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Full text of "The ocean of story, being C.H. Tawney's translation of Somadeva's Katha sarit sagara (or Ocean of streams of story)"


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VOL. IX 



THE 
OCEAN OF STORY 



t OC\VlT>V\ 



THE 



OCEAN OF STORY 



BEING 



G. H. TAWNEY'S TRANSLATION 



OP 



SOMADEVA'S KATHA SARIT SAGARA 



\* 



(OR OCEAN OP STREAMS OF STORY) 



NOW EDITED WITH INTRODUCTION, FRESH 

EXPLANATORY NOTES AND TERMINAL ESSAY 

BY 

N. M. PENZER, M.A., F.R.G.S., F.G.S. 

MEMBER OF THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY ; FELLOW OF THE 

ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE; MEMBER 

OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, ETC. 

AUTHOR OF 

"AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SIR RICHARD FRANCIS 

BURTON," ETC. 



IN TEN VOLUMES 



VOL. IX 



WITH A FOREWORD BY 

Sir ATUL CHATTERJEE 

HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR INDIA 






S*t 




LONDON: PRIVATELY PRINTED FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY 
BY CHAS. J. SAWYER LTD., GRAFTON HOUSE, W.l. MCMXXVlll 



Made and Printed in Great Britain 



FOREWORD 

WHEN Mr Penzer honoured me with an invitation 
to write a Foreword to the ninth volume of this 
admirable work, I felt that it would be foolish pre- 
sumption on my part to attempt to add to the learned and 
fascinating studies on different aspects of the Ocean of Story 
that have been contributed to the previous volumes by 
scholars of eminence and authority. But it may not perhaps 
be unwelcome to the Western or Eastern reader of the Ocean 
to consider for a while the influence which must have been 
exercised by this unique and marvellous collection of stories 
on the culture and ideas of the people for whom they were 
primarily strung together. It may also be worth while to 
examine the evidence afforded by it of life and society in 
India at a most interesting and elusive period of its history, 
a century before the establishment of a Muslim Kingdom at 
Delhi. 



It is a well-known, but none the less remarkable, fact that 
for the Hindu there is no code or compendium either for 
religious dogma or for moral conduct. There is nothing of 
final authority to guide him like the Ten Commandments, 
the Gospels or the Qur'dn. The Vedas contain little in the 
way of definite and concrete rules of belief and conduct, and, 
at the best, the teaching of the Vedas could have been familiar 
only to a microscopic minority of the population of India. 
The term " Sastras " is a generic expression which may be 
said to embrace the entire non-secular literature of Sanskrit ; 
individual works included in the term Sastras have possessed 
authority only at different times, in different parts of India 
and among different sections of the population. We must 
also remember that until recently only an insignificant pro- 
portion of the people were able to read or write even the 
spoken vernaculars, and that in the climate of the country 



vi THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the preservation of manuscripts is an arduous task. In these 
peculiar circumstances, the ethical and spiritual culture of 
the masses could be maintained only by the spoken word, and 
what better vehicle was there for the necessary teaching than 
tales embodying in a concrete form both religious principles 
and rules of conduct ? The adoption of the story as a medium 
of religious and moral instruction had the further advantage 
that the characters and incidents could be varied according 
to the rank or culture of the audience which represented 
people in all stages of civilisation, from the aboriginal tribes 
to the courtly and warlike Kshatriya and the priestly Brah- 
man of pure descent. These " stories with a moral " were 
woven into the history of mythical and epic gods and heroes, 
and thus obtained wide currency. They could not in any 
sense be described as the composition or the property of 
any one author or writer. They were altered or adapted to 
suit the reciter or the listeners and the particular occasion. 
Infinite variations of a story would therefore be current simul- 
taneously, but the framework and the moral would remain 
much the same in all versions. Even thirty years ago the 
Kaihak (literally " story-teller ") was a familiar figure in the 
villages of northern and eastern India. His services would 
be requisitioned for one evening, or for a fortnight, or even 
for a whole season, either through the piety and generosity 
of a wealthy patron (often a lady), or by subscriptions raised 
among the residents of a village or circle of hamlets. A 
popular Kaihak? s clientele extended to all districts where the 
same language was spoken. He was commissioned to relate 
sometimes the whole of the Rdmdyana or the Mahdbhdrata 
or a Purdna, or sometimes only a striking episode appropriate 
to the season or the occasion. In reciting the history of the 
hero, the Kaihak never hesitated to bring in extraneous or 
subsidiary stories by way of illustration or for purposes of 
diversion. For, though his main object was to instruct, he could 
not hope to do so without amusing or interesting his audience. 
The speaker sat on a slightly raised platform, while the audi- 
ence, composed of men, women and children, of all castes 
and conditions, circled round him, in an open thatched hall, 
or under an awning, or in the dry season under a spreading 



FOREWORD vii 

banyan-tree. This mixed audience was no doubt responsible 
for the fact that, although the stories were treated in the 
frank natural manner of the East, there was seldom any 
indecency or obscenity in them. 

The printing-press and the spread of primary education 
are affecting the demand for the services of the Kathak, but 
we can well imagine how extensive his influence was in 
mediaeval India. It will also be recognised that the art of 
the Kathak must have been largely responsible for the main- 
tenance of a literary standard in the vernacular, and for the 
gradual development of a vigorous literature in languages 
such as Hindi, Bengali and Guzerati. In the earlier centuries 
of the Christian era the epics and the stories were mostly 
enshrined in Sanskrit, but the Kathak had to relate them to 
his audience in the spoken language. It is not difficult 
therefore to realise that powerful influences were at work for 
the preservation, in a written form of the vernacular, of works 
which were previously accessible in a language understood 
only by a very small minority of the people. Perhaps some 
explanation may be found in these circumstances of the 
tradition embodied in Somadeva's recension of the Kathd- 
sarit-sagara that Gunadhya had originally written out his 
collection of the stories in the PaisachI dialect. 

It is safe to assume that during the centuries after 
Somadeva, the stories embodied in the Ocean, including the 
Panchatantra and Vetala tales, became familiar to practically 
all sections of the Hindu population of India, and exerted a 
potent influence on their ideas and culture. Mr Penzer has 
shown in his Terminal Essay pp. 118 and 119 how in the 
earlier collections of the stories the characters belonged to a 
non-aristocratic sphere of society, such as merchants, artisans 
and cultivators, and the presiding deity was Kuvera, the God 
of Wealth. Somadeva and his coadjutors thought it desirable 
to replace Kuvera by Siva (the chief deity worshipped in 
Kashmir in their time), and they also attempted to invest 
the chief characters with a social eminence which did not 
belong to them in the original recensions. But the new 
editors did not succeed in altering the general tone and 
atmosphere of the tales, and we have therefore available 



( 



viii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

in Somadeva's Ocean, so skilfully and faithfully translated by 
Tawney, a living picture of life of the common people in India 
in the tenth and eleventh centuries of the Christian era. 

It is not my purpose to dwell at length on the moral and 
religious beliefs of the people as illustrated in these tales, for 
this work has already been accomplished in the excellent notes 
and appendices with which Mr Penzer has enriched these 
volumes. It is evident, as might have been anticipated by 
students of this period of Indian history, that the prevailing 
beliefs were a curious medley of the purer forms of Hindu 
mythology, of the later and sometimes debased Buddhistic 
doctrines and of tantric practices of comparatively recent 
development. The conflict between the Hindu and the 
Buddhist ideals of life is very clearly brought out in the tale 
of the Buddhist merchant Vitastadatta of Taxila and his 
Hindu son Ratnadatta (III, 2-5). We see incidentally how 
Buddhism had been the more popular religion with " low- 
caste men," and it is pleasant to note the spirit of toleration 
underlying the declaration of the philosophic Buddhist 
" Religion is not confined to one form." While in the course 
of the work we are treated to learned and highly technical 
discussions on the doctrine of " Maya," we have also many 
allusions to the more common practice of the worship of 
Durga. The very frequent references to the famous temple 
of Durga in the town of Bindhachal (Vindhyachala, or 
literally Vindhya mountain), close to Mirzapur, are probably 
accounted for by the proximity of the regions peopled by 
forest tribes such as Bhillas, Savaras, or Pulindas, who are 
described in many parts of the Ocean. These references also 
indicate that one of the main routes between the Gangetic 
Valley and the Deccan must have been in those days, as it 
is now, from Mirzapur by a ford over the Narmada above 
Jabalpur, and through the forest districts, to Pratishthana on 
the Godavari. It is interesting to find that the temple of the 
Mahakala Siva at Ujjayini described in Kalidasa's MeghadiUa 
was equally famous in the days of Somadeva, and, like the 
Durga temple at Bindhachal, still attracts votaries from all 
parts of the country. Belief in magic ceremonial is illustrated 
in many of the stories ; in the tale of Kamalakara and 



FOREWORD ix 

Hamsavali we have gruesome details of the rites connected 
with human sacrifice (VI, 52). The synthesis of the philo- 
sophic tenets of Hinduism and Buddhism and the animistic 
rites and practices of the forest tribes, had produced a mixture 
which was not calculated to impart either social or political 
stability to Hindu India in the coming struggle with Islam. 
A careful reader of the Ocean of Story cannot fail to be struck 
by the spirit of gentle satire which underlies most of the 
stories, but unfortunately the criticism was not sufficiently 
trenchant for the purposes of reform and purification. ^ 

Similar observations apply to the picture of the political 
organisation of India in the tenth and eleventh centuries that 
is presented by these tales. Somadeva and his associates 
delineate for us a country divided into a large number of 
small states each ruled by a personal monarch, with dynastic 
ambitions and a desire for territorial aggrandisement. The 
King is usually guided by an intelligent and devoted minister, 
often a Brahman. We have also a reference to a system 
where the Crown Prince had a court composed of young men 
in training for the posts of ministers. But there is little 
evidence of any complex political or administrative organisa- 
tion at the centres of government. We are led to presume 
that the system of regional administration by means of a 
trained bureaucracy, which had been inaugurated by rulers 
such as Asoka, continued to survive and function, and was 
a familiar feature which the editors of the stories did not 
consider it worthy to stress. It is difficult on any other 
hypothesis to account for the easy revival of the ancient 
bureaucracy by early Muslim rulers like Alauddin. There is 
no trace in the stories of the Ocean of any " state " or civic 
patriotism among the masses of the population. On the other 
hand there is much dynastic intrigue in the ruling families ; 
territorial expansion was frequently sought by means of 
matrimonial alliances, which naturally led to counter -alliances. 
The picture thus sketched furnishes abundant explanation 
for the jealousies and weaknesses which characterised the 
defence of these kingdoms when the Muslim invaders arrived 
in the twelfth and succeeding centuries. A point to be noted 
in passing is that although we have many references to 



\ 



x THE OCEAN OF STORY 

kingdoms so far apart as Ujjayini, Pataliputra and Kashmir, 
and although there is mention of Takshasila in the north, 
Lata (Guzerat) on the west, Chola and Kalinga in the south, 
and Kamarupa in the east, there is no allusion to any 
state in modern Rajputana. Not the least interesting pas- 
sages in the stories are concerned with the " non -Aryan " 
kingdoms in the Vindhya country, peopled by the older tribes 
such as Bhillas, Savaras and Pulindas, and the efforts made 
by the Aryan chiefs to secure their friendship and support. 
In these fragmentary references to the political organisation 
of the country the frequent demoralisation of the rulers is 
also vividly described. (Compare the story of King Bhima- 
bhata in VI, 162.) No doubt there were popular risings in 
consequence and the replacement of one ruler by another. 
But we cannot expect many stories describing such incidents 
in a collection specifically dedicated to a royal personage. 

The social fabric of India in the tenth and eleventh cen- 
turies was composed of the four chief castes, but it is remark- 
able that even at that comparatively late epoch, although 
we have mention of many different vocations and professions, 
there is no allusion to any subcastes within the limits of 
which intermarriage was restricted. Indeed, leaving out the 
rather doubtful cases of gdndharva marriage in the stories of 
the Ocean, we find frequent instances, without provoking any 
comment or criticism from the authors, of marriages with 
women of an inferior caste. In the story of the Golden City 
(II, 171), the king, who is presumably a Kshatriya, is willing 
to marry the Princess Kanakarekha, to a Brahman or a 
Kshatriya, and the first aspirant to her hand is a Brahman. 
In a later story, Asokadatta, the son of " a great Brahman," 
marries the daughter of a Kshatriya king (II, 204). Other 
instances will be found in III, 134, IV, 140, and VI, 73. 
In the story of Anangarati (IV, 144), four suitors belonging 
respectively to the four castes seek the hand of the princess, 
and, in spite of a decided preference for the Kshatriya 
and the Brahman on account of their caste, the Vaisya and 
the Siidra were not summarily ruled out. On the other 
hand, there is no instance in the Ocean of a man actually 
marrying a woman of a superior caste. In modern times 



FOREWORD x 

efforts are being made to break down provincial or regional 
caste-barriers, and until recently instances were very rare of 
intermarriage between people of different provinces. In the 
Ocean, however, there is no indication of any such barriers, 
and no surprise is caused when we hear of a Pataliputra man 
bringing a wife from Paundravardhana. 

It is also noteworthy that caste did not determine the 
occupation or profession of a man. We come across Brah- 
mans employed in the secular departments of the State ; a 
Brahman youth becomes a professional wrestler (II, 200), 
and another becomes a bandit (VI, 166), apparently without 
losing caste. In the story of Viravara, we have a Brahman 
becoming a soldier of fortune (VI, 173). In the story of 
Phalabhuti, the Brahman Somadatta adopts the occupation 
of a husbandman (II, 95). 

A subject of speculation among students of Indian social 
history is the extent to which the custom of the seclusion of 
women existed in the pre-Muslim period. There can be little 
question that at all periods of Indian history the women of 
the richer classes led a more sheltered life than is the case 
with the modern Western woman. In the Purdnas, as well 
as in the secular literature, there are frequent references to 
the " antahpura," or the inner apartments of a palace, or a 
rich man's dwelling-house, which are usually occupied by 
the womenfolk of the family. The stories in the Ocean, how- 
ever, prove that in no part of the country in the eleventh 
century was there anything corresponding to the " parda " 
system of northern India in recent days. We have in the 
story of Arthalobha (III, 286) an indication of the fact that 
it was not unusual for a woman to participate in mercantile 
business of some importance. At the same time it would 
appear that a polygamous chief or ruler occasionally en- 
deavoured to introduce stricter seclusion for his wives. We 
have a reference to such attempts in the incident described 
at III, 169. Ratnaprabha, after successfully insisting that 
her apartments " must not be closed against the entrance of 
her husband's friends," made the following remarks, which 
are as true to-day as they were in the eleventh century : " I 
consider that the strict seclusion of women is a mere social 



xii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

custom, or rather folly produced by jealousy. It is of no 
use whatever. Women of good family are guarded by their 
own virtue as their only chamberlain. But even God Himself 
can scarcely guard the unchaste. Who can restrain a furious 
river and a passionate woman ? " 

Polygamy was legally permissible to all Hindus in Soma- 
deva's time as it is now, but in spite of the fact that the hero 
of the Ocean frequently indulges in the pastime of taking to 
himself a new wife, the practice of polygamy appears to have 
been confined in the main to chiefs and ruling princes. In 
the tale of Gunasarman (IV, 99), we have the very pertinent 
economic explanation of monogamy among the common 
people in spite of the legal sanction for polygamy. The wise 
Brahman Agnidatta says : " Wives generally have many rivals 
when the husband is fortunate ; a poor man would find it 
difficult to support one, much more to support many." In 
the story of Akshakshapanaka we have an instance of a man 
belonging to the middle classes who was persuaded by his 
relations to take a second wife after his first wife had deserted 
him (VI, 152). We do not come across any other tale in the 
Ocean illustrating a polygamous marriage by a person who 
did not belong to a semi-divine or princely category. It is 
hard to believe that if polygamy had been a common practice, 
the authors of the tales would not have utilised the theme 
for the obviously amusing situations that were bound to 
arise. 

Mr Penzer has dealt with the custom of sail in an illumin- 
ating appendix, and it is not necessary for me to refer to it 
here. But it is worthy of note that the remarriage of widows 
does not receive disapproval or condemnation in any tale in 
the Ocean ; in the story of the Eleven Slayer (V, 184), 
although the exceptional and extraordinary circumstances 
bring ridicule on the woman, she incurs no religious penalty 
or social ostracism for her repeated marriages. Another 
question frequently asked in modern India is whether the 
custom of child -marriage was prevalent in older days. We 
have an echo of the oft-quoted text enjoining the marriage of 
immature girls in the statement of the harassed King Paro- 
pakarin to his " grown-up " daughter : " If a daughter 



FOREWORD xiii 

reaches puberty unmarried, her relations go to hell and she is 
an outcast and her bridegroom is called the husband of an 
outcast " (VI, 173). But this very story, where the princess 
has already been reared to womanhood and there are many 
suitors for her hand, proves that the pious text was not un- 
often honoured in the breach. The general tenor of most of 
the tales in the Ocean indicates that, though child-marriage 
may not have been unknown and some social theorists were 
advocating it, young men and young women seldom married 
before they were " grown up." The custom of child-marriage, 
like that of the strict seclusion of women, seems to have 
been a later development. 

The profession of courtesans that existed in all the court- 
cities of the country has been described by Mr Penzer in an 
elaborate and exhaustive manner in the Appendix on Sacred 
Prostitution (Vol. I). Another unpleasant feature of the social 
organisation of the pre-Muslim epoch appears to have been 
the wide prevalence of wine-drinking. In the Parrot's Story 
(VI, 186), we find a young merchant " drowsy with wine," 
while all the people of the house also sink into a drunken sleep. 
To those who are familiar with the abstemious habits of the 
Hindu merchant castes of the present time this story would 
cause natural surprise. What is still more shocking is the 
laxness that prevailed in this respect even among women. 
Somadeva relates several stories, without any hint of dis- 
approval, of princesses of noble birth indulging in drinking 
bouts. (See III, 107, III, 174, and VII, 10.) In his Terminal 
Essay Mr Penzer has put forward the hypothesis that the 
Kashmirian editors of the Ocean gave a much higher social 
rank to the original characters of the stories. But this does 
not improve matters from our point of view. There can be 
little doubt that, so far as wine-drinking is concerned, the 
position has been very much better in recent times among 
the middle classes in India : among the women of all classes 
, the habit is almost unknown. It is a matter of speculation 
whether this change was effected through the influence of the 
Hindu reformers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
or as the result of Muslim rule. 

There are in the Ocean references to the datura as a 



xiv THE OCEAN OF STORY 

stupefying intoxicant (I, 160, and V, 145), but it is difficult 
to say whether it was in common use except for criminal 
purposes. It is worthy of note that there is no allusion in any 
of the tales to the consumption of opium either as a medicine or 
as an intoxicant. Nor do we find any mention of ganja, char as 
or bhang (different forms of hemp drugs). The proximity of 
Kashmir to the natural habitat of some of these drugs ought 
to have familiarised the editors with them had they been in 
vogue in the tenth or eleventh centuries. Gambling appears 
to have been a widespread vice in the time of Somadeva. It 
is true that sometimes it may have been indulged in as a mere 
amusement or recreation (see the story at V, 86). But we 
have a graphic description of a gambling den in the story of 
Chandrasvamin (VII, 72), and there are tales in the Ocean 
devoted to the same theme. Certain classes in India do not 
seem to have changed their habits in this respect since the 
date of the Vedas and the Mahdbharata (II, 231n). 

A more pleasant diversion, the subsequent disappearance 
of which one notes with regret, was dancing among respectable 
ladies. It is difficult to trace how in later days dancing in 
public became confined to women of the " dancing-girl " class. 
Was it merely an accompaniment of the introduction of the 
custom of strict seclusion of women, or was it the result of 
contact with the puritanic ideals of Islam ? In the Ocean we 
find many instances of ladies of position giving fine exhibitions 
of the dancing art. We have the spectacle of the Princess 
Hamsavali dancing before her father (and apparently many 
others present at the Court) " to the music of a great tabor, 
looking like a creeper of the tree of love agitated by the wind of 
youth, shaking her ornaments like flowers, curving her hand 
like a shoot " (VI, 41). The " dancing teacher " for the ladies of 
the Court was apparently a regular institution (IV, 156). In 
the story of King Kanakavarsha (IV, 208), his ambassador 
sent to the Court of King Devasakti to secure the hand of 
Princess Madanasundari has the good fortune of witnessing 
" the elegance in the dance " of the princess. There is no 
reason to presume that the art was known only in the Courts 
and was not practised by respectable women in a humbler 
sphere of life. 



FOREWORD xv 

Music was an equally popular art, both among men and 
women. There were professors of singing as of dancing 
(VI, 41). It is unnecessary for me here to quote further 
instances, for they will be found throughout the tales. 

Painting was also one of the fine arts held in high esteem. 
Picture galleries were a regular feature in royal palaces 
(IV, 205), and portrait painters moved from one Court to 
another, being often entrusted with delicate missions. The 
art of fresco-painting, of which such excellent examples 
survive at Ajanta and Bagh, was also in request. The father 
of the Princess Hamsavali employs an artist to paint his 
daughter's bower, and the artist thereupon paints the Prince 
Kamalakara and his servants on the wall of the bower (VI, 41). 
The kindred arts of sculpture and architecture must have 
flourished at the same time, for they were needeot not only for 
the palaces of which we have such glowing descriptions in 
various stories, but also for the temples and the figures in 
them, to which there is constant reference. There are also 
indications in various passages in the Ocean that gardening 
was a highly patronised art. 

Among professions of a different type to which allusion is 
made in the Ocean are those of the astrologer and the fortune- 
teller. It was recognised that there were many pretenders in 
these professions, and much fun is made of the dupes of false 
astrologers in the story of the Brahman Harisarman (III, 70). 
A story of similar purport in regard to fortune-tellers will be 
found at II, 90. 

References to the economic condition of the people are 
unfortunately meagre in the Ocean. We find Brahmans and 
others subsisting on royal grants of land, but no details are 
available of the conditions of tenure of such grants or of other 
land. Slavery was a recognised institution. We have in 
the story of Dharmadatta (III, 7) a case of a female slave 
in the house of a Brahman married to " an excellent hired 
servant in the house of a certain merchant." In this instance 
at any rate the bonds of slavery were not rigorous, for 
the woman and her (free) husband were permitted to set 
up a separate house of their own. It would have been 
interesting to know whether she was only a life slave, or 
VOL. ix. b 



xiv THE OCEAN OF STORY 

stupefying intoxicant (I, 160, and V, 145), but it is difficult 
to say whether it was in common use except for criminal 
purposes. It is worthy of note that there is no allusion in any 
of the tales to the consumption of opium either as a medicine or 
as an intoxicant. Nor do we find any mention of ganja, char as 
or bhang (different forms of hemp drugs). The proximity of 
Kashmir to the natural habitat of some of these drugs ought 
to have familiarised the editors with them had they been in 
vogue in the tenth or eleventh centuries. Gambling appears 
to have been a widespread vice in the time of Somadeva. It 
is true that sometimes it may have been indulged in as a mere 
amusement or recreation (see the story at V, 86). But we 
have a graphic description of a gambling den in the story of 
Chandrasvamin (VII, 72), and there are tales in the Ocean 
devoted to the same theme. Certain classes in India do not 
seem to have changed their habits in this respect since the 
date of the Vedas and the Mahdbharata (II, 231 n). 

A more pleasant diversion, the subsequent disappearance 
of which one notes with regret, was dancing among respectable 
ladies. It is difficult to trace how in later days dancing in 
public became confined to women of the " dancing-girl " class. 
Was it merely an accompaniment of the introduction of the 
custom of strict seclusion of women, or was it the result of 
contact with the puritanic ideals of Islam ? In the Ocean we 
find many instances of ladies of position giving fine exhibitions 
of the dancing art. We have the spectacle of the Princess 
Hamsavali dancing before her father (and apparently many 
others present at the Court) " to the music of a great tabor, 
looking like a creeper of the tree of love agitated by the wind of 
youth, shaking her ornaments like flowers, curving her hand 
like a shoot " (VI, 41). The " dancing teacher " for the ladies of 
the Court was apparently a regular institution (IV, 156). In 
the story of King Kanakavarsha (IV, 208), his ambassador 
sent to the Court of King Devasakti to secure the hand of 
Princess Madanasundari has the good fortune of witnessing 
" the elegance in the dance " of the princess. There is no 
reason to presume that the art was known only in the Courts 
and was not practised by respectable women in a humbler 
sphere of life. 



FOREWORD xv 

Music was an equally popular art, both among men and 
women. There were professors of singing as of dancing 
(VI, 41). It is unnecessary for me here to quote further 
instances, for they will be found throughout the tales. 

Painting was also one of the fine arts held in high esteem. 
Picture galleries were a regular feature in royal palaces 
(IV, 205), and portrait painters moved from one Court to 
another, being often entrusted with delicate missions. The 
art of fresco-painting, of which such excellent examples 
survive at Ajanta and Bagh, was also in request. The father 
of the Princess Hamsavali employs an artist to paint his 
daughter's bower, and the artist thereupon paints the Prince 
Kamalakara and his servants on the wall of the bower (VI, 41). 
The kindred arts of sculpture and architecture must have 
nourished at the same time, for they were neede4 not only for 
the palaces of which we have such glowing descriptions in 
various stories, but also for the temples and the figures in 
them, to which there is constant reference. There are also 
indications in various passages in the Ocean that gardening 
was a highly patronised art. 

Among professions of a different type to which allusion is 
made in the Ocean are those of the astrologer and the fortune- 
teller. It was recognised that there were many pretenders in 
these professions, and much fun is made of the dupes of false 
astrologers in the story of the Brahman Harisarman (III, 70). 
A story of similar purport in regard to fortune-tellers will be 
found at II, 90. 

References to the economic condition of the people are 
unfortunately meagre in the Ocean. We find Brahmans and 
others subsisting on royal grants of land, but no details are 
available of the conditions of tenure of such grants or of other 
land. Slavery was a recognised institution. We have in 
the story of Dharmadatta (III, 7) a case of a female slave 
in the house of a Brahman married to "an excellent hired 
servant in the house of a certain merchant." In this instance 
at any rate the bonds of slavery were not rigorous, for 
the woman and her (free) husband were permitted to set 
up a separate house of their own. It would have been 
interesting to know whether she was only a life slave, or 

VOL. IX. 6 



xvi THE OCEAN OF STORY 

whether the offspring of the union would have become 
slaves. 

The same story furnishes a description of " a grievous 
famine." Owing to it the allowance of food which the couple 
received every day " began to come to them in small quanti- 
ties. Then their bodies became attenuated by hunger, and 
they began to despond in mind, when once on a time at meal- 
time there arrived a weary Brahman guest. To him they 
gave all their own food (cooked rice brought from the houses 
of their respective masters), as much as they had, though they 
were in danger of their lives." The famine must have been 
grievous indeed to compel a Brahman to eat cooked rice from 
the hands of low-caste slaves. After the Brahman has eaten 
and departed, the husband dies of starvation, and the wife 
" lays down the load of her own calamity " by burning her- 
self with her husband's corpse. The miseries and privations 
suffered during famines, together with the familiar phenom- 
enon of migration of whole families with their cattle from 
famine-stricken tracts, are vividly portrayed in several other 
passages in the Ocean (II, 196, and VI, 27). In the story of 
Chandrasvamin (IV, 220) even " the King began to play the 
bandit, leaving the right path and taking wealth from his 
subjects unlawfully." There is unfortunately no description 
in any story of special measures of protection or prevention 
such as watercourses, embankments, or grain stores which 
must have been familiar to the people. 

The amusing story of Devadasa (II, 86) is based on the 
habit of hoarding gold a propensity which has not yet died 
out in the country. There are no stories about money-lenders 
a theme which might have easily provided some humorous 
situations. 

Trade and commerce were honourable professions, and 
the stories abound in references to merchants who not only 
traded between different parts of the country, but ventured 
across the seas. In the story of the Golden City, we find 
Saktideva accompanying seafaring merchants from the sea- 
port of Vitankapura to the islands in the midst of the ocean 
(II, 191). The merchant Hiranyagupta (IV, 160), after getting 
together wares, goes off to an island named Suvarnabhumi 



FOREWORD xvii 

to trade, and afterwards travels " some days over the sea " in 
a ship (see also IV, 190-191, V, 198, and VII, 15). Realistic 
descriptions of countries beyond the seas are not likely to be 
found in the work of editors living in land-locked Kashmir, 
but it is clear that in the epoch of Somadeva there was no 
social or religious ban on sea-voyages, even of considerable 
duration. The circumstances that led to the subsequent 
prejudice against sea- voyages would be an appropriate subject 
for research by the student of Indian social history. 

Curiously enough, one is disappointed at the absence in 
a work edited in Kashmir of clear references to the regions 
north and west of India. In the legendary account in II, 
93, 94, of Udayana's conquests there are vague allusions to 
the defeat of Mlechchhas, Turushkas, Parasikas and Hiinas, 
but this appears to be a mere echo of the account of the con- 
quests of Raghu in Kalidasa. In another story (III, 185) 
four young merchants travel " to the northern region, 
abounding in barbarians," where they are sold to a Tajika 
(Persian ?), who sends them as a present to a Turushka 
(Turk). After a miraculous escape, three of the travellers 
prefer to leave a quarter of the world infested with bar- 
barians and return to the Deccan, while the fourth finally 
reaches the banks of the Vitasta (the Jhelum). It must be 
confessed that even this passage is not very illuminating. 

We also look in vain in the stories for any enlightening 
evidence about the favourite crops and vegetables. Among 
edible fruits, mango, citron, dmalaka and jambu are men- 
tioned, as also triphald, which Tawney interprets to mean 
three varieties of myrobolan. Fish appears to have been 
popular, at least with certain classes, for we have many 
references to fishermen and fishing. The flesh of deer and 
other wild animals was consumed, but there is no evidence 
of any animals reared for food. In the allegorical tale of 
Arthavarman and Bhogavarman (IV, 196), even the abstemi- 
ous and dyspeptic Arthavarman has a meal consisting of 
" barley-meal, with half a pala of ghee, and a little rice and 
a small quantity of meat-curry" while Bhogavarman, who 
believes in good living, soon after a meal at a friend's house 
where he has " excellent food " with wine returns home and 



xviii THE OCEAN OF STORY 

M again enjoys all kinds of viands and wines at his own house 
in the evening." 

It is hoped that the examples given above will illustrate 
how the stories in the Ocean give us very interesting glimpses 
into the social and economic life of the later centuries in the 
" Hindu period " of the history of India. In this respect they 
ought to prove valuable to the historical student who has at 
present only very limited material at his disposal. 

As a pupil of Charles Tawney at Calcutta, it is gratifying 
to me to be associated in a humble manner with a work which 
will remain for ever a testimony to his erudition, industry 
and scholarly method. Precision of thought and expression, 
thoroughness and breadth of mind were the striking attributes 
of Tawney's character. Kindliness of temper and a genial 
sense of humour endeared him to his pupils. 

It may be permitted to me to congratulate Mr Penzer 
on the completion of his work as editor. Alike in conception 
and in execution, it has been a great task. The magnificent 
results must be a source of pride both to Mr Penzer and his 
publisher. 

Atul C. Chatter jee. 



I 



CONTENTS 

BOOK XVIII: VISHAMASILA 
CHAPTER CXX 

PAG1 

Author's Preface ..... xxiii 

Invocation . . . . . .1 

M(ain story) . . . . . .1 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .2 

CHAPTER CXXI 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .12 

171a. Madanamanjari and the Kapalika . 12 

171aa. The Cunning Gambler 

Dagineya and the Vetala 
Agnisikha . . .14 

171aaa. The Bold Gambler 

Thinthakarala . 17 

171aa. The Cunning Gambler 

Dagineya and the Vetala 
Agnisikha . . 26 

171a. Madanamanjari and the Kapalika . 27 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .28 

171b. Ghanta and Nighanta and the Two 

Maidens . . . .29 



PAGE 



xx THE OCEAN OF STORY 

CHAPTER CXXI continued 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .29 

171c. Jayanta and the Golden Deer . 29 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .30 

CHAPTER CXXII 
171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .34 

CHAPTER CXXIII 
171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .43 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .43 

171d (1). The Grateful Monkey . 47 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .48 

171d (2). The Two Princesses . 50 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .52 

171d (3). The Merchant Dhanadatta 

who lost his Wife . 53 

171d (4). The Two Brahmans Kesata 

and Kandarpa . . 54 

171d (5). Kusumayudha and Kamala- 

lochana . ... 61 



CONTENTS xxi 

CHAPTER CXXIII continued 

PAOB 

171d (4). The Two Brahmans Kesata 

and Kandarpa . . 62 

171d (3). The Merchant Dhanadatta 

who lost his Wife 66 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .67 

CHAPTER CXXIV 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .68 

171d (6). The Brahman who re- 
covered his Wife alive 
after her Death . . 68 

171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikra- 
maditya . . . .70 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .71 

171e. The Permanently Horripilant Brahman 74 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya ,75 

171f. The Brahman AgniSarman and his 

Wicked Wife . . .75 



i 



171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . ,77 

171g. Muladeva and the Brahman's Daughter 77 
171. Story of King Vikramaditya . . .85 

M. Concluded . . . . .85 



XX11 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Author's Epilogue .... 


PAGE 

. 87 


Terminal Essay .... 


. 91 


Retrospect ..... 


. 122 


Index I Sanskrit Words and Proper Names . 


. 127 


Index II General .... 


. 133 


Addenda and Corrigenda 


. 139 


Bibliography ..... 


. 169 



PREFACE 

THE present volume sees the conclusion of the Ocean, 
and we leave Siva, with his beloved Parvati, on the 
summit of Mount Kailasa. 

Somadeva's Epilogue is now given for the first time the 
translation and notes being the work of Dr Barnett. 

My Terminal Essay follows. 

In a work of this size, the publication of which stretches 
over a number of years, it is only natural that much additional 
matter, as well as slips and errors, both in the text and in 
the notes, are bound to accrue. I have considered it best to 
put all this fresh material in the present volume under the 
general title of " Addenda and Corrigenda." 

The rest of the volume is taken up with the Bibliography. 
Volume X will contain various Appendixes and a single general 
index to the complete work. 

N. M. P. 

St John's Wood, N.W.8, 
November 1927. 



i 



xxin 



THE 
OCEAN OF STORY 



( 



BOOK XVIII : VISHAMASlLA 

CHAPTER CXX 
INVOCATION 

GLORY be to that god, half of whose body is the 
moon-faced Parvati, who is smeared with ashes white 
as the rays of the moon, whose eyes gleam with a fire 
like that of the sun and moon, who wears a half-moon on 
his head ! 

May that elephant-faced god protect you, who, with 
his trunk bent at the end, uplifted in sport, appears to be 
bestowing successes ! 



[M] Then Naravahanadatta, in the hermitage of the 
hermit Kasyapa, on that Black Mountain, said to the 
assembled hermits : " Moreover, when, during my separa- 
tion from the queen, Vegavati, who was in love with me, 
took me and made me over to the protection of a science, 
I longed to abandon the body, being separated from my 
beloved and in a foreign land; but while, in this state of 
mind, I was roaming about in a remote part of the forest, 
I beheld the great hermit Kanva. 

" That compassionate hermit, seeing me bowing at his 
feet, and knowing by the insight of profound meditation 
.. that I was miserable, took me to his hermitage, and said 
* to me : 4 Why are you distracted, though you are a hero 
sprung from the race of the Moon ? As the ordinance of 
the god standeth sure, why should you despair of reunion 
with your wife ? 

" ' The most unexpected meetings do take place for men 
in this world. I will tell you, to illustrate this, the story of 
Vikramaditya. Listen. 

VOL. IX. 1 A 



2 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 1 

There is in Avanti a famous city, named UjjayinI, the 
dwelling-place of Siva, built by Visvakarman in the com- 
mencement of the Yuga ; which, like a virtuous woman, is 
invincible by strangers ; like a lotus plant, is the resort of 
the Goddess of Prosperity ; like the heart of the good, is rich 
in virtue ; like the earth, is full of many wonderful sights. 

There dwelt in that city a world-conquering king, named 
Mahendraditya, the slayer of his enemies' armies, like Indra 
in Amaravati. In regard of prowess he was a wielder of 
many weapons ; in regard of beauty he was the flower- 
weaponed god himself; his hand was ever open in bounty, 
but was firmly clenched on the hilt of his sword. That king 
had a wife named Saumyadarsana, who was to him as Sachi 
to Indra, as Gauri to Siva, as Sri to Vishnu. And that king 
had a great minister named Sumati, and a warder named 
Vajrayudha, in whose family the office was hereditary. With 
these the king remained ruling his realm, propitiating Siva, 
and ever bearing various vows in order to obtain a son. 

In the meanwhile, as Siva was with Parvati on the mighty 
mountain Kailasa, the glens of which are visited by troops 
of gods, which is beautiful with the smile that the northern 
quarter smiles, joyous at vanquishing all the others, all the 
gods, with Indra at their head, came to visit him, being 
afflicted by the oppression of the Mlechchhas 2 ; and the 
immortals bowed, and then sat down and praised Siva. And 
when he asked them the reason of their coming, they addressed 
to him this prayer : " O God, those Asuras, who were slain 
by thee and Vishnu, have been now again born on the earth 
in the form of Mlechchhas. They slay Brahmans, they 
interfere with the sacrifices and other ceremonies, and they 
carry off the daughters of hermits : indeed, what crime do 
not the villains commit ? Now, thou knowest, lord, that 

1 This story, with its numerous sub-stories, stretches to p. 85, and forms 
the last tale in the whole work. n.m.p. 

2 I.e. "outer barbarian" anyone who disregards Hindu dharma. The 
name occurs continually in the Mahabharata. See Sorensen's Index, p. 480 
el seq. n.m.p. 



THE GANA MALYAVAT 3 

the world of gods is ever nourished by the earth, for the 
oblation offered in the fire by Brahmans nourishes the 
dwellers in heaven. But, as the Mlechchhas have overrun 
the earth, the auspicious words are nowhere pronounced over 
the burnt-offering, and the world of gods is being exhausted 
by the cutting off of their share of the sacrifice and other 
supplies. 1 So devise an expedient in this matter; cause 
some hero to become incarnate on the earth, mighty enough 
to destroy those Mlechchhas." 

When Siva had been thus entreated by the gods, he 
said to them : " Depart ! You need not be anxious about 
this matter ; be at your ease. Rest assured that I will soon 
devise an expedient which will meet the difficulty." When 
Siva had said this, he dismissed the gods to their abodes. 2 

And when they had gone, the holy one, with Parvati at 
his side, summoned a Gana, named Malyavat, and gave him 
this order : " My son, descend into the condition of a man, 
and be born in the city of Ujjayini as the brave son of King 
Mahendraditya. That king is a portion of me, and his wife 
is sprung from a portion of Ambika ; be born in their family, 
and do the heaven-dwellers the service they require. Slay 
all those Mlechchhas that obstruct the fulfilment of the law 
contained in the three Vedas. And by my favour thou shalt 
be a king ruling over the seven divisions of the world. 
Moreover, the Rakshasas, the Yakshas and the Vetalas shall 
own thy supremacy 3 ; and after thou hast enjoyed human 
pleasures, thou shalt again return to me." 

When the Gana Malyavat received this command from 
Siva, he said : " The command of you two divine beings can- 
not be disobeyed by me ; but what enjoyments are there in 
the life of a man which involve separations from relations, 
i, friends and servants very hard to bear, and the pain aris- 
ing from loss of wealth, old age, disease and the other ills 
of humanity ? " When the Gana said this to Siva, the god 

1 The central idea of the Birds of Aristophanes. 

2 Here Bohtlingk and Roth would read svadhishnyany. Two of the three 
India Office MSS. seem to read this, judging from the way in which they form 
the comhination shn. No. 1882 is not quite clear. 

3 He is a kind of Hindu Solomon. 



4 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

thus replied : " Go, blameless one ! These woes shall not 
fall to thy lot. By my favour thou shalt be happy throughout 
the whole of thy sojourn on earth." When Siva said this 
to Malyavat, that virtuous Gana immediately disappeared. 
And he went and was conceived in Ujjayini, in the proper 
season, in the womb of the queen of King Mahendraditya. 

And at that time the god, whose diadem is fashioned of 
a digit of the moon, said to that king in a dream : "I am 
pleased with thee, King : so a son shall be born to thee, who 
by his might shall conquer the earth with all its divisions ; 
and that hero shall reduce under his sway the Yakshas, 
Rakshasas, Pisachas and others even those that move in 
the air and dwell in Patala and shall slay the hosts of the 
Mlechchhas : for this reason he shall be named Vikrama- 
ditya, and also Vishamasila, on account of his stern hostility 
to his enemies." 1 

When the god had said this, he disappeared ; and next 
morning the king woke up, and joyfully related his dream to 
his ministers. And they also told the king, one after another, 
with great delight, that Siva had made a revelation to each 
of them in a dream that he was to have a son. And at that 
moment a handmaid of the harem came and showed the king 
a fruit, 2 saying : " Siva gave this to the queen in a dream." 
Then the king rejoiced, saying again and again : " Truly, Siva 
has given me a son " ; and his ministers congratulated him. 

Then his illustrious queen became pregnant, like the 
eastern quarter in the morning, when the orb of the sun is 
about to rise ; and she was conspicuous for the black tint of 
the nipples of her breasts, which appeared like a seal to secure 
the milk for the king with whom she was pregnant. In her 
dreams at that time she crossed seven seas, being worshipped 
by all the Yakshas, Vetalas and Rakshasas. And when the 
due time was come, she brought forth a glorious son, who lit 
up the chamber, as the rising sun does the heaven. And when 
he was born, the sky became indeed glorious, laughing with 
the falling rain of flowers, and ringing with the noise of the 

1 I adopt the correction of the Petersburg lexicographers, vaishamyato for 
vaisasyato. I find it in No. 1882 and in the Sanskrit College MS. 

2 See Vol. II, p. 136'n 1 ; and Vol. Ill, p. 263n 2 . n.m.p. 



I 



THE BIRTH OF VIKRAMADITYA 5 

gods' drums. And on that occasion the city was altogether 
distracted with festive joy, and appeared as if intoxicated, 
as if possessed by a demon, as if generally wind-struck. 
And at that time the king rained wealth there so unceasingly 
that, except the Buddhists, no one was without a god. 1 And 
King Mahendraditya gave him the name of Vikramaditya, 
which Siva had mentioned, and also that of Vishamasila. 

When some more days had passed, there was born to 
that king's minister named Sumati a son, of the name of 
Mahamati, and the warder Vajrayudha had a son born to him, 
named Bhadrayudha, and the chaplain Mahidhara had a son 
of the name of Sridhara. And that prince Vikramaditya 
grew up with those three ministers' sons as with spirit, 
courage and might. When he was invested with the sacred 
thread, and put under teachers, they were merely the occa- 
sions of his learning the sciences, which revealed themselves 
to him without effort. And whatever science or accomplish- 
ment he was seen to employ, was known by those, who 
understood it, to be possessed by him to the highest degree 
of excellence. And when people saw that prince fighting 
with heavenly weapons, they even began to pay less atten- 
tion to the stories about the great archer Rama and other 
heroes of the kind. And his father brought for him beautiful 
maidens, given by kings who had submitted after defeat, like 
so many goddesses of fortune. 

Then his father, King Mahendraditya, seeing that his son 
was in the bloom of early manhood, of great valour, and 
beloved by his subjects, duly anointed him heir to his realm, 
and, being himself old, retired with his wife and ministers to 
Varanasi, 2 and made the god Siva his refuge. 

And King Vikramaditya, having obtained that kingdom 
of his father, began in due course to blaze forth, as the sun, 
when it has occupied the sky. Even haughty kings, when 
they saw the string fitted into the notch of his bending bow, 3 



1 The word anlsvara, when applied to the Buddhists, refers to their not 
believing in a Disposer, but its other meaning is "wanting in health." 

2 I.e. Benares. 

3 As Dr Kern points out, there is a misprint here : namatya should be 
namaty. 



6 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

learned a lesson from that weapon, and bent likewise on every 
side. Of godlike dignity, having subdued to his sway even 
Vetalas, Rakshasas and other demons, he chastised righteously 
those that followed evil courses. The armies of that Vikra- 
maditya roamed over the earth like the rays of the sun, 
shedding into every quarter the light of order. Though that 
king was a mighty hero, he dreaded the other world ; though 
a brave warrior, he was not hard-handed x ; though not 
uxorious, he was beloved by his wives. He was the father 
of all the fatherless, the friend of all the friendless, and the 
protector of all the unprotected among his subjects. Surely 
his glory furnished the Disposer with the material out of 
which he built up the White Island, the Sea of Milk, Mount 
Kailasa and the Himalayas. 2 

And one day, as the King Vikramaditya was in the hall 
of assembly, the warder Bhadrayudha came in and said to 
him : " Your Majesty dispatched Vikramasakti with an 
army to conquer the southern region and other territories, and 
then sent to him a messenger named Anangadeva ; that 
messenger has now returned, and is at the gate with another, 
and his delighted face announces good tidings, my lord." 
The king said, " Let him enter," and then the warder 
respectfully introduced Anangadeva, with his companion. 
The messenger entered and bowed, and shouted, " Victory ! " 3 
and sat down in front of the king ; and then the king said 
to him : " Is it well with King Vikramasakti, the general 
of my forces, and with Vyaghrabala and the other kings ? 
And does good fortune attend on the other chief Rajputs 
in his army, and on the elephants, horses, chariots and 
footmen ? " 

When Anangadeva had been thus questioned by the 
king, he answered : "It is well with Vikramasakti and 
the whole of the army. And your Majesty has conquered 
the Deccan and the western border, and Madhyadesa and 
Saurashtra and all the eastern region of the Ganges ; and 

1 Or "not cruel in exacting tribute." 

2 Glory is white according to the canons of Hindu rhetoric. 

3 It might merely mean, cried " All Hail," but here I think there is more 
in the expression than in the usual salutation. 



ANANGADEVA THE MESSENGER 7 

the northern region and Kasmira have been made tribu- 
tary; and various forts and islands have been conquered; 
and the hosts of the Mlechchhas have been slain, and the 
rest have been reduced to submission ; and various kings 
have entered the camp of Vikramas'akti, and he himself is 
coming here with those kings, and is now, my lord, two or 
three marches off." 

When the messenger had thus told his tale, King Vikra- 
maditya was pleased, and loaded ' him with garments, 
ornaments and villages. Then the king went on to say to 
that noble messenger : " Anangadeva, when you went there, 
what regions did you see, and what object of interest did you 
meet with anywhere ? Tell me, my good fellow ! " When 
Anangadeva had been thus questioned by the king, he began 
to recount his adventures, as follows : 

" Having set out hence by your Majesty's orders, I reached 
in course of time that army of yours assembled under Vikra- 
masakti, which was like a broad sea resorted to by allied 
The Adventures kings, adorned by many princes of the Nagas that 
of Ayiangadeva^d come together with horses and royal magni- 
ficence. 2 And when I arrived there, that Vikramasakti bowed 
before me, and treated me with great respect, because I had 
been sent by his sovereign ; and while I was there considering 
the nature of the triumphs he had gained, a messenger from 
the King of Simhala 3 came there. 

" And that messenger, who had come from Simhala, told 
to Vikramasakti, in my presence, his master's message, as 
follows : ' I have been told by messengers, who have been 
sent by me to your sovereign and have returned, that your 
sovereign's very heart, Anangadeva, is with you, so send him 
to me quickly ; I will reveal to him a certain auspicious affair 
that concerns your king.' Then Vikramasakti said to me : 

1 Dr Kern would read abhyapujayat = honoured. The three India Office 
MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. confirm Brockhaus' text. 

2 A most elaborate pun ! There is an allusion to the sea having proved 
the refuge of the mountains that wished to preserve their wings, to the serpent 
Vasuki's having served as a rope with which to whirl round Mount Mandara 
when the sea was churned and produced Sri or Lakshmi. In this exploit Hari 
or Vishnu bore a distinguished part. 

3 I.e. Ceylon. 



8 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

4 Go quickly to the King of Simhala, and see what he wishes 
to say to you when he has you before him.' 

"Then I went through the sea in a ship to the island 
of Simhala with that King of Simhala's ambassador. And in 
that island I saw a palace all made of gold, with terraces of 
various jewels, like the city of the gods. And in it I saw that 
King of Simhala, Virasena, surrounded by obedient ministers, 
as Indra is by the gods. When I approached him he received 
me politely, and asked me about your Majesty's health, and 
then he refreshed me with most sumptuous hospitality. 

"The next day the king summoned me, when he was 
in his hall of audience, and showing his devotion to you, 
said to me, in the presence of his ministers : ' I have a 
maiden daughter, the peerless beauty of the world of mortals, 
Madanalekha by name, and I offer her to your king. She 
is a fitting wife for him, and he a suitable husband for 
her. For this reason I have invited you ; so accept her 
in the name of your king. 1 And go on in front with my 
ambassador to tell your master ; I will send my daughter 
here close after you.' 

" When the king had said this, he summoned into that 
hall his daughter, whose load of ornaments was adorned by 
her graceful shape, loveliness and youth. And he made 
her sit on his lap, and showing her, said to me : 4 1 offer 
this girl to your master : receive her.' And when I saw that 
princess I was astonished at her beauty, and I said joyfully, 
' I accept this maiden on behalf of my sovereign,' and I 
thought to myself : ' Well, the Creator is never tired of pro- 
ducing marvels, since even after creating Tilottama he has 
produced this far superior beauty.' 

"Then, having been honoured by that king, I set forth 
from that island, with this ambassador of his, Dhavalasena. 
So we embarked on a ship, and as we were sailing along in 
it, through the sea, we suddenly saw a great sandbank in the 
middle of the ocean. And on it we saw two maidens of 
singular beauty : one had a body as dark as priyangu, 2 the 

1 Bohtlingk and Roth explain pratlpsa in this passage as werben um. 

2 This is a well-known small millet, " Panic " (JPanicum ltalicum). It is 
familiar to Kashmiris, who now call it pingi. n.m.p. 



THE TWO SEA-MAIDENS 9 

other gleamed white like the moon, and they both looked 
more splendid from having put on dresses and ornaments 
suited to their respective hues. They made a sound like the 
clashing of cymbals with their bracelets adorned with splendid 
gems, and they were making a young toy-deer, which, though 
of gold and studded with jewels to represent spots, possessed 
life, dance in front of them. 1 When we saw this we were 
astonished, and we said to one another : ' What can this 
wonder mean ? Is it a dream, magic or delusion ? Who 
would ever expect to see a sandbank suddenly start up in 
the middle of the ocean, or such maidens upon it ? And 
who would ever have thought of seeing such a thing as this 
living golden deer studded with jewels, which they possess ? 
Such things are not usually found together.' 

4 While we were saying this to one another, King, in 
the greatest astonishment, a wind suddenly began to blow, 
tossing up the sea. That wind broke up our ship, which 
was resting on the surging waves, and the people in it were 
whelmed in the sea, and the sea-monsters began to devour 
them. But those two maidens came and supported both of 
us in their arms, and lifted us up and carried us to the sand- 
bank, so that we escaped the jaws of the sea-monsters. And 
then that bank began to be covered with waves, at which we 
were terrified; but those two ladies cheered us, and made 
us enter what seemed like the interior of a cave. There we 
began to look at a heavenly wood of various trees, and while 
we were looking at it the sea disappeared, and the bank and 
the young deer and the maidens. 

" We wandered about there for a time, saying to ourselves : 
4 What is this strange thing ? It is assuredly some magic.' 
And then we saw there a great lake, transparent, deep and 
broad, like the heart of great men, looking like a material 
representation of Nirvana that allays the fire of desire. 2 

1 I read pranartayantyau with Dr Kern for the obvious misprint in the text. 
The y is found in the three India Office MSS. and in the Sanskrit College MS. 

Tawney refers us to Iliad, xviii, 417-420, but the gold and silver dogs 

of Odyssey, vii, 91, are surely more apposite. See my note on "Automata" 
in Vol. Ill, pp. 56-59, and Crooke, "Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore," 
Folk-Lore, vol. xix, p. 71. n.m.p. 

2 In the original, trishna. 



10 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

41 And we saw a certain beautiful woman coming to bathe 
in it, accompanied by her train, looking like an incarnation 
of the beauty of the wood. And that lady alighted from 
her covered chariot 1 and gathered lotuses in that lake, and 
bathed in it, and meditated on Siva. And thereupon, to our 
astonishment, Siva arose from the lake, a present god, in the 
form of a linga, composed of splendid jewels, and came near 
her ; and that fair one worshipped him with various luxuries 
suited to her Majesty, and then took her lyre. And then she 
played upon it, singing skilfully to it with rapt devotion, 
following the southern style in respect of notes, time and 
words. So splendid was her performance that even the 
Siddhas and other beings appeared there in the air, having 
their hearts attracted by hearing it, and remained motion- 
less, as if painted. And after she had finished her music 2 
she dismissed the god, and he immediately sank in the lake. 
Then the gazelle-eyed lady rose up and mounted her chariot, 
and proceeded to go away slowly with her train. 

" We followed her, and eagerly asked her train over and 
over again who she was, but none of them gave us any answer. 
Then, wishing to show that ambassador of the King of 
Simhala your might, I said to her aloud : * Auspicious one, 
I adjure thee, by the touch of King Vikramaditya's feet, that 
thou depart not hence without revealing to me who thou 
art.' When the lady heard this she made her train retire, 
and alighted from her chariot, and coming up to me, she said 
with a gentle voice : ' Is my lord the noble King Vikrama- 
ditya well ? But why do I ask, Anangadeva, since I know 
all about him ? For I exerted magic power, and brought 
you here for the sake of that king, for I must honour hiny as 
he delivered me from a great danger. So come to my palace ; 
there I will tell you all who I am, and why I ought to honour 
that king, and what service he needs to have done him.' 

44 When she had said this, having left her chariot out of 
courtesy, that fair one went along the path on foot and respect- 

1 All the India Office MSS. give karnirathavatirna. 

2 The word Gandharva should be Gandharva ; see Bohtlingk and Roth, 
s.v. har with upa and sain. No. 2166 has Gdndharas; the other two MSS. 
agree with Brockhaus' text. 



MADANAMANJARI'S CASTLE 11 

fully conducted me to her castle, which looked like heaven. 
It was built of various jewels and different kinds of gold ; 
its gates were guarded on every side by brave warriors wear- 
ing various forms and bearing various weapons; and it was 
full of noble ladies of remarkable beauty, looking as if they 
were charms that drew down endless heavenly enjoyments. 
There she honoured us with baths, unguents, splendid dresses 
and ornaments, and made us rest for a time." 



P 



CHAPTER CXXI 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

WHEN Anangadeva had told this to King Vikrama- 
ditya in his hall of audience, he continued as follows : 
" Then, after I had taken food, that lady, sit- 
ting in the midst of her attendants, said to me : ' Listen, 
Anangadeva, I will now tell you all. 

171a. Madanamanjari and the Kdpdlika 1 

I am Madanamanjari, the daughter of Dundubhi, the 
King of the Yakshas, and the wife of Manibhadra, the brother 
of Kuvera. I used always to roam about happily with my 
husband on the banks of rivers, on hills, and in charming 
groves. 

And one day I went with my beloved to a garden in 
Ujjayini called Makaranda to amuse myself. There it 
happened that in the dawn a low hypocritical scoundrel of 
a kdpdlika l saw me, when I had just woke up from a sleep 
brought on by the fatigue of roaming about. That rascal, 
being overcome with love, went into a cemetery, and pro- 
ceeded to try to procure me for his wife by means of a spell 
and a burnt-offering. But I, by my power, found out what 
he was about, and informed my husband ; and he told his 
elder brother, Kuvera. And Kuvera went and complained 
to Brahma, and the holy Brahma, after meditating, said to 
him : " It is true that kdpdlika intends to rob your brother 
of his wife, for such is the power of those spells for master- 
ing Yakshas, which he possesses. But when she feels herself 

1 Bohtlingk and Roth explain the word khandakdpdlika as " ein Stuck von 
einem Kapalika, ein Quasi-kapalika." A kdpdlika is, according to Monier 
Williams, s.v., a worshipper of Siva of the left-hand order, characterised by 
carrying skulls of men as ornaments, and by eating and drinking from them. 

These are the same as the Aghori, for which see Vol. II, p. 90w 3 . n.m.p. 

12 



THE MAGIC CIRCLE 13 

being drawn along by the spell, she must invoke the pro- 
tection of King Vikramaditya ; he will save her from him." 
Then Kuvera came and told this answer of Brahma's to my 
husband, and my husband told it to me, whose mind was 
troubled by that wicked spell. 

And in the meanwhile that hypocritical kdpdlika, offering 
a burnt-offering in the cemetery, began to draw me to him 
by means of a spell, duly muttered in a circle. And I, being 
drawn by that spell, reached in an agony of terror that awful 
cemetery, full of bones and skulls, haunted by demons. And 
then I saw there that wicked kdpdlika : he had made an 
offering to the fire, and he had in a circle 1 a corpse lying on 
its back, which he had been worshipping. And that kdpdlika, 
when he saw that I had arrived, was beside himself with 
pride, and with difficulty tore himself away to rinse his 
mouth in a river, which happened to be near. 

At that moment I called to mind what Brahma had said, 
and I thought : " Why should I not call to the king for aid ? 
He may be roaming about in the darkness somewhere near." 
When I had said this to myself, I called aloud for his help in 
the following words : " Deliver me, noble King Vikrama- 
ditya ! See, protecting talisman of the world, this kdpdlika 
is bent on outraging by force, in your realm, me, a chaste 
woman, the Yakshi Madanamanjarl by name, the daughter of 
Dundubhi, and the wife of Manibhadra, the younger brother 
of Kuvera." 

No sooner had I finished this plaintive appeal than I saw 
that king coming toward me, sword in hand ; he seemed to 
be all resplendent with brightness of valour, and he said to 
me : " My good lady, do not fear ; be at ease. I will deliver 
you from that kdpdlika, fair one. For who is able to work 
such unrighteousness in my realm ? " When he had said 
this, he summoned a Vetala, named Agnislkha. And he, when 
summoned, came tall, with flaming eyes, with upstanding 
hair and said to the king: "Tell me what I am to do." 
Then the king said : " Kill and eat this wicked kdpdlika, 
who is trying to carry off his neighbour's wife." Then that 

1 For the magic circle see Vol. II, p. 98m 4 , and Vol. Ill, p. 201 et seq. 

N.M.P. 



14 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Vetala, Agnisikha, entered the corpse that was in the circle 
of adoration, and rose up and rushed forward, stretching out 
his arms and mouth. And when the kdpdlika, who had come 
back from rinsing his mouth, was preparing to fly, he seized 
him from behind by the legs ; and he whirled him round in 
the air, and then dashed him down with great force on the 
earth, and so at one blow crushed his body and his aspirations. 
When the demons saw the kdpdlika slain they were all 
eager for flesh, and a fierce Vetala, named Yamaslkha, came 
there. As soon as he came he seized the body of the kdpd- 
lika ; then the first Vetala, Agnisikha, said to him : " Hear, 
villain ! I have killed this kdpdlika by the order of King 
Vikramaditya ; pray what have you to do with him ? " 
When Yamasikha heard that, he said to him : " Then tell 
me, what kind of power has that king ? " Then Agnisikha 
said : "If you do not know the nature of his power, listen, 
I will tell you. 

171aa. The Cunning Gambler Ddgineya and the Vetala 
Agnisikha who submitted himself to King Vikramaditya 

There once lived in this city a very resolute gambler of 
the name of Dagineya. Once on a time some gamblers, by 
fraudulent play, won from him all he possessed, and then 
bound him in order to obtain from him the borrowed money 
which he had lost in addition. And as he had nothing, they 
beat him with sticks and other instruments of torture, 1 but 
he made himself like a stone, and seemed as rigid as a corpse. 
Then all those wicked gamblers took him and threw him into 
a large dark well, fearing that, if he lived, he might take 
vengeance on them. 

But that gambler Dagineya, when flung down into that 
very deep well, saw in front of him two great and terrible 
men. But they, when they saw him fall down terrified, said 
to him kindly : " Who are you, and how have you managed 
to fall into this deep well ? Tell us ! " Then the gambler 

1 For aruntudais, MS. No. 1882 has adadanstachcha, No. 2 1 66 has adadattascha 
and 3003 adadattuscha. These point, I suppose, to a reading adadattachcha ; 
which means, "not paying what he owed." 



THE DEMONS' TALE 15 

recovered his spirits, and told them his story, and said to 
them : " Do you also tell me who you are, and whence you 
come." When those men who were in the pit heard that, 
they said : " Good sir, we were Brahman demons ' dwelling 
in the cemetery belonging to this city, and we possessed two 
maidens in this very city ; one was the daughter of the 
principal minister, the other of the chief merchant. And 
no conjurer on the earth, however powerful his spells, was 
able to deliver those maidens from us. 

" Then King Vikramaditya, who had an affection for their 
fathers, heard of it, and came to the place where those 
maidens were with a friend of their fathers'. The moment 
we saw the king, we left the maidens and tried to escape, 
but we were not able to do so, though we tried our utmost. 
We saw the whole horizon on fire with his splendour. Then 
that king, seeing us, bound us by his power. And seeing us 
unhappy, as we were afraid of being put to death, he gave 
us this order : * Ye wicked ones, dwell for a year in a dark 
pit, and then ye shall be set at liberty. But when freed, 
ye must never again commit such a crime ; if ye do, I will 
punish you with destruction.' After King Vishamasila had 
given us this order, he had us flung into this dark pit ; but 
out of mercy he did not destroy us. 

" And in eight more days the year will be completed, and 
with it the period during which we were to dwell in this cave, 
and we shall then be released from it. Now, friend, if you 
engage to supply us with some food during those days, we 
will lift you out of this pit, and set you down outside it ; but 
if you do not, when lifted out, supply us with food according 
to your engagement, we will certainly, when we come out, 
devour you." 

When the Brahman demons made this proposal to the 
gambler, he consented to it, and they put him out of the pit. 
When he got out of it, he went to the cemetery at night to 
deal in human flesh, as he saw no other chance of getting 
what he wanted. And I, happening to be there at that time, 
saw that gambler, who was crying out : "I have human flesh 
for sale ; buy it, somebody ! " Then I said : "I will take it 

1 Sanskrit, Brahma-Rakshasa. 



16 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

off your hands : what price do you want for it ? " And 
he answered : " Give me your shape and power." Then I 
said again to him : " My fine fellow, what will you do with 
them ? " The gambler then told me his whole story, and 
said to me : " By means of your shape and power I will get 
hold of those enemies of mine, the gamblers, together with 
the keeper of the gambling-house, and will give them to the 
Brahman demons to eat." When I heard that, I was pleased 
with the resolute spirit of that gambler, and gave him my 
shape and my power for a specified period of seven days. 
And by means of them he drew those men that had injured 
him into his power, one after another, and flung them into 
the pit, and fed the Brahman demons on them during seven 
days. 

Then I took back from him my shape and power, and that 
gambler Dagineya, beside himself with fear, said to me : "I 
have not given those Brahman demons any food this day, 
which is the eighth, so they will now come out and devour 
me. Tell me what I must do in this case, for you are my 
friend." When he said this, I, having got to like him, from 
being thrown with him, said to him : "If this is the case, 
since you have made those two demons devour the gamblers, 
I for your sake will in turn eat the demons. So show them 
to me, my friend." When I made the gambler this offer, he 
at once jumped at it, and took me to the pit where the demons 
were. 

I, suspecting nothing, bent my head down to look into 
the pit, and, while I was thus engaged, the gambler put his 
hand on the back of my neck and pushed me into it. When 
I fell into it, the demons took me for someone sent for them 
to eat, and laid hold of me, and I had a wrestling-match with 
them. When they foimd that they could not overcome the 
might of my arms, they desisted from the struggle, and asked 
me who I was. 

Then I told them my own story from the point where my 
fortunes became involved with those of Dagineya, 1 and they 
made friends with me, and said to me : " Alas ! What a 
trick that evil-minded gambler has played you, and us two, 

1 They had heard Dagineya' s story up to this point from his own lips. 



THE GAMBLER'S CHALLENGE 17 

and those other gamblers ! But what confidence can be 
placed in gamblers who profess exclusively the science of 
cheating ; whose minds are proof against friendship, pity and 
gratitude for a benefit received ? Recklessness and disregard 
of all ties are ingrained in the nature of gamblers : hear in 
illustration of this the story of Thinthakarala. 

171aaa. The Bold Gambler Thinthakarala 

Long ago there lived in this very city of Uj jayini a ruffianly 
gambler, who was rightly named Thinthakarala. 1 He lost 
perpetually, and the others, who won in the game, used to 
give him every day a hundred cowries.* With those he 
bought wheat-flour from the market, and in the evening 
made cakes by kneading them somewhere or other in a pot 
with water, and then he went and cooked theni in the flame 
of a funeral pyre in the cemetery, and ate them in front of 
Mahakala, smearing them with the grease from the lamp 
burning before him : and he always slept at night on the 
ground in the court of the same god's temple, pillowing his 
head on his arm. 

Now, one night he saw the images of all the Mothers, 3 
and of the Yakshas and other divine beings in the temple of 
Mahakala trembling from the proximity of spells, and this 
thought arose in his bosom : " Why should I not employ 
an artful device here to obtain wealth ? If it succeedsj well 
and good ; if it does not succeed, wherein am I the worse ? " 
When he had gone through these reflections, he challenged 
those deities to play, saying to them : " Come now, I will 
have a game with you, and I will act as keeper of the 

1 This may be loosely translated : " Terror of the gambling saloon." 

2 I.e. Cyprcea moneta, found chiefly off the Maldive Islands, Ceylon, the 
i Malabar coast, Borneo, etc. It was used as a currency both in India and 

Africa. For a short bibliography on shell-money see Ency. Brit., 11th edit., 
vol. xxiv, p. 833. In Kashmir the cowrie appears to have been the unit of the 
monetary system. The number of cowries that went to the rupee was 4096. 
See further, M. A. Stein, Kalhanas RajataraAginl, vol. ii, pp. 323, 324 ; Yule's 
Hobson-Jobson, under "Cowry," and especially Briffault, The Mothers, 1927, 
vol. iii, pp. 275-278. n.m.h. 

3 See Ocean, Vol. IV, pp. 69m 1 , 225ft 1 ; and Briffault, op. cit., vol. iii, ch. xxiv. 

N.M.P. 

vol. IX. B 



18 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

gaming-table, and will fling the dice ; and mind, you must 
always pay up what you lose." When he said this to the 
deities, they remained silent ; so Thinthakarala staked some 
spotted cowries, and flung the dice. For this is the universally 
accepted rule among gamblers, that, if a gambler does not 
object to the dice being thrown, he agrees to play. 1 

Then, having won much gold, he said to the deities : 
" Pay me the money I have won, as you agreed to do." But 
though the gambler said this to the deities over and over 
again, they made no answer. Then he flew into a passion 
and said to them : "If you remain silent, I will adopt with 
you the same course as is usually adopted with a gambler 
who will not pay the money he has lost, but makes himself 
as stiff as a stone. I will simply saw through your limbs 
with a saw as sharp as the points of Yama's teeth, for I have 
no respect for anything." When he had said this, he ran 
towards them, saw in hand ; and the deities immediately 
paid him the gold he had won. Next morning he lost it all 
at play, and in the evening he came back again, and extorted 
more money from the Mothers in the same way by making 
them play with him. 

He went on doing this every day, and those deities, the 
Mothers, were in very low spirits about it ; then the goddess 
Chamunda said to them : " Whoever, when invited to gamble, 
says, 'I sit out of this game,' cannot be forced to play; this 
is the universal convention among gamblers, ye Mother deities. 
So when he invites you, say this to him, and so baffle him." 
When Chamunda had said this to the Mothers, they laid her 
advice up in their minds. And when the gambler came at 
night and invited them to play with him, all the goddesses 
said with one accord : " We sit out of this game." 

When Thinthakarala had been thus repulsed by those 
goddesses, he invited their sovereign Mahakala himself to 
play. But that god, thinking that the fellow had taken this 
opportunity of trying to force him to gamble, said : " I sit 
out of this game." Even gods, you see, like feeble persons, 
are afraid of a thoroughly self-indulgent, ruffianly scoundrel, 
flushed with impunity. 

1 See Vol. VII, p. 72. 



THE MANIFESTATION 19 

Then that Thinthakarala, being depressed at finding his 
gambler's artifice baffled by a knowledge of the etiquette 
of play, was disgusted, and said to himself : " Alas ! I am 
baffled by these deities through their learning the conven- 
tions of gamblers ; so I must now flee for refuge to this 
very sovereign of gods." Having formed this resolution in 
his heart, Thinthakarala embraced the feet of Mahakala, and 
praising him, addressed to him the following petition : "I 
adore thee that sittest naked with thy head resting on 
thy knee ; thy moon, thy bull, and thy elephant-skin having 
been won at play by Devi. When the gods give all powers 
at thy mere desire, and when thou art free from longings, 
having for thy only possessions the matted lock, the ashes and 
the skull, how canst thou suddenly have become avaricious 
with regard to hapless me, in that thou desirest to dis- 
appoint me for so small a gain ? Of a truth the wishingr 
tree no longer gratifies the hope of the poor, as thou dost 
not support me, lord Bhairava, though thou supportest the 
world. So, as I have fled to thee as a suppliant, holy Sthanu, 
with my mind pierced with grievous woe, thou oughtest even 
to pardon presumption in me. Thou hast three eyes, I have 
three dice, 2 so I am like thee in one respect ; thou hast ashes 
on thy body, so have I ; thou eatest from a skull, so do I : 
show me mercy. When I have conversed with you gods, 
how can I afterwards bear to converse with gamblers ? So 
deliver me from my calamity." 

With this and similar utterances the gambler praised that 
Bhairava, until at last the god was pleased, and manifesting 
himself, said to him : " Thinthakarala, I am pleased with 
thee ; do not be despondent. Remain here with me : I will 
provide thee with enjoyments." In accordance with this 
; command of the god's that gambler remained there, enjoying 
all kinds of luxuries provided by the favour of the deity. 

1 Two of the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. have indu 
* for Indra; the other has inmu. I have adopted indu. In sloka 100 for dadute 

; No. 1882, and the Sanskrit College MS., read dadhate, which means that the 
god's possession of wealth and power depends on the will of Siva. In //. 89 
the Sanskrit College MS. reads ekada for the unmetrical devatah. 

2 Tryaksha can probably mean " having three dice," as well as " having 
three eyes." 



20 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Now, one night the god saw certain Apsarases, that had 
come to bathe in that holy pool of Mahakala, and he gave 
this command to Thinthakarala : " While all these nymphs 
of heaven are engaged in bathing, quickly snatch up the 
clothes, which they have laid on the bank, and bring them 
here ; and do not give them back their garments until they 
surrender to you this young nymph, named Kalavati." x 

When Thinthakarala had received this command from 
Bhairava, he went and carried off the garments of those 
heavenly beauties, while they were bathing ; and they said 
to him : " Give us back our garments, please ; do not leave 
us naked." But he answered them, confident in the power 
which Siva gave : "If you will give me the young nymph 
Kalavati, I will give you back these garments, but not 
otherwise." When they heard that, seeing that he was a 
stubborn fellow to deal with, and remembering that Indra 
had pronounced a curse of this kind upon Kalavati, they 
agreed to his demand. And on his giving back the garments, 
they bestowed on him, in due form, Kalavati, the daughter 
of Alambusha. 

Then the Apsarases departed, and Thinthakarala re- 
mained there with that Kalavati in a house built by the wish 
of Siva. And Kalavati went in the day to heaven to attend 
upon the king of the gods, but at night she always returned 2 
to her husband. And one day she said to him in the ardour 
of her affection : " My dear, the curse of Siva, which enabled 
me to obtain you for a husband, has really proved a blessing." 
Thereupon her husband, Thinthakarala, asked her the cause 
of the curse, and the nymph Kalavati thus answered him : 

" One day, when I had seen the gods in a garden, I praised 
the enjoyments of mortals, depreciating the pleasures of the 
dwellers in heaven, as giving joys that consist only in seeing. 3 
When the king of the gods heard that, he cursed me, saying : 
* Thou shalt go and be married by a mortal, and enjoy those 
human pleasures.' In this way has come about our union 

1 Cf. Vol. VIII, p. 58, and see also Appendix I, on "Swan-maidens," in 
that volume. n.m.p. 

2 Upayau is a misprint for upayayau, as is evident from the MSS. 

3 The three India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. give drishti. 



THE DIVINE COAT 21 

that is mutually agreeable. And to-morrow I shall return 
to heaven after a long absence : do not be unhappy about 
it, for Rambha is going to dance a new piece before Vishnu, 
and I must remain there, my beloved, until the exhibition 
is at an end." 

Then Thinthakarala, whom love had made like a spoiled 
child, said to her : "I will go there and look at that dance 
unperceived, take me there." When Kalavati heard that, 
she said : " How is it fitting for me to do this ? The king 
of the gods might be angry, if he found it out." Though 
she said this to him, he continued to press her ; then, out of 
love, she agreed to take him there. 

So the next morning Kalavati, by her power, concealed 
Thinthakarala in a lotus, which she placed as an ornament 
in her ear, and took him to the palace of Indra.' When Thin- 
thakarala saw that palace, the doors of which were adorned 
by the elephant of the gods, which was set off by the garden 
of Nandana, he thought himself a god, and was highly 
delighted. And in the Court of Indra, frequented by gods, 
he beheld the strange and delightful spectacle of Rambha's 
dance, accompanied by the singing of all the nymphs of 
heaven. And he heard all the musical instruments played by 
Narada and the other minstrels ; for what is hard to obtain 
in this world, if the supreme god l is favourable to one ? 

Then, at the end of the exhibition, a mime, in the shape 
of a divine goat, rose up, and began to dance with heavenly 2 
movements. And Thinthakarala, when he saw him, recog- 
nized him, and said to himself : " Why, I see this goat in 
Ujjayini, figuring as a mere animal, and here he is dancing 
as a mime before Indra. Of a truth this must be some 
strange incomprehensible heavenly delusion." While Thin- 
thakarala was going through these reflections in his mind, 
the dance of the goat-mime came to an end, and then 
Indra returned to his own place. And then Kalavati, in 
high spirits, also took back Thinthakarala to his own home, 
concealed in the lotus ornament of her ear. 

1 I.e. Siva in this instance. 

2 For the second divya in si. 132 b, MSS. Nos. 1882 and 2166 give navya, 
"new." 



22 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

And the next day Thinthakarala beheld in Ujjayini that 
goat-formed mime of the gods, who had returned there, and 
he insolently said to him : " Come, dance before me, as you 
dance before Indra. If you do not, I shall be angry with 
you ; show off your dancing powers, you mime." When the 
goat heard this he was astonished, and remained silent, 
saying to himself: " How can this mere mortal know so much 
about me ? " But when, in spite of persistent entreaties, 
the goat refused to dance, Thinthakarala beat him on the 
head with sticks. Then the goat went with bleeding head to 
Indra, and told him all that had taken place. And Indra, 
by his supernatural powers of contemplation, discovered the 
whole secret, how Kalavati had brought Thinthakarala to 
heaven when Rambha was dancing, and how that profane 
fellow had there seen the goat dancing. Then Indra sum- 
moned Kalavati, and pronounced on her the following curse : 
" Since, out of love, thou didst secretly bring here the man 
who has reduced the goat to this state to make him dance, 
depart and become an image on a pillar 1 in the temple built 
by King Narasimha in the city of Nagapura." 

When Indra had said this, Alambusha, the mother of 
Kalavati, tried to appease him, and at last he was with 
difficulty appeased, and he thus fixed an end to the curse : 
" When that temple, which it has taken many years to 
complete, shall perish and be levelled with the ground, then 
shall her curse come to an end." So Kalavati came weeping 
and told to Thinthakarala the curse Indra had pronounced, 
together with the end he had appointed to it, and how he 
himself was to blame, and then, after giving him her orna- 
ments, she entered into an image on the front of a pillar in 
the temple in Nagapura. 

Thinthakarala for his part, smitten with the poison of 
separation from her, could neither hear nor see, but rolled 
swooning on the ground. And when that gambler came to 
his senses he uttered this lament : " Alas ! fool that I was. 
I revealed the secret, though I knew better all the time for 
how can people like myself, who are by nature thoughtless, 

1 For a large number of references to metamorphoses into stone, see 
Chauvin, op. cit., vi, p. 58. n.m.p. 



THE BURIED PITCHERS 23 

show self-restraint ? So now this intolerable separation has 
fallen to my lot." However, in a moment he said to him- 
self : " This is no time for me to despond ; why should I not 
recover firmness and strive to put an end to her curse ? " 

After going through these reflections, the cunning fellow 
thought carefully over the matter, and assuming the dress 
of a mendicant devotee, went with rosary, antelope-skin, 
and matted hair, to Nagapura. There he secretly buried, in 
a forest outside the city, four pitchers containing his wife's 
ornaments one towards each of the cardinal points ; and 
one full of sets of the five precious things * he deliberately 
buried within the city, in the earth of the market-place, in 
front of the god himself. 

When he had done this, he built a hut on the bank of the 
river, and remained there, affecting a hypocritical asceticism, 2 
pretending to be meditating and muttering. And by bathing 
three times in the day, and eating only the food given him as 
alms, after washing it with water on a stone, he acquired the 
character of a very holy man. 

In course of time his fame reached the ears of the king, 
and the king often invited him, but he never went near him ; 
so the king came to see him, and remained a long time in 
conversation with him. And in the evening, when the king 
was preparing to depart, a female jackal suddenly uttered 
a yell at a distance. When the cunning gambler, who was 
passing himself off as an ascetic, heard that, he laughed. 
And when the king asked him the meaning of the laugh, 3 
he said : " Oh ! never mind." But when the king went on 
persistently questioning him, the deceitful fellow said : "In 
the forest to the east of this city, under a ratan, there is a 
pitcher full of jewelled ornaments ; so take it." This, King, 
is what that female jackal told me, for I understand the 
language of animals." 

Then the king was full of curiosity : so the ascetic took 

1 Gold, diamond, sapphire, ruby, and pearl. The Buddhists usually 

enumerate seven: see Burnouf, Lotus de la Bonne Lot, p. 319. The list is 

nearly the same as that of the five jewels. See Vol. VII, p. 247n 2 . n.m.p. 

2 See section iv, p. 228, of Bloomfield's " False Ascetics and Nuns in 
Hindu Fiction," Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., vol. xliv, pp. 202-242. n.m.p. 

3 See Vol. VII, pp. 253-256. n.m.p. 



24 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

him to the spot, and dug up the earth, and took out that 
pitcher, and gave it to him. Then the king, having obtained 
the ornaments, began to have faith in the ascetic, and con- 
sidered that he not only possessed supernatural knowledge, 
but was a truthful and unselfish devotee. So he conducted 
him to his cell, and prostrated himself at his feet again and 
again, and returned to his palace at night with his ministers, 
praising his virtues. 

In the same way, when the king again came to him, the 
ascetic pretended to understand the cry of an animal, and in 
this way made over to the king the other three pitchers, 
buried towards the other three cardinal points. Then the 
king and the citizens and the king's wives became exclusively 
devoted to the ascetic, and were, so to speak, quite absorbed 
in him. 

Now, one day, the king took that wicked ascetic to the 
temple for a moment ; so he contrived to hear in the market- 
place the cry of a crow. Then he said to the king : " Did 
you hear what the crow said ? ' In this very market-place 
there is a pitcher full of valuable jewels buried in front of the 
god : why do you not take it up also ? ' This was the mean- 
ing of his cry ; so come and take possession of it." When 
the deceitful ascetic had said this, he conducted him there, 
and took up out of the earth the pitcher full of valuable 
jewels, and gave it to the king. Then the king, in his exces- 
sive satisfaction, entered the temple holding that pretended 
seer by the hand. 

There the mendicant brushed against that image on the 
pillar which his beloved Kalavati had entered, and saw her. 
And Kalavati, wearing the form of the image on the pillar, 
was afflicted when she saw her husband, and began to weep 
then and there. When the king and his attendants saw this, 
they were amazed and cast down, and said to that pretended 
seer : " Reverend sir, what is the meaning of this ? " Then 
the cunning rascal, pretending to be despondent and be- 
wildered, said to the king : " Come to your palace ; there I 
will tell you this secret, though it is almost too terrible to be 
revealed." 

When he had said this, he led the king to the palace, and 



THE TRICKERY OF GAMBLERS 25 

said to him : " Since you built this temple on an unlucky 
spot and in an inauspicious moment, on the third day from 
now a misfortune will befall you. It was for this reason 
that the image on the pillar wept when she saw you. So, if 
you care for your body's weal, my sovereign, take this into 
consideration, and this very day quickly level this temple 
with the earth ; and build another temple somewhere else, 
on a lucky spot, and in an auspicious moment. Let the evil 
omen be averted, and ensure the prosperity of yourself and 
your kingdom." When he had said this to the king, he, in 
his terror, gave command to his subjects, and in one day 
levelled that temple with the earth, and he began to build 
another temple in another place. So true is it that rogues 
with their tricks gain the confidence of princes, and impose 
upon them. 

Accordingly, the gambler Thinthakarala, having gained 
his object, abandoned the disguise of a mendicant, and fled, 
and went to Ujjayini. And Kalavati, finding it out, went to 
meet him on the road, freed from her curse and happy, and 
she comforted him, and then went to heaven to visit Indra. 
And Indra was astonished, but when he heard from her 
mouth the artifice of her husband the gambler, he laughed 
and was highly delighted. 

Then Brihaspati, who was at his side, said to Indra: 
" Gamblers are always like this, abounding in every kind of 
trickery. For instance, in a previous kalpa there was in a 
The Gambler certain city a gambler, of the name of Kuttani- 
who cheated kapata, accomplished in dishonest play. When 
he went to the other world, Indra said to him : 
4 Gambler, you will have to live a kalpa in hell on account 
of your crimes, but, owing to your charity, you are to be 
Indra for one day, for once on a time you gave a gold coin 
to a knower of the Supreme Soul. So say whether you will 
take out first your period in hell or your period as Indra.' 
When the gambler heard that, he said : ' I will take out first 
\ my period as Indra.' 

" Then Yama sent the gambler to heaven, and the gods 

1 Cf. Vol. VI, p. 92 et seq., and see p. 99 el seq. of Brown's article, as 
mentioned in the note on p. 92. n.m.p. 



26 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

deposed Indra for a day, and crowned him sovereign in his 
stead. He, having obtained sovereign sway, summoned to 
heaven the gamblers, his friends, and his female favourites, 
and in virtue of his regal authority gave this order to the 
gods : ' Carry us all in a moment to all the holy bathing- 
places, 1 those in heaven, and those on earth, and those in 
the seven dvipas ; and enter this very day into all the kings 
on the earth and bestow without ceasing great gifts for our 
benefit.' 

" When he gave this order to the gods, they did every- 
thing as he had desired, and by means of those holy observ- 
ances his sins were washed 2 away, and he obtained the rank 
of Indra permanently. And by his favour his friends and 
his female favourites, that he had summoned to heaven, had 
their sins destroyed, and obtained immortality. The next 
day Chitragupta informed Yama that the gambler had, by 
his discretion, obtained the rank of Indra permanently. Then 
Yama, hearing of his meritorious actions, was astonished, and 
said : ' Oho ! this gambler has cheated us.' " 

When Brihaspati had told this story, he said, " Such, 
O wielder of the thunderbolt, are gamblers," and then held 
his peace. And then Indra sent Kalavati to summon Thin- 
thakarala to heaven. There the king of the gods, pleased 
with his cleverness and resolution, honoured him, and gave 
him Kalavati to wife, and made him an attendant on him- 
self. Then the brave Thinthakarala lived happily, like a god, 
in heaven, with Kalavati, by the favour of Siva. 



171aa. The Cunning Gambler Ddgineya and the Vetala 
Agnisikha who submitted himself to King Vikramdditya 

" So you see, such is the style in which gamblers exhibit 
their treachery and audacity; accordingly, Agnisikha the 

1 No. 1882 reads snapayata tatkshandt at the end of si. 194 a. It seems to 
remove a tautology, but is unmetrical. " Take us and cause us to bathe." The 
Sanskrit College MS. has snapayata tatshanam. 

2 I read dhxda for dyida; No. 1882 (the Taylor MS.) and the Sanskrit 
College MS. have dhfda ; No. 3003 has dhfda ; the other MS. does not contain 
the passage. 



BLACK MAGIC 27 

Vampire, what is there to be surprised at in your having 
been treacherously thrown into this well by Dagineya the 
gambler ? So come out of this pit, friend, and we will come 
out also." 

When the Brahman demon said this to me, I came up 
out of that pit, and being hungry, I came across a Brahman 
traveller that night in the city. So I rushed forward and 
seized that Brahman to eat him, but he invoked the pro- 
tection of King Vikramaditya. And the moment the king 
heard his cry, he rushed out like flame, and while still at a 
distance, checked me by exclaiming : " Ah, villain ! do not 
kill the Brahman " : and then he proceeded to cut off the 
head of a figure of a man he had drawn that did not sever 
my neck, but made it stream with blood. 1 

Then I left the Brahman and clung to the king's feet, and 
he spared my life. 

171a. Madanamanjarl and the Kdpdlika 

" Such is the power of that god, King Vikramaditya. 
And it is by his orders that I have slain this hypocritical 
kdpdlika. So he is my proper prey, to be devoured by me 
as being a Vetala ; let him go, Yamasikha ! " 

Though Agnisikha made this appeal to Yamasikha, the 
latter proceeded contumaciously to drag with his hand the 
corpse of that hypocritical kdpdlika. Then King Vikrama- 
ditya appeared there, and drew the figure of a man on the 
earth, and then cut off its hand with his sword. That made 
the hand of Yamasikha fall severed ; so he left the corpse, 
and fled in fear. And Agnisikha immediately devoured the 
corpse of that kdpdlika. And I witnessed all this, securely 
protected by the might of the king. 2 

1 An interesting use of sympathetic black magic, occurring again a little 
lower, but in this case with the hand. 

2 I read dlikhya purusham bhumau. This is the reading of the Taylor MS., 
the other has atikhya. The Sanskrit College MS. has alikhya purushain. 



28 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya 

In these words did that wife of the Yaksha, Madana- 
manjari by name, describe your power, O King, and then she 
went on to say to me : 

" Then, Anangadeva, the king said to me in a gentle 
voice : * Yakshi, being delivered from the kdpdlika, go to 
the house of your husband.' Then I bowed before him, and 
returned to this my own home, thinking how I might repay 
to that king the benefit he had conferred on me. In this 
way your master gave me life, family and husband ; and 
when you tell him this story of mine, it will agree with his 
own recollections. 

" Moreover, I have to-day found out that the King of 
Simhala has sent to that king his daughter, the greatest 
beauty in the three worlds, who has of her own accord elected 
to marry him. And all the kings, being jealous, have gathered 
themselves together and formed the intention of killing 
Yikramasakti and the dependent kings, 1 and of carrying off 
that maiden. So, do you go, and make their intention known 
to Yikramasakti, in order that he may be on his guard and 
ready to repel their attack. And I will exert myself to enable 
King Vikramaditya to conquer those enemies and gain the 
victory. 

" For this reason I brought vou here bv mv own deluding 
power, in order that you might tell all this to King Vikrama- 
sakti and the dependent monarchs ; and I will send to your 
sovereign such a present as shall to a certain small extent be 
a requital for the benefit that he conferred on me." 

While she was saying this, the two maidens that we had 
seen in the sea came there with the deer ; one had a body 
white as the moon, the other was dark as a priyangu ; so 
Continuation / they seemed like Ganga and Yamuna returned 
A nan gad era * from worshipping the ocean, the monarch of 
Adventures r i vers< yVTieii they had sat down, I put this 
question to the Yakshi : " Goddess, who are these maidens, 
and what is the meaning of this golden deer ? " When the 

1 Both the India Office MSS. in which this passage is found give tatsa- 
mantam. So Vikramasakti would himself be a " dependent king." 



THE TWO DANAVAS 29 

Yakshini heard this, King, she said to me : " Anangadeva, if 
you feel any curiosity about the matter, listen, I will tell you. 



171b. Ghanta and Nighanta and the Two Maidens 

Long ago there came to impede Prajapati, in his creation 
of creatures, two terrible Danavas, named Ghanta and 
Nighanta, invincible even by gods. And the Creator, being 
desirous of destroying them, created these two maidens, the 
splendour of whose measureless beauty seemed capable of 
maddening the world. And those two mighty Asuras, when 
they saw these two exceedingly wonderful maidens, tried to 
carry them off ; and fighting with one another, they both of 
them met their death. 1 

Then Brahma bestowed these maidens on Kuvera, saying, 
" You must give these girls to some suitable husband " ; 
and Kuvera made them over to my husband, who is his 
younger brother ; and in the same way my husband passed 
these fair ones 2 on to me ; and I have thought of King 
Vikramaditya as a husband for them, for, as he is an 
incarnation of a god, he is a fit person for them to marry. 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya 

M Such are the facts with regard to these maidens ; now 
hear the history of the deer. 

171c. Jayanta and the Golden Deer 

Indra had a beloved son named Jayanta. Once on a 
time, when he, still an infant, was being carried about in the 
air by the celestial nymphs, he saw some princes in a wood 
on earth playing with some young deer. Then Jayanta 3 went 

1 Cf. the story of Sunda and Upasunda, Vol. II, pp. 13-14; and Preller, 
> Griechische Mythologie, vol. i, p. 81m 1 . 

2 For ete manorame No. 3003 and the Sanskrit College MS. have vara- 
karanam: "in order that I might find a husband for them." No. 1882 has 
varanam for karanam. 

3 For Jayanto MSS. Nos. 1882 and 3003 and the Sanskrit College MS. give 
hevdkl i.e. " full of longing." 



30 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

to heaven, and cried in the presence of his father because he 
had not got a deer to play with, as a child would naturally 
do. Accordingly Indra had a deer made for him by Visva- 
karman, of gold and jewels, and life was given to the animal 
by sprinkling it with nectar. Then Jayanta played with it, 
and was delighted with it, and the young deer was continually 
roaming about in heaven. 

In course of time that son of Ravana, who was rightly 
named Indra jit, 1 carried off the young deer from heaven and 
took it to his own city Lanka. And after a further period 
had elapsed Ravana and Indra jit having been slain by the 
heroes Rama and Lakshmana, to avenge the carrying off of Sita, 
and Vibhishana having been set upon the throne of Lanka, 
as King of the Rakshasas that wonderful deer of gold 
and jewels remained in his palace. And once on a time, 
when I was taken by my husband's relations to Vibhishana's 
palace on the occasion of a festival, he gave me the deer as 
a complimentary present. And that young heaven-born deer 
is now in my house, and I must bestow it on your master. 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

And while the Yakshini was telling me this string of tales, 
the sun, the friend of the kamalini, went to rest. Then I and 
the ambassador of the King of Simhala went to sleep, both 
of us, after the evening ceremonies, in a palace which the 
Yakshini assigned to us. 

In the morning we woke up and saw, my sovereign, that 
the army of Vikramasakti, your vassal, had arrived. We 
reflected that that must be a display of the Yakshini's power, 
and quickly went wondering into the presence of Vikrama- 
sakti. And he, as soon as he saw, showed us great honour, 
and asked after your welfare ; and was on the point of asking 
us what message the King of Simhala had sent, when the two 
heavenly maidens whose history the Yakshini has related 
to us and the young deer arrived there, escorted by the 
army of the Yakshas. When King Vikramasakti saw this, he 
suspected some glamour of malignant demons, and he said 

1 I.e. conqueror of Indra. 



THE GREAT BATTLE 31 

to me apprehensively : " What is the meaning of this ? " 
Then I told him in due course the commission of the King of 
Simhala, and the circumstances connected with the Yakshini, 
the two maidens, and the deer. Moreover, I informed him 
of the hostile scheme of your Majesty's enemies, which was to 
be carried out by all the kings in combination, and which I 
had heard of from the Yakshi. Then Vikrama^akti honoured 
us two ambassadors, and those two heavenly maidens ; and 
being delighted, made his army ready for battle with the 
assistance of the other vassal kings. 

And immediately, King, there was heard in the army 
the loud beating of drums, and at the same instant there 
was seen the mighty host of hostile kings, accompanied by 
Anmxradeva * ne Mlechchhas. Then our army and the hostile 
tells of the army, furious at beholding one another, closed 
Great Battle ^j^ a rus h, and the battle began. Thereupon 
some of the Yakshas sent by the Yakshi entered our soldiers, 
and so smote the army of the enemies, and others smote them 
in open fight. 1 And there arose a terrible tempest of battle, 
overspread with a cloud formed of the dust raised by the 
army, in which sword-blades fell thick as rain, and the shouts 
of heroes thundered. And the heads of our enemies flying up, 
as they were cut off, and falling again, made it seem as if the 
Fortune of our victory were playing at ball. And in a moment 
those kings that had escaped the slaughter, their troops 
having been routed, submitted and repaired for protection 
to the camp of your vassal. 

Then, lord of earth, as you had conquered the four 
cardinal points and the dvipas, and had destroyed all the 
Mlechchhas, that Yakshini appeared, accompanied by her 
husband, and said to King Vikramasakti and to me : " You 
must tell your master that what I have done has been done 
merely by way of service to him, and you must also request 
him, as from me, to marry these two god-framed maidens, 
and to look upon them with favour, and to cherish this deer 
also, for it is a present from me." When the Yakshi had said 
this, she bestowed a heap of jewels, and disappeared with her 
husband and her attendants. The next day, Madanalekha, 

1 It is just possible that sankhyad ought to be sakshad. 



32 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the daughter of the King of Simhala, came with a great 
retinue and much magnificence. And then Vikramasakti went 
to meet her and, bending low, joyfully conducted her into 
his eamjx And on the second day Vikramasakti, having 
accomplished his object, set out with the other kings from 
that place, in order to come here and behold your Majesty's 
feet, bringing with him that princess and the two heavenly 
maidens, and that deer composed of gold and jewels a 
marvel for the eyes of the three worlds. And now, sovereign, 
that vassal prince has arrived near this city, and has sent us 
two on in front to inform vour Highness. So let the kino; out 
of regard for the lord of Simhala and the Yakshi, go forth to 
meet those maidens and the deer, and also the subject kings. 

When Anangadeva had said this to King Vikramaditya, 
though the king recollected accomplishing that difficult 
rescue of the Yakshini, he did not consider it worth a straw 
when he heard of the return she had made for it ; great - 
souled men, even when they have done much, think it worth 
very little. And, being much pleased, he loaded 1 Anangadeva, 
for the second time, with elephants, horses, villages and 
jewels, and bestowed similar gifts on the ambassador of the 
King of Simhala. 

And after he had spent that day, the king set out from 
Ujjayini, with his warriors mounted on elephants and horses, 
to meet that daughter of the King of Simhala, and those two 
maidens created by Brahma. And the following speeches 
of the military officers, assigning elephants and horses, were 
heard in the neighbourhood of the city when the kings 
started, and within the city itself when the sovereign started : 
" Jayavardhana must take the good elephant Anangagiri, 
and Ranabhata the furious elephant Kalamegha, and Simha- 
parakrama Sangramasiddhi, and the hero Vikramanidhi 
Ripurakshasa, and Jayaketu Pavanajava, and Vallabhasakti 
Samudrakallola, and Bahu and Subahu the two horses Sara- 
vega and Garudavega, and Kirtivarman the black Konkan 
mare Kuvalayamala, and Samarasimha the white mare 
Gangalaharl of pure Sindh breed." 

1 This expression is very similar to that in Taranga 120, x/. 80 b, to which 
Dr Kern objects. 



THE TRIUMPHANT MARCH 33 

When that king, the supreme sovereign of all the dvipas, 
had started on his journey, the earth was covered with 
soldiers, the quarters were full of nothing but the shouts that 
they raised, even the heaven was obscured with the dust that 
was diffused by the trampling of his advancing army, and all 
men's voices were telling of the wonderful greatness of his 
might. 







VOL. IX. 



CHAPTER CXXII 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

THEN King Vikramaditya reached that victorious 
army commanded by that Vikramasakti, his general, 
and he entered it at the head of his forces, accom- 
panied by that general, who came to meet him, eager and 
with loyal mind, together with the vassal kings. 

The kings were thus announced by the warders in the tent 
of assembly : " Your Majesty, here is Saktikumara, the King 
of Gauda, come to pay you his respects, here is Jayadhvaja, 
the King of Karnata, here is Vijayavarman of Lata, here is 
Sunandana of Kasmira, here is Gopala, King of Sindh, here 
is Vindhyabala, the Bhilla, and here is Nirmuka, the King 
of the Persians." And when they had been thus announced, 
the king honoured them, and the feudal chiefs, and also 
the soldiers. And he welcomed in appropriate fashion the 
daughter of the King of Simhala, and the heavenly maidens, 
and the golden deer, and Vikramasakti. And the next day 
the successful monarch Vikramaditya set out with them and 
his forces, and reached the city of Ujjayini. 

Then, the kings having been dismissed with marks of 
honour x to their own territories, and the world-gladdening 
festival of the spring season having arrived, when the creepers 
began, so to speak, to adorn themselves with flowers for 
jewels, and the female bees to keep up a concert with their 
humming, and the ranges of the wood to dance embraced 
by the wind, and the cuckoos with melodious notes to utter 
auspicious prayers, King Vikramaditya married on a for- 
tunate day that daughter of the King of Simhala, and 
those two heavenly maidens. And Simhavarman, the eldest 
brother of the Princess of Simhala, who had come with her, 
bestowed at the marriage-altar a great heap of jewels. 

1 Dr Kern would read sammmiitavisrishteshu ; and this is the reading of the 
Taylor MS. and of the Sanskrit College MS. ; No. 3003 has sammanitair. 

34 



NAGARASVAMIN THE PAINTER 35 

And at that moment the YakshinI Madanamanjari 
appeared, and gave those two heavenly maidens countless 
heaps of jewels. The Yakshi said : " How can I ever, King, 
recompense you for your benefits ? But I have done this un- 
important service to testify my devotion to you. So you must 
show favour to these maidens, and to the deer." When the 
YakshinI had said this, she departed honoured by the king. 

Then the successful King Vikramaditya, having obtained 
those wives and the earth with all its dvipas, ruled a realm 
void of opponents : and he enjoyed himself roaming in all 
the garden grounds during the hot season living in the 
water of tanks and in artificial fountain-chambers ; during 
the rains in inner apartments, charming on account of the 
noise of cymbals that arose in them; during tl^e autumn on 
the tops of palaces, joyous with banquets under the rising 
moon; during the winter in chambers where comfortable 
couches were spread, and which were fragrant with black 
aloes being ever surrounded by his wives. 

Now, this king, being such as I have described, had a 
painter named Nagarasvamin, who enjoyed the revenues 
of a hundred villages, and surpassed Visvakarman. That 
painter used every two or three days to paint a picture of 
a girl, and give it as a present to the king, taking care to 
exemplify different types of beauty. 

Now, once on a time, it happened that that painter 

had, because a feast was going on, forgotten to paint the 

required girl for the king. And when the day for giving the 

The Wonder- present arrived, the painter remembered and was 

Jul Picture bewildered, saying to himself : " Alas ! what can 

I give to the king ? " And at that moment a traveller, come 

from afar, suddenly approached him and placed a book in his 

i hand, and went off somewhere quickly. The painter, out of 

r curiosity, opened the book, and saw within a picture of a girl 

on canvas. Inasmuch as the girl was of wonderful beauty, no 

^sooner did he see her picture than he took it and gave 

v, it to the king, rejoicing that, so far from having no picture 

to present that day, he had obtained such an exceedingly 

beautiful one. But the king, as soon as he saw it, was 

astonished, and said to him : " My good fellow, this is not 



36 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

your painting, this is the painting of Visvakarman : for how 
could a mere mortal be skilful enough to paint such beauty ? " 
When the painter heard this, he told the king exactly what 
had taken place. 

Then the king kept ever looking at the picture of the girl, 
and never took his eyes off it; and one night he saw in a 
dream a girl exactly like her, but in another dvipa. But as 
he eagerly rushed to embrace her, who was eager to meet 
him, the night came to an end, and he was woke up by 
the watchman. 1 When the king awoke, he was so angry 
at the interruption of his delightful interview with that 
maiden, that he banished that watchman from the city. 
And he said to himself : "To think that a traveller should 
bring a book, and that in it there should be the painted 
figure of a girl, and that I should in a dream behold this 
same girl apparently alive ! All this elaborate dispensation 
of destiny makes me think that she must be a real maiden, 
but I do not know in what dvipa she lives ; how am I to 
obtain her?" 

Full of such reflections, the king took pleasure in nothing, 2 
and burned with the fever of love so that his attendants 
were full of anxiety. And the warder Bhadrayudha asked 
the afflicted king in private the cause of his grief, whereupon 
he spake as follows : 

" Listen, I will tell you, my friend. So much at any rate 
you know that that painter gave me the picture of a girl. 
And I fell asleep thinking on her ; and I remember that in 
my dream I crossed the sea, and reached and entered a very 
beautiful city. There I saw many armed maidens in front of 
me, and they, as soon as they saw me, raised a tumultuous 
cry of ' Kill, kill.' 3 Then a certain female ascetic came and, 
with great precipitation, made me enter her house, and briefly 
said to me this : ' My son, here is the man-hating princess 
Malay avati come this way, diverting herself as she pleases. 

1 For falling in love with a lady seen in a dream see Vol. Ill, p. 82, 82w 2 , 
and Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, pp. 45, 46 and 49. For falling in love with 
a lady seen in a picture, see Vol. IV, p. 132, 132W 1 . 

2 I read aratiman for ratiman in the Sanskrit College MS. The Taylor MS. 
has sarvatranratiman ; the other agrees with Brockhaus. 

8 I read pravesyaiva. 



THE ARROWS OF LOVE 37 

And the moment she sees a man, she makes these maidens 
of hers kill him : so I brought you in here to save your 
life.' s 

" When the female ascetic had said this, she immediately 
made me put on female attire ; and I submitted to that, 
knowing that it was not lawful to slay those maidens. But 
when the princess entered into the house with her maidens, 
I looked at her, and lo ! she was the very lady that had been 
shown me in the picture. And I said to myself : ' Fortunate 
am I in that, after first seeing this lady in a picture, I now 
behold her again in flesh and blood, dear as my life.' 

" In the meanwhile the princess, at the head of her maidens, 
said to that female ascetic : ' We saw some male enter here.' 
The ascetic showed me, and answered : ' I know of no male ; 
here is my sister's daughter, who is with me as a guest.' 
Then the princess, seeing me although I was disguised as a 
woman forgot her dislike of men, and was at once overcome 
by love. She remained for a moment, with every hair on her 
body erect, motionless, as if in thought, being, so to speak, 
nailed to the spot at once with arrows by Love, who had spied 
his opportunity. And in a moment the princess said to the 
ascetic : ' Then, noble lady, why should not your sister's 
daughter be my guest also ? Let her come to my palace ; 
I will send her back duly honoured.' Saying this, she took 
me by the hand, and led me away to her palace. And I 
remember, I discerned her intention, and consented, and 
went there, and that sly old female ascetic gave me leave to 
depart. 

"Then I remained there with that princess, who was 
diverting herself with the amusement of marrying her maidens 
to one another, and so forth. Her eyes were fixed on me, 
and she would not let me out of her sight for an instant, and 
no occupation pleased her in which I did not take part. Then 

1 Cf. Ralston's Russian Folk-Tales, p. 97 ; in Waldau's Bbhmische M'drchen, 
p. 444, there is a beautiful Amazon who fights with the prince on condition 
that if he is victorious she is to be his prisoner, but if she is victorious, he is 
to be put to death. Rohde, in Der Griechische Roman, p. 148, gives a long 
list of M coy huntress maids." Spenser's Radigund, Faerie Queene, Book V, 

cantos 4-7, bears a close resemblance to Malayavatl. Cf. the fair Amazon in 

the "Tale of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman," Nights, Burton, vol. ii, p. 96. n.m.p. 



38 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

those maidens, I remember, made the princess a bride, and 
me her husband, and married us in sport. And when we 
had been married, we entered at night the bridal chamber, and 
the princess fearlessly threw her arms round my neck. And 
then I told her who I was, and embraced her ; and, delighted 
at having attained her object, she looked at me and then 
remained a long time with her eyes bashfully fixed on the 
ground. And at that moment that villain of a watchman 
woke me up. So, Bhadrayudha, the upshot of the whole 
matter is that I can no longer live without that Malayavati, 
whom I have seen in a picture and in a dream." 

When the king said this, the warder, Bhadrayudha, per- 
ceived that it was a true dream, and he consoled the monarch, 
and said to him : "If the king remembers it all exactly, let 
him draw that city on a piece of canvas in order that some 
expedient may be devised in this matter." The moment the 
king heard this suggestion of Bhadrayudha's, he proceeded 
to draw that splendid city on a piece of canvas, and all the 
scene that took place there. Then the warder at once took 
the drawing, and had a new monastery * made, and hung it 
up there on the wall. And he directed that in relief-houses 
attached to the monastery, a quantity of food, with pairs of 
garments and gold, should be given to bards coming from 
distant countries. And he gave this order to the dwellers 
in the monastery : " If anyone comes here who knows the city 
represented here in a picture, let me be informed of it." 2 

In the meanwhile the fierce elephant of the rainy season, 
with irresistible loud deep thunder-roar and long ketaka tusks, 
came down upon the forest of the heats a forest, the breezes 
of which were scented with the perfume of the jasmine, in 
which travellers sat down on the ground in the shade, and 
trumpet-flowers bloomed. At that time the forest-fire of 
separation of that King Vikramaditya began to burn more 
fiercely, fanned by the eastern breeze. 3 Then the following 

1 Sanskrit, matha. 

2 For a note on methods of finding people, see Chauvin, op. cit., v, p. 90. 

N.M.P. 

3 The Petersburg lexicographers would read paurattya ; and I find this in 
the Taylor MS. and the Sanskrit College MS. The same MSS. read ambudasyamo 
for atha durdarsa. The latter word should be spelt durdharsha. 



THE PAINTING ON THE WALL 39 

cries were heard among the ladies of his court : " Haralata, 
bring ice ! Chitrangi, sprinkle him with sandalwood juice ! 
Patralekha, make a bed cool with lotus leaves ! Kandar- 
pasena, fan him with plantain leaves ! " And in course of 
time the cloudy season, terrible with lightning, passed away 
for that king, but the fever of love, burning ' with the 
sorrow of separation, did not pass away. 

Then the autumn, with her open-lotus face and smile of 
unclosed flowers, came, vocal with the cries of swans, 2 seeming 
to utter this command : " Let travellers advance on their 
journey ; let pleasant tidings be brought about absent dear 
ones ; happy may their merry meetings be ! " On a certain 
day in that season a bard who had come from a distance 
of the name of Sambarasiddhi, having heard the fame of that 
monastery, built by the warder, entered it to get food. After 
he had been fed, and presented with a pair of garments, he 
saw that painting on the wall of the monastery. When the 
bard had carefully scanned the city delineated there, he was 
astonished, and said : "I wonder who can have drawn this 
city ? For I alone have seen it, I am certain, and no other ; 
and here it is drawn by some second person." When the 
inhabitants of the monastery heard that, they told Bhadra- 
yudha ; then he came in person, and took that bard to the 
king. The king said to Sambarasiddhi : " Have you really 
seen that city ? " Then Sambarasiddhi gave him the following 
answer : 

" When I was wandering about the world, I crossed the 
sea that separates the dvipas, and beheld that great city 
Malayapura. In that city there dwells a king of the name 
of Malayasimha, and he has a matchless daughter, named 
Malayavati, who used to abhor males. But one night she 
somehow or other saw in a dream a great hero in a convent. 8 

1 I read savirahajvalo and sakasa in //. 72. 

2 The two India Office MSS. that contain this passage, and the Sanskrit 
College MS., make the compound end in ravaik, so the command will be given 
by the cries of the swans. In //. 71, for grathyantam, No. 1882 and the Sanskrit 
College MS. give budhyantam. In //. 73, for akhyatim, three MSS. give khydtim. 

3 Sanskrit, vihara. The tapasi of //. 39 was therefore a Buddhist. No. 3003 
reads viharanirgata, which agrees with //. 40. No. 1882 has viharanirgatam. 
The Sanskrit College MS. has viharanirgataip. 



40 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

The moment she saw him, that evil spirit of detestation of 
the male sex fled from her mind, as if terrified. Then she 
took him to her palace, and in her dream married him, and 
entered with him the bridal chamber. And at that moment 
the night came to an end, and an attendant in her room woke 
her up. Then she banished that servant in her anger, think- 
ing upon that dear one whom she had seen in her dream; 
seeing no way of escape owing to the blazing fire of separation, 
utterly overpowered by love, she never rose from her couch 
except to fall back upon it again with relaxed limbs. She 
was dumb as if possessed by a demon; as if stunned by a 
blow ' for when her attendants questioned her, she gave them 
no answer. 

" Then her father and mother came to hear of it, and 
questioned her ; and at last she was, with exceeding diffi- 
culty, persuaded to tell them what happened to her in the 
dream, by the mouth of a confidential female friend. Then 
her father comforted her, but she made a solemn vow that, 
if she did not obtain her beloved in six months, she would 
enter the fire. And already five months are past ; who 
knows what will become of her ? This is the story that I 
heard about her in that city." 

When Sambarasiddhi had told this story, which tallied so 
well with the king's own dream, the king was pleased at know- 
ing the certainty of the matter, and Bhadrayudha said to 
him : " The business is as good as effected, for that king and 
his country own your paramount supremacy. So let us go 
there before the sixth month has passed away." When the 
warder had said this, King Vikramaditya made him inform 
Sambarasiddhi of all the circumstances connected with the 
matter, and honoured him with a present of much wealth, 
and bade him show him the way, and then he seemed to 
bequeath his own burning heat to the rays of the sun, his 
paleness to the clouds, and his thinness to the waters of 
the rivers, 2 and having become free from sorrow, set out at 
once, escorted by a small force, for the dwelling-place of his 
beloved. 

1 For ghdta, No. 1882 has tamak and No. 3003 vata. 

2 This probably means that he started in the autumn. 



THE REALITY OF THE DREAM 41 

In course of time, as he advanced, he crossed the sea, and 
reached that city, and there he saw the people in front of it 
engaged in loud lamentation, and when he questioned them, 
he received this answer : " The Princess Malayavati here, 
as the period of six months is at an end, and she has not 
obtained her beloved, is preparing to enter the fire." Then 
the king went to the place where the pyre had been made 
ready. 

When the people saw him, they made way for him, and 
then the princess beheld that unexpected nectar-rain to her 
eyes. And she said to her ladies-in-waiting : " Here is that 
beloved come who married me in a dream, so tell my father 
quickly." They went and told this to her father, and then 
that king, delivered from his grief, and filled with joy, 
submissively approached the sovereign. 

At that moment the bard Sambarasiddhi, who knew his 
time, lifted up his arm, and chanted aloud this strain : " Hail, 
thou that with the flame of thy valour hast consumed the 
forest of the army of demons and Mlechchhas ! Hail, King, 
lord of the seven-sea-girt earth-bride ! Hail, thou that hast 
imposed thy exceedingly heavy yoke on the bowed heads 
of all kings, conquered by thee ! Hail, Vishamasila ! Hail, 
Vikramaditya, ocean of valour ! " 

When the bard said this, King Malayasimha knew that it 
was Vikramaditya himself that had come, and embraced his 
feet. 1 And after he had welcomed him, he entered his palace 
with him, and his daughter Malayavati, thus delivered from 
death. And that king gave that daughter of his to King 
Vikramaditya, thinking himself fortunate in having obtained 
such a son-in-law. And King Vikramaditya, when he saw 
in his arms, in flesh and blood, that Malayavati, whom he 
had previously seen in a picture and in a dream, considered 
it a wonderful fruit of the wishing-tree of Siva's favour. 
Then Vikramaditya took with him his wife Malayavati, like 
an incarnation of bliss, and crossed the sea resembling his 
long regretful 2 separation, and being submissively waited 

1 No. 3003, yatha chitre tathd svapne yatha svapne tathaivalam vilokya sakshad ; 
so too No. 1882. The Sanskrit College MS. agrees, but omits yatha svapne. 

2 The word that means "regret " may also mean " wave." 



42 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

upon at every step by kings, with various presents in their 
hands, returned to his own city Ujjayinl. And on beholding 
there that might of his, that satisfied x freely every kind of 
curiosity, what people were not astonished, what people did 
not rejoice, what people did not make high festival ? 

1 I follow Bohtlingk and Roth. Dr Kern would read sojjlkrita in the 
sense of " prepared " ; he takes kautukam in the sense of nuptial ceremonies. 
No. 1882 (the Taylor MS.) has mantu and No. 3003 has satyl. The Sanskrit 
College MS. supports Brockhaus' text. 



CHAPTER CXXIII 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

THEN, once on a time, in the course of conversation, 
one of Vikramaditya's queens, called Kalingasena, 
said to her rival queens : " What the king did for the 
sake of Malayavati was not wonderful, for this King Visha- 
masila has ever been famous on the earth for such like acts. 
Was not I swooped down on by him and married by force, 
after he had seen a carved likeness of me and Jbeen overcome 
by love ? On this account the kdrpatika l Devasena told me 
a story : that story I will proceed to tell you. Listen. 

" I was very much vexed, and exclaimed : ' How can the 
king be said to have married me lawfully ? ' Then the kdr- 
patika said to me : 4 Do not be angry, Queen, for the king 
married you in eager haste out of a violent passion for you. 
Hear the whole story from the beginning. 

171d. Kalingasena 's Marriage to King Vikramdditya 

Once on a time, when I was serving your husband as a 
kdrpatika, I saw a great boar far away in the wood. Its 
mouth was formidable with tusks, its colour was black as a 
tamdla tree, it looked like an incarnation of the black fortnight 
devouring the digits of the moon. And I came, Queen, and 
informed the king of it, describing to him as I have done to 
you. And the king went out to hunt, attracted by his love 
for the sport. And when he reached the wood, and was deal- 
ing death among the tigers and deer, he saw in the distance 
that boar of which I had informed him. And when he saw 
that wonderful boar, he came to the conclusion that some 
being had assumed that form with an object, and he ascended 
his horse called Ratnakara, the progeny of Uchchhaihs'ravas. 

1 See Vol. II, p. 178, I78n l ; Vol. IV, p. 168, 168^, and Vol. VI, p. 209, 
209n 2 . n.m.p. 
43 



44 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

For every day at noon, the sun waits a brief space in the 
sky, and then his charioteer, the dawn, lets the horses loose, 
that they may bathe and feed : and one day Uchchhaih- 
sravas, having been unyoked from the chariot of the sun, 
approached a mare of the king's, that he saw in the forest, 
and begot that horse. 1 

So the king mounted that swift horse, and quickly pursued 
that boar, that fled to a very remote 2 part of the forest. 
Then that boar escaped somewhere from his view, being 
swifter even than that horse that had Uchchhaihsravas for a 
sire. Then the king, not having caught him, and seeing that 
I alone had followed him, while he had left the rest of his suite 
far behind, asked me this question : " Do you know how 
much ground we have traversed to get to this place ? " 
When I heard that, Queen, I made the king this answer : 
" My lord, we have come three hundred yojanas." Then the 
king, being astonished, said : " Then how have you managed 
to come so far on foot ? " When he asked me this question 
I answered : " King, I have an ointment for the feet ; hear 
the way in which I acquired it. 

" Long ago, on account of the loss of my wife, I went forth 
to make a pilgrimage to all the holy bathing-places, and in 
the course of my journey I came one evening to a temple with 
H D a garden. And I went in there to pass the night, 

sena obtained and I saw inside a woman, and I remained there 
the Magic hospitably welcomed by her. And during the 
course of the night she elevated one lip to heaven, 
resting the other on the earth, and with expanded jaws said 
to me : 4 Have you seen before anywhere such a mouth as 
this ? ' Then I fearlessly drew my dagger with a frown, and 
said to her : * Have you seen such a man as this ? ' Then 
she assumed a gentle appearance without any horrible dis- 
tortion of shape, and said to me : ' I am a YakshI, Vandhya 
by name, and I am pleased with your courage ; so now tell 
me what I can do to gratify you.' 

" When the Yakshini said this, I answered her : ' If you 
are really pleased with me, then enable me to go round to all 

1 Cf. Iliad, v, 265 et seq. ; and (still better) Mneid, vii, 280 et seq. 
* Deviyasim is a misprint for daviyasim, as Dr Kern points out. 



THE MAGIC OINTMENT 45 

the holy waters without any suffering.' When the Yakshi 
heard this, she gave me an ointment for my feet * ; by means 
of it I travelled to all the holy bathing-places, and I have been 
able to run behind you now so far as this place. And by its 
aid I come to this wood here every day, and eat fruits, and 
then return to Ujjayini and attend upon you." 

When I had told that tale to the king, I saw by his pleased 
face that he thought in his heart that I was a follower well 
suited to him. I again said to him : " King, I will bring 
you here some very sweet fruits, if you will be pleased to 
eat them." The king said to me : " I will not eat ; I do 
not require anything ; but do you eat something, as you are 
exhausted." Then I got hold of a gourd and ate it, and no 
sooner had I eaten it than it turned me into a/python. 

But King Vishamasila, when he saw me suddenly turn 
into a python, was astonished and despondent. So, being 
there alone, he called to mind the Vetala Bhiitaketu, whom 
he had long ago made his servant, by delivering him with a 
look from a disease of the eyes. That Vetala came, as soon 
as the king called him to mind, and bowing before him said : 
" Why did you call me to mind, great king ? Give me your 
orders." Then the king said : " Good sir, this my kdrpatika 
has been suddenly turned into a python by eating a gourd ; 
restore him to his former condition." But the Vetala said : 
" King, I have not the power to do this. Powers are strictly 
limited. Can water quench the flame of lightning ? " Then 
the king said : " Then let us go to this village, my friend. 
We may eventually hear of some remedy from the Bhillas 
there." 

When the king had come to this conclusion, he went to 
that village with the Vetala. There the bandits surrounded 

1 In European superstition we find the notion that witches can fly through 
the air by anointing themselves with the fat of a toad, Veckenstedt, Wendische 
Mdrchen, p. 288. In Bartsch, Sagen und Gebrauche aus Meklenburg, we read 
(vol. ii, p. 19) that Margretha Detloses confesses that she smeared her feet 
with some black stuff that Satan brought, and then said, Auf und darvan und 
nergens an. Anneke Mettinges (ibid., p. 23) smeared herself with yellow fat ; 

Anneke Swarten (ibid. p. 27) with black stuff from an unused pot. Cf. the 

magic ointment in the Nights, " The Adventures of Bulukiya," vol. v, p. 308 
et seq. n.m.p. 



46 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

him, seeing that he wore ornaments. But when they began 
to rain arrows upon him, the Vetala, by the order of the king, 
devoured five hundred of them. The rest fled and told their 
chief what had occurred, and he, whose name was Ekakike- 
s*arin, came there in wrath, with his host. But one of his 
servants recognized the monarch, and the chief, hearing from 
him who it was, came and clung to Vikramaditya's feet, and 
announced himself. Then the king welcomed kindly the sub- 
missive chief, and asked after his health, and said to him : 
" My kdrpatika has become a python by eating the fruit of a 
gourd in the forest ; so devise some plan for releasing him 
from his transformation." 

When that chief heard that speech of the king's, he said to 
him : " King, let this follower of yours show him to my son 
here." Then that son of his came with the Vetala, and made 
me a man as before by means of a sternutatory made of the 
extract of a plant. And then we went joyfully into the 
presence of the king ; and when I bent at the feet of the king, 
the king informed the delighted chief who I was. 

Then the Bhilla chief, Ekakikesarin, after obtaining the 
king's consent, conducted him and us to his palace. And we 
beheld that dwelling of his, crowded with Savaras, having its 
high walls covered with the tusks of elephants, adorned with 
tiger-skins ; in which the women had for garments the tails 
of peacocks, for necklaces strings of gunjd fruit, and for 
perfume the ichor that flows from the forehead of elephants. 
There the wife of the chief, having her garments perfumed 
with musk, adorned with pearls and such like ornaments, 
herself waited on the king. 

Then the king, having bathed and taken a meal, observed 
that the chief's sons were old, while he was a young man, and 
put this question to him : " Chief, explain, I pray you, this 
that puzzles me. How comes it that you are a young man, 
whereas these children of yours are old ? " 

When the king had said this to the Savara chief, he 
answered him : " This, King, is a strange story. Listen, if 
you feel any curiosity about it. 



THE HEAVENLY FRUIT 47 

171d (1). The Grateful Monkey l 

I was long ago a Brahman named Chandrasvamin, and I 
lived in the city of Mayapuri. One day I went by order of 
my father to the forest to fetch wood. There a monkey stood 
barring my way, but without hurting me, looking at me with 
an eye of grief, pointing out to me another path. I said to 
myself : " This monkey does not bite me, so I had better go 
along the path which he points out, and see what his object 
is." Thereupon I set out with him along that path, and the 
monkey kept going along in front of me, and turning round to 
look at me. And after he had gone some distance, he climbed 
up a jambu tree, and I looked at the upper part of the tree 
which was covered with a dense network of creepers and I 
saw a female monkey there with her body fettered by a mass 
of creepers twisted round her, and I understood that it was 
on this account that the monkey had brought me there. Then 
I climbed up the tree, and cut with my axe the creepers 2 that 
had twisted round and entangled her, and set that female 
monkey at liberty. 

And when I got down from the tree, the male and female 
monkey came down also and embraced my feet. And the 
male monkey left that female clinging to my feet for a moment 
and went and fetched a heavenly fruit, and gave it to me. I 
took it and returned home after I had got my fuel, and there 
I and my wife ate that splendid fruit together, and as soon as 
we had eaten it, we ceased to be liable to old age and disease. 3 

1 See Vol. V, pp. 157, 157ft 1 , 158n. The present story bears perhaps a 
closer resemblance to that of Androclus, Aulus Gellius, Nodes Atticce, v, 14, the 
Indian form of which may be found in Miss Stokes' tale of " The Man who 

went to seek his Fate," Indian Fairy Tales, p. 63 et seq. Owing to the large 

number of sub-tales introduced, a slightly different form of enumeration has 
to be adopted. n.m.p. 

2 Vati should, of course, be valti. 

3 Cf. Oesterley's Baital Pachlsl, p. 14 ; and the note on p. 176. In 
Elian's Varia Historia, iii, 19, there is a tree, the fruit of which makes an old 
man become gradually younger and younger until he reaches the antenatal 
state of non-existence. The passage is referred to by Rohde, Der Griechische 
Roman, p. 207. Baring-Gould, in Appendix A to his Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, gives a very curious passage from the Bragda Magus Saga, an Icelandic 
version of the romance of Maugis. Here we have a man named Vidforull who 



48 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Then there arose in that eountry of ours the scourge of 
famine. And afflicted by that calamity the people of that 
land fled in all directions. And I happened in course of time 
to reach this country with my wife. And at that time there 
was a kino of the Savaras named Kanchanadamshtra. I 
entered his service with my sword. And as Kanchanadam- 
shtra saw that I came to the front in several engagements, he 
appointed me general. And as I had won the affections of 
that master of mine by my exclusive devotion to him, when 
he died, having no son, he bestowed on me his kingdom. And 
twenty-seven hundred years have passed over my head, since 
I have been in this place, and yet, owing to eating that fruit, 
I do not suffer from old age. 

171d. Kalingasend's Marriage to King Vikramaditya 

When Ekakikesarin, the King of the Bhillas, had told in 
these words his own history, he went on to ask a favour of 
the astonished monarch, saying : " By the fruit given by the 
monkey I gained a long life, and by that long life I have again 
obtained a perfect fruit namely, the sight of your august self. 
So I entreat, King, that the condescension towards me which 
you have shown by coming to my house, may be developed 
into gracious approval. I have, King, a daughter of match- 
less beauty, born to me by a Kshatriya wife, and her name is 
Madanasundari. That pearl of maidens ought not to fall to 
the lot of anyone but your Highness. Therefore I bestow her 
on you ; marry her with due ceremonies. And I, sovereign, 
will follow you as your slave with twenty thousand archers." 

When the Bhilla chief addressed this petition to the king, 
he granted it. And in an auspicious hour he married the 
daughter of that chief, who gave him a hundred camels laden 
with pearls and musk. And after the king had remained 
there seven days, he set out thence with Madanasundari and 
the army of the Bhillas. 

was in the habit of changing his skin and becoming young again. He changed 
his skin once when he was 330 years old, a second time at the age of 215 and 
a third time in the presence of Charlemagne. It is quite possible that the story 
in the text is a form of the fable of the Wandering Jew. 



u 

a: 



THE BOAR IS SLAIN 49 

In the meanwhile, after the king had been carried away 
by his horse, our army remained despondent in the forest, 
where the hunting took place ; but the warder Bhadrayudha 
said to them : " Away with despondency ! Even though our 
king has been away for a long time, he is of divine power, 
and no serious misfortune will happen to him. Do you not 
remember how he went to Patala and married there the 
daughter of a Naga, whose name was Surtipa, and came back 
here alone ; and how the hero went to the world of the Gan- 
dharvas, and returned here with Taravali, the daughter of the 
king of the Gandharvas ? " With these words Bhadrayudha 
consoled them all ; and they remained at the entrance of the 
forest waiting for the king. 

And while that Madanasundari was advancing leisurely 
by an open path, accompanied by the Savara hosts, the king 
entered that forest on horseback, with myself and the Vetala, 
in order to get a sight of the boar he had before seen ; and 
when he entered it, the boar rushed out in front of him, and 
the moment the king saw it, he killed it with five arrows. 
When it was slain, the Vetala rushed to it and tore its belly 
open, and suddenly there issued from it a man of pleasing 
appearance. 

The king, astonished, asked him who he was, and then 
there came there a wild elephant, resembling a moving moun- 
tain. When the king saw that wild elephant charging down 
on him, he smote it in a vital place and slew it with a single 
arrow. The Vetala tore open its belly also, and there issued 
from it a man of heavenly appearance, and a woman beautiful 
in all her limbs. And when the king was about to question 
the man who issued from the boar, he said to him : " Listen, 
King, I am going to tell you my history. 

" We two, King, are two sons of gods * ; this one's name 
is Bhadra, and I am Subha. As we were roaming about we 
observed the hermit Kanva engaged in meditation. We 
assumed in sport the forms of an elephant and a boar, and 
aving done so, we terrified the great sage in our reckless folly, 
and he pronounced on us this curse : ' Become in this forest 
an elephant and boar such as you are now ; but when you 

1 I read devakumarau. 
VOL. IX. D 



50 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

shall be killed by King Vikramaditya, you shall be released 
from the curse.' So we became an elephant and a boar by 
the curse of the hermit, and we have to-day been set free 
by you. As for this woman, let her tell her own story. 
But touch this boar on the neck and this elephant on 
the back, and they will become for you celestial sword and 
shield." 

When he had said this he disappeared with his companion, 
and the boar and elephant, touched by the hand of the king, 
became for him a sword and a shield. Then the woman, being 
questioned about her history, spoke as follows : 

" I am the wife of a great merchant in Ujjayini named 
Dhanadatta. One night, as I was sleeping on the top of a 
palace, this elephant came and swallowed me and brought me 
here ; however, this man was not inside the elephant, but when 
its belly was torn open he came out of it with me." 

When the woman said this in grief, the king said to her : 
"Be of good courage ! I will take you to your husband's 
house. Go and journey along in security with my harem." 
When he had said this, he made the Vetala take her and hand 
her over to the Queen Madanasundari, who was travelling by 
a different path. 

Then, the Vetala having returned, we suddenly saw there 
in the wood two princesses, with a numerous and splendid 
retinue. And the king sent me and summoned their chamber- 
lains, and they, when asked whence the two maidens came, 
told the following story : 

171d (2). The Two Princesses 

There is a dvipa named Kataha, the home of all felicities. 
In it there is a king rightly named Gunasagara. 1 He had 
born to him by his principal queen a daughter named 
Gunavati, who by her beauty produced astonishment even 
in the Creator who made her. And holy seers announced that 
she should have for a husband the lord of the seven dvipas. 
Whereupon her father, the king, deliberated with his coun- 
sellors, and came to this conclusion : " King Vikramaditya 

1 I.e. "sea of virtues." 



THE GREAT FISH 51 

is a suitable husband for my daughter ; so I will send her to 
marry him." 

Accordingly, the king made his daughter embark in a 
ship on the sea, with her retinue and wealth, and sent her 
off. But it so happened that when the ship came near 
Suvarnadvipa it was swallowed, with the princess and the 
people on board, by a large fish. But that monstrous fish was 
carried by the current of the sea, as if by the course of Destiny, 
and thrown up on a coast near that dvipa, and there stranded. 
And the people of the neighbourhood, the moment they saw 
it, ran with many weapons in their hands, and killed that 
marvellous fish, and cut open its belly. 1 And then there 
came out of it that great ship full of people. And when the 
king of that dvlpa heard of it, he came there greatly wonder- 
ing. And that king, whose name was Chandrasekhara, and 
who was the brother-in-law of King Gunasagara, heard the 
whole story from the people in the ship. Then the king, 
finding that Gunavati was the daughter of his sister, took 
her into his palace, and out of joy celebrated a feast. And 
the next day that king put on board a ship in a lucky 
moment his daughter ChandravatI, whom he had long in- 
tended to give to King Vikramaditya, with that Gunavati, 
and sent her off with much magnificence as a gift to that 
sovereign. 

These two princesses, having crossed the sea, by advancing 
gradually, have at length arrived here ; and we are their 
attendants. And when we reached this place, a very large 
boar and a very large elephant rushed upon us. Then, King, 
we uttered this cry : " These maidens have come to offer 
themselves for wives to King Vikramaditya : so preserve 
them for him, ye Guardians of the World, as is meet." When 
the boar and the elephant heard this, they said to us with 
articulate speech : " Be of good courage ! The mere mention 
of that king's name ensures your safety. And you shall 
see him arrive here in a moment." When the boar and the 

1 See Vol. II, pp. 193, 193n l , 194n, and Vol. VI, p. 154, 154n 3 , and Rohde's 
note on page 196 of Der Griechische Roman. This is probably the incident 
depicted on the Bharhut Stupa. See General Cunningham's work, Plate 
XXXIV, Medallion 2. 



52 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

elephant, who were, no doubt, some heavenly beings or others, 
had said this, they went away. 



171d. KalingasenoVs Marriage to King Vikramaditya 

" This is our story," said the chamberlain, and then, 
Queen, I said to them : " And this is the king you seek." 
Then they fell at the king's feet, rejoicing, and made over 
to him those two princesses Gunavati and Chandravati. 
And the king gave orders to the Vetala and had those two 
fair ones also taken to his queen, saying : " Let all three 
travel with Madanasundarl." 

The Vetala returned immediately, and then, Queen, the 
king went with him and myself by an out-of-the-way path. 
And as we were going along in the forest, the sun set ; 
and just at that time we heard there the sound of a drum. 
The king asked : " Whence comes this sound of a drum ? " 
The Vetala answered him : " King, there is a temple here. 
It is a marvel of heavenly skill, having been built by 
Visvakarman; and this beating of the drum is to announce 
the commencement of the evening spectacle." 

When the Vetala had said this, he and the king and I went 
there out of curiosity, and after we had tied up the horse we 
entered. And we saw worshipped there a great linga of 
tdrkshyaratna, 1 and in front of it a spectacle with blazing 
lights. And there danced there for a long time three nymphs 
of celestial beauty, in four kinds of measures, accompanied 
with music and singing. And at the end of the spectacle 
we beheld a wonder, for the dancing nymphs disappeared in 
the figures carved on the pillars of the temple ; and in the 
same way the singers and players went into the figures of 
men painted on the walls. When the king saw this he was 
astonished ; but the Vetala said to him : " Such is this 
heavenly enchantment produced by Visvakarman, lasting for 
ever, for this will always take place at both twilights." 



1 A certain dark-coloured precious stone. Bohtlingk and Roth s.v. 

Sir George Grierson tells me he thinks it must be the same as the Garuda- 
manikya, which means " emerald." Both words have the same literal meaning 
anyway. n.m.p. 



THE STORY OF DHANADATTA 53 

When he had said this, we wandered about in the temple, 
and saw in one place a female figure, on a pillar, of extra- 
ordinary beauty. When the king saw her, he was bewildered 
by her beauty, and remained for a moment absent-minded and 
motionless, so that he himself was like a figure cut on a pillar. 
And he exclaimed : " If I do not see a living woman like this 
figure, of what profit to me is my kingdom or my life ? " 
When the Vetala heard this, he said : " Your wish is not hard 
to gratify, for the King of Kalinga has a daughter named 
Kalingasena, and a sculptor of Vardhamana seeing her, and 
being desirous of representing her beauty, carved this figure in 
imitation of her. 1 So return to Ujjayini, King, and ask that 
King of Kalinga for his daughter, or carry her off by force." 
This speech of the Vetala's the king laid up in his heart. 

Then we spent that night there. And the next morning we 
set out, and we saw two handsome men under an asoka tree, 
and then they rose up and bowed before the king. Then the 
king said to them : " Who are you, and why are you in the 
forest ? " One of them answered : " Listen, King, I will tell 
you the whole story. 

171d (3). The Merchant Dhanadatta who lost his Wife 

I am the son of a merchant in Ujjayini, and my name is 
Dhanadatta. Once on a time I went to sleep on the top of 
my palace. In the morning I woke up and looked about me, 
and lo ! my wife was not in the palace, nor in the garden 
attached to it, nor anywhere about it. I said to myself : 
44 She has not lost her heart to another man ; of that I am 
convinced by the fact that the garland which she gave me, 
telling me that as long as she remained chaste it would cer- 
tainly not fade, is still as fresh as ever. 2 So I cannot think 
where she has gone whether she has been carried off by a 
demon or some other evil being, or what has happened to 

1 The Petersburg lexicographers explain it as a statue of sala wood. They 
explain stambhotlarna too as wie aus einem Pf'osten geschnitten, wie eine Statue von 
Holz. But could not the figures be cut in stone, as the Bharhut sculptures are ? 

2 See Vol. I, pp. 156, l6'5-l68. The parallel to the story of the " Wright's 
Chaste Wife " is strikingly close. 



54 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

her." With these thoughts in my mind I remained looking 
for her, crying out, lamenting and weeping ; consumed by 
the fire of separation from her ; taking no food. Then my 
relations succeeded at last in consoling me to a certain extent, 
and I took food, and I made my abode in a temple, and 
remained there plunged in grief, feasting Brahmans. 

Once when I was quite broken down, this Brahman came 
to me there, and I refreshed him with a bath and food, and 
after he had eaten, I asked him whence he came, and he 
said : "I am from a village near Varanasi." My servants 
told him my cause of woe, and he said : " Why have you, 
like an unenterprising man, allowed your spirits to sink ? 
The energetic man obtains even that which it is hard to 
attain ; so rise up, my friend, and let us look for your wife. 
I will help you." 

I said : " How are we to look for her, when we do not even 
know in what direction she has gone ? " When I said this, 
he answered me kindly : " Do not say this. Did not Kesata 
long ago recover his wife, when it seemed hopeless he should 
ever be reunited with her ? Hear his story in proof of it. 

171d (4). The Two Brahmans Kesata and Kandarpa 

There lived in the city of Pataliputra a wealthy young 
Brahman, the son of a Brahman ; his name was Kesata, and 
he was in beauty like a second God of Love. He wished to 
obtain a wife like himself, and so he went forth secretly * 
from his parents' house, and wandered through various lands 
on the pretext of visiting holy bathing-places. And in the 
course of his wanderings he came once on a time to a bank of 
the Narmada, and he saw a numerous procession of bride- 
groom's friends coming that way. And a distinguished old 
Brahman, belonging to that company, when he saw Kesata 
in the distance, left his companions, and coming up to him 
accosted him, and respectfully said to him in private : "I 
have a certain favour to ask of you, and it is one which you 
can easily do for me, but the benefit conferred on me will be 

1 Dr Kern would read avidito. This is confirmed by the Sanskrit College 
MS. and by MS. No. 1882 ; No. 3003 has avadito. 



THE BARGAIN 55 

a very great one ; so, if you will do it, I will proceed to say 
what it is." When Kesata heard this, he said : " Noble sir, 
if what you say is possible, I must certainly do it : let the 
benefit be conferred on you." 

When the Brahman heard that, he said : " Listen, my 
good young man. I have a son, who is the prince of ugly, as 
you are of good-looking, men. He has projecting teeth, a flat 
nose, a black colour, squinting eyes, a big belly, crooked feet, 
and ears like winnowing-baskets. Though he is such, I, out 
of my love for him, described him as handsome, and asked 
a Brahman, named Ratnadatta, to give him his daughter, 
named Riipavati, and he has agreed to do it. The girl is as 
beautiful as her name expresses, and to-day they are to be 
married. For this reason we have come. But I know that, 
when that purposed connection of mine sees my son, he will 
refuse to give him his daughter, and this attempt will be fruit- 
less. And while thinking how I could find some way out of 
the difficulty, I have met you here, courteous sir ; so quickly 
perform for me my desire, as you have pledged your word to 
do. Come with us and marry that maiden, and hand her over 
to my son to-day, for you are as good-looking as the bride." 

When Kesata heard this, he said : " Agreed ! " And so 
the old Brahman took Kesata with him, and they crossed the 
Narmada in boats and landed on the opposite bank. And 
so he reached the city, and rested outside it with his followers, 
and at that time the sun also, the traveller of the sky, went to 
his rest on the mountain of setting. Then the darkness began 
to diffuse itself abroad, and Kesata, having gone to rinse his 
mouth, saw a terrible Rakshasa rise up near the water. And 
the Rakshasa said : " Where will you go from me, 1 Kesata ? 
I am about to devour you." Thereupon Kesata said to the 
Rakshasa : " Do not devour me now ; I will certainly come 
back to you presently, when I have done the Brahman the 
service I promised." When the Rakshasa heard this, he 
made Kesata take an oath to this effect, 2 and then let him 

1 Both the India Office MSS. and the Sanskrit College MS. have yasyasi for 
pasyasi. The latter would mean : " Where will you drink ? " 

2 This is another example of the " Promise to Return " motif. See Ocean, 
Vol. VII, p. 203, 203n 1 . n.m.p. 



56 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

go ; and he returned to the company of the bridegroom's 
friends. 

Then the old Brahman brought Kesata adorned with the 
ornaments of a bridegroom, and entered that city with all 
the bridegroom's party. And then he made him enter the 
house of Ratnadatta, in which an altar-platform was ready 
prepared, and which was made to resound with the music of 
various instruments. And Kesata married there with all due 
ceremonies that fair-faced RupavatI, to whom her father gave 
great wealth. And the women there rejoiced, seeing that the 
bride and bridegroom were well matched. And not only 
RupavatI, when she saw that such a bridegroom had arrived, 
but her friends also, fell in love with him. But Kesata at that 
time was overpowered with despondency and astonishment. 

And at night RupavatI, seeing that her husband, as he lay 
on the bed, was plunged in thought, and kept his head turned 
away, pretended to be asleep. And in the dead of night 
Kesata, thinking that she was asleep, went out to that Rak- 
shasa to keep his promise. And that faithful wife RupavatI 
also gently rose up unobserved and followed her husband, full 
of curiosity. And when Kesata arrived where the Rakshasa 
was, the latter said to him : " Bravo ! You have kept your 
promise faithfully, Kesata : you are a man of noble character. 
You sanctify your city of Pataliputra and your father Desata 
by your virtue, so approach, that I may devour you." When 
RupavatI heard that, she came up quickly and said : " Eat 
me, for if my husband is eaten, what will become of me ? " 
The Rakshasa said : " You can live on alms." She replied : 
" Who, noble sir, will give alms to me who am a woman ? " 
The Rakshasa said : "If anyone refuses to give you alms 
when asked to do so, his head shall split in a hundred pieces." * 
Then she said : " This being so, give me my husband by way 
of alms." And as the Rakshasa would not give him, his head 
at once split asunder, and he died. Then RupavatI returned 
to her bridal chamber with her husband, who was exceedingly 
astonished at her virtue, and at that moment the night came 
to an end. 

And the next morning the bridegroom's friends took food 
1 Cf. Vol. V, pp. 95, 96. n.m.p. 



KESATA IS SAVED 57 

and set out from that city, and reached the bank of the Nar- 
mada with the newly married pair. Then the old Brahman, 
who was their leader, put the wife Rupavati, with her attend- 
ants, on board one boat, and went on board a second himself, 
and cunningly made Kesata embark on a third, having pre- 
viously made an agreement with the boatmen ; but before he 
went on board he took from him all the ornaments he had 
lent him. Then the Brahman was ferried across with the wife 
and the bridegroom's party, but Kesata was kept out in the 
middle of the stream by the boatmen, and carried to a great 
distance. Then those boatmen pushed the boat and Kesata 
into a place where the current ran full and strong, and swam 
ashore themselves, having been bribed by the old Brahman. 

But Kesata was carried with the boat, by the river which 
was lashed into waves by the wind, into the sea, and at last a 
wave flung him up on the coast. There he recovered strength 
and spirits, as he was not doomed to die just yet ; and he said 
to himself : " Well, that Brahman has made me a fine recom- 
pense ! But was not the fact that he married his son by 
means of a substitute in itself sufficient proof that he was a 
fool and a scoundrel ? " 

While he remained there, buried in such thoughts, the 
night came on him, when the companies of air-flying witches 
begin to roam about. He remained sleepless through it, and 
in the fourth watch he heard a noise in the sky, and saw a 
handsome ' man fall from heaven in front of him. Kesata 
was terrified at first, but after some time he saw that he had 
nothing uncanny about him, so he said to him : " Who are 
you, sir ? " Then the man said : " First tell me who you 
are, and then I will tell you who I am." Hearing that, 
Kesata told him his history. Then the man said : " My 
friend, you are exactly in the same predicament as myself, 
so I will now tell you my history. Listen. 

"There is on the bank of the River Vena a city named 
Ratnapura; I am a Brahman householder in that city, the 
son of a rich man, and my name is Kandarpa. One evening 
I went down to the River Vena to draw water, and I slipped 
and fell into it, and was carried away by the current. The 

1 I insert subhayam before khdd, from the Sanskrit College MS. 



58 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

current carried me a long way during that night, and when 
the morning came, as I was not doomed to die yet, it brought 
me to the foot of a tree that grew on the bank. I climbed 

Kandarpa U P ^ ne ^ an ^ by the ne lp f the tree, and when I 
relates his had recovered breath I saw in front of me a 
Adventures great empty temple dedicated to the Mothers. I 
entered it, and when I saw before me the Mothers flashing, 
as it were, with brightness and power, my fear was allayed, 
and I bowed before them, and praised them, and addressed 
this prayer to them : ' Venerable ones, deliver me, a miserable 
man ; for I have to-day come here as a suppliant for your 
protection.' When I had uttered this prayer, being exhausted 
with my struggles in the current of the river, I rested, my 
friend, till my fatigue gradually disappeared, and the day dis- 
appeared also. And then there appeared the horrible female 
ascetic called Night, furnished with many stars by way of a 
bone necklace, white with moonlight instead of ashes, and 
carrying the moon for a gleaming skull. 

" And then, I remember, a band of witches came out from 
the company of the Mothers, and they said to one another : 
4 To-night we must go to the general assembly of the witches 
in Chakrapura, 1 and how can this Brahman be kept safe in 
this place which is full of wild beasts ? So let us take him 
to some place where he will be happy ; and afterwards we 
will bring him back again : he has fled to us for protection.' 
When they had said this, they adorned me, and, carrying me 
through the air, placed me in the house of a rich Brahman 
in a certain city, and went away. 

" And when I looked about me there, lo ! the altar was 
prepared for a marriage, and the auspicious hour had 
arrived, but the procession of bridegroom's friends was 
nowhere to be seen. And all the people, seeing me in front 
of the door arrayed in bridegroom's garments of heavenly 
splendour, said : * Here is the bridegroom at any rate arrived.' 
Then the Brahman of the house took me to the altar, and 
led his daughter there adorned, and gave her to me with the 
usual ceremonies. And the women said to one another : 

1 Both the India Office MSS. read Vakrapura. The Sanskrit College MS. 
supports Brockhaus' text. 



THE CITY OF BHlMAPURA 59 

1 Fortunate is it that the beauty of Sumanas has borne fruit 
by winning her a bridegroom like herself ! ' Then, having 
married Sumanas, I slept with her in the palace, gratified by 
having every want supplied in the most magnificent style. 

" Then those witches came back from their assembly in 
this last watch of the night, and by their supernatural power 
carried me off, and flew up into the air with me. And while 
they were flying through the air they had a fight with another 
set of witches, who came wishing to carry me off, and they 
let me go, and I fell down here. And I do not know the city 
where I married that Sumanas ; and I cannot tell what will 
become of her now. This succession of misfortunes, which 
Destiny has brought upon me, has now ended in happiness by 
my meeting with you." 

When Kandarpa had given this account of his adventures, 
Kesata said to him : " Do not be afraid, my friend : the 
witches will have no power over you henceforth, since I 
possess a certain irresistible charm, which will keep them at 
a distance. Now let us roam about together ; Destiny will 
bestow on us good fortune." And while they were engaged 
in this conversation the night came to an end. 

In the morning Kesata and Kandarpa set out from that 
place together, and, crossing the sea, reached in due course 
a city named Bhimapura, near the river called Ratnanadi. 
There they heard a great noise on the bank of that river, and 
when they went to the place whence it came, they saw a fish 
that filled the channel of the stream from bank to bank. 
It had been thrown up by the tide of the sea, and had got 
fast in the river owing to the vastness of its bulk, and men 
with various weapons in their hands were cutting it up to 
procure flesh. And while they were cutting it open there 
came out of its belly a woman, and being beheld by the 
people with astonishment, she came terrified to the bank. 

Then Kandarpa looked at her, and said exultingly to 
Kesata : " My friend, here is that very Sumanas, whom I 
married ! But I do not know how she came to be living in 
the belly of a fish. So let us remain here in silence, until 
the whole matter is cleared up." Kesata consented, and 
they remained there. And the people said to Sumanas : 



60 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

" Who are you, and what is the meaning of this ? " Then 
she said very reluctantly : 

" I am the daughter of a crest- jewel of Brahmans, named 
Jayadatta, who lived in the city of Ratnakara. My name is 
Sumanas, and one night I was married to a certain handsome 
young Brahman, who was a suitable match for me. That 
very night my husband went away somewhere, while I was 
asleep ; and though my father made diligent search for him, 
he could not find him anywhere. Then I threw myself into 
the river to cool the fire of grief at separation from him, and 
I was swallowed by this fish ; and now Destiny has brought 
me here." 

While she was saying this a Brahman named Yajnasvamin 
rushed out of the crowd and embraced her, and said this to 
her : " Come, come with me, niece ! You are the daughter of 
my sister ; for I am Yajnasvamin, your mother's own brother. 
When Sumanas heard that, she uncovered her face and looked 
at him, and recognising her uncle, she embraced his feet, 
weeping. But after a moment she ceased weeping, and said 
to him : " Do you give me fuel, for, as I am separated from 
my husband, I have no other refuge but the fire." 

Her uncle did all he could to dissuade her, but she would 
not abandon her intention ; and then Kandarpa, having thus 
seen her real feelings tested, came up to her. When the 
wise Sumanas saw him near her she recognised him, and fell 
weeping at his feet. And when the discreet woman was 
questioned by the people, and by that uncle of hers, she 
answered : " He is my husband." Then all were delighted. 
And Yajnasvamin took her husband Kandarpa to his house, 
together with Kesata. There they told their adventures, and 
Yajnasvamin and his family lovingly waited on them with 
many hospitable attentions. 

After some days had passed, Kesata said to Kandarpa : 
" You have gained all you want by recovering your longed- 
for wife ; so now go with her to Ratnapura, your own city. 
But as I have not attained the object of my desire, I will not 
return to my own country. I, my friend, will make a pilgrim- 
age to all the holy bathing-places and so destroy my body." 
When Yajnasvamin, in Bhimapura, heard this, he said to 



THE TRICK 61 

Kesata : " Why do you utter this despondent speech ? As long 
as people are alive there is nothing they cannot get. In 
proof of this hear the story of Kusumayudha, which I am 
about to tell you. 



171d (5). Kusumayudha and Kamalalochana 

There was in a town named Chandrapura a Brahman 
named Devasvamin : he had a very beautiful daughter 
named Kamalalochana ; and he had a young Brahman 
pupil named Kusumayudha, and that pupil and his daughter 
loved one another well. 

One day her father made up his mind to give her to 
another suitor, and at once that maiden sent by her confidante 
the following message to Kusumayudha : " Though I have 
long ago fixed my heart on you for a husband, my father has 
promised to give me to another, so devise a scheme for carry- 
ing me off hence." So Kusumayudha made an arrangement 
to carry her off, and he placed outside her house at night a 
servant with a mule for that purpose. So she quietly went 
out and mounted the mule, but that servant did not take her 
to his master ; he took her somewhere else, to make her his 
own. 

And during the night he took Kamalalochana a long dis- 
tance, and they reached a certain city by the morning, when 
that chaste woman said to the servant : " Where is my 
husband, your master ? Why do you not take me to him ? " 
When the cunning rogue heard this, he said to her who was 
alone in a foreign country : "I am going to marry you my- 
self : never mind about him ; how can you get to him now ? " 
When the discreet woman heard this, she said : " Indeed I 
love you very much." * Then the rascal left her in the garden 
of the city, and went to the market to buy the things required 
for a wedding. In the meanwhile that maiden fled, with 
the mule, and entered the house of a certain old man who 
made garlands. She told him her history, and he made her 

1 No. 1882 and the Sanskrit College MS. give tarhi for tvayt hi and priyatp. 
for prtyah. No. 3003 agrees with the above MSS. in the first point and in the 
second with Brockhaus. 



62 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

welcome ; so she remained there. And the wicked servant, not 
finding her in the garden, went away from it disappointed, 
and returned to his master Kusumayudha. And when his 
master questioned him, he said : " The fact is, you are an 
upright man yourself, and you do not understand the ways of 
deceitful women. No sooner did she come out and was seen, 
than I was seized there by those other men, and the mule was 
taken away from me. By good luck I managed to escape, 
and have come here." When Kusumayudha heard this, he 
remained silent and plunged in thought. 

One day his father sent him to be married, and as he 
was going along he reached the city where Kamalalochana 
was. There he made the bridegroom's followers encamp in a 
neighbouring garden, and while he was roaming about alone, 
Kamalalochana saw him, and told the garland-maker in 
whose house she was living. He went and told her intended 
husband what had taken place, and brought him to her. Then 
the garland-maker collected the necessary things, and the 
long-desired marriage between the youth and the maiden was 
immediately celebrated. Then Kusumayudha punished that 
wicked servant, and married in addition that second maiden, 
who was the cause of his finding Kamalalochana, and in 
order to marry whom he had started from home. And he 
returned rejoicing to his own country with those two wives. 

171d (4). The Two Brdhmans Kesata and Kandarpa 

" Thus the fortunate are reunited in the most unexpected 
manner ; and so you may be certain, Kesata, of regaining your 
beloved soon in the same way." When Yajnasvamin had 
said this, Kandarpa, Sumanas and Kesata remained for some 
days in his house, and then set out for their own country. 
But on the way they reached a great forest, and they were 
separated from one another in the confusion produced by a 
charge of wild elephants. Of the party Kesata went on alone, 
and grieved, and in course of time reached the city of Kasi 
and found his friend Kandarpa there. And he went with him 
to his own city Pataliputra, and he remained there some time 
welcomed by his father. And there he told his parents all his 



SUMANAS IS LOST 63 

adventures, beginning with his marrying Rupavati, and 
ending with the story of Kandarpa. 

In the meanwhile Sumanas fled, terrified at the elephants, 
and entered a thicket, and while she was there the sun set for 
her. And when night came on she cried out in her woe : 
" Alas, my husband ! Alas, my father ! Alas, my mother ! " 
and resolved to fling herself into a forest fire. And in the 
meanwhile that company of witches, that were so full of pity 
for Kandarpa, having conquered the other witches, reached 
their own temple. There they remembered Kandarpa, and 
finding out by their supernatural knowledge that his wife 
had lost her way in a wood, they deliberated as follows : 
" Kandarpa, being a resolute man, will unaided obtain his 
desire ; but his wife, being a young girl, and having lost her 
way in the forest, will assuredly die. So let us take her 
and put her down in Ratnapura, in order that she may live 
there in the house of Kandarpa's father with his other wife." 
When the witches had come to this conclusion, they went to 
that forest and comforted Sumanas there, and took her and 
left her in Ratnapura. 

When the night had passed, Sumanas, wandering about 
in that city, heard the following cry in the mouths of the 
people, who were running hither and thither : " Lo ! the 
virtuous Anangavati, wife of the Brahman Kandarpa, who, 
after her husband had gone somewhere or other, lived a long 
time in hope of reunion with him, not having recovered him, 
has now gone out in despair to enter the fire, followed by her 
weeping father-in-law and mother-in-law." When Sumanas 
heard that, she went quickly to the place where the pyre had 
been made, and going to Anangavati, said to her, in order to 
dissuade her : " Noble lady, do not act rashly, for that 
husband of yours is alive." Having said this, she told the 
whole story from the beginning. And she showed the 
, jewelled ring that Kandarpa gave her. Then all welcomed 
her, perceiving that her account was true. Then Kandarpa's 
father honoured that bride Sumanas, and gladly lodged her 
in his house with the delighted Anangavati. 

Then Kandarpa left Pataliputra x without telling Kesata, 

1 I read Pataliputrakat. 



64 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

as he knew he would not like it, in order to roam about in 
search of Sumanas. And after he had gone, Kesata, feeling 
unhappy without Riipavatl, left his house without his parents' 
knowledge, and went to roam about hither and thither. And 
Kandarpa, in the course of his wanderings, happened to visit 
that very city where Kesata married Riipavatl. And hear- 
ing a great noise of people, he asked what it meant, and a 
certain man said to him : " Here is Riipavatl preparing to 
die, as she cannot find her husband Kesata; the tumult is 
on that account. Listen to the story connected with her." 
Then that man related the strange story of Rupavati's mar- 
riage with Kesata and of her adventure with the Rakshasa, 
and then continued as follows : 

" Then that old Brahman, having tricked Kesata, went 
on his way, taking with him Riipavatl for his son ; but no- 
body knew where Kesata had gone after marrying her. And 
Riipavatl, not seeing Kesata on the journey, said : ' Why do 
I not see my husband here, though all the rest of the party are 
travelling along with me ? ' When the old Brahman heard 
that, he showed her that son of his, and said to her : ' My 
daughter, this son of mine is your husband : behold him ! ' 
Then Riipavatl said in a rage to the old man there : 4 1 will 
not have this ugly fellow for a husband ! I will certainly die 
if I cannot get that husband who married me yesterday.' 

" Saying this, she at once stopped eating and drinking ; 
and the old man, through fear of the king, had her taken back 
to her father's house. There she told the trick that the old 
Brahman had played her, and her father, in great grief, said 
to her : How are we to discover, my daughter, who the man 
that married you is ? ' Then Riipavatl said : 4 My husband's 
name is Kesata, and he is the son of a Brahman named 
Desata in Pataliputra ; for so much I heard from the mouth 
of a Rakshasa.' When she had said this, she told her father 
the whole story of her husband and the Rakshasa. Then her 
father went and saw the Rakshasa lying dead, and so he 
believed his daughter's story, and was pleased with the virtue 
of that couple. 

" He consoled his daughter with hopes of reunion with her 
husband, and sent his son to Kesata's father in Pataliputra 



THE TIMELY ARRIVAL 65 

to search for him. And after some time he came back and 
said : 4 We saw the householder Desata in Pataliputra. But 
when we asked him where his son Kesata was, he answered 
us with tears : " My son Kesata is not here. He did return 
here, and a friend of his named Kandarpa came with him ; 
but he went away from here without telling me, pining for 
Rupavati." When we heard this speech of his, we came back 
here in due course.' 

" When those sent to search had brought back this report, 
Rupavati said to her father : ' I shall never recover my 
husband, so I will enter the fire ; how long, father, can I live 
here without my husband ? ' She went on saying this, and 
as her father has not been able to dissuade her, she has come 
out to-day to perish in the fire. And two maidens, friends 
of hers, have come out to die in the same way ; one is called 
Sringaravati, and the other Anuragavati. For long ago, at 
the marriage of Rupavati, they saw Kesata and made up their 
minds that they would have him for a husband, as their hearts 
were captivated by his beauty. This is the meaning of the 
noise which the people here are making." 

When Kandarpa heard this from that man, he went to the 
pyre which had been heaped up by those ladies. He made a 
sign to the people from a distance to cease their tumult, and, 
going up quickly, he said to Rupavati, who was worshipping 
the fire : " Noble lady, desist from this rashness. That 
husband of yours, Kesata, is alive ; he is my friend : know 
that I am Kandarpa." When he had said this, he told her 
all Kesata's adventures, beginning with the circumstance of 
the old Brahman's treacherously making him embark on the 
boat. Then Rupavati believed him, as his story tallied so 
completely with what she knew, and she joyfully entered her 
father's house with those two friends. And her father kindly 
welcomed Kandarpa and took good care of him. And so he 
remained there, to please him. 

In the meanwhile it happened that, as Kesata was 
roaming about, he reached Ratnapura, and found there the 
house of Kandarpa, in which the two wives were. And as 
he was wandering about near the house, Sumanas, the wife 
of Kandarpa, saw him from the top of her house, and said, 

VOL. IX. E 



66 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

delighted, to her father-in-law and mother-in-law, and the 
other people in the house : " Here, now, is Kesata, my 
husband's friend, arrived ; we may hear news of my husband 
from him. Quickly invite him in." Then they went and, 
on some pretext or other, brought in Kesata as she advised, 
and when he saw Sumanas come towards him, he was de- 
lighted. And after he had rested she questioned him, and 
he immediately told her his own and Kandarpa's adventures, 
after the scare produced by the wild elephants. 

He remained there some days, hospitably entertained, 
and then a messenger came from Kandarpa with a letter. 
The messenger said : " Kandarpa and Riipavati are in the 
town where Kandarpa's friend Kesata married Riipavati " ; 
and the contents of the letter were to the same effect. And 
Kesata, with tears, communicated the tidings to the father of 
Kandarpa. 

And the next day Kandarpa's father sent, in high glee, 
a messenger to bring his son, and dismissed Kesata, that 
he might join his beloved. And Kesata went with that 
messenger, who brought the letter, to that country where 
Riipavati was living in her father's house. There, after a 
long absence, he greeted and refreshed the delighted Riipa- 
vati, as the cloud does the chdtaki. He met Kandarpa once 
more, and he married, at the instance of Riipavati, her two 
before-mentioned friends, Anuragavati and Sringaravati. 
And then Kesata went with Riipavati and them to his 
own land, after taking leave of Kandarpa. And Kandarpa 
returned to Ratnapura with the messenger, and was once 
more united to Sumanas and Anangavati and his relations. 
So Kandarpa regained his beloved Sumanas, and Kesata his 
beloved Riipavati, and they lived enjoying the good things 
of this life, each in his own country. 

171 d (3). The Merchant Dhanadatta who lost his Wife 

" Thus men of firm resolution, though separated by 
adverse destiny, are reunited with their dear ones, despising 
even terrible sufferings, and taking no account of their 
interminable duration. So rise up quickly, my friend ; let 



THE REWARD OF MERIT 67 

us go. You also will find your wife, if you search for her. 
Who knows the way of Destiny ? I myself regained my 
wife alive after she had died." 



171d. Kalingasena's Marriage to King Vikramdditya 

" Telling me this tale, my friend encouraged me ; and 
himself accompanied me. And so roaming about with him, 
I reached this land, and here I saw a mighty elephant and 
a wild boar. And (wonderful to say !) I saw that elephant 
bring my helpless wife out of his mouth and swallow her 
again. And I followed that elephant, which appeared for a 
moment and then disappeared for a long time; and in my 
search for it I have now, thanks to my merits, beheld your 
Majesty here." 

When the young merchant had said this, Vikramaditya 
sent for his wife, whom he had rescued by killing the elephant, 
and handed her over to him. And then the couple, delighted 
at their marvellous reunion, recounted their adventures to 
one another, and their mouths were loud in praise of the 
glorious King Vishamasila. 



CHAPTER CXXIV 

171d. Kalingasena' s Marriage to King Vikramdditya 

THEN King Vikramaditya put this question to the 
friend of the young merchant, who came with him : 
" You said that you recovered your wife alive after 
she was dead : how could that be ? Tell us, good sir, the 
whole story at length." When the king said this to the friend 
of the young merchant, the latter answered : " Listen, King, 
if you have any curiosity about it, I proceed to tell the story. 

171d (6). The Brahman who recovered his Wife alive 
after her Death 

I am a young Brahman of the name of Chandrasvamin, 
living on that magnificent grant to Brahmans called Brahma- 
sthala, and I have a beautiful wife in my house. One day 
I had gone to the village for some object, by my father's 
orders, and a kdpdlika, who had come to beg, cast eyes on 
that wife of mine. She caught a fever from the moment he 
looked at her, and in the evening she died. Then my relations 
took her and put her on the pyre during the night. And 
when the pyre was in full blaze I returned there from the 
village ; and I heard what had happened from my family, 
who wept before me. 

Then I went near the pyre, and the kdpdlika came there, 
with the magic staff dancing x on his shoulder and the boom- 
ing drum in his hand. He quenched the flame of the pyre, 
King, by throwing ashes on it, 2 and then my wife rose up 

1 The khatvanga, a club shaped like the foot of a bedstead i.e. a staff with 
a skull at the top considered as the weapon of Siva, and carried by ascetics 
and Yogis. For karah the MSS. give ravah. This would mean that the ascetic 
was beating his drum. The word in No. 1882 might be khah, but is no doubt 
meant for ravah. 

2 Cf. Vol. VI, p. 1 80, and Canney, " Ashes," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. ii, 
p. 112 el seq. n.m.p. 

68 



THE MAGIC STAFF 69 

from the midst of it uninjured. The kdpdlika took with 
him my wife, who followed him, drawn by his magic power, 
and ran off quickly ; and I followed him with my bow and 
arrows. 

And when he reached a cave on the bank of the Ganges he 
put the magic staff down on the ground, and said exultingly 
to two maidens who were in it : " She, without whom I 
could not marry you, though I had obtained you, has come 
into my possession ; and so my vow has been successfully 
accomplished." * Saying this, he showed them my wife, and 
at that moment I flung his magic staff into the Ganges. And 
when he had lost his magic power by the loss of the staff, I 
reproached him, exclaiming : " Kdpdlika, as you wish to rob 
me of my wife, you shall live no longer." Then the scoundrel, 
not seeing his magic staff, tried to run away ; but I drew my 
bow and killed him with a poisoned arrow. Thus do heretics, 
who feign the vows of Siva only for the pleasure of accom- 
plishing nefarious ends, fall, though their sin has already 
sunk them deep enough. 

Then I took my wife, and those other two maidens, and 
I returned home, exciting the astonishment of my relations. 
Then I asked those two maidens to tell me their history, and 
they gave me this answer : " We are the daughters respec- 
tively of a king and a chief merchant in Benares, and the 
kdpdlika carried us off by the same magic process by which 
he carried off your wife ; and thanks to you we have been 
delivered from the villain without suffering insult." This 
was their tale. And the next day I took them to Benares and 
handed them over to their relations, after telling what had 
befallen them. 2 

And as I was returning thence I saw this young merchant, 
who had lost his wife, and I came here with him. Moreover, 
I anointed my body with an ointment that I found in the cave 

1 I separate pratijna from siddhim. 

2 It is possible that this may be the original of the fourth story in the 

tenth day of the Decameron. Personally I can see no resemblance whatsoever. 

Boccaccio's tale of Carisendi and Catalina is merely intended as an example of 
great liberality on the part of a lover whose passion was not returned. The 
lady in question was buried as dead, but her lover, on giving her a last kiss in 
her tomb, finds her heart feebly beating, and rescues her. n.m.p. 



70 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

of the kdpdlika ; and, observe, perfume still exhales from it, 
even though it has been washed. 



171d. Kalingasena' s Marriage to King Vikramaditya 

"In this sense did I recover my wife arisen from the 
dead." 

When the Brahman had told this story, the king honoured 
him and the young merchant, and sent them on their way. 
And then that King Vikramaditya, taking with him Guna- 
vati, Chandravati and Madanasundari, and having met his 
own forces, returned to the city of Ujjayini, and there he 
married Gunavati and Chandravati. 

Then the king called to mind the figure carved on a pillar 
that he had seen in the temple built by Visvakarman, and he 
gave this order to the warder : " Let an ambassador be sent 
to Kalingasena to demand from him that maiden whose 
likeness I saw carved on the pillar." When the warder re- 
ceived this command from the king, he brought before him 
an ambassador named Suvigraha, and sent him off with a 
message. 

So the ambassador went to the country of Kalinga, and 
when he had seen the King Kalingasena, he delivered to him 
the message with which he had been entrusted, which was as 
follows : " King, the glorious sovereign Vikramaditya sends 
you this command : 4 You know that every jewel on the 
earth comes to me as my due ; and you have a pearl of a 
daughter, so hand her over to me, and then by my favour 
you shall enjoy in your own realm an unopposed sway.' " 
When the King of Kalinga heard this, he was very angry, 
and he said : " Who is this King Vikramaditya ? Does he 
presume to give me orders and ask for my daughter as a 
tribute ? Blinded with pride he shall be cast down." When 
the ambassador heard this from Kalingasena, he said to him : 
" How can you, being a servant, dare to set yourself up 
against your master ? You do not know your place. What, 
madman ! do you wish to be shrivelled like a moth in the 
fire of his wrath ? " 

When the ambassador had said this, he returned and com- 



THE EMPLOYMENT OF STRATAGEM 71 

municated to King Vikramaditya that speech of Kalingasena's. 
Then King Vishamasila, being angry, marched out with 
his forces to attack the King of Kalinga, and the Vetala 
Bhutaketu went with him. As he marched along, the 
quarters, re-echoing the roar of his army, seemed to say to 
the King of Kalinga, " Surrender the maiden quickly " ; and 
so he reached that country. When King Vikramaditya saw 
the King of Kalinga ready for battle, he surrounded him with 
his forces. But then he thought in his mind : "I shall never 
be happy without this king's daughter ; and yet how can I 
kill my own father-in-law ? Suppose I have recourse to some 
stratagem." 

When the king had gone through these reflections, he 
went with the Vetala, and by his supernatural' power entered 
the bedchamber of the King of Kalinga at night, when he 
was asleep, without being seen. Then the Vetala woke up 
the king, and, when he was terrified, said to him, laughing : 
' What ! Do you dare to sleep when you are at war with 
King Vikramaditya ? " Then the King of Kalinga rose up, 
and seeing the monarch, who had thus shown his daring, 
standing with a terrible Vetala at his side, and recognising 
him, bowed trembling at his feet, and said : " King, I now 
acknowledge your supremacy ; tell me what I am to do." 
And the king answered him : "If you wish to have me as 
your overlord, give me your daughter Kalingasena." Then 
the King of Kalinga agreed, and promised to give him his 
daughter. And so the monarch returned successful to his camp. 

And the next day, Queen, your father, the King of Kalinga, 
bestowed you on King Vishamasila with appropriate cere- 
monies, and a splendid marriage gift. Thus, Queen, you were 
lawfully married by the king out of his deep love for you, and 
at the risk of his own life, and not out of any desire to triumph 
over an enemy. 

171. Story of King Vikramaditya 

" When I heard this story, my friends, from the mouth of 
the kdrpatika Devasena, I dismissed my anger, which was 
caused by the contempt with which I supposed myself to 



72 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

have been treated. So, you see, this king was induced to 
marry me by seeing a likeness of me carved on a pillar, and 
to marry Malaya vati by seeing a painted portrait of her." 
In these words Kalingasena, the beloved wife of King Vikra- 
maditya, described her husband's might, and delighted his 
other wives. Then Vikramaditya, accompanied by all of them, 
and by Malayavati, remained delighting in his empire. 

Then one day a Rajput named Krishnasakti, who had 
been oppressed by the members of his clan, came there from 
the Deccan. He went to the palace gate surrounded by five 
hundred Rajputs, and took on himself the vow of kdrpatika 
to the king. And though the king tried to dissuade him, he 
made this declaration : "I will serve King Vikramaditya for 
twelve years." And he remained at the gate of the palace, 
with his followers, determined to carry out his vow ; and while 
he was thus engaged, eleven years passed over his head. 

And when the twelfth year came, his wife, who was in 
another land, grieved at her long separation from him, sent 
him a letter ; and he happened to be reading this Arya verse, 
which she had written in the letter, at night, by the light of a 
lamp, when the king, who had gone out in search of adven- 
tures, was listening, concealed: "Hot, long and tremulous, 
do these sighs issue forth from me, during thy absence, 
my lord, but not the breath of life, hard-hearted woman 
that I am." 

When the king had heard this read over and over again 
by the kdrpatika, he went to his palace and said to himself : 
" This kdrpatika, whose wife is in such despondency, has long 
endured affliction, and if his objects are not gained he will, 
when this twelfth year is at an end, yield his breath. So I 
must not let him wait any longer." After going through 
these reflections, the king at once sent a female slave, and 
summoned that kdrpatika. And after he had caused a grant 
to be written, he gave him this order : " My good fellow, go 
towards the northern quarter, through Omkarapitha ; there 
live on the proceeds of a village of the name of Khandavataka, 
which I give you by this grant ; you will find it by asking 
your way as you go along." 

When the kino- had said this, he gave the grant into his 



THE DESERTED CITY 73 

hands, and the kdrpatika went off by night without telling 
his followers. He was dissatisfied, saying to himself : " How 
shall I be helped to conquer my enemies by a single village 
that will rather disgrace me ? Nevertheless, my sovereign's 
orders must be obeyed." So he slowly went on, and having 
passed Omkarapitha, he saw in a distant forest many maidens 
playing, and then he asked them this question : " Do you 
know where Khandavataka is ? " When they heard that, 
they answered : " We do not know ; go on farther. Our 
father lives only ten yojanas from here; ask him. He may 
perhaps know of that village." 

When the maidens had said this to him, the kdrpatika 
went on, and beheld their father, a Rakshasa of terrible 
appearance. He said to him : " Whereabouts here is Khan- 
davataka ? Tell me, my good fellow." And the Rakshasa, 
quite taken aback by his courage, said to him : " What have 
you got to do there ? The city has been long deserted ; but 
if you must go, listen. This road in front of you divides 
into two : take the one on the left hand, and go on until you 
reach the main entrance of Khandavataka, the lofty rampart 
on each side of which make it attract the eye." 

When the Rakshasa had told him this, he went on, and 
reached that main street, and entered that city, which, though 
of heavenly beauty, was deserted and awe-inspiring. And in 
it he entered the palace, which was surrounded with seven 
zones, and ascended the upper storey of it, which was made 
of jewels and gold. There he saw a gem-bestudded throne, 
and he sat down on it. Thereupon a Rakshasa came with a 
wand in his hand and said to him : " Mortal, why have you 
sat down here on the king's throne ? " When the resolute 
kdrpatika Krishnasakti heard this, he said : "I am lord 
here; and you are tribute-paying householders whom King 
Vikramaditya has made over to me by his grant." 

When the Rakshasa heard that, he looked at the grant, 
and, bowing before him, said : " You are king here, and I 
am your warder ; for the decrees of King Vikramaditya are 
binding everywhere." When the Rakshasa had said this, he 
summoned all the subjects, and the ministers and the king's 
retinue presented themselves there ; and that city was filled 



74 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

with an army of four kinds of troops. And everyone paid 
his respects to the kdrpatika ; and he was delighted, and 
performed his bathing and his other ceremonies with royal 
luxury. 

Then, having become a king, he said to himself in amaze- 
ment : " Astonishing, truly, is the power of King Vikrama- 
ditya ; and strangely unexampled is the depth of his dignified 
reserve, in that he bestows a kingdom like this and calls it a 
village ! " Full of amazement at this, he remained there, 
ruling as a king ; and Vikramaditya supported his followers 
in Ujjayini. 

And after some days this kdrpatika, become a king, went 
eagerly to pay his respects to King Vikramaditya, shaking 
the earth with his army. And when he arrived, and threw 
himself at the feet of Vikramaditya, that king said to him : 
" Go and put a stop to the sighs of your wife who sent you 
the letter." When the king dispatched him with these words, 
Krishnasakti, full of wonder, went with his friends to his 
own land. There he drove out his kinsmen, and delighted 
his wife, who had been long pining for him ; and having 
gained more even than he had ever wished for, enjoyed the 
most glorious royal fortune. 

So wonderful were the deeds of King Vikramaditya. 

Now one day he saw a Brahman with every hair on 
his head and body standing on end ; and he said to him : 
" What has reduced you, Brahman, to this state ? " Then 
the Brahman told him his story in the following words : 

171 e. The Permanently Horripilant Brahman 

There lived in Pataliputra a Brahman of the name of 
Agnisvamin, a great maintainer of the sacrificial fire ; and 
I am his son, Devasvamin by name. And I married the 
daughter of a Brahman who lived in a distant land, and be- 
cause she was a child I left her in her father's house. One 
day I mounted a mare and went with one servant to my 
father-in-law's house to fetch her. There my father-in-law 
welcomed me ; and I set out from his house with my wife, 
who was mounted on the mare, and had one maid with her. 



THE CANNIBAL WIFE! 75 

And when we had got half way, my wife got off the mare 
and went to the bank of the river, pretending that she wanted 
to drink water. And as she remained a long time without 
coming back, I sent the servant, who was with me, to the 
bank of the river to look for her. And as he also remained a 
long time without coming back, I went there myself, leaving 
the maid to take care of the mare. And when I went and 
looked, I found that my wife's mouth was stained with blood, 
and that she had devoured my servant, and left nothing of 
him but the bones. 1 In my terror I left her and went back 
to find the mare, and lo ! her maid had in the same way 
eaten that. Then I fled from the place, and the fright I got 
on that occasion still remains in me, so that even now I cannot 
prevent the hair on my head and body from standing on end. 2 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

" So you, King, are my only hope." When the Brahman 
said this, Vikramaditya by his sovereign fiat relieved him 
of all fear. Then the king said : " Out on it ! One cannot 
repose any confidence in women, for they are full of daring 
wickedness." When the king said this, a minister remarked : 
4 Yes, King, women are fully as wicked as you say. By the 
by, have you not heard what happened to the Brahman 
Agnisarman here ? 

171f. The Brahman Agnisarman and his Wicked Wife* 

There lives in this very city a Brahman named Agni- 
sarman, the son of Somasarman, whom his parents loved as 
their life, but who was a fool and ignorant of every branch 
of knowledge. He married the daughter of a Brahman in 
the city of Vardhamana ; but her father, who was rich, would 

1 See Vol. II, p. 202, 202n 1 . To the references given there I would add 
Macculloch's excellent article, " Cannibalism/' in Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth., 
vol. iii, pp. 194-209 (see especially p. 208), and Coxwell, Siberian Folk-Tales, 
pp. 104, 110. N.M.P. 

2 No. 3003 and the Sanskrit College MS. give antahsthena for sambhramayya. 
No. 1882 has tva-tahsthena ; an insect has devoured the intermediate letter. 

3 This is substantially the same story as the second in Chapter LXXVII. 



76 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

not let her leave his house, on the ground that she was a mere 
child. 

And when she grew up, Agnisarman's parents said to him : 
" Son, why do you not now go and fetch your wife ? " When 
Agnisarman heard that, the stupid fellow went off alone to 
fetch her, without taking leave of his parents. When he left 
his house a partridge appeared on his right hand and a jackal 
howled on his left hand a sure prophet of evil. 1 And the 
fool welcomed the omen, saying : " Hail ! Hail ! " And 
when the deity presiding over the omen heard it, she laughed 
at him unseen. And when he reached his father-in-law's 
place, and was about to enter it, a partridge appeared on his 
right and a jackal on his left, boding evil. And again he 
welcomed the omen, exclaiming : " Hail ! Hail ! " And again 
the goddess of the omen, hearing it, laughed at him unseen. 
And that goddess presiding over the omen said to herself : 
" Why, this fool welcomes bad luck as if it were good ! So I 
must give him the luck which he welcomes. I must contrive 
to save his life." While the goddess was going through these 
reflections, Agnisarman entered his father-in-law's house, and 
was joyfully welcomed. And his father-in-law and his family 
asked him why he had come alone, and he answered them : 
" I came without telling anyone at home." 

Then he bathed and dined in the appropriate manner, and, 
when night came on, his wife came to his sleeping apartment, 
adorned. But he fell asleep, fatigued with the journey. And 
then she went out to visit a paramour of hers, a thief, who 
had been impaled. But while she was embracing his body 
the demon that had entered it bit off her nose, and she fled 
thence in fear. And she went and placed an unsheathed 2 
dagger at her sleeping husband's side, and cried out loud 
enough for all her relations to hear : " Alas ! Alas ! I am 
murdered. This wicked husband of mine has got up and, 
without any cause, actually cut off my nose." When her 
relations heard that, they came, and seeing that her nose was 

1 See Vol. IV, pp. 93, 93n 2 , 9*n. n.m.p. 

2 Vikrosam is a misprint for vikosam. The latter is found in MS. No. 1882 
and the Sanskrit College MS. and, I think, in No. 3003 ; but the letter is not 
very well formed. 



THE NOSE BETWEEN THE TEETH 77 

cut off, they beat Agnisarman with sticks and other weapons. 
And the next day they reported the matter to the king, and 
by his orders they made him over to the executioners, to be 
put to death, as having injured his innocent wife. 

But when he was being taken to the place of execution 
the goddess presiding over that omen, who had seen the pro- 
ceedings of his wife during the night, said to herself : " This 
man has reaped the fruit of the evil omens, but as he said, 
4 Hail ! Hail ! ' I must save him from execution." Having 
thus reflected, the goddess exclaimed unseen from the air : 
" Executioners, this young Brahman is innocent ; you must 
not put him to death. Go and see the nose between the teeth 
of the impaled thief." When she had said this, she related 
the proceedings of his wife during the night. Then the 
executioners, believing the story, represented it to the king 
by the mouth of the warder ; and the king, seeing the nose 
between the teeth of the thief, remitted the capital sentence 
passed on Agnisarman and sent him home, and punished 
that wicked wife, and imposed a penalty on her relations * 
also. 

171. Story of King Vikrdmaditya 

" Such, King, is the character of women." When that 
minister had said this, King Vikramaditya approved his 
saying, exclaiming : "So it is ! " Then the cunning Mula- 
deva, who was near the king, said : " King, are there no 
good women, though some are bad ? Are there no mango- 
creepers as well as poisonous creepers ? In proof that 
there are good women, hear what happened to me. 

171g. Miiladeva and the Brahman's Daughter 2 

I went once to Pataliputra with Sasin, thinking that it 
was the home of polished wits, and longing to make trial of 

1 The word bad hum is evidently a misprint for bandhuns: as appears from 
the MSS. 

2 This story is known in Europe, and may perhaps be the original source 
of Shakespeare's AlFs Well that Ends Well. At any rate there is a slight 
resemblance in the leading idea of the two stories. It bears a close resemblance 



78 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

their cleverness. In a tank outside that city I saw a woman 
washing clothes, and I put this question to her : " Where do 
travellers stay here ? " The old woman gave me an evasive 
answer, saying : " Here the Brahmany ducks stay on the 
banks, the fish in the water, the bees in the lotuses, but I 
have never seen any part where travellers stay." When I got 
this answer I was quite nonplussed, and I entered the city 
with Sasin. 

There Sasin saw a boy crying at the door of a house, with 
a warm x rice-pudding on a plate in front of him, and he said : 
" Dear me ! this is a foolish child not to eat the pudding in 
front of him, but to vex himself with useless weeping." When 
the child heard this, he wiped his eyes, and said, laughing : 
" You fools do not know the advantages I get by crying. The 
pudding gradually cools and so becomes nice. And another 
oood comes out of it ; my phlegm is diminished thereby. 
These are the advantages I derive from crying. I do not cry 
out of folly. But you country bumpkins are fools because 
you do not see what I do it for." 

When the boy said this, Sasin and I were quite abashed at 
our stupidity, and we went away, astonished, to another part 
of the town. There we saw a beautiful young lady on the 
trunk of a mango-tree, gathering mangoes, while her attend- 
ants stood at its foot. We said to the young lady : " Give us 
also some mangoes, fair one." And she answered : " Would 
you like to eat your mangoes cold or hot ? " When I heard 
that, I said to her, wishing to penetrate the mystery : " We 
should like, lovely one, to eat some warm ones first, and to 
have the others afterwards." When she heard this, she flung 

to the story of Sorf'arina, No. 36 in Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen, and to 
that of Sapia in the Pcjitamerune of Basile. In the Sicilian and in the Neapolitan 
tale a prince is angry with a young lady who, when teaching him, gave him a 
box on the ear, and married her in order to avenge himself by ill-treating her ; 
but finding that he has, without suspecting it, had three children by her, he is 
obliged to seek reconciliation. l)r Kohler, in his note on the Sicilian tale, 
gives no other parallel than Basile's tale, which is the sixth of the fifth day. 

See Burton's translation, vol. ii, p. 526 et seq. See, further, Bloomfield, Amer. 

Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, 1923, p. 202 et seq. KM.?. 

1 I think we should read ushne. I believe that Nos. 1882 and 3003 have 
this, judging from the way in which shn is usually formed in those MSS. 



A BRAHMAN'S PROMISE 79 

down some mango-fruits into the dust on the ground. We 
blew the dust off them and then ate them. Then the young 
lady and her attendants laughed, and she said to us : "I first 
gave you these warm mangoes, and you cooled them by blow- 
ing on them and then ate them : catch these cool ones, which 
will not require blowing on, in your clothes." When she had 
said this, she threw some more fruits into the flaps of our 
garments. 

We took them, and left that place thoroughly ashamed of 
ourselves. Then I said to Sasin and my other companions : 
" Upon my word I must marry this clever girl and pay her 
out for the way in which she has made a fool of me ! Other- 
wise what becomes of my reputation for sharpness ? " When 
I said this to them, they found out her father's house, and on 
a subsequent day we went there disguised, so that we could 
not be recognised. 

And while we were reading the Veda there, her father, the 
Brahman Yajnasvamin, came up to us and said : " Where 
do you come from?" We said to that rich and noble 
Brahman : " We have come here from the city of Mayapuri 
to study." Thereupon he said to us : " Then stay the next 
four months in my house ; show me this favour, as you have 
come from a distant country." When we heard this, we said : 
" We will do what you say, Brahman, if you will give us, at 
the end of the four months, whatever we may ask for." When 
we said this to Yajnasvamin, he answered : M If you ask for 
anything that it is in my power to give, I will certainly give 
it." When he made this promise, we remained in his house. 
And when the four months were at an end we said to that 
Brahman : " We are going away, so give us what we ask 
for, as you long ago promised to do." He said : " What is 
that ? " Then Sas'in pointed to me and said : " Give your 
daughter to this man, who is our chief." Then the Brahman 
Yajnasvamin, being bound by his promise, thought : " These 
fellows have tricked me. Never mind ; there can be no harm 
in it ; he is a deserving youth." So he gave me his daughter 
with the usual ceremonies. 

And when night came I said, laughing, to the bride in the 
bridal chamber : " Do you remember those warm and those 



80 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

cool mangoes ? " When she heard this she recognised me, 
and said, with a smile : " Yes, country bumpkins are tricked 
in this way by city wits." Then I said to her : " Rest you, 
fair city wit. I vow that I, the country bumpkin, will desert 
you and go far away." When she heard this, she also made 
a vow, saying : "I too am resolved, for my part, that a son 
of mine by you shall bring you back again." When we had 
made one another these promises she went to sleep, with her 
face turned away, and I put my ring on her finger while she 
was asleep. Then I went out, and, joining my companions, 
started for my native city of Ujjayini, wishing to make trial 
of her cleverness. 

The Brahman's daughter, not seeing me next morning 
when she woke up, but seeing a ring on her finger marked 
with my name, said to herself : " So he has deserted me and 
gone off ! Well, he has been as good as his word ; and I must 
keep mine too, dismissing all regrets. And I see by this ring 
that his name is Miiladeva ; so no doubt he is that very 
Muladeva who is so renowned for cunning. And people say 
that his permanent home is Ujjayini ; so I must go there, and 
accomplish my object by an artifice." When she had made 
up her mind to this, she went and made this false statement 
to her father : " My father, my husband has deserted me 
immediately after marriage ; and how can I live here happily 
without him. So I will go on a pilgrimage to holy waters, 
and will so mortify this accursed body." 

Having said this, and having wrung a permission from 
her unwilling father, she started off from her house with her 
wealth and her attendants. She procured a splendid dress 
suitable to a courtesan, and travelling along she reached 
Ujjayini, and entered it as the chief beauty of the world. 
And having arranged with her attendants every detail of 
her scheme, that young Brahman lady assumed the name 
of Sumangala. And her servants proclaimed everywhere : 
" A courtesan named Sumangala has come from Kamariipa, 
and her goodwill is only to be procured by the most lavish 
expenditure." 

Then a distinguished courtesan of Ujjayini, named Deva- 
datta, came to her, and gave her her own palace, worthy of a 



THE UNAPPROACHABLE LADY 81 

king, to dwell in by herself. And when she was established 
there, my friend Sasin first sent a message to her, by a servant, 
saying : " Accept a present from me which is won by your 
great reputation." But Sumangala sent back this message by 
the servant : " The lover who obeys my commands may enter 
here. I do not care for a present, nor for other beastlike 
men." Sasin accepted the terms, and repaired at nightfall 
to her palace. 

And when he came to the first door of the palace, and had 
himself announced, the doorkeeper said to him : " Obey our 
lady's commands. Even though you may have bathed, you 
must bathe again here, otherwise you cannot be admitted." 
When Sasin heard this, he agreed to bathe again as he was 
bid. Then he was bathed and anointed all oyer by her female 
slaves, in private ; and while this was going on, the first watch 
of the night passed away. When he arrived, having bathed, 
at the second door, the doorkeeper said : " You have bathed : 
now adorn yourself appropriately." He consented ; and 
thereupon the lady's female slaves adorned him, and mean- 
while the second watch of the night came to an end. Then 
he reached the door of the third zone, and there the guards 
said to him : " Take a meal, and then enter." He said, 
" Very well " ; and then the female slaves managed to delay 
him with various dishes until the third watch passed away. 
Then he reached at last the fourth door, that of the lady's 
private apartments ; but there the doorkeeper reproached 
him in the following words : " Away, boorish suitor, lest 
you draw upon yourself misfortune. Is the last watch of the 
night a proper time for paying the first visit to a lady ? " 
When Sasin had been turned away in this contemptuous 
style by the warder, who seemed like an incarnation of un- 
timeliness, he went away home with countenance sadly fallen. 

In the same way that Brahman's daughter, who had 
assumed the name of Sumangala, disappointed many other 
visitors. When I heard of it I was moved of curiosity, and, 
after sending a messenger to and fro, I went at night splendidly 
adorned to her house. There I propitiated the warders at 
every door with magnificent presents, and I reached without 
delay the private apartments of that lady. And as I had 

VOL. IX. F 



82 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

arrived in time I was allowed by the doorkeepers to pass the 
door, and I entered and saw my wife, whom I did not recog- 
nise, owing to her being disguised as a courtesan. But she 
knew me again, and she advanced towards me and paid me 
all the usual civilities made me sit down on a couch, and 
treated me with the attentions of a cunning courtesan. Then 
I passed the night with that wife of mine, who was the most 
beautiful woman of the world, and I became so attached to 
her that I could not leave the house in which she was staying. 

She, too, was devoted to me, and never left my side until, 
after some days, the blackness of the tips of her breasts 
showed that she was pregnant. Then the clever woman 
forged a letter, and showed it to me, saying : " The king, my 
sovereign, has sent me a letter : read it." Then I opened the 
the letter, and read as follows : " The august sovereign of the 
fortunate Kamarupa, Manasimha, sends thence this order to 
Sumangala : ' Why do you remain so long absent ? Return 
quickly, dismissing your desire of seeing foreign countries.' " 

When I had read this letter, she said to me, with affected 
grief : "I must depart. Do not be angry with me ; I am 
subject to the will of others." Having made this false 
excuse, she returned to her own city Pataliputra. But I did 
not follow her, though deeply in love with her, as I supposed 
that she was not her own mistress. 

And when she was in Pataliputra she gave birth in due 
time to a son. And that boy grew up and learned all the 
accomplishments. And when he was twelve years old, that 
boy, in a childish freak, happened to strike with a creeper 
a fisherman's son of the same age. When the fisherman's 
son was beaten he flew in a passion, and said : " You beat 
me, though nobody knows who your father is ; for your 
mother roamed about in foreign lands, and you were born 
to her by some husband or other." ' 

1 Cf. Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 89. The accusation of bastardy, as also 

of marriage or intercourse with a person of low birth, is a motif well developed 
in Sanskrit literature. See Professor Bloomfield's Foreword to Vol. VII, p. xxvi, 
and the numerous examples given on p. 195 of his Life and Stories of the Jaina 
Savior Parcvanatha. See also Chauvin, op. cit., v, pp. 72n l , 294, where the 
"Accusation of Bastardy" motif occurs in the tale of "Ali and Zaher," as 
given in Weil's translation of the Nights, vol. iv, p. 194. n.m.p. 



THE CREST-JEWELS OF CUNNING ONES 83 

When this was said to the boy, he was put to shame. So 
he went and said to his mother : " Mother, who and where is 
my father ? Tell me ! " Then his mother, the daughter of 
the Brahman, reflected a moment, and said to him : " Your 
father's name is Miiladeva : he deserted me and went to 
Ujjayinl." After she had said this, she told him her whole 
story from the beginning. Then the boy said to her : 
" Mother, then I will go and bring my father back a captive. 
I will make your promise good." 

Having said this to his mother, and having been told by 
her how to recognise me, the boy set out thence, and reached 
this city of Ujjayinl. And he came and saw me playing dice 
in the gambling-hall, making certain of my identity from the 
description his mother had given him, and he conquered in 
play all who were there. And he astonished everyone there 
by showing such remarkable cunning, though he was a mere 
child. Then he gave away to the needy all the money he had 
won at play. And at night he artfully came and stole my 
bedstead from under me, letting me gently down on a heap 
of cotton while I was sleeping. So when I woke up, and 
saw myself on a heap of cotton, without a bedstead, I was 
at once filled with mixed feelings of shame, amusement and 
astonishment. 

Then, King, I went at my leisure to the market-place, and 
roaming about, I saw that boy there, selling the bedstead. 
So I went up to him and said : " For what price will you give 
me this bedstead ? " Then the boy said to me : " You can- 
not get the bedstead for money, crest- jewel of cunning ones ; 
but you may get it by telling some strange and wonderful 
story." When I heard that, I said to him : " Then I will 
tell you a marvellous tale. And if you understand it, and 
admit that it is really true, you may keep the bedstead; 
but if you say that it is not true, and that you do not 
believe it, 1 you will be illegitimate, and I shall get back the 
bedstead. On this condition I agree to tell you a marvel. 

1 I read pratyayo na me, which I find in the Taylor MS., and which makes 
sense. I take the words as part of the boy's speech : " It is untrue ; I do not 
believe it." But vakshyasyapratyayena me would also make sense. The Sanskrit 
College MS. supports Brockhaus' text. 



84 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

And now listen. Formerly there was a famine in the kingdom 
of a certain king. That king himself cultivated the back of 
the beloved of the boar with great loads of spray from the 
chariots of the snakes. Enriched with the grain thus pro- 
duced the king put a stop to the famine among his subjects, 
and gained the esteem of men." 

When I said this, the boy laughed and said : " The 
chariots of the snakes are clouds ; the beloved of the boar 
is the earth, for she is said to have been most dear to Vishnu 
in his boar incarnation ; and what is there to be astonished at in 
the fact that rain from the clouds made grain to spring on the 
earth?" 

When the cunning boy had said this, he went on to say to 
me, who was astonished at his cleverness : " Now I will tell 
you a strange tale. If you understand it, and admit that it 
is really true, I will give you back this bedstead ; otherwise 
you shall be my slave." 

I answered " Agreed," and then the cunning boy said this : 
" Prince of knowing ones, there was born long ago on this 
earth a wonderful boy, who, as soon as he was born, made 
the earth tremble with the weight of his feet, and when he 
grew bigger, stepped into another world." 

When the boy said this, I, not knowing what he meant, 
answered him : "It is false ; there is not a word of truth in 
it." Then the boy said to me : " Did not Vishnu, as soon as 
he was born, stride across the earth, in the form of a dwarf, 
and make it tremble ? And did he not, on that same occa- 
sion, grow bigger, and step into heaven ? So you have been 
conquered by me, and reduced to slavery. And these people 
present in the market are witnesses to our agreement. So, 
wherever I go, you must come along with me." When the 
resolute boy had said this, he laid hold of my arm with his 
hand ; and all the people there testified to the justice of his 
claim. 

Then, having made me a prisoner, bound by my agree- 
ment, he, accompanied by his attendants, took me to his 
mother in the city of Pataliputra. And then his mother 
looked at him and said to me : " My husband, my promise 
has to-day been made good. I have had you brought here 



EXCEPTION PROVES THE RULE 85 

by a son of mine begotten by you." When she had said this, 
she related the whole story in the presence of all. 

Then all her relations respectfully congratulated her on 
having accomplished her object by her wisdom, and on hav- 
ing her disgrace wiped out by her son. And I, having been 
fortunate, lived there for a long time with that wife and that 
son, and then returned to this city of Ujjayini. 

171. Story of King Vikramdditya 

44 So you see, King, honourable matrons are devoted to 
their husbands, and it is not the case that all women are 
always bad." x When King Vikramaditya had heard this 
speech from the mouth of Miiladeva, he rejoiced with his 
ministers. Thus hearing, and seeing, and doing wonders, 
that King Vikramaditya 2 conquered and enjoyed all the 
divisions of the earth. 



[M] 44 When the hermit Kanva had told, during the 
night, this story of Vishamasila, dealing with separations and 
reunions, he went on to say to me who was cut off from the 
society of Madanamanchuka : 4 Thus do unexpected separa- 
tions and reunions of beings take place, and so you, Narava- 
hanadatta, shall soon be reunited to your beloved. Have 
recourse to patience, and you shall enjoy for a long time, son 
of the King of Vatsa, surrounded by your wives and ministers, 
the position of a beloved emperor of the Vidyadharas.' This 
admonition of the hermit Kanva enabled me to recover 
patience. And so I got through my time of separation ; and I 
gradually obtained wives, magic science, and the sovereignty 
over the Vidyadharas. And I told you before, great hermits, 
how I obtained all these by the favour of Siva, the giver of 
.' boons." 

By telling this his tale, in the hermitage of Kasyapa, 

1 Cf. the tale of the "Badawi and his Wife," Nights, Burton, vol. vii, 
p. 124 et seq. n.m.p. 

2 In the original there is the following note : " Here ends the tale of King 
Vikramaditya." 



86 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Naravahanadatta delighted his mother's brother Gopalaka 
and all the hermits. And after he had passed there the days 
of the rainy season, he took leave of his uncle and the hermits 
in the grove of asceticism, and mounting his chariot departed 
with his wives and ministers, filling the air with the hosts of 
his Vidyadharas. And in course of time he reached the 
mountain of Rishabha, his dwelling-place. And he remained 
there, delighting in the enjoyments of empire, in the midst of 
the kings of the Vidyadharas, with Queen Madanamanchuka, 
and Ratnaprabha and his other wives ; and his life lasted for 
a kalpa. 

This is the story called Brihatkatha, told long ago, on the 
summit of Mount Kailasa, by the undaunted x Siva, at the 
request of the daughter of the Himalaya, and then widely 
diffused in the world by Pushpadanta and his fellows, who 
were born on the earth wearing the forms of Katyayana and 
others, in consequence of a curse. And on that occasion that 
god, her husband, attached the following blessing to this tale : 
" Whoever reads this tale that issued from my mouth, and 
whoever listens to it with attention, and whoever possesses 
it, shall soon be released from his sins, and triumphantly 
attain the condition of a splendid Vidyadhara, and enter my 
everlasting world." 

1 Having reached the end of my translation, I am entitled to presume that 
this epithet refers to the extraordinary length of the Katha Sarit Sagara. 



T! 



AUTHOR'S EPILOGUE 1 

(1) ^1 1 "\HERE was a lord of earth, King Sangrama, 
a pdrijdta tree [issued] from the ocean of the 
blest Satavahana race, 2 who, being attended by 

diverse vibudhas 3 descending [to him], rendered the realm 

of Kashmir a Nandana. 4 

(2) To him was born a son, an emperor whose footstool 
was made a touchstone for masses of rubies on the crests of 
all lords of earth as they bowed [before him], x the kalpa tree 6 
of his stock, a peculiar store of valour, the blest Ananta. 

(3) The head of a king which was rolled in the ground at 
the front of his (Ananta's) doorway, severed at the neck, with 
the belly cast away, was like Rahu come to do service because 
he was delighted on hearing the pleasant fame of (Ananta's) 
chakra (dominion) which surpassed the chdkra (discus) of great 
Hari. 6 

1 These verses, translated by Dr L. D. Barnett, appear here in English 
for the first time. They are not found in Brockhaus' text, and consequently are 
not in Tawney's translation either. They appear, however, in the first edition 
of Durgaprasad's text. Subsequently, they were printed separately, and in some 
copies of the third edition of the Durgaprasad text they have inadvertently 
been omitted. 

As previously stated, these verses contain all we know of our author. 
Although Sir Aurel Stein has kindly endeavoured to obtain information in 
Kashmir, no evidence whatever has been forthcoming. 

The notes to these final verses, as well as the translation, are the work of 
Dr Burnett. 

2 This metaphor is based on the myth of the Churning of the Milk-ocean 
by the gods and Asuras. Among the precious objects that issued from the ocean 
on this occasion was the celestial pdrijdta, or coral-tree (see Ocean, Vol. II, 
p. 13, ISn 2 ). 

3 Meaning both sages and gods. 

4 The paradise or park of the god Indra. 

6 The wishing-tree of paradise : see Vol. I, p. 8, 8n l . 

This apparently refers to an episode narrated in the Rdjataranginl, vii, 

1 67 et seq. : The Darad king, Achalamangala, was defeated and slain by Ananta's 

general, Rudrapala, who cut off his head and brought it to Ananta. Here this 

head, thrown down before the doorway of the palace, is compared by Somadeva 

87 



88 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

(4) Now this moon of kings wedded as his queen a daughter 
of the monarch of Trigarta, Suryavati, who, like the juncture of 
dawn, dispelled darkness from her subjects and was universally 
adored. 1 

(5)-(6) The Kasmiras were adorned with excellent monas- 
teries built by his queen, which were like holy traditions, in 
being kept by hundreds of Brahmans born in various lands ; 
like gem-filled oceans, in being hospitable even to terrified 
bhubhrits 2 ; like noble kalpa trees, in dispelling daily the distress 
of the needy. 

(7) The dwellings of the gods, white with palatial plaster, 
which were built by her on the spacious bank of the Vitasta, 
assuredly possess the semblance of peaks of Himalaya, the 
ends whereof are encompassed by the Heavenly River. 3 

(8) Because of the countless gems, gold, great estates, black 
antelope-skins, mountains of wealth and thousands of kine 
which were bestowed [by her], that lady indeed bears even 
. . . Earth. 4 

(9) Her son was the blest monarch King Kalasa, who, 
though a unique tilaka on the circle of the earth, was 

to the demon Rahu, a bead without any body, who is said to have been thus 
mutilated by Vishnu (Hari) with his chakra or discus (see Ocean, Vol. VIII, 
p. 72w) ; and Rahu is conceived as coming thus to do homage to Ananta because 
he is glad to hear that Ananta's chakra (dominion) has surpassed Vishnu's 
chakra (discus) by which he was decapitated in short, it is suggested that 
Ananta is superior to the god Vishnu. 

One is tempted to understand dvara, which I have translated as M doorway," 
in the common Kashmiri sense of " mountain pass" or "hill-fort" ; but to do 
so would spoil the point of the simile, in which Ra.hu is represented as " come 
to do service " to Ananta, which implies that he came to the latter's palace door. 

1 A play on the name Suryavati, which means M she to whom the sun 
belongs." The dawn dispels darkness for beings (praja) and is greeted with 
prayers (sandhya-vandana) ; Suryavati saved her subjects {jpraja) from moral 
darkness and was adored by all (yiha-vandya). 

2 A pun : bhubhrit, " bearer of earth," means both a king and a mountain. 
Taken in the latter sense, it refers to the legend that when Indra cut off the 
wings of the mountains, the mountain Mainaka took refuge in the ocean (see 
Vol. VI, p. Sn 1 ). 

3 The celestial Ganges. 

4 The text is here defective. The sense seems to be that Suryavati may 
be compared to the earth (vihambhara, "all-supporter") because of her gifts to 
mankind. 



AUTHOR'S EPILOGUE 89 

nevertheless an-alika-lagna, 1 and, though a friend to the 
guni, was full of rich ambrosia. 2 

(10) Her excellent grandson was the blest King Harsha, 
who was like a modern Child of the Jar created by the gods, 
a puissant one who was able to make all lofty urvlbhrits bow 
[before him] and to drink up the seven oceans. 8 

(11) In order to interest somewhat for a moment the 
mind of that queen, who was ever intent upon the rules for 
the diverse offerings of oblation-rites for the worship of him 
who couches on the mountains, 4 and constantly devoted her 
efforts to learning from books of instruction, 

(12) This summary of the Brihat-kathd's essence, consisting 
of the ambrosia of diverse tales, [a summary which is] a full- 
moon [attracting] the ocean of good men's minds, was verily 
composed by Soma, the son of Rama, a worthy Brahman, 
agreeable because of his abounding virtues. 

(13) May this Ocean of Streams of Story, composed by 
the stainless-minded Soma, which has the semblance of very 
widespread waves, be for the delight of good men's hearts. 

1 A pun. Tilaka means the mark (ornamental or sectarian) made on the 
forehead with paint, etc., and generally an ornament; alika signifies either 
" forehead " or " inauspicious," and lagna is both " attached " and "astrological 
moment." The poet thus says that the king, though he is metaphorically a 
frontal decoration on the brow of the goddess Earth i.e. an ornament of the 
circle of earth was in one sense not bound upon any brow (an-atika-lagna), 
because (in the other sense) he was subject to no inauspicious moments 
(an-alika-lagna). 

2 A pun based on the king's name, KalaSa, which means "jar." He is 
said to be ghanamrita-maya, literally "(as ajar) full of rich ambrosia" (amrita); 
but amrita also signifies the state of salvation, the condition of the redeemed 
soul (moksha or nirvana), so ghanamrita-maya may also signify "consisting of 
compact (perfect) spirituality," and in this sense it is opposed to one of the 
meanings of guni-bandhava, "friend to the guni." For guni denotes both 
" virtuous," " bow," and " physical nature " as characterised by the three 
gunas or phases of materiality ; and while Kalasa is " a friend to the virtuous " 
and "a friend of the bow" (i.e. a brave warrior), he is not "a friend to 
materiality," because he is perfectly spiritual." 

3 A pun : kalasodbhava means both " son of Kalasa " and " child of the jar " 
i.e. the mythical saint Agastya, who made the Vindhya mountains (urvibhrit, 
meaning both "mountain " and "king") bow down to let him pass, and drank 
the ocean (see Vol. VI, pp. 4/Sn 1 , 44n). 

4 The god Siva. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 



TERMINAL ESSAY 

WHEN, in the summer of 1919, I first approached 
Mr Tawney with the suggestion of reissuing his 
Magnum opus, little was decided about the form 
the Terminal Essay was to take. At that time there were 
so many immediate points connected with the work to be 
considered that any questions relating to the final volumes 
were to be deferred to a later date. 

My own idea was to discuss briefly the manners and 
customs of the Hindus as illustrated in the work, together with 
some account of the different religious systems introduced. 
I then intended to speak of the debt Western literature 
owes to the East, and conclude with a few paragraphs on 
the classification of the world's folk-tales. If room could be 
found, I was also going to give extracts from Speyer's work 
on the Kathd-sarit-sdgara. 

At that time, however, the idea of a Foreword to each 
volume by some eminent scholar had not been formulated, nor 
had the number or length of my own notes been determined. 

As the scheme of the work began to take definite shape, 
matters became more established, and a precedent was gradu- 
ally formed in accordance with what seemed to be the best 
way of dealing wijth subjects as they arose. Thus, whenever 
some custom, ceremony, name or incident was thought to 
require a note, it seemed most practicable to give it on the 
same page, or, if too long, at the end of the chapter. 

Following this plan, all the notes which would have been 
used for the Terminal Essay were given in their respective 
places. It also proved much better to give Speyer's trans- 
lations and suggestions in situ, and not relegate them to the 
present volume. 

My idea of inviting a different scholar to write a Foreword 
to each volume has proved a great success, and my work is 
now enriched by nine excellent Essays, each dealing with the 
great collection from a different angle. 
93 



94 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

With the appearance of the present volume, and its most 
interesting Foreword by Sir Atul Chatterjee, which approaches 
the K.S.S. from the economic standpoint, I find practically 
every subject which I might have treated in this present 
Essay already dealt with in a manner which I could never 
have equalled. 

All general questions have been dealt with by Sir Richard 
Temple, Sir George Grierson and Dr Thomas ; the study and 
classification of folk-tales has received expert attention from 
Dr Gaster, Mr Wright, Professor Bloomfield and Professor 
Halliday ; while Sir Denison Ross has contributed original 
research work on the Persian recension of the Panchatantra. 
I think it will thus be agreed that, on the face of it, there 
seems little left to write about. 

There is, however, one subject which, as yet, we have 
not discussed in sufficient detail the " frame-story " of 
the Kathd-sarit-sdgara, the arrangement and order of its con- 
tents, the sequence of events in the history of Udayana and 
Naravahanadatta, the introduction of the numerous sub- 
stories, and the resemblance the whole bears to the original 
Brihat-kathd of Gunadhya. 

I shall, therefore, devote this Terminal Essay to a brief 
discussion of this subject. 

The " Frame-Story " of the Kathd-sarit-sdgara 

In order to determine, as far as possible, the changes 
any recension of a lost original text may have undergone, 
two distinct methods at once suggest themselves : a critical 
examination of the version in question ; and a reconstruction 
of the original with the help of other versions known to be 
derived from that same original. 

In some cases it may happen that both these methods can- 
not be applied, and until quite recently this has been so with 
Somadeva's work. Thanks, however, to the researches of 
Professor Lacote, the Nepalese recension of the Brihat-kathd, 
known as the Brihat-kathd -sloka-samgr aha, supplies us with 
evidence which can be compared with the results obtained 
from a close examination of the text of the Kathd-sarit-sdgara. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 95 

If the evidence from the one source corroborates that 
from the other, some definite conclusions will result. It is, of 
course, unnecessary to discuss all the points raised by Lacote 
in his Essai sur Gunadhya, but I shall endeavour to lay before 
my readers the main arguments for his conclusions, as far as 
they concern the present work. 

The method I have adopted throughout of affixing a num- 
ber to each story has not only enabled the thread of a tale 
long since suspended to be picked up again with ease, but 
facilitates the separation of the Main Story from the mass of 
sub-stories introduced on every possible occasion. 

Readers will have noticed to what a great extent the latter 
are in excess of the former. This fact alone should make us 
suspicious, particularly when we remember * how, after the 
adventures of Naravahanadatta had been brought to a suc- 
cessful close by his coronation, the long series of Vikrama 
tales are introduced for no apparent reason. The final return 
to the Main Story * is purely conventional, and clearly betrays 
the hand of a later editor. 

Although many of the shorter sub-stories justify their 
position and introduction sufficiently well, there is a large 
number that fit uneasily into the places where we find them, 
and display no reason whatever for being there rather than 
anywhere else. This, of course, specially applies to whole 
collections, such as the Panchatantra. Since studying Lacote's 
Essai, I am now convinced that it could never have been 
included in Gunadhya's original poem. A closer examina- 
tion of Somadeva's text of the Main Story will reveal many 
inconsistencies and inaccuracies which are largely hidden and 
unnoticed with the inclusion of so many sub-stories. 

Book I : Kathdpitha (Vol. I, pp. 1-91). 

Let us first, then, consider the Introduction to Somadeva. 

It will be remembered that it consists of a strange legend in 

which Gunadhya himself plays a part. This fact did not 

diminish the belief of Brockhaus, Wilson and Lassen that such 

a person as Gunadhya never existed in reality. Since their 

i See Vol. VIII, p. 93. 2 Pp. 85, 86 of this volume. 



96 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

day, however, the advance in Sanskrit literary research has 
proved his existence beyond a doubt. 

The evidence contained in the Brihat-katha-sloka-samgraha 
only strengthens this opinion. We are introduced to Siva 
and Parvati on Mount Kailasa. In reply to a request from 
his wife for a story, Siva relates his own history in one of his 
former lives. This is received with scorn as an age-worn tale, 
and Siva is called a fraud. As compensation he promises to 
tell an entirely new tale that Parvati could never have heard 
before the history of the Vidyadharas. Thus the hackneyed 
tales of gods, on the one hand, with their usual accompanying 
laudatory eulogies, and of men, on the other hand, with their 
sad and commonplace happenings, would both be avoided. 

Parvati is placated, and, we are led to conjecture, listens 
in silence and interest to the long tale which Siva unfolds. 

This fact is significant as showing that the author puts 
forward strong claims to originality. The well-known Vedic 
and Puranic legends are not to be given there is something 
that even a goddess would get a thrill over ! 

Yet this high standard is hardly borne out when we see 
later what old tales have crept in. 

Kshemendra is more cautious, and allows Parvati to raise 
no objections to Siva's first tale about himself, thus at once 
disarming criticism if well-known tales are introduced. 

But let us proceed with the story. 

Pushpadanta, one of Siva's Ganas, overhears the tale by a 
trick and repeats it to his wife, who in turn tells it to Parvati. 
Thus Pushpadanta is discovered, and Parvatl's wrath is piti- 
less. Both the eavesdropper and his friend Malyavan, who 
pleaded on his behalf, are cursed to fall into mortal wombs. 

Pushpadanta, now to be born in Kausambi under the 
names of Vararuchi and Katyayana, will obtain release from 
the curse only when he meets a Yaksha named Supratlka 
residing in the Vindhya forest under the name of Kanabhiiti, 
and tells him the Great Tale. Malyavan is to be born in 
Supratishthita under the name of Gunadhya, and will be 
freed from the curse only when he has heard the tale from 
Kanabhiiti. 

In course of time Pushpadanta- Vararuchi-Katyayana 



TERMINAL ESSAY 97 

meets Supratika-Kanabhuti and tells him the Great Tale ; 
then, after also relating his life-story in detail, reaches his 
heavenly home once again. 

It is, however, with the history of Malyavan-Gunadhya 
that we are mainly concerned, for the legend may contain 
some clue to the real Gunadhya. According to the story he 
is of semi-divine birth, his mother being a Brahman girl and 
his father a Naga prince. Thus he takes rank with the two 
other semi-divine authors Valmlki of the Rdmdyana and 
Vyasa of the Mahdbhdrata and he is actually mentioned in 
Sanskrit literature as forming the third of the Epic trio. 

Kshemendra wrote manjaris (abridged versions) of them 
all. The Nepdlamdhdtmya draws a comparison between the 
(Nepalese) versions of the legends of Valmlki and Gunadhya, 
showing how both men had to visit Nepal by divine command, 
the former to find a sacred spot worthy to be the cradle of the 
Rdmdyana, and the latter to fulfil certain conditions necessary 
for his return to his previous semi- divine state. Both men 
erect lingas before leaving Nepal. 

To return to Somadeva's version, we find that Gunadhya 
becomes a minister of King Satavahana in a city named 
Supratishthita, capital of the Pratishthana (Vol. I, p. 60). On 
one occasion the king shows his ignorance of grammar (p. 69), 
and Gunadhya offers to teach him Sanskrit grammar in six 
years. Thereupon another minister, Sarvavarman, promises 
to do it in six months, or carry his shoes on his head for twelve 
years. Gunadhya considers this impossible, and says that if 
he succeeds, he, in his turn, will renounce for ever Sanskrit, 
Prakrit, and his own vernacular dialect. 

By the favour of the god Karttikeya a grammar known 
as Katantra and Kalapaka (on account of its conciseness) is 
revealed to Sarvavarman, who, with its help, wins the bet. 
In accordance with his vow, Gunadhya, now reduced to 
silence, retires to the Vindhya forest. Here he learns the 
language of the Pisachas, and, on meeting Vararuchi, writes 
down the Great Tale, as it is told him, in his own blood 
(p. 89). This done, he sends it to King Satavahana, who, 
however, rejects it as being written in a barbarous language. 
On hearing this, Gunadhya is in despair, and reads out the 

VOL. IX. O 



98 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

whole work to the animals of the forest, who crowd round, 
lost in admiration at its beauty. As he reads, so he burns 
the tale page by page. 

Meanwhile the king, owing to a sudden and unexplained 
lack of nutritive qualities in his food, has fallen sick. He is 
informed that the explanation of this curious state of affairs 
is to be found in a Brahman who is reciting a wonderful story 
in the forest, to which all the animals are listening motionless. 
Out of curiosity he goes to see for himself, and recognises 
Gunadhya. He is, however, too late to save the Great Tale. 
All has been burnt, with the exception of the Adventures 
of Naravahanadatta. This Satavahana takes back to his 
palace, and, in order that these strange happenings shall not 
be lost to the world, himself composes " the book named 
Kathapitha, in order to show how the tale came to be first 
made known in the Paisacha language " (p. 91). 

Thus the first book of the Kaiha-sarit-sdgara ends. But 
what does it all mean ? Who is this Satavahana, at whose 
Court Gunadhya became a minister ? And what is the point 
of introducing a kind of grammatical controversy on the 
respective qualities of Sanskrit and Prakrit ? 

These are some of the queries that present themselves. 

Satavahana is the family name, in inscriptions, of the 
Andhra dynasty, whose home lay in the Deccan, between 
the rivers Godavarl and Kistna. Their capital was Prati- 
shthana, the modern Paithan on the north bank of the 
Godavari. Thus Gunadhya's connection of king and capital 
is historically correct, although (as far as we can judge from 
Somadeva) he omits to mention which Satavahana is meant. 

The third of the line, Satakarni, is perhaps the most im- 
portant of these kings. For he it was who wrested Ujjayini 
from the Suiiga king, Pushyamitra. The evidence for this is 
numismatic, but the horse-sacrifice performed by him would 
find justification only in some such important feat of arms. 
Satakarni gave his name to many subsequent Andhra kings, 
so that altogether his pre-eminence is undoubted. 

But it seems most unlikely that our author would have 
omitted to mention, and even to enlarge on, such great 
victories, or to allude to the Asvamedha. It looks, therefore, 



TERMINAL ESSAY 99 

as if we must search among other Satavahanas. A most 
important point to notice is that the Andhra kings were 
patrons of Prakrit, and that it was only late in the history of 
the dynasty that Sanskrit was finally accepted as the Court 
language, and Prakrit was ousted from its former place of 
honour. Among the Satavahanas there was one king who 
became specially famous for being the centre of a literary 
Court and for being himself a poet of no mean order * and 
that was Hala. His date, though still uncertain, is considered 
to have been about the second or third century a>d. 2 Whether 
he finally became a convert to the use of Sanskrit we do not 
know, but grammatical controversies could not have been 
unknown. If it was not Hala himself whom the legend of 
Gunadhya makes ignorant of Sanskrit grammar, it is one of 
the succeeding Satavahanas ; but in connecting any tale 
about the introduction of Sanskrit in the place of Prakrit 
with a Satavahana, it is Hala that at once would be 
thought of. 

A change so important and far-reaching as the use of a 
different language at the Court, and in literature generally, 
would, of course, take a considerable time to effect. 

As patrons of Prakrit the Satavahanas would be the most 
vigorous opposers of such an innovation, and it is only in the 
time of Dandin (sixth century) that we find the use of Prakrit 
becoming rare. The fact that in subsequent centuries native 
opinion looks upon Hala as the central figure of Prakrit litera- 
ture is surely a sufficient explanation of why Gunadhya himself 
is represented in the legend as a native of Pratishthana. Such 
evidence as exists points to Ujjayini, or rather Kausambi, 

1 In the article on " Prakrit," by Sir George Grierson, in the Ency. Brit., 
vol. xxii, p. 253, he says : " Hala's work is important, not only on its own 
account, but also as showing the existence of a large Prakrit literature at the 
time when it was compiled. Most of this is now lost. There are some scholars 
(including the present writer) who believe that Sanskrit literature owes more 
than is generally admitted to works in the vernacular, and that even the 
Mahabharata first took its form as a folk-epic in an early Prakrit, and was 
subsequently translated into Sanskrit, in which language it was further 

i manipulated, added to, and received its final shape." 

2 See further Winternitz, Gesckichte der Indischen Litteratur, vol. iii, 
pp. 102, 103. 



100 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

as the birthplace of the real Gunadhya; but once he is 
connected with Hala, the champion of Prakrit, no further 
excuse for the work being in Pai^achi would be needed. 

It is only after the Katantra grammar has converted the 
king to Sanskrit that he regards Paisachi as a barbarous 
language. Whether the real Gunadhya and Hala, or Hala 
and Sarvavarman, were contemporaries or not in no way 
affects the argument, but it seems highly probable that 
Gunadhya antedates Hala, and that the growing legend 
used as an introduction to his work came into being later. 
It was well known by the sixth century, as Dandin not only 
refers to the Brihat-kathd, but to the legend of Gunadhya 
as well. 

It now remains to mention Vararuchi and his strange story, 
which, for some reason or other, has become connected with the 
legend of Gunadhya. The stories of the two men are quite 
distinct. They never meet in the tale, and Vararuchi could 
disappear, with his complete history, without upsetting the 
story in the least. 

But the name of Vararuchi is famous in connection with 
both Sanskrit and Prakrit grammar, and its introduction 
would merely assist in bringing the most famous gram- 
marians on the stage at once. It then needed some clever 
invention to link the two entirely separate tales together as a 
single legend. On earth Kanabhiiti is the common point of 
contact. But in the realms of heaven the person of Gunadhya 
has been divided into two. It will be remembered that it 
is Pushpadanta- Vararuchi who originally overhears the tale 
and is cursed by Parvatl. Surely, then, it is he who should 
have been made to repeat it on earth. Yet not only is it not 
so, but he receives less punishment than his friend Malyavan- 
Gunadhya, whose only crime was to plead for him. 

Finally, Vararuchi is born at Ujjayini, the very place 
where internal evidence places the birthplace of Gunadhya. 
From all these considerations Lacote has come to the con- 
clusion that the form of the legend as reproduced by the 
Kashmirian poets is purely a Kashmirian work. "... dans 
la forme originale," says Lacote (Essai sur Gunadhya, p. 33), 
" Vararuci n'y paraissait pas et un seul gana etait maudit, 



TERMINAL ESSAY 101 

le futur Gunadhya. C'est ce dernier tat de la tegende qui 
devait etre courant dans l'lnde." 

All the evidence certainly seems to point to this conclusion 
the compiler or editor has been at work, and has produced 
a composite legend which, by its inclusion of grammatical 
disputes on the one hand, and lively sub-stories on the 
other hand, would appeal to both savant and bourgeois. 
The legend of Gunadhya, as told in the Nepalese version by 
Budhasvamin, confirms the belief in a much simpler original 
form than we find in Somadeva. There is only one Gana, 
and he is known as Gunadhya in his mortal life. Such altera- 
tions as there are can easily be explained by remembering that 
one of the chief objects the Nepalese had in view was to con- 
nect the names of heroes with their holy places of pilgrimage, 
and allow their actions to further sanctify those places. 

The important point of this evidence is that Budhasvamin 
dates from the eighth or ninth century, and thus antedates the 
Kashmirian poets. The work had not received the attention of 
editors who padded out the text with other collections, and thus 
the form of tales in the Brihat-kathd-sloka-samgraha is much 
more likely to be closer to the original of Gunadhya. 

The title of this first Book of Somadeva is Kathapitha, 
which means " Introduction " or " Preface." 

The second Book has a very similar name : in fact the 
two words kathapitha and kathamukha differ in meaning little 
more than our " Introduction " and " Foreword." But why 
should a work contain two introductions ? Lacote suggests 
that if, as is probable, the legend was added to the work later, 
a Kathamukha was already there. The next best thing would 
be to use another word with almost exactly the same meaning. 

Book II : Kathamukha (Vol. I, pp. 94-189). 

In accordance with the title of this Book, we should have 
expected it to contain merely introductory matter, such as 
the name of the narrator, the scope and object of his work, 
with possibly some laudatory reference to King Udayana and 
his son Naravahanadatta. In fact we should have expected 
it to have resembled other " Kathamukhas," such as that 



102 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

which introduces the Panchatantra. We have already seen 
that Somadeva omitted the Kathamukha of the Panchatantra, 
probably because the tales could quite easily be put into the 
mouths of characters in the Main Story. In this case, how- 
ever, he has retained the title which he doubtless found in the 
texts he followed, although in the original Brihat-katha the 
subject-matter may have been different and more in accord- 
ance with the usually accepted contents of a Kathamukha. 
More than half the Book contains sub-stories which have 
but little connection with the Main Story, which, in order 
to make room for them, has had to be very considerably 
condensed. Otherwise the Book would have swelled to an 
undue size. 

Thus we find the Main Story in this second Book crowded 
with incidents. We are hurried through the hero's birth and 
childhood, and are introduced to Chandamahasena, King of 
Ujjayini, who is anxious to marry his daughter Vasavadatta 
to our hero. The schemes and counter-schemes to obtain 
this end follow, and finally the wedding takes place at 
Kausambi. Udayana proves a fickle husband, but we are 
clearly given only a very condensed form of his amours. 
The Book ends, then, on a dramatic note, and we naturally 
turn to the next one to discover how things turn out. 

Book III : Ldvdnaka (Vol. II, pp. 1-116). 

We are not disappointed. The Book opens with the 
lamentations of Udayana's ministers at his desultory life 
spent either with women or in the hunting-field. They fear 
he will never enlarge his realm, and are anxious for him to 
begin a series of conquests. Their eyes are first fixed upon 
Magadha, and their knowledge of political statecraft tells 
them that a marriage with Padmavati, daughter of Pradyota, 
King of Magadha, would be the easiest method to employ 
in the winning of their object. Vasavadatta is naturally 
rather in the way for such an alliance, but a plot is cleverly 
engineered, and finally Udayana marries his second wife. 

After all is smoothed over, and everyone is conciliated, the 
king, now roused from his idleness, determines on conquest. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 103 

Accordingly he marches east to the sea, and circles India in a 
clockwise rotation, finally returning to Kau^ambi. 

The Book being almost entirely devoted to the Padmavati 
incident is much more easily condensed than was the case in 
the former Book. Hence ample opportunity occurs for the 
inclusion of a large number of sub-stories. The chief feature 
of interest in this Book, from an historic point of view, is 
Udayana's conquest. We hear very little about it really, 
and, with the one exception of Brahmadatta, no particulars 
of the conquered kings, their countries, or deeds of prowess 
of the conquerors are forthcoming. The first point to be 
considered is the names of the people he conquers. He 
sets out eastwards to Benares, turns south, sweeps west- 
wards and occupies Sindh. Among the tribes defeated are 
the Mlechchhas, Turushkas, Parasikas and Htinas (Vol. II, 
pp. 93, 94). 

Now Udayana was an ancient king of legendary times, 
yet here we find him fighting with peoples of comparatively 
recent times Mohammedans, Turks, Persians and Huns. In 
fact the Hunas did not appear till the second half of the fifth 
century. Surely he should have fought with such peoples as 
the Yavanas and Sakas. The explanation seems simple. 
The peoples mentioned by Somadeva are those of the western 
and north-western frontiers, whose names would be known 
and appreciated in Somadevd's time, and which, moreover, a 
Kashmirian would be most likely to employ. 

Lacote points out that the places supposed to have been 
conquered by Udayana constitute a pradakshina : the cam- 
paign is arranged like a pilgrimage. Central India is always 
kept on the right ; and finally he visits Alaka, the city of the 
god Kuvera. Not a word is said as to how he gets there. 
No aerial chariot, magic shoes or any similar contrivance 
appears. Now several of the sub-stories in this Book are 
concerned with spells to enable one to fly through the air, yet 
we are given no clue as to why especially they are found in this 
Book. Might it not be that ancient tradition associated to- 
gether Udayana's campaign and some story of aerial transit ? 
This would certainly explain the journey to Alaka. So 
perhaps in the original Brihat-kathd Udayana made a kind of 



104 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

aerial pilgrimage. In support of such a theory we have the 
fact that nothing more is said of all these vast conquests. 

In fact, when finally Udayana leaves the world of mortals 
and gives all his possessions to Gopalaka, we find (Vol. VII, 
p. 102) that these consist only of Kauambl. Surely we 
should be justified in expecting a long list of conquests to 
be enumerated ! 

The Kashmirian editors seem to have been very busy with 
this Book. 



Book IV : N aravdhanadattajanana (Vol. II, pp. 125-165). 

The story continues in due chronological sequence. Vasa- 
vadatta longs for a son, and, after her pregnant whim for 
aerial chariots has been satisfied, Naravahanadatta is born. 

As in previous Books, the sub-stories occupy a very large 
part of the text. 

Book V : Chaturdarikd (Vol. II, pp. 170-239). 

As we have already seen, Books II, III and IV form an 
uninterrupted series of events in the history of Udayana, but 
now comes a very distinct break. 

Naravahanadatta has been proclaimed a future king of 
the Vidyadharas, and this fact is an excuse for Saktivega, a 
Vidyadhara prince, to relate in full how he reached his present 
high position. The tale, with its sub-stories, occupies the 
whole Book, and is a unity in itself. Whether it was in 
Gunadhya's original work in the same form as it appears 
here, or whether it has been compiled out of some of the 
adventures which formed part of Naravahanadatta's own 
adventures, are questions it seems impossible to answer. 

The only point to stress is that the contents of this Book 
are entirely unconnected with previous or subsequent matter, 
and could be removed and inserted anywhere else without 
upsetting the text at all. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 105 

Book VI : Madanamanchukd (Vol. Ill, pp. 1-149). 

The curious thing about this Book lies in the opening lines. 
Here we are informed that it is N. 1 himself who from this 
point onwards is the true narrator, and that he tells his own 
history on a certain occasion after his coronation. The actual 
words are : 

" Now hear the heavenly adventures which N., speak- 
ing of himself in the third person, told from the very 
beginning, after he had obtained the sovereignty of the 
Vidyadharas and had been questioned about the story of 
his life on some occasion or other by the seven Rishis and 
their wives." 

What does it all mean ? It looks like the beginning of 
a new tale altogether, yet it is in reality a direct continuation 
of the story of N. when last he was mentioned. So far it 
has been told in the third person, yet here is a note which 
specially tells us that henceforward N. will narrate the tale 
in the third person. Now if it had said, in the first person, 
a distinct difference would naturally have been noticed at 
once. The value of this curious sentence, then, is quite in- 
explicable. If it had not appeared at all, we should have 
noticed nothing, for the tale would have gone straight on 
still in the third person. 

Why this sudden wish to introduce N. as the teller of his 
own story ? Perhaps the author of the Kashmirian recension 
thought that this was in accordance with tradition, and he 
was anxious at least to give some indication of this well- 
known fact. Even if this were so, we are still in the dark 
as to why it is inserted at this particular place, making it 
look like the very beginning of the whole work. 

We are told nothing as to the occasion on which N. was 
asked questions by the Rishis. In fact the whole matter 
would remain a mystery if we were not to look ahead and 
find that full details of the visit to the Rishis are given in 
Book XVI, chapters cxi, cxii. 

Here we learn (Vol. VIII, p. 103) that after Udayana's 
death, N. spent the rainy season at Kasyapa's hermitage with 

1 In future I shall thus refer to the hero Naravahanadatta. 



106 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

his uncle, Gopalaka. Here it is that the Rishis are assembled, 
and, in answer to their questions, he begins to relate his 
adventures. 

Yet, if we are to believe the opening lines of Book VI, it 
was N. who had been speaking all the time ! 

It is obvious, then, that Book XVI must have originally 
stood before Book VI, and, in fact, have led up to the state- 
ment that has caused all the trouble. It is not Somadeva 
who is to blame. He has merely followed his texts. It is 
the Kashmirian compilers who have purposely changed the 
order of the Books. Perhaps they worked from composite 
and incomplete texts, or perhaps they considered that the 
new order was better fitted to embrace all the new matter 
to be incorporated. Whatever may have been the true 
explanation, there can be no doubt that the order of the 
Books in the Kashmirian recension does not agree with that 
originally laid down by Gunadhya. 

The early part of the Book is taken up with the story of 
the Buddhist king, Kalingadatta, and his daughter, Kalinga- 
sena. Many sub-stories are introduced, several of obvious 
Buddhist origin. The tale now centres on Kalingasena. With 
the help of her Apsaras friend Somaprabha she sees Udayana, 
who immediately falls in love with her. 

His faithful minister, Yaugandharayana, however, con- 
siders such a marriage undesirable for reasons of state, and 
finally manages to make it impossible by proving Kalinga- 
sena to be unchaste. A daughter is born to her by her lover, 
the Vidyadhara Madanavega. This child was in reality a 
son, but by Siva's orders was replaced at birth by a girl who 
was an incarnation of Rati. Her name is to be Madanaman- 
chuka, and she is the destined wife of N. All this is told in 
detail, but the rest of the Book is greatly condensed, and the 
events of the next ten or twelve years the time to allow 
Madanamanchuka to grow up are all crammed into Chapter 
XXXIV. In the next chapter we are in Book VII, and our 
hero is a full-grown man ! 

Although by far the greater portion of the Book deals 
with Kalingasena, yet it takes its title from Madanaman- 
chuka. It seems obvious that the original work must have 



TERMINAL ESSAY 107 

been much longer, and that the second half of the Book as it 
appears in Somadeva is a mere summary. 

In fact there are places where we can clearly see the ruth- 
less hand of the Kashmirian compiler, reducing what must 
have been incidents of considerable length to a single sentence. 

For instance, we read in Chapter XXXIV (Vol. Ill, p. 140) 
that one day N. goes to a garden called Nagavana. What 
for ? Nothing happens at all, except that he worships the 
snakes. It surely must have been the beginning of some 
adventure now entirely suppressed. 

Even in the first part of the Book there are signs of mis- 
chievous alterations in the work. Why is Kalingadatta such 
a nonentity, and why does he make no effort at all to pro- 
tect his daughter after her trouble with Madanavega and the 
childish scruples of Yaugandharayana ? Numerous other 
examples of improbabilities in the text could be given, but 
I think sufficient has been said to show that Gunadhya's 
original must have been very different to what we find in the 
Kaiha-sarit-sagara. 

Book VII : Ratnaprabhd (Vol. Ill, pp. 155-300). 

The first part of this Book is taken up with N.'s marriage 
to a Vidyadhari whose name gives the Book its title. He is 
taken in a magic chariot to heaven for the wedding. This is 
the first time we hear of N. leaving the earth. There is no 
connection between his adventure and the end of the previous 
Book. 

With Chapter XLII (Vol. Ill, p. 259) begins the adven- 
tures of N. in search of Princess Karptirika. They are far 
more important than the affair with Ratnaprabha, and would 
much more fitly have given their name to the Book. It seems 
likely that the two parts formed separate Books in the original 
Brihat-kathd. 

< Book VIII : SuryapraJbha (Vol. IV, pp. 1-121). 

Like Book V, this stands alone, and could be inserted 
anywhere as a separate story. It exhibits the highest flights 



108 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

of an unbridled imagination, and can be regarded as a great 
hotchpotch of ancient Buddhist myths and popular Hindu 
beliefs. 



Book IX : Alankdravati (Vol. IV, pp. 122-251). 

The first part of this Book is taken up with another Vidya- 
dharl marriage this time to Alankaravati, who gives her 
name to the Book. It is in no way connected with Book VIII, 
and could go in anywhere. The second part of the Book, 
beginning with Chapter LIV (Vol. IV, p. 184), stands as a 
complete entity, and is of considerable interest. It deals with 
N.'s visit to Vishnu, and resembles the journey of the brothers 
Ekata, Dvita and Trita and of Narada to the same " white 
island," as related in the Mahdbhdrata (xii, 138, 139). The 
allusion in these passages to the worship of Christian com- 
munities in the East has already been pointed out. 1 Lacote 
considers that the accounts of the visit to the " White Island," 
as found in the Mahdbhdrata and the K.S.S., agree sufficiently 
well to suspect a common origin. Either the latter has 
borrowed from the former, or the Mahdbhdrata has taken the 
episode from the Brihat-kathd, or possibly both versions have 
been independently developed from a narrative derived from 
some traveller who had visited the Christian communities in 
Bactria. 

Book X : Saktiyasas (Vol. V, pp. 1-192). 

There is no connection between this Book and the previous 
one. After a series of tales dealing with the favourite subject 
of " fickleness of women," introduced on the slightest pretext, 
we once again find N. marrying a Vidyadhari. The wedding 
cannot be arranged for a month, and so an exceptionally large 
number of stories, including the whole of the Panchatantra, 
can be successfully introduced. 

1 Sir George Grierson, "Modern Hinduism and its Debt to the Nestorians/' 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, 1907, p. 7 et seq. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 109 

Book XI : Veld (Vol. V, pp. 196-204). 

This deals with N.'s visit to Vai^akha and his subsequent 
marriage to Jayendrasena. The story of the merchant and 
his wife, Vela, gives its name to the Book. But why it is 
so very short and devoid of any continuity is impossible 
to say. 

It looks as if it had been purposely compressed out of all 
recognition, in order, perhaps, to make up for the very long 
Books that precede and follow it. 

Book XII : Sasdnkavati (Vol. VI, pp. 1-221, and Vol. VII, 
pp. 1-193). 

This Book has been discussed already in Vol. VII, pp. 194- 
196. We saw there that it is obviously in its wrong position, 
because we are continually told that N. has lost his beloved 
Madanamanchuka ; yet not only do we know nothing about 
this, but we are definitely told at the beginning of the Book 
(Vol. VI, p. 9) that it is Lalitalochana who is lost. 

Our attention, however, is taken off such trifles (!) by the 
appearance of the hermit Pisangajata, who proceeds to relate 
the huge tale of Mrigankadatta (Vol. VI, p. 10 et seq.), which 
stretches to p. 192 of Vol. VII. 

The Book finishes without solving the mystery in the least. 

Book XIII : Madirdvati (Vol. VIII, pp. 1-17). 

This short Book is a continuation of the last, for we find 
N. still disconsolate at the loss of his beloved, who is now 
definitely stated to be Madanamanchuka, and not Lalitalo- 
chana. The latter unhappy lady also is lost, but N. seems 
to care little about her. 

He meets two Brahmans who tell tales of how they have 
successfully overcome difficulties, and so encourage N. in his 
search. The heroine of the first Brahman's story gives her 
name to the Book. When the stories are finished, lo ! N.'s 
ministers turn up, and so does Lalitalochana (nobody knows 
how or whence, and nobody seems to care !), and all proceed 



110 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

to Kausambl. We have no clue whatsoever as to the loss of 
Madanamanchuka. 



Book XIV : Pancha (Vol. VIII, pp. 21-69). 

The long-awaited explanation of the loss of N.'s chief wife, 
Madanamanchuka, is found at the very beginning of this 
Book. She suddenly disappears without a trace, leaving N. 
distracted with grief. He searches for her in vain. Vegavati, 
a certain unmarried Vidyadhari, is anxious to obtain N. for 
a husband, and, taking the form of his lost wife, manages 
to trick N. into going through the marriage ceremony again. 
The fraud is soon discovered, but she is soon forgiven on 
promising N. to help to find the real Madanamanchuka, who, 
it appears, has been carried off by her brother, a Vidyadhara 
named Manasavega. 

Accordingly Vegavati carries him through the air to the 
mountain Ashadhapura, whither Manasavega has hastened to 
kill them both. A magical combat ensues, in which Vegavati 
is victorious. For safety she places N. in a dry well in the 
city of the Gandharvas, and there leaves him (Vol. VIII, 
p. 27). He is soon rescued and, by his skill of playing the 
lyre, wins the king's daughter Gandharvadatta for his wife. 
He seems to have entirely forgotten all about Madanaman- 
chuka, and settles down to a married life of heavenly bliss. 
Suddenly a Vidyadhari appears, and takes N. through the 
air to the city of Sravasti, with the intention of marrying 
him later to her daughter Ajinavati. 

While waiting in a garden, King Prasenajit comes along 
and marries him to his daughter Bhaglrathayasas. One 
night N. hears a low voice outside his sleeping-room. It is 
that of a beautiful Vidyadhari named Prabhavati, who moans 
the unhappy fate of Madanamanchuka in having so fickle a 
husband. At last N. is roused by the mention of her name, 
and begs to be led to her presence. Accordingly Prabhavati 
flies with him through the air, and, by cleverly flying round 
a fire, becomes the wife of N. Although N. is anxious to 
consummate the marriage, Prabhavati says he must wait, 
and takes him to Madanamanchuka (Vol. VIII, p. 36). 



TERMINAL ESSAY 111 

General rejoicings follow ; but N., who is now wearing the 
shape of Prabhavati, is soon threatened by Manasavega, who 
discovers his presence as N. assumes his own shape. The 
supreme court of the Vidyadharas judge the case, and N. 
wins. Manasavega is far from satisfied, and a quarrel ensues. 
N. escapes with Prabhavati, but Madanamanchuka remains 
a prisoner with Manasavega. While N. and Prabhavati are 
living together, Ajinavati turns up with her mother and 
marries N. He returns to KausambI with the two wives, 
where he is soon joined by VegavatI and Gandharvadatta and 
all the relations of his various wives. A great campaign is 
decided upon, before which N. has to obtain certain magical 
sciences from Siva. While so engaged five (pancha) Vidya- 
dharls vow to marry him all together. This incident gives 
the name to the whole Book. After another marriage a 
great battle is fought. More marriages follow, including 
that to the five Vidyadharis. N. is now informed that before 
overcoming his final vow it is necessary for him to become 
possessed of the seven jewels of the Chakravartin. He wins 
the magic sandalwood-tree, but his obtaining of the other 
" jewels " is reserved for Book XV. 

It has been considered necessary to give a somewhat 
detailed resume of this Book, because, with the exceptions of 
the brief sub-stories 164, 165 and 166, it is entirely devoted to 
the Main Story. 

There are several important points to notice. In the first 
place, the Book is crowded with detail. Marriages and ad- 
ventures follow one upon the other at an enormous rate. 
In the second place, we must remember that they are all 
centred round the disappearance of Madanamanchuka. The 
Book, then, is really a cycle of marriages, with intermediate 
adventures. In this cycle the incident of N.'s marriage to 
the five Vidyadharis is comparatively unimportant, yet it 
gives its name to the whole Book. This fact, added to the 
obvious condensing of so many incidents in order to cram 
them into a single Book, makes it practically certain that 
{ originally each marriage must have formed the subject and 
title of a separate Book. 

We have had several examples of this already e.g. Books 



112 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

VII, IX and X. Any doubt as to the probability of this 
is surely removed by finding that this is exactly what has 
happened in the case of the Brihat-kathd-sloka-samgraha. 
Each marriage has a Book to itself, and is recorded with far 
greater detail than in the K.S.S. On the evidence given 
by the K.S.S. itself we can definitely state that the present 
Book (and also Book XV, q.v.) originally must have come 
before Book XII, and consequently also Book XIII, which is 
a continuation of Book XII. 

If this were not so, the events in Books XII and XIII 
could never have happened, for Madanamanchuka would 
not have been lost, and consequently the search, leading to 
all the other marriages and adventures, would never have 
taken place. 

Book XV: Mahdbhisheka (Vol. VIII, pp. 70-93). 

This is a direct continuation of the previous Book. 
N. obtains the seven jewels, and starts on the last of his 
expeditions. After sundry adventures and vicissitudes he 
conquers his sole remaining enemy, Mandaradeva. N. proceeds 
to consolidate his empire. He marries five Vidyadharis (a 
repetition of a similar incident in the last Book), and prepares 
for his coronation on the Rishabha mountain. 

The coronation takes place, and of his two dozen odd 
wives, Madanamanchuka alone is crowned with N. Udayana, 
Vasavadatta and Padmavati are invited, and with a blare of 
trumpets and general rejoicing the Book ends. Not only the 
Book, we would imagine, but the entire work. 1 Yet we find 
three more Books still unopened. 

Book XVI : Suratamanjari (Vol. VIII, pp. 94-131). 

Years have passed. One night N. has an evil dream, 
and, on awakening, calls upon the science named Prajnapti 
for an explanation. He is told all the news of his family in 
KauSambi. Udayana, his wives and ministers are dead, 
Gopalaka has given his kingdom to Palaka, and has retired 

1 See WoY. VIII, p. 93n. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 113 

to the Black Mountain in company with the hermits of 
Kasyapa. N. hastens there to see his uncle, and remains 
during the rainy season. 

With Chapter CXII begins the incident of Ityaka's 
attempted ravishing of Suratamanjari, who gives her name to 
the Book. An inquiry is started. It turns out to be a family 
matter, and the evidence of Palaka, his son, and his minister 
are needed. They accordingly are sent for, and the court sits. 
Evidence is found against Ityaka, but, by the request of the 
hermits, his life is spared. 

The next chapter, the last of this Book, deals with the 
history of Taravaloka, and has nothing whatsoever to do 
with what precedes or follows. At the end of it N. is still 
on the Black Mountain among the Rishis. Here, then, is the 
occasion on which he is among the Rishis already referred 
to in Book VI, and on which he is requested to relate " from 
the beginning " all his adventures. 

If, then, Chapters CXI and CXII preceded Book VI, all 
would be clear. 



Book XVII : Padmdvati (Vol. VIII, pp. 132-209). 

The Rishis now ask N. how he could bear his separation 
from Madanamanchuka. This is merely an excuse to intro- 
duce the story of Muktaphalaketu and PadmavatI, which 
takes up the rest of the Book. It is supposed to have been 
told during the period covered by Book XIV. Thus it is not 
in its proper chronological order. 

Book XVIII : Vishamasila (Vol. IX, pp. 1-86). 

This last Book also is out of place, as it is merely another 
tale told to N. while he was separated from Madanaman- 
chuka. But it is even more extraneous, as it deals with 
Vikramaditya, who was much later than the period to 
which Udayana and N. must be assigned. 
Somadeva (and perhaps even the Kashmirian compilers) 
places this Book at the very end as a kind of Appendix, for it 
would at once be apparent that heroes who were supposed to 

VOL. IX. h 



114 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



date from the time of Buddha could not listen to tales about 
a king as recent as Vikramaditya. 

As already mentioned, the final return to the Main 
Story is purely conventional. So tame and unconvincing 
is the conclusion of this work, especially after the " grand 
finale " at the end of Book XV, that the most casual reader 
must at once suspect textual commutation on a fairly large 
scale. 

Before we compare the order of the Books as found in the 
Brihat-kathd-manjari and Brihat-kathd-sloka-samgraha , with 
a view to reconstructing as far as possible the original work 
of Gunadhya, it will perhaps be best to arrange in tabular 
form the points we have noticed in the foregoing pages : 



Name of Book 

1. Kathapitha 



2. Kathamukha -\ 

3. Lavanaka 

4. Naravahanadatta- 

janana 

5. Chaturdarika 



6. Madanamanchuka 



7. Ratnaprabha 

8. Siiryaprabha 

9. Alankaravati 
10. Saktiyasas 



Comments 

Legend of Gunadhya. Complete 
in itself. 

Uninterrupted series of events 
describing period from birth of 
Udayana to that of his son N. 

Vidyadhara tale. Quite separate. 

Could go in anywhere. 
Unconnected. Apparently a fresh 

beginning. Must originally 

have stood after the first part 

of Book XVI, because of 

Rishis incident. 
Two love adventures. Probably 

once formed two separate 

Books. 
Like Book V. Vidyadhara tale. 

Quite separate. Could go in 

anywhere. 
Two distinct divisions. Both 

separate and unconnected. 
Unconnected. Another marriage. 

Excuse for numerous sub-tales. 



TERMINAL ESSAY 



115 



Name of Book 

11. Vela 

12. Sasankavati 



13. Madiravati 

14. Pancha 

15. Mahabhisheka 

16. Suratamanjarl 



Comments 

Another marriage. Very, and 

suspiciously, short. 
^Text shows Book must be in its 

wrong place. N.'s chief wife is 

lost. 
Direct continuation. Wife is still 

lost. 
Mystery of loss explained. N. 

marries several other women. 
Direct continuation. Leads to 

coronation. Finale. 
Another unconnected Book. First 

part helps to explain Book VI 

and should precede it. Second 

part quite separate. Could go 

in anywhere. 
Out of place. Told during period 

of Book XIV. 
Out of place. Told during period 

of Book XIV, but is also an 

obvious addition, and could 

not have been in the original. 



We can now see the situation at a glance. Books II, III 
and IV form a group ; V and VIII are unconnected and both 
Vidyadhara narratives; VI looks like a new beginning, but 
lacks any explanatory introduction ; VII, IX, X and XI are 
marriages, more or less unconnected ; XII and XIII are closely 
connected, but must come after XIV and XV (also connected), 
and consequently also after XVII and XVIII, because the 
events they relate happened during the period covered by 
XIV. The remaining Book, XVI, must be regarded as of two 
distinct divisions, the first supplying the necessary introductory 
matter to VI, and the second being quite unconnected. 

It will thus be seen that the critical inspection of the 
work as presented by Somadeva shows without doubt that 
the work has undergone much reshuffling as far as the order 
of Books is concerned. 



17. Padmavati 

18. Vishamaslla 



116 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

We can now turn to the Brihat-kaiha-mahjari and see if 
the order followed by Kshemendra in any way confirms our 
theories. 

The first five Books correspond to those of Somadeva. 
Then the differences begin. We notice Books V and VIII are 
put together. This is followed by Vela, the very short Book, 
but the chief interest here lies in the fact that it finishes with 
the loss of Madanamanchuka. In the K.S.S. this incident is 
found at the beginning of Book XIV, Pancha. Thus, so far, 
we find Kshemendra's order much better than that adopted 
by Somadeva. After Vela he has placed Books XII, XVIII, 
XIII, XVII, thus obtaining a correct sequence of events, 
which is lacking in Somadeva. Book XIV follows, but with 
its opening incident transferred to the end of Book XI (Vela), 
as has been already mentioned. 

Thus we see that our complaints about the order of the 
Books in the K.S.S. are fully justified by what we find in 
Kshemendra. The question which at once presents itself is, 
Why did not Somadeva copy the order in Kshemendra instead 
of changing it and so introducing muddling anachronisms? 
The answer would appear to be that he took what he con- 
sidered to be the lesser of two evils ; for although Kshemendra 
has followed a better order of Books dependent upon the loss 
of Madanamanchuka, he has had to pay dearly for it in the 
rest of his work. For here we find chaos, and no attempt 
made to remove it. Such inconsistency makes us chary of 
giving Kshemendra credit for the arrangement of the first 
part of the work. He probably left it as he found it. Soma- 
deva, on the other hand, saw how unconnected his material 
was, but preferred to put together only such chapters as 
were undoubtedly connected. We have seen how Book XV 
follows directly on to XIV ; but Kshemendra, by his placing 
of Pancha, has been forced to separate them by other 
three Books, thus introducing all kinds of improbabilities 
and chronological impossibilities. 

The incident of N. relating his adventures to the Rishis 
in the third person must have seemed entirely upsetting to 
Kshemendra, and he gets over the difficulty by omitting it 



TERMINAL ESSAY 117 

altogether. As Lacote has remarked, the above clearly shows 
that the Kashmirian Brihat-kathd was a compilation and not 
an original work. 

I think we must attribute the unsatisfactory state of the 
text of the Kashmirian work very largely to the simple fact 
that the compilers (there may have been several at different 
dates) were not trying to reconstruct in their entirety the 
adventures of N. They had a very different object in view 
namely, to use the story as a frame for all the tales they could 
collect together. The better-known incidents would have to 
appear in some detail, while many of N.'s love- adventures 
could be ignored or highly compressed. The result has its 
pros and cons. On the one hand we are given a jumbled and 
very defective version of the story of N., but on the other 
hand we have that huge mass of tales which sheds so much 
light on the manners and customs, the folklore and beliefs of 
a country so poor in historical documentary evidence. 

True, the Panchatantra and Vetdlapanchavimsati are found 
in separate collections, but scholars are not yet agreed as to 
the respective values of the different versions. 

That Somadeva was very conscious of the difficulties in 
the text or texts he was using is clear from his introductory 
remarks (Ocean, Vol. I, p. 2), where he says : "... the 
observance of propriety and natural connection, and the 
joining together of the portions of the poem so as not to inter- 
fere with the spirit of the stories, are as far as possible kept 
in view. . . ." The meaning of this is not perfectly clear, 
and great importance should be laid on the correct translation 
of the passage. 

Many suggestions have been made, but Lacote alone has 
treated it in the light of his extensive critical examination of 
the whole subject, taking into consideration all debatable 
grammatical queries and all possible modes of construction. 

His translation of the full passage is as follows : 

" Tel l'original, telle cette copie ; pas d'une ligne meme 
elle ne s'en ecarte. Je comprime le volume du recueil et je 
traduis, voila toute la difference. Attentif a observer, autant 
que je le puis, les convenances (litteraires) et l'ordre logique, 



118 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

en ayant soin de n'interrompre ni le recit ni le ton des senti- 
ments, je ne le suis pas moins a disposer une portion de poeme 
regulier. Mes efforts ne vont pas a gagner une reputation 
d'artiste consomme ; je veux simplement qu'on puisse retenir 
sans peine ce vaste ensemble de contes de toute espece." 

This clearly means that he has been accurate as far as the 
subject-matter is concerned, but has found it necessary to 
alter the order of some of the Books. Here he surely must 
refer to Books VI-XVIII, while the " portion de poeme 
regulier " which he has been so careful to arrange in proper 
order can be none other than Books XIV-XV. 

When we turn to the Brihat-kathd-sloka-samgraha x we at 
once find ample support for our theories. The order of the 
Books is reasonable and clear, and what in the Kashmirian 
versions was passed over with little more than a mere refer- 
ence is now detailed in full. In fact, we not only meet with 
entirely new adventures, but find certain of the characters 
presented in quite a different light. 

For the first time the improbabilities found in the Kash- 
mirian accounts of Madanamanchuka's marriage and the 
romance of Kalingasena entirely disappear. Their social 
standing is certainly much lower, but this only adds to the 
strength of the plot. 

Vegavati, being of much higher birth, has been accepted 
by the Kashmirians practically unaltered. Their desire to 
raise the social standing of the principal characters to the 
detriment of the tale is manifest. In some cases where they 
have raised merchants to the rank of princes, or mortals 
to the degree of Gandharvas, we are able to detect the fraud, 
for the same names have been retained with suffixes which 
violate the accepted rules of Sanskrit etymology. 

So great appears to be the wish of the Kashmirian com- 
pilers to raise the social tone of the work, that tales which 
cannot escape their low-type settings are altogether omitted, 
but appear in detail in the Nepalese version. 

Without giving other evidence of the accuracy of 

1 Discussed in detail by Lacote, Essai, pp. 146-198, and edited by him, 
with a French translation, the same year (1908). 



TERMINAL ESSAY 119 

Budhasvamin's work as detailed by Lacote, I would mention 
one point which seems to me of great importance. We have, 
of course, noticed that throughout the whole of the Ocean 
the chief deity is Siva. Now, in the Sloka-samgraha it is not 
Siva, but Kuvera. The name of the hero alone tells us which 
is correct. Naravahanadatta means " given by Naravahana." 
Naravahana is one of Kuvera's, and not Siva's, titles. So, 
when Udayana was praying for a son, it must have been 
Kuvera whom he worshipped, otherwise our hero's name 
would have been Sivadatta or some other name compounded 
from one of Siva's many titles. 

It is obvious that the Kashmirian compilers have altered 
the name of the deity in accordance with local contemporary 
beliefs. 

Numerous other examples of the reliability of Budha- 
svamin's work could be quoted, but full details will be found 
in Lacote's Essai. With the help, then, of the Sloka-samgraha, 
we are able to get a fairly shrewd idea of what Gunadhya's 
original work must have been like. The first Book corre- 
sponded to Book XVI of the K.S.S. It contained the history 
and abdication of Gopala and Palaka, which led up to the 
incident of Ityaka and Suratamanjarl. The subsequent trial 
brought N. on the scene, who later was asked to relate his 
history. After some hesitation (only in the B.K.S.S.) he com- 
menced (K.S.S., Bk. VI, ch. xxvii) by relating his family 
history (K.S.S., Bks. II, III with possibly another, now lost, 
giving further details of Udayana's amours 1 ). 

The story of his own birth (K.S.S., Bk. IV) follows. Ignor- 
ing the two Vidyadhara Books (K.S.S., Bks. V and VIII), 
which, as we have already seen, could go in anywhere, we 
come to the heroine of the whole story, Madanamanchuka. 

N. sees her as a child and falls in love with her (K.S.S., 
Bk. VI, ch. xxxiv). Various adventures follow (only in 
the B.K.S.S.), leading up to the marriage (K.S.S., Bk. VI, 

1 It seems probable that Gunadhya used only a portion of the widely 
1 known Udayana cycle of legends current at the time. 

Reference should be made to Burlingame's Buddhist Legends, Harvard 
Oriental Series, vol. xxviii, pp. 247-293 ; Synopsis, pp. 79-84 ; parallels, 
pp. 62-63. 



120 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

ch. xxxiv-end). Then comes the sudden disappearance of 
Madanamanchuka (K.S.S., Bk. XIV, ch. cv), resulting in 
numerous adventures, usually terminating in a fresh marriage. 
The order and number of Books thus formed cannot be deter- 
mined for certain, but in the K.S.S. they certainly included 
Books XIV (chaps, cvi, cvii), VII, IX-XIII, XIV (ch. cviii) 
and XV. 

We can also add Books XVII and XVIII, if, as Lacote 
thinks is the case, they are not apocryphal. 

The plan of the Brihat-kathd resembles that of the Rdmd- 
yana to a certain extent the setting out of the hero to recover 
his lost love, acquiring others on the way, the constant help 
of a trusty friend, the purity of the captive wife, and the final 
triumph on her safe recovery. 

We must not press the comparison further; but to dis- 
regard it would be a mistake, because then we would miss the 
due appreciation of the genius of Gunadhya. Not that it is 
evident from the fact that he has copied the plan of the great 
Epic, but because, having copied it, he proceeds to treat his 
subject-matter in a way unheard of and absolutely original. 

His heroes are not borrowed from the great national epics, 
the deity is not the omnipotent Siva or Vishnu, and the 
incidents in the tale are not confined to kings, princes and 
gods. 

In place of this usually accepted precedent we find the 
heroes are but petty princes who rub shoulders with mer- 
chants, artisans, sailors, adventurers and beggars. The 
heroine is the daughter of a prostitute, but her desire to raise 
the level of her caste and be worthy of her husband gives great 
strength to the character that Gunadhya has created. The 
chief deity is Kuvera, the god of merchants and treasures. 

All this must have struck contemporary audiences as most 
original and novel. But there is another point that we must 
not miss. The nature of the work would reach a much wider 
public the kind of public, in fact, which would flock together 
at the annual festivals held at Kausambi and Ujjayini. Per- 
haps long extracts from the Brihat-kathd were recited at these 
events ; anyway I notice Lacote thinks it likely. 

We can now more readily understand that the Kashmirian 



TERMINAL ESSAY 121 

compilers would find much to alter and suppress. The 
necessity for an Introduction also becomes more apparent. 

Thus at the end of our short inquiry we find that the 
K.S.S., as we have it to-day, is but a poor and badly arranged 
version of the original work. This Somadeva must have 
known ; and though we see he has done his best to rearrange 
certain portions of it, he was well aware that any attempt to 
reconstruct it entirely would mean little less than composing 
a new work. 

There was, I think, another factor which prevented Soma- 
deva from making too drastic alterations namely, his wish 
to retain all that mass of sub-stories added by the Kash- 
mirians. The frame -story had been altered in order to take 
them in as naturally as possible. Although in many cases 
they are introduced in the most clumsy fashion, it is clear 
that considerable alterations would have to be made in 
Gunadhya's text before it was ready to receive so many new 
stories. 

But we must not complain far from it for the result has 
been that in about a.d. 1070 Somadeva has presented us with 
one of the greatest collections of tales the world has ever seen 
tales which not only mirrored contemporary customs and 
beliefs, and exhibited the versatile genius of the story-teller, 
but tales which were destined to inspire the genius of unborn 
giants of European literature Boccaccio, Goethe, La Fontaine, 
Chaucer and Shakespeare. 

As to Kshemendra, we should have lost little if he had 
not lived, or at any rate had not produced a version of the 
Brihat-kathd. 

But with Somadeva matters are very different. We must 
hail him as the Father of Fiction, and his work as one of the 
masterpieces of the world. 



RETROSPECT 

THERE remains but the pleasant task of acknow- 
ledging the help received during my long work 
of editing the Ocean. So varied have been the 
subjects of my notes and appendixes, that my inquiries and 
correspondence have been very great. It is most gratifying 
to know that, with hardly a single exception, I have found 
scholars and fellow-students only too pleased to help in any 
way they could. 

First and foremost, I would mention the superintendents 
of the Reading Room of the British Museum. The numerous 
bibliographical queries, which they have helped to clear up, 
have, I fear, taken up much of their valuable time, but the 
kindness and patience they have always shown is remarkable. 
In this connection I would especially mention Mr F. D. Sladen, 
Mr A. I. Ellis and Mr L. C. Wharton. In the Department of 
Oriental Books and MSS. I owe gratitude to Mr E. Edwards, 
while the continuous assistance afforded by the head of the 
department, Dr L. D. Barnett, has been a sine qua non of the 
whole work. 

I have already mentioned names of eminent members 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Royal Anthropological 
Institute, the Folk-Lore Society, the School of Oriental 
Studies, and other similar scientific bodies who have allowed 
me to take advantage of their learning and erudition. 

I would also like to mention the friendly way in which 
American scholars have so readily replied to my queries, 
forwarded me copies of their articles and works, and done 
everything they could to assist in my research. 

As I am sure my subscribers will be only too ready to 
admit, the engineering of any ten-volume work is no light 
undertaking, particularly if it includes numerous indexes 
and appendixes, which continually have to be overhauled, 
rearranged and improved. Questions of " setting up," sizes 

122 



RETROSPECT 123 

of type, and a hundred other important points in the general 
" make-up " of the work have had to be taken one by one and 
discussed in the most minute detail, before a working precedent 
could be set up. 

I think, then, the feeling of satisfaction of an editor will 
be duly appreciated when he sees the completion of a work 
that has occupied what is usually considered the best ten 
years of his life. Before speaking of the incident that gave 
rise to the whole idea of the work, and the man who made 
the carrying out of that idea possible, I would offer un- 
stinted thanks to my two secretaries, whose patience and 
pertinacity have so largely contributed to the success of the 
work, Miss Betty Krause (who had to return to America 
during the publication of Vol. V) and Miss Maud Lundblad, 
who continued her work to the end. 

To the Riverside Press, who have devoted special care and 
attention to the printing of the volumes, and have always been 
ready with valuable suggestions, I am also very grateful. 

Then there are my reviewers to be considered. They 
have, one and all, received the work in the kindest and most 
sympathetic way imaginable, and it is of course largely due 
to this that we have been able to get such a complete list of 
subscribers, and produce the work volume by volume with as 
little delay as possible. 

The incidents which gave rise to the idea of re-editing 
Tawney's great translation form quite a little romance, and 
should, I think, find a place here. 

In 1917 and 1918 I was working on my Bibliography of 
Sir Richard Burton, and my whole mind became saturated in 
what I may term " Burtoniana." My researches took me 
for many months to the Central Library, Kensington, where 
the remains of Burton's library are housed. My work was an 
arduous one, as I had to go through, not only every book 
Burton wrote, but every pamphlet, article and letter, either 
written by him, or in which he was interested. Many of these 
pamphlets were bound up into volumes, but the majority 
were packed away in thirty-four large book-boxes, containing 
close on five hundred pamphlets. I had examined nearly all 



124 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

of them, when one especially arrested my attention. It 
proved to be an odd part of Tawney's original edition of the 
Kathd-sarit-sdgara. The work was entirely unknown to me, 
and, although I knew the Nights intimately from cover to 
cover, my knowledge of Sanskrit fiction was practically 
confined to the Hitopadesa and " Pilpay's Fables." A hasty 
inspection of the odd part in question at once convinced me 
that it must belong to a work of the highest importance, 
although I knew nothing of its age, author or translator. 

I cannot say what it was, but I felt instinctively that this 
odd part of an unknown Indian work was to be of the utmost 
importance to me personally. For a time my work on the 
Burton bibliography stopped, and I at once began to make 
inquiries about the Kathd-sarit-sdgara. It seemed almost as 
if Burton, with whom I had now become so intimate, was 
offering me the chance of giving to the public the Indian 
counterpart of his own great Arabian Nights. This feeling 
grew on me more and more, and I was determined somehow 
to see it through. And here, for the encouragement of 
students hesitating to undertake a work of similar difficulty 
and importance, I would add the following. 

After having found out all I could about the work, and 
having met Mr Tawney, I went straight to Dr Barnett at the 
British Museum and asked his advice. I told him that, apart 
from having a deep interest in Oriental folklore and kindred 
subjects, I could lay no claim whatever to Oriental scholar- 
ship ; but that in spite of this fact I was particularly anxious 
to re-edit Tawney's work. Did he think the idea was pre- 
sumptuous and ridiculous, and could I dare, with my strictly 
limited knowledge, to attempt so large an undertaking ? So 
kind and encouraging was his reply that I at once started on 
a task that, alas ! many authors and editors have attempted 
in vain to find a publisher. After I had explained the nature 
of the work and the number of volumes I had estimated it 
would take, my hoped-for publisher smiled sympathetically 
and asked the sum I was prepared to put down for the work. 
My answer merely provoked the wishes for a " Good morning." 
In fact, as time went on, this termination of my interviews 
began to grow monotonous. However, I never despaired, and 



RETROSPECT 125 

finally discovered that the most enterprising and trenchant 
figure in the literary world was not a publisher at all, but 
a bookseller Mr Sawyer of Grafton Street. Accordingly I 
hastened to Grafton House and once more explained my 
business, which by this time sounded to me more like a recita- 
tion than anything else. I waited for the usual " Good 
morning," but it did not come. " This work," he said, 
" must be of the highest importance, and should be published 
in a form worthy of that importance. From what you tell 
me, it is one of the world's greatest collections of stories, and 
in all my long experience of bookselling I have never once 
been asked for it, or even seen a copy. I conclude that it is 
known only to Oriental scholars. I regard it as an unknown 
masterpiece, and am willing to publish it myself at my own 
expense." 

My chief difficulty was thus overcome, - and we at once 
got to work on all those preliminary details necessary in 
the engineering of such a large undertaking. 

Mr Sawyer is truly a wonderful man, and the initiative 
he displayed in sponsoring the work is deserving of the 
very highest praise. It is needless to say that without his 
support the work would never have seen fight ; and although 
the enormous expense involved would have deterred most 
men, however rich, once Mr Sawyer is determined on a pro- 
ject, nothing can stop him. If he is satisfied and I think he 
is and if in the Elysian Fields Mr Tawney is not disappointed 
with the new edition of his Magnum opus, my work will have 
received its reward. 



INDEX I 

SANSKRIT WORDS AND PROPER NAMES 



The n stands for " note " and the index number refers to the number of the note. If there 
is no index number to the n it refers to a note carried over from a previous page. 



Achalamangala and the 

serpent-king Ananta, King, 

87n<* 
.(Elian, Varia Historia, 47n 3 
Agastya, the mythical saint, 

89w 3 
Aghori, order of Siva wor- 
shippers, 12/1 1 
Agnisarman and his Wicked 

Wife, The Brahman, 75, 

75n 3 , 76-77 
Agnislkha, Vetala named, 13, 

14, 26, 27 
Agnisvamin, Brahman named, 

74 
Alaka, the city of Kuvera, 

visited by Udayana, 103 
Alambusha, mother of Kala- 

vati, 20, 22 
Alankaravati, Book IX, 108 
AmaravatI, city of Indra, 2 
Ambika (Durga, Parvati, 

Gauri, etc.), 3 
Amrita, pun on word, 89n a 
Anangadeva, messenger 

named, 6, 7, 10-12, 28, 

29 
Anangavati, wife of Kandarpa, 

63, 66 
Ananta, a thousand-headed 

serpent, 87, 87w 6 , 88n 
Andhra dynasty, the, 98, 

99 
Androcles, the story of, 47m 1 
Anneke Mettinges and An- 

neke Swarten and the 

magic fat, 45n x 
AnuragavatI, friend of Rupa- 

vati, 65, 66 
Apsarases, attendants of the 

gods, 20, 106 
Aristophanes, Birds, 3n x 
Asoka tree, 53 
Asuras, enemies of the gods, 

2, 29, 87w 2 
Aulus Gellius, Nodes Attica;, 

47/1 1 
Avanti, the land of, 2 

127 



Baring-Gould, S., Curious 
Myths of the Middle Ages, 
47n 3 

Barnett, Dr L. D., Author's 
Epilogue translated by, 
87W 1 

Bartsch, K., Sagen, M'drchen 
und Gebrauche a us Meklen- 
burg, 45w l 

Basile, G. B., // Penlamerone, 
78n 

Benares, Varanasi i.e., 5n 2 ; 
King of, 69 ' 

Bhadra, prince named, 49 

Bhadrayudha, son of Vajra- 
yudha, 5, 6, 36, 38-40, 
49 

Bhairava i.e. Siva, 19, 20 

Bharhut Stupa, sculptures on 
the, 51ft 1 , 53W 1 

Bhillas or Bheels, 34, 45, 46, 
48 

Bhimapura, city called, 59, 
60 

Bhubhrits, the, kings or 
mountains, 88, 88w 2 

Bhutaketu, Vetala named, 
45,71 

Bloomfield, Professor M., 
Foreword to Vol. VII, 82w l 

Bloomfield, M., "The Art of 
Stealing in Hindu Fiction," 
Amer. Journ. Phil., vol. xliv, 
78n ; " On False Ascetics 
and Nuns in Hindu Fic- 
tion," Journ. Amer. Orient. 
Soc., vol. xliv, 23w 2 ; The 
Life and Stories of the Jaina 
Savior Parcvanalha, 82n x 

Boccaccio, Decameron, 69w 2 

Bohtlingk, O., and Roth, R. 
(Sanskrit Wbrterbuch), 3w 2 , 
8n\ 10n 2 , 1271 1 , 42n\ 52n l 

Borneo, cowries found in, 17n 2 

Bragda Magus Saga, the, 47n 3 

Brahma, 12, 13, 32 

Brahmasthala, a grant to 
Brahmans, 68 



Briffault, R., The Mothers, 

3 vols., Ldn., 1927, 17n 3 
Brihaspati, minister of Indra, 

"25,26 
Brihat-katha, the, Gunadhya, 

86, 89, 94, 100, 102, 103, 

108, 117, 120, 121 
Brihat - katha - mdnjari, the, 

Kshemendra, 114, 116 
Brihat - katha - sloka- samgraha, 

the Nepalese version of the 

Brihat-katha, 94, 96, 101, 

112, 114, 118, 119 
Brockhaus' text of the K.S.S., 

7w l , 10n 2 , 36n 2 , 42\ 52nS 

58ft 1 , $1*1, 83W 1 , 87/1 1 
Brown, W. N., " Escaping 

One's Fate," Studies in 

Honor of Maurice 

Bloomfield, 1920, 25n l 
Budhasvamin, compiler of 

the Nepalese version of the 

K.S.S., 101, 119 
Burlingame, E. W., Buddhist 

Legends, 11971 1 
Burnett, A. C, Yule, H., 

and, Hobson-Jobson, 17n 2 
Burton, R. F., // Pentamerone, 

78n; Nights . . . , 37n\ 

45W 1 , 85ni 



Canney, M. A., "Ashes," 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

vol. ii, 68n 2 
Catalina, tale of Carisendi 

and (Decameron), 69 2 
Ceylon, occurrence of cowries 

(Cyprxa moneta) in, 17n 2 
Ceylon, Simhala i.e., 7n 3 
Chakra, discus or dominion, 

87, 88n 
Chakrapura, place called, 58, 

58/ii 
Chamunda, the goddess, 18 
Chandrapura, city called, 61 
Chandraiekhara, king named, 

51 



128 

Chandrasvamin, Brahman 

named, 47, 68 
Chandravati, daughter of 

Chandrasekhara, 51, 52, 70 
Charlemagne, Vidforull 

changes his skin in the 

presence of, 45n 
Chataki and the rain-cloud, 

67 
Chatterjee, Sir Atul C, Fore- 
word to Vol. IX, 94 
Chaturdarika, Book V, 104 
Chauvin, V., Bibliographie des 

Outrages Arabes, 22n\ 38w 2 , 

82/1 1 
Chitragupta, recorder of good 

and evil deeds, 26 
Cowries (Cyprcea moneta), 

shell-money, 17, 17w 2 , 18 
Coxwell, C. F., Siberian and 

Other Folk-Tales, 75w l 
Crooke, W., "Some Notes on 

Homeric Folk-Lore," 

Folk-Lore, vol. xix, 9m 1 
Cunningham, A., Stupa of 

Bharhut, 51m 1 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Dagineya and the Vetala 
Agnisikha who submitted 
himself to King Vikrama- 
ditya, The Cunning 
Gambler, 14-17, 26-27 
Danavas, enemies of the 

gods, 29 
Dandin (sixth century), 99, 

100 
Deccan, the, 72; conquered 
by King Vikramaditya, 6 ; 
the home of the Andhra 
dynasty, 98 
Desata, father of Kesata, 56, 

64," 65 
Detloses, the magic foot- 
ointment of Margretha, 
45 l 
Devadatta, courtesan named, 

80 
Devasena, karpatika named, 

43-45, 71 
Devasvamin, Brahman named, 

61 
Devasvamin, son of Agnis- 

vamin, 74 
Devi (Parvatl, Gaurl, etc.), 

19 
Dhanadatta who lost his 
Wife, The Merchant, 53- 
54, 66-67 
Dharma, Mlechchha, one who 
disregards Hindu, 2n 2 



Dhavalasena, ambassador 

named, 8 
Dundubhi, King of the 

Yakshas, 12, 13 
Durgaprasad text of the 

K.S.S., 87n* 
Dmpas, the seven, 26, 31, 33, 

35, 36, 39, 50, 51 

Ekakikesarin, chief of the 
Bhillas, 46, 48 

Ganas, attendants of Siva, 3, 

4, 96 
Gandharvas, attendants of 

the gods, 49, 110, 118 
Ganga, the river, 28 
Ganges, the, 6, 69, 88n 3 
Gauda, the King of, 34 
Gaurl (Durga, Parvatl, consort 

of Siva), 2 
Gellius, Aulus, Nodes Attica:, 

47m 1 
Ghanta and Nighanta and the 

Two Maidens, 29 
Godavari, the river, 98 
Gonzenbach, L., Sicilianische 

Marchen, 78w 

Gopala, king named, 34, 119 

Gopalaka, uncle of Narava- 

hanadatta, 86, 104, 106, 112 

Grierson, George A., on the 

tarkshyaratna jewel, 52m 1 
Grierson, G. A., "Modern 
Hinduism and its Debt to 
the Nestorians," Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc, 1907, 108n l ; 
" Prakrit," Ency. Brit, vol. 
xxii, 99n* 
Gunadhya or Malyavan, 98- 

100 ; semi-divinity of, 97 
Gunadhya, the Brihat-katha, 
94, '95, 101, 104, 107, 114, 
119n\ 120, 121 
Gunas, the three, or phases of 

materiality, 89w 2 
Gunasagara, king named, 50, 

QOn 1 , 51 
Gunavati, daughter of Guna- 
sagara, 50-52, 70 
Gunja fruits, 46 

Hala, king of the Andhra 
dynasty, 99, 99n l , 100 

Hari or Vishnu, 7n 2 , 87, 88n 

Harsha, King, 89 

Hastings' Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics, 68m 1 , 
75w l . For details see under 
Ency. Rel. Eth. 

Himalayas, the, 6, 86, 88 



Indra, the king of the gods, 
2, 8, 20-22, 25, 26, 29, 30, 
30w\ 87n 4 , 88n 2 

Indrajit, son of Ravana, 30, 
30n l 

Jambu tree, 47 

Jayadatta, Brahman named, 

60 
Jayadhvaja, king named, 34 
Jayanta and the Golden Deer, 

29-30 

Kailasa, Mount, 2, 6, 86, 96 
Kalapaka, grammar called, 

97 
Kalasa, King, 88, 89w 2 - 3 
KalavatI, a heavenly nymph 

named, 20-22, 24-26 
Kalinga, the country of, 53, 

70,71 
Kalingasena's marriage to 
King Vikramaditya, 43-46, 
48-50, 52-53, 67, 68, 70-71 
Kalpa i.e. 1000 Mahayugas, 
or 4320 million years, 25, 
26 
Kalpa tree, the wishing-tree 

of paradise, 87, 87n 5 , 88 
Kamalalochana, Kusuma- 

yudha and, 61-62 
Kamalini, the friend of the 

i.e. the sun, 30 
Kamarupa, place called, 80, 

82 
Kanabhuti or Supratika, 96, 

97 
Kanchanadamshtra, king 

named, 48 
Kandarpa,The TwoBrahmans 

Kesata and, 54-61, 62-66 
Kanva, hermit named, 1, 49, 

85 
Kdpdlika i.e. a worshipper of 
Siva of the left-hand order, 
12, Un\ 13, 14, 27, 28, 68- 
70 
Karnata, the King of, 34 
Karpatika i.e. dependent of 

a king, 43, 43n*, 71-74 
Karttikeya, the god, 97 
Kashmir, the realm of, 87 ; 

use of cowries in, 17n 2 
Kasmlra conquered by King 

Vikramaditya, 7 
Kasmlra, Sunandana, King of, 

34 
Kasyapa, hermit named, 1, 

85, 105, 113 
Kataha, dvlpa named, 50 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



Katantra, grammar called, 

97, 100 
Kathamukha, Book II, 101- 

102 
Kathapltha, Book I, 95-101 
Katha-sarit-sagara, the, Soma- 

deva, 94, 98, 107, 108, 112, 

116, 119-121 
Katyayana or Pushpadanta, 

86, 96 
KausambI, city called, 96, 99, 

104, 110, 112, 120 
Kern, Dr, conjectures by, 5n 3 , 

7w>, 9n\ 32n\ 3in\ 42n\ 

44n 2 , 54n l 
Kesata and Kandarpa, The 

Two Brahmans, 54-61, 62- 

66 
Ketaka tusks of an elephant, 

38 

Khandavataka, city called, 

72, 73 
Khatvanga, staff with a skull 

at the top, a weapon of 

Siva, 68n x 
Kistna, the river, 98 
Kohler, Dr Reinhold, notes 

to Gonzenbach's Sicilian- 

ische Mdrchen, 78n 
Krishnasakti, Rajput named, 

72, 74 
Kshatriyas, warrior caste, 48 
Kshemendra, Bfihat - hatha - 

manjari, 116 
Kusumayudha and Kamalalo- 

chana, 61-62 
Kuttanikapata, gambler 

named, 25 
Kuvera, the God of Wealth, 

12, 13, 29, 103, 119, 120 

Lacote, F., Essai sur Gunadhya * 

et la Brhatkatha, 94, ' 95, 

100, 101, 117, 118nS H9 
Lakshmana, brother of Rama. 

30 
Lanka (i.e. Ceylon), city of, 

30 
Lata, the King of, 34 
Lavanaka, Book III, 102-104 
Lihga of jewels, Siva appears 

in the form of a, 10 
Linga of tarkshyaratna, 52, 

52ni 
LiAgas erected by Gunadhya 

and Valmlki in Nepal, 97 

Macculloch, J. A., 
" Cannibalism," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iii, 
75ni 

VOL. IX. 



Madanalekha, daughter of 

King Virasena, 8, 31 
Madanamanchuka, head 
queen of Naravahanadatta, 
85, 86, 106, 109-113, 116, 
118, 119, 120 
Madanamanchuka, Book VI, 

105-107 
Madanamanjari and the 
Kapalika, 12, 12ft 1 , 13-14, 
27 
Madanasundari, daughter of 
the Bhilla king, 48-50, 52, 
70 
Madhyadesa conquered by 

King Vikramaditya, 6 
Madiravati, Book XIII, 109- 

110 
Magarasvamin, painter 

named, 35 
Mahabharata, the, Vyasa, 2n 2 , 

97, 99m 1 , 108 
Mahabhishekha, Book XV, 

112 
Mahakala, an epithet and a 
famous UAga of Siva, 17-19 
Mahamati, son of Sumati, 5 
Mahendraditya, king named, 

2-5 
Mahldhara, chaplain of King 

Mahendraditya, 5 
Mainaka, the mountain, 88n 2 
Makaranda, garden called, 12 
Malabar coast, cowries found 

on the, 17n 2 
Malayapura, city called, 39 
Malayasimha, king named, 

39, 41 ' 
MalayavatI, princess named, 

36, 37ni, 38-41, 43, 72 
Maldive Islands, cowries found 

on the, 17w 2 
M a 1 y a v a n, Gana named 

(Gunadhya), 96, 97, 100 
Malyavat, Gana named, 3, 4 
Mandara, Mount, 7n 2 
Manibhadra, the brother of 

Kuvera, 12, 13 
Manjaris, abridged versions, 

97 

Margretha Detloses receives 

magic ointmentfrom Satan, 

45ni 

Maugis, the romance of, 47n 8 

Mayapur(i), city called, 47, 

79 
Mettinges and the magic 

yellow fat, Anneke, 45n x 
Mlechchhas, the i.e. "outer 
barbarians," 2, 2n 2 , 3, 4, 7, 
31,41 



129 

Moksha or nirvana, the con- 
dition of the redeemed 
soul, 89n 2 

Monier Williams, Professor, 
explanation of the word 
kapalika, 12n l 

Muladeva and the Brahman's 
Daughter, 77, 77n 2 , 78-85 

Nagapura, city called, 22, 23 
Nagas, snake-demons, 7, 49, 

97 
Nandana, the garden of the 

gods, 21, 87, 87n 4 
Narada, musical instrument 

played by, 21 
Narasimha, king named, 22 
Naravahana, a title of Kuvera, 

119 
Naravahanadatta, son of the 
King of Vatsa, 1, 85, 86, 
95, 98, 101, 104, 105, 108- 
113, 116, 117, 119 
Naravahanadattajanana, Book 

IV, 104 
Narmada, the river, 54, 55, 57 
Nepal, visits of Gunadhya 

and Valmlki to, 97 
Nepalamahatmya, the, 97 
Nighanta and the Two 

Maidens, Ghanta and, 29 
Nirmuka, King of the 

Persians, 34 
Nirvana, lake resembling, 9 
Nirvana or moksha, the con- 
dition of the redeemed 
soul, 89n 2 

Oesterley, H., Baital Pachist, 

47n 3 
Omkarapitha, place called, 

72,73 

Padmavati, Book XVII, 113 
Paisacha language, the, 98, 

100 
Paithan, the old Pratishthana, 

98 
Pancha, Book XIV, 110-112 
Patichatantra, the, 95, 102, 

108, 117 
" P a ni c," priyangu i.e. a 

small millet, 8, 8n 2 
Parijala or coral tree, 87, 

87n 2 
Parvati (Durga, Gauri, etc., 

wife of Siva), 1, 2, 3, 96, 

100 
Patala, the underworld, 4, 49 
Pataliputra, city called, 56, 

62-65, 74, 77, 82, 84 



130 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Pingl, prii/angu (Panicum 

Italicum) i.e. the Kash- 

mirian, 8n 2 
Pis.uhas, demons hostile to 

mankind, 4, 97 
Prajapati, the Creator, 29 
Pratishthana, the modern 

Paithan, 97-99 
Pre Her, L., Griechische 

Mythologie, 29n x 
Priyangu (a small millet), 

body like a, 8, 8n 2 , 28 
Pushpadanta or Katyayana, 

86, 96 

Radigund to Malaya vatl, 

resemblance of, 37/1 1 
Rahu, the demon, a head 

without body, 87, 88n 
Rajatarahginl, the, Kalhana, 

87n 6 
Rakshasas, demons hostile to 

mankind, 3, 4, 6, 30, 55, 

56, 64, 73 
Ralston, W. R. S., Russian 

Folk- Tales, Ldn., 1873, 37w x 
Ralston, W. R. S., and 

Schiefner, F. A. von, 

Tibetan Tales, 82m 1 
Rama, 5, 30 
Ramdyana, the, Valmikl, 97, 

120 
Rambha, a heavenly nymph, 

21,22 
Rat an, pitcher concealed 

under a, 23 
Rati, wife of the God of 

Love, 106 
Ratnadatta, Brahman named, 

55,56 
Ratnakara, city called, 60 
Ratnakara, the horse of 

Vikramfiditya, 43 
Ratnanadi, the river, 59 
Ratnaprabha, Book VII, 107 
Ratnaprabha, wife of Narava- 

hanadatta, 86 
Ratnapura, city called, 57, 

60, 63, 65, 66 
Havana, chief of the Rak- 
shasas, 30 
Rishabha mountain, the, 86, 
' 112 

Rishis, the seven, 105, 106, 
" 113 
Rohde, E., Der Griechische 

Roman, 3Gn\ 37n\ 47n 3 , 

5 In 1 
Roth, R., Bohtlingk, O., and 

(Sanskrit Worterbuch), 3n 2 , 

8n\ 10n 2 , 12n\ 42nS 52n* 



Rudrapala, general of Ananta, 
87n 6 

Riipavatl, daughter of Ratna- 
datta, 55-57, 63-66 

Sachl, wife of Indra, 2 
Saktikumara, king named, 

. 34 

Saktiyasas, Book X, 108 
Sangrama, king named, 87 
Sanvarasiddhi, bard named, 

39-41 
S a p i a, story of, Basile's 

Pentamerone, 78w 
Sarmishta, 6 
Sarvavarman, minister of 

King Satavahana, 97, 100 
Sasankavati, Book XII, 109 
Safin, magician named, 77- 

79, 81 
S a t a k a r n i, king of the 

Andhi-a dynasty, 98 
Satavahana, King, 87, 97-99 
Saumyadar^ana, wife of King 

Mahendraditya, 2 
Saurasthra conquered by 

King Vikramaditya, 6 
Savaras (Bhillas, etc.), 46, 48, 

49 
Schiefner, F. A. von, Ralston, 

W. R. S., and, Tibetan 

Tales, 82W 1 
Shakespeare, All's Well that 

Ends Well, 77n 2 
Siddhas, independent super- 
humans, 10 
Simhala (i.e. Ceylon), the 

King of, 7, 7w 3 , 8, 10, 28, 

30-32, 34 
Simhavarman, son of the 

King of Simhala, 34 
Sindh, the King of, 34 
Slta, wife of Rama, 30 
Siva, 2-5, 10, 12W 1 , 19W 1 , 20, 

21W 1 , 26, 41, 68n!, 69, 85, 

86, 89n 4 , 96, 106, 111, 119, 

120 
Soma, the son of Rama i.e. 

Somadeva, 89 
Somadeva (Katha- sarit- 

sagara), 87w 6 , 94, 95, 97, 

101-103, 107, 113, 115-117, 

121 
Somasarman, father of 

Agnisarman, 75 
Sorensen, S., An Index to the 

Names in the Mahabharata, 

2 2 
Sorfarina, story of, Gonzen- 

bach's Sicilianische Marchen, 

78n 



Spenser, E., The Faerie 

Queene, 37n x 
Sri or Lakshml, wife of 

Vishnu, 2, 7w 2 
Srldhara, son of Mahldhara, 
, 5 
Sringaravati, friend of 

Anurfigavati, 65, 66 
Stein, M. A., Kalhana' s 

Rdjatarangint, 17n 2 
Sthanu i.e. Siva, 19 
Stokes, M., Indian Fairy 

Tales, 47w x 
Subha, prince named, 49 
Sumanas, daughter of 

Jayadatta, 59, 60, 62-66 
Sumangala, the assumed 

name of the Brahman's 

daughter, 80, 81 
Sumati, minister named, 2, 

5 
Sunandana, king named, 34 
Sunda and Upasunda, story 

of, 29i 
Supratlka, Yaksha named 

(Kanabhuti), 96, 97 
Supratishthita, city called, 

96, 97 
Suratamanjan, Book XVI, 

112, 113 
Surupa, daughter of a Naga, 

49 
Survaprabha, Book VIII, 

107-108 
Suryavati, daughter of the 

King of Trigarta, 88, 88W 1 - * 
Suvarnadvlpa (the Island of 

Gold), 51 
Suvigraha, ambassador 

named, 70 
Swarten and the magic black 

fat, Anneke, 45ft 1 

Tamala tree, 43 
Tarkshyaratna, a dark precious 

stone, 52, 52w x 
Taravali,aGandharva maiden, 

49 
Tawney, C. H., 9n\ 87n\ 

93 
Taylor MS. of the K.S.S., 

the, 26n 2 , 27w 2 , 34n 2 , 36w 2 , 

38n 3 , 42W 1 , 83n x 
Thinthakarala, The Bold 

Gambler, 17-26 
Tilaka, ornamental mark on 

the forehead, 88, 89W 1 
Tilottama, a heavenly nymph, 

8 
Trigarta, the monarch of, 



INDEX I SANSKRIT WORDS, ETC. 



Uchchhaihsravas, 43, 44 

Udayana, the King of Vatsa, 
94, 101-106, 112, 113, 119 

UjjayinI, city called, 2-4, 12, 
17, 21, 22, 25, 32, 34, 42, 
45, 50, 53, 70, 74, 80, 83, 
85, 98, 99, 100, 102, 120 

Upasunda, story of Sunda 
and, 29n* 

Urvibkrits, mountains and 
kings, 89, 89n 3 



Vajrayudha, warder named, 

2,5 
Valmlki, the Bamayatia, 97 
Vandhya, Yakshi named, 44 
Varanasi i.e. Benares, 5, 5n 2 , 

54 
Vararuchi or Katyayana, 96, 

97, 100 
Vardhamana, city called, 53, 

75 
Vasavadatta, queen of the 

King of Vatsa, 102, 104 
Va^uki, the serpent - king, 

7n 2 
Vatsa, the King of, 85 
Veckenstedt, E., Wendische 

Sagen, 45n x 
Vedas, the (three), 3, 79 
Vegavatl, Vidyadhari named, 

Vela, Book XI, 109 
Vena, the river, 57 
Vetala entering a corpse, 14 
Vetalapailchavtjhsati, the, 117 



Vetalas, demons hostile to 
mankind, 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 
45,46,49,50,52,53,71 
Vibhlshana, king of the 

Rakshasas, 30 
Vibudhas i.e. sages and gods, 

87,87n3 H * 

Vidforull who became re- 
juvenated by changing his 
skin, 47n 3 , 48n 
Vidyadharas, independent 
superhumans, 85, 86, 96, 
104, 105, 106 
Vidyadhari, female form of 
Vidyadhara, 107, 108, 110- 
112 
Vijayavarman, king named, 

34 
Vikramaditya, Kalingasena's 
Marriage to King, 43-46, 
48-50, 52-53, 67, 68, 70-71 
Vikramaditya, King, 13-15, 

27, 50, 51, 113, 114 
Vikramaditya, Story of King, 
2, 2ni, 3-11, 12, 28-29, 30- 
33, 34-42, 43, 85 
Vikramasakti, king named, 6, 

7, 28, 28^, 30-32, 34 
Vindhya forest, the, 96, 97; 

mountains, the, 89n 3 
Vindhyabala, Bhilla named, 

34 
Vlrasena, King of Simhala, 

8 
Vishama^Ila or Vikramaditya 
King, 4, 5, 15, 41, 43, 45, 
67, 71, 85 



131 

Vishamaslla, Book XVIII, 

1-86, 113-114 
Vishnu, 2, 7n 2 , 21, 84, 88n, 
^ 108, 120 
VisVakarman, the architect 

of the gods, 2, 30, 35, 36, 

52,70 
Vitasta, the river, 88 
Vyaghrabala, king named, 6 
Vyasa, the Mahabharata, 97 

Waldau, A., Bdhmischet 

Marchenbuch, 37n x 
Weil, G., Tausend und Eine 

Nacht, 82n x 
Winternitz, M., Gesckichte der 

Indischen Litteratur, 99n 2 

Yajna^vamin, Brahman 

named, 60, 62, 79 
Yakshas, subjects to Kuvera, 

the God of Wealth, 3, 4, 

12, 17, 28, 30, 31, 96 
Yakshi or YakshinI, female 

form of Yaksha, 13, 28, 

29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 44, 

45 
Yama, the God of Death, 18, 

25,26 
Yama&kha, Vetala named, 

14,27 
Yamuna, the river, 28 
Yojanas, measure of distance, 

44,73 
Yule, H., and Burnett, A. C, 

Hobson-Jobson, 17n 2 



INDEX II 



Accusation of bastardy, 82, 

82w* 
Adulterous wife bitten off, 

nose of, 76 
Adventures of Anangadeva, 

the, 7-12, 28, 30-32 
" Adventures of Bulukiya, 

The," The Nights, R. F. 

Burton, 45n* 
JEneid, Virgil, 44n x 
Age and disease, fruit that 

prevents old, 47, 47w 3 
Air-flying witches, 57-59 
" AH and Zahir," tale of The 

Nights, Weil's trans., 82w* 
All's Well that Ends Well, 

Shakespeare, 77n 2 
Alms to a woman, con- 
sequence of refusing, 56, 

56ni 
American Journal of Philology, 

"The Art of Stealing in 

Hindu Fiction," M. 

Bloomfield, vol. xliv, 78n 
Animal transformation, 45 
Animal, woman eats an, 75 
Animals, pretended know- 
ledge of the language of, 

23,24 
Arabian Nights. See under 

Nights . . . 
"Art of Stealing in Hindu 

Fiction, The," M. 

Bloomfield, Amer. Journ. 

Phil., 78w 
Artifice of the gambler, 23, 24 
Ascetic, disguising as an, 

23-25 
Ashes on a funeral pyre, 

magical rite of throwing, 

68, 68n 2 , 69 
"Ashes," M. A. Canney, 

Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., 

68n 2 
Author's Epilogue to the 

K.S.S., 87, 87/1 1 , 88, 89 
Authors, semi-divine 

(Gunadhya, Valmiki and 

Vyasa), 97 
Automata, 9n x 
133 



GENERAL 

Badawi and his Wife," The 
Nights, R. F. Burton, Sbn 1 

Bait a I Pachtsi, H. Oesterley, 
47n 3 

Bastardy, the accusation of, 
82, 82n* 

Bathing nymphs, stealing the 
clothes of, 20, 20n l 

Battle, description of a, 51 

Bed made of lotus leaves, 39 

Belly, of a boar, man issuing 
fromthe,49; ofanelephant, 
man and woman issue from 
the, 49 ; of a fish, woman 
issuing from the, 59 ; of 
large fish, a whole ship 
issues from the, 51, 51n x 

Bibliographic des Ouvrages 
Arabes, V. Chauvin, 22w x , 
38n 2 , 82m 1 

Birds (Aves), Aristophanes, 
3i 

Black magic, sympathetic, 
27, 27w x ; ointments, magic, 
45n* 

Black Mountain, the, 1, 113 

Blood produced through cut- 
ting off the head in picture, 
27,27ft 1 

Boar, man issuing from the 

. belly of a, 49 

Bodies of girls like the moon 
and the priyangu, 8, 9, 28 

Body, Rahu a demon with a 
headless, 88w 

Bbhmisches Marchenbuch, A. 
Waldau, 37ft 1 

Bold Gambler Thinthakarala, 
The, 17-26 

Book XVIII: Vishamasila, 
1-86 

Books I-XVIII of the K.S.S., 
discussion of, 95-116 

Books in the K.S.S., tabular 
list of, 114-115 

Brahman Agniarman and his 
Wicked Wife, The, 75, 
75w3, 76-77 

Brahman demons, the punish- 
ment of the, 15, 16 



Brahman named Agnisvamin, 

74; named Chandrasvamin, 

47, 68; named Devasvamin, 

61 ; named Jayadatta, 60 ; 

named Ratnadatta, 55, 56 ; 

named YajnasVamin, 60, 

62, 79 
Brahman, The Permanently 

Horripilant, 74-75 
Brahman who recovered his 

Wife alive after her Death, 

The, 68-70 
Brahman's Daughter, Mula- 

deva and the, 77, 77w 2 , 78- 
_ 85 
BrA.hm.ans KeSata and 

Kandarpa, The Two, 54-61, 

62-66 
Bridegroom, the substituted, 

55-57 
Buddhist Legends, E. W. 

Burlingame, 119n a 
Buddhists, seven precious 

things of the, 23n x 

"Cannibalism," J. A. 
Macculloch, Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., 75/i 1 

Challenge to the Mothers, 
Thinthakarala's, 17, 18 

Changing skin as means of 
rejuvenation, 48n 

" Chaste Wife, Wright's," 
story of the, 53n 2 

Chastity, the garland of, 53, 
53n 2 

Child of the Jar i.e. the 
saint Agastya, 89, 89n 3 

Churningofthe(Milk-)Ocean, 
the, 7n 2 , 87n 2 

Circle, the magic, 13, 13n x , 
14 

City called Bhimapura, 59, 
60 ; called Chandrapura, 
61 ; called KausambI, 96, 
99, 104, 110, 112, 120; 
called Khandavataka, 72, 
73; called Malay apura, 
39; called Mayapur(i), 47, 
79; called Nagapura, 22,23 



134 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



City called Pataliputra, 56, 
62-65,74,77,82,84; called 
Ratnakara, 60; called 
Ratnapura, 57, 60, 63, 65, 
66; called Supratishthita, 
96, 97; called UjjayinI, 
2-4, 12, 17, 21, 22, 25, ,'52, 
34, 42, 45, 50, 53, 70, 74, 
SO, 83, 85, 98, 99, 100, 102, 
120; called Vardhamana, 
53, 75 ; of La h k a (i.e. 
Ceylon), 30 

Clever boy, the, 83-85 

Clothes of heavenly nymphs, 
wliile bathing, stealing the, 
20, 20/1* 

Comparison between the 
Rdmayana and the Brihat- 
katha, 120 

Conquest of various peoples, 
Udayana's, 103 

Contemplation, supernatural 
powers of, 22 

Contents of Books in the 
K.S.S. unconnected, 104, 
107, 108, 115 

Cool and warm mangoes, the, 
78, 79 

Coral or pdrijdta tree, 87, 
87n- 

Corpse of a thief, demon 
inhabiting the, 76, 77; 
Vetala entering a, 14 

Courtesan named Devadatta, 
80 ; the sham, 80 

"Cowry," Hobson-Job.scm, H. 
Yule and A. C. Burnett, 
17n- 

Creator of the Vindhya 
mountains, Agastya, 89w :i 

Crow, interpretation of the 
cry of a, 24 

Cunning Gambler Dagineya 
and the Vetala Agnisikha, 
who submitted himself to 
King Vikramaditya, The, 
14-17, 26-27 

Cunning Sumangala, the, 81 

Curious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, S. Baring-Gould, 
47n :! 

Curse on the heavenly nymph, 
Indra's, 22 

Cyproea moneta, cowries, 17w 2 



Dancers disappear in carved 
figures of temple pillars, 
52 

Daughter, Muladeva and the 
Brahman's, 77, 77n 2 , 78-85 



Death, The Brahman who 

recovered his Wife alive 

after her, 68-70 
Death caused by the look of 

a kapalika, 68 
Decameron, Boccaccio, 69n- 
Deer of gold and jewels 

possessing life, 9, 9ft 1 , 28- 

32, 34 
Demon inhabiting the corpse 

of a thief, 76, 77 
Demons, the punishment of 

tin- Brahman, 15, 16 
Description of a battle, 31 
Diamond, one of the five 

precious things, 23w L 
Dice with the Mothers, 

Thinthakarala plays, 17, 18 
Disconnection of contents of 

Books of the K.S.S. , 104, 

107, 108, 115 
Discussion on Books I-XVIII 

of the K.S.S., 95-116 
Disease, fruit that prevents 

old age and, 47, 47ft 3 
Disguising as an ascetic, 23- 

25 
Dislike for men, princess's, 

36, 37, 37m 1 , 39 
Dogs of gold and silver, 9ft 1 
Dream, falling in love with a 

person in a, 36, 36m 1 , 38, 

40 ; fruit given by Siva in 

a, 44ft 2 
Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, 

the, 84 

Ear ornament, Thinthakarala 

concealed in a lotus used 

as, 21 
Eating a gourd turns a man 

into a python, 45 ; human 

flesh, 75, 75ft 1 
Elephant, man and woman 

issue from the belly of an, 

49 
Elephant-faced god i.e. 

Ganesa, 1 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th 

e'd., 17n 2 , 99ft 1 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and 

Ethics, Hastings', " Ashes," 

M. A. Canney, vol. ii, 

68n 2 ; "Cannibalism," J. A. 

Macculloch, vol. iii, 75ft 1 
Entering a corpse, Vetala, 

14 
Epilogue to the K.S.S., 

Author's, 87, 87ft 1 , 88-89 
Erect, hair standing, 37, 74, 

75 



"Escaping One's Fate," W.N. 
Brown, Studies in Honor of 

Ma mice Bloomjleld, 25ft 1 
Essai stir Gunadhya et la 

Brhatkathd, F. Lacote, 94, 

95, 100, 101, 117, ll&n 1 , 

119 
Essay, Terminal, 93-121 
Evil omens, 76, 76w' 
Evil of gambling, the, 16, 

17 
Existence of Gunadhya, 

doubt about the, 95, 96 

Faerie Queene, The, E. Spenser, 

37ft 1 
Falling in love with a person 

in a dream, 36, 36ft 1 , 38, 

40 ; with a picture, 36, 

36ft 1 , 38 
" False Ascetics and Nuns in 

Hindu Fiction, On," M. 

Bloomfield, Journ. Amer. 

Orient. Sac, 23ft 2 
Fat of a toad enabling witches 

to fly through the air, 45ft l 
Father of Fiction, the, 

Somadeva, 121 
Feet, magic ointment for the, 

45, 45ft 1 
Fever of love, the, 36, 38, 

39 
Figures on temple pillars, 

dancers and singers be- 
come, 52 
Fire sacrifices of Brahmans, 

the gods nourished by the, 

3, 3ft 1 
Fish swallows a whole ship, 

large, 51, 51ft 1 ; woman 

issuing from the belly of 

a, 59 
Five precious things, the, 23, 

23ft 1 
Flesh, selling human, 15, 16; 

woman - eaters of human 

and animal, 75, 75ft 1 
Flying power of witches 

produced by fat of a toad, 

45ft 1 
Folk-Lore, "Some Notes on 

Homeric Folk-Lore," W. 

Crooke, vol. xix, 9ft 1 
Folk-Tales, Russian, W. R. S. 

Ralston, 37ft 1 
Folk- Tales, Siberian and Other, 

C. F. Coxwell, 75ft 1 
Forewords to the Ocean of I 

Story, the different, 93, 94 
Four pitchers buried in the 

ground, the, 23, 2 4 



INDEX II GENERAL 



135 



" Frame-story " of the K.S.S., 

the, 94-95 
Friend of the kamalini i.e. 

the sun, 30 
Fruit, given by Siva to the 

queen in a dream, 4, 4n 2 ; 

that prevents old age and 

disease, 47, 47n 3 

Gambler who cheated Yama, 

the, 25, 25m 1 , 26; Dagineya 

and the Vetala Agni&kha 

who submitted himself to 

King Vikramaditya, The 

Cunning, 14-17, 26-27; 

Thinthakarala, The Bold, 

17-26 
Garland of chastity, the, 53, 

53n 2 
Garments of bathing nymphs, 

stealing the, 20, 20n l 
Geschichte der Indischen 

Litleratur, M. Winternitz, 

99n 2 
Girl in a dream, falling in 

love with a, 36, 36n x , 38 
Glory white in Hindu rhe- 
toric, 6n 2 
God of Love, the Kama, 54 
Goddess of the evil omen, 

the, 76, 77 
Goddess of Prosperity, 2 
Gods nourished by the 

oblation in fire-offerings, 

3, 3ni 
Gold and jewels possessing 

life, deer of, 9, 9n l , 28-32, 

34; one of the five precious 

things, 23W ; and silver, 

dogs of, 9n x 
Golden Deer, Jayanta and 

the, 29-30 
Gourd, man turned into a 

python through eating a, 45 
Grammar called Katantra and 

Kalapaka, 97, 100 
Grateful Monkey, The, 47, 

47nS 48 
Great tale, the i.e. the 

Brihat-lcatha (q.v.), 96-98 
Griechiscke Mythologie, L. 

Preller, 29n l 
Griechiscke Roman, Der, E. 

Rohde, 36n\ 37n\ 47n 3 , 

Sin 1 

Hair standing erect, 37, 74, 

75 
Hand of Vetala severed by 

cutting off hand of a drawn 

figure, 27, 27n* 



Head of a drawn figure, blood 
produced through cutting 
off the, 27, 27?* 1 

Headless body, Rahu a demon 
with, 88n 

Heavenly fruit preventing 
old age and disease, 47, 
47n 3 ; maidens, the two, 8, 
9, 28-32, 34, 35; nymphs 
while bathing, stealing the 
clothes of, 20, 20n ; River, 
the, the Ganges, 88, 88n 3 

Hermit named Kanva, 1, 49, 
85 ; named Kasyapa, 1, 85, 
105, 113 

High social tone of the 
Kashmirian version of the 
K.S.S., 118 

Hindu pun, Sn 1 , 6, 6n\ 7, 7n 2 , 
19n 2 , 41n 2 , 87, 87n 3 , 88n, 
88w 12 , 89n'- 2 - 3 ; rhetoric, 
glory white in, 6n 2 

Hindu Solomon, Vikra- 
maditya a, 3n 3 

Hobson-Jobson, H. Yule and 
A. C. Burnell, 17n 2 

Horripilant Brahman, The 
Permanently, 74-75 

Horripilation, 37, 74, 75 

Howling jackal on left-hand 
side an evil omen, 76, 76n x 

Human flesh, eating, 75, 
75n x ; selling, 15, 16 

Ichor from elephant's fore- 
head used as perfume, 46 

Iliad, Homer, 9ft 1 , 44n x 

Illuminating power of newly 
born prince, 4 

// Pentamerone. See under 
Pentamerone, II 

Image on a pillar through 
curse, transformation into 
an, 22, 22*! 1 

Incarnation of Vishnu, the 
dwarf, 84 

Index, the chastity, 53, 53n 2 

Index to the Names in the 
Ma habhar at a, An, S. 
Sorensen, 2, 2n 2 

India Office MSS. of the 
K.S.S., 3n 2 , 4/1 1 , 7n\ $n l , 
lOn 1 - 2 , Un\ 19n\ 20n 23 , 
2 In 2 , 26n 12 , 2&V, 29n 2 - 3 , 
Mn\ 55n x , 58^, 6 In 1 , 75n 2 , 
76n 2 , 78n 1 

Indian Fairy Tales, M. Stokes, 
47ni 

Interpretation of the lan- 
guage of animals, 23, 24 ; 
of the two strange tales, 84 



Introduction of Narava- 

hanadatta as teller of his 

own story, 105 
Investiture with the sacred 

thread, 5 
Island of Simhala (i.e. Ceylon), 

8 
Island, the White, 6 ; of gold 

(Suvarnadvipa), 51 

Jackal, interpretation of the 

yell of a, 23 
Jackal on left-hand side, 

howling, an evil omen, 76, 

76ni 
Jar, Child of the i.e. the 

saint Agastya, 89, 89n 3 
Jewels, the five, 23n x ; 

possessing life, deer of gold 

and, 9, 9n x , 28-32, 34 
Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., "On 

False Ascetics and Nuns 

in Hindu Fiction," M. 

Bloomfield, vol. xliv, 23n- 
Journal of Philology , American , 

78n. For details see under 

Amer. Journ. Phil. 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, " Modern 

Hinduism and its Debt to 

the Nestorians," G. A. 

Grierson, 1907, lCSn 1 

Kalkana's Rdjatarangini, M. A. 
Stein, 17n 2 

King of Kalinga, the, 53 ; 
named Chandra^ekhara, 
51 ; named Dundubhi, 12, 
13 ; named Gunasagara, 50, 
51 ; named Kanchanadam- 
shtra, 48 ; named Mahen- 
draditya, 2-5; named 
Malayasimha, 39, 41; 
named Narasimha, 22; 
named Vikrama^akti, 6, 7, 
28, 28n 1 , 30-32, 34; named 
Vyaghrabala, 6 ; Satakarni 
of the Andhra dynasty, 98 ; 
of Simhala i.e. Ceylon, 7, 
7n 3 , 5, 10, 28, 30-32, 34; 
of Vatsa, the, 85 ; Vikra- 
maditya, Kalingasena's 
Marriage to, 43-46, 48-50, 
52-53, 67, 68, 70-71 

King Vikramaditya, Story of, 
2, 2n\ 3-11, 12, 28-29, 30- 
33, 34-42, 43, 85 

Knowledge of the speech of 
animals, pretended, 23, 24 

Lady in a dream, falling in 
love with a, 36, SGn 1 , 38 



iao 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Lake resembling Nirvana, 

magic, 9, 10 
Language of animals, 

pretended knowledge of, 

23,24 
Laugh of the hypocritical 

gambler, 23, 23n 3 
Leaves, bed made of lotus, 39 
Left-hand order of Siva 

worshippers, kapalikas, 12n* 
Life, deer of gold and jewels 

possessing, 9, 9n 1 , 28-32 ; 

through ashes thrown on 

her pyre, woman returns 

to, 68, 68n 2 , 69 
Life and Stories of the Jaina 

Savior Parcvanatha, The, 

M. Bloomfield, 82w x 
List of Books in the K.S.S., 

tabular, 114-115 
Look of a kapalika, death 

caused by the, 68 
Lotus leaves, bed made of, 39 
Lotus, used as ear ornament, 

Thinthakarala concealed in 

a, 21' 
Love, the fever of, 36, 38, 

39 ; Kama, the God of, 54 ; 

with a person in a dream, 

falling in, 36, 36n\ 38, 40 ; 

with a picture, falling in, 

36, 36n\ 38 
Low social tone of the Brihat- 

katha and its Nepalese 

version, 118, 120 
Lyre, Madanamanjari's skill 

of playing the, 10 

Magic circle, the, 13, 13W 1 , 
14 ; ointment for the feet, 
45, 45 x ; rite of throwing 
ashes on a funeral pyre, 68, 
68n 2 , 69; staff, 68, 68W 1 , 
69 ; sympathetic black, 27, 
27/1 1 ; Thinthakarala con- 
cealed in a lotus by, 21 

Mahabharata, the Vyasa, 2w 2 , 
97, 99n\ 108 

Maidens, the two heavenly, 
8, 9, 28-32, 34, 35 
ale sex, girl's dislike for 
the, 36, 37, 37W 1 , 39 

Man, becomes rejuvenated by 
changing his skin, 48n ; 
issuing from the belly of a 
boar, 49 ; and woman issue 
from the belly of an 
elephant, 49 

"Man who went to seek his 
Fate, The," Indian Fairy 
Tales, M. Stokes, 47n x 



Man-hater, princess who is a, 

36, 37, 37n\ 39 
Mangoes, the warm and the 

cool, 78, 79 
Mare devoured by a woman, 75 
Marriage to King Vikrama- 

ditya, Kalingasena's, 43-46, 

48-50, 52-53, 67, 68, 70-71 
Materiality, the three gunas 

or phases of, 89n 2 
Men, ornaments of skulls of, 

12W 1 
Merchant Dhanadatta who 

lost his Wife, The, 53-54 
Metamorphoses, stone, 22n x 
Metaphor of the sun, 30 
Methods of finding people, 

38, 38 2 
Milk, the Sea of, 6 
Milk-ocean, the Churning of 

the, 87n 2 
" Modern Hinduism and its 

Debt to the Nestorians," 

G. A. Grierson, Journ. Roy. 

As. Soc, 108ft 1 
Monkey, The Grateful, 47, 

47W 1 , 48 
Monstrous fish swallows a 

whole ship, 51, 51w x 
Moon, body white like the, 

9,28 
Mothers, the, personified 

energies of the principal 

deities, 17, 17w 3 , 18, 58 
Mothers, The, R. Briffault, 

17w 3 
Motif, "Accusation of 

Bastardy," 82n x ; " Promise 

to Return," 55, 55w 2 
Mount Kailasa, 2, 6, 86, 96 ; 

Mandara, 7/i 2 
Mountain, the Black, 1, 113; 

Mainaka, the, 88w 2 ; of 

Rishabha, 86, 112 
Mountains, Indra cutting the 

wings of the, 88w 2 ; to the 

sea, refuge of the winged, 

7 2 ; the Vindhya, 89w* 

Names of Books I and II of 

the K.S.S., similarity in, 

101 
Nepalese version of the 

Brihat- hatha i.e. the 

Brihat-katha-sloka-samgraha, 

84, 101 
Nights and a Night, The 

Thousand, R. F. Burton, 

Zln\ 45n*, 85w* 
Nodes Attica;, Aulus Gellius, 

47W 1 



Nose of adulterous wife bitten 

off, 76 
Nymphs, stealing the clothes 

of bathing, 20, 20n x 

Ocean, the Churning of the 

(Milk-), 7n 2 , 87n 2 ; Mount 

Mainaka takes refuge in 

the, 88w 2 
Oceans swallowed by Agastya, 

the seven, 89, 89n 3 
Odyssey, Homer, 9/1 1 
Offerings of Brahmans, the 

gods nourished by the fire-, 

3, Sn 1 
Ointment for the feet, magic, 

45, 45W 1 
Old age and disease, fruit 

that prevents, 47, 47n 3 
" Omar bin al-Nu'uman, Tale 

of King," The Nights, R. F. 

Burton, 37m 1 
Omens, evil, 76, 76 x 
Order of Books VI, XII, 

XVII and XVIII of the 

K.S.S., wrong, 106, 109, 

113, 115 
Order of Siva worshippers, 

kapalikas a left-hand, 12n x 
Ornament, Thinthakarala 

concealed in a lotus used 

as an ear, 21 
Ornaments of men's skulls, 

12w v 

Painting, falling in love with 

a, 36, 36/1 1 , 38 
Panicum Italicum, " Panic," a 

small millet, 8n 2 
Paradise, kalpa tree or 

wishing-tree of, 87, 87n 5 
Partridge appearing on the 

right, an evil omen," 76, 

76/1 1 
Pearl, one of the five precious 

things, 23m 1 
Pentamerone, II, G. B. Basile, 

78w 
People conquered by the 

King of Vatsa, 103 
Perfume, ichorfrom elephants' 

foreheads used as, 46 
Permanently Horripilant 

Brahman, The, 74-75 
Phases of materiality, the 

three gunas or, 89w 2 
Picture, falling in love with 

a, 36, 36n\ 38 
Pillar through curse, trans- 
formation into an image 

on a, 22, 22n* 



INDEX II GENERAL 



137 



Pitchers full of precious 

things buriedin the ground, 

23,24 
Players and singers disappear 

in the carved figures on 

temple wall, 52 
Position of Books VI, XII, 

XVII and XVIII of the 

K.S.S., wrong, 106, 109, 

113, 115 
Power of newly born prince, 

illuminating, 4; Vetala 

giving away his shape and, 

16 ; of witches produced 

by the fat of a toad, flying, 

45ni 
Powers of contemplation, 

supernatural, 22 
Prakrit, the Court language 

of the Andhra dynasty, 99 
"Prakrit," G. A. Grierson, 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 

99m' 1 
Precious stone ( Tarkshya- 

ratna), 52, 52n x ; things, 

the five, 23, 23n x 
Pretended knowledge of the 

language of animals, 23, 24 
Princesses, The Two, 50-52 
" Promise to Return " motif, 

55, 55n 2 
Promises of Muladeva and 

the Brahman's daughter, 

the, 80 
Prosperity, the Goddess of, 

2 
Pun, Hindu, 5n x , 6, 6m 1 , 7, 

7n 2 , 19n 2 , 41n 2 , 87, 87n J , 

88n, 88W 1 - 2 , 89^- 2 - 3 
Pyre, magical rite of throw- 
ing ashes on a funeral, 68, 

68n 2 , 69 
Python through eating a 

gourd, man turned into a, 

45 

Queen Kalingasena, 43, 52, 
106 ; Madanamanchuka, 
85, 86 ; Madanasundari, 
48-50, 52, 70 

Bajatarangini, the Kalhana, 

87n 6 
Raiatarangini, Kalhana's,M.A. 

Stein, 17n 2 
Rdmayana, the, Valmiki, 97, 

120 
Refuge in the ocean, Mount 

Mainaka takes, 88n 2 ; in 

the sea of the winged 

mountains, 7n 2 



Refusing alms to a woman, 

the consequence of, 56, 

56n J 
Resuscitation through ashes 

thrown on funeral pyre, 

68, m n \ 69 
Retrospect, 122-125 
M Return, Promise to," motif, 

55, 55w 2 
Revenge of the cunning 

gambler, the, 16 
Rhetoric, glory white in 

Hindu, 6n 2 
Rite of throwing ashes on a 

funeral pyre, magical, 68, 

eSn 1 , 69 
River, the Heavenly i.e. the 

Ganges, 88, 88n 3 
Romance of Maugis, the, 47n 3 
Ruby, one of the five precious 

things, 23n x 
Rupee, 4096 cowries i.e. one, 

17n 2 
Russian Folk-Tales, W. R. S. 

Ralston, 37ft 1 

Sacred thread, investiture 

with the, 5 
Sacrifices of Brahmans, the 

gods nourished by, 3, 3n x 
Sagen, Marchen und Gebrauche 

aus Meklenburg, K. Bartsch, 

45m 1 
Sale of human flesh, 15, 16 
Sandalwood juice applied as 

relief for fever, 39 
Sandbank in the sea, the two 

maidens on a, 8, 9 
Sanskrit College MS. of the 

K.S.S., 4nS W, $n\ 19m 1 , 

20n 3 , 26n x - 2 , 27n 2 , 29n 2 , 3 , 

Un\ 36n 2 , 38n 3 , 39n 2 , 3 , 

4 In 1 , 42W 1 , 54n x , 55n x , 57m 1 , 

58n\ 6 In 1 , 75n 2 , 76n 2 , 83m 1 
Sapphire, one of the five 

precious things, 23n x 
Satan, magic ointment for 

feet brought by, 45n x 
Sea of Milk, the, 6 
Sea, the two maidens on a 

sandbank in the, 8, 9 ; the 

winged mountains taking 

refuge in the, 7n 2 
Semi-divine authors 

(Gunadhya, Valmiki and 

Vyasa), 97 
Servant, the deceitful, 61, 62 
Seven oceans swallowed by 

Agastya, 89, 89n 3 ; precious 

things of the Buddhists, 

23m 1 



Sex, girl's dislike for the 

male, 36, 37, 37m 1 , 39 
Shape and power, Vetala 

giving away his, 16 
Shell-money, use of, 17n 2 
Ship swallowed by a large 

fish, a whole, 51, Sin 1 
Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, 

C. F. Coxwell, 75n x 
Sicilianische Marchen, L. 

Gonzenbach, 75n 
Silver, dogs of gold and, 

9m 1 
Similarity in names of Books 

I and II of the K.S.S., 101 
Singers disappear in the 

carved figures of temple 

walls, 52 
Skill of playing the lyre, 

Madanamanjari's, 10 
Skin, youth regained by 

changing one's, 48n 
Skulls of men, ornaments 

made of, V2n l 
Social tone of the Brihat- 

katha and its Nepalese 

version, low, 118, 120 
" Some Notes on Homeric 

Folk- Lore," W. Crooke, 

Folk-Lore, 9n x 
Speech of animals, pretended 

knowledge of the, 23, 24 
Spell of the kdpdlika, the, 13 
Staff, magic, 68, 68m 1 , 69 
Standing of the Brihat-katha 

and its Nepalese version, 

low social, 118, 120 
Stealing the clothes of bath- 
ing nymphs, 20, 20n x 
Stone metamorphoses, 22m 1 
Story of King Vikramaditya, 

2, 2n l , 3-11, 12, 28-29, 30- 

33, 34-42, 43, 85 ; of Sapia, 

Basile's Pentamerone, 78n ; 

of Sorfarina, Gonzenbach 's 

Siciliariische Marchen, 78n 
Strange tales, the two, 84 
Strides of Vishnu, the (three), 

84 
Stupa of Bharhut, A. 

Cunningham, 51m 1 
Sub-stories to the Main Story 

of the K.S.S., proportion 

of, 95 
Substituted bridegroom, the, 

55-57 
Sun, metaphor of the, 30 
Swan-maidens (Appendix I 

of Vol. VIII), 20m 1 
Sympathetic black magic, 27, 

27m 1 



138 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Tabular list of Books in the 

K.S.S., 114, 115 
Tale of " Ali and Zaher," 

The Nights, Weil's trans., 

82n x ; of Carisendi and 

Catalina (Decamero?i), 69n 2 
Tale, The Great i.e. the 

Brihat-katha, 96, 97, 98 
"Tale of King Omar bin al- 

Nu'uman," The Nights, 

R. F. Burton, 37W 1 
Tales, the two strange, 84 
Tales, Indian Fairy, M. Stokes, 

47n* 
Tansend und Eine Nacht, G. 

Weil, 82n* 
Terminal Essay, 93-121 
Thief, demon inhabiting the 

corpse of a, 76, 77 
Things, the five precious, 23, 

23n x 
Thousand Nights and a Night, 

The. See under Nights . . . 
Thread, investiture with the 

sacred, 5 
Three gunas or phases of 

materiality, the, 89w 2 
Three-eyed god, Siva, the, 19 
Throwing ashes on a funeral 

pyre, magical rite of, 68, 

68n 2 , 69 
Tibetan Tales, W. R. S. 

Ralston and F. A. von 

Schiefner, 82w x 
Toad enables witches to fly 

through the air, fat of a, 

45W 1 



Transformation, animal, 45 ; 
into an image on a temple- 
pillar, 22, 22n* 

Tree, asoka, 54 ; jambu, 47 ; 
kalpa, or wishing-tree of 
paradise, 87, 87 w 5 , 88; 
parijata or coral, 87, 87w 2 ; 
tamala, 43 

Two beautiful maidens in the 
sea, the 8, 9, 28, 29; 
Brahmans Keata and 
Kandarpa, The, 54-61, 62- 
66 ; Princesses, The, 50- 
52 



Unfading garland, the, 53, 
53n 2 



Varia Historia, ^Elian, 47w 3 
Visits of Valmlki and 
Gunadhya to Nepal, 97 

Wandering Jew fable, the 

romance of Maugis possibly 

a form of the, 48m 
Warm and cool mangoes, the, 

78, 79 
Weapon of Siva, the magic 

staff a, 68W 1 
Weeping image on the temple 

pillar, the, 24 
Wendische Sagen, E. Vecken- 

stedt, 45w x 
White in Hindu rhetoric, 

glory, 6n 2 ; Island, the, 6 



Wicked Wife, The Brahman 
AgniSarman and his, 75, 
75w 3 , 76-77 

Wife alive after her Death, 
The Brahman who re- 
covered his, 68-70 

Wife bitten off, nose of adul- 
terous, 76 

Wife, The Merchant Dhana- 
datta who lost his, 53-54 

Winged mountains to the 
sea, refuge of the, 7w 2 

Wings of the mountains, 
Indra cutting the, 88n 2 

Wishing-tree of paradise, the 
kalpa tree or, 87, 87n 5 

Witches, air- flying, 57-59; 
produced by fat of a toad, 
flying power of, 45n x 

Woman, eats human flesh, 75, 
75n x ; issue from the belly 
of an elephant, man and, 
49 ; issuing from the belly 
of a fish, 59 ; returns to life 
through ashes being thrown 
on her pyre, 68, 68w 2 , 69 

"Wright's Chaste Wife," 
story of the, 53w 2 

Wrong position of Books VI, 
XII, XVII and XVIII of 
the K.S.S., 106, 109, 113, 
115 

Yellow fat, smearing with 

magic, 45w x 
Youth regained by changing 

one's skin, 48n 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 



139 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 

The following pages (fully indexed in Vol. X) contain not merely corrected 
printer's errors, but additional references and information, which I have either 
come across personally since the publication of the particular volume in question, 
which have appeared in reviews, or which have been forwarded me by some of 
my subscribers. In this connection I would especially mention Sir George 
Grierson, Professor W. R. Halliday, Dr A. H. Krappe and Professor Paul Pelliot. 

VOLUME I 

Page xxxiii, line 21 from top. For " chapters " read " books." 

P. 2, lines 12-20. Cf. Lacote's translation in Ocean, Vol. IX, 
pp. 117, 118. 

P. 10n 3 . The World Egg. See tether R. Eisler, Weltenmantel 
u. Himmelszelt, 2 vols., Munchen, 1910 (esp. vol. ii). The 
material is mainly Iranian. 

P. 12w\ The reference from Melusine should read " vol. i, 
1878, col. 107." The extract given has been translated 
by Tawney from the French. 

P. 14, lines 15 and 16 of note. " Gharib " and " Ajib " are 
more correctly written " Gharib " and " Ajib." 

P. 15, line 11 of note. For " Hola " read " Holoa." 

P. 16w\ The bodiless voice. For a good example of Kledo- 
nomancy (the acceptance of the spoken word as an omen) 
cf. Halliday, Greek Divination, London, 1913, p. 229 ; 
cf. also Voyage d'Ibn Batoutah, Paris, 1853, vol. i, p. 34 ; 
Anibal, " Voces del cielo," Romanic Review, vol. xvi, 
p. 57 et seq. ' 

P. 19n a . Gold under pillow. After the Grimm reference add : 
" See Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder - 
und Hausmdrchen der Briider Grimm, Leipzig, 1913, vol. i, 
p. 542. The Marchen type of 4 Gold pieces under pillow 
stories has been examined with the help of all known 
variants by A. Aarne, in his Vergleichende Marchenfor- 
schungtn, Helsingfors, 1908, p. 143 et seq. Cf. also the 
review of K. Krohn in Anzeiger der Finnisch-U grischen 
Forschungen, pp. 1-10. See further Kretschmer, Neu- 
griechische Marchen, 1921, p. 23 et seq. ; Tille, Verzeichnis 
der Bbhmischen Marchen, FF Com. 34, p. 285 ; Hertel, 
Pantschdkhydna-Wdrttika, Leipzig, 1923, p. 119 ; and 
also Halliday 's note on p. 165 of this volume." 
141 



142 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Page 24W 1 . Virgil, the sorcerer. Add to note : " See Chauvin, 
Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes, viii, pp. 188-190." 

Pp. 25-29. Notes on " Magical Articles." See Bolte and 
Polivka, op. cit. 9 vol. ii, p. 331 ; Coxwell, Siberian Folk- 
Tales, p. 238 ; and Halliday, Journ. Gypsy Lore Soc, 
3rd series, vol. ii, 1924, pp. 151-156. 

P. 25, line 28. For " Scandinavian Tales " read " Yule-Tide 
Stories." 

P. 25, line 37. For " Ashbjornsen " read " Asbjornsen." 

P. 26, line 1. For " Hamelin " read " Hameln." 
line 21. For " Von " read " von." 
line 41. For " J. C. Croker " read " T. C. Croker." 

P. 27, line 4. For " Kinder " read " Kinder-." 
line 23. For " Freer " read " Frere." 

P. 28, last line. Read " j . . . Wonderful ape Ala,' which 
occurs in Chapter LVII of the Ocean, Vol. V, pp. 5-13." 

Pp. 42-44. " Entrapped Suitors." See Halliday, Journ. Gypsy 
Lore Soc, 3rd series, vol. i, 1922, pp. 55-58; Bedier, 
Les Fabliaux, Paris, 1925, pp. 454-457 ; R. Kohler, 
Kleinere Schriften, vol. ii, pp. 445-456 ; J. Bolte, Zeitsch. 
d. Vereins f. Volkskunde, vol. xxvi, p. 19 ; Fornmanna 
Sogur, vol. iii, p. 67 et seq. ; Kretschmer, op. cit., p. 175 ; 
Mazon, Conies populaires de la Macedoine sud-occidentale, 
Paris, 1923, pp. 123, 213. Professor Jolly sends me a 
German variant J. Ayrer, "Die ehrlich Beckin mit iren 
drey vermeinten Bulern," Dramen herausg. von Keller, 
vol. iv, p. 2763 et seq. 

P. 42. For line 8 from bottom read : " See Ind. Ant., vol. 
ii, 1873, pp. 357-360, and ditto, vol. ix, 1880, pp. 2, 3, 
where G. H. Damant relates, in . . ." 

P. 44, line 22. Insert " Early " before " English." 

line 5 from bottom : " For variants of the i Mastermaid ' 
type see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 517et seq." 

P. 46, line 5 from bottom. For " Jacobi's " read "Jacobs'." 

P. 46n 2 . For the laughing fish cf. Mazon, op. cit, p. 137 ; 
Halfs Saga, chapter vii ; Naumann, Isldndische Volks- 
mdrchen, Jena, 1923, p. 287 ; P. Paris, Les Romans de la 
Table Ronde, vol. i, pp. 82, 85 ; vol. ii, pp. 42-43. 

P. 48, line 12. For " todeath " read " to death." 

P. 48w 2 . On " Svend's Exploits " cf. the Eddie Fjolsvinnsmdl, 
Gering, Die Edda, p. 130 et seq. 

P. 50W 1 . Riddles. Cf. The Story of Ahikar, ed. F. C. Cony- 
beare, J. Rendel Harris, A. S. Lewis, 1898, pp. 74-79. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 143 

Page 51ft 1 . For the"Riddle of the Sphinx " seeKohler, Kleinere 
Schriften, vol. i, p. 115 ; Schmidt, Griechische Mdrchen, 
p. 144 ; and Apollodorus, ed. Frazer, vol. i, p. 347. 

P. 52, last 3 lines. Drought. Cf. 1 Kings xvii, 1. 

P. 77ft 1 . For the cock's crow see Wilhehn, Chinesische Volks- 
mdrchen, Jena, 1921, pp. 201, 212. 

P. 81, line 11 from bottom. For "sabbarah" read "sabbarah." 

P. 82. Language of signs. For its use among the North 
American Indians see G. Mallery, Introduction to the Study 
of Sign Language, Washington, 1880. Cf. Kautilya, 
Artha&dstra, I, xi, 21 ; I, xii, 13 ; and II, xxvii, 43. 

P. 84ft 2 . The Ovid quotation is from Metamorphoses, viii, 684. 
See further Ocean, Vols. VI, p. 122ft 2 , and VII, p. 126ft 2 . 

P. 93, line 9. For " and " read " on." 

P. 95ft 2 . For " Freer " read " Frere." 

P. 98w. Magical properties of blood. Three cases of the 
murder of children for obtaining offspring occurred in 
the Panjab as recently as 1921, in one of which a barren 
woman bathed in the blood of a child. 

P. 98ft 1 . For an interesting note on the Constantine legend 
see Halliday, Folk-Lore, vol. xxxv, 1924, p. 404. 

P. 101ft 1 , line 6 from bottom. For "Holin's "read "Hahn's." 
Grateful snakes. Add to note : " See also Aarne, op. cit., 
p. 1 et seq." 

P. 109ft 1 , lines 1, 2. In his review, Mr S. M. Edwards says : 
" The explanation of mrigdnka, an epithet of the Moon, 
as * hare-marked,' i because Hindus see a " hare " in the 
moon,' appears scarcely correct. The words Sasdnka 
and Sasidhard are applied to the Moon in that sense ; 
whereas mrigdnka signifies ' the deer-marked,' in allusion 
to the alternative theory that there is an 4 antelope ' in 
the Moon." For the moon-hare see Briffault, op. cit., 
vol. ii, pp. 615-619. 

P. 11 On 1 , line 8. A better reference to St Hildegard's work 
would be Physica, vi, 7, 5. (See Migne, Patrologia Latina, 
cxcvii, p. 1291.) 

Poison detectors. See further the Arthasdstra, I, xx. 
Certain plants such as jivanti will keep off snakes. The 
parrot, the maina, and the Malabar bird shriek in the 
presence of snake poison. The heron swoons in the pres- 
ence of poison, the pheasant becomes uncomfortable, the 
amorous cuckoo dies, and the eyes of a partridge lose 
their natural colour. 



144 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Pages 129-132. External Soul. See further Vol. VIII, 
p. 106ft 8 . 

P. 181, line 1. For " Freer " read " Frere." 

P. 142ft 2 . For " Freer " read "Frere." 

P. 144ft 1 . Tree of life. See also Wiinsche, "Die Sagen vom 
Lebensbaum und Lebenswasser," Ex Oriente Lux, vol. i, 
p. 50 et seq. 

P. I6O71 1 . Datura poisoning. The late Mr S. M. Edwards 
said that in 1921 there were twenty-one cases of datura 
poisoning in the United and sixty-eight in the Central 
Provinces, and that this form of crime is particularly 
prevalent in Ghazipur, Bahraich and Gorakhpur. The 
victims in almost every case have been drugged and 
robbed at railway stations. 

P. 170, line 11. For the "libertine husband" cf. G. Para- 
bosco, I Diporti, No. 7. 

P. 188ft 2 . Ceding part of life. See further Vol. VIII, p. 
117ft 2 . 

P. 190. Circumambulation. See further Hillebrandt, Mitt, 
d. schles. Gesell. f. Volkskunde, xiii-xiv, p. 1 et seq. 

P. 211. For a note on the Kashmiri word sdr, collyrium, see 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc, April 1926, pp. 507, 508. 

P. 212, line 24. For " asand " read " asana." 

P. 213, last two lines. Read " . . . De simpl. Medic., ix, 
25. ..." 

P. 221. The Dohada motif occurs in Grimm's tale of Rapunzel. 
See Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 97. See also Pro- 
fessor Bloomfield's remarks in his Foreword to Vol. VII, 
pp. vii, viii. The source of the superstition appears to lie 
in the belief in transmigration. The embryo remembers 
its sensations in a former life. See J. Jolly, Medicin, 
40. 

P. 224. Monkey and crocodile. See Dahnhardt, Natursagen, 
iv (1912), p. 1 et seq. 

P. 226. Persons pierced without knowing it. See A. Rass- 
mann, Die deutsche Heldensage und ihre Heimat, ii (1858), 
p. 235 ; B. Kuttner, Jiidische Sagen und Legenden, iii, 
1920, p. 14. 

P. 231 et seq. Sacred Prostitution. See Briffault, The 
Mothers, vol. iii, pp. 210-217. 

P. 241, lines 10, 11. Sacred prostitution in Cambodia, a-nan 
is not exactly a transcription of the Sanskrit dnanda. In 
his review of Hirth and Rockhill's work in T'oung Pao, 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 145 

vol. xiii, 1912, p. 467, Pelliot says : " Ananda est en effet 
souvent transcrit en chinois, parce que c'est le nom d'un 
des plus celebres disciples du Buddha ; mais ce nom est 
tou jours ecrit A-nan. On peut presque se hasarder a 
predire qu'on ne le trouvera jamais ecrit avec l'ortho- 
graphie des a-nan de Tchao Jou-koua, car le nan de 
Tchao Jou-koua, au xiii e siecle encore, se prononcait 
*nam, au lieu que le nan employe pour transcrire le nom 
d' Ananda se terminait tou jours, comme il convenait, par 
une nasale dentale et etait alors nan comme aujourd'hui." 
In his review of the Ocean he adds : " C'est peut-etre le 
Khmer ram ; cf. Bull, de VEcole Frangais d 'extreme 
Orient, vol. xviii, 1918, pt. ix, p. 9." 

Page 242w 3 . The mystical number 108. See further Vol. VI, 
p. 14m 1 . It is also used in documents before the name 
of the " Maharajas " or high priests of the Bhattia caste. 
In any letter or statement containing a reference to one 
of these Gosains, the name of the individual invariably 
appears as " 108 Devadlnandan Maharaj " or " 108 
Gokulnathji Maharaj." 

M. Pelliot refers me to Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue of 
the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, 1883, 
No. 755 (on the 108 beads of the Buddhist rosary) ; and 
to W. F. Mayers, " The Buddhist Rosary and its Place in 
Chinese Official Costume," Notes and Queries of China 
and Japan, vol. iii, pp. 26-28. M. Pelliot is inclined to 
see in the number 108 a multiplication of the 12 months 
by the 9 planets. I notice another suggestion pencilled 
in the copy of .Vol. I of the Ocean in the Roy. As. Soc. 
Library namely, that it is obtained by the following 
arrangement of the lucky 3 : {(3+3) (3+3)} 3. 

P. 245. Castes of sacred prostitutes. The Sudra caste of 
Naikins. One of their chief strongholds is a district in 
Goa, which fact may account partly for the suggestion, 
current in Bombay some years ago, that these women 
are descended from the illicit unions of Portuguese priests 
and Hindu women. Mr Edwards states that there is 
little evidence to support this view, and that it is more 
likely that the women were originally descended from 
the courtesans of Vijayanagar, who must have taken 
refuge in the villages of the Carnatic and the South 
Konkan, when the city was finally destroyed by the 
Mohammedans . 

VOL. EX. K 



146 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Reference should also be made to the Mur(a)li and 
Vaghe (or Waghya) orders of mendicants, of whom the 
former are girls and the latter are male children dedi- 
cated to the god Khandoba, of Jejuri (an incarnation of 
Siva), in the Poona district. For further information 
see Balfour, Cyclopcedia of India, under " Murli," 
vol. ii, p. 1012 ; and Russell, Tribes and Castes of the 
Central Provinces, " Waghya," vol. iv, pp. 603-606. 
Page 248, line 5 of text from bottom. For south of Tunga- 
bhadra, " read " south of the Turigabhadra." 



VOLUME II 

P. 2ft 1 . The title of Webster's play should be spelt 
" Dutchess of Malfey." 

P. 28, line 21. For " send " read " sent." 

P. 32, line 27. For " Youth " read " Truth." 

P. 37, line 19. For " as " read " was." 

P 46, line 14. For " has " read " hast." 

P. 57ft 1 . Horse. See M. Oldfield Howey, The Horse in 
Magic and Myth, 1923. 

P. 76ft 1 . For a large number of " lost wife " and " declaring 
presence " variants see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, 
p. 329. Cf. also Coxwell, op. cit., p. 471. 

P. 81. Rahu and eclipses. Cf. the monograph of R. Lasch, 
" Die Finsternisse in der Mythologie und im religiosen 
Brauch der Volker," Arch. f. Rel. Wiss., iii, p. 97. 

Lines 13 and 14 from bottom. For "Tsun Tsiu" 
read " Ch'un ch'iu." M. Pelliot says that the word che 
is always used for "eclipse" in the sense of "to eat." 
Since the beginning of the Christian era, however, the 
character has been added to " par 1 'addition de la clef 
de 1" insecte ' (laquelle clef s'applique aussi aux plus 
grands reptiles ; son emploi ici parait avoir pour point de 
depart l'idee du monstre-dragon qui cause les eclipses." 

P. 103, line 10 from bottom. Eating of human flesh. See 
Coxwell, op. cit., p. 246 et seq. 

P. 104ft 2 . For the most recent work on Walpurgis night, 
Hallowe'en, etc., see chapter iv, " The Sabbat," of Mon- 
tague Summers' History of Witchcraft and Demonology, 
London, 1926, pp. 110-172. 

Page 107ft 1 . Overhearing. Sir George Grierson refers me to 
R. B. Shaw, "On the Ghalchah Languages (Sarikoli)," 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 147 

Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlv, pt. i, 1876, which 
contains a good example of the motif. 

P. 113ft 1 . Eating human flesh unknowingly. Cf. Cento 
Novelle Antiche (Gualteruzzi's edition, No. lxii). 

Pp. 117-120. Nudity in magic ritual. See further J. Hecken- 
bach, De Nuditate sacra, 1911 ; S. C. Mitra, " On a recent 
instance of the use of the nudity-spell for Rain-making 
in Northern Bengal," Journ. Anih. Soc. Bombay, vol. -xii, 
1924, pp. 919-926 ; R. O. Winstedt, " Notes on Malay 
Magic," Journ. Malay Br. Roy. As. Soc, vol. iii, pt. iii, 
December 1925, p. 6 ; Briffault, The Mothers, 1927, vol. iii, 
pp. 209, 304. 

P. 136ft 1 . Conception through eating fruit, etc. See Brif- 
fault, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 457, 458. 

P. 152ft 4 . Snakes. See further Vol. VII, pp. 233-240. 

P. 169. Jewel-lamps. In Kalhana's Rdjatarangini (iv, 15) 
we read of "lamps formed of jewels (manidipika)." 
Stein (vol. i, p. 121ft 15 ) says a lamp is meant in which 
a shining jewel takes the place of a burning wick. 

P. 190m 1 , line 8. The Melusine reference should read "vol. i, 
col. 447." 

P. 196m 1 . The Two Brothers. See Bolte and Polivka, op. 
cit., vol. i, p. 542. 

P. 223ft 1 . Forbidden chamber. See Bolte and Polivka, op. 
cit., vol. i, pp. 20, 409 ; and Coxwell, op. cit., p. 555. 

P. 224ft. Gil de Rais and Bluebeard. See Vincent and 
Binns, Gilles de Rais, London, 1926, especially the 
Bibliography in Appendix VI. 

P. 263. Umbrellas other forms of the Greek equivalent 
are o-kiuSiov and o-KiaSio-Kr). See Smith's Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities, under "umbraculum, 
umbrella," which includes the earliest Greek references 
from Anacreon, Aristophanes, etc. A woodcut is given 
from Millin's Peintures de Vases Antiques, showing the 
Greek umbrella in use. The original plate (No. lxx, 
vol. ii, p. 113) is well worth looking up. The whole 
work is a masterpiece of the engraver's art. See further 
Daremberg and Saglio, Diet, des antiquites grecques 
et romaines under umbrella " and " umbraculum." 
The article in question seems to have been brought to 
Greece from the Middle East, like pheasants, peacocks 
and peaches, not later than the early part of the fifth 
century B.C. 



148 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Page 264, line 13. For " eleventh century B.C." read " second 

century a.d." 
P. 280ft 6 . For " Bowick " read " Bonwick." 
P. 281, line 5. For M Exercito " read " Esercito." 
P. 289ft 3 . Insert " Hebrceischen " before " Uebersetzungen." 
P. 289ft 4 . For " Biblioth." read " Bibliographic" 
P. 294ft 2 . For "Atti, Series IV, . . ." read " Atti delV 

Accademia dei Lincei, Serie IV, ..." 
P. 800ft 1 . For "veneris" read "venenis" Omit "2" after 

" fol." 
P. 302ft 1 . Cf. Vol. VIII, p. 245. Clusius wrote a resume, not 

a translation, of Orta. Markham's work is not a trans- 
lation of Clusius, but of the original Coloquios dos simples 

of da Orta. 
P. 306ft 1 . Proxies at marriages. See further Briffault, op. 

city vol. iii, pp. 223-226. For mechanical defloration of 

girls see ditto, p. 319. 
P. 307?i 2 . Snake = phallus. See Eisler, Weltenmantel u. 

Himmelszelt, 1910, p. 123 ; and Briffault, op. cit., vol. ii, 

pp. 664-669. 
P. 308ft 2 . Syphilis. Add to note : A. F. Chamberlain, 

" Disease and Medicine (American)," Hastings' Ency. 

Bel. Eth., vol. iv, p. 732. 
P. 310ft 3 . Cf. the story of how the enemies of Francis I of 

France encompassed that monarch's death in 1547. 

They poisoned his concubine with syphilis germs. 

VOLUME III 

P. 2ft 2 . Cf. Hiranandra Shastri, " The Origin and Cult of 

Tara," Mem. Arch. Surv. India, No. 20, Calcutta, 1925. 
P. 20ft 1 . Self-mutilation. See Bolte's edition of Pauli's 

Schimpf und Ernst, vol. ii, pp. 258, 259. 
P. 21, line 13 from bottom. Delete " Orestes." 
P. 21. line 5 from bottom. Circumcision, infibulation, ex- 
cision. See Briffault, op. cit., vol. iii, pp. 320-333. 
P. 28ft 1 . Faithful John. For references to Grimm, No. 6, 

see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, pp. 42-57. 
P. 29, line 12. For " Ahichchhatra " read " Ahichchhatra." 
P. 40ft 1 . Mechanical doll. See Coxwell, op. cit., p. 858 
Page 52ft. Worms in teeth. Add to note : " See also Codrington, 
The Melanesians, Oxford, 1891, p. 193 ; J. Batchelor, 
The Ainu and their Folklore, London, 1901, p. 293 ; C. S. 






ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 149 

Myers, "Disease and Medicine (Introductory)," Hastings' 
Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. iv, p. 724. 

Pp. 56-59. Automata. M. Pelliot refers me to Ganapati 
Sastri's edition of Samardnganastitradhdra, thought to 
date back to the eleventh century. In the Preface to 
vol. i (Gaekwad's Oriental Series, No. xxv, Baroda, 1924) 
we are told that chapter xxxi " contains descriptions 
of various kinds of machines that are not found in other 
Silpa works, such as the elephant-machine, wooden bird- 
machine travelling in the sky, wooden vimana machine 
flying in the air, doorkeeper-machine, soldier-machine, 
etc. See also the Preface to vol. ii (G. O. S., No. xxxii). 
See S. Levi, Journ. As., vol. ccviii, 1926, pt. ii, p. 379. 
Automatons figure also in the several tales in the Chinese 
Tripitaka (see Chavannes, Cinq Cents Conies et Apologues, 
vol. ii", p. 12, No. 163 ; vol. iii, pp. 167, 170, 171, No. 427). 
Cf. the tale of the Mechanician and 4he Painter in 
Schiefner and Ralston's Tibetan Tales, p. 361. 

P. 57, line 1. Vitrivius did not write till after Caesar's death, 
so is more properly a contemporary of Augustus. 

P. 63. Overhearing. Add Coxwell, op. cit., p. 163, and 
Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 5Sn x . 

P. 75. " Doctor Knowall " motif. See also Coxwell, op. cit., 
pp. 193 et seq. and 244, 245 ; cf. Wesselski, Mdrchen des 
Mittelalters, pp. 242, 243. 

P. 76. line 4 from bottom. For " Irubriani " read 
"Imbriani." 

P. 105w, line 15. For " Cabnoy " read " Carnoy." 

P. 118ft 1 . The Cento Novelle Antiche. The reference to 
No. 74 of this collection (occurring again in Vol. V, 
p. 13ft 1 ) is to the edition of Borghini, and not to that 
of Gualteruzzi. The same applies to No. 68, quoted 
in Vol. II, p. 113w. Owing to the importance of this pre- 
Boccaccio work, and to the fact that its early history 
is uncertain, no excuse will be made for the following 
bibliographical notes. 

The work in question is thought to have been compiled 
by one or more authors at the end of the thirteenth or 
first quarter of the fourteenth century. It was edited 
by Carlo Gualteruzzi in 1525 (2nd ed., Milano, 1825), 
and his hundred tales agree with seven out of the eight 
known manuscripts. There is also another edition, with- 
out date or place, considered by some to be earlier. A 



150 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

copy of this is in the British Museum. I have compared 
the two copies very carefully and have come to the con- 
clusion that the undated one is later than 1525. In the 
first place, the " errata " of the dated edition are almost 
entirely found corrected in the undated edition, and both 
the length of page and^ lack of abbreviated forms would 
seem to support this view. (Cf. Brunet, Manuel du 
libraire, vol. i, cols. 1736-1738.) Panzer (Annales Typo- 
graphic^ vol. i, p. 410) speaks of a 1482 edition, but 
nothing is known of it, and it may even have been an 
unrecorded version of the Decameron I See Biagi, Le 
Novelle Antiche dei Codici Panciatichiano-Palatino, pp. 
lx-lxii. With regard to the title of the work, Gualteruzzi 
calls it Ciento Novelle Antike, but it was later known as II 
Novellino, and thus has occasionally been confused with 
Masuccio's work of fifty tales bearing the same name. 1 

The second editor of the Cento Novelle was Vincenzo 
Borghini, who issued his Libro di Novelle et di bel Parlar 
Gentile, Florence, in 1572. It contains several fresh tales, 
and the order of most of the others is altered. Of the 
eight codexes, that known as the Panciatichianus is the 
most interesting, as it contains about thirty tales and 
proverbs not found either in Gualteruzzi or Borghini. 
It was published in 1880 by Biagi, who has included a 
most useful bibliography, with notes on the different 
MSS. (see p. lx et seq.). 

An English translation by Storer has recently (1925) 
appeared. Except for tales 57, 58, 80 and 86 it follows 
Gualteruzzi's original text. 

Page 127, lines 12-15. Amphitryon and Alcmene. See Pau- 
sanias' Book V, xviii, 3, and Frazer's note, vol. iii, p. 613. 

P. 152, line 6. Momiai, or Momiyai. This word means liter- 
ally " extract of mummie " (momiya), and originally 
meant this. In India it is properly a kind of bitumen 
said to be brought from Persia and elsewhere (momiya 
is a Persian word). In Bihar the word is corrupted to 
mimiyal. Cf. Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life, 1158. 
"It is said to be extracted from the heads of coolies 
who emigrate to the colonies, by hanging them head 
downwards and roasting them over a slow fire. The 
threat of extracting it from the head of a child is there- 
fore an active deterrent." 

1 Another collection with a similar title is Sansovino's Cento Novelle. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 151 

Page 161/1 1 , line 7 from bottom. For " Ahmadabad " read 
"Ahmadabad." 

P. 201 et seq. Magic circle. Cf. the story of Antiochus in 
Livy, xlv, 12, for an interesting use of the circle. The 
most complete treatment of the circle in classical 
religious and magical use is Eitrem, Opferritus und 
Voropfer der Griechen und Romer, chapter i, " Der 
Rundgang," pp. 6-75. Delete lines 6 and 7 from bottom 
on p. 201 (i.e. the references to Bouchet and Major). 

P. 205, line 1. For "A. and W. Schott " read ." A. and A. 
Schott." 

P. 222ft 1 . See also Coxwell, op. cit, p. 241. 

P. 225w 2 . This is a variant of the " Declaring Presence " 
motif. See further Coxwell, op. cit., p. 859. 

P. 230ft 3 . For " viii, 355 " read " viii, 855." 

Pp. 236-239. "Magic Obstacles" motif . Sir George Grierson 
sends me the following translation of a " magic obstacles " 
tale told by the Pashais, a Dard tribe of Laghman in 
East Afghanistan. It occurs in its original form in the 
Linguistic Survey of India, vol. viii, pt. ii, p. 109 et seq. 

" There was a king who had one son and one daughter. 
The girl was a cannibal. The brother fled from her, and 
settled in another country, where he lived with a woman. 
He spent a long time there, and always kept two dogs. 
He returned to his father's city and found it desolate [his 
sister having eaten up everyone]. Only his sister was 
there. She made preparations for eating him, and he 
became afraid. She said to him : ' I am going to eat 
you.' The brother replied : 4 Good ! Take a sieve and 
bring water in it from the river, and come back when you 
have sharpened your teeth.' The sister went to the 
river, but before she started she put a drum before him 
and told him to keep beating it. He caught a rat and 
put it on the drum. The rat jumped about [on the 
drum] and made it sound, and [while it did so] the boy 
ran away. The sister returned, and found her brother 
missing. She pursued him. When she began to over- 
take him, he dropped a needle which became a mountain. 
She climbed this with great difficulty. Again, he threw 
down salt. It also became a mountain. She climbed 
this with great difficulty. Again, he threw down soap. 
It also became a mountain, and she ascended to the top. 
The brother then ascended a tree, and she came below 



152 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

it. Just as she was about to eat her brother, his dogs 
arrived. He called to them : ' Eat her in such a way 
that not a drop of her blood falls to the ground.' 
The dogs immediately tore her to pieces." 
Page 247w\ line 1. For "thirteenth" read "twelfth." 
Pp. 250-251. " Impossibilities " motif. For the tale of 
Pharaoh Nectanebo and Lycerus, King of Babylon, as 
related in a Syriac MS. (Cambridge Univ. Col. Add. 
2020 = S 2 ) see Conybeare, Harris and Lewis, Story of 
Ahikar, pp. 77, 78. 

There is an amusing story told in Nasr al-Din (see 
Arratoon, Gems of Oriental Wit and Humour, p. 32) 
in which Hajja was entertaining guests. He borrowed 
a large copper pot from his neighbour. When return- 
ing it, he gave one of their own small pots with it. The 
neighbour asked what this meant. He replied that their 
big copper had given birth while in his house. The 
little one was therefore its baby. The neighbour took 
both in. On another occasion Hajja called again and 
took the large copper pot, but this time he did not 
return it. On being asked for it he very much regretted 
to have to inform the owner that his pot was dead. 
"Dead!" said the owner; "how can you make such a 
felonious assertion ! " " Oh," said Hajja, " so you are 
incredulous ! How easily you admitted the possibility 
of its being able to give birth to a child on the day 
when I gave you a smaller copper pot with it ; and now 
I tell you she is dead, poor thing ! " 

In commenting on my note, M. Pelliot gives some 
interesting information on " Impossibility " expressions. 
" La ' corne de lievre ' est un terme usuel dans l'lnde," 
he says, " pour designer quelque chose d'impossible, et 
l'expression se retrouve dans la litterature chinoise. 
Comme en chinois la 'corne de lievre' (Vou-kiao) est 
souvent associee au ' poil de tortue,' il parait bien que 
ce soit une expression bouddhique venue de l'lnde, car 
la * corne de lieVre ' et le ' poil de tortue ' se trouvent, je 
crois, pour la premiere fois en chinois dans la traduction 
du Parinirvdnasutra. L'expression a dii devenir assez 
populaire quisque les Japonais l'ont adoptee, en valeur 
purement phonetique, pour ecrire le terme japonais 
tokaku, 4 en tout cas,' ' apres tout.' " 

Numerous English expressions, such as "making a silk 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 153 

purse out of a sow's ear," " squaring the circle," " gather- 
ing grapes from thistles," etc., will occur to readers. 

Page 268W 1 . Cutting off heads. See also Hartland, Legend of 
Perseus, vol. iii, p. 23 ; various references in Dawkins, 
Modern Greek in Asia Minor, pp. 226, 226ft 2 , 373 ; and 
Coxwell, op. cit.y p. 88. 

P. 272ft 1 , line 1. Amys and Amylion. See Chauvin, op. 
cit.y viii, p. 195. 

P. 280. Letter of Death. Add to note : See Chauvin, op. 
cit.y viii, pp. 145-147. 

P. 287ft 1 . For an amusing " loaning wife " tale see Nights, 
Burton, vol. vi, p. 150 ; and Chauvin, op. cit.y viii, p. 44. 

P. 303 et seq. Sneezing. As a bad omen it is frequent in 
Indian folklore. See Waterfield's Lay of Alha, pp. 115, 
193, 197-198. The omen generally turns out to be true, 
but in one or two cases Rajputs refuse to be frightened 
by it and win through. See " The Lay of Brahma's 
Marriage," Bull. School Orient. Studies, vol. ii, pt. iv, 
p. 587. 

P. 321, line 18. Eunuchs. Hijra. The word hijra means both 
"eunuch" and "hermaphrodite." In the nineties of 
the last century Sir George Grierson was informed on 
good authority that there was a colony of hermaphrodites 
at Pandua in the Hooghly District of Bengal. People 
who have seen and examined them say that the herma- 
phroditism seems to have been congenital. 

P. 327, line 6. For " Tungabhadra " read " Tungabhadra." 

P. 329. Add to Eunuch bibliography : H. R. M. Chamber- 
lain, The Eunuch in Society , London, 1927 (privately 
printed). See also Briffault, op. cit.y vol. iii, p. 213. 



VOLUME IV 
P. 10. The Greek quotation should, of course, read : x a ^ K ^ a 

kucXtjctkovctl 6eoi avope? oe ko/ulu'oiv . . . 

P. 14. " Le cheval," says M. Pelliot, " parait en realite avoir 
joue un role assez faible dans les anciens sacrifices chinois ; 
cf. Granet, Danses et legendes de la Chine ancienne, Paris, 
1926, pp. 153-154." 

Page 16, lines 27, 28. Woman fertilised by horse. See A. M. 
Hocart, " Phallic Offerings to Hathor," Man t October 
1926, No. 128, p. 192 (also printed, by some curious 



154 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

mistake, in Man, July 1927, No. 92, p. 140) ; Briffault, 
op. cit., vol. iii, p. 188. 

P. 51, line 9 from bottom. For " myiard " read " myriad." 

P. 69W 1 , line 4. For " Engyion " read " Engyon." The 
mothers. See C. Hiilsen, in Pauly-Wissowa, Real- 
encyclopddie, v, 2568; and Briffault, op. cit., vol. iii, 
p. 46 et seq. 

P. 8O71 1 , last line. For " 227 " read " 226." 

P. 126, line 9. Dasaratha. See N. B. Utgikar, " The Story 
of the Dasaratha Jataka and of the Ramayana," Journ. 
Roy. As. Soc, Centenary Supplement, October 1924, 
pp. 203-211. 

P. 129n, line 5. For " Tunghwan " read " Tung-hun-hou." 
For trees and flowers of precious materials cf. Artibus 
Asioe, 1927, p. 71. [Pelliot.] 

P. lUn 1 , line 5. For " ther ain-cloud " read " the rain-cloud." 

P. 185. For the most recent article on Svetadvipa, see 
W. E. Clark, " Sakadvipa and Svetadvipa," Journ. 
Amtr. Orient. Soc., vol. xxxix, pt. 4, October 1919, pp. 
209-242. 

P. 229n 2 , last line. After " 1881 " add " p. 161." The 
article was reprinted in the Indian Antiquary, vol. x, 
1881, pp. 292, 293. 

P. 257, line 20. Opium. " Le suicide par l'opium en Chine 
est moderne." [Pelliot.] 

P. 272, line 13. Widow-burning. For "p. 153" read "pp. 
44, 45." Add to bibliography : Tylor, Primitive Culture, 
vol. i, p. 459 et seq. ; F. E. Maning, Old New Zealand, 
London, 1863, p. 172 et seq. ; H. Ling Roth, Great 
Benin, Halifax, England, 1903, p. 43 ; J. Erskine, 
Journal of a Cruise among the I s . of the Western Pacific, 
1853, p. 228; Winternitz, "Die Witwenverbrennung," 
Die Frau in den indischen Religionen, S. A. aus dem 
Archiv fur Frauenkunde und Eugenik, vol. iii, pp. 55-85, 
Leipzig, 1920 ; Winternitz, " Die Witwe im Veda," Wiener 
Zeitschrift f. Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. xxix, p. 172 
et seq. ; Zachariae, Kleine Schriften, Bonn and Leipzig, 
1920, p. 33 et seq. 

The satl stones in the Bombay Presidency have been 
recently described by G. V. Acharya, Proc. Third Oriental 
Conference, Madras, 1925, p. 237 et seq. The latest 
article on satl I have seen is E. Thompson, " The Sup- 
pression of Suttee in Native States," Edinburgh Review, 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 155 

April 1927, pp. 274-286. He is shortly issuing a work 
on the whole subject. 
Page 292. To the Nala bibliography add : Liebich, Sanskrit- 
Lesebuch, Leipzig, 1905 (containing the Nalopdkhydna 
with Riickert's translation) ; Fritze, Nal und Damajanti, 
metrische Uebersetzung, Berlin, 1910; Caland, Savitri und 
Nala, Utrecht, 1917 ; Winternitz, Geschichte der indischen 
Litteratur, vol. i, p. 327 ; S. Levi, La Legende de Nala et 
Damayanti, " Les Classiques de l'Orient," Paris, 1920 ; 
A. F. Herold, Nala et Damayanti, Paris, 1923; Dumont, 
P. E., Histoire de Nala, Bruxelles, 1923 ; and N. M. 
Penzer, Nala and Damayanti, London, 1926. 

VOLUME V 

P. llw 1 . Gold-spitting. Add to note : For a similar trick 
played by the courtesan see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., 
vol. iii, p. 3 et seq. ; Aarne, Vergleichende Mdrchenfor- 
schung, p. 83 et seq. ; and cf. Krohn, Anzeiger der Finnisch- 
Ugrischen Forschungen, p. 4 et seq. See further the note 
on " gold-spitting " by Professor Halliday on pp. 164, 165 
of this volume. 

P. 66, line 9 from bottom. " Where mice nibble iron." 
For classical references see Knox Headlam, The 
Mimes of Herodas, iii, 76, p. 153 ; and Weinrich's note 
on Seneca, Apocolocyntosis. 

Professor Halliday informs me that in Greek and 
Roman usage the proverb usually means a country so 
poor that mice have to gnaw iron in desperation [cf. our 
"poor as a church mouse"]. It means the "land of 
nowhere " only secondarily and less usually. 

P. SOn 2 . Faithless wife. Add to note : Chauvin, op. cit. t 
viii, p. 120. 

P. 117. The servant who looked after the door. I find 
this in the Persian (?) collection of " fool " stories, 
Mutdyabdt i Mulld Nasr al-Din (a.h. 1305). See 
N. Arratoon, Gems of Oriental Wit and Humour . . . of 
Molla Nasraddin, Calcutta, 1894, p. 15. 

P. 122ft. 1 The woman with a hundred lovers. Add] to 
note: See further Wesselski, Mdrchen des Mittelaliers, 
pp. 185-187. #* 

P. 132n. 2 Imaginary debt and payment. Very similar to 
the Japanese story about the smell of fried eels is an 



156 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

amusing tale in the Cento Novelle Antiche (Gualteruzzi, 
No. ix). Here a poor Saracen holds a loaf over the pot 
of a cook, thus letting the savoury steam soak into it. 
The cook demands payment, and finally the case is sub- 
mitted to the " wise men " of the country. It is decided 
that as the cook takes money for the food he sells, he 
must in this case, where he has sold only steam, be 
content with the sound of money as payment. 

Page 15Sn. Grateful animals. Add to note : See also Coxwell, 
op. cit., pp. 259, 260. 

P. 166. Pretending to be dead. In the Persian collection of 
Nasr Al-Din are two stories not merely of pretending, 
but actually of believing that death had occurred. In 
the first (Arratoon's translation, p. 35), Hajja's death is 
foretold when his donkey should neigh three times. 
When this happened he concluded he must be dead, and 
insisted on being conveyed to the cemetery. The 
" mourners," however, lost their way, whereupon Hajja 
raised himself from the bier and, pointing in a certain 
direction, exclaimed : " That was the way I always went 
to the cemetery when I was alive." 

The second tale (Arratoon, p. 47) relates how Hajja 
once asked his wife what were the signs of death. She 
replied that when a man's body and hands were cold he 
was dead. One very cold day, while ascending a hill with 
his donkey, he chanced to feel his hands and then his 
body. Both were cold, so he concluded that he must 
be dead. Accordingly he lay down on the hill. Mean- 
while a number of wolves approached his donkey and 
tore it into pieces. Hajja cried out : " Oh, ye wolves, 
eat the donkey, for the owner is dead ; if I was alive 
be sure I would have made it hot for you ! " 

P. 168. " Story of the Fools and the Bull of Siva." Cf. the 
story in the Linguistic Survey of India, vol. v, pt. ii, p. 161 
et seq. The animal here is not a bull, but an elephant. 

P. 186. " Story of the Rogue who managed to acquire Wealth 
by speaking to the King." A comical repetition of the 
above was actually witnessed by Sir George Grierson 
in India. He describes the incident as follows : 

"In a certain district there was a planter a most 
popular man, but so hard up that he had exhausted all 
his credit, and the Indian bankers refused to advance 
him money necessary for his outlay. It chanced that at 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 157 

this time the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was making 
an official visit to the headquarters of the district, and 
was arriving by special train. The planter, whom we 
may call 4 X,' met the train at a watering-station some 
twenty miles from the terminus, and asked the aide-de- 
camp for permission to travel by it, as he was in a hurry. 
The aide-de-camp welcomed him, and gave him the lift. 
At the terminus * X ' issued from the train in the 
midst of the Lieutenant-Governor's staff, the observed 
of all observers there being, of course, an assembly of 
notables (including the chief bankers) to welcome the 
Lieutenant-Governor . 

" It was said that, after this, 4 X ' enjoyed a temporary 
almost unlimited credit in the local money market. I 
saw the arrival of 4 X ' with my own eyes, and heard the 
amused and admiring talk of his fellow -planters." 

Page 193. Note on Nail-marks and Tooth-bites. For a refer- 
ence to amorous scratches see the description of the 
svayamvara in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa, vi, 17. 

P. 194, line 33. For " Dasanchachhedya " read " Dasanach- 
hedya." 

P. 218 et seq. The Burzoe legend. Sir Denison Ross has 
now added to his authoritative Foreword to Vol. V by 
a note in Journ. Roy. As. Soc., July 1926, pp. 503-505, 
and an article in Bull. School Oriental Studies, vol. iv, 
pt. 3, 1927, pp. 441-472, entitled " An Arabic and a 
Persian Metrical Version of Burzoe 's Autobiography 
from ' Kalila and Dimna.' " The Persian version is 
by Qani'i, of which a unique MS. is preserved in the 
British Museum, and the other MS. is by Naqqash, of 
which only two copies are known to exist. Owing, 
therefore, to their great scarcity, their reproduction 
with notes forms an important addition to Panchatantra 
research. See Pelliot's remarks in T'oung Pao, vol. xxv, 
1927, p. 136. 

P. 255 et seq. The classical versions of the story of Rhampsi- 
nitus. Professor Halliday tells me that it is almost 
certain that the tale dates back to the Telegonia of 
Eugammon of Cyrene, the last of the cyclic poets. He 
mentions the gift of a bowl ornamented with scenes 
from the history of Agamedes and Augeas. No other 
story is known which would correspond to the drawings. 
If this is accepted, the tale must have been known to 



158 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

the Greeks before the time of Herodotus. This does not 
affect my contention that it is of Egyptian origin. On 
the contrary, if anything, it supports the view, for even 
Eugammon is " Eugammon of Cyrene." 

See further Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, under 
"Agamedes." 

As regards analogues of the story, I have received two 
versions. As the first is unpublished, I give the resume of 
it as sent me by Colonel Lorimer (via Sir George Grierson). 
It is from Gilgit, an outlying province in the extreme 
north-west of India, and is in the Shina language. 

A father and a son, expert thieves, made a hole in the 
wall of the King's Treasury, by quite ordinary means, 
and carried off all the King's treasures. They returned 
again to search for more loot. The father entered the 
Treasury, while the son remained outside. The father 
knocked down some pots, and so woke up the guards, who 
seized him. He tried to escape by the hole, and a tug-of- 
war followed, the guards pulling him inwards by the legs, 
and the son pulling him outwards by the head. Finding 
he could not get him out, the son cut off the father's head 
and went off with it. In due course the King had the de- 
capitated body hung up to act as a trap for its mourning 
relatives. 

After that the detail is different. The mother succeeds 
in relieving her feelings with impunity in the presence of 
the corpse by dropping and breaking a gourd of milk 
as she passes it, and ostensibly weeping over the lost 
contents. 

Then follow several episodes in which the thief soon 
gets the better of his would-be captors. There is a lot 
about the flesh of a camel he killed and an old woman. 
This also appears in a Bakhtiari story, in which also 
there is a dead hand (possibly arm), corresponding to 
Herodotus' dead arm. 

In the Shina story the thief further wins the respect 
and enthusiastic approval of the king by dealing very 
adequately with another king who had insulted him, 
the thief's king, by refusing him his daughter as wife for 
his son, on the grounds of his inability to deal with the 
thieves in his kingdom. The thief not only secures the 
foreign king's daughter for his king's son, but also her 
sister for himself. In recognition of his ability in deal- 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 159 

ing with foreign affairs his king makes him "King for 
External Affairs," retaining to himself only the control 
of " Internal Affairs." 

" And so they continued to live happily, eating and 
drinking." 

The other variant has been sent me by Professor T. F. 
Crane. It is to be found on p. 73 of C. C. Jones' Negro 
Myths from the Georgia Coast, Boston and New York, 1888. 
It is entitled " Brother Lion, Brother Rabbit, Brother 
Fox, and Brother Raccoon." It contains practically all 
the incidents of the Rhampsinitus story. The first few 
sentences, as transliterated from the negro vernacular 
by Professor Crane, will be sufficient to show its amusing 
style: 

44 Brother Lion, he keeps a bank. In that bank he has 
chickens, and hogs and sheep. Brother Fox is married 
to Brother Coon's daughter. Brother Fox's father-in- 
law is a rogue. Brother Coon and Brother Rabbit make 
a plan to rob Brother Lion's bank, and they used to take 
things out of it every now and then, and nobody can find 
out who does the stealing. Brother Fox, Brother Rabbit 
and Brother Coon, they were fast friends and kept con- 
stant company. Brother Rabbit tells Brother Lion that 
he knows the man who robs his bank, but he don't want 
to tell his name, and he advises Brother Lion to set a steel 
trap to catch the thief. Brother Lion does as he says, 
and the next night, when Brother Coon, Brother Fox 
and Brother Rabbit went to rob the bank again, Brother 
Coon walked on the trap and it caught him by the foot. 
The thing broke Brother Coon's leg, and it hurt him very 
badly, but he was afraid to holler, because if he did holler, 
he knew that Brother Lion was going to run there and 
kill him. So he lay down and moaned, and begged his 
friends to help him. Brother Fox and Brother Rabbit, 
they study over the thing, and they make up their minds 
if Brother Lion finds Brother Coon in the trap, he is 
going to kill not only Brother Coon, but will send and 
kill all the family. Then they conclude that the best 
thing to do is that Brother Fox, who is his son-in-law, 
must take a sword and chop Brother Coon's head off 
and bury it, and that he skin Brother Coon and bury 
his hide and his clothes, and leave Brother Coon naked 
in the trap, so nobody can tell who was caught. ..." 



160 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Page 284. M. Pelliot says that a large portion of the Ka-gyur 
had been translated by the beginning of the eleventh 
century. He refers me to a Chinese version which was 
translated at the end of the third century (J;he exact 
date is uncertain). For this see E. Huber "Etudes de 
Litterature Bouddhique," Bull, de Vllcole Frangaise 
d' extreme-orient, vol. iv, 1904, pp. 698-726 (701-707), and 
Chavannes, Cinq cents contes et apologues, vol. ii, pp. 380-388, 
and vol. iii, p. 146. 

VOLUME VI 

P. xxiii. Preface, line 9. For " sixteen (really fifteen) " read 
" seventeen (really sixteen)." 

P. 61, lines 2 and 3. The word talisman. In Folk-Lore, vol. 
xxxv, 1924, p. 230, Professor Dawkins points out that 
certain magical figures found in Thrace practically corre- 
spond to what we mean by talisman, and that the words 
used for them is reXea/ma from reAw, which, in the sense 
employed, means " to enchant." He considers it prob- 
able that both the English talisman and the Arabic tilsam 
are independent borrowings from the Greek. This would 
explain the final n, as the mediaeval Greeks pronounced 
reXecr/uLa as TeXear/mav. There appears to be no Semitic 
derivation for the Arabic word a fact that supports the 
Greek origin. 

P. 118, line 9 from bottom. Feet turned wrong way. This 
is quite a common feature in Indian folklore. See 
Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life (1st ed.), p. 408, where 
the kichin (a kind of lamia) has feet back to front. 
In this way the wise can recognise her. Some years 
ago Whitley Stokes told Sir George Grierson of an Irish 
legend, that when the devil wanted to say his prayers, 
he was unable to do so, because his knees bent the 
wrong way (backwards instead of forwards). 

P. 147, last line. For " ofnight " read " of night." 

P. 150n, line 7. The reference to Henderson's Folk-Lore of 
the Northern Counties is to the 1879 edition. The 
corresponding page to the first edition is 19. 

P. 150n\ line 2. For " Aapaai " read " Aa/wof." 

P. 166 (also p. 240). Fruit containing jewels or money. Cf. 
Cento Novelle Antiche (Gualteruzzi), No. lxxix. 

P. 191, line 12. Sudraka. See Keith, Sanskrit Drama, pp. 
128, 129. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 161 

Page 231. Frame-story. Reference should be made to J. 
Przyluski, "Le Prologue- Cadre des Mille et une Nuits," 
Journal Asiatique, 1924, pp. 101-137. 
P. 241, line 16. The Chauvin reference should read " . . . v, 

pp. 144, 145." 
P. 242n x . For " vol. lxxiv, Leipzig, 1920 " read " vol. 
lxxv, Leipzig, 1921." Francke has now published a 
further article on the Tibetan version of the Vetala tales : 
" Zur tibetischen Vetalapancavims'atika (Siddhikur)," 
Zeitschr. d. d. morgen. GeselL, Neue Folge, Band II, 
Leipzig, 1923, pp. 239-254. 

P. 264, line 2. For " No. 2 of Jiilg " read " No. 1 of Julg." 

P. 264, line 3. For " No. 4 of Coxwell " read "No. 3 of 
Coxwell." 

P. 269, line 13. For " there s little in comimon " read " there 
is little in common." 

P. 273, last line. The sabda-bhedi arrow, which strikes what 
is heard, is a familiar feature in Hindu legend. In the 
Alha cycle of folk-epics, Prithiraj of Delhi has such an 
arrow, and with it hits the sword-wound of a severely 
wounded ally, so as to sew up the wound, and enable 
the ally to go on fighting. 

P. 282w 6 . Sirens. Add to note : V. Berard, Les Pheniciens 
et VOdyssee, vol. ii, p. 333 et seq. ; and Daremberg and 
Saglio, Dictionnaire des Antiquites grecques et romains, 
vol. iv, pt. 2, pp. 1353-1355. 

P. 283w 4 . For " Brumond " read " Brumund." 

P. 286. The tale from the Nights is found also in the Cento 
Novelle Antiche (No. iii of Gualteruzzi's edition), where 
the boring-worm, horse and baker incidents are all 
repeated. 

P. 287. For another variant of the " lost-camel " story see 
Linguistic Survey of India, vol. viii, pt. i, p. 278. 

P. 287n 2 , line 3. For " translations " read " translation." 

P. 290w 3 . For " Sunblad " read " Sundblad." 

P. 291w 4 . For " 1915 " read " 1885." 

P. 293. Add to the Andersen bibliography : L. M. Shortt, 
" H. C. Andersen and Fairyland," Fortnightly Review, 
July-December 1925, pp. 190-201 ; Clausen and Marr, 
" King, Queen and Knave," Argosy, vol. i, December 
1926, pp. 145, 146. 



VOL. IX. 



162 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

VOLUME VII 

Page xxix. Change of sex. To the list by Dr W. N. Brown 
must now be added, ''Change of Sex as a Hindu Story 
Motif" Jonrn. Amer. Orient. Soc, vol. xlvii, 1927, No. 1, 
{>]). 3-24. See further below. 

P. 92?? 1 , line 4. Delete the " s " in " Egypts." 

P. 103, line 17. "And kissed her." I believe I am correct 
in saying that this is the only time kissing is mentioned 
in the whole of the Ocean of Story. This seems extra- 
ordinary, especially when we remember the large number 
of love scenes introduced into the work, and the existence 
(from about a. p. 250) of Vatsyayana's Kama Sutra, in 
which a complete chapter (iii) is devoted to the subject. 
The explanation must lie in the fact that kissing, as we 
understand it, was unknown in the Vedas and only rarely 
indulged in during the period assigned to the Maha- 
bhdrata (cf. Book III, chapter cxii, 12). Moreover, the 
" sniff-kiss " of the Vedas still exists in parts of India, 
as it also does among many Mongol and semi-civilised 
peoples. The kiss can be described as very rare among 
all the lower races, the typical primitive kiss consisting 
of the contact of the nose and cheek followed by inhala- 
tion. The mouth kiss would certainly be unknown in 
the time of Udayana and Naravahanadatta. See further 
Hopkins, ' The Sniff-Kiss in Ancient India," Journ. 
Amer. Orient. Soc., vol. xxviii, 1907, pp. 120-134 ; and 
Crawley, " Kissing," Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth., vol. vii, 
pp. 739-744. 

P. 107. Sandalwood. Among the earliest mediaeval refer- 
ences may be mentioned that by the Chinese writer, 
Chau Ju-Kua. See Ilirth and RockhiU's edition of his 
Chu-fan-chi, pp. 208, 209. 

P. 126n 2 , lines 3 and 4. The Mclusine reference should read 
" vol. i, col. 447." 

P. 191// 1 . The name of and reference to Professor Bloomfield's 
article should be corrected as follows : " On Recurring 
Psychic Motifs in Hindu Fiction . . .," Journ. Amer. 
Orient. Soc., vol. xxxvi, pp. 57, 58. 

P. 222 et seq. Change of Sex. As mentioned above, Dr 
W. N. Brown has recently issued an article on change 
of sex in Hindu fiction. Although the author was kind 
enough to send me proofs in advance for use in the Ocean t 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 163 

my volume was already in print. The article in question 
is of great importance and, among many other things, 
clearly shows that stories of sex-changing water are quite 
common in folk-tales (at any rate in Hindu fiction). 
Thus my remark at the bottom of p. 225 requires 
qualification. 

Dr Brown deals first with bathing in enchanted water, 
dividing the first section into (a) Change of man into 
woman unexpected, unwelcome ; (b) Change of woman 
into man unexpected, welcome. The next sections 
deal respectively with change of sex as a curse or blessing ; 
exchanging sex with a Yaksha ; change brought about 
by magic objects and charms ; resulting from righteous- 
ness or wickedness ; and finally the origin of the notion 
of sex change. 

Page 231. Pretended change of sex. See W. Crooke, "Simu- 
lated Change of Sex to Baffle the Evil Eye," Folk-Lore, 
vol. xxiv, p. 385 ; also Stein and Grierson, Hatirri's Tales, 
pp. 29, 30. Sir George Grierson tells me that in the 
Radhavallabhi sect the men pretend to be Radha, and 
dress in women's clothes, even pretending to be disabled 
once a month like women. 

P. 237, last line. This work will not be issued until early in 
1928. 

P. 250 et seq. Self-sacrifice. Dr W. N. Brown sends me the 
following additional references : Hitopadesa (Narayana's 
version), iii, 7; Benfey, Pantschatantra, i, 414; Dracott, 
Simla Village Tales, p. 194 ; Pantalu, Folklore of the 
Telugus (3rd ed.), p. 51. 

He would differentiate the versions : (1) The hero 
kills his son, and others of his family also die (Vetdla- 
pahchavirhsati, Hitopadesa) ; (2) No blood is shed 
(Tuti-ndmah, Dracott, Pantalu). The stories are related 
genetically within the two groups that is, the modern 
Indian oral tales are derived from the Persian, not the 
Sanskrit. 

P. 252, line 11. The boy's laugh. The Forty Vazirs. The 
same story, with minor variations, will be found in the 
Linguistic Survey of India, vol. viii, pt. 1, p. 367. 

P. 270. Bibliography of the Vetdlapanchavimsati. After 
44 Gothenburg, 1901 " add Deromps, M., Les vingt-cinq 
reciis du mauvais genie traduits de Vhindi. Paris, 1912. 



164 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

VOLUME VIII 

Page 19, line 21. "Festival . . . called Pongol." See the 
excellent description of this festival in Dubois, Hindu 
Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, 3rd ed., Oxford, 1906, 
p. 571 et seq. 
P. 58w\ " Bathing - dress dripping with moisture." Sir 
George Grierson sends me a possible explanation of 
hrita-vastrd ' ardra-vasand. He suggests that vastra 
means the outer garment, and vasana the under garment, 
the vetement oVintimite. In Bengal women bathe with 
their under (and only) garment on them. This is very 
thin, and they walk home unconcernedly, almost nude, 
owing to the transparent wet clothes clinging to their 
limbs. Up-country Hindus are horrified at this, and 
there is a proverb about the Bengali woman " saying 
' hethd hethd ' when she means * hither.' Modestly cover- 
ing her face, and yet displaying her vulva ; deserting 
her husband, and hastening to a lover so shines in her 
glory the fair one of the noble Bangali." 

The swan-maiden puts her outer garment (her vastra) 
of feathers on the bank, but bathes in her vasana, which 
is, of course, wet when she comes out of the water. She 
is thus ardra-vasand. As her outer garment of feathers 
has been taken away, she is also hrita-vastrd. 
P. 59n 3 . Gold-spitting. I am indebted to Professor Halliday 
for the following note : 

The magical property of dropping or spitting gold, 
jewels (vel sim), habitually occurs in three groups of 
stories : 

(/) In stories related to Frau Holle (Grimm, No. 24), in 
which two sisters meet with their respective deserts ; it 
is frequently part of the good girl's reward that whenever 
she opens her mouth to speak, gold and jewels drop out 
of it, and part of the bad girl's punishment that toads or 
other vermin drop similarly from her lips. Gold-spitting 
of this type is irrelevant here. 

(Ha) A donkey or other animal, which vomits or 
excretes gold, is frequently one of the Magical Articles 
acquired by the hero and stolen by the villain in variants 
of Grimm, No. 54 (see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 470 et seq.). 

(lib) A fictitious gold-dropping donkey figures in what 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 165 

is really a burlesque form of Ila, the Sham Magical 
Articles, with which the clever hero dupes his adversaries 
(see Bolte and Polivka, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 1-18). Con- 
nected with this group, though it is more exactly to be 
classed as belonging to one of the hybrid forms men- 
tioned below, is the fraudulent gold-spitting monkey 
of Vol. V, p. 11. For other examples where the gold- 
producing animal is * salted ' by being given gold pieces 
to eat, see Clouston, Popular Tales and Fictions, vol. ii, 
p. 274 ; Campbell, Popular Tales of the West Highlands, 
vol. ii, p. 247 ; Cosquin, Contes Populaires de Lorraine, 
vol. i, p. 108 ; Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd 
series, vol. iv, p. 99 ; cf. also Dozon, Contes AWanais, 
No. 23, p. 177. 

(///) In variants of Grimm, Nos. 60 and 85 (see Bolte 
and Polivka, op. cit., vol. i, p. 542 ; vol. iii, p. 3), the hero 
acquires the gift of spitting gold, or, a somewhat more 
comfortable peculiarity, of finding gold beneath his 
pillow every morning, through having eaten part of a 
magical bird. 

There is an obvious similarity between II and III, for it 
is usual in III for the hero to be deceived by a courtesan, 
who tricks him into betraying his secret, causes him to 
vomit the bird's heart (vel sim), and eats it herself. The 
hero ultimately is revenged by the discovery of a magic 
plant, by means of which he turns her into a donkey, 
or makes her nose grow indefinitely. In practice there 
are a good many hybrid versions intermediate between 
II and III. For example, the donkeyfying cabbage 
is often attached to form the denouement of stories of 
type Ila in place of the magic club, in versions in which 
the villain is not an innkeeper but a courtesan. It is 
to this group, represented by Ila and 77/ and their 
intermediate hybrids, that our gold-spitting hero belongs. 
Page lllw 3 . The modesty of elephants. Professor Halliday 
refers me to a passage in JElian, De Natura Animalium, 
i, 28: 

" yiTcuK&s wpaias toSc rh wov rj-rraTcu, kcu 
Trapakverai S< tou dvfwv tKKax^tofois KaXAo?," 

In viii, 17, the chastity of the elephant is lauded, 
and mention is made of its great modesty in sexual 
matters. The mediaeval collection known as Physiologus, 



166 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

or the Bestiary, relied on ^lian for much of its in- 
formation. Being Christian allegories, the moral side 
of animals would be especially emphasised. Thus, in the 
Gesta Romanorum we should not be surprised to find 
an allusion to its modesty rather than its partiality 
to beauty. 
Pages 227, 228. Swan-maiclens. In tracing the swan-maiden 
story from India, I made no mention of Assam. Sir 
George Grierson refers me to a version current among 
the Angami Nagas of the Assam Hills. It appears in 
the Linguistic Survey of India, vol. iii, pt. ii (Bodo, Naga 
and Kachin Groups), p. 219 et seq., under the title of 
" How Jesu got a Goddess for his Wife." Here the 
article stolen is not a garment, but a head-band or rope 
used for carrying loads. 

I have just noticed a much more developed and ex- 
tremely interesting variant in Stack's The Mikirs, pp. 55- 
70. It is entitled " Story of Haratar Kunwa." After 
successfully evading death at the hands of his jealous 
brothers, Harata goes to live with his poor old grand- 
mother. He discovers the bathing-pool of six beautiful 
maidens, who doff their clothes, bathe, and then fly 
away. After various stratagems Harata substitutes 
another petticoat (apini) for that discarded by the 
youngest, and only unmarried one, of the sisters. On 
donning it, she discovers her inability to fly. Thus the 
marriage takes place, but Harata is warned not to 
make her cook, and never to touch her hand or foot. 
This taboo incident is curious, as nothing comes of it 
in the story at all. The sequel to it must have been 
forgotten in transit. A son is born, and the family 
return to Harata 's father and brothers. The beautiful 
bride is admired by everyone, but points out that if 
she had her own petticoat she would be much more 
lovely still. 1 In the absence of Harata, his father 
procures it with the usual result. By holding on to 
the tail of a celestial elephant, 2 he arrives at the land of 
his beloved. He employs the " Declaring Presence " 
motif 3 by means of his ring and enters into the presence 

1 Cf. the Gypsy story, Vol. VIII, p. 219. 

2 Cf. the way Saktideva reaches the City of Gold (Vol. II, p. 219), and 
the bull of Siva in Vol. V, p. 168. 

3 See Vol. II, p. 76n l . 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 167 

of the whole Court, accompanied by his little son. The 
child runs to its mother, and in disgust the King of the 
Winds, who was about to marry the Princess, leaves 
the happy couple together. This is only a very brief 
resume of the story, but it is an important variant and 
should not be overlooked. 
Page 254>n 3 . For " Aupapdtckd " read " Aupapdtikd." 
P. 270, line 9 from foot. For " Sheering " read " Sherring." 
P. 272 et seq. Betel used as a challenge. Sir George Grierson 
tells me that a bird (used in the sense of a single betel- 
roll) flung down on the ground is used as a kind of chal- 
lenge. When a king wants some difficult or dangerous 
feat performed, he throws down in open court a bird of 
pan. Whereupon the bravest of his knights picks it up 
and at once sets out on his adventures. 

Readers will at once think of the well-known custom of 
flinging down a glove as a challenge. Here the use was 
symbolical. A " gage " originally signified only a pledge, 
and an article of value was actually deposited. In time 
the folded glove became the most handy symbol of such 
a bond, and its tendering was the accepted method of 
waging one's law. In the " wagers of battle " the glove 
was thrown on the ground as a challenge, which action 
was required by the " appellee " in answer to the charge 
of the appellant." 

At English coronations, up to the time of George IV, 
the " king's champion " challenged anyone to dispute his 
master's right to the throne by picking up the gauntlet 
flung down three times in succession. 

It would seem that the betel chew also is symbolical, 

and denotes friendship, duty, trust and devotion. 

The throwing of it would be a challenge by which the 

champion's self-assertion would be put to the test. 

P. 318W 1 , line 13. Read " Balfour's Cyclopcedia of India, 

3rd ed., 1885. . . ." 
P. 314 et seq. Betel-chewing (Solomon Islands). See also 
W. G. Ivens, Melanesians of the South-east Solomon 
Islands, Ldn., 1927. Pp. 285-289. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

THE following Bibliography, or, more correctly, Biblio- 
graphical Index, is arranged alphabetically under 
authors, whether the work in question be a series of 
volumes, a work in a single volume, an article in a periodical, 
or a short note of a few lines in some scientific journal. 

Although it lays no claim to perfection, it is not a mere 
" list of books quoted," but is intended to be of individual use 
to the student of folk-lore and " storiology." 

With this view in mind, I have added brief notes where 
I have considered them necessary. Wherever possible, I 
have personally examined every title-page, and have not 
copied the (often incorrect) references of other people. Thus 
I have discovered numerous mistakes in references quoted in 
the notes and Appendixes of the Ocean, all of which have now 
been corrected, and, in many cases, annotated. In considera- 
tion of the enormous amount of work this has entailed, I may 
perhaps be permitted to say that I consider this Bibliography 
by far the most difficult and laborious part of my whole 
work. 

Some references have taken weeks to track down, owing 
to incorrect data, or to the fact that what was taken to be a 
" work " turned out to be an article in, say, some Slavonic 
periodical unrecorded at the British Museum or University 
libraries. 

I have departed from the usually accepted method of 
merely giving details of each work itself by stating in addition 
exactly where the work in question is quoted in the Ocean. 
Surely the student wants to know in what connection an 
author has been cited, even if an actual quotation is not 
given. I consider that a Bibliography thus arranged serves 
a double purpose. 

That such a method is not superfluous I know from per- 
sonal experience, and am merely at pains to spare my readers 
171 



172 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

and fellow-students a similar experience. 1 A glance at the 
Bibliography will show that the name of a work appears in 
italics, while that of an article is placed between inverted 
commas. References to the Ocean are in brackets thus : 
[I, 26371 1 ; II, 41n ; VIII, 81]. 

Any explanatory notes follow in smaller type. In con- 
clusion I would mention that the Bibliography can be used 
in conjunction with the Index (see Vol. X of the Ocean). 
The names of authors quoted appear in the Bibliography 
only, but their works and subjects referred to in them will 
be found indexed and cross-indexed in Vol. X. 



[Anonymous.] " Betel-nut Chewing." The Leisure Hour. 

Part 209. No. 907. Ldn. 15th May 1869. Pp. 311, 312. 

[VIII, Sl8nK] 
[Anonymous.] " The Betel Tree." Notes and Queries on 

China and Japan. Edited by N. B. Dennys. Vol. ii. Jan. 

to Dec. 1868. Sept. 1868. Pp. 136-139. [VIII, 289n 2 .] 

This periodical seems to have been discontinued after the third volume, 
which ended in Dec. 1869- 

[Anonymous.] " Imports and Exports of Canton." Chinese 
Repository. Vol. ii. Canton. 1834. Pp. 447-472. [VIII, 
SOSn 3 .] 

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1 Thus I naturally was anxious to know in what connection Frazer had quoted 
Tawney. No cross-references were given, but I found the work mentioned under 
" Katha Sarit Sagara." I then had to go through each volume of the Golden 
Bough to discover where it was mentioned, and in what connection it was quoted. 
I have strictly avoided what appear to me useless references such as Frazer uses 
in his Bibliography e.g. Times, The weekly edition ; Daily Graphic, The ; 
Athenaeum, The, etc., without any intimation whatsoever as to date, name of 
article or author ! 



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174 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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The Ain I Akbari by Abul Fazl Alldmi. Translated . . . 
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A Supplementary Index of the Place-Names on pages 89 to 
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tinenti alia medicina, di Don Garzia dalV Horto, Medico 
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Et due altri libri parimente di quelle che si portano dalV Indie 
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Browne, Edward Gaylord. See under Blair, E. H., and 

Robertson, J. A. 



192 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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Brunet, J. C, and Montaiglon, A. de. Li Romans de Dolo- 
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Numerous editions. I have used one in German and English, translated 
by W. R. Spencer, Ldn., 1796. 



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Buhler, J. G. The Laws of Manu, with Extracts from Seven 
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Buhler, J. G., and Kielhorn, F. Panchatantra. [Textus 
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Burlingame, E. W. " The Act of Truth (Saccakiriya) ; a 
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Burnell, A. C. The Sdmavidhdnabrdhmana. . . . Edited, 
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t Mr P. A. Tiele of Utrecht. 2 vols. Hakluyt Society. Ldn. 
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[VIII, 259, 259n\] 

VOL. IX. N 



194 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Burnell, A. C. Letter on the Brihat-kathd-manjari to the 

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The above work is a continuation of Introduction a VHistoire du Buddhisme 
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Burnouf, E. " Nala, episode du Mahabharata," Extrait de 

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Burton, J. H. Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland. 

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Burton, R. F. Goa, and the Blue Mountains; or, Six 

Months of Sick Leave. Ldn. 1851. [11,19.] 
Burton, R. F. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El- 

Medinah and Meccah. 3 vols. Ldn. 1855-1856. Vol. i 

El-Misr; vol. ii El-Medinah; vol. iii Meccah. [I, 192; 

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Burton, R. F. First Footsteps in East Africa; or, An 

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Burton, R. F. The City of the Saints and Across the Rocky 

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Burton, R. F. A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome. With 

Notices of the So-called "Amazons," the Grand Customs, the 

Yearly Customs, the Human Sacrifices, the Present State of 

the Slave Trade, and the Negro's Place in Nature. 2 vols. 

Ldn. 1864. [I, 278, 278m 1 .] 
Burton, R. F. Wit and Wisdom from West Africa ; or, A 

Book of Proverbial Philosophy, Idioms, Enigmas, and 

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Burton, R. F. Vikram and the Vampire ; or Tales of Hindu 

Devilry. Adapted by . . . with thirty-three Illustrations 



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by Ernest Griset. Ldn. 1870. [I, 87, 136w 2 ; VI, 226, 227, 

227n\] 

The above work first appeared in serial form in Fraser's Magazine for Town 
and Country, vols, lxxvii and lxxviii, 1868. It was reprinted in the " Memorial 
Edition " of Burton's Works in 1893. 

Burton, R. F. Camoens. The Lyricks. Part I. [Part II.] 
(Sonnets , Canzons, Odes, and Sextines.) Englished by . . . 
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The above volumes form vols, v and vi of what was to have been a complete 
translation of all the writings of Camoens. Six volumes only appeared, the first 
four of which were as follows : Os Lusiadas {The Lusiads). ... 2 vols. Ldn. 
1880. Camoens: His Life and his Lusiads. A Commentary. 2 vols. Ldn. 1881. 

Burton, R. F. The Book of the Sword. By . . . Maitre 
D'Armes (Brevete). With numerous illustrations. Ldn. 
1884. [I, 109W 1 .] 

This was the only published volume of the three that were originally in- 
tended. For details of the material left for the other two vols, see my Burton 
Bibliography, pp. 108-112. 

Burton, R. F. A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments, Now Entituled The Book of the 
Thousand Nights and a Night. With Introduction, Explana- 
tory Notes on the Manners and Customs of Moslem Men and 
a Terminal Essay upon the History of the Nights. 10 vols. 
Benares. 1885. Printed by the Kamashastra Society for 
Private Subscribers only. This was followed by : Supple- 
mental Nights to the Book of The Thousand Nights and a 
Night. With Notes Anthropological and Explanatory. 6 vols. 
Benares. 1886-1888. 

The latter six volumes are easily distinguished at sight from the previously 
issued ten volumes, by having a silver diagonal band across the volume, while 
the others had a gold band. " Benares " is a synonym for Stoke Newington. 
The following references in the Ocean are to the Nights as a whole 16 vols. 

[I, In 1 , 14n, 25, 27, 28, 30n 2 , 43, 4>7n, SOn 1 , 82n, lOlra 1 , 103, 
105, 120m 1 , 124W 1 , 131, 133m 1 , 141w 2 , 144m 1 , 163n, 167, 170, 
183W 1 , 186nS 204, 217 ; II, lOn, 58n\ 104n, 104n J , 123, 124, 
131ns 147m 1 , 153n, 169, 190m 1 , 193n x , 201n 3 , 202W 1 , 218w 3 , 
219w 3 , 220n, 223W 1 , 224n ; III, 56, 60, 68W 1 , 76, 95n\ lOln, 
105w, 115W 1 , 118n x , 203, 227n, 260n\ 260n 2 , 268n x , 279, 308, 
308w 4 , 328; IV, 2ln, 90n\ 108n 2 , 132W 1 , 192nS 249w; V, 
13n\ 43n\ 65, 66, 97m 1 , 122/i 1 , 177, 181w 2 ; VI, 8, 23ft 1 , 37W 1 , 
61, 62, 63, 74w, lOOw 1 , 240, 255, 256, 258, 260, 260W 1 , 274, 
275n\ 286, 286m 1 ; VII, 24W 1 , 56w, 88w 2 , 203, 217, 224, 224n 3 , 
245, 249, 258 ; VIII, 93w 2 , 158n 2 , 161w 2 , 219, 227w 8 , 30271 1 ; 
IX, S7n\ 4>5n\ S5nK] 

In view of a criticism on my quoting from the rare original edition of the 
Nights instead of the " more accessible " 12-vol. Burton-Smithers edition, I 



196 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

would here state that, owing to the thousands of cheap American " facsimile " 
reprints, there are very many more copies with the original pagination in 
circulation than of the 12- vol. edition. It should, however, be remembered 
that the original bulky Supplemental vol. hi was published in all reprints (except 
the Denver edition) as two distinct volumes with continuous pagination. 
Thus these reprints appeared in 17 volumes. Consequently Supp. vols, iv, v 
and vi of the original edition correspond to vols, v, vi and vii of the reprints. 
For full details of every edition and issue of the Nights see my Bibliography of 
SirR. F. Burton, pp. 113-149.. 

Burton, R. F. II Pentamerone : or, The Tale of Tales. Being 
a Translation by the late Sir Richard Burton, K.C.M.G., of 
II Pentamerone ; Overo Lo Cunto De Li Cunte, Trattene- 
miento De Li Peccerille, of Giovanni Battista Basile, Count 
of Torone (Gian Alessio Abbattutis). 2 vols. Ldn. 1893. [I, 
26, 77ft 1 , 97ft 2 ; II, 5ft 1 , 190ft 1 , 253 ; III, 20m 1 , 21ft, 28ft 1 , 
48ft 1 , 105n, 226ft 2 , 238, 239, 272ft 1 , 285ft 1 , 292ft 1 ; V, lift 1 , 
158ft, 172ft ; VI, 16ft, 47ft 1 , 48ft, 200ft 3 , 263 ; VII, 42ft 1 , 
162ft 1 ; VIII, 69ft 1 ; IX, 78ft.] See also under Basile, 
Giovanni Battista. 

The pagination runs straight through both volumes. 

Burton, R. F. " Notes on an Hermaphrodite." Memoirs 
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Burton, R. F. See also under Nefzaoui ; and Penzer, N. M. 

[Burton, R. F., and Arbuthnot, F. F.] The Kama Sutra of 
Vatsyayana. Translated from the Sanscrit. In Seven Parts, 
with Preface, Introduction, and Concluding Remarks. Re- 
print : Cosmopoli : 1833 : for the Kama Shastra Society 
of London and Benares, and for private circulation only. 
[I, 234ft 2 .] 

The above is from the title-page of the first issue of the second edition, the 
first being issued in seven parts, and of extreme rarity. For details see my 
Annotated Bibliography of Sir Richard F. Burton, 1923, pp. 161-171. 

[Burton, R. F., and Arbuthnot, F. F.] Ananga-Ranga ; 
(Stage of the Bodiless One), or, The Hindu Art of Love. (Ars 
Amoris Indica.) Translated from the Sanskrit, and Anno- 
tated by A. F. F. and B. R. F. Reprint Cosmopoli : 1885 : 
for the Kama Shastra Society of London and Benares, and 
for private circulation only. [I, 236ft 3 ; V, 193.] 

The author of the work was Kalyana Malla. 

[Burton, R. F., and Smithers, L. C] Priapeia or the Sportive 

Epigrams of divers Poets on Priapus : the Latin Text now 

for the first time Englished in Verse and Prose (the Metrical 

Version by " Outidanos "), with Introduction, Notes Ex- 



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planatory and Illustrative, and Excursus by " Neaniskos." 
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" Cosmopoli " is, of course, a name that can apply to anywhere. In this case 
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Explanatory Notes. By the author of " Patrailas," " House- 
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[I, 25, 27, 39w 2 , 162W 1 ; II, 5n\ 52n 12 ; III, 4>Sn\ 75, 142m 1 , 

182, 195W 1 , 204, 218n x ; V, 63n x , 77n\ 153n\ 157w x ; VI, lS2n\ 

lS6n\ 242, 248, 264, 269rc 2 ; VII, 2S5n 2 ; VIII, 59n 3 .] See 

also under Julg, B. 
Busk, R. H. The Folk-Lore of Rome, collected by word of mouth 

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Series 2 came out in 1909 Series 3 in 1910, and so on. The 8th Series was 
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Caland, W. " Zur Exegese und Kritik der rituellen Sutras." 

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Caland, W. Savitri und Nala. Utrecht. 1917. [Not seen by 

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Calmette, R. Les Venins, les animaux venimeux et la sero- 

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Campbell, J. F. Popular Tales of the West Highlands. 4 vols. 

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141n 2 , 157m 2 , 163m 1 ; III, 195W 1 , 205, 231W 1 , 237, 272m 1 ; 

IV, 67W 1 ; V, 46W 1 , 157W 1 ; VI, 5n* ; IX, 165.] 
Campbell, J. G. D. Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands 

of Scotland. Glasgow. 1900. [VI, 135.] 
Campbell, J. G. D. Siam in the Twentieth Century. Being 

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Campbell, J. M. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. 26 vols. 

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Several volumes are in two parts. The General Index forms vol. xxvii, and 
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Campbell, J. M. Notes on the Spirit Basis of Belief and 

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Campbell, Killis. A Study of the Romance of the Seven Sages 

of Rome, with Special Reference to the Middle English 

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Campbell, Killis. The Seven Sages of Rome. Edited from 

the Manuscripts, with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary by 

. . . The Albion Series. Boston, New York, Chicago. Ldn. 

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Campbell Thompson. See under Thompson, R. Campbell. 



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Capua, John of. See under John of Capua. 

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Carey, W., and Marshman, J. The Ramayuna of Valmeeki 
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Carlill, James. Physiologus. Translated, with an Introduc- 
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The above is the most recent translation of Physiologus. Reference should 
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Carnoy, E. H. Litter ature or ale de la Picardie. Paris. 1883. 

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Carnoy, E. H. Contes Francais recueillis par . . . Paris. 

1885. Forming vol. viii of " Collection de Contes et de 

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Carnoy, E. H. "La Montagne Noire ou Les Filles du Diable. 

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Carnoy, E. See under Certeuse, A., and Carnoy, E. H. 
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Vol. xiv. Pp. 242, 243. [Ill, 115m 1 .] 
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Hastings' Ency. Bel. Eth. Vol. i. 1908. Pp. 289-292. 

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Carter, A. C. The Kingdom ofSiam. Ministry of Agriculture, 

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See also under Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan. 

Croker, T. C. Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of 
Ireland. Ldn. 1825. 2nd edit., first part, 1826 ; second 
and third parts, 1828. [I, 26 ; VII, 120ft 2 .] 

The last part of the second edition contains some Scottish and Welsh, besides 
Irish, stories. The first part was translated into German by the Brothers Grimm. 
See further under Grimm, J. L. C. and W., Irische Elfenmarchen. A second 
edition of the whole appeared in 1834. Croker died in 1854, and in 1870 
Thomas Wright (who with Croker and other antiquarians had founded the 
Camden and Percy Societies) issued a third edition of the work. 

Crooke, W. An Introduction to the Popular Religion and 
Folklore of Northern India. Allahabad. 1894. 

This edition is not referred to in the Ocean. 
It then appeared as : 

The Popular Religion and Folk-Lore of Northern India. A 
New Edition, Revised and Illustrated. 2 vols. West- 
minster. 1896. [I, 37ft 2 , 67ft 1 , 98ft, 134ft 1 , 203, 205, 206, 
228 ; II, 57ft 1 , 82, 83, 96ft 1 , 99n, 127ft 2 , 138ft 3 , 142ft 1 , 155ft 3 , 
193ft 1 , 197ft 2 , 202ft 1 , 240, 256, 256ft 3 ; III, 37, 40ft 2 , 121ft 1 , 
142ft 1 , 151, 152, 161ft 1 , 185ft 1 , 218ft 1 , 247m 1 , 263ft 2 , 272m 1 , 
306ft 2 ; IV, 55ft 1 , 177ft 1 , 225ft 1 , 235ft 2 , 245ft 1 , 271 ; V. 27ft 2 , 
30ft 2 , 59ft 1 , 101ft 1 , 126ft 1 , 160ft 1 , 176 ; VI, 59, 109ft 1 , 149ft 1 . 
A new and posthumous edition appeared as follows : 

Crooke, W. Religion & Folklore of Northern India. Pre- 
pared for the Press by R. E. Enthoven, C.I.E., Late of the 
Indian Civil Service. Oxford. 1926. [VI, 265w 3 ; VII, 
In 2 , 5w 3 , 146ft 1 , 230ft 1 ; VIII, 19, 271ft 2 .] 

Crooke, W. The Tribes and Castes of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh. 4 vols. Calcutta. 1896. [I, 239ft 1 , 
240ft 2 ; II, 119, 166, 168, 257, 257ft 2 , 305ft 1 ; III, 101ft, 
325 ; IV, 160ft ; V, 176 ; VIII, 270ft 1 .] 

Crooke, W. The Talking Thrush and Other Tales from India. 
Collected by W. Crooke and Retold by W. H. D. Rouse. 
Illustrated by W. H. Robinson. Ldn. 1899. [V, 49ft 1 , 65.] 

These stories (forty-three in number) first appeared in North Indian Notes 
and Queries. A second edition appeared in 1902. 

Crooke, W. " Aghori, Aghorapanthi, Augar, Aughar." 
'Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. i. 1908. Pp. 210-213. 
[II, 90ft 3 , 198ft 1 .] 

VOL. IX. O 



210 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Crooke, W. " Ancestor- Worship and Cult of the Dead 

(Indian)." Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. i. 1908. Pp. 450- 

454. [I, 56n\] 
Crooke, W. " Bad(a)rlnath." Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. 

Vol. ii. 1909. P. 325. [IV, 159n\] 
Crooke, W. " Charms and Amulets (Indian)." Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. iii. 1910. Pp. 441-448. [II, 167 ; 

III, 37 ; VI. 59.] 
Crooke, W. " Demons and Spirits (Indian)." Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. iv. 1911. Pp. 601-608. [II, ein 1 .] 
Crooke, W. " Dravidians (North India)." Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth. Vol. v. 1912. Pp. 1-21. [IV, 177n\] 
Crooke, W. " Kedarnath." Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. 

Vol. vii. 1914. P. 680. [VII, 2ra 1 .] 
Crooke, W. " Prostitution (Indian)." Hastings' Ency. Rel. 

Eth. Vol. x. 1918. Pp. 406-408. [I, 233, 239n 2 .] 
Crooke, W. " Serpent Worship (Indian)." Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. xi. 1920. Pp. 411-419. [I, 203-204 ; 

II, 307n 2 .] 
Crooke, W. " Water, Water-Gods (Indian)." Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. xii. 1921. Pp. 716-719. [VII, 146w x .] 
Crooke, W. " The Legends of Krishna." Folk-Lore. Vol. xi. 

March 1900. No. 1. Pp. 1-38. [II, 39n 2 .] 
Crooke, W. " Some Notes on Homeric Folk-Lore." Folk-Lore. 

Vol. xix. March 1908. No. 1. Pp. 52-77. June 1908. 

No. 2. Pp. 153-189. [II, 57n x ; III, 204, 208n x , 227w, 258 ; 

VI, 282w 6 ; IX, 9W 1 .] 
Crooke, W. " King Midas and His Ass's Ears." Folk-Lore. 

Vol. xxii. June 1911. No. 2. Pp. 183-202. [V, lln 1 ; 

VI, 26nK] 
Crooke, W. " The Veneration of the Cow in India." Folk- 
Lore. Vol.xxiii. Sept. 1912. No. 3. Pp. 275-306. [11,242.] 
Crooke, W. " Simulated Change of Sex to baffle the Evil 

Eye." Folk-Lore. Vol. xxiv. Sept. 1913. No. 3. P. 385. 

[IX, 163.] 
Crooke, W. " The Holi : A Vernal Festival of the Hindus." 

Folk-Lore. Vol. xxv. March 1914. No. 1. Pp. 55-83. [II, 

59m 1 .] 
Crooke, W. " The Divali, the Lamp Festival of the Hindus." 

Folk-Lore. Vol. xxxiv. Dec. 1923. No. 4. Pp. 267-292. 

[II, 118, 2S2n.] 
Crooke, W. " The Hill Tribes of the Central Indian Hills." 

Journ. Anth. Inst. Vol. xxviii. (New Series, vol. i.) Feb. 

and May 1899. Pp. 220-248. [II, 24rc.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 211 

Crooke, W. "Nudity in India in Custom and Ritual." 
Journ. Roy. Anth. Inst. Vol. xlix. 1919. Pp. 237-251. 
[II, 119.] 

Crooke, W. "Brahmani." Indian Antiquary. Vol. x. 1881. 
P. 293. [VII, 5n\] 

The above note was an answer to a query as to the meaning of the word 
" Brahmani " by Sir R. C. Temple, in Ind. Ant., vol. ix, 1880, p. 280. 

Crooke, W. " Secret Messages and Symbols used in India." 
Journ. Bihar and Orissa Research Soc. Vol. v. Patna, 
1919. Pp. 451-462. [I, 82n.] 

Crooke, W. See also under Ball, V. ; Fryer, John ; 
Herklots, G. A. ; Stein, A., and Grierson, G. A. ; and 
Tod, J. 

Crusius, O. See under Anderson, W. 

Cumming, F. G. Gordon. " Pagodas, Aurioles and Umbrellas." 
The English Illustrated Magazine. 1887-1888. Pp. 601-612 ; 
654-667. [II, 272.] 

Cunningham, A. The Ancient Geography of India. I. The 
Buddhist Period, including the Campaigns of Alexander, 
and the Travels of Hwen-Thsang. Ldn. 1871. [Only one 
vol. published.] [II, 3W 1 ; III, 172n\ 184n x ; IV, 2n 2 , 144/1 1 ; 
V, 165W 1 ; VI, 69n x .] 

Cunningham, A. Archaeological Survey of India. 23 vols. 
Simla (vols, i and ii) and Calcutta. 1871-1887. Index 
volume by V. A. Smith. Calcutta. 1887. [I, 238w x ; II, 
110n 2 ; VII, 229ft 1 .] See also under Beglar, J. D. 

Cunningham, A. The Stupa of Bharhut; with Photographic 
Plates. Ldn. 1879. [1,42; V, 79n 3 ; IX, 5ln\] 

Curtze, L. Volksuberlieferungen aus dem Furstenthum 
Waldeck. Mdrchen, Sagen, Volksreime, Rathsel, Sprich- 
worter, Aberglauben, Sitten und Gebrauche, nebst einen 
Idiotikon. Arolsen. 1860. [I, 26.] 

The above work contains 37 Mdrchen and 140 Sagas. 

Dahnhart, O. Natursagen. Eine Sammlung naturdeutender 

Sagen, Mdrchen, Fabeln und Legenden. . . . Leipzig und 

Berlin. 1907, etc. [IX, 144.] 
Dalton, E. T. Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal. Calcutta. 

1872. [VIII, 285w 2 .] 
D'Alviella, G. The Migration of Symbols. Introduction by 

Sir G. Birdwood. Ldn. 1894. [I, 192.] 
D'Alviella, G. " Circumambulation." Hastings' Ency. 

Rel. Eth. Vol. iii. 1910. Pp. 657-659. [I, 193.] 
1)amadaragapta. See under Langle, Louis de. 
Damant, G. H. " Bengali Folklore-Legends from Dinajpur." 



212 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

(" Legends from Dinagepore.") Indian Antiquary. Vol. i, 

1872, pp. 115, 170, 218, 285, 344; ii, 1873, pp. 271, 357; 

iii, 1874, pp. 9, 320, 342 ; iv, 1875, pp. 54 ; ix, 1880, p. 1 et seq. 

Twenty-two tales in all. [I, 42, 131 ; IX, 142.] 
Damant, G. H. " Bengali Folklore Legends from Dinagepore.' 

Indian Antiquary. Vol. ix. 1880. Pp. 1-8. [IX, 142.] 
Dames, M. Longworth. The Book of Duarte Barbosa. An 

Account of the Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean 

and their Inhabitants, written by Duarte Barbosa and 

completed about the Year a.d. 1518. Translated from the 

Portuguese Text . . . and Edited and Annotated by . . . 

2 vols. Hakluyt Society. Ldn. Vol. i. Second Series. 

No. xliv. 1918. Vol. ii. Second Series. No. xlix. 1921. 

[II, 18, 269n x , 300, 300rc 5 , 301, 303; III, 329; IV, 269, 

270 ; VIII, 96n 2 , 258w 2 .] 
Dames, M. Longworth. "Balochi Tales." Folk-Lore. Vols, iii, 

1892, p. 517 ; iv, 1893, pp. 195, 285, 518 ; viii, 1897, p. 77. 

Twenty stories in all. [II, 302 ; III, 182 ; V. 49ft 1 .] 
Dames, M. Longworth, and Joyce, T. A. " Note on a 

Gandhara Relief representing the Story of King Sivi." 

Man. Vol. xiii. No. 2. Feb. 1913. Pp. 17-19. [I, 85n.] 
Damiri, Ad-. See under Jayakar, A. S. G. 
Dampier, William. A New Voyage round the World. . . . 

Ldn. 1697. [VIII, 293, 301, 301W 1 .] 

This work was reprinted six times (1697-1729) and has now appeared (under 
my editorship) with an Introduction by Sir Albert Gray. Argonaut Press. 
Ldn. 1927. 

Dampier, William. Voyages and Discoveries. . . . Ldn. 
1699. [VIII, 302.] 

Three further editions of the above volume were issued 1700, 1705, 1729. 

D'Ancona, A. " II Tresoro di Brunetto Latini versificato." 
Atti delta R. Accademia dei Lincei. Serie Quarta Classe 
di Scienze Morali, Storiche e Filologiche. Vol. iv. 
Pt. i. Memorie. Roma. 1888. Pp. 111-274. See also the 
" Relatione " by Carlo Merkel, pp. 275, 276. [II, 294, 294rc 2 .] 

Dandin. Dasa-kumara-charita. (Story of the Ten Princes.) 
[i,*25, 234, 234w 4 , 235 ; II, 183m 1 , 184n; VI, 247, 251, 259.] 
See also under Hertel, J., Die zehn Printzen . . .; and 
Meyer, J. J. 

Dandin. Mrichchhakatika. See under Ryder, A. W. 

Danicic*, G. " Indijske price prozvane Stefanit i Ihnilat." 
Starine, na sviet izdaje Jugoslavenska Akademija Znanosti 
I Umjetnosti. Vol. ii. Zagrebu (Agram). 1870. Pp. 261-310. 
[V, 235, 238.] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 213 

Daniels, C. L., and Stevans, C. M. The Encyclopaedia of 
Superstitions, Folk-Lore and the Occult Sciences of the 
World. ... 3 vols. Chicago and Milwaukee. [1903.] 
[II, 145n.] 

Dante Alighieri. Inferno. [I, 40n 3 ; .VIII, 99n 2 .] Purgatorio. 
[IV, 239rc 2 ; VIII, 100n.] See also under Lombardi, P. B. 

Da Orta, Garcia. See under Orta, Garcia da. 

Daremberg, C. V., and Saglio, E. Dictionnaire des Anti- 
quites grecque et romaines, d'apres les textes et les monuments 
. . . Ouvrage redige par une societe d'ecrivains speciaux 
. . . sous la direction de . . . 5 vols. Paris, Corbeil 
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Dasent, G. W. Popular Tales from the Norse. With an 
Introductory Essay on the Origin and Diffusion of Popular 
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27, 44, 77/1 1 ; II, 190W 1 ; III, 104n x , 205 ; V, Sn\ Un 1 .] 

Dasent, G. W. Tales from the Fj eld. Ldn. 1874. [111,76.] 

Both the above work and Popular Tales from the Norse are from the 
collections of Asbjornsen andMoe. 

Dasent, G. W. " De Deif van Brugghe." Zeitschrift fur 
deutsches Alterthum. Vol. v. Leipzig. 1845. Pp. 385-406. 
[V, 284.] 

Davids, C. F. Rhys. " Notes on Early Economic Conditions 
in Northern India." Journ. Roy. As. Soc. Oct. 1901. 
Pp. 859-888. [II, 240.] 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Buddhist Birth Stories; or Jdtaka 
Tales . . . being the Jdtakatthavannand, Edited by 
V. Fausboll, and Translated by . . . Trubner's Oriental 
Series. 2 vols. Ldn. 1880. [II, 52n x ; V, 3n\ 55w 3 , 79n\ 
9Sn\ lOOw 1 ; VIII, 135n 2 .] 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Buddhist Suttas Translated from Pali 
by ... 1. The Maha-Parinibbana Suttanta. 2. The 
Dhamma-2akka-PPavattana Sutta. 3. The Tevigga 
Suttanta. 4. The Akankheyya Sutta. 5. The ietokhila 
Sutta. 6. The Maha-Sudassana Suttanta. 7. The 
Sabbasava Sutta. Oxford. 1881. [VIII, 71n 2 .] 

The above work forms vol. xi of the " Sacred Books of the East " Series, 
edited by F. Max Miiller. The reference in the Ocean is to No. 6 of the 
work the Maha-sudassanasuttanta. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Buddhism. A Sketch of the Life and 
Teachings of Gautama, the Buddha. Ldn. 1890. (1st 
edit. 1878.) [VIII, 127/1 1 .] 



214 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. Buddhist India. Ldn. 1903. [II, Sn 1 .] 

Part of " The Story of the Nations " Series. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. "Adam's Peak." Hastings' Ency. Rel. 

Eth. Vol. i. 1908. Pp. 87, 88. [II, 85n.] 
Davids, T. W. Rhys. "Chastity (Buddhist)." Hastings' 

Ency. Rel. Eth. Vol. iii. 1910. P. 490. [Ill, 172n 2 .] 
Davids, T. W. Rhys. See also under Fausboll, V. 
Davies, John. The Voyages and Travels of J. Albert de 

Mandelslo . . . into the East Indies. Begun in the year 

1638 and finished in 1640. . . . 2nd edition, corrected. 

Ldn. 1669. [IV, 270.] 
Dawkins, R. M. Modern Greek in Asia Minor. With a 

chapter on the Subject-matter of the Folk-tales by W. R. 

Halliday. Cambridge. 1916. [VI, 122n 2 , 123rc, 138, 273w 2 ; 

VIII, 109n 2 ; IX, 153.] 
Dawkins, R. M. " Ancient Statues in Mediaeval Con- 
stantinople." Folk-Lore. Vol. xxxv. 1924. Pp. 209-248. 

[IX, 160.] 
Day, Lal Behari. Folk-Tales of Bengal. Ldn. 1883. [I, 28, 

95n\ 131 ; II, 108n ; III, 29n, 62, 280 ; VII, 261.] 

The 2nd edition of the above was issued in 1912. The collection, formed at 
the suggestion of Sir Richard Temple, contains twenty-two excellent tales. 

Defremery, C. See under Ibn Batuta. 

De Groot, J. J. M. The Religious System of China, its 
Ancient Forms, Evolution, History and Present Aspect. 
Manners, Customs and Social Institutions connected there- 
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257n 2 ; VIII, 304, 304ft 1 .] 

This important work is divided into two parts, consisting of two Books, 
three volumes constituting a Book. The title of Book i is " Disposal of the 
Dead," and that of Book ii," The Soul and Ancestral Worship." The sub-titles 
of the volumes are as follows : Vol. i, pt. i, Funeral Rites ; pt. ii, Ideas of 
Resurrection. Vol. ii, pt. iii, The Grave (first half). Vol. iii, pt. iii, The Grave 
(second half). Vol. iv, pt. i, The Soul in Philosophy and Folk-Conception. 
Vol. v, pt. ii, Demonology; pt. iii, Sorcery. Vol. vi, pt. iv, War against 
Spectres ; pt. v, Priesthood of Animism. 

De Gubernatis. See under Gubernatis, A. de. 

Dekker, T. The Honest Whore. (1604.) [II, 14>5n.] 

Della Valle, Pietro. Travels. [II, 162n ; III, 85n.] See 

further under Grey, Edward. 
Dellon, C. A Voyage to the East Indies [2 pts.]. . . . Also, 

a Treatise of the Distempers peculiar to Eastern Countries. 

. . . Ldn. 1698. [IV, 271.] 



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Del Rio (or Delrio), M. A. S. J. Disquisitonum Magicarum 
Libri Sex. Louvain. 1599. [II, 300, 300n 2 .] 

The 1606 edition is not accessible to me. 

Dennys, N. B. The Folk-Lore of China, and its Affinities with 
that of the Aryan and Semitic Races. London and Hong- 
Kong. 1876. [VIII, 231 ft 3 .] See also under [Anonymous.] 
44 The Betel Tree," and Mayers, W. F. 

Denton, W. Serbian Folk-Lore : Popular Tales selected and 
translated by Madam Cs. Mijatovics. Edited with an 
Introduction by . . . Ldn. 1874. [I, 132 ; III, 204.] 

Derenbourg, J. Deux versions hebraiques du livre de Kalildh 
et Dimndh la premiere accompagnee d'une traduction 
francaise, . . . Paris. 1881. [V, 220.] 

Derenbourg, J. Johannis de Capua Directorium vitce 
humance alias parabola antiquorum sapientum. . . . Paris. 
1889. [V, 237.] 

Deromps, M. Les vingt-cinq recits du mauvais genie traduits 
de Vhindi. Paris. 1912. [IX, 163.] 

Dervish Makhlis of Ispahan. The Thousand and One 
Days. [I, 43, 145ft 1 ; II, 6ft 2 .] Les Mille et un jour, Contes 
Persans, Traduits en Francois par Mr. Petis de la Croix. . . . 
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Deslongchamps, A. L. Essai sur les Fables Indiennes et sur 
leur introduction en Europe. . . . Paris. 1838. [1,25,169.] 

Dewar, D. See under Wright, R. G., and Dewar, D. 

Dey, Kanny Lall. Indigenous Drugs of India. 2nd edit. 
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Dey, Nundolal. " Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and 
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Vol. xlviii, 1919, pp. 1-6; vol. xlix, 1920, p. 7-54; vol. 1, 
1921, pp. 55-78 ; vol. li, 1922, pp. 79-118 ; vol. lii, 1923, 
pp. 119-150 ; vol. liii, 1924, pp. 151-190 ; vol. liv, 1925, 
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D'Gruyther, W. J. " Panjab Rajputana Patandi 
Jesalmer Burning with Dead by men and women Sati- 
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D'Ohsson, M * * * (i.e. Mouradja). Tableau General de 

VEmpire Othoman, divise en deux parties, dont Vune 



216 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

comprend le legislation Mahometans; V autre, VHistoire de 

VEmpire Othoman. 3 vols. Paris. 1787, 1790 and 1820. 

[Ill, 329.] 
Doni. See under Jacobs, J. 
Dorsey, J. O. " Abstracts of Omaha and Ponka Myths." 

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228n 8 .] 
Dorys, G. La Femme Turque. Paris. 1902. [II, 163w.] 
Douce, Francis. Illustrations of Shakspeare, and of Ancient 

Manners : with Dissertations on the . . . Gesta Romanorum. 

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Douce, F. See also under Ellis, George. 
Doughty, C. M. Travels in Arabia Deserta. 2 vols. Cambridge. 

1888. [I, 217.] 

Reprinted twice in 1921. 

Doutte, Edmond. La Societe Musulmane du Maghrib. 

Magie & Religion dans VAfrique du Nord. Algiers. 

1909. [Ill, 202 ; VIII, 100n.] 
Dowson, John. A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, 

and Religion, Geography, History and Literature. Triibner's 

Oriental Series. Vol. vi. Ldn. 1879. [IV, 233n x .] 
Dowson, John. See also under Elliot, H. M. 
Dozon, A. Contes Albanais, recueillis ettraduits. Paris. 1881. 

Collection de Contes et de Chansons populaires. Vol. iii. 

[I, 20n, lOln 1 , 132 ; II, 190n x ; III, 204 ; VII, 224, 226rc 2 ; 

IX, 165.] 
D'Penha, G. F. "Folklore in Salsette." The Indian 

Antiquary. Vol. xxii. Bombay. 1893. Pp. 243-250 (cont. 

on pp. 276-284). [I, 131.] 
D'Penha, G. F. " Folklore in Salsette." Indian Antiquary. 

Vol. xxiii. 1894. Pp. 134-139. [V, 65.] 
D'Penha, G. F. " Superstitions and Customs in Salsette." 

The Indian Antiquary. Vol. xxviii. 1899. Pp. 113-119. 

[II, 167.] 
Dracott, A. E. Simla Village Tales, or Folk Tales from the 

Himalayas. Ldn. 1906. [IX, 163.] 
Drew, F. The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories : a Geo- 
graphical Account. Ldn. 1875. [II, 232n.] 
Drury, H. The Useful Plants of India ; with notices of their 

Chief Value in Commerce, Medicine, and the Arts. 2nd 

edit. With Additions and Corrections. Ldn. 1873. 

[VII, 105.] 
The first complete edition appeared in Madras, 1858. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 

Dubois, M. l'Abbe J.-A. Le Pantcha-T antra, ou Les Cinq 
Ruses, Fables du Brahme Vichnou-Sarma ; Aventures de 
Paramarta, et Autres Contes. . . Paris. 1826. [V, 48W 1 , 
55w 3 ; VII, 224.] 

The edition of 1872 had the same title-page and contents, but, in addition, 
thirteen eaux-fortes by M. Leonce Petit. 

Dubois, M. l'Abbe J.-A. Hindu Manners, Customs and 
Ceremonies. . . . Translated from the Author's Later French 
MS. and edited with Notes, Corrections, and Biography by 
Henry K. Beauchamp, C.I.E. . . . with a prefatory note 
by the Right Hon. F. Max Muller and a Portrait. 3rd edit. 
Oxford. 1906. [I, 250, 250w 3 , 251-253 ; II, 168, 242 ; 
III, 306, 306w 4 ; IX, 164.] 

This justly famous work has an interesting history. The original French 
MS. was purchased for 8000 rupees by the East India Company. It was then 
sent to England, translated and published in 1816 (reprinted with omissions 
in 1864). Meanwhile a copy of the MS. lying among the records of Fort St 
George had been forwarded to the Abbe for revision and addition. So great 
and important did this fresh work prove, when returned in 1815, that it was 
decided to send it to the Court of Directors in England. If arrived too late, 
and the 1816 edition had already been published. The translation and edit- 
ing of the revised MS., undertaken by H. K. Beauchamp, first appeared in 
two vols. Oxford. 1897. By 1906 it had reached the third edition. Other 
editions can be ignored. Several stories occur in the work, chiefly from the 
Pahchatantra, and appear in Dubois' translation of that collection see above. 

Du Fail, Noel, Seigneur de la Herissaye. Les Contes 

et Discours d'Eutrapel. Rennes. 1585. (Other editions : 

Rennes, 1598 ; 2 vols. [Paris] 1732 ; 2 vols., Paris, 1875.) 

[II, 2n\ Sn.] 
Duff, J. C. G. A History of the Mahrattas. 3 vols. Ldn. 

1826. (3rd edit. Bombay, 1873. Printed in Ldn.) [VII, 

216w 2 .] 
Dulaure, J. A. Des Divinites Generatrices, ou du Culte du 

Phallus chez les anciens et les modernes. Paris. 1805. 

[I, 14w, 15n.] 

The subsequent editions of this work require some elucidation. The first 
edition (1805) was in one volume of 428 pages. In 1825 appeared a two- volume 
work, of which vol. i was : Histoire abregee de differens Cultes, des Cukes qui 
ont precede et amene Vidolairie ou V adoration des figures kumains. 1 Vol. ii was 
an enlarged reprint of Des Divinites Generatrices . . . (464 pages). It was at 
once suppressed, but was reprinted separately in 1885. The most recent 
edition I have seen was dated 1905. All editions were published in Paris. 

Du Meril. See under Meril, Edelestand du. 
Dumont, P. E. Histoire de Nala. Traduction Nouvelle par 
. . . Bruxelles. 1923. [See IX, 155.] 

1 This had also been issued in 1805 as a separate work. 



218 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Dunlop, John. History of Fiction. Ldn. 1814. 2nd edit. 
1816, 3rd 1845, with notes by H. Wilson (Bohn's Standard 
Library), 1888. 

In the Ocean practically all references are to the valuable notes of Liebrecht 
in his German translation : 

Dunlop, John. Geschichte der Prosadichtungen oder Ge- 
schichte der Romane, Novellen, Mdrchen . . . Aus dem 
Englischen ubertragen . . . und mit einleitender Vorrede, 
ausfuhrlichen Anmerkungen . . . verschen von . . . Berlin. 
1851. [I, 24W 1 , 44, mn\ 97ra 2 , 103, 137m 1 , 145w x , 166; II, 
6n 2 , 39n 2 , 127n 2 ; III, 82w 2 , 2S5n x ; IV, 129n, 132W 1 , 
145?i 1,2 ; V, life?, S7n\ llln 2 , 162W 1 , 186n 2 ; VI, 280n 2 - 3,4 .] 

Dutt, Manmatha Nath. The Ramayana. Translated into 
English Prose from the original Sanskrit of Valmiki. 7 vols. 
Calcutta. 1892-1894. [VII, 174 ; VIII, 44W 1 .] 

The title-page of vol. iv is dated 1891. This is due to the fact that the first 
four books, and xli sections of the fifth book, had been previously issued in 
1889-1891 in fourteen parts. All title-pages were reset and the date altered 
accordingly. In the case of the title-page to vol. iv, however, the printers 
forgot to change it hence the error. There is nothing to tell us why this 
first edition suddenly stopped issue in 1891? for in the next year, instead of 
continuing the issue, it started from the beginning again, but this time the 
complete work was printed. 

Dutt, Manmatha Nath. A Prose English Translation of 
Srimadbhagabatam [i.e. Bhagavata Purana]. Edited and 
Published by . . . Calcutta. 1895. [VIII, 214n 2 .] 

The above work forms part of the " Wealth of India " Series, described as 
" A Monthly Magazine Solely devoted to the English Translation of the Best 
Sanskrit Works." 

Dutt, Udoy Chand. The Materia Medica of the Hindus. 
Compiled from Sanskrit Medical Works. . . . With a 
Glossary of Indian Plants, by George King, M.B., F.L.S., 
Superintendent, Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta, and the 
Author. Calcutta. 1877. [VII, 105.] 

In the Brit. Mus. Catalogue the work is entered under Udayachandra Datta. 
It was reprinted as follows : 

The Materia Medica of the Hindus . . . with a Glossary 
of Indian Plants by George King, K.C.I.E., F.R.S. 
. . . Revised Edition. With Additions and Alterations by 
Kaviraj Binod Lall Sen and Kaviraj Athutosh Sen. 
Calcutta. 1900. 
Dyce, A. Glossary to the Works of William Shakespeare. 
Ldn. 1894. [Ill, 154.] 
A revised edition, with new notes by H. Littledale, appeared in 1902. 



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220 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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Each Bind has a second title-page, except vol. xii. The first three vols, 
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The key to the division of the volumes among the various editors is to be 
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the editorship of the complete work is as follows : Edited, tomes 1-3 and 12, in 
part, by S. Egilsson ; 1-6 and 11, in part, by T. GuSmundsson ; 4, 5 and 11, 
in part, by T. Helgason ; 8, 1 1 and 12, in part, 9 and 10 wholly, by F. Magniis- 
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The works mentioned in the Ocean are as follows : 

Vol. iv. 1872. Pp. 89-126. No. xxii. Matla'u-s Sa'dain 
of 'Abdu-r Razzak. Vol. vii. 1877. Pp. 207-533. Munta- 
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Part of the above was issued in two vols., Bombay, 1914, 1915, as Folk-lore 
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222 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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Evolution of Kings, vol. ii. III. Taboo and the Perils of the Soul ; IV. The 
Dying God ; V. Adonis Attis Osiris Studies in the History of Oriental Religion, 
vol. i. VI. Adonis Attis Osiris . . . vol. ii. VII. Spirits of the Corn and of 
the Wild, vol. i. VIII. Spirits of the Corn and of the Wild, vol. ii. IX. 
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vol. i. XI. Balder the Beautiful . . . vol. ii. XII. Bibliography and General 
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Vol. vii. 1914. Pp. 232-252. [Ill, 313, 313n 5 .] 

Frederick, Caesar. See under Hakluyt, Richard. 

Frere, M. Old Deccan Days or Hindoo Fairy Legends Current 
in Southern India. Collected from oral tradition by . . . 
Ldn. 1868. [I, 28, 95n 2 , lOln 1 , 131, 142m 1 ; II, 3n, W8n, 
136/1 1 , 202n x ; III, 2Sn\ 52n, 62, 238 ; IV, 48 ; V, 49W 1 .] 

This was the pioneer work in modern Indian folk- tales. In 1868 an edition 
appeared in Philadelphia, and also a Danish translation by L. Moltke. The 
second English edition was in 1870, and the third edition, with notes by 
Sir Bartle Frere and illustrations by C. F. Frere, was issued in 1881. It is from 
this latter edition that I have made any quotations which appear in the Ocean. 
A further American edition came out in 1897, and a German one, by Passow, 
was published in Jena. No date. 

Fresnoy, N. Lenglet du. Histoire de la Philosophic Her- 
metique. Accompagnee oVun catalogue raisonne des ecrivains 
de cette science. Avec le veritable Philalethe revu sur les 
originaux. 3 vols. Paris. 1742. [Ill, 162n.] 
Freytag, G. Arabum Proverbia vocalibus instruxit, Latine 
vertit, commentario illustravit et sumptibus suis edidit. . . . 
* 3 vols. Bonnse ad Rhenum. 1838-1843. [Ill, 279.1 

Arabic and Latin. Vol. iii is in two parts, each with a distinct title-page and 
pagination. 



228 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Friederich, R. " Voorloopig Verslag van het Eiland Bali." 

Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten 

en Wetenschappen. (Extract from.) Vol. xxiii. 1849. 

[IV, 258.] 
Friedlander, L. Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte 

Roms in der Zeit von August bis zum Ausgang der Antonine. 

Sechste rieu bearbeitete und vermehrte Ausflage. 3 vols. 

Leipzig. 1888-1890. [VIII, 117n 2 .] 
Fritsche, A. T. A. Theocritus' Idyllia. Iterum edidit . . . 

Leipzig. 1868-1869. [V, 201w.] 
Fritze, L. Nala und Damayanti. Zwei altindische Erzdh- 

lungen. Aus dem Sanskrit metrisch ubersetzt von . . . 

Berlin. 1913. [IX, 155.] 
Frobel, J. Seven Years' Travel in Central America, Northern 

Mexico, and the Far West of the United States. Ldn. 1859. 

(From Aus Amerika. 2 vols. Leipzig. 1857, 1858.) [II, 

280ti 7 .] 
Fryer, A. C. Book of English Fairy Tales from the North 

Country. Ldn. 1884. [I, 26.] 

Part of the " Fairy Library of All Nations." A reissue appeared in London, 
1896, with a different title-page. 

Fryer, John. A New Account of East India and Persia. 
Being Nine Years' Travels, 1672-1681. Edited with Notes 
and an Introduction by William Crooke, B.A. 3 vols. 
Hakluyt Society. Ldn. 1909, 1912 and 1915. [VIII, 269, 
270.] 

The volumes form Nos. xix, xx and xxxix of the 2nd Series. 

Fuhrer, A. The Monumental Antiquities and Inscriptions 
in the North- Western Provinces and Oudh. Described and 
arranged by . . . Allahabad. 1891. Archaeological Survey 
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Fulton, A. S. See under Steele, Robert. 

Furnivall, F. J. The Wright's Chaste Wife, or ... A Merry 
Tale, by Adam of Cobsam, From a MS. in the Library of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, about a.d. 1462. 
Early English Text Society. Reprints, 1865, No. 12. 
[2nd edit., 1869.] Ldn. 1865. [I, 44, 165.] 

Fyzee-Rahamin, A. B. The Music of India. Ldn. 1925. 
[VIII, 95W 1 .] 

The above work first appeared (somewhat shorter) in 1914 under the title of 
Indian Music, by Shahinda (Begum Fyzee-Rahamin), with a Preface by 
F. Gilbert Webb. The British Museum catalogue under " Faiz I Rahamln, 
'Atlyah Begam." 



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The collection consists of seventeen stories. 

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The above work gives only the first four chapters and makes no mention 
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230 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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Gaulmin, M. See under Sahid, David. 

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Gayangos, P. de. Calila e Dymna, de Abdallah ben al- 
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232 



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Taylor, Bayard. 
Goldsmid, F. See under Morier, James. 



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Translated into English from the third French edition of 



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The numbers and dates of the volumes are as follows : 

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Grierson, G. A. " Pisacas in the Mahabharata." Fest- 
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238 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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VOL. IX. Q 



242 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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MONTAIGLON, A. DE. 



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work) appear in Coxwell's Siberian and Other Folk-Tales, p. 175 et seq. 

Julg, B. Mongolische Marchen- Sammlung. Die Neun 
Marchen des Siddhi-Kur nach der ausfiXhrlicheren redaction 
und die geschichte des Ardschi-Bordschi Chan. Mongolisch 
mit deutscher uebersetzung und Kritischen anmerkungen. 
Innsbruck. 1868. [Ill, 182 ; V, 63W 1 , 15Sn x ; VI, 242rc 2 , 
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This volume contains stories Nos. xiv-xxiii of Siddhi-Kur and one story from 
Arji-Borji Khan. 

Julien, Stanislas. Memoir es sur les Contrees Occidentales, 
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Julien, Stanislas. Les Avaddnas, Contes et Apologues 
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260 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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262 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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264 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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203ft 1 , 207ft 1 , 218ft 3 ; V, 22ft 1 , 79ft 1 , 99ft 2 , 129ft 1 , 134ft 1 ,. 
159ft 1 , 200ft 1 , 212, 213; VI, 26ft 2 , Sin 1 , 46ft 2 , 54ft 1 , 90ft 2 , 
167?! 1 , 193ft 2 , 205ft 1 , 220ft 2 , 225n 2 ; VII, 16ft 1 , 78ft 3 , 93n 2 , 
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The above work forms No. xxxix of the 1st Series. 

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Fasc. V. Secretum Secretorum cum Glossis et Notulis 



310 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



Tractatus brevis et utilis ad declarandum quedam obscure 
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The Appendix contains fourteen Sinhalese folk-tales. Several are to be 
found also in Parker's Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon. 

Steere, E. Swahili Tales, as told by Natives of Zanzibar. 
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Stefano, Hieronimo di Santo. See under Major, R. M. 

Stein, M. A. Kalhanrfs Rdjatarangini, A Chronicle of the 
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Stein, A., and Grierson, G. A. Hatim's Tales, Kashmiri 
Stories and Songs recorded with the assistance of Pandit 
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[I, S8n, 8ln, 163n ; II, 124; III, 280; IV, 48, 104; 
V, 176, 177 ; IX, 163.] 

Stein, O. " 'ZCpiy^ und surungd." Zeit. f. Indologie und 
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J. Benzian assisted in editing vols, ix-xxi. During 1866-1868 the publication 
was suspended. 

Steinschneider, M. Die Hebraeischen Uebersetzungen des 
Mittelalters und die Juden als Dolmetscher. Ein Beitrag 
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Steinschneider, M. " Die toxicologischen Schriften der 
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This forms No. xxiv of : 

Archiv fur pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und filr 
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Stevens, John. See under Herrera, Antonio de. 
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With Foreword by A. A. Macdonell, . . . Oxford. 1920. 

[I, 56m 1 ; II, 54ft 1 , 83, 166, 242, 257ft 1 ; III, 37, 38; 

IV, 259, 259ft 1 , 260 ; V, 145ft 1 ; VI, 59 ; VII, 26, 28, 188ft 1 ; 

VIII, 18, 277.] 

The above volume forms one of " The Religious Quest of India " Series, 
edited by J. N. Farquhar and H. D. Griswold. 

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II, 42ft 1 , 43ft 2 , 57ft 1 , 136ft 1 , 193ft 1 ; III, 218, 226ft 2 , 280 

V, 157ft 1 ; VI, 16ft, 47ft 1 , 61, 154ft 3 , 250, 260 ; VII, 255 

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The above important collection of thirty stories first appeared, privately 
printed, in 1879. 



312 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Stokes, Whitley. Togail Troy. The Destruction of Troy, 
Transcribed from the facsimile of the Book of Leinster and 
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Only seventy copies printed. 

Stokes, Whitley. Three Middle-Irish Homilies on the Lives 
of Saints Patrick, Brigit and Columba. . . . Calcutta. 
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Of this work there are only one hundred copies privately printed. 

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Storey, C. A. The Fdkhir of Al-Mufaddal Ibn Salama. 

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A part of the above treatise was printed at Constantinople in a.h. 1301, 
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Storr, F. Sophocles, with an English Translation by . . . 

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further under Waters, W. G. 
Strong, H. A. The Syrian Goddess. Being a Translation of 

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lung prosaischer und poelischer Stiicke im arabischen 

Dialecte der Stadt Tunis nebst Einleitung und Ubersetzung 

von ... 2 vols. Leipzig. 1893. (Vol. i, text ; vol. ii, 

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Stumme, H. Mdrchen der Schluh von Tdzerwalt. Leipzig. 

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Subramiah Pantulu. See under Pantulu, G. R. Subramiah. 



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die Quellen der Romanischen Weltchronik. Halle. 1883. 
[II, 289m 1 .] 

Sukthankar, V. S. Vdsavadatta. Being a translation of an 
anonymous Sanskrit drama Svapanvdsavadatta attributed to 
Bhdsa. Oxford University Press. 1923. [II, 21m 1 .] 

Sukthankar, V. S. " Studies in Bhasa." Journ. Bomb. Br. 
Roy. As. Soc. Vol. xxvi. No. 2. 1923. Pp. 230-249. 
[II, 21n 1 .] 

Sully, James. An Essay on Laughter, Its Forms, Its Causes, 
Its Development, and Its Value. Ldn. 1902. [VII, 253W 1 .] 

Summers, Montague. The History of Witchcraft and 
Demonology. Ldn. 1926. [IX, 146.] 

This volume forms part of the " History of Civilization " Series. 

Sundblad, J. Gammaldags Seder och Bruk. New, revised, 
and enlarged edition. 6 parts. Stockholm. 1888. [VI, 
290n\] 

Sura, Arya. See under Speyer, J. S., The Gdtakamdld. 

Susruta. See under Bhishagratna. 

Swan, Charles. See under Wright, Thomas. 

Swift, Jonathan. A City Shower. [II, 270.] Tale of a Tub. 
[II, 270.] Polite Conversation. [V, 121rc 2 .] 

Swynnerton, C. Indian Nights' Entertainment ; or, Folk- 
Tales from the Upper Indus. Ldn. 1892. [I, 81n, 168 ; 
III, 204.] 

The above work is usually misquoted as Indian Nights' Entertainments. 

Swynnerton, C. Romantic Tales from the Panjdb with 
Illustrations by Native Hands collected and edited from 
original sources by . . . Westminster. 1903. [VII, 261.] 

The above two works were amalgamated in a single volume, as follows : 

Romantic Tales from the Panjdb with Indian Nights' 
Entertainment. New Edition in One Volume. Ldn. 1908. 
[V, 4971 1 , 65.] 

This work contains no illustrations or index. The total collection, consists 
of ninety-seven tales, the value of which is greatly reduced by the absence of 
annotations and index. 

A few of the stories were issued in the Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. lii, p. 81 ; 
while four of the Rasalu legends were printed in the Folk-lore Journal, vol. i, 
p. 129. 

Syed Siraj Ul Hassan. See under Hassan, Syed Siraj IJl. 
Sykes, Ella C. " Persian Folklore." Folk-Lore. Vol. xii. 
1901. Pp. 261-280. [Ill, 307, 307?i 2 .] 



814 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Sykes, P. M. A History of Persia. 2nd edit. 2 vols. Ldn. 
1921. [I, 103; VI, 293w 3 .] 
The 1st edition appeared in 1915. 

Sylvain Levi. See under Levi, Sylvain. 

Tachard, Gui. Voyage de Siam des Peres Jesuites envoyez 
par le Roy aux Indes et a la Chine. Avec leurs observations 
astronomiques, et leurs remarques de physique, de geographic, 
d'hydrographie, et oVhistoire. Paris. 1686. [Ill, 308, SOSw 1 .] 

(There were also Amsterdam editions of 1687, 1689-) 

Tacitus. Annals. [I, 103 ; II, 277.] 

Taine, H. A. Les Origines de la France Contemporaine. Pt. ii, 

La Revolution. 3 vols. Paris. 1878-1885. [II, 185n\] 
Tassy, Garcin de. See under Garcin de Tassy, J. H. 
Tatius, Achilles. The Loves of Clitopho and Leucippe. 

[V, 200n\] 
Tavernier, J. B. See under Ball, V. 
Tawney, C. H. Uttara Rama Charita, A Sanskrit Drama by 

Bhavabhuti, Translated into English Prose. Calcutta. 1871. 

[I, viii.] 

A 2nd edition, adapted to Pundit I. C. Vidyasagara's edition of the text, 
appeared in 1874, also at Calcutta. 

Tawney, C. H. The Mdlavikdgnimitra. A Sanskrit Play by 
Kdliddsa. Literally translated into English Prose. Calcutta. 
1875. [IV, 15 ; VII, 2nK] 
A 2nd edition appeared in 1891. 

Tawney, C. H. Two Centuries of Bhartrihari. Translated 
into English Verse. Calcutta. 1877. [I, viii, x.] 

Tawney, C. H. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third. 
By William Shakespeare. With an Introduction and Notes 
by . . . With an Appendix by T. Cartwright, B.A., B.Sc. 
(Lond.). Ldn. 1888. (Last reprint 1922.) [I, viii.] See 
also under Shakespeare, William. 

Tawney, C. H. The Kathdkoga; or, Treasury of Stories. Trans- 
lated from Sanskrit Manuscripts. . . . With Appendix, 
containing Notes, by Professor Ernst Leumann. . . . 
Royal Asiatic Society. Oriental Translation Fund. New 
Series, II. Ldn. 1895. [I, 40/i, 48rc 2 , lOln 1 , 121w 2 , 223, 
224, 226 ; II, 5ft 1 , 108n, 113nS 219n 3 , 2S2n ; III, 60, 61, 62, 
207n 2 , 279; IV, 47, 174n x ; V, 17m 1 , 125n\ 155n\ 176; 
VI, In 1 , 25rc 3 , 205n; VII, 220, 223, 254 ; VIII, 29m 1 .] 

Tawney, C. H. The Prabandhacintdmani or Wishing-stone 
of Narratives. Composed by Merutunga Acdrya. Translated 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 315 

from the Original Sanskrit by . . . Calcutta. 1901. 

[I, 37ft 2 , 39ft 1 , 47ft; II, 108ft ; IV, 47; V, 17ft 1 , 125ft 1 , 

155ft 2 , 176 ; VI, 229ft 1 ; VII, 202.] 
T[awney], C. H. " Ancient Superstitions regarding i Meeting 

Eyebrows.' " The Indian Antiquary. Vol. vii. Bombay. 

1878. P. 87. [II, 104ft.] 
Tawney, C. H. " Some Indian Methods of Electing Kincrs." 

Proc. As. Soc. Bengal. Nov. 1891. Pp. 135-138. Calcutta. 

1892. [V, 176.] 
Tawney, C. H., and Thomas, F. W. Catalogue of Two 

Collections of Sanskrit Manuscripts preserved in the India 

Office Library. Ldn. 1903. [I, ix.] 
Taylor, Bayard. Faust. A Tragedy by John Wolfgang von 

Goethe. Translated, in the original metres, by ... 2 vols. 

Ldn. 1871. [IV, 227ft 1 .] 
Taylor, R. Te Ika a Maui; or, New Zealand and its 

Inhabitants, illustrating the Origin, Manners, Customs, . . . 

and Language of the Natives. . . . 2nd edit. Ldn. 1870. 

[VI, 135 ; VIII, 232ft 7 .] 
(The 1st edition appeared in 1855.) 

Tegner, Hans. See under Br^ekstad, H. L. 

Teixeira, Pedro. Relaciones de Pedro Teixeira <T el Origen 
Descendencia y Svccession de los Reyes de Persia, y de 
Harmuz, y de vn Viage hecho por el mismo Avtor dende la 
India Oriental hasta Italia por tierra. . . . Antwerp. 1610. 
[I, 214.] See further under Sinclair, W. F. 

For an English translation of Teixeira, readers are referred to The Travels 
of Pedro Teixeira ; with his " Kings of Harmuz," and extracts from his " Kings 
of Persia," W. F. Sinclair and D. Ferguson, Hakluyt Society, 2nd Series, 
No. ix, Ldn., 1902. The reference to tutia will be found on p. 218. 

Temple, R. C. The Legends of the Panjdb. 3 vols. Bombay. 
1884, 1885, 1901. [Ill, 321.] 

This important collection was to have been issued in monthly parts in the 
years 1884, 1885 and 1886. Owing, however, to official duties, seven years 
elapsed between the appearance of No. xxxiii and No. xxxiv (the Index) ; 
and another seven years passed until No. xxxv (the Preface) was issued. 
This was followed in November 1901 by the final part, No. xxxvi, which 
contained an Index to the Preface. These facts account for the great scarcity 
of complete sets. (There is one at the India Office and another at the Royal 
Asiatic Society. The British Museum lacks the last four parts.) The whole 
collection as published consists of fifty-nine legends, which, however, re- 
presents only half the number collected by Sir Richard Temple. The titles 
of Nos. lx-cxviii are to be found in vol. iii, pp. vi-viii, of the above work. 
Several of these have since been published : see Indian Antiquary, vols, xxv, 
p. 300; xxxvii, p. 149; xxxviii, pp. 81, 311, and xxxix, p. 1, where the 



316 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

legends were edited by H. A. Rose. He also issued six more in his Glossary 
of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab, vol. i, pp. 646-675 and 720-730. 

The only other published legend from the collection is to be found in 
F. W. Skemp, Multani Stories, Lahore, 1917, pp. 78-81. 

Reference should also be made to Temple's article, " The Folklore in the 
Legends of the Panjab," Folk-Lore, vol. x, 1899? pp- 384-443. 

Temple, R. C. A Geographical Account of Countries Round 
the Bay of Bengal, 1669 to 1679. By Thomas Bowrey. 
Edited by . . . Hakluyt Society. Cambridge. 1905. [IV, 
270; VIII, 292n 3 , 293n x .] 

This volume forms No. xii of the 2nd Series. 

Temple, R. C. The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and 
Asia, 1608-1667. 4 vols. Hakluyt Society. Ldn. [IV, 270; 
VIII, 266n 6 , 267n 2 .] 

The numbers and dates of the volumes are as follows : 

Vol. i. 2nd Series. No. xvii. 1905. Vol. ii. 2nd Series. 

No. xxxv. 1914. Vol. iii. 2nd Series. Pt. i, No. xlv. ; Pt. ii, 

No. xlvi. 1919. Vol. iv. 2nd Series. No. lv. 1924. 
Temple, R. C. " Notes on a Collection of Regalia of the 

Kings of Burma of the Alompra Dynasty." Indian 

Antiquary. Vol. xxxi. Nov. 1902. Pp. 442-444. [II, 264n ] .] 
Temple, R. C. " Family Godlings as Indicators of Tribal 

Migration." The Indian Antiquary. Bombay. Vol. xxxiii. 

March 1904. Pp. 98-100. [II, 269n 4 .] 
Temple, R. C. " Ritual Murder as a Means of Producing 

Children." Indian Antiquary. Vol. Hi. May 1923. Pp. 113- 

115. [I, 154n*.] 
Temple, R. C. See also under Steel, F. A., and Temple, 

R. C. 
Tendlau, A. M. Das Buch der Sagen und Legenden judischer 

Vorzeit. Nach den Quellen bearbeitet nebst Anmerkungen 

und Erlduierungen. 2nd edit., enlarged. Stuttgart. 1845. 

[Ill, 59.] 
Tennyson, A. Vivien. [VI, in 1 .] 
Terence (Terentius Afer). Eunuchus. [Ill, 6n 2 .] Phormio. 

[IV, 138n 1 .] 
Tertullian. Ad Nationes. [Ill, 131n 3 .] 
Tha'labi. Qisas al-anbiya\ Cairo, a.h. 1314. [VI, 63.] 
Theocritus. Idyllia (the Idylls). [V, 201n ; VI, 24n.] See 

also under Fritsche, A. T. A. 
Theophrastus (6EO$PACTOY). See under Jebb, R. C. 
Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg. See under 

Pertz, G. H. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 317 

Thiselton-Dyer, T. F. Folk-Lore of Plants. Ldn. 1889. 
[Ill, 154.] 

Thomas, A. " Les Proverbs de Guylem de Cerveras (Poeme 
Catalan du XII Siecle)." Romania. Recueil Trimestriel 
consacre a V Etude des Langues et des hitter atures, Romanes. 
Tom. xv. Paris. 1886. Pp. 25-110. [II, 292, 292n a .] 

Thomas, E. J. See under Francis, H. T., and Thomas, E. J. 

Thomas, E. J. " Sun, Moon and Stars (Buddhist)." Hastings' 
Ency.Rel.Eth. Vol. xii. 1921. Pp. 71-73. [11,81.] 

Thomas, F. W. " The Plays of Bhasa." Journ. Roy. As. Soc. 
Jan. 1922. Pp. 79-83. [II, 2lnK] 

Thomas, F. W. " Chandragupta, the Founder of the Maurya 
Empire." The Cambridge History of India. Vol. i. Cam- 
bridge. 1922. Chap, xviii. Pp. 467-473. [II, 282W 1 .] 

Thomas, F. W. See also under Tawney, C. H., and Thomas, 
F. W. 

Thomas, N. W. " Animals." Hastings' Ency. Rel. Eth. 
Vol. i. 1908. Pp. 483-535. [I, 134n* ; II, 240 ; III, 170^.] 

Thompson, C. J. S. Poison Mysteries in History, Romance 
and Crime. Scientific Press, Ldn. 1923. [II, 281.] 

Thompson, E. " The Suppression of Suttee in Native States." 
The Edinburgh Review. No. 500. Vol. ccxlv. April 1927. 
Pp. 274-286. [IX, 155.] 

Thompson, R. Campbell. The Devils and Evil Spirits of 
Babylonia, being Babylonian and Assyrian Incantations 
against the Demons, Ghouls, Vampires, Hobgoblins, Ghosts 
and kindred evil spirits, which attack mankind. ... 2 vols. 
Ldn. 1903, 1904. [II, 61m 1 ; VI, 138.] 

Forming vols, xiv and xv of Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series. 

Thompson, R. Campbell. Semitic Magic: Its Origins and 
Development. Forming vol. iii of Luzac's Oriental Religious 
Series. Ldn. 1908. [II, 99n, 19Sn\ 295 ; III, 38.] 

Thompson, R. Campbell. " The Golden Age of Hammurabi," 
being; chap, xiv of The Cambridge Ancient History. Cam- 
bridge. 1923. Pp. 494-551. [I, 271n\] 

Thomson, B. See under Amherst of Hackney, Lord, and 
Basil Thomson. 

Thorburn, S. S. Bannu ; or Our Afghan Frontier. Ldn. 
1876. [I, 43; V, 127m 1 .] 

About fifty tales are included in the above work. 

Thorndike, Lynn. A History of Magic and Experimental 
Science during the First Thirteen Centuries of Our Era. 
2 vols. Ldn. 1923. [I, 77n x ; II, 99w, 108n, 288n 3 , 295W 1 , 
299n 2 , 299n 4 ; III, 57, 162n; V, 201w.] 



318 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Thorpe, Benjamin. Yule-Tide Stories. A Collection of 
Scandinavian and North German Popular Tales and 
Traditions, from the Swedish, Danish, and German. Ldn. 
1853. Bonn's Antiquarian Library. [I, 25, 48n 2 , 147ft 2 , 
166; II, 76>* 1 . SO/? 1 . 190ft 1 ; III, 48ft 1 , 205, 225ft 2 , 226ft 2 , 
236. 237 ; VI, 21)1 ft-.] 

Thumb, A. " Zur neuorieehiselien Volkskunde." Zeitschrift 
dfs Vereins fur Volkskunde. Im Auftrage des Vereins 
herausgegeben von Karl Weinhold. Vol. ii. Berlin. 1892. 
Pp. 123-134. [VIII, 117ft 2 .] 

Thurn, E. Im. Sec under Im Thurn, E. 

Thurston, Edgar. Ethnographic Notes in Southern India. 
With 40 Plates. Madras. 1906. [I, 258ft 2 ; II, 7ft 1 , 166, 
256, 256 4 ; III, 46>r, 306ft 3 ; IV, 122ft 1 , 171ft 1 , 245ft 1 .] 

Thurston, Edgar. Castes and Tribes of Southern India. . . . 
Assisted by K. Rangaehari, M.A. ... 9 vols. Govern- 
ment Press, Madras! 1909. [I, 234ft 3 , 253, 258, 258ft 2 , 
259, 265: II, 166, 256, 256ft 4 ; III, 101ft, 325; VIII, 
109ft 3 , 112ft 1 , 275ft 1 , 275ft 2 , 275-283.] 

Thurston, Edgar. Omens and Superstitions in Southern 
India. Ldn. 1912. [Ill, 306ft 3 .] 

Thurston, E. See also under Watt, George. 

Tiele, P. A. See under Burnell, A. C. 

Title, Vaclav. Verzeichuis der Bohmischen Marchen. Vol. vi. 
Helsinki. 1921. FF Communications No. 34. [VIII, 107ft ; 
IX, 141.] 

This series is edited for the Folklore Fellows by Johannes Bolte, Oskar 
Hackman. Kaarle Krohn and C. W. von Sydow. 

Tobler, O. Die Epiphanie der Seele in deutscher Volkssage. 
Kiel. 1911. [VIII, 107ft.] 

The above " Dissertation " is not in the British Museum, and I have not 
personally seen it. 

Tod, James. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasfhan, or the 
Central and Western Rajpoot States of India. 2 vols. Ldn. 
1829-1832. (2nd edit., Madras, 1873. Popular edition, 
Ldn., 1914. New edition, 1920, by W. Crooke.) [11,305ft 1 ; 
VI, 22 On 1 .] 

Torquemada, F. Juan de. La Monarquia Indiana. Madrid. 
1723. [Ill, 150, 151.] 

Touche, La. See under La Touche, T. H. D. 

Traill, G. W. See under Batten, J. H. 

Trebovsky, F. (i.e. F. M. KlAcel). Bdjky [Bidpajovy], 
temdr do viech jazyku ji: preloiene, po desku vzdelane od 






BIBLIOGRAPHY 319 

. . . Pt. i, Olomouc (Olmutz), 1846 ; Pt. ii, Brn (Briinn), 
1850. [V, 237.] 

For further details see F. Doucha, Knihopisny Slovnik cesko-slovenskp, 
Praze, 1865, p. IS. 

Tremearne, A. J. N. Hausa Superstitions and Customs. 
An Introduction to the Folk-Lore and the Folk. Ldn. 1913. 
[Ill, 312, 312m 1 .] 

Tremearne, A. J. N. The Ban of the Bori. Demons and 
Demon-Darning in West and North Africa. Ldn. 1914 (date 
at end of Foreword). [Ill, 38, 312, 312m 1 ; VII, 231n\] 

Trenckner, V. Pali Miscellany. Pt. I, containing a Speci- 
men of the Milindapahho-Teort, Translation and Notes. Ldn. 
1879. [I, 12n*.] 

Trilles, Pere H. Proverbes, Legendes et Contes Fangs. 
Neuchatel. 1905. [Ill, 105w.] 

Troyer, A. See under Shea, D., and Troyer, A. 

Trumbull, H. C. The Blood Covenant. Ldn. 1887. [I, 98n.] 

Tschudi, J. J. von. Reisen dilrch Sudamerika. 5 vols. 
Leipzig. 1866-1869. [II, 280n 6 .] 

Turner, G. Samoa a Hundred Years ago, and long before ; 
together with Notes on the Cults and Customs of Twenty- 
three other Islands in the Pacific ; with a Preface by E. B. 
Tylor. Ldn. 1884. [VIII, 232w 5 .] 

Tylor, E. B. Primitive Culture : Researches into the Develop- 
ment of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and 
Custom. 2 vols. Ldn. 1871. (2nd edit. 1873 ; 3rd edit. 
1891.) [II, 83, 96n x , 103 1 ; III, 30m 1 , 185m 1 ; IV, 64n x , 
145ft 1 ; V, 121W 1 , 179ft 1 ; IX, 154.] 

For full details of other editions, translations, etc., see Anthropological 
Essays Presented to E. B. Tylor, Oxford, 1907, p. 379- 

Tylor, E. B. "Eunuch." Ency. Brit. 11th edit. 1910-1911. 

Vol. ix. Pp. 890, 891. [Ill, 328.] 
Tylor, E. B. See also under Turner, G. 
Uhle, H. Programm des Gymnasiums zum heiligen Kreuz 

in Dresden. . . . Erste Abtheilung. Die funfzehnte Erzah- 

lung der Vetdlapantchavin^ati . . . mit Uebersetzung und 

Anmerkungen von . . . Dresden. 1877. [V, 267.] 
Uhle, H. Die Vetdlapancavingatikd in den Recensionen des 

Civaddsa und eines Ungenannten mit hritischen Commentar. 

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273n 5 .] 

This forms the first part of vol. viii of : 



320 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes heraus- 
gegeben von der Deutschen Morgenldndischen Gesellschqft 
unter der verantwortlichen Redaction des Prof. Dr E. 
Windisch. Leipzig. 1884. 
Uhle, H. Die Vetdlapancavims'atikd des Sivadasa nach einer 
Handschrift von 1487 (Samv. 1544). Text mit kritischen 
Apparat nebst einer Inhaltsangabe der Erzahlungen von . . . 
Leipzig. 1914. [V. 26&] 

This forms vol. lxvi, pp. 3-87, of: 

Berichte iiber die Verhandlungen der Kbniglich sdchsischen 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Phil.-IIist. 
Klasse. 
Ullah, 'Izzat. Gul-i Bakdwdli (Rose of Bakawali). [VI, 60 ; 
VII, 224, 224ft 1 .] 

The English translation is contained in W. A. Clouston's Eastern Romances 
(q.V.). 

Underdowne, Thomas. An ^Ethiopian History written in 
Greek by Heliodorus. Englished by . . . anno 1587. With an 
Introduction by Charles Whibley. Ldn. 1895. [VI, 51ft 1 .] 

Forming vol. v of the Tudor Translations. 

Unger, R. " Zur Sirenensage." Philologrs. Zeitschrift fur 

das klassische Alterthum. Vol. xlvi. Gottingen. 1888. 

Pp. 770-775. [VI, 282ft 6 .] 
Ungnad, A. See under Kohler, J. ; Peiser, F. E. ; and 

Ungnad, A. 
Upham, E. The Mahdvansi, Rdjd-Ratnacari, and Raja-vali, 

forming the Sacred and Historical Books of Ceylon ; also a 

Collection of Tracts on Buddhism. Translated from the 

Singhalese. 3 vols. Ldn. 1833. [V, 73ft 1 .] 
Upreti, G. D. Proverbs and Folklore of Kumaun and 

Garhwal. Lodiana. 1894. [V, 64, 65.] 

The collection consists of one hundred and twenty-five stories, chiefly 
fables. 

Uri, J. Epistolo3 Turcicce ac Narrationes Persica; editoe et 
Latine converses. Oxonii. 1771. [VI, 265, 265n 2 .] See 
further under Muhasstn ibn 'Ali at-Tanukhi. 

Utgikar, N. B. " The Story of the Dataratha Jataka and 
of the Ramayana." Journ. Roy. As. Soc. Centenary 
Supplement. Oct'. 1924. Pp. 203-211. [IX, 154.] 

Utgikar, N. B. See also under Winternitz, M., " Serpent 
Sacrifice ..." 

Uzanne, O. VOmbrelle. Le Gant Le Manchon. Paris. 
1883. [II, 272.] 



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Uzanne, O. The Sunshade : the Glove the Muff. Translated 

from the French. Ldn. 1883. [II, 272.] 
Uzanne, O. Petites Monographies cTArt. Les Ornaments de 

la Femme. Paris. 1892. [II, 272.] 
Valecka, E. Bdjky Bidpajovy. Praha (Prague). [1894.] 

[V, 237.] 

In view of Prof. Edgerton's remarks in vol. v, p. 237, 1 put Valecka as the 
author. He was, however, the publisher but in this case was apparently 
the author as well. The work was issued in nine sections and totals 354 pages. 
These are all the details I can discover. 

Valerius Flaccus. Argonautica. [I, 190.] 

Valle, Pietro della. Travels. [II, 162n ; III, 85n.] See 
further under Grey, Edward. 

Vallee Poussin. See under Poussin, L. de la Vallee. 

Valmiki. See under Carey, W. ; Dutt, Manmatha Nath ; 
and Griffith, R. T. II. 

Van Limburg-Brouwer, P. A. S. Akbar, an Eastern 
Romance. Translated from the Dutch by M. M. With 
Notes and an Introductory Life of the Emperor Akbar by 
C.R.Markkam. Ldn. 1879. [IV, 159n\] 

Varnhagen, F. A. de. Colloquios dos Simples e drogas e 
cousas medicinaes da India e assi de algumas fructas achadas 
nella (v arias cultivadas hoje no Brazil) compost os pelo 
Doutor Garcia de Orta. . . . Feita, proximamente pagina 
por pagina, pela primeira, impressa em Goa por Joito de 
Endem no anno de 1563. Lisbon. 1872. [VIII, 243, 243w 3 , 
245.] 

The editor's name appears at the end of the Preface. 

See also under Colin,A. ; L'E(s)cluse, Charles de ; Markham, Clements ; 
and Orta, Garcia da. 

Varnhagen, H. Ein indisches Marchen auf seiner Wanderung 

durch die asiatischen und europdischen Litteraturen. Berlin. 

1882. [I, 40w.] 
Varthema, Ludovico di. See under Badger, G. P. 
Vassal, G. M. On & Off Duty in Annam. With numerous 

Illustrations from Photographs taken by the Author. 

Ldn. 1910. [VIII, 287n 3 .] 
Vats yay ana. See under [Burton, R. F., and Arbuthnot, 

F. F.], Kama Sutra. 
Vattel, E. de. Le Droit des Gens, ou Principes de la hoi 

Naturelle appliques a la Conduite et aux Affaires des Nations 

et des Souverains. The Classics of International Law. 

Washington. 1916. [II, 278, 278W 1 , 279.] 

Vols, i and ii are photographic reproductions of the 1st edition of 1758 

and vol. iii is a translation of the same by C. G. Fenwick. 

VOL. IX. x 



322 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

Vaux, Carra de. See under Carra de Vaux, B on B. 
Veckenstedt, E. Wendische Sagen, Mdrchen und aber- 

gldubische Gebrduche. Graz. 1880. [I, 26, 51n x , 108n 3 , 129, 

141n 2 ; II, 4>2n\ 98n 4 , I07n\ 152n 4 , 155n\ 202n J , 223n* ; 

III, 131n 3 , 133ns 187n 3 , 191ns 225n 2 , 238, 253n x ; IV, 

245n x ; V, lOOn 1 ; VI, 28n 2 , 36n x , 280; IX, 45n\] 
Vedel, Valdemar. " Den Andersenske Eventyrdigtning. 

H. Brix : H. C. Andersen og hans Eventyr." Tilskueren. 

Copenhagen. June 1907. Pp. 494-502. [VI, 293.] 
Vedel, Valdemar. " H. C. Andersen's Eventyr i europaeisk 

Belysning." Tilskueren. Copenhagen. Jan. 1926. Pp. 

43-56. [VI, 293.] 
Velten, C. Mdrchen und Erzdhlungen der Suaheli. Stuttgart 

and Berlin. 1898. [Ill, 280.] 
Verard,Antoine. LeCuerdePhilosophie. Circal507. [11,293.] 
Vernaleken, T. Osterreichische Kinder- und Hausmdrchen. 

Treu nach mundlicher Uberlieferung. Vienna. 1864. 

[Ill, 272ns] 
Vernieux, C. The Hermit of Motee Jhurna, or Pearl Spring ; 

also Indian Tales and Anecdotes, Moral and Instructive. 

2nd edit, recast and enlarged. Calcutta. 1873. [II, 114n.] 
Vidyasagara, I. C. See under Tawney, C. H., Uttara Rama 

Charita. 
Vidyasagara, Jibananda. Kathasaritsagara, or Ocean of 

the Streams of Story rendered into Sanskrit Prose from the 

Poem of SomadevaBhattaby . . . Calcutta. 1883. [V, 236.] 
Vignau, M. Du. Le Secretaire Turc, Contenant VArt 

aVexprimer ses pensees sans se voir, sans se parler & sans 

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324 THE OCEAN OF STORY 

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332 



THE OCEAN OF STORY 



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Wright, Thomas. Gualteri Mapes De Nugis Curialium 
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Wright, Thomas. Gesta Romanorum or, Entertaining Stories 
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The translation is the work of Rev. Charles Swan (see Preface, p. xxii). 



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The original article appears in Esercito e Marina, 4th March 1924. 



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