give up the eldest, she 
will not sacrifice the youngest. The second son, hearing the 
argument, offers himself accordingly. There is nothing about 
the parents holding the boy down while he is killed. The 
important difference is that the boy first laughed and then 
cried. But this appears to be a mistake, for the question 
of the Vetala is merely : " Why did the boy laugh ? " The 
king's reply is the same as in Somadeva. 

In both the original recensions of Sivadasa and the Tamil 
version the boy only laughs, and for exactly the same reason 
as in our present text. 

The Tamil version * (No. 21) has been reduced to a single 
page, and is devoid of all interest or importance. 

The tale contains two distinct motifs, the first being that 
of " Self- Sacrifice " and the second the " Laugh." 

1 Babington, op. cit., pp. 82-83. I fail to understand Bloomfield's note in 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xxxvi, p. 83, where he says the story occurs in no 
version except the Tamil. 



With the first of these we are already well acquainted. 
It has always been a great factor in Buddhist legends, as we 
have seen from the story of Jimutavahana. And is it not 
the foundation-stone on which the whole edifice of Chris- 
tianity has been built ? In the story of Vfravara (Vol. VI, 
p. 191 et seq.) we had another striking example of the motif, 
and my notes on pp. 272 and 273 of the same volume supplied 
many analogues. 

Without discussing the subject further, we can at once 
pass on to the variant of our story found in Dr Behrnauer's 
translation 1 of the Dresden MS. of the Forty Vazirs. Here 
we read of a king from whose foot issued a wasting sweat, for 
the cure of which no remedy could be found. The assembled 
physicians came to the conclusion that the only way to save 
him was for the body of an Indian boy to be split open, and 
the king's foot thrust into the wound. After the boy had 
been duly procured and was about to be split open, he began 
to laugh, and on being asked the reason, replied in a similar 
strain as in our text, but concluded with the following words : 

"... Now, indeed, my parents sell me to the king, and he 
is about to kill me for the healing of his pain, so that thereby 
he may be delivered in this present life ; but what will he 
say in that other world in his justification before the Majesty 
of the Most High ? Now have I found no tenderness in my 
mother, nor any affection in my father, nor yet any justice 
or equity in the king ; whom then shall I implore ? I fly 
for refuge to that God who is an almighty Avenger : for all 
the injustice wrought against me, He will surely take me in 
charge, and cause to be bestowed on me my full right ! " 

At this the king was filled with fear and shame, and, re- 
leasing the boy, warm tears fell from his eyes. The physicians 
thereupon restored the king to health by rubbing his foot 
with the tears. No mention is made of fashioning a golden 
image in the likeness of the boy. In the Bengali version of 
the Vikrama-charita, 2 however, a rich man makes a golden 

1 Die Vierzig Veziere oder Weisen Meister, ein altmorgenl'dndischer Sittcnroman 
aus dem Turkischen ubertragen von Dr. Walter Fr. Adolf Behmauer, Leipzig, 1851. 
See also Gibb's translation, p. 405, and Chauvin, op. cit., viii, p. 179, for several 

2 This version, usually known as the Vararuchi Recension, is ignored by 
Edgerton in his Vikramas Adventures, as being secondary to the Jainistic 
Recension, and of no importance in the reconstruction of the original text. 
See Benfey, Pantschatantra, vol. i, p. 109. 


statue, offering it to anyone who is willing to sacrifice himself. 
Vikrama agrees, and cuts off his head, but is healed by the 

We now come to the second motif in our story, that of 
the " Laugh." Of all methods of expressing human feeling 
or emotion, often sudden and unexpected, none is so general 
as laughter. 1 Certainly people weep for joy as well as for 
sorrow, but a laugh may be actuated by feelings of almost 
unlimited scope. The very act of laughing arouses curiosity 
in others, partly, I suppose, because of the personal nature 
of a laugh, and partly because it creates a feeling of inferi- 
ority that is only removed when the reason for the laugh is 
known. Some laughs are self-explanatory, but many are 
not, and it is here that the story-teller has seen a motif of the 
widest application and endless possibilities. He has not 
contented himself with the obvious use of laughter making 
a character laugh for joy when we should expect him to 
laugh, or to give an ironical laugh when the situation makes 
its omission practically impossible. No, he is far cleverer 
than that ; he makes his characters laugh, perhaps with joy, 
at a time when we would least expect it ; and we, as we read, 
are genuinely anxious to know the cause of the laugh. The 
melodramatic villain's " Ha ! Ha ! ", the nervous laugh of 
the heroine or of the persecuted, the triumphant laugh of 
the victor, the malicious laugh of the wrongdoer, and the 
hysterical laugh of the miserable, need no explanation or 
comment. They merely attest the manifold emotions which 
can be registered through the same medium. 

In Hindu fiction I would divide laughs into two distinct 
varieties : (1) those which clearly show their nature, but 
not the reason which prompted them ; (2) curious and 
mysterious laughs which give no clue either to their real 
nature or their significance. 

1 See, for instance, Thomas Hobbes, Humane Nature, Ldn., 1 650, pp. 101- 
105; ditto, The Leviathan, Ldn., 1651, p. 27; H. Spencer, "The Physiology 
of Laughter," Macmillaris Magazine, March I860, pp. 395-402 (reprinted in 
his Essays, vol. i, pp. 194-209); George Meredith, " On the Idea of Comedy," 
New Quarterly Magazine, April 1877, pp. 1-40; A. Schopenhauer, The World as 
Will and Idea, vol. i, pp. 76-80, sect. 13 ; vol. ii, pp. 270-284 ; H. Bergson, Le 
Rire, Paris, 1924 (see Brereton and Rothwell's trans, from the 1900 edition, 
Ldn., 1911) ; James Sully, An Essay on Laughter, Ldn., 1902 ; C. Lloyd Morgan, 
" Laughter," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vii, pp. 803-805 ; and J. C. 
Gregory, The Nature of Laughter, Ldn., 1924. 



Both varieties are dramatic, the second more than the 
first. It is, of course, the dramatic laugh that becomes such 
a force in the hands of the story-teller. It has been observed 
that, with but very few exceptions, all Biblical laughs are 
dramatic usually of scorn or derision. The innocent laugh 
of joy would nearly always pass unheeded by the chronicler 
or historian, as it would lack the interest necessary to produce 
a dramatic situation. 

Now, in the first category as suggested above would 
come the laugh in the story under discussion. It is quite 
clear that the laugh was a laugh of joy, but the point was 
why did the boy laugh when he was about to be killed ? As 
we shall see later, when discussing the combined " Laugh and 
Cry " motif in Vetala 23, it is much more usual for the laugh 
to show its nature, but not its incentive, when in combination 
with weeping. 

We shall therefore confine ourselves here to a short con- 
sideration of the second category the curious, enigmatic, 
mysterious laugh. 

The first laugh we encountered in the Ocean was a most 
curious and uncanny laugh, without the least clue as to its 
significance the laugh of the dead fish (Vol. I, p. 46). In 
my note on pp. 46 and 47 I added numerous variants of the 
laughing fish, and so need not add anything further here. 
In another place (Vol. V, p. 30) we had a strange paradoxical 
laugh caused by grief. This form, as Bloomfield has pointed 
out, 1 is distinctly rare. The use of the enigmatic laugh to 
illustrate the unswerving laws of karma is well shown in a 
tale in the Jainistic Kathakoga (Tawney, p. 185 et seq.). 

The Princess Madanamanjari chanced to overhear certain 
of her father's courtiers flattering him by saying that their 
luck in enjoying such a fortune of rule was due solely to the 
king, from whose favour it sprang. At this she laughed a 
little, and then remained silent. The king asked his daughter 
the reason of her laughing, saying : " My darling, what is 
this ? " His daughter answered : " My father, these ser- 
vants of yours said what is not true ; for that reason I 
laughed." The king said : " My dear, what is untrue ? " 
She answered : " Their assertion that their happiness springs 
from your favour : that is untrue." The king asked his 
daughter : " Then, my dear, what is true ? " She said : 

1 " On Recurring Psychic Motifs in Hindu Fiction, and the Laugh and 
Cry Motif," Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xxxvi, p. 8 On 47 . 


" Every man fares according to his own actions." When the 
king heard this speech of his daughter in the audience hall 
he flew into a passion, and calling his ministers said this to 
them : " Come, come ! bring some poor leper afflicted with 
disease, and very wretched, as a fit bridegroom for my 
daughter, in order that this Madanamanjarl may be given 
to him, so that she may reap the fruit of her own actions." 

After some trouble the necessary leper was found, but 
Madanamanjari, firmly believing that at the appointed time 
she would enjoy the fruit of her karma, was in no way per- 
turbed. On the contrary, she seemed quite satisfied with 
her father's choice, and behaved like a loving and dutiful 
wife, even offering to carry her diseased husband on her back 
wherever he might want to go. (See the Ocean, Vol. V, 
p. 155ft 2 .) She was duly rewarded by her husband, who 
turned out to be nothing less than a mighty Vidyadhara, 
and soon installed his faithful wife as his queen in a palace 
of purest gold. Needless to say, her father was at last 
convinced of the truth of his daughter's original remark. 

Another story concerned with the workings of fate occurs 
in Stokes' Indian Fairy Tales, p. 114, where there is a triple 
sardonic laugh. A still more enigmatic laugh is that uttered 
by a corpse in the Prabandhacinlamani. 

A prince is out hunting at night, and, in aiming at a boar, 
chances to kneel on the corpse of a thief, that has fallen to 
the ground after impalement, whereupon the corpse cries 
out to him ; but in no way perturbed, the prince shoots his 
arrow, kills the boar, and then turns to the corpse. At this 
it rises up and utters a loud laugh, at the same time granting 
boons to the intrepid prince. No explanation of the laugh 
is given, and its significance is left for the reader to decide. 
The subsequent adventures of the prince point to the laugh 
being one of admiration mixed with ironic glee at the thought 
of the subsequent adventures that were to happen to the 
prince (see Bloomfield, op. cit., p. 84). 

In conclusion I would mention the laugh of trickery and 
deceit. We have an example of this in the story of " Thin- 
thakarala, the Bold Gambler," which occurs in Vol. IX, 
Chapter CXX1. Disguised as an ascetic he has gradually 
won the favour and respect of the king. On one occasion 
he remains for a long time in conversation with him. When 
the king is preparing to depart, a female jackal utters a yell, 
whereupon the sham ascetic laughs ; and being persistently 


asked to explain the reason he tells the king that the jackal 
has told him that a pitcher of jewels is buried at a certain 
place. On going to the spot the king discovers this is true, 
and thus believes in the ascetic more than ever. Needless to 
say, the gambler had previously buried the pitcher himself. 

For further " Trick " motifs see Bloomfield, op. cit, pp. 85, 86. 
On the latter page he mentions a story from Shaikh Chilli's 
Folktales of Hindustan, p. 124, in which a disguised robber 
takes service with an eloped couple, a prince and princess, 
the latter being disguised as a man. He treacherously 
kills the prince, but spares the princess on learning her 
sex. Shortly afterwards she laughs. The robber surlily asks 
her to keep quiet, and demands why she laughs. She points 
to the sky, and says : " Look up, look up, what a beautiful 
kite ! " When he looks up she cuts off his head. 

Anangamanjari, her Husband Manivarman and the Brahman 


(Vetdla 21 pp. 98-104) 

There is but little difference between our text and that 
of the Hindi version 1 (No. 20), as far as the several incidents 
are concerned. There is nothing about the wife disliking 
her husband ; and she must have been a mere child, as she 
only arrives at the age of puberty while he is away on a 
trading expedition. In her frenzy of love for the young 
Brahman she turns to the moon, crying out, " O moon ! I 
have heard that in you resides the water of immortality, and 
that you are pouring out this water by means of your rays, 
but to-day you are pouring out poison on me," and turning 
to her companion, she adds : " Take me hence, for I am 
being consumed by the moon." The ending of the story is 
important, and in my opinion is a great improvement on 
Somadeva. The lovers do not come to life again, thus the 
highly dramatic climax is not lost. The question and answer 
are as in Somadeva. 

The Tamil version 2 (No. 14) is as usual reduced to a 
minimum. The only difference is that the girl had the youth 
as a lover before she was married. 

It will be remembered that in the notes on Vetala 19 
(p. 249) we saw that there was no corresponding tale in the 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 325 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit. y pp. 65, 66. 


Tamil version, and that an entirely different one had been 
substituted instead. This story chances to be a variant of 
the tale now under consideration, so I will reproduce it in 
full : 

"In the city of Shegapuram, as King Natchetiran was 
one day patrolling the streets, he met in his way with some 
robbers [who had plundered a girl of her ornaments, and 
were detaining her as their prisoner in a starving condition. 
The king] 2 attacked and slew them, and after his victory 
lodged the girl in an old temple which was in the vicinity, 
whilst he himself entered the city, in order to cook a meal 
and bring it back to her. 

"A procuress met him on his return, and after soliciting 
him with earnest entreaties to accompany her, under an 
assurance that she would afterwards carry the food to the 
girl, she took him along with her and left him with her 
mistress. The mistress no sooner beheld him than she fell in 
love with him and detained him ; so that he forgot, in her 
society, the poor girl whom he had left in the temple, and 
who was grieving, because the king who had gone to fetch 
food for her had still not returned. 

"Whilst she was in this situation, a merchant chanced to 
perceive her, and taking her away to his own house, placed 
food before her. They were thus enjoying each other's 
company, when he perceived a rat running along, which he 
struck at and killed. Upon this he launched out into many 
various expressions of boastings and vauntings of his own 
courage ; which when she heard, she made the following 
reflections : " Talk you thus big because you have killed a 
rat ! The king who quitted me just now, cut to pieces a band 
of robbers and brought me away ; he made not such a 
mighty swaggering, and yet you must needs talk thus." 
Maintaining such an opinion as this, 3 she was unable to 
endure remaining with such a contemptible wretch, and 
quitted life. Perceiving this, the merchaut, under the in- 
fluence of fear, lest the king who had left her in the temple 
should hear of her death, and should seize on his property 
and kill him, bestowed all his wealth in gifts and charities, 

1 Babington, op. cit., p. 85 et seq. 

2 The words in square brackets are supplied from the context by 
Babington, who suspects an omission in the text. 

3 Cf. Ocean, Vol. V, p. 24. 



and destroyed himself. Then the king who had abandoned 
her, recalling her to mind, went and searched in the place 
where he had lodged her, but being unable to find her was 
grievously afflicted, and destroyed himself. The procuress 
hearing the news, and reflecting that it was through her 
means that these three persons had lost their lives, likewise 
destroyed herself." 

The Vetala naturally asks which of the four deaths was 
the most extraordinary, to which the king replies : " The 
rest died through excess of passion [i.e. contempt, fear and 
sorrow respectively] ; the death of the procuress was the most 
extraordinary . ' ' 

The story of the three deaths through love is distinctly 
dramatic and not without pathos. This is not the first time 
that such deaths have occurred in the Ocean (see Vol. II, 
pp. 8-10), and many analogues could be cited. I have 
already given a number in a note in Vol. II, p. 9n 2 9 lOn ; the 
only other triple death I know of being in a tale in the Nights 
(Burton, vol. v, p. 134). As I mentioned in the note referred 
to, death was the last, or tenth, stage of love in Hindu ethics 
as listed by Vatsyayana in the Kama Sutra. 

The Four Brahman Brothers who resuscitated the Lion 
{Vetala 22 pp. 108-111) 

In the Hindi version l (No. 21) we find that the four 
brothers are all the despair of their unhappy father. The 
eldest was a gambler ; the second, a wencher ; the third, a 
fornicator ; the fourth, an atheist. One day he began to say 
to his sons : " Whoever is a gambler, Fortune enters not 
his house." The eldest son was troubled in mind at this. 
Again the father said : " It is written in the 'Rajniti' that 
' Cutting off a gambler's nose and ears, drive him out of the 
country, that he may thus prove an example to others. And 
though a gambler's wife and children are in the house, do 
not consider them to be so, since it is not known when they 
will be lost. And those who are fascinated by the allure- 
ments of courtesans are storing grief for themselves; and, 
being in the power of harlots, give up their property, and at 
last commit theft.' And it has also been said that * The 
wise keep aloof from women who can fascinate a man in a 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 333 et seq. 


second ; and the unwise, forming an affection for her, forfeit 
their truthfulness, good disposition, good name, their way of 
life and mode of thought, their vows and their religion. And 
to such the advice of their spiritual preceptors comes amiss.' 
And it is also said : ' He who has lost all sense of shame, fears 
not to disgrace another.' And it is a proverb that : 'A wild 
cat who devours its own young ones is not likely to let a rat 
escape.' " 

He continued : " Those who have not read science in 
their boyhood, and in youth, agitated by love, have re- 
mained in the pride of youth, in their old age feel regret, and 
are burned up by the fire of avarice." 

The brothers repent of their evil ways, and set out for 
another city, where they acquire great learning. On their 
way home they meet a Kanjar, who, having tied in a bundle 
the skin and bones of a tiger which he had found dead, is 
about to depart. They think that here is a chance to put 
their learning to a test, and accordingly do so. The rest 
follows as in Somadeva. 

In the Tamil version 1 (No. 15) the brothers chance to be 
travelling together on business, and, in return for kindness 
to an ascetic, are given the power of raising the dead to life. 
They come across a dead tiger, and experiment as in our text. 

We are not surprised to find the lion changed into a tiger, 
as the former is scarce in India and appears little in Hindu 
fiction. 2 

We have in this story merely a variety of the " Resusci- 
tation " motif already discussed in the notes on Vetala 2 
(Vol. VI, p. 262 et seq.). It is closely allied to the " Joint 
Efforts " motif (Vetala 5, Vol. VI, p. 273 et seq.), but this is 
not always the case, as the resuscitation may be achieved 
by a single individual. Thus in the Bahdr-i-Ddnish 3 we 
read, in the " History of the Prince of Futtun and the Princess 
Mherbanou," of a venerable sage who was met by the prince 
and his wonder-working companions, as they were journey- 
ing in search of the princess. His locks were white, and he 
was bent in stature like a violet. He was sitting at the foot 
of a tree putting together the separated skeleton of a cow, 
on which he poured water. Immediately on sprinkling the 

1 Babington, op. cit., pp. 67, 68. 

2 See Ocean j Vol. I, p. 67 'n l . Tawney, by mistake, wrote "Tiger" instead 
of "Lion" in the heading to the story (Vol. II, p. 348). 

3 Scott's translation, vol. ii, pp. 290, 291. 


water, the various blood vessels and members reunited, and 
the flesh and skin reappeared on the decayed frame. . . . 
By command of the Almighty Lord of Power, one of whose 
peculiar properties is to raise the dead, life revisited the 
animal, and instantly standing up, she began to low. The 
truth of the sacred text ("All things live by water ") was 

The story as given in Benfey's Pantschatantra (vol. ii, 
p. 332) is somewhat different. Here we have four brothers, 
of whom three possess all knowledge, but only one possesses 
common sense. The first brother joins together the bones 
of the lion, the second covers them with skin, flesh and 
blood, the third is about to give the animal life, when the 
brother who possesses common sense says : " If you raise 
him to life he will kill us all." Finding that the third 
brother will not desist from his intention, he climbs up a 
tree, and so saves his life, while his three brothers are torn 
to pieces. 

The Hermit who first Wept and then Danced 
(Vetdla 23 pp. 112-115) 

Both the Hindi and the Tamil 2 (No. 22 in each case) 
are greatly abbreviated and much poorer versions of our 
text ; they exhibit no alternate reading or fresh incidents. 
The two motifs contained in the story are " Entering Another's 
Body " and the " Laugh and Cry." Both have been discussed 
so fully and competently by Professor Bloomfield 3 that any 
remarks I may have to make must be little more than 

With regard to the first motif I would refer readers to 
the notes already given in Vol. I, pp. 37-38, and especially 
Vol. IV, pp. 46-48. 

As previously pointed out (p. 253), the " Laugh and Cry " 
motif is one in which each display of emotion shows its 
nature but not its incentive. I mean that the laugh is 
caused by the feeling of joy, and the tears by grief. This is 
not the case with the laugh alone, which is a mighty weapon 
in the hands of the story-teller, as we have already seen. The 

1 Barker, op. cit., p. 338 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit., p. 84. 

3 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc vol. lvi, 43 Jf., and Journ. Amen Orient. Soc., vol. 
xxxvi, pp. 69-79. 


laugh and cry coming together excite, by their paradoxical 
contact, not only pathos and sympathy, but also humour, 
curiosity and mystery. 

In Vetala 14 the thief weeps because he cannot repay the 
merchant's kindness, and laughs because he is so astonished 
to think how unfathomable is the heart of woman that she 
chooses a condemned thief as her husband after rejecting kings. 
It is not so much that either the weeping and laughing was 
curious in itself, or even that they both followed immediately 
one on the other, but that a man about to be impaled should 
exhibit emotions so diametrically opposed. It is this that forms 
such an important and dramatic incident in the story. So also 
in our present tale, but to a lesser extent. In the numerous 
and varied examples of the motif given by Bloomfield, 
the explanation of the person's conduct is often due to the 
powers of reading future events, and the weeping is nearly 
always sympathetic. The Ocean appears to supply more 
examples of the motif than other works of Hindu fiction. 

It has found its way into many modern collections, such 
as those by Fleeson, Day, Swynnerton, Knowles, Temple, 
Natesa Sastri, etc. One use of the motif in Swynnerton's 
Romantic Tales from the Panjdb, p. 203 et seq., is very curious, 
being a mixture of drama and comedy. 

Raja Rasalu was on his way to fight the giants of Gand- 
garh, when he arrived at a deserted city. Amazed at the 
solitude, he stood in an open space and surveyed the scene. 
Just then he caught sight of some smoke issuing from a dis- 
tant corner, and making his way to it he saw there a miserable 
old woman kneading and baking quantities of bread and 
preparing abundance of sweetmeats, but all the time she 
was either weeping or laughing. Surprised at a spectacle so 
extraordinary, Rasalu halted and said : " Mother, in this 
solitary place who is to eat all that food, and why are you 
both weeping and laughing ? " " The king of this palace," 
said the woman, " is Kashudeo, and he has ordered that 
a human being, a buffalo and four hundred pounds of bread 
shall be sent daily to a certain place for the giants. Once 
I had seven sons, of whom six have been devoured, and 
to-day it is the turn of the seventh, and to-morrow it will be 
the turn of myself. This is my trouble and it makes me cry. 
But I am laughing because also to-day my seventh son was 
to have been married, and because his bride ha ! ha ! 
will have now to do without him." 



The Father that married the Daughter and the Son that 
married the Mother 

(Vetdla 24 pp. 116-121) 

In Somadeva's version of the Vetdlapanchavimsati the 
story of the mixed relations forms No. 24, at the end of which 
the Vetala, getting no answer from the king, warns him of 
the evil intentions of the mendicant. This is the last story 
of the collection, but there is still another one left to form 
the complete twenty-five. However, Somadeva, or rather 
the Kashmirian compilers, merely relate Vikrama's adven- 
tures with the mendicant, and call it Vetala 25. Now, in the 
Hindi version x the same predicament presented itself, but a 
different plan was adopted. The " Laugh and Cry " story 
is repeated, with hardly any difference, as No. 24, while our 
No. 24 becomes the Hindi No. 25. The conclusion is abbre- 
viated, and follows on at the end of the story. In the Tamil 2 
no attempt is made to get over the difficulty, and our Nos. 24 
and 25 form the Tamil No. 24, with which that version ends. 

The Hindi version of the story of the mixed relationships 
follows that of Somadeva, although much abbreviated. The 
Tamil begins differently : 

King Senapati, having determined on travelling round the 
world, left his wife and his daughter and set out on his tour. 
Without his knowledge his wife and daughter followed him, 
and as they were travelling along missed their way ; so, not 
knowing which way he had gone, they took that which lay 
straight before them. As they proceeded on their journey 
it began to rain, and they therefore put up in a choultry. 
They then pursued their journey on beyond it, when two 
Brahmans, a father and son, who were travelling along that 
road, observing their footsteps, said to each other : " These 
appear like the footsteps of some females or other; let us 
therefore follow them. ..." 

The tale then agrees with oi*r version. The advice of the 
Vetala given to the king is wisely taken, and forms, as stated 
above, the last story. 

1 Barker, op. cit. } p. 357 et seq. 

2 Babington, op. cit. } pp. 87-90. 


Conclusion of King Trivikramasena and the Mendicant 
(Vetdla 25 pp. 122-125) 

The only motif contained here, apart from the employ- 
ment of black magic, is that generally known as " Pretended 
Ignorance." We had an example of it in No. 8a, where 
the cunning witch, Siddhikari (Vol. I, p. 157), is pursued by 
a certain Domba, with his drum, with the intention of rob- 
bing her. In time the intended thief catches her up, and 
she explains that she is about to hang herself, and asks the 
Domba to fasten the noose for her to a tree. This he does ; 
whereupon she pretends to be ignorant of the way of putting 
the noose round her neck. He stands on his drum to show 
her how to do it, when she kicks it away, and so he hangs. 

The motif in these two stories has travelled far and wide, 
and is found in numerous collections both in the East and 
the West. Perhaps the best-known tale in which it occurs 
is " Hansel and Grethel," * where, after the children are 
about to be devoured by the witch, Grethel is told to climb 
in the oven to see if it is warm enough to bake the bread. 
Suspecting her evil designs, Grethel pretends she does not 
know how to do it. " Silly goose ! " says the old woman, 
" the door is big enough ; just look, I can get in myself," 
and she creeps up and thrusts her head into the oven. Then 
Grethel gives her a push that drives her far into it, and shuts 
the iron door and fastens the bolt. 

For numerous variants see Saintyves, Les Contes de 
Perrault, pp. 276-281 and 371-374 ; and Cosquin, Etudes 
Folkloriques, pp. 351-356. 

1 See Grimm, No. 15, Bolte, op. cit., p. 115 et seq. 




Showing Order of Tales of the Vetalapanchavhhsati in its Three 
Chief Translations 

Somadeva, Ocean, Vol. VI, pp. 168-221 



1. How the Prince obtained a Wife 



2. Three Young Brahmans 



3. King and Two Wise Birds 



4. Adventures of Viravara . 



5. Somaprabha and Three Suitors 



6. Lady and the Changed Heads . 



7. King's Dependent and the Nereid 



8. Three Fastidious Men . 



Ocean, Vol. VII, pp. 1-125 

9. Anangarati and Four Suitors . 


(9) 1 

10. Madanasena s Rash Promise 



11. Three very Sensitive Wives 



12. King Yasabketu and his Wife . 



13. Harisvamin and his Bad Luck . 



14. Merchant's Daughter and Thief 



15. Magic Pill 



16. Sacrifice of Jimutavahana 



17. Beautiful Unmadini 



18. Brahman's Son and Magic Power 



19. The Thief's Son ... 



20. Brahman Boy's Sacrifice 



21. Anangamanjari and Kamalakara 



22. Four Brothers and the Lion 



23. Hermit who Wept and Danced 



24. Curious Relationships ^ 

25 3 


25. Conclusion J 

The order of the tales in the Marathi version is exactly the same as that 
in the Hindi version, on which all the other vernacular translations are based. 

1 An entirely different story. 

2 Not translated by Babington. 

3 In order to complete the number of tales, 22 is repeated with very 
slight differences as 24. 

4 There is no 25 in the Tamil version. 



In conclusion I append a short Bibliography of the 
Vetdlapanchavirhsati, several items of which have been 
already mentioned in briefer form in the notes to the 
Appendices of Vols. VI and VII. 

1. Sivaddsa: 
Luber, A. 

Sanskrit Versions 

Der Vetdlapancavingati oder FiXnf- 
undzwanzig Erzdhlungen eines 
Dcemon. Erster Teil. Nach ivi- 
dasa's [sic] Redaction [in Lassen's 
Anthologia Sanscritica] aus dem 
Sanskrit iibersetzt, mit Einleitung, 
Anmerkungen und Nachweisen 
von ... I. Abteilung . . . 

Gorz, 1875. 

Uhle, H. 

Die Vetdlapancavingatika in den 
Recensionen des Qivaddsa und eines 
Ungenannten, mit Kritischem 
Commentar herausgegeben von 
. . . Abhandlungen fur die Kunde 
des Morgenlandes herausgegeben 
von der Deutschen Morgenland- 
ischen Gesellschaft . . . vol. viii, 
pp. xxx + 1-236. 

Leipzig, 1884. 

Krishnanatha K, 

The Vetal Panchvishi or The 
Twenty-five Stories of Vetal. Trans- 
lated by . . . from the Sanskrit 
of Dhewdas [or rather Sivadasa] 

Bombay, 1890. 
In the original edition of 1825 the 
name of the compiler is given as 


[Fumi, F. G.] 

Bettei, V. 

Bettei, V. 

Uhle, H. 

2. Jambhaladatta : 

Novelle del Vetdla (Novella i-v). 
Tradotte dal sanscrito. Archivio 
per lo Studio delle Tradizioni 
Popolari, vol. xi, pp. 1-28. 

Palermo, 1892. 

6 Novelle Soprannumerarie alia 
Vetdlapancavigati. Archivio per lo 
Studio delle Tradizioni Popolari, 
vol. xiii, pp. 313-325, 537-554. 

Torino-Palermo, 1894. 

Vetdlapancavimgatikd. II venti- 
cinquenovelle d'un lemure. [Trans- 
lated into Italian from Sivadasa's 
recension, with critical notes, 
by . . .] Studi Italiani di Filologia 

Florence, 1897-1909. 
The translation appears, with con- 
tinuous pagination, in the Appen- 
dices of vols, i, ii, iii, vi and vii. 

Die Vetdlapancavimsatikd des Siva- 
ddsa nach einer Handschrift von 
1487 (Samv. 1544). Text mit krit- 
ischem Apparat nebst einer Inhalt- 
sangabe der Erzahlungen von . . . 
Berichte uber die Verhandlungen der 
Koniglich sdchsischen Gesellschaft 
der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 
Philologisch - Historische Klasse. 
Vol. lxvi, pp. 3-87, 1914. 

Vetala Panchavinshati ; or, Twenty- 
five Tales related by a Vampire to 
Rajah Vikramaditya. Compiled [or 
rather edited] by Pandit . . . 

Calcutta, 1873. 



3. More than one Recension : 

Uhle, H. 

Programm des Gymnasiums zum 
heiligen Kreuz in Dresden . . . 
Erste Abtheilung. Die fiinfzehnte 
[or rather 23rd] Erzdhlung der Vetd- 
lapantchavingati. Sanskrit Text 
[in three recensions viz. Siva- 
dasa's, Jambhaladatta's and an 
anonymous one] mit Uebersetzung 
und Anmerkungen von . . . 

Dresden, 1877. 

Hindi and other Vernacular Versions 

Lallu Lai. 

Buetal Pucheesee ; being a collection 
of twenty-five stories . . . translated 
into Hindoostanee [or rather Hindi] 
from the Brij Bhakka of Soorut 
Kubeeshwur; by Muzhur Ulee 
Khani Vila, and Shree Lulloo Lai 
Kub. Calcutta, 1805. 

Several subsequent editions were 
published in Calcutta e.g. 1809, 
1830, 1834, 1849. An abridged 
version appeared in Benares [n.d.], 
revised and edited by V. H. Sarma, 
while a complete one was pub- 
lished in Allahabad in 1903. 

Babington, B. G. 

The Veddla Cadai, being the Tamul 
Version of a Collection of Ancient 
Tales in the Sanscrit Language; 
Popularly known throughout India, 
and entitled The Vetdla Pancha- 

Miscellaneous Translations from 
Oriental Languages, vol. i. 

London, 1831. 


Kali Krishna. 


Lancereau, E. 

Barker, W. B. 

Hollings, W. 

Bytal Puchisi; or the Twenty-five 
Tales of Bytal. Translated from 
the Brujbhakha into English by 
Rajah Kalee-Krishen Behadur. 

Calcutta, 1834. 

[Vetdlapanchavimsati. The Baital 
Pacifist, or Tales of a Demon. 
Translated from the Hindi by . . .] 
Calcutta, 1846. 
Numerous editions. The second 
was published in 1851 and the 
tenth in 1876. 

Other editions: Calcutta, 1910 
and 1911. 

Extraits du Betdl-patchisi (traduit) 
par M. . . . Journal Asiatique, 
Serie IV, vol. xviii, pp. 15-36, 
366-410 ; vol. xix, pp. 333-365. 

Paris, 1851-1852. 

The Baital Pachisi ; or, Twenty-five 
Tales of a Demon. A new edition 
of the Hindi text, with each word 
expressed in the Hindustani char- 
acter . . . by . . . Edited by 
E. B. Eastwick. 

Hertford, 1855. 
A new edition with a vocabulary 
by D. Forbes appeared in London, 
1857. Other editions were : Bom- 
bay, 1857; Agra, 1860; Agra, 
1862, and Bombay, 1868. 

The Bytal Pueheesee. Translated 
into English by . . . 

Calcutta, 1860. 
Other editions : Calcutta, 1866 ; 
Allahabad, 1894 and 1900. 



Sadasiv Chhatre. 

Baital pachisi; or, Twenty-five 
Tales of a Demon. Translated from 
the Hindi by Sadasiva Kasinatha 
Chhatre. Bombay, 1862. 

Other editions : Bombay, 1862 and 
1889 ; Poona, 1875 and 1880. 

Bhola Nath. 

Burton, R. F. 

Vikramavildsa. A metrical version 
of the Baitdl-pachisi, or Twenty-five 
Stories of King Vikramdditya. By 
Bholanatha Chaube. 

Mainpuri, 1867. 
Another edition appeared in Luck- 
now, 1870. 

Vikram and the Vampire ; or, Tales 
of Indian Devilry. Adapted by . . . 
Fraser's Magazine, vols, lxxvii and 
lxxviii, 1868. 

It appeared in book form as Vik- 
ram and the Vampire, or Tales of 
Hindu Devilry, London, 1870, and 
was reprinted in the "Memorial 
Edition " of 1893. 

Platts, J. 

Harajivana U. 

Oesterley, H. 

The Baital Pachisi, or The Twenty- 
five Tales of a Sprite. Translated 
from the Hindi text of D. Forbes 
by . . . London, 1871. 

Baitdl-pachisi. Twenty-five Tales 
of a Demon. Translated by . . . 
and Balakrishnadasa Garigadasa. 
Bombay, 1872. 

Baital Pachisi oder die funfund- 
zwanzig Erzdhlungen eines Damon. 
In deutscher Bearbeitung mit 
Einleitung, Anmerkungen und 



Oesterley, H. 

[Kalidasa Gupta.] 

[Deveze, G.] 

Andersson, H. 

Ryder, A. W. 

Kincaid, C. A. 

Nachweisen von . . . Bibliothek 
Orientalischer Marchen und Er- 
zahlungen . . . Leipzig, 1873. 

[Vetdlapanchavimsati. Translated 
into Bengali verse by . . .] 

[Calcutta, 1879.] 
New editions : Calcutta, 1911 and 

Le Bditdl Paccisi conies Hindis. 
[Translated into French, with an 
introductory preface, by . . .] {Le 
Museon, torn, xi.) 

Louvain, 1892, etc. 

Likspokets Tjugufem Berdttelser. 
Goteborgs Kungl. Vetenskaps- och 
Vitterhetssamhdlles Handlingar, 4 
foljden, iii. Gothenburg, 1901. 

Twenty-two Goblins. Translated 
from the Sanskrit. 

London and Toronto, 1917. 

Tales of King Vikrama. 

Oxford University Press, 1921. 



The n stands for "note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

Abhaichand, a Jain minister, 

204, 205 
Abhaya, minister named, 201 
Adityas, 174 
Afzal Khan, 216ft 2 
Agaladatta ( Agadadatta), 219, 

Agastya, hermit named, 166, 

166ft 2 , 174 
Agni (the God of Fire), 27 
Agra, 229; and Oudh, the 

provinces of, 2ft 1 
Ahiparaka, 242, 243 
Aksha seeds, rosary of, 135 
Alaka, the capital of Kuvera, 
72, 142, 142ft 1 ; city called, 
137, 142, 142W 1 , 142-145, 
148, 149, 151, 152, 158, 
Alakesa Katkd, the, 215 
Alaknanda, the river, 2ft 1 
Alburz, Mount, 56ft 
Algum or Almug trees, 106 
'All 'Aziz, Story of Jewdd, 
248. See also under Gibb, 
E. J. W. 
Allahabad, 84ft 2 
Al-Mufaddal ibn Salama, col- 
lection of proverbs called 
the Fdkhir, 225 
Al-Zahra, a sex-changing 

spring, 224 
Amaradatta, King, father of 
Mrigankadatta, 172, 183, 
186, 190, 191 
Amaravati, city called, 71 
Amba (Amva), daughter of 

the King of Kasi, 223ft 2 
Ambika, the goddess, 61, 83 
Anangamanjari, her Husband 
Manivarman, and the Brah- 
man Kamalakara, 98, 98ft 1 , 
99-104, 256-258 
Anangapura. city called, 5 
Anangarati and her Four 

Suitors, 1, 1ft 3 , 2-4, 199 
Ananta, the serpent, 129ft 5 


Andromeda cycle of stories, 

the, 227 
Anga, the land of, 13, 13ft 2 - 3 , 

15, 17, 19, 20, 23 
Angiyd or kurtd, bodice used 

in Kashmir, 210ft 3 
Anjana, black pigment applied 

to the eyes, 168ft 5 
Anjana mountain, the, 168 
Anonymous [" Sandal-wood"], 

The Practical Magazine, 

vol. vii, Ldn., December 

1877, 107 
Anonymous ["The True 

Sandalwood of India "], 

Scientific American, vol. cviii, 

New York, June 1913, 107 
Apaharavarman, the Robin 

Hood of Indian fiction, 201 
Apollodorus, Library, 227, 

228ft 1 , 230ft 3 . See also 

under Frazer, J. G. 
Apollonius Rhodius, Argon- 

autica, 228ft 1 
Apologus (Obollah of Saracen 

times), 106 
Apsarases (servants of the 

gods), 90 
Arabia, the tenth Vetala story 

in, 203, 203ft 5 
Ardhanarlsvara form of Siva, 

the, 232 
Arescon, formerly called Ares- 

cusa, 232 
Arescusa, a girl turned into 

a boy, 232 
Argha or arghya, an oblation 

to gods and venerable men, 

53, 123, 123ft 1 , 136 
Aristotle, on change of sex, 

230; History of the Con- 
stitution of Sybaris, 207 
Arjuna (or Karttavirya, one 

of the Pandavas), 52ft 3 , 87, 

129ft 2 , 162ft 3 , 168, 168ft*; 

and the Narmada, Note on, 


Arjuna," white," 162ft 3 ; trees, 

129, 129ft 2 , 162, 162ft 3 
Armeno, collection of stories 

of Cristoforo, 210, 210ft* 
Arthadatta, merchant named, 

5, 98 
Arthasdstra, Kautilya, 15ft 3 , 
_ 218, 218ft 1 
Asan of white lotuses, an, 

Ashrafls, a hundred, 249 
Ashtar(t), the goddess, 231 
Asoka, 33ft 1 
Asoka tree, 54, 88, 100, 117, 

Asuras (enemies of the gods), 

124, 131, 155 
Asvattha tree, 91, 92, 95 
Athena naked, Tiresias 

blinded by seeing, 228 
Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, 206, 

206ft 3 , 207. See also under 

Yonge, C. D. 
Athtar, originally Ashtar(t) 

or Ishtar, 232 
Avanti, the land of, 1, 191 
Ayodhya, city called, 35, 130, 

172, 183, 185, 186, 187, 

192, 202 
'Aziz, 'Ali, Story of Jewdd, 248 

Babington, B. G., The Veddla 
Cadai, being the Tamul 
Version of a Collection of 
Ancient Tales in the Sanscrit 
Language, Ldn., 1831, 199, 
200, 200ft 1 , 204ft 2 , 211ft 2 , 
212ft 2 , 216ft 1 - 2 , 222ft 2 , 234ft 1 , 
241ft 2 , 245ft 1 , 250ft 1 , 251ft 1 , 
256ft 2 , 257ft 1 - 2 , 259ft 1 , 260ft 2 , 
262ft 2 , 264ft 2 

Babu Sheo Narain Trivedi on 
Gaya, 85ft 

Badan, the agreement be- 
tween the Rajas Hara and, 
229, 230 

Badarlnath, 2ft 1 



Baghnakh or wagnuck, weapon 
for catching thieves, 216w 2 

Baka, Rakshasa named, 235 

Baladhara, a commander-in- 
chief, 67, 68 

Bali, King, 36, 98, 98w 2 

Banaras or Kasi i.e. Benares, 
29w 2 

Bandhudatta turning her 
lover into a monkey, 44w x 

Bandow, C. J., The Precedents 
of Princess Thoodamma 
fsari, Rangoon, 1881, 203w 2 

Banyan-tree, 32, 80, 121 

Baranasi or Varanasi (Ben- 
ares), 29n 2 

Barddhaman, a city, 204 

Baring-Gould, S., Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages, 
new ed., Ldn., Oxford and 
Cambridge, 1869, 52rc 2 

Barker, W. B., and Eastwick, 
E. B., The Baitdl Pachlsl, 
or Twenty-five Tales of a 
Demon, Hertford, 1855, 
199n 1 -2,204* 1 ,211 1 ,212 1 , 
215W 1 , 222ft 1 , 233n 3 , 241m 1 , 
244w 2 , 249rc 3 , 250w 2 , 256m 1 , 
258ft 1 , 260ft 1 , 262ft 1 

Barnett, L. D., translation 
made by, 140ft 1 ; translation 
of twelve slokas of Kshe- 
mendra's Brihat-katha-man- 
jarl, 64, 65 ; Antiquities of 
India, Ldn., 1913, 26,187n 1 ; 
The Golden Town and other 
Tales, Ldn., 1909, 137ft 1 ; A 
Supplementary Catalogue of 
Sanskrit . . . Books in the 
British Museum, Ldn., 1908, 
237ft 2 

Barth, A., The Religions of 
India, trans. J. Wood, 
2nd ed., Ldn., 1889, 85ft 

Bartsch, K., Herzog Ernst, 
Vienna, 1869, 189w 2 

Barygaza,the modern Broach, 

Basdeo or Vasuki, king of the 
snakes, 236 

Bastian, A., Geographische und 
ethnographischeBilder, Jena, 
1873, 208ft 1 

Bateswar (Bateshar), 229, 
229m 1 

Beal, S., Buddhist Records of 
the Western World, 2 vols., 
Ldn., 1884, 237ft 2 , 238m 1 ; 
The Life of Hiuen Tsiang 
by the Shaman Hwui Li, 
popular ed., Ldn., 1914, 106 

Behram, King, 210, 211 

Behrnauer, W. Fr. A., Die 
Vierzig Veziere oder Weisen 
Meister, ein altmorgenldnd- 
ischer Sittenroman, Leipzig, 
1851, 252, 252ft 1 

Benares, 27, 29ft 2 , 220 

Benfey, Theodor, Pantscha- 
tantra, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1859, 
213, 252ft 2 , 260 

Bengal Bihar, the country 
of the sugar-cane, 15ft 1 

Bennayada, Muladeva, King 
of, 218, 219 

Bergson, H., Le Rire, Paris, 
1924, 253ft 1 

Bhaduria Rajas, the, 229, 

Bhagalpur, 13ft 2 

Bhairava, 162 

Bharai.e. 20 tulds, 187, 
187ft 1 , 188 

Bhashajna, Vaisya named, 3 

BhavanI, 179 

Bhillas, 117, 155, 158, 159, 
165, 167 

Bhima (terrible), 162ft 3 , 168ft 3 , 

Bhimabhuja, minister of Sun- 
darasena, 137, 147, 148, 
154, 159 

Bhlmaparakrama, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 128, 130, 
165, 169, 183, 184, 190 

Bhishma, 223, 223ft 2 

Bhogavati, city called, 1, 71 

Bhutas (demons), 1, lft 2 

Bilaspur, 230 

Bimba lips, 10, 10ft 2 

Birlinger, A., Aus Schwaben, 
2 vols., Wiesbaden, 1874, 
21ft 3 

Bloomfield, M. ["On the Art 
of Entering Another's 
Body "], Proc. Amer. Phil. 
Soc, vol. lvi, 1917, 260ft 3 ; 
"The Art of Stealing in 
Hindu Fiction," Amer. 
Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, 
164ft 1 , 201, 201ft 1 , 203ft 1 , 
218ft 2 , 220; ["The Char- 
acter and Adventures of 
Muladeva "] Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, vol. Hi, 1913, 
220ft 1 ; The Life and Stories 
of the Jaina Savior Parc- 
vanatha, Baltimore, 1919, 
203, 203ft 1 , 213; "On 
Recurring Motifs in Hindu 
Fiction," Journ. Amer. 
Orient. Soc, vol. xxx, 191ft 1 ; 

Bloomfield, M. continued 
" On Recurring Psychi 
Motifs in Hindu Fiction- 
the Laugh and Cry Motif, 1 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc. 
vol. xxxvi, 251ft 1 , 254 
254ft 1 , 255, 256, 260ft 3 
Boccaccio, Decameron, 203 
203ft 8 ; Filocolo, 203, 203ft 
Bodhisattva, incarnation o 

a, 49, 58, 61 
Bohn's Classical Library 
206/i 2 , 232ft 1 

Bohtlingk, O., and Roth, R 
[Sanskrit Dictionary], 1852- 
1875, 31ft 2 , 33ft 1 , 85ft 1 
112ft 2 , 146w 2 , 177ft 3 

Bolte, J., Fischer, H., and 
Die Reise der S'dhne Giaffen 
aus dem Italienischen da 
Christoforo Armeno ubersetzt 
durch Johann Wetzel, 1583, 
Tubingen, 1895, 210ft 4 

Bolte, J., and Polivka, G., 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Bruder 
Grimm, 3 vols., Leipzig, 
1913-1918, 209ft 1 , 263ft 1 

Bombay district, belief in 
sex-changing in the, 229 

Bostock, J., and Riley, H. T., 
The Natural History of 
Pliny, Bohn's Classical 
Library, 6 vols., Ldn., 
1855-1856, 232, 232ft 1 

Brahma, 26, 27, 62, 84ft 3 , 96, 

Brahmagranthi, a knot on 
the sacred thread, 27 

Brahmasthala, a royal grant 
called, 108 

Brereton, C, and Rothwell, 
F., Laughter (trans, of 
Bergson's Le Rire, 1900), 
Ldn., 1911, 253wi 

Brihaspati, the minister of 
Indra, 13 

Brihat-katha, the, 236 

Brihat-katha-manjarl, Kshe- 
mendra, 64 

Broach, the old Barygaza, 
106, 107 

Bfrockhaus] text of the 
K.S.S., 16ft 1 , 21m 1 , 22ft 1 , 
55ft 2 , 60ft 1 , 68ft 1 , 78ft 3 , 93ft 2 , 
108ft 2 , 125ft 2 , 129ft, 153ft 1 , 
158ft 2 , 164ft 3 , 167ft 1 , 170n 4 , 
189ft 1 

Brunet, G., Utlite des Contes 
du Sieur d'Ouville, 2 vol 
Paris, 1883, 209ft 2 



Buddha, 149ft 1 ; figures of 
sandalwood, 106 ; and the 
sage Ida in female form, 
the union of, 46 

Buddhaghosha? s Parables, 244 

Burlingame, E. W., Buddhist 
Legends, Harvard Orient 
Series, 3 vols., 203, 203ft 2 

Burnell, A. C, Yule, H., and, 
Hobson-Jobson : being A 
Glossary of Anglo-Indian 
Colloquial Words and 
Phrases, Ldn., 1886, 107 

Burton, R. F., // Pentamerone, 
or The Tale of Tales . . . 
of Giovanni Battista Basile, 
2 vols., Ldn., 1893, 42ft 1 , 
162/t 1 ; " Notes on an Her- 
maphrodite," Mem. Anth. 
Soc. Ldn., vol. ii, 233ft 1 ; 
The Thousand Nights and 
a Night, 10 vols., Kama- 
shastra Society, Benares, 
1885, 1886; Supplemental 
Nights . . ., 6 vols., 1886- 
1888, 24ft 1 , 56w, 88ft 2 , 203, 
217, 224, 224ft 3 , 245, 249, 

[Busk, R. H.] Sagas from 
the Far East; or Kalmouk 
and Mongolian Traditionary 
Tales, Ldn., 1873, 235ft 2 . 

Caeneus, one of the Lapithae, 

Caenis, the prayer of, 228 

Cailasam, 217 

Cambridge edition of the 
Jdtaka, 162ft 1 , 220, 221ft 1 , 

Campbell, J. M., Gazetteer of 
the Bombay Presidency, 26 
vols., Bombay, 1896, 26, 

Cassicius, L., a citizen of 
Thysdris, 232 

Cassius Longinus, C, Roman 
consul, 232 

Cazotte, Jacques, and Chavis, 
Dom [Les Veillees du Sultan 
Schahriar . . . ], Le Cabinet 
des Fees, vols, xxxviii-xli, 
Geneva, 1788-1793, 245, 
245ft 4 

" C.B." [" What I saw of the 
Sandal- Wood Trade "], The 
Leisure Hour, Ldn., Sept- 
ember 1869, 107 

Chaitra, the month of, 

Chakravdkas, 5, 5ft 3 , 30 


Chamberlain, B. H. [" Ko- 
Ji-Ki ... or Records of 
Ancient Matters "], Trans. 
As. Soc. Japan, vol. x, 
Supp., Yokohama, 1882, 
238, 238ft 2 

Champa, woman's complexion 
like the, 199 

Champapuri, the capital of 
Anga, 13ft 2 

Chandalas, the, 168 

Chandana, u refreshing/' 105 

Chandaprabha, minister of 
Siindarasena, 137, 145, 147, 
148, 159 

Chandasimha, 117, 118, 118ft 1 , 

Chandi, the goddess, 100, 103 

Chandra of Alwar, Pandit 
Rama, 164ft 1 

Chandraprabha, king named, 
72 ; King, 82-84, 86 

Chandraprabha, wife of Yasa- 
hketu, 40 

Chandrasvamin, 142 ; son of 
Devasvamin, 72-77 

Chandravaloka, king named, 
87, 90, 93, 95 

Chandravati, wife of Dharma, 

Chanmrosh (chamrosh), a myth- 
ological bird, 56ft 

Chariclo, a nymph, 227 

Charitra, Parsvanatha, the, 202 

Chaturika ("Prudence"), 

Chaucer, Franklin s Tale, 203, 

Chauvin, Victor, Bibliographic 
desOuvrages Arabes, 11 vols., 
Liege and Leipzig, 1892- 
1909, 52ft 2 , 82ft 1 , 160ft 1 , 
203ft5, 213, 224ft 2 , 252ft 1 

Chavada king of Pattan, the, 

Chavis, Dom, Cazotte, 
Jacques, and [Les Veillees 
du Sultan Schahriar . . .], 
Le Cabinet des Fees, vols, 
xxxviii-xli, Geneva, 1788- 
1793, 245, 245ft* 

Chenab Valley, figures of the 
Naga Raja and his Vezier 
in the, 236 

Chilli, Shaik, Folk-Tales of 
Hindustan, 2nd ed., Alla- 
habad, 1913, 256 

China, sandalwood by mistake 
attributed to, 107 

Chitrakuta, city called, 87, 
87w 2 , 93, 95 

Chota Nagpur, 230 

Cillana, wife of King Srenika, 

Ciramjivin (Long-lived), bird 
named, 234 

Cithaeron, Mount, 227 

Clouston, W. A., The Book 
of Sindibad ; or, The Story 
of the King, his Son, the 
Damsel, and the Seven Vazirs 
[Glasgow], 1884, 214ft 2 - 3 , 
224, 224w 2 ; A Group of 
Eastern Romances and Stories 
[Glasgow], 1889, 224ft 1 ; 
Originals and Analogues of 
some of Chaucer s Canterbury 
Tales, Ldn., 1886, 203 
203ft 3 , 204 

Cosmas Indicopleustes [The 
Christian Topography], 106, 

Cosquin, E., Etudes Folk- 
loriques, Paris, 1922, 82ft, 

Cox well, C. F., Siberian and 
204, 235ft 2 

Crathis and Sybaris, the 
rivers, 206 

Crawley, A. E., "Dress," 
Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth., 
vol. v, 231ft 4 

Cristoforo Armeno's collec- 
tion of stories, 210, 210ft 4 

Croix, F. Petis de la, Histoire 
de la Sultane de Perse, et des 
Visirs. Contes Turcs., Paris, 
1707, 245, 245ft 3 

Croker's Tales, Grimm's 
Irische Elfenmdrchen, based 
on, 120ft 2 

Crooke, W., "The Brahmani 
Duck," Ind. Ant., vol. x, 
1881, 5ft 3 ; "Kedarnath," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. vii, 2ft 1 ; The Popular 
Religion and Folk-Lore of 
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ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 
1926, 1ft 2 , 5ft 3 , 146ft 1 , 230ft 1 ; 
"Water, Water-Gods 
(Indian)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., vol. xii, 146ft 1 

Crore (100 lakhs, orl0,000,000), 

Crotona, 207 

Cunningham, A., Archaeologi- 
cal Survey of India, 23 
vols., Simla (vols, i and ii) 
and Calcutta, 1871-1887, 
229ft 1 



Cupid and Psyche, the myth 

of, 21w 3 
Cyllene, Mount, 227 

Daityas (enemies of the gods), 

131, 155 
Daphnis, 69ft 1 
Darbha grass, 149 
Daridravarnana, "description 

of poverty," the, 202 
Dasa-kumara-charita, the, 201, 

223ft 1 . See also under 

Meyer, J. J. 
Datta, a merchant, 202 
Day, L. B., collection of 

stories by, 261 
Deccan, the, 3, 116 
Delhi, the Emperor of, 229 
"Devadatta the Gambler," 

story of, 245ft 2 
Devasoma, son of Yajnasoma, 

112, 113 
Devasvamin, Brahman named, 

29, 72 
Devi, the goddess, 216 
Dewhurst, R. P., review of 

the Ocean in Journ. Roy. 

As. Soc, October 1924, 56ft 
Dhanadatta, son of Artha- 

datta, 5 
Dhanapala, merchant named, 

Dhanavati, daughter of 

Dhanapala, 78-81 
Dhanwar tribe, belief in 

change of sex among the, 

Dharanivaraha, king named, 

Dharma, king named, 116, 117 
Dharmadatta, merchant 

named, 5-8 
Dharmadhvaja and his Three 

Very Sensitive Wives, King, 

10, 10%, 11, 12, 204-211 
Dharmardja, superintendent 

of religion, 33, 33ft 1 
Dharma- sastr as, the, 250 
Dhartarashtras, the, 129 
Dinars, 80, 81 ; magic purse 

always containing a thou- 
sand, 222ft 3 
Dirghadar^in, minister of 

Yasahketu, 13-16, 16ft 1 , 17, 

Dlrghatapas, hermit named, 

Domba (a man of low caste), 
' 263 
Dozon, A., Conies Albanais, 

Paris, 1881, 224, 226ft 2 

Dresden MS. of the Forty 
Vazlrs, 252 

Dridhabuddhi, minister of 
Sundarasena, 137, 147-153, 
157, 159 

Dridhamushti, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 132, 135, 
165, 169 

Drupada, story of King, 223, 

Drury, H., The Useful Plants 
of India, 2nd ed., Ldn., 
1873, 105 

Dubois, J. A., Le Pantcha- 
Tantra, Paris, 1862, 224 

Duff, J. G., A History of the 
Mahrattas, 3 vols., Ldn., 
1826, 3rd ed., Bombay, 
1873, 216ft 2 

Dummedha Jataka, the, No. 50, 
162ft 1 

Durga (Parvati, Uma, wife of 
Siva), 52ft 1 , 153, 154, 155, 
167, 168 

Durgapisacha, king named, 
164-167, 167ft 2 , 168-170, 
170ft 2 , 182, 190 

D[urgaprasad] text of the 
K.SS., the, 16n\ 45ft 2 , 
78ft 3 , 118ft 1 , 123ft 1 , 125ft 2 , 
126ft 1 , 129ft*, 153ft 1 , 158ft 2 , 
164w 3 , 167ft 1 , 170ft*, 182ft 2 

Durlabhaka-Pratapaditya II 
and the merchant's wife, 

Durva grass, 123ft 1 , 189 

Dutt, M. N., The Ramayana. 
Translated into English Prose 
from the Original Sanskrit of 
Valmiki, 7 vols., Calcutta, 
1892-1894, 174 

Dutt, U. C, The Materia 
Medicaof the Hindus. Com- 
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Dvapara Yuga, the, 1, 1ft 5 

Eastwick,E.B., Barker, W.B., 
and, The Bait a I Pachisi, 
or Twenty-Jive Tales of a 
Demon, Hertford, 1855, 
199ft 1 ' 2 , 204ft 1 , 211ft 1 , 212ft 1 , 
215ft 1 , 222ft 1 , 233ft 3 , 241ft 1 , 
244ft 2 , 249ft 3 , 250ft 2 , 256ft 1 , 
258ft 1 , 260ft 1 , 262ft 1 

Edgerton, Franklin, Vikramas 
Adventures, or The Thirty- 
Two Tales of the Throne, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1926, 
212, 234w2, 252ft 2 

Enthoven, R. E., The Folklort 
of Bombay, Oxford, 1924, 
229, 230ft 1 ; ["The Folk- 
lore of Gujarat "] Ind. Ant., 
vol. xli, 1912, and vol. xlv, 
1916, 230ft 1 

Eorosh, probably a mistake 
for chanmrosh, 56ft 

Europe, the tenth Vetala 
story in, 203 

Everes, father of Tiresias, 

Fischer, H., and Bolte, J., 
Die Reise der S'dhne Giqffers 
aus dem Italienischen des 
Christoforo Armeno ubersetzt 
d'urch Johann Wetzel, 1583, 
Tubingen, 1895, 210ft 4 

Fleeson, K. N., collection of 
stories by, 261 

Frazer, J. G., Apollodorus, 
The Library, 2 vols., Loeb 
Classical Library, Ldn., 
New York, 1921, 3ft 2 , 227, 
227ft 2 , 228ft 1 , 230ft 3 ; The 
Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 12 
vols., 1911-1915, 231ft 23 , 
240, 240ft 3 ; Pausanias De- 
scription of Greece, 2nd ed., 
6 vols., Ldn., 1913, 240, 
240ft 2 


Ganas (attendants of Siva), 

84, 104 
Gandharva form of marriage, 

the, 21, 44, 48, 194, 251 
Gandharvas (attendants 

the gods), 176 
Gandhavati, the river, 162 
G a n e & a (son of Siva and 

Parvati), 26, 128ft 1 , 131, 

132, 161, 162, 169 
Ganga, the goddess, 49 
Ganges, the, 13ft 2 , 29ft 2 , 66, 

83, 84, 129, 192, 204 
Garcin de Tassy. See under 

Tassy, Garcin de 
Garhwal District, the, 2ft 1 
Garuda, 55, 56, 56ft, 57-63, 

213, 233, 234, 236 
Gaster, M., The Exempla of 

the Rabbis, Ldn., Leipzig, 

1924, 203ft* 
Gaur, the country of, 204 
Gauri (Durga, Parvati, etc.), 

22, 46, 49, 51, 54, 61, 62, 

71, 88, 131, 176-180, 186, 

187, 234 
Gaya, 83, 84, 84ft 3 , 85 




" Gaya," G. A. Grierson, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

vol. vi, 85ft 
Gayakshetra, the body of 

Gayasura, 85ft 
Gayakupa, the well of Gaya, 

Gayasirah, the head of Gaya, 

85ft ' 
Gayasura, use of the body of, 

84ft 3 , 85ft 
Gayatrl mantra, the, 27 
Ghaghra, the river, 29ft 2 
Ghatotkacha, 168, 168ft 3 
Gibb, E. J. W., The History 

of the Forty Veziers, or the 

Story of the Forty Morns 

and Eves, Ldn., 1886, 

203ft*, 245, 252ft 1 ; The 

Story ofJewad. A Romance 

by 'All 'Aziz Efendi the 

Cretan, Glasgow, 1884, 248 
Gillen, F. J., Spencer, B.,and, 

Northern Tribes of Central 

Australia, 1899, 230ft 4 
Giraud, Jules, Testaments aVun 

Haschischeen, Paris [1913], 

249ft 2 
Gokarna, 59, 60 
Gomukha, minister of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 195 
Gonzenbach, Laura, 

Sicilianische Marchen, with 

notes by R. Kohler, 2 vols., 

Leipzig, 1870, Sin 1 , 126ft 2 
Gorresio, Signor Gaspare, the 

work of, 174 
Gotra, or lineage of a person, 

Gould, S. Baring-. See under 

Baring-Gould, S. 
Gregory, the legend of Pope, 

81ft 1 
Gregory, J. C, The Nature of 

Laughter, Ldn., 1924, 253ft 1 
Grierson, G. A., "Gaya," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

vol. vi, 85ft 
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Ramayan ofValmiki, 5 vols., 

Ldn., and Benares, 1870- 

1874, 174 
Grimm, J. and W., Irische 

Elfenmarchen, Leipzig, 

1826, 120ft 2 
Grohmann, J. V., Sagen aus 

Bohmen, Prague, 1836,137ft 3 
Gubernatis, A. de, Zoological 

Mythology, or the Legends of 

Animals, 2 vols., Ldn., 1872, 


Guna, "virtue," or "string," 

112ft 2 
Gunadhya, 236 
Gunakar, a Brahman's son, 

Gunakara, minister of Mrigan- 

kadatta, 128, 165," 169, 

Gunapalita, 137 
Gunshekar, a king, 204 

Habicht, C. M., edition of 
The Arabian Nights, 203ft 5 

Hades, Patala or, 129ft 5 

Hagen, F. H. v. d., Altdeutsche 
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1872-1880, 3w 2 , 166HM73H 1 , 
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Hahn, J. G. von, Griechische 
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Hale Wortham, B. See under 
Wortham, B. Hale 

Hammer, Rosenbl, 2 vols., 
Stuttgart and Tubingen, 
1813, 203w* 

Hamsadvipa, 138-143, 145, 
149, 150, 151, 159 

Hamsavall, courtesan named, 

Hara and Raja Badan, the 
agreement between Raja, 

Harisvamin, who first lost his 
Wife, and then his Life, The 
Brahman, 29, 29ft 1 , 30-33, 

Harsha (i.e. Siladitya Harsha- 
vardhana), Nagananda, 236, 
237, 237W 1 ' 2 

Hartland, E. S., The Legend 
of Perseus, 3 vols., Ldn., 
1894 - 1896, 227/1 1 , 240, 
240ft 1 

Harun al-Rashld, nocturnal 
adventures of, 217 

Hastings, James, Dictionary 
of the Bible, 106. For de- 
tails see under Dictionary, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion 
and Ethics, 2ft 1 , 33ft 1 , 85ft, 
146ft 1 , 231ft 4 ' 5 , 253ft 1 . For 
details see under Ency. Rel. 

Heliodorus [Mthiopicd], 189ft 2 

Hemavijaya, Katharatnakara, 
200, 200ft 2 . See also under 
Hertel, J. 

Hera and Zeus, dispute be- 
tween, 227 

Herklots,G. A., Islam in India, 

or the Qanun-i- Islam, new 

ed., Oxford Univ. Press, 

1921, 249, 249ft 1 
Hermaphroditus, 232 
Herodotus, 206 
Herrtage, S. J. H., The Early 

English Versions of the Gesta 

Romanorum, Early English 

Text Soc, No. xxxiii, Ldn., 

1879, 3ft 2 , 81ft 1 
Hertel, J., Katharatnakara. 

Das Marchenmeer. Eine 

Sammlung indischer Erz'dh- 

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vols., 1920, 200ft 2 
Himalaya, the, 186 
Himalayas, the, 62 
Himavat, a great mountain, 

Hiranyakasipu, 175, 175ft 1 
Hiranyaksha, 168, 168ft 2 
Hiranyavati, city called, 1 
Hiranyavati, wife of Dhana- 

pala, 79 
Hiuen Tsiang, 29ft 2 , 106; 

story related by, 237, 238 
Hobbes, Thomas, Humane 

Nature, Ldn., 1650, 253ft 1 ; 

The Leviathan, Ldn., 1651, 

253ft 1 
Hooper, D., "Caliature 

Wood," Nature, vol. lxxxvi, 

1911, 107 
Hyginus, Fabulce, 221n 2 

Ianthe, daughter of Telestes, 

Ida, royal sage named, 46 
Iken, C. J. L., Touti Nameh, 

eine Sammlung Persischer 

Marchen von Nechschebi, 

Stuttgart, 1882, 222ft 4 , 

241ft 3 
" Inachus, daughter of," Io, 

the, 228 
'Inayatu-'llah, Bahar-i- 

Danush, 214. See also 

under Scott, J. 
India Office MSS. of the 

K.S.S., 164ft 2 , 165ft 13 , 

167ft 1 , 170ft 2 ' 3 , 175ft 1 - 2 , 

177ft 1 ' 3 , 178ft 2 , 179ft 1 - 2 , 

182ft 1 
India, scarcity of lions in, 259 
Indlvaraprabha, daughter of 

Kanva, 89, 90, 93 
Indra (the king of the gods), 

10, 13, 19, 35, 49, 50, 78, 

88, 88ft 1 , 96, 98, 112, 131, 

150, 173ft 2 



Indulekha, wife of King 

Dharmadhvaja, 10, 11 
Io (Isis), the "daughter of 

Inachus," 228 
Iphis, daughter of Ligdus, 

Ishtar, the goddess, 231 
Isis, the goddess, 228 
I-Tsing on Harsha and his 

court, 237 
Izzat Ullah, Gul-i Bakdwall, 

224, 224ft 1 

Jacobi, H. G., Ausgewdhlte 
Erz'dhlungen in Mahdrdshtri, 
Leipzig, 1886, 217, 219 ' 

Jdtaka, The, Dummedha (No. 
50), 162m 1 ; Kanavera (No. 
318), 220 ; Mahdndradakas- 
sapa (No. 544), 164ft 1 ; Sata- 
patta (No. 279), 202 ; Sulasd 
(No. 419), 221ft 1 ; Umma- 
dantl (No. 527), 241 

Jdtaka, Cambridge edition of 
the, 162ft 1 , 220, 221ft 1 , 
241ft 5 ; -maid, the, 243 

Jimutaketu, a lord of the 
Vidyadharas, 49, 51 

Jimutavahana, The Sacrifice 
of, 49, 49ft 1 , 50-63, 233-240 

Jimutavahana, vezier of the 
Naga Raja called, 236 

Jivadatta, Brahman named, 4 

Jolly, J., " Recht und Sitte," 
Encyclopaedia of Indian 
Philology, 1896, 26 

Jiilg, Bernhard, Kalmukische 
Mdrchen. Die Mdrchen des 
Siddhi-Kiir, Leipzig, 1866, 
235ft 2 

Jumna, the river, 229, 230 

Jvalamukha, Brahman demon 
named, 92, 95 

Kabandha, 166, 166ft 1 
Kabri, the king of, 230 
Kadru, mother of the snakes, 

Kailas Kund, a mountain lake, 

Kala, 174 
Kalhana, Rdjataranginl, 244. 

See also under Stein, M. A. 
Kali (the goddess), 215 
Kali, the demon, 66 
Kali Yuga (the "age of 

vice "), 1, 1ft 5 , 112ft 2 , 168 
Kalidasa, Mdlavikdgnimitra, 

2ft 1 . See also under 

Tawney, C. H. 
Kalinga, the land of, 112 

Kalpa {i.e. 1000 Mahayugas, 

or 4320 million years), 62, 

Kama, the God of Love, 2, 

10, 43, 53, 64, 65, 68, 99, 

100, 118, 140, 178, 179 
Kamala i.e. "lotus," 99ft 4 
Kamalakara, Anangamanjari, 

her Husband Manivarman, 

and the Brahman] 98, 98ft 1 , 

99-104, 256-258 
Kamallla, wife of Vikrama- 

ditya, 210 
Kamasena, the greedy 

courtesan, 202 
Kanakapura, city called, 66 
Kanakavati, wife of Jimuta- 
ketu, 60 
Kanara, the home of the 

sandalwood-carving indus- 
try, 106 
Kanauj, Harsha, Raja of 

Thanesar and, 237 
Kanavera Jdtaka, the (No. 

318), 220 
Kanchanapura, city called, 

181, 184 
Kandarpasena, Queen, 149 
Kanva, hermit named, 89, 

90, 136, 161 
Kara, u finger," or " tribute," 

112ft 2 
Karabhagriva, castle named, 

165, 166, 167, 172 
Karakash (possibly the 

Khotan-daria), tale about 

the, 237 
Karma (acts and their re- 
tribution), 254, 255 
Karmasena, King, 163, 169, 

171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 

180-186, 192 
Kama, 52ft 3 

Kartavlrya or Arjuna, 174 
Karttika, the month, 142 
Kdsa grass, 26 
Kdsi or Bandras {i.e. Benares), 

29ft 2 
Kasi, the King of, 223ft 2 
Kasyapa, father of Garuda, 

Kathd, Alakesa, the, 215 
Kathdratndkara, Hemavijaya, 

200, 200w 2 
Kathd- sarit-sdgara, the, 196 
Kathiawar, sea-offerings in, 

Kattika festival, the, 242 
Katyayani, female mendicant 

named, 138, 141 
Kaumudi festival, the, 243 

Kausambi, 106, 194, 195 
Kautilya, Arthasdstra, 15ft 3 , 

218, 218ft 1 
Kaveri, the river, 166 
Kedarnath, one of the twelve 

lihga shrines in India, 2ft 1 
Keith, A. B., The Sanskrit 

Drama, Oxford, 1924, 237ft 2 
Keith, A. B., Macdonell, 

A. A., and, Vedic Index of 

Names and Subjects, 2 vols., 

Ldn., 1912, 10ft 2 
Kemble, W., in a note on 

Gaya, 85ft 
Kern, Dr, 21ft 2 , 119ft 1 , 170ft 3 , 

171ft 1 , 178ft 1 , 179ft 1 - 2 , 181ft 2 
Khadgadhara, Kshatriya 

named, 3, 4 
Khandava forest, the, ] 

135ft 2 . 
Khurafa, 225 
Kichaka (cane), 162ft 3 
Kiratas, the, 164, 165, 170, 

171, 172, 182, 186, 190 
K'iu-sa-ta-na (Khotan), 237 
Knowles, J. H., collection of 

stories by, 261 
Kohler, R., notes to 

Gonzenbach's Sicilianisa 

Mdrchen, 81ft 1 , 126ft 2 
Koli women, sea-offerings 

among, 146?i 2 
Kos (generally one and an 

eighth mile), 166 
Krappe, Mr A. H., 189ft 2 
Krishna, 52ft 3 , 57, 175ft 1 
Krita Yuga, the, 1, 1ft 5 
Kritantasantrasa, Raksh 

named, 23 
Kshantisila, ascetic named, 

121, 122 
Kshatriya (warrior caste), 3, 

4, 234 
Kshatriyas at the upanayana, 

age of, 26 
Kshemendra, 52ft 4 , 64, 78ft 3 ; 

Brihat-kathd-manjarl, 64 
Kuhn, A., Sagen, Gebrduche 

und Mdrchen aus Westfalen, 

2 vols., Leipzig, 1859, 

120ft 2 
Kumaradatta, Brahman 

named, 142 
Kumuda flowers, cluster of, 8, 

99, 99ft 4 , 102 
Kund, Kailas, a mountain 

lake, 236 
KuntI, 235 
Kurtd or angiyd, bodice used 

in Kashmir, 210ft 3 
Kusa grass, 117, 132 







Kusanabha, hermit named, 18 
Kushmandas (demons), 124 
Kuvera, the God of Wealth, 
72, 186, 223 

Lakh (100,000), 216 

Lakshmana (brother of 
Rama), 166 

Lakshml (Goddess of Pros- 
perity and Beauty, and wife 
of Vishnu, 16, 19, 129ft*, 
186, 188 

Lakshmidatta, merchant 
named, 18, 19 

Lalitalochana, heavenly 
nymph named, 193-196 

Lane, E. W., An Account of 
the Manners and Customs of 
the Modern Egyptians, 5th 
ed., Ldn., I860, 224?i 3 

Lapithae, Caeneus, one of the, 

Lassen, C, Indische Alter- 
thumskunde, 4 vols., Bonn, 
Leipzig, 1847-1862, 106 

Lavanyavati, daughter of 
Dharma, 116, 116ft 2 , 117- 
119 ; wife of Harisvamin, 
29, 212 

Lee, A. C, The Decameron, 
its Sources and Analogues, 
Ldn., 1909, 204 

Lenormant, F., La Grande- 
Grece. Paysages et Histoire, 
3 vols., Paris, 1881-1884, 
206, 206ft 2 , 208 

Levi, M. I. ["Une Fable de 
la Fontaine et Les Contes 
Orientaux"] (No. 11), Melu- 
sine, cols. 541-545, 203ft 4 

Licinius Crassus, P., Roman 
consul, 232 

Ligdus, 228 

Lihga of Siva, 219 ; temple 
containing a, 149 ; shrines 
in India, twelve famous, 2ft 1 

Hastings' Ency. Pel. Eth., 
vol. vii, 253ft 1 

Loeb Classical Library, the, 
227ft 2 , 228ft 2 

M'Crindle, J.W., The Christian 
Topography of Cosmas, an 
Egyptian Monk, Hakluyt 
Soc, Ldn., 1897, 107 

Macdonald, D. B., "The 
Earlier History of the 
Arabian Nights," Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc, July 1924, 
225w 2 

Macdonell, A. A., and Keith, 

A. B., Vedic Index of Names 

and Subjects, 2 vols., Ldn., 

1912, 10ft 2 
Madanamanchuka, head 

queen of Naravahanadatta, 

Madanamanjari, the laugh of, 

Madanasena and her Rash 

Promise, 5, 5ft 1 , 6-9, 199-204 
Madanavega, Vidyadhara 

named, 29 
Magna, the month of, 26 
Mahabala, a young thief, 202 
Mahabharata, lake resembling 

the, 129 
Mahabharata, the, 38ft 2 , 72ft 2 , 

223, 223ft 2 , 228, 235. See 

also under Roy, P. C. 
Mahadev (Siva), 205 
Mahakala, the cemetery of, 

\Mahanaradakassapa Jdtaka] 

(No. 544), 164ft 1 
Mahasena, king named, 137, 

140-143, 148, 149, 156, 

158, 159, 160 
Mahatapas, son of Dirghata- 

pas, 135 
Mahatmas, belief in sex- 
changing blessings or 

curses of, 229 
Mdhdtmyam, Satrurhjaya, the, 

Mahendraditya, King, 141, 

145, 147, 148, 159 
Mahesa Chandra Nyayaratna, 

Pandit, 85ft 
Mahishmati, Arjuna, King of, 

Mainasy 188 
Mala, Jdtaka-, the, 243 
Malatika, friend of Ananga- 

manjari, 100-103 
Malava, the land of, 116 
Mdlavikdgnimitra, Kalidasa, 2ft 1 
Malaya mountain, the, 51, 

55, 59, 62, 68, 192, 193, 

194, 195 
Malayavati, daughter of Vis- 

vavara, 52-55, 59, 61, 63, 64 
Malcolm, J., Sketches of Persia, 

2 vols., Ldn., 1827, 203ft 3 
Malyachal hill, the, 233 
Manahsvamin, Brahman 

named, 40, 40ft 3 , 41-47, 

Mandakim, the river, 2, 2ft 1 
Mandaradeva, king named, 

140-143, 149, 151, 159, 160 

Mandaravati, Sundarasena 
and, 137, 137ft 1 , 138-160 

Mandiya, a beggar, 218-220 

Manivarman, and the Brah- 
man Kamalakara, Ananga- 
manjari, her Husband, 98, 
98ft 1 , 99-104, 256-258 

Mansarovar, tale about the 
lake, 230ft 1 

Mara (the tempter of Gautama 
Buddha), 5, 5ft 2 , 70 

Maricha (a Rakshasa), 166 

Maspero, G., Popular Stories 
of Ancient Egypt, trans, by 
MrsC. H.W.Johns, Ldn., 
1915, 92ft 1 

Ma tang a, hermit named, 
144, 149, 151, 152, 156 

Matangas, the, 164,165, 165ft 1 , 
166-170, 170ft 2 , 171, 182, 

Mathura, the conduct of, 72ft 3 

Mayavatu, king named, 164, 
164ft< 167, 169-171, 177, 
180-182, 184-186, 190, 192 

Medhavati, the wife of Dlr- 
ghadarsin, 14, 14ft 1 

Meghabala, minister of 
Mrigankadatta, 132, 135, 
165, 169 

Melusina, the European 
snake-maiden, 21ft 3 

Menaka (a beautiful Apsaras), 

Meredith, George, " On the 
Idea of Comedy," New 
Quarterly Magazine, April 
1877, 253ft 1 

Meru, Mount, 49 

Metel d'Ouville, A. le, col- 
lection of stories by, 209, 
209ft 2 . See also under 
Brunet, G. 

Meyer, J. J., Dasa Kumar a 
Charita, or The Story of the 
Ten Princes, 1902, 223ft 1 ; 
Hindu Tales. An English 
Translation of JacobVs Aus- 
gew'dhlte Erzdhlungen in 
Maharashtri, Ldn., 1909, 
218, 218ft 2 , 223ft 1 

Miller, F. J., Ovid, Metamor- 
phoses, 2 vols., Loeb Classi- 
cal Library, Ldn., 1916, 
228ft 2 

Mi'raj, or Ascension of 
Muhammed, the, 245 

Mitravasu, a friend of Jimuta- 
vahana, 51, 52, 54, 55, 57, 

Mlechchhas, 124 



Mohani, 249 

Montaigne, M. de, Essays, 

232ft 2 
Mookerji, R., Harsha, Rulers 

of India Series, Ldn., 1926, 

237W 1 
Morgan, C. Lloyd. See under 

Lloyd Morgan, C. 
Moutier, I., edition of Boc- 
caccio's Filocolo, 203ft 7 
Mrichchhakatika, the, 72ft 3 
Mrigankadatta, 44 ; Story of, 

125-127, 128-133, 134-136, 

161, 162-173, 175-192 
Mrigankasena, king named, 

Mrigankavati, daughter of 

Mrigankadatta, 44, 46 ; 

daughter of Mrigankasena, 

20-22,24,25; wife of King 

Dharmadhvaja, 10, 11 
Mufaddal ibn Salama, al-, 

collection of stories called 

the Fakhir, 225 
Muhammed, the Mi'raj or 

Ascension of, 245 
Muhars, gold, 249, 250 
Muir, John, Original Sanskrit 

Texts, 5 vols., Ldn., 1858- 

1872, 72n 2 , 174 
Muladeva, the arch-thief of 

Hindu fiction, 217, 218, 

219, 223 ; magician named, 

41, 47, 222; the stanza of, 

Munja grass, 26 
Murva, sacred thread made 

of, 26 
Must state, elephants in, 41ft 1 

Nadakuvara, 160 

Nagas, snake-demons, 56-58, 

60, 127, 127ft 1 , 128, 130, 

134, 161, 213, 227, 236 
Nagpur, Chota, 230 
Nahusha, king named, 70 ; 

King, 166 
Namados or Nammadios i.e. 

Narmada, 174 
Nandana (the garden of the 

gods), 129, 148 
Nandayanti, wife of Ratna- 

datta, 35 
Nandigrama, temple called, 

Naraka, the torments of, 251 
Narali-purnima, or coco-nut 

festival, the, 146ft 2 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 

King of Vatsa, 192, 194, 


Narbada i.e. Narmada, the, 

Narmada, the river, 2ft 1 , 164, 

168 ; Note on Arjuna and 

the, 174 
Natchetiran, King, 257 
Natesa Sastri, Pandit. See 

under Sastri, Pandit Natesa 
Nepala, the kingdom of, 

Nerbuda i.e. Narmada, the, 

Nerbudda i.e. Narmada, the, 

Nidhidatta, merchant named, 

Nishadha, country called, 137 ; 

the mountain of, 23 
Nyayaratna, Pandit Mahesa 

Chandra, 85ft 

Oesterley, Hermann, Baital 
Pachisi oder die funfund- 
zwanzig Erzdhlungen eines 
Damon, Bibl. Orient. Mar- 
chen u. Erz'dhl., Leipzig, 
1873, 213, 241ft 4 , 250 

Oldham, C. F., "The Nagas: 
a Contribution to the His- 
tory of Serpent Worship," 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, July 
1901, 236ft 1 

Ommana, Oman of Saracen 
times, 106 

Otho, the devotion of the 
followers of the Emperor, 
69ft 2 

Oudh, the provinces of Agra 
and, 2ft 1 

Ouville, A. le Metel d', col- 
lection of stories by, 209, 
209ft 2 . See also under 
Brunet, G. 

Ovid, Metamorphoses, 227ft 2 , 
228ft 1>2 . See also under 
Miller, F. J. 

Paddhati, Sarngadhara, the, 

Padma Purana, the, 85ft 
Padmanabha, Brahman 

named, 31, 32; king named, 

Padmarati, Queen of Vira- 

deva, 1, 2 
Padmavati, city called, 1 
Palestine, the tenth Vetala 

story in, 203, 203ft 4 
Pali Jdtaka, the, 241 

Pancadivyadhivdsa, the rite of, 

Panchaphuttika, Sudn 

named, 3 

Panchavati, 166 

Pandavas, the, 52ft 3 , 162ft 3 , 
168ft 3 

Pandu, 90, 93 

Panzer, F., Beowulf, 1910, 

126ft 2 
Paravataksha, the curse of 

the Naga, 127, 134 
Pare, Ambrose, French sur- 
geon, on changes of sex, 

232, 233 
Parijata tree, the, 16 
Pdrsvandtha Charitra, the, 

Parvati (Durga, Uma, etc.), 

52ft 1 
Pasupata ascetic, 73, 75, 11, 

Patala, the underworld, 20, 

36, 56, 129, 129ft 5 , 215 
Pataliputra, city called, 108, 

i08ft 2 
Paton, L. B., " Ashtart " an< 

" Ishtar," Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., vols, ii and vii, 

Pattan, the King of, 230 
Paundra, the land of (i,e. 

Bengal-Bihar), 15, 15ft 1 
Pelew Islands, pretend( 

change of sex in the, 231 
Persia, the tenth Vetala stoi 

in, 203, 203ft 3 
Petis de la Croix, F., Histoir 

de la Sultane de Perse, et de 

Visirs. Contes Turcs, Paris 

1707, 245, 245ft 3 
Phaestus, Telethusa of, 228 
Phalguna, the month of, 26 
Phlegon, Mirabilia, 227ft 2 
Phylarchus, History, 207 
Pindas, offerings of, 85ft 
Pisangajata, hermit named, 

Plti, body smeared with, 26 
Plato on change of sex, 230 
Pliny, 174; Naturalis Historia, 

232. See also under Bos 

tock, J., or Riley, H. T. 
Polivka, G., Bolte J., and, 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 

und Hausm'drchen der Br'uder 

Grimm, 3 vols., Leipzig, 

1913-1918, 209ft 1 , 263ft 1 
Po-lo-na-se of Hiuen Tsiang- 

i.e. Benares, the, 29ft 2 
Poseidon, 228 



Post, G. E., "Algum Trees, 

Almug Trees," Hastings' 

Dictionary of the Bible, vol . i, 

1900, 106 
Prabandhacintdmaniy Meru- 

tunga Acarya, 202, 255 
Prachandasakti, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 128, 165, 

Pradyumna, the god, 112; 

king named, 112 
Prajnakosa, minister named, 

Prajnasagara, minister of 

Yasahketu, 40, 44 
Pratishthana, city called, 

Pravaras, the, 27 
Prayaga i.e. Allahabad, 84, 

84ft 2 
Preller, L., Griechische Myth- 

ologie, 2 vols., 3rd ed., 

Berlin, 1872-1875, 3ft 2 
Preziosa transformed into a 

bear through a piece of 

wood, 42ft 1 
Priti (wife of the God of 

Love), 118 
Prym, E., and Socin, A. [Der 

Neu-Aramaeische Dialekt des 

Tur 'Abdin], 2 vols., Got- 

tingen, 1881; vol. ii also 

entitled, Syrische Sagen und 

Maerchen aus dem Volks- 

munde, 81ft 1 
Psyche, the myth of Cupid 

and, 21ft 3 
Pulindas, the, 153-155, 157, 

159, 164, 167 
Purdnas, the Padma and Vayu, 

Pururavas, son of Buddha 

and the sage Ida in female 

form, 46 
Pushpahasa, a learned Brah- 
man, 210 
Pushpakaranda, garden 

called, 177 

RadlofF, W., Die Spracken der 
turkischen St'dmme Sud- 
Sibiriens und der Dsungar- 
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der Folks litter atur der Turk- 
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parts 1-6, St Petersburg, 
1866-1886, 204 

Rfihu, 166 

Rajatarangini, Kalhana, 244 

Rakshasa named Kritanta- 
santrasa, 23; swallows 

Rakshasa continued 

Mrigankavati, a terrible, 

21, 22 
Rakshasas (demons), 93, 124, 

166, 174, 201, 212, 234, 235 
Rakshasi, female form of 

Rakshasa, 116 
Ralston, W. R. S., and Schief- 

ner, F. A. von, Tibetan 

Tales, Ldn., 1882, 162ft 1 
Rama, 14, 35, 166, 174, 183, 

Rama Chandra of Alwar, 

Pandit, 164ft 1 
Rdmayana, the, 174. See 

also under Griffith, R. T. H. 
Rambaud, A. N., La Russe 

epique, Paris, 1876, 189ft 2 
Rambha, 160 
Rasalu, Raja, 261 
Rati (wife of the God of 

Love), 40, 64, 99, 118, 138, 

140, 178 
Ratnadatta, merchant named, 
4 35, 37, 38 

Ratnavati, daughter of Ratna- 
datta, 35, 37, 38 
Ravana, chief of the Rak- 
shasas, 174 
Ravi Valley, the, 236 
Rhodius Apollonius, Argon- 

autica, 228ft 1 
Richet, Charles, "Le Hachich 

L'Opium Le Cafe," 

Revue des Deux Mondes, 

March 1877, 248 
Riley, H. T., Bostock, J., and, 

The Natural History of Pliny, 

Bonn's Classical Library, 

6 vols., Ldn., 1855, 1856, 

232, 232ft 1 
Rishis, the divine, 84 
Robertson Smith, W., Religion 

of the Semites, Ldn., 1894, 

Robin Hood of Indian fiction, 

Apaharavarman, the, 201 
Rohde, E., Der Griechische 

Roman und Seine Vorlaufer, 

Leipzig, 1876, 139ft 2 , 147ft 1 , 

189ft 2 
RohinI (a star), 138 
Rosen, Georg, Tuti-Nameh. 

Das Papageienbuch, 2 vols., 

Leipzig, 1858, 203ft 6 , 222ft 3 , 

Rost, Dr, 164ft 2 , 165ft 3 
Roth, R., Bohtlingk, O., and 

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1875, 31ft 2 , 33ft 1 , 85ft 1 , 

112ft 2 , 146w 2 , 177ft 3 

Roth well, F., Brereton, C, 
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Roy, P. C, The Mahabharata 
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Rudra, 174 

Rudras, 180 

Rudraprayag, 2ft 1 

Russell, R. V., and Rai Baha- 
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Saintyves, P., Les Contes de 

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Saktirakshita, king named, 

164, 164ft 3 , 165, 170, 182, 
^ 186, 190 
Sdla tree, 174 
Salama, al-Mufaddal ibn. See 

under Mufaddal 
Sama, courtesan of the King 

of Benares, 220, 221 
Samudradatta, merchant 

named, 6, 7, 9 
Sandhya, evening worship, 

, 27 

Sankaracharya, the Saiva 

reformer, 2ft 1 
Sankhachuda, 57-61, 63, 234 
Sankhapala, the race of, 59 
Sarabhas, fabulous eight- 
legged animals, 88, 88ft 1 
Sarasvati, 27 
Sarayu, the river, 13ft 2 
Sdmgadhara Paddhati, the, 
, 202 
Sasankapura, city called, 141, 

142, 145, 148, 160 
SasankavatI, Book XII, 1- 

SasankavatI, daughter of 
Karmasena, 125ft 2 , 128,130, 
132, 134, 161, 162, 169, 
176-190, 192, 194 
Sasin, magician named, 41, 

41ft 2 , 47, 222 
Sasiprabha, daughter of 
Yasahketu, 40, 42, 44, 47 ; 
wife of Mahasena, 137, 140 
Sastras, the, 66, 199 
Sdstras, Dharma-, the, 250 
Sastrl, Pandit S. M. Natesa, 
collection of stories by, 
261 ; Folklore in Southern 
India, 4 parts, Bombay, 
1884-1893, 219 



Satapatta Jataka (No. 279), 

, 202 

Satas>inga, Mount, 202 

Sati (widow-burning), 216 

Satrumjaya Mahatmyam, the, 

Saubha, King, 223ft 2 

Savan or August, festival held 
in, 146W 1 

Savaras, 117, 154, 156, 158, 
167, 171, 182, 184, 190 

Savitri, 88 

Sayce, A. H., Babylonians and 
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Schiefner, F. A. von, Ralston, 
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Schmidt, Bernhard, Griech- 
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61ft 1 

Schmidt, R., Die Cukasaptati 
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1894, 210ft 1 - 2 

Schoff, W. H., The Periplus 
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Schofield, W. H., "Chaucer's 
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Schopenhauer, A., The World 
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Schroder, Carl, Sanct Brandan, 
Erlangen, 1871, 189ft 2 

Schwalbe, E., Die Morpho- 
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3 vols., Jena, 1906-1913, 
233ft 1 

Scott, J., Bahar-Danush ; or, 
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203ft3, 214ft 4 , 259 

Seeman, B. [" Sandal- wood 
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Senart, E., Les Inscriptions de 
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Sesha (a thousand-headed 
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Shaikh Chilli, Folktales of 
Hindustan, 2nd ed., Allaha- 
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[Shakespeare] Macbeth, 
164ft 1 

Shardana or caste-marks made 
of sandalwood paste, 105 

Shegapuram, the city of, 

Shivaji, Afzal Khan's 
murderer, 216ft 2 

Shriban (Siva), 216 

Siddhas (independent super- 
humans), 51-54, 89, 176 

Siddhikarl, the witch, 263 

Sikhandin, girl who changed 

, her sex, 223, 223ft 2 

Siladitya Harshavardhana 
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Simrock, K., Die deutschen 
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Simsapa tree, 1, 5, 10, 13, 29, 
35, 40, 49, 66, 71, 78, 87, 
98, 108, 112, 115, 116 

Sinhaparakrama, 117, 119 

Sinhasanadvatrinsika, the, 234, 
, 234ft 2 

Sirlsha flower, 145 

Slta, the wife of Rama, 14, 

Siva, 1, 2, 13ft 3 , 15, 22, 23, 
27, 29, 38, 49, 64, 71, 73, 
74, 81, 82, 84, 88, 96, 104, 
113, 114, 118, 124, 125, 
129, 129ft 3 , 131, 138, 149ft 1 , 
163, 174, 183, 192, 204, 

, 216, 219, 223, 232 

Sivadasa, recension of the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati, 250, 

, 251 

Sivapura, city called, 40 

Smith, V. A., The Early 
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1904, 237ft 1 ; The Oxford 
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Smith, W. Robertson. See 
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Sobhavati, city called, 112 

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entitled : Syrische Sagen und 
Maerchen aus dem Volks- 
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Solanki king of Kabri, the, 

Somadeva, 64, 195, 199, 200, 
207, 211, 212, 216, 217, 
234, 236, 237ft 2 , 241, 250, 
251, 256, 259, 262, 264 

Som(a)datt(a), the speech of, 

Sorensen, S., An Index to the 
Names in the Mahabharata, 
13 vols., Ldn., 1904-1925, 
223ft 2 , 235ft 1 

Spencer, H . , Essays : Scientific, 
Political and Speculative, 
3 vols., Ldn., 1868-1874, 
253ft 1 ; "The Physiology 
of Laughter," Macmillan's 
Magazine, March 1860, 
253ft 1 

Speyer, J. S., The Gatakamala, 
or Garland of Birth- Stories, 
Ldn., 1895; also forming 
vol. i of Sacred Books of 
the Buddhists, 1895, 243ft 1 ; 
Studies about the Kathasarit- 
sagara, Amsterdam, 1908, 
16ft 1 , 78ft 3 , 93ft 2 , 98ft 2 , 125w 2 , 
126ft 1 , 129ft 6 , 132ft 2 , 153ft 1 , 
a 158ft 2 , 170ft 4 , 182ft 2 

Sraddha, the ceremony of, 
the, 26, 84, 85n 

Srenika, King, 200 

Srutadhi, Brahman named, 
128, 130, 132, 133, 162, 
163, 165, 169, 171, 172, 
175, 177, 180, 181, 182, 
183, 185, 190, 192 

Stein, M. A., Kalhana's 
Rajataranginl. A Chronicle 
of the Kings of Kasmir, 2 
vols., Westminster, 1900, 
244ft 1 

Stevenson, Mrs Sinclair, The 
Rites of the Twice-Born, 
Oxford Univ. Press, 1920, 
26, 28, 188ft 1 

Sthulabahu, minister of Mri- 
gankadatta, 132, 135, 165, 

Stokes, M. , Indian Fairy Tales, 
Ldn., 1880, 255 

Sudra, before the upanayana 
a Brahman boy is a, 26 

Sudra caste, 3, 4, 199 

Sukasaptati, the, 210. See 
also under Schmidt, R. 

Sulasa Jataka, the (No. 419), 
221ft 1 

Sully, James, An Essay on 
Laughter, Ldn., 1902, 253: 

Sumatra, 15ft 3 

Sundarasena and Manda: 

, vatl, 137, 137ft 1 , 138-160 

Suradeva, son of Viradeva 

Surathadeva, 140 

Suryaprabha, king nam 
78. 80. 81. 82. 84. 86 




Sushena. son of Karmasena, 
185-188, 190 

Sutapas, an ascetic, 202 

Suvarnabhumi i.e. Lower 
Burma, 15ft 3 

Suvarnadvipa, probably Sum- 
atra (the Island of Gold), 
15ft 3 

Suvigraha, Brahman named, 
172, 173 

Svayambhu, the "self- 
existent," 149, 149ft 1 

Svetadvipa, 152 

Swynnerton, C, Romantic Tales 
from the Panjab, Ldn., 1903, 

Sybaris, city and river, 206, 207 

Tamdla, black as, 167 ; trees, 
162, 162ft 2 

Tamralipti, city called, 78, 
98, 99, 103 

Taravali, wife of King Dhar- 
madhvaja, 10, 11 

Tassy, Garcin de, Allegories 
Recits Poetiques, 2nd ed., 
1876, 224W 1 

Tawney, C. H., 98ft 2 , 140ft 1 , 
158ft 2 , 182ft 2 , 235ft 2 , 259ft 2 ; 
The Kathakoca ; or, Treasury 
of Stories, Roy. As. Soc, 
1895, 220, 223, 254; The 
Mdlavikagnimitra. A Sanskrit 
Play by Kalidasa, Calcutta, 
1875, 2ft 1 ; The Prabandha- 
cintamaniy or Wishing- stone 
of Narratives by Merutunga 
Acaryay Calcutta, 1901, 202 

Teiresias or Tiresias, the 
legend of, 3ft 2 , 227, 228 

Tejas, "courage " or "bright- 
ness," 95ft 1 

Telethusa of Phsestus, 228 

Temmu, the Emperor, pro- 
poser of the Ko-ji-ki, 238 

Temple, Sir R. C, collection 
of stories by, 261 

Thanesar and Kanauj, 
Harsha, the Raja of, 237 

" fhinthakarala, the bold 
Gambler," story of, 255, 256 

Tilottama, a heavenly nymph, 

Timaeus, the Greek historian, 
206, 207, 208 

Tiresias or Teiresias, the 
legend of, 3ft 2 , 227, 228 

Tremearne, A. J. N., The Ban 
of the Bori, Ldn. [1914], 

Treta Yuga, the, 1, 1ft 5 

Tripura, the conquest of, 131 

Trivedi, Babu Sheo Narain, 
on Gaya, 85ft 

Trivikramasena and the Men- 
dicant, King, 1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 
12, 13, 25, 29, 33-34, 35, 
39, 40, 48, 49, 63, 66, 69- 
70, 71, 77, 78, 85-86, 87, 
96-97, 98, 104, 108, 111, 
112, 115, 116, 120-121; 
Conclusion of, 122, 122ft 1 , 
123-125, 263 

Trivikramasena's request, 
King, 124 

Tsiang, Hiuen, 29ft 2 , 106; 
story related by, 237, 238 

Tsing, I-, on Harsha and his 
court, 237 

Tulas (measures of weight), 
187ft 1 

Turkey, the tenth Vetala 
story in, 203, 203ft 6 

Tzetzes, John, Scholiast on 

, Lycophron, 227ft 2 

Udayana, King of Kausambi, 

Ujjayini, city called, 1, 10, 

71,126, 127, 128,134,163, 

169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 

176, 177, 180, 181, 182, 

183, 185, 191ft 2 
Ullah, Izzat, Gul-i Bakawati, 

224, 224ft 1 
UmmadantI, daughter of 

Tritavaccha, 241-243 
UmmadantI Jataka (No. 527), 

Unmadini, The Beautiful, 66, 

66ft 1 , 67-69, 241-244 
Upa?iayana, investing with 

the sacred thread, 26 
Uppalavanna, Story of the 

Rahandama, 244 
Urabunna tribe, belief in 

change of sex among the, 

" Uttarakanda," the last book 

of the Ramayana, 174 

Vaisakha, the month of, 26 

Vaisya caste, 3, 4 

Vaisyas at the upanayana, age 
of, 26 

V aj ra, "diamond" or 
" thunderbolt," 8ft 1 

Vakraloka, city called, 78, 80 

Vamasiva, hermit named, 113 

Vanaraja, 202 

Varanasi or Baranasi (Ben- 
ares), 29ft 2 

Varanasi, city called, 29, 
29ft 2 , 82, 84, 192 

Vararuchi Recension of the 
Vikrama-charita, the, 252ft 2 

Vasudatta, merchant named, 

Vasuki, the king of the 
snakes, 56, 58, 176, 176ft 2 , 

Vatsa, the King of, 195 

Vatsyayana, Kama Sutra, 258 

Vayu Pur ana, the, 85ft 

Vedas, the, 26, 27, 95, 108, 
109, 112 

Vegavati, Vidyadhari named, 

Vetala, Appendix: The 
Twenty-five Tales of a, 
(co?it.), 263 ; entering a 
corpse by the power of 
spells, 123, 126; the 
friendly, 163 ; questions of 
the, 4, 9, 12, 25, 33, 39, 
48, 63, 69, 77, 85, 96, 104, 
111, 115, 120; the stories 
of the, 1-119 

Vetalapanchaviihsati, the, 236, 
262 ; coincidence of the 
Marathi and Hindi versions 
of the, 264; Comparative 
Table of stories in the 
three chief translations of 
the, 264; date of the, 208 ; 
the end of the, 125, 125ft 1 ; 
the Hindi version of the, 
221, 222, 233, 234, 241, 

244, 249, 250, 251, 256, 

258, 259, 260, 262, 264; 
Sivadasa's recension of the, 
250, 251 ; the Tamil ver- 
sion of the, 199, 200, 204, 
205, 206, 211, 212, 213, 
216, 221, 222, 234, 241, 

245, 250, 251, 256, 257, 

259, 260, 262, 264, 264ft* 
Vetala's favour through cour- 
age, winning a, 120, 120ft 2 , 

Vetalas (demons), 124, 125, 

127, 130 
Vichitrakatha, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 128, 165, 

Vidy ad haras (independent 

superhumans), 20, 22, 24, 

29, 49, 52, 54, 55, 58, 59, 

61, 62, 63, 89, 121, 123, 

124, 125, 255 
Vidyadhari, female form of 

Vidyadhara, 78, 195 



Vidyadharl Wife, and his 

Faithful Minister, King 

Yasahketu, his, 13, 13m 1 , 

Vikrama-charita, the Bengali 

version of the, 252, 252ft 2 
Vikramaditya, King, 210 ; an 

incarnation of Siva, 124 
Vikramakesarin, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 125, 127, 

128, 163, 165, 169, 179 
Vikramaraja, Muladeva as 

King of Bennayada, 218 
Vikramasakti, minister of 

Sundarasena, 137, 138, 147, 

148, 154, 159 
Vilva leaves, 158 
Vimalabuddhi, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 128, 165, 

169, 178 
Vinata, mother of Garuda, 

55, 61 
Vindhya, the, 166 ; forest, 

the, 116, 130; hills, the, 

170 ; mountain(s), the, 165, 

213 ; range, the, 165, 167, 

Vindhyaketu, king named, 

Vindhyas, the, 165 
Vinitamati, minister of 

Amaradatta, 183 ; minister 

of Mandaradeva, 143, 144 
Virabahu, king named, 5 
Viracharita, the, 202 
Viradeva, king named, 1, 2, 

Vlraketu, king named, 35, 

38, 218 
Virata, King, 162, 162ft 3 
Viravara, the story of, 252 
Virgil, Aeneid, 228ft 1 
Visala, city called, 98 
Vishnu, 19, 27, 35, 47, 78, 

78ft 2 , 96, 98ft 2 , 129, 129ft 4 , 

131, 149ft 1 , 168ft 2 , 188, 204, 

Vishnusvamin, 80 ; Brahman 

named, 108 
Visvavasu, a king of the Sid- 

dhas. 51. 52 

Vittapapuri, 119 
Vyaghraparakrama, minister 

of Sundarasena, 137, 147, 

148, 159 
Vyaghrasena, minister of 

Mrigankadatta, 132, 134, 

161, 165, 169 

Wagnuck or bagnakh, weapon 
for catching thieves, 216ft 1 

Waddell, L. A., "Bhutan, 
Buddhism in," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, 
33ft' 1 

Waldau, A., Bohmisches Mar- 
chenbuch, Prague, 1860, 3ft 2 , 
61m 1 

Waramunga tribe, belief in 
change of sex among the, 

Watt, G., A Dictionary of the 
Economic Products of India 
. . .,6 vols., Calcutta, 1889- 
1896, 105-107, 249ft 2 

Weber, A., " Ueber das at- 
runjaya Mahatmyam. Ein 
Beitrag zur Geschichte des 
Jaina," Abhandl.f. d. Kunde 
d. Morgen., Leipzig, 1858, 
214ft 1 

Westermarck, E., The History 
of Human Marriage, 3 vols., 
5th ed., Ldn., 1921, 231m 1 

Wickerhauser, M., Die Papa- 
geim'drchen, Leipzig, 1858, 
222ft 3 , 241ft 3 

Winternitz, M., "The Serpent 
Sacrifice mentioned in the 
Mahabharata, " Joum. Bom- 
bay Br. Roy. As. Soc, 
August 1926, 233ft 2 

Wlislocki, H. von, Volksdich- 
tungen der siebenbiirgischen 
und siidungarischen Zigeuner, 
Vienna, 1890, 226ft 1 

Wortham, B. Hale, The 
Buddhist Legend of Jimu- 
tavahana from the Katha- 
Sarit-Sagara, Ldn., 237ft 2 ; 
" The Stories of Jimuta- 
vahana and Harisarman," 

Wortham continued 

Journ. Roy. As. Soc. 
vol. xviii, 1886, 237ft 2 

Yajnasoma, Brahman named, 
112, 113 

Yajnasthala, village callec 
108, 112 

Yakshas (subjects of Kuvera), 
124, 223 

YakshinI, female form of 
Yaksha, 244 

Yama (the God of Death), 
33ft\ 84ft 3 

Yamuna, the river, 84; 
daughter of Matanga, 144, 

Yasahketu i.e. "Glory- 
banner," king named, 40, 
40ft 2 ; his Vidyadharl Wife 
and his Faithful Minister, 
King, 13, 13ft 1 , 14-25, 211- 

Yasodhana,king named, 66, 67 

Yogi, the vision of the, 250 

Yogis, belief in sex-changing 
incantations of, 229 

Fq/awfl.?(measuresof distance) 
88, 166 

Yonge, CD., The Deipnosc 
phists, or Banquet of the 
Learned of Atheneus, 3 vols., 
Bohn's Classical Library, 
Ldn., 1854, 206ft 3 

Yudhishthira, 33ft 1 

Yuga old, the city of Ujjayim 
a, 163 

Yugas or Ages of the World, 
the four, 1, 1ft 5 , 50 

Yule, H.,and Burnett, A. C, 
Hobson-Jobson : being A 
Glossary of Anglo-Indian 
Co lloquial Words and Phrases, 
Ldn., 1886, 107 

Zend literature i.e. Aveste 

Zeus, dispute between He] 

and, 227 
Z i m m e r , H . , A Itindiscl 

Leben, Berlin, 1879, 72ft 2 

Abduction of tfasankavati, 

the, 180 
Abhandl. f. d. Kunde d. Mor- 

gen., " Ueber das atrun- 

jaya Mahatmyam. Ein 

Beitrag zur Geschichte der 

Jaina," A. Weber, 1858, 

214ft 1 
Abnormal development of 

the clitoris, change of sex 

due to, 233 
Absolute Brahman, one of the 

four states of the soul, the, 

Account of the ceremony of 

wpanayana, 26-28 
Account of the Manners and 

Customs of the Modern 

Egyptians, An, E. W. Lane, 

224ft 3 
Actions in previous births, 

the unchangeable effect of, 

148, 154 
[Adonis, Attis, Osiris) The 

Golden Bough, vol. ii, J. G. 

Frazer, 231ft 2 - 3 
Adrift on a river, exposed 

children set, 81ft 1 , 82ft 
Adventures of the four minis- 
ters, the, 134-136, 161 
Adventures, or The Thirty-Two 

Tales of the Throne, Vi- 

kramds, F. Edgerton, 212, 

234w 2 , 252ft 2 
Aeneid, Virgil, 228ft 1 
Age of boys at the upanayana, 

26 ; the grey locks of old, 

190, 191, 191ft 1 
"Age of vice," the haliyuga, 

112ft 2 
Ages of the World, the four 

Yugas, or, 1, 1ft 5 
Agreement between the 

father and the son, the, 

117, 118, 119; between the 

Rajas Hara and Badan, 

229-230; between Vasuki 

and Garuda, the, 56 
"Ahnenhain" i.e. "grove of 

ancestors" ( = cemetery), 

lft 1 




Air, power of flying in the, 

24, 29, 126, 127; voice 

from the, 2, 19, 38, 54, 

["Algum Trees, Almug 

Trees"] G. E. Post, 

Hastings' Dictionary of the 

Bible, 106 
Alive from the body of a 

Rakshasa, Mrigankadatta 

emerges, 22 
Allegories Recits Poetiques, 

Garcin de Tassy, 224ft 1 
Ally moves towards Ujjayini, 

the, 173 
Altdeutsche u. Altnordische 

Helden-Sagen, F. H. v. d. 

Hagen, 3ft 2 , 166ft 3 , 173ft 1 , 

181ft 1 
Altindisches Leben, H. Zimmer, 

72ft 2 
Amazing effect of Umma- 

danti's beauty on the 

Brahmans, 241, 242 
Amer. Journ. Phil., "The 

Art of Stealing in Hindu 

Fiction," M. Bloomfield, 

vol.xliv, 1923, 164ft 1 , 201ft 1 , 

203ft 1 , 218ft 2 , 220 
Amer. Orient. Soc. Journ., 

191ft 1 , 251ft 1 , 254ft 1 , 255, 

256, 260ft 3 . For details see 

under Journ. Amer. Orient. 

Amer. Phil. Soc. Proc, 220ft 1 , 

260ft 3 . For details see 

under Proc. Amer. Phil. 

Analogues of some of Chaucer's 

Canterbury Tales, Originals 

and, W. A. Clouston, 203, 

203ft 3 , 204 
"Ancestors, grove of" i.e. 

a cemetery, lft 1 
Animal transformations, 42ft 1 , 

44ft 1 
Animals, knowledge of the 

speech of, 3, 3ft 2 , 199; 

listening to Malayavati 

playing on the lyre, 52, 

52ft 2 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmarchen der Briider 
Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 
Polivka, 209ft 1 , 263ft 1 

Annals, the, 232 

Annual festival at Kailas 
Kund, 236 

Annual Statement of the Sea- 
born Trade of British India, 

Anointing and blackening 
the bodies of thieves, 216, 
216ft 2 

" Another's Body, Entering," 
motif, 260 

Answers to the Vetala's ques- 
tions, the king's, 4, 9, 12, 
25, 33, 34, 39, 48, 63, 69, 
70, 77, 86, 96, 104, 111, 

Anlh. Soc. Ldn. Mem., " Notes 
on an Hermaphrodite," 
R. F. Burton, vol. ii, 233ft 1 

Antiquary, Indian, "The Brah- 
mani Duck," W. Crooke, 
vol. x, 1881, 5ft 3 ; ["The 
Folklore of Gujarat "], 
R. E. Enthoven, vols, xli 
and xlv, 1912, 1916, 230ft 1 

Antiquities of India, L. D. 
Barnett, 26, 187ft 1 

Apollodorus, The Library, 
J. G. Frazer, 3ft 2 , 227, 227ft 2 , 
228ft 1 , 230ft 3 

Appearance of the helpful 
Vetala, the, 163 ; of the 
terrible demon, the, 91, 
92, 95 

Appendix : The Twenty-five 
Tales of a Vetala (cont.), 

Appreciation affected by the 
use of hashish, the senses 
of, 248, 249 

Arabian Nights, The. See 
under Nights 

Arabian romances, storms in, 
147ft 1 

Arch-thief of Hindu fiction, 
Muladeva, the, 217, 218, 



Archaeological Survey of India, 
A. Cunningham, 229ft 1 

" Ardashir and Hayat al- 
Nufus," The Nights, R. F. 
Burton, 217 

Argonautica, Apollonius 
Rhodius, 228ft 1 

Army of Saktirakshita, the, 

Art of diplomacy, the, 171, 

[" Art of Entering Another's 
Body, On the "J M. Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 
260ft 3 

(Art, The Magic) The Golden 
Bough, vol. ii, J. G. Frazer, 
240ft 3 

"Art of Stealing in Hindu 
Fiction, The,'' M. Bloom- 
field, Amer. Journ. Phil., 
164ft 1 , 201, 201ft 1 , 203ft 1 , 
218ft 2 , 220 

Arthasdstra, Kautilya, 15ft 3 , 
218, 218ft 1 

Ascension of Muhammed, the 
Mi 'raj or, 245 

Ascetic, disguising as an, 18, 
19, 83,255; named Kshan- 
tislla, 121, 122; Pasupata, 
73, 75, 113, 115; the speech 
of the female, 138, 138ft 2 

Ashes of cow-dung on body, 
rubbing, 250 

"Ash tart," L. B. Paton, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
231ft 5 

Ass, Vetala with ears of an, 

Assyrians, Babylonians and, 
A. H. Sayce,'231ft 5 

Attack of the Pulindas, the, 

Ausgew'dhlte Erzdhlungen in 
Mdhardshtri, H. G. Jacobi, 
217, 219 ' 


Aus Schwaben, A. Birlinsrer, 
21ft 3 * 

Austerities to obtain a son, 
performing, 2 

Aversion for the male sex, 
girl's, 35 

Babe exposed at the palace 

gate, 81, 81ft 1 , 82ft, 250 
Babylonians and Assyrians, 

A. H. Sayce, 231ft 5 
Bahar-Danush, or Garden of 

Knowledge, J. Scott, 203ft 3 , 

214ft 4 . 259ft 3 

B aha r-i-D anish, 'Inayatu- 
'llah, 214, 259 

Baital Pachisi oder die funf- 
undzwanzig Erzdhlungen 
eines Damon, H. Oesterley, 
213, 241ft 4 , 250 

Baital Pachisi, or Twenty-Jive 
Tales of a Demon, The, 
W. B. Barker and E. B. 
Eastwick, 199ft 1 ' 2 , 204ft 1 , 
211ft 1 , 212ft 1 , 215ft 1 , 222ft 1 , 
233ft 3 , 241ft 1 , 244ft 2 , 249ft 3 , 
250ft 2 , 256ft 1 , 258ft 1 , 260ft 1 , 
262ft 1 

"Baka," An Index to the 
Names in the Mahabharata, 
S. Sorensen, 235ft 1 

Ban of the Bori, The, A. J. N. 
Tremearne, 231ft 5 

Bandlet of white serpents, 

Bangles thrown into the sea, 
women's right-arm, 146ft 1 

Bath qualifying for marriage, 

Bathing in enchanted water, 
change of sex through, 

Battle, the great, 175 

Bear through a piece of 
wood, transformation into 
a, 42ft 1 

Beasts and birds, knowledge 
of the speech of, 3, 3ft 2 , 

Beating of drum, 205 ; when 
thief is led to execution, 
37, 37ft 1 

Beautiful Unmadini, The, 66, 
66ft 1 , 67-69, 241-244 

Beauty, the Goddess of 
(Lakshmi), 129, 129ft 4 , 137; 
illuminating, 5, 149, 189; 
of Malayavati, the, 52, 64, 
65 ; similes and metaphors 
of Hindu, 8, 64, 65, 140 ; of 
Ummadanti, the amazing, 
241, 242 

Beckoning in the East, way 
of, 88, 88ft 2 

Bed of lotus leaves, 143 ; of 
lotus leaves and sandal- 
wood juice, 101, 101ft 1 

" Bed " sybarite, 206, 206ft 1 , 

Belief, in change of sex at the 
soul's transmigration, 230 ; 
about the fate of man, 
Eastern, 24, 24ft 1 ; in sex- 
changing rites in India, 

Bengali version of tl 
Vikrama-charita, the, 251 
252ft 2 

Beowulf, F. Panzer, 126ft 2 

Betel, one of the eight enjoy- 
ments, 249 ; nut, flavoured 
with five fruits, 74 

" Bhutan, Buddhism in," 
L. A. Waddell, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 33ft 1 

Bible, Dictionary of the, Hast- 
ings', 106. For details see 
under Dictionary . . . 

Biblical laughs are dramatic, 
most, 254 

Bibliographic des Ouvrages 
Arabes, Victor Chauvin, 
52ft 2 , 82ft, 160ft 1 , 203ft5, 
213, 224ft 2 , 252ft 1 

jivin), 234 ; poisons food, 
dead snake carried by a, 32 

Birds, knowledge of the 
speech of, 3, 3ft 2 , 137, 
137ft 3 , 199; mythological, 
56, 56ft 

Birth, the signs of royal, 18, 
20 ; the unchangeable effect 
of actions in a previous, 
148, 154 

Births, remembering former, 

Black pigment applied to the 
eyes, anjana, 168ft 5 

Blackening and anointing 
the bodies of thieves, 216, 
216ft 2 

Blessings of Mahatmas, sex- 
changing, 229 

Blindness, the causes of 
Tiresias', 227 

Blisters produced by the rays 
of the moon, 11 

Blood, ground inside magic 
circle smeared with, 122 

Blue lotuses, eyes like, 160 

Boar, Hiranyaksha killed by 
Vishnu in the form of a, 
168, *168ft 2 

Bodies of thieves blackened 
and anointed, 216, 216ft 2 

[" Body, On the Art of Enter- 
ing Another's"] M. Bloom- 
field, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 
260ft 3 

Body, cutting off flesh from 
own, 126, 126ft 2 ; of Gay a- 
sura, the use of the, 84w 3 , 
85ft ; magician enters an- 
other, 114, 115; of 
Rakshasa, Mrigankadat 




Body continued 

emerges alive from the, 
22 ; rubbing ashes of cow- 
dung on, 250 ; the three 
qualities of the, 27 

Bohmisches Mdrchenbuch, A. 
Waldau, 3ft 2 , Gin 1 

Bombay Branch Roy. As. Soc, 
Journ., 233ft 2 . For details 
see under Journ. Bombay 
Br., etc 

Bombay, The Folklore of, R. E. 
Ent'hoven, 229, 230ft 1 

Bombay Presidency, Gazetteer 
of the, J. M. Campbell, 26, 

Bones, circle of yellow pow- 
der of, 122, 123 ; the pile 
of, 55 j seeing men digging 
causes feeling of broken, 

Book XII: SasankavatI, 1-193 

Book XII, Note on the Posi- 
tion of, 194-196 

Book of Sindibad, the, 214, 
214ft 2 - 3 , 224, 224ft 2 . See 
also under Clouston, W. A. 

Booth on four posts at the 
ceremony of upanayana, 26 

Bori, The Ban of the, A. J. N. 
Tremearne, 231ft 5 

Bough, The Golden, J. G. 
Frazer, 231ft 23 , 240, 240ft 3 

Boy, the laugh of the Brah- 
man, 96 ; who offered him- 
self up to save the Life of 
the King, The Brahman, 
87, 87ft 1 , 88-96, 250-256; 
with a thousand gold pieces 
exposed at the palace gate, 
8, 81m 1 , 82ft, 250 

Brahman, the Absolute, one 
of the four states of the 
soul, 26 ; Brothers who 
resuscitated the Lion, The 
Four, 108, 108ft 1 , 109-111, 
258-260 ; demon named 
Jvalamukha, 91, 92, 93, 95, 
96 ; Harisvamin, who first 
lost his Wife and then his 
Life, The, 29, 29m 1 , 30-33, 
212-215 ; Kamalakara, An- 
angamanjari, her Husband 
Manivarman, and the, 98, 
98ft 1 , 99-104, 256-258 ; and 
the magician, the dispute 
between the, 47 ; named 
Devasvamin, 29, 72 ; named 
Jivadatta, 4 ; named Ku- 
maradatta, 142; named 
Manabsvamin, 40-47, 80-81 ; 

Brahman continued 

named Padmanabha, 31, 
32 ; named Srutadhi, 128, 
130, 132, 133, 162, 163, 
165, 171, 172, 175, 177, 
180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 
190,192; namedSuvigraha, 
172, 173; named Vishnu- 
svamin, 108 ; named Yajna- 
soma, 112, 113 

"Brahmani Duck, The," W. 
Crooke, Indian Antiquary, 
5ft 3 

Brahmanical thread, the, 15, 
15ft 2 , 26-28, 76, 250 

Brahman's Son who failed to 
acquire the Magical Power, 
The, 71, 71m 1 , 72-77, 244- 

Brahmans, losing self-control 
at sight of beauty, 241, 242; 
at the upanayana, age of, 

Brahmany kite, Garuda re- 
presented as a, 234 

Brave thief, the, 36, 37 

Breaches into houses,digging, 
Indian method of thieving, 

Breasts like pitchers, 5 

Breton lay, Chaucer's Frank- 
lin s Tale based on a, 204 

" Brightness " or " courage," 
tejas, 95m 1 

Brihat-katha, the, 236 

Brihat-katha-manjari, Kshe- 
mendra, 64 

Broken bones, seeing men 
digging causes feeling of, 
207 ; heart, death caused 
by a, 24, 25, 103 

Brothers who resuscitated the 
Lion, The Four Brahman, 
108, 108ft 1 , 109-111, 258-260 

Bruises produced by the sound 
of a pestle, 11, 12 

Buddhaghosha s Parables, 244 

Buddhist Legend of Jimuta- 
vahana from the Katha- 
Sarit-Sagara, The, B. Hale 
Wortham, 237ft 2 

Buddhist Legends, E. W. Bur- 
lingame, 221 

Buddhist Records of the West- 
ern World, S. Beal, 237ft 2 , 
238ft 1 

Bundehesh, the, 56w 

Burns produced by the rays 
of the moon, 11, 209; 
sandalwood applied as re- 
lief for, 11, 105 

Butter to the fire, offerings 
of clarified, 27 

Cabinet des Fees, Le, 41 vols., 
Paris and Geneva, 1785- 
1793, 245ft* 

"Cafe, Le Hachich L'Opium 
Le," Charles Richet, 
Revue des Deux Mondes, 

"Caliature Wood," D. 
Hooper, Nature, 107 

Candles of human fat, 122, 
122ft 3 

Captives at a feast, releasing, 
160, 160W 1 

Carving industry, sandalwood 
chiefly used in the, 106 

Caste-marks or Shardana made 
of sandalwood paste, 105 

Castes of the Central Provinces 
of India, The Tribes and, 
R. V. Russell, 230ft 2 

Castle of Karabhagriva, the, 

Catalogue of Sanskrit . . , 
Books in the Library of the 
British Museum. A Supple- 
mentary, L. D. Barnett, 
237ft 2 

" Catching the Thief" motif y 

Catching thieves, "tiger's 
claw," an instrument used 
for, 216w 2 

"fatrunjaya Mahatmyam, 
Ueber das," A. Weber, 
Abhandl. f. d. Kunde d* 
Morgen., 214ft 1 

Cauldron, the magic, 224, 

Causes for Tiresias' blindness, 
different, 227, 228 

Cemetery, " grove of an- 
cestors " i.e. a, In 1 ; of 
Mahakala, the, 162 

Ceremonies, Hindu marriage, 
188, 188ft 1 ; pretended 
changes of sex at marriage, 

Ceremony of coronation, the, 
191, 191ft 3 ; of upanayana, 
the, 26-28; of walking 
round a tree, 132, 132ft 1 

Chandal or sandal, 105 

Change of matriarchate into 
patriarchate, 231, 232; of 
sex of deities, 231, 232 ; of 
sex, Indian legends about, 
229-230 ; change of sex at 
death, 228, 230 



" Change of Sex " motif, the, 

Changes of sex, modern re- 
search on, 233, 233ft 1 

[" Character and Adventures 
of Muladeva, The"] M. 
Bloomfield, Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, 220ft 1 

" Chaucer's Franklin's Tale," 
W. H. Schofield, Modern 
Lang. Ass. A?ner., 203 

Child carried about, golden 
image of a, 93, 94; exposed 
at the palace gate, 81, 81ft, 1 , 
82ft, 250 

Child's laugh, the, 96 

[Christian Topography of Cos- 
mas, an Egyptian Monk, 
The] J. W. M'Crindle, 107 

Churning of the Ocean, the, 
129ft 3 - 4 

Circle of the earth under one 
umbrella, ruling the, 192, 
192/1 1 ; magic, 95, 95ft 2 ; of 
yellow powder of bones, 
122, 123 

Circumambulating tree, 132, 
132ft 1 

Circumambulation of the fire, 
188, 188ft 1 

City called Alaka, 137, 142, 
142ft 1 , 143, 144, 145, 148, 
149, 151, 152, 158, 160; 
called AmaravatI, 71; called 
Anangapura, 5; called 
Ayodhya, 35, 130, 172, 183, 
185, 186, 187, 192, 202; 
called Chitrakuta, 87, 87ft 2 , 
93, 95; called Kanakapura, 
66 ; called Kanchanapura, 
181, 184; called Patali- 
putra, 108, 108ft 2 ; called 
Pratishthana, 125 ; called 
Sasankapura, 141, 142, 145, 
148, 160; called Sivapura, 
40; called SobhavatI, 112; 
called Tamralipti, 78, 98, 
99, 103 ; called Ujjayini, 1, 
10, 71, 126, 127, 128, 134, 
162, 163, 169, 171, 172, 
173, 175, 176, 177, 180, 
181, 182, 183, 185, 191ft 2 ; 
called Vakrolaka, 78, 80; 
called VaranasI, 29, 29ft 2 , 
82, 84, 192 ; called Visala, 
98; the Golden, 49; pro- 
duced by magic power, 
golden, 73, 74 ; in the sea, 
the wonderful, 19, 20 ; of 
Sybaris, the ancient, 206, 

Classical Library, Bohn's, 

206ft 3 , 232ft 1 ; Library, the 

Loeb, 227ft 2 , 228ft 2 
"Claw, tiger's," instrument 

used for catching thieves, 

216ft 2 
Clever thief, the, 201 
Clitoris, changes of sex due 

to abnormal development 

of the, 233 
Cobra carried by a kite 

poisons food, dead, 32, 212, 

Cocks forbidden in the ancient 

Sybaris, rearing, 207 
Coco-nut festival, the Narali- 

purnima or, 146ft 1 
Coco-nuts to the sea, offerings 

of, 146ft 1 
" Coffre Flottant, Le Lait de 

la Mere et le," Etudes 

Folkloriques, E. Cosquin, 

Coincidence of the Marathi 

and Hindi versions of the 

Vetalapanchavirhsati, 264 
Colander, filterer of soma- 

juice, 85, 85ft 1 
Collection of proverbs called 

the Fdkhir by al-Mufaddal 

ibn Salama, 225 ; of stories 

of Cristoforo Armeno, 210, 

210ft 4 
Colony, Sybaris, the oldest 

Greek, 206 
Colour of the sacred thread, 

Comb, girl turned into a, 239 
Combat, the great, 175 
" Comedy, On the Idea of," 

George Meredith, New 

Quarterly Magazine, 253ft 1 
Commander-in-chief, the de- 
voted, 69, 69ft 2 
Compact between Vasuki and 

Garuda, the, 56 
Comparative Table of stories 

in the three chief versions 

of the Vetalapanchavimsati, 

Comparison between the style 

of Somadeva and that of 

Kshemendra, 64 
Complexion like the Champa, 

woman's, 199 
Conclusion of King Trivi- 

kramasena and the Mendi- 
cant, 122, 122ft 1 , 123, 124, 

125, 263 
Conquest of Tripura, the, 


7*4 1 



Constitution of Sybaris, 

of the, Aristotle, 207 
Contempt, suicide due to, 251 
Contents of an argha orarghya 

123ft 1 
Conies Albanais, A. Dozi 

224, 226ft 2 
Contes de Perrault, Les t 

Saintyves, 263 
Contes a rire, ou Recreatu 

Francaises, new ed., 3 vols., 

Paris, 1769, 209ft 2 
Contes du Sieur d'Ouville, 

V Elite des,G. Brunet, 209ft 2 
Contes Turcs. Histoire de la 

Sultane de Perse, et des 

Visirs, F. Petis de la Croix, 

245, 245ft 3 
Conversion to Jain religion, 

the king's, 204, 205 
" Cook of Baghdad, The Tale 

of Warlock and the Young," 

The Nights, R. F. Burton, 

Copulating snakes, ill-luck 

caused by seeing, 227 
Cord round the neck, trans- 
formation by placing a, 

44ft 1 ; the sacred, 26-28 
Coronation, the ceremony of, 

191, 191ft 3 
Corpse, the laugh of the, 

255 ; by the power of 

spells, Vetala entering a, 

123, 126 
Cotton used for the sacred 

thread, 26 
Couch, one of the eight en- 
joyments, the, 249 
Country called Nishadha, 137 
"Courage " or "brightness," 

tejas, 95ft 1 
Courage, winning a Vetala's 

favour through, 120, 120ft 2 , 

Courtesan named Hamsavali, 

80, 81; the trick of the, 

Cow-dung on body, rubbing 

ashes of, 250 
Cravings of a pregnant 

woman, 201 
Crest-jewel falls in front of 

his wife, Jimutavahana's, 

Crocodile, Mandaravati is 

seized by a, 150 
Cry of the dying thief, the, 

38, 39; the hermit's, 114 
" Cry, Laugh and," motif, 221, 

254. 260. 261 

ukasaptati (Textus Simplicior), 
Die, R. Schmidt, 210m 1 - 2 

Curious laughs, 253, 254, 
255 ; relationship, the, 119 

Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, S. Baring-Gould, 
52ft 2 

Current in the Narmada flow- 
ing in opposite direction, 

Curse of Ganesa, the, 131, 

Curses of Mahatmas, belief 
in sex-changing, 229 

Custom of pretending change 
of sex, 231 ; of priests 
changing their sex, 231 ; 
of releasing prisoners at a 
feast, 160, 160ft 1 

Customs of the Modern 
Egyptians, An Account of 
the Manners and, E. W. 
Lane, 224ft 3 

Cutting off own flesh, 176, 
176n 2 

Cycle of stories, the Andro- 
meda, 227 

Dance to the flute, horses 
taught to, 207 

Danced, The Hermit who 
first Wept and then, 112, 
112ft 1 , 113-115, 260-261 

Darkness, one of the three 
qualities of the body, 27 

Dasa Kumara Charita or The 
Story of the Ten Princes, 
J. J. Meyer, 223ft 1 

Date of the foundation and 
destruction of Sybaris, 206 ; 
for the rite of upanayana, 
26 ; of the Vetalapanchaviih- 
sati, 208 

Daughter who fell in love 
with a Thief, The Mer- 
chant's, 35, 35n\ 36-39, 
215-221 ; and the Son that 
married the Mother, The 
Father that married the, 
116, 116ft 1 , 117-119, 262 

** Daughter of Inachus," Io, 
the, 228 

Days, battle lasting five, 175 ; 
feast lasting seven, 191 

Dead fish, the laugh of the, 
254 ; to life, power of re- 
storing, 4, 4ft 1 ; snake 
carried by a kite poisons 
food, 32, 212, 213 

Death caused by the fever of 
love, 69, 69ft 1 , 103; from 


Death continued 

a broken heart, 24, 25, 
103 ; change of sex at, 
228, 230 ; from excessive 
joy, 103 ; the last stage of 
love-sickness, 258; of the 
mendicant, the, 123 

Decameron, Boccaccio, 203, 
203ft 8 

Decameron, its Sources and 
Analogues, The, A. C. Lee, 

Deceit, the laugh of trickery 
and, 255, 256 

Deer listening to Malayavati 
playing on the lyre, 52, 
52ft 2 ; Marlcha assuming 
the form of a golden, 166 
. Deipnosophists, Athenaeus, 
206, 206ft 3 , 207 

Deities, change of sex of, 
231, 232 

Delicate women, the four, 
209, 210 

Delusion, Chandrasvamin's, 
75, 76 

Demon named Jvalamukha, 
Brahman, 91-93, 95, 96 

Description of the ceremony 
of upanayana, 26-28 ; falling 
in love by mention or, 17, 
18, 18ft 1 ; of the friendly 
Vetala, 163; of Malayavati's 
beauty, Kshemendra's, 64, 
65 ; of the sandalwood oil, 
105, 106 

Description of Greece, Pau- 
sanias\ J. G. Frazer, 240ft 2 

Desires, wishing-tree called 
Granter of, 49 

Destruction of old Sybaris, 
the, 206 

Deutschen Volksbiicher, Die, 
K. Simrock, 21ft 3 , 81ft 1 

Deux Mondes, Revue des, 248. 
For details see under Revue 
des Deux Mondes 

Development of the clitoris, 
changes of sex due to 
abnormal, 233 

" Devoted Hetaera " motif, 
220ft 1 

Devotion of the commander- 
in-chief, the, 69, 69ft 2 

" Diamond " or " thunder- 
bolt," vajra, 8ft 1 

Diamond, waist like a, 8 

Dictionary of the Bible, James 
Hastings [" Algum Trees, 
Almug Trees "], G. E. Post, 
vol. i, 1900, 106 


Dictionary of the Economic 
Products of India, A, G. 
Watt, 105, 106, 107, 249ft 2 

Different kinds of laughter, 

Digging breaches, Indian 
method of thieving, 218; 
feeling of broken bones 
caused by seeing men, 207 ; 
pain caused by hearing 
about men, 207 

Diplomacy, the art of, 171, 

Direction, the stream of the 
Narmada changing its, 174 

Disastrous voyages to Alaka, 
the, 143, 144 

Discus-marked footprint, a 
sign of royal birth, 18 

Disguising as an ascetic, 18, 
19, 83, 255 

Dishes in Sybaris, taking 
patent on, 208 

Dislike for the male sex, 
girl's, 35, 217 

Dispute between Hera and 
Zeus, the, 227 ; between 
the magician and the 
Brahman, the, 47 

Divine mother-goddesses, 
worship of the fifteen, 26 

Domestic and religious pur- 
poses, sandalwood for, 105 

Dragon-drum, the, 238 

Dragons, gods, etc., human 
sacrifices to, 236, 240 ; lake 
guarded by, 235ft 2 

Drama, The Sanskrit, A. B. 
Keith, 237ft 2 

Dramatic laughs, 254 

Dreaming, one of the four 
states of the soul, 26 

Dreamless sleep, one of the 
four states of the soul, 26 

"Dress," A. E. Crawley.. 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
231ft 4 

Dress, one of the eight enjoy- 
ments, 249 

Drinking enchanted water, 
change of sex through, 224, 
225 ; the sea, Agastya, 116, 
116ft 2 

Drum, beating of, 205 ; beaten 
when thief is led to execu- 
tion, 37, 37ft 1 ; the sandal- 
wood, 238 

Dwarf through a magic pill, 
Muladeva turned into a, 




Dye, the Red Sanders tree 
chiefly used as a, 107 

Dying thief, the cry and 
laugh of the, 38, 39 ; thief, 
marriage of the, 79 

" Earlier History of the 
Arabian Nights, The," 
D. B. Macdonald, Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc., 225ft 2 

Early English Versions of 
the Gesta Romanorum, The, 
S. J. H. Herrtage, 3ft 2 , 
81/1 1 

Early History of India, The, 
V. A. Smith, 237ft 1 

Early references to sandal- 
wood, 106, 107 

Ears of an ass, Vetala with, 

Earth under one umbrella, 
ruling the circle of the, 
192, 192ft 1 

East, Sagas from the Far 
[R. H. Busk], 235ft 2 

East, way of beckoning in 
the, 88, 88ft 2 

Eastern belief about the fate 
of man, 24, 24ft 1 

Eastern Romances and Stories, 
A Group of, W. A. Clouston, 
224ft 1 

Eau de jouvence, or " water 
of life," magical water used 
as, 225 

Economic Products of India, 
A Dictionary of the, G. 
Watt, 105, 106, 107, 249ft 2 

Effect of actions in previous 
births, the unchangeable, 
148, 154; on man of the 
rays of the moon, evil, 6, 
6ft 1 ; on pilgrims, Kedar- 
nath has a strange, 2ft 1 ; 
of Ummadanti's beauty on 
the Brahmans, amazing, 
241, 242 

Effects of hashish, the, 248, 
249, 249ft 2 

Effeminacy of the old Syb- 
arites, the luxury and, 206- 

" Efforts, Joint," motif, 259 

Egyptians, Manners and 
Customs of the Modern, An 
Account of the, E. W. Lane, 
224w 3 

" Eight- forked Serpent, The," 
B. H. Chamberlain, Trans. 
As. Soc. Japan, 238, 238ft 2 , 

Eight kinds of enjoyment, 
the, 249; Paradises, the, 
246 ; years, Brahman boys 
invested with the sacred 
thread at, 26 

Elephant of winter, the, 67 

Elephant-faced god (Ganea), 
131 ; Vetala, the, 163 

Elephants in must state, 41, 
41ft 1 

Eleven years, Kshatriya boys 
invested with the sacred 
thread at, 26 

Eleventh Statuette in the 
Sinhasanadvatrinsika, the 
story of the, 234, 235 

Elite des Contes du Sieur 
d'Ouville, L\ G. Brunet, 
209ft 2 

Emperor of Delhi, the, 229 

Emperor Otho's followers, the 
devotion of, 69ft 2 

Encyclopaedia of Indian Phil- 
ology, " Recht und Sitte," 
J. Jolly, 1896, 26 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings'/ 'Ashtart" 
and " Ishtar," L. B. Paton, 
vols, ii and vii, 231ft 5 ; 
"Bhutan, Buddhism in," 
L.A.Waddell, vol. ii, 33ft*; 
"Dress," A. E. Crawley, 
vol. v, 231ft 4 ; "Gaya," 
G. A. Grierson, vol. vi, 85ft ; 
"Kedarnath," W. Crooke, 
vol. vii, 2ft 1 ; "Laughter," 
C. Lloyd Morgan, vol. vii, 
253ft 1 ; "Water, Water- 
Gods (Indian)," W. Crooke, 
vol. vi, 85ft 

End of the Vetalapanchavim- 
sati, the, 125, 125m 1 

English Versions of the Gesta 
Romanorum, The Early, S.J. 
H. Herrtage, 3ft 2 , 81m 1 

Enigmatic laughs, 253, 254, 

Enjoyment, the eight kinds 
of, 249 

Entering another body, 
magician, 114, 115 

["Entering Another's Body, 
On the Art of"] M. 
Bloomfield, Proc. Amer. 
Phil. Soc, 260ft 3 

Entrance to Patala, a well as 
an, 215 

Erect with joy, hairs standing, 
69, 139, 139ft 2 , 179 

Ernst, Herzog, K. Bartsch, 
189ft 2 

Escape of Mandaravati, the 

wonderful, 144 
Essay on Laughter, An, James 

Sully, 253ft 1 
Essays, M. de Montaigne, 

232ft 2 
Essays, H. Spencer, 253ft 1 
Etknologische Bilder, Geo- 

graphische und, A. Bastian, 

208ft 1 
Etudes Folkloriques , E . Cosquin, 

82ft, 263 
Etymological change, change 

of sex of deities usually an, 

"Eunuchs, Indian," The 

Ocean of Story, N. M. 

Penzer, Vol. Ill, 231ft* 
European folk-lore, the 

sacrificing hero in, 239, 240 
Evil effect on man of the rays 

of the moon, 6, 6ft 1 
Evil Eye, pretended change 

of sex to avert the, 231 
Excellent dishes in Sybaris, 

taking patent on, 208 
Exchange of sex with 

Yaksha, Sikhandin's, 22 


Exempla of the Rabbis, Th 

M. Gaster, 203ft 4 
"Exposed Child" motif, 81, 

81ft 1 , 82ft, 250 
Eye, pretended change of 

sex to avert the Evil, 231 
Eyes, anjana, black pigment 

applied to the, 168ft 5 ; and 

flesh, offering of human, 

123 ; like blue lotuses, 160 ; 

of a Vetala like an owl, 


Fable of Teiresias, the Greel 

3ft 2 , 227 
Fabulce, Hyginus, 227ft 2 
Face like the moonstone, 8 
Face-cream, sandalwood us 

as, 105 
Faces and mouths, Vasuki, 

the king of the snakes, has 

a thousand, 56, 176ft 2 
Fainting caused by love 

sickness, 100, 194 
Fairy Tales, Indian, M. Stok( 

Faithful Minister, Kin$ 

Yasahketu, his Vidyadharl 

Wife and his, 13, 13ft 1 , 14- 

25, 211-212 
Fdkhir, the, collection of 

proverbs of al-Mufaddal ibn 

Salama, 225 



Fall of the ancient Sybaris, 
reasons for the, 206 

Falling lotus produces a 
wound on the queen's 
thigh, 11 

Falling in love by mere men- 
tion, 17, 18, 18th 1 ; in love 
with a picture, 139, 139ft 2 , 
141, 143 

False rumour, the, 14 ; state- 
ment, the, 67 

Fat, candles of human, 122, 
122n 3 

Fate of a man is written on 
his skull, the, 24, 24ft 1 

Father that married the 
Daughter and the Son that 
married the Mother, The, 
116, 116ft 1 , 117-119, 262 

Favour through courage, 
winning a Vetala's, 120, 
120ft 2 , 126 

Feast lasting seven days, 
191 ; releasing prisoners at 
a, 160, 160ft 1 

Feeling of broken bones 
caused by seeing men dig- 
ging, 207 

Fees, Le Cabinet des, 41 vols., 
Paris and Geneva, 1785- 
1793, 245ft 4 

Female apartments, man 
transformed into a girl in 
the, 42-47 ; ascetic, the 
speech of the, 138, 138ft 2 

Festival at Kailas Kund, 
annual, 236 ; the Kattika, 
242; the KaumudI, 243; 
Narali-purnima, or coco- 
nut, 146ft 2 

Fever of love, death caused 
by the, 69, 69m 1 ; sandal- 
wood applied as relief for, 
53, 53ft 1 , 101, 101ft 1 , 105, 

Fiction, laughs in Hindu, 
253-256; Muladeva, the 
arch-thief in Hindu, 217- 

Fifteen divine mother- 
goddesses, worship of the, 

Fight between Ravana and 
Arjuna, the, 174 

Figures of Buddha made of 
sandalwood, 106 ; of the 
Naga Raja and his Vezier 
in the Chenab Valley, 236 

Filocolo, Boccaccio, 203, 203ft 7 

" Finger " or " tribute," kara, 
112ft 1 


Fingers represent the four 

states of the soul, the four, 

Fire, circu mam bulat ion of the, 

188, 188ft 1 ; the God of 

(Agni), 135 ; of love, the, 

143 ; offerings of clarified 

butter to the, 27 ; throwing 

parched grain into the, 188, 

188ft 1 
Fires, torments of the six, 154 
First Vazir, the story of the, 

in the Forty Vazlrs, 245-247 
Fish, the laugh of the dead, 

Five days' battle, the, 175; 

fruits, betel flavoured with, 

74; ministers of Sundara- 

sena, the, 137 
Flesh, cutting of own, 126, 

126ft 2 ; offering of human 

eyes and, 123 
Flowers, kumuda, 8, 99, 102 ; 

to the sea, offerings of, 

146ft 1 ; sirisha, 145 
Flute, horses taught to dance 

to the, 207 
Flying in the air, 24, 29, 126, 

Folklore of Bombay, The, R. E. 

Enthoven, 229, 230ft 1 
"Folklore of Gujarat, The," 

R. E. Enthoven, bid. Ant., 

230ft 1 
Folk-Lore of Northern India, 

The Popular Religion and, 

W. Crooke, 1ft 2 , 5ft 3 , 146ft 1 , 

230ft 1 
Folklore in Southern India, 

Pandit Natesa Sastrl, 219 
Folk-lore, the sacrificing hero 

in European, 239, 240 
Folktales of Hindustan, Shaikh 

Chilli, 256 
Folk-Tales, Siberian and Other, 

C. F. Coxwell, 204, 235ft 2 
Followers, the devotion of 

the Emperor Otho's, 69ft 2 
Food, dead snake carried by 

a kite poisons, 32, 212, 213, 

215 ; one of the eight en- 
joyments, 249 
Footprints, discus-marked, a 

sign of royal birth, 18 
Forehead, man'sfate iswritten 

on his, 24, 24ft 1 ; the moon 

compared to a patch on the, 

Forest, the Khandava, 135, 

135ft 2 ; the Viiidhya, 116, 


Form of a Man-lion, Krishna 
in the, 175ft 1 ; of marriage, 
the gandharva, 21, 44, 48, 
194, 251; of Siva, the 
ArdhanarisVara, 232 

Former births, remembering, 
55 ; births, the unchange- 
able effect of actions in, 
148, 154 

Fortune, the Goddess of, 

Forty Vazlrs, the, 245, 252 

Forty Veziers, or The Story of 
the Forty Morns and Eves, 
The History of the, E. J. W. 
Gibb, 203w, 245, 252ft 1 

Foundation of Sybaris, date 
of the, 206 

Four Brahman Brothers who 
resuscitated the Lion, The, 
108, 108ft 1 , 109-111, 258- 
260 ; delicate neighbours, 
the, 209, 210; fingers re- 
present the four states of 
the soul, the, 26 ; ministers, 
the adventures of the, 134- 
136, 161 ; posts, booth on, 
26 ; Suitors, Anangarati 
and her, 1, 1ft 3 , 2-4, 199; 
Yugas or Ages of the World, 
the, 1, 1ft 5 

Franklins Tale, Chaucer, 203, 

Friendly Vetala, the, 163 

Fruits, betel - nut flavoured 
with five, 74 ; transforma- 
tion of humans into, 130, 
131, 161 

Funeral pyre, widow ascend- 
ing, 38, 38ft 1 

Furious elephant, the, 41, 
41ft 1 

Gale, the terrible, 146 
Gambler, the penniless, 72, 

72ft 3 
"Gambler, Devadatta the," 

245ft 2 
" Gambler, f nmtn ^arala, 

the bold," story of, 255, 

Gambling, the vice of, 72, 

72ft 2 
Garden of Nandana, the, 129 ; 

called Pushpakaranda, 177 
Gatakamala, or Garland of 

Birth Stories, The, J. S. 

Speyer, 243ft 1 
Gate, boy with a thousand 

gold pieces exposed at the 

palace, 81, 81ft 1 , 250 



"Gaya," G. A. Grierson, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

Gazetteer of the Bombay 
Presidency, J. M. Campbell, 
26, 230 

Generous men, the three, 7-9 

Geograpkische und etfmologische 
Bilder, A. Bastian, 208ft 1 

Gesta Romanorum, the English, 
3ft 2 , 81ft 1 

Giajfers aus dem Italienischen 
des Christoforo Armeno uber- 
setzt durch Johann Wetzel, 
1583, Die Reise der Sonne, 
J. Bolte and H. Fischer, 

Gifts, Sushena's, 188 

Gipsy tale about change of 
sex, 226 

Girl changes her sex, 223 ; 
through a magic pill, man 
transformed into a, 42-47; 
turned into a comb, 239 

"Glory-banner," Yasahketu 
i.e., 40, 40ft 2 

Glossary of A nglo- Indian 
Words . . ., Hobson- 
Jobson : being A, H. Yule 
and A. C. Burnell, 107 

God of Fire, the (Agni), 135 ; 
of Love, the (Kama), 13, 
13w 3 , 37, 40, 41, 52, 66, 99, 
138, 176, 177, 188, 189, 
190, 201, 214 ; Pradyumna, 
the, 112; of War, the, 137; 
of Wealth, the (Kuvera), 
98, 142ft 1 

Goddess of Beauty, the 
(Lakshml), 129, 129ft 4 , 137; 
Chandl, the, 100, 103; of 
Fortune, the, 70 ; regarded 
as a woman, man inspired 
by a, 231 ; of Valour, the, 

Gods, dragons, etc., human 
sacrifices to, 236, 240 

Gold, the Island of i.e. 
Suvarnadvipa, probably 
Sumatra, 15, 15ft 3 , 16, 17, 

Golden Bough, The, J. G. 
Frazer, 231ft 2 - 3 , 240, 240ft 3 

Golden City, the, 49; city 
produced by magic power, 
73, 74; deer, Marlcha 
assuming the form of a, 
166 ; image of a child 
carried about, 93, 94 

Golden Town, and other Tales, 
The, L. D. Barnett, 137m 1 

Grain into the fire, throwing 

parched, 188, 188m 1 
Grande- Grece. Pay sages et 

Histoire, La, F. Lenormant, 

206, 206ft 2 , 208 
Granter of Desires, wishing- 

tree called, 49 
Grass, darbha, 149 ; durva, 

123ft 1 , 189 ; kdsa, 26 ; kusa, 

117, 132 ; munja, 26 
Greek colony, Sybaris, the 

oldest, 206; romances, signs 

of love in, 139ft 2 ; romances, 

storms in, 147ft 1 
"Grethel, Hansel and," 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 

und Hausmarchen der Br'uder 

Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 

Polivka, 263, 263ft 1 
Grey hair in Hindu fiction, 

190, 191, 191ft 1 
Griechische und albanesische 

Marchen, J. G. von Hahn, 

Griechische Marchen, Sagen und 

Volkslieder, B. Schmidt, 

61ft 1 
Griechische Mythologie, L. 

Preller, 3ft 2 
Griechische Roman und Seine 

Vorl'dufer, Der, E. Rohde, 

139ft 2 , 147ft 1 , 189ft 2 
Group of Eastern Romances 

and Stories, A, W. A. 

Clouston, 224ft 1 
" Grove of ancestors " i.e. a 

cemetery, 1ft 1 
Gul-i Bakdwati, Izzat Ullah, 

224, 224ft 1 

" Hachich L'Opium Le 
Cafe, Le," Charles Richet, 
Revue des Deux Mondes, 248 

Hair in Hindu fiction, grey, 
190, 191, 191ft 1 ; sacrificial 
thread of, 123 ; except 
seven locks, shaving all 
the, 205 

Hairs standing erect with joy, 
60, 139, 139ft 2 , 179 

Hands in the well of Gaya, 
the three human, 85 

"Hansel and Grethel," An- 
merkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmarchen der Bruder 
Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 
Polivka, 263, 263ft 1 

Harem, 13, 13w 4 

Harsha, R. Mookerji, 237ft 1 

Haschischeen, Testaments d'un, 
Jules Giraud, 249w 2 

Hashish, effects of, 248, 249, 

249ft 2 
Hatred of men, girl's, 35, 217 
Head, pouring holy water on 

the, 191, 191ft 3 
Heading of Vetala 22, mis- 
take of writing " Tiger " 

instead of "Lion" in the, 

Heads, necklace of human, 

Heap of snake-bones, the, 

55, 56 
Hearing things happen, pain 

caused by, 12, 207, 209 
Heart, death caused by a 

broken, 24, 25, 103 
Heaven, voice from, 2, 19, 

38, 54, 131 
Heavenly maiden on the 

wishing-tree, the, 16, 18, 

Heavens, the Seven, 246 
Helden- Sagen, Altdeutsche u. 

Altnordische, F. H. v. d. 

Hagen, 3ft 2 , 166ft 3 , 173ft 1 , 

181ft 1 
Hell in human shape, a Rak- 

shasa looking like, 21 
Hells, the Seven, 246 
Helpful Vetala, the, 163 
Hemp, sacred thread ma 

of, 26 
" Hermaphrodite, Notes 

an," R. F. Burton, Mem. 

Anth. Soc. Ldn., 233ft 1 
Hermit who first Wept and 

then Danced, The, 112, 

112ft 1 , 113-115, 260-261; 

named Agastya, 166; named 

Dirghatapas, 135 ; named 

Kanva, 89, 90, 136, 161; 

named Kusanabha, 18 ; 

named Matanga, 144, 151, 

152 ; named Pisangajata, 

192-194; named Vamasiva, 

Hermitage of Agastya, 166; 

of Kanva, 89, 90, 161 ; of 

Matanga, 144, 145, 149, 

151, 152, 156 
Hero in European folk-lore, 

the sacrificing, 239, 240 
Herzog Ernst, K. Bartsch, 

189ft 2 
" Hetaera, Devoted," motif, 

220ft 1 
Hiding-places of thieves, 

usual, 219 
Hill, the Malyachal, 233 
Hills, the Vindhya, 170 





Hindi version of the Vetala- 
panchavirhsati, the, 199, 204, 
205, 211, 212, 215, 221, 222, 
233, 234, 241, 244, 249, 250, 
251, 256, 258, 259, 260, 262, 

Hindi and Marathi versions 
of the Vetalapanchavimsati, 

Hindu beauty, similes and 
metaphors of, 8, 64, 65, 
140 ; fiction, laughs in, 
253-256; fiction, Muladeva, 
the arch-thief in, 217-219 ; 
marriage ceremonies, 188, 
ISSn 1 ; medical works, 
description of sandalwood 
in, 105; pun, 1, lft 4 , 13, 
13ft 3 , 17, 17ft 1 , 19, 19ft 1 , 52, 
52w 3 , 79, 79ft 1 , 87, 87ft 3 , 91, 
91ft 2 , 98, 98ft 2 , 162, 162ft 3 , 
165, 165ft 2 , 168, 168ft 1 - 3 , 
173, 173w 2 , 177, 177ft 2 

Hindu Tales, J. J. Meyer, 
218, 218ft 2 

Hindustan, Folk -tales of, 
Shaikh Chilli, 256 

Histoire de la Sultane de Perse, 
et des Visirs. Contes Turcs, 
F. Petis de la Croix, 245, 
245ft 3 

" History of the Arabian 
Nights, The Earlier." D. B. 
Macdonald, Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc, 225ft 2 

History, Phylarchus, 207 

History of the Constitution of 
Sybaris, Aristotle, 207 

History of the Forty Veziers of 
the Story of the Forty Morns 
and Eves, The, E. J. W. 
Gibb, 203n, 245, 252ft 1 

History of Human Marriage, 
The, E. Westermarck, 231ft 1 

History of India, The Early, 
V. A. Smith, 237ft 1 

History of India, The Oxford, 
V. A. Smith, 237ft 1 

History of the Mahrattas, A, 
J. G. Duff, 216ft 2 

" History of the Prince of 
Futtun and the Princess 
Mherbanou," Bahar- 
Danush, J. Scott, 259 

History of the temples on 
the banks of the Jumna, 
the, 229, 230 

Hobson-Jobson : being A Glos- 
sary of Anglo-Indian . . . 
Words, H. Yule and A. C. 
Burnell, 107 

Holy spot on the earth, Gaya, 
the most, 85ft ; water on 
the head, pouring, 191, 
191ft 3 

Horripilation, 60, 139, 139ft 2 , 

Horses taught to dance to 
music, 207 

Houses, digging breaches 
into, Indian method of 
thieving, 218 

" How the Serpent - gods 
were propitiated," Sagas 
from the Far East (R. H. 
Busk), 235ft 2 

Human eyes and flesh, offer- 
ing of, 123 ; fat, candles 
of, 122, 122ft 3 ; heads, 
necklace of, 250 ; sacrifice, 
the, 95, 96 ; shape, Rak- 
shasa looking like Hell in, 
21 ; teeth, an argha of 
white, 123, 123ft 1 

Humane Nature, Thomas 
Hobbes, 253ft 1 

Humans and water-deities, 
marriages between, 240 

Hundred sons, Ratnadatta is 
promised a, 38, 38ft 2 

Hunting, the vice of, 90, 

Hurricane, the great, 146 

Husband, the generous, 7, 
9 ; Manivarman, and the 
Brahman Kamalakara, 

Anangamanjarl, her, 98, 
98ft 1 , 99-104, 256-258 

Hypocrisy of Queen Kama- 
Hla, the, 210 

Hypocritical ladies, the three, 

"Idea of Comedy, On the," 

George Meredith, New 

Quarterly Magazine, 253ft 1 
Idea of time and placeaffected 

by use of hashish, 248, 249 
Idea, The World as Will and, 

A. Schopenhauer. 253ft 1 
Ignorance, the pretended, 

121, 123 
" Ignorance, Pretended," 

motif 263 
Ill-luck caused by seeing 

snakes coupling, 227 
Illuminating beauty, 5, 149, 

Illusion, Chandrasvamin's, 75, 

Illusions produced when in 

water, 245-247 

// Pentamerone. See under 

Pentamerone, II 
Image of a child carried about, 

golden, 93, 94 
Imaginary life in the water, 

the, 75, 76 
Incantations of Yogis, belief 

in sex-changing, 229 
Incarnation of a Bodhisattva, 

49, 61 
Index to the Names in the 

Mahabharata, An, S. Soren- 

sen, 223ft 2 , 235ft 1 
India, Antiquities of, L. D. 

Barnett, 26, 187ft 1 
India, Archaeological Survey of, 

A. Cunningham, 229ft 1 
Indian Antiquary, "The 

Brahmani Duck," W. 

Crooke, vol. x, 1881, 5ft 3 ; 

["The Folklore of Gujarat"] 

R. E. Enthoven, vols, xli, 

1912. and xlv, 1916, 

230ft 1 
" Indian Eunuchs," The Ocean 

of Story, N. M. Penzer, 

Vol. Ill, Appendix, 231ft 4 
Indian Fairy Tales, M. Stokes, 

Indian legends about change 

of sex, 229, 230 ; method 

of thieving, 218 ; parallels 

to Vetala No. 10, 200- 

Indische Alterthumskunde , C. 

Lassen, 106 
Indische Studien, 17 vols., 

1850-1885, 202 
Industry, sandalwood used 

chiefly in the carving, 106 
Infatuation, the king's, 242, 

"Injuries, unintentional," 

motif, 92, 92ft 1 , 131, 131ft 1 
Inscriptions de Piyadasi, Les, 

E. Senart, 33ft 1 
Instantaneous transportation, 

24, 225, 225ft 1 
Instrument for catching 

thieves, 216ft 2 
Intellectual Observer, The 

["Sandal-wood and its 

Commercial Importance "], 

B. Seemann, vol. iv, No. 20, 
Ldn., 1863, 105-107 

Intoxicating beauty of Ura- 
madantl, the, 241, 242 

Investiture with the sacred 
thread, upanayana, the rite 
of, 26-28 

Invincible, sword named, 124 



Invitations to the ceremony 
of apanayana, 26 ; made a 
year beforehand, 208 

Irische Elfenm'drchen, J. and 
W. Grimm, 120rc 2 

"Ishtar," L. B. Paton, Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel Eth., 231n 5 

Islam in India, or the Qanun- 
i-Islam, G. A. Herklots, 
249W 1 

Island of Gold, the i.e. 
Suvarnadvlpa, probably 
Sumatra, 15, 15w 3 , 16-18 

Jain minister, the punishment 
of the, 205 ; religion, the 
king's conversion to, 204, 

Japan, Trans. As. Soc, 238w 2 . 
For details see under Trans. 
As. Soc. Japan 

Jewdd, The Story of, E. J. W. 
Gibb, 248 

Jewels to the sea, offering of, 
146, 146W 1 

" Joint Efforts " motif, 259 

Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, 
" On Recurring Motifs in 
Hindu Fiction," M. Bloom- 
field, vol. xxx, 191ft 1 ; 
[" On Recurring Psychic 
Motifs in Hindu Fiction 
the Laugh and Cry Motif"] 
M. Bloomfield, vol. xxxvi, 
251ft 1 , 254, 254ft 1 , 255, 256, 
260ft 3 

Journ. Bombay Branch Roy. 
As. Soc, "The Serpent 
Sacrifice mentioned in the 
Mahabharata," M. Winter- 
nitz, August 1926, 233ft 2 

Journ. Phil., Amer., 164ft 1 , 
201m 1 . For details see 
under Amer. Journ. Phil., 
203ft 1 , 218ft 2 , 220 

Journ. Roy. As. Soc, R. P. 
Dewhurst, review of the 
Ocean of Sto?i/, October 
1924, 56ft; "the Earlier 
History of the Arabian 
Nights," D. B. Macdonald, 
July 1924, 225ft 2 ; "The 
Nagas : a Contribution to 
the History of Serpent 
Worship," C. F. Oldham, 
July 1901, 236ft 1 ; "The 
Stories of Jimutavahana 
and Harisarman," B. Hale 
Wortham, vol. xviii, 1886, 
237ft 2 

Jouvence, eau de, or "water of 
life," magical water used 
as, 225 

Joy, death caused by ex- 
cessive, 103 ; horripilation 
from, 60, 139, 139ft 2 , 179 

Kalhanas Rajataranginl, M. A. 
Stein, 244ft 1 

Kalmukische Mdrchen. Die 
Mdrchen des Siddhi-Kiir, 
B. Julg, 235ft 2 

Kama Sidra, Vatsyayana, 258 

Kathakoca ; or, Treasury of 
Stories, The, C. H. Tawney, 
220, 223, 254 

Kathdratndkara. Das Mdrchen- 
meer, J. Hertel, 200, 200ft 2 

" Kedarnath," W. Crooke, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
2ft 1 

Kinder- und Hausm'drchen der 
Br'uder Grimm, Anmerkungen 
zu den, J. Bolte and G. 
Polivka, 209ft 1 , 263ft 1 

Kinds of enjoyments, eight, 
249 ; of laughter, different, 

King Amaradatta, 172, 183, 
186, 190,191; Bali, 36,98, 
98ft 2 ; Behram, 210, 211; 
of Bennayada, Muladeva, 
218; the Brahman Boy 
who offered himself up 
to save the Life of the, 
87, 87ft 1 , 88-96, 250-256; 
Chandraprabha, 82-84, 86 ; 
Dharmadhvaja and his 
Three Very SensitiveWives, 
10, 10ft 1 , 11, 12, 204-211 ; 
Drupada, the story of, 
223, 228 ; Karmasena, 163, 
169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 
176, 180-186, 192; of Kau- 
sambi, Udayana, 106 ; of 
Mahishmati, Arjuna, 174 ; 
Nahusha, 166 

King named Chandraprabha, 
72 ; Chandravaloka, 87, 90, 
93, 95; Dharanivaraha, 108; 
Dharma, 116, 117; Durga- 
pisacha, 164-167, 167n 2 , 
168, 169, 170, 170w 2 , 182, 
190; Mahasena, 137, 140- 
143, 148, 149, 156, 158, 
159, 160; Mahendraditya, 
141, 145, 147, 148, 159; 
Mandaradeva, 140-143,149, 
151, 159, 160; Mayavatu, 
164, 164w 2 , 167, 169, 170, 
171, 177, 180, 181, 182, 

King continued 

184, 185, 186, 190, 192 
Mrigankasena, 20 ; Na 
husha, 70 ; Padmanabha 
98; Pradyumna,112; Sakti 
rakshita, 164, 164w 3 , 165 
170, 182, 186, 190 ; Surya 
prabha, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84 
86; Vindhyaketu, 153-160 
Virabahu, 5 ; Viradeva, 1 
2, 4; Viraketu, 35, 38 
218; Visvavasu, 51, 52 
Yasahketu, 40, 40n 2 ; Yaso- 
dhank, 66, 67 

King Natchetiran, 257 ; of 
the snakes, Vasuki, 56, 58, 
176, 176n 2 , 236; Srenika, 
200 ; Trivikramasena and 
the Mendicant, 1, 4, 5, 9, 
10, 12, 13, 25, 29, 33-34, 
35, 39, 40, 48, 49, 63, 66, 
69-70, 71, 77, 78, 85-86, 
87, 96-97, 98, 104, 108, 
Conclusion of King Trivi- 
kramasena and the Mendi- 
cant, 122, 122m 1 , 123-125, 
263 ; Trivikramasena's re- 
quest, 124 ; of Vatsa, the, 
195; Virata, 162, 162n 3 ; 
Yasahketu, his Vidyadhari 
Wife and his Faithful 
Minister, 13, ISn 1 , 14-25, 

King's answers to the Vetala's 
questions, the, 4, 9, 12, 25, 
33, 34, 39, 48, 63, 69, 70, 
77, 86, 96, 104, 111, 115 

Kings of Pattan and Kabri, 
the agreement between 
the, 230 

Kite, Garuda represented as 
a Brahmany, 234 ; poisons 
food, dead snake carried 
by a, 32, 212, 213, 215 

Knot on the sacred thread, 
Brahmagranthi, a.,21 

Knowledge of the speech of 
animals, 3, 3w 2 , 137, 137w 3 , 

Ko-ji-ki, the, 238 

[" Ko-Ji-Ki ... or Records 
of Ancient Matters " 
B. H. Chamberlain, Trans. 
As. Soc. Japan, 238, 238w 2 

Ladies, the three hypocritical, 

" Lait de la Mere et le Coffre 
Flottant, Le," ttudes 
Folkloriques, E. Cosquin, 82rs 

T^Tcp <ri 

Lake guarded by dragons, 

235ft 2 ; Mansarovar, tale 

about, 230ft 1 ; resembling 

the Mahabharata, 129 ; the 

sex-changing, 224 
Lamp-black at the upanayana 

ceremony, smearing with, 

Lamps made of precious 

stones, 189, 189ft 2 
Land of Anga, the, 13, 13ft 23 , 

15, 17, 19, 23; of Kalinga, 

the, 112; of Malava, the, 

Language of animals, know- 
ledge of the, 3, 3ft 2 , 137, 

137ft 3 , 199 
Language Ass. Amer., Modern, 

203. For details see under 

Mod. Lang. Ass. Amer. 
Laugh of the Brahman boy, 

the, 96 ; of the corpse, the, 

255 ; of the dead fish, the, 

254 ; the demon's, 92, 95 ; 

of the dying thief, the, 38, 

" Laugh and Cry " motif, the, 

221, 254, 260, 261 
"Laugh" motif, the, 221, 

251, 253-255 
Laughing statue, the, 210, 211 
Laughs in Hindu fiction, 253- 

Laughter, different kinds of, 

"Laughter," C. Lloyd 

Morgan, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth., 253ft 1 
Laughter, C. Brereton and 

F. Rothwell (trans, of H. 

Bergson's Le Rire), 253ft 1 
Laughter, An Essay on, James 

Sully, 253ft 1 
Laughter, The Nature of, J. C. 

Gregory, 253ft 1 
" Laughter, The Physiology 

of," H. Spencer,Macmillans 

Masazine, 253ft 1 
Lay, Chaucer s Franklin s Tale 

based on a Breton, 204 
Leaves, vilva, 158 
Legend of Jimutavahana , The 

Buddhist, B. HaleWortham, 

237ft 2 
Legend of Perseus, The, E. S. 

Hartland, 227ft 1 , 240ft 1 
Legend of Pope Gregory, the, 

81ft 1 ; of Tiresias, the, 3ft 2 , 

Legends about change of sex, 

Indian, 229, 230 


Leisure Hour, The [" What I 
saw of the Sandal- wood 
Trade"], C. B., Ldn., 
September 1869, 107 

Length of the sacred thread, 

Letter in the sandalwood 
drum, the, 238 

Leviathan, The, Thomas 
Hobbes, 253ft 1 

Library, Apollodorus, The, 
J. G. Frazer, 3ft 2 , 227, 227ft 2 , 
228ft 1 , 230ft 3 

Library, Bohn's Classical, 
206ft 3 ,232ft 1 ; LoebClassical, 
227ft 2 , 228ft 2 

Life, The Brahman Hari- 
svamin, who first lost his 
Wife, and then his, 29, 
29ft 1 , 30-33, 212-215; of 
the King, The Brahman 
Boy who offered himself 
up to save the, 87, 87ft 1 , 
88-96, 250-256; power of 
restoring dead to, 4, 4ft 1 ; 
sprinkling with the water 
of, 61, 61ft 1 , 259, 260; in 
the water, the imaginary, 
75, 76 

"Life, water of," magical 
water used as, 225 

Life of Hiuen Tsiang, The, 
S. Beal, 106 

Life and Stories of the Jaina 
Savior Parcvanatha, The, 
M. Bloomfield, 203ft 1 , 213 

Lion, The Four Brahman 
Brothers who resuscitated 
the, 108, 108ft 1 , 109-111, 
258-260; of spring, the, 

Lions in India, scarcity of, 

Lips, bimba, 10, 10ft 2 

Locks, grey, 190, 191, 191ft 1 ; 
shaving all the hair except 
seven, 205 

Long-lived (Ciramjivin), bird 
named, 234 

Longest book in the K.S.S., 
Book XII, the, 194 

Loss of Madanamanchuka, 
the, 195 

Lotus, kamala, 99ft 4 ; leaves, 
bed of, 143 ; leaves and 
sandalwood juice, bed of, 
101, 101ft 1 ; produces a 
wound on the queen's 
thigh, a falling, 11 

Lotuses, an asan of white, 
250; eyes like blue, 160 


Love, death caused by the 
fever of, 69, 69ft 1 ; the fire 
of,.143; the God of (Kama), 
13, 13ft 3 , 37, 40, 41, 52, 66, 
99, 138, 176, 177, 188, 189, 
190, 201, 214; in Greek 
romances, signs of, 139ft 1 ; 
by mere mention, or de- 
scription, 17, 18, 18ft 1 ; 
with a picture, falling in, 
139, 139ft 2 , 141, 143; for 
a thief, Ratnavati's sudden, 

Love-sickness, the ten stages 
of, 44ft 2 

Lurking-places of thieves, 
usual, 219 

Luxury and effeminacy of the 
old Sybarites, the, 206- 

Lyre, deer listening to Mala- 
yavati's playing on the, 52, 
52ft 2 

Macbeth [Shakespeare], 164ft 1 

Macmillan's Magazine, " The 
Physiology of Laughter," 
H. Spencer, March 1860, 
253ft 1 

Mad elephant, the, 41, 
41ft 1 

Maddening beauty, Unma- 
dini's, 66, 68, 69 

" Madonna Dianora and 
Messer Ansaldo," De- 
cameron, Boccaccio, 203ft 8 

(Magic Art, The) The Golden 
Bough, vol. ii, J. G. Frazer, 
240ft 3 

Magic cauldron, the, 224, 
225 ; circle, the, 95, 95ft 2 , 

122, 123; Pill, The, 40, 
40ft 1 , 41-47, 222-233; plant, 
change of sex through a, 
223, 224; Power, The 
Brahman's Son who failed 
to acquire the, 71, 71ft 1 , 
72-77, 244-249; powers of 
the four brothers, the, 110, 
111 ; powers, hermit pos- 
sessing, 73, 113, 114; purse 
always containing a thou- 
sand dinars, 222ft 3 ; sandals, 
235 ; seal, transformation 
through a, 222, 224; spells, 

123, 126 
Magical rites, 123 
Magician and the Brahman, 

the dispute between the, 
47; enters another body, 
114, 115 



Mahabharata, An Index to the 
Names in the, S. Sorensen, 
223ft 2 , 235ft 1 

Mahabharata of Krishna- 
Dwaipayana Vyasa, The, 
P. C. Roy, 38n 2 , 223ft 2 

Mahrattas, A History of the, 
J. G. Duff, 216ft 1 

Maiden on the wishing-tree, 
the heavenly, 16, 18, 19 

Maidens, the three hypo- 
critical, 211 

Mainyo i-Khirad, the, 56ft 

Malavikagnimitra, Kalidasa, 
2ft 1 

Male sex, girl's dislike for 
the, 35, 217 

Man inspired by a goddess 
regarded as a woman, 231 ; 
transformed into a girl 
through a magic pill, 42- 

Mango-fruit, serpent carried 
by a bird poisons, 213, 214 

Man-lion, form assumed by 
Krishna, 175, 175m 1 

Manners and Customs of the 
Modern Egyptians, An 
Account of the, E. W. Lane, 
224ft 3 

Man's fate is written on his 
skull, 24, 24ft 1 

Marathi and Hindi versions 
of the Vetalapanchavimsati, 
coincidence of the, 264 

Marks, boy with auspicious, 

Marriage, bath qualifying for, 
27 ; of Brahmans before 
the upanayana, no, 26 ; 
ceremonies, Hindu, 188, 
188ft 1 ; ceremonies, pre- 
tended change of sex at, 
231 ; between the dying 
thief and the merchant's 
daughter, the, 79; the 
gandharva form of, 21, 44, 
48, 194, 251 

Marriage, The History of 
Human, E. Westermarck 
231ft 1 

Marriages between humans 
and water-deities, 240 

Materia Medica of the Hindus 
The, U. C. Dutt, 105 

Material of the sacred thread 

Matriarchate into patriarch- 
ate, change of, 231, 232 

Meaning of the child's laugh, 
the, 96 

Medical works, description of 
sandalwood in Hindu, 105 

Meditation, supernatural 
power of, 60 

Meeting of Sundarasena and 
Mandaravati, the, 151 

Melusine, Recueil de Mythologie 
. . ., 10 vols., Paris, 1901, 
126^2 ; [ Une Fable de la 
Fontaine et les Contes 
Orientales "] Israel Levi, 
No. 2, cols. 541-545, 203ft 4 

Mem. Anth. Soc. Ldn., " Note 
on an Hermaphrodite," 
R. F. Burton, vol. ii, 233ft 1 

Men, girl's dislike for, 35, 217; 
the three generous, 7, 8, 9 

Mendicant, the death of the, 
123 ; King Trivikramasena 
and the, 1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 
13, 25, 29, 33-34, 35, 39, 
40, 48, 49, 63, 66, 69-70, 
71, 77, 78, 85-86, 87, 96-97, 
98. 104, 108, 111, 112, 115, 
116, 120-121; Conclusion 
of King Trivikramasena 
and the, 122, 122ft 1 , 123- 
125, 263; named Kshan- 
tisila, 121, 122 

Mention, falling in love by 
mere, 17, 18, 18ft 1 

Merchant named Arthadatta, 
5, 98 ; named Dhanapala, 
78 ; named Dharmadatta, 
5-8; named Lakshmidatta, 
18, 19 ; named Nidhidatta, 
15-17 ; named Ratnadatta, 
35, 37, 38 ; named Samu- 
dradatta, 6, 7, 9 ; named 
Vasudatta, 80 ; the wicked, 
152, 157 

Merchant's Daughter who 
fell in Love with a Thief, 
The, 35, 35ft 1 , 36-39, 215- 

Merchant's wife and 
Durlabhaka - Pratapaditya 
II, the, 244 

Metamorphoses, Ovid, 227ft 2 , 
228ft 1 - 2 

Metaphors of Hindu beauty, 
64, 140 

Method of thieving, Indian, 

Milk to the sea, offerings of, 
146ft 1 

Minister, King Yasahketu, 
his Vidyadhari Wife and 
his Faithful ; 13, 13ft 1 , 14- 
25, 211-213; the punish- 
ment of the Jain, 205 

Ministers, the adventures of 
the four, 134-136, 139 ; of 
Sundarasena, the five, 137 
turned into fruits, Mrigan- 
kadatta's, 130, 131, 161 

Mirabilia, Phlegon, 227ft 2 

Mirror allowed after th 
upanayana, looking in a, 27 

Mistake, Garuda's, 61 ; about 
the order of events in the 
K.S.S., 195, 196 

Modern Language Ass. Amer., 
"Chaucer's Franklin's 
Tale," W. H. Schofield, 
vol. xvi (N.S.), vol. ix, 203 

Modern research on changes 
of sex, 233, 233ft 1 

Monkey, transformation in 
a, 44ft 1 

Monster, the terrible, 91, 92, 

" Montagne, Noire, La,' 
Melusine,' vol. ii, 126ft 2 

Month Kartika, the, 142 

Moon, blisters produced b 
the rays of the, 11 ; com 
pared to a patch on th 
forehead, 102 ; dangerou 
for man, the rays of th 
6, 6ft 1 

Moonstone, face like the, 8 

Morphologie der Missbildung 
E. Schwalbe, 233ft 1 

Most holy spot on the eart 
Gaya, the, 85ft 

Mother, The Father th 
married the Daughter an 
the Son that married th 
116, 116ft 1 , 117-119, 262 
of the snakes, Kadru, th 
55, 56 

Mother-goddesses, worship 
the fifteen divine, 26 

Motif, " Catching the Thief, 
217-221; "Change of Sex, 
223-233; "Devote 
Hetsera," 220ft 1 ; " Ente 
ing Another's Body," 260 
"Exposed Child," 81, 81ft 
82ft, 250; "Joint Efforts, 
259; the "Laugh," 22 
251, 253-256 ; " Laugh an 
Cry," 221, 254, 260, 261 
the "Noble Thief," 201 
202; "Pretended Igno 
ance," 263; "Promise 
Return," 203, 204; th 
"Resuscitation," 259; th 
"Self-Sacrifice," 251, 252 
the "Sybarite," 208; th 
"Taboo," 21, 21ft 3 , 212 



Motif continued 

the "Trick," 256; "Un- 
intentional Injuries," 92, 
92ft 1 , 131, 131ft 1 
"Motifs in Hindu Fiction 
the Laugh and Cry Motif, 
On Recurring Psychic," 
M. Bloomfield, Joum. Amer. 
Orient. Soc., 251ft 1 , 254m 1 , 
255, 256, 260ft 3 

" Motifs in Hindu Fiction, 
On Recurring," M. Bloom- 
field, Joum. Amer. Orient. 
Soc, 191/1 1 

Mount Alburz, 56ft ; Cithaeron, 
227; Cvllene, 227; Meru, 
49 ; Satasnnga, 202 

Mountain, the Anjana, 168 ; 
heap of snake-bones re- 
sembling the peak of a, 56 ; 
of Himavat, the, 49, 84; 
the Malaya, 51, 55, 59, 62, 
68, 192, 193, 194, 195 ; of 
Nishadha, the, 23; the 
Vindhya, 165, 213 

Mountains, myth about Indra 
cutting the wings of the, 
19, 19ft 1 , 88, 88ft 1 

Mouth, transformations 
through putting magic pills 
in the, 42, 42ft 1 , 43, 44, 47 

Mouths, Vasuki, the king of 
the snakes, has a thousand 
faces and, 56, 176ft 2 

Movable wishing-tree, the, 
16, 18, 19, 21, 21m 1 

Mrichchhakatika, the, 72ft 3 

Music, horses taught to dance 
to, 207 

Mysterious laughs, 253-255 

Mystery of the loss of Ma- 
danamanchuka, the, 194, 

Myth of Cupid and Psyche, 
the, 21ft 3 ; about Indra 
cutting the wings of the 
mountains, 19ft 1 , 88ft 1 

Mythological birds, 56, 56ft 

Mythology, Zoological, A. de 
Gubernatis, 21ft 3 

Myths of the Middle Ages, 
Curious, S. Baring-Gould, 
52ft 2 

Nagdnanda, Harsha, 235, 
237ft 2 

" Nagas : a Contribution to 
the History of Serpent 
Worship, The," C. F. Old- 
ham, Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 
236ft 1 

Names in the Mahdbharata, An 
Index to the, S. Sorensen, 
223ft 2 , 235ft 1 

Naturalis Historia, Pliny, 232 

Nature, but no reason, laughs 
showing their, 253, 254 

Nature, " Caliature Wood," 

D. Hooper, vol. lxxxvi, 
1911, 107 

Nature, Humane, Thomas 

Hobbes, 253ft 1 
Nature of Laughter, The, 

J. C. Gregory, 253ft 1 
Neck, transformation by 

placing a cord round the, 

44ft 1 
Necklace of human heads, 

Neighbours, the four delicate, 

209, 210 
[Neu-Aramaeische Dialekt des 

Tur 'Abdin] vol. ii entitled : 

Syrische Sagen und Maerchen, 

E. Prym and A. Socin, 
81ft 1 

New Quarterly Magazine, " On 
the Idea of Comedy," 
George Meredith, April 
1877, 253ft 1 

Night, the wedding, 189 

Nights and a Night, The 
Thousand, R. F. Burton, 
24ft 1 , 56ft, 88ft 2 , 203, 217, 
224, 224ft 3 , 245, 249, 258 

"Noble Thief" motif, the, 
201, 202 

Noisy traders forbidden in 
the ancient Sybaris, all, 

Northern Tribes of Central 
Australia, B. Spencer and 

F. J. Gillen, 230w 4 

Note on Arjuna and the 
Narmada, 174 ; on the 
Position of Book XII, 194- 
196 ; on the Sacred Thread, 
26-28 ; on Sandalwood, 

" Notes on an Hermaphro- 
dite," R. F. Burton, Mem. 
Anth. Soc. Ldn., 233ft 1 

Numerous Indian legends 
about change of sex, 229, 

Oblation to gods and vener- 
able men, argha or arghya, 
53, 123, 123ft 1 

Observer, The Intellectual, 105- 
107. For details see under 
Intellectual, etc. 

Obstacles, vanquisher of, 
Ganesa, 128, 128ft 1 

Ocean, the Churning of the, 
129ft 3 ' * 

Ocean of Story, The, 72ft 2 , 

Offering of human eyes and 
flesh, 123 

Offerings of clarified butter 
to the fire, 27 ; to the sea, 
146, 146ft 1 

Oil, description of the sandal- 
wood, 105, 106 

Old age, the grey locks of, 
190, 191, 191ft 1 

Oldest Greek colony, Sybaris, 
the, 206 

Omission of Vetala No. 10 
in the Vedala Cadai, 200, 
200ft 1 

"Opium Le Cafe, Le 
Hachich, L'," Charles 
Richet, Revue des Deux 
Mondes, 248 

Order of events in the K.S.S., 
mistake about the, 195, 
196 ; of tales in the three 
chief translations of the 
Vetalapanchavimsati, 264 

Origin of the story of Jimu- 
tavahana, possible, 240 

Original Sanskrit Texts, J. 
Muir, 72n 2 , 274 

Originals and Analogues of 
some of Chaucer s Canter- 
bury Tales, W. A. Clouston, 
203, 203ft 3 , 204 

Ornaments, one of the eight 
kinds of enjoyment, 249 

Ovid, Metamorphoses, F. J. 
Miller, 228ft 2 

Owl, Vetala with eyes like 
an, 163 

Own flesh, cutting off, 126, 
126ft 2 

Oxford History of India, The, 
V. A. Smith, 237ft 1 

Pain, hearing about men 
digging causes, 207; san- 
dalwood lotion (unguent, 
etc.) applied as relief for, 
11, 12, 12ft 1 , 53, 53ft 1 , 101, 
101ft 1 , 105 

Painting, falling in love with 
a, 139, 139ft 2 , 141, 143 

Palace gate, child with a 
thousand gold pieces ex- 
posed at the, 81, 81ft 1 , 250 

Palaces, subaqueous, 19, 20, 



Palanquin, 37, 37ft 2 
Pantcha-Tantra, Le, J. A. 

Dubois, 224 
Pantschatantra, Theodor Ben- 
fey, 213, 252ft 2 , 260 
Papageim'drchen, Die, M. 

Wickerhauser, 222ft 3 , 241ft 4 
Parables, Buddhaghosha 's , 244 
Paradises, the Eight, 246 
Parallels to Vetala No. 10, 

Indian, 200-203 
Parched grain into the fire, 

throwing, 188, 188m 1 
Parcvandtha. The Life and 

Stories of the Jaina Savior, 

M. Bloomfield, 203ft 1 , 213 
Passion, one of the three 

qualities of the body, 27 
Paste of ground sandalwood 

and water, uses of, 105, 106 
Patch on the forehead, moon 

compared to a, 102 
Patents on peculiar dishes in 

Sybaris, taking, 208 
Patriarchate, change of matri- 

archate into, 231, 232 
Paupers, the four, 108, 109 
Pausanias* Description of 

Greece, J. G. Frazer, 240ft 2 
Peak of a mountain, heap of 

snake - bones resembling 

the, 56 
Peculiar dishes in Sybaris, 

taking patents on, 208 
Penniless gambler, the, 72, 

72ft 3 
Pentamerone, II, G. B. Basile, 

42ft 1 , 162ft 1 
Performance of the wedding 

ceremony, the, 188, 188ft 1 
Perfume, one of the eight 

enjoyments, 249 
Periplus of the Erythrcean Sea, 

The, 106, 174. See also 

under SchofF, W. H. 
Perseus, The Legend of, E. S. 

Hartland, 227w\ 240ft 1 
Persian Tutl-namah, the, 222, 

Pestle, bruises produced by 

the sound of a, 11, 12 
Phil. Soc, Proc. Amer., 220ft 1 . 

For details see under Proc. 

Amer. Phil. Soc. 
" Physiology of Laughter, 

The," H. Spencer, Mac- 

millan's Magazine, 253ft 1 
Picture, falling in love with 

a, 139, 139ft 2 , 141, 143 
Pigment applied to the eyes, 

anjana, black, 168ft 5 

Pile of bones, the, 55 

Pilgrimage to Gaya, the, 83, 

Pilgrims, the strange effect 
of Kedarnath on, 2ft 1 

Pill, The Magic, 40, 40ft 1 , 
41-47, 222-233 

"Piper of Hamelin, The," 
Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, S. Baring-Gould, 52ft 2 

Pitchers, breasts like, 5 

Place on the earth, Gaya, the 
most holy, 85ft ; of holy 
pilgrimage, Kedarnath, 2ft 1 ; 
and time affected by use of 
hashish, idea of, 248, 249 

Plant, change of sex through 
a magic, 223, 244 

Plants of India, The Useful, 
H. Drury, 105 

Pliny, The Natural History of, 
J. Bostock and H. T. Riley, 
232, 232ft 1 

Poisoned dish of rice, the, 32 

Pool, sex-changing, 230 

Pope Gregory, the legend of, 
81ft 1 

Popular Religion and Folk-Lore 
of Northern India, The, 
W. Crooke, 1ft 2 , 5ft 3 , 146ft 2 , 
230ft 1 

Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, G. Maspero, 92ft 1 

Position of Book XII, Note 
on the, 194-196 

Possible origin of the story of 
Jimutavahana, 240 

Posts, at the upanayana cere- 
mony, booth on four, 26 

Pouring holy water on the 
head, 191, 191ft 3 

Powder of bones, circle of 
yellow, 122, 123 

Power, The Brahman's Son 
who failed to acquire the 
Magic, 71, 71ft 1 , 72-77, 244- 
249 ; of flying in the air, 
24,29,126,127; of medita- 
tion, 60; of resuscitation, 
4, 4ft 1 , 110, 111 

Powers of the four brothers, 
the magic, 110,111 ; hermit 
possessing magic, 73, 113, 

Prabandhacintamani, or 
Wishing-stone of Narratives, 
C. H. Tawney, 202 

Practical Magazine, The, 
"Sandal-wood," Anony- 
mous, vol. vii, Ldn., 
December 1877, 107 

Prayer to become a man, 
Caenis', 228 

Precedents of Princess Thoo- 
damma Tsari, The, C. J, 
Bandow, 203ft 2 

Precious stones, lamps made 
of, 189, 189ft 2 

Pregnant cravings of a woman, 

Presents, the splendid, 188 

Pretended change of sej 
231; ignorance, 121, 123, 

Previous births,remembering, 
55 ; births, the unchange- 
able effect of actions 
148, 154 

Priests changing their se: 
custom of. 231 

Prison, the Savara, 154 

Prisoners at feasts, releasing, 
160, 160ft 1 

Proben der V olkslitteratur dt 
T'urkischen Stdmme Siid- 
Sibiriens, W. Radloff, 204 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 

the Art of Entering An- 
other's Body," M. Bloom- 
field, vol. lvi, 1917, 260ft 3 ; 
[" The Character and Ad- 
ventures of Muladeva 
M. Bloomfield, vol. lii, 191 3, 
220ft 1 

Prolixity of Kshemendra's 
text, 64, 65 

Prologe of the Frankeley? 
Tale, The, Chaucer, 204 

Promise, Madanasena and hei 
Rash, 5, 5ft 1 , 6-9, 199-204 
never to eat the snakes 
Garuda's, 62 

" Promise to Return " mot 
the, 203, 204 

Proverbs of al-Mufaddal ibi 
Salama, the Fakhir, a col- 
lection of, 225 

" Prudence," Chaturika, 176 

" Psychic Motifs in Hindi 
Fiction the Laugh am 
Cry Motif, On Recurring," 
M. Bloomfield, Journ. Amer. 
Orient. Soc, 251ft 1 , 254ft 1 , 
255, 256, 260ft 3 

Pterocarpus santalinus, R( 
Sanders Tree, 107 

Pun, Hindu, 1, lw 4 , 13, 13ft 3 
17, 17ft 1 , 19, 19ft 1 , 52, 52ft 3 
79, 79ft 1 , 87, 87ft 3 , 91, 91ft 2 , 
98, 98w 2 , 162, 162ft 3 , 165, 
165ft 2 , 168, 168ft 1 , 168ft 3 , 
173. 173w 2 177. 177ft 2 



Punishment of the Jain 

minister, the, 205 
Purposes, sandalwood used 

for domestic and religious, 

105, 106 
Purse always containing a 

thousand dinars, magic, 

222ft 3 
Pyre, widow ascending 

funeral, 38, 38ft 1 

Qanun-i- Islam, Islam in India, 
or the, G. A. Herklots, 
249ft 1 

Qualities of the body, the 
three, 27 

Quarterly Magazine, New, "On 
the Idea of Comedy," 
George Meredith, 253ft 1 

Queen Kandarpasena, 149 ; 
named Chandravati, 116- 
119; named Padmarati, 1, 2 

Questions, the Vetala's, 4, 9, 
12, 25, 33, 39, 48, 63, 69, 
77, 85, 96, 104, 111, 115, 

Raja Badan and Raja Hara, 

the agreement between, 

229, 230 
Rajas, the Bhaduria, 229, 

Rajataraiigini, Kalhana's, 

M. A. Stein, 244ft 1 
Ramayan of Valmiki, The, 

R. T. H. Griffith, 174 
Ramayana, The, M. N. Dutt, 

Range, the Vindhya, 165, 

167, 175 
Ranks of the Twice-born 

through the upanayana, 

entering the, 26 
Rash Promise, Madanasena 

and her, 5, 5ft 1 , 6-9, 199-204 
Rays of the moon, blisters 

produced by the, 11, 209 ; 

of the moon on man, evil 

effect of the, 6, 6ft 1 
Reality, one of the three 

qualities of the body, 27 
Reason, laughs showing their 

nature, but no, 253, 254 
Reasons for the fall of the 

ancient Sybaris, 206 
Recension of the Sinhdsana- 

dvatrinsika, the Southern, 

234 ; of the V etalapancha- 

vimsati, Sivadasa's, 250, 

251 ; of the Vikrama-charita, 

the Vararuchi, 252ft 2 

" Recht und Sitte," J. Jolly, 
Encyclopaedia of Indian 
Philology, 26 

Recreations Francoises, Contes 
a rire, ou, 3 vols., new ed., 
Paris, 1769, Amsterdam, 
1732, 209ft 2 

" Recurring Motifs in Hindu 
Fiction, On," M. Bloom- 
field, Journ. Amer. Orient. 
Soc, 191ft 1 

" Recurring Psychic Motifs in 
Hindu Fiction the Laugh 
and Cry Motif, On," M. 
Bloomfield, Journ. Amer. 
Orient. Soc, 251ft 1 , 254ft 1 , 
255, 256, 260ft 3 

Red colour of the Kshatriya's 
sacred thread, 26 ; Sanders 
Tree, Pterocarpus santalinus, 

References to sandalwood, 
early, 106, 107 

" Refreshing," chandana, 105 

Reise der Sohne Giaffers aus 
dem Italienischen des Christo- 
foro Armeno ubersetzt durch 
Johann Wetzel 1583, Die, J. 
Bolte and H. Fischer, 210ft 4 

Relationship, the curious, 119 

Releasing prisoners at feasts, 
160, 160ft 1 

Relief for pain, fever, etc., 
sandalwood applied as, 11, 
12, 12ft 1 , 53, 53ft 1 , 101, 
101ft 1 , 105, 143 

Religion and Folk-Lore of 
Northern India, The Popular, 
W. Crooke, lft 2 , 5ft 3 , 146ft 1 , 
230ft 1 

Religion of the Semites, W. 
Robertson Smith, 231ft 6 

Religion, the king's con- 
version to Jain, 204, 205 ; 
superintendent of i.e. 
Dharmaraja, 33, 33ft 1 

Religions of India, The, A. 
Barth, 85ft 

Religious purposes, sandal- 
wood used for, 106 

Remembering former births, 

Report, the false, 67 

Request, King Trivikrama- 
sena's, 124 

Research on changes of sex, 
modern, 233, 233W 1 

Resuscitation of Ananga- 
manjari, her husband and 
her lover, 104; power of, 
4, 4ft 1 , 110, 111 

"Resuscitation" motif, the. 

259 J 

" Return, Promise to," motif, 

the, 203, 204 
Revenge, Unmadinl's, 67, 68 
Revue des Deux Mondes, " Le 

Hachich L'Opium Le 

Cafe," Charles Richet, 

March 1877, 248 
Rice, the poisoned, 32 
Rights obtained after the 

upanayana, various, 27 
Rire, Le, H. Bergson, 253ft 1 
Rite of investiture with the 

sacred thread, upanayana, 

the, 26 ; of pancadivya- 

dhivdsa, the, 218 
Rites of Hindu marriage 

ceremonies, 188, 188ft 1 ; in 

India, belief in sex- 
changing, 229 ; magical, 

122, 123 
Rites of the Twice-Born, The, 

Mrs S. Stevenson, 26, 28, 

188ft 1 
River, exposed children set 

adrift on a, 81ft 1 , 82ft ; the 

imaginary life in the, 75, 

76 ; related by Hiuen 

Tsiang, story about a great, 

237, 238 
Robbers blackened and 

anointed, bodies of, 216, 

216ft 2 
Roman und Seine Vorl'dufer, 

Der Griechische, E. Rohde, 

139ft 2 , 147ft 1 , 189ft 2 
Romances, signs of love in 

Greek, 139ft 2 ; storms in 

Greek, 147ft 1 
Romances and Stories, A Group 

of Eastern, W. A. Clouston, 

224ft 1 
Romantic Tales from thePanjab, 

C. Swynnerton, 261 
Roots of the sandalwood-tree 

give the best oil, 105 
Rosary of Aksha seeds, 135 
Rosenol, J. Hammer, 203ft 6 
Royal birth, the signs of, 18, 

20; umbrella, the, 70; 

wedding, the, 188 
Rules and taboos of a Twice- 
born Brahman, 28 
Rumour, the false, 14 
Russe epique, La, A. N. 

Rambaud, 189ft 2 

Sacred Books of the Buddhists, 
vol. i : The Gatakamala, 
J. S. Speyer, 243ft 1 



Sacred place of Kedarnath, 
the, 2W 1 ; Thread, Note on 
the, 26-28 ; uses of sandal- 
wood, 106 

Sacrifice of the Brahman boy, 
the self-, 95, 96 ; of Jimuta- 
vahana, The, 49, 49ft 1 , 50- 
63, 233-240 

" Sacrifice mentioned in the 
Mahabharata, The Ser- 
pent," M. Winternitz, 
Journ. Bombay Br. Roy. As. 
Soc, 233w 2 

" Sacrifice, Self-," motif, the, 
251, 252 

Sacrifices to water-spirits, 240 

Sacrificial thread of hair, 123 

Sacrificing hero in European 
folk-lore, the, 239, 240 

"Saga, Wilkina," the, Alt- 
deutsche u. Altnordische 
Helden-Sagen, F. H. von 
Hagen, 166n 3 , 173m 1 , 181W 1 

Sagas from the Far East 
(R. H. Busk), 235w 2 

Sage named Ida, royal, 46 

Sagen aus B'dhmen, J. V. 
Grohmann, 137w 3 

Sagen, Gebrauche u. Marchen 
aus Westfalen, A. Kuhn, 
120n 2 

Sanct Brandan, Schroder, 189w 2 

Sandal, Sandalwood, from 
the Sanskrit chandana, 
"refreshing," 105 

"Sandal," Hobson-Jobson, H. 
Yule and A. C. Burnell,107 

Sandali-asivad, 105 

Sandals, magic, 235 

Sandalwood, 30, 30w 2 , 43, 
43W 1 , 72, 99, 99ra 3 , 216; 
applied as relief for pain, 
fever, etc., 11, 12, 12m 1 , 
53, 53ni, 101, lOln 1 , 105, 
143 ; for cooling and per- 
fuming the skin, 99, 99w 3 , 
105, 113; drum, the, 238; 
Note on, 105-107; and 
water, uses of ground, 105, 

[" Sandal - wood "" Anony- 
mous, The Practical Maga- 
zine, 107 

[" Sandal- wood and its Com- 
mercial Importance "] B. 
Seemann, The Intellectual 
Observer, 105-107 

Sanders, from the Sanskrit 
chandana, "refreshing," 105 

Sandle. from the Sanskrit 
chandana, "refreshing," 105 

Sanskrit College MS. of the 
K.S.S., the, 21w 12 , 22n\ 
23n 1 ,31w 1 -3, Sen 1 , 41*1, 45^ 
49W 1 , 50w\ 52n 3 , 55w 2 , 56w\ 
51n\ 60^,63%!, 66w 23 , 67m 1 , 
68w\ 75W 1 , 83W 1 , 90m 1 , din 1 , 
94w 2 , 99n 25 , 104m 1 , lOSn 2 , 
UOn 1 - 2 , llln 1 118ra 2 , 120w\ 
122w 2 -*, 123w 2 , 125w 2 , 127W 1 , 
128n\ 134/i 1 , 135w 3 , 136W 1 , 
137ra 2 , 138w 13 , I39n\ USn 1 , 
150w 12 , 153w 2 , 154rc 2 , 155W 1 , 
156wi, 160rc 2 , 161%i 

Sanskrit Drama, The, A. B. 
Keith, 237w 2 

Sanskrit Texts, 0?'iginal, J. 
Muir, 72w 2 , 174 

Santal or sandal, 105 

cavTaXov , ardvSaXov, 105 

Santalum album, sandalwood- 
tree, 105-107 

Scarcity of lions in India, 259 

Scholiast on Lycophron, John 
Tzetzes, 227w 2 

Science of flying in the air, 
24, 29, 126, 127 ; that pro- 
duces all one desires, the, 
73, 74, 75 

Sciences, study of the, 72, 

Scientific American [" The True 
Sandalwood of India "], 
Anonymous, vol. cviii, New 
York, June 1913, 107 

Sea, Agastya swallowing the, 
166, 166w 2 ; offerings to 
the, 146, 146W 1 

Seal, transformation through 
a magic, 222 

Secrets of the four brothers, 
the magic, 110, 111 

Seeing things happen, pain 
caused by, 207, 208, 209, 

Self-control at sightof beauty, 
Brahmans losing, 241, 242 

"Self-existent," Svayambhu, 
the, 149, 149m 1 

Self-sacrifice of the Brahman 
boy, the, 95, 96 

"Self-Sacrifice" motif, 251, 

Semites, Religio?i of the, W. 
Robertson Smitli, 231w 5 

Senses of appreciation affected 
by the use of hashish, 248, 

Sensitive Wives, King Dhar- 
madhvaja and his Three 
Very, 10, lOn 1 , 11, 12, 204- 




Serpent Ananta, the, 129n 5 ; 

carried by a kite poisons 

food, dead, 32, 212, 213, 

"Serpent, The Eight-forked," 

B. H. Chamberlain, Tra\ 

As. Soc. Japan, 238, 23: 

" Serpent - gods were pro 

pitiated, How the," Sagas 
from the Far East (R. H. 

Busk), 235w 2 
" Serpent sacrifice mentioned 

in the Mahabharata, The 

M. Winternitz, Jour 

Bombay Br. Roy. As. Soc 

233w 2 
"Serpent Worship, The 

Nagas: a Contribution to 

the History of," C. F. 

Oldham, Jown. Roy. As. 

Soc, 236W 1 
Serpents, bandlet of white, 

Servants, the devotion of, 69, 

69w 2 , 70 
Seven days, feast lasting, 

191; Heavens, the, 246; 

Hells, the, 246; locks, 

shaving all the hair except, 

Seven Vazirs, the, 214 
Seven Vazirs, The Book 

Sindibad ; or, The Story of 

the King, his Son, the 

Damsel, and the, W. A. 

Clouston, 214w 2 - 3 , 224, 

224w 2 
Seventh stage of love- sickness, 

the (loss of shame), 44, 

44n 2 
"Sex, Change of," motif, 

Sex at death, change of, 228, 

230 ; of deities, change of, 

231, 232 ; girl's dislike for 

the male, 35, 217; Indian 

legends about change of, 

229, 230 ; modern research 

on changes of, 233, 233W 1 ; 

with a Yaksha, Sikhandin's 

exchange of, 223 
Sex-changing water, 224-226 
Shape, Rakshasa looking like 

Hell in human, 21 
Shaving the hair except seven 

locks, 205 
Ship "Tyre," The, W. H. 

Shipwreck of MandaravatI, 

the. 144 

"Shipwrecked Sailor, The,' 
Popular Stories of Ancient 
Egypt, G. Maspero, 92ft 1 

Shoes allowed after the upan- 
ayana, wearing, 27 

Siamese story, pain through 
seeing things happen in, 
208, 209 

Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, 
C. F. Coxwell, 204, 235ft 2 

Sicilianische Mdrchen, Laura 
Gonzenbach, 81ft 1 , 126ft 2 

Siddhi-Kiir, Kalmiikische Mdr- 
chen. Die Mdrchen des, 
B. Jiilg, 235ft 2 

Signs of love in Greek ro- 
mances, 139ft 2 ; of royal 
birth, the, 18, 20 

Silver statue, the wonderful, 
210, 211 

Simile of the Durga temple, 
155 ; of the moon, 102 

Similes of Hindu beauty, 8, 
64, 65 

Sindibad. Book of, the, 214, 
214ft 2 - 3 , 224, 224ft 2 . See 
also under Clouston, W. A. 

Singing, one of the eight 
enjoyments, 249 

Six fires, torments of the, 

Sketches of Persia, J. Malcolm, 
203ft 3 ' 

Skin, sandalwood for cleaning 
and perfuming the, 99, 
99ft 3 , 105 

Skull, man's fate is written 
on his, 24, 24ft 1 

Sleep, dreamless, one of the 
four states of the soul, 26 

Smell of other elephants 
makes an elephant furious, 
41, 41ft 1 

Snake carried by a kite 
poisons food, dead, 32, 212, 
213, 215 

Snake-maiden, Melusina, the 
European, 21ft 3 

Snakes copulating, ill-luck 
caused by seeing, 227 ; 
Vasuki, the king of the, 
56, 58, 176, 176ft 2 , 236 

Soma-juice, colander, a fil- 
terer of, 85, 85ft 1 

Son who failed to acquire the 
Magic Power, The Brah- 
man's, 71, 71ft 1 , 72-77, 244- 
249 ; that married the 
Mother, The Father that 
married the Daughter and 
the. 116. 116ft 1 117-119. 


Son continued 

262 ; The Thief's, 78, 78ft 1 , 
79-85, 249-250 

Song of the heavenly maiden, 
the, 16, 18, 19 

Sons, Ratnadatta is promised 
a hundred, 38, 38ft 2 

Soothsayer, Tiresias, a 
Theban, 227, 228 

Soul, change of sex at trans- 
migration of the, 230; the 
four states of the, 26 

Sound of a pestle, bruises 
produced by the, 11, 12 

Southern India, Folklore in, 
Pandit Natesa Sastrl, 219 

Southern Recension of the 
Sinhasanadvatrinsika, the, 

Speech of animals, knowledge 
of the, 3, 3ft 2 , 137, 137ft 3 , 
199 ; of the female as- 
cetic, the, 138, 138ft 2 ; of 
Som(a)datt(a), the, 200 

Spells, magic, 123, 126 

Spirits to the sea, offerings of, 
146ft 1 

Splendid presents, the, 188 

Spot on the earth, Gaya, the 
most holy, 85ft 

Sprachen der turkischen Stdmme 
Sud-Sibiriens, Die, W. Rad- 
loff, 204 

Spread of the tenth Vetala 
story, the, 203 ; of the 
word sybarite, wide, 206 

Spring, change of sex through 
bathing in a, 224 

Spring, the lion of, 67 

Sprinkling with the water of 
life, 61, 61ft 1 , 259, 260 

Stages of love-sickness, the 
ten, 44n 2 

State of must, elephants in 
the, 41ft 1 

Statement, the false, 67 

Statement of the Seaborne Trade 
of British India, Annual, 107 

States of the soul, the four, 26 

Statue, King Behram's won- 
derful, 210, 211 

Statuette in the Sinhasana- 
dvatrinsika , the story of the 
Eleventh, 234, 235 

"Stealing in Hindu Fiction, 
The Art of," M. Bloom- 
field, Amer. Journ. Phil., 
164ft 1 , 201, 201ft 1 , 203ft 1 , 
218ft 2 , 220 

Stokers, hashish used among, 


Stolen wife, the, 29 

Stones, lamps made of 
precious, 189, 189ft 2 

Stories of Ancient Egypt, 
Popular, G. Maspero, 92ft 1 

Stories of the Jaina Savior 
Parcvanatha, The Life and, 

^ M. Bloomfield, 203ft 1 , 213 

Stories, the Andromeda cycle 
of, 227; Cristoforo Ar- 
meno's collection of, 210, 
210ft 4 ; about the effeminacy 
and luxury of the Sybarites, 
207, 208; in the three 
chief versions of the Vctdla- 
panchavimsati, Comparative 
Table of, 264; of the 
Vetala, the, 1-199 

" Stories of Jimutavahana and 
Harisarman, The," B. Hale 
Wortham, Journ. Roy. As. 
Soc, 237ft 2 

Storm, the terrible, 146, 147 

Storms in Greek romances,. 
147ft 1 

Story of Abhaya, the, 201 ; 
of the Eleventh Statuette 
in the Sinhasanadvatrinsika , 
234, 235; of the First 
Vazir, in the Forty Vazirs, 
245-247; about a great 
river related by Hiuen 
Tsiang, 237, 238 ; of King 
Drupada, 223, 228; of 
Mrigankadatta, 125-127, 
128-133, 134-136, 161, 162- 
173, 175-192; of the Ra- 
handama Uppalavanna, 244 - y 
of " Thinthakarala, the 
Bold Gambler," 255, 256 ; 
in the Vedala Cadai, omis- 
sion of, 200, 200ft 1 ; in the 
Vedala Cadai, substitution 
of, 199 ; of Viravara, 252 

Story of Jewad, The, E. J. W. 
Gibb, 248 

Strange effect of Kedarnath 
on pilgrims, the, 2ft 1 

Stream of the Narmada 
changing its direction, the, 
174 ; sex-changing, 224 

String round the neck, trans- 
formation by placing & r 
44ft 1 

"String " or "virtue," guna y 
112ft 2 

Studies about the Kathasarit- 
sagara, J. S. Speyer, 16n 4 , 
78ft 3 , 93ft 2 , 98ft 2 , 129ft 1 , 
132ft 2 , 153ft 1 , 158ft 2 , 170ft6, 
182ft 2 



Study of the sciences, 72, 76 
Subaqueous palaces, 19, 20, 

Substance, the body of an 

upanayana initiate smeared 

with yellow, 26 
Substitution of Vetala No. 9 

in the Tamil version of the 

Vetdlapanchavimsati, 199 
Sugar and milk to the sea, 

offerings of, 146ft 1 
Suicide due to contempt, 257 
Suitors, Anangarati and her 

Four, 1, 1ft 3 , 2-4, 199 
Sultane de Perse, et des Visirs, 

Histoire de la, F. Petis de 

la Croix, 245, 245ft 3 
*' Sunshine and his Younger 

Brother," Siberianand Other 

Folk-Tales, C. F. Coxwell, 

235ft 2 
Superintendent of religion 

i.e. Dharmardja, 33, 33ft 1 
Supernatural power of medi- 
tation, 60 
Superstition about seeing 

snakes coupling, 227 
Supplementary Catalogue of 

Sanskrit . . . Books in the 

Library of the, British 

Museum, A, L. D. Barnett, 

237w 2 
Surgery and sex-changing, 

modern, 233, 233ft 1 
Survey of India, Archaeological, 

A. Cunningham, 229ft 1 
Swallowed by a Rakshasa, 

Mrigankavati, 22 
Swallowing the sea, Agastya, 

166, 166ft 2 
Sword named Invincible, 124 
Sybarite, "bed," 206, 206ft 1 , 

" Sybarite " motif, the, 208 
Sybarite, wide spread of the 

word, 206 
Sybarites, inhabitants of the 

city of Sybaris, 206-208; 

the three, 10-12 
Syrische Sagen und Maerchen 

aus dem Volksmunde . . ., 

E. Prym and A. Socin, 

81ft 1 . See also under 

Neu-Aramaeische, etc. 

Table of stories in the three 
chief translations of the 
Vetdlapanchavimsati, Com- 
parative, 264 

" Taboo " motif, the, 21, 21ft 3 , 

Taboos of a Twice - born 
Brahman, rules and, 28 

Tale about Lake Mansarovar, 
230ft 1 

"Tale of Taj al-Muluk and 
the Princess Dunya," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 217 

"Tale of Warlock and the 
Young Cook of Baghdad, 
The," The Nights, Supp., 
R. F. Burton, 224ft 3 

Tales, Hindu, J. J. Meyer, 
218, 218ft 2 , 223ft 1 

Tales, Indian Fairy, M . Stokes, 

Tales from the Panjdb, Roman- 
tic, C. Swynnerton, 261 

Tales, Tibetan, W. R. S. 
Ralston and F. A. von 
Schiefner, 162ft 1 

Tales about the luxury and 
effeminacy of the Sybarites, 
207, 208; of a Vampire, 
The Twenty-five, 124, 125 ; 
of a Vetala, Appendix : 
The Twenty-five, 197-263 

Tamil version of the Vetdla- 
panchavimsati, the, 199, 200, 
216, 221, 222, 234, 241, 245, 
250, 251, 256, 257, 259, 260, 
262, 264, 264ft* 

Tank that transports from 
one place to another, 24 

Teeth, an argha of white, 123, 
123ft 1 

Temple of Durga, the, 155 ; 
of Gauri, 51, 54, 176-180 ; 
of Siva, 15, 73, 74, 183 ; of 
Svayambhu, the, 149, 149ft 1 

Temples on the banks of the 
Jumna, history of the, 229, 

Ten stages of love-sickness, 
44ft 2 

Teratology, changes of sex 
approaching, 233 

Terrible demon, the, 91, 92, 

Testaments d'un Haschischeen, 
Jules Giraud, 249ft 2 

" Thief, Catching the," motif, 

Thief, the clever, 201; the 
cry and laugh of the dying, 
38, 39 ; the generous, 8, 9 ; 
the marriage of the dying, 
79; The Merchant's 
Daughter who fell in Love 
with a, 35, 35ft 1 , 36-39, 



"Thief, Noble," motif, tl 
201, 202 

Thief's Son, The, 78, ' 
79-85, 249-250 

Thieves blackened and a 
ointed, bodies of, 2H 
216ft 2 ; "tiger's claw," 
instrument used for catc 
ing, 216ft 2 ; usual lurki 
places of, 21 9 

Thieving, Indian method 

Thigh, a falling lotus pro- 
duces a wound on the 
queen's, 11 

Thighs, giving away flesh 
from own, 126ft 2 

Thirty -Two Tales of the 
Throne, Vikrama's Adven- 
tures; or, The, F. Edgerto 
212, 234ft 2 , 252ft 2 

Thoodamma Tsari, The Pn 
cedents of Princess, C. J. 
Bandow, 203ft 2 

Thousand dinars, magic purse 
always containing a, 222ft 3 ; 
faces and mouths, Vasuki, 
the king of the snakes, 
has, 56, 176ft 2 

Thousand and One Nights, The. 
See under Nights 

Thread, Brahmanical, 15, 
15ft 2 , 26-28, 76; white 
Brahmanical, 250 ; of hair, 
sacrificial, 123 ; Note on 
the Sacred, 26-28 

Three generous men, the, 
7-9 ; human hands in the 
well of Gaya, the, 85; 
hypocritical ladies, the, 
211 ; qualities of the body, 
27 ; Very Sensitive Wives, 
King Dharmadhvaja and 
his, 10, 10ft 1 , 11, 12, 204- 
211 ; Sybarites, the, 10-12 

Threefold, the sacred thread 
is, 27 

Throwing parched grain into 
the fire, 188, 188ft 1 

"Thunderbolt" or 
mond," vajra, 8ft 1 

Tibetan Tales, W. R. S. Ra 
stonand F. A. von Schiefner, 
162ft 1 

"Tiger" instead of " Lio 
in the heading of Vetala 
22, mistake of writing, 
259ft 2 

"Tiger's claw," instrument 
used for catching thieves, 




216ft 2 



Time and place affected by 
use of hashish, idea of, 
248, 249 ; of the upanayana 
ceremony, the, 27 

Tongues, Vasuki, owner of 
a thousand mouths and, 
176ft 2 

Topography of Cosmas, The 
Christian, J. W. M'Crindle, 

Torments of Naraka, the, 251 ; 
of the six fires, the, 154 

Torture of the fire of love, 
the, 143 

Touti Nameh, eine Sammlung 
Persischer M'drchen von 
Nechschcbi, C. J. L. Iken, 
222ft 4 , 241w 3 

"Tracking the Thief" motif, 

Trade, sandalwood, 107 

Traders forbidden in the 
ancient Sybaris, all noisy, 

Trans. As. Soc. Japan [" Ko- 
Ji-Ki ... or Records of 
Ancient Matters"], B. H. 
Chamberlain, vol. x, Yoko- 
hama, 1882, 238, 238ft 2 

Transformation of humans 
into fruits, 130, 131, 161 ; 
through a magic plant, 
223 ; through a magic seal, 

Transformations through put- 
ting magic pills in the 
mouth, 42, 42ft\ 43, 44, 47, 

Translation of a passage in 
Kshemendra's Brihat-katha- 
manjarl, 64, 65 

Transmigration, belief in sex- 
changing at the soul's, 230 

Transportation, instan- 
taneous, 24, 225, 225ft 1 

Travelling in the air, 24, 29, 
126, 127 

Tree, asoka, 54, 88, 100, 117, 
178; asvattha, 91, 92, 95; 
banyan, 32, 80, 121 ; with 
right hand towards it, cir- 
cumambulating, 132,132ft 1 ; 
the Parijata, 16 ; Sala, 174 ; 
Simsapa, 1, 5, 10, 13, 29, 
35', 40, 49, 66, 71, 78, 87, 
98, 108, 112, 115, 116 ; the 
wonderful, 129, 130 

Trees, Algum or Almug, 106 ; 
arjuna, 162, 162ft 3 ; tamala, 
162, 162ft 2 

Tree-worship, 162, 162ft 1 

Tribes, sea-offerings among 
coast, 146ft 1 

Tribes and Castes of the Central 
Provinces of India, The, 
R. V. Russell, 230ft 2 

Tribes of Central Australia, 
Northern, B. Spencer and 
F. J. Gillen, 230ft 4 

" Tribute " or " finger," kara, 
112ft 2 

Trick of the courtesan, the, 
220 ; of the merchant, the, 

" Trick "motifs, 256 

Trickery and deceit, the laugh 
of, 255, 256 

"True sandalwood of India, 
The," Anonymous, Scientific 
American, 107 

Truth, one of the chief rules 
of a Twice-born Brahman, 
telling the, 28 

Tutl-namah (India Office MS. 
of), the, 203ft 3 , 241; the 
Persian, 222, 241; the 
Turkish, 222, 241 

Tuti-Nameh. Das Papageien- 
buch, Georg Rosen, 203ft 6 , 
222ft 3 , 241ft* 

Twelve lihga shrines in India, 
2ft 1 ; years, Vaisya boys 
invested with the sacred 
thread at, 26 

Twenty-five Tales of a Demon, 
The Baital Pachisi; or, W.B. 
Barker and E. B. East- 
wick, 199ft 1 - 2 , 204ft 1 , 211ft 1 , 
212ft 1 , 215ft 1 , 222ft 1 , 233ft 3 , 
241ft 1 , 244ft 2 , 249ft 3 , 250ft 2 , 
256ft 1 , 258ft 1 , 260ft 1 , 262ft 1 

Twenty-five Tales of a Vam- 
pire, The, 124, 125 ; Tales 
of a Vetala, The, Appendix, 

Twice - born, entering the 
ranks of the, through the 
upanayana, 26 

Twice-Born, The Rites of the, 
Mrs S. Stevenson, 26, 28, 
188ft 1 

Two varieties of laughs in 
Hindu fiction, 253 

Tzandana, sandalwood, 106 

Umbrella allowed after the 
upanayana, carrying an, 27 ; 
the royal, 70; ruling the 
circle of the earth under 
one, 192, 192ft 1 

Unfortunate voyage to Alaka, 
the, 143, 144 

" Unintentional Injuries " 

motif, 92, 92ft 1 , 131, 131ft 1 
Union of Buddha and the 

sage Ida in female form, 

the, 46' 
Use of hashish affects senses 

of appreciation, 248, 249 
Useful Plants of India, The, 

H. Drury, 105 
Uses of ground sandalwood 

and water, 105, 106 
Usual lurking - places of 

thieves, 219 

Valour, the Goddess of, 137 

Vampire, The Twenty - five 
Tales of a, 124, 125 

Vanquisher of obstacles i.e. 
Ganesa, 128, 128ft 1 

Varieties of laughs in Hindu 
fiction, two, 253 

Various rights obtained after 
the upanayana, 27 

Vazir of the Naga Raja called 
Jlmutavahana, 236 ; the 
story of the first, in the 
Forty Vazirs, 245-247 

Vazirs, Forty, the, 245, 252 

Vazirs, Seven, the, 214 

Vedala Cadai, being the Tamul 
Version of a Collection of 
Ancient Tales in the Sanskrit 
Language, The, B. G. 
Babington, 199, 200ft 1 , 
204ft 2 , 211ft 2 , 212ft 2 , 216ft 1 - 2 , 
222ft 2 , 234ft 1 , 241ft 2 , 245ft 1 , 
250ft 1 , 251ft 1 , 256ft 2 , 257ft 1 - 2 , 
259ft 1 , 260ft 2 , 262ft 2 , 264ft 2 

Vedic Index of Names and 
Subjects, A. A. Macdonell 
and A. B. Keith, 10ft 2 

Version of the Vetalapancha- 
vimsati, the Hindi, 199, 
200, 204, 205, 211, 212, 
215, 221, 222, 233, 234, 
241, 244, 249, 250, 251, 
256, 258, 259, 260, 262, 
264 ; of the Vetalapancha- 
vhhsati, the Tamil, 199, 
200, 204, 205, 206, 211, 
212, 213, 216, 221, 222, 
234, 241, 245, 250, 251, 
256, 257, 259, 260, 262, 
264, 264ft 4 ; of the Vikrama- 
charita, the Bengali, 252, 
252ft 2 

Versions of the V etalapancha- 
vimsati, coincidence of the 
Marathi and Hindi, 264 ; 
Comparative Table of 
stories in the three, 264 



Veziers, or the Story of the 

Forty Morns and Eves, The 

History of the Forty, E. J. 

W. Gibb, 203ft*, 245, 252ft 1 
"Vice, age of," the kaliyuga, 

112ft 2 
Vice of gambling, the, 72, 

72ft 2 ; of hunting, the, 90, 

Vierzig Veziere oder Weisen 

Meister, Die, W. Fr. A. 

Behrnauer, 252ft 1 
Vikramas Adventures ; or, The 

Thirty-Two Tales of the 

Throne, F. Edgerton, 212, 

234ft 2 , 252ft 2 
" Virtue " or " string," guna, 

112ft 2 
Vision of the Yogi, the, 250 
Voice from heaven, 2, 19, 38, 

54, 131 
Volksdichtungen der sieben- 

b'urgischen undsudungarischen 

Zigeuner, H. von Wlislocki, 

226ft 1 
V olkslitteratur der tiirkischen 

Stamme Sudsibiriens , W. 

RadlofF, 204 
Voyage to Alaka, the un- 
fortunate, 143, 144 

Waist like a diamond, 8, 8ft 1 

Waking, one of the four states 
of the soul, 26 

Walking round a tree with 
right hand towards it, 132, 
132ft 1 

War, the God of, 137 

" Warlock and the Young 
Cook of Baghdad, The Tale 
of," The Nights, Supp., 
R. F. Burton, 224ft 3 

Water on the head, pouring 
holy, 191, 191ft 3 ; illusions 
produced when in, 245-247; 
the imaginary life in the, 
75, 76 ; of life, sprinkling 
with the, 61, 61*1, 259, 
260; sex-changing, 224-226 

" Water of life," magical 
water used as, 225 

Water-deities, marriages be- 
tween humans and, 240 

Water-spirits, sacrifices to, 

"Water, Water-Gods 
(Indian)," W. Crooke, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
146ft 1 

Wealth, the God of (Ku vera), 
98, 142ft 1 ; Sasankavatl's, 

Weapon for catching thieves, 
216ft 2 

Wedding, the royal, 188 

Wedding-night, the, 189 

Well, as an entrance to Patala, 
a, 215 ; of Gaya, the three 
human hands in the, 85 ; 
sex-changing, 224, 225 

Wept and then Danced, The 
Hermit who first, 112, 
112ft 1 , 113-115, 260-261 

West, earliest reference to 
sandalwood in the, 106, 

Western World, Buddhist 
Records of the, S. Beal, 
237ft 2 , 238ft 1 

Westfalen, Sagen, Gebrauche 
u. Mdrchen aus, A. Kuhn, 
120ft 2 

"What I saw of the Sandal- 
wood Trade," C. B., The 
Leisure Hour, 107 

White colour of the Brahmani- 
cal thread, 26, 250 ; human 
teeth, an argha of, 123, 
123ft 1 ; lotuses, an dsan of, 
250 ; serpents, bandlet of, 

Wicked merchant, the, 152, 

Widow - burning (sail), 38, 
38ft 1 

Wife and Durlabhaka Prata- 
paditya II, the merchant's, 
244; and his Faithful 
Minister, King Ya^ahketu, 
his Vidyadharl, 13, 13ft 1 , 
14-25, 211-212; and then 
his Life, The Brahman 
Harisvamin, who first lost 
his, 29, 29ft 1 , 30-33, 212- 

"Wilkina Saga," the, Alt- 
deutsche u. Altnordische 
Helden-Sagen, F. H. von 
Hagen, 166w 3 , 173ft 1 , 181ft 1 

Will and Idea, The World as, 
A. Schopenhauer, 253ft 1 

Wings of the mountain, myth 
about Indra cutting the, 
19, 19ft 1 , 88, 88ft 1 

Winter, the elephant of, 67 

Wishing- stone of Narratives, 
The Prabandhacintamani ; or, 
C. H. Tawney, 202 

Wishing-tree arising out c 
thesea, 16, 16ft 2 , 18; callet 
Granter of Desires, 49 

Wives, King Dharmadhvajj 
and his Three Very Sensi- 
tive, 10, 10ft 1 , 11, 12, 204- 

Woman, cravings of a preg- 
nant, 201 ; one of the eight 
enjoyments, 241; man 
inspired by a goddess re- 
garded as a, 231 

Women, the four delicate, 
209, 210 

Women's right-arm bangles 
thrown into the sea, 146ft 1 

Wonderful city in the sea, 
the, 19, 20 ; silver statue, 
the, 210, 211; tree, the, 
129, 130 

Wood, animal transformation 
through a piece of, 42ft 1 

Wool, sacred thread made of 

Word sybarite, wide spread 
the, 206 

World, the four Yugas 
Ages of the, 1, 1ft 5 

World as Will and Idea, Tl 
A. Schopenhauer, 253ft 1 

Worshipof the fifteenmothei 
goddesses at the ceremonj 
of upanayana, 26 ; of tree 
162, 162ft 1 

Wound produced by a fallii 
lotus, 11 

Wrath of King Karmasem 
the, 172, 173 

Wrong position of Book XIJ 

Year beforehand, invitatioi 
made a, 208 

Yellow colour of the sandal- 
wood oil, 105 ; colour 
the Vai^ya's sacred thread, 
26 ; powder of bones, circh 
of, 122, 123; substance, 
the body of an upanayat 
initiate smeared with. 26 

Ziegeuner, Volksdichtungen de 
siebenburgischen und siidun- 
garischen, H. von Wlislocki, 
226ft 1 

Zoological Mythology, A. d< 
Gubernatis, 21ft 3 

Printed in Great Britain 

by The Riverside Press Limited 






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