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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"

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N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 










Professor W. R. HALLIDAY, B.A., B.Litt. 



Made and Printed in Great Britain 


IT is a high honour but also something of an embarrass- 
ment to an amateur to be invited to figure among the dis- 
tinguished specialists who have contributed introductions 
to the previous volumes of this great edition, in which Mr 
Penzer's learning continues to enliven and illuminate fold 
after sinuous fold of one of the world's great story-books. My 
friend Professor Rand not long ago delighted a large audience 
by denning a specialist as " the man who knows more and 
more about less and less," and it is certainly the experience 
of one whose special studies lie mainly in another direction 
that it is not easy to keep abreast of the increasing literature 
of his hobbies. 1 Nor perhaps does the eighth volume par- 
ticularly lend itself to an introduction by a student of mdrchen. 
It is a good deal taken up with what may rather be called 
epic themes of the warfare of gods and supernatural beings, 
which are interesting mainly from the literary point of view. 
How differently, it strikes the reader, would either Homer, 
Milton or Wagner have managed these contests, and to 
Western taste how marred is the interest of the Indian 
narrative by Oriental hyperbole and the too convenient 
recourse to magical powers and reincarnations for resolving 
tragic knots. This contrast indeed raises not uninteresting 
matters of literary aesthetic. I can remember suffering 
similar disillusionment when as a boy I stumbled upon Ellis's 
Specimens of the Early English Romances and learned how 
magical sources of prowess could blunt the edge of heroic 
exploits. But this theme and the possibly fundamental 
differences of literary taste and imagination between the 

1 For example, I have not yet had the opportunity of reading Bolte, 
Name und Merkmale des Marchens (FF. Communications, No. 36) and Zeugnisse 
zur Geschichte der Marchen (FF. Communications, No. 39), Helsinki, 1920 and 
1921, the substance of which will form, I understand, the eagerly awaited 
introduction to the long overdue fourth and index volume to the Anmerkungen 
zu den Kinder- und Hausm'drchen der Briider Grimm. 


East and the West are matters which I am not competent 
to handle. 

Perhaps the most useful contribution which I can offer 
will be to make no pretence of writing an introduction in a 
strict sense to the contents of this particular volume but 
rather to raise one or two general questions with regard to 
the methods of the study of marchen. It is not impossible 
that a well-informed onlooker may form as clear an idea of 
the run of the game as many of the actual players, and 
at worst it will do no harm to state opinions which may 
provoke the more fruitful discussion of those with greater 
knowledge of the facts. 

It is probably true of all forms of inquiry, the method of 
which is comparative, that the initial enthusiasm for noticing 
resemblances outruns discretion. At any rate in the case of 
marchen it may be thought that the time has now come 
when differences should receive as considered attention as 
similarities, and that analysis should no longer neglect one of 
its two principal instruments. If it is legitimate and may 
be profitable to record resemblances, it is very important 
to distinguish as far as the evidence permits between the 
categories of similarity and identity. 

Some apparent similarities may be due purely to accident. 
Thus on p. 149 the flight of Indra and the gods reminded 
Tawney of Ovid, Metamorphoses, v, 321-331. As a literary 
coincidence the analogy is correct, but here its interest ends. 
For Ovid's account of the flight of the Greek gods into Egypt 
is not a piece of genuine Greek mythology at all, but the 
artificial product of the relatively late and learned identifica- 
tion of Egyptian deities as alternative forms of the Olympian 
gods of Greece. A literary coincidence may remind us that 
a certain Spartan, having plucked a nightingale of its feathers, 
regarded its exiguous corpse, and remarked : " Thou art a 
voice and nothing more." 1 The idea is the same as that of : 
" Cuckoo, shall I call thee bird or but a wandering voice ? " 
Shall we then solemnly maintain that Wordsworth owed his 
inspiration to the Apophthegmata Laconica ? But if not, is it 

1 [Plutarch] Apophthegmata Laconica, xv, 233a : * <f>a)va rv tis 0-<ri kcu ovSev 


not equally absurd to classify Grimm, No. 38, Mrs Vixen, as a 
comic version of the "Penelope" motif, Jacobs, No. 4? In 
a sense perhaps the classification may be true, but as regards 
the history of the story which forms the plot of the Odyssey 
it is without value. 

Again, the time has surely come when we can take the 
main contention of the earlier anthropologists as established. 
Most of us are agreed that human nature and the conditions 
of human life in society are sufficiently constant to account 
for the independent emergence in widely separated areas of 
similar or identical general ideas. Everywhere man is likely 
to propound to himself such questions as how Heaven and 
Earth came to be separated or to debate the problem of 
the origin of evil, and the limitations of human imagination 
are likely to impose a similarity in the independent answers 
which are suggested in different areas at similar stages of 
cultural development. In the nature of things, stepmothers 
are likely everywhere to cause domestic difficulties, and cer- 
tain general superstitious beliefs for example the belief in 
the "External Soul" we know in fact to be widely spread 
among all the peoples of the world at a certain stage of 

It is clear, therefore, that ideas of this kind, which are 
known to be of very general distribution, cannot establish 
any definite relation between the stories in which they occur, 
and in fact can give but little help towards the elucidation 
of their history. Hence, where the universal distribution 
of the idea is really well established, it may be thought that 
there is but little to be gained by piling up further examples 
of its occurrence, unless they definitely enlarge the area of its 
known distribution. 

These practically universal beliefs again may themselves 
suggest or inspire stories which, having a similar origin, are 
likely to have a somewhat similar form. Here -it will be 
necessary to distinguish carefully between tales which are 
linked only by this very general bond and those which are 
in a real sense versions of the same story. For example, 
the almost universal belief in the necessity and efficacy of 
"Foundation Sacrifice" has given rise in widely separated 


areas to stories which inevitably possess a generic similarity. 
Thus a modern Indian folk-tale of the building of a tank by 
seven brothers, and the drowning of their sister in order to 
fill it with water, according to Groome, provides " a striking 
parallel " to the Bridge of Arta. 1 Are, then, the Indian story, 
the legend of the bridge at Zakho in Kurdistan 2 and the 
numerous Balkan variants of the Bridge of Arta to be classi- 
fied together as variants of the same story ? Under any of 
the old tables of folk-tale motifs, such as that of Jacobs in the 
Handbook of Folklore, that indubitably would be their fate ; 
but here I would register the belief that except within very 
narrow limits such lists, with their too loose and general tests 
of similarity, are almost useless as instruments of classification 
at the present day. Now, if we examine the detailed content 
of these stories, we shall find that all that is really common 
to the Indian and Kurdish stories and the Balkan group of 
songs and legends is an idea, the independent invention of 
which, given the pre-existence of a belief in "Foundation 
Sacrifice " in the three areas, is perfectly intelligible. All the 
versions from the Balkan lands, on the other hand, will be 
found to agree with minor variations in a real plot that is 
to say, in an identical series of incidents arranged in the same 
general order of interest. 

They are therefore properly to be classified as versions of 
the same story and have an essential interconnection. It is 
true that further analysis will distinguish two types repre- 
sented by the Serbian Building of Scutari and the Greek 
Bridge of Arta. Had these occurred at opposite ends of the 
globe, in spite of the larger proportion of their agreement 
than of their disagreement in detail, we might have had to 
make some allowance for the possibility of the long arm of 
coincidence, which, as we have seen from our Spartan and 
Wordsworth, is capable of surprising feats. But the prob- 
ability of the independent origin of two so closely similar 
plots in contiguous areas is surely small, and we are there- 
fore likely to suppose that one is derived from the other, 

1 Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, pp. 12-13; Campbell, Santal Folk-Tales, pp. 
106-110 ; Bom pas, Folk-Lore of the Santal Parganas, pp. 102-106. 

2 M. Sykes, Dar-ul-Islam, p. 160. 


though we may differ as to which is the primary version of 
the two. 1 

Nor, again, shall we be justified in selecting a particular 
picturesque episode in a story, which, taken by itself, might 
well have been invented more than once independently, and 
in classifying with it the narratives of similar episodes, which 
occur elsewhere in a different context. Nor, where their context 
elsewhere is unknown, may we legitimately assume that it con- 
sisted of the same arrangement of episodes as the story from 
which we started. This last is the vicious reasoning which 
has quite obscured the true relation of classical stories to Euro- 
pean folk-tales. To explain my meaning I may refer by way 
of illustration to the very sensible note of Child upon the 
story of Wilhelm Tell, which in reality consists of a series 
of connected incidents possessing a restricted distribution in 
Teutonic and Scandinavian countries. To group with it the 
tale of Alkon the Greek Argonaut, the Persian story of the 
twelfth century about the Shah who shot an apple off his 
favourite's head, or the recorded feats of marksmanship of the 
Mississippi keel-boatmen carries us no further than to establish 
the not very surprising fact that many people have thought it a 
remarkable test of marksmanship to be able to shoot an object 
resting upon a person's head or body without inflicting injury. 2 

I have, of course, been assuming that stories may have 
a history and that transmission may be a vera causa of the 
appearance of the same story in different parts of the world. 
But it is improbable that anyone nowadays would adopt 
the extreme " poly genetic " position. For while one can 
imagine that an isolated incident A might spontaneously 
occur to different minds in different countries, the imagination 
boggles at supposing that a chain of incidents A + B + C + D 

1 I have discussed this matter in a note upon a Bulgarian Gypsy, Song of 
the Bridge in Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, 3rd ser., iv, pp. 110-114. My 
own view is that the type represented by the Serbian Building of Scutari is 
primary and the Bridge of Arta secondary. The most important collections 
of data are Kohler, Aufsatze uber Marchen und Volkslieder, pp. 38-47, and 
Politis, 'E/cAoycu a7ro ra rpayovSia rov 'EXXtjvlkov Xaov, i, pp. 130, 287, and 
Aaoypafyla, i, pp. 15, 630, 631. A few supplementary references will be found 
in my paper. 

2 Child, Popular Ballads of England and Scotland , iii, pp. 14 foil. 


in precisely that order could be invented more than once. 
The familiar example is that given by Cosquin. 1 The hero 
seeks to recover a talisman from the villain, who has stolen 
it, with the help of his cat and dog : the cat catches a mouse 
and makes it put its tail up the nose of the sleeping villain, 
who has the talisman in his mouth ; the villain consequently 
sneezes or coughs, the talisman drops out and is picked up 
by the cat : on the way home the animals quarrel about their 
respective shares in the success and the ring is dropped into 
the water across which they are swimming at the time, but is 
eventually recovered from the belly of a fish. To suppose 
that precisely this sequence of incidents could possibly be 
invented many times over independently among different 
peoples is surely to impose an intolerable strain upon the 
possibilities of coincidence. 

A story in fact consists of a series of incidents arranged in a 
definite order of interest i.e. a plot and it is primarily upon 
this arrangement that the attention should be concentrated. 
The context indeed is of as fundamental importance as the 
nature of the incident itself. It may, of course, be admitted that 
it is easier to assent to principles than to put them into practice. 
My illustrations have naturally been selected specimens and 
the material is usually a good deal less simple to handle. 

In the nature of things, stories suffer modification in the 
process of transmission. This may be deliberate where the 
skill of the professional story-teller or story-writer seeks by 
his art to evolve new forms and combinations by selection, 
addition or omission, or, in the extreme case, where a Shake- 
speare may select from a folk-tale such material as he requires 
in order to transmute it in the crucible of his genius. Not less 
distorting is the result of oral transmission by the unprofes- 
sional and illiterate, though here the causes are less deliberate 
than attributable to faulty memories, false associations of 
ideas and sometimes to clumsy efforts to repair an omission 
which has become obvious even to the narrator. 2 

1 Cosquin, Conies Populaires de Lorraine, i, pp. xi foil. 

2 Quite a good example of these defects is the Welsh Gypsy version of 
the " Champions," Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, 3rd ser., ii, pp. 56-57. 
I have quoted some other examples in Folk-Lore, xxxiv, p. 123. 


Indeed the question " when is a story the same story ? " 
is not easy to answer in a general form of words, and indi- 
vidual cases will often require ripe experience and a nicely 
balanced judgment. Any at all elaborate plot is actually 
composed of a number of parts which are sometimes detach- 
able and may often be interchangeable with similar parts of 
different plots. Take the case of a simple form of story 
frame to which sub-stories are essential e.g. The Silent 
Princess, in the modern Greek versions of which the three 
usual problem stories to trap the princess into speaking 
are Prince Ahmed and the Fairy Peri-Banou Part I, The 
Carpenter, the Tailor and the Man of God, and How the 
Champions rescued the Princess. These problem stories are 
essential to the plot of the frame, but obviously they are 
detachable, and all are also found as independent tales. 1 

But almost any story consists similarly of a number of 
parts which are capable of appearing in different combina- 
tions. Thus the story of The Magical Flight (Grimm, No. 51, 
etc.) may be introduced by almost any episode which will 
bring the hero into residence with an ogre's family. 2 Again, 
similar situations or episodes in stories may serve as irre- 
sistible temptations to conflation, and a number of hybrid 
intermediate types arise until in many cases we find ourselves 
obliged to handle rather a group of interconnected stories 
than a single plot. 3 In practice the jungle is intricate and 
the avoidance of a purposeless circular wandering may tax 
the clearest head. But in trying to blaze the path forward 
I am sure that it is well to work only with units of sufficient 
length and complexity to have a really individual and dis- 
tinctive pattern of their own. To lay down rules where the 
matter is so fluid is perhaps impossible. Individual cases 
may be left to common sense armed with the maxim that 

1 See my notes in Dawkins, Modem Greek in Asia Minor, pp. 247-248, 
277, to which now add the reference Bolte and Polivka, op. cit, iii, pp. 
53 foil. 

2 I have noted examples of seven different forms of introduction in 
Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, 3rd ser., iii, p. 57. 

3 A familiar example will be the related group of stories of which the 
main species are represented by The Bobber Bridegroom, The Maid of the Mill, 
and Bluebeard. 


where there is room for doubt its benefit should be given 
to the possibilities of coincidence. It is a sound rule, if more 
honoured in the breach than in the observance, that the more 
uncertain the quality of the evidence the greater rigour and 
caution is necessary in handling it. 

With isolated incidents we must always be in doubt, even 
where they do not come under the category of beliefs or super- 
stitions which are known to be of world-wide distribution. 
For unfortunately there are no certain and objective tests 
which we can apply to determine whether the identity or 
similarity of such individual incidents considered by them- 
selves are due to coincidence and independent invention or 
to borrowing and adaptation. We are forced to trust to 
common sense and to keep always an open mind, ready to 
admit evidence which may prove our opinions to have been 
mistaken. The difficulties which are involved, and the kind of 
considerations which may properly guide us in forming those 
opinions, may perhaps be illustrated by some examples. 

In Vol. II, p. 147n, Mr Penzer has drawn attention to 
the motif of "unintentional injuries," which is popular in 
Indian and Arabic stories. Clearly the idea that a series 
of adventures may be precipitated by the curse of a spirit or 
person endowed with magical powers, who is unintentionally 
injured by the hero, is one which might independently occur 
to any people who believe in the proximity of such powerful 
or holy persons. That human beings are surrounded by in- 
visible powers is a belief which is not restricted to India, and 
it is not a priori incredible that a European of the Middle 
Ages who could accept the story of Gregory the Great that an 
abbess who ate a lettuce without making the sign of the cross 
inadvertently swallowed a devil, with most unpleasant con- 
sequences to herself, might independently invent or reinvent 
an incident of this type. I am myself inclined to believe 
that the use of the " unintentional injury " as an introduction 
to a tale is an invention of Oriental story-tellers, but the 
possibility indicated must keep us alert for the emergence 
of evidence to the contrary. 

On the other hand, certain particular forms of this type 
of introduction e.g. the accidental dropping of a garland on 


the head of an ascetic who is invisible under water 1 must 
surely be Indian inventions, because they are consonant only 
with Indian manners. Mringankadatta's faux pas, 2 again, 
could occur only in countries where betel-chewing is practised. 3 
Spitting, however, is a pastime of universal distribution, and 
it remains an open question whether the betel juice is just 
an added touch of local colour and the Indian version is 
consequently secondary, or whether the form in which mere 
mischievous spitting arouses the curse 4 is an adaptation from 
a more specific Indian invention, which has been made by 
story-tellers in countries where betel-chewing is unknown. 

Sometimes, where social manners provide no test, the 
peculiar or bizarre character of an episode may lead us to 
suppose that it is very improbable that it could have been 
independently invented more than once. Thus another 
particular form of the " unintentional injury " is the story 
that a young prince accidentally or mischievously throws a 
stone which breaks an old woman's pitcher of oil or water. 
" Ah ! " says she, " may you desire the Three Fair Ones 
[or some other inaccessible heroine or magical object], even 
as I desired that oil " or " water." Her wish bears fruit, and 
the prince falls sick of longing, until he sets out upon his 
hazardous quest. Now it is true that this episode could have 
been invented wherever boys are mischievous and old women 
carry liquids in pitchers, but it may be thought to be too 
distinctive in character for it to be likely that a number of 
story-tellers in different countries thought of it independently. 
The incident occurs frequently in the Near East and in Medi- 
terranean countries as far west as Sicily and Italy. I should 
be surprised to find it in Northern or Western Europe. 5 The 

1 Vol. II, p. 147. 2 Vol. VI, p. 23. 

3 The practice of betel-chewing and its distribution is discussed by 
Mr Penzer in Appendix II of the present volume. 

4 In the opening of an Italian story, which is quoted by Cosquin, Les 
Contes Indiens et V Occident, p. 234, the prince spits from the palace window 
upon a basket of white cheeses, which a peasant is carrying on his head. 
"May you have no peace," says the outraged peasant, "until you have found 
a girl who is white as the cheeses, and red as blood, and has green hair ! " 

5 Dawkins, op. cit., p. 228 ; Cosquin, tudes Folkloriques, p. 555 ; Les Contes 
Indiens, etc., p. 233, and above, Vol. V, p. 171n 2 . 


associated Indian forms which happen to be known to me 
are not exact parallels. Prince Rasalu mischievously de- 
stroyed the water-pots of the women in his father's capital, 
but his exile resulted not from their curse, but from the king's 
indignant sentence. 1 In Somadeva the prince, when playing 
at ball, accidentally strikes a female ascetic. 2 

A different introductory motif, which again seems to me 
to be too distinctive to have been invented more than once, 
is connected with the dangers of incautiously mentioning the 
name of a magical personage or of indulging in ill-considered 
imprecation, which has a way of being literally and most un- 
pleasantly fulfilled. These dangers are, of course, universally 
recognised, 3 but I cannot believe that it is at all probable 
that the following particular derivative of this general super- 
stition originated independently among a number of different 
peoples. As the result of an ejaculation of despondency (or 
very much less frequently of joy) a magical being (jinn, 
" Arab," vel sim.) unexpectedly appears and declares : " You 
called ' Oh ! ' {vel sim.). That is my name." This incident 
which often serves as introduction to variants of Grimm, 
No. 68, De Gaudeif un sien Meester, but occurs also in other 
contexts, is frequent in the Near and Middle East and is 
found in Sicily and Italy. In Northern and Western Europe 
it cannot be equally popular, and I do not think that it 
occurs. 4 Cosquin claimed that he had proved its Indian 
origin, though, in fact, he cites no example from further east 
than the Caucasus region an instance of how loose his argu- 
ment too often becomes ! I do not recall any Indian analogue, 
but until Professor Bloomfield's promised Encyclopedia 
of Hindu Fiction 5 becomes an accomplished fact the 
student of Western stories has no ready work of reference by 
which to check his limited and superficial knowledge of the 
content of Eastern stories. 

1 Swynnerton, Romantic Tales from the Punjab, pp. 53-54. 

2 See Vol. Ill, p. 259; Vol. V, p. 171. 

3 Some examples will be found in Folk-Lore, xxi, p. 154. 

4 Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., ii, p. 63, to which add the references given 
in Dawkins, op. cit., p. 228, and Cosquin, Etudes Folkloriques, pp. 532-542. 

5 See Foreword to Vol. VII. 


But, when all is said and done, the consideration of 
individual incidents, apart from their context, however 
distinctive they may appear to be, must always be fraught 
with doubt as to the possibilities of coincidence. The major 
foundations for arguments about transmission must rest 
always upon the recurrence of identical series of connected in- 
cidents ; for the probability of independent origin diminishes 
rapidly with increased complexity of correspondence. Thus 
if the series A + B + C occurs in two different areas, the 
chances in favour of transmission being the true explana- 
tion are more than three times greater than in the case 
of correspondences limited to a single isolated incident. 
To these latter, in fact, an element of doubt must always be 

Thus, for example, Mr Penzer, in his very learned and 
judicious note upon the " Swan Maiden " motif, 1 has come to the 
conclusion that it has passed from India to Europe and would 
agree with Bolte and Polivka that its occurrence in the Elder 
Edda and the Nibelungenlied points to some early contact 
between East and West. 2 Now, apart from this early ap- 
pearance of an almost identical idea in Teutonic and Scandi- 
navian poetry, the Oriental origin of the motif would have 
appeared to be almost certain. But, as it is, some doubt must 
arise, for one is bound to ask the question how the " Swan 
Maiden " reached Northern Europe without leaving any 
traces of her flight from India in Southern or Eastern Europe ; 
for the distribution so ably and conveniently charted in 
Mr Penzer's note is of a wandering later in date than the 
Volundarkvitha. Is it not possible that the same idea might 
here have occurred independently to Eastern and Western 
imaginations ? For my own part I am not prepared to adopt 
either view as right nor to reject the other as wrong. It is 
a nice question of probability. That the second alternative 
is not impossible may be suggested by the distinct characters 
of the Western and Oriental " Forbidden Chambers," for which 
the obvious explanation is that the idea of the "Forbidden 
Chamber " motif itself occurred independently both in East 

1 See Appendix I, p. 213. 

2 Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen, etc., iii, p. 41 6. 


and West. I am inclined, too, to agree with Mr Penzer 1 that 
the acquisition of the " Magical Articles " by gift is character- 
istically Western and their acquisition by fraud Oriental, 
and again should explain the existence of this apparently 
original difference by supposing that the idea of the " Magical 
Articles " was independently invented both in the East and 
in the West. 

My main contention then is that a story may be regarded 
as a kind of composite pattern of coloured bricks. Individual 
bricks considered by themselves are almost worthless for our 
particular purpose of tracing the history of the design. The 
whole point is the relation of the bricks to each other, and in 
our analysis the smallest effective unit must be an integral 
piece of the pattern. 

I pass next to another instance of what seems to me to be 
faulty argument. We will suppose that we have before us 
a story of which the design may be analysed into the parts 
A, B, C and D, each of which is sufficiently distinctive to 
satisfy our requirements. We then succeed in finding separ- 
ate analogues to some or even to all of A B C and D in the 
stories of another area, but in every case they are set in a 
different context. We are surely not then entitled to say 
that the story A + B + C + D belongs to both areas. Thus 
even if Cosquin is able to quote parallels to separate incidents 
in The Herdsman as occurring in different contexts in Avar 
or Indian stories, we shall not conclude that the story is 
necessarily Oriental in origin. Although the grounds upon 
which Hartland claims a Celtic origin for this particular 
variety of the group represented by Grimm, Nos. 60, 85, 123, 
136, appear to be insufficient, it can hardly be doubted that 
its distribution is definitely European. 2 

That nearly all the methods of argument which we have 
branded as vicious have been applied to the study of the rela- 
tion of European folk-tales to classical mythology may be 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 25-29 ; and Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, 3rd ser., 
iii, p. 151. 

2 Cosquin, Contes Pop. de Lorraine, No. 43, vol. ii, pp. 93-97 ; Bolte und 
Polivka, op. cit., iii, p. 113w 4 ; Hartland, Legend of Perseus, iii, pp. 3-10; and 
my note in Journal of the Gypsy-Lore Society, 3rd ser., iv, pp. 157-158. 


attributed to a natural enthusiasm for discovering as many- 
links as possible with the ancient world and a lack of reflec- 
tion upon the methods actually being used to achieve this 
purpose. For instance we are habitually told that Pygmalion 
may be equated with the story, which is almost certainly of 
Oriental origin, of The Carpenter, the Tailor and the Man of 
God, when actually the two stories have nothing in common 
except the idea that a female statue may come to life and 
be loved by its fashioner or fashioners. 1 Again, we are con- 
tinually being told that because an isolated incident is to 
be found in classical story, therefore the whole series of 
incidents of which it forms part in modern folk-tales must 
have existed in a now lost form in classical antiquity. Before 
making these very large assumptions, it is surely wiser to 
study the facts as they are, rather than as we would have 
them to be. The actual position, which I have briefly 
sketched elsewhere, 2 is simply this. While isolated incidents 
which form part of modern European folk-tales are to be 
found with some frequency in classical mythology, they 
are found almost invariably in a different context, and, 
contrary to the general belief, the number of cases where 
the parallel extends to any considerable combination of 
incidents (some such there are : I think, for example, 
of Polyphemus or Polyidus and the Snakes) is surprisingly 

The quest for the Original Home of the Fairy Story may 
be left for the Wise Men of Gotham to undertake when they 
are finished with hedging the cuckoo. It is contrary alike to 
common sense and to experience to suppose that the story- 
telling faculty has been limited to any one locality, race or 
people, and the oral circulation of tales must always have been 
mainly by exchange a fact which many a field-worker in a 
not unexploited area has had reason to regret, as he laboriously 
reaps the harvest of what in many cases his predecessors at 
the same task have sown. Further, it would not be difficult 
to show that there exist stories which have a quite limited 

1 See p. xiw 1 , Vol. VI, pp. 264, 275, and Folk-Lore, xxiii, p. 487. 

2 In a short essay on "Greek and Roman Folklore" in the American 
Series, Our Debt to Greece and Rome, now in the press. 

vol. vni. b 


distribution within the Indo-European area. 1 The extreme 
Indianist position, such as that adopted by the late Emmanuel 
Cosquin, is clearly untenable; nor is his favourite form of 
argument that if a story, or even a part of a story, can be 
paralleled in India, ancient or modern, India must necessarily 
have given it birth for obvious reasons conclusive. Actu- 
ally I should hazard the guess that a great many of the North 
Indian stories, the vocabulary of which is largely coloured 
with Arabic, have relatively recently been brought to India 
with Islam. 2 

This raises another point, to which Mr Wright has drawn 
attention the view which I once ventured to put forward 8 
that while it is a romantic and attractive hypothesis that 
oral tradition goes back to immemorial antiquity, scientific- 
ally it is a pure assumption. An assumption it must be, for 
it cannot, in the nature of things, be tested, and those who 
prefer to follow the maxim omne ignotum pro magnifico are not 
likely to be shaken by any consideration of probability. But 
considerations there are, which suggest not only that it is an 
assumption, but an improbable assumption. Such detailed 
work at stories as I have done has been upon philological 
material derived mainly from illiterate transmission, Greek 

1 In his interesting Foreword to Vol. VI, my friend, Mr Wright, put 
a question mark against the view that a self-contained Indo-European group 
of stories exists. Now I believe that there are geographical, historical and 
cultural reasons why it should exist, but the question whether it actually does 
exist is susceptible, I think, of quite a simple test. Is it or is it not true 
that if any two collections of folk-tales from any two countries within the 
area are compared, the number and character of the correspondences between 
them will be quite disproportionately larger than those to be observed between 
either of the Indo-European collections and any collection of native stories 
from elsewhere? The area has, of course, no impassable barrier round it, 
but where stories radiate outside it e.g. along the southward thrust of Arab 
influence in the African continent it is rather noticeable how they diminish 
in frequency in proportion to their distance from the main area and how their 
original form tends to become more completely submerged the farther they 
are from home. In the East, I imagine that the proportion of Indo-European 
stories in China, where they were carried by Buddhism, is relatively large. 
A few have passed on to Japan and Korea. 

2 See Folk-Lore, xxxiv, p. 1 29. 

3 Ibid., pp. 124 foil. 


or Gypsy 1 ; and what perhaps has struck me most vividly 
is the tendency of a not too intelligent oral transmission to 
disintegrate the original pattern of stories often into almost 
meaningless incoherence. A cold and unsentimental scrutiny 
of any peasant art over a considerable period will lead, I 
fancy, to the same conclusion. I think, for instance, of 
Greek peasant embroidery and the steady degeneration of 
the noble Venetian designs from which its patterns are often 
derived. Then again I ask myself, is it my experience as a 
historian that history, when orally transmitted, preserves for 
any length of time its pattern and remains an intelligent and 
reasonably accurate version of events ? But if not historical 
tradition, why should fiction be more successful in preserving 
its integrity of form ? Again, have not observers of the back- 
ward peoples again and again recorded their surprise at the 
very short memories of past events which is evinced in tribal 
legend ? I have myself come to the conclusion that it is only 
under special conditions e.g. those of a ritual formula like 
the Hymn of the Salii at Rome, the correct knowledge of 
which is at once the duty and pride of professionals that oral 
transmission is likely by itself to conserve original forms for 
any considerable length of time. I am even a little uneasy 
about the current supposition as to the great antiquity of the 
Jatakas in the form in which we have them. I accept it as a 
working hypothesis because I understand that it represents 
the view of those who ought to know, and I have not myself 
sufficiently intimate knowledge of the evidence to form a 
sound opinion. In any case, even if my scepticism be re- 
garded as extreme, and it is preferable to admit that some 
parts of what oral tradition has preserved may be very old, 
they are still impossible to use for evidential purposes, for 
we cannot know which they are. We have indications that 
some parts are not old, but we have no touchstone except 

1 In view of the references of Mr Wright in Vol. VI, p. ix, and Mr Penzer 
in Vol. V, p. 275, to Groome's theory that Gypsies have played an important 
part as colporteurs of Eastern folk-tales, I should like to retract the modified 
approval which I gave to it in Dawkins, op. cit., p. 218. Since then I have 
had the experience of working at Gypsy texts in detail, and my considered 
opinion is that wherever Groome's theory is tested it breaks down. My own 
belief is that there is nothing in it. 


our arbitrary desires which will tell us what parts are certainly 

Again, I myself agree with Dr Gaster in attributing the 
very greatest importance to literary sources both in moulding 
and in giving permanence to the forms of popular stories. 
But whether we agree with that view or not, it remains the 
fact that in practice the study of the history of stories must 
necessarily be treated as literary history, because it is only 
the history of the literary forms which can supply us with 
definite dates. 

It will be clear that believing, as I do, that stories are in 
fact transmitted from area to area, and that the antiquity of 
the forms preserved in oral tradition is questionable, I am not 
likely to be sympathetic towards the efforts, which were very 
popular with the older school in this country, to find in the 
modern fairy stories of any country fragments of its history 
or social customs in a very remote and prehistoric past. 
Such investigators too have tended to forget that the student 
of folk-tales is at best engaged in breaking butterflies on the 
wheel, and that the fragile and beautiful creatures, which 
suffer this indignity at his hands, flit hither from the flowers 
of fantasy. Thus to look to the Baba Yaga's circular hut 
rotating upon its cock's foot for characteristics of the neo- 
lithic Russian's dwelling may be thought to show a certain 
deficiency in humour. More legitimate and more profitable 
it would be to investigate its connection, if any, with that 
strange magically rotating palace of the Byzantine Emperor 
of which we hear in the Chanson de Geste and the Ballad of 
King Arthur and King Cornwall, 1 and the possible relation of 
this in turn to the famous Throne of Chosroes. 2 

Having illustrated, mainly by examples drawn from the 
best masters, defects of method and argument which seem 
to me to infest the study of folk-tales, it will be proper next 
to ask the question in what directions the student may now 
most profitably focus his attention and in what practical 

1 Child, op. cit., i, pp. 274-288. 

2 There is some interesting material about the Throne of Chosroes in 
Saxl, "Friihes Christentum unci spates Heidentum in ihren kunstlerischen 
Ausdrucksformen," Wiener Jahrbuch fur Kunstgeschichte, ii (xvi), 1923. 


forms may the results of his labours be most compendiously 
and profitably expressed. Again it will be understood that 
I offer only personal opinions to form a basis of discussion. 
However little value the former may prove to have, the latter 
will not be inopportune ; for it will not ultimately delay the 
attainment of our journey's end to pause in order to take 
the bearings of the proximate landmark and perhaps even 
to look where the feet are next to be placed. 

I assume that our ultimate goal is to discover through 
the study of particular stories in their different settings the 
history of this form of popular fiction, the laws which govern 
its creation and transmission, and perhaps eventually to 
assess the respective contributions to the common stock 
which have been made in particular areas by particular 
peoples. Our task, which can hardly yet be said to have 
emerged from its preliminary stages, is complicated by the 
bewildering character of the material and the formidable 
quantity of it which already demands assimilation. Further, 
but little consideration appears as yet to have been devoted 
to the possibility of devising a convenient and standard 
method of co-ordinating the floating information which is at 
present available ; while, lastly, the material is drawn from 
so wide an area that real knowledge of all the relevant facts 
linguistic, cultural, literary and historical, in all sections 
of it would overtax the qualities of a superman. 

It would appear that specialisation is forced upon us and 
that the student of folk-tales must join the ranks of those 
" who know more and more about less and less." I do not 
mean, of course, that he should be ignorant of the general 
problems or not have a good working knowledge of com- 
parative folk-lore : without that he will not be an efficient 
specialist. But I do think that he will now profitably limit the 
scope of his special investigations and perhaps the nature of 
his immediate ambitions. The days when the unsystematic 
collection of random analogies were useful are past. By that 
I do not mean that notes like those of Tawney, for example, 
were not valuable in their generation. We owe, in fact, every- 
thing to him and his peers. It is rather that their particular 
lode has been worked out, and we have now learned all 


that the method which they employed is likely usefully to 
teach us. 

The most profitable line which specialisation should now 
follow may perhaps be thought to be regional or cultural. It 
would be a very real step forward if we could arrive at reliable 
information as to what actually does happen to particular 
stories in a number of particular areas, what different forms 
they assume, in what direction they appear to be travelling, 
what modification they undergo, and what precisely is the in- 
fluence upon them of the local colour which is imposed by the 
history and social habits of any particular region. Thus, for 
example, the ideal annotator of modern Greek folk-tales will 
need, of course, a working knowledge of comparative folk-lore 
and its problems, but the first essential will be that he should 
master all the recorded Greek material. He will need further 
to have a very considerable knowledge of the stories of ad- 
jacent countries Turkey and the other Balkan states and the 
more he knows of Arabic and Persian the better. But what 
we shall expect from him primarily is an account of the varia- 
tions in the forms of modern Greek stories and the relation of 
the Greek forms to those in contiguous countries. Eventu- 
ally, of course, there will be a synthesis of the results of these 
regional studies, but at the moment there is justification for 
a policy of reenter pour mieux sauter. So little do we know 
as yet for certain about the history of any stories in detail 
that I personally feel that the time is not yet ripe for follow- 
ing up far-reaching speculations of the kind put forward by 
Sir R. Temple in Volume I as to Aryan and non-Aryan 
elements in folk-tale. Even in India it is first necessary to 
pursue much further than it has hitherto been taken the 
history of stories, both literary and regional, and it is safer if 
slower to work towards the region of pure speculation by ex- 
hausting first the possibilities of the nearer if duller country, 
where some definite facts are still ascertainable. The real 
danger of these bold speculations is that they are not 
susceptible of adequate test, at any rate in the present state 
of our knowledge, but inevitably their acceptance as working 
hypotheses may be allowed to bias our investigation of data 
which are ascertainable. 


Another good reason for regional specialisation is this. 
Such evidence as non-literary stories can provide demands 
handling with a tact which is informed by a real intimacy 
with the language, psychology, history and habits of the 
people who tell them. For everything turns upon deter- 
mining what is the product of local colouring and which 
are the primary and which the secondary variations of a 

For the first of these, it is obvious that where stories 
are transmitted by peasant story-tellers they are likely to 
be in some degree recast in order to suit the particular social 
customs of their tellers or those of their particular fairyland. 
Such changes may even affect the structure of a story. For 
example, the solution offered by polygamy of marrying the 
hero to successive princesses will not suit Western audiences. 
The story will be modified, probably by means of convenient 
brothers or companions, to whom the superfluous heroines 
may be given as brides. Points of this kind demand a great 
deal more special and local attention than they have yet 
received. Hitherto they have been used in the form of vague 
and sweeping theories of untested general application, as for 
instance the argument which Cosquin frequently employs, 
that the trait of kindness to animals must show Buddhistic 
influence. Into this particular trap I once nearly fell my- 
self through ignorance of Moslem feeling and of specifically 
Turkish custom. 1 Of course our specialists will be noting 
down traits which may turn out to be consonant with the 
social life of more than one region, but these, if the whole 
area is at all systematically covered, will eventually cancel 
out, or rather we shall know accurately in what areas they 
are truly at home or will readily become acclimatised. 2 

For an example of how knowledge of detail can determine 
the relation of different versions I will quote again the late 

1 Dawkins, Modern Greek in Asia Minor, p. 265. 

2 Thus Mr Penzer properly notes in Vol. V, p. 250, that digging through 
a wall is a favourite mode of Indian thieving. The value of this is not 
diminished, because we can supplement it by pointing out that the ancient 
Greek word for burglar, Totx<*>/wx os > is "the man who digs through the wall." 
The method, no doubt, is characteristic of all countries where houses are built 
of mud or sun-dried brick. Compare Job xxiv, 16. 


F. W. Hasluck's brilliant suggestion about All Baba. The 
variants of this story may be divided into two groups : those 
in which catastrophe turns upon forgetting a password and 
those in which it is brought about by miscounting. 1 With 
regard to the first group, all the versions in which the pass- 
word is an obvious corruption of " Sesame " must clearly be 
secondary to the " Open Sesame " version. But the relation 
of the considerable number of variants in which the password 
is " Open Tree," " Open Hyacinth," " Open Rose," or some 
other plant or flower is less clear. It might be argued that 
" Open Sesame " is on all fours with the others and may be 
just one of a number of specialised versions of the use of a 
plant name. Now Hasluck pointed out that " Open Sesame " 
must almost certainly be derived from the use of sesame oil 
for lubricating locks, exactly in the same way as madchun, 
the name of a sticky sweetmeat, is used for a charm to stick 
things together in a Turkish variant of Grimm, No. 64. If 
that is right, it can hardly be doubted that all the other 
flower passwords are secondary to "Open Sesame," for 
which alone there is a reason. Further, it follows from 
Hasluck's explanation that the origin of the " Open Sesame " 
version must lie east of Mediterranean lands, in the area in 
which the inferior sesame oil first takes the place of olive 

It may further be hoped that the intensive and more ex- 
haustive study of all the variants in a particular country and 
its immediate neighbours will supply us with more reliable 
data than we have at present for forming a sound judgment 
upon the tendency of certain combinations of incidents to 
become distorted in the process of transmission, an important 
indication of direction where progressive distortion can be 
established. 2 I am not at all sure that in well-explored fields 
some indications might not even be drawn from the relative 
popularity of certain types of story. This, however, is a 
line of research which demands great discretion ; for obvious 

1 See Folk-Lore, xxxi, pp. 321-323. 

2 E.g. the chain of incidents which opens with the descent into the 
underworld by getting on to the black ram in mistake for the white, which 
I have mentioned in Folk-Lore, xxxiv, p. 1 32. 


reasons it does not follow that what happens to have been 
oftenest recorded is necessarily oftenest told. 1 

But whatever may be thought of these particular sugges- 
tions, I cannot help feeling that in any case sufficient local 
material has now accumulated in the different parts of the 
area to make a more intensive examination advisable, and 
here seems in fact the best prospect of securing new and more 
accurate data upon which to base our wider theories. 

For the most convenient method of annotation, that notes 
exist not to display the erudition of the author but to give 
clear and relevant information to the reader, that they should 
be as lucid as is consistent with brevity and as brief as is 
consistent with lucidity may be taken for granted. Brevity, 
however, may be overdone, and in a subject where results 
need to be accessible to scholars who are not specialists in 
the writer's particular field, the greatest care should be taken 
to give all the necessary information. In particular where 
literature is quoted, if the writer is a European medievalist 
let him remember that names which may be household words 
to him will not necessarily be familiar to the Orientalist, and 
the Orientalist may be asked to show a similarly wise com- 
passion. Somewhere the ideal notes should contain a key, 
whether it be in the index or elsewhere, from which at least 
the dates and general character and, if it is possible to state 
it briefly without misleading, the interrelation of the im- 
portant literary sources which have been quoted should be 
ascertainable. The enormous service to those of us who 
are not Orientalists, as well as to those who are, of such a 
compendious history of the versions of the Panchatantra 
as that given in Vol. V, cannot be overestimated. 

We will also ask our annotator to be explicit and exact 
about dates where they are known, and to leave us in no 

1 A somewhat analogous danger may be pointed out in connection with 
a statistical use of studies of particular stories like that of Miss Cox's Cinderella. 
Their data may be disproportionately drawn from the different areas. I 
myself was led into a momentary misapprehension with regard to the apparent 
frequency of a particular detail, until I noticed the disproportionate number 
of Finnish variants analysed in the book, for, with one exception, all the 
examples which I had noticed of this particular detail turned out to be 


doubt, where dates are uncertain, as to what is hypothesis 
and what is fact. How often has Maspero been responsible 
for the quotation of some Ptolemaic papyrus as though it 
were evidence from " ancient Egypt " in the usually accepted 
sense of the term, and the first edition of the Cambridge 
Ancient History itself quoted the Sayings of Ptahhotep as 
belonging to the Old Kingdom, when the earliest papyrus 
belongs in fact to the Middle Kingdom some centuries 
later ! 

Next, as to the recording of variants. If the policy which 
I have advocated were adopted, I should hope that my local 
expert would give me references to all the variants from his 
particular country. As regards the further record of the dis- 
tribution of variants, it should be recognised that Bolte and 
Polivka will henceforward be as indispensable to the student 
of folk-tales as is his Liddell and Scott to the Greek scholar. 
Hence the appropriate reference to Bolte and Polivka should 
be given, together with any correction of the references in 
that upon the whole amazingly accurate work, and any use- 
ful supplementary additions which the writer may be able to 
make. But he should not unnecessarily duplicate informa- 
tion which is already in Bolte and Polivka. His notes will, 
of course, discuss the views of Bolte and Polivka and those 
of other scholars about the structure and distribution of the 
story, and will define the author's own attitude to the points 
at issue. Here, where it is a case of quoting opinions, there 
will naturally be appropriate references to the books in which 
they are expressed, whether they are already mentioned by 
Bolte and Polivka or not. But as regards the bibliography 
of the occurrence of variants, the suggested use of Bolte and 
Polivka as a standard initial reference would save not only 
ink and paper, but, what is much more important, the reader's 
time. Many others must have had the lamentable experience 
of being referred for variants of some story, let us say, to 
Gozenbach, Liebrecht, Brugmann-Leskien and von Hahn. 
Conscientiously we look them all up, only to find in nine 
cases out of ten an identical set of further references in all of 

Finally, our ideal annotator may be advised to adopt 


Mr Penzer as his model in the care and trouble taken in 
the laborious task of indexing his material. There are few 
literary labours more tiresome to execute, but there is none 
more useful in a work of learning. What the lack of an index 
means in wasted hours and often fruitless racking of the 
memory, others who have reason to lament the long delay 
in the issue of Bolte and Polivka's fourth volume will know 
by bitter experience. 

But if the utility of a work of reference is largely dis- 
counted by the absence of this most necessary aid to its use, 
the same principle holds good of our studies as a whole. 
Work which is not made accessible is work wasted. Now in 
classical studies we are no doubt exceptionally fortunate in 
the self-sacrificing trouble which is taken to provide us, not 
only with dictionaries of various kinds, but also with perio- 
dical surveys of what is being done in the many various 
special fields. For example, it is not very difficult for the 
historian to keep himself adequately abreast of the general 
progress of archaeological research, and, this is the real point, 
it is made easy for him to find out where to look for the details 
of any particular discovery or special technical discussion, 
which may throw light upon problems of his own. With 
regard to folk-tales, however, a similar co-ordination of 
labour is almost wholly to seek. A cynic declared of some 
branches of the Intelligence Services of the Allies in the late 
war that their only really successful efforts in maintaining 
secrecy were shown in the prevention of any information 
which they had acquired from reaching any rival branch 
until it was too late to be of use ; the situation with regard 
to the study of folk-tales is not wholly dissimilar. We have 
now, it is true, the valuable periodical summary of publica- 
tions by Otto Weinreich in the Archiv fur Religionswissen- 
schaft ; but in this country little if anything is done in this 
direction, and even the number of foreign books which are 
sent for review to Folk-Lore is lamentably less than it ought 
to be. It has certainly been my own experience that one 
learns too often only by accident of major works of real 

In particular I should like to take this opportunity to 


plead for some greater co-operation between Orientalists and 
students of Western marchen and literature. Between the 
two branches of study there seems to be a great gulf of mutual 
ignorance, across which it is not the least of Mr Penzer's 
services to have thrown some bridges. Thus more than one 
distinguished student of Oriental literature appears never 
to have had his attention directed to the existence of Bolte 
and Polivka, while Westerners are often unfamiliar with the 
literary history of the Eastern story-books which they glibly 
quote, are sometimes dependent upon out-of-date or inaccur- 
ate translations, and are at a loss to know where to look to 
correct deficiencies, of which they may be themselves acutely 

To take a specific instance, I think of how much I have 
learned from Mr Penzer's treatment of the Tales of a Vetdla. 1 
To give a critical estimate of its merits, and to discuss the 
many suggestive and interesting points which the notes upon 
the work and upon its individual tales provoke, w T ould need 
a foreword to itself. One reflection, however, it may be 
appropriate to mention here. How extraordinarily valuable 
would be a book or if the difficulties of unremunerative 
publication were insuperable a series of papers in some 
easily accessible periodical, which took these appendices for 
its model and dealt in similar fashion with the other great 
Indian collections of tales. 

A general orientation in this branch of the history of 
Indian literature is with us a crying need. The very names 
of many of the works which Mr Penzer's notes upon Soma- 
deva show to be of importance were quite unfamiliar to me, 
and I expect to many others who approach these problems 
from the Western side, even if they may be less shameless in 
confessing their ignorance. The character of their contents, 
the kind of sources from which they are probably drawn, 
the dates of their composition, their relation to each other, 
whether they were translated into Persian or Arabic, and if 
so when about all these and similar matters readily acces- 
sible information as to what is known would be enormously 
helpful. The account itself, though it must be authoritative, 

1 Vols. VI and VII. 


need not be very elaborate, for we have yet the rudiments to 
learn ; but it will, of course, require to be documented with 
references which will enable us to pursue particular questions 
in greater detail. A very valuable feature of the model, 
which I should hope would be followed, is the critical estim- 
ate of the various translations in which the works may have 
become more or less familiar in the West. 

The more information that our pundit can find room to 
give us about the literary history, particularly the Oriental 
literary history, of the individual stories in these collections 
the better, but even a comparatively general treatment 
would be of great service. The more I have become involved 
in comparative methods of study in other fields the more 
deeply have I become impressed by the dangers of mere 
erudition by index. Now most of us, if we are honest, 
have no adequate knowledge of the story-literature of India 
and the East. From Tawney, Hertel, Benfey, and so on, we 
have been in the habit of culling parallels and specimens, 
but without any proper appreciation of their background, or 
knowledge of their literary context. A crying need, as it 
seems to me, is for some authoritative work which will teach 
us the elements of these essentials, and will guide us where 
to look when more detailed investigation becomes necessary. 
It may be, of course, that such a book already exists ; but 
if it does it would appear, if only on the internal evidence 
of some of their arguments, to be unknown to the ordinary 
students of Western mdrchen. Thus we are brought back 
once more to the urgent need of better liaison between 
Oriental and Western studies, the establishment of which, I 
am convinced, would react beneficially far beyond the limited 
field of popular stories. 

I have ventured to " think aloud " about some general 
principles, which seem to me vitally to affect the method of 
the study of folk-tales, and, greatly daring, have offered some 
practical suggestions as to the form which notes upon them 
might conveniently take. What value may be attached to 
these reflections by more professional students, who are less 
distracted by other avocations, may be a matter of doubt ; 
there can be no doubt, however, about the indebtedness of 


all who are interested in Oriental literature, in the history 
of fiction and in the study of folk-tales to this great edition 
of Somadeva. But " good wine needs no bush," and the 
discerning will require no appraisement from me in order 
to appreciate the merits of Mr Penzer's inestimable services 
to good learning. 

W. R. Halliday. 

The University, Liverpool. 




Author's Preface .... xxxvii 

Invocation . . . . . .1 

M(ain story) ...... 1 



Invocation . . . . . .21 

M. ConL . . . . ..21 

164. Story of Savitri and Angiras . . .22 
M. Cont. . . . . . .23 


M. Cont. . . . . . .28 

165. Story of the Child and the Sweetmeat . . 35 
M. ConL . . . . . .36 


M. ConL ..... . 43 

166. Story of Rama . . . . .44 
M. ConL . . . . . .45 



M. Cont. . . . . .53 




Invocation . . . . .70 

M. Cont. . . . . . .70 


M. Cont. . . . . . .82 



Invocation . . . . . .94 

M. Cont. . . . . . .94 

167. Story of the Devoted Couple, Surasena and 

Sushena . . . . .97 

M. Cont. . . . . . .99 


M. Cont. ...... 105 

168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 106 

168a. King Chandamahasena and the 

Asura's Daughter . . . 106 

CONTENTS xxxiii 

CHAPTER CXII continued 


168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 110 

168b. The Young Chandala who married the 

Daughter of King Prasenajit . 112 

168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 114 

168c. The Young Fisherman who married a 

Princess . . . .115 

168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 118 

168d. The Merchant's Daughter who fell in 

love with a Thief . . .118 

168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 120 
M. Cont. . . . . . .122 


M. Cont. ...... 124 

169. Story of Taravaloka . . . .125 
M. Cont. ...... 131 



Invocation . . . ,132 

M. Cont. . . . , . .132 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans . 133 

170a. How Parvati condemned her Five 

Attendants to be reborn on Earth . 136 



CHAPTER CXIV continued 


170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans . 138 

170a. How Parvati condemned her Five 

Attendants to be reborn on Earth . 138 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 142 


170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans . 144 
170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati . 144 

170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati . 156 

170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati . 164 

170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati . 178 


170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati . 193 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans . 209 

M. Cont. ...... 209 


The " Swan-Maiden " Motif . . . .217 




The Romance of Betel-Chewing . . # 235 

Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . 321 

Index II General # 337 


A LTHOUGH, as mentioned at the end of the text of 
/% Volume VII, the final victory of the hero has been 
.X m, achieved and the coronation duly taken place, with 
a general gathering of the chief characters, yet we start again 
on fresh adventures that seem to read as a kind of " addenda," 
or afterthought, of the compiler. 

The sub-stories are rather involved, while in the next 
volume they become almost impossible to number with any 
degree of success for the purposes of quick reference. 

By the end of the present volume we shall be well in sight 
of our harbour, and can soon congratulate ourselves on a long 
and, I trust, not uninteresting voyage. 

The value of this volume is greatly enhanced by a most 
interesting and really useful Foreword by Professor Halliday. 
His suggestions are practical, and will be consulted with great 
advantage by all serious students of comparative folk-lore and 

Both Dr Barnett and Mr Fenton continue to render me 
valuable help in proof-reading. 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 
April 1927. 





MAY that Ganesa, whom, when dancing in the twi- 
light intervals between the Yugas, all the worlds 
seem to imitate by rising and falling, protect you ! 
May the blaze of the eye in the forehead of Siva, who 
is smeared with the beautiful red dye used by Gauri for 
adorning her feet, befriend you for your happiness ! 

We adore the goddess Sarasvati, taking form as speech 
to our heart's delight, the bee that dwells in the lotus on 
the lake of the mighty poet's mind. 1 

[M] Then Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of 
Vatsa, afflicted with separation, being without Madana- 
manchuka, roamed about on those lower slopes of Mount 
Malaya, and in its bordering forests, which were in all the 
beauty of spring, but found joy nowhere. 2 The cluster of 
mango-blossoms, though in itself soft, yet seeming, on 
account of the bees 3 that settled on it, like the pliant bow 
of the God of Love, cleft his heart. And the song of the 
cuckoo, though sweet in itself, was hard to bear, and gave 
pain to his ears, as it seemed to be harsh with the reproach- 
ful utterances of Mara. 4 And the wind of the Malaya moun- 
tain, though in itself cool, yet being yellow with the pollen 
of flowers, and so looking like the fire of Kama, seemed to 
burn him, when it fell on his limbs. So he slowly left that 

1 There is, of course, an allusion to the Manasa lake. 

2 See Vol. VII, p. 195. n.m.p. 

3 Here there is a pun; the word translated "bees" can also mean 
" arrows." 

4 The God of Love, the Buddhist devil. See Vol. VI, p. 187n*, and 

Monier Williams, Buddhism, p. 208. n.m.p. 

vol. vra. 1 A 


region, being, so to speak, drummed out of it by those groves 
that were all resonant with the hum of bees. 

And gradually, as he journeyed on, with the deity for his 
guide, by a path that led towards the Ganges, he reached 
the bank of a lake in a neighbouring wood. And there he 
beheld two young Brahmans of handsome appearance, sitting 
at the foot of a tree, engaged in unrestrained conversation. 
And when they saw him, they thought he was the God of 
Love, and they rose up and, bowing before him, said : " All 
hail to thee, adorable god of the flowery bow ! Tell us why 
thou wanderest here alone without that fragrant artillery of 
thine, and where is that Rati, thy constant companion ? " 

When the son of the King of Vatsa heard that, he said to 
those Brahmans : "I am not the god Kama, I am a mere 
mortal ; but I have indeed lost my Rati." * When the 
prince had said this, he told his history, and said to those 
Brahmans : " Who are you, and of what kind is this talk 
that you two are carrying on here ? " Then one of those 
young Brahmans said to him respectfully : " King, how can 
we tell our secret in the presence of a man of your worth ? 
Nevertheless, out of respect for your command, I will tell 
our history. Give ear ! 

" There is in the territory of Kalinga a city of the name 
of Sobhavati, which has never been entered by the demon 
Kali, nor touched by evil-doers, nor seen by a foreign foe : 
The Unhappy such has it been made by the Creator. In it 
Lover there was a wise and rich Brahman, of the name 

of Yasaskara, who had offered many sacrifices, and he had 
an excellent wife named Mekhala. I was born to them as 
an only son, when they were already in middle life, and I 
was in due course reared up by them, and invested with 
the sacrificial thread. 2 

" Then, while as a boy I was studying the Vedas, there 
arose a mighty famine in that land, owing to drought. So 
my father and my mother went off with me to a city named 
Visala, taking with them their wealth and their servants. 
In that city, in which fortune and learning dwelt together, 

1 The word rati in Sanskrit means "joy," and "sexual intercourse.' 

2 See Vol. VII, pp. 26-28. n.m.p. 


having laid aside their long feud, my father established him- 
self, having had a house given him by a merchant, who was 
a friend of his. And I dwelt there in the house of my pre- 
ceptor, engaged in the acquisition of learning, in the society 
of my fellow-students of equal age. 

" And among them I had a friend, a promising young 

man of the military caste, Vijayasena by name, the son of a 

very rich Kshatriya. And one day the unmarried sister of 

that friend of mine, whose name was Madiravati, came with 

him to my teacher's house. So beautiful was she that I feel 

convinced that the Creator made the orb of the moon, that 

is like nectar to the eyes of men, out of the overflowing of 

the perfect loveliness of her face. I ween, the God of Love, 

when he beheld her form, which was to him a sixth weapon, 

bewildering the world, valued but little his other five shafts. 

When I saw her, and heard from that friend her name and 

descent, I was at once overpowered by love's potent sway, 

and my mind was altogether fixed upon her. And she, for 

her part, looked askance at me with modest loving eye, and 

the down standing erect on her cheeks told that love had 

begun to sprout. And after she had remained there a long 

time on the pretext of play, she at last tore herself away and 

went home, sending to me from the reverted corner of her 

eye a look that was a messenger of love. 

w Then I went home, grieved at having to part with her, 
and throwing myself flat, I tossed up and down convulsively, 
like a fish on dry land. I said to myself : ' Shall I ever again 
behold her face, which is the Creator's storehouse of all the 
nectar of beauty ? Happy are her companions * whom she 
looks at with that laughing eye, and talks freely to with that 
mouth.' Engaged in such thoughts as these, I with difficulty 
got through that day and night, and on the second day I 
went to the house of my teacher. 

" There my friend Vijayasena approached me courteously, 
and in the course of a confidential conversation said to me 
joyfully : 6 My mother has heard from my sister Madiravati 
that you are so great a friend of mine, and being full of love 

1 No. 1882 has dhanyd sa cha naro, No. 2166 dhanyah sa cha naro 
i.e. "happy is that man." 


for you, she wishes to behold you. So, if you have any regard 
for me, come with me to our house : let it be adorned for us 
with the dust of your lotus-like foot.' This speech of his 
was a sudden refreshment to me, as an unexpected heavy 
shower of rain is to a traveller in the desert. So I consented, 
and went to his house, and there I had an interview with 
his mother, and was welcomed by her, and remained there, 
gladdened by beholding my beloved. 

11 Then Vijayasena, having been summoned by his father, 
left me, and the foster-sister of MadiravatI came to me, and 
said, bowing before me : * Prince, the Princess MadiravatI 
trained up to maturity in our garden a jasmine creeper; 
and it has recently produced a splendid crop of flowers, 
which laugh and gleam with joyous exultation at being 
united with the spring. To-day the princess herself has 
gathered its buds, in defiance of the bees that settled on 
the flowers ; and she has threaded them like pearls into a 
necklace, and she sends this to you her old friend as a new 
present.' When that dexterous girl had said this, she gave 
me the garland, and with it leaves of the betel, together 
with camphor and the five fruits. 1 So I threw round my 
neck the garland, which my beloved had made with her own 
hand, and I enjoyed exceeding pleasure, surpassing the joy 
of many embraces. 2 And putting the betel into my mouth, 
I said to that dear companion of hers : ' What can I say 
more than this : I have in my heart such intense love for 
your companion, that if I could sacrifice my life for her 
I should consider that it had not been given me in vain; 
for she is the sovereign of my being.' When I had said this 
I dismissed her, and I went to my teacher's house with 
Vijayasena, who had that moment come in. 

" The next day Vijayasena came with MadiravatI to our 
house, to the great delight 3 of my parents. So the love of 
myself and MadiravatI, though carefully concealed, increased 
every day from being in one another's society. 

14 And one day a servant of MadiravatI' s said to me in 

1 See Appendix II, p. 246 et seq. n.m.p. 

2 Two of the India Office MSS. read alinganadhikam. 

3 I read sammadah for sampadah. I find it in MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166. 


secret : ' Listen, noble sir, and lay up l in your heart what 
I am going to tell you. Ever since my darling Madiravati 
beheld you there in your teacher's house she has no appetite 
for her food, she does not adorn herself, she takes no pleasure 
in music, she does not play with her parrots and other pets ; 
she finds that fanning with plantain leaves, and moist anoint- 
ings with sandalwood ointment, 2 and the rays of the moon, 
though cool as snow, torture her with heat ; and every day 
she grows perceptibly thinner, like the streak of the moon 
in the black fortnight, and the only thing that seems to give 
her any relief is conversation about you. This is what my 
daughter told me, who knows all that she does, who attends 
her like a shadow, and never leaves her side. Moreover, I 
drew Madiravati herself into a confidential conversation and 
questioned her, and she confessed to me that her affections 
were fixed on you. So now, auspicious sir, if you wish her life 
to be saved, take steps to have her wishes fulfilled.' This 
nectarous speech of hers delighted me, and I said : c That 
altogether depends on you ; I am completely at your disposal.' 
When she heard this she returned delighted, and I, relying 
on her, conceived hopes, and went home with my mind at 

" The next day an influential young Kshatriya came 
from Ujjayini and asked Madiravati's father for her hand. 
And her father promised to give him his daughter ; and I 
heard that news, terrible to my ears, from her attendants. 
Then I was for a long time amazed, as if fallen from heaven, 
as if struck with a thunderbolt, as if possessed by a demon. 
But I recovered, and said to myself : ' What is the use of 
bewilderment now ? I will wait and see the end. It is the 
self-possessed man that gains his desire.' 

" Buoyed up by such hopes I passed some days, and my 
beloved one's companions came to me and supported me by 
telling me what she said. But at last Madiravati was in- 
formed that the auspicious moment had been fixed, and the 
day of her marriage arrived, celebrated with great rejoicings. 
So she was shut up in her father's house, and prevented from 

1 MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 give cha tat for tatha. 

2 See Vol. VII, pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


roaming about at will, and the processional entry of the 
bridegroom's friends drew nigh, heralded by the sound of 

" When I saw that, I considered that my miserable life 
had lost all its zest, and came to the conclusion that death 
was to be preferred to separation. So I went outside the city 
and climbed up a banyan-tree, and fastened a noose to it, and 
I let myself drop from the tree suspended by that noose, and 
let go at the same time my chimerical hope of obtaining my 
beloved. And a moment afterwards I found myself, having 
recovered the consciousness which I had lost, lying in the lap 
of a young man who had cut the noose. And perceiving that 
he had without doubt saved my life, I said to him : ' Noble 
sir, you have to-day shown your compassionate nature ; but 
I am tortured by separation from my beloved and I prefer 
death to life. The moon is like fire to me, food is poison, 
songs pierce my ear like needles, a garden is a prison, a wreath 
of flowers is a series of envenomed shafts, and anointing with 
sandalwood ointment and other unguents * is a rain of burning 
coals. Tell me, friend, what pleasure can wretched bereaved 
ones, like myself, to whom everything in the world is turned 
upside down, find in life ? ' 

" When I had said this, that friend in misfortune asked 
me my history, and I told him the whole of my love affair 
with Madiravati. Then that good man said to me : ' Why, 
though wise, are you bewildered ? What is the use of sur- 
rendering life, for the sake of which we acquire all other 
things ? A propos of this, hear my story, which I now proceed 
to relate to you. 

" ' There is in the bosom of the Himalayas a country 
named Nishadha, which is the only refuge of virtue, banished 
from the earth by Kali, and the native land of truth, and the 
The Stranger's home of the Krita age. The inhabitants of that 
Stor y land are insatiable of learning, but not of money- 

getting ; they are satisfied with their own wives, but with 
benefiting others never. I am the son of a Brahman of that 
country who was rich in virtue and wealth. I left my home, 

1 See Vol. VII, pp. 105-107. n.m. p. 

2 See Vol. IV, p. 240W 1 . n.m.p. 


my friend, out of a curiosity which impelled me to see other 
countries, and wandering about, visiting teachers, I reached 
in course of time the city of Sankhapura not far from here, 
where there is a great purifying lake of clear water, sacred 
to Sankhapala, King of the Nagas, and called Sankhahrada. 

" * While I was living there in the house of my spiritual 
preceptor I went one holy bathing festival to visit the lake 
Sankhahrada. Its banks were crowded, and its waters 
troubled on every side by people who had come from all 
countries, like the sea when the gods and Asuras churned it. 
I beheld that great lake, which seemed to make the women 
look more lovely as their garlands of flowers fell from their 
loosened braids, while it gently stroked their waists with its 
waves like hands, and made itself slightly yellow l with the 
unguents which its embraces rubbed off from their bodies. 
I then went to the south of the lake, and beheld a clump of 
trees, which looked like the body of Kama being consumed by 
the fire of Siva's eye ; its tdpinchas 2 did duty for smoke, its 
kimsukas 3 for red coals, and it was all aflame with twining 
masses of the full-blown scarlet asoka, 4 

1 For the uses of turmeric see Note 1 at the end of this chapter. 


2 I.e. Garcinia xanthochymus (Hooker, Flora of British India, vol. i, p. 269). 
See also Watt, Economic Products, vol. iii, pp. 478, 479. n.m.p. 

3 Butea frondosa, found throughout India and Burma. It is one of the 
most beautiful trees of the plains. Its economic uses are manifold gum, 
lac, dye, tan, pigment, oil, etc. The tree is sacred to Soma, and is used 
in many religious ceremonies, particularly in the investiture of the sacred 
thread, when the leaves are used as platters, and the stem for the sacred 
staff. See Watt, op. cit., vol. i, p. 548 et seq. n.m.p. 

4 Jonesia asoca. This has been described by Roxburgh as perhaps one 
of the most beautiful trees, when in full bloom, in the whole vegetable king- 
dom. Its flowers are red and orange, while its leaves are abruptly pinnate 
and shining. In the Mrichchhakalika we have a description of a garden where 
" the asoka, with its rich red blossom, shines like a young warrior bathed in 
the sanguine shower of the furious fight." The tree has been regarded as a 
symbol of love from the time when Sita took refuge from Ravana in a grove of 
asoka trees. Kama himself took refuge in one, when he was burnt, together 
with the tree, by Siva. The flowers, owing to their auspicious colour and 
delicate perfume, are used largely for temple decoration. See further 
W. Dymock, " Flowers of the Hindu Poets," Journ. Anth. Soc. Bomb., vol. ii, 
p. 87. N.M.P. 


" ' There I saw a certain maiden gathering flowers at the 
entrance of an arbour composed of the atimukta creeper. 1 
She seemed, with her playful sidelong glances, to be threaten- 
ing the lotus in her ear ; she kept raising her twining arm and 
displaying half her bosom, and her beautiful loosened hair, 
hanging down her back, seemed like the darkness seeking 
shelter to escape from her moon-like face. And I said to 
myself : " Surely the Creator must have made this girl, 
after he had got his hand in by creating Rambha and her 
sister-nymphs, but one can see that she is mortal by the 
winking of her eyes." 2 

" ' The moment I saw that gazelle-eyed maid, she pierced 
my heart, like a crescent-headed javelin of Mara, bewildering 
the three worlds. And the moment she saw me she was 
overcome by Kama, and her hands were rendered nerveless 
and listless by love, and she desisted from her amusement of 
gathering flowers. She seemed, with the flashings of the ruby 
in the midst of her moving flexible chain, 3 to be displaying 
the flames of affection, that had broken forth from her heart, 
in which they could not be contained ; and turning round, she 
looked at me again and again with an eye that seemed to be 
rendered more charming by the pupil coming down to rest in 
its corner. 

" ' While we stood for a time looking at one another, 
there arose there a great noise of people flying in terror. And 
there came that way an infuriated elephant, driven mad by 
the smell of wild elephants; it had broken its chain and 
thrown its rider, and the elephant-hook was swinging to and 
fro at the end of its ear. The moment I saw the animal I 
rushed forward, and taking up in my arms my beloved, who 
was terrified, and whose attendants had run away, I carried 
her into the middle of the crowd. Then she began to recover 
her composure, and her attendants came up ; but just at 
that moment the elephant, attracted by the noise of the 

1 This is the Gaertnera racemosa, usually known in Sanskrit as Mddhavl. 
See Hooker, op. cit., vol. i, p. 418, and Watt, op. cit., vol. iv, pp. 252, 253. 


2 Cf. the Nala episode in Vol. IV, p. 239. n.m.p. 

3 More literally, " creeper-like chain." 


people, charged in our direction. The crowd dispersed in 
terror at the monster's approach, and she disappeared among 
them, having been carried off by her attendants in one 
direction, while I went in another. 

" ' At last the alarm caused by the elephant came to an 
end, and then I searched in every direction for that slender- 
waisted maid, but I could not find her, as I did not know her 
name, her family or her dwelling-place ; and so roaming about, 
with a void in my heart, like a Vidyadhara that has lost his 
magic power, I with difficulty tottered in to my teacher's 
house. There I remained like one in a faint or asleep, re- 
membering the joy of embracing my beloved, and anxious 
lest her love might fail. 1 And in course of time reflection 
lulled me in her lap, as if affected with the compassion natural 
to noble women, and showed me a glimpse of hope, and soul- 
paining ignorance hugged my heart, and an exceedingly 
severe headache took possession of my brain. 2 In the mean- 
while the day slipped away, and my self-command with it, 
and the lotus-thicket folded its cups and my face was con- 
tracted with them, and the couples of Brahmany ducks were 
dispersed 3 with my hopes, the sun having gone to rest. 

" ' Then the moon, the chief friend of love, that gladdens 
the eyes of the happy, rose up, adorning the face of the east ; 
its rays, though ambrosial, seemed to me like fiery fingers, 
and though it lit up the quarters of the sky, it darkened in 
me all hope of life. Then one of my fellow-students, seeing 
that in my misery I had flung my body into moonlight as 
into a fire, and was longing for death, said to me : " Why 
are you in this evil case ? You do not appear to have 
any disease ; but if you have mental affliction caused by 
longing for wealth or by love, I will tell you the truth about 
those objects. Listen to me. The wealth, which through 
over-covetousness men desire to gain by cheating their 

1 I have followed Brockhaus' text, which is supported ,by MS. No. 3003. 
The other two read tatpremabhayasotkampam. 

2 The words denoting "reflection," "headache" and "ignorance" are 
feminine in Sanskrit, and so the things denoted by them have feminine 
qualities attributed to them. Ignorance means perhaps "the having no 
news of the beloved." All the India Office MSS. read vriddhaya for vrittaya. 

3 See Vol. VI, p. 7lw 3 . n.m.p. 


neighbours, or by robbing them, does not remain. The 
poison-trees 1 of wealth, which are rooted in wickedness and 
bring forth an abundant crop of wickedness, are soon broken 
by the weight of their own fruit. All that is gained by that 
wealth in this world is the toil of acquiring it and other 
annoyances, and in the next world great suffering in hell 
a suffering that shall continue as long as the moon and stars 
endure. As for love, that love which fails of attaining its 
object brings disappointment that puts an end to life, and 
unlawful love, though pleasing in the mouth, is simply the 
forerunner of the fire of hell. 2 But a man's mind is sound 
owing to good actions in a former life, and a hero, who pos- 
sesses self-command and energy, obtains wealth and the 
object of his desires, not a spiritless coward like you. So, 
my good fellow, have recourse to self-command, and strive 
for the attainment of your ends." 

" ' When that friend said this to me I returned him a 
careless and random answer. However, I concealed my real 
thoughts, spent the night in a calm and composed manner, 
and in course of time came here, to see if by any chance she 
lived in this town. When I arrived here, I saw you with your 
neck in a noose, and after you were cut down I heard from 
you your sorrow, and I have now told you my own. 

" ' So I have made efforts to obtain that fair one whose 
name and dwelling-place I know not, and have thus exerted 
myself to gain what no heroism could procure ; but why do 
you, when Madiravati is within your grasp, play the faint- 
heart, instead of manfully striving to win her ? Have you 
not heard the legend of old days with regard to Rukmini ? 
Was she not carried off by Vishnu after she had been given 
to the King of Chedi ? ' 

'* While that friend of mine was thus concluding his tale, 
Madiravati came there with her followers, preceded by the 

1 Here the reading of MS. No. 1 882 is Papamula yatah papaphalabharam 
prasuyate Tatkshanenaiva bhajyante sighram dhanavishadrumah. No. S003 reads 
praptamula, tadbharenaiva and bhujyante. No. 21 66 agrees with No. 1882 in the 
main, but substitutes tana for dhana. I have followed No. 1882, adopting 
tadbharenaiva from No. 3003. 

2 I read yas chadharmyo ' gradutah. MS. No. 1882 reads yas chadhamyo, 
No. 3003 reads yas chadharmo, and No. 2166 reads as I propose. 


usual auspicious band of music, in order to worship the God 
of Love in this temple of the Mothers. And I said to my 
friend : c I knew all along that maidens on the day of their 
Madiravati marriage come here to worship the God of Love : 
visits the this is why I tried to hang myself on the banyan- 

Tempie ^ree m f ron t G f this temple, in order that when 

Madiravati came here she might see that I had died for her 
sake.' When that resolute Brahman friend heard that, he 
said : ' Then let us quickly slip into this temple and remain 
hidden behind the images of the Mothers, and see whether any 
expedient will then present itself to us or not.' When my 
friend made this proposal, I consented, and went with him 
into that temple, and remained there concealed. 

" And Madiravati came there slowly, escorted by the 
auspicious wedding music, and entered that temple. And she 
left at the door all her female friends and male attendants, 
saying to them : ' I wish in private to crave from the awful 
God of Love a certain boon l that is in my mind, so remain all 
of you outside the building.' Then she came in and addressed 
the following prayer to Kamadeva after she had worshipped 
him : ' O god, since thou art named " the mind-born," how 
was it that thou didst not discern the beloved that was in my 
mind ? Why hast thou disappointed and slain me ? If thou 
hast not been able to grant me my boon in this birth, at any 
rate have mercy upon me in my next birth, O husband of 
Rati ! Show me so much favour as to ensure that handsome 
young Brahman's being my husband in my next birth.' 

" When the girl had said this in our hearing and before 
our eyes, she made a noose, by fastening her upper garment 
to a peg, and put it round her neck. And my friend said to 
me : ' Go and show yourself to her, and take the noose from 
her neck.' So I immediately went towards her. And I said 
to her with a voice faltering from excess of joy : ' Do not act 
rashly, my beloved. See, here is your slave in front of you, 
bought by you with the risk of your life, in whom affection 
has been produced by your utterance in the moment of your 
grief.' And with these words I removed the noose from the 
neck of that fair one. 

1 The word may mean " bridegroom." 


" She immediately looked at me, and remained for a 
moment divided between joy and terror, and then my friend 
said quickly to me : ' As this is a dimly lighted hour owing 
to the waning of the day, I will go out dressed in Madira- 
vati's garments with her attendants. And do you go out by 
the second door, taking with you this bride wrapped up in 
our upper garments. And make for whatever foreign country 
you please, during the night, when you will be able to avoid 
detection. And do not be anxious about me. Fate will 
bestow on me prosperity.' When my friend had said this, he 
put on Madiravati's dress and went out, and left that temple 
in the darkness, surrounded by her attendants. 

" And I slipped out by another door with Madiravati, who 
wore a necklace of priceless jewels, and went three yojanas in 
the night. In the morning I took food, and slowly travelling 
on, I reached in the course of some days, with my beloved, a 
city named Achalapura. There a certain Brahman showed 
himself my friend, and gave me a house, and there I quickly 
married Madiravati. 

"So I have been living there in happiness, having ob- 
tained my desire, and my only anxiety has been as to what 
could have become of my friend. And in course of time I 
came here to bathe in the Ganges, on this day which is the 
festival of the winter solstice, 1 and lo ! I found here this man 
who without cause showed himself my friend. And full of 
embarrassment I folded him in a long embrace, and at last 
made him sit down and asked him to tell me his adventures, 
and at that moment your Highness came up. Know, son 
of the King of Vatsa, that this other Brahman at my side 
is my true friend in calamity, to whom I owe my life and 
my wife." 

When one Brahman had told his story in these words, 
Naravahanadatta said to the other Brahman : "I am much 
pleased : now tell me, how did you escape from so great a 
danger ? For men like yourself, who disregard their lives 
for the sake of their friends, are hard to find." 

1 Following the mistaken interpretation in the Sanskrit dictionaries 
Tawney translated "summer solstice." See Note 2 at the end of this 
chapter. n.m.p. 


When the second Brahman heard this speech of the son 
of the King of Vatsa, he also began to tell his adventures. 

"When I went out that night from the temple in 
Madiravati's dress, her attendants surrounded me under the 
impression that I was their mistress. And being bewildered 
The Adventures' 1 ^ dancing, singing and intoxication, they put 
of the Brahman me in a palankeen 1 and took me to the house of 
Fnend Somadatta, which was in festal array. In one 

part it was full of splendid raiment, in another of piled-up 
ornaments ; here you might see cooked food provided, 
there an altar-platform made ready; one corner was full of 
singing female slaves, another of professional mimes, and a 
third was occupied by Brahmans waiting for the auspicious 

" Into one room of this house I was ushered in the dark- 
ness, veiled, by the servants, who were beside themselves 
with drink and took me for the bride. And when I sat 
down there, the female slaves surrounded me, full of joy at 
the wedding festival, busied with a thousand affairs. 

" Immediately the sound of bracelets and anklets was 
heard near the door, and a maiden entered the room sur- 
rounded by her attendants. Like a female snake, her head 
was adorned with flashing jewels, and she had a white skin- 
like bodice ; like a wave of the sea, she was full of beauty, 2 
and covered with strings of pearls. She had a garland of 
beautiful flowers, arms shapely as the stalk of the creeper, 
and bright budlike fingers ; and so she looked like the god- 
dess of the garden moving among men. And she came and 
sat down by my side, thinking I was her beloved confidante. 
When I looked at her I perceived that that thief of my heart 
had come to me, the maiden that I saw at the Sankhahrada 
lake, whither she had come to bathe, whom I saved from the 
elephant, and who, almost as soon as seen, disappeared from 
my sight among the crowd. I was overpowered with excess 

1 I adopt Dr Kern's conjecture, aropya sibikam. It is found in two out 
of three India Office MSS., for the loan of which I am indebted to Dr Rost. 
For a note on palankeens see Vol. Ill, p. 14-w 1 . n.m.p. 

2 The word which means "bodice" means also "the skin of a snake," 
and the word translated "beauty" means also "saltness." 


of joy, and I said to myself : ' Can this be mere chance, or is 
it a dream, or sober waking reality ? ' 

"Immediately those attendants of Madiravati said to 
the visitor : ' Why do you seem so disturbed in mind, noble 
lady ? ' When she heard that, she said, concealing her real 
feelings * : ' What ! Are you not aware what a dear friend 
of mine Madiravati is ? And she, as soon as she is married, 
will go off to her father-in-law's house, and I shall not be 
able to live without her ; this is why I am afflicted. So leave 
the room quickly, in order that I may have the pleasure of 
a little confidential chat with Madiravati.' 

" With these words she put them all out, and fastened 
the door herself, and then sat down, and, under the impres- 
sion that I was her confidante, began to speak to me as 
follows : ' Madiravati, no affliction can be greater than this 
affliction of yours, in that you are in love with one man and 
you are given by your father in marriage to another ; still, you 
may possibly have a meeting or be united with your beloved, 
whom you know by having been in his society. But for me a 
hopeless affliction has arisen, and I will tell you what it is ; for 
you are the only repository of my secrets, as I am of yours. 

" 'I had gone to bathe on a festival in the lake named the 
lake of Sankhahrada, 2 in order to divert my mind, which was 
oppressed with the approaching separation from you. While 
thus engaged, I saw in the garden near that lake a beautiful 
blooming young Brahman, whose budding beard seemed like 
a swarm of bees come to feed on the lotus of his face ; he him- 
self looked like the moon come down from heaven in the day, 
like the golden binding-post of the elephant of beauty. I 
said to myself : " Those hermits' daughters who have not 
seen this youth have only endured to no purpose hardship 
in the woods ; what fruit have they of their asceticism ? " 
And even as I thought this in my heart, the God of Love 
pierced it so completely with his shafts that shame and fear 
at once left it together. 

1 Because she really wanted to talk to Madiravati about her own love 

2 I omit cha after vinodayitum, as it is not found in the three India Office 



" Then, while I looked with sidelong looks at him whose 
eyes were fixed on me, there suddenly came that way a furious 
elephant that had escaped from its binding-post. That 
scared away my attendants and terrified myself; and the 
young man, perceiving this, ran, and taking me up in his 
arms, carried me a long way into the midst of the crowd. 
While in his arms, I assure you, my friend, I was rendered 
dead to all beside by the joy of his ambrosial touch, and I 
knew not the elephant, nor fear, nor who I was, nor where I 
was. In the meanwhile my attendants came up, and there- 
upon the elephant rushed down on us like Separation in- 
carnate in bodily form, and my servants, alarmed at it, took 
me up and carried me home ; and in the mSlee my beloved 
disappeared, whither I know not. Ever since that time I 
do nothing but think on him who saved my life, but whose 
name and dwelling I know not, who was snatched from me 
as one might snatch away from my grasp a treasure that I 
had found ; and I weep all night with the female chakravdkas, 
longing for sleep, that takes away all grief, in order that I 
may behold him in a dream. 

" ' In this hopeless affliction my only consolation, my 
friend, is the sight of yourself, and that is now being far re- 
moved from me. Accordingly, MadiravatI, the hour of my 
death draws nigh, and that is why I am now enjoying the 
pleasure of beholding your face.' 

" When she had uttered this speech, which was like a 
shower of nectar in my ears, staining all the while the moon 
of her face with tear-drops mixed with the black pigment of 
her eyes, she lifted up the veil from my face, and beheld and 
recognised me, and then she was filled with joy, wonder 
and fear. Then I said : ' Fair one, what is your cause of 
alarm ? Here I am at your service. For Fate, when pro- 
pitious, brings about unexpected results. I, too, have endured 
for your sake intolerable sorrow : the fact is, Fate produces 
a strange variety of effects in this phenomenal universe. 1 

1 The D. text reads yadrisam as the first word of the line instead of 
tadrisi. This must be construed with the preceding line, and the sense would 
necessarily be altered as follows : " Hereafter I will tell you of what kind 
was the intolerable sorrow I, too, have endured for your sake, and how strange 


Hereafter I will tell you my story at full length ; this is not 
the time for conversation. Now devise, if you can, my be- 
loved, some artifice for escaping from this place.' When I 
said this to the girl, she made the following proposal, which 
was just what the occasion demanded : * Let us slip out 
quietly from this house by the back door ; the garden belong- 
ing to the house of my father, a noble Kshatriya, is just out- 
side : let us pass through it and go where chance may take 
us.' When she had said this, she hid her ornaments, and I left 
the house with her by the way which she recommended. 

" So in that night I went a long distance with her, for 
we feared detection, and in the morning we reached together 
a great forest. And as we were going along through that 
savage wilderness, with no comfort but our mutual conversa- 
tion, noon gradually came on. The sun, like a wicked king, 
afflicted with his rays the earth, that furnished no asylum for 
travellers, and no shelter. 1 By that time my beloved was 
exhausted with fatigue and tortured with thirst, so I slowly 
carried her into the shade of a tree, which it cost me a great 
effort to reach. 

" There I tried to restore her by fanning her with my 
garment, and while I was thus engaged, a buffalo, that had 
escaped with a wound, came towards us. And there followed 
in eager pursuit of it a man on horseback armed with a bow, 
whose very appearance proclaimed him to be a noble-minded 
hero. He slew that great buffalo with a second wound from 
a crescent-headed arrow, striking him down as Indra strikes 
down a mountain with the dint of a thunderbolt. When he 
saw us he advanced towards us, and said kindly to me : 
6 Who are you, my good sir ; and who is this lady ; and why 
have you come here ? ' 

" Then I showed my Brahmanical thread, and gave him 
an answer which was half truth and half falsehood : 'lam 
a Brahman ; this is my wife. Business led us to a foreign land, 

a variety of effects in this phenomenal world Fate produces." See Speyer, 
op. cit., pp. 141, 142. n.m.p. 

1 The whole passage is an elaborate pun resting upon the fact that the 
same word means "tribute" and "ray" in Sanskrit. Akranda sometimes 
means "protector." 



and on the way our caravan was destroyed by bandits, and 
we, separated from it, lost our way, and so came to enter 
this forest ; here we have met you, and all our fears are at 
an end.' When I said this, he was moved by compassion 
for my Brahmanical character, and said : ' I am a chief of 
the foresters come here to hunt, and you wayworn travellers 
have arrived here as my guests ; so now come to my house, 
which is at no great distance, to rest.' 

" When he had said this, he made my wearied darling 
get up on his horse, and himself walked, and so he led us 
to his dwelling. There he provided us with food and other 
requisites, as if he had been a relation. 1 Even in bad dis- 
tricts some few noble-hearted men spring up here and there. 
Then he gave me attendants, who enabled me to get out of 
that wood, and I reached a royal grant to Brahmans, where 
I married that lady. Then I wandered about from country 
to country, and meeting with a caravan I have to-day come 
here with her to bathe in the water of the Ganges. And here 
I have found this man whom I selected for myself as a friend, 
and I have seen your Highness. This, Prince, is my story." 

When he had said this he ceased, and the Prince of Vatsa 
loudly praised that Brahman who had obtained the prize 
he desired, the fitting reward of his genuine goodness ; and 
in the meanwhile the prince's ministers, Gomukha and the 
others, who had long been roaming about looking for him, 
came up and found him. And they fell at the feet of Nara- 
vahanadatta, and tears of joy poured down their faces, 
while he welcomed them all with due and fitting respect. 
Then the prince, accompanied by Lalitalochana, 2 returned 
with those ministers to his city, taking with him those two 
young Brahmans, whom he valued on account of the tact and 
skill they had displayed in attaining worthy objects. 

1 I read bandhavavat so. The late Professor Horace Hay man Wilson ob- 
serves of this story : " The incidents are curious and diverting, but they are 
chiefly remarkable from being the same as the contrivances by which Madhava 
and Makaranda obtain their mistresses in the drama entitled MalaU and Ma- 
dhava or The Stolen Marriage." For the plot of Bhavabhuti's Malatlmadhava 

{circa a.d. 700) see Keith, Sanskrit Drama, pp. 187, 188, and also pp. 192, 193. 


2 See Vol. VII, p. 195. n.m.p. 




Turmeric (Sanskrit : kunkuma) has been used in India as a substitute for 
saffron and other yellow dyes from a very early period. In the first place the 
very colour, resembling sunlight, was auspicious, and therefore considered 
to possess protective powers. Consequently turmeric, as well as the colour 
red, figures largely in marriage ceremonies, and, in fact, in all important 
functions occurring in the life of a Hindu. 

It would not be an exaggeration to say that the general auspiciousness 
of reds and yellows is a direct outcome of sun-worship in one form or another 
(cf. our expression, a "red-letter" day). The idea of festivity connected 
with the colour yellow, through its association with the sun, has given it 
an erotic significance. This is another reason why it is the chief colour at 
weddings, and in any relations between the sexes. Dymock gives numerous 
examples of this, both from Sanskrit and classical European literature (" On 
the Use of Turmeric in Hindoo Ceremonial," Journ. Anth. Soc. Bombay, vol. ii, 
1892, pp. 441-448). Apart from the custom of smearing the body with 
turmeric at weddings, garments dyed, or only marked at the corners, with 
the colour became lucky. It is also used in cases of expectant pregnancy. 
Thus Mrs Stevenson tells us in Rites of the Twice-Born, p. 113, that the 
expectant mother sits on a low stool in the centre of a red-besmeared square 
of ground. No men are allowed to be present, and all the ladies sit round 
her and sing songs, whilst the husband's sister smears turmeric and rice all 
over the young wife's forehead. 

It would be superfluous, if not impossible, to name all the occasions On 
which turmeric is used. Owing to its cheapness and its auspiciousness it is in 
evidence wherever good luck is required, and this applies to worship as well 
as to all important personal happenings in everyday life. 

The introduction of aniline dyes, by which glaring colours can be easily 
and cheaply obtained, has superseded the use of turmeric to some extent, but 
so many and varied are the uses of turmeric from medicine to curry-making 
that it still plays a very important part in the life and ritual of the Hindu. 

For numerous references see Watt, Economic Products, vol. ii, p. 659 ; 
also H. N. Ridley, Spices, pp. 422-444. The latest article I have seen on the 
subject is " The Use of Saffron and Turmeric in Hindu Marriage Ceremonies," 
K. R. Kirtikar, Journ. Anth. Soc. Bombay, vol. ix, 1913, pp. 439-454. n.m.p. 



As already intimated (p. 12), Tawney has translated the text wrongly. 
The word in question is 'uttarayane, the locative case, which simply means 
"at" or "in the northward journey" i.e. the ay ana, or "course" beginning 
at the winter solstice. There is no word for " festival " at all, but since bathing 
in the sacred rivers takes place immediately after the solstice during the 
festivity known as the Makara-sahkranti, Tawney has doubtless considered 
the addition necessary. He was probably justified; but the text merely says 
he was bathing " at the winter solstice." How Roth, Monier Williams, etc., 
came to call it the "summer solstice" I cannot imagine. Full details of the 
sankrantis will be found in Sewell and Dikshit, Indian Calendar, p. 9- The 
following is a brief account of the festival from the various sources shown. 

Sankranti is the name given to the day on which the sun passes into 
a fresh sign of the zodiac, and the Makara corresponds to Capricornus. In 
ancient times a twelve nights' celebration was held immediately after the 
winter solstice. The period was regarded as sacred, for it was then that 
the three Ribhus (Ribhukshan, Vaja and Vibhvan), who by their extreme 
skill rose to be the personified seasonal deities, slept. In modern times 
the Makara-sankranti forms the chief seasonal festival, corresponding to our 
New Year's Day. It is the time for the great pilgrimage to Allahabad and 
the annual bath of purification in the sacred rivers of the North. In the 
South the corresponding festival is called Pongol, at which the boiling of the 
new rice is watched and regarded as an augury for the New Year. In an 
interesting article (Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, pp. 868-869) E. W r . 
Hopkins describes the festival : " Cattle are led about decorated with garlands 
and treated with veneration. Presents are given to friends at this time, 
and general rejoicing takes place. The festival lasts for three days, and is 
officially a celebration of the Vedic gods Indra and Agni, with the addition 
of the (later) god, Ganesa." 

Speaking of the Uttarayana, as observed in Northern India, Crooke states 
(Religion fy Folklore of Northern India, 1926, pp. 31-32) that it is considered 
a lucky period for all enterprises ; while on the other hand, the Dakshindyana, 
when the sun moves southwards, is the unlucky season. 

"In the Lower Himalaya the January Sankranti is observed by baking 
little images of birds made of flour in butter and oil, which are hung on the 
children's necks and given next day, the winter solstice, probably with the 
intention of passing away evil, to the crows and other birds." 

Crooke refers us to Atkinson, Himalayan Districts of the North-Western 
Provinces oj India, vol. ii, p. 869 et seq. 

Under the heading of" Joshi, Jyotishi, Bhadri, Parsai," " the village priests 
and astrologers," Russell (Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. iii, 
p. 26l) discusses the "Sankrants." He says that "the Til Sankrant, or entry 
of the sun into Makara or Capricorn, which falls about the 15th January, is 
a special festival, because it marks approximately the commencement of the 


sun's northern progress and the lengthening of the days, as Christmas roughly 
does with us. On this day every Hindu who is able bathes in a sacred river 
at the hour indicated by the Joshis of the sun's entrance into the sign. 
Presents of til or sesame are given to the Joshi, owing to which the day is 
called Til Sankrant. People also sometimes give presents to each other." 

Makara is usually taken to mean a sea-monster, often a crocodile. We 
have seen, however (Vol. V, p. 48ft 1 ), that in the Panchatantra it is translated 
as "crab." This could not be so in the signs of the zodiac, as Karkati 
corresponds to Cancer. n.m.p. 




MAY Siva, the granter of boons, who, when pleased, 
bestowed on Uma half his own body, grant you your 
desire ! 
May the vermilion-stained trunk which Ganesa at night 
throws up in the dance, and so seems to furnish the moon- 
umbrella with a coral handle, protect you ! 

[M] Then Naravahanadatta, son of the King of Vatsa, 
possessing as his wives those various ladies, the most beauti- 
ful in the three worlds, and Madanamanchuka as his head- 
queen, dwelt with Gomukha and his other ministers in 
Kausambi, having his every want supplied by his father's 
magnificent resources. His days passed pleasantly in dancing, 
singing and conversation, and were enlivened by the exquisite 
enjoyment of the society of the ladies whom he loved. 

Then it happened one day that he could not find his 
principal charmer Madanamanchuka anywhere in the female 
apartments, nor could her attendants find her either. 1 When 
he could not see his beloved, he became pale from grief, as 
the moon loses its beauty in the morning, by being separated 
from the night. And he was distracted by an innumerable 
host of doubts, saying to himself : "I wonder whether my 
beloved has hidden herself somewhere to ascertain my senti- 
ments towards her ; or is she indignant with me for some 
trifling fault or other ; or is she concealed by magic, or has 
she been carried off by someone ? " When he had searched 
for her, and could not find her anywhere, he was consumed 

1 I adopt the reading of MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166, parijanah. This 

seems to make better sense. See Vol. VII, p. 195. n.m.p. 



by violent grief for his separation from her, which raged in 
his bosom like a forest conflagration. His father, the King 
of Vatsa, who came to visit him as soon as he knew the 
state of affairs, and his mother, ministers and servants were 
all beside themselves. The pearl necklace, sandalwood oint- 
ment, the rays of the moon, lotus fibres and lotus leaves did 
not alleviate his torture, but rather increased it. As for 
Kalingasena, when she was suddenly deprived of that daughter 
she was confounded like a Vidyadhari who has lost her magic 

Then an aged female guardian of the women's apartments 
said in the presence of Naravahanadatta, so that all there 
heard : " Long ago, that young Vidyadhara, named Mana- 
savega, having beheld Madanamanchuka, when she was a 
maiden, on the top of the palace, suddenly descended from 
heaven, and approaching Kalingasena, told her his name, and 
asked her to give him her daughter. When Kalingasena 
refused, he went as he came. But why should he not have 
now come secretly and carried her off by his magic power? 
It is of course true that heavenly beings do not carry off the 
wives of others ; on the other hand, who that is blinded by 
passion troubles himself about the right or wrong of an 
action ? " When Naravahanadatta heard this, his heart 
was overwhelmed with anger, impatience and the sorrow of 
bereavement, and became like a lotus in the waves. 

Then Human vat said : " This palace is guarded all 
round, and it is impossible to enter or go out from it, except 
through the air. Moreover, by the favour of Siva no mis- 
fortune can befall her ; so we may be certain that she has 
hidden herself somewhere, because her affection has been 
wounded. Listen to a story which will make this clear. 

164. Story of Sdvitri and Angiras 

Once upon a time a hermit, named Angiras, asked 
Ashtavakra for the hand of his daughter Savitri. But Ash- 
tavakra would not give him his daughter Savitri, though he 
was an excellent match, because she was already betrothed 
to someone else. Then Angiras married Asruta, his brother's 


daughter, and lived a long time with her as his wife in great 
happiness ; but she was well aware that he had previously 
been in love with Savitri. 

One day that hermit Angiras remained muttering for a 
long time in an inaudible voice. Then his wife Asruta asked 
him again and again lovingly : " Tell me, my husband, why 
do you remain so long fixed in thought ? " He said : " My 
dear, I am meditating on the Savitri " ; and she, thinking 
that he meant Savitri, the hermit's daughter, was vexed in 
soul. She said to herself, " He is miserable," so she went 
off to the forest, determined to abandon the body. And after 
she had prayed that good fortune might attend her husband, 
she fastened a rope round her neck. And at that moment 
Gayatri appeared, with rosary of Aksha beads and ascetic's 
pitcher, and said to her : " Daughter, do not act rashly ! 
Your husband was not thinking of any woman, he was 
meditating on me, the holy Savitri " ; and with these words 
she freed her neck from the noose. And the goddess, merciful 
to her votaries, having thus consoled her, disappeared. Then 
her husband Angiras, searching for her, found her in the 
wood, and brought her home. So you see that women in 
this world cannot endure the wounding of their affections. 

[M] " So you may be certain that this wife of the prince 
is angry on account of some trifling injury, and is hidden 
somewhere in this place ; for she is under the protection of 
Siva, and we must again search for her." 

When Rumanvat said this, the sovereign of Vatsa said : 
" It must be so ; for no misfortune can befall her, inasmuch 
as a heavenly voice said, 'This Madanamanchuka is an 
incarnation of Rati, appointed by the god to be the wife of 
Naravahanadatta, who is an emanation of the God of Love, 
and he shall rule the Vidyadharas with her as his consort for 
a kalpa of the gods,' and this utterance cannot be falsified 
by the event. So let her be carefully looked for." 

When the king himself said this, Naravahanadatta went 
out, though he was in such a miserable state. 


But, however much he searched for her, he could not find 
her, so he wandered about in various parts of the grounds, 
like one distracted. When he went to her dwelling, the rooms 
with closed doors seemed as if they had shut their eyes in 
despair at beholding his grief; and when he went about in 
the groves asking for her, the trees, agitating their shoots like 
hands, seemed to say : " We have not seen your beloved." 
When he searched in the gardens, the sdrasa birds, flying up 
to the sky, seemed to tell him that she had not gone that 
way. And his ministers Marubhuti, Harisikha, Gomukha and 
Vasantaka wandered about in every direction to find her. 

In the meanwhile an unmarried Vidyadhari, of the name 
of Vegavati, having beheld Madanamanchuka in her splendid 
and glorious beauty, deliberately took her shape, and came 
and stood alone in the garden under an asoka tree. Maru- 
bhuti saw her, as he was roaming about in search of the queen, 
and she seemed at once to extract the dart from his pierced 

And in his joy he went to Naravahanadatta, and said to 
him : " Cheer up, I have seen your beloved in the garden." 
When he said this, Naravahanadatta was delighted, and 
immediately went with him to that garden. 

Then, exhausted with long bereavement, he beheld that 
semblance of Madanamanchuka with feelings like those with 
which a thirsty traveller beholds a stream of water. And 
the moment he beheld her, the much-afflicted prince longed 
to embrace her, but she, being cunning, and wishing to be 
married by him, said to him : " Do not touch me now ; first 
hear what I have to say. Before I married you, I prayed to 
the Yakshas to enable me to obtain you, and said : ' On my 
wedding-day I will make offerings to you with my own hand.' 
But, my beloved, when my wedding-day came, I forgot all 
about them. That enraged the Yakshas, and so they carried 
me off from this place. And they have just brought me here, 
and let me go, saying : Go and perform over again that 
ceremony of marriage, and make oblations to us, and then 
repair to your husband ; otherwise you will not prosper.' So 
marry me quickly, in order that I may offer the Yakshas the 
worship they demand, and then fulfil all your desire." 


When Naravahanadatta heard that, he summoned the 
priest Santisoma and at once made the necessary preparations, 
and immediately married the supposed Madanamanchuka, 
who was no other than the Vidyadhari Vegavati, having been 
for a short time quite cast down by his separation from the 
real one. Then a great feast took place there, full of the 
clang of cymbals, delighting the King of Vatsa, gladdening 
the queens, and causing joy to Kalingasena. And the sup- 
posed Madanamanchuka, who was really the Vidyadhari 
Vegavati, made with her own hand an offering of wine, flesh 
and other dainties to the Yakshas. Then Naravahanadatta, 
remaining with her in her chamber, drank wine with her in 
his exultation, though he was sufficiently intoxicated with 
her voice. And then he retired to rest with her who had thus 
changed her shape, as the sun with the shadow. And she 
said to him in secret : " My beloved, now that we have retired 
to rest, you must take care not to unveil my face suddenly 
and look at me while asleep." * When the prince heard 
this, he was filled with curiosity to think what this might be, 
and the next day he uncovered her face while she was asleep 
and looked at it, and lo ! it was not Madanamanchuka, but 
someone else, who, when asleep, had lost the power of disguis- 
ing her appearance by magic. 2 Then she woke up while he 
was sitting by her awake. And he said to her : " Tell me, 
who are you ? " And the discreet Vidyadhari, seeing him 
sitting up awake, and being conscious that she was in her own 
shape and that her secret was discovered, began to tell her 
tale, saying : " Listen, my beloved, I will now tell you the 
whole story. 

" There is in the city of the Vidyadharas a mountain of 
the name of Ashadhapura. There dwells a chief of the Vidya- 
dharas, named Manasavega, a prince puffed up with the might 
of his arm, the son of King Vegavat. I am his younger 
sister, and my name is Vegavati. And that brother of mine 
hated me so much that he was not willing to bestow on me 
the sciences. Then I obtained them, though with difficulty, 

1 This bears a slight resemblance to the story of Psyche. See Vol. II, 

p. 252 et seq., for the nuptial taboo. n.m.p. 

2 Cf. Vol. Ill, p. 123. N.M.P. 


from my father, who had retired to a wood of ascetics, and, 
thanks to his favour, I possess them of greater power than 
any other of our race. I myself saw the wretched Madana- 
What happened manchuka, in the palace of Mount Ashadha, in a 
to Madana- garden, surrounded by sentinels. I mean your 
manchuka beloved, whom my brother has carried off by 
magic, as Ravana carried off the afflicted Sita, the wife of 
Ramabhadra. And as the virtuous lady repels his caresses, 
he cannot subdue her to his will, for a curse has been laid 
upon him that will bring about his death if he uses violence 
to any woman. 

" So that wicked brother of mine made use of me to try 
to talk her over; and I went to that lady, who could do 
nothing but talk of you. And in my conversation with her 
that virtuous lady mentioned your name, 1 which was like a 
command from the God of Love, and thus my mind then 
became fixed upon you alone. And then I remembered an 
announcement which Parvati made to me in a dream, much 
to the following effect : ' You shall be married to that man, 
the mere hearing of whose name overpowers you with love.' 
When I had called this to mind, I cheered up Madanaman- 
chuka, and came here in her form, and married myself to you 
by an artifice. So come, my beloved, I am filled with such 
compassion for your wife Madanamanchuka that I will take 
you where she is ; for I am the devoted servant of my rival, 
even as I am of you, because you love her. For I am so 
completely enslaved by love for you that I am rendered quite 
unselfish by it." 

When Vegavati had said this, she took Naravahanadatta, 
and by the might of her science flew up with him into the 
sky during the night. And next morning, while she was 
slowly travelling through the heaven, the attendants of the 
husband and wife were bewildered by their disappearance. 

And when the King of Vatsa came to hear of it, he 
was immediately, as it were, struck by a thunderbolt, and 

1 I read with MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 tvadnamnyudlrite ; No. 3003 reads 
tvattrasyudirite. This seems to point to the same reading, which agrees with 
si. 74a. It is also found in a MS. lent me by the Principal of the Sanskrit 


so were Vasavadatta, Padmavati and the rest. And the 
citizens, and the king's ministers Yaugandharayana and the 
others, together with their sons Marubhuti and the rest, were 
altogether distracted. 

Then the hermit Narada, surrounded with a circle of 
light, descended there from heaven, like a second sun. The 
King of Vatsa offered him the arghya, and the hermit said to 
him : " Your son has been carried off by a Vidyadhari to her 
country, but he will soon return ; and I have been sent by 
Siva to cheer you up." And after this prelude he went on to 
tell the king of Vegavatl's proceedings exactly as they took 
place. Then the king recovered his spirits and the hermit 

In the meanwhile Vegavati carried Naravahanadatta 
through the air to the mountain Ashadhapura. And Mana- 
savega, hearing of it, hastened there to kill them both. Then 
Vegavati engaged with her brother in a struggle which was 
remarkable for a great display of magic power ; for a woman 
values her lover as her life, and much more than her own 
relations. Then she assumed by the might of her magic a 
terrible form of Bhairava, and at once striking Manasavega 
senseless, she placed him on the mountain of Agni. And she 
took Naravahanadatta, whom at the beginning of the con- 
test she had deposited in the care of one of her sciences, 1 and 
placed him in a dry well in the city of the Gandharvas, to keep 
him. And when he was there, she said to him : " Remain 
here a little while, my husband ; good fortune will befall you 
here. And do not despond in your heart, O man appointed 
to a happy lot ! for the sovereignty over all the Vidyadharas 
is to be yours. But I must leave this for the present, to 
appease my sciences, impaired by my resistance to my elder 
brother. However, I will return to you soon." When the 
Vidyadhari Vegavati had said this, she departed somewhere 
or other. 

1 Two of the India Office MSS. read haste. So also the Sanskrit College 


THEN a certain Gandharva, of the name of Vina- 
[M] datta, saw Naravahanadatta in that well. 
Truly, if there were not great souls in this world, 
born for the benefit of others, relieving distress as wayside 
trees heat, the world would be a withered forest. Thus the 
good Gandharva, as soon as he saw Naravahanadatta, asked 
him his name and lineage, and supporting him with his hand, 
drew him out of that well, and said to him 1 : "If you are 
a man and not a god, how did you reach this city of the 
Gandharvas inaccessible to man ? Tell me ! " 

Then Naravahanadatta answered him : "A Vidyadhari 
brought me here, and threw me into the well by her power." 
Then the good Gandharva Vinadatta, seeing that he had the 
veritable signs of an emperor, took him to his own dwelling, 
and waited upon him with all the luxuries at his command. 
And the next day Naravahanadatta, perceiving that the 
inhabitants of the city carried lyres in their hands, said to 
his host : " Why have all these people, even down to the 
children, got lyres in their hands ? " 

Then Vinadatta gave him this answer : " Sagaradatta, 
the King of the Gandharvas, who lives here, has a daughter 
named Gandharvadatta, who eclipses the nymphs of heaven : 
it seems as if the Creator had blended nectar, the moon, and 
sandalwood and other choice things, in order to compose 
her body, as a specimen of his skill in making all that is 
fair. She is always singing to the lyre the hymn of Vishnu, 
which the god himself bestowed on her, and so she has at- 
tained supreme skill in music. 2 And the princess has firmly 

1 I follow Dr Kern in deleting the inverted commas, and the comma 
after drisktvd. 

2 I read satatam sd cha gdyantl vindydm Saurina svayam Dattam svagitakani 
kdsktdm gdndharve paramam gatd. In this all the three India Office MSS. 
substantially agree. No. 1882 writes gdyantl with both short and long i and 
gandharva, No. 2166 has kdshthdm with short a, and all three have a short a in 



resolved that whoever is so well skilled in music that he can 
play on the lyre, and sing perfectly in three scales a song in 
praise of Vishnu, shall be her husband. 1 The consequence 
is, that all here are trying to learn to play the lyre, but they 
have not acquired the amount of skill demanded by the 

Prince Naravahanadatta was delighted at hearing this 
speech from the mouth of Vinadatta, and he said to him : 
" All the accomplishments have chosen me for a husband, 
and I know all the music that there is in the three worlds." 
When he said this, his friend Vinadatta conducted him into 
the presence of King Sagaradatta, and said there : " Here 
is Naravahanadatta, the son of the King of Vatsa, who has 
fallen into your city from the hand of a Vidyadhari. He 
is an adept in music, and he knows the song in praise of 
Vishnu, in which the Princess Gandharvadatta takes so much 

When the king heard this, he said : " It is true. I heard 
so much before from the Gandharvas ; so I must to-day 
receive him with respect here. And he is an emanation 
of a divinity ; he is not out of place in the abode of gods ; 
otherwise, if he were a man, how could he have come here 
by associating with a Vidyadhari ? So summon Gandharva- 
datta quickly and let us test him." When the king said this, 
the chamberlains went to fetch her. 

And the fair one came there, all glorious with flower- 
ornaments, agitating with her beauty, as if with a wind, the 
creepers of spring. She sat down at her father's side, and 
the servants told her what had taken place, and immediately, 
at his command, she sang a song to the lyre. When she was 
joining the notes to the quarter- tones, like Sarasvati, the 
wife of Brahma, Naravahanadatta was astonished at her 
singing and her beauty. Then he said to her : " Princess, 
your lyre does not seem to me to sound well. I think there 

Gandharve. It is curious to see how nearly this agrees with Dr Kern's con- 
jecture. I find that the MS. lent me by the Principal of the Sanskrit College 
agrees with the reading I propose, except that it gives gandharva. 

1 Cf. Kathakoqa (Tawney, p. 65), where a lyre-playing contest takes place 
at a Svayamvara. The name of the heroine is also Gandharvadatta. n.m.p. 


must be a hair on the string." Thereupon the lyre was 
examined, and they found the hair where he said, and that 
astonished even the Gandharvas. Then the king took the 
lyre from his daughter's hand and gave it to him, saying : 
" Prince, take this, and pour nectar into our ears." Then he 
played on it, and sang the hymn of Vishnu with such skill that 
the Gandharvas there became motionless as painted pictures. 

Then Gandharvadatta herself threw on him a look tender 
with affection, as it were a garland of full-blown blue lotuses, 1 
and therewith chose him as her husband. When the king 
saw it, and called to mind his promise of that import, he at 
once gave him his daughter Gandharvadatta in marriage. 
As for the wedding that thereupon took place, gladdened by 
the drums of the gods and other festal signs, to what could 
we compare it, as it served as the standard by which to 
estimate all similar rejoicings. Then Naravahanadatta lived 
there with his new bride Gandharvadatta in heavenly bliss. 

And one day he went out to behold the beauty of the 
city, and after he had seen all kinds of places he entered the 
park attached to it. There he saw a heavenly female de- 
scending from the sky with her daughter, like the lightning 
with the rain in a cloudless atmosphere. And she was say- 
ing to her daughter, as she descended, recognising him by 
her knowledge : " This, my daughter, is your future husband, 
the son of the King of Vatsa." When he saw her alight and 
come towards him, he said to her : " Who are you, and why 
have you come ? " 

And the heavenly female said to him, thus introducing 
the object of her desire : " Prince, I am Dhanavati, the 
wife of a chief of the Vidyadharas, named Simha, and this 
is my unmarried daughter, the sister of Chandasimha, 
and her name is Ajinavatl. You were announced as 
her future husband by a voice that came from heaven. 
Then, learning by my magic science that you, the future 
emperor of the Vidyadharas, had been deposited here by 
Vegavati, I came to tell you my desire. You ought not 
to remain in such a place as this, which is accessible to 

1 In the Svai/amvara the election used to be made by throwing a garland 
on the neck of the favoured suitor. See Vol. IV, pp. 238-240. n.m.p. 


the Vidyadharas, for they might slay you out of enmity, as 
you are alone, and have not obtained your position of em- 
peror. So come, let us now take you to a land which is 
inaccessible to them. Does not the moon delay to shine 
when the circle of the sun is eclipsed ? 1 And when the 
auspicious day arrives you shall marry this daughter of 
mine." When she had said this, she took him and flew up 
into the air with him, and her daughter accompanied them. 
And she took him to the city of Sravasti, and deposited him 
in a garden, and then she disappeared with her daughter 

There King Prasenajit, who had returned from a distant 
hunting expedition, saw that prince of noble form and 
feature. The king approached him full of curiosity, and 
asked him his name and lineage, and then, being much de- 
lighted, courteously conducted him to his palace. It was 
full of troops of elephants, adorned with lines of horses, and 
looked like a pavilion for the Fortune of Empire to rest in 
when wearied with her wanderings. Wherever a man born 
to prosperity may be, felicities eagerly approach him, as 
women do their beloved one. This accounts for the fact 
that the king, being an admirer of excellence, gave Narava- 
hanadatta his own daughter, named Bhagirathayasas. And 
the prince lived happily there with her in great luxury, as 
if with Good Fortune created by the Disposer in flesh and 
blood for his delectation. 

One evening, when the lover of the night had arisen, 

1 The meaning is far from clear, and we at once suspect a corrupted 
reading in the B. text. The reading is Nenduh kshipati kim kalam, parikshine 
'rka-mandale f " Why should the eclipse of the sun be mentioned ? " It needs 
only the moon's conjunction with the sun to obliterate tne light. Besides, 
the comparison with Naravahanadatta is meaningless. 

Kalam kshipati may mean "to delay," but not " to delay to shine." 
Now the D. text reads : Nenduh kshipati kim kalam parikshtno ' rkamandale ? 
" Does not the moon, when he is in a state of weakness, spend some time 
within the circle of the sun?" Here the simile is clear. Naravahanadatta 
is in a weak state at the moment, like the new moon. As the moon resides 
with the sun, to await his time and regain his strength, so Naravahanadatta is 
to reside at Sravasti with King Prasenajit. A pun is apparently contained in 
mandale which can mean both "circle" and "territory." See Speyer, op. cit, 
pp. 142, 143. n.m.p. 


raining joy into the eyes of men, looking like the full-orbed 
face 1 of the nymph of the eastern quarter, or rather the 
countenance of Bhagirathayasas, charming as nectar, re- 
flected in the pure mirror of the cloudless heaven, he drank 
wine with that fair one at her request on the top of a palace 
silvered over with the elixir of moonlight. He quaffed the 
liquor which was adorned with the reflection of his beloved's 
face, and so gave pleasure to his eyes as well as to his palate. 
And then he considered the moon as far inferior in beauty 
to his charmer's face, for it wanted the intoxicating 2 play 
of the eyes and eyebrows. And after his drinking-bout was 
over he went inside the house, and retired to his couch with 

Then Naravahanadatta awoke from sleep while his be- 
loved was still sleeping, and suddenly calling to mind his 
home, exclaimed : " Through love for Bhagirathayasas I 
have, so to speak, forgotten my other wives ! How can that 
have happened ? But in this, too, Fate is all-powerful. Far 
away too are my ministers. Of them Marubhuti takes 
pleasure in naught but feats of prowess, and Harisikha is 
exclusively devoted to policy ; of those two I do not feel 
the need, but it grieves me that the dexterous Gomukha, 
who has been my friend in all emergencies, is far away from 
me." While he was thus lamenting he suddenly heard the 
words, " Ah, how sad ! " uttered in a low soft tone, like 
that of a woman, and they at once banished sleep. When 
he heard them he got up, lighted a lamp, 3 and looked about, 
and he saw in the window a lovely female face. It seemed 

1 MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 read mukhamandane i.e. "face-ornament." 

2 Perhaps the word also conveys the meaning "intoxicated." MSS. 
Nos. 1882 and 2166 give samadatamranetra, the other, by mistake, atama. This 
would mean the " play of the eyes a little red with intoxication and of the 
eyebrow." The word I have translated " palate " means the tongue, considered 
as the organ of taste. The MS. kindly lent me by the Principal of the 
Sanskrit College reads samadattamranetra-bhruvibhramaJi. 

3 Tawney translated "candle" for some inexplicable reason. The B. 
text reads dipte dlpe, "a lamp having been lit," but the D. text has the 
locative case, dipradipe, literally, "in a bright lamp," or, as we would trans- 
late, " by the light of a lamp." Thus it might easily have been alight while 
Naravahanadatta was sleeping. n.m.p. 


as if the Disposer had determined out of playfulness to 
show him a second but spotless moon not in the sky, as he 
had that night seen the spot-beflecked moon of heaven. And 
not being able to discern the rest of her body, but eager to 
behold it, his eyes being attracted by her beauty, he im- 
mediately said to himself : " Long ago, when the Daitya 
Atapin was impeding the creation of Brahma, that god 
employed the artifice of sending him to Nandana, saying to 
him, ' Go there and see a very curious sight,' and when he got 
there he saw only the foot of a woman, which was of wonder- 
ful beauty ; and so he died from an insane desire to see the 
rest of her body. 1 In the same way it may be that the 
Disposer has produced this lady's face only to bring about my 
destruction." While he was making this momentary surmise, 
the lady displayed her shootlike finger at the window, and 
beckoned to him to come towards her. 

Then he deliberately went out of the chamber in which 
his beloved was sleeping, and with eager impatience ap- 
proached that heavenly lady ; and when he came near she 
exclaimed : " Madanamanchuka, they say that your husband 
is in love with another woman ! Alas, you are undone ! " 2 
When Naravahanadatta heard this, he called to mind his 
beloved, and the fire of separation flamed up in his bosom, 
and he said to that fair one : " Who are you ? Where did 
you see my beloved Madanamanchuka ? And why have 
you come to me ? Tell me ! " Then the bold lady took the 
prince away to a distance in the night, and saying to him, 
" Hear the whole story," she thus began to speak : 

" There is in the city of Pushkaravati a prince of the 
Vidyadharas named Pingalagandhara, who has become 
yellow with continually adoring the fire. Know that I am 
his unmarried daughter, named Prabhavati, for he obtained 
me by the special favour of the God of Fire, who was pleased 
with his adoration. I went to the city of Ashadhapura to 

1 The three India Office MSS., which Dr Rost has kindly lent me, read 
tadanydnga. So does the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 The D. text reads praqamsanti, which seems preferable : " Alas, Madana- 
manchuka, you are undone ! For you praise a husband who is attached to 
other women." See Speyer, op. cit, p. 143. n.m.p. 

vol. VIII. 


visit my friend Vegavati, and I did not find her there, as 
she had gone somewhere to perform asceticism. But hearing 
from her mother Prithividevi that your beloved Madana- 
i/'j -ji .manchuka was there, I went to her. I beheld 

1 he v idyadhari , * * i i t i 

reproaches her emaciated with fasting, pale and squalid, with 
Naravahana- ori \y one lock, weeping, talking only of your 
virtues, surrounded by tearful bands of Vidya- 
dhara princesses, who were divided between grief produced 
by seeing her, and joy produced by hearing of you. She told 
me what you were like, and I comforted her by promising to 
bring you, for my mind was overpowered by pity for her, and 
attracted by your excellences. And finding out by means 
of my magic skill that you were here at present, I came to 
you, to inserve * her interests and my own also. But when I 
found that you had forgotten your first love and were talk- 
ing here of other persons, I bewailed the lot of that wife of 
yours, and exclaimed : ' Ah, how sad ! ' " 

When the prince had been thus addressed by her, he 
became impatient and said : " Take me where she is, and 
impose on me whatever command you think fit." When the 
Vidyadhari Prabhavati heard that, she flew up into the air 
with him, and proceeded to journey on through the moonlit 
night. And as she was going along she saw a fire burning 
in a certain place, so she took Naravahanadatta 's hand, and 
moved round it, keeping it on the right. In this way the 
bold lady managed by an artifice to go through the ceremony 
of marriage with Naravahanadatta, for all the actions of 
heavenly beings have some important end in view. 2 Then 
she pointed out to her beloved from the sky the earth look- 
ing like a sacrificial platform, the rivers like snakes, the 
mountains like ant-hills, and many other wonders did she 
show him from time to time, until at last she had gradually 
accomplished a long distance. 

Then Naravahanadatta became thirsty with his long 

1 This is the second time Tawney has used this obsolete word (cf. Vol. VII, 
p. 50). Murray, Oxford Dictionary, gives but a single reference (1683) of its 
use. N.M.P. 

2 I have altered the division of the words, as there appears to be a 
misprint in Brockhaus' text. 


journey through the air, and begged for water ; so she 
descended to earth from her airy path. And she took him 
to the corner of a forest, and placed him near a lake, which 
seemed to be full of molten silver, as its water was white 
with the rays of the moon. So his craving for water was 
satisfied by the draught which he drank in that beautiful 
forest, but there arose in him a fresh craving as he felt a 
desire to embrace that lovely lady. 1 But she, when pressed, 
would hardly consent ; for her thoughts reverted with pity 
to Madanamanchuka, whom she had tried to comfort. In 
truth the noble-minded, when they have undertaken to for- 
ward the interests of others, put out of sight their own. And 
she said to him : " Do not think ill, my husband, of my 
coldness; I have an object in it. And now hear this story 
which will explain it. 

165. Story of the Child and the Sweetmeat 

Once upon a time there lived in the city of Pataliputra a 
certain widow who had one child. She was young and 
beautiful, but poor, and she was in the habit of making 
love to a strange man for her gratification, and at night she 
used to leave her house and roam where she pleased. But, 
before she went, she used invariably to console her infant 
son by saying to him, " My boy, I will bring you a sweet- 
meat to-morrow morning," and every day she brought him 
one. And the child used to remain quiet at home, buoyed 
up by the hope of that sweetmeat. 

But one day she forgot, and did not bring him the sweet- 
meat. And when the child asked for the sweetmeat, she 
said to him : " Sweetmeat indeed ! I know of no sweet but 
my sweetheart ! " Then the child said to himself : " She 
has not brought me a sweetmeat because she loves another 
better than me." So he lost all hope, and his heart broke. 

1 The three India Office MSS. give Srantam jalatrisha. In No. 1882 the 
line begins with atra, in the other two with tatra : I have given what I believe 
to be the sense taking trisha as the instrumental. Sranta appears to be 
sometimes used for sdnta. The Sanskrit College MS. reads tatra santam jala- 
trisha tasya pitambhaso vane. This exactly fits in with my rendering. 


[M] " So if I were over-eager to appropriate you whom I 
have long loved, and if Madanamanchuka, whom I consoled 
with the hope of a joyful reunion with you, were to hear 
of it, and lose all hope through me, her heart, which is as 
soft as a flower, would break. 1 It is this desire to spare her 
feelings which prevents me from being so eager now for 
your society, before I have consoled her, though you are my 
beloved, dearer to me than life." 

When Prabhavati said this to Naravahanadatta, he was 
full of joy and astonishment, and he said to himself : " Well, 
Fate seems to take a pleasure in perpetually creating new 
marvels, since it has produced Prabhavati, whose conduct is 
so inconceivably noble ! " With these thoughts in his mind, 
the prince lovingly praised her, and said : " Then take me 
where that Madanamanchuka is." When Prabhavati heard 
that, she took him up, and in a moment carried him through 
the air to the mountain Ashadhapura. There she bestowed 
him on Madanamanchuka, whose body had long been drying 
up with grief, as a shower bestows fullness on a river. 

Then Naravahanadatta beheld that fair one there, afflicted 
with separation, thin and pale, like a digit of the new moon. 
That reunion of those two seemed to restore them to life, 
and gave joy to the world like the union of the night and the 
moon. And the pair embraced, scorched with the fire of 
separation, and as they were streaming with fatigue they 
seemed to melt into one. Then they both partook at their 
ease of luxuries suddenly provided in the night by the might 
of Prabhavati's sciences. And, thanks to her science, no one 
there but Madanamanchuka saw Naravahanadatta. 

The next morning Naravahanadatta proceeded to loose 
Madanamanchuka' s one lock, 2 but she, overpowered with 
resentment against her enemy, said to her beloved : " Long 
ago I made this vow : ' That lock of mine must be loosened 
by my husband when Manasavega is slain, but not till then ; 

1 I delete the stop at the end of si 100. All the India Office MSS. 
read kritasvasa, and so does the Sanskrit College MS., but kritasa sd makes 

2 A single braid of hair worn by a woman as a mark of mourning for an 
absent husband. Monier Williams, sub voce " ekaveni" 


and if he is not slain, I will wear it till my death, and then 
it shall be loosed by the birds, or consumed with fire.' But 
now you have loosed it while this enemy of mine is still alive ; 
that vexes my soul. For though Vegavati flung him down 
on Agniparvata, he did not die of the fall. And you have 
now been made invisible here by Prabhavati by means of 
her magic power ; otherwise the followers of that enemy, 
who are continually moving near you here, would see you, 
and would not tolerate your presence." 

When Naravahanadatta had been thus addressed by 
his wife, he, recognising the fact 1 that the proper time for 
accomplishing his object had not yet arrived, said to her by 
way of calming her : " This desire of yours shall be fulfilled. 
I will soon slay that enemy. But first I must acquire the 
sciences. Wait a little, my beloved." With speeches of 
this kind Naravahanadatta consoled Madanamanchuka, and 
remained there in that city of the Vidyadharas. 

Then Prabhavati disappeared herself, and, by the power 
of her magic science, bestowed in some incomprehensible way 
on Naravahanadatta her own shape. And the prince lived 
happily there in her shape, and without fear of discovery, 
enjoying pleasures provided by her magic science. And all 
the people there thought : " This friend of Vegavati's is 
attending on Madanamanchuka, partly out of regard for 
Vegavati, and partly on account of the friendly feelings 
which she herself entertains for the captive princess " ; for 
they all supposed that Naravahanadatta was no other 
than Prabhavati, as he was disguised in her shape. And this 
was the report that they carried to Manasavega. Then 
one day something caused Madanamanchuka to relate to 
Naravahanadatta her adventures in the following words : 

" When Manasavega first brought me here, he tried to 
win me to his will by his magic power, endeavouring to alarm 
me by cruel actions. And then Siva appeared in a terrible 

1 The B. text is corrupted. SI. 118 should read: evam uktas taya patnya 
sddhvyd, kdlanurodhavan Naravahanadatto 'tha santvayan sa jagada tarn : " When 
Naravahanadatta had been thus addressed by his faithful wife, he, taking account 
of the present circumstances, said to her by way of calming her." See Speyer, 
op. cit., p. 143. n.m.p. 


form, with drawn sword and lolling tongue, and making an 
appalling roar, said to Manasavega : ' How is it that, while 
I still exist, thou dost presume to treat disrespectfully the 
wife of him who is destined to be emperor over 
2t2 a Z n out^ the Vidyadhara kings?' When the villain 
of her Treat- Manasavega had been thus addressed by Siva, he 
ment while m f e jj on t j ie ear th vomiting blood from his mouth. 

Then the god disappeared, and that villain im- 
mediately recovered, and went to his own palace, and again 
began to practise cruelties against me. 1 

" Then in my terror, and in the agony of separation, I 
was thinking of abandoning my life, but the attendants of 
the harem 2 came to me, and said to me by way of consola- 
tion : ' Long ago this Manasavega beheld a certain beautiful 
hermit maiden and tried to carry her off by force, but was 
thus cursed by her relations : " When, villain, you approach 
another's wife against her will, your head shall split into a 
thousand fragments." So he will never force himself on the 
wife of another : do not be afraid. Moreover, you will soon 
be reunited w r ith your husband, as the god announced.' 
Soon after the maids had said this to me, Vegavati, the 
sister of that Manasavega, came to me to talk me over ; but 
when she saw me, she was filled with compassion, and she 
comforted me by promising to bring you. And you already 
know how she found you. 

" Then PrithividevI, the good mother of that wicked 
Manasavega, came to me, looking, with her garments white 
as moonlight, like the orb of Chandra without a spot, seem- 
ing to bathe me with nectar by her charming appearance ; 
and with a loving manner she said to me : ' Why do you 
refuse food and so injure your bodily health, though you are 
destined to great prosperity ? And do not say to yourself : 
" How can I eat an enemy's food ? " For my daughter 
Vegavati has a share in this kingdom, bestowed on her by her 
father, and she is your friend, for your husband has married 

1 MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 read na cha for mayi: "and did not practise 
cruelties"; No. 3003 has mayi. The Sanskrit College MS. has mama 
krauryannyavartata (sic). 

2 See Vol. II, pp. l6lw 4 , l62w, l63n. n.m.p. 


her. Accordingly her wealth, as belonging to your husband, 
is yours as much as hers. So enjoy it. What I tell you is 
true, for I have discovered it by my magic knowledge.' This 
she said, and confirmed it with an oath, and then, being 
attached to me, on account of her daughter's connection, she 
fed me with food suited to my condition. Then Vegavati 
came here with you, and conquered her brother and saved 
you. The sequel I do not know. 

44 So I, remembering the magic skill of Vegavati and the 
announcement of the god, did not surrender my life, which 
was supported by the hope of regaining you, and, thanks to 
the power of the noble Prabhavati, I have regained you, 
although I am thus beset by my enemies. But my only 
anxiety is as to what would happen to us if Prabhavati 
here were deprived of her power, and you were so to lose her 
shape, which she has bestowed on you by way of disguise." 

This and other such things did Madanamanchuka say, 
while the brave Naravahanadatta remained there with her, 
endeavouring to console her. But one night Prabhavati went 
to her father's palace, and in the morning Naravahanadatta, 
owing to her being at a distance, lost her shape, which she 
had bestowed on him. And next day the attendants beheld 
him there in male form, and they all ran bewildered and 
alarmed to the king's court, and said, " Here is an adulterer 
crept in," thrusting aside the terrified Madanamanchuka, 
who tried to stop them. 

Then King Manasavega came there at full speed, accom- 
panied by his army, and surrounded him. Then the king's 
mother Prithividevi hurried thither and said to him : "It 
will not do for you or me either to put this man to death. 
For he is no adulterer, but Naravahanadatta, the son of the 
King of Vatsa, who has come here to visit his own wife. I 
know this by my magic power. Why are you so blinded 
with wrath that you cannot see it ? Moreover, I am bound 
to honour him, as he is my son-in-law, and sprung from the 
race of the moon." 

When Manasavega's mother said this to him, he flew into 
a passion, and said : " Then he is my enemy." 

Then his mother, out of love for her son-in-law, used 


another argument with him. She said : " My son, you 
will not be allowed to act wrongfully in the world of the 
Vidyadharas. For here there exists a court of the Vidya- 
dharas to protect the right. So accuse him before the presi- 
dent of that court. 1 Whatever step you take with regard 
to your captive in accordance with the court's decision will 
be commendable ; but if you act otherwise, the Vidyadharas 
will be displeased, and the gods will not tolerate it." 

Manasavega, out of respect for his mother, consented to 
follow her advice, and attempted to have Naravahanadatta 
bound, with the intention of taking him before the court. 
But he, unable to endure the indignity of being bound, tore 
a pillar from the arched gateway, and killed with it a great 
number of his captor's servants. And the hero, whose valour 
was godlike, snatched a sword from one of those that he had 
killed, and at once slew with it some more of his opponents. 
Then Manasavega fettered him by his superhuman powers, 
and took him, with his wife, before the court. Then the 
Vidyadharas assembled there from all quarters, summoned 
by the loud sound of a drum, even as the gods assemble in 
Sudharma. 2 

And the president of the court, King Vayupatha, came 
there, and sat down on a jewelled throne surrounded by 
Vidyadharas, and fanned by chowries which waved to and 
w -7 fro, as if to winnow away all injustice. And 

JSaravahana- 7 , . 

datta before the wicked Manasavega stood in front of him, 
the -Court of the an d said as follows: "This enemy of mine, who, 

Vidyadharas ,, , . i i i . i i j 

- y though a mortal, has violated my harem, and 

seduced my sister, ought immediately to be put to death ; 
especially as he actually wishes to be our sovereign." When 
the president heard this, he called on Naravahanadatta for 
an answer, and the hero said in a confident tone : " That is 
a court where there is a president ; he is a president who 

1 I read tatrasya tatpradhandgre dosham sirasi pataya. The three India 
Office MSS. give tatrasya) No. 1882 has prasddagre and dhdraya; No. 3003 
pradhanagre and dharaya; No. 21 66 pradhanagre and pataya. The Sanskrit 
College MS. agrees with Brockhaus' text. 

2 Originally belonging to the gods, but given to Krishna, when it 
becomes the great hall where the Yadavas held their court. See the 
Mahabharata, i, 220 ; ii, 3 ; and xvi, 7. n.m.p. 


says what is just ; that is just in which there is truth ; 
that is truth in which there is no deceit. Here I am 
bound by magic, and on the floor, but my adversary here 
is on a seat, and free : what fair controversy can there be 
between us ? " 

When Vayupatha heard this, he made Manasavega also 
sit upon the floor, as was just, and had Naravahanadatta set 
free from his bonds. Then before Vayupatha, and in the 
hearing of all, Naravahanadatta made the following reply 
to the accusations of Manasavega : " Pray, whose harem 
have I violated by coming to visit my own wife, Madana- 
manchuka here, who has been carried off by this fellow ? 
And if his sister came and tricked me into marrying her by 
assuming my wife's form, what fault have I committed in 
this ? As for my desiring empire, is there anyone who does 
not desire all sorts of things ? " 

When King Vayupatha heard this, he reflected a little, 
and said : " This noble man says what is quite just : take 
care, my good Manasavega, that you do not act unjustly 
towards one whom great exaltation awaits." 

Though Vayupatha said this, Manasavega, blinded with 
delusion, refused to turn from his wicked way ; and then 
Vayupatha flew into a passion. Then, out of regard for 
justice, he engaged in a contest with Manasavega, in which 
fully equipped armies were employed on both sides. For 
resolute men, when they sit on the seat of justice, keep only 
the right in view, and look upon the mighty as weak, and one 
of their own race as an alien. 1 And then Naravahanadatta, 
looking towards the nymphs of heaven, who were gazing at 
the scene with intense interest, said to Manasavega : " Lay 
aside your magic disguises, and fight with me in visible shape, 
in order that I may give you a specimen of my prowess by 
slaying you with one blow." 

Accordingly those Vidyadharas there remained quarrelling 
among themselves, when suddenly a splendid pillar in the 

1 Dr Kern would read na cha for vata : " Righteous kings and judges see 
no difference between a feeble and powerful person, between a stranger and 
a kinsman." But the three India Office MSS. read vata. So does the MS. 
which the Principal of the Sanskrit College has kindly lent me. 


court cleft asunder in the middle with a loud noise, 1 and Siva 
issued from it in his terrific form. He filled the whole sky, 
in colour like antimony ; he hid the sun ; the gleams of his 
fiery eyes flickered like flashes of lightning ; his shining teeth 
were like cranes flying in a long row ; and so he was terrible 
like a roaring cloud of the great day of doom. The great god 
exclaimed, " Villain, this future emperor of the Vidyadharas 
shall not be insulted ! " and with these words he dismissed 
Manasavega with face cast down, and encouraged Vayupatha. 
And then the adorable one took Naravahanadatta up in 
his arms, and, in order to preserve his life, carried him in 
this way to the beautiful and happy mountain Rishyamuka, 
and, after setting him down there, disappeared. And then 
the quarrel among the Vidyadharas in that court came to an 
end, and Vayupatha went home again accompanied by the 
other Vidyadharas his friends. But Manasavega, making 
Madanamanchuka, who was distracted with joy and grief, 
precede him, went despondent to Ashadhapura, his own 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers are of opinion that risad should be tasad 
or tasad. Two of the India Office MSS. seem to read tasad. 


I THINK a hero's prosperity must be unequal. Fate 
[M] again and again severely tests firmness by the 
ordeals of happiness and misery ; this explains why the 
fickle goddess kept uniting Naravahanadatta to wife after 
wife, when he was alone in those remote regions, and then 
separating him from them. 

Then, while he was residing on the mountain Rishya- 
muka, his beloved Prabhavati came up to him, and said : 
" It was owing to the misfortune of my not being present 
that Manasavega carried you off on that occasion to the 
court, with the intention of doing you an injury. When I 
heard of it, I at once went there, and by means of my magic 
power I produced the delusion of the appearance of the god, 
and brought you here. For, though the Vidyadharas are 
mighty, their influence does not extend over this mountain, 
for this is the domain of the Siddhas. 1 Indeed even my 
science is of no avail here for that reason, and that grieves 
me, for how will you subsist on the products of the forest as 
your only food ? " When she had said this, Naravahana- 
datta remained with her there, longing for the time of de- 
liverance, thinking of M adanamanchuka. And on the banks 
of the sanctifying Pampa lake near that mountain he ate 
fruits and roots of heavenly flavour, and he drank the holy 
water of the lake, which was rendered delicious and fragrant 
by the fruits dropped from trees on its banks, as a relish to 
his meal of deer's flesh. 2 And he lived at the foot of trees 
and in the interior of caverns, and so he imitated the con- 
duct of Rama, who once lived in the forests of that region. 
And Prabhavati, beholding there various hermitages once 
occupied by Rama, told him the story of Rama for his 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 67, 67ft 1 and 75. 

2 Here two of the India Office MSS. read marnsopadamsam, the third 
ma msopad esam . 



166. Story of Rama l 

In this forest Rama once dwelt, accompanied by Laksh- 
mana, and waited on by Sita, in the society of hermits, 
making to himself a hut at the foot of a tree. And Sita, 
perfuming the whole forest with the perfume given her by 
Anasuya, remained here in the midst of the hermits' wives, 
wearing a robe of bark. 

Here the Daitya Dundubhi was slain in a cave by Bali, 
which was the original cause of the enmity between Bali and 
Sugriva. For Sugriva, wrongly supposing that the Daitya 
had slain Bali, blocked up the entrance of the cave with 
mountains, and went away terrified. But Bali broke through 
the obstruction and came out and banished Sugriva, saying : 
" This fellow imprisoned me in the cave because he wanted 
to get my kingdom." But Sugriva fled, and came and estab- 
lished himself on this plateau of Rishyamuka with the lords 
of the monkeys, of whom Hanuman was the chief. 

Then Ravana came here, and beguiling the soul of Rama 
with the phantom of a golden deer, he carried off his wife, 
the daughter of Janaka. Then the descendant of Raghu, 
who longed for news of Sita, made an alliance with Sugriva, 
who desired the slaughter of Bali. And in order to let his 
might be known he cleft seven palm-trees here with an 
arrow, while the mighty Bali with great difficulty cleft one 
of them. And then the hero went hence to Kishkindhya, 
and after slaying Bali with a single arrow, which he launched 
as if in sport, gave his kingdom to Sugriva. 

Then the followers of Sugriva, headed by Hanuman, 
went hence in every direction to gain information about Sita. 
And Rama remained here during the rainy season with the 
roaring clouds, which seemed to share his grief, shedding 
showery teardrops. At last Hanuman crossed the sea at 
the suggestion of Sampati, and by great exertions obtained 
for Rama the required information ; whereupon he marched 

1 This is merely a very brief resume of the second part of Book II 
(Ayodhya-kanda) of the Rdmayana. For an English verse translation see that 
by R. T. H. Griffith, 5 vols., London and Benares, 1870-1874; and for a prose 
translation that by M. N. Dutt, 7 vols., Calcutta, 1892-1894. n.m.p. 


with the monkeys, and threw a bridge over the sea, and killed 
his enemy the lord of Lanka, and brought back Queen Slta 
in the flying chariot, passing over this place. 

[M] " So, my husband, you also shall attain good fortune : 
successes come of their own accord to heroes who remain 
resolute in misfortunes." This and other such tales did 
Prabhavati tell, while she roamed about here and there for 
her pleasure with Naravahanadatta. 

And one day, as he was in the neighbourhood of Pampa, 
two Vidyadharis, Dhanavati and Ajinavati, descended from 
heaven and approached him. These were the two ladies who 
carried him from the city of the Gandharvas to the city of 
Sravasti, where he 1 married Bhagicathayasas. And while 
Ajinavati was conversing with Prabhavati as an old friend, 
Dhanavati thus addressed Naravahanadatta : "I long ago 
bestowed on you this daughter of mine, Ajinavati, as far as 
promises could do it. So marry her ; for the day of your 
exultation is nigh at hand." Prabhavati, out of love for her 
friend, and Naravahanadatta both agreed to this proposal. 
Then Dhanavati bestowed that daughter of hers, Ajinavati, 
on that son of the King of Vatsa, with appropriate ceremonies. 
And she celebrated the great feast of her daughter's wedding 
in such style that the glorious and heavenly preparations she 
had accumulated by means of her magic knowledge made it 
really beautiful. 

Then the next day she said to Naravahanadatta : " My 
son, it will never do for you to remain long in a nondescript 
place like this ; for the Vidyadharas are a deceitful race, and 
you have no business here. So depart now with your wife 
for your own city of Kausambi ; and I will come there with 
my son Chandasimha and with the Vidyadhara chiefs that 
follow me, to ensure your success." 2 When Dhanavati had 

1 Dr Kern reads tena for yena. His conjecture is confirmed by the three 
India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 I have adopted Dr Kern's conjecture of saha for saki and separated 
with him abhyudayayate into two words, abhyudayaya te. I find that his 
conjecture as to saha is confirmed by the three India Office MSS. 


said this, she mounted up into the sky, illuminating it, as it 
were, with moonlight, though it was day, by the gleam of her 
white body and raiment. 

And Prabhavati and AjinavatI carried Naravahanadatta 
through the air to his city of Kausambi. When he reached 
the garden of the city he descended from heaven into his 
capital, and was seen by his attendants. And there arose 
there a cry from the people on all sides : " We are indeed 
happy ; here is the prince come back ! " Then the King of 
Vatsa, hearing of it, came there quickly in high delight, as if 
irrigated with a sudden shower of nectar, with Vasavadatta 
and Padmavati, and the prince's wives, Ratnaprabha and 
the rest ; and Yaugandharayana and the other ministers of 
the King of Vatsa, and Kalingasena and the prince's own 
ministers, Gomukha and his fellows, approached him in order 
of precedence as eagerly as travellers make for a lake in the 
hot season. And they saw the hero, whose high birth quali- 
fied him for a lofty station, sitting between his two wives, 
like Krishna between Rukmini and Satyabhama. And when 
they saw him they hid their eyes with tears of joy, as if for 
fear lest they should leap out of their skins in their delight. 
And the King of Vatsa and his queens embraced after a long 
absence that son of theirs, and could not let him go, for they 
were, as it were, riveted to him by the hairs of their bodies 
erect from joy. 1 

Then a great feast began by beat of drum, and Vegavati, 
the daughter of Vegavat and sister of Manasavega, who was 
married to Naravahanadatta, finding it all out by the might 
of her recovered science, came down to Kausambi through 
the air, and fell at the feet of her father-in-law and mother- 
in-law, and prostrating herself before her husband, said to 
him : " Auspicious sir, after I had become weak by my 
exertions on your behalf, I recovered my magic powers by 
self-mortification in a grove of ascetics, and now I have re- 
turned into your presence." When she had said this, she was 
welcomed by her husband and the others, and she repaired 
to her friends, Prabhavati and AjinavatI. 

They embraced her and made her sit between them. 

1 See Vol. I, p. 120ft 1 . n.m.p. 


And at that moment Dhanavati, the mother of Ajinavati, also 
arrived ; and various kings of the Vidyadharas came with 
her, surrounded by their forces, that hid the heaven like 
clouds : her own heroic son, the strong-armed Chandasimha, 
and a powerful relation of hers, Amitagati by name, and 
Pingalagandhara, the mighty father of Prabhavatl, and 
Vayupatha, the president of the court, who had previously 
declared himself on Naravahanadatta 5 s side, and the heroic 
King Hemaprabha, the father of Ratnaprabha, accompanied 
by his son Vajraprabha and followed by his army. And 
Sagaradatta, the King of the Gandharvas, came there, accom- 
panied by his daughter Gandharvadatta, and by Chitrangada. 
And when they arrived, they were becomingly honoured 
by the King of Vatsa and his son, and sat in due order on 

And immediately King Pingalagandhara said to his son- 
in-law Naravahanadatta, as he was in the hall of assembly : 
" King, you have been appointed by the god 1 emperor over 
us all, and it is owing to our great love for you that we have 
all come to you. And Queen Dhanavati here, your mother- 
in-law, a strict votary, possessing divine knowledge, wearing 
the rosary and the skin of the black antelope, like an incar- 
nation of Durga, or Savitri, having acquired magic powers, 
an object of reverence to the noblest Vidyadharas, has made 
herself ready to protect you ; so you are certain to prosper 
in your undertaking. But listen to what I am about to say. 
There are two divisions of the Vidyadhara territory 2 on the 
Himalayas here, the northern and the southern, both extend- 
ing over many peaks of that range ; the northern division is 
on the other side of Kailasa, but the southern is on this side 
of it. And this Amitagati here has just performed a difficult 
penance on Mount Kailasa, in order to obtain the sovereignty 
over the northern division, and propitiated Siva. And Siva 
made this revelation to him, ' Naravahanadatta thy emperor 
will accomplish thy desire,' so he has come here to you. In 
that division there is a chief monarch, named Mandaradeva, 
who is evilly disposed, but, though mighty, he will be easy for 

1 Probably devaninnitah should be one word. 

2 See Vol. IV, pp. 1 and 2. n.m.p. 


you to conquer, when you have obtained the sciences peculiar 
to the Vidyadharas. 

" But the king named Gaurimunda, who rules in the 
midst of the southern division, is evil-minded and exceedingly 
hard to conquer on account of the might of his magic science. 
Moreover, he is a great friend of your enemy Manasavega. 
Until he is overcome your undertaking will not prosper ; so 
acquire as quickly as possible great and transcendent power 
of science." 

When Pingalagandhara had said this, Dhanavati spake : 
"Good, my son! it is as this king tells thee. Go hence to 
the land of the Siddhas x and propitiate the god Siva, in order 
that thou mayest obtain the magic sciences, for how can 
there be any excelling without his favour ? And these kings 
will be assembled there to protect thee." Then Chitrangada 
said : " It is even so ; but I will advance in front of all : let 
us conquer our enemies." 

Then Naravahanadatta determined to do as they had 
advised, and he performed the auspicious ceremony before 
setting out, and bowed at the feet of his tearful parents and 
other superiors, and received their blessing, and then ascended 
with his wives and ministers in a splendid palankeen pro- 
vided by the skill of Amitagati, and started on his expedition, 
obscuring the heaven with his forces, that resembled the 
water of the sea raised by the wind at the end of a kalpa, as 
it were proclaiming, by the echoes of his army's roar on the 
limits of the horizon, that the emperor of the Vidyadharas 
had come to visit them. 

And he was rapidly conducted by the king of the Gan- 
dharvas and the chiefs of the Vidyadharas and Dhanavati to 
that mountain, which was the domain of the Siddhas. There 
the Siddhas prescribed for him a course of self-mortification, 
and he performed asceticism by sleeping on the ground, bath- 
ing in the early morning, and eating fruits. And the kings 
of the Vidyadharas remained surrounding him on every side, 
guarding him unweariedly day and night. And the Vidya- 
dhara princesses, contemplating him eagerly while he was 
performing his penance, seemed with the gleams of their eyes 

1 In Sanskrit Siddhakshetra. 


to clothe him in the skin of a black antelope. Others showed 
by their eyes turned inwards out of anxiety for him, and their 
hands placed on their breasts, that he had at once entered 
their hearts. 

And five more noble maidens of the Vidyadhara race, 
beholding him, were inflamed with the fire of love, and made 
this agreement together : " We five friends must select this 
prince as our common husband, and we must marry him at 
the same time, not separately ; if one of us marries him 
separately, the rest must enter the fire on account of that 
violation of friendship." 

While the heavenly maidens were thus agitated at the 
sight of him, suddenly great portents manifested themselves 
in the grove of ascetics. A very terrible wind blew, uproot- 
ing splendid trees, as if to show that even thus in that place 
should heroes fall in fight ; and the earth trembled as if 
anxious as to what all that could mean, and the hills cleft 
asunder, as if to give an opening for the terrified to escape, 
and the sky, rumbling awfully, though cloudless, 1 seemed 
to say : " Ye Vidyadharas, guard, guard to the best of your 
power, this emperor of yours." And Naravahanadatta, in 
the midst of the alarm produced by these portents, remained 
unmoved, meditating upon the adorable three-eyed god ; 
and the heroic kings of the Gandharvas and lords of the 
Vidyadharas remained guarding him, ready for battle, ex- 
pecting some calamity ; and they uttered war-cries, and 
agitated the forest of their lithe swords, as if to scare away 
the portents that announced the approach of evil. 

And the next day after this the army of the Vidyadharas 
was suddenly seen in the sky, dense as a cloud at the end of 
the kalpa, uttering a terrible shout. Then Dhanavati, call- 
ing to mind her magic science, said : " This is Gaurimunda, 
come with Manasavega." Then those kings of the Vidya- 
dharas and the Gandharvas raised their weapons, but Gauri- 
munda, with Manasavega, rushed upon them, exclaiming : 
4 What right has a mere man to rank with beings like us ? 

1 Perhaps we may compare Virgil, Geo?'gics, i, 487, and Horace, Odes, i, 
34, 35, and Virgil, JEneid, vii, 141, with the passages there quoted by Forbiger. 
But MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 read udbhuta. 



So I will to-day crush your pride, you sky-goers that take 
part with him." When Gaurlmunda said this, Chitrangada 
rushed upon him angrily, and attacked him. 

And King Sagaradatta, the sovereign of the Gandharvas, 
and Chandasimha, and Amitagati, and King Vayupatha, and 
Pingalagandhara, and all the chiefs of the Vidyadharas, great 
heroes all, rushed upon the wicked Manasavega, roaring like 
lions, followed by the whole of their forces. And right ter- 
rible was that storm of battle, thick with the clouds of dust 
raised by the army, with the gleams of weapons for flashes of 
lightning, and a falling rain of blood. And so Chitrangada 
and his friends made, as it were, a great sacrifice for the 
demons, which was full of blood for wine, and in which the 
heads of enemies were strewn as an offering. And streams 
of gore flowed away, full of bodies for crocodiles, and floating 
weapons for snakes, and in which marrow intermingled took 
the place of cuttlefish-bone. 

Then Gaurlmunda, as his army was slain, and he himself 
was nigh to death, called to mind the magic science of Gauri, 
which he had formerly propitiated and made well disposed to 
him ; and that science appeared in visible form with three 
eyes, armed with the trident, 1 and paralysed the chief heroes 
of Naravahanadatta's army. Then Gaurlmunda, having re- 
gained strength, rushed with a loud shout towards Narava- 
hanadatta, and fell on him to try his strength in wrestling. 
And being beaten by him in wrestling, the cogging Vidya- 
dhara again summoned up that science, and by its power 
he seized his antagonist in his arms and flew up to the sky. 
However, he was prevented by the might of Dhanavati's 
science from slaying the prince, so he flung him down on the 
Mountain of Fire. 

But Manasavega seized his comrades, Gomukha and the 
rest, and flew up into the sky with them, and flung them at 
random in all directions. But, after they had been flung up, 
they were preserved by a science in visible shape employed by 
DhanavatI, and placed in different spots on the earth. And 

1 It is clear that the goddess did not herself appear, so trinetra is not 
a proper name, unless we translate the passage "armed with the trident of 


that science comforted those heroes, one by one, saying to 
them, " You will soon recover that master of yours, successful 
and flourishing," and having said this it disappeared. 

Then Gaurimunda went back home with Manasavega, 
thinking that their side had been victorious. 

But Dhanavati said : " Naravahanadatta will return to 
you after he has attained his object ; no harm will befall 
him." And thereupon the lords of the Gandharvas and the 
princes of the Vidyadharas, Chitrangada and the others, flung 
off their paralysing stupor, and went for the present to their 
own abodes. And Dhanavati took her daughter Ajinavati, 
with all her fellow- wives, and went to her own home. 

Manasavega, for his part, went and said to Madanaman- 
chuka : " Your husband is slain ; so you had better marry me." 
But she, standing in front of him, said to him, laughing : 
" He will slay you ; no one can slay him, as he has been 
appointed by the god." 

But when Naravahanadatta was being hurled down by 
his enemy on the Mountain of Fire, a certain heavenly being 
came there, and received him ; and after preserving his life 
he took him quickly to the cool bank of the Mandakini. And 
when Naravahanadatta asked him who he was, he comforted 
him, and said to him : "I, Prince, am a king of the Vidya- 
dharas named Amritaprabha, and I have been sent by Siva 
on the present occasion to save your life. Here is the moun- 
tain of Kailasa in front of you, the dwelling-place of that 
god ; if you propitiate Siva there, you will obtain unimpeded 
felicity. So, come, I will take you there." When that noble 
Vidyadhara had said this, he immediately conveyed him 
there, and took leave of him, and departed. 

But Naravahanadatta, when he had reached Kailasa, 
propitiated with asceticism Ganesa, whom he found there in 
front of him. And, after obtaining his permission, he entered 
the hermitage of Siva, emaciated with self-mortification, and 
he beheld Nandin at the door. He devoutly circumambulated 
him, and then Nandin said to him: "Thou hast well-nigh 
attained all thy ends; for all the obstacles that hindered 
thee have now been overcome ; so remain here, and perform 
a strict vow of asceticism that will subdue sin, until thou 


shalt have propitiated the adorable god ; for success depends 
on purity." When Nandin had said this, Naravahanadatta 
began a severe course of penance there, living on air, and 
meditating on the god Siva and the goddess Parvati. 

And the adorable god Siva, pleased with his asceticism, 
granted him a vision of himself, and, accompanied by the 
goddess, thus spake to the prince, as he bent before him : 
" Become now emperor over all the Vidyadharas, and let all 
the most transcendent sciences be immediately revealed to 
thee ! By my favour thou shalt become invincible by thy 
enemies, and, as thou shalt be proof against cut or thrust, 
thou shalt slay all thy foes. And when thou appearest, the 
sciences of thy enemies shall be of no avail against thee. So 
go forth : even the science of Gauri shall be subject to thee." 
When Siva and Gauri had bestowed these boons on Narava- 
hanadatta, the god also gave him a great imperial chariot, in 
the form of a lotus, made by Brahma. Then all the sciences 
presented themselves to the prince in bodily form, and ex- 
pressed their desire to carry out his orders by saying : " What 
do you enjoin on us, that we may perform it ? " 

Accordingly Naravahanadatta, having obtained many 
boons, bowed before the great god, and ascended the heavenly 
lotus chariot, after he had received permission from him to 
depart, and went first to the city of Amitagati, named 
Vakrapura ; and as he went, the sciences showed him the 
path, and the bards of the Siddhas sang his praises. And 
Amitagati, seeing him from a distance, as he came along 
through the air, mounted on a chariot, advanced to meet 
him and bowed before him, and made him enter his palace. 
And when he described how he had obtained all these magic 
powers, Amitagati was so delighted that he gave him as a 
present his own daughter named Sulochana. And with her, 
thus obtained, like a second imperial fortune of the Vidya- 
dhara race, the emperor joyfully passed that day as one long 


THE next day, as the new emperor, Naravahana- 
[M] datta, was sitting in Vakrapura, in the hall of 
audience, a certain man descended from heaven, 
with a wand in his hand, and came up to him and, bowing 
before him, said to him : " Know, King, that I am Paura- 
ruchideva, the hereditary warder of the emperor of the 
Vidyadharas, and I have come here to tender my services 
to you in that capacity." When Naravahanadatta heard 
this, he looked at the face of Amitagati ; and he said : "It 
is true, my liege " : so Naravahanadatta gladly admitted the 
newcomer to the office of warder. 

Then Dhanavati, finding out by her power what had 
occurred, with his wives, Vegavati and the others, and her 
son, Chandasimha, and King Pingalagandhara with Vayu- 
patha, and Chitrangada with Sagaradatta, and Hemaprabha 
and the others, came there, obscuring the sun with their 
armies, as if declaring beforehand that they would endure 
no fire and heat in their foes. When they arrived they fell 
at the feet of that emperor, and he honoured them with a 
welcome as their rank deserved, but, out of great veneration, 
he himself fell at the feet of Dhanavati, and she, being 
highly pleased, loaded that son-in-law of hers with blessings. 
And when he told the story of his obtaining magic powers, 
Chandasimha and the others were exceedingly gratified at 
their emperor's success. 

And the emperor, seeing that his wives had arrived in 
his presence, said to Dhanavati : " Where are my ministers ? " 
And she answered him : " When they had been flung in all 
directions by Manasavega, I saved them by the help of a 
mighty science, and placed them in different spots." Then 
he had them brought by a science incarnate in bodily form. 
And they came, and inquired after his welfare and clung to 
his feet. And then he said to them : " Why and how and 
where have you spent so many days ? Tell me one by one 
your marvellous tale." Then Gomukha told his story first: 


" When I was flung away by the enemy on that occasion, 
some goddess bore me up in her hands, and comforted me, 
and placed me in a distant forest, and disappeared. Then 
Gomukhas * was mm ded in my affliction to abandon the 
Account of Ms body, by hurling myself from a precipice ; but 
Adventures a cer tain ascetic came up to me and dissuaded 
me, saying: 'Do not act rashly, Gomukha, you will again 
behold your master when he has gained his object.' Then I 
said to him : ' Who are you, and how do you know that ? ' 
He answered : ' Come to my hermitage, and there I will tell 
you.' Then I went with that man, who by his knowing my 
name had proved the greatness of his knowledge, to his her- 
mitage, which was called Sivakshetra. There he entertained 
me and told me his story in the following words : 

" ' I am a Brahman named Nagasvamin, from a city 
called Kundina. When my father went to heaven, I went 
to Pataliputra, and repaired to a teacher named Jayadatta, 
Nagasvamin to acquire learning. But, in spite of all the 
and the teaching I got, I was so stupid that I did not 

Witches manage to learn a single syllable ; so all the 

pupils there made game of me. Then, being the victim of 
contempt, I set out on a pilgrimage to the shrine of the 
goddess Durga in the Vindhya mountains ; and when I had 
got half-way I came across a city named Vakrolaka. 

" ' I went into that city to beg ; and in one house the 
mistress gave me with my alms a red lotus. I took it, and 
went on to another house, and there the mistress said to me, 
when she saw it : " Alas ! a witch has secured possession 
of you ! See, she has given you a man's hand, 1 which she 
has passed off on you for a red lotus." When I heard that, 
I looked myself, and lo ! it was no lotus, but a human hand. 
I flung it away, and fell at her feet, and said : " Mother, 
devise some expedient for me, that I may live." When she 
heard this she said : " Go ! In a village of the name of 
Karabha, three yojanas distant from this place, there is a 

1 Cf, Webster's play, The Dutchess ofMalfey, where the Duchess says : 

" What witchcraft doth he practise, that he hath left 
A dead man's hand here ? " 

For a note on the u Hand of Glory " see Vol. III. pp. 150-154. n.m.p. 


Brahman of the name of Devarakshita. He has in his 
house a splendid brown cow, an incarnation of Surabhi; 
she will protect you during this night, if you repair to her 
for refuge." 

" ' When she said this, I ran, full of fear, and reached, 
at the close of the day, the house of that Brahman in the 
village of Karabha. When I had entered, I beheld that 
brown cow, and I worshipped her and said : " Being terrified, 
goddess, I have come to you for protection." And just 
then, night having set in, that witch came there through the 
air with other witches, threatening me, longing for my flesh 
and blood. When the brown cow saw that, she placed me 
between her hoofs, and defended me, fighting against those 
witches all the livelong night. In the morning they went 
away, and the cow said to me in an articulate voice : " My 
son, I shall not be able to protect you the next night. So 
go on farther ; at a distance of five yojanas from this 
place there is a mighty Pasupata ascetic named Bhutisiva, 
dwelling in a temple of Siva in a forest. He possesses super- 
natural knowledge, and he will protect you for this one 
night, if you take refuge with him." 

" ' When I heard that, I bowed before her, and set out 
from that place ; and I soon reached that Bhutisiva, and took 
refuge with him. And at night those very same witches came 
there also, in the very same way. Then that Bhutisiva made 
me enter the inner apartment of his house, 1 and taking up 
a position at the door, trident in hand, kept off the witches. 
Next morning, Bhutisiva, having conquered them, gave me 
food, and said to me : " Brahman, I shall not be able to 
protect you any longer ; but in a village named Sandhya- 
vasa, at a distance of ten yojanas from this place, there is a 
Brahman named Vasumati : go to him : and if you manage 
to get through this third night, you will escape altogether." 2 
" ' When he said this to me, I bowed before him, and set 
out from that place. But, on account of the length of the 
journey that I had to make, the sun set before I had reached 

1 I read antargriham as one word. 

2 This method of passing on the hero is somewhat similar to the "older 
and older" motif, for which see Vol. II, p. 190w l . n.m.p. 


my destination. And when night had set in, the witches 
pursued after me and caught me. And they seized me and 
went off with me through the air, much pleased. But there- 
upon some other witches of great power flew past them in 
front. And suddenly there arose between the two parties 
a tumultuous fight. And in the confusion I escaped from 
the hands of my captors, and fell to the ground in a very 
desolate part of the country. 1 

" * And there I saw a certain great palace, which seemed 
to say to me with its open door : " Come in." So I fled 
into it bewildered with fear, and I beheld a lady of wonderful 
beauty, surrounded with a hundred ladies-in-waiting, gleam- 
ing with brightness, like a protecting herb 2 that shines in 
the night, made by the Creator out of pity for me. I im- 
mediately recovered my spirits and questioned her, and she 
said to me : "I am a Yakshini named Sumitra, and I am 
thus here owing to a curse. And in order that my curse may 
come to an end I have been directed to marry a mortal : so 
marry me, as you have unexpectedly arrived here ; fear 
not." When she had said this, she quickly gave orders to 
her servants ; and she provided me, to my great delight, 

1 In the above wild story the hero has to endure the assaults of the 
witches on three successive nights. So in the story, " The Headless Princess " 
(Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 271), the priest's son has to read the Psalter 
over the dead princess three nights running. He is hardest pressed on the 
last night; and on each occasion at daybreak the "devilry vanished." In 
the same way in "The Soldier's Midnight Watch" (ibid., p. 274) the soldier 
has three nights of increasing severity. So in Southey's Old Woman of 
Berkeley, the assaults continue for three nights, and on the third are successful. 

Cf. also the tale of Aristomenes in Book I of Apuleius's Golden Ass, 

but here the witches' assaults take place on a single night. n.m.p. 

2 Kuhn, in his Sagen aus Westfalen, vol. ii, p. 29, gives a long list of herbs 
that protect men from witches. The earliest instance in literature is perhaps 

"... that Moly 
That Hermes once to wise Ulysses gave." 

Milton, Comus, 655-656. 

See also Bartsch, Sagen aus Meklenburg, vol. ii, p. 37. Milton's reference 

is to Odyssey, x, 302-306. For the possible identification of the herb see 
Champault, Pheniciens et Grecs en Italie d'apres VOdyssee, 1906, p. 504 et seq. ; 
Berard, Les Pheniciens et VOdyssee, vol. ii, p. 288 et seq., and Henry, Classical 
Review, December 1906, p. 434. n.m.p. 


with baths and unguents, food and drink, and garments. 
Strange was the contrast between the terror caused by those 
witches and the happiness that immediately followed. Even 
fate itself cannot comprehend the principle that makes men 
fall into happiness or misery. 

" ' Then I remained there in happiness with that Yakshini 
during those days ; but at last one day she said to me of her 
own accord : " Brahman, my curse is at an end ; so I must 
leave this place at once. However, by my favour you shall 
have divine insight ; and, though an ascetic, you shall have 
all enjoyments at your command, and be free from fear. 
But as long as you are here, do not visit the middle block of 
buildings of this palace of mine." * When she had said this, 
she disappeared ; and thereupon, I, out of curiosity, went up 
to the middle block of buildings, and there I saw a horse. 
I went up to the horse, and he flung me from him with a kick ; 
and immediately I found myself in this temple of Siva. 2 

" c Since that time I have remained here, and I have 
gradually acquired supernatural powers. Accordingly, though 
I am a mortal, I possess knowledge of the three times. 3 
In the same way do all men in this world find successes 
beset with difficulties. So do you remain in this place ; 
Siva will bestow on you the success that you desire.' 

" When the wise being had told me all this, I conceived 
hopes of recovering you, and I remained there some days, 
in his hermitage. And to-day, my lord, Siva in a dream 
informed me of your success, and some heavenly nymph 
seized me up, and brought me here. This is the history of 
my adventures." 

When Gomukha had said this, he stopped, and then 
Marubhuti began to tell his tale in the presence of Narava- 
hanadatta : 

1 For the "Taboo" or "Forbidden Chamber" motif see Vol. II, pp. 222, 
22.Sn 1 , 252, 253; and Vol. VII, pp. 21, 21ft 3 , 212. For its connection with 
the " Swan-Maiden " motif see Appendix I, pp. 213, 234. n.m.p. 

2 For instantaneous transportations see Vol. II, p. 223, 223ft 1 ; Vol. VI, 
pp. 213, 279, and Vol. VII, pp. 24, 225, 225ft 1 . To the parallels quoted by 
Ralston may be added, Prym and Socin's Syrische Marchen, p. 116; Bernhard 
Schmidt's Griechischc Marche?i, p. 94 ; and Coelho's Contos Portuguezes, p. 63. 

3 Past, present and future. n.m.p. 


" When I was flung away on that occasion by Manasa- 
vega, some divinity took me up in her hands, and, placing 
me in a distant forest, disappeared. Then I wandered about 
MarubhTiiis afflicted, and anxious to obtain some means of 
Account of his committing suicide, when I saw a certain hermitage 
Adventures encircled by a river. I entered it, and beheld 
an ascetic with matted hair sitting on a slab of rock, and 
I bowed before him and went up to him. He said to me : 
Who are you, and how did you reach this uninhabited 
land ? ' Thereupon I told him my whole story. Then he 
understood and said to me : ' Do not slay yourself now ! You 
shall learn here the truth about your master, and afterwards 
you shall do what is fitting.' 

" In accordance with this advice of his I remained there, 
eager for tidings of you, my liege : and while I was there 
some heavenly nymphs came to bathe in the river. Then 
the hermit said to me : c Go quickly * and carry off the 
clothes of one of those nymphs bathing there, 2 and then 
you will learn tidings of your master.' When I heard that, 
I did as he advised me, and that nymph whose garments I 
had taken followed me, with her bathing-dress dripping with 
moisture, 3 and with her arms crossed in front of her breasts. 

" That hermit said to her : ' If you tell us tidings of 
Naravahanadatta you may have back your two garments.' 
Then she said : ' Naravahanadatta is at present on Mount 
Kailasa, engaged in worshipping Siva, and in a few days he 
will be the emperor of the Vidyadharas.' 

1 I.e. asu ; but the D. text reads asu, which suggests that the hermit 
pointed out one particular girl from "among them " {asu) and told the youth 
to get her clothes. Either reading might be correct. n.m.p. 

2 See Appendix I. n.m.p. 

3 There seems to be a corrupted reading here. Both the B. and D. 
texts read : hrita-vastrd 'ardra-vasana, which literally means, " the robbed one 
clothed in wet clothing/' which is absurd. We have just read that she has 
taken off her clothes to bathe, and on seeing they had been taken, follows 
the thief, covering her nakedness as best she can with her hands. Unable 
to make sense, Tawney changes "dress" to "bathing-dress," which is, of 
course, ridiculous. The intended sense is fairly clear, though the correct 
reading is unknown. It must either be "with moisture as her only dress," 
or "with her body (or skin) dripping with moisture." The italics show where 
the substituted word occurs. n.m.p. 


" After she had said this, that heavenly nymph became, 
in virtue of a curse, the wife of that ascetic, having made 
acquaintance with him by conversing with him. 1 So the 
ascetic lived with that Vidyadhari, and on account of her 
prophecy I conceived the hope of being reunited with you, 
and I went on living there. And in a few days the heavenly 
nymph became pregnant, and brought forth a child, and she 
said to the ascetic : ' My curse has been brought to an end 
by living with you. 2 If you desire to see any more of me, 
cook this child of mine with rice and eat it ; then you will 
be reunited to me.' When she had said this she went away, 
and that ascetic cooked her child with rice, and ate it ; and 
then he flew up into the air and followed her. 

" At first I was unwilling to eat of that dish, though he 
urged me to do so ; but, seeing that eating of it bestowed 
supernatural powers, I took two grains of rice from the 
cooking-vessel, and ate them. That produced in me the 
effect that, wherever I spat, gold 3 was immediately produced. 
Then I roamed about, relieved from my poverty, and at last 
I reached a town. There I lived in a house of a courtesan, 

1 The three India Office MSS. read samstavad. 

2 Cf. Vol. Ill, p. 25, 25n 2 ; and for what follows Vol. II, p. 234. 

3 Cf. Vol. V, p. 11, and the note on that page. In Gonzenbach's 
Sicilianiscke M'drchen, Quaddaruni's sister drops pearls and precious stones 
from her hair whenever she combs it. Dr Kohler in his note on this tale gives 
many European parallels. In a Swedish story a gold ring falls from the 
heroine's mouth whenever she speaks, and in a Norwegian story gold coins. 
I may add to the parallels quoted by Dr Kohler, No. 36 in Coelho's Contos 

Portugueses, in which tale pearls drop from the heroine's mouth. Tales of 

gold- and jewel-spitting men or animals occur fairly widely in Russian folklore. 
Thus, in a Votyak tale a horse produces silver coins ; and in another one, from 
the same source, we read of a youth who, as a result of eating the heart of 
a golden eagle, produces spittle which turns to gold (Coxwell, op. cit., pp. 588, 
589, 590). In a Finnish tale the hero eats a little bird and spits gold in 
consequence, and eventually becomes a tsar (Coxwell, op. cit., p. 644 ; see also 
pp. 1029, 1032). In the Kalmuck Siddhi-Kiir the poor man and his companion 
spit forth gold and jewels (Jiilg, No. 2 ; Busk, op. cit., No. 2, p. 17 et seq. ; and 
Coxwell, op. cit., p. 183 et seq.). In the Tibetan version of the story one 
spits gold and the other turquoises (Francke, "Die Geschichten des toten 
No-rub-can," Zeit. d. d. morg. Gesell., vol. lxxv, p. 72 et seq.). Cf. Mahabharata, 
Drona Parva, 55 ; and Santi Parva, 29. See, further, Ocean, Vol. IX, Addenda 
et Corrigenda." n.m.p. 


and, thanks to the gold I was able to produce, indulged in 
the most lavish expenditure ; but the bawd, eager to dis- 
cover my secret, treacherously gave me an emetic. That 
made me vomit, and in the process the two grains of rice, 
that I had previously eaten, came out of my mouth, looking 
like two glittering rubies. And no sooner had they come 
out, than the bawd snapped them up, and swallowed them. 
So I lost my power of producing gold, of which the bawd 
thus deprived me. 

" I thought to myself : ' Siva still retains his crescent, 
and Vishnu his kaustubha jewel * ; but I know what would 
be the result if those two deities were to fall into the clutches 
of a bawd. 2 But such is this world, full of marvels, full of 
frauds ; who can fathom it, or the sea, at any time ? ' 
With such sad reflections in my bosom I went despondent to 
a temple of Durga, to propitiate the goddess with asceticism, 
in order to recover you. And after I had fasted for three 
nights the goddess gave me this command in a dream : ' Thy 
master has obtained all he desires : go, and behold him ' ; 
upon hearing this I woke up ; and this very morning some 
goddess carried me to your feet ; this, Prince, is the story of 
my adventures." 

When Marubhuti had said this, Naravahanadatta and his 
courtiers laughed at him for having been tricked by a bawd. 

Then Harisikha said : " On that occasion when I was 
seized by my enemy 3 some divinity saved me and deposited 

1 It was one of the marvellous things which came up at the Churning of 
the Ocean. See Mahdbharata, i, 18. n.m.p. 

2 All the India Office MSS. read 'dyapi for yopi and two seem to 
read apatane. I find apatana in the Petersburg lexicon, but not apatana. I 
have translated the passage loosely so as to make good sense. The Sanskrit 
College MS. gives a reading which exactly suits my translation : Sachandrardhah 
Sivo 'dydpi Harir yas cha sakaustubhah Tattayorvedmi kuttanya gocharapatane 

phalam. D. fully agrees with this reading, except that for yas cha it has 

yacca. This changes and improves the meaning slightly: "That Siva still 
retains his crescent and Vishnu his kaustubha jewel, they have to thank for it, 
I am sure, the fact that they did not fall into the clutches of a bawd." The 
italics show the translation as suggested by Speyer, op. cit., pp. 143, 144. 


3 Tawney could not have been pleased with B.'s reading, praptam "was 
seized." Read prastam, with the D. text "thrown down." n.m.p. 


me in Ujjayini. There I was so unhappy that I conceived 
the design of abandoning the body; so at nightfall I went 
into the cemetery and proceeded to construct a pyre with 
Harisikhas the lo g s there - 1 lighted it, and began to wor- 
Account of Ms ship the fire, and while I was thus engaged a 
Adventures prince of the demons, named Talajangha, came 
up to me, and said to me : ' Why do you enter the fire ? 
Your master is alive, and you shall be united with him, now 
that he has obtained the supernatural powers he desired.' 
With these words, the demon, though naturally cruel, lovingly 
dissuaded me from death : even some stones melt when fate 
is propitious. Then I went and remained for a long time 
performing asceticism in front of the god ; and some divinity 
has to-day brought me to you, my liege." 

Thus Harisikha told his tale, and the others in their turn 
told theirs, and then, at the suggestion of Amitagati, King 
Naravahanadatta incited the venerable Dhanavati, adored 
by the Vidyadharas, to bestow all the sciences on those 
ministers of his also. Then all his ministers also became 
Vidyadharas ; and Dhanavati said : " Now conquer your 
enemies " ; so on a fortunate day the hero gave orders that 
the imperial troops should march out towards the city of 
Gaurimunda, called Govindakuta. 

Then the army of the Vidyadharas mounted up into the 
sky, obscuring the sun, looking like a rising of Rahu out of 
due time, chilling to the foe. And Naravahanadatta himself 
ascended the pericarp of the lotus chariot, and placed his 
wives on the filaments, and his friends on the leaves, and, 
preceded by Chandasimha and the others, set out through 
the air to conquer his enemies. And when he had completed 
half his journey he came to the palace of Dhanavati, which 
was called Matangapura, and he stayed there that day, and 
she did the honours of the house to him. And while he was 
there, he sent an ambassador to challenge to the combat the 
Vidyadhara princes Gaurimunda and Manasavega. 

The next day he deposited his wives in Matangapura, 
and went with the Vidyadhara kings to Govindakuta. There 
Gaurimunda and Manasavega came out to fight with them, 
and Chandasimha and his colleagues met them face to face. 


When the battle began, brave warriors fell like trees marked 
out for the axe, and torrents of blood flowed on the mountain 
Govindakuta. The combat, eager to devour the lives of 
heroes, yawned like a demon of destruction, with tongues in 
the form of flexible swords greedily licking up blood. 1 That 
great feast of slaughter, terrible with the rhythmic clapping 
of hands on the part of Vetalas drunk with blood and flesh, 
and covered with palpitating corpses for dancers, gave great 
delight to the demons. 

Then Manasavega met Naravahanadatta face to face in 
the conflict, and the prince himself rushed on him in wrath. 
And having rushed on him, that emperor seized the villain 
by the hair, and at once cut off his head with his sword. 
When Gaurimunda saw that, he too sprang forward in a fury, 
and Naravahanadatta dragged him along by the hair, for the 
power of his science left him as soon as he saw the prince, 
and flung him on the ground, and seizing his legs whirled 
him round in the air, and dashed him to pieces on a rock. In 
this way he slew Gaurimunda and Manasavega ; and the rest 
of their army, being terrified, 2 took to flight. And a rain of 
flowers fell into the lap of that emperor, and all the gods 
in heaven exclaimed : " Bravo ! Bravo ! " Then Narava- 
hanadatta, with all those kings that followed him, entered 
the palace of Gaurimunda ; and immediately the chiefs of the 
Vidyadharas who were connected with Gaurimunda's party 
came and submitted humbly to his sway. 

Then Dhanavati came up to that sovereign in the midst 
of the rejoicings on account of his having taken possession of 
his kingdom after slaying all his enemies, and said to him : 
" My liege, Gaurimunda has left a daughter named Ihatma- 
tika, the belle of the three worlds ; you should marry that 
maiden." When she said this to the king, he immediately 
sent for the girl, and married her, and passed the day very 
happily in her society. 

The next morning he sent Vegavati and Prabhavati, and 

1 More literally, " smeared with blood and relishing it." Bohtlingk and 
Roth seem to think rasat refers to some noise made by the swords. 

2 All the India Office MSS. read bhltam for the bhimam of Brockhaus' 


had Madanamanchuka brought by them from the town of 
Manasavega. When brought, she looked upon that hero in his 
prosperity, who had destroyed the darkness of his enemies, 
with face expanded and wet with tears of joy ; and at the 
end of her night of separation she enjoyed indescribable 
happiness, like a lotus bed the open flowers of which are 
wet with dew. Then he bestowed on her all the sciences, and, 
having pined for her long, he exulted in the society of his 
beloved, who had thus in a moment attained the rank of a 
Vidyadhari. And in the garden of Gaurimunda's city he 
spent those days with his wives in the joys of a banquet. 
And then he sent Prabhavati, and had Bhagirathayasas also 
brought there, and bestowed on her the sciences. 

And one day, as the emperor was sitting in his hall of 
audience, two Vidyadharas came and said to him with due 
respect : " Your Majesty, we went hence, by the orders of 
Dhanavati, to the northern division of the land of the 
Vidyadharas, to find out the movements of Mandaradeva. 
And there we, being ourselves invisible, saw that king of 
the Vidyadharas in his hall of audience, and he happened 
to be saying with regard to your Highness : ' I hear that 
Naravahanadatta has obtained the sovereignty over the 
Vidyadharas, and has slain Gaurimunda and the rest of his 
opponents ; so it will not do for me to overlook that enemy ; 
on the contrary, I must nip him in the bud.' When we heard 
that speech of his, we came here to tell you." 

When the assembly of Naravahanadatta's partisans 
heard this from the spies, they were all beside themselves 
with anger, and appeared like a lotus bed smitten by the 
wind. The arms of Chitrangada, frequently waved and 
extended, 1 seemed with the tinkling of their bracelets to be 
demanding the signal for combat. The necklace of Amitagati, 
rising up 2 on his breast, as he sighed with anger, seemed to 

1 Speyer (op. cit., p. 169) would read khe in preference to svau; thus, 
Chitrangada makes strong movements with his arms in the air. Tawney must 
have realised that svau, " own/' was superfluous. n.m.p. 

2 Speyer (op. cit., p. 144) would read, with the D. text, utphalan instead 
of B.'s utphullak; the latter word does not signify "rise up," but "wide open" 
or " expanded." n.m.p. 


say again and again: "Rouse thyself, rouse thyself, hero." 
Pingalagandhara, striking the ground with his hand so that 
it resounded, seemed to be going through a prelude intro- 
ductory to the crushing of his enemies. A frown took its 
seat upon the face of Vayupatha, looking like a bow strung 
by fate for the destruction of his foes. Chandasimha, 
angrily pressing one hand against the other, seemed to say : 
" Even thus will I pulverise my enemies." The arm of 
Sagaradatta, struck by his hand, produced a sound that 
rang through the air, and seemed to challenge that foe. But 
Naravahanadatta, though angry, was no whit disturbed ; for 
imperturbability is the characteristic sign of the greatness 
of great ones. 

Then he resolved to march forth to conquer his enemy, 
after obtaining the jewels essential to an emperor of the 
Vidyadharas. So the emperor mounted a chariot, with his 
wives and his ministers, and set out from that Govindakuta. 
And all his partisans, the kings of the Gandharvas and the 
chiefs of the Vidyadharas, accompanied by their armies, 
marched along with him, encircling him, as the planets do 
the moon. Then Naravahanadatta reached the Himalayas, 
preceded by Dhanavati, and found there a large lake. With 
its white lotuses like lofty umbrellas and its soaring swans 
like waving chowries, it seemed to have brought a present 
fit for a sovereign. With its lofty waves flung up towards 
him like beckoning hands at no great distance, it seemed to 
summon him again and again to take the bath which should 
ensure him supreme sovereignty. Then Vayupatha said to 
the king : " My emperor, you must go down and bathe in 
this lake " ; so he went down to bathe in it. And a heavenly 
voice said : " None but an emperor can ever succeed in 
bathing in this lake, so now you may consider the imperial 
dignity secured to you." 

When the emperor heard that he was delighted, and he 
sported in the water of that lake with his wives, as Varuna 
does in the sea. He took pleasure in watching them with 
the moist garments clinging to their bodies, 1 with the fasten- 
ings of their hair loosened, and their eyes reddened by the 
1 Cf. Vol. I, p. 69, 69n 2 . n.m.p. 


washing into them of antimony. 1 The rows of birds, flying 
up with loud cries from that lake, appeared like the girdles 
of its presiding nymphs advancing to meet him. And the 
lotuses, eclipsed by the beauty of the lotus-like faces of his 
wives, plunged beneath the waves as if ashamed. And after 
bathing, Naravahanadatta, with his attendants, spent that day 
on the bank of that lake. 

There the successful prince, with his wives and ministers, 
spent his time in jocose conversation, and next morning he set 
forth thence in his chariot with his army. And as he was 
going along, he reached the city of Vayupatha, which lay in 
his way ; and he stayed there a day to please him. There he 
fell in love with a maiden, that he came across in a garden, 
the sister of Vayupatha, by name Vayuvegayasas. She, 
while amusing herself in a garden on the bank of the 
Hemabaluka 2 river, saw him arrive, and though in love with 
him disappeared at once. Then Naravahanadatta, supposing 
that she had turned her back on him for some reason other 
than the real one, returned with downcast face to his quarters. 
There the queens found out the adventure that had befallen 
the king by means of Marubhuti, who was with him (for 
Gomukha was too clever for them to try him), and then they 
made all kinds of jokes at the king's expense, while Gomukha 
stood by ashamed at the indiscretion of Marubhuti. 

Then Gomukha, seeing the king out of countenance, 
consoled him, and, in order to ascertain the real sentiments 
of Vayuvegayasas, went to her city. There Vayupatha saw 
him suddenly arrived, as if to take a look at the city, and he 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 211, 212. Whether "antimony" or "galena" is the 
correct translation here is hard to say. As both are usual for the eyes, in the 
form of a black powder, mistakes have often occurred, not only by the Hindus 
and Mohammedans (Watt, Economic Products, vol. i, p. 271), but even by 
geologists (La Touche, Bibliography of Indian Geology, vol. ii, p. 13). In 
modern days galena is used much more than antimony, of which the Indian 
output is very small ; so also in Burma, whence some of the Indian supplies 
were derived. (See my Mineral Resources of Burma, pp. Ill, 112, with 
bibliographical references.) The English word antimony is probably derived 
from the Arabic al-ithmid. For its etymological history see L. L. Bonaparte, 
"Antimony," Academy, 23rd February 1884, p. 135. n.m.p. 

2 The word means " having sands of gold." 



lovingly entertained him, and taking him aside said to him : 
" I have an unmarried sister named Vayuvegayasas, and 
holy seers have prophesied that she is destined to be the wife 
of an emperor. So I am desirous of giving her as a present 
to the Emperor Naravahanadatta ; pray do your best to 
bring about the accomplishment of my wish. And with this 
very object in view I was preparing to come to you." 

When the minister Gomukha had been thus addressed by 
Vayupatha, he said to him : " Although this prince of ours set 
out primarily with the object of conquering his enemies, still, 
you have only to make the request, and I will arrange this 
matter for you." With these words Gomukha took leave of 
him, and going back informed Naravahanadatta that he had 
gained his object without any solicitation. 

And the next day Vayupatha came in person and re- 
quested the favour, and the sagacious Gomukha said to the 
king : " My Prince, you must not refuse the request of 
Vayupatha; he is your faithful ally; your Majesty should 
do whatever he asks." 

Then the king consented to do it; and Vayupatha him- 
self brought his younger sister, and bestowed her on the 
emperor, against her will. And while the marriage was 
being performed she exclaimed : " Ye guardians of the 
world, I am being bestowed in marriage by my brother by 
force, and against my will, so I have not committed any sin 
thereby." When she said this, all the females belonging to 
Vayupatha's household made such a noise that no outsiders 
heard what she said. But the king was put out of counten- 
ance by her speech, so Gomukha was anxious to find some 
means of ascertaining its import, and he roamed hither and 
thither with that object. 

And after he had roamed about a while he saw, in a certain 
retired spot, four Vidyadhara maidens preparing to enter the 
fire at the same time. And when he asked them the cause, 
those fair ones told him how Vayuvegayasas had broken her 
solemn agreement. Then Gomukha went and told it to 
King Naravahanadatta in the presence of all there, exactly 
as he had seen and heard. 

When the king heard it he smiled, but Vayuvegayasas 


said : " Arise, my husband, let us two quickly go and save 
these maidens ; afterwards I will tell you the reason of this 
act of theirs." 

When she said this to the king he went with her, and with 
all his followers, to the spot where the tragedy was to take 

And he saw those maidens with a blazing fire in front of 
them ; and Vayuvegayasas, after dragging them away from 
it, said to the king : " This first here is Kalika, the daughter 
of the lord of Kalakuta, and this second is Vidyutpunja, 
the daughter of Vidyutpunja ; and this third is Matangini, the 
daughter of Mandara ; and this fourth is Padmaprabha, the 
daughter of Mahadamshtra ; and I am the fifth ; all we five, 
when we saw you performing asceticism in the domain of 
the Siddhas, were bewildered with love, and we made the 
following mutual agreement : ' We will all five * at the same 
time take this prince as our dear husband, and no one of us 
must surrender herself to him alone ; if any one of us marries 
him separately, the others shall enter the fire to bring down 
vengeance on her who has been guilty of such treachery to 
friends.' It was out of respect for this agreement that I did 
not wish to marry you separately ; indeed, I did not even 
to-day give myself to you ; you, my husband, and the 
guardians of the world can bear testimony as to whether 
even now I have broken this agreement willingly. So now, 
my husband, marry also those friends of mine ; and you, my 
friends, must not let any other lot befall you." 2 

When she said this, those maidens, who had escaped from 
death, rejoiced, and embraced one another; and the king 
was delighted in his heart. And the fathers of the ladies, 
hearing what had taken place, came there immediately, and 
bestowed their daughters on Naravahanadatta. And those 
chiefs of the Vidyadharas, headed by the lord of Kalakuta, 3 
agreed to accept the sovereignty of their son-in-law. Thus 

1 The word asmabhir has been omitted in Brockhaus' text. It follows 
panchabhir in the three India Office MSS. and in the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 Two of the India Office MSS. have bhavanlyam. In the third the 
passage is omitted. But the text of Brockhaus gives a good sense. 

3 I read prashthas, which I find in two of the India Office MSS., No. 1882 
lias prasthas. 


Naravahanadatta obtained at one stroke the daughters of 
five great Vidyadharas, and gained great importance thereby. 

And the prince remained there some days with those 
wives, and then his commander-in-chief, Harisikha, said : 
" Why, my liege, though you are versed in the approved 
treatises on the subject, do you act contrary to policy ? What 
means this devotion on your part to the pleasures of love, 
when it is time to fight ? This raising of an expedition to 
conquer Mandaradeva, and this your dallying for so many 
days with your wives, are things wholly incompatible." 

When Harisikha said this, the great king answered him : 
"Your reproof is just, but I am not acting for my own 
pleasure in all this ; this allying of myself with wives involves 
the acquisition of friends ; and so is the most efficacious 
method at present of crushing the foe ; this is why I have 
had recourse to it. So let these my troops now advance to 
the conquest of the enemy." 

When the king had given this order, his father-in-law 
Mandara said to him : " King, that Mandaradeva lives in a 
distant and difficult country, and he will be hard for you to 
overcome until you have achieved all the distinctive jewels 
of an emperor. For he is protected by the cave, called the 
cave of Trisirsha, 1 which forms the approach to his kingdom, 
and the entrance of which is guarded by the great champion 
Devamaya. But that cave can be forced by an emperor who 
has obtained the jewels. And the sandalwood-tree, 2 which 
is one of the jewels of an emperor, is in this country; so 
quickly gain possession of it in order that you may attain 
the ends you have in view. For no one who is not an emperor 
ever gets near that tree." 

Having heard this from Mandara, Naravahanadatta set 
out at night, fasting and observing a strict vow, for that 
sandalwood-tree. As the hero went along, very terrible 
portents arose to bewilder him, but he was not terrified at 
them, and so he reached the foot of that mighty tree. And 
when he saw that sandalwood-tree, surrounded with a lofty 
platform made of precious jewels, he climbed up to it with 

1 An epithet of Siva. 

2 For a note on sandalwood see Vol. VII, pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


ladders and adored it. The tree then said to him with bodi- 
less voice : " Emperor, thou hast won me, the sandalwood- 
tree, and when thou thinkest on me I will appear to thee, so 
leave this place at present, and go to Govindakuta ; thus 
thou wilt win the other jewels also ; and then thou wilt easily 
conquer Mandaradeva." On hearing this, Naravahanadatta, 
the mighty sovereign of the Vidyadharas, said : "I will do 
so." And, being now completely successful, he worshipped 
that heavenly tree, 1 and went delighted through the air to 
his own camp. 

There he spent that night ; and the next morning in the 
hall of audience he related at full length, in the presence of all, 
his night's adventure by which he had won the sandalwood- 
tree. And when they heard it, his wives, and the ministers 
who had grown up with him from infancy, and those 
Vidyadharas who were devoted to him namely, Vayupatha 
and the other chiefs, with their forces and the Gandharvas, 
headed by Chitrangada, were delighted at this sudden attain- 
ment of great success, and praised his heroism, remarkable 
for its uninterrupted flow of courage, enterprise, and firmness. 
And after deliberating with them, the king, determined to 
overthrow the pride of Mandaradeva, set out in a heavenly 
chariot for the mountain of Govindakuta, in order to obtain 
the other jewels spoken of by the sandalwood-tree. 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 96, 96n x , 97. Cf. also the story of Aschenkatze, in the 
Pentamerone of Basile (Burton, vol. i, pp. 59, 6l) ; the Dummedha Jdtaka, 
Cambridge Edition, No. 50, vol. i, p. 126 et seq; Preller, Romische Mythologie, 
p. 96; Kuhn, Sagen aus Westfalen, vol. i, pp. 241, 242, 244, 245; Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, viii, 722-724 and 743 et seq; and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, 
Introduction, p. lii. 



MAY Ganesa, who at night seems, with the spray- 
blown forth from his hissing trunk uplifted in the 
tumultuous dance, to be feeding the stars, dispel 
your darkness ! 

[M] Then, as the Emperor Naravahanadatta was in his 
hall of audience on the mountain Govindakuta, a Vidyadhara 
named Amritaprabha came to him through the air, the 
same who had before saved him, when he was flung down by 
his enemy on the Mountain of Fire. That Vidyadhara came 
and humbly made himself known, and, having been lovingly 
entertained by that emperor, said to him : " There is a great 
mountain named Malaya in the southern region ; and in a 
hermitage on it lives a great hermit named Vamadeva. He, 
my liege, invites you to come to him alone for the sake of 
some important affair, and on this account he has sent me 
to you to-day. Moreover, you are my sovereign, won by 
previous merits ; and therefore am I here ; so come along 
with me ; let us quickly go to that hermit in order to ensure 
your success ! 

When that Vidyadhara had said this, Naravahanadatta 
left his wives and forces there, and himself flew up into the 
air with that Vidyadhara, and in that way quickly reached 
the Malaya mountain, and approached the hermit Vamadeva. 
And he beheld that hermit white with age, tall of stature, 
with eyeballs sparkling like bright jewels in the fleshless 
sockets of his eyes, the depository of the jewels of the emperor 
of the Vidyadharas, with his matted hair waving like creepers, 
looking like the Himalaya range accompanying the prince, 



to assist him in attaining success. Then the prince wor- 
shipped the feet of that sage, and he entertained him, and 
said to him : " You are the God of Love consumed long ago 
by Siva, and appointed by him emperor of all the Vidyadhara 
chiefs, because he was pleased with Rati. 1 Now, I have in 
this my hermitage, within the deep recess of an inner cave, 
certain jewels, which I will point out to you, and you must 
seize them. For you will find Mandaradeva easy enough to 
conquer after you have obtained the jewels; and it was 
with this object that I invited you hither by the command 
of Siva." 

When the hermit had said this to him, and had instructed 
him in the right method of procedure, Naravahanadatta joy- 
fully entered that cave. In it the hero overcame many and 
various obstacles, and then beheld a huge furious elephant 
charging him with a deep guttural roar. The king smote it 
on the forehead with his fist, and placed his feet on its tusks, 
and actively mounted the furious elephant. And a bodiless 
voice came from the cave : " Bravo, emperor ! Thou hast won 
the jewel of the mighty elephant." Then he saw a sword 
looking like a mighty snake, and he fell upon it, and seized 
it, as if it were the locks of the Fortune of Empire. Again 
a bodiless voice sounded in the cave : " Bravo, conqueror 
of thy foes ! Thou hast obtained the victorious sword-jewel." 
Then he obtained the moonlight- jewel and the wife- jewel, 
and the jewel of charms, named the destroying charm. And 
thus having achieved in all seven jewels (useful in time 
of need, and bestowers of majesty), taking into account the 
two first, the lake and the sandalwood-tree, he went out 
from that cave and told the hermit Vamadeva that he had 
succeeded in accomplishing all his objects. 2 

1 The Sanskrit College MS. has Ratya. 

2 The seven jewels of the Chakravartin are often mentioned in Buddhist 
works. In the Mahavastu, p. 108 (edited by Senart) they are : chariot, elephant, 
horse, wife, householder, general. In a legend quoted by Burnouf {Introduction 
a I'Histoire du Buddhisme Indien, p. 343) the same six are enumerated as "les 
sept joyaux." In both cases the sword is omitted. They are also described 
in the Maha-Sudassana-Sutta translated by Rhys Davids in the eleventh volume 
of the Sacred Books of the East Series. The term Chakravartin, translated by 
Tawney as "emperor/' is usually taken to mean "universal monarch." The 


Then the hermit said lovingly to that emperor : " Go, 
my son, now that you have obtained the jewels of a great 
emperor, and conquer Mandaradeva on the north side of 
Kailasa, and enjoy the glorious fortune of the sovereignty 
of both sides of that mountain." When the hermit had 
said this to him, the successful emperor bowed before him, 
and went off through the air with Amritaprabha. And in a 
moment he reached his camp on Govindakuta, guarded by 
his mighty mother-in-law, Dhanavati. Then those kings of 
the Vidyadharas that had sided with him, and his wives 
and his ministers, who were all watching for him, saw him, 
and welcomed him with delight. Then he sat down and they 
questioned him, and he told them how he had seen the hermit 
Vamadeva, and how he had entered the cave, and how he 
had obtained the jewels. Then a great festival took place 
there, in which celestial drums were joyfully beaten, and the 
Vidyadharas danced, and people generally were drunk with 

And the next day, in a moment in which a malignant 
planet stood in the house of his foe, and one which argued his 
own success, 1 as a planet benignant to him, predominated 
over his enemy's house, and which was fraught with every 
kind of prosperity, Naravahanadatta performed the cere- 
monies for good fortune, and ascended that car made by 
Brahma, which Siva had bestowed on him, and set out with 
his army through the air, accompanied by his wives, to 
conquer Mandaradeva. And various heroes, his followers, 
marched surrounding him, and kings of the Gandharvas and 

etymology of the word has been variously interpreted, but that advanced by 
Jacobi seems most acceptable. Chakra must be taken in its original sense 
of "circle," while vartin denotes the idea of "abiding in." Thus the whole 
expression denotes "he who abides in the circle." The "circle" refers to 
the discus of Vishnu, the symbol of the sun, and only he who had attained 
the highest honours could rejoice in the name of Chakravartin, so closely 
connected with the deity. The number and variety of the "jewels" or 
ratnas varies, although seven was the usual number. For further details see 
H. Jacobi, " Chakravartin," Hastings' Ency. Bel, FAh., vol. iii, pp. 336, 337. 
Dr Barnett puts a query to the above derivation. n.m.p. 

1 For atmasamarddhina the India Office MS. No. 1882 has atmasamriddhina\ 
No. 2166 has samashtina, and No. 3003 agrees with Brockhaus' text. So does 
the Sanskrit College MS. 


chiefs of the Vidyadharas, fearless and faithful, obedient to 
the orders of the general, Harisikha, and Chandasimha, with 
his mother, the wise Dhanavati, and the brave Pingala- 
gandhara, and Vayupatha the strong, and Vidyutpunja and 
Amitagati, and the lord of Kalaktita, and Mandara, and 
Mahadamshtra and his own friend Amritaprabha, and the hero 
Chitrangada, with Sagaradatta all these, and others who 
were there of the party of the slain Gaurimunda, pressed 
eagerly after him, with their hosts, as he advanced intent on 
victory. Then the sky was obscured by his army, and the 
sun hid his face, as if for shame, somewhere or other, his 
brightness being eclipsed by the splendour of the monarch. 

Then the emperor passed the Manasa lake, haunted by 
troops of divine hermits, and left behind him Gandasaila, the 
pleasure garden of the nymphs of heaven, and reached the 
foot of Mount Kailasa, gleaming white like crystal, resembling 
a mass of his own glory. 1 There he encamped on the bank 
of the Mandakini; and while he was sitting there the wise 
chief of the Vidyadharas, named Mandara, came up to him, 
and addressed to him the following pleasing speech : " Let 
your army halt here, King, on the bank of the river of the 
gods ! It is not fitting that you should advance over this 
mountain, Kailasa. For all sciences are destroyed by cross- 
ing this dwelling-place of Siva. So you must pass to the 
other side of the mountain by the cave of Trisirsha. And it 
is guarded by a king named Devamaya, who is exceedingly 
haughty ; so how can you advance farther without conquer- 
ing him ? " When Mandara said this, Dhanavati approved 
it, and Naravahanadatta waited there for a day. 

While he was there, he sent an ambassador to Devamaya 
with a conciliatory message, but he did not receive the order 
it conveyed in a conciliatory spirit. So the next day the 
emperor moved out against Devamaya, with all the allied 
kings, prepared for battle. And Devamaya too, when he 
heard it, marched out towards him to give battle, accom- 
panied by numerous kings, Varaha, Vajramushti, and others, 
and followed by his army. Then there took place on Kailasa 

1 We have often had occasion to remark that the Hindu poets conceive 
of glory as white. 


a battle between those two armies, and while it was going on 
the sky was obscured by the chariots of the gods, who came 
to look on. Terrible was that thundercloud of war, awful 
with the dense hailstorm of many severed heads, and loud 
with the shouting of heroes. That Chandasimha slew 
Varaha, the general of Devamaya, as he fought in the front 
rank, was in truth by no means wonderful ; but it was 
strange that Naravahanadatta, without employing any 
magic power, took captive Devamaya himself, when ex- 
hausted by the wounds he received from him in the combat. 
And when he was captured his army was broken, and fled, 
together with the great champions Vajramushti, Mahabahu, 
Tikshnadamshtra, and their fellows. Then the gods in their 
chariots exclaimed : " Bravo ! Bravo ! " And all present 
congratulated the victorious emperor. Then that mighty 
monarch consoled Devamaya, who was brought before him 
bound, and welcomed him kindly, and set him at liberty. 
But he, having been subdued by the emperor's arm, humbly 
submitted to him, together with Vajramushti and the others. 

Then, the battle having come to an end, that day passed 
away, and next morning Devamaya came to the place of 
audience, and stood by the side of the emperor, and when 
questioned by him about the cave of Trisirsha, which he 
wished to enter, related the following true history of it. 

" In old time, my liege, the two sides of Mount Kailasa, 
the north and the south side, formed different kingdoms, 
having been assigned to distinguished Vidyadharas. Then 
The History of one > Rishabha by name, propitiated Siva with aus- 
the Cave of terities, and was appointed, by that god, emperor 
Trisirsha over berth of them. But one day he was passing 
over Kailasa, to go to the northern side, and lost his magic 
science owing to the anger of Siva, who happened to be below, 
and so fell from the sky. Rishabha again propitiated Siva 
with severe asceticism, and the god again appointed him 
supreme sovereign of both sides ; so he thus humbly addressed 
the god : ' I am not permitted to pass over Kailasa, so by 
what path am I to travel in order to be able to exercise my 
prerogatives on both sides of the mountain ? ' When Siva, 
the trident-bearing god, heard this, he cleft asunder Kailasa, 



and made this cavelike opening for Rishabha to pass to the 
northern side. 

" Then Mount Kailasa, having been pierced, was des- 
pondent, and addressed this petition to Siva : ' Holy one, this 
north side of me used to be inaccessible to mortals, but it 
has now been made accessible to them by this cave-passage ; 
so provide that this law of exclusion be not broken.' When 
Siva had been thus supplicated by the mountain, he placed 
in the cave, as guards, elephants of the quarters, mighty 
basilisks, 1 and Guhyakas ; and at its southern opening 
Kalaratri, the invincible Chandika. 2 

" When Siva had thus provided for the guarding of the 
cave, he produced great jewels, and made this decree with 
regard to the cave : ' This cave shall be open at both ends 
to anyone who has obtained the jewels, and is emperor over 
the Vidyadharas with their wives and their messengers, 3 and 
to those who may be appointed by him as sovereigns over 
the northern side of the mountain by these, I say, it may 
be passed, but by no one else in the world.' When the three- 
eyed god had made this decree, Rishabha went on holding 
sway over the Vidyadharas, but in his pride made war on the 
gods, and was slain by Indra. This is the history, my liege, 
of the cave, named the cave of Trisirsha; and the cave 
cannot be passed by any but persons like yourself. 

" And in course of time I, Devamaya, was born in the family 

1 See Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors (Pseudodoxia Epidemica), 
Book III, chapter vii, and vol. iii, 112ft 1 . The point about the basilisk was 
that its glance was fatal, and this is how Tawney expresses the word 
drigvishahindra. We have seen (Vol. II, p. 298) that drig-visha or drishti-visha 
denotes "poison in a glance," but in Hindu fiction this "fatal look" occurs 
in humans as well as in monsters, and is a power that can be acquired by 
prolonged austerities. (See Vol. IV, p. 232, and Vol. V, p. 123.) The idea is 
found in remote antiquity; thus, after the death of Osiris, Isis at last finds 
the box containing his body at Byblos. One of the king's sons spies on her 
while she is embracing the dead body. Isis becomes aware of this and, turn- 
ing round, kills him on the spot by a terrible look. See Budge, Osiris and the 
Egyptian Resurrection, vol. i, p. 7. n.m.p. 

2 One of the saktis (" energies") of Siva. Others are Durga, Kali, etc. 

3 Two of the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read cha 
charanam for sadaranam. This would mean, I suppose, that the cave might be 
passed by all the scouts and ambassadors of the Vidyadharas. 


of Mahamaya, the keeper of the entrance of the cave. And 
at my birth a heavenly voice proclaimed : ' There is now 
born among the Vidyadharas a champion hard for his foes to 
conquer in fight ; and he who shall conquer him shall be 
emperor over them ; he shall be the master of this child now 
born, and shall be followed by him as a lord.' I, that 
Devamaya, have been now conquered by you, and you 
have obtained the jewels, and are the mighty sole emperor 
of both sides of Mount Kailasa the lord of us all here. So 
now pass the cave of Trisirsha, and conquer the rest of your 

When Devamaya had told the story of the cave in these 
words the emperor said to him : " We will march now and 
encamp for the present at the mouth of the cave, and to- 
morrow morning, after we have performed due ceremonies, 
we will enter it." When Naravahanadatta had said this, he 
went and encamped with all those kings at the mouth of 
the cave. And he saw that underground passage with deep 
rayless cavity, looking like the birthplace of the sunless and 
moonless darkness of the day of doom. 

And the next day he offered worship, and entered it in 
his chariot, with his followers, assisted by the glorious jewels, 
which presented themselves to him when he thought of them. 
He dispelled the darkness with the moonlight- jewel, the basi- 
lisks with the sandalwood-tree, the elephants of the quarters 
with the elephant- jewel, the Guhyakas with the sword-jewel, 
and other obstacles with other jewels ; and so passed that 
cave with his army, and emerged at its northern mouth. 
And, coming out from the bowels of the cave, he saw before 
him the northern side of the mountain, looking like another 
world, entered without a second birth. And then a voice came 
from the sky : " Bravo, emperor ! Thou hast passed this 
cave by means of the majesty conferred by the power of the 

Then Dhanavati and Devamaya said to the emperor : 
" Your Majesty, Kalaratri is always near this opening. She 
was originally created by Vishnu, when the sea was churned 
for the nectar, in order that she might tear in pieces the 
chiefs of the Danavas, who wished to steal that heavenly 


drink. And now she has been placed here by Siva to guard 
this cave, in order that none may pass it except those beings, 
like yourself, of whom we spoke before. You are our emperor 
and you have obtained the jewels, and have passed this cave ; 
so, in order to gain the victory, you must worship this goddess, 
who is a meet object of worship." 

In such words did Dhanavati and Devamaya address 
Naravahanadatta, and so the day waned for him there. 
And the northern peaks of Kailasa were reddened with the 
evening light, and seemed thus to foreshadow the bloodshed 
of the approaching battle. The darkness, having gained 
power, obscured the army of that king, as if recollecting its 
animosity, which was still fresh and new. And goblins, vam- 
pires, jackals and the sisterhood * of witches roamed about, 
as it were the first shoots of the anger of Kalaratri enraged 
on account of Naravahanadatta having omitted to worship 
her. And in a moment the whole army of Naravahanadatta 
became insensible, as if with sleep, but he alone remained in 
full possession of his faculties. Then the emperor perceived 
that this was a display of power on the part of Kalaratri, 
angry because she had not been worshipped, and he proceeded 
to worship her with flowers of speech : 

" Thou art the power of life, animating all creatures, of 
loving nature, skilful in directing the discus to the head of 
thy foes ; thee I adore. Hail ! thou, that under the form 
of Durga dost console the world with thy trident and other 
weapons streaming with the drops of blood flowing from the 
throat of the slain Mahisha. 2 Thou art victorious, dancing 
with a skull full of the blood of Ruru 3 in thy agitated hand, 
as if thou wast holding the vessel of security of the three 
worlds. Goddess beloved of Siva, with uplifted eyes, though 
thy name means the night of doom, still, with skull sur- 
mounted by a lighted lamp, and with a skull in thy hand, 
thou dost shine as if with the sun and moon." 

Though he praised Kalaratri in these words, she was not 
propitiated, and then he made up his mind to appease her 

1 Or possibly " Ganas (Siva's attendants) and witches." 

2 The giant slain by Durga. See Wilkins, Hindu Mythology, p. 250. n.m.p. 

3 See Vol. II, p. 228ft 1 . n.m.p. 


by the sacrifice of his head ; and he drew his sword to that 

Then the goddess said to him: "Do. not act rashly, my 
son. Lo ! I have been won over by thee, thou hero. Let 
this thy army be as it was before, and be thou victorious ! " 
And immediately his army awoke as it were from sleep. Then 
his wives, and his companions, and all the Vidyadharas, 
praised the might of that emperor ! And the hero, having 
eaten and drunk and performed the necessary duties, spent 
that night, which seemed as long as if it consisted of a 
hundred watches instead of three. 1 

And the next morning he worshipped Kalaratri, and 
marched thence to engage Dhumasikha, who had barred his 
further advance with an army of Vidyadharas. Then the 
emperor had a fight with that king, who was the principal 
champion of Mandaradeva, of such a desperate character 
that the air was full of swords, the earth covered with the 
heads of warriors, and the only speech heard was the terrible 
cry of heroes shouting, " Slay ! Slay ! " Then the emperor 
took Dhumasikha captive in that battle by force, and after- 
wards treated him with deference ; and made him submit 
to his sway. And he quartered his army that night in his 
city, and the host seemed like fuel consumed with fire, as it 
had seen the extinction of Dhumasikha's 2 pride. 

And the next day, hearing from the scouts that Mandara- 
deva, having found out what had taken place, was advancing 
to meet him in fight, Naravahanadatta marched out against 
him with the chiefs of the Vidyadharas, determined to con- 
quer him. And after he had gone some distance he beheld 
in front of him the army of Mandaradeva, accompanied by 
many kings, attacking in order of battle. Then Narava- 
hanadatta, with the allied kings at his side, drew up his 
forces in an arrangement fitted to encounter the formation 
of his enemies, and fell upon his army. 

1 The measures of time vary considerably, according to the different 
authorities. Yama is the word used here for "watch." It occurs in the table 
as given in the Bhagavata-purana (iii. 2). For further details see Barnett, 
Antiquities of India, p. 219- n.m.p. 

2 Dhumasikha, literally "the smoke-crested," means "fire." 


Then a battle took place between those two armies, which 
imitated the disturbed flood of the ocean overflowing its bank 
at the day of doom. On one side were fighting Chandasimha 
and other great champions, and on the other Kanchana- 
damshtra and other mighty kings. And the battle waxed 
sore, resembling the rising of the wind at the day of doom, for 
it made the three worlds tremble, and shook the mountains. 
Mount Kailasa, red on one side with the blood of heroes, 
as with saffron paint, and on the other of ashy whiteness, 
resembled the husband of Gauri. That great battle was 
truly the day of doom for heroes, being grimly illuminated 
by innumerable orbs of the sun arisen in flashing sword- 
blades. Such was the battle that even Narada and other 
heavenly beings, who came to gaze at it, were astonished, 
though they had witnessed the fights between the gods and 
the Asuras. 

In this fight, which was thus terrible, Kanchanadamshtra 
rushed on Chandasimha, and smote him on the head with a 
formidable mace. When Dhanavati saw that her son had 
fallen under the stroke of the mace, she cursed and paralysed 
both armies by means of her magic power. And Narava- 
hanadatta, on one side, in virtue of his imperial might, 1 and 
on the other side, Mandaradeva, were the only two that 
remained conscious. Then even the gods in the air fled in 
all directions, seeing that Dhanavati, if angry, had power 
to destroy a world. 

But Mandaradeva, seeing that the Emperor Naravahana- 
datta, for his part, descended from his chariot, drawing 
the sword which was one of his imperial jewels, quickly met 
him. Then Mandaradeva, wishing to gain the victory by 
magic arts, assumed by his science the form of a furious 
elephant maddened with passion. When Naravahanadatta, 
who was endowed with pre-eminent skill in magic, saw this, 
he assumed by his supernatural power the form of a lion. 

1 I read saptva, which I find in MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166; the other has 
sasva. I also find chakravartibalad in No. 1882 (with a short *), and this reading 
I have adopted. The Sanskrit College MS. seems to have saptva. In si. 119 
I think we ought to delete the h in sangramah. In 121 the apostrophe before 
gra-bhasvarah is useless and misleading. In 122 y ad should be separated from 


Then Mandaradeva flung off the body of an elephant, and 
Naravahanadatta abandoned that of a lion, and fought with 
him openly in his own shape. 1 Armed with sabres, and 
skilled in every elaborate trick and attitude of fence, they 
appeared like two actors skilled in gesticulation, engaged in 
acting a pantomime. Then Naravahanadatta by a dexterous 
sleight forced from the grasp of Mandaradeva his sword, 
the material symbol of victory. And Mandaradeva, having 
been thus deprived of his sword, drew his dagger, but the 
emperor quickly made him relinquish that in the same way. 
Then Mandaradeva, being disarmed, began to wrestle with 
the emperor, but he seized him by the ankles, and laid him 
on the earth. 

And then the sovereign set his foot on his enemy's breast, 
and laying hold of his hair was preparing to cut off his head 
with his sword, when the maiden Mandaradevi, the sister of 
Mandaradeva, rushed up to him, and in order to prevent him 
said : " When I saw you long ago in the wood of ascetics I 
marked you for my future husband, so do not, my sovereign, 
kill this brother of mine, who is your brother-in-law." When 
the resolute king had been thus addressed by that fair-eyed 
one he let go Mandaradeva, who was ashamed at having been 
conquered, and said to him : "I set you at liberty ; do not 
be ashamed on that account, Vidyadhara chief ; victory and 
defeat in war bestow themselves on heroes with varying 
caprice." When the king said this, Mandaradeva answered 
him : "Of what profit is my life to me, now that I have been 
saved in war by a woman ? So I will go to my father in the 
wood where he is, and perform asceticism ; you have been 
appointed emperor over both divisions of our territory here. 
Indeed this occurrence was foretold long ago to me by my 
father as sure to take place." When the proud hero had said 
this, he repaired to his father in the grove of ascetics. 

Then the gods, that were present in the air on that 
occasion, exclaimed : " Bravo, great emperor, you have 
completely conquered your enemies, and obtained sovereign 
sway ! " When Mandaradeva had gone, Dhanavati, by her 
magic power, restored her own son, and both armies with him, 
1 Cf. Vol. Ill, p. 195, 195W 1 . 


to consciousness. So Naravahanadatta's followers, ministers 
and all, arose as it were from sleep, and, finding out that the 
foe had been conquered, congratulated Naravahanadatta, 
their victorious master. And the kings of Mandaradeva's 
party, Kanchanadamshtra, Asokaka, Raktaksha, Kalajihva 
and the others, submitted to the sway of Naravahanadatta. 
And Chandasimha, when he saw Kanchanadamshtra, remem- 
bered the blow of the mace which he received from him in 
fight, and was wroth with him, brandishing his good sword 
firmly grasped in his strong hand. But Dhanavati said to 
him : " Enough of wrath, my beloved son ! Who could conquer 
you in the van of battle ? But I myself produced that 
momentary glamour, in order to prevent the destruction of 
both armies." With these words she pacified her son, and 
made him cease from wrath, and she delighted the whole 
army and the Emperor Naravahanadatta 1 by her magic 
skill. And Naravahanadatta was exceedingly joyful, having 
obtained the sovereignty of the north side of Kailasa, the 
mountain of Siva, a territory now free from the scourge of 
war, since the heroes who opposed him had been conquered, 
or had submitted, or fled, and that too with all his friends 
unharmed. Then shrill kettledrums were beaten for the great 
festival of his victory over his enemies, 2 and the triumphant 
monarch, accompanied by his wives and ministers, and girt 
with mighty kings, spent that day, which was honoured by 
the splendid dances and songs of the Vidyadhara ladies, in 
drinking wine, as it were the fiery valour of his enemies. 

1 All the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read chakravartij 
with a short i. 

2 The India Office MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 and the Sanskrit College 
MS. read taraturyam. It makes the construction clearer, but no material 
difference in the sense. 



THEN, the next day, the Emperor Naravahanadatta, 
[M] with his army, left that plateau of Kailasa, 
and by the advice of King Kanchanadamshtra, who 
showed him the way, went to that city of Mandaradeva 
named Vimala. And he reached that city, which was 
adorned with lofty ramparts of gold, and looked like Mount 
Sumeru come to adore Kailasa, and, entering it, found that 
it resembled the sea in all but the presence of water, being 
very deep, characterised by unfailing prosperity, 1 and an 
inexhaustible mine of jewels. 

And as the emperor was sitting in the hall of audience in 
that city, surrounded by Vidyadhara kings, an old woman of 
the royal harem came and said to him : " Since Mandara- 
deva has gone to the forest, having been conquered by you, 
his wives desire to enter the fire ; your Highness has now been 
informed and will decide upon the proper course." When 
this had been announced, the emperor sent those kings 
to them, and dissuaded them from suicide, and bestowed 
upon them dwelling-houses and other gifts, treating them 
like sisters. By that step he caused the whole race of the 
Vidyadhara chiefs to be bound to him with bonds of affection. 
And then the grateful monarch anointed Amitagati, who 
had been designated before by Siva, king over the realm of 
Mandaradeva, since he was loyal and could be trusted not 
to fall away, and he placed under him the princes who had 
followed Mandaradeva namely, Kanchanadamshtra and his 
fellows. And he diverted himself there in splendid gardens 
for seven days, being caressed by the fortune of the northern 
side of Kailasa, as by a newly married bride. 

And then, though he had acquired the imperial authority 
over the Vidyadhara kings of both divisions, he began to long 
for more. He set out, though his ministers tried to dissuade 

1 Or "adorned with Vishnu's Lakshml." Here we have a pun, as she 
sprang from the sea. 



him, to conquer the inaccessible fields of Meru situated in 
the northern region, the home of the gods. For high-spirited 
men, though abundantly loaded with possessions, cannot rest 
without acquiring something still more glorious, advancing 
like blazing forest fires. 

Then the hermit Narada came and said to the king : 
" Prince, what means this striving after things out of your 
reach, though you know policy ? For one who out of over- 
weening self-confidence attempts the impossible is disgraced 
like Havana, who, in his pride, endeavoured to uproot 
Kailasa. For even the sun and moon find Meru hard to 
overstep ; moreover, Siva has not bestowed on you the 
sway over the gods, but the sway over the Vidyadharas, so 
what need have you of Meru, the home of the gods ? Dismiss 
from your mind this chimerical scheme. Moreover, if you 
desire good fortune, you must go and visit the father of 
Mandaradeva, Akampana by name, in the forest, where he 
is residing." When the hermit Narada had said this, the 
emperor consented to do as he directed, and so he took leave 
of him, and returned whence he came. 

And the politic emperor, having been advised by Narada 
to relinquish his enterprise, 1 and remembering the destruc- 
tion of Rishabha, of which he had heard from Devamaya, 
and having reflected over the matter in his own mind, gave 
up the idea, and went to visit the kingly sage Akampana 
in the grove of ascetics. And when he reached that ascetic 
grove, it was crowded with great sages, engaged in con- 
templation, sitting in the posture called padmdsana, and so 
resembled the world of Brahma. 2 There he saw that aged 
Akampana, wearing matted hair and a deerskin, looking like 
a great tree resorted to by hermits. So he went and wor- 
shipped the feet of that ascetic, and that royal sage welcomed 

1 Herein he showed himself wiser than King Mandhatar, the hero of the 
first story in Ralston's Tibetan Tales, who, after acquiring all earthly riches, 
aspired to the throne of Sakra, king of the gods. As soon as he had conceived 
this idea his good fortune came to an end (see Ralston, op. cit., p. 18, and 
also p. 36). The best-known example of a sudden fall after aspiring too high 
is, of course, Grimm's tale of "The Fisherman and his Wife." For numerous 
analogues see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., No. 19, vol. i, pp. 138-148. n.m.p. 

2 See Vol. II, p. Il6n*. n.m.p. 


him and said to him : " You have done well, King, in coming 
to this hermitage, for if you had passed on, neglectful of it, 
these hermits here would have cursed you." 

While the royal sage was saying this to the emperor, 
Mandaradeva, who was staying in that grove of ascetics, 
having taken the vows of a hermit, came to his father, 
accompanied by his sister, the Princess Mandaradevi. And 
Naravahanadatta, when he saw him, embraced him, for it 
is fitting that truly brave men should show kindness to foes 
when conquered and pacified. 

Then the royal sage Akampana, seeing Mandaradevi 
come with her brother, said to that emperor : " Here, King, 
is my daughter, Mandaradevi by name ; and a heavenly 
voice said that she should be the consort of an emperor ; so 
marry her, Emperor, for I give her to you." 

When the royal sage said this, his daughter said : " I 
have four companions here, of like age, noble maidens ; one 
is a maiden called Kanakavati, the daughter of Kanchana- 
damshtra ; the second is the daughter of Kalajihva, Kalavati 
by name ; the third is the offspring of Dirghadamshtra, named 
Sruta ; the fourth is the daughter of the King of Paundra, 
named Ambaraprabha, and I am the fifth of those Vidyadhara 
maidens. We five, when roaming about, saw previously in 
a grove of ascetics this my destined husband, and, setting 
our hearts on him, we made an agreement together that we 
would all, at one and the same time, take him for our husband, 
but that, if any single one married him alone, the others 
should enter the fire, and lay the guilt at her door. So it is 
not fitting that I should marry without those friends of mine ; 
for how could persons like myself commit the outrageous 
crime of breaking plighted faith ? " 1 

When that self-possessed lady had said this, her father, 
Akampana, summoned those four Vidyadhara chiefs, who 
were the fathers of the four maidens, and told them exactly 
what had occurred; and they immediately thought them- 
selves very fortunate, and brought those maidens, their 
daughters. Then Naravahanadatta married the five in 
order, beginning with Mandaradevi. And he remained there 

1 Cf. the similar incident on p. 67 of this volume. n.m.p. 


with them many days, worshipping the hermits three times 
a day, at dawn, noon and sunset, while his attendants held 
high festival. 

And Akampana said to him : " King, you must now go 
to the Rishabha mountain for the great ceremony of your 
coronation." And thereupon Devamaya also said to him : 
" King, you must indeed do so, for the emperors of old 
time, Rishabhaka and others, were anointed ' on that 

When Harisikha heard that, he spoke in favour of 
Naravahanadatta's being anointed emperor on the splendid 
mountain of Mandara, which was near ; but a voice came 
from heaven : " King, all former emperors went through the 
ceremony of their coronation on the Rishabha mountain; 
do you also go there, for it is a holy place." 2 

When the heavenly voice said this, Naravahanadatta 
bowed before the hermits and Akampana, and set out thence 
for that mountain on an auspicious day. And he reached 
that northern opening of the cave of Trisirsha, with many 
great chiefs of the Vidyadharas, headed by Amitagati. 
There the emperor worshipped that Kalaratri, and entered 
the cave by that opening, and came out by the southern 
opening. And after he had come out with his forces he 
rested, at Devamaya's request, in his palace for that day, 
together with his attendants. 

And while he was there, he reflected that Siva was near 
him on that mountain of Kailasa, and he went of his own 
accord, with Gomukha, to visit the god. And when he 
reached his hermitage, he saw and adored the cow Surabhi 
and the sacred bull, and approached Nandin, the doorkeeper. 
And Nandin was pleased when the king circumambulated 
him, and opened the door to him, and then he entered and 
beheld Siva, accompanied by Devi. The god diffused glad- 
ness afar by the streams of rays from the moon on his crest, 

1 Of course, in the original the word expresses the idea of sprinkling 
with water. 

2 It may possibly mean, "land of the Siddhas." In Chapter CVII the 
Siddhas are mentioned as directing Naravahanadatta's devotions on their 
holy mountain. 


that seemed to dart hither and thither as if conquered by 
the splendour of Gauri's face. He was playing with his 
beloved with dice, that, like eyes, were allowed at will to 
pursue their objects independently that, though under his 
command, were ever restlessly rolling. And when Naravahana- 
datta saw that giver of boons, and that goddess, the daughter 
of the mountain, he fell at their feet, and circumambulated 
them three times. The god said to him : " It is well, my 
son, that thou hast come hither ; for otherwise thou mightest 
have suffered loss. But now all thy magic powers shall ever 
be unfailing. So go thou to the Rishabha mountain, that 
holy place, and obtain there at once in fitting time thy great 

When the emperor had received this command from the 
god, he hastened to obey it, exclaiming : "I will do thy 
will," and bowed before him and his wife, and returned 
to that palace of Devamaya. The Queen Madanamanchuka 
playfully said to him on his return : " Where have you been, 
my husband ? You appear to be pleased. Have you man- 
aged to pick up here another set of five maidens ? " When 
she made use of these playful taunts, the prince gladdened 
her by telling her the real state of affairs, and remained with 
her in happiness. 

And the next day, Naravahanadatta, accompanied by a 
host of Gandharvas and Vidyadharas, making, as it were, a 
second sun in the heavens by his glorious presence, ascended 
his splendid car, with his wives and his ministers, and made 
for the Rishabha mountain. And when he reached that 
heavenly hill, the trees, like hermits, with their creepers like 
matted hair waving in the wind, shed their flowers before him 
by way of a respectful offering. And there various kings of 
the Vidyadharas brought the preparations for the coronation 
on a scale suited to the might of their master. And the Vidya- 
dharas came to his coronation from all quarters, with presents 
in their hands, all loyal, terrified, vanquished or respectful. 

Then the Vidyadharas said to him : " Tell us, King, who 
is to occupy half your throne, and to be anointed as queen 
consort ? " The king answered : " The Queen Madana- 
manchuka is to be anointed together with me " ; and this at 



once set the Vidyadharas thinking. Then a bodiless voice 
came from the air : " Hearken, Vidyadharas ! This Madana- 
manchuka is not a mortal ; for she is Rati become incarnate, 
in order to be the wife of this your master, who is the God of 
Love. She was not born to Madanavega by Kalingasena, but, 
being of superhuman origin, was immediately substituted 
by the gods, who employed their deluding power, for the 
infant to which Kalingasena gave birth. 1 But the infant 
to which she gave birth was named Ityaka, and remained 
at the side of Madanavega, having been assigned to him 
by the Creator. So this Madanamanchuka is worthy to 
share the throne of her husband, for Siva long ago granted 
her this honour as a boon, having been pleased with her 
asceticism." When the voice had said so much, it ceased, 
and the Vidyadharas were pleased, and praised the Queen 
Madanamanchuka . 

Then, on an auspicious day, the great hermits sprinkled 
with water from many sacred bathing-places, brought in 
pitchers of gold, Naravahanadatta seated on the imperial 
throne, while Madanamanchuka occupied the left half of it. 
And during the ceremony Santisoma, the domestic chaplain, 
was busily occupied, and the assembled cymbals of the 
heavenly nymphs resounded aloud, 2 and the murmur made 
by Brahmans reciting prayers filled the ten points of the sky. 
Strange to say, when the water, made more purifying by 
holy texts, fell on his head, the secret defilement 3 of enmity 
was washed out from the minds of his foes. The Goddess of 
Fortune seemed to accompany in visible presence that water 
of consecration, under the impression that it came from the 
sea, and so was a connection of her own, and to join with 
it in covering the body of that king. A series of flower 
garlands, flung by the hands of the nymphs of heaven, falling 
on him, appeared like the Ganges spontaneously descending on 
his body with a full stream. Adorned with red unguent and 

1 See Vol. Ill, p. 131. n.m.p. 

2 The corresponding line in the D. text reads : mangalyaturyanadeshu 
suglteshu dyuyoshitam "at the beautiful songs of the heavenly nymphs ac- 
companied by the auspicious sound of the (heavenly) musical instruments." 
See Speyer, op. cit. p. 145. n.m.p. 

3 I read vairamalam. The reading in Brockhaus' text is a misprint. 


valour, he appeared like the sun in the glory of rising, washed 
in the water of the sea. 1 And crowned with a garland of 
manddra flowers, resplendent with glorious raiment and orna- 
ments, having donned a heavenly diadem, he wore the majesty 
of Indra. And Queen Madanamanchuka, having been also 
anointed, glittered with heavenly ornaments at his side, like 
Saehi at the side of Indra. 

And that day, though drums sounded like clouds, and 
flowers fell from the sky like rain, and though it was full 2 of 
heavenly nymphs like lightning gleams, was, strange to say, 
a fair one. On that occasion, in the city of the chief of the 
mountains, not only did beautiful Vidyadhara ladies dance, 
but creepers shaken by the wind danced also ; and when 
cymbals were struck by minstrels at that great festival, the 
mountain seemed to send forth responsive strains from its 
echoing caves ; and covered all over with Vidyadharas 
moving about intoxicated with the liquor of heavenly cordials 
it seemed to be itself reeling with wine ; and Indra, in his 
chariot, having beheld the splendour of the coronation which 
has now been described, felt his pride in his own altogether 

Naravahanadatta, having thus obtained his long-desired 
inauguration as emperor, thought with yearning of his 
father. And having at once taken counsel with Gomukha, 
and his other ministers, the monarch summoned Vayupatha, 
and said to him : "Go and say to my father : ' Narava- 
hanadatta thinks of you with exceeding longing,' and tell 
him all that has happened, and bring him here, and bring his 

1 Cf. Holinshed's account of Richard II's coronation: "The Archbishop, 
having stripped him, first anointed his hands, after his head, breast, shoulders, 
and the joints of his arms, with the sacred oil, saying certain prayers, and in 
the meanwhile did the choir sing the anthem, beginning ' Unxerunt regem 
Salomonem.' " The above quotation comes from the Clarendon Press Edition 
of King Richard II, p. 137, sub calcem. 

2 I read vritam, which appears to be the reading of the three India Office 
MSS. and of the Sanskrit College MS. It is clear enough in No. 2166. 
In si. 85 I think that the reading of MS. No. 3003, nanrityatkevalam yavad 
vatoddhidalata api, must be something near the truth, as yaval, in Brockhaus* 
text, gives no meaning. (The Sanskrit College MS. gives Anrityannaiva vatena 
dhuta yaval lata api.} Of course the plural must be substituted for the singular. 
I have translated accordingly. Two MSS. have valgad for vallad in //. 87. 



queens and his ministers too, addressing the same invitation 
to them." When Vayupatha heard this, he said : " I will do 
so," and made for Kausambi through the air. 

And he reached that city in a moment, beheld with fear 
and astonishment by the citizens, as he was encircled by 
seventy million Vidyadharas. And he had an interview with 
Udayana, King of Vatsa, with his ministers and wives, and 
the king received him with appropriate courtesy. And the 
Vidyadhara prince sat down and asked the king about his 
health, and said to him, while all present looked at him with 
curiosity : 

" Your son, Naravahanadatta, having propitiated Siva, and 
beheld him face to face, and having obtained from him sciences 
difficult for enemies to conquer, has slain Manasavega and 
Gaurlmunda in the southern division of the Vidyadhara 
territory, and conquered Mandaradeva who was lord in 
the northern division, and has obtained ' the high dignity 
of emperor over all the kings of the Vidyadharas in both 
divisions, who acknowledge his authority ; and has now gone 
through his solemn coronation on the Rishabha mountain, 
and is thinking, King, with eager yearning of you and your 
queens and ministers. And I have been sent by him, so 
come at once ; for fortunate are those who live to see their 
offspring elevate their race." 

When the King of Vatsa heard Vayupatha say this, being 
full of longing for his son, he seemed like a peacock that 
rejoices when it hears the roaring of the rain-clouds. So he 
accepted Vayupatha's invitation, and immediately mounted 
a palankeen with him, and by the might of his sciences 
travelled through the air, accompanied by his wives and 
ministers, and reached that great heavenly mountain called 
Rishabha. And there he saw his son on a heavenly throne, 
in the midst of the Vidyadhara kings, accompanied by 
many wives; resembling the moon reclining on the top of 
the eastern mountain, surrounded by the planetary host, and 
attended by a company of many stars. To the king the sight 
of his son in all his splendour was a shower of nectar, and 

1 Two of the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read 
asadya ; the line appears to be omitted in the third. 


when he was bedewed with it his heart swelled with joy, and 
he closely resembled the sea when the moon rises. 

Naravahanadatta, for his part, beholding that father of 
his after a long separation, rose up hurriedly and eager, and 
went to meet him with his train. And then his father em- 
braced him, and folded him to his bosom, and he went 
through a second sprinkling, 1 being bathed in a flood of 
his father's tears of joy. And Queen Vasavadatta long 
embraced her son, and bathed him with the milk that flowed 
from her breasts at beholding him, so that he remembered 
his childhood. And Padmavati, and Yaugandharayana, and 
the rest of his father's ministers, and his uncle Gopalaka, 
beholding him after a long interval, drank in with thirsty 
eyes his ambrosial frame, like partridges ; while the 
king treated them with the honour which they deserved. 
And Kalingasena, beholding her son-in-law, and also her 
daughter, felt as if the whole world was too narrow for her, 
much less could her own limbs contain her swelling heart. 
And Yaugandharayana and the other ministers, beholding 
their sons, Harisikha and the others, on whom celestial 
powers had been bestowed by the favour of their sovereign, 
congratulated them. 2 

And Queen Madanamanchuka. wearing heavenly orna- 
ments, with Ratnaprabha, Alankaravati, Lalitalochana, 
Karpurika, Saktiyasas and Bhaglrathayasas, and the sister 
of Ruchiradeva, who bore a heavenly form, and Vegavati, 
and Ajinavati with Gandharvadatta, and Prabhavati and 
Atmanika and Vayuvegayasas, and her four beautiful friends, 
headed by Kalika, and those five other heavenly nymphs, of 
whom Mandaradevi was the chief all these wives of the 
Emperor Naravahanadatta bowed before the feet of their 
father-in-law the King of Vatsa, and also of Vasavadatta 
and Padmavati, and they in their delight loaded them with 
blessings, as was fitting. 

And when the King of Vatsa and his wives had occupied 

1 An allusion to the sprinkling at his coronation. The king " put him on 
his lap." 

2 I read drisktva prabhuprasadaptadivyatvan, which I find in two of the 
India Office MSS. No. 3003 has prata for prabhu. 


seats suited to their dignity, Naravahanadatta ascended 
his lofty throne. And Queen Vasavadatta was delighted 
to see those various new daughters-in-law, and asked their 
names and lineage. And the King of Vatsa and his suite, 
beholding the godlike splendour of Naravahanadatta, came 
to the conclusion that they had not been born in vain. 

And in the midst of their great rejoicing * at the reunion 
of relations, the brave warder Ruchideva entered and said : 
" The banqueting hall is ready, so be pleased to come there." 
When they heard it they all went to that splendid banqueting 
hall. It was full of goblets made of various jewels, which 
looked like so many expanded lotuses, and strewn with many 
flowers, so that it resembled a lotus bed in a garden ; and it 
was crowded with ladies with jugs full of intoxicating liquor, 
who made it flash like the nectar appearing in the arms of 
Garuda. There they drank wine that snaps those fetters of 
shame that bind the ladies of the harem ; wine, the essence 
of love's life, the ally of merriment. Their faces, expanded 
and red with wine, shone like the lotuses in the lake, ex- 
panded and red with the rays of the rising sun. And the 
goblets of the rosy hue of the lotus, finding themselves sur- 
passed by the lips of the queens, and seeming terrified at 
touching them, hid with their hue of wine. 

Then the queens of Naravahanadatta began to show signs 
of intoxication, with their contracted eyebrows and fiery 
eyes, and the period of quarrelling 2 seemed to be setting in; 
nevertheless they went thence in order to the hall 3 of feast- 
ing, which was attractive with its various viands provided by 

1 All the India Office MSS. read sangamahotsave. The Sanskrit College 
MS. reads bandhunam sangamotsave. 

2 This reading seems doubtful, as no further mention is made of the 
"quarrelling." The D. text reads asann akopakdle (see p. 524 of the second 
edition) instead of B.'s dsanne kopakdle 'pi, thus the meaning is : "The wives of 
Naravahanadatta, though there was no opportunity then of being angry, had 
nevertheless contracted eyebrows and fiery eyes for they were intoxicated." 
There is no gap, as Tawney supposed. The D. reading is undoubtedly correct. 
See further Speyer, op. cit., p. 145. n.m.p. 

3 Literally, "ground." No doubt they squatted on the ground at the 
feast as well as at the banquet which preceded it, instead of following it 
as in the days of Shakespeare. 


the magic power. It was strewed with coverlets, abounding 
in dishes, and hung with curtains and screens, full of all 
kinds of delicacies and enjoyments, and it looked like the 
dancing-ground of the goddesses of good fortune. 

There they took their meal, and, the sun having retired 
to rest with the twilight on the western mountain, they re- 
posed in sleeping pavilions. And Naravahanadatta, dividing 
himself by his science into many forms, was present in 
the pavilions of all the queens. But in his true personality 
he enjoyed the society of his beloved Madanamanchuka, 
who resembled the night in being moon-faced, having eyes 
twinkling like stars, and being full of revelry. And the King 
of Vatsa too, and his train, spent that night in heavenly 
enjoyments, seeming as if they had been born again with- 
out changing their bodies. And in the morning all woke up, 
and delighted themselves in the same way with various enjoy- 
ments in splendid gardens and pavilions produced by magic 

Then, after they had spent many days in various amuse- 
ments, the King of Vatsa, wishing to return to his own city, 
went, full of affection, to his son, the king of all the Vidya- 
dharas, who bowed humbly before him, and said to him : " My 
son, who that has sense can help appreciating these heavenly 
enjoyments ? But the love of dwelling in one's mother- 
country naturally draws every man l ; so I mean to return to 
my own city ; but do you enjoy this fortune of Vidyadhara 
royalty, for these regions suit you as being half god and half 
man. However, you must summon me again some time, 
when a suitable occasion presents itself ; for this is the fruit 
of this birth of mine, that I behold this beautiful moon of 
your countenance, full of nectar worthy of being drunk in 
with the eyes, and that I have the delight of seeing your 
heavenly splendour." 

When King Naravahanadatta heard this sincere speech 

1 The King of Vatsa feels like Ulysses in the island of Calypso : 

te tffiaTa S'afA TTTpr)(Ti Kol rj'iovtcrcri Kadifav 

8a.Kpv(rL koll o"TOva)(rj(ri kcu<ri Ovjxbv epkydoiv 
ttovtov 7r' drpvyerov StpKeo-Ktro SaKpva \i/3u)V." 

Odyssey, v, 156-158. 


of his father, the King of Vatsa, he quickly summoned 
Devamaya, the Vidyadhara prince, and said to him in a voice 
half-choked with a weight of tears : " My father is returning 
to his own capital with my mothers, and his ministers, and 
the rest of his train, so send on in front of him a full 
thousand bhdras * of gold and jewels, and employ a thousand 
Vidyadhara serfs to carry it." 

When Devamaya had received this order, given in the 
kind tones of his master, he bowed and said : " Bestower 
of honour, I will go in person with my attendants to 
Kausambi to perform this duty." Then the emperor sent 
Vayupatha and Devamaya to attend on their journey his 
father and his followers, whom he honoured with presents of 
raiment and ornaments. Then the King of Vatsa and his 
suite mounted a heavenly chariot, and he went to his own 
city, after making his son, who followed him a long way, 
turn back. And Queen Vasavadatta, whose longing regret 
rose at that moment with hundredfold force, turned back 
her dutiful son with tears, and, looking back at him, with 
difficulty tore herself away. And Naravahanadatta, accom- 
panied by his ministers, Gomukha and the rest, who had 
grown up with him from his youth, and with hosts of Vidya- 
dhara kings, with his wives, and with Madanamanchuka 
at his side, in the perpetual enjoyment of heavenly pleasures 
was ever free from satiety. 2 

1 A bhdra is 20 tulds. 

2 In the above chapter we have seen how, after the defeat of Mandaradeva, 
Naravahanadatta proceeds with his coronation ceremony. As in the longest 
tale in the Nights, " King Omar bin al-Nu'uman and his Sons " (see Burton, 
vol. iii, p. 112), all the chief characters of the tale assemble, and, with a final 
blaze of glory, the curtain falls. Surely this should be the end of the whole 
work. The great object of the hero has been achieved, all the seemingly 
unsurmountable obstacles have been overcome, every enemy has been con- 
quered, and every maiden has been won. Yet, to our great astonishment, we 
find three more complete Books before us. As we shall see in the " Terminal 
Essay," the chief value of the Books is to clear up some of the unsolved 
mysteries of order and arrangement which have presented themselves in 
previous Books. n.m.p. 



MAY Ganesa protect you, the ornamental streaks 
of vermilion on whose cheeks fly up in the dance, 
and look like the fiery might of obstacles swallowed 
and disgorged by him. 

[M] While Naravahanadatta was thus living on that 
Rishabha mountain with his wives and his ministers, and 
was enjoying the splendid fortune of emperor over the kings 
of the Vidyadharas, which he had obtained, once on a time 
spring came to increase his happiness. After long inter- 
mission the light of the moon was beautifully clear, and the 
earth, enfolded by the young fresh grass, showed its joy by 
sweating dewy drops, and the forest trees, closely embraced 
again and again by the winds of the Malaya mountain, were 
all trembling, bristling with thorns, and full of sap. 1 The 
warder of Kama, the cuckoo, beholding the stalk of the 
mango-tree, with his note seemed to forbid the pride of coy 
damsels ; and rows of bees fell with a loud hum from the 
flowery creepers, like showers of arrows shot from the bow 
of the great warrior Kama. And Naravahanadatta's 
ministers, Gomukha and the others, beholding at that time 
this activity of spring, said to Naravahanadatta : " See, King, 
this mountain of Rishabha is altogether changed, and is 
now a mountain of flowers, since the dense lines of forest 
with which it is covered have their blossoms full-blown with 

1 There is a play on words here. Sanskrit poets suppose that joy 
produces in human beings trembling, horripilation and perspiration. 



spring. Behold, King, the creepers, which, with their flowers 
striking against one another, seem to be playing the cas- 
tanets * ; and with the humming of their bees to be singing, 
as they are swayed to and fro by the wind ; while the pollen, 
that covers them, makes them appear to be crowned with 
garlands ; and the garden made ready by spring, in which 
they are, is like the Court of Kama. Look at this mango- 
shoot with its garland of bees ; it looks like the bow of the 
God of Love with loosened string, as he reposes after conquer- 
ing the world. So come, let us go and enjoy this festival 
of spring on the bank of the River Mandakini, where the 
gardens are so splendid." 

When Naravahanadatta had thus been exhorted by his 
ministers, he went with the ladies of his harem to the 
bank of the Mandakini. And there he diverted himself in 
a garden resounding with the song of many birds, adorned 

1 So Tawney translates samyatalavatlr. Sdmyatala means literally a wooden 
clapper for beating time, but whether it consisted of pear-shaped bowls of 
hard wood, which is what we mean by castanets, is impossible to say. Two 
distinct forms exist in India to-day the Jhang, made of metal, which mostly 
resembles the Moorish and Spanish castanets, but consist of only one pair, and 
the Khartdls, which are long, smooth stones in the shape of a cow's tongue, 
rather similar to nigger-minstrels' "bones." A pair is held in each hand. 
See Atiya Begum Fyzee Rahamin, Music of India, p. 62. She informs me 
that there remain very few people who can play the Khartal. Whether India 
was the original home of the Castanet is not known for certain, but what 
evidence there is, appears to be in favour of the theory. It is generally agreed 
that the Moors introduced the instrument into Spain " from the East." Such 
a dance-loving nation as the Spaniards not only received it enthusiastically, 
but discovered that the pomegranate wood was unrivalled in the manufacture 
of the instrument. The tones differ considerably and improve with age. 
When in Granada I made detailed inquiries about them, and discovered the 
most prized pairs are those made from the black wood, with hardly any of the 
lighter brown showing at all. My finest-sounding pair, a deep rich note, is 
almost entirely black ; while a light brown set I have is shrill in comparison. 
The KporaXa of the Greeks were a kind of castanet made of a split reed, and 
were used to accompany dances. They corresponded to the Roman crotala 
used in the Dionysiac and Bacchanalian rites. Literature on castanets seems 
very scarce, and the only article I can find entirely devoted to them is : Soy 
Yo, "Antiquity of the Castanet," Once a Week, vol. viii, 1863, pp. 609-610. 
Castanets of various woods, metals and ivory are found throughout the East,, 
and specimens from China, Burma, India, Siam, Japan and Arabia can be seen 
at the South Kensington Museum. n.m.p. 


with cardamom - trees, 1 clove - trees, 2 vakulas* asohas* and 
manddras. 5 And he sat down on a broad slab of moonstone, 6 
placing Queen Madanamanchuka at his left hand, accom- 

1 Sanskrit eld, which may apply either to the Greater cardamom, Amomum 
subulatum, a native of Nepal ; or to the Lesser cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, 
which is indigenous in West and South India, as well as in Burma. Eld is 
mentioned by Sus>uta in the first century a.d. or b.c. as forming part of a 
medicated " drum " used for snake-bites. It is also given as one of the three 
aromatic drugs (Tri-sugandhi) ; the other two being patra (or tejpatra, Cassia 
lignea) and tvak (or gudatvak, cinnamon). See Bhishagratna's translation, 
vol. ii, p. 739, and vol. iii, p. 313. For full details of the two varieties of 
cardamom see Watt, Diet. Econ. Prod. Ind., vol. i, pp. 222-223, and (especially) 
vol. iii, pp. 227-236. For its use in betel-chewing see e.g. pp. 242, 247 of this 
volume. n.m.p. 

2 Caryophyllus aromaticus (or Eugenia caryophyllata) is a native of the 
Moluccas, the flower-buds of which yield the cloves of commerce. In spite 
of attempts by the Dutch to restrict the cultivation to the island of Amboyna 
the clove-tree was introduced into Mauritius by the French in 1770 (who 
used the word clou, from which our " cloves " is derived, through its resem- 
blance to a nail). Cloves were subsequently cultivated in Guiana, Brazil, the 
West Indies, Zanzibar, Java, Sumatra and India. 

The history of the clove trade and the struggles between the Portuguese, 
Dutch, French and English forms a most exciting, though very bloody, story 
of early sea adventure to the "spice islands." See Watt, op. cit., vol. ii, 
p. 202 et seq. ; H. N. Ridley, Spices, pp. 155-196. Interesting accounts appear 
in several of the Hakluyt Society volumes : see e.g. G. P. Badger, Travels of 
Ludovico di Varthema, p. 245 et seq. ; M. L. Dames, Book of Duarte Barbosa, 
vol. ii, p. 199; Yule and Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. iv, p. 101 
et seq. For the use of cloves in betel-chewing see e.g. pp. 241, 246, 247, 255 
of the present volume. n.m.p. 

3 I.e. Mimusops elengi, largely cultivated in India, but found wild in the 
Deccan and Malay Peninsula. The tree is chiefly cultivated for its orna- 
mental appearance and its fragrant flowers. The latter are used for making 
garlands, stuffing pillows, etc., while the attar distilled from them is esteemed 
as a perfume. See further Watt, op. cit., vol. v, p. 249 et seq. n.m.p. 

4 See p. 7n* of this volume. n.m.p. 

5 Calotropis gigantea, the giant swallow-wort, known in Vedic times as 
arka ("wedge") and in modern days as maddr. It is used for numerous 
purposes gutta-percha, dye, tan, paper-making, etc. besides being largely 
employed for sacred, domestic, medicinal and agricultural purposes. For full 
details and references see Watt, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 34-49. n.m.p. 

6 This particular variety of feldspar comes almost entirely from the 
Dumbara district of the Central Province of Ceylon. It has been fully 
described in various papers by A. K. Coomaraswamy, as enumerated in La 
Touche, Bibliography of Indian Geology, pt. i, 1917, p. 102 et seq. n.m.p. 


panied by the rest of his harem, and attended by various 
princes of the Vidyadharas, of whom Chandasimha and 
Amitagati were the chief ; and while drinking wine and talk- 
ing on various subjects, the sovereign, having observed the 
beauty of the season, said to his ministers : " The southern 
breeze is gentle and soft to the feel ; the horizon is clear ; 
the gardens in every corner are full of flowers and fragrant ; 
sweet are the strains of the cuckoo, and the joys of the 
banquet of wine ; what pleasure is wanting in the spring ? 
Still, separation from one's beloved is during that season hard 
to bear. Even animals * find separation from their mates in 
the spring a severe affliction. For instance, behold this hen- 
cuckoo here distressed with separation ! For she has been 
long searching for her beloved, who has disappeared from her 
gaze, with plaintive cries, and not being able to find him she 
is now cowering on a mango, mute and like one dead." 

When the king had said this, his minister, Gomukha, said 
to him : " It is true, all creatures find separation hard to 
bear at this time ; and now listen, King ; I will tell you in 
illustration of this something that happened in Sravasti. 

167. Story of the Devoted Couple, Surasena and Sushend 2 

In that town there dwelt a Rajput, who was in the service 
of the monarch, and lived on the proceeds of a village. His 
name was Surasena, and he had a wife named Sushena, who 
was a native of Malava. She was in every respect well suited 
to him, and he loved her more than life. One day the king 
summoned him, and he was about to set out for his camp, 
when his loving wife said to him : " My husband, you ought 
not to go off and leave me alone ; for I shall not be able to 
exist here for a moment without you." When Surasena's 
wife said this to him, he replied : " How can I help going, 
when the king summons me ? Do you not understand my 
position, fair one ? You see, I am a Rajput, and a servant, 

1 For anyonyasya the three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College 
MS. read anyasyastam, which means : " Not to speak of other beings, even 
animals, etc." 

2 This is only another form of the story on pp. 9-10 of Vol. II. 


dependent on another for my subsistence." When his wife 
heard this she said to him, with tears in her eyes : "If you 
must of necessity go, I shall manage to endure it somehow, 
if you return not one day later than the commencement of 

Having heard this, he at last said to her : " Agreed, my 
dear ! I will return on the first day of the month Chaitra, 
even if I have to leave my duty." 

When he said this, his wife was at last induced to let him 
go ; and so Stirasena went to attend on the king in his camp. 
And his wife remained at home, counting the days in eager ex- 
pectation, looking for the joyful day on which spring begins, 
on which her husband was to return. At last, in the course 
of time, that day of the spring festival arrived, resonant 
with the songs of cuckoos, that seemed like spells to summon 
the God of Love. The humming of bees, drunk with the 
fragrance of flowers, fell on the ear, like the twanging of 
Kama's bow as he strung it. 

On that day Siirasena's wife Sushena said to herself : " Here 
is that spring festival arrived ; my beloved will, without 
fail, return to-day." So she bathed, and adorned herself, 
and worshipped the God of Love, and remained eagerly 
awaiting his arrival. But the day came to an end and her 
husband did not return, and during the course of that night 
she was grievously afflicted by despondency, and said to 
herself : " The hour of my death has come, but my husband 
has not returned ; for those whose souls are exclusively 
devoted to the service of another do not care for their own 
families." While she was making these reflections, with her 
heart fixed upon her husband, her breath left her body, as if 
consumed by the forest-fire of love. 

In the meanwhile Siirasena, eager to behold his wife, and 
true to the appointed day, got himself, though with great 
difficulty, relieved from attendance on the king, and mount- 
ing a swift camel accomplished a long journey and, arriving 
in the last watch of the night, reached his own house. There 
he beheld that wife of his lying dead, with all her ornaments 
on her, looking like a creeper, with its flowers full blown, 
rooted up by the wind. When he saw her, he was beside 


himself, and he took her up in his arms, and the bereaved 
husband's life immediately left his body in an outburst of 

But when their family goddess, Chandl, the bestower of 
boons, saw that that couple had met their death in this 
way, she restored them to life out of compassion. And after 
breath had returned to them, having each had a proof of 
the other's affection, they continued inseparable for the rest 
of their lives. 

[M] " Thus, in the season of spring, the fire of separation, 
fanned by the wind from the Malaya mountain, is intolerable 
to all creatures." When Gomukha had told this tale, Nara- 
vahanadatta, thinking over it, suddenly became despondent. 
The fact is, in magnanimous men, the spirits, by being 
elevated or depressed, indicate beforehand the approach of 
good or evil fortune. 1 

Then the day came to an end, and the sovereign performed 
his evening worship, and went to his bedroom, and got into 
bed, and reposed there. But in a dream at the end of the 
night 2 he saw his father being dragged away by a black 

1 Cf. Hamlet, Act V, sc. 2, 1. 223 ; Julius Ccesar, Act V, sc. 1,1. 71 et seq. 

2 See Vol. IV, p. 58, 58n 2 . The theory about the fulfilment of dreams 
dreamt just before morning seems to have been a widely spread view in 
classical times. In Ovid, Heroides, xix, 195, 196, we read: 

" Namque sub aurora, iam dormitante lucerna, 
Somnia quo cerni tempore vera solent." 

And in Horace, Sat. i, 1 0, 11. 32, 33 : 

"... vetuit me tali voce Quirinus, 
Post mediam noctem visus cum somnia vera." 

(See Wickham's edition, vol. ii, 1891, p. 103.) 

And^Moschus, Idyll, ii, 2 et seq. : 

" vvktos ore rpiTarov \ayos tWarat kyyvOi 8' rjcos, 

evre kol olt pK(ov TTOifMaiver at eOvos oveipiov." 

Cf. also Inferno, xxvi, 7 : 

" Ma se presso al mattin del ver si sogna, 
Tu sentirai, di qua da picciol tempo, 
Di quel che Prato, non ch'altri, t'agogna " : 


female towards the southern quarter. The moment he had 
seen this he woke up, and, suspecting that some calamity 
might have befallen his father, he thought upon the science 
named Prajnapti, 1 who thereupon presented herself, and he 
addressed this question to her : " Tell me, how has my father 
the King of Vatsa been going on ? For I am alarmed about 
him on account of a sight which I saw in an evil dream." 

When he said this to the science that had manifested 
herself in bodily form, she said to him : " Hear what has 
happened to your father the King of Vatsa. When he was 
in Kausambi, he suddenly heard from a messenger, who 
had come from Ujjayini, that King Chandamahasena was 
Bad Xeics dead, and the same person told him that his wife, 
fnm Kausambi the Queen Angara vati, had burned herself with 
his corpse. This so shocked him, that he fell senseless upon 
the ground : and when he recovered consciousness, he wept 
for a long time, with Queen Vasavadatta and his courtiers, 

and Purgatorio, ix, 13-18 : 

Nell' ora che comincia i tristi lai 

La rondinella, presso alia mattina, 

Forse a memoria de' suoi prirai guai ; 

E che la mente nostra, pellegrina 

Piu dalla came, e men da' pensier presa, 

Alle sue vision quasi e divina. . . ." 

(I quote from Lombardi's edition, 3 vols., Rome, 1820.) 

It is also an accepted fact in English folk-lore, see e.g. Britten's edition of 
Aubrey's Remaines of Geniilisme, p. 57. Writing on the same sabject in North 
Africa, Doutte says, Magie et Religion dans rAfrique du Xord f p. 400, " Les 
oneirocritiques arabes sont d'accord pour reconnaitre comme les plus veridiques 
les songes que Ton a au point du jour ; l'observation scientifique montre, du 
reste, que ce sont les songes precedent le reveil qui sont les plus nets. . . ." 
Among the Prophet's sayings is : " The truest dream is the one which you 
have about daybreak " (Mishiat, XXI, iv, 3). (Matthews' translation, vol. ii, 
p. 392, quoted by Westermarck, Ritual and Belief in Morocco, vol. ii, p. 55.) 
For the Indian practice see Julius von Negelein, Der Traumschlussd des 
Jagaddeva, p. 14 d seq. Here we read that a dream in the first watch of 
the night takes a year to come true, one in the second watch six months, 
one in the third watch three months, one in the fourth watch one month, 
one in the last two ghatika within ten days, while if the dream occurs at sun- 
rise immediate fulfilment will result. For the four latter references I am 
indebted to Professor Halliday. n.m.p. 
1 See Vol. II, p. SISn 1 . n.m.p. 


for his father-in-law and mother-in-law who had gone to 
heaven. But his ministers roused him by saying to him : 
4 In this transient world what is there that hath permanence ? 
Moreover, you ought not to weep for that king, who has you 
for a son-in-law, and Gopalaka for a son, and whose daughter's 
son is Naravahanadatta. ' When he had been thus admonished, 
and roused from his prostration, he gave the offering of water 
to his father-in-law and mother-in-law. 

" Then that King of Vatsa said, with throat half-choked 
with tears, to his afflicted brother-in-law, Gopalaka, who re- 
mained at his side out of affection : c Rise up, go to Uj jayini, 
and take care of your father's kingdom, for I have heard 
from a messenger that the people are expecting you.' When 
Gopalaka heard this he said, weeping, to the King of Vatsa : 
1 1 cannot bear to leave you and my sister, to go to Uj jayini. 
Moreover, I cannot bring myself to endure the sight of my 
native city, now that my father is not in it. So let Palaka, 
my younger brother, be king there with my full consent.' 
When Gopalaka had by these words shown his unwilling- 
ness to accept the kingdom, the King of Vatsa sent his 
commander-in-chief, Rumanvat, to the city of Uj jayini, and 
had his younger brother-in-law, named Palaka, crowned king 
of it, with his elder brother's consent. 

" And reflecting on the instability of all things he became 
disgusted with the objects of sense, and said to Yaugandha- 
rayana and his other ministers : ' In this unreal cycle of 
mundane existence all objects are at the end insipid ; and I 
have ruled my realm, I have enjoyed my pleasures, I have 
conquered my enemies ; I have seen my son in the possession 
of paramount sway over the Vidyadharas ; and now my 
allotted time has passed away, together with my connections ; 
and old age has seized me by the hair to hand me over to 
death ; and wrinkles have invaded my body, as the strong 
invade the kingdom of a weakling 2 ; so I will go to Mount 
Kalinjara, and, abandoning this perishable body, will there 
obtain the imperishable mansion of which they speak.' When 

1 I read parsvasthitam for parhastham. The former is found in the three 
India Office MSS. and in* the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 The word which means "wrinkles" also means "strong." 


the ministers had been thus addressed by the king, they 
thought over the matter ; and then they all, and Queen 
Vasavadatta, said to him, with calm equanimity : ' Let it be, 
King, as it has pleased your Highness ; by your favour we also 
will try to obtain a high position in the next world.' 

" When they had said this to the king, being like-minded 
with himself, he formed a deliberate resolution, and said to 
his elder brother-in-law, Gopalaka, who was present : ' I look 
upon you and Naravahanadatta as equally my sons ; so take 
care of this Kausambi: I give you my kingdom.' When 
the King of Vatsa said this to Gopalaka, he replied : * My 
destination is the same as yours, I cannot bear to leave you.' 
This he asserted in a persistent manner, being ardently 
attached to his sister ; whereupon the King of Vatsa said 
to him, assuming * an anger that he did not feel : * To-day 
you have become disobedient, so as to affect a hypocritical 
conformity to my will ; and no wonder, for who cares for the 
command of one who is falling from his place of power ? ' 
When the king spoke thus roughly to him, Gopalaka wept, with 
face fixed on the ground, and, though he had determined 
to go to the forest, he turned back for a moment from his 

" Then the king mounted an elephant, and accompanied 
by his queens, Vasavadatta and Padmavati, set out with his 
ministers. And when he left Kausambi the citizens followed 
him, with their wives, children and aged sires, crying aloud 
and raining a tempest of tears. The king comforted them 
by saying to them : ' Gopalaka will take care of you.' And so 
at last he induced them to return, and passed on to Mount 
Kalinjara ; and he reached it, and went up it, and worshipped 
Siva, and holding in his hand his lyre, Ghoshavati, that he 
had loved all his life, and accompanied by his queens that 
were ever at his side, and Yaugandharayana and his other 
ministers, he hurled himself from the cliff. And even as they 
fell, a fiery chariot came and caught up the king and his 
companions, and they went in a blaze of glory to heaven." 

When Naravahanadatta heard this from the science he 
exclaimed, " Alas ! My father ! " and fell senseless on the 

1 The three India Office MSS. read kritvaiva for kritveva. 



ground. And when he recovered consciousness he bewailed 
his father and mother and his father's ministers, in company 
with his own ministers, who had lost their fathers. 

But the chiefs of the Vidyadharas and Dhanavati ad- 
monished him, saying : " How is it, King, that you are beside 
yourself, though you know the nature of this versatile world, 
that perishes in a moment, and is like the show of a juggler ? 
And how can you lament for your parents, that are not to be 
lamented for, as they have done all they had to do on earth : 
who have seen you their son sole emperor over all the Vidya- 
dharas ? " When he had been thus admonished he offered 
water to his parents, and put another question to that science : 
" Where is my Uncle Gopalaka now ? What did he do ? " 

Then that science went on to say to that king : " When 
the King of Vatsa had gone to the mountain from which he 
meant to throw himself, Gopalaka, having lamented for him 
and his sister, and considering all things unstable, remained 
outside the city, and summoning his brother, Palaka, from 
UjjayinI, made over to him that kingdom of Kausambi also. 
And then, having seen his younger brother established in 
two kingdoms, he went to the hermitage of Kasyapa in the 
ascetic grove on the Black Mountain, 1 bent on abandoning 
the world. And there your uncle Gopalaka now is, clothed in 
a dress of bark, in the midst of self-mortifying hermits." 

When Naravahanadatta heard that, he went in a chariot 
to the Black Mountain, with his suite, eager to visit that 
uncle. There he alighted from the sky, surrounded by Vidya- 
dhara princes, and beheld that hermitage of the hermit 
Kasyapa. It seemed to gaze on him with many roaming, 
black, antelope-like, rolling eyes, and to welcome him with the 
songs of its birds. With the lines of smoke ascending into the 
sky, where pious men were offering the Agnihotra oblations, 
it seemed to point the way to heaven to the hermits. It was 
full of many mountain-like, huge elephants, and resorted to 
by troops of monkeys 2 ; and so seemed like a strange sort 
of Patala, above ground, and free from darkness. 

1 Asitagiri. 

2 This passage is full of lurking puns. 

It may mean "full of world- 
upholding kings of the snakes, and of many Kapilas." 


In the midst of that grove of ascetics he beheld his uncle, 
surrounded by hermits, with long matted locks, clothed in 
the bark of a tree, looking like an incarnation of patience. 
And Gopalaka, when he saw his sister's son approach, rose 
up and embraced him, and pressed him to his bosom with 
tearful eyes. Then they, both of them, lamented their lost 
dear ones with renewed grief : whom will not the fire of grief 
torture, when fanned by the blast of a meeting with relations? 
When even the animals there were pained to see their grief, 
Kasyapa and the other hermits came up and consoled those 
two. Then that day came to an end, and next morning the 
emperor entreated Gopalaka to come to dwell in his kingdom. 
But Gopalaka said to him : " What, my child ; do you not 
suppose that I have all the happiness I desire by thus seeing 
you ? If you love me, remain here in this hermitage, during 
this rainy season, which has arrived." 

When Naravahanadatta had been thus entreated by his 
uncle, he remained in the hermitage of Kasyapa on the Black 
Mountain, with his attendants, for the term mentioned. 


NOW, one day, when Naravahanadatta was in the 
[M] hall of audience on the Black Mountain, his 
commander-in-chief came before him, and said : 
" Last night, my sovereign, when I was on the top of my 
house, looking after my troops, I saw a woman being carried 
off through the air by a heavenly being, crying out : ' Alas ! 
My husband ! ' And it seemed as if the moon, which is 
powerful at that season, had taken her and carried her off, 
finding that she robbed it of all its beauty. I exclaimed : 
Ah, villain ! Where will you go, thus carrying off the wife 
of another? In the kingdom of King Naravahanadatta the 
protector, which is the territory of the Vidyadharas, extend- 
ing over sixty thousand yojanas, even animals do not work 
wickedness, much less other creatures. 5 When I had said 
this, I hastened with my attendants and arrested that swift- 
footed * one, and brought him down from the air with the 
lady : and when we looked at him, after bringing him down, 
we found that it was your brother-in-law, the Vidyadhara 
Ityaka, the brother of your principal queen, born to Madana- 
vega by Queen Kalingasena. We said to him : ' Who is this 
lady, and where are you taking her ? ' And then he answered : 
1 This is Suratamanjarl, the daughter of the Vidyadhara 
chief, Matangadeva, by Chxitamanjari. Her mother promised 
her to me long ago ; and then her father bestowed her on 
another, a mere man. So, if I have to-day recovered my own 
wife, and carried her off, what harm have I done ? ' When 
Ityaka had said so much, he was silent. 

" Then I said to Suratamanjarl : ' Lady, by whom were 
you married, and how did this person get possession of you ? ' 
Then she said : c There is in Ujjayini a fortunate king named 
Palaka, he has a son, a prince named 2 Avantivardhana ; by 

1 For supdd y No. 1182 reads puman and No. 2166 suman. 

2 Two of the India Office MSS. have sunamavantivardhanah in si. 13. In 
the third there is a lacuna. 



him I was married ; and this night, when I was asleep on 
the top of the palace, and my husband was asleep also, I was 
carried off by this villain.' When she said this I kept both 
of them here, the lady and Ityaka, the latter in fetters ; it 
now remains for your Majesty to decide what is to be done." 

When the emperor heard this from his commander-in- 
chief, Harisikha, he went in some perplexity to Gopalaka and 
told him the story. Gopalaka said : " My dear nephew, I 
do not know about this ; I know so much that the lady was 
lately married to Palaka's son ; so let the prince be summoned 
from Ujjayini, together with the minister, Bharataroha ; then 
we shall get at the truth." When the emperor received 
this advice from his uncle, he sent the Vidyadhara Dhuma- 
sikha to Palaka, his younger uncle, and summoned from 
Ujjayini that prince, his son and the minister. When they 
arrived, and bowed before the emperor, he and Gopalaka 
received them with love and courtesy, and questioned them 
about the matter under consideration. 

Then, in the presence of Avantivardhana, who looked 
like the moon robbed of the night, 1 of Suratamanjari, her 
father, and of Ityaka, of Vayupatha and his peers, and the 
hermit Kasyapa, and the men-at-arms, Bharataroha began 
to speak as follows : 

168. Story of King Palaka and his Son Avantivardhana 

Once on a time all the citizens of Ujjayini met together 
and said to Palaka, the king of that city : " To-morrow the 
festival called the giving of water will take place in this city, 
and if your Majesty has not heard the true account of the 
origin of this festival, please listen to it now. 

168a. King Chandamahdsena and the Asurats Daughter 2 

Long ago your father, Chandamahasena, propitiated tlie 
goddess Chandi with asceticism, in order to obtain a splendid 

1 In Sanskrit the moon is masculine and the night feminine. 

2 This story is found in Vol. I, pp. 124-128. See also the note on the 
"External Soul" motif on pp. 129-132 of the same volume. The examples 


sword and a wife. She gave him her own sword, and about 
a wife said to him : " Thou shalt soon slay, my son, the 
Asura called Angaraka, and obtain his beautiful daughter 
Angaravati for a wife." When the king had been favoured 
with this revelation from the goddess, he remained thinking 
on the Asura's daughter. Now, at this time, everybody that 
was appointed head police officer in Ujjayini was at once 
carried off by some creature at night and devoured. And 
this went on night after night. Then Chandamahasena, 
roaming leisurely about the city at night, to investigate the 
matter for himself, found an adulterer. He cut off with his 
sword his oiled and curled head, and no sooner was his neck 
severed than a certain Rakshasa came and laid hold of him. 
The king exclaimed, " This is the gentleman that comes and 

there given afford only a small idea of the enormous distribution of the motif. 
I am therefore glad to add the following further references sent me by 
Dr A. H. Krappe. 

(1) General: Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, vol. ii, p. 491 et. seq., 
(in connection \rith Samson and Delilah); Panzer, Sigfrid, Miinchen, 1912, 
p. 253 et seq. ; and Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. iii., p. 424 et seq., No. 197 
(Grimm, " The Crystal Ball "). 

(2) Life in Egg: Cosquin, Contes Populaires de Lorraine, vol. ii, p. 131 (see 
also vol. i, p. 168). 

(3) Life bound up with Animal: Hans Naumann, Primitive Gemeinschafts- 
kultur, pp. 99, 104; Cosquin, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 144, 356; Chauvin, op. cit., 
v, p. 235 ; vi, p. 88 ; vii, p. 67 ; O. Tobler, Die Epiphanie der Seele in deutscher 
Volkssage (Dissertation), Kiel, 191 1* p. 24. [Not seen by me.] 

(4) Life in Special Part of Body : RadlofF, Proben der Volkslitteratur . . ., 
vol. i, p. 66; Apollodorus, ed. Frazer, vol. i, pp. 165, 173 ; V. Tille, Verzeichnis 
d. Bohmischen Marchen, 1921 (FF Communications 34), p. 75 et seq.; B. Ilg, 
Maltesische Marchen, vol. i, p. 154 ; G. Jungbauer, Marchen aus Turkestan u. Tibet, 
Jena, 1923, p. 197; A. P. Graves, The Irish Fairy Book, p. 140; Revue des 
Traditions Populaires, tome xxv, August-September 1910, p. 293. 

(5) Life in Weapon, Ornament, or other Object : Von der Leyen, Das Marchen^ 
1917, p. 32 ; Cosquin, op. cit., vol. i, p. 25 ; W. Larminie, West Irish Folk-Tales, 
p. 152; T. Menzel, Turkische Marchen. Billur K'dschk, Hanover, 1923, p. 79; 
Jungbauer, op. cit., p. 68. 

(6) Life in Burning Candle : Hartland, Science of Fairy Tales, p. 205 ; 
A. Stober, Alsatia, 1858-1861, p. 263; John Rhys, Lectures on the Origin and 
Growth of Religion . . ., Hibbert Lectures, Ldn., 1888, p. 514; J. G. Frazer, 
Apollodorus, vol. i, p. 65 ; Tille, op. cit., p. 113 ; W. Hertz, Deutsche Sage im 
Elsass, 1872, p. 118; W. Anderson, Philologus, vol. lxxiii, Leipzig, 1914-1916, 
p. 159. N.M.P. 


eats the heads of the police at night," and laying hold of that 
Rakshasa by the hair he prepared to slay him. 

Then the Rakshasa said : " King, do not slay me under 
a false impression ! There is another creature in this 
neighbourhood that eats the heads of the police." The 
king said : " Tell me I Who is it ? " And the Rakshasa 
continued : " There is in this neighbourhood an Asura of the 
name of Angaraka, whose home is in Patala. He it is that 
eats your police officers at the dead of night, O smiter of 
your foes. Moreover, Prince, he carries off by force the 
daughters of kings from every quarter, and makes them 
attend on his daughter, Angaravatl. If you see him roaming 
about in the forest slay him, and attain your object in that 

When the Rakshasa had said this, the king let him go, 
and returned to his palace. And one day he went out to 
hunt. And in the place where he was hunting he saw a 
monstrous boar, with eyes red with fury, looking like a piece 
of the Mountain of Antimony 1 fallen from heaven. The king 
said to himself : " Such a creature cannot be a real boar. I 
wonder whether it is the Asura Angaraka, who has the power 
of disguising himself " ; so he smote the boar with shafts. 
But the boar recked not of his shafts, and, overturning his 
chariot, entered a wide opening in the earth. 

But the heroic king entered after him, and did not see 
that boar, but saw in front of him a splendid castle. And he 
sat down on the bank of a lake, and saw there a maiden, with 
a hundred others attending on her, looking like an incarna- 
tion of Rati. She came up to him and asked him the reason 
of his coming there, and having conceived an affection for 
him said to him, with tearful eyes : " Alas ! What a place 

1 So Tawney translates Anjanadri, but I can find no trace of such a 
mountain. Dr Barnett thinks it is probably a fuller form of the name Anjana 
" antimony " which is given to the imaginary elephant of the regent of the 
West, Varuna. See Amara-kosa, I, i, 2, 5. There are several mountains of the 
name mentioned in the Puranas e.g. two in Jambu-dvipa and one in Gomeda- 
dvipa. But they are on the earth, and cannot fall out of the sky, which is a 
feat suitable for a Diggaja, or elephant of the sky quarters (see Mahabharata 
xiii, 132), who stands normally in the middle of one of the quarters of space in 
the sky. n.m.p. 


have you entered. 1 That boar that you saw was really a 
Daitya, Angaraka by name, of adamantine frame and vast 
strength. At present he has abandoned the form of a boar 
and is sleeping, as he is tired, but when the time for taking 
food comes he will wake up, and do you a mischief. And I, 
fair sir, am his daughter, Angara vati by name ; and, fearing 
that some misfortune may befall you, I feel as if my life 
were in my throat." 

When she said this to the king, he, remembering the boon 
that the goddess Chandi had given him, felt that he had now 
a good hope of accomplishing his object, and answered her : 
" If you have any love for me, do this which I tell you : when 
your father awakes, go and weep at his side, and when he 
asks you the reason say, fair one : ' Father, if anyone were 
to kill you in your reckless daring, what would become of 
me ? ' If you do this, you will ensure the happiness of both 
of us." 

When the king said this to her she went, bewildered with 
love, and sat down and wept at the side of her father, who 
had woke up ; and when he asked her the cause of her weep- 
ing she told him how she was afraid that someone would slay 
him. 2 Then the Daitya said to her : " Why, who can slay 
me, who am of adamantine frame ? The only vulnerable 
and vital point I have is in my left hand, 3 and that the bow 

1 Cf. the well-known story of Medea. See J. R. Bacon, Voyage of the 
Argonauts, pp. 135-136. n.m.p. 

2 For the group of stories to which this incident belongs see Grimm 
No. 91, Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 297 et seq. Cf. Cosquin, Contes 
Poptdaires de Lorraine, vol. i, pp. 1-27. See also Dawkins, Modern Greek in 
Asia Minor, p. 274. n.m.p. 

3 I find a curious legend given by Thurston, op. cit., vol. vi, p. 4, telling 
the origin of the Palli or Vanniyan caste of Southern India. It appears that 
two giants, Vatapi and Mahi by name, worshipped Brahma with such devotion 
that they obtained from him immunity from death from every cause save fire, 
which element they had carelessly omitted to include in their enumeration. 
After enveloping the world in complete darkness and stillness, by swallowing 
the sun and wind, they struck terror into the minds of all living creatures. In 
answer to fervent prayers, Brahma, remembering the omission of the giants, told 
his suppliants to perform a fire sacrifice. Armed horsemen sprang from the 
flames and destroyed the giants. Their leader became ruler of the country, 
and his five sons were the ancestors of the Vanniyan caste. n.m.p. 


protects." This speech of his was heard by the king, who 
was at the time concealed near. 

Then the Daitya bathed, and proceeded to worship Siva. 
At that moment the king appeared with his bow strung, and 
challenged to mortal combat the Daitya, who was observing 
religious silence. The Daitya lifted up his left hand, his 
right hand being engaged, and made a sign to the king 
to wait a little. That very moment the king smote him 
in that hand, which was his vital point, with a well- aimed 
arrow, and the Daitya fell on the earth. And just before 
he expired he said : "If that man who has thus slain me, 
when thirsty, does not every year offer water to my manes, 
his five ministers shall perish." The Daitya being thus slain, 
the king took his daughter, Angaravati, and returned to his 
city of Ujjayini. 

168. Story of King Pdlaka and his Son Avantivardhana 

" And after that king, your father, had married that 
queen, he used every year to have an offering of water made 
to the manes of Angaraka ; and all here celebrate the feast 
called the giving of water ; and to-day it has come round. 
So do, King, what your father did before you." 

When King Palaka heard this speech of his subjects, he 
proceeded to set going in that city the festival of the giving 
of water. When the festival had begun, and the people had 
their attention occupied by it, and were engaged in shouting, 
suddenly an infuriated elephant, that had broken its fasten- 
ings, rushed in among them. That elephant, having got the 
better of its driving-hook, and shaken off its driver, roamed 
about in the city, and killed very many men in a short time. 
Though the elephant-keepers ran forward, accompanied by 
professional elephant-drivers, and the citizens also, no man 
among them was able to control that elephant. At last, in 
the course of its wanderings, the elephant reached the quarter 
of the Chandalas, and there came out from it a Chandala 
maiden. She illuminated the ground with the beauty of the 
lotus that seemed to cling to her feet, delighted because she 


surpassed with the loveliness of her face the moon its enemy. 1 
She looked like the night that gives rest to the eyes of the 
world, because its attention is diverted from other objects, 
and so it remains motionless at that time. 2 

That maiden struck that mighty elephant, that came 
towards her, with her hand, on its trunk ; and smote it with 
those sidelong looks askance of hers. The elephant was 
fascinated with the touch of her hand and pene- 
Maiden who trated with her glance, and remained with head 
fascinated the bent down, gazing at her, and never moved a 

Elephant step>8 Then that Mj , j^y made a swmg with 

her upper garment, which she fastened to its tusks, and 
climbed and got into it, and amused herself with swinging. 
Then the elephant, seeing that she felt the heat, went into 
the shade of a tree ; and the citizens who were present, see- 
ing this great wonder, exclaimed : " Ah ! This is some 
glorious heavenly maiden who charms even animals by her 
power, which is as transcendent as her beauty." 

And in the meanwhile Prince Avantivardhana, hearing 
of it, came out to see the wonderful sight, and beheld that 
maiden. As he gazed, the deer of his heart ran into that net 
of the hunter, Love, and was entangled by it. She too, when 
she saw him, her heart being charmed by his beauty, came 
down from that swing, which she had put up on the elephant's 
tusks, and took her upper garment. Then a driver mounted 
the elephant, and she went home, looking at the prince with 
an expression of shame and affection. 

And Avantivardhana, for his part, the disturbance caused 
by the elephant having come to an end, went home to his 
palace with his bosom empty, his heart having been stolen 
from it by her. And when he got home, he was tortured 
by no longer seeing that lovely maiden, and forgetting the 
feast of the giving of water, which had begun, he said to his 

1 The moon hates the kamala and loves the kumuda. 

2 I read stimitasthiteh, which I find in MS. No. 21 66, and in the Sanskrit 
College MS. 

3 Cf. Vol. Ill, p. 172, I72w 2 . The story in the Gesta Romanorum, to which 
reference is there made, bears a close resemblance to the present story ; but in 
the present case it appears as if beauty had more to do with fascinating the ele- 
phant than modesty. See further Vol. IX, " Addenda et Corrigenda." n.m.p. 


companions : " Do you know whose daughter that maiden is, 
and what her name is ? " When his friends heard that, they 
said to him : " There is a certain Matanga, 1 in the quarter of 
the Chandalas, named Utpalahasta, and she is his daughter, 
Suratamanjari by name. Her lovely form can give pleasure 
to the good 2 only by being looked at, like that of a pictured 
beauty, but cannot be touched without pollution." When 
the prince heard that from his friends, he said to them : 
" I do not think she can be the daughter of a Matanga, she 
is certainly some heavenly maiden; for a Chandala maiden 
would never possess such a beautiful form. Lovely as she is, 
if she does not become my wife, what is the profit of my life ? 5 
So the prince continued to say, and his ministers could not 
check him, but he was exceedingly afflicted with the fire of 
separation from her. 

Then Queen Avantivati and King Palaka, his parents, 
having heard that, were for a long time quite bewildered. 
The queen said : " How comes it that our son, though born 
in a royal family, has fallen in love with a girl of the lowest 3 
caste ? " Then King Palaka said : " Since the heart of our 
son is thus inclined, it is clear that she is really a girl of 
another caste, who, for some reason or other, has fallen 
among the Matangas. The minds of the good tell them by 
inclination or aversion what to do and what to avoid. In 
illustration of this, Queen, listen to the following tale, if you 
have not already heard it. 

168b. The Young Chandala who married the Daughter of 
King Pra^enajit 4 

Long ago King Prasenajit, in a city named Supratishthita, 
had a very beautiful daughter named Kurangi. One day she 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers explain this as a Chandala, a man of the 
lowest rank, a kind of Kirata. See Thurston, op. cit. y vol. ii, p. 15. n.m.p. 

2 The word "good" is used in a sense approximating to that in which it 
is used by Theognis and the patricians in Coriolanus (i, I, 16). 

3 I read antyajam, which I find in two of the India Office MSS. and the 
Sanskrit College MS. In No. 3003 there is apparently a lacuna. 

4 Cf. the Sigala Jataka, No. 142, Cambridge Edition, vol. i, pp. 304-305. 
A barber's son dies of love for a Lichchhavi maiden. The Buddha then tells 
the story of a jackal whose love for a lioness cost him his life. 


went out in the garden, and an elephant, that had broken 
from its fastenings, charged her, and flung her up on his tusks, 
litter and all. Her attendants dispersed, shrieking, but a 
young Chandala snatched up a sword and ran towards the 
elephant. The brave fellow cut off the trunk of that great 
elephant with a sword-stroke, and killed it, and so delivered 
the princess. Then her retinue came together again, and she 
returned to her palace with her heart captivated by the great 
courage and striking good looks of the young Chandala. And 
she remained in a state of despondency at being separated from 
him, saying to herself : " Either I must have that man who 
delivered me from the elephant for a husband, or I must 

The young Chandala, for his part, went home slowly, and 
having his mind captivated by the princess was tortured by 
thinking on her. He said to himself : " What a vast gulf is 
fixed between me, a man of the lowest caste, and that prin- 
cess ! How can a crow and a female swan ever unite ? The 
idea is so ridiculous that I cannot mention it or consider 
it, so, in this difficulty, death is my only resource." After 
the young man had gone through these reflections he went 
at night to the cemetery, and bathed, and made a pyre, and 
lighting the flame thus prayed to it : " O thou purifying fire, 
Soul of the Universe, may that princess be my wife hereafter 
in a future birth, in virtue of this offering up of myself as a 
sacrifice to thee ! " 

When he had said this, he prepared to fling himself into 
the fire, but the God of Fire, pleased with him, appeared in 
visible shape before him, and said to him : " Do not act 
rashly, for she shall be thy wife, for thou art not a Chandala 
by birth, and what thou art I will tell thee. Listen. 

"There is in this city a distinguished Brahman of the 
name of Kapilasarman ; in his fire-chamber I dwell in visible 
bodily shape. One day his maiden daughter came near me, 
and, smitten with her beauty, I made her my wife, inducing 
her to forgo her objections by promising her immunity from 
disgrace. And thou, my son, wert immediately born to her 
by virtue of my power, and she thereupon, out of shame, 
flung thee away in the open street ; there thou wast found 



by some Chandalas and reared on goat's milk. 1 So thou art 
my son, born to me by a Brahman lady. Therefore thou 
canst not be deemed impure, as thou art my son ; and thou 
shalt obtain that Princess Kurangi for a wife." 

When the God of Fire had said this he disappeared, and 
the Matanga's adopted child was delighted, and conceived 
hope, and so went home. Then King Prasenajit, having 
been urged by the god in a dream, investigated the case, 
and finding out the truth gave his daughter to the son of the 
God of Fire. 

168. Story of King Pdlaka and his Son Avantivardhana 

" Thus, Queen, there are always to be found heavenly 
beings in disguise upon the earth, and you may be assured 

1 Cf. the story of the birth of Servius Tullius, as told by Ovid, Fasti, vi, 
627. The following are Ovid's lines : 

Namque pater Tulli Vulcanus, Ocresia mater, 
Praesignis facie Corniculana fuit. 
Hanc secum Tanaquil sacris de more peractis 
Jussit in ornatum fundere vina focum. 
Hie inter cineres obscaeni forma virilis 
Aut fuit aut visa est, sed fuit ilia magis. 
Jussa loco captiva sedet. Conceptus ab ilia 
Servius a caelo semina gentis habet." 

There are several other versions of the story, which differ only in details. Cf. 
Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 204 (Bohn's translation, vol. vi, chap, lxx, p. 384), 
where we read : 

" In the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, it is said, there appeared upon his 
hearth a resemblance of the male generative organ in the midst of the ashes. 
The captive Ocrisia, a servant of Queen Tanaquil, who happened to be sitting 
there, arose from her seat in a state of pregnancy, and became the mother 
of Servius Tullius, who eventually succeeded to the throne. It is stated, too, 
that while the child was sleeping in the palace, a flame was seen playing round 
his head, the consequence of which was, that it was believed that the Lar of 
the household was his progenitor. It was owing to this circumstance, we are 
informed, that the Compitalian games in honour of the Lares were instituted." 

Cf. also Dionysios of Halikarnassos : 'Pw/xaiVo) apyacoXoyia, iv, 2. 

For the latest discussion on the legend Professor Halliday refers me 
to Rose, Primitive Culture in Italy, 1926, p. 80 et seq. The author compares the 
well-known passage in Scott, Lady of the Lake, iii, 5. His case, however, is 
weakened considerably by his apparent ignorance of the version in Somadeva. 



Suratamanjari is not a woman of the lowest caste, but a 
celestial nymph. For such a pearl as she is must belong 
to some other race than that of the Matangas, and without 
doubt she was the beloved of my son in a former birth; 
and this is proved by his falling in love with her at first 

When King Palaka said this in our presence I proceeded 
to relate the following story about a man of the fisher caste : 

168c. The Young Fisherman who married a Princess 

Long ago there lived in Rajagriha a king named Malaya- 
simha, and he had a daughter named Mayavati, of matchless 
beauty. One day a young man of the fisher caste, named 
Suprahara, who was in the bloom of youth and good looks, 
saw her as she was amusing herself in a spring garden. The 
moment he saw her he was overpowered by love ; for Destiny 
never considers whether a union is possible or impossible. 
So he went home, and abandoning his occupation of catching 
fish he took to his bed, and refused to eat, thinking only on 
the princess. And when persistently questioned, he told his 
wish to his mother, named Rakshitika, and she said to her son : 
" My son, abandon your despondency, and take food ; I will 
certainly compass this your end for you by my ingenuity." 

When she said this to him, he was consoled, and cherished 
hopes, and took food ; and his mother went to the palace of 
the princess with fish from the lake. 1 There that fisher- wife 
was announced by the maids, and went in, on the pretext of 
paying her respects, and gave the princess that present of fish. 
And in this way she came regularly, day after day, and 
made the princess a present, and so gained her good will, and 
made her desirous of speaking. And the pleased princess 
said to the fisher- wife : " Tell me what you wish me to do ; 
I will do it, though it be ever so difficult." 

Then the fisher-wife begged that her boldness might be 
pardoned, and said in secret to the princess : " Royal lady, 
my son has seen you in a garden, and is tortured by the 

1 All the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read hridyan 
** delicious fish." 


thought that he cannot be near you ; and I can only manage 
to prevent his committing suicide by holding out hopes to 
him ; so, if you feel any pity for me, restore my son to life 
by touching him." When the princess was thus entreated 
by the fisher- wife, hesitating between shame and a desire to 
oblige, after reflection, she said to her : " Bring your son to 
my palace secretly at night." 

When the fisher- wife heard this, she went in high spirits 
to her son. And when night came she deliberately adorned 
her son as well as she could, and brought him to the 
private apartments of the princess. There the princess took 
Suprahara, who had pined for her so long, by the hand, 
and affectionately welcomed him, and made him lie down on 
a sofa, and comforted him, whose limbs were withered by 
the fire of separation, by shampooing him with her hand, the 
touch of which was cool as sandalwood. 1 And the fisher- 
boy was thereby, as it were, bedewed with nectar, and 
thinking that, after long waiting, he had attained his desire 
he took his rest, and was suddenly seized by sleep. And 
when he was asleep the princess escaped, and slept in another 
room, having thus pleased the fisher-boy, and having avoided 
being disgraced through him. 

Then that son of the fisher-folk woke up, owing to the 
cessation of the touch of her hand, and not seeing his beloved, 
who had thus come within his grasp, and again vanished 
like a pot of treasure in the case of a very poor man, who is 
despondent for its loss he was reft of all hope, and his breath 
at once left his body. When the princess found that out, 
she came there, and blamed herself, and made up her mind 
to ascend the funeral pyre with him next morning. 

Then her father, King Malayasimha, heard of it, and 
came there, and, finding that she could not be turned from her 
resolve, he rinsed his mouth, and spake this speech : " If I 
am really devoted to the three-eyed god of gods, tell me, ye 
guardians of the world, what it is my duty to do." 

WTien the king said this, a heavenly voice answered him : 
" Thy daughter was in a former life the wife of this son of 
the fisher-folk. 

1 For a note on sandalwood see Vol. VII, pp. 105-107. n.m.p. 


" For, long ago, there lived in a village called Nagasthala 
a virtuous Brahman, of the name of Baladhara, the son of 
Mahidhara. When his father had gone to heaven, he was 
robbed of his wealth by his relations, and being disgusted 
with the world he went, with his wife, to the bank of the 
Ganges. While he was remaining there without food, in 
order to abandon the body, he saw some fishermen eating 
fish, and his hunger made him long for it in his heart. So 
he died with his mind polluted by that desire, but his wife 
kept her aspirations pure, and, continuing firm in penance, 
followed him in death. 1 

" That very Brahman, owing to that pollution of his 
desires, has been born in the fisher caste. But his wife, 
who remained firm in her asceticism, has been born as thy 
daughter, O King. So let this blameless daughter of thine, 
by the gift of half her life, 2 raise up this dead youth, who 
was her husband in a former life. For, owing to the might of 
asceticism, this youth, who was thus purified by the splendour 
of that holy bathing-place, shall become thy son-in-law, and 
a king." 

When the king had been thus addressed by the divine 
voice he gave his daughter in marriage to that youth Supra- 
hara, who recovered his life by the gift of half hers. And 
Suprahara became a king by means of the land, elephants, 
horses and jewels which his father-in-law gave him, and, 
having obtained his daughter as a wife, lived the life of a 
successful man. 

1 See Vol. Ill, pp. 10-11. 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 188, 188rc 2 , 189n. In si. 143 the India Office MSS. 
Nos. 2166 and 1882 and the Sanskrit College MS. give pramayat for prabhaya. 

I suppose it means " from dying in that holy place." Cf. the story of " Die 

verschenkten Lebensjahre " in Wesselski, M'drchen des Mittelalters, Berlin, 1925, 
pp. 12-15, and also the note on p. 192. I am indebted to Dr A. H. Krappe 
for the following additional references to the incident of ceding part of one's 
life for the benefit of another : Zeitschr. d. Vereins f. Volksk., vol. ii, p. 1 27 ; 
L. Friedlander, Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms, 1888-1890, vol. i, 
p. 513, vol. iii, p. 529; Hertz, Spielmannsbuch, 1900, p. 364; Frazer, Apollo- 
dorus, vol. i, pp. 93, 193 ; J. Grimm, Kleinere Schriften, vol. i, p. 193 ; G. Paris, 
Zeitschr. d. Vereins f. Volksk., vol. xiii, pp. 10, 15, 17, 20-21 ; Ex Oriente Lux, 
vol. ii, p. 217; and Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 129. n.m.p. 


168. Story of King Pdlaka and his Son Avantivardhana 

" In this way a connection in a former birth usually pro- 
duces affection in embodied beings ; moreover, in illustration 
of this truth, listen to the following story about a thief : 

168d. The Merchant's Daughter who fell in love with a Thief 1 

In Ayodhya there lived of old time a king named Vira- 
bahu, who always protected his subjects as if they were his 
own children. And one day the citizens of his capital came 
to him and said : " King, some thieves plunder this city 
every night, and, though we keep awake for the purpose, we 
cannot detect them ! " When the king heard that, he placed 
scouts in the city at night to keep watch. But they did not 
catch the thieves, and the mischief did not abate. Accord- 
ingly the king went out himself at night to investigate the 

And as he was wandering about in every direction, alone, 
sword in hand, he saw a man going along on the top of the 
rampart ; he seemed to tread lightly out of fear ; his eyes 
rolled rapidly like those of a crow ; and he looked round like 
a lion, frequently turning his neck. He was rendered visible 
by the steel gleams that flashed from his naked sword, which 
seemed like binding ropes sent forth to steal those jewels 
which men call stars. 2 And the king said to himself: " I 
am quite certain that this man is a thief ; no doubt he sallies 
out alone and plunders this my city." 

Having come to this conclusion, the wily monarch went 
up to the thief ; and the thief said to him with some trepi- 
dation : " Who are you, sir ? " Then the king said to him : 
" I am a desperate robber, whose many vices make him 

1 This is another version of the Vetala's fourteenth story, which appears 
in Vol. VII, pp. 35-39- See also the Appendix of that volume, pp. 215-221. 

2 I read iva serana : I suppose serana comes from si. Dr Kern would read 
ahrasva-sana (the former word hesitatingly). But iva is required. Prerana 
would make a kind of sense. See Taranga 43, si. 26a. The sloka is omitted 
in all the three India Office MSS. and in the Sanskrit College MS. 


hard to keep ; tell me in turn who you are." The thief 
answered : " I am a robber who goes out to plunder alone ; 
and I have great wealth ; so come to my house ; I will satisfy 
your longing for riches." When the thief made him this 
promise the king said, "So be it," and went with him to his 
dwelling, which was in an underground excavation. It was 
inhabited by beautiful women, it gleamed with many jewels, 
it was full of ever-new delights, and seemed like the city of 
the snakes. 2 

Then the thief went into the inner chamber of his 
dwelling, and the king remained in the outer room ; and 
while he was there, a female servant, compassionating him, 
came and said to him : " What kind of place have you 
entered ? Leave it at once, for this man is a treacherous 
assassin, and as he goes on his expeditions alone, will be 
sure to murder you, to prevent his secrets being divulged." 3 
When the king heard that he went out at once, and quickly 
returned to his palace ; and summoning his commander-in- 
chief returned with his troops. And he came and surrounded 
the thief's dwelling, and made the bravest men enter it, and 
so brought the thief back a prisoner, and carried off all his 

When the night came to an end the king ordered his 
execution; and he was led off to the place of execution 
through the middle of the market. And as he was being 
led through that part of the town a merchant's daughter 
saw him, and fell in love with him at first sight. And she 
immediately said to her father : " Know that if this man, 
who is being led off to execution preceded by the drum of 
death, does not become my husband, I shall die myself." 

Then her father, seeing that she could not be dissuaded 
from her resolution, went and tried to induce the king to 
spare that thief's life by offering ten millions of coins. But 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers translate durbharah by schwer beladen. 
I think it means that the supposed thief had many costly vices, which he 
could not gratify without stealing. Of course it applies to the king in a 
milder sense. 

2 In the realms below the earth. 

3 I read, after Dr Kern, vihastaghatakah, " a slayer of those who confide 
in him." I also read kvasi for kvapi, as the three India Office MSS. give kvasi. 


the king, instead of sparing the thief's life, ordered him to be 
immediately impaled, 1 and was very angry with the merchant. 
Then the merchant's daughter, whose name was Vamadatta, 
took the corpse of that robber, and out of love for him entered 
the fire with it. 

168. Story of King Pdlaka and his Son Avantivardhana 

" So you see, creatures are completely dependent upon 
connections in previous births, and this being the case, who 
can avoid a destiny that is fated to him, and who can prevent 
such a destiny's befalling anybody ? Therefore, King, it is 
clear that this Suratamanjari is some excellent being that 
was the wife of your son, Avantivardhana, in a previous birth, 
and is therefore destined to be his wife again ; otherwise how 
could such a high-born prince have formed such an attach- 
ment for her, a woman of the Matanga caste ? So let this 
Matanga, her father Utpalahasta, be asked to give the prince 
his daughter ; and let us see what he says." 

When I had said this to King Palaka, he at once sent 
messengers to Utpalahasta to ask for his daughter. And the 
Matanga, when entreated by these messengers to give her in 
marriage, answered them : "I approve of this alliance, but 
I must give my daughter Suratamanjari to the man who 
makes eighteen thousand of the Brahmans that dwell in this 
city eat in my house." When the messengers heard this 
speech of the Matanga's, that contained a solemn promise, 
they went back and reported it faithfully to King Palaka. 

Thinking that there was some reason for this, 2 the king 
called together all the Brahmans in the city of Ujjayini, and 
telling them the whole story said to them : " So you must 
eat here, in the house of the Matanga Utpalahasta, eighteen 
thousand of you ; I will not have it otherwise." When the 
Brahmans had been thus commanded by the king, being at 
the same time afraid of touching the food of a Chandala, and 
therefore at a loss what to do, they went to the shrine of 
Mahakala and performed self-torture. Then the god Siva, 

1 The three India Office MSS. give tu for tarn. 

2 I take sakdranam as one word. 


who was present there in the form of Mahakala, commanded 
those Brahmans in a dream, saying : " Eat food here in the 
house of the Matanga Utpalahasta, for he is a Vidyadhara ; 
neither he nor his family are Chandalas. 55 Then those Brah- 
mans rose up and went to the king, and told him the dream, 
and went on to say : "So let this Utpalahasta cook pure 
food for us in some place outside the quarter of the Chan- 
dalas, and then we will eat it at his hands." When the king 
heard this, he had another house made for Utpalahasta, and, 
being highly delighted, he had food cooked for him there by 
pure cooks ; and then eighteen thousand Brahmans ate there, 
while Utpalahasta stood in front of them, bathed, and clothed 
in a pure garment. 

And after they had eaten, Utpalahasta came to King 
Palaka, in the presence of his subjects, and bowing before 
him said to him : " There was an influential prince of the 
Vidyadharas, named Gaurimunda; I was a dependent of 
his, named Matangadeva ; and when, King, that daughter of 
mine, Suratamanjari, had been born, Gaurimunda secretly 
said to me : ' The gods assert that this son of the King of 
Vatsa, who is called Naravahanadatta, is to be our emperor : 
so go quickly, and kill that foe of ours by means of your magic 
power, before he has attained the dignity of emperor. 5 

" When the wicked Gaurimunda had sent me on this 
errand, I went to execute it, and while going along through 
the air I saw Siva in front of me. The god, displeased, made 
an angry roar, and immediately pronounced on me this curse : 
4 How is it, villain, that thou dost plot evil against a noble- 
minded man ? So go, wicked one, and fall with this same 
body of thine into the midst of the Chandalas in Ujjayini, 
together with thy wife and daughter. And when someone 
shall make eighteen thousand of the Brahmans that dwell 
in that city eat in thy house, by way of a gift to purchase 
thy daughter, then thy curse shall come to an end, and 
thou must marry thy daughter to the man who bestows 
on thee the gift. 5 

" When Siva had said this he disappeared, and I, that 
very Matangadeva, assuming the name of Utpalahasta, fell 
among the men of the lowest caste; but I do not mix with 


them. However, my curse is at an end, owing to the favour 
of your son, so I give him my daughter, Suratamanjari. 
And now I will go to my own dwelling-place among the 
Vidyadharas, in order to pay my respects to the Emperor 
Naravahanadatta." When Matangadeva had said this, he 
solemnly gave the prince his daughter, and, flying up into 
the air with his wife, repaired, King, to thy feet. 

And King Palaka, having thus ascertained the truth, 
celebrated with great delight the marriage of Suratamanjari 
and his son. And his son, Avantivardhana, having obtained 
that Vidyadhari for a wife, felt himself fortunate in having 
gained more than he had ever hoped for. 

Now, one day, that prince went to sleep on the top of the 
palace with her, and at the end of the night he woke up, and 
suddenly discovered that his beloved was nowhere to be seen. 
He looked for her, but could not find her anywhere, and 
then he lamented, and was so much afflicted that his father, 
the king, came, and was exceedingly discomposed. We all, 
being assembled there at that time, said : " This city is 
well guarded, no stranger could enter it during the night ; no 
doubt she must have been carried off by some evilly disposed 
wanderer of the air." And even while we were saying that, 
your servant, the Vidyadhara Dhumasikha, descended from 
the sky. He brought here this Prince Avantivardhana, and 
King Palaka also was asked to part with me, in order that I 
might state the facts of the case. Here too is Suratamanjari 
with her father, and the facts concerning her are such as I have 
said : your Majesty is the best judge of what ought to be 
done now. 

[M] When Bharataroha, the minister of Palaka, had told 
this tale, he stopped speaking ; and the assessors put this 
question to Matangadeva in the presence of Naravahanadatta ; 
" Tell us, to whom did you give this daughter of yours, 
Suratamanjari ? " He answered : " I gave her to Avanti- 
vardhana." Then they put this question to Ityaka : " Now 
do you tell us why you carried her off." He answered : 


" Her mother promised her to me originally." The assessors 
said to Ityaka : " While the father is alive, what authority has 
the mother ? Moreover, where is your witness to prove the 
fact of the mother having promised her to you ? So she is, 
with regard to you, the wife of another, villain ! " When 
Ityaka was thus put to silence by the assessors, the Emperor 
Naravahanadatta, being angry with him, ordered his im- 
mediate execution, on the ground of his misconduct. But 
the good hermits, with Kasyapa at their head, came and 
entreated him, saying : " Forgive now this one fault of his : 
for he is the son of Madanavega, and therefore your brother- 
in-law." So the king was at last induced to spare his life, 
and let him off with a severe reprimand. 

And he reunited that son of his maternal uncle, Avanti- 
vardhana, to his wife, and sent them off with their ministers 
to their own city, in the care of Vayupatha. 


WHEN Naravahanadatta, on the Black Mountain, 
[M] had thus taken away the virtuous Surata- 
manjari from his brother-in-law, Ityaka, who had 
carried her off, and had reprimanded him, and had given 
her back to her husband, and was sitting in the midst of the 
hermits, the sage Kasyapa came and said to him : " There 
never was a king and there never will be an emperor like 
you, since you do not allow passion and other feelings of the 
kind to influence your mind when you are sitting on the 
seat of judgment. Fortunate are they who ever behold such 
a righteous lord as you are ; for, though your empire is such 
as it is, no fault can be found with you. 

" There were in former days Rishabha, and other emperors, 
and they, being seized with various faults, were ruined, and fell 
from their high state. Rishabha, and Sarvadamana, and the 
third Bandhujivaka, all these, through excessive pride, were 
punished by Indra. And the Vidyadhara prince, Jimuta- 
vahana, when the sage Narada came and asked him the reason 
of his obtaining the rank of emperor, told him how he gave 
away the wishing-tree and his own body, 1 and thus he fell 
from his high position by revealing his own virtuous deeds. 
And the sovereign named Visvantara, who was emperor 
here, he too, when his son, Indivaraksha, had been slain by 
Vasantatilaka, the King of Chedi, for seducing his wife, being 
wanting in self-control, died on account of the distracting 
sorrow which he felt for the death of his wicked son. 

" But Taravaloka alone, who was by birth a mighty 
human king, and obtained by his virtuous deeds the imperial 
sovereignty over the Vidyadharas, long enjoyed the high 
fortune of empire, without falling into sin, and at last aban- 
doned it of his own accord, out of distaste for all worldly 
pleasures, and went to the forest. Thus, in old times, did 
most of the Vidyadhara emperors, puffed up with the attain- 

1 See Vol. II, p. 138 et seq. t and Vol. VII, pp. 49-63. n.m.p. 



ment of their high rank, abandon the right path, and fall, 
blinded with passion. So you must always be on your guard 
against slipping from the path of virtue, and you must take 
care that your Vidyadhara subjects do not swerve from 

When the hermit Kasyapa said this to Naravahanadatta, 
the latter approved his speech, and said to him, with 
deferential courtesy: "How did Taravaloka, being a man, 
obtain in old time the sway over the Vidyadharas ? Tell me, 
reverend sir." When Kasyapa heard this he said : " Listen, 
I will tell you his story. 

169. Story of Taravaloka 

There lived among the Sivis l a king of the name of 
Chandravaloka. That sovereign had a head wife named 
Chandralekha. Her race was as spotless as the sea of milk, 
she was pure herself, and in character like the Ganges. And 
he had a great elephant that trampled the armies of his 
enemies, known on the earth as Kuvalayapida. Owing to the 
might of that elephant the king was never conquered by any 
enemy in his realm, in which the real power w r as in the hands 
of the subjects. 

And when his youth came to an end, that king had a son, 
with auspicious marks, born to him by Queen Chandralekha. 
He gave the son the name of Taravaloka, and he gradually 
grew up, and his inborn virtues of liberality, self-control 
and discernment grew with him. And the mighty-minded 
youth learned the meaning of all words except one ; but he 
was so liberal to suppliants that he cannot be said ever to 
have learned the meaning of the word " No." Gradually he 
became old in actions, though young in years ; and though like 
the sun in fire of valour, he was exceedingly pleasing to look at 2 ; 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers spell the word "Sibi." The story is 
really the same as the sixteenth of Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 257. It is 
also found in the Chariya Pitaka. See Oldenberg's Buddha, p. 302. Dr Kern 
points out that we ought to read dugdhabdinirmala. The India Office MSS. 
give the words correctly. 

2 The word saumya means " pleasing " and also " moonlike " ; kala, in the 
next line, means " digit of the moon " and also " accomplishment." 


like the full moon he became beautiful by the possession of 
all noble parts ; like the God of Love he excited the longing 
of the whole world ; in obedience to his father he came to 
surpass Jimutavahana, and he was distinctly marked with 
the signs of a great emperor. 

Then his father, the King Chandravaloka, brought for 
that son of his the daughter of the King of the Madras, 
named Madri. And when he was married, his father, pleased 
with the super-eminence of his virtues, at once appointed him 
crown prince. And when Taravaloka had been appointed 
crown prince, he had made, with his father's permission, 
almshouses for the distribution of food and other necessaries. 
And every day, the moment he got up, he mounted the 
elephant, Kuvalayapida, and went round to inspect those 
almshouses. 1 To whosoever asked anything he was ready 
to give it, even if it were his own life : in this way the fame 
of that crown prince spread in every quarter. 

Then he had two twin sons born to him by Madri, and the 
father called them Rama and Lakshmana. And the boys 
grew like the love and joy of their parents, and they were 
dearer than life to their grandparents. And Taravaloka and 
Madri were never tired of looking at them, as they bent before 
them, being filled with virtue, like two bows of the prince, 
being strung. 2 

Then the enemies of Taravaloka, seeing his elephant, 
Kuvalayapida, his two sons, and his reputation for gener- 
osity, said to their Brahmans : "Go and ask Taravaloka to 
give you his elephant, Kuvalayapida. If he gives it you, 
we shall be able to take from him his kingdom, as he will 
be deprived of that bulwark ; if he refuses to give it, his 
reputation for generosity will be at an end." When the 
Brahmans had been thus entreated they consented, and asked 
Taravaloka, that hero of generosity, for that elephant. 

Taravaloka said to himself : " What do Brahmans mean 
by asking for a mighty elephant ? So I know for certain that 

1 I read satrani or sattrani for patrani, which would mean (t fit recipients." 
I find sattrani in MS. No. 1882. 

2 A perpetually recurring pun ! Guna in Sanskrit means u bowstring " 
and also "virtue," and is an unfailing source of temptation to our author. 


they have been put up to asking me by someone. Happen 
what will, I must give them my splendid elephant, for how 
can I let a suppliant go away without obtaining his desire, 
while I live ? " After going through these reflections, 
Taravaloka gave the elephant to those Brahmans with un- 
wavering mind. 

Then Chandravaloka's subjects, seeing that splendid 
elephant being led away by those Brahmans, went in a rage 
to the king, and said : " Your son has now abandoned this 
kingdom, and surrendering all his rights has taken upon 
him the vow of a hermit. For observe, he has given to some 
suppliants this great elephant Kuvalayapida, the foundation 
of the kingdom's prosperity, that scatters with its mere smell 
all other elephants. So you must either send your son to 
the forest to practise asceticism, or take back the elephant, 
or else we will set up another king in your place." * 

When Chandravaloka had been thus addressed by the 
citizens he sent his son a message, in accordance with their 
demands, through the warder. When his son, Taravaloka, 
heard that, he said : "As for the elephant, I have given it 
away, and it is my principle to refuse nothing to suppliants ; 
but what do I care for such a throne as this, which is under 
the thumb of the subjects, or for a royal dignity which does 
not benefit others, 2 and anyhow is transient as the lightning ? 
So it is better for me to live in the forest, among trees, which 
give the fortune of their fruits to be enjoyed by all, and not 
here, among such beasts of men as these subjects are." 3 

When Taravaloka had said this he assumed the dress of 
bark, and after kissing the feet of his parents, and giving 
away all his wealth to suppliants, he went out from his own 

1 This story was evidently composed at a time when the recollections of 
the old clan system were vivid in the minds of the Hindus. See Rhys Davids' 
Buddhism, p. 28. Gautama's relations "complained in a body to the Raja 
Suddhodana that his son, devoted to home pleasures, neglected those manly 
exercises necessary for one who might hereafter have to lead his kinsmen 
in case of war." 

2 I read anyanupayoginya, which I find in MS. No. 3003. No. 1882 has 
anyanupabhoginya. In the other MS. the passage is omitted. Another syllable 
is clearly required. The Sanskrit College MS. reads kim chanyanupayoginyatra- 

3 Cf. Richard II, v, 1, 35. 


city, accompanied by his wife, who was firm in the same 
resolution as himself, and his two children, comforting, as 
well as he could, the weeping Brahmans. Even beasts and 
birds, when they saw him setting forth, wept so piteously 
that the earth was bedewed with the rain of their tears. 

Then Taravaloka went on his way, with no possessions 
but a chariot and horses for the conveyance of his children ; 
but some other Brahmans asked him for the horses belonging 
to the chariot ; he gave them to them immediately, and drew 
the chariot himself, with the assistance of his wife, to convey 
those tender young sons to the forest. Then, as he was 
wearied out in the middle of the forest, another Brahman 
came up to him, and asked him for his horseless chariot. 
He gave it to him without the slightest hesitation, and the 
resolute fellow, going along on his feet, with his wife and sons, 
at last with difficulty reached the grove of mortification. 
There he took up his abode at the foot of a tree, and lived 
with deer for his only retinue, nobly waited on by his wife, 
Madri. And the forest regions ministered to the heroic 
prince, while living in this kingdom of devotion ; their 
clusters of flowers waving in the wind were his beautiful 
chowries, broad-shaded trees were his umbrellas, leaves his 
bed, rocks his thrones, bees his singing- women, and various 
fruits his savoury viands. 

Now one day his wife, Madri, left the hermitage to gather 
fruits and flowers for him with her own hands, and a certain 
old Brahman came and asked Taravaloka, who was in his 
hut, for his sons, Rama and Lakshmana. Taravaloka said 
to himself : "I shall be better able to endure letting these 
sons of mine, though they are quite infants, be led away, 1 
than I could possibly manage to endure the sending a sup- 
pliant away disappointed : the fact is, cunning fate is eager 
to see my resolution give way " : then he gave those sons ta 
the Brahman. And when the Brahman tried to take them 
away they refused to go ; then he tied their hands and beat 
them with creepers ; and as the cruel man took them away 
they kept crying for their mother, and turning round and 

1 India Office MS. No. 1882 reads nitau ; the other two seem to omit the 
lines altogether. 


looking at their father with tearful eyes. Even when Tara- 
valoka saw that he was unmoved, but the whole world of 
animate and inanimate existences was moved at his fortitude. 

Then the virtuous Madri slowly returned, tired, from a 
remote part of the forest to her husband's hermitage, bring- 
ing with her flowers, fruits and roots. And she saw her 
husband, who had his face sadly fixed on the ground, but she 
could not see anywhere those sons of hers, though their toys, 
in the form of horses, chariots and elephants of clay, were 
scattered about. Her heart foreboded calamity, and she said 
excitedly to her husband : " Alas ! I am ruined ! Where 
are my little sons ? " Her husband slowly answered her : 
" Blameless one, I gave those two little sons away to a 
poor Brahman, who asked for them." When the good lady 
heard that, she rose superior to her distraction, and said to 
her husband : " Then you did well ; how could you allow a 
suppliant to go away disappointed ? " When she said this, 
the equally matched goodness of that married couple made 
the earth tremble and the throne of Indra rock. 

Then Indra saw by his profound meditation that the 
world was made to tremble by virtue of the heroic generosity 
of Madri and Taravaloka. Then he assumed the form of a 
Brahman, and went to Taravaloka's hermitage, to prove him, 
and asked him for his only wife, Madri. And Taravaloka was 
preparing to give without hesitation, by the ceremony of 
pouring water over the hands, 1 that lady who had been his 
companion in the wild forest, when Indra, thus disguised as 
a Brahman, said to him : " Royal sage, what object do you 
mean to attain by giving away a wife like this ? " Then 
Taravaloka said : " I have no object in view, Brahman ; 
so much only do I desire : that I may ever give away to 
Brahmans even my life." When Indra heard this he resumed 
his proper shape, and said to him : " I have made proof of 
thee, and I am satisfied with thee; so I say to thee, thou 
must not again give away thy wife ; and soon thou shalt be 
made emperor over all the Vidyadharas." When the god had 
said this he disappeared. 

1 As Anathapindika gives the Jetavana garden to Buddha in the Bharhut 
Sculptures ; see also Vol. VII, p. 79. 



In the meanwhile that old Brahman took with him those 
sons of Taravaloka, whom he had received as a Brahman's 
fee, and, losing his way, arrived, as fate would have it, at the 
city of that King Chandravaloka, and proceeded to sell those 
princes in the market. Then the citizens recognised those 
two boys, and went and informed King Chandravaloka, and 
took them, with the Brahman, into his presence. The king, 
when he saw his grandsons, shed tears, and after he had 
questioned the Brahman, and had heard the state of the case 
from him, he was for a long time divided between joy and 
grief. Then, perceiving the exceeding virtue of his son, he 
at once ceased to care about a kingdom, though his subjects 
entreated him to remain, but with his wealth he bought 
those two grandsons from the Brahman, and taking them 
with him went with his retinue to the hermitage of his son, 

There he saw him, with matted hair, wearing a dress of 
bark, looking like a great tree, the advantages of which are 
enjoyed by birds coming from every quarter, for he in like 
manner had bestowed all he had upon expectant Brahmans. 1 
That son ran towards him, while still a long way off, and fell 
at his feet, and his father bedewed him with tears, and took 
him up on his lap; and thus gave him a foretaste of his 
ascent of the throne, as emperor over the Vidyadharas, after 
a solemn sprinkling with water. 

Then the king gave back to Taravaloka his sons, Rama 
and Lakshmana, saying that he had purchased them; and, 
while they were relating to one another their adventures, an 
elephant with four tusks and the goddess Lakshmi descended 
from heaven. And when the chiefs of the Vidyadharas 
had also descended, Lakshmi, lotus in hand, said to that 
Taravaloka : " Mount this elephant, and come to the country 
of the Vidyadharas, and there enjoy the imperial dignity 2 
earned by your great generosity." 

When Lakshmi said this, Taravaloka, after bowing at the 

1 The pun is intelligible enough : dvija means " Brahman " and also 
"bird"; asagata means "coming from every quarter" and "coming in hope 
to get something." 

2 Tat should not be separated from the next word. 


feet of his father, mounted that celestial elephant, with her, 
and his wife, and his sons, in the sight of all the inhabitants 
of the hermitage, and surrounded by the kings of the Vidya- 
dharas went through the air to their domain. There the 
distinctive sciences of the Vidyadharas repaired to him, and he 
long enjoyed supreme sway, but at last, becoming disgusted 
with all worldly pleasures, he retired to a forest of ascetics. 

[M] " Thus Taravaloka, though a man, acquired in old 
time by his deeds of spotless virtue the sovereignty of all 
the Vidyadharas. But others, after acquiring it, lost it by 
their offences : so be on your guard against unrighteous 
conduct either on your own part or on that of another." * 

When the hermit Kasyapa had told this story, and had 
thus admonished Naravahanadatta, that emperor promised 
to follow his advice. And he had a royal proclamation made 
all round the mountain of Siva, to the following effect : 
"Listen, Vidyadharas; whoever of my subjects after this 
commits an unrighteous act will certainly be put to death by 
me." The Vidyadharas received his commands with implicit 
submission, and his glory was widely diffused on account of 
his causing Suratamanjari to be set at liberty; and so he 
lived with his retinue in the hermitage of that excellent sage, 
on the Black Mountain, 2 in the society of his maternal uncle, 
and in this manner spent the rainy season. 

1 The three India Office MSS. read apacharam tvaw. The Sanskrit College 
MS. gives apavaram. 

2 The metre shows that 'sta is a misprint for 'sita. All the three India 
Office MSS. read 'sita. So does the Sanskrit College MS. 



GLORY to Siva, who assumes various forms; who, 
though his beloved takes up half his body, 1 is an 
ascetic, free from qualities, the due object of a world's 
adoration ! We worship Ganesa, who, when fanning away the 
cloud of bees, that flies up from his trunk, with his flapping 
ears, seems to be dispersing the host of obstacles. 

[M] Thus Naravahanadatta, who had been established 
in the position of lord paramount over all the kings of the 
Vidyadharas, remained on that Black Mountain in order to get 
through the rainy season, spending the time in the hermitage 
of that sage Kasyapa, and in the society of his maternal 
uncle, Gopalaka, who was living the life of an ascetic. He was 
accompanied by his ministers, and surrounded by twenty- 
five of his wives, and attended by various Vidyadhara princes, 
and he occupied himself in telling tales. One day the hermits 
and his wives said to him : " Tell us, now ! When Manasa- 
vega took away Queen Madanamanchuka, by his magic power, 
who amused you, impatient of separation, and how did he 
do it ? " 

When Naravahanadatta had been asked this question by 
those hermits, and by his wives, he proceeded to speak as 
follows : " Can I tell now how great grief I endured when I 
found out that that wicked enemy had carried off my queen ? 
There was no building, and no garden, or room, into which I 
did not roam seeking for her in my grief, and all my ministers 
with me. Then I sat down, as if beside myself, in a garden 
at the foot of a tree, and Gomukha, having obtained his 

1 An allusion to the Ardhanarisa form of Siva. 



opportunity, said to me, in order to console me : 'Do not be 
despondent, my sovereign ; you will soon recover the queen ; 
for the gods promised that you should rule the Vidyadharas 
with her as your consort ; that must turn out as the gods 
predicted, for their promises are never falsified ; and resolute 
men, after enduring separation, obtain reunion with those 
they love. Were not Ramabhadra, King Nala and your 
own grandfather, 1 after enduring separation, reunited to their 
beloved wives ? And was not Muktaphalaketu, emperor of 
the Vidyadharas, reunited to Padmavati, after he had been 
separated from her ? And now, listen, King ; I will tell you 
the story of that couple.' When Gomukha had said this, he 
told me the following tale. 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 2 

There is in the country a city famous over the earth by 
the name of Varanasi, which, like the body of Siva, is adorned 
with the Ganges, and bestows emancipation. With the flags 
on its temples swayed up and down by the wind it seems 
to be ever saying to men : " Come hither, and attain 
salvation." With the pinnacles of its white palaces it looks 
like the plateau of Mount Kailasa, the habitation of the god 
with the moon for a diadem, and it is full of troops of Siva's 
devoted servants. 3 

In that city there lived of old time a king named Brahma- 
datta, 4 exclusively devoted to Siva, a patron of Brahmans, 
brave, generous and compassionate. His commands passed 
current through the earth: they stumbled not in rocky 
defiles ; they were not whelmed in seas ; there were no con- 
tinents which they did not cross. He had a queen named 

1 Pitamahah must be a misprint for pitamakak, as is apparent from the 
India Office MSS. 

2 This story is in the original prefaced by " Iti Padmavati hatha." It con- 
tinues to the end of the Book, but, properly speaking, the story of Padmavati 
does not commence until Chapter CXV. 

3 There is a reference to the sectaries of Siva in Benares, and the Ganas 
of Siva on Mount Kailasa. 

4 Here we have a longer form of the story of Brahmadatta, found in 
Vol. I, pp. 20-21. 


Somaprabha, 1 who was dear and delightful to him as the 
moonlight to the chakora, and he was as eager to drink her 
in with his eyes. And he had a Brahman minister named 
Sivabhtiti, equal to Brihaspati in intellect, who had fathomed 
the meaning of all the Sastras. 

One night, that king, as he was lying on a bed on the top 
of a palace exposed to the rays of the moon, saw a couple of 
swans crossing through the air, with bodies of gleaming gold, 
looking like two golden lotuses opened in the water of the 
heavenly Ganges, 2 and attended by a train of king geese. 
When that wonderful pair had passed from his eyes, the king 
was for a long time afflicted, and his mind was full of regret 
at no longer enjoying that sight. He passed that night 
without sleeping, and next morning he told his minister, 
Sivabhuti, what he had seen, and said to him : " So, if I 
cannot feast my eyes on those golden swans to my heart's 
content, of what profit to me is my kingdom or my life ? " 

When the king said this to his minister, Sivabhuti, he 
answered him : " Do not be anxious ; there is a means of 
bringing about what you desire ; listen, King, I will tell you 
what it is. Owing to the various influence of actions in a 
previous birth, various is this infinite host of sentient beings 
produced by the Creator in this versatile world. This world 
is really fraught with woe, but owing to delusion there arises 
in creatures the fancy that happiness is to be found in it, 
and they take pleasure in house, and food, and drink, and so 
become attached to it. And Providence has appointed that 
different kinds of food, drink and dwellings should be agree- 
able to different creatures, according to the classes to which 
they respectively belong. So have made, King, a great lake 
to be the dwelling-place of these swans, covered with various 
kinds of lotuses, and watched by guards, where they will 
be free from molestation. And keep always scattering on 
the bank food of the kind that birds love, in order that 
water-birds may quickly come there from various quarters. 
Among them these two golden swans will certainly come ; 

1 I.e. "moonlight." 

2 There is probably a double meaning. The clouds are compared to the 
Ganges, and it is obvious that geese would cluster round lotuses. 


and then you will be able to gaze on them continually : do 
not be despondent." 

When King Brahmadatta's minister said this to him, he 
had that great lake made according to his directions, and it 
was ready in a moment. The lake was frequented by swans, 
sdrasas and chakravdkas, 1 and after a time that couple of 
swans came there, and settled down on a clump of lotuses 
in it. Then the guards set to watch the lake came and in- 
formed the king of the fact, and he went down to the lake 
in a state of great delight, considering that his object had 
been accomplished. And he beheld those golden swans, and 
worshipped them from a distance, and ministered to their 
comfort by scattering for them grains of rice dipped in milk. 
And the king took so much interest in them that he spent his 
whole time on the bank of that lake watching those swans, 
with their bodies of pure gold, their eyes of pearl, their beaks 
and feet of coral, and the tips of their wings of emerald, 2 
which had come there in perfect confidence. 

Now, one day, as the king was roaming along the bank 
of the lake, he saw in one place a pious offering made with 
unfading flowers. And he said to the guards there : " Who 
made this offering ? " Then the guards of the lake said to 
the king : " Every day, at dawn, noon and sunset, these 
golden swans bathe in the lake, and make these offerings, 
and stand absorbed in contemplation : so we cannot say, 
King, what is the meaning of this great wonder." When 
the king heard this from the guards he said to himself : 
" Such a proceeding is quite inconsistent with the nature 
of swans ; surely there must be a reason for this. So I will 
perform asceticism until I find out who these swans are." 
Then the king and his wife and his minister gave up food, 

1 The sarasa is a large crane ; the chakravdka the Brahmany duck, for 
which see Vol. VI, p. 7ln 3 . n.m.p. 

2 I.e. Tarkshyaratna. I have no idea what the jewel is. B. and R. give ein 
bestimmter dunkelfarbiger Edelstein. In Jataka No. 136 there is a golden goose 
who had been a Brahman. He gives his feathers to his daughters to sell, 
but his wife pulls out all the feathers at once ; they become like the feathers 
of a baka. Afterwards they all grow white. See Rhys Davids' Buddhist Birth 
Stories, p. ix, note. In si. 4, 1, I read tadrasad for tatra sada, with MSS. 
Nos. 1882 and 2166; No. 3003 has tatrasad. 


and remained performing penance and absorbed in meditation 
on Siva. And after the king had fasted for twelve days 
the two heavenly swans came to him, and said to him in a 
dream, with articulate voice : " Rise up, King ; to-morrow 
we will tell you and your wife and minister, after you have 
broken your fast, the whole truth of the matter in private." 
When the swans had said this they disappeared, and next 
morning the king and his wife and his minister, as soon as 
they awoke, rose up, and broke their fast. And after they had 
eaten, the two swans came to them, as they were sitting in 
a pleasure pavilion near the water. The king received them 
with respect, and said to them : " Tell me who you are." 
Then they proceeded to tell him their history. 

170a. How Pdrvati condemned her Five Attendants to be 
reborn on Earth 

There is a monarch of mountains, famous on the earth 
under the name of Mandara, in whose groves of gleaming 
jewels all the gods roam, on whose table-lands, watered 
with nectar from the churned sea of milk, are to be found 
flowers, fruits, roots and water that are antidotes to old age 
and death. Its highest peaks, composed of various precious 
stones, form the pleasure grounds of Siva, and he loves it 
more than Mount Kailasa. 

There, one day, that god left Parvati, after he had been 
diverting himself with her, and disappeared, to execute some 
business for the gods. Then the goddess, afflicted by his 
absence, roamed in the various places where he loved to 
amuse himself, and the other gods did their best to console 

And one day the goddess was much troubled by the ad- 
vent of spring, and she was sitting surrounded by the Ganas 
at the foot of a tree, thinking about her beloved, when a 
noble Gana, named Manipushpesvara, looked lovingly at 
a young maiden, the daughter of Jaya, called Chandralekha, 
who was waving a chowrie over the goddess. He was a 
match for her in youth and beauty, and she met his glance 
with a responsive look of love, as he stood by her side. Two 


other Ganas, named Pingesvara and Guhesvara, when they 
saw that, interchanged glances, and a smile passed over their 
faces. And when the goddess saw them smiling she was 
angry in her heart, and she cast her eyes hither and thither, 
to see what they were laughing at in this unseemly manner. 
And then she saw that Chandralekha and Manipushpesvara 
were looking lovingly in one another's faces. 

Then the goddess, who was quite distracted with the 
sorrow of separation, was angry, and said : " These young 
people have done well to look lovingly * at one another in the 
absence of the god, and these two mirthful people have done 
well to laugh when they saw their glances : so let this lover 
and maiden, who are blinded with passion, fall into a human 
birth ; and there the disrespectful pair shall be man and wife ; 
but these unseasonable laughers shall endure many miseries 
on the earth ; they shall be first poor Brahmans, and then 2 
Brahman-Rakshasas, and then Pisachas, and after that 
Chandalas, and then robbers, and then bob-tailed dogs, and 
then they shall be various kinds of birds shall these Ganas 
who offended by laughing ; for their minds were unclouded 
when they were guilty of this disrespectful conduct." 

When the goddess had uttered this command, a Gana of 
the name of Dhurjata said : " Goddess, this is very unjust ; 
these excellent Ganas do not deserve so severe a curse, for a 
very small offence." When the goddess heard that she said 
in her wrath to Dhurjata also : " Fall thou also, great sir, 
that knowest not thy place, into a mortal womb." When 
the goddess had inflicted these tremendous curses, the female 
warder, Jaya, the mother of Chandralekha, clung to her feet, 
and addressed this petition to her : " Withdraw thy anger, 
goddess ; appoint an end to the curse of this daughter of 
mine, and of these thy own servants, that have through 
ignorance committed sin." When Parvati had been thus 
entreated by her warder, Jaya, she said : " When all these, 
owing to their having obtained insight, shall in course of 

1 It may possibly mean "acted a love drama." I cannot find the sense 
I have assigned to it in any dictionary. 

2 Before anu we should, with the India Office MSS., insert tad. Monier 
Williams explains Brahman- Rakshasa as a "fiend of the Brahmanical class." 


time meet together, they shall, after visiting Siva, the lord 
of magic powers, in the place l where Brahma and the other 
gods performed asceticism, return to our court, having been 
freed from their curse. And this Chandralekha, and her 
beloved, and that Dhurjata shall, all three of them, be happy 
in their lives as mortals, but these two shall be miserable." 

When the goddess had said this, she ceased ; and at that 
very moment the Asura Andhaka came there, having heard 
of the absence of Siva. The presumptuous Asura hoped to 
win the goddess, but having been reproached by her at- 
tendants he departed ; but he was slain on that account by 
the god, who discovered the reason of his coming, and pursued 
him. 2 Then Siva returned home, having accomplished his 
object, and Parvati, delighted, told him of the coming of 
Andhaka, and the god said to her : "I have to-day slain a 
former mind-born son of thine, named Andhaka, and he shall 
now be a Bhringin here, as nothing remains of him but skin 
and bone." When Siva had said this he remained there, 
diverting himself with the goddess, and Manipushpesvara 
and the other five descended to earth. 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 

" Now, King, hear the long and strange story of these 
two, Pingesvara and Guhesvara. 

170a. How Parvati condemned her Five Attendants to be 

reborn on Earth 

There is on this earth a royal grant to Brahmans, named 
Yajnasthala. In it there lived a rich 3 and virtuous Brah- 
man named Yajnasoma. In his middle age he had two sons 
born to him ; the name of the elder was Harisoma and of the 

1 It is worth while remarking that all the India Office MSS. read kshetram, 
which would make Siddhisvara the name of a place here. 

2 All the India Office MSS. read gatva fox jnatva. I have adopted this ; 
and I take tatkdranarp. adverbially. MS. No. 1882 has gatovijnata. 

3 It appears from the India Office MSS. that dhanavdn should be inserted 
after brahmano. In si. 82 the India Office MSS. read chitrayatam, which I have 


younger Devasoma. They passed through the age of child- 
hood, and were invested with the sacred thread, 1 and then 
the Brahman, their father, lost his wealth, and he and his 
wife died. 

Then those two wretched sons, bereaved of their father, 
and without subsistence, having had their grant taken from 
them by their relations, said to one another : " We are now 
reduced to living on alms, but we get no alms here. So we 
had better go to the house of our maternal grandfather, 
though it is far off. Though we have come down in the 
world, who on earth would welcome us, if we arrive of our 
own accord ? Nevertheless, let us go. What else indeed are 
we to do, for we have no other resource ? " 

After deliberating to this effect they went, begging their 
way, by slow stages, to that royal grant, where the house of 
their grandfather was. There the unfortunate young men 
found out, by questioning people, that their grandfather, 
whose name was Somadeva, was dead, and his wife also. 

Then, begrimed with dust, they entered despairing the 
house of their maternal uncles, named Yajnadeva and Kratu- 
deva. There those good Brahmans welcomed them kindly, 
and gave them food and clothing, and they remained in 
study. But in course of time the wealth of their maternal 
uncles diminished, and they could keep no servants, and 
then they came and said to those nephews, in the most affec- 
tionate way : " Dear boys, we can no longer afford to keep 
a man to look after our cattle, as we have become poor, so 
do you look after our cattle for us." When Harisoma and 
Devasoma's uncles said this to them their throats were 
full of tears, but they agreed to their proposal. Then they 
took the cattle to the forest every day, and looked after them 
there, and at evening they returned home with them, wearied 

Then, as they went on looking after the cattle, owing to 
their falling asleep in the day some animals were stolen, and 
others were eaten by tigers. That made their uncles very 
unhappy ; and one day a cow and goat intended for sacrifice, 
belonging to their uncles, both disappeared somewhere or 

1 For a note on the sacred thread see Vol. VII, pp. 26-28. n.m.p. 


other. Terrified at that, they took the other animals home 
before the right time, and, running off in search of the two 
that were missing, they entered a distant forest. There they 
saw their goat half eaten by a tiger, and after lamenting, 
being quite despondent, they said : " Our uncles were keep- 
ing this goat for a sacrifice, and now that it is destroyed 
their anger will be something tremendous. So let us dress 
its flesh with fire, and eat enough of it to put an end of our 
hunger, and then let us take the rest, and go off somewhere 
and support ourselves by begging." 

After these reflections they proceeded to roast the goat, 
and while they were so engaged their two uncles arrived, 
who had been running after them, and saw them cooking 
TheMeta- *^ e goat. When they saw their uncles in the 
morphoses of distance they were terrified, and they rose up in 
Pingesvara and great trepidation, and fled from the spot. And 

Guhehara .-% . i . ,, . , -, -, 1 

those two uncles m their wrath pronounced x on 
them the following curse : " Since, in your longing for flesh, 
you have done a deed worthy of Rakshasas, you shall become 
flesh-eating Brahman-Rakshasas." And immediately those 
two young Brahmans became Brahman-Rakshasas, having 
mouths formidable with tusks, flaming hair and insatiable 
hunger ; and they wandered about in the forest, catching 
animals and eating them. 

But one day they rushed upon an ascetic, who possessed 
supernatural power, to slay him, and he in self-defence cursed 
them, and they became Pisachas. And in their condition as 
Pisachas they were carrying off the cow of a Brahman, to 
kill it, but they were overpowered by his spells, and reduced 
by his curse to the condition of Chandalas. 

One day, as they were roaming about in their condition 
as Chandalas, bow in hand, tormented with hunger, they 
reached, in their search for food, a village of bandits. The 
warders of the village, supposing them to be thieves, arrested 
them both, as soon as they saw them, and cut off their ears 
and noses. And they bound them, and beat them with 
sticks, and brought them in this condition before the chiefs 
of the bandits. There they were questioned by the chiefs, 

1 The three India Office MSS. have viteratuh. 


and being bewildered with fear, and tormented with hunger 
and pain, 1 they related their history to them. Then the 
chiefs of the gang, moved by pity, set them at liberty, and 
said to them : " Remain here and take food ; do not be 
terrified. You have arrived here on the eighth day of the 
month, the day on which we worship Karttikeya, and so you 
are our guests, and should have a share in our feast." 2 When 
the bandits had said this they worshipped the goddess Durga, 
and made the two Chandalas eat in their presence, 3 and 
having, as it happened, taken a fancy to them, they would 
not let them out of their sight. Then they lived with those 
bandits by robbing, and, thanks to their courage, became 
eventually the chiefs of the gang. 

And one night those chiefs marched with their followers 
to plunder a large town, a favourite abode of Siva, which 
some of their spies had selected for attack. Though they 
saw an evil omen they did not turn back, and they reached 
and plundered the whole city and the temple of the god. 
Then the inhabitants cried to the god for protection, and 
Siva in his wrath bewildered the bandits by making them 
blind. And the citizens suddenly perceiving that, and think- 
ing that it was due to the favour of Siva, assembled, and 
smote those bandits with sticks and stones. And Ganas, mov- 
ing about invisibly, flung some of the bandits into ravines, 
and dashed others to pieces against the ground. 

And the people, seeing the two leaders, were about to put 
them to death, but they immediately turned into bob-tailed 
dogs. And in this transformation they suddenly remembered 
their former birth, and danced in front of Siva, and fled to 
him for protection. When the citizens, Brahmans, mer- 
chants, and all, saw that, they were delighted at being free 
from fear of robbers, and went laughing to their houses. And 
then the delusion that had possessed those two beings, now 
turned into dogs, disappeared, and they awoke to reality, 

1 Dr Kern would read kshudduhkavaptasarnklesau. I find that all the three 
India Office MSS. confirm this conjecture, so I have adopted it. 

2 Cf. Virgil's JEneid, viii, 172 et seq. 

3 All the three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read 
svagra, which I have endeavoured to translate. Perhaps it may mean M before 
they took any food themselves." 


and in order to put an end to their curse they fasted, and 
appealed to Siva by severe asceticism. And the next morn- 
ing the citizens, making high festival, and worshipping Siva, 
beheld those dogs absorbed in contemplation, and though 
they offered them food the creatures would not touch it. 

And the two dogs remained in this state for several days, 
beheld by all the world, and then Siva's Ganas preferred 
this prayer to him : " O god, these two Ganas, Pingesvara 
and Guhesvara, who were cursed by the goddess, have been 
afflicted for a long time, so take pity on them." When the 
holy god heard that, he said : " Let these two Ganas be 
delivered from their canine condition and become crows ! " 
Then they became crows, and broke their fast upon the rice 
of the offering, and lived happily, remembering their former 
state, exclusively devoted to Siva. 

After some time, Siva having been satisfied by their de- 
votion to him, they became by his command first vultures, 
and then peacocks ; then those noble Ganas, in course of time, 
became swans ; and in that condition also they strove with 
the utmost devotion to propitiate Siva. And at last they 
gained the favour of that god by bathing in sacred waters, 
by performing vows, by meditations and acts of worship, and 
they became all composed of gold and jewels, and attained 
supernatural insight. 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 

" Know, that we are those very two, Pingesvara and 
Guhesvara, who, by the curse of Parvati, endured a succes- 
sion of woes, and have now become swans. But the Gana 
Manipushpesvara, who was in love with the daughter of Jay a, 
and was cursed by the goddess, has become a king upon earth, 
even yourself, Brahmadatta. And that daughter of Java has 
been born as this lady, your wife, Somaprabha ; and that 
Dhurjata has been born as this your minister, Sivabhuti. And 
therefore we, having attained insight, and remembering the end 
of the curse appointed by Parvati, appeared to you at night. 
By means of that artifice we have all been reunited here to- 
day ; and we will bestow on you the perfection of insight. 


" Come, let us go to that holy place of Siva on the Tri- 
dasa mountain, rightly named Siddhisvara, 1 where the gods 
performed asceticism in order to bring about the destruction 
of the Asura Vidyuddhvaja. And they slew that Asura in 
fight, with the help of Muktaphalaketu, the head of all the 
Vidyadhara princes, who had been obtained by the favour 
of Siva. And that Muktaphalaketu, having passed through 
the state of humanity brought upon him by a curse, obtained 
reunion with Padmavati by the favour of the same god. Let 
us go to that holy place, which has such splendid associations 
connected with it, and there propitiate Siva, and then we 
will return to our own home, for such was the end of the 
curse appointed to all of us by the goddess, to take place at 
the same time." When the two heavenly swans said this 
to King Brahmadatta, he was at once excited with curiosity to 
hear the tale of Muktaphalaketu. 

1 Here the name of a place sacred to Siva. Before we have had it as the 
god's title. See Bohtlingk and Roth, s.v. It means "lord of magic powers." 


170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 

THEN King Brahmadatta said to those celestial 
swans : " How did Muktaphalaketu kill that Vid- 
yuddhvaja ? And how did he pass through the 
state of humanity inflicted on him by a curse, and regain 
Padmavati ? Tell me this first, and afterwards you shall 
carry out your intentions." When those * birds heard this, 
they began to relate the story of Muktaphalaketu as follows : 

170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmavati 

Once on a time there was a king of the Daityas named 
Vidyutprabha, hard for gods to conquer. He, desiring a son, 
went to the bank of the Ganges, and with his wife performed 
asceticism for a hundred years to propitiate Brahma. And 
by the favour of Brahma, who was pleased with his as- 
ceticism, that enemy of the gods obtained a son named 
Vidyuddhvaja, who was invulnerable at their hands. 

That son of the king of the Daityas, even when a child, 
was of great valour ; and one day, seeing that their town was 
guarded on all sides by troops, he said to one of his com- 
panions : " Tell me, my friend, what have we to be afraid of, 
that this town is guarded on all sides by troops ? " Then his 
companion said to him : " We have an adversary in Indra, 
the king of the gods ; and it is on his account that this 
system of guarding the town is kept up. Ten hundred 
thousand elephants, and fourteen hundred thousand chariots, 
and thirty thousand horsemen, and a hundred millions of 
footmen guard the city in turn for one watch of the night, 
and the turn of guarding comes round for every division in 
seven years." 

1 It appears from the India Office MSS. that tav should be inserted after 



When Vidyuddhvaja heard this, he said : " Out on such a 
throne, that is guarded by the arms of others, and not by its 
own might ! However, I will perform such severe asceticism 
as will enable me to conquer my enemy with my own arm, 
and put an end to all this insolence of his." When Vidyud- 
dhvaja had said this, he put aside that companion of his, who 
tried to prevent him, and without telling his parents went to 
the forest to perform penance. 

But his parents heard of it, and in their affection for their 
child they followed him, and said to him : " Do not act 
rashly, son ; severe asceticism ill befits a child like you. Our 
throne has been victorious over its enemies ; is there one 
more powerful in the whole world ? What do you desire to 
get by withering yourself in vain ? Why do you afflict us ? " 
When Vidyuddhvaja's parents said this to him, he answered 
them : "I will acquire, even in my childhood, heavenly arms 
by the force of asceticism : as for our empire over the world 
being unopposed of enemies, do I not know so much from the 
fact that our city is guarded by troops ever ready in their 
harness ? " 

When the Asura Vidyuddhvaja, firm in his resolution, 
had said so much to his parents, and had sent them away, 
he performed asceticism to win over Brahma. He continued 
for a period of three hundred years living on fruits only, and 
successively for similar periods living on water, air, and 
nothing at all. Then Brahma, seeing that his asceticism 
was becoming capable of upsetting the system of the world, 
came to him, and at his request gave him the weapons of 
Brahma. He said : " This weapon of Brahma cannot be 
repelled by any weapon except the weapon of Pasupati 
Rudra, which is unattainable by me. So, if you desire vic- 
tory, you must not employ it unseasonably." W T hen Brahma 
had said this, he went away, and that Daitya went home. 

Then Vidyuddhvaja marched out to conquer his enemies 
with his father, and with all his forces, who came together to 
that great feast of war. Indra, the ruler of the gods' world, 
heard of his coming, and kept guard in heaven, and when 
he drew near marched out to meet him, eager for battle, 
accompanied by his friend Chandraketu, the king of the 



Vidyadharas, and by the supreme lord of the Gandharvas, 
named Padmasekhara. Then Vidyuddhvaja appeared, hiding 
the heaven with his forces, and Rudra and others came there 
to behold that battle. Then there took place between those 
two armies a battle, which was involved in darkness, 1 by the 
sun's being eclipsed with the clashing together of missiles; 
and the sea of war swelled high, lashed by the wind of wrath, 
with hundreds of chariots for inflowing streams, and rolling 
horses and elephants for marine monsters. 

Then single combats took place between the gods and 
Asuras, and Vidyutprabha, the father of Vidyuddhvaja, 
rushed in wrath upon Indra. Indra found himself being 
gradually worsted by the Daitya in the interchange of mis- 
siles ; so he flung his thunderbolt at him. And then that 
Daitya, smitten by the thunderbolt, fell dead. And that 
enraged Vidyuddhvaja so that he attacked Indra. And 
though his life was not in danger, he began by discharging at 
him the weapon of Brahma ; and other great Asuras struck 
at him with other weapons. Then Indra called to mind the 
weapon of Pasupati, presided over by Siva himself, which 
immediately presented itself in front of him ; he worshipped 
it, and discharged it among his foes. That weapon, which 
was of the nature of a destroying fire, consumed the army 
of the Asuras ; but Vidyuddhvaja, being a child, only fell 
senseless when smitten by it, for that weapon does not harm 
children, old men or fugitives. Then all the gods returned 
home victorious. 

And Vidyuddhvaja, for his part, who had fallen senseless, 
recovered his senses after a very long time, and fled weeping, 
and then said to the rest of his soldiers, who had assembled : 
" In spite of my having acquired the weapon of Brahma, we 
were not victorious to-day, though victory was in our grasp ; 
on the contrary we were defeated. So I will go and attack 
Indra, and lose my life in battle. Now that my father is 
slain, I shall not be able to return to my own city." When 
he said this, an old minister of his father's said to him : " The 
weapon of Brahma, discharged unseasonably, is too languid 

1 I have adopted the reading andhakaritam, which I find in the three India 
Office MSS. 



to contend with other weapons discharged, for that great 
weapon was to-day overcome by the weapon of Siva, which 
will not brook the presence of others. So you ought not 
unseasonably to challenge your victorious enemy, for in this 
way you will strengthen him and destroy yourself. The calm 
and resolute man preserves his own life, and in due time 
regains might, and takes revenge on his enemy, and so wins 
a reputation esteemed by the whole world." 

When that old minister said this to Vidyuddhvaja, he said 
to him : " Then go you and take care of my kingdom, but 
I will go and propitiate that supreme lord Siva." 

When he had said this, he dismissed his followers, though 
they were loth to leave him, and he went with five young 
Daityas, companions of equal age, and performed asceticism 
on the bank of the Ganges, at the foot of Mount Kailasa. 
During the summer he stood in the midst of five fires, and 
during the winter in the water, meditating on Siva ; and for 
a thousand years he lived on fruits only. For a second 
thousand years he ate only roots, for a third he subsisted on 
water, for a fourth on air, and during the fifth he took no 
food at all. 1 

Brahma once more came to grant him a boon, but he 
did not show him any respect : on the contrary he said : 
"Depart ! I have tested the efficiency of thy boon." And he 
remained fasting for another period of equal duration, and 
then a great volume of smoke rose up from his head, and 
Siva manifested himself to him, and said to him : " Choose 
a boon." When thus addressed, that Daitya said to him : 
" May I, Lord, by thy favour slay Indra in fight ? " The 
god answered : " Rise up ! There is no distinction between 
the slain 2 and the conquered ; so thou shalt conquer Indra 
and dwell in his heaven." 

When the god had said this, he disappeared, and Vidyud- 
dhvaja, considering that the wish of his heart was attained, 

1 For a note on the austerities of Hindu ascetics see Vol. I, p. 79ft 1 . 


2 I read nihatasya, which I find supported by two of the India Office MSS. 
No. 1882 has nihitasya, No. 21 66 nihatasya, and No. 3003 has anitahasya. The 
Sanskrit College MS. has tihatasya. 


broke his fast, and went to his city. There he was welcomed 
by the citizens, and met by that minister of his father's who 
had endured suffering for his sake, and who now made great 
rejoicing. He then summoned the armies of the Asuras, and 
made preparation for battle, and sent an ambassador to 
Indra to warn him to hold himself in readiness for fight. And 
he marched out, hiding with his banners the sky, which he 
clove with the thunderous roar of his host, and so he seemed 
to be fulfilling the wish * of the inhabitants of heaven. And 
Indra, for his part, knowing that he had returned from win- 
ning a boon, was troubled, but, after taking counsel with the 
adviser of the gods, 2 he summoned his forces. 

Then Vidyuddhvaja arrived, and there took place between 
those two armies a great battle, in which it was difficult to 
distinguish between friend and foe. Those Daityas, who 
were headed by Subahu, fought with the wind-gods, and 
Pingaksha and his followers with the gods of wealth, Maha- 
maya and his forces with the gods of fire, and Ayahkaya and 
his hosts with the sun-gods, and Akampana and his warriors 
with the Vidyadharas, and the rest with the Gandharvas and 
their allies. So a great battle continued between them for 
twenty days, and on the twenty-first day the gods were 
routed in fight by the Asuras. 

And when routed they fled, and entered heaven ; and 
then Indra himself issued, mounted on Airavana. And the 
forces of the gods rallied round him, and marched out again,, 
with the leaders of the Vidyadharas, headed by Chandraketu.. 
Then a desperate fight took place, and Asuras and gods 3 
were being slain in great numbers when Vidyuddhvaja 
attacked Indra, to revenge the slaughter of his father. The 
king of the gods cleft over and over again the bow of that 
chief of the Asuras, who kept repelling his shafts with answer- 
ing shafts. Then Vidyuddhvaja, elated with the boon of 
Siva, seized his mace, and rushed furiously on Indra. He 

1 Perhaps there is a pun here. The word ishta may also mean " sacrifice," 
" sacred rite." 

2 I.e. Brihaspati. 

3 The word for god here is amara, literally "immortal." This may remind 
the classical reader of the passage in Birds, 1224, where Iris says, "aAA.' dOdvaros; 
el/A," and Peisthetaerus imperturbably replies, " d\\' o/xws av d-n-tdaves." 


leapt up, planting his feet on the tusks of Airavana, and 
climbed up on his forehead and killed his driver. And he 
gave the king of the gods a blow with his mace, and he quickly 
returned it with a similar weapon. But when Vidyuddhvaja 
struck him a second time with his mace, Indra fell senseless 
on to the chariot of the wind-god. And the wind-god 
carried him away in his chariot out of the fight with the 
speed of thought ; and Vidyuddhvaja, who sprang after him, 1 
fell on the ground. 

At that moment a voice came from the air : " This is an 
evil day, so carry Indra quickly out of the fight." Then the 
wind-god carried off Indra at the utmost speed of his chariot, 
and Vidyuddhvaja pursued them, mounted on his ; and in 
the meanwhile Airavana, infuriated and unrestrained by the 
driver's hook, ran after Indra, trampling and scattering the 
forces. And the army of the gods left the field of battle and 
followed Indra ; and Brihaspati carried off his wife Sachi, who 
was much alarmed, to the heaven of Brahma. Then Vidyud- 
dhvaja, having gained the victory, and having found Amaravati 
empty, entered it, accompanied by his shouting troops. 

And Indra, having recovered consciousness, and seeing 
that it was an evil time, entered that heaven of Brahma 
with all the gods. And Brahma comforted him, saying: "Do 
not grieve : at present this boon of Siva is predominant ; but 
you will recover your position." And he gave him, to dwell 
in, a place of his own, furnished with all delights, named 
Samadhisthala, situated in a region of the world of Brahma. 
There the king of the gods dwelt, accompanied by Sachi and 
Airavana ; and by his orders the Vidyadhara kings went to the 
heaven of the wind-god. And the lords of the Gandharvas 
went to the inviolable world of the moon ; and others went 
to other worlds, abandoning severally their own dwellings. 
And Vidyuddhvaja, having taken possession of the territory 
of the gods with beat of drum, enjoyed sway over heaven 2 
as an unlimited monarch. 

1 I read dattajhampo, which I find in MS. No. 3003. The other two have 
dattajampo. The Sanskrit College MS. has dattajhampo. 

2 Cf. Ovid's Metamorphoses, v, 321-331, for the flight of the inhabitants 
of the Grecian heaven from the giant Typhosus. 


At this point of the story, Chandraketu, the Vidyadhara 
king, having remained long in the world of the wind-god, 
said to himself : " How long am I to remain here, fallen 
from my high rank ? The asceticism of my enemy Vidyud- 
dhvaja has not even now spent its force ; but I have heard 
that my friend Padmasekhara, the king of the Gandharvas, 
has gone from the world of the moon to the city of Siva to 
perform asceticism. I do not know as yet whether Siva has 
bestowed a boon on him or not ; when I have discovered 
that, I shall know what I myself ought to do." 

While he was going through these reflections, his friend, 
the king of the Gandharvas, came towards him, having 
obtained a boon. That king of the Gandharvas, having 
been welcomed with an embrace by Chandraketu, and ques- 
tioned, 1 told him his story : "I went to the city of Siva and 
propitiated Siva with asceticism ; and he said to me : 'Go! 
thou shalt have a noble son ; and thou shalt recover thy 
kingdom, and obtain a daughter of transcendent beauty, 
whose husband shall be the heroic slayer of Vidyuddhvaja.' 2 
Having received this promise from Siva, I have come here to 
tell you." 

When Chandraketu had heard this from the king of the 
Gandharvas, he said : " I too must go and propitiate Siva 
in order to put an end to this sorrow ; without propitiating 
him we cannot obtain the fulfilment of our desires." When 
Chandraketu had formed this resolution, he went with his 
wife Muktavali to the heavenly abode of Siva, to perform 

And Padmasekhara told the story of his boon to Indra, 
and having conceived a hope of the destruction of his enemy, 
went to the world of the moon. Then that king of the gods 
in Samadhisthala, having also conceived a hope of the de- 
struction of his enemy, called to mind the counsellor of the 
immortals. And he appeared as soon as he was thought 
upon, and the god, bowing before him, and honouring him, 
said to him : " Siva, pleased with the asceticism of Padma- 
sekhara, has promised that he shall have a son-in-law who 

1 All the India Office MSS. read prishtas. 

2 All the India Office MSS. read Vidyuddhvajantako. 


shall slay Vidyuddhvaja. So we shall eventually see an end 
put to his crimes : in the meanwhile I am despondent, dwell- 
ing here in misery on account of my having fallen from my 
high position. So devise, holy sir, some expedient that will 
operate quickly." When the adviser of the gods heard this 
speech of Indra's, he said to him : " It is true that that 
enemy of ours has nearly exhausted his asceticism by his 
crimes ; so now we have an opportunity of exerting ourselves 
against him. Come, then, let us tell Brahma ; he will point 
out to us an expedient." 

When Brihaspati had said this to Indra, he went with him 
to Brahma, and, after worshipping him, he told him what was 
in his mind. Then Brahma said : " Am I not also anxious 
to bring about the same end ? But Siva alone can remove 
the calamity that he has caused. And that god requires a 
long propitiation 1 : so let us go to Vishnu, who is like-minded 
with him; he will devise an expedient." 

When Brahma and Indra and Brihaspati had deliberated 
together to this effect, they ascended a chariot of swans and 
went to Svetadvipa, 2 where all the inhabitants carried the 
conch, discus, lotus and club, and had four arms, being as- 
similated to Vishnu in appearance as they were devoted to 
him in heart. There they saw the god in a palace composed 
of splendid jewels, reposing on the serpent Sesha, having his 
feet adored by Lakshmi. After bowing before him, and 
having been duly welcomed by him, and venerated by the 
divine sages, they took the seats befitting them. When the 
holy one asked the gods how they prospered, they humbly 
said to him : " What prosperity can be ours, God, as long 
as Vidyuddhvaja is alive ? For you know all that he has 
done to us, and it is on his account that we have come here 
now : it now rests with you to determine what further is to 
be done in this matter." 

When the gods said this to Vishnu, he answered them : 
" Why, do I not know that my regulations are broken by that 
Asura ? But what the great lord, the slayer of Tripura, has 

1 MS. No. 1882 here reads chiraprapyas : the other two agree with 

2 See Vol. IV, p. 185, 185w 2 . n.m.p. 


done, he alone can undo : I cannot. And from him must 
proceed the overthrow of that wicked Daitya. You must 
make haste, provided I tell you an expedient ; and I will tell 
you one : listen ! There is a heavenly abode of Siva, named 
Siddhisvara. There the god Siva is found ever manifest. 
And long ago that very god manifested to me and Prajapati * 
his form as the flame-Zmga, and told me this secret. So come, 
let us go there and entreat him with asceticism ; he will put 
an end to this affliction of the worlds ! " When the god 
Vishnu had uttered this behest, they all went to Siddhisvara 
by means of two conveyances, the bird Garuda and the 
chariot of swans. That place is untouched by the calamities 
of old age, death and sickness, and it is the home of unalloyed 
happiness, and in it beasts, birds and trees are all of gold. 
There they worshipped the linga of Siva, that exhibits in 
succession all his forms, 2 and is in succession of various jewels ; 
and then Vishnu, Brahma, Indra and Brihaspati, all four, 
with their minds devoted to Siva, proceeded to perform a 
severe course of asceticism in order to propitiate him. 

And in the meanwhile Siva, . propitiated by the severe 
asceticism of Chandraketu, bestowed a boon on that prince 
of the Vidyadharas : " Rise up, King ! a son shall be born to 
thee who shall be a great hero, and shall slay in fight thy 
enemy Vidyuddhvaja ; he shall become incarnate among the 
human race by a curse, and shall render a service to the gods, 
and shall recover his position by virtue of the asceticism of 
Padmavati, the daughter of the king of the Gandharvas : 
and with her for a wife he shall be emperor over all the 
Vidyadharas for ten kalpas" 3 When the god had granted 
this boon he disappeared, and Chandraketu went back to 
the world of the wind-god with his wife. 

In the meanwhile Siva was pleased with the severe asceti- 
cism of Vishnu and his companions in Siddhisvara, and he 
appeared to them in the linga and delighted them by the 
following speech : " Rise up, afflict yourselves no longer ! I 
have been fully propitiated with self-torture by your partisan 

1 A title of Brahma. See Muir's Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv, p. 18. 

2 For anyonya I read any any a, but all the MSS. confirm Brockhaus' text. 

3 The three India Office MSS. have dasa ka/pa?i. 


Chandraketu, the prince of the Vidyadharas. And he shall 
have a heroic son, sprung from a part of me, who shall soon 
slay in fight that Daitya Vidyuddhvaja. Then, in order 
that he may perform another service to the gods, he shall 
fall 1 by a curse into the world of men, and the daughter of 
the Gandharva Padmasekhara shall deliver him from that 
condition. And he shall rule the Vidyadharas with that 
lady, who shall be an incarnation of a portion of Gaurl, and 
shall be named Padmavati, for his consort, and at last he 
shall come to me. So bear up for a little : this desire of 
yours is already as good as accomplished." When Siva had 
said this to Vishnu and his companions, he disappeared ; 
then Vishnu, Brahma, Indra and Brihaspati went, in high 
delight, back to the places from which they came. 

Then Muktavali, the wife of that king of the Vidyadharas 
named Chandraketu, became pregnant, and in time she 
brought forth a son, illuminating the four quarters with his 
irresistible splendour, 2 like the infant sun arisen to remove 
the oppression under which those ascetics were groaning. 
And as soon as he was born this voice was heard from 
heaven : " Chandraketu, this son of thine shall slay the 
Asura Vidyuddhvaja, and know that he is to be by name 
Muktaphalaketu, the terror of his foes." 

When the voice had said so much to the delighted 
Chandraketu, it ceased, and a rain of flowers fell ; and 
Padmasekhara and Indra, hearing what had taken place, 
came there, and the other gods who were lurking concealed. 
Conversing to one another of the story of the boon of 
Siva, and having rejoiced thereat, they went to their own 
abodes. And Muktaphalaketu had all the sacraments per- 
formed for him, and gradually grew up ; and as he grew, 
the joy of the gods increased. 

Then, some time after the birth of his son, a daughter was 
born to Padmasekhara, the supreme lord of the Gandharvas. 
And when she was born a voice came from the air : " Prince 

1 I read cyutam for cyuta. See Taranga 117, si. 152 et seq. But all the 
India Office MSS. agree with Brockhaus' text. The tale itself will justify my 

2 The word tejasd also means "valour." 



of the Gandharvas, this daughter of thine, Padmavati, shall 
be the wife of that king of the Vidyadharas who shall be 
the foe of Vidyuddhvaja." Then that maiden Padmavati 
gradually grew up, adorned with an overflowing effulgence of 
beauty, as if with billowy nectar acquired by her being born 
in the world of the moon. 1 

And that Muktaphalaketu, even when a child, was high- 
minded, and being always devoted to Siva, he performed 
asceticism, in the form of vows, fasts and other penances. 
And once on a time, when he had fasted twelve days, and 
was absorbed in meditation, the adorable Siva appeared to 
him, and said : "I am pleased with this devotion of thine, 
so by my special favour the weapons, the sciences, and all 
the accomplishments shall manifest themselves to thee. And 
receive from me this sword named Invincible, 2 by means of 
which thou shalt hold sovereign sway, unconquered by thy 
enemies." When the god had said this, he gave him the 
sword and disappeared, and that prince at once became 
possessed of powerful weapons and great strength and courage. 

Now one day, about this time, that great Asura Vidyud- 
dhvaja, being established in heaven, was disporting himself 
in the water of the heavenly Ganges. He saw the water of 
that stream flowing along brown with the pollen of flowers, 
and remarked that it was pervaded by the smell of the ichor 
of elephants, and troubled with waves. Then, puffed up with 
pride of his mighty arm, he said to his attendants : "Go and 
see who is disporting himself in the water above me." 

1 Literally "the nectar-rayed one." 

2 Cf. Vol. I, p. 109W 1 , and Vol. VI, p. 72, 72W 1 ; also Silius Italicus,i, 430, 

quoted by Preller, Griechische Mythologie, vol. ii, p. 354. The passage from 

the Punica of Silius Italicus is as follows : 

" Hannibal agminibus passim furit et quatit ensem, 
Cantato nuper senior quern fecerat igni 
Litore ab Hesperidum Temisus, qui carmine pollens 
Fidebat magica ferrum crudescere lingua. ..." 

In my note on swords and their names in Vol. I, p. 109W 1 , I referred to Caesar's 
sword as " Crocea Mors." In a review of the volume Professor Halliday doubted 
its genuineness and suggested some mediaeval source. My reference to 
Brewer supports this view, as it occurs in Geoffrey of Monmouth, iv, 4 
(d. a.d. 1154). N.M.P. 


When the Asuras heard that, they went up to the stream, 
and saw the bull of Siva sporting in the water with the 
elephant of Indra. And they came back and said to that 
prince of the Daityas : " King, the bull of Siva has gone 
higher up the stream, and is amusing himself in the water 
with Airavana ; so this water is full of his garlands and of 
the ichor of Airavana." When that Asura heard this he 
was wroth, in his arrogance making light of Rudra, and in- 
fatuated by the full ripening of his own evil deeds he said to 
his followers : " Go and bring that bull and Airavana here, 
bound." Those Asuras went there and tried to capture 
them, and thereupon the bull and elephant ran upon them 
in wrath and slew most of them. And those who escaped 
from the slaughter went and told Vidyuddhvaja ; and he was 
angry, and sent a very great force of Asuras against those 
two animals. And those two trampled to death that army, 
upon which destruction came as the result of matured crime, 
and then the bull returned to Siva, and the elephant to Indra. 

Then Indra heard about that proceeding of the Daityas 
from the guards, who followed Airavana to take care of him, 
and he concluded that the time of his enemy's destruction 
had arrived, as he had treated with disrespect even the 
adorable Siva. He told that to Brahma, and then he united 
himself with the assembled forces of the gods and the 
Vidyadharas and his other allies, and then he mounted 
the chief elephant of the gods and set out to slay that 
enemy of his ; and on his departure Sachi performed for 
him the usual ceremony to ensure good fortune. 


170b. Muktaphalaketu and Padmdvatl 

THEN Indra reached heaven and surrounded it with 
his forces, that were rendered confident by the favour 
of Siva, and had gained the suitable opportunity and 
the requisite strength. When Vidyuddhvaja saw that, he 
marched out with his army, ready for battle ; but as he 
marched out evil omens manifested themselves to him : 
lightning flashes struck his banners, vultures circled above 
his head, the state umbrellas were broken, and jackals uttered 
boding howls. 1 Disregarding these evil omens, nevertheless 
that Asura sallied forth ; and then there took place a mighty 
battle between the gods and the Asuras. 

And Indra said to Chandraketu, the king of the Vidya- 
dharas : " Why has Muktaphalaketu not yet come ? " Then 
Chandraketu humbly made answer : " When I was marching 
out I was in such a hurry that I forgot to tell him ; but he 
is sure to hear of it, and will certainly follow me quickly." 
When the king of the gods heard this he quickly sent the 
dexterous charioteer of the wind-god to bring the noble 
Muktaphalaketu. And his father, Chandraketu, sent with 
Indra's messenger his own warder, with a force and a chariot, 
to summon him. 

1 See Vol. IV, pp. 93, 93n 2 , 94<n ; Zimmer's Altindisches Leben, p. 60, and 
Preller, Rbmische Mythologie, pp. 102-103: the vultures will remind the 
English reader of Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar, v, 1, 84 et seq. ; for the ominous 
import of lightning see Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, art. " Bidental " ; and 
Preller, op. cit., p. 172. There is a very similar passage in Achilles Tatius, 
Lib. V, c, 3 : M '12s ovv Trpo^Xdofxev twv dvpiav, o'uovbs rjplv yuverai 7rovr)pbs' x^AtSdi/a 
xtpKOs SaoKiov rr]V A.VKLirirrjV 7raTao-trt t/> Trrepip els tyjv KecfiaXrjv." See also 
Sir Thomas Browne's Vulgar Errors, Book V, chap, xxiii, sec. 1 ; Webster's 
Dutchess of Ma If ey, Act II, sc. 2 : 

" How superstitiously we mind our evils ! 

The throwing down salt, or crossing of a hare, 

Bleeding at nose, the stumbling of a horse, 

Or singing of a cricket, are of power 

To daunt whole man in us." 



But Muktaphalaketu, hearing that his father had gone 
to battle with the Daityas, was eager to set out for that 
fight with his followers. Then he mounted his elephant of 
victory, and his mother performed for him the ceremony to 
ensure good fortune, and he set out from the world of the 
wind bearing the sword of Siva. And when he had set out, 
a rain of flowers fell on him from heaven, and the gods beat 
their drums and favouring breezes blew. And then the hosts 
of the gods, that had fled and hid themselves out of fear of 
Vidyuddhvaja, assembled and surrounded him. As he was 
marching along with that large army, he saw in his way a 
great temple of Parvati, named Meghavana. His devotion 
to the goddess would not allow him to pass it without wor- 
shipping * ; so he got down from his elephant, and taking in; 
his hand heavenly flowers, he proceeded to adore the goddess. 

Now it happened that, at that very time, Padmavati, the 
daughter of Padmasekhara, the king of the Gandharvas, who- 
had now grown up, had taken leave of her mother, who was 
engaged in austerities to bring good fortune to her husband 
who had gone to war, and had come, with her attendant 
ladies, in a chariot, from the world of Indra, to that temple 
of Gauri, with the intention of performing asceticism in order 
to ensure success to her father in battle, and to the bridegroom 
on whom she had set her heart. 

On the way one of her ladies said to her : " You have not 
as yet any chosen lover, who might have gone to the war,, 
and your mother is engaged in asceticism for the well-being 
of your father ; for whose sake, my friend, do you, a maiden,, 
seek to perform asceticism ? " When Padmavati had been 
thus addressed by her friend on the way, she answered : " My 
friend, a father is to maidens a divinity procuring all happi- 
ness ; moreover, there has already been chosen for me a 
bridegroom of unequalled excellence. That Muktaphalaketu, 
the son who has been born to the Vidyadhara king, in order 
that he may slay Vidyuddhvaja, has been destined for my 
husband by Siva. This I heard from the mouth of my father 
when questioned by my mother. And that chosen bridegroom 

1 I read tadanullanghayan with MSS. No. 1882 and 2166 and the Sanskrit 
College MS. No. 3003 has anullanghaya. 


of mine has either gone or certainly is going to battle ; 
so I am about to propitiate with asceticism the holy Gauri, 
desiring victory for my future husband * as well as for my 

When the princess said this, her attendant lady answered 
her : " Then this exertion on your part, though directed to- 
wards an object still in the future, is right and proper : may 
your desire be accomplished ! " Just as her friend was say- 
ing this to her, the princess reached a large and beautiful lake 
in the neighbourhood of the temple of Gauri. It was covered 
all over with bright full-blown golden lotuses, and they seemed 
as if they were suffused with the beauty flowing forth from 
the lotus of her face. The Gandharva maiden went down 
into that lake and gathered lotuses with which to worship 
Ambika, and was preparing to bathe, when two Rakshasis 
came that way, as all the Rakshasas were rushing to the 
battle between the gods and Asuras, eager for flesh. They 
had upstanding hair, yellow as the flames vomited forth from 
their mouths terrible with tusks, gigantic bodies black as 
smoke, and pendulous breasts and bellies. The moment that 
those wanderers of the night saw that Gandharva princess, 
they swooped down upon her and seized her, and carried her 
up towards the heaven. 

But the deity, that presided over her chariot, impeded 
the flight of those Rakshasis, and her grieving retinue cried 
for help ; and while this was going on Muktaphalaketu issued 
from the temple of the goddess, having performed his worship, 
and hearing the lamentation, he came in that direction. 
When the great hero beheld Padmavati gleaming bright in 
the grasp of that pair of Rakshasis, looking like a flash of 
lightning in the midst of a bank of black clouds, he ran for- 
ward and delivered her, hurling the Rakshasis senseless to 
earth by a blow from the flat of his hand. And he looked 
on that torrent river of the elixir of beauty, adorned with 
a waist charming with three wavelike wrinkles, 2 who seemed 

1 I read patyus for pitus, with the three India Office MSS. and the 
Sanskrit College MS. 

2 Burton (Nights, vol. vii, p. I30n 7 ) quotes this passage as apposite to 
description in his text : " . . . but the perfect whiteness of her body overcame 


to have been composed by the Creator of the essence of all 
beauty when he was full of the wonderful skill he had ac- 
quired by forming the nymphs of heaven. And the moment 
he looked on her his senses were benumbed by love's opiate, 
though he was strong of will ; and he remained for a moment 
motionless, as if painted in a picture. 

And Padmavati too, now that the alarm caused by the 
Rakshasis was at an end, at once recovered her spirits, and 
looked on the prince, who possessed a form that was a feast 
to the eyes of the world, and who was one fitted to madden 
womankind, and seemed to have been created by fate by a 
blending together in one body of the moon and the God of 
Love. Then, her face being cast down with shame, she said 
of her own accord to her friend : " May good luck befall him ! 
I will depart hence, from the presence of a strange man." 

Even while she was saying this Muktaphalaketu said to 
her friend : " What did this young lady say ? " And she 
answered : " This lovely maiden bestowed a blessing on you, 
the saver of her life, and said to me : ' Come, let us depart 
from the presence of a strange man.' " When Muktaphala- 
ketu heard this, he said to her, with eager excitement : " Who 
is she ? Whose daughter is she ? To what man of great 
merit in a former life is she to be given in marriage ? " * 

When he addressed this question to the princess's com- 
panion she answered him : " Fair sir, this my friend is the 
maiden named Padmavati, the daughter of Padmasekhara, 
the king of the Gandharvas, and Siva has ordained that her 
husband is to be Muktaphalaketu, the son of Chandraketu, 
the darling of the world, the ally of Indra, the destined slayer 
of Vidyuddhvaja. Because she desires the victory for that 
future husband of hers and for her father in the battle now 
at hand, she has come to this temple of Gaurl to perform 

When the followers of Chandraketu's son heard this, they 

the redness of her shift, through which glittered two breasts like twin 
granadoes, and a waist as it were a roll of fine Coptic linen, with creases like 
scrolls of pure white paper stuffed with musk." n.m.p. 

1 The India Office MSS. have kasmai dattd va ; but the sense is much the 


delighted the princess by exclaiming : " Bravo ! here is that 
future husband of yours." Then the princess and her lover 
had their hearts filled with joy at discovering one another, and 
they both thought, " It is well that we came here to-day," 
and they continued casting loving sidelong timid glances 
at one another ; and while they were thus engaged the sound 
of drums was heard, and then a host appeared, and a chariot 
with the wind-god, 1 and the warder of Chandraketu coming 

Then the wind-god and the warder respectfully left the 
chariot and went up to that Muktaphalaketu, and said to 
him : " The king of the gods and your father, Chandraketu, 
who are in the field of battle, desire your presence ; so ascend 
this chariot, and come quickly." Then the son of the Vidya- 
dhara king, though fettered by love of Padmavati, ascended 
the chariot with them, out of regard for the interests of his 
superiors. And putting on a heavenly suit of armour 2 sent 
by Indra he set out quickly, often turning back his head to 
look at Padmavati. 

And Padmavati followed with her eyes, as long as he was 
in sight, that hero, who with one blow from the flat of his 
hand had slain the two Rakshasis, and with him ever in her 
thoughts she bathed, and worshipped Siva and Parvati, and 
from that time forth kept performing asceticism in that very 
place, to ensure his success. 

And Muktaphalaketu, still thinking on his sight of her, 
which was auspicious and portended victory, reached the 
place where the battle was going on between the gods and 
Asuras. And when they saw that hero arrive, well-armed and 
accompanied by a force, all the great Asuras rushed to attack 
him. But the hero cut their heads to pieces with a rain of 
arrows, and made with them an offering to the gods of the 
cardinal points, by way of inaugurating the feast of battle. 

But Vidyuddhvaja, seeing his army being slain by that 

1 It appears from the beginning of the chapter that this was the 
charioteer of Vayu, the chief god of the wind. In Chapter XV, si. 57, the 
wind-gods are opposed to the Daityas. Bohtlingk and Roth identify these 
wind-gods with the Maruts, s.v. Vayu. 

2 Dr Kern corrects kavachanam to kavacham. The latter word is found in 
the three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. 


Muktaphalaketu, himself rushed in wrath to attack him. 
And when he smote with arrows that Daitya, as he came 
on, the whole army of the Asuras rushed upon him from 
every quarter. When Indra saw that, he at once attacked 
the army of the Daityas, with the Siddhas, Gandharvas, 
Vidyadharas and gods at his back. 

Then a confused battle arose, with dint of arrow, javelin, 
lance, mace and axe, costing the lives of countless soldiers ; 
rivers of blood flowed along, with the bodies of elephants 
and horses for alligators, with the pearls from the heads of 
elephants 1 for sands, and with the heads of heroes for 

That feast of battle delighted the flesh-loving demons, 
who, drunk with blood instead of wine, were dancing with 
the palpitating trunks. The fortune of victory of the gods 
and Asuras in that sea of battle swayed hither and thither 
from time to time, fluctuating like a tide-wave. And in 
this way the fight went on for twenty-four days, watched 
by Siva, Vishnu and Brahma, who were present in their 
chariots. 2 

And at the end of the twenty-fifth day a series of single 
combats was taking place between the principal warriors of 
both armies along the greater part of the line of fight. And 
then a duel began between the noble Muktaphalaketu and 
Vidyuddhvaja, the former in a chariot, the latter on an 
elephant. Muktaphalaketu repelled the weapon of dark- 
ness with the weapon of the sun, the weapon of cold with 
the weapon of heat, the rock-weapon with the thunderbolt- 
weapon, the serpent-weapon with the weapon of Garuda, 
and then he slew that elephant-driver of that Asura with one 
arrow, and his elephant with another. Then Vidyuddhvaja 
mounted a chariot, and Muktaphalaketu killed the charioteer 
and the horses. Then Vidyuddhvaja took refuge in magic. 
He ascended into the sky invisible with his whole army, 
and rained stones and weapons on all sides of the army of 

1 I read mauktika for maulika. The three India Office MSS. and the 
Sanskrit College MS. have mauktika. 

2 Cf. the somewhat similar battle descriptions in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. vii, p. 6 1, and vol. viii, p. 136). n.m.p. 

vol. VIII. L 


the gods. And as for the impenetrable net of arrows which 
Muktaphalaketu threw around it, that Daitya consumed it 
with showers of fire. 

Then Muktaphalaketu sent against that enemy and his 
followers the weapon of Brahma, which was capable of de- 
stroying the whole world, after he had pronounced over it 
the appropriate spells. That weapon killed the great Asura 
Vidyuddhvaja and his army, and they fell down dead from 
the sky, And the rest namely, Vidyuddhvaja's son and 
his followers, and Vajradamshtra and his crew fled in fear 
to the bottom of the Rasatala. 1 

And then the gods from heaven exclaimed " Bravo ! 
Bravo ! " and they honoured the noble Muktaphalaketu 
with a rain of flowers. Then Indra, having recovered his 
sway, as his enemy was slain, entered heaven, and there was 
a great rejoicing in the three worlds. And Prajapati him- 
self came there, making SachI precede him, and fastened a 
splendid crest- jewel on the head of Muktaphalaketu. And 
Indra took the chain from his own neck and placed it on 
the neck of that victorious prince, who had restored his king- 
dom to him. And he made him sit on a throne equal in all 
respects to his own ; and the gods, full 2 of joy, bestowed 
upon him various blessings. And Indra sent on his warder 
to the city of the Asiira Vidyuddhvaja, and took posses- 
sion of it in addition to his own city, with the intention 
of bestowing it on Muktaphalaketu, when a fitting time 
presented itself. 

Then the Gandharva Padmasekhara, wishing to bestow 
Padmavati on that prince, looked meaningly at the face of 
the Disposer. And the Disposer, knowing what was in his 
heart, said to that prince of the Gandharvas : " There is 
still a service remaining to be done, so wait a little." Then 
there took place the triumphal feast of Indra, with the songs 
of Haha and Huhu, and the dances of Rambha and others, 
which they accompanied with their own voices. And when 
the Disposer had witnessed the festive rejoicing he departed, 

1 One of the seven hells (not places of torment). 

2 But the three India Office MSS. read ghurnad for purna. It could, I 
suppose, mean "reeling with joy." The Sanskrit College MS. has pTtrvva. 


and Indra honoured the Lokapalas 1 and dismissed them to 
their several stations. And after honouring that Gandharva 
monarch Padmasekhara, and his train, he dismissed them 
to their own Gandharva city. And Indra, after treating with 
the utmost respect the noble Muktaphalaketu and Chandra- 
ketu, sent them to their own Vidyadhara city to enjoy them- 
selves. And then Muktaphalaketu, having destroyed the 
plague of the universe, returned to his palace, accompanied 
by his father and followed by many Vidyadhara kings. And 
on account of the prince having returned victorious with his 
father after a long absence, that city displayed its joy, being 
adorned with splendid jewels and garlanded with flags. And 
his father, Chandraketu, at once bestowed gifts on all his 
servants and relations, and kept high festival in the city 
for the triumph of his son, showering wealth on it as a cloud 
showers water. But Muktaphalaketu, though he had gained 
glory by conquering Vidyuddhvaja, derived no satisfaction 
from his enjoyments without Padmavati. However, being 
comforted in soul by a friend named Samyataka, who re- 
minded him of the decree of Siva, and consoling topics of 
that kind, he managed, though with difficulty, to get through 
those days. 

1 The Lokapalas are the guardians of the four cardinal and intermediate 
points of the compass. They appear to be usually reckoned as Indra, guardian 
of the East, Agni of the South-East, Varuna of the West, Yama of the South, 
Surya of the South-West, Pavana or Vayu of the North-West, Kuvera of the 
North, Soma or Chandra of the North-East. Some substitute Nirriti for 
Surya and Isani or Prithivi for Soma. 


170b. Muktdphalaketu and Padmavati 

IN the meanwhile that king of the Gandharvas, Padma- 
gekhara, re-entered his city, celebrating a splendid triumph; 
and hearing from his wife that his daughter Padmavati 
had performed asceticism in the temple of Gauri, to procure 
for him victory, he summoned her. And when his daughter 
came, emaciated with asceticism and separation from her 
lover, and fell at his feet, he gave her his blessing, and said 
to her : " Dear girl, for my sake you have endured great 
hardship in the form of penance, so obtain quickly for a 
husband the noble Muktaphalaketu, the son of the king of 
the Vidyadharas, the slayer of Vidyuddhvaja, the victorious 
protector of the world, who has been appointed to marry you 
by Siva himself." 

When her father said this to her, she remained with face 
fixed on the ground, and then her mother, Kuvalayavali, 
said to him : " How, my husband, was so terrible an Asura, 
that filled the three worlds with consternation, slain by that 
prince in fight ? " When the king heard that, he described 
to her the valour of that prince, and the battle between the 
gods and Asuras. Then Padmavati' s companion, whose name 
was Manoharika, described the easy manner in which he slew 
the two Rakshasis. Then the king and queen, finding out 
that he and their daughter had met and fallen in love, were 
pleased, and said : " What could those Rakshasis do against 
one who swallowed the whole army of the Asuras, as Agastya 
swallowed the sea ? " l Then the fire of Padmavati's love 
blazed up more violently, being fanned by this description of 
her lover's surpassing courage as by a breeze. 

Then the princess left her parents' presence and immedi- 
ately ascended, in eager longing, a jewelled terrace in the 
women's apartments, which had pillars of precious stone 

1 See Vol. VI, pp. 43H 1 , 44w. n.m.p. 




standing in it, and lattices of pearl fastened to them, and had 
placed on its pavement, of costly mosaic, luxurious couches 
and splendid thrones, and was rendered still more delightful 
by means of the various enjoyments which there presented 
themselves as soon as thought of. Even when there, she was 
exceedingly tortured with the fire of separation. And she 
saw from the top of this terrace a magnificent heavenly 
garden, planted with trees and creepers of gold, and full of 
hundreds of tanks adorned with costly stone. And when she 
saw it she said to herself : " Wonderful ! This splendid 
city of ours is more beautiful even than the world of the 
moon in which I was born. And yet I have not explored 
this city, which is the very crest- jewel of the Himalayas, in 
which there is such a splendid suburban garden excelling 
Nandana. So I will go into this lovely shrubbery, cool with 
the shade of trees, and alleviate a little the scorching of the 
fires of separation." 

After the young maiden had gone through these reflec- 
tions, she dexterously managed to descend slowly from the 
terrace alone, and prepared to go to that city garden. And 
as she could not go on foot she was carried there by some 
birds that were brought to her by her power, and served as 
her conveyance. When she reached the garden she sat in an 
arbour formed of plantains growing together, on a carpet of 
flowers, with heavenly singing and music sounding in her ears. 
And even there she did not obtain relief, and her passion did 
not abate : on the contrary, the fire of her love increased 
still more, as she was separated from her beloved. 

Then in her longing she was eager to behold that loved 
one, though only in a picture, so by her magic power she 
summoned for herself a tablet for painting and colour-pencils. 
And she said to herself : " Considering even the Disposer is 
unable to create a second like my beloved, how can I, reed l 
in hand, produce a worthy likeness of him ? Nevertheless, I 
will paint him as well as I can for my own consolation." After 
going through these reflections she proceeded to paint him 
on a tablet, and while she was thus engaged, her confidante, 

1 The reed was no doubt used as a brush or pencil. The Sanskrit 
College MS. reads utkantha-sannapanir aham katham. 


Manoharika, who had been troubled at not seeing her, 
came to that place to look for her. She stood behind the 
princess, and saw her languishing alone in the bower of 
creepers, with her painting-tablet in her hand. She said 
to herself : " I will just see now what the princess is doing 
here alone." So the princess's confidante remained there 

And then Padmavati, with her lotus-like eyes gushing 
with tears, began to address, in the following words, her be- 
loved in the painting : " When thou didst slay the formidable 
Asuras and deliver Indra, how comes it that thou dost not 
deliver me from my woe, though near me, by speaking to me 
at any rate ? To one whose merits in a former life are small, 
even a wishing-tree is ungenerous, even Buddha is wanting in 
compassion, and even gold becomes a stone. Thou knowest 
not the fever of love, and canst not comprehend my pain : 
what could the poor archer Love, whose arrows are but 
flowers, do against one whom the Daityas found invincible ? 
But what am I saying ? Truly fate is adverse to me, for fate 
stops my eyes with tears, and will not allow me to behold thee 
for long together, even in a picture." When the princess 
had said this, she began to weep with teardrops that were 
so large that it appeared as if her necklace were broken, and 
great pearls were falling from it. 

At that moment her friend Manoharika advanced to- 
wards her, and the princess concealed the picture and said 
to her : " My friend, I have not seen you for ever so long ; 
where have you been ? " When Manoharika heard this she 
laughed and said : "I have been wandering about, my friend, 
for a long time to look for you ; so, why do you hide the 
picture ? I saw, a moment ago, a wonderful picture." * 

When Padmavati's friend said this to her she seized her 
hand, and said to her with a face cast down from shame, and 
a voice choked with tears : " My friend, you knew it all long 
ago ; why should I try to conceal it ? 2 The fact is, that 

1 The three India Office MSS. read atha srutam, which, I suppose, means, 
"and I heard something too." 

2 This line in Brockhaus' text is unmetrical. Nos. 1882 and 3003 read 
kirn nu guhyate, No. 2 1 66 has na for nu. 


prince, though on that occasion, in the sacred enclosure of 
Gauri, he delivered me from the terrible fire of the Rakshasis' 
wrath, plunged me nevertheless in the fire of love, with this 
intolerable flame of separation. So I do not know where to 
go, whom to speak to, what to do, or what expedient I must 
have recourse to, since my heart is fixed on one hard to obtain." 

When the princess said this, her friend answered her : 
" My dear, this attachment of your mind is quite becoming 
and suitable ; your union would certainly be to the enhance- 
ment of one another's beauty, as the union of the digit of 
the new moon with the hair of Siva matted into the form of a 
diadem. And do not be despondent about this matter: of 
a truth he will not be able to live without you. Did you not 
see that he was affected in the same way as yourself ? Even 
women who see you 1 are so much in love with your beauty 
that they desire to become men ; so what man would not be 
a suitor for your hand ? Much more will he be, who is equal 
to you in beauty. Do you suppose that Siva, who declared 
that you should be man and wife, can say what is false ? 
However, what afflicted one feels quite patient about an 
object much desired, even though it is soon to be attained ? 
So cheer up ! He will soon become your husband. It is not 
hard for you to win any husband, but all men must feel that 
you are a prize hard to win." 

When the princess's attendant said this to her, she 
answered her : " My friend, though I know all this,' what am 
I to do ? My heart cannot endure to remain for a moment 
without that lord of my life, to whom it is devoted, and 
Kama will not bear to be trifled with any further. For when 
I think of him my mind is immediately refreshed, 2 but my 
limbs burn, and my breath seems to leave my body with 
glowing heat." 

Even as the princess was saying this she, being soft as a 
flower, fell fainting with distraction into the arms of that 
friend of hers. Then her weeping friend gradually brought 

1 I adopt Dr Kern's conjecture of yam for yd. It is confirmed by the 
three India Office MSS. and by the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 This meaning is assigned by Bohtlingk and Roth to the word nirvati in 
this passage. 


her round by sprinkling her with water and fanning her with 
plantain leaves. Her friend employed with her the usual 
remedies of a necklace and bracelet of lotus fibres, a moist 
anointing with sandalwood unguent, and a bed of lotus 
leaves * ; but these contracted heat by coming in contact 
with her body, and seemed by their heating and withering 
to feel the same pain as she felt. 

Then Padmavati, in her agitation, said to that friend : 
" Why do you weary yourself in vain ? My suffering cannot 
be alleviated in this way. It would be a happy thing if you 
would take the only step likely to alleviate it." When she 
said this in her pain, her friend answered her : " What would 
not I do for your sake? Tell me, my friend, what that 
step is." 

When the princess heard this, she said with difficulty, as if 
ashamed : " Go, my dear friend, and bring my beloved here 
quickly ; for in no other way can my suffering be allayed, and 
my father will not be angry : on the contrary, as soon as he 
comes here he will give me to him." When her friend heard 
that, she said to her in a tone of decision : " If it be so, re- 
cover your self-command. This is but a little matter. Here 
am I, my friend, setting out for Chandrapura, the famous and 
splendid city of Chandraketu, the king of the Vidyadharas, 
the father of your beloved, to bring your beloved to you. 
Be comforted ! What is the use of grief ? " 

When the princess had been thus comforted by Mano- 
harika, she said : " Then rise up, my friend ; may your 
journey be prosperous! Go at once! And you must say 
courteously from me to that heroic lord of my life, who 
delivered the three worlds : ' When you delivered me so 
triumphantly in that temple of Gauri from the danger of the 
Rakshasis, how is it that you do not deliver me now, when I 
am being slain by the god Kama, the destroyer of women ? 
Tell me, my lord, what kind of virtue is this in persons like 
yourself, able to deliver the worlds, to neglect in calamity one 
whom you formerly saved, though she is devoted to you.' 2 

1 For a note on sandalwood see Vol. VII, pp. 105-107, and for the bed of 
lotus leaves cf. Vol. VII, pp. 101 and 143. n.m.p. 

2 I follow MSS. Nos. 3003 and 2166, which give jano' ?nwritto' pi. 


This is what you must say, auspicious one, or something to 
this effect, as your own wisdom may direct." When Padma- 
vati had said this, she sent that friend on her errand. And 
she mounted a bird, which her magic knowledge brought to her, 
to carry her, and set out for that city of the Vidyadharas. 

And then Padmavati, having to a certain extent recovered 
her spirits by hope, took the painting- tablet and entered the 
palace of her father. There she went into her own apartment, 
surrounded by her servants, and bathed, and worshipped Siva 
with intense devotion, and thus prayed to him : " Holy one, 
without thy favouring consent no wish, great or small, is ful- 
filled for anyone in these three worlds. So if thou wilt not 
give me for a husband that noble son of the emperor of the 
Vidyadharas, on whom I have set my heart, I will abandon 
my body in front of thy image." 

When she addressed this prayer to Siva, her attendants 
were filled with grief and astonishment, and said to her : 
" Why do you speak thus, Princess, regardless of your body's 
weal ? Is there anything in these three worlds difficult for 
you to obtain ? Even Buddha would forget his self-restraint 
if loved by you ! So he must be a man of exceptional merit 
whom you thus love." When the princess heard this, carried 
away by the thought of his virtues, she said : " How can I 
help loving him, who is the only refuge of Indra and the rest 
of the gods, who alone destroyed the army of the Asuras, as 
the sun destroys the darkness, and who saved my life ? " 
Saying such things, she remained there full of longing, en- 
gaged in conversation about her beloved with her confidential 

In the meanwhile her friend Manoharika, travelling at 
full speed, reached Chandrapura, that city of the king of the 
Vidyadharas, which Visvakarman made wonderful, and of 
unparalleled magnificence, as if dissatisfied with the city of 
the gods, though of that also he was the architect. There she 
searched for Muktaphalaketu, but could not find him, and 
then, riding on her bird, she went to the garden belonging to 
that city. She derived much pleasure from looking at that 
garden, the magic splendour of which was inconceivable : 
the trees of which were of glittering jewels, and had this 


peculiarity, that one tree produced a great many flowers of 
different kinds ; which was rendered charming by the blend- 
ing of the notes of various birds with the sound of heavenly 
songs ; and which was full of many slabs of precious stones. 

And then various gardeners, in the form of birds, saw 
her, and came up to her, speaking with articulate voice and 
addressing her kindly, and they invited her to sit down on 
a slab of emerald at the foot of a pdrijdta tree, and when 
she was seated, served her with appropriate luxuries. And 
she received that attention gratefully, and said to herself : 
" Wonderful are the magic splendours of the Vidyadharas, 
since they possess such a garden in which enjoyments present 
themselves unlooked for, in which the servants are birds, and 
the nymphs of heaven keep up a perpetual concert." When 
she had said this to herself, she questioned those attendants, 
and at last, searching about, she found a thicket of pdrijdta 
and other trees of the kind, and in it she saw Muktaphalaketu, 
appearing to be ill, 1 lying on a bed of flowers sprinkled with 
sandalwood juice. And she recognised him, as she had become 
acquainted with him in the hermitage of Gauri, and she said 
to herself: "Let me see what his illness is, that he is lying 
here concealed." 

In the meanwhile Muktaphalaketu began to say to his 
friend Samyataka, who was attempting to restore him with 
ice, and sandalwood, and fanning : " Surely this God of Love 
has placed hot coals in the ice for me, and in the sandalwood 
juice a flame of chaff, and in the air of the fan a fire as of a 
burning forest, since he produces a scorching glow on every 
side of me, who am tortured with separation. So why, my 
friend, do you weary yourself in vain ? In this garden, which 
surpasses Nandana, even the delightful songs and dances 
and other sports of heavenly nymphs afflict my soul. And 
without Padmavati, the lotus-faced, the daughter of Padma- 
sekhara, this fever produced by the arrows of love cannot be 
alleviated. But I do not dare to say this, and I do not find a 
refuge in anyone ; indeed I know of only one expedient for 
obtaining her. I will go to the temple of Gauri, where I saw 

1 Bohtlingk and Roth consider that sakalyaka is the true reading. One 
MS. certainly has y, and I think probably the others. 


my beloved, and where she tore out my heart with the arrows 
of her sidelong glances, and carried it away. There Siva, who 
is united with the daughter of the king of the mountains, 
will, when propitiated with penance, show me how to become 
united with my beloved." 

When the prince had said this he was preparing to rise 
up, and then Manoharika, being much pleased, showed her- 
self ; and Samyataka, delighted, said to that prince : " My 
friend, you are in luck ; your desire is accomplished ! Look ! 
Here is that beloved's female attendant come to you. I be- 
held her at the side of the princess in the hermitage of the 
goddess Ambika." Then the prince, beholding the friend of 
his beloved, was in a strange state a state full of the burst- 
ing forth of joy, astonishment and longing. And when she 
came near him, a rain of nectar to his eyes, he made her sit 
by his side, and asked her about the health of his beloved. 

Then she gave him this answer : " No doubt my friend 
will be well enough when you become her husband ; but at 
present she is afflicted. For ever since she saw you, and you 
robbed her of her heart, she has been despondent, and neither 
hears nor sees. The maiden has left off her necklace and 
wears a chain of lotus fibres, and has abandoned her couch 
and rolls on a bed of lotus leaves. Best of conquerors, I tell 
you, her limbs, now white with the sandalwood juice which 
is drying up with their heat, seem laughingly * to say : ' That 
very maiden, who formerly was too bashful to endure the 
mention of a lover, 2 is now reduced to this sad condition 
by being separated from her dear one. 5 And she sends you 
this message." Having said so much, Manoharika recited 
the two verses which Padmavati had put into her mouth. 

When Muktaphalaketu heard all that, his pain departed, 
and he joyfully welcomed Manoharika, and said to her : 
" This my mind has been irrigated by your speech as by 
nectar, and is refreshed ; and I have recovered my spirits 
and got rid of my languor : my good deeds in a former life 

1 By the canons of Hindu rhetoric a smile is white. Hence this frigid 

2 I read na for in. Two out of the three India Office MSS. and the 
Sanskrit College MS. give na. 


have to-day borne fruit, in that that daughter of the Gan- 
dharva king is so well disposed towards me. But though I 
might possibly be able to endure the agony of separation, 
how could that lady, whose body is as delicate as a sirisha 
flower, endure it ? So I will go to that very hermitage of 
Gaurl ; and do you bring your friend there, in order that we 
may meet at once. And go quickly, auspicious one, and 
comfort your friend, and give her this crest- jewel, which puts 
a stop to all grief, which the Self-existent gave me when 
pleased with me. And this necklace, which Indra gave 
me, is a present for yourself." When the prince had said 
this, he gave her the crest- jewel from his head, and took 
the necklace from his neck and put it on hers. 

Then Manoharika was delighted, and she bowed before 
him, and set out, mounted on her bird, to find her friend 
Padmavati. And Muktaphalaketu, his languor having been 
removed by delight, quickly entered his own city with 

And Manoharika, when she came into the presence of 
Padmavati, told her of the love-pain of her beloved as she 
had witnessed it, and repeated to her his speech, sweet and 
tender with affection, as she had heard it ; and told her of the 
arrangement to meet her in the hermitage of Gauri which 
he had made, and then gave her the crest- jewel which he had 
sent, and showed her the chain which he had given herself 
as a present. Then Padmavati embraced and honoured that 
friend of hers who had been so successful, and forgot that 
pain of the fire of love which had tortured her before, and she 
fastened that crest- jewel on her head, as if it were joy, and 
began to prepare to go to the wood of Gauri. 

In the meanwhile it happened that a hermit, of the name 
of Tapodhana, came to that grove of Gauri, with his pupil, 
named Dridhavrata. And while there the hermit said to 
his pupil Dridhavrata : "I will engage in contemplation for 
a time in this heavenly garden. You must remain at the 
gate, and not let anyone in, and after I have finished my 
contemplation I will worship Parvati." When the hermit 
had said this, he placed that pupil at the gate of the garden 
and began to engage in contemplation under a pdrijdta tree. 


After he rose up from his contemplation he went into the 
temple to worship Ambika, but he did not tell his pupil, who 
was at the gate of the garden. 

And in the meanwhile Muktaphalaketu came there 
adorned, with Samyataka, mounted on a heavenly camel. 
And as he was about to enter that garden that pupil of the 
hermit forbade him, saying : " Do not do so ! My spiritual 
superior is engaged in contemplation within." But the 
prince, longing to see his beloved, said to himself : " The 
area of this garden is extensive, and it is possible that she 
may have arrived and may be somewhere within it, whereas 
the hermit is in only one corner of it." So he got out of sight 
of that hermit's pupil, and with his friend entered the garden 
by flying through the air. 

And while he was looking about, the hermit's pupil came 
in to see if his spiritual superior had completed his meditation. 
He could not see his superior there, but he did see the noble 
Muktaphalaketu with his friend, who had entered the garden 
by a way by which it was not meant to be entered. Then 
that pupil of the hermit cursed the prince in his anger, saying 
to him : "As you have interrupted the meditation of my 
spiritual guide, and driven him away, go with your friend to 
the world of men on account of this disrespect*" After he 
had pronounced this curse he went in search of his superior. 
But Muktaphalaketu was thrown into great despondency 
by this curse having fallen on him like a thunderbolt when 
his desire was on the point of being fulfilled. And in the 
meanwhile Padmavati, eager to meet her beloved, came 
mounted on a bird, with Manoharika and her other attend- 
ants. And when the prince saw that lady, who had come to 
meet him of her own accord, but was now separated from 
him by a curse, he was reduced to a painful frame of mind, 
in which sorrow and joy were blended. And at that very 
moment Padmavati's right eye throbbed, boding evil fortune, 1 
and her heart fluttered. Then the princess, seeing that her 
lover was despondent, thought that he might be annoyed 
because she had not come before he did, and approached him 
with an affectionate manner. Then the prince said to her : 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 144W 1 , 145w; and Vol. V, pp. 20C 3 , 201ft.- n.m.p. 


" My beloved, our desire, though on the point of fulfilment, 
has been again baffled by fate." She said excitedly : " Alas ! 
how baffled ? " And then the prince told her how the curse 
was pronounced on him. 

Then they all went, in their despondency, to entreat the 
hermit, who was the spiritual guide of him who inflicted the 
curse, and was now in the temple of the goddess, to fix an 
end to the curse. When the great hermit, who possessed 
supernatural insight, saw them approach in humble guise, 
he said in a kind manner to Muktaphalaketu : " You have 
been cursed by this fool, who acted rashly before he had re- 
flected 1 ; however, you have not done me any harm, since I 
rose up of myself. And this curse can only be an instrument, 
not the real reason of your change : in truth, you have in your 
mortal condition to do the gods a service. You shall come, 
in the course of destiny, to behold this Padmavati, and, sick 
with love, you shall abandon your mortal body, and be 
quickly released from your curse. And you shall recover 
this lady of your life, wearing the same body that she wears 
now; for, being a deliverer of the universe, you do not de- 
serve to lie long under a curse. And the cause of all this 
that has befallen you is the slight stain of unrighteousness 
which attaches to you on account of your having slain with 
that weapon of Brahma, which you employed, old men and 

When Padmavati heard this, she said, with tears in her 
eyes, to that sage : " Holy sir, let me have the same lot as 
my future husband ! I shall not be able to live for a moment 
without him." When Padmavati made this request the 
hermit said to her : " This cannot be : do you remain here 
for the present engaged in asceticism, in order that he may 
be quickly delivered from his curse, and may marry you. 
And then, as the consort of that Muktaphalaketu, you shall 
rule the Vidyadharas and Asuras for ten kalpas. 2 And while 
you are performing asceticism, this crest- jewel, which he gave 

1 Here MSS. Nos. 3003 and 21 66 and the Sanskrit College MS. read 
aprekshdpurvakdrma, the nominative case of which word is found in Taranga 64, 
//, 20 and 26. No. 1882 has aprekshydpurvakdrind. 

2 One kalpa is 4320 million years. See further Vol. V, p. 27n\ n.m.p. 


you, shall protect you ; for it is of great efficacy, having 
sprung from the water-pot of the Disposer." 

When the hermit, possessing divine insight, had said this 
to Padmavati, Muktaphalaketu, bending low, addressed this 
prayer to him : " Holy sir, may my faith in Siva be unwaver- 
ing during my life as a man, and may my mind never be 
inclined to any lady but Padmavati." The hermit replied : 
" So let it be ! " And then Padmavati, sorely grieved, 
pronounced on that pupil, whose fault had entailed these 
misfortunes, the following curse : " Since you have cursed in 
your folly my destined husband, you shall be a vehicle for him 
to ride on in his human condition, possessing the property of 
going with a wish and changing your shape at will." When 
the pupil had been thus cursed he was despondent, and then 
the hermit, Tapodhana, disappeared with him. 

Then Muktaphalaketu said to Padmavati : " I will now 
go to my city and see what will happen to me there." When 
Padmavati heard this, being terrified at separation, she at 
once fell on the earth with all her ornaments, as a creeper, 
broken by the wind, falls with all its flowers. And Mukta- 
phalaketu comforted, as well as he could, his crying love, and 
departed with his friend, frequently turning his eyes to look 
at her. And after he was gone, Padmavati was much grieved, 
and, weeping, said to her friend Manoharika, who tried to 
comfort her : " My friend, I am certain that I saw the god- 
dess Parvati to-day in a dream, and she was about to throw 
a garland of lotuses round my neck, when she said, ' Never 
mind ! I will give it you on some future occasion,' and de- 
sisted from her intention. So I understand that she wished 
in this way to let me know that my union with my beloved 
would be hindered." When she was mourning in this way 
over what had occurred, her friend said to her : " This 
dream was no doubt sent to you when you say, by the 
goddess, in order to comfort you. And the hermit said the 
very same to you, and the gods have clearly thus ordained. 
So, be of good cheer, you will soon be reunited with your 

This and other speeches from her friend, and the magic 
efficacy of the crest- jewel, made Padmavati recover her self- 


command, and she remained there in the hermitage of Gauri. 
And she performed asceticism, worshipping there Siva and 
Parvati three times a day, and also the picture of her beloved, 
which she had brought from her own city, looking upon it as 
the image of a divinity. Her parents, hearing what had 
taken place, came to her in tears, and tried to prevent her, 
saying : " Do not uselessly fatigue yourself with penance to 
bring about a desired end which will anyhow take place." But 
she said to them : " How could I live here with any comfort, 
now that the husband recently appointed for me by the 
god has fallen into misery owing to a curse ? For to ladies 
of good family a husband is a god. And no doubt this 
calamity may soon be brought to an end by austerities, and 
Siva may be propitiated, and then I may be reunited with 
my beloved, for there is nothing 1 that austerities cannot 

When Padmavati had said this with firm resolution, her 
mother, Kuvalay avail, said to her father, the king : " King, 
let her perform this severe asceticism ! Why trouble her 
further on false grounds ? This is appointed for her by 
Destiny : there is a reason for it. Listen. Long ago, in 
the city of Siva, the daughter of the king of the Siddhas, 
named Devaprabha, was performing a very severe penance, 
in order to obtain the husband she desired. Now my 
daughter Padmavati had gone there with me to visit the 
shrine of the god, and she went up to the Siddha maiden 
and laughed at her, saying : ' Are you not ashamed to practise 
austerities in order to obtain a husband ? ' Then the Siddha 
maiden cursed her in her rage, saying : ' Fool ! your laughter 
proceeds from childishness : you also shall perform painful 
austerities to your heart's content to obtain a husband/ 
Accordingly she must of necessity endure the misery which 
the curse of the Siddha maiden has entailed ; who can alter 
that ? So let her do what she is doing." When the queen 
had said this to the king of the Gandharvas, he took leave 
at last, though reluctantly, of his daughter, who bowed at his 
feet, and went to his own citv. And Padmavati remained in 

1 Two of the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. insert 
kinchit before tapasam. 


that hermitage of Parvati, intent on religious observances 
and prayers, and every day she went through the air and 
worshipped that Siddhisvara that was worshipped by 
Brahma and the other gods, of which Siva had told her 
in a dream. 

vol. vni. 


170b. Muktdphalaketu and Padmdvati 

WHILE Padmavati was engaged in asceticism, in 
order that she might be reunited to Muktaphala- 
ketu, the son of the emperor of the Vidyadharas, 
that prince, feeling that his descent into the world of men 
was nigh at hand owing to the curse of the Brahman, in his 
fear fled to Siva as a refuge. 

And while he was worshipping Siva he heard a voice 
issue from the inner cell of his temple : " Fear not ! For thou 
shalt not have to endure misery while dwelling in the womb, 
and thou shalt not have to suffer during thy life as a mortal, 
nor shalt thou long remain in that condition. 1 Thou shalt 
be born as a strong and valorous prince. Thou shalt obtain 
from the hermit Tapodhana the control of all weapons, and 
my Gana named Kinkara shall be thy younger brother. With 
his help thou shalt conquer thy enemies, and accomplish the 
required service for the gods, and thou shalt be reunited with 
Padmavati and rule the Vidyadharas." When that prince had 
heard this voice he conceived hope, and remained waiting for 
the ripening, so to speak, of the fruit of the curse pronounced 
upon him. 

At this point of my story there was a city in the eastern 
region named Devasabha, that surpassed in splendour the 
court of the gods. In it there lived a universal monarch 
named Merudhvaja, the comrade of Indra when war arose 
between the gods and Asuras. That great-hearted prince 
was greedy of glory, not of the goods of others ; his sword 
was sharp, but not his punishments ; he feared sin, but not 
his enemy. His brows were sometimes curved in anger, but 
there was no crookedness in his heart. His arm was hard 
where it was marked with the horny thickening produced by 

1 MS. No. 1882 reads garbhavase kleso; and this seems to give a sense 
more clearly in accordance with the sequel of the story. 



the bowstring, but there was no hardness in his speech. He 
spared his helpless enemies in battle, but he did not exhibit 
any mean parsimony with regard to his treasure * ; and he 
took pleasure in virtuous deeds and not in women. 

That king had always two anxieties in his heart : the 
first was that not even one son was as yet born to him ; the 
second was that the Asuras, who escaped from the slaughter 
in the great fight long ago between the gods and Asuras and 
fled to Patala, kept continually sallying out to a distance 
from it and treacherously destroying holy places, temples 
and hermitages in his land, and then retiring into Patala 
again ; and the king could not catch them, as they could 
move through the air as well as through Patala : that afflicted 
the brave monarch, though he had no rivals upon earth. 

It happened that once, when he was afflicted with these 
anxieties, he went to the assembly of the gods, on the day 
of the full moon in the month Chaitra, in Indra's splendid 
chariot, which he sent to fetch him ; for Indra always held 
a general assembly in the early part of that day, and King 
Merudhvaja always went to it in his chariot. But on that 
occasion the king kept sighing, though he was amused with 
the dances and songs of the heavenly nymphs, and honoured 
by Indra. 

When the king of the gods saw that, knowing what was 
in his heart, he said to him : " King, I know what thy grief 
is ; dismiss it from thy mind. One son shall be born to thee, 
who shall be called Muktaphaladhvaja, and shall be a portion 
of Siva, and a second, named Malayadhvaja, who shall be an 
incarnation of a Gana. Muktaphaladhvaja and his younger 
brother shall obtain from the hermit Tapodhana the sciences 
and all weapons and a creature to ride on, that shall possess 
the power of assuming any shape. And that invincible 
warrior shall again obtain the great weapon of Pasupati, and 
shall slay the Asuras, and get into his power the earth and 
Patala. And receive from me these two air-going elephants, 
Kanchanagiri and Kanchanasekhara, together with mighty 
weapons." When Indra had said this to Merudhvaja, he 

1 Literally, u too careful guarding of his dinaras." Thnara is the Latin 


gave him the arms and the elephants, and dismissed him, 
and he went delighted to his own city on the earth. But 
those Asuras, who had managed by their treachery to cast 
discredit upon the king, escaped being caught by him, even 
when mounted on the sky-going elephant, for they took 
refuge in Patala. 

Then the king, desiring a son, went, on his heavenly 
elephant, to the hermitage of that hermit Tapodhana, of 
whom Indra had told him. There he approached that hermit 
and told him that command of Indra, and said to him : 
" Reverend sir, quickly tell me what course I ought to take 
to gain my end." And the hermit recommended that the 
king and his wife should immediately take upon them a 
vow for the propitiation of Siva, in order that they might 
attain their end. The king then proceeded to propitiate 
Siva with that vow, and then that god, being pleased, said 
to the king in a dream : " Rise up, King ! Thou shalt soon * 
obtain one after another two invincible sons for the destruc- 
tion of the Asuras." When the king had heard this, he 
told it to the hermit when he woke up in the morning, and 
after he and his wife had broken their fast he returned to 
his own city. 

Then that august and beautiful lady, the queen of Meru- 
dhvaja, became pregnant within a few days. And Mukta- 
phalaketu was in some mysterious way conceived in her, 
having been compelled by the curse to abandon his Vidya- 
dhara body. And that body of his remained in his own city 
of Chandrapura, guarded by his relations, kept by magic 
from corrupting. 

So the queen of Merudhvaja, in the city of Devasabha, 
delighted her husband by becoming pregnant. And the 
more the queen was oppressed by her condition, the more 
sprightly was her husband, the king. And when the time 
came, she gave birth to a boy resembling the sun, who, 
though an infant, was of great might, even as Parvati 
gave birth to the God of War. And then not only did 

1 Of course we must read avilambitani, which is found in two out of the 
three India Office MSS., and in the Sanskrit College MS. No. 1882 has 


rejoicing take place over the whole earth, but in the heaven 
also, in which the gods struck their drums. And the hermit 
Tapodhana, who possessed heavenly insight, came there in 
person to congratulate that King Merudhvaja. With the 
help of that hermit the rejoicing king gave his son the name 
Muktaphaladhvaja mentioned by Indra. 

Then the hermit departed. But after the lapse of a year 
a second son was born to the king by that queen, and the 
king, with the help of that hermit, who, in the same way, 
came there out of joy, named him Malayadhvaja. 

Then Samyataka was born as the son of the king's minister, 
in accordance with the curse, and his father gave him the 
name of Mahabuddhi. Then those two princes gradually 
grew up, like lions' whelps, with that minister's son, and as 
they grew their might developed also. 

And after eight years only had passed, the hermit 
Tapodhana came and invested those princes with the sacred 
thread. 1 And during eight more years he instructed them 2 
in knowledge, and in the accomplishments, and in the use of 
all the mighty weapons. Then King Merudhvaja, seeing that 
his sons were young men, able to fight with all weapons, 
considered that he had not lived in vain. 

Then the hermit was about to return to his hermitage, 
but the king said to him : " Reverend sir, now take whatever 
present you desire." The great sage answered : " This is 
the present I desire from you, King : that, with your sons, 
you would slay the Asuras that impede my sacrifices." The 
king said to him : " Then, reverend sir, you must now take 
your present. So begin a sacrifice : the Asuras will come to 
impede it, and then I will come with my sons. For formerly 
those Daityas, after they had treacherously wrought you 
wrong, used to fly up into the air, and dive into the sea, 
and go to Patala. But now I have two air-going elephants 
given me by Indra ; by means of those two I and my sons 
will catch them, even if they do fly through the air." 

When the hermit heard that he was pleased, and he said 
to the king : " Then do you make in the meantime fit 

1 For a note on the sacred thread see Vol. VII, pp. 26-28. n.m.p. 

2 Viriiyate is a misprint for viniyete. 


preparation for my sacrifice, in order that I may go and begin 
a long sacrificial session that will be famous in every corner 
of the earth. And I will send you as a messenger this my 
pupil Dridhavrata, who has acquired the shape of an un- 
restrained mighty bird going with a wish ; and on him shall 
Muktaphaladhvaja ride." 1 

When the hermit had said this he returned to his hermit- 
age, and the king sent after him the preparations for the 
sacrifice. With those he began a sacrifice, at which the gods 
and rishis assembled in a body, and the Danavas, dwelling 
in Patala, were excited when they heard of it. 

When the hermit knew that, he sent his pupil Dridha- 
vrata, who had been made by the curse to assume the form 
of a bird, to the city of Devasabha. When King Merudhvaja 
saw him arrive there, he remembered the words of the hermit, 
and got ready those two heavenly elephants. And he him- 
self mounted the chief one, which was named Kanchanagiri, 
and the lesser one, which was named Kanchanasekhara, he 
gave to the younger of his sons. But Muktaphaladhvaja, 
taking with him the heavenly weapons, mounted the great 
bird Dridhavrata, and the bards hailed him with songs. Then 
those three heroes sent their armies on in front, and set forth, 
mounted on air- going steeds, and blessed by holy Brahmans. 
And when they reached the hermitage, the hermit, being 
pleased with them, granted them this boon, that they should 
be invulnerable by all weapons. 

In the meanwhile the army of the Asuras came to impede 
the sacrifice, and the soldiers of Merudhvaja, when they saw 
the Asuras, charged them with a shout. Then a battle took 
place between the Daityas and the men, but the Daityas, 
being in the air, pressed sore on the men who were on the 
ground. Then Muktaphaladhvaja, mounted on his winged 
steed, rushed forward and cut and crushed the Daityas with 
a shower of arrows. And those Daityas who escaped his 
destroying hand, seeing him mounted on a bird, and re- 
splendent with brightness, took to flight, supposing that he 

1 To my references to the Garuda and other legendary birds in Vol. I, 
pp. 103-105, I must now add Bolte and Polivka, op. cit. } vol. ii, pp. 134, 135. 



was Narayana. And all of them fled in fear to Patala, and 
told what had happened to Trailokyamalin, who was at that 
time king of the Daityas. 

When the king of the Asuras heard that, he quickly in- 
quired into the matter by means of his spies, and found out 
that Muktaphaladhvaja was a mortal ; and, unable to endure 
the disgrace of having been defeated by a man, he collected 
all the Danavas in Patala, and, though warned by omens to 
desist, went to that hermitage to fight. But Muktaphala- 
dhvaja and his men, who were on the alert there, rushed to 
attack the king of the Danavas as soon as they saw him 
arrive with his army. Then a second great battle took place 
between the Asuras and the men ; and the gods, headed by 
Rudra and Indra, came in their chariots to witness it. 

And then Muktaphaladhvaja saw instantly presenting 
itself before him there a great weapon of Pasupati, of irre- 
sistible might, of huge size, with a flame of fire streaming up 
The Weapon from it, with three eyes, with four faces, with one 
of Pasupati ] e g and eight arms, looking like the fire which is 
to burn up the world at the end of the kalpa. The weapon 
said : " Know that I have come by the command of Siva 
to ensure your victory." When the weapon said this, the 
prince worshipped it and clutched it. 

In the meanwhile those Asuras in the air, raining arrows, 
pressed hard the fainting army of Merudhvaja that was be- 
low them. Then Muktaphaladhvaja, who fought in various 
manners, came to deliver that army, and fought with the 
Asuras, placing a net of arrows between them and his own 

And when Trailokyamalin, the king of the Asuras, saw 
him and his father and brother mounted on their air-going 
steeds, he sent forth the snake-weapon. Innumerable terrible 
venomous snakes came out of it, and these Malayadhvaja 
slew with Garuda birds, that came out of the Garuda weapon. 
Then Muktaphaladhvaja repelled with ease every weapon that 
the king of the Daityas and his son sent forth. 

Then that enemy of the gods and his son and the other 
Danavas were enraged, and they all at once launched at him 
their fiery weapons. But those weapons, seeing the weapon 


of Pasupati blazing in front of him, were immediately terrified, 
and fled. 

Then the Daityas were terrified and tried to escape, but 
the hero Muktaphaladhvaja perceived their intention, and 
immediately constructed above them, on all sides of them, 
an impenetrable net of arrows, like a cage of adamant. 
And while the Danavas were circling within this, like birds, 
Muktaphaladhvaja, with the help of his father and brother, 
smote them with sharp arrows. And the several hands, 
feet, bodies and heads of those Daityas fell on the ground, 
and streams of blood 1 flowed. Then the gods exclaimed 
" Bravo ! " and followed up their acclamation with a rain of 
flowers, and Muktaphaladhvaja used the bewildering weapon 
against those enemies. That made the Asuras and their king 
fall senseless on the earth, and then by means of the weapon 
of Varuna the prince bound them all with nooses. 

Then the hermit Tapodhana said to King Merudhvaja : 
" You must by no means kill those Asura warriors that have 
escaped the slaughter ; but you must win them over, and win 
Rasatala with them. As for this king of the Daityas, and 
his son, and his ministers, you must take them with the 
great Asuras, and the malignant Nagas, and the principal 
Rakshasas, and imprison them in the cave of Svetasaila in 
Devasabha." 2 When the hermit had said this to Merudhvaja 
he said to the Daitya warriors : " Do not be afraid ! We 
must not slay you, but you must henceforth be subject to the 
sway of this Muktaphaladhvaja and his brother." When the 
king said this to the Danavas, they joyfully consented to his 
proposal. Then the king had Trailokyamalin, the sovereign 
of the Daityas, with his son and the others, conveyed to 
Svetasaila. And he placed them in confinement in that cave, 
and had them guarded by his principal minister, who was 
backed by a force of many brave warriors. 

Then, the battle having come to an end, and the gods, 
who were present in their chariots, having departed, after 
showering manddra flowers, a universal rejoicing took place 

1 We should probably read asranimnagah, with two India Office MSS. 
No. 3003 has asrunimnagah. 

2 The three India Office MSS. give Devasabhasanne " near Devasabha." 


over the whole world, and the victorious King Merudhvaja 
said to his two sons : "I will remain here for the present to 
guard the sacrifice, and do you march to Patala with these 
soldiers of ours, who have possessed themselves of many 
chariots belonging to the Daityas, and with those soldiers of 
the Asura army who have escaped destruction. And con- 
ciliate and win over to our allegiance the inhabitants of Patala, 
and appoint chief governors throughout the territory; and 
having thus taken possession of it, you must return here." 

When the heroic Muktaphaladhvaja, who was mounted 
on his heavenly steed, that went with a wish, and Malaya- 
dhvaja heard this, the two brothers, with their forces, entered 
Rasatala, together with that portion of the army of the 
Danavas that had made submission, which marched in 
front of them. And they killed the guards that opposed them 
in various places, and proclaimed an amnesty to the others 
by beat of drum. And as the people showed confidence, 
and were submissive, they took possession of the seven 
Rasatalas, adorned with splendid palaces * built of various 
jewels, and they enjoyed those palaces, which were rendered 
delightful by gardens that gratified every wish, and had in 
them lakes of heavenly wine, with many ladders of precious 
stones. And there they beheld Danava ladies of wonderful 
beauty, and their daughters, who by means of magic concealed 
their forms within trees. 

And then Svayamprabha, the wife of Trailokyamalin, 
began austerities in order to bring about the welfare of her 
imprisoned husband, and in the same way her daughters, 
Trailokyaprabha and Tribhuvanaprabha, began austerities for 
the welfare of their father. 

And those princes honoured with various favours all the 
inhabitants of Patala, who were happy now that they had 
obtained repose; and they appointed Sangramasimha and 
other governors, and went to their father in the hermitage 
of Tapodhana. 

And in the meanwhile the sacrifice of the hermit there 
reached completion, and the gods and the rishis prepared to 

1 The three India Office MSS. read purasatair, " hundreds of cities " ? In 
any case varais should be varair. 


go to their own abodes. 1 And as Indra was exceedingly- 
pleased, Merudhvaja said to him : " Come with me to my 
city, king of heaven, if thou be pleased with me." When 
Indra visits Indra heard that, he went, in order to please him, 
Merudhvaja w ith the king and his sons to the city of Deva- 
sabha, after taking leave of the hermit. And there the king, 
who was sovereign of two worlds, entertained Indra so sump- 
tuously that he forgot his happiness in heaven. Then Indra 
too, being gratified, took the king and his sons in his own 
heavenly chariot to his celestial abode, and in that place, 
which was charming with the pleasures of a concert in which 
Narada, Rambha and others performed, he made Meru- 
dhvaja, with Muktaphaladhvaja and Malayadhvaja, forget 
their toils, and gave them garlands from the pdrijdta tree, 
and celestial diadems, and after honouring them sent them 

And they, when they returned, kept going to and fro 
between the earth and Patala, and, though kings of men, held 
sway in two worlds. Then Merudhvaja said to Muktaphala- 
dhvaja : " Our enemies are conquered. You two brothers 
are young men, and I have various princesses who are subject 
to my sway, and I have sent for some of them : the fitting 
time has come ; so take to yourselves wives." 

When Muktaphaladhvaja's father said this to him, he 
answered : " Father, my mind is not inclined to marriage 
at present. I will now perform a course of austerities to 
propitiate 1 Siva ; but let this Malayadhvaja, my dear younger 
brother, be married." When his younger brother, Malaya- 
dhvaja, heard this, he said : "Noble brother, is it fitting that 
I should be married before you have taken a wife, or that 
I should hold sway while you are without a kingdom ? I 
follow in your footsteps." 

1 Bohtlingk and Roth would read svadhishnyani for svadhishthani in Taranga 
120, 25. Here Brockhaus reads svadhishthan rishayas, which I find in MS. 
No. 1882; No. 3003 has what, judging from the way shn is written in this 
MS., I take to be svadhishnydnyashayas. No. 21 66 has what for similar 
reasons I take to be svadhishnanrishayas. The Sanskrit College MS. has 

2 For aradhayitum Nos. 1882 and 21 66 give aradhayan, which satisfies the 
metre. The Sanskrit College MS. has aradhitum. 


When Malayadhvaja said this, King Merudhvaja said to his 
elder son, Muktaphaladhvaja : " Your younger brother here 
has spoken rightly, but what you have just said is not right. 
It is no time for asceticism in this fresh youth of yours ; the 
present should be to you a time of enjoyment. So abandon, 
my son, this perverse crotchet of yours, which is most in- 
opportune." Though the king addressed these admonitions 
to his elder son that prince resolutely refused to take a wife ; 
so the king remained silent, to wait for a more favourable time. 

In the meanwhile, in Patala, the two daughters of Trailo- 
kyamalin's wife, Svayamprabha, who were engaged in aus- 
terities, said to their mother : " Mother, when one of us was 
seven and the other eight years old, owing to our want of 
merits, 1 our father was imprisoned, and we were hurled from 
the royal rank. It is now the eighth year that we have been 
engaged in austerities, and yet Siva is not pleased with us, 
and our father has not, as yet, been released from his im- 
prisonment. So let us even consume these unlucky bodies 
in the fire, before we also are imprisoned, or experience some 
other insult at the hands of our enemy." 

When Svayamprabha's daughters said this to her, she 
answered them : " Wait a while, my daughters ; we shall 
regain our former glory. For I know that while I was en- 
gaged in austerities the god Siva said to me in a dream : 
' My child, be of good courage ! Thy husband shall recover 
his kingdom, and the princes Muktaphaladhvaja and Malaya- 
dhvaja shall be the husbands of thy two daughters. And do 
not suppose that they are men ; for one of them is a noble 
Vidyadhara, and the other is a Gana of mine.' When I had 
received this revelation from Siva I woke up at the close of 
night ; and supported by this hope I have borne great suffer- 
ing. So I will inform the king, your father, of this matter, 
and with his consent I will endeavour to bring about your 

When Queen Svayamprabha had in these words com- 
forted her daughters, she said to Indumati, an old woman of 
the harem : " Go to my husband in the cave of Svetasaila, 

1 I read akritapunyayoh "not having done meritorious actions." This is 
the reading of all the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. 


and fall at his feet, and say to him from me : ' My husband, 
the Creator has formed me of such strange wood that, though 
the fire of separation from you burns fiercely, I have not yet 
been consumed by it. But it is because I entertain a hope 
of seeing you again that I have not abandoned life.' When 
you have said this, tell him the revelation that Siva made 
to me in a dream, then ask him about the marriage of our 
daughters, and come back and tell me what he says. I will 
then act accordingly." 

When she had said this she sent off Indumati ; and she 
left Patala and reached the well-guarded entrance of that 
mountain cave. She entreated the guards and entered, and 
seeing Trailokyamalin there a prisoner, she burst into tears, 
and embraced his feet. And when he asked her how she was, 
she slowly told him all his wife's message. Then that king 
said : "As for what Siva says about my restoration to my 
kingdom, may that turn out as the god announced ; but the 
idea of my giving my daughters to the sons of Merudhvaja 
is preposterous ! I would rather perish here than give my 
daughters as a present to enemies, and men too, while myself 
a prisoner ! " 

When Indumati had been sent away by the king with 
this message, she went and delivered it to his wife, Svayam- 
prabha. And when Trailokyaprabha and Tribhuvanaprabha, 
the daughters of the Daitya sovereign, heard it, they said 
to their mother, Svayamprabha : "Anxiety lest our youthful 
purity should be outraged makes the fire seem our only place 
of safety, so we will enter it, mother, on the fourteenth day, 
that is now approaching." 

When they had thus resolved, their mother and her suite 
also made up their minds to die. And when the fourteenth 
day arrived, they all worshipped Hatakesvara, and made 
pyres in a holy bathing-place called Paparipu. 

Now it happened that on that very day King Merudhvaja, 
with his sons and his wife, was coming there to worship 
Hatakesvara. And as he was going to the holy water of 
Paparipu, with his suite, to bathe, he saw smoke arising from 
the midst of a grove on its bank. And when the king asked, 
"How comes smoke to be rising here?" those governors he 


had set over Patala, Sangramasimha and the others, said 
to him : " Great King, Svayamprabha, the wife of Trailo- 
kyamalin, is engaged in austerities here with her daughters, 
the princesses. Without doubt they are now performing here 
some sacrificial rite in honour of the fire, or possibly they are 
wearied out with excessive asceticism, and are immolating 
themselves by entering it." 

When the king heard that, he went to see what was going 
on, with his sons, and his wife, and those governors of Patala, 
ordering the rest of his suite to remain behind. And con- 
cealing himself there, he beheld those Daitya maidens, with 
their mother, worshipping the fire of the pyres, which was 
burning brightly. 1 They seemed, with the effulgence of the 
great beauty of their faces which shone out in all directions, 
to be creating in the lower world a hundred discs of the moon, 
and to be installing the God of Love as king after the conquest 
of the three worlds, with their swiftly moving necklaces, that 
looked like liquid streams poured down from the golden 
pitchers of their breasts. Their broad hips, surrounded with 
the girdles which they wore, looked like the head of the 
elephant of love adorned with a girdle of constellations. The 
long wavy masses of hair which they bore seemed like snakes 
made by the Creator to guard the treasure of their beauty. 
When the king saw them he was astonished, and he said : 
" The creation of the Maker of All is surprising for the novelty 
that is ever being manifested in it, 2 for neither Rambha 
nor Urvasi nor Tilottama is equal in beauty to these two 
daughters of the Asura king." 

While the king was making these reflections to himself, 
Trailokyaprabha, the elder of the two Daitya maidens, after 
worshipping the god present in the fire, addressed this prayer 
to him : " Since, from the time that my mother told me of 
the revelation of Siva received by her in a dream, my 
mind has been fixed upon Prince Muktaphaladhvaja, that 

1 The three India Office MSS. give susamiddham 3 which is perhaps 
preferable to the reading of Brockhaus' text. The Sanskrit College MS. gives 

2 MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 and the Sanskrit College MS. give lasanna- 
vanavadbhuta "is ever displaying new marvels." No. 3003 gives lasanna- 
vatavddbhutd. The t is, no doubt, a mere slip of the pen for n. 


treasure-house of virtue, as my chosen husband, I pray, 
holy one, that he may be my husband in a future birth, 
inasmuch as, though in this birth my mother wishes to 
The Prayer S ive me to mm > m y haughty father, being a 
of the Daitya captive, will not consent to it." * When Tri- 
Mmden bhuvanaprabha, heard that, she, in the same 

way, prayed to the Fire God that Malayadhvaja might be 
her husband in a future life. 

Then King Merudhvaja, who was delighted at hearing 
that, and the queen, his wife, said to one another : "If our 
two sons could obtain these two maidens for their wives, 
they would reap fruit from their conquest of the two worlds. 
So let us go to them and their mother, before they have cast 
themselves into the fire, as they intend to do in a moment, 
and dissuade them from doing so." When the king, in con- 
sultation with the queen, had made up his mind to this, he 
went up to them, and said : " Do not act rashly ; for I will 
put a stop to your sorrow." When all the Asura ladies heard 
this speech of the king's, that seemed like a rain of nectar to 
their ears, and afterwards saw him, they all bowed before 

And Svayamprabha said to him : " Before, we were con- 
cealed by magic, and you did not see us, though we saw you ; 
but now we have been seen here by you, the sovereign of the 
two worlds. And now that we have been seen by you, our 
sorrow will soon come to an end much more since you have 
bestowed on us by your own mouth a boon we never craved. 
So take a seat, and receive the arghya and water for the feet. 2 
For you deserve to be honoured by the three worlds ; and 
this is our hermitage." When she said this, the king answered, 
laughing : " Give the arghya and water for the feet to these 
your sons-in-law." Then Svayamprabha said : "To them 
the god Siva will give the arghya, and soon, but do you re- 
ceive it to-day." Then Merudhvaja said : "I have already 

1 An act of truth. See Vol. II, pp. 31-33 ; Vol. Ill, pp. 179-182. n.m.p. 

2 I read arghyapadyadi in si. 180, 6; as in si. 181, 6. The y is found 
in the three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. I also read, in 
si. 1 79, svagira datte devendnarthite vare, which I find in the three India Office 
MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. 


received it all ; but do you, ladies, immediately give up your 
intention of committing suicide, and go and dwell in one of 
your cities, where every wish can be gratified; then I will 
take steps to ensure your welfare." 

When the king said this, Svayamprabha said to him : 
" In accordance with your Majesty's order we have given up 
our intention of abandoning the body ; but while our lord is in 
prison, how would it be becoming for us to live in our palace ? 
So we will remain here, King, for the present, until your High- 
ness shall perform the promise which you spontaneously made 
to us, and shall cause our lord to be set free, with his servants 
and ministers. And he will hold sway as your Majesty's 
zealous officer, and will make over his realm to you if you 
desire it. Indeed he will make a strict agreement with you 
to this effect. And for this we and all the inhabitants of 
Patala will be your sureties ; so take our jewels from the 
regions of Patala and make them your own." 

When she said this, King Merudhvaja said to her : " I 
will see about that, but you must remember your promise." 
When the king had said this, he bathed, and worshipped 
Hatakesvara. And those Daitya princesses, having now seen 
his sons with their own eyes, had their minds entirely fixed 
on them. Then all the inhabitants of Rasatala * fell at the 
feet of the virtuous King Merudhvaja and asked that Trailo- 
kyamalin should be set at liberty. And then King Merudhvaja, 
with his wife, sons and servants, left the world of the Asuras 
and returned to his own city, covering the regions with his 
umbrellas white 2 as his own glory. There his son Malaya- 
dhvaja spent the night in thinking on the younger daughter 
of the king of the Danavas, being tortured with the fever of 
love, and though he closed his eyes he never slept. But that 
sea of self-control, Muktaphaladhvaja, though he thought 
upon the elder daughter of the Asura monarch, who was 

1 Patala and Rasatala seem to be used indiscriminately to denote "the 
nether world " in this passage. Strictly speaking, Rasatala is one of the seven 
Patalas. The words in si. 189 which I have translated "regions of Patala" 
mean, literally, "the Patalas." In si 192 the three India Office MSS. read 
sudrishtayoh " having had a good look at them." 

2 For the significance of the white umbrella see Vol. II, pp. 264-265. 



deeply in love with him, and though he was young, and she 
was fair enough to shake with love the saintly minds of 
anchorites, still, in virtue of the boon he had craved from the 
hermit, he was no whit disturbed in mind. But Merudhvaja, 
finding that his elder son was determined not to take a wife, 
while Malayadhvaja was desperately in love, and that on the 
other hand that great Asura was averse to giving him his 
daughters, remained with his mind bewildered as to how to 
devise an expedient. 


170b. Muktdphalaketu and Padmdvati 

THEN King Merudhvaja, seeing that Malayadhvaja 
was thus overpowered with the fever of love, said 
to his queen : "If those two daughters of Trailo- 
kyamalin, whom I saw in Patala, do not become the wives of 
my two sons, what advantage shall I have gained ? And my 
son Malayadhvaja is consumed with smouldering flame, be- 
cause he cannot obtain the younger of the two, though shame 
makes him conceal the fire of love. It is for this very reason 
that, though I promised Trailokyamalin's queen that I would 
set him at liberty, I do not at once make my promise good. 
For, if he is set free from his imprisonment, his pride as an 
Asura will prevent his ever giving his daughters to my sons, 
as being men. So it is now advisable to propose this matter 
to him in a conciliatory manner." 

When he had gone through these reflections with the 
queen, he said to his warder : " Go to the cave of Svetasaila, 
and say, as from me, in a kind manner to Trailokyamalin, 
the king of the Daityas, who is imprisoned there : ' King of 
the Daityas, by the appointment of Destiny you have been 
long afflicted here, so now do what I advise, and bring your 
affliction to an end. Give to my two sons your two daughters, 
who fell in love with them at first sight, and thus procure 
your release, and rule your kingdom, after you have given 
security for your fidelity.' " 

With this message the king sent off his warder, and he 
went and delivered it to the Daitya monarch in that cave. 
The monarch answered : "I will not give my two daughters 
to two men ! " And the warder returned and reported his 
answer to the king. 

Then King Merudhvaja began to look about for some 
other means of attaining his end, and in the course of 
vol. vin. 193 n 


some days Svayamprabha heard how he had sped, so she 
again sent Indumati from Patala to his palace with a 

And Indumati arrived, and had herself announced by the 
female warder, and went into the presence of the great queen, 
who received her graciously. And she bowed before her, 
and said to her : " Queen, Queen Svayamprabha sends you 
this message : ' Have you forgotten your own promise ? 
The seas and the principal mountains will suffer change at 
the day of doom, but the promises of people like you will not 
change even then. Although my husband has not consented 
to bestow our daughters as you wished, reflect, how could he 
have given them as a present while himself a prisoner ? If 
you release him in a proper way as an act of kindness l he 
will certainly make you a return by giving you his daughters. 
Otherwise Svayamprabha and her daughters will abandon 
their lives, and in this way you will fail to obtain daughters- 
in-law, and also to keep your promise.' So manage, Queen, 
to make the king set our lord free on the conditions of 
compact and security and so on, in order that all may turn 
out well ; and accept this ornament sent by Svayamprabha, 
studded with various gems, that confer the power of becoming 
a Vidyadhara, and other advantages." 

When Indumati said this, the queen answered her : 
" How can I take this from your mistress now that she is 
in trouble ? " But Indumati urged her vehemently to take 
it, saying : " We shall be quite unhappy if you refuse to 
accept it, but if you take it, we shall consider our affliction 

Being thus strongly urged by Indumati, the queen took 
from her that jewelled ornament, to comfort her; and she 
made her wait there, saying to her : " Remain here, noble 
lady, until the king shall come this way." 

In the meanwhile the king came there, and Indumati rose 
up and, having been introduced by the queen, bowed before 
him, and he received her graciously. And she gave to that 
king a crest- jewel sent by Svayamprabha that was a talisman 

1 I read muchyate, with the three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit 
College MS. 


against poison, Rakshasas, old age and disease. 1 The 
king said : "I will accept this jewel when I have kept my 
promise." But the ready-witted Indumati said to him : "A 
promise made by the king is as good as kept. But if your 
Majesty will accept this, we shall be very much comforted." 
When she made this speech the queen observed, " Well 
said ! " and took that crest- jewel and fastened it on the king's 

Then Indumati repeated to the king the message of 
Svayamprabha as she had delivered it to the queen. Then 
the king, being entreated to the same effect by the queen, 
went on to say to Indumati : " Remain here for to-day ; 
to-morrow morning I will give you an answer." 

Having said this, King Merudhvaja allowed a night to 
pass, and the next morning he summoned his ministers, and 
said to Indumati : " Noble lady, go with these ministers of 
mine, and after informing Trailokyamalin, bring from Patala 
those Asura ladies, Svayamprabha and the others, and all 
the principal, inhabitants of Patala, and the water of ordeal 
connected with Hatakesvara, in a sealed vessel. And let 
Svayamprabha and the others touch the feet of Svayam- 
prabha's husband, in the presence of my ministers, and by 
solemn oaths make themselves sureties for this namely, 
that Trailokyamalin, with his friends and servants, shall ever 
remain firm in his allegiance to me, and that the Nagas shall 
not injure the crops. And let all the lords in Patala be 
sureties to the same effect ; and let them all, with their king, 
give their children as hostages 2 ; and let them all, with their 
king, put this in writing, and drink the water of ordeal in 
which the image of Hatakesvara has been washed 3 : then I 
will release Trailokyamalin from prison." 

1 The KaKwv /cat yijpaos aki<ap of Empedocles, Frag, iii (Diels). Sir Thomas 
Browne, in his Vulgar Errors, Book II, chap, v, sect. 11, makes mention of the 
supposed magic virtues of gems. He will not deny that "bezoar is antidotal/' 
but will not believe that a "sapphire is preservative against enchantments." 

2 All the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read apatyani 
for asatydni. I have adopted it. In si. 29 two MSS. and the Sanskrit College 
MS. have sarvdnga, the other sarvdngam. I do not understand the passage. 

3 The practice of ordeal by sacred libation figures in the list of the five 
ordeals given in the Ydjnavalkya-smriti, the standard law code of the Mithild 


Having said so much, the king sent off Indumati with 
his ministers. She went with them and informed Trailo- 
kyamalin of what was being done, and as he approved of 
her proceedings she went in the same way to Patala, and she 
brought there Svayamprabha and the others, and the water 
of ordeal, and she made them all do in the presence of the 
king's ministers all that he had prescribed. And when King 
Trailokyamalin had in this way given security, King Meru- 
dhvaja set him free from prison with his suite. And he had 
him brought to his own palace with his family and his at- 
tendants, and courteously entertained him ; and then he took 
possession of all the jewels of the Asuras, and sent Trailo- 
kyamalin back to his kingdom. And Trailokyamalin returned 
to Rasatala, his home, and, having recovered his kingdom, 
rejoiced with his servants and relations. And Merudhvaja 

school (c. fourth century a.d.). The other four ordeals were: (1) the balance, 

where the defendant is weighed twice, and must be of lighter weight the 

second time ; (2) fire, where he must walk across seven circles carrying a piece 

of red-hot iron in his hand ; (3) water, in which he must keep immersed while 

a runner fetches an arrow shot from a bow, and returns ; (4) poison, usually 

made from aconite, is drunk, and must show no ill effects during the day. 

The ordeal of sacred libation consists in drinking three mouthfuls of water 

in which images either of dread deities or of the man's special deity have 

been bathed. The test of innocence is the freedom in the following seven, 

fourteen or twenty-one days from any calamity such as illness, fire, death 

of kin, punishment by the king the latter provision affording considerable 

room for unfair treatment of the accused. The codes of Brihaspati and 

Pitamaha (c. a.d. 600) omit this latter detail. See A. B. Keith, "Ordeal 

(Hindu)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ix, p. 524 ; and J. Jolly, Recht und 

Sitte, p. 144. Four further ordeals are added by Brihaspati and Pitamaha, the 

first of which somewhat resembles the ordeal of sacred libation. It consists 

in chewing unhusked rice-grains mixed with water in which an image of the 

sun has been bathed. The accused states the charge and faces east i.e. 

towards the sun as he eats; injury to the gums, the appearance of blood 

when he spits out the grains on a leaf, or trembling, is a proof of guilt. 

The other ordeals consist in removing a hot piece of gold or a ring from a 

pot of boiling ghi, licking a red-hot ploughshare, and the last consists of 

drawing lots from a jar. For further details see Keith, op. cit., sup. Cf. 

with the above the ordeal of the adulterous woman in Numbers vi, 15-31, 

and also the Mohammedan practice of charming away sickness and disease 

by writing passages of the Quran on the inner surface of a bowl and pouring 

water until the writing is washed off. The concoction is then drunk. See 

E. W. Lane, Modern Egyptians, 5th edit., p. 253. n.m.p. 


filled the earth with abundant treasures that came from 
Patala, as a rain- cloud showers water. 

Then Trailokyamalin, the king of the Daityas, took 
counsel with his wife, desiring to bestow his two beautiful 
daughters on Merudhvaja's sons, and he invited him to his 
palace, with his relations, and came himself to escort him 
there, remembering the benefit conferred on him. So he 
came to King Merudhvaja, who entertained him, and then 
he said to him : " On a former occasion your great joy 
prevented your seeing Rasatala properly. But now come 
and see it, while we give ourselves up to attending on you ; 
and accept from me my two beautiful daughters for your 


When the Asura king had said this to Merudhvaja, the 
latter summoned his wife and his two sons. And he told 
them the speech of the Asura king, and how he proposed to 
give his two daughters. Then his elder son, Muktaphala- 
dhvaja, said to him : " I will not marry until I have propitiated 
Siva. I said this long ago. You must pardon this fault in 
me. When I have gone, let Malayadhvaja marry ; for he will 
never be happy without that Patala maiden." When the 
younger son heard this, he said to his elder brother : " Noble 
sir, while you are alive I will never perform such a disgrace- 
ful and unrighteous act." Then King Merudhvaja earnestly 
exhorted Muktaphaladhvaja to marry, but he would not 
consent to do so ; and therefore Trailokyamalin took leave of 
the king, who was in a state of despondency, and went back 
with his suite to Patala as he had come. 

There he told what had taken place, and said to his wife 
and son : " Observe how exclusively bent on humiliating us 
Fortune is. Those very men to whom formerly I refused to 
The Irony of give my daughters in marriage when they asked 
Li f e for them now refuse to accept them, though I ask 

them to do so." When thev heard it, thev said : " Who can 
tell how this matter is in the mind of Destiny ? Can Siva's 
promise be falsified ? " 

While they were saying these things, those maidens, 
Trailokyaprabha and Tribhuvanaprabha, heard what had 
happened, and took upon them the following vow : " We 


will remain without food for twelve days, and if at the end 
of that time the god does not show us favour, by bringing 
about our marriage, we will enter the fire together, and we 
will not preserve our bodies for insult, or merely for the sake 
of continuing in life." 

When the daughters of the Daitya sovereign had made 
this vow, they remained fasting in front of the god, engaged 
in meditation and muttering prayers. And their mother and 
their father, the sovereign of the Daityas, hearing of it, and 
being very fond of their daughters, remained fasting in the 
same way. 

Then Svayamprabha, their mother, quickly sent off 
Indumati once more to Merudhvaja's queen-consort, to tell 
her how matters were going. She went and told the queen the 
trouble in her master's house, and so Merudhvaja also came 
to hear of it. Then that couple abandoned food out of regard 
for the other royal couple, and their sons did so as well, out 
of regard for their parents. 

Thus in two worlds the royal families were in trouble. 
And Muktaphaladhvaja remained without eating, and medi- 
tated on Siva as his refuge. And after six nights had passed, 
in the morning the prince woke up and said to his friend 
Mahabuddhi, who had formerly been Samyataka : " My 
friend, I remember that last night in a dream I mounted 
my steed given me by the hermit Tapodhana, that changes 
its shape at will, and goes where the mind directs, and had 
become a flying chariot, and in my despondency I went to 
a heavenly temple of Siva, very far from here, on the slope 
of Meru. There I saw a certain celestial maiden emaciated 
with austerities ; and a certain man with matted hair, point- 
ing to her, said to me, laughing: 'You have come here in 
this way to escape from one maiden, and lo ! here is another 
waiting for you.' When I heard this speech of his I remained 
gazing at the beauty of that maiden, but found it impossible 
to gaze my fill, and so at the end of the night I suddenly 
woke up. 

"Sol will go there to obtain that heavenly maiden, and 
if I do not find her there I will enter the fire. What can 
Destiny mean, by causing my mind to become attached to 


this maiden seen in a dream, after rejecting, in the way I did, 
the Daitya maiden offered to me a short time ago ? At any 
rate, I am persuaded that, if I go there, good fortune will 
certainly befall me." 

Having said this, he called to mind that vehicle given 
him by the hermit, which would carry him to any place con- 
ceived in the mmd, and assume any desired form. It turned 
into an air-going chariot, and he mounted it and set out for 
that heavenly temple of Siva, and when he reached it he 
saw that it was just as it had seemed in his dream, and he 
rejoiced. Then he proceeded to perform religious ablution, 
with all the attendant rites, in the holy water there, named 
Siddhodaka, with no one to wait on him but his friend. 

Then his father, King Merudhvaja, who was in his own 
city, emaciated with fasting, accompanied by his wife, son 
and suite, heard that he had gone off somewhere secretly, 
and became bewildered with grief. And all this was at once 
known in Patala, exactly as it had taken place. Then 
Trailokyamalin took with him his two daughters, and came 
fasting, with his wife and suite, to visit King Merudhvaja. 
And they all resolved on the following course of action : 
" Surely, as it is the fourteenth day, the prince has gone 
somewhere to worship Siva; so we will wait for him here 
this day. But to-morrow, if he has not returned, we will 
go where he is : then, happen what will." 

In the meanwhile Padmavati, who was in that hermitage 
of Siva named Meghavana, said that very day to her ladies- 
in-waiting : " My friends, I remember that last night I went 
in a dream * to Siddhisvara, and a certain man wearing 
matted hair came out of the temple of the god and said to 
me: 'My daughter, thy sorrow is at an end; thy reunion 
with thy husband is nigh at hand.' When he had said this he 
departed, and night and sleep left me together. So come, let 
us go there." 

When Padmavati had said this, she went to that temple 
of Gauri on the slope of Meru. There she saw with astonish- 
ment that Muktaphaladhvaja at a distance bathing in Sid- 
dhodaka, and she said to her friends : " This man is like my 

1 See the note on pp. 99-100 of this volume. n.m.p. 


beloved. Observe how very like he is ! Wonderful ! Can he 
be the very same ? It cannot be, for he is a mortal." When 
her ladies-in-waiting heard that, and saw him, they said to 
her : " Princess, not only is this man very like your beloved, 
but observe, his companion also bears a resemblance to your 
lover's friend Samyataka. So we know for certain that, in 
accordance with your last night's dream which you related 
to us, Siva has by his power brought those two here, after 
their becoming incarnate as men owing to a curse. Other- 
wise, how, being mortals, could they have come to this region 
of the gods ? " When Padmavati had been thus addressed 
by her ladies-in-waiting, she worshipped Siva, and in a state 
of eager excitement remained concealed near the god's symbol 
to find out who the stranger was. 

In the meanwhile Muktaphaladhvaja, having bathed, 
came into the temple to worship the god, and after looking 
all round, said to Mahabuddhi : " Strange to say, here is 
that very temple which I saw in my dream, made of precious 
stone, with the form of Siva visible within the linga. And 
now I behold here those very localities which I saw in my 
dream, full of jewel-gleaming trees, which are alive with 
heavenly birds. But I do not see here that heavenly maiden 
whom I then saw ; and if I do not find her I am determined 
to abandon the body in this place." 

When he said this, Padmavati's ladies-in-waiting said to 
her in a whisper : " Listen ! It is certain that he has come 
here because he saw you here in a dream, and if he does not 
find you he intends to surrender his life ; so let us remain 
here concealed, and see what he means to do." 

And while they remained there in concealment, Mukta- 
phaladhvaja entered, and worshipped the god, and came out. 
And when he came out he walked devoutly round the temple 
Mukta hala- three times, keeping his right hand towards it, 1 
dhvaja and then he and his friend remembered their 

remembers his former birth, and in their joy they were telling 
to one another the events of their life as Vidya- 
dharas, when Padmavati met their view. And Muktaphala- 
dhvaja, remembering the occurrences of his former life, as 

1 See Vol. I, pp. 190-193. n.m.p. 


soon as he saw her, was filled with joy, and said to his friend : 
" Lo, this very Princess Padmavati, the lady I saw in my 
dream ! And she has come here by good luck ; so I will at 
once go and speak to her." 

When he had said this, he went up to her weeping, and 
said : " Princess, do not go away anywhere now ; for I am 
your former lover, Muktaphalaketu. I became a man by the 
curse of the hermit Dridhavrata, and I have now remembered 
my former birth." When he had said this he tried, in his 
eagerness, to embrace her. But she was alarmed and made 
herself invisible, and remained there with her eyes full of 
tears ; and the prince, not seeing her, fell on the ground in 
a swoon. 

Then his friend sorrowfully spoke these words into the 
air : " How is it, Princess Padmavati, that, now this lover 
has come, for whom you suffered such severe austerities, you 
will not speak to him ? I too am Samyataka, the comrade 
of your beloved : why do you not say something kind to me, 
as I was cursed for you ? " After saying this, he restored 
the prince, and said to him : " This punishment has come 
upon you as the result of the crime you committed in not 
accepting the Daitya princess, who offered herself to you out 
of love." 

When Padmavati, who was concealed, heard this, she said 
to her ladies-in-waiting: "Listen! He has no inclination 
for Asura maidens." Then her ladies said to her : " You 
see that all tallies together. Do you not remember that long 
ago, when your beloved was cursed, he craved as a boon from 
the hermit Tapodhana that while he was a man his heart 
might never be inclined to anyone but Padmavati ? It is in 
virtue of that boon that he now feels no love for other women." 
When the princess heard this she was bewildered with doubt. 

Then Muktaphaladhvaja, who had no sooner seen his 
beloved than she disappeared from his eyes, cried out : 
" Ah, my beloved Padmavati ! Do you not see that when I 
was a Vidyadhara I incurred a curse in Meghavana for your 
sake ? And now be assured that I shall meet my death here." 

When Padmavati heard him utter this and other laments, 
she said to her ladies-in-waiting : " Though all indications 


seem to tally, still these two may possibly have heard these 
things at some time or other by communication from mouth 
to mouth, and therefore my mind is not convinced. But I 
cannot bear to listen to his sorrowful exclamations, so I will 
go to that temple of Gauri : moreover, it is the hour of 
worship for me there." When Padmavati had said this, she 
went with her ladies-in-waiting to that hermitage of Ambika, 
and after worshipping the goddess she offered this prayer : 
" If the man I have just seen in Siddhisvara is really my 
former lover, bring about for me, goddess, my speedy reunion 
with him." 

And while Padmavati was there, longing for her be- 
loved, Muktaphaladhvaja, who had remained behind in 
Siddhisvara, said to his friend Mahabuddhi, who had been in 
a former life his friend Samyataka : "I am convinced, my 
friend, that she has gone to her own haunt, that temple of 
Gauri ; so come, let us go there." When he had said this, he 
ascended that chariot of his, which went wherever the mind 
desired, and flew to that hermitage of Ambika. 

When Padmavati's ladies-in-waiting saw him afar off 
coming down in the chariot from the sky, they said to Padma- 
vati : " Princess, behold this marvel ! He has come here 
also, travelling in an air-going chariot. How can he, a mere 
man, have such power ? " Then Padmavati said : " My 
friends, do you not remember that on Dridhavrata, who 
cursed him, I laid the following curse : ' When my beloved 
is incarnate as a man, you shall be his vehicle, assuming 
any desired shape, and moving in obedience to a wish.' So, 
no doubt, this is that hermit's pupil, his vehicle, wearing at 
present the form of an air-going chariot, and by means of it 
he roams everywhere at will." 

When she said this, her ladies-in-waiting said to her : " If 
you know this to be the case, Princess, why do you not speak 
to him ? What are you waiting for ? " When Padmavati 
heard this speech of her ladies, she went on to say : "I 
think that this probably is the case, but I am not absolutely 
certain as yet. But, even supposing he really is my beloved, 
how can I approach him, now that he is not in his own 
body, but in another's body ? So let us for a time watch his 


proceedings, being ourselves concealed." When the princess 
had said this, she remained there concealed, surrounded by 
her ladies-in-waiting. 

Then Muktaphaladhvaja descended from the chariot in 
that hermitage of Ambika, and, being full of longing, said 
to his friend : " Here I had my first interview with my be- 
loved, when she had been terrified by the Rakshasis; and 
I again saw her in the garden here when she came, having 
chosen me for her own ; and here I received the curse, and 
she wished to follow me by dying, but was, though with 
difficulty, prevented by that great hermit : and now, see, 
that very same lady flies out of reach of my eyes ! " 

When Padmavati heard him speak thus, she said to her 
ladies-in-waiting : " True, my friends, it is really my be- 
loved, but how can I approach him, before he has entered his 
former body ? In this matter Siddhisvara is my only hope. 
He sent me the dream, and he will provide for me a way out 
of my difficulties." When she had formed this resolution, 
she went back to Siddhisvara. And she worshipped that 
manifestation of Siva, and offered this prayer to him : 
" Unite me with my beloved in his former body, or bestow 
death on me. I see no third way of escape from my woe." 
And then she remained with her friends in the court of the 
god's temple. 

In the meanwhile Muktaphaladhvaja searched for the 
princess in the temple of Gauri, and, not finding her, was 
despondent, and said to that friend : " I have not found her 
here. Let us go back to that temple of Siva ; if I cannot 
find her there I will enter the fire." 

When that friend heard it, he said : " Good luck will 
befall you ! The word of the hermit and Siva's promise 
in your dream cannot be falsified." With these words did 
Muktaphaladhvaja's friend try to comfort him. And then 
Muktaphaladhvaja ascended the chariot and went with him 
to Siddhisvara. 

When Padmavati saw him arrive, she still remained there 
invisible, and she said to her ladies-in-waiting : " Look ! He 
has come to this very place." He too entered, and seeing 
that offerings had been recently placed in front of the god, 


Prince Muktaphaladhvaja said to that companion of his : 
" Look, my friend ! Someone has been quite recently- 
worshipping this symbol of the god. Surely that beloved of 
mine must be somewhere here, and she must have done this 
worship." When he had said this he looked for her, but 
could not find her ; and then in the anguish of separation he 
cried out again and again : " Ah, my beloved Padmavati ! " 

Then, thinking that the cry of the cuckoo was her voice, 
and that the tail of the peacock was her hair, and that the 
lotus was her face, the prince ran wildly about, overpowered 
with an attack of the fever of love, and with difficulty did 
his friend console him ; and, coaxing him, he said to him : 
" What is this that you have taken up, being weak with 
much fasting? Why do you disregard your own welfare, 
though you have conquered the earth and Patala ? Your 
father, Merudhvaja, and King Trailokyamalin, the king of 
the Danavas, your future father-in-law, and his daughter 
Trailokyaprabha, who wishes to marry you, and your mother, 
Vinayavati, and your younger brother, Malayadhvaja, will, 
if you do not go to them, suspect that some misfortune has 
happened, and, fasting as they are, will give up their breath. 
So come along ! Let us go and save their lives, for the day 
is at an end." 

When Muktaphaladhvaja's friend said this to him, he 
answered him : " Then go yourself in my chariot and com- 
fort them." Then his friend said : " How will that hermit's 
pupil, who has been made your vehicle by a curse, submit to 
me?" When the prince's friend said this, he replied : " Then 
wait a little, my friend : let us see what will happen here." 

When Padmavati heard this conversation of theirs, she 
said to her ladies-in-waiting : "I know that this is my former 
lover, by all the notes tallying, but he is degraded by the curse, 
being enclosed in a human body ; and I too am thus afflicted 
with a curse, because I laughed at the Siddha maiden." While 
she was saying this the moon rose, red in hue the fire that 
devours the forest of separated lovers. And gradually the 
moonlight filled the world on every side, and the flame of 
love's fire filled the heart of Muktaphaladhvaja. 

Then the prince began to lament like a chakravdka at 


the approach of night ; and Padmavati, who was concealed, 
being despondent, said to him : " Prince, though you are my 
former lover, still, as you are now in another body, you are 
to me a strange man, and I am to you as the wife of another ; 
so why do you lament again and again ? Surely some means 
will be provided, if that speech of the hermit's was true." 

When Muktaphaladhvaja heard this speech of hers, and 
could not see her, he fell into a state which was painful 
from the contending emotions of joy and despondency ; and 
he said to her : " Princess, my former birth has returned to 
my recollection, and so I recognised you as soon as I saw 
you, for you still wear your old body; but as you saw me 
when I was dwelling in my Vidyadhara * body, how can you 
recognise me, now that I am in a mortal body ? So I must 
certainly abandon this accursed frame." When he had 
said this he remained silent, and his beloved continued in 

Then, the night being almost gone, and his friend Maha- 
buddhi, who was formerly Samyataka, having gone to sleep 
out of weariness, Prince Muktaphaladhvaja, thinking that 
Muktaphala- ne cou ^ never obtain Padmavati as long as he 
dhvaja enters continued in that body, collected wood 2 and 
the Fire lighted a fire, and worshipped Siva embodied in 

the linga, uttering this prayer : " Holy one, may I by thy 
favour return to my former body, and soon obtain my be- 
loved Padmavati ! " And having said this, he consumed his 
body in that blazing fire. 

And in the meanwhile Mahabuddhi woke up, and not 
being able, in spite of careful search, to find Muktaphala- 
dhvaja, and seeing the fire blazing up, he came to the con- 
clusion that his friend, distracted with separation, had burnt 
himself, and out of regret for his loss he flung himself into 
that same fire. 

When Padmavati saw that, she was tortured with grief, 
and she said to her ladies-in-waiting : " Alas ! Shame ! The 

1 The Sanskrit adjective corresponding to the noun Vidyadhara is, of 
course, Vaidyadhara, but perhaps it is better to retain the noun in English. 

2 I read ahritya for dhatya. The three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit 
College MS. have ahritya. 


female heart is harder than the thunderbolt, otherwise my 
breath must have left me, beholding this horror. So, how 
long am I to retain this wretched life ? Even now, owing 
to my demerits, there is no end to my woe. Moreover, the 
promise of that hermit has been falsified ; so it is better that 
I should die. But it is not fitting that I should enter this 
fire and be mixed up with strange men, so in this difficult 
conjuncture hanging, which gives no trouble, is my best 
resource." When the princess had said this, she went in 
front of Siva, and proceeded to make a noose by means of 
a creeper, which she fastened to an asoka tree. 

And while her ladies-in-waiting were trying to prevent 
her by encouraging speeches, that hermit Tapodhana came 
there. He said : " My daughter, do not act rashly ! That 
promise of mine will not be falsified. Be of good courage ! 
You shall see that husband of yours come here in a moment. 
His curse has been just now cancelled by virtue of your 
penance ; so why do you now distrust the power of your own 
austerities ? And why do you show this despondency when 
your marriage is at hand? I have come here because I 
learned all this by my power of meditation." 

When Padmavati saw the hermit approaching, uttering 
these words, she bowed before him, and was for a moment, 
as it were, swung to and fro by perplexity. Then her be- 
loved Muktaphalaketu, having by the burning of his mortal 
body entered his own Vidyadhara body, came there with his 
friend. And Padmavati, seeing that son of the king of the 
Vidyadharas coming through the air, as a female chdtaka 
beholds a fresh rain- cloud, or a kumudvati the full moon 
newly risen, felt indescribable joy in her heart. And Mukta- 
phalaketu, when he saw her, rejoiced, and, so to speak, drank 
her in with his eyes, as a traveller, wearied with long wander- 
ing in a desert, rejoices when he beholds a river. And those 
two, reunited like a couple of chakravdkas by the termination 
of the night of their curse, 1 took their fill of falling at the feet 
of that hermit of glowing brilliancy. 2 Then that great hermit 

1 See Vol. VI, p. 7 In 3 . n.m.p. 

2 Probably the passage also means that they sunned themselves in 
his rays. 


welcomed them in the following words : " My heart has been 
fully gratified to-day by seeing you reunited, happy at having 
come to an end of your curse." 

And when the night had passed, King Merudhvaja came 
there in search of them, mounted on the elephant of Indra, 
accompanied by his wife and his youngest son, and also Trailo- 
kyamalin, the sovereign of the Daityas, with his daughter 
Trailokyaprabha, mounted on a chariot, attended by his harem 
and his suite. Then the hermit pointed out Muktaphalaketu 
to those two kings, and described what had taken place how 
he had become a man by a curse, in order to do a service to 
the gods, and how he had been delivered from his human 
condition. And when Merudhvaja and the others heard that, 
though they were before eager to throw themselves into the 
fire, they bathed in Siddhodaka and worshipped Siva, by the 
hermit's direction, and were at once delivered from their 
sorrow. Then that Trailokyaprabha suddenly called to mind 
her birth, and said to herself : " Truly I am that same Deva- 
prabha, the daughter of the king of the Siddhas, who, when 
undergoing austerities * in order that the emperor of all the 
Vidyadharas might be my husband, was ridiculed by Padma- 
vati, and entered the fire to gain the fulfilment of my desire. 
And now I have been born in this Daitya race ; and here is 
this very prince with whom I was in love, who has recovered 
his Vidyadhara body. But it is not fitting that, now that his 
body is changed, he should be united to this body of mine, 
so I will consume my Asura body also in the fire, in order to 
obtain him." 

Having gone through these reflections in her mind, and 
having communicated her intentions to her parents, she 
entered 2 the fire which had consumed Muktaphaladhvaja. 
And then the God of Fire himself appeared with her, on 
whom, out of pity, he had bestowed her former body, and 
said to Muktaphaladhvaja : " Muktaphaladhvaja, this lady, 
Devaprabha, the daughter of the king of the Siddhas, for 

1 I read tapasyanti for na pasyanti. See Taranga 117, L 111 et seq. The 
three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. have tapasyanti. 

2 All the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. read anupra- 


thy sake abandoned her body in me ; so receive her as thy 

When the God of Fire had said this, he disappeared ; and 
Brahma came there with Indra and the rest of the gods, and 
Padmasekhara, the king of the Gandharvas, with Chandraketu, 
the sovereign of the Vidyadharas. Then that prosperous 
king of the Gandharvas * gave his daughter Padmavati, with 
due rites and much activity on the part of his followers, 
as wife to Muktaphalaketu, who bowed before him, con- 
gratulated by all. And then that prince of the Vidyadharas 
having obtained that beloved, whom he had so long desired, 
considered that he had gathered the fruit of the tree of his 
birth, and married also that Siddha maiden. And Prince 
Malayadhvaja was united to that Daitya princess, his be- 
loved Tribhuvanaprabha, whom her father bestowed on him 
with due rites. 

Then Merudhvaja having, on account of his son Malay a- 
dhvaja's complete success, anointed him to be sole ruler of a 
kingdom extending over the earth with all its islands, went 
with his wife to the forest to perform austerities. And 
Trailokyamalin, the king of the Daityas, went with his wife 
to his own region, and Indra gave to Muktaphalaketu the 
splendid kingdom of Vidyuddhvaja. And this voice came 
from heaven : " Let this Muktaphalaketu enjoy the sove- 
reignty over the Vidyadharas and Asuras, and let the gods 
go to their own abodes ! " 

When they heard that voice, Brahma and Indra and the 
other gods went away delighted, and the hermit Tapodhana 
went with his pupil, who was released from his curse, and 
Chandraketu went to his own Vidyadhara home with his 
son Muktaphalaketu, who was graced by two wives. And 
there the king, together with his son, long enjoyed the 
dignity of emperor over the Vidyadharas. But at last he 
threw on him the burden of his kingdom, and, disgusted with 
the world and its pleasures, went with the queen to an ascetic 

1 Gandharvarajaya in Brockhaus' text must be a misprint. MS. No. 1882 
has Gandharvaradvyagraparigrahas, which satisfies the metre and makes sense. 
This is also the reading of the Sanskrit College MS. No. 3003 seems to have 
the same, but it is not quite clear. No. 2166 has vyadra for vyagra. 


grove of hermits. And Muktaphalaketu, having before ob- 
tained from Indra the rule over the Asuras, and again from 
his father the empire over the Vidyadharas, enjoyed, in the 
society of Padmavati, who seemed like an incarnation of 
happiness, for ten kalpas, the good fortune of all the pleasures 
which the sway of those two wealthy realms could yield, and 
thus obtained the highest success. But he saw that passions 
are in their end distasteful, and at last he entered a wood 
of mighty hermits, and by the eminence of his asceticism 
obtained the highest glory, and became a companion of the 
lord Siva. 

170. Story of King Brahmadatta and the Swans 

Thus King Brahmadatta and his wife and his minister 
heard this romantic tale from the couple of swans, and gained 
knowledge from their teaching, and obtained the power of 
flying through the air like gods. And then they went, 
accompanied by those two birds, to Siddhisvara, 1 and there 
they all laid aside the bodies they had entered in consequence 
of the curse, and were reinstated in their former position as 
attendants upon Siva. 2 

[M] " Hearing this story from Gomukha in the absence of 
Madanamanchuka for a moment only, hermits, I cheered my 
heart with hope." 

When the Emperor Naravahanadatta had told this story, 
those hermits in the hermitage of Kasyapa, accompanied by 
Gopalaka, rejoiced exceedingly. 

1 I read tadbharyasachivau ; the three words should be joined together. 

2 In the original we find inserted here : M Here ends the story of 





On p. 58 of this volume we read that, on arriving at a certain 
hermitage, Marubhuti chanced to see some heavenly nymphs 
who had come to bathe in the river. At the advice of the 
hermit he stole the clothes of one of them, who immediately 
followed him, hoping to recover them. The hermit then 
informed her that she could have them back if she gave him 
certain information about Naravahanadatta. On complying, 
she became the wife of the hermit, and shortly afterwards 
gave birth to a child. She then departed, saying that if he 
wished to be united with her he must cook and eat the child. 
On doing so the hermit was able to fly into the air, and was 
thus united with the mysterious nymph. 

Such, briefly, is the story, 1 or rather motif, which at once 
suggests to us the so-called Swan-Maiden cycle, so well known 
throughout European folk-literature. 

At the outset of any inquiry on such a widely spread motif, 
we should pause a moment to satisfy ourselves as to what we 
mean by the " Swan-Maiden " motif. We mean, I take it, a 
story that tells of the hero coming by chance on a number of 
girls bathing, or he may see a flock of birds who turn into girls. 
For some reason or other he steals their clothes or plumages 
(in many cases only that of one), and by so doing obtains one 
of them for his wife. He usually loses her, either by his 
breaking some taboo, or else by her regaining her lost dress 
or plumage. In some cases fresh adventures end in a happy 
reunion ; in others he remains alone and disconsolate for the 
rest of his life. 

Accepting this as the typical example of the "Swan- 
Maiden motif, we can look back at the incident in Somadeva 
and unhesitatingly say that here we have a version of the 
motif in question, though an unusual form of it. We have 
the girls bathing, the stealing of the clothes, the marriage, 
the desertion, and the final reunion, In fact, the only thing 
omitted is the " swan " element. But of this more anon. 

1 Cf. also the Apsaras-swan-maidens who occur in Story No. 172aaa, in 
Vol. IX, Chapter CXXI. 


The stealing of clothes of girls, while they are bathing, 
forms, as most readers are well aware, one of the best-known 
incidents of the early life of Krishna. The Prema Sdgara, 1 
following the Bhdgavata Pur ana, 2 thus recounts the incident : 

" One day all the Braj girls, collectively, went to an un- 
frequented ghat to bathe, and having gone there [and] taken 
off their clothes [and] placed [them] on the bank, becoming 
naked, [and] entered the water, they began to sing repeatedly 
the virtues of Hari, and to sport [in] the water. At that very 
time Sri Krishna also, seated in the shade of a fig-tree, was 
grazing cows. 

" [By] chance having heard the sound of their singing, he 
also silently approached, and began to look on, concealedly. 
At last, as he gazed, when something entered his mind, [he] 
stole all the clothes [and] went [and] ascended a Kadam- 
tree ; and tying [them in] a bundle, placed [them] before 
[himself]. Hereupon, when the cowherdesses looked, [and 
saw] there were no clothes on the bank, then, in alarm, rising 
up on all sides, they began to look about, and to say among 
themselves : ' Just now not even a bird came here ; who has 
taken away the clothes, Mother ? ' In the meantime a cow- 
herdess saw that, with a crown on [his] head, a staff in [his] 
hand, with a yellow sectarial mark, a necklace of wild flowers, 
wearing yellow robes, with a tied-up bundle of clothes, pre- 
serving silence, Sri Krishna mounted on the Kadam-tree, 
is seated, concealed. On seeing him [she] cried: 'Friend! 
behold him, the stealer of our hearts, the stealer of clothes, 
on the Kadam-tree, holding the bundle, [seated] resplendent.' 
Hearing this speech, and all the young women having seen 
Krishna, ashamed, entered the water, joined [their] hands, 
bowed [their] heads, supplicated, [and] coaxingly said : 

" " Compassionate to the humble ! beloved remover of grief ! 

O Mohan ! please give our clothes.' 
Hearing thus, Kanhai says : ' I will not give thus, appealing 

[to] Nand, [I swear] ; 
Come out one by one, then you'll receive your clothes.' 

" The Braj girls angrily said : ' This is a nice lesson you 
have learnt, in that you are saying to us, " Come out naked." 
We will go at once [and] tell our fathers [and] friends, then 

1 Pincott's edition, 1 897, p. 60 et seq. 

2 See M. N. Dutt's edition, Calcutta, 1895-1896, pp. 104-107. 


they will come [and] seize you as a thief; and we will go 
[and] relate [this] to Nand [and] Jasoda, then they also 
will properly impart to you instruction. We are ashamed 
of something ; you have blotted out all recognition [on our 

On hearing this statement, angrily, Sri Krishna Ji said : 
' Now you shall obtain the clothes when you fetch them 
[yourselves], not otherwise.' Hearing this [and] fearing, 
the cowherdesses said : ' Compassionate to the humble ! you 
yourself hold us in remembrance, you are the protector 
of our husbands ; whom shall we bring ? For you alone, 
having made vows, we are bathing in the month Mangsir.' 
Sri Krishna said : ' If you, with sincerity, on my account 
are bathing [in] Aghan, then abandon shame [and] evasion, 
[and] come [and] take your clothes.' When Sri Krishna 
Chand had said this, the cowherdesses, having reflected 
among themselves, began to say : * Come, friends ! what 
Mohan says, that alone we should respect ; because he knows 
all [the state] of our body [and] mind ; what shame [is there] 
in this ? ' Having thus settled among themselves, obeying 
the direction of Sri Krishna, concealing with the hands the 
breast [and] privities, all the young women issued from the 
water, with heads bowed down, [and] when they went [and] 
stood before [him] on the shore, Sri Krishna laughingly said : 
' Now, with joined hands, come forward, then I will give the 
clothes.' The cowherdesses said : 

" ' Why are you deceiving [us], Darling of Nand ! we are 

plain simple Braj girls. 
A trick has been played ; consciousness [and] sense are 

gone ; you have played this prank, O Hari ! 
Fortifying [our] hearts we have committed shame ; now do 

you do something, O Ruler of Braj ! ' 

"Having said this, when the cowherdesses joined [their] 
hands, Sri Krishna Chand Ji, having given the clothes, came 
to them [and] said : 4 In your hearts, do not be anywise dis- 
pleased at this affair ; I have given you this lesson, because 
in the water is the abode of the god Varuna ; hence if any- 
one becomes naked [and] bathes in the water, all this virtue 
passes away. Perceiving the affection of your hearts, [and] 
being delighted, I have imparted this secret to you. Now go 
home ; then, in the month of Katik, come [again, and] sport 
with me.' " 


There is perhaps no actual connection whatever between 
the two stories. I merely wish to emphasise the fact that 
one of the chief incidents in the motif under consideration 
has been known throughout India from a very early date. 

Of even older date, however, is the story of Urvasi and 
Pururavas, for which I must ask readers to refer back to 
Appendix I of Vol. II, p. 245 et seq. Here we saw that among 
other incidents Urvasi deserts her mortal husband on his 
breaking a taboo. He goes in search of her, and comes 
upon nymphs swimming in a lake in the shape of swans, 
among whom is the lost Urvasi. They " appear " to him 
in their normal shape, but in vain he tries to persuade her 
to return. 

This is according to the Satapatha Brdhmana version. In 
the later Vishnu Pur ana, however, we find the " swan " inci- 
dent has disappeared, and he discovers his beloved " sporting 
with four other nymphs of heaven in a lake beautiful with 

Can we justly claim this ancient legend as a version, or 
perhaps even the origin, of the "Swan-Maiden" motifs At 
this stage of our inquiry I doubt it. In the first place, it is 
the " fairy " woman who falls in love with the man a mortal. 
She it is who imposes the taboo. The lover plays a distinctly 
passive part, and is naturally heartbroken when deserted. 
There is nothing about stolen clothes or plumages, and in fact 
we have no hint of her power of changing into a swan until 
she has returned to her celestial home. 

If, however, we take the stories in the Satapatha Brdh- 
mana and the Bhdgavata Purdna together, we find a full tally 
of all the " swan-maiden " incidents that are so familiar to 
us, and which appear in numerous collections of modern 
Indian tales. 1 We can then, I think, safely say that Sanskrit 
literature contains sufficient material to produce a complete 
swan-maiden story without having to borrow a single incident 
from outside India. But whether we can regard India as the 
one original home of the story from whence it migrated in 
all directions 2 is quite another matter. 

Let us shift our field of inquiry to Europe and look at the 
familiar story of " The Drummer," in Grimm, No. 193, where 
the hero finds three pieces of white linen lying on the shore 

1 See Bolte and Polivka, op. cit. f vol. iii, p. 414. 

2 For versions are found in Tibet, China, Japan, Sumatra, Celebes, the 
Philippines, etc. 


of a lake. He puts one in his pocket and goes home, think- 
ing no more of the incident. Just as he is going to sleep 
he hears his name softly called and a voice of a maiden 
begs for the return of her dress. The drummer gives it 
back on the condition that she tells him who she is. The 
girl does so and then flies away. The rest of the tale does 
not concern us. 

A glance at Bolte and Polivka, 1 and still more at the 
important work on the subject by Holmstrom, 2 will show 
the extraordinarily wide distribution of the motif. 

To attempt to give a list of variants here would be both 
superfluous and unproductive. I shall, therefore, confine 
myself to a discussion on the subject of the origin of the motif 
whether it is a migrant from the East, whether it is one of 
those tales which form the common stock of ideas in all parts 
of the world, or whether, perchance, it has travelled from 
Northern Europe to the East. We have already seen that 
India possessed ample material in her Vedic and Puranic 
literature to produce a complete swan-maiden story which 
would naturally, in course of time and translation, assume 
different forms, as it passed from mouth to mouth, and later 
from hand to hand. 

Can we find a similar supply of material in Europe to 
produce such a story at a time before Indian fiction began 
to filter through from the East ? 

This, then, is the first question that presents itself, and 
one, I would add, that is as fascinating as it is hard to 

When examining the European variants we must never 
lose sight of the chain of incidents which we have accepted as 
forming a "swan-maiden" story, and be on our guard lest we 
be led away by some of the numerous tales in which birdlike 
beings figure. Thus the sirens, harpies, keres, erinyes, etc., 
are to be shunned by us as surely as they were by the wiser 
of the ancient Greeks. 

The first point, then, which strikes us forcibly is that we 
do not find a true " swan-maiden " story in classical myth- 
ology. This may seem a sweeping statement, but it is true 
nevertheless. The only type of classical " fairy " being 
whose attributes and behaviour approach the swan-maiden 

1 Op. cit. } iii, pp. 406-417. 

2 Studier over svanjungfrumotivet i Volundarkvida och annorst'ddes, Malmo, 


at all closely is the nereid or nymph (the Bulgarian samo- 
divas, the Serbian vilas, and the Rumanian z&nas). Even 
her similarity depends rather on her modern role of nymph 
of the woods, streams, groves, hills, meadows, etc., than the 
classical nereid, who was in reality a sea-maiden. As has 
been shown by Holmstrom, 1 there exists in the Balkan 
countries, and especially in modern Greece, a large number 
of stories in which the hero marries a nymph by stealing some 
portion of her dress. These nymphs were famous for their 
dancing, but were unable to prove their skill until the stolen 
garment was returned. 

In some versions we find the particular portion of the dress 
definitely mentioned. When this is so, it is usually a veil or 
kerchief, and here we begin to suspect the presence of local 
custom, and we shall not be disappointed. Writing on the 
subject, Lawson 2 says : " And in this detail of costume 
the resemblance of bride and nereid (vvfi(f>ri = nymph = bride) 
still holds good ; for no wedding-dress would be complete 
without a kerchief either wrapped about the bride's head or 
pinned upon her breast, or carried in her hand to form a link 
with her neighbour in the chain of dancers." 

As an example of the kind of story to which I refer, it 
would be impossible to give a better one than that quoted 
by Lawson from Messina. Briefly it is as follows : 

A young shepherd played the pipes so skilfully that the 
nereids danced to his music. So pleased were they that they 
carried him off each day to the threshing-floor, where they 
danced to their hearts' content. 

Having gradually overcome his fear and shyness, the 
young shepherd began to regard the nereids with a critical 
eye, and soon espied one, more beautiful than all the rest, 
with whom he fell violently in love. But how to secure her 
for a wife was the question ! In this predicament he sought 
the advice of an old woman learned in such matters. She 
told him to seize the girl's kerchief before the cock crew, and 
to hold on to it at all costs, no matter what terrible shape the 
nereid might assume. 

1 Op. cit., p. 108. The actual variants quoted, according to his enumera- 
tion, are SB (i.e. Bulgaria) 3, 4 ; and OG (i.e. Greece and Albania) 4, 5, 7, 8, 
10, 11. See pp. 51 and 59 respectively. 

2 Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, 1.910, p. 136. See 
also Farnell, " Nature (Greek)," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ix, p. 226. 


The shepherd followed the instructions in spite of the 
fact that the girl changed into a lion, a snake and a burning 
fire. The cock crew, and all the nereids disappeared, save 
the one whose kerchief had been stolen. And she followed 
the shepherd submissively and became his wife. 

A hitherto unpublished variant was told by the gypsies 
of Bukarest to Dr Gaster in 1877. With his usual generosity 
he has allowed me to make any use of it I like, so I herewith 
take the opportunity of giving a resume of the tale : 

A certain young man has noticed three z&nas dancing 
most beautifully, and is anxious to obtain one of them for a 
wife. He is advised to snatch the crown or wreath from the 
one he likes the best. This he does, and the zona follows him 
and becomes his wife. The youth keeps the crown carefully 
locked away. As time goes on, the couple are asked to a 
wedding feast, at which the young wife dances so beautifully 
that all present are enchanted; whereupon she says to her 
mother-in-law that if her husband would give her back her 
crown she would show them that she could dance even better 
still. No sooner is the crown on her head than she starts 
dancing in the air, and finally flies away. Her husband im- 
mediately goes in search of her, and, with the assistance of 
grateful animals, is able to reach her palace, and be united 
with her once again. 

This is as near as we can get to our story in South-eastern 
Europe, without counting, of course, variants obviously 
derived from " Hassan of Bassorah " in the Nights (Burton, 
vol. viii, p. 41 ; and Chauvin, op. cit., vii, p. 37). 

It is among the Teutonic races that we find the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif most elaborately developed. Not only is 
primitive Teutonic legend full of references to swans, 1 but 
as Scandinavia is one of the chief haunts of the wild swan, 
we can well imagine that any important tale connected with 
a swan would find a welcome acceptance in those already 
existing legends best fitted to receive it. 

The question then arises as to when the swan-maiden is 
first mentioned in Norse mythology, and whence the idea was 
derived. Most folklorists who have written on swan-maidens 
have remarked on the early mention of the motif in early 
Norse legend, and have pointed out that it occurs in the 
Icelandic Eddas of about a.d. 1000. We must not, however, 

1 See the references given by Seaton, u Swan-Maidens/' Hastings' Ency: 
Eel. Eth., vol. xii, 1921, p. 126. 


accept such a statement without examining the actual pas- 
sages in question, and satisfying ourselves that both the 
authenticity and meaning of the words are beyond suspicion. 
First of all let us be quite clear about the Eddas themselves. 
Edda is the name of a work on the art of writing poetry, 
compiled by the famous Icelandic historian, Snorri Sturluson 
(1178-1241). There is no mention whatever of a swan- 
maiden in the work. Now the basis of Snorri's work was a 
number of old poems which, owing to their similarity to the 
subject-matter of the Edda, also became known by the name 
of Edda. As a mark of distinction the work of Snorri was 
called " the Younger " and the ancient poems " the Elder " 
Edda. In our own times " the Elder " Edda is more usually 
known as " the Eddie poems." 

Having thus qualified the use of the term Edda, we can 
proceed with our inquiry. " The Eddie poems " contain, as 
one of the earliest and most important poems, the Volundar- 
kvitha, or "Lay of Wayland," which dates from about a.d. 900. 
It is this poem which is cited as containing the swan-maiden 
reference. The story deals with the exploits of Volund 
(Velent, Weland, Wayland) the Smith, so widely diffused 
through Scandinavian prose and verse. It is now agreed 
that it came to the North from Saxon regions, along with so 
many other early hero tales. Legends about Wayland, the 
Smith, persisted for centuries throughout all the Teutonic 
lands, and it is here we must place the origin of the legend. 
Now, when these hero tales reached Scandinavia, it was in 
Norway that they found a home. Their local colour became 
Norwegian, and with but few exceptions the Eddie poems are 
Norwegian, and not Icelandic. This fact affects our inquiry 
only in a minor way, but it is of importance when we come 
to consider the fusion of local " swan-metamorphoses " 
elements with imported stories. The particular exploit of 
Weland related in the Volundarkvitha tells how he was lamed 
by King Nithuth, and of his terrible revenge. To this, as a 
kind of introduction, has been added the swan-maiden in- 
cident. Whether these were originally two separate poems 
linked together by the thin chain of prose narrative, or whether 
they were merely two legends used as the basis of a new and 
homogeneous poem, as we find it in the Volundarkvitha, is a 
debatable point. On the whole, however, the latter seems the 
most probable explanation. 

The compiler or annotator of this poem, using his 


knowledge of Weland tradition (whether of earlier or later 
date), and finding the MSS. in a very bad state, prefixed a 
prose narrative in which he makes Nithuth a Swedish king 
and Weland's father a Finnish king. He further identi- 
fies the swan-maidens with the Valkyries. Now, the date 
of the MS. is about 1270 ; thus there was plenty of time 
for " improvements " to be made by those who worked 
on older MSS. or who largely relied on oral tradition. The 
Valkyrie legends had doubtless become more widely diffused, 
and, as we shall see later, they were identified with the 
swan-maidens in another of the Eddie poems, the Helreith 

We are now in a better position to look at the passages 
themselves. First of all comes the prose " Introduction," 
followed by that portion of the poem itself which concerns 
our inquiry. I use the most recent, and very fine, translation 
by H. A. Bellows. 1 

" There was a king in Sweden named Nithuth. He had 
two sons and one daughter ; her name was Bothvild. There 
were three brothers, sons of a king of the Finns : one was 
called Slagfith, another Egil, the third Volund. They went 
on snowshoes and hunted wild beasts. They came into 
Ulfdalir, and there they built themselves a house; there was 
a lake there which is called Ulfsjar. Early one morning they 
found on the shore of the lake three women, who were spinning 
flax. Near them were their swan-garments, for they were 
Valkyries. Two of them were daughters of King Hlothver, 
Hlathguth the Swan- White and Hervor the All- Wise, and the 
third was Olrun, daughter of Kjar from Valland. These did 
they bring home to their hall with them. Egil took Olrun, 
and Slagfith Swan- White, and Volund All- Wise. There they 
dwelt seven winters ; but then they flew away to find battles, 
and came back no more. Then Egil set forth on his snow- 
shoes to follow Olrun, and Slagfith followed Swan- White, but 
Volund stayed in Ulfdalir. He was a most skilful man, as 
men know from old tales. King Nithuth had him taken by 
force, as the poem here tells." 

In the above story the compiler definitely states that the 
swan-maidens are Valkyries. 

1 The Poetic Edda, Scandinavian Classics, vols, xxi, xxii, New York, 1923, 
p. 252 et seq. 


Now let us look at the poem he was annotating : 

1. Maids from the south 1 
Fair and young, 
On the shore of the sea 
The maids of the south, 


Hlathguth and Hervor, 
And Olrun the Wise 

through Myrkwood 2 flew, 
their fate to follow ; 
to rest them they sat, 
and flax they spun. 

Hlothver's children, 
Kjar's daughter was. 

One in her arms 
To her bosom white 

4. Swan- White second 

took Egil then 
the woman fair. 

Swan-feathers she wore, 

And her arms the third 
Next round Volund's 

5. There did they sit 
In the eighth at last 
(And in the ninth 
The maidens yearned 
The fair young maids 

6. Volund home 
From a weary way, 
Slagfith and Egil 
Out and in went they, 

7. East fared Egil 
And Slagfith south 
Volund alone 

of the sisters threw 
neck so white. 

for seven winters, 
came their longing again, 
did need divide them), 
for the murky wood, 
their fate to follow. 

from his hunting came, 
the weather-wise bowman, 
the hall found empty, 
everywhere seeking. 

after Olrun, 

to seek for Swan- White ; 

in Ulfdalir lay, 

Red gold he fashioned 
And rings he strung 
So for his wife 
In the fair one home 

8. Red gold he fashioned with fairest gems, 

on ropes of bast ; 
he waited long, 
might come to him. 

the lord of the Njars, 
in Ulfdalir lay. . . . 

(The rest of the poem does not concern our inquiry.) 

1 I retain the caesural pause. Each half-line has two accented syllables 
and two (in some cases three) unaccented ones. 

2 A magic, dark forest. 

This Nithuth learned, 
That Volund alone 


The only possible grounds for finding any proof of the 
swan-maidens being identical with the Valkyries is contained 
in the ambiguous reading of an obscure word in line 2 of 
stanza 1, and again in line 5 of stanza 5. Gering 1 renders 
it " helmed " instead of " fair and young." There is nothing 
to show that the former reading is more correct, or that the 
poet ever conceived any analogy between the two mythical 
beings at all. It was the annotator who definitely connected 
the two about three hundred years later. 

In the Helreith Brynhildar we are told of a king who robs 
eight sisters of their plumages and thus forces them to help 
him. But so fragmentary and undeveloped is the motif that 
it has but little value in our inquiry. Furthermore, being 
of later date than the Volundarkvitha, it lacks the interest it 
might otherwise have possessed. 

The passage in question is spoken by Brynhild after she 
has been burned and is "in the wagon on Hel-way." She 
passes the house of a certain giantess, who chides her about 
her former life on earth. In course of conversation Brynhild 
says : 

" The monarch 2 bold the swan-robes bore 

Of the sisters eight beneath an oak ; 

Twelve winters I was if know thou wilt, 

When oaths I yielded the King so young." 

This completes the evidence of the existence of the 
" swan-maiden " in the Eddie poems ; and, on the face of it, 
it does not appear very convincing. We must, of course, 
recognise that Norse mythology possessed legends of animal 
transformation from the earliest times. This is evident not 
only from the swanlike maidens, which later were identified 
with the swan-maidens themselves, but also from the belief 
in the fylgia, 3 a kind of double which appeared in the form of 
some animal or bird. When it assumed the form of a swan its 
plumage was entirely external a " magical article " which 
anyone who got possession of it might use. The attributes 
of the Valkyries, their beauty, their habit of travelling 
through the air, and their occasional encounter with mortals 
fitted them for identification with the swanlike maidens of 
Norse mythology ; and even more can we appreciate the 

1 Die Edda, p. 141 el seq. 

2 Possibly Agnar, brother of Autha. 

3 See Holmstrom, op. cit., p. 185, for numerous examples. 


ease with which the swan-maiden herself found congenial 
surroundings in both German and Scandinavian legends. 

There still remains the origin of the Valkyries themselves 
to be discussed. We have seen that in later times they were 
identified with swan-maidens, but can we assign to them a 
true Teutonic origin with no primary connection with the 
swan-maiden as we know her ? If so, the contention that 
she is an immigrant is strengthened, because in the first place 
we shall have established the fact that she was only an addi- 
tion made by the annotator of the Edda ; and, in the second 
place, that it was the Valkyries, and not the swan-maidens, 
that were the direct development of the bird-element found 
in early Teutonic mythology. 

The Valkyries were primarily helpers and guardians of 
heroes in battles, usually represented as clad in armour and 
riding on chargers. Their very name means "choosers of 
the slain." Nothing could be further from the delicate charm 
and beauty of the swan-maiden, to whom war and battle 
were unknown. 

Yet, as we have already seen, the Valkyries had the 
necessary features to attract and be attracted by the swan- 
maiden, if we imagine her as an immigrant who had not 
received the welcome in South-eastern Europe she had ex- 
pected. Owing to her beauty and power of flying through 
the air, the Valkyrie may even appear as a swan, but this 
does not necessarily mean she is a swan-maiden in our sense 
of the term. 

We may at once accept the statement of Dr Golther 1 : 
" A Valkyrie may occasionally be a swan-maiden, but a 
swan-maiden is not necessarily a Valkyrie, but only accident- 
ally here and there in Norse poetry." This merely bears out 
the conclusion we have already arrived at above. 

As can be seen from the most recent article on the subject 
by Krappe, 2 we can definitely state that the earliest extant 
evidence of the Valkyrie tradition is to be looked for in the 
reliefs of three altars 3 discovered at Housesteads (North- 
umberland) on the site of Hadrian's Wall. The altars in 

1 Wolfgang Golther, Studien zur germanischen Sagengeschichte, I, Der 
Valkyrienmythus, Abhandl. d. M'unchener Akad. f philos.-philol. CL, vol. xviii, 
1890, p. 428. 

2 A. H. Krappe, "The Valkyries," Modern Language Review, vol. xxi, 1926, 
pp. 55-73. 

3 The third altar was discovered as recently as October 1920. 


question were erected in the reign of Alexander Severus 
(a.d. 222-235) by Teutonic soldiers from Lower Germany, 
who served as mercenaries in the Roman legions. They are 
dedicated to a male divinity called Mars Thincsus and his two 
female companions, the Alaisiages, of whom there appear 
to have been several couples, 1 designated by the common 
name of Alaisiages. 2 

Now, in speaking of the Valkyries we are perhaps rather 
apt to connect them almost exclusively with the Viking age, 
quite ignoring their unde derivatur, which appears to lie in a 
pair of divinities of earlier Norse mythology. Although the 
number of the Valkyries still appears in the Hdkonarmdl 
(c. 970) as two, it soon increases considerably, and finally 
becomes nearly as uncertain and changeable as the number 
of Gandharvas in Hindu mythology (see Ocean, Vol. I, p. 201). 
But the point which concerns our present inquiry is the fact 
that in a relief on one of the altars mentioned above is a bird, 
either a swan or a goose, accompanying an armed warrior, 
also taken to be Mars Thincsus. 

Although evidence does not permit our definitely identi- 
fying the Valkyries with the Alaisiages, 3 we can safely say 
that the former arose out of the latter and adopted their 

Frazer 4 and many other scholars have shown the re- 
lationship which exists between twins and the sky ; and in 
this connection it is interesting to find that the Valkyries 
were also credited with influence upon the weather, and on 
fertility in general. We are now getting a step nearer to the 
swan or goose, for such a bird, through its connection with 
the water, has, by the simple medium of sympathetic magic, 
been closely associated with fertility and fecundity. Thus 
we see that as " Children of the Sky " this pair of deities of 
Norse mythology have a dual function. They are deities 
of war and battle, but also of the weather and fertility. It is 

1 I purposely do not say "twins," because there is no evidence to show 
that either the Alaisiages or Valkyries were twins at all. All we know is that 
at one time their number was two. It would be very interesting if we could 
determine whether they were twins, but I fail to see how it is possible. 

2 See T. Siebs, Mitteilungen d. schles. Gesell. f. Volkskunde, vol. xxv, 
1924, pp. 1-17. 

3 For details of the evidence see Krappe, op. cit., p. 57 et seq., and the 
references there given. 

4 Belief in Immortality, vol. ii, p. 268. 



only in their latter aspect that the presence of the swan or 
goose finds an adequate explanation. 

Owing to the beauty of the Valkyries it is not surprising 
that, as time went on, they assumed the role of the Celtic 
" fairy," and were obviously the only beings capable of 
playing the part of the swan-maiden to perfection when and 
where the motif first reached Scandinavia. But, quite apart 
from their " fairy " aspect, it is of the utmost importance 
to notice that whenever they assume the form of animals 
the swan is always the form chosen. This at once points 
back to the roots of the Valkyrie myth being embodied in 
the Alaisiages. Every imaginable animal figures in the 
numerous variants of the " Swan-Maiden " motif, but the 
Valkyries always "revert to type." This fact is significant, 
and has been duly noted by Krappe, 1 who further points out 
that there is also another proof that the Valkyries were swans 
even before they became the heroines of the story-complex 
of the fairy wife deserting her husband namely, that in 
quite a number of tales the Valkyries appear in the shape 
of swans, whilst they desert their husbands in only one, the 

The point I am anxious to make here is simply this : 
nowhere among the early primitive beliefs of Europe are 
there to be found the roots of the "Swan-Maiden" motif. 
In Teutonic mythology and primitive custom the swan has 
played an important part, largely symbolical, from the 
earliest times. Here the swan-maiden found a hearty wel- 
come. In classical countries, although the swan enters into 
many legends, the swan-maiden found herself already largely 
forestalled by the nereids and other fairy like beings. 

We will now return to the East and glance briefly at the 
migration routes of the motif as far as we can, and see if they 
point to India as a central starting-place or not. We have 
already seen that Sanskrit literature is the earliest source 
of the incidents which go to make the complete motif. If, 
therefore, the lines of migration radiate from India, the evi- 
dence that India is really the home of the swan-maiden will 
be doubly strengthened. 

In order to understand more clearly the value of this 
geographical inquiry, readers should have before them a map 
of the world, and, if possible, a copy of Holmstrom's work, 

1 Op. cit. f p. 67. 


which contains such a complete and clear bibliography of 
variants in every part of the world. 1 We will start from 
India and travel westwards. We at once find our motif in 
several Persian collections, 2 whence it soon reached Arabia, 3 
where it branched northwards to Turkey 4 and Russia, 5 and 
westwards to Tunis, 6 Algeria 7 and Morocco, 8 and across the 
Sahara to the West African coast, 9 as well as Zanzibar, Zulu- 
land and Madagascar. 10 This line of migration is one that we 
should expect, not only because of the early trade relations 
between East Africa, Arabia and India, but also, and more 
especially, because of the Mohammedan invasion of India. 

1 An annotated list of variants with geographical headings is given by 
Holmstrom in his work Studier over svanjungfrumotivet, pp. 21-72. 

2 Scott, Bahar-Danush, vol. ii, Shrewsbury, 1799, p. 213; Clouston, 
Popular Tales and Fictions, Ldn., 1887, vol. i, p. 183; and Bricteux, Contes 
Persans, Bibl. de la Faculte de phil. et lettr. de l'Univ. de Liege, 1910, 
p. 277. 

3 Nights, Burton, vol. v, p. 346, and vol. viii, p. 41. For another 
version see Scott, Arabian Nights' Entertainments, Ldn., 1811, vol. vi, p. 283. 
See also Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 1, and vii, pp. 29, 35 and 39; [J. Hammer] 
Rosenol, Tubingen, 1813, vol. i, p. 162 ; A. Jahn, Die Mehri-Sprache in 
Siidarabien, Vienna, 1902, p. 118; and Carra de Vaux, L'Abrege des Merveilles, 
Paris, 1898, p. 20. 

4 J. Kunos, Tiirkische Volksmarchen aus Stambul, Leiden, 1905, pp. 11, 76, 
82, and also Ungarische Revue, Leipzig, 1888, vol. viii, pp. 435, 436. 

5 Afanasjev, Narodnya russkija skazki, 3rd edit., Moscow, 1897, vol. ii, 
pp- 90, 91, 101, 103, 163, l67n, 168 ; Chudjakov, V elikorusskija skazki, Moscow, 
1862, vol. iii, p. 120; A. Erlenvejn, Narodnyja russkija skazki i zagadh . . ., 
1862 i 1863, 2nd edit., Moscow, 1882, p. 145; Ralston, Russian Folk-Tales, 
Ldn., 1873, p. 120; and Coxwell, Siberian and other Folk-Tales, Ldn., 1925, 
pp. 690, 707, 773. 

6 H. Stumme, Tunisische Marchen und Gedichte, Leipzig, 1893, vol. ii, 
p. 13. 

7 Certeux and Carnoy, VAlgerie traditionelle, Paris, 1884, vol. i, p. 87; 
and G. Mercier, he Chaouia de I'Aures, Paris, 1 896, p. 64. 

8 H. Stumme, Marchen der Schluh von Tazerwalt, Leipzig, 1895, p. 102. 

9 A. B. Ellis, The Tshi-speaking People of the Gold Coast of West Africa, 
Ldn., 1887, pp. 208, 211; Mittheilungen d. Seminars f. orienlalische Sprachen, 
vol. v, 3, pp. 139, 142; and R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa, Ldn., 
1904, p. 351. 

10 C. Callaway, Nursery Tales, Traditions and Histories of the Zulus, Ldn., 
1868, p. 55; G. Ferrand, Contes populaires malgaches, Paris, 1893, p. 91; 
Folk-Lore Journal, Ldn., 1883, vol. i, p. 202 ; and E. Steere, Swahili Tales, Ldn., 
1889, 2nd edit., p. 331. 


We return to India and start on another route, this time 
in a northerly direction. We find our motif firmly estab- 
lished in Tibet, 1 among the Tartars, 2 Kalmucks 3 and Mon- 
golians, 4 as well as among such tribes of Northern Siberia 
as the Samoyedes, 5 Yakuts 6 and Chukchis, 7 who dwell on 
Bering Strait. A most interesting feature is that at this 
point the motif crosses Bering Strait into North America 8 
and so on to Greenland. 9 

As this is about the farthest point from our starting- 
place, it will be interesting to see the form the story has 
now assumed. I choose one collected by K. Rasmussen, to 
whom it was told by a middle-aged Greenlander during 1903- 
1904. I would point out that all his Greenlandic stories are 
based on oral tradition, not a single one having ever been 
written down. 

The tale in question is called " The Man who took a Wild 
Goose for a Wife." It first appeared in Rasmussen's Nye 
Mennesker, and was subsequently translated into Swedish, 
when it was published in 1926. 10 The following translation 
is taken from the latter, but, as my notes show, has also been 
compared with the Danish version : 

1 See Ralston and Schiefner, Tibetan Tales, London., 1882, p. 4, and 
M. Castren, Ethnologische Vorlesungen iiber die altaischen Volker, St Petersburg, 
1857, p. 174. 

2 See W. Radloff, Proben d. V olkslitteratur d. turkischen St'dmme Siid-Sibiriens, 
St Petersburg, vol. ii, 1868, p. 201 ; vol. iv, 1872, pp. 318, 502; vol. vi, 1886, 
p. 122; and also A. Schiefner, Die Heldensagen d. minussinschen Tataren, St 
Petersburg, 1859, p. 201. 

3 Memoires de la Societe Finno-ougrienne , 27, 1, Helsingfors, 1909, p. 120. 

4 B. Julg, Mongolische M'drchen-Sammlung, Innsbruck, 1868, p. 192. 

5 See Coxwell, op. cit., p. 503. 

6 Ibid., p. 266. 

7 Ibid., p. 82. 

8 See J. G. Kohl, Kitchi- Garni : Wanderings round Lake Superior, Ldn., 
1859, p. 105; Ch. Leland, The Algonquin Legends of New England, Ldn., 
1884, pp. 140, 281, 300; J. A. Farrer, Primitive Manners and Customs, Ldn., 
1879, p. 256; Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian 
Institute, Washington, 1888, vol. vi, p. 615 ; and The Journal of American Folk- 
Lore, Boston, 1888, vol. i, p. 76. 

9 P. E. Egede, Efterretninger om Gronland, Copenhagen, 1788, p. 55; 
Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, 1875, p. 145; and K. Rasmussen,. 
Nye Mennesker, Copenhagen and Christiania, 1905, p. 181. 

10 Gronlandska Myter och Sagor, Stockholm, pp. 108-115. 


"There was once a man who saw a flock of wild geese 
splashing about in a lake. They had taken off their plum- 
ages * and were transformed into human beings, and now 
they were bathing and playing. 

"He thought he would like to get a couple of them for 
wives, and therefore hid their plumages. But as he ran up 
to catch them, one of them cried so pitifully that he gave her 
back her plumage, but the other one he took home to his old 
grandmother, and married her. 

" She soon became pregnant, and gave birth to twins, both 

" But soon the wild goose began to long for her companions, 
and therefore she took to secretly collecting feathers, and 
obtained a pair of bird's wings. After some time she had 
got enough. 

"And one day, when her husband was out hunting, she 
made herself a new plumage of the feathers and wings and 
flew off with 2 her children. 

" When the husband came home, he at once started looking 
for her, 3 and ran out along the shore. 

" Here he met two earth-spirits who were fighting. They 
tried to stop him as best they could, but he was a great 
magician and conjured himself past them. 4 Then he met 
two knoll-spirits, who also were fighting. They, too, placed 
themselves in his way, but he even conjured himself past them. 

" Then he came to a cauldron, and in it there was boiling 
seal meat. It stood muttering to itself : 

" c Look ! A man ! Po-po-po ! ' 

"It tried to persuade him to stop and eat, but he was 
persistent, and conjured himself on, and so he met a number 
of hairless puppies, which also tried to stop him. 

" They were earth-dogs, and they were as naked as worms. 
He ran past them to Kajungajorssuaq, the man whose penis 
is so big that it reaches the ground. 

"The magician who could read his thoughts, and knew 
that he felt ashamed of his looks, approached him from the 

1 Literally, " shapes." 

2 The Swedish distinctly says " fran," but, as the sequel shows, this must 
be a misprint. Furthermore, the Danish reads " med." 

3 According to the Danish text, "them." 

4 The Danish reads: "But he conjured himself past them, as he was a 
great magician." 


" From what direction do you approach me ? ' said the 

" ' From here ! ' said the magician. 

" ' Good ! If you had come from behind, I would have 
killed you. You will, moreover, catch up those you are 
pursuing ; I can hear them.' 

"And so he showed him the way. 

"The magician then closed his eyes and leapt down on 
an ice-floe, and in this way he floated towards those he was 
pursuing. 1 

" When he had nearly got there, the children caught sight 
of him. 

" ' Father is coming ! ' they called out. 

" ' I want to see him ! Bring him in ! ' said the wife. 

" And so he entered her hut. 

" She had, however, already chosen another husband, an 
old man, who at once fled. 

" Let me get out ! I am nearly vomiting ! Qa-r-r-r-rit ! ' 
he cried, and rushed out through the passage of the house. 
He was an old long-tailed duck. 

" The man and wife now lived together again, 2 but she did 
not like him, and one day, therefore, she pretended to die. 

" Accordingly she was buried ; but as soon as he had left 
the grave 3 she broke out of the dolmen. 4 

I see mother over there ! ' both the children cried. 

" ' Let us have a look ! ' said the man, and looked out of 
the window. 

" 4 Who are you ? ' he asked. 

" 'I am Qivdluk ! ' 5 she lied. 

" He then became so angry that he harpooned his own wife. 

" While the rumour about the murder was spreading, her 
people transformed themselves into wild geese and fled. 

" But the husband, who thought that the fugitives would 
soon return and take vengeance, again went in search of 
Kajungajorssuaq, and from him obtained a long, heavy whip. 

"And one day the revengers came in sight; they were so 

1 In other Greenlandic versions of the story he jumps on the back of 
a fish. 

2 Literally, "moved together again." 

3 The Danish text says "left her." 

4 This is the best translation I can get for stensattningen. It literally means 
" a paving." 

5 The Danish text gives " Kritdluk " instead of Qivdluk. 


numerous that they resembled a large cloud, but the man 
took his whip, swung it, and killed most of them. 

" Only a few escaped, but they returned with assistance 
so strong that they formed an enormous flock; but again 
he swung his whip and killed them. And this time none 

" Then the man lived for a long time on all those slain, 
fat wild geese." 

And here this story ends ! 

It is a strange story, and one that is well worth recording. 
I think we can describe it as another example of a mongrel 
tale an imported motif embedded in local hero legends. 
A thorough knowledge of Greenlandic oral traditions is 
necessary before we can speak with any authority. In 
this connection we would have welcomed an annotation to 
Rasmussen's important collections. Perhaps this will come 

We must, however, continue our travels. 

Returning once more to India we set out eastwards, and 
find the swan-maiden occurring in stories from Burma, 1 
Indo-China, 2 China, 3 Japan, 4 and also the Philippines. 5 If 
we travel in a south-easterly direction we will find it in 
Sumatra, 6 the Mentawei Islands, 7 Java, 8 Borneo, 9 Celebes, 10 

1 See Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1 839, vol. viii, p. 536. 

2 A. Landes, Contes et legendes annamites, Saigon, 1886, p. 123. 

3 N. B. Dennys, The Folklore of China, Ldn., 1876, p. 140; Folk-Lore 
Journal, 1889, vol. vii, p. 318; T'oung Pao, Archives pour servir a I etude de 
Vhistoire . . . et de I'ethnographie de I'Asie orientate, Leide, 1896, vol. vi, p. 68. 

4 T'oung Pao, vol. vi, p. 66 ; A. B. Mitford, Tales of Old Japan, Ldn., 
1903, p. Ill; D. Brauns, Japanische Marchen und Sagen, Leipzig, 1885, 
p. 388. 

5 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 1907, vol. xx, p. 95. 

6 Mittheilungen d. Seminars f. orient. Sprachen, ii, 1, Berlin, 1899, p. 128; 
and C. M. Pleyte, Bataksche V ertellingen, Utrecht, 1894, pp. 109, 217. 

7 See M. Morris, Die Mentawai-Sprache, Berlin, 1900, p. 57. 

8 T. J. Bezemer, Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, Sagen, Tierfabeln und 
Marchen, Haag, 1904, p. 46. 

9 E. H. Gomes, Seventeen Years among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo, Ldn., 
1911, p. 278 ; and Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., ii, 
1863, pp. 26-27. 

10 See S. J. Hickson, A Naturalist in North Celebes, Ldn., 1889, pp. 264- 
265 ; and also Zeit. d. d. morgen. Gesell., vol. vi, Leipzig, 1852, p. 536. 


the Moluccas, 1 New Guinea, 2 Micronesia, 3 Melanesia, 4 
Polynesia, 5 Australia 6 and New Zealand. 7 

It will thus be seen that all these lines of migration 
radiate from India, which fact seems clearly to point to India 
as the home of the motif. But if we look more closely at 
these routes which we have followed we will see that, to a 
large extent, they tell us the history of India itself. They 
tell us of the gradual expansion of Hinduism and Buddhism 
in the East and South-east, while in the North they exhibit 
the results of the invasion of Islam. That the great highways, 
both of land and sea, would be followed in any migration 
is natural enough, and we need not lay much importance 
on this side of the question as far as story-migration is con- 
cerned. It is the actual history of a country, both religious 
and political, that will tell us if it is likely to be a centre from 
which tales would radiate in all directions, or whether, on the 
other hand, it lies on one of the main routes from such a centre. 

There but remains to discuss the interpretation of the 
motif to put the swan-maiden on the operating-table of 
criticism, to strip her of her feathers and any other orna- 
ments she may have acquired in course of time, to dissect 
her, and by so doing hope to discover what she really is. 

This is the cruel treatment she may expect from the 
scientific folklorist, who will not be happy till he has done it. 
He will then begin guessing, and perhaps give his opinion 
that the swan-maiden is nothing but a beautiful white cloud 
which is chased and captured by the spirit of the storm. 8 

1 A. Bastian, Indonesien oder die lnseln der Malayischen Archipel, Berlin, 
1884, vol. i, p. 62. 

2 H. Romilly, From my Verandah in New Guinea, Ldn., 1889, p. 134. 

3 A. Bastian, Allerlei aus Folkes- und Menschenkunde, Berlin, 1888, vol. i, 
p. 60; and Zeitschrift f. Elhnologie, vol. xxxv, Berlin, 1888, p. 136. 

4 See Codrington, The Melanesia, Oxford, 1891, pp. 172, 379, 397. 
6 G. Turner, Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, Ldn., 1884, p. 102. 

6 K. L. Parker, Australian Legendary Tales, Ldn., 1 897, p. 40. 

7 See R. Taylor, Te Ika A Maui; or, New Zealand and its Inhabitants, 
2nd edit, Ldn., 1870, pp. 138, 143; J. White, The Ancient History of the 
Maori, Ldn., 1889, vol. ii, p. 127; and Zeit. f. vergleich. Sprachforschung, 
vol. xviii, Berlin, 1869, p. 6l. 

8 E. H. Meyer, Germanische Mythologie, Berlin, 1891, pp. 90, 125. 


Or he may look upon her as a being who has strayed from the 
Isles of the Blessed, where she rightly belongs. 1 He may, on 
the other hand, regard her as a founder of clans, taking into 
account only the totemistic aspect. 2 There is but one other 
theory he is likely to advance that which would attach most 
importance to the principle of taboo. 3 

Modern scholarship will at once discredit the two former 
opinions, and will hesitate on which of the two remaining 
theories to bestow its blessing. It will in all probability 
make a compromise and stretch out both hands at once, 
dividing the honours equally between totemism and taboo. 
I often feel that in seeking a scientific " explanation " for 
every motif we are very liable to forget what delicate and 
elusive material we have to deal with. Surely a story may 
be the result of a beautiful thought that by the merest chance 
flitted through the brain of some unknown person whose 
poetic imagination alone prompted its creation. The sub- 
sequent shaping of the tale may perhaps be governed by the 
creator's subconscious obedience to the manners and customs 
of his own environment. 

It is none the less a spontaneous and unpremeditated 
invention. In the case of the swan-maiden we have one 
of the most beautiful themes in the whole world of fiction. 
Her personal charm and elegance, the setting in which she 
appears, the manner in which she is captured, and the 
mystery surrounding her origin and abode, all add to her 
fascination, and make us love her. 

The simile implied in the very term " swan-maiden " is 
beautiful in itself. The pure whiteness of the swan, the soft 
down of its breast, the grace of its movement, the poise of 
its head how could it escape being likened to a lovely 
woman ? No wonder the swan-maiden was not easy to 
capture, and, being captured, was still harder to keep. It 
would require little less than a superman to make such a 
being from another world happy and contented in her new 
mortal home. And so the story grew. 

Look upon her as you will, ascribe to her what origin you 

1 F. Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, Heilbronn, 1879, pp. 54-65. 

2 E. S. Hartland, Science of Fairy Tales, 1891, pp. 346, 347; Frazer, 
Totemism and Exogamy, vol. ii, p. 566 et seq. ; ditto, Golden Bough (Dying God), 
p. 130 et seq. 

3 Hartland, op. cit., pp. 304-322 ; J. A. Macculloch, Childhood of Fiction, 
p. 342. 


like, she still remains aloof and untouched a lovely thing 
whom we should be grateful to have met at all. 


As a result of our inquiry into the origin of the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif the following facts would seem to be 
established : 

1. The roots of the motif are to be found in early Sanskrit 

2. By Puranic times the motif had assumed a finished 
form and began to be popular in different Indian vernaculars. 

3. It gradually migrated in all directions. Towards the 
North, North-east, East and South-east the dissemination 
was due largely to the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism. 
Towards the West the carriers of the tale were the Moslems ; 
which accounts for its inclusion in The Arabian Nights. This 
lent great impetus to its introduction into Europe. 

4. In Europe it found a much more suitable environment 
in which to thrive in Teutonic rather than in classical myth- 
ology. The swan-maiden herself, however, has no roots in 
European primitive popular belief. 

5. One of the most interesting routes which the motif 
followed from India was through Mongolia into Siberia, 
across Bering Strait, through North America, and so to 

6. The persistence and endurance of the motif are due 
solely to its charm and poetic beauty. 

7. Although one recognises in the motif primitive ideas 
of totem and taboo, they are of only secondary importance, 
and a definite " interpretation " should not be too strongly 
insisted upon. 




The Ocean of Story contains several references to betel and 
customs connected with betel-chewing. Thus, in Volume I, 
p. 100, when Udayana has rescued the snake from the hands 
of the Savara, we find that among the priceless rewards given 
by the snake is betel leaf. 

At the commencement of the long story of Mrigankadatta 
(Vol. VI, p. 23) we read that the hero, while walking about on 
the top of his palace, " spat down some betel- juice." 

In the 1st Vetala story (id., p. 174) we learn that betel is 
regarded as a luxury, and in the 4th Vetala story (id., p. 192) 
we read of Viravara, the faithful attendant, who spends part 
of his daily salary on unguents and betel. 

An interesting reference is found in the 18th Vetala story 
(Vol. VII, p. 74), where the chief of the beauties, conjured up 
by the science of the hospitable hermit, entertains Chandra- 
svamin with " betel-nut, flavoured with five fruits." 

Now, in the present volume (p. 4), one of the Brahmans 
relates how he was given betel " together with camphor and 
the five fruits." 

These two latter references are important, and we shall 
return to them presently. 

Apart from this, Somadeva tells us nothing. This is, 
indeed, not to be wondered at, for such a well-known and 
long-established custom as betel-chewing would call for no 
expatiation on the part of a native author. But what is 
surprising is the comparative lack of interest the custom has 
stimulated in the West. 

As far as I can discover there is no comprehensive article 
on the subject, 1 but merely a host of references or short 
accounts in the works of travellers and government officials 
from about the beginning of the fifteenth century to date. 
Yet here we have a custom which enters into the daily life 
of over a hundred millions of the human race ! 

To the Indian, the Malay and the Indonesian it is"not 

1 Except L. Lewin's Ueber Areca Catechu, Chavica Betle und das Betelkauen. 
Stuttgart, 1889. 


only his constant companion throughout life, but is there to 
welcome him into the world, to see him safely married, and 
to accompany him into the next world. What other object 
in existence can boast of such devoted service to man ? 

In the present Appendix, therefore, I shall attempt to 
gather together what data I can, with the object of ascertain- 
ing, as clearly as possible, the extent of the custom, its exact 
nature, the numerous ceremonies in which betel plays a part, 
and the significance of the custom from a linguistic and 
anthropological point of view. 

Etymological Evidence 

Before surveying the area covered by the custom, it will 
be as well to get some idea as to the numerous words used in 
its connection. In order to chew betel in the most widely 
prescribed form, three distinct things are necessary : 

1. The seed, popularly called the nut, of the Areca catechu, 

or Areca-nut Palm. The expressions " betel-nut " and 
" betel-nut palm " are both incorrect. 

2. The leaf of the Piper betle, Linn., 1 commonly known 

by the vernacular pan and tdmbuli. 

3. A small portion of lime (Sans., sudhd, churna), often 

made from pounded shells. 

If a small piece of the " nut," together with a pinch of 
the lime, is wrapped round by the leaf it forms a chew " 
known in modern India as pdn-supdri. As we shall see 
later, all other forms of the " chew " are merely different 
" improvements," varying with local custom, available in- 
gredients, or the wealth of the person concerned. 

In Sanskrit the usual word to denote betel is tdmbula, 
but if the leaf is particularly mentioned the word nagavalli 
is employed. This is the case in Somadeva. He uses the 
former word in all cases except in the present volume (see 
p. 4), where nagavalli means " leaves of the betel," and, 
two or three lines lower, tdmbula is the " chew " which the 
young Brahman puts in his mouth. The usual Sanskrit 
words for the " nut " puga-phalam and guv oka do not occur 
in the Ocean at all. It is, however, from the former of these 
words that most of the vernacular names have been derived. 
Thus the Tamil is pdkku ; the Telugu is poka-vakka, or simply 

1 Not Piper Betel, as so often misquoted. Linnaeus used the Latin 
" Piper" and the Portuguese " Betle " in conjunction. 


vakka ; the Singhalese is puvak or puvakka ; the Gujarati is 
phophal ; which leads to the Persian and Balochistan popal, 
and the Arabic faufal, fofal and foufal. 

We are still a long way from the word areca. This, I 
believe, we can trace to the Canarese adake, or adike, and the 
Malayalam adakka, adekka. 

We have already seen that the modern term for the 
" chew " is pdn-supdri pan being the leaf, and supdri the 
areca-nut. In nearly all vernaculars Hindustani, Bengali, 
Gujarati, Marathi, etc. the words supdri, supydri, sopdri, 
hopdri refer to the " nut," and are nearly always used in 
conjunction with pan to indicate the two chief ingredients 
used in conjunction. 

Turning to the leaf of Piper betle, we find that the Sanskrit 
tdmbula and ndgavalli both appear in the vernaculars. The 
more usual term, however, is pan, from which the Anglo- 
Indian pawn is derived, meaning a leaf. 

The Malayalam vettila (i.e. veru-\-ila=" simple leaf") is 
also used. Hence in Hindustani we find pan and tdmbuli ; 
in Bengali, pan; in Marathi, vide-cha pan; in Gujarati, 
pan, nagur-vel ; in Deccani, pan ; in Tamil, veltilai. Then 
follows the Arabic tanbol and the Persian tambol, tambul. 
The Portuguese favoured the derivates of vettila, which 
became betre and betle. From this the English betel gradually 
became the recognised form. 1 

It remains but to say a few words about tdmbula. The 
root- word is bula, with tarn as a prefix. It has been shown 
recently by Przyluski that bula corresponds to what he calls 
the Austro-Asiatic (i.e. non-Indo-Aryan) bdlu, and signifies 
"something that is rolled"; hence all Austro-Asiatic 
languages use such words as balu, mluv, bolon, melu, mlu, blu, 
plu to mean betel. Some have a prefix, such as la-mlu, 
ja-blu, etc. In modern times it is only the direct Sanskrit 
derivates that keep the prefix. For further details see 
Przyluski's paper as cited below. 2 

1 In the sixteenth century the English word was spelt betola, bettle and 
bettele; in the seventeenth century numerous forms are found e.g. betele, 
betell, bethel, betre, bettaile, bettle and betel; in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries betle, beetle, betelle and betel were the usual forms. Thus the now 
accepted betel did not become the only recognised form till early in the 
twentieth century. 

2 "Emprunts Anaryens en Indo-Aryen," Bull, de la Soc. de Linguistique 
de Paris, vol. xxiv, 3rd fasc. (No. 75), 1924, pp. 255-258. 


Garcia da Orta 

One of the earliest and most important descriptions of 
betel-chewing, and one in which words connected with the 
custom are discussed, is undoubtedly that given by the 
famous Portuguese botanist, Garcia da Orta (1563). 

In the twenty-second colloquy he deals with the " fautel," 
while further remarks on betel occur at the end of the work. 
As most readers are aware, it first appeared in the form of a 
dialogue, which has thus been described by Count Ficalho, 
Garcia da Orta e o seu Tempo : 

" The two interlocutors are the two characters united in 
Garcia da Orta, the two sides of his spirit placed in front one 
of the other. Dr Ruano, the man of the schools, the former 
student of Salamanca, erudite, ready with quotations, with 
Dioscorides and Pliny at his finger-ends. Dr Orta, the 
traveller and observer, who, in the face of all the quota- 
tions, says tranquilly, ' I have seen it.' It is enough for 
us to note to which of these two entities Orta attaches his 
own name for evidence as to which of the two he prefers. 
From this situation, admirably conceived and maintained 
with much talent, the most interesting controversies result, 
which bring out, in the clearest light, the spirit of the 

The following extract is taken from the translation made 
by Sir Clements Markham in 1913, 1 p. 192 et seq. : 

1 Colloquies on the Simples and Dings of India by Garcia da Orta. The first 
part of the title of the original edition was : Coloquios dos simples, e drogas he 
cousas medicinais da India, e assi dalguas frutas achadas nella onde se tratam alguas 
comas tocantes amedicina, pratica, e outras cousas boas, pera saber copostos pello 
Doutor garcia dorta . . . Being the third work ever printed in India the 
typography is far from perfect, and the pagination is hopeless. In fact, we 
must really go by signatures rather than the page numbers. Those of the 
twenty-second colloquy are : M, Mij, Miij, Miiij, of which the corresponding 
page numbers are: 101, 90, 101, 92 and 103 (which has no signature). The 
section on betel at the end of the work is on li, liij, liiij and liiiij, and four 
more pages without signature. These correspond to pages 210, 211, 210, 210, 
212 (three times) and 217. The pages are numbered on only one side. I 
follow the first edition in the British Museum. Until January 1927 the Museum 
Library possessed a duplicate copy of this exceedingly rare work, but it has 
since been exchanged for another book altogether. There are, I understand, 
not more than fifteen copies in the world. An additional feature of great 
interest and value about this first edition is that it contains the earliest verse 
of Camoens. See Burton's Camoens, Lyricks, 389-391. 


Rvano. We speak in Portugal of what is called " nuts 
of India." You tell me that the betre is much used by every- 
body here. We use it very little. Speaking the truth with 
you, I have never seen it, for we put in its place the vermilion 

Orta. Here it is a common thing to mix the food with 
the betre, and in countries where they have no betre they also 
use it for chewing with cravo. 1 What you say about using 
vermilion sandal in its place does not appear right, for in 
its place they have a medicine which is often falsified, and 
they give a vermilion stick for it ; for as the vermilion sandal 
wants the smell, and is not in Timor whence the other comes, 
as I will tell you in speaking of it, there is difficulty in know- 
ing one from the other. This areca is more valuable and is 
less perishable. The reason it is not sent to Portugal is that 
the apothecaries do not ask for it, for neither they nor the 
physicians are sufficiently curious to trouble about it. I will 
now tell you the names it has in the countries where it grows. 
Among the Arabs it is faufel. Avicenna calls it corruptly 
filfel. It has the same name in Dofar and Xael, Arabian 
lands. The faufel is very good. In Malabar they call it 
pac, and the word for it among the Naires, who are the 
knights, is areca, whence the Portuguese have taken the 
name, being the land first known to us, and where it abounds. 
In Guzerat and the Deccan they call it cupari, but they 
have very little, and only on the skirts of the sea. There is a 
better supply at Chaul because of the trade with Ormuz, and 
still better at Mombaim, land and island, where the King our 
Lord has made me a grant, a long lease (emfatiota). In all 
that land of Bacaim they are very good, and they are taken 
thence to the Deccan ; and also to Cochin they take a small 
kind called chacani, which are very hard after they are dried. 
In Malacca there are not so many, and they are called pinam. 
In Ceylon they are in greater quantity, and they are sent to 
parts of the Deccan namely, to Golconda and Bisnaga also 
to Ormuz, Cambaya, and the Maldive Islands. The name in 
Ceylon is poaz. 

Ruano. Serapio says that this areca is wanting in Arabia. 

Orta. That is true to a great extent, for Arabia is a vast 
region, and there is areca only at Xael and Dofar seaports. 
For this tree loves the sea and will not thrive at a distance 
from it. Where it will grow they do not fail to plant it, for 

1 I.e. cloves. 


the Moors and Gentios do not let a day pass without eating 
it. The Moors and Moalis (who are those that follow the law 
against Mafamede x ) keep a feast or fast of ten days, when 
they say that the sons of Ali, son-in-law of Mafamede, were 
besieged in a fortress and died. During the ten days that 
they were besieged, they sleep on the ground, and do not par- 
take of betre. In these days they chew cardamom and areca, 
which is much used to chew, as it clears the stomach and the 

Ruano. Now tell me how the betre is used, how it is 
administered, whether to help or to rectify. 

Orta. The betre is warm, and the areca is cold and tem- 
perate. The lime they use with the betre is much warmer. 
They do not use our lime from stone, but a lime made from 
oyster shells which is not so strong. With the areca they 
mix the medicines, you see, because they are cold and dry, 
and much drier when not dried in the sun. Then they add 
the cate, 2 which is a medicine I have mentioned before ; 
because with the cate it is a good medicine to open the gums, 
fortify the teeth, and compose the stomach, as well as an 
emetic, and a cure for diarrhoea. The tree from which it is 
collected is straight and very spongy, and the leaves like 
those of our palm-trees. Its fruit is like that of the nutmeg, 
but not so large, and very hard inside, with veins white and 
vermilion. It is the size of the small round nuts with which 
the boys play. It is not exactly round, for it has a band 
round it, though this is not the case with every kind of 
catechu, for I must not deceive you. This fruit is covered with 
a very woolly husk, yellow outside, so that it is very like the 
fruit of the date-palm when it is ripe and before it becomes 
dry. When this areca is green it is stupefying and intoxicat- 
ing, for those who eat it feel tipsy, and they eat it to deaden 
any great pain they have. 

Ruano. How do these Indians eat it, and how do they 
prepare the medicine ? 

Orta. It is usual to cut the areca into small pieces with 
some large scissors they have for the purpose, and then they 
chew them, jointly with the cate. Presently they take the leaves 
of the betre, first pulling out the veins with their thumb-nails, 
which for this are cut to a fine point, and they do this that 

1 Muhammed. They did not follow any law against Muhammed, but 
were of the Shiah sect. [Markham.] 

2 I.e. catechu. See later, p. 247 ; and p. 264 et seq. of Orta. 


it may be more tender, and then they chew it all together. 
They spit out the first, after the first chewing, and then take 
more betre leaf and begin another chewing, expectorating 
what looks like blood. In this way the head and stomach 
are cleared, and the gums and teeth strengthened. They 
are always chewing this betre, and the women worse than the 
men. The lords make small pills of the areca, mixing it with 
cate, camphor, 1 powder of linaloes, 2 and some amber, and 
this is made for the areca of the lords. Serapio says that in 
the taste with the warmth there is some bitterness. I tried 
this and found it with scarcely any taste. Serapio did not 
know this areca and could not ascertain the taste. 

Ruano. Silvatico says that he has seen it, and that it was 
mixed with the cinnamon of Calicut. 

Orta. It may be that the Moors of Calicut take it to the 
Strait, and that it may come mixed with cinnamon, but it was 
not the cinnamon of Ceylon. That of Calicut is much 
more black, and is called checani. That of Ceylon is whiter, 
and once seen is easily known. 

This is all Garcia has to tell us about betel-chewing in 
the twenty-second colloquy. But in " The Last Colloquy," 
which is really a kind of Addenda et Corrigenda, he deals 
further with betel, repeating, however, much of what he has 
already said. 

It seems to me that this is partly why the Latin versions 
of the works differ so much from the original edition. I 
notice that in the 1872 Portuguese reprint 3 the two sections 
on betel are put together. A few extracts from this " last 
colloquy " will, therefore, be quite sufficient for our purpose. 

Ruano asks if they mix anything else with the chew" 

1 Here Markham has omitted a comma, which makes all the difference 
to the meaning. The original 1563 Portuguese edition reads: " . . . e co 
ellas mistura cate, e cafora, e podelinaloes, e algii abre . . ." The words 
translated as " small pills" are "pirollas pequenas." These undoubtedly 
correspond, says Mr Ridley in a letter to me on the subject, to the round flat 
discs which the Malays make of chewing-gambier, etc. 

2 Lign- Aloes, Agallochum, " Eaglewood," or Calambac, the fragrant wood 
of Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb. (Thymelaeaceae), of Assam, Bhutan and Burmah. 
[Markham.] The podelinaloes of Garcia is the powdered resinous wood. Like 
ambergris, it must have been used only by the rich. See further Watt, op. cit., 
vol. i, p. 278 et seq. 

3 Edited by F. A. de Varnhagen. 


besides what has already been mentioned. Garcia replies : 
" They mix cate with it, and important persons add camphor 
of Borneo, some lin aloes, and almisquere, or ombre" 

Here we have a new ingredient almisquere, also written 
almiscre, almisere and almisque, in which we recognise the 
salip misri of Egypt, Persia and India, the Arabic sahleb, 
the Greek fyxs and our salep. It consists of the tuberous 
roots of various species of Orchis and Eulophia. They are 
stripped of their bark, heated until they assume a horny 
appearance, and then allowed to dry slowly. The use of 
salep in betel- chewing seems to have been of very rare occur- 
rence. Orta goes on to say that Bahadur, King of Cambay, 
declared camphor to be an anti-aphrodisiac, but that if used 
in small quantities, mixed with other ingredients, it had not 
that effect. On some occasions the king presents betel 
with his own hands, " or else by others called Xarabdar or 

After again describing the method of preparing and 
chewing betel, he returns to the etymology of betel : 

Orta. The name in Malabar is betre, and in the Deccan, 
Guzerat and Canara, pam. The Malays call it ciri. 

Ruano. Why is the Malabar name adopted rather than 
the others ? It would be more reasonable to call it folium 
indum, 1 or we might call it pam, as it is called in Goa. 

Orta. We call it betel because Malabar was the first part of 
India known to the Portuguese, and I remember in Portugal 
that they did not say they came to India, but to Calicut. 
This was because Calicut was the place whence all the drugs 
and spices were taken up the Strait of Mecca. It was a very 
rich place, and now, in revenge for what we did in Calicut, 
all that business is lost. Although the King of Calicut 
is emperor, he has less power than he of Cochin, because we 
helped him at first. This is why all the names you see that 
are not Portuguese are Malayalim. For instance, betre and 
chune, which is lime ; maynato, washerman ; patamar^ 
a runner ; and many others. As for calling it Folium 
Indum, as you suggest, it is not so called in any language; 
besides, the Folium Indum is quite different. Avicenna gives 
chapters for one and the other separately. 

1 This is the malobathrum of Pliny, to be identified with various species, 
of Cinnamomum, of which the chief are C. tamala (the Cassia lignea) and 
C. zeylanicum (true cinnamon). 


After speaking of the confusion between Folium Indum 
and betre Garcia concludes by thus describing " the shape of 
the leaf and the seed " : 

" The shape of the leaf, as you see, is more compressed 
and narrow towards the point than the orange leaf, and when 
it is ripe it is nearly yellow. Some women like it best when 
it is not so ripe, because it excites and then settles well in the 
mouth. In Maluco this betre has seeds like the tail of a newt, 
and they eat them, finding them good to the taste. This 
seed was brought to Malacca, where they eat it and find it 
very good. They plant it and have a place for it to climb 
over. Some people, to secure more profit, do the same with 
pepper and with areca, making very graceful arbours of the 
climbing plants. It should be well cared for, kept very clean 
and well irrigated." 

Garcia da Orta thus not only gives us interesting etymo- 
logical and botanical details, but mentions several other 
ingredients used ina" chew." Before discussing the " five 
fruits " mentioned by Somadeva I would say a word about 
the texts of Garcia da Orta, as the question has an important 
bearing on the spices or condiments used in betel-chewing. 

The first edition of the work appeared at Goa in 1563, 
and was reprinted by F. A. de Varnhagen, Lisbon, 1872. 
Clusius (Charles de PEscluse or Lecluse, 1526-1609) made a 
Latin resume of it in 1567, and on it the Italian transla- 
tion of Briganti (Venice, 1576, 1582, 1589, etc.) and the 
subsequent French translation of Colin (Lyons, 1619) were 

The work of Clusius, however, was very different from 
that of Garcia da Orta. Now, in his notes on betel to Marco 
Polo, Yule used the Venice 1589 edition of Briganti. Thus 
in vol. ii, p. 374n 4 , the contents of a " chew " are really 
those given by Clusius and not by Garcia da Orta. We shall 
revert to this presently. 

The standard edition of Orta's Coloquios is that by Count 
Ficalho, 1 2 vols., 1891, 1895, and it is from the translation of 
this that I have quoted above. 

We can now return to the two references in Somadeva 
which speak of the " five fruits " and see to what extent 
the twenty-second colloquy of Orta can help in identifying 

1 Strange to say, I can find this work in none of the big London libraries, 
including the British Museum. 


The Five Fruits 

As already mentioned, Somadeva speaks of " areca-nut, 1 
flavoured with the five fruits " ; and later of "leaves of the 
betel, together with camphor and the five fruits." Now, 
although Garcia da Orta mentions several condiments used in 
a " chew," we are unable to select five which could be called 
" fruits," even in the widest sense of the word. 

The best list we can get is areca-nut, cloves, lign-aloes, 
ambergris and catechu. Of these only the first could possibly 
be called a fruit cloves are only flower-buds. Thus Orta 
is not much help in the search for our five fruits. Further- 
more, lign-aloes seems to have been only rarely used, while 
ambergris would have been entirely restricted to the rich. 

It looks, then, as if we must allow " fruit " to include 
every kind of spice or " flavour." 

Now in the Vaidyaka-sabda-sindhu (revised by K. N. N. 
Sen, Calcutta, 1913-1914), a Hindu medical dictionary, under 
the word " Pancasugandhikam," which means the " five 
flavours " used in betel- chewing, we find the following list : 
(1) Karpura ; (2) Kankala ; (3) Lavanga ; (4) Jdtiphala ; 
(5) Puga. We will take each one separately. 

(1) Karpura is, of course, camphor, and is mentioned in 
our text quite distinct from the " five fruits." An alter- 
native Sanskrit name is chandra-bhasma, a term which refers 
to its moonlike coolness. The form karpura, and the ver- 
nacular kdpur, kappln, etc., in all probability have their 
origin in the name of the Sumatran camphor-tree, gdbu or 
gambit, whence the Indian supplies were derived. For 
further details see Schoff's article on camphor. 2 As we shall 
see later, Ramusio's recension of Marco Polo mentions 
" Camphor and other aromatic spices" in connection with betel- 
chewing. Marsden (in his edition of Marco Polo) expressed 
his opinion that " camphor " was a wrong translation for 
" quicklime." Yule 3 quotes Garcia da Orta as saying : " In 
chewing betre . . . they mix areca with it and a little lime. 
. . . Some add Licio (i.e. catechu), but the rich and grandees 
add some Borneo camphor, and some lign-aloes, musk and 
ambergris." This is, however, from the Italian edition of 
1589, and represents what Clusius said, not Garcia da Orta. 

1 Tawney calls it betel-nut. 

2 Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xlii, 1922, pp. 355-370. 

3 Marco Polo, vol. ii, p. 374n 4 . 


We have already seen (p. 243) exactly what he did say on 
the subject. It does not alter Yule's contention about 
camphor being used ina" chew," but the " musk " must be 
an addition of Clusius. 1 As we shall shortly see, Linschoten 
(or rather Paludanus) copies the list almost verbatim. 

Yule correctly quotes 'Abdu-r Razzaq (1443) and Abu-1- 
Fazl (1596) as stating that camphor is an ingredient of pdn- 
supdri. But as antedating Polo, he might have mentioned 
Somadeva, and also the Chinese writer Chau Ju-Kua (c. 1250), 
for whom see later, p. 256. 

(2) Kankdla is given by Watt (op. cit., vol. vi, pt. 1, 
p. 256) as the Bombay vernacular of Piper chaba, commonly 
known as Bakek. Ridley (Spices, p. 320) says it is especi- 
ally used as a substitute for betel leaves when travelling in 
places where the fresh leaves are not procurable. It seems, 
therefore, that pan would not be needed in a " chew " that 
already included kankdla. It should not be confused with 
kankola, the Marathi for Piper cubeba, or cubebs. 

(3) Lavanga is the cravo of Garcia da Orta i.e. cloves : 
Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linn. See Watt, op. cit., vol. ii, 
p. 205, who says "... they are also chewed in pan." 

(4) Jdtiphala is the nutmeg, and (5) Puga is, of course, 
the areca-nut (cf. the Sanskrit puga-phalam). 

As a comparison with the above list it is interesting to 
cite another set of five " fruits " sent me by a native student 
of Indian sociology : 

( 1 ) Cutch = extract of catechu Hind. , kat, kath ; Sans. , kha- 
dira. (2) Chund = lime Sans., sudhd, churna, etc. (3) Supdri- 
the areca-nut. (4) Lavanga = cloves. (5) Ildchi = cardamom, 
Elettaria cardamomum Sans., eld, chandrabdld, etc. 

The Singhalese chew the rhizomes of A. masticatorium 
with their betel. See Watt, op. cit, vol. i, p. 222. 

This is, I think, as far as we shall get in identifying the 
five " fruits " ! 

But why five ? May not the number be merely con- 
ventional, because it is a " lucky number " ? Surely Hindu 
and Buddhist literature, both secular and religious, justifies 
such a contention. Five is continually occurring without 
any apparent reason. 2 

1 Or perhaps a substitute for " almisquere." 

2 Thus, apart from the uses mentioned in Vol. I, p. 255r& 2 , we find 
references to the Jive nectars (milk, curds, ghi, honey and sugar) ; the Jive 
leaves of trees (mango, pipal, pipalo, jambu and udumbara); tha Jive jewels 


Thus, I do not see why we need assume that the betel- 
chew de luxe must of necessity 1 contain five " fruits," which 
are so hard to identify. From the list of ingredients we have 
obtained from Garcia da Orta, and any additional ones we 
may find in the works of other early writers, it is easy to 
select five, or even more, " flavours " which would satisfy 
the palate of the most inveterate epicure of betel-chewing. 
We are entitled, therefore, to regard the one recognised form 
of a" chew " as consisting simply of a portion of an areca- 
nut wrapped in a betel leaf, and flavoured with a pinch of 

In places where these ingredients were obtainable, we must 
regard all added " flavours " as restricted to the houses of 
the rich to be produced chiefly as a special honour to a 
distinguished guest. 

The Area of the Custom 

The geographical area covered by the custom of betel- 
chewing may be roughly taken as lying between long. 60 
and 170 east ; and lat. 40 north and 15 south. Outside 
this area the custom occurs only where the existence of an 
Asiatic colony has warranted the importation of the necessary 

The area in question includes the whole of the Indian 
Empire, Southern Tibet, Southern China, Siam, Indo-China, 
Malaya, all the East Indian Archipelago, Micronesia, New 
Guinea and the remainder of Melanesia as far as the tiny 
volcanic island of Tikopia. It is just about here that one can 
observe the drinking of kava taking the place of betel-chewing. 
In both Polynesia and Australia pdn-supdri can be regarded 
as unknown. Although areca-nuts have been exported to Fiji, 
and possibly to other islands, betel-chewing rarely occurs in 
A;ai;a-drinking areas. 

The question that at once presents itself is where did 
the custom originate ? It is impossible to say. Etymological 
evidence seems to favour an Austro-Asiatic, rather than an 

(ruby, sapphire, pearl, emerald and topaz), and Jive beauties of woman (hair, 
flesh, bone, skin and youth). So also are there Jive trees of paradise, Jive 
arrows of Kama, Jive products of the cow, Jive great sacrifices, Jive sacred 
flowers, five emblems of royalty. Somadeva (Vol. V, p. 121, and Vol. VI, 
p. 157) speaks of flowers of "five colours" and "five hues." See further, 
W. E. Geil, The Sacred 5 of China, London, 1 926. 

1 Yet cf. the " five brothers " of the Sumatran section (p. 294). 


Indo- Aryan home. Thus we should look for its origin in the 
Philippines, Celebes, Borneo, Java or Sumatra. 

Botanical evidence is very non-committal and uncertain, 
owing largely to the length of time the Areca catechu and 
Piper betle have been cultivated in the East. The former 
has been described as a native of Cambodia and Indonesia, 
and as being cultivated throughout tropical India. The 
latter is specified in Watt (op. cit., vol. vi, pt. 1, p. 248) as 
" probably a native of Java." The evidence for such state- 
ments seems to be distinctly weak. The problem is increased 
by the fact that it is often hard to determine whether a certain 
tree or shrub is really " native " or whether it is the result of 
seeds planted, or accidentally left, by natives who have long 
since departed from the region in question, leaving no trace 
of their former presence. 

Thus, in the Philippines, there is a variety of Areca catechu 
known as silvatica as well as several other varieties, which 
has led botanists to think that the wild plant originated here. 
" In support of this opinion," says Beccari, 1 " I would 
observe that in no other part of Southern and Eastern Asia 
or Malaya is any species of Areca to be found which in any 
way approaches Areca catechu in specific characters, whereas 
in the Philippines an entire group of species exists closely 
related to it." 

But later in the paper, Mr Merrill, who discovered the 
plants in question, is quoted as saying : "At the place where 
found, the plants, few in number, were growing in a forested 
ravine along a small stream at a place where an old and 
apparently much-travelled native trail crossed the stream. 
I strongly suspect that the trees that I found in this place 
originated from seeds accidentally left there by natives." 

There appears to be no satisfactory evidence on the ques- 
tion. All we can say is, that if the custom did not originate 
on the coasts of Southern India, it was imported from the 
East Indian Archipelago at a very early date. 

Appliances of Betel-Chewing 

The two chief objects used in connection with betel- 
chewing are the areca-nut cutter and the lime-box, to which 
is attached a spatula, or small spoon, for applying the lime. 
There is also the brass box used for storing areca-nuts, and 

1 " Palms of the Philippine I s ," Philippine Joum. Sci., vol. xiv, p. 301. 


various trays and bowls for holding the leaves and passing 
round the chew," when entertaining a guest. Then there 
is the mortar used by the toothless for grinding the nut into 
a kind of paste. 

Although they are rarely used to-day, there is the elabor- 
ately embroidered betel-bag (for which see below), and the 
bowls for expectorating, used in the houses of the rich. As 
can be well imagined, such a list of articles used in betel- 
chewing makes a distinct call upon the artistic genius of the 
particular country concerned, and accordingly our museums 
contain numerous specimens of cutters, lime-boxes, etc., 
which are objects of great beauty and interest. 

The best collection in London is to be seen at the (much 
too little known) Indian section of the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. The specimens are all to be found in " Room 8 
metal- work." Case 5 contains several examples of brass 
" Sireh "-boxes from Sumatra. Some have a design of 
swastikas carved on their sides. Case 13 has a very curious 
specimen of a nineteenth-century comb and areca-nut cutter 
combined from Tan j ore. The portion forming the cutter 
represents a man and a diminutive woman. It is of brass, 
and decorated with incised ornament. In the same case is 
a pestle and a mortar of brass, cast and turned. Cases 14 
and 17 contain a collection of Singhalese cutters and lime- 
boxes. The cutters vary in size from about 4 J to 11| inches 
in length. They are mostly of steel, often inlaid with silver, and 
partially encrusted with brass. One is carved in the shape of 
a dragon, and another terminates in the head of a bird. 

The cases for chunam represent, in shape and average 
size, an old English watch-case. They are usually of brass 
and copper, inlaid with silver and enriched with floral and 
other designs. They all have a chain of brass or copper, vary- 
ing from four inches to a foot in length, to which is attached 
a spatula. The spatula is usually about the size of an English 
saltspoon, the head of which is flat and averages half-an-inch 
in breadth and a quarter of an inch in depth. One specimen, 
however (in Case 15), has a head larger than a five-shilling 

Another good collection of cutters will be found in Wall 
Cases 25 and 27. Some of these are inlaid with coloured 
glass, and have handles of ivory, bone or pearl. One speci- 
men is of gilt metal set with green and red glass, while another 
is of steel, with double joints containing knives. Some are 


carved in the shape of animals one is a grotesque horse, 
another a peacock. 

Excellent illustrations of smaller specimens will be found 
on Plate XL VI, with descriptions on pages 336 and 337, of 
Coomaraswamy's Mediceval Sinhalese Art The chief interest 
in this work, however, from our point of view, is the author's 
excellent description of the betel-bag (pp. 238-239). This 
article has now almost entirely given place to the box, but 
is of high antiquity, and has been found represented on 
very early sculptures (see later, p. 254n 4 ). Owing to the fact 
that Coomaraswamy's work was limited to 425 copies, and 
is consequently exceedingly rare, the following description 
of the betel-bag is given in full : 

" The betel-bags (Plates XXX-XXXIII) vary in size from 
small ones carried in the waist-belt to very large ones, four 
feet or more in length. The latter were carried by a servant 
in processions or on journeys, hung over the shoulder. 
Noblemen were never without an attendant carrying their 
betel-bags (pp. 33-34) and lime-box ; less important per- 
sonages carried their own. The large bags are exactly the 
same in construction as the small ones a bag of oval shape 
made of blue cloth lined with undyed cotton cloth, which 
opens nearly half-way down the whole length at the sides ; 
the inner part is separated into two divisions. The inner 
division, again consisting of a double piece of cloth, is also 
used as a pocket, called hora payiya, ' hidden pocket ' ; it 
has a very small opening at the upper end, through which 
spices, money and other valuables are put. Larger things 
are carried in the two outer pockets. The handle is made of 
embroidered cloth, or of a band of plaited cord, and is finished 
off at the end with a beautiful and ingeniously worked and 
very hard ball (vegediborale) and tassel (pohottuva). The 
outside of the bag is embroidered on both sides in red and 
white cotton with conventional designs, sometimes very 
elaborately. Bags of later make are often done in red cloth, 
probably because the blue hand-made cloth could no longer 
be obtained ; some of these are equally good, the tradition 
both in design and stitches being for some time well main- 
tained. Few or no good bags are now made, partly owing to 
the lack of proper materials. One of the most perfect small 
bags I have seen was of red hand-made cloth embroidered 
entirely with silk, the use of which is very exceptional. I 
have referred to the plaited cord of which the handles are 


sometimes made ; for this, cotton cord of two colours is 
plaited into a thick, stout, flat braid, which is very handsome 
and durable. It may be mentioned that similar plaited cord 
strings, but round, of two or three colours are made by priests 
for ola book strings (potlanu). 1 

"The embroidery of bags consists generally of a centre 
design, floral or otherwise, framed by three or more borders 
parallel to the edge of the bag. Of these borders the inner- 
most is always pald-peti, 2 the largest liya-vela, 3 the others a 
variety of havadiya 4 or galbindu 5 pattern. A limited amount 
of coloured silk is sometimes used ; the small bag of PL XXX, 
No. 1, is exceptional in having embroidery entirely in silk. 
It may be noted that silk is frequently mentioned in the 
Mahdvamsa, but never with any suggestion of its being an 
indigenous product. The edges of bags are either bound with 
woven braid, which was made in a great variety of designs, 
or stitched with the peculiar 8 centipede ' binding stitch. 6 

" Less common than the oval bags are the square ones. 
They are made from a square piece of material, the four 
corners of which are drawn together for the attachment of 
the handle, consisting of four cords instead of the two of oval 

Turning to Malaya we find the betel-boxes exhibit beauti- 
ful specimens of the gold- and silversmiths' art. Every 
Malay house has a betel-box or betel-tray fitted with the 
requisites for chewing. The more humble article is made of 
wood or brass. It is generally about eight inches in diameter, 
shaped like the frustrum of a pyramid reversed, uncovered 
and fitted with several brass or silver boxes, one without a 
cover to hold accessories such as cardamoms and cloves, and 
three covered for the essentials catechu, lime and tobacco. 
There is also a small case, open at each end, to hold the betel 
leaves, a metal spatula for spreading the lime on them, and 

1 Ola i.e. the leaf of Corypha iimbraculifera, used for MSS. 

2 Lotus-petal border. 

3 Vine-creeper. 

4 Chain. 

5 Gem-dot. 

6 Patteya, " centipede/' or mudum mesma (backbone stitch), appears to be 
peculiar to Singhalese embroidery. It is an elaborated herring-bone. Two 
needles are used in conjunction. For a detailed description of the work see 
Coomaraswamy, op. cit., p. 241. 


a curiously shaped scissors for cutting the dried areca-nut into 
small pieces. A complete set in old Malay silverwork is a 
much-prized possession. 

In Malayan fairy stories the beauty and value of the betel 
sets is naturally exaggerated, and we read of boxes of solid 
gold studded with jewels (Overbeck, Malay. Roy. As. Soc, 
vol. iii, 1925, pp. 22, 28). 

Many illustrations of bowls to hold areca-nuts, lime-boxes 
(Bekas kapor), areca-nut boxes (Chimbul), and betel-leaf 
holders (Bekas sirih) will be found in Ling Roth's beautiful 
book on Malay silverwork. 1 

The betel-leaf holder is a flat tapering hexagonal vessel, 
with a vandyked upper rim. It is made out of one piece of 
silver soldered together at the back down to the middle. 
Another piece of silver is soldered on to form the base (see 
Fig. 57 et seq. in Roth's work). 

In his work on the natives of Sarawak and Borneo, 2 Roth 
quotes a passage describing the betel-basket worn by the 
Land Dyak : " On the right side the Land Dyak suspends a 
small basket, often very prettily plaited, to which is attached 
a knife in a bamboo sheath, the latter sometimes tastefully 
carved and coloured. The basket, knives and fittings are 
called the tunkin, the basket itself is the tambuk and holds 
the siri leaf and is made to contain round little cases for lime 
and tobacco called dekan, and a piece of the inner bark of the 
bayu tree, while the knife in its sheath hanging on the outside 
of the tunkin is called the suida." 

Farther East, among the Micronesians and Melanesians, 
the spatulse are almost always of wood, often with elaborately 
carved handles. The lime-boxes are for the most part made 
from gourds. Several good examples can be seen in the 
ethnographical galleries at the British Museum. In the last 
edition of the Handbook to the Ethnographical Collections will 
be found several illustrations of betel-chewing accessories. 3 
Thus on page 22 are specimens of lime spatulse from the 
Anchorite Islands, off the north coast of New Guinea. The 
ornament is derived from the tail of a lizard. Several other 
examples from the south-eastern portion of the New Guinea 
Archipelago will be found on p. 121. The handle of one is 

1 H. Ling Roth, Oriental Silverwork, Malay and Chinese, London, 1910. 
See Figs. 3, 4, 5, 30-34, 38-47, 50-53 and 57-62. 

2 The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, vol. ii, p. 59. 

3 See also Moseley, Journ. Anth. Inst., vol. vii, 1878, pp. 379-420. 


rudely carved in the shape of a human figure, while another 
is a small grotesque crocodile. The end of all these spatulse, 
which is dipped into the lime gourd, is several inches in 
length, thus differing considerably in appearance from the 
very much smaller and differently shaped end of the Indian 
and Singhalese spatulse. The reason, of course, is due to the 
different shape and dimension of the lime-boxes used in the 
two localities. 

On p. 72 of the Handbook are illustrations of the complete 
apparatus for betel-chewing from Ceylon, with the exception 
of the betel-bag described above. 

Having thus acquainted ourselves with the ingredients 
that form a " chew," some etymological evidence, the extent 
of the custom, and the appliances used in its observance, we 
can proceed to the actual accounts found either in Sanskrit 
literature, or given by early travellers to India and Indonesia. 

Betel-Chewing in India prior to a.d. 1800 

As already intimated, it would be little more than pure 
guesswork to attempt to give a date at which betel-chewing 
started in India. It is, however, safe to say that it must have 
been prior to about 200 B.C., for we find references to it both 
in the Jatakas x and in several other Pali works, 2 as well as 
in the Jain scriptures. 3 The " Bearer of the Betel-bag " 
was an important functionary in royal courts, and is often 
mentioned on inscriptions. 4 

In the Hitopadesa betel is mentioned in Book III, fab. ix, 
and in the same Book, fab, xii, we are told that it possesses 
thirteen qualities hardly to be found in the regions of heaven. 
It is described as pungent, bitter, spicy, sweet, expelling wind, 
removing phlegm, killing worms and subduing bad smells. 
It also beautifies the mouth, removes impurities and induces 
to love. We find it mentioned by Susruta, who dates not 
later than the first century a.d. In a section on digestion 

1 Mahasllava-Jataka, No. 51, Cambridge Edition, vol. i, p. 132; and 
Andahhuta-Jdtaka, No. 62, ditto, vol. i, p. 152. 

2 See, e.g., Buddhaghosa's Visuddhbnagga, 314; and Dhammapada- 
atthakathd (Burlingame's translation, Harvard Orient. Series, vol. xxx, p. 49). 

3 E.g. Aupapdtckd Sutra, sect. 38* in Leumann's edition, p. 50. 

4 Epigraphia Indica, vol. xi, p. 329, etc. 


after a meal (ch. xlvi) he says 1 that the intelligent eater 
should partake of some fruit of an astringent, pungent or 
bitter taste, or chew a betel leaf prepared with broken areca- 
nut, camphor, nutmeg, clove, etc. 

By the time of Somadeva the custom was so common as 
to call for no description on the part of a native writer, and 
we shall get no detailed information until we begin to search 
among the journals of early travellers to India. 

l Abd Allah ibn Ahmad (1225) 

One of the earliest of these was the Arabian physician 
c Abd Allah ibn Ahmad, who, in his treatise on drugs, written 
about a.d. 1225, says as follows 2 : 

" Betel is seldom brought to us from India now, because 
the leaves once dried go into dust for lack of moisture. Such 
as comes to Yemen and elsewhere can be preserved if cut on 
the branch and then kept in honey. It is an error to think 
that betel is this leaf which is now found among us which has 
the form and odour of the laurel which is known at Basra by 
spice merchants as kamdri leaf, and which comes from the 
country of that name, Elkamer, as I have been told. There 
are physicians in our time who say that this leaf is the leaf 
of the malabathrum, and who use it as such, but that is an 

He also quotes from several earlier Arab writers, among 
whom is Sherif, who thus describes the custom : 

" Tambil (betel) is hot in the first degree and dry in the 
third. It dries the humidities of the stomach and fortifies a 
weak liver. The leaf eaten or taken with water perfumes the 
breath, drives care away, raises the intelligence. The Indians 
use it instead of wine after their meals, which brightens their 
minds and drives away their cares. This is the manner of 
taking : If one wishes to do it, one takes a leaf, and at the 

1 Bhishagratna's translation, vol. i, p. 562. 

2 See J. von Sontheimer, Grosse Zusammenstellung liber die Krafte der 
bekannten einfachen Heil- und Nahrungsmittel von Abu Mohammed Abdallah Ben 
Ahmed aus Malaga bekannt unter den Namen Ebn Baithar, Stuttgart, 1840-1842, 
vol. i, pp. 200, 201. I am indebted to Mr W. H. Schoff for drawing my 
attention to f Abd Allah ibn Ahmad. 


same time half a dram of lime. If lime is not taken, it does 
not taste good, and the mind is not excited. Whoever uses 
it becomes joyful,, he has a perfumed breath, perfect sleep by 
reason of its aromaticity, the pleasure which it brings, and 
its moderate odour. Betel replaces wine among the Indians, 
by whom it is widely used." 

Chau Ju~Kua (c. a.d. 1250) 

The Chu-fan-chi is a work on the Chinese and Arab trade 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by Chau Ju-Kua, a 
descendant of the Emperor Tai-tsung. After mentioning 
the " areca-nut " in Annam, and " areca-nut wine " of the east 
coast of Sumatra, he describes Lambri or Ceylon. Speaking 
of the king he says 1 : " All day he chews a paste of areca-nut 
and pearl ashes. . . . Two attendants are always present 
holding a golden dish to receive the remains of the areca-nut 
(paste) chewed by the king. The king's attendants pay a 
monthly fee of one i 2 of gold into the government treasury for 
the privilege of getting the areca-nut (paste) remains, for it 
contains " plum flower," camphor, and all kinds of precious 

He also includes areca-nuts as one of the products of the 
Coromandel Coast, Java, Borneo and the Philippines. We 
shall return to him when speaking of betel in China (see p. 303). 

Marco Polo (c. 1295) 

Although the work of Marco Polo probably contains two 
references to betel-chewing, neither of them can be regarded 
as undoubtedly genuine. The first passage occurs in the 
geographic text (1824, c. 177, p. 213), and refers to the 
" Country of Lar " i.e. Gujarat and the northern Konkam : 
" E lor dens ont mout boune por une erbe qu'il usent a 
mangier que mout fait bien pair, e molt est sanin au cors de 

This is translated by Yule (vol. ii, p. 365) as : " They 
have capital teeth, which is owing to a certain herb they chew, 

1 Translated by Hirth and Rockhill, St Petersburg, 1911,pp. 72, 73. For 
the other references see pp. 47, 60, 77, 78, 96, 155 and 160. 

2 An i weighed 20 taels, and seems to have been used only for weighing 


which greatly improves their appearance, and is also very 
good for the health." This seems to refer to betel without 
doubt, yet Yule has no note on the passage and does not 
mention it in the index. 

The second reference occurs in the next chapter of Yule 
(Bk. Ill, ch. xxi), " Concerning the City of Cail," a forgotten 
part in the Tinnevelly District of the Madras Presidency. It 
is found only in the Ramusio text, but Yule does not seem to 
suggest that it is spurious : 

" All the people of this city, as well as of the rest of India, 
have a custom of perpetually keeping in the mouth a certain 
leaf called Tembul, to gratify a certain habit and desire they 
have, continually chewing it and spitting out the saliva that 
it excites. The Lords and gentlefolks and the King have 
these leaves prepared with camphor and other aromatic 
spices, and also mixed with quicklime. And this practice 
was said to be very good for the health. If anyone desires 
to offer a gross insult to another, when he meets him he spits 
this leaf or its juice in his face. The other immediately runs 
before the King, relates the insult that has been offered him, 
and demands leave to fight the offender. The King supplies 
the arms, which are sword and target, and all the people 
flock to see, and there the two fight till one of them is killed. 
They must not use the point of the sword, for this the King 
forbids." * 

'Abdu-r Razzdq (1443) 

In his valuable account of the Court of Vijayanagar, 'Abdu-r 
Razzaq, ambassador of Shah Rukh, relates how he received 
betel and camphor each time he visited the king. In his 
description of betel he lays special stress on its aphrodisiacal 

I quote from the translation by Major, India in the 
Fifteenth Century, Hakluyt Society, 1857, p. 32. 

" The betel is a leaf like that of the orange, but longer. 
In Hindoostan, the greater part of the country of the Arabs, 
and the kingdom of Ormuz, an extreme fondness prevails for 
this leaf, which, in fact, deserves its reputation. The manner 
of eating is as follows. They bruise a portion offaufel (areca), 

1 I have already (Vol. II, pp. 302-303) quoted the last portion of this 
passage in connection with the poison-damsels. 



otherwise called sipari, and put it in the mouth, moistening 
a leaf of the betel, together with a grain of chalk, they rub 
the one upon the other, roll them together, and then place 
them in the mouth. They thus take as many as four leaves 
at a time, and chew them. Sometimes they add camphor to 
it, and sometimes they spit out the saliva, which becomes of 
a red colour. 

" This substance gives a colour to and brightens the 
countenance, causes an intoxication similar to that produced 
by wine, appeases hunger, and excites appetite in those who 
are satiated ; it removes the disagreeable smell from the 
mouth, and strengthens the teeth. It is impossible to express 
how strengthening it is, and how much it excites to pleasure. 
It is probable that the properties of this plant may account for 
the numerous harem of women that the king of this country 
maintains. If report speaks truly, the number of the khatoun 
[princesses] and concubines amounts to seven hundred." 

Ludovico di Varihema (1505) 

The short account of betel given by Varthema, the famous 
Italian traveller, confirms the views of 'Abdu-r Razzaq to a 
certain extent 1 : 

"As an act of devotion, the king does not sleep with a 
woman or eat betel for a whole year. This betel resembles 
the leaves of the sour orange, and they are constantly eating 
it. It is the same to them that confections are to us, and 
they eat more for sensuality than for any other purpose. 
When they eat the said leaves, they eat with them a certain 
fruit which is called coffolo, and the tree of the said coffolo is 
called Arecha, and is formed like the stem of the date-tree, 
and produces its fruit in the same manner. And they also 
eat with the said leaves a certain lime made from oyster 
shells, which they call Cionama" 

Duarte Barbosa (1513) 

Writing on the west coast of India, near Goa, Barbosa, 
the Portuguese official, says 2 : 

1 See the Hakluyt Society edition, p. 144. I am shortly editing a reprint 
of this important work for the Argonaut Press, with an Introduction by Sir 
Richard Temple. 

2 See Dames' edition for the Hakluyt Society, vol. i, pp. 168-169. 


" This betel we call ' the Indian leaf ' ; it is as broad as 
the leaf of the plantain herb, and like it in shape. It grows 
on an ivy-like tree, and also climbs over other trees which 
are enveloped in it. These yield no fruit, but only a very 
aromatic leaf, which throughout India is habitually chewed 
by both men and women, night and day, in public places 
and roads by day, and in bed by night, so that their chewing 
thereof has no pause. This leaf is mixed with a small fruit 
(seed) called areca, and before eating it they cover it with 
moistened lime (made from mussel- and cockle-shells), and 
having wrapped up these two things with the betel leaf, they 
chew it, swallowing the juice only. It makes the mouth red 
and the teeth black. They consider it good for drying and 
preserving the belly and the brain. It subdues flatulence 
and takes away thirst, so that they take no drink with it. 
From hence onward, on the way to India, there is a great 
store thereof, and it is one of the chief sources of revenue to 
the Indian kings. By the Moors, Arabs and Persians this 
betel is called tambttl." 

John Huyghen van Linschoten (1583-1589) 

Passing over the brief references given by Caesar Frederick * 
(1563-1581) and Pedro Teixeira 2 (1586-1615) we come to the 
most important of all the early accounts namely, that by 
Linschoten. It contains several interesting interpolations 
printed in italics, the work of the learned Bernard ten Broecke 
(whose name was latinised as Paludanus), a contemporary 
of Linschoten. 

So interesting and informative is the account that I give it 
below in full, according to the translation in the edition printed 
for the Hakluyt Society, edited by Burnell and Tiele 3 : 

" The leaves called Bettele or Bettre, which is very common 
in India, and daily eaten by the Indians, doe grow in all places 
of India, where the Portingals have discovered, not within 
the countrie but only on the sea coast, unlesse it bee some 
small quantitie. It will not growe in cold places, as China, 
nor in over hot places, as Mosambique and Sofala, and because 

1 Hakluyt's Voyages, MacLehose's edition, Glasgow, 1904, vol. v, p. 391. 

2 Sinclair's translation, Hakluyt Society, 1902, pp. 199-200. 

3 The Voyage of John Huyghen van Linschoten to the East Indies. From the 
Old English translation of 1598, London, 1885, vol. ii, p. 62 et seq. 


it is so much used, I have particularly set it downe in this 
place, although it is already spoken of in many other places. 
You must understand that this Bettele is a leafe somewhat 
greater and longer out than Orange leaves, and is planted by 
sticks, whereupon it climeth like Ivie or pepper, and so like 
unto pepper, that afarre off growing each by other, they can 
hardlie bee descerned. It hath no other fruite but the leaves 
only, it is much dressed and looked unto, for that it is the 
daily breade of India. The leaves being gathered doe con- 
tinue long without withering, alwaies shewing fresh and 
greene, and are sold by the dozen, and there is not any woman 
or man in all India, but that every day eateth a dozen or two 
of the same leaves or more : not that they use them for foode, 
but after their meale tides, in the morning and all day long, 
as likewise by night, 1 and [as they goe abroad] in the streetes, 
wheresoever they be you shal see them with some of these 
leaves in their handes, which continually they are chawing. 
These leaves are not used to bee eaten 2 alone, but because 
of their bitternesse they are eaten 3 with a certaine kinde of 
fruit which the Malabares and Portingales call Arecca, the 
Gusurates and Decanijns, Suparii, and the Arabians Fauffel. 
This fruite groweth on trees like the Palme trees that beare 
the Nut Cocus in India, but they are somewhat thinner, with 
the leaves somewhat longer and smaller. The fruit is much 
like the fruit that groweth on Cipresse trees, or like a Nutmeg, 
though some [of them are] on the one side flat, and on the 
other [side] thicker, 4 some being somewhat greater and very 
hard. They cut them in the middle with a knife, and so 
chaw them with Bettele, they are within ful of veines, white, 
and [somewhat] reddish. There is a kinde of Arecca called 
Cechaniin, 5 which are lesse, blacker, and very hard, yet are 
likewise used with Bettele, and have no taste, but onlie of 
[the] wood, and yet it moysteneth the mouth, and coloureth 
it both red and blacke, whereby it seemeth that the lips and 
the teeth are painted with blacke blood, which happeneth 
when the Arecca is not well dried. There is another sort 
which in the eating or chawing [beeing swallowed downe] 
maketh men light in the heade, as if they had drunke wine 
all the day long, but that is sonne past. They use yet 
another mixture which they eat withall, that is to say, a 

1 Orig. Dutch: (add) "in the house." 2 Orig. Dutch: "used." 

3 Orig. Dutch: "chewed." 4 Orig. Dutch: "high." 

5 Orig. Dutch: "Checanijn." 


cake or role * made of a certaine wood or tree called Kaate, 
and then they annoint the Bettele leaves with the chalke 
made of burnt oyster shelles, which can doe no hurt in their 
bodies, by reason of the small quantitie of it, all this being 
chawed togeather, and the Iuice swalloed downe into their 
bodies, for all the rest they spit forth, they say it is very good 
for the maw, and against a stinking breath, [a soveraigne 
medicine] for the teeth, and fastning of gummes, and [very 
good] 2 against the Schorbucke, 3 and it is most true that in 
India verie few men are found with stinking breathes or 
tooth aches, or troubled with the Schorbuch or any such dis- 
eases, and although they be never so old, they alwaies have 
their teeth whole and sound, but their mouthes and teeth 
are still as if they were painted with black blood as I said 
before and never leave spitting reddish spittle like blood. 
The Portingale women have the like custome of eating these 
Bettele leaves, so that if they were but one day without 
eating their Bettele, they perswade themselves they could not 
live : Yea, they set it in the night times by their Beddes 
heades, and when they cannot sleepe, they doe nothing els 
but chaw Bettele and spit it out againe. In the day time 
wheresoever they doe sit, goe, or stand, they are continually 
chawing thereof, like Oxen or Kine chawing their cud : for 
the [whole] exercise of [many Portingale] 4 women, is onely 
all the day long to wash 5 themselves, and then fal to the 
chawing of their Bettele. There are some Portingales that 
by the common custome of their wives eating of Bettele, doe 
likewise use it. When the Indian women 6 go to visit one 
an other, the Bettele goeth with them, and the greatest plea- 
sure or entertainment they can shew one to the other, is 
presently to present them with some Bettele, Arecca, and 
chalke in a woodden dish, which they keepe onely for that 
purpose. This Bettele is to be sold in every corner, and 
streete, and shoppe 7 [of the towne], as also in every high 
way for travellers and passengers, and is ready prepared, 
that is to say, so many Bettele leaves, one Arecca and some 

1 Orig. Dutch: " little ball." 

2 Orig. Dutch : " remedy." 

3 Schorbucke (Dutch, " scheurbuyck ") is scurvy. 

4 Orig. Dutch : " the." 

5 Orig. Dutch : (add) "and bathe." 

6 Orig. Dutch : " when the women or Indians." 

7 Orig. Dutch: "on all corners of the streets and shops.' 


chalke, and many times some Cate for such as desire to have 
it, which they commonly keepe in their houses, or beare in 
their hands in a woodden painted dish, and so eate in this 
sort, first a peece of Arecca, and Cate, which they chaw, after 
that a leafe of Bettele, and with the naile of their thumbe, 
which they purposely weare sharpe and long, not round as 
we doe, they pull the veines [or stringes] out of the leafe, and 
so smeare it in their mouthes and chaw it. The first sap 
thereof they spit forth : and say that thereby they purge the 
head and the maw of all evill, and flegmaticke humours, 1 
and their spittle being as fowle as blacke blood, which colour 
proceedeth from the Arecca; the rest of the Iuice they 
swallow downe. 

"The Indians goe continually 2 in the streetes and waies 
with Bettele and the other mixtures in their handes chawing, 
specially when they go to speak with any man, or come before 
a great Lord, thereby to retaine a good smell, and to keepe 
their breathes sweet, and if they should not have it in that 
sort with them whensoever they [meete or] speake with any 
man of account, it were a great shame for them. 

" The women likewise when they accompany secretly with 
their husbands, doe first eat a little Bettele, which {they think) 
maketh them apter to the game. All the Indians eate it after 
their meales, saying that otherwise their meate would upbraide 
them [and rise in their stomakes\ and that such as have used to 
eate it, and leave it, doe [presently] get a stincking breath. They 
doe at certaine times forbear e the eating of Bettele, [as] when any 
of their neerest friends die, and also on certain fasting daies, as 
likewise some Arabians and the followers of Ali, Mahomets 
brother in lawe, doe upon their fazting daies. In Malabar, this 
leafe is called Bettele, 3 in Decam Gusurate, and Canam* it is 
called Pam, 5 in Malaion,* Siri, 1 by Auicenna, Tambul, 8 but 
better by others Tambul. Auicenna sayeth, that Bettele streng- 
thened the maw, and fastneth the flesh of the Gummes, for which 
purpose the Indians doe use it, but where he ajfirmeth those 

1 Orig. Dutch : "all evil humours and flegmaticke " (as substantive). 

2 Orig. Dutch: "commonly." 

3 See p. 62. 

4 Read : " Canara " or " Cuncam." 

5 I.e. Hindustani, "pan," properly "leaf" (Sanskrit, "parna"). 
Orig. Dutch : " Malaijen " (the country of the Malays). 

7 I.e. Sirih. 

8 Orig. Dutch: "Tembul.' 


leaves to be cold in the first degree, and drying in the second, it is 
not so, for either his Booke is false printed, 1 for hee was deceived 
[therein], for those leaves are hotte and drie in the end of the 
second degree, as Garcius ab Horto himself hath found out, like- 
wise the taste and smell thereof doe affirme it to be so. This 
Bettele is like a Citron leafe, but [somewhat] longer, sharpe at 
the ende, having certain veines that runne along the leafe. The 
rypest are holden to bee the best, and are of colour yellow[ish], 
although some women chuse the unripe, because they are pleas- 
anter 2 in the chawing. The leaves doe wither by much handling. 
The Bettele in Malacca, beareth a fruit like the tayle of an Efte, 
which because it tasteth well, is eaten : it is planted like a Vine 
upon stickes, as Hoppes 3 with us. Some for their greater 
benefit Plant it among Pepper, and among Arecca, and thereof 
doe make a pleasant Gallerie. This Bettele must be carefully 
looked unto, and often watered. He that desireth to know more 
hereof, let him reade the worthie commentaries of learned Clusios, 
uppon the Chapter of Garcius touching Bettele. 4 ' 

" The Noblemen and Kinds, wheresoever they goe, stand 
or sit, have alwaies a servant by them, with a Silver ketle 
[in their hand] full of Bettele and their mixtures, and [when 
they will eat] give them a leafe ready prepared. And when 
any Ambassadour commeth to speak with the King, although 
the King can understand them well, yet it is their manner 
(to maintaine their estates) that the Ambassadour speaketh 
unto them by an interpreter, [that standeth there] in presence, 
which done, he answereth againe by the same interpreter. 
In the meane time, the King lyeth on a bed, or else sitteth 
on the ground, uppon a Carpet, and his servant standeth by 
readie with the Bettele which he continually chaweth, and 
spitteth out the Iuyce, and the remainder thereof, into a Silver 
Basin ; standing by him, or else holden by some one of his 
slaves or [his] wives, and this is a great honour to the Ambas- 
sadour, specially if he profereth him of the same Bettele that 
he himselfe doth eate. To conclude, it is their common use 
to eate it, which because it is their dayly exercise, and that 
they consume so much, 5 I have made ye longer discourse, the 

1 Orig. Dutch: "translated." 

2 Orig. Dutch: "they give more sound." 

3 Orig. Dutch: "Clif" (ivy). 

4 Annot. D. Paludani. 

5 Orig. Dutch: "love it so much." 


better to understand it, although somewhat hath beene said 
thereof in other places. The Kings and Lords of India use 
pilles made of Arecca, Cate and Camphora, with beaten 
Lignum aloes, 1 and a little Amber, which they eate altogether 
with Bettele and Chalke, in steede of Arecca. 

" Some mixe Bettele with Licium, some and those of the richer 
and mightier sort with Campher, others with Lignum aloes, 
Muske and Amber Grijs, and beeing so prepared, is pleasant of 
taste and maketh a sweet breath. There are some that chaw 
Arecca either with Cardamomum, or with Cloves. Within the 
lande farre from the Sea, those leaves are solde verie deare. It 
is said that the Kind of Decan Mizamoxa 2 spendeth yearely 
thereof, to the valew of above thirtie thousand Milreyes. This 
is their banquetting stuff e, and is given them by travellers,* and 
the Kings give it to their Subjects. To the rich they give thereof 
being mixed with their owne hands, and to others [they send it] 
by their servants. When they send any man of Ambassage or 
otherwise 4 ; there are certaine Silke Purses full of prepared 
Bettele delivered unto him, and no man may depart before it be 
delivered him, for it is a [signe or] token of his passe port. 

Abu-l-Fazl 'Miami (1596-1605) 

Abu-l-Fazl, the learned minister of Akbar, gives us in- 
teresting details about the various kinds of betel leaves. 
He first refers to the areca-nut palm, which he describes as 
graceful and slender like the cypress. " The wind often 
bends it, so that its crown touches the ground ; but it rises 
up again. There are various kinds. The fruit when eaten 
raw, tastes somewhat like an almond, but gets hard when ripe. 
They eat it with betel leaves." 

After describing various fruits he proceeds to the betel 
leaf 5 : 

" The Betel leaf is, properly speaking, a vegetable, but 
connoisseurs call it an excellent fruit. Mir Khusrau of Dihll 

1 Orig. Dutch: "crushed Linaloes " (which is the Portuguese name for 
L. also). 

2 Orig. Dutch : " Nisamoxa " = Nigam Shah, residing in Ahmadnagar. 

3 Orig. Dutch : u this they make a present of to travellers." 

4 Orig. Dutch : " when anybody will travel." 

5 'Am I Akbarl by Abu-l-Fazl 'Allami, translated from the Original Persian, 
H. Blochmann, Calcutta, 1873, vol. i, pp. 72-73. 


in one of his verses says : * It is an excellent fruit like the 
flower of a garden, the finest fruit of Hindustan.' The eating 
of the leaf renders the breath agreeable, and repasts odorous. 
It strengthens the gums, and makes the hungry satisfied and 
the satisfied hungry. I shall describe some of the various 
kinds : 1. The leaf called Bilahri is white and shining, and does 
not make the tongue harsh and hard. It tastes best of all kinds. 
After it has been taken away from the creeper, it turns white, 
with some care, after a month, or even after twenty days, when 
greater efforts are made. 2. The Kdker leaf is white with spots, 
and full, and has hard veins. When much of it is eaten, the 
tongue gets hard. 3. The Jaiswdr leaf does not get white, and 
is profitably sold mixed with other kinds. 4. The Kapurl leaf 
is yellowish, hard, and full of veins, but has a good taste and 
smell. 5. The Kapurkdnt leaf is yellowish green, and pungent 
like pepper ; it smells like camphor. You could not eat more 
than ten leaves. It is to be had at Banaras ; but even there 
it does not thrive in every soil. 6. The Banglah leaf is broad, 
full, hard, plushy, hot and pungent. 

" The cultivation is as follows : In the month of Chait 
(March- April), about New- Year's time, they take a part of a 
creeper four or five fingers long with Karhanj leaves on it 
and put it below the ground. From fifteen to twenty days 
after, according as leaves and knots form, a new creeper will 
appear from a knot, and as soon as another knot forms, a leaf 
will grow up. The creepers and new leaves form for seven 
months, when the plant ceases to grow. No creeper has 
more than thirty leaves. As the plant grows, they prop it 
with canes, and cover it, on the top and the sides, with wood 
and straw, so as to rear it up in the shade. The plant requires 
continually to be watered, except during the rains. Sometimes 
they put milk, sesame oil and its seeds pressed out, about 
the plant. There are seven kinds of leaves, known under 
nine names : 1. The Karhanj leaf, which they separate for 
seedlings, and call Perl. The new leaf is called Gadautah. 
2. The Nauti leaf. *3. The Bahuti leaf. 4. The Chhlw 
leaf. 5. The Adhinidd leaf. 6. The Agahniyah or Lewdr leaf. 
7. The Karhanj leaf itself. With the exception of the 
Gadautah, the leaves are taken away from the creeper when 
a month old. The last kind of leaf is eaten by some ; others 
keep it for seedlings : they consider it very excellent, but 
connoisseurs prefer the Perl. 

" A bundle of 11,000 leaves was formerly called Lahdsah, 


which name is now given to a bundle of 14,000. Bundles of 
200 are called Dholi ; a lahdsah is made up of dholis. In 
winter they turn and arrange the leaves after four or five 
days ; in summer every day. From five to twenty-five 
leaves, and sometimes more, are placed above each other, 
and adorned in various ways. They also put some betel-nut 
and katf h on one leaf, and some chalk paste on another, and 
roll them up : this is called a berah. Some put camphor and 
musk into it, and tie both leaves with a silk thread. Others 
put single leaves on plates, and use them thus. They are 
also prepared as a dish." 

We can pass over the brief accounts given by other 
travellers of the first half of the seventeenth century, as 
giving us no new information. I refer to such men as 
Francois Pyrard of Laval 1 (1601-1608); Sir Thomas Roe 2 
(1615-1617); Edward Terry 3 (1616-1619); and Pietro Delia 
Valle 4 (1623). 

We can pause, however, for a moment with Peter Mundy. 

Peter Mundy (1628-1634) 

In Relation VI he speaks of " feilds of Paan or Beetle," 
but in Relation VIII (1632) he speaks of " Bettlenutt," thus 
confounding the names of the two ingredients, a mistake 
which has been faithfully copied ever since. As we shall see 
very shortly, Fryer made matters worse by calling the betel- 
leaf " Arach " and the areca-seeds " Bettle." Under the 
heading " Paan what it is," 5 Mundy writes as follows 6 : 

" Wee also sawe some feilds of Paan, which is a kinde of 
leafe much used to bee eaten in this Countrie, thus : First 
they take a kinde of Nutt called Saparoz, and commonly 
with us Bettlenutt, which, broken to peeces, they infold in 
one of the said leaves, and soe put it into their mouthes. Then 

1 See Gray's edition for the Hakluyt Society, 1887, 1889, vol. ii, pt. ii, 
pp. 362-363. 

2 See Foster's edition for the Hakluyt Society, 1899, vol. i, pp. 19-20; 
and vol. ii, p. 453ft. 

3 Foster, Early Travels in India, p. 300. 

4 See Grey's edition for tlie Hakluyt Society, 1892, vol. i, pp. 36-37. 

5 In the Harl. MS. 2286 Mundy has added "and the use of it." 

6 See Temple's edition for the Hakluyt Society, vol. ii, pp. 96-97. 


take they of the said leaves, and puttinge a little slaked lyme 
on them, they also put into their mouthes, and after them 
other, untill their mouthes are reasonably filled, which they 
goe champinge, swalloweng downe the Juice till it be drie ; 
then they spit it out. It is accompted a grace to eat it up 
and downe the Streets and [is] used by great men. There is 
noe vesitt, banquett, etts. without it, with which they passe 
away the tyme, as with Tobaccoe in England ; but this is 
very wholsome, sweete in smell, and stronge in Taste. To 
Strangers it is most comonly given att partinge, soe that 
when they send for Paane, it is a signe of dispeedinge, or that 
it is tyme to be gon." 

In Relation XXII Mundy gives an interesting description 
of " A Pepper gardein," and correctly explains how the black 
pepper vine, Piper nigrum, is planted at the foot of the areca- 
palm. 1 He gives a sketch of the pepper garden, 2 and after 
explaining how the pepper plant grows upon the " truncke of 
the Betele nutt tree," describes his drawing of the areca-palm 
itself as follows : 

" . . . an Arrecca or betelnutt tree, with the Fruite grow- 
ing outt aloft in the trunck or stemme. The nutt it selffe, 
when it is ripe in the huske, is of an orenge coullour, much 
bigger then a great Wallnutt. The kernell (which is only 
estimated) is a little bigger then a Nuttmegg, the inside 
greyish with white veynes. This is thatt thatt is eaten with 
Paan and is used in Most of the easterne parts of the world. 
The paan leafe is like the pepper leafe and groweth uppe 
somwhatt after thatt manner, requiring a support." 

Bernier (1656-1668) 

Francois Bernier mentions 3 the method by which poison 
can be conveyed in a betel " chew." A young nobleman, 
by name Nazerkan, was suspected by the Mogul of an illicit 
love affair. "As a mark of distinguished favour the King 
presented the betel, in the presence of the whole court, to 
the unsuspecting youth, which he was obliged immediately 
to masticate, agreeably to the custom of the country. . . . 

1 Even Sir Richard Temple speaks of the " betel palm " ! 

2 Temple, op. cit., vol. iii, pt. i, p. 80. 

3 See Constable and Smith's edition, Oxford, 1914, pp. 13-14. 


Little did the unhappy lover imagine that he had received 
poison from the hand of the smiling Monarch, but indulging 
in dreams of future bliss, he withdrew from the palace, and 
ascended his paleky. 1 Such, however, was the activity of 
the poison, that he died before he could reach home." 

Bernier also speaks (p. 283) of the piquedans, or spittoons, 
" of porcelain or silver . . . very necessary in connection 
with betel-chewing." 

Niccolao Manned (1653-1708) 

The account of the effects of betel-chewing on a Westerner, 
who was entirely unacquainted with the custom, is given by 
the Venetian traveller, Manucci, 2 who visited Surat in 1653. 

" But among other things I wasfmuch surprised to see 
that almost everybody was spitting something red as blood. 
I imagined it must be due to some complaint of the country, 
or that their teeth had become broken. I asked an English 
lady what was the matter, and whether it was the practice 
in this country for the inhabitants to have their teeth ex- 
tracted. When she understood my question, she answered 
that it was not any disease, but [due to] a certain aromatic 
leaf called in the language of the country pan, or in Portu- 
guese, betele. She ordered some leaves to be brought, ate 
some herself, and gave me some to eat. Having taken them, 
my head swam to such an extent that I feared I was dying. 
It caused me to fall down ; I lost my colour, and endured 
agonies ; but she poured into my mouth a little salt, and 
brought me to my senses. The lady assured me that every- 
one who ate it for the first time felt the same effects. 

" Betel, or pan, is a leaf similar to the ivy leaf, but the 
betel leaf is longer ; it is very medicinal and eaten by every- 
body in India. They chew it along with ' arrecas ' (areca), 
which physicians call Avelans Indicas (Indian filberts), and 
a little catto (hath or kattha), which is the dried juice of a 
certain plant that grows in India. Smearing the betel leaf 
with a little of the kath, they chew them together, which 
makes the lips scarlet and gives a pleasant scent. It happens 
with the eaters of betel, as to those accustomed to take tobacco, 
that they are unable to refrain from taking it many times a 
day. Thus the women of India, whose principal business 

1 See Ocean, Vol. Ill, p. I4>n l . 

2 Irvine's translation, vol. i, p. 62. 


it is to tell stories and eat betel, are unable to remain many 
minutes without having it in their mouths. It is an exceed- 
ingly common practice in India to offer betel leaf by way of 
politeness, chiefly among the great men, who, when anyone 
pays them a visit, offer betel at the time of leaving as a mark 
of good will, and of the estimation in which they hold the 
person who is visiting them. It would be a great piece of 
rudeness to refuse it." 

Fryer (1672-1681). 

We now come to John Fryer, who gives us the following 
curious account of the areca-palm * : 

" Beetle, which . . . must not be slipt by in silence. . . . 

" It rises out of the Ground to twelve or fourteen Feet 
heighth, the Body of it green and slender, jointed like a Cane, 
the Boughs flaggy and spreading, under whose Arms it brings 
forth from its pregnant Womb (which bursts when her Month 
is come) a Cluster of Green Nuts, like Wallnuts in Green 
Shells, but different in the Fruit ; which is hard when dried, 
and looks like a Nutmeg. 

" The Natives chew it with Chinam (Lime of calcined 
Oyster-Shells) and Arach, a Convolvulus with a Leaf like 
the largest Ivy, for to preserve their Teeth, and correct an 
unsavoury Breath. If swallowed, it inebriates as much as 
Tobacco. Thus mixed, it is the only Indian Entertainment, 
called Pawn" 

Facing page 110 of Crooke's edition are Fryer's drawings 
and diagrams of the areca-palm, areca-nuts, mango-trees, etc. 
He then describes an areca-palm conservatory by comparing 
it to a cathedral in the following way : 

" These Plants set in a Row, make a Grove that might 
delude the Fanatick Multitude into an Opinion of their being 
sacred ; and were not the Mouth of that Grand Impostor 
Hermetically sealed up, where Christianity is spread, these 
would still continue, as it is my Fancy they were of old, and 
may still be the Laboratories of his Fallacious Oracles : For 
they, masquing the face of Day, beget a solemn reverence, 

1 See Crooke's edition for the Hakluyt Society, vol. i, pp. 110-1 11. Other 
references occur in vol. i, pp. 119, 136, 143, 151 ; vol. ii, pp. 42, 83, 96. 


and melancholy habit in them that resort to them ; by repre- 
senting the more inticing Place of Zeal, a Cathedral, with all 
its Pillars and Pillasters, Walks and Choirs ; and so contrived 
that whatever way you turn, you have an even Prospect." 

In a note on the passage Crooke says that such places are 
believed to be semi-sacred, no one in a state of ceremonial 
impurity being admitted, as the plant is supposed to be most 
susceptible to spirit influence. (See further, p. 271n 2 .) 

This concludes the evidence on betel-chewing as afforded by 
travellers to India up to the end of the seventeenth century. 

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries travellers 
and missionaries to India merely confirm the accounts of 
previous observers, and we can pass them over as unneces- 
sary to our present inquiry. It was not until government 
officials began a detailed inquiry among the tribes and castes 
of all parts of India that it was realized to what a great 
extent betel leaves and areca-nuts entered into the everyday 
life of the Hindu. Although we shall obtain a little informa- 
tion from Northern India, we shall find that it becomes more 
abundant as we travel southwards. 

Northern and Central India 

The two castes connected with betel in India are Bara'i 
(Baraiya, Barui) and Tamboli (Tamoli, Tamdi). Generally 
speaking, the former grows the plant, while the latter sells 
the leaves. This distinction, however, does not seem to be 
always observed. It appears that the Bara'i hardly ever sells 
the leaves, while the Tamboli sometimes cultivates the plant. 1 
Sheering 2 denies that the distinction prevails in Benares, 
and says that there the Tamboli sells areca-nut as well as 
pan, and appears to be more of a wholesale dealer than the 
Bara'i. In the Meerut, Agra and Rohilkhand divisions the 
Bara'is are replaced by the Tambolis. 

Crooke (op. cit., p. 181) quotes Abti-1-Fazl, and comments 
on the passage about the leaves of a " chew " being tied with 
a silk thread. 3 He says : " This is very much the modern 
practice, except that the two leaves are very generally 

1 Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, vol. i, 
p. 177. 

2 Hindu Tribes and Castes, vol. i, p. 330. 

3 See p. 266 of this Appendix. 


fastened together with a clove. The conservatory in which 
the pan is grown is treated with great reverence by the 
grower. They do not allow women to enter it, and permit 
no one to touch the plant or throw the leaves into fire. Very 
often they are given rent-free holdings by rich landlords to 
tempt them to settle in their neighbourhoods." 

In his article on the " Baruis " of Bengal, Risley x tells 
us that on the fourth of Baisakh (April-May) the patroness 
of betel cultivation is worshipped in some places in Bengal, 
with offerings of flowers, rice, sweetmeats and sandalwood 
paste. Along the banks of the Lakhya in Eastern Bengal 
the Baruis celebrate, without a Brahman, the Navami Pujd 
in honour of Ushas ('Ha>?, Aurora) on the ninth of the waxing 
moon in Asvin (September-October). Plantains, sugar, rice 
and sweetmeats are placed in the centre of the pan garden, 
from which the worshippers retire, but after a little return, 
and, carrying out the offerings, distribute them among the 
village children. In Bikrampur the deity invoked on the 
above date is Sungai, one of the many forms of Bhagavati. 
The reason given by the Baruis for not engaging the services 
of a Brahman is the following : 

" A Brahman was the first cultivator of the betel. Through 
neglect the plant grew so high that he used his sacred thread 
to fasten up its tendrils, but as it still shot up faster than he 
could supply thread, its charge was given to a Kayasth 
(writers and village accountants). Hence it is that a Brahman 
cannot enter a pan garden without defilement." 2 

At the present day some Baruis have taken to trade, while 
others are found in Government service or as members of the 
learned professions. The bulk of the caste, however, follow 
their traditional occupation. Betel cultivation is a highly 
specialised business, demanding considerable knowledge and 
extreme care to rear so delicate a plant. The pan garden 
(bard, bdrej) is regarded as an almost sacred spot. Its 
greatest length is always north and south, while the entrances 
must be east and west. The enclosure, generally eight feet 
high, is supported by hijul (Sanskrit, ijjala; Barringtonia 

1 Tribes and Castes of Befigal, vol. i, pp. 72-73. 

2 In a note on the passage Crooke (Religion and Folklore of Northern India, 
1926, p. 263) says that this is obviously an serological explanation of the taboo 
against the Brahman interfering with it, and he is excluded from the vinery 
probably because his "sanctity" is supposed to exercise an injurious effect 
on such a tender plant. Cf the description given above by Fryer. 


acutangula) trees or areca-palms. The former are cut down 
periodically, but the palms are allowed to grow, as they cast 
little shade and add materially to the profits of the garden. 
The sides are closely matted with reeds, jute stalks, or leaves 
of the date or Palmyra palm, while nal grass is often grown 
outside to protect the interior from wind and the sun's rays. 
The top is not so carefully covered in, wisps of grass being 
merely tied along the trellis- work over the plants. A sloping 
footpath leads down the centre of the enclosure, towards 
which the furrows between the plants trend, and serves to 
drain off rain as it falls, it being essential for the healthy 
growth of the plant that the ground be kept dry. 

The pan plant is propagated by cuttings, and the only 
manures used are pdk-mdti, or decomposed vegetable mould 
excavated from tanks, and khali, the refuse of oil-mills. The 
plant being a fast-growing one, its shoots are loosely tied 
with grass to upright poles, while thrice a year it is drawn 
down and coiled at the root. As a low temperature injures 
the plant, by discolouring the leaves, special care must be 
taken during the cold season that the enclosure and its valu- 
able contents are properly sheltered. Against vermin no 
trouble is required, as caterpillars and insects avoid the plant 
on account of its pungency. Weeds are carefully eradicated, 
but certain culinary vegetables, such as pepper, varieties of 
pumpkins and cucumbers, palwal {Trichosanihes diceca) and 
baingan (egg-plant, Solanum melongena), are permitted to be 
grown. Pan leaves are plucked throughout the year, but in 
July and August are most abundant, and therefore cheapest, 
while a garden, if properly looked after, continues productive 
from five to ten years. Four pan leaves make one ganda, 
and the bira, or measure by which they are sold, nowadays 
contains in Eastern Bengal twenty gandas, although formerly 
it contained twenty-four. In the Bhdti country (Bakarganj) 
thirty-six gandas go to the bird. Pan leaves are never re- 
tailed by the Barui himself, but are sold wholesale to agents 
(paikdrs), or directly to the paw-sellers. 

The varieties of the Piper betle are numerous, but it is 
probable that in different districts distinct names are given 
to the same species. The Jcafuri or camphor-scented pan, 
allowed by all natives to be the most delicately flavoured, 
is grown only at Sunargaon in Dacca and Mandalghat in 
Midnapur for export to Calcutta, where it fetches a fancy 
price. The next best is the sdnchi, which often sells for 


four annas a bird. This is of a pale green colour, and if kept 
for a fortnight loses in pungency and gains flavour. The 
commoner sorts are the desi, bangald, bhdtidl, dhdldogga, ghds 
pan, grown best in Bakarganj, and a very large-leaved variety 
called bubnd. The usual market-price of the inferior kinds is 
from one to two pice a bird. 

It has been mentioned that the bard is regarded as almost 
sacred, and the superstitious practices in vogue resemble 
those of the silkworm breeder. The Barui will not enter it 
until he has bathed and washed his clothes, while the low- 
caste man employed in digging is required to bathe before 
he commences work. Animals found inside are driven out, 
while women ceremonially unclean dare not enter within the 
gate. A Brahman never sets foot inside, and old men have 
a prejudice against entering it. It has, however, been known 
to be used for assignations. At the present day individuals 
belonging to the Dhoba, Chandal, Kaibartta, Sunari, and 
many higher and lower castes, as well as Mohammedans, 
manage pan gardens, but they omit the ceremonies necessary 
for preserving the bard clean and unpolluted. 

In the Central Provinces and Berar the Bara'is reside prin- 
cipally in the Amraoti, Buldana, Nagpur, Wardha, Saugor and 
Jubbulpore districts. The betel- vine is grown principally 
in the northern districts of Saugor, Damon and Jubbulpore 
and in those of Berar and the Nagpur plain. It is notice- 
able also that the growers and sellers of the betel-vine 
numbered only 14,000 in 1911 out of 33,000 actual workers 
of the Bara'i caste ; so that the majority of them are now 
employed in ordinary agriculture, field labour and other 

Russell * describes a curious custom connected with the 
remarriage of widows as observed in Betul. The relatives 
of the widow take the second husband before Maroti's shrine, 
where he offers a nut and some betel leaf. He is then taken 
to the malguzar's house and presents to him R.l, 4, a coco- 
nut and some betel-vine leaf as the price of his assent to 
the marriage. If there is a Deshmukh [revenue officer] of 
the village, a coco-nut and betel leaf are given also to him. 
The nut offered to Maroti represents the deceased husband's 
spirit, and is subsequently placed on a plank and kicked off 
by the new bridegroom in token of his usurping the other's 
place, and finally buried to lay the spirit. 

1 Russell, Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces, vol. ii, 191 6, p. 195. 
vol. vni. s 


The Bara'is especially venerate the Nag, or cobra, and 
observe the festival of Nag-Panchml (Cobra's fifth), in con- 
nection with which the following story is related. Formerly 
there was no betel- vine on the earth. But when the five 
Pandava brothers celebrated the great horse sacrifice after 
their victory at Hastinapura they wanted some, and so 
messengers were sent down below the earth, to the residence 
of the queen of the serpents, in order to try to obtain it. 
Basuki, 1 the queen of the serpents, obligingly cut off the 
top joint of her little finger and gave it to the messengers. 
This was brought up and sown on the earth, and pan creepers 
grew out of the joint. For this reason the betel-vine has 
no blossoms or seeds, but the joints of the creepers are cut off 
and sown, when they sprout afresh ; and the betel- vine is 
called Nagbel, or the serpent-creeper. On the day of Nag- 
Panchmi the Bara'is go to the bareja with flowers, coco-nuts 
and other offerings, and worship a stone which is placed in 
it, and which represents the Nag or cobra. A goat or sheep 
is sacrificed and they return home, no leaf of the pan garden 
being touched on that day. A cup of milk is also left, in the 
belief that a cobra will come out of the pan garden and drink 
it. The Bara'is say that members of their caste are never bitten 
by cobras, though many of these snakes frequent the gardens 
on account of the moist coolness and shade which they afford. 

The preparation of the " chew " for retail sale is the same 
as that in the North-Western Provinces. Bidas are prepared, 
consisting of a rolled betel leaf containing areca-nut, catechu 
and lime, and fastened with a clove. Musk and cardamoms 
are sometimes added. Tobacco should be smoked after 
eating a bida, according to the saying : " Service without 
a patron, a young man without a shield, and betel without 
tobacco are alike savourless." Bidas are sold at from two 
to four for a pice (farthing). Women of the caste often 
retail them, and as many are good-looking they secure more 
custom ; they are also said to have an indifferent reputation. 
Early in the spring, when they open their shops, they burn 
some incense before the bamboo basket in which the leaves 
are kept, to propitiate Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth. 

For notes on the Bara'I and Tamboli castes in Bombay 
see Enthoven, Tribes and Castes of Bombay, vol. i, pp. 59-65, 
and vol. iii, pp. 364-369. In the Nizam's dominions they 
are^dealt with by Syed Siraj Ul Hassan in Castes and Tribes 

1 I.e. the serpent-king Vasuki of ancient Sanskrit literature. 


of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, vol. i, 1920, pp. 28-33 and 
596-602. See also G. A. Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, 2nd 
edition, 1926, pp. 248-249. 

Southern India 

Owing to the fact that social customs of the Hindus have 
remained more unchanged in the south than in any other 
part of India, it is necessary for us to consider the different 
uses to which betel is put among the various tribes and castes 
of the peninsula. In order to do this in any comprehensive 
manner, I have found it necessary to go through all the seven 
volumes of Mr Thurston's well-known work on the subject. 1 
This has naturally taken a considerable amount of patience 
and pertinacity, but I do not think the time has been wasted ; 
for the evidence derived from the work is of undoubted value, 
and it would be too much to expect readers to be grateful for 
a mere reference to a seven- volume work which lacks any sort 
of index. 

It contains some three hundred references to betel either 
to the leaf, the " nut " or to the combined pan-supari. Many 
of these references are redundant, as betel is used at practic- 
ally every wedding ceremony of all tribes and castes. I shall 
therefore select from the complete list of references given 
below 2 such descriptions of customs and ceremonies as will 

1 Castes and Tribes of Southern India, 7 vols., Madras, 1909. 

2 Vol. i, pp. 9, 16, 21, 34, 60, 121, 125, 141, 163, 165, 200-204, 220, 233, 
240, 247-249, 260, 265, 276, 279, 280, 290-292, 294, 300, 305, 351 and 359; 
vol. ii, pp. 13, 24, 42, 65, 73, 76, 78, 89, 95, 105, 110, 117, 120, 143, 163, 201, 
-255, 260, 270, 272, 294, 306, 322, 330, 343, 347, 349, 350, 358, 363, 369, 385, 
386, 415, 416, 430 and 443 ; vol. iii, pp. 18, 22, 38, 46, 74, 79, 80, 81, 83, 101, 
104, 110, 114, 128, 146, 149, 171, 172, 174-177, 206-209, 212, 213, 217, 220, 
230, 235, 238, 239, 247, 253, 273, 275, 284, 295, 300, 328, 329, 334, 348, 420, 
429, 435, 461, 465, 483 and 494; vol. iv, pp. 11, 32, 89, 98, 101-106, 109, 134, 
143, 144, 146, 148, 160, 178, 180, 186, 198, 207, 220, 271, 272, 275, 279, 283- 
285, 293, 319, 320, 322, 352-356, 363, 368, 369, 372, 374, 377, 381, 383, 385, 
398, 420, 422, 426, 430 and 435 ; vol. v, pp. 33, 35-37, 40, 67, 69, 108, 1 13-115, 
128, 181, 186, 195, 199, 205, 218, 265-268, 294, 316, 330, 331, 334, 336, 355, 
.358, 361, 364, 378, 402, 431, 441, 442, 445, 468, 470, 481-485; vol. vi, pp. 18, 
22, 95-100, 117, 133, 137, 138, 175, 176, 184, 242, 252, 253, 255, 258, 323, 355, 
360 and 382 ; vol. vii, pp. 9, 17, 24, 30, 53, 54, 57-59, 6l, 64, 75, 78, 79, 86, 
89, 176, 178, 192, 193, 200, 201, 248, 253, 259, 282-284, 286, 301, 306, 307, 
334, 345-347, 388, 400, 426 and 427. 


clearly indicate the important part betel plays in the life of 
the native of Southern India. 

The references from Thurston are taken volume by 
volume in proper chronological order, the names of the castes 
occurring alphabetically : 

Vol. i, p. 125. Badhoyi (carpenters and blacksmiths). 

If a case of a serious nature is to be tried, the complainant 
goes to one of the headmen of the caste, and, presenting him 
with fifty areca-nuts, asks him to convene a council meeting. 

Page 163. Bant (cultivating class in South Canara). 

At a puberty ceremony among some Bants, the girl sits 
in the courtyard of her house on five unhusked coco-nuts 
covered with the bamboo cylinder which is used for storing 
paddy. Women place four pots filled with water, and con- 
taining betel leaves and nuts, round the girl, and empty the 
contents over her head. She is then secluded in an outhouse. 
The women are entertained with a feast, which must include 
fowl and fish curry. The coco-nuts are given to a washer- 
woman. On the fourth day the girl is bathed, and received 
back at the house. Beaten rice and rice-flour mixed with 
jaggery (crude sugar) are served out to those assembled. The 
girl is kept gosha (secluded) for a time, and fed up with 
generous diet. 

Page 260. Bonthuk (nomads priests, drummers, musicians, 
shepherds, etc.). 
Each settlement has a headman, called Bichadi, and in 
case of any dispute about his decision, the complainant has 
to undergo a trial by ordeal. This consists in taking out an 
areca-nut from a pot of boiling cowdung water. The dimen- 
sions of the pot, in height and breadth, should not exceed the 
span of the hand, and the height of the cowdung water in 
the pot should be that of the middle finger from the base 
to the tip. If, in removing the nut from the pot, the hand 
is injured, the guilt of the individual is proved. 

Page 276, etc. Brahman. 

The areca-nut and betel leaf enter into every important 
ceremony in the life of a Brahman the upanayana (p. 276), 
his marriage (pp. 279, 280, 290-294), at which he chews 
betel for the first time, and his death (p. 300). Widows are 
forbidden to use it (p. 351). 


A still clearer idea of the continual and highly important 
part betel plays in a Brahman's life will be obtained by re- 
ferring to Stevenson's Bites of the Twice-Born. Owing to the 
insufficient index to this work I give the references below. 1 

Vol. ii, p. 13. Chdliyan (cotton weavers). 

In the tali-tying ceremony the girl is conducted to a booth 
in which are a plank, made of the wood of the pdla tree, a 
lighted lamp, betel leaves and nuts, and a measure of raw rice, 
etc. The girl sits on the plank, holding a mimic arrow in 
her right hand. The Poduvan, or caste barber, now hands 
the tali to a male member of an Uralan's (headman's) family, 
who ties it on the girl's neck. For his services the Poduvan 
receives a fanam (coin) and three bundles of betel leaves. 

Page 110. Danddsi (watchmen, and thieves). 

Among their marriage ceremonies may be mentioned the 
following. The headman, or some respected elder of the 
community, places an areca-nut cutter on, or, with some rice 
and areca-nut, between the united hands of the contracting 
couple, and ties them together with seven turns of a turmeric- 
dyed thread. He then announces that the grand- 
daughter of and daughter of is united to 

the grandson of and son of . The parents of the 

bride and bridegroom pour turmeric-water from a chank 
(Turbinella rapa) shell or leaf over their united hands. The 
nut cutter is removed by the bride's brother, and, after 
striking the bridegroom, he goes away. 

Page 117. Ddsari (mendicant caste of Vaishnavas). 

Devotees put kavalam (sliced plantain fruits mixed with 
sugar, jaggery and fried grain or beaten rice) into the mouths 
of the mendicants, who eat a little and spit the rest out in the 
hands of the devotees. The same thing is done with betel 
leaves. It is believed that this action will cure all diseases and 
produce children. 

Page 416. hhava, or llavans (toddy-drawing castes of 
Malabar, Cochin and Travancore). 
Among the ceremonies observed at the seventh month of 

1 Birth and babyhood, pp. 5, 6, 9" 11, 21 ; sacred thread, pp. 29, 40, 43; 
the wedding and its ceremonies, pp. 51, 60, 68, 74, 75, 83, 86, 87, 90, 104, 
109; desire for a son, pp. 112, 116, 118, 120; death, pp. 167, 172; daily and 
monthly ritual; pp. 239, 266, 279, 285, 289, 304, 313, 329, 330, 333, 339; 
special ceremonies, p. 354 ; Siva worship, pp. 385, 392 ; Vishnu worship, p. 414. 


pregnancy is that which determines the sex of the unborn 
child. The priestess pours a quantity of oil on the navel of 
the woman from a betel leaf, and, from the manner in which 
it flows down, the sex is determined. 

Vol. iii, p. 81. Kalian (a caste of thieves). 

On the sixteenth day after the first menstrual period of 
a Kalian girl, her maternal uncle brings a sheep or goat, and 
rice. She is bathed and decorated, and sits on a plank while 
a vessel of water, coloured rice and a measure filled with 
paddy, with a style bearing a betel leaf stuck on it, are waved 
before her. Her head, knees and shoulders are touched with 
cakes, which are then thrown away. A woman, conducting 
the girl round the plank, pours water from a vessel on to a 
betel leaf held in her hand, so that it falls on the ground at the 
four cardinal points of the compass, which the girl salutes. 

Page 110. Kammalan (carvers of eyes of images, etc.). 

The method of a local official to resign office is to lay betel 
leaf and areca-nut before his superior, and prostrate himself 
in front of him. On p. 114 we learn that the pdn-supdri was 
taken to ratify a promise. On p. 128 is described a curious 
custom observed in commencing the building of a house. The 
carpenters open three or four coco-nuts, spilling the juice as 
little as possible, and put some tips of betel leaves into them ; 
and, from the way these float in the liquid, they foretell 
whether the house will be lucky or unlucky, whether it will 
stand for a long or short period, and whether another will 
ever be erected on its site. 

Page 295. Kodikkdl-velldlan is the occupational name of a 
sub-caste of Vellalas, and of Labbai Mohammedans, who 
cultivate the betel-vine. 

Vol. iv, p. 102 et seq. Kudubi (shifter of cultivation). 

Some of the caste are employed in the preparation of 
cutch, the extract from the Acacia catechu, obtained by boiling 
the chips. 

Mr Lathram, of the Forest Department, thus describes the 
process : 

" The first thing to do is to erect the ovens, known as 
wolle. These are made by a party of men a fortnight or so 
before the main body come. The ordinary soil of the field 
is used, and the ovens are built to a height of 18 inches, and 


placed about 5 yards in front of the huts at irregular distances, 
one or two to each hut. The oven is an oblong, about 2 feet 
wide by 3 feet long, with two openings above, about 1 foot in 
diameter, on which the boilers, common ovoid earthenware 
pots (madike), are placed. The opening for the fire is placed on 
the windward side, and extends to the far side of the second 
opening in the top of the oven, the smoke, etc., escaping 
through the spaces between the boilers and the oven. The 
earth forms the hearth. To proceed to the details of the 
working, the guard and the watcher go out the first thing in 
the morning, and mark trees for the Kudubis to cut, noting 
the name of the man, the girth and length of the workable 
stem and branches. The Kudubi then cuts the tree, and 
chips off the sapwood, a ring about 1 inch wide, with his axe, 
and brings it into the camp, where a Forester is stationed, 
who measures the length and girth of the pieces, and takes 
the weight of wood brought in. The Kudubi then takes it 
off to his shelter, and proceeds to chip it. In the afternoon 
he may have to go and get firewood, but generally he can 
get enough firewood in a day to serve for several days' boiling. 
So much for the men's work. Mrs Kudubi puts the chips 
(chakkai) into the pot nearest the mouth of the oven, and 
fills it up with water, putting a large flat wooden spoon on 
the top, partly to keep the chips down, and, lighting her fire, 
allows it to boil. As soon as this occurs, the pot is tipped into 
a wooden trough (marige) placed alongside the oven, and the 
pot with the chips is refilled. This process is repeated six 
times. The contents of the trough are put into the second 
pot, which is used purely for evaporating. The contents of 
this pot are replenished from the trough with a coco-nut 
bailer (chippu) until all the extract obtained from the chips 
has been evaporated to a nearly solid residue. The contents 
are then poured into a broken half -pot, and allowed to dry 
naturally, being stirred at intervals to enable the drying to 
proceed evenly. The extract (rasa) is of a yellowish -brown 
colour when stirred, the surface being a rich red-brown. This 
stirring is done with a one-sided spoon (satuga). To make 
the balls, the woman covers her hands with a little wood-ash 
to prevent the extract adhering to them, and takes up as 
much catechu as she can close her hands on, and presses it 
into shape. These balls are paid for at R.l, 2 per 100, and 
are counted before the Forester next morning, and delivered 
to the contractor. This ends the work done by the Kudubis. 


When the balls have been counted, they are rolled by special 
men engaged for the purpose on a board sprinkled with a 
little wood-ash, and this is repeated daily for three or four 
days to consolidate them. After this daily rolling the balls 
are spread out in the receiving shed to dry, in a single layer 
for the first day or two, and after that they may be in two 
layers. After the fourth or fifth day's rolling they are put in 
a pit and covered with wood-ashes, on which a little water 
is poured, and, on being taken out the next day, are gone 
over, and all balls which are soft or broken are then rejected, 
the good ones being put on the upper storey of the stone shed 
to get quite hard and dry." 

When the cutch is mixed with the lime used for the chew, 
mastication will at once produce the red saliva so familiar in 
all betel-chewing countries. For various other descriptions 
of cutch and kaih (a purer form of cutch) see Watt, op. cit., 
vol. i, pp. 30-44. 

Page 178. Kurumo (Oriya agriculturists). 

This caste has several village deities. Every family ap- 
parently keeps the house-god within the house, and it is wor- 
shipped on all important occasions. The god itself is usually 
represented by five areca-nuts, which are kept in a box. These 
nuts must be filled with pieces of gold, silver, iron, copper and 
lead, which are introduced through a hole drilled in the base 
of the nut, which is plugged with silver. 

Page 398. Malasar (forest tribe cultivators). 

The Malasars of the plains observe a curious custom con- 
nected with the dead. The widow chews betel leaf and areca- 
nuts, and spits the betel over the eyes and neck of the corpse. 
On the third day after death, cooked rice and meat are offered 
to the soul of the deceased on seven arka (Calotropis gigantea) 
leaves. The male members of the family then eat from the 
same leaf. 

Vol. v, p. 195. Nambutiri Brdhmans (of Malabar). 

Among their festivals is one called Tiruvatira, a day on 
which Siva is especially worshipped and only a single meal 
is taken. Night vigils are kept both by the husband and 
wife, seated before a lighted fire, which represents the sdkshi 
(witness) of Karmas and contracts. They then chew a bundle 
of betel-leaves, not less than a hundred in number. This is 
called kettuvettila tinnuka. As the chewing of betel is taboo 


except in the married state, this function is believed to attest 
and seal their irrefragable mutual fidelity. 

Page 358. Ndyar (traders, artisans, washermen, etc.). 

On the death of an important member of a taravdd (de- 
scendants in the female line of one common female ancestor) 
the practice of not shaving the entire body, for a period 
varying from forty-one days to a year, is involved. The 
observance, known by the name of diksha, necessitates the 
effected man offering half-boiled rice and gingelly seeds to 
the spirits of the deceased every morning after his bath. He 
is also under restriction from women, from alcoholic drinks, 
from chewing betel, and also from tobacco. 

Vol. vi, p. 97. Paraiyan (low-class pariahs of the Tamil 

Betel enters largely into every part of the marriage cere- 
monies, which are long and intricate. After the exchange of 
betel has ratified the agreement of marriage, the bridegroom, 
with several relations, etc., proceeds to the bride's home, 
where more betel is exchanged. After the lapse of a few days 
the girl's family is expected to pay a return visit, and the 
party should include at least seven men. Betel is again 
exchanged, and the guests are fed, or presented with a small 
gift of money. When marriage follows close on betrothal, the 
girl is taken to the houses of her relations, and goes through 
the nalangu ceremony, which consists of smearing her with 
turmeric paste (see Ocean, Vol. VIII, p. 18), an oil bath, and 
presentation of betel and sweets. The auspicious day and 
hour for the marriage are fixed by the Valluvan, or priest of 
the Paraiyans. The ceremonial is generally carried through 
in a single day. On the morning of the wedding day three 
male and two married female relations of the bridegroom go to 
the potter's house to fetch the pots, which have been already 
ordered. The potter's fee is a fowl, pumpkin, paddy, betel, 
and a few annas. The bride, accompanied by the headman and 
her relations, goes to the bridegroom's village, bringing with 
her a number of articles called petti varisai, or box-presents. 
These consist of a lamp, cup, brass vessel, ear-ornament called 
kaldppu, twenty-five betel leaves, and areca-nuts, onions and 
cakes, a lump of jaggery (crude sugar), grass mat, silver toe- 
ring, rice, a bundle of betel leaves, and five coco-nuts, which 
are placed inside a bamboo box. 

Numerous other ceremonies follow, with which we are not 


concerned. Towards the close of the marriage day, fruit, 
flowers and betel are placed on a tray before the couple, and 
all the kankanams, seven in number, are removed, and put 
on the tray. After burning camphor, the bridegroom hands 
the tray to his wife, and it is exchanged between them three 
times. It is then given to the washerman. The proceedings 
terminate by the two going with linked hands three times 
round the pandal. 

Page 360. Senaikkudaiyan are a caste of betel-vine cultivators 
and betel-leaf sellers, who are found in large numbers in 
the Tinnevelly district, and to a smaller extent in the 
other parts of the Tamil country. 

Vol. vii, p. 24. Tanda Pulaiyan (cultivators). 

Every kind of sickness is attributed to the influence of some 
demon, whom a magician is capable of exorcising. In the 
event of sickness, the sorcerer is invited to the hut. He arrives 
in the evening, and is entertained with food, toddy and 
betel. He then takes a tender coco-nut, flower of the areca- 
palm, and some powdered rice, which he covers over with 
a palm leaf. The sick person is placed in front thereof, 
and a circle is drawn round him. Outside the circle an iron 
stylus is stuck in the ground. The demon is supposed to be 
confined within the circle, and makes the patient cry out : 
" I am in pai (influence of the ghost) and he is beating me," 
etc. With the promise of a fowl or sheep, or offerings thereof 
on the spot, the demon is persuaded to take his departure. 
Sometimes, when the sorcerer visits a house of sickness, a 
rice-pan containing three betel leaves, areca-nuts, paddy, tulsi 
(Ocimum sanctum), sacred ashes, conch and cowry (Cyprcea 
moneta) shells, is placed in the yard. The sorcerer sits in front 
of the pan, and begins to worship the demon, holding the 
shells in his hands, and turning to the four cardinal points 
of the compass. He then observes the omens, and, taking 
his iron plate, strikes it, while he chants the names of terrible 
demons, Mullva, Karinkali, Aiyinar and Villi, and utters 
incantations. This is varied by dancing, to the music of the 
iron plate, sometimes from evening till noon on the following 
day. The sick person works himself up into the belief that 
he has committed some great sin, and proceeds to make con- 
fession, when a small money fine is inflicted, which is spent 
on toddy for those who are assembled. 


Page 178. Toreya [toluvar ?] (cultivators, chiefly of betel- vine). 
When a married girl reaches puberty she is taken to 
her father's house, and her husband constructs a hut with 
branches of Ficus glomerata. On the last day of her confine- 
ment therein the hut is pulled down, and the girl sets fire to 
it. The house is purified, and the female relations go to the 
houses of the Ejaman (headman) and caste people, and invite 
them to be present at a ceremonial. A small quantity of 
turmeric paste is stuck on the doors of the houses of all who 
are invited. The relations and members of the caste carry 
betel, and other articles, on trays in procession through the 
streets. The girl is seated on a plank, and the trays are 
placed in front of her. Rice-flour, fruits, betel, etc., are tied 
in her cloth, and she is taken into the house. In the case of 
an unmarried girl the hut is built by her maternal uncle. 

The above extracts clearly show the numerous ceremonies 
among different tribes and castes of Southern India in which 
betel and areca-nuts play a part. 

With regard to marriage ceremonies the use of betel leaf 
and areca-nuts is everywhere predominant. In the first place 
betel must be looked upon as synonymous with our "tip." 
Thus, if it is necessary to employ a barber, washerman, priest 
or artisan in connection with the wedding ceremonies, one 
may be sure he will receive a " tip " of betel leaves and 
areca-nuts, to which a fowl and other objects are sometimes 

Then there is the exchange of betel to be considered. This 
act constitutes a binding oath. After the fathers have ex- 
changed betel the wedding is formally agreed upon and 
arranged. The bride and bridegroom then exchange betel, 
which act constitutes a mutual oath of fidelity. 

In all the minor ceremonies as well, betel is constantly 
chewed or given away as a general mark of friendship and re- 
joicing. If the bridegroom can afford it, a wholesale distribution 
of pdn-supdri is made. 

We may thus say that, as betel-chewing is the sine qua non 
of the Hindu's life, it has naturally become an object of good 
augury. Consequently it not only figures largely at marriage 
ceremonies, but also appears at birth, puberty, sacred thread 
and tali-tying ceremonies. The widow, being unlucky, must 
not use it, but the dead husband will need it just the same, and 
must have some put in his grave or on his funeral pyre. 


Assam, Burma, Annam and Siam 

With the exception of certain parts of Assam, mentioned 
below, betel-chewing is found throughout the four countries 
which head this section. 

To the east the custom stretches through Cambodia 
and Cochin China to Southern China, while to the south it 
continues into Malaya and so to the Eastern Archipelago. 

References and short descriptions of betel-chewing are 
naturally found in nearly every travel-book on the particular 
locality concerned. It will, therefore, be superfluous to 
attempt to supply a list of works which mention it. I shall 
merely select what I consider reliable and correct descriptions, 
whether they be from old or recent works. 

In the case of Assam we naturally turn chiefly to the 
recent works of Mills, Hutton and Smith. Among both 
the Sema l and Angami 2 Nagas the only narcotic known is 
tobacco. With the Ao Nagas, however, the betel and areca- 
nut are in very common use. In villages where the ingredients 
are easily obtainable most adults chew pan and betel-nut 

A quid consists of a little areca-nut, some lime (shinu, stlni) 9 
a scrap of tobacco and a bit of one of several kinds of bark 
or wood which have the effect of increasing the flow of 
saliva, all wrapped up in a " pan " leaf. Pan is grown in 
many villages, but the areca-nut has to be obtained from 
the plains, though an inferior wild variety is sometimes used. 
Lime is either bought in the plains or made from snail-shells 
or egg-shells. 3 

We get further details in Smith's work 4 on the same 
tribes, who quotes largely from previous observers. Betel- 
chewing is practised by a number of the hill tribes. " Pan 
leaf, betel-nut and lime," writes Hunter, 5 " are essential to 
the comfort of all the hill people, who are inveterate chewers 
of pan. They commence at an early age, and are rarely seen 
without a pan leaf in their mouths ; the females are quite 
disfigured from the practice." 

1 J. H. Hutton, Sema Nagas, 1921, p. 99. 

2 J. H. Hutton, Angami Nagas, 1921, p. 101. 

3 J. P. Mills, The Ao Nagas, 1926, p. 152. 

4 W. C. Smith, Ao Naga Tribe of Assam, 1925, pp. 137-138. 

5 Statistical Account of Assam, vol. ii, p. 220. 


The Khasis " are addicted to the use of . . . betel-nut . . . 
which is chewed in large quantities by both sexes." 1 

" They greatly disfigure their countenances," writes 
Dalton, 2 " by the constant and untidy chewing of pan leaf." 

" They are inveterate chewers," comments Gurdon, 3 " of 
supari and the pan leaf (when they can get the latter), both 
men, women, and children; distances in the interior being 
often measured by the number of betel-nuts that are usually 
chewed on a journey." 

" Betel-nut," writes Stack, 4 " (kove ; Khasi, kwai) is 
largely consumed in the usual way, with lime and pan leaf 
(bithi) ; and (as among the Khasis) time and distance are 
computed by the interval required to chew a nut. (The 
phrase is ingtdt e-om-ta er "the time it takes to chew the 
nut and pan leaf red " : ingtdt, roll for chewing ; e, one ; dm, 
chew ; er, red.") 

The practice is current among the Kachins. "The 
acknowledged form of introduction and friendly interchange 
of courtesies," comments Hanson, 5 " is by exchanging betel- 
nut boxes." The Karen 6 also practise constantly the habit 
of betel-chewing." Dr Hutton is responsible for the state- 
ment that betel-chewing among the Naga tribes is " confined 
to Aos, Lhotas and Konyaks in touch with the betel-chewing 

Mills 7 says that " betel-nut is chewed with pan and lime 
in the villages near the plains. Lime used to be made locally 
from the ground-up shells of fresh-water snails, but is now 
bought in the plains." 

The Rev. S. A. D. Boggs, a former missionary among the 
Garos, reported to the writer that betel-chewing has been on 
the increase among the Garos. It is common among the 
Assamese, and it is the opinion of Mr Boggs that the Garos 
have learned the habit from the Assamese. Among the Ao 
Nagas the habit is deeply entrenched. However, some 
questions arise in this connection. The palm-tree which 
bears the areca- or betel-nut does not thrive well in the hills, 

1 Census of India, 1901, vol. i, p. 198. 

2 Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, p. 57. 

3 The Khasis, p. 5. 

4 The Mikirs, p. 14. 

5 The Kachins, Rangoon, 1913, p. 57. 

6 H. I. Marshall, The Karen People of Burma, 1922. 

7 The Lhota Nagas, p. 82. 


and so the Nagas frequently substitute the bark of a certain 
root for the nut. This may mean that they brought the habit 
with them into the hills and have been keeping it up in spite 
of the scarcity of one of the principal ingredients, or else they 
may have learned the habit from others since taking up their 
present abode. 1 

T. C. Hodson 2 quotes Dr Brown 3 as saying that the 
Manipuris, both male and female, are inveterate chewers 
of pan supdri. The whole of this is brought from the neigh- 
bouring district of Cachar, and forms a considerable trade. 
The betel-nut-tree will not grow in Manipur territory. 

The Shans of Northern Burma are also very addicted to 
the habit, and their teeth become black and shiny. So far 
from considering this a blemish, they look upon it as a mark 
of beauty, saying : " All beasts have white teeth." 

Mr Leslie Mills 4 gives an interesting account of the 
method of making lime for chewing. A place is chosen in 
the jungle where firewood is easily found, and where lime- 
stone blocks are near at hand. A round hole or pit, six feet 
in diameter and five feet in depth, is dug. Then a similar 
excavation is made near it, the intervening ground being 
pierced near the bottom of the pits to unite them. The first 
hole is filled with limestones, which are placed with care, 
leaving plenty of fissures through the mass, so that fire and 
smoke may pass between the stones. In the second pit a 
fire is made, then plenty of wood is piled on the flames ; the 
top is covered, so that the smoke and fire can find an exit only 
through the limestones of the first hole. Lime thus made 
is sometimes sold without further preparations, but often 
turmeric is beaten into it, making it red. When areca-nut is 
chewed, lime is always added, and sometimes cutch, tobacco 
and spices folded in a betel leaf. 

Writing under the pseudonym of Shway Yoe, 5 Sir George 
Scott gives us a very clear description of betel-chewing in 
Burma. It is sometimes carried on simultaneously with 
smoking, but most people prefer to economise enjoyment, 
and chew only in the interval between smokes. Chewing is 

1 See, further, Smith, op. cit, pp. 155, 158 and l6l. 

2 T. C. Hodson, The Meitheis, 1 908, p. 48. 

3 R. Brown, Annual Report on the Munnipore Political Agency, 1874, p. S3. 

4 Shans at Home, 1910, p. 173. 

5 The Burman, his Life and Notions, p. 71. For a short description of 
Burmese betel-boxes see p. 273. 


hardly an exact expression, and the use of it frequently leads 
the experimenting Briton into the unpleasant predicament of 
having all the interstices between his teeth choked up with 
little fragments of the nut, which, with their indescribable 
aromatic flavour, stimulate the flow of saliva for four hours 
afterwards. The Burman splits his nut in half, smears a 
little slaked lime, usually white, but sometimes tinted pink 
or salmon-coloured, on the betel-vine leaf, puts in a little 
morsel of cutch and tobacco, and then rolls it up and stows 
away the quid in the side of his mouth, occasionally squeezing 
it a little between his teeth. It is as well to be very cautious 
with the lime and cutch (the juice of the Acacia catechu) the 
first time you make a trial. The latter especially is very as- 
tringent. Chewing kohng-thee is an unlovely practice. The 
Burman has none of the delicacy with regard to a spittoon 
which characterizes the American, and these articles require 
to be of a very considerable size. The monks are perhaps 
the most persistent chewers of the good betel. Smoking is 
prohibited, but nothing is said against betel, and it is con- 
sidered a great stimulator of the meditative faculties. The 
lime used very speedily corrodes and destroys the teeth, 1 and 
then the old pohn-gyee (Burmese Buddhist monk of highest 
order) has to make the scholars crush up the nuts, so that they 
may not hurt his toothless gums. It is a common belief that 
no one can speak Burmese well till he chews betel. 

In concluding this brief section on Burma I would quote, 
as an example of the present-day spread of betel-chewing, a 
passage from a work by W. G. White on the nomadic Mawken 
people of the Mergui Archipelago. 2 

" Amongst the Dung Mawken, who are taking to the 
Burmese habit of betel-chewing, the custom is coming into 
vogue of the ' joiners ' [i.e. the go-between, who arrange mar- 
riages, etc.] offering to chew areca-nuts with the father of the 
girl and any other members of the family who are to take part 
in the ceremony. If the offer is accepted, agreement is signified, 
and if it is declined, the ' joiners ' cannot fulfil their task." 

Passing over Annam, where we are told 3 "all the 
Annamese, rich and poor, chew the betel-nut " (read " areca- 
nut and pan "), we turn to Siam and Laos. 

1 See the human teeth in the Ethnographical Gallery (Nicobar Islands, 
Case 149) of the British Museum, showing the results of betel-chewing. 

2 The Sea Gypsies of Malaya, p. 203. 

3 G. M. Vassal, On and off' Duty in Annam, p. 107. 


The areca-palm is grown in every part of Siam, but in few- 
districts is the production sufficient to meet the enormous 
demand which the chewing proclivities of the Siamese create. 
In some parts of Southern Siam, however, the supply exceeds 
the demand, and a certain quantity of areca-nut is exported 
thence to other parts of the kingdom and to Singapore 
and Penang. In the suburbs of Bangkok the areca-palm is 
grown in gardens, where the trees are planted in orderly 
rows, interplanted with such other fruit-trees as are found to 
thrive in the thin shade which they cast. In the provinces 
the trees are grown in rough plantations, round about the 
houses of the peasantry, and on any patch of available waste 
land. With its smooth, straight stem, graceful topknot of 
leaves and hanging bunches of fruit, sometimes full fifty feet 
from the ground, the areca is one of the most graceful of all the 
palm family. Once planted in a moist situation, it requires 
absolutely no care, and though it is possible that, by selection 
and manuring, the fruit might be improved, the Siamese 
cultivator has never thought it worth while to take any 
trouble about it. The areca-nut is used fresh, dried or 
pickled. When fresh, the edible, or rather chewable, kernel 
is yellow and soft ; when dry, it is brown and extremely hard, 
and has to be cut up or pounded before it can be used, and 
when pickled, it is soft and brown and rotten-looking. The 
trees yield fruit at the end of their third year, and bear usually 
once but in some places twice a year, from a hundred to 
five hundred nuts. There appears to be a ready and constant 
demand for areca-nut both in India and China, and it is prob- 
able that plantations of these palms in Southern Siam would 
be found highly profitable. Hitherto, however, European 
planters have not taken any interest in this product of 
agriculture. 1 

The betel- vine is grown in gardens, more especially in the 
neighbourhood of Bangkok, where the consumption of it is 
so great that one large market is devoted entirely to its sale. 
The vine requires much care, yields leaves fit for use when 
about a year old, and continues to do so for five years, at the 
end of which time the foliage becomes small and of too strong 
a flavour to be of value. 

In his book on a journey through Upper Siam and Laos, 
Carl Bock 2 gives an illustration of the golden betel set of the 

1 A. W. Graham, Siam, a Handbook, 1912, pp. 318-319. 

2 Temples and Elephants, London, 1 884, pp. 24, 1 86. 


King of Siam. It consists of a number of beautifully carved 
boxes with pyramidal tops, fitting into the upper portion of an 
elaborately made round box which contains the betel leaves. 

As in India, the areca-nut plays a conspicuous part in 
the wedding ceremony. In fact, it actually gives the name to 
the ceremony itself. It is served on a metal or plaited tray, 
and must be accompanied by three other articles : a cake, 
called Kanom-cheen ; a kind of mincemeat, highly seasoned, 
wrapped in plantain leaves, and cooked by steaming ; and, 
thirdly, the sirih leaf and red lime. These are all termed 
Kan mak literally, " a basin of betel-nut " and this is the 
common Siamese name for a wedding. " Like the Siamese," 
says Bock, 1 " the Laosians are perpetually chewing. Whether 
they are busy or idle, they chew : whether they sit or walk, 
they chew. Teeth or no teeth, every Laosian, from almost 
infancy to old age, chews betel. The toothless old folks 
assist nature by placing the betel-nut with the accompany- 
ing ingredients into a small mortar a sort of hybrid between 
a child's popgun and a syringe -which they always carry 
with them ; a few strokes of the rod suffice to crush the nuts 
and reduce them to a pulpy mass warranted not to hurt the 
softest gums." 

Without quoting from further works on Siam 2 we will 
travel south to the Malay Peninsula, where betel-chewing is 

The Malay Peninsula 

All Malays chew betel, and the pagan tribes of the 
Peninsula have learned the habit to a certain extent from 
their overlords. 

Skeat and Blagden 3 give several instances of this. Thus 
the Mantra and Besisi smoke tobacco and chew betel, or, as 
a substitute, cassia leaves, together with gambier and lime, 
which they obtain by barter from the Malays of the coast. 
Betel is only sparingly used, however, among most of the 

1 Op. cil., pp. 254, 255. 

2 See F. A. Neale, Narrative of a Residence at the Capital of the Kingdom 
of Siam, pp. 153-155 ; J. G. D. Campbell, Siam in the Twentieth Century, pp. 146- 
147; A. C. Carter, The Kingdom of Siam, New York and London, 1904, 
pp. 166-167 ; and W. A. Graham, Siam, two vols., London, 1924, vol. ii, pp. 27, 
28, 32. Useful information will also be found in an anonymous article in Notes 
and Queries on China and Japan, September 1868, pp. 136-139. 

3 Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, vol. i, p. 93. 



Semang tribes. The Perak Sakai are exceedingly fond of 
tobacco and betel, the leaf of a wild betel, chambai, being 
used when the Piper catechu is unobtainable. Ridley x says 
that several wild pepper leaves are used as substitutes for 
the betel leaf. He has seen Selangor Sakai near Kuala 
Lumpur cut off long strips of bark from Piper argenteum, with 
the object of chewing them. A portion only of the bark was 
taken in each case, so that the plant might not be killed. 2 

The Benua-Jakun also chew betel, but not to excess like 
the Malays. 3 

Mr Skeat refers me to his remarks on the use of betel leaf 
in Malay marriages. 4 The leaf (sirih) is sent to typify the 
formal proposal of marriage. One of the youth's representa- 
tives, going with others to meet the girl's parents, takes a 
betel-leaf tray furnished with the usual betel-chewing appli- 
ances, and invites the parents to partake of betel, saying, 
before witnesses : " This is a pledge of your daughter's 
betrothal." The passing of betel leaf between the families 
signifies the formal acceptance. A regular exchange of 
presents takes place ; formerly, the woman would occasion- 
ally carve a chain, consisting of three or four links out of a 
single areca-nut, in which case the prospective bridegroom was 
supposed to redeem it by the payment of as many dollars as 
there were links. The areca-nut presented on these occasions 
would be wrapped up in a gradation of three beautifully 
worked cloths, not unlike " d'oyleys " in general appearance. 
Among the articles of ordinary wedding furniture is a betel 
tray placed inside the bed-curtain. Presentation " betel-leaf 
trees " were formerly carried in procession at weddings, also the 
blossom-spikes of the coco-nut and areca-nut palms in vases, 
along with the many other things. 

The great importance of betel as a pledge of courtesy, 
hospitality and good-fellowship entered so much into the 
social life of the Malays, that definite fines were enumerated 
in the Malaya code for any such breach of etiquette : 

" Shall the courtesy of offering betel be not returned, it 
is a great offence to be expiated by the offenders going to ask 

1 See his important work, The Flora of the Malay Peninsula, 5 vols., 
London, 1922-1925. The sections on Piper betle and areca catechu will be 
found in vol. iii, p. 40, and vol. v, p. 4, respectively. 

2 Skeat and Blagden, op. cit. y vol. i, p. 122, 122/* 2 . 

3 Ibid., pp. 129, 133. 

4 Malay Magic, pp. 365-367, 374. 


pardon with an offering of boiled rice and a betel stand ; if 
the neglect be committed towards the headman, it is greatly 
aggravated, and besides the aforesaid offering, the offender 
shall do obeisance and be fined ten mas ; if previous to a 
marriage, or other ceremony, the customary offering of betel 
be not sent, giving notice thereof to headman and elders, 
the party shall be fined the offering of boiled rice and a betel 
stand ; shall a headman give a feast to his dependents and 
omit this etiquette, he shall be entitled not to the name 
of penghulu, but of tuah-tuah only. At circumcisions and 
ear-boring, too, he who has not received the customary 
offering of betel cannot be considered to have had a proper 

R. O. Winstedt, who quotes the above in a paper on Malay 
life and customs, 1 says that the betel quid was the Malay 
valentine, " and the highest favour that could be bestowed 
on a subject from a prince's hand, or rather mouth. But 
the younger generation no longer admires the red saliva and 
the teeth-blackening effect, and so has discarded betel for 
4 Cycle ' cigarettes and the Burma cheroot : perhaps a more 
liberal diet and the cultivation of a more sensitive palate has 
hastened its disuse." 

Mr Ridley, in course of correspondence, has given me 
many curious bits of information about betel in Malay : when 
about to descend a stream containing dangerous rapids, it is 
correct to perform a sacrifice to the spirit of the waters. It 
is safest to offer a white chicken, but, if one is not handy, a 
chew of betel is a good substitute. " I once went down the 
Perak river rapids on a raft of bamboos," says Mr Ridley, in 
a letter to me, " and it is both exciting and risky. The old 
Malay who conducted our raft, which went first (we had three 
rafts), before we started made up a ' chew ' consisting of lime, 
gambier ,areca-nut, and betel leaf. He then declaimed a 
long incantation and hurled the chew ' into the water as an 
offering to the demon of the river." Among curious uses 
to which areca-nut is put may be mentioned that in cases of 
difficult labour. An old woman fills her mouth with small 
pieces of broken nut and spits it up the vagina of the ex- 
pectant mother. The idea seems to be one of suggestion 
just as the betel-chew produces an increased flow of saliva, so 
will the desired result be brought about. 

1 Papers on Malay Subjects, part 2, The Circumstances of Malay Life, Kuala 
Lumpur, 1909, pp. 60-6 1. 


Some further curious customs are given in a recent article, 
"Notes on Malay Magic," by R. O. Winstedt. 1 If a child is 
taken out in the late afternoon, the lobes of its ears and the 
crown of its head are smeared with betel- juice, whose redness 
spirits fear. And at the same hour a Perak woman will walk 
round a house where young children are and spit out yellow 
turmeric at seven places. At a Malay burial betel is often 
put inside the grave for the use of the deceased in the next 
world. For the uses of betel in Malayan folklore see Overbeck, 
Malayan Branch Roy. As. Soc. Journ., vol. ii, pt. iii, 1924, 
pp. 283, 284, and vol. iii, pt. iii, December 1925, pp. 22, 23, 
25, 26 and 28. 

The East Indian Archipelago 2 

The whole of this wide area can be described as a betel- 
chewing region. Even if space permitted, it would be 
superfluous to quote most of the accounts of the custom, as 
they nearly all are mere repetitions of previous observers. 
Nearly every traveller and missionary, since the days of Raffles 
and Marsden, have had something to say on the subject. 

I shall therefore avoid, as far as possible, quoting accounts 
which give us no new information. 


Of the early accounts of betel-chewing in Sumatra the 
most interesting and reliable is undoubtedly that given by 
Thomas Bowrey (1669-1679). In describing Achin he says 3 r 

" The Betelee Areca is here in great plenty and much 
better then in many Other countries of the East and South 
Seas. Very few houses here but have Severall trees of it 
growinge that beare all the yeare longe, and the inhabitants 
in Generall doe Eat thereof, prepared thus : They cutt the 
Areca nut into very thin Slices, and put about one halfe of a 
nut into their mouth, and then one betelee leafe or two (ac- 
cordinge as they are in bignesse), and Spread a little qualified 

1 Malayan Branch Roy. As. Soc. Jour., vol. iii, pt. iii, December 1925 r 
p. 11. 

2 I use this term in preference to " Malay Archipelago," as I mean it to 
exclude the Malay Peninsula, and to include Sumatra, Java, Timor, Borneo,. 
Celebes, the Philippines, and the Moluccas. I treat both Micronesia and 
Melanesia under separate headings. 

3 Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, edited by Sir R. C. Temple, Hakluyt 
Society, 1905, pp. 304-306. 


lime thereon, which by them is called Chenam, which folded 
up together they eat with the Nut, which after a little Chew- 
ing doth produce very much Liquorish moisture in the mouth, 
which for the most part they Swallow downe, and after a good 
while chewinge untill it is dry, they spit it out and take more 
that is fresh, and thus will they almost all day longe chew 
betelee Areca. They hold it good for the Stomach, and 
keepinge the breath Sweet, the latter of which I am very 
well Satisfied in, but if the Nut be green, which here is 
very much in Use, they onely cutt the nutt in 2 pieces and 
paringe off a little of the green rine, eat it with betelee as 
the Other, which doth eat much more pleasant then the Old 
Ones doe. 

" The Leafe is the betelee, a broad leafe not very much 
Unlike to an Ivie leafe, only Somethinge thinner, and groweth 
resemblinge the Vine, as followeth [see Plate XVII, facing 
p. 308]. 

" Areca, vizt. commonly called betelee Nut, doth grow 
Upon a very comely Streight and Slender tree, taperinge in 
joynts, and the nutt groweth out of the body thereof below 
the branches as followeth [see Plate XVII, as above]. It is a 
very hard wood, and much Used by many in India to make 
lances and pikes On." 

In describing the reception by the Queen, Bowrey speaks 1 
of her " Great Gold betelee box as bigge as one of [the] 
eunuchs can well beare in his arms, brought downe and 
placed before them, and they must eat thereof, although 
never Soe little, which is accompted as great an honour here, 
as knighthood in the Courts of European Kings there." 

It is interesting to compare the above descriptions 
with those given by William Dampier when discussing the 
products of Mindanao in the Philippines, and Tonquin. (See 
later, p. 301 et seq.) 

Turning to modern accounts Hurgronje states that the 
use of the betel leaf (ranub) with its accessories (pineung, 
gapu, gambe areca-nut, lime and gambier bakong and sundry 
odoriferous herbs) is absolutely universal. It figures both 
in betrothal and marriage ceremonies, while the areca-nut 
as one of the means of pronouncing a divorce (taleue\ from 
the Arab, taldq) is for the husband to take three fragments of 

1 Op. cit., pp. 309-310. 

2 The Achehnese, translated by A. W. S. O' Sullivan, Ley den and London, 
1906, p. 32. 


ripe areca-nut and hand them over one by one with a kind of 
dignified anger to the wife with the words " one taleue\ two 
taleu'e\ three taleue\ thou art to me but as a sister in this 
world and the next." Thereupon they give notice of the 
dissolution of the marriage to the teungku [title given to those 
who hold an office connected with religion]. 

The idea of divorce is thus intimately connected in the 
minds of women with these three pieces of areca-nut. When 
particularly angry with her husband, a woman will ask him 
to give her "the three bits of areca-nut." 1 It sometimes 
happens that a person who has just paid a visit to a grave 
is seized with a colic, or sits down and behaves as though 
doting. He is then said to be seumapa, meaning that a dead 
person has addressed him or greeted him. In such cases the 
sufferer is bespewed with charmed sirih spittle, a universally 
recognised remedy for many ailments in Acheh. Should this 
red spittle turn yellowish in hue on his body, the conjecture 
that he is seumapa becomes a certainty. 2 

Areca-nut is used in one way or another for the cure of 
nearly every illness. In the case of cholera the nut is 
pounded and the extract drunk in rice-water. 

The most recent information on betel-chewing in Sumatra 
is to be found in Collet's Terres et Peuples de Sumatra, 
Amsterdam, 1925. The first general description appears on 
p. 223 as follows : 

" En revanche, la chique de sirih joue un role fondamental. 
Ce masticatoire se compose d'un fragment de noix d'arec, 
d'un morceau de gambier, d'un soupgon de chaux vive blanche 
et d'une pincee de tabac enveloppes dans une feuille fraiche 
de sirih (piper bettel), pliee selon des regies immuables. Le 
betel, dont le principe actif est une sorte de piperine, agit sur 
le systeme nerveux comme un narcotique leger. La salive 
trop abondante pour ne pas nuire a l'organisme, communique 
une couleur pourpre tout a fait repulsive, aux levres et a la 
cavite buccale." 

In another passage on p. 236, in view of what has previ- 
ously been said about the five fruits, it is interesting to note 
that the ingredients of a "chew" are, in Sumatra, called the 
" five brothers," referring to the betel leaf, the areca-nut, 
lime, gambier, and tobacco. 

Mr Blagden tells me that the above are the five recognised 

1 Hurgronje, op. cit, p. 36*9. 

2 Op. cit., p. 4,13. 


ingredients throughout the whole of Malaya. The inclusion 
of tobacco points, of course, to the recent date of at least one 
of the five ingredients, but I have no reason to doubt that the 
number still reflects the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism 
in the Eastern Archipelago : 

" Comme dans toute la Malaisie, la presentation du sirih 
les ' cinq freres ' d'apres le nombre des ingredients de la 
chique de betel- vient au premier rang des rites de l'hospi- 
talite entre indigenes. Au point de vue de ceremonial, le 
role de ce masticatoire implique l'agrement ou le refus : il 
reste le commencement, la source sociale, l'amorce rituelle de 
toute conversation Kapala Adat, Kapala Bahasa en meme 
temps que Toffre de la cigarette tronconique roulee dans une 
feuille de mai's. Jamais non plus on n'oublie de presenter une 
natte au visiteur pour qu'il s'y accroupisse." 

He gives (p. 311) a full description of betel-boxes and 
the different implements they contain. He also mentions the 
use of betel at both marriage and death ceremonies (see 
pp. 330, 367). 


An early description of chewing is that given by Francois 
Leguat 1 in 1697: "Every one knows what the Betel Leaves, 
and Arequa Nuts are, which all the natives of this Island, 
both Men, Women, and Children chew incessantly . . . ," and 
he proceeds to give the usual account of the process. 

Tavernier 2 (1643-1649) gives an amusing description of the 
King of Bantam chewing betel : 

" On his right side there was an old black woman, who 
held in her hands a small mortar and a pestle of gold, in which 
she crushed the betel leaves, with which she mixed areca-nuts 
and dissolved seed pearls. When she saw that the whole 
was well pounded, she placed her hand on the King's back, 
who at once opened his mouth, and she put the betel in with 
her fingers as women do when they give pap to their infants, 
because the king had no teeth, for he had eaten so much betel, 
and smoked so much tobacco, that his teeth had fallen out." 

Modern accounts 3 tell us little fresh. Campbell (vol. ii, 

1 See Pasfield Oliver's edition for the Hakluyt Society, vol. ii, pp. 229-230. 

2 See Ball's edition, vol. ii, p. 354; or the 1925 reprinted, edited by 
W. Crooke, vol. ii, pp. 275-276. 

3 See e.g. Scidmore, Java the Garden of the East, p. 42 ; Campbell, Java : 
Past and Present, 2 vols, 1915. 


p. 1001) says that if the labourer cannot afford a siri-box, a 
small supply of betel and nuts will usually be found in the 
corner of his handkerchief. Every petty chief and his wife 
have their siri-box, that of the man being termed epok and 
that of the woman chepuri. As in the case of the Sultan of 
Jogjakarta, these sm-boxes are sometimes of solid gold and 
bejewelled with rare workmanship ; they are then considered 
as family heirlooms. Cardamoms and cloves make up part 
of the articles in the siri-box of a person of condition and 


The methods of chewing in both Borneo and Celebes 
present no innovations. Nearly all travel-books to the East 
Indies of the nineteenth century contain the usual short 

Speaking of the Dyaks (or Dayaks) of Sarawak, Hose says 
they are constantly chewing and have both lips and teeth 
discoloured with the practice. 1 

Spencer St John gives us details of the use of the nut and 
betel leaf in Dyak betrothals and marriages. 2 

Besides the ordinary attention which a young man is able 
to pay to the girl he desires to make his wife, there is a peculiar 
testimony of regard which is worthy of note. About nine or 
ten at night, when the family is supposed to be asleep within 
the mosquito curtains in the private apartment, the lover 
quietly slips back the bolt by which the door is fastened on 
the inside and enters the room on tiptoe. He goes to the 
curtains of his beloved, gently awakes her, and she, on hear- 
ing who it is, rises at once, and they sit conversing together 
and making arrangements for the future in the dark over a 
plentiful supply of sirih leaf and areca-nut, which it is the 
gentleman's duty to provide. If, when awakened, the young 
lady arises and accepts the prepared areca-nut, happy is the 
lover, for his suit is in a fair way to prosper, but if, on the 
other hand, she rises and says : " Be good enough to blow 
up the fire," or "to light the lamp," then his hopes are at an 
end, as that is the usual form of dismissal. Of course, if this 
kind of nocturnal visit is frequently repeated the parents do 

1 Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, vol. i, pp. 32, 60. See also 
Hose, Natural Man, London, 1 926, p. 94. 

2 Life in the Forests of the Far East, 2nd edition, 2 vols., London, 1863, 
quoted by Hickson, A Naturalist in North Celebes, p. 274 et seq. 


not fail to discover it, although it is a point of honour among 
them to take no notice of the visit, and, if they approve of 
him, matters take their course ; but if not, they use their 
influence with their daughter to ensure the utterance of the 
fatal: " Please blow up the fire." 

When the courtship is satisfactorily concluded, and it is 
decided that the girl shall be definitely asked in marriage, 
then, with the parents' consent, a day is fixed upon which 
they shall meet together to discuss the harta, or price that is 
to be paid by the young man for his bride. 

As a preliminary to this, a present of nine areca-nuts, nine 
sirih-fruits and some gold or silver ornaments has to be sent 
to the girl. In the olden times of the head-hunters a fresh 
human head was an indispensable preliminary to any marriage 
negotiations ; but this abominable practice was effectually 
stamped out by the Dutch Government many years ago. It 
is probable that this ghastly present was intended not only 
as a proof of personal bravery on the part of the young hero, 
but as a promise that in the world of spirits the young bride 
would have at least one slave to wait upon her. 1 The harta 
was in former times usually paid in land, houses, sagoweer- 
trees, pigs, cloths, etc. Nowadays it is often paid in money, 
one thousand guilders (84) being about the highest harta 
known. 2 

At the appointed time the members of the young man's 
family repair to the house of the bride, bringing with them the 
harta, and after that comes the bridegroom himself. They 
mount the steps of the house and take their places at a 
long table in the principal room, the bride and bridegroom 
sitting side by side at one end of it. At first everything is 
very stiff and formal. Food is served, but not a word is 
spoken by the young couple ; not a muscle of their faces 
moves ; not even a stray glance passes from one to the 

Then comes the priest, who takes a piece of areca-nut and 
solemnly chews it for some time with the sirlh and lime ; this 
he removes from his own mouth and puts it into the bride- 
groom's mouth, who continues the process for some time and 
passes it on to the bride. 

1 G. A. Wilken, "Jets over Schedelvereering bij de volken van den 
Indischen Archipel/' Bijdragen tot de Taal, Land en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch 
Jndie f vol. iv, 1889, p. 89. 

2 N. Graafland, De Minahassa, Rotterdam, 1867-1869. 


When this is done the walian (or balian- i.e. "he who 
turns the spirit " a priest) gives the bride and bridegroom 
rice and pork to eat and sagoweer wine to drink, and the official 
part of the ceremony is concluded. At this moment the 
couple retire to the nuptial chamber, while the guests amuse 
themselves by feasting, drinking and singing, and the priest 
implores the empungs (ancestral heroes, gods or spirits) to pour 
blessings on the happy pair. 

In Dayak Kampongs one notices numerous upright 
pillars, usually carved into human form. They are known 
by the name of kapatongs, and are erected as guardians of 
the dead. One of the first duties of surviving relatives is 
to make the kapatong, the soul of which waits on and guards 
the soul of the departed one. 

A woman carrying a betel-box is believed to watch well, 
because when chewing betel one does not sleep ; but in her 
case there must always be a male kapatong near by, for a 
woman alone is not sufficient protection. Betel makes the 
mouth and lips beautiful in the estimation of the natives, 
therefore many kapatongs are seen with betel-box in hand. 1 


Throughout Celebes the custom plays a very important 
part in the social life of the inhabitants. Many accounts 
could be quoted, but it will suffice to quote from that given 
by Hickson, 2 who deals almost exclusively with Minahassa, 
the most northerly province of the island : 

" The areca-nut 3 plays an important part in courtship 
in Minahassa, as it does all over the Archipelago. 

" When the young Minahassa falls in love with a young 
woman he sends her a prepared areca-nut. If she accepts it, 
it is taken as a sign of encouragement, and the young man 

1 See Carl Lumholtz, Through Central Borneo, vol. i, p. 116, and vol. ii, 
p. 352. For further short notices see H. Ling Roth, Natives of Sarawak and 
British North Borneo, pp. 100, 394-, 395; H. Low, Sarawak: its Inhabitants 
and Productions, 1848, pp. 41, 42; A. C. Hadden, Head-Hunters : Black, White 
and Brown, p. 217. 

2 S. J. Hickson, A Naturalist in North Celebes, London, 1889, pp. 273-274 
and 303-304. See also pp. 332-333 ; and the useful bibliography of one hundred 
and four items on pp. 369-375. 

3 I have altered the word " betel" to "areca" whenever it is incorrectly 


sends an emissary asking her to send him one. If she refuses 
to do this, or sends him one which is not prepared for chew- 
ing, then it is a sign that he is rejected ; but if she wishes 
to become his wife she sends him a well-grown nut, with 
the necessary ingredients, and the lover knows that he is 

" Thus the word ' to court ' is in Tombulu language paha- 
leijaleijan lemaan and in Tompakewasch pangilengilekkan 
tenga, which means c to continually ask for areca-nut of one 

" We constantly find the areca-nut mentioned in the love 
songs and romances : 

1 Ajohan-o-mej tetengaan sambe eh rumojoro 
Aku rumojor-o mange-mo witi walenamij .' 

' Give me the areca-nut box, my friend, and I will go. 
I will go below, and I will go to our house.' 

" The concluding portion of one of their old love songs tells 
us of the reconciliation of the two lovers : 

" She : If you return to your former feelings, then shall I 
have better thoughts of you. 

"He: Love shines through your words, and on that 
account my thoughts return to you. 

" She : If your words are true, dearest, I need have no more 
heartache for you. 

" He : Weeping, cut the areca-nut in two. Weep no more, 
for I will truly take you to me. 

"She: A young areca-nut I will cut in two for you, my 
young love. The young areca-nut will I cut in two, for I love 

" He : Place one half of the young areca in my mouth, and 
my feelings will be ever with you." 

In his work on Central Celebes, Grubauer * gives an inter- 
esting description of the betel-bags, and reproduces eighteen 
specimens on p. 482. They exhibit a great variety of beauti- 
ful designs. For the most part they are oblong, and usually 
have two tassels at the base corners. The particularly well- 
worked specimens date back many years, and it would seem, 

1 A. Grubauer, Unter Kopfjagern in Central- Celebes, Leipzig, 1913, 
pp. 482, 483 and 255. 


as we saw was the case in Ceylon, that few bags with such 
elaborate work are being made to-day. The colours used in 
the dyeing are derived from orchids and various minerals 
found locally. 

Grubauer also gives a plate (on p. 489) showing areca- 
nut cutters. They display excellent workmanship, and fit 
neatly into a small case which allows the handles to remain 
uncovered. The women's cutters differ slightly in design 
from those used by the men. 

Philippine Islands 

Turning to the Philippine Islands, one of the earliest men- 
tions of areca-nuts is to be found in the Chu-fan-chi, already 
quoted on p. 256. The author describes the chief products 
of the country as yellow wax, cotton, pearls, tortoise-shell, 
medicinal areca-nuts and yu-ta cloth. 

One of the first detailed accounts of chewing is that given 
by De Morga at the end of the sixteenth century. He 
describes the betel leaf and the areca-nut as if they both 
came from the same tree. As the main part of the account 
tells us nothing new I shall merely give extracts. 

" The ordinary dainty in all these islands," he says, 
according to Stanley's translation, 1 " and in many kingdoms 
of the mainland, of these parts is the buyo. This is made 
from a tree which has a leaf of the pattern of the mulberry 
leaf, and the fruit is like an acorn of an oak, and the inside 
is white ; this fruit, which is called bonga, is cut lengthwise in 
parts, and each one of these is put into a wrapper or envelope, 
which is made of the leaf, and a powder of quicklime is put 
inside with the bonga, and this composition is put into the 
mouth and chewed ... all their treats and luxury consist 
in dishes and salvers for buyos much gilt, and well arranged, 
as chocolate is served in New Spain ; in these buyos poison 
has been given to many persons, of which they have died 
poisoned, and this is a very common occurrence. 

" The natives, when they go out of their houses, especially 
the great men, carry with them for state and show their small 
boxes which are called buccetas of buyos ready made up, and 
the leaf and nut and quicklime separately ; with these curious 
boxes of metal and other materials, and scissors and other 
tools for making buyos with care and neatness, wherever they 

1 Issued by the Hakluyt Society, 1 868, p. 280 et seq. 


stop they make and use them, and in the Parians, which are 
the markets, they are sold, ready prepared, and the materials 
for making them." 

About a hundred years later we find a good account given 
by William Dampier 1 during his voyage round the world. 
He is discussing the products of Mindanao, and says : 

" The Betel-Nut is much esteemed here, as it is in most 
places of the East-Indies. The Betel-Tree grows like the 
Cabbage-Tree, but it is not so big, nor so high. The Body 
grows strait, about 12 or 14 foot high without Leaf or Branch, 
except at the Head. There it spreads forth long Branches, 
like other Trees of the like nature, as the Cabbage-Tree, the 
Coco-Nut Tree, and the Palm. These Branches are about 
10 or 12 foot long, and their stems near the head of the Tree 
as big as a Man's Arm. On the top of the Tree among the 
Branches the Betel-Nut grows on a tough stem as big as a 
Man's Finger, in clusters much as the Coco-Nuts do, and they 
grow 40 or 50 in a cluster. This Fruit is bigger than a Nut- 
meg, and is much like it, but rounder. It is much used all 
over the East-Indies. Their way is to cut it in four pieces, 
and wrap one of them up in an Arek-leaf, which they spread 
with a soft Paste made of Lime or Plaster, and then chew it 
altogether. Every Man in these parts carries his Lime-box 
by his side, and dipping his Finger into it, spreads his Betel 
and Arek-leaf with it. The Arek is a small Tree or Shrub, of 
a green Bark, and the Leaf is long and broader than a Willow. 
They are packt up to. sell into Parts that have them not, to 
chew with the Betel. The Betel-Nut is most esteem'd when 
it is young, and before it grows hard, and then they cut it 
only in two pieces with the green Husk or Shell on it. It is 
then exceedingly juicy, and therefore makes them spit much. 
It tastes rough in the Mouth, and dies the Lips red, and makes 
the Teeth black, but it preserves them, and cleanseth the 
Gums. It is also accounted very wholsom for the Stomach ; 
but sometimes it will cause great Giddiness in the Head of 
those that are not us'd to chew it. But this is the Effect 
only of the old Nut, for the young Nuts will not do it. I 
speak of my own experience." 

1 A New Voyage Round the World, London, 1697, pp. 318-319. I have 
just brought out (1927) a new edition of this important work as the second 
publication of the Argonaut Press. It contains a really excellent Introduction 
by Sir Albert Gray, President of the Hakluyt Society. The betel reference 
will be found on page 219. 


Readers will at once see that Dampier has confused the 
areca-nut with the betel leaf. However, he soon discovered 
his mistake, and when writing on Tonquin, in his next work, 
Voyages and Discoveries (p. 52), made the necessary correc- 
tions. After repeating the manner of preparing a " chew " he 
speaks of the betel-boxes : 

" The poorer Sort carry a small Pouchful about with 
them : But the Mandarins, or great Men, have curious oval 
Boxes, made purposely for this use, that will hold fifty or 
sixty Betle Pellets. These Boxes are neatly lackered and 
gilded, both Inside and Outside, with a Cover to take off ; 
and if any Stranger visits them, especially Europeans, they 
are sure, among other good Entertainment, to be treated 
with a Box of Betle. The Attendant that brings it, holds it 
to the left Hand of the Stranger ; who therewith taking off 
the Cover, takes with his right Hand the Nuts out of the Box. 
'Twere an Affront to take them or give or receive any thing 
with the left Hand, which is confined all over India to the 
viler Uses. 1 

"It is accounted good Breeding to commend the Taste 
or Neatness of this Present ; and they all love to be flatter'd. 
You thereby extreamly please the Master of the House, and 
ingage him to be your Friend : and afterwards you may be 
sure he will not fail to send his Servant with a Present of 
Betle once in two or three Mornings, with a Complement 
to know how you do. This will cost you a small gratuity to 
the Servant, who joyfully acquaints his Master how grate- 
fully you received the Present : and this still engages him 
more ; and he will complement you with great Respect 
whenever he meets you." 

Further descriptions are unnecessary. I shall therefore 
refer readers to that enormous work on the history of the 
Philippines, 1493-1898, in fifty-five volumes, by Blair and 
Robertson. 2 The index occupies the last two volumes. Full 
references to betel-chewing will be found in vol. liv, p. 144, 
under the word " Buyo." 

1 For the unclean left hand among the Moslems see Burton, Nights, 
vol. i, p. 264, 264w 3 , and vol. iv, p. 129b 1 . 

2 Published at Cleveland, Ohio, 1903-1909. 


Southern China 

Betel-chewing has been known in Southern China from 
a very early date, and in all probability owes its existence to 
the introduction of Buddhism. 

One of the early references is to be found in Nan shih, the 
biography of Liu Mu-chih (ob. 417), which was compiled in 
the seventh century. 

In c. 15, fol. 2 v we read 1 : 

" Mu-chih used to go to his wife's brothers' house to 
sponge on them for meals. His wife was ashamed of this, 
but could not stop it. Mu-chih still went, and after the meal 
asked for areca-nut (pin-lang). Mu-chih [wifej's brothers 
laughed at him and said : ' Areca-nut makes food vanish 
[i.e. accelerates digestion], that is why you are always 
hungry.' " 

In T l ang shu, the history of T'ang, a.d. 600-900, is a 
description of the country of P'an-p'an in the Southern 
Sea, where " at all weddings they make presents of areca- 

We get further information from Ling-wai-tai-ta, in which 
the author's preface is dated 16th November 1178. In a 
paragraph on pin-lang (c. 8, fol. 3) he says : " The fruit 
grows on the leaves, fastened to them in clusters, as on willow 
twigs. When gathered in the spring it is called juan-pin- 
lang (or soft areca-nuts), and is commonly known as pin- 
lang-sien (or fresh areca-nuts) ; it is then good to chew. 
When gathered in the summer or the autumn and dried it is 
called mi-pin-lang (or rice areca-nuts). Preserved in salt it 
is called yen-pin-lang (or salted areca-nuts). Small and 
pointed nuts are called M-sin-pin-lang (or chicken heart 
areca-nuts), large and flat ones ta-fu-tzi (or big bellies)." 

The above passage was repeated verbatim by Chau Ju- 
Kua in his Chu-fan-chi, 2 who describes the pin-lang as coming 
" from several foreign countries, 3 also from the four dis- 
tricts of Hai-nan ; it is likewise found in Kiau-chi. The tree 
resembles the coir palm. . . . When chewed, these nuts have 

1 I am indebted to the Rev. A. C. Moule for this translation, and also for 
the two following references. 

2 Translated and annotated by Hirth and Rockhill, pp. 213-214. 

3 In a report on the trade of Canton in 1834 (p. 451) it is stated that 
most of the "betel" imported into China came from Java, Malacca and 


the effect of preventing eructation. In San-fo-ts'i they make 
wine out of the juice." He also borrows from Ling-wai-tai-ta 
in saying that the Customs at Canton and Ts'iian-chou 
derive an annual income of several tens of thousands of strings 
of cash from the trade carried on in this product by foreign 
ships. The " fresh nuts " and " salted nuts " come from 
there, whereas the ki-sin and the ta-fu-tzi varieties come 
mostly from Ma-i [the Philippine Islands]. 

In a chapter on Hainan Chau Ju-Kua describes the 
island as having mountains covered with areca- and coco- 
nut-palms, and that the areca-nuts are " extraordinarily 

The great Chinese encyclopaedia, T'u Shu Chi Ch'eng, 
has several references to areca-nuts and betel-chewing. In 
quoting the passages it must be remembered that the en- 
cyclopaedia consists of long extracts or precis from Chinese 
works en masse, and not of comprehensive articles, such as are 
found in similar Western works. 

Thus the Hsi hart nan fang ts'ao mu chuang states that 
" Betel-nut is grown in Lin-i [Cambodia or Cochin China], 
and the natives prize it highly. When entertaining relations 
by marriage, this is the first thing they offer them, and if it 
is not produced when they happen to meet, bad blood will 
ensue." The above statement is repeated in CKi min yao 
shu and other works. Pen ts'ao kang mu describes the climate 
of the southern regions as very damp, " and unless areca-nut 
be eaten, there is no way of warding off malaria. . . . The 
inhabitants of Ling-nan [Kuangtung and Tongking] use 
areca-nut in place of tea as a prophylactic against malaria. 
Its virtues are fourfold : (1) it can make sober men drunk ; 
(2) it can make drunk men sober ; (3) it can still the pangs 
of hunger ; (4) it can give an appetite for food." 

The above translations have been kindly made for me by 
Dr Lionel Giles, and are from xx, 285, of the T'u Shu Chi 
Ch'eng. (See his Index to the Chinese Encyclopaedia.) 

With regard to the use of the areca-nut in Chinese 
funerals, De Groot explains 1 how a kinsman or friend of the 
family clears the way through the streets at the head of the 
procession. When anything obstructs the passage, such as a 
stall of goods for sale, or a load set down by a coolie for rest, 
he requests the owner to remove it, at the same time offering 
him, by the hands of a coolie who follows at his heels, a piece 

1 Religious System of China, vol. i, 1892, pp. 153-154 and 205. 


of an areca-nut and a little wet lime-dough, wrapped in one or 
two siri leaves. This coolie, who wears no mourning, carries 
a basket of these articles for distribution. In Southern 
China the chewing of betel and siri as a stimulant seems to 
have been very common in bygone centuries, but it has now 
almost entirely died out, being supplanted, it would appear, 
by tobacco- and opium-smoking. Nevertheless, probably as 
a survival of those good old times, it is still customary for 
any man living at variance with another, in case he desires to 
apologise and accommodate matters, to send some of these 
articles to the latter' s house, like a flag of truce ; and it would 
be considered highly improper on the part of the party to 
whom the hand of reconciliation is tendered in this way to 
refuse to accept the same. This fully explains why betel and 
siri are also distributed at funerals. Indeed, the clearer of 
the road confesses himself in the wrong with regard to the 
person whom he disarranges, and accordingly he immediately 
makes his apologies. In many instances, clearing the road is 
simply entrusted to the coolie alone ; at most of the plainer 
funerals it is entirely omitted. At burials of the highest 
order it is customary to station men along the road to dis- 
tribute siri leaves and areca-nuts amongst the notable persons 
walking in the procession. 

Though most of them do not partake of these drugs, it 
would be inconsistent with good manners to refuse to accept 
them. So most men just hold them between their fingers, 
or give them away to the coolies or anybody who likes 

In the Chinese Materia Medica, pp. 46-47, G. A. Stuart 
refers to the usually accepted theory that the Chinese name 
for areca-nut, pin-lang, is a transcription of the Malay pinang, 
but states that one authority, Li Shih Chen, says it means 
" an honoured guest," and that the characters in question are 
used because of the practice of setting the betel-box before 

The betel-vine is said to grow in South China as far 
north as Szechuan. The leaves are used in Yunnan as a 

Areca-nuts form one of the chief exports from Hainan, 
where there are large groves of the areca-palm, especially at 
Aichow and Lingshui. The trees are planted some fifteen feet 
apart, and bear fruit from the age of ten to ninety years. 
Their most prolific period is between their fifteenth and 



thirtieth year, when one tree will produce seven or eight 
hundred nuts, valued at about forty cents. Large herds of 
cattle are allowed to roam at will through the plantations, 
and their manure serves to fertilise the soil. The groves 
are said to be the seat of malaria, especially at the season 
when the trees are in flower. Hainan nuts are superior to 
those from Singapore, which are imported for the purposes 
of adulteration. 

In recent years it appears that the areca-palm is culti- 
vated in Hainan only on a very small scale compared with 
the extensive cultivation in Indo-China. The Chinese soil 
and climate are not so suitable for its growth, owing to the 
excessive presence of moisture. 

Apart from the use of areca-nuts in Southern China for 
chewing, and their connection with various ceremonies, such 
as weddings, etc., to which we have already referred, they 
are also eaten in different ways. They are generally cooked 
with chicken essence and served at the end of a meal as 
dessert, or else they are sliced thinly and rolled up in green 
herbage, accompanied by slices of fresh coco-nut. 

In the years 1922-1924 the average tonnage of imported 
areca-nuts was 3175, while the export for the same years was 


Micronesia embraces the Pelew, Caroline, Marianne and 
Gilbert groups of islands. Betel-chewing exists in the first 
three groups, but appears to be unknown in the Gilbert 
Islands, where kava-drinking is the chief narcotic. " There 
is certainly no betel-chewing in the Gilbert or Ellice Islands," 
says Mr Woodford (of the Solomon Islands) in a letter to 
me : " both groups are merely coral atolls and the areca-palm 
would not grow there." 

The Pelew Islands 

Accounts of the custom in the Pelew Islands seem very 
few and far between. I notice, however, several references 
in Keate's work, derived from the journals of Captain Henry 
Wilson 1 : 

1 Account of the Pelew Islands, 2nd edit., London, 1788, pp. 299, 311. 
Similar evidence is found in J. S. Kubary, Etknographische Beitrage zur Kenntniss 
des Karolinen Archipels, Leyden, 1895, p. 165. 


" The Beetle-nut they had in abundance, and made great 
use of it, though only when green ; contrary to the practice 
of the people of India who never use it but when dry." 

The plate facing p. 332 shows a betel-basket, without 
which " no man stirred abroad the common order of people 
had a short piece of bamboo, in which they carried the 
powdered chinam, to strew over the beetle-nut before they 
put it in their mouths. The Rupacks, or great people, had 
their chinam in a long slender bamboo nicely polished, and 
inlaid with pieces of shells at each end ; and these were often 
not inelegantly fancied." 

As in so many other betel-chewing areas, the Pelew 
islanders place betel on the grave of the deceased, often by 
the side of coco-nuts, both of which will be wanted in the 
future life. 

The Carolines 

As we proceed eastwards from the Pelew Islands we are 
gradually approaching the kava-drinking area. It is even 
more difficult to determine exactly where these two customs 
meet in Micronesia than it is in Melanesia. 

A comparative study of the overlapping of the two 
cultures, for so we must designate them, as shown in these 
two great Oceanic groups of islands, presents a most in- 
teresting problem, which would repay a much closer study 
by anthropologists than it has as yet received. As we shall 
shortly see, Dr Rivers has studied the problem as far as 
Melanesia is concerned, but Micronesia offers even greater 
opportunities for research. The whole history of all the 
Oceanic peoples is involved. 

In Micronesia the dividing line between betel-chewing 
and kava-drinking clearly falls in the Caroline Islands. From 
the evidence I have studied at the Royal Geographical Society 
I would put it mid-way between Yap in the west and 
Ponape in the east. It seems impossible to make any 
more definite statement than this. I feel sure that a close 
examination of all the Caroline Islands would reveal in 
which direction the encroaching custom is betel-chewing or 

The problem, however, is not to be solved as easily as this, 
for the Carolines afford paradoxical evidence. Thus in Yap 
the words used for betel show their Polynesian origin, yet 
kava-drinking here is unknown. In Ponape and Kusaie two 


varieties of areca-palm (katai and kotop) grow in abundance 
in the highlands, yet betel-chewing is absent and kava- 
drinking in vogue. 1 

The Marianne Islands 

The largest and most important island of the Marianne 
or the Ladrones group is Guam. It lies about 1200 miles 
east of the Philippines, and was discovered by Magellan in 
1521. Narratives of early navigators and accounts of con- 
temporary Jesuit missionaries tell us that the custom of 
betel-chewing was universal, and that the lime used in the 
" chew " was obtained by burning coral rock. Kava, so 
widely used throughout Polynesia, was unknown. 

To-day matters have changed but little, and every native 
is addicted to betel-chewing. Both the areca-palm and the 
betel- vine had been cultivated on the island before its dis- 
covery by Magellan, while the only other narcotic known, 
tobacco, was introduced by the Spaniards from America. 
The areca-palm, although frequently planted by the natives, 
also grows spontaneously. Thousands of young plants 
may be seen," says Safford, in his report on Guam, " in the 
rich valleys of the southern part of the island where seeds 
have fallen from the palms." 2 The betel- vine occurs only in 
a state of cultivation, but requires little care, the natives 
propagating it very easily from cuttings and allowing it to 
creep upon stone walls and to climb over trees. 

Excellent illustrations of the areca-palm and betel-vine 
will be found in Plates XXXV and LXIII of Safford's work. 
He points out that several important plants, such as rice, the 
betel-vine and the areca-palm, cultivated by the aborigines 
of Guam, were entirely unknown in Eastern Polynesia. They 
are, he says, undoubtedly of Malayan origin and bear Malay 
names. 3 They probably found their way to the Malayan 
Islands after the departure of the people who spread over 

1 See F. W. Christian, Caroline Islands, p. 189, and also pp. 263-264 
and 334. Frazer gives several references to betel in Yap in his Belief in 
Immortality, vol. iii, pp. 10, 171. 

2 The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam, contributions to the U.S. 
National Herbarium, vol. ix, Smithsonian Inst., 1905, pp. 146-147. 

3 The areca-nut is called pugua in Guam, pua in the Banda Islands, puah, 
buah in Amboina, niga in the Solomons, hue in New Britain, bua in the Pelew 
Islands, and bonga or bunga in the Philippines. The vine is called pupulo or 
pupulu in Guam, kolula in the Western Solomons. 


the eastern Pacific Islands, but before the separation of the 
settlers of Guam from the parent stock. 1 

Betel-chewing is a matter of etiquette at all wedding 
feasts, dances and funerals. Nuts deprived of their fibrous 
envelopes, fresh pepper leaves and quicklime, together with 
cigars, are passed round to the assembled guests. 2 

The kava pepper does not grow in Guam, and in islands 
where it is cultivated, its leaves are occasionally used in the 
place of those of the betel-vine for chewing. 


Of the three great groups of islands into which Oceania 
is divided, Melanesia, the most southerly, especially claims 
our attention. For it is among this group of islands that we 
can see the farthest eastern limit of betel-chewing, and the 
gradual substitution of kava-drinking. 

Melanesia consist of the following : 

1. Bismarck Archipelago. 6. Banks Islands. 

2. Eastern New Guinea. 7. New Hebrides. 

3. Louisiade Archipelago. 8. Loyalty Islands. 

4. Solomon Islands. 9. New Caledonia. 

5. Santa Cruz Islands (with 10. Fiji Islands. 

Cherry Island, Mitre 
Island and Tikopia 

I have arranged the list as far as possible from west to 
east, in order to show clearly where betel-chewing dies out. 
The first four groups are betel-chewing peoples. No. 5 
indulges in both practices (though kava-drinking here is 
chiefly ceremonial), and Nos. 6 to 10 are exclusively kava- 

The two customs never really exist together, and if they 
appear to do so, we can be sure that we are witnessing the 
swamping of the one by the other. It would seem that betel- 
chewing is gaining on kava-drinking, but, as already intimated, 
the importance of this aspect of our subject is much greater 
than merely to excite the curiosity of a chance observer. It 
helps to determine the history of Melanesian immigrants into 
Melanesia and in showing the existence of a culture altogether 
different from that prevailing farther south and in Polynesia. 

1 Safford, op. cit., p. 154. 2 Ibid., p. 187. 


To such an extent was Dr Rivers struck by the high import- 
ance of the division of Melanesia into these two classes 
those who chew betel, and those who drink kava that in 
his great work, The History of Melanesian Society, he bases his 
whole theory of Melanesian immigration on the acceptance 
of the existence of two separate peoples, whom he calls the 
" Betel-people " and the " Kava-people." 

In a letter to me on the subject, Professor Williamson 
considers it possible that the " Betel-people " may have 
reached Polynesia, though he owns that during his long 
experience in Polynesian society x he has never found betel- 
chewing to exist. We shall return to the subject again 

It is unknown both in Australia and New Zealand. 

Speaking of the natives of New Ireland (New Mecklenburg) 
Rannie says 2 that he has seen a very marked effect on 
them when, during a trip to Queensland, they have been 
deprived of their " chew." When starting chewing again 
on their return they become very dull, stupid and sleepy, but 
the effect wears off in a few days. 

It will be amply sufficient for our purpose to discuss 
betel-chewing in Papua, the Solomons and, finally, the little 
island of Tikopia, which I regard as the most easterly point 
where the custom is observed. 

Eastern New Guinea 

In Eastern New Guinea, or Papua, betel-chewing occurs 
among the Massim in the south-east, including all the island 
groups, such as the Louisiade Archipelago, and among the 
western Papuo-Melanesians, stretching as far west on the 
southern coast as the Cape Possession. 

Professor Seligmann refers me to his work, The Melanesians 
of British New Guinea, in which he has inserted a sketch-map 
delimiting these two large groups (p. 6), and also a photo- 
graph of the ceremonial lime-gourd of the Peace, or Priest 
Chief (the two are synonymous) of a Mekeo tribe, who can 
stop any quarrels by scattering lime from his gourd (p. 343). 

There appears to be some doubt as to whether the leaf of 
Piper methysticum is used in betel-chewing. Rivers, Melan- 
esian Society, vol. ii, p. 533, states that in the Bismarck 
Archipelago the leaf used in betel-chewing is probably that 

1 See his Social and Political Systems of Central Polynesia, 3 vols., 1924. 

2 My Adventures among South Sea Cannibals, p. 267. 


of Piper methysticum, while in a recent copy of Man l E. W. 
Pearson Chinnery has written an article on the subject. 
Rivers may possibly be right about the Bismarck Archipelago, 
but Chinnery can hardly be correct about Papua. As Sir 
Everard im Thurn clearly proved in a later number of 
Man, 2 his own description of the leaf in question shows 
that it must have been either the well-known Piper betle 
or possibly the Piper insectifugum, which is similar in habit 
or growth. 

Chinnery speaks of the leaf as " a creeping plant which 
clings to trees in the gardens and villages," and has found 
by personal experience that its flavour is bitter and hot. 
The true kava-plsmt is an upright-growing shrub, and is not 
bitter and hot to the taste. (See further the article by im 
Thurn, noted above.) 

Chinnery's article, however, affords a very interesting 
description of betel-chewing in the Mambare and Kumusi 
divisions of Papua. The ingredients used are three in 
number dang or cha (the areca-nut), ong (lime) and pingi 
(Piper betle ?). 3 Dang or cha is the nut of a species of areca- 
palm, which is extensively cultivated by the Binandere- 
speaking tribes of the coast and the lowlands of the interior. 
It is similar to the cultivated buatau (pidgin Motuan) of other 
coastal regions. Ong is obtained by burning river shells in 
kilns. A layer of shells is placed between each layer of mid- 
ribs of the nipa palm, and the kiln is lighted from the top ; 
it burns downwards and deposits the burnt shells in a heap 
among the ashes, from which they are afterwards separated 
and reduced to powder by pounding. Betel-chewing occupies 
a place of great importance in the ceremonial life of the 
Binandere. The man who has been decorated for homicide, 
and has attained the state known as kortopu, is permitted to 
ornament his lime-gourd with beeswax and red seeds, and 
rattle his lime stick against the opening of the gourd when 
withdrawing it from the lime. Temporary abstinence from 
betel-chewing is a form of self-denial which people are 
at times obliged to practise. An instance of this is seen 
in songs of instruction during the ceremonies following 
burial, when widows fulfilling the obligations of mourning 
are forbidden, among other taboos, to eat the betel mixture 

1 February 1922, p. 24 et seq. 

2 April 1922, p. 57. 

3 Here Chinnery wrote Piper 


or even desire it. The phrases of the betel-chewing taboo 
are : 

Dang ta ge go Lorie ! 
(Areca-nut of speak not widow.) 
Pingi ta ge go Lorie ! 
(Betel-pepper of speak not widow.) 

Another instance of the ceremonial importance of areca- 
nut (in this case the wild variety) was observed by Chinnery 
on Mount Chapman. There he was informed that tribes 
usually at war with one another congregate peacefully during 
initiation ceremonies. The symbol of this temporary truce 
is a piece of broken areca-nut (ve the wild variety), which is 
distributed among those gathered together by the givers of 
the ceremony. The ceremony finished, all who have par- 
ticipated return to their districts and the truce ends. In this 
district lime is produced from the many limestone caves 
which occur in the locality, and carried in leaves, gourds 
being absent. 

The use of the pingi plant as part of the mixture of betel- 
chewers has an extremely wide distribution in Papua. On the 
watershed of the Kiko river, M. Staniforth Smith (Annual 
Report, British New Guinea, 1911, p. 170) found a kava-plsait, 
Macropiper methysticum, in a native garden, but saw no 
evidence of the manufacture of the beverage. 

The betel-chewer, when starting on a journey, invariably 
carries in his netted bag a supply of areca-nuts and a gourd 
filled with lime, but he does not appear to stock himself with 
pepper in the same careful way. His appearance in the 
village he is visiting is a signal for someone to dash away to 
the outskirts and reappear in a few moments with a coil 
or stalks of the pepper plant. He accepts this as a matter of 
course, and frequently gives areca-nuts in return ; others 
gather around, and in a few moments all of them are chewing 
and talking with evident enjoyment. 

In some of the mountain districts visited by Chinnery 
betel-chewing is not known. Chief among these are the 
Biagi districts of Mount Victoria. But the influence has 
spread far inland in other parts, though in the mountainous 
regions the areca-nut-palm is seldom cultivated, and the 
habit is not so much in favour as it is on the coast. Evidence 
of this is shown by the white teeth of the inhabitants, and 
the frequent absence of lime-gourds in mountain districts. 


Chinnery is of the opinion that betel-chewing is a relatively- 
late influence. Further botanical evidence is required, how- 
ever, before any definite statement on this point can be made. 

Although betel-chewing is apparently not indulged in by 
the Mafulu mountain people to such an extent as it is in 
Mekeo and the coast, the custom can be described as fairly 
common. For a month or so before a big feast, during which 
period they are under a strict taboo restriction as to food, 
they indulge in it largely. The betel used by them is not the 
cultivated form used in Mekeo and on the coast, but a wild 
species only about half the size of the other ; and the lime 
used is not made by grinding down sea-shells, but is obtained 
from the mountain-stone, which is ground down to a powder. 1 
The gourds in which the lime is carried are similar to those 
used in Mekeo, except that usually they are not ornamented, 
or, if they are, the ornament is done only in simple, straight- 
lined geometric patterns (see Plate LI, Figs. 6 and 7, p. 166). 

The spatulse are sometimes very simple and rudely de- 
corated. The people spit out the betel after chewing, instead 
of swallowing it, as is the custom in Mekeo. 

Before passing on to the Solomon Islands, I will conclude 
this section with a description of the custom among a little- 
known tribe dwelling on the banks of the Fly river. 

About sixty miles from the mouth of the Fly, on the 
eastern side, is a point called Gaima. This forms the first 
outlet on the river bank of a people called Girara by Mr W. N. 
Beaver, 2 who was magistrate in the Western Division of Papua 
for twenty-seven years. 

They inhabit the inland district between the rivers Fly 
and Bamu. All the Girara people are inveterate betel- 
chewers, and a bag containing a lime-pot and chewing gear 
is the invariable companion of every man wherever he goes. 
The betel is not the variety used in the east end, but a 
species which the Motuans call viroro. As is well known, 
betel is eaten with lime and various peppers, the best kinds 
of which are grown as climbers. The Giraras obtain lime by 
burning epa shell, which they obtain principally from Pagona, 

1 R. W. Williamson, The Mafulu Mountain People of British New Guinea, 
London, 1912, p. 66. 

2 W. N. Beaver, Unexplored New Guinea, London, 1920, p. 205 et. seq. It 
has now been settled that the name of the tribe should be " Gogodara." 
See A. P. Lyons, " Notes on the Gogodara Tribe of Western Papua," Journ. 
Roy. Anth. Inst, vol. lvi, 1926, p. 329 et seq. 


on the Fly. Betel-chewing appears to be attended with 
rather more ceremony here than Beaver noticed elsewhere. 
When about to indulge in an orgy of chewing, the Girara 
man seats himself cross-legged on the ground and spreads his 
chewing gear around. (See the illustration facing p. 192.) He 
peels four or five nuts and places them on his thigh. Then, 
drawing a long thin bone needle or skewer from its case in the 
bag, he impales the nuts, one at a time, and starts to chew, 
adding lime and pepper until he has a suitable quid. The 
quid is kept in the mouth day and night, and even when a 
man is talking to you, you can see the large red ball project- 
ing from his lips. The lime sticks and betel needles are 
usually made of cassowary bone, but appear not to have 
reached the high stage of the Trobriand islander, who con- 
siders it a mark of esteem to manufacture pieces of his dead 
relatives' bones into lime sticks. As amongst most betel- 
chewers, the rattle of the lime stick in the gourd is used to 
express the feeling of the user. He may sit stolidly enough, 
chewing, but you can tell by the way he rattles his stick 
whether he is pleased, angry, contemptuous or just merely 
" don't care." The continued chewing among the Giraras 
renders them somewhat dazed and stupid-looking, and Beaver 
is of the opinion that the betel used in the district is a very 
strong variety. Owing, however, to the universal use of 
areca-nut, there is very little gamada (kava) drunk. 1 

The Solomon Islands 

The earliest description of betel-chewing in the Solomon 
Islands is that given by Alvaro de Mendana in 1568. It will 
be noted that he omits any mention of the areca-nut. I quote 
the following passage from Amherst and Thomson's edition, 
published by the Hakluyt Society 2 : 

" Their tongue and lips are very red, for they colour them 
with a herb which they eat ; it has a broad leaf, and burns 
like pepper ; they chew this herb with lime which they make 
from white lucaios, which is a stone formed in the sea like 
coral ; and having a piece of this lime in their mouths, it 

1 Further references to betel-chewing in Papua will be found in I. H. 
Holmes, In Primitive New Guinea, pp. 53, 54, 56 and 6l ; and W. V. Saville, 
In Unknown Guinea, p. 64. 

2 Discovery of the Solomon Islands, edited, with Introduction and Notes, 
by Lord Amherst of Hackney and Basil Thomson, Hakluyt Society, London, 
1901, p. 134. 


makes a red juice, and this is why their tongues and lips are 
always so red ; they also smear their faces with this juice for 
ornament. Although they chew this herb, they do not get 
this red juice unless they mix it with the said lime." 

And here I may say a word on this " red juice," with 
which we are now so familiar. In spite of numerous inquiries 
among botanists and anthropologists I have not yet found a 
scientific explanation of exactly what chemical action takes 
place in betel-chewing for the saliva to turn red. Personally 
I believe it is due to the action of the lime on the juice of the 
betel-leaf, and that the areca-nut has nothing to do with it 
at all. 

Mr C. M. Woodford, the Resident Commissioner of the 
Solomon Islands (1896-1914), agrees with me, and says that 
lime produces a similar change of colour in other vegetable 
juices. For instance, a decoction of the root of Morinda 
citrifloria is yellow, but changes to red with the addition of 
lime, and forms the source of the red dye used by the natives 
of the Solomon Islands. 

Yet Dr Guppy says * that the red colour may be readily 
obtained by mixing the areca-nut and lime in rain-water. 
A few simple experiments could surely settle the question 

Mr Woodford tells me that, as far as his observation goes, 
the Areca catechu does not occur wild in the Solomons, but is 
grown always as a cultivated tree. There are certain inferior 
species of Areca indigenous to the Solomons which are also 
used in the absence of the cultivated nut. The unhusked 
nuts of Areca catechu are yellow when ripe, and as large as a 
small hen's- egg. The nuts of the indigenous species of areca 
are much smaller, about the size of large acorns, but are more 
numerous to the spathe. 

Dr Guppy 2 mentions five species of areca besides the 
cultivated Areca catechu. In another part of his work 3 he 
gives further details about betel-chewing. 

In St Cristoval and the neighbouring small islands the lime 
is carried in bamboo boxes, which are decorated with patterns 
scratched on their surface. In the islands of Bougainville 

1 The Solomon Islands and their Natives, London, 1887, p. 303. Lewin, 
Ueber Areca Catechu, Chavica Betle und das Betelkauen, p. 66, maintains that 
the red colour is due to the areca-nut alone. 

2 The Solomon Islands and their Natives, London, 1887, p. 303. 

3 Op. cit, pp. 95-96*. 


Straits gourds are employed for this purpose, the stoppers 
of which are ingeniously made of narrow bands of the leaf 
of the sago-palm wound round and round in the form of a 
disc and bound together at the margin by fine strips of the 
vascular tissue of the sinimi fern (Gleichenia sp.). Plain 
wooden sticks, like a Chinese chopstick, are used for con- 
veying the lime to the mouth ; but frequently the stick is 
dispensed with, when the fingers are used, or the areca-nut 
is dipped into the lime. 

The betel, known in Bougainville Straits as the kolu, is 
grown in the plantations, where it is trailed around the stems 
of bananas and the trunks of trees. In these straits, as on 
the Malay coast of New Guinea, the female spike, or so-called 
fruit, is more usually chewed with the areca-nut. Around 
St Cristoval the leaves are generally preferred. 

Dr Guppy also gives an interesting account of the effect 
the chewing of one, and then of two, areca-nuts had on his 
pulse, head and sight. He found their intoxicating qualities 
far greater than he had before suspected (see op. cit. 9 p. 96). 

For the ceremonial use of the areca-nut among the people 
of San Cristoval see the recent work by C. E. Fox, 1 who gives 
several folk-tales in which both nuts and leaves play an 
active part. They also figure in birth, wedding and death 
ceremonies in somewhat the same way as among the tribes 
and castes of Southern India. 

There is a curious belief that if a man bites round an areca- 
nut someone in his clan will die. He must always bite 

If a boy with his first set of teeth chews areca, he must 
throw the husks into the fire, or his teeth will fall out. 

Tikopia Island 

The natives of the Reef Island chew betel and do not 
drink kava. But in the Santa Cruz group and in the Vani- 
kolo Island, to the south-east, we find that, although betel- 
chewing is in vogue, kava is drunk on ceremonial occasions. 
The same conditions are found in Tikopia and Cherry Island. 

East of this, kava-drinking exists alone and forms the 
chief feature of the whole of Polynesia. As to the different 
methods of making kava, and the significance this has on the 
movement of the cult, readers should study chapter xxvi of 

1 The Threshold of the Pacific, London, 1924, pp. 11 6, 121, 159, 160, 1 67, 
183, 212, 230, 321 and 322. 


Rivers' work. 1 It follows, he argues, from the distribution 
of kava and betel that the &aaa-people settled in Southern 
Melanesia, Fiji and Polynesia, while the betel-people did not 
extend in their south-easterly movement beyond the Solomon 
and Santa Cruz islands. 

As Tikopia is the most easterly point where betel-chewing 
occurs, we will conclude with a few details given by Rivers 
in Melanesian Society (vol. i, pp. 333, 322, 316, 314). 

Tikopia is a tiny volcanic island situated in lat. 12 17' S., 
and long. 168 58' E. The inhabitants are very fond of 
betel, which enters largely into the more important of their 
ceremonies. Both the areca-nut (kaura) and the betel leaf 
(pita) must be very plentiful. The lime, called kapia, is 
kept in simple undecorated gourds, and the elderly chief 
of the Taumako, whom Rivers saw on his visit, prepared 
his betel mixture in a cylindrical vessel with a spatula, 
exactly in the same way as it is done by elderly men in the 
Solomon Islands. 

It seemed quite clear to Rivers that the kava, which is 
used so extensively in ceremonial, was never drunk. 

The Tikopians become possessed by the atua or ghosts of 
their ancestors, and when in such a state (recognized by a 
sort of ague, staring eyes and shouting) are asked questions 
by men of equal rank. A man who asks a question chews 
betel, and taking some of the chewed mass from his mouth 
he holds it out to the possessed man, saying, " Eat," and it 
is eaten by the possessed man, who is then ready to answer 
his questioner. 

Offerings of kava and food are made to the dead, and with 
the food some areca-nut, without either betel leaf or lime, is 
given. At the death of a chief all the relatives abstain from 
betel for about two months. 2 


We have now sufficiently covered the whole area in which 
betel-chewing can be called an established custom. Its 

1 Melanesian Society, vol. ii, pp. 243-257. 

2 For further references to betel-chewing in Papua see Cay ley- Webster, 
Through New Guinea and the Cannibal Countries, London, 1898, p. 27; George 
Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians, London, 1910, p. 407 ; Chignell, An Outpost 
in Papua, London, 1911, pp. 17, 124, 214, 238; and F. Coombe, Islands of 
Enchantment, London, 1911, pp. 137, 183, 184, 190, 203, 210, etc. 


further spread has been checked by various factors. The 
first of these is botanical. The necessary ingredients can be 
produced only in latitudes and altitudes favourable to the 
cultivation of the areca-palm and the betel- vine. 

Another factor to be considered is that in most countries 
the betel-vine requires expert attention, and is not a plant 
which could be properly cultivated by such primitive people, 
say, as the aborigines of Australia. 

Then, there is the question of a rival narcotic. It is 
obvious, I think, that the custom of betel-chewing would have 
long since spread all over China had not opium, introduced 
from Asia Minor, already obtained such a strong influence 
over the people. 

In localities where betel-chewing and kava-drinking meet, 
we are presented with an anthropological problem, which, as 
yet, has been only partially studied. 

In the above pages I have paid but little attention to the 
agricultural side of the areca-nut and betel- vine. This side 
of the question does not concern our inquiry, but the refer- 
ences given below may be of use to readers interested in the 
subject. 1 

1 See Watt, Economic Products of India, vol. i, p. 292 et seq., and vol. vi, 
pt. i, p. 248 et seq. ; " Culture du Betel dans la Province de Thanh-Hoa 
(Annam)," Bulletin Economique de I'Indochine, vol. xiv, 1911, pp. 382-391 ; "The 
Betel Nut Industry in the Muar District, Johore," Agricultural Bulletin of the 
Federated Malay States, vol. v, 1917, pp. 189-192; "The Cultivation of the 
Areca Palm in Mysore," Bulletin, No. 10, Department of Agriculture, Mysore 
State, 1918 ; "The Betel Leaf or Sirih," Agricultural Bulletin of the Federated 
Malay States, vol. vi, 1918, pp. 317-320; "The Areca Nut in Ceylon," Tropical 
Agriculturist, vol. lxii, 1924, pp. 123-125; "Betel Vine Cultivator," Tropical 
Agriculturist, vol. lxiii, 1924, pp. 107-109; and Handbook of Commercial 
Information for India, C. W. E. Cotton, Calcutta, 1924, pp. 285-286. 

To the bibliography scattered throughout the Appendix I would add 
Balfour's Encyclopcedia of India, 3rd edit., 1805, under the words "Areca 
catechu," "Betel-box," "Betel-leaf," "Betel-nut," and "Betel-nut cracker"; 
Encyclopcedia van Nederlandsch- Indie, under "Pinang" and "Sirih"; G. A. 
Stephens, " Eating or Chewing of Pan," Westminster Review, London, August 
1907, vol. clxviii, pp. 163-167; J. Molliron, Text Book on Indian Agriculture, 
1910, vol. iii; A. Mendis Gunasekara Mudaliyar, The Ceylon Antiquary and 
Literary Register, Colombo, 1915-1916, vol. i, pt. 2, pp. 124, 125; "Betel-Nut 
Chewing," Every Saturday, Boston, vol. vii, p. 741 ; " Betel-Nut Tree," Penny 
Magazine, London, vol. v, p. 25; "Betel-Nut Chewing," Leisure Hour, London, 
vol. xviii, p. 31 1, 592 j and P. C. Patel, " The Crops of the Bombay Presidency," 
Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Bombay, 1922. 


Sufficient, I think, has been said to justify my original 
contention that betel-chewing holds a unique place among 
the customs of the world. The only other article that one 
could possibly suggest as its rival is the Virginian cigarette. 
But, apart from the history of tobacco cultivation, it has 
attached to it no interest whatever. True, it is a habit 
and only a habit of many more than a hundred millions 
of people a habit easily acquired and carrying with it 
practically no limitations of a climatic nature, such as affect 
betel-chewing. But here the interest of the cigarette ends. 
It has no religious or legal significance, and, of course, plays 
no part in such social institutions as birth, marriage or death 

But in no country is betel-chewing only a habit. Pro- 
pagated largely by the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism, it 
has at once become something much more important than a 
mere narcotic. 



The n stands for "note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 

'Abd Allah ibn Ahmad 
(1225), description of betel- 
chewing, 255, 255ft 2 

<Abdu-r Razzaq (1443), de- 
scription of betel-chewing, 
247, 257, 258 

Abu-1-Fazl 'All ami (1596- 
1605), description of betel- 
chewing, 247, 264-266 

Achalapura, city called, 12 

Achilles Tatius, passage about 
evil omens, 156ft 1 

Afanasjev, A. N., Narodnya 
russkija skazki, 3rd ed., 2 
vols., Moscow, 1897, 227w 5 

Agastya, the sea swallowed 
by, 164, 164ft 1 

Agni, the God of Fire, 19 ; 
guardian of the South-East, 
163ft 1 ; the mountain of, 

Agnihotra oblations, the, 103 

Agniparvata, the mountain 
of, 37 

Ahmad, 'Abd Allah ibn. See 
under 'Abd Allah ibn 

Airavana, Indra's elephant, 
148, 149, 155 

Ajinavati, daughter of Simha, 
30, 31, 45, 46, 47, 51, 90 

Akampana, sage named, 83- 

Akbar, Abu-1-Fazl, minister 
of, 264 

Aksha beads, rosary of, 23 

Alankaravati, wife of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 90 

Alexander Severus (a.d. 222- 
235), 225 

Al-ithmid (Arabic), probable 
origin of the word anti- 
mony, 65ft 1 

Allahabad, the pilgrimage to, 

All-Wise, one of the three 
Valkyries in the Volun- 
darkvitha, 221 


Amara-kosa, the, 108ft 1 
Amaravati, place called, 149 
Ambaraprabha, daughter of 

the King of Paundra, 84 
Ambika, the goddess, 158, 

171, 173, 202, 203 
Amboyna, clove - cultivation 

restricted to the island of, 

96ft 2 
Amherst, Lord, and Thomson, 

B., Discovery of the Solomon 

Islands, Hakluyt Society, 

1901, 314, 314ft 2 
Amitagati, Vidyadhara 

named, 47, 48, 50, 52, 53, 

61, 73, 82, 85, 97 
Amritaprabha, Vidyadhara 

named, 51, 70-73 
Anasuya (wife of the Rishi 

Atri), perfume given by, 44 
Anathapindika gives Buddha 

the Jetavana garden, 129ft 1 
Andahhuta Jataka, No. 62, 

'254ft 1 
Anderson, W., Philologus, vol. 

lxxiii, Leipzig, 1914-1916, 

Andhaka, Asura named, 138 
Angaraka, Asura named, 107- 

Angaravati, daughter of 

Angaraka, 107-110 ; Queen, 

Angiras, Story of Savitrl and, 

Anjana ("antimony"), the 

imaginary elephant of 

Varuna, 108ft 1 
Anjanadri, the Mountain of 

Antimony, Tawney's trans- 
lation of, 108ft 1 
Annam, betel-chewing in, 287 
Apollodorus, Library, 107ft, 

117ft 2 . See also under 

Frazer, J. G. 
Apsaras-swan-maidens, 213ft 1 
Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 

56ft 1 


Ardhanarisa form of Siva, the 

132ft 1 
Arghya, the (oblation to gods 

and venerable men), 27, 190 
Aristomenes, tale of, in The 

Golden Ass, 56ft 1 
Ar/ca, the giant swallow- 
^ wort, 96w 5 
Ashadha, Mount, 26 
Ashadhapura, city called, 33, 

42 ; mountain called, 25, 

26, 36 
Ashtavakra, father of Savitrl, 

Asitagiri, the Black Mountain, 

103ft 1 
Asoka tree, 7, 24, 96, 96ft 4 , 

206 ; description of, 7ft 4 
A^okaka, ally of Mandara- 

deva, 81 
Asruta, wife of Angiras, 22, 

Assam, betel-chewing in, 284, 

Asura's daughter, King 

Chandamahasena and the, 

106,'i06ft 2 , 107, 107ft, 108- 

Asuras, enemies of the gods, 

7, 79, 107, 108, 138, 143, 

145, 146, 148, 151, 153-156, 


174, 178-185, 189-193, 195, 

196, 197, 201, 207-209 
Asvin, the month of 
_ (September-October), 271 
Atapin, Daitya named, 33 
Atimukta creeper, the, 8, 8ft 1 
Atkinson, E. T., Himalayan 

Districts of the North- 

Western Provinces of India, 

3 vols., Allahabad, 1882- 
_ 1886, 19 
Atmanika, wife of Narava- 

hanadatta, 90 
Aubrey, John, Remaines of 

Gentilisme, 100ft. See also 

under Britten, James 



Aupapdtikd STdra, the, 254ft 3 . 

Seealso under Leumann,E. 
Avantivardhana, son of 

Palaka, 105, 106, 110, 111, 

114, 118, 120, 122, 123 
Avantivati, wife of King 

Palaka, 112 
Ayodhya, city called, 118 
Ayodhyd-kdnda, Book II of 

the Ramdyana, 44ft 1 

Bacon, J. R., The Voyage of 
the Argonauts, Ldn., 1925, 
109ft 1 
Badger, G. P., Travels of 
Ludovico di Varthema, 
Hakluyt Society, Ldn., 
1863, 96ft 2 , 258ft 1 

Badhoyi caste, use of areca- 
nuts among the, 276 

Bahadur, the King of Cambay, 

Baisakh, the month of (April- 
May), 271 

Baka, feathers of a, 135ft 2 

Baladhara, Brahman named, 

Balfour, E., The Cyclopaedia 
of India, 3rd ed., 3 vols., 
Ldn., 1885, 318/& 1 

Bali, the demon, 44 

Ball, V., Travels in India by 
Jean Baptiste Tavernier, 
2 vols., Ldn., 1889; 2nd 
ed., by W. Crooke, 1925, 
295ft 2 

Bandhujivaka, emperor 
named, 124 

Bant caste, betel used in 
puberty ceremony among 
the, 276 

Banyan- tree, 6, 11 

Bard (bdrej), the pan garden, 
271, 273, 274 

Bara'i (Baraiya, Barui), caste 
connected with betel, 270, 
271, 273, 274 

Barbosa, Duarte (1513), de- 
scription of betel-chewing, 
258, 259 

Barnett, L. D., on the trans- 
lation of Anjanddri, 108ft 1 ; 
Antiquities of India, Ldn., 
1913, 78ft 1 

Bartsch, K., Sagen, Mdrchen 
und Gebrduche aus Meklen- 
burg, 2 vols., Vienna, 1879, 
56ft 2 

Basil e, G. B., // Pentamerone, 
69ft 1 . See also under 
Burton, R. F. 

Basset, R. ["Contes et 
Legendes de la Grece 
Ancienne "], Revue des 
Traditions Populaires, vol. 
xxv, Paris, 1910, 107ft 
Bastian, A., A Her lei aus Volks- 
und Menschenfcunde, 2 vols., 
Berlin, 1888, 232ft 3 ; In- 
donesien oder die Inseln der 
Malayischen Archipel, 5 vols., 
Berlin, 1884-1894, 232ft 1 
Basuki, the queen of the 

serpents, 274, 274ft 1 
Beaver, W. N., Unexplored 
New Guinea, Ldn., 1920, 
313ft 2 
Beccari, O., " Palms of the 
Philippine Islands," Philip- 
pine Journal of Science, vol. 
xiv, 249, 249ft 1 
Bellows, H. A., The Poetic 
Edda, Scandinavian Clas- 
sics, vols, xxi, xxii, New 
York, 1923, 221, 221ft 1 
Benares, sectaries of Siva in, 

133ft 3 
Bengal, worship of the deity 
of betel cultivation in, 271 
Berard, Victor, Les Pheniciens 
et I'Odyssee, 2 vols, Paris, 
1902-1903, 56ft 2 
Bernier, Francois, account of 
betel-chewing, 267, 267w 2 , 
Bezemer, T. J., Volksdichtung 
aus Indonesien, Sagen, Tier- 
fabehi und Mdrchen, Haag, 
1904, 231ft 8 
Bhdgavata Purdna, the, 78ft 1 , 
214, 214ft 2 , 216. See also 
under Dutt, M. N., A 
Prose . . . 
Bhagirathaya^as, daughter of 
Prasenajit, 31, 32, 45, 63, 
Bhairava, Vidyadhari assum- 
ing a form of, 27 
Bhdrai.e. 20 tulds, 93, 93ft 1 
Bharataroha, minister of King 

Palaka, 106, 122 
Bharhut Sculptures, the, 

129ft 1 
Bhavabhuti, Mdlatlmadhava, 

17ft 1 
Bhishagratna, K. K. Lai, An 
English Translation of the 
Sushruta Samhita, 3 vols., 
Calcutta, 1907-1916, 96ft 1 , 
255ft 1 
Bhringin, Asura destined to 
become a, 138 

Bhutisiva, Pa^upata ascetic 
named, 55 

Bidds, a betel "chew," 274 

Bird, measure of eighty betel 
leaves, 272 

Blagden, C. O., on betel- 
chewing in Sumatra, 294 

Blagden, C. O., Skeat, W. W., 
and, Pagan Races of the 
Malay Peninsula, 2 vols., 
Ldn., 1906, 289, 289ft 3 , 
290ft 2 - 3 

Blair, E. H., and Robertson, 
J. A., The Philippine Islands, 
1493-1898, 55 vols., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, 1903-1909, 302, 
302ft 2 

Blochmann, H., The l Ain I 
Akbari by Abul-Fazl 'A Harm, 
3 vols., Calcutta, 1873, 
1892, 1894, 264ft* 

Blundell, C. A. [" Specimens 
of the Burmese Drama "], 
Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 
vol. viii, Calcutta, 1839, 
231ft 1 

Boas, R., "The Central 
Eskimo," Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Ethnology 
of the Smithsonian Institute, 
Washington, 1888, 228ft 8 

Bock, Carl, Temples and 
'Elephants, Ldn., 1884, 288, 
288ft 2 , 289, 289ft 1 

Bohtlingk, O., and Roth, R. 
[Sanskrit Dictionary], 1852- 
i875, 62ft 1 , 135ft 2 , 143ft 1 , 
160ft 1 , 167ft 2 , 170ft 1 , 186ft 1 

Bolte, J., and Poh'vka, G., 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Briider 
Grimm, 3 vols., Leipzig, 
1913-1918, 83ft 1 , 107ft, 
109ft 2 , 117ft 2 , 182ft 1 , 216ft 1 , 
217, 217ft 1 
Bonaparte, L. L. , "A ntimony/ ' 
Academy, 23rd February 
1884, 65ft 1 
Bonthuk caste, areca-nuts in 

ordeals among them, 276 
Born, Dr ["Einige 
Bemerkungen uber Musik, 
Dichtkunst und Tanz der 
Yapleute"], Zeitschrift 
fur Ethnologie, vol. xxxv, 
Berlin, 1903, 232ft 3 
Borneo, betel- chewing in, 
296-297 ; camphor used in 
betel-chewing, 244, 246 
Bothvild, daughter of King 
Nithuth, 221 



Bowrey, Thomas (1669-1679), 
account of betel-chewing, 
292, 293 
Brahma, 29, 33, 52, 72, 83, 
109m 3 , 144-146, 149, 151, 
152, 152m 1 , 153, 155, 161, 
162, 174, 177, 208 
Brahmadatta and the Swans, 
Story of King, 133, 133m 2 , 
134-136, 138, 142-143, 144, 
Braj girls, Krishna stealing 
the clothes' of' the, 214, 
Brauns, D., Japanische M'dr- 
chen und Sagen, Leipzig, 
1885, 231m* 
Brewer, E. C, Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable, Ldn., etc., 
1895, 154m 2 
Bricteux, A., Conies Persans, 
Bibl. de la Faculte de phil. 
et lettr. de l'Univ. de 
Liege, 1910, 227m 2 
Briganti, A., Italian trans, of 
Garcia da Orta's Coloquios 
. . ., Venice, 1576, etc., 
Brihaspati, the adviser of the 
'gods, 134, 148m 2 , 149, 151, 
152, 153; the law code of, 
Britten, James, Remaines of 
Gentilisme and Judaisme by 
John Aubrey, Folk- Lore 
Society, Ldn., 1881, 100m 
B[rockhaus'] text of the 
K.S.S., 9m 1 , 31m 1 , 32m 3 , 
37m 1 , 40m 1 , 58m 3 . 60m 3 , 62m 2 , 
63m 2 , 67m 1 - 2 , 72m 1 , 87m 3 , 
91w 2 , 151m 1 , 152m 2 , 153m 1 , 
166m 2 , 186m 1 , 189m 1 , 208m 1 
Broecke, Bernard ten 
(Paludanus), interpolations 
in the work of Linschoten, 
Brown, George, Melanesians 
and Polynesians, Ldn., 1910, 
217m 1 
Brown, R., Annual Report 
on the Munnipore Political 
Agency, 1874, 286m^ 
Browne, Thomas, Vulgar 
Errors {Pseudodoxia Epi- 
demica), Ldn., 1646, 75m 1 , 
156m 1 , 195m 1 
Buddha, 166 ; presented with 
the Jetavana garden, 129m 1 
Buddhaghosa, Dhammapada- 
atthakatha, 254m 2 . See also 
under Burlingame, E. W. 

Buddhaghosa, Visuddhimagga, 

254m 2 
Budge, E. A. Wallis, Osiris 
and the Egyptian Resurrec- 
tion, 2 vols., Ldn., 1911, 
75m 1 
Burlinghame, E. W., Buddhist 
Legends translated from the 
Original Pali Text of the 
Dhammapada Commentary, 
Harvard Orient. Ser., 3 
vols., Cambridge, Mass., 
1921, 254m 2 
Burma, betel- chewing in, 


Burnell, A. C, and Tiele, 

P. A., The Voyage of John 

Huyghen van Linschoten to 

the East Indies, 2 vols., 

Hakluvt Society, Ldn., 

1885, 259, 259m 3 

Burnouf, E., Introduction a 

VHistoire du Buddisme 

Indien, Paris, 1844, 71m 2 

Burton, R. F., Camoens. The 

Lyricks, 2 vols., Ldn., 1884, 

240m 1 ; II Pentamerone, or 

The Tale of Tales . . . 

of Giovanni Battista Basile, 

2 vols., Ldn., 1893, 96m 1 ; 

The Thousand Nights and a 

Night, 10 vols., Kamashas- 

tra Society, Benares, 1885- 

1886 ; Supplemental 

Nights, 6 vols., 1886-1888, 

93m 2 , 158m 2 , 159m, 161m 2 , 

219, 227m 3 , 302m 1 

Busk, R. H., Sagas from the 

Far East, Ldn., 1873, 59m 3 

Byblos, Osiris found dead at, 

75m 1 

Caesar, the sword of, 154m 2 
Cail, the city of, 257 
Calicut, cinnamon used in 

betel-chewing (Garcia da 

Orta), 243 
Callaway, C, Nursery Tales, 

Traditions and Histories of 

the Zulus, Ldn., 1868, 

227m 1( > 
Calypso, the island of, 92m 1 
Cambodia, Areca catechu pos- 
sibly a native of, 249 
Cambridge Edition of the 

Jataka, 96m 1 , 112m 4 , 254m 1 
Camoens, Lyricks, 240m 1 . See 

also under Burton, R. F. 
Campbell, D. M., Java : Past 

and Present, 2 vols., Ldn., 

1915, 295m 3 

Campbell, J. G. D., Siam in 
the Twentieth Century, Ldn., 
1902, 289m 2 
Cancer, Karkati, the corre- 
sponding sign to, 20 
Carnoy, E. H., Certeux, A., 
and, L'Algerie traditionelle, 
Paris, 1884, 227m 7 
Carolines, betel-chewing in 

the, 307, 308 

Carra de Vaux, L'Abrege des 

Merveilles, Paris, 1898,227m 3 

Carter, A. C, The Kingdom of 

Siam, New York and Ldn., 

1904, 289m 2 

Castren, M., Ethnologische 

Vorlesungen iiber die altai- 

schen Vblker, vol. iv of 

Nordische Reisen und For- 

schungen, St Petersburg, 

1857, 228m 1 

Cayley- Webster, H., Through 

New Guinea and the Cannibal 

Countries, Ldn., 1898, 317m 1 

Celebes, betel - chewing in 

Borneo and, 296-300 
Certeux, A., and Carnoy, 
E. H., L'Algerie tradition- 
elle, Paris, 1884, 227m 7 
Ceylon, moonstone from the 

Dumbara district of, 96m 6 
Chait, the month of (March- 
April), 265 
Chaitra, the month of, 98, 

Chakora, the, 134 
Chakra i.e. "circle," 72m 
Chakravakas, Brahmany ducks, 
15, 135, 135m 1 , 204, 206, 
206m 1 
Chakravartin, etymology of 
the word, 72m ; the seven 
(six) jewels of the, 71m 2 
Chaliyan caste, betel in tali- 
tying ceremony among the, 
Champault, P., Pheniciens el 
Grecs en Italie, d'apres 
VOdyssee, Paris, 1906, 56m 2 
Chandala maiden, the beauti- 
ful,' 110, 111, 112, 115; 
who married the Daughter 
of King Prasenajit, The 
Young, 112, 112m*, 113-114 
Chandalas, the lowest rank, 
110, 112, 112m 1 , 114, 121, 
137, 140, 141 
Chandamahasena and the 
Asura's Daughter, King, 
106, 106m 2 , 107, 107m, 108- 
110; king named, 100 



Chandasimha, son of Simha, 

30, 45/47, 50, 53, 61,' 64, 

73, 74, 79, 81, 97 
Chandi, the goddess, 99, 106, 

Chandika, one of the saktis of 

Siva, 75, 75* 2 
Chandra, 38; or Soma, 

guardianof the North-East, 

Chandra-bhasma (Sanskr.), 

camphor, 246 
Chandraketu, king named, 

145, 148, 150, 152, 153, 156, 

159, 160, 163, 168, 208 
Chandralekha, daughter of 

Jaya, 36, 137, 138, 142; 

wife of Chandravaloka, 125 
Chandrapura, city called, 168, 

169, 180 
Chandravaloka, king named, 

125-127, 130 
Chariya Pityaka, the, 125* 1 
Chataka, a female, 206 
Chau Ju-Kua (c. a.d. 1250), 

Chu-fan-chi, 247, 256, 300, 

Chauvin, Victor, Bibliographic 

desOuvrages Arabes, 11 vols., 

Liege and Leipzig, 1892- 

1909, 107ft, 219, 227* 3 
Chedi, the King of, 10, 124 
Chignell, A. K., An Outpost 

in Papua, Ldn., 1911, 

317* 1 
China, betel-chewing in 

Southern, 303-306 
Chinnery, E. W. Pearson 

[" Piper Methysticum in 

Betel-Chewing"], Mara, vol. 

xxii, February 1922, 311, 

311* 1 , 312, 313 
Chitrangada, Gandharva 

called, 47, 48, 50, 51, 53, 

63, 63ni, 69, 73 
Chowries, 40, 128, 136 ; swans 

like waving, 64 
Christian, F. W., The Caroline 

Islands, Ldn., 1898, 308m 1 
Chudjakov, J. A., Velikorus- 

skija skazki, 3 vols., Moscow, 

1860-1862, 227* 5 
Chutamanjari, wife of Matan- 

gadeva, 105 
Clouston, W. A., Popular 

Tales and Fictions, 2 vols., 

Ldn., 1887, 227*2 
Clusius (Charles de l'Escluse 

or Lecluse), Latin resume of 

Garcia da Orta's Coloquios 

. . ., 1567, 245, 246, 247 

Codrington, R. H., The Melan- 
esia?^, Oxford, 1891, 232* 4 

Coelho, A., Contos Populares 
Portugueses, Lisbon, 1879. 
57* 2 , 59* 3 

Colin, A., French trans, of 
Garcia da Orta's Coloquios 
. . ., Lyons, 1619, 245 

Collet, O. J. A., Terres et 
Peoples de Surnatra, Am- 
sterdam, 1925, 294 

Coomaraswamy, A. K., de- 
scriptions of moonstone, 
96* 6 

Coomaraswamy, A. K., Medi- 
aeval Sinhalese Art, Broad 
Campden, 1908, 251, 252* 6 

Coombe, F., Islands of En- 
chantment, Ldn., 1911, 317* 1 

Cordier, H., Yule, H., and 
Cathay and the Way Thither, 
4 vols., Hakluyt Society, 
Ldn., 1913-1916, 96* 2 

Cosquin, E., Contes Populaires 
de Lorraine, 2 vols., Paris, 
1886, 107*, 109* 2 

Cotton, C. W. E., Handbook 
of Commercial Information 
for India, Calcutta, 1924, 

Coxwell, C. F., Siberian and 
Other Folk - Tales, Ldn., 
1925,59*3,227*5, 228* 5 >6. 7 

" Crocea Mors," the sword of 
Caesar, 154* 2 

Crooke, W., A New Account of 
East India and Persia by 
John Fryer, 3 vols., Hakluyt 
Society", Ldn., 1909, 1912, 
1915, 269wi; Religion and 
Folklore of Northern India, 
Oxford University Press, 
1926, 19, 271* 2 ; The Tribes 
and Castes of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, 
4 vols., Calcutta, 1896, 270, 
270* 1 . See also under 
Ball, V. 

Daityas, enemies of the gods, 
33, 44, 109, 110, 144-148, 
152, 153, 157, 160* 1 , 161, 
162, 166, 181-185, 188-193, 
197-199, 201, 207, 208 

Dakshinayana, the southward 
movement of the sun, 19 

Dalton, E. T. 5 Descriptive 
Ethnology of Bengal, Cal- 
cutta, 1872, 285* 2 

Dames, M. L., The Book of 
Duarte Barbosa, 2 vols., 

Dames continued 

Hakluyt Society, Ldn., 

1918, 1921, 96*2, 258* 2 
Dampier, William, A New 

Voyage Round the World, 

Ldn., 1697 ; new edition 

in the Argonaut Press, 

1927, 293, 301, 30 In 1 ; 

Voyages and Discoveries, 

1699, 302 
Danavas, enemies of the gods, 

76, 182-185, 191, 204 
Dandasi caste, betel in 

marriage ceremonies among 

the, 277 
Dasari caste, betel leaves 

used by the, 277 
Davids, Rhys. See under 

Rhys Davids 
Dawkins, R. M., Modern Greek 

in Asia Minor, Cambridge, 

1916, 109* 2 
Deccan, vakula tree found 

wild in, 86* 3 
Delia Valle, Pietro. See 

under Valle, P. Delia 
Dennys, N. B., The Folklore of 

China, Ldn., 1876, 231* 3 
Devamaya, king named, 68, 

73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 83, 85, 

86, 93 
Devaprabha, daughter of the 

king of the Siddhas, 176 
Devarakshita, Brahman 

named, 55 
Devasabha, city called, 178, 

180, 182, 184, 184* 2 , 186 
Devasoma, son of Yajnasoma, 

Devi (Gauri, Parvati, etc., wife 

of Siva), 85 
Dhammapada-atthakatha, Bud- 

dhaghosa, 254* 2 
Dhanavati, wife of Simha, 30, 

45, 47, 48, 50, 51,*53, 61, 

62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 76, 77, 

79, 80, 81, 103 
Dholl, bundle of 200 betel 

leaves, 266 
Dhumasikha, ally of Man- 

daradeva, 78, 78* 2 , 106, 

Dhurjata, Gana named, 137, 

138, 142 
Diggaja, elephant of the sky 

quarters, lOSn 1 
Dikshit, S. B., Sewell, R.,and, 

Indian Calendar, Ldn., 1896, 

Dionysios of Halikarnassos, 

'PtojacuKT) apyaioXoyia, 114* 1 




Dlrghadamshtra, father of 
Sruta, 84 

Doutte, E., La Societe Musul- 
mane du Maghrib. Magie et 
Religion dans L'Afrique du 
Nord, Algiers, 1909, 100ft 

Dridhavrata, pupil of the 
hermit Tapodhana, 172, 
182, 201, 202 

Duarte Barbosa (1513), de- 
scription of betel-chewing, 
258, 259 

Dumbara district of Ceylon, 
moonstone from the, 96ft 6 

Dummedha Jataka, the, No. 
50, 69ft 1 

Dundubhi, Daitya named, 

Durga (Parvati, Uma, etc., 
wife of Siva), 47, 54, 60, 
75ft 2 , 77, 77ft 2 , 141 

D[urgaprasad] text of the 
K.S.S., 15ft 1 , 31ft 1 , 32ft 3 , 
33ft 2 , 58ft L3 , 60ft 2 - 3 , 63ft 2 , 
87w 2 , 91ft 2 

Dutt, M. N., A Prose English 
Edition of Srimadbhada- 
batam, Wealth of India 
Series, 214, 214ft 2 ; The 
Ramayana, Translated into 
English Prose from the 
Original Sanskrit of Valmiki, 
7 vols., Calcutta, 1892- 
1894, 44ft 1 

Dymock, W., " Flowers of the 
Hindu Poets," Journ. Anth. 
Soc. Bombay, vol. ii, 1892, 
7ft 4 ; " On the Use of 
Turmeric in Hindoo Cere- 
monial," Journ. Anth. Soc. 
Bombay, vol. ii, 1892, 18 

Egede, P. E., Efterretninger 

on Gri'mland, Copenhagen, 

1788, 228^9 
Egil, a son of the king of the 

Finns, 221, 222 
Eld (Sanskr.), cardamom, 96ft 1 
Ellis, A. B., The Tshi- speaking 

People of the Gold Coast of 

West Africa, Ldn., 1887, 

227ft 9 
Empedocles, magic gem of, 

195ft 1 
Enthoven, R. E., The Tribes 

and Castes of 'Bombay ,3 vols., 

1920, 274 
Erlenvejn, A., Narodnyja 

russkija skazki i zagadh, 2nd 

ed., Moscow, 1882, 227ft 5 

Farnell, L. R., " Nature 
(Greek)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth vol. ix, 218ft 2 

Farrer, J. A., Primitive Man- 
ners and Customs, Ldn., 
1879, 228ft 8 

Ferrand, G., Contes populaires 
malgaches, Paris, 1893, 
227ft 10 

Ficalho, Count, Garcia da Orta 
eoseu Tempo, Lisbon, 1886, 
240 ; Garcia da Orta's Colo- 
quios dos simples . . ., 

2 vols., 1891, 1895, 245, 
245ft 1 

Forbiger, A., P. Virgilii Mar- 
onis Opera, 3 vols., Lipsise, 
1845-1846, 49ft 1 

Foster, W., Early Travels in 
India, Oxford, 1921, 266ft 3 ; 
The Embassy of Sir Thomas 
Roe to the Court of the Great 
Mogul, 2 vols., Hakluyt 
Society, Ldn., 1899, 266ft 2 

Foufal (faufel, fofal, etc.), 
the Arabic for areca-nut, 

Fox, C. E., The Threshold of 
the Pacific, Ldn., 1924, 316, 
316ft 1 

Francke, A. H., "Die Ge- 
schichten des toten No- 
rub-can," Zeit. d. d. morg. 
Gesell., vol. lxxiv, Leipzig, 
1921, 59ft 3 

Frazer, J. G., Apollodorus. 
The Library, 2 vols., Loeb 
Classics, Ldn., New York, 
1921, 107ft, 117ft 2 ; The 
Belief in Immortality ,Z vols., 
Ldn., 1913, 225*, 225w*, 
308W 1 ; Folk-Lore in the Old 
Testament, 3 vols., Ldn., 
1919, 107ft ; The Golden 
Bough {The Dying God), 
Ldn., 1920,233ft 2 ; Toternism 
and Exogamy, 4 vols., Ldn., 
1910, 233ft 2 

Frederick, Caesar (1563-1581), 
mention of betel-chewing, 
259, 259ft 1 

Friedlander, L., Darstellungen 
out der Sittengeschichte Roms, 

3 vols., Leipzig, 1888-1890, 
117ft 2 

Fryer, John (1672-1681), de- 
scription of betel-chewing, 
269, 270 

Fyzee Rahamin, Atiya Begum, 
The Music of India, Ldn., 
1925, 95ft 1 

Ganas, attendants of Siva, 

77ft 1 , 133ft 3 , 136, 137, 141, 

142, 178, 179, 187 
Ganda, measure of betel 

leaves, 272 
Gandasaila, the garden of, 73 
Gandharvadatta, daughter of 

Sagaradatta, 28, 29, 30, 47, 

Gandharvas, attendants of 

the gods, 27-30, 45, 47, 49- 

51, 64, 69, 72, 86, 146, 148, 
149, 150, 153, 154, 157, 158, 
159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 176, 
208, 225 

Ganesa (son of Siva and 
Parvati), 1, 19, 21, 51, 70, 
94, 132 

Ganges, the, 2, 12, 17, 87, 
117, 125, 133, 134, 134ft 2 , 
144, 147, 154, 

Garciada Orta(1563), descrip- 
tion of betel-chewing, 240- 

Garcia da Orta, Coloquios dos 
simples, e drogas . . ., 1st 
ed., Goa, 1563, 240ft 1 

Garuda (the sacred kite), 91, 
152, 161, 182ft 1 , 183 

Gaster, Dr M., Gypsy variant 
of the " swan-maiden " 
story, 219 

Gauri (Parvati, Uma, etc., 
wife of Siva), 1, 50, 50ft 1 , 

52, 79, 86, 153, 157, 158, 
159, 164, 167, 168, 170, 172, 
176, 199, 202, 203 

Gaurlmunda, king named, 48, 
49, 50,' 51, 61, 62, 63, 73, 
89, 121 

Gautama accused by his 
relations, 127ft 1 

Gayatri. the goddess, 23 

Geil, W. E., The Sacred 5 of 
China, Ldn., 1926, 248ft 

Geoffrey of Monmouth, on 
Caesar's sword, 254ft 2 

Gering, H., Die Edda, Leip- 
zig, 1892, 223, 223ft 1 

Ghatika of the night, fulfil- 
ment of dreams in the last 
two, 100ft 

GhoshavatI, lyre called, 102 

Giles, Dr Lionel, translations 
from the T'u Shu Chi Ch e eng f 

Golther, W., Studien zur ger- 
manischen Sagengeschichte, I, 
Der V alky riemny thus, Ab- 
handl. d. Munchener Akad. t 
vol. xviii, 1890, 224ft 1 



Gomeda-dvipa, continent 

called, 108ft 1 
Gomes, E. H., Seventeen Years 
among the Sea Dyaks of 
Borneo, Ldn., 1911, 231ft 9 
Gomukha, minister of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 17, 21, 24, 32, 
46, 50, 54, 57, 65, 66, 85, 
88, 93, 94, 97, 99, 132, 133, 
Gonzenbach, L., Sicilianische 
Marchen, with notes by 
R. Kohler, 2 vols., Leipzig, 
1870, 59ft 3 
Gopalaka, brother of Queen 
Vasavadatta, 90, 101-104, 
106, 132, 209 
Govindakuta, city called, 61, 
64 ; mountain of, 62, 69, 
70, 72 
Graafland, N., De Minahassa, 

Rotterdam, 1867, 297ft 2 
Graham, A. W., Siam, a Hand- 
book, Ldn., 1912, 288ft 1 
Graham, W. A., Siam, 2 vols., 

Ldn., 1924, 289ft 2 
Graves, A. P., The Irish 
Fairy Book, Ldn., 1909, 
Gray, Sir Albert, Introduction 
to the Argonaut Press 
edition of Dampier's New 
Voyage, 301ft 1 ; The Voyage 
of Francois Pyrard of Laval, 
2 vols., Hakluyt Society, 
Ldn., 1887-1889, 266ft 1 
Grey, E., The Travels of Pietro 
delta Valle to India, 2 vols., 
Hakluyt Society, Ldn., 
1891, 266/1* 
Grierson, G. A., Bihar Peasant 

Life, 2nd ed., 1926, 275 
Griffith, R. T. H., The 
Rdmdyan of Valmiki, 5 
vols., Ldn. and Benares, 
1870-1874, 44m 1 
Grimm, J., Kleinere Schriften, 
8 vols. Gutersloh, 1864- 
1890, 117ft 2 
Grimm, J. and W., Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen, 83ft 1 , 
107*, 109ft 2 , 216. See 
also under Bolte, J., and 
Polivka, G. 
Groot, J. J. M. De, The 
Religious System of China, 
6 vols., Leyden, 1892-1901, 
304, 304ft 1 
Grubauer, A., Unter Kopf- 
jdgern in Central- Celebes, 
Leipzig, 1913, 299ft 1 , 300 

Gudatvak, or ivak (cinnamon), 
one of the three aromatic 
drugs, 96ft 1 

Guhesvara, Gana named, 137, 
138, 142 

Guhyakas (subjects of 
Kuvera), guardians of the 
cave of Tri^Irsha, 75, 76 

Guinea, betel-chewing in 
Eastern New, 310-314 

Guppy, H. E., The Solomon 
Islands and their Natives, 
Ldn., 1887, 315,315ft 12 - 3 

Gurdon, R. P. T., The Khasis, 
2nd ed., Ldn., 1914, 285n 3 

Hadden, A. C, Head-Hunters: 

Black, White and Brown, 

Ldn., 1901, 298ft 1 
Hadrian's Wall, 224 
Haha and Huhu, the songs 

of, 162 
Hakluyt, R., The Principal 

Navigations . . . of the 

English Nation, 12 vols., 

Glasgow, 1903-1905, 259ft 1 
Halikarnassos, Dionysios of, 

114ft 1 
Halliday, Prof. W. R., on the 

name of Caesar's sword, 

154w 2 ; references to 

dreams, 100ft ; references 

to a Roman legend, 114ft 1 
[Hammer, J.] Rosenol, 2 vols., 

Stuttgart and Tubingen, 

1813, 227ft 3 
Hanson, Ola, The Kachins, 

Rangoon, 1913, 285ft 5 
Hanuman, chief of the 

monkeys, 44 
Harisikha, minister of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 24, 32,60,61, 

68, 73, 85, 90, 106 
Harisoma, son of Yajnasoma, 

138, 139 
Harta, price paid for a bride, 

Hartland, E. D., The Science 

of Fairy Tales, Ldn., 1891, 

107ft, 233ft 2 - 3 
Hassan, Dyed Siraj Ul, The 

Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. 

'The Nizam's Dominions, vol. 

i, Bombay, 1920, 274, 275 
Hastinapura, the Pandava 

brothers' victory at, 274 
Hastings, J., Encyclopaedia of 

Religion and Ethics, 19, 72ft, 

196ft, 218ft 2 , 219ft 1 . For 

details see under Ency. 

Rel. Eth. 

Hatakesa, worship of, 191 
Hatakesvara, 188, 195 
Hayman Wilson, Prof. H., on 

story in Book XIII, 17ft 1 
Hemabaluka river, the, 65 
Hemaprabha, king named, 

Henry, R. M., "On Plants 
of the Odyssey," The 
Classical Review, vol. xx, 
1906, 56ft 2 
Hermes, the Moly given to 

Ulysses by, 56ft 2 
Hertz, W 7 ., Deutsche Sage im 
Elsass, Stuttgart, 1872, 
107ft ; Spielmannsbuch, 2nd 
ed., Stuttgart, 1900, 117ft 2 
Hervor the All- Wise, one of 
the three Valkyries in the 
Vblundarkvitha, 221, 222 
Hickson, S. J., A Naturalist 
in North Celebes, Ldn., 
1889, 231ft 10 , 296ft 2 , 298ft 2 
Himalaya range, the, 70 
Himalaya(s), the, 6, 19, 47, 

64, 165 
Hirth, F., and Rockhill, 
W. W., Chau Ju-Kua ; His 
Work on the Chinese and 
Arab Trade, Imperial 
Academy of Sciences, St 
Petersburg, 1911, 256ft 1 , 
303ft 2 
Hitopadesa, the, 254 
Hlathguth the Swan-White, 
one of the three Valkyries 
in Volundarkvitha, 221, 
Hodson, T. C, The Meitheis, 

1908, 286, 286ft 2 
Holinshed's account of 
Richard II's coronation, 
88ft 1 
Holmes, J. H., In Primitive 
New Guinea, Ldn., 1924, 
314ft 1 
Holmstrom, H., Studier over 
svanjungfrumotivet i Volun- 
darkvida och annorst'ddes, 
Malmo, 1919, 217, 217w 2 , 
218, 218ft 1 , 223ft 3 , 226, 
227ft 1 
Hooker, J. D., Flora of 
British India, 7 vols., 1875- 
1897, 7ft 2 , 8ft 1 
Hopkins, E. W., " Festivals 
and Fasts (Hindu)," Hast- 
ings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. v, 
Horace, Odes, 49ft 1 ; Satires, 
99ft 1 



Hose, C, Natural Man, Ldn., 
1926, 296/ii 

Hose, C, and McDougall, W., 
The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, 
2 vols., Ldn., 1912, 296ft 1 

Housesteads (Northumber- 
land), three altars dis- 
covered at, 224, 224ft 3 , 225 

Huhu, the songs of Haha and, 

Hurgronje, C. S., The Acheh- 
nese, trans, by A. W. S. 
O'Sullivan, Leyden and 
Ldn., 1906, 293, 293W 2 , 
294ft 1 - 2 

Hutton, J. H., The Angami 
Nagas, Ldn., 1921, 284, 
284ft 2 ; The Sema Nagas, 
Ldn., 1921, 284, 284ft 1 

/, measure for weighing gold, 
256, 256ft 2 

Ihatmatika, daughter of 
Gaurimunda, 62 

Ilavans, caste, betel leaves 
in pregnancy ceremony 
among the, 277, 278 

Ilg, B., Maltesische Mdrchen 
und Schw'dnke, 2 vols., 
Leipzig, 1906, 107ft 

India, betel - chewing in 
Northern and Central, 
270-273 ; betel-chewing in 
Southern, 275-283 ; the 
home of the " swan- 
maiden " motif, 232, 234; 
prior to a.d. 1800, betel- 
chewing in, 254-270 ; prob- 
ably the original home of 
the castanet, 95ft 1 

Indivaraksha, son of Vis- 
vantara, 124 

Indra, the king of the gods, 
16, 19, 75, 88, 124, 129, 
144-153, 155, 156, 157, 159, 
160, 161, 162, 166, 169, 
172, 178, 179, 180, 181, 
183, 186, 207, 208, 209; 
guardian of the East, 163ft 1 

IndumatI, the messenger of 
Svayamprabha, 187, 188, 
194, 195, 196, 198 

Iris and Peisthetaerus, 148ft 3 

I3anl or Prithivi (generally 
Soma), guardian of the 
North-East, 163ft 1 

Isis, the killing look of, 
75ft 1 

Ityaka, son of Kalingasena 
and Madanavega, 87, 105, 
106, 122, 123, 124 

Izhava caste, betel leaves in 
pregnancy ceremony among 
them, 277, 278 

Jacobi, H., " Chakravartin," 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 
vol. iii, 72ft 
Jahn, A, Die Mehri-Sprache in 

S'udarabicn, Vienna, 227ft 3 
Jambu, one of the five leaves 

of tree, 247ft 2 
Jambu -dvipa, a continent 

round Mount Meru, 105ft 1 
Janaka, father of Sita, 44 
Jasoda, wife of Nand, 215 
Jataka, The, 254 ; Andabhida, 

No. 62, 254ft 1 ; Dummedha, 

No. 50, 96ft 1 ; Mahasilava, 

No. 51, 254ft 1 ; Sigala, No. 

142, 112ft 4 ; [Suvannahamsa] 

No. 136, 135ft 2 
Jdtiphala (nutmeg), one of the 

five flavours in betel- 
chewing, 246, 247 
Java, betel-chewing in, 295- 

296 ; Piper betle, possibly a 

native of, 249 
Jaya, motherof Chandralekha, 

136, 137, 142 
Jayadatta, teacher named, 54 
Jetavana garden, the, 129ft 1 
Jhang, Indian castanet of 

metal, the, 95ft 1 
Jimutavahana, Vidyadhara 

prince, 124, 124ft 1 , 126 
Jolly, J., " Recht und Sitte " 

[Encyclopaedia of Indian 

Philology, Strassburg, 1896], 

Jiilg, B., Kalmi'tkische Mdrchen. 

Die Mdrchen des Siddhi- 

Kiir, Leipzig, 1866, 59ft 3 ; 

Mongolische Marchen- 

Sammlung, Innsbruck, 1868, 

268ft 4 
Jungbauer, G., Mdrchen ans 

Turkestan und Tibet, Jena, 

1923, 107ft 

Kadam-tree, 214 

Kailasa, Mount, 47, 51, 59, 
72-77, 79, 81-83, 85, 133, 
133ft 3 , 136, 147 

Kaj ungajorssuaq, a mal- 
formed man, 229, 230 

Kalajihva, ally of Mandara- 
deva, 81, 84 

Kalakuta, the lord of, 67, 73 

Kalaratri, one of the saktis of 
Siva, 75, 75ft 2 , 76, 77, 78, 

Kalavati, daughter of Kala- 
jihva, 84 
Kali, the demon, 2, 6 
Kali, one of the saktis of Siva, 

75ft 2 
Kalika, Vidyadharl named, 

67, 90 
Kalinga, the territory of, 2 

Kalingasena, daughter of 
King Kalingadatta, 22, 25, 
46, 87, 90, 105 

Kalinjara, Mount, 101, 102 

Kalian caste, betel leaves 
used by the, 278 

Kalpa i.e. 1000 Mahayugas, 
or 4320 million years, 23, 
48, 49, 152, 174, 174ft 2 , 
183, 209 

Kama, the God of Love, 1, 2, 
7, 8, 94, 95, 98, 167, 168 ; 
burnt in an asoka tree by 
Siva, 7ft 4 ; the five arrows 
of, 3, 248ft 

Kamadeva i.e. Kama, 11 

Kdmala (flowers), 111ft 1 

Kammalan caste, use of betel 
and areca among the, 278 

Kanakavati, daughter of Kan- 
chanadamshtra, 84 

Kanchanadamshtra, king 
named, 77, 81, 82, 84 

Kanchanagiri, an air-going 
elephant, 179, 182 

Kanchana^ekhara, an air- 
going elephant, 179, 182 

Kahkala (Bakek), one of the 
five flavours in betel- 
chewing, 246, 247 

Kankola (Marathi), Piper 
cubeba, 247 

Kapilasarman, Brahman 
named, 113 

Karabha, village called, 55 

Karkata, the corresponding 
sign to Cancer, 20 

Karpura (camphor), one of 
the five flavours in betel- 
chewing, 246 

Karpurika, wife of Narava- 
hanadatta, 90 

Karttikeya (son of Siva and 
Parvati), 141 

Kasyapa, sage named, 103, 
104, 106, 123, 124, 125, 
131, 132, 209 

Kath, a purer form of cutch, 
247, 266, 268, 280 

Katik, the month, 215 

KausambI, city called, 21, 
45, 46, 89, 93, 100, 102, 



Kaustubha jewel of Vishnu, 
the, 60, 60ft 1 - 2 

Kayasth, writers and village 
accountants, 271 

Keate, George, An Account of 
the Pelewe Islands . . . of 
Captain Henry Wilson, 2nd 
ed., Ldn., 1788, 306, 306m 1 

Keith, A. B., "Ordeal 
(Hindu)," Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Etk., vol. ix, 196ft; 
The Sanskrit Drama, Oxford, 
1924, 17ft 1 

Kern, Dr, 13ft 1 , 28ft 1 , 29ft, 
41ft 1 , 45ft 1 - 2 , 118ft 2 , 119ft 3 , 
125ft 1 , 14 lft 1 , 160ft 1 , 167ft 1 

Khartals, Indian castanet of 
stones, 95m 1 

Kimsuka tree, 7, 7ft 3 

Kinkara, Gana named, 178 

Kirata, a man of low rank, 
112ft 1 

Kirtikar, K. R., "The Use 
of Saffron and Turmeric 
in Hindu Marriage Cere- 
monies," Journ. Anth. Soc. 
Bombay, vol. ix, 1913, 18 

Kishkindhya, the capital of 
Sugriva, 44 

Kodikkal, caste of betel-vine 
cultivators, 278 

Kohl, J. G., Kitchi- Garni : 
Wanderings round Lake 
Superior, Ldn., 1859, 228ft 8 

Kohler, Dr R., notes in L. 
Gonzenbach s Sicilianische 
Marchen, 59ft 3 

Krappe, A. H., references 
obtained from, 107ft, 117ft 2 

Krappe, A. H., "The Val- 
kyries," Modern Language 
Review, vol. xxi. 1926, 224ft 2 , 
225ft 3 , 226ft 1 

Kratudeva, son of Somadeva, 

Krishna, 40, 46 ; steals the 
clothes of the Braj girls, 
214, 215 

Krita age, the, 6 

Kshatriyas (warrior caste), 3, 
5, 16 

Kubary, J. S., Ethnographische 
Beitr'dge zur Kenntniss des 
Karolinen Archipels, Ley- 
den, 1895, 306ft 1 

Kudubi caste, cutch-preparers, 

Kuhn, A., Sagen, Gebr'duche u. 
Marchen aus Westfalen, 2 
vols., Leipzig, 1859, 56ft 2 , 
69ft 1 

Kumuda (flowers), 111ft 1 

Kumudvati, 206 

Kundina, city called, 54 

Kunkuma (Sanskr.), turmeric, 

Kunos, I. ["Osmanische 
Volksmiirchen "], Ungar- 
ische Revue, vol. viii, Leip- 
zig, 1888, 227ft 4 ; Turkische 
Volksmiirchen aus Stambul, 
Leiden, 1905, 227ft 4 

KurangI, daughter of King 
Prasenajit, 112, 114 

Kurumo caste, areca-nuts used 
among the, 280 

Kuvalayapida, elephant 
called, 125-127 

Kuvalay avail, wife of Pad- 
masekhara, 164, 176 

Kuvera, guardian of the 
North, 163ft 1 

Lahasah, bundle of betel 
leaves, 265, 266 

Lakshmana, brother of Rama, 
44; son of Taravaloka, 126, 
128, 130 

Lakshmi, wife of Vishnu, and 
the Goddess of Wealth, 
82W 1 , 130, 151, 274 

Lalitalochana, wife of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 17, 90 

Landes, A., Contes et legendes 
annamites, Saigon, 1888, 
231ft 2 

Lane, E. W., An Account of 
the Manners and Customs of 
the Modern Egyptians, 5th 
ed., Ldn., 1860, 196ft 

Lanka i.e. Ceylon, 45 

Lar, the country of, 256 

Larminie, W., West Irish 
Folk- Tales and Romances, 
Ldn., 1898, 107ft 

Lathram, Mr, description of 
preparing cutch, 278-280 

La Touche, T. H. D., A 
Bibliography of Indian 
Geology and Physical 
Geography, 2 vols., Calcutta, 
1917-1918, 56ft 1 , 96ft 6 

Laval, F., Pyrard of. See 
under Pyrard of Laval, F. 

Lavanga (cloves), one of the 
five flavours in betel- 
chewing, 246, 247 

Lawson, J. C, Modern Greek 
Folklore and Ancient Greek 
Religion, Cambridge, 1910, 
218, 218ft 2 

Lecluse, Charles de. See 

under Clusius 
Lederbogen, W. [" Duala- 

Miirchen "],Mittheil. d. Sem. 

f. orient. Sprach., vol. v, 

Berlin, 1902, 227ft 9 
Leguat, Francois (1697), 

description of betel- 
chewing, 295, 295ft 1 
Leland, Ch., The Algonquin 

Legends of New England, 

Ldn., 1884, 228ft 8 
L'Escluse, Charles de. See 

under Clusius 
Leumann, E., " Das Aupa- 

patika Sutra," Abhandl. f. 

d. Kunde d. Morgen., vol. 

viii, Leipzig, 1883, 254ft 3 
Lewin, L., Ueber Areca 

Catechu, Chavica Betle und 

das Betelkauen, Stuttgart, 

1889, 237ft 1 , 315ft 1 
Ley en, F. von der, Das 

Marchen, 1917, 107ft 
Lichchhavi maiden, the, 112ft 4 
Liebrecht, F. ["Amor und 

Psyche . . . "], Zeit. f. 

vergleich. Sprachforsch., vol. 

xviii, Berlin, 1869, 232ft 7 ; 

Zur Volkskunde, Heilbronn, 

1879, 233ft 1 
Ling Roth, H. See under 

Roth, H. Ling 
Linga of Siva, 152, 200, 205 
Linschoten, J. H. van 

(1583-1589), description of 

betel-chewing, 247, 259- 

Liu Mu-chi, Nan shih, the 

biography of, 303 
Lokapalas, the guardians of 

the cardinal points, 163, 

163ft 1 
Lombardi, D. B., La Divina 

Comedia di Dante Alighieri, 

vol. ii : Purgatorio, 3 vols., 

Rome, 1820, 100ft 
Low, H., Sarawak: its In- 
habitants and Productions, 

Ldn., 1848, 298ft 1 
Lumholtz, Carl, Through 

Central Borneo, 2 vols., 

New York, 1920, 298ft 1 
Lyon, A. P., " Notes on the 

Gogodara Tribe of Western 

Papua," Journ. Roy. Anth. 

Inst., vol. Ivi, 1926; 313ft 2 

Macculloch, J. A., The Child- 
hood of Fiction, Ldn., 1905, 
233ft 3 



Madanamanchuka, head 
queen of Naravahanadatta, 
1, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 33, 
33ft 2 , 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 
51, 63, 86, 87, 88, 90, 92, 
93, 96, 132, 209 
Madanavega, Vidyadhara 

named, 87, 105, 123 
Madar, the giant swallow- 
wort, 96w 5 
Madhava and Makaranda in 
the drama of Malati and 
Madhava, 17ft 1 
Madhavi, the atimukta creeper, 

8, 8ft 1 
Madiravati, Book XIII, 1-17; 
sister of Vijayasena, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 14ft 1 , 
Madras, the King of the, 

Madri, daughter of the King 
of the Madras, 126, 128, 
Mafamede i.e. Muhammed, 

242, 242ft 1 
Mahabahu, Devamaya's ally, 

Mahabharata, the, 40ft 2 , 60ft 1 , 

108ft 1 
Maliabhisheka, Book XV, 

Mahabuddhi, friend of Mukta- 
phaladhvaja, 181, 198, 200, 
Mahadamshtra, Vidyadhara 

named, 67, 73 
Mahakala, the shrine of, 120, 

Mahamaya, guardian of the 

cave of Trisirsha, 76 
Mahasilava Jdtaka, the, No. 

51, 254ft 1 
Maha - Sudassana - Sutta, the, 
71ft 2 . See also under Rhys 
Mahavamsa, the, 252 
Mahavastu, the, 71ft 2 
Mahi, giant named, 109ft 3 
Mahidhara, Brahman named, 

Mahisha, giant slain by 

Durga, 77, 77ft 2 
Makara corresponding to 
Capricornus, 19 ; usually a 
sea-monster, 20 
Makara- sankranti, the festival 

of the winter solstice, 19 
Makaranda and Madhava in 
the drama of Malati and 
Madhava, 17ft 1 

Malasar tribe, betel used in 

death ceremonies among 

the, 280 
Malati and Madhava, or The 

Stolen Marriage, 17ft 1 
Malava, the land of, 97 
Malay Peninsula, vakula tree 

found wild in the, 96ft 3 
Malaya, mountain of, 1, 70, 

94, 99 
Malayadhvaja, son of Meru- 

dhvaja, 179, 181, 183, 185, 

186, 187, 190, 191, 192, 

193, 197, 204, 208 
Malayasimha, king named, 

115, 116 
Manasa lake, the, 1ft 1 , 73 
Manasavega, Vidyadhara 

named, 22, 25, 27, 36-43, 

46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 53, 58, 
61, 62, 63, 89, 132 

Mandakim, the river, 51, 73, 

Mandara flowers, 184 ; garland 

of, 88 
Mandara, the mountain of, 85, 

136 ; Vidyadhara named, 

67, 68, 73 
Mandaradeva, king named, 

47, 63, 68, 69, 71, 72, 78, 
79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 89, 93 

Mandaradevi, sister of Man- 
daradeva, 80, 84, 90 

Mandaras (shrubs), 96, 96ft 5 

Mandhatar, King, in Ralston's 
Tibetan Tales, 83ft 1 

Manes of Angaraka, water- 
offerings to the, 110 

Mangsir, the month, 215 

Manipushpesvara, Gana 
named, 136-138, 142 

Manoharika, companion of 
PadmavatI, 164-166. 168, 
169, 171-173, 175 

Manucci, Niccolao (1653- 
1708), account of betel- 
chewing, 268, 269 

Mara, the Buddhist devil and 
God of Love, 1, 1ft 4 , 8 

Marco Polo (c. 1295), descrip- 
tion of betel-chewing, 256, 

Marianne Islands, betel- 
chewing in the, 308, 309 

Markham, Clements, Col- 
loquies on the Simples and 
Drugs of India by Garcia 
da Orta, Ldn., 1913, 240, 
240ft 1 

Mars Thincsus, altars dedi- 
cated to, 225 

Marsden, W., edition of 

Marco Polo, 246 
Marshall, H. I., The Karen 

People of Burma, Columbus, 

1922, 285n 6 
Marubhuti, minister of Nara- 
vahanadatta, 24, 27, 32, 58, 
60, 65, 213 

Maruts, the wind-gods, 160*? 1 

Matanga caste, the, 112, 
112ft 1 , 114, 115, 120, 121 

Matangadeva, Vidyadhara 
named, 105, 121, 122 

Matangapura, palace called, 

Matangini, daughter of 
Mandara, 67 

Matthews, A. N., Mishcdt-ul- 
Masdbih, 2 vols., Calcutta, 
1809-1810, 100ft 

Mauritius, clove-trees intro- 
duced into, 96ft 2 

Mayavati, daughter of Malaya- 
simha, 115 

McDougall, W., Hose, C, and, 
The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, 
2 vols., Ldn., 1912, 296ft 1 

Medea, the story of, 109ft 1 

Meghavana, temple called, 
157, 199, 201 

Mekhala, wife of Yasaskara, 2 

Melanesia, betel-chewing in, 

Mendana, Alvaro de (1568), 
account of betel-chewing, 
314, 314ft 2 

Menzel, T., TiirkischeM'drchen. 
Billur Koschk, Hanover, 

1923, 107ft 

Mercier, G., Le Chaouia de 

I'Aures, Paris, 1896, 227ft 7 
Merill, Mr, on the original 

home of Areca catechu, 

Meru, Mount, 83, 198, 199 
Merudhvaja, king named, 

178-188, 190-193, 195-199, 

204, 207, 208 
Messina, " swan - maiden" 

story from, 218, 219 
Meyer, E. H., Germanische 

Mythologie, Berlin, 1891, 

232ft 8 
Micronesia, betel-chewing in, 

Mills, J. P., The Ao Nagas, 

Ldn., 1926, 284, 284ft 3 ; 

The Lhota Nagas, Ldn., 

1922, 285ft 7 
Mills, L., Shans at Home, Ldn., 

1910, 286, 286ft 4 



Milton, Comus, 56ft 1 

Mitford, A. B., Tales of Old 
Japan, Ldn., 1903, 231ft 4 

Mithila school, the (fourth 
century a.d.), 195ft 3 , 196ft 

Molliron, J., Text Book on 
Indian Agriculture, vol. iii, 
1910, 318ft 1 

Moluccas, the clove-tree a 
native of the, 96ft 2 

Monier Williams, M., 36ft 2 
137ft 2 ; Buddhism in its Con- 
nection with Brahmanism and 
Hinduism, 2nd ed., Ldn., 
1890, lft 4 

Monmouth, Geoffrey of, 154ft 2 

Morga, A. de, description of 
betel-chewing, 300, 301 

Morris, M., Die Mentawai- 
Sprache, Berlin, 1900, 23 lft 7 

Moschus, Satires, 99ft 2 

Moule, Rev. A. C, references 
to betel-chewing in China, 
303k 1 

Mrichchhakatika, the, 7ft 4 

Mrigankadatta's insult of 
spitting betel-juice on a 
minister, 237 

Mudaliyar, A. M. Guna- 
sekara, The Ceylon Antiquary 
and Literary Register, vol. i, 
pt. 2, Colombo, 1915-1916, 
318ft 1 

Muir, John, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, 5 vols., Ldn., 1858- 
1872, 152ft 1 

Muktaphaladhvaja, son of 
Merudhvaja, 179, 181, 182, 
183, 184-187, 189, 191, 197- 
205, 207 

Muktaphalaketu, Vidyadhara 
prince named, 133, 143 

Muktaphalaketu and Pad- 
mavatl, 144-155, 156-163, 
164-177, 178-192, 193-209 

Muktavali, wife of Chandra- 
ketu, 150, 153 

Muller, F. W. K., Melanges 
Aus dem Wakan Sansai 
Dzuye," T'oung Pao, Ar- 
chives pour servir a I'etude 
de Vhistoire . . . de I'Asie 
orientate . . ., vol. xi, 
Leiden, 1895, 231ft 3 * 4 

Mundy, Peter, account of 
betel-chewing, 266, 266ft*, 

Murray, J. A. H., Oxford 
Dictionary, 34ft 1 

Myrkwood, a magic forest, 
222, 222ft 2 

Nag, or cobra, the Bara'is 

veneration of the, 274 
Nagas, snake-demons, 7, 184, 

Nagasthala, village called, 

Nagasvamin, Brahman named, 

Nagavalli (Sanskr.), "leaves 

of the betel," 238, 239 
Nagbel, or serpent-creeper, 

the betel-vine, 274 
Nag-Panchmi (Cobra's fifth), 

the festival of, 274 
Nat grass, 272 
Nala, King, 8ft 2 , 133 
Nalangu ceremony, betel and 

turmeric in the, 281 
Nambutiri Brahmans, betel 

leaves in ceremonies among 

the, 280, 281 
Nand, the foster-father of Sri 

Krishna, 214, 215 
Nandana, the garden of the 

gods, 33, 165, 170 
Nandin, the bull of Siva, 51, 

Narada, hermit named, 27, 

79, 83, 124, 186 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 

King of Vatsa, 1, 12, 17, 

21-31, 31ft 1 , 32, 32ft 3 , 33, 

34, 36, 37, 37ft 1 , 39-43, 45- 

53, 58, 60-74, 76-82, 84, 

85, 85ft 2 , 86-91, 91ft 2 , 92, 

93, 93ft 2 , 94, 95, 99, 101- 

105, 121-125, 131, 132, 209, 

Narayana i.e. Vishnu, 183 
Nassau, R. H., Fetichism in 

West Africa, Ldn., 1904, 

Naumann, Hans, Primitive 

Gemeinschaftskultur, Jena, 

1921, 107w 
Navami Puja, celebration of 

the, 271 
Nayar caste, betel-chewing in 

death ceremonies among 

the, 281 
Neale, F. A., Narrative of a 

Residence at the Capital of 

the Kingdom of Siam, Ldn., 

1852, 289w 2 
Negelein, J. von, Der Traum- 

schliissel des Jagaddeva, 

Giessen, 1911-1912, lOOn 
Nepal, the Greater Cardamom 

a native of, 96/& 1 
New Guinea, betel-chewing 

in Eastern, 310-314 

Nirriti, guardian of the South- 
East, 163W 1 

Nithuth, a king of Sweden, 
220, 221, 222 

Ocrisia, mother of Servius 
Tullius, 114W 1 

Ola i.e. the leaf of Corypha 
umbraculifera, 252, 252m 1 

Oldenberg, H., Buddha, Ldn., 
1882, 125m 1 

Oliver, Pasfield, The Voyage 
of Francois Leguat, 2 vols., 
Hakluyt Society, Ldn., 
1891, 295W 1 

Olrun, one of the three 
Valkyries in the Volun- 
darkvitha, 221, 222 

Orta, Dr, one of the two 
interlocutors in Garcia da 
Orta's work, 240 ; Garcia 
da, description of betel- 
chewing, 241-244 ; Garcia 
da, Coloquios dos simples . . ., 
1st ed., Goa, 1563, 240m 1 

Osiris, Isis and the dead body 
of, 75ni 

O'Sullivan, A. W. S. See 
under Hurgronje, C. S. 

Overbeck, H. ["Malay 
Customs and Beliefs"], 
Malay Br. Roy. As. Soc. 
Journ., vol. ii, 1924, and 
vol. iii, 1925, 292 

Ovid, Fasti, 114ft 1 ; Heroides, 
99ft 2 ; Metamorphoses, 69ft 1 , 
149ft 2 

Padmaprabha, daughter of 
Mahadamshtra, 67 

Padmasana, posture of medita- 
tion called, 83, 83ft 2 

Padmasekhara, sovereign of 
the Gandharvas, 146, 150, 
153, 157, 159, 162, 163, 
164, 170, 208 

Padmavatl, daughter of Pad- 
masekhara, 143 ; Mukta- 
phalaketu and, 144-155, 
156-163, 164-177, 178-192, 
193-209 ; wife of the King 
of Vatsa, 27, 46, 90, 102 ; 
wife of Muktaphalaketu, 

Pala tree, 277 

Palaka, king named, 101, 103, 
105, 106, 110, 112, 115, 118, 
120, 121, 122 

Palli or Vanniyan caste, the 
origin of the, 109ft 3 



Paludanus (Bernard ten 
Broecke), interpolations in 
the work of Linschoten, 
247, 259, 262, 263, 264 
Pampa, lake called, 43, 45 * 
Pan (or iambuli), the betel 
leaf, 238, 247, 268, 270, 
271, 284, 285, 287 
Pa?i garden, sacredness of 

the, 271, 274 
" Pancasugandhikam " i.e. 
"the five flavours" in betel- 
chewing, 246 
Pancha, Book XIV, 21-69 
Panchatantra, the, 20 
Pimdava brothers, the five, 

Pan-supari, the betel "chew," 
238, 239, 247, 248, 275, 
283, 286 
Panzer, F., Sigfrid, Miinchen, 

1912, 107ft 
Paparipu, the holy water of, 

Paraiyan caste, betel in 
marriage ceremoniesamong 
the, 281, 282 
Parijata tree, 170, 172, 186 
Paris [" Die undankbare 
Gattin '], Zeit. d. Vereins f. 
Volkskande, vol. xiii, Berlin, 
]903, 117ft 2 
Parker, K. L., Australian 
Legendary Tales, Ldn., 
1897, 232ft 
Parvati (Uma, Durga, Gauri, 
etc., wife of Siva), 26, 52, 
136, 137, 138, 142, 157, 
160, 172, 175, 176, 177, 
180 ; condemned her Five 
Attendants to be reborn 
on Earth, How, 136-138, 
Pasfield Oliver. See under 

Oliver, Pasfield 
Pasupata ascetic named 

Bhutisiva, 55 
Pasupati (Rudra), the weapon 
of, 145, 146, 179, 183, 184 
Patala, the underworld, 103, 
108, 179, 180, 181-183, 
185, 187, 188, ' 189, 191, 
191ft 1 , 193-197, 204 
Pataliputra, city called, 35, 54 
Patel, P. C, "The Crops of 
the Bombay Presidency," 
Bull. Dep. Agriculture, 
Bombay, 1922, 318ft 1 
Patra (or tejpatra, Cassia 
lignea), one of the three 
aromatic drugs, 96ft 1 

Paundra, the King of, 84 
Pauraruchideva, warder of 
the Vidyadhara empire, 53 
Pavana or Vayu, guardian of 

the North-West, 163ft 1 
Peisthetaerus, Iris and, 148ft 3 
Pelew Islands, betel-chewing 

in the, 306, 307 
Penzer, N. M., The Mineral 
Resources of Burma, Ldn. 
and New York, 1922, 65ft 1 
Philippine Islands, betel- 
chewing in the, 300-302 
Pincott, F., The Prema Sagara, 
or Ocean of Love, West- 
minster, 1897, 214, 214ft 1 
Pingalagiindhara, Vidyadhara 
named, 33, 47, 48, 50, 52, 
64, 73 
Pingesvara, Gana named, 

\Z1, 138, 142 
Pin-lang, areca-nuts, 303, 305 
Pipal, one of the five leaves 

of trees, 247ft 2 
Pipalo, one of the five leaves 

of trees, 247ft 2 
Pisachas, demons, 137, 140 
Pitamaha, the law code of, 

Pleyte, C. M., Bataksche 
Vertellingcn, Utrecht, 1894, 
P 1 i n y. Folium indum the 

malobathrum of, 244ft 1 
Pliny, Naturalis Historia, 
Bonn's translation, 6 vols., 
Ldn., 1855-1856, 114ft 1 
Polivka, G., Bolte, J., and, 
Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausm'drchen der Br'uder 
Grimm, 3 vols., Leipzig, 
1913 - 1918, 83ft 1 , 107ft, 
109ft 2 , 117ft 2 , 182ft 1 , 216ft 1 , 
217, 217ft 1 
Pongol, the festival of the 

winter solstice, 19 
Prabhavati, daughter of 
Pingalagandhara, 33, 34, 
36, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 62, 
63, 90 
Prajapati i.e. Brahma, 152, 

152ft 1 , 162 
Prajnapti, science named, 

100, 100ft 1 
Prasenajit, king named, 31, 
31ft 1 ; The Young Chandala 
who married the Daughter 
of King, 112, 112ft*, 113, 
Preller, L., Griechische Myth- 
ologie, 2 vols., 3rd ed., 

Preller, L., continued 

Berlin, 1872-1875, 154ft 2 ; 
R'omische Mythologie, 3rd 
ed., Berlin, 1881- 1883, 96ft 1 
156ft 1 

Prema Sagara, the, 214, 214ft 1 . 
See also under Pincott 

Priscus, the reign of Tar- 
quinius, 114ft 1 

Prithivl or IsanI, guardian of 
the North-East, 163ft 1 

Prithividevi, mother of Vega- 
vatl, 34, 38, 39 

Prym, E., and Socin, A. 
[Der Neu-Aramaeische 
Dialekt des Tur y Abdin\ 2 
vols., Gottingen, 1881; 
vol. ii also entitled : Syr- 
ische Sagen und Maerchen, 
58ft 2 

Przyluski, J., " Emprunts 
Anaryens en Indo-Aryen," 
Bull, de la Soc. de Linguis- 
tique de Paris, vol. xxiv, 
1924, 239, 239ft 2 

Psyche, story of, 25ft 1 

Puga (areca-nut), one of the 
five flavours in betel- 
chewing, 246, 247 

Purana, Bhagavata, the, 214, 

214ft 1 , 216; Vishnu, 216 
Puranas, the, 108ft 1 

Pururavas, the story of Urva^I 
and, 216 

PushkaravatI, city called, 33 
Pyrard of Laval, F., mention 
of betel-chewing,266, 266ft 1 

RadlofF, W., Proben der Volks- 

litteratur der tiirkischen 

Stamme Sud-Sibiriens, pts. 

1-6. St Petersburg, 1866- 

1886, 107ft, 228ft 2 
Raghu, Rama's ancestor, 44 
Rahamin, Atiya Begum Fyzee, 

The Music of India, Ldn., 

1925, 95ft 1 
Rahu (the ascending node), 

Rajagriha, city called, 115 
Rajput named Suras ena, 97, 

Rakshasas, demons, 107, 108, 

137, 140, 158, 184, 195 
Rakshasi, female form of 

Rakshasa, 158, 159, 160, 

164, 167, 168, 203 
Rakshitika, a fisherwoman 

called, 115 
Raktaksha, ally of Mandara- 

deva, 81 



Ralston, W. R. S., Russian 
Folk-Tales, Ldn., 1875, 
56ft 1 , 57ft 2 , 227ft 5 
Ralston, W. R. S., and 
Schiefner, F. A. von, 
Tibetan Tales, Ldn.. 1882, 
69ft 1 , 83ft 1 , 125ft 1 , 228ft 1 
Rama, 43 ; son of Taravaloka, 
126, 128, 130 ; story of, 44, 
44ft 1 , 45 
Ramabhadra i.e. Rama, 26, 

Ramayana, the, 44ft 1 
Rambha, a heavenly nymph, 

8, 162, 186, 189 
Ramstedt, G. J. [Kalm'uckische 
Sprachprobeii], Memoir es de 
la Sociele Finno-ougrienne, 
vol. xxvii, Helsingfors, 
1809, 228ft 3 
Ramusio's text of Marco Polo, 

246, 257 
Rannie, D., My Adventures 
among South Sea Cannibals, 
Ldn., 1912, 310, 310ft 2 
Rasatala, one of the seven 
hells, 162, 162m 1 , 184, 185, 
191, 191*1, 196, 197 
Rasmussen, K., Gronldndska 
Myter och Sagor, Stock- 
holm, 1926, 228^10; x ye 
Mennesker, Copenhagen and 
Christiania, 1905, 228, 
228ft 9 
Rati, wife of Kama, 2, 11, 23, 

71, 87, 108 
Ratnaprabha, wife of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 46, 47, 90 
Ratnas, or jewels of the 

Chakravartin, 72ft 
Ravana (chief of the Rak- 

shasas), 7ft 4 , 25, 83 
Rhys, John, Lectures on the 
Origin and Growth of Re- 
ligion . . ., Hibbert Lec- 
tures, Ldn., 1888, 107ft 
Rhys Davids, T. W., Buddhism, 
Ldn., 1890, 127m 1 ; Buddhist 
Birth Stories, Ldn., 1880, 
135ft 2 ; Buddhist Suttas 
Translated from Pali, No. 6, 
Sacred Books of the East 
Series, Oxford, 1881, 71ft 2 
Ribhukshan, one of the three 

ibhus, 19 
Ribhus, the three, seasonal 

deities, 19 
Richard II's coronation, 

account of, 88ft 1 
Ridley, H. N., on betel- 
chewing, 243ft 1 , 291 

Ridley, H. N., The Flora 
of the Malay Peninsula, 
5 vols., Ldn., 1922-1925, 
290, 290ft 1 ; Spices, Ldn., 
1912, 18, 96ft 2 , 247 

Rink, H., Tales and Traditions 
of the Eskimo, Edinburgh, 
1875, 228ft 9 

Rishabha, emperor of the 
Vidyadharas, 74, 75, 83, 
124 ; mountain, the, 85, 86, 
89, 94 

Rishabhaka, emperor called, 

% 85 

Rishis, the, 182, 185 

gishyamuka, the mountain 
of, 42-44 

Risley, H. H., The Tribes and 
Castes of Bengal, 4 vols., 
Calcutta, 1891, 271ft 1 

Rivers, W., The History of 
Melanesian Society, 2 vols., 
Cambridge, 1914, 310, 317, 
317ft 1 

Robertson, J. A., Blair, E. H., 
and, The Philippine Islands, 
55 vols., Cleveland, Ohio, 
1903-1909, 302, 302ft 2 

Rockhill, W. W., Hirth, F., 
and, Chau Ju-Kua : His 
Work on the Chineseand Arab 
Trade, Imperial Academy 
of Sciences, St Petersburg, 
1911, 256ft 1 , 303ft 2 

Roe, Sir Thomas, mention of 
betel-chewing, 266, 266ft 2 

Romilly, H., From my Ver- 
andah in New Guinea, Ldn., 
1889, 232ft 2 

Rose, H. J., Primitive Culture 
in Italy, Ldn., 1926, 114ft 1 

Rost, Dr, 13ft 1 , 33ft 1 

Roth, H. Ling, The Natives of 
Sarawak and British North 
Borneo, 2 vols., 1896, 253, 
253ft 2 , 298ft 1 ; Oriental Silver- 
work, Malay and Chinese, 
Ldn., 1910, 253, 253ft 1 
Roth, R., Bohtlingk, O., and 
[Sanskrit Dictionary], 1852- 
1875, 62ft 1 , 135ft 2 , 143ft 1 , 
160ft 1 , 167ft 2 , 170ft 1 , 186ft 1 
Ruano, Dr, one of the two 
interlocutors in the work 
of Garcia da Orta, 240, 
Ruchideva, warder named, 91 
Ruchiradeva, the sister of, 90 
Rudra, 145, 146, 155, 183 
Rukmini, legend of, 10; 
wife of Krishna, 46 

Rumanvat, minister of the 
King of Vatsa, 22, 23, 101 

Ruru, a Danava slain by 
Durga, 77, 77ft 3 

Russell, R. V., The Tribes and 
Castes of the Central Pro- 
vinces of India, 4 vol 
Ldn., 1916, 19, 273ft 1 


Sachi, wife of Indra, 88, 141 

155, 162 
Safford, W. E., The Useful 

Plants of the Island of 

Guam, Smithsonian Inst., 

Washington, 1905, 308ft 2 , 

309ft 1 - 2 
Sagaradatta, king named, 28, 

29, 47, 50, 53, 64, 73 
St John, Spencer, Life in the 

Forests of the Far East, 

2nd ed., 2 vols., Ldn., 

1863, 296, 296ft 2 
Sakra, king of the gods, 83ft 1 
Saktis (" energies ") of Siva, 

the, 75ft 2 
Saktiyasas, wife of Narava- 

hanadatta, 90 
Samadhisthala, Indra's tem- 
porary residence, 147, 150 
Sampati (the vulture son of 

Garuda), 44 
Samyataka, friend of Mukta- 

phalaketu, 163, 170, 171, 

172, 173, 181, 198, 200, 

201, 202, 205 
Sandhyavasa, village called, 

Sangramasimha, governor 
f over Patala,' 185, 189 
Sankhahrada, lake called, 7, 

13, 14 
Sankhapala, King of the 

Nagas, 7 
Sankhapura, city called, 7 
Sankranti, the day on which 

the sun enters a fresh sign 

of the zodiac, 19 
Santisoma, priest named, 25, 

Sarasas, large cranes, 24, 135, 

135ft 1 
Sarasvati, the goddess, 1, 29 
Sarvadamana, emperor 

named, 124 
Sastras, the, 134 
Satapatha Brahmana, the, 216 
Satyabhama, wife of Krishna, 

Saville, W. V. J., In Unknown 

New Guinea, Ldn., 1926, 

314ft 1 



Savitrl and Angiras, Story of, 

Savitri, the goddess, 23, 47 
Schiefner, A., Die Helden- 
sagen der minussinschen 
Tataren, St Petersburg, 
1859, 228ft 2 
Schiefner, F. A. von, Ralston, 
W. R. S., and, Tibetan 
Tales, Ldn., 1882, 69ft\ 
83ft 1 , 125ft 1 , 228ft 1 
Schmidt, Bernhard, Griech- 
ische Sagen and Volkslieder, 
Leipzig, 1877, 57ft 2 
SchofF, W. H., reference to 

betel-chewing, 255ft 2 
Schoff, W. H., "Camphor," 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, 
vol. xlii, 1922, 246, 246ft 2 
Scidmore, E. R., Java the 
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Scott, Sir J. G., 286. See 
also under Shway Yoe 
Scott, J., The Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments, 6 vols., Ldn., 
1811, 227ft 3 ; Bahar-Danush, 
3 vols., Shrewsbury, 1799, 
227ft 2 
Scott, W., The Lady of the 

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Sea ton, M. E., "Swan- 
Maidens," Hastings' Ency. 
ReL Eth., vol. xii, 219m 1 
Seligmann, C. G., The Melan- 
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Cambridge, 1910, 310 
Sen, K. N. N., The Vaidyaka- 
sabda-sindhu, Calcutta, 
1913-1914, 246 
Senaikkudaiyan, caste of 
betel-vine cultivators, 282 
Senart, E., The Mahavastu, 
2 vols., Paris, 1882-1890, 
71ft 2 
Servius Tullius, the birth of, 

114ft 1 
Sesha, the serpent of Vishnu, 

Sewell, R., and Dikshit, S. B., 
The Indian Calendar', Ldn., 
1896, 19 
Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, 

99ft 1 , 156ft 1 
Sheering, M. S., Hindu Tribes 
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1872, 1879 and 1881, 
270ft 2 
Sherlf, description of betel- 
chewing, 255-256 

Shway Yoe (Sir J. G. Scott), 

The Burman, his Life and 

Notions,2nd ed., Ldn., 1896, 

286n 5 

Siam, betel-chewing in, 287, 

288, 289 
Siddhakshetra, 48ft 1 
Siddhas, independent super- 
humans, 43, 48, 52, 67, 
85ft 2 , 161, 176, 204, 207, 
Siddhisvara, a sacred place 
of Siva, 138ft 1 , 143, 143ft 1 , 
152, 177, 199, 202, 203, 209 
Siddhodaka, holy water 

called, 199, 207 
Siebs, T. [" Neues zur ger- 
manischen Mythologie "], 
Mittheil. d. schles. Gesell. f 
Volkskunde, vol. xxv, 1924, 
225ft 2 
Sigala Jataka, the. No. 142, 

112ft 4 
Silius Italicus, Punica, 154ft 2 
Simha, chief of the Vidya- 

dharas, 30 
Sinclair, W. F., The 1 ravels 
of Pedro Teixeira, Hakluyt 
Society, Ldn., 1902, 259ft 2 
Siri leaf i.e. betel leaf, 253, 

296, 305 

Sirlh fruits given as present 

to future bride, 297 ; 

spittle used as a charm, 

, 294 

Sirisha flower, body like a, 

Slta, wife of Rama, 7ft 4 , 26, 

Siva, 1, 7, 7ft 4 , 21, 22, 23, 27, 
38, 42, 47, 48, 51, 52, 55, 
57, 59, 60, 60ft 2 , 68m 1 , 71, 
72, 73, 74, 75, 75ft 2 , 77, 
77ft 1 , 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 
89, 102, 110, 120, 121, 131, 
132, 132ft 1 , 133, 133ft 3 , 136, 
138, 141, 142, 143, 146, 
147, 148, 150-157, 159-161, 
163, 164, 167, 169, 171, 
175-180, 183, 186, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 197, 198, 199, 
200, 203, 205, 206, 207, 
t 209, 277, 280 
Sivabhuti, minister of 

Brahmadatta, 134, 142 
Sivakshetra, hermitage called, 

Sivis, the (Sibis), 125, 125ft 1 
Skeat, W. W., Malay Magic, 

Ldn., 1900, 290ft 4 
Skeat, W. W., and Blagden, 

Skeat continued 

C. O., Pagan Races of the 
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Ldn., 1906, 289, 289w 3 , 
290n 2 - 3 
Slagfith, a son of the king of 

the Finns, 221, 222 
Smith, M. Staniforth, Annual 
Report, British New 
Guinea, 1911, 312 

Smith, V. A., Travels in the 
Mogul Empire a.d. 1656- 
1668 by Francois Bernier, 
2nd ed., Oxford, 1914, 
267w 3 

Smith, W., Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
3rd ed., Ldn., 1890-1891, 

Smith, W. A., The Ao Naga 
Tribe of Assam, 1925, 284, 
284w*, 286W 1 

Snorri Sturluson, "the 
Younger" Edda, 220 

Sobhavati, city called, 2 

Socin, A., and Prym, E. 
[Der Neu-Aramaeische 
Dialekt des Tur 'Abdin], 
2 vols., Gottingen, 1881 ; 
vol. ii also entitled: Syrische 
Sagen und Maerchen, 57w 2 

Solomon Islands, betel- 
chewing in the, 314-316 

Soma, the kinsuka tree sacred 
to, 7w 3 

Soma or Chandra, guardian 
of the North-East, 162ft 1 

Somadeva, Brahman named, 
139; {The Katha Saril 
Sagara), 114ft 1 , 213, 237, 
238, 245, 246, 247, 255 

Somaprabha, wife of 
Brahmadatta, 134, 134ft 1 , 

Sontheimer, J. von, Grosse 
Zusammenstellung uber die 
Krafte . . . von Abdullah 
Ben Ahmed . . .,2 vols., 
Stuttgart, 1840-1842, 255ft 2 

Southey, R., Old Woman of 
Berkeley, 56ft 1 

Soy Yo, " Antiquity of the 
Castanet," Once a Week, 
vol. viii, 1863, 95ft 1 

Spain from the East, the Cas- 
tanet introduced into, 95ft 1 

Speyer, J. S., Studies about 
the Kathasaritsagara, 
Amsterdam, 1908, 16ft, 
31ft 3 , 37ft 1 , 60ft 2 , 63ft 1 - 2 , 
87ft 2 , 91ft 2 



Sravasti, city called, 31, Sin 1 , 

t 45, 97 

Sri Krishna stealing the 

clothes of the Braj girls, 

214, 215 
Sruta, daughter of Dirgha- 

damshtra, 84 
Stack, E., The Mikirs, Ldn., 

1908, 285*1* 
Stanley, H. E. J., The 

Philippine Islands . . . By 

Antonio de Morga, Hakluyt 

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300ft 1 
Steere, E., Swahili Tales, 2nd 

ed., Ldn., 1889, 227ft 10 
Stephens, G. A., " Eating or 

Chewing of Pan," West- 
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New York, August 1907, 

318m 1 
Stevenson, Mrs Sinclair, The 

Rites of the Twice-Born, 

Oxford Univ. Press, 1920, 

18, 277 
Stober, A., Alsatia, 1858- 

1861, 107ft 
Stuart, G. A., Chinese Materia 

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Stumme, H., M'drchen der 

Schluh vo7i T azerw alt, 

Leipzig, 1895, 227ft 8 ; 

Tunisische M'drchen und 

Gedichte, 2 vols., Leipzig, 

1893, 227ft 
Sturluson, Snorri, " the 

Younger " Edda, 220 
Subahu, Daitya named, 148 
Suddhodana, Raja, Gautama's 

father, 127ft 1 
Sudharma, hall of the gods, 

40, 40ft 2 
Sugriva (king of the 

monkeys), 44 
Sulochana, daughter of 

Amitagati, 52 
Sumatra, betel-chewing in, 

Sumeru, Mount, 82 
Sumitra, Yakshini named, 56 
Supari, the areca-nut, 238, 

239, 247, 285 
Suprahara, a young fisherman, 

115, 116, 117 
Supratishthita, city called, 

Surabhi, the sacred cow, ful- 
filling all wishes, 55, 85 
Surasena, Rajput named, 97, 


Suratamanjan, Book XVI, 
94-131 ; Chandala maiden 
named, 112, il5, 120, 121, 
122 ; daughter of Matan- 
gadeva, 105, 106, 121, 122, 

Surya, guardian of the South- 
West, 163ft 1 

Sushena, wife of Surasena, 
97, 98 

Susruta (first century a.d. 
or B.C.), mention of betel, 
254, 255 ; mention of car- 
damom {ela), 96ft 1 

Svayamprabha, wife of Trailo- 
kyamalin, 185, 187, 188, 
189, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 

Svayamvara (marriage by 
choice), 29ft 1 , 30ft 1 

Svetadvlpa, 151, 151ft 2 

Svetasaila, the cave of, 184, 
187, 193 

Swan- White, one of the three 
Valkyries in the Volundar- 
kvitha, 221, 222 

Syed Siraj Ul Hassan, The 
Castes and Tribes of 
H.E.H. the Nizam s Dom- 
inions, vol. i, Bombay, 1920, 
274, 275 

Taels, Sinhalese weight, 256ft 1 
Talajangha, demon named, 

Tamboli (Tamoli, Tamdi), 

caste connected with betel, 

270, 274 
Tambula, the usual Sanskrit 

word for betel "chew," 

238, 239 
Tambuli (or pan), the betel 

leaf, 238 
Tanaquil, Queen, 114ft 1 
Tanda Pulaiyan caste, betel 

used among the, 282 
Tapincha tree, 7, 7ft 2 
Tapodhana, hermit named, 

172, 175, 178, 179, 180, 

181, 184, 185, 198, 201, 

206, 208 
Taravaloka, emperor over the 

Vidyadharas, 124; Story of, 

Tarkshyaratna, a jewel, 135ft 2 
Tarquinius Priscus, the reign 

of, 114ft 1 
Tavernier, J. R. (1643-1649), 

description of betel- 
chewing, 295, 295ft 1 

Tawney, C. H., 12ft 1 , 19, 32ft 3 , 
34ft 1 , 58ft 3 , 60ft 3 , 63ft 1 , 71ft 2 , 
75ft 2 , 95ft 1 , 108ft 1 
Tawney, C. H., The 
Kathakoca ; or Treasury of 
Stories, Roy. As. Soc, 1895, 
29ft 1 
Taylor, R., Te lka A Maui; 
or New Zealand and its In- 
habitants, 2nd ed., Ldn., 
1870, 232ft 7 
Teixeira, Pedro (1586-1615), 
mention of betel-chewing, 
259, 259ft 2 
Tejpatra or pair a, one of 
the three aromatic drugs, 
96ft 1 
Temple, R. C, The Countries 
Round the Bay of Bengal, 
Hakluyt Society, Ldn., 
1905, 292ft 3 , 293ft 1 ; The 
Travels of Peter Mundy, 
4 vols., Hakluyt Society, 
Ldn., 1905, 1914, 1919, 
1924, 266ft 6 , 267ft 2 
Terry, Edward, mention of 

betel-chewing, 266, 266ft 3 
Thincsus, Mars, altars de- 
dicated to, 225 
Thomson, Basil, Amherst, 
Lord, and, Discovery of the 
Solomon Islands, Hakluyt 
Society, Ldn., 1901, 314, 
314ft 2 
Thumb, A. ["Zur neugriech- 
ischen Volkskunde "], Zeit. 
d. Vereins f. Volkskunde, 
vol. ii, Berlin, 1892, 
117ft 2 
Thurn, E. im [" Piper Methy- 
sticum in Betel-chewing "], 
Man, vol. xxii, April 192^ 
311, 311ft 2 
Thurston, E., Castes and Tribe 
of Southern India, 7 vols. 
Madras, 1909, 109ft 3 , 112? 
275, 275ft 1 - 2 
Tiele, P. A., Burnell, A. C. 
and, The Voyage of Jo) 
Huyghen van Linschoten, 
vols., Hakluyt Society 
Ldn., 1885, 259, 259ft 3 
Tikopia Island, betel-chewing 
in the, 316-317 ; the most 
easterly point of betel- 
chewing, 248, 310 
Tikshnadamshtra, Devj 

maya's ally, 74 
Til Sankrant, entry of the 
sun into Makara or Capri 
corn, 19, 20 

73 U 



Tille, V., Verzeichnis der 

Bohmischen Mar c hen (FF 

Communications 34), 1921, 
Tilottama, a heavenly nymph, 

Tiruvatira, festival called, 280 
Tobler, O., Die Epiphanie der 

Seele deutscker Volkssage, 

Kiel, 1911, 107ft 
Toreya caste, betel used 

among the, 283 
Touche, La. See under La 

Trailokyamalin, king named, 

183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 

191, 193, 195, 196, 197, 199, 

204, 207, 208 
Trailokyaprabha, daughter of 

Trailokyamalin, 185, 188, 

189, 197, 204, 207 
Tribhivanaprabha, daughter 

of Trailokyamalin, 185, 

188, 190, 197, 208 
Trida^a mountain, the, 143 
Tripura, the slayer of, Siva, 

Tri&rsha, the cave of, an 

epithet of Siva, 68, 68ft 1 , 

73, 74, 75, 76, 85 
Tri-sugandhi, the three aro- 
matic drugs, 96ft 1 
Tula, coin, 93ft 1 
Tullius, the birth of Servius, 

114ft 1 
Turner, G., Samoa a Hundred 

Years Ago, Ldn., 1884, 

232ft 5 
Tvak or gudatvak (cinnamon), 

one of the three aromatic 

drugs, 96ft 1 
Typhosus, the giant, 149ft 2 

Udayana, the King of Vatsa, 

89 ; for rescuing a snake, 

reward given to, 237 
Udumbara, one of the five 

leaves of trees, 247ft 2 
Ujjayini, city called, 5, 61, 

100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 

107, 110, 120, 121 
Ul Hassan, Syed Siraj. See 

under Hassan, S. S. Ul 
Ulfdalir, the home of Volund, 

221, 222 
Ulysses, by Hermes, the Moly 

given to, 56ft 2 ; in the island 

of Calypso, 92ft 1 
Uma (Parvati, Gaurl, etc., 

wife of Siva), 21 

Upanayana ceremony, betel 
and areca in the, 276 

UrvasT, a heavenly nymph, 
189 ; and Pururavas, the 
story of, 216 

Ushas, the Navami Puja cele- 
brated in honour of, 271 

Utpalahasta, Matanga named, 
112, 120, 121 

Uttarayana, the, northward 
movement of the sun, 19 

Vaidyaka-sabda-sindhu, Hindu 

medical dictionary, 246. 

See also under Sen, K.N.N. 
Vaja, one of the three Ribhus, 

Vajramushti, king named, 73, 

Vajraprabha, son of Heraa- 

prabha, 47 
Vakrapura, city called, 52, 53 
Vakrolaka, city called, 54 
Vakula tree, 96, 96ft 3 
Valle, Pietro Delia, mention 

of betel - chewing, 266, 

Vamadatta, a merchant's 

daughter, 120 
Vamadeva, hermit named, 70- 

Vanniyan or Palli caste, the 

origin of the, 109ft 3 
Varaha, king named, 73, 74 
Varanasi, city called, 133 
Varnhagen, F. A. de, reprint 

of Garcia da Orta's Colo- 

quios . . ., Lisbon, 1872, 

243ft 3 , 245 
Varthema,Ludovicodi (1505), 

description of betel- 
chewing, 258 
Vartin i.e. " abiding in," 72ft 
Varuna, the ruler of the 

West, 64, 108ft 1 , 163ft 1 , 

184, 215 
Vasantaka, minister of Nara- 

vahanadatta, 24 
Vasantatilaka, King of Chedi, 

Vasavadatta, wife of the King 

of Vatsa, 27, 46, 90, 91, 93, 

100, 102 
Vassal, G. M., On and Off 

Didy in Annam, Ldn., 1910, 

287ft 2 
Vasuki, the king of the 

serpents, 274ft 1 
Vasumati, Brahman named, 

Vatapi, giant named, 109ft 3 


Vatsa, the King of, Udayana, 
1,2, 12, 13,21, 22, 23,25, 
26, 27, 29, 30, 39, 45, 46, 
47, 89, 90, 91, 92, 92ft 1 , 93, 
100, 101, 102, 103, 121 

Vatsa, the Prince of, Nara- 
vahanadatta, 17 

Vaux, Carra de. See under 
Carra de Vaux 

Vayu, the god of the wind, 
160ft 1 ; or Pavana, guardian 
of the North-West, 163ft 1 

Vayupatha, king named, 40- 
42, 47, 50, 53, 64, 65, 66, 
69, 73, 88, 89, 93, 106, 123 

Vayuvegaya^as, sister of 
Vayupatha, 65, 66, 67, 90 

Vedas, the, 2 

Vegavat, king named, 25, 46 

VegavatI, Vidyadhari named, 
24-27, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 
46, 53, 62, 90 

Velent (Weland, Volund, 
Wayland) the Smith, 220 

Vetalas, demons, 62 

Vibhvan, one of the three 
Ribhus, 19 

Victoria and Albert Museum, 
collections of betel im- 
plements, 250 

Vidyadhara court, Narava- 
hanadatta before the, 40- 
42 ; territory, two divisions 
of the, 47, 48, 80, 89 

Vidyadharas, independent 
superhumans, 9, 22, 23, 25, 

27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38, 
40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47-52, 
59, 61-64, 66-75, 75ft 3 , 76, 
78, 80-89, 92-94, 97, 101, 
103, 105, 106, 121, 122, 
124, 125, 129-133, 146, 148, 
149, 150, 152-156, 161, 163, 
164, 168, 169, 174, 178, 
187, 194, 200, 201, 205, 
205ft 1 , 206, 207, 208, 209 

Vidyadhari, female form of 
Vidyadhara, 22, 24, 25, 27 . 

28, 29, 34, 45, 59, 63, 122 
Vidyuddhvaja, son of Vidyut- 

prabha, 143-157, 159, 160- 

164, 208 
Vidyutprabha, king named, 

144, 146 
Vidyutpunja, Vidyadhara 

named, 67, 73 
Vidyutpunja, daughter of 

Vidyutpunja, 67 
Vijayanagar, account of the 

Court of ('Abdu-r-Razzaq), 




Vijayasena,ayoung Kshatriya, 

Vimala, city called, 82 
Vinadatta, Gandharva named, 

Vinayavati, wife of Meru- 

dhvaja, 204 
Vindhya mountain, the, 54 
Virabahu, king named, 118 
Viravara, the faithful servant, 

Virgil, JEncid, 49m 1 , 141w 2 ; 

Georgics, 49ft 1 
Visala, city called, 2 
Vishnu, 10, 28-30, 60, 60w 2 , 

72n, 76, 82w, 151, 152, 153, 

161, 277 
Vishnu Pur ana, the, 216 
Visuddhimagga, Buddhaghosa, 

254w 2 
Visvakarman, the architect 

of the gods, 169 
Visvantara, emperor named, 

Volund (Velent, Weland, etc.) 

the Smith, 220 ; a son of the 

king of the Finns, 221, 222 

Warneck, J., " Studien iiber 
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6 vols., Calcutta, 1889- 
1896, 7w 2 - 3 , 8ni, 18, 65i, 
96w i, 2, 3, 5} 243n 2 , 247, 249, 
318ft 1 

Wayland (Volund, Welund, 
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Webster, H. Cayley-. See 
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Webster, John, The Dutchess 
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Weland (Volund, Wayland, 
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Wesselski, A., M'drchen des 
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117ft 2 

Westermarck, E., Ritual and 
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White, W. G., The Sea 
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Wick ham, E. C, Quinti 
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99ft 2 

Wilken, G. A., "Jets over 
Schedelvereering bij de 
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Wilkins, W. J., Hindu Myth- 
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Williams, M. Monier. See 
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Williamson, Prof., on betel- 
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Williamson, R. W., The 
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Wilson, Captain Henry, 306. 
See also under Keate, G. 

Wilson, Prof. H. Hay man, on 
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Winstedt, R. O., " Notes on 
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292, 292wi; Papers on 
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Circumstances of Malay 

Winstedt continued 

Life, Kuala Lumpur, 1909, 

29b* 1 
Woodford, Mr C. M., on 

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Wiinsche, A., Schopfung und 

Siindenfall des erst en Men- 

schenpaares, Leipzig, 1906, 

vol. ii of Ex Oriente Lux, 

117n 2 

Yadavas, Sudharma, the hall 

of the, 40w 2 
Yajnadeva, son of Somadeva, 

Yajnasoma, Brahman named, 

Yajnasthala, a royal grant to 

Brahmans, 138 
Yajnavalkya-smriti, the law 

code of the Mithila school, 

195w 3 , 196n 
Yakshas, subjects of Kuvera, 

Yakshini, female form of 

Yaksha, 56, 57 
Yama, guardian of the South, 

Ya^askara, Brahman named, 2 
Yaugandharayana, minister 

of the King of Vatsa, 27, 

46, 90, 101, 102 
Yoe, Shway. See under 

Shway Yoe 
Yojanas, measures of distance, 

12, 55, 105 
Yugas (or Ages of the World), 

Yule, H., The Book of Ser 

Marco Polo, 3rd ed., 2 vols., 

Ldn., 1903, 245, 246, 246w 3 

247, 256, 257 
Yule, H., and Cordier, H., 

Cathay and the Way Thither, 

4 vols., Hakluyt Society, 

Ldn., 1913-1916, 96w 2 

Zimmer, H., Altindischt 
Leben, Berlin, 1879, 156n x 




Abduction of Suratamanjari, 
the, 105, 106 

Abhandl. d. M'unchener 
Akademie, Studien zur ger- 
maiiischen Sagengeschichte, 
I, Der V alky rienmy thus, 
W. Golther, vol. xviii, 
1890, 224ft 1 

Abhandl. f. d. Kunde d. 
Morgen., " Das Aupapatika 
Sutra," E. Leumann, vol. 
viii, Leipzig, 1883, 254ft 3 

Abodes, the gods leaving 
their old, 149, 149ft 2 

Abrege des Merveilles, L\ 
Carra de Vaux, 227ft 3 

Absent husband, a single 
lock worn in mourning for, 
34, 36, 36ft 2 

Acacia catechu, cutch, an ex- 
tract from, 278, 287 

Academy, " Antimony," L. L. 
Bonaparte, 23rd February 
1884, 65m 1 

Accessories to betel-chewing, 

Account of Assam, Statistical, 
W. H. Hunter, 284ft* 

Account of the Manners and 
Customs of the Modern 
Egyptians, An, E. W. Lane, 

Account of the Pelew Islands 
. . oj Henry Wilson, An, 
George Keate, 306ft 1 

Account of the method of 
making cutch, 278-280 ; of 
Richard II's coronation, 
88W 1 

Accounts of betel-chewing 
in the East Indian Archi- 
pelago, 292-302 ; of betel 
by travellers to India be- 
fore a.d. 1800, 255-270; of 
the history of the clove 
trade, 96ft 2 

Achchnese, The, C. S. 
Hurgronje, 293ft 2 , 294ft 1 - 2 

Aconite poison, usually one 
of the five ordeals, 196ft 


Act of truth, the, 189, 190, 

190a 1 
Action of the lime on the 

betel-juice, red saliva from 

the, 315 
Adoring the fire, prince 

coloured yellow by, 33 
Adulterer oiled and curled, 

head of an, 107 
Adulterous woman, the ordeal 

of the (in Numbers), 196ft 
Adventures among Soidh Sea 

Cannibals, My, D. Rannie, 

310ft 2 
Mneid, Virgil, 49ft 1 , 141ft 2 
Agallochum or Lign-Aloes 

used in betel-chewing, 243, 

243ft 2 
Age, a crest-jewel as talisman 

against old, 194, 195, 195ft 1 ; 

hair seized by old, 101 ; 

tone of castanets improve 

with, 95ft 1 
Agreement of five Vidyadhara 

maidens, the, 66, 67, 84 
Agricultural side of betel- 
chewing, the, 318, 318W 1 
Agricultural Bulletin of the 

Federated Malay States, 

"The Betel Leaf or Sirih," 

vol. vi, 1918, 318ft 1 ; "The 

Betel Nut Industry in the 

Muar District, Johore," 

vol. v, 1917, 318ft 1 
c Ain I Akbarl by Abu-l-Fazl 

'4llami> H. Blochmann, 

Air, flying through the, 26, 

27, 31, 34, 36, 46, 50, 52, 

55, 56, 59, 61, 69, 72, 89, 
' 121, 131, 173, 206, 223, 

Air-going elephants, the two, 

Alaisiages, the Valkyries 

were originally, 225, 225ft 1 , 

Algerie traditionelle, L\ A. 

Certeux and E. H. Carnoy, 

227ft 7 


Algonquin Legends of New 
England, The, Ch. Lei and, 
228ft 8 

Allerlei aus Folks- und Men- 
schenkunde, A. Bastian, 
232ft 3 

Almisquere (almisere, almiscre 
or almisque) in betel- 
chewing, use of, 244, 247ft 1 

Alsatia, A. Stober, 107ft 

Altars at Housesteads 
(Northumberland), early 
evidence of Valkyrie tra- 
dition on, 224, 224ft 3 , 225 

Altindisches Leben, H. Zimmer, 
156ft 1 

Ambergris in betel-chewing, 
use of, 243, 243ft 2 , 246, 264 

Ambre used in betel-chewing, 

American Folk-Lore, the 
Journal of, 228ft 8 , 231ft 5 . 
For details see under Journal 

f : 

American Oriental Society, 
Journal of the, 246ft 2 . For 
details see under Journal 
of the American . . . 

Amomum subulatum, the 
Greater Cardamom, 96ft 1 

Amount of betel leaves used 
by Indians, daily, 260 

Amulets in form of images of 
birds given at the winter 
solstice, 19 

Ancient History of the Maori, 
The, J. White, 232ft 7 

Angami Nagas, The, J. H. 
Hutton, 284ft 2 

Animal, Life bound up with, 
in the " External Soul " 
motif, 107ft ; transforma- 
tions, 79, 80, 80ft 1 

Animals, gold- and jewel- 
spitting, 59ft 3 ; grateful, 

Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Br'uder 
Grimm, J. Bolte and G. 
Polivka, 83ft 1 , 107ft, 109ft 2 , 



Anmerkungen continued 
117ft 2 , 182ft 1 , 216ft 1 , 217, 
217ft 1 

Annam, On and Off Duty in, 
G. M. Vassal, 287ft 2 

Annual Report, British New 
Guinea, M. Staniforth 
Smith, 312 

Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Ethnology of the Smith- 
sonian Institute [*' The 
Central Eskimo"], R. Boas, 
Washington, 1888, 228ft 8 

Annual Report on the Mun- 
nipore Political Agency, 
R. Brown, 286ft 3 

Anthropological Institute, 
Journal of the, 253ft 3 . For 
details see under Journ. 
Anth. Inst. 

Anthropological Society of 
Bombay, Journal of the, In*, 
18. For details see under 
Journ. Anthr. Soc. Bomb. 

Antimony, eyes reddened by, 
64, 65, 65ft 1 ; in India, 
small occurrence of, 65ft 1 ; 
the Mountain of, 108, 
108ft 1 ; probable derivation 
of the word, 65ft 1 

" Antimony," L.L. Bonaparte, 
Academy, 65ft 1 

Antiquities, Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman, W. Smith, 
156ft 1 

Antiquities of India, L. D. 
Barnett, 78ft 1 

" Antiquity of the Castanet," 
Soy Yo, Once a Week, 95ft 1 

Anxiety shown by eyes 
turned inwards, 49 

Ao Naga Tribe of Assam, The, 
W. C. Smith, 284ft 4 , 286ft 1 

Ao Nagas, The, J. P. Mills, 

Apollodorus, The Library, 
J. G. Frazer, 107ft, 117ft 2 

Appearance of Siva at the 
Vidyadhara court, the 
false, 42 

Appearing by thought, 
science, 100 

Appendix I : The " Swan- 
Maiden " motif, 213-234; 
II: The Romance of 
Betel-Chewing, 237-319 

Appliances of betel-chewing, 

Aquilaria agallocha in betel- 
chewing, use of the word, 
243, 243ft 2 

Arabian Nights, The, as intro- 
ducer of the "Swan- 
Maiden " motif into Europe, 
227, 234 

Arabian Nights, The. See 
also under Nights and a 
Night, The Thousand 

Arabian Nights' Entertainments, 
J. Scott, 227w 3 

Arabic names for betel, 239 

Archipelago, betel-chewing in 
the East Indian, 292-302 

Archives pour servir a l' etude 
de Vhistoire . . . de V Asie 
orientale, T'oung Rao, 
231ft 3 - 4 

Areca and betel, various 
names for, 238, 239, 303, 
308ft 3 ; Garcia da Orta's 
description of, 242, 243 

Areca catechu, or areca-nut 
palm, seed (nut) of the, 
238, 249, 315 

Areca Catechu, Chavica Betle 
und das Betelkauen Ueber, 
L. Lewin, 237ft 1 , 315ft 1 

Areca-nut cutters, 249, 250, 

Areca-nut, the four virtues 
of the, 304 ; vernacular 
derivations of the word, 
238, 239 

" Areca Nut in Ceylon, The," 
Tropical Agriculturist, 318ft 1 

Areca- nuts, brass box for 
storing, 249 ; connected 
with divorces, 294 ; differ- 
ent kinds of, 303, 304 ; dif- 
ferent ways of eating, 306 ; 
in initiation ceremonies, 
312; used in courtship, 298, 

Areca-palm plantation, de- 
scriptions of an, 269, 270, 
305, 306, 308 ; seeds (nuts) 
of the, 238 

Area of the Custom of Betel- 
chewing, The, 248-249 

Areas, division of kava-6\r\nk- 
ingand betel-chewing, 307- 

Argonaut Press, the, 258ft 1 , 
301ft 1 

Argonauts, The Voyage of the, 
J. R. Bacon, 109ft 1 

Aromatic drugs, the three, 
96ft 1 

Arrow, Rama splits seven 
palm-trees with one, 44 

Arrows of Kama, the five, 3, 

Artificial lake, the, 135 
Ascetic named Bhutisiva, 

Pasupata, 55 
Asceticism, practising severe, 

145, 147, 147ft 1 
Aschenkatze, the story of, // 

Pentamerone, G. B. Basile, 

69ft 1 
Ashes, chewing pasteof betel- 
nut and pearl, 256 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

Journal of the, 231ft 1 . For 

details see under Journ. As. 

Soc. . . . 
Aspirations, the result of too 

high, 83ft 1 
Assuming various forms by 

magic power, 79, 80, 80ft 1 
Attar of vakula flowers used 

as perfume, 96ft 3 
Attendants to be reborn on 

Earth, How Parvati con- 
demned her Five, 136-138, 

" Aupapatika Sutra, Das," E. 

Leumann, Abhandl. f. d. 

Kunde d. Morgen., 254ft 3 
Austerities, power of the fatal 

look acquired by, 75ft 1 ; 

practice of severe, 145, 147, 

147ft 1 
Australian Legendary Tales, 

K. L. Parker, 232ft 
Austro- Asiatic languages, 

betel in the, 239 
Avelans Indicas (Indian 

filberts), areca-nuts, 268 

Bahar-Da?iush, J. Scott, 227ft 2 
Bakek, Piper chaba, used as 

substitute for betel leaves, 

Balance, the, one of the five 

ordeals, 196ft 
"Ball, The Crystal," Grimm's 

Kinder- und Hausmarchen, 

Barbosa, The Book of Duarte, 

M. L. Dames, 96ft 2 , 258ft 2 
Bark, areca-nuts substituted 

by, 286 
" Baruis," The Tribes and 

Castes of Bengal, H. H. 

Risley, 271, 271ft 1 
Basilisks as guards of the cave 

of Trislrsha, 75, 75ft 1 , 76 
Basket used for carrying 

betel, 253 
Bataksche V ertellingen, C. M. 

Pleyte, 231ft 6 

Bath of purification, the 
annual, 19 

Bathing girls, stealing the 
clothes of, 213, 214, 215; 
heavenly nymph, stealing 
the clothes of a, 58, 58ft 2 

Battle, description of a, 161, 
16 lft 2 ; the Valkyries deities 
of, 224, 225 

Bawd, Marubhuti tricked by 
a, 60 

Beads, rosary of Aksha, 23 

Beaks and feet of coral, swans 
with, 135 

" Bearer of the Betel-bag," 
important function of the, 
254, 254w 4 

Beauties of woman, the five, 

Beautiful lake, the, 7; maiden 
fascinates mad elephant, 
111, 111ft 3 

Beauty, the foot of wonderful, 
33 ; illuminating, 110, 111 ; 
of Padmavati, the, 158, 
158ft 2 , 159, 159ft ; simile of, 

Bed of lotus leaves, 168, 
168ft 1 , 171 

Belief in Immortality, The, 
J. G. Frazer, 225, 225ft 4 , 
308ft 1 

Bengali names for betel, 

Betel-bag, Bearer of the," 
important function of the, 
254, 254ft 4 

Betel-bags, 250, 299; descrip- 
tion of, 251, 252 

Betel-baskets, 253, 307 

Betel-boxes, 249, 250, 286ft 5 , 
288, 293, 295, 298, 300, 
302, 305 

Betel " chew," pan-supafi, 
238, 239 ; " chew," poison 
conveyed in an, 267, 268 ; 
cultivation, 265, 271, 272, 
273, 305, 306, 308; ex- 
change of i.e. a binding 
oath, 281, 283 ; replaces 
wine among the Indians 
(Sherif), 256 ; in Southern 
India, uses of, 275-283; 
the thirteen qualities of 
(the Hitopadesa), 254 ; used 
as our " tip," 283 ; various 
names for, 238, 239, 303, 
308ft 3 

Betel- chewing, Appliances 
of, 249, 254 ; Area of the 
Custom of, 248-249 ; areas, 


Betel-chewing continued 
division of kava-drinking 
and, 308-309; in Assam, 
Burma, Annam and Siam, 
284-289 ; early descriptions 
of, 240-245, 254-270; in the 
East Indian Archipelago, 
292-302; Etymological 
Evidence of Words used in, 
238-239 ; in India prior to 
a.d. 1800, 254-270 ; in the 
Malay Peninsula, 289-292 ; 
in Melanesia, 309-317; in 
Micronesia, 306-309 ; in 
Northern and Central India, 
270-275 ; possible origin of 
the custom of, 248, 249; 
The Romance of, Appendix 
II, 237-319; taboo before 
marriage, 280, 281; taboo 
of widows in mourning, 
311, 312; the three in- 
gredients necessary in, 238; 
use of cardamom in, 96ft 1 , 
242, 247, 264, 274, 296; 
use of cloves in, 96ft 2 , 241m 1 , 
246, 247, 255, 264, 271, 
274, 296 

Betel-juice to avert evil 
spirits, smearing with, 292 ; 
insult of spitting, 237, 257 ; 
smeared on the face for 
ornament, 314, 315 ; wine 
made of, 304 

Betel leaf, different kinds of, 
265 ; given as reward to 
King Udayana, 237; 
holders, 253 

Betel Leaf or Sirih, The," 
Agricultural Bulletin of the 
Federated Malay States, 
318ft 1 

Betel leaves, Bakek used as 
a substitute for, 247 ; with 
camphor and the five fruits, 
4, 4ft 1 , 237 ; in custom of 
widow's remarriage, 273 ; 
prepared as a dish, 266 

"Betel -nut," incorrect ex- 
pression of, 238, 266 

" Betel-Nut Chewing," Every 
Saturday, 318ft 1 ; Leisure 
Hour, 318ft 1 

" Betel Nut Industry in the 
Muar District, Johore," 
Agric. Bull. Fed. Mai. States, 
318ft 1 

" Betel - Nut Tree," Penny 
Magazine, 318ft 1 

Betel-trays, 250, 252, 282, 
283, 289, 290 


Betel-vine cultivation, 265, 
271-273, 305, 306, 308; 
cultivators, castes of, 270, 
271, 273, 278, 282, 283; 
story of the origin of, the, 
274 ; varieties of, 272, 273 

Betrayal of her father, 
Angaravatl's, 109, 109ft 2 

Betre (betel), Garcia da Orta's 
account of, 241-245 

Betrothals, use of betel at, 
293, 296 

Bezoar is antidotal (Sir 
Thomas Browne), 195ft 1 

Bibliographic des Ouvrages 
Arabes, V. Chauvin, 107ft, 
219, 227ft 5 * 

Bibliography of Indian Geology 
and Physical Geography, A, 
T. H. D. La Touche, 65ft 1 , 
96ft 6 

" Bidental," Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
W. Smith, 156ft 1 

Bihar Peasant Life, G. A. 
Grierson, 275 

Bijdragen tot de Taal . . . van 
Nederlandsch Indie, " Jets 
over Schedelvereering . . . 
van den Indischen Archi- 
pel, G. A. Wilken, vol. iv, 
1889, 297ft 1 

Billur Kbschk, Turkische 
Marchen., T. Menzel, 107ft 

Bird, Dridhavrata changed 
into a,' 182, 182ft 1 

Birds, Aristophanes, 148ft 3 

Birds, gardeners in form of, 
170 ; gold produced by 
eating, 59ft 3 ; made at the 
January sankranti, images 
of, 19 ; sarasa, 24 

Birth of the adopted Chan- 
dala, the, 113; ceremonies, 
betel used in, 316 ; of child 
ends a curse, 59, 59ft 2 ; re- 
membering previous, 141, 
142, 200, 201, 205, 207; 
the result of demerits in 
a former, 166 ; of Servius 
Tullius, the, 114ft 1 

Black, by betel-chewing, 
mouths and teeth coloured, 
259, 260, 261, 262, 286; 
castanets give the best 
tone, 95ft 1 ; Mountain, the, 
Asitagiri, 103, 103ft 1 , 104, 
105,124,131,132; powder, 
antimony or galena applied 
to the eyes as a, 65ft 1 

Blessed, the Isles of the, 233 



Blue lotuses, a glance like a 
garland of full-blown, 30 

Boar, Asura assuming the 
form of a, 108, 109 

Bodies in trees by magic, 
power of concealing, 185 

Body in the "External Soul" 
motif, Life in Special Part 
of, 107ft ; garments cling- 
ing to the, 64, 64ft 1 ; gift 
of wishing-tree and own, 
124, 124m 1 ; like a sirisha 
flower, 172 

Bone, one of the five beauties 
of woman, 248ft 

Book XIII : Madiravati, 1- 
17; XIV: Pancha, 21-69; 
XV: Mahabhisheka, 70- 
93 ; XVI : Suratamanjari, 

Book of Duarte Barbosa, The, 
M. L. Dames, 96ft 2 , 258ft 2 

Book of Ser Marco Polo, The, 
H. Yule, 245, 246, 246ft 3 , 
247, 256, 257 

Boons of Siva, the, 150, 151 

Botanical description of betel 
and areca (Garcia da Orta), 
242, 245 

Bowls used in betel-chewing, 
250, 253 

Box for storing areca-nuts, 
249, 250 ; for storing lime, 
249-251, 253, 254, 315 

Brahman named Baladhara, 
117; Devarakshita, 55; 
Kapila^arman, 113 ; Mahi- 
dhara, 117; Nagasvamin, 
54 ; S o m a d e v a, 139 ; 
Vasumati, 55 ; Yajnasoma, 
138 ; Yasaskara, 2 

Brahmanical thread, the, 16 

Brahman- Rakshasas, enemies 
of Brahmans, 137, 137ft 2 , 

Brahmans forbidden to use 
betel, widows of, 278, 283 ; 
not engaged at betel fes- 
tivals, 271 

Brahmany ducks, 9, 9ft 3 

Brass box for storing areca- 
nuts, 249, 250 

Bride and nereid, resemblance 
in costume of Greek, 218; 
smeared with turmeric at 
wedding, 18, 281; the 
substituted, 12-15 

British Museum, first edition 
of Garcia da Orta at the, 
240ft 1 ; specimens of lime- 
boxes at the, 253 

11 Brothers, the five," the five 
ingredients of a betel 
" chew " in Sumatra, 
294, 295 

Brown cow, the wonderful, 

Brynhildar, Helreith, one of 
the Eddie poems, 221, 223 

Buddha, H. Oldenberg, 125ft 1 

Buddhism , M. Monier 
Williams, lft 4 

Buddhism, T. W. Rhys Davids, 
127ft 1 

Buddhist Birth Stories, T. W. 
Rhys Davids, 135ft 2 

Buddhist devil, Mara, the, 1, 
lft 4 

Buddhist Legends translated 
from the Original Pali Text 
of the Dhammapada Com- 
mentary, E. W. Burlingame, 
254ft 2 

Buddhist Suttas, No. 6, T. W. 
Rhys Davids, 71ft 2 

Building houses, betel leaves 
used when, 278 

Bull of Siva, the, 155 

Bulletin, No. 10, " The Culti- 
vation of the Areca Palm 
in Mysore," Dept. of 
Agriculture, Mysore State, 
1918, 318ft 1 

Bulletin of the Department of 
Agriculture, " The Crops of 
the Bombay Presidency," 
P. C. Patel, Bombay, 1922, 
318ft 1 

Bulletin Economique de V Indo- 
chine, " Culture du Betel 
dans la Province de Thanh- 
Hoa (Annam)," vol. xix, 
1911, 318ft 1 

Bulletin de la Societe de 
Lingnistique de Paris, 
" Emprunts Anaryens en 
Indo-Aryen," J. Przyluski, 
vol. xxiv, 1924, 239ft 2 

Bundlesof betel leaves, names 
of, 265, 266 

Bureau of Ethnology of the 
Smithsonian Institute, Annual 
Report of the, 228ft 8 . For 
details see under Annual 
Report of . . . 

Burman, his Life and Notions, 
The, Shway Yoe, 286ft 5 

Burning Candle, Life in 
("External Soul" motif), 

Butea frondosa, the kinsuka 
tree* 7, 7ft 3 

Calambac or Lign- Aloes used 
in betel-chewing, 243, 
243ft 2 

Calotropis gigantea, giant 
swallow-wort, 96ft 5 

Camoens, The Lyricks, R. F. 
Burton, 240ft 1 

Camphor and the five fruits, 
betel leaves with, 4, 4ft 1 , 
237; used in betel- 
chewing, 243, 244, 246, 
247, 255, 256, 257. 258, 
264, 266 

"Camphor," W. H. SchofF, 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc, 
246, 246ft 2 

Canarese words for betel, 239 

Candle, Life in Burning 
("External Soul" motif), 

"Candle," mistake for lamp. 
32ft 3 

Cannibal Countries, Through 
New Guinea and the, H. 
Cayley- Webster, 317ft 1 

Capricornus, Makara corre- 
sponding to, 19 

Cardamom in betel-chewing, 
use of, 96ft 1 , 242, 247, 264, 
274,296; one of the three 
aromatic drugs, 96ft 1 ; used 
for snake - bites, 96ft 1 ; 
trees, 96, 96ft 1 

Caroline Islands, The, F. W. 
Christian, 308ft 1 

Carrying off the clothes of a 
heavenly nymph, 58, 58ft 2 ; 
red-hot iron, the ordeal oi 
fire, 196ft 

Ca?yophyllus aromaticus, or 
Eugenia caryophyllata, clove- 
tree, 96ft 2 , 247' 

Cassia leaves, a substitute for 
betel leaves, 289 

Cassia lignea (pair a or 
tejpatra), one of the three 
aromatic drugs, 96ft 1 

Castanet, India probably the 
original home of, 95w x 

Castanets, creepers seeming 
to play the, 95, 95ft 1 ; two 
forms of modern Indian, 
95ft 1 ; of various material, 
95ft 1 

Caste of Southern India, 
origin of the Palli or Vanni 
yan, 109ft 3 

Castes connected with be 
in India, 270, 271; 
Southern India, use 
betel among the, 276-2 



Castes of Bengal, The Tribes 

and, H. H. Risley, 271ft 1 
Castes of Bombay, The Tribes 

and, R. E. Enthoven, 274 
Castes of the Central Provinces 
of India, The Tribes and, 
R. V. Russell, 19, 273ft 1 

Castes of the North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh, The 
Tribes a?id, W. Crooke, 
270ft 1 

Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. 
the Nizarns Dominions, The, 
S. S. Ul Hassan, 274, 275 

Castes and Tribes of Southern 
India, E. Thurston, 109ft 3 , 
112ft 1 , 275, 275ft 1 ' 2 

Cote, catto, etc. i.e. catechu, 
242, 243, 244, 261, 262, 
264, 268 

Catechu in betel-chewing, 
use of, 242-244, 246, 274 

Cathay and the Way Thither, H. 
Yule and H. Cordier, 96ft 2 

Cave of Svetasaila, the, 184, 
187, 193 ; of Trislrsha, the, 
an epithet of Siva, 68, 68ft 1 , 
73-76, 85 

Celebes, A Naturalist in North, 
S. J. Hickson, 231ft 10 

Cefisus of India, 1901, 285ft 1 

"Centipede," patteya, bind- 
ing stitch on betel-bags, 
252, 252ft* 

Central India, Betel-chewing 
in Northern and, 270-275 

Ceremonies, areca-nuts used 
in initiation, 312 ; betel 
used at death, 276, 280, 
281, 283, 295, 316, 317; 
betel at marriage, 273, 

276, 277, 281, 283, 289, 
290, 293, 295, 296, 297, 
303, 304, 306, 309, 316; 
at puberty, 276, 278, 283 ; 
betel leaves in pregnancy, 

277, 278 ; the kinsuka tree 
used in religious, 7ft 3 ; 
turmeric in marriage, 
18, 277, 281 ; turmeric in 
puberty, 283 ; use of betel 
at birth, 316 

Ceremony in the air, the 
marriage, 34 j betel and 
areca in the wpanayana, 
276, 283; betel used in 
the tali-tying, 277, 283; 
of Naravahanadatta, the 
coronation, 87, 88 ; of pour- 
ing water over the hands, 
129, 129ft 1 ; the second, 25 


Ceylon Antiquary and Literary 
Register, The, A. M. G. 
Mudaliyar, 318ft 1 
" Chakravartin," H. Jacobi, 
Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

"Chamber, Forbidden, "motif, 

57, 57ft 1 
Change of shapes by magic 

power, 37, 39 
Chaouia de V Aures, Le, 
G. Mercier, 227ft 7 

Chariot catches up the King 
of Vatsa, heavenly, 102 ; 
the flying, 45, 199, 202, 
203; the lotus-shaped, 52, 
61 ; one of the jewels of 
Chakravartin, 71ft 2 ; of 
swans, the, 151, 152 

Charm, slrih spittle used as 
a, 294 

Charming away disease, 
Mohammedan practice of, 

Charms, the jewel of, one of 
the jewels of an emperor, 

Chau Ju-Kua : His Work on 
the Chinese and Arab Trade, 
F. Hirth and W. W. Rock- 
hill, 256ft 1 , 303ft 2 

Checani i.e. the cinnamon of 
Calicut, 243 

" Chew," betel, pan-supari, 
238, 239 

Chewing betel. See under 

Chewing unhusked rice- 
grains mixed with water, 

Child cooked and eaten, own, 
59, 59ft 2 ; curse ended by 
the birth of a, 59, 59ft 2 ; 
practising severe ascetic- 
ism, 145 ; substituted at 
birth, 87, 87ft 1 ; and the 
Sweetmeat, Story of the, 35 

Childhood of Fiction, The, 
H. A. Macculloch, 233ft 3 

Children given away by 
father, 128, 129 

ChH min yao shu, the, 304 

China, The Folklore of, N. B. 
Denny s, 231ft 3 

Chinese encyclopaedia, T'u 
Shu Chi Ch'eng, the, 304 

Chinese Materia Medica, G. A. 
Stuart, 305 

Chips of the Areca catechu, 
cutch madefrom the boiled, 
278, 279 


Chu-fan-clii, Chau Ju-Kua, 

256, 300, 303 
Churning of the Ocean, the, 

60ft 1 , 76 
Cigarette, a rival of betel- 
chewing, the Virginian, 

Cinnamon {tvak or gudatvak), 
one of the three aromatic 
drugs, 96ft 1 ; in betel- 
chewing, use of, 243 

Circumambulation, 85, 86, 
200, 200ft 1 

Circumstances of Malay Life, 
pt. 2 of Papers on Malay 
Subjects, R. O. Winstedt, 
291ft 1 

Citj called Achalapura, 12 ; 
A s h a d h a p u r a, 33, 34 ; 
Ayodhya, 118; Chandra- 
pur a, 168, 169, 180; 
Devasabha, 178, 180, 182, 
184, 184ft 2 , 186; Govinda- 
kuta, 61, 64; Kau^ambi, 21, 
45,' 46, 89, 93, 100, 102, 
103 ; Kundina, 54 ; Patali- 
putra,35, 54; Pushkarayati, 
33 ; Rajagriha, 115 ; San- 
khapura, 7 ; Sobhavati, 2 ; 
SravastI, 31, 31m 1 , 45, 97; 
Supratishthita, 112; 
UjjayinI, 3, 61, 100, 101, 
103, 105, 106, 107, 110, 120, 
121; Vakrapura, 52, 53; 
Vakrolaka, 54 ; Varanasi, 
133 ; Vimala, 82 ; Visala, 2 

City of the snakes, thief's 
home like the, 119, 119ft 2 

Clans, the swan-maiden re- 
garded as a founder of, 
233, 233ft 2 

Clarendon Press Edition of 
King Richard II, 88ft 1 

Classical mythology, no 
" swan-maiden " stories in, 
217, 218; view about 
morning-dreams, 99ft 2 

Classical Review, The, " On 
Plants of the Odyssey," 
R. M. Henry, vol. xx, 1906, 
56ft 2 

Clinging garments, 64, 64ft 1 

Clothes of girls while bathing, 
stealing, 213, 214, 215; of 
a heavenly nymph, stealing 
the, 58, 58ft 2 

Clou (French), " cloves " de- 
rived from, 96ft 2 

Cloud, the swan-maiden in- 
terpreted as a white, 232, 
232ft 8 



Clove trade, history of the, 

96ft 2 ; trees, 96, 96ft 2 
Cloves in betel-chewing, use 
of, 96ft 2 , 241ft 1 , 246, 247, 
255, 264, 271, 274, 296 
Cobra, or Nag, veneration of 
the, 274 

Cockle-shells, lime made 
from, 259 

Coins fall from girl's mouth 
when speaking, gold, 59ft 3 

Coldness of the areca (Garcia 
da Orta), 242 

Collections of implements 
used in betel -chewing, 

Colloquies on the Simples and 
Drugs of India by Garcia 
da Orta, C. Markham, 240, 
240ft 1 

Coloquios dos simples, e 
drogas . . ., Garcia da Orta, 
240ft 1 

Colour of spittle produced by 
betel-chewing, red, 258, 
259, 260, 261, 262, 280 

Colours, flowers of five, 248ft ; 
significances of the red and 
yellow, 18 

Combat, the magical, 79, 80, 
80ft 1 

Combing hair, pearls and 
precious stones produced 
by, 59ft 3 

Compitalian games, origin of 
the, 114ft 1 

Comus, Milton, 56ft 1 

Conclusion of betel-chewing, 

Conclusions of the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif, 234 

Confusion between Folium 
Indum and betel, 244, 245 

Connection between betel- 
chewing and numerous 
harems in the East ('Abdu-r 
Razzaq), 258 ; between 
swan-maidens and Val- 
kyries, 221, 223, 224 

Conservatory, description of 
an areca-palm, 269, 270 

Contes et legendes annamites, 
A. Landes, 231ft 2 

Contes Persans, A. Bricteux, 
227ft 2 

Contes Popidaires de Lorraine, 
E. Cosquin, 107ft, 109ft 2 

Contes populaires malgaches, 
G. Ferrand, 227ft 10 

Contos Populares Portuguezes, 
A. Coelho, 57ft 2 , 59ft a 

Cooking and eating own 

child, 59,59ft 2 
Coral, swans with feet and 
beaks of, 135 

Coriolanus, Shakespeare, 112ft 2 

Coronation, account of 
Richard II's, 88ft 1 ; of 
Naravahanadatta, the, 87, 

Corypha umbraculifera, ola, 
252ft 1 

Costume of Greek bride and 
nereid, resemblance of, 

Countries Round the Bay of 
Bengal by Thomas Bowrey, 
The, R. C. Temple, 292ft 3 , 
293ft 1 

Couple, Surasena and Su- 
shena, Story of the De- 
voted, 97, 97ft 2 , 98, 99 

Court, Naravahanadatta be- 
fore the Vidyadhara, 40- 

Courtesy, betel as a pledge 
of, 290, 291 

Courtship, areca-nuts used in, 
298, 299 

Cow, five products of the, 
248ft; the wonderful brown, 

Cravo i.e. cloves (Garcia da 
Orta), 241, 241ft 1 , 247 

Crest-jewel with magic vir- 
tues, 172, 174, 175, 194, 
195, 195ft 1 

" Crops of the Bombay Presi- 
dency, The," P. C. Patel, 
Bull. Depi. Agriculture, 
318ft 1 

Crotala, Roman castanets, 
95ft 1 

Crown or wreath from a z&na, 
stealing the, 219 

Crows, transformation into, 

" Crystal Ball, The," Grimm's 
Kinder- und Hausmdrchen, 

Cubebs, Piper cubeba, 247 

Cuckoo, the, the warder of 
Kama, 94 

Cultivation of betel-vine, 265, 
271, 272, 273, 305, 306, 
308 ; of clove-trees, 96ft 2 

" Cultivation of the Areca 
Palm in Mysore," Bulletin, 
No. 10, 318ft 1 

Cultivators, castes of betel- 
vine, 270, 271, 273, 278, 
282, 283 

ans la 


" Culture du Betel dans 
Province Thanh-Hoa 
(Annam)," Bull. Econ. de 
VIndochine, 318ft 1 

Cunning Vidyadhari, the, 
24, 25 . 

Curds, one of the five nectars, 
247ft 2 

Curing sickness, betel used 
as a charm for, 282, 294 

Curiosity, death caused by, 
33; the result of Nagt 
svamin's, 57 

Curled and oiled head of 
adulterer, 107 

Curse ended at the birth of 
a child, 59, 59ft 2 ; of the 
hermit's pupil, the, 173; 
laid on Manasavega, the, 
38 ; of marrying a mortal, 
Vidyadhari's, 59 ; trans- 
formations according to a, 

Curses of Parvati, the, 137 

Custom of Betel-chewing, 
The Area of the, 248-249 ; 
at remarriage of widows, 
betel in, 273 

Cutch i.e. extract of catechu, 
247, 286, 287; description 
of preparing, 278-280 

Cutter, areca-nut, one of the 
chief objects used in bei 
chewing, 249, 250, 277 

Cyclopaedia of India, 77 
E. Balfour,* 318ft 1 




Daily amount of betel leaves 
used by Hindus, 260 

Darstellung aus der Sitt 
geschichte Boms, L. Frit 
lander, 117ft 2 

Date of first start of betel 
chewing in India, approxi- 
mate, 254; of the story of 
Urval and Pururavas, 
early, 216 ; of the Voh 
darkvitha, 220, 221 

Daughter who fell in L< 
with a Thief, The M< 
chant's, 118, 118ft 1 , II 
120 ; King Chandai 
hasena and the Asura 
106, 106ft 2 , 107, 107ft, 1( 
110; of King Prasenaj 
The Young Chandala wJ 
married the, 112, ] 
113, 114 

Daybreak, the truest drei 
at, 100ft 

Days, dreams fulfilled within 
ten, lOOn 

Dead to life, restoring, 80, 
81, 99 ; person, giving part 
of one's life to, 117, 117n 2 

Death caused by separation, 
98, 116; ceremonies, betel 
used in, 276, 280, 281, 283, 
295, 316, 317; the drum 
of, 119; from insane 
curiosity, 33 ; with one 
stipulation, obtaining 
immunity from, 109, 109n 3 

Deccani names for betel, 239 

Deer, the artifice of the 
golden, 44 

Deformity of mouth through 
betel-chewing, 284, 285 

Deities, seasonal, the three 
Ribhus, 19 

Deity of betel cultivation, 
worship of the, 271 

Delusion, the magic, 42, 43 

Demerits in former life, the 
result of, 166 

Derivation of the word anti- 
mony, probable, 65ft 1 

Derivations of the names for 
betel, vernacular, 239 

Description of an areca-palm 
conservatory, 269, 270; of 
an dsoka tree, 7n 4 ; of a 
battle, 161, 161n 2 ; of betel, 
Garcia da Orta's, 241-245 ; 
of betel cultivation, 265 ; 
of different kinds of betel 
leaves, 265 ; of a girl's 
waist, 158, 158n 2 , 159 ; of 
a pan garden, 271, 272 ; of 
preparing cutch, 278-280 ; 
of preparing lime, 286 

Descriptions of implements 
used in betel-chewing, 250, 
251, 252, 253, 254 

Descriptive Ethnology of 
Bengal, E. T. Dalton, 285n 2 

Designs made on betel-bags, 
251, 252 

Desires when dying, the 
result of pollution of, 117, 

Destroying charm, the, one 

of the jewels of an emperor, 

Deutsche Sage im Elsass, W. 

Hertz, 107n 
Devil, Mara, the Buddhist, 

1, In* 
Devoted Couple, Surasena 

and Sushena, Story of the, 
97, 97n 2 , 98, 99 


Dictionary of the Economic 

Products of India, A, G. 

Watt, 7w 2 - 3 , 8/1*, 18, 65T1 1 , 

96W 1 , 96n 2 - 3 ' 5 , 243 2 , 247, 

249, 3l8n! 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman 

Antiquities, W. Smith, 

Dictionary, Oxford, J. A. H. 

Murray, Mn 1 
Dictionary, the Vaidyaka- 

sabda - sindhu, a Hindu 

medical, 246 
Different kinds of areca-nuts, 

303, 304; kinds of betel 

leaves, 265; opinions about 

the swan - maidens, 232, 

232n 8 ,233,233w 1 2 ' 3 ; ways 

of eating areca-nuts, 306 
Disappearance of Madana- 

manchuka, the, 21, 21n* 
Discovery of the Solomon 

Islands, Lord Amherst and 

B. Thomson, 314n 2 
Discus of Vishnu, the symbol 

of the sun, 72 
Disease, a crest -jewel as 

talisman against, 194, 195, 

195/1 1 ; Mohammedan 

practice of charming away, 

Disfigurement of mouth 

through betel -chewing, 

Disguising oneself lost in 

sleep, power of, 25, 25w 2 
Dish, betel leaves prepared 

as a, 266 ; of a cooked child 

and rice, 59 
Dish for the expectorated 

betel " chew," 256 
Dispute among the Bonthuk 

caste, custom of settling a, 

Distance, magic power 

affected by, 39 
Distribution of the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif wide, 216, 

Districts of betel cultivation 

in India, principal, 173 
Divina Comedia di Dante 

Alighieri, La, D. B. Lom- 
bard!, lOOn 
Division of toa-drinking and 

betel-chewing areas, 307, 

308, 309 ; of self into many 

forms, 92 
Divisions of the Vidyadhara 

territorv, two, 47, 48, 80, 



Divorces, areca-nuts con- 
nected with, 294 
Dogs, transformation into 

bob-tailed, 141 
Drawing lots from ajar, one of 

the ordeals in Brihaspati's 

law code, 196n 
Dream of Muktaphaladhvaja, 

the, 198 
Dreams before morning, ful- 
filment of, 99, 99n 2 , 100, 

Drinking, kava-. See under 

Drugs, the three aromatic, 

96W 1 
Drum beaten as thief is led 

to execution, 119 
" Drummer, The," Grimm's 

Kinder- und Hausmarchen, 

Dry condition, areca-nuts 

used in, 288, 303 
Dual function of the Val- 
kyries, 225 
Ducks, Brahmany, 9, 9w 3 
Dutch restrictions of clove 

cultivation, 96w 2 
Dutchess of Malfey, The, John 

Webster, 54n*, 156* 1 
Dwellings, the gods leaving 

their old, 149, 149n 2 
Dyaks of Borneo, Seventeen 

Years among the Sea, E. H. 

Gomes, 231n 9 
Dying God, The, The Golden 

Bough, J. G. Frazer, 233n 2 

Eagle, gold-spitting produced 
by eating, 59n 3 

" Eaglewood " or Lign- Aloes 
used in betel-chewing, 243, 
243n 2 

Earliest evidence of the 
Valkyrie tradition, 224, 
224n 3 , 225; references to 
protecting herbs, 56n 2 

Early accounts of betel- 
chewing in the East Indian 
Archipelago, 292, 293, 295, 
300, 301, 302 ; date of the 
story of UrvasI and Puru- 
ravas, 216 ; descriptions of 
betel - chewing, 240-245, 
254-270; Sanskrit litera- 
ture, roots of the " Swan- 
Maiden" motif in, 234; 
travellers to India, accounts 
of betel by, 255-270 

Early Travels in India, W. 
Foster, 266n 3 



East Indian Archipelago, 
betel-chewing in the, 292- 
302 ; Indra, guardian of 
the, 163ft 1 

Eastern castanets at the South 
Kensington Museum, 95ft 1 ; 
New Guinea,betel-chewing 
in, 310-314 ; quarter, the 
sun, the nymph of the, 

Eating areca-nuts, different 
ways of, 306 ; birds, gold 
produced by, 59ft 3 ; own 
child, cooking and, 59, 
59ft 2 ; two grains of rice, 
spitting gold produced by, 
59, 59ft 3 , 60 

" Eating or Chewing of Pan," 
G. A. Stephens, West- 
minster Review, 318ft 1 

Economic Products of India, A 
Dictionary of the, G. Watt, 
7ft 2 - 3.8ft 1 ; 18, 65ft 1 , 96ft 1 ' 2 - 3 ' 5 , 
243ft 2 , 247, 249, 318ft 1 

Edda, the Elder, or Eddie 
poems, 220, 223, 224 

Edda, Die, H. Gering, 223, 
223ft 1 

Edda, The Poetic, H. A. 
Bellows, 221, 221ft 1 

Eddas, the Icelandic, 219, 

Editions and translations of 
Garcia da Orta's Coloquios, 
240ft 1 , 245 

Effects of betel-chewing on a 
Westerner, 268 

Efterretninger om Grbnland, 
P. E. Egede, 228ft 

Egg, Life in, in the " External 
Soul " motif, 107ft ; shells, 
lime made from, 284 

Eighth day of the festival, on 
the, 141, 141ft 2 

Elder Edda, or Eddie poems, 
the, 220, 223, 224 

Election glance, the, 30 

Elephant called Kuvala- 
yaplda, 125, 126, 127; 
fascinated by beautiful 
maiden, mad, 111, 111ft 3 ; 
maddened by smell of wild 
elephants, 8; Mandaradeva 
assumes the form of an, 
79, 80, 80ft 1 ; of the sky 
quarters, Diggaja, 108ft 1 ; 
of Varuna, Anjana the 
imaginary, 108ft 1 

Elephant-jewel, the, one of 
the jewels of an emperor, 
71, 71ft 2 76 

Elephants of the sky quarters 
guarding the cave of 
Trislrsha, 75, 76; the two 
air-going, 179-181 

Elettaria cardamomum, Lesser 
Cardamom, 96ft 1 , 247 

Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe 
to the Court of the Great 
Mogul, The, W. Foster, 
266ft 2 

Emblems of royalty, five, 

Embroidery made on betel- 
bags, 251, 252 

Emerald, one of the five 
jewels, 248ft ; swan's wings 
tipped with, 135, 135w 2 

Emperor, the jewels of an, 
64, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 

"Emprunts Anaryens en 
Indo-Aryen," J. Przyluski, 
Bull, de la Soc. de Linguis- 
tique de Paris, 239ft 2 

Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch- 
Indie, 318ft 1 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, Hastings', " Chakra- 
vartin," H. Jacobi, vol. iii, 
72ft ; " Festivals and Fasts 
(Hindu)," E. W. Hop- 
kins, vol. v, 19; "Nature 
(Greek)," L. R. Farnell, 
vol. ix, 218ft 2 ; "Ordeal 
(Hindu)," A. B. Keith, vol. 
ix, 196ft; "Swan-Maidens," 
M. E. Seaton, vol. xii, 
219ft 1 

Encyclopaedia T'u Shu Chi 
Ck'eng, the Chinese, 304 

End of the night, dreams 
at the, 99, 99ft 2 , 100, 

" Energies," or saktis of Siva, 
the, 75ft 2 

English Translation of the 
Sushrida Samhita, An, K. 
K. L. Bhishagratna, 96ft 1 , 
255ft 1 

English word for betel, dif- 
ferent spellings of the, 
239, 239ft 1 

Epigraphica India and Record 
of the Archaeological Survey 
of India, Calcutta, 1888- 
1891, 254ft 4 

Epiphanie der Seele in deutscher 
Volkssage, Die, O. Tobler, 

Erect with joy, hairs stand- 
ing, 46, 46ft 1 

Erinyes not to be mistaken 
for swan-maidens, 217 

Erotic significance of the 
yellow colour, 18 

Eskimo, Tales and Traditions 
of the, H. Rink, 228ft 9 

Ethnographical Collections, 
Handbook to the, 253, 254 

Ethnographische Beitr'dge zur 
Kenntnis des Karo linen 
Archipels, J. S. Kubary, 
306ft 1 

Ethnological Society of London, 
Transactions of the, 231ft 9 . 
For details see under Trans. 
Ethnol. . . . 

Ethno log i e, Zeitschrift fur, 
232ft 3 . For details see 
under Zeit. f. Ethn. 

Ethnologische Vorlesungen iiber 
die altaischen Volker, M. 
Castren, 228ft 1 

Ethnology of Bengal, Descrip- 
tive, E. T. Dalton, 285ft 2 

Etymological evidence of 
words used in betel- 
chewing, 238-239 ; history 
of the word antimony, 
65ft 1 

Etymology of betel (Garcia 
da Orta), 244 ; of the word 
Chakravartin, 72ft 

Eugenia caryophyllata or 
Caryophyllus aromaticus, 
clove-tree, 96ft 2 

European origin, "Swan- 
Maiden" motif not of, 

Every Saturday, " Betel- Nut 
Chewing," 318ft 1 

Evidence of the Valkyrie 
tradition, earliest extant, 
224, 224ft 3 , 225 ; of words 
used in betel-chewing, 
etymological, 238-239 

Evil fortune indicated by low 
spirits, 29, 29ft 1 ; omens, 
49, 156, 156ft 1 , 173, 173ft 1 ; 
spirits, methods of avert- 
ing, 292 

Exchange of betel i.e. a 
binding oath, 281, 283 

Execution, drum beaten when 
thief is led to, 119 

Ex Oriente Lux, vol. ii 
[Schopfung und Sit nden fall 
. . .], A. Wiinsche, 117ft 2 

Explanation for the red saliva 
in betel-chewing, 315 

Export and import of areca- 
nuts in China, 306 

Expression of "betel-nut," 
incorrect, 238, 266 ; of 
feelings by rattling lime 
stick in the gourd, 314 

"External Soul" motif, the, 
106ft 2 , 107ft 

Extract of the Acacia catechu, 
cutch, an, 278, 279 

Eye, throbbing of right, 173, 
173ft 1 

Eyes of pearl, swans with, 
135 ; reddened by anti- 
mony, 64, 65, 65ft 1 ; turned 
inwards, sign of anxiety, 
49 ; winking, 8, 8ft 2 

Face smeared with betel-juice 
for ornament, 314, 315 

Factors checking the spread 
of betel-chewing, 317, 318 

Fairy Book, The Irish, A. P. 
Graves, 107ft 

Fairy Tales, The Science of, 
E. S. Hartland, 107ft, 
233ft 2 - 3 

Fasti, Ovid, 114ft 1 

Fatal glance, the, 75ft 1 

Father, Angara vati betrays 
her, 109, 109ft 2 ; gives 
away his sons, 128, 129 

Faufal (fofal,fonfal), Arabic 
name of areca-nut, 239, 257 

Feast on the eighth day of 
the month, 141, 141ft 2 

Feelings expressed by rattling 
lime stick in the gourd, 

Feet and beaks of coral, 
swans with, 135 

Feldspar, moonstone a variety 
of, 96w 6 

Fertility, the Valkyries con- 
nected with, 225 

Festival called the giving of 
water, 106, 110,111; called 
Tiravatira, 280 ; of Nag- 
Panchmi (Cobra's fifth), 
the, 274 ; of the winter 
solstice, the, 12, 12ft 1 ; of 
the Winter Solstice, Note 
on the, 19-20 

" Festivals and Fasts (Hindu)/' 
E. W. Hopkins, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 19 

Fetichism in West Africa, R. H. 
Nassau, 227ft 9 

FF Communications, 107ft 

Fiction, fatal looks in Hindu, 
75ft 1 

Fights with witches, 55, 56, 
56ft 1 


Fire, the God of (Agni), 
33, 113,114,190,207,208; 
immunity from all causes 
of death except, 109ft 3 ; 
makes prince yellow, ador- 
ing the, 33 ; the Mountain 
of, 50, 51 ; nereid changing 
into a burning, 219 ; ordeal 
of, 196ft ; sacrifice, armed 
horsemen appearing from 
a, 109ft 3 ; of separation, 
the, 5, 6, 24, 112, 116, 165, 
167, 170, 171 
First watch of the night, 
fulfilment of dreams in 
the, 100ft 
Fisherman who married a 
Princess, The Young, 115- 
" Fisherman and his Wife, 
The," Grimm's Kinder- und 
Hausm'drchen, 83ft 1 
Five arrows of Kama, 3, 248ft ; 
Attendants to be reborn 
on Earth, How Parvati 
condemned her, 136-138, 
138-142; beauties of 
woman, the, 248ft ; colours, 
flowers of, 248% ; emblems 
of royalty, 248ft ; Fruits, 
The, 246-248 ; fruits, betel 
leaves with camphor and 
the, 4, 4ft 1 , 237; great 
sacrifices, 248ft; jewels, 
the, 247ft 2 , 248%; leaves of 
trees, the, 247ft 2 ; a lucky 
number, 247 ; nectars, the, 
247ft 2 ; ordeals in the 
Yqjnavalkya-smriti, 195ft 3 , 
196m ; products of the cow, 
248ft; sacred flowers, 248ft; 
trees of paradise, 248ft ; 
Vidyadhara maidens, the 
agreement of the, 66, 67, 
" Five brothers," the five 
ingredients of a betel- 
" chew " in Sumatra, 294, 
Five of China, The Sacred, 

W. E. Geil, 248ft 
Flavours used in betel- 
chewing, lists of the, 246, 
Flesh, one of the five beauties 

of woman, 248ft 
Flight of the gods from 
their old dwellings, 149, 
149ft 2 
Flora of British India, J. D. 
Hooker, 7ft 2 , 8ft 1 


Flora of the Malay Peninsula, 

The, H. N. Ridley, 290ft 1 
Flower, body like a sirlsha, 
172 ; offerings of the swans, 
Flowers of asoka trees used 
for temple decoration, 7ft 4 ; 
five sacred, 248ft ; mandara, 
88, 184 ; uses oivakula, 96ft 3 
"Flowers of the Hindu 
Poets," W. Dymock, Journ. 
Anlh. Soc. Bombay, 7ft 4 
Flying chariot, the, 45, 199, 
202, 203 ; through the air, 
26, 27, 31, 34, 36, 46, 50, 
52, 55, 56, 59, 61, 69, 72, 
89, 121, 131, 173, 206, 223, 
Folium, hidum, various species 
of Cinnamomum, 244, 
Folklore of China, The, N. B. 

Dennys, 231ft 3 
Folk-lore Journal [" Chinese 
Zoological Myths "], A. G. 
Hutt, vol. vii, 1889, 231ft 3 ; 
[" Folk-Tales of the Mala- 
gasy "], James Sibree, vol. 
i, 1883, 227ft 10 
Folk-Lore, The Journal of 
American, 228ft 8 , 231ft' 5 . 
For details see under 
Journ. American . . . 
Folklore, Modern Greek, J. C. 

Lawson, 218, 218ft 2 
Folklore of Northern India, 
Religion and, W. Crooke, 
19, 271ft 2 
Folk-Lore in the Old Testa- 
ment, J. G. Frazer, 107ft 
Folk-Tales, Russian, W. R. S. 

Ralston, 56ft 1 , 57ft 2 , 227ft 5 
Folk-Tales, Siberian and Other, 
C. F. Coxwell, 59ft 3 , 227ft 5 , 
228ft 5 ' 7 
Folk-Tales, West Irish, W. 

Larminie, 107ft 
Food produced by magic 

power, 91, 92 
Foot of wonderful beauty, 
the, 33 

Forbidden Chamber " or 
"Taboo" motif, the, 57, 
57ft 1 
Foreboding from elevated or 
depressed moods, 99, 99ft 1 , 
Forest, Slta's perfume scent- 
ing a whole, 44 
Form of Mahakala, Siva in 
the, 120, 121 ; of Siva, the 
Ardhanarlsa, the, 132ft 1 



Former birth, remembering, 
141, 142, 200, 201, 205, 
207; birth, the result of 
demerits in a, 166 

Forms by magic power, as- 
suming various, 79, 80, 
80ft 1 ; of modern Indian 
castanets, two, 95m 1 ; Nara- 
vahanadatta assuming 
many, 92 

Fortune, the Goddess of 
(Lakshmi), 87; indicated 
by high or low spirits, good 
or evil, 99, 99ft 1 

Four virtues of the areca-nut, 

Fourth night-watch, fulfil- 
ment of dreams in the, 

Fresh condition, areca-nuts 
used in, 288, 303, 304 

From my Verandah in New 
Guinea, H. Romilly, 232ft 2 

Fruits, betel-leaves with 
camphor and the five, 4, 
4ft 1 , 237; The Five, 246-248 

Fulfilment of morning- 
dreams, 99, 99ft 2 , 100, 100ft 

Full-blown blue lotuses, a 
glance like a garland of, 

Function of the Valkyries, 
dual, 225 

Funerals, betel used at, 304, 
305, 307, 309 

Future, the three times : 
past, present and, 57ft 3 

Fylgia of Norse mythology, 
the, 223, 223ft 3 

Gaertnera racemosa, the 
atimukta creeper, 8, 8ft 1 

Galena, application to the 
eyes, 65ft 1 

Gamada i.e. kava, 314 

Gambir used in betel- 
chewing, 289, 293, 294 

Games, origin of the Com- 
pitalian, 114ft 1 

Garcinia xanthochymus, the 
tapincha tree, 7, 7ft 2 

Garden of the heavenly 
nymphs, Gandasaila, 73 
the Jetavana, 129ft 1 
sacredness of the pan, 271 
the wonderful, 169, 170 

Gardens produced by magic 
power, 92 

Garland of full-blown blue 
lotuses, a glance like a, 
30 ; of mandara flowers, 88 

Garments clinging to the 

body, 64, 64ft 1 
Garments from a nymph, 

stealing, 58, 58ft 2 , 218 
Geese without plumages 

transformed into humans, 

229, 230 
Gems with magic virtues, 

172, 174, 175, 194, 195, 

195ft 1 
General, one of the seven 

(six) jewels of the Chakra- 

vartin, 71ft 2 
General references to the 

"External Soul" motif, 

Generosity, the reward of, 

130, 131 
Generous Taravaloka, the, 

Geographical area of the 

custom of betel-chewing, 

Georgics, Virgil, 49ft 1 
Germanische Mythologie, E. H. 

Meyer, 232ft 8 
" Geschichten des toten No- 
rub-can, Die," A. H. 

Francke, Zeit. d. d. morg. 

GeselL, 59ft 3 
Gesta Romanorum, the, 111ft 3 
Ghi, one of the five nectars, 

247ft 2 ; removing a hot ring 

from a pot of boiling, 196w 
Giant swallow-wort, Calotropis 

gigantea, 96ft 5 ; Typhceus, 

the, 149ft 2 
Giants named Vatapi and 

Mahi, 109rc 3 
Gift of half one's life, 117, 

117ft 2 ; of only wife to a 

Brahman, husband's, 129 ; 

of wishing-tree and own 

body, 124, 124ft 1 
Girl like a wave of the sea, 13 
Girls, Krishna stealing the 

clothes of the Braj, 214, 

Giving away his sons, father, 

128,129; of water, festival 

called the, 106, 110, 111 
Glance of a basilisk, the 

fatal, 75ft 1 ; like a garland 

of full-blown blue lotuses, 

" Glory, hand of," the, 54ft 1 
Glory is white in Hindu 

rhetoric, 73, 73ft 1 
Goat's milk, the adopted 

Chandala reared on, 114, 

114ft' 1 

God of Fire, the (Agni), 33, 

113, 114, 190,207,208; of 

Love (Kama), 1, 2, 3, 11 

14, 23, 26, 71, 87, 95, 98 

126, 159, 170, 189 ; of War 

the, 180 
Goddess of Fortune, the, 87 ; 

of Wealth, Lakshmi, the, 

Gods leaving their old dwell 

ings, the, 149, 149ft 2 
Gold, betel set of, 288, 289 ; 

from pot of boiling ghi, 

removing hot, 196ft; 

spittle turning to, 59ft 3 
Golden Ass, The, Apuleius, 

56ft 1 
Golden Bough, The, J. G. 

Frazer, 233ft 2 
Golden deer, the artifice o 

the, 44 ; goose, Brahma 

turned into a, 135ft 2 ; rin 

falls from speaking girl' 

mouth, 59ft 3 ; swans, th 

two, 134-136 
Gold-spitting produced b 

eating two grains of rice 

59, 59ft 3 , 60 
Good fortune indicated b 

high spirits, 99, 99ft 1 
Goose, Brahman turned int 

a golden, 135ft 2 ; stealin 

the plumage of a, 229 
Gourd filled with lime fo: 

betel-chewing, 310, 311 

312, 313, 314, 317 
Grains of rice produce powe 

of spitting gold, two, 59 

59ft 3 , 60 
Grass, nal, 272 
Grateful animals, 219 
Grave of a deceased, bete 

placed on the, 307 
Greater Cardamom, Amomu 

subulatum, 96ft 1 
Greek castanets, 95ft 1 
Greenlandic version of th 

"Swan-Maiden" moti 

228, 229-231 
Griechische Mdrchen, Sagen u 

Volkslieder, B. Schmid 

57ft 2 
Griechische Mythologie, 

Preller, 154ft 2 
Grbnldndska Myter och Sago 

K. Rasmussen, 228ft 10 
Grosse Zusammenstellung iib 

die Krafte der . . 

Abu Mohammed AbdalL 

Ben Ahmed . . ., J. vo: 

Sontheimer, 255ft 2 

Growers, betel-vine, caste of, 
270, 271, 273, 278, 282, 

Guardians of the cardinal 
points, the Lokapalas, 
163ft 1 ; of the cave of 
Trisrrsha, 75, 76 

Gujarati derivations of the 
word betel, 239 

Gypsy variant of the " swan- 
maiden " story, 219 

Hair, one of the five beauties 
of woman, 248w ; in mourn- 
ing for absent husband, 
single lock of, 46ft 2 ; pro- 
duces pearls and precious 
stones, combing, 59ft 3 ; 

seized by old age, 101 

Hairs standing erect from 
joy, 46, 46ft 1 

Hakluyt Society, the, 
257, 258ft 1 - 2 , 259, 259ft 1 - 2 , 
266wi'2.4,6 j 269ft 1 , 292ft 3 , 
295ft 1 , 300ft 1 , 301ft 1 , 314, 
314ft 2 

Hdkonarmdl, number of Val- 
kyries in the, 225 

Hamlet, Shakespeare, 99m 1 

" Hand of glory," the, 54ft 1 

Hand, left, the Daitya's vital 
point, 109, 109ft 3 , 110; 
red lotus turns into a 
human, 54 ; uncleanliness 
of the left, 302, 302ft 1 

Handbook of Commercial In- 
formation for India, C. W. E. 
Cotton, 31 8ft 1 

Handbook to the Ethnographical 
Collections, 253, 254 

Hands, pouring water over 
the, 129, 129ft 1 ; waves of 
a lake like, 7 

Harems and betel-chewing in 
the East, probable connec- 
tion between the numerous 
(<Abdu-r Razzaq), 258 

Harleian MS. No. 2286, the, 
266ft 5 

Harpies not to be mistaken 
for swan-maidens, 217 

Harvard Oriental Series, 
254ft 2 

" Hassan of Bassorah," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, 219 

Head of an adulterer oiled 
and curled, 107 

Head- Hunters : Black, White 

and Brown, A. C. Haddon, 

298ft 1 


" Headless Princess, The," 
Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 
Ralston, 56m 1 
Heaven, voice from, 30, 85, 

Heavenly chariot catches up 
the King of Vatsa, 102; 
inhabitants abandoning 
their old dwellings, 149, 
149ft 2 ; nymph, carrying off 
the clothes of a, 58, 58ft 2 ; 
nymph ended by living 
with a mortal, curse of a. 
59, 59ft 2 

Heldensagen der 7ni?iussinschen 
Tataren, Die, A. Schiefner, 
228ft 2 

Hells, Rasatala one of the 
seven, 162, 162ft 1 

Helreith Brynhildar, one of 
the Eddie poems, 221, 223 

Herbs protecting men from 
witches, 56, 56ft 2 

Hermit named Angiras, 22, 
23 ; named Kasyapa, 104, 
named Narada, 27, 79, 83, 
124, 186; named Tapo- 
dhana, 172, 175, 178, 179, 
180, 181, 184, 198, 201, 
206, 208; named Vama- 
deva, 70-72 

Hermitage called Siva- 
kshetra, 54 ; of Kasyapa, 
the, 103, 131, 132, 209 ; of 
Tadpodhana, the, 180, 185 

Hermit's pupil, the curse of 
the, 173 

Heroides, Ovid, 99ft 2 

Hibbert Lectures, the, 107ft 

Himalayan Districts of the 
North- Western Provinces of 
India, E. T. Atkinson, 19 

Hindu fiction, fatal looks in, 
75ft 1 ; medical dictionary, 
the Vaidyaka-sabda-sindhu, 
246 ; pun, 1, 1ft 3 , 2, 2ft 1 , 9, 
9ft 2 , 11, lift 1 , 13, 13ft 2 , 16, 
16ft 1 , 31, 31ft 1 , 82, 82ft 1 , 
94, 94ft 1 , 101, 101ft 2 , 103, 
103ft 2 , 125, 125ft 2 , 126, 
126ft 2 , 130, 130ft 1 , 134, 
134ft 2 , 148, 148ft 1 , 153, 
153ft 2 ; rhetoric, glory is 
white in, 73, 73ft 1 

Hindu Mythology, W. J. 
Wilkins, 77ft 2 

Hindu Tribes and Castes, 
M. A. Sheering, 270w 2 

Hindustani names for betel, 


History of the cave of 
Trisirsha, the, 74, 75, 76 ; 
of the clove trade, 96ft 2 ; 
of the word antimony, 
etymological, 65ft 1 

History of the Maori, The 
Ancient, J. White, 232ft 7 

History of Melanesian Society, 
The, W. Rivers, 310, 316w 2 , 

Holder, betel leaf, 253 

Home of the Castanet, India 
probably the original, 85ft 1 ; 
like the city of the snakes, 
thief's, 119 ; of the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif, original, 

Honey, one of the five nectars, 
247ft 2 

Horripilation caused by joy, 
46, 46ft 1 , 94ft 1 

Horse, instantaneous trans- 
portation through the kick 
of a, 57, 57ft 2 ; one of the 
seven (six) jewels of the 
Chakravartin, 71ft 2 ; pro- 
duces silver coins, 59ft 3 

Horsemen appearing from a 
fire sacrifice, armed, 109ft 3 

Hot ring from a pot of boil- 
ing ghi, removing, 196ft 

House, betel leaves used 
when building a, 278 

Householder, one of the 
seven (six) jewels of the 
Chakravartin, 71w 2 

How Parvati condemned her 
Five Attendants to be re- 
born on Earth, 136-138, 

Hsi han nan fang ts'ao mu 
chuang, the, 304 

Human hand, red lotus turns 
into a, 54 

Humans, geese without 
plumages transformed into, 
229, 230; possessing the 
fatal look, 75ft 1 

Hundreds of years, practising 
asceticism for, 145 

Husband gives away only 
wife. 129; a single lock 
worn in mourning for 
absent, 34, 36, 36w 2 

Ichor-smelling stream, the, 
154, 155 

Identification of the "five 
fruits," 246, 247; of the 
protecting herb, possible, 
56ft 2 ; of swan - maidens 



Identification continued 
with Valkyries in the 
Volundarkvitha, 221, 223 

I lac hi, cardamom, used in 
betel-chewing, 247 

Illness, betel and areca used 
for curing, 282, 294 

Illuminating beauty, 110, 

// Pentamerone, G. B. 
Basile, 69ft 1 

Image of Hatakesvara bathed 
in water which is then 
drunk, 195, 195ft 3 

Images of birds made at the 
January sankrdnti, 19 

Imaginary elephant of Varuna, 
Anjana, the, 108ft 1 

Immediate birth, 113, HSn 1 ; 
fulfilment of dreams at 
sunrise, 100ft 

Immunity from death with 
one stipulation, obtaining, 
109, 109ft 3 

Implements used in betel- 
chewing, 149-154 

Import and export of areca- 
nuts in China, 306 

Inaccessible to mortals, 
northern side of Mount 
Kailasa, 74, 75 

Inauguration of Naravahana- 
datta, the, 87, 88 

Incidents forming the "Swan- 
Maiden " motif, 213 

Incorrect expression of 
" betel-nut " and " betel- 
palm," 238, 266, 267ft 1 

India Office MSS. of the 
K.S.S'.,3n 1 ,4nHfin 1 ,9H 
10ft 1 - 2 , 13/& 1 , 14w 2 ,21w 1 ,26n 1 , 
27ft 1 , 28ft 2 , 32*1 2 , 33ft 1 , 
36*1, SQn 1 , 38ft 1 , 40m 1 , 41m 1 , 
42ft 1 , 43ft 2 45ft 1 - 2 , 49ft 1 , 
59ft 1 , 60ft 2 , 62ft 2 , 67ft 1 - 2 - 3 , 
72ft 1 , 75ft 3 , 79m 1 , 81ft 1 - 2 , 
88ft 2 , 89ft 1 , 90ft 2 , 91ft 1 , 97m 1 , 
101n 1 ,102n 1 , 105ft 1 - 2 , 111ft 2 , 
112ft 3 , 115ft 1 , 117ft 2 , 118ft 2 , 
119ft 3 , 120*1, 125W 1 , 126n 1 , 
127w a ,128n 1 ,131n L2 ,133n 1 , 
135ft 2 , 137ft 2 , 138ft 1 - 2 - 3 , 
140ft 1 , 141ft 1 - 3 , 144ft 1 , 146ft 1 , 
147ft 2 , 149ft 1 , 150ft 1 - 2 , 151ft 1 , 
152ft 2 - 3, 153ft 1 , 157ft 1 , 158ft 1 , 
159ft 1 , 160ft 2 , 161ft 1 , 162ft 3 , 
166ft 1 - 2 , 167ft 1 , 168ft 2 , 171ft 2 , 
174ft 1 , 178ft 1 , 180ft 1 , 184ft 1 - 2 , 
185ft 1 , 186ft 1 - 2 , 187ft 1 , 
189ft 1 - 2 , 190ft 2 , 191ft 1 , 194ft 1 , 
195ft 2 , 205ft 2 , 207ft 1 - 208ft 1 

Indian Archipelago, betel- 
chewing in the East, 293- 
302 ; castanets, two forms 
of, 95ft 1 ; specimens of 
betel implements, 250-252 

Indian Calendar, R. Sewell 
and S. B. Dikshit, 19 

Indian Geology and Physical 
Geography, A Bibliography 
of, T. H. D. La Touche, 
56ft 1 , 96ft6 

Indonesien oder die Inseln der 
Malayischen Archipel, A. 
Bastian, 232ft 1 

Infant, substitution of, 87, 
87ft 1 

Inferno [Dante], 99ft 2 

Ingredients of betel-chewing, 
lists of five, 246, 247; 
necessary in betel-chewing, 
the three, 238 

Inhabitants abandoning old 
dwellings, heavenly, 149, 
149ft 2 

Initiation ceremonies, areca- 
nuts in, 312 

Instantaneous transportation, 
57, 57ft- 

Insult of spitting betel-juice, 
237, 257 

Interpolations in Linschoten's 
work made by Paludanus, 

Interpretations of the swan- 
maidens, different, 232, 
232ft 8 , 233, 233n 1 - 2 - 3 

Intoxication caused by betel- 
chewing, 256, 258, 260, 

Introduction a VHistoire du 
Bud d hi s m c Indien, E. 
Burnouf, 71ft 2 

" Introduction " to the Volun- 
darkvitha, prose, 221 

Investigations of the king, 
the nightly, 118, 119 

Investiture with the sacri- 
ficial thread, 2, 2ft 2 , 139, 
139ft 1 , 181, 181ft 1 ; kinsuka 
tree used in the, 7ft 3 

Invincible, sword named, 154, 
154ft 2 

Invisibility, magic, 36, 37 

Inwards, anxiety shown by 
eyes turned, 49 

Irish Fairy Book, The, A. P. 
Graves, 107ft 

Iron, carrying red-hot, the 
ordeal of fire, 196ft 

Island of Calypso, the, 92ft 1 ; 
of Tikopia, the, 248, 310 

Islands of Enchantment, F. 
Coombe, 317ft 2 

"Islands, spice," early travels 
to the, 96ft 2 

Isles of the Blessed, the swan- 
maiden interpreted as be- 
longing to the, 233, 233ft 1 

Ivory, areca-nut cutters with 
handles of, 250 ; castanets 
of, 95ft 1 

Jackals, howling, an evil 

omen, 156, 156ft 1 
Jain Scriptures, mention of 

betel in the, 254, 254ft 3 
Japan, Tales of Old, A. B. 

Mitford, 231ft* 
Japanische Marche?i und Sagen, 

D. Brauns, 231ft 4 

Jar, drawing lots from a, one 
of theordealsin Brihaspati's 
law code, 196n 

Java the Garden of the East, 

E. R. Scidmore, 295ft 3 
Java: Past and Present, 

D. M. Campbell, 295ft 3 
" Jets over Schedelvereering 

. . . ," G. A. Wilken, 

Bijdragen tot de Taal, . . . 

van Nederlandsch Indie, 

297ft 1 
Jewel of charms, one of the 

jewels of an emperor, 71 ; 

of Vishnu, the kaustubha, 

60, 60ft 1 -' 3 
Jewel-spitting, 59ft 3 
Jewels of an emperor, the, 

64, 68, 69, 71, 72, 75, 76, 

77, 79; the five, 247ft 2 , 248ft 
Jonesia asoca, the asoka tree, 

"Joshi, Jyotishi, Bhadri, 

Parsai," Tribes and Castes 

of the Central Provinces, 

R. V. Russell, 19 
Jownal of American Folk- Lore, 

The [" Omaha and Ponka 

Myths"], J. O. Dorsey, 

vol. i, Boston, 1888, 228ft 8 ; 

["Visajxar Folk-Tales, II"] 

B. L. Maxfield and W. H. 

Millington, vol. xx, Boston, 

1907, 231ft 5 
Journal of the American 

Oriental Society, "Camphor," 

W. H. Schoff, vol. xlii, 

1922, 246ft 2 
Journal of the Anthropological 

Institute, illustrations of 

betel-chewing accessories, 

vol. vii, 1878, 253ft 3 

Journal of the Anthropological 
Society of Bombay, "Flowers 
of the Hindu Poets," 
W. Dymock, vol. ii, 7ft 4 ; 
" On the Use of Turmeric 
in Hindoo Ceremonial, " 
W. Dymock, vol. ii, 18 ; 
" The 'Use of Saffron and 
Turmeric in Hindu 
Marriage Ceremonies," 
K. R. Kirtikar, vol. ix, 18 

Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal [" Specimens of 
the Burmese Drama "], 
C. A. Blundell, vol. viii, 
Calcutta, 1839, 231ft 1 

Journal, Folk - Lore, 227ft 10 , 
231ft 3 . For details see 
under Folk- Lore Journal 

Journal of the Royal Anthro- 
pological Institute, " Notes 
on the Gogodara Tribe of 
Western Papua," A. P. 
Lyon, vol. lvi, 1926, 313ft 2 

Joy causes trembling, hor- 
ripilation and perspiration, 
94, 94ft 1 ; horripilation 
from, 46, 46ft 1 

Julius Ccesar, Shakespeare, 
99ft 1 , 156ft 1 

Kachins, The, Ola Hanson, 

Kalmukische Marchen. Die 

Marchen des Siddhi - K'ur, 

B. Jiilg, 59ft 3 
Karen People of Burma, The, 

H. I. Marshall, 285ft 6 
Kathakoca ; or Treasury of 

Stories, The, C. H. Tawney, 

29ft 1 
Kava-drinkmg, 248, 306, 316, 

317, 318 ; areas, division 

of betel-chewing and, 307- 

K ava-pla.nt, Macropiper 

methysticum, 311, 312 
Kensington Museum, speci- 
mens of Eastern castanets 

at the South, 95ft 1 
Kerchief of a nereid, stealing 

the, 218, 219 
Keres not to be mistaken for 

swan-maidens, 217 
Khasis, The, R. P. T. Gurdon, 

285ft 3 
Kick of a horse as a means of 

instantaneous transporta- 
tion, 57, 57ft 2 
Killing glance of Isis, the, 

75ft 1 


Kinder- und Hausm'drchen der 
Br'uder Grimm, J. Bolte 
and G. Polivka, 83ft 1 , 107ft, 
109ft 2 , 117ft 2 , 182ft 1 , 216ft 1 , 
217, 217ft 1 

Kinds of areca-nuts, different, 
303, 304 ; of betel leaves, 
different, 265 

King Brahmadatta and the 
Swans, Story of, 133, 133ft 2 , 
134-136, 138, 142-143, 144, 
209 ; Chandamahasena and 
the Asura's Daughter, 106, 
106ft 2 , 107, 107ft, 108-110; 
of Chedi, the, 10, 124 ; of 
the Madras, the, 126 ; 
Mandhatar in Ralston's 
Tibetan Tales, 83ft 1 ; of the 
Nagas, Sankhapala, 7 ; of 
Paundra, the, 84 ; Prasen- 
ajit, The Young Chandala 
who married the Daughter 
of, 112, 112ft 4 ,113, 114; of 
Vatsa, Udayana, 1, 2, 12, 
13, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 
29, 30, 39, 45, 46, 47, 89, 
90, 91, 92, 92ft 1 , 93, 100, 
101, 102, 103, 121 

King named Chandama- 
hasena, 100 ; Chandraketu, 
145, 148, 150, 152, 153, 
156, 159, 160, 163, 168, 
208; Chandravaloka, 125, 
126, 127, 130; Devamaya, 
68, 73-77, 83, 85, 86, 93; 
Gaurimunda, 48-51, 61-63, 
73, 89; Hemaprabha, 47, 
53 ; Kanchanadamshtra, 
79, 81, 82, 84; Malaya- 
simha, 115, 116 ; Mandara- 
deva, 4, 63, 68, 69, 71, 72, 
78, 79, 80-82, 84, 89; 
Merudhvaja, 178-193, 195- 
199, 204, 207, 208 ; Palaka, 
101, 103, 105, 106, 110, 
112, 115, 118, 120, 121, 
122; Prasenajit, 31, 31ft 1 ; 
Sagaradatta, 28, 29, 47, 50, 
53, 64 ; Trailokyamalin, 
183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 
191, 193, 195, 196, 197, 
199, 204, 207, 208; Vajra- 
mushti, 71; Varaha, 73; 
Vayupatha, 40-42, 47, 50, 
53, 64-66, 69, 73, 88, 89, 
93, 106 ; Vegavat, 25, 46 ; 
Vidyutprabha, 144, 146 ; 
Virabahu, 118 

" King Omar bin al-Nu'uman 
and his Sons," The Nights, 
R. F. Burton, 93ft 2 


King Richard II, Shakespeare, 

88ft 1 V 

Kingdom of Siam, The, 

A. C. Carter, 289ft 2 
Kite hi- Garni : Wanderings 

round Lake Superior, J. G. 

Kohl, 228ft 8 
Kleiner e Schriften, J. Grimm, 

117ft 2 
Knowledge, magic, 39, 45, 

55 ; of the three times, 57, 

57ft 3 ; a kind of Greek 

Castanet, 95ft 1 

Lady of the Lake, The, 
W. Scott, 114ft 1 

Lake, the artificial, 135 ; 
called Pampa, 43, 45 ; 
called Sankhahrada, 7, 13, 
14 ; the Manasa, 1ft 1 , 73 

Law codes, Hindu, 195ft 3 , 

Lay of Wayland," the Volun- 
darkvitha, or, one of the 
Eddie poems, 220 

Leaf of the Piper betle, one 
of the three necessary 
ingredients in betel- 
chewing, 238, 239 

Leaves, bed of lotus, 168, 
168ft 1 , 171 ; of betel with 
camphor and the five 
fruits, 4, 4ft 1 ; of the kinsuka 
tree used in investing with 
the sacred thread, 7ft 3 ; of 
trees, the five, 247ft 2 

" Lebensjahre, Die verschenk- 
ten," Marchen des Mittel- 
alters, A. Wesselski, 117ft 2 

Lectures on the Origin and 
Growth of Religion, John 
Rhys, 107ft 

Left hand, the Daitya's vital 
point, 109, 109ft 3 , 110; 
hand, uncleanliness of the, 
302, 302ft 1 

Legendary birds, 182ft 1 

Legends of New England, 
The Algonquin, Ch. Leland, 
228ft 8 

Legends, swans and swan- 
maidens in Teutonic, 219, 
219ft 1 , 220 

Leisure Hour, "Betel -Nut 
Chewing," vol. xviii, 318ft 1 

Lesser Cardamom, Elettaria 
cardamomum, 96ft 1 

Lhota Nagas, The, J. P. Mills, 
285ft 7 

Libation, ordeal by sacred, 
195ft 3 , 196ft 



Library, Apollodorus, 107ft, 

117ft 2 
Licking red-hot ploughshare, 

Life bound up with Animal, 
in the "External Soul" 
motif, 107ft ; in Burning 
Candle ("External Soul" 
motif) 9 107%; to dead 
person, giving part of 
one's, 117, 117ft 2 ; in Egg 
(" External Soul " motif), 
107ft ; restoring dead to, 
80, 81, 99; the result of 
demerits in a former, 166 ; 
in Special Part of Body 
("External Soul" motif), 
107ft ; in Weapon, Orna- 
ment, or other Object, 

Life in the Forests of the Far 
East, Spencer St John, 
296ft 2 

Lightning, an evil omen, 156, 
156ft 1 

Lign-aloes in betel-chewing, 
use of, 243, 243ft 2 , 246, 264 

Lime, description of making, 
286 ; made from pounded 
shells, 242, 258, 259, 261, 
267, 269, 284, 285 ; one of 
the three necessary in- 
gredients in betel-chewing, 
238, 274, 287, 289, 293, 
294, 297, 300, 301, 305, 
309, 311, 313, 314, 317 

Lime-box, 249-251, 253, 254, 
301, 315 

Lime- gourd, importance of 
the, 310-314, 317 

Linaloes (Lign- Aloes), used 
in betel - chewing, 243, 
243ft 2 , 244 

Ling-wai-tai-ta, the, 303, 304 

Lion, Naravahanadatta 
assumes the form of a, 79, 
80, 80ft 1 ; nereid changing 
into a, 219 

Lips discoloured by betel- 
chewing, 259-261, 268, 314 

List of five ordeals in the 
Yajnavalkya smriti, 195ft 3 , 

Lists of five ingredients in 
betel-chewing, 246, 247 

Literature, roots of the 
" Swan-Maiden " motif in 
Sanskrit, 234 

Lock of Madanamanchuka's 
hair, the single, 34, 36, 
36n 2 

Longest tale in the Nights, 
the, 93ft 2 

Look, power of the fatal, 75ft 1 

Lots from a jar, drawing, 
196ft 1 

Lotus, chariot in form of a, 
52, 61; leaves, bed of 168, 
168ft 1 , 171 ; turns into a 
human hand, red, 54 

Lotuses, a glance like a 
garland of full-blown blue, 

Love, the asoka tree a symbol 
of, 7ft 4 ; the God of (Kama), 
1, 2,3, 11, 14, 23, 26, 71, 
87, 95, 98, 126, 159, 170, 
189 ; songs of Celebes, 
areca-nuts mentioned in, 
299; with a Thief, The 
Merchant's Daughter who 
fell in, 118, 118ft 1 , 119, 
120 ; the torture of, 9, 10 

Lover of the night, the moon, 
the, 31 

Lucky number, five, the, 247 

Lyre called Ghoshavati, 102 ; 

the test of playing on the, 


Lyricks, Camoens, The, R. F. 

Burton, 240ft 1 

Macropiper methysticum, the 
Amw-plant, 312 

Mad elephant fascinated by 
beautiful maiden, 111, 
111ft 3 

Mafulu Mountain People of 
British New Guinea, The, 
R. W. Williamson, 313ft 1 

Magic, concealing bodies in 
trees by, 185 ; crest-jewels, 
172, 174, 175, 194, 195, 
195ft 1 ; delusion, the, 42, 
43; invisibility, 36, 37; 
knowledge, 39, 45, 55; 
lost in sleep, power of, 
25, 25ft 2 ; resuscitation, 80, 
81 ; science, power of, 36, 
37, 46, 48, 49, 79 

Magical combat, the, 79, 80, 
80ft 1 

Magie et Religion dans 
L'AJrique du Nord, La 
Societe Musulmane du Mag- 
hrib., E. Doutte, 100ft 

Mahavastu, The, E. Senart, 
71ft 2 

Maiden fascinates mad 
elephant, beautiful, 111, 
111ft 3 ; like a wave of the 
sea, 13 

Maidens, the agreement of 
the five Vidvadhara, 66, 
Mdlatimadhava, Bhavabhuti, 

17ft 1 
Malay Peninsula, betel- 
chewing in the, 289-292; 
specimens of betel imple- 
ments, 252, 253 
Malay Br. Roy. As. Soc. Journ., 
" Notes on Malay Magic," 
R. O. Winstedt, vol. iii, 
December 1925, 292ft 1 ; 
[" Malay Customs and 
Beliefs"] H. Overbeck, 
vols, ii and iii, 1924, 1925, 
Malay Magic, W. W. Skeat, 

290ft 4 
Malaya, The Sea Gypsies of, 

W. G. White, 287ft 1 
Malayalam words for betel, 

Malobathrum of Pliny, Folium 

Indum the, 244ft 1 
Maltesische Mdrchen, B. Ilg, 

Man disguised as a bride, 

" Man who took a Wild Goose 
for a Wife, The," Gron- 
Idndska Myter och Sagor, 
K. Rasmussen, 228-231 
Man [" Piper Methysticum in 
Betel-Chewing "J, E. W. 
Pearson-Chinnery,vol. xxii, 
February 1922, 311,311ft 1 ; 
[" Piper Methysticum in 
Betel-Chewing "] E. im 
Thurn, vol. xxii, April 
1922, 311, 311ft 2 
Mango, one of the five leaves 

of trees, 247ft 2 
Maori, The Ancient History of 

the, J. White, 232ft? 
Marathi names for betel, 239 
Mdrchen, Das, F. von der 

Leyen, 107ft 
Mdrchen des Mittelalters, A. 

Wesselski, 117ft 2 
Mdrchen der Schluh von Tazer- 

walt, H. Stumme, 227ft 8 
Mdrchen aus Turkestan und 
Tibet, G. Jungbauer, 107ft 
Marco Polo, The Book of Scr, 
H. Yule, 245, 246, 246ft 3 , 
247, 256, 257 
Marriage agreement of the 
five Vidyadhara maidens, 
66, 67, 84 ; betel-chewing 
regarded as taboo before, 

Marriage continued 

280, 281; ceremonies, 
betel in, 273, 276, 277, 

281, 283 ; 289, 290, 293, 
295, 296, 297, 303, 304, 
306, 309, 316 ; ceremonies, 
turmeric in, 18, 277, 281 ; 
ceremoiry in the air, the, 34; 
ceremony, the second, 25 

Marriage, The Stolen, Mdlatl 

and Mddhava, or, 17ft 1 
Marrying a mortal, Vidya- 

dharl's curse of, 59 
Materia Medica, Chinese, G. A. 

Stuart, 305 
Materials, castanetsof various. 

95ft 1 ; used for betel-bags, 

251, 252 
Meaning of the " Swan- 
Maiden " motif, 213 
Measures of betel leaves, 272; 

of time, varying, 78ft 1 
Medical dictionary, the 

Vaidyaka-sabda - sindhn, a 

Hindu, 246 
Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, A. K. 

Coomaraswamy, 251, 252ft 6 
Mehri-Sprache in Siidarabien, 

Die, A. Jahn, 227ft 3 
Meitheis, The, T. C. Hodson, 

286ft 2 
Melanesian Society, The History 

of, W. Rivers, 310, 310ft 2 , 

Melanesians, The, R. H. Cod- 

rington, 232ft 4 
Melanesians of British New 

Gidnea, The, C. G. Selig- 

mann, 310 
Melanesians and Polynesians, 

George Brown, 317m 1 
Mimoir es de la Societe 

Finno-ougrienne , 228ft 3 
Men, gold- and jewel-spitting, 

Mentawai - Sprache, Die, M. 

Morris, 231ft 7 
Mention of betel in India, 

early, 254, 255 
Merchant's Daughter who 

fell in Love with a Thief, 

The, 118, 118ft 1 , 119, 120 
Metal, the Jhang, Indian 

castanet of, 95ft 1 
Metamorphoses, Ovid, 69ft 1 , 

149ft 2 
Metaphor of the moon, 31 
Method of making lime, 286 ; 

of preparing cutch, 278-280 
Methods of averting evil 

spirits, 292 


Migration routes of the 
" Swan - Maiden " motif, 
226-228, 231, 232, 234 

Mikirs, The, E. Stack, 285ft 4 

Milk, the adopted Chandala 
reared on goat's, 114, Win 1 ; 
one of the five nectars, 
247ft 2 

Mimusops elengi, vakida tree, 
96ft 3 

Minahassa, De, N. Graafland, 
297ft 2 

Mineral Resources of Burma, 
The, N. M. Penzer, 65m 1 

Misfortune through aspiring 
too high, 83ft 1 

Mishkat, the, 100ft. See also 
under Matthews, A. N. 

Mitteilungen der schlesischen 
Gesellschaft fur Volkskunde 
[" Neues zur germanischen 
Mythologie "], T. Siebs, 
vol. xxv, 1924, 225ft 2 

Mittheilungen des Seminars fur 
orientalischen Spracheji 
[" Duala-Marchen "J, W. 
Lederbogen, vol. v, 1902, 
227ft 9 ; [ Studien iiber die 
Litterature der Toba- 
Batak"] J. Warneck, vol. 
ii, Berlin and Stuttgart, 
1899, 231ft 6 

Mixture of cutch and lime 
produces red saliva, 280 

Moalis (a Shiah sect), betel- 
chewing among the, 242 

Modern accounts of betel- 
chewing in the East Indian 
Archipelago, 293-300 

Modern Egyptians, An Account 
of the Manners and Customs 
of the, E. W. Lane, 196ft 

Modern Greek in Asia Minor, 
R. M. Dawkins, 109ft 2 

Modern Greek Folklore and 
Aticient Greek Religion, J. C. 
Lawson, 218, 218ft 2 

Modern Language Review, 
"The Valkyries," A. H. 
Krappe, vol. xxi, 1926, 
224ft 2 , 225ft 3 , 226ft 1 

Mohammedan practice of 
charmingaway disease, 196ft 

Moly, a protecting herb, the, 
56ft 2 

Mongolische Mdrchen- 
Sammlung, B. Jiilg, 228ft 4 

Month to come true, dreams 
taking a, 100ft; feast on 
the eighth day of the, 141, 
141ft 2 


Moon, the lover of the night, 
the, 31 ; metaphor of the, 

Moonlight-jewel, one of the 
jewels of an emperor, 71, 

Moonstone, a slab of, 96, 96ft 6 

Moors and Moalis, betel- 
chewing among the, 242 

Morning -dreams, fulfilment 
of, 99, 99ft 2 , 100, 100ft 

Mortal, curse of Vidyadhari 
ended by living with a, 59, 
59ft 2 

Mortals, northern side of 
Mount Kailasa inaccessible 
to, 74, 75 

Mortar for grinding areca- 
nuts and betel leaves, 250, 
289, 295 

Mothers, the temple of the, 

Motif, the " External Soul," 
106ft 2 , 107ft; the Older 
and Older," 55ft 1 ; the 
" Swan - Maiden," 57ft 2 ; 
The "Swan-Maiden," 
Appendix I, 213-234; the 
"Taboo," or "Forbidden 
Chamber," 57, 57ft 1 

Mount Ashadha, 26 ; Kailasa, 
47, 51, 58, 59, 72-77, 79, 
81-83, 85, 133, 133ft 3 , 136, 
147; Kalinjara, 101, 102; 
Meru,83,198,199; Sumeru, 

Mountain of Agni, the, 27 ; 
of Antimony, the, 108, 
108ft 1 ; the Black, 103, 
103ft 1 , 104, 105, 124, 131, 
132 ; called Ashadhapura. 
25, 27, 36; called Govin- 
dakuta, 62, 69, 70, 72 ; of 
Fire, the, 50, 51, 70; of 
Malaya, the, 1, 70, 94, 99; 
of Mandara, the, 85, 136 ; 
the Rishabha, 85, 86, 89, 
94; of Rishvamuka, the, 
42,43,44; of the Siddhas, 
the, 43, 43ft 1 ; of Siva, the, 
131 ; the Tridasa, 143 

Mountains, the Vindhya, 54 

Mountain-stone, lime for 
betel-chewing made from, 
Mourning for absent husband, 
single lock of hair worn in, 
34, 36, 36ft 2 

Mouth coloured red and black 
by betel-chewing, 259, 260, 
261, 268, 314, 315 



Mouth when speaking, gold 

ring falls from girl's, 59ft 3 
Music of Gandharvadatta, the 

wonderful skill of, 28, 29 
Music of India, The, Atiya 

Begum Fyzee Rahamin, 

95ft 1 
Musical test, the, 29 
Musk in betel-chewing, use 

of, 246, 247, 264, 266, 274 
Mussel - shells, lime made 

from, 259 
My Adventures among South 

Sea Cannibals, D. Rannie, 

310ft 2 
Mythologie, Germanische, E. H . 

Meyer, 232ft 8 
Mythology, no "Swan- 
Maiden" storiesinclassical, 

217, 218; swan-maiden in 

Norse, 219-226 
Mythology, Hindu, W. J. 

Wilkins, 77ft* 2 

Names of betel and areca, 

various, 238, 239, 241, 303, 

308ft 3 ; of bundles of betel 

leaves, 265, 266 ; of the 

seven kinds of betel leaves, 

265 ; of swords, 154, 154ft 2 
Nan shih, the biography of 

Lui Mu-chih, 303, 303ft 1 
Narodnya j'usskija skazki, 

A. N. Afanasjev,' 227ft 5 
Narodnyja russkija skazki i 

zagadh . . ., A. Erlenvejn, 

227ft 5 
Narrative of a Residence at the 

Capital of the Kingdom of 

Siam, F. A. Neale, 289ft 2 
Natives of Sarawak and British 

North Borneo, The, H. Ling 

Roth, 253ft 2 , 298ft 1 
Natural Man, C. Hose, 296ft 1 
N atura lis Historia, Pliny, 

114ft 1 
Naturalist in North Celebes, A, 

S. J. Hickson, 231ft 10 , 

296ft 2 
"Nature (Greek)," L. R. 

Farnell, Hastings' Ency. 

Rel, Eth., 218ft 2 
Nectars, the five, 247ft 2 
Nereid or nymph, the classical 

swan-maiden, 218 
New Voyage Round the World, 

A, William Dampier, 301ft 1 
New Year's Day, the Makara- 

sankranti corresponding to 

our, 19 

New Zealand and its Inhabit- 
ants, Te Ika A Maui; or 
R. Taylor, 232ft 7 

Night, dreams at the end of 
the, 99, 99ft 2 ; fulfilment 
of dreams at different 
watches of the, 100ft ; the 
king's investigations at, 
118, 119; the moon, the 
lover of the, 31 ; three 
watches of the, 78, 78ft 1 

Nights, fights with witches 
for three, 55, 56, 56ft 1 

Nights, The Arabian, as in- 
troducer of the " Swan- 
Maiden" motif into Europe, 

Nights and a Night, The 
Thousand, R. F. Burton, 
93ft 2 , 158ft 2 , 159ft, 161ft 2 , 
219, 227ft 3 , 302ft 1 

Norse mythology, the swan- 
maiden in, 219-226 

North, Kuvera, the guardian 
of the, 163ft 1 

Northern and Central India, 
betel-chewing in, 270-275 ; 
division of the Vidyadhara 
territory, the, 47, 63 

Note on the Festival of the 
Winter Solstice, 19-20 ; on 
the Use of Turmeric, 18 

" Notes on the Gogodara 
Tribe of Western Papua," 
A. P. Lyon, Journ. Roy. 
Anth. Inst., 313ft 2 

" Notes on Malay Magic," 
R. O. Winstedt, Malay Br. 
Roy. As. Soc. Journ., 292, 
292ft 1 

Number, five, the lucky, 
247 ; of the jewels of the 
Chakravartin, varying, 72ft; 
of the Valkyries, original, 

Numbers, ordeal of the 
adulterous woman in, 196ft 

Numerous harems and betel- 
chewing in the East, prob- 
able connection between 
the (<Abdu-r-Razzaq), 258 

Nuptial taboo, 25, 25ft 1 

Nursery Tales, Traditions and 
Histories of the Zulus, 
C. Callaway, 227ft 10 

Nutmeg, in betel-chewing, 
use of, 247, 255 

Nye Mennesker, K. Rasmussen, 
228, 228ft 9 

Nymph, carrying off the 
clothes of a heavenly, 58, 

Nymph continued 

58ft 2 , 218; of the eastern 
quarter, the sun, the, 32 ; 
ended by living with a 
mortal, curse of a heavenly, 
59, 59ft 2 ; or nereid, the 
classical swan-maiden. 218 

Oath, a binding, exchange of 

betel signifies, 281, 283 
Objects used in betel- 
chewing, 249-254 
Oblations, the Agnihotra, 

Occurrence of antimony in 

India, small, 65ft 1 
Ocean, the Churning of the, 

60ft 1 , 76 
Odes, Horace, 49ft 1 
Odyssey, the, 56ft 2 , 92ft 1 
Offering of betel " chew " to 

water -spirits, 291; of 

water, the, 101, 103 
Offerings to deity of betel 

cultivation in Bengal, 271; 

of the golden swans, the, 

Oil, Richard II anointed with 

sacred, 88ft 1 
Oiled and curled, head of an 

adulterer, 107 
Old age, a crest-jewel as 

talisman against, 194, 195, 

195ft 1 ; hair seized by, 

Old Woman of Berkeley, R. 

Southey, 56ft 1 
"Older and Older" motif, 

the, 55ft 1 
" Omar bin al-Nu'uman and 

his Sons, King," The 

Nights, R. F. Burton, 93ft 2 
Omens, evil, 49, 156, 156ft 1 , 

173, 173ft 1 
On and off" Duty in Annam, 

G. M. Vassal, 287ft 2 
Once a Week, " Antiquity of 

the Castanet," Soy Yo : 

vol. viii, 1863, 95ft 1 
One arrow splitting seve 

palm-trees, 44 ; lock of 

Madanamanchuka's hai 

the, 34, 36, 36ft 2 
Opinions about the swa 

maiden, various, 232, 232 

233, 233ft 1 , 233ft 2 ' 3 
Opium, a rival of bet 

chewing in China, 318 
Ordeal, to drink the wa 

of, 195, 195w 3 , 196ft 


Ordeal (Hindu)," A. B. 
Keith, Hastings' Ency. Rel. 
Eth., 196ft 

Ordeals among the Bonthuk 
caste, areca-nuts in, 276 ; 
in the codes of Brihaspati 
and Pitamaha, 196ft ; in the 
Yajnavalkya-smriti, list of 
five, 195ft 3 , 196ft 

Oriental Silverwork, Malay and 
Chinese, H. Ling Roth, 
253ft 1 

Oriente Lux, Ex, Win 2 . For 
details see under Wiinsche, 

Origin of the betel-vine, story 
of the, 274 ; of the Com- 
pitalian games, 114m 1 ; of the 
custom of betel-chewing, 
possible, 248, 249 ; of the 
festival called the giving 
of water, the, 106-110; of 
the "Swan-Maiden" motif, 
217, 234 ; of the Valkyries, 
224, 225, 226 ; of the Palli 
or Vanniyan caste, 109ft 3 ; 
of the Volundarkvitha, 220 

Origin and Growth of Religion, 
Lectures on, John Rhys, 

Original home of the Castanet, 
India probably the, 95ft 1 ; 
number of the Valkyries, 

Original Sanskrit Texts, John 
Muir, 152ft 1 

Ornament, faces smeared with 
betel-juice for, 314, 315; 
or other Object, Life in 
Weapon, 107ft 

Osiris and the Egyptian Resur- 
rection, E. A. Wallis Budge, 
75ft 1 

Outpost in Papua, An, A. K. 
Chignell, 317ft 1 

Oval shape of betel-bags, 251, 

Oxford Dictionary, J. A. H. 
Murray, 34ft 1 

Oyster shells for betel- 
chewing, lime from, 242, 
258, 261, 269 

Pagan Races of the Malay 
Peninsula, W. W. Skeat 
and C. O. Blagden, 289ft 2 , 
290ft 2 

Pagan Tribes of Borneo, The, 
C. Hose and W. McDougall, 
296m 1 



Painting of Muktaphalaketu, 

Padmavatl's, 165, 166, 176 
Palankeen, 13, 13k 1 , 48, 89 
Pali works, mention of betel 

in, 254,254ft 2 
Palm-trees with one arrow, 

Rama splits seven, 44 
" Palms of the Philippine 

Islands," O. Beccari, Philip- 
pine Journal of Science, 249ft 1 
Papers on Malay Subjects, 

R. O. VVinstedt, 291ft 1 
Paradise, five trees of, 248ft 
Part of Body, Life in Special 

("External Soul" motif), 

107ft ; of one's life to dead 

person, giving, 117, 117ft 2 
Passages of the Qur'an used 

for charming away disease, 

Past, present and future, the 

three times, 57ft 3 
Patterns used on betel-bags, 

various, 252, 252ft 2 - 34 -5 
Pavilions produced by magic 

power, 92 
Peacocks,transformation into, 

Pearl, areca-nut cutters with 

handles of, 250 ; ashes, 

chewing paste of betel-nut 

and, 256 ; one of the five 

jewels, 248ft ; swans with 

eyes of, 135 
Pearls produced by combing 

hair, 59ft 3 
Peasant Life, Bihar, G. A. 

Grierson, 275 
Peninsula, betel-chewing in 

the Malay, 289-292 
Penny Magazine, " Betel-Nut 

Tree," vol. v, 318ft 1 
Pen ts'ao kang mu, the, 304 
Perfume given to Sita by 

Anasuya, 44 ; made from 

vakula flowers, 96ft 3 
Persian and Balochistan words 

for betel, 239 
Perspiration caused by joy, 

94, 94ft 1 
Pheniciens et Grecs en Italie 

d'apres VOdyssee, P. Cham- 

pault, 56ft 2 
Pheniciens et VOdyssee, Les, 

V. Berard, 56ft 2 
Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, 

The, E. H. Blair and J. A. 

Robertson, 302ft 2 
Philippine Islands, . . . By 

Antonio de Morga, The, 

H. E. J. Stanley, 300ft 1 


Philippine Journal of Science, 

" Palms of the Philippine 

Islands," O. Beccari, vol. 

xiv, 249ft 1 
Philologus, W. Anderson, vol. 

lxxiii, 107ft 
Pickled areca-nuts, use of, 

Picture of Muktaphalaketu, 

Padmavati's, 165, 166, 176 
Pilgrimage to Allahabad, the 

great, 19 
Piper betle, betel-vine, 238, 

238ft 1 , 239, 249, 272, 311 
Piper chabai.e. Bakek, 247 
Piper cubeba or cubebs, 247 
Piper methysticum, leaves of 

the, 310, 311 
Piper nigrum, the black pepper 

vine, 267 
Piquedans or spittoons for 

betel-chewing, 268 
Plantation of areca - palms, 

269, 270, 305, 306, 308 ; of 

betel-vine, 265, 271, 272, 

273, 305, 306, 308 
Plants of the Island of Guam, 

The Useful, W. E. Safford, 

308ft 2 , 309ft 1 - 2 
Ploughshare, licking red-hot, 

Plumage of a goose, stealing 

the, 229 
Plumages of eight sisters, 

king steals the, 223 
Poetic Edda, the Elder or, 

220, 223, 224 
Poetic Edda, The, H. A. 

Bellows, 221, 221ft 1 
Point situated in left hand, 

vital, 109, 109ft 3 , 110 
Poison conveyed in a betel- 

" chew," 267, 268; a crest, 

jewel as talisman against- 

194, 195, 195ft 1 ; the ordeal 

of, 196ft 
Poison-trees of wealth, the, 

Police officers abducted and 

killed at night, 107 
Pollution of desires when 

dying, the result of, 117, 

117ft 1 
'Poo/AaiVa/ apyaioXoyia, Diony- 

sios of Halikarnassos, 114ft 1 
Popular Tales and Fictions, 

W. A. Clouston, 227ft 2 
Portuguese derivation of 

betel, 239 
Posture of meditation called 

padmasana, 83, 83ft 1 



Pouring water on the hands, 
129, 129ft 1 

Powder, antimony or galena 
applied to the eyes as a 
black, 65ft 1 ; of linaloes used 
in betel - chewing, 243, 
243ft 2 

Power of the fatal look, the, 
75ft 1 ; of flying through the 
air, 26, 27, 31, 34, 36, 46, 
50, 52, 55, 56, 59, 61, 69, 
72, 89, 121, 131, 173 ; of 
magic lost in sleep, 25, 
25ft 2 ; of magic science, 
36, 37, 46, 48, 49, 79, 92 ; 
of the sciences, Vegavati 
obtains the, 25, 26 ; of 
spitting gold, 59, 59ft 3 , 60 ; 
of winking, 8, 8ft 2 

Powers of the colour yellow, 
protective, 18; super- 
natural, 57, 59, 61 

Precious stones produced by 
combing hair, 59ft 3 

Pregnancy ceremony, betel 
leaves used in, 278 ; cere- 
mony, turmeric used in, 18 

Preparation of cutch, 278-280 

Present and future, past, the 
three times, 57ft 3 

Previous birth, remembering, 
141, 142, 200, 201, 205, 207 

Primitive Culture in Italy, H.J. 
Rose, 114ft 1 

Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur, 
H. Naumann, 107ft 

Primitive Manners and Customs, 
J. A. Farrer, 228ft 8 

Primitive New Guinea, In, I. H. 
Holmes, 314ft 1 

Prince of Vatsa, the, Nara- 
vahanadatta, 17 

Princess, The Young Fisher- 
man who married a, 115- 

Principal districts for betel 
cultivation in India, 273 

Principal Navigations, Voyages 
. . . of the English Nation, 
R. Hakluyt, 259ft 1 

Proben der V olkslitteratur der 
Turkischen St'dmme Siid- 
Sibiriens, W. RadlofF, 107ft, 
228ft 2 

Products of the cow, five, 

Progenitor of Servius Tullius, 
the, 114ft 1 

Prognostication fromelevated 
or depressed spirits, 99, 
99ft 1 

Prophet about dreams, saying 

of the, 100ft 
Prose English Edition of 

Srimadbhagabatam, A, M.N. 

Dutt, 214, 214ft 2 
Prose "Introduction" to the 

Volundarkvitha, 221 
Protecting herbs, 56, 56ft 2 
Protective powers of the 

colour yellow, 18 
Pseudodoxia Epidemica or 

Vulgar Errors, Sir Thomas 

Browne, 75ft 1 , 156ft 1 , 195ft 1 
Puberty ceremonies, betel 

used at, 276, 278, 283; 

turmeric used at, 283 
Pun, Hindu, 1, 1ft 3 , 2, 2ft 1 , 9, 

9ft 2 , 11, lift 1 , 13, 13ft 2 , 16, 

16ft 1 , 31, 31ft 1 , 82, 82ft 1 , 94, 

94ft 1 , 101, 101ft 2 , 103,103ft 2 , 

125, 125ft 2 , 126, 126ft 2 , 130, 

130ft 1 , 134, 134ft 2 , 148, 

148ft 1 , 153, 153ft 2 
Punica, Silius Italicus, 154ft 2 
Pupil, the curse of the 

hermit's, 173 
Purgatorio [Dante], 100ft. 

See also under Lombardi, 

D. B. 
Purification, the annual bath 

of, 19 

Qualities of the areca-nut, 
four, 304 ; of betel, the 
thirteen (the Hitopadesa), 

Quarter, the sun, the nymph 
of the eastern, 32 

Quarters, elephants of the 
sky, 75, 76, 108ft 1 

Queen Angaravati, 100 ; 
Avantivati, 112; Chandra- 
lekha, 125 ; Kalingasena, 
22, 25, 46, 87, 90, 105; 
Madanamanchuka, wife of 
Naravahanadatta, 1, 21, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 33, 33ft 2 , 34, 35, 
36, 37, 42, 43, 51, 63, 86, 
87, 88, 90, 92, 93, 96, 132 ; 
of the serpents, Basuki,the, 
274, 274ft 1 ; Slta, 44, 45; 
Somaprabha, 133, 134 ; 
Svayamprabha, 185, 187, 
194, 195, 196, 198 ; Vasava- 
datta, wife of the King of 
Vatsa, 27, 46, 90, 91, 93, 
100, 102 

Quicklime used in betel- 
chewing, 246, 257, 300, 

Quid of betel, ingredients of 
a, 284 

Quran, the, used for charm- 
ing away disease, passage 
of, 196ft 

Rdmdyan of Vdlmiki, The, 
R. T. H. Griffith, 44ft 1 

Ramayana, The, M. N. Dutt, 
44ft 1 

Reason for not engaging 
Brahmans at betel festival, 

Recht und Sitte, J. Jolly, 196ft 

Red-hot iron, carrying, the 
ordeal of fire, 196ft; plough- 
share, licking, 196ft 

" Red-letter " day, 18 

Red lotus turns into a human 
hand, 54 ; saliva in betel- 
chewing, explanation for 
the, 315 ; saliva produced 
by chewing betel, 258, 
259, 260, 261, 262, 280; 
unguent at coronation 
ceremony, smearing with, 
87 ; and yellow connected 
with sun-worship, the 
colours, 18 

Reed, Greek castanet of a 
split, 95ft 1 

Reference to protecting 
herbs, earliest, 56ft 2 

References to betel in 
Stevenson's Rites of the 
Twice-Born, 277ft 1 ; to betel 
in Thurston's Castes and 
Tribes of Southern India, 
275ft 2 , 276-283; to the 
" External Soul " motif, 

Reliefs of three altars at 
Housesteads (Northumber- 
land), 224, 225 

Religion and Folklore of 
Northern India, W. Crooke, 
19, 271ft 2 

Religious ceremonies, the 
kinsuka tree used in, 7ft 3 

Religious System of China, The, 

J. J. M.' De Groot, 304ft 1 
Remaines of Gentilisme, John 

Aubrey, 100ft 
Remarriage of widows, custom 

at, 273 
Remembering former birth, 
141, 142, 200, 201, 205, 
Removing a hot ring from a 
pot of boiling ghi, 196ft 

Report, Annual, British New 

Guinea, M. Staniforth 

Smith, 312 
Report on the Munnipore 

Political Agency, Annual, 

R. Brown, 286ft 3 
Resemblance of costume of 

Greek bride and nereid, 218 
Resignation of the King of 

Vatsa, the, 102 
Restoring dead to life, 80, 

Restrictions of clove cultiva- 
tion, Dutch, 96ft 2 
Result of demerits in former 

birth, the, 166; of pollution 

of desires when dying, 117, 

117ft 1 
Resuscitation of the devoted 

couple, 99 ; by magic, 80, 

Reunion of Naravahanadatta 

and Madanamanchuka, the, 

36 ; with wife through 

eating own child, 59, 59ft 2 
Review, The Classical, " On 

Plants of the Odyssey," 

R. M. Henry, 56ft 2 
Revue des Traditions Populaires 

[" Contes et Legendes de 

la Grece Ancienne "], R. 

Basset, August-September 

1910, 107ft 
Reward of generosity, the, 

130, 131 
Rhetoric, glory is white in 

Hindu, 73, 73*1* 
Rice, dish of a cooked child 

and, 59 
Rice-grains, mixed with 

water, chewing, 196ft ; 

produce power of spitting 

gold, 59, 59ft 3 , 60 
Richard II, Shakespeare, 

127ft 3 
Right eye, throbbing of, 173, 

173m 1 
Ring falls from speaking 

girl's mouth, golden, 59ft 3 ; 

from pot of boiling ghl, 

removing hot, 196ft 
Rites of the Twice-Born, The, 

Mrs S. Stevenson, 18, 277 
Ritual and Belief in Morocco, 

E. Westermarck, 100ft 
Rival of betel-chewing, the 

Virginian cigarette a, 319 
Roman castanets, 95m 1 
Romance of Betel-Chewing, 
The, Appendix II, 237- 


Romische Mythologie, L. 

Preller, 96ft 1 , 156ft 1 
Roots of the "Swan-Maiden" 

motif in Sanskrit literature, 

Rosary of Aksha beads, 23 
Rosenbl [J. Hammer], 227ft* 
Routes of the "Swan- 
Maiden" motif, migration, 

226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 

Royalty, five emblems of, 

Rubies, two magic grains of 

rice like, 60 
Ruby, one of the five jewels, 

Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 

Ralston, 56ft 1 , 57ft 2 , 227ft 5 

Sacred Books of the East 
Series, 71ft 2 

Sacred 5 of China, The, W. E. 
Geil, 248ft 3 

Sacred flowers, the five, 248ft ; 
libation, ordeal of, 195ft 3 , 
196ft; oil, Richard II 
anointed with, 88ft 1 ; thread 
ceremony, betel used at 
the, 276, 283 ; thread used 
for fastening up the betel 
creeper, 271 ; thread, in- 
vestiture with the, 2, 2ft 2 , 
139, 139ft 1 , 181, 181ft 1 ; 
thread ceremony, kinsuka 
tree used in the, 7ft 3 

Sacredness of the pan garden, 

Sacrifice, armed horsemen 
appearing from afire, 109ft 3 ; 
to water-spirit, betel 
"chew "in, 291 

Sacrifices, five great, 248ft 

Sacrificial thread . See Sacred 

Saffron, turmeric used as a 
substitute for, 18 

Sagas from the Far East, R. H. 
Busk, 59ft 3 

Sage named Akampana, 83- 
85 ; named Kasyapa, 104, 
106, 123-125, 131, 132; 
named Narada, 27, 79, 83, 
124, 186 

Sagen, Gebrauche und Marchen 
aus Westfalen, A. Kuhn, 
56ft 2 , 69ft 1 

Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche 
aus Meklenburg, K. Bartsch, 
56ft 2 


Sagen, Tierfabeln und Marchen, 
Volksdichtung aus Indonesien, 
T. J. Bezemer, 231ft* 

Salep in betel-chewing, use 
of, 244 

Salip missi, salep, 244 

Saliva in betel-chewing, ex- 
planation for the red, 315 ; 
produced by chewing betel, 
red, 258-262, 280 

Salted areca-nuts, use of, 303, 

Samoa a Hundred Years Ago, 
G. Turner, 232ft* 

Samodivas, Bulgarian nymphs, 

Sandalwood, 28 ; cool as, 116* 
116m- 1 ; ointment (unguent 
or juice), 5, 5ft 2 , 6, 6ft 1 , 22, 
168, 168ft 1 , 170, 171 

Sandalwood-tree, one of the 
jewels of an emperor, 68, 
68ft 2 , 69, 76 

Sanskrit College MS. of the 
K.S.S., 26ft 1 , 27ft 1 , 29ft, 
32ft 2 , 33ft 1 , 35ft 1 , 36ft 1 , 38ft 1 , 
40ft 1 , 41ft 1 , 45ft 1 , 60ft 2 , 67ft 1 , 
71ft 1 , 72ft 2 , 75ft 3 , 79/1 1 , 
81ft 1 - 2 , 88ft 2 , 89ft 1 , 91ft 1 , 
97ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 111ft 2 , 112ft 3 , 
115ft 1 , 117ft 2 , 118ft 2 , 127ft 2 , 
131ft 1 - 2 , 141ft 3 , 147ft 2 , 149ft 1 , 
157ft 1 , 158ft 1 , 160ft 2 , 161ft 1 , 
162ft 3 , 165ft 1 , 167ft 1 , 171ft 2 , 
174ft 1 , 176ft 1 , 180ft 1 , 186ft 1 - 2 , 
187ft 1 , 189ft 1 - 2 , 190ft 2 , 194ft 1 , 
195ft 2 , 205ft 2 , 207ft 1 - 2 , 208ft 1 

Sanskrit literature, roots of 
the " Swan-Maiden " motif 
in, 234 

Sanskrit names for betel, 238 

Sanskrit Drama, A. B. Keith, 
17ft 1 

Sanskrit Texts, Original, John 
Muir, 152ft 1 

Sapphire, one of the five 
jewels, 248ft 

Sarawak : its Inhabitants and 
Productions, H. Low, 298ft 1 

Satires, Horace, 99ft 2 

Satires, Moschus, 99ft 2 

Saying of the Prophet about 

dreams, 100ft 
Scandinavian Classics Series, 

221ft 1 
Scent perfuming a whole 

forest, Slta's, 44 
[Schbpfung und Siindenfall 
des ersten Me?ischenpaares] 
A. Wiinsche, vol. ii of Ex 
Orienle Lux, 117ft 2 



Science of dividing oneself 
into many forms, 92 ; of 
flying through the air, 26, 
27, 31, 34, 36, 46, 50, 52, 
55, 56, 59; named Praj- 
napti, 100, lOOn 1 , 102, 103 ; 
power of magic, 36, 37, 46, 
48, 49, 79 ; in visible shape, 
50, 52, 53 

Science of Fairy Tales, The, 
E. S. Hartland, 10 7ft, 
233ft 2 - 3 

Sciences, Vegavati obtains 
the, power of the, 25, 26 ; 
of the Vidyadharas, the, 

Scissors used in betel- 
chewing, 252, 253 

Sculptures, the Bharhut, 
129ft 1 

Sea, girl like a wave of the, 
13 ; swallowed by Agastya, 
the, 164, 164fti 

Sea Gypsies of Malaya, The, 
W. G. White, 287ft 1 

Sea - maiden, the classical 
nereid a, 218 

Search for Madanamanchuka, 
the, 24 

Seasonal deities, the three 
Ribhus, 19 

Second marriage ceremony, 
the, 25; night-watch, fulfil- 
ment of dreams in the, 

Seed (nut) of the Areca catechu, 
one of the three necessary 
ingredients in betel- 
chewing, 238 

Self - mortification of Nara- 
vahanadatta, the, 48 

Sellers, caste of betel-vine, 
270, 273, 282 

Sema Nagas, The, J. H. 
Hutton, 284ft 1 

Semi-sacrediness of areca- 
palms, 270 

Separation, death caused by, 
98, 116 ; the torture of, 5, 
6, 24, 112, 116, 165, 167, 
170, 171 

Serpent-creeper, or Nagbel, 
the betel-vine, 274 

Serpents, Vasuki, the king of 
the, 274ft 1 

Seven hells, Rasatala, one 
of the, 162, 162ft 1 ; jewels 
of an emperor, the, 71, 
71ft 2 ; kinds of betel leaves, 
265 ; palm-trees with one 
arrow, Rama cleaves, 44 

Seventeen Years among the 
Sea Dyaks of Borneo, E. H. 
Gomes, 231ft 9 

Severe asceticism, child 
practising, 145 

Shafts of Kama, the five, 3 

Shans at Home, L. Mills, 
286ft 4 

Shape, science in visible, 
50, 52, 53 

Shapes of areca-nut cutters, 
various, 250, 251; assuming 
animal, 79, 80, 80ft 1 ; by 
magic power, change of, 

Shells, lime for betel-chewing 
made from, 238, 242, 258, 
261, 269, 284, 285, 311, 

Shepherd stealing the ker- 
chief of a nereid, 218, 219 

Shrine of the goddess Durga, 
54 ; of Mahakala, the, 120, 

Siam, W. A. Graham, 289ft 2 

Siam, a Handbook, A. W. 
Graham, 288ft 1 

Siam in the Twentieth Century, 
J. G. D. Campbell, 289ft 2 

Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, 
C. F. Coxwell, 59ft 3 , 227ft 5 , 

228ft*' 6 ' 7 

Sici li anise h e M'drchen, L. 

Gonzenbach, 59ft 3 
Sickness, betel and areca 

used for curing, 282,294 
Siddhi-Kur, Kalmukische 

Marchen. Die M'drchen des, 

B. Jiilg, 59ft 3 
Sigfrid, F. Panzer, 107ft 
Sign of mourning for absent 

husband, 34, 36, 36ft 2 
Significance of exchanging 

betel, 283; of white 

umbrella, 191ft 2 
Silk thread, betel " chew " 

tied with a, 266, 270 
Silver coins produced by a 

horse, 59ft 3 
Simile of an asoka tree, 7ft 4 ; 

of beauty, 13; of waves, 

Similes of Siva, 42 
Singhalese name for betel, 

Single lock of Madanaman- 
chuka, the, 34, 36, 36ft 2 
Sinhalese Art, Mediaeval, A. K. 

Coomaraswamy, 251, 252ft 6 
Sirens not to be mistaken for 

swan-maidens, 217 


Six months to come 

dreams taking, 100ft 
Sizes of implements used in 

betel-chewing, 250-252 
Skill of music of Gandharva- 

datta, the wonderful, 28, 29 
Skin, one of the five beauties 

of woman, 248ft 
Sky, connection between 

twins and the, 225 
Sky-going elephants, the 

two, 177, 180, 181 
Sky quarters, elephants of 

the, 75, 76, 108ft 1 
Sleep, power of magic lost 

in, 25, 25ft 2 
Smearing with betel-juice to 

avert evil spirits, 292 ; 

bride with turmeric at 

wedding, 18, 281 
Smell of wild elephants, 

elephant maddened by 

the, 8 
Smiles, according to Hindu 

rhetoric, white, 171, 171ft 1 
Smithsonian Institute, Annual 

Report of the Bureau of 

Ethnology of the, 228ft 8 . 

For details see under 

Annual Report . . . 
Snail shells, lime made from, 

284, 285 
Snake, nereid changing into 

a, 219; rewards given to 

King Udayana for rescuing 

a, 237 
Snake-bites, cardamom used 

for, 96ft 1 ; do not occur 

among betel-vine growers, 

Snakes, thief's home like the 

city of the, 119, 119ft 2 
Social and Political Systems 

of Central Polynesia, The, 

R. W. Williamson, 310ft 1 
Societe Finno - ougrienne, 

Memoires de la, 228ft 3 
Societe Musulmane du Maghrib, 

Magie et Religion dans 

VAfrique du Nord, La, 

E. Doutte, 100ft 
" Soldier's Midnight Watch, 

The," Russian Folk-1'ales, 

W. R. S. Ralston, 56ft 1 
Solomon Islands and their 

Natives, The, H. B. Guppy, 


Solstice, the festival of the 
winter, 12, 12ft 1 ; Note on 
the Festival of the Winter, 

Son Avt 

Son Avantivardhana, Story 
of King Palaka and his, 
106, 110-112, 114-115, 118, 

Songs of Celebes, areca-nuts 
mentioned in the love, 
200 ; of Haha and Huhu, 
the, 162 

Sons, Taravaloka, giving away 
his own, 128, 129 

" Soul, External," motif, the, 
106ft 2 , 107ft 

South Kensington Museum, 
specimens of Eastern 
castanets at the, 95ft 1 

South, Yama, guardian of the, 
163ft 1 

Southern China, betel- 
chewing in, 303-306; 
division of the Vidyadhara 
territory, the, 47, 48; 
India, Use of Betel in, 

Spatula for applying the lime 
in betel-chewing, 249, 250, 

^ 252, 253, 254, 313, 317 

Speaking, gold ring falls 
from girl's mouth when, 
59ft 3 

Special Part of Body, Life in 
("External Soul" motif), 
^ 107ft 

Species of betel-vine, various, 
272, 273 

Specimens of Eastern casta- 
nets at the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, 95ft 1 ; of 
implements used in betel- 
chewing, 250, 251, 252 

Spellings of betel, various 
English, 239, 239ft 1 

" Spice islands," early travels 
to the, 96ft 2 

Spices, H. N. Ridley, 18, 96ft 2 , 

Spielmannsbuch, W. Hertz, 
117ft 2 

Spirits, methods of averting 
evil, 292; prognostication 
from elevated or depressed, 
99, 99ft 1 

Spitting betel-juice on a per- 
son, insult of, 237, 257; 
gold produced by eating 
two rice-grains, power of, 
59, 59ft 3 , 60 ; turmeric to 
avert evil spirits, 292 

Spittle coloured red by betel- 
chewing, 258-262, 280 ; 
turning to gold, 59ft 3 ; used 
as a charm, sirih, 294 


porcelain or 

Spittoons of 
silver, 268 

Spoon for applying the lime 
in betel-chewing, 249, 250, 
252, 253 

Spread of the custom of 
betel-chewing, 248-249 ; of 
the " Swan-Maiden" motif, 
216-219, 227, 228, 231, 232 

Spring festival, the day of 
the, 98 

Sprinkling with water, 85ft 1 , 
87, 90, 90ft 1 , 130 

Square shape of betel-bags, 

Starting-place of the migrat- 
ing " Swan-Maiden " motif, 
India as the, 226, 228, 231, 

Statistica Account of Assam, A, 
W. W. Hunter, 284ft* 

Stealing the clothes of bath- 
ing Braj girls, Krishna, 
214, 215; the clothes 'of 
a nymph, 58, 58ft 2 , 218; 
the crown or wreath from 
a z&na, 219 ; the plumage 
of a goose, 229 ; the plum- 
ages of eight sisters, king, 

Stem of the kinsuka tree used 
in investing with the sacred 
thread, 7ft 3 

Stolen Marriage, The, Mdlatl 
and Mddhava, or, 17ft 1 

Stone, lime for betel-chewing 
made from, 313, 314 

Stones, the Khartals, Indian 
castanet of, 95ft 1 ; produced 
by combing hair, precious, 
59ft 3 

Stories, Buddhist Birth, T. W. 
Rhys Davids, 135ft 2 

Story of Aschenkatze in 
Basile's II Pentamerone, the, 
69W 1 ; of the Child and the 
Sweetmeat, 35 ; of the De- 
voted Couple Surasena and 
Sushena, 97, 97ft 2 , 98, 99; 
of King Brahmadatta and 
the Swans, 133, 133ft 2 , 134- 
of King Palaka and his 
Son Avantivardhana, 106, 
110-112, 114-115, 118, 120- 
122 ; of a man who married 
a wild goose, Greenlandic, 
228-231; of Medea, the, 
109ft 1 ; of the origin of the 
betel-vine, 274 ; of Psyche, 
25ft 1 ; of Rama, 44, 44ft 1 , 


Story cont. 

45 ; of Savitrl and Angiras, 
22-23 ; about the shepherd 
and the nereid, 218, 219; 
of Gypsy origin, "Swan- 
Maiden," 219; of Tarava- 
loka, 125-131; of Urvasi 
and Pururavas, the, 216 

Studien zur germanischen Sagen- 
geschichte, I, Der Valkyrien- 
mythus, W. Golther, 
AbkandL d. Munch. Akad., 
224ft 1 

Studier over svanjungfrumotivet 
i Volundarkmda och annor- 
stcides, H. Holmstrom, 217, 
217ft 2 , 218, 218ft 1 , 223ft 3 , 
226, 227ft 1 

Studies about the Kathasarit- 
sagara, J. S. Speyer, 16ft, 
31ft 1 , 37ft 1 , 60ft 2 , 63ft 1 - 2 , 
87ft 2 , 91ft 2 

Substitute for areca-nuts 
among Naga tribes, 286; 
for betel leaves, Bakek 
used as a, 247 ; for saffron, 
turmeric used as a, 18 ; for 
wine in India, betel as a 
(Sherif), 256 

Substituted Madanaman- 
chuka, the, 24, 25 

Substitutes for betel leaves, 
289, 290 

Substitution of infant, 87, 
87ft 1 

Sugar, one of the five nectars, 

Summer solstice, mistake for 
winter solstice, 12ft 1 

Sun, the discus of Vishnu, 
symbol of the, 72ft; the 
nymph of the eastern 
quarter, the, 32 

Sun-worship connected with 
the colours red and yellow, 

Supernatural powers, 57, 59, 

Superstition of curing sick- 
ness, betel in, 282 

Superstitions connected with 
the betel-garden, 273 

Supplanted bride, the, 12- 

Sushruta Samhita, An English 
Translation of the, K. K. L. 
Bhishagratna, 96ft 1 , 255ft 1 

Swahili Tales, E. Steere, 
227ft 10 

Swallow- wort, the giant, Calo- 
tropis gigantea, 96ft 5 



tf Swan- Maiden " motif, the, 
57ft 2 ; Motif, The, Appen- 
dix I, 213-234; in classical 
mythology, no examples 
of, 217, 218; conclusions 
to the, 234 ; Greenlandic 
version of the, 228-231; 
Gypsy variant of the, 219 ; 
incidents in the, 213; 
migration routes of the, 
226, 227, 228, 231, 232, 
234; not of European 
origin, 226 ; origin of the, 
217, 234; spread of the, 
216-219; 227, 228, 231, 
232 ; in Teutonic legends, 
219-221, 222-226; various 
interpretations of the, 232, 

Swan-maidens, different in- 
terpretations of, 232, 
232ft 8 , 233, 233ft 12 - 3 ; and 
Valkyries, connection 
between, 223, 224 ; in the 
Volundarkvitha, the three, 

" Swan - Maidens," M. E. 
Seaton, Hastings' Ency. 
Rel. Eth., 219ft 1 

Swans, the chariot of, 151, 
152 ; like waving chowries, 
64 ; Story of King Brah- 
madatta and the, 133, 
133ft 2 , 134-136, 138, 142- 
143, 144, 209 ; in Teutonic 
legends, 219, 219ft 1 ; trans- 
formation into, 142 

Sweetmeat, Story of the Child 
and the, 35 

Swinging on an elephant, 
amusement of, 111 

Sword named Invincible, 154, 

^ 154ft 2 

Sword-jewel, one of the jewels 
of an emperor, 71, 76 

Symbol of love, the asoka tree 
a, 7n 4 ; of the sun, the 
discus of Vishnu, a, 72ft 

Syrische Sagen und Maerchen, 
E. Prym and A. Socin, 57ft 2 . 
See also under Prym, E. 

Taboo before marriage, betel- 
chewing regarded as, 280, 
281 ; losing wife through 
breaking a, 213, 216; 
nuptial, 25, 25ft 1 ; the swan- 
maiden regarded as, 233, 
233ft 3 , 234 ; for widows in 
mourning, betel-chewing a, 
311, 312 

Taboo " or " Forbidden 

Chamber " motif, the, 57, 

57ft 1 
Tale of Aristomenes in the 

Golden Ass, 56ft 1 ; in the 

Nights, the longest, 93ft 2 
Tales and Fictions, Popular, 

W. A. Clouston, 227ft 2 
Tales of Old Japan, A. B. 

Mitford, 231ft 4 
Tales, The Science of Fairy, 

E. S. Hartland, 107ft, 

233ft 2 - 3 
Tales, Swahili, E. Steere, 

227ft 10 
Tales, Tibetan, W. R. S. 

Ralston and F. A. von 

Schiefner, 69ft 1 , 83ft 1 , 125ft 1 , 

228ft 1 
Tales and Traditions of the 

Eskimo, H. Rink, 228ft 9 
Tales, Traditions and Histories 

of the Zulus, Nursery, C. 

Callaway, 227ft 10 
Tali-tying ceremony among 

Chaliyan caste, betel in, 

277, 283 
Tambuldar or Xarabdar, 

presenters of betel, 244 
Tamil words for betel, 238, 

T'ang shu, the history of 

T'ang, 303 
Teeth discoloured by betel- 
chewing, 259, 260, 261, 

286, 301 
Te Ika A Maui; or New 

Zealand and its Inhabitants, 

R. Taylor, 232ft 7 
Telugu names for betel, 238, 

Temple decoration, flowers 

of asoka trees used for, 

7ft 4 ; of Durga, 60; of 

the Mothers, the, 11 ; of 

Parvati called Meghavana, 

157, 159; of Siva, 55, 57 
Temples and Elephants, Carl 

Bock, 288ft 2 , 289ft 1 
Ten days, dreams fulfilled 

within, 100ft 
Tenderness of the betel-vine, 

270, 271ft 2 
Terres et Peuples de Sumatra, 

O. J. A. Collet, 294 
Territory, two divisions of the 

Vidyadhara, 47, 48, 80, 89 
Test, the musical, 29 
Teutonic legends, swans and 

swan -maidens in, 219, 
219ft 1 , 220 

Text Bookon Indian A gricultu? 
J. Molliron, 318ft 1 

Theories about interpretatioi 
of the swan-maidens, dif- 
ferent, 232, 232ft 8 , 233, 
233ft 1 - 2 - 3 

Thief is led to execution, 
drum beaten when, 119 ; 
The Merchant's Daughter 
who fell in Love with a, 
118, 118ft 1 , 119, 120 

Thief's home like the city of 
the snakes, 119 

Third night-watch, fulfilment 
of dreams in the, 100ft 

Thirteen qualities of betel, 
the (Hitopadesa) , 254 

Thought, appearance by, 100 

Thousand Nights and a Night, 
The. See under Nights 

Thousands of years, practising 
austerities for, 147 

Thread, betel "chew" tied 
with a silk, 266, 270 ; Brah- 
manical, 16 ; ceremony, 
betel used at the sacred, 
276, 283 ; ceremony, kin- 
suka tree used at the sacred, 
7ft 3 ; investiture with the 
sacrificial, 2, 2ft 2 , 139, 139ft 1 , 
181, 181ft 1 ; in marriage 
ceremonies, turmeric-dyed, 
277 ; used for fastening up 
the betel-vine, sacred, 271 

Three altars discovered at 
Housesteads (Northumber- 
land), 224, 224ft 3 , 225; 
aromatic drugs, the, 96ft 1 ; 
ingredients necessary in 
betel-chewing,238; months 
to come true, dreams 
taking, 100ft ; nights, fights 
with witches for, 55, 56, 
56ft 1 ; Ribhus, the, 19; 
times, Siva circumambu- 
lated, 86 ; times, know- 
ledge of the, 57, 57ft 3 ; 
times, temple of Siva cir- 
cumambulated, 200, 200ft 1 ; 
watches of the night, 78, 
78ft 1 ; wavelike wrinkles, 
waist with, 158, 158ft 2 , 

Three-eyed god, the, Siva, 
75, 116 

Threshold of the Pacific, The, 
C. E. Fox, 316ft 1 

Throbbing of right eye, 173, 

Through Central Borneo, C. 
Lumholtz, 298ft 1 

irough New Guinea and the 
Cannibal Countries, H. 
Cayley- Webster, 317ft 1 
Tibetan Talcs, W. R. S. 
Ralston and F. A. von 
Schiefner^ft 1 , 83ft 1 , 125ft 1 , 
228ft 1 

Time, varying measures of, 
78ft 1 

Times, knowledge of the 
three, 57, 57ft 3 ; temple of 
Siva circumambulated 
three, 200, 200ft 1 

" Tip," betel used as our, 

Tobacco smoked after eating 
betel, 274 ; used in betel- 
chewing, 284, 286, 287, 
289, 290, 294, 295 

Tone of castanets improve 
with age, the, 95ft 1 

Tools used in betel-chewing, 

Topaz, one of the five jewels, 

Torture of separation, the, 5, 
6, 24, 112, 116, 165, 167, 
170, 171 

Totem, the Swan - Maiden 
regarded as a, 233, 233ft 2 , 

Totemism and Exogamy, J. G. 
Frazer, 233ft 2 

T'oung pao. Archives pour 
servir d I 'etude de Phistoire 
. . . de PAsie orientate 
["Melange s Aus dem 
Wakan Sansai Dzuye "], 
F. W. K. Miiller, Leiden, 
1895, 231ft 3 - 4 

Trade, history of the clove, 
96ft 2 

Tradition, earliest evidence of 
the Valkyrie, 224, 224ft 3 , 

Traditions Populaires, Revue 
des, 107ft. For details see 
under Revue des . . . 

Transactions of the Ethnological 
Society of London [" On 
the Wild Tribes of the 
North-West Coast of 
Borneo"], Bishop of 
Labuen, 231ft 9 

Transformation, animal, 79, 
80, 80ft 1 , 229, 230 

Transformations according to 
a curse, 140-142 

Translations and editions of 
Garcia da Orta's Coloquios 
. . ., various, 240ft 1 , 245 


Transportation, instant- 
aneous, 57, 57ft 2 

Traumschliissel des Jagaddeva, 
Der, J. von Negelein, 100ft 

Travellers to India (1225- 
1800), accounts of betel- 
chewing, by, 255-270 

Travelling through the air, 
26, 27, 31, 34, 36, 46, 50, 
52, 55, 56, 59, 61, 69, 72, 
89, 121, 131, 173, 206, 223, 

Travels in India, Early, W. 
Foster, 266ft 3 

Travels in India by Jean 
Baptiste Tavemier, V. Ball, 
295ft 2 

Travels of Ludovico di 
Varthema, G. P. Badger, 
96ft 2 , 258ft 1 

Travels in the Mogul Empire 
. . . by Francois Bernier, 
V. A. Smith, 267ft 3 

Travels of Pedro Teixeira, 
The, W. F. Sinclair, 259ft 2 

Travels of Peter Mundy, R. C. 
Temple, 266ft 6 , 267ft 2 

Travels of Pietro della Valle to 
India, The, E. Grey, 266ft* 

Trays used in betel-chewing, 
250, 252, 282, 283, 289, 

Treachery, Angaravati's, 109, 
109ft 2 

Tree, asoka, 7, 7ft 4 , 24, 96, 
96ft 4 , 206 ; banyan-, 6, 11 ; 
cardamom-, 96, 96ft 1 ; 
clove-, 96, 96ft 2 ; Kadam-, 
214; kinsuka, 7, 7ft 3 ; and 
own body, gift of wishing-, 
124, 124ft 1 ; pala, 277; 
parijata, 170, 172, 186; 
sandalwood-, one of the 
jewels of an emperor, 68, 
68ft 2 , 69 ; tapincha, 7, 7ft 2 ; 
vakula, 96, 96ft 2 ; worship, 
69, 69ft 1 

Trees, Danavas concealing 
themselves by magic in, 
185 ; the five leaves of, 
247ft 2 ; of paradise, five, 
Trembling caused by joy, 
94, 94ft 1 

Tribes of Borneo, The Pagan, 
C. Hose and W. McDougall, 
296ft 1 

Tribes and Castes of Bengal, 
The, H. H. Risley, 271ft 1 

Tribes and Castes of Bombay, 
The, R. E. Enthoven, 274 


Tribes and Castes of the 

Central Provinces of India, 

The, R. V. Russell, 19, 


Tribes and Castes, Hindu, M. A. 

Sheering, 270ft 2 
Tribes and Castes of the North- 
Western Provinces and Oudh, 
The, W. Crooke, 270, 270ft 1 
Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's 
Dominions, The Castes and, 
S. S. Ul Hassan, 274, 275 
Tribes of Southern India, 
Castes and, E. Thurston, 
109ft 3 , 112ft 1 , 275, 275ft 1 - 2 
Tribes of Southern India, 
uses of betel among the, 
Trick of the bawd, the, 60 
Trident- bearing god, the, 

Siva, 74 
Tropical Agriculturist, ** The 
Areca Nut in Ceylon," vol. 
lxii, 1924, 318ft 1 ; Betel 
Vine Cultivation," vol. lxiii, 
1924, 318ft 1 
True dreams, 99, 99ft 2 , 100, 

Truest dreams occur at day- 
break, the, lOOw 
Truth, the act of, 189, 190, 

190ft 1 
Tshi-speaking People of the 
Gold Coast of West Africa, 
The, A. B. Ellis, 227ft 9 
Tunisische Marche?i, und Ge- 

dichte, H. Stumme, 227ft 6 
Turkische Marchen, Billur 

Kbschk, T. Menzel, 107ft 
Turkische Volksm'drchen aus 

Stambul, I. Kunos, 227ft 4 
Turmeric to avert evil spirits, 
spitting, 292 ; Note on the 
Use of, 18 ; used in all im- 
portant Hindu ceremonies, 
18, 277 ; used at puberty 
ceremonies, 283 ; at wed- 
dings, smearing, 18, 277, 
Turquoise-spitting, 59ft 3 
T ( u Shu Chi Cheng, Chinese 

encyclopaedia, 304 
Twins and the sky, connec- 
tion between, 225 
Two castes connected with 
betel in India, 270, 271; 
divisions of the Vidyadhara 
territory, 47, 48, 80, 89; 
forms of modern Indian 
castanets, 95ft 1 ; grains of 
rice produce power of 



Two continued 

spitting gold, 59, 59m 3 , 60 ; 

varieties of cardamom, 96m. 1 
Type of the " Swan- Maiden " 

motif , the standard, 213 

Ueber Areca Catechu, Chavica 
Betle und das Betelkauen, 
L. Lewin, 237m 1 , 315m 1 

Umbrellas broken, the state, 
an evil omen, 156, 156m 1 ; 
white, 191, 191m 2 

Uncleanliness of the left 
hand, 302, 302m 1 

Unexplored New Guinea, W. N. 
Beaver, 313m 2 

Ungarische Revue [" Osman- 
ische Volksmarchen "], 
I. Kunos, vol. viii, Leip- 
zig, 1888, 227m 4 

Unguent at coronation cere- 
mony, smearing with, 87, 

Unguents, yellow, 7, 7m 1 

Unhusked rice-grains mixed 
with water, chewing, 196m 

Unknown New Guinea, In, 
W. V. Saville, 314m 1 

Unnatural births, 113, 114m 1 

Unter Kopfj'dgern in Central- 
Celebes, A. Grubauer, 299m 1 , 

" Use of Saffron and Turmeric 
in Hindu Marriage Cere- 
monies," K. R. Kirtikar, 
Journ. Anth. Soc. Bombay, 

" Use of Turmeric in Hindoo 
Ceremonial, On the," W. 
Dymock, Journ. Anth. Soc. 
Bombay, 18 

Use of Turmeric, Note on 
the, 18 

Useful Plants of the Island of 
Guam, The, W. E. SafFord, 
308m 2 , 309m 1 - 2 

Uses of the giant swallow- 
wort, various, 96m 5 ; of the 
kinsuka tree, various, 7m 3 ; 
of the vakula tree, 96m 3 

Valkyrie tradition, earliest 
evidence of the, 224, 224m 3 , 

Valkyrienmythus Der, W. 
Golther, Abhandl. d. "Munch. 
Akad., 224m 1 

Valkyries, origin of the, 224- 
226 ; original number of 
the, 225 ; dual function of 

Valkyries continued 

the, 225, 226; and swan- 
maidens, connection be- 
tween, 221, 223, 224; in 
the V'dlundarkvitha, the 
three, 221-223 

"Valkyries, The," A. H. 
Krappe, Modern Language 
Review, 224m 2 , 225m 3 , 226m 1 

Variants of the 'Swan- 
Maiden" motif, 216, 218, 
218m 1 , 219, 227, 228, 231, 

Varieties of areca-nuts, 303, 
304; of betel-vine, 272, 
273 ; of cardamom, 96m 1 

Variety of the jewels of the 
Chakravartin, 72m 

Various editions and trans- 
lations of Garcia da Orta's 
Coloquios . . ., 240m 1 , 245 ; 
kinds of areca-nuts, 303, 
304 ; kinds of betel leaves, 
265 ; names for betel and 
areca, 238, 239, 303, 308m 3 

Varthema, Travels of Ludovico 
di, G. P. Badger, 96m 2 , 
258m 1 

Veil from a nymph, stealing 
the, 218 

Velikorusskija skazki, J. A. 
Chudjakov, 227m 5 

Verandah in New Guinea, From 
my, H. Romilly, 232m 2 

Vernacular names of betel, 
238, 239 

" Verschenkten Lebensjahre, 
Die," Marchen des Mittel- 
alters, A. Wesselski, 117m 2 

Versions of the "Swan- 
Maiden " motif, various, 
216, 218, 218m 1 , 219, 227, 
228, 231, 232 

Verzeichnis der Bbhmischen 
Marchen, V. Tille, 107m 

View about morning-dreams, 
classical, 99m 2 

Vilas, Serbian nymphs, 218 

Virtues of areca-nuts, the 
four, 304 

Visible shape, science in, 50, 

Vital point situated in left 
hand, 109, 109m 3 , 110 

Voice from heaven, 30, 85, 
87, 116, 117, 149, 153, 

V olksdichtung aus Indonesien, 
T. J. Bezemer, 231m 8 

Volkskunde, Zur, F. Liebrecht, 
233m 1 

Volkslitteratur der Turkischen 
St'dmme Slid- Sibiriens, Proben 
der, W. Radloff, 107m, 228m 2 

Volks- und Menschenkunde, 
Allerlei aus, A. Bastian, 
232m 3 

V'dlundarkvitha, the, or " Lay 
of Wayland," one of the 
Eddie poems, 220-223, 226 

Voyage of the Argonauts, The, 
J. R. Bacon, 109m 

Voyage of Francois Leguat, 
The, Pasfield Oliver, 295m 1 

Voyage of Francois Pyrard of 
Laval, The, A. Gray, 266m 1 

Voyage of John Huyghen van 
Linschoten to the East Indies, 
The, A. C. Burnell and 
P. A. Tiele, 259m 3 

Voyage Round the World, A 
New, William Dampier, 
301m 1 

Voyages and Discoveries, 
' William Dampier, 302 

Voyages . . . of the English 
Nation, Principal Naviga- 
tions . . ., R. Hakluyt, 
259m 1 

Vulgar Errors or Pseudodoxia 
Epidemica, Sir Thomas 
Browne, 75m 1 , 156m 1 , 195m 1 

Vulnerable point in left hand, 
only, 109, 109m 3 , 110 

Vultures as evil omens, 156, 
156m 1 ; transformation into, 

Waist with three wavelike 
wrinkles, 158, 158m 2 , 159m 

Wall, Hadrian's, 224 

Wanderings round Lake 
Superior, Kitchi-Gami: J. G. 
Kohl, 228m 8 

War, the God of, 180; the 
Valkyries deities of, 224, 

Warmth of betre (Garcia da 
Orta), 242 

Watches of the night, fulfil- 
ment of dreams in different, 
100m; of the night, the 
three, 78, 78m 1 

Water, festival called the 
giving of, 106, 110, 111; 
on the hands, pouring, 129, 
129m 1 ; the offering of, 101, 
103 ; of ordeal, to drink 
the, 195, 195m 3 ; the ordeal 
of, 196m ; sprinkling with, 
85m 1 , 87, 90, 90m 1 , 130 


Water-spirit, betel " chew " 
offered to a, 291 

Wave of the sea, girl like a, 

Wavelike wrinkles, waist 
with three, 158, 158ft 2 , 159ft 

Waves, simile of, 7 

Waving chowries, swans like, 

"Wayland, Lay of," the 
Volundarkvitha of, one of 
the Eddie poems, 220 

Ways of eating areca-nuts, 
different, 306 

WealthjLakshmi, the Goddess 
of, 274 ; the poison-tree of, 

Weapon of Brahma, the, 145, 
146, 174 ; Ornament or 
other Object, Life in, 
107ft ; of Pasupati (Rudra), 
the, 145, 146, 179, 183, 

Weather and fertility, Val- 
kyries connected with, 225 

Wedding ceremonies, betel 
in, 273, 276, 277, 281, 283, 
289, 290, 293, 295, 296, 
297, 303, 304, 306, 309, 316 

Week, Once a, " Antiquity of 
the Castanet," Soy Yo, 
vol. viii, 1863, 95ft 1 

West Irish Folk-Tales, W. 
Larminie, 107ft 

West, Varuna, guardian of 
the, 108m 1 ,' 163ft 1 

Westerner, the effects of 
betel-chewing on a, 268 

Westfalen, Sagen, Gebr'duche 
und Mdrchen cms, A. Kuhn, 
56ft 2 , 69ft 1 

Westminster Review, " Eating 
or Chewing of Pan," G. A. 
Stephens, vol. clxviii, New 
York, August 1907, 318ft 1 

White cloud, the swan- 
maiden interpreted as a, 
232, 232ft 8 ; glory in Hindu 
rhetoric, 73, 73ft 1 ; smiles 
in Hindu rhetoric, 171, 


White continued 

171ft 1 ; umbrellas, 191, 
191ft 2 

Wide spread of the Swan- 
Maiden " motif, 216 

Widows of Brahmans for- 
bidden to use betel, 276, 
283 ; curious custom of 
remarriage of, 273; in 
mourning, betel- chewing 
regarded as taboo for, 311, 

Wife given away by husband, 
only, 129 

Wife-jewel, one of the jewels 
of an emperor, 71, 71ft 2 

Wind-god, the, 148, 149, 156, 
160, 160ft 1 

Wine made from betel-juice, 
304 ; replaced by betel in 
India (Sherif), 256 

Wings of swans tipped with 
emerald, 135, 135ft 2 

Winking, power of, 8, 8ft 2 

Winter solstice, the festival 
of the, 12, 12ft 1 ; Solstice, 
Note on the Festival of 
the, 19-20 

Wishing-tree and own body, 
gift of, 124, 124ft 1 

Witches, fights with, 55 ; 
herbs protecting man from, 
56, 56ft 2 

Woman, the five beauties of, 
248ft; ordealof the adulter- 
ous (in Numbers), 196ft 

Wonderful beauty, the foot 
of, 33 ; brown cow, the, 55 ; 
garden, the, 169, 170 

Words used in betel-chewing, 
etymological evidence of, 

Worship of the deity of betel 
cultivation, 271 ; of Kala- 
ratri, Naravahanadatta's, 
77, 78 ; of trees, 69, 69ft 1 

Wreath or crown of a z&na, 
stealing the, 219 

Wrinkles, waist with three 
wavelike, 158, 158ft 2 , 159ft 


Xarabdar or Tambuldar, 
presenters of betel, 244 

Year to come true, dreams 
taking a, 100ft 

Yellow, from adoring the fire, 
turning, 33; and red con- 
nected with sun-worship, 
the colours, 18 ; unguents, 
7, 7ft 1 

Young Chandala who married 
the Daughter of King 
Prasenajit, The, 112, 112ft*, 
113, 114 

Young Fisherman who 
married a Princess, The, 

Younger Edda, the, Snorri 
Sturluson, 220 

Youth, one of the five 
beauties of woman, 248ft 

Zanas, Rumanian nymphs, 

Zeitschrift der deidschen mor- 
genl'dndischen Gesellschaft, 
" Die t Geschichten des 
toten No-rub-can," A. H. 
Fran eke, vol.lxxiv, Leipzig, 
1921, 59ft 3 

Zeitschrift des Vereins fur 
Volkskunde [" Die undank- 
bare Gattin "J, G. Paris, 
vol. xiii, Berlin, 1903, 
117ft 2 ; ["Zur neugriech- 
ischen Volkskunde "], A. 
Thumb, vol. ii, Berlin, 
1892, 117ft 2 

Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie 
[" Einige Bemerkungen 
iiber Musik . . . der Yap- 
leute "], Dr Born, vol. 
xxxv, Berlin, 1903, 232ft 3 

Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende 
Sprachforschung [" Amor 
und Psyche"], F. Lieb- 
recht, vol. xviii, Berlin, 
1896, 232ft 7 

Zur Volkskunde, F. Liebrecht, 
233ft 1 

vol. vm, 


Printed in Great Britain 

by The Riverside Press Limited 




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