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* ; 










olume 26, Number 4, Winter 1983/84 








V 



Oceanography 
in China 






til 



Oceanus 

The Magazine of Marine Science and Policy 

Volume 26, Number 4, Winter 1983/84 



Paul R. Ryan, Editor 
Michael B. Downing, Assistant Editor 
Elizabeth Miller, Editorial Assistant 
Polly Shaw, Advertising 




1930 



Editorial Advisory Board 



Henry Charnock, Professor of Physical Oceanography, University of Southampton, England 

Edward D. Goldberg, Professor of Chemistry, Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Gotthilf Hempel, Director of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, West Germany 

Charles D. Hollister, Dean of Graduate Studies, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

John Imbrie, Henry L. Doherty Professor of Oceanography, Brown University 

John A. Knauss, Provost for Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island 

Arthur E. Maxwell, Director of the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas 

Robert V. Ormes, Associate Publisher, Science 

Timothy R. Parsons, Professor, Institute of Oceanography, University of British Columbia, Canada 

Allan R. Robinson, Gordon McKay Professor of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Harvard University 

David A. Ross, Senior Scientist, Department of Geology and Geophysics; Sea Grant Coordinator; and 

Director of the Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program, Woods Hole Oceanographic 

Institution 



Published by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Charles F. Adams, Chairman, Board of Trustees 
Paul M. Eye, President of the Corporation 
James S. Coles, President of the Associates 



John H. Steele, Director of the Institution 

The views expressed in Oceanus are those of the authors and do not 
necessarily reflect those of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 



Permission to photocopy for 
internal or personal use or the 
internal or personal use of specific 
clients is granted by Oceanus 
magazine to libraries and other 
users registered with the 
Copyright Clearance Center 
(CCC), provided that the base fee 
of $2.00 per copy of the article, 
plus .05 per page is paid directly to 
CCC, 21 Congress Street, Salem, 
MA 01970. Special requests should 
be addressed to Oceanus 
magazine. 
ISSN 0029-8182/83 $2.00 + .05 



Editorial correspondence: Oceanus magazine, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543. Telephone (617) 548-1400, ext. 2386. 

Subscription correspondence: All subscriptions, single copy orders, and change-of-address 
information should be addressed to Oceanus Subscription Department, 1440 Main Street, Waltham, 
MA 02254. Telephone (617) 893-3800, ext. 258. Please make checks payable to Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. Subscription rate: $20 for one year. Subscribers outside the U.S. add $3 per 
year handling charge; checks accompanying foreign orders must be payable in U.S. currency and 
drawn on a U.S. bank. Current copy price, $4.75; forty percent discount on current copy orders of five 
or more. When sending change of address, please include mailing label. Claims for missing numbers 
will not be honored later than 3 months after publication; foreign claims, 5 months. For information on 
back issues, see inside back cover. 

POSTMASTER: Please send Form 3579 to Oceanus, 93 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543. 



1930 



come 
aboard 
yourself 

now! 



Institute of Oceanology in the 
I China gives a brief sketch of the 
line science in his country, 
Itages. 

I: U.S.-China 

|i in Oceanography 

es the Chinese with access to 
logy not previously available; 
pens a market for 
ceanographic equipment. 

of Oceanography in China 

players in the marine science 
rrelate. 



hver: 

and Future 

pn, Chen Ji-yu, Yang 

?n Mei-o 

/er in the world in terms of 

Yangtze is a source of 

critical to maintaining China's 



lution of the 
ist China Seas 

the geological makeup of the 
\evea\ its potential for petroleum 



Strategies in China 

\8 

jnese society and its agricultural 
iber of parallels with the way 
kolve, function, and interrelate. 



2 

hrtt 



Ividrme 



tion in China 




by D. A. Wolfe, M. A. Champ, F. A. Cross, 
D. R. Kester, P. K. Park, and R. L. Swanson 
China's first marine environmental law was enacted 
in 1983 and is a direct result of the re-emergence of 
environmental consciousness in that country. 

A o Oceanographic Factors 
and Seaweed Distribution 

by C. K. Tseng 

The Oceanographic factors influencing the 
distribution of seaweeds along China's coasts are not 
well understood even though it presents an 
important problem in the field of marine biology. 




Walter H. Munk: 
57 Unifier of 
Ocean Fields 

by Bill Sargent 

He has worked with, and 

influenced, some of the 

world's most eminent 

oceanographers and has 

inspired a generation of 

students. 



High Sea Levels 
63 And Temperatures 
Seen Next Century 

by Paul R. Ryan 
National Research Council 
report presents somber view 
of CO 2 problem. 

U.S. -Mexican Parley 
68 Debates Relations on 
Marine Resources 

by Biliana Cicin-Sain, 
Michael K. Orbach, and 
Jorge A. Vargas 
Frank talks center on Law 
of the Sea, tuna, and 
marine science issues. 



71 

INDEX 

78 
Cover: 

Fluttering in shallow water as 
they please - carp by Shi 
Yuan Feng. Courtesy of 
Ronald D. Zweig. 

Copyright 1983 by the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution. Oceanus (ISSN 
0029-8182) is published 
quarterly by the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, 
93 Water Street, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts 02543. 
Second-class postage paid at 
Falmouth, Massachusetts, 
and additional mailing 
points. 




Oceanus 

The Magazine of Marine Science and Policy 

Volume 26, Number 4, Winter 1983/84 



Paul R. Ryan, Editor 
Michael B. Downing, Assistant Editor 
Elizabeth Miller, Editorial Assistant 
Polly Shaw,/Adverf/s/ng 



Editorial Advisory Board 

Henry Charnock, Professor of Physical Oceanography, University ofSouthamp 
Edward D. Goldberg, Professor of Chemistry, Scripps Institution of Oceanogra, 
Gotthilf Hempel, Director of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar Research, W 
Charles D. Hollister, Dean of Graduate Studies, Woods Hole Oceanographic Ir 
John lmbrie,/-/enry L. Doherty Professor of Oceanography, Brown University 
John A. Knauss, Provost for Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island 
Arthur E. Maxwell, Director of the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas 
Robert V. Ormes, Associate Publisher, Science 

Timothy R. Parsons, Professor, Institute of Oceanography, University of British 
Allan R. Robinson, Gordon McKay Professor of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, H 
David A. Ross, Senior Scientist, Department of Geology and Geophysics; Sea C 
Director of the Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program, Woods Hole G 
Institution 



Published by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Charles E. Adams, Chairman, Board of Trustees 
Paul M. Eye, President of the Corporation 
James S. Coles, President of the Associates 



John H. Steele, Director of the Institution 

The views expressed in Oceanus are those of the authors and do not 
necessarily reflect those of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 



Per 
int< 

inli 

cli 

ma 

use 

Co, 

(C( 

of 3 

plu 

CC 

M-A 

be 

ma 

ISS 



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1930 

"Outside U.S. rates are $23 for 
one year, $41 for two, $59 for 
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dollars and drawn on a U.S. 
bank. 



Editorial correspondence: Oceanus magazine, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543. Telephone (617) 548-1400, ext. 2386. 

Subscription correspondence: All subscriptions, single copy orders, and change-of-address 
information should be addressed to Oceanus Subscription Department, 1440 Main Street, Waltham, 
MA 02254. Telephone (617) 893-3800, ext. 258. Please make checks payable to Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. Subscription rate: $20 for one year. Subscribers outside the U.S. add $3 per 
year handling charge; checks accompanying foreign orders must be payable in U.S. currency and 
drawn on a U.S. bank. Current copy price, $4.75; forty percent discount on current copy orders of five 
or more. When sending change of address, please include mailing label. Claims for missing numbers 
will not be honored later than 3 months after publication; foreign claims, 5 months. For information on 
back issues, see inside back cover. 

POSTMASTER: Please send Form 3579 to Oceanus, 93 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543. 








nm 




2 Comment 

3 Preface 

by C. K. Tseng 

The Director of the Institute of Oceanology in the 
People's Republic of China gives a brief sketch of the 
development of marine science in his country, 
especially the early stages. 

Q Introduction: U.S.-China 

Collaboration in Oceanography 

by Ned A. Ostenso 

Collaboration provides the Chinese with access to 

contemporary technology not previously available; 

at the same time, it opens a market for 

U.S. -manufactured oceanographic equipment. 

1 3 The Structure of Oceanography in China 

by James Churgin 

A look at how all the players in the marine science 

picture in China interrelate. 

The Yangtze River: 
Past, Present, and Future 

by John D. Milliman, Chen Ji-yu, Yang 

Zuo-shang, and Ren Mei-o 

The fourth largest river in the world in terms of 

sediment load, the Yangtze is a source of 

nutrient-rich waters critical to maintaining China's 

agriculture. 



26 



Tectonic Evolution of the 
Yellow and East China Seas 

by K. O. Emery 

Present research into the geological makeup of the 

East China Sea may reveal its potential for petroleum 

exploration. 

33 Aquaculture Strategies in China 

by Ronald D. Zweig 

The structure of Chinese society and its agricultural 
strategies have a number of parallels with the way 
natural ecosystems evolve, function, and interrelate. 

40 Marine Pollution in China 

by D. A. Wolfe, M. A. Champ, F. A. Cross, 
D. R. Kester, P. K. Park, and R. L. Swanson 
China's first marine environmental law was enacted 
in 1983 and is a direct result of the re-emergence of 
environmental consciousness in that country. 

40 Oceanographic Factors 
and Seaweed Distribution 

by C. K. Tseng 

The oceanographic factors influencing the 
distribution of seaweeds along China's coasts are not 
well understood even though it presents an 
important problem in the field of marine biology. 




Walter H.Munk: 
57 Unifier of 
Ocean Fields 

by Bill Sargent 

He has worked with, and 

influenced, some of the 

world's most eminent 

oceanographers and has 

inspired a generation of 

students. 



High Sea Levels 
63 And Temperatures 
Seen Next Century 

by Paul R. Ryan 
National Research Council 
report presents somber view 
of CO 2 problem. 

U.S. -Mexican Parley 
68 Debates Relations on 
Marine Resources 

by Biliana Cicin-Sain, 
Michael K. Orbach, and 
Jorge A. Vargas 
Frank talks center on Law 
of the Sea, tuna, and 
marine science issues. 



71 

INDEX 

78 
Cover: 

Fluttering in shallow water as 
they please - carp by Shi 
Yuan Feng. Courtesy of 
Ronald D. Zweig. 

Copyright 1983 by the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution. Oceanus (ISSN 
0029-8182) is published 
quarterly by the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, 
93 Water Street, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts 02543. 
Second-class postage paid at 
Falmouth, Massachusetts, 
and additional mailing 
points. 




In October of 1983, the nation's oldest and largest 
academic institution devoted to oceanography, the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, held special 
ceremonies to celebrate its 80th anniversary. In 1980, 
the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), 
the nation's largest independent institution devoted 
to oceanography, took pride in celebrating its 50th 
year of marine research. We think it only fitting at this 
time to point out some of the history and 
achievements of our worthy rival sister in faraway, 
sunny southern California. 

Institutionally, Scripps is a graduate school of 
the University of California, San Diego. Its affiliation 
with the University of California goes back to 1912, 
some five decades before the undergraduate campus 
was established in La Jolla. 

At the turn of the century, University of 
California zoology professor William E. Ritter was 
leading summer excursions along the California 
coast, conducting the first biological surveys of that 
state's shoreline. He came to San Diego in 1903 at the 
urging of physician Fred Baker, an amateur 
conchologist, who had raised $1,200 from the local 
business community to sponsor Ritter's group and 
had arranged for the use of a boathouse at the Hotel 
del Coronado. 

The success of that summer's work and the 
enthusiasm of Baker, Ellen Browning Scripps, her 
brother E. W. Scripps, and other prominent San 
Diegans, led to the establishment of the Marine 
Biological Association of San Diego on 26 September 
1903, which officially marks the start of Scripps. The 
summer field studies continued in a small wooden 
building in La Jolla Cove park until 1910 when the first 
laboratory/classroom building was completed at the 
institution's present location in La )olla Shores. The 
Ritters made this their full-time residence. 

In 1912, the marine station was transferred to 
the University of California and renamed Scripps 
Institution for Biological Research, which by then 
had become a year-round facility. 

Research studies during the institution's early 
years concentrated on nearshore marine animals and 
plants, with emphasis on classification, distribution, 
and the ocean environment. Short cruises were 
taken on rented or borrowed ships, including yachts 
owned by E. W. Scripps, and from 1907 to 1916 on the 
Alexander Agassiz, an 85-foot research ship built with 
funds provided by Ellen Scripps. The first doctoral 
degree was awarded in 1919. 

Ritter, a writer, naturalist, and biological 
philosopher, directed the institution for 20 years, 
until his retirement in 1923. 

T. Wayland Vaughan became director in early 
1924, at a time when the focus of the institution's 
research was broadening to aspects of the oceans 
other than biology. Its name was changed to reflect 
this in 1925 to Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Vaughan retired in 1936, and his successor as 
director was Harald U. Sverdrup, a Norwegian 
physical oceanographer. The boatScnpps burned in 



San Diego in late 1936, and Sverdrup convinced 
Robert P. Scripps to purchase a luxurious 104-foot 
sailing schooner for the institution. Renamed E. W. 
Scripps, it began taking monthly voyages to gather 
data along the California coast. 

The war changed Scripps, and with the 
infusion of funds from the federal government, 
especially the Navy, oceanography became a richer 
and larger branch of American science. Scripps's staff 
increased, new buildings were added, new research 
ships acquired, and a great variety of equipment was 
developed. The vast experience gained during World 
War II caused Scripps administrators to expand the 
scientific investigations beyond California's coast to 
all the world's oceans with emphasis on the Pacific. 

Sverdrup left Scripps Institution in 1948, and 
for two years Carl Eckart, who had been with the 
Division of War Research and later director of its 
successor, the Marine Physical Laboratory, served as 
director of Scripps. Eckart considered the post 
temporary, and yielded it readily to Roger Revelle, a 
1936 Scripps graduate who had been a prominent 
figure in the Navy's oceanographic research efforts. 

Revelle left Scripps in 1964, and for one year, 
geophysicist Fred N. Spiess served as director while 
continuing as the director of the Marine Physical 
Laboratory. In 1965, William A. Nierenberg became 
the seventh director of the institution. 

A physicist, Nierenberg has urged the use of 
sophisticated equipment and instrumentation for 
oceanographic studies, increasing computer 
capabilities and the use of satellite remote sensing 
data. 

It would require considerably more space 
than we have available here to list the many 
contributions of Scripps to the development of 
oceanography over the last 80 years. One of its 
greatest contributions, however, is its progeny. 
Several are world leaders in research and directors of 
institutions. Others have major roles in the 
development of such organizations. C. K. Tseng, 
who has written the preface to this issue, is a case in 
point. Director of the Institute of Oceanology, 
Academic Sinica, in China, he worked as a Research 
Associate at Scripps from 1943 to 1946 following 
studies at the University of Michigan. 

Today, Scripps is comprised of about 1 ,200 
people, including 84 faculty members (14 emeritus) 
and nearly 200 graduate students. The annual 
institutional budget is about $68 million, with 
approximately 75 percent derived from federal 
contracts and grants. Among many anniversary 
congratulatory letters, including one from President 
Reagan, wasone from Rear Admiral L. S. Kollmorgen, 
Chief of Naval Research: "Your 80th ... is one that 
clearly shows Scripps to be looking forward, 
broaching frontiers throughout the ocean, never for 
a moment permitting a hint of complacency from 
well-deserved laurels." 

Oceanus salutes this fine research center on 
its 80th anniversary. We hope that the relations 
between our two great institutions will continue in a 
spirit of friendly rivalry and genuine cooperation in 
the exploration and understanding of our oceans. 

Paul R. Ryan 




PREFACE 

by C. K. Tseng 

Director, Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, 
People's Republic of China 



I he devotion of this issue of Oceanus to Chinese 
oceanography is, indeed, a great honor rendered to 
the oceanographers of China. I greatly appreciate the 
invitation of John Steele, Director of the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, to write the preface for 
this special issue. 

China is an old cou ntry and for the last 1 ,000 or 
more years there have been distinguished naturalists 
who have collected and described marine plants and 
animals, investigating their functions, and observing, 
explaining, and predicting tidal phenomena. There 
also were expert navigators who investigated 
oceanographic conditions in the seas they visited. 
For instance, in the years 1405 to 1433, the Chinese 
minister Zheng He (Cheng Ho) commanded a fleet of 
some 200 ships the largest about 3,000 tons 
displacement and conducted seven expeditions to 
the South China Sea and Indian Ocean as far as 
Madagascar and East Africa. Data on the depth of 
different parts of the seas and the nature of the 
seafloor were collected en route and the sea routes 
were mapped. 

The invention of the compass, and later, the 
application of the compass to navigation 
(approximately 1,000 years ago) undoubtedly 
reflected necessity, considering the thriving 
navigational activities in China at that time. 

In terms of modern oceanography, however, 
China is a very young partner in the world of this 
science. Chinese marine scientists had a very late 
start in their marine research activities. Perhaps 
a very brief sketch of the development of 
oceanography in China will not be out of place here, 
especially its early stages, which are not well known 
even in China today. 

Oceanography in Old China 

In the early 1920s, two of China's first-generation 
biologists joined the staff of the University of Amoy 



(now spelled Xiamen), the first university situated in a 
coastal city. They painstakingly built up a large 
collection of Chinese animal and plant specimens, 
including marine forms, and trained a few young 
scientists in marine biology, thus laying the 
foundation for further development in the field. In 
1929, an experimental biologist came to the 
University and used the abundant marine plants and 
animals for experimental studies. A few other 
biologists in China shared the same idea, and in 1931 , 
the Marine Biological Association of China, based at 
the University of Amoy, was inaugurated. During the 
next three years, summer workshops for marine 
biological studies were conducted in Amoy. Three 
annual reports were published by the Association 
from 1932 to 1934, and the Marine Biological Station 
of the University published two volumes of the Amoy 
Marine Biological Bulletin from 1936 to 1937. In 1933, 
the marine biologists of Amoy University undertook 
a brief survey of the marine plants and animals of the 
Dongsha Island (better known in the West as Pratas 
Island). Thus, Xiamen became the first center of 
marine biology in China. 

In another coastal city, Qingdao (formerly 
spelled Tsingtao), another university was 
established, the National Shandong (formerly 
spelled Shantung) University. With an experimental 
biologist and two marine biologists joining the 
Department of Biology in 1934 and 1935, respectively, 
Qingdao soon became a rival center of marine 
biological studies. In 1936, after the suspension of 
the activities of the Marine Biological Association, a 
meeting of the representatives of some natural- 
science societies, such as the Chinese Zoological 



Above, workers evaluate ovulation and spermatogenesis of 
abalone and scallops in breeding tanks at Qingdao. (Xinhua 
News Agency [XNA] ) 



Society and the Chinese Botanical Society, was 
called. A decision was made to establish a Chinese 
Institute of Marine Sciences and to use left-over 
funds from the Marine Biological Association to 
construct a building in 1937 for the Institute. The 
building was completed after the occupation of 
Qingdao by Japanese invaders who used the building 
to house a museum. 

In 1935, the first oceanographic survey of any 
part of the China Sea involving hydrography and 
marine biological investigation by Chinese scientists 
was conducted by the National Central Academy of 
Sciences in the Bohai Sea. In 1936, a similar survey 
was conducted by the National Peiping Academy of 
Sciences in the Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao. Reports on 
these surveys were later published by these two 
organizations. 

Besides the previously mentioned works, all 
primarily concerned with marine biology, there also 
were some studies in the late 1920s and 1930s 
devoted to delta geology, such as the Changjiang 
(Yangtze River) and the Zhujiang (Pearl River) deltas, 
coral reefs along the China coast, and the influence 
of southeast monsoons on the rainfall of China. In 
the 1930s, the Qingdao Bureau of Meteorology also 
established a marine department to study tides and 
water-temperature changes in the local area. Thus, in 
1937, it seemed that China was ready to enter a new 
stage in the development of oceanography. In fact, in 
July, 1937, my assistant and I were on Hainan Island 
making the necessary preparations for carrying on an 
investigation of the marine flora of the Xisha Islands 
(better known in the West as the Paracel Islands). 
With the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in July, 
1937, all efforts by Chinese scientists to develop 
oceanography were in vain. The two coastal 
universities moved inland. Practically all activities in 
the marine sciences were suspended. 

In the Fall of 1946, after the cessation of 
hostilities, Amoy University and Shandong 
University moved back to their original sites. Both 
were actively engaged in the establishment of an 
Institute of Oceanography. Owing to a lack of 
adequate support by the government, very little 
research activity was conducted from 1947 to 1949, 
and this was concerned with the investigation of 
coastal plants and animals, phytoplankton, and 
experimental embryology of marine animals. 
However, in both universities, we successfully 
offered a course in oceanography, and at the 
Shandong University, courses on marine phycology 
and economic phycology also were offered. During 
the same period, a new institute the Central 
Fisheries Research Institute was established in 
Shanghai, primarily for marine fisheries research. 
Generally speaking, during the first three post-war 
years government support was very inadequate and 
the recovery process very slow. 

Oceanography in New China 

With the founding of the People's Republic of China 
in October, 1949, new social orders were soon 
established, normal economics recovered, and the 
importance of science and technology was 
recognized by the new government. Since then, 
funds have been more adequately allocated to the 



cause of scientific research. Four periods in the 
development of oceanography in new China may be 
distinguished. 

The first period, 7950 fo 7956, may be regarded 
as the founding stage in the development of China's 
oceanography. In old China, most of the marine 
scientists were biologists. When it was decided to 
establish a marine research organization in the newly 
organized Chinese Academy of Sciences (Academia 
Sinica) in 1950, only a small number of marine 
biologists could be found on the mainland. 
Therefore, in 1950, a marine biological laboratory was 
organized in Qingdao, first as a department in the 
Institute of Hydrobiology and later, beginning in 
1954, as an independent organization in Academia 
Sinica. 

In 1952, the Department of Oceanography of 
Amoy University was merged with the small group of 
oceanographers at Shandong University with the aim 
of training students of physical oceanography and 
creating a Department of Oceanography. This 
department eventually became the nucleus for the 
founding of the Shandong College of Oceanology 
in 1959. 

In 1950, the Central Fisheries Research 
Institute also was moved from Shanghai to Qingdao. 
Therefore, in the founding stage of China's 
oceanography, marine-research activities were 
centered around marine biology. Achievements 
were made in the studies of marine fauna and flora, 
on basic studies in mariculture, especially in the 
solution of some crucial problems relating to 
Laminaria mariculture devising methods of 
summer sporeling cultivation, open-sea fertilizer 
application, and extending commercial cultivation 
southward on basic biological studies in 
experimental embryology of Branchiostroma and 
ascidians and in the life history of Porphyra, and on 
investigations of the mackerel fishing ground in the 
North Huanghai (Yellow) Sea, including 
hydrography, plankton ecology, and mackerel 
biology. 

The second period, 7956 to 1964, the growing 
stage of China's oceanography, is marked by the 
drafting and execution of the national 12-year plan 
for the development of science and technology, in 
which oceanography is one of the important items. 
Several important events occurred. The Academia 
Sinica Marine Biological Laboratory was to serve 
as the nucleus for the establishment of an 
oceanological institute. A few dozen new college 
graduates with various training such as in physical 
oceanography, marine biology, geology, chemistry, 
and geography were assigned to this laboratory in 
1956. The institute was allocated a ship to be 
remodeled into a research vessel. In 1957, 
remodeling of the ship was completed, giving birth 
to China's first oceanographic research vessel, the 
R/V Venus, which took part in a survey of the North 
Huanghai Sea and Bohai Sea in the latter part of the 
year. In the same year, the Marine Biological 
Laboratory was expanded into the Academia Sinica 
Institute of Marine Biology, which was further 

Right, evidence of flourishing fisheries in Chanchiang, a 
southern port city. (Hsinhua News Agency [HNA]) 




View of Shanghai from Whangpoo River. (Photo by loan Cohen) 



expanded into the Academia Sinica Institute of 
Oceanology in January, 1959 at the time, the only 
oceanological research institution in China with 
various training departments, including biology, 
chemistry, geology, and physical oceanography. 

Another measure taken was to establish, 
under the management of the National Bureau of 
Meteorology, a series of coastal stations of various 
sizes to keep records of local oceanographic 
conditions and to organize a special survey group 
with a vessel to take regular transectional records of 
some parts of the sea between selected points. In 
1963, the latter survey group, with the vessel, was 
transferred to the Academia Sinica Institute of 
Oceanology. 

In the 1960s, the Academia Sinica Institute of 
Acoustics set up a few marine stations for marine 
acoustics research. By this time, the need for a 
large group of marine scientists for the future 
development of China's oceanography was 
apparent, and therefore the Shandong College of 
Oceanology was founded in the Spring of 1959, 
based in the Department of Oceanography and 
supported by the marine scientists from the other 
departments of Shandong University. At the time, it 
was the only educational institution for the training 
of marine scientists. In the early 1960s, within the 
framework of the Academia Sinica, four more units 
concerning oceanographic research were 
established, mostly affiliated to some degree with the 
Institute of Oceanology. Thus, in this and the 
previous period, Academia Sinica was the principal 
agency involved in oceanographic research. 

In accordance with the 12-year plan, it was 
decided that a general oceanographic survey of the 



China Sea including the Bohai Sea, the Huanghai 
Sea, and the East China Sea west of 124 degrees 
North, and the South China Sea west of 17 degrees 
North would be undertaken. A national 
committee was organized to mobilize teachers and 
students in universities and colleges in the coastal 
provinces, and ships belonging to research 
institutes, including fisheries ships and the Navy, to 
participate in the China Sea oceanographic survey, 
which started in 1958 and took about three years to 
finish. As a result of the survey, we have a better idea 
of the general oceanographic conditions in these 
areas, including hydrography, currents, tides, 
chemistry, geology, plankton, benthos, nekton, and 
fisheries resources. 

After the general oceanographic survey, a 
series of multidisciplinary oceanographic 
investigations (especially surveys of fishing grounds) 
was conducted and studies made on the biology 
and population sizes of the food fish yellow croakers 
Pseudosciaena, the hair-tail Trichiurus, and the 
Japanese mackerel Pneumatophorus and the food 
crustaceans Penaeus and Acetes ; suggestions for the 
management of these fisheries resources were 
submitted. In mariculture, studies on Laminaria 
genetics and breeding, and further studies on 
fertilizing Laminaria farms and on enhancing 
production, were successfully conducted. Methods 
were devised utilizing modified floating rafts for the 
commercial cultivation of Porphyra at the 
conchocelis and conchospores stages. Success was 
achieved, in 1960, in the laboratory culture of the 
Chinese shrimp Penaeus orientalis and its different 
larval stages under controlled conditions, forming a 
basis for later development of commercial 



cultivation. A method of preventing growth of 
ship-bottom fouling organisms, especially barnacles 
and mussels, was devised. 

The third period, 7965 to 1978, may be 
regarded as the partial expanding stage in the 
development of China's oceanography, 
characterized by the establishment of the National 
Bureau of Oceanography and the participation of the 
governmental ministries of Geology and Petroleum 
Industry. By 1963, the 12-year plan drafted in 1956 was 
nearly accomplished, and a new 10-year plan for the 
Development of Science and Technology was 
proposed. While discussing the new plan, it became 
evident that a governmental agency for 
oceanography, similar to that for meteorology, was 
needed. A concrete proposal by a group of senior 
marine scientists was forwarded to the national 
government. 



Accordingly, the National Bureau of 
Oceanography was set up in late 1964 as a 
governmental agency and started to function in 1965. 
In order to support the National Bureau of 
Oceanography so that it could carry on its function, 
the Academia Sinica decided to transfer to it three of 
the five units engaged in oceanographic research; 
the Institute of Oceanology also decided to transfer 
the marine acoustics group and the transectional 
survey group together with its research vessel to the 
National Bureau of Oceanography. The National 
Bureau of Meteorology rendered support by 
transferring its coastal oceanographic stations to the 
National Bureau of Oceanography. Other 
governmental agencies, especially the Navy, also 
rendered generous help. Thus, soon after its setup, 
the National Bureau of Oceanography had under its 
organization five research units and one 






Coastal city, Xiamen, in 
Fujian Province. (Photo by 
Joan Cohen) 




Ongoing industrialization at 
the port of Dalian. (Photo by 
Joan Cohen) 



8*- 







N ^, 






' " ^oT 

r- ~K ' 




Shima Fishing Production Brigade at work in the East China 
Sea. (HNA) 

transectional survey group as well as a number 
of ships. 

From the preliminary tectonic studies of the 
China Sea by the young marine geologists of 
Academia Sinica in the early 1960s, the prospect of 
undersea petroleum resources was considered quite 
good. The Ministry of Geology organized two groups 
to conduct series of tectonic surveys of both tne 
South China Sea and the East China Sea. The Ministry 
of Petroleum Industry also started similar work. In 
addition, the Ministry of Communication conducted 
studies in connection with harbor construction, and 
the Ministry of Metallurgy conducted studies in 
metal corrosion in the sea. The three fisheries 
research institutes continued their studies on marine 
fisheries resources and mariculture. 

During the 10 years of turmoil caused by the 
Cultural Revolution, oceanographic studies not 
concerned with production, especially basic 
research, were all suspended. It was not until 1978, 
after the National Science Conference, that 
oceanography, as well as other sciences, returned to 
normal. 

The fourth period, 1978 to present, may be 
regarded as the elevation stage. For the last few 
years, oceanographic investigations have extended 
far beyond the 124 degrees East line to the Okinawa 
Trench and even to the eastern Pacific, and south of 



the 17 degrees North line to the southern Pacific and 
the southern part of the South China Sea. 
Sedimentary and structural geological studies have 
been conducted more intensively. Theoretical and 
practical investigations of oceanographic 
phenomena such as waves, currents, and tides, 
pollution studies, biological studies of mariculture, 
oceanographic studies of China's continental shelf, 
dynamic studies of coastal geomorphology, 
biological studies of fouling and fouling organisms, 
chemical studies of metal corrosion and seaweed 
polysaccharide, basic studies in developmental 
biology and comparative photosynthesis, and 
investigations of marine flora and fauna are among 
the numerous projects already carried out and still 
underway. 

As I mentioned earlier, China's oceanography 
is still very young and, generally speaking, our 
academic level is still low in comparison with that of 
our oceanographic colleagues in the more advanced 
countries. We still have difficulties successfully 
coping with some of the important problems to be 
solved, despite the adequate material support of our 
government, which is in full realization of the 
importance of oceanography to the welfare of our 
people. The more we work, the more we realize the 
importance of elevating our general academic level. 
This is the principal problem facing us in the present 
stage of development. We are therefore using 
elevation (of the academic level) as the mark of the 
present stage. 

Under the open-door policy, we have been 
carrying on cooperative research projects with 
foreign marine scientists, especially those of the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. As I 
mentioned previously, in modern oceanography in 
the broad sense, China is a very young partner in the 
world of marine science and has much to learn from 
the oceanographers of various countries. 
Oceanography is still a developing science. We have 
to date only meager knowledge of the oceans and 
seas, of the multiple life in them, and of the precious 
water that makes living on Earth possible and our 
little planet Earth unique in the universe. 

We still have lots to learn. Chinese 
oceanographers would like to cooperate more 
closely witn oceanographers throughout the world 
for the common cause of human welfare. 

About 71 percent of the earth's surface is 
covered with water, and with the increasing 
population of the world, man has naturally to look to 
the seas and oceans for resources that are being 
continually depleted on land especially for food to 
feed the ever-increasing population of the human 
race. 

We firmly believe that by converting the seas 
and oceans into marine farms and pastures, as our 
forefathers did with the land, we snould be able to 
procure much more food from the seas and oceans. 
This must be one of the important aims of 
oceanography and one of the important missions for 
oceanographers. It is a realm for cooperation among 
the oceanographers of the world. The Chinese 
oceanographers will be more than willing to 
cooperate in this and other fields of oceanography 
for the common welfare of the Homo sapiens. 



8 




Signing of collaboration Protocol at the third meeting of the joint United States-China Working Croup for Marine and Fishery, 
Scientific, and Technological Cooperation, held in Washington, D. C, on 37 March 7982. Standing, left to right: James 
Churgin, Robert Junghans, Ferris Webster, Qian Ho, Wu Yikang, Wang Jinkang, Liu Tianjing, Qin Zhang, Cao Peifu, Mei 
Jinsheng. Seated, left to right: M. Grant Cross, Ned Ostenso (co-chairman), Luo Yuru (co-chairman), Wu Chaoyuan. (Photo 
courtesy of NOAA) 

Introduction: 

U.S. China Collaboration in Oceanography 

by Ned A. Ostenso 



f\ nation composing a quarter of the world's 
population, China obviously has many interests that 
extend beyond its domestic boundaries. Such 
interests range from strategic concerns, through 
economic, political, scientific, and technological 
interests. The United States, in turn, has a 
fundamental national interest in preserving and 
advancing its strategic and political relations with 
China. Such relations did not exist during the 
decades of the 1950s and 1960s, to our mutual 
disadvantage. In the early 1970s, the leadership of 
both countries realized that their respective interests 
would be better served by a cooperative and 
productive relationship. A reconciliation movement 
of historic importance was launched, and by January, 
1979, a normalization agreement was negotiated 
which established diplomatic relations between the 
United States and the People's Republic of China. A 
U.S. -China Joint Communique on the Establishment 
of Diplomatic Relations was issued on 1 January 
1979, by the two Governments. 

As stated by President Reagan in August, 1982: 

Building a strong and lasting relationship with 
China has been an important foreign policy goal 
of four consecutive administrations. Such a 
relationship is vital to our long-term national 
security interests and contributes to stability in 



East Asia. It is in the national interest of the 
United States that this important strategic 
relationship be advanced. 

As is frequently the case, research was made the 
"cutting edge" of foreign-policy implementation. 
Early among the actions taken in the normalization 
process was the negotiation of specific science and 
technology protocols. In May, 1979, a bilateral 
agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Marine and 
Fishery Science and Technology was signed in 
Beijing (formerly Peking) by the Administrator of the 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
for the U.S. side and by the Director of China's 
National Bureau of Oceanography. Although lead 
agencies were signators to the formal agreement, it 
was intended that there be truly national 
participation from both sides. This Marine and 
Fishery bilateral agreement was but one facet of 
cooperative research in areas of mutual interest that 
served as a basis for developing broader national 
accords. It provided an outlet to satisfy the desires of 
people to work together in the interest of science 
and for the development of mutual understanding 
among people living, studying, and working a broad 
ocean apart. 

The terms of the bilateral agreement on 
Marine and Fishery Science and Technology 



Cooperation provides for a policy-level group, with 
three members designated by each side, to meet 
periodically to agree on areas of activity and 
subsequently to review the progress achieved and 
problems that have arisen. As viewed by the United 
States, scientific initiatives would be undertaken by 
experts and scientists from both academic 
institutions outside the government and from 
government laboratories and related facilities. Initial 
exploratory meetings disclosed a range of interests in 
marine sciences that were addressed in three 
categories: 1) those that were ready for 
implementation; 2) those where details needed 
further development and negotiation; and, 3) those 
for possible future consideration. Reciprocal 
exploratory visits by small groups of experts in 
specific fields are made to establish personal 
relationships and to develop the scientific strategy 
for cooperative projects. 

Program Initiatives 

An immediate need was to establish protocols for the 
exchange of marine data. China requested, and the 



United States agreed to, cooperation in establishing 
a National Oceanographic Data Center in China. 
Accordingly, the development of an Ocean Services 
program in China has begun with U.S. collaboration, 
initially in ocean-temperature monitoring and 
reporting. Storm surgeand Tsunami predictions also 
are identified for collaboration but have yet to be 
implemented. 

Collaboration in aquaculture has been 
discussed, exchanges of scientists have been 
completed, and project proposals are pending, but 
no specific projects are underway as yet. 

Exchange visits of scientists involved in 
marine-pollution research and monitoring have 
been completed and project proposals are being 
formulated. Chinese experts in marine 
instrumentation and engineering visited the United 
States, and a reciprocal visit to China by U.S. experts 
is being planned in the area of instrumentation 
standards and methodology and in buoy-technology 
applications. It also is hoped that the Chinese will 
participate in a major research project on ocean heat 
transport in the western Pacific Ocean and 



SOVIET UNION 



HEILONGJIANG 



Nanjing 
Shanghais 
HangzhouE 




Contemporary map of the People's Republic of China with provincial boundaries. Coastal cities identified are sites of major 
oceanographic research centers; stars denote most promising areas for petroleum exploration. 



10 



Transport along the 
Whangpoo River outside 
Shanghai. (Photo by Joan 
Cohen) 








international studies of the interannual variability of 
the tropical ocean and the global atmosphere. 

To date, the major collaborative research 
project has been a three-year study of the 
sedimentation processes in the East China Sea with 
special emphasis on discharge from the Yangtze 
River. This study, begun in 1980, is described in an 
article in this issue (p. 20) by John Milliman, the lead 
U.S. scientist for the multidisciplinary study. His 
counterpart was Jin Qingming from the NBO Second 
Institute of Oceanography. The first cruises in the 
field phase of the study included the NOAA ship 
Oceanographer along with the Chinese research 
vessels Xiangyanghong 09,Shuguang 06, andShijian. 
The second field phase involved the Chinese ships 
Shuguang 06 and Shijian. U.S. participants in the 
research cruises came from the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, NOAA's Pacific Marine 
Environmental Laboratory, the University of 
Washington, Oregon State University, Yale 
University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
North Carolina State, Florida State, University of 
Chicago, Louisiana University Marine Consortium, 
U.S. Geological Survey, and from the industrial 
sector, including Klein Associates, EPC Laboratories, 
and Neil Brown Instrumentation. The Chinese 
scientists were from the First and Second Institutes of 
China's National Bureau of Oceanography, Shanghai 
Normal University, and the CAS Institute of 
Oceanology. 

Considering the complex scope of the 
project, the fact that American and Chinese scientists 
had not worked together for several decades, and 
the logistical problems of installing and operating 
U.S. oceanographic equipmenton Chinese research 
vessels, the program went quite smoothly. The 
program culminated in an international symposium, 
jointly sponsored by NOAA and the National Bureau 
of Oceanography, held in Hangzhou, China, in April, 
1983. Many of the papers read at the symposium were 
authored jointly by Chinese and U.S. scientists. 



Benefits Problems 

Communication among scientists from two vastly 
different societies resulted in improved 
understanding of cultures, in addition to respective 
scientific achievements. Collaboration provides the 
Chinese access to contemporary technology not 
available previously, and China has since become a 
market for U.S. -produced oceanographic 
equipment. Much scientific data collected over the 
years by the Chinese should become available for 
various research initiatives once the data are 
translated into computer-compatible formats for 
exchanging and processing such data. 

The bilateral policy group provides a means 
for exploring areas of mutual interest and for 
arranging cooperative scientific ventures employing 
the combined resources of the two nations. 
Exchanges of research results are facilitated by these 
bilateral relations. Opportunities have been 
provided for Chinese students to study at U.S. 
marine-science institutions and to participate in U.S. 
oceanographic research cruises. In the long term, 
additional benefits should be available from joint 
research projects of broadened scope and 
participation. 

Throughout the brief history of renewed 
collaboration in marine sciences between the 
People's Republic of China and the United States 
there has been a series of problems as well as 
accomplishments. None of the problems has proved 
insurmountable, but some have been rather 
frustrating. 

The pace of negotiation has been quite slow 
for several reasons. Different languages are an 
obvious problem. A seemingly complex bureaucracy 
in China contributes to slow and ponderous 
decision-making during the various phases of 
negotiation. The objective of most U.S. scientists is 
to organize and conduct research, while the Chinese 
seem to focus more on the acquisition of technology. 



11 




Chinese and American roustabouts at work on the Java Sea, 
a drill ship that works the South China Sea. (Huang 
JianqiulHNA) 



There also seems to be a preoccupation with 
tactics to draw U.S. dollars into China as part of 
technical activities under the bilateral agreement. 
The degrees of flexibility in program planning vary 
widely. Once the details of a plan have been agreed 
upon, it is usually not possible to obtain undelayed 
agreement on modifications when changing 
circumstances require a change in project plans. All 
modifications seem to require the same lengthy 
review and approval process used to arrive at basic 
program decisions. Rapid judgments at the 
program-management level do not appear to be 
permissible nor are they forthcoming at the policy 
level. 

Organizational rigidities in China have 
hindered broad participation at Academia Sinica, 
Shandong College of Oceanology, and at the 
fisheries institutes. But these problems seem to be 
working themselves out. United States scientists 
tend to build research alliances largely on personal 
bases, whereas in China cooperation tends to be 
organizationally determined. Meanwhile, in the 
United States, multi-agency collaboration has been 
arranged from the start with relative ease, and the 
National Science Foundation is a major leader and 
sponsor of the bilateral agreements along with 
numerous universities and governmental 
organizations. 

A substantial learning process has been and 
continues to be required concerning the way each 
side does business. Budgeting processes, program 
planning, and resource allocations seem to be 
handled quite differently by the two governments. 
There appears to be much more centralized control 
for all those functions in China. The inverse seems to 
apply with respect to scientific data and information 
storage; however, this situation may be corrected 
when China's National Oceanographic Data Center 
is fully established and operational. 

While there have been problems, we have, for 
the most part, found solutions. Given the positive 
progress made with research activities thus far and 
the benefits or promise of benefits to both sides, a 



turning back is not anticipated. Where problems 
remain, and if new ones arise, we will continue to 
deal with them fairly and openly. With goodwill, 
appreciation of the value of the relationship, 
adherence to our basic principles, and Chinese 
reciprocity, the prospects for further progress 
remain good. 

As Dr. C. K. Tseng points out in his preface to 
this special issue of Oceanus (page 3), China is both 
an old and a new country. The United States is just a 
new country. Advantages we may enjoy in modern 
technology are often more than balanced by 
centuries of cultural, technological, and 
infrastructural developments, as in the cases of plant 
and animal aquaculture illustrated in the articles by 
Tseng (page 48) and Ronald Zweig (page 33). We have 
much to learn. The article by Douglas Wolfe and his 
associates (page 40) shows that we have permitted 
unbridled industrial development to pollute our 
marine environment to a degree unparalleled in the 
People's Republic. From our mistakes, we have much 
to teach China. But most importantly, as K. O. Emery 
points out in the introduction to his article (page 26), 
we inhabit but one planet and share a common 
lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. With 
this common heritage and goodwill, we will continue 
to work together to decipher the mysteries of the 
oceans for our mutual benefit and the benefit of all 
mankind. 



Ned A. Ostenso is Acting Assistant Administrator for 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Research at the National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 



Selected Readings 

Suttmeier, R. P. 1981 U.S. -PRC Scientific Cooperation: An 
Assessment of the First Two Years. Hamilton College, |une. 

State Department. 1983. The U.S. and East Asia: A Partnership for the 
Future. Current Policy No. 459, March 5, Washington, D.C. 

. 1983. Developing an Enduring Relationship with China 
Current Policy No. 460, February 28, Washington, D.C. 

. 1982. Assessment of U.S. Relations with China. Current 



Policy No. 444, December 13, Washington, D.C. 

-. 1982. U.S. -China Joint Communique. Current Policy No. 



413, August, Washington, D.C. 

-. 1982. Developing Lasting U.S. -China Relations. Current 



Po//cyNo.398,|une1, Washington, D.C. 



12 



The Structure of Oceanography 

in China 



by James Churgin 



Kepresenting the National Oceanographic Data 
Center (NODC), I led a delegation of American 
marine scientists on a 24-day tour of the People's 
Republic of China in November, 1979. [Since 
Churgin's visit, several delegations of marine 
scientists have toured China. This account, updated 
with more recently acquired data, remains the most 
cogent description of the structure of marine science 
in China Ed.] Under the terms of a Protocol on 
Cooperation in the Field of Marine and Fishery 
Science and Technology between the United States' 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA) and China's National Bureau of 
Oceanography (NBO), the delegation's objectives 
were threefold: 

1) To gain an understanding of the nature of 
marine programs in China. Before any proposals 
for exchange of data-management assistance 
could be made, an understanding of how the 
marine programs are organized, the scope of 
these activities, the nature and objectives of 
research, the types of instruments being used, 
and the data-processing, storage, and 
dissemination capabilities had to be secured. 

2) To make a preliminary assessment of 
exchange and assistance that might be 
implemented. Since this was a first step, it was 
planned to explore possible areas of agreement 
and discuss these with officials of the NBO. 

3) Plan for a reciprocal visit by Chinese 
marine-data specialists. It was thought that it 
would be profitable to explore the nature of 
such a visit so that plans and invitations could be 
issued well in advance. 

Understanding all the players in the 
marine-sciences picture in China is about as simple 
as understanding marine sciences in the United 
States. I would classify the organizations involved as: 
government bureaus and ministries, Academia 
Sinica (Academy of Sciences), universities, and 
provincial institutes. One should keep in mind that, 
in China's political system, all organizations are 
under government control; therefore, there is some 
overlap among these four categories. For example, 
the Ministry of Education may oversee the 
universities or a provincial institute may conduct 
research sponsored by a bureau or ministry. For a 
history of marine-science programs in China, see 
C. K. Tseng's preface to this issue, page 3. 

Chinese government ministries and bureaus 
are roughly equivalent to U.S. departments and 
independent agencies reporting directly to the 



Executive Office. Following are descriptions of the 
primary marine agencies in China. 

National Bureau of Oceanography (NBO) 

The NBO was established in 1964-65; it is responsible 
for programs in all disciplines of oceanography. 
There are three regional subbureaus (South China, 
East China, and North China or Yellow seas), three 
institutes of oceanography (First, Second, and Third), 
an Institute for Information, and an Institute for 
Environmental Protection. In addition, the NBO hasa 
General Station for Prediction in Beijing. 

The subbureaus and institutes regularly 
conduct observational programs at sea and other 
research projects, and have coastal research stations. 
They also have special programs, such as an East 
China Sea Shelf study, prediction research, a current 
measurements network, and coastal environmental 
protection studies. NBO sites visited are outlined 
below. 

The First Institute of Oceanography, National 
Bureau of Oceanography, Qingdao (Tsingtao), 
Shandong Province: This is a comprehensive 
oceanographic institution; its main tasks are to 
investigate the natural environment of the Yellow 
and Bohai seas and neighboring ocean areas. The 
First Institute conducts investigations of the marine 
environment and emphasizes applied research. It 
provides various organizations with data, charts, 
methods of forecasting, and practical technologies to 
help with the understanding, development, and 
exploitation of the sea. 

Established at the end of 1964, the Institute 
employs more than 300 in four divisions: Marine 
Hydrometeorology, Marine Geology, Marine 
Biochemistry, and Marine Physics. There also is a 
Marine Book Data Service. Some of the tasks of the 
First Institute are part of the national plan for the 
development of science and technology, while 
others are carried out at the request of local 
organizations undertaking offshore development. 

Second Institute of Oceanography, National 
Bureau of Oceanography, Hangzhou: This is a 
comprehensive institute of oceanography. The main 
research objective is to study the natural 
environment of the East China Sea and its adjacent 
areas. Thus, the principal tasks are to investigate and 
study the characteristics of the natural environment, 
including the coastal zone and marine resources, 
and to apply aerial remote-sensing techniques to 



13 



marine science. Workers at the Second Institute also 
do marine environmental forecasting, seawater 
desalination techniques, and conduct theoretical 
research. 

To do all this, the Second Institute is divided 
into nine departments: Marine Geology; Coastal 
Zone; Marine Hydrology and Meteorology; Marine 
Remote Sensing Techniques; Marine Chemistry; 
Marine Biology; Marine Geophysics; Desalination; 
and Information and Data. 

In addition to the above-mentioned 
departments, the Second I nstitute was, at the time of 
our visit, establishing a Department of 
Comprehensive Techniques. The management of all 
the scientific research programs and coordination 
with other institutes is performed by the 
government's Scientific Research Division. In 
touring this 400-person facility, we noted that an 
atomic absorption spectrophotometer and other 
laboratory instruments had recently been purchased 
from the United States. Again, the 30 people in the 
Information and Data Department are primarily 
involved in library collecting and translation. Data 
processing and storage consists of copying and 
archiving data. Most of what we would considerdata 
processing is done in the research departments. 
Although all NBO Research Institutes are 
comprehensive (that is, they include all disciplines), 
the Second Institute seems to be particularly 
interested in marine geology and geophysics. 

Third Institute of Oceanography, National 
Bureau of Oceanography, Xiamen (Amoy): The 
predecessor of this Institute was the East China 
Institute of Oceanography of Academia Sinica. Their 
Xiamen facilities were built in 1959, and in 1965 
transferred to the NBO. The Third Institute has a 
professional staff of 200, organized into six 
laboratories and a Division of Information and Data. 
The laboratories are: Marine Biology; Marine 
Chemistry; Marine Geology; Marine Radioisotopes; 
Marine Instruments; and Marine Hydromete- 
orology. The Division of Information and 
Data collects, processes, and disseminates 
information, data, and library materials; the data was 
all in hard-copy form when we were there, and as far 
as I could establish, no automated processing was 
done. The library collection contained about 25,000 
documents. The Third Institute seemed to 
concentrate on marine biology and chemistry. 
Because it had not been visited by Westerners, 
researchers there seemed especially anxious to 
receive publications and other documents dealing 
with marine-science subjects. 

Xiamen General Ocean Station, National 
Bureau of Oceanography, Xiamen (Amoy): This is 
one of three such stations under the NBO East China 
Sea subbureau apparently each of the subbureaus 
operates three "stations." These stations are 
responsible for the operational (or routine) 
acquisition, analysis, and dissemination of marine 
data and information. Their responsibilities include 
maintenance of ships, buoys, and coastal facilities. 

The station we visited was on the Island of 
Kulangsu, near the city of Xiamen. It operates nine 
"substations" or data-collection sites. Five are on 



land and are primarily for the collection of sea-level 
data; the other four are offshore buoys and collect 
similar data as well as record ings of wave height. The 
Kulangsu main station also is responsible for the 
operation of three research vessels. 

We visited one of the coastal substations on 
Kulangsu Island, where tidal heights were being 
measured continuously, along with measurements 
of tidal current, temperature, salinity, and surface 
meteorology. Daily summaries were forwarded to 
the Central Station. The Central Station, in turn, 
furnishes these to the East China Sea subbureau and 
the Data Center. 

Institute of Marine Scientific and 
Technological Information, National Bureau of 
Oceanography, Tianjin (Tientsen): This Institute 
(IMSTI) was founded in 1964 under a different title, 
and in 1965 it was changed organizationally and 
functionally to its present name and mission. It is 
difficult to find an analogous organization in NOAA, 
as the IMSTI combines some functions of 
Environmental Data and Information Service (EDIS) 
and NOS together with minor elements of other 
NOAA groups. The major divisions are: Information 
Research; Chart Making (bathymetric and 
meteorological/oceanographic); Printing House; 
and Data Collection and Processing. 

Data Collection and Processing performs 
most functions of a National Oceanographic Data 
Center (NODC) and operates as the Chinese Data 
Center with 500,000 physical/chemical collection 
sites. The mission of the division is to acquire, 
process, and disseminate oceanographic data from 
and to all organizations in China having marine 
interests. There are eight Groups of Branches as 
follows: 

1) Data Information: this group acquires data 
(foreign and domestic) and provides services to 
customers. 

2) Basic Data Computation: the people in this 
group process data and compile them into 
reports, including station, coastal observation, 
and tidal data. 

3) Environmental Atlas Compilation: this group 
produces atlases of the China seas and specified 
ocean areas. 

4) Data Services: this group manages and 
disseminates stored data records. The data base 
was said to contain the following items: 50,000 
coastal sites' temperature and salinity values; 
physical/chemical information from 80,000 
ocean sites; current measurements taken hourly 
for 24 hours; 4,000 variable-depth current 
profiles; 3,000 time-series sites; 24, 000 foreign 
Ship of Opportunity observations; and 13,000 
Chinese Ship of Opportunity observations. 
Standard ocean data-collection sites were 
increasi ng at the rate of about 3,000 per year and 
were expected to increase by 10,000 per year in 
the early 1980s. 

5) Data Processing: primarily a tape-punching 
group. 

6) Programming: this group does system design 
and programming, and implements processing 
and applications programs. 



14 



Organizational Chart of China's National Bureau of Oceanography. 



DIRECTOR 
Headquartered in Beijing 



Office of 
Foreign Affairs 



JL 



Office of 
Science and 
Technology 



Office of Marine 

Environmental 

Protection 






Office of 
Equipment and 
Instrumentation 



Office of 
General Planning 



Office of 
Survey 



(NATIONAL LABORATORIES) 



1st Institute of 
Oceanography 



(QINGDAO) 

Personnel 300 

Divisions: 

Hydrology 

Meteorology 

Geology 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Harbors & Ports 

New Technology 

Marine Physics 

Library 

& Information Services 



Institute of 

Oceanographic 

Instrumentation 



2nd Institute of 
Oceanography 



(HANGZHOU) 

Personnel 400 

Departments: 

Geophysics 

Geology 

Coastal Zone 

Hydrology/Meteorology 

Chemistry 

Biology 

Desalination 

Instrumental Services 

Information & Data 



Institute of Marine 
Scientific & Techno- 
logical Information 



3rd Institute of 
Oceanography 



(XIAMEN) 

Personnel 200 

Divisions: 

Biological Oceanography 

Chemical Oceanography 

Geology 

Physical Oceanography 

Marine Physics 

Isotope Laboratory 

Information & Data 



Institute of Marine 

Environmental 

Protection 



Marine Hydrological 
& Meteorological 
Forecasting Center 



(TIANIIN) 

Personnel 700 

Divisions: 

Remote Sensing 

Electromagnetics 

Acoustics 

Evaluation 

Information 

Mechanics 

Computer Applications 

Oceanography 

Pilot Plant 



(TIANIIN) 

Personnel 400 

Divisions: 

Data Division 

Chart Making Service 

Prediction Division 

Editorial Division 

Library 

Computer Division 

Archives Division 

Printing House 



(DALIAN) 

Personnel 330 

Divisions: 

Geology 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Analytical Quality Control 

Sea Ice 

Information Services 

Integrated Assessments 

Bohai Surveillance 



(BEI)ING) 



(REGIONAL SUBBUREAUS) 



North China Sea 
Subbureau 



East China Sea 
Subbureau 



South China Sea 
Subbureau 



(QINGDAO) 



(SHANGHAI) 
Personnel 2,000 



(GUANGZHOU) 
Personnel 1,000 



North China Sea 
Monitoring Station 



East China Sea 
Monitoring Station 



Field Laboratory 
(NINGBO) 



Marine Environmental 
Protection Center 



Personnel 90 



Personnel 68 



15 




* 



Geophysical survey vessel 
Haiyangl,6u/'/ in 1972, 
convened from general 
research status to 
specialization in petroleum 
exploration. (Photo by 
George Saxton /courtesy of 
author) 



7) Computer Maintenance: this group operates 
and maintains the DCS computer. 

8) Tide and Tidal Current Prediction: this group 
is responsibleforanalysis and prediction of tides 
and tidal currents for the China seas. It also 
researches tidal prediction methods. 

Luo Chuanwei told us some of the NBO's 
plans for upgrading the Data Collection and 
Processing Division into an operational equivalent of 
NODC. These plans include expansion of all 
functional areas, development of standard systems 
and formats, regionalizations, international 
exchanges, training in modern computer hardware 
and software technology, new facilities, and new 
equipment, including a large mainframe computer. 

Ministries 

In addition to the NBO, the Chinese government 
administers marine-science research through several 
ministries: 

Bureau of Aquatic Products: This is the 
national fisheries organization with institutes and 
laboratories in many provinces, both coastal and 
inland. Marine and freshwater fisheries are included. 
The Bureau conducts a number of large 
observational programs, looking at physical, 
chemical, and biological phenomena. It is a major 
contributor of data to the general data base for the 
China seas. We visited one bureau site, the Yellow 
Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Bureau of Aquatic 
Products (Fisheries), in Qingdao (Tsingtao), 
Shandong Province. Founded in 1946, this Institute 
had a scientific and technical staff of 150, plus seven 
research fellows and 48 assistant research fellows at 
the time of our visit. This organization primarily does 
research in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Bay, but similar 
groups existtortheSouthChinaandEastChinaseas. 

Ministry of Petroleum: Apparently well 
funded, with strong marine geology and geophysics 
components, this Ministry has institutes for 
petroleum geology on the Bohai Bay and the Yellow 
Sea, and is closely associated with the following 
provincial institutes. 



Ministry of Transportation: This organization 
seems to have interests in marine projects similar to 
those of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, doing 
port and harbor construction and water 
transportation. It operates an Academy of Water 
Transportation and Development, an Academy of 
Waterway Engineering, Nanjing Water Research 
Academy, an Institute of Ship Research, and other 
learning centers. Data-collection efforts by the 
Ministry of Transportation include the operation of 
coastal stations, data related to dredging and port 
construction, and storm-surge research and 
prediction. 

Ministry of Chemistry: As we understood it, 
this Ministry conducted marine chemistry research 
and observational programs, but no details were 
given. 

Environmental Protection Bureau: This bureau 
has offices tor Bohai Bay and the East China Sea. 
Though it may be conducting some programs of its 
own, this bureau generally sponsors programs 
within the NBO, Ministry of Petroleum, and others. 

People's Republic of China Navy: The Navy 
operates an Institute for Ocean Science Research 
and collects data. We did not learn much more about 
the Navy programs. 

Ministry of Education: This agency has overall 
responsibility for the college and university system. 

Academia Sinica 

Academia Sinica is China's Academy of Sciences. 
Unlike the U.S. Academy, this organization operates 
research institutions in all areas of science. We 
visited two of the leading marine institutes: 

South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, 
Academia Sinica, Guangzhou (Canton): The South 
China Sea Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese 
Academy of Sciences was established in February, 
1959. Its research orientation emphasizes 
comprehensive investigations of seas and oceans as 
well as basic research. Carried on at the same time 
are studies on coastal geology and geomorphology, 



16 



experimental ecology, environmental protection, 
sea-air interaction, and application of new 
techniques. Eight laboratories and an Information 
Research Division have been established. The eight 
laboratories are: Physical Oceanography and 
Meteorology, Marine Physics, Marine Chemistry, 
Marine Biology, New Technology, Tectonics, Marine 
Sedimentation, and Coastal and Estuarine Processes. 
In addition, there are three "experiment" stations: 
one each in the cities of Zhanjiang and Shantou; at 
the time of our visit, the third was being built on 
Hainan Island. As of 1980, the scientific staff 
numbered 400. The Institute operates two research 
vessels; a third is being built. 

As was the case with almost every information 
and data division we visited, the primary emphasis of 
the Information Research Division is the collection of 
hard-copy material into a library system. Also in every 
case, great efforts are being made to obtain English- 
language papers, journals, and publications, and to 
translate them into Chinese. 

Qingdao Institute ofOceanology, Academia 
Sinica, Qingdao (Tsingtao): This Institute is the 
largest oceanographic research institute under the 
auspices of the Academy. It has been visited by a 
number of Western scientists in recent years, and its 
director, C. K. Tseng, once worked at the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. The institute was 
founded in 1950 as a marine biological laboratory, 
adding physics and chemistry in 1952-53 and geology 
in 1956. In 1959, it received its current designation. 

This organization has a scientific and technical 
staff of 530 located in nine departments. Four of these 
departments are devoted to marine biological 
research, botany, invertebrate zoology, vertebrate 
zoology, and experimental zoology (mariculture). 
Another four departments are concerned with 
physics, chemistry, geology and geophysics, and 
instrumentation. Finally, there is a Department of 
Information. 

The principal work being conducted here is in 
the China seas, nearby oceanic areas, and the 
Kurishio Current. Studies of marine plants and 
animals, geology of the continental shelf and 
marginal seas, shoreline dynamics, principles of 
mariculture methodology, marine pollution, 
circulation, tides, waves, marine meteorology, 
harbor models, optics, and acoustics are all being 
conducted. The institute publishes one or two 
journals of its own and contributes to other Chinese 
scientific journals. Most of the data collected as a 
result of the Qingdao Institute's research either 
remains in the hands of the researcher or is stored by 
the Department of Information. 

A computer was not in place, but we were told 
that they were getting one associated with a seismic 
digital-data system. They also informed us that they 
were constructing a research ship that would carry 
five computers. 

Universities 

There are a number of colleges and universities in 
China that have both course curricula and research 
projects dealing with marine disciplines. In 
connection with research programs, they also collect 



and store data and information. The principal 
oceanographic education institution is the Shandong 
University School of Oceanography in Qingdao. A 
description of the one site we visited follows. 

Shanghai Normal (Teachers) University: The 
total university enrollment of 5,000, including 300 
graduate students, is divided among 13 departments 
staffed by a faculty of 1 ,500. In addition to being a 
teacher-training facility, the University has a number 
of research laboratories, some of which are 
concerned with estuarine, coastal, and oceanic 
processes. Much of the University's marine work is 
performed at the mouth of the Yangtze and other 
estuaries, and some 20 years' data have been 
collected. Because of the extremely large tidal range 
in the Yangtze estuary, much of the research there is 
devoted to the effects of tidal processes on port 
and harbor development, on potential effects of 
channel dredging, and on sedimentation processes. 
Historical data are used to study the river's influence 
on shoreline development. 

Researchers at Shanghai University are also 
doing ocean hydrology, mineralogy of sediments, 
geomorphology, and storm-surge effects studies. 
Some new studies include the application of remote 
sensing to sedimentation studies, carbon 
determination, and spore analyses. Mapping the 
Yangtze estuary and delta-bottom topography has 
begun. If this University is typical of others in China, 
they also may be good sources of data and 
information in coastal and estuarine areas. 

Provincial Institutes 

The coastal provinces of China run various institutes 
and laboratories dealing with science and 
technology, including the marine sciences. It is not 
quite clear just how these organizations are tied 
politically and administratively to the central 
government ministries and bureaus, but we were 
told that some observational and research programs 
are conducted by these "local" agencies. A site we 
visited in Shanghai is described. 




How Wenfeng, director of the Data Collecting and 
Processing Division of the National Bureau of 
Oceanography's Institute of Marine Science and 
Technology, uses an automatic data plotter to greet the U.S. 
delegation in Chinese and English. (Photo by George 
Saxton /courtesy of author) 



17 



Shanghai Institute of Computation 
Technology, Shanghai: This is a research 
organization under the Provincial Government of 
Shanghai. The staff we spoke with seemed to be well 
aware of the latest developments in computer 
technology, and virtually all their hardware and 
software had been developed at the Institute. 
Research there included not only basic testing of 
computer hardware and software, but applications 
that could be put into use by other groups. 

We were shown several computers. The most 
heavily used appeared to be one called the SJT-731 
(built in January, 1973). The machine had 64K (6-byte) 
words, core memory, one multiplexorchannel with 8 
selector channels, 5 magnetic tape drives, a line 
printer, and X-Y plotters on-line. The operating 
system, as well as ALGOL and COBOL compilers, 
were developed by this Institute. The operating 
system allowed time sharing, batch processing, and 
multiprogramming. 

These computers are linked to a university in 
Shanghai with another computer (SJT-761) and have 
been able to establish computer-to-computer links 
using rather low-speed line (200 bits per second). 
Applications work included some oceanographic 
calculations, such as tidal predictions for harbor 
construction, geostrophic currents, and a 
two-dimensional model of an estuary. 

Research Vessels 

We toured two of China's oceanographic research 
vessels and tried to evaluate them relative to 
American-vessel standards. 

Geophysical Survey Vessel, Haiyang I: Built 
in 1972, this vessel was converted recently from a 
general-purpose oceanographic research vessel to a 
geophysical-research ship because of China's strong 
emphasis on offshore surveys for petroleum. The 
Haiyang I is 105 meters in length, has twin screw 9,000 
horse power, a maximum speed of 20 knots, and a 
crew of 61. Scientific survey equipment, at the time of 
our visit, included seismic gear manufactured in 
Texas, a Magnavox satellite navigator, a gravimeter 
manufactured in West Germany, and a 
magnetometer produced in China. 




All the equipment was new and an American 
technician was on board testing the seismic 
instrumentation. The ship conducts regional 
reconnaissance along rather widely spaced track 
lines. All original records are stored at the Office of 
Marine Geology in Shanghai. 

Research Vessel Xiang Yang Hong No. 9: This 
is a general-purpose oceanographic research ship 
capable of conducting deep-ocean and coastal 
measurements. Launched in 1978, 112 meters long 
and 15 meters wide with a draft of 5.5 meters, it can 
work for up to 60 days without resupply. Navigation 
equipment on the R/V Xiang Yang Hong included a 
satellite navigator, Loran A and C, and Omega. 
Oceanographic winches and instrumentation for 
physical, chemical, biological, and geological work 
were on board. It was my impression that this ship 
could be used for almost any kind of oceanographic 
experiment if modern instrumentation (including 
computers) and trained personnel were available. 

Additional Development Initiatives 

The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 
opened its Beijing office in 1979 and is offering 
preparatory assistance: training, study tours to 
examine the state-of-the-art in other countries, a 
feasibility study, and systems analysis for hardware 
and software needs. 

In addition to these organizations and 
agencies, we learned that there is a Commission on 
Science and Technology for China that operates at 
a very high level (roughly equivalent to the 
President's Scientific Advisor). The president of the 
Commission also is the president of Academia Sinica. 
This Commission has a Subcommittee on 
Oceanography with representatives from all the 
major ministries and bureaus having an interest in 
marine sciences. It was not clear as to how effective 
this group is in coordinating and directing the efforts 
of the agencies. Little was said regarding the work of 
this Oceanographic subcommittee. I got the 
impression that, at that time, it had only discussed 
some very high-level policy matters, but was not 
really functioning as an interagency coordinator. 

The Chinese are extremely eager to 
"catch-up," both personally and as a matter of 
government policy. Most of the individual scientists 
we met were bright and eager to learn. The Cultural 
Revolution not only caused a setback in 
technological development but, because foreign 
languages (especially English) were forbidden, 
caused a communication gap that makes discussion 
at a detailed technical level difficult and slow. There 
is a major effort underway to overcome this problem, 
but it will take time. 

James Churgin is Chief of the Information Services Division 
of the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), 
Rockville, Maryland. 



lames Churgin and George Saxton at the Great Wall of 
China. (Courtesy of author) 



18 



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^ 




The Yangtze River 

Past, Present, and Future 

by John D. Milliman, Chen Ji-yu, Yang Zuo-sheng, and Ren Mei-o 



I he large murals cover entire walls of the new Beijing 
airport. They show the Yangtze River, known as the 
Changjiang in China, as it flows through the 
mountainous region of Sichuan Province. Chen Yi, 
the poet and army leader, described the river as 
follows: 

The Emei and Minshan Mountains soar ten 

thousand feet; 

The Kui and Wu block the west wind. 

Yet the flow of the river cannot be stopped; 

Its waters rush ever eastward. 

The Yangtze holds a special spot in Chinese 
hearts as does the Rhine for Germans, the Nile for 
Egyptians, the Indus for Pakistanis, and more 
recently, the Mississippi for Americans. It has been, 
and still is, the gateway to the vast interior of China. It 
is a source of nutrient-rich waters, critical to 
maintaining China's agriculture. Many of China's 
most productive agricultural areas border the 
Yangtze. These factors alone are ample reason why 
such a large portion of the Chinese population lives 
in its nearly 2-million-square-kilometer drainage 
basin. Yet the river also is the source of periodic, 
disastrous floods, during which banks are breached 
and valuable crops, as well as villages, are destroyed. 

For a marine scientist, the Yangtze holds 
another fascination: it is the fifth largest river in the 
world in terms of water discharge, the fourth largest 



20 



in terms of sediment load. The Yangtze's 960 cubic 
kilometers of annual discharge is 50 percent greater 
than that of the Mississippi, and its 500 million metric 
tons of suspended load is more than twice the 
Mississippi's total. The annual sediment load of the 
Yangtze approximates the volume of material used in 
the construction of the Great Wall of China. 

Understanding how the Yangtze's sediment 
reaches the ocean and is subsequently dispersed 
requires an understanding of the river, its estuary, 
and the offshore area. For years, the Chinese have 
collected extensive data in all these areas. More 
recently, the oceanography and sediment dynamics 
of the Yangtze estuary and the adjacent East China 
Sea have been studied via a joint United States- 
Chinese research effort sponsored by the U.S. 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
and China's National Bureau of Oceanography. The 
importance of the Yangtze for shipping, and the 
adjacent East China Sea's potential for fisheries and 
petroleum production, should ensure continued, 
nigh-level research. 

Flow of the Yangtze River 

Studying the impact of any river on its estuary and 
offshore area requires knowledge of the river itself: 
how it flows, its sediment load, and local and 
seasonal variations in these parameters. 
Unfortunately, most large rivers are located in 




These large murals of the Yangtze cover entire walls at the new Beijing Airport. 



developing nations in which measuring and 
calculating water and sediment discharge are 
difficult. Problems arise not only in determining 
representative stations and taking correct 
measurements, but in measuring flood events when 
disproportionate amounts of water and sediment are 
transported and taking measurements can be 
logistically difficult and/or dangerous. Poor or 
nonrepresentative measurements result in 
misleading discharge and sediment-load estimates. 

The Chinese have solved this problem by 
assigning teams of engineers to various stations 
along their rivers; by so doing, they have 
accumulated more than 30 years of reliable, 
contiguous data. Of the 21 largest rivers in the world, 
only five can be judged as having good to very good 
data bases for their suspended load estimates. Three 
of these are in China the Yangtze, Yellow, and 
Haiho rivers; the other two are the Mississippi and 
the Danube. 

The Yangtze has its origins in Tibetan plateaus 
where it flows eastward to the East China Sea. 
Although the Yangtze is essentially an east-west river, 
most of its water comes from north- or south-flowing 
tributaries. The flow patterns of southern rivers are 
largely functions of monsoon rains, with peak 
discharges in June and July. Northern rivers drain 
areas with lower rainfall but more easily eroded soils. 
As a result, discharge from the north is relatively low, 
but sediment loads are high. 

Yangtze River discharge gains steadily as it 
flows downstream and an increasing number of 
northern and southern tributaries join the river. 
Sediment load also increases, but falls abruptly 
downstream of Yinchang, as the river leaves the 
famed Yangtze Gorges and flows into distributary 
lakes. The load again increases further downstream 
as more rivers join it, but sediment load never 
reaches the peak seen in Yinchang (Figure 1). 



The Yangtze Estuary 

Just before the Yangtze reaches the East China Sea, it 
divides into several distributary channels. A large 
island (Chongming) separates the river into north 
and south branches, and other islands and shoals 
subdivide the southern branch into three main 
channels. The river mouth and estuary, however, are 

jf. 



, 

' J .^ V X.- ^K* 

5r 




Midday mooring on the Yangtze. 
(Photo by Joan Cohen) 



21 







A junk sails past terraced fields and villages in Sichuan 
Province. (Photo by Joan Cohen) 




continually evolving.* Prior to the 8th Century (as 
estimated from ancient Chinese maps), the estuary 
was funnel-shaped, and tidal bores (waves) were felt 
as far inland as Zhenjiang (Figure 2). Contemporary 
Chinese writers admired the bore, often mentioning 
it in their poems. Mei Che, a 2nd Century poet, 
wrote,"! am going to the Qui Jiang (River) inGuanglin 
(now Yangzhou) to watch the tidal bore on August 
15"; perhaps not beautiful poetry in this translated 
version, but clear evidence of the bore's existence. 
This tidal bore disappeared as a result of the shoaling 
and progradation** of the estuary. Shoaling may 
have accelerated significantly after the 8th Century 
because of increased sediment loads carried by the 
Yangtze and Yellow rivers (to the north) in response 
to increased agricultural use (and corresponding 
deforestation) of their drainage basins. 

A few hundred years ago, the north branch 
carried an appreciable amount of the Yangtze's water 
and sediment; as recently as the early part of this 
century, it carried about 25 percent of the flow. Since 
then, shoaling has reached the point where no fresh 
water escapes from the north branch; in fact, the 
north branch actually experiences a net flux of saline 
water into the estuary. The southern branch now 
provides the exit for the Yangtze, but it also has 
experienced recent change. Since 1966, the north 
channel of the south branch has been the major 
channel for discharge of water and sediment to the 
sea; before then, the south channel was the main 
conduit. 

In most estuaries neither water nor sediment 
moves continually in an offshore direction. As 
underlying saline water mixes with outflowing 
freshwater, an onshore transport of salt water must 



*ln the strict sense of the term, the Yangtze has no physical 
estuary, since freshwater usually mixes with seawater 
beyond the confines of land, the salt wedge often lying on 
the innermost East China Sea shelf. Still, tides strongly 
control river flow, and many typical estuarine phenomena 
occur (for example, shoaling), justifying the use of the term 
"estuary." 

**Seaward advance of the shoreline caused by deposit of 
sediments from rivers. 



500 




Figure 7. Twenty-year averages of water-discharge and 
sediment-load data for six stations along the Yangtze show a 
gradual downstream increase in water volume, but a marked 
decrease in sediment load downstream of Yinchang. This 
decrease is related to the Yangtze leaving the gorges and 
flowing through a number of distributary lakes in which 
much of the sediment is deposited. 



be maintained for proper salt balance. Thus, many 
stratified or partly mixed estuaries experience a 
perceptible onshore transport of near-bottom water. 
In estuaries where tidal range is significant, onshore 
currents can be high. In the Yangtze, with spring-tide 



22 



Figure 2. The Chinese have 
been mapping the Yangtze 
River mouth accurately for 
many thousands of years, 
affording researchers a 
unique opportunity to trace 
the evolution of this estuary. 
Two or three thousand years 
ago, the river mouth was 
funnel-shaped and tidal 
bores (waves) extended 
inland to Zhenjiang. 



2,000-3,000 

Years Before Present 



Yangzhou 

Ar 



/ 
Zhenjiang 



former 
shoals/ 
islands 




2,000-3,000 

Years Before Present 



N 

I 



elevations up to 4 to 5 meters, onshore currents can 
be as great as 3 knots during flood tide. During the 
ebb, currents reverse and attain speeds of 5 to 6 
knots in an offshore direction. 

This seesaw pattern of current flow accounts 
for sediments moving in a start-and-stop pattern. 
Coarser particles tend to settle out at slack tide, be 
resuspended and move offshore at ebb, settle again 
at slack, and then move upstream during the next 
flood. In most instances, there is a net offshore 
transport of sediment in all channels of the south 
branch of the Yangtze, but during low river flow (the 
winter months), little sediment may actually be 
transported. Where the salt wedge extends 
sufficiently upstream and associated flood currents 
are strong, a significant shoreward transport of 
sediment can occur. This is the case around Jiuduan 
Bank in the south channel; because this is a major 
shipping route to Shanghai, continual dredging is 
required to remove the shoaled sediments. 

Patterns of Sedimentation 

By comparing ancient and modern maps, it is 
estimated that the Yangtze estuary is accumulating 
about 250 million tons of sediment annually, or about 
half the sediment carried by the river. The other halt 
presumably is deposited offshore. Part of this 
sediment is deposited in the nearshore region 



immediately beyond the river mouth. Comparison of 
charts made during the last 100 years shows that 
portions of the delta have migrated up to 16 
kilometers seaward, an average accretion of nearly 
155 meters per year. 

Using various short-lived radio isotopes, 
David Demaster, Charles Nittrouer, and Brent 
McKee of North Carolina State University have 
shown that a layer of sediment up to 15 centimeters 
thick is deposited by the Yangtze in its shore area 
during annual flooding. With water depths of less 
than 45 meters, if these rates continued for only a few 
hundred years, the seafloor would shoal to the 
intertidal zone. Interestingly, however, long-term 
accumulation rates are much lower a few 
centimeters or so annually indicating that much of 
the sediment is resuspended and moved elsewhere. 
Presumably, this material is stirred up from the 
bottom during winter storms and transported 
southward by longshore currents; this theory is 
corroborated by winter-time observations of high 
amounts of suspended sediments in the water 
column in the nearshore zone. 

Little Yangtze sediment is transported 
offshore, and even less escapes to the north. On the 
other hand, most of the sediment accumulating in 
Hangzhou Bay to the south comes from the Yangtze. 
At present, we guess that about 25 percent of the 



23 




Log rafts and tug on the 
Yangtze. (Photo by Joan 
Cohen) 



Yangtze load is deposited in the nearshore area off 
the river mouth, and that another 25 percent is 
transported to the south, where it remains in the 
coastal environment. 

The Yangtze in the Past 

While it is doubtful that the Yangtze or Yellow rivers 
carried as much sediment prior to deforestation and 
disruption of native vegetation by human activity, 
they undoubtedly contributed vast quantities of 
sediment to the ocean throughout the Quaternary 
period (2 million B.C. to present). During high stands 
of the sea, as are presently observed, the rivers 
deposit most of their sediment in nearshore areas; 
little has escaped across the broad East China Sea. 
During glacial epochs, however, sea level fell by as 



much as 100 to 120 meters, which means that the 
Chinese shoreline was hundreds of miles east of 
where it is today. Presumably, the Chinese rivers 
emptied out into, or close to, the Okinawa Trough, 
where extensive sediment deposits have 
accumulated in the recent past. 

With the gradual rise of sea level coincident 
with melting of glaciers (about 15, 000 years ago), the 
shoreline began to retreat across the shelf, reaching 
the modern Chinese coast about 4,000 to 5,000 years 
ago. Old river channels were mostly buried by 
sediment deposited by the transgressing sea, but 
they can be detected in shallow seismic records, 
both as tilled channels and locally as exposed river 
banks or levees (Figure 3). We can map the course of 
the ancient Yangtze offshore region from the 






STIFF CLAY 
OUTCROP_ 




Figure 3. Side-scan sonar profiles in the western East China Sea display the seafloor morphology along a 300-meter wide swath. 
Linear features are, in fact, outcrops of old levees along the paleo-Yangtze. The main channel, as shown by a superimposed 
low-frequency echo-sounder profile, has been filled by modern Yangtze sediment. In contrast to the stiff nature of the relict 
levee, the modern mud is very soft, reflecting its young age and unconsolidated nature. 



24 



modern one; further seismic data may allow us to do 
the same with the ancient Yellow River channels. 

The Future Yangtze 

Undoubtedly, with future climate changes, the 
discharge patterns of the Yangtze also will change. 
On a shorter time scale, even more significant 
changes may occur. Increased soil conservation, for 
example, could lower the sediment load of the river 
considerably; conversely, periods of civil unrest or 
war are usually marked by poorer soil conservation 
and loss of vegetation and, therefore, extensive 
land erosion. 

Even more significant is the possibility of dam 
construction along the river. One dam being built 
near Yinchang at the eastern edge of the Yangtze 
Gorges could alter downstream river flow and trap 
large quantities of sediment. Modulating river flow 
and utilizing more upstream river water (through 
irrigation) could result in less freshwater discharge, 
particularly during what are presently peak-flow 
periods. In the short term, this could impel a 
shoreward migration of the salt wedge in the estuary 
and a corresponding increase in the shoaling of the 
river, which would compound the difficulty of 
maintaining navigation channels. In the long run, 
decreased sediment load in the lower river could 
lead to increased shore erosion if incoming sediment 



supply does not equal the amount removed by 
normal coastal erosion. Since 1855, when the Yellow 
River changed its course, the pre-1855 delta has 
eroded about 16 kilometers inland. A similar scale of 
erosion off the Yangtze is potentially disastrous. 

Theje scenarios must be evaluated prior to 
any major alteration of river flow, whether it be 
through conservation or construction of upstream 
dams. The Chinese, given their knowledge of the 
river and its estuary and coastal/offshore areas, and 
their concern for conservation, are more than able to 
account for these factors so as to minimize 
deleterious effects. It they do, the Yangtze should 
continue to ". . rush ever eastward." 



lohn D. Milliman is a Senior Scientist in the Department of 
Geology and Geophysics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution. He was the U.S. scientific coordinator of the 
joint National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ 
National Bureau of Oceanography study of the Yangtze. 
Professor Chen ]i-yu is head of the estuarine and coastal 
research group at East China Normal University, Shanghai. 
Yang Zuo-sheng is Assistant Professor at the Shangdong 
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Chairman of the Department of Geomorphology and 
Sedimentology at Nanjing University. 



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25 



Tectonic Evolution 

of the Yellow and East China Seas 



by K. O. Emery 



tvents in places as far away as Antarctica and the 
Atlantic Ocean affect the geology of China. On the 
surface of our planet, continents break apart, move, 
and sometimes collide with one another; oceans rise 
and fall; and, in the course of geologic time, events 
on a truly global scale are responsible for much of the 
detail in the structures of lands and seas as we know 
them. 

By such movements, the Yellow and East 
China seas evolved. This arm of the Pacific Ocean 
extends inland for about 1,000 kilometers between 
the east coast of China and Korea and the Ryukyu 
Islands, with the Yellow Sea to the north. It receives 
the waters of the Yangtze River, and Shanghai, 
China's major seaport, is at the mouth of the Yangtze 
on the East China Sea. Aside from its part in the 
broader structure of Earth, scientists are interested in 
this area as a possible source of petroleum. Some oil 
already is being recovered from the Yellow Sea's 
underlying rocks, but few exploratory wells have 
been drilled. Research into the geological makeup of 
the East China Sea may reveal its potential for 
petroleum. 

Plate Tectonics and the Work of Geologists 

Investigation into the movements of Earth's crustal 
plates began less than 75 years ago. In 1912, Alfred 
Wegener, a German meteorologist, published the 
first theory of continental drift. He theorized that the 
continents began as one "supercontinent," which 
gradually broke apart, the pieces drifting away from 
each other. This idea is supported by several facts, 
including the discovery of similar fossils throughout 
the lands of the Southern Hemisphere, and that the 
continents of Africa and South America appear to fit 
together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. 

In the early 1960s, two important discoveries 
- the mid-oceanic ridge systems and the 
symmetrical zebra-stripe pattern of magnetic 
anomalies in the rocks flanking these ridges led 
geologists to hypothesize about seafloor spreading, 
a concept that supplements the idea of continental 
drift. Plate tectonics, developed in the late 1960s, 
interrelates these ideas and geologic events into one 
theory by postulating that the Earth is divided into a 
dozen plates, which are 40 kilometers thick under 
the continents and 5 kilometers thick under the 
oceans. There are considered to be three types of 
crustal plate boundaries: divergent belts 
(mid-oceanic ridges where basaltic magma rises to 
create new crust); translation belts (where the crustal 
plates slide past one another); and convergent belts 
(where crusts underthrust and are destroyed). 



Marine geologists readily accepted the theory 
of plate tectonics, because it well explains the 
evolution of the deep-ocean floor (where all rocks 
and sediments were emplaced less than 200 million 
years ago). However, some land geologists have 
been less inclined to adopt the new theory; rocks on 
continents are as much as 20 times more ancient than 
those under the oceans, and some have been so 
altered and moved about during the lives of oceans 
now vanished that evidence of crustal movements is 
obscured. 

The separation of the work and thought of 
marine and land geologists is apparent in their maps, 
few of which cross the boundary of the shore: on one 
side, ships cannot go; on the other, geologists 
cannot walk. The techniques used by land and 
marine geologists are different, and the time periods 
they recognize and study are different. Land 
geologists often integrate their work into geologic, 
paleogeographic, or geotectonic maps. Geologic 
maps show the ages and kinds of surface rocks and 
give some information about folding, faulting, and 
igneous activity. Paleogeographic maps summarize 
patterns of sediment ages and the general nature of 
bodies of rock to depict areas of ancient seas and 
lands. Tectonic or geotectonic maps are of several 
kinds: some concentrate on positions of faults and 
folds; others on positions of massifs (mountainous 
masses or their eroded remains) and other structural 
complexes, igneous features, foldbelts, and platform 
deposits; still others use contour lines to detail the 
thicknesses of layers of rock (strata). Many tectonic 
maps reflect certain geophysical disciplines - 
seismic or gravity studies, geomagnetics, heat flow or 
acoustic property studies but few reveal the stages 
of growth of a crustal region. 

On the other hand, maps of oceanic crust 
made by marine geologists are based on 
measurements of magnetic anomalies, ages of 
igneous rocks, and ages of fossils found in 
immediately overlying sediments. These maps do 
illustrate the stages ot emplacement and folding. 

In the process of subduction, one oceanic 
plate underthrusts (descends beneath) another and 
is destroyed. Usually one plate has a continental 
crust, in which case volcanic mountains are likely to 
develop along the continental margin. Since most 
new crusts are destroyed by subduction, the 
existence of former oceans can be inferred only from 
the remnants of foldbelts found on modern 
continents. Foldbelts are groups of folds or bends in 
layers of rock, presumably of common origin. They 
are younger than the rocks of which they consist, of 



26 



Geologic 

Eon Era 



Time Scale 

Period 



Epoch 



Years Before 
the Present (B.P.) 



PHANEROZOIC 


CENOZOIC 


Quaternary 


/ Holocene (recent) 


11,000 
1,600,000 
5,000,000 
22,500,000 
36,000,000 
inofcrustal 

55,000,000 
65,000,000 

ist (Figure 5). 
136,000,000 

195,000,000 
230,000,000 

280,000,000 
310,000,000 

345,000,000 

donian 

395,000,000 

435,000,000 

aikalian 

500,000,000 

Asia is now 
600,000,000 

600,000,000 
600,000,000 


c j Pleistocene (glacial) 


Tertiary 


c? } Pliocene 




Z , Miocene 




( Oligocene 




I \ 

"5 j Eocene 
f 


India collides with Asia, causing change in the direct! 
movement and creating the Tibetan plateau. 


\_ Paleocene 




MESOZOIC 


Cretaceous 




Mesozoic foldbelts surround Paleozoic continental en 


Jurassic 






Triassic 






PALEOZOIC 


Permian 




Atlantic Ocean begins to open up (Figure 4). 


Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) 


Mississippi, in (Early 


Carboniferous) 




Devonian 




In southern Siberia and northern Mongolia, the Cale 
foldbelt further separates the Asian crust (Figure 3). 


Silurian 






Ordovician 




Disruption and separation of the Asian massif by the E 
foldbelt (Figure 2). 


Cambrian 




Asian continental crust is situated where northeastern 
(Figure 7). 


PROTEROZOIC 




rrr/- A 




ARCHEOZOIC 


TIME 

4 



The Geologic Time Scale combines the classical time classification of rocks long used by geologists with numerical time 
boundaries based on radiometric age measurements (which are constantly being updated as techniques of measurement are 
refined). The three major time divisions Cenozo/c, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic eras were named for recent, middle, and 
ancient life, respectively. Note the unequal duration of the three eras. "Paleogene" and "Neogene" are the periods that make 
up the Cenozo/c era, as specified by the International Geological Congress; "Tertiary" and "Quaternary" are the Cenozo/c 
periods usually recognized in the United States. 

27 



course. Some incorporate pieces of extremely 
ancient rock complexes; many are capped by more 
recent sediments and volcanic flows. Therefore, 
reconstruction of major episodes in the evolution of 
continents cannot be based solely on geologic maps 
(those showing the ages and distributions of surface 
rocks), and, while tectonic maps are helpful, most do 
not indicate when massifs were disrupted nor when 
toldbelts were created. (In contrast, evolution of 
younger and relatively simpler oceanic crust is fairly 
easy to determine.) These limitations mean that maps 
which purport to explain the evolution of continental 
crusts are based on "geopoetry" as well as 
conventional geology. Such maps, including those 
presented here, are intended to promote broad 
thinking, and are best used as models against which 
new ideas can be tested. 

To enhance understanding of crustal growth, I 
have used certain generalizing techniques with this 
material. Maps are kept simple, since too many 
tectonic and other details could obscure growth 
patterns. The larger structural segments of modern 
Asia are identified by order of their appearance in 
time, and are assigned either to ancient geologic 
formations or to more recent additions. Only large 
faults are depicted those most related to 
convergence, divergence, and translation between 
crustal plates. Regressing through time, we can 
examine the Asian crust at each major crustal 
addition, back to the beginning of the Phanerozoic 
eon (600, 000, 000 years ago), and then reconstruct this 
history in chronological order. By putting together 
knowledge from marine and land geology, we can 
begin to see how the East China and Yellow seas 
arrived at their present form a result of events in 
Siberia, India, North America, and elsewhere. 

Evolution of Asian Crust 

At the beginning of the Cambrian period, the outset 
of the Phanerozoic eon, the largest presently 
recognized piece of Asian continental crust was 
situated where northeastern Asia is now (Figure 1). 
This crust is a massif of the remains of foldbelts from 
very ancient times, the Archeozoic and Proterozoic 
eons; some are as old as 3,500,000 years. 
Originally, this massif probably was much larger, but 
some parts drifted away to become major parts of 
other continents. Evidence of such ancient crustal 
fragmentation and foldbelts implies that seafloor 
spreading and plate tectonics occurred long before 
the Phanerozoic eon, the time when animals 
developed hard parts capable of being fossilized. 

During the Early Cambrian period of orogeny 
(mountain-forming by folding and thrusting) in the 
region of Lake Baikal, the massif rifted and the part 
west of present Lake Baikal shitted northwestward 
toward the present Arctic Sea (Figure 2) . During the 
separation, the space between these two pieces of 
crust filled with ocean, and sedimentation took 
place. The pieces of massif did not move very far 
apart, and the ocean opening was followed by partial 
closing, during which many of the sediments were 
converted to foldbelts (similar to the formation of the 
Appalachians and Alps). We do not know the 
positions of other crustal fragments at that time. 




Legend for Figures 1 6 

Massif, mostly formed in Precambrian time. 

"New" foldbelts, formed during the time of 
the map on which marked. 

"Old" foldbelts, formed before the time of 
the respective map, but after the massif. 

Cretaceous and Jurassic foldbelts. 
Thrust, plate convergence. 
Strike-slip, plate translation. 



END OF PROTEROZOIC 
570 million years 

before present I B.P.I 




Figure 7. Northeastern Asia at the end of the Proterozoic eon 
a massif of igneous and metamorphic rocks that records a 
complex sequence of Archeozoic and Proterozoicintrusions 
and foldbelts. An outline of the modem coast of Asia is 
included to provide scale and relative position. 

Though their exact positions are unknown, by 
the end of the Silurian period (400,000,000 years ago) 
the crustal fragments probably had moved well 
beyond the area shown in Figure 3, so that marine 
sediments occupied all of the region around the 
remaining massif. The Silurian period was marked by 
further rifting of the Asian massif, sedimentation on 
the ocean floor in the rift, and partial closing of 
another ocean basin the Caledonian orogeny, 
which raised the mountains of Scandinavia and 
Scotland. Beginning just west of the present Sea of 
Okhotsk, ophiolites fragments of ancient oceanic 
crust reveal the locations of plate convergence. 

The great Variscan orogeny, in the late 
Paleozoic era (about 300, 000, 000 years ago), created 
some of the borders of the Atlantic Ocean and 
brought about rifting and separation of the Asian 
massif and foldbelts (Figure 4). Marine sediments 
deposited within the rift regions became foldbelts 
when the ocean contracted between and around 
larger fragments of the massif. Ophiolites that 
remain along the boundary between Silurian and 
Variscan toldbelts south of Lake Balkhash may be 
small remnants of more extensive lines of plate 



28 



END OF EARLY CAMBRIAN = C 
550 million years B.P. 




Figure 2. Disruption and separation of the massif by 
emplacement of the Bai kalian foldbelt (near Lake Baikal, just 
north of modern Mongolia) forces the western part of the 
massif farther west and north. The circle is meant to 
demonstrate our ignorance about the extent of Baikalian 
sediments and foldbelts. 



END OF PALEOZOIC = PI 
230 million years B.P. 




Figure 4. Considerable separation of the massif and attached 
foldbelts by the extensive Variscan foldbelt, especially in 
northern China, pushes the southern part of the continental 
crust farther south to southern China and Indochina. 




Figure 3. Further disruption and separation of continental 
crust by the Caledonian foldbelt in what are now southern 
Siberia and northern Mongolia. 




Figure 5. Mesozoic foldbelts surround Paleozoic continental 
crust, causing minor internal disruption. In the upper 
right-hand corner, Mesozoic sediments directly contact part 
of the Precambrian massif. 



subduction. As this rifting occurred, over quite a long 
time, the new ocean and its sediment-covered floor 
broadened. There may have been other lateral 
movements that we cannot yet reconstruct 
accurately. Platform deposits from the late Paleozoic 
are on the wide plains east of the Ural Mountains. 
This mountain range is a foldbelt between the Asian 
and European continental crusts, indicating tectonic 
convergence of these two crusts. 

At least two tectonic episodes the 
Indosinian and Yenshan occurred during the 
Mesozoic era (230,000,000 to 65,000,000 years ago) , so 
that by the end of the Mesozoic the Asian massifs had 
become slightly more fractured. The principal 
change, however, was addition of foldbelts and 
platform deposits on the southern and eastern 
perimeters of the Asian continental crust. These were 
once sediments contiguous with those on the floors 



of the Indian and Pacific oceans, where seafloor 
spreading actively produced oceanic crust. This crust 
moved toward Asia; as it did, subduction probably 
removed some Paleozoic sediments, bringing 
Mesozoic sediments into direct contact with parts of 
the Precambrian massif (Figure 5). 

The Cenozoic era, extending from 65,000,000 
years ago to the present, has had great tectonic 
activity. The chief event was India's collision with 
Asia about 40,000,000 years ago. India was a piece of 
Antarctica that rifted and drifted away during early 
Mesozoic times. Trails of volcanic rocks and 
continental debris mark the travel route. Impact of 
India with Asia was severe; northern India pushed 
beneath Asia, so that the total continental crust there 
is two continents thick, which explains the high 
Tibetan plateau. At the same time, the overlying 
Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments were crumpled 



29 



into the Alpine foldbelt. Thus, sediments from the 
floor of the ancient Tethys Ocean became the 
Himalayas, Alps, and Pyrenees. 

India penetrated at least 2,000 kilometers into 
Asia, underthrusting and pushing southeastern Asia 
eastward (Figure 6). Four triangular "slices" widen 
eastward from near the northernmost part of the 
subduction belt north of India. Lateral movement 
started with the southernmost slice and gradually 
shifted northward; the northernmost slice has 
moved least. Movements of these slices further rifted 
the Precambrian massif, producing large grabens, or 
troughs, that then filled with sediments of 
nonmarine and marine origin (varying according to 
access by the ocean). The extensive southeastward 
movement also must have been a factor in producing 
the many Cenozoic basins and ridges associated with 
subduction belts on the present ocean floor. 

Crustal growth in the North Pacific Ocean 
during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras was 
relatively simple. In early Mesozoic time, the Atlantic 
Ocean began to open. Seafloor spreading at the East 
Pacific Rise added belts of oceanic crust along both 



sides of the rise. North America, moving westward as 
the Atlantic opened, overrode parts of the new crust, 
ultimately destroying most oceanic crust east of the 
divergence. Even part of the divergence itself is now 
beneath California. This subduction produced the 
Rocky Mountains, Coast Ranges, and the Aleutian 
island arc. 

On the other (west) side of the East Pacific 
Rise, seafloor spreading affected the Asian foldbelts. 
The oceanic crust was moving in the general 
direction of southeastern Asia (actually traveling 
north-northwest relative to its mantle source, the 
Hawaiian hot spot). In the late Paleogene, at about 
the time of India's collision with Asia, the crust's 
direction of movement shifted, a change which can 
be seen in the sharp bend in the Emperor-Hawaiian 
seamount chain. 

To determine average seafloor spreading 
rates, the width of each belt of oceanic crust is 
divided by its approximate formation time. Between 
the Gulf of California and the western edge of the 
(Jurassic) crust at the Marianas Trench, the average 
rates, in centimeters per year, are: Neogene, 4.1 ; 




90 



120 



150 



Figure 6. Crustal convergences culminate with the collision of the Indian subcontinent against southern Asia during Late 
Paleogene time. The collision thrusts the northern part of the Indian massif beneath Asian crust, folding the overlying 
sediments into the Himalayan mountains and producing large strike-slip faults in Asia that further separate the fragments of 
the original massif and open large grabens to receive Cenozoic sediments. This eastward displacement of Asian crustal slices 
is reflected in the complex topography of the ocean floor between Indonesia and Japan. N = Neogene; P = Paleogene; 
J = Jurassic; eK = Early Cretaceous; IK = Late Cretaceous. 



30 



Paleogene, 5.6; Late Cretaceous, 6.0; Early 
Cretaceous, 7.1; and Jurassic, 6.0+ (part of this crust 
has been lost by subduction). Possibly, the general 
slowing is an effect of the collision of India with Asia. 
However, we do not know when Pacific crust began 
to be subducted and what width of oceanic crust has 
been lost through subduction. 

The geomagnetic orientation of sedimentary 
and volcanic rock of known ages supplies some 
information about Asian crustal movements, 
although the data we have are scanty. The general 
implications of our measurements are that the region 
moved sharply to the north during early Paleozoic 
time, south during Mesozoic time, and north again 



during the Cenozoic. Unfortunately, however, the 
paleomagnetic measurements are so sparse that little 
credence can be given this reconstruction. In fact, a 
broad program of paleomagnetic studies is needed 
for Asia, and especially for China, if we are to 
improve our reconstruction of geological events 
there. 

Tectonics in the Yellow and East China Seas 

The structure underlying the Yellow and East China 
seas controls the patterns of sedimentation there. 
Precambrian massif underlies most of the shallower 
area; the highest portion of this massif is above sea 
level, projecting into the sea at the Shantung and 



Figure 7. Areas of massif and 
foldbelts in the East 
China-Yellow Sea region, 
with respect to present 
topography and general 
thicknesses of subsequent 
sediments. 




30 



25 



120 



125 



130 



31 



Liaotung peninsulas and bordering the entrance of 
theGulf of Bohai. The rest of the massif is underwater 
and has an irregular surface in the basins of which 
nonmarine detrital sediments accumulate, forming a 
nearly flat seafloor. The thickest sediments appear to 
be in the southwestern part of the Yellow Sea and the 
northwestern part of the EastChinaSea, posinggood 
possibilities for petroleum resources. 

Northwest of the massif, very thick Cenozoic 
and some Mesozoic sediments underlie the North 
China basin, which includes the northwestern side of 
the Gulf of Bohai. This basin, the Ordos basin farther 
west, and many smaller ones were formed as grabens 
caused by the collision of India with Asia. Although 
most are nonmarine, the thick sediments in at least 
some of the basins have proven to be petroliferous. 
Several fields in the North China basin provide a large 
part of China's total petroleum production. In 
contrast with the stability of the Precambrian massit, 
tectonism continues in the Gulf of Bohai, as 
illustrated by the enormously destructive earthquake 
at Tangshan on 28 July 1976. 

The Alpine graben southwest of the 
Precambrian massif is smaller and probably has 
thinner Cenozoic sediments than the Gulf of Bohai. 
In both areas, a single river is the chief supplier of 
new sediments. 

The remaining structural units of the Yellow 
and East China seas are on land, too: parts of the 
Baikalian foldbelt in the northwest and the 
Caledonian foldbelt in the southwest (Figure 7). Both 
foldbelts contribute only minor volumes of sediment 
to the ocean. 

Addition of platform sediments (later to 
become foldbelts) on the periphery of Asia began 
during the Early Mesozoic era. In the East China Sea, 
the result is the Fukien-Reinan foldbelt. Initially, it 
probably acted like a dam, holding out the ocean and 
allowing only nonmarine sediments to accumulate 
atop the broad Precambrian massif there. Probably 
by the Late Paleogene or Early Neogene the dam was 
eroded enough to allow ocean water in and, 
subsequently, marine sediments to be deposited. 
The Fukien-Reinan foldbelt has hilly topography on 
land and a subseafloor ridge across the mouth of the 
Huanghai Sea. 

The next stage of platform deposition, during 
the Paleogene, was a belt of nonmarine and marine 
sediments. The outer edge of the platform crumpled 
into the Taiwan-Sinzi foldbelt, which also may have 
temporarily blocked entrance of ocean water to the 
adjacent platform and farther inland. The fill contains 
petroleum, shown by actual production west of 
Taiwan, and a test flow of 1,000 barrels of gas 
condensate per day from two exploratory wells 
drilled in 1981, 300 kilometers east of Shanghai. 
Intense exploration of the region has lagged because 
of sovereignty questions and other issues, but one 
can confidently predict that many productive oil 
platforms will be sited in this basin. Finally, 
Paleogene oceanic crust and marine sediments were 
deposited on the deep-ocean floor, where they 
remain southeast of the Ryukyu Trench. 

Mesozoic oceanic crust, with its sediment 
overburden, continued to push beneath Asia during 
the Neogene along the Ryukyu Trench. This caused 



uplifting of the Ryukyu foldbelt, along with 
volcanism and seismic activity which continues to the 
present. Seafloor spreading like that west of the 
Marianas Trench was induced, and the Okinawa 
Trough opened. A belt of plate divergence may exist 
on the shallow floor of the trough (deepest point 
about 2,200 meters), and future studies will 
investigate possible thermal circulation, hot springs, 
and base-metal deposits along its axis. Under- 
thrusting along the Ryukyu Trench also crumpled 
ocean-floor sediments, forming a foldbelt between 
the trench and the largely volcanic Ryukyu foldbelt. 
Between the two foldbelts, a trough tilled with 
sediments from the northwest forms a terrace. 

Summary 

The region of the Yellow and East China seas is a 
compact, representative portion of Asia, reflecting in 
its structure tectonic events of the entire continent 
and of far more distant regions. These events can be 
traced by studying the movements of massifs and 
associated foldbelts composed of marine and 
nonmarine sediments deposited in a wide range of 
environments and climates in the course of more 
than a billion years. Present sediments are similar to 
many of the ancient ones, and they give us an 
opportunity to measure many depositional 
parameters that are beyond reach in vanished seas. 
To increase our knowledge of these vanished seas, 
we must be guided by concepts of plate movements, 
and not just by the patterns of rock ages and divisions 
of strata that were the basis for paleogeographic 
maps only a few decades ago. Modern 
sedimentology and knowledge of plate movements 
have already brought about changes in our 
conception of geologic evolution. Further surprises 
can be expected from studies more detailed than 
this. 

K. O. Emery is Bigelow Oceanographer emeritus at the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He presented a 
more technical version of this article at a symposium held in 
Hangzhou, China, in April, 1983. Dr. Emery is presently 
working with Dr. Elazar Uchupi, also of the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, on a broad synthesis of the 
geology of the Atlantic Ocean. 



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32 



Aquoculture Strategies in China 



by Ronald D. Zweig 



EDITOR'S NOTE: The author of the following article, 
Ronald D. Zweig, Director of Aquatic Studies at the New 
Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth, Massachusetts, 
spent 1 1 months in China during 1 982/83 as an 
aquaculture research and training advisor in integrated 
fish farming. The center he stayed at on Tai (Great) 
Hu (Lake), which is at Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, in the 
lower reaches of the Yangtze River is part of a global 
network of lead regional aquaculture centers sponsored 
by the United Nations Food and Agriculture 
Organization (FAO). These centers have been 
established for the transfer of information and 
techniques related to fish farming. This article was 
derived in part from one of the author's lectures about 
China given at the East-West Center in Hawaii. 



Yixing State Fish Farm's breeder grass carp used in 
artificially induced natural spawning. (Photo by author) 





That aquaculture has a philosophical base in the East 
and a scientific base in the West has far-reaching 
implications. In the East it is culture, it is life: culture 
to improve life by providing food and employment. It 
is embedded in the social and economic 
infrastructure. All that science can and must do is to 
make this culture more effective. In this respect, the 
East has much to learn from the West. In the West, 
aquaculture is science and technology, embodied in 
industry and providing profits: money. It has no 
social infrastructure. The economic infrastructure has 
yet to be created. In this, the West has much to learn 
from the East. 

It is on this meeting, this merger, that food for 
the world and peace for the world largely depend. 

Elisabeth Mann Borgese 
Seafarm 



/\n exploration of the Chinese landscape shows a 
most interesting interplay between humanity and the 
environment. Generally, the society is regionally 
self-reliant for food production and regionally 
interdependent for industry and energy 
requirements. People's diets, for the most part, are 
confined to the variety of foods that can be grown in 
their immediate locale. Railroad transport and 
shipping by canal to a lesser degree are used for the 
dispersion of most raw materials for industry, 
manufactured products, and energy supplies, such 
as coal and oil. 

With a population exceeding a billion people, 
the society's pressures on available resources are 
extreme, especially since approximately 93 percent 
of the population lives in less than 50 percent of the 
country's land area. Roughly 10 percent of the total 



33 




TVie interface zone between 
urban centers and 
agricultural landscape, 
illustrating the impact on 
landscape design. 



land area is arable, leavingapproximatelyO.1 hectare 
(0.25 acres) of agricultural land per inhabitant as 
compared to about 1 .5 hectare per person in the 
United States, which has less than a quarter the 
population. 

The structure of Chinese society and its 
agricultural strategies have a number of parallels to 
the way natural ecosystems evolve, function, and 
interrelate. For example, the interfaces between 
ecosystems have been found to be the most highly, 
biologically productive zones, as in intertidal and salt 
marsh areas at the edge of the seas, or at the bottoms 
of ponds where aerobic and anaerobic 
micro-environments are in contact. In each case of 
this kind, symbiotic and commensal relationships 
occur where by-products of the indigenous 




f : 



Fan Li, father of fish aquaculture and author of the classic 
text on rearing common carp, written circa 473 B. C. 
(Courtesy of author) 



organisms' biological activities are exchanged and 
cycled as nutrients or resources for each other. 
Similarly, zones of high, agricultural productivity 
exist in the Chinese landscape and are found in 
bands of land area surrounding population centers 
ranging in size from rural villages to large cities. The 
food production activities within these areas vary and 
are dependent upon the characteristic advantages 
and liabilities, resources, and climatic restrictions of 
each bioregion. 

Within the society's structure, there is a 
human-population density gradient that is high in 
urban and village centers and decreases into the rural 
landscape. Population transitions of this kind are 
found all over the world. In the primarily rural areas 
of China, extensive agriculture produces grains, rice, 
and wheat. This, too, is not uncommon. However, 
between the high population centers of villages or 
cities and the surrounding extensive agriculture of 
the rural countryside, a rather unique intermediate 
zone of activity exists where intensive food 
production takes place. This intermediate margin can 
be looked on as the interface between what can be 
characterized as urban and rural ecosystems. 
By-productsof agricultural production from the rural 
areas and food-processing wastes and nightsoil 
(human waste) from the urban centers are used in 
this intensive zone. Definitive cycles of nutrient use, 
both within and between this zone and the urban and 
rural environments, provide the capacity for 
extremely high food production on small areas of 
land. At the same time, needs for food transport are 
minimized, reducing costs and providing fresh 
produce. In places with sufficient freshwater 
supplies, particularly in the lower reaches of the Pearl 
and Yangtze river basins, integrated fish farming 
plays a predominant role in optimizing space and 
nutrient utilization. 

Roughly 60 percent of freshwater fisheries 
output comes from the Yangtze River Basin with 30 
percent from the Pearl River area. The total 



34 




Re-formed modern fish polyculture and integrated fish ponds. (Photo by author) 



freshwater fish production is 10 percent of the 
world's output, ora million metric tons a year; half of 
it is derived from aquaculture. Although this seems a 
large figure, it only amounts to an average of 1 
kilogram per person per year, with China's 
population of more than a billion equalling nearly a 
quarter of the world's people. 

3,000 Years of Aquaculture 

Aquaculture practices in China date back at least 
3,000years, with the first document on common carp 
monoculture techniques written by Fan Li in 473 B.C. 
Through the centuries, the methods have been 
refined and increased in complexity, particularly 
since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) when fish 
polyculture was initiated, leading to a successful and 
efficient approach to aquaculture. As with many 
discoveries, the reasons behind them are not 
necessarily the result of the analysis of gradually 
improvingtechniques. DuringtheTang Dynasty, the 
emperors' surnames were "Li," which is the same as 
the Chinese for "common" carp. As a result, the 
killing of common carp was banned, so alternative 
fishes were sought to replace it. A number of 
indigenous species was found with characteristically 
different feeding habits, and they could also be 
effectively cultured together in ponds creating the 
classic Chinese fish polyculture strategy. Among the 
fishes discovered, silver carp feed on phytoplankton. 
Grass carp and Wuchang fish ingest land grasses and 
higher aquatic plants. Bighead carp consume 
zooplankton. Black carp eat snails. Mud carp feed on 
bottom detritus, and common carp and crucian carp 
on most of the above, except plankton. Presently, 
some of the tilapias, native to Africa and the Middle 
East, are being used in combination with the 
aforementioned carps. (These fishes are 
differentially stocked in ratios to match the quality of 
external nutrient inputs and pond-generated feeds.) 
Becauseof this wide varietyof niches in ponds 
being exploited, a broad range of nutrient resources 



that otherwise have little direct food value to humans 
can be put into the ponds and efficiently used. 
Aquaculturist Gerald L. Schroeder describes the 
function of aquaculture ponds "as a sunlit rumen 
wherein mineral and organic fractions of feeds and 
fertilizers are converted by autotrophic and 
heterotrophic activities into a complex of algae, 
bacteria, protozoa, and their mucopolysaccharide 
exudates which serve as the food base for fish 
growth."* 

Integrated fish farming in China uses fish 
polyculture in ponds as its predominant activity. 
Direct linkages exist between fish culture, animal 
husbandry, and agriculture within the farms. Fish 
yields exceeding 13,000 kilograms per hectare per 
year have been achieved in some areas, as compared 
to good catfish production in the United States at 
3,000 kilograms per hectare per year on 
nonintegrated farms dependent on costly 
fishmeal-based feeds. 

Two main fish culture strategies are 
implemented in China: stocking and harvesting in 
rotation, and multi-grade conveyor culture. The 
rotation method begins by stocking a pond with up 
to three size-classes of each fish species cultured in 
it. Through the growing season, fish of harvestable 
size are captured every two to three months. At the 
same time, additional fingerlings are added to 
replace the fishes removed. This technique is mostly 
practiced in drainable ponds in the temperate areas 
of China. 

The multi-grade conveyor method is generally 
used in undrainable ponds in the south of China. 
Combinations of fish species are size-classed and 
reared in separate ponds. As the fish grow, the larger 
ones are culled out and moved to the next pond 
containing larger fish in lower densities. The last 

*Schroeder, C. L. 1983. Stable isotope ratios as naturally 
occurring tracers in the aquaculture food web. Aquaculture 
30: 203-210. 



35 



Aquoculture 
Scenes 
in China 



All 

Photos by 
Ronald D. Zweig 




Catching parent fish from 
parent fish pond. Buildings 
in background are pig sties; 
pig dung is commonly used 
for fertilizer. 




Mr. Chuan, engineer of the Yixing Fish Farm, prepares 
LRH-A, a synthetic hormone used to induce breeding in 
grass carp. 




Boat full of aquatic weeds from Tai Hu to be used as green 
fodder for grass carp. 




Ducks living over fish pond at the Wuxi Ho Le People's 
Commune. 




Fish cages at the Dian Shan Lake Farm in Shanghai county. 



36 




Spreading fine feeds over pond surface; tub is transport to assure even distribution. 





Fan Li Garden, named for the father of fish aquaculture, 
overlooking Tai Hu, the vicinity where Fan Li's pioneering 
work was completed. 



Yixing State Fish Farm. Carp hatchlings are put in net cages 
for conditioning prior to sale. 




LRH-A is injected into grass carp. 



37 



pond, generally the fifth in the sequence, is the 
food-fish pond from which the fish are harvested at 
market size. 

The combination of fish culture with animal 
husbandry and agriculture on integrated fish farms 
increases efficiency through ingenious use of 
beneficial nutrient subcycles within the farm itself. 
Pond-bottom humus is used as a fertilizer for crops 
grown adjacent to ponds or directly on their dikes, 
including fish feeds (green fodders and some grains) 
and human foods (vegetables, sugar cane, bananas, 
or tree crops). Livestock manures (pig, duck, goose, 
chicken, cow, sheep, etc.) and nightsoil are used as 
pond fertilizers forplankton production. Agricultural 
by-products such as dregs from wine processing, 
wheat and rice chaff, cotton or rape seed meal after 
oil extraction also are put into the ponds as fish 
feeds. In addition, floating aquatic plants such as 
water hyacinths, water peanuts, and water lettuce - 
are grown on canals adjacent to ponds. Presently, 
anaerobic digesters are being used on integrated fish 
farms to produce methane gas as an energy source 
from agricultural wastes and manures. The 
nitrogen-rich, slurry residues are then used to 
fertilize ponds. Even with this great variety of pond 
inputs, the limited quantity of locally available 
nutrients is the central factor restricting pond-area 
expansion where integrated fish farming is presently 
practiced. 

Silk Produced 

Some integrated fish farms also produce silk, an 
ancient practice in China. Mulberry plants are grown 
adjacent to ponds or directly on their dikes. The 
leaves are harvested and used as feed for silkworms. 
Silkworm feces as well as cocoon-processing 



wastewater are used as fertilizer for the ponds and 
some of the silkworm pupae are fed to fish. 
(However, if weather permits efficient drying 
outdoors, the pupae are now predominantly 
processed for a medicinal extract to remedy high 
blood pressure.) 

With the immense variety of nutrient inputs 
used in Chinese aquaculture, management of the 
ponds is the key factor for consistently producing 
high fish yields. Such high production is primarily the 
result of the savvy of the fish farmers whose families 
have practiced fish culture for many generations. 
They represent a rare exception to the statement by 
Eugene Odum in Fundamentals of Ecology that 
"man's very existence is being threatened by his 
abysmal ignorance of what it takes to run a balanced 
ecosystem." 

Using simple, visual cues such as 
pond-water color, turbidity, and fish behavior the 
farmers are able to maintain highly tuned, productive 
ponds. For instance, when they are asked what the 
best color is, they simply reply "fresh brown." A 
measurement not easy to define precisely, and, 
therefore, difficult to use for technology transfer. For 
success with this type of management, between 10 
and 20 years of experience are usually necessary. In 
addition, well developed techniques for natural and 
artificial propagation of fishes cultured, disease 
control, and harvesting and stocking contribute to 
theoverall success. In Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, where 
the highest yields are attained, there are only about a 
halt-dozen of these highly skilled practitioners. This 
is one of the predominant factors that limits the 
expansion of integrated fish farming in China needed 
to meet the demands of the increasing human 
population, which has doubled since 1950. 






Progress of the Zhang Zhwang fishery team at the Huang Qiao Commune in liangsu Province. The poster at left shows the 
600-year-old ponds circa 1958; center, re-formed ponds and expansion circa 7976; right, projected development. 



38 




Closing ceremonies of 4-month course on integrated fish farming given at Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Sixteen graduates 
represented Pakistan, Thailand, Nepal, India, Burma, Papua-New Guinea, Malaysia, Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Sri 
Lanka. (Photo courtesy of author; fourth from right at table) 



Joint FAO/China Program 

Attempts are now being made to scientifically 
quantify the pond dynamics and assess the efficiency 
of management tactics, including the use of 
electricity for aeration and water pumping, inorganic 
fertilizer, grain-based pelleted feeds, and others, so 
useful technology transfer may be possible within 
and outside of China. A project tor this purpose has 
been developed by the Chinese Government with 
assistance from the Food and Agriculture 
Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the 
United Nations Development Program. These 
coordinated efforts are an example of how a modern 
scientific approach can be applied to assess a 
traditionally practiced technology to determine its 
usefulness and develop the means tor its transfer to 
other places. 

The project is based in Wuxi at the 
Asian-Pacific Regional Research and Training Center 
for Integrated Fish Farming. This Center is one of 
seven Regional Aquaculture Lead Centers 
established around the world and assisted by the 
Aquaculture Development and Coordination 
Programme based at FAO headquarters in Rome. The 
precepts of the overall program are to conduct 
research, training, and information exchange of local 
aquaculture practices globally. Through the research 
efforts, techniques practiced in an area are being 
defined, assessed, and refined with successful ones 
being adapted for use in other regions. Aquaculture 



training courses and study tours are coordinated by 
some of the centers, providing first-hand experience 
and practice in the broad range of aquaculture 
techniques employed in each region. For example, 
a four-month training course in integrated fish 
farming is conducted at the Wuxi center each year 
with between 16 and 18 participants from countries 
in the Asian-Pacific community invited to attend. 
The primary focus of information collection, 
documentation, and dissemination activities is on 
indigenous knowledge successfully implemented at 
the local level by practitioners but not documented 
in the scientific literature. 

Through this program, seeds of additional 
information can be provided and may allow for 
broader use of aquaculture for food production. 
Accordingly, the fish-culture methods transferred 
will need to be woven into the cultural fabric 
of the societies, whether the approaches are 
complementary to existing aquaculture techniques 
or are completely new programs. This is a major 
challenge to the transfer and development of all 
food-production strategies among cultures, and it 
must be met to benefit humanity, particularly where 
food shortages exist. 



Ronald D. Zweig is Director of Aquatic Studies at the New 
Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth, Massachusetts. 



39 



Marine 
Pollution 
in 
China 



Street scene in Wuxi, a city of 
800,000. (Photo by Ronald 
Zweig) 




Bridge spanning the Grand Canal 



I he anti-intellectualism of the Cultural Revolution 
had great impact on marine science and 
oceanography in the People's Republic of China 
between 1966 and 1976, mainly via the closing of all 
universities and basic- and applied-research 
institutions. Genuine scientific writing and teaching 
virtually ceased during this period. It was not until 
the Gang of Four* were removed in 1976 that 
development of science and technology was again 
recognized as fundamental to modernization and 



"Jiang Quiang (widow of Mao Tse-tung), Wang Hongwen, 
Zhang Chunquiao, and Yao Wenyuan constituted the Gang 
of Four. Holding various posts in the Communist Party, the 
fou r appropriated political power and were viewed as the 
leaders of the Revolution until their banishment. 



40 



academic and research institutions were reopened. 
Therefore, it was not until 1981 that qualified 
graduates began to emerge and focus on marine 
science and oceanography. An entire generation of 
scientists was missing, and marine-pollution 
problems arising from agricultural practices and 
extensive industrialization had gone unnoticed or 
unstudied. Consequently, the impacts of pollution 
only recently have been identified, studied, or 
corrected in China. The enactment of the first 
Chinese marine environmental law in 1983 is a direct 
result of the re-emergence of environmental 
consciousness, analogous to the environmental 
movement in the United States in the late 1960s and 
the 1970s. 

Dramatic progress is now being made in 
China toward overcoming effects of the Cultural 




by D. A. Wolfe, 
M. A. Champ, 
F. A. Cross, 
D. R. Kester, 
P. K. Park, 
and R. L. Swanson 



Wuxi. (Photo by Ronald Zweig) 



Shanghai harbor. (Photo by 
Audrey Topping/PR) 




Revolution. As a result of expanded communication 
and exchange between China and the United States, 
numerous American scientists are once again visiting 
and promoting scientific interchange with working 
scientists in China. 

Under the auspices of a bilateral agreement 
between the United States' National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and China's 
National Bureau of Oceanography (NBO), a marine 
pollution delegation visited the People's Republic 
during June and July of 1983. Our objectives were to 
learn about marine-pollution problems in China and 
the existing research capabilities and programs that 
address those problems, and to explore the potential 
for intergovernmental cooperation in this field. The 
delegation (the authors of this article) visited 
government and academic research laboratories in 



Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Dalian, Shanghai, 
Hangzhou, Xiamen, and Guangzhou (Table 1). 

Marine-Pollution and Water-Quality Standards 

China's Marine Environmental Protection Law 
became effective on 1 March 1983. This law covers 
pollution and damage from coastal projects, offshore 
petroleum exploration, land-originated pollutants, 
boats and ships, and the dumping of wastes. The 
Director of NBO, Luo Yuru, was recently quoted in 
the China Daily (27 February 1983) as saying that the 
purpose of this law is for China to use its marine 
resources more profitably. Marine environmental 
laws become more important as the volume of 
international trade and exchange increases. Violators 
of the law have to remedy pollution within a specific 
period of time, pay a pollution-discharge fee, defray 



41 



Table 1 . Institutions visited by the marine pollution delegation. 



National Bureau 




of Oceanography Headquarters 


Beijing 


Institute of 




Oceanographic Instrumentation, NBO 


Tianjin 


Institute of 




Scientific & Technological 




Information, NBO 


Tianjin 


North China Sea Subbureau, NBO 


Qingdao 


First Institute of Oceanography, NBO 


Qingdao 


Academia Sinica 


Qingdao 


Yellow Sea Fisheries Institute 


Qingdao 


Shandong College of Oceanology 


Qingdao 


Institute of 




Marine Environmental Protection, NBO 


Dalian 


East China Sea Subbureau, NBO 


Shanghai 


East China Normal University 


Shanghai 


Second Institute of Oceanography, NBO 


Hangzhou 


Third Institute of Oceanography, NBO 


Xiamen 


Xiamen University 


Xiamen 


South China Sea Subbureau, NBO 


Guangzhou 


Academia Sinica 


Guangzhou 



the expenses for pollution removal, and compensate 
for the damage sustained by the state. In addition, 
warnings will be served and tines will be imposed. 
The Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and 
Environmental Protection is in charge of marine 
environmental protection, and the NBO is 
responsible for scientific research and the 
prevention of pollution caused by oil exploitation in 
offshore areas. Harbor and fishery departments, 
army units, and provincial governments will take care 
of environmental protection in the areas in their own 
jurisdiction. According to Luo, three vessels based in 
Qingdao, Shanghai, and Guangzhou began on 28 
February 1983 to patrol the sea areas under China's 
jurisdiction for pollution monitoring and 
surveillance of marine resources. 

The NBO issued marine water-quality 
standards in response to the Marine Environmental 
Protection Law of 1 March 1983. Water bodies are 
classified according to use for regulatory purposes- 
for example, a harbor is normally classified as a Class 
III water and standards vary according to 
classifications. The NBO is beginning to consider 
designation of ocean-dumping sites, but we were 
unable to determine whether specific sites and/or 
wastes are under consideration at this time. 

Waste Treatment 

At Tianjin, the U.S. delegation was briefed by Yu 
Xi-chen, Senior Engineer for the Environmental 
Protection Bureau of Tianjin; then it visited an oil 
refinery near Dagang, about 50 kilometers southeast 
of Tianjin. 

The central metropolitan area of Tianjin 
occupies approximately 160 square kilometers and 
supports about 4,000 factories and a population of 3.3 
million. The total area of Tianjin is 11,000 square 
kilometers; with a population of 7.7 million, it is the 
third largest city in China, after Shanghai and Beijing. 
Tianjin discharges about 1 million cubic meters of 



sewage daily into two waste streams that enter Bohai 
Bay in the same vicinity (Figure 1). One of these 
streams receives an additional 1 million cubic meters 
of discharge from Beijing. Only about 10 percent of 
this total is treated prior to discharge into the 
streams, although 1 ,000 of the Tianjin factories have 
pretreatment facilities to reduce the toxic organics, 
metals, and pigments in their effluent streams. 

A new treatment plant, with a capacity of 
260,000 cubic meters per day, will go into operation in 
Tianjin in 1984, using an activated sludge process. 
The two open waste streams carrying the combined 
wastes of Beijing and Tianjin are used as sources of 
water and fertilizer in the irrigation of agricultural 
land. The Haihe River is the primary water supply for 
Tianjin. According to Yu, the Bohai receives about 
700 million metric tons per year of discharge, of 
which 400 million metric tons enter Bohai Bay, the 
balance entering the Bohai mainly via Dalian and 
Jinzhou bays. Approximately a third of the wastes 
entering Bohai Bay are of industrial origin. 

At the Dagang refinery, the delegation was 
shown the waste-treatment facility that treats the 
combined wastes of the refinery operation and all the 
laboratory and toilet facilities in the plant. The 
treatment plant uses flotation, flocculation, and 
biological-digestion processes with a capacity of 500 
metric tons per hour. The wastes enter a pumping 
well by gravity flow and are directed into primary 
flotation tanks where floating oil is skimmed oft the 
surface and returned to the refinery. A flocculant 
(alum or FeCI 3 or both) is then added to the aqueous 
phase, which is strongly aerated as it enters a second 
flotation-process stream. Floating petroleum 
material is skimmed off at this stage and disposed of 
(possibly by burning or burial), and the 
aqueous-waste stream enters the biological 




Figure 7. Major water sources and waste streams for Beijing 
and Tianjin municipalities. Most wastes from Beijing are 
discharged into the Chaobai River or into a canal that flows 
into the Haihe River. The Chaobai and Haihe rivers both 
discharge into Bohai Bay. The Yongding River (and the 
Guanting Reservoir) supply most of Beijing's water. The 
Haihe River and its tributaries upstream from Tianjin provide 
water for that city. (Reconstruction of briefing by Yu 
Xi-Chen, chief engineer, Tianjin Environmental Protection 
Bureau) 



42 



digestion tanks, where recycling of activated sludge 
takes place. The effluent from this final step enters 
the waste stream to Bohai Bay, while the sludge is 
used as fertilizer for reforestation projects. Oil 
content of the aqueous phase after flocculation and 
the second flotation step is 15 to 20 parts per million; 
after biological digestion, it is reduced to 2 to 3 parts 
per million. The effluent stream is monitored for 
several parameters, which must meet standards 
imposed by the Environmental Protection Bureau, as 
shown in Table 2. 

In Shanghai, the NOAA delegation visited the 
Jiojan sewage treatment plant, which services the 
Jiojan apartment complex. About 90,000 people live 
there; no industrial wastes or storm sewers are 
directed to the sewage. The nominal jurisdictional 
boundary between Provincial and Federal authorities 
is the 12-mile limit, but the NBO is currently 
considering coastal waters as well as offshore waters. 
Regional monitoring of marine pollution is carried 
out by the monitoring stations of the three regional 
subbureaus. The Institute of Marine Environmental 
Protection in Dalian has access to the monitoring 
information from all regional subbureaus and 
analyzes the data to evaluate pollutant distributions, 
transport, transformation, and effects; 
environmental capacity for pollutants; and recovery 
capacity. 

Approximately 400,000 square kilometers of 
coastal waters (100,000 square kilometers in the 
South China Sea Subbureau region) are currently 
being monitored for about 20 parameters, with 
routine sampling three times per year (May, August, 
and October). The NBO sampling has been 
predominantly in depths greater than 10 meters. 
Monitoring parameters include: mercury, cadmium, 
zinc, copper, chromium, lead, chemical oxygen 
demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), 
dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorinity, petroleum, DDT 
and DDE, hexachlorobenzene (BHC) and 
hexachlorocyclohexane (666), and radionuclides 
(total alpha emitters and strontium-90). Sediments 
and water, but not biological tissue, are analyzed for 
appropriate parameters. In addition, biological 
monitoring for trace metals in mussels will be 
initiated along the coast of China as part of the 
Western Pacific regional monitoring program. 

Some 6 billion tons of domestic and industrial 
wastes are introduced annually into Chinese coastal 
waters, mainly from runoff from rivers, ships, and 
harbors. Petroleum and metals are the main 
pollutants of concern, but BOD and COD are also of 
concern because of their potential contribution to 
coastal organic enrichment and oxygen depletion. 
Red-tide blooms have occurred in Bohai Bay and in 
the coastal areas of the East China Sea. While the 
largest polluted area is the Bohai, concentrations of 
contaminants are generally higher at the mouth of 
the Changjiang (Yangtze) in the East China Sea; 
offshore waters are generally unpolluted, as most 
serious problems occur in bays and estuaries. 

Petroleum 

An estimated 60 percent of the petroleum pollution 
in coastal waters is derived from riverine sources. 
Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons at 



Table 2. Monitoring parameters and discharge standards applied to the 

Dagang refinery effluent stream. 

Parameter Standard 



total oil 

cyanide 

sulfate 

phenol 

acidity 

chemical oxygen demand 

particulates 



lO.Oppm 

0.5 ppm 

1.0 ppm 

0.5 ppm 

6.0-9.0 

100.0 ppm 

150.0 ppm 



the marine-monitoring stations (measured by 
ultraviolet absorption or fluorescence 
spectrophotometry) range from 0.01 to 0.32 parts per 
million, with an average of 0.05 parts per mi II ion. Five 
percent of the samples from the Bohai, Yellow and 
East China seas exceed the water quality standard of 
0.05 parts per million. The water of the Zhujiang 
(Pearl River) estuary and delta between Guangzhou 
and Hong Kong, however, frequently exceeds 
water-quality standards for petroleum, with 
measurements in the range of 0.04 to 0.108 parts per 
million. In the Zhujiang, the main sources of 
petroleum are refineries, transportation, and 
fisheries plants. Administration and regulation of 
petroleum input are complicated by significant 
additions from runoff and atmospheric input, and by 
contributions from natural sources. Some 13,000 
tons of petroleum enter the Zhujiang estuary 
annually, making parts of the area unsuitable for fish 
and shellfish culture and recreation. The Chinese 
have designated two levels of water-quality standard 
for petroleum: first-rate is 0.050 parts per million and 
second-rate is 0.100 parts per million. 

The NBO's Institute of Marine Environmental 
Protection has studied Jinzhou Bay, a small (125 
square kilometers) bay northwest of Dalian. The 
main contaminants here are from an oil refinery and a 
zinc-processing plant. In Jinzhou Bay, petroleum 
concentrations of 0.01 to 2.6 parts per million have 
been observed, and the concentration decreases 
exponentially with distance from the source. In this 
area, only 8 species of macrofauna remain in the 
intertidal zone (Perinereis species, Macroplathalmus 
species, and Claucomya species are dominant). In 
this same area, oyster tissues contain 0.06 to 0.47 
parts per million of mercury and 0.03 to 13.8 parts per 
million of cadmium (wet-weight basis). A 
mathematical model is being developed by NBO 
scientists at Dalian for calculating the capacity of 
Jinzhou Bay for contaminants. 

Organic Loading 

About 600,000 to 700,000 metric tons of COD enter 
China's coastal waters annually, with approximately 
half of that coming from the Changjiang. The 
water-quality standard is 3 parts per million, and 
observed values are in the range of 0.19 to 5.5 parts 
per million. The standard is exceeded most 
frequently in the Bohai (22 percent of stations), 
followed by the East China Sea (7 percent) and the 
South China Sea (2.7 percent). Areas of greatest 
concern are Jiaozhou Bay at Qingdao, Bohai Bay and 
Laizhou Bay, both in the Bohai, and the mouthsof the 



43 



Changjiang and Zhujiang estuaries. Red-tide blooms 
occurred in May, 1983, in the Zhujiang estuary near 
Hong Kong (with extensive fish mortalities), and 
massive mortalities of oysters (Ostrea plicatula) have 
occurred near Hangzhou. Scientists at the Second 
Institute of Oceanography were attempting to relate 
this latter observation to toxicants in the area, but the 
mortality resembled a classic example of high 
BOD/COD following spring plankton blooms a 
situation that could have been aggravated by 
increased runoff of nutrients from the surrounding, 
chemically fertilized, agricultural lands. 

Heavy Metals 

Generally speaking, it was reported that heavy metal 
concentrations were not considered a problem. 
NBO sampling programs have been analyzing 
seawater and sediment samples for several years. 
The Dalian laboratory is currently analyzing seawater 
samples for mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, and 
copper. The Second Institute at Hangzhou has 
measured copper, cadmium, lead, zinc, cobalt, 
nickle, manganese, magnesium, and iron in 
seawater, pore water, and sediment since 1979. The 
concentrations of mercury were 'highest in the East 
China Sea, followed by the South China Sea and 
Bohai. Concentrations of cadmium were highest in 
the South China Sea. Lead concentrations were 
highest in the Zhujiang estuary. 

Effects on Fisheries 

In recent years, fisheries production has declined in 
the East China Sea, particularly catches of croakers. 
Age and size of the fish caught also have been 
decreasing, suggesting that overfishing may be a 
cause of the decline. New laws have been passed to 
regulate fish ing, especially during spawning periods, 
and the number of fishing boats is now being 
controlled. The largest fishery is for yellow croaker 
(Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson), which is landed 
at a rate of about 100,000 tons per year from the East 
and South China seas. The second most important 
fishery is for little yellow croaker (P. polyactis 
Blecker) from the Bohai, followed by hairtails 
(Trichiurus haumela Forsskal), and cuttlefish (Sepiola 
inermis = maindroni de Rochebrune). 

In the area of Fuzhou to Xiamen, razor clams 
(Sinonovacula constricta Lamarck) are cultured 
intensively in the intertidal zone. Until recently, the 
intertidal area was sprayed with arsenic to eliminate 
predators, parasites, and competitors. The Chinese 
nave since stopped this practice because of 
unacceptable arsenic levels in the harvested clams. 

Research on fisheries is conducted under the 
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Husbandry 
through three federal fisheries institutes, located at 
Qingdao, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. The NOAA 
delegation visited the Yellow Sea Institute in 
Qingdao. In the area of marine pollution, the Yellow 
Sea Fisheries Institute performs acute- and 
chronic-pollutant lethality tests with metals and 
pesticides on marine organisms, and on the basis of 
these (96-hour TLM) bioassays, recommends 
water-quality criteria for both marine and fresh 
waters. Effects of refinery operations and seismic 
geologic tests have been examined using/'ns/fi/ cage 



bioassays with fish and shrimp. Fish also are sampled 
and analyzed for trace metals, and nearshore 
samples generally contain higher metal 
concentrations than those from offshore. At most of 
the NBO laboratories visited by the delegation , there 
seemed to be little awareness of the activities 
underway at the Fisheries institutes. This is 
unfortunate, because very little biological sampling, 
analysis, or biological-effects research is done at the 
NBO laboratories. At the South China Sea Subbureau 
of the NBO, however, we were told that exchange of 
data, participation in joint research cruises, and 
intercalibration all occur with the South China Sea 
Fisheries Institute in Guangzhou. 

Marine Pollution Problems of Concern 

The general areas of marine pollution of concern to 
Chinese scientists include petroleum hydrocarbons, 
pesticides, radionuclides, and heavy metals. We did 
not find a great deal of attention to the potential 
effects of nutrient enrichment of coastal waters from 
domestic sewage discharges. The major activities 
regarding pollutants in coastal waters are baseline 
inventories, monitoring techniques, and some 




Flotation tank and skimmer at the Dagang oil refinery 
waste-treatment plant. Skimmer in foreground removes 
wastes from surface of the effluent; effluent is then 
channeled to a biological digestion tank and discharged via 
a canal to the open sea. (Courtesy of authors) 



44 



marine-process research. As noted, a first-order 
assessment has been made of selected marine 
pollutants in the coastal waters of China. 

With respect to marine-process studies, 
Chinese scientists generally know where problems 
lie and how they can be approached, but they were 
only in the early stages of conducting such studies. 
One specific example is the area of chemical 
speciation of heavy metals, in which there is a high 
level of interest at the Second and Third Institutes. 
There also is a demonstrated interest in 
understanding the exchange of pollutants between 
seawater and particulate phases. 

Instrumentation and Methodology 

New instrumentation is being obtained and installed 
at several institutions, especially for analyzing heavy 
metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. Most of the 
modern equipment is American and Japanese, but 
many instruments also are being built in the People's 
Republic, frequently modelled on American 
instruments. 

Radioactivity measurements are being taken 
at several locations, including Academia Sinica and 
the First Institute of Oceanography in Qingdao, 
Marine Environmental Protection Institute in Dalian, 
Third Institute of Oceanography at Xiamen, and the 
Marine Environmental Protection Center of the 
South China Sea Subbureau in Guangzhou. 
Carbon-14 and lead-210 are used for age 
determination of samples at several locations. 
Low-background alpha counting is underway at 
Academia Sinica at Qingdao, the Third Institute of 
Oceanography in Xiamen, and at the South China 
Sea Subbureau in Guangzhou, apparently for 
monitoring of environmental samples. Strontium-90 
is also being monitored at these three institutes. The 
First and Third Institutes of Oceanography both have 
512-channel gamma spectrometers. Zhou Ben Chaun 
at the First Institute is measuring cesium-137, zinc-65, 
and cobalt-60, samples from the Bohai, using a 
7.6-centimeter by 7.6-centimeter sodium iodide 
crystal; the Third Institute has two lithium-drifted 
germanium detectors which were not yet in use 
(shielding had not been installed). At the South 
China Sea Subbureau, we were told that the 
concentration of radionuclides was somewhat high 
in the water and sediments of Zhujiang estuary, but 
neither the compositions of isotopes nor their 
origins were identified for us. 

Pesticides are being analyzed by gas-liquid 
chromatography at several institutes. In most cases 
observed, large-diameter packed columns, 1 .5 to 2 
meters long, were in use. Capillary columns were in 
use only at the Second Institute of Oceanography 
(for normal alkanes) and at the South China Sea 
Subbureau (pesticides). Pesticides analyzed always 
included DDT, DDE, and 666, but BHC ' 
(hexachlorobenzene) and PCBs also were mentioned 
occasionally. The Institute of Marine Environmental 
Protection also had prepared standards for dieldrin. 
During discussions at the Third Institute of 
Oceanography, the delegation was advised that DDT 
and 666 were still used extensively in China (with 
heavier usage of 666), though China had halted 
production of both compounds as of 1 March 1983. 




Atomic absorption spectrophotometer at the South China 
Sea Subbureau in Guangzhou. This Chinese-built double 
beam instrument with background correction was not yet in 
use at the time of the delegation's visit. (Courtesy of 
authors) 

Approximately four types of organophosphorus 
pesticides also are in use; these are not yet being 
analyzed in marine systems. 

The use of packed-column gas-liquid 
chromatography severely constrains the analysis of 
chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and petroleum 
hydrocarbons in environmental samples. 
Hydrocarbon resolution is not sufficient to permit 
either reliable, state-of-the-art distinction of 
petrogenic from biogenic materials or tracking of 
petroleum in the environment to its source. 

Nearly every laboratory possesses one or 
more atomic absorption spectrophotometers (AAS) 
for measuring metals in either sediments or 
seawater. Most of the institutions also are equipped 
for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Atomic 
absorption spectrophotometry is routinely used in 
analyses of metals (usually total, by HF digestion) in 
sediments, whereas ASV is used for analysis of 
dissolved metals (copper, cadmium, zinc, and lead) 
in seawater. Only the Second and Third institutes 
were set up to preconcentrate metals from seawater 
for AAS; there, scientists are using solvent 
extraction. The delegation could not judge if Chinese 
scientists had adequate control over contamination 
to be able to measure metals in seawater at the 
nanomolar level and below. Only the Second 
Institute of Oceanography, however, was attempting 
to use state-of-the-art "clean" procedures for their 
metal analyses. The Chinese have developed an ASV 
instrument and some small electrodes that are 
considerably different than those used in the United 
States. A comparison of electrochemical methods 
between the two countries could prove useful. 

Generally, conventional manual methods are 
used for nutrients. Members of the delegation 
observed many Chinese-made spectrophotometers 
modeled after the Beckman DU. We saw one 
Technicon autoanalyzer, but it was not functional. 
Automated chemical analyses will greatly benefit 
Chinese scientists in the future. 

Marine Science Library and Computer Facilities 

The U.S. delegation visited the marine-science 
libraries of a number of the institutes. They have 
good coverage of western journals and textbooks, 



45 



but only a fair collection of specialized reference 
books. Many journals and texts are not original 
editions; photocopies are bound for distribution 
within China. It was evident that Chinese scientists 
are closely following technical literature. 

Since 1980, many marine-science institutions 
have been publishing marine-science journals. The 
NBO Institute of Marine Scientific and Technological 
Information inTianjin publishes Oceanic Abstracts, 
which abstracts international literature, and 
Collected Oceanic Works, which presents English 
translations of papers selected from the Chinese 
marine-science literature. Table 3 lists 
marine-science journals recently established in 
China. 

There is a general lack of experience and 
equipment for marine-data analysis. The NBO 
computer at Tianjin is badly outdated. Members of 
the delegation saw a Cromenco microcomputer 
system at the Second Institute that was being used 
for teaching computer programming, but we were 
unable to learn if application programs had been 
developed. The Third Institute has a recently 
installed DEC minicomputer; the tew computer 
terminals we saw were not, in general, used for 
scientific work. 

Closing Perspective 

The marine scientists we met at the oceanographic 
institutes of NBO, at the Academia Sinica 
laboratories, and at the academic institutions 
conveyed a sense of broad awareness of 
contemporary facets of marine research comparable 
in scope to that of marine scientists in the United 
States and Europe. Many of our introductory 
sessions at various laboratories included a historical 
summary of the work. While quite a number of 
marine programs in China were initiated in the late 
1950s and the early 1960s, it was often indicated that 
their work was substantially curtailed during the 
Cultural Revolution (1966 to 1976). Consequently, in 
many instances it is only during the last seven years 
that marine scientists in China nave been able to 
pursue their work intensively. We have a clear sense 
of the considerable progress made in recent years, 
and that the state of marine science in the People's 
Republic of China is advancing very rapidly. 



Table 3. Marine science journals currently being published in the 
People's Republic of China. 



Acta Oceanologica Sinica 






Chinese 


Vol. 5, No. 1 


)an1983 


English 


Vol. 1,No. 1 


lun 1982 


Collected Oceanic Works (semiannual) 






in English starting 1982 


Vol. 5, No. 1 


Aug 1 982 


Journal of Shandong College 






of Oceanology 


Vol. 13, No. 1 


Mar 1983 


Marine Science Bulletin (bimonthly) 






English abstracts 


Vol. 2, No. 1 


Feb 1 983 


Ocean Technology (quarterly) 






English abstracts 


Vol. 1,No. 1 


Mar 1982 


Oceanic Abstracts (monthly) 






Multilingual, Chinese abstracts 




1983 


Oceanologia et Limnologia 






Sinica (bimonthly) 


Vol. 14, No. 1 


Jan 1983 


Studia Marina Sinica 






English abstracts 


No. 19 


Sept 1982 


Taiwan Strait (semiannual) 






English abstracts 


Vol. 1,No. 1 


lull 982 


Tropic Oceanology (quarterly) 






English abstracts 


Vol. 1,No. 1 


Aug 1982 



Douglas A. Wolfe is Chief of the Ocean-Use Impacts 
Assessment Branch of the Ocean Assessments Division of 
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA) in Rockville, Maryland. Michael A. Champ is a 
Professor at the American University in Washington, D.C. 
Ford A. Cross is Chief of the Division of Estuarine and 
Coastal Ecology at the NOAA/National Marine Fishery 
Service, Southeastern Fishery Center, Beaufort Laboratory, 
Beaufort, North Carolina. Dana R. Kesterisa Professor at the 
Graduate School of Oceanography at the University of 
Rhode Island in Narragansett, Rhode Island. P. Kilho Park is 
the Senior Oceanographer in the Ocean-Use Impacts 
Assessment Branch of NOAA at Rockville. R. Lawrence 
Swanson is a Research Associate in the NOAA Office of Sea 
Grant Programs at Rockville. 



Selected Readings 

Anonymous. 1983. Science in China: Planting a Tall Tree. 

(Commentary). Nature 301: 280-284. 
Sun, M. 1983. China Faces Environmental Challenge. Science 221: 

1271-1272. 
White, T. H. 1983. China: Burnout of a Revolution. Time, September 

26, pp. 30-49. 
Wu Bao Ling and R. B. Clark. 1983. Marine Pollution Research in 

China. Marine Pollution Bull. 74(6): 210-212. 



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Oceanographic 
Factors 
and Seaweed 
Distribution 



by C. K. Tseng 







Edible seaweed collected at 
the Number 7 Farm in 
Qingdao, Shandong Province. 

(XNA) 






* V 




I he geographic distribution of seaweeds along 
China's coasts is influenced by oceanographic 
conditions extending over certain time periods. 
These distribution patterns can be better understood 
by explaining the role of the oceanographic factors 
involved. This is an important problem in marine 
biology but, regretfully, it has been neglected. In the 
late 1950s and early 1960s, a few papers were 
published in China on this subject. It is desirable, 
therefore, to summarize these views with the object 
of furthering discussion among fellow marine 
botanists. 

Factors in the Distribution of Seaweeds 

Seaweeds are benthic marine algae and, unlike 
animals, are unable to leave their substrates once 
they are attached to them. In order to maintain 
their lives, they have to adapt themselves to the 
environment and tolerate the rigor of the environ- 
mental extremes within their growth period, 
which in the case of perennials may mean extreme 
temperatures in some temperate regions 
(near-freezing temperatures in the winterand as high 
as 27 to 28 degrees Celsius in the summer). Any 
seaweed unable to cope with such extremes will not 
be able to establish itself in such a locality. The 
presence of the seaweed in healthy and normal 
conditions, naturally, reflects its ability to adapt to 
the locality; all such localities taken together 
constitute the pattern of its geographic distribution. 
Temperature is undoubtedly the crucial one among 
the important, basic oceanographic factors. The 
other factors such as light, salinity, and chemical 
nutrients also are important, but to a lesser degree, 
and only locally. 

Although seaweeds are not motile and are 
unable to move from one place to another, they have 
reproductive units the spores and/or zygotes - 
which act just like seeds of the land plants in their 
dispersal. The medium of dispersal, of course, is 
water. If the water is stationary, the dispersal area will 
be very limited. It is the moving water mass that helps 
the seaweeds disperse to faraway places. That the 
same seaweed can be found in different places very 
far from each other, even on coasts of different 
continents, is due to the presence of ocean currents 
and their branches and subbranches, which are 
instrumental in their successful dispersal. 

However, the spores and zygotes can remain 
viable only for a certain length of time, and their 
transport from one place to another must be 
completed within the viable period. Therefore, 
movement of water mass, especially ocean 
currents and their branches, is the other crucial 
oceanographic factor in determining the pattern of 
its geographical distribution. 

Thus, successful dispersal of a seaweed 
depends, at least, on two crucial factors. Its 
reproductive units must be transported by the 
moving water mass from one place to another, which 
constitutes the first factor for successful dispersal. 
Once the spores and/or zygotes arrive at another 
place away from "home" and attach to the right kind 
of substrate on the right tidal level, receiving the 
right light intensity, and in water of the right salinity 
and chemical nutrients, and at the right temperature 



- they will germinate and grow to sporelings in the 
new locality. However, that does not guarantee 
successful establishment of seaweeds. 

Environmental conditions are changing all the 
time, and the seaweed has to adapt itself and cope 
with them, particularly the changing temperature, to 
grow and reproduce normally and healthily and, 
finally, to give rise to new generation , before it can be 
really established in its new "home." Thus, 
temperature constitutes the second crucial factor for 
successful dispersal. In the course of the long history 
of dispersal, the localities in which it is distributed 
and established may be connected with each other, 
forming a very long distributional string or even a 
very copiously branched distributional tree. This is 
the pattern of its geographical distribution. 

When all the species of a locality are taken 
together and dealt with in toto, they constitute the 
marine flora of that locality. Oceanographic 
conditions, therefore, especially the two crucial 
factors (movement of the water mass and 
temperature) shaping the pattern of geographical 
distribution of the individual species, are similarly 
involved in explaining the characteristics of the 
marine flora. We have studied several cases of the 
geographical distribution of seaweeds and have 
selected two examples for this article (Figure 1). 

Pelvetia siliquosa 

In 1953, we discovered a new species of Pelvetia, P. 
siliquosa (Tseng and C. F. Chang) from the Huanghai 
Sea coast and discussed its distribution on the China 
coast as well as the world distribution of the genus 
Pelvetia (Tseng and C. F. Chang, 1953, 1958). P. 
siliquosa is distributed on the eastern end of the 
Shandong Peninsula, from Wendeng County in the 
south to Jimingdao in the north, and on the Liaodong 
Peninsula, from Changhai County (Changshan 
Islands) in the east to Changxing Island of the Fuxian 
County in the Bohai Sea in the west. The Pelvetia is 
not found, however, in the Yantai-Weihaiwei region, 
only some 10 kilometers west of Jimingdao in the 
northern part of the Shandong Peninsula, or in the 
Qingdao region, also some 10 kilometers west of the 
Wendong County in the southern part. 

For a long time, we had suspected that the 
so-called dwarf form of Pelvetia wrightii, reported to 
occuron the southern and southwestern coast of the 
Korean Peninsula, was nothing but plants of the 
present species. Our suspicion was fully confirmed 
13 years after the discovery of the species, when 
Noda (1966) published his new sped esPe/vef/'a minor 
based on specimens collected from the southern and 
southwestern Korean coasts, and from Dalian, 
Liaodong Peninsula, where we also collected our 
specimens of P. siliquosa. Noda's description and 
photographs of his species left no doubt in our mind 
that P. minor is synonymous with our P. siliquosa. 

There are, therefore, three regions where 
Pelvetia siliquosa is distributed: Shandong 
Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula, and Korean 
Peninsula. It was speciated many years ago in an 
earlier geological era in one of the three regions and 
then spread to the other two regions. Although we 
have selected the specimen from Mashan of the 
Shandong Peninsula as the type specimen, it does 



49 



110 



115 



120 



125 



130 



135 



140 



145 



DALIAN (DAIREN) I ( * ' 



WEIHAI (WEIHA1WE) 



YANTAI (CHEFOO) 



SHENGSI ISLANDS 



XIAMEN (AMOY) j*" o 
o 



.EGEND 



DISTRIBUTION OF 
PELVETIASILIQUOSA 



HONG KONG 



DISTRIBUTION OF 

SARGASSUMHORNERI 




2 r > 



2(1 



110 



115 



120 



125 



Figure 7. Geographical distribution of two Chinese seaweeds. 



not necessarily mean that this species was speciated 
there and then spread to the other two peninsulas. 
Generally speaking, the locality where a species was 
speciated should have much larger quantities and 
more varieties and forms. 

Although we do not have the opportunity to 
visit and observe the growth of this species in the 
Korean localities mentioned by Noda, we have 
reasons to believe that P. siliquosa grows much more 
luxuriantly in larger quantities in the Korean 
Peninsula than in China. This is based on the fact that 
for many years, perhaps hundreds of years, Korea 
had exported to China large quantities of this 



seaweed, which were sold on the market in North 
China under the vernacular nameLujiaocai (meaning 
"deer-horn vegetable"). In recent years, probably 
because of lesser quantities of import or larger 
quantities of consumption, the seaweed Ishige 
okamurai and the juvenile thalli (young sprout) of 
the seaweed Sargassum (Hizikia) fusiforme were 
marketed as its substitute, also known on the market 
as Lujiaocai. On this basis, and also for other reasons, 
we are led to believe that P. siliquosa was speciated in 
southern Korea, then spread to the western Korean 
coast, then further distributed to the Liaodong and 
the Shandong peninsulas. In fact, the distribution in 



50 



western Korea is almost continuous with that in the 
Liaodong Peninsula, the only barrier being the delta 
of the Yalu River. 

Before discussing the oceanographic factors 
involved in shaping the present pattern of the 
geographical distribution of thePe/vef/a, a few words 
about its ecology and reproduction are necessary. 
This seaweed grows on middle intertidal rocks and, 
therefore, is exposed to the drying effect of air and 
sun several hours a day. Being a perennial, its thalli 
have to withstand hot summers and cold winters; 
therefore, it is found only in such places where the 
summers are not too hot, generally not over 25 
degrees Celsius, and the winters not freezing, about 
1 to 2 degrees Celsius. It grows in places where water 
flows swiftly but wave action is not too strong. It 
matures sexually and liberates eggs in the summer, 
especially August to September when the fertilized 



eggs (the zygotes), assisted by the movement of the 
surface current, will be dispersed from one place to 
another. Therefore, the critical period for its 
dispersal is late summer. 

The principal current in the Huanghai Sea is 
the Huanghai Sea Warm Current, which is a branch 
of the Tsushima Current, itself a branch of the 
famous warm current Kuroshio (Figure 2). In August, 
the Huanghai Sea Warm Current, after passing 
through the Huanghai Sea off the eastern coast of the 
Shandong Peninsula, divides into two branches. One 
of these branches turns eastward and moves 
southward along the western Korean coast, while the 
other turns westward, forming the extension of the 
current, part of it entering the Bohai Sea via the 
channel between Laotiashan of the Liaodong 
Peninsula on the north and Huangcheng Island of the 
Miaodao Islands on the south, and the remaining 



Figure 2. The summer surface 
currents in the Bohai, 
Huanghai (Yellow), and East 
China seas. (Guan, 
Bingixian, and others) 



120 



124 



128 



132 




116 



120 



124 



128 



132 



51 



part turning southward, pushed eastward by the 
water mass coming out from the southern entrance 
of the Bohai Sea and eventually mixing with it and 
moving southward along the eastern coast of the 
Shandong Peninsula. 

Therefore, it may be postulated that after the 
speciation of Pelvetia siliquosa somewhere on the 
southern Korean coast, it was helped by the 
northward moving Huanghai Sea Warm Current to 
establish itself on the western Korean coast. In the 
second stage of dispersal, its zygotes were brought 
by the extension of the same current to some place 
on the Liaodong Peninsula. Finally, in the third stage 
of its dispersal, its zygotes from the growth on the 
Liaodong Peninsula were helped by the southward 
moving branchlet of the extension of the Huanghai 
Sea Warm Current, which did not enter the Bohai 
Sea, to establish themselves somewhere on the 
eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula. 

The previously mentioned branchlet did not 
reach Yantai or Weihaiwei, where, to date, this 
seaweed is not found. Qingdao lies on the concave 
coast between two protruding points, namely, the 
Shandong Peninsula on the north and the 
Changjiang (Yangtze River) delta in the south; this 
part of the coast, near which are many small eddy 
currents, is beyond the influence of the branches of 
the Huanghai Sea Warm Current and {he Pelvetia 
zygotes will have no chance of arriving at the 
Qingdao region where summer temperatures reach 
27 to 28 degrees Celsius, intolerable to the growth of 
P. siliquosa. That the Pelvetia is not found in the 
Yantai-Weihaiwei region in the north and the 
Qingdao region in the south of the Peninsula is 
therefore understandable (Tseng and C. F. Chang, 
1953,1958). 

Sargassum horneri 

In one of our papers, we discussed four cases of 
discontinuous distribution of seaweeds on the China 
coast (Tseng and C. F. Chang, 1959). Sargassum 
horneri is one of them, and a typical one. In China, it 
is a very common seaweed in the Xiamen (Amoy) 
region, its distribution extending southward to the 
Hong Kong and Macao region, eastward to Penghu 
(Pescadores) Islands of Taiwan Province, and 
northward to the Chengsi (East Saddle) Islands of 
Zhejiang (Chekiang) Province; then, its distribution 
jumped over to the Dalian region of the Liaodong 
Peninsula in the western part of the North Huanghai 
Sea. Thus, this seaweed does not occur in the vast 
area of the Shandong and Jiangsu (Kiangsu) coasts. In 
the other part of the Northwestern Pacific, this 
seaweed hasavery widedistribution, found in Korea 
on the southern and western coasts, in Japan from 
the Ryukyu Islands in the south to Hokkaido in the 
north, and even to the Kuriles. 

Before discussing the distribution of 
Sargassum horneri on the China coast, a note on its 
ecology and reproduction is necessary. This seaweed 
growson rocks in the lower intertidal to subtidal belt. 
It reproduces in the Xiamen region from March to 
May, in the Chengsi Islands from April to June, and in 
the Dalian region from June to July. Being a 
subtropical seaweed, its general distributional 
direction is from south to north. In the East China 



Sea, there is in summer a strong Taiwan Warm 
Current moving northward but deflected to the east 
by the Changjiang water mass and, thus, unable to 
help dispersal of the Sargassum to the Jiangsu and 
Shandong coasts. Evidently, the presence of this 
seaweed on the Liaodong coast has nothing to do 
with the Taiwan Warm Current. Because of its 
occurrence on the southern and western coast of 
Korea, its distribution to the Liaodong Peninsula is 
made possible by the Huanghai Sea Warm Current 
and its branches, just as in the case of Pelvetia 
siliquosa. That it is as yet not found on the eastern 
coast of the Shandong Peninsula cannot be 
explained by the current system and may be due to a 
shorter period of viability of the Sargassum zygotes. I 
shall not be surprised, however, if this seaweed is 
eventually found to grow in the deeper part of the 
subtidal belt, somewhere on the eastern part of the 
Shandong Peninsula, where very little investigation 
of subtidal flora has been made so far. 

Characteristics and Classification of Marine Flora 

A flora is composed of a number of species that are 
taken together as a single unit. The characteristics of 
a marine flora, therefore, are the total of those of all 
the component species. To date, studies on marine 
flora are generally limited to the enumeration and 
description of species, and very little attention has 
been directed to the analysis of the nature of the flora 
and its origin. 

Representative Species of Marine Flora 

We have segregated the component species of a flora 
into five different groups on the basis of the 
abundance of their growth, their common 
occurrence, and their distribution in the region 
under consideration. The first group consists of the 
dominant species, occurring in largequantities in the 
region; for instance, Sargassum pallidum in the 
western Huanghai Sea and Ishige okamurai in the 
western East China Sea. 

The second group consists of the common 
species, commonly met with and widely distributed 
in the region, but not necessarily in large quantities; 
for instance, Plocamium telfairiae in the western 
Huanghai Sea and Symphyocladia marchantiooides 
in the western East China Sea. 

The third group consists of the locally 
abundant species, distribution restricted but in large 
quantities when found; for instance, Pelvetia 
siliquosa in the western Huanghai Sea. 

The fourth group consists of the minor 
species, distribution restricted and in small 
quantities; Bryopsis plumosa in the western 
Huanghai Sea, for example. 

The fifth group consists of rare species, 
distribution very limited, only occasionally found 
and in small quantities; Dictyopteris undulata in the 
western Huanghai Sea. 

Among these five groups, the dominant 
species and common species eitheroriginated in the 
region or dispersed to the region from other places 
but are already well naturalized and established; 
these are the principal representatives of the region. 
The locally abundant species, although limited in 
distribution to some part of the region (but, there 



52 



very abundant and luxuriant), therefore, have certain 
representative value. Seaweeds of these three 
groups are regarded as representative species of the 
flora of the region, and their analysis will be of value 
in explaining the true picture of the characteristics of 
the flora in the region concerned (Tseng and C. F. 
Chang, 1960; Tseng, 1963). 

Temperature Factors 

We used to say that "this is a tropical seaweed" and 
"the flora of this region is tropical." But, what is 
"tropical," "subtropical," or "temperate"? 
Surprisingly, there is as yet no generally accepted 
standard. A marine flora is tropical if the majority of 
its component species is tropical in their temperature 
nature, by which it is taken for granted that the seas 
where these species were speciated in a previous 
geological era were tropical. Therefore, it is of 
primary importance to characterize the parts of the 
oceans and seas according to their temperature 
natures objectively. We proposed in 1960 a plan of 
characterizing the temperature nature of the 
divisions of the oceans (Tseng and C. F. Chang, 1960) , 
which I revised in 1963 (Tseng, 1963). In this article, I 
find it is necessary to make some slight revisions. 

According to the present system, three 
temperature superzones are recognized. The first is 
the cold-water superzone, characterized by an 
average annual surface-water temperature of to 5 
degrees Celsius, with temperature ranging from less 
than degrees Celsius to as high as 10 degrees 
Celsius. The second is the temperate-water 
superzone, characterized by an average annual 
su rface-water temperature of 5 to 20 degrees Celsius, 
with temperate ranging from Oto25 degrees Celsius. 
The third is the warm-water superzone, 
characterized by an average annual surface-water 
temperature of 20 to 25 degrees Celsius, with 
temperature ranging from 15 to more than 25 degrees 
Celsius, or even 30 degrees Celsius. Each of the three 
temperature superzones is further subdivided into 
two zones. Thus, we have altogether six temperature 
zones: the frigid and subfrigid zones of the 
cold-water superzone, the cold-temperate and 
warm-temperate zones of the temperate-water 
superzone, and the subtropical and tropical zones of 
the warm-water superzone (Table 1). 



Temperature Nature of Seaweeds 

As mentioned earlier, the temperature nature of a 
species depends on that of the sea in which it was 
speciated. For instance, a species speciated in a 
warm-temperate sea would be expected to be 
adapted to growth and development in seas where 
the water temperature is warm-temperate. On this 
basis, a seaweed may be cold-water (frigid or 
subfrigid), temperate-water (cold- or warm- 
temperate), or warm-water (subtropical or tropical) 
in nature. 

Determination of the temperature nature of a 
seaweed species may be effected by geographical 
method or biological method, the latter further 
differentiated into specimen-analysis method and 
experimental method (Tseng and Chang, 1960; 
Tseng, 1963). To find out the temperature nature of a 
seaweed by the geographical method, one has to 
find the center of its geographical distribution, and 
the temperature characteristic of the distributional 
center will naturally be the temperature nature of the 
species concerned. If one has abundant specimens 
collected from the same locality in different seasons 
of the year, the specimen-analysis method can be 
employed. By this method, one has to study the 
specimens available to find the season, or still better, 
the month when it grows most luxuriantly and also 
carries on normal reproductive activity; the 
temperature of the season or month may be 
employed to indicate the temperature nature of the 
species. 

The experimental method is the most accurate 
but laborious, and can be employed only in some 
cases. For instance, in determining the temperature 
nature of Laminaha japonica under cultivation in 
China, we did a series of experiments on the optimal 
temperature for the growth and development 
of both the macroscopic sporophytes and the 
microscopic gametophytes. It was found that for the 
sporophyte stage, the optimal temperature for 
growth is 5 to 10 degrees Celsius, and that for the 
development of the sporangia, 10 to 15 degrees 
Celsius. For the gametophyte stage, the optimal 
temperature for vegetative growth is about 15 
degrees Celsius, and for sexual reproduction, about 
10 degrees Celsius. Sporangia production stops at 
about 20 degrees Celsius, and sexual reproduction at 



Table 1 . Temperature zones of the oceans and seas and their temperature characteristics. 



Temperature 
Superzones and Zones 



Surface- Water Temperature 
Annual Average 
Degrees Celsius 



= less than; > = more than 



Surface-Water Temperature 
Monthly Average 
Degrees Celsius 
Minimum Maximum 



1. 


Cold-water Superzone 
1a. Frigid Zone 
1 b. Subfrigid Zone 


<0to5 

0to5 


<s 


0to10 
to 5 
5 to 10 


2. 


Temperate-water Superzone 
2a. Cold-temperate Zone 
2b. Warm-temperate Zone 


5 to 20 
5 to 12 

1 2 to 20 


0to15 

to 5 (10) 
(0) 5 to 15 


10 to 25 
10 to 20 
20 to 25 


3. 


Warm-water Superzone 
3a. Subtropical Zone 
3b. Tropical Zone 


20 to 25 
20 to 25 
>25 


15 to 20 
>20 


>25 
>25 

>25 



53 






18 to 20 degrees Celsius. Thus, 10 degrees Celsius is 
the temperature for growth and reproduction of 
both stages of the life history, and the average 
optimal temperature about 11 to 12 degrees Celsius, 
ranging from 5 (0) to 18 (20) degrees Celsius. As a 
result of the experiments, it was decided that 
Laminaria japonica is a cold-temperature seaweed. 

Classifying Marine Flora 

While the temperature nature of a seaweed species is 
determined by that of the seas in which it was 
speciated, similarly the temperature nature of a flora 
is determined by the temperature natures of all the 
component species taken together as a whole. This, 
however, only gives the temperature nature of a 
flora. There are other characteristics of the flora that 
one has to study for instance, origin of the flora - 
and one has to consider its developmental history as 
a whole. Forthe intertidal and shallow-water fauna, a 
system of classifying and characterizing different 
levels of the fauna systematically was proposed by 
Ekman (1953). Since there was no equivalent system 
for seaweed floras, and since certain similarities exist 
between the seaweed floras and the intertidal faunas, 
we developed a system of classifying and 
characterizing different levels of the seaweed floras 
based on the Ekman system, with some modification 
(Tseng, 1963). 

In the Ekman system, seven faunas or faunal 
groups of the first level have been differentiated. In 
our system, the following five floras are recognized 
in the first-level classification: 1) Arctic marine floras, 
2) boreal marine floras, 3) warm-water marine floras, 
4) austral marine floras, and 5) Antarctic marine 
floras. These are further divided into nine floristic 
regions, as follows: 



Flora 

Arctic Marine 

Boreal Marine 



Warm-water 



Region 

Arctic 

(Marine Floristic) 

North Pacific 
(Floristic) 

North Atlantic 
(Floristic) 
Indo-west Pacific 
(Floristic) 

Atlantic-east Pacific 
(Floristic) 

Mediterranean-Atlantic 
(Floristic) 



Austral Marine 



Antarctic Marine 



Recreational beach in 
northeast Dalian with weirs 
for seaweed collection in the 
background. (Photo by Joan 
Cohen) 

Upper Austral 
(Marine Floristic) 
Lower Austral 
(Marine Floristic) 
Antarctic 
(Marine Floristic) 

It is to be noted that the word "region" is 
reserved for the second-level groups in the system, 
since these will have more popular use than the 
first-level groups. Forthe first-level group, therefore, 
we used "floras," without a special term for the 
group. Forthe third-level group (that is, subregions), 
discussion will be only in connection with the 
Chinese marine flora. China is so completely isolated 
from the Arctic that there is practically no connection 
whatsoever between the Chinese marine flora and 
the Arctic marine flora. 

In the Chinese marine flora, there are 
numerous North Pacific elements, especially in the 
flora of the Bohai and Western Huanghai seas. The 
latter appears to belong to the Eastern Asiatic 
Subregion of the North Pacific Floristic Region. Major 
elements of the Chinese marine flora belong to the 
Indo-west Pacific Floristic Region. Ekman (1953) 
differentiated a Subtropical Japanese Fauna. 

In our floristic system, we have similar flora 
that we propose to call Sino-Japanese Subregion of 
the Indo-west Pacific Region, since in the Subregion, 
Chinese marine flora occupies just as an important 
position as the Japanese. The Chinese marine flora 
on thewestern coastof the EastChinaSea, including 
that of the Zhejiang and Fujian coasts, as well as part 
of the coast of Taiwan Province and that on the 
Guangdong and Guangsi Provinces (including a part 
of Hainan Island), are constituents of the 
Sino-Japanese Subtropical Subregion of the 
Indo-west Pacific Region. To the Indo-Malayan 
Subregion of the same region belong floras of the 
southern part of Hainan, the South China Sea coral 
islands, including the Dongsha, Xisha, Zhongsha, 
and Nansha islands, and the southern and eastern 
parts of the Taiwan Province (Tseng and Chang, 
1963). 

Some Final Words 

Patterns of geographical distribution of seaweeds are 
principally determined by two oceanographic 
factors. The movement of water masses especially 
oceanic currents and their branches and branchlets 



54 



"*-.*>* ;-1 




"Ma 




The Yellow Sea (Huanghai) breaks 
against rocks near Qingdao. The 
pagoda at top left houses an 
aquarium as well as one of China's 
oldest marine research centers. 
(Photo by George F. Mobley 
National Geographic Society, 1982. 
From the book Journey Into China.) 



#, 







- determines the general pattern of seaweed 
dispersal, but success of dispersal resulting in 
establishment depends on water temperature. The 
characteristic of the marine flora of a region depends 
on that of its component species taken as a whole, 
hence also determined by the same oceanographic 
factors. The temperature nature of a seaweed species 
took shape in the sea in which it was speciated ages 
ago and may be revealed today by where it occurs as a 
dominant or common species. It is therefore of 
primary importance to classify oceans and seas 
according to their temperature natures. A system of 
classification is thus proposed, dividing oceans and 
seas into three temperature superzones, each 
subdivided into two zones. 

The temperature nature of a seaweed may be 
determined by geographical or biological methods. 
A system of phytogeographically classifying marine 
floras is proposed and five marine floras subdivided 
into nine floristic regions are differentiated. Applying 
the system to Chinese marine floras, we find that, 
with the exception of the flora of the Bohai Sea and 
the Western Huanghai Sea, which appears to belong 
to the Eastern Asiatic Subregion of the North Pacific 
Floristic Region, the other Chinese floras appear to 
belong to the Indo-west Pacific Region, with the flora 
of western East China Sea, western Taiwan Coast, 
and the northern South China Sea belonging to the 



Sino-Japanese Subtropical Subregion, and that of the 
rest, including the southern Hainan Coast, the South 
China Sea coral islands, and the Southern and 
Eastern Taiwan coasts belonging to the Indo-Malayan 
Subregion. 

C. K. Tseng is Director of the Institute of Oceanology, 
Academia Sinica, at Qingdao in the People's Republic of 
China. 



References 

Ekman,S. 1953. Zoogeography of the Sea. Sidgwickand Jackson Ltd., 

London, pp. 19-417. 
Noda, Mitsuzo. 1966. Marine algae of North-eastern China and 

Korea. Sci. Rep. Niigata Univ. Ser. D (Biology) 3, 19-85. 
Tseng, C. K. 1963. Some problems concerning analytical studies of 

marine algal flora. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 5(4), 298-305.* 
Tseng, C. K. and C. F. Chang. 1953. On a new species oiPelvetia and 

its distribution. Act. Bot. Sinica 2(2), 280-297.* 

. 1958. On the geographical distribution of Pelvetia 

siliquosa. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 1(2), 209-217.* 

-. 1959. On the discontinuous distribution of some brown 



algae on the China coast. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 2(2), 86-92.* 
-. 1960. An analysis of the nature of marine algal flora. 



Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 3(3), 177-187.* 

-. 1963. A preliminary analytical study of the Chinese marine 



algal flora. Oceanol. Limnol. Sinica 5(3), 245-253.* 
"In Chinese with English abstracts or summaries. 



Tropical Oceanography 



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Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry 
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(305)361-4000 



56 




Walter H. Munk 



ti S 



../-' .;. :-. ^, 

I Ol^^fc^\5^f5*^^- -"vx . 



v- :^vl^v ! ' --t 

tv r? J^, I if- ^ 




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Unifier of Ocean ^Fields 



v^ceanographers on the West 
Coast are strangely cursed by 
everyday machinery that seems 
willfully unreliable. In The Log 
from the Sea ofCortez, John 
Steinbeck reported an encounter 
with a malevolent Seagull 



by Bill Sargent 

outboard motor that plagued an 
otherwise fruitful biological 
collecting trip around the Baja 
peninsula in 1940 with Edward F. 
"Doc" Ricketts, the celebrated 
marine biologist and central 
character in Cannery Row. 



Carl Wunsch, Professor of 
Planetary Sciences at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology 
(MIT) and Cordon MacDonalo, 
vice president and chief scientist 
at the MITRE Corporation, 
described a similar mishap. The 

57 



incident occurred in the Munks' 
home near the University of 
California's Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography in La Jolla, 
California. This time the 
machinery was a refrigerator- 
make unreported, operation 
irregular. Munk and Princeton 
University statistics professor 
John Tukey, characteristically 
clad in bathing suits, labored 
over the recalcitrant machine 
throughout one long, hot 
summer day. As history would 
have it, it was Tukey, using Latin 
squares, who made the 
refrigerator work, and the 
geophysicist, Munk, who was 
responsible tor the machine's 
irregularities thereafter. 



Every 10 years or so 
Munk moves on to a 
new problem, each 
one admittedly, 
"more fun and 
interesting than the 
last." 



Walter Heinrich Munk 
adopts a similar approach when 
attacking the dynamics of the 
planet Earth. According to his 
frequent collaborator, Wunsch, 
"Walter is exciting to work with. 
He prefers to join a small team of 
one ortwo colleagues from allied 
fields. He has a singular 
concentration, which he turns 
toward the problem. He reads 
the pertinent literature, asks 
knowledgeable questions about 
the most minute technical detail. 
Quite often he comes up with an 
elegant new theory to explain the 
phenomenon." The entire 
process may take as long as 10 
years, at which point Munk 
moves on to a new problem, 
each one admittedly "more fun 
and interesting than the last." 

Munk was born in Vienna, 
into a family with no apparent 
scientific inclination. His grand- 
father founded a bank, later 
became a socialist and renamed 
the institution the People's Bank 
of Austria; the bank's founder 
retained all the shares. The 
oceanographer-grandson wryly 



notes that the new name was a 
mild expression of socialism, at 
best. 

Despite the eventual 
failure of the People's Bank of 
Austria, Munk was sent to New 
York in 1934 to learn the family 
business. Fortunately for 
oceanography, evening classes at 
Columbia University introduced 
him to physics. In 1937, in an 
effort to get as far away as 
possible from New York and 
banking, Munk bought a car and 
drove to the West Coast where "I 
did something terribly naive." 

Munk paid a visit to the 
dean of the California Instituteof 
Technology and announced, "I 
am going to be one of your 
students fortheupcomingyear." 
The dean stood and began to 
search for the student's file, but 
was spared the effort: "You don't 
have my file. I haven't regis- 
tered." The dean was so aghast 
that he gave Munk the entrance 
examination and, ultimately, 
admitted him. "I don'tthink I had 
even made an appointment. You 
see, I thought you could just 
show up and say you wanted to 
study." 

Asked what actually 
caused him to pursue ocean- 
ography, Munk pauses just long 
enough for effect, looks up: "I 
suppose you want an honest 
answer, don't you? When I went 
toCalTech I had a girlfriend in La 
Jolla. Theonly way I could see her 
was to get a summer fellowship 
at Scripps. But I've loved 
oceanography ever since." The 
romance with the girl was not as 
enduring. 

In fact, Munk was theonly 
resident graduate student at 
Scripps at the time. "It was 
wonderful to be there. The total 
staff numbered 15 and that 
included the gardener, I think. 
Of course, by then (the late 1930s 
and early 1940s) Scripps was very 
well established, unlike that 
nouveau institution on the East 
Coast, the younger brother on 
Cape Cod." 

In the words of Roger 
Revelle, former director of 
Scripps and presently Professor 
of Science and Public Policy at 
the University of California at San 
Diego, "The undergraduate 
fellowship program has 
continued in the hope that it 



would be able to produce 
another Walter Munk. But we 
have never been able to do so, 
perhaps for the obvious reason 
-Walter is unique." 

Formal education was 
again interrupted when Munk 
enlisted in the United States 
Army, largely motivated by "the 
so-called Anschluss. My 
stepfather was a member of the 
last democratic government in 
Austria. It was very sad, though 
my entire family was able to 
escape to England, which is to say 
that we were much more 
fortunate than most. "Though 
they held on to property in 
Austria, only recently have family 
members begun to visit their 
homeland. "Home, now, is 
America." 

Assigned to the Army ski 
battalion at Mount Rainier, 
Washington, for several months, 
Munk recalls the frustration of 
"practicing and practicing for a 
war that I believed would begin 
the day after I enlisted. My 
brilliant career I advanced 
from private to corporal was 
suspended when Sverdrup and 
Revelle invited me to join in the 
research at the newly established 
University of California Division 
of War Research at Point Loma." 

Munk was granted his 
discharge so that he could accept 
the civilian assignment, working 
on surf-condition predictions to 
aid the Allied troops' winter 
invasion of Africa. Foreign-born, 
both Munk and Sverdrup were 
subjected to security restrictions 
that often made them ineligible 
to read the classified reports that 
they had written. "It was a 
miserable thing, something I 
never quite understood and 
something I don't really want to 
know anything more about. 
More important is that this 
assignment was the beginning of 
a lifelong association with the 
Navy and there has never been 
any sort of difficulty since that 
time." 

During the course of 
World War II, Revelle recalls that 
he spent about two days a month 
straightening out Munk and 
Sverdrup's security status. His 
method was direct. He and 
another Navy officer of equally 
commanding presence would 
stride down the length of the 



58 



Office of the Bureau of Ships 
Security and glower at the officer 
in charge. As a result, "Harald 
and Walter would be cleared for 
another month," to carry on with 
defense-related research. 

Munk developed a model 
for predicting surf conditions 
with Sverdrup that was put to a 
critical test when the Allies 
staged their landing in Sicily. 
Severe storms hampered the 
fleet's approach toward the 
coast. Using the calculations 
worked out at Point Loma, the 
fleet's aerologist predicted that 
the tempestuous surf would die 
down in time for the landing. The 
troops were ordered onward, 
despite much trepidation. The 
next morning, right on schedule, 
the forces encountered only 
moderate surf and were trans- 
ported safely. The prediction is 
remembered as one of the most 
important of the war. 

Munk completed his 
Ph.D. and continued at Scripps, 
recording swell patterns on the 
West Coast. Among the best 
remembered and most infamous 



outgrowths of this early work 
originated during a winter Munk 
spent at the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution 
(WHOI), "working with Allyn 
Vine, Bill Von Arx and many 
other distinguished scientists on 
this wave forecasting research. It 
was an absolutely wonderful 
time." In the midst of their 
research, the scientists struck on 
the notion of experimenting with 
methods of dampening wave 
action. Gallons of peanut oil 
were spread off Gay Head, 
Martha's Vineyard. It was soon 
apparent that the oil was doing 
little to settle the waves, and that 
"we had made a terrible mess of 
things." 

Undaunted, Munk 
resumed his work when he again 
returned to Scripps. "It was a 
pure research problem. You see, 
surfers had always known that 
the long swells came in during 
the summers, but no one paid 
any attention to this fact. Then it 
was observed that aerial photog- 
raphy shown backwards revealed 
that these longer swells were 



originating somewhere south of 
the West Coast. Quantitatively, 
we still had no idea what we were 
looking at for distances." 

Theorizing that swells of 
decreasing period and frequency 
arriving on successive days could 
have originated from very distant 
storms, Munk teamed up with 
Frank Snodgrass to oversee 
establishment of a series of 
recording stations from New 
Zealand to Alaska. "We secured 
funding from the newly 
established Office of Naval 
Research (ONR). We were their 
first contract," thanks to Revelle 
who had helped organize the 
founding of ONR. The lone 
graduate student assigned to the 
project volunteered for Alaska, 
while Munk, his wife Judith, and 
their 3- and 6-year-old daughters 
opted for Samoa, where they 
spent four months without 
power or plumbing, recording 
waves and enjoying scuba diving. 

"This was a very romantic 
time for us. We were interested 
in the origins of the surf and our 
method for collecting data. I had 






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seen some use of arrays in work 
done for astrophysics and 
radioastronomy and thought it 
should be applied to oceanog- 
raphy. This was a first. And our 
research gave surprising, clear 
results. 



A breakfast on the 
Munks' patio with 
Brandy Alexanders 
and the American 
Miscellaneous Society 
led to Project Mohole. 



"To our amazement, the 
waves proved not to lose much 
energy at all. The distance they 
were traveling was greater than 
the Pacific Ocean. In fact, they 
were moving from Australia and 
Antarctica along the Great 
Southern Route on their way to 
the West Coast of the United 
States." This success marked the 
beginning of Walter Munk's 
interest in large-ocean 
experiments, and explains his 
present enthusiasm for the ocean 
acoustic tomography research 
pioneered by his friends, Carl 
Wunsch of MIT and Robert 
SpindelofWHOI. 

The hallmark of Munk's 
career is collaboration. Many of 
his papers present cogent 
syntheses of his work with other 
distinguished associates. In 1950, 
he integrated the work of 
Sverdrup and Henry Stommel, a 
world-renowned physical 
oceanographerat WHOI, to 
produce his classic work on 
wind-driven ocean circulation; 
the paper will be reread as long as 
there are oceanographers. A 
self-proclaimed "poor 
experimentalist," he relies on 
associates for help with this. "At 
sea, they are always afraid that I 
am going to throw a switch but 
I enjoy being there anyhow. 
Usually, I am asked to run the 
winches." 

As a spokesman and 
advocate, Munk has been a 
major force in most of the 
oceanographic initiatives of the 
last several decades. In the late 
1950s, while reviewing oceano- 



graphic proposals for the 
National Science Foundation 
(NSF), he and other panelists 
were frustrated by the limited 
scope of the projects under 
consideration. What was wanting 
was a project that could 
significantly alter the level of 
understanding about the Earth's 
dynamics, an experiment 
capable of commanding 
international interest and 
attention, much in the way space 
flights were beginningto capture 
scientific and public attention - 
and funding. 

The much told tale of a 
breakfast on the Munks' patio 
with Brandy Alexanders is part of 
the lore of the American 
Miscellaneous Society, whose 
annual meeting was then 
underway. An informal society of 
scientists allied by virtue of 
having had projects turned down 
by ONR because they were 
deemed too far-fetched, this 
group devised Mohole: a project 
to drill through the Earth's 
crust to the Mohorovicic 
discontinuity, the dividing line 
between the outer crust and the 
mantle, or inner layer of Earth. 
"This was an exciting 
proposition. Our judgment of 
the technology was sound. We 
were drilling for the first time in 
the deep seas. The problem of 
drill re-entry they would wear 
out was deemed solvable. In 
fact, the scientific and 
technological problems were 
less worrisome than we thought. 
It was our political judgment that 
proved to be naive." 

Despite the National 
Science Foundation's rebuke of 
the sponsorship of the American 
Miscellaneous Society, the 
controversial project gained 
momentum. At its peak, Mohole 
garnered worldwide interest of 
an order not achieved by any 
other oceanographic endeavor. 
Written record of the early at-sea 
work was turned over to John 
Steinbeck, who boarded the 
drilling ship CUSS and described 
it as having "the sleek racing lines 
of an outhouse standing on a 
garbage scow." Admiring 
Steinbeck's dedication while 
aboard, Munk invited the 
novelist to his home for lunch 
after the cruise. "He was so tired 
that he fell asleep after eating a 



sandwich and woke just in time 
to catch his flight to the East 
Coast. A week later Judith and I 
received a note: I bet not many of 
your guests fall asleep right after 
you've fed them, he wrote, but I 
bet you wish more would." 

Munk believes that initial 
commitments to Mohole were 
such that the very best personnel 
and technology were appro- 
priated for the effort. President 
Kennedy wired his 
congratulations on the 
completion of the first hole, 
calling it "a historic landmark in 
scientific and engineering 
progress." This level of 
commitment informs Munk's 
remark: "when the thing finally 
failed, it was a traumatic 
experience." In retrospect, he 
cites two major reasons for that 
failure. 



Revelle "made it 
possible for me to 
establish an institute 
at Scrip ps to work on 
nonoceanographic 
problems/' especially 
the geophysics of the 
Earth's rotation. 



"Everything started to go 
sour when the Texas firm of 
Brown and Root was awarded the 
drilling contract by the Johnson 
Administration." It was at this 
point that Mohole became a 
futile quest to drill a single hole 
straight through to the mantle. 
Hollis Hedberg, now emeritus 
Professor of Geology at 
Princeton University, led the 
opposition to this approach. 
Munk agreed that slower 
progress with several drillings to 
sample sediment at increasing 
depths would have provided 
more information more 
cost-efficiently and more feasibly 
- albeit, decidedly less 
dramatically. 

Brown and Root were 
committed to the vaster 
dimensions. "Their attitude in 
meetings when it was suggested 
that they had no scientific 



60 



experience whatsoever was 
dismissive. I will never forget 
when the firm's president 
replied, 'If necessary, I can 
always go out and hire an acre of 
scientists.'" 

Controversy over 
expenditures intensified in 
Congress. Brown and Root 
became increasingly unruly, 
unwilling to listen to the advice of 
the scientists involved. Finally, 
the president of the National 
Academy of Sciences withdrew 
his support for the project. 

But, Walter Munk is not 
willing to let it go at that. "I still 
think that had we done better, it 
would not have failed. We never 
really made up our minds that 
this project was all or nothing. 
Several of us would appear in 
D.C. a few days a month and then 
return to our respective institu- 
tions and projects. We were not 
prepared to make it our major 
goal, and in that way, did not 
carry out our full responsibility." 

Still, that the notion was 
born in the Munks' house seems 
fitting. The rambling structure is 
an unofficial extension of the 
Institute for Geophysics and 
Planetary Physics (IGPP) founded 
by Munk in 1960. Both the house 
and the ICPP were designed from 
native California redwood by 
Judith Munk, a sculptor and 
architect. The IGPP, with a staff of 
more than 100, grew out of 
Munk's discontent with the 
Scripps programs, which he 
brought to the attention of 
then-director Revelle along 
with news of offers of 
professorships at both Harvard 
and MIT. "Roger made it possible 
for me to establish an institute 
here at Scripps to work on 
nonoceanographic problems - 
especially the geophysics that 
can be extrapolated from the 
slight irregularities of the Earth's 
rotation and eventually I found 
my way back to the sea." 

Judith Munk's standing 
interest in architectural solutions 
to laboratories was put to test. 
University officials initially raised 
objections about the site and 
building material selected by 
Judith and her collaborating 
architect: First, "the building 
could someday slide into the 
Pacific"; second, "redwood 
would only last a century." 



Presumably, the criticisms 
discounted each other. Today, 
the building is among the most 
attractive research buildings on 
American university campuses. 



"Carl Wunsch and I 
have forged a 
partnership in using 
acoustics to study the 
oceans. Carl has 
pioneered the use of 
satellites and I am 
sharing in this work 
now. ." 



The Munks' home is a 
sprawling mecca for visiting 
scientists, former students, and 
associates from the city outside 
the University. "Judith and I are 
compulsive builders. She does 
the thinking and the bossing and 
I dotheplumbingand the wiring. 



And we have a lot of problems 
with the plumbing and the 
wiring. Otherwise, the house is 
very good." 

Having turned over the 
responsibility of the IGPP after 
serving as director for 24 years 
(his present title at Scripps is 
Professor of Geophysics), Walter 
Munk is again heading toward 
the sea though from a 
decidedly new direction. "Carl 
Wunsch and I have forged a 
partnership in using acoustics to 
study the oceans. Carl has 
pioneered the use of satellites 
and I am sharing in this work 
now ..." 

Munk believes that the 
ocean acoustic tomography 
(OAT) work being led by Wunsch 
and Spindel is the real vanguard. 
He is involved in the use of OAT 
to record mesoscale features of 
large ocean areas. Mesoscale 
features are the currents, eddies, 
and meanders generated by 
large, more stable circulation 
features like the Gulf Stream 
system; these can be thought of 
as "underwater weather," as 



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61 



correspond to atmospheric 
climate. 

Potentially, OAT could 
enable oceanographers to map 
ocean temperatures, layer by 
layer, over large expanses of the 
oceans. Using an array of 
far-flung moorings, the 
operation of OAT is roughly 
analogous to obtaining CAT 
scans of the brain. The system 
relies on underwater sounds to 
produce approximations of the 
interior features of the ocean. 
Initial trials made during the 
Mid-Ocean Dynamics 
Experiment (MODE) in 1981 off 
Bermuda demonstrated that OAT 
is potentially more effective and 
less expensive than purely 
ship-based mapping techniques 
(see Spindel in Oceanus, 
Summer, 1982). 

Certainly, even these 
projects do not convey the range 
of Munk's contributions. He has 
written or co-authored more 
than 200 scientific papers. The 
Rotation of the Earth, by Munk 
and Gordon MacDonald, was 
awarded a monograph prize by 
the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences. Moreover, he has 



"I was offered a chair 
at WHO/. And though 
I still think at times the 
change might have 
been worthwhile, I 
realized that I was not 
limited by anything 
here but my own 
limitations." 



worked with, and influenced, 
some of the world's most 
eminent oceanographers and 
inspired a generation of 
students. 

Munk prefers to downplay 
his own accomplishments. "I am 
a terrible Jack-ot-all-trades. I 
work on something for 10 years 
and then go on to something 
else. This is very difficult for 
some people to understand." 
And he does not regret his long 
stay on the West Coast, though 
he admits to once very nearly 
returning to the East Coast. In 



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fact, it was an offer from the 
"younger brotheron Cape Cod." 
"I was offered a chair at WHOI. 
And though I still think at times 
the change might have been 
worthwhile, I realized that I was 
not limited by anything here but 
my own limitations." 

Limitations are not what 
he is known for. He sees great 
promise in the future of space 
observations "principally 
because it provides for adequate 
sampling. Ocean problemsoften 
cannot be solved from one or 
two ships chasing around the 
ocean. Still, the great changes are 
always those of understanding. 
Like Hank Stommel (senior 
scientist at WHOI): he had the 
great ideas for an entire 
generation." 

Walter Munk has had a 
few ideas of his own. On a recent 
trip to China, he was constantly 
being approached by Chinese 
scientists: "Excuse me, I 
probably do my English very 
badly, but was that your father 
who wrote the paper on tides? 
Do you have a relative who 
worked on waves? Was that 
your cousin's research on 
circulation?" Of course, all the 
work had been done by one man 
-Walter Munk, a scientist of 
restless curiosity, charm, and 
good humor. 

Bill Sargent is a free-lance writer living 
on Cape Cod. He is the author of 
Shallow Waters, A Year on Cape 
Cod's Pleasant Bay. 



This Publication 
is available in 
Microform. 

University Microfilms 
International 

Please send additional mtunnation 

lor 



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Institution 

Street 

City- 
State Zip_ 



100 North Zeeb Road 

Dept PR 

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62 



High Sea Levels 
and Temperatures 
Seen Next Century 



A National Research Council 
committee has recently* 
concluded that atmospheric 
carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels will 
"most likely" double by late in 
the next century, causing an 
increase in average Earth 
temperature of between 1 .5 and 
4. 5 degrees Celsius. 

Such a warming trend, the 
committee added, "would have 
few or no precedents in the 
Earth's recent history." Temper- 
ature increases would likely be 
accompanied by dramatic 
changes in precipitation and 
storm patterns and a rise in global 
average sea level. 

The committee's two-year 
study, entitled Changing 
Climate, was the result of a 
Congressional mandate 
contained in the Energy Security 
Act of 1980. The Act directed the 
White House Office of Science 
and Technology Policy to request 
that a Research Council 
committee study both the rate at 
which atmospheric CO 2 could be 
expected to increase and the 
likely effects of such increases on 
global climate, agricultural 
productivity, sea level, and other 
parameters. 

The report, compiled by 
the Carbon Dioxide Assessment 
Committee,** noted that CO 2 
was not the only climate- 



affecting substance injected into 
the atmosphere. It stated that 
several otner gases* * * besides 
CO 2 could affect future climate 
patterns and that "if we project 
increases in all these gases, 
climate changes can be expected 
significantly earlier than if we 
consider CO 2 alone." 

The committee said it 
was "most likely" that the 
atmospheric CO 2 concentration 
would pass 600 parts per million 
(ppm) in the third quarter of the 
next century. The current level is 
more than 340 ppm, up from 315 
ppm in the last generation. It 
added, however, that there was 
about a 1-in-20 chance that 
doubling could occur before 
2035. The report attributed the 
increase in CO 2 primarily to the 
burning of coal, oil, and gas, but 
also to deforestation and certain 
types of land use. 

The report recommended 
that no major policy changes 
should be undertaken at this 
time. Instead, it took the position 
that "the knowledge we can gain 
in coming years should be more 
beneficial than a lack of action 
will be damaging; a program of 
action with a program of learning 
could be costly and ineffective." 
It urged "caution, not panic," 
with the watchwords for the 
future being "research, 




Heat radiation from the Earth and 
atmosphere is trapped by carbon 
dioxide and cannot escape into 
space. 

monitoring, vigilance, and an 
open mind" (Table 1). 

In the preface to the 
report, William A. Nierenberg, 
Chairman of the Carbon Dioxide 
Assessment Committee and 
Director of the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, 
stated that the CO 2 issue was so 
"diverse in its intellectual 
components that no individual 
may be considered an expert on 
the entire problem." The report 
stressed that there are 
"fundamental gaps in our 
understanding of the physical 



*Study released 21 October 1983. 

**William A. Nierenberg of the Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography, La )olla, California, chaired the Carbon 
Dioxide Assessment Committee. Serving with him were: 
Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts; Lester Machta, Air Resources 
Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, Rockville, Maryland; William D. Nordhaus, 
Economics Department, Yale University; Roger Revelle, 
Program in Science, Technology, and Public Affairs, 



University of California, San Diego; Thomas C. Schelling, 
JFK School of Government, Harvard University; Joseph 
Smagorinsky, Geological and Geophysical Sciences 
Department, Princeton University; Paul E. Waggoner, 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, 
Connecticut; and George M. Woodwell, The Ecosystems 
Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts. 

***Chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane 
(natural gas). 



63 



Table 1 . CO 2 -induced climatic change: framework for policy choices (from Changing Climate, Report of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, 
National Research Council, 1983). 



Possibly Changing 
Background Factors 


Policy Choices for Response 3 


(1) Reduce CO 2 
Production 


(2) Remove CO 2 
from Effluents 
or Atmosphere 


(3) Make Countervailing 
Modifications in Climate, 
Weather, Hydrology 


(4) Adapt to 
Increasing CO 2 
and Changing Climate 


Natural warming, 
cooling, variability 






Weather 
Enhance precipitation 
Modify, steer hurricanes 
and tornadoes 


Environmental controls: 
heating/cooling of 
buildings, area enclosures 
Other adaptations: 
habitation, health, 
construction, transport, 
military 


Population 
global, distribution: 
nation, climate zone, 
elevation (sea level), 
density 








Migrate internationally, 
intranationally 


Income 
global average 
distribution 








Compensate losers 
intranationally, 
internationally 


Governments 










Industrial emissions 
Non-CO 2 greenhouse 
gases 
Particulates 






Climate 
Change production of 
gases, particulates 
Change albedo 
ice, land, ocean 
Change cloud cover 




Energy 
Per capita demand 
Fossil versus 
nonfossil 


Energy management 
Reduce energy use 
Reduce role of 
fossil energy 
Increase role of 
low-carbon fuels 


Remove CO 2 from 
effluents 
Dispose in ocean, 
land 
Dispose of by-products 
in land, ocean 






Agriculture, forestry, 
land use, erosion 
Farming and other 
dust 


Land use 
Reduce rate of 
deforestation 


Reforest 
Increase standing 
stock, fossilize 
trees 




Change agricultural 
practices: cultivation, 
plant genetics 


Agricultural emissions 
(N 2 O,CH 4 ) 


Preserve undisturbed 
carbon-rich 
landscapes 






Change demand for agri- 
cultural products, diet 
Direct CO 2 effects 
Change crop mix 
Alter genetics 


Water supply, demand, 
technology, transport, 
conservation, exotic 
sources (icebergs, 
desalinization) 






Hydrology 
Build dams, canals 
Change river courses 


Improve water-use 
efficiency 



^Responses may be considered at individual, local, national, and international levels. 



processes 
in climate. 



that govern changes 



Changes in Sea Level 

The report warned that if a global 
warming of about 3 or 4 degrees 
Celsius were to occur over the 
next 100 years, "it is likely that 
there would be a global sea-level 
rise of about 70 centimeters 
(about 2 feet), in comparison 
with the rise of about 15 
centimeters (4 1 /2 inches) over the 
last century. It noted that more 
rapid rates in the rise of sea level 
could occur if the West Antarctic 
Ice Sheet should begin to 



disintegrate as a result of the 
warming. It added that the 
warming trend might also bring 
about changes in the Arctic ice 
cover, "with perhaps a 
disappearance of the summer ice 
pack and associated changes in 
high-latitude weather and 
climate." 

While noting that the 
warming trend could bring many 
benefits to some communities, it 
also cautioned that such a 
"climate change could well be a 
divisive ratherthan a unifying 
factor in world affairs." The 
effects of a warmer and drier 



climate on rain-fed agriculture in 
the United States, the report 
stated, "suggests that over the 
next couple of decades negative 
effects of climate change and 
positive effects from CO 2 
fertilization both will be modest 
and will approximately balance. 
The outlook," it added, "is more 
troubling for agriculture in lands 
dependent on irrigation." 

In the longerterm, the 
committee noted that a warming 
of 2 degrees Celsius and 
decreases in precipitation and 
associated runoff could 
"severely affect" the Texas Gulf, 



64 



Rio Grande, upper and lower 
Colorado River regions, 
California, and other western 
areas. Much of the irrigated 
farmland in these areas "might 
have to be abandoned unless 
water could be imported from 
other regions with more 
abundant supplies." 

Defensive Measures 

Among the 14 individually 
authored research papers 
contained in the study is one by 
Thomas C. Schelling of Harvard 
University, who points out that a 
defense against a rise in sea level 
of several meters has received 
little attention in the United 
States. He reminds the reader 
that more than 7 million Dutch 
people presently live below sea 
level. 

The economics of dikes 
and levees, Schelling states, 
"depends on the availability of 
materials (sand, clay, rock); on 
the configuration of the area to 
be protected; on the differential 
elevation of sea level and internal 
water table; on the depth of the 



Increase in 



Temperature 

\ ,.-" 




1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 
Effect of carbon dioxide on atmospheric temperature. 



2100 



dike where it encloses a harbor 
or estuary; on the tide, currents, 
storm surges, and wave action 
that it must withstand; and on the 
level of security demanded for 
contingencies like extreme 
ocean storms, extreme internal 
flooding, earthquakes, military 
action, sabotage, and uncer- 
tainties in the construction 
itself." 

Schelling points out that a 
rise in sea level of 5 meters would 
cover most of downtown Boston. 
Beacon Hill, the site of the State 
House, would be an island 



separated by about 3 kilometers 
from the nearest mainland. Most 
of nearby Cambridge would be 
underwater. However, it would 
take only 4 kilometers of dikes, 
most built on land that now is 
above sea level, Schelling 
believes, to defend the entire 
area. One way of avoiding the 
political issues of choosing what 
to save and what to give up would 
be a dike of 8 or 10 kilometers in 
length that would enclose all of 
Boston Harbor. 

Should such a plan be 
adopted, new deep-water port 



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May 20-26, 1984 Carl J. Berg, Jr., Course Director 



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maintenance of mariculture systems. The course is designed for scientists and advanced 
technicians interested in rearing invertebrates for research; for those already doing mariculture, but 
who wish to review the state of the art or who want to culture animal groups with which they are 
unfamiliar; and for investigators who are experiencing specific problems with existing mariculture 
systems. Limited enrollment. 

Faculty: Judith Capuzzo, Roger Mann, and Nancy Marcus, WHOI; Roger Doyle, Dalhousie; Roger 
Hanlon, Texas (Galveston); John Hughes, Mass. Lobster Hatchery; Louis Leibovitz, MBL/Cornell; 
Robert Guillard, Bigelow Laboratories; Stephen Spotte, Mystic Aquarium; Louis Garibaldi, New 
York Aquarium; Carol Bower, Institute for Aquarium Studies; Stephen Sulkin, Maryland; and June 
Harrigan and Tom Capo, MBL. 

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65 



90W 




90' e 



EDGE OF FLOATING ICE 
GROUNDING LINE 



180 



MOUNTAINS 
^tf BEDROCK ABOVE SEA I EVEt SUPPORTING ICE 

>J BEDROCK MORE THAN ONE KILOMETER BELOW SEA LEVEL SUPPORTING ICE 



The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) lies north and west of the Transantarctic 
Mountains (shown in black). It is believed to be unstable because most of it lies 
on rock below sea level. Disappearance of the ice above sea level would raise the 
world oceans by 5 to 6 meters. At present, the ice sheet is held back by the Ross 
and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves which, though mostly floating, are pinned by 
high places on the seafloor. (Revelle, Carbon Dioxide and World Climate, 
courtesy of Scientific American) 



SPACE 




ATMOSPHERE 



N 2 , O 2 , CO;,Oj, etc. 
dust particles 



Air-ice Coupling 



Heat Exchange Wind Stress 

1 



Evaporation 



Changes of 
Atmospheric Composition 



Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling OCEAN 



Changes ol Ocean Basin 
Shape, Salinilv, etc . 




Changes of Land Features, 

Orographv, Vegetation, 

Albedo, etc. 



EARTH 



The coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice-earth-climatic system. The solid arrows 
identify external processes; the open arrows identify internal processes. (U.S. 
Committee for the Global Atmospheric Research Program) 



facilities would have to be 
constructed outside the 
enclosed harbor with locks along 
the Charles and Mystic rivers. 
While there is no professional 
estimate of what such a system 
would cost, "guesswork suggests 
that at today's values the cost of 
defending against a 5-meter rise 
in sea level is less, perhaps by an 
order of magnitude, than the 
value preserved." 

Where defense is not 
practicable, Schelling comments 
"retreat is inevitable." In urban 
concentrations, where buildings 
may last a century, good 100-year 
predictions of sea-level change 
should permit orderly evacuation 
and demolition of buildings, he 
adds. 

While Schelling terms his 
paper a "relatively calm 
assessment" of the CO 2 issue, he 
notes that changing climate 
within the coming century will 
take us "outside the boundaries 
experienced within the past 
10,000 years." He cautions that 
there may be some surprises in 
store for society in the next 100 
years and that "In our calm 
assessment, we may be 
overlooking things that should 
alarm us." 

The Oceans and CO 2 

In another paper contained in the 
study, Peter C. Brewer of the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution assesses the role of 
the oceans in relation to the CO 2 
problem. 

He points out that "the 
ocean acts as a giant regulator not 
only of CO 2 but also of climate 
and thus occupies a central role 
in the debate over the effects of 
increasing atmospheric CO 2 
levels on our society." 

Brewer explains that the 
capacity of the ocean for CO 2 
uptake is a function of its 
chemistry and that the rate at 
which the capacity can be 
brought into play is a function of 
ocean physics. In addition to 
these direct and present 
contributions, he adds, the 
deep-ocean carbonate 
sediments provide, on a larger 
time scale, a vast butter against 
chemical change. "The natural 
vertical gradient of CO 2 with 
depth in the oceans is driven by 



66 



the biological flux of paniculate 
matter," he states. 

Each year the ocean, on 
average, takes up an amount of 
CO 2 approximately equal to 40 
percent of the fossil fuel CO 2 
added to the atmosphere 
by man. The warming 
accompanying the rise in 
atmospheric CO 2 will affect the 
ocean, Brewer states. Storage of 
heat in the upper layers of the 
ocean will mitigate, but not 
prevent, climate change. In fact, 
the warming of the ocean will 
reduce CO 2 solubility and expel 
further CO 2 to the atmosphere. 

Brewer stresses that there 
are "significant uncertainties" 
about the role played by the 
ocean in CO 2 transfer. "It is 
quite possible," he writes, "to 
measure the changing CO 2 
properties of the ocean with time 
using modern techniques, 
although no ongoing program 
yet exists to do so." 

The Woods Hole scientist 
concludes that "Nature has vast 



resources with which to tool us; 
the last glaciation was apparently 
accompanied by massive CO 2 
transfers to and from the ocean, 
the causes, consequences, and 
explanations of which are poorly 
understood today." 

Reaction to Study 

Despite the avowed 
"conservative" nature of the 
report and the appeal for "calm, 
not panic," this writer was struck 
by the large number of uncer- 
tainties cited in this study. 

Perhaps the most 
disconcerting note was the 
recommendation that no major 
policy changes be undertaken at 
this time. It would seem that a 
number of steps could and 
should betaken at this time. In a 
separate study released in 
September entitled "Can We 
Delay a Green ho use Warming?" 
the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) determined that 
only a ban on the use of coal 



instituted in the year 2000 would 
effectively slow the rate of 
temperature change and delay a 
2 degree Celsius change until 
2055. A ban on both coal and 
shale oil would delay the change 
an additional 10 years. The study 
added, however, that such a ban 
"appears to be economically and 
politically infeasible." 

George A. Woodwell, 
Director of the Ecosystems 
Center at the Marine Biological 
Laboratory in Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts, and a member of 
the Carbon Dioxide Assessment 
Committee, told this writer that, 
while he supported the general 
findings of the study, he felt that 
certain policy actions, such as 
reforestation projects (the 
clearing of forests has released 
large amounts of CO 2 to the 
atmosphere), should be 
implemented at this time. 

Paul R. Ryan 



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67 



U.S. -Mexican Parley Debates 
Relations on Marine Resources 



A conference* on "U.S. -Mexican 
Relations on Marine Resources, " 
held at the University of 
California at San Diego on 
September 15th and 16th, 1983, 
brought together distinguished 
marine analysts and policy 
makers from both Mexico and 
the United States, including 
former Mexican President Luis 
Echeverria, to discuss issues that 
both unite and separate the two 
nations. 

Significant differences of 
opinion were expressed by 
government, interest-group, and 
academic representatives from 
each nation. The major topics 
discussed were: 1) the 
implications of the changing 
international context for bilateral 
U.S. -Mexico relations (most 
prominently, the recent 
adoption of the Law of the Sea 
Convention [LOS]); 2) the 
domestic forces (political, 
administrative, social, and 
economic) that shape bilateral 
relations on marine issues 
between the United States and 
Mexico; 3) conflicts over the 
management of tuna; 4) conflicts 
over the conduct of marine 
scientific research. 

As regards the 
implications of the changing 
international situation, speakers 
highlighted the fact that, given 
Mexico's status as a leader of the 
Third World, and the United 
States position as a highly 
developed nation and a 
nonsignatory to the Convention, 
the evolution of bilateral 




U.S. speaker addresses conference in San Diego on U.S. -Mexican Relations on 
Marine Resources. 



relations between Mexico and 
the United States should be 
watched carefully as a bellwether 
of how the developed and 
developing worlds will adapt to 
the changing international 
context in the aftermath of the 
Law of the Sea (LOS) 
Convention. 

Speakers disagreed, 
however, about the likely 
evolutionary pattern of these 
relations. United States speakers 
posited that the fact that Mexico 
signed the LOS Convention and 
the United States did not, need 
not pose problems in the bilat- 
eral relationship. Outstand- 
ing issues between the two 
countries related to delimitation 
of marine boundaries, resource 
utilization, transboundary 
pollution, and the conduct of 



marine scientific research, could 
be solved they thought via 
bilateral negotiation. 

Speakers from Mexico 
strongly disagreed, pointing to 
the fact that the developing 
world had fought long and hard 
for the adoption of the 
Convention. With the LOS 
model now as accepted fact, they 
did not expect Mexico or other 
developing states to craft 
specially tailored bilateral 
approaches outside of the 
convention. 

As a leader of the Third 
World, Mexico was an active 
participant in the LOS 
negotiations, and is justly proud 
of its contribution to the forging 
of a new international ocean 
regime. Moreover, in its 
domestic actions (such as in the 



*The conference was co-sponsored by the University of 
California Consortium on Mexico and the United States; the 
Center for U.S. -Mexican Studies, University of California, 
San Diego; the California Sea Grant College Program; the 
Centra de Estudios Economicos y Sociales del Tercer 
Mundo, Mexico City; the Institute of Marine Resources, 
University of California, San Diego; the Marine Policy 
Program, Marine Science Institute, University of California, 



Santa Barbara; and the Marine Policy and Ocean 
Management Program, Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution. For further information about the meeting, 
please contact Dr. Bi liana Cicin-Sain, Senior Fellow, Marine 
Policy and Ocean Management Program, Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 02543 
(617) 548-1400, ext. 2449. 



68 



creation of the Mexican Exclusive 
Economic Zone [EEZ] in 1976), 
Mexico has closely followed the 
LOS model. By contrast, in the 
United States, opinions are quite 
divided over the Law of the Sea 
Convention. After many years of 
participation in the negotiations, 
the United States has decided not 
to sign the Convention. 

San Jose Tuna Pact 

Debate also centered on the 
merits of the recently concluded 
San Jose Tuna Pact (involving the 
United States, Costa Rica, 
Panama, Honduras, and 
Guatemala). Speakers from the 
United States thought the accord 
represented a good way to 
accommodate both U.S. and 
Latin American views on the 
management of highly migratory 
species. 

Mexican speakers 
objected to the accord, 
maintaining that although the 
accord is cast as a "regional 
arrangement," it includes the 
United States (which has few 
tunas passing through its waters), 
and excludes Mexico, in whose 
waters tunas are most abundant. 
Mexico operates the largest and 
most advanced tuna fleet of Latin 
American nations in the 
region. Mexican and U.S. 



representatives also disagreed 
on whether Mexico had been 
properly invited to participate in 
the accord. 

Each nation tends to 
manage its marine resources in 
very different ways reflecting 
significant differences in culture, 
history, and world position. In 
Mexico, the government has 
been the major force in the 
development of marine 
resources, and, in recent years, 
has made significant investments 
to catapult Mexico into position 
as a world-class fishing power. 
Key features of this expansion 
include the launching, in 1977, of 
a$1.3 billion fishery- 
development program, the 
expansion of the tuna fleet from 
27 vessels in 1976 to a projected 
number of 113 by the end of 1983, 
and the elevation of the fish 
bureaucracy PESCA to 
Cabinet (or Secretarial status 
in 1982. 

By contrast, in the United 
States, notwithstanding the 
fishery development provisions 
contained in the Magnuson 
Fishery Conservation and 
Management Act and the 
American Fisheries Promotion 
Act, the fishing sector remains 
virtually 100 percent private. 
Government policy makers 



prefer to rely on market forces 
and the free-enterprise system. 

Tuna Management 

The session on tuna 
management highlighted the 
problems that both nations are 
experiencing because of their 
divergent stances on tuna 
management. Since the late 
1970s, when it declared its 
Exclusive Economic Zone 
and withdrew from the 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna 
Commission, Mexico has been 
enforcing its 200-mile limit and 
seizing U.S. tuna boats fishing 
within this zone. 

In response, the U.S. tuna 
fleet has moved its operations to 
the Western Pacific, and the U.S. 
government, as mandated in the 
Magnuson Act, has imposed an 
embargo on all Mexican tuna 
products, closing to Mexico one 
of the largest tuna markets in the 
world. 

This state of affairs is 
clearly harmful to both nations 
(fishing operations in areas much 
further offshore are obviously 
more costly to the U.S. tuna 
fleet). Mexico is suffering the 
economic losses associated with 
the unmarketed catch (tuna cans 
sitting on warehouse shelves) 
notwithstanding efforts to open 




Representatives to San Diego conference listen to former Mexican President Luis Echeverria. 



69 



up new markets in Europe and 
elsewhere. Representatives 
could not agree on solutions to 
this stalemated situation. 

Speakers from the United 
States stressed the potential 
present in the San Jose Treaty, 
while Mexican representatives 
advanced novel proposals for the 
granting of Mexican licenses for 
tuna boats in exchange for a 
lifting of the U.S. tuna embargo, 
coupled with a guaranteed share 
of the U.S. tuna market for 
Mexican products. 

Speakers in other 
sessions, however, also stressed 
that, notwithstanding 
deteriorating formal relations 
between the two countries, 
cross-border interactions among 
marine industries continue to 
prosper. Labor, parts and 
supplies, capital, vessels, and 
fishery products themselves 
continue to flow between the 
fishery-related industries of the 
two countries in larger 
quantities than ever before in 
many sectors. 

Even in the direct 
cross-border harvesting of tuna 
and shrimp, proposals are 
currently being negotiated - 
outside the arena of formal 
bilateral negotiations with 
respect to joint shrimp ventures 
in the Gulf of Mexico and the 
resumption of near-shore tuna 
harvesting by U.S. vessels in the 
Mexican EEZ. In a sense, the 
direction taken in the formal 
governmental arena has been 
divorced from the commercial- 
industrial direction; normative 
statements by the governments 
are sometimes at odds with the 
pragmatic actions of industry. 

Domestic Management Session 

Discussions in the session on 
Domestic Management stressed 
the differences between the two 
domestic regimes and the 
implications of these differences 
for bilateral relations. 

The framework for 
governing marine resources in 
the United States can be 
characterized as highly complex, 
decentralized, and with multiple 
points of access open to 
interest group pressure from a 
large number of variegated 
interests. The bureaucratic 
system in the U.S., moreover, is 




The Mexican consumer has been 
paying higher prices for tuna, while 
the U.S. embargo has caused tuna 
cans to pile up in Mexican 
warehouses. 



dominated by experts with a 
strong scientific background 
who tend to move up the ranks of 
state and federal bureaucracies 
with little movement to and from 
other policy areas. 

The Mexican system for 
managing marine resources 
(most prominently fisheries), on 
the other hand, is highly 
centralized, with major direction 
emanating from the President 
and his cabinet in Mexico City. 
Executive authority in Mexico 
extends much further than in the 
United States bolstered by a 
strong, centralized bureaucracy, 
and largely unhampered by a 
weak legislature and weak 
interest groups. Groups that play 
a major role in U.S. policy 
making, such as sports and 
conservation groups, are still 
largely absent in the Mexican 
context. Bureaucratic leaders in 
Mexico, moreover, often are not 
technical experts, but generalists 
whose career paths take them to 
and from different policy areas. 

Such differences in 
domestic political and 
administrative processes in each 
country often produce outcomes 
(government decisions) that are 
difficult for the other nation to 
understand, increasing problems 
of communication at the 
negotiating table. Each nation, 
moreover, tends to frame issues 
in a very different way from one 
another reflecting divergent 
cultural styles and historical 
backgrounds. 

Marine Research 

The session on marine scientific 
research discussed the problems 



of conducting research in the 
aftermath of the LOS 
Convention. Speakers from both 
nations expressed optimism 
about the cooperative nature of 
the scientific relations between 
the two countries. 

Speakers from the United 
States advocated bilateral 
scientific agreements to 
introduce more order, 
rationality, and predictability into 
the scientific permit process. 

Speakers from Mexico 
reviewed the historical record of 
U.S. marine scientific research in 
Mexican waters over the past 
several years, which reveals 
extended stays by U.S. research 
vessels with little Mexican 
participation in the planning or 
conduct of the research cruise, 
or in the analysis of data 
gathered. Mexican scientists also 
highlighted the bureaucratic 
problems involved in the 
permit-granting process in 
Mexico, and discussed possible 
approaches to prevent 
bureaucratic delays. 

While the differences that 
exist between the two nations 
were evident in the frank 
discussions that took place in San 
Diego, outstanding issues were 
clarified and potential areas of 
agreement and disagreement 
were identified. Most speakers 
stressed that the time was at hand 
for moving beyond the "tuna 
war" and the "action/retaliation" 
mode that has characterized 
bilateral relations in recentyears. 
Interdependent as they are in 
their marine activities and 
resources, the two nations ought 
not to dwell on past problems, 
but must look ahead to forge 
effective, cooperative solutions. 

Biliana Cicin-Sain 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 

Institution/ 

University of California, 
Santa Barbara 

Michael K. Orbach 

East Carolina State University/ 

University of California, 

Santa Cruz 

Jorge A. Vargas, 

Centro de Estudios Economicos y 

Sociales del Tercer Mundo, 

Mexico/ 

University of San Diego 



70 




Treasures of the Sea: Marine Life of the Pacific 
Northwest by James Cribb. 1983. Oxford University 
Press, New York, N.Y. 128 pp. $24.95. 

Beneath Cold Seas: Exploring Cold Temperate Wafers of 
North America by Jeffrey L. Rotman and Barry W. Allen. 
1983. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y. 154 pp. 
$29.95. 

There is a popular conception that underwater 
scenery consists of colorful tropical fishes darting 
along the convoluted contours of a tropical coral 
reef. Two handsome volumes, Treasures of the Sea 
and Beneath Cold Seas, reveal the variety and beauty 
of marine life in a much less exotic arena, the 
north-temperate shores of most of the United States 
and Canada. Diving and underwater photography in 
this environment are more challenging than in the 
clear Caribbean. Cold water, strong tidal currents, 
poor visibility, and a rocky and dangerous shoreline 
add up to greater risk and difficulty. But the beauty of 
the cold-water environment makes it well worth the 
effort. 

These books are similar in size and general 
design, with splendid color reproduction on heavy, 
coated paper. They diverge somewhat in their 
approaches to the subject, and one or the other may 
appeal more to individual readers. Cribb's book is 
essentially a photo gallery. Ninety-six plates are 
presented, one to a page. Captions, which the author 
finds distracting when in juxtaposition to pictures, 
are placed ahead of each group of 12 plates. The 
captions give the common name and size of the 
subject, the depth at which it was photographed, and 
a line or two describing its appearance or habits. An 
appendix provides photographic data for each plate 
and a short index facilitates retrieval of particular 
pictures. The photographs are very good indeed 
some are arresting in brilliance of color and 
sharpness of form. A few are disappointing in 
sharpness or composition, but only a few. Taken 
together, they provide ample proof of the richness of 
the seafloor just off our coasts. 

The collaboration by Rotman and Allen has the 
same thesis that temperate waters harbor as 
wondrous a collection of living things as do the 
tropics. Again, the photographs are excellent. The 
format is rather different. A substantial body of text 
before and after the color pages provides 
oceanographic and biological backgrounds for the 
photographs, as well as a more personal narrative of 
diving expeditions in New England and on the West 
Coast. There are brief explanations of the circulatory 
patterns which produce cold-temperate eddies on 
the East and West coasts and the patterns of 
distribution of animals in the intertidal and subtidal 
zones. The photographs themselves are more varied 
in scale than are Cribb's, ranging from shots of divers 
with animals to very-close-up studies. Often several 
related photos are grouped on a page, and all are 
directly accompanied by captions. Rotman and Allen 




Marine Ecology 1984 

at the MBL 

June 17 -August 25 

Peter W. Frank, Oregon 

Course Director 

Intertidal and shallow subtidal communities will form 
the basis of field and laboratory work. Following 
extensive sampling of habitats accessible from Woods 
Hole, there will be focus on species introduction and 
their effects, benthic infauna, and larval settlement. 

Faculty: J. Carlton, Williams College/Mystic Seaport; 
R. Grosberg, Univ. of California, Davis; C. Mangum. 
College of William and Mary. 

Costs: Tuition, $1,100; room and board from $68 to 
$105 per week. 

Deadline: February 24, 1984 

Application: Write Admissions: 

Marine Biological Laboratory 

Woods Hole, MA 02543 

(617) 548-3705 




71 



include scientific names for the animals but omit 
technical photographic data. 

Either of these books will captivate the reader 
with a glimpse into the nearby yet alien world under 
our temperate waters. Treasures of the Sea may 
appeal more to those who appreciate photographs as 
images and prefer to respond to them on a strictly 
visual basis. Cribb's pictures are boldly presented 
with little accompanying information. 

Beneath Cold Seas is a book to be read as well 
as viewed, and may appeal more to divers and 
amateur naturalists because of the more complete 
text and scientific information. It also would be more 
useful to biologists because of the inclusion of 
scientific names. Marine scientists value a fine 
photograph of an identified organism in its natural 
habitat as much as the lay reader enjoys the brilliant 
colors and other-worldly forms of these creatures of 
the sea. 

Larry Madin, 

Associate Scientist, 

Department of Biology, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 



The Encyclopedia of Beaches and Coastal Environments, 
Maurice L. Schwartz, ed. 1982. Scientific and Academic 
Editions, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y. 
940 pp. $95.00. 

Most people connected in some way with coastal 
environments have occasion to bemoan the absence 
of the one reference necessary for completing a task 
at hand. Often, dozens of books and journals must 
be combed before a reasonably complete definition 




Ency 



-.-^r^- 



^ 

SB)"' 

& 

5" 

5 

N 

SkJ 



THE 



ENCYCL 




of the offending term or concept is retrieved from an 
appropriate source poorly indexed, of course. 

Maurice Schwartz has painstakingly edited a 
reference book that should alleviate many of these 
dilemmas. In a 940-page volume, Schwartz has 
compiled a well indexed, cross-referenced list of 
terms, covering a variety of marine disciplines, 
complete with references to the literature and 
illustrations. Such an undertaking is laudable, with 
promise of much satisfaction among readers and 
perhaps an equal amount of criticism. The result, 
here, is a book that is useful to professionals in 
coastal studies (how many of you remember what a 
buller is?), as well as to interested lay people 
(searching for a description of rip currents, for 
example). 

Because of the diversity of topics incorporated 
into the description of beaches and coastal 
environments, treatment inevitably is uneven across 
disciplines. In The Encyclopedia, geology and 
biology are the best represented disciplines, with 
engineering, chemistry, and physical oceanography 
more poorly represented. A great variety of key 
words causes some duplication (and occasional 
contradiction), while some subjects are covered so 
briefly that the information is of questionable utility. 
Some topics are covered by experts from different 
fields, leaving the reader unsatisfied with the 
synthesis. The references too often are parochial or 
incomplete: future efforts should emphasize general 
references, not just those that come readily to mind. 
Recent advances in many subjects are sacrificed from 
the discussions and classical ideas expounded 
instead (sediment transport, tor example). 

Despite these shortcomings, The 
Encyclopedia is a valuable reference, reasonably 
broad, and easy to use with its excellent index and 
cross-references. This work should find its way to the 
libraries of many professionals in coastal sciences 
and lay people interested in coastal studies. 

David G. Aubrey, 
Associate Scientist, 

Department of Geology and Geophysics, 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 



Conserving Sea Turtles by Nicholas Mrosovsky. 1983. 
British Herpetological Society, London, England. 176 
pp. $10.00. 

It is generally agreed that all seven species of sea 
turtles have been severely reduced in numbers and 
are in need of stringent conservation efforts. As 
editor of Marine Turtle Newsletter, Nicholas 
Mrosovsky is certainly well aware of the various 
practices currently applied toward sea turtle 
protection around the world. However, Conserving 
Sea Turtles is much more than a roster of present 
conservation techniques. It is athorough criticism of 
nearly all that is being done to conserve sea turtles 
and contains suggestions for future action that are 
certain to prove controversial. Few of us truly 
appreciate rigorous criticism of our work even when 



72 




we ask for it. This tough assessment by one so 
thoroughly familiar with the subject is sure to cause 
some agitation among practitioners of sea turtle 
conservation. 

After briefly introducing us to the life history 
of marine turtles, Mrosovsky proceeds to assess the 
various methods being used in their conservation, 
including tagging programs, "head-starting" (the 
practice of raising turtles in captivity for up to a year 
before releasing them into the wild), translocating 
eggs or hatchlings to beaches from which turtles 
have disappeared, and incubating eggs in styrofoam 
boxes. In each case, he reminds us that the 
technique is rarely based on knowledge of the 
turtles' life cycles or ecology. He also chastises those 
conservation programs that are poorly designed and 
do not further our knowledge of the turtles' basic 
biology. Throughout the book, Mrosovsky urges us 
to abandon the "alarmist" strategy, to plan 
conservation efforts with our heads rather than with 
our hearts alone, and to judge them with good 
science rather than for their public-relations value. 
The message is this: "Conservation and science must 
go hand in hand." 

This type of criticism is long overdue for 
marine turtle conservation. Mrosovsky has taken on 
the persona of a graduate research professor 
reviewing the work of his student. His intent is not to 
belittle those engaged in sea turtle conservation but 
to arrive at better conservation based on sound 
knowledge of sea turtle biology. His effort will surely 
be applauded by those who are willing to put their 
hurt feelings aside and accept the challenge he 
offers. 

Even those who are willing to accept the 
faultfinding in the first half of the book may not be 
amenable to the suggestions made in the latter half. 
Mrosovsky goes beyond questioning present 
practices to examine available evidence on whether 
sea turtles are even endangered at all. He points out 
that some long-term studies indicate that 



populations are stable or increasing rather than 
declining and insists that "The real situation is that 
most of the sea turtle species are not in immediate 
dangerof extinction, not even, probably, in dangerif 
the factors presently affecting them continue 
operating." Whether one agrees with his assessment 
or not, it is imperative that we continually reassess 
the status of sea turtle stocks using the best 
information obtainable. 

In the final chapter, Mrosovsky offers his own 
approach to sea turtle conservation, advocating a 
blend of protection and utilization. Reminding us 
that developing nations may not be able to afford 



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73 



complete protection of species that are edible or 
commercially valuable, Mrosovsky outlines a plan 
whereby some eggs might be harvested for market or 
for raising on turtle ranches while others would be 
protected from predators and poachers. Many of the 
eggs laid on natural beaches are "doomed" to be 
washed away by high tides or eaten by predators. By 
protecting a portion of the "doomed" eggs and 
harvesting others, Mrosovsky believes that we may 
be able to increase the number of hatchlings 
entering the sea and at the same time provide income 
for conservation projects by selling other eggs. Such 
apian is sure to be controversial and will be received 
with categorical disapproval by many sea turtle 
conservationists. 

The main value of Mrosovsky's book is that it 
provides arguments not usually encountered in 
printed discussions of sea turtle conservation. By 
playing devil's advocate, urging us to consider both 
sides of each question, and demanding that we base 
our conservation efforts on the best possible 
science, Mrosovsky is insisting that we improve our 
efforts rather than rest on our laurels. The book 
should be required reading for anyone thinking of 
entering into sea turtle conservation. It also is 
strongly recommended for those presently engaged 
in such activities. 

Nat B. Frazer, 
Research Fellow, 

Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program, 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 



Compendium ofSeashells by R. Tucker Abbot and S. 
Peter Dance. 1983. E. P. Dutton, Inc., New York, N.Y. 
420 pp. $50.00. 

(com-pen-di-um brief and condensed summing 
up of a subject, summary.) 

This is a beautiful book that will find a large and 
appreciative audience. According to the authors (one 
might rather call them editors, as this is essentially a 
picture book with relatively little narrative text), 
"Shell collecting as a hobby has had a remarkable 
resurgence in the last few years. To a considerable 
extent this has been brought about by an increasing 
interest in ocean life and a deep concern for anything 
to do with our fragile natural environment." The 
claim is no doubt true, despite its sounding like 
grant-proposal (or more likely, book prospectus) 
puffery; for Abbot and Dance are the reigning pros of 
conchology. They are surely in as good a position as 
anyone to gauge this hobby's growing popularity. 

It seems slightly ironic, though no doubt 
accurate, to associate the growth in shell collecting 
with heightened environmental consciousness. With 
modern awareness that people's activities are 
capable of inflicting irreversible damage on the 
world's biota, shell collecting has actually come to be 
viewed with increasing suspicion by the ecologically 
vigilant. Although not subject to the same degree of 



censure as clearing a redwood forest, collecting 
shells, and particularly still living "specimens," is 
seen by many as a somewhat more offensive activity 
than, say, stealing eggs from a robin's nest. 
Personally, I would much sooner take the life and 
shell of a marine snail, to provide lasting and 
renewable pleasure in contemplation of its beauty, 
than take the life of its cousin clam for fleeting 
gastronomic gratification. 

The real problem comes not from collecting 
by individuals for their own cabinets or for trade with 
others but from the establishment of commercial 
markets on an industrial scale. In fact, most hobbyists 
lucky enough to do their own collecting are diligent 
in abiding by a widely-shared set of conservation 
rules: 1) observation and photography of living 
mollusks can be more rewarding and useful than 
collecting; 2) be selective, collecting living 
specimens only in minimum numbers to satisfy 
needs of study and returning immature or imperfect 
ones; 3) never damage the habitat, always put rock 
and coral back in place; 4) be alert for shell eggs and 
protect them. It is well to recite these rules here, for 
exposure to Compendium ofSeashells could trigger 
a raging fever to collect. 

With its 4,200 color photographs, the book 
amply communicates the powerful appeal of 
seashells. It would be difficult even to glance through 
this volume without appreciating the profound 
beauty and rich variations on a few simple themes 
that shells exhibit. All categories of marine shells are 
described and illustrated, including individual color 
photographs and geographical and ecological data 
on 180 species of cowries, 334 cones, more than 350 
murexes and near relatives, 132 volutes, 140 scallops, 
helmets, and many others. The authors have 




74 



attempted to give full coverage to those species most 
popular among collectors, but they have made a real 
contribution by including many examples of more 
subtly varied species. For instance, there are 56 
examples of Haliotidae (abalones), 100Naf/c/dae 
(moons), 92 Cymatiidae (tritons), 94 Fasciolariidae 
(tulips and spindles), \5Scaphopoda (tusks), 59 
Polvplacophorae (chitons), and 6 Tridacnidae (giant 
clams). 

There is a 16-page introduction that would 
have been more useful if it contained more detail and 
history about the book itself. From pages 379 to 390, 
the authors provide a taxonomically ordered 
bibliography, including references on all the families 
and on the major genera. There is a short index of 
popular names, followed by a well-organized index 
of scientific names. 

Without question, Compendium ofSeashells 
will become a standard reference, of value to 
professionals as well as to amateurs. Every library 
should be encouraged to have it. At a price of $50, 
many collectors may decide not to buy their own; but 
it would make a welcome gift. The price is not 
unreasonable for a book so well suited to do double 
duty: not only is it incomparably useful as an 
identification guide, it is also engaging and 
sumptuous. 

J. M. Broadus, 
Policy Associate, 

Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program, 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 



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Books Received 



Biology 



Breeding Biology of the Adelie Penguin 
by David G. Ainley, Robert E. LeResche, 
and William J. L. Sladen. 1983. 
University of California Press, Berkeley, 
Cal. 244 pp. + xii. $27.50. 

This report is the result of 15 years of 
field research on a group of Adelie 
penguins at Cape Crazier, Ross 
Island, Antarctica. In the course of 
this long-term study of vertebrate 
population ecology, the authors 
found that some of their ideas about 
the lives of birds formulated from 
short-term study results had to be 
revised. All aspects of penguin life are 
covered, from occupation of the 
rookery to the position of the nest in 
the colony. Also included are an 
introduction to methods, a list of 
definitions, and appendices 
containing tables of data gathered 
during the research. One important 
aspect of this research is that it 
provides baseline information for 
future studies on the effects of krill 
harvesting on Antarctic ecosystems. 



Radiolaria by O. Roger Anderson. 1983. 
Springer- Verlag, New York, N.Y. 355 
pp. + x. $59.00. 

Radiolaria have been relatively 
neglected by biologists, according to 
the author of this volume, though the 
fossilized remains of these planktonic 
protozoa are often studied by 
micropaleontologists. These 
diversely formed creatures, which 
occur solitarily and in colonies, are 
widely distributed in the oceans and 
are potentially interesting to 
scientists of many disciplines. This 
book is organized to proceed from 
the fundamentals of morphology, 
structure, and taxonomy, to 
physiology, ecology, and 
distribution, and ultimately, 
paleoecology and radiolarian 
evolution. 



China 

The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong 
Kong and Southern China. Volume 1, 



Introduction and Taxonomy; Volume 2, 
Ecology, Morphology, Behaviour and 
Physiology. Brian Morton and C. K. 
Tseng, eds. 1982. Hong Kong University 
Press, Hong Kong. 933 pp. $228.50 
(Hong Kong). 

Fifty original research papers on a 
wide variety of topics taxonomic 
assemblages; studies on corals, sea 
urchins, decapods, benthic fishes; 
trawl surveys; and more makeup 
these volumes. They are the result of 
a 3-week workshop held in Spring 
1980, when 42 biologists gathered in 
Hong Kong to study the relatively 
unknown marine flora and fauna 
there. Interest in this work grew out 
of concern over the polluted waters 
of Hong Kong. Because of expanding 
population and coastal zone 
development, Hong Kong's marine 
life is threatened and has yet to be 
adequately studied. Aside from 
promoting the pleasures of working 
together, the sponsors of this 
workshop hope to cultivate interest 
in researching the many aspects of 
marine lite in Hong Kong and 
southern China. 



75 



Environment 

Synthesis and Modelling of Intermittent 
Estuaries: A Case Study from Planning 
to Evaluation. Lecture Notes on Coastal 
and Estuarine Studies, Volume 3. W. R. 
Cuff and M. Tomczak, Jr., eds. 1983. 
Springer- Verlag, New York, N.Y. 302 
pp. + v. $22.50. 

Presented here are some of the 
findings and conclusions of the Port 
Hacking Estuary Project, a 
multidisciplinary study of an 
estuarine ecosystem in Australia. 
Predictive dynamic models of 
ecosystems are much needed for 
anticipating the flow of chemicals in 
different environments, such as the 
case of acid rain. However, scientists 
have not had much success 
producing such models: this project 
involved some 20 researchers in the 
cou rse of 5 years, studying the flow of 
carbon into, within, and out of a small 
estuary, but in the end the desired 
model could not be produced. Close 
scrutiny of the project's activities, as 
done here, may help future workers 
in multidisciplinary studies deal with 
the problems inherent in such work. 

Remote Sensing Applications in Marine 
Science and Technology, Arthur P. 
Cracknell, ed. 1983. D. Reidel 
Publishing Company, Boston, Mass., in 
cooperation with NATO Scientific 
Affairs Division. 466 pp. + xii. $78.00. 

This volume is made up of the written 
texts of lectures presented at a 
"summer school" of remote sensing 
held in Dundee, Scotland, in August 
1982, as part of a program of 
postgraduate education in that field 
undertaken by the European 
Association of Remote Sensing 
Laboratories. The major topics were: 
general principles of remote sensing 
with reference to marine appli- 
cations, applications to physical 
oceanography, marine-resources 
applications, and coastal monitoring 
and protection. Participating were 
some 24 lecturers and 56 attendees, 
from Europe, China, Africa, the 
Philippines, India, and North 
America; their names and addresses 
are given at the end of the book. Also 
included are 8 pages of color pictures 
obtained by remote sensing. 



Geology 

Depositional Systems: A Genetic 
Approach to Sedimentary Geology by 
Richard A. Davis, Jr. 1983. 



Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 
New Jersey. 669 pp. + xvii. $35.95. 

This is a textbook on sedimentation 
and stratigraphy, approaching the 
subject from the study of genesis of 
stratigraphic units and the rocks they 
contain. The purpose is to give 
undergraduate geology students a 
broad understanding of sedimentary 
geology. The chapters discuss 
numerous topics briefly, providing 
references for in-depth information. 
There are 4 parts, the first on 
principles of sedimentary geology, 
containing background information 
tor those new to the science; the 
second covering terrestrial environ- 
ments; the third, transitional 
environments (intertidal areas, and 
so on); and the fourth, marine 
environments. 



Marine Policy 

Coastal Area Management and 
Development, United Nations 
Department of International Economic 
and Social Affairs, Ocean Economics 
and Technology Branch. 1982. 
Pergamon Press, Elmsford, N.Y. 188 pp. 
$40.00. 

This volume discusses economic, 
scientific, and technical problems 
associated with establishing a 
national program of coastal 
management, particularly in 
developing countries. The coastal 
area, because it encompasses the 
interactions of land and sea, includes 
both terrestrial and marine 
resources. The objective of 
coastal-area management (as put 
forth herein) is to ensure a level and 
type of development consistent with 
the continuing viability and 
productivity of the natural systems on 
which the productivity is based. In 
this book, Part I includes guidelines 
for implementing coastal- 
management programs; Part II is on 
the legislative and regulatory aspects 
of national coastal-area management. 

Origin and Development of the Law of 
the Sea: History of International Law 
Revisited by R. P. Anand. 1982. 
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Kluwer 
Boston, Boston, Mass. 249 pp. $49.50. 

Author Anand looks at the origin and 
acceptance of the freedom of the seas 
through the centuries and how this 
acceptance has been changed and 
modified in recent years. He begins 
with maritime law in ancient Rhodes 
and the Mediterranean and discusses 



the practices and customs of trade 
and navigation in ancient Asian states 
in the Indian Ocean, and conditions 
that led Europeans to go to Asia in 
search of spices. The history of 
maritime conventions is covered, 
right up to Britain's domination at sea 
and the effects of the Industrial 
Revolution. The final chapters cover 
struggles over the freedom of the 
seas since World War II, and how the 
discovery of mineral resources in the 
seabed has again changed attitudes 
about freedom of the seas. 



Nature Guides 

Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific 
Coast: An Illustrated Guide to Northern 
California, Oregon, Washington, and 
British Columbia by Eugene N. Kozloff. 
1983. University of Washington Press, 
Seattle, Wash. 378 pp. $40.00 
(hardcover); $19.95 (paperback). 

From Monterey Bay to Vancouver 
Island, zoologist Kozloff explores the 
plants and animals of the rocky 
shores, sandy beaches, bays and 
estuaries of the North Pacific, 
concentrating on invertebrates and 
seaweeds. This guide covers more 
than 650 species, with 299 color 
illustrations and 400 black-and-white 
photographs and line drawings of 
sponges, molluscs, crustaceans, 
seaweeds, and many other kinds of 
seashore life. The book is organized 
according to habitat, to encourage 
the association of certain species with 
particular environments: floating 
docks and pilings, rocky shores of 
Puget Sound, rocky shores of the 
open coast, sandy beaches, and quiet 
bays and marshes. The text describes 
the size, color, activities, and 
peculiarities of the plants and 
animals, and is cross-referenced with 
the figures and plates. 

Seabirds: An Identification Guide by 
Peter Harrison. Illustrated by the 
author. 1983. Houghton Mifflin 
Company, Boston, Mass. 448 pp. 
$29.95. 

This beautiful book includes many 
birds painted in full color, 312 species 
of seabirds in all. Seabirds are defined 
as those birds whose habitats and 
food sources are the sea, including 
coastal, pelagic, and offshore birds. 
Concentrating on plumage 
sequences and distributions rather 
than biology, the book has color 
plates and distribution maps, species 
descriptions, black-and-white 
drawings, and identification keys. 



76 



The purpose is to enhance the 
reader's ability to precisely identify 
individual species. 



The Sierra Club Handbook of Whales 
and Dolphins by Stephen Leatherwood 
and Randall R. Reeves; paintings by 
Larry Foster. 1983. Sierra Club Books, 
San Francisco, Calif. 302 pp. + xviii. 
$25.00 (hardcover); $12.95 (paperback). 

This paperback handbook contains 
small but clear and lovely repro- 
ductions of Larry Foster's whale 
paintings. There also are quite a few 
black-and-white photographs, 
illustrating the actual size and 
appearance of whales and dolphins 
beached, swimming, leaping from 
water, and so on. The text gives an 
introduction to Order Cetacea and is 
organized taxonomically, divided 
into parts by suborder (Mysticeti and 
Odontoceti), and subdivided by 
family. Species are treated 
individually within those divisions; 
each is introduced with a color 
painting of a typical individual, 
portrayed from the side with tail and 
flippers posed to show the reader 
what it looks like. Also given for each 
species is the scientific name and its 
derivation, a list of distinctive 
features, a general description, 
natural history (if known), population 
distribution and status, and an 
explanation of potentially confusing 
look-alikes. 



Oil and Gas 

Offshore Adventure: A Pictorial History 
of the Norwegian Petroleum Industry 
by Thorvald Buch Hansen, Odd |an 
Lange, Hakim Lavik, and Willy Hakon 
Olsen; Leif Berge, photographer. 1983. 
Universitetsforlaget, Norway; 
distributed by Columbia University 
Press, New York, N.Y. 160 pp. $44.00. 

On 13 April 1965, the Norwegian 
continental shelf was officially 
opened for oil and gas exploration; 
larger and more discoveries were 
made than anyone anticipated. Thus, 
the petroleum industry will affect the 
lives of generations of Norwegians. 
This book presents a historic outline 
of the business and politics of 
Norwegian oil. Every aspect of 
oil producing in Norway is explored 
in the text, diagrams, and numerous 
dramatic color photographs. Much of 
the material is on what it is like to live 
and work in the industry life on a 
drilling platform; expanding roles for 
women in a male-dominated 
industry; and the families of the 
workers. 



Mew Technologies in Exploration 
Geophysics by H. Roice Nelson, )r. 
1 983. Gulf Publishing Company, 
Houston, Texas. 281 pp. $32.95. 

A review of the latest geophysical 
exploration and interpretation 
methods and equipment used for 
finding oil and gas, this was written 
for oil-exploration professionals and 
others interested in new develop- 
ments in the field. Organized around 
the steps used in treating seismic 
data, the book begins with a 
description of the application of 
geophysics to petroleum exploration. 
There are chapters on technological 
trends, acquisition developments, 
data processing, graphics, and 
interpretation, and a conclusion on 
the need for industry and academe to 
work together to train the scientists 
who will be needed to conduct this 
kind of work. 



Underwater Acoustic Positioning 
Systems by P. H. Milne. 1983. Gulf 
Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. 
284 pp. + x. $49.95. 

With the development of offshore 
industries has come a growing need 
for underwater-survey techniques 
to explore seafloor bathymetry and 



The University of 
Rhode Island 



Graduate 

Program in 

Marine Affairs 

M.M.A./M.A.M.A. 

Areas of Concentration: 

Marine Policy/Ocean Law 

Coastal Management 

Maritime Transportation 

Fisheries Law/Management 

For Information, Contact: 

Marine Affairs Program 
Wash burn Ha 1 1 
University of Rhode Island 
Kingston, R.I. 02881 
401-792-2596 



The Sierra Club Handbi >k i >t 

WHALES AND 
DOLPHINS 




Stephen Leatherwood and 
Randall R. Reeves 



The Sierra Club 

Handbook of 

Whales and 

Dolphins 

Stephen Leatherwood 

and Randall R. Reeves 

Paintings by 

Larry Foster 

A unique field guide to 
every known species 
featuring the latest scien- 
tific findings: distinctive 
features, natural history 
and behavior, global dis- 
tribution, and current 
status of endangerment. 
The authoritative text is 
augmented by an extra- 
ordinary gallery of 70 
full-color paintings. 
320 pages. Illustrated with 
70 full-color paintings. 130 

black-and-white photo- 
graphs, map. Bibliography, 
index. Dual edition: $25.00, 
cloth. $12.95, quality 
paperback. 

At your bookstore now 
or direct from: 

SIERRA CLUB BOOKS 

P. 0. Box 3886 Rincon Annex 
San Francisco, CA 94119 



77 



RAYTHEON OCEAN SYSTEMS COMPANY 



OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION 
AND RECORDERS 

Bathymetric systems for echo 
sounding, sub bottom and seismic 
profiling- line scan recorders for 
spectrum analysis, sonar print-outs 
and laboratory applications. 

MARITIME SYSTEMS 

Including multipoint digital 
loading computers, Doppler speed 



logs and navigation depth 
sounders. 

OFFSHORE SYSTEMS 

Design, fabrication and operation 
of data acquisition and transmis- 
sion systems, including RATAC- 
back-up acoustic command sys- 
tem for emergency activation of 
blow-out preventers and other 
acoustic control systems. 




Raytheon Ocean Systems Company 

Westminster Park. Risho Ave. 

East Providence. Rl 02914 ( 401 ) 438-1780 



subseabed conditions, position 
drilling templates, aid in seabed 
pipeline construction, and so forth. 
This book covers underwater 
acoustic positioning (a technology 
that enables engineers to relocate a 
spot on the seafloor) in detail, 
including theory, computations, and 
available commercial systems. There 
are chapters on specific applications 
to seabed surveys, field 
development, and platform 
maintenance and inspection. An 
appendix provides BASIC computer 
programs for testing the accu racy and 
suitability of specific applications of 
each method. 



INDEX 



Volume 26 (1983) 



Number 1, Spring, Seabirds and Shorebirds: Richard G. B. Brown, Birds and the Sea (introduction) Kevin D. 
Powers, How Seabirds Adapt to Ocean Processes J. P. Croxall and P. A. Prince, Antarctic Penguins and 
Albatrosses Warren B. King, Seabird Breeding Habits staff, Woods Hole Birdwatchers David 
Schneider, The Food and Feeding of Migratory Shorebirds Brian Harrington, The Migration of the Red Knot 
-Alan Pooleand Paul Spitzer,/4n Osprey Revival P. A. Buckley and FrancineG. Buckley, Conservation of 
Colonial Waterbirds James O. Keith, Brown Pelicans: Can They Survive? William H. MacLeish, Profile: 
John W. Farrington-Mahne Geochemist Paul R. Ryan, Concerns: Oil and Gas Group Attacks Sanctuary 
Program Clifton E. Curtis, Concerns: Ocean Dumping Nations Vote Radwaste Suspension Letters - 
Book Reviews. 

Number 2, Summer, General Issue: Paul R. Ryan, Comment Roger Revelle, The Oceans and the Carbon 
Dioxide Problem Charles D. Hollister,/n Pursuit of Oceanography and a Better Life for All John W. 
Farrington, Bivalves as Sentinels of Coastal Chemical Pollution: The Mussel (and Oyster) Watch Elizabeth 
Miller, An Artist Goes to Sea, Revivingan OldTradition Terrence Joyce and Peter Wiebe, Warm-Core Rings 
of the Gulf Stream William J. Adelman, Jr., Trends in Neurobiology Using Marine Models Robin D. 
Muench, MIZEX: The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment Ben McKelway, Profile: Karl K. Turekian: Academic 
Gladiator Concerns: President Reagan's Proclamation on the 200-Mile Exclusive Economic Zone - 
Concerns: President Reagan's Ocean Policy Statement KurtM. Schusterich, Concerns: Commentson the 
Statement Paul R. Ryan, Concerns: Cobalt-Rich Areas Reported within EEZ Concerns: Excerpts from 
White House Policy Paper on Law of the Sea Convention Letters Book Reviews. 

Number 3, Fall, Offshore Oil & Gas: Paul R. Ryan, Comment John M. Hunt, Offshore Oil and Gas-Past, 
Present, Future (introduction) Hollis D. Hedberg, Deep- Water Petroleum Prospects of the Oceans and Seas 
- Manik Talwani, New Geophysical Techniques for Offshore Exploration Robert B. Spies, Natural 
Submarine Petroleum Seeps staff, The Prudhoe Bay Waterflood Project Charles A. Menzie, 
Environmental Concerns About Offshore Drilling-Muddy Issues John Steinhart and Mark Bultman, How 
Undiscovered Oil is Estimated Don E. Kash, Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas Michael B. 
Downing, Profile: Ruth Dixon Turner-Benthic Biologist Lee A. Kimball, Concerns: Critical Antarctic Issues 
Emerging Robert E. Bowen , Concerns : Reagan Stand on LOS Treaty Could Prove Costly Letters Books 
& Films. 

Number 4, Winter, Oceanography in China: Paul R. Ryan, Comment C. K. Tseng, Preface Ned A. Ostenso, 
U.S. -China Collaboration in Oceanography (introduction) James Churgin, The Structure of Oceanography 
in China John D. Milliman, Chen Ji-Yu, YangZuo-shang, and Ren Mei-o, The Yangtze River: Past, Present, 
Future K. O. Emery, Tectonic Evolution of the Yellow and East China Seas Ronald D. Zwe\g,Aquaculture 
Strategies in China D. A. Wolfe, M. A. Champ, F. A. Cross, D. R. Kester, P. K. Park, and R. L. Swenson, 
Marine Pollution in China C. K. Tseng, Oceanographic Factors and Seaweed Distribution Bill Sargent, 
Profile: Walter H. Munk: Unifier of Ocean Fields Paul R. Ryan, Concerns: High Sea Levels and 
Temperatures Seen Next Century Biliana Cicin-Sain, Michael K. Orbach, and Jorge A. Vargas, Concerns: 
U.S. -Mexican Parley Debates Relations on Marine Resources Book Reviews Index. 



78 



General 

Guide to the Soviet Navy, Third Edition, 
by Norman Polmar. 1983. Naval 
Institute Press, Annapolis, Md. 465 pp. 
$36.95. 

A comprehensive look at the Soviet 
Navy in the 1980s. Included are 
detailed descriptions of Soviet ships, 
aircraft, weapons, and electronics; 
discussions of the Soviet Navy's 
organization, missions, personnel, 
and support activities, and a historyof 
the Soviet Navy. This edition is 
completely revised and updated, and 
illustrated with drawings, tables, 
maps, and nearly 400 photographs. 

Weather for the Mariner, Third Edition, 
by William J. Kotsch. 1983. Naval 
Institute Press, Annapolis, Md. 315 pp. 
$16.95. 

Since the release of the second 
edition ot this book 6 years ago, many 
changes in the science of weather 
forecasting have occurred, which 
inspired the author to extensively 
rewrite and expand on his classic 
guide. New subjects include 
increasingly sophisticated weather 
forecasting and reporting, acid rain 
and its effects on mariners and their 
equipment, the latest information on 
navigational and safety aids, and, by 
reader request, expanded coverage 
of land and sea breezes. Weather also 
contains plenty of information and 
advice on clouds, air masses, highl- 
and low-pressure areas, winds and 
waves, and much more. Appendices 
provide conversion tables, 
recommended readings, and 



Think about summer... 

SHOALS MARINE LABORA TORY 




SML offers the largest marine 
curriculum of any seasonal field 
station, with courses ranging from 
broad introductions to specialized 
courses in the biological, social, and 
applied sciences. Residing on 
Appledore Island in the Gulf of 
Maine, participants can both literally 
and figuratively immerse themselves 
in the intense, high quality 
educational endeavors offered by the 
laboratory. 



Interested? Shoals Marine 
Laboratory, OCE-84 Stimson 
Hall, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, NY I4853 



worldwide, permanent names for 
tropical storms, hurricanes, and 
typhoons. 

Schooners in Four Centuries by David 
R. MacGregor. 1982. Naval Institute 
Press, Annapolis, Md. 144 pp. $15.95. 

Four centuries long, the history of the 
schooner stretches from its 
beginning in Holland in the 1600s to 
the present. Vast numbers of these 
boats have been built, for numerous 
purposes. They have carried every 
conceivable cargo from fish to slaves, 
worked up and down rivers, along 
coasts, and across the oceans. 
Though generally 2-masted, in the 
last century the schooner has had up 
to 7 masts. This historical account 
includes many photographs of 
schooners in the last 100 years, and 
plans and reproductions of paintings 
and drawings of schooners that 
existed earlier in history. 

Shipwreck Anthropology, Richard A. 
Gould, ed. 1 983. The University of New 
Mexico Press, Albuquerque, N.M. 273 
pp. + xiv. $27.50. 

Man's relationship to the maritime 
environment is explored here 
through the study of shipwrecks, 



"SMART 
ACM & CTD 
INSTRUMENTS 

New, lightweight, "SMART" ACM and 
"SMART" CTD, instruments from Neil Brown offer 
levels of accuracy flexibility and reliability previously 
unobtainable in low-cost oceanographic devices. 

Microprocessor-based "SMART" instruments 
use proven Neil Brown sensors and technology to make 
precise high-resolution underwater measurements of 
conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD), and water 
speed, direction and temperature (ACM). CTDs may be 
used in deployed and profiling modes. ACMs may be 
deployed remotely for up to 45 days. Both instruments 
will operate continuously or on command from a 
bi-directional communications loop (SAIL). 



Atlas for 
Marine Policy 
in Southeast 
Asian Seas 

Edited by 

Joseph R. Morgan & 

Mark J.Valencia 

This book provides impor- 
tant information for an 
area inadequately con- 
sidered in the standard 
geographical texts, and 
supplies a data base nec- 
essary for the effective 
solution of marine policy 
problems. 56 pages of 
black-and-white maps 
and 25 pages of color 
maps are accompanied 
by a concise and inform- 
ative text. 
$125.00, large format 

University of 
California Press 

Berkeley 94720 





NEIL 
BROWN 







NEIL BROWN INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS, INC., 

Cataumet, MA 02534 (617) 563-9317 



79 



using techniques of historical, 
classical, and anthropological 
traditions in archaeology. Eleven 
authors contributed, writing on 
method and theory in shipwreck 
archaeology, shipwrecks as data base 
for human behavioral studies, the 
archaeology of war at sea, and 
eight other topics of shipwreck 
archaeology. One point reinforced 
by these discussions is that 
sunken ships hold a wealth of 
anthropological and historical 
information that can be lost to 
uncontrolled "treasure hunting." 

Little Sparrow: A Portrait of Sophia 
Kovalevsky by Don H. Kennedy. 1983. 
Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio. 
341 pp. + ix. $25.95 (hardcover); 
$12.95 (paperback). 

A biography of the 19th-century 
Russian mathematical genius and first 
woman professor of higher mathe- 
matics, this book was written after 
extensive work translating and 
organizing the correspondence and 
other works of Kovalevsky, her 
family, and peers. Born in 1850 into 
the Russian nobility, at age 18 Sophia 
Kovalevsky entered into a sham 
marriage as her only means of 
escaping Russia to study abroad. 
Since she was a woman, she had to 
get special permission to study at 



Heidelberg; after being rejected for 
advanced study at Berlin University, 
she was accepted as a special pupil by 
Professor Karl T. W. Weierstrass, the 
foremost mathematics teacher of the 
age. Throughout her life, Kovalevsky 
suffered the plight of intellectual 
women scientists in Russia and 
Europe in the 19th Century; now she 
is a heroine of science in the Soviet 
Union. 



The Tea Clippers: Their History and 
Development 1833-1875, Third 
Edition, by David R. MacGregor. 1983. 
Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md. 
256 pp. $24.95. 

Much new information, including 
many new ship biographies and 3 
times the number of pictures in 
earlier editions, is incorporated into 
historian MacCregor's book. The 



Books Policy 

Oceanus we/comes books from 
publishers in the marine field. 
All those received will be listed 
and a few will be selected for 
review. Please address 
correspondence to Elizabeth 
Miller, editor of the book 
section. 



crack sailing vessels of the 
19th-century tea trade captured the 
public's imagination; this book 
details the history of the tea trade and 
the business involved in sailing from 
the China Sea. It includes profiles of 
many ships, arranged in historical 
sequence, and seven appendices of 
data, routes, dimensions, and so on. 

Voyage Through the Antarctic by 
Richard Adams and Ronald Lockley; 
photographs by Peter Hirst-Smith. 
1983. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, N.Y. 
160pp. $13.95. 

Richard Adams, author of Watership 
Down, with ornithologist-naturalist 
Ronald Lockley, photographer Peter 
Hirst-Smith, and 75 others set out 
from Tierra del Fuego on a 2-month 
journey through Antarctica to New 
Zealand. In this account, the two 
writers describe all aspects of their 
trip, including their preparations, the 
wildlife they came across, and their 
feelings and impressions. The 
excitement of the adventure shines 
through the prose, accented by many 
color and black-and-white 
photographs. In a final chapter, 
Hirst-Smith relates his preparations 
as a photographer leaving on a long 
voyage (he carried an incredible 350 
rolls of film) through a harsh 
environment. 



Advertiser Index 



Page 

Benthos, Inc 61 

Fairleigh Dickinson University 62 

Ferranti O.R.E., Inc 59 

Florida National High Adventure Sea Base 75 

Hermes Electronics Limited 47 

Instruments, Inc 75 

InterOcean Systems, Inc 19 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc 25 

Kernco Instruments 73 

The Market Bookshop 73 

Marine Biological Laboratory 65, 71 

Neil Brown Instrument Systems, Inc 79 

Raytheon Ocean Systems 78 

RSMAS/University of Miami 56 

The Scale Model Company 46 

Shoals Marine Laboratory, Cornell University 79 

Sierra Club Books 77 

Sippican Ocean Systems Back Cover 

Springer- Verlag 67 

University of California Press 79 

University of Rhode Island 77 

University of Washington/Institute of Marine Studies 59 



Advertising Offices 

Oceanus 
Woods Hole 

Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, MA 02543 

Polly Shaw 

(617) 548-1400 ext. 2393 

Advertising Representatives 

Richard W. Walker, Gordon Carnie 

The R. E. Walker Company, Inc. 

2716 Ocean Park Blvd. 

Suite 1010 

Santa Monica, CA 90405 

(213)450-9001 

Jack F. Cozier 

Marketing Communications, Inc. 
5115 South Vandalia, Suite E 
or P.O. Box 35544 
Tulsa, OK 74135 
(918) 496-8777 

Daniel D. Adams, Mary Grunmeier 

Daniel Adams Associates, Inc. 
3608 Chapel Road 
NewtownSq., PA 19073 
(215)353-6191 



80 



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The International Magazine 
of Marine Science and Policy 

Published by Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution 



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Oceans and Climate, Vol. 21:4, Fall 1978 Limited Supply only. 

General ISSUe, Vol. 21 :3, Summer 1978 The lead article here looks at the future of deep-ocean drilling. Another piece, 
heavily illustrated with sharply focused micrographs, describes the role of the scanning electron microscope in marine science. 
Rounding out the issue are articles on helium isotopes, seagrasses, paralytic shellfish poisoning, and the green sea turtle of the Cayman 
Islands. 

Marine Mammals, Vol. 21:2, Spring 1978 Attitudes toward marine mammals are changing worldwide. 

The Deep Sea, Vol.21:1, Winter 19/8 Over the last decade, scientists have become increasingly interested in the deep 
waters and sediments of the abyss. 

General ISSUe, Vol. 20:3, Summer 19/7 The controversial 200-mile limit constitutes a mini-theme in this issue, including its 
effect on U.S. fisheries, management plans within regional councils, and the complex boundary disputes between the U .5. and Canada. 
Other articles deal with the electromagnetic sense of sharks, the effects of tritium on ocean dynamics, nitrogen fixation in salt marshes, 
and the discovery of animal colonies at hot springs on the ocean floor. 

Sound in the Sea, Vol. 20:2, Spring 1977 The use of acoustics in navigation and oceanography. 




Oceanus 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, Mass. 02543 




Oceanus 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, Mass. 02543 



Marine Biological Laboratory 65, 71 

Neil Brown Instrument Systems, Inc 79 

Raytheon Ocean Systems 78 

RSMAS/University of Miami 56 

The Scale Model Company 46 

Shoals Marine Laboratory, Cornell University 79 

Sierra Club Books 77 

Sippican Ocean Systems Back Cover 

Springer- Verlag 67 

University of California Press 79 

University of Rhode Island 77 

University of Washington/Institute of Marine Studies 59 



(213)450-9001 

Jack F. Cozier 

Marketing Communications, Inc. 
5115 South Vandalia, Suite E 
or P.O. Box 35544 
Tulsa, OK 74135 
(918) 496-8777 

Daniel D. Adams, Mary Grunmeier 

Daniel Adams Associates, Inc. 
3608 Chapel Road 
NewtownSq., PA 19073 
(215) 353-6191 



80 



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oceanus cepnus 





Limited quantities of back issues are available at $4. 00 
each; a 25-percent discount is offered on orders of 
five or more. We accept only prepaid orders. Checks 
should be made payable to Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution; checks accompanying foreign 
orders must be payable in U.S. currency and drawn 
on a U.S. bank. Address orders to: Oceanus Back 
Issues; 1440 Main Street, Waltham, MA 02254. 

Issues not listed here, including those published prior to Spring 1 977, are out of print. They are available on microfilm through 
University Microfilm International; 300 North Zeeb Road; Ann Arbor, Ml 48106. 



Offshore Oil & 



Vol.26:3, Fall1983 Historical accounts of exploration methods and techniques, highlighting 



. .:, sorca accouns o exporaon meos an ecnques, gg 

development of seismic theory, deep-sea capability, estimation models, as well as environmental concerns, domestic energy 
alternatives, and natural petroleum seeps. 

* General ISSUe, Vol. 26:2, Summer 1983 Articles cover the effects of carbon dioxide buildup on the oceans, the use of 
mussels in assessments of chemical pollution, a study of warm-core rings, neurobiological research that relies on marine models, 
the marginal icezone experiment, and career opportunities in oceanography. A number of "concerns" pieces on the U.S. Exclusive 
Economic Zone round out the issue. 



, Vol. 26: 1, Spring 1983 This issuecontains articles on the feeding methods, breeding habits, 
migration, and conservation of marine birds. 

Marine Policy for the 1980S and Beyond, Vol.25:4, Winter 1982/83 The articles focus on the problems of 
managing fisheries, the controversy over dumping wastes in the oceans, the lack of coordination in United States Arctic research and 
development, military-sponsored oceanograpnic research, the Law of the Sea, and the potential for more international cooperation in 
oceanographic research. Each author makes recommendations for the future. 

Deep Ocean Mining, Vol.25:3, Fall 19S2 Eight articles discuss the science and politics involved in plans to mine the 
deep ocean floor. 

General ISSlie, Vol. 25:2, Summer 1982 Contains articles on how Reagan Administration policies will affect coastal 
resource management, a promising new acoustic technique for measuring ocean processes, ocean hot springs research, planning 
aquaculture projects in the Third World, public response to a plan to bury high-level radioactive waste in the seabed, and a toxic marine 
organism that could prove useful in medical research. 

Oceanography from Space, Vol.24:3, Fall 1981 Satellites can make important contributions toward our 
understanding ofthe sea. 

General ISSUe, Vol. 24:2, Summer 1981 A wide variety of subjects is presented here, including the U.S. oceanographic 
experience in China, ventilation of aquatic plants, seabirds at sea, the origin of petroleum, the Panamanian sea-level canal, oil and gas 
exploration in the Gulf of Mexico, and the links between oceanography and prehistoric archaeology. 

The Coast, Vol. 23:4, Winter 1980/81 The science and politics of America's 80,000-mile shoreline. 

Senses Of the Sea, Vol.23:3, Fall1980 A look at the complex sensory systems of marine animals. 

A Decade Of Big Ocean Science, Vol.23:1, Spring 1980 As ithas in other major branches of research, the team 
approach has become a powerful force in oceanography. 

Ocean energy, Vol. 22:4, Winter 1979/80 How much new energy can the oceans supply as conventional resources 
diminish? 

Ocean/Continent Boundaries, Vol. 22:3, Fall 1979 Continental marginsarebeingstudiedforoil and gas prospects 
as well as for plate tectonics data. 

Oceans and Climate, vol. 21:4, Fail 1978 Limited supply oni y . 

General ISSUe, Vol. 21:3, Summer 1978 The lead article here looks at the future of deep-ocean drilling. Another piece, 
heavily illustrated with sharply focused micrographs, describes the role of the scanning electron microscope in marine science. 
Rounding out the issue are articles on helium isotopes, seagrasses, paralytic shellfish poisoning, and the green sea turtle of the Cayman 
Islands. 

Marine Mammals, Vol.21:2, Spring 197S Attitudes toward marine mammals are changing worldwide. 

I he Deep Sea, Vol. 21 :1, Winter 1978 Over the last decade, scientists have become increasingly interested in the deep 
waters and sediments of the abyss. 

General ISSUe, Vol. 20: 3, Summer 1977 The controversial 200-mile limit constitutes a mini-theme in this issue, including its 
effect on U.S. fisheries, management plans within regional councils, and the complex boundary disputes between the U.S. and Canada. 
Other articles deal with the electromagnetic sense ofsharks, the effects of tritium on ocean dynamics, nitrogen fixation in salt marshes, 
and the discovery of animal colonies at hot springs on the ocean floor. 

Sound in the Sea, Vol.20:2, Spring 1977 The use of acoustics in navigation and oceanography. 



S THE EARTH'S LAST FRO 



CHALLENGE 



PICAN 



The impact of the oceans on mankind is 
inestimable from global weather and its effect on 
energy demand, food production and transpor- 
tation, to development of basic resources, to 
better understanding of our earth's geophysics. 
Much of our future will depend on gaining 
knowledge from the sea. 

*. 

Sippican, since the introduction of the expend- 
able bathythermograph nearly two decades ago, 
has constantly expanded and improved our line 
of oceanographic data "acquisition and process- 
ing systems. Today, virtually every research 
vessel uses Sippican technology in gathering 
J ~% providing a better understanding of the 

can. 
. 

In the^jJaily study of ocean structure, manag 

^ ftfent of the basjc marine food chain and imp.. 
^\ 1> mentation of long term monitoring progran 
Sippican provides the tools to help open up the 
last frontier. 




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