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Full text of "Ocean to ocean on horseback : being the story of a tour in the saddle from the Atlantic to the Pacific ..."

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OCEAN TO OCEAN 



ON 



HORSEBACK; 

The Story of a Tour in the Saddle From the Atlantic to 
THE Pacific; with Especial Reference to the Early 
History and Development of Cities and Towns 
ALONG the Route; and Regions Traversed be- 
yond THE Mississippi; together with In- 
cidents, Anecdotes and Adventures of 
the Journey. 

by 
CAPTAIN WILLARD GLAZIER. 

Aathor of "Captnre, Prison-Pen and Escape," "Thre« Years {■ tike Fedeml C«T»lry,* 

" Bftttlet for the Union," " Heroes of Three Wars » " Peculiarities o ln>0ricHi 

Cities," " Down the Great Ri?er," " Headwaters of the Mississippi,*' Etc 



1[Uu0trate^♦ 



PHILADELPHIA : 

P. W. ZIEGLER COMPANY. 



C\. 



1 \ W\ 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in tLe year 1895, by 

WILLARD GLAZIER, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 

!S fi 



TO 

THE MEMOEY 
OP 

flDl2 Beloveb fIDotber, 

TO WHOSE 

^P receipts antr (&xmnp\t 

? AH INDEBTED FOR WHATEVER I HAVE BEE» 
ABLE TO ACCOMPLISH 

IN 

^be 3ournci2 of Xife, 

THIS VOLUME 
THE RECORD OF MY LONGEST AMERICAN JOURNEY 

IS AFFECTIONATELY 
DEDICATED. 




PREFACE. 



T was the intention of the vvriter to pub- 
lish a narrative descriptive of his over- 
land tour from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
soon after returning from California in 
1876, and his excuse for the delay in 
publication is that a variety of circum- 
stances compelled him to postpone for a 
time the duty of arranging the contents of his journal 
until other pressing matters had been satisfactorily 
attended to. Again, considerable unfinished literary 
work, set aside when he began preparation for crossing 
the Continent, had to be resumed, and for these 



reasons the story of his journey from ^' Ocean 

TO Ocean on Horseback" is only now ready for 

the printer. In view of this delay in going to press, 

the author will endeavor to show a due regard for the 

changes time has wrought along his line of march, and 

(Tii) 



viii PREFACE. 

while nocing the incidents of his long ride from day to 
day, it has been his aim so far as possible to discuss the 
regions traversed, the growth of cities and the develop- 
ment of their industries from the standpoint of the 
present. 




Albany, New Yobk, 
jLugwii 22, 18M. 



L^ONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Boyhood Longings— Confronted by Obstacles — Trapping Along the 
Oswegatchie — Enter Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary — Appointed 
to State Normal College — Straitened Circumstances — Teach SchooJ 
in Rensselaer County — War of the Rebellion — Enlist in a Cavalry 
Regiment— Taken Prisoner — Fourteen Months in Southern 
Prisons — Escape from Columbia — Recaptured — Escape from Syl- 
vania, Georgia— Re-enter the Array— Close of the War — Publish 
" Capture, Prison-Pen and Escape " -and Other Books— Decide to 
Cross the Continent- Preparation for Journey — Ocean to Ocean on 
Horseback - , ^1 

CHAPTER 11. 

BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 

Early History and Development — Situation of the Metropolis 
of New England — Boston Harbor — The Cradle of Liberty- 
Old South Church — Migrations of the Post OflSce — Patriots of 
the Revolution — The Boston Tea Party — Bunker Hill Monument — 
Visit of Lafayette — The Public Library — House where Frankliu 
was Born — The Back Bay — Public Gardens — Streets of Boston- 
Soldiers* Monument — The Okl Elm — Commonwealth Avenue^ 
State Capitol — Tremont Tera})le — Edward Everett — Wendell 
Phillips — William Loyd Garrison — Phillips Brooks — Harvard 
University — Wellesley College — Holmes, Parkmau — Prescott, 
Lowell, Longfellow — Boston's Claims to Greatness . • ,28 

CHAPTER HI. 

LECTURE AT TREMONT TEMPLE. 
Sabject of Lecture — Objects Contemplated — Grand' Army ol ih« 



X CONTENT^, 

Republic — Introduction by Captain Theodore L. Kelly— Refer* 
ence to Army and Prison Experiences — Newspaper Comment^ 
Proceeds of Lecture Given to Posts 7 and 15 — Letter to Adjutant- 
General of Department ,66 

CHAPTER IV. 

BOSTON TO ALBANY. 

First Day of Journey — Start from the Revere House — Escorted to 
Brighton by G. A. R. Comrades — Dinner at Cattle Fair Hotel — 
South Framingham — Second Day — Boston and Albany Turnpike 
— Riding in a Rainstorm — Arrival at Worcester — Lecture in Opera 
House — Pioneer History — Rapid Growth of Worcester — Lincoln 
Park — The Old Common — Third and Fourth Days — The Ride to 
Springfield — Met by Wife and Daughter — Lecture at Haynes 
Opera House — Fifth Day — Ride to Russell — The Berkshire Hills 
— Sixth Day — Journey to Becket — Rainbow Reflections — Seventh 
Day — Over the Hoosac Mountains — Eighth Day — Arrival at 
Pittsfield — Among the Lebanon Shakers — Ninth Day — Reach 
Nassau, New York 75 

CHAPTER V. 

FOUR DAYS AT ALBANY. 

Kassau to Albany — Among Old Friends in Rensselaer County — 
Thoughts of Rip Van Winkle — Crossing the Hudson — Albany as 
Seen from the River — Schoolday Associations — Early History — 
Settled by the Dutch— Henry Hudson — Killian Van Rensselaer— 
Fort Orange — Peter Schuyler and Robert Livingstone — Lecture at 
Tweddle Hall— Call at the Capitol— Meet Army Comrades . 120 

CHAPTER VI. 

ALBANY TO SYRACUSE. 

Fourteenth Day— On the Schenectady Turnpike— Riding between 
Showers— Talk with Peter Lansing— Reach Schenectady— Lecture 
at Union Hall under G. A. R. Ausp\c*is— Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Days— Go over to Troy— Lecture at Harmony Hall— Visit Old 
Friends— Seve7iteenth Day^Ueturn to Schenectady— Eighteenth 
Day— In the Mohawk Valley— Halt at Amsterdam— Reach Fonda 
— Nineteenth Day — Saint Johnsville — Twentieth Day— Little 
Falls — Twenty-first Day — Vtica,—Twe7ity-second Day— Rome— 
Twenty-third Day — Chittenango 132 

CHAPTER VII. 

TWO DAYS AT SYRACUSE. 
Walks and Talks with the People— Early History— Lake Onondaga— 



CONTENTS, XI 

Father Le Moyne — Discovery of Salt Springs — Major Danforth— 
Joshua Forman — James Geddes — The Erie Canal — Visit of La 
Fayette — Syracuse University— Lecture at Shakespeare Hall . 148 

CHAPTER VIII. 

SYRACUSE TO ROCHESTER. 

Twmity-sixth Day — Grand Army Friends — General Sniper — Captain 
Auer — Stopped by a Thunder-shower — An Unpleasant Predica- 
ment — Twenty-Seventh Day — Jordan, New York — Lake Skaneat- 
eles — Twenty-eighth Day — Photographed — Entertained at Port 
Byron — Montezuma Swamp — Tiventy-ninth Day — Newark, New 
York — Journey Continued Along the New York Central Rail- 
way — Another Adventure with Paul — Thirtieth Day — Fairport — 
Riding in the Cool of the Day 155 

CHAPTER IX. 

FOUR DAYS AT ROCHESTER. 

Rainstorm Anticipated — Friends of the Horse — Seven-Sealed Wonder 
— Newspaper Controversy — Lecture at Corinthian Hall — Colonel 
J. A. Reynolds — Pioneer History — Colonel Nathaniel Rochester — 
William Fitzhugh — Charles Carroll— Rapid Growth of City — Sam 
Patch — Genesee Falls — The Erie Canal — Mount Hope — Lake 
Ontario — Fruit Nurseries . 165 

CHAPTER X. 

ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO. 

Thirty-fifth Day — Churchville — Cordiality of the People — Dinner 
at Chili — Thirty-sixth Day — Bergen Corners — Byron Centre — Rev. 
Edwin Allen — Thirty-seventh Day — Batavia — Meet a Comrade of 
the Harris Light Cavalry — Thirty-eighth Day — "Croft's" — More 
Trouble with Mosquitoes — Amusing Episode — Thirty-ninth Day 
— Crittenden — Rural Reminiscences — Fortieth Day — Lancaster — ' 
Lectured in Methodist Church — Captain Remington . . 176 

CHAPTER XL - 

THREE DAYS AT BUFFALO. 

"Queen City" of the Lakes — Arrival at the Tift House — Lecture 
at St. James Hall — Major Farquhar — Aboriginal History — The 
Fries — Iroquois — " Cats" — La Hontan— Lake Erie — Black Rock^ 
War of 1812 — The Erie Canal — Buffalo River — Grosvenor Library 
— Historical Society — Red Jacket — Forest Lawn — Predictions 
for the Future • • • • 191 



Xii CONTENTS, 

CHAPTER XII. 

BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 

Forty-fourth Day— On the Shore of Lake Erie — Forty-fifth Day— 
Again on the Shore of Erie — Bracing Air — Enchanting Scenery- 
Angola — Big Sister Creek — Forty-sixth Day — Angola to Dunkirk 
— Forty-eighth Day — Dunkirk to Westfield — Fruit and Vegetable 
Farms — Fredonia — Forty-ninth Z^a?/— Westfield to North East — 
Cordial Reception — Fiftieth Day — North East to Erie — Oliver 
Hazzard Perry — Fifty-first Day — Erie to Swanville — Fifty-second 
Day — Talk with Early Settlers — John Joseph Swan — Fifty-third 
Day — Swanville to Girard — Greeted by Girard Band — Lecture at 
Town Hall — Fifty-fourth Day — Girard to Ashtabula — Lecture 
'Postponed— Fifty fifth Day — Ashtabula to Painesville— The Cen- 
tennial Fourth— Halt at Farm House — Fifty-sixth Z>ay— Eeach 
Willoughby — Guest of the Lloyds 201 

CHAPTER XIII. 

FIVE DAYS AT CLEVELAND. 

An Early Start— School Girls— "Do you Like Apples, Mister?"— 
Mentor — Home of Garfield — Dismount at EucMd — Eumors of the 
Custer Massacre — Reach the " Forest City " — Met by Comrades of 
the G. A. R. — Lecture at Garrett Hall — Lake Erie — Cuyahoga 
River — Earlj; History — Moses Cleveland — Connecticut Land Com- 
pany — Job Stiles — The Ohio Canal — God of Lake Erie — " Ohio 
City"— West Side Boat Building— "The Pilot"— Levi Johnson- 
Visit of Lorenzo Dow — Monument Square — Commodore Perry — 
Public Buildings— Euclid Avenue—" The Flats "—Standard Oil 
Company 228 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO. 

Sixty-first Day — Again in the Saddle — Call on Major Hessler — Do- 
nate Proceeds of Lecture to Soldiers' Monument Fund — Letters 
from General James Barnett and Rev. William Earnshaw — Stop 
for Night at Black River — Sixty-second Day — Mounted at Nine 
A.M. — Halted at Vermillion for Dinner — Lake Shore Road — More 
Mosquitoes — Reach Huron Late at Night — Sixty-third Day-^ 
Huron to Sandusky — Traces of the Red Man — Ottawas and 
Wyandots — Johnson's Island — Lecture in Union Hall — Captain 
Culver — Sixty-fourth Day — Ride to Castalia — A Remarkable Spring 
— Sixty-fifth Z>ay— Reach Fremont — Home of President Hayes-^ 
Sixty-sixth i>a^— Beach Elmore, Ohio— Comparison of Hotels. 243 



CONTENTS. xiii 

CHAPTER XV. 

FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. 

'tilde from Elmore— Lecture at Lyceum Hall— Forsyth Post, G. A. 
R.— Doctor J. T. Woods— Concerning General Custer— Pioneer 
History— Battle of Fallen Timbers— Mad Anthony Wayne- 
Miami and Wabash Indians— The Toledo War— Unpleasant Com- 
plications—Governor Lucas — Strategy of General Vanfleet — Mil- 
bourn Wagon Works — Visited by a Detroit Friend . , . 257 

CHAPTER XVI. 

TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 

Seventy-second Day— Leave Toledo — Change of Route— Ride to Erie, 
Michigan — Paul Shows His Mettle — Seventy-third Day — Sunday 
— Go to Church — Rev. E. P. Willard — Solicitude of Friends^ 
Seventy-fourth Day — Ride to Monroe — Greeted with Music — Hail 
Columbia — Scar-Spangled Banner — Home of Custer — Meet Custer 
Family — Custer Monument Association — Received at City Hall^ 

» Great Enthusiasm — River Rasin — Indian Massacre — General Win- 
chester — Battle of the Thames — Death of Tecuraseh — Monroe 
Monitor — Seventy -seventh Day — Lecture at City Hall — Personal 
Recollections of Custer — Incidents of His School Life — Seventy- 
eighth Day — Leave Monroe — Huron River — Traces of the Mound 
Builders — Rockwood — Seventy-ninth Day — Along the Detroit 
River — Wyandotte — Ecorse — Eightieth Day — Letter from Judge 
Wing — Indorsement of Custer Monument Association . , 269 

CHAPTER XVII. 

FOUR DAYS AT DETROIT. 

Leave Ecorse— Met at Fort Wayne — Sad News — Reach Detroit- 
Met by General Throop and Others — at Russell House — Lecture at 
St. Andrew's Hall — General Trowbridge — Meet Captain Hampton 
— Armv and Prison Reminiscences — Pioneer Historv of Detroit — • 
La Motte Cadillac — Miamies and Pottawattomies — Fort Ponchar- 
train — Plot of Pontiac — Major Gladwyn — Fort Shelby — War of 
1812 — General Brock and Tecumseh Advance on Detroit — Sur- 
render of General Hull — British Compelled to Evacuate . 287 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 

Eighty-fifth Day — Leave Detroit Reluctantly — Paul in Good Spirits 
— Reach Inkster — Eighty-sixth Day — Lowering Clouds — Take 
Shelter under Trees and in a Woodshed — Meet War Veterans— 



5tiv CONTENTS. 

Ypsilanti — Eighty-seventh Day— Lecture at Union Hall— Incidents 
of the Late War — Eighty-eighth Day — An Early Start — Ann Arbor 
— Michigan University — Dinner at Dexter — Eighty-ninth Day — 
Dinner at Grass Lake — Reach Jackson — Ninetieth Day — Comment 
of Jackson Citizen— QooX Fields — Grand River — Ninety-first Day 
— A Circus in Town — Parma — Ninety-secoyid Day — *' Wolverines • 
— Ninety-third Day — Ride to Battle Creek — Lecture at Stuart's 
Hall — Ninety-fourth Day — Go to Church — Goguac Lake — Ninety- 
fifth Day — Arrive at Kalamazoo — Sketch of the "Big Village"— 
Ninty-sixth Day — Return to Albion and Lecture in Opera House— 
Ninety-seventh Day — Lecture at Wayne Hall, Marshall — Ninety- 
eighth Day — Calhoun County — Ninety-ninth Day — Letter to Custer 
Monument Association — One Hundreth Day — Colonel Curtenius — 
One Hundred and Eirst Day — Paw Paw — One Hundred and 
Second Day — South Bend, Indiana — Hon. Schuyler Colfax — Oyie 
Hundred and Third Day — Grand Rapids — Speak in Luce's Hall 
— One Hundred and Fourth Day — Return to Decatur — One Hun- 
dred and Fifth Day — Again in Paw Paw — One Hundred and 
Sixth Day — Lecture at Niles — One Hundred and Seventh Day — 
Go to La Porte by Rail — Oyie Hundred and Eighth Day — Return 
to Michigan City — One Hundred and Ninth Day — Go Back to 
Decatur, Michigan — One Hundred and Tenth to Oyie Hundred 
and Twenty-second Day — Dowagiac — Buchanan — Rolling 
Prairie 301 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 

Eegister at the Grand Pacific Hotel — Lecture at Farwell Hall- 
Visit McVicker's Theatre — See John T. Raymond in ** Mulberry 
Sellers" — The Chicago Exposition — Site of City — Origin of Name 
— Father Marquette — First Dwelling — Death of Marquette — Lake 
Michigan — Fort Dearborn — First Settlement Destroyed by Indians 
— Chicago as a Commercial City — The Great Fire — An Uujiaral- 
leled Conflagration — Rises from her Ashes — Financial Reorgani- 
zation^ — Greater than Before — Schools and Colleges — Historical 

Society — The Palmer House — Spirit of the People — One Hundred 
and Twenty-sixth Day — Again at Michigan City — Attend a 
Political Meeting — Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees — "Blue Jeans" 
Williams — Oyie Hundred ayid Tweyity-eighth Day — Leave Michi* 
gan City — Hobart — " Hoosierdum " — One Hundred and Twenty' 
nijUh Day — Weather Much Cooler , . • • • .361 



CONTENTS, XV 

CHAPTER XX. 

CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth i^ay— Followed by Prairie Wolves- 
Reach Joliet, Illinois— Lecture at Werner Hall— On« Hundred 
and Thirty-first Day—K\diQ on Tow Path of Michigan Canal— 
Morris— 0?ie Hundred and Thirty-second Day— Corn and Hogs 
—Arrive at Ottawa — One Hundred and Thirty-third Day — Reach 
La Salle— One Hundred and Thirty-fourth Day— Colonel Stephens 
^One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Day— Yisit Peru— One Hundred 
and Thirty-sixth Da?/— Mistaken for a Highwayman- One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-seventh Day—Yxne Stock Farms— Wyanet— One 
Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pa?/ — Annawau — Commendatory 
Letter— One Hundred and Thirty -ninth Day— A Woman Farmer- 
One Hundred and Fortieth Day—B,esich Milan, Illinois , • 376 

CHAPTER XXI. 

FOUR DAYS AT DAVENPORT. 

Cross the Mississippi — Lecture at Moore's Hall — Colonel Russell- 
General Sanders — Early History of the City — Colonel George 
Davenport — Antoine Le Claire — Griswold College — Rock Island 
— Fort Armstrong — Rock Island Arsenal — General Rodman — Col- 
onel Flagler — Rock Island City— Sac and Fox Indians — Black 
Hawk War— JeflFerson Davis — Abraham Lincoln— Defeat of Black 
Hawk — Rock River — Indian Legends . . , • • 402 

CHAPTER XXII. 

DAVENPORT TO DES MOINES. 

One Hundred and Forty-fifth Day—Le&ve Davenport— Stop over 
Night at Farm House— One Hundred and Forty-sixth Da?/— Reach 
Moscow, Iowa— Rolling Prairies — One Hundred and Forty-seventh 
Day— Weather Cold and Stormy— Iowa City— One Hundred and- 
Forty-eighth Da?/— Description of City— One Hundred and Forty 
ninth Da?/— Lectured at Ham's Hall— Hon. G. B. Edmunds— On<? 
Hundred and Fiftieth Day— Reach Tiffin— <}uests of the Tiffin 
House— One Hundred and Fifty -first Day— Marengo — One Hun* 
dred and Fifty-second Day— Halt for the Night at Brooklyn— On* 
Hwndred and Fifty third Day— Ride to Kellogg— Stop at a School 
House — Talk with Boys — One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Day^ 
Reach Colfax — One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Day — Arrive at Des 
Moines — Capital of Iowa — Description of City — Professor Bowen 
—Meet an Army Comrade .»••-••• 414 



xvi CONTENTS, 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

DES MOINES TO OMAHA. 

One Hundred and Fifty-seventh Day — Leave Des Moines with Pleas* 
ant Reflections — Reach Adel — Dallas County — Raccoon River — 
One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Day — Ride through Rediield — 
Reach Dale City — Talk Politics with Farmers — One Hundred and 
Fifty-7iinth Day — A Night with Coyotes — Re-enforced by a Friend- 
ly Dog — 0)16 Hundred and Sixtieth Day — Cold Winds from the 
Northwest — All Day on the Prairies — One Hundred and Sixty- 
first Day — Halt at Avoca — One Hundred and Sixty-second Day — 
Riding in the Rain — Reach Neola — One Hundred and Sixty-third 
Day— Roa.ds in Bad Condition— Ride through Council Bluffs — Ar- 
rive at Omaha • •.. 429 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

A HALT AT OMAHA. 

The Metropolis of Nebraska— First Impressions— Peculiarity of the 
Streets — Hanscom Park — Poor House Farm— Prospect Cemetery 
— Douglas County Fair Grounds — Omaha Driving Park — Fort 
Omaha — Creighton College — Father Marquette — The Mormons — 
•'Winter Quarters" — Lone Tree Ferry — Nebraska Ferry Com- 
pany — Old Stiite House — First Territorial Legislature — Governor 
Cummings — Omaha in the Civil War — Rapid Development of the 
"Gate City" 443 

CHAPTER XXV. 

OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 

Leave Paul m *^malia — Purchase a Mustang — Use Mexican Saddle 
— Over the'^reat Plains — Surface of Nebraska — Extensive Beds of 
Peat— SaU \5rtsins— The Platte River— High Winds— Dry Climate- 
Fertile S^.il — Lincoln — Nebraska City — Fremont — Grand Island- 
Plum rVeek — McPherson — Sheep Raising — Elk Horn River— In 
Wyon^'^ng Territory — Reach Cheyenne — Description of Wyoming 
— " Magic City "—Vigilance Committee— Rocky Mountains— 
Laramie Plains — Union Pacific Railroad . • • • • 456 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

CAPTURED BY INDIANS. 

Leave Cheyenne — Arrange to Journey with Herders — Additional 
Notes on Territory — Yellowstone National Park — Sherman — 
Skull Rocks — Laramie Plains — Encounter Indians — Friendly 
Signals — Surrounded by Arrapahoes — One Indian Killed — Taken 
Prisoners— Carried toward Deadwo^'^ — Indians Propose to KiU 



CONTENTS. xvii 

their Captives— Herder Tortured at the Stake— Move toward 
Black Hills— Escape from Guards — Pursued by the Arrapahoes — 
Take Refuge in a Gulch— Reach a Cattle Ranch— Secure a 
Mustang and Continue Journey 475 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

AMONG THE MORMONS. 
Ride Across Utah — Chief Occupation of the People— Description of 
Territory — Great Salt Lake — Mormon Settlements — Brigham 
Young — Peculiar Views of the Latter Day Saints — " Celestial 
Marriages " — Joseph Smith, the Founder of Mormonism — The Book 
of Mormon — City of Ogden — Pioneer History — Peter Skeen Ogden 
— Weber and Ogden Rivers — Heber C. Kimball — Echo Canyon- 
Enterprise of the Mormons — Rapid Development of the Terri- 
tory ... 491 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

OVER THE SIERRAS. 
The Word Sierra — At Kelton, Utah — Ride to Terrace — Wells, 
Nevada — The Sierra Nevada — Lake Tahoe — Silver Mines— Thb 
Comstock Lode — Stock Raising — Camp Halleck — Humboldt River 
— Mineral Springs — Reach Palisade — Reese River Mountain — 
Golconda — Winnemucca — Lovelocks — Wadsworth — Cross Truckee 
River — In California 507 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

ALONG THE SACRAMENTO. 
Colfax — Auburn — Summit — Reach Sacramento — California Boun- 
daries — Pacific Ocean — Coast Range Mountains — The Sacramento 
Valley — Inhabitants of California — John A. Sutter — Sutter's Fort 
— A Saw-mill — James Wilson Marshall — Discovery of Gold — 
" Boys, I believe I have found a Gold Mine " — The Secret Out — First 
Days of Sacramento — A "City of Tents " — Capital of California 514 

CHAPTER XXX. 

SAN FRANCISCO AND END OF JOURNEY. 
Metropolis of the Pacific Coast— Largest Gold Fields in the World— 
The Jesuits— Captain Sutter— Argonauts of " 49 "—Great Excite- 
ment — Discovery of Upper California — Sir Francis Drake — John 
P. Lease— The Founding of San Francisco— The "Golden Age" 
—Story of Kit Carson— The Golden Gate — San Francisco Deserted 
— The Cholera Plague— California Admitted to the Union— Cran- 
dall's Stage — Wonderful Development of San Francisco— United 
States Mint — Handsome Buildings — Trade with China, Japan, 
India and Australia— Go Out to the Cliff House— Ride into the 
Pacific— End of Journey • f^ *-.»,, 529 
2 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Wayside Notes, Frontispiece. 

Views in Boston, 33 

Scenes in Boston, ^ . 39 

Boston and Environs, 49 

Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, 57 

Leaving the Revere House, Boston, 71 

Riding Through Cambridge, 77 

View in Worcester, Mass., 81 

A New England Paper Mill, 85 

Old Toll-Bridge at Springfield 91 

A Massachusetts Mill Stream, 95 

The Springfield Armory, 99 

A Mill in the Berkshire Hills, 103 

A Hamlet in Berkshire Hills, 107 

Suburb of Pittsfield, Ill 

A Scene in the Berkshire Hills, 115 

State Street and Capitol, Albany, N. Y., 125 

RiverStreet, Troy, N. Y., .' 129 

View in Schenectady, N. Y., 133 

A Mill Stream in Mohawk Valley, 139 

A Flourishing Farm, 157 

An Old Landmark, 161 

The Road to Albany, 121 

View of Rochester, 171 

The District School-House, 177 

Rural Scene in Central New York, 183 

The Road to Buffalo, 189 

Juvenile Picnic, 205 

A Cottage on the Hillside, 211 

Haying in Northern Ohio, 221 

Just Out of Cleveland, 225 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 

PAGE 

On the Shore of Lake Erie, 235 

Sunday at the Farm, 241 

A Home in the Woods, , •.«•. 245 

CJountry Store and Post Office, » , . . 255 

An Ohio Farm, , , 265 

Outskirts of a Citj, 279 

A Summer Afternoon, 303 

The Country Peddler, 313 

A Mill in the Forest, 321 

No Kooms To Let, ^ , ... 335 

Kural Scene in Michigan, ., 341 

Spinning Yarns by a Tavern Fire, . . . 345 

A Hoosier Cabin, 355 

A Circus in Town, 359 

A Country Koad in Illinois, 381 

An Illinois Home, 385 

A Happy Family, 395 

An Illinois Village, 399 

The Road to the Church, • . . 404 

An Iowa Village, 419 

On the Way to Mill, 427 

A Night Among the Coyotes, 431 

High School, Omaha, Neb., 441 

Omaha, Neb., in 1876, 437 

Sport on the Plains, 449 

Pawnee Indians, Neb., 453 

North Platte, Neb., 457 

Plum Creek, Neb., 463 

Cattle Ranch in Nebraska, 467 

A Mountain Village, 471 

Captured by the Indians, 477 

Deciding the Fate of the Captives, 481 

Escape from the Arrapahoes, . 487 

An Indian Encampment, Wyoming, , . .' 495 

Sheep Ranch in Wyoming, 503 

Mining Camp in Nevada, 507 

A Rocky Mountain River, 513 

A Lake in the Sierra Nevadas, o 517 

A Cascade by the Roadside, 525 

View in Woodward's Garden, San Francisco, . . . • . 533 

The Pacific Ocean, End of Journey, 541 



OCEAN TO OCEAN 

ON 

HORSEBACK- 




CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTORy. 



ROM earliest boyhood it had been my 
earnest desire to see and learn from per- 
sonal observation all that was possible 
of the wonderful land of my birth. 
Passing from the schoolroom to the 
War of the Rebellion and thence back 
to the employments of peace, the old 
longing to make a series of journeys 
over the American Continent again 
took possession of me and was the controlling in- 
centive of all my ambitions and struggles for many 
years. 

To see New England — the home of my ancestors ; 
to visit the Middle and Western States ; to look upon 
the majestic ^Mississippi ; to cross the Great Plains ; to 
scale the mountains and to look through the Golden 
Gate upon the far-off Pacific were among the cherished 
desires through which my fancy wandered before leav- 
ing the Old Home and village school in Northern New 
York. 

(SI) 



22 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

The want of an education and the want of money 
were two serious obstacles which confronted me for a 
time. Without the former I could not prosecute my 
journeys intelligently and for want of the latter I 
could not even attempt them. 

Aspiring to an academic and collegiate course of 
study, but being at that period entirely without means 
for the accomplishment of my purpose, I left the dis- 
trict school of my native town and sought to raise the 
necessary funds by trapping for mink and other fur- 
bearing animals along the Oswegatchie and its tribu- 
tary streams. This venture proving successful I en- 
tered the academy at Gouverneur in August, 1857, 
from which institution I was appointed to the State 
Normal College at Albany in the fall of 1859. 

I had been in Albany but six weeks when it became 
apparent that if I continued at the Normal I would 
soon be compelled to part with my last dollar for 
board and clothing. 

The years 1859-60 were spent alternately at Albany 
as student and in the village schools of Rensselaer 
County as teacher — the latter course being resorted to 
whenev^er money was needed with which to meet cur- 
rent expenses at the Normal School. 

Then came our great Civil Conflict overriding every 
otlier consideration. Books were thrown aside and the 
pursuits of the student and teacher supplanted by the 
sterner and more arduous duties of the soldier. 

During my three years of camping and campaigning 
with the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac I was 
enabled to gratify to some extent my desire for travel 
and to see much of interest as the shifting scenes of 
war led Bayard, Stoneman, Pleasonton, Gregg, Custer, 



mTRODUCTORY. 23 

Davies and Kilpatrlck and their followers over the 
hills and through the valleys of Virginia, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania. 

Being captured in a cavalry battle between Kilpat- 
rick and Stuart in October, 1863, I was imprisoned 
successively at Richmond, Danville, Macon, Savannah, 
Charleston and Columbia, from which last prison I 
escaped in November, 1864; was recaptured and es- 
caped a second and third time, traversing the States of 
South Carolina and Georgia in my long tramp from 
Columbia to Savannah. 

The marches, raids, battles, captures and escapes of 
those days seem to have increased rather than dimin- 
ished my ardor for travel and adventure and hence it 
is possibly not strange that on leaving the army I still 
looked forward to more extended journeys in the East 
and exploratory tours beyond the Mississippi. 

With the close of the war and mustering out of ser- 
vice came new duties and responsibilities which I had 
hardly contemplated during my school days. The 
question of ways and means again confronted me. I 
desired first to continue the course of study which had 
been interrupted by ray enlistment, and secondly to 
carry out my cherished plans for exploration. Hav- 
ing a journal kept during my incarceration in and 
escapes from Southern prisons, I was advised and de- 
cided to amplify and publish it if possible with a view 
to promoting these projects. 

Going to New York, I at once sought the leading 
publishers. INIy manuscript was submitted to the 
Harpers, Appletons, Scribners, and some others^ 
but as I was entirely unknown, few cared to under- 
take the publication and none seemed disposed to allow 



24 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

A royalty which to me at least seemed consistent 
with the time and labor expended in preparation. I 
had now spent my last dollar in the Metropolis in 
pursuit of a publisher, and in this dilemma it was 
thought best to return to Albany, where I had friends 
and perhaps some credit, and endeavor to bring out the 
book by subscription. This course would compel me 
to assume the cost of production, but if successful 
w^ould prove much more lucrative than if issued in the 
usual way through the trade. 

Fully resolved upon retracing my steps to Albany, 
I was most fortunate in meeting an old comrade and 
friend to whom I frankly stated my plans and circum- 
stances. He immediately loaned me twenty dollars 
with which to continue my search for a publisher and 
to meet in the meantime necessary current expenses. 

On reaching Albany an attic room and meals were 
secured for a trifling sum, arrangements made with a 
publisher, and the work of getting out the book begun. 
While the printer was engaged in composing, stereo- 
typing, printing and binding the work, I employed 
my spare time in a door-to-door canvass of the city for 
subscriptions, promising to deliver on the orders as 
soon as the books came from the press. In this way 
the start w'as made and before the close of the year 
hundreds of agencies w^ere established throughout the 
country. 

The venture proved successful beyond my most san- 
guine expectations, and where I had expected to dis- 
pose of two or three editions and to realize a few hun- 
dred dollars from the sale of " Capture, Prison-Pen 
and Escape," the book had a sale of over 400,000 
copies and netted me $75,000. This remarkable suc' 



INTRODUCTORY, 25 

cess, rivalling in its financial results even " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin/' which had just had a run of 300,000 copies, 
was most gratifying and led to the publication, at in- 
tervals, of " Three Years in the Federal Cavalry ; " 
^* Battles for tlie Union/' and " Heroes of Three 
Wars." 

The temptation to make the most of ray literary 
ventures lured me on from year to year until 1875, 
when I laid down the pen and began preparation for 
my long contemplated and oft deferred journey across 
the Continent. Being now possessed of ample means, 
I proposed to ride at leisure on a tour of observation 

from OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

My preference for an equestrian journey was in a 
great measure due to early associations with the horse, 
in jaunts along country highways and over the hills 
after the cows, as well as numerous boyhood adventures 
in which this noblest of animals frequently played a 
conspicuous part. Then, too, my experience in the 
cavalry largely influenced me to adopt the saddle as 
the best suited to my purpose. 

Reflecting further upon the various modes of travel, 
I was led to conclude as the result of much experijence 
that he who looks at the country from the windows of 
a railway car, can at best have only an imperfect idea 
of the many objects of interest which are constantly 
brought to his notice. Again, a journey in the saddle, 
wherein the rider mounts and dismounts at will as he 
jogs along over the highway, chatting with an occa- 
sional farmer, talking with the people in town and 
gazing upon rural scenes at his pleasure, i)resents many 
attractive features to the student and tourist who 
wishes to view the laudscape, to commune with nature^ 



26 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

to see men and note the products of their toil and 
to learn something of their manners and customs. 

Having therefore decided to make my journey in the 
saddle, I at once set about to secure such a horse as 
was likely to meet the requirements of my undertak- 
ing. As soon as my purpose was known, horses of 
every grade, weight and shade were thrust upon my 
attention and after some three weeks spent in advertis- 
ing, talks with horse fanciers and in the livery and sale 
stables of Boston, my choice fell upon a Kentucky 
Black Hawk, one of the finest animals I had ever seen 
and, as was subsequently established, just the horse I 
wanted for my long ride from sea to sea. 

His color w^as coal black, w'ith a white star in the 
forehead and four white feet ; long mane and tail : 
height fifteen hands ; weight between ten and eleven 
hundred pounds, with an easy and graceful movement 
under the saddle ; his make-up was all that could be de- 
sired for the objects I had in view. The price asked 
for this beautiful animal was promptly' paid, and it was 
generally conceded that I had shown excellent judg- 
ment in the selection of my equin© companion. 

A few days after my purchase I learned that my 
four-legged friend had been but a short time before the 
property of an ex-governor of Massachusetts and that 
the reason he had but recently found his way into a livery 
stable on Portland street, was that he had acquired 
the very bad habit of running away whenever he saw 
a railway train or anything else, in short, that tended 
to disturb his naturallv excitable nature. This infor- 
mation led to no regrets, however, nor did it even 
lessen my regard for the noble animal which was des- 



INTRODUCTORY, 27 

tined soon to be my sole companion in many a lonely 
ride and adventure. 

The unsavory reputation he had made, and possibly 
of which he was very proud, of running away upon 
the slightest provocation, smashing up vehicles and 
scattering their occupants to the four winds, was consid- 
ered by his new master a virtue rather than a fault, so 
long as he ran in the direction of San Francisco, and 
did not precipitate him from his position in the saddle. 

As soon as I was in possession of my horse the 
question of a suitable name arose and it was agreed 
after some discussion among friends that he should be 
christened Paul Revere^ after that stirring patriot of 
the Revolution who won undying fame by his ride 
from Boston and appeals to the yeomanry the night 
before the Battle of Lexington. 




CHAPTER II. 

BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 



I 





HE month of April, 1876, found my- 
self and horse fully equipped and ready 
to leave Boston, but I will not ride 
away from the metropolis of New 
Eno;land without some reference to its 
early history and remarkable develop- 
ment, nor without telling the reader of 
my lecture at Tremont Temple and 
other contemplated lectures in the lead- 
ing cities and towns along my route. 

Boston, standing on her three hills with the torch 
of learnino; in her hand for the illumination of 
North, South, East and West, is not one of your 
ordinary every-day cities, to be approached without 
due introduction. Like some ancient dame of historic 
lineage, her truest hospitality and friendliest face are 
for those who know her story and properly appreciate 
her greatness, past and present. Before visiting her, 
therefore, I recalled to memory those facts which 
touch us no more nearly than a dream on the pages 
of written history, but when studied from the living 
models and relics gain much life, color and verisimili- 
tude. 

Boston Harbor, with its waters lying in azure 
(28) 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS 29 

placidity over the buried boxes of tea which the hasty 
hands of the angered patriots hurled to a watery 
grave ; Boston Common, whose turf grows velvet- 
green over ground once blackened by the fires of the 
grim colonial days of witch-burning, and again 
trampled down by innumerable soldierly feet in 
Revolutionary times; the Old State House., from 
whose east window the governor's haughty command, 
"Disperse, ye rebels ! '^ sounded on the occasion of 
the "Boston Massacre,'' the first shedding of American 
blood by the British military ; and the monument of 
Bunker Hill — these, with a thousand and one other 
reminders of the city's brilliant historical record, com- 
pose the Old Boston whicii I was prepared to see. 
The first vision, however, of that many-sided city 
was almost bewilderingly different from the mental 
picture. Where was the quaint Puritan town of the 
colonial romances? Where were its crooked, winding 
streets, its plain uncompromising meeting-houses, 
darkened with time, its curious gabled houses, stoop- 
ing with age ? Around me everything was shining 
with newness — the smooth, wide streets, beautifully 
paved, the splended examples of fin de si^cle architec- 
ture in churches, public buildings, school houses and 
dwellings. 

Afterwards I realized that there was a New Boston, 
risen Phoenix-like from the ashes of its manv conflao:- 
rations, and an Old Boston, whose " outward and 
visible signs " are best studied in that picturesque, 
shabby stronghold of ancient story, now rapidly de- 
generating Into a "slum" district — the North End. 

Boston, viewed without regard to Its history, is 
indeed " Hamlet presented without the part of 



30 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Hamlet." It would be interesting to conjecture what 
the city's present place and condition might be, had 
Governor Winthrop's and Deputy-Governor Dudley's 
plan of making " New-towne" — the Cambridge of to- 
day — the Bay Colony's principal settlement, been exe- 
cuted. Instead, and fortunately, Governor Winthrop 
became convinced of the superiority of Boston as an 
embryo " county seat." ^' Trimountain," as it was first 
called, was bought in 1630 from Rev. William 
Blackstone, who dwelt somewhere between the Charles 
River and what is now Louisburg Square, and held 
the proprietary right of the entire Boston Peninsula 
— a sort of American Selkirk, " monarch of all he 
surveyed, and whose right there was none to dispute." 
He was " bought off," however, for the modest 
sum of £30, and retired to what was then the 
wilderness, on the banks of the Blackstone River — 
named after him — and left " Trimountain " to the 
settlers. Then Boston began to grow, almost with 
the quickness of Jack's fabled beanstalk. Always 
one of the most important of colonial towns, it con- 
ducted itself in sturdy Puritan style, fearing God, 
honoring the King — with reservations — burning 
witches and Quakers, waxing prosperous on cod- 
fish, and placing education above every earthly thing 
in value, until the exciting events of the Revolution, 
which has left behind it relics which make Boston a 
veritable ^^ old curiosity shop " for the antiquarian, or 
indeed the ordinary loyal American, who can spend a 
happy day, or week, or month, prowling around the 
picturesque narrow streets, crooked as the proverbial 
ram's horn, of Old Boston 

He will perhaps tur first, as I did, to the 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS, 31 

"cradle of Liberty ''—Faneuil Hall. A slight 
shock will await him, possibly, in the discovery that 
under the ancient structure, round which hover so 
many imperishable memories of America's early 
struggles for freedom, is a market-house, where thrifty 
housewives and still more thrifty farmers chaffer, 
chat and drive bargains the year round, and which 
brings into the city a comfortable annual income of 
$20,000. But the presence of the money-changers 
in the temple of Freedom does not disturb the "solid 
men of Boston," who are practical as well as public- 
spirited. The market itself is as old as the hall, 
which was erected by the city in 1762, to take the 
place of the old market-house, which Peter Faneuil 
had built at his own expense and presented to the 
city in 1742, and which was burned down in 1761. 

The building is an unpretending but substantial 
structure, plainly showing its age both in the exterior 
and the interior. Its size — seventy-four feet long by 
seventy-five feet wide — is apparently increased by the 
lack of seats on the main floor and even in the gallery, 
where only a few of these indispensable adjuncts to the 
comfort of a later luxurious generation are provided. 
The hall is granted rent free for such public or political 
meetings as the city authorities may approve, and proba- 
bly is only used for gatherings where, as in the old days, 
the participants bring with them such an excess of 
effervescent enthusiasm as would make them unwilling 
to keep their seats if they had any. The walls are 
embellished by portraits of Hancock, Washington, 
Adams, Everett, Lincoln, and other great personages, 
and by Healy's immense painting — sixteen by thirty 
feet-^of " Webster Replying to Hayne," 



32 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

For a short time Faneuil Hall was occupied by 
the Boston Post Office, while that institution, whose 
early days were somewhat restless ones, was seeking 
a more permanent home. For thirty years after the 
Revolution, it was moved about from pillar to post, 
occupying at one time a building on the site of Bos- 
ton's first meeting-house, and at another the Mer- 
chants' Exchange Building, whence it was driven by 
the great fire of 1872. Faneuil Hall was next 
selected as the temporary headquarters, next the Old 
South Church, after which the Post Office — a veritable 
Wandering Jew among Boston public institutions — 
was finally and suitably housed under its own roof- 
tree, the present fine building on Post Office Square. 

To the Old South Church itself, the sightseer next 
turns, if still bent on historical pilgrimages. This 
venerable building of unadorned brick, whose name 
figures so prominently in Revolutionary annals, stands 
at the corner of Washington and Milk streets. Rows 
of business structures, some of them new and clean as 
a whistle and almost impertinently eloquent of the im- 
portance of this world and its goods, cluster around 
the old church and hem it in, but are unable to jostle 
it out of the quiet dignity with which it holds its 
place, its heavenward-pointing spire preaching the 
sermons against worldliness which are no longer 
heard within its ancient walls. To every window the 
fanciful mind can summon a ghost — that of Benja- 
min Franklin, who was baptized and attended service 
here; Whitfield, who here delivered some of the 
eoul-searching, soul-reaching sermons, which swept 
America like a Pentecostal flame ; Warren, who here 
uttered his famous words on the anniversary of the 



DQ 



w 
o 

CO 

H 
O 








BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 35 

Jf5oston Massacre; of the patriot-orators of the Revolu- 
tion and the orgar^izers of the Boston Tea-Party, 
which first took place as a detinite scheme within 
these walls. Here imd there a red-coated figure would 
be faintly outlined — one of the lawless troop of 
British soldiers who in 1775 desecrated the church by 
using it as a riding-school. 

At present the church is used as a museum^ where 
antique curiosities and historical relics are on exhibi- 
tion to the public, and the Old South Preservation 
Committee is making strenuous efrbrts to save the 
building from the iccnoclastic hand of Proo-ress, which 
has dealt blows in so many directions in Boston, de- 
stroying a large number of interesting landmarks. Its 
congregation left it long ago, in obedience to that in- 
exorable law of change and removal, which leaves so 
many old churches stranded amid the business sections 
of so many of our prominent cities, and settled in the 
" New Old South Church'' at Dartmouth and Boyls- 
ton streets. 

It is curious and in its way disappointing to us visitors 
from other cities to see what " a clean sweep " the 
broom of improvement has been permitted in a city so 
intensely and justly proud of its historical associations 
as Boston. Year by year the old landmarks disap- 
pear and fine new buildings rise in their places and 
Boston is apparently satisfied that all is for the best. 
The historic Beacon, for which Beacon Hill was named 
and which was erected in 1634 to give alarm to the 
country round about in case of invasion, is not only 
gone, but the very mound where it stood has been 
levelled, this step having been taken in 1811. The 
Beacon had disappeared ten v^ars before aiid a shaft 



36 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

sixty feet higli, dedlcaiea to the fallen heroes of 
Bunker Hill, had been erected on the spot and of 
course removed when the mound was levelled. The 
site of Washington's old lodgings at Court and Han- 
over street — a fine colonial mansion, later occupied by 
Daniel Webster and by Harrison Gray Otis, the cele- 
brated lawyer — is now taken up by an immense 
wholesale and retail grocery store ; the splendid Han- 
cock mansion, where the Revolutionary patriot enter- 
tained Lafayette, D'Estaing, and many other notabili- 
ties of the day, was torn down in 1863, despite the pro- 
tests of antiquarian enthusiasts. The double house, 
in one part of which Lafayette lived in 1825, is still 
standing; the other half of it was occupied during his 
lifetime by a distinguished member of that unsur- 
passed group of literati who helped win for Boston so 
much of her intellectual pre-eminence — George 
Ticknor, the Spanish historian, the friend of Holmes, 
Lowell, Whittier and Longfellow, from whom the 
latter is supposed to have drawn his portrait of the 
"Historian '' in his " Tales of a Wayside Inn." The 
Boston Public Libraiy. that magnificent institution, 
which has done so much to spread '^sweetness and 
liirht/' to use Matthew Arnolds' celebrated definition 
of culture, among the people of the " Hub,'^ counts 
Mr. Ticknor among the most generous of its bene- 
factors. 

One interesting spot for the historical pilgrim is the 
oldest inn in Boston, the " Hancock House, '^ near 
Faneuil Hall, which sheltered Talleyrand and Louis 
Philippe during the French reign of terror. 

In addition to the fever for improvement, Boston 
ewes the loss of many of her time-hallowed buildings 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 37 

to a more disastrous agency — that of tlie conflagra- 
tions whicli have visited lier with strange frequency. 
A fire in 1811, which swept away the little house on 
Milk street where Franklin was born — and which is 
now occupied by the Boston Post — another in 1874, in 
which more than one hundred buildings were de- 
stroyed ; and the ''Great Boston Fire^^ of 1872, fol- 
lowed by conflagrations in 1873,1874, 1877 and 1878, 
seemed to indicate that the fire fiend had selected 
Boston as his especial prey. To the terrible fire of 
1872 many precious lives, property valued at eighty 
millions of dollars, and the entire section of the citv 
enclosed by Summer, Washington, Milk and Broad 
streets were sacrificed. The scene was one a witness 
never could forget. Mingled with the alarum of the 
fire-bells and the screams and shouts of a fear-stricken 
people came the sound of terriffic explosions, those of 
the buildings which were blown up in the hope of 
thus "starving out '^ the fire by making gaps which 
it could not overstep, and to still further complete the 
desolation, the gas was shut off", leaving the city in 
a horror of darkness; but the flames swept on like a 
pursuing Fury, wrapping the doomed city still closer 
in her embrace of death, and who was not satisfied un- 
til she had left the business centre of Boston a charred 
and blackened ruin. 

This same district is to-day, however,- the most pros- 
perous and architecturally preposessing of the business 
sections of the city, practically illustrating another 
phase of that same spirit of improvement and civic 
pride which has overturned so many ancient idols and 
to-day threatens others. Indeed, it would be a churl- 
ish disposition which would lament the disappearance 



38 OCEAN TO OCEAN ^JY HORSEBACK, 

of the old edifices, the straightening of the thorough- 
fares, the alterations without number which have 
taken place, and which have resulted in the Boston 
of to-day, one of the most beautiful, prosperous 
and public-spirited cities in the world. The intel- 
ligence and local loyalty, for which her citizens are 
renowned, have been set to work to attain one object — - 
the modest goal of perfection. Obstacles which 
some cities might have contentedly accepted as un- 
avoidable have been swept away; advantages with 
which other cities might have been satisfied have 
been still further extended and improved. The 783 
acres originally purchased by the settlers of Boston 
from William Blaxton for £30 has been increased 
over thirty times, until the city limits comprise 
23,661 acres ; this not by magic as it would seem, 
but by annexation of adjoining boroughs — Roxbury, 
Dorchester, Charlestown, and others — and by recla- 
mation of the seemingly ho})eless marshy land to the 
north and south of the city. Tlie " Back-Bay " district, 
the very centre of Boston's wealth, fashion and re- 
finement, the handsomest residence quarter in 
America, is built upon this '^ made land," which it 
cost the city about $1,750,000 to fill in and otherwise 
render solid. 

All good Bostonians, like the rest of their country- 
men, may wish to go to Paris when they die — that point 
cannot be settled; but it is certain that they all wish to 
go to the Back-Bay while they live. And who can 
wonder? To drive at night down Commonwealth 
avenue, the most aristocratic street in this aristocratic 
quarter, is to view a scene from fairyland. ^' The 
Avenue " itself is 250 feet wide from house to house 




rUBLIC GARDENS AND TRINITY CHURCH. 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 41 

and 175 feet wide from curb to curb, and in the centre 
a picturesque strip of parkland, adorned with statues 
and bordered with ornamental trees and shrubs, 
follows its entire length. On either side of the street 

CI? 

stand palatial hotels and magnificent private resi- 
dences, from whose innumerable windows twinkle in- 
numerable lights, which, mingling with the quadruple 
row of gas-lamps which look like a winding ribbon of 
light, make the vista perfectly dazzling in its beauty. 
By day, when the Back Bay Park, the Public Garden, 
the fine bridge over the park water-way extension and 
the handsome surrounding and intersecting streets can 
be seen, the view is even more attractive. 

In the newer parts of Boston the reproach of 
crooked streets, which has given her sister cities oppor- 
tunity for so much good-natured " chaflF," is removed, 
and the thoroughfares are laid out with such precision 
that " the wayfaring man, though a fool," can hardly 
"err therein." In the business district much money 
has been spent on the straightening process, a fact 
whose knowledge prompts the bewildered stranger to 
exclaim, " Were thev ever worse than this? " Stories 
aimed at this little peculiarity of the " Hui) " are innu- 
merable, the visitor being told with perfect gravity tlmt 
if he follows a street in a straight line he will find 
himself at his original starting-point — a statement the 
writer's experience can pretty nearly verify-. The best, 
if not the most credible, of these taks relates how a 
puzzled pedestrian, becoming " mixed up in his tracks," 
endeavored to overtake a man who was walking ahead 
of him, and inquire his way. The faster he walked, 
however, the faster the other man walked, until it 
became a regular chase, and the now thoroughly con- 



42 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

fiiFed stranger had but one idea — to catch his fellow- 
pedestrian by the coat-tails, if need be, and demand to 
be set on his homeward way. Finally, by making a 
frantic forward lurch, he succeeded — and discovered 
that the coat-tails he was grasping were his own ! 

The true Bostonian is secretly rather proud, how- 
ever, of this distinguished trait of his beloved city, and 
is willing to go "all around Robin Hood's barn" to 
get to his destination. 

But the thing of which the Bostonian is proudest of 
all is his famous Common, whose green turf and noble 
sh&de-trees have formed a stao;e and backo-round for so 
many of the most exciting scenes of Colonial and 
Revolutionary history. Among the troops which have 
been mustered and drilled upon it were a portion of the 
forces whicli captured Quebec and Louisburg; and the 
rehearsals for the grim drama of war, which later was 
partly performed on the same ground by red-coat and 
continental, took place here. It was at the Common's 
foot that the hated "lobster-backs" assembled before em- 
barking for Lexington; on the Common that they 
marshalled their forces for the conflict at Bunker Hill. 
It has been covered with white tents during the British 
occupation of Boston ; dotted with earthworks behind 
which the enemy crouched, expecting an attack by 
Washington upon their stronghold. It was on Boston 
Common that the school-boys constructed their snow- 
men, whose destruction by the insolent red-coats sent 
an indignant deputation of young Bostonians to com- 
plain to General Gage, who, stunned by what the 
young Bostonian of to-day would designate as " the 
eheek of the thing," promised them redress, and 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 43 

exclaimed, ^' These boys seem to take in the love of 
liberty with the very air they l)reathe.'^ 

There are other interesting historical incidents, 
recorded in connection with the Common, but space 
forbids their narration. I would rather describe it as 
it first appeared to me, a beautiful surprise, a gracious 
spot of greenness and of silvery waters and splendid 
shade-trees, in the heart of the busy brick-bound city. 
Here the children play and coast, as they did in the 
days of General Gage ; here the lovers walk, on the 
five beautiful broad pathways, the Tremont street, 
Park street. Beacon street, Charles street and Boylston 
street malls. Here the invalids and old folks rest on 
the numerous benches; here the people congregate on 
summer evenings to enjoy the free open-air concerts, 
which are given from the band-stand. ^' Frog Pond,'' 
a pretty lakelet, near Flagstaff Hill, and a fine deer- 
park in the vicinity of the Boylston street mall, are 
great attractions. The Common covers forty -eight 
acres, with 1000 stately old shade-trees, and the iron 
fence by wdiich it is inclosed measures 5932 feet. 

In addition to its natural beauties, the Common has 
two fine pieces of statuary, the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument on Flagstaff Hill, and the Brener Fountain. 
The former was erected in 1871 at a cost of §75,000. 
It is a majestic granite shaft in the Roman-Doric style, 
seventy feet high, surmounted by a bronze figure of the 
Genius of America, eleven feet in height. At the base of 
the shaft are grouped alto-relievo figures representing 
the North, the South, the East, and the West. Four 
other bronze figures, representing Peace, History, the 
Army and the Xavy, stand on projecting pedestals 
around the foundation. The monument, which was 



44 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

executed by Martin Mil more, was Boston's tribute to 
her fallen heroes of the Civil War. The Brener 
Fountain is a beautiful bronze casting designed by 
Lienard, of Paris, with bronze figures representing 
Neptune, Amphitrite, Acis, and Galatea grouped round 
the base. The late Gardner Brener presented it to the 
city in 1868. 

To forget the Old Elm in describing the Common, 
would be rank disrespect to that hoary "oldest inhabi- 
tant," albeit nothing remains of it now but its memory. 
An iron fence surrounds the spot where once it stood, 
and a vigorous young sapling has ])roviclentially 
sprung up in its place, as a successor. The Old Elm 
was ancient in 1630, when the town was settled, and 
was one of its most interesting landmarks up to 1876, 
when it was blown down. 

The Public Garden, from which the beautifid Com- 
monwealth avenue begins, the Back-Bay Park, which 
cost a million of dollars, and the Arnold Arboretum, 
where Harvard University has planted and maintained 
a fine horticultural collection for the pleasure of the 
public, are lovely spots on whose beauty the mind would 
fain linger, but whose descriptions must be omitted, for 
all Boston's splendid public buildings wait in stately 
array their share of attention. Nowhere has the 
skilled artist-architect been so freely permitted to carry 
out his designs unhampered by stupidity and stinginess 
as in Boston, and the result has been a collection of 
public buildings unsurpassed by those of any modern 
city. The Boston State House comes first, of course — 
did not the " Autocrat of the Breakfast Table '' term it, 
with loving exaggeration, the " Hub of the Solar 
System ? " From Beacon Hill, the most prominent 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIEONS. 45 

coign of vantage which could be selected for it, its 
gilded dome rises majestically against the blue sky and 
imperiously beckons the visitor to come and pay his 
respects to this most venerated of Boston institutions. 
The State House stands, at a height of 110 feet, at the 
junction of Beacon and Mt. Vernon streets and Han- 
cock avenue, on a lot which Governor Hancock once 
used for pasturing his cows, and was erected in 1795, 
beginning its existence in a blaze of glory, with the 
corner-stone laid by Paul Revere, then Grand Master 
of the Masons, and an oration by Samuel Adams. 
The building contains Doric Hall, which is approached 
by a fine series of stone terraces from Beacon street; 
Hall of Representatives, the Senate Chamber, the 
Goverment Room, and the State Library. 

It abounds in relics, among which are the tattered 
shreds of flags brought back l)y Massachusetts soldiers 
from Southern battlefields — a sight which must stir 
every loyal heart, to whatsoever State it owes alle- 
giance ; the guns carried by the Concord minute-men in 
the Revolutionary conflict ; and duplicates of the gift to 
the State by Charles Sumner, of the memorial tablets 
of the Washington family in England. Doric Hall 
contains busts of Sumner, Adams, Lincolu, and other 
great men, and several fine statues — one of Washing- 
ton, by Chantrey, au<l one by Thomas Ball ; a speaking 
likeness in marble of John A. Andre<v, the indomita- 
ble old War Governor of Massaciuisetts. 

On the handsome terraces in front of the building 
stand two superb bronzes, one is the Horace Mann 
statue, by Emma Stebbins, which was erected in 1865, 
and paid for by contributions from teachers and school 
children all over Massachusetts ; the other Hiram Powers' 



46 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

statue of Daniel Webster, which cost $10,000. It wa^ 
erected in 1859, and was the second statue of Webster 
which the famous sculptor wrought, the first, the prod- 
uct of so much toil and pains and the embodiment of 
so much genius, having been lost at sea. 

Last, but very far from least in importance, may be 
mentioned the historic codfish, which hangs from the 
ceiling of Assembly Hall, dangling before the eyes of 
the legislators in perpetual reminder of the source of 
Massachusetts' present greatness, for the codfish might 
bv a stretch of Plibernian rhetoric be described as the 
patron saint of the Bay State. 

I must confess to having been one of the 50,000 
curious ones who, it is computed, annually ascend into 
the gilded cupola and " view the landscape o'er.'' The 
spectacle unrolled panorama-like before the sight is 
indeed a feast to the eyes. 

The Old State House of 1748, built on the site of 
Boston's earliest town hall, is now used as a historical 
museum under the auspices of the Bostonian Society. 
Careful restoration has perpetuated many of the old 
associations which hallow the ancient fane, sacred to 
loyalty and to liberty. The old council-chambers have 
been given much of their original appearance, and the 
great carving of the Lion and the Unicorn, which 
savored of oiFence to patriotic nostrils and so was taken 
down from its gables in Revolutionary times, has been 
replaced. To visit this building is a liberal education 
in local history. 

The Boston Post Office, of whose migrations I have 
spoken earlier, is now settled for good and all in a 
magnificent structure of Cape Ann granite, built in 
Renaissance style, whose corner-stone was laid in 1871 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 47 

and which was just ready for the addition of the roof 
when the Great Fire of 1872 descended upon it and beat 
upon it so fiercely that even to-day the traces of the 
intense heat are visible on parts of the edifice. 
Damage to the amount of $175,000 was done. The 
Sub-Treasury, the United States courts, the pension and 
internal revenue offices are domiciled here, and it is 
considered the handsomest public building in all New 
England, having cost $6,000,000. The interior fur- 
nishings are sumptuous in the extreme, the doors and 
windows in the Sub-Treasury apartments being of solid 
mahogany, beautifully polished. The ^' marble cash- 
room " is a splendid hall, decorated in Greek style, with 
wall-slabbing of dark and light shades of Sienna mar- 
ble and graceful pilasters of Sicilian marble. 

The City Hall, on School street, is the seat of the 
municipal housekeeping. Here the departments of ♦ 
streets, water, lighting, police, and public printing 
have their offices, and Common Council sits in august 
assemblage. It is a commanding structure of granite, 
fireproof, and in the Renaissance style. Its cost was 
$500,000. Two fine bronze statues, one by Greenough, 
of Franklin, one by Ball, of Josiah Quincy, ornament 
the grassy square in front of the building. 

No picture of Boston ^vould be complete without 
that old landmark, Tremont Temple. It occupies 
the former site of the Tremont Theatre and contains 
one of the largest halls in the city. The building it- 
self, however, sinks into insignificance before the crowd 
of associations that stir the blood at its very name. 
For years it has been the rallying point of Boston's 
most notable gatherings — political, intellectual, and 
religious. If, instead of colorless words, we could 



48 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

photograph upon this page the pictures those old walla 
have looked upon, we might revel in a gallery of 
famous portraits such as the world has rarely seen. 
Edward Everett, Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd 
Garrison, Joseph Cook, Phillips Brooks, and other 
master-spirits of the age, would be there. And there, 
too, would be a sprinkling of that other sex, no longer 
handicapped by the epithet ^' gentler." 

But, could we press the phonograph as well as the 
camera into our service, and hear again the thunders 
of stormy oratory, the clash of political warfare, and 
the pleading tenderness of religious eloquence that has 
often resounded under that old roof, then indeed we 
might well forget the world of to-day in the fascination 
of this drama of the past. 

Architecturally, Boston combines in the happiest 
way all that is beautiful and dignified in the classic 
models and all that is fresh and original in modern 
canons of building. A magnificent group of buildings, 
in the vicinity of Boylston and Huntingdon streets 
and Copley Square, fairly takes the breath away with 
its beauty. Trinity Church and the Museum of Fine 
Arts, the " New Old South Church " and the new 
Boston Public Library, form such a quartet of splen- 
did edifices as even the travelled eye seldom sees. 
The Public Library is an embodied Triumph — the 
symbol of that great heritage of culture which the city 
pours out on her denizens as lavishly and as freely as 
water, and which, like " the gentle dew from heaven, 
blesseth him that gives and him that takes,'^ return- 
ing to enrich the community with its diffused presence, 
like the showers which return to the bosom of the river, 
the moisture the sun only borrowed for a space. 



< 



S i- 



o 

o 
o 

H 
O 




BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 51 

Bostonians have always been proud of their Public 
Library, from its foundation in 1852. By 1885, the 
Boylston street building, with accommodations for 
250,000 volumes, was too contracted a space to hold the 
largest public library in the world, and with charac- 
teristic promptness the city rose to the occasion and em- 
bodied its thought that ''nothing can be too good for 
the people'' in the beautiful new library in Copley 
Square, which cost the royal sum of $2,600,000. 

The long chapter of description which this splendid 
enterprise merits must be reluctantly crowded into a 
few lines. Nothing, however, save personal observa- 
tion, can give an adequate perception of its outward 
loveliness; its exterior of soft cream-gray granite, with 
a succession of noble arched windows ranged along its 
fine fa9ades ; its arches, pillars and floorings of rare 
marbles, and its mosaics, panels and carvings. The grand 
staircase of splendid Sienna marble, 0[)posite the main 
entrance, is one of the finest in the world ; and scholar 
or philosopher could ask no more attractive spot for 
thoughtful promenade than the beautiful open court, 
with its marble basin and MacMonnies fountain in the 
centre, the soft green of its surrounding turf affording 
grateful rest to book- wearied eyes, and the pensive beauty 
of the cloister-like colonnade forming an ideal retreat. 

The foremost artists of the world are represented in 
the interior decoration. The famous St. Gaudens seal, 
designed by Kenyon Cox and executed by Augustus 
St. Gaudens, ornaments the central arch of the main 
vestibule; the bronze doors are by Daniel G. French; 
the splendid marble lions in the staircase hall — erected 
as memorials to their martyred comrades by two regi- 
ments of Massachusetts voluntejers — are by Louis St 



52 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Gaudens ; and Piivis de Chavannes, James McNei) 
Whistler, Edwin A. Abbey and John S. Sargent are 
amon<x the celebrated artists who have contributed to 
the mural decorations, friezes and ceiling frescoes. 

Six hundred and fifty thousand volumes at present 
constitute the stock of the library — a vast treasure- 
house of information, instruction and pleasure to 
which any citizen of Boston can have access by simj)ly 
registering his name, and which among other valuable 
special collections includes the Brown musical library 
of 12,000 volumes and rare autograph manuscripts; 
the Barton Shaksperian library, one of the finest col- 
lections of Shakes periana extant, valued at $250,000; 
the Bowditch mathematical library and the splendid 
Chamberlain collection of autographs, which is \vorth 
$60,000 and represents a lifetime of work on the part 
of the donor. The wonderful pneumatic and electric 
system of tubes and railways which connects thedelivery 
and stackrooms and keeps this vast collection of books, 
pamphlets and magazines in circulation, smacks almost 
of the conjurer's craft. Whatever else must be 
crowded out of a visit to Boston, the Public Library 
assuredly should not be passed by. 

Trinity Church stands within hailing distance of 
the Public Library, on Boylston and Clarendon streets 
— an imposing and beautiful edifice of granite and 
freestone, built in French Romanesque style, with a 
tower 211 feet high. Far outside of Boston has the 
fame of Trinity Church penetrated, owing not to the 
fact that it is one of the most splendid, costly and 
fashionable churches in the country, but to its ever- 
revered and ever-mourned rector, the late Phillips 
Brooks, Bishop of Massachusetts, whose massive figure 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS, 53 

will stand out against the horizon for many a year as 
the most striking speaker and deeply spiritual thinker 
America has ever known. 

From Copley Square, not far from Trinity, rise the 
spires of the " New Old South " Church, a superb 
structure in North Italian Gothic style, rich in 
beautiful stone-work, carvings and stained glass. It 
was erected at a cost of over half a million of dollars 
to take the place of the disused " Old South " on 
Washington street. Another prominent church is the 
First Church, at Marlborough and Berkeley streets, 
the lineal descendant of the humble little mud-walled 
meeting-house which was the first consecrated roof 
ander which the good folk of Boston gathered for di- 
vine worship. The congregation of that day could 
scarce believe their sober Puritan eyes could they be- 
hold the $325,000 church which was built in 1868 to 
continue the succession which had begun with the 
little mud meeting-house of 1632. 

King's Chapel, with its ancient burying-ground, is 
one of the most famous churches in Boston, having 
been the chapel of the royal governor, officers of the 
army and navy, and other official representatives of 
the " principalities and powers '^ of the mother coun- 
try. Massive, almost sombre, in its exterior, and 
quaint and picturesque within, the old church stands, 
with few changes, as erected in 1749,'with its old-fash- 
ioned pulpit and sounding-board, prim, straight pillars, 
and antique high-backed pews which recall the remark 
of the little girl, that when she went to church she 
" went into a cupboard and climbed up on the shelf." 
Its burying-ground is believed to be the oldest in the 
city. Christ Church, built in 1723, is the oldest church 



54 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

edifice in the city. Its age-mellowed chime of bells 
was the first ever brought into this country, and the 
first American Sunday-school was established there in 
1816. To-day its tall steeple, which on the eve of 
Lexington's conflict bore the signal lanterns of Paul 
Revere, is the most conspicuous object in the North 
End, where the old-time aristocrats who worshipped 
in Christ Church have given place to a poverty-stricken 
foreign population to whom the church is little and its 
traditions less. Churches which well deserve more 
extended mention, could space permit, are the beautiful 
Gothic Cathedral of the Holy Cross, with its fine 
organ and splendid high-altar of onyx and marble; 
Tremont Temple, wliose hall is the largest in Boston; 
- and tiie South Congregational Church, presided over 
by Rev. Edward Everett Hale, author of ^' The 
Man witiiout a Country '^ and other world-famous 
literary productions, and originator of the equally 
famous " Ten Times One'' clubs. 

Boston's religious history is most interesting, although 
almost kaleidoscopic in its changes. From being the 
stronghold of Puritan orthodoxy it has become the 
headquarters of liberal Unitarianism. King's Chapel 
is a curious instance; originally an Episcopal church 
ajid congregation, it became Unitarian in 1787, retain- 
ing the Episcopal liturgy with necessary changes, and 
now doctrines are preached over the tombs of the dead 
dignitaries interred beneath the church floor, diamet- 
rically opposed to those in which they lived, died and 
were buried. Though all denominations of course 
flourish within her walls, Boston is still strongly Con- 
gregational in her leanings. 

From the churches to the schools is a natural trail- 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS, 55 

tfition. The founders of Boston^s greatness placed the 
two influences side by side in importance, and their 
wisdom in doing so has had its justification. The 
current " poking of fun " at the '^ Boston scliool-ma'am," 
her glasses, her learning and her devotion to Brown- 
ing; and the Boston infant, who converses in polysyl- 
lables almost from his birth, has its foundation in the 
fact, everywhere admitted, that nowhere are intelli- 
gence and culture so widely diffused in all ranks of 
life as in Boston. The free-school system, an experi- 
ment which she was the first American city to inaugu- 
rate, is considered by educators to lead the world. Tho 
city^s annual expenditures for her public schools, of 
which there are over 500, amount to about $2,000,000, 
and from the kindergarten to the High School, where 
the pupils can be prepared for college, the youth of 
the city are carefully watched, trained, instructed, and 
all that is best in them drawn out. Even in summer, 
" vacation schools " are held, where the children who 
would otherwise be running wild in the streets can 
learn sewing, box-making, cooking and other useful 
branches. 

The English High and Latin School is the largest 
free public school building in the world, being 423 
feet long by 220 feet wide. It is a fine structure in 
Renaissance style, with every advantage and improve- 
ment looking to health and convenience, that even the 
progressive Boston mind could think of. It would be 
a sluggish soul indeed that would not be thrilled by 
the sight of the entire school-battalion going through 
its exercises in the immense drill-room, and realize the 
hopeful future for this vast array of coming citizens. 



56 OCEAN TO OCEAN" ON HORSEBACK. - 

who are thus early and thus admirably taught th« 
priceless lesson of discipline. 

The Boston Normal School, the Girls' High School 
and the Public Latin School for girls, fully cover the 
demand for the higher education of women. The 
latter institution is the fruit of the efforts of the 
Society for the University Education of Women, and 
its graduates enter the female colleges with ease. 
Wellesley, the " College Beautiful,'^ as its students have 
fondly christened it, is situated close to Boston in the 
beautiful villag-e of Welleslev, where feminine educa- 
tion is conducted almost on ideal lines. No woman's 
college in the world has so many students, or so beau- 
tiful a home in which to shelter the fair heads, in- 
wardly crammed and running over with knowledge, 
and outwardly adorned, either in fact or in prospective, 
with the scholastic cap of learning. Since its oj)ening 
in 1875, ^yellesley has almost created a new era in 
woman's education, and its curriculum is the same as 
those of the most adv^anced male colleo-es. The Col- 
lege Aid Society, which at an annual cost of from 
$6000 to $7000 helps ambitious girlhood, for whom 
straitened means would otherwise render a university 
education impossible, is an interesting feature of the 
college. 

What Wellesley has for twenty years been to Ameri- 
can girlhood, Harvard University has for 150 years 
been to American young manhood, and though its chief 
departments ai'e located at Cambridge, it may still be 
fairly ranked with Bostonian institutions. The tie 
which connects the Cambridge University and the 
capital of Massachusetts is closer than that existing 
between mere neighbors — it is a veritable bond of kin- 



BOSTON AND /^ ^.- vmONS, 59 

sjhip. It might be said that from the opening of the 
University in 1638, Boston made Harvard and Har- 
vard Boston. Its illustrious founder, John Harvard, 
was a resident of Charlestown, now a part of Boston — 
and his monument, erected by subscriptions of Harvard 
graduates, is one of the princij>al ^' sights '^ of that dis- 
trict, where it stands near tlie Old State Prison. To its 
classic groves Boston has sent, and from them received 
again, the noblest of her sons; and three of her de- 
partments, the Bussey Institution of Agriculture, the 
Medical School and the Dental School, are situated 
within the limits of Boston proper. Harvard Uni- 
versity at present owns property valued at $6,000,000, 
and accommodates nearly 2000 pupils. In addition 
to the departments already mentioned and which are 
located in Boston, the principal sections are Harvard 
College, the Jefferson Laboratory, the Lawrence 
Scientific School, the new Law School, the Divinity 
School, the Harvard Library, Botanical Gardens, 
Observatory, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Pea- 
body ^[useum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Agassiz 
Museum, Hemenway Gymnasium and Memorial Hall. 
To wan.der through its ancient halls, the oldest of 
which dates back to 1720, and which have been used 
by Congress, is to visit the cradle of university educa- 
tion in America. 

Boston University, the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, one of the best scientific colleges on the 
continent, Tufts College and the celebrated Chauncy 
Hall School, are among the finest of Boston's many 
admirable educational institutions. 

Mention has been made of the Harvard Monument, 
but not of the others among the scores of fine examples 



60 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

of the sculptor's art v/hich are scattered throughout 
the city in generous profusion for tha deh'ght and the 
education of the public eye. The famous Bunker Hill 
Monument was naturally one of the first objects sought 
out by the writer on the occasion of his first visit to 
Boston. This splendid shaft of granite was dedicated 
to tiie fallen patriots of Bunker Hill in 1841^ the 
corner-stone having been laid in 1825 by General 
Lafayette — Daniel Webster delivering the orations 
on both occasions. Its site, on Monument Square, 
Breed's Hill, is the spot where the Americans threw 
up the redoubt on the night before the memorable 
battle, and a tablet at its foot marks the place where 
the illustrious Warren fell. 

The monument is 221 J feet high — a fact fully real- 
ized only by climbing the 259 steps of the spiral stair- 
case of stone in the interior of the shaft which leads 
to a small chamber near the apex, from which four 
windows look out upon the surrounding country — a 
superb vista. The cost of this monument was 
$150,000. 

In the Public Gardens, in the Back Bay district, 
across from Commonwealth avenue, may be seen one 
of the largest pieces of statuary in America, and, ac- 
cording to some connoisseurs, the handsomest in Bos- 
ton. This is Ball's huge statue of Washington, which 
measures twenty-two feet in height. The statue was 
unveiled in 1869, and it is said that not a stroke of 
work was laid upon it by any hand of artisan or artist 
outside of Massachusetts. The Beacon street side of 
the Public Gardens contains another famous statue — 
that of Edward Everett, by W. W. Story. Other 
great citizens whose memory has been perpetuated in 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. Q\ 

life-like marble are Samuel Adams, William Llovd 
Garrison and Colonel William Prescott. The Eman- 
cipation Group is a duplicate of the "Freedman's Me- 
morial" statue in Washington. The soldiers' monu- 
ments in Dorchester, Charlestown, Roxbury, West 
Roxbury and Brighton commemorate the unnamed, 
uncounted, but not unhonored dead who laid dowD 
their lives on the battlefields of the Civil War. 

"The bravely dumb who did tlieir deed, 
And scorned to blot it with a name ; 
Men of the plain, heroic breed, 

Who loved Heaven's silence more than fame." 

An interesting object is the Ether Monument on 
the Arlington street side of the Public Gardens erected 
in recognition of the fact that it was in the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital — in the face of terrible 
opposition and coldness and discouragement, as history 
tells us, though the marble does not — that Dr. Sims 
first gave the world his wonderful discovery of the 
power of ether to cause insensibility to pain. 

That there should be so many of these fine pieces 
in Boston's parks and public places is matter for con- 
gratulation but scarcely for surprise. As a patron of 
music, literature, art and all the external graces of 
civilization she has so long and so easily held her su- 
premacy that one is half inclined -to believe that at 
least a delegation of the Muses, if not the whole 
sisterhood, had exchanged the lonely and unappre- 
ciated grandeur of Parnassus for a seat on one of 
Boston's three hills. The Handel and Haydn Society, 
the oldest musical society in the United States ; the 
Harvard Musical Association; the famous Boston 



62 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Symphony Orchestra and the Orpheus Club, speak—' 
and right musically — of Boston's love for the art of 
which Cecilia was patron saint. Music Hall, an im- 
mense edifice near Tremont street, is the home of 
music in Boston. Here the symphony concerts are 
held weekly, and here all the musical ^' stars " whose 
orbit includes Boston make their first appearance be- 
fore a critical ^' Hub'' audience. Its great organ, with 
over 5,000 pipes, is one of the largest ever made. 

The idea of a national university of music — sneered 
at and scouted when a few enthusiasts first talked and 
dreamed of it — took shape in 1867 in the now famous 
New England Conservatory of Music, founded by 
Eben Tourjee. It is a magnificent school in a mag- 
nificent home — the old St. James' Hotel on Franklin 
Square — with a hundred teachers from the very fore- 
most rank of their profession. The conservatory has 
possibly done more for New England culture than 
any other influence save Harvard University. 

The literary life of Boston needs neither chronicler 
nor comment. Such men as Thomas Bailev Aldrich, 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Francis Parkman, Prescott, 
the historian, liOngfollow, Lowell and countless others 
who, living, have made the city their home, or, dead, 
sleep in its chambers of Peace, have cast a glamour of 
books and bookmen and book-life around her until 
her title of "The Athens of America" has passed from 
jest to earnest. The earliest newspaper in America 
was the Boston Nexcs Letter; and to-day its many 
newspapers maintain the highest standard of ** up-to- 
date" journalism in the dignified, not the degrading 
sense of the word. Boston is indeed a "bookworm's 
paradise," with its splendid free lending library and 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 63 

low-priced book-stores, making access to the best 
authors possible to the poorest. The Atlantic Monthly^ 
which for so many years has occupied a place unique 
and unapproachable among American magazines, is 
published here. 

Art is represented by the magnificent Museum of 
Fine Arts, with its beautiful exterior and interior 
decorations and fine collection of antiques and art ob- 
jects ; the Art Club, the Sketch and the Paint and 
Clay clubs, as well as by the innumerable paintings 
and statues appearing in public places ; by the Athe- 
naeum, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
the Boston Society of Natural History, the Warren 
Museum and the Lowell Institute free lectures. 

To draw this brief study of Boston to a close 
without mentioning her countless charities would be a. 
grave omission, since these form so large a part of the 
city's life and activities. As is always the case in 
great towns, two hands are ever outstretched — that of 
Lazarus, pleading, demanding, and that of Dives — 
more unselfish now than in the days of the parable- 
giving again and yet again. Boston's philanthropists 
flatter themselves that there the giving is rather more 
judicious, as well as generous, than is frequently the 
case; and that ^' the pauperizing of the poor," that 
consummation devoutly to be avoided, is a minimized 
danger. The ^^ Central Charity Bureau" and tlie 
"Associated Charities" systematize the work of relief, 
prevent imposture and duplication of charity, and do 
an invaluable service to the different organizations. 
Private subscriptions of citizens maintain the work, 
which is carried on in three fine buildings of brick 
and stone on Chardon street, one of which is used a? a 



64 OCEAN TO OCEAN <)N HORSEBACK, 

temporary home for destitute women and children. 
The Massachusetts General Hospital — which, save for 
the Pennsylvania Hospital, is the oldest in the country 
— the Boston City Hospital, the New England Hos- 
pital for Women and Children, and a number of other 
finely-organized institutions care efficiently for the 
city^s sick and suffering. Orphan asylums, reform 
schools, missions of various sorts, and retreats for the 
aged and indigent, are numerous. 

One of the most unique and interesting among 
these charities is " The Children's Mission to the 
Children of the Destitute," which aims to bring the 
little ones of these two sadly separated classes, the 
poor and the well-to-do, in contact for their mutual 
benefit. By its agency the forlorn little waifs of the 
streets are provided with home and friends, religious 
and secular instruction, and employment whenever 
necessary or advisable. Still more unique is the 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association, 
whose vast building and hall on Huntingdon avenue 
occupies an area of over 110,000 square feet. As 
early as 1795 this association was founded to extend a 
helping hand to mechanics in difficulties, to establish 
libraries and classes for apprentices, offer premiums 
for inventions and improvements in trades, and give 
every encouragement to the tradesman. The building 
is a beautiful as well as a vast structure, and eight 
thousand people can be seated in the grand hall. The 
mechanics' festivals, fairs, and exhibitions of indus- 
try are held here from time to time, when there is 
much awarding of medals, prizes and honors. 

On Boston's commercial greatness there is no space 
to touch. Nor is it needed. Could her schools, her 



BOSTON AND ITS ENVIRONS. 65 

churches, her charities, her institutions, public and 
private, which have here been outlined, flourish with- 
out the backbone of Puritan thrift and the framework 
of prosperity which have made her one of the wealth- 
iest of cities? The solid business foundation is appar- 
ent to all who visit her teeming marts and exchanges. 
But the " power behind the throne '^ is kept with rare 
judgment in the background; and when the visitor 
comes to kiss the hand of the ^' Queen of the Common- 
wealth '^ he sees only her chosen handmaids — Ambi- 
tion, Culture, Philanthropy, Religion. On these, 
finally, she rests her claims to greatness. 




CHAPTER III. 

LECTURE AT TREMONT TEMPLE. 

ECTURING in the towns I purposed 
visiting was an after consideration of 
secondary importance — a sort of adjunct 
to the journey and the objects I had 
in view. It was thought tiiat it might 
afford some facilities for meeting large 
numbers of people face to face in the 
different sections of the country through 
which I designed to pass, and thus 
enable me the better to learn something of their social 
customs, industries and general progress in the arts 
of civilization. 

The subject decided upon for the lecture was 
" Echoes from the Revolution,'^ and was intended to 
be in keeping with the spirit of the Centennial year. 
The fact that I had been a cavalryman during the 
War of the Rebellion and the novelty of an equestrian 
journey of such magnitude would, I estimated, very 
naturally awaken considerable interest and a desire 
on the part of many to hear what I had to say of the 
heroes of " 76." 

My lecture was a restrospective view of the leading 
incidents of the Revolution, with especial reference to 
some of the sturdy heroes and stirring scenes of that 

m 



LECTURE AT TREMONT TEMPLE. 67 

most eventful period in American History. Briefly 
referring to the causes which led up to the war, I 
started with the Ride of Paul Revere from Boston 
the night before the Battle of Lexington, and closed 
with the Surrender of Cornw^allis at Yorktown. 

It was not my wish or intention to derive any pe- 
cuniary benefit from my lectures ; but being a member 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, and thoroughly 
in sym})athy with the aims and benevolent projects of 
my soldier friends, it was pro})osed to donate the pro- 
ceeds to the Relief Fund of that patriotic organiza- 
tion. 

Fully equipped, the weather favorable and roads in 
good condition, I was anxious to begin my journey 
early in May. It was therefore arranged, as previously 
suggested, that I should lecture at Tremont Temple on 
the evening of May eighth under the auspices and for 
the benefit of the G. A. R. Relief Fund. 

The subjoined fraternal and highly complimentary 
letter of introduction from Captain Frank M. Clark 
of New York was received by the committee of ar- 
rangements soon after my arrival in Boston. 

4 Irving Place, 

New York, Ajyril 20, 1876. 
To Comrades of the G. A. R. : 

I have been intimately acquainted with Captain Willard Glazier, 

a comrade in good standing of Post No. 29, Department of Kew 

York, Grand Army of the Republic, for the past eight years, and 

know him to be worthy the confidence of everv loval man. He is 

an intelligent and courteous gentleman, an author of good repute, a 

soldier whose record is without a stain, and a true comrade of the 

" Grand Army." I bespeak for him the earnest and cordial support 

of all comrades of the Order. 

Yours very truly in F., C. and L., 

Frank M. Clark, 

Late A. A. G. Department of Kew York, G. A. R 



<58 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

I may add that, as this was the first occasion of any 
importance on which I had been expected to appear be- 
fore a public assemblage, I was strongly recommended 
to deliver my initial lecture before a smaller and 
less critical audience than I was likely to confront in 
Boston, and thus prepare myself for a later appearance 
in the literary capital ; but I reasoned from the stand- 
point of a soldier that, as lecturing w'as a new experi- 
ence to me, my military training dictated that if I 
could carry the strongest position in the line I need 
have but little, if any, concern for the weaker ones, and 
hence resolved to deliver my first lecture at Tremont 
Temple. I was introduced by Captain Theodore L. 
Kelly, commander of Post 15, Department of Mas- 
sachusetts, G. A. R., and was honored by the presence 
on the platform of representatives from nearly all of 
the Posts of Boston and adjacent cities. In presenting 
me to my audience Captain Kelly spoke in the follow- 
ing terms : 

" Ladies and Gentlemen : It gives me pleasure to have 
the honor of introducing to you one who, by his services 
in the field and by the works of his pen, is entitled to your 
consideration, and the confidence of all comrades of the 
' Grand Army of the Republic. ' I desire to say that he 
comes well accredited, furnished with the proper vouchers and 
documents, and highly endorsed and recommended by the 
ofiicers of the Department of the State of New York. 
Though young in years, his life has been one of varied and 
exciting experience. Born in the wilds of St. Lawrence 
County, New York, his education was drawn from the great 
book of Nature; and from his surroundings he early imbibed 
a love of liberty. His early associations naturally invested 
him with a fondness for adventure and excitement and when 
the call of war was heard he at once responded, and enlisted in 
the Harris Light Cavalry, with which corps he passed through 



LECTURE AT TREMONT TEMPLE. 69 

man}'' exciting scenes of march and fray. His experience 
amid the various vicissitudes of the war, in camp and field 
and prison, have been vividly portrayed by his pen in his 
various publications. Still inspired by this love of adventure, 
be proposes to undertake the novelty of a journey across the 
Continent in the saddle. His objects are manifold. While 
visiting scenes and becoming more familiar with his own 
country, he will collect facts and information for a new book, 
and at his various stopping-places he will lecture under the 
auspices and for the benefit of the ' Grand Army of the 
Republic,' to whose fraternal regard he is most warml}' com- 
mended. Allow me then, ladies and gentlemen, without 
further ceremony, to present to you the Soldier- Author, and 
our comrade, Willard Glazier." 

I was much gratified on the morning of the ninth 

to find commendatory reference to my lecture in the 

leading journals of Boston, for I will frankly admit 

that I had had some mist^ivinirs as to the verdict of the 

critics, and rather expected to be "handled without 

gloves'^ in some of the first cities on the programme. 

Of the dailies which came to my notice the Globe 

said : — 

"A very fair audience considering the unfair condition of the 
elements, was gathered in Tremont Temple last night to hear Cap- 
tain Willard Glazier's lecture upon 'Echoes from the Revolution.' 
The frequent applause of the audience evinced not only a sympa- 
thy with the subject, but an evident liking of the manner in which 
it was delivered. The lecture itself was a retrospective view of the 
leading incidents of the Revolution. It would have been unfair to 
expect to hear anything very new upon a subject .with which the 
veriest school-boy is familiar ; but Captain Glazier wove the events 
together in a manner which freed the lecture from that most 
unpardonable of all ft\ults, which can be committed upon the plat- 
form — dulness. He passed over, in his consideration of the Revo- 
lution, the old scenes up to the time when Corn wal lis surrendered 
up his sword and command to George Washington. * The year 
1876,' said Captain Glazier, 're-echoes the scenes and events of a 
hundred years ago. In imagination we make a pilgrimage back to 



70 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the Revolution. We visit the fields whereon our ancestors fouglit 
for liberty and a republic. We follow patriots from Lexington to 
Yorktown. I see them pushing their way through the ice of the 
Delaware — I see them at Saratoga, at Bennington, at Princeton, 
and at Monmouth. I follow Marion and his daring troopers 
through the swamps of Georgia and the Carolinas ;' and in follow- 
ing them up, the lecturer interspersed his exciting narrative with 
sundry droll episodes. Treating of the battles of Trenton and 
Princeton, he expatiated upon the devoted heroism of John Stark, 
and briefly traced .his career until, at Bennington, Burgoyne's 
victor announced to his comrades, 'We must conquer to-day, my 
boys, or to-night Molly Stark's a widow.' One battle after another 
was handled by the lecturer in a pleasing manner, showing that he 
was thoroughly familiar with the subject he had chosen for his 
theme. After speaking in a most zealous manner of the troops on 
land. Captain Glazier remarked : * Our victories on the ocean dur- 
ing the war of the Revolution were not less decisive and glorious 
than those achieved on land. John Paul Jones and the gallant 
tars who, under his leadership, braved the dangers of the deep, 
and wrested from proud Britain, once queen of the sea, that illus- 
trious motto which may be seen high on our banner beside the 
stars and stripes.' 

"Captain Glazier made special mention of the naval engagement 
between the Bon Homme Richard and the British man-of-war 
Serapis, which took place in September, 1789. He described in 
glowing words the fierce nature of that memorable contest, until 
the captain of the Serapis, with his own hand, struck the flag of 
England to the free Stars and Stripes of young America. Captain 
Glazier has elements in him which, carefully matured and nur- 
tured, will make him successful on the platform, as he has already 
proved himself in the field of literature. He has a strong and 
melodious voice, a gentlemanly address, and unassuming confi- 
dence. He was presented to the audience by Commandant Kelly^ 
of Post 15, Grand Army of the Republic, in a brief but eloquent 
speech. Captain Glazier will start on his long ride to San Fran- 
cisco, from the Revere House, this morning, at 9.30, and will be 
accompanied to Bunker Hill and thence to Brighton, by several 
distinguished members of the 'Grand Army,' and other gentlemen, 
who wish the Captain success on his long journey from Ocean to 
Oceau." 

The lecture proved a success financially, and in ful- 



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LECTURE AT TREMONT TEMPLE. 73 

filment of my purpose I donated the entire proceeds to 
the Relief Fnnd of Posts 7 and 15, as I was largely- 
indebted to the comrades of these organizations for 
the hearty co-operation which insured a full house 
at Tremont Temple. The letter below was addressed 
to the Assistant Adjutant-General of the Department. 

Revere House, 

Boston, Massachusetts f 

May 9, 1876. 
Captain Chaeles W. Thompson, 

A. A. G. Department of Mass., G. A. R. 
Comrade : I find pleasure in handing you the net proceeds of 
ray lecture, delivered at Tremont Temple last night, which I de- 
sire to be divided equally between Posts 7 and 15, G. A. R., of 
Boston, for the benefit of our disabled comrades, and the needy and 
destitute wards of the "Grand Army." Gratefully acknowledging 
many favors and courtesies, extended to me in your patriotic city, 

I am yours in F., C. and L., 

WiLLARD Glazier. 

My letter to Captain Thompson elicited responses 
from the Posts to which donations were made, and the 
following from the Adjutant of John A. Andrew, 
Post 15, is introduced to show their appreciation of my 
efforts in behalf of their Relief Fund. 

Headquarters, 

Post 15, Department of Massachusetts, G. A. R., 

Boston, May 12, 1876. 
Captain Willard Glazier : 

Comrade : In obedience to a vote of this Post^ I am pleased to 

transmit to you a vote of thanks for the money generously donated 

by you, through our Commander, as our quota of the proceeds of 

your lecture in this city ; and also tlie best wishes of the comrades 

of this Post for you personally, and for the success of your lecture 

tour from sea to sea. 

Yours in F., C. and L., 

Edward F. Rollins, 

Adjutant of Post 



74 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

It is only justice to the comrades of Posts 7 and 
15 to say that on ray arrival in Boston they were 
most cordial in their reception, most zealous in their 
co-operation with my advance agents and most solicit- 
ous for the success of my journey and its objects. In 
short they were true comrades in the best sense of the 
term, and my delightful sojourn in their generous and 
patriotic city was largely due to their numerous cour- 
tesies. 



CHAPTER IV. 



BOSTON TO ALBANY. 

iirst !Baj3. 

South Framingham House, 
South Framingham, Massachusetts, 

3Iay 9, 1876. 

|HE initial step in my journey from 
Ocean to Ocean was taken at ten o'clock 
on the morning of the above date when 
I mounted my horse in front of the 
Revere House, Boston, and started for 
Worcester, w^here it had been announced 
I would lecture on the following even- 
ing. The Revere House was fixed 
upon by comrades of the G. A. R. as 
a rendezvous before starting. Here I found a large 
gathering of the Order. A rain storm setting in as I 
put my foot into the stirrup, hasty adieus were said 
to the Boys in Blue and others as I was about riding 
away from the " Revere.'^ 

I was escorted to Bunker Hill and thence to 
Brighton by many comrades and friends, among them 
Colonels John F. Finley and E. A. Williston, who 
were mounted ; and Captain Charles W. Thompson, 
adjutant-general Department of Massachusetts ; Cap- 
6 (75) 




76 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

tain Theodore L. Kelly, commander of Post 15; 
GraftoD Fen no, adjutant, Post 7, G. A. R., and many 
others in carriages. 

Our route from Boston was by way of Charlestown 
and Cambridge to Brighton. A short halt was made 
at Bunker Hill. After a hurried look at the Monu- 
ment we rode around it and then headed for Brighton. 
The rain was now falling in torrents and quick- 
ening our pace we passed rapidly through Cambridge, 
glancing hastily at the University Buildings as we 
galloped down the main thoroughfare of the city. 

Brighton was reached between twelve and one 
o'clock. Owing to the storm our short journey to this 
place was anything but agreeable and when we dis- 
mounted at the Cattle Fair Hotel all who were not in 
covered conveyances were drenched to the skin. Here 
the entire party had dinner, after which I took leave 
of my friendly escort, who one and all took me by the 
hand and wished me Godspeed. 

Pushing on through Newton and some smaller 
towns and villages I pulled up in front of the South 
rramin2:ham House a few minutes after five o'clock 
in the evening. My clothing was thoroughly soaked 
and my cavalry boots filled to overflowing. Having 
secured accommodations for the night, Paul was fed 
and groomed ; clothing and equipments hung up to 
dry and the first day of my long ride from sea to sea 
was oif the calendar. 

Bay State House, 

Worcester, Massachusetts, 

May Tenth. 

I slept soundly at the South Framingham House 



/ 



BOSTON TO ALBANY. 79 

and was up and out to the hotel stable at an early 
hour in the morning. I found Paul Revere, my 
equine companion, in good spirits and fancied that the 
significant look he gave me was an assurance that he 
would be ready for the road when called for. 

After a hearty breakfast and a few questions con- 
cerning the beautiful little city in which I had spent 
the first night of my journey, I mounted Paul and 
rode out towards the Boston and Albany Turnpike. 
Being impressed with the appearance and enterprise 
of the place, while passing through some of its streets 
especial inquiry was made concerning its population, 
schools and industries. I learned that South Fra- 
mingham is twenty-one miles from Boston, at the junc- 
tion of the Boston and Albany and Old Colony Rail- 
ways. Its population at that time was about 10,000. 
Its graded schools are among the first in the State. 
It supports several banks and newspapers and is 
engaged in the manufacture of woollens, rubber goods, 
boots and shoes, harness and machinery. 

The ride from South Framingham to Worcester 
was uneventful if I except the pelting rain which 
from drizzle to down-pour followed me from start to 
finish. Indeed, it really seemed as though the first 
days of my journey were to be baptismal days and 
I regret exceedingly that these early stages of the trip 
were not more propitious; for, had the weather been 
less disagreeable, I should have seen Eastern Massa- 
chusetts under much more favorable circumstances. 

The city limits of Worcester were reached at four 
o'clock in the afternoon and a half hour later I was 
registered at the Bay State House. Many relatives 
called upon me here, most of whom were residents of 



8Q OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the city and vicinity. Lectured at the Opera House 
in the evening, being introduced to my audience by 
Colonel Finley of Charlestown, to whom previous 
reference has been made, and with whom I had 
arranged to accompany me as far as Syracuse, New 
York, and further if my advance agents should think 
it advisable for him to do so. 

The fact that both my father and mother were na- 
tives of Worcester County and that most of our 
ancestors for several generations had been residents 
of Worcester and vicinity made that city of unusual 
interest to me, and I trust the reader will be in- 
dulgent if I allot too much space or seem too 
partial in my description of this early landmark in my 
journey. 

Worcester, nestling among the hills along the 
Blackstone River, the second city in Massachusetts, 
the heart of the Commonwealth, has a population of 
about 85,000. 

Shut in by its wall of hills, it seemed, as I first came 
into it, something like a little miniature world in itself. 
It possesses some share of all th^ good we know. 
Nature, that " comely mother,'^ has laid her caressing 
hand upon it. Art has made many a beautiful struc- 
ture to adorn its streets. Commerce smiles upon it. 
While its wonderful manufactures seem to form a 
a great living, throbbing heart for the city. 

Sauntering up from the depot, through Front street, 
five minutes' walk brought me to the Old Common. 
There I found, what one so frequently finds in 
Massachusetts towns and cities — namely, a War Mon- 
ument. Apparently that mighty five years' struggle, 
that brilliant victory, bringing freedom to two million 






o 

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a.' 

C 
ft 




BOSTON TO ALBANY. 83 

fellow-creatures, bringing power, union, glory to the 
nation, has burned itself into the very heart of the 
Old Bay State; and lest posterity miglit f)rget the 
lessons she learned from 1861 to 1865, everywhere 
she has planted her war monuments, to remind her 
children that 

" Simple duty has no place for fear.'* 

In the shade of Worcester Common is another 
object of interest. A little plot of ground, wherein 
stands a grand old tomb. It is the resting-place of 
Timothy Bigelow, the early patriot of Worcester. 
Here in the sunshine and the twilight, in the bloom 
of summer, and under the soft falling snows of winter, 
he perpetually manifests to the world 

" How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
By all their country's wishes blest." 

A sturdy old New Englander was Colonel Bigelow. 
" When the news of the destruction of the tea in 
Boston Harbor reached him, he was at work in his 
blacksmith shop, near the spot now called Lincoln 
Square. He immediately laid aside his tools, pro- 
ceeded directly to his house, opened the closet, and 
took from it a canister of tea, went to the fire-place, and 
poured the contents into the flames. As if feeling 
tiiat everything which had come in 'contact with 
British legislative tyranny should be purified by fire, 
the canister followed the tea; and then he covered 
both with coals. 

^* Before noon on the nineteenth of April, 1775, an 
express came to town, shouting, as he passed through 
the street at full speed, * To arms ! to arms ! — the war's 



84 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

begun.' His white horse, bloody with spurring, and 
dripping with sweat, fell exhausted by the church. 
Another was instantly procured, and the tidings went 
on. The bell rang out the alarm, cannon were fired, 
and messengers were sent to every part of the town to 
collect the soldiery. As the news spread, the imple- 
ments of husbandry were thrown by in the field; and 
the citizens left their homes, with no longer delay than 
to seize their arms. In a short time, the * minute-n>en ' 
were paraded on the green, under Captain Timothy 
Bigelow. After fervent prayer by Rev. Mr. Maccarty, 
they took up their line of march to the scene of con- 
flict.'' Such was Bigelow's zeal and ardor in the 
great cause of the times, that he appeared on the fol- 
lowing morning, at the head of his *' minute-men,'' in 
the sc^uare at Watertown, having marched them there, 
a distance of over thirty miles, during that one short 
night. 

On the nineteenth of April, 1861, the Bigelow Monu-~ 
ment was dedicated. At the very hour of the conse- 
cration exercises, the Massachusetts Sixth Regiment 
was engaged in its memorable struggle and triumphant 
passage through the blockaded streets of Baltimore at 
the beojinnino^ of the Civil War. 

Along the west side of the Old Common runs Main 
street, just out of which, in Pearl street, is the Post 
Office. I have seen a curious computation with regard 
to that Post Office develo[)ment, which aptly illustrates 
the rapid growth of Worcester. The number of 
letters sent out in 1809 was about 4,400. The number 
of letters taken out fifty years later was 523,808. 
Main street reaches Lincoln Square, where stand the 
two <;ourt houses. The old one has been removed a 



o 







BOSTON TO ALBANY. 87 

few ^Qet, and refitted. In it the criminal courts are 
held ; there too are the offices of the court of probate 
and insolvency. 

The New Court House w^as built in 1845 of Quincy 
granite, at a cost of about one hundred thousand 
dollars. In it the civil terms of the courts are held, 
with numerous ante-rooms for the jurors and for con- 
sultation. The lower floor is occupied by the office of 
the register of deeds, and by the clerk's and treasurer's 
offices. 

Close neighbor to the court houses is the building 
containing the rooms of the American Antiquarian 
Society, one of the leading learned bodies of our 
country. It was founded in 1812. It possesses a 
very valuable library, especially rich on subjects of 
local interest to Americans. The newspapers filed here 
include over four thousand volumes, beginning with 
the Boston News Letter of 1804, and closing with the 
great journals of to-day. This same society also 
possesses a very interesting collection of pre-historic 
American relics. 

In Lincoln Square stands the old Salisbury man- 
sion, an interesting specimen of a colonial house, 
which has been standing a century or so, since the 
time when those substantial buildings, with their wide 
halls, high ceilings, and strong walls, were built on 
honor. There it has stood in its' dignity, more 
flimsy, more showy architecture springing up around 
it, until now the fin de siecle eye discovers that 
nothing is more to be desired than one of these same 
sturdv old colonial houses. 

Main street contains manv churches. On it is the 
large, ugly-looking, but justly celebrated, Clark Uni- 



88 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

versity, which is devoted to scientific research, with its 
wonderfully equipped chemical laboratory. 
. Any one who wants a bird's-eye view of Worcester 
and its environments, can easily liave it by strolling 
out Highland street to Newton Hill. It is only about 
a mile from Lincoln Park, but it is six hundred and 
seventy feet above the sea level, and from it " the 
whole world, and the glory thereof,'' seems spread out 
at one's feet. 

On Salisbury street, one mile from the square, 
stands the house in which George Bancroft, the histo- 
rian, dear to American hearts, was born. 

A mile and a half from the square, on Salisbury 
Pond, are located the famous Wire Works of Wash- 
burn and Moen. 

There are many buildings to interest the visitor in 
Worcester. The State Lunatic Asylum, with its one 
^thousand patients; the free Public Library on Elm 
street, containing eighty thousand volumes; the High 
School on Walnut street; the Museum of the National 
Historical Society, on Foster street ; All Saint's 
Church; the Polytechnic Institute; the College of 
the Holy Cross, six hundred and ninty feet above the 
sea, and many another place of interest, calling oti the 
passers-by to look, and learn of the world's advance- 
ment. 

Standing on one of the heights overlooking the 
little river, the surrounding hills, the busy city, throb- 
bing with its many manufactories, it seemed to me I 
had before my eyes an object lesson of the wonderful 
resources, the vim, the power of making ^'all things 
work together for good," which I take to be the vital 
characteristic of American manhood. 



BOSTON TO ALBANY. 39 

I remembered reading that in 1767 a committee 
was appointed to decide whether it would be wise to 
attempt to locate a village on the present site of 
Worcester. 

They reported that the place was one day's journey 
from Boston, and one day's journey from Springfield, 
that the place was well watered by streams and 
brooks, and that in eight miles square there was 
enough meadow to warrant the settling of sixty 
families, adding these words: " We recommend that a 
prudent and able committee be appointed to lay it out, 
and that due care be taken by said committee that a 
good minister of God's Word be placed there, as soon 
as may be, that such people as be there planted may 
not live like lambs in a large place." 

That was only a little more than a century ago. 
As I stood overlooking it all, '' thickly dotted with 
the homes of the husbandmen, and the villages of the 
manufacturer, traversed by canal and railway, and 
supporting a dense population/' proving so strong a 
contrast between the past generation's humble antici- 
pations, and our overflowing prosperity, I asked 
myself what those old Puritans would have thought 
of our railroads, our electric cars, our niodern ma- 
chines, our telephones ; and I said, with a spirit of 
self-gratulation, 

"We are living, we are dwelling, 
In a grand and awfnl time; 
In an age on ages telling, 
To be living is sublime." 

There is little doubt that future generations will 
look back upon this age as the brightest in the world's 
history. 



90 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

aijirii aub JTourtl) lilacs. 

Bates House, 
Springfield, Massachusetts, 

May Eleventh, 

Lowering clouds and a slight fall of rain again con- 
fronted me as I mounted Paul at seven o^clock on the 
morning of the Third Day in front of the Bay State 
House, Worcester, and rode out to the Boston and 
Albany Turnpike. The prospect of meeting ray wife 
and daughter, whom I had not seen for several months, 
and the lecture appointment for Springfield made this 
one of tlie memorable days of my journey for speed 
and endurance. Fifty-four miles were whirled off in 
eight hours and the fact established that Paul could 
be relied upon to do all that was required of him. 

I had hardly dismounted in front of the Bates 
House when Mrs. Glazier and Alice came running 
from the hotel to greet me. They had been visiting 
in Hartford and had come up to Springfield early in 
the morning, reaching the city several hours before 
my arrival. This visit with my family at Springfield 
was one of the pleasant episodes of my journey and 
long to be remembered in connection with my ride 
across the Bay State. 

My lecture was delivered at the Haynes Opera 
House, whither I was escorted bv comrades of the 
G. A. R. The introduction was by Captain Smith, 
Commander of the Springfield Post, who spoke 
pleasantly of my army and prison experiences and of 
the objects of my lecture tour. 

Hastening back to the Bates House after the lecture, 



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BOSTON TO ALBANY. 93 

the remainder of the evening was spent with my wife 
and daughter and a few friends who had called for a 
social talk and to tell me something of the early 
history of Springfield and vicinity. 

As the lecture appointment for Pittsfield was set for 
the fifteenth I readily discovered by a simple calcula- 
tion that I could easily spend another day with Hattie 
and Alice and still reach Pittsfield early in the after- 
noon of the fifteenth. The leisure thus found was 
devoted to strolls in and around Springfield and a 
careful study of the city and its environs. 

When Kincr Charles the First had dissolved his third 
parliament, thus putting his head on the bleeding heart 
of puritan ism, there lived in Springfield, England, a 
warden of the established church. " He was thirty- 
nine years of age, of gentle birth, acute, restive, and 
singularly self-assertive. He had seen some of the 
stoutest men of the realm break into tears when the 
King had cut off free speech in the Commons; he had 
seen ritualism, like an iron collar, clasped upon the 
neck of the church, while a young jewelled courtier, 
the Duke of Buckingham, dangled the reputation of 
sober England at his waistcoat. A colonial enter- 
prise, pushed by some Lincolnshire gentlemen, had 
been noised abroad, and the warden joined his for- 
tunes with them, and thus became one of the original 
incorporators mentioned in the Royal Charter of the 
Massachusetts Bay Company in America. This was 
William Pinchon.^' After reachino^ this country he 
became treasurer of the colony, and a member of the 
general court. He formed plans for a coast trade, and 
for a trade with the Indians. 

Such was the man of mark, who in 1636, with a 



94 OCEAN 10 OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

colony of friends, made a settlement on the fertile 
meadows of the Indian Agawam. The spot was 
obtained by a deed signed by thirteen Indians, and 
Pinchon, in loving remembrance of his old English 
home, christened the new settlement Springfield. 
From the little we can glean of them, the ancient 
inhabitants of the village must have been a grim old 
race. 

Hugh Parsons, and Mary, his wife, were tried for 
witchcraft. 

Good wife Hunter was gagged and made to stand in 
the stocks for "Sundry exhorbitance of ye toung.'' 

Men were fined for not attending town meeting and 
voting. 

In August, 1734, the Rev. Robert Breck was called 
to the church in Springfield. 

Shortly before that he had used the following ^orda 
in one of his sermons : " What will become of the 
heathen who never heard of the gospel, I do not pre- 
tend to say, but I cannot but indulge a hope that God, 
in his boundless benevolence, will find out a way 
whereby those heathen who act up to the light they 
have may be saved.'' 

The news of this alarming hope came to Spring- 
field, and a few other so-called unorthodox utter- 
ances were attributed to him. "In the minds of the 
River Gods heterodoxy was his crime. For this the 
Rev. gentleman was not only tried by a council of the 
church, but a sheriff and his posse appeared and 
arrested Mr. Breck in his Majesty's name, and the 
prisoner was taken first to the town-house, and after- 
ward to New London for trial." 

The early Sprintrfield settlers had lew of the 



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BOSTON TO ALBANY. 97 

articles which we consider the commonest comforts of 
life. 

Hon. John Worthington, ^' One of the Gods of the 
Connecticut Valley/' owned the first umbrella in 
Springfield. He never profaned the article by 
carrying it in the rain, but used it as a sun-shade 
only. 

In 1753 there was but one clock in Springfield. It 
was considered a great curiosity, and people used to 
stop to hear it strike. 

As early as about 1774 that wonderful innovation, 
a cooking-stove, made its appearance in Springfield. 
The stove was made in Philadelphia, and weighed 
eight or nine hundred pounds. 

It was 1810 when David Ames brought the first 
piano into the little settlement. 

We are furnished with a description of Springfield 
in 1789 by the journal of the Great Washington. 
Under the date of October twentv-first he wrote, 
^^ There is a great equality in the people of this 
State. Few or no opulent men, and no poor. Great 
similitude in their buildings, the general fashion of 
which is a chimney — always of brick or stone — and a 
door in the middle, with a staircase fronting the 
latter, and running up by the side of the former ; two 
flush stories, with a very good show of sash and glass 
windows; the size generally from thirty to fifty feet 
in length, and from twenty to thirty in width, ex- 
clusive of a back shed, which seems to be added as the 
family increases." 

Much later in our national history, Springfield 
became one of the most important stations of the 
" Underground Railroad.'' 



98 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

In a back room on Main street can still be seen a 
fireplace, preserved as a memento of stirring days, 
when many a negro was pushed up through it, to be 
secreted in the great chimney above. 

Springfield has had many noted citizens. The his- 
torian Bancroft lived thereat one time; so did John 
Brown, of Harper's Ferry fame. 

George Ashman, a brilliant member of the local 
bar, was made chairman of the famous Chicago con- 
vention of 1860 which nominated Abraham Lincoln 
for President. Mr. Ashman also had the honor to 
convey the formal notice of the nomination to Lincoln 
in Springfield, Illinois. 

Dr. J. G. Holland lived in Springfield, where all 
of his prose works first made their appearance, in the 
columns of the Springfield Republican. 

No spot in Springfield is more interesting to those 
fortunate enough to see it than the United States 
Arsenal. 

Springfield Armory was established by act of Con- 
gress, April, 1794, its site having been accepted by 
by Washington in 1789. The plant consists of the 
Armory and Arsenal on the hill, and the water shops, 
distant about two miles, on Mill River. Main 
Arsenal is on a bluff overlooking the city, and is one 
hundred and sixty feet above the river. It is a partial 
copy of East India House in London. From its tower 
there is a wonderful view of the surrounding country, 
and one which was greatly admired by Charles Dickens 
during; his visit to America. 

The Main Arsenal is two hundred feet by seventy, 
and is three stories high, each floor having storage 
capacity for one hundred thousand stand of arms. 



BOSTON TO ALBANY. 101 

Longfellow's lines have made this a classic »pot : 

" This is the Arseual. From floor to ceiling, 
Like a huge organ, rise the burnished arms; 
But from the silent pipes no anthem pealing 
Startles the villages with strange alarms. 

" Oh! what a sound will rise, how wild and dreary. 
When the death angel touches those swift keys! 
What loud lament and dismal miserere 
Will mingle with those awful symphonies I 

"Peace ! and no longer from its brazen portals 

The blast of War's great organ shakes the skies; 
But beautiful as songs of the immortals, 
The holy melodies of love arise." 

Beside the Main Arsenal, two other buildings are 
used for the storage of arms. 

In 1795 Uncle Sam made his first musket. That 
year forty or fifty men "were employed, and 24'^ 
muskets ^vere made. Between that and the preseiit 
time over 2,000,000 weapons have been turned out. 
During that time $32,500,000 have been expended. 
When Sumter was fired on about 1,000 w^eapons per 
month were being made. Three months later, 3,000 
were made each month. In 1864, 1,000 muskets were 
completed each day, and 3,400 men were employed, 
with pay roll sometimes amounting to $200,000 per 
month. At present only 400 men are em})loyed. 

From Springfield stock have coQie eight college 
presidents, namely of Yale, Harvard, Columbia, 
Amherst, Princeton, Trinity, Beloit, and Dickinson. 

Springfield of to-day is a thriving city of about 
50,000, and is the county seat of Hampden County. 
Some one, I think, has called it the " city of homes." 
Its streets are broad, and w^ell shaded by elms and 



102 OCEAN TO xjtlEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

maples ; many of its residences are detached, and as 
a whole it bears the stamp of taste and refinement. 

Springfield is within easy reach of many points of 
interest. It is ninety-eight miles from Boston, one 
hundred and twenty miles from New York, and 
twenty-six miles from Hartford. 

The growth of the Springfield Street Railroad 
Company has been phenomenal. In 1869 this com- 
pany started out with only $50,000 capital stock. Its 
length was only about two miles. It had only four 
cars and twenty -five horses. Three years ago horses 
were displaced by electricity. Now, in the busy season, 
the daily mileage of transit on the thirty-five miles of 
track is equal to the distance from Springfield to San 
Francisco and half-way back. During the fiscal year 
closing October first, 1892, 7,500,000 fares were taken. 

The stores of Springfield are remarkably large and 
tasteful. Haynes & Company have the largest clothing 
house in Massachusetts, out of Boston. 

In 1875 Meakins & Packard started in business 
with only one boy to help them. Now their building 
is One hundred feet square, and seven stories high, 
while they now have over one hundred employees. 

Springfield has three great manufactories, Smith 
& Wesson Pistol Works ; R. F. Hawkins Iron 
Works ; and the Wesson Car Manufactory. Smith & 
Wesson employ about 500 men, with an annual output 
of 80,000 weapons. They ship goods to Russia and 
other countries. The Wesson Car Company in 1860 
sent $300,000 worth of goods to the Egyptian govern- 
ment. They have also done considerable work for 
South America. They have done $150,000 worth for 






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BOSTON TO ALBANY. 105 

the New Jersey Central Railroad, and $1,700,000 
worth for the Central Pacific K-ailroad. 

The City Library was built at a cost of $100,000, 
and contains 80,000 books. Adjoining the library is 
the beautiful new art building, containing a rare and 
costly collection of curiosities. 

The City Hall is a building in the Romanesque style. 
It contains a public hall with a seating capacity of 
2,700. 

The Court House is an imposing structure, is built 
of granite, and cost $200,000. 

The city has many a lovely spot in which to 
recreate. Imagine four hundred acres, woodland al- 
ternating with highly cultivated lawns, and stretches 
of blooming plants. Imagine in the midst of this a 
deep ravine, with a brawling little brook through it. 
Imagine five lakelets covered by Egyptian lotus, and 
the different varieties of water-lilies. Through all 
this loveliness, think of seven miles of charming 
drives, winding in and out like a ribbon, and you 
have in your mind a picture of Springfield's enchant- 
ing Forest Park. 

Jiftl] Elau. 

Russell ffouse, 

Russell, Massachusetts, 

May Thirteenth. 

My wife and daughter were not easily reconciled 
to my leavetaking of Springfield, but yielding to the 
inevitable, adieus were quickly said, Paul was mounted 
and I rode slowly away from the Bates House, turn- 
ing occasionally in the saddle until entirely out of 

eight of mv loved ones, then putting spurs to my horse 
6 



106 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK: 

galloper! out to the turnpike and headed for Hussell, 
the evening objective. 

Considerable rain fell during the day and the roads 
at this time thi-ough Western Massachusetts were in 
a wretched condition. With clothing thoroughly 
soaked and mud anywhere from ankle to knee deep, 
the trip from Springfield to Russell was anything but 
what I had pictured when planning my overland tour 
in the saddle. Some consolation was found, however, 
in recalling similar experiences in the army and I 
resolved to allow nothing to depress or turn me from 
my original purpose. A halt was made for dinner 
during this day's ride, at a country inn or tavern ten 
miles west of Springfield. 

Notwithstanding the fact that I did not leave 
Springfield until nearly ten o'clock in the morning, 
and that I was out of the saddle over an hour on 
account of dinner, and com})elled to face a pelting 
storm throughout the dav, J did well to advance 
eighteen miles by four o'clock, the time of dismount- 
ing at the Russell House. 

Russell is one of the most beautiful of the numerous 
villages of Hampden County, and is picturesquely 
situated among the Berkshire Hills in the western 
part of the State. It stands on the banks of the 
Westfield. River, upon which it relies for water-power 
in the manufacture of paper, its only industry. It 
has direct communication with Eastern and Western 
Massachusetts through the Boston and Albany Rail- 
way, and while it is not likely that it will ever come to 
anything pretentious, it will always be, in appearance 
at least, a rugged and romantic-looking little village. 



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BOSTON TO ALBANY. 109 

Bechet House ^ 

Becket, Massachusetts, 

May Fourteenth. 

Mounted Paul in front of the hotel at Russell at 
nine o'clock in the morning to ride towards Chester, 
along the bank of the Westfield Riv^er. This swift 
branch of the Connecticut runs along between its 
green banks fertilizing the meadows and turning the 
factory wheels that here and there dip down into its 
busy current. The Indian name '^ Ag-awam " bv which 
it is known nearer its mouth, seems more appropriate 
for the wild little stream, and often, while I was follow- 
ing its course, I thought of the banished Red Men 
who had given it this musical name and who had once 
built their wigwams along its shores. 

On this morning the air was fresh and the view 
pleasing under the magical influence of spring, and 
both were none the less enjoyed by the assurance 
that dinner could be had at our next stopping-place. 
Upon dismounting, I found that the ride could not 
have been as agreeable to Paul as to his master, for 
his back was in a very sore condition. Everything 
was done for his comfort; cold water and castile soap 
being applied to relieve the injured parts, and the. 
cumbersome saddle-cloth which had been doing duty 
since we left Boston was discarded for a simple blanket 
such as I had used while in the cavalry service. This 
was a change for the better and was made at the righ< 
time, for, as I afterwards had some difficulty in keep- 
ing the direct road, the equipment of my horse re- 
lieved what might have proved a fatiguing day's ride. 



110 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

As it was, the novelty of being lost, which was my ex- 
perience on this occasion, had its advantages, for a 
wanderer in the Berkshire Hills finds mnch to suit the 
fancy and to please the eye. At six o'clock, notwith- 
standing the delay, we came into Becket, where Edwin 
Lee, the proprietor of the hotel of the place, told me I 
was the only guest. 

Becket is an enterprising little village, thirty-seven 
miles northwest of Springfield, having a graded 
school and several manufactories. The scenery through- 
out the region is rugged and attractive • a charming 
characteristic of the Bay State. 

Seceutl) 5Dap. 

Berkshire Ifouse, 
PiTTSFiELD, Massachusetts, 
3fay Fifteenth. 

Rode away from Becket at eight o'clock in the 
morning, and on the way found it necessary to favor 
Paul in this day's ride; so I dismounted and walked 
several miles. This was not a disagreeable task, for 
my journey lay over the picturesque Hoosac Mountains 
whose wooded sides and fertile valleys were almost a 
fairyland of loveliness at this season. Owing to this 
delay, Pittsfield was not reached until one o'clock. 
Here I delivered my fourth lecture at the Academy 
of Music, Captain Brewster, commander of the Pitts- 
field Post, G. Aj. R., introducing me. 

Berkshire House, 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 

May Sixteenth. 

Spent the morning at the " Berkshire," posting my 
journal and attending to private and business corre- 



§ 

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BOSTON TO ALBANY. 113 

spondence. The afternoon was passed in a stroll 
through the town, where I saw much that was of inter- 
est and gathered some information concerning its early 
history, progress and present condition. 

Of the fourteen counties of Massachusetts, the most 
strongly marked and highly favored is Berkshire, with 
its four cardinal boundaries, formed by four different 
states. To one who sees, for the first time, the lux- 
uriance of its vegetation, the beauty of its forest-cov- 
ered hills, the broad shady avenues of its villages, 
with their palatial homes, it seems as if Nature and 
wealth had combined to make this spot a veritable 
" Garden of the Gods." 

In the exact centre of all this loveliness, more than 
1,000 feet above the level of the sea, lies the little 
city of Pittsfield, containing about 16,000 inhabitants. 
Its principal streets form a cross. North, South, East, 
and West streets meeting at an elliptical grove of 
stately elms forming a small park. Here in old days 
stood one central tree, its height one hundred and 
twenty -eight feet, its bare shaft ninety feet, with many 
a memory of the French and Indian wars attached to 
it. In 1841, it was struck by lightning. In 1861 
it was cut down, even stern men weeping at its fall. 
It was replaced by a fountain, whose stream may be 
raised to the height of the old tree. This park also 
holds a huge shaft of granite, upon -which stands the 
bronze figure of a soldier, flag in hand. On the 
granite are cut the words, " For the dead a tribute, for 
the living a memory, for posterity an emblem of devo- 
tion to their country's flag.'^ To the west of the park 
is Pittsfield's large brownstone Post Office, it being 
the first building on North street, a small business 



114 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

thoroughfare, whose stores, with their dainty wares and 
tasteful fabrics, would do credit to many a large city. 

On the south of the park stands the Athenaeum, a 
building of rough stone, erected at the cost of $100,000 
as a "tribute to art, science, and literature,'' and pre- 
sented to his fellow-townspeople by Thomas Allen. 
It contains a large free library, an art gallery, and a 
very entertaining museum of curiosities. Next door to 
tilt; Athenaeum is the large white Court House, said to 
have cost $400,000. Across from the Court House, in 
a little corner of the park, is a tiny music house, gay 
with colored electric lights, where open air evening 
concerts are given all through the summer. 

On the north of the park stand two of the hand- 
somest of Pittsfield's eleven churches. 

The city's manufactories are large and thrifty, but 
they, and the operatives who manipulate them, are 
tucked away in a corner, so to speak, where they may 
not offend the eyes of the opulent inhabitants. Only 
in the riotous jostle of Saturday night in the store is 
one brought face to face with the fact that beauty, 
leisure and wealth do not hold a monopoly of the 
sweet Berkshire air. For everything appears so 
lovely. The streets are very wide, great stately 
avenues, where beautiful strips of the finest lawn bor- 
der each edge of the sidewalk. Society is the choicest, 
for the summer residences of New York's four hun- 
dred intermingle with the magnificent old mansions 
owned by the staunchest of ^lassachusetts' old blue- 
blooded sons and daughters. Cropping out through 
the elegance of this little city are some queer old 
Yankee traits. Lawlessness there is none. No police- 
men guard the park, with its ideal lawns, but a polite 







3^?ife- 









BOSTON TO ALBANY, 117 

notice informs passers-by that this being no thorough- 
fare, trespassing will not be tolerated, and there is 
none. When the concerts are in full blast, people 
gather in the walks and drives only. AVhole rows of 
little street Arabs may be seen on these occasions, 
drawn up with their little bare toes touching the very 
edge of the precious grass. The open music house is 
always left full of chairs, which no one steals^ nay, 
which no one uses. The entrance to the Court House is 
filled with blooming plants. No child, no dog even, 
is ill-bred enough to break one. 

But the peculiarities of the people, the beauty of 
the dwellings, the magnificence of the equipages, the 
tide of fashionable life which pours in, summer and 
fall, a//, ALL is forgotten as, from some point of van- 
tage, the spectator takes in the beauty surrounding 
him. "On the west sweep the Taconics, in that 
majestic curve, whose grace travelers, familiar with the 
mountain scenery of both hemispheres, pronounce un- 
equaled. On the east the Hoosacs stretch their un- 
broken battlements, with white villages at their feet, 
and, if the sunlight favors, paths of mingled lawn and 
wood, enticing to their summits; while from the 
south, 'Greylock, cloud-girdled on his purple throne" 
looks grandly across the valley to the giant heights, 
keeping watch and ward over the pass where the 
mountains throw wide their everlasting gates, to let 
the winding Housatouic flow peacefully toward the 
sea." 

Thus, in taking leave of Massachusetts, I looked 
back to the starting-point, and thought with pleasure 
of the many beautiful links in the chain connecting 
Boston with Pittsfield, none more beautiful than the 



118 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Nassau House^ 

Nassau, New York, 

May Seventeenth. 

Ordered my horse at ten in the morning, and before 
riding on stopped at the office of the Berkshire 
Eagle to talk a few minutes with the editor. The 
route from Pittsfield lay over the Boston and Albany 
Turnpike, one of the villages on the way being West 
Lebanon. Here we had dinner. While quietly pur- 
suing my journey afterwards, in crossing the Pittsfield 
Mountain, I overtook Egbert Jolls, a farmer, with 
whom I had a long and interesting conversation. He 
amused me with stories of the Lebanon Shakers, among 
whom he had lived many years, and whose peculiar 
belief and customs have always set them widely apart 
from other sects. Perhaps the most singular point in 
their doctrine is that God is dual, combining in the One 
Person the eternal Father and Mother of all generated 
nature. They believe that the revelation of God is 
progressive, and in its last aspect the manifestation was 
God revealed in the character of Mother, as an evidence 
of Divine affection. Ann Lee, the daughter of a Man- 
chester blacksmith, is the founder of the sect, and 
considered from her holy life to be the human repre- 
sentation of this Divine duality. This is a strange 
belief, and one that is not generally known, but its 
adherents have among other good traits one which 
commends them to the respect of those who know any- 
thing of them, and that is their sober and industrious 
habits. 

Soon after crossing the State line between Massachu* 



BOSTON TO ALBANY. 119 

setts and New York, we passed the home of Governor 
Samuel J. Tilden. Two years before, this popular 
Democrat was elected governor, by a plurality of 50,000 
votes above his fellow-candidate, John A. Dix. He 
won popular attention by his strong opposition to 
certain political abuses ; notably the Tweed Charter 
of 1870; and by iucensant activity he was, in 1876, 
beginning to reap the laurels of a career which began 
while he was a student at Yale. 




CHAPTER V. 

FOUR DAYS AT ALBANT 

TARTED from Nassau at eleven o'clock, 
still following the Boston and Albany 
Turnpike, and soon reached the Old 
Barringer Homestead. It was with 
this family that I spent my first night 
in Rensselaer County sixteen years be- 
fore, when a lad of seventeen, I was 
looking for a school commissioner and 
a school to teach. Brock way's was 
another well-known landmark which I could not 
pass without stopping, for it was here that I boarded 
the first week after opening my school at Schodack 
Centre in the autumn of 1859. At the school, too, 
I dismounted, and found that the teacher was one of 
my old scholars. The Lewis family, at the hotel just 
beyond, were waiting my approach with wide-open 
door; for Oscar Lewis had gone to Albany and had 
said before he left : " Keep a sharp lookout for Captain 
Glazier, as he will surely pass this way." It was very 
pleasant to be met so cordially, although the sight of 
well-kno\vn faces and landmarks brought back the past 
and made me feel like another Rip Van Winkle. 

In crossing the river between Greenbush and Albany, 
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FOUR DAYS AT ALBANY, 123 

Paul seemed disinclined to stay on board, so the bars 
liad to be put up and every precaution taken. It may 
have been that the sliades of the ferrymen who had 
run the little tiraft for the last two hundred years came 
back to vex us. Perhaps the particular ghost of Hen- 
drick Albertsen, who, two hundred and eight years 
ago bargained with Killian Van Rensselaer for the 
privilege of running his boat; but whatever the cause 
of the disturbance we reached terra firma without acci- 
dent, and were soon in the familiar streets of the old 
Dutch town ; the day's journey agreeably ended with 
our trip across the Hudson by the oldest ferry in the 
United States. 

From the river the view of Albany is picturesque 
in the extreme, where the eye catches the first glimpse 
of the city, rising from the water's edge, and surmounted 
then by its brown-domed C^pitoL It was a sight that 
had always had a singular charm for me, for many of 
i\iM pleasantest hours of my early life were spent here, 
where my sisters and I were educated. Here I left 
school to enlist at the opening of the Civil War, and 
here I published my first book, " Capture, Prison-Pen 
and Escape.'' But even if the city had no claim other 
than its own peculiar attractiveness it would hold an 
enviable place among its sister cities. The irregularity 
of its older streets, the tone of its architecture, the lack 
of the usual push and bustle of an American town, 
give it an old-world air that makes it interesting. 
There is a Common in the centre of the city, shaded 
by old elms, and around this stand the public buildings 
— the State Hall for state offices and tlie City Hall for 
city offices — both of marble and fronting on the 
Common. The Albany Academy, where Joseph 



124 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Henry, one of its professors from 1826 to 1832, first 
demonstrated his theory of the magnetic telegraph. 
A few squares west of tlie Common was the stretch of 
green that has since been set apart for a public park, 
where the good people of Albany may find an agree- 
able change of scene and an hour's pleasant recreation. 
The New Capitol, on the site of the Old Capitol, is 
a magnificent edifice in the renaissance style, built of 
New England granite, at a cost to the State of many 
millions. On passing quaint bits of architecture or the 
suggestive aspect of some out-of-the way corner, one 
turns naturally to the days of wigs and kneebreeches, 
before the capital of the Empire State was thought of, 
and when the forests of fair Columbia were overrun by 
the bronzed warriors who still held undisputed sway. 
It was back in these days that Henry Hudson, sent from 
Holland by the Dutch East India Company, in sailing 
up the " Grande " River in search of a passage to In- 
dia and China, found that he could not send his ship 
beyond the point where the city of Hudson now stands. 
This was discouraging, but sure that the desired passage 
was found, he and a few of his men pushed farther on 
in a small craft, landing, it is believed, on the present 
site of Albany. Later, Hudson and his men returned, 
assured that the noble river could not take them where 
they had hoped it might. After them came Dutch 
traders, led by an enterprising Hollander who had been 
with Hudson on his first voyage, and who saw a prom- 
ising field in the red man's country. They established 
a trading-post where the "Half Moon" had been 
moored before, and froui here carried on their barter 
with the Indians, exchanging attractive trifles for fursc 
Other traders followed these, and then came the colo- 




STATE STREET AND CAI'ITO., vLBANY, KJiW YORK. 



FOUR DAYS AT ALBANY. 127 

nists; a brave little hand full of hope and eager to try 
their fortune in the New World. Their leader was none 
other than Killian Van Rensselaer, the wealthy pearl 
merchant of Amsterdam, and one of the directors of 
the AYest India Company, who had received a grant 
from the Prince of Orange for a large tract of land 
about the Upper Hudson, including the present site of 
Albany. Here he established his " patroonship," guard- 
ing the affairs of the colony, and providing his tenants 
with comfortable houses and ample barns. And more 
tlian this, their spiritual welfare was promoted through 
the services of the Reverend Doctor Joanes Mega- 
polensis. From his personal accounts we read that the 
good Dominie found his life among the ' wilden ' as full 
^f peril and unceasing labor as that of his flock; for he 
mdertook not only the guidance of his own people, but 
the enlisihtenment and conversion of the Indians. To 
this end he threw himself into the task of mastering 
their languuii^e with true missionary zeal ; a task which 
in those days meant not only difficulty but danger. 

Under the shelter of the handsome churches that 
grace the streets of the Albany of to-day, we see a 
striking contrast in the primitive house where this 
pioneer clergyman preached; and from the security 
of long-established peace, we look back upon those 
sturdy people of Rensselaerwyck who sowed and reaped 
and went to church under the protection of the Pa- 
troon's guns. 

But there came a day when English ships sailed up 
to the harbor at Manhatoes, and demanded the sur- 
render of the Dutch colonies in the name of the 
Duke of York and Albany. The terrified people at 
sight of the guns refused to withstand an attack, and 



12S OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSES ACK. 

the English quietly came into possession. Van Rens-* 
selaer sent down his papers, and Fort Orange surren- 
dered on the twenty-fourth of September, 1664, soon 
after receiving its new name in honor of the Duke's 
second title. Twenty-two years later, Albany had the 
satisfaction of sending two of her representatives, 
Peter Schuyler and Robert Livingston, to New York 
to claim her charter as a city ; which, upon their return, 
was received, according to the old chronicler, "with all 
ye joy and acclamation imaginable." 

Through the strength of their new dignity and in- 
fluence we can trace the spirit of independence which 
was beginning to rise in opposition to the unjust Eng- 
lish rule ; and it was here in 1754 that the first Gen- 
eral Congress was held to discuss arrangements for tlie 
national defence, when Franklin and his compatriots 
"signed the first plan for American Union and pro- 
claimed to the colonies that they were one people, fit to 
govern and able to protect themselves." Later, when 
the storm of the Revolution broke, this place, where 
the first threatenings were heard, was the most impr v- 
erished by the contest and the most persevering in the 
fight; but she came out triumphant, with a record well 
meriting the honors received in 1797, when she was 
made the capital of the Empire State. After peace 
was again established and the routine of business taken 
up, Albany became the centre of the entire trade of 
Western New York. 

Fulton's steamboats began to run between Albany 
and New York as early as 1809, and this commercial 
activity and contact with the world gave an impulse 
to the city which has made itself felt all along the 
Hudson. Since then it has grown rapidly, and has in 



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FOVn DAYS AT ALBANY. 131 

its steady advancement an influential future to v/hich 
its citizens may look forward with pardonable pride. 

My arrival in Albany and lecture at Tweddle Hall 
on the evening of the eighteenth were to me among 
the notable events of my journey. Colonel J. M. Fin- 
ley, who accompanied me from Boston, a veteran of the 
late war and manager of ray lecture course from Boston 
to Buffalo, introduced me. 

Called at the Capitol on the nineteenth to see 
the adjutant-general in relation to my lecturing in the 
interest of the fund for the erection of a Soldiers' 
Home which at that time interested persons had pro-' 
pos«ed to build at Bath, New York. I was presented 
to General Townsend by Colonel Taylor, assistant ad- 
jutant-general, whom I had known for several years, 
Found that General Townsend was not, as I had been 
informed, the treasurer of the fund. Colonel Taylor 
then went with me up Washington avenue in search 
of Captain John. Palmer, Past Department Commander, 
G. A. P., whom I was advised to consult on the subject. 

These matters attended to, I went in pursuit of 
Captain William Blasie and Lieutenant Arthur 
Kichardson — acquaintances of many years and both 
of W'hom had been the companions of my capitivity 
in Southern prisons during the War of the Pebellion. 

My stay in Albany was prolonged by preparation for 
lectures at Troy and Schenectady, and "by needed in- 
formation concerning the early history and development 
of the former city. The second Sunday of my journey 
found me here and I wqjit in the morning to the 
Presbyterian Church at the corner of Hudson and 
Philip streets. 



CHAPTER VL 



ALBANY TO SYRACUSE. 

JourteeutI) IDa^. 

Giveri's JB'otet, 
Schenectady, New Yore, 
May 22, 1876, 

EFT Albany at eleven o'clock. My 
journey to this city led me over the 
Schenectady Turnpike. Was compelled 
to ride between showers all day as a 
rainstorm had set in just as I was 
leaving Albany. Stopped for dinner 
at Peter Lansing's, whose farm is about 
midway between the two cities. This 
genial gentleman of old Knickerbocker 
stock greatly amused me with his blunt manner and 
dry jokes. I was sorry to leave the shelter of his 
hospitable roof, especially as the weather was exceed- 
ingly disagreeable, but my engagement to lecture in 
Schenectady obliged me to go on. I found it necessary 
to ride the last three miles at a gallop in order to avoid 
an approaching shower. Reached my hotel at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, and lectured in the evening 
at Union Hall under the auspices of Post 14, G. A. R. 
Several representatives of the city press were with me 
(132) 




ALBANY TO SYRACUSE. 265 

Oh the platform, and among them was Colonel S. G. 
Hamlin, a fellow-prisoner in " Libby ^^ during the war, 
and now editor of the Union. In the morning Colonel 
i'inley went over to Troy to assist Mr. Farrington, 
my advance agent, in arranging for my lecture in that 
city. 

iFifkeutI) ani» SutciutI) 5i)aj33. 

91 Centre Streety 
Schenectady, New York, 
May Twenty-third- Twenty-Jo urth. 

Accepting an invitation to spend a day or two with 
friends, I went to 91 Centre street after mv lecture. 
While here I was occupied chiefly in posting my jour- 
nal and in attending to business and private correspond- 
ence. A telegram from Colonel Fin ley told me that 
he had fixed upon the next evening for my lecture at 
Harmony Hall, Troy. Acting upon this plan I went 
over to Troy the following afternoon by way of 
Albany. Called on Captain Palmer in the latter city, 
and handed him the proceeds of my lecture at 
Schenectady, which he at once transmitted to the fund 
in aid of the Soldiers' Home. While in Troy I met 
R. H. Ferguson, Hon. Martin I. Townsend, the Mc- 
Coys and many other friends and acquaintances of 
Auld,Lang Syne. I may add that this was the only 
instance in my journey thus far in which. I had devi- 
ated from a direct line of march. 

iS^Dfuteeuil) JPan. 

91 Centre Street, 

Schenectady, New York, 

3Iay Twenty-fifth. 

Returned to Schenectady by way of Albany after 
7 



136 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

2ny lecture at Troy. Was very busy at this lime in 
organ izfng for u\y lecture campaign between Schenec- 
tady and Buffalo. There was rather a surprising an- 
nouncement in the afternoon's Union to the effect that 
I had left for Little Falls. I did not learn from what 
source Comrade Hamlin of that paper received his in- 
formation. Colonel Finley went on to Utica, where 
he was joined by Mr. Farrington. 

During my stay here I became interested in the place 
and found that Schenectady was as rich in legends and 
story as her neighbors. She counts her birthday among 
the historic dates of America, having begun hercareer in 
1620, when the Mohawks were still holding their coun- 
cils of war and spreading the terror of their name. Here 
in their very haunts a band of courageous Dutchmen es- 
tablished a trading-{)ost and began the work of civiliza- 
tion. This brave colony did not find life as peaceful as 
the innocent aspect of Nature would suggest, however, 
for in the winter of 1690 the French and Indians began 
their terrible work, burning the houses and massacre- 
ing the inhabitants. It was only through a baptism 
of blood that the small trading-post developed into a 
city. Now it v^as one of the most flourishing and im- 
portant towns in the valley; and the transformation was 
so complete that it is almost impossible to realize that 
this was the scene of so many struggles. The Schenec- 
tady of to-day is a busy manufacturing town, with a 
prosperous farming district about it, whose cornfields 
and orchards attest the richness of the soil. It is the 
seat of Union College, a well-known institution of 
rich endowments and possessing a handsome library 
of 15,000 volumes. The college was founded in 1795 
by a union of several religious sects. Its buildings 



ALBANY TO SYBACUSE. 137 

are plain and substantial, their stuccoed walls sugges- 
tive of the good solid work that is accomplished within 
them from year to year. 



(SigljteentI) IDag. 



Union Hotel, 

Fonda, New York, 

3Iay Twenty-sixth. 



Moved from Schenectady at eight o'clock in the 
morning. Found the weather delightful and the scen- 
ery charming. On either side were the meadows dotted 
with spring flowers and fertilized by the river, whose 
shore line of willows and elms w'as brijjht with new 
green. If I were to except the Berkshire Hills, I saw 
nothing in Massachusetts to surpass, or even equal, the 
Valley of the Mohawk. It surprised me that poet and 
novelist had apparently found so little here for legen- 
dary romance. 

Had dinner at Amsterdam, sixteen miles from 
Schenectady, and while halted here had Paul shod 
for the first time since leaving Boston. Resumed my 
journey at four o'clock and reached Fonda two hours 
later. Made twenty-six miles during the day and was 
now 243 miles from the ^^ Hub." Through the cour- 
tesy of Mr. Fisher, my landlord at this place, I was 
given a verbal sketch of Fonda w^hich made a pleas- 
ant addition to mv own small store of information. 
There were no striking characteristics here to attract 
the traveller's eye and history had not chronicled its 
modest advancement, but for those who enjoy the sight 
of peace and prosperity, Fonda has a ©harm of its own. 
Around it on all sides the grain fields were under ex- 



138 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

cellent cultivation, with here and there a well-stocked 
farm, suggesting an agricultural and dairying centre. 
I found a good night's rest here, envied the people 
their peaceful existence, and rode away with a sense 
of complete refreshment. 

JTinetmit!) Slag. 

Briggs JTouse^ 
Saint Johnsville, New York, 
May Twenty-seventh. 

Called for Paul at eight o'clock, and after halting a 
moment at the office of the Mohaiok Valley Democraiy 
crossed the river to Fultonville, which is connected 
with Fonda by a substantial iron bridge. Passing 
through this town, an enterprising one for its size, I 
continued my journey along the south bank of the 
Mohawk until I readied Canajoharie, where I stopped 
at the Eldridge House for dinner. 

Here I met another Socrates who had a ^'favorite 
prescription " for healing the sore on PauVs back. 
Spent an hour very pleasantly in the office of the 
Mohawk Valley Regider at Fort Plain, where I learned 
that Ciiarles W. Elliott of this paper is a son of 
George W. Elliott, author of "Bonnie Eloise.'^ For 
many years this song was a great favorite, not only 
along the Mohawk, but all over the country, and is 
certainly one of the sweetest ballads of America. 
There is a swing to the rythm and charm in the lines 
which keeps it in memory, and in riding along 
through the scenes it describes, my thoughts go back 
to the old days in Rensselaer County, where as a hoy 
I first heard the words. 



ALBAI^Y TO SYRACUSE. 141 

" O fiweet is the vale where the Mohawk gently glides, 
On its clear winding way to the sea; 
And dearer than all storied streams on earth besides, 
Is this bright rolling river to me. 

But sweeter, dearer, yes, dearer far than these, 

Who charms when others all fail, 
Is blue-eyed, bounie, bonnie Eloise, 

The belle of the Mohawk vale. 

•*0 sweet are the scenes of my boyhood's sunny years 
That bespangle the gay valley o'er; 
And dear are the friends, seen through memory's fond tears, 
That have lived in the blest days of yore. 

But sweeter, dearer, yes, dearer far than these, etc. 

**0 sweet are the moments when dreaming I roam 
Through my loved haunts now mossy and gray ; 
And dearer than all is my childhood's hallowed home 
That is crumbling now slowly away. 

But sweeter, dearer, yes, dearer far than these, etc.** 

Reached tins place at seven o'clock in the evening 
and will go on to Little Falls after dinner to-morrow. 
In the morning I had an opportunity to look about me 
and admire the unusually fine scenery whose romantic 
aspect was heightened by a rugged tip of the Adiron- 
dacks which runs down into the valley at that point. 
At the foot of the mountain lies the brisk little town 
of Saint Johnsville, whose manufacturing interests 
have given it a reputation for miles around. 

(lEtucntietl) Daw. 

Girvan House, 

Little Falls, New York, 

May Twenty-eighth. 

Rode to this place from Saint Johnsville after five 
o'clock in the afternoon, taking the north bank of the 
river. The effect of the scene in front of me as I 



142 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

traced my way along the valley was most striking. 
Nearer the town my eye caught the picturesque masses 
of rock lifting their rugged sides to a height of five 
hundred feet, the swift waters of the Mohawk rushing 
along between them. The homes perched all along on 
the steep hills suggested Swiss scenes and Alpine 
journeys, but the busy hum and characteristic Ameri- 
can push soon dissipated these fancies. The rapid fall 
of the river here is of great benefit to the manufactur- 
ers who are making good use of their excellent water- 
power in the paper and woollen mills. 

Soon after my arrival, several citizens came into the 
hotel to learn the particulars of my journey, but before 
I had time to register, Postmaster Stafford made him- 
self known and introduced me to several of his friends 
and acquaintances, among them General Curtis and 
Major Lintner. A laughable story was related which 
afforded considerable amusement soon after I rode 
into town. It seems that a credulous old lady 
from the country had been led to believe that a 
cavalryman would ride through the place that night 
on the horse which General Washington rode during 
the Revolution. A story suggested, no doubt, by the 
subject of my lecture. She had come in to sell her 
firkin of butter and had waited until long after dark 
for the rider and his ancient steed, while the objects 
of her misguided interest were resting in Saint Johns- 
ville unconscious of the disappointment they were 
causing. 

Let us hope that she never discovered her mistake, 
for the old are often sensitive on such points. It is 
better at times to suffer keen disappointment than to 
dnd we have been too credulous. 



ALBANY TO SYRACUSE, 145 

12 Cornelia Street, 
Utica, New York, 
May Twenty-ninth. 

After considerable trouble in finding a saddle blanket 
for Paul, to take the place of the saddle cloth used 
until we reached Little Falls, I started from that 
romantic town at nine o'clock, halting at Ilion for 
dinner. This village, well known through the firm of 
the Remingtons, is on the south bank of the Mohawk, 
twelve miles from Utica. From here the famous 
Remington machines and rifles are sent all over the 
world. 

Farrington met me two miles east of Utica and 
escorted me back to the city, conducting Colonel Finley 
and myself to rooms which had been engaged for us 
through the hospitality of J. C. Bates. 

Left my pleasant quarters here to make a few obser- 
vations about town, and found much to arrest my 
attention. A century ago Utica was known as "Old 
Fort Schuyler " from a small stockade of that name, 
built on the site in 1750. As the country grew more 
peaceful, and the life of the future city began, the 
name was changed. A gradual slope of the land from 
the river gave from the more elevated parts some very 
fine views; and the public parks with their shade 
trees and gay flowers made a rich adornment to a nat- 
urally attractive city. The great Erie Canal passes 
through the centre of the city and is joined by the 
Chenango Canal at this point. Among the landmarks 
are the homes of Roscoe Conkling and Horatio Sey- 
mour. 



146 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

STrDcutg-seronb Slag. 

Stanwix Hall, 

Rome, New York, 

May Thirtieth. 

"Was compelled to remain in Utica until four o'clock 
in the afternoon in order to have my saddle padded. 
This brief delay, while favoring my equine friend, was 
in some particulars also favorable to his rider, as it af- 
forded me an excellent opportunity to gather informa- 
tion I desired concerning the growth of this enterpris- 
ing town. 

Rode up to Rome on the south bank of the 
Mohawk. Soon after my arrival at the Stanwix I 
met a large number of Grand Army comrades. Room 
*' 14 '^ had been enfyasred and made a rendezvous, and 
here until a late hour the experiences of the late war 
were told over a2:ain and our battles re-fou^ht. This 
gathering of comrades to celebrate Memorial Day was 
marked by deep and enthusiastic feeling ; and, although 
my day's journey had somewhat fatigued me, I felt 
this was no time to show a lack of spirit; so I cheer- 
fully yielded to the old maxim, *^When in Rome do as 
the Romans do." Through the courtesy of Captain 
Joseph Porter, then Commander of Skillen Post 47, 1 
was introduced to Hon. H. J. Coggeshall, of Water- 
ville; Colonel G. A. Cantine, Hon. W. F. Bliss, Mr. 
X ay lor, editor of the Sentinelj and many others. 

Rome lies on a level stretch of land at the head of 
the valley, whence I could see its spires as I 
approached. On its site once stood old Fort Stanwix, 
of Revolutionary fame, which cost the British <£60,000 
sterling. It was built as a defence against the French 



ALBANY TO SYRACUSE. 147 

in Canada, and was the first settlement before the 
Frenoli War. From that time until the close of the 
Hevolutii>n it was an important frontier post. Rome 
IS fhe cenhe of a large dairying interest, the cheese 
^f'iory system having originated here. 

atueutg-tljirb Pag. 

Chittenango House, 
Chittenango, New York, 

3Iay Thirty-first. 

Had a late brealifast at the Stanwix and, after a 
stroll through the streets of Rome, called for my horse 
at ten o'clock, and bidding adieu to Grand Army com- 
rades who had assembled to see me start from their 
city, mounted and rode out of town. The journey, 
as usual, since leaving Albany, lay along the New 
York Central. L'he roads were dry and favorable, 
the weather settled, auv^ \he scenery through this sec- 
tion of the Empire State *uch as to make my journey 
most enjoyable. C'hittenango was not reached until 
ten o'clock, as the distance from Rome made this one 
of the longest rides noted in a single day. The twink- 
ling lights of the village looked very pleasant as I 
neared my destination, marking here and there the 
homes of its lumdreds of inhabitants. I found upon 
inquiry at the Chittenango House that I was the only 
guest, which augured well Cor a good night's sleep. 




CHAPTER VII. 

TWO DAYS AT SYRACUSE. 

AD an early breakfast at Chittenango and 
calling for Pdul at eight o'clock mounted 
and rode forward, with the city of Syra- 
cuse as my evening destination. Nothing 
of especial interest occurred to vary the 
day's journey. Syracuse was reached at 
four o'clock in the afternoon, and the 
remainder of the day was spent in walks 
and drives through the city which I had 
visited several times in former years, and of whose his- 
tory I had a fair knowledge. Long before the white man 
came, a band of Iroquois had built their wigwams in the 
low basin, almost entirely surrounded by hills, that lies to 
the south of Lake Onondaga, and from here followed 
the pursuits of war and peace. We first hear of this 
Indian village in 1653 through the Jesuit missionary, 
Father Le Moyne, who had come to establish good 
feeling between the Iroquois and other Indian tribes : 
and we see strange evidences of a counteracting in- 
fluence made probably by his own countrymen in 
the discovery of European weapons and ammunition, 
that were distributed among the red men about the 

same time. For more than a hundred years after 
a48) 



TWO DAYS AT SYEACUSR 149 

this, the present site of Syracuse, then an un- 
promising stretch of swamps, was the home of the 
wolf and bear. Over its dreary waste the cry of 
the wild cat, the warning of the rattlesnake and the 
hooting of the owl lent their sounds to the weird chorus 
of Nature, and it was here that the wily Indian came to 
seek his game. It was through Father Le Moyne, 
too, that we hear of the great Salt Springs, which he 
visited at the southern end of the lake in company 
with some Huron and Onondaga chiefs. The Indians, 
unable to comprehend the strange effect of salt and 
clear water bubbling from the same fountain, had a 
superstition that the springs were possessed by an evil 
spirit and were afraid to drink from them ; but when 
the white man began to share their old haunts, we hear 
of the bewitched water being fearlessly used, and the 
evil spirit converted into a propitious one. It was 
Major Asa Danforth and his companion, Colonel Com- 
fort Tyler, who began early in the present century the 
enterprise which has since proved such a splendid suc- 
cess. These two pioneers started out afoot for the 
springs with no other implements than an axe, chain 
and kettle, which seem primitive enough to us who 
know of the means that are now employed in the mak- 
ing of this great staple. Arrived at the springs, two 
young trees were cut, a stout branch placed in their 
crochets and on this the kettle was hung. When the 
work was finished, the men hid their implements in the 
bushes for safety, shouldered their rich possession and 
started home over the ground that in a few years w^as 
to be the scene of such striking and sudden changes. 

Joshua Forman was the first man who saw a prom- 
ising field in the unhealthy land south of Lake Onon- 



150 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

daga, and it was he who first thought of a plan for its 
improvement. 

With characteristic persistency he carried out his 
ideas, and with the co-operation of James Geddes, a 
surveyor and fellow-townsman, did more to convince 
men of the practicability of laying a canal route 
through central New York than any other man. At 
that time the advocate of such an undertaking was con- 
sidered mad. Even the President shared the public 
view of the matter, and when the zealous member from 
Onondaga laid the plans before this incredulous gen- 
tleman, Jefferson remarked : '' It is a splendid project, 
and may be executed a century hence." It must have 
been a satisfaction to Judge Forman to see this inland 
water-course completed a few years later, and to real- 
ize the success of the great enterprise. 

When the breaking up of the unhealthy soil caused 
so much sickness and so manv deaths durino; the build- 
ing of the canal at Syracuse — then "Corinth" — this 
thoughtful benefactor began to devise a way for im- 
proving the ground, which resulted in the passage of 
a bill, a year later, for lowering the lake by means of 
drains. This stopped the injurious overflow that oc- 
curred during the spring months and eventually put 
an end to the "Corduroy" and "gridiron" roads by 
which the "dreary waste of swamp" had been hitherto 
approached. 

It seems strange enough now, to one riding through 
the beautiful and regular streets of the present city, to 
realize that only a few years ago its pioneers either 
followed these rough routes, or went around by the 
hills to avoid them. 

In April, 1820, Syracuse had grown sufficiently 



TWO DAYS AT SYRACUSE, 151 

to merit the distinction of a Post Office, and with 
this new acquisition a discussion arose about its 
name. It had been called successively *' Webster's 
Landing/' " South Salina/' " Bogardus Corners/' 
"Cossit's Corners" and "Milan;" but, as there was 
another " Milan " in the State, its last title had to be 
abandoned. For awhile it was known as " Corinth," 
but finally by an odd coincidence it was named by its 
first Postmaster, John Wilkinson, after the old Sicil- 
ian capital, to which it was supposed to bear a slight 
resemblance. Mr. Wilkinson, it is said, in reading a 
poetical description of the ancient city, was singularly 
impressed by its name, and by the fact that there was 
a fountain of mythological origin just beyond its 
walls, from which sprang clear and salt water. 

At a meeting held to decide the matter, he among 
others eloquently discussed his choice, and it was 
unanimously accepted. At this time, the government 
official at Syracuse had charge of such vast communi- 
cations from " Uncle Sam," that when the Post Office 
was transferred later to the office of John Diirford, 
printer, Mr. Wilkinson carried the entire concern, 
" mail matter, letter bags and boxes on his shoulders ! " 
Still, when the Marquis de La Fayette visited Syracuse, 
five years later, it had made such rapid advancement 
that it called forth his warmest congratulatiotiS. On 
this occasion, truly a great one among the city's records, 
her founder and benefactor, Joshua Forman, was chosen 
to express the gratitude of her people. It must have 
been a pleasant moment for the brave General and a 
proud one for the Syracusans when, in response to their 
hospitality, he returned Mr. Forman's courtesy in the 
following words : " The names of Onondaga and Syra- 



152 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

cuse, in behalf of whose population you are pleased so 
kindly to welcome me, recall to my mind at the same 
time the wilderness that, since the time I commanded 
on the Northern frontier, has been transformed into 
one of the most populous and enlightened parts of the 
United States; and the ancient Sicilian city, once the 
seat of republican institutions, much inferior, how- 
ever, to those which in American Syracuse are founded 
upon the plain investigation, the unalloyed establish- 
ment of the rights of men, and upon the best repre- 
sentative forms of government. No doubt, sir, but 
that among the co-operators of the Revolution, the 
most sanguine of us could not fully anticipate the 
rapidity of the improvements which, on a journey of 
many thousand miles — the last tour alone from Wash- 
ington to this place amounting to five thousand miles — 
have delighted me; and of which this part of tlie 
country offers a bright example. Be pleased to ac- 
cept my personal thanks and in behalf of the people 
of Onondaga and Syracuse to receive this tribute of 
my sincere and respectful acknowledgments. '' 

Could the Marquis have lived longer, and made his 
tour hither at this time, he would scarcely have found 
words to express his surprise. Perhaps no city in 
New York has made such great strides in so few 
years. 

Handsome buildings have sprung up on all sides, 
each one adding to the sightliness of the place ; and 
on the surrounding hills wealthy residents have built 
their charming homes. The University of Syracuse, 
a Methodist institution, built upon one of these hills 
in 1870, looks down invitingly upon the knowl- 
edge-seekers of the city, and with the State Ar- 



TWO DAYS AT SYRACUSE. 153 

niory, that stands in the park near Onondaga Creek, 
would furnish a brilliant equipment for some modern 
Minerva, were she to visit this interesting namesake of 
Sicilian Syracuse. 

To the stranger looking out for characteristics, the 
Salt Works are the most prominent among them. The 
sheds stretch along like enormous stock-yards at one 
end of the city, but looking into them one discovers 
great vats and troughs filled with salt in every stage 
of evaporation. There are two ways by which the 
article is manufactured, one by solar and the other by 
artificial heat, with thirty or forty companies employ- 
ing their chosen method. 

Another striking feature is the unusual number of' 
public halls. This is due to the central location which 
makes Syracuse a favorite point for conventions. It 
was my pleasure to lecture in one of these, " Shake- 
speare Hall,'' on my first evening in the city, where I 
was introduced by General Augustus Sniper. After 
this engagement, I went by rail to Buffalo, on business 
connected with my proposed lecture in that city, and 
returned the following afternoon. This was very un- 
usual, as it was contrary to the practice of my journey 
to avail myself of the railway under any circumstances. 
My advance agents having completed preparations for 
my lecture at Rochester, I made arrangements to re- 
sume my journey on the following day. My short 
etay here gave me another opportunity to look 
about this interesting town, and to realize its charms 
at the prettiest season of the year. Some have be- 
lieved that its situation, importance and beauty w^onld 
win for Syracuse the honor, so long bestowed upon the 
good old town on the Hudson, of being the capital of 



154 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON noHSEBACK, 



b 



the Empire State. Whether or not it will ever be 
known as such, it will receive the flattering acknowl- 
edgment of being one of the loveliest cities in New 
York. 



CHAPTER YIII. 



SYRACUSE TO ROCHESTER. 



Camillus House, 

Camillus, New Yorx, 

June Third. 

^PUNTED in front of the Yanderbilt 
House, Syracuse, at four o'clock in the 
afternoon. A large number of friends 
and acquaintances had assembled to see 
me off, among them many G. A. R. 
comrades, including General Sniper and 
Captain Auer; the latter a companion 
in Libby Prison during the late war. 
Thomas Babcock, who had been acting 
as an assistant to my advance agents, accom- 
panied me as far as Geddes, and ari'anged to co- 
operate with my brother and Mr. Farrington in jn'ep- 
aration for my lecture. In passing through this little 
suburb of Geddes, whose name by the way, keeps in 
memory one of the prominent men of Onondaga 
County, my attention was drawn to a fine building 
standing on a hill, overlooking Syracuse. I learned 
that it was the New York Asylum for Imbeciles and 
that the site, a magnificent sweep of upland, measur- 
8 (156) 




156 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

ing fifty-five acres, was donated by the city. I was 
stopped just west of here by a thunder shower and took 
refuge under a tree. Pcm^and I had waited for storms 
to pass over before, and made excellent rainy-day 
friends. We rather enjoyed resting under some 
shelter until the dust was well laid and the air freshened. 
On our arrival at Camillus, myself and horse were liter- 
ally covered with mud, the result of PauVs fright on the 
approach of a train at a point where it was impossible 
to leave the turnpike. We were trotting along quietly 
and had just turned a bend in the road when the quick 
ear of the horse caught the distant rumbling of 
wheels. In an instant he was on the alert, and when 
the swift express came round the curve, made a sudden 
spring to the right, leaped a rail-fence, and landed in 
a bog where the mud was two or three feet deep. I 
managed to keep the saddle, but could not avoid the 
mire in which we had haplessly fallen. 

Jordan House, 

Jordan, New York, 

June Fourth. 

By an hour's close application to my bespattered 
garments, after reaching the Camillus House, I found 
that I was ready to * turn in" for the night. Started 
forward in the morning, the ride on this perfect June 
day proving false the old saying that "Jordan is a 
hard road to travel." This village was reached about 
noon and I was quite pre})ared for the generous meal 
which was placed before me. 

When the gnawings of hunger had been appeased I 



> 

H 

b 

a 
I— ( 

CO 

w 

I— ( 

Q 
> 




SYRACUSE TO ROCHESTER, 159 

gave myself up to the agreeable quiet of Sunday 
afternoon. 

There was ample encouragement for such a course 
in this cosy little retreat at the head of Lake Skaneateles, 
for there was not a sound from store or mill while the 
people were taking their Sabbath rest. 

This brief halt in the march forward was very 
agreeable, for it gave me an opportunity to try my 
own powers of locomotion, so little used since leaving 
Boston. It was a real luxury to stroll about the quiet 
lanes, and scan the outlying fields from the standpoint 
of a modest pedestrian. In the course of my rambles 
I came across some photographers from Auburn who 
had been taking views of the scenery about here. 
Some of their pictures were excellent, 

Stomts-rigl)!!) Sag. 

Montezuma Hotel, 

Montezuma, New York, 

June Fifth. 

The Auburn photographers whom I saw yesterday 
met me as I was riding out of Jordan, and proposed 
photographing myself and Paul. Some time was 
passed and several ruses resorted to in attempting to 
quiet the restless animal, but he skilfujly avoided the 
camera. 

At last some men who happened to be near offered 
their assistance, and attempted to attract the attention 
of the horse from a distance, by jumping up and 
down in a neighboring field. Paul threw his head for- 
ward, quietly and curiously watching their manoeuvres. 
He was evidently amused, but there was no spirit to 



160 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

the picture. Unfortunately the " spirited " part of the 
scene was out of range. 

This delay for vanity's sake prevented us from 
getting farther than Weedsport by noon, where a 
brief halt was made for dinner. I was met here by 
W. H. Ransom and the proprietor of the Howard 
House of Port Byron, who came over to Weedsport 
and escorted me to their village, where I had tea and 
was very courteously entertained for a few hours. On 
leaving Port Byron, these gentlemen rode forward 
with me towards Montezuma Swamp, which lies 
between the two towns. Here we parted company, 
there being no reason why tiiey should ^' run tiie 
gauntlet" with me. I had heard womlerful tales of the 
dreaded monsters of this swamp, who were reputed to 
be the very worst mosquitoes on record, not excepting 
their famous kinsmen of the Hackensack Flats, New 
Jersey. 

Unable to bear patiently the torture of my assail- 
ants who were swarming around me by thousands, I 
put spurs to Paul^ and went through at a gallop; but 
notwithstanding this attempt to put the enemy to rout, 
superior numbers gave them the advantage and their 
victim came out covered with scars. 

When Montezuma was reached we were glad to rest, 
for our late adventure had quite exhausted both horse 
and rider. 

QltoeutD-niutl] JDag. 

Newark House, 

Newark, New York, 

June Sixth. 

The journey along the line of the New York Central 



^YBACUSE TO ROCHESTER. 163 

from Mont^fciuma to Newark, was an exciting one to 
me and Paul. I had long since learned that whenever 
the route brought us in close proximity with the rail- 
road, the quiet pursuit of our way was often varied 
by exciting moments, owing to PauVs suspicion of the 
*' iron horse/' The climax of these escapades was 
reached this morning, when Paul^ becoming frightened 
by an approaching train repeated the experience of three 
days ago by plunging into a slough, about two miles 
from Newark, and completely covering himself and 
rider with mud. When I had recovered sufficiently 
to realize the situation, my thoughts were not as 
amiable, I fear, as those of Bunyan's good Christian, 
tried in like manner. The "slough of despond '^ was 
so very literal in this case. 

I had made every effort to control the excited 
animal, but found the attempt useless ; and 1 verily 
believe if he were between the infernal regions and a 
coming train, he would choose the former at a bound. 
It was rather trying to appear before people of the 
town in such a lamentable condition, to say nothing 
of the discomforts arising from damp clothing; but 
there was no alternative, so I followed my course; 
the unfortunate victim of circumstances. 



(Eljirtietl) Slag. 



Fairport House, 

Fairport, New York, 

June Seventh. 



Resumed march at eight o'clock in the morning, but 
the weather was so oppressively warm and sultry, that 
I was obliged to wait over from noon until six o'clock. 



164 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Riding in the cool of the day was much more agree- 
able, yet, notwithstanding the physical comfort, I 
must confess that the lonely and unknown road gave 
rather a gloomy forecast to my thoughts. Beside 
this, I found some difficulty in obtaining necessary 
directions, and lost the chief charm of the journey — 
a view of the beautiful country through which I was 
passing. 

It had not been my intention to do any travelling 
after sundown unless the heat made it absolutely 
necessary, but in this instance I felt justified in chang- 
ing the original plan. Moving along through the 
unfamiliar scenes, I missed the pleasant coloring of 
woods and fields under the broad light of day, the 
noisy hum the sunshine calls forth, and the sound of 
the birds, always the sweetest music to me. Instead 
of these there wa? the mystical silence of night, 
broken only by the clatter of Paul's hoofs over the 
dusty road. Four hours' steady travel brought us in 
sight of the straggling lights of the little post-village 
of Fairport, where we stopped for the night. Found 
several Rochester papers awaiting me here, which con- 
tained pleasant reference to my proposed lecture at 
Corinthian Hall. 




CHAPTER IX. 

FOUR DAYS AT ROCHESTER. 

jNTICIPATING rain during the fore- 
noon and fearing tliat my journey 
might be interrupted in consequence, 
I started at an early liour on the morn- 
ing of June eighth from Fairport, and 
riding at a brisk pace came into 
Rochester at eleven o'clock. 

Just before reaching the city, a halt 
was made at a little hamlet, two or three 
miles out, for the purpose of treating PcmVs back. 
Heretofore the necessity of meeting my lecture 
appointments along the route had given me no 
opportunity to attend to the painful bruise, al- 
though I had been studying the various modes 
of treatment recommended by veterinary surgeons 
from the time I left Boston until now. The 
peculiar nature of my journey gave me an excellent 
opportunity to follow this especial course, and I felt 
confident of my ability to do all that was possible for 
my faithful horse, yet at every stopping-place some 
kindly disposed admirer of the horse had some favor- 
ite prescription whicli he had found a never-failing 
cure for the particular affliction that daily confronted 

flae. The enterprising little hamlet in question had 

(165) 



166 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

its famed savant, who thought it would be highly 
imprudent of me to proceed farther without hia 
advice — and a bottle of his ^^Seven-Sealed Wonder." 

Anxious to naake Rochester at the earliest moment 
possible, I had no time to discuss the merits of this 
great elixir, so, noting tiie price on the face of the 
bottle, I handed this modest disciple of ^sculapius 
the amount due, although he generously protested, and 
congratulating myself upon being the most highly 
favored traveller between Boston and San Francisco, 
rode away. 

On a hill just beyond the village and well out of 
sight, I came upon an old barn standing to the left of 
the road, on whose front I noticed a huge door with a 
knothole in the centre. Now was my opportunity for 
unsealing the " Wonder." In an instant I brought 
Paul to a standstill and rising in the saddle, tried my 
luck. The " Wonder " fell short of the mark, but it met 
a resistance from the old door which effectually tested 
its powers, and in my humble opinion placed the good 
doctor high up in his profession. This momentary 
diversion over, I again resumed the march, vowing 
that this would be my last experiment with "sealed 
wonders" and that hereafter I would confine my 
treatment to bathing Paul's back with warm water 
and castile soap, whose virtue I had learned in the 
cavalry service during the war. 

Found that the Rochester papers had been discuss- 
ing my military record before my arrival, and that 
ihe Express and Sunday Morning Times had upheld 
my cause against the Union, which had ventured some 
falsehoods on the ground that my " youthful appear- 
ance " belied my experience as a soldier. With this 



FOUR DATS AT ROCHESTER, 167 

pleasant criticism came anotlier greeting from the city 
press. It had been announced that I would probably 
arrive at the Osbiirn House at four in the afternoon, 
hence it was not strange that my sudden appearance at 
an earlier hour caused some surprise and led to the 
impression that I had come forward by rail, and that 
my horseback journey was possibly not an entirely 
genuine affair. I may add that it had not occurred to 
me that my trip across country was of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant any criticism upon my methods 
so long as I met my lecture appointments promptly. 
The sharp comment had no more serious result than 
that of increasing the lecture receipts in the cities 
which followed. 

My tenth lecture was delivered in Corinthian Hall, 
at the usual hour in the evening, the introduction 
being made by Colonel J. A. Reynolds. 

Next day, June ninth, gave me an opportunity to 
look up the familiar places and to note the changes 
that had occurred since my last visit to the city. 
The cleanliness and beauty of the streets, now in their 
summer glory of tree and flower, made such a tour of 
inspection anything but unpleasant. 

East avenue, where the " flour and coal kings " are 
at home, is an attractive place in which to see individ- 
ual taste carried out in architecture and horticulture. 
Dowu town, where the " kings " ard at work, there is 
a brisk activity which pervades everything, like an 
unending accompaniment to the Falls, whose sounds 
always mingle with those of the busy life around 
them. Perhaps it was this continual encouragement 
from the river, offered to her early pioneers, that has 
given Rochester such a notable career and made her 



168 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the metropolis of the Genesee Valley : for with that 
first mill-wheel set into the stream by old " Indian 
Allen," the faithful waters have kept up a continual 
flow of good fortune. 

Her characteristic enterprise, milling, begun by 
this same Allen, has been an unfailing source of 
wealth ; the golden grain with almost magic trans* 
formation filling the coffers of her merchants and 
giving her the security that a healthy financial condi- 
tion brings. Besides this, she owes much to that 
liberal-minded gentleman. Colonel Nathaniel Roches- 
ter, who came with his family from Maryland 
when the settlement was in its infancy, and made his 
home in '' the pleasant valley." It is amusing to 
fancy the unique procession, headed by the Colonel 
and his sons on horseback, that started out towards 
*^ the wild west" in the summer of 1802. There 
were carriages for the ladies and servants, and wagons 
for provisions and household goods, stretched out in 
formidable array ; for railroads were out of the ques- 
tion then. 

We hear that the travellers met with cordial hospi- 
tality at the villages and towns along their route, and 
that their arrival created quite a sensation. In fact it 
was an historical event. Two friends of the Koches- 
ters, William Fitzhugh and Charles Carroll, cast in 
their fortunes with them, and in 1802 bought together 
the three hundred acres at the Upper Falls, which 
were laid out for a settlement ten years later. In 
those times the prestige of a name went far towards 
establishing a reputation, and the one chosen by the 
people of the settlement was afterward proudly placed 
upon the municipal banner. Soon after the advent 



FOUR DAYS AT ROCHESTER. 169 

of Colonel Rochester and his friends, the scheme for 
making a water communication between the Lakes 
and the Sea began to be eagerly discussed, and there 
were not a few energetic representatives from ^'Roches- 
terville" who lent their efforts towards the carrying out 
of the plan. When the canal was completed there 
was the wildest enthusiasm in Rochester, which would 
perhaps have a greater benefit than any other place 
along the route: for with her big grain and coal inter- 
ests, her future prosperity seemed assured. 

The natural course of events followed. Improve- 
ment and embellishment began on all sides. New 
buildings and enterprises started up on solid foun- 
dations, and provision was made for those who 
might "drop out of the ranks," in the selection of 
beautiful Mount Hope, one of the loveliest cemeteries 
in point of natural charm in this country. It lies on 
a wooded slope between the lake and the city, and its 
pathwavs, shadowed by the great trees from the "forest 
primeval," are the playgrounds for the wild little 
creatures who make their homes there unmolested. 

Back again into the town where the sound of the 
Falls is heard, and one thinks of the odd touch a simple 
character has added to the traditions of the place, and 
whose name, to a stranger, is so often associated with 
that of Rochester. This quaint figure is none other 
than "Sam Patch, the jumper," who met his fate by 
leaping into the Genesee at the "Falls," and who left as 
a legacy the warning maxim, " Be careful, or, like 
Sam Patch, you may jump once too often." History 
has chronicled Sam's last speech, delivered from the 
platform, just before his fatal leap ; which, as a sample 
of rustic oratory, is amusing. 



170 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

He said : " Napoleon was a great man and a great 
general. He conquered armies, and he conquered 
nations, but he couldnt jump the Genesee Falh. 
Wellington was a great man and a great soldier. He 
conquered armies, and he conquered nations, and he 
conquered Napoleon, but he couldnH jump the Gene- 
see Falls. That was left for me to do, and I can do 
it, and will." 

Rochester, the capital of Monroe County, New 
York, was first settled in 1810, and incorporated as a 
city in 1834. It is situated on both sides of the 
Genesee River, seven miles from Lake Ontario, two 
hundred and fifty miles from Albany and sixty-nine 
from ■ Buffalo by railway. An aqueduct of stone car- 
ries the Erie Canal across the river, the cost of which 
amounted to over half a million dollars. The city is 
well laid out with wide and handsome streets, lined 
with shade trees. 

Within the city limits the Genesee undergoes a 
sudden descent of two hundred and sixty-eight feet, 
falling in three separate cataracts within a distance of 
two miles. The roar of these falls is heard contin- 
ually all over the city, but no one is inconvenienced by 
it in the slightest degree. The cataracts are believed 
to have formed, at one time, a single fall, but the dif- 
ferent degrees of hardness of the rocks have caused 
an unequal retrograde movement of the falls, until 
they have assumed their present position. At the 
Upper Falls, the river is precipitated perpendicularly 
ninety-six feet. It then flows between nearly perpen- 
dicular walls of rock, for about a mile and a quarter to 
the Middle Falls, where it has another descent of twenty- 
five feet. One hundred rods below, at the Lower 



o 

* 

o 
o 

GO 

H 




FOXJR DAYS AT ROCHESTER. 173 

Falls, it again descends eighty-four feet, which brings 
the stream to the level of Lake Ontario, into which 
it enters. 

The immense water-power thus afforded in the cen- 
tre of one of the finest wheat-growing regions in the 
world, with the facilities of transportation aiforded by 
the Erie Canal, Lake Ontario, and the several rail- 
ways, have given a vast impulse to the prosperity of 
Rochester and it has, in consequence, become one of 
the most important manufacturing cities in the East. 
At the period of my visit, there were eighteen flour 
mills in operation, grinding annually 2,500,000 bush- 
els of wheat. The manufacturing interests are im- 
mense — ready-made clothing being the most extensive, 
and boots and shoes ranking next. Other leading 
manufactures are those of iron bridges. India-rubber 
goods, carriages, furniture, optical instruments, steam 
engines, glassware and agricultural machinery. Of 
flourishing industries may be mentioned breweries, 
tobacco factories, blast furnaces and fruit canning. 

The largest nurseries in America are found here. 
Thousands of acres within a short distance of the city 
are devoted to the cultivation of fruit trees, and 
millions of these trees are annually shipped to other 
States and foreign countries. Over $2,000,000 is the 
annual product of these prolific nurseries. 

The city is fast becoming a great distributing centre 
for coal, which is conveyed in vessels to all points on 
the Great Lakes. Rochester, being the business centre 
of the fertile Genesee Valley, shows a steady growth 
in business and wealth. It has a magnificent system 
of water-works, constructed at a cost of §3,250,000, 
the water being supplied from two sources — one from 



174 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the river, which is used for extinguishing fires and 
running light machinery ; the other from Hemlock 
Lake, twenty-nine miles from the centre of the city, 
and four hundred feet above it. This water is sent 
through sixty miles of mains, the pressure being such 
as to throw from the hydrants a stream one hundred 
and thirty feet perpendicularly. No city is more 
perfectly protected from fire. 

At the corner of Main and State streets are the 
Powers' Buildings, a peculiar block of stores, built of 
stone, glass and iron, seven stories high. In the 
upper halls is a fine collection of paintings. A tower 
surmounts the building, from which a fine view of the 
city and its surroundings is obtained. " The Arcade " 
is roofed with glass and numerous fine stores line its 
sides. Opposite stands the County Court House, a 
handsome building of gray limestone, with a tower 
one hundred and seventy-five feet high. The hand- 
somest building in the city is, I think, the Rochester 
Savings Bank, corner of Main and Fitzhugh streets. 
The First Baptist, the First Presbyterian and the 
Catholic Cathedral of St. Patrick are the finest church 
edifices. 

There are twelve spacious parks here, and four 
elegant bridges cross the Genesee. The Rochester 
University, founded by the Baptist denomination in 
1850, is located on a tract of twelve acres, a little to 
the east of the city. It has a valuable library and 
mineralogical cabinet. The State Reform School or 
Western House of Refuge for vicious boys is an im- 
posing edifice, containing usually about four hundred in- 
mates. Mount Hope, the site of the cemetery — before 



FOVR DAYS AT ROCHESTER. 175 

referred to — is a beautiful eminence overlooking the 
city. 

At the time of my visit, Rochester supported thirty- 
four ne\vs[)apers and periodicals, of which six were 
dailies. The population was about 90,000. 

It seems that Fortune has favored the ^^ Flour 
City," or at least that wise heads and generous hearts 
have })lanned for her greatest good. It is proper to 
look back into the beo^inninffs for the" keynote to sue- 
cess in our American towns, and in this case, we 
doubtless find it in the unselfish forethouo^lit of the 
first men added to its wonderful natural resources. 

A simple little incident, told of Colonel Rochester, 
illustrates the principle, whose benefit others are reap- 
ing. He was working in his garden one day, setting 
out fruit trees, when a neighbor came along and 
stopped to chat. The Colonel said : '^ I do not know 
that I shall eat any fruit from the trees I am plant- 
ing, but as I eat from trees somebody planted for me, 
I must set out trees for those w^ho will come after 
me/' It was this provision for those who were to 
"come after" that has done much towards making 
Rochester what she is to-day. 



*v 



CHAPTER X. 





ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO. 

Sprague House, 

Churchville, New YorKj 

June 12, 1876. 

FOUND as I mounted Paul at nine 
o'clock in front of the Osburn House 
that on this twelfth of June, 1876, my 
day's ride would be a trying one on 
account of the heat, but it was impos- 
sible to change the weather and im- 
practicable to change my plans, so I 
accepted the inevitable. As usual 
throuo;h Central New York a number 
of Grand Army friends and others had assembled 
to see me off, and to wish me a safe journey to the 
"Golden Gate.'' Tiiis cordiality, shown me all along 
the route, took awav the sense of strang-eness natural 
to one travelling through comparatively unfamiliar 
places, and gave me an idea of the hospitality of our 
American people. The pleasant good-byes over, Paul 
and I started away in the direction of Chili, which we 
reached about noon. Here I had dinner and passed 
the remainder of the day, resorting again to the even- 
6176) 




ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO. 179 

ing hours for resuming my journey; and I may add 
that in this instance I found '* something in a name," 
for Chili was an admirable place to keep cool in. 

At six o'clock I started on towards Cliurchville, 
coming in sight of its church spires a little after sun- 
set, and lessening the distance to Sau Francisco by 
some fifteen miles. 

Notwithstanding the stop over at Chili, I was glad 
when we came to the end of my journey, and must 
confess that as I rode into the village the sight of the 
Sprague House gratified me more than the view of the 
picturesque town as I saw it outlined against the even- 
ing sky. 

a^irtg-siill) Slag. 

Byron Centre Hotel, 

Byron Centre, New York, 

June Thirteenth, 

Soon after breakfast in Churchville, I threw myself 
into the saddle and started for Bergen Corners, reach- 
ing it by eleven o'clock. This distance of two miles 
was covered very leisurely, for there was no pressing 
engagement to fill, and I could " gang my own gait.'' 
When there was anything to attract the eye — a sightly 
field of grain, or change of scene, I usually stopped 
to notice it and add one more impression to the pano- 
rama which my overland journey contniually spread 
before me. At the "Corners" I spent a few hours 
quietly, if I except the slight interruptions of the 
landlord of the Hooper House and his family. These 
interruptions for curiosity's sake were easily par- 
doned by me, for anything a little humorous and 

characteristic is always acceptable to one bent on see- 
9 



180 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

ing life in all its phases; and besides, the softening 
influence of home-made bread and other country 
luxuries, which were furnished me here, tended to 
make me look charitably upon everything. 

In the afternoon I left for Byron Centre, reaching 
it at six o'clock and making eleven miles for the day. 
While at supper there, the guests of the Byron Centre 
House were greatly amused by two itinerant photog- 
raphers who, after their day's work was done, made a 
practice of entertaining the public with fife and drum. 
Through this cunning advertising scheme it was my 
good fortune to see one of the most interesting crowds 
that rustic America could bring together. These 
enterprising '^artist musicians" seemed to possess the 
magic powers of Orpheus, for the villagers attracted 
by their strains came flocking from every direction 
and unconsciously made up a group which would 
have been irresistible to a painter, and which was 
certainly interesting to the ordinary observer. The 
sight was an entirely novel one to me, for although 
I am a New Yorker, and have seen roving concerns 
of almost every description, this particular species 
had never come to my notice. Through the cour- 
tesy of Charles Leonard, the proprietor of the hotel 
here, 1 was introduced to several Byron Centre gentle- 
men, among them Rev. Edwin Allen, who called just 
before my departure. Mr. Allen was most cordial, 
and gave me a very clever idea of the place, and the 
country adjacent. 

Throughout my journey I was often placed under 
obligations of this sort. They added to my pleasure 
and increased my facilities for becoming acquainted 
with the people and the country. 



ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO. 181 

St. James Hotel, 

Batavia, New York, 

June Fourteenth. 

A delightful shower of the previous evening cooled 
the air, and made my journey to Batavia exceedingly 
pleasant. During the day I passed some of the finest 
clover and wheat fields that I had seen since leaving 
Rochester. The rain may have brightened their color 
and made them look their best, but regardless of this, 
it is evident that the soil througrh this section of New 
York is under a very high state of cultivation, and 
signs of thrift are noticeable on every hand. I found, 
as is generally the case upon approaching a town, the 
farms more tastefully laid out, with their wide 
stretches of wheat, and their pretty conventional 
" kitchen gardens." 

After these outskirting homes I came upon the 
more dignified buildings of Batavia proper, where 
push and enterprise have made some striking advances. 
It is quite a business town, having its share of 
manufactories, banks and newspapers, and, with its 
population of something over four thousand, possess- 
ing the benefits of a larger place. It is thirty-two 
miles west of Rochester and thirtv-seven east of 
Buffalo. The State Institute for tlie Blind is situated 
here. 

In the evening I lectured at Ellicott Hall, and was 
introduced by lawyer L. L. Crosby, a comrade of the 
Grand Army, who, during the late war, was an officer 
m the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. Among those who 



182 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

called upon me at the St. James before the lecture 
was Samuel A. Lester, a fellow-soldier of the Harris 
Light Cavalry, with whom I talked over many of 
our experiences in Company " E ^' of the "Old Regi- 
ment. '^ Nothing has been so gratifying to me in the 
course of my journey, changes of scene, or new faces, 
as these meetings with old comrades, and the talks of 
camp and field. Separating at the close of the war, 
when the trying experiences we had equally shared 
had drawn us strangely together, it was natural that a 
glimpse of those we had known under such circum- 
stances should be a delight after so many years. It gave 
a different phase to my journey, too, and made it not 
only a series of new and pleasant changes, but an 
extended visit which might delight any traveller. 

Qll)irti3-eigl)tl) Slau. 

Crossroads, 

Near Croft's Station, New York, 

Ja7ie Fifteenth. 

I did not find it convenient to leave Batavia until 
eight o'clock in the evening, but as most of the six 
miles between the two places lay through a swampy 
region, I had a running fight with the mosquitoes, 
which encouraged me to make good time, so that I 
reached "Croft's" in an iiour. On my arrival I found 
Babcock awaiting me with accommodation provided 
at a quiet little retreat situated at the Crossroads, 
which was hotel, grocery and farm-house in one. 
This odd grocery-tavern is about half a mile from the 
station ; just far enough away to have peculiarities of 
its own. While its proprietor was throwing down 



O 



a 

o 




ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO. 185 

hay for Paul from his barn loft, he in some way lost 
his footing and fell through, but no serious damage 
was done. 

This little incident simply added an extra attraction 
to the "horse that was going to California/' In the 
course of the morning I went to the hotel sitting-room 
to make some observations and to post my journal. 
While quietly occupied in this way I noticed the 
arrival of several of the men and boys of the place, 
who came in, seated themselves on the wooden 
benches that were placed around the sides of the 
room, and began unceremoniously to " look me over." 
Phoebe, the proprietor's daughter, and the ruling 
spirit at the "Corners," a bright little maid, who filled 
the offices of cook, waitress, chambermaid and clerk, 
assumed one of her various roles and was standing 
behind the counter. Soon, one of her rustic knights 
sauntered up to her, pipe in mouth, and called out, 
" Pheeb, gimme a match !" Whereupon, her father, 
who was standing on one side of the room, country 
fashion, with trousers over his boot-tops, and in his 
shirt sleeves, stepped forward and said with admirable 
dignity, " Phebe, sir!" adding, as the nonplused 
offender made some bashful apology, " You's brought 
up well nuff, Jack, but you've forgot some on't." 

This was an unexpected turn of affairs which I 
scarcely expected to witness at "Croft's,*^ but it at least 
gave evidence of a certain sense of refinement which 
we Americans would hardly be credited with outside 
our cultivated circles. It afforded, too, food for reflec- 
tion upon that assumption of equality which in this 
country so often tends to familiarity. We are prone 
to forget that " familiarity breeds contempt." 



186 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

SHjirtg-ntntl] Sag. 

Crittenden ffome, 

Crittenden, New York, 

June Sixteenth. 

Started from "Croft's" at ten o'clock, stopping at the 
little post village of Corfu for dinner, where I was 
introduced to several people who had come together 
to greet me upon my arrival. Among them were Dr. 
Fuller, Dr. John McPherson and S. E. Dutton. 
Dinner over, I rested until five o'clock, resuming my 
journey at that hour and reaching Crittenden at six. 
As I rode up to the hotel at this place I found that a 
number of villagers had gathered to give me welcome, 
and to learn something of my journey and its objects. 
I talked to them for some time and then followed a 
strong inclination to walk into the country. Tiiere 
were no unusual attractions about this little village of 
a hundred souls excepting the cordiality of its people 
and the natural attraction that there always is about a 
small community in the midst of thriving acres. To 
one who has been "a country boy'' himself, these 
things never lose their charm, and he will give them 
the preference, I think, to the finest sights in town. 

They recall a certain old home somewhere, long 
since abandoned for the charms of Vanity Fair, or a 
quaint little " school house " where he first began to 
think about the great world beyond. They form, 
too, the resting-places in the ascent of the hill of life, 
from the vantage-ground of which we may review 
our progress since those early days. 



ROCHESTER TO BUFFALO, 187 

lortietl) ?Daa. 

American House, 
Lancastek, New York, 
June Seventeenth and Eighteenth. 

My ride from Crittenden to this place, a distance of 
ten miles, was made in easy time owing to the oppres- 
sively warm weather; for my only aim was to reach 
my destination in season to meet my lecture appoint- 
ment. Found the farmers along the route still work- 
ing out their taxes on the public roads, which were 
greatly in need of attention. Speaking to them as I 
passed along I found that they looked rather curiously 
at the strange horse and rider, doubtless wondering 
whence we came and whither we were bound. 

Addressed my Lancastrian audience in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church in the evening. Captain G. S. 
Remington introducing. 

Early in the morning I had found, upon going to the 
stable, that Paul was badly cut, and there was much 
speculation as to how and by whom the injury was 
done; but it was generally conjectured that he had had 
a battle with a horfee belonging to the landlord, during 
the night. This horse, which was a large and powerfal 
stallion, had recently been shod, so that in the matter 
of equipment he had a decided advantage over " Paul 
Revere/^ who was possibly not averse to celebrating 
the anniversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill. 

The day following my arrival at Lancaster being 
Sunday, Captain Remington called for me in the 
morning, and I accompanied him to the Presbyterian 
Church. 



188 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

As we passed along on our way to church, I had a 
good opportunity to see this little town on Cayuga 
Creek, and the added advantage of a personal account 
of the place from one of its residents. Like all 
towns adjacent to a large city, Lancaster has a certain 
air of independence, and unmistakable signs of con- 
tact with greater forces ; and besides its pretty homes, 
some of them the out-of-town retreats of Buffalo 
business men, it has its share of industrial enterprises. 

Altogether, it is a pretty little neighbor of which 
any city might be proud, and which in its peace-loving 
way is very sensible in standing off at a distance from 
its busier sister. A few minutes by rail can take its 
thousand and a half inhabitants "to town,'^ where 
they find the best that the great stores provide ; and a 
ride of a few minutes more brings them out of the 
noise to their own quiet haven. 

It is hard to realize a more delightful and thor- 
oughly restful existence than that found in suburban 
villages, where the influences of active forces are felt, 
but where they cannot disturb the even tranquillity. 
They seem to illustrate the "golden mean" which 
Horace recommends, and I find that it is always 
pleasant to reach such places and hard to leave them. 



i: 




CHAPTER XI. 

THREE DAYS AT BUFFALO. 

N hour's ride from Lancaster, on the 
morning of the nineteenth, brought to 
view the motley array of chimneys 
and towers that overtoj) the " Queen 
City of the Lakes.'' While making 
my way towards them, and receiving 
first impressions, my attention was 
attracted by a brigade drill on the 
parade ground, which I halted to wit- 
ness. This was the first instance during my journey 
in which I had encountered any considerable body of 
military men, with the exception of the Grand Army 
procession at Utica, on Memorial Day. The march- 
ins; and manoeuvres evinced close attention to tactics 
and excellent discipline, and the equipment of officers 
and men reflected much credit upon the Empire State, 
which has every reason to be proud of these her 
citizen-soldiers. 

Drill over, I rode on into Buffalo, and, soon after 

registering at the Tift House, had the pleasure of 

meeting Major John M. Farquhar, who introduced me 

to my audience at St. James Hall in the evening. 

Major Farquhar is a comrade, prominent in G. A. 

R. circles, and was then commander of the leading 

(191) 



192 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

post of the city. From him I learned something of 
the changes which had taken place since my last visit 
here, and which I was desirous to see as much of as 
circumstances would allow. Buffalo has a peculiarly 
rich history, and, like the old towns of the Mohawk 
Valley, the romantic view which Indian life and love 
have given. 

Near here the arrogant Eries held their councils, 
and deliberated upon the downfall of their powerful 
neighbors of the Five Nations; who, in turn, ruined 
and almost exterminated them. The chronicles tell 
us that the Iroquois, coming by invitation to engage 
in friendly contest on the hunting-ground of the 
Eries, soon discovered the real intent of the wily 
*^Cats," who were jealous of the renown of their red 
brothers. Failing in the games they had themselves 
proposed, and blind with rage, they saw their tolerant 
guests depart with the trophies of victory. No sooner 
were they out of sight than a council of war was held, 
and a decision to conquer them agreed upon. The 
war bonnets were donned, the dog sacrificed, and 
every preparation made for a raid into the enemy^s 
country ; but a Seneca woman who had been taken 
prisoner by the Eries some years before, apprised 
the great chiefs of her nation of the intended attack. 

In this way the Eries were in turn surprised and 
defeated in their last game with their rivals. Only a 
few of their warriors were left to bear the hateful 
news to the women and old men who were waiting in 
the wigwams: and these with their allies, terribly 
punished as they had been in the encounter, were 
driven by their infuriated enemies beyond the Missis- 
sippi. The Senecas, who proudly called themselves 



THREE DAYS AT BUFFALO. 193 

the western gate-keepers of the " Long House," made 
a settlement near Buffalo, to which they gave the 
musical name of Te-you-seo-wa, the place of bass- 
wood, having found there huts covered with basswood 
bark, the remnants of some lately abandoned village. 
This settlement was not as near the lake-front as the 
city now is, but was cautiously laid out farther back 
from shore to prevent surprise. Here the young 
braves found a favorite hunting-ground, and were 
wont to conceal themselves near the salt springs that 
bubble up from the border of the creek, to await the 
buffaloes, which came there in herds. Tliere has 
been some dispute as to the naming of the city, and 
the possibility of the American bison having fre- 
quented this part of the country, but it is generally 
believed that herds of these herbivorous animals did 
graze on Eastern soil, and that the attacks of carniv- 
orous beasts and the constant warfare waged ao-ainst 
them by the Indians drove them to the Western 
plains. 

Nearly two centuries ago, when the site of the 
present city was still a wilderness through whose 
tangled labyrinths Indian eyes peered out over the 
gleaming waters of the lake, La Hontan penetrated 
these western wilds, and suggested to his sovereign 
the building of a fort here, as a safeguard against the 
Iroquois. 

We see almost instinctively the scenes which he 
saw as we follow him through lake and stream — the 
great falls sparkling beneath an August sun, their 
wild surroundings nn marred and untrodden .save 
by moccasined feet ; the rapids and then the river, 
to whose current, farther up, he trusted his boat. 



194 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

But it was not until long after this that the sound of 
the woodman's axe was heard in the forests at the 
foot of Lake Erie, when the pioneer had come to 
make his home, and to lay the foundation of a future 
city. 

One after another crude cabins were raised, and in 
turn were replaced by more comfortable houses, so 
that in 1813 the settlement was large enough to make 
quite a bontire for the British and their dusky allies. 
The events which took place at Buffalo, connected 
with this war, were singularly exciting; and, although 
there were brave hearts and stout arms ready to de- 
fend their country, we cannot but regret the peculiar 
circumstances which led to the general havoc here. 

Historians have gleaned such glowing descriptions 
from those who were either witnesses or participants 
in these stirring scenes, that we cannot fail to be 
moved by them. 

The night surprise, in the woods, near Black Rock, 
when the American troops were suddenly greeted by 
ambushed Britons : the rout which followed when 
the terrified horsemen dashed back in retreat through 
the ranks of the infantry, demoralizing them in turn, 
is so vividly drawn that it has tiie reality of later times. 
Afterwards when the alarmed people heard the cry 
that the British were coming, and we see them in con- 
fused masses trying to escape with their household 
goods, we sympathize with their terror as tliey saw in 
the distance the dreaded Indian jogging towards them 
with club and hatchet. 

It was then that Job Hoysington, who was with 
one of the retreating parties, lingered behind his com- 
panions, saying that he would have " one more shot at 



THREE DAYS AT BVFFALO. 195 

the Red SUins.'^ He evidently did have the coveted 
cliaiice, and so did the enemy, for when the snow 
melted in the spring the brave fellow was found with 
his empty musket at his side, and a bullet through 
his brain. The work of vengeance had been completed 
with the scalping-knife. At the corner of Main and 
Niagara streets an old twelve-pounder stood. As the 
imposing column of British infantry were advanc- 
ing upon the town, a patriotic citizen had the gun 
mounted and two shots fired into the ranks. He 
afterwards met the enemy with a flair of truce — a 
handkerchief tied to his cane — and requested a halt. 

This was granted, and a parley begun, while the 
townspeople were escaping. 

The firing of the houses and the plundering of 
them by the Indians followed. Buffalo rose, however, 
from her ashes full of new life and ambition, and 
much improved in appearance. Her firesides were 
again the scene of happy security, and iier women, 
lately fugitives, fleeing in terror from fire and sword, 
were again the social inspirations of a thriving com- 
munity. More than this, they were contril)utIng to 
the enterprises of the city, for in 1821 between three 
and four thousand yards of cloth were woven in the 
homes of Buffalo! 

The Erie Canal being completed in 1822, and com- 
merce beginning in earnest, no doubt took away from 
the importance of the spinning-wheel and loom, for 
these busy little machines of the past have been stored 
away in the garrets long enough to make them well- 
seasoned relics. Housewifely attention at this time 
had to be turned to the management of larger estab- 
lishments, for Buffalo had far outgrown her infancy, 



196 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

and was assuming certain new conceits in architecture, 
although she has never equalled the splendor of other 
large cities in her public buildings. The new City 
and County Hall approaches more nearly to the 
modern idea, and is very attractive within and with- 
out. It is built of Maine granite in the form of a 
double Roman cross, and is surmounted by a lofty 
tower bearing four symbolic figures. With the in- 
crease of canal and railroad traffic, the building of the 
immense grain elevators, which are a striking feature 
of Buffalo, was commenced. 

Their number and size have been increased to such 
an extent that they almost make a town in them- 
selves and are capable of accommodating eight million 
bushels of grain. The incessant work of storing and 
transferring is carried on about these wooden giants 
day after day, sometimes to tlie extent of more than 
three million bushels, while, at their feet, boats come 
and go in the great commercial game of "give and 
take.'' There is every facility for carrying on a trade 
of this kind, for Buffalo River is navigable for 
more than two miles from its mouth, which is pro- 
tected by breakwaters which form an excellent harbor, 
while there is a warer-front on the lake and the Niagara 
River five miles long. In 1869, the United States 
Government began tfie^'onstruction of an outside har- 
Oor, by building a breakwater 4000 feet long fronting 
the entrance of tho Buffalo illver. 

Overlooking Buffilo Rne^ stand the office build- 
ings whence come the calculating -and controlling 
influences that keep in *^ clock work'' order this mart 
where grain is ** received, tranrAtired, stored and for- 
warvle^l with greater dispatch ih\\\ in any other port of 



THREE DAYS AT BUFFALO/ 197 

the country/^ Beyond these, in the heart of the city, 
are the retail and wholesale stores, where not only 
Buffalo finds her wants supplied, but numberless 
sister towns; and owing to her close proximity to the 
great coal region of Pennsylvania, she has very cheap 
fuel, which, no doubt, is a convenient item when a 
"cold wave'' comes across the lake. Her iron 
works, reputed to be the largest in the country, add to 
her general good fortune by putting within easy ac- 
*jess the necessary stoves. 

Besides all this material comfort, the climate is 
extremely healthful, and the location of the city such 
us to make clean, wide streets a possibility. 

There are several of these lined with handsome 
residences, and adorned with parks, which are wisely 
thought to be an indispensable luxury. 

In the midst of the business hurry there are several 
quiet corners where one may quench his thirst for 
knowledge, and where master-thinkers lend their 
potent influence. One of these is the Grosvenor 
Library, the munificent gift of one of Buffalo's pio- 
neers. It is admirably arranged for convenience and 
comfort, and has a pleasant outlook over a little park 
between Washington and Main streets. The Library 
of the Young Men's Association, although containing 
nearly twice as many volumes as the Grosvenor, is not 
so largely frequented, but is, nevertheless, a great 
resort for readers. There are also a number of smaller 
libraries, where eager minds may have their fill of 
books. 

Here and there about the city one finds the familiar 
evidences of Christian thought and work in the 
beautiful tower-capped churches, each with its own 



198 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

varied attractions. St. Paul's Cathedral — Episcopa- 
lian — a handsome structure of brownstone, ivy-grown 
and picturesque, from whose walls in summer comes 
the sound of birds, lies almost centrally among a hun- 
dred others, and not far awav is the Roman Catholic 
house of worship, the dignified bit of Gothic archi- 
tecture which they have named St. Joseph's. 

One of my favorite haunts here is the quiet, carpetless 
" Historical Rooms,'^ from whose walls the Indian war- 
riors who helped make Buffalo's history look down in 
unchanging stolidity. Not least among these is Red 
Jacket, who forms such a striking figure in the city's 
traditions. An amusing incident which his picture 
recalls is that of Lafayette on his return from his West- 
ern tour in 1824. Among the preparations that were 
being made for his reception was the guarding, by an 
especial committee, of their "aboriginal lion," who 
was a trifle too fond of his " firewater " and who was 
to be the leading orator of the day. When the ap- 
pointed time arrived, so the story goes, the sachem 
was led upon the platform in all his conscious dignity. 
A long conversation between him and the great 
Frenchman followed, through an interpreter, whom 
Red Jacket employed upon formal occasions; in the 
course of which the Indian complimented the General 
upon his youthful appearance. " Time has left you a 
fresh countenance, and hair to cover your head," said 
he, " while as for me — see ! " and he took off the scarf 
that was wound about his own bald crown. This 
provoked a laugh among the spectators who knew 
that Lafayette wore a wig. When Red Jacket was 
made aware of the fact, he added with ready wit that 



THREE DAYS AT BUFFALO. 199 

he too might supply hiaiself with a new head of hair 
by the aid of a scalping-knife ! 

Everything upon the walls and in the cases has 
been donated by private individuals, as the society 
has not yet been able to make valuable purchases, 
but there is enough already to make this treasure- 
house of the past interesting. Relics from pioneer 
times figure largely; among the rest, arrow-heads and 
tomahawks, pipes and belts of wampum, adding to the 
odd collection, and suggesting all manner of horrors 
to those who delig-ht in Indian historv. 

" Forest Lawn," the place which Buffalo has se- 
lected for her dead, is a most lovely spot, the loveliest 
of its kind between Brooklyn's Greenwood and Chi- 
cago. Everything that art could do in the arrange- 
ment of shrub and flower has been added, and stands 
as a tribute to those who are " lying low '^ and as a 
witness to the faithful thought of the living. It is 
only one of the beautiful tokens of devotion which 
one sees, from the simple epitaph in a country grave- 
yard in the East to the solitary resting-place, higli in 
some tree-top of the AYest, where our Red Brother 
"sleeps his last sleep.'' 

Adjoining the Cemetery are a few acres of woodland 
that have been set aside for a kind of park. On warm 
summer days those seeking rest and pleasure, come to 
pay their respects to Dame Nature, nvIio makes herself 
very attractive here. But this is only one, and a 
comparatively small one, of the various resorts where 
tired humanity may drop its burden, and roam at 
will. So Buffalo has her grave and her gay side, and 
her business side, which is neither grave nor gay, 
making their different impressions on the traveller's 

10 



200 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

eye, and combining, as a whole, in a very pleasing 
effect. She has made and will make some very strik- 
ing changes, as all cities of consequence do; but 
changes worthy of the " Queen City of the Lakes/' 
who, although slie may have to relinquish her title to 
some outstripping sister, may always hold her head 
high with conscious importance. She is still the third 
city in the State of New York in point of population. 



CHAPTER XII. 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 

iFort[)-fourt() SDag. 

North Evans Hotel^ 
North Evans, New York, 
June 23, 1876. 

T had been my intention to leave the 
" Queen City '' on the afternoon of 
the twenty-first, but I was delayed by 
my advance agents, who required more 
time to arrange the preliminaries of 
my lectures between Buffalo and Cleve- 
land. Babcock went forward to Dun- 
kirk, Farrington to Erie, while it was 
decided that my brother should accom- 
pany me as far as Angola. There were other reasons 
too, for a longer sojourn at Buffalo, as it was here I 
met my wife for the last time during my journey, and 
we had decided that it would be impracticable to meet 
again before my return from San Francisco. While 
I anticipated a pleasant and uninterrupted journey, she 
had some misgivings as to my ride across the Plains, 
and tried at the last to dissuade me, but I was sanguine 
of the outcome and thoroughly determined to continue, 

at any odds, a journey so delightfully begun. At eight 

(201) 




202 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

o^clock, therefore, on the morning of the twenty- 
second, I returned the parting salute of my wife and 
friends, and rode away. Turning into North Division 
slri'eet, I went out to Main, down Main to Ohio, and 
out Ohio to the Buffalo Road. Soon after passing the 
city limits, I saw Lake Erie, and leaving the highway 
rode down to the beach and into the water, giving 
Paul his first drink from the great inland sea, along 
whose shores we were to spend several days, and in 
which I and mv faithful friend would doubtless 
quench our thirst many times. After this little diver- 
sion I pushed forward for thirteen miles and a half, 
which brought us to Lake View. After stopping 
here a few moments I rode on to North Evans. In 
this little village of something over a hundred in- 
habitants, my peace was in no wise disturbed and I 
was able to pass the day in comparative seclusion, 
thinking over the three days at Buffalo and antici- 
pating the journey to Cleveland. 

lortu-fiftl) JDag. 

Angola Hotise, 

Angola, New York, 

Ju7ie Twenty -fourth. 

The ride from North Evans to Angola was most 
delightful, carrying me as it did, along the shore of 
Lake Erie, which for the most part was plainly seen 
from the turnpike. The exhilarating breeze from 
over the water was in pleasing contrast to the intense 
heat which was felt in Central New York, and 
I found my appetite sharpening under its brisk in- 
fluence. The eye had a continual feast of lake and 
field stretching off on either side, and as I rode along 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 203 

enjoying their diverse beauties, my only regret was 
that I had no companion at this time with whom I 
might share the pleasure. 

To my right lay the shining lake, reflecting every 
change of cloud and sky ; in front the Shore Road, 
and to my left as far as the eye could reach, rich 
green fields returning the salutation of sunny June 
Easy travelling brought me into Angola in the early 
morning, as it is only six miles from North Evans^ 
Here an unfortunate circumstance i.s identified with the 
name of the town, owing to a serious railroad disaster 
that occurred some years ago, in which many lives 
were lost; but one's attention is easily diverted from 
such thoughts upon entering the town. Several manu- 
factories give it a wide-awake tone, and keep a good 
share of its five hundred inhabitants busy. 

A small stream, known as Big Sister Creek, runs 
through the place and thence winds its way to the 
lake, three-quarters of a mile distant. This "Big 
Sister " adds a pretty touch to the matter-of-fact little 
village, while its pebbly bed is a charmed spot for 
young Angolans. Soon after my arrival here, J. S. 
Parker, formerly of Northern New York, called to 
see me, and I discovered that he knew many of my 
old acquaintances in St. Lawrence County. An hour 
was spent in pleasant conversation with him, during 
the course of which boyhood days'at Gouverneur and 
along the Oswegatchie were discussed. I strolled 
about town in the afternoon, looking for "characteris- 
tics," and in the evening Lectured in the Town Hall, 
the introduction being made by Leroy S. Oatman. 



204 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Jortg-BU'tl) anb Jortg-sermtl) JDaga. 

Eastern Hotel, 

Dunkirk, New York, 

June 25 & 26. 

The road between Angola and Dunkirk led me 
through one of the most picturesque and productive 
counties of the State, which at this time promised well 
for the haymakers who were busy in their ripened 
fields. Hitherto the successive and varied scenes 
along my route had in turn won my admiration, from 
the pleasant ride across Massachusetts and over the 
Berkshires to the Mohawk Valley and Western New 
York, but these grain fields in their golden harvest- 
time and the glimpses of the lake which the tortuous 
course of the road now and then afforded, were cer- 
tainly as lovely as anything I had seen thus far. 
I had noticed that the haying season was well 
advanced when I was passing through Central New 
York, but owing to the retarding influence which a 
large body of water always exerts over vegetation, it 
had been delayed here. Fourteen miles through this 
pretty section of Erie and Chautauqua counties 
brought me to Dunkirk, where I lectured at Columbus 
Hall in the evening, and was introduced to my 
audience by Rev. J. A. Kummer. The following 
day being Sunday, I had another opportunity of 
meeting this gentleman, as he kindly accompanied me 
in the morning to the Methodist Church, of which he 
was pastor. During the services, in which I found 
myself very mucli interested, there was an opportune 
moment to study a character which I found to be a 
thoroughly original one. Mr. Kummer was very 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 207 

enthusiastic about the building of a new church 
which was much needed, and had been trying to 
fire his parishioners with the zeal which he him- 
self felt. On this particular morning he made an 
appeal for co-operation and funds, and then asked 
for a generous oiFering. The good people of the 
congregation had hardly warmed to the subject, and 
their response was rather feeble. Another collection 
was made with somewhat better results, but still the 
amount was not raised by half. At last Mr. Kummer, 
who no doubt believed that the end justified the 
means, faced his people and said playfully, yet with 
evident determination, " Now I am going to order 
the doors bolted, that none may leave the house until 
this matter is settled !'' In less than ten minutes the 
two thousand dollars necessary was obtained by dona- 
tion or subscription, and the zealous clergyman looked 
down upon his people in happy approval. The scene 
was the most unusual one of the kind which I had 
ever witnessed, and I was tempted to applaud the 
generalship which won the situation. Dr. Kummer 
afterward gave me quite a lively description of his 
field, in which he had become much interested. 

Lying on rising ground just within a little bay, at 
whose western extremity a lighthouse stands, Dun- 
kirk forms a natural port of refuge, in bad weather, 
and although in comparison with Buffalo its commercial 
importance seems rather insignificant, there is quite a 
brisk trade carried on by ship and by rail. Three 
lines centre here, connecting it with the East and 
West, and with the coal and oil regions of Pennsyl- 
vania, while the incoming and outgoing vessels are 
continually plying back and forth with their valuable 



208 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

cargoes. In fact, as I soon discovered, my clerical 
friend was not too severe in demanding a sum for his 
new church which the people must have been well 
able to contribute. 

Jortw-rigljtl) ©a^. 

3finton House, 

Westfield, New York, 

June Twenty-seventh. 

Continued on the Shore Road from Dunkirk, 
having left that city at ten o'clock in the morning. 
While stopping a few minutes for dinner at Fredonia, 
a pretty little village three miles from Dunkirk, 1 
saw for the first time during my journey quite exten- 
sive vineyards. The region is famous besides for its 
garden seeds, hence the people have their share of 
fruit and vegetables. Found the farmers of this 
entire section largely engaged in fruit culture, which 
seems to be a very successful enterprise. Apples 
and grapes are sent away to other points, and no 
doubt supply in a measure the breweries and distill- 
eries of Dunkirk. In looking at the handsome vines 
already borne down by heavy burdens, the thought 
occurred to me of the currupt uses to which they 
would be put, and the havoc they would bring into 
human lives. The great bunches, not yet ripe, but 
promising a splendid harvest, looked tempting 
enough to one who had only seen them on fruit 
stands, or in market thrown together in unartistic 
confusion. 

Reached Westfield In the evening, having made 
twenty-two miles for the day. Owing to my late 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 209 

arrival, I saw very little of the place, but under- 
stand that it has quite large manufacturing interests, 
a lively trade, two good schools for its young people; 
and that unfailing sign of prosperity — a newspaper. 
I recalled here, another Westfield, many miles away in 
Massachuetts, which I passed early in May. The two 
places appeared as unlike as possible, which was due, 
no doubt, to one being in the ''Bay,'' and the other 
in the " Empire " State, which some travellers will 
concede makes quite a difference. 

Jbrtg-niutl) Dau. 

Hayiies HoxLse, 

North-East, Pennsylvania, 

June Twenty -eighth. 

Rode away from Westfield at ten in the morning, 
halting just beyond the village at tlie pretty home of 
W. N. Allen, where I passed a very pleasant half- 
hour. While looking after the interests of a large 
farm, Mr. Allen and his family were very much 
interested in art matters, and showed me several val- 
uable paintings which they had recently purchased. 
I was delio;hted to find such refinement and taste, for 
one is apt to believe that where people are not in 
direct intercourse with congenial elements, they are 
apt to lose their interest in the arts. As I looked 
over their well-kept acres, and model buildings, 1 
thought of the influence such lives must exert over 
the community in which they are passed. On my 
way toward North East, I passed again through a fine 
fruit region, stopping for dinner at a little hamlet 
known as State Line. 



210 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

At first the prospects for the " inner man '^ looked 
rather doubtful, as I came up to the solitary State 
Line House, but a few moments' search brought me 
to the landlord, who was hoeing in a cornfield, and 
my wants were soon supplied. By five o'clock I was 
riding into the borough of North-East, where I found 
a number of peo{)le awaiting me. Upon dismount- 
ing, I learned that I was announced to lecture in the 
Town Hall that evening. This was a surprise, but 
I was ready to comply. The village band escorted 
me after supper to the hall, taking a position in 
front of the audience, and giving us '^Hail Columbia" 
before, and " The Sword of Bunker Hill " after the 
lecture. The hall was so crowded that many were 
compelled to stand, and if hearty applause is an 
evidence of satisfaction, I may consider my effort 
to entertain the North -Easters a success. Captain 
Bronson Orton, a lawyer of the place, made the in- 
tfoduction, and I afterwards had a chat with him 
about experiences in Georgia, as he was with 
Sherman's army during its march from Atlanta to 
the Sea, and was quite familiar with many of its 
incidents. I too had followed the great strategist 
through that State, although in a very different 
capacity; it having been my lot to drop into the 
rear of his conquering legions during my escape fi'om 
Southern prisons. The trying circumstances which I 
passed through, when I evaded the guard at Sylvania, 
the cautious tramps by day, and vigilance by night, 
in the friendly swamps, came back after the inter- 
vening twelve years, with all the vividness of yester- 
day. I related my experiences with the negroes and 










"mi:.- 






A COTTAGE ON THE HILLSIDE. 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 213 

<neeting with good old March Dasher, who led me 
rejoicing into the Federal camp. 

x^one of the events of those exciting days escaped 
my memory, and the chance of talking them over, 
with one of the men who had been with Sherman, 
was a rare pleasure. In the course of our conversa- 
tion, we touched upon Captain Orton's present home, 
which is in a very pretty corner of the " Keystone *' 
State, and which apparently has reached the golden 
mean between business and pleasure. Its residence 
portion suggests ideal comfort, while its office-build- 
ings and stores are built upon a substantial and con- 
venient plan. 



MM\) IDag. 



Eeed House, 
Erie, Pennsylvania, 

Ju7ie Twenty-ninth. 



Upon my arrival at Erie, I was pleasantly sur- 
prised to find a letter from Colonel F. H. Ellsworth, 
proposing to make me his guest at the Reed House 
during my stay in that city. I gladly availed my- 
self of his kind invitation, and although my time 
there was necessarily short, I had, through the 
thoughtful interest of my host, every oj)portunity to 
see the city, and to hear something of its development. 

Through Erie, Pennsylvania comes in contact with 
the great commercial interests of the Lakes, and 
although she only holds a small share of the valuable 
fthore line, there is every advantage for reaping a 
large benefit. The harbor is most perfect, being pro- 
tected by a strip of land known as " Presque Isle," 
»od which, long before the persistent waves wore 



214 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

away its southern end, was connected with the main- 
land. Two lighthouses stand at its entrance, and 
guide the night traveller to one of the prettiest ports 
in this part of the country, while from the bluffs on 
which the town is built shine myriads of answering 
lights. The streets are wide and regular and lead to 
many handsome homes, which they say will bear com- 
parison with the finest on the Lakes. Several parks 
relieve the monotony of brick and stone, and add to 
the sightliness of the place. 

Besides her present importance as representative of 
her State on the great inland seas, Erie has had her 
share on the page of history since 1795; among her 
proudest annals being the departure from her port 
of Oliver Hazard Perry, who went in 1813 to meet 
the English in the s{)lendid naval action which has 
made his name famous. There are many memorials 
of this engagement among the city's relics, which 
bring back the reality of those stirring times more 
forcibly perhaps than the volumes describing them. 

Like Buffalo, Erie's leading enterprises are her iron 
works, where stoves, machinery and steam engines 
are made. Large quantities of coal and petroleum, 
the contributions from Pennsylvania, are sent here 
for shipment, and form a good share of the varied 
products which make their way through the large 
water channels to different parts of the United 
States. Her educational svstem is excellent and there 
are nearly half a hundred public schools, which offer 
quite good advantages to the children who help make 
her population of nearly twenty-five thousand. Erie 
undoubtedly has a bright future before her, which her 
rapid increase in population since 1870 predicts, and 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 215 

she may, in a measure, balance the power in the 
opposite corner of the State, where the " City of 
Brotherly Love'' reigns supreme. Having seen so 
much of the place as time would allow, and heard its 
story from those who knew it best, I ended the day 
by lecturing at the Academy of Music, Hon. C. B. 
Curtis introducing. 

liftg-first JDag. 

Farm House, 

SwANViLLE, Pennsylvania, 

June Thirtieth. 

Passed a very busy morning at Erie attending to 
business correspondence with advance agents, making 
notes, and with the assistance of Mr. Farrington 
brought my scrap-book up to date. I called also upon 
a few old acquaintances whom I had known in the East, 
and whose faces were a welcome surprise at this stage 
of my journey. The editor of the Erie Dispatch 
called after dinner and spent an hour with me in a 
general discussion of the incidents of my trip since 
leaving Boston, which had been, however, more pleas- 
ant than exciting. In this way the afternoon slipped 
by, and it was not until five o'clock that I found 
myself ready to leave Colonel Ellsworth's hospitable 
roof. Had I not been fullv determined to make 
some headway before night, the cordial request of 
my host that I stay longer with him might have 
dissuaded me at the last from starting so late, but I 
resisted the inclination, and having bade good-bye to 
my newly-made friends put spurs to Paul, who soon 
carried me far beyond the city limits on the road to 



216 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Swanville. I had long since learned that in a case 
of this kind, the charms of hospitality, like those of 
Circe, were fatal to the interests of him who heeded. 
Made the eight and a half miles to Swanville in fair 
time, and was soon settled for the night at the home 
of John Joseph Swan, an old resident and pioneer, 
after whom the hamlet is named. 

Farm House, 
Swanville, Pennsylvania, 
July First. 

Was compelled to remain in this place two days on 
account of my lecture appointment for Girard, and 
was singularly fortunate in having cast my lot with 
the Swans, who were untiring in their efforts to make 
my stay agreeable. The head of the family was 
eighty-three years old and quite patriarchal in 
appearance. From him I learned something of 
their military record, which reaches over quite an ex- 
tended period of our country^s history, and which 
makes a noble background for the peace and comfort 
they now enjoy. Mr. Swanks father was a captain 
of militia in pioneer days, and his son Andrew was 
a lieutenant-colonel of cavalry during the late war. 
He was a participant himself in the war of 1812, and 
both he and his father were pensioners. In fact they 
have grown up with the country, having shared its 
trials and its triumphs. Mr. Swan was one of the 
earliest settlers in Erie County, and although more 
than half a century had passed since he had settled 
there, this veteran still remembered and vividly de- 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 217 

scribed the scenes and events of those stirring times. 
He saw the first steamer launched on the lake and 
said it was regarded as an evil omen by the Indians, 
who called it " The Devil's Canoe '^ and who ran 
frightened from the shore at its approach. His 
stories were most amusing, and their personal narra- 
tion gave them a freshness which was untiring. 
While I was with these people, I had the pleasure of 
meeting Miss Eliza Swan, a talented daughter of 
the family, who had just returned from Paris, where 
she had been studying under Jules Le Fevre, the 
well-known painter. Among her better productions 
I was especially pleased with her portrait from life 
of an old man, for which she was awarded a medal by 
Peter Cooper. 

Central House. 
GiRARD, Pennsylvania, 

JiUy Second. 

Took a walk with Mr. Swan over his farm in the 
morning, looking at his stock and grain and quietly 
admiring the thrift and enterprise everywhere appar- 
ent. The comfort and refinement of these country 
homes had made a strong impression, and I became 
quite enthusiastic over the American farmer. My 
host took especial pleasure in showing me the changes 
which half a century had wrought upon his premises, 
and which certainly were surprising. It was difficult 
to realize that the fields which we were viewing had, 
within the memory of my companion, been trans- 
formed from a wilderness to cultivated acres. While 



218 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

strolling over the farm, the sky became clouded and 
by noon a torrent of rain deluged Swanville. Owing 
to tliis caprice of the elements, I was unable to leave 
until three o'clock in the afternoon. Made the six 
miles and a half between the two places in easy time. 
As I rode into town I was greeted by the Girard 
Brass Band, which, while it amused me, rather sur- 
prised Paul^ who during our " triumphal procession" 
to the Central House did a little " dancing," greatly 
to the delight of the onlookers. 

After lecturing at the Town Hall in the evening, 
where I was introduced by Jacob Bender, editor 
of the Cosmopolite, I was serenaded at my hotel by 
the indefatigable band, which certainly made me 
feel welcome. I was sorry that the limitations put 
upon my time by appointments ahead allowed me so 
small an opportunity to meet the people, and get a 
better idea of their occupations. I should have liked 
to visit the lumber and brick yards, which are the 
chief enterprise, but was obliged to content myself 
with only a " cursory glance," as our newspaper 
friends say. The soil of the region is almost entirely 
composed of clay, and is thus peculiarly adapted to 
the manufacture of brick. 



i'iftw-fourti) 5)ag. 



Fisk House, 
Ashtabula, Ohio, 
July Third. 



A bright sun and clear blue sky gave promise of 
an exceedingly pleasant day, as I seated myself in 
the saddle at Girard at eight o'clock. 



BUFFALO TO CLEVBlAm. 219 

Before leaving I bade good-bye to Mr. Farrlngton, 
who had been with me from Boston, but who now 
found it necessary to return to his home at Ehnira, 
New York, owing to business interests there. I 
regretted exceedingly his retirement, as he had ren- 
dered invaluable service in connection with my 
lectures, and had been a most genial and companionable 
fellow-traveller, whenever circumstances brought us 
too^ether aloncr the route. 

I found the people everywhere engaged in prepara- 
tions for the Centennial Fourth, which, as it was to be 
one of our greatest holidays, was to be celebrated 
with unusual enthusiasm. Owing to the excitement 
which prevailed, and to the fact that almost every 
man and woman was employed upon some active 
committee, I decided to waive my lecture at Ashta- 
bula, and enter into the public demonstration. The 
Rev. Mr. Fisher, who had intended introducing me 
to my audience at this place, came to see me at the 
Fisk House soon after my arrival, and talked of the 
arrangements that were being made for the morrow. 
In the evening I called upon Rev. L. AY. Day and 
had a chat with him about Ashtabula. The town 
is the capital of Ashtabula County, and lies at the 
mouth of a small river of the same name, in the 
midst of a good farming district. The principal 
products are wheat, maple sugar and those of the 
dairy. The chief interests of the town are its manu- 
factures, which I understand are quite important. 

As in all such towns, the population is varied. 
The combination of the farming and manufacturing 
elements gives a decidedly picturesque aspect. 



220 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

f ift^'-fiftl) JUas. 

Farm House, 
Near Painesville, Ohio, 

July Fourth. 

This day has been indeed the greatest holiday in 
the history of the United States. Such grand prep- 
arations and such lavish display have probably never 
been witnessed before on this continent, and although 
I chanced to be in a comparatively obscure corner of 
the Republic, I found the prevailing sentiment as 
deep as though I were in one of the great centres. 
I doubt if there was sleep for anyone during the 
preceding night, for the wildest excitement w^as mani- 
fested, and the dawn of the Centennial Fourth was 
presaged by the booming of cannon, the blowing of 
engine whistles, the ringing of bells and discharge of 
firearms of every conceivable calibre and description. 

The townspeople were stirring at an early hour, and 
although I had found very little rest, I was in the 
saddle by nine o'clock. A thunder-shower overtook 
me about noon, thanks to the generous use of gun- 
powder, and I took shelter under a tree, from whence I 
was invited to dinner by Daniel Flower, a neighboring 
farmer. With him and his family I passed a com- 
fortable hour, and then moved forward in the direc- 
tion of Painesville. 

Toward evening I reined up in front of an invit- 
ing-looking house — a feature which the traveller 
soon learns to observe — and asked one of the farm 
hands if Mr. Lee was at home. Before the man had 
time to answer, a young girl came running down the 



BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 223 

path toward the gate, saying, "Are you Captain 
Glazier ?'' I acknowledged that I was that humble 
person, whereupon Miss Lee asked me to dismount 
and "• come right in,'' while Jack would take care 
of the horse. Her fother and mother had gone to 
Cleveland in the morning, to celebrate the Fourth, 
and were expected back the same night. The little 
ludy insisted upon my stopping overnight, and bustled 
about with all the importance of a housewife in pre- 
paring supper. I naturally felt some hesitation in 
accepting her invitation to remain all night, but she 
insisted that I be her guest, and made every effort 
to amuse me. After tea, I was ushered into the 
parlor, where my hostess soon joined me, saying 
that I was her "very first caller '^ and that she was 
going to entertain me " the best she knew how.'' 
Suiting the action to the word, she took her place at 
the piano, and began to play some national airs suita- 
ble to the occasion ; but as the evening slipped away 
I began to feel the effects of the day's ride, and 
begged to be allowed to retire. This, however, the 
young lady seemed at first disinclined to do, asking 
me to wait for her father and mother, but finally I 
insisted as gently as possible; so she showed me to 
my room herself, wisliing me a hearty good-night. 
Dawn was ushered in by the rattling of milk pans and 
the creaking of a pump under my window, so, know- 
ing that further rest was out of the question, I 
dressed and went downstairs, where I met Mr. and 
Mrs. Lee. I found them very kindly people, and 
knew that their daughter had inherited from them her 
share of good nature. That odd little miss was up 
at the first cock-crow, and was waiting to bid me 



2U OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

good-morning. As I was about to mount Paul aftei* 
breakfast, she asked the privilege of a ride on him, 
and, bounding into the saddle, galloped down the road 
with the grace of an Indian. When she bade me 
goodbye at the gate, where her father and mother 
were standing to see me off, she asked me in her un- 
sophisticated way to remember her as my *' Centennial 
girl,'' which I solemnly promised to do, and as I 
looked back from the road I could see her waving 
her handkerchief as a parting salute. 

5iftj3-sutl) JDag. 

Farm House, 
Near Wickliffe, Ohio, 
July Fifth. 

Starting rather late from Painesville, a town just 
beyond Mr. Lee's, and riding leisurely during the 
day, I found it necessary to keep to the road until 
dark, in order to place myself as near to Cleveland 
as possible, before halting. Reached Willougiiby, the 
seat of a Methodist College, nineteen miles east of 
Cleveland, just before sundown, where I was tempted 
to stay over night, knowing that to ride farther would 
be gloomy and uninteresting, but in my eagerness to 
reach the '^ Forest City," towards which I had. looked 
for several days, I pressed forward. 

As there was no hotel at WicklifPe, I passed through 
the little hamlet of that name and secured lodgings 
at the farm house of Thomas Lloyd, an old settler of 
Lake County, and a very large land-owner. He told 
me the history of his pioneer life in this section of 
Ohio, and of his start in the pursuit of a fortune, 



o 
a 

o 

o 

w 
<; 

> 
U 




BUFFALO TO CLEVELAND. 227 

which gave me a bit of the early history of Ohio 
from another standpoint. It may seem odd that dur- 
ing the "flying visits^' which I sometimes paid to 
these small places, there was opportunity to hear any- 
thing about them, but country folk are accustomed to 
earlv risinsf, and as I learned the art, years ao;o, of 
waking with the birds, I very often joined my host, 
and had a chat with him before breakfast. The set- 
tlement near which I stayed overnight is six miles 
west of \yirioughby, which brought me w'ithin thir- 
teen miles of Cleveland. It boasts of nothing more 
than the necessary blacksmith shop and "store,'' and 
" looks up to " its big neighbor with due reverence. 
It lies in the fertile county of Lake, a northeastern 
corner of Ohio, measuring some two hundred and 
sixty square miles, of which a large portion is covered 
with forest, and whose surface is generally hilly or 
undulating. 




CHAPTER XIII. 

FIVE DAYS AT CLEVELAND. 

OUND a good night's rest at the quiet 
farmhouse of the Lloyds, on the night 
of the fifth, and after an early breakfast 
on the following morning called for my 
horse and started for Cleveland. On my 
way out, near Wickliffe, I overtook a 
troop of girls on their way to school. 
One of them, a bright-faced little 
maid, giving her name as Ettie Warren, 
and saying she was a granddaughter of Mr. Lloyd, 
asked me to accept a bouquet, which had no doubt 
been intended for her teacher. It was a mass of 
gay colors, which had been gathered from the home 
garden, and its huge proportions quite appalled me. 
However, I accepted it with mock gravity, and as she 
and her small companions kept beside me, I could 
overhear a whispered conversation of very secret im- 
port, which resolved itself into the question, "Do you 
like apples, mister?" I confessed my fondness for 
the fruit, and was soon the chagrined possessor of a 
pocketful of green ones, which this sunburned little 
daughter of Eve generously offered. Before riding 

into town I was obliged to consign these gifts to the 
^228) 



FIVE DAYS AT CLEVELAND. 229 

roadside, but not without a certain guilty feeling, and 
sympathy for the cheated school ma'am. 

Passed through the village of ^NEentor, a pleasant lit- 
tle place six miles from Cleveland, the home of Hon* 
J. A. Garfield, then an Ohio Congressman. 

Noting much excitement as I approached Euclid, 
I dismounted to learn the cause, and found it was due to 
a rumor that General Custer and his entire command 
liad been massacred by Indians. The source of this in- 
formation made it appear reliable, and yet compara- 
tively few were disposed to believe it. My long associa- 
tion w^ith the General during the AYar of the Rebellion 
led me to take the thought of his death very much to 
heart, although I was yet unwilling to credit what I 
had heard. At the Forest City House, whither I had 
been escorted by a delegation of G. A. R. friends, the 
truth of the report was discussed, and the deepest 
regret manifested, should such a fate have befallen the 
brave cavalryman. 

In the evenins: I lectured at Garrett's Hall, where 
Major E. M. Hessler introduced me. Later, in behalf 
of a number of citizens, the Major proposed a ban- 
quet in my honor, but this I felt justified in declining, 
owing to imperative duties in connection with my jour- 
ney. The rest of my time here was passed in looking 
about the city, and in talking with some of the " Forest 
City " people, who are pardona'bly proud of their 
home on Lake Erie. This part of the State was a great 
hunting-ground for the Indiai.a in tormer days, who 
came to make war on the bear and beaver. They 
started eastward in the autumn and paddled down 
the lake, entire villages at a time, to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga River, on whose banks they piled their 



230 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

birch canoes and then scattered tlirough the neighbor- 
ing forests. Returning in the spring to a small cabin 
which had been built near their landing-place by the 
Northwestern Fur Coni[)any, they disposed of their 
spoils, and when their business with their white 
brothers was over, re-enibarked for their summer 
homes on the Maumee and Sandusky. 

When General Moses Cleveland came with a sur- 
veying party in 1796 to lay out the site of the chief 
city of the ^' Reserve " for the Connecticut Land 
Company, the cabin of the fur-traders was still stand- 
ing, but was in too dilapidated a condition to be of 
use. Two more cabins were therefore raised, one for 
the party, and the other for Job Stiles, and his wife 
Tabitha, who was housekeeper. When the ])lans 
were finished the woman of the settlement found her- 
self the possessor of one city lot, one ten-acre lot, and 
one one hundred-acre lot, a donation from the di- 
rectors and stockholders of the company, made no 
doubt in consideration of her services, and from the 
fact that she was the first white woman to take up her 
abode on the new ground. Two more gifts of the 
valuable land were made, one to Nathaniel Doane, the 
company's blacksmith, who had kept their pack-mules 
shod, and the other to James Kino-sburv and his wife, 
the first who emigrated independently to the. Reserve. 
Within eighty years the worth of this property had 
increased surprisingly, but the first owners had long 
since ceased to care tor worldly goods, and the land 
had been resold many times. Buildings that would 
have astonished tliose early folk had replaced their 
simple cabins, and thousands of strange feet were 
treading in their old haunts. 



FIVE BAYS AT CLEVELAND. 231 

For several years, in fact until the opening of the 
Ohio Canal in 1834, the population of Cleveland in- 
creased very slowly, A year after the survey, the 
homes "under the hill " alonor the n^ht bank of the 
Cuvaho^a had to be removed to the rid«;e, for even at 
that time fever and atjue beo;an to trouble the settlers. 
This disagreeable malady, wittily personified as " Ague- 
agneshakershake,'' — the God of Lake Erie — was a 
continual bugbear and made yearly attacks upon 
the families. So widespread was the reputation it had 
gained that a stranger stopping at Buffalo, then a rival 
port, was told that if he went to Cleveland he '^ would 
not live over night.'^ On the highlands the expo- 
sure was much less, and soon all the cabins were built 
there. Then they began to spread out along the ridge 
toward the east, in tlie direction of Euclid, following 
the line of the Euclid Road, which even then was a 
popular place on which to have a section and build. 
In 1801, the first well in Cleveland was dug on this 
thorouo-hfare, and w^as walled in with stones which 
the Indians had left from their wigwam fireplaces. 
Two years later Connecticut ceded her Western Re- 
serve, which she had held under an old charter, to the 
General Government and the chief city transferred 
her allegiance to the new State of Ohio. 

Gradually the settlement spread out into the sur- 
rounding country, where ambitious hamlets, having 
enjoyed their brief season of independence, ulti- 
mately cast their fortune with the larger city, and be- 
came a sharer in its triumphs. One of these, wiiich 
had attained more importance than the rest, had 
started up on the opposite bank of the Cuyahoga, and 
assumed the bravado of a rival. Cleveland made 



232 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

several advances to her which were met with coolness, 
and at last both villages applied for charters; the one 
on the left bank receiving hers first and glorying in 
her new name of '' Ohio City." Again Cleveland be- 
sought a conciliation and tried to persuade the inde- 
pendent little rival neighbor to change her name, and 
become one with her, but with ill success. As time 
wore on, however, population decreased on the left 
shore and increased on the right, and signs of union 
became apparent from the fact that " Ohio City " 
reached out to the southeast, while Cleveland met her 
half-way by extending toward the southwest. We are 
not sure how matters were arranged between the two 
rivals when the final step was taken, but at any rate it 
was a felicitous event, and now that the coveted 
neighbor has become the West Side, some Cleve- 
landers find it difficult to determine which is the 
" better-half." 

In those early days before the railroads reached her, 
this new Ohio town was obliged to look about for 
other means of transportation, and we hear of one of 
her pioneers establishing a boat yard in the woods a 
mile and a half from the lake. Here the engineer 
cut his timber and carried out his plan for the first 
boat built at Cleveland. The framework was raised 
in a clearing of the forest, from whence a rough road 
led to the water, and in this wild but convenient spot 
the schooner was finished, and ready to be introduced 
to the world as '^ The Pilot." The farmers of the 
surrounding country were invited to assist in the 
launching and accordingly came into town on the ail- 
important day, with their oxen, to haul the craft down 
to the shore. The ceremony was greeted with re- 



FIVE DAYS AT CLEVELAND. 233 

sounding cheers, and Levi Johnson received his first 
congratulations from his fellow-townsmen. This was 
in 1814. He afterwards built a steamboat and gave 
it the name of one of his own characteristic traits, 
" Enterprise.'^ 

In 1816, although the itinerant preachers who had 
visited the place would scarcely have credited it, a 
church was organized and an Episcopalian form of wor- 
ship established, which later grew into Trinity Church 
and Parish. Hitherto a bugle had called the people 
together when a clergyman appeared, and the most 
primitive services followed. On one of these occa- 
sions, well-known to those who lived in Cleveland 
when it was still a churchless community, Lorenzo 
Dow was announced to preach. He was an eccentric 
man and the place reputed to be a bad one. His con- 
gregation, who were waiting under a large oak, did 
not recognize the solitary figure approaching in his 
shirt sleeves, and, as he quietly sat upon the ground 
in their midst, and his head dropped upon his knees in 
silent prayer, one in the crowd enquired if he were 
Lorenzo Dow. Some one answered, ^' Yes,'' but an- 
other irreverently said in an undertone, " It's the devil." 
Dow overheard the remark, and rising, preached to 
his hearers such a sermon on Gehenna that they never 
forgot it, or him. 

In 1821, the "Academy" became an institution, and 
began a course of instruction upon a very liberal 
basis, giving its pupils the full course for four dollars 
a term, and separate branches for much less. 

In the year 1836 the city was incorporated, and 
with the new honor seems to have looked to the im- 
provement of her appearance. The public square, 



234 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

which had previously been little more than a grazing- 
place for cows, was seriously considered as a possible 
ornament, and was graded and made more attractive, 
until now it bears little resemblance to the common 
on which the irrepressible Indian, "Omic," breathed 
his last. It has changed its name since then, and has 
become " Monumental Square," from the marble statue 
of Commodore Perry, which adorns its southeastern 
corner. A good view of the liveliest part of the city 
can be had from here, and from early morning until 
late at night there is a continuous stream of people 
passing through it. 

Superior street, which forms its southern boundary, 
is lined with retail stores, and its fine buildings and 
neat pavements hardly suggest the indifferent houses 
and plank road of forty years ago. Ontario is 
another busy thoroughfare runnin^i; north and south, 
and bisecting the square. Where it begins, at Lakeside 
Park, it is lined with private residences, but beyond 
the square it develops into a genuine work-a-day 
business street. In 1813 there was a small stock- 
ade on the lake shore just below it, for Cleveland 
was a depot for supplies, and was waiting to give a 
warm reception to the English. Most of the public 
buildings ar^ on or near the square — the Post Of- 
fice, Custom House, City Hall, and several of the 
churches. Not far away is the library of the Young 
Men's Literary Association, which has had a sin- 
gularly favored career. Established in 1845 upon a 
very unpretentious basis in the Case Building, it was 
soon given a perpetual lease by the owner, and later 
received a large sum of money for its extension and 
support from a son of Mr. Case. The Public Library 



o 



t?3 

CO 



O 




FIVJS PAYS AT CLEVELAND. 237 

is located in the old High School Building on Euclid 
avenue and has 26,000 volumes in circulation. The 
Board of Trade is another of the city's time-honored 
institutions, having been founded in 1848. It is now 
in the Atwater Building on Superior street. 

Euclid avenue, which from its rustic popularity in 
pioneer days, came to bear the proud distinction of 
being one of the handsomest streets in the world, 
stretches off eastward from the square, for four and a 
half miles, until it reaches Wade Park, a beautiful 
spot, still shaded by the groves and forests which have 
been left from the wilderness. It was a gift from Mr. 
Wade, one of Clevelaud'^ millionaires. 

From this point the avenue continues for a mile 
and a half until it finds its terminus in I^ake View 
Cemetery, a magnificent stretch of woodland over- 
lookino- the lake from a heiy;lit of two hundred and 
fifty feet. 

The avenue is in its entire leno-th a feast of beautv. 
The homes that line it on either side are fine speci- 
mens of architecture, and the gardens surrounding 
them show a lavish devotion to the sweet goddess 
Flora. Thousands of people who are unable to leave 
town during the summer find a grateful change of 
scene here, and it so impressed Bayard Taylor that he 
bestowed upon it the splep.did praise of calling it the 
most beautiful street in the world. Nur is its charm 
purchased at the expense of squalid surroundings, for 
the streets of Cleveland are well kept and almost all 
of its homes have their little gardens around them, while 
the tenement house is " conspicuous by its absence." 
In fact the people have chosen rather to sacrifice a 
trifle more to time and expense ,and less to space, 



•J3S OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

They have expanded and have built longer street-car 
lines in proportion. 

The old eyesore of dilapidated huts and rubbish 
heaps along the river and lake shore was soon swept 
away after the railroads came, and a fine park sub- 
stituted. The undertaking was a large one, but it 
proved to be well worth the labor and money expended 
upon it, and is now one of the city's chief adornments 
and one of her most delightful rendezvous. 

The stranger, as he nears the " Forest City '^ wearied 
with his travels and sensitive to his surroundings, 
finds nothing to meet his curious gaze but a neat shore 
line on one side, and on the other the green slope of 
Lakeside Park, with its grottos and fountains, and an 
occasional suggestion of graveled walks. The top of 
the ridge is an excellent place whereon to take a 
morning stroll, and get a good breath of fresh air, and 
from this eminence the lines of the five railroads which 
centre here can be seen converging towards the Union 
Depot, where a large portion of the coal, petroleum 
and lumber is received that makes its way from dis- 
tant points. 

" The Flats ^' along the lake and river fronts are 
alive with business, and present a fascinating scene 
from some overlooking point. There are factories, ore 
docks and coal and lumber yards famous the country 
over, and water craft of every kind and size. One of 
the most important enterprises is that of the Cleveland 
Rolling Mill Company, whose buildings occupy thirty- 
two acres, and whose yearly pay-roll reaches more 
than $2,000,000. On the West Side is the Cuyahoga 
Steam Furnace Company, noted for having manu- 
factured a patent horse-power cannon for the Govern- 



FIVE DAYS AT CLEVELAND. 239 

tnent, and for having turned out the first locomotive 
in the West. The great Standard Oil Company, begun 
in the sixties and later developing into a stock com- 
pany under its present name, is located here, and its 
cars, surmounted by the familiar white keg, are seen 
on almost all the railroads of the country. 

Out from the river's mouth stretch two long piers, 
two hundred feet apart, which represent the final 
triumph of the engineer over the tides which have 
wrought such incessant mischief ever since a certain 
captain and his crew were delayed in the harbor of 
Cleveland sixty years ago by a sandbar. There is a 
lighthouse at the end of each pier, and one high up on 
the shore which was built by the Government in 1830 
at a cost of $8,000. 

Now, through this inviting gateway, large lake 
boats steam into port without hindrance, bringing 
with them the rich copper and iron ores of Lake 
Superior, the limestone of the Lake Erie Islands, and 
the miscellaneous products which they take up along 
their route. With these valuable cargoes, to which 
have been attributed much of her prosperity, Cleve- 
land receives a large amount of coal from the mines 
of Ohio and Pennsylvania, having access to the latter 
throuo^h the Ohio Canal, which has been such an im- 
petus to her growth. 

On the other side of the river are her large Water 
Works, the incessant pumping of whose engines sup- 
plies this city of 140,000 inhabitants with water. 
The Reservoir lies upon the top of a cliff, and is a 
favorite resort in summer. From its crest a fine view 
of lake and river can be obtained, and if one were to 
allow his imagination a little freedom, this would be 



UO OCEAN TO OCMN ON KORSESACR. 

the most satisfactory place to get a retrospective 
view of Cleveland as it was to the pioneer. About 
here the Indians stayed unmolested long after they had 
sold their land to the white man, and across the river 
on the slope the first log cabin stood. The scene which 
takes its place is almost bewildering with its network 
of factories, lake and river craft and housetops. Here 
and there a dot: of green rises above the buildings, be- 
traying the presence of the elms and maples which 
have been jealously preserved and which are one of 
the characteristic beauties of the "Forest City." 

During my stay here, nothing was more gratifying 
than a walk or ride through the broad streets in the 
shade of these trei3s. It made summer in the city 
something to stay for, and not something to run away 
from. There were many drives leading out beyond 
the limits daily frequented by pleasure-seekers, and 
inviting out-of-the-way places for those who were 
unable to go elsewhere. Beside these, the lake 
though the shallowest in the cliain and sometimes 
treacherous on that account, is a continual clarifier and 
beautiful to look upon. As for the old-time " God," 
and his attendant maladies, who tyrannized over the 
pioneer, they seem to have vanished, and now I ven- 
ture to say there is no healthier city in the country 
than Cleveland and certainly none more attractive. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO. 



Si^g'-firat JDag. 




Lampman HouiCy 
Black River, Ohio^ 
July 11, 1876. 




T eight o'clock, my favorite hour for be- 
ginning a day's ride, I mounted Paul in 
front of the hotel at Cleveland, but before 
leaving the city I stopped at Major Hess- 
ler's office to hand him the proceeds of 
my lecture at Garrett's Hall, which were 
donated to the Soldiers' Monument Fund 
at Dayton. This brought me two very 
kind acknowledgments: one from General 
James Barnett, who forwarded the money, and the 
other from E-ev. William Earnshaw, custodian of the 
Monument Fund. These letters, written in behalf of 
three thousand disabled veterans, amply satisfy me 
for any sacrifice I may have made, and are among my 
most prized possessions. General Barnett wrote as 
follows: 

Headquarters 
Post No. 1, Department of Ohio, G. A. JR., 
Cleveland, July 12, 1876. 
Captain Willard Glazier, 

Comrade : Through your unsolicited generosity I have the pleasure 
to uckuowledge the receipt of the net proceeds of your lecture oa 
12 (243) 



244 OCEAN TO OCEJ N ON HORSEBACK 

*' Echoes from the Revolution," delivered iwx our city July 6, 1876, 
and by your direction have forwarded the amount to Chaplain Wil- 
liam Earnshaw, President of the " Soldiers' Home Monument 
Fund," at Dayton, to assist in erecting a monument to the memory 
of the veterans who by the fortunes of war await the long roll at the 
National MiUtary Home, and may your reward be no less than the 
love and gratitude of our unfortunate comrades. 

By order of 
General James Barnett, Commanding. 
E. M. Hessler, Qu,artermastet\ 

There are certain results following every under* 
taking which are looked upon either with gratification 
or dissatisfaction, and which, through side issues, very 
often assume the importance of those desired to be 
attained. The recollection of the splendid scenes 
through which I have passed, the people whom I have 
met, the cities I have visited, will be a lifelong 
satisfaction, but tlie opportunity to help perpetuate 
the memory of fellow-soldiers and to do others honor 
while they yet live, will be the most gratifying outcome 
of my journey. Knowing this, the following letter 
from Chaplain Earnshaw holds an important place 
among the papers of my correspondents. 

National Soldiers' Home, 

Dayton, Ohio, July 27, 1876. 
Captain Willard Glazier, 

My dear Comrade: We have received, through Major E. M. 
Hessler, your generous donation to aid in erecting the Soldiers' 
Monument at the Home. You have the hearty thanks of three 
thousand disabled veterans now on our rolls; and a cordial invitation 
to visit us whenever it is your pleasure to do so. Again, we thank 

you. 

Very respectfully, 

William Earnshaw, 

President Historical and Monumental Society. 

On leaving the city several gentlemen gave ine the 
pleasure of their company for some distance, among 



CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO, 247 

them Alexander Wilsey, who before the war had been 
a scholar of mine back in Schodack, New York. 

Meeting him was only one of many similar ex- 
periences, for here and there along my route I found 
old acquaintances, whose faces I had never expected to 
see again. 

After a ride of six hours, I rode into Black River 
and found it quite an enterprising village, but hardly 
suggesting its old position as the principal port in the 
county. 

Huron House, 
Huron, Ohio, 
July Twelfth. 

Left the aspiring village of Black River or " Lor- 
raine," as the inhabitants are disposed to call it, at 
nine o^clock, stopping at the Lake House, Vermillion, 
for dinner. The scenery is very attractive along the 
Lake Shore Road between Black River and Huron, 
and I followed it all day and for two or three hours 
after nightfall, covering a distance of twenty miles. 
My sense of the beautiful was somewhat dimmed, 
however, by the cloud of mosquitoes which beset my 
path, and which were hardly persuaded to part com- 
pany at the hotel. There were nearly seven hundred 
people in Huron, and I must confess that upon enter- 
ing; the slumbering vlllao^e I beij-an to be 2;eiierous in 
the hope that my attentive little tormentors would 
adopt the princii)le of equal distribution among the 
inhabitants. But for the rapacious mosquito the course 
of the traveller by night upon these highways is serene 
and uneventful, for, of all the hordes of wolves, wild- 
cats, buffaloes and panthers that made their homes 



248 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

about this part of the country in the times of the In- 
dian, scarcely a vestige remains. 

Tlie race of the red man is becoming slowly exter- 
minated, and his friends of the forest seem to be disap- 
pearing with him, while the white man and the mosqui- 
to fill tiieir places. I am sure no one of average reason, 
especially our logicians of New Jersey, would deny 
that this is another proof of the survival of the fittest. 

Although it was dark before I came into Huron, I 
could get a very good idea of its character, and had 
formed some notion of the place which was to shelter 
me. In 1848 it was spoken of as having been 
*' formerly the greatest business place in the county," 
and this reputation, although it has not made it a 
Sandusky or a Cleveland, has left it a spark of the old 
energy. 



SUlg-tljirb 3Ila2. 



West ffouse, 

Sandusky, Ohio, 

July Thirteenth. 



I was fortunate in having a comparatively short 
distance to travel between Huron and this city. It is 
only nine miles, and I did not start until two o'clock, 
allowing myself a two hour's easy gallop with the 
lake on my right all the way. 

Along this shore more than l> century ago. General 
Bradstreet, with three thousand men, sailed to the 
relief of Fort Junandat, while Pontiac, the great Ot- 
tawa warrior, was besieging Detroit. Reaching Fort 
Sandusky he burned the Indian villages there and de- 
stroyed the cornfields ; passed on up to Detroit to 
scatter tKe threatening savages, and returning went 



CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO. 249 

into tne Wyandot country through Sandusky Bay. 
To have attempted to ride alone on horseback in those 
days would have been a foolhardy, if not a fatal 
undertaking. Now the screech of an engine-whistle 
announced the approach of a train on the Lake Shore 
Road, the great wheels thundered by, and Paul, alert 
and trembling, was ready to dash away. How differ- 
ent it would have been in those old pioneer times ! 
The horseman would have been the one to tremble 
then, his hand reach for his rifle, his eyes strained 
towards the thicket from whence the expected yell 
of the sava2:e was to come. 

Among the first proprietors of this section were the 
Eries. These were followed by the resistless Iroquois, 
and after them the Wyandots and Ottawas, who seem 
to have left the strongest impress upon the hills and 
valleys of Ohio. One of these tribes, the Wyandots? 
called the bay near which they built their wigwams 
Sse-san-don-ske, meaning '^ Lake of the Cold Water," 
and from this the present name of the city comes. In 
the early days it was called Ogontz, after a big chief 
of that name who lived there before the vear 1812. 
All about were rich hunting-grounds, which accounts 
for its having been chosen by the Indians in times of 
peace; and even now Sandusky is held to be one 
of the o-reatcst fish-markets in America. 

The place was bound to be attractive to the white 
man, and any one might have safely prophesied that a 
city Vv'ould rise here. The ground slopes gradually 
down to the lake, the bay forms an ideal harbor, and 
looking off upon the boats and water, the eye resta 
upon a scene picturesque and striking. 

My attention was called to Johnson's Island, whicb 



250 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

was used for the confinement of Confederate officers 
during the late war. I learned that they were al- 
lowed the luxury of an occasional bath in the lake, 
under guard, of course, and in squads of a hundred 
men — a luxury which the boys in Libby and Charles- 
ton and Columbia would have thought " too good to 
be true." 

Under the city are the limestone quarries, which 
furnish an inexhaustible supply of building material 
and which give an added distinction to this bright 
little city of the lakes. 

On the evening of my arrival I spoke in Union 
Hall and was introduced by Captain Culver, who re- 
ferred to my military record and the object of ray 
lectures. Captain Culver is a comrade in the G. A. 
K. and was a fellow-prisoner at Libby and other pris- 
ons. He did much towards making ray stay at San- 
dusky most agreeable. 

Fountain House, 
Castalia, Ohio, 

July Fourteenth. 

My Sandusky friend. Captain Culver, called at the 
West House for me soon after breakfast, and we spent 
the forenoon strolling about the city. I was shown 
the newly completed Court House, of which San- 
duskians are very proud ; met several of the offi- 
cials and found much to admire. Left at five o'clock 
in the afternoon and by six had reached Castalia, five 
miles distant, which I soon found had something to 
boast of back of its classic name. As a stranger I 



CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO. 251 

was of course immediately told of the wonders of the 
" waters/' which I learned form quite an attraction in 
summer and keep the little place in a flutter of excite- 
ment. 

Marshall Burton came in 1836 and laid out this 
prairie town at the head of Coal Creek. Finding the 
source of the stream in a cool^ clear spring, now known 
to be two hundred feet in diameter and sixty feet 
deep, named the place " Castalia/^ from the famed 
Greek fountain at the foot of Parnassus. The waters 
of this spring are so pure that objects are plainly seen 
through the sixty liquid feet, and they say that when 
the sun reaches meridian, these objects reflect the 
colors of the rainbow, which might suggest to Casta- 
lians that the ancient sun-god, Apollo, favored the 
western namesake of his Delphian fount. I met no 
poets here, but possibly inspiration is not one of the 
powers guaranteed. Indeed if it should treat devotees 
of the Divine Art, as it does everything else that is 
plunged into it, we should have petrified poets. 

These petrifying qualities of the water, caused by the 
combined action of lime, soda, magnesia and iron have 
made the mill-wheels which turn in Coal Creek in- 
capable of decay. 

At a little distance frona the town is a cave of quite 
large dimensions, which was discovered accidentally 
through a dog running into the opening in pursuit of 
a rabbit. This cave I believe makes up the comple- 
ment of natural attractions about the village. The 
chief attraction, the social life of the people, cannot be 
guessed at by the rapid glance of the traveller. But 
even a short sojourn here is apt to be remembered 
long and pleasantly. Ohioans are notably hospitable. 



252 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Ball ITouse, 

Fremont, Ohio, 

July Fifteenth. 

I was awakened at twelve p. m. the previous night 
at Castalia by two villainous imps, who seemed 
determined to make an impression. Their evident ob- 
ject was " more rum/' which to the credit of the land- 
lord was not furnished them. Exasperated by this 
temperance measure, they attempted to enter the house, 
and finding the doors locked began a bombardment 
with fists and feet. This novel performance was kept 
up until the object of their wrath and his shot-gun ap- 
peared. Owing to this my ride of nineteen miles to 
Fremont was not as refreshing as it might have been. 

As I approached the town I thought of President 
Hayes, who is so closely identified with it. Here he 
began the practice of law, and won such popularity, not 
only among his townsmen, but throughout the State, 
that in 1864, after a succession of honors, his friends 
were pushing him for Congress. In answer to a letter 
written from Cincinnati, suggesting that his presence 
there would secure his election, he said, " An officer 
fit for duty, who at this crisis would abandon his post 
to electioneer for Congress, ought to be scalped. You 
may feel perfectly sure that I shall do no such thing/' 
and in a letter to his wife, written after he had heard 
of Lincoln's assassination, he expressed another sen- 
timent quite as strong when he said : " Lincoln's 
success in his great office, his hold upon the confidence 
and affection of his countrymen, we shall all say are 



CLEVELAND TO TOLEDO. 253 

only second to AVashington^s. We shall probably 
feel and thinh that they are not second even to bis." 

Fremont of course is justly proud of tlie name and 
fame of Rutherford B. Hayes. Two years before he 
returned to his home, after refusing Grant^s offer of 
an Assistant Secretaryship, but the people of Ohio 
were not satisfied with this. Their feelings were 
probably voiced by the words of a personal friend 
of Hayes, who said : " With your energies, talents, 
education, and address, you are green — verdant as 
grass — to stay in a country village.'' Soon after- 
wards, at the urgent and repeated requests of the 
people, he gave up his quiet life and once more entered 
the political arena, with results which the election of 
1876 shows. 

There were apparently many \vho were dissatisfied 
with the Nation's choice, but in Ohio, and especially 
where he was known personally, he was much beloved 
and admired. His uncle, Sardis Birchard, who died 
some years ago, leaving his property and fortune to his 
namesake, has given a park and a fine library to Fre- 
*mont. 

The town is on the Sandusky River, at the head of 
navigation, and has quite a brisk trade for a plac«» 
claiming only a little over five thousand inhabitants. 



Sutw-sii'tl) ©ag. 



Elmore House, 
El MOKE, Ohio, 
July Sixteenth. 



My accommodations at the Ball House, Fremont, 
were quite in contrast with those placed at my dis- 



254 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

posal at Castalla. I heard no stories of " mineral 
springs '' or wonderful freaks of Nature, but shall re- 
member Fremont as the delightful little city where I 
had two nights' sleep in one. 

I began my day's journey at eight o'clock with 
Elmore as the ev^ening objective. Halted a few 
moments at a hotel known in that locality as the Four- 
Mile House. Took dinner at Hessville, where I re- 
mained until four o'clock in the afternoon and then 
rode on to Elmore. 



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CHAPTER XV. 



FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. 



RDERED Paul and saddled him myself 
at Elmore, on the morning of July seven- 
teenth. In fact it was my usual custom, 
while riding through the rural districts, to 
personally groom, feed and care for my 
horse, as I learned soon after leaving 
Boston that, unless I attended to his 
wants myself, he was most likely to be 
neglected by those in whose hands he 
was placed, and from a selfish standpoint, knowing 
also the importance of keeping him in the best possible 
condition, I never overlooked anything which was 
likely to add to his comfort. 

On my way from Elmore, I stopped for lunch at a 
country grocery, hotel and saloon, four miles from this 
city. A small piece of bread, a bowl of milk, and a 
few crackers covered my refreshment at the ^' Jack 
of All Trades," as upon asking for a second piece of 
bread I was informed tliat I had just eaten the last in 
the house. There being no further appeal, I re- 
mounted and rode off in the direction of Toledo, where 
I lectured in the evening at Lyceum Hall, under tVie, 

auspices of Forsyth Post, being introduced by Doctor 

(267) 



258 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

J. T. Woods, a surgeon of our Volunteer Army dur- 
ing the late war, and now an active comrade in the 
G. A. R. 

Doctor Woods and I had a long and animated talk 
at the Boody House over old times, and especially of 
Custer, who was greatly admired by both of us, as he 
was by every one who knew anything of him. Doctor 
Woods had collected a number of articles referring to 
the General which he thought of especial interest, 
p.mong others the following lines which seem to bear 
the very impress of Custer's martial spirit : 

"The neighing troop, the flashing blad^ 

The bugle's stirring blast. 
The charge, the dreadful cannonade. 

The din and shout are past. 
No war's wild notes nor glory's peal 

Shall thrill with fierce delight 
The breast that nevermore may feel 

The raptures of the fight.*' 

When our conversation turned upon Toledo, it be- 
came more cheerful. The city, after having survived 
many reverses of fortune, is now on the eve of rapid 
development, and can hardly be said to have a rival 
in Northern Ohio. The long and hard battle fought 
for the soil on which it now stands is almost for- 
gotten, and instead of arousing the interest of the 
stranger with thrilling tales of massacre and war, the 
Toledoan now points to the emblems of peace. 

Not so far away but that the patriotic citizen may 
become familiar with the place is the old battle-field 
of '^Fallen Timbers," where "mad Anthony Wayne" 
brought the Indians to bay, and having conquered, 
pursued them for ten miles along the Maumee, until 



FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. 259 

he reached Swan Creek, now in the centre of the 
town. 

This battle is one of the most dramatic in the records 
of Indian warfare. It was at a time when the Wa- 
bash and Miami tribes had refused to accept any over- 
tures from the Americans, and when tliey were de- 
termined to fight out their cause with the- help of the 
British. 

Knowing that pacific measures were then super- 
fluous, and that the matter must be decided by war, 
Wayne at the head of a splendid support, marched to 
the Maumee, erected Fort Defiance at the junction of 
the Au Glaize, and then proceeded to a point where 
he knew the forces of the enemy were concentrated. 
Tlie place was in every way favorable to the party in 
possession — the river on the left, heavy thickets on 
the right, and in front natural breastworks formed by 
fallen timbers, the result of a tornado. Into this trap 
it was necessary to march in order to meet the foe. 
Wayne's simple plan of attack w^as this: to rouse 
tiie savages from their lair with an irresistible bayonet 
charge, ''and when up, to deliver a close and well* 
directed fire on their backs." 

The result was a victory for the Americans. The 
Indians and their white allies, completely routed, made 
a precipitous retreat, leaving the battle-field covered 
witli their dead. Hotly pursued, their cornfields 
and wigwams destroyed on the way, they were finally 
ready to acknowledge that peace was better than 
war. So ended the great battle of the Maumee, 
one of the most fatal in its efi^ect upon the destiny of 
the red race. 

It was after this, when actual contest was over, and 



260 OCtJAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

the Indiaus had been provided for west of the Mis- 
sissippi, that the Cincinnati Company laid out a town 
on the present site and called it Port Lawrence, 
after the famous flag-ship in which Perry met the 
British on Lake Erie. Later, Major Stickney, a his- 
toric pioneer, whose sons, " One " and " Two '^ Stickney 
are equally immortal, laid out Vistula, which after- 
wards joined Port Lawrence, under a name destined to 
become a power in the State — Toledo. 

The fortunes of the new town were fluctuating as 
April weather, and the faith of property-holders must 
have grown weak through wavering. Most of these 
hard times were due to malaria, which was bred in 
the neighboring swamps and forests, and which was an 
ever-present menace; yet when the cloud of contention 
lowered over the tract of land lying between the 
territory of Michigan and the State of Ohio, Toledo, 
the very centre of the trouble, being claimed by both, 
was animated enough, although her neighbor, Monroe, 
was wont to vex her with such taunts as this : 

"The potatoes they grow small, on Maumee, 
And they eat them, tops and all, on Maumee.** 

Potato-tops must have possessed singular virtue, for 
there was no want of spirit when the test came " On 
Maumee." 

The "Toledo War," much talked of and laughed 
over in its day, is passing slowly into oblivion, and 
now only an occasional grey-beard brings its scenes 
back with amusing reminiscence. The cause of the 
trouble lay in a mistake of Congress, which estab- 
lished an impossible boundary line between Michigan 
and Ohio, so that the " bone of contention " was a 



FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. 261 

tract of land eight miles wide at the western end, 
and five at the eastern, which both claimed. The 
people living in this tract were therefore between two 
fires, some preferring to be governed by the laws of 
the territory, and the others giving their allegiance to 
Ohio. The respective governors were the principals 
in the quarrel, and showed a strong disposition to 
fight, while the chief executive at Washington, being 
unable to interfere, was obliged to assume the role of 
a spectator, advising, however, that the interested 
parties defer action until the convening of Con- 
gress. 

The advantages were pretty evenly divided, except 
that Michigan, as a territory, in attempting to prevent 
the State from enforcing her supposed right, aroused a 
strong State pride among the " Buckeyes.'' The mi- 
litia was called out on both sides and Michigan 
threatened with arrest those who should attempt to 
re-mark the boundary line — the compliment being 
generously returned by Ohio. 

In the midst of these hostilities the Legislature of 
Ohio created a new county, calling it Lucas, after the 
Governor, which included a portion of the contested 
territory, and had for its seat the town of Toledo. To 
hold court at this county-seat without the intervention 
of the authorities of Michigan would virtually decide 
the case in Ohio's favor, but how this bold coup cVetaz 
was to be accomplished, and on the date appointed — • 
the seventh of September — was a question that puzzled 
the Governor himself. General Brown, in charge of 
the Michigan militia, was reported to be in Toledo at 
the time, with a force twelve hundred strong ; while 
Colonel Vanfleet, the Ohio warrior, was to rely upoD 



262 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the stout hearts of a hundred men, who were to act as 
posse for the protection of the court. 

When the judges, sheriff and attendants met at 
Miami to perfect their plans, on Sunday the sixth of 
September, they were somewhat fearful of the issue, 
and finally left the decision of the matter in the hands 
of Colonel Vanfleet. This intrepid Leonidas imme- 
diately assumed the championship of his State with 
admirable skill, and, walking up and down, sword in 
hand, in front of his hundred followers, for a moment's 
meditation, turned at last to the judges with these im- 
pressive words: 

" If you are women, go home ; if you are men, do 
your duty as judges of the court. I will do mine. If 
you leave this matter entirely with me, I will be re- 
sponsible for your safety and insure the accomplishment 
of our object; but if otherwise, I can give you no as- 
surance ! " 

In the light of present knowledge, the reader of 
these words, while he respects and admires the spirit 
in which they w^ere uttered, and the man who s])oke 
them, cannot avoid a mild sense of amusement. But 
this is not to the point. Matters proceeded seriously 
on that sixth of September, 1835. Vanfleet called for 
twenty volunteers, and these having quickly responded 
to the call, the Colonel then informed his proteges, 
probably not to their surprise, that the seventh of Sep- 
tember would begin immediately after midnight ; that 
the law did not specify any time for the opening of 
court, and that if they would rely upon his j)rotection, 
they could accomplish their purpose in the face of the 
toe. 

" Governor Lucas wants the court held," he arlded, 



FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. f*^S 

"so that by its record be may show to the world that 
he has executed the laws of Ohio over the disputed 
territory in spite of the vaporing threats of Governor 
Mason. Be prepared to mount your horses to start for 
Toledo at precisely one o'clock in the morning. I will 
be ready with my escort." 

The appointment was met, and Toledo was reached 
at three o'clock. The party proceeded directly to a 
school-house, and there court was held in due form of 
law, its proceedings written out on bits of paper being 
deposited in the tall crown of the clerk's hat. AYhen 
business was over, the entire party went to a tavern 
near by for refreshments. Just as the men were about 
to indulge in a second cup of cheer, some one called out 
that General Brown, with a strong force, was on his 
way to arrest them. Glasses were dropped, the little 
matter of indebtedness to the saloon-keeper was waived 
without ceremonv, and a moment later not a sign of the 
Ohio dignitaries remained. 

When they had placed a sufficient amount of the con- 
tested soil between themselves and General Brown, they 
halted upon a hill to fire a salute, but at that time it was 
learned that the clerk's hat, containing the all-important 
papers, had been knocked off his head by the limb of a 
tree during the retreat. To return might mean capture 
and the failure of their plan. To abaiidon the recovery 
of the missing hat would be equally deplorable. Van- 
fleet accordingly sent back a small detachment to search 
the road ; '^ the lost was found," and, at last triumphant, 
a loud salute wa3 fired. To say that the men did not 
then let the grass grow under their feet is but a mild 
assertion. It has been said by good authorities, that if 

the retreating party had charged General Brown's recri- 
13 



264 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

ment with half the force they employed in getting 
away, they could hav^e routed a force twice its size. 
When Congress convened, however, they had the satis- 
faction of having a favorable verdict pronounced upon 
their " unlawful act, lawfully committed," although 
Jackson had previously expressed himself in sympathy 
with the cause of Michigan. The defeated party, to 
even up matters, was given the northern peninsula 
between Superior and Huron, now her richest sec- 
tion. 

During the course of the "war" Toledo was full 
of Michigan troops, wlio left many anecdotes behind 
them and whose generally harmless behavior raised 
many a laugh among the townspeople. As one of 
these stories goes. Major Stickney, walking out into 
his garden one morning, noticed something that 
looked like a human figure in his potato vines. He 
called out to the mysterious object and asked what 
was going on there? The call brought to his full 
length a soldier in uniform, who stretched up and re- 
plied : 

" Drafting potato-tops to make the bottoms volun- 
teer, sir ! " 

And so, half in jest, and half in earnest, the affair 
continued and ended. 

When the forests were cleared away and the 
swamps drained, the dread malaria partnership was 
dissolved ; good health brought good cheer, and pros- 
perity followed. Very soon after the trouble with 
Michigan, the Miami and Erie Canal was built, which 
has been one of the important factors in making the 
"Corn City" so strong commercially Besides this 
great inlan^i waterway, eight railways bring into her 





¥ li 



FIVE DAYS AT TOLEDO. 267 

marts the products of the rich farms of Illinois, Indi- 
ana, Michigan and Ohio. 

From her ports enormous quantities of grain are 
yearly shipped to England either direct, or via Mon- 
treal, and her people say, without expecting to be 
contradicted, that no city in the United States can 
point to such a wonderful development of commercial 
resources. This scarcely suggests the time when To- 
ledo was little more than the dead carcass of specula- 
tion, the prey of the tax-gatherer, waiting the resur- 
rection that followed the War of the Rebellion, when 
men remained her citizens simply because they had no 
money with which to get away. 

Commerce takes the lead here, but there is one en- 
terprise of which Toledoans seem to be even prouder, 
and to see which they take the visitor " whom they 
wish to impress with their greatness." This is the 
thriving and truly imposing Milbourn Wagon Works, 
put into operation in 1875 and already become famous. 
The brick buildings are unusually fine and, archi- 
tecturally, would leave the uninformed stranger under 
the impression that they might belong to some insti- 
tution of learning. 

I was enabled to see more of the city than I had 
expected, owing to an unforeseen circumstance. A 
little friend who lived in Detroit, and .who was dying 
with consumption, had expressed a wish to come to 
Toledo to see me and my horse before it was too late. 
I therefore remained longer than I intended, that her 
friends might bring her down by boat, although they 
hardly hoped that she would survive the journey. 
She was given the pleasure of a quiet trip to Put-in- 
Bay, the well-known resort, and with this and the 



268 OC^^.l^V TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

gratification of seeing Paulj in whom she was deeply 
interested, her visit ended. 

Of all the strangers who come to this bright and 
busy city, active with the impetus given it by fifty 
thousand souls, I doubt if any take more keen delight 
in looking upon its business enterprises and individu- 
ality than did this bright-minded girl, just about to 
relinquish her hold upon earth. She knew nothing 
of the dark pages in its history, and only guessed at 
the wealth and strength back of the thronged harbor. 
To her it was a happy place — the temporary home 
of friends. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT, 



SiD^ntg-seconb Slag. 



ff^i^ 




Erie Hotels 
Erie, Michigan, 
July 22, 1876. 



Y Toledo friends were ready at the 
Boody House to give me good-bye when 
I mounted at nine o'clock, and I received 
a right hearty send-off. Upon leaving 
the city, instead of continuing westward 
as usual toward the " Golden Gate," I had 
determined for various reasons to swing 
off from the direct course, and ride 
northward to Detroit, moving thence to 
Chicago. This new route would take me through 
Monroe, a town with which the life of General Custer 
was more closely associated than any gther, and know- 
ing that I would find much there that would give me 
a more intimate knowledge of the man, I looked for- 
ward to this part of my journey with eager anticipa- 
tion. 

The ride to Erie being at some distance from the 
lake, and over a flat region, was rather monotonous. 
Erie itself is a small unimportant hamlet at the 

(2693 



270 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

western end of the lake, and a modest landmark in 
my journey from Toledo to Detroit. Paul, probably 
impressed with the air of peace that enveloped the 
place, made up his mind upon his arrival to give the 
good people a display of his mettle, and accordingly 
tore through the village streets in the wildest fashion. 
Having thus introduced himself, he pranced after 
I had dismounted until he had had enough ; then re- 
turning to his master, his eyes seeming to flash mischief, 
he looked as though he would have said, had he been 
given the power of speech : " I have been having a 
fine time, haven't I? and would you like to mount 
me and enjoy the fun too? but I dare you ! " 

When his superabundant spirits had found vent, 
I had him led away and myself attended to his wants. 
Beyond this animated exhibition of my horse the day 
passed uneventfully, and at night I enjoyed to its 
fullest extent the quietude of a country inn. 

Erie Hotet^ 

Eeie, Michigan, 

July Twenty-third. 

Weather cool and pleasant ; went to church in the 
morning and listened to a sermon by Rev. E. P. Wil- 
lard, on the text, " Remember the Sabbath Day to keep 
it holy.'' Doubtless the preacher had his reasons for 
bringing to the minds of the Erieans this particular 
command, but judging from appearances they needed 
a very mild admonition. It looked as though ^yery 
day were Sunday here. 

A letter reached me at this point from my wife, 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 271 

full of concern as to ray welfare if the journey were to 
be continued across the Plains ; and as she was in very 
indiflPerent health at the time, I was about to abandon 
ray purpose and return. The news of Custer's tragic 
death had reached the East, and ray intended route 
running as it did across the Indian country, filled 
my friends with apprehension. Closely following this 
letter, however, came another, informing rae that 
ray wife was improving, and, with this assurance, I 
decided not to turn back. By this time, the freedom 
and charm of this mode of travel had aroused ray 
enthusiasm ; the imaginary line, losing itself in the 
Pacific, promised a rich experience, and the opportunity 
was golden. The good news from horae was therefore 
joyfully received. 

Strong's Hbfely 

Monroe, MicHiaAN. 

July Twenty-fourth, 

I was detained at Erie until after dinner, spend- 
ing part of the forenoon in a blacksmith shop, where 
Paul was being shod. By two o'clock I was on the 
road again, riding briskly toward Monroe, for the 
weather was so much cooler than it, had been during 
the previous week, that I could move comfortably at a 
good pace. Paul seemed very proud of his new shoes, 
and, although I halted two or tiiree times, covered 
something over ten miles by five o'clock. 

As i reached the outskirts of Monroe, I was con- 
siderably surprised to find a large number of people 
assembled on the picnic grounds. They were ac- 



272 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

companied by a band, and greeted me with several 
national air, including ''Hail Columbia" and the 
" Star-Spangled Banner." The Custer Monument As- 
sociation received me at the City Hall, where I had been 
announced to lecture in the evening, as it was my in- 
tention to speak in the interest of the Fund ; but the 
date was changed to the Thursday following my ar- 
rival, with a view to giving its members an oppor- 
tunity to co-operate with my advance agents. 

Great enthusiam was everywhere apparent, and the 
people of Monroe needed no urging to lend their 
patronage, when the movement was likely to reflect 
honor upon their illustrious dead. 

My emotions upon entering this town, long the 
dearest place in all the world to Custer, can better be 
imagined than described. That it was a favorite with 
him is not strange, for aside from the tender associa- 
tions which it held for him, its pretty homes and broad 
streets, deeply shaded by maples, make it a most 
lovely spot and the very type of peace. 

StDmtg-fiftl) JPag. 

Strong^s Hotel, 
Monroe, Michigan, 
July Twenty-fifth. 

Wrote to my mother in the morning, and after dinner 
took a stroll about town. Beyond its associations with 
Custer, Monroe is interesting through its connection 
with one of the most romantic and sanguinary scenes 
connected with the war between Great Britain and the 
United States; for on the banks of the River Raisin 
which runs through it to the lake, occurred the 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 273 

famous Indian massacre of 1812. Relics of the 
bloody encounter are still found on the field. 

It was at a time when tlie British were making suc- 
cessful inroads upon Michigan, and General Win- 
chester, at the head of eight hundred Kentuckians, 
had been ordered to Frenchtown, the old name for 
Monroe, the same point toward which General Miller 
had previously moved on a mission equally fatal. 

Winchester was warned of the advance of the 
enemy, but thou":ht there was no cause for immediate 
alarm, and on the night before the engagement, he 
crossed to the side of the river opposite his men, 
leaving the camp open to attack. The result was, that 
he awoke the next morning to find Proctor's troops 
putting his men to rout, at the point of the bayonet, 
while their Indian allies were adding to the confusion 
by their deadly assault. 

Although a part of the Americans escaped on the 
ice of the river, the field was covered with tlieir dead 
and wounded. General Winchester being among the 
former. When the engagement was over, Proctor 
rode away, leaving a detachment to guard the prison- 
ers and wounded, with instructions that no violence 
was to be committed ; but some of the sav^agcs who 
followed him having become intoxicated, returned and 
fell upon tlie prisoners with unrestrained frenzy. 
Most of the latter had been placed in two small cabins. 
These were fired, and the victims })erished in the 
flames, the Indians pushing them back when they at- 
tempted to escape through the small windows. The 
remainder were massacred and their bodies left a prey 
to the wolv^es. It was this horrible affair that aroused 
the Americans and particularly the Kentuckians to 



274 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

revenge; and when Tecumseh, the Shawnee warrior, 
who was the chief instigator of these atrocities, urged 
the British to liazard an engagement at the Thames, 
after their defeat by Perry, they prepared to return 
with full interest the blow given tlieir comrades on the 
Raisin. The battle of the Thames is well known. 
Tecumseh, with the war cry on his lips, met his re- 
ward through a Kentucky bullet early enough in the 
fight to be spared the shame of defeat. With him fell 
a powerful foe, but one whom we must admire even in 
his death. 

"Like monumental bronze, unchanged his look, 
As one whom pity touched, but never shook; 
Train'd from his tree-rocked cradle to his bier 
The fierce extremes of good and ill to brook. 
Unchanging, fearing but the shame of fear, 
A stoic of the woods, a man without a tear." 

0^x)entti-sii*tl) JPag. 

Strong*s Hotels 

Monroe, Michigan, 

July I'wenty-sixth. 

Received a large forwarded mail from my advance 
agents and others, which I attended to in the after- 
noon. I was also favored with Detroit papers refer- 
ring to my proposed lecture in that city,' and the fol- 
lowing notice from the Monroe 3Ioyiitor^ which, together 
with letters from the Fund Association, I kept as 
souvenirs of my stay at this place : 

" The lecture announced to be given for the benefit of the Custer 
Monument Fund, on Monday evening, at the City Hall, was post, 
poned for various reasons until Thursday evening, at the same 
place. On Monday evening several members of the association met 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 275 

Captain Willard Glazier, and were most favorably impressed with 
him. They are convinced that he is thoroughly in earnest, and that 
his propositiou is a most liberal one. He offers to give the entire pro- 
ceeds of his lecture to the association ; and not only in this city, but 
throughout the State, he generously offers to do the same thing. 
This is certainly deserving of the warm recognition of our own 
people, at least, and we hope on Thursday evening to see the City 
Hall filled. Captain Glazier comes with the strongest endorsements 
from well-known gentlemen in the East, both as to his character as 
a gentleman and a soldier, and his ability as a speaker and writer. 
The Captain served under the late General Custer in the cavalry^ 
and has something to say regarding his personal knowledge of the 
dead hero." 

When I started from Boston in May, I little 
dreamed that before my journey was finished the 
troubles in the West with the Sioux would bring such 
a result as this! It is true, affairs in Montana and 
Wyoming territories had assumed a threatening aspect, 
but no one doubted the efficacy of " Custer's luck,'' 
and those who followed the campaign looked upon it 
as a dramatic and striking incident, rather than a 
tragic one. 

News was slow in reaching points east of the 
Mississippi and was then often unreliable, so that if I 
may judge from personal observation, the people were 
wholly unprepared for the final result which was 
flashed across the country on the fifth of July. 

Strong's Hotel, 

Monroe, Michigan, 

July Twenty-seventh. 

Rose at an early hour in the morning, and was very 
busily occupied during the day with correspondence 
and preparations for my lecture. The people of 



276 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Monroe had asked that I would tell them something of 
my experience with Custer during the late war before 
beginning the lecture, as everything relating to him 
was at that time of the most thrilling interest to them. 
It was not difficult to comply with this request. The 
old scenes of 1863 were as fresh in memory as though 
they had been witnessed but yesterday. 

My first meeting with Custer was at the third battle 
of Brandy Station on the twelfth of September, 1863, 
as the Cavalry Corps then acting as the advance of the 
Army of the Potomac was moving toward Culpeper in 
pursuit of Lee's retreating columns. Custer had but 
recently been commissioned brigadier-general and this 
was the first time he went into action at the head of 
his brigade. His appearance was very conspicuous. A 
mere boy in years, gorgeously equipped, in short, bear- 
ing upon his person all the gold lace and other para- 
phernalia allowed his rank, he formed a striking 
figure — such a one as is seldom seen on the battle- 
field. His arrival at Brandy Station was at a critical 
juncture, and while we were momentarily expecting a 
conflict with Stuart's cavalry, then directly in our 
front, all had a curiosity to see how the gayly dressed 
brigadier would acquit himself. It seemed to be the 
general impression that he would not have the nerve to 
"face the music" with his bandbox equipment, but he 
soon proved himself equal to the occasion. Being 
ordered to charge the enemy, he snatched his cap from 
his head, handed it to his orderly, drew his sword 
and dashed to the front of his brigade, then formed in 
column of squadrons. The command "Forward!" 
was instantly given. A moment later " Trot ! '' was 
sounded; then "Gallop!" and "Charge!" and before 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT, 217 

the Confederates liad time to realize that we really in- 
tended an attack, they were swept from the field, and a 
section of a battery with which they had been opposing 
our advance was in the possession of the young 
general and his gallant cavalrymen. 

No soldier who saw him on that day at Brandy 
Station ever questioned his right to a star, or all 
the gold lace he felt inclined to wear. He at once be- 
came a favorite in the Army of the Potomac and his 
fame was soon heralded throughout the country. 
After this engagement I saw Custer at Culpeper and 
Cedar Mountain, and in the skirmishes along the 
Rapidan during Lee's retreat from Gettysburg; later, 
when Lee again advanced through Northern Virginia, 
at Sulphur Springs, Newmarket, Bristoe and in the ac- 
tion of Octobor 19, 1863, near New Baltimore, where 
I was taken prisoner. 

The incidents which I recalled were those of war 
but Custer's friends here gave me the incidents of 
peace. Mr. J. M. Bulkley, who is perhaps more inti- 
mately acquainted with the General's early life than 
any other man in Monroe, was his old school-chum 
and seat-mate at Stebbin's Academy. 

When this institution was broken up, and its 
property sold, Mr. Bulkley bought the old desk at 
which he and Custer had sat, and on which as school- 
boys they had cut their initials. It stands in his store, 
and in it are kept all the papers relating to the Monu- 
ment Fund. 

Custer's next experience was in the INIonroe Semi- 
nary, and it was while he was a student there that 
the pretty little face of his future wife flashed into his 
life. The story of this meeting is laughable and odd. 



278 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Custer, then a rough, flaxen-haired lad, coming home 
one afternoon, his books under his arm, was passing 
Judge Bacon's residence, when a little brown-eyed 
girl swinging on the gate called out to him, " Hello, 
you Custer boy!" then, half-frightened by the blue 
eyes that glanced toward her, ran into the house. The 
little girl was Libbie Bacon, daughter of the Judge. 
It was love at first sight for Custer, and although 
they did not meet again for several years, he was 
determined to win the owner of those brown eyes. 

Having finished a preliminary course of study and 
wishing to enter West Point, he urged his father to 
apply to John Bingham, then a member of Congress for 
the district in which Monroe was situated, for an ap- 
pointment. This his father hesitated to do as Mr. Bing- 
ham's politics were opposed to his. The young man 
was therefore obliged to rely upon his own efforts. 
He called upon the dignitary himself. Mr. Bingham 
was pleased with the applicant, promised to lend his 
influence, and the result was that George Armstrong 
Custer ultimately received a formal notification from 
Washington, bearing the signature of Jefferson Davis, 
to the effect that the recipient was expected to re- 
port immediately to the commanding officer at West 
Point. His course there was about finished upon the 
breaking out of the late war. He went at once to 
Washington, and through General Scott was launched 
upon his military career. What sort of a soldier he 
was the world knows. What his character was the fol- 
lowing incident may partially suggest. It occurred 
early in the war when Custer was beginning to feel 
somewhat discouraged over his affairs. He had already 
done much that was worthy of promotion and, having 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 281 

a boy's pride and ambition. Fate seemed to be against 
him. The clouds vanished one day, however, when 
the Army of the Potomac was encamped on the north 
bank of the Chickahominy near Richmond. 

General Barnard, of the Engineers, starting out to 
discover if the river was fordable at a certain point, 
called upon Custer to accompany him. Arrived at the 
bank of the stream, he ordered the young officer to 
**'jump in.'' He was instantly obeyed, although the 
pickets of the enemy were known to be on the op- 
posite side, and dangerously near. Nor did Custer re- 
turn, after having found that there was firm bottom, 
until he had made a thorough reconnoissance of the 
Confederate outposts. 

Upon their return, Barnard rode up to McClellan, 
who was about to visit with his staff his own out- 
posts, and began reporting the recently acquired in- 
formation, while his late aide, wearied with the under- 
taking, and covered with Chickahominy mud, had 
fallen to the rear. Gradually it came out that Custer, 
and not Custer's superior officer, had performed the 
important duty. He was immediately called for, and 
to his great embarrassment, for his appearance was far 
from presentable, was asked by McClellan to make a 
report of the situation himself. At the end of the re- 
cital he was asked bv his commander, to his amaze- 
ment, how he would like to join his staff. McClellan 
had, by a rare power peculiar to him, in that short 
interview, won Custer's unfailing loyalty and affection, 
and when Custer was asked afterwards how he felt at 
the time, his eyes filled with tears, and he said : 
" I felt I could have died for himJ' 

This promotion marked the beginning of his future 



282 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

success. In recalling his career, these simple lines, 
written by a poet unknown to me, and with which 
Frederick Whittaker, in his admirable life of Custer, 
brings his biography to a close, involuntarily suggest 
tliemselves : 

" Who early thus upon the field of glory 
Like tliee doth full, needs for his fame 
Naught but the simple telliug of his story, 
Tlie naming of his name." 



Varney House, 

EocKWooD, Michigan, 

July Twenty-eighth, 

Before ordering Paul in the morning, I called again 
at the home of the Ousters. Tlie General's father 
seemed greatly interested in my journey, and asked 
many questions concerning my plans for crossing the 
Plains. I was shown the rich and interesting collec- 
tion of relics from the Indian country which Custer 
had accumulated, and which adds a picturesqueness to 
every corner of the house, and with these, some very 
striking photographs of the General taken in every 
variety of position and costume. After a pleasant 
chat, in the course of which Mr. Custer assured me of 
his kind solicitude, he walked back to the hotel with 
me to see me off. 

While riding out of town, I met Mr. Bulkley, and 
was introduced to several gentlemen of his acquaint- 
ance, many of whom were schoolmates of Custer dur- 
ing his boyhood. Mr. Bulkley, speaking for the 
Monument Association, assured me that everything 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT, 283 

would be done that could further my wishes in Michi* 
gan. 

The lecture last evening was well attended and 
proved a financial success. It was therefore gratifying 
to give the entire proceeds to the treasurer, Judge T. 
E. Wing, although he generously offered to divide> 
Parting with Mr. Bulkley, I continued on my route, 
ray mind filled with the events of the three preced- 
ing days. Just beyond the town I halted to look 
back, and then, determined to prevent any sombre 
thoughts, which might follow, put spurs to Paul, who 
very soon covered the thirteen miles between Monroe 
and this place. As we neared the village, I caught 
sight of Huron River, the Wrochumiteogoe of the 
Indians, meaning, " clear water." On its banks are 
found those mysterious legacies of the Mound Build- 
ers — whether dwellings or tombs, remains for the anti- 
quarian to determine. 

0€»£nt2-ntutl) JPag. 

Farmers* Botely 

EcoRSE, Michigan, 

July Twenty-ninth, 

Moved from Rockwood at ten A. M., halting for a 

few minutes at Trenton, a small village seven miles 

north of Rockwood ; and from there; riding on to V^y- 

andotte, which I reached about one o'clock, and stoi)ped 

only a moment at the Biddle House, finding that 

dinner was awaiting me at a private residence. I was 

ready to answer the hospitable summons promptly. 

Between two and five o'clock, I occupied part of 

the time in looking about the village, which is chiefly 
14 



284 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

noted for its iron industries. Farm implements, iron 
ships, iron rails, and in fact everything that can be 
made out of iron, is produced here. After dinner I 
rode on to Ecorse, which is three miles beyond, 
and there found letters and papers telling me that I 
was expected at the Russell House, Detroit, on the 
evening of the coming Monday. Once within my 
hotel, I found the heat almost unbearable, but follow- 
ing a certain method which I had found by experience 
to be a successful one, I was enabled in a measure to 
improve my surroundings. To those who might 
think my modus operandi somewdiat unbecoming, I 
would only suggest that they try my mode of travel 
through the same region of country, and at the same 
season of the year. Personal experience might change 
their opinion. 

Having been shown to my apartment by the land- 
lord or one of his assistants, I quietly entered and se- 
cured the door, betraying no surprise upon seeing the 
inevitable "feather bed." Taking off mycoj4, I be- 
gan by removing the layers of mattresses^ which 
had in them a wonderful reserve force of Ju^y heat. 
I then took my lamp and held it so that its lambent 
flame could warm the cockles of every mosquito's 
heart clinging to the ceiling. The mosquitoes, quite 
averse to the intense heat, quietly dropped into the 
little purgatory which I had prepared for them, and 
troubled me no more. 

So did I secure my repose at the Farmers' Hotel, 
and in the morning was in the humor to give the good- 
natured proprietor, Louis Cicotte — a typical French 
Canadian — a very hearty greeting, and an assurance 
of my refreshment. 



TOLEDO TO DETROIT. 285 



(£tgl)tietl) Slag. 

Farmers* ffotel, 
ECORSE, MlCHIQA-W, 

July Thirtieth. 

The weather was oppressively warm again on this 
day, and business in Ecorse was apparently not " boom- 
ing/' I found tlie place quite in keeping with the 
majority of French villages along the Detroit River — • 
unambitious and lifeless. 

Two acknowledgments came from Monroe soon 
after I left, referring to the aid which I had the 
pleasure of giving to those interested in the Custer 
Monument. One was a brief and courteous bearer of 
thanks, and is as follows : 

ffeadquarters, 
Custer National Monument Association; 
MoNKOE, Michigan, 
July 28, 1876. 

This is to certify that the proceeds of the lecture by Captain 
Willard Glazier, in this city on Thursday evening, July 27, 1876, 
have been paid into the treasury of this association, for which the 
members hereby tender him their sincere thanks. 

T. E. Wing, 
Treasurer, 

The other was a letter of introduction and explains 
itself: 

S^eadguarterSf 

Custer National Momiment Association ; 

Monroe, Michigan, 

July 28, 1876. 

To Auxiliary Societies and Associations of the Custeb 
Monument Association: 

Captain Willard Glazier, having kindly and generously volun- 
teered to devote the proceeds of his lectures through Michigan to the 



286 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

fund being raised by this Association, for the erection of a monument 
to the memory of the late General George A. Custer, has made ar- 
rangements to remit to our treasurer here the money derived from 
Buch lectures, and we bespeak for him your earnest endeavor in aid 
of our common, glorious cause. Respectfully, 

J. M. BULKLEY, 

/Secretary. 

Our second day at Ecorse ended pleasantly. In the 
afternoon my brother and I went for a row on the 
river, and in the evening took a walk into the country. 
We did not meet with any game, although natural 
history proclaims this section the haunt of many 
varieties of bird and beast. The first settlers even re- 
member having a casual acquaintance with the deer, 
bear, wolf, wild cat, and a variety of smaller game, 
including that interesting little quadruped, the wolver- 
ine, whose name has become the nickname of Michigan. 




CHAPTER XVII. 



FOUR DAYS AT DETROIT. 




FTER a much-needed rest of a day and 
two nights at Ecorse, I left that quiet re- 
treat on the afternoon of July thirty- 
first, with Detroit as my evening object- 
ive. At Fort Wayne, I was met by 
Babcock, who brought me the sad intelli- 
gence of the death of my little Detroit 
friend, Kitty Murphy, who had failed very 
rapidly after her brief visit to Toledo. 
We rode forward together, reaching the Russell House 
at five o'clock, and there I was met by General 
William A. Throop and others, who were appointed 
as a committee to receive me. In the evening I lec- 
tured at St. Andrew's Hall, being introduced by 
General L. S. Trowbridge and was accompained on the 
platform by several Grand Army comrades. 

Immediately after the lecture, I hurried to the 
home of my bereaved friends, where I found the 
mother and sisters of the dead girl completely pros- 
trated with grief. Tiie one who had gone was their 
favorite, for whom they had the lijghest hopes, and it 
was hard to be reconciled to the passing away of a 
life so full of promise and noble purposes. I was 

(287) 



288 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

proud to know that one universally loved and 
admired had thought of me in her last moments 
and had left a token of her friendship. 

On the morning of August first, I arranged my af- 
fairs so as to be able to attend the funeral services of 
my young friend the following day. 

The proceeds of my lecture were handed to the 
Monument Fund committee with a letter from me 
to be forwarded to Monroe, and its representatives 
here acknowledged this in the following note : 

Oity Hall, 

Detroit, Michigan, 

August 1, 1876. 

Received of Captain Willard Glazier, forty dollars, for the benefit 
of the Custer Monument Association, as the proceeds of his lecture, 
at Detroit, on the evening of July 31, 1876, in aid of such associa- 
tion. 

\Signed'\ L. S. Trowbridge, 

William A. Throop, 

Committee, 

On the afternoon of August second, I went to Kitty's 
grave with her family and friends, where we arranged 
on the little mound our gifts of flowers. I placed 
my own offering — a crown — at her head. It was 
the last tribute, the " farewell " which we hoped might 
one day be lost in " welcome." 

During my stay here, many friends extended invi- 
tations to visit them, but I was able to accept very few. 
Among those whom I met was my old comrade, 
Captain Charles G. Hampton, who was at the Russell 
House to greet me when I arrived. No one could have 
been more welcome. Captain Hampton and I began 
our somewhat peculiar acquaintance as classmates in 
the State Normal College at Albany, New York, in the 



FOUR DAYS AT DETROIT. 282 

spring of 1861, where we joined a military organiza- 
tion known later as the ''Normal Company" of the 
*' Ellsworth Avengers " — Forty-fourth New York In- 
fantry- — whose members were put through a course of 
drills inanticipation of future necessity, our voluntary 
drill masters being Professors Rodney G. Kimball and 
Albert N. Husted. 

It was argued by the principal and by the faculty 
generally, that while young men were learning how to 
teach the schools of the State, it would be well also for 
them to be prepared to defend the flag of the State. 
AVe had just closed our term when President Lincoln 
issued his call for seventy-five thousand volunteers, and 
as it was not at this time the apparent intent of the 
Normal Company to enter the service as a body, we de- 
cided to enlist in some other organization. 

Hampton went to Rochester where he joined the 
Eio;hth New York Cavalrv, while I enlisted in the 
Second New York-Harris Light Cavalry,at Troy. We 
did not meet again until November, 1863 — when, by 
the fortune of war, we both became inmates of Libby 
Prison. The circumstances that brought us there werCj 
on his side, wounds and capture in an action with guer- 
rillas under Mosby; on mine, capture in a cavalry 
battle near New Baltimore, Virginia, during Lee's 
retreat from the field of Gettysburg: 

During our imprisonment at Richmond, Danville, 
Macon, Savannah, and Charleston, Captain Hampton 
and I belonged to separate messes, so that, while we 
met daily, we had very little intimate intercourse. At 
Columbia, however, it was different. We arrived there 
in the midst of a violent thunder-storm, and were 
marched to our " quarters,'' in an open yard where 



290 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

the water was running in streams. Hampton had 
managed to get possession of a board about twelve feet 
long when he met me, and immediately asked if I had 
anything to stand or lie on. Upon receiving a nega- 
tive answer he said : "Come on, let us share this plank 
together.^' From this time we were messmates, being 
joined later by Lieutenant xVrtlnir Richardson of Al- 
bany. When I escaped from Columbia I intrusted to 
Captain Hampton a small box in which I had kept 
some manuscripts and sketches, that I intended to use 
in future work. This he managed to keep until his ex- 
change, when he expressed it to my home in Northern 
New York. We did not meet again until after the close 
of the war. The possession of the contents of this box 
was of inestimable value to me in getting out my first 
book, '^ Capture, Prison-Pen and Escape." Being 
embarrassed for funds before the first edition of it was 
published, I wrote to Captain Hampton, and by the 
next mail received a generous sum sufficient to carry 
me through that critical period. Since then he has 
been a most loyal friend and comrade, and during my 
stay here, did much to make enjoyable my visit to 
the city which he had chosen for his home. 

One needs no friends though, to make Detroit at- 
tractive, for its past history and present beauty give it 
an unfailing interest. As to the latter, it can never 
be justly drawn, however vivid the description, nor 
truly understood, however careful the reader. It must 
be seen. As to its history, that is general and belongs 
to the country, and I know of no great American city 
which has a more romantic past. 

In the days of the early explorers the present site 
was looked upon as favorable for a settlement, com- 



FOUR DAYS AT DETROIT. 291 

mandiog as it does a rich tract of country and lying at 
the very entrance to the Upper Lakes. The Iroquois 
were then in possession and their village was known 
as Teuslia Grondi. Both the English and French 
coveted this point, but the latter were more enterpris- 
ing, and anticipated their rivals by making an ap- 
pointment with the Iroquois for a great council at 
Montreal, in which the Governor-General of Canada 
and others were to have a voice. The wary Frenchmen 
presented their claims very plausibly, but failed to win 
the approbation of the equally wary Indians. They 
were told that their brothers, the Englishmen, had 
been refused, and that it was not well to show par- 
tiality ; but this excuse had very little weight with the 
subjects of the Grande Monarque, who had been ac- 
customed to make themselves at home generally. The 
Governor-General in an impressive speech replied that 
neither the Iroquois nor the English had any right to 
the land which belonged to the King of France, and 
that an expedition had been already sent out to estab- 
lish a fort on the Detroit River! 

This was indeed the case. La Motte Cadillac, with 
a Jesuit missionary and one hundred men, was on his 
way, while his countrymen, with the consistency which 
has ever marked the dealings between the red and 
white races, were asking permission of the Indians. 
The French fleet, composed of twenty-five birch canoes 
bearing the colors of France, reached the Detroit 
Kiver in July, 1701. There was a telling significance 
in the floatino; of that flaa: over the boats decorated 
with Indian symbols and, if Che savages had discerned 
it, the French commander and his followers would 
never have reached their destination. As it was, they 



292 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

came quietly as friends, and were allowed to establish 
themselves without interference. 

On the first rise of ground overlooking the river, 
the palisades were raised and the guns set, and by the 
close of August, Fort Ponchartrain became a reality. 
The Miamis and Pottawattomies were soon induced to 
make a settlement near by, and afterwards a few Huron 
and Ottawa bands collected on the opposite shore of 
the river near the site of Windsor. The point quickly 
attracted the fur trader, being in a direct line from 
Michilimackinac to Montreal and Quebec. For sixty- 
two years the French held possession of Detroit, profit- 
ing by her superior location, and the friendship of 
the Indians, but their day ended when the sharp eyes 
of Wolfe discovered the steep ascent to the " Plains of 
Abraham," in Canada, and pointed a way for British 
supremacy. 

The Treaty of Paris, which was the outcome of the 
French and Indian War, called for the surrender of 
all the forts held by the French, but news travelled 
so slowly that when Captain Rodgers wdth his two 
hundred rangers came to take possession of Fort 
Ponchartrain, he found still floating over it the flag of 
France. While on his way to execute this mission, 
he was met by Pontiac, the Ottawa chief, who was 
angered by the transfer of claimants to his land, and 
who demanded of Rodgers " what right he had in 
entering the dominion of the great Indian King with- 
out permission." The answer he received was far 
from satisfactory, but he bided his time to make his 
dissatisfaction felt. The same feeling was manifested 
everywhere by the Indian allies of the French, 
but their wrath was concentrated upon Detroit, on 



FOUR BAYS AT DETROIT. 293 

account of its being the great stronghold of the 
West. 

In 1763, Pontiac had arranged his famous scheme 
for either annihilating the obnoxious newcomers or 
driving them east of the Alleghenies. They did not 
treat him so considerately as the old claimants, and he 
was far-seeing enough to realize the result. Aflame 
with hatred and determined to save his people from 
the fate that awaited them, he visited the great tribes 
that were friendly, and sought their co-operation. 
In a speech at the great council held at Ecorse on the 
twenty-seventh of April, 1762, he said, "As for these 
English — these dogs dressed in red who have come 
to rob you of your hunting-grounds and to drive away 
the game — you must lift the hatchet against them and 
wipe them from the face of the earth. ^' The plan 
was worthy of a Napoleon. The confederated tribes 
were to attack simultaneously all the Western forts, 
while his particular band was to be brought against 
Detroit. This point he had expected to take by 
stratagem and would no doubt have succeeded but 
for the betrayal of the plot by an Ojibway maiden 
who was in love with the British commandant. The 
day before its execution this Indian girl brought Major 
Gladwyn a pair of moccasins which he iiad asked her 
to make for him, and on her way home with the re- 
mainder of the deer-skin, which he had furnished 
for the same purpose, she lingered about the gate 
so as to attract the attention of the sentinel. He 
saw that she seemed to be troubled about something, 
and asked her to return. Wavering between love and 
duty to her race, she hesitated ; but finally the im- 
pulse of her heart prevailed, and returning to the 



294 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

room of tlie commandaDt, she told him the terrible 
secret. 

Pontiac was to come to the fort on the morrow 
ostensibly to hold peaceful negotiations with his white 
brothers, but really to massacre them. His warriors, 
who had cunningly shortened their rifles by sawing off 
a part of the barrels, so that they might carry them 
concealed beneath their blankets, were to fall upon 
Gladwyn and his men at a given signal. This news 
was lightly received although the statements of the 
Indian girl seemed to be verified by a slight thread of 
evidence which had from time to time been brought 
to Gladwyn's notice. He laughed at the thought of 
danger at such a time, when the peace which had 
lasted for two years appeared so likely to continue ; but 
while he doubted Pontiac's real intentions, he decided 
to be prepared for any issue. The guards were 
doubled, sentinels were stationed on the ramparts, and 
when the great chief came in the guise of friendship, 
he was completely nonplussed by the show of discipline 
in the garrison. Entering the north gate with his 
sixty blanketed conspirators, he found himself con- 
fronted by a double line of red-coated soldiers, their 
muskets held at " present arms." At the corners of 
the streets were groups of fur traders, and at regular 
intervals the silence was broken by the beating of 
drums. 

Surprised at every turn, and fearing that his plot 
had been discovered, Pontiac walked on sullenly en- 
deavoring to conceal his annoyance. When he reached 
the council-house he said to Gladwyn, '' Why do I 
see so many of my father's young men standing in the 
streets with their guns?" The commandant lightly 



FOUR DAYS AT DETROIT, 295 

replied that he had just been drilling them io- preserve 
discipline and that it was moreover a custom with the 
English to thus honor their guests. These suavely 
spoken words failed to reassure the chief, who sat 
down for a few moments without speaking ; but hav- 
ing recovered his self-possession and assuming with it 
an habitual expression of stoical defiance, he arose and 
began his harangue. Gladwyn, he noticed, instead of 
listening to what was being said, kept his eyes stead- 
fastly upon the movements of the other Indians, and 
when the belt of wampum was taken up and the chief 
beo^an to reverse it in his hands — the sio^nal for attack 
— Gladwyn made a quick motion and in an instant the 
dusky semicircle was startled by the grounding of 
arms and the beating of drums. 

Thus interrupted and foiled, Pontiac took his seat 
in silence. Gladwyn then arose, and began his speech 
as though nothing; unusual had occurred ; but after a 
few moments he changed his tone, accused Pontiac of 
treachery, and stepping quickly to the nearest Indian 
threw open his blanket and disclosed the hidden 
weapon. He then told Pontiac to leave the fort at 
once, assuring him that he would be allowed to go in 
safety. The unfortunate result of this act of clemency 
was very soon felt, for as soon as the Indians were 
outside of the gates, they turned and fired upon the 
garrison, thus beginning the terrible siege which was 
to last fifteen months. 

Autumn approached, and, as the crops were poor, 
several of the tribes withdrew for the winter, but 
Pontiac, untiring in his efforts to harass his enemies, 
remained, sending messages in the meantime to several 
of the French posts, asking their help. In November 



296 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HOUSEBACR. 

he received word from the commandant of Fort 
Chartres on the Mississippi telling him that it was 
impossihle for the French to give any help as they 
had signed a treaty with the English ; and later 
similar messages reached him from other points. Still 
he did not give up. His allies had captured eight 
forts, and if he eould take Detroit success would un- 
doubtedly follow. 

In the spring the tribes returned to renew the at- 
tack upon the well nigh exhausted garrison, keeping 
up their fiendish tortures, capturing vessels sent with 
supplies and reinforcements, and bringing the handful 
of brave men within the palisades to the verge of de- 
spair. As summer advanced the anxious watchers, 
hearing the sunset gun thunder out across the water, 
thought that each night might be their last ; but off 
in the East, General Bradstreet and his large force 
were starting to the rescue, and by midsummer they 
had crushed the hopes, if not the proud spirit of Pon- 
tiac. Sending one of his officers to this chief with 
terms of peace, his advances were received with the 
coldest disdain. Captain Morris, who was the ambas- 
sador, was met beyond the Indian camp by Pontiac 
himself, but the chief refused to extend his hand, and 
bending his glittering eyes upon the officer said, with 
a voice full of bitterness and hatred, '^The English 
are liars ! " 

All attempts at conciliation were made in vain. 
Pontiac, taking with him four hundred warriors, went 
away, revisiting all the tribes, sending the wampum 
belt and hatchet stained with vermilion far and wide, 
and exhorting the Indians to unite in the common 
cause, threatening, if they refused, to consume them 



FOVR DAYS AT DETROrT. 297 

"as the fire consumes the dry grass of the prairie." 
He failed to rouse tliem, however, and was forced at 
last to return to Detroit and accept peace. 

The feelings that surged in his savage heart, when 
he found himself thus defeated, can only be guessed. 
Chagrined and disappointed, he retired to Illinois, 
and there perished by the hand of an assassin. No 
stone marks his burial-place, ^' and the race whom he 
hated with such burning rancor trample with unceas* 
ing footsteps over his forgotten grave." 

The early history of Detroit is full of tragedy, and 
although the beautiful river and its islands, the splen- 
did forests and sunny fields that encompass it, seem to 
have been intended for peace and the play of romance, 
they were instead the scenes of treachery and carnage. 
During the war of the Revolution, Detroit and Macki- 
naw, far from the field of action, nevertheless had 
their share in it. From their magazines Indians were 
furnished with arms and ammunition and were sent 
out with these to harass and destroy the frontier settle- 
metits of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Kentucky, receiving a price upon their return for the 
scalps which they brought ! Besides these Indian ex- 
peditions, the local militia went out, at one time under 
Captain Byrd, and again under Henry Hamilton. 
The latter, in an attempt to protect the.British interests 
on the Wabash, was cleverly captured at Vincennes 
by General George Clarke, who advanced upon this 
post with his men supported by a formidable but 
harmless device in the form of a cannon cut out of a 
tree. Hamilton, dreading the artillery, surrendered, 
and the people of Detroit, believing that the victor 
would march against them, erected a new fort near the 



298 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

present corner of Fort and Shelby streets, which they 
named Lenault. During the war of 1812, this name 
was changed and the post became known as Fort 
Shelby. 

After the treaty of 1783 the western posts did not 
at once acknowledge American jurisdiction, and among 
these Detroit seemed to be the most defiant, but when 
Wayne effectually weakened the strength of the 
Indians, there was a general surrender, although the 
United States forces did not take actual possession until 
July eleventh, 1796. With childish spite, the British, 
upon leaving this fort, broke the windows of the 
barracks, filled the wells with stones and did all they 
could to annoy those who were to succeed them, and 
when General Hull came there as governor of the 
territory, it is possible that the ruin which he found 
was occassioned by the same spirit of revenge. 

During the succeeding years, Detroit was again one 
of the points towards which an unpropitious fate 
pointed a finger. The Indians, still believing that the 
Americans were driving them from their land, were 
Jcuaking pre])arations to attack the settlements, led on 
by the powerful influence of the two chiefs, Tecumseh 
and the Prophet. 

At a grand council the assembled tribes were told, 
according to the policy of these chiefs, that the Great 
Spirit had appeared to chief Tront and had told him 
that He was the father of the English, French, 
Spaniards and Indians, but that the Americans were 
the sons of the Evil One ! Under such influence the 
uprising which resulted in the war between Great 
Britain and the United States began. 

When General Brock, seconded by Tecumseh, 



FOUR DAYS AT DP!TROfT. 299 

marched on Detroit, he requested of the Chief, in case 
the place was taken, that the inhabitants should be 
spared massacre, to which the haughty savage replied, 
"that he despised them too much to have anything to 
do with them.'^ The result of this attack, and the in- 
explicable conduct of General Hull, had aroused a 
strong feeling of disgust, and universal sympathy was 
felt for those brave men, who, upon hearing that their 
superior officer was surrendering without an attempt at 
resistance, " dashed their muskets upon the ground in 
an agony of mingled shame and indignation." 

Victories elsewhere finally obliged the British to 
evacuate, and on the eighteenth of October, General 
Harrison and Commodore Perry issued a proclama- 
tion from this fort, which once more assured the people 
of Michigan of protection. 

Passing through the test of fire and sword, Detroit 
has gradually progressed in all those ways which go 
to make up a great and prosperous city. Fulfilling 
her natural destiny she has become one of the most 
important commercial centres in the United States, 
and as a port of entry can boast with reason of her 
streno;th. The narrow lanes which were enclosed 
within the pickets of Fort Ponchartrain, and trodden 
by men in the French uniform, in English red coats 
and in the skins of the deer and beaVer, have reached 
out over many miles, and have become an intricate 
maze of streets and avenues, lined with homes and 
business houses which bear no trace of the old time 
block house and trader's cabin. 

Here and there, where history is preserved, one finds 

a few relics of the "dead past'' embalmed in paint or 

print or labelled within the glass case of a museum; 
15 



300 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

but the present Detroit is interesting enough without 
these. In every direction it is brightened by parks and 
adorned by fountains ; and the broad avenues lined by 
generous borders of grass and shaded by cool h'nes of 
trees, are something for Americans to be proud of, 
especially when they recall the fact tbat ** Johnny Cra- 
peau" once asserted that this particular coruer of the 
new world belonged to the Grande Monaf(]ue; and 
"John Bull " in turn claimed it for his own. 

One of the prettiest parts of the city, and perhaps 
within the possibility of description, is the Campus 
Martins. On it stands the suggestive if somewhat 
unusual monument designed by Randolph Rogers 
and erected by the city at a cost of sixty thousand 
dollars. The surmounting figure is that of aa 
Indian maiden representing the State, and on (lie 
tablet beneath, the inscription tells us that it was 
placed there " in honor of the martyrs who fell and th.'^ 
heroes who fought in defence of Liberty and Union." 
Everywhere are evidences of a high appreciation of 
beauty and comfort, and if the people of Detroit are 
sometimes tempted to seek a change and rest on some 
of the little island resorts of tlie river, or on Lake St. 
Clair, it is not because their own homes are unattrac- 
tive. Some one has said, " if places could speak, thoy 
would describe people far better than people can 
describe places/' and this is especially true of this great 
city. It is impossible by words to do it justice. The 
public buildings, the thronged streets, the busy harbor, 
the shady avenues, must be seen to be appreciated, 
and there are very few places which will justify praise 
and repay expectation more liberally than this splendid 
City of the Strait. 



CHAPTER Xyill. 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 

(Eigl)ta-fiftl) Datt. 

Inkster House, 

INKSTER, MiCHIGAlf, 
August 4, 1876. 

AYING before me a lecture appointment 

at Ypsilanti, which, considering the object 

I had in view through Michigan, I felt 

must be met, I rode out of Detroit at 

three o'clock in the afternoon, somewhat 

reluctantly perhaps,but within a very short 

time the love of travel was again upon 

me, and I found myself easily reconciled. 

Paul being in the mostdelightful spirits, 

after four days of unbroken rest, displayed quite a 

little animation as I mounted him in front of the 

residence of friends on Cass Aven^ie, and when we 

had readied the open country, I gave him the rein and 

allowed him to trot or gallop, as he felt inclinedo 

The edge of his impatience having worn off, he re^ 

sumed his habitual easy canter which made the saddle 

so enjoyable, and at this pace we covered fourteen miles,, 

reaching our destination a few minutes after six o'clock. 

There was an agreeable if not decided contrast be- 

(30]) 




302 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

tween the last stopping-place and the present one. A 
hundred towers announced the approach to a great 
city, as we neared Detroit ; but here a solitary spire rose 
against the sky, and while the Detroit River teems, 
throughout its entire length with water-craft of all 
sorts, the alnaost unknown little river that winds along 
between Detroit and Inkster, is at this point as quiet 
as one of theuntravelled streams of the North. The 
Michigan Central Railway follows its shore for many 
miles, and as I kept to the highway in the same direc- 
tion, I could see it shining occasionally through an 
opening in the trees. The waters of this river are no 
doubt full of fish, as are all the streams of Michigan, 
and they have besides a fine characteristic — a sparkling 
clearness. 

(Sigljtg-sull) ?I)a2. 

Hawkins House, 
Ypsilanti, Michigan, 

August Fifth. 

A forbidding sky hung over Inkster as I took my 
seat in the saddle at ten o'clock, but " Forward" was 
the watchword, and there was moreover a charm in 
variety, for sunny skies had become rather monotonous 
and, under the circumstances, uncomfortable. The 
dust was well laid when we had gone only a short 
distance, but it rose again in a new form as Paul 
quickened his pace, so that we did not present a very 
dashing appearance to the Ypsilantians, after sixteen 
miles of such travel. 

• Several times I was obliged to turn from the road, 
once taking shelter under a tree and again in a wood- 
shed. There were in town, howeverj those who could 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 



30o 



excuse the appearance of a bespattered traveller — brave 
men who had gone from Ypsilanti in the early days 
of the Rebellion, and who had learned from long cam- 
paigning to look upon their comrades without criti- 
cism. The brave Fourteenth Infantry started out 
from here under Colonel Robert Sinclair, and joining 
Sherman in Georgia took a lively part in all the move- 
ments of his army, until the fall of Atlanta; number- 
ing among their proudest achievements the repulse of 
the enemy at Bentonville, North Carolina, where the 
hurriedly constructed works of the Federals were 
charged and taken and then regained at the point of 
the bayonet ; and their part in the battle of Jonesboro, 
Georgia, in 1864, which was the last of Sherman's 
brilliant operations around Atlanta. Many of these 
brave fellows perished on the field of battle, but 
enough remain to keep fresh the memory of those 
stirring days and to add the influence of their patriot- 
ism to the young Ypsilanti. 

€igl)t2-0n)£ntl) Slag. 

Hawkine House, 
Ypsilanti, Michigan, 
August Sixth. 

On the previous evening I met a large number of 
men of the town, who gave me a hearty welcome, and 
as many of them were old soldiers, they expressed 
their satisfaction with the purpose of my lecture, 
favoring me with considerable enthusiasm in Union 
Hall. 

The patriots of Michigan have many proud deeds to 
tell ofj and are distinguished for their gallant service. 



306 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Their military leaders were invariably zealous, and 
their civil leaders unceasing in tlieir encouragement. 
" We cannot consent to have one star obliterated from 
our flag " was the sentiment, and with the saving of 
the Union at heart, the men went into battle. 

During Wheeler's repulse at Strawberry Plains in 
August, 1864, eight Michigan men were left to guard 
McMillan's Ford on the Halston. One of these, 
knowing the danger of his position, deserted, leaving 
his seven companions to "hold the fort." This hand- 
ful kept back a brigade under the Confederate general 
almost four hours, but the Rebels crossed above and 
below the ford and captured the guard. One of their 
number, a farrier, was wounded, and Wheeler coming 
up to hinf began a conversation. Finally Wheeler 
said, " Are all the Tenth Michigan like you fellows?" 
"Oh, no," said the other, " we are mostly horse farriers 
and blacksmiths and not much accustomed to fighting." 
" Well," said Wheeler, " if I had three hundred such 
«nen as you, I could march straight through h — 1 ! " 

(Eigljtg-rigljtl) IDag. 

3IcKune House, 

Chelsea, Michigan, 

August Seventh. 

Left Ypsilanti bright and early in order to save 
time, for although nearly the middle of August, I still 
felt the intense heat, and the dry dusty roads often 
made my daily journeys far from agreeable. For 
several days the mercury ranged between 85° and 90°j 
and as the route was at this time due west, the sun 
Ijearly stared me out of couutenaqce in the afterooop- 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO, 397 

Ann Arbor was reached about ten o^clock, but I did 
not take more than a passing glance at the University, 
noticing, however, that women as well as men were 
among the students — a recent and wise change in the 
law of the institution. The people were raising a 
flag over one of the buildings as I rode through, and 
on it in conspicuous letters were the names of Tilden 
and Hendricks. 

Delhi, with no signs of a Lalla Rookh, and Scio, 
modest under the dignity of its suggestive Latin name, 
were quaint landmarks along my way, but I rode on 
a mile beyond to have dinner at Dexter. The Huron 
River has its source near here, in one of a cluster of 
lakelets, bordering on Livingstone and Washtenaw 
counties. All Michigan is covered with these small 
bodies of water, which, with the streams, lie upon its 
green surface like pearls in a network of silver. 

Leaving Dexter, I had company all the way to 
Chelsea. Large flocks of sparrows flew along, lighting 
upon the telegraph wires, and as I approached they 
would fly away and settle again farther along, keeping 
up a kind of race, which was evidently fun for them^ 
and which greatly amused me. It seemed as though 
they were tireless, and when I and my horse reached 
our destination fatigued, after twenty-six miles of 
travel in the sun, these strong-winged fellows were 
ready for another flight. I do not doubt that they 
easily accomplished the return journey, for we cannot 
compute the distance they can cover in a day. They 
are hardy little fellows and, despite the objections urged 
against them, have many admirable qualities, not the 
least among which is their tenacity of purpose. 



308 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK^ 

€igl)ti)-nmtl) Slag. 

Hurd HousCf 
Jackson, MichigaNj 
August Eighth, 

A few minutes after seven in the morning found me 
in the saddle at Chelsea. I stopped on my way at the 
Herald office and then struck off towards the main 
road, along which I cantered to Grass Lake, where 1 
had dinner and remained until three o'clock. This 
rest was thoroughly enjoyed, the more so perhaps, as I 
learned before leaving Chelsea that if my advance 
agents had not made arrangements for me elsewhere, 
the people would have asked me to lecture here. In 
that event I should not have been so familiar with 
the quiet charms of Grass Lake. 

Probably there are those who, if they had been in 
my place, would have denied themselves these halts 
along the way, but they would have been deprived of 
a double gratification. In the first place they would 
miss much of the character of the country through 
which they passed, the real difference in the manners 
and customs of the people ; and they would miss the 
opportunity of assuring the credulous that they were 
not making a test ride acro3B the continent within a 
certain time and for a certain reward. 

News often travels incredibly fast when there are no 
evident means of communication, and I was often 
amused by the curiosity which my advent excited 
and the reasons which were whispered about in the 
villages through which I passed, as to the object of 
my journey. Indeed many Michiganders, from quiet 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 30.) 

haunts in their native wilds, made short pilgrimages 
" to town " in order to look at one whom they fancied 
might hold a proud place for having crossed the 
continent in so many days, hours and seconds. My 
horse even was looked upon with awe, as ^' the charger 
upon which General Washington rode during the war 
of the Revolution ! ^^ But this anachronism belongs 
to New York. 

Leaving Grass Lake late in the afternoon, it was 
necessary to make better time in order to cover the 
remainder of the twenty three miles lying between 
Chelsea and Jackson. The pace quickened. I came 
into the latter city at six o'clock, and rode directly to 
the hotel. 

Jfinetletl) Clap. 

Hurd House, 
Jackson, Michigan, 

August Ninth. 

I clipped the following notice from the Citizen of 
this date, as a memento of my stay at Jackson. It 
chronicled the fact that : 

"Captain Willard Glazier lectured last evening in the interest of 
the Custer Monument Fund. His lecture was a good historical 
review delivered with graceful rlietoric and at times real eloquence. 
The Captain is still in tlie city giving his Jiorse a rest; a noble 
Kentucky Black Hawk, whom he has ridden all the way from 
Boston, and whom he expects to carry him to San Francisco. He 
starts to-morrow morning for Battle Creek, where he lectures ou 
Saturday evening." 

My advance agent, Babcock, went on to Battle Creek 
in the morning, where arrangements w^ere made with 
local committees for my lecture on the twelfth. After 
he had gone I made a leisurely inspection of the 



310 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

city. It was impossible to do more on account of the 
extreme heat. 

This may no doubt be considered the center of the 
closely populated southern end of Michigan, a region 
dear, in times past, to tlie heart of the Indian, but 
which knows him no more. A Chippewa chief stand- 
ing upon this soil, once said : ^' These lakes, these 
woods, these mountains were left to us by our ancestors ; 
they are our inheritance, and we will part with them 
to no one." He knew not the strength of the pale 
faces who listened; for within a few years they were 
ready to claim, on the same grounds, those hills, and 
lakes, and mountains for their own. 

Compared to the peninsula, whose mineral-laden 
shores are washed by Superior, Michigan and Huron, 
there is the greatest contrast; and La Hontan, making 
a little exploratory trip up there before anyone else, 
called it " the fag end of the world." These words 
might still be applied to some of the wildest northern 
points, but here is the very heart of civilization. 

Jackson lies in the coal fields that reach down 
through several of the southern counties. This deposit 
is not rich, owing to the amount of sulphur in it, and 
the demand is chiefly local. The Grand River divides 
the town and, with the bridge that spans it, adds much 
to the picturesque effect. 



JTuidg-ftrst Slag. 



Cooley House y 

Pakma, Michigan, 

August Tenth. 



Spent the forenoon in my room at the Hurd House, 
Jackson, writing letters to my wufe. Major Hastings 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 311 

and others. In the afternoon there was a street parade 
of Howe's London Circus which was a very fantastic 
affair, but which seemed to be hugely enjoyed by 
everybody. Later in the day the great tent was upset 
by a gust of wind, accompanied by a thunder-shower, 
and a droll scene followed, which caused considerable 
excitement. The people were left exposed with the 
rain coming down upon them in torrents. So far I 
have seen nothing more amusing than the country boys 
and girls rushing up town drenched, and for once at 
least indifferent to the charms of the " h\z show." 

The storm having passed, I ordered Paul after 
supper, rode down to the office of the Patriot and 
Citizerij and after a few minutes' conversation with 
the editor, hurried on toward Parma, which was 
reached late in the evening. The ride in the dark 
was cool, but somewhat lonely. 

It was probably on such nights as this that young 
Dean, the enterprising settler of years ago, played his 
nocturnal tricks upon his neighbors. He came out to 
Michigan w^hen it was a wilderness, to make his 
fortune by clearing land at ten dollars an acre, and 
while he was drudging he expected to have a little fun. 
It was his habit to work away all day chopping trees 
within an inch of the falling point, and then about ten 
o'clock, when the settlers were well asleep, to go out 
and give a blow to the end tree, so that it would fall 
against the others and send them crashing like a row 
of ninepins. How the old forests must have rung 
with their thundering and how that plotter Dean must 
have relished his mischief! 

As I approached Parma, in the darkness I could see 
nothing about the village to suggest that other Parraa- 



312 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

far away under an Italian sky, but there is a re-« 
semblance, for the European duchy and its modest 
American namesake both lie in a rich agricultural 
region; and if I mistake not the dull white freestone 
that is quarried here in such large quantities, finds a 
prototype over the sea. 

Witt House, 
Marshall, Michigan, 
August Eleventh. 

As there was a heavy rainfall in the morning, I 
waited in Parma until nearly ten o'clock, and even 
then was obliged to start in a thunder-shower in 
order to keep my appointment for the following 
evening at Battle Creek. This required no sacrifice, 
for, excepting the discomfort of wet clothes, the change 
was agreeable. I reached Albion in time for dinner, 
and immediately made myself comfortable at the hotel. 
Rest and refreshment having the desired effect, I after- 
ward took a short stroll through the town, which I 
found very wide awake, although the Methodist 
college, tlie life of the place, was still closed for the 
summer vacation. In the meantime the men of the 
village had met, and before I remounted, came to me 
and persuaded me to return by rail and deliver the 
Custer lecture on the fifteenth. Glad to do all I 
could for the^Benefit Fund,"I readily consented and 
started away with the good wishes of the impromptu 
committee. Marshall, being only twelve miles beyond, 
was reached early in the evening, so that before dark I 
had time to get a mental picture of the place, Calhoun 



B 
O 







* DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 315 

County has its capitol here, and in 1853 it was looked 
upon as one of the most flourishing towns in Michigan. 
It has not reached the predicted pinnacle of importance, 
but it has a pleasant situation, some flourishing flour 
mills, and is altogether a credit to the *^ Wolverines/' 



Ninetg-tljirir JDag. 

Potter House, 

Battle Creek, Michigan, 

August Twelfth. 

As soon as Paul was led out in front of the Witt 
House at Marshall, a large crowd gathered about us; 
and when I had taken my seat in the saddle, one of 
the number stepped forward in behalf of the towns- 
people to invite me to return at a time which had 
previously been agreed upon and lecture on the heroes 
of the Revolution. Giving them the best promise I 
could, I hurried away as I had a good six hours' ride 
before me. 

Since the day before there had been a decided change 
in the weather. The sun blazed down with almost 
tropical heat, drying up the roads and making my way 
a veritable fiery furnace. I had a rare opportunity 
for watching "Old Sol" on these solitary rides, as he ap- 
peared unfailingly in the morning, swung through tiie 
heavens, and vanished in the west at night. It was 
now harvest time, and since that early day in May on 
which I started westward, I had kept my eye on him 
like a true worshipper, half understanding the pagan 
with his devotion to Apollo, and half in sympathy 
with the Indian who greets the Sun-god and weaves 



316 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

the splendid symbol into pouch and canoe and mocas- 
sin. Between the hours of ten and four particularly 
the heat was intense, but in other respects the day was 
uneventful. 



Private House, 

Battle Creek, Michigan, 

August Thirteenth. 

On the preceding evening a full house greeted me 
at Stuart's Hall, where I was introduced by a comrade 
of the G. A. R., Lieutenant Eugene T. Freeman. 
After the lecture I met several of the leading men of 
the town and later was invited to a private residence, 
where I was made at home during the remainder of 
my stay. The Lieutenant called for me on Sunday 
morning, and I accompanied him to church, meeting 
the pastor, Rev. L. D. Palmer, who spoke with anima- 
tion and warmth and made the service an eifective one. 
I enjoyed it all the more perhaps as I realized that be- 
fore many Sundays I would be on the Great Plains be- 
yond the Mississippi, where churches are known to be 
very rare. Continuing his courtesies, my comrade friend 
drove me out to the favorite resort. Lake Goguac, in 
the afternoon and there I had several fine views of 
the surrounding country. This little incident suggests 
an interesting theory concerning oneof the pre-historic 
races who are supposed to have occupied Tiis section 
of the country. It seems that in the ancient symbolic 
manuscripts of the Aztecs frequent mention is made of 
a land which they called Aztelan, compounded of the 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 317 

symbols A. T. S. and signifying " Lake Country," from 
which also their own name is derived, making it to 
mean " the people of the lake country.'' They refer 
to their former home as a country lying towards the 
north and giving further details which might be 
descriptive of the Peninsular State — so the theorist 
thinks. As a coincident, but advanced nevertheless 
as a strong argument, the learned gentleman states 
that the Wyandots have a tradition to the effect that 
hundreds of years ago, the builders of the mounds 
were driven southward by invaders from the north- 
east; and pursuing the magic thread, he suggests that 
the Aztecs were usurpers. in Mexico according to their 
own traditions and the corroboration of Spanish 
history. If this is the case, my comrade and myself, 
in visiting this pretty little lake, may have trodden 
upon the same soil which had been pressed by the 
feet of the mysterious builders of the mounds. I am 
personally a trifle sceptical on this point, and believe 
that the key to this part of ancient history is yet to be 
found. 

^inetu-fiftl) Sag. 

Kalamazoo ITonse, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan, 

August Fourteenth. 

On this day I passed a fine wheat-growing section 
in the valley of the Kalamazoo, whose richest part is 
probably near the Big Village — its namesake. This 
river, which drains Hillsdale, Kalamazoo, Calhoun 
and Allegan counties, and is navigable for forty miles 
above its mouth, has, I believe, more traffic than any 



318 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

one of the rivers of Michigan. Throughout its length 
of two hundred miles it flows through pine and oak 
forests, througli the richest section of a State famed for 
its agricultural products, and like the Nile, if I may so 
compare the relics of a great people with those of one 
comparatively unknown, is looked down upon by the 
silent monuments of the past. To me the comparison 
is not unreasonable, for I consider the tumuli of those 
mound -builders scattered over the hills and vallej^s of 
America, worthy of as much interest and respect 
as the more splendid remnants of a higher civil- 
ization. 

At this point the stream is still broad and picturesque. 
As to its name I am undecided. According to some 
it is a corruption of Ke-Kenemazoo, meaning " the 
boiling pot," and according toothers of Kik-alamazoo, 
" the miraw river, " because to the fanciful Indian the 
stones that jutted, dark and wet, out of the river-bed 
looked like otters. The village on its banks was settled 
in 1829, and after being known for two years by the 
name of its first settler, Bronson, became, in 1836, 
Kalamazoo. It is thoroughly alive, has a population 
of about 18,000, and its position as the half-way place 
between Detroit and Chicago adds considerably to its 
importance. I lectured here to a full house, being 
introduced by Major R. F. Judson, formerly of 
General Custer's staff, and bearing a high reputation 
as a soldier. Intercourse with one who had known 
the General so well, and who held him in such loyal 
regard, gave me a new insight into the life of 

" That mighty man of war, 
A lion in battle, and a child by the fireside." 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO, 319 



Albion House f 

Albion, Michigan, 

August Fifteenth, 

I came back to this place from Kalamazoo on the 
afternoon train and was met at the station by R. A.. 
Daniels, who went with me to the hotel. The intro- 
duction at the Opera House where I lectured in the 
evening was made by Captain Rienzi Loud, ^yhen I 
concluded, I found that the good old custom of " pas- 
sing round the liat'' had not yet lost favor, for two 
gentlemen, having furnished the ^' hat," assumed the 
role of collectors and the ^' Fund '' was within a very 
short time substantially increased. When this cere- 
mony was over a man in the audience rose and said: 
" Captain Glazier ! I came in after the hat was passed, 
but I want to give something toward the ^Monument;'" 
and suitino- the action to the word he made his contri- 
bution. The whole ceremony was so suggestive of a 
certain little church up in St. Lawrence County, New 
York, where the same custom prevails on Sundays, 
that I came very near fancying myself the parson, and 
if some of my comrades had not come up immediately 
and given me a hearty greeting, I might have been 
guilty of pronouncing a benediction ! 

As it was quite late when I reached this point, hav- 
ing made twenty-five miles since ten o'clock, there 
was very little time for sightseeing, but I learned that 
here was the seat of Ames College, a thriving Methodist 
institution adinittinn: both men and women, and 
l^roudly referred to by the people of Albion. 



320 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

JJ'inetjJ-atD^ntl) Hag. 

72 West Main Street, 
Battle Creek, Michigan, 

August Sixteenth, 

Called at Captain Loud^s law office at Albion in the 
morning, and had a delightful chat over old times, 
our topic an inexhaustible one — the battles and incidents 
of the late war. As this town was only a short dis- 
tance away, I was tempted to prolong the chat into a 
visit, finding the Captain a cordial comrade. 

According to previous agreement I lectured in the 
evening at Wayne Hall, Marshall, having an intro- 
duction by Colonel Charles W. Dickie. 

My horse .was now in Michigan City, being treated 
for the sore on his back by an old comrade, who since 
the war had attained quite a reputation as a veterinary 
surgeon. The delay was somewhat annoying as I 
anticipated trouble in crossing the Rockies, if I did 
not reach them before the season was too far advanced-; 
but there was a possibility of disabling the animal if 
his affliction were neglected, and my sympathies were 
with him. As the delay could not be avoided I 
availed myself of the ^'Iron Horse" and on it made 
brief tours to the neighboring towns. 

At this time it was very easy to agree with the theory 
of the fatalist that "whatever is, is right," for by an 
accident I was enabled to meet more agreeable peoj)]e, 
to enjoy their hospitality, and to see more, which was 
my chief purpose in crossing the continent. 

A philosopher never worries about little hindrances, 
for he soon learns that a delay often proves to be 
an advantage. Such was my case. 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO, 323 

72 West Main Street, 

Battle Creek, Michigan, 

August Seventeenth. 

Soon after breakfast I left Marshall for Battle Creek 
on a freight train, as there were no passenger coaches 
over the road until the afternoon. This mode of 
travel, if not the most luxurious, was at least novel, 
and we made very good time. Between the two 
places the face of the country hardly changed in ap- 
pearance. There were the same fields of wheat and 
corn, and at Battle Creek evidently as much business 
in the flour mills as at Marshall. 

The creek, uniting here with the Kalamazoo, after 
a serpentine course of forty miles, supplies the water- 
power and gives the necessary impetus to trade. 

I have heard that the tributary won its bellicose 
name through a little difficulty between the first sur- 
veyors of public laud who came to mark this section 
and some Indians. The quarrel ended seriously, and, 
as the tradition goes, two of the Indians were killed. 

It may have been that the latter were making an 
attempt to hold the ground, and that it was but one 
of the many similar occurrences which were to convince 
the red man that he was snperfluous. Callioun 
County was certainly worth making a stand for. Its 
soil was rich, ])roviding abundantly for the simple 
wants of the sava2:e, and in the clear waters of the St. 
Joseph and the Kalamazoo tributaries many a |)addle 
had descended with a deft stroke, upon the gleaming 
back of pike and pickerel. 



324 OCEAy TO OCEAN ON HORSEBAC^ 

JTtnetg-mntl) JDap. 

32 Portage Street^ 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
August Eighteenth. 

At nine o'clock I was once more on PauVs hack 
possessed of a stronger sense of satisfaction than had 
heen mine for many days. The truth is, I had missed 
my four-legged companion sorely. Reached Augusta 
at noon. I had a good old-fashioned dinner, and the 
horse something that was quite satisfactory, and at 
four o'clock we started on again for Kalamazoo. Soon 
after I left the village a thunder-shower came up, but 
there was a convenient tree at hand and we were not 
slow in reaching it. Thinking that all was well I 
again put spur to Paid and we started forward, this 
time coming in sight of the little village of Comstock, 
three miles east of Kalamazoo, before our progress 
was interrupted. Off in the distance the warning 
whistle of an approaching train broke in upon the 
stillness; the familiar rumble of wheels followed, 
and in a moment more, as it was rushing by, Paul 
made a leap of forty feet over the embankment. 
He was good enough to leave me and the saddle be- 
hind. It was a narrow escape and I was severely 
stunned, but was soon up again getting my bear- 
ings. I found my horse standing in the stream 
stripped of everything except the bridle, and, with the 
exception of a slight trace of nervousness in him, look- 
ing as though nothing unusual had occurred. We 
reached Kalamazoo a little later^ and there I wrote to 
Mr. Bulk ley as follows: 



VETEOIT TO CHICAGO. 325 

Kalamazoo House, 

Kalamazoo, Michigan, 

August 18, 1876. 
J. M. BuLKLEY, Esq., 

Secretary Custer Jfonument Association, 

3Ionro€, 3Iichigan, 

Dear Sir: — I have the pleasure of transmitting to Judge "Wing, 
through Major R. F. Judson, the net proceeds of my lecture, de- 
livered in this place on the evening of the sixteenth instant. I de- 
sire to accompany my gift with an acknowledgment of many 
courtesies extended by the press and band of this patriotic village. 
I resume my journey this afternoon and shall speak at Niles, South 
Bend, and Laporte before the close of the present week. Hoping 
that your brightest anticipations for the "Monument" may be most 
fully realized, I remain 

Very sincerely yours, WiLLARD Glazier. 

This letter I preserved, as I wished to have ail the 
correspondence upon the subject ofthe "Monument ''for 
future reference. 

©lie QunlireMl) H)at|. 

Dyckman House, 

Paw Paw, Michigan, 

August Nineteenth. 

Had an early breakfast at Kalamazoo. Ordered 
Paul, and mounting him rodetlirongh the Big Village 
to take a last look. Before leaving I called upon Major 
Judson and Colonel F. W. Curtenius. The latter of 
whom has had a l)rilliant career. Graduating from Ham- 
ilton College in 1823, he studied law and later went to 
South America, enlistinu; in the cause of the Brazil- 
ians. He served tlirough the war with Mexico, was 
appointed adjutant-general of Mich.igan in 1855, 
liolding this office until 1861, having received the 
hio-h title of Senator in 1853 and beino; re-elected to 
the office in 1867. The Colonel's father was a general 



326 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

in the war of 1812, and was for many years a member 
of the New York Legislature. I am only familiar 
with Major Judson's military record, but his services 
as a citizen are no doubt as honorable as was his 
career as a soldier. 

With these gentlemen I entrusted the proceeds of 
my lecture and the letter to Mr. Bulkley, with the re- 
quest that they be transmitted to the Monument As- 
sociation at Monroe. They expressed their apprecia- 
tion of my gift in warm terms and handed me the 
following acknowledgments : 

Kalamazoo, Michigan, 
August 19, 1876. 

Received of Captain Willard Glazier the net proceeds of his 
lecture at this place, which sum is to be applied to the fund for the 
erection of a Monument to the memory of the late General Custer at 
Monroe City, Michigan. We take great pleasure in speaking of 
Captain Glazier in the highest terms, not only on account of the self- 
devotion he has manifested in a noble cause, but of his indomitable 
perseverance and energy. We trust he will, wherever he goes, re- 
ceive the unanimous support of the citizens whom he addresses. 

F. W. CURTENICS, 

Late Colonel U. S. Volunteers. 

I take great pleasure in fully endorsing the above, and recom- 
mending to public confidence and support Captain Willard Glazier, 
in his eflforts in behalf of the Custer Monument Association, 

R. F. JUDSON, 

Late Aide to General Custer. 

With an exchange of salutations and good wishes 
from the friends whose courtesies I considered it an 
iionor to receive, I left Kalamazoo for Paw Paw. 
The ride between these towns was unusually trying. 
Paul's back was still tender, the heat was intense, and 
under these circumstances it was necessary to cover 
fourteen miles before any refreshment could be had. 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 327 

Dyckman House, 

Paw Paw, Michigan, 

August Twentieth. 

This Sunday was a perfect day for rest, and I in- 
dulged in a generous amount. Had breakfast at 
eight o'clock, after which I strolled through the 
streets of the Van Buren County capital, finding them 
generally like all other village streets, but with enough 
individuality about them to make them interesting. 
The High School stood, with the usual dignity of edu- 
cational institutions, prominent among the neatcottages, 
and in the business portion two or three newspaper 
offices gave unfailing proof of local alertness. 

The east and west branches of the Paw Paw Kiver 
meet here and hurry on to pay their tribute to the 
Kalamazoo, offering their united strength to the busi- 
ness concerns which man has erected on their shores. 
The outlying farms thus naturally irrigated are very 
rich, and give, with the extensive lumbering interests, 
a very flourishing and prosperous appearance to this 
section of country and a certain briskness to the trade 
at Paw Paw. 

On returning to my room I copied the testimonials 
given me by Colonel Curtenius and Major Judson of 
Kalamazoo, wrote several letters, attended to some 
neglected dates in ray journal, and made my plans for 
the next few days. It was my intention to go to 
South Bend by rail the following morning, to lecture 
there in the evening and then proceed to Grand 
Rapids, where I was announced for Tuesday. My 



328 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

horse was in the meantime undergoing new and 
vigorous treatment which I hoped would permanently 
cure him. 

Grand Central Hotel, 

South Bend, Indiana, 

Axigust Twenty -first. 

At ten o'clock I left Paw Paw, reached Decatur at 
noon, registered at the Duncombe House and then 
continued my journey by rail. I hardly realized that 
I was out of Michigan in this town on the St. Joseph, 
for the river belongs to the "Wolverines" with the 
exception of the capricious South Bend, and the streets 
have the breadth and abundance of shade that have 
won so much admiration for the cities of Michigan. 
It has, besides, the Hoosier enterprise, and began to 
be an important manufacturing place fifteen years ago. 
The first settlement began in 1831 with a handful of 
houses and a population of a hundred souls. It has 
now reached over 10,000. Prominent among the re- 
sources to which its growth may be attributed is its 
proximity to the hard-wood forests of Northern 
Indiana and Michigan. 

These woods have proven a bonanza to South 
Bend. Enterprising manufacturers have drawn from 
their unfailing source; prominent among them being 
the Studebaker Brothers, who have had an enviable 
career. These enterprising men started in 1852 
with a cash capital of sixty-eight dollars, and a 
knowledge of blacksmithing which they had acquired 
at their father^s forge on the Ohio. Thus equipped 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 329 

they went to work, turning out two wagons the first 
year. The present output makes that humble 
beginning seem ahiiost incredible. Studebaker's 
wagons are famous and the firm controls capital stock 
amountins: to a million of dollars. The other notable 
enterprise is the Oliver Chilled Plow Works, founded 
in 1853 by James Oliver, a Scotchman, who came to 
Indiana to follow the vocation of an iron master, and 
who ultimately had the satisfaction of exporting his 
manufactures to his native country. 

The most distinguished citizen of South Bend at 
the time of my visit, and the most prominent man in 
Indiana, was Hon. Schuyler Colfax, whose career as a 
statesman was a singularly brilliant one. For over a 
quarter of a century he had been eminent in state and 
national politics. Beginning life as an editor he 
founded in 1845 the St. Josp.ph Valley Register y 
an organ of considerable popularity and which at 
the time had a strong influence in local Whig circles. 
His subsequent duties as Speaker of the House of 
Kepresentatives and the friend and adviser of Lincoln, 
kept him out of editorial work, and later he was 
entirely engrossed with affairs of state. In 1868 he 
was elected to the office of Vice-President under 
General Grant as chief executive. 

Sweet's Hotel, 
Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

August Twenty -second. 

My birthday. Went by rail from South Bend to 
Kalamazoo in the morning ; had dinner at the latter 



330 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

place, and then caught an early train for Grand 
Rapids, where, finding that George had made un- 
usually good arrangements, I spoke in Luce's Hall to 
one of the largest audiences which greeted me in 
Michigan, General W. P. Innes, well known in 
Grand Army circles and a mason of high rank, intro- 
ducing me. A large and strongly executed painting 
of the Battle of Lookout Mountain, stretching across 
the rear of the platform, made a striking effect and 
gave zest to my reference to the War for the Union. 

My reception at this place was so hearty that 1 
should have enjoyed a longer visit; but plans already 
laid prevented. I knew the town itself well, for I 
had previously been there. It is full of interest both 
on account of its past history and its present activity. 
The city lies on both sides of the Grand River and 
seems to be hedged in by the great bluffs that reach 
along at the water edge of the valley two miles apart. 
Below is a stratum of limestone rock, forming the bed 
of the river, for about a mile and a lialf with a descent 
of eighteen feet causing the rapids and supplying 
the water-power. Gypsum is quarried here in large 
quantities, and this industry supplemented by manu- 
factures and fruit culture gives it its commercial im- 
portance. Perhaps its most striking peculiarity is to 
be found in the large proportion of Hollanders who 
swell the population. Their churches, their news- 
papers and their general thrift give them a high 
standing in the community, and what they have ever 
been accorded — a reputation for being loyal and enter- 
prising citizens. 

In 1760 there was a very different state of things 
here. The Ottawa Indians had a large village below 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 331 

the rapids, and there Pontiac's voice was heard, call- 
ing upon the chiefs to aid hira in his projected siege 
of Detroit. Here the fur traders had their grand de- 
pot, and the missionaries labored in the cause of 
Christianity ; and when in 1834 the Indian settlement 
began its metamorphosis, some bold prophet declared 
that it would soon be " the brightest star in the con- 
stellation of western villages/' This prophecy has 
been more than fulfilled, for Grand Rapids is the ac- 
knowledged metropolis of Western Michigan. In the 
mail that awaited me was a copy of the South Bend 
Herald, containing a pleasant notice which chronicled 
in true newspaper diction the fact that 

** Captain Glazier delivered his lecture ' Echoes from the Revolution' 
at the Academy of Music last evening. Promptly at eight o'clock 
the lecturer, with Mr. J. F. Creed, appeared on the platform. Mr. 
Creed in introducing the lecturer stated the object of the lecture to 
be in aid of the Custer Monument Association of Monroe, Michigan. 
He also read several letters introducing Captain Glazier to the public, 
from well-known citizens of Michigan, and acknowledging receipts 
of the proceeds of the lectures delivered in Detroit and Kalamazoo. 
The theme of the lecturer afforded a fine field for the display of his 
talents as a speaker. Possessing a fine imagination, good descriptive 
powers and the real qualities of an orator, he could not fail to please 
the really intelligent audience which greeted him last evening. 
Probably one hour and a half were consumed in its delivery; but the 
interest and attention did not flag nor tire, and when the speaker 
took leave of his audience he was greeted with several rounds of ap- 
plause." 

®tte j5^^^^^^^^ tt^^^ JFourtI) ©ai). 

Duncomhe House, 
Decatur, Michigan* 

August Twenty-third: 

Came down from Grand Rapids in the morning in- 
tending to stop on the way at Lawton, but was carried 



332 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

by through the carelessness of a brakeman who neg- 
lected to announce the stations. The town is quite an 
important point on the road for its size owing to the 
extensive fruit orchards of the surrounding farms. 
This common industry which has sprung up in all 
parts of the State, but especially in the southern por- 
tion, and which attracts more attention than anything 
else, is a contradiction to the statements of those who 
examined the country while it was yet a wilderness. 

In 1815 the surveyor-general of Ohio made a 
journey through the State and soberly reported that 
not more than one acre in a thousand in Southern 
Michigan would in any case admit of cultivation, 
yet notwithstanding that worthy's opinion, six hun- 
dred thousand peach trees flourished in South- 
western Michigan in 1872 ! Surely that is a fact to 
be proud of. On my arrival at Decatur I found the 
Eagle of Grand Rapids, containing mention of my 
lecture at that place as follows : 

"A very large audience gathered at Luce's Hall last night to hear 
Captain Willard Glazier. The speaker was earnest and impassioned 
his lecture was delivered with a force and eloquence that pleased his 
hearers, and all who were in the hall went away glad that they had 
been there, and ready to add to the praises that have been bestowed 
on Captain Glazier as soldier, author and orator." 

Such notices were gratifying — not for the leaven of 
flattery which they contained, but because they helped 
along the cause which was to raise a shaft to the 
deserving dead. For this reason I appreciated the 
comments of the press and owed much to its co-opera- 
tion. It is a pleasure to me to acknowledge my 
indebtedness to this most powerful agent of modern 
times^ 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 333 

\\t jJuntireiJ anlJ Jiftl) ©ail 

Dyckman Souse^ 

Paw Paw, Michigan, 

August Twenty -joixrth. 

Took the Michigan Central to Lawton, and chang- 
ing cars there continued my journey to this place by 
the Paw Paw Road. Thinking that it might facilitate 
matters, I had my saddle padded here, and had a talk 
with the saddler besides, as the delay was becoming 
serious. At this crisis, if man and horse could have 
set up a partnership, like the fabled Centaurs, how 
we could have flown before the wind — or even out- 
stripped the Michigan Central — as we galloped across 
country towards the setting sun ! That old myth was 
an inspiration. Was it invented by some fanciful 
traveller-horseman hindered on his way to Rome or 
Athens, by a saddler or a veterinary surgeon ? 

During my forced visit, the people of Paw Paw 
were very kind, making the time pass agreeably and 
giving me a pleasant recollection to take away. These 
small social influences carried great weight with them, 
and helped to bear out the universally acknowledged 
fact that associations are all powerful. 

It is not strange that people, rather' than their abode 
or works, strongly impress themselves, nor that, re- 
alizing this, they should be cordial in their hos- 
pitality. If, then, I praise the beauty or enterprise of 
these American towns, I bear witness at the same time, 
to the kindness and courtesy of their inhabitants. 
Whether East or West, these qualities were everywhere 
apparent, proving the universality of generous feeling. 



834 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Private House, 

NiLEs, Michigan, 

August Twenty-fifth. 

Leaving Paw Paw after breakfast I went down to 
Lawton by rail, where I changed cars, taking the 
Michigan Central to Niles, this for the purpose of 
making use of the extra time that now hung heavily 
upon my hands. A good proportion of the six thou- 
sand inliabitants came to Kellogg Hall in the evening 
to manifest their interest in the Custer Monument and 
the old Revolutionary heroes, Mr. J. T. Head giving 
the introduction. 

Reaching Niles before noon I had ample time to 
look about, and to hear from old residents something 
of Berrien County and their home here on the St. 
Joseph. 

For those who delight in searching out events from 
the doubtful past, there is suggestion enough here to 
keep them occu})ied for at least a week. Even this 
small town possesses records that date back to 1669, 
when Pere Allouez came along down the river on a 
voyage of discovery and who may have encamped on 
the very site of Niles, for all that the people who live 
there now know. But putting this aside, it is certain 
that in 1700 the Jesuits had a mission a short distance 
Bouth of the present city, and that there were forts 
built here and there in the vicinity as a protection 
against the Indians. Later, when matters were settled 
and the English and French had long since withdrawn, 
the Reverend Isaac McCoy came out into the wilder- 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 337 

ness with his family and established Gary Mission, 
probably in sight of where the old Jesuit Mission stood. 
This was in 1820. Six years afterwards a handful of 
cabins made their appearance, and out of this nucleus 
the town of Niles was evolved. This is a mere out- 
line without the adornment of those pleasant little 
fictions that cling about the sober history of every in- 
habited place on earth, and which delight the ear of 
most travellers, for there may be those who follow me 
who echo the sentiment of the Michigan pioneer, 
" From legend and romance, good Lord, deliver us ! '' 



®ne i^ii^^'^^*^"^ ^^ QtotwW) Sag. 

Private House, 
La Porte, Indiana, 

August Twerdy-sixth, 

Was compelled to avail myself of livery accommo- 
dations in order to meet my evening engagement at 
La Porte. Rode in a hack to South Bend, and finally 
reached my destination by way of the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Southern Indiana roads. My advance agent, 
Babcock, met me at the station, and I accompanied 
him to the home of a Mr. Munday, who I discovered 
was the father of an old fellow-prisoner at "t<ibby." 

I was delighted with the situation and appearance 
of the town. It rises on the border of a beautiful 
and fruitful prairie, its northern end bounded by a 
chain of seven lakes which make an ideal resort in 
summer, and is at a sufficient distance from the great 
body of water which dips down into that corner of 
the Stafee, to enjoy a comparatively mild climate. Its 



338 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

population is about 8,000, of which a good share is 
employed in the foundries, machine shops and mills 
that make up its business activity. The younger ele- 
ment is provided for in good schools, and that luxury of 
modern communities — the public library — is zealously 
supported. On a line with it, as a free and instructive 
institution, the Natural History Association, founded 
in 1863, holds an honored place, and unlike most so- 
cieties of a similar character has succeeded in making 
its researches of interest. In fact for its size the city 
has made great progress in literary and educational 
directions. 

Jewell House ^ 

Michigan City, Indiana, 

August Twenty-seventh. 

After my lecture of the previous evening at La 
" Porte, I took the first train to this city — emphatically 
the City of Sand. Time and winds have raised great 
hills of sand on every side, and from their crests one 
can look off for miles over the lake, getting perhaps a 
deeper impression of its vastness than from a less 
monotonous lookout. 

These sand dunes are supposed by some to be caused 
by a peculiar meteorological phenomena of currents 
and counter-currents acting vertically instead of hor- 
izontally. Whatever the cause, they have made 
Indiana's only port of entry a place of such striking pe- 
culiarity, that, once seen, I doubt if it would ever be 
forgotten. 

In the forenoon I went out on the lake in a small 



DETROIT TO CHICAOO. 339 

yacht; but finding the little craft unequal to the heavy 
waves which were rushing in from the north, I soon 
turned back, having gained by the venture a better 
idea of the dunes and of their extent as they stretch 
along the western shore. 

The fact that they are "building upon the sand" 
gives the people of Michigan City very little concern, 
probably because they know there is terra firma some- 
where beneath their foundations. 

Ames College occupies a site here, and the Car Shops 
are important and extensive. 



Dicncombe House, 

Decatur, Michigan, 

A ugust Twen ty- eighth. 

Taking an early train, I returned to this place in 
the morning, where I had decided to remain for a few 
days in order to allow more time for the treatment of 
my horse, and to give my brother and Babcock an 
opportunity to insure a full house at Farwell Hall, 
Chicago, where I was announced to lecture on the 
eleventh of September. 

I had begun to fear that the irritation on PauVs 
back would develop into that most disgusting and 
painful disease of horses known as fistula; and al- 
though he never showed any impatience, I had not 
the heart to ride him while in this condition. 

My quarters were quite comfortable at the only 

hotel in town, and I thanked my stars that I was not 

stranded in some little backwoods place with the choice 
17 



340 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

of " the softest boards on the floor for a bed," and 
otlier accommodations to match — a state of affairs wliich 
a waylaid journeyman once had to face, who, with the 
soul of a Stoic, left on his window-pane the comfort- 
ing couplet : 

" Learn hence, young man, and teach it to your sons: 
The easiest way's to take it as it comes." 

In fact I was doubly fortunate. No sooner had I 
reached Decatur than I lost the consciousness of beino; 
"a stranger within the gates,'^ having been so cordially 
made to feel that I was among friends, and that the 
cause which I had taken up in Michigan met with 
their hearty sympathy. 

Duncombe House, 
Decatur, Michigan, 

August Twenty-ninth. 

Met George L. Darby, an old comrade of the 
" Harris Light," in the afternoon. He had noticed my 
signature on the hotel register, and came at once to my 
room, where after the heartiest of greetings we sat 
down for a long talk. Thirteen years had slipped away 
since the time of our capture at New Baltimore, Vir- 
ginia, which led him to Belle Isle and me to Libby 
Prison, and yet as we discussed it all, the reality of 
those events seemed undiminished. Kilpatrlck, Stuart, 
Fitzliugh Lee — their clever manoeuvring, and our 
own unfortunate experiences on that day, kept us as 
enthusiastically occupied as though it were not an old 
story : but soldiers may be pardoned for recurring to 



> 

CO 

o 

t?j 
♦—I 

o 

Q 




DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 343 

those events which, while they impressed themselves 
upon witnesses with indelible distinctness, may yet have 
lost their bitterness, when it is remembered that before 
many years they and their stories will have passed 
away. To those who indulge in the absurd belief that 
such topics are discussed with malicious intent, no 
justification need be made. 

Led on from one thing to another, I found Darby 
finally plying me with questions of kindly interest 
about my peaceful march from Ocean to Ocean, and 
anxiously asking about my horse, which I had pre- 
viously left in his care. He offered to do all he could 
for the animal and with this comforting assurance took 
his leave. 

(Due J5^tnlireb auli ^leccutl) JDag. 

Duncombe House, 

Decatur, Michigan, 

August Thirtieth. 

Early in the afternoon Darby called with fishing 
tackle and proposed that we go out to Lake of the 
Woods and try our luck wnth hook and line. The 
expedition was not successful as far as fish was con- 
cerned, but we had a delightful boat ride and plenty 
of talk. 

The lake, a pretty little dot lying, as its name 
implies, in the heart of the woods, is an ideal spot for 
rest and enjoyment, and its miniature dimensions bear 
no resemblance to its famed namesake of Minnesota. 
As we had such poor success with our tackle I took no 
note of the kind of fish that make their home within 
its sleepy borders, and my companion gave me very 



344 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

little information. The truth is, we were more inter- 
ested in our concerns and the serious affairs outside the 
sport which so fascinated Izak Walton.- 



®ne §uubreii anli oltDElftl) ©ag. 

Duncombe House, 

Decatur, Michigan, 

August Thirty -first. 

Albert W. Rogers, to whom I had been previously 
introduced, called late in the afternoon, and invited 
me to drive with him, determined, he told me, that I 
should see something of Decatur's surroundings. The 
time was favorable for agreeable impressions. It had 
been a typical summer day, with blue sky, a slight 
breeze and the mercury at 70° ; in short, just such 
weather as I had encountered in this section of Michi- 
gan throughout the month of August, and as evening 
approached, I was prepared to enjoy to the utmost 
the pleasure which my new acquaintance had })rovided. 

On the outskirts of the town one gets a view of 
gently rolling country under a splendid state of culti- 
vation, the yellow of the grain fields predominating, 
and dotted here and there with farmhouses. Dark 
outlines against the horizon suggested the forests of 
oak, ash, maple, birch and elm, which stretch over 
such large tracts of Van Buren County, and which 
have made a little paradise for lumbermen. Wheat, 
maize and hay appeared to be flourishing ; but I 
believe that agricultural products do their best in the 
rich bottom-lands bordering the rivers. I have 
dwelt so enthusiastically upon this fertile country that 
to say more would seem extravagant, so I will bring 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 347 

my note, the chronicle of a most delightful day, to a 
close. 

©ne Quniireb anb Sljlrtemtl) Dan. 

Duncomhe House, 
Decatur, Michigan, 
September First, 

Keceived and answered a large mail after breakfast, 
and in the afternoon took a walk tiirough the village. 
One is, of course, reminded of the gallant Commodore 
whose name, once among the greatest in America, now 
honors this modest Western town, and whose deeds, 
once upon every lip in the young republic, are well- 
nigh forgotten. The question even suggests itself as 
to how many of those who live here, where his name 
is perpetuated, are familiar with his life and character. 

His capture of the frigate Philadelphia, which had 
been seized and held in the harbor of Tripoli in 
1801, during the pacha's seizure of our merchantmen, 
was said by Admiral Nelson to be " the most daring 
act of the age," and his diplomacy at Algiers and 
Tunis and Tripoli, where in 1812 his demands were 
acceded to, received the applause of all Christendom, 
especially because those demands included the release 
of the Christian captives at Algiers aifd of the Danish 
and Neapolitan prisoners at Tripoli, and ended, forever, 
the pretensions of the Barbary powers. 

After the trial of Commodore Barron for cowardice, 
Decatur made some remarks which the former thought 
should not be allowed to pass unnoticed, and accord- 
ingly called upon his accuser to retract them. This 
Decatur refused to do, but attempted to bring about a 



348 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

reconciliatiou. Barron refused this and threw down 
the gauntlet, and when shortly afterwards the two 
met to settle the difficulty " with honor/' both fell at 
the word " Fire ! " — Decatur mortally wounded. The 
affair was universally deplored, for his loyal services 
had endeared Decatur to his country, and when his 
remains were taken to the grave, they were followed 
by the largest concourse of people that had ever as- 
sembled in Washington. 

®ue f)unbnlr ani lourtetntl) Sap. 

Diincombe House, 
Decatur, Michigan, 

Septembe?' Second. 

This was a great day for Decatur. With the morn- 
ing came the completion of arrangements for a Repub- 
lican mass-meeting, and a rustic band from an ad- 
jacent village arrived at nine o'clock in a farm wagon. 
The "Stars and Stripes" floated majestically over the 
heads of the patriotic musicians, and the people were 
drawn from every quarter to the stirring call of fife 
and drum, eatrer to see their leaders and to listen to 
their views upon the vital questions of the day. The 
'^Silver Cornet Band" of Dowagiac co-oi)erated with 
the " Decatur Fife and Drum Corps," in rousing the 
dormant element of the place, and, as its imposing ap- 
pellation would imply, did so with dignified and class- 
ical selections. 

The political campaign which had been slumbering 
since the nomination of Hayes and Tilden reached an 
interesting stage of its progress at this time, and the 
friends and champions of the rival candidates were 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 349 

fully alive to the issues of their respective plat- 
forms. 

By nightfall the place was the scene of great ac- 
tivity, and to an onlooker produced a singular effect. 
Men were collected in groups engaged in excited con- 
versation, torches flared in every direction, while at 
brief intervals all voices were drowned in some lively 
tune from the silver cornets or the fife and drum. 

At an appointed hour the speakers of the evening 
appeared, and I noticed among them Hon. E-ansom 
H. Nutting and Hon. Thomas W. Keightly — the 
latter a candidate for Congress from this district. The 
meeting closed at a late hour, after a succession of 
heated addresses, and yet the politicians of Yan Buren 
County seemed not at all averse to continuing their 
talking until sunrise. 

(S)ue 15"^^^^^^ tt^^"^ irifteentl) SDaw. 

Duncombe House, 

Decatur, Michigan, 

September Third. 

Accepting an invitation from Albert Rogers, I ac- 
companied him to the Presbyterian Church in the 
morning, where Rev. Mr. Hoyt, a young clergyman, 
conducted the services and preached a very good ser- 
mon. I was pleased by the courtesy extended me 
when he said, in the course of his announcements . " I 
take pleasure in calling attention to Captain Glazier's 
lecture at Union Hall to-morrow night. I shall be 
present myself, and recommend all who wish to listen 
to an instructive and patriotic lecture to be at the hall 
before eight o'clock." When the service was over Mr. 



350 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Rogers and I waited to have a few words with Mr. 
Hoyt, who was evidently very much interested in ray 
journey across country and who intended to lend his 
influence in behalf of the '^Monument Fund.'^ We 
then returned to the hotel where I passed the remain- 
der of the day quietly in my room. 

Duncomhe House, 
Decatur, Michigan, 

September Fourth. 

Lectured to a full house at Union Hall in the even- 
ing. My sojourn of a week at this place and the in- 
terest felt in the effort to perpetuate the memory of 
Custer, brought about the most gratifying results. 
Among those who were with me on the platform were 
Hon. Ransom Nutting, Rev. Mr. Hoyt, Prof. Samuel 
G. Burked and Albert W. Rogers. I was presented 
by Mr. Nutting, after which testimonials irom the 
Monument Association were read by Prof. Burked, 
and later the following pleasant acknowledgment 
from these gentlemen was handed me : 

Decatur, Michigan, 

September 4, 1876. 
Captain Willard Glazier, 

My Dear Sir : We take this means of expressing to you our ap- 
preciation of the highly instructive and very entertaining lecture 
delivered by you at Union Hall this evening. Truly we admire your 
plan and your generosity in giving the entire proceeds to the Custer 
Monument Fund. Our endorsement is the expression of our village 
people generally. You have made many friends here. 

May success attend you throughout your journey. 

Very respectfully, 
• S. Gordon Burked, 

Eansom Nutting, 

Albert W- Rogers. 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 351 

Such greeting as this, extended to me all along my 
way, gives substantial proof of the universal kindness 
with which I was received, and of the spontaneous hos- 
pitality of the American citizen. 

®\\t tjuukcb anb S^tJentecutl) ClaiJ. 

Seymour House, 

DowAGiAC, Michigan, 

September Fifth. 

There was a large gathering in front of the Dun- 
combe House in the morning when I mounted Paul 
and faced westward, turning my back upon the hos- 
pitable little village in which I had spent so many 
pleasant days, and where I felt that I had indeed 
made many friends. Mr. Rogers and a young man 
of the place, whose name I am sorry to have forgotten, 
escorted me out of town intending to ride with me to 
Dowagiac, but an approaching rain-storm obliged 
them to turn back. As I came in sight of the village 
I noticed unmistakable signs of a stream which I dis- 
covered was the Dowagiac River, a tributary of the 
St. Joseph, entering it near Niles. It has been put to 
good account by the millers, who have established 
themselves here, and in its small way adds to the 
blessings of the ^lichigan husbandmen on its shores. 

®ue iJunbreLi auii (PiciljteeutI) Oaj). 

Private House, 

NiLES, Michigan, 

September Sixth. 

The threatening storm which led my Decatur friends 
to turn back on the previous afternoon, set in soon 



352 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

after my arrival at Dowagiac, and I considered my- 
self very fortunate^ as it was accompanied by the most 
violent thunder and lightning that I had yet encount- 
ered. Notwithstanding this disturbed condition of 
the elements, I was greeted by a full house at Young 
Men's Hall, where 1 was introduced by Dr. Thomas 
Rix. 

I found a few familiar faces at Niles which I had 
seen during my previous visit, and several new places 
of interest about the town. Navigation on the St. 
Joseph ends at this point, and the narrowed stream is 
spanned by a railroad bridge; and the water-power in- 
creased by a dam. There is a brisk business carried 
on at the water's edge. 

The mills are well supplied with grain from out- 
lying fields, and boats are continually plying back and 
forth laden with lumber, grain, flour and fruit, which 
are shipped from here in large quantities. In fact, for 
its size — it claims I believe, a population of something 
over 4,000 — Niles is full of energy and ambition. I 
found myself on this second visit very much interested 
in the place and pleased that circumstances had made 
necessary a second halt. 

K<niiard House, 

Buchanan, Michigan, 

September Seventh. 

Resumed my journey at two o'clock in the after- 
noon at a small way place between Niles and Bu- 
chanan, where I rested at noon. The heavy rains of 
the preceding days had left the roads in a most 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 353 

wretched condition, and the distance was considerably 
lengthened as it was necessary to avoid pools and wash- 
outs, so that it took two hours of slow riding to reach 
my destination. Darby, who had gone forward with 
my advance agents, was the first to greet me at this 
place and to inform me of the arrangements made for 
my lecture in the evening. 

As my day's journey had been undertaken leisurely, 
I started out on a tour of inspection, after having first 
made comfortable provision for Paul. I found a 
flourishing village, having a population of something 
over 2,000, and prettily situated on the St. Joseph 
River. As I walked in and out through its streets 
and looked for the last time upon the stream, which 
for its romantic history and natural charm had forced 
itself upon my notice so often, I could not avoid a 
certain feeling of regret that this was to be my last 
halt in the great State through which I had made such 
a pleasant and profitable journey. Pictures of orchard 
and meadow, of wheat field and river, passed in review 
once more, and with them the recollection of the 
splendid part the patriots of Michigan bore in the 
War for the Union, than whom was none more loyal 
than the heroic Custer, for whose memory I had spoken 
and received such warm response. 

# 

Private House, 
Rolling Prairie, Indiana, 
September Eighth. 

Called for my horse at Buchanan at nine o'clock iu 
the morning, intending to stop at New Buffalo, but 



354 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

once on the road, I decided instead to make thia 
village my evening objective. A heavy rain-storm, 
setting in early in the forenoon, compelled me to take 
refuge at a farm house for about an hour, where I was 
initiated into the home life of the Northern Indiana 
" Hoosier." I am sorry to say that during this day's 
ride I encountered the worst roads and the dullest 
people of my journey. Many who have resided in 
this part of Indiana for thirty and even forty years 
are not only exceedingly illiterate, but know much 
less of the topography of the country than the average 
Indian — and absolutely nothing of the adjacent towns. 
As a consequence I w^as obliged to trust to chance, 
which brought me to Gallon, a tiny hamlet on the 
outskirts of a swamp, where I had dinner. My ride 
thither was made under circumstances which suggested 
the ride of the belated Tam O' Shanter, and while my 
tortures could not compare with his, they were none 
the less acute while they lasted. I was met on the 
edge of the swamp by a swarm of mosquitoes — known 
in France as petite diahles — who forced their attention 
upon me without cessation, in spite of the fiact that I 
urged my horse forward at breakneck speed, PauVs 
steaming flanks and mire-covered legs attesting to the 
struggle, when we drew up in front of Gallon Inn. 

®\\t i)\\\\^xt^ anil SroEutH-first Slag. 

Jeioell House, 

Michigan City, Indiana, 

September Ninth. 

I considered myself fortunate, during my ride from 
Rolling Prairie to Michigan City — a distance of six- 




\^- 



^ 




A TTOOSTER CABIN. 



DETROIT TO CHICAGO. 357 

teen miles — in having a sandy road and no rain from 
the time of setting out in the morning until ray ar- 
lival here in the evening, but I was less favored 
than usual in obtaining information. 

The Presidential campaign was now at white heat 
and very little outside of polities was discussed. I found, 
however, that the ideas of many of the farmers were 
confused upon the issues. The three candidates in 
the field made the canvass unusually exciting. Hayes 
and Tilden were, of course, the central figures, but 
Peter Cooper of New York had many staunch sup- 
porters and a few enthusiasts rallied around Blaine, 
Conkling and Morton. The proprietor of the Jewell 
House — a Cooper man — was at this time much more 
interested in the success of his favorite than in the re- 
ceipts of his hotel, and his halls and parlors were the 
rendezvous for men of all parties. 



®ne J5^t^^^^^»^ ^^^J^ Qltoentg-seconiJ Sag. 

Jewell House, 

Michigan City, Indiana, 

September Tenth. 

As it was Sunday and I had a desire to visit the 
most imposing institution connected with Michigan 
City — the Northern State Penitentiary, I decided to 
make the two miles on foot, and be there for divine 
service. I found everything admirably conducted, 
and altliough such a place is not the most cheerful in 
the world to be shown through, I was well satisfied 
that I had gone, and was strongly im})ressed with the 
effect of the stern hand of the law. In the afternoon 



358 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

a heavy rain and wind storm came up, and I stayed in 
my room, the greater part of the time, writing up my 
journal, and arranging for my lecture tour across 
Illinois and Iowa, thereby accomplishing certain 
duties which fair weather might have tempted me to 
Deglect. 

It was my intention to go by rail to Chicago on the 
following morning, where I was announced to lecture 
at Farwell Hall. 

Darby, to whom I have previously referred in con- 
nection with Decatur, and who was acting as advance 
agent in the small towns and villages that lay along 
my route, was with me during my stay at the Jewell 
House, and we had frequent talks over our adventures 
in the " Harris Light " — Second New York Cavalry— 
in which most of our active service was passed. 



-'i^- 




CHAPTER XIX. 

THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 

N the eleventh of September, I took 
tlie 7.50 morning train at Michigan 
City for Chicago, instead of going for- 
ward on horseback, as I had discovered 
by a study of the map of Illinois, that 
I could save Paul some thirtv miles. 
in my journey across the State, by 
riding directly from Michigan City to 
Joliet, and I saw no good reason why 
I should ride him up here, especially at a time when 
he was greatly in need of rest. 

When I had registered at the " Grand Pacific,'' I 
went to the Fidelity Safe Deposit Company to attend 
to some business matters and then over to the Express 
and Post offices, concluding my rounds by a call upon 
friends on West Washington street. 

Lectured to a full house at Farwell Hall in the 
evening, the introduction being given by Major E. S. 
Weedon, editor of the Army and Navy Gazette. The 
Major alluded in eloquent and touching terms to the 
record of the gallant Custer and immediately put my 
audience in sympathy with me. My brother-in-law, 

Madison H. Buck, of I^ake Mills, Wisconsin, called 

(361) 



362 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

upon me in the evening and was with me on the plat- 
form. The lecture closed before ten o'clock, and I 
hurried over to McVicker's Theatre, to see the last acts 
of "Mulberry Sellers," in which John T. Raymond 
was playing his favorite role. Tlie play was having 
quite a run, and one heard at every turn the expres- 
sion that had caught the popular fancy — Mulberry's 
inimitable assurance, " There's millions in it ! " 

On the niorning of the twelfth, I settled with George 
and Babcock. The former went forward to Ottawa, 
and the latter to Joliet. It was my intention at the 
time to push on to Omaha and Cheyenne as rapidly 
as possible in the hope of passing Sherman, at the 
summit of the mountains, before the snow was too 
deep to interrupt my journey. Eight general halts 
had been decided upon between Boston and San Fran- 
cisco, and these were Albany, Buffalo, Toledo, Chi- 
cago, Omaha, Cheyenne, Ogden, and Sacramento. I 
had now reached my fourth objective and felt the 
importance of more haste and less leisure and sight- 
seeing. My time, therefore, in this great city was nec- 
essarily cut short. 

The Exposition had just opened at the time I 
reached Chicago, and this enabled me to see more in a 
few hours than I could have possibly seen in any other 
way, and gave me quite an idea of the industries 
carried on in Cook County. 

I had never seen a finer local affair of the kind 
and was confident that its object — the encouragement 
of agriculture and industry — w^ould be successfully ac- 
complished. Anyone who sees the way in which 
Chicagoans throw themselves into an undertaking of 
this sort, and in fact into everything that has to do 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 363 

with the enterprise or prosperity of their city, cannot 
but be struck with admiration. 

Their irrepressible hopefulness, which effected such 
marvelous results after the great conflagration of 1871, 
is a case in point, and those who have been fortunate 
enough to see the transformation, are forced to admit 
that the calamity was, after all, not so much to be de- 
plored. Out of the great waste in which the business 
portion was laid, handsome buildings have sprung up 
with almost magic rapidity and auguring well for the 
future of the " Windy City." Especially is this 
feature striking in the vicinity of the City Hall, where 
finer edifices rose upon the old ruins. 

The very name of Chicago carries us back to the 
barbaric scenes of more than two hundred years 
ago. Where the beautiful city now stands, those days 
of long since past knew only a morass, an oozy, deso- 
late stretch of water-soaked swamp. There was a 
stream in this desolate region, the banks of which, 
tradition tells us, were parched and cracked and black- 
ened by the frequent ravages of lightning. The 
early explorers found on its banks an old stone mound, 
supposed to have been erected for the sacrifice of hu- 
man victims to propitiate the wrath of the Indian deity 
Chekagua, the Thunder God. 

On the oldest map of this region' now extant, one 
published in 1684, the little river itself bears the 
name Chekagua, and it may be, that our fair Western 
metropolis of to-day was also a namesake of that same 
weird divinity. 

Others, claiming a more propitious christening, as- 
sert that Chicago was a derivative from Chacaqua, the 

Indian term for the Divine River. 
IS 



364 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Or perhaps the city was named from the successive 
titles of the proud, old Tamawas Chiefs. 

*' Not a monarch in all that proud Old World beyond 
the deep '^ bore more haughtily his inherited title of 
Herod or Caesar than did one of these Tamawas 
rulers exult in the ancient title of Chacaqua. If this 
theory of the origin of Chicago's cognomen be accepted, 
then indeed can the " Windy City " claim a royal title 
from the first. 

In 1673, certain Catholic missionaries became inter- 
ested in exploring the Western Wilds. They were es- 
pecially enthusiastic in regard to the waterways of 
darkest America. The Mississippi they had heard of. 
Was it possible that it ever could be made to join 
hands with the Great Lakes, of which they had some 
knowledge ? 

So questioning, Fathers Marquette and Joliet took 
two canoes and five men from the upper lake regions, 
and started to explore the charming Valley of the 
Mississippi. 

On their return they reached the mouth of the 
Illinois, where they were informed of a new way of 
reaching Lake Michigan. 

"Taking the Des Plaines branch, they were able to 
reach the w^ater shed, but eight feet higher than ca- 
noeable waters, crossing which they launched into the 
stream which conducted them into the lake." 

In so doing they made perhaps the greatest dis- 
covery of their time — namely, a discovery of that su- 
premely important portage which insures Chicago's 
supremacy so long as American civilization exists. 

In October, 1674, Marquette returned to this spot 
and erected the first white man's dwelling which 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 365 

was ordained to be the beginning of the great metrop- 
olis of the West. His little hut was both a home and 
a sanctuary. Here he wintered, shooting turkey, deer 
and buftalo from his door. Here in the spring, from 
toil and exposure, he died, mourned by the savages 
whom he had taught. 

Thus was Chicago begun in embryo. 

There in that lagoon, filled with ooze, with its 
impassable fens, and drifting sands, civilization and 
religion had their representative who laid the founda- 
tion of the great Coming City bravely with teachings 
of "The love of God, and the brotherhood of man." 

We have good maps of 1688 which show us that a 
little later this lake end of the water communication 
with Louisiana was made a military post, called Fort 
Chicagon. 

This place became at one time a favorite settlement 
for French missionaries. However the spot is sup- 
posed to have been abandoned about 1763, after which 
date for about one hundred years white men avoided 
it. 

In 1774 the site of Chicago, with all the surround- 
ing country, became a part of Virginia, being conquered 
by a military expedition from that State. 

In 1778 the region became known as County of 
Illinois, State of Virginia. 

After the close of the Revolutionary war, Virginia 
"divided herself by the Ohio River,'' ceding all the 
territory beyond that boundary to the United States 
for the "common benefit of all the people." 

In 1795 the Indians also ceded to the general 
government any rights which their tribes possessed to 
" one piece of land six miles square^ at the mouth of 



366 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Chekajo River, emptying into the southwest end of 
Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood." This 
extinguisliment of the Indian title in 1795, being in 
the nature of a quit-claim deed for lands, is some- 
times called the earliest real estate transaction in 
Chicago. 

Thus, she who was to become the " Queen City " of 
the West, made her debut into the Union, where, 

possibly, she may yet, 

" The fairest of her daughters,** 

rule supreme. 

In the midst of all the down-town rush, at a point 
where noise and confusion scarcely cease, one notices 
upon a decidedly modern building a white stone tablet 
which informs the stranger that it was upon this spot 
Fort Dearborn stood — the oldest landmark that re- 
mained to tell the tale of the wilderness. In 1804 two 
block-houses were built here and a subterranean pas- 
sage made from the parade to the river, the whole sur- 
rounded by a picket and furnished with three pieces 
of light artillery, the object being " to supply the 
Indian wants and control the Indian policy." The 
tribes of Pottawatomies overran the country round 
about and with the little group of French and Cana- 
dian settlers made the life of the isolated post. In 
1809 Tecumseh marked it out as one of his objects of 
vengeance, but fortunately other schemes occupied his 
attention, and it remained in comparative security un- 
til the war of 1812. Then, when all the country was 
disturbed and the Indians were making mischief 
everywhere, the commander of Fort Dearborn w^as be- 
trayed by the Pottawatomies and every vestige of a 
eettlement destroyed. 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO, 367 

It was not until 1818, after Fort Dearborn was 
again demolished, that the pale face was courageous 
enough to establish his home at this point. Nor was 
courage alone required, for the unfavorable position — 
on a morass where vehicles invariably floundered in 
its black loam, and where the air was necessarily un- 
healthy — was well known ; but these first men whose 
rude homes constituted the embryo city must have 
possessed to a great degree that indomitable spirit 
which has become the very foundation of Chicago. 

Nine years from this time a most unfavorable re- 
port of the place was sent to the Government and from 
this report the picture is called up of a wretched, un- 
clean and disreputable community. But this state of 
affairs was not to last long. An event of importance 
took place here in 1833, when the United States com- 
missioners and chiefs of the Pottawatomie, Chippewa 
and Ottawa tribes met, that the former might per- 
suade the latter to give up more of their valuable land 
in Illinois and Michigan and ultimately to relinquish 
it altogether. The exact amount stipulated for was 
twenty millions of acres. Then population increased, 
for one of the points agreed upon, along with the land, 
was that the Indians should move west of the Missis- 
sippi. As a result, Chicago became the centre of much 
speculating. Eastern capitalists were interested, in- 
vested and lost heavily, but after the depression which 
inevitably followed, the people went to work in 
earnest and brought the town out of her trouble. 

Tlie one point of advantage that Chicago pos- 
sessed — her possibilities as a commercial post — was 
put to the test, and so rapidly did she advance, that in 
1842, after several remarkable advances, she sent out 



368 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

600,000 bushels of wheat. She was already becoming 
a big cattle market, ranchmen further west driving 
their stock here and helping to increase the impor- 
tance of the place as a centre of trade. At this time a 
canal was in process of construction, to connect the 
Illinois and Chicago rivers, thus making Chicago the 
centre for commerce between the Southwest and East, 
and giving her the opportunity to extend her business 
from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean. 

This was a splendid opening, and, with the co-opera- 
tion of the raih'oads which soon afterwards were ex- 
tended to this point, the future prosperity of the place 
was secured. It then only remained for Chicago to 
improve her appearance and sanitary condition. This 
she did by having the streets drained, filled up and 
graded. Local pride was manifesting itself in various 
improvements and in private and public buildings, so 
that by 1871 there was plenty of fuel for the great fire 
which laid so much of the city waste. 

The well-known origin of the conflagration was in 
a barn where "Mrs. Scully's cow" innocently turned 
over a lighted lantern on some dry hay. Soon the 
barn was in flames and the fire quickly spread to the 
lumber yards along the river and from thence, the dry 
timber and wind favoring, leaped along and licked up 
the homes on the North Side and the business 
houses on the South Side. 

The first stroke of the alarm sounded about nine 
o'clock in the evening: of October 8, 1871. "Bv eleven 
o'clock 100,000 peo})le were hurrying through the 
streets of the doomed city," spreading terror as they 
went. "All over the city it was as light as day, and, 
in the remotest suburb fine print was read by the 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 369 

^lare of the conflagration three or four miles away. 
By midnight nearly every vehicle in the city had 
been pressed into service, and the frightened animals 
attached to them, in many cases beyond control, went 
flying through the streets in all directions, making a 
racket and a rumble which, coupled with the hoarse 
shouts of men, the moaning of the gale, the roar of the 
conflao-ration and the crash of fallino; building^s made a 
conglomeration of sight and sound so appalling that 
none who saw it, or were of it, are ever likely to for- 
get. Few in the city took any notice of the break of 
day or the rising of the sun. These occurrences 
seemed to make little diiference in the quantity of 
light. It was only now and then that Old Sol was 
visible through the almost impenetrable smoke clouds. 
Nothing could be seen but smoke, smoke, smoke, here 
and there interspersed by dark rolling masses of 
flames. It was chaos come again. The earth was 
seemingly resolved into its original elements.'' 

At the end of three days, 300,000 people were desti- 
tute, 100,000 were absolutely homeless, 200,000 were 
without water. The food supply was doubtful for all. 
Rubbers and incendiaries were at work. The gas was 
gone — blown sky high. Churches, newspapers, po- 
lice, telegraph offices and public institutions were 
gone, while nineteen-twentieths of- all the mercantile 
stock in the city was consumed. 

The tract destroyed was about a mile in breadth, 
and the losses were roughly estimated at $200,000,000. 
Scill, so alive was public sentiment and hope, that at 
the time of my horseback journey, five years later, 
scarcely a trace remained to tell the tale of this disas- 
ter, aud that of 1874, except the records of history. 



370 . OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

The story of just how Chicago proved herself a ver- 
itable Phoenix is a very interesting one. 

On the evening of October ninth, only twenty-four 
hours after the commencement of the conflagration, a 
car-load of provisions arrived from Milwaukee. By 
the next morning fifty car-loads had come to the af- 
flicted city. Donations of food and clothing kept 
pouring in until Chicago was fairly sated. By Octobei 
eleventh every person had food enough and each one's 
pressing physical necessities were attended to. On the 
eleventh, also, the Board of Trade met and resolved to 
require the honoring of all contracts. On the twelfth 
the bankers met and resolved to pay all depositors in 
full. The State sent an instalment of $3,000,000 
with which it then voted to re-imburse the city for its 
expenditures for the canal enlargement, thus placing the 
city in the possession of much-needed funds. From 
all over the civilized world came contributions in 
money for the resurrected city. The amount so re- 
ceived within three months after the conflagration be- 
ing about $4,200,000. 

The Relief Society alone built four thousand houses 
within five weeks of those dreadful days when all 
seemed lost. 

In two years after the fire, sixty-nine million, four 
hundred and sixty -two thousand dollars were expended 
in erecting buildings of brick, iron, and stone, while 
miles of humble frame houses were built, each costing 
from $500 to $10,000. 

Now, in place of the original city of wood, there 
stands by the Great Lake, a city of stone and iron, able 
to vie with any other city in growth, enterprise and 
wealth, bearing the distinction of being the greatest 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 371 

grain and lumber market in the world, and boasting a 
population, at the time of my journey, of about five 
hundred thousand. From the Atlantic to the Paci- 
fic I rode into no city that made such an impresr 
sion of grandeur, business power and wealth as this 
youthful "Queen of the Lakes.'^ 

Chicago's baptism of fire seemed but to prove an in- 
spiration, goading the city to more activity, to greater 
success. 

The aggregate amount of business done in the city 
the year after the fire — entirely excepting the building 
trades — greatly exceeds that done the previous year, as 
the following figures will show. During this one year 
the wholesale merchandise trade increased fifteen per 
cent. Receipts of grain increased 8,425,885 bushels ; 
receipts of live-stock by 872,866 head. Deposits in 
the city banks increased $1,910,000. 

So much for the splendid pluck of Chicago. 

The Pacific coast has Chicago for her smelting fur- 
nace, four large silver mills being located here. 

From the Pacific coast also, she has a considerable 
trade in the productions of the Orient. , In the first 
half of 1873, Chicago received assignments of three- 
million pounds of tea, two million pounds of coffee, 
eight hundred thousand pounds of foreign wool, and 
three hundred and nine thousand, seven hundred and 
twenty four pounds of foreign silk. Cotton came to 
her from the Pacific Isles, and nuts from South 
America. 

Some idea of the commercial importance of Chica- 
go's trade may be reached by the amount of some of 
her exports by rail during 1872: namely, two hundred 
and thirty-four million pounds of meat; eighty 



372 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

million, two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of 
lard ; one million, nine hundred and sixty-five thou- 
sand whole swine; four hundred and eighty-four 
thousand head of cattle, and one hundred and sixty- 
two thousand head of sheep. 

I found Chicago justly proud of her public schools. 
It was roughly estimated that in the city about fifty 
thousand children between six and twelve years of age 
received daily instruction. 

The graded system employed in these schools is so 
advanced, and has proved so successful, that it has be- 
come a general model for all the schools of the great 
Northwest. 

More than that, it has been adopted, in part, by the 
Minister of Education in France, and at the late 
Vienna Exposition a reward for progress, in the 
shape of a beautiful medal, was awarded to the school 
system of Chicago. Chicago claims for herself abso- 
hite superiority in two particulars over all the public 
schools in the United States, the ^' Hub " institutions 
of Boston not excepted. First: Perfect discipline is 
said to be attained without the use of corporal punish- 
ment. Second: The musical culture of the school 
children is said to fe.r excel anything attained before 
on this Continent. 

I found that the city contained a number of colleges, 
theological seminaries and universities. The Univer- 
sity of Chicago occupies one of the most elegant and 
commodious buildings in the West. 

The Dearborn Observatory, which is a part of this 
University, contains the famous Clark Telescope, one 
of the most magnificent instruments of its kind in 
existence. 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO. 373 

The Chicago Theological Seminary is noted for the 
beauty of its chapel and lecture rooms, and the extent 
and quality of its library. The Academy of Science 
was incorporated in 1865. It has a vast building, 
well stocked with natural curiosities. 

The Historical Society organized in 1856 possesses 
a rare collection of public and private documents, as 
well as a library of nearly one hundred thousand 
volumes. 

There are two hundred and thirty-eight houses of 
public worship in Chicago; all of the great religious 
denominations, and perhaps some new ones, being well 
represented. Differing as they do, they are, as some one 
says : "Agreed on one point, namely, an uncommon 
sense of mutual toleration and mutual love for each 
other, and a feeling of 

Peace and sweet good will to all mankiud." 

There is a good deal of fine pulpit oratory to be 
heard every Sabbath in Chicago ; and the people of the 
surrounding country know it. It is no uncommon 
thing for the Saturday night incoming trains to be 
crowded with young men, some of them from homes 
one hundred miles away, who are yet regular attend- 
ants at the religious services of the city. Having en- 
joyed these to the full, the Sunday evening sleeping 
cars are again crow^ded with the same youthful army, 
very sleepy, but very happy, making the return trij). 

Chicago is justly proud of her streets. About eight}> 
feet wide, and meeting at right angles, they present a 
beautiful object lesson to some of her elder Eastern 
sisters. 

The city is said to contain thirteen million dollars' 



374 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

worth of hotel property. Perhaps no structure for 
which any part of this immense sum has been ex- 
pended is more beautiful and remarkable than the 
Palmer House. This building is saftl to contain more 
bricks than any two hotels on the Continent, and more 
iron than most of them put together. The flooring 
contains ninety thousand square feet of marble tiling 
laid in massive beds of cement. The beams are laid 
in beds of cement also. 

The immense carriage court is entered by three i^orte 
cocheres. There are said to be one hundred miles of 
electric bell wires in the building. The magnificent 
office is twenty-four feet in height. It is wainscoted 
with Italian marble, studded with panels of remark- 
ably rich rose brocatelle marble, and with many 
natural mosaics of rare and curious beauty. The 
wainscoting of the counter is made of the same ex- 
quisite material. The grand staircase is made of the 
same. 

Mr. C. M. Palmer travelled extensively for some 
time, before building, throughout Europe, making an 
especial study of continental hotels, with a determina- 
tion to surpass the excellences of them all in his be- 
loved Chicago. 

Mr. Palmer's spirit seems to be characteristic of all 
true Chicagoans. To have their city excel, to have it 
something more extensive, more impressive, more fa- 
mous, grander, nobler than any other place which the 
sun shines on, this is their hearts' desire. Some one 
said to a great man : 

" What paramount word of advice would you givQ 
to young men ? '' 

The answer came, 



THREE DAYS AT CHICAGO 375 

" Aspire.'' 

" What would your next advice be? " 
" Aspire." 
" But what then ? '' 
" Aspire.'' 

Chicago believes in that advice. She bas always 
^ielieved in it. Na"\ more, she has lived it. 



CHAPTER XX, 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT, 



®n£ i5^^^^^^^ ^^^^ StDentB-slirtl] Slag. 




Jewell House, 

Michigan City, Indiana^ 

September 14, 1876. 





N the morning I settled with Darby, and 
in the afternoon he returned to Decatur. 
At nightfall here, the excitement 
which had been rising during the day 
reached its climax when the Michigan 
City Democrats repaired to the New Al- 
bany depot to hold a mass meeting. 

Notwithstanding my own sentiments, 
I went too, and was highly entertained 
by the speakers, among whom were Hon. Daniel W. 
Voorhees of Terre Haute, Hon. James Williams 
—better known in the Hoosier State as "Blue Jeans" 
Williams — and Hon. Morgan Weir, of La Porte. 

When Voorhees arrived his enthusiastic partisans 
had him driven in state from the station in a carriage 
drawn by four white horses. He was no doubt the 
lion of the occasion and his energetic language drew 
forth frequent applause. The strong features, straight 
(376) 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 377 

brows and broad forehead of this politician would pro- 
claim him a man of force anywhere. 

A large crowd had gathered at the appointed place 
and business began at eight o'clock. As time passed 
the excitement grew more intense, and towards the 
close of the meeting an amusing incident was noted, 
when the honorable senator took issue with his oppo- 
nents. I then became aware that there were others 
present of a diflPerent faith, besides myself, for no 
sooner were Voorhees' anti-Republican sentiments 
voiced than a vehement champion of the Republican 
party jumped to his feet denouncing as false the state- 
ments made, winding up his remarks by thumping his 
cane on the benches and saying that all that had been 
spoken was a " pack of lies ! '^ Off in another part of 
the building an excited Irishman also jumped up cry- 
ing out : " Mr. Voorhees is a perfect gintleman, sor ! '' 
A compliment which the Hoosiers quickly took up 
and the depot rang with ; " Mr. Voorliees is a perfect 
gintleman, sor!'' 

My co-partisan was silenced, if not convinced. The 
other speakers scored several points for their cause 
and the meeting closed with three cheers and a tiger 
for the Democratic candidates. 



Jewell House, 
Michigan City, Indiana, 
September Fifteenth. 

Being detained on account of the condition of my 
horse, and as the weather now was most delightful, I 
made the best of the situation by looking about the 



378 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

place, since I had seen comparatively little of it up to 
this time. Possibly no city or town along my route 
labors under greater disadvantages from a geographical 
or commercial point of view than this "city of sand/' 
situated as it is at the extreme southern end of Lake 
Michigan, with the water splashing against it on one 
side and the wind and sand storms beating against it 
on the other. 

However, it has overcome these obstacles to a cer- 
tain degree and is hardly lacking in enterprise, as the 
mass meeting of the preceding day testified. Here, 
perhaps, more than at any other of the towns and 
cities lying around Lake Michigan, one is impressed 
with the resistless force of this splendid inland sea, 
and so unique an impression did the place make upon 
me that my detention did not become irksome, al- 
though all the fascinations of the Great West lay be- 
yond. 

®n£ i^uul^reb anl) Stunito- xigljtl) ?!)ap. 

Hobart House, 
HoBART, Indiana, 

September Sixteenth. 

Did not get on the road until nearly eleven o'clock. 
The rest and treatment which Paul had received at 
Michigan City put him in excellent spirits for a rapid 
journey and he stepped off nimbly when I gave him 
the reins in front of the Jewell House. I was greatly 
encouraged by the condition of my horse and now that 
the word was once more "onward," all the fascination 
of the ride came back. 

A-lthough the scenes I passed through were very 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 379 

like others, there being uotliing of marked interest to 
the traveller in this section of Indiana, I still found 
much pleasure in looking over the farms as I passed 
them and noticing the variety of methods and effects. 

A good stimulating breeze came inland from the 
lake and by noon it had added zest to my appetite. I 
stopped for dinner at the village of Chesterton and 
then pushed on to this place which was reached in the 
evening by seven o'clock — twenty-eight miles having 
been covered during the day. 

The only accommodation to be found was nothing 
more nor less than a beer-saloon with sleeping rooms 
attached, a characteristic, I regret to say, which I ob- 
served in many of the small towns through this sec- 
tion of the country. As immediate environment has 
an influence in making impressions, my opinion of 
this halting-place on the borders of " Hoosierdom '' 
was not the most exalted. 



©lie fjim^reb aub Siueiitn-ntntl) X^a-^. 

Rohmer House, 
Righto N, Illinois, 

Septepiber Seventeenth. 

Owing to the late hour of my arrival at Hobart the 
previous evening I was unable to observe my usual 
practice of looking through the place and making a 
note of its striking points in my journal, and for this 
reason I was not in the saddle until ten o'clock A. M., 
although the time was spent more in seeing than in 
chronicling what was seen. 

Paul was still in the happiest of spirits and I rode 
»way from Hobart at a gallop, stirring the dust of this 

19 



380 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

sleepy little village as it had possibly not been stirred 
for many moons. The cheerful fact was made clear to 
me before leaving that I was as far from Joliet at Ho- 
bart as I had supposed myself to be at Michigan City. 

In the course of the day, in which twenty-eight 
miles were again covered, Centralia, Sherryville and 
Dyer wqvq passed, these towns being on Grand 
Prairie, across which I rode from morning till night. 
At four o'clock I reached the boundary between In- 
diana and Illinois, realizing that at this point six 
States had added their rich scenes and splendid enter- 
prises to my memory. 

As I was moving along on the prairie just before 
dark my ears caught the sound of a peculiar barking 
and soon a pack of what I supposed to be dogs were 
following me. I noticed that PauVs manner changed 
and he appeared disturbed, but attributed this to the 
barking and the persistent keeping at his heels of the 
little animals. To a man whom I met later, I ex- 
plained that I had been followed for some hours by a 
pack of dogs, when he promptly informed me that 
they were doubtless prairie wolves. Of course to an 
Easterner this news gave an added interest to Grand 
Prairie. 

®ue ijtinkeb anir Sljirtietl)^ IDap. 

Robertson House, 
Joliet, Illinois, 
September Eighteenth. 

Had Paul brought out at eight o'clock. As soon 
as he was saddled at Richton the man who attended to 
him threw the rein over the neck of the horse, and a 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT, 383 

moment later he made his appearance unaccom- 
panied in front of the Rohraer House. This being an 
undoubted sign of his anxiety to be off, I mounted at 
once and we were soon lessening the distance to Joliet, 
our evening destination, twenty-one miles away. 

Was all day again on Grand Prairie, which may 
give some idea of this the greatest and truly the grand- 
est prairie yet passed on my route. Its proximity to 
Chicacro is doubtless one of the chief causes of the 
high winds for which the "Windy City" is noted; 
and if Chicago could, she would gladly change her in- 
convenient environment. 

At Lenox I halted for dinner, reaching Joliet at 
four p. M. In riding through Jefferson street, I was 
met by Babcock who seemed much surprised at my 
early arrival. Notwithstanding the fact that " Rip 
Van Winkle '^ was being played at the opera house, 
Robert McWade, a young actor of some prominence, 
taking the leading rdhj I found a fair audience await- 
ing me at Werner Hall in the evening, which proved 
that interest was still felt in the Custer Monument 
movement. 



Hopkins House, 
MoRKis, Illinois, 
September Nineteenth. 

On calling for my bill at the Robertson House, Jo- 
liet, in the morning, Mr. Conklin the proprietor, de- 
clined to accept any pay for my accommodations, and 
when I insisted, said he wished the pleasure of making 



384 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

me his guest during my stay. I did not get a very 
early start, as a family by the name of Horner, upon 
hearing of my arrival, called at the hotel and at their 
solicitation I made them a short visit. They knew 
of my journey and interest in the Custer Association, 
and being patriotic made this their reason for wishing 
to meet me. Their friendliness was but another proof 
of the hospitality of the people of Joliet, among whom 
I had come the day before as a comparative stranger, 
but whom I left with the kindliest of feeling. 

Before leaving, Mr. Conklin suggested that I ride 
along the tow-path of the Michigan Canal from Joliet 
to Chanahon, and I followed his advice, having din- 
ner at the latter place. It happened that the inn- 
keeper was well supplied with sweet cider and I helped 
him to dispose of it by drinking the contents of six 
well-filled glasses. Beyond Chanahon, on the Illinois 
E-iver, I borrowed a hook and line of a farmer who 
was fishing and caught twenty -three perch in half an 
hour. 

At four o'clock I reached the summit of a hill on 
the border of a prairie from which I could look off 
for fifteen or twenty miles over a fertile country 
through which two silver streams wound to unite just 
below — the Kankakee here paying tribute to the Illi- 
nois. The atmosphere was perfect — clear and pure; 
the trees were tinged red and yellow with the first 
frosts, and to all this was added the glory of the sun- 
set which I lingered to admire before turning away 
from so charming a scene. 

Such a view leaves a deep impress on the memory, 
and stirs recollections of more youthful days. Emotions 
like these have a purifying effect upon all men. 



> 



c 

I— I 
CO 



c 




CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 337 



Clifton House, 
Ottawa, Illinois, 
September Twentieth. 

I rode out of Morris in the morning just as the pub- 
lic school bells were ringing nine o'clock. My journey 
now lay along the north bank of the Illinois Riv^er, 
and took me through some of the finest cornfields I 
had ever seen. Acres and acres, miles and miles 
stretched in all directions as far as the eye could reach 
whenever the elevation of the road was high enough 
above this waving sea of grain to permit of my look- 
ing about. Otherwise I passed through it completely 
shut in, except as I could look ahead and behind 
and see the avenue of giant stalks. My horse, six- 
, teen hands high, did not elevate me sufficiently to 
enable me, sitting in the saddle, to look over the corn 
tops, and they still towered above my head like so 
manv small trees. 

Those who are privileged to see this agricultural 
wonder must, however, associate it with that other 
source of pride among Illinois farmers — the " hogs " — 
for most of this splendid harvest is fed to these ani- 
mals and they, well-fattened thereb}-, are driven to 
market. Thus the enterprising farmer is saved the 
expense of hauling his corn to Chicago or other points, 
as the pork, into which it has been transformed, is able 
to carry itself. 

All along my route across the '^Sucker State," I 
encountered, day after day, white hogs and black hogs, 
hogs of every grade and shade, my horse often step- 



388 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

ping aside in equine dignity to allow a drowsy or 
pugnacious porker to pass. 

As I had determined to reach Ottawa by nightfall, 
I was compelled to ride nearly all day in a drizzling 
rain which at noon was followed by a heavy thunder 
shower. This I took advantage of by stopping at 
Seneca for dinner, and then pushed forward. Was 
forced to halt again at three o'clock on account of rain, 
and being near a farm house was invited to "come in'/ 
while the good people took care of my horse. 

Overtook a troop of boys on horseback near Ottawa 
and had their lively company into town. There I 
met an old acquaintance — Mr. Kean — who was among 
the first to greet me. My time was passed pleasantly 
here, and I would do injustice to the proprietor of the 
Clifton were I to forget the many courtesies politely 
extended to me while his guest. 



(Due jjii^^i'^^i cini Sljirtg-tljirii JDag. 

Harrison House, 

La Salle, Illinois, 

September Twenty-first. 

Left the Clifton House, Ottawa, at tw^o p. m. The 
weather was still in an unsettled condition which 
obliged me to make my way as best I could between 
showers in order to keep my lecture appointment at La 
Salle. I considered it fortunate that my route was 
now along the west bank of the Illinois, a stream in 
which I had long been interested owing to the impor- 
tant part it played as a convenient and favorite water 
course for the early explorers of the Valley of the Mis- 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 389 

sissippi. Between its verdant banks, Joliet, Mar- 
quette, La Salle and others glided on their way to the 
great stream. How the lover of history and adven- 
ture thrills at the accounts of La Salle's Fort Creve- 
Coeur, and his colony scattered over this same region 
of country ! 

Probably none of these historic men paid a more 
flattering tribute to " La Riviere des Illinois " than 
Hennepin, the priest, who, when passing down it to 
the Mississippi was not too much oppressed with anx- 
iety to admire its charms. What a different appear- 
ance its shores presented in 1680 to that of 1876! In 
place of the forest, waving corn fields under high cul- 
tivation attracted my attention on every hand, and in 
contrast to the wilderness inhabited by the savages 
whom Hennepin encountered, I saw an emigrant train 
peaceably moving along on its way from the East to 
the promising country west of the Mississippi. 



Harrison House, 

La Salle, Illinois, 

September Twenty-second. 

The equinoctial storms were now at their height and 
as my lecture at Davenport was not to be delivered for 
some days, I decided to spend a day or two in this 
pleasant little city, until "Old Sol'' had '^crossed the 
line." 

I found that this is the centre of important coal and 
lead mines, which I should have visited and examined, 
superficially at least, had not the inclement weather 



390 OCEAN TO OCEAN ^ ON HORSEBACK. 

prevented. Through the courtesy of Colonel Stephens, 
editor of the La Salle County Press and a colonel 
in the volunteer service during the late war, I was in- 
troduced to many of the citizens who told rae much of 
the history and enterprises of their town. 



®\\t ^ww^xt^ anil uEljirtu-ftftl) JDag. 

Harrison House, 
La Salle, Illinois, 
September Twenty-third. 

Rode down to Peru in the morning accompanied by 
Colonel Stephens, who wished to show me the pride 
of the county — the big plow works, which constitute 
the leading industry of the place. Was introduced to 
members of the firm and shown through the various 
departments of the establishment, which were certainly 
imposing in the way of machinery and in the evidence 
of mechanical skill. We returned to La Salle at four 
o'clock and my hospitable comrade proposed that we 
take a stroll through the city, to which I quickly 
consented. 

Colonel Stephens introduced me to my audience in 
the evening, and made pleasant reference to the l)rave 
and chivalrous Custer. My entertainment here was most 
gratifying and I was warmly assured of the good will 
of the people through the local press. 

I have proved that everywhere in this country the 
spirit of hospitality reigns. Whether in large cities 
or small towns, the utmost cordiality prevails, and the 
stranger can always rely upon a hearty welcome. 






■EICAGC TO DAVENPORT, ;^y( 



®ne <5w^^^r^^ tt^^^ (ill)trt}3-0utl) Dag. 

Farm House, 
Near Hollowayville, Illinois.: 
September Twenty-fourth. 

Upon leaving La Salle at three o'clock in the after- 
noon, I was told that I would have no difficulty in se- 
curing accommodations for myself and horse at Hoi- 
lowayville, so, with the assurance of finding every- 
tiiing lovely here, I jogged along over the intervening 
twelve miles at mv leisure. 

My feelings can better be imagined than described 
when, on my arrival at the little hamlet, I was looked 
upon with suspicion. The simple-minded inhabitants 
hinted that I might possibly be a " highwayman'^ or a 
" horse thief,'' or, for aught they knew, one of the 
James or Younger brothers. These desperadoes were 
then exciting the people on both sides of the Missis- 
sippi and my equipment, set off with high top boots 
and gauntlets, with the peculiar trappings of ray 
horse, only made matters worse. 

Finding it impossible to secure lodging in the vil- 
lage, I rode on into the country, stopping at a farm 
house which looked inviting. I entered the front yard 
slowly and with dignity to dispel the horse thief sus- 
picion. The farmer's daughter, a young girl of seven- 
teen or eighteen years, and a few farm hands, stood 
about, of whom I asked if the master of the place was 
at home. The girl took me within, and Monsieur 
and Madame Croisant received me. They were both 
in bed, ill, but looking quite comfortable with their 
heads pointing in different directions. They carried 



392 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

on a lively conversation in French, the daughter inter- 
preting, and in conclusion, after assuring them that I 
was a harmless person, very tired and hungry, they 
decided, if the clergyman of the place thought it safe, 
that I might stay with them. The dominie was called, 
looked me over a few minutes, cross-questioned me, 
and approved. 

My room that night was unique in more ways than 
one and would have been punishment enough for 
Jesse James himself. 

When I retired I detected a strong odor in the room 
and found it due to a collection of sabots, or wooden 
shoes, seemingly centuries old, which were arranged in 
a row under my bed. What to do with them was a 
question, as, under the circumstances, I did not think it 
best to tamper with the feelings of my host and host- 
ess. As my room was on the ground floor, I decided 
to place the sabots carefully outside under the window 
and take them in in the morning before the family was 
up. Unfortunately it rained and I overslept, so the 
shoes were discovered full of water before I appeared. 
However, nothing was said and I ate my breakfast 
in peace, the good people probably thanking their 
stars that they and their house had not been robbed. 

Before leaving in the morning the La Salle County 
Press was handed me by Miss Croisant, in which I 
read the following flattering notice of my lecture in 
that city and which in some measure compensated for 
my unpleasant reception at Hollowayville : 

** We have not often met with a more agreeable and pleasant gentle- 
man than Captain Willard Glazier, who entertained a very respect- 
*l)le number of our citizens at Opera Hall on Saturday evening by 
delivering a lecture on ' Echoes from the Revolution.' The captain 



CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 393 

has a fine voice and his manner of delivery is decidedly interesting, 
while his language is eloquent and fascinating. His description of 
the battles of the Revolution, and the heroes who took part in them, 
from the engagement on the little green at Lexington down to the 
surrender of Cornvvallis at Yorktown, was grand indeed, and was re- 
ceived with frequent and enthusiastic applause. In conclusion he 
referred in an eloquent and touching manner to the 'Boys in Blue,> 
who took part in the late war for the Union, and all retired from the 
hall feeling that the evening had been spent in an agreeable and 
profitable manner. 

" Captain Glazier served under Generals Kilpatrick and Custer 
Juring the late war, since which time he has devoted much labor to 
writing and is now making the attempt to cross the continent from 
Boston to San Francisco on horseback, for the purpose of collecting 
material for another work. He left Boston the early part of May, 
and will endeavor to reach the Sacramento Valley before the fall of 
the deep snow. His horse, Paxil Revere, is a magnificent animal, 
black as a raven, with the exception of four white feet. He was 
bred in Kentucky of Black Hawk stock, has turned a mile in 2.33, 
but owinsT to his inclination to run awav on certain occasions, was 
not considered a safe horse for the track. The captain, however, has 
broken him to the saddle, and also convinced him that running away 
is foolish business; consequently, he and the captain have become 
fast friends, and with Paul for his only companion, the gallant cav- 
alryman proposes to cross the continent. Success attend him I " 



Ellsworth House, 

Wyanet, Illinois, 

September Twenty-fifth. 

The equinoctial storms which had been raging since 
I left Ottawa, were, for a few days at least, at an end, 
and a bright autumn sun greeted me ev^ery morning 
as I rode onward. Rich cornfields stretched away on 
either side of the road, their, monotony broken here 
and there by fine apple and peach orchards just com- 
ing into their glory. Another characteristic of Illi- 
nois — fine stock farms — were also noticeable, and thus 



394 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

for another stage of fourteen miles, surrounded by 
evidences of fertility and thrift, I passed on, reaching 
Wyanet early in the evening. 



One ffjunireb auir Qll)trt2-rigl)tl) JDaw. 

Private House, 

Annawan, Illinois. 

September Twenty-sixth. 

Before leaving Wyanet I had PauVs bridle — a 
Mexican make — repaired, and when it was again used 
he chafed at the restraint of the curb. Not for long 
though, for we were soon on the prairie, he evidently 
enjoying it as much as his master. The roads were 
rougher than usual and there was a change here in the 
soil, its black clayey loam being very rich and pro- 
ductive, making Henry County noted for its fine 
farms. Eighteen miles of grass-covered prairie, diver- 
sified by cultivated fields, brought me to Annawan, 
where I was the guest of O. T. Buttermore, and while 
at this place I received the following gratifying com- 
munication from Colonel Stephens of La Salle — fur- 
ther proof of the good will to " the stranger within 
their gates,'' of the citizens of La Salle : 

La Salle, Illinois, 

September 25, 1876. 
To Captain Willakd Glazier : 

I take pleasure in expressing to you on behalf of many of our 
citizens, the gratification afforded our people who listened to your 
instructive and entertaining lecture given at Opera Hall on Saturday 
evening last. While in conversation with several of our prominent 
citizens, among them, W. A, Work, superintendent of our public 
Bchools; A. J. O'Connor, clerk of the city court ; W. T. Mason, Esq., 
and others, all of whom were present and heard your lecture, I was 
requested to write you and tender their hearty thanks for the enter- 



r 




CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 397 

tainmeut and their good wishes for your success in your ride across 
the continent. Should you ever again visit our city you can rest as- 
sured you will be most cordially received. 

Very truly yours, 

R. C. Stephens, 
Late Colonel U. S. Volunteers, 



T 

®ne ffjuulireLf aub ulljirtg-nintl) Sag. 

Farm House, 

Between Genesseo and Moline, Illinois, 

September Twenty-seventh. 

Started away from Aniiawan at nine o'clock but 
after riding about a mile and a half I discovered that 
I had left my journal and was obliged to return for it. 
All day I was on a seemingly endless prairie, dotted 
here and there with cornfields and apple orchards. 
Illinois takes the lead in stock-raising, and the horses 
and cattle seen in this day's ride were fully up to the 
best standard. 

Had dinner at the house of a coal miner, whom I 
found very intelligent, and was well entertained by 
a talk on mining industries in Illinois from a practi- 
cal point of view. This is a bituminous coal region 
and there are mines in operation all over the State. 

My host, Pullman by name, had recently returned 
from tjie Pacific coast and to my e^ger inquiries was 
able to tell me much about the country between 
Omaha and Sacramento. 

At night, after having made twenty-one miles, I 
reached this place and was domiciled with the family 
of Mrs. Charlotte Bills, who came formerly from Jef- 
ferson County, New York. As my native county of 
Saint Lawrence adjoins Jefferson, the Bills and I had 



398 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

a lively talk on "Old York State/' and I became 
much interested in the work of this enterprising wo- 
man and her family. 

Mrs. Bills has succeeded in a direction which has 
not generally been attempted by women ; this is the 
management of a farm. She does a good business and 
supports herself and children by raising corn for 
which, in this stock-raising locality, she finds a ready 
market. The corn is generally bought for hog feed 
and as these animals quickly fatten upon it, it is prof- 
itable. The practical rather than the romantic has 
place with these Western people who are striving for 
a livelihood. Each day gave me new ideas of peo- 
ple and their occupations — but this woman-farmer 
was something unusual and certainly very praise- 
worthy. 

®iu ^uuiJreb ani Jortietl) 3I)at). 

Milan House, 
Milan, Illinois, 

September Twenty-eighth. 

Mounted my horse at eight o'clock and by easy 
riding reached a farm house in Rock River Bottom, 
where I passed the noon hour. After dinner I made 
good time as the weather had changed and become 
cold, reminding me of the necessity of hurrying on if 
I would avoid the deep snows which the traveller is 
sure to encounter in the elevated regions farther west 
and it was every day more evident that I could not 
well afford to allow my lecture appointments to con- 
flict with the dispatch of my journey. 

On starting from Genesseo in the morning it was 



t— ( 

O 

I— I 



Q 




CHICAGO TO DAVENPORT. 401 

my intention to make Moline the evening objective, 
but I was compelled to halt at Milan — twenty miles 
from the morning starting-point — where the bridge 
was torn up that crossed Rock River at this point. 
Being delayed, I sent a note forward to Davenport in- 
forming Babcock that I would cross the Mississippi 
the following afternoon at three o'clock ; in the mean- 
time waiting, with what patience I could muster, for 
the bridge work to proceed. 




CHAPTER XXL 



FOUR DAYS AT DAYENPOR't, 



fc' 



^ 





LEFT the Milan House at two p. M,p 
Paul being eager for the start. Before 
proceeding far I dismounted and ran 
ahead leaving him to follow me if he 
would. I ran over two or three small 
hills and the faithful animal broke into a 
gallop and was soon by my side mutely 
inviting me to remount. About four 
o'clock we crossed the Mississippi on the 
fine Government Bridge which unites Rock Island and 
Davenport, and proceeded to the Burtis House — since 
named the Kimball. Colonel P. A. J. Russell was one 
of the first to greet me. Moore's Hall having been 
engaged for my lecture, I spoke at the usual hour 
to a large audience, to whom General Sanders intro- 
duced me. The local band in full uniform volun- 
teered their services for the occasion. The lecture was 
a financial success. 

The next three days were occupied in making my 
acquaintance with the city. It is only fifty years ago 
that the first cabin was erected here by white men. By 
the side of the great river a bluflp rises gradually to an 

elevation of about one hundred and fifty feet, and on 
(402) 



FOUR DAYS AT DAVENPORT. 403 

its side and at its base the city of Davenport is built. 
Over a bluff we come upon a beautiful rolling prairie, 
and back as far as Duck Creek the land is covered 
with fruit, vegetable and flower gardens, and presents 
a picture of uncommon beauty. Views of the Missis- 
sippi are obtained from the summit of the bluff; also 
of Rock Island Arsenal and Rock Island City on the 
opposite shore of the river. 

In 1832, General Winfield Scott made a treaty 
with the Indians of the Sac tribe for the purchase by 
the United States of the land occupied by them bor- 
dering on the west side of the river. The city of 
Davenport was named after Colonel George Daven- 
port, the first white settler. Antoine Le Claire was 
the first to own land in Davenport. His mother 
was the daughter of a Pottawatomie chief and his 
father a French Canadian. At this time the North- 
west territory was peopled entirely by Indians, with 
here and there one of a different race fearless enough 
to brave the dangers of a frontier life. Le Claire pur- 
chased the claim upon which the city of Davenport 
was laid out for one hundred and fifty dollars. In 
1835, he sold it to a company who commenced the 
building of the city. The first ferry between Daven- 
port and Rock Island dates from 1 835. It was a flat- 
boat propelled by oars. At present a large steamboat 
is constantly employed in transferring passengers and 
freight between these cities. The river is about a 
mile in width at this point. 

Davenport excels all the other cities of the State in 

the beauty and advantages of its location. The view 

from the hill-tops is scarcely to be equalled for pic- 

turesqueness by anything I saw during my journey. 
20 



404 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON H0R8EBACIC, 

The city has made great and rapid progress in its 
industries, wealth and population. The education of 
the young is well provided for. It has a high school 
built at a cost of $65,000. Griswold College — Episco- 
palian — occupies a very picturesque site, over-looking 
the river. The Catholic College is in a retired and 
quiet spot, surrounded by beautifully shaded grounds, 
the buildings being elegant and commodious. The 
churches are numerous, every denomination being 
represented. Grace Church, the protestant Cathedral, 
is a fine substantial edifice, erected at a cost of 
$80,000. 

The Public Library on Brady street, founded by 
Mrs. Clarissa Cook, a lady of wealth, is a highly prized 
and flourishing institution. The Academy of Sciences 
embraces a most valuable and unique collection of rare 
curiosities, both ancient and modern, among others, 
relics from tlie mounds of Iowa and adjoining States, 
including skulls and skeletons of pre-historic man. 

The population of Davenport is now about 20,000. 
On account of its being built on a declivity the drainage 
is perfect. It is surrounded by a most fertile country 
and possesses every element for the growth of a large 
city. 

Recrossing the magnificent bridge spanning the river 
between Davenport and the Illinois shores, I found 
myself on Rock Island. The Island lies to the north 
of the city, the latter not being located on the Island 
but on the mainland of Illinois. Since 1804 the 
Island proper has been the property of the United 
States Government, although not occupied until 1812, 
on the breaking out of the war with England. The 
surface is very fertile, and coal and limestone are 



o 
o 




FOUR DAYS AT OAVENPORT. 407 

found in large quantities, h is about three miles 
long, covering nine hundred \k\\^ sixty acres. Au 
arsenal and armory are loc^t^id here. A fort was 
erected in 1816, and nampd Fort Armstrong. It 
was garrisoned until May, ) 836, v/hen it was evac- 
uated. An ordnance depot was established by the 
Government in 1840. In 1862, by Act of Con- 
gress, the Island was made a United States Arse- 
nal. General Thomas J. Rodiiian \v'as the first 
appointed to the command and heM the position 
until his death. In 1869, Congress nj4>i'opriated 
$500,000 for a bridge across the Misslst^ippl uniting 
the Island with the city of Davenport. Thi? fine 
structure is a railroad and wagon bridge axA affords 
all necessary facilities for the movement of military 
stores. General Rodman was succeeded in the com- 
mand of the Arsenal, in 1871, by Colonel LK W. 
Flagler of the Ordnance Corps, and the leland has 
become, under his management, the strongest military 
post on the Mississippi. Substantial quarters for the 
officers of the garrison and barracks for the so'disrs, 
have been erected, also a bridge connecting the Island 
with the city of Moline. 

Rock Island is connnected with Rock Island City 
on the Illinois shore and with Davenport on the 
opposite side of the river, and also yvith Moline on 
the east side about three miles above Rock Island. 

In the spring of 1828, there were only nine white 
men and their families on the site now occupied by 
Rock Island Citv ; the Indians of the Sac tribe were 
much aggrieved by the whites taking possession of 
their lands while the latter were away on their hunting 
expeditions. Black Hawk, chief of the tribe, took 



408 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

great offence and protested strongly against it, and as 
the number of white settlers increased the discontent 
of the Indians grew stronger. They were urged by 
the commanding officer of the Island and the Indian 
agent, Colonel Davenport, to move across to the west 
side of the river in compliance with their treaty with 
the United States Government; but Black Hawk 
refused to move and contended that the Island was 
his property. The Fox tribe crossed the river and 
established themselves there. Tiie lands on the Illi- 
nois side were now surveyed and sold to the settlers by 
the Government, but Black Hawk and the Sacs still 
.refused to leave. Depredations were committed by the 
Indians of which the whites complained, and in 1831 
Black Hawk gave notice to the settlers to leave his 
lands. Some neighboring tribes it was now feared, 
would unite with the Sacs in an attack on the settlers, 
who petitioned the military authorities and the Gover- 
no*' of Illinois to protect them, and in this way what 
is known as the Black Hawk War originated. 

In response to the complaints of the settlers, Gov- 
ernor Reynolds, of Illinois, called out sixteen hundred 
mounted volunteers and marched them to the Island 
and General Gaines at Saint Louis ])roceeded immedi- 
ately to the scene of action with the Sixth United States 
Infantry. General Gaines ordered all the settlers to 
move to the Island, and then invited Black Hawk to 
talk over the situation. The military and settlers met 
in the Council House, and Black Hawk, with about 
one hundred warriors in their war paint, approached 
and entered and soon commenced shouting in an 
intimidating manner. It was thought that an attempt 
at a general massacre would be made. An Indian 



FOUR DAYS AT DAVENPORT, 409 

called '^The Prophet" raised his voice very high, 
gesticulating and speaking rapidly in an angry tone 
as if he desired to excite the warriors to an attack. 
At length quiet was obtained and General Gaines 
spoke to Black Hawk, reminding him of the sale of 
the lands in dispute to the United States Government. 
Black Hawk and his followers claimed that the lands 
had never been sold. The treaty was then read and 
explained to the chief, which seemed to enrage him 
greatly. Black Hawk shouted: "The white people 
speak from paper, but the Indian always speaks from 
the heart." He further said that their lands had not 
been sold, that the men who signed the treaty had no 
authority to do so, or to sell their land. And even if it 
was sold, they were not paid for it. The General said 
that the Government had assigned him and his people 
land on the west side of the Mississippi. His only 
answer was that he would neither leave nor fight and 
if the whites attempted to drive him off, he would sit 
down in his wigwam and they might do what they 
liked with him. General Gaines understood by this 
that he would defend what he considered his rights. 

Preparations for an attack were now made by the 
commanding officers and Governor Reynolds, and on 
June 19, 1831, troops were assembled near the mouth 
of Rock River. The next morning they moved 
upon the Indian village. Black Hawk, however, and 
all his peoj)le had left in the night, crossed the Mis- 
sissippi and were camped a few miles below Rock 
Island. Ten days after, the chief presented himself on 
the Island with twenty-seven warriors and voluntarily 
signed a treaty of peace with General Gaines and the 
Governor of Illinois, the latter representing the 



410 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

National Government. The terras of this treaty in- 
cluded a pledge on the part of Black Hawk not to 
return to the east side of the river or give any more 
trouble to the white settlers. 

In the following winter, Black Hawk refused to 
keep the treaty any longer and in April, 1832, he and 
about five hundred of his braves crossed the Mississippi 
at Burlington and moved up the east bank of the river 
with his women and children, intending to drive out 
the settlers and return to their old village on the 
Island. The Winnebagoes and other Indians were to 
have assisted him in recovering the land. This news 
soon reached Saint Louis and Colonel Atkinson with 
a body of infantry left that city for Rock Island. 
Zachary Taylor, afterwards President of the United 
States, was in command of a company, and Lieutenant 
Jefferson Davis, afterwards President of the Confed- 
erate States, was attached to the same regiment through- 
out this campaign. 

About two thousand volunteers were brought for- 
ward by Governor Reynolds of Illinois, assembling 
at Beardstown and marching to Yellow Banks, fifty 
miles below Rock Island. They moved to the mouth 
of Rock River where they were joined by Colonel 
Atkinson and his regulars. The volunteers were 
under the command of General Whiteside, and Abra- 
ham Lincoln, afterwards President of the United 
States, served under him as captain of a company. 
The Indians had ascended Rock River and halted 
opposite Rock Island, the women and children having 
been sent higher up the river in canoes. Black Hawk 
now made an attempt to capture Fort Armstrong, 
He crossed to the Island with his warriors in the 



FOUR DAYS AT DAVENPORT, 411 

night, but a violent storm arising interfered with his 
plans that night, and in the morning Colonel Atkin- 
son's Infantry arrived and drove them from the Island. 
They followed their women up Rock River, pursued 
by Colonel Atkinson and the volunteers under General 
Whiteside. 

Nearly the whole of Black Hawk^s band was de- 
stroyed in the following months of May, June, July 
and August, and Black Hawk himself was captured 
and removed as a prisoner to the Island. He and his 
son Seoskuk, and other chiefs, were afterwards taken 
to Washino;ton and other eastern cities. On his 
return from his eastern tour, Black Hawk settled 
down with a remnant of his own tribe on Des Moines 
River, where he died in 1838. 

The Sacs and Foxes are believed to have originally 
come from the vicinity of Montreal, Canada, about the 
year 1700, and had lived on or near, Rock Island over 
one hundred and thirty years. After the close of the 
" Black Hawk AYar ^' there were no hostilities with 
the Indians at Rock Island. 

During the late Civil AVar the Island was converted 
into a military prison and upwards of 12,000 Con- 
federate prisoners were confined here. About 2,000 
died and were buried on the Island. 

A pleasant day may be passed in wandering over 
the Island, which is now an important United States 
Arsenal for the Mississippi Valley. 

Rock Island City is situated on the mainland on 
the Illinois bank of the river. East of the city, 
stretching away to Rock River, are some picturesque 
bluffs and scenery of great beauty. On the sides of the 
hills are many comfortable residences of well-to-do 



412 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

citizens. The city is about midway between Saint 
Louis and Saint Paul, and immediately opposite the 
larger city of Davenport, Iowa. The iron bridge 
owned by the United States Government and connect- 
ing the two cities is open to the public free of toll. 

Tlie water power produced by the rapids has largely 
contributed to the growth of E-ock Island City, and 
also of Moline — a city of factories — witliin an easy 
walk of its neighbor. In the latter I found many es- 
tablishments for the manufacture of plows, cultivators 
and other farming appliances; also wagons and car- 
riages, together with foundries and machine shops. 

Rock Island City has a commerce and trade second 
to no city of its size in the Union. The centre of a 
system of railroads, the city has a busy aspect at all 
times. The population at the time of my visit was 
about 16,000. 

Three miles from Rock Island City, inland, is a re- 
sort frequented by the residents of both sides of the 
river. Its traditions and associations are romantic. 
It is known as Black HawTz's Watch Tower, The 
towe7' consists of a rock and is the summit of the 
highest hill, overlooking Rock River and affording an 
extensive picture of the surrounding country. The 
rock derives its name from its having been used by 
Black Hawk as a point from which he could survey 
his lands for many miles. Tradition says it was se- 
selected by the chiefs father and overlooked the tribe's 
first village on the banks of Rock River. Black 
Hawk gave the following account of the place to 
Antoine Le Claire in 1833: ^'The tower was ray 
favorite resort and was often visited by me alone, 
where I could sit and smoke my pipe and look with 



FOUR DAYS AT DAVE^NPORT, 413 

wonder and pleasure at the grand scenes that were 
presented, even across the mighty river. On one oc- 
casion a Frenchman who had been resting in our 
villagce, brouo'ht his violin with him to the Tower to 
play and dance for the amusement of my people who 
had assembled there, and while dancing with his back 
to the cliff, accidentally fell over it and was killed. 
The Indians say that at the same time of the year soft 
strains of the violin can be heard near the spot/' He 
further relates tiiat in the year 1827, a young Sioux 
Indian, who was lost in a violent snow-storm, found 
his way into a camp of the Sacs, and while there, fell 
in love with a beautiful maiden. On leaving for his 
own country he promised to return in the summer and 
claim his bride. He did so, secreting himself in the 
woods until he met the object of his affection. A 
heavy thunder-storm was coming on at the time, and 
the lovers took shelter under a rocky cliff on the south 
side of the Tower. Soon a loud peal of thunder was 
heard ; the cliff was rent into a thousand pieces and 
they were buried beneath them. ^' This, their unex- 
pected tomb," says Black Hawk, "still remains undis- 
turbed.'' 

In the spring, summer and autumn many hundreds 
of visitors climb to the Tower, especially on Sunday and 
holidays, and while breathing the pure, healthful at- 
mosphere, enjoy delightful views of the surrounding 
country and the majestic river at their feet. The 
Davenport family own the property, which, however, 
18 accessible to all visitors. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



DAVENPORT TO DES MOINES. 



®ue ^unireir aub Jortu-ftftl) JDaw. 




Farm House, 

Near Blue Grass, Iowa, 

October 3, 1876. 




jEATHER cold, but clear and bracing. 
Mounted Paul at three o'clock p. M. 
and halted at the office of The Democrat, 
to say good-bye to Colonel Russell. On 
the road I overtook S. N. Garlock, a 
farmer, who invited me to spend the 
night at his house, which I agreed to do 
and was made very comfortable. I soon 
discovered that Mr. Garlock was a 
native of the Empire State, but came to Iowa twenty- 
seven years ago, and was now the owner of a pros- 
perous farm near the village of Blue Grass. He spoke 
of visiting his old home in the East and his intention 
to proceed by way of Philadelphia and spend a day or 
two at the Centennial Exposition. He said that many 
Western people were making arrangements to go to 
the " Exposition " and at the same time visit their old 
homes and the old folks whom they had not seen for 
many long years. 
(414) 



DAVENPORT TO DES MOINES. 415 



Jowa House, 
Moscow, Iowa, 

October Fourth. 

Moscow is a small agricultural hamlet twenty-nine 
miles west of Davenport, with a population of less 
than three hundred, but increasing in number as the 
surrounding region is occupied. On the road here 
from Blue Grass I found the weather becoming very 
cold and was compelled to dismount several times and 
walk some heat into my body. The country is rich in 
fertility of soil — generally rolling prairie. The villages 
along the road are said to be growing very rapidly. 



®n£ i^w^^*^^^"^ ^^^^ Jcirtg-0et)entl) Daw. 

St. James Hotel, 
Iowa City, Io WAf 
October Fifth. 

Reached here at six o'clock P. M., fifty-five miles 
from Davenport. AYeather, most of the day, cold, 
cloudy and generally disagreeable. I learn upon in- 
quiry that the land about here for n;iles is, for the 
most part, settled by a thrifty, intelligent and enter- 
prising people, and is well adapted to all the wants of 
the agriculturist. The railroad brings all the produce 
into market and farmers and manufacturers have their 
labors rewarded. The soil is a rich, black loam, and 
often, I am told, from five to iQv\ feet in depth. 

Had supper and retired to my room to attend to 
my correspondence. 



416 OCJLj^rf TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

<Qm i)\\\\^xt^ a\\^ jTortg-figljtl) Cla^ 

St. James Hotel, 
Iowa City, Iowa, 
October Sixth, 

The weather continued extremely cold. Babcock 
completed necessary arrangements with the pro{)rietor 
of Ham's Hall for my lecture the following evening. 
In tlie meantime I took a look at the city which 
was for many years the State capital. Its most sa- 
lient feature appeared to be the State University, in 
which both sexes continue their education with com- 
mendable zeal, under competent professors. There are 
also a high school, a female college, a commercial 
college and several common schools. Four or iivedaily 
and weekly newspapers'keep up the interestof the people 
in local affairs and national politics ; and four banks 
encourage the thrifty to place their spare cash with 
them at interest. AVooUen and flax manufactures give 
employment to a considerable number of young people, 
and the mills are said to be in a flourishing condition. 

The city has a large internal trade as well as with 
the several surrounding villages. 



®\\t ^)xm^xt\i ant» ibrtu-nintl) JIlaB. 

St. James Hotel, 

Iowa City, Iowa, 

October Seventh. 

The former State House is a fine and capacious 
building; and an ornament to the citv. On the re- 
moval of the seat of government to Des Moines, one 



DAVENPORT TO DES MOINE^ ., 417 

hundred and twenty miles farther west, the building 
with its extensive o:rounds was granted by the Legisla- 
ture to the State University. 

I also noted several large places of business here, 
including dry goods, groceries and hardware. There 
are several lumber yards, flouring mills, plow factories, 
iron foundries, for manufacturing machinery; also 
due proportion to the population. 

The newspapers ])ublished here are, according to all 
accounts, ablv conducted and well sustained. The 
surrounding country is well adapted to all the wants of 
the ao^riculturist and is thicklv settled. 

In the evening I delivered my promised lecture to a 
very full house — Hon. G. B. Edmunds introducing 
me to the audience. The walls were covered with , 
flags and a profusion of flowers greeted me on my ar- 
rival on the platform. 



®ue Q^"^'^^'^^ ^^^ iTiftictl) Sag. 

Tiffin House, 

Tiffin, Iowa, 

October Eighth. 

Mounted Paul in front of the Saint James to con- 
tinue my journey and felt the need .of an overcoat. 
Drew rein at Tiffin, a few miles from Iowa Citv. Of 
Tiffin little more can be said than that it has a rustic 
j)opulation of about fifty souls. The accommodations at 
the Tiffin House I must leave to conjecture, as any de- 
scription would fall short of the reality. The only 
guests were a Methodist parson, two farmers on an 



418 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

expedition in quest of apples, and an overland tourist. 
The nabob of the village came into the public room in 
the course of the evening — a farmer and former State 
senator. This "Hon/' gentleman engrossed our atten- 
tion for about three hours by a long-winded descrip- 
tion of the varieties of the " genus hog " — how to breed, 
how to feed and fatten, and how to drive him to mar- 
ket; all of which would probably have been edifying 
and elevating to the average Tiffinite, but it made me 
and the parson drowsy and I retired to dream of hogs 
and fat bacon until awakened by the daylight. 



®iu i5^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ Jiftg-first Slag. 

Grand Pacific Hotel , 

Marengo, Iowa, 

October Ninth. 

In my journey from Tiffin I found it necessary to 
dismount several times and walk in order to drive 
away the sensation of cold. Reached Marengo in the 
evening and registered at the Grand Pacific Hotel. 
Winter seemed to be approaching with rapid strides at 
this time and I was warned that it was necessary to lose 
as little time as possible at the diiferent resting-points. 

Marengo is eighty-five miles from Davenport. 
There is a good bridge crossing the Iowa River here, 
which adds much to the facilities for doing business. 
A thriving community of farmers occupy the sur- 
rounding land. Among the most important villages 
and towns in this and adjoining counties, are Newton, 
Grinnell, Montezuma and Millersburg, all growing in 
size and importance. Marengo is the county -seat of 



DAVENPORT TO DES MOINES. 421 

Iowa County, and contains a population of nearly two 
thousand. 

The State of Powa, taken as a whole, is one of the 
most fertile in the United States. The native prairies 
are fields almost ready-made for the farmers' hands ; 
their rich black soil returning him reward for his labor 
a hundred fold. 



Skinner House, 
Brooklyn, Iowa 
October Tenth, 

My ride to-day from Marengo has been over fin^ 
prairie land with occasionally a farm in the distance 
like an oasis in the desert. Brooklyn is one hundred 
miles from Davenport and, as some evidence of its 
prosperous condition, has four hotels. I was fortunate 
in selecting the Skinner House, the proprietor of which 
knows how to make his guests comfortable. Paul 
also seemed happy to-night when I shut him in a 
clean and well-appointed stable with his supper. 

Brooklyn is a village of over twelve hundred in- 
habitants, and wears the impress of success. There 
are several grain elevators, foundries, flour mills and 
business houses of all kinds; also graded schools, banks, 
and daily and weekly papers. The streets are clean and 
well paved, which is more than can be said for its 
Eastern namesake. The surrounding farms are large 
and well cultivated, and the country presents a most 
attractive appearance. 



422 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 



®uc <5ii^^^^^^ fluir 5iftg-tl}irt Slag. 

Moore House, 
• Kellogg, Iowa, 

October Eleventh. 

In front of the Skinner House, Paul caused me 
some little anxiety by dashing up the street from the 
front where I had left him with loose rein for a mo- 
ment while settling my bill. Coming back he gave 
me to understand, by a toss of his head, that he only 
wanted to shake a little dust from his feet. I was soon 
mounted and off at a gallop, covering thirty miles, 
when I stopped at a farm house for dinner. 

On reaching the outskirts of Grinnell, I hailed a 
party of boys who were " playing ballJ' One bright 
little fellow gave me the time, two o'clock, and the dis- 
tance to Kellogg. I then pushed on without stopping 
at Grinnell. Amused myself with some little boys in 
front of a country school house who were '' playing 
horse.^^ I inquired of the youngest if he went to 
school, and his brother answered for him in the affirma- 
tive. I then asked, "What does he learn?" '^ He 
don't learn nothin'," answered the youth. " Then why 
do you take him to school?" T inquired. "So, when 
the boys go out, he can ' play horse ' with us." 

Have seen some of the finest scenery and grandest 
farms to-day that I have encountered along my journey. 
The day has been unusually bright and pleasant, and 
the country looks lovely in the extreme. Reached 
Kellogg to-night, half an hour after dark. Caught a 
young snipe about a mile from the village and offered 



DAVENPORT TO DES MOINES. 423 

it to a young girl if she could name its species. She 
could not, and a boy claimed the prize. 

Amused some of the guests in the evening with in- 
cidents of my journey, and they, in turn, gave me some 
useful information about the Far West, North Platte, 
Green River, and Humboldt Valley. 



ffinc j^^nir^b ani iriftg-fourti) JPag. 

Pacific Hotels 

Colfax, Iowa, 

October Twelfth. 

Arrived at Colfax in the evening after a glorious 
ride over the prairie. The grain on the farms waved 
in the breeze as the fields were passed and numerous 
streams crossed finding their way to the rivers that in- 
tersect the State. This prairie is not entirely devoid 
of timber, for groves dot the extended landscape like 
islands in a green sea; while from the higher grounds 
I viewed the prairie decked with wild hay and autumn 
flowers. 

"Broad on either hand 

The golden wheat-fields glimmered in the sun, 
And the tall maize its yellow tassels spun." 

The prairie here is from twenty to forty miles in 
width. A variety of minerals are found and mined to 
a limited extent. Time will work many changes. 
A quarter of a century hence, Colfax will probably 
be known as an important mining town with large 
and varied interests. Its growth will be gladly noted 
by many who have faith in its future. 



424 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

®ne iJunbretJ anb iiftg-fiftl] JDag. 

Jones House, 

D E s M o I N K s , Iowa, 

October Thirteenth. 

Mounted Paul at eight o'clock and rode twenty miles^ 
which brought me to Des Moines. Most of the 
journey was over prairie land; the sun shone brightly 
and afforded me an agreeable warmth as Paul stepped 
out bravely — cheered, possibly by the prospect of en^ 
tering a large city and resting for a day or two. We 
know nothing of a horse's prevision. The country 
along my route is rich in fertility of soil, but its 
resources are not yet fully developed. I am told that 
but little snow falls on this prairie, the winter being 
made up of cool, sunshiny days, and clear, frosty 
nights. There is nothing, I think, to hinder this part 
of Iowa from being one of the most healthy portions 
of the United States. 

©uc 15^i^^«^i*^'^ cm^ Jiftu-siitl) Slag. 

Jones House, 
Des Moines, Iowa, 

October Fourteenth. 

I have not seen a brighter or more stirring city in 
my line of march than Des Moines, the capital of the 
State of Iowa. Under the escort of Professor E. T. 
Bo wen, city editor of The Leader^ and two other well 
informed gentlemen, I visited the Iowa State Perpetual 
Exposition and was introduced to the secretary, who 
courteously showed me over the buildings. 



DAVENPORT TO I) ES MOINES. 425 

The city stands at the mouth of the Raccoon River, 
IS three hundred and fifty-eight miles west of Chicago 
and one hundred and forty-two east of Omalia. Its 
shape is quadrilateral — four miles long by two miles 
wide. The Des Moines River flows through its centre, 
dividing the East from the West Side. The city 
stands on a declivity, its highest part extending to 
about one hundred and sixty feet. The Post Office, 
Court House and city offices, the principal depots and 
hotels, and the greater portion of the business houses, 
are situated on a plateau about a mile long and half a 
mile wide, rising about fifteen feet above high water; 
and on the higher ground beyond are some of the 
handsomest and largest private residences. 

On the East Side is another business locality. Cap- 
itol Square contains ten acres on an elevated site com-, 
manding a fine view. The State House was erected 
at a cost of nearly $3,000,000. The Public Library 
contains some 30,000 volumes. There are over twenty 
churches of all denominations in the city. The Post 
Office and Court House buildings are of marble and 
cost $250,000. There is also a State Arsenal, a large 
County Court House and many public improvements 
found only in first-class modern cities. Two daily and 
upwards of a dozen weekly papers are published here. 
In the vicinity are mines of excellent ceal and a num- 
ber of manufactories of various kinds are in operation. 

Before leaving the Jones House it is but just that I 
should say that I was not more courteously treated 
during my journey than by Messrs. George W. Jones 
and Son. Professor Bo wen and Captain Conrad with 
many others saw me off. 

The next day a copy of the Des Moines Leader 



426 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

readied me, in wliicli the following notice appeared. 
I insert it here as one of many pleasant references to 
my journey. 

"Captain Willard Glazier, the horseback traveller across the Con- 
tinent, took in the Exposition on Saturday evening with intense 
gratification. He says he has seen no place on his route from Boston 
more promising than Des Moines. Among tiie calls he received at 
the Jones House was one from Captain Conrad, a prominent attorney 
from Missouri and now settled in his profession in this city, who was 
a fellow-captive with Captain Glazier in Libby Prison during the 
Rebellion. The Captain continued his journey westward yesterday 
with the best wishes of the friends he has mads during his short stay 
here." 



o 

!z5 



> 




CHAPTER XXIII. 



DES MOINES TO OMAHA. 

(S>\\t Quubre^ a\\b jFiftg-sctientl) JDiig. 

B^ci s House, 
ADfcL, Iowa, 
Octooer 15, 1876. 

EFT Des Moines with pleasant thoughts 
of the cordial reception I had met with, 
and pursuing my way westward over the 
prairies, reached this village in the even- 
ing after a twenty-five miles' ride over a 
section of the countrv striiving-lv beauti- 
ful. The soil of the prairie, I am every- 
where informed, is almost invariably of 
the most productive character. No other 
State, in short, has finer facilities for growing all the 
cereals of the temperate zone than Iowa. 

Adel is the county-seat of Dallas County, situated on 
the Raccoon River — generally called the ^' Coon." At 
the period of my visit the village had a population of 
less than one thousand, and although agriculture is 
the leading industry, considerable attention is given 
to manufacturing. The prairie land in the vicinity 
was, as yet, sparsely settled, but every inducement was 

(429) 




430 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

offered settlers to establish themselves here. I noticed 
some broken fields, and blue smoke curling up from 
farm houses in the distance ; and after eighteen miles 
of enjoyable exercise in the pure prairie atmosphere, 
reached this small village, where 1 concluded to halt 
for the night. 

©ne Qun^retr anb jTiftg-rigljtl) ^cc^. 

private ffouse, 
Dale City, Iowa, 
October Sixteenth. 

Weather warmer, pleasant and more invigorating 
than during the past few days. Left Adel at eight 
o'clock A. M, and })assed through Redfield at eleven, 
still on tlie great prairie which appears to have no 
limit. From the hilltops the valleys wear the aspect 
of cultivated meadows and rich pastures; and on the 
level sp/sads the wild prairie, decked with flowers, its 
long W9 res stretching away till sky and prairie mingle 
In the ( \stance. Twenty years ago the red men chased 
the elk ind buffalo where now are prairie farms and 
prair'« homes. As I advance, I meet occasionally 
with ttees skirting the streams that find their way to 
the 'ivers that intersect this beautiful State. 

Had dinner at a prairie farm house and talked poli- 
tics with the farmer, whom I found was an enthusi- 
astic admirer of Peter Cooper. He did not expect his 
political favorite would be elected, but as a matter of 
principle would vote for him. I told him if he called 
himself a Republican, he should cast his vote for Gov- 
ernc" Hayes, but my advice probably had little effect 
upc him. Reached Dale City about one o'clock. It 



Q 



o 
Q 

o 

o 

o 




DES MOTNES TO OMAHA. 433 

was a small village in Lyon County, with about two 
hundred inhabitants. 



(£)\\z Quuiirei anb jrifttt-mntl) Dag. 

A Night with Coyotes, 

Between Dale City and Anita, lowAi 

October Seventeenth. 

My journey to-day led me again over the seemingly 
endless prairie — extending beyond the range of human 
vision. Halted at a farm house for dinner, near Dal- 
manutlia, an agricultural settlement in Guthrie County. 
Wishing to reach Anita before stopping for the night, I 
continued on the road after dark, contrary to my usual 
practice. 

For some time before sunset I had not seen a farm 
house or even a tree as far as the eve could reach, 
and now could see nothino; of road or trail. Ac- 
cordingly I gave Paul the rein and left him to pick 
In's wav. He followed a sort of blind road which led 
to a haystack. I thought I could do no better than 
make my bed on the sweet hay, and decided to spend 
the night there supperless. I had scarcely settled my- 
self when a troop of coyotes, or prairie wolves, came 
howling and barking in front of me. This made 
things uncomfortable, and I at once jumped to my feet 
and, revolver in hand, faced the enemy. Several 
were killed by my fire. The remainder, however, 
continued to threaten an attack. I was puzzled as to 
what was best to do when I was suddenlv re-inforced 
by a friendly dog, who, attracted doubtless, by the report 
t)f the pistol and the barking of the coyotes, came to my 



434 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

rescue, and kept the animals at bay for the remainder 
of the night. At daybreak I was not sorry to bid 
adieu to the haystack and, neither, I believe, was Paul, 
who had also spent a restless night, notwithstanding 
the abundance of good fodder at his disposal. 

It may be mentioned that the coyote seems to par- 
take of the nature of the dog and the wolf. In the 
winter, when food is scarce, these animals will attack 
man, but, unlike the wolf, if a bold resistance is 
oifered, they will speedily decamp. A pack of coy- 
otes, however, are not pleasant company on a dark 
night. 

®u^ ^5^^^^^*^^ ^^'^ Sutictl) ©as. 

Pacific Hotel, 

Atlantic, Iowa, 

October Eighteenth. 

Was again all day on the prairie inhaling the pure, 
invigorating air as Paul and I faced a stiif breeze 
from the Northwest; and at four o'clock arrived at 
Atlantic, a thriving village of over three thousand 
inhabitants, dependent, like all the villages I had 
passed, upon the surrounding farms. These farms are 
mostly in a flourishing condition, are fenced and under 
good cultivation, divided into meadows and fields of 
every variety of grain. The village is delightfully situ- 
ated. As an evidence of its prosperity it supported 
two ably conducted daily papers and three weeklies, 
three banks and several graded schools. I was now 
eighty-two miles from Des Moines. The prairie here 
is gently undulating and the soil composed of vege- 
table mould and sand. Atlantic, I infer from its busy 



DES 3I0INES TO OMAHA. 435 

appearance, has a destiny above that which it has 
attained. 



©lie fjuuiireb a\\b StAtD-first Sail. 

Columbia House, 

AvocA, Iowa, 

October Nineteenth. 

Weather cloudy, threatening rain as I rode out of 
Atlantic in the morning at ten o'clock. Covered twenty 
miles and stopped for dinner at another farm, near 
Walnut. On my road saw a man at W'Ork in a large 
cornfield and, hailing him, inquired the distance to 
Avoca. After a few words had passed between us, I 
was surprised and pleased to discover that he was from 
my native county — St. Lawrence, New York, and 
knew many of my old friends and acquaintances in 
that quarter. Our conversation turned upon old 
localities and associations, much to our mutual enjoy- 
ment. The days of our youth were recalled, and 
although we had never met before, we parted after 
half an hour's chat as if we had been friends of many 
years' standing. My friend expressed perfect satisfac- 
tion with his rustic life on the prairie and was quite 
enthusiastic over the prospects of his farming opera- 
tions. The soil he said was excellent, easy to cultivate 
and, in fact, second to none in the State. 

Avoca is a })urely agricultural village with a popu- 
lation of about 1,500, all, more or less, interested in 
the big farms within a radius of one to two miles of 
the busy town. Two weekly newspapers kept the 
citizens en rapport with the outside world and the hus' 
tling life of the large cities. 



436 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

®nc ijiii^^i*^*^ ^^11^ Sulj^-sccouLi ©ay. 

Neola House, 

Neola, Iowa, 

October Twentieth. 

A drizzling rain on leaving Avoca made the pros- 
pect of my ride to this point somewhat gloomy. Over 
the interminable prairie again my journey lay, as it 
had done ever since I entered the State of Iowa, but a 
more magnificent sight I never saw than presented 
itself before me this afternoon on reaching the summit 
of an extensive table-land between Avoca and Minden. 

Halted a few minutes for lunch at Minden, and met 
a gentleman there who hud attended my lecture at 
Detroit, upon which he was pleased to compliment me. 
Neola is a small prairie settlement of about three 
hundred inhabitants and is surrounded by several good 
farms. Of the Neola House I can only say that I 
shall not easily forget it and its proprietor — especially 
the nocturnal serenade of all the cats of Neola — which 
deprived me of sleep throughout the night; and the 
extremely scant accommodations provided for the guests. 

The soil here is inferior in quality to that of no 
other section of the State. The land is well watered 
and was gradually filling up with an industrious class 
of citizens. 

Atlantic Hotel, 

Omaha, Nebraska, 

October Twerdy-first. 

Left Neola at eight o^clock and reached Council 
Bluffs at three p. M. Found the road on approaching 



DES MOINES TO OMAHA, 439 

the city, in bad condition, but the splendid country 
through which I had passed since entering the State 
was perhaps equal to anything ever trodden by the feet of 
man. The surface of Western Iowa is very different 
from that of the prairie region in the eastern part of 
the State, being rougher and more hilly. The numer- 
ous streams proceeding from springs bursting from the 
hillsides, are clear and swift. Near the Missouri River, 
high and precipitous mountain bluffs are ranged, and 
the region contiguous is very hilly. The highest hills 
are covered with verdure — grass and timber. The soil 
generally is light and to appearance poor, but is loose 
and sandy, and found to be easily cultivated. Creeks 
and smaller streams of water occur frequently and 
afford power for mills and machinery, and furnish 
abundant supply for farming uses and stock. 

The first white settlement in Western Iowa was 
made in the year 1847, by a company of Mormons or 
Latter-Day Saints, who had been exiled from Illinois 
in poverty and destitution. They passed through a 
part of the country then only inhabited by savages. 
They planted small colonies at places on the route, the 
main body pushing on to the bluffs near the Missouri 
River. A considerable number, unable to go farther, 
remained hei'e, commenced clearing the land for farm- 
ing, and two years later, in 1849, began the building 
of a town on the site now occupied by the city of 
Council Bluffs. Their new town they named Kanes- 
ville after one of their leaders. Several stores were 
built and opened, and the population was soon largely 
increased by people who were not Mormons and had 
no sympathy with them. The new settlers being 
greatly in the majority, virtually drove out the 



440 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

*^ Saints," who finally left in a body to join their people 
at Salt Lake City. 

Council Bluffs is now the most populous and flour- 
ishing city of Western Iowa. At the time of my visit, 
the inhabitants numbered only about 8,000, but it was 
then growing rapidly and bid fair to become one of 
the big cities of America. There is a large trade 
here employing an immense capital. The most im- 
portant manufactures are the iron works and machine 
shops, the agricultural works, carriage factories, steam 
plows, and mills of various kinds, the city has ample 
railroad communication by means of several lines con- 
verging here. Omaha, on the opposite bank of the 
Missouri, is only four miles distant. The fine, sub- 
stantial bridge connecting the two cities is 2,750 feet 
in length and has eleven spans. It has a railroad track, 
and accommodation for horse-cars and ordinary travel. 

The most important public buildings are the County 
Court House, City Hall, High School building and 
the ward school houses. There were three banks 
and two daily and three weekly newspapers. The 
Catholics have a seminary for young ladies and a boys' 
parochial school. The State Institute for the Deaf and 
Dumb is near the city. 




HIGH SCHOOL, OMAHA- XEBRASKA. 




CHAPTER XXIV. 

A HALT AT OMAHA. 

MAHA, the capital of Douglas County, 
the chief commercial city and metropolis 
of Nebraska, is the half-way station across 
the Continent. It is aptly called the 
"Gate City," seeming, as it does, a sort 
of opening to the great railroads, the 
great waterways, and the whole fascinat- 
ing great beyond of western enterprise 
and western commerce. 
As I rode into the city it seemed that it would be 
hard to find a more attractive place. 

"A fine plateau nearly a mile broad, and elevated 
fifty or sixty feet above the Missouri, is occupied by 
the chief business portion of the city,'' while the beau- 
tiful bluffs, the low, rounded, tree-covered hills, form- 
ing a semi-circle on the west and south, are thickly 
dotted with tasteful and elegant residences and build- 
ings surrounded by carefully laid-out grounds. 

The streets cross at right angles. Most of them 
are one hundred feet broad ; but Capitol avenue is 
one hundred and twenty feet in width. 

On high grounds, just southwest of the city limits, is 

(443) 



444 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Hanscom Park, a fine, natural grove, beautified by art 
for the delight of pleasure seekers. 

Conspicuous on the west is the extensive Poor 
House Farm, containing the fine brick poor house. 

To tlie north, on a high wooded hill, solitary, apart 
from the city, yet always within sight of its bustle 
and rush, lies, in its solemnity. Prospect Cemetery. 

In the northern section of the city, also, we find the 
Douglas County Fair Grounds, \.\\q Oma^ a Driving 
Park, and Fort Omaha. 

A bridge, the erection of which cost $1,500,000, 
spans the Missouri and connects Omaha with Council 
Bluffs. 

I found Omaha not only fair to look upon, but also 
interesting in many ways. It is the key to the Rocky 
Mountains and the gold mines of California. Its 
wholesale trade amounts to about $15,000,000 an- 
nually and is constantly increasing. Its industries 
include smelting, brewing, distilling, brick making, 
machine and engine building and meat packing. The 
trade in the latter branch being only excelled by that 
of Chicago and Kansas City. 

Its manufactures are constantly increasing. The 
Union Pacific Machine Shops alone employ about seven 
hundred men. Omaha has a linseed oil mill which 
turns out yearly millions of oil cakes and thousands 
of gallons of oil. One of the city's distilleries is so 
extensive that it pays the United States Government 
a tax of $300,000 per year. 

The educational advantages of this metropolis are 
unsurpassed by any city of its size in the West. It has 
eleven fine ward school buildings and one high school. 
The latter occupies the former site of the old terri- 



A HALT AT OMARA. 445 

torial capitol. It is a fine, large building, erected in 
1872, at a cost of ^250,000. Its spire is three 
hundred and ninety feet above the Missouri Hiver, and 
its cupoly commands a view embracing many miles of 
river scenery. 

Creighton College is a Jesuit institution, endowed 
by Mrs. Edward Creighton to the amount of about 
Jl 55,000. It will accommodate four hundred and 
eighty pupils and opens its hospitable doors to all 
students, irrespective of creed or race. 

A four-story stone Post Office stands on the corner 
of Dodge and Fifteenth streets. That building, to- 
gether with the furniture which it contains, is alleged 
to have cost $450,000 ; and Omaha people claim that 
it is one of the handsomest government buildings in 
all the land. 

By the way, self-respect, humble pride, an appreci- 
ation, a love and admiration of every good thing the 
*' Gate City" contains, is a characteristic of all honest, 
true-hearted Omaha men — God bless them ! They are 
even proud of their jail, which is universally conceded 
to be the handsomest and strongest penal institution 
in the West. 

Omaha is headquarters for a military division 
known as the Department of the Platte. A great part 
of the financial supremacy of the city is due to the 
heavy purchase and dis^tribution of military supplies. 
The General Government, some time since, acquired 
eighty-two and a half acres of land, two miles north 
of Omaha, christened it Fort Omaha, and spent over 
$1,000,000 in erecting military buildings upon it. 

Statistics change rapidly in this Gate to progress and 
improvement. In the year 1877, improvements were 



446 ' OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

added to the city amounting to about $800,000 ; in 
1878, amounting to $1,000,000, and in 1879, to about 
$1,222,000. 

Such was the Omaha which I rode into. How 
thought-compelling a place it was! How typical of 
the push, vigor, enterprise and pluck which hav^e 
proved so masterful in the development of our once 
" Wild ^yest." It is with pleasure that the mind runs 
over its history. 

The first knowledge we have of the region in which 
Omaha is situated, comes to us, like many another 
crumb of information, from Father Marquette. He 
visited that tract in 1673, explored it and mapped 
out the principal streams. At that time the region 
was claimed by Spain, and formed a part of the great 
Province of Louisiana. It finally became a French 
possession, and was sold by that nation to the United 
States in the year 1800, for $1,500,000. 

On the twenty-seventh of July, 1804, Messrs. Lewis 
and Clark came up the Missouri, and camped on the 
Omaha plateau, where the waters of the river then 
covered what is now the foot of Farnam street, and 
that part of the city where the Union Pacific Machine 
Shops are now located, also the smelting works, ware- 
houses, distillery, extensive coal and lumber yards^ 
and where numerous railroad tracks form a sugges- 
tive network. 

In 1825, T. B. Roye established an Indian trading 
station on the present site of the city. 

In 1845, a band of Mormons, driven from Illinois, 
settled slightly north of the Omaha of to-day. They 
came as "strangers and pilgrims,'^ and called their 
»ittle settlement by the suggestive title of ""Winter 



A HALT AT OMAHA, 447 

Quarters." The Indians, however, insisted that the 
Mormons should not remain. So pressed, the saints 
divided their little party. A few families, under the 
leadership of Elder Kane, crossed the Missouri and 
started a settlement destined to become Council Bluffs. 

The balance of the inhabitants of *' Winter Quar- 
ters" placed themselves under the leadership of 
Brigham Young, and with one hundred and eight 
wagons migrated to Utah, where they immediately 
staked out Salt Lake City, and began to build their 
Temple. 

By so slight a circumstance Omaha missed being 
next door neighbor to, or even becoming herself, the 
New Jerusalem of the Saints. 

William D. Brown is conceded to have been the first 
white settler who staked out a claim on the plateau 
now occupied by Omaha. He started for the Califor- 
nia gold fields. On his way it occurred to him how 
profitable it would be to establish a ferry across the 
Missouri to accommodate the thousands passing west- 
ward. Putting in practice his idea, in 1852, he 
equipped a flatboat for that purpose. He named this 
venture of his " Lone Tree Ferry," from one solitary 
tree on the landing, just east of where in Omaha to* 
day stand the Union Pacific Shops. 

In the spring of 1853, Mr. Brown* staked out a 
claim embracing most of the original town site of 
Omaha. 

Julv 23, 1853, Brown became a member of the 
Council Bluffs and Nebraska Ferry Company, whose 
object was to open a steam ferry, and to estab- 
lish a town on the west bank of the river. Despite 

protests from Indians and without consent of the 
22 



448 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

United States, in the winter and early spring of 1854, 
what is now Douglas County was nearly covered by 
staked-out claims of ^^sooners" and speculators. 

May 23, 1854, Nebraska was admitted into the 
Union as a Territory, and in the same year Douglas 
County was created. Immediately, upon a beautiful 
plateau, a town site was selected, laid out, and chris- 
tened Omaha. 

The first house in Omaha was commenced before 
Omaha itself legally existed. It was built by Thomas 
Allen. It was a log house, was named the St. Nicho- 
las, was used as a hotel, a store, or anything else 
which the public demanded. 

In July of the same year another house was built — 
this one being of pine flooring. It was on the present 
site of Creighton College. Here, a few weeks after its 
erection, the first native Omaha boy first saw the light, 
and from this same house, a few days later, an Omaha 
citizen first passed out to that mysterious country 

" From whence no traveller returns." 

The third house was called " Big 6." Its owner 
opened " A general assortment of merchandise suitable 
for time and place," and "Big 6" soon became a 
place of note. 

House No. 4 was opened by a house warming, 
which was attended even by settlers from the adjacent 
State of Illinois. 

In the same year, that of 1854, the so-called Old 
State House was built by the Ferry Company to ac- 
commodate the first territorial legislature. It was not 
an architectural beauty, and consequently, in 1857, it 
gave place to a large, brick Capitol. 

In this, to Omaha, memorable^ year of 1854, the 



A HALT AT OMABA. 451 

first doctor, the first lawyer and the first minister 
settled in her boundaries, also the first steam mill be- 
gan running. 

January 15, 1855, the large frame Douglas House 
was opened by a grand ball. It did an immense busi- 
ness for many years, and became notedly the head- 
quarters for politicians and speculators. 

The first territorial legislature convened January 
16, 1855, and remained in session until March seven- 
teenth of the same year. Where that legislature should 
meet became a question of vital importance to a number 
of Nebraska towns. The matter was hotly contested 
but the metropolis won the prize, acting Governor 
Cummings designating Omaha as the favored spot. 

Traffic by steamboat did much to develop the ^'Gate 
City." Sometimes boats arrived seven or eight times a 
week, bringing new inhabitants, timber, machinery, 
provisions, furniture, and piling their cargo— human 
or inanimate — out upon the since washed away levees, 
to be taken care of as best the embryo city could. 

The first boat of the season was the event of the 
year. Down the inhabitants ran to meet it, with- 
out regard to age, sex or race ; down they trooped, 
laughing, shouting, rejoicing that communication with 
the great world was once more open. Many a " cotil- 
lon " was danced on the deck of that first boat, while 
the unloading was being vigorously carried on below. 

There was little crime in the new city. In the 
three formative years only one murder is known to 
have been committed, and no criminal was legally 
executed until 1863. 

There was never much Indian trouble in this vicin- 
ity. However, Omaha several times raised troops to 



452 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

protect the whites of Douglas County, In 1864, a 
large band of Indians appeared on the Elkhorn and 
so frightened the settlers that they poured into Omaha 
before daylight. Business was suspended, a meeting 
called in the Court House at two o'clock p. M., and 
before sunset every able-bodied man was armed. This 
promptness and efficiency so impressed the Indians 
that no outbreak took place. 

In the late Civil War, Omaha responded nobly to 
the call of the General Government. The First Kegi- 
ment of Nebraska Volunteers, the First Battalion, the 
Second Regiment Nebraska Volunteers, the First Ne- 
braska Veteran Cavalry, and four companies of Cur- 
tis' Horse, came almost entirely from Omaha. 

The first telegraph line reached Omaha in 1860. 

The first breaking of ground for the Union Pacific 
Rail Road took place in Omaha, December 3, 1863. 

The first train from the East reached Omaha by 
the Chicago and Northwestern route, January 17, 
1867. 

So Omaha grew and prospered. It took about 
twenty -seven years to bring it out of original wildness 
to the state of excellency in which I found it as I 
passed through on my horseback journey. Yet it 
seems but yesterday since no human dwelling occupied 
the place now covered by our young city. Here 
the Indian council-fires burned ; on the bluffs, with 
no more civilized weapon than his bow and arrow, 
he hunted deer, buffalo, elk, bear and wolf. Here 
his war whoop rang out clear and unmolested. Here 
brave, free, unfearing, he dwelt, 

" Monarch of all he surveyed." 

And now he is completely effaced from this region. 




t>>-^-< 



v;!' '•.'-:'; ySib:*^ I 



^-l:::^ 



'ii 



A HALT AT OMAHA. 455 

Gone and only remembered by some quaint name still 
attached to stream or mountain. 

To-day "the moving millions, both in this country 
and Europe, are making earnest inquiry for Ne- 
braska." 50,000 new inhabitants came to it in 1880. 
The close of the late war brought many ex-soldiers 
and their families here to claim land privileges near 
Omaha, and from " the four quarters of the globe the 
swelling thousands have come to settle with those that 
made their way thither. From Maine and Texas, and 
from every territory of the Rocky Mountains, they 
came." " The rank and file, the bone and muscle, 
were men who came to stay, who counted the cost, 
who measured the sacrifice." Under their faithful 
bauds the desert has been made to " blossom like the 
rose." *' The dug-out and the log house have given 
place to the elegant mansion, and thousands of groves 
have sprung up almost as if by magic all over the 
prairies." 

These brave pioneers knew it would be so. They 
believed in the embryo city. By faith they saw the 
fields blossoming for the harvest. "They heard the 
song of harvest home, they saw the smoke of the ris- 
ing city, the highways of commerce, and some of them 
saw the highways of nations, so long a fable to the 
American people, stretching up through their valleys 
to the everlasting mountains and on to the broad 
Pacific. To-day the day-dream of these brave men is 

realized — 

For lo 1 it has all come true. 




CHAPTER XXV. 

OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 

S winter was approaching and the days 
were now becoming considerably shorter, 
it was incumbent upon me to hasten my 
departure from Omaha, if I would 
reach ray destination as contemplated at 
the outset. Having learned from fron- 
tiersmen that Eastern horses are not 
available in the Alkali Region of the 
Plains, I placed my faithful Paul in a 
boarding stable in Omaha, purchased a mustang of a 
Pawnee Indian and forthwith continued my journey 
westward. 

Webster defines a mustang as the ** Wild Horse 
of the Prairie.^' My experience with him has taught 
me that he is sufficiently docile under the restraint 
of a tight rein ; will travel a longer distance over a 
rough road in a given time than the average horse, 
and scarcely ever shows fatigue even if the road is 
all up-hill. Of course, some of them are vicious, 
and will make things uncomfortable for the rider; 
but in this particular some civilized horses are not 
unlike them. I found the Mexican saddle more con- 
venient than the "McClellan " which I had hitherto 

used, a'jd thought much easier for the animal. 
(456) 



o 



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> 

tzi 

W 

> 

in 




OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 459 

My mustang proved tractable and made excellent 
time; and having obtained in Omaha all the informa- 
tion within my reach concerning the remaining half 
of my journey, I determined to use all despatch and 
avoid as far as I could the cold weather of the Rockies 
and Sierras. 

I may here state that in consequence of the long 
rides I was now compelled to make, with very few 
stoppages except at night, the original plan of the 
journey was somewhat changed, and my journal neces- 
sarily fell into disuse ; my chief object being to get 
over the mountains as quickly as possible. I was, 
therefore, unable during the remainder of my ride to 
refer so much to daily incidents, but confined myself 
to jotting down in a general way whatever I thought 
might prove of interest to the reader. 

Over the Great Plains that lie between the Mis- 
souri and the Rockies my nerve was thoroughly 
tested, and not less so the mettle of my mustang which 
carried me a distance of five hundred and twenty-two 
miles in six days. Halts at this time were few and far 
between, except for necessary food and sleep. The 
weather had become verv cold since leaving: Omaha, 
and the ascent had been gradual but continuous. 

The surface of Nebraska is extremely varied. There 
are no elevations that can be dignified with the name 
of mountains, but in its northern and western parts 
there are lofty hills. Along the Niobrara and White- 
Rivers, extending into Dakota, there are sand-hills 
with a very scanty vegetation and very difficult to tra- 
verse on account of the loose sand. The gently rolling 
lands of three-fourths of Nebraska appear very much 
like the suddenly petrified waves and billows of the 



460 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK 

ocean. Minerals had not yet been found to any con* 
siderable extent, and the scarcity of coal rendered more 
valuable the extensive beds of peat found in some parts 
of the State. The salt basins of Nebraska are rich and 
extensive. The principal one is located in Lancaster 
County, covering an area of twelve by twenty-five 
miles. Fossil remains, of great interest to geologists^ 
have been discovered in great quantities. Indian hiero- 
glyphics, which ante-date the traditions of all living 
tribes, are cut deep in the bluffs along the Missouri 
River, in places now inaccessible. 

The Platte or Nebraska River, from which the Ter- 
ritory received its name, is a broad and shallow stream. 
It is claimed that there is not a foot of land in Eastern 
Nebraska that is not susceptible of cultivation. High 
winds sweep over the plains, and the storms are some- 
times of terrible severity. The climate is dry and 
exhilarating, and the nights generally cool throughout 
the summer. There is no part of the United States 
better adapted for stock-raising than the prairies of 
Nebraska. 

There is a well-equipped university at Lincoln, a 
normal school for the trainins; of teachers and an insti- 
tution for the blind at Nebraska City. 

After a fifty miles' ride from Omaha a halt was made 
at the Sherman House, Fremont, Dodge County, for 
supper and lodging. The journey had been pleasant 
and the landscape charming in its quiet beauty. The 
south wind was neither too warm nor too cold for per- 
fect comfort, and my mustang looked as if he could 
carry me another fifty miles without any inconvenience 
to himself. 

Fremont had a population of nearly 3,000, and has 



OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 461 

a large trade in grain, cotton and lumber. It has a 
court house, a high school, three banks and four news- 
papers. 

Left early the following morning and at night slept 
in a wigwam with Pawnee Indians, in the absence of 
other shelter, and they gave me of their best. At 
Lone Tree, a post office in Nance County, I stopped 
at the Lone Tree House for the night, and next morn- 
ing at dawn, the weather being very fine, hurried for- 
ward on my journey. Reached Grand Island, where 
I was accommodated at a private house with bed and 
board. 

Grand Island is in the Great Platte Valley on 
Platte River, one hundred and fifty-four miles west of 
Omaha. It stands 1,800 feet above sea level. The 
Island, on which the town is built, is fifty miles long. 

Wood River, my next resting-place, is a township 
in Hall County with a population not exceeding one 
thousand. On the following day good headway was 
made, but I could find no better accommodation for 
the night than at a Pawnee camp. On the suc- 
ceeding night, after a hard day's ride, I stopped 
at Plum Creek, two hundred and thirty miles west of 
Omaha, and w^as accommodated at the Plum Creek 
House. A bridge spans the Platte River at this point. 
The population was only three hundred, but a \veekly 
paper had been started and was w^ell supported. The 
next evening, the McPherson House, McPherson, 
received me and my mustang and treated us hospitably. 
Then followed North Platte, one hundred and thirty- 
seven miles from Grand Island, where I lodged for the 
night at a private house, the home of a pioneer. The 
repair shops of the Union Pacific Railroad were located 



462 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

here; also a bank and two enterprising newspapers. 
The population of the township was nearly three thou- 
sand. At Sidney, which is a military post, I stopped 
at the Railroad Hotel. Sheep-farming is a leading 
industry of Sidney and its vicinity. My last stopping- 
place in Nebraska was at Evans Ranche, Antelope, a 
ifmall village on the Elk Horn River. 

Crossing the boundary into Wyoming Territory and 
reaching Cheyenne, I made my entrance into this most 
interesting region — a great plateau of nearly 100,000 
square miles, its lowest level 3,543 feet, its highest alti- 
tude more than 13,000 feet above the sea. Some one 
has said that it seems "a highway, laid out by the 
'Great Intelligence,' in the latitude most favorable, at 
all seasons, for great migrations to the shores of the 
Pacific/' 

Shales bearing petroleum, iron, limestone, soda, sul- 
phur, mica, copper, lead, silver and gold, are all there 
for the taking. 

There, volcanoes are still at work. 

There, great mountains, great canyons, and great 
cataracts make the face of Nature sublime. 

There, in past centuries, "at some period anterior 
to the history of existing aboriginal races,'* lived a 
mysterious, to us unknown people, traces of whom we 
still find in neatly finished stratite vessels, " knives, 
scrapers, and sinkers for fish lines made of volcaniy 
sandstone or of green- veined marble. Such is the 
^ract of territory called Wyoming.'' 

Beginning at the south-east corner of this tract, we 
encounter, not far from the boundary, a semi-circular 
range, about 2,000 feet above the general level, 
known as Laramie Hills. The north branch of the 






s 



7:i 
> 

>— I 

> 



00 

05 




OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 465 

Platte, coming from the south, sweeps in a long 
curve about it ; and just at the base of this Laramie 
range nestles the so-called " Magic City,'' Cheyenne, 
the capital of Wyoming. 

White men first explored this region in 1743, and in 
1744, when Sieur de la Verendrye and his sons came 
down from Canada, lured by the then unexplored 
Kocky Mountains. But the region was fearfully 
wild. Not only was the face of Nature most strange, 
but the whole tract was overrun by belligerent 
savages. 

In 1804 a few brave white men began hunting 
beaver there. But it was many long years before 
civilization took possession of the spot. Not indeed 
until miij.^^o- was begun on the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains in Dakota. 

Then the fact of railroad construction brought great 
crowds to the North Platte country, crowds composed 
of two diametrically opposed elements, namely w^orkers 
and loafers. These two elements joined hands for 
once, strange as it may seem, and together they settled 
Cheyenne. They located it near several military posts, 
and just as close to Denver as they could get it, and 
still keep it in Wyoming. At Denver was a bank. 
They wanted to be near that institution, and so came 
within one hundred and six miles of it. Such were a 
settler's ideas of propinquity! 

Several items contributed to making this young 
settlement a success. The most important of these 
items was that, in 1867, the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company began to locate its shops there. That was 
rarely fine bait for mechanics. Tne coal and iroD 
mines in the suburbs proved good bait for miners. 



466 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

So, from these humble beginnings, Cheyenne came 
into existence, awoke, bestirred herself, became fired 
with ambition, and made the summer of 1867 one 
never to be forgotten in her boundaries. 

On July first of that year, the agent of the Union 
Pacific Railroad erected in Cheyenne the first structure 
belonging to that company. 

In August, the city government was formed, H. M. 
Hook beino^ chosen mayor. 

On September nineteenth, the first issue of the 
Cheyenne Evening Leader was published. 

September twenty-seventh, a meeting was held for 
the purpose of organizing a county to be called Lara- 
mie. 

On October eighth, an election was held to vote for 
a representative to Congress, to elect county officers, 
and to locate the county-seat. It was decided that 
every citizen of the United States, who had been in 
the territory ten days, might vote. One thousand nine 
hundred votes were cast, and Cheyenne was declared 
the county -seat. 

On October twenty-fifth, telegraphic communication 
with the East was opened. 

November thirteenth, the first passenger train came 
through froai Omaha, and one month later the track 
was laid to Fort Russell. 

About July first of that year, a Mr. Post bought 
two lots in Cheyenne for six hundred dollars. He 
then went to Denver on business, stopped to stake out 
his claim in a coal mine, and returned to find that city 
real estate had become so inflated in his absence that 
he was enabled to sell a fractional part of his six hun- 
dred dollar lots for five thousand six hundred dollars. 




it 



**r%. 



IKSL. 



OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 469 

About July first, the Uniou Pacific Raiiroad sold 
lots for one hundred and fifty dollars per lot. A 
month later, they were worth one thousand dollars 
apiece, increasing in price at the rate of one thousand 
dollars per lot each month for some time after. 

On July 1, 1867, Cheyenne was simply a little cor- 
ner of the wilderness. 

On January 1, 1868, it was a city of six thousand 
inhabitants. 

Was it not indeed a " Magic City," which could 
furnish a six months' record like the above? 

However, this was but the Quatre Bras before the 
Waterloo. 

Cheyenne's real struggle for life, for advancement, 
for culture and permanent prosperity, was to begin 
with this new year of 1868. We know how grandly 
the young city conquered, not by "magic" this time, 
but better still, by patience, pluck, and indomitable 
will. But to her honest and law-abiding citizens, at 
the outset of 1868, things looked dark indeed. 

Cheyenne -was the terminus of the Union Pacific 
Railroad that winter, and the scum of the floating 
Western population drifted thither. 

Houses were insufficient, and many wintered in 
tents and dugouts. 

To make things worse, great numb'ers of squatters 
came, and began seizing town lots. 

"Shootings were frequent, and every manner of vice 
abounded. A canvas saloon would answer as well as 
another for gambling, drinking, and the purposes of 
the dives. Various men and women made the place 
intolerable. It was never disputed that this town ex- 
ceeded in vice and unwholesome excitement any of the 



470 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

new cities of the West/' The police were overwhelmed. 
Crime, theft, and assault were rampant. Patience 
ceased to he a virtue. 

The commander at Fort Russell was appealed to, 
and a battalion was sent by him to escort the squatters 
beyond the city limits. 

After that, the good people of Cheyenne took mat- 
ters into their own hands, deciding to 

" Take up arms against a sea of troubles, 
And by opposing, end them." 

A vigilance committee, that dernier resort of the 
order-loving Westerner of that period, was formed. 

On January 11, 1868, this committee arrested three 
men for robbery. The criminals were bound together 
and placarded with the following notice: 

" $900 stole. $500 returned ! Thieves F. St. Clair, W. Grier, E. 
D. Brownell ! City authorities please not interfere until ten o'clock 
A. M. Next case goes up a tree ! Beware of Vigilance Committee ! " 

Comparatively gentle measures, like the above, were 
useless. Authority in that wild land had to be made 
of ^' sterner stuff." Not until the vigilants had hung 
and shot a dozen men did comparative order prevail. 
There was many a dark day for the well-wishers of 
Cheyenne; yet they lost 

" No jot of heart or hope, 
But pressed right boldly on," 

and gradually peace came out of strife, order out of 
confusion, and civilization reigned supreme. 

In 1869, Cheyenne became the great entree port of 
the vast regions north and west. 

On September seventh of that year the first term of 
court was held in the city. 



OMAHA TO CHEYENNE. 473 

in that same month of September, an election for 
members of the first Territorial Legislature took place. 

That Legislature held a sixty clays' session. Some of 
its dicta were as follows : 

Gambling was allowed. 

Taxes were placed upon all property, real or per- 
sonal, excepting only United States and public prop- 
erty ; and in cases of individuals, exempting clothing 
and furniture, amounting to one hundred dollars. 

Jails were to be placed in every county. 

And, " last but not least,'' Cheyenne was declared 
the seat of the territorial government, and an appro- 
priation was asked foi' with which to build a capitol. 

Surroundings change rapidly in the rush of a new 
community, and 1870 saw Cheyenne established, 
strengthened, purified, settled. 

The floating riiF-raff had passed away, leaving a 
solid, intelligent population of sixteen hundred. 

The city had at that time one public school and two 
private ones ; the latter containing about sixty pupils. 
It had five well built and well furnished churches. 
The orders of Masons, Knights Templar, Odd Fellows, 
j,nd Good Templars were all represented in Cheyenne 
at that time. The city had two large banks, three to- 
bacconists, three hardware houses, two shoe stores, one 
confectionery, two bakeries, one livery stable, two first- 
class hotels, many common ones, a daily newspaper, 
two weeklies, a well organized fire department, and 
"an acqueduct, nearly completed, for bringing water 
from a source seven miles away into the city." 

Cheyenne was now well governed, orderly, at peace, 
and only three years old. 



474 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HOESEBACK, 

She has not stood still — the brave little " Magic 
City ! '^ 

She keeps on growing, becoming more beautiful, 
more prosperous. The best we can wish for her is 
that her future may prove as phenomenal and brilliant 
IS her past has been. 




CHAPTER XXVI. 

CAPTURED BY INDIANS. 

HEYENXE was at length left behind, 
and, with the object of securing com- 
panionship in my journey across ^yyom- 
ing and Utah, I made the acquaintance 
of two herders — rough men and plain 
of speech, but apparently reliable and 
trustworthy. During the few days spent 
with these pioneers of the Plains, I 
learned but little of their past lives, yet 
I was thoroughly satisfied from the first that they 
would prove invaluable guides in my otherwise lonely 
ride over the Rockies. 

My new companions, Israel Gordon and a Mexican 
with unpronounceable name, were on their way to Salt 
Lake City Avith a tew mustangs and Indian ponies, 
and we at once arranged to journey together as far as 
our respective routes carried us. 

On our first dav out from Chevenne we were much 
favored, having a clear sky and a southwest wind, 
which tempered pleasantly the usual chilliness of the 
season. A ride of thirty-three miles on an up-hill 
road brought us to Sherman, the highest point touched 
23 (^"^) 



476 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

in the Rocky Mountains by the Union Pacific Rail- 
way. Here we halted for the night, had supper, and 
slept under our blankets in the open air. 

After a light breakfast the following morning, 
November first, we continued our journey along the 
line of the Union Pacific. Still favored with fine 
weather and our mustangs being in excellent condition, 
good progress was noted in the march westward. I 
had now become quite well acquainted with ray new- 
made friends, and, as our ponies shook the dust of 
many miles from their feet, we talked of the strange 
region through which we were passing, and of the routes 
which led to objective points beyond the mountains. 
During these conversations I learned that Gordon was 
born in A^ermont, and lived in that State until the 
close of the Civil War, when he emigrated to Nebraska, 
and later to Wyoming, where for several years he led 
a wandering life among the hunters and cow-boys of 
the Far West. My other companion told me that he 
began life in New Mexico, and at the age of twenty- 
one drifted into Colorado, from which Territory he mi- 
grated to Cheyenne, in 1867. Both men were robust, 
strong of limb, and thoroughly accustomed to the 
habits and practices of the mixed population of the 
Plains. 

As the reader may have observed, I have under- 
taken from the outset in this chapter to give some 
idea of the life and habits of my fellow-travelers, for, 
as will be discovered on another page, they were des- 
tined to share with me the most trying ordeal of my 
journey from Ocean to Ocean. 

On reaching a point about a mile east of Skull Rocks, 
on the Laramie Plains, we were surprised to find our- 



CAPTURED BY INDIANS 479 

selves confronted by a band of Indians — thirteen in 
number. This caused no uneasiness at first, as Indians 
are often seen on these Plains. We soon discovered, 
however, that they were on no friendly errand, and, 
upon a nearer approach, the herders pronoiniced them 
a raiding party of Arrapahoes. They were evidently 
in pursuit of plunder, were decked in war-paint, and 
as soon as we came in range of their rifles sounded the 
war-whoop and bore down upon us, in a manner that 
betokened anything but a peaceful visit, and left no 
doubt in our minds as to the motive of their attack. 

The Arrapahoes were at this time the friends and 
allies of the Sioux, and the chief objects of their raid 
were doubtless revenge for white men and horses 
for their warriors, who were then rendezvoused in the 
Black Hills. 

Fully convinced tliat we were in the presence of an 
enemy determined to kill or capture our little party, 
no attempt was made to parley. The ponies were 
hurriedly drawn together so as to form a barrier against 
the assaults of the Indians, who were now in short 
range and gradually closing in upon us. As they 
galloped around us, the Indians formed a circle and 
ke{)t up an incessant fire, to which we replied over the 
backs of our ponies, but with little effect, as from their 
mode of attack they were a constantly shifting target 
and difficult to reach, even with the best weapons in 
use. My own equipment consisted of a carbine, such 
as I had used in the cavalry service during the Civil 
War, and a 22-calibre Colt's revolver. Gordon and 
the Mexican were each provided with a Winchester 
rifle and navy revolver, while nearly all the Arrapa- 
hoes were armed with Winchesters and revolvers. 



480 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

But Few moments were required to settle the un- 
equal contest. Four of our horses fell in rapid suc- 
cession, including my own mustang; in the meantime 
we brought down one Indian and three ponies. The 
Indian was instantly killed by a shot from the Mexican. 

On seeing one of their number fall, the Arrapahoes 
rushed upon us with deafening yells, and with such 
force as to render resistance useless. Our arms were 
taken from us, our horses quickly seized, and, in much 
less time than it takes to tell it, we were mounted 
and riding at a rapid pace to the northward, under a 
guard of six well-armed Indians, who were carefully 
instructed as to their duties by their chief. Lone Wolf 
The remainder of the band were more or less occupied 
in scouring the country for horses and other plunder, 
wanted for t/jeir encampment in the Black Hills. 

We rode at a trot or gallop until about ten o'clock 
at night, when a halt was ordered by the chief, and 
all dismounted ; a fire was built and some antelope 
meat, secured during the day, was partially roasted 
and distributed among the Indians and their captives. 
We were for some time squatted around a big fire — our 
captors engaged in earnest conversation. Gordon 
understood enough of their language to interpret that 
the discussion related to their prisoners — that the 
friends of the Indian killed at Skull Rocks, and who 
were in the majority, were in favor of putting all of 
their prisoners to death for having shot one of their 
number. Lone Wolf, however, interposed, saying it 
would be enough to take the life of him who had 
killed their brother. Supper over, four Arrapahoes 
approached us and seized the herder who had fired the 
fatal shot. They led him to a stake which had been 






H 
C 

w 

o 

H 
I— I 

<1 




CAPTURED BY INDIANS. 483 

driven in the ground about fifty yards from the biv- 
ouac; to this stake he was firmly bound by lariat 
ropes. All of the Indians then began dancing around 
and torturing their victim in the most brutal manner 
conceivable. Arrow-heads were heated in the fire and 
held against his naked person. Three or four of the 
Indians made a target of their captive, and amused 
themselves by hurling at him their sharp-pointed 
knives, which, penetrating his body, remained imbedded 
in the flesh until he was nearly exhausted with pain 
and loss of blood. These tortures were continued 
until our unfortunate comrade lost consciousness, when 
one of the Arrapahoes, more humane than his associ- 
ates, advanced and ended his sufferings by a pistol- 
shot in the head. 

In the meantime Gordon and I were seated on the 
ground, bound together, and unable to offer any relief 
to our suffering companion, who bore his tortures with 
a greater degree of composure and fortitude than I 
ever witnessed on the battle-field or within the walls 
of the dungeon, and, while no stately column or monu- 
mental pile marks his resting-place, he deserves to sleep 
beside the heroic martyrs of the border who have 
risked life and suffered privation and hardship for the 
advancement of a higher civilization. 

Having disposed of the Mexican, several of the 
Indians now approached Gordon and myself, and, 
separating us, seized me roughly by the arms, and, 
dragging me to the stake, bound me to it and com- 
menced a series of dances, accompanied by much gesticu- 
lation and taunting, which they doubtless intended as 
a sort of introduction to tortures which were to follow. 
Lone Wolf, who had from the first seemed friendly, 



484 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

but who was at this time some distance from the camp- 
fire, now rushed to my rescue and dispersed our in- 
human captors, who were loath to desist from their 
devilish work. A few minutes later a brother of the 
Indian killed at Skull Rocks removed the scalp of the 
Mexican, and, after he had fastened it to his belt, all 
began dancing around the fire, singing and shouting 
until they were thoroughly exhausted, when they 
squatted upon the ground, apparently regretting that 
they had not been permitted to put more trophies in 
their scalp locks. 

An object of interest to us at this time was the 
horses which were tethered by long lariat ropes to 
stakes which had been driven in the ground at a con- 
venient distance from the encam})ment. Could we but 
elude the' guard and mount the mustangs we were 
riding when captured, our chances for escape would be 
all we could wish. As usual, we were bound together, 
with two stalwart Indians in charge. The other 
Indians disposed themselves around the fire and slept. 
I and my companion slept very little, but pretended 
to do so. We were always on the alert and seeking 
opportunities to escape. About two o'clock in the 
morning our guards were relieved by two others, and 
all was again quiet around their camp-fire. At the 
first streak of dawn, the Indians were up and had a 
scant breakfast of dried buffalo meat and venison, 
which had been secured from the ranches of frontiers- 
men during their raid of the previous day; of this 
they gave us barely enough to satisfy hunger. 

As soon as all were ready for the trail, Gordon and 
I were each given a pony, which we mounted under 
the close scrutiny of the guard, and the entire party 



CAPTURED BY INDIANS. 487 

started northward at a brisk trot. No real attempt to 
escape had thus far been made and the watch became 
somewhat relaxed, the attention of tlie Indians being 
devoted chiefly to foraging. When opportunity seemed 
favorable for the capture of horses or cattle, a halt 
was called by the leader, and three or four of the 
party were detailed for this purpose. These foragers 
were expected to keep themselves and their prisoners 
supplied with meat and such other rations as could be 
found in the straggling cabins of frontiersmen, but, as 
their raids often proved fruitless, w^e were, at best, 
scantily provided for, and many times entirely without 
food. 

We were now skirting the Black Hills, and I had 
discovered by this time that our captors were making 
their way to the Arrapahoe rendezvous, about one hun- 
dred miles from Dead wood. 

At the end of the second dav the routine of the 
previous night was repeated : the Indians built a fire, 
cooked and ate some antelope meat, which had been 
brought in by the foragers during the afternoon, and 
then lay down around the fire for the night, their two 
prisoners being again bound together, with a guard on 
each side. Notwithstanding these precautions, how- 
ever, on the part of the Arrapahoes, I was quietly on 
the alert, and, although feigning sleep, was wide awake 
and prepared to take advantage of any circumstance 
which might prove favorable to an escape. I passed 
the fingers of my right hand over the cord that bound 
the left to my fellow-prisoner and felt sure that with 
patience and persistence the knot could be untied and 
our liberty regained. 

While the guards dozed and slept, as on the pre- 



488 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

vious night, our eyes steadily sought the arms and 
ponies. Wq were quite certain that any attempt to 
escape, if detected and defeated, would result in im- 
mediate torture- and death ; but were, nevertheless, 
firmly determined to make the effort, let the conse- 
quences be what they might, for by this time we were 
thoroughly convinced that, if taken to their encamp- 
ment in the Black Hills, the Indians would be most 
likely to detain us as hostages for a long period, and 
in tiie end possibly, should the inclination seize them, 
subject us to brutalities that only savages can devise. 
With such reflections and but indifferent opportunity 
to put our plans for escape to the test, we passed our 
second night in captivity. 

At dawn of the third day, November second, after 
the usual breakfast of antelope. Lone Wolf called his 
band together and, mounting, continued his march 
northward, halting occasionally for rest and refresh- 
ment. About eight in the evening all dismounted 
and bivouacked for the night. The weather was now 
extremely cold in this high altitude, and was keenly 
felt by the Arrapahoes and their white captives. 

Shivering with cold and without blankets, Gordon 
and I, still bound together at the wrists, lay down to 
sleep with our captors around a smouldering fire. 
The Indians sought sleep — their prisoners thought 
only of possibilities for escape. 

With the experience I had gained in Southern 
prisons during the Civil War and the herder's thorough 
knowledge of the Plains, I felt confident that we could 
make our escape if we were constantly on the alert for 
the opportune moment. During the early hours of 
the night we had each fixed our eyes upon a pony. 



CAPTURED BY INDIANS. 489 

These animals were grazing near th? camp-fire, with 
their saddles on, ready for immediate use if required. 
Under the pretence of being asleep we began snoring 
loudly, and the guards, feelinoj at ease concerning their 
prisoners, slept at intervals, although restless until 
midnight, when we found them sleeping soundly. 

I now worked at the cord which bound me to my 
white companion and ascertained that I could untie it. 
AVhile making the attempt one of the Indians moved 
in his sleep and I ceased my efforts for the moment, 
and all was quiet again. The opportunity arrived at 
length, the knot was loosened, and the noose slipped 
over our hands, which gave us liberty. We quickly 
took possession of two revolvers, but the guards, being 
awakened by our movements, were about getting on 
their ^e^i, when we dealt them stunning blows with 
the butt of the revolvers, forced them to the ground, 
and gained needed time for our escape. Each rushed 
for a pony, leaped into the saddle, and, before Lone 
Wolf and his band had shaken off their slumber, we 
were urging our mustangs to their utmost speed south- 
ward. 

But a moment elapsed before all of the Indians 
were mounted and in pursuit of their escaping cap- 
tives; but this had the effect only of spurring us to 
still greater speed. Finding several. of our pursuers 
in short range I turned in my saddle and sent a 
bullet among them ; another and another followed. 
One Indian fell from his horse, but the darkness pre- 
vented our seeing if the other shots had told. The 
Arrapahoes returned the fire, but luckily without any 
worse result than increasing the pace of our flying 
ponies. 



490 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

Away we tore over hill-top and through canyon 
until but three or four Indians could be seen in pur- 
suit, when Gordon, saying it would be much better for 
both to take separate routes, at once dashed off through 
a ravine to the right. One Indian considerably in ad- 
vance of his companions was at this time closing upon 
rae, but I sent a bullet into his horse, which put a tem- 
porary stop to pursuit and would have enabled me to 
distance my pursuers in the saddle had not my own 
horse fallen an instant later through a well-directed 
shot from the Indian I had just dismounted. 

I now dropped into a gulch, remaining hidden until 
morning. With the coming light I found the coast 
clear, and, emerging from my place of concealment, 
set out in a southwesterly direction, which brought me 
to a cattle ranche late in the afternoon, grateful, indeed, 
for liberty regained and for the freedom which en- 
abled me to continue my journey toward the shores of 
the Pacific. After listening to my story the generous 
ranchmen whom I here met supplied me with food and 
a fresh mustang. Again facing westward I pursued 
my course over the Rockies, striking the Old Govern- 
ment Trail near Fort Steele at the end of three days. 




CHAPTER XXVII. 

AMONG THE MORMONS. 

N my ride across the Territory of Utah 

amid its snow-capped mountains, hot 

sulpiiur springs and ?ts great Salt Lake, 

I met no hostile Indians, but on the 

contrary many hospitable Mormons; in 

fact, my reception by both Mormon 

and Gentile was invariably kind and 

generous. I saw something of tiie social 

life of Utah as well as the \vonderful 

country through which I passed, and was favorably 

impressed with the material development of the latter, 

as witnessed in its farms and mechanical industries. 

The men I conversed with were fairly intelligent — 

some exceptionally so; and hesitated not to explain 

and justify their peculiar faith and domestic life. 

They are certainly neither monsters nor murderers, 

but men possessing good manners and many of them 

refined tastes. In short, I found much good human 

nature among this people as well as social culture. 

Business intelligence and activity is a marked feature 

in their intercourse with strangers. 

In Utah agriculture is the chief occupation of the 

people. The long dry summers and the clayey charac* 

(491) 



492 OCEA^' TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

ter of the soil insure defeat to the farmer, unless he 
helps his crops by artificial means. Irrigation is 
therefore universal, and the result — the finest crops to 
be found anywhere in the West. 

The Territory of Utah covers the region drained by 
the Great Salt Lake and many miles more, both in 
length and breadth, but the Mormon settlements ex- 
tend one hundred miles further into Idaho on the 
north and two hundred miles into Arizona on the 
south. These settlements are mostly small, but there 
are some places of considerable importance, as, for in- 
stance, Provo at the south and Ogden at the north. 

On July 14, 1847, Brigham Young, a Mormon 
leader, and his followers entered the valley of the 
Great Salt Lake. The lake itself is one of the most 
remarkable bodies of water on the globe. It is seventy 
miles long and forty-five miles broad, and stands 4,250 
feet above the sea-level. It bears a strong resemblance 
to the Dead Sea of Palestine, but, unlike that sea, it 
abounds in animal life. When Young entered the 
valley Utah belonged to Mexico, and the leader be- 
lieved he could found whatever character of institution 
should suit him and his people best. It has been 
alleged that Brigham Young had ^^ chains on men's 
£ouls.'' There is no doubt that superstition and the 
machinery of the Mormon Church were in some degree 
the secret of his irresistible power over his followers; 
but back of the superstition and the marvellous church 
organization stood the brain of a great and masterful 
rauj. His power, he knew, must rest upon something 
material and tangible, and this something he reason- 
ably discerned to be the prosperity of the people them- 



AMONG THE MORMONS. 493 

selves. H^ proved himself to be an organizer of pros- 
perity, and this was tlie real source of his strength. 

Mormonism is the religion of 250,000 of the world's 
inhabitants. The Territory of Utah has a population 
of 160,000, and of these, probably, 110,000 are Mor- 
mons. Their doctrines may be explained in a few 
words : 

They believe that both matter and spirit are eternal, 
and both are possessed of intelligence and power to 
design. 

Tlie spiritual realm contains many gods, all of whom 
are traced back to one Supreme Deity. 

This Supreme Deity and all the gods resemble men 
and differ onlv in the fact that thev are immortal. 

In form they are the same as men, having every 
oro^an and limb that belon2:s to humanitv. Thev have 
many wives, and are as numerous as the sands upon 
the sea-shore. 

Among the gods, Jesus Christ holds the first place, 
and is the express image of the Supreme Father. 

A general assembly of the gods, presided over by 
the Supreme Deity, is the creating power. 

When this world was created, Adam and Eve were 
taken from the family of gods and placed in it. In 
the fall they lost all knowledge of their heavenly 
origin, became possessed of mortal ♦ bodies, and only 
regained what they had lost by the quickening of the 
Holy Spirit and continuous progress in knowledge and 
purity. 

Among other creations of the gods are innumerable 
spirits which can only attain to the rank of gods by 
the rugged road of discipline and trial trod by our first 
parents. These spirits are constantly hovering over 



494 OCEAl^ TO OCEAN ON HOUSEBACK. 

our earth waiting for fleshy tenements in which to be- 
gin the steep ascent. 

As soon as a child is born, one of these spirits takes 
possession of it and is then fairly launched forth upon 
its heavenly voyage. 

Those who do not listen to the teachings of the 
church here will, at death, enter upon a third estate 
or probationary sphere, when they will have another 
opportunity, when, if they improve it aright, they will, 
with all the faithful, enter upon the fourth estate, 
which is the estate of the gods. 

The Holy Spirit is a material substance filling all 
space, and can perform all the works of the Supreme 
Deity. It is omnipresent; in animals it is instinct, in 
man reason and inspiration, enabling him to prophesy, 
speak with tongues, and perform miracles of healing 
and many other wonderful things. The Holy Spirit 
can be imparted by the laying on of hands by a priest- 
hood properly constituted and duly authorized. 

The two prominent features of Mormonism are po- 
lygamy and lust for power. Salvation is not so much 
a matter of character as of the number of family. 

Such is the teaching of Brigham Young in his ser- 
mons, and of George Q. Cannon, Heber Kimball, and 
of all the leading Mormons. 

Social life among this people may be judged of from 
the Mormon estimate of woman. She exists only as a 
necessity in man's exaltation and glory. Her only 
hope of a future life de})ends upon her being united 
in "celestial marriage'' to some man. Thus joined, 
she will have a share in her husband's glory. In 
marrying her, her husband confers upon her the great- 
est possible honor, and for this she must be his obedient 



AMOyO THE MOHMOKS 495 

slave. In order that she may be contented with her 
lot as a polygamous wife, she is taught from childhood 
to look upon conjugal love as a weak and foolish senti- 
ment, and upon marriage as the only way to secure a 
future life. 

The Mormons have been largely recruited in num- 
bers by immigrants who have been brought into Utah 
through the efforts of missionaries sent by the church 
to otiier parts of America and to Europe. About six 
thousand missionaries are thus employed. They leave 
their homes in Utah and go to any part of the world 
to which they may be assigned by the authorities of 
the church, paying their own expenses, or collecting 
the money for their sustenance from their converts. 
These missionaries usually travel in pairs, and preach, 
for the most part, in ignorant communities. It is 
estimated that about 100,000 immigrants have gone to 
Utah under their leadership. The organization of the 
missionary force is very complete and effective. The 
immigrants, though for the most part ignorant, are 
always able-bodied, and are usually industrious, frugal, 
and obedient to discipline. The average yearly immi- 
gration is about 2,000 persons. 

Mormon ism has lately spread into the State of 
Nevada, and into Montana, Idaho, Wyoming and 
Arizona. 

The sect was founded by Joseph Smith at Manches- 
ter, New York, in 1S30. Smith was born December 
23, 1805, at Sharon, Vermont. AVhen only fifteen 
years old he began to have alleged visions, in one of 
which, he asserts, the angel Moroni appeared to him 
three times and told him that the Bible of the Western 
Continent — a supplement to the New Testament — wa3 



496 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON IIOUSEBACK. 

buried in a certain spot near Manchester. Four years 
after this event he visited the spot indicated by the 
angel, and asserts tliat he had delivered into his charge 
by another angel a stone box, in which was a volume, 
six inches thick, made of thin gold plates, eight inches 
long by seven broad, and fastened together by three 
gold rings. The plates were said to be covered w^ith 
small writing in the Egyptian character, and were 
accompanied by a pair of supernatural spectacles, con- 
sisting of two crystals set in a silver bow and called 
**Urim and Ihummim.'^ By aid of these the mystic 
characters could be read. Joseph Smith, being himself 
unable to read or write fluently, employed an amanu- 
ensis to whom he dictated a translation, which was 
afterward, in 1830, printed and published under the 
title of the " Book of Mormon.'^ The book professes to 
give the history of America from its flrst settlement by 
a colony of refugees from the crowd dispersed by the 
confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel. These 
settlers having in the course of time dcvStroyed one 
another, nothing of importance occurred until 600 
B. c, when Lehi, his wife and four sons, with ten 
friends, all from Jerusalem, landed on the coast of 
Chili, and from that period, according to the Mormon 
theory, America became gradually peopled. 

Ogden. 

Having heard much of the city of Ogden in North- 
ern Utah — of its peculiar origin and rapid progress — I 
resolved to rest there for a day or two before proceed- 
ing to Corinne and other points in my route toward 
the Sierras. 



I— 1 
tz! 

U 

o 

o 

►— < 




.«»f' 



AMONG THE MORMONS. 499 

The pretty city of Ogden has had one of the wildest 
and most thrilling of birthplaces. 

To-day it reminds the stranger of one of the peaceful 
little cities of old Massachusetts, nestled among the 
Berkshire Hills, wide of street, stately of architecture, 
redolent of comfort and refinement. 

But in reality Ogden is the child of Utah. Mines 
of precious metals are its neighbors. It has been the 
scene of daring explorations, of Indian raids, and of 
many murders and massacres. Its original inhabitants 
were fanatics, so enthused with, so overwhelmed by their 
tenets, as to believe themselves of all the world the 
favorites of the Almighty, the only original handful 
of His saints, the small remnant of the human family 
to which constant revelations from Heaven were 
vouchsafed. 

Upheld by this fanaticism, drawn with it as by a 
magnet from all over the United States, from Canada, 
from the countries of Europe, proselytes came to join 
the Mormons. They journeyed by mule trains over the 
Plains, or they walked perhaps, pushing their all in 
hand-carts before them. They encountered persecution, 
suffering, and even death, undaunted. Some of them, 
on their perilous journey to the Promised Land, sub- 
sisted on roots. Some boiled the skins of their buffalo 
robes and ate them. Some pushed their little carts on 
the last day of their lives and then laid down to freeze 
before the land of their desire was in sight. Graves or 
skeletons frequently marked their route of march, but 
still they came, and having come they prospered. 

Their farms throve; their boundaries increased; 

their settlements became many. 
24 



500 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

With fool hard in ess, but also with desperation, with 
dauntless effrontery, with infinite pluck, they defied 
the United States and her army, using the tiny hand- 
ful of Mormon soldiery in a way that makes one's 
mind run back to the story of Thermopylae. 

Such was the blood that settled Ogden. 

It was such inhabitants that Brigham Young, in 
1850, advdsed to ''put up good dwellings, open good 
schools, erect a meeting-house, cultivate gardens, and 
pay especial care to fruit raising,'' so that Ogden might 
become a permanent settlement and the headquarters 
for the Mormons in the northern portion of the Terri- 
tory. 

So well was his advice carried out that in 1851 the 
city was " made a stake of Zion," divided into wards, 
and incorporated by act of legislature. 

From the very first, everything connected with the 
city seemed to have a spice and dash about it. 

Away back in 1540, Father Juan de Padilla and his 
patron, Pedro de Tobar, went on an exploring expedi- 
tion. On his return the priest spoke of a large and 
interesting river he had found in that " Great Un- 
known," the Northwest. 

The account so fired the hearts of his brother Span- 
iards that Captain Garcia Lopaz de Cardenas was sent 
to explore further into that wonderland. He returned 
telling of immense gulches, of rocky battlements, and 
of mountains surrounding a great body of water. 
Many believe that in that far distant time, about the 
time that Elizabeth ascended the throne of England, 
before Raleigh had done himself the honor of his dis- 



AMOXG THE MORMONS. 501 

coveries and settlements in Virginia, Signer Cardenas 
was simply taking a little vacation trip through Utah. 

But however fabulous that may be. we know of a 
surety that on July 29, 1776, two Franciscan friars 
set out from Santa Fe to find a direct route to the 
Pacific Ocean. In their wanderings they strayed far 
to the north, where they came across many representa- 
tives of the Utes, who proved to be a loving, faithful, 
hospitable people. From their lips the Spaniards 
heard the first description ever listened to by white 
men of the region of country containing the present 
site of Ogden. "The lake," the Utes said, "occupies 
many leagues. Its waters are injurious and extremely 
salt. He that wets any part of his body in this water 
immediately feels an itching in the wet parts. In the 
circuit of this lake live a numerous and quiet nation 
called Puaguampe. They feed on herbs, and drink 
from various fountains or springs of good water which 
are about the lake, and they have their little houses of 
grass and earth, which latter forms the roof." 

So the Great Salt Lake makes its entrance into com- 
paratively modern American history. 

In 1825, Peter Skeen Ogden, accompanied by 
his party of Hudson Bay Company trappers, pursued 
his brilliant adventures, and left behind a record which 
induced the naming of the city after' him. 

In 1841, the country around the spot where the city 
now lies was held, on a Spanish grant, by Miles M. 
Goodyear, who built a fort and a few log-houses near 
the confluence of the Weber and Ogden rivers. 

On June 6, 1848, a man named James Brown 
came from California with his pockets stuffed with 
gold dust; nearly five thousand dollars' worth of the 



502 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

precious thing had he. Willi part of it he bought this 
tract of land from Goodyear. It proved to be a most 
fertile spot. Brethren came to it from Salt Lake City. 
Gentiles came from everywhere. The settlement grew 
and prospered. 

In 1849, people began to talk of locating a city right 
there at the junction of the two rivers. 

In 1850, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and 
others, laid out the settlement and called it Ogden, 
after Peter Skeen Ogden, the explorer, long since dead, 
but whose dashing, daring, })rilliant adventures were 
still charming to the men of that wild land. Every 
time tlie city's name is mentioned it is another proof 
that although, 

** The man might die, his memory lives." 

Before a year was over a school house was built in 
the city. 

Then came that un-American sight, a w^all of pro- 
tection built around a city. It cost $40,000, which 
amount was raised by taxation. 

About this time several suburban settlements were 
formed, but bears, wolves, and Indians soon drove the 
venturesome suburbanites within city limits. 

Just then a party of immigrants encamping on the 
Malade River shot two Indian women. By way of 
reprisal the savages killed a pioneer named Campbell 
who was building a sawmill near Ogden, and threatened 
to massacre the entire population of the town. Matters 
began to look serious, and the commander of the 
Nauvoo Legion gave the Indians chase, and so over- 
whelmed them that they at once retreated, taking with 



A^IO^'G THE MORMONS. 603 

them no captives more important than many horses and 
cattle belonging to the white settlers. 

October 23, 1851, the first municipal election was 
held in Ogden. 

1852 found one hundred families living within city 
boundaries. 

In 1854, a memorial was addressed to Congress, by 
the territorial legislature, urging the construction of 
an overland railroad. But it was May, 1868, before a 
contract was made between Brigham Young and the 
superintendent of construction of the Union Pacific 
Railroad for grading between Echo Canyon and the 
terminus of the line. At Weber Canyon there was 
blasting, tunnelling, and heavy stone work for bridges 
to be done. This work earned 1,000,000 or perhaps 
1,250,000 dollars' worth of wages. The labor was 
splendidly done, but the remuneration came slowly. 
Finally, however, the Union Pacific Railroad turned 
over 600,000 dollars' worth of rolling stock, and other 
property to the Mormons. On May 17. 1869, ground 
was broken for a railroad between Salt Lake City and 
Ogden, So the city grew and flourished. 

Ogden has an elevation of 4,340 feet. The ground 
plan of the city is spacious, the drainage good, the 
climate exceedingly healthy. 

About the time I rode through, the population num- 
bered 6,000 souls. The city contained one of the 
finest schools in Utah, a hotel which ranked among 
the best in the Union, a daily paper, a theatre, three 
banks, numerous Gentile churches, a 16,000 dollar 
bridge across the ^yeber, a reservoir, and a Court 
House, which was such an architectural beauty that 
all Utah may well be proud of it. 



604 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

So Ogden came through narrow ways to broad 
ways! So she 

" Climbed the ladder, round by round I ** 

She has won the respect and admiration of all who 
have watched her. May her industry never fail, her 
enthusiasm never lessen, her pluck remain indomita- 
ble, and may good fortuue perch forever on her ban- 
ners I 




CHAPTER XXVIIL 

* 

OVER THE SIERRAS. 

lERRA is the Spanish word for 'saw' 
and also for ^mountain/ referring to the 
notched outline of the mountains as 
seen against the sky." 

My main object now was to push oa 
to Sacramento. At Kelton, in Utah, 
where I remained only a few hours, I 
was still seven hundred and ninety miles 
from my destination. Stock is exten- 
sively grazed here and cattle shipped to the Pacific 
coast in very large numbers. Leaving Kelton, I rode 
thirty-three miles to Terrace, a small settlement in the 
midst of a desert; thence to Wells in the adjoining 
State of Nevada. 

Nevada belongs to the ^' Great Basin," a table-land 
elevated 4,500 feet above the sea. It is traversed, 
with great uniformity, by parallel mountain ranges, 
rising from 1,000 to 8,000 feet high, running north 
and south. Long, narrow valleys, or canyons, lie be- 
tween them. The Sierra Nevada, in some places 
13,000 feet in heigiit, extends along the western 
boundary of the State. The only navigable river ia 
the Colorado, but there are several other streams ris- 

L507) 



508 ocea:n to ocean on horseback. 

ing in the mountains and emptying into lakes which 
have no visible outlet. Lake Tahoe is twenty-one 
miles long, ten miles wide and fifteen hundred feet 
deep. Although it is elevated 6,000 feet above the 
sea level, the water of this lake never freezes and has 
a mean temperature of 57° for the year. Nevada has 
its hot springs, some of which have a temperature of 
two hundred degrees. 

A heavy growth of timber, particularly of pine, fir, 
and spruce, covers the eastern slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada, many of the trees attaining enormous size. 
There are numerous alkaline flats, and extensive sand 
plains, where nothing grows. The first discovery of 
silver ore was made on the Comstock lode in 1859, 
from which more than $100,000,000 have been taken. 
This has been the most valuable silver-bearing lode 
ever discovered in the world, exceeding in wealth the 
mines of Peru and Mexico. It is now exhausted and 
yields only low-grade ores. 

Wells, my first resting-point in the Sierras, stands 
at an elevation of over 5,600 feet, and had a popula- 
tion of less than 300. Farming and stock raising are 
its principal industries. Formerly it was a watering 
and resting-place for old emigrant travel, where pure 
water was obtained — a luxury after crossing the Great 
Desert; and an abundance of grass for the weary ani- 
mals. Some of the wells here are 1,700 feet deep. 

Stopped next for the night at Halleck, a small vil- 
lage — over 5,000 feet elevation — thirteen miles from 
Camp Halleck, wdiere United States troops are occa- 
sionally stationed. Leaving Halleck after a night's rest 
and a hearty breakfast of ham and eggs, I rode twenty- 
four miles to Elko^ six hundred and nineteen mile» 



OVER THE SIERRAS. . 611 

from San Francisco. This important town stands at 
an elevation of 5,063 feet above sea-level and is on the 
Humboldt River. The State University is situated 
here. Silver smelting works and manufactures of 
farming implements were the principal industries. 
One daily and two weekly papers were well supported. 
There were also three large freight depots for the 
accommodation of the railway business. I noticed sev- 
eral Indians about the town. The hot mineral springs 
of Elko are considered of great value for bathing. 
Population at the time of my visit, about 1,700, but 
the town is destined to develop into an important city. 
The money paid for freights consigned to this place, 
averaged $1,000,000 a year. 

Leaving Elko, I pushed ou for thirty miles. The 
pastures and meadows, with isolated cottages, were 
soon passed and I reached Palisade in the evening, a 
village of 250 inhabitants. Remained here for the 
niffht. For the last two hundred miles the road had 
been a gradual descent and the change of temperature 
was very perceptible. Palisade is a growing little 
place with a population of about 400 souls. It is 
located about half-way down a canyon, whose rocky, 
perpendicular walls give it a singular but picturesque 
appearance. 

My mustang carried me forty-cTne miles next day, 
to Argentina, where I rested. This village is located 
in the midst of alkali flats and seemed to me an un- 
attractive place for a residence. Continuing my iour- 
nev alonoj the foot of Reese River Mountain, I soon 
found myself at Battle ^Mountain, at the junction of 
Reese River and Humboldt valleys. The town of 
Battle Mountain has several stores, a public hall, a 



512 OCEAN 10 OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

good school house and an excellent hotel ; with increas- 
ing trade. The mountain from which the town de- 
rives its name is about three miles south of the latter 
and is said to have been the scene of a conflict between 
a party of emigrants and a band of Indians. 

Golconda was reached on the evening of the follow- 
ing day— four hundred and seventy-eight miles from 
San Francisco. Here are gold and silver mines, but 
the place was small and calls for no further remark. 
Remounted at sunrise the following morning and rode 
to Winnemucca, the county-seat of Humboldt County. 
The town has a fine brick Court House, together with 
several stores, a hotel, shops and a school house. 

Reached Humboldt the following day, where I was 
reminded that I was still in the land of civilization. 
Stopped at the Humboldt House, a most comfortable 
hostelry, its surroundings recalling my home in the 
East. Humboldt is the business centre of several 
mining districts and has a bright prospect before it. 

Lovelocks, the next point reached, is also on the 
Central Pacific Railroad. It is a grazing region, and 
large herds of cattle are fattened upon the rich native 
grasses. Leaving Lovelocks, I found myself again on 
a barren desert, covered in places with salt and alkali 
deposits. Another station in the midst of this desert is 
Hot Springs. Pushing forward I reached Desert, 
three hundred and thirty-five miles from San Francisco. 
The village is rightly named, for it is, in truth, a 
dreary place. I was much relieved on reaching 
Wadsworth, a town of about 700 inhabitants, and only 
three hundred and twenty-eight miles from the end of 
my journey. Some large stores here do a flourishing 
business. There are also several good hotels, in one of 



OVER THE SIERRAS 513 

which I was soon comfortably housed. For several 
days I had seen notliing but dreary, monotonous plains, 
and now, almost another world opened to my view — a 
world of beauty and sublimity. It was with reluc- 
tance I left Wadsworth and crossed the Truckee River. 
The trees, green meadows, comfortable farmhouses, and 
well-tilled fields, were pleasant to look upon, and with 
the prospect of soon reaching my final destination, I 
rode on, and crossed the boundary into California. 

Truckee, although within the State of California, is 
in the Sierra Nevada, one hundred and twenty-one 
miles from Sacramento. The village is handsomely 
built, the surroundings picturesque and finely timbered, 
and there is a line of stages running to the beautiful 
Lakes la^^e and Donner, 




CHAPTER XXIX. 

ALONG THE SACRAMENTO. 

ROM Truckee I rode along the line of 
the Central Pacific Railroad, stopping for 
the nio-ht at villacjes intermediate between 
Truckee and Sacramento, the principal of 
which were Summit, Colfax and Auburn. 
Summit is the highest point of the pass 
through which the railroad crosses the 
Sierra Nevada, its height above sea-level 
being 7,042 feet. The population was 
only a little over one hundred. Colfax, fifty-four 
miles from Sacramento, had a population of nearly six 
hundred, mostly employed in the gold mines in the 
vicinity. Auburn, thirty-six miles from Sacramento, 
is also a gold-mining village. Its population was 
given me as over 1,200. Two weekly papers are pub- 
lished here, and three hotels offer good accommoda- 
tions to tourists and others. Sacramento was reached 
November twenty-first, and here I found myself within 
a hundred miles of my destination. 

California has the Pacific Ocean for its western 
boundary. Along the seaboard lies the Coast Range of 
mountains, while for an eastern boundary of the State 
stretch the Sierras. Between these two chains lies 
many a hill, yet, io the main, the whole interior of the 
(514) 



o 
o 



o 
c 



<! 
ft 




ALONG THE SACRAMENTO 51? 

State IS a great depression, called the Valley of Cali- 
fornia. The northern portion is called again the Sac- 
ramento Valley; the southern, the Valley of San 
Joaquin, both named for the streams that water them. 

The inhabitants are a motley set; English, Celts, 
Spaniards, Mexicans, Indians, and above all the man 
from the eastern part of the United States, leaving his 
impress on all, Americanizing all. 

Sutter^s Fort, as already explained, was founded in 
1839, very near the junction of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin valleys, by a Swiss named John A. Sutter. 
It stood on a small hill, skirted by a creek which falls 
into the American River near its junction with the 
Sacramento, and overlooked a vast extent of ditch-en- 
closed fields, and park stock ranges, broken by groves 
and belts of timber. The settlement consisted of the 
Fort and an old adobe house, called the hospital. A 
garden of eight or ten acres, filled with vegetables and 
tropical fruits, surrounded the Fort, cattle covered the 
plains and boats were tied to the wharves. 

Sutter's confirmed grant contained eleven leagues. 

The Fort, so called, was a parallelogram. Its walls 
were of adobe, its dimensions five hundred by one 
hundred and fifty feet. It had loop-holes, bastions at 
the angles, and twelve cannon. 

Inside of the walls were granaries,' warehouses, store- 
houses, shops, and in the centre of it all the house of 
the commander, the potentate, Sutter. His house was 
rough, " Bare rafters and unpanelled walls.'' Many of 
the rooms were roughly furnished, crude benches and 
deal tables. Fine China bowls did duty for both cups 
and plates, and silver spoons were the only luxury 
which marked the service of the meals. 



518 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

For his private apartments Sutter obtained from 
the Russians a clumsy set of California laurel furniture. 

In front of his house, yet within the stockade, was 
a tiny square containing one brass gun, by which, day 
and night, paced a sentry, stopping only at the belfry 
post to chime the hours. 

The Fort was a business centre. In it was located a 
blacksmith, a carpenter, and a general variety and 
liquor store. Prices were booming. Four dollars 
w^ere charged for shoeing a horse. Wheat sold for 
one dollar per bushel, peas for a dollar and a half 
per bushel. 

A sort of gravel road led to the spot, over which 
kerses galloped, and heavy wagons rolled. 

Sutter owned twelve thousand cattle, two thousand 
horses and mules, from one thousand to fifteen hun- 
dred sheep, and two thousand hogs. 

This unique Fort was " the capital of the vast in- 
terior valley, pregnant with approaching importance." 

In 1846, Sutter staked out the town of Sutterville, 
three miles below the Fort on the Sacramento, and built 
the first house there. His example was shortly fol- 
lowed by a man named Zims, who erected the first 
real brick structure in the State. 

The Fort and town kept up regular communication 
with San Francisco by means of a twenty-ton sloop 
owned by Sutter, and manned by a few savages in his 
employ. 

There was a ferry at the Fort, which consisted of a 
single canoe handled by an Indian. 

The strangest of populations gathered about the set- 
tlement. Emigrants were there, many Mormons 
among them. Native Californians were there, wear- 




' J ' - f :%• . -■ ' W^.-. ' in'- 



-$■ 












ALONG THE SACRAMENTO. 621 

ing sombreros, sashes, and jingling spurs. Half-sub- 
dued Indians abounded, wrapped in their blankets, 
and decked with beads and feathers. While liere and 
there appeared a shrewd Yankee, come across moun- 
tains of snow and rocks to seek his fortune. 

The climate of Sacramento is charming, the average 
temperature in winter being 45°; that in summer 
69°. The thermometer does not vary ten degrees be- 
tween night and day. The sea breezes are constant, 
leavinor; rarelv an uncooled ni2;ht. Rainfall is a tenth 
less than on the Atlantic Coast. Earlv autumn finds 
this region dry and arid; its small streams dried up, 
the green fields sere, the weeds snapping like glass. 

The winter rain begins in November, after six 
months of clear weather, and under its grateful min- 
istry the region "buds and blossoms like the rose." 

John A. Sutter, potentate of the region, in 1847, 
needed lumber, and therefore needed a saw-mill. His 
neighbors wanted lumber, too, and there would be a 
good market for it in San Francisco. Therefore a saw- 
mill would be profitable; but no trees suitable for this 
purpose could be found short of the foot-hills. Con- 
sequently the foot-hills were selected as the spot upon 
which he would build. 

He engaged a motley company of all nationalities to 
erect his mill, appointing James Wijson Marshall, a 
native of New Jersey, as superintendent of the venture. 

In August they started for their new field of enter- 
prise, taking their belongings in Mexican ox-carts, and 
driving a flock of siieep before them for food. 

By New Year's day, 1848, the mill frame was up. 

On the afternoon of January twenty-fourth. Super- 
intendent Marshall was inspecting the tail-race of the 



522 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

DQill. There had been a heavy flood, wliich had pv^- 
viously retreated, and to his surprise Marshall found 
the ground thickly strewn with a peculiar yellow dust. 
He stooped down and gathered some of it, remarking 
quietly, "Boys, I believe I have found a gold mine!'* 
Then he began some simple tests upon the metal. 
Gold must be heavy. He weighed it. That was all 
right. Gold must be malleable. He bit and pounded 
it, and it stood the test. Then he aj)plied aquafortis 
to it, and it responded as it should. And so the truth 
was known at last. It was gold, and the ground was 
full of it. 

Marshall saddled his horse, and dashed over to con- 
sult with Sutter, and together they agreed to keep the 
matter quiet, and if possible to buy up the surrounding 
land. But hov^ to buy it. That was the question ! 
They leased it from its semi-barbaric owners, paying 
for it in hats and trinkets, but that title seemed in- 
secure. The Mexican government could no longer 
give grants. The United States government was ap 
pealed to in vain. The answer came that CaliforniL 
was held as a conquered province, and no title deed 
could be executed. 

And meantime the precious secret leaked out. Sut- 
ter was impelled to write the wonderful news to friends 
at a distance. All the men at the saw-mill knew of 
the discovery. One of them, named Bennett, while in 
a store near Monte del Diablo, pulled out of his pocket 
a bag of gold dust, exclaiming, " I have something 
here which will make this the greatest country in the 
world." The same man took a specimen of the precious 
metal and showed it at San Francisco. A few days 
kiter an intoxicated Swede offered, at a store, to pay 



ALOXG THE SACRAMENTO. 523 

for his drink in gold dust. Then a Mormon must tell 
his fellow-saints of the discovery. So the secret was 
out, and the precious mystery became public. 

Both Sutter and Marshall were backwoodsmen, un- 
sophisticated, child-like, trustful, slow. They hesi- 
tated, they faltered, they delayed mining, and they 
were lost ! Before they fully comprehended the mat- 
ter, the great world had rushed in, and taken posses- 
sion of the treasure. 

In the last issue of The Californian appears this only 
too true statement: "The whole country from San 
Francisco to Los Angeles, and from the seashore to 
the base of the Sierra Nevada, resounds to the sordid cry 
of gold ! GOLD ! ! GOLD ! ! ! while the field is left 
half planted, the house half built, and everything neg- 
lected but the manufacture of shovels and pick-axes, 
and the means of transportation to the spot where one 
man obtained one hundred and twenty-eight dollars' 
worth of the real stuff in one day's washing, and the 
average for all concerned is twenty dollars per diem." 

In the rush Marshall and Sutter were crushed. 

Marshall had little or no money to invest. He was 
particularly unfortunate in locating his small 'claims. 
Worst of all, the miners, knowing him to be the great 
discoverer, followed him en masse, believing that he 
knew the secrets of the hills and rivers: The crowds 
so overwhelmed him, that he had no chance to mine. 
They even threatened to hang him if he did not lead 
them to the finest diggings. In a few^ years after, he 
died, miserable, broken-hearted, poverty-stricken. 

Sutter fared but little better. True, he sold a half- 
interest in his saw-mill for six thousand dollars, and 
he gained something from the mining of his Indians, 

25 ' 



524 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HOUSEBAClC. 

but Salterns Fort was, for the time being, ruined. Let 
him tell the story in his own words. He says : 

<^ My grist mill was never finished. Everything 
was stolen, even the stones. There is a saying that 
men will steal everything but a mile-stone and a mill- 
stone. They stole my mill-stones. They stole the 
bells from the Fort, and gate-weights ; the hides they 
stole, and salmon barrels. I had two hundred barrels 
which I made for salmon. Some of the cannon at the 
fort were stolen. * * My property was all left ex- 
posed, and at the mercy of the rabble, when gold was 
discovered. My men all deserted me. I could not 
shut the gates of my Fort, and keep out the rabble. 
They would have broken them down. The country 
swarmed with lawless men. Emigrants drove their 
stock into my yard, and used my grain with impunity. 
Expostulation did no good. I was alone. There was 
no law.'' 

In face of all these disadvantages he struggled on 
until farm helpers demanded ten dollars per day, then, 
a hopeless old man, he gave up the struggle, and in 
1849, with his Indians, he moved into Hock Farm, 
little dreaming that his Fort was to be the nucleus for 
Sacramento, the second city as to size in California. 

He retired, but his son took the reins out of the 
father's feeble hands, and staked out a town around 
the Old Fort, down to the embarcadero, and along the 
river front, naming the settlement Sacramento. The 
streets were laid out eighty feet wide, except the cen- 
tre one, M street, which was one hundred feet in width. 
The purchasing of more than four lots by one person 
was discouraged. 

At first Sacramento was a " city of tents^ with its 




A CASCADE BY THE ROADSIDE. 



ALO^Q THE SACnAMENTO. 527 

future on paper;" but by April of that year, 1849, 
building lots were selling at from one thousand to 
three thousand dollars a piece ; at that time there were 
twenty-five or thirty stores upon the embarcadero, and, 
in the vicinity of the Fort, eight or ten more. There 
was a hotel, a printing office, bakery, blacksmith's 
shop, tin-shop, billiard room, and bowling alley. 

In that month of April, the city had the honor of 
becoming a port of entry. 

By June of the same year, one hundred houses 
graced the city. 

A few months later the city hotel was completed at 
a cost of one hundred thousand dollars, and rented to 
Messrs. Fowler and Fry for five thousand dollars per 
month. 

In 1850, the scourge of cholera broke out, carrying 
off one-fifth of those remaining in Sacramento. The 
city was full to overflowing with a transient popula- 
tion. Accommodations were scant and primitive, vice 
and disorder prevailed. The disease became rampant. 
Patients at the hospital were charged sixteen dollars 
per day. Then it was that the order of Odd Fellows 
came nobly forward, setting to that plague-stricken 
district an example of charity and philanthropy long 
to be remembered, and accenting the fact " that sim- 
ple duty has no place for fear ! " 

On February 25, 1854, Sacramento was designated 
as the seat of government of California. The dignity 
of being the State capital gave new life to the 
city. Her growth is instanced by the assessment on 
real estate, which rose from $5,400,000 in 1854, to 
J 13,000,000 in twenty years. 

When I rode through, the population was 21,400. 

In 1853 the s<^reets were planked, and provided 



528 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

with sewers. In 1854 a gas company was formed. 
The street railroad came in 1870. There were ten 
churches in the city as I found it. 

The first public school came in 1855, the high 
school in 1856. 

When I was there the city had sustained from time to 
time aboufe forty daily papers and twenty-four weeklies. 

The State Library is a brilliant feature of the place. 
Various large manufacturing interests thrive in the 
city. Its commerce is awe-inspiring. 

Sacramento sent to the east in one year 90,000,000 
pounds of fruit, her entire east-bound shipments being 
over 130,000,000 pounds. 

The annual manufacturing and jobbing trade is 
over $60,000,000. 

Looking at these statistics, one is reminded of the 
magic tent of Prince Ahmed. At first it was no big- 
ger than a nut-shell. Surely it could hold nothing; 
but it did. People flocked to it. Surely it could not 
cover them ; — but it did ! it did ! ! The army flocked 
to it ; — but the tent was elastic. It covered all ; it 
sheltered all ; it welcomed all. 

Has not Sacramento proved itself the magic tent of 
the Golden Age, ready to cover, shelter, welcome the 
whole world should occasion require? 

From Sacramento to San Francisco my route lay 
along the eastern shore of the river, and few halts 
were made between the two cities. I was anxious to 
reach my final destination, as a feeling of fatigue was now 
overcoming me, which, however, only served to stimulate 
and urge me forward. I passed several places that 
strongly tempted a halt for refreshment and rest, and 
finally entered the Western Metropolis on the twenty- 
fourth of November, registering at the Palace Hotel, 




CHAPTER XXX. 

SAN FRANCISCO AND END OF JOURNEY. 

AN FRANCISCO, the chief city on the 
AVestern Coast of North Auierica, is in 
every respect a wonderful city, not least 
so in its origin and development. Not 
very long ago — less than a century — 
the Pacific Coast was almost an un- 
explored region. The great State of 
California — next to Texas, the largest in 
the Union — now teems with populous 
cities and new settlements, and produces meat and 
grain abundantly sufficient for the supply of a large 
portion of the country. It has a coast line on the 
Pacific Ocean of seven hundred miles and, extending 
from the coast, a breadth of three hundred and thirty 
miles. California has also the most wonderful gold 
fields of the world. They were discovered in the 
middle of the last century by the Jesuits, who kept the 
knowledge a secret. 

In 1848, as previously stated, Captain Sutter found 
gold on the land of one of his farms, and the news of 
the discovery at once spread. The excitement ex- 
tended throughout the Union and the "Argonauts of 
'49 " came swarming to the gold fields. People ran 
about picking up the precious lumps as " hogs in a 

(529> 



530 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

forest root for ground-nuts.'* The golden product of 
1848, was 110,000,000; 1849, $40,000,000; and that 
of 1853, $65,000,000. 

Silver mining has been attempted in many localities 
in the State, but generally with poor results. There 
are valuable deposits of iron ore, coal, copper, tin, 
platinum, manganese, asphalt, petroleum, lead and 
zinc. Fruits are abundant, of great size, and are sold 
in all the Eastern markets. 

The constitution of California requires a free school 
to be supported in each district six months in each 
year, and the system includes primary and grammar 
schools, high schools, evening schools, normal schools, 
technical schools, and the State University, which is 
free to both sexes, and is a perpetual public trust. 
The schools of California are justly famous. 

Upper California was discovered in 1538 by a Span- 
ish navigator. In 1578, Sir Francis Drake visited it 
and gave it the name of New Albion. The Spaniards 
planted the first colony in 1768. The territory was 
purchased from Mexico by the United States in 1847 
for $15,000,000. A constitution was adopted in the 
same year, and in 1850, California, without ever hav- 
ing been under a territorial government, was admitted 
into the Union as a State. 

The progress of California has been of the most 
substantial character. Gold mining has become a 
staple industry, but in the agricultural capabilities of 
her soil lie the possibilities of her greatest wealth. 
Among the most valuable of her industries in the 
future will be those of the orchard and the vineyard. 
The grape growers of the State can now sell their 
grapes with as much certainty as the farmer his wheat. 



SAN FRANCISCO AND END OF JOUENEY. 531 

There is sent to the Atlantic coast more wine than 
is imported from France, tlie heretofore wine market 
of the world. 

In Central California a little peninsula juts out from 
the main land, a great harbor is on one side, a great 
ocean on the other. The lofty mountains, lower just 
here, form, as it were, a natural gateway to the great 
interior beyond. 

Here, in 1836, an American named John P. Lease 
settled, and here, in time, a little town called San 
Francisco grew up around him. Two miles to the 
south loomed up the antiquated building of the Catho- 
lic Mission Dolores, with its pretty old gardens. The 
opposite shores of the bay presented a most beautiful 
park-like expanse: the native lawn, brilliant with 
flowers and dotted by eastward bending oaks, watered 
by the creeks of the Alameda, San Lorenzo, Sau 
Leando, and their tributaries, and enclosed by the 
spurs of the Diablo Mountains. 

San Francisco was on the soil of Mexico, under the 
flag of Anahuac, governed by an Alcalde and a sapient 
council, yet the spirit of the United States breathed 
in it, built its stout wooden houses, and thronged its 
busy wharves. Animated by this spirit, it was des- 
tined to become the metropolis of the Pacific, one of 
the noted cities of the globe. 

Before the *' Golden Age," while California was a 
peaceful settlement, of no especial importance, it was 
said that around San Francisco Bay there was raw 
material enough, of different types, to develop a new 
race. 

San Francisco was not in the gold region, but it 
was the gate to that region. 



532 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK, 

Two weeks after Marshall first discovered the 
precious metal, a bag of it was brought to the city for 
aualysis, and one day early in May, 1848, "Samuel 
Brennan, the Mormon leader, held a bottle of gold 
dust in one hand, and jubilantly swinging his hat in 
the other, passed through the streets of San Francisco 
shouting, ' Gold ! Gold !! Gold ! !! from the American 
River !'^' 

This started the enthusiasm, the fever, the madness 
for gold. 

Carson writes his sensations when first looking upon 
a well-filled bag of gold dust. He says: 

"A frenzy seized my soul, unbidden my legs per- 
formed some entirely new movements of polka steps. 
* * Houses were too small for me to stay in. I 
was soon in the street in search of necessary outfits ; 
piles of gold rose up before me at every step." 

All yielded more or less to the subtle influence of 
the malady. Men hastened to arrange their affairs, 
dissolving partnerships, disposing of real estate, and 
converting other effects into ready means for de- 
parture. 

Stores were rummaged for miners' tools. 

One man offered as high as fifty dollars for a shovel. 
l>y the middle of June, San Francisco was without 
male population. The once bustling little town looked 
as if struck by a plague. Sessions of the town council 
were at an end. There were no church services. 
Stores were closed. Newspapers dropped out of exist- 
ence. Merchandise lay unhandled on the docks. The 
sailors deserted the ships that lay at anchor in the bay. 

One day a Peruvian bark came to anchor in the 
port. Amazed at the desolation which he beheldj 



SAJ^ FRA^'C1SC0 AND END OF JOURNEY, 533 

the captain inquired the cause. He was answered, 
*' Everybody has gone northward, where the valleys 
and mountains are of gold." Instantly upon hearing 
this marvellous assertion his own crew joined the in- 
numerable throng. 

The San Francisco Star of May 27, 1848, says: 

" Stores are closed and places of business vacated, a 
large number of houses are tenantless, various kinds of 
mechanical labor suspended or given up entirely, 
and nowhere the pleasant hum of industry salutes the 
ear as of late. * * Everything in San Francisco 
wears a desolate and sombre look ; everywhere all is 
dull, monotonous, dead.'^ 

Apparently the Californian of that day was thor- 
oughly imbued with the saying of the Cyclops, "The 
wise know nothing worth worshipping but wealth." 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company was incor- 
porated in 1847, to sail from New York to New 
Orleans and Chagres, and from Panama to such Pacific 
port as the Secretary of the Navy might designate. 
Later, when the existence of gold in her mines made 
California the cynosure of all eyes, San Francisco was 
decided upon as the western terminus of the route. 

On October 6, 1848, the " California," the first ves- 
sel of this line, steamed out of New York harbor, 
with but a small number of passengers. As this ship 
was intended for use on the Pacific coast alone, she 
was obliged to take the tedious and perilous route 
through the Strait of Magellan to reach her destina- 
tion. Arriving at Panama, she found the Isthmus 
apparently turned into pandemonium. The one time 
dingy, sleepy city of Panama appeared to have fallen 
entirely into the hands of the gold-seekers. Cholera 



534 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

had broken oat with terrible mab'gnity on the banks 
of the Chagres. The panic-stricken travellers were 
fleeing from the disease, some trying to reach the land 
of their desire by an old trail, others were trying to 
make some progress in boats called " longos/' poled by 
naked negroes. The mass of the worn, weary, eager 
wayfarers, however, were waiting as best they might, 
for that vision of hope and comfort, the '^ steamer/' At 
last she reached them, with accommodations for about 
one hundred. She was mobbed by the frantic men, and 
at last when she left port, over four hundred of them 
had embarked upon her, many a man braving that ad- 
venturous voyage, with only a coil of rope or a plank 
for a bed. 

Steerage tickets for the trip are said to have cost 
one thousand dollars, or over. 

After spending four months in her passage, the 
" California " steamed into the Bay of San Francisco, 
February 29, 1849, a day never to be forgotten at the 
Golden Gate! The town was crowded with miners 
wintering there; the ships in the harbor were gay 
with bunting; the guns of the Pacific Squadron 
boomed out a salute to the new-comers. Bands of 
music played, handkerchiefs waved, and men cheered 
in their enthusiasm, as the first steamship of a regular 
line entered the Golden Gate, in pursuit of the treas- 
ures of the " Golden Age." 

That ship bore to California the new military com- 
mander. General Persifor F. Smith. 

So hiffh ran the fever for treasure, that before the 
passengers had fairly left the steamer, she was deserted 
by all belonging to her, save one engineer, and she 
was consequently unable to start on her return trip. 






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SAN FEANCISCO AND END OF JOURNEY. 537 

Nor was It alone the '* California " which was de- 
serted. Five hundred ships lay in the San Francisco 
Harbor deserted, the crews, wild for gold, carrying off 
the ship's boats in their eagerness to reach land ; very 
often the commander leading, or at least joining in the 
fliglit. Many vessels that year were left to rot ; many 
were dragged on shore and used as lodging houses. 

In the spring, San Francisco seemed deserted, only 
two thousand inhabitants being left. The heart of the 
city began to quail. Thousands thronging through 
her harbor, yet so few to stay ! But winter brought 
the miners back to civilization again, and the popula- 
tion swelled to twenty thousand. 

San Francisco was at this time mainly a city of 
tents, although there was a sprinkling of adobe houses, 
and a few frame buildings. It was a community of 
men. The census of 1850 show^ed that only eight per 
cent, of the population were women. It was, more- 
over, a community of young men; scarcely a grey 
head was to be seen in it. 

Men were there from all the European nations, 
together with Moors and Abyssinians from Africa, 
Mongols, Malays, and Hindoos from Asia and Aus- 
tralia. Turks, Hebrews, and Hispano-Americans 
jostled the ubiquitous Yankee, in the new streets of 
San Francisco. 

The predominant dress, we are told, was "checked 
and woollen shirts, mainly red and blue, open at the 
bosom which could boast of shaggy robustness, or 
^sely secured by a kerchief; pantaloons tucked into 
^igh and wrinkled boots, and belted at the waist, 
where bristled an arsenal of knife and pistols. Beard 
and hair emancipated from thraldom, revelled in long 



538 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

and bushy tufts, which rather harmonized with the 
slouched and dingy hat. * * The gamblers affected 
the Mexican style of dress, white shirt with diamond 
studs, chain of native golden specimens, broad-brimmed 
hat, with sometimes a feather or squirrel's tail tucked ^ 
under the brim, top-boots, and a rich scarlet sash or 
silk handkerchief thrown over the shoulder, or wound 
around the waist." 

They were a buoyant race, brave, intrepid, light- 
hearted — above all things free from restraint. 

They had braved all hardships and dangers to reach 
the land of their desire. They had reached there 
safely, however, and they exulted. They overflowed 
with activity; they worked jubilantly and untiringly. 

They shouted, they fought, they gambled, in their 
moments of recreation, intoxicated with the bracing 
climate, with their excitement of success, and with that 
rollicking freedom which threw off all shackles of cus- 
tom or self-restraint. 

They worshipped success, and greatness with them 
meant '^ fitness to grasp opportunity ! " 

In their eyes the unpardonable sin was meanness. 

Fifty cents was the smallest sum which could be 
offered for the most trivial of services. 

Laborers obtained a dollar an hour, artisans twenty 
dollars per day. Laundry expenses exceeded the 
price of new underwear. 

They loved grandeur. Bootblacks carried on business 
in prettily fitted up recesses furnished with cushioned 
chairs, and containing a liberal supply of newspapers. 

It was over such a San Francisco that the frightful 
plague of cholera swept in 1850, carrying with it a 
lesser plague of suicide. 




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SAN FRANCISCO AND KND OF JOURNEY. 541 

Doctors' fees were from sixteen to thirty-two dollars 
per visit, while for a surgical operation one thousand 
dollars was the usual price. 

In spite of plague and death, that part of San Fran- 
cisco which escaped continued to be jubilant. 

Bull fights were in high favor, and the stage, though 
crude, was very popular, but the great, enchanting de- 
light of the city was gambling. Money, gold, jewelry, 
houses, land and wharves were all put up to be gam- 
bled for. The city abounded with men of elegant 
manners and striking dress, who were professional 
gamblers. It was indeed an advance in civilization 
and morality when in September, 1850, a law was 
passed forbidding this pastime on the Sabbath day. 

The news that California had been admitted as a 
State in the Union reached San Francisco on the morn- 
ing of October 18, 1850, when the "Oregon '' entered the 
harbor, flying all her bunting, and signalling the good 
news. Business was suspended ; courts were ad- 
journed ; and the whole population, frenzied with de- 
light, congregated on Portsmouth Square to congratu- 
late each other. Newspapers containing the intelli- 
gence from Washington sold for five dollars each ! 
The shipping in the harbor was gaily dressed with 
flags ; guns boomed from the heights ; bonfires blazed 
at night ; processions were formed ; bands played ; and 
the people in every way expressed their joy. Mount- 
ing his box behind six fiery mustangs lashed to highest 
speed, the driver of CrandalFs Stage cried the good 
news all the way to San Jose — "California is ad- 
mitted ! ! " while a ringing cheer was returned by the 
people as the mail flew by. 

The awaking of San Francisco during the five or 



542 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HOBSEBACK. 

six years following the discovery of gold was won- 
derful. *' Hills were tumbled into the hay, and niu<i 
flats were made solid ground." Streets were graded, 
handsome buildings were erected, and San Francisco 
began to rank among the first cities of the land. So 
valuable was her water-front that, in 1853, four small 
blocks on Commercial street sold for over 1,000,000 
dollars. The assessed valuation of property that year 
was about 10,000,000 dollars over that of the pre- 
vious year. 

The population was then estimated at about 50,000; 
that being about one-seventh of the then population of 
the State. 

The city had, at this time, 1856, seventeen fire com- 
panies, twelve military companies, and a number of 
social clubs, four hospitals, seventeen public schools, 
thirty-two church organizations, thirteen daily news- 
papers, and as many weeklies published in half a 
dozen different languages. 

From that time she has continued ever increasing, 
ever justifying her title of the metropolis of the Pacific. 

Her City Hall is one of the grandest buildings on the 
Continent. Its construction cost 6,000,000 dollars. 
It stands five hundred and fifty feet on Larkin street, 
seven hundred on McAllister street, and eight hun- 
dred and sixty feet on Park avenue. 

The Mint at San Francisco is the largest one in the 
United States. Its architecture is Doric, and it is con- 
structed of freestone and California granite. 

San Francisco is supplied with water from several 
large reservoirs, having a united capacity of seventy 
billion gallons. Her harbor could accommodate the 
shipping of the whole world. 



3AN- FHANCISCO AND END OF JOURNEY. 643 

Her commerce is immense. The trade of the West- 
ern Coast from Chili to Alaska is her natural heritage, 
and she can justly claim a fair, large share from China, 
Japan, India, Australia and the islands of the sea. 

She has eighty-one public schools, sixty-nine clubs, 
nine public libraries, one hundred and fourteen 
churches, and thirty public parks and ornamental 
plazas. 

What words could more aptly describe the career of 
San Francisco than those lately written by Governor 
Mark ham? 

" Originally San Francisco consisted of wind-swept 
bills, the shifting sands of which seemed to defy either 
stability or cultivation. Now those hills, graded hj 
pick and shovel, are gridironed by streets and rail- 
ways, and crowned with the magnificent buildings of 
a populous city, or transformed by the magic of water 
and patient tillage into miles of verdant park, dotted 
by miniature lakes, ribboned with gravel driv^es, 
crowded with grottoes, statuary, conservatories, and 
ornamental buildings, enriched by luxuriant shrub- 
bery and brilliant flowers, the wonder of the tourist, 
and a delight to her contented people.'^ 

There are larger and more populous cities in 
America than San Francisco, but few more deserving 
the designation of a Great City. Tire energies of her 
people, tlie prodigal wealth of her territory, and her 
singularly equable and temperate climate, form a suf- 
ficient guarantee of the increasing greatness of her 
future. 

Finding my quarters at the hotel comfortable and 
restful after the strain I had endured as the result of 



544 OCEAN TO OCEAN ON HORSEBACK. 

two hundred days of rough riding, I deferred ter- 
minating my journey until two days later. It will 
be remembered that I undertook to ride from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific in the saddle, and hence my tour 
would not be literally completed before I reached the 
shores of the Pacific. Accordingly on the twenty-sixth 
of November I remounted and rode to the Cliff House, 
a romantic resort built on a rocky prominence overlook- 
ing the ocean. From here I descended the Toll Road 
to the sandy beach. A westerly breeze rolled the 
breakers up to the feet of my horse, and I forthwith 
walked him into the waters of the Pacific. My self- 
imposed task — my iournev from Ocean to Ooea.q* 
t>s HoiiSEBACK — was accomplished. 



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