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GIFT OF 



ARCHIVES 




n 



HARVARD COLLEGE LI BRARY!tea 




COLLEGE SERIES OF LATIN AUTHORS 



EDITED BY 



CLEMENT LAWRENCE SMITH and TRACY PECK 



ODES AND EPODES OF HORACE 



C. L. SMITH 



COLLEGE SERIES OF LATIN AUTHORS 



THE 



ODES AND EPODES 



OF 



HORACE 



Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 



BY 



CLEMENT LAWRENCE SMITH 

PROFBSSOR OP Latin in Harvard Univbrsity 



 • 



Boston, U.S.A., and London 

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

189s 



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Copyright, 189*. w 



UNIVb'USiTYl 
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PREFACE. 



In preparing this edition of the Odes and Epodes I have 
borne in mind the fact that the reading of these poems 
presents, at least to the American student, the first, as well 
as the best, opportunity for the discriminating study of 
Latin poetic usage in syntax and diction. Vergil and Ovid 
regularly precede Horace in our Latin course, but they come 
at a stage at which the pupil's faculties are so fully occupied 
in following the verses intelligently, that although these 
poets are undoubtedly read with pleasure by many pupils, 
anything beyond a rather dim appreciation of the quality 
and flavor of their poetry is hardly to be expected. With 
Horace the case is quite different. Horace is reserved 
for the college course, often for the second year of 
the course ; and at that stage the student should have 
acquired by practice in reading and writing such mastery 
of Latin prose idiom that the peculiarities of poetic lan- 
guage ought to arouse attention and interest. It has been 
usual for editors of Horace to notice the more striking 
of these peculiarities in the places where they occur. It 
has seemed to me better to treat the whole subject together 
in the Introduction, so that the various usages may be seen 
in their relations to one another, while' their exemplification 
in aiiy particular passage can be pointed out by a simple 



y 



vi PREFACE. 

reference in the notes. I have desired, in presenting the 
matter in this form, to leave the teacher free to use it in 
whatever way he deems best, and according to his estimate 
of its importance. In my own judgment it is of vital 
importance ; for although the appreciation of poetry must 
in the last resort be a matter of taste and feeling, beyond 
the reach of categorical statement, yet an intelligent study 
of the poet's language and literary method is the only 
adequate basis for such appreciation. 

In preparing this exposition I have had the benefit of 
a number of monographs in which certain parts of the 
subject are treated in a more or less thorough manner, but 
no previous work dealing with the whole subject is known 
to me. I am sensible of the imperfections which are 
inevitable in a first attempt of this kind, and shall welcome 

* 

friendly suggestions from any quarter for its improvement. 
Two things ought perhaps to be said : While much, if 
not most, of my statement applies to other poets of the 
Augustan and subsequent periods, I have made it with 
sole reference to Horace ; and in the absence of any sharp 
line of division between the usage of prose and of poetry 
I have in some cases purposely included a recognized prose 
construction in order to set the poetic usage in a clearer light. 
For constructions not explained in the Introduction occa- 
sional reference is made in the notes to grammars in current 
use, chiefly to Madvig's, Roby's, and Allen and Greenough's. 
For the last named the abbreviation *Gr.' is used. 

The text of Horace is open in a number of places to the 
grave suspicion, which sometimes approaches certainty, of 



PREFACE. vii 

interpolation. In the absence, however, of any general 
agreement among scholars in condemning definite passages, 
I have not thought it desirable, in an edition of this kind, 
to bracket verses or strophes which appear to me suspicious 
or spurious, or to vex college students with critical discus- 
sions where they could be avoided. The text has been 
constituted in accordance with the .principles stated in § 39 
of the Introduction. A list of the most important variants 
has been given in an appendix, where I have adopted, with 
some modifications, the convenient method of indicating 
the comparative weight of MS. authority used by Professor 
Arthur Palmer in his edition of the Satires. 

In printing the poems I have adhered to the traditional 
arrangement, which (not without some reason) has relegated 
the Epodes to the position of a sort of appendix to the 
Odes ; but I cannot do so without advising every one who 
wishes to become acquainted with Horace, as well as 
with his poetry, to follow the chronological order and 
read the Epodes first. 

For the interpretation and illustration of the poems I 
have availed myself freely of the resources which have been 
accumulated by many generations of Horatian scholars and 
are accessible in the larger editions and elsewhere. This 
general acknowledgment covers a great number of sugges- 
tions adopted from various sources, for which particular 
credit could not well be given, even when the author could 
be determined, in a book of this kind. Especial mention 
ought to be made, however, of the editions of Orelli 
(ed.* by Hirschfelder) and Wickham, and particularly of 



• •• 

VIU 



PREFACE. 



the stimulating and suggestive commentary of Kiessling, 
from all of which I have derived much assistance. In 
preparing the life of the poet, I have found, next to the 
material collected in the Prolegomena of the Orelli edition, 
Sellar's Horace and the Elegiac Poets the most useful of the 
works I have consulted. 

I take this opportunity also to express my obligations to 
my friends and colleagues : to Professors Lane, Greenough, 
and Morgan, from each of whom I have received useful 
advice and criticism in preparing the Introduction ; and 
especially to Professor Allen, who has kindly read a large 
part of both Introduction and Commentary, as they were 
passing through the press, and aided me with many valuable 
suggestions. 



V^. Ju. d« 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
September 15, 1894. 



•i'ti^.:/ 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. LIFE AND WRITINGS. 

Sources. 

1. Our knowledge of the facts of Horace's life is derived 
in part from a biography, appended to certain manuscripts 
of his poems, which has been shown by conclusive evidence 
to be, in substance, the life of the poet which Suetonius 
wrote in his encyclopedic work, De Viris Illustribus. There 
are briefer lives in some of the other manuscripts, and 
scattered notices in the scholia. But all these sources 
afford — beyond a few dates arid facts — little information 
that we do not already possess, in fuller and more authentic 
form, in the poet's own writings. To these we must go 
for an adequate understanding of his mind and character. 
In the Satires and Epistles, and to a less degree in the 
Epodes, Horace takes the reader into his confidence and 
speaks of his circumstances and feelings with singular 
frankness. The Odes, too, contain much biographical 
material, but it is of a kind that must be used with caution. 
As a poet Horace claims the freedom of his craft and 
frequently puts himself, for poetical effect, in situations 
which may perhaps reflect his mode of thought and feeling 
and even shadow forth his personal experiences, but must 
not be taken literally as autobiography. 

Birth and Early Training. 

2. Quintus Horatius Flaccus was born on the 8th of De- 
cember, B.C. 65, and died on the 27th of November, B.C. 8. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

It is important to observe the significance of these dates. 
Horace's life began when the Romans were still living 
under the forms of the Republic ; when it closed, the 
Empire was fully established. When our poet first saw the 
light, Cicero was planning his canvass for the consulship. 
His boyhood fell in the stormy decade of the * First Trium- 
virate' (b.c. 60-50), which formed the prelude of the Civil 
War. Horace was old enough to be interested in the later 
victories of Caesar in Gaul, and the destruction of Crassus 
with his army at Carrhae in 53 may well have made a deep 
impression on a lad of twelve. The two decades of civil 
strife which followed were experiences of his youth and 
early manhood, and when peace came with the deaths of 
Antony and Cleopatra in B.C. 30, Horace was thirty-five 
years old. The remaining twenty-two years of his life 
belong to the first half of the principate of Augustus, the 
period of the growth and consolidation of his power under 
the guidance of his two great ministers,- Agrippa and 
Maecenas, whose deaths, b.c. 12 and 8, were closely followed 
by that of Horace. 

3* Horace's birthplace was Venusia, a colony planted for 
military purposes in the Samnite wars, high up on the 
northern slope of the Apennine range, in Apulia, near the 
Lucanian border. It stood on a branch of the Aufidus, 
in that region a swift mountain stream, among the wooded 
hills which culminate in the lofty peak of Mt. Voltur. 
There the poet's father by shrewdness and thrift had not 
only secured his own freedom — for he was bom a slave — 
but had acquired a modest farm and an income which 
enabled him to educate his son. His occupation was that 
of a coactor, that is, a collector of money — whether of 
money due for taxes or for goods sold at auction, the cor- 
rupt text of the Suetonian biography leaves us in doubt. 
It is supposed by some that he had acted in this capacity 



INTRODUCTION. » 

as a public slave, and on his manumission took the name 
of Horatius because Venusia belonged to the Horatian 
tribe'. But we do not know that freedmen were ever so 
named ; from the ordinary practice in such cases we should 
assume that he had belonged to a master named Horatius. 
4* Horace himself was bom free, that is, he was born 
after his father's manumission. His mother is nowhere 
mentioned. It may well be that he inherited from her his 
poetic nature ; but whether because she died in his infancy 
— which is probable — or from lack of personal force, 
she appears to have had little or no influence in moulding 
his character. His father's influence, on the other hand, 
was of the utmost importance and value, as the poet himself 
acknowledges with warm gratitude. The elder Flaccus was 
a shrewd observer of men and manners. Horace was, 
it seems, his only son, and the child of his later years, when 
he had accumulated a fund of experience and practical 
wisdom, and when he was, moreover, in possession of a com- 
petence which enabled him to lay aside his business and 
give his whole attention to the training of his boy. He 
naturally knew nothing of ethical theories, and he relied 
little on precept alone. He sought to awaken his son's 
moral perception by teaching him to observe good and bad 
in the world about him, to note the consequences of virtue 
and of vice in the actual lives of men, and to take to lieart 
these examples and warnings in guiding his own life and 
guarding his reputation. The ethical code of the Venusian 
freedman was of a rough-hewn sort. It was a coarse sieve, 
and allowed some things to pass which do not meet the test 
of our finer standards. He claimed, in fact, no more for his 
moral teaching than that it would keep his son from falling 
into ruinous courses diuing that critical period when he 
was not yet able to ^swim without cork.' But so far as 
it went it was sound and wholesome. And it was effective : 



XU INTRODUCTION. 

Horace's habitual self-control during the period of his life 
when we know him best, his dislike of passionate excess 
either of desire or fear, his temperance in conduct 'and 
language, his aversion to the grosser forms of vice, — these 
were the fruit of inherited traits, fostered and strengthened 
by wise training. To ,the £ame training Horace attributes 
his habit of critical observation of social phenomena, which 
led him to write satire. 

School Days at Rome. 

5. Horace's mental development received no less careful 
attention. There was a school at Venusia, kept by one 
Flavins and resorted to by the sons of the local aristocracy, 
— 'great lads, from great centurions sprung.' But Horace's 
father had higher views for his son, who had already, we 
may suppose, given promise of exceptional ability. Anxious 
to provide him with the best advantages, he determined to 
send him to Rome, 'to receive the education which a knight 
or a senator gives to his sons.' But unlike a knight or a 
senator, the obscure freedman had no social connections 
which would enable him to place his son under the charge 
of some family or friend ; and rather than entrust him to 
strangers or slaves, he determined to leave his farm and 
accompany the boy in person to the city. Here, too, he 
was unremitting in his watchful care. Horace has left us a 
pleasing picture of the devoted father, going round to all 
the lessons with his boy, whom he had fitted out with suit- 
able dress and attendant slaves, so that he might hold up 
his head with the best of his school-fellows. 

6. Horace was taken to Rome perhaps in his ninth or 
tenth year, and remained there possibly until he was twenty; 
the precise dates are not recorded. Of his teachers only 
one is known to us, Orbilius Pupillus, of Beneventum, an 
old cavalry soldier who had resumed his books when his 



INTRODUCTION. xiu 

campaigns were over, and at the age of fifty had set up a 
school in the capital in the year when Cicero was consul. 
He wa§ a gruff old fellow, with a caustic tongue, and his 
ready resort to the rod Horace remembered many years 
after. The course of study which Horace pursued was 
presumably the ordinary course of the 'grammatical* and 
'rhetorical' schools of the day, which aimed, first, at a 
mastery of the Latin tongue, and, secondly, at the cultiva- 
tion of eloquence. With these ends in view the training, — 
after the elements of reading, writing, and reckoning were 
acquired, — was largely literary, and consisted mainly in a 
thorough study of Latin and Greek literature. Horace read 
Livius Andronicus — probably his version of the Odyssey 
— under the rod of Orbilius, and became familiar with the 
other old Roman poets, for whom he did not conceive, or 
did not retain, a very high admiration. He also read the 
Iliad, as he informs us, and no doubt other Greek classics 
in prose and verse ; and these kindled in him a genuine 
enthusiasm, which kept him a devoted student of Greek 
letters, particularly of Greek poetry, all his life. 

Athens. 

7. With this taste developed by his studies in Rome, it 
was natural that Horace should be drawn into the current 
which at that day carried the more ambitious students to 
Athens, in quest of what we may call their university training 
in the schools of philosophy there. Horace attended the 
lectures of the Academic school, and the acquaintance which 
he shows with the doctrines of the other sects must have 
been acquired at this time. For speculative philosophy and 
the subtleties of dialectics he had little taste. The Roman, 
as a rule, felt the strongest attraction to philosophy on its 
ethical side, where it came nearest to the practical problems 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

of life ; and in Horace this ethical tendency was ingrained 
and was peculiarly strong. It was fostered by his father's 
training ; it no doubt added zest, at this time, to his study 
of the various ethical systems of the Greeks ; it was con- 
firmed as his mind and character matured, and impressed 
itself strongly on all his writings, even his lyrics. In his 
later years he protested that his chief desire was to put aside 
poetry and devote the rest of his days to the. study of the 
philosophy of life. 

8. In his philosophical views Horace was, like most of his 
countrymen who interested themselves in the subject at all, 
eclectic ; he found something to his taste in this creed and 
in that, but declined to enroll himself as the disciple of any 
school. Of his religious belief it is not possible to speak 
definitely, — probably it never crystallized into definite shape 
in his own mind. For a time he was a convert to the doc- 
trine of Epicurus, — probably from reading Lucretius, whose 
poem was published in his boyhood, — and believed that 
there were gods, but that their serene existence was never 
troubled by any concern for the affairs of men. In one of his 
odes he professes to have been startled out of this * crazy ' 
creed by the actual occurrence of what the Epicureans 
averred to be a physical impossibility, — a clap of thunder in 
a clear sky. It is not likely that this experience had the 
importance in actual fact which it appears to have in its 
lyrical setting ; Horace's change of view was a matter of 
growth. But it was real. Otherwise he would surely not 
have published this poem ; and there is, besides, plenty of 
evidence elsewhere in his works that in his maturer years he 
recognized a divine providence and control in human affairs. 
Horace's ethical views, too, were strongly tinged with Epi- 
cureanism, but here, as everywhere, he went to no extreme ; 
and, although he combats the Stoic theory and mocks at 
their ideal sage, he was at heart in sympathy with Stoic 



^ INTRODUCTION. XV 

principles in their substance and practical application to life, 
and he more than once holds up their ideal of virtue for its 
own sake, — though even virtue itself he will not exempt 
from his maxim ' nil admirari'. 

9. How far Horace pursued his study of the Greek poets 
along with his philosophy at Athens, we are not informed ; 
we may be sure that he gave them a large share of his atten- 
tion. The broad and intimate acquaintance with Greek 
poetry, which is the very life-blood of his own poetic achieve- 
ment, was not the acquisition of a few years ; but his 
sojourn was long enough for the influences of the place to 
give a permanent bent to his literary taste. One of Horace's 
marked characteristics as a poet is his freedom from Alex- 
andrinism, which dominated Roman education and Roman 
poetry in his youth. Alexandrine learning, filtered through 
his Roman teachers, furnished him with his technical outfit 
as a poet, with a knowledge of the forms and categories and 
of the history of his art, and with the common stock of illus- 
trative material, mythological, astrological, and other. There 
is evidence also of his diligent study of some of the Alex- 
andrine poets : he is indebted to them for many phrases and 
figures and turns of thought. This is especially apparent in 
his love poetry. But the same evidence shows that the Alex- 
andrine poets who exerted this infiuence on his style were 
precisely those who, like Callimachus and Theocritus, were 
freest from the peculiar weakness of their school, — the 
sacrifice of freshness and good taste to formality and erudi- 
tion. In the spirit and form of his verse Horace took as his 
models the older Greek poets ; and his loving study of these 
masters we may confidently date from his residence at Athens, 
where the older traditions still maintained themselves. 

ID. The fashion of sending young men to get the finishing 
touches of their education at Athens had grown up with the 
generation into which Horace was bom. Cicero, who in his 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

youth was eager to grasp every opportunity for the best 
training, did not visit Greece at all until after he had 
entered on the practice of his profession : Cicero's son, who 
was just of Horace's age, was now at Athens studying 
rhetoric and philosophy. There, too, Horace found a num- 
ber of other young men of distinguished families, among 
them Valerius Messala, who traced his descent from the 
Valerius Poplicola who held with Brutus the first consulship 
of the Republic. On what terms Horace stood with these 
fellow-students we are left to conjecture ; but his genial 
nature and conversational gifts, combined with tact and 
good sense, must have drawn many to him. His friendship 
with Messala and many closer intimacies, to which his poems 
bear witness, date no doubt from this period. There was 
nothing out of the way in this association of the freedman's 
son with the young nobles in common studies and literary 
interests. Aristocracy of birth has never aspired to monopo- 
lize the brain-work of the world, and youth and good fellow- 
ship are not strenuous about social distinctions. In the 
next stage of Horace's career he found his position very 
different. 

In the Army of Brutus. 

II. In September, 44 b.c, six months after the assassi- 
nation of Julius Caesar, Marcus Brutus came to Athens, and 
for some months, while waiting for the turn of political 
events, devoted himself to the schools of philosophy. His 
appearance created no little sensation. The Athenians, who 
lived largely in the traditions of their past, welcomed ' the 
liberator ' with enthusiasm, and voted to set up his statue 
beside those of their own tyrannicides, Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton. The yoimg Romans were flattered by the 
accession of so illustrious a fellow-student, whose real interest 
in philosophy was well known ; and before the winter was 



J 



INTRODUCTION. xvil 

over Brutus had enlisted a number o£ them in his service for 
the, coming struggle with the triumvirs, ^mong these re- 
cruits was the young Cicero, who had already seen some 
service under Pompey. The most distinguished adherent 
was Messala, and the least distinguished, certainly, was 
Horace. It argues a high estimate on Brutus' part of 
Horace's intelligence and capacity, that he appointed this 
youth of one and twenty, with neither military experience 
nor family influence to recommend him, to a place among 
his officers, and eventually gave him, as tribune, the command 
of a Roman legion. It was high promotion for the freed- 
man's son, and envious tongues were not slow to direct 
attention to the fact. 

12. Horace was in Brutus' army the greater part of two 
years (b.c. 43 and 42). He is almost entirely silent about 
this experience, but from our knowledge of the movements 
of Brutus in those two campaigns we may gather that it gave 
him the opportimity to visit various places in Thessaly, 
Macedonia, and Thrace, and many famous cities of Asia 
Minor, which he mentions in his poems in a way that implies 
personal acquaintance. He remained with Brutus to the 
end, and shared the victory and subsequent rout at Philippi. 
The suicide of his chief at once absolved him from further 
allegiance and was a confession that the cause for which they 
had fought was irretrievably lost. Horace was fain to accept 
the result, and while some of his friends held out and joined 
the standard of Sextus Pompeius, he followed the example 
and advice of Messala and made his submission to the 
victors, who pardoned, or at least did not molest him. 

Return to Rome. 

13. It was not improbably on his homeward voyage from 
Greece after Philippi that Horace came near being ship- 
wrecked on the dangerous promontory of Palinurus, on the 



xvm INTRODUCTION. 

Lucanian coast; the critical condition of the times may 
have been his ftiotive for preferring that roundabout way 
to the ordinary route. He returned to Rome in a de- 
pressed and bitter mood. His father was dead. His 
estate had been swept away in the confiscation of the terri- 
tory of Venusia. The outlook was gloomy. He seems, 
however, to have saved some money from his twd campaigns, 
and with this he purchased a clerkship in the Quaestors' 
office, which yielded him a small income and, ai^arently, 
a good deal of leisure. Under these circumstances, poor 
in purse and still poorer in favor, Horace began life again 
at the age of twenty-three. He was thoroughly cured of 
his aspirations for a public career. His short, but severe 
experience had taught him that, however strong his interest 
in his country's welfare, he had no taste for the practical 
business of war and politics; and he had had enough of 
running counter to the popular prejudice against humble 
birth in high station. On the other hand his training and 
his knowledge of his own powers alike pointed to literature 
as the career most suitable and promising for him. 

Choice of a Career. 

14. That Horace had practiced verse-writing in the course 
of his literary studies might be taken for granted. He 
confesses that at one time, — it was probably while he was 
at Athens, — he undertook to write poetry in Greek ; and 
these essays were not, it should seem, in the nature of 
school exercises, but serious efforts. This was by no means 
a new thing in Roman literature. The earliest Roman 
annals were written in Greek, and the same phenomenon 
had reappeared in the highly Hellenized culture of the 
Ciceronian period, when Roman writers occasionally used 
Greek for prose or verse, partly for the pleasure of handling 
a language of so much richer capacity than their own, partly 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

to reach a wider circle of appreciative readers. But Horace 
did not persist in an undertaking which his good sense 
presently convinced him was as futile as it was unpatri- 
otic. 

15. At the time when Horace began his literary career, 
Vergil, who was five years his senior, had published some 
youthful verses and was beginning to be known as a sweet 
singer of pastoral scenes by the publication of his earliest 
Eclogues. The epic poet of the day was Varius Rufus, who 
won credit and favor by his poem on the death of Julius 
Caesar. He was a few years older than Vergil, who lived to 
rival him in epos ; but that was many years later. Asinius 
PoUio, who as governor of Cisalpine Gaul had recently won 
Vergil's gratitude by timely assistance, and who was after- 
wards eminent as an orator and a critic and patron of 
literature, had at this time attained some distinction as a 
writer of tragedy. Various other fields were diligently 
cultivated by writers of less note, or less known to us. 
Looking over the ground Horace thought he saw a field 
suited to his powers in Lucilian satire, which Varro Atacinus 
and some others had undertaken to revive, but in Horace's 
opinion without success. 

The Satires. 

i6« The word satura appears to have meant originally a 
medley. It was used as the name of a variety performance 
on the rude stage of early times, consisting of comic songs 
and stories, with dance and gesticulation, to the accompani- 
ment of the pipe. It found its way into literature as the 
title of a collection of what we should call * miscellanies in 
verse:' Ennius (b.c; 239-169) employed it for this purpose, 
and his example was followed by Lucilius. The Saturae of 
Lucilius, who had been dead about sixty years when Horace 
began to write satire, were a series of tracts on every topic 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

that it came into his head to discuss, — personal, social, 
political, philosophical, literary, philological. In form they 
were equally varied, — sometimes didactic, sometimes narra- 
tive, or dramatic, or epistolary ; and they were written in a 
variety of metres. More than two thirds, however, of the 
thirty books were in dactylic hexameters, which Lucilius 
appears to have finally settled upon as most suitable for 
his purpose ; and this metre was used exclusively by his 
successors. And in spite of its heterogeneous variety of 
subjects, there were two features which gave distinctive 
character to Lucilius' work. One of these was the footing 
of personal and familiar intercourse on which he placed 
himself with his reader ; his tone was the tone of conversa- 
tion and his words the utterance of his own mind and heart, 
as if on the impulse of the moment. The other was that 
he entered on a field which Roman literature had not yet 
ventured to tread, but which thenceforth became the peculiar 
province of satura, as it had been of the Old Comedy of the 
Greeks, — the criticism of contemporary manners and men. 
17. By inheritance and training a critical observer of the 
life about him, Horace justly deemed himself fitted to take 
up the task of Lucilius, whom he greatly admired in every- 
thing but the roughness of his literary workmanship. The 
unreserved personalities in which Lucilius indulged were no 
longer permissible in Horace's day, and he avoided them 
except in a few of his earlier satires. Politics, too, were 
forbidden ground. In other respects he adopted the method 
of his master, but in a kindlier spirit and rarely with any 
exhibition of personal feeling. His manner is that of the 
accomplished man of the world in familiar conversation, 
easy and self-possessed, witty but never flippant, discussing 
with keen insight and a quick sense of humor, but with the 
abundant charity of a man who knows his own shortcomings, 
and with a ground-tone of moral earnestness, the various 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

phases of every-day life. He laughs at vice and folly ; 
but satire is essentially didactic, and ridicule is the weapon 
of a serious purpose. Horace never speaks from the plat- 
form, or with any assumption of superior virtue ; he talks as 
one of the crowd who has stopped to reflect on their common 
weaknesses, and he disarms resentment by sometimes turn- 
ing the laugh against himself. There are some who esteem 
these ' talks ' (sermones), as he himself preferred to call them, 
the greatest of Horace's achievements. Certainly there are 
few works of classical antiquity in which literary art has 
brought us so near to ancient life. The satires were written 
from time to time in the decade following Horace's return 
to Rome (b.c. 41-31), and became more or less widely 
known before they were issued in collected form. The 
collection consisted of two books, of which the first was 
published about 35 or 34, and the second about 30, b.c. 

The Epodes. 

18. Horace constructed the hexameter of his satires with 
some care, and succeeded in reconciling with the easy con- 
versational tone a smoothness of rhythm which marked a 
great advance on the strong but rugged verses of his model 
Lucilius. But he hardly cared to claim for his satires the 
dignity of poetry. They are in their nature, he protests, 
and except for a certain recurrence of rhythm, mere prose 
discourse. And meanwhile he was trying his hand at poetry 
based on Greek models, and was in fact touched with the 
ambition to strike out a new path for Latin literature in this 
field. His first effort was to reproduce in Latin the iambic 
rh3rthm which tradition said had been forged, as a weapon 
of wrath, by Archilochus of Paros, — the fact being that 
Archilochus, who lived in the seventh century b.c., had 
developed and perfected the rh)rthm which had existed long 



xxh INTRODUCTION. 

before him. The form which Horace adopted was a qpuplet, 
the second verse of which, as a sort of refrain, was called by 
metrical writers epddus (c7^8d«, adjective ; cf. €ir<fS€Lv). This 
term was later extended in meaning, so that Horace's col- 
lection of seventeen poems, all but one composed of epodic 
couplets, has come down to us under the title of Epodes 
(Epodon liber). Horace himself called them only , Iambi, 
which expresses their prevailing character and is sufficiently 
accurate, although other metres are combined with the iambic 
in some instances. 

19. The composition of the Epodes probably began as 
early as that of the Satires, possibly earlier, and was con- 
tinued through the same period. The sixteenth of the 
series, which displays at once remarkable mastery of form 
and immaturity of thought, was written in the first years 
after the poet's return from Philippi ; the ninth celebrates 
the victory at Actium. The book was published about the 
same time as the second book of the Satires, B.C. 30. 

20, Horace says truly that he reproduced the spirit as 
well as the rhythms of Archilochus ; in some of his epodes 
he has certainly used the iambus as * a weapon of wrath.' In 
others again he has descended to a depth of coarseness from 
which his later lyrics are, for the most part, happily free. 
These, the survivors perhaps of a larger number of their 
kind, belong, we must suppose, to his earliest efforts, and 
tell of a dark period in his mental history, — the first years 
aftet his return from Philippi, — when life went hard with 
him, and he was embittered and demoralized by associations 
which later, under more congenial influences, he was able to 
throw off. The most fortunate of these influences was his 
acquaintance with Varius and Vergil, who inspired him with 
warm admiration and regard ; and it was these friends who 
performed for him the inestimable service of introducing him 
to Maecenas. 



INTRODUCTION. XXUl 

Maecenas. 

21. Gaius Maecenas came of noble Etruscan stock. The 
Cilniiy once a powerful family of Arretium, were the most dis- 
tinguished of his ancestors, and Tacitus (Ann, VI. 1 1) calls 
him Cilnius Maecenas ; but there is reason to believe that 
this was not his gentile name. He was born on the 13th of 
April in some year not far from 70 B.C., so that he was 
Horace's senior by a few years. From our earliest knowledge 
of him he appears as the trusted friend and confidential 
minister of the triumvir Octavian, who sent him on several 
occasions to negotiate with Antony, — at Brundisium in 
B.C. 40, at Athens in 38, at Tarentum in 37. lu' B.C. 36, 
diuing his absence in the war with Sextus Pompeius, and 
again in 31, on setting out for the final struggle with 
Antony, Octavian left Maecenas behind to watch over Rome 
and Italy with the power, if not the name, of the city pre- 
fect of regal times. This was as near as Maecenas ever 
came to holding public office. He studiously refrained 
from seeking or accepting political preferment, which would 
have raised him to the senatorial order, and remained all 
his* life an untitled * knight.' He was a man in whom the 
most opposite qualities appeared to be reconciled. His 
capacity was unquestioned, and on occasion he could display 
all necessary industry and vigor ; but ordinarily he lived a 
life of almost ostentatious indolence, and was self-indulgent 
to the point of effeminacy. Devoid of personal ambition 
and apparently indifferent to politics, he was yet public- 
spirited and patriotic, and by sheer force of sagacity and 
tact he exercised for many years a powerful and a whole- 
some influence in shaping the policy of the government. 
His self-indulgence appears to have been due to his health, 
which was always delicate. He was subject to fever and 
sleeplessness, which increased as he grew older ; we have 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

the elder Pliny's word for it that in the last three years of 
his life he did not sleep at all. Maecenas married Terentia, 
a sister (by adoption) of Licinius Murena, who was executed 
for conspiracy against the emperor in B.C. 23. She was a 
beautiful woman, who counted, the gossips said, Augustus 
himself among her lovers ; and her husband oscillated 
between furious jealousy and complete subjection to her 
fascination. He incurred the emperor's displeasure, when 
her brother's conspiracy was detected, by letting her draw 
the secret from him. These jars produced no permanent 
estrangement between Augustus and his minister, but there 
were other circumstances which inevitably caused Maecenas' 
influence to wane. When the rule of Augustus had become 
firmly established and began to take on the character of an 
hereditary monarchy, the members of his own family 
naturally came into greater prominence in his councils. 
Among these was Agrippa, who had married his daughter 
Julia. Maecenas was outside the circle and his relation with 
his chief could not be the same as before. 

22. Maecenas was a man of cultivated mind and taste, 
with a genuine appreciation of literature and enjoyment of 
the conversation of men of letters. He even wrote indiffer- 
ent verses himself. But he showed his love of literature in 
a much better way by bestowing upon it a liberal, and what 
was more to the purpose, a discriminating patronage. He 
did this in part as a measure of policy ; he saw that literature 
might serve a useful purpose in reconciling the nation to the 
new order of things. It was rare good fortune for Octavian 
to have a minister who not only saw the wisdom of this 
policy, but had the taste and the tact to carry it out with 
success ; it was something more than good fortune for 
Maecenas that he won the gratitude and admiration of the 
two greatest poets of the age, and that his name from that 
day to this has fceen a s)nionym for patron of letters. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

23. Horace was introduced to Maecenas apparently in 
B.C. 39 ; but it was not till nine months after the first meeting 
that he was definitely admitted to his circle. It was probably 
in B.C. 37 that Maecenas invited him, with Vergil and Varius, 
to accompany him on the journey to Brundisium, which he 
has humorously described in the fifth Satire. The acquaint- 
ance between the two men ripened gradually into a warm 
attachment. Maecenas found in Horace a man after his 
own heart, whose society gave him great content, and whose 
good sense and sound moral fibre were proof alike against 
servility and presumption. He won Horace's gratitude by 
very substantial favors ; he won his affection by the tact 
and sincerity which made it plain that these favors were the 
gifts of a friend and not of a mere patron, and that only 
friendship was exacted in return. Others were quick enough 
to point out the social inequality of the two men, and Horace 
was once more forced to hear ill-natured remarks about ' the 
freedman's son'; but he comforted himself with the knowl- 
edge that however it might have been on the former occa- 
sion, when he was tribune in the army of Brutus, humble 
birth was not a matter to be considered against personal 
qualities in the choice of a friend, and that the distinguished 
favor which he enjoyed was not purchased by any unworthy 
compliances on his part. The balance of obligation, in a 
material point of view, was enormously against him ; but he 
was ready, and frankly avowed his readiness, to resign all 
these advantages rather than surrender his own inde- 
pendence. And Maecenas accepted him on these terms. 

The Sabine Farm. 

24. Chief of all the benefits that came to Horace from 
this friendship was the gift of a farm in the Sabine 
hills, which he received from Maecenas about 33 B.C., not 
long after the publication of the first book* of Satires. The 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

precise situation of this estate has not been determined; 
but it lay on the banks of the Digentia (now Licenza), a 
cold mountain stream that flows directly south and joins the 
Anio about eight miles above Tibur (Tivoli). Near by was 
a shrine of the Sabine divinity Vacuna, which archeologists 
have located with considerable probability at the village 
of Roccagiovane, about three miles up the valley on 
its western slope. Behind this point, within a distance 
of two or three miles, there are mountain peaks rising to 
a height of more than 3000 feet above the sea, one of 
which may have been Lucretilis ; though that name is more 
commonly supposed to have designated the whole mountain 
mass lying between the Digentia and the more westerly 
tributaries of the Anio, the highest point of which, Monte 
Gennaro (or Zappi) rises above 4000 feet. At the junction 
of the valleys, on the Anio, was the market town of Varia 
(Vicovaro) where Horace's five tenant-farmers carried their 
produce to sell. In the country-house, which Horace him- 
self appears to have built or remodeled for his own use, he 
maintained an establishment of eight slaves, including pre- 
sumably the vilicusy who had charge of the whole estate. 
The environment of beautiful scenery, with abundance of 
shade, cool streams, and pure air, — it was about 2000 
feet above the sea-level — made the place exceedingly 
attractive to a man like Horace, who was strongly suscepti- 
ble to the impressions of Nature in her various aspects. 
He came into possession of his Sabine villa when he was 
a little over thirty years old, and from that time on he spent 
much of his life there, glad to escape from the feverish 
bustle of the city to his mountain retreat, not thirty miles 
away, but completely secluded and restful to both mind and 
body. To Maecenas' generous gift he was indebted for 
a good deal more than the mere provision of an income 
which secured him against want for the rest of his days. 



INTRODUCTION. xxvil 

though that too was all-important for a man of letters in 
that age. • 

Political Views. 

^5* Through his intimacy with Maecenas Horace came to 
the acquaintance and notice of Octavian, towards whom his 
feelings, in the course of this decade, underwent a complete 
change. Like many of the followers of Brutus and Cassius, 
who had remained quiescent or hostile during the harmoni- 
ous supremacy of the triumvirs, Horace saw that when it 
became necessary to choose between Octavian and Antony, 
the best hopes of the country were bound up with the suc- 
cess of the former. His change of heart was no doubt 
hastened by the influence of Maecenas, and in fact the 
prevailing influences at Rome set in that direction. When 
the contest reached its crisis at Actium, Horace's conversion 
was complete. He celebrated the victory and the death of 
Cleopatra, — with true Roman spirit he was silent about 
Antony, — with odes of triumph, and cordially accepted the 
result which placed the sole supremacy in the hands of the 
one man who could command peace. Towards Augustus 
personally, however, Horace was not inspired at this time, 
and probably not any time, with any warmer feeling than 
patriotic admiration and gratitude. 

The Odes. 

26. When Octavian returned to Rome and celebrated his 
triple triumph in 29 B.C., — the year after Vergil completed 
his seven yearsMabor on the Georgics, — Horace had pub- 
lished his two books of Satires and the Epodes. In each 
of these the opening poem was addressed to Maecenas, 
which was equivalent to a dedication. Horace's work in 
satire was not pursued further, at least in the same form. 
He had become deeply interested in l3n:ical composition, and 



XXVill INTRODUCTION. 

his success in the Epodes had encouraged htm to try his 
hand at more complicated lyrical metres. He made careful 
studies in early Greek l3n:ic, taking as his especial models 
and guides the two great poets of Lesbos, Alcaeus and 
Sappho (about 600 B.C.) Just when Horace began to write 
what we call the Odes, but which he called simply poems 
(carmina\ it is not possible to say. In fact, the line of di- 
vision between the Epodes and the Odes is a somewhat 
arbitrary one, and a few poems are found under each head 
that might equally well have been placed under the other. 
The earliest of the odes to which a date can be assigned 
with certainty is I. 37, written on receiving the news of the 
death of Cleopatra in B.C. 30. Possibly some were written 
before this, but probably not many. From this time on, for 
about seven years, Horace devoted himself with great zeal 
and industry, and almost to the exclusion of every other 
kind of literary work, to lyrical composition. His mastery 
of form and fine rhythmical sense had here their highest 
opportunity, and the result was a body of l3rric which in 
volume and variety and in perfection of finish was never 
equaled in Latin literature before or after. Catullus, a gen- 
eration earlier, had written l3n:ics which in freshness and 
spontaneity, and as direct and unaffected expressions of the 
poet's personality, Horace himself could not fequal. But 
Catullus had written chiefly in the easier lyrical metres, — 
iambics, Glyconics, and particularly the Phalaecean, his 
favorite rhythm. He tried the Sapphic strophe in only two 
poems, — one of these a translation, — and the Alcaic not 
at all. These two, with three Asclepiad strophes which 
Catullus did not touch, were the rhythms that Horace de- 
veloped most successfully, and, after many experiments with 
other forms, came to use almost exclusively. He also 
worked in accordance with strict metrical theories, formulated 
probably by the Roman philologians of the time, and not by 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

Horace himself, whereas Catullus had allowed himself the 
full liberty of his Greek models as he found them, so that his 
verses sometimes, to the ears of later critics, had a touch 
of harshness. It was not unnatural that Horace should re- 
gard his own achievement, wrought out with much study and 
labor, as the first adequate and successful adaptation of the 
Lesbian rh3rthms to the Latin language, in comparison with 
which the slighter efforts of Catullus * might be deemed to 
have gone, in point of artistic workmanship, little beyond 
the point he had himself reached in his Epodes. And his 
claim, in this limited sense, must be allowed. But it is to be 
wished that he had accorded to the genius of his predecessor 
in lyric the same generous recognition which he gave to that 
of Lucilius in satire. 

27. Horace's Odes, many of which are addressed to one 
or another of his friends, were privately read and circulated 
long before they were published in collected form. The 
first publication, which embraced three books, dedicated 
in a fitting introductory ode to Maecenas, took place, 
according to almost conclusive internal evidence, in b.c. 23, 
when Horace had reached the age of forty-two. . It was the 
gathered fruits of the best years of his life, when his mind 
had attained its full maturity and his spirit had not yet 
lost its freshness. The collection is arranged with some 
reference to the chronological order of composition, but with 
more to variety of subject and pleasing sequence of rhythms. 
The odes range in quality from mere studies or versions 
from the Greek to products of the poet's matured skill and 
poems in which motive and thought are wholly Roman. 
Horace gave his work to the world with the undisguised assur- 
ance of its immortality and his own. It did not immediately 
silence his detractors; but it won its way surely, and he did 
not have to wait many years for a general verdict of approval 
from the reading public. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

The First Book of Epistles. 

28. With this achievement Horace's ambition to make for 
himself a unique place in Roman literature was satisfied, 
or his lyric impulse was spent ; at any rate he wrote no 
more odes for some years. His old propensity for the 
study of life reasserted itself and found expression in a new 
series of sermones, as he calls them, indicating their close 
resemblance in subject and method, as they were identical 
in metre, with the Satires. In form they were Epistles, and 
this is the title under which they have come down to us. 
Some are letters in fact as well as in form, relating to 
personal matters, — one is a letter of introduction. Others 
contain some admixture of personal communication, while 
in many the insertion of a name is no more than a compli- 
ment or serves only to lend a certain personal interest to 
the discourse. It was a practice to which he had become 
habituated in the Odes, the influence of which on the 
Epistles is further apparent in a more finished rhythm and 
a more compact and sententious style than he had attained 
in the Satires. The first series of Epistles was written in 
the years immediately following the publication of the Odes, 
and was published in B.C. 20 or 19. The book, like its 
predecessors, was dedicated to Maecenas. 

Personal Traits. 

29. In the epilogue of this first book of Epistles Horace 
has left a brief sketch of his own person and temper at the 
age of forty-four : * short of stature, prematurely gray, quick 
to take offense, but quickly appeased.' He was stout as 
well as short ; but in his younger days, with black hair and 
the low forehead which the Romans admired, and an agree- 
able voice and smile, he was personally far from unattrac- 
tive. He enjoyed good health in his youth except that he 



\ 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

was troubled with an affection of the eyes. But as he grew 
older his health began to fail, and he found it necessary to 
guard it carefully, . In spite of the friendly reproaches of 
Maecenas, he spent a good part of the year away from the 
city, among the hills at his villa or at Tibur or Praeneste, or 
on the seashore at Baiae or Tarentum. 

30. Horace never married, nor was he ever taken posses- 
sion of by an overmastering passion, like his friend TibuUus 
and the other elegiac poets. Among all the feminine names 
that occur in his lighter odes only one appears to be real, — 
that of Cinara, of whom he speaks only after her early death. 
The Lydias and Lalages, and all the rest of the Greek ladies 
who figure in his love poems are creatures of his fancy, or 
of the fancy of some Greek poet before him ; and if, as is 
no doubt to some extent true, the poems reflect the poet's 
own experiences, they also show how lightly these experi- 
ences touched him. "iHorace was not of a temperament to 
make a serious business of love ; and his artistic delinea- 
tions of it are pretty, but they have not the ring of genuine- 
ness and true passion. Something of the same sort must 
be said of his convivial odes. They must be taken as 
artistic productions, not as self-portraiture. Horace enjoyed 
good wine and was very sociable by disposition, and he no 
doubt often found himself, especially in his younger days, in 
boisterous company ; but by his whole nature and training 
excess of all kinds was distasteful to him, and it is impos- 
sible not to believe that his strong self-control rarely failed 
to assert itself here. The odes in which he enjoins modera- 
tion in the use of wine reflect not only his rule but, we may 
confidently believe,, his habitual practice. 

The Carmen Saeculare and the Fourth Book of Odes. 

31- In the year 17 b.c. Horace's eminence as a poet 
received the stamp of official recognition in his appointment 



XXXU INTRODUCTION. 

to write a hymn to be sung at the Secular Games which 
Augustus celebrated in that year. His services as poet 
laureate were further called upon a few years later to cele- 
brate in two odes the exploits of the Emperor's stepsons, 
Tiberius and Drusus Nero, who had gained important suc- 
cesses against some of the Alpine tribes. In the meantime 
his reawakened lyrical activity had produced other odes, 
and in b.c. 13, or perhaps a little later, he gathered these 
together and added a fourth book to the three already 
published. This was done, Suetonius tells us, to gratify 
the emperor, who wished the odes in honor of his stepsons 
to have a permanent place in Horace's works. The Carmen 
Saeculare was not included in this book, but has been pr^ 
served separately. 

Relations with the Court. 

. 32, The fourth book of the Odes, unlike all of the poet's 
previous publications, was not dedicated to Maecenas, and 
this circumstance has given rise to the suspicion that Horace 
was guilty of neglecting his old friend, now that he had 
himself come into the sunshine of court favor, while his 
benefactor had withdrawn intd the background, or was even 
under a cloud. But there is no sufficient ground for such an 
aspersion, and it . is contradicted by what we know of 
Horace's character and his ideals of life. Horace had long 
before this time come into entire sympathy, politically, with 
the government of Augustus. The emperor was fully alive 
to the value of such an ally, and was ready to bestow upon 
him social favors and rewards of a more substantial sort. 
Both the one and the other were no doubt agreeable enough 
to the poet, and Horace was not the man to withhold the one 
favor he could bestow in return, — the service of his muse. 
There is nothing to show that his relations with the court 
went beyond this interchange of civilities. Horace ha4 



• 'I 



INTRODUCTION. xxxill 

already won the prizes of life that he most valued, and court 
favor could ' add nothing that he really cared for. Nor is 
there any evidence of a close friendship between the poet 
and the emperor. The wannest expression of Horace's 
feeling towards Augustus is in the fifth ode of the fourth 
book ; but it is the warmth of loyal gratitude to the author 
of his country's peace, and not at all of personal affection. 
On the other hand we are told that the emperor's advances 
towards a closer relation, in inviting the poet to become his 
private secretary, were coldly received and the appointment 
was declined. As to the new book of lyrics, Hor)a,ce's un- 
erring tact would forbid him to dedicate to Maecenas a 
work that he had published at the request of the emperor ; 
the significant fact is that it is not dedicated to Augustus. 
Of his loyalty to Maecenas, which we should otherwise have 
no right to question, he reminds us in the eleventh ode ; and 
of Maecenas' undiminished affection for .the poet we have 
striking evidence in his dying message to the emperor, re- 
corded by Suetonius k ' Horati Flacci ut mei esto memor.' 

The Literary Epistles. 

33. Suetonius further tells us that Augustus reproached 
Horace not only for slighting his friendly advances, but for 
having left him, among so many friends addressed in his 
' sermones,' conspicuous by his absence ; and that Horace 
absolved himself from this reproach by composing the poem 
which .now stands at the head of the second book of 
Epistles. It is, in form, an epistle to the emperor ; in sub- 
stance, a review of Latin poetry, with a defense of the modern 
school, of which Varius and Vergil and Horace himself 
were the foremost representatives, and with which the name of 
Augustus was destined to be permanently associated, against 
the disparagement of conservative critics and their indis- 
criminate veneration of the old Roman poets. The second 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

poem of this collection, an epistle to a young friend and man 
of letters, Julius Florus, is also mainly devoted to literary 
matters, and is especially interesting for its many allusions 
to Horace's own literary career. Its general purport is that 
he has now come to a time of life when he must put aside 
poetry with other amusements of youth, and address him- 
self to the * rhythms and harmonies of real life.' For this 
reason its composition is assigned with great probability to 
the period injmediately following the publication of the first 
book of the Epistles, when Horace's lyrical muse was still 
silent, — say B.C. 19 or 18. The epistle to Augustus, on the 
other hand, was probably written at least as late as B.C. 14. 
34. These two epistles are followed in modem editions 
by the longest of Horace's poems (476 hexameters) and 
the one that approaches nearest to the character of a 
formal treatise. It is largely didactic, setting forth with 
much detail of precept and illustration, the correct principles 
of poetry as an art ; and as early as the first century it was 
known under the title of Ars Foetica (or De Arte Poetka 
liber). It is, nevertheless, written in the form, and to a 
considerable extent preserves the character and tone, of an 
epistle, being addressed to three friends, a father and two 
sons, of the Piso family, and ostensibly designed for the 
special benefit of the elder of the two young men, who had 
literary aspirations. It is, moreover, for a formal treatise, 
very incomplete ; it deals with only one branch of poetry, — 
the drama, — with any degree of thoroughness, touching on 
the rest lightly or not at all. It seems probable, therefore, 
that the somewhat pretentious title Ars Foetica - did not 
originate with Horace himself, but was given to the poem 
later, when it was issued separately, either for educational 
purposes or as material for learned commentary. The 
date of its composition is in dispute. Some place it as 
early as the first book of the Epistles, but the better view 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

appears to be that it was written in the last years of the 

poet's life. 

Death and Permanent Fame. 

35. Of Horace's personal history in these last years we 
have ho record. His health, as we have seen, had long 
been precarious, and he had not yet completed his fifty- 
seventh year when he died, in the latter part of November, 
B.C. 8. He was buried on the Esquiline, not far from the 
tomb of Maecenas, who had passed away only a few months 
before him. 

36. The favor which Horace had won from the best minds 
of his own time has been confirmed by the permanent verdict 
of posterity. His works at once took their place among the 
classics of Latin literature. By the beginning of the second 
century, as we know definitely from Juvenal, and undoubtedly 
long before (see Quint. I. 8. 6), they were used as school- 
books, and thus became a part of the literary outfit of the 
educated' Roman. They continued to be read to some 
extent through the middle ages, and since the revival 
of letters their popularity has been steadily maintained. 
Perhaps no ancient writer has won a warmer place in the 
personal regard of modem men, — and not only men of 
books, but men of affairs ; for the secret of his power is 
not merely, or perhaps so much, in the unrivaled mastery 
of language and rhythm which lends such charm to his 
lyric poems, — still less in the force of poetical genius, in 
which his greatness does not pass unchallenged, but rather 
in the character which shines through his verses, of the 
keen but kindly, urbane, wise, genial observer of life. 

Scholia and Manuscripts. 

37. Horace's poems became early the subject of learned 
criticism and interpretation. The oldest commentary that 
has come down to us is that of Pomponius Porphyrio, 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

who is supposed to have written in the fourth century, 
perhaps earlier. At any rate he lived at a time when the 
old Roman pagan customs had not yet died out, and he had 
access to still older authorities which are now lost ; so that 
his work is of great value to us. We also have a collection 
of scholia under the name of Helenius Acro, a distinguished 
grammarian who lived perhaps a centuiy before Porphyrio ; 
but although Acro unquestionably wrote a commentary on 
Horace, the one which now bears his name is a composite 
production, made up at a much later date by one or more 
unknown writers, who quote liberally from Porphyrio. 

38. If we may take the word of Jacques de Crusque 
(better known by his Latinized name, Cruquius), professor 
at Bruges in the latter part of the sixteenth century, the 
oldest manuscript of Horace known to exist in modern times 
was preserved in the monastery of St. Peter at Blankenberg 
(Mons Blandinius), near Ghent, and presumably perished 
in the fire which consumed that institution in 1566. It was 
one of four codices which Cruquius had borrowed from the 
monastery and collated for his edition of Horace, which he 
first published in complete form in 1578. Although, there- 
fore, these Blandinian manuscripts are themselves lost, we 
have in the edition of Cruquius a considerable number of 
readings from them ; and some of these are of a very strik- 
ing character. Cruquius regarded the manuscripts as of 
great value ; three of them he assigned to the ninth century 
while the other, which he called ' vetustissimus ' he thought 
might possibly date from the seventh. We have no means 
of revising this estimate. Keller and Holder, to whom we 
are indebted for the fullest existing critical apparatus of 
Horace, question the accuracy and even the good faith of 
Cruquius, and set little value on his manuscripts. The 
majority of Horatian scholars, however, dissent from this 
view and acquit Cruquius of any worse offense than care- 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

lessness, while the ^Blandinius Vetustissimus ' is justly held 
to be of exceptional importance both on account of the 
excellence of some of its peculiar readings and because it 
represents a tradition in large measure independent of the 
great mass of Horatian manuscripts. Cruquius also pub- 
lished in his edition a collection of scholia from his Blan- 
dinian manuscripts, the unknown ^iter or writers ,of which 
are commonly quoted as * Commentator Cruquianus.' They 
are of no great value, being evidently derived, for the most 
part, from Aero and Porphyrio. 

39. The extant manuscripts of Horace, about two hundred 
and fifty in number, range in date from the eighth or ninth 
to the fifteenth century. The oldest is one now in the public 
library at Berne, written by a Scotch or Irish monk in the 
latter part of the eighth or early in the ninth century. We 
have nearly twenty in all which appear to have been written 
before the end of the tenth century. All of the manuscripts 
(except one at Gotha, which appears to be derived from the 
Blandinian recension) come from a common archetype, which 
Keller thinks may have been written as early as the first or 
second century. No satisfactory classification has yet been 
discovered, which shall enable us to decide on disputed 
readings by the weight of manuscript testimony ; nor is it 
probable that the relations of the manuscripts to one another 
can ever be sufficiently made out to establish such a classi- 
fication. Owing to the practice in which copyists and 
revisers often indulged, of comparing their codex with one 
or more others, and borrowing readings from these at their 
discretion, the lines of tradition have become so confused 
that it IS probably no longer possible to separate them. 
This appears in Keller's attempted classification, in which 
an important manuscript will be found now in one class, 
now in another. Keller sets up three classes, and in general 
accepts the united testimony of two against the remaining 



XXXVUi INTRODUCTION. 

one. His Classes II. and III. may be said to be fairly 
made out, though their value is much impaired by the 
vacillation of individual manuscripts. The case for his 
Class I. is by no means so clear. The serious problems of 
Horatian textual criticism involve, as a rule, the choice 
between two (seldom three) variants, each resting on 
good, but not conclusive, manuscript support; and the 
decision cannot be reached by any balancing of authori- 
ties, but calls for the exercise of sound judgment, trained 
by careful study of the poet's mode of thought and habit 
of expression. 



II. LANGUAGE AND STYLE. 

40. Saturated as Horace was with Greek literature, it 
was inevitable that his language and style should bear the 
impress of a strong Greek influence. But to this influence 
he by no means surrendered himself unreservedly. His 
sturdy Roman character stamped itself upon his writings as 
upon his life, and he was no more spoiled as a literary 
artist by Greek culture than he was as a man by aristocratic 
society. He was strong enough to absorb the spirit of. 
Greek art, and make it his own. The task he set himself 
was not to imitate the Greek poets, but to achieve with his 
own language what they had achieved with theirs. He 
understood well the genius of his native tongue, its capac- 
ities and its limitations; and his good sense and good taste 
saved him from attempting to do with it some of the things 
which the older poets had tried, — such as the formation 
of unwieldy compounds, — just as he refrained from their 
sonorous rhetoric and extravagant use of assonance and 
alliteration, and from the studied prettiness of Catullus and 
his school. While his syntax often has a strong Greek 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

flavor, he rarely uses a construction of which we cannot find 
at least the germ in the Latin idiom. If we bear in mind 
that Latin was a spoken language, in process of growth and 
decay, not hardened into the forms in which the gram- 
marians have systematized it for us, we may well hesitate 
to assert that Latin idiom was ever consciously violated 
by Horace. His language is, in the main, the every-day 
language of cultivated Romans, but free from the sprinkling 
of Greek words and phrases with which polite conversation 
covered up its own poverty, and which he expressly con- 
demns in Lucilius. Horace uses Greek words sparingly, 
and as a rule only of Greek things. His diction betrays no 
striving to avoid the commonplace. His power and charm 
lie rather in the skill with which he moulds common 
materials into exquisite forms, and in that perfect adapta- 
tion, of word to thought which invests his carefully wrought 
phrase with all the appearance and the freshness of a happy 
inspiration. This ' Horati curiosa felicitas,' as Petronius 
has so aptly characterized it, is his supreme merit ; and it is 
all his own. 

The exposition which follows is designed to help the stu- 
dent to a better understanding of the poet by pointing out 
the most salient characteristics of his syntax, — chiefly those 
in which he goes beyond the limits of literary prose usage, 
— and to set forth some of the more striking features of 
his use and arrangement of words. This will serve, it is 
hoped, to show the student what to look for, but the largest 
part must still be done by himself. There are innumerable 
subtleties of form and setting which are beyond the reach 
of description. To grasp the full beauty and charm of 
Horace's style, we must read and read over again, read many 
times and learn by heart, till the poet's thought and his verse 
are inseparably blended in our memory. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

(A) SYNTAX. 

The Accusative, 

41. The passive voice is sometimes used with its original 

middle force and takes an object accusative ; as 

S. II. 7. 38 nasum supinor, I lay back my nose; Ep. II. 3. 302 pur- 
gor bilem; Ep, I. i. 50 coronari Olympia (after the Greek aT€<f>a- 
vowrOaij to win a crown for oneself)', Ep. I. 17. 28 quidlibet indutus. 

42. In descriptions of dress or personal adornment the 
perfect participle, with an instrumental ablative, is frequently 
used in the middle sense, and takes an accusative of the 
part of the body affected ; as 

C. I. 2. 31 nube candentis umeros amictus, having thy bright 
shoulders wrapt in cloud ; C II. ii. 15 rosa odorati capillos; Ep. II. 
I. no fronde comas vincti. 

43. The accusative of the 'part aifected' is sometimes 
used with the passive voice in its proper sense, thus becom- 
ing practically an accusative of specification ; as 

S. I. 8. 37 caput inquiner, I get my head befouled; iS". 1. 1. 5 iam 
fractus membra labore, with his frame all shattered by toil and hard- 
ship ; S. II. 3. 295 mentem concussa. 

44. The accusative specifying the *part aifected* occurs once in 
Horace with an active verb : ^5". II. 7. 57 tremis ossa pavore (cf. C. I. 
23. 8 et corde et genibus tremit). Its occurrence with an adjective 
is doubtful, the MSS. in C. III. 10. 18 being divided between animum 
mitior and animo mitior. Cetera with an adjective occurs thrice : C. 
IV. 2. 60 cetera fulvus ; Ep. I. 10. 3, %o. Cf. § 45 b, 

45. {a) The character of the action may be expressed by 
an adjective with a cognate accusative ; as 

C. III. 29. 50 ludum insolentem ludere; C. II. 17. 26 laetum cre- 
puit sonum. 

(p) The neuter plural of an adjective in this construction 
is equivalent to an adverb ; as 

S. I. 8. 40 alterna loquentes {alternately) ; S. I. 4. 44 os magna 
sonaturum {in lofty strain) ; Ep. I. i. loi insanire sollemnia {in the 
ordinary way) ; S. I. 10. 37 haec ego ludo. 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

46. The action of a verb may be characterized by an adjective or 
participle in apposition with the verb itself, or with the whole predicate ; 
as S, I. 4. 10 in hora saepe ducentos, ut magnum, versus dictabat 
{as a great feat) ; S, II. I. 53 dente lupus, comu taurus petit, — 
unde nisi intus monstratum? S, II. 2. 19 cum sale panis la- 
trantem stomachum bene leniet, — unde putas aut qui partum ? 

47. The accusative singular neuter of pronouns and of 
nihil is freely used as a cognate object with adverbial force ; 

as 

C. I. 32. I si quid lusimus; S. II. i. 78 nisi quid tu dissentis; 
Ep. II. 3. 354 si peccat idem ; C 1. 14. 14 nil pictis puppibus fidit ; 
S. II. 8. 41 nihilum nocuere lagenis. In one instance nihil b mo- 
dified by an adjective : Ep, I. 12. 15 nil parvum sapias {in no small 
way), 

48. The accusative singular neuter of many adjectives is 
attached to verbs, both transitive and intransitive, with ad- 
verbial force ; as 

C X. 22. 23 dulce ridentem ; S. 1. 3. 26 cemis acutum ; Ep, II. 2. 9 
canet indoctum sed dulce bibenti; C. II. 12. 14 lucidum fulgen- 
tis ; .S*. I. 8. 41 resonarint triste et acutum. 

49. The accusative singular neuter of adjectives of quan- 
tity is used adverbially with adjectives and participles ; as 

C I. 25. 5 multum facilis; Epod. 15. 11 dolitura multum; Epod, 
17. 20 amata multum; S, II. 5. 80 nee tantum Veneris quantum 
studiosa culinae. So nihilum : S, II. 3. 54 nihilum metuenda. 

50. Horace uses insuesco with two accusatives (on the analogy of 
daceo) in S, I. 4. 105 insuevit pater hoc me. The use of decipior 
with an accusative in C. II. 13. 38 dulci laborem decipitur sono is 
to be explained on the analogy of celor (cf. the use of /alio with an 
accusative of the thing disguised, e. g. S. II. 2. 12 studio fallente 
laborem, from "which /allor ladorem would be a natural development) ; 
but see § 67. In the expression, Ep. II. 3. 383 census equestrem 
summam, borrowed from legal phraseology (cf. Cic. Flacc. 80), censeo 
is likewise treated as a verb that takes two accusatives. 

51 . The tendency of verbs originally intransitive to acquire 
a transitive use appears at a more advanced stage in poetry 
than in prose. The following verbs, used transitively by 
Horace, had a very restricted transitive use, or were not so 
used at all, in prose before his day : 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

(a) Verbs denoting emotion or the expression of emotion i embescOi 
fleo, gemo, ploro, pallesoo, ezpallesoo, ptTeo, ezpayesoo, tremo, oon- 
tremiscOy horrescOi fastidiOi gravor; vA^Epod, 14. ii cava testudine 
flevit amorem; C, IV. 12. 5 Ityn flebiliter gemens; C, III. 27. 27 
pontum palluit (turned pale at the sight of) ; C IV. 11. 27 Pegasus 
terrenum equitem gravatus. 

{b) Verbs expressing haste, strife : propero^ depropero, festino, certo, 
pugnOy milito ; as Ep. I. 2. 61 poenas festinat ; S, II. 5. 27 fore s! res 
certabitur; Epod, i. 23 libenter hoc et omne militabitur bellum. 

{c) Verbs of vocal expression : (i) with object denoting the form or 
content of the expression: sono, crepo, balbutio, elatro; as C. II. 13. 
26 sonantem plectro dura navis, dura fugae mala; Ep, I. 7. 84 
sulcos et vineta crepat; (2) with external object: iurgo, sibilOy latro ; 
as S, II. 2. 100 Trausius iurgatur; S,\, i. 66 populus me sibilat; 
Epod, 5. 57 senem latrent canes. 

{d) Verbs expressing some physical act or state : (i) in a literal 
sense: ceno, stillo; Ep, II. 2. 168 emptum cenatholus; £/. II. 3. 
429 stillabit ex oculis rorem ; (2) in a figurative sense : mano, spiro ; 
Ep, I. 19. 44 fidis manare poetica mella te solum ; C IV. 13. 19 
spirabat amores ; (3) of dramatic action, the accusative denoting the 
character represented : salto, moveor, edormlo ; S, I. 5. 63 pastorem 
saltaret uti Cyclopa rogabat; Ep. II. 2. 125 nunc Satyrum, nunc 
agrestem Cyclopa movetur (I e. saltat ; cf. Ep, II. 3. 232) ; S, II. 
3. 61 Fufius ebrius Ilionam edormit, * slept off ^ Iliona^ L e. actually 
went to sleep in his part, instead of simulating it (with the addition^ 
idea, however, that he was sleeping off a debauch, from the phrase 
edormtre crapulam^ which occurs in prose). 

(<r) inyideo, impero, regno (see also § 68), triumpho, and iuro are 
used in the passive with a subject-nominative ; as Ep. II. 3. 56 ego 
cur invideor? Ep, I. 5. 21 haec ego procurare imperor; C III. 
29. 27 regnata Cyro Bactra ; C III. 3. 43 triumphatis Media ; Ep, 
II. I. 16 iurandas aras. In C, IV. 6. 14 mentior is used for simulo. 

(/) Many intransitive verbs acquire a transitive use in composition. 
Such are : adnuo (= concedo)^ as S, I. 10. 45 moUe atque facetum 
Vergilio adnuerunt Camenae; adsoesco, S, II. 2. 109 pluribua 
adsuerit mentem (adsuetus is common in prose) ; circomgemo, cir- 
cumtono, circumyolo, circumvolito ; ezsudo^ S, 1, 10. 28 cum Pedius 
causas exsudet (=» sudans peragat) ; eTagor, insisto, intone, peram- 
bulOy porerro, praefluo, remeo, subrepo, supervenio. 

5a. There are a few instances in the Satires and Epistles of a collo- 
quial form of expression in which an object accusative depends on a 
verbal idea vaguely implied in the phrase itself ; as ^. II. 7. 116 unde 
mihi lapidem? unde sagittas, where shall J get^ etc.? Ep, I. 5. 12 
quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur uti ? Here mihi is added to 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

quo (= quarsum) to mean ' What object can it be to me ? * (as in S. I. 
6. 24 ; see § 94/), and foitunam depends on the vaguely implied idea 
of having or obtaining. 

The Dative, 

53. The person towards whom motion is directed is 
sometimes expressed, as 'the person for whom 'action is 
performed, by the dative ; and this usage is extended, by 
a more or less conscious personification, to places and 
things ; as 

C I. 28. 10 habentque Tartara Panthoiden, iterum Oreo demis- 
8um (L e. to Orcus as a person^ the place being already expressed by 
Tartara ; cf. //. I. 3 ^vx&f 'At^i Tpolwlftw) ; C. IV. 4. 69 Carthagini 
iam non ego nuntios mittam superbos; C. I. 24. 15 num vanae 
redeat sanguis imagini, would the blood return (L e. be restored) to 
the empty form f C. III. 23. i. caelo si tuleris manus (cf. Verg. Aen, 
V. 451 it damor caelo). 

54. The dative is used with verbs (chiefly in the perfect 
participle) of perception and emotion ; as 

C. II. I. 31 auditum Media sonitum (L e. audible to them ; cf. the 
usual construction with vsdeor); C. I. i. 24 bella matribus detestata 
(hateful /^); I. 21. 4 Latonam dilectaxn lovi (=dear to); Ep, II. i. 256 
formidatam Parthis Romam ; C. III. 25. 3 quibus antris audiar ? 

55. The dative of the agent, which had its origin perhaps 

in these and similar uses (notably its use in the gerundive 

construction), is also found ; as 

C. I. 32. 5 (barbite) Lesbio modulate civi ; Ep, II. 3. 427 versus 
tibi factos. 

56. The dative is used with verbs signifying to unite^ 

mixy compare; such are 

iimgOi figo, socio, oontinuo, gemino, coeo; misceo, confondo; confero, 
oompaxo, contendo ; as Ep, II. 3. i humano capiti cervicem equi- 
nam iungere ; Ep. II. 3. 13 ut serpent es avibus geminentur, tigri- 
bttsagni; C I. i. 30 me dis miscent superis (i. e. set me among 
them ; cf. stellis inserere, C, III. 25. 6) ; S. I. 10. 20 verbis Graeca 
Latinis miscuit (I^tin being his vernacular) ; iS. I. i. iii neque se 
maiori turbae comparet. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

57. The dative is used with verbs signifying difference^ 
disagreement y^ contention ; such are 

differOy disto, discrepo, dissentio, disaideo, disconyenio, discordo, 
pugnOy certOy decerto, luctor, altercor ; as C. IV. 9. 29 distat inertiae 
virtus; S, I. 4. 48 differt sermoni; C. II. 2. 18 dissidens plebi; S, 
I. 2. 73 pugnantia istis. 

58. The dative is used with adjectives, — 

{a) Depending on a verbal idea contained in the adjective ; as C 

I. II. 8 credula postero; C, III. 26. 8 foribus minacis; C. II. 15. 8 
fertilibas domino priori (i. e. quae ferebant ; cf. C. III. 24. 12) ; S, 

II. 2. 6 acclinis falsis animus ; S. II. 7. 83 sibi imperiosus. 

{b) With adjectives conveying the notion of fitness or likeness, or 
the reverse ; as C I. 23. 12 tempestiva viro {of fit age for) ; C. III. 11. 
12 cruda marito; S. II. 2. loi divitias tribus amplas regibus; Ep. 
I. 18. 5 huic diversum vitio. So with idem : Ep. II. 3. 467 invitum 
qui servat, idem facit occidenti. 

{c) To express purpose or use after adjectives of capacity, skilU 
incapacity; as C. I. 12. 42 utilem bello; Ep. II. 3. 82 natum rebus 
agendis; Ep, II. 2. 21 talibus officiis prope mancum; C. III. 27. 61 
acuta leto saxa (i. e. sharp enough to kill). 

59. The dative is rarely appended to a substantive to 

denote purpose, service, or destiny ; as 

Epod, 2. 33 tendit retia, turdis dolos; ^5". II. 5. 16 ne illi comes 
exterior ire recuses; C. II. i. 13 insigne maestis praesidium reis 
et consulenti, Pollio, curiae ; S, II. 2. 107 o magnus posthac 
inimicis risus! 

60. In the predicate after licet esse and the like, Horace always uses 
the dative ; as Ep, I. 16. 61 da mihi fallere, da iusto sanctoque 
videri; Ep. II. 3. 372 mediocribus esse poetis non homines, non 
di, non concessere columnae. 

The Genitive, 

61. The genitive of quality may be attached directly to 

the name of a definite individual or class ; as 

S, I. I. 33 magni formica laboris (for 'formica, animal magni 
laboris'); C, I. 36. 13 multi Damalis meri.. Similarly, where the 
omitted appellative would be in the predicate ; as S, I. 4. 17 di bene 
fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli finxerunt animi; S. 11. 8. 84 
Nasidiene, redis mutatae frontis. Sometimes coupled with an 
adjective ; as S, II. 7. 52 ditior aut formae melioris. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

62. The possessive genitive in the predicate is used with 
greater freedom than in prose, often differing little from a 
partitive genitive ; as 

S. 1. 7. 35 openim hoc tuorum est ; C. III. 13. 13 lies nobilium tu 
quoque fontium; £p, I. 9. 13 scribe tui greg^s hunc. 

63. The partitive genitive is often used with adjectives 

where in prose the substantive and adjective would stand in 

agreement ; as 

C. IV. 6. 31 virginum primae; C, L 10. 19 superis deorum et 
imis ; S. . It. 2. 60 natalis aliosve dierum festos ; C. I. 9. 14 quern 
fors dierum cumque dabit. Sometimes with an adjective and pro- 
noun ; as C I. 29. 5 quae tibi virginum barbara serviet ? Or a 
pronoun and substantive, as iS". II. i. 61 maiorum ne quis amicus 
frigore te feriat. With onus (= solus) : S, I. 10. 42 unus vivorum 
(of. S. II. 6. 57 unum mortalem). The genitive is also used with unus, 
on^t S. I. 9. 72 unus multorum ; elsewhere the ablative with de or gx, 

64. The genitive (partitive or possessive), used in this 

way with the neuter plural of an adjective in an abstract 

sense, gives the latter greater prominence than if it were 

merely expressed as an attribute of the substantive; thus in 

C IV. 12. 20 amara curarum, there is more stress on the bitterness 
than there would be in *amaras curas ' ; C. II. i. 23 cuncta t err arum ; 
C. IV. 4. 76 acuta belli; S. II. 2. 125 contractae seria frontis. The 
colorless genitive'rerum especially is used in the Satires and Epistles 
to round out a phrase; as Ep. I. 17. 21 vilia rerum; S. II. 2. 25 
vanis rerum; S, II. 8. 83 fictis rerum. In one instance rerum is 
used in the same way with a masculine superlative : .S". I. 9. 4 dulcis- 
sime rerum. 

65. A geographical proper name is occasionally put in the genitive 
(instead of in apposition) with its generic noun ; as C II. 6. 10 Galaesi 
flumen, the river Galaesus ; C, IV. 14. 50 tellus Hiberiae. Some- 
times it is treated as an adjective : C IV. 4. 38 Metaurum flumen ; 
Ep, II. 3. 18 flumen Rhenum. This adjective use of substantives is 
sometimes extended to personal names ; as C I. 1 5. 10 Dardanae 
genti, the race of Dardanus ; C, IV. 5. i Romulae gentis; and even 
to an appellative ; as C III. 12. i patruae linguae. In the same way 
Horace is fond of using the shorter forms of adjectives of nationality, 
which are commonly used as substantives in prose ; as Marsus, Afer, 
Medus, Colchus, for Marsicus^ A/ricus, etc. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

66. The wide development and vague limits of the use 
of the objective genitive with adjectives (and participles with 
adjective meaning) gave the poets freer scope in this than 
in most other constructions. The examples in Horace com- 
prise — 

(a) The objective genitive proper, depending on adjec- 
tives implying the action of a transitive verb, or their oppo- 
sites ; such are 

tenax, ferax, fertilis, fecundus, prospems, prodigus, benignus, 
parens, fastidiosus, bibulns, avaius, metnens, timidus, securus, in- 
cantns ; as Epod, 5. 22 Hiberia venenonxm feraz ; C- S. 29 fertilis 
frug^m pecorisque tellus; Ep. II. 3. 164 iuvenis prodig^s aeris; 
•S". II. 3. 3 vini somnique benignus (cf. our expression, * a generous 
liver*) ; .S". II. 5. 79 donandi parca inventus; Ep. II. 3. 28 timidus 
procellae; Ep, II. 2. 17 poenae secums. 

(b) The genitive of reference, with adjectives denoting 
mastery, knowledge, skill, and their opposites ; such are 

potenSy pmdens, sciens, soUers, consnltns, divinys {prophetic), 
sagax, dociliSy indoctus, nescins, inscins ; as C I. 3. i diva potens 
Cypri; Ep. II. 3. 407 musa lyrae sellers ; C. I. 34. 2 insanientis 
sapientiae consultus (after the analogy of turis consultus) ; C. III. 
27. 10 imbrium divina avis; Ep. II. 3. 218 Utilium sagax rerum; 
C. IV. 6. 43 docilis modorum ; Ep. II. 3. 380 indoctus pilae discive 
trochive. 

(c) The genitive of reference, with adjectives of plenty 
and want ; such are 

dives, opnlentns, satnr, lassns, inanis, egens (cf. § 67), pauper, 
exsors, liber, vacnns, pnms, abstinens ; as Ep. II. 2. 31 multarum di- 
vite rerum ; Ep. I. 7. 35 satnr alt ilium ; C. II. 6. 7 lasso maris et 
viarum militiaeque (cf. Verg. Aen. I. 178 fessi rerum) ; C. III. 11. 26 
inane lymphae dolium; Ep. I. 17. 22 nuUius egentem; C. III. 30. 
II pauper aquae; Ep. II. 3. 212 liber laborum rusticus; S. II. 2. 
1 19 operum vacuo ; C. I. 22. i sceleris purus. 

NoTft. — Of these adjectives, dives, vacuus, and purus are also used 
by Horace with the ablative ; as Ep. II. 3. 421 dives ag^s, dives positis 
in faenore nummis; C, IV. 15. 8 vacuum duellis lanum; S. II. 3. 
213 purum est vitio tibi cor? With nudus, orbus, and viduus Ho- 
race uses the ablative only ; C I. 14. 4 nudum remig^o latus ; C. IV. 
2. 44 forum litibus orbum; CI. 10. 11 viduus pharetra Apollo. 



) 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

(//) The genitive of reference (specification), with other 
adjectives : 

S. II. 3. 65 integer mentis (cf. Plaut. Trin. 454 satin tu sanu*s 
mentis aut animi tui .> ) ; S. I. 9. 11 cerebri felicem ; C. II. 2. 6 notna 
animi patemi; S. 1. 10. 21 seri studiorum ; S. II. 2. 66 coltiis miser; 
C, III. 5. 42 capitis minor (for the technical capita deminutus), 

67. The analogy of adjectives of plenty and want is ex- 
tended in a few cases to verbs. Horace has the genitive with 

egeo, solvo, pnrgo, abstineo, desino, invideo; as 5". I. 4. 118 dum 
custodis eges (cf. egens § 66 r) ; C. III. 17. 16 famulis operum solu- 
tis (cf. operum vacuo § 66^) ; .9. II. 3. 27 miror morbi purgatum te 
(cf. libtTypurus § 66r) ; C. III. 27. 69 abstineto irarum (cf. abstinens 
§ 66 ^) ; C II. 9. 18 desine querellarum ; S, II. 6. 84 neque ille sepositi 
ciceris nee longae invidit avenae (cited by Quintilian IX. 3. 17 to 
illustrate Horace's fondness for Greek idioms). Here also belongs C. 
II. 13. 38 labonim decipitur, if that reading, given in some good MSS,^ 
be correct ; but see § 50. Horace also uses the more common prose 
constructions, — the ablative with egeo, solvo, abstineo, and the accu- 
sative and dative with invideo. 

68. For a supposed instance of the genitive with regno see note 
C III. 30. 12. 

The Ablative, 

69. The ablative is often used without a preposition to 
denote the * place where ' ; as 

C. I. 9. 10 ventos aequore fervido deproeliantis ; C II. 9. 24 
exiguis equitare campis. Often without an adjective, as S, I. 5. 87 
mansuri oppidulo. 

70. With verbs denoting separation or motion from a 

place, the ablative is often used without a preposition ; as 

C. I. I. 32 me secemunt populo; .S*. II. 3. 203 abstinuit vim 
uxore ; Ep, II. 3. 379 abstinet armis ; ib. 370 actor causanim me- 
diocris abest virtute diserti Messalae ; C. II. 20. 21 absint funere 
neniae; C, III. i. 39 decedit aerata triremi; Ep, II. 3. 53 si Graeco 
fonte cadent. 

71. The ablative is used with haereo, religo, siupendo ; as C. I. 2. 
9 summa haesit ulmo ; C I. 32. 8 religarat litore navim ; S, I. 6. 
74 suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. The ablative may be that 
of 'place where' (cf. S, I. 3. 32 in pede calceus haeret), but with religo and 
suspendOf at least, the feeling is probably that of (prevented) separation, 



on 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

as in Verg. Aen, VIL io6 gramineo ripae religavit ab aggere classem ; 
Lucan, VII. 860 nuUus ab Emathio religasset litore funem navita. 
With haereo Horace also uses the dative ; as CI. 32. 9 illi semper 
haerentem. (Cf. the opposite points of view that find expression 
in proximus alicui 2Jid proximus ab aliquo.) 

72. The ablative of cause is used with certain verbs 
denoting passion or mental disturbance ; such are 

ardeOy caleo, nro, pecco; faro, inaanio; langueo, stnpeo, torpeo; 
as C. II. 4. 8 arsit virgine rapta; C, I. 27. 16 ingenuo semper amore 
peccas; S. I. 4. 28 stupet Albius aere. Horace has the ablative 
with iftf once each, with uro, laboro, and stnpeo : Epad. 1 1. 4 ; C 1. 17. 
19 ; 5*. I. 6. 17 ; and ardeo once, perhaps, with the accusative : C IV. 
9. 13 comptos arsit adulteri crinis (cf. Yerg.Ec/, 2. i Corydon arde- 
bat Alexin) ; but see note on the passage. 

73. An instrumental ablative with a verbal substantive in -tor occurs 
C. III. 4. 55 truncis iaculator; with a verbal adjective, C IV^d 8. 

74. The ablative of price, added to the accusative after mato may 
denote either the thing given or the thing received in exchange ; as £p. 
I. 7. 36 nee otia divitiis muto, i. e. give up my leisure (ace.) for wealth 
(abl.) ; C*. I. 17. 2 Lucretilem mutat Lycaeo Faunus, i. e. gives up 
Lycaeus (abl.) for Lucretilis (ace). (Cf. the double use of AKkdairu rl 
Tipot,) Similarly with yerto the ablative is twice used to denote that 
into which the object is transformed : C I. 35. 4 veitere funeribus 
triumphos; Ep. II. 3. 226 vertere seria ludo; (cf. Ovid M, X. 157 
nulla alite verti dignatur). The accusative with in is commonly used. 

75. The ablative after comparatives is frequent, instead 
of the more logical expression with ^uam ; as 

C I. 8. 9 olivum sanguine viperino cautius vitat (for quam san- 
guinem) ; C III. i. 9 viro vir latius ordinet (for quam vir). So with 
alius: Ep, II. i. 240 alius L^ippo (for quam Lysippus). The ablative 
is rarely used when the first member of the comparison is not in the 
nominative or the accusative ; as Ep. I. 10. 11 pane egeo, iam mel- 
litis potiore placentis. 

The Construction &iro koivov* 

76. An inflected word is sometimes placed in such rela- 
tion to two other words that it may be governed by either 
of them, and is, in some cases, necessary to both to com- 
plete their meaning, ^y this arrangement, called by gram- 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

marians the a')(fffm dno koivov, a repetition of the idea^ by 
means of a pronoun or otherwise, is avoided ; as 

C II. II. II quid aetemis minorem consUiis animum fatigas? 
(= quid aeternis consilus animum, illis minorem, fatigas ?) ; C II. 14. 15 
frustra per autumnos nocentem corporibus metuemus austnim 
(where both nocentem corporibus and corporibus metuemus 
can hardly fail to convey to the reader the usual significance of such 
juxtaposition) ; £poif. 9. 9 vincla quae detraxerat servis amicus 
perfidis. 

Number and Tense of the Verb, 

77. Horace is noticeably fond of using a singular verb 
where there are two or more subjects ; as 

C. II. 13. 38 quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens dulci labo- 
rem decipitur sono ; C. II. 18. 26 pellitur patemos in sinu ferens 
deos et uxor et vir sordidosque natos; C. III. 16. 32 rivus aquae 
silvaque . . . et segetis certa fides . . . fallit sorte beatior. 

78. The colloquial present with future meaning, common 
in old Latin, is occasionally used by Horace ; as 

C. III. 9. 17 quid si prisca redit Venus, diductosque iugo cogit 
aeneo, si flava ezcntitur Chloe, reiectaeque patet ianua Lydiae ? 
Ep, I. 7. 34 hac ego si compeUor imagine, cuncta resigno, . . . 
nee otia divitiis Arabum liberrima muto. 

79. The future indicative is sometimes used with a con- 
cessive force, expressing, with indifference or acquiescence, 
the action of some other person or persons, with which that 
of the speaker, or of some one in whom he is more nearly 
interested, is brought into contrast ; as 

C. I. 7. I laadabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mytilenen, ... me 
nee tam,etc ; C. II. 12. 10 tuque pedestribus dices historiis proelia 
Caesaris, . . . me dulcis dominae musa Licymniae cantus, me 
voluit dicere (Cf. Verg. Aen, VI. 847 excudent alii spirantia moUius 
aera, | credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, | orabunt causas 
melius, » , ,\tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento.) 

8o* The perfect indicative is used by the Augustan poets, 
like tiie Greek 'gnomic' aorist, to express a general truth 
or a customary action, — the statement that such and such 
a thing has proved true in the past conve)dng the implication 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

that it is always true (cf. invktus^ *unconquered,* hence by 
implication, unconquerable) ; as 

Ep, I. 17. 37 sedit qui timnit ne non succederet, he sits still who 
fears he may fail ; C, I. 28. 20 nullum saeva caput Proserpina fagit ; 
£p, I. 7. 21 haec seges ingratos tulit et feret omnibus annis (i. e. 
produces and always will produce). 

81 • (a) The archaic use of the perfect infinitive with 
volo, nolOy etc. (see § 94) was adopted by the poets, partly 
for metrical convenience, often merely to give variety to 
their diction. Horace in particular uses this construction 
with great freedom, the tense being often quite without signi- 
ficance ; as 

S, I. 2. 28 sunt qui nolint tetigisse ; S, II. 3. 187 ne quis hnmasse 
velit Aiacem vetas (an intentional imitation of the archaic legal form); 
Ep, II. 3. 455 tetigisse timent fugiuntque poetam. 

(B) It may be doubted, however, whether the conscious- 
ness of the tense was ever entirely lost, and in many cases 
the idea to be expressed is distinctly that of completed 
action ; as 

C III. 4. 51 tendentes Pelion imposuisse Olympo (i. e. aiming at 
the achievement of that feat) ; S, II. 8. 79 nullos his mallem ludos 
spectasse {prefer to have seen) ; Ep, 1. 17. 5 si quid et nos quod cures 
proprium fecisse loquamur; Ep, II. 3. 168 commisisse cavet quod 
mox mutare laboret. 

Conditional and Concessive Clauses. 

82. By a rhetorical exaggeration the t)luperfect indicative 
is occasionally used in apodosis, instead of the pluperfect 
subjunctive, to indicate that the result of a condition contrary 
to fact was partly accomplished, or to give a vivid impression 
of the imminence of its accomplishment ; as 

C III. 16. 3 inclusam Danaeh turris aenea robustaeque fores 
et vigUum canum tristes excubiae mnnierant satis, si non Acri- 
sium luppiter et Venus risissent (they had proved sufficient up to 
that point) ; C. II. 17. 28 me truncus inlapsus cerebro snstulerati 
nisi Faunus ictum levasset. 



INTRODUCTION. li 

83. In concessive clauses with quamvis, Horace, like the 
early Latin writers, uses both the indicative and the sub- 
junctive, more commonly the former. The indicative usually 
expresses a conceded fact, the subjunctive an assumption ; 
but there are some exceptions ; as 

C III. II. 18 cessit . . . Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
moniant angues caput . . . saniesque manet ore (fact) ; C. IV. 6. 
7 tibi miles impar, filius quamvis Thetidis marinae Dardanas 
turris qnateret (fact) ; S, II. 5. 1 5 qui quamvis periurus erit (as- 
sumption), • • . ne tameh ill! tu comes exterior ... ire recuses. 

Relative Clauses, 

84. In relative clauses of characteristic after sunt qui and 
the like, Horace more commonly uses the indicative (a con- 
struction frequent in comedy), but also the subjunctive, with 
no apparent distinction of meaning ; as 

C, I. 7. 5 sunt quibus unum opus est; Ep, II. i. 63 interdum 
volgus rectum videt, est ubi peccat; Ep, I. i. 78 sunt qui viduas 
venentnr avaras excipiantque senes ; Ep, II. 2. 182 sunt qui non 
habeant, est qui non curat habere (where the more definite implication 
of the second relative clause is due to the number, not to the mood). 

85. In a relative clause of characteristic with causal or 
concessive implication, Horace commonly uses the subjunc- 
tive, but sometimes the indicative ; as 

Ep, II. 3. 302 o ego laevus, qui pnrgor bilem sub vemi temporis 
horam ! C II. 13. 34 quid minim, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
demittit atras belua centiceps auris et intorti capillis Eumeni- 
dum recreantnr angues ? 

86. In temporal clauses of repeated action after a past 

tense, Horace has the subjunctive once (two verbs): 

S, I. 4. 107 cum me hortaretur parce frugaliter atque viverem 
uti contentus eo quod mi ipse parasset, ... a turpi meretricis 
amore cum deterreret, . • . aiebat. 

Elsewhere he uses the pluperfect indicative ; as 

.9. II. I. 71 quin ubi se a volgo et scaena in secreta remorant, 
. . . nugari et ludere soliti (sc. sunt) ; Ep, I. 15. 34 hie ubi fautori- 
bus nil aut paulum abstnlerat, patinas cenabat omasi ; ib. 39 ubi 
omne verterat in fumum et cinercm, . . . aiebat; Epod. 11. 13 sqq. 



Hi INTRODUCTION 

Commands and Prohibitions, 

87. In commands and prohibitions, Horace uses the 
hortatory subjunctive in the second person singular as well 
as in the third, and whether the injunction is addressed to 
a definite person or to the general reader ; as 

C. I. II. 6 (to Leuconoe) sapias, vina liqttes, et spatio brevi 
Bpem longam reseces; C, II. 11. 3 quid bellicosus Cantaber et 
Scythes, Hirpine Quincti, cogitet, . . . remittas quaerere, nee 
trepides; 5". I. i: 93 cum habeas plus, pauperiem metuas minus, 
et finire laborem incipias ; S, II. 3. 88 ne sis patruus mihi. 

88. In prohibition, besides the customary forms, — ne 
feceris^ cave (or cave ne) facias, and noli facere with its various 

equivalents (see § 94 P) — Horace uses very rarely the imper- 
ative itself ; as 

C. I. 28. 23 ne parce ; C. II. 7. 20 nee parce cadis ; C III. 7. 30 
neque in vias despiee. 

89. An emphatic non, standing at the head of a sentence 
and belonging rather to the whole sentence than to the verb, 
— as C II. 10. 17 non, si male nunc, et olim sic erit ; Ep, 
I. 3 21 non tibi parvum ingenium, non incultum est, — is 
sometimes used even with a hortatory subjunctive in pro- 
hibition ; as 

Ep. I. 18. 72 non ancilla tuum iecur uleeret uUa puerve ; S. II. 5. 
91 cautus adito, neu desis operae neve immoderatus abundes. . . . 
non etiam sileas ; Davus sis comicus, etc. 

Note. — Nee {negue)^ for neve {neu), is very common. 

90. A command or prohibition is often expressed by the 

future indicative ; as 

£p. I. I. 87 eras ferramenta Teanum toUetis, fabri; £p. I. 13. 2 
ut docui te saepe diuque, Augusto reddes signata volumina, Vini ; 
JSp. 1. 18. 37 arcanum neque tu serutaberis illius umquam, commis- 
sumque teges . . . ; nee tua laudabis studia aut aliena reprendes. 
(Cf. the form of modem military orders : * You will proceed with your 
command to such and such a place, etc.') 



WTkObUCtlON. llii 

The Infinitive i 

91. The so-called '' Historical Infinitive^ occurs nowhefe 
in the Odes and only once in the Epodes (5. 84 lenire). In 
the Satires it is not infrequent, and three instances of its 
use are found in the Epistles. 

92. The Infinitive in Exclamation is used twice in the 
Epodes (8. I rogare ; 11. 11 valere), and four times in the 
Satires (I. 9. 73 surrexe ; II. 4. 83 sq. radere, dare ; II. 8. 67 
torquerier). In all these examples except the first it is intro- 
duced by -ne. It does not occur in the Odes or Epistles. 

93. The Infinitive of Purpose was an old colloquial 
construction, used especially after verbs of movement ; as 
Ter. Hec, 345 intro iit videre, he has gone in to see. It is fre- 
quent in comedy, but except in the phrase do (or, once, 
ministro) hibere is not found in classical prose writers ; nor 
did it, like most poetical constructions, obtain a footing in 
later prose. The Augustan poets took it up, under Greek 
influence, but used it sparingly. The examples in Horace 
are as follows : 

After verbs of movement : C. I. 2. 8 pecus eg^t altos risere mon- 
tis; C. I. 23. 10 non te frangere persequor; C. III. 8. 11 amphorae 
fumum bibere institutae. With trado: C. I. 26. 3 tristitiam et 
metus tradam protervis in mare Creticum portare ventis. With 
somOy to take or choose (as a subject) : C. I. 12. 2 quem sumis cele- 
brare ? Ep, I. 3. 7 quis sibi res gestas Augusti scribere sumit ? 
With other verbs; Ep, I. 2. 27 fruges consumere nati; Epod, 16. 16 
(see note). 

94. The Complementary Infinitive, For the colorless ex- 
pression of will, desire, intention, effort, power, capacity, 
and the like, by such verbs as volo^ nolo, cupio^possum, cogito, 
Conor, which take a simple infinitive to denote the action (of 
the same subject) to which they point, it is natural in ani- 
mated discourse to substitute words more vividly expressive 
of the feeling or power to be indicated. Some of these 
found their way into classical prose. Thus Cicero, to ex- 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

press desire, frequently uses studeOy aveOy concupisco^ gestio^ 
and (once each) praegestio and expeto^ with a complementary 
infinitive ; for unwillingness through indifference he has 
non curOy rum laboro^ rum induco animutn ; for unwillingness 
due to fear, vereor and timeo (not tnetud) ; for anxious effort 
quaerOy laboro. The poets, as was to be expected, carried 
this process much further, and permitted themselves great 
freedom, especially to give livelier expression to the feeling 
which prompts or accompanies an action. The verbs used 
by Horace in this construction (with the exception of those 
very common in prose) are as follows : 

(I.) Expressions of a////, desire^ intention^ effort. 

(a) POSITIVE. 

{a) Mere willingness ox approval : pallor, dignor, probo; as C III. 
9. 15 bis patiar mori; Ep. I. 19. 40 non ego grammaticas ambire 
tribus et pulpita dignor ; C 5. 1 5 Lucina probas vocari. 

{p) Concern, interest: euro, laboro; as C II. 7. 25 quis deproperare 
coronas curat ? (but euro is more commonly negative or with nega- 
tive implication ; see (/'), below) ; Ep, I. 3. 2 scire laboro (see also 
under (A), below). 

(r) Preference, desire, passion : praefero, amo, studeo, quaero, iuvat, 
aveo, gestio, praegestio, furo ; as Ep, II. 2. 184 cessare et ludere et 
ungui praeferat ; C, I. 2. 50 hie ames dici pater atque princeps ; 
C, I. 16. 26 mitibus mutate quaero tristia ; Epod. 9. 37 capaciores 
adfer hue, puer scyphos, . . . curam metumque iuvat dulci Lyaeo 
solvere (i.e. I feel a desire to) ; C I. 1 5. 27 lurit te reperire. 

{d) Delight: gaudeo, delector, glorior, renideo; as C, III. 6. 21 
motus doceri gaudet lonicos; Ep, I. 16. 32 vir bonus et prudens 
dici delector; Epod, 11. 23 gloriantis vincere; C III. 6. 12 adie- 
cisse praedam torquibus exiguis renidet. 

{e) Demand, claim: posco, flagito; as Ep, II. 3. 339 ne poscat 
sibi fabula credi ; S, II. 4. 61 flagitat refici. 

(/) Purpose, resolve: meditor, coniuro; as C, III. 8. 23 meditantur 
cedere campis ; C. I. 1 5. 7 coniurata tuas rumpere nuptias. 

{g) Eagerness, haste : propero, festino, occupo, urgeo, trepido; as 
C, II. 12. 28 (oscula) rapere occupet; C, II. 18. 20 urges submo- 
vere litora ; C, II. 4. 23 octavum trepidavit aetas claudere lus- 
trum. 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

(A) Effort, struggle: peto, ezpeto, tendo, laboro, enitor, certo; as 
Ep, I. II. 29 navibus atque quadrigis petimus bene vivere; Epod, 
II. 3 me expetit urere; Ep, I. 10. 20 aqua tendit rumpere plum- 
bum ; Ep, I. 20. 16 quis invitum servare laboret ? (No clear line 
can be drawn between this use of laboro, * anxiously try,* and that 
under {p) above, * anxiously wish.* ) ; Ep, II. 3. 236 nee sic enitar tra- 
gico differre colori; 6*. I. i. 8 certat toUere honoribus. 

(P) NEGATIVE. 

(/) Unconcern, reluctance: non coro, non mag^ pendo, contemnOi 
apemo, non induco animnm, indignor, inyideo; as C, II. 13. 39 nee 
curat Orion leones agitare; S, II. 4. 92 quern tu vidisse non 
magni pendes; Ep, I. i. 50 quis coronari contemnat Olympia? 
S, I. 3. 2 ut numquam inducant animum cantare ; Ep, II. 3. 90 in- 
dignatur privatis ac prope socco dignis carminibus narrari cena 
Thyestae ; C, I. 37. 30 saevis Libumis invidens deduci triumpho. 

{j) Neglect, inaction : mitto, omitto, remitto, cesso, motor, differo ; 
as Epod, 13. 7 cetera mitte loqui; C. II. 11. 3 remitted quaerere; 
C, IV. 4. 21 quaerere distuli. 

{k) Refusal, avoidance : recuso, denego, yito, fugio, refagio, aufero, 
caveOy parco; as Ep, II. 3. 39 quid ferre recusent, quid valeant 
umeri; C. III. 16. 38 nee si plura velim tu dare deneges; Ep, 
I. 3. 16 ut tangere vitet; C. I. 9. 13 fuge quaerere; S, II. 7. 43 au- 
fer me voltu terrere (= noli terrere) ; Ep, II. 3. 168 commisisse 
cavet quod mox mutare laboret. 

(/) Fear, hatred: vereor, timeo, metuo, formido, perhorresco, odi; 
as C, III. 9. II non metuam mori; Ep, I. 19. 46 naribus uti for- 
mido; C, III. 16. 18 iure perhorrui late conspicuum toUere verti- 
cem; Ep. I. 16. 52 oderunt pec.care boni. 

(m) Pain, regret: doleo^ ploro : C, IV. 4. 62 non Hydra secto cor- 
pore firmior vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem ; C. III. 10. 4 me 
obicere plorares Aquilonibus. 

(II.) Expressions oi power or capacity, 

(«) Power: yaleo, evalesco, habeo, est (= t^ori, it is possible) ; as C, 
I. 34. 12 valet ima summis mutare; Ep. II. i. 201 quae pervincere 
voces evaluere sohum, referunt quem nostra theatra? Epod, 16. 
23 sic placet, an melius quis habet suadere? S, II. 5. 103 est 
gaudia prodentem voltum celare. 

(0) Capacity, skill, incapacity : scio, calleo, novi, nescio, ignoro ; as 
Ep, I. 17. 14. si sciret regibus uti {knew how) ; C, IV. 9. 49 callet 
pauperiem pati ; S. II. 3. 24 hortos egregiasque domos mercarier 



Ivi INTRODUCTIO^f. 

unus cum lucro noram; Ep, II. 3. 87 descriptas servare vices 
operumque colores cur ego si nequeo ignoroque poeta salutor ? 

(III.) Expressions oi propriety or necessity, 

(p ) Propriety.fitness^ obligaHam : Tindt {=pra^sgat), quo tibi ?, restat ; 
as S. II. 5. 73 sed vincit longe prius ipsum ezpugnare caput; 
S, I. 6. 24 quo tibi, Tilli, sutnere depositum dayum fierique tri- 
buno ? (cf. § 52) ; £p, I. 6. 27 ire tamen restat Numa quo devenit 
(1. e. that destiny is in store for you). 

95. The complementary infinitive is often hardly distin- 
guishable from a substantive object of the verb ; but in 
some cases the distinction is important ; as 

C. I. 28> 31 neglegis fraudem committere ? do you treat lightly the 
commission of a wrong? C. III. 14. 15 nee mori per vim metuam, 
nor shall I be in fear of a violent death (in contrast with C. III. 9. 1 1 non 
metuam mori, =: * I shall be willing to die ' ) ; Ep, I. 7. 4 quam mihi 
das aegro, ^bis aegrotare timenti (fear I am going to be ill) ; Ep. 
I. 16. 60 labra movet, metuens audiri. 

96. In one instance Horace uses the infinitive after a preposition : 
S, II. 5. 69 inveniet nil sibi legatum praeter plorare. But here 
the infinitive really depends on legatum ; cf. the example with dam- 
natus, § 97 b. 

97. The infinitive is used by Horace with the following 

verbs (after the analogy of iubeo^ cogo, doceo, sinOy prohibed)^ 

denoting influence of the subject on the action of other 

persons : 

{a) Verbs signifying to ask^ encourage^ advise^ bid: rogo, VOCO, hortor, 
moneOi admoneo, censeo, refero; as S, I. 3. 2 cantare rogati; C II. 
18. 40 levare pauperem vocatus; Ep, I. i. 69 Fortunae te respon- 
sare superbae . . . hortatur et aptat; ^S". I. 6. 126 me fessum sol 
acrior ire lava turn admonuit ; Ep, I. 2. 9 Antenor censet belli 
praecidere causam ; Ep, I. 8. i Celso gaudere et bene rem gerere, 
Musa» rogata refer (i. e. * tell him to ' or < tell him I bid him *). 

{b) Verbs signifying to urge^ command^ require (mostly passive) : 
impellOy impero, damno, auctoro, addico ; as C, III. 7. 14 ut Proetum 
mulier perfida impulerit Bellerophontae maturare necem ; Ep, I. 
5. 21 haec ego procurare imperor; S, II. 3. 86 gladiatorum dare 
centum damnati paria (by the terms of a will) ; S, II. 7. 59 uri 
virgis ferroque necari auctoratus (bound by the terms of enlistment 
as a gladiator) ; Ep. I. i. 14 nullius addictus iurare in verba ma- 
gistri. 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

(c) Verbs signifying to s^^not teach : monstrOi fiago, apto ; as S. II. 
8. 52 inulas ego primus xnonstravi incoquere ; £p. I. 2. 64 fin^it 
equum magister ire viam ; see also third example under {a), above. 

(d) Verbs signifying to permit: do, dono, reddo, penuitto, ooncedo, 
relinquo, fero; as «?. II. 3. 191 di tibi dent classem reducere; S. II. 
5. 60 divinare mihi donat Apollo ; £p. I. 7. 27 reddes forte latus, 
. . . reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum, et inter vina 
fttgam Cinarae maerere protervae; S. II. 3. 190 dicere permitto 
(with dative) ; £p. I. 5. 12 quo mihi fortunam, si non conceditur 
uti? ^5". I. I. 52 dum nobis tantundem haurire relinquas; £pod. 15. 
13 non feret potiori te dare noctes. 

{e) Verbs signifying to prevent: inyideo, adimo, interpello; S.I, 2, 
100 quae invideant apparere tibi rem ; £p. I. 19. 9 adimam can- 
tare severis; S, I. 6. 127 pransus non avide, quantum interpellet 
inani ventre diem durare (prevent mt/rom passing, 

98. The infinitive of indirect discourse, with or without 
a subject accusative, is used after the following verbs : 

induce (of dramatic representation), yinco and evince {maintain^ tri- 
umphantly prove)^ contendo {assert)^ fide, do (admit, grant) ; as ^. I. 2. 
21 pater ille Terenti fabula quem miserum vixisse inducit; S, II. 
3. 225 vincet enim stultos ratio insanire nepotes ; ib. 250 puerilius 
his ratio esse e vincet amare; Ep. i. 16. 37 si clamet furem, neg^et 
esse pudicum, contendat laqueo coUum pressisse patemum ; Ep. 
I. 19. 44 fidis manare poetica mella te solum ; S. I. 4. 39 dederim 
quibus esse poetas. 

99. (a) In indirect discourse the subject of the infinitive 
is sometimes omitted if it is the same as the subject of the 
leading verb or is readily understood from the context ; as 

Ep. I. 2. II quid Paris ? . . . cogi posse negat ; Ep. I. 9. 5 cum 
rogat et prece cogit, scilicet ut tibi se laudare et tradere coner, 
. . . munere cum fungi propioris censet amici, quid possim videt 
ac novit me valdius ipso. Sometimes both subject and verb (esse) 
are omitted ; as Ep. I. 18. 2 metues scurrantis speciem praebere, 
professtts amicum. 

(b) In two instances, where the subject is identical with 
that of the leading verb, the predicate is attracted, after 
the Greek manner, into the nominative : 

C. III. 27. 73 uxor invicti lovis esse nescis; Ep. I. 7. 22 vir 
bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

100. The infinitive of indirect discourse is used with the 
following, as verbs of feeling : 

gestio, gemo, ploro, lamentor, indignor ; as 5". 1. 4. 37 quodcumque 
chartis inleverit omnis gestiet scire ; Ep, I. 20. 4 paucis ostendi 
gemis (see § 99a) ; Ep. II. i. 9 ploravere suis noti respondere favo- 
rem speratum mentis ; ib. 76 indignor quicquam reprehendi ; ib. 
224 lamentamur non apparere labores. 

1 01. The Infinitive with Adjectives, This construction is 
confined in classical prose to a few adjectives of verbal 
origin, like paratus^ and is rare in poetry before the Augustan 
age. In the hands of Vergil and Horace it received a rich 
development and was thenceforth an established feature 
of poetic diction. The infinitive is usually complementary 
in character. It is attached to participles (used adjectively) 
of verbs which take an infinitive, as sciens (cf. § 94^), doctus 
and doctior^ meritus ; to adjectives of similar origin, as nescius^ 
indoctus, indocilis^ audax^ cailidus, timidus; finally, to a great 
number of adjectives expressing in various phases the power, 
will, capacity, fitness (or the reverse) to do something. The 
adjectives so used in Horace are as follows : 

{a) Expressing disposition : praesens (of a goddess, implying power 
and readiness), lenis (also of a divinity, indulgent^ gracious)^ saevus 
{ruthless) f impotens {wild, undisciplined) \ audaz, fortls, contentus, 
cauttts, timidus ; as C I. 35. 2 o diva . . . > praesens vel imo toUere 
de gradu mortale corpus; C, I. 24. 17 (Mercurius) non lenis pre- 
cibus fata recludere ; Ep. I. x 5. 30 opprobria fingere saevus ; C. I. 
37. 10 quidlibet impotens sperare ; C. I- 3. 25 audax omnia per- 
peti ; C. I. 37. 26 fortis et asperas tractate serpentes ; .S". I. 10. 59 
pedibus quid claudere senis, hoc tantum contentus; •S'. I. 6. 51 
cautum dignos (amicos) adsumere ; C. III. 19. 2 non timidus mori. 

(b) Expressing capacity, energy, or their opposites : efficax, pertinaz, 
celer, pemix, largus {liberal, generous), firmus {to be depended upon), 
impiger; piger, segnis {slow, reluctant), dolosus {not to be trusted, too 
fickle ) ; as C IV. 1 2. 20 (cadus) spes donare novas largus amara- 
que curarum eluere efficax ; C III. 29. 50 (Fortuna) ludum inso- 
lentem ludere pertinax; C. I. 15. 18 celerem sequi; Ep, 11. 3. 165 
amata relinquere pemix; Ep, I. 17. 47 fundus nee vendibilis nee 
pascere firmus; C IV. 14. 22 impiger hostium vexare turmas; 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

S. I. 4. 12 piger scribendi ferre laborem; C. III. 21. 22 segnes 
nodum solvere Qratiae; C I. 35. 28 amici ferre iugum pariter 
dolosi. 

{c) Expressing knowledge^ skilly or the reverse : sciens, doctns, doc- 
tior, callidua, catus, soUers, prudens, blandua {with charm)^ nobilis ; 
nescios, indoctos, indocilis, durus, minor; as C III. 7. 25 flectere 
equum sciens; C. III. 24. 56 ludere doctior; C. I. 10. 7 callidum 
quicquid placuit iocoso condere furto; C. III. 12. 4 catus cervos 
iaculari ; C. IV. 8. 9 hie saxo, ille coloribus sollers nunc hominem. 
ponere, nunc deum ; Epod, 17. 47 in sepulcris prudens anus dis- 
sipare pulveres; C*. I. 12. 11 (Orphea) blandum et auritas fidibus 
canoris ducere quercus ; ib. 26 [PoUucem] superare pugnis nobi- 
lem (the infinitive here may possibly be attributed to the idea of 
nosco contained in the adjective, like that of doceo in indocilis ; cf . Sil. 
Ital. XII. 331 Troianos notus semper minuisse labores ; but it is much 
more probable that nobilem is intended to express preeminent skill, and 
that the infinitive is complementary ; cf. Verg. Eel. 5. 2. boni calamos 
inflare ; Lucan III. 697 eximius animam servare ; and the use of 
minoTy below ; see also § 102) ; C IV. 6. 18 nescios fari (= infantes) 
pueros ; C I. i. 18 indocilis pauperiem pati; S, I. 4. 8 durus com- 
ponere versus (implying lack of capacity ; but see § 102) ; S. II. 3. 313 
certare minorem (cf. Verg. EcL 7. 5 cantare pares.) 

{d) Expressing fitness^ merits or the opposite : idoneus, utilis, 
dignusy meritoSy indigntu, immeritus: 2& Ep, I. 16. 12 fons rivo 
dare nomen idoneus; Ep, II. 3. 204 (tibia) adspirare et adesse 
cboris erat utilis ; Ep, I. 10. 48 tortum digna sequi potius quam 
ducere funem (see also {e\ below) ; Ep, I. 3. 35 indigni fratemum 
rumpere foedus (i. e. men for whom such conduct is unbecoming) ; 
C, III. 2. 21 immeritis mori. Cf. the dative with adjectives of this 
class, § 58 ^ and c. 

(e) With dignus the passive infinitive is more frequent ; as ^. I. 3. 
24 dignus notari ; and it is also found with levis and cerens ; C. II. 4. 
II leviora toUi Pergama (easier); Ep. II. 3. 163 (iuvenis) cereus 
in vitium fleet! {/iJie wax^ as easy as wax). 

102. As the quality which fits one for an action is likely 
to be displayed in the action itself, — e.g. * swift to pursue ' 
passes into * swift in pursuit/ — the infinitive with an adjec- 
tive readily* acquires the force of an ablative of respect. 
This is manifest in many of the examples given above, such 
as' those with saevus^ cautus^ pertifuix, celer^ impiger, nobilis, 
durus. In the following examples it is the prevailing signi- 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

fication, the infinitive, if it is passive, being equivalent to a 
verbal noun in -u, » 

C. S,2^ veraces cecinisse, where the perfect (found only here m 
this construction) has its proper force ; S. II. 8. 24 cidiculus totas 
simul absorbere placentas; C I. 19. 8 voltus nimium lubricus 
adspici ( = adspectu) ; C IV. 2. 59 niveus videri ( = visu). 

The Participle, 

103. The participle is used, more freely than in prose, as 
a substantive or adjective, often retaining its verbal force ; 
as 

Ep, I. 17. 43 coram rege sua de paupertate tacentes plus poscente 
ferent; C II. 16. i otium dives rogat in patent! prensus Aegaeo; 
C III. 7. 19 peccare docentis historias. 

104. • The future participle often fulfils the function of a 
clause appended to its subject, with various shades of mean- 
ing : — 

{a) Simple future fact or intention ; as C I. 35. 29 serves iturum 
Caesarem in ultimos orbis Britannos (i. e. qui iturus est). 

(If) With prophetic force, — * sure to,* * doomed to * ; as Epod, 1 5. 1 1 
o dolitura multum Neaera ; C II. 3. 27 versatur uma serius ocius 
sors exitura et nos in aetemum exsilium impositura cumbae. 

(c\ Equivalent to a relative clause of characteristic ; as Epod. 6. 4 
quin me remorsurum petis ? (a dog that will bite back) ; ^S". II. 8. 85 
Nasidiene, redis mutatae frontis, ut arte emendaturus fortunam 
{as one resolved^ etc.) ; Epod. 1 5. 3 cum tu, magnorum numen laesura 
deorum, in verba iurabas mea (with concessive implication). 

(d) Conditional statement : S. II. 8. 44 haec gravida capta est, 
deterior post partum carne futura (i. e. quae quidem came deterior 
esset, si post partum capta esset) ; Epod. I. 22 non, ut adsit, auxili 
latura plus (i. e. etsi non plus auxilii ferat, si adsit) ; S. I. 10. 89 doli- 
turus si placeant spe deterius {and I should be sorry if, etc.). — Hence 

{e) With a vague condition, like si libeaty si opus sit, expressed or un- 
derstood, giving it the force of * ready to,* 'able to*; as C. IV. 3. 20 
o mutis quoque piscibus donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum (= ' able 
to give*) ; C. II. 6. i Septimi, Qadis aditure mecum {ready to go). 

105. (a) The combination of a substantive with a parti- 
ciple, an adjective, or another substantive to express an 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

abstract idea, — familiar in prose in the gerundive construc- 
tion, in the ablative absolute, and in ^e similar use, to a 
limited extent, of the accusative (as ante me consulem = 
ante meum consulatuni) — was given a much wider range by 
the poets ; as 

C II. 4. 10 postquam ademptus Hector tradidit leviora toUi Per- 
gama Grais (the taking-off of Hector) ; C. III. 6. 29 non sine oonsdo 
maritO {;with the connivance of her husband) ; Epod, 9. 2 yictore laetus 
Caesare (glad of Caesar's victory), 

(b) The ablative of this construction is sometimes equiva- 
lent to an ablative of manner or means ; as 

.S". II. I. 84 iudice laudatus Caesare, commended by the verdict of 
Caesar; Ep, I. i. 94 curatus inaequali tonsore capillos, my hair 
trimmed with a lopsided cut ; Ep. I. 16. 42 quo multae magnaeque 
secantur indice lites, quo res sponsore, et quo causae teste tenen- 
tur (by whose verdict^ credit^ testimony). 



(B) ORDER AND USE OF WORDS. 

106. In reading Latin prose the feature of the language 
which is at once the most difficult and the most important 
for us to master, is the freedom which inflexion gives of 
separating in expression ideas closely connected in sense, 
and the consequent demand that is made upon us to hold 
in suspense, as we proceed, a partially expressed thought, 
and to grasp at once the meaning of a whole group of 
words. For us, who speak an uninflected language, this 
must be an acquired habit ; but it is quite indispensable : 
he who has not cultivated it cannot read Latin, though he 
may be able to translate it. For reading Latin poetry we 
have to carry this cultivation still farther ; but it is only a 
higher degree of the same capacity that is required, not a 
new kind of capacity. 

107. There is, in fact, no clear line of distinction between 
prose and verse, in respect to the order of words, although 



Ixii INTRODUCTION 

their general characteristics are plainly marked. In prose 
the greatest freedom of movement is accorded to the verb, 
which may be placed, with little reference to the position of 
its subject or object, wherever emphasis or the order of 
thought or rhetorical form may suggest. On the other hand 
a modifier of ajiy kind must keep reasonably near its noun 
or verb, and the least liberty of all is allowed to an attribute 
and its substantive. These as a rule are not separated 
except by unemphatic words, — pronouns, particles, and the 
like, — as 'magna ex parte,' *angustos se fines (habere),' 
' quanto id cum periculo (fieret).' Yet Roman prose writers 
permit themselves occasionally a compact group like * eodem 
usi consilio,' ' (de) ea quam habeat gratia ' ; or even a longer 
group, especially where the inserted words themselves con- 
stitute a modifier, as * tua in me vel nota omnibus vel ipsa 
novitate meorum temporum clarissima et maxima beneficia,' 
' meam tuorum erga me meritorum memoriam.' But such 
combinations have a rhetorical flavor in prose, and are in 
fact sparingly used. In verse, on the other hand, they are 
rather the rule than the exception ; the poets have studi- 
ously wrought out artistic groupings and sequences which 
the reader must train himself to grasp and follow, if he 
would appreciate the beauty of poetical expression. The 
forms are too varied and complex to be set forth fully, 
but the following examples, chiefly from Horace's lyric 
poems, may serve to indicate their character and point 
out the way to study them. 

Grouping of Connected Words, 
1 08. The following are examples of simple groups : 

{a) Groups of three words (very common) : 

C I. 3. 8 animae dimidium meae 

C. I. 27. II quo beatus volnere 

C, II. 13. 29 sacro digna silentio 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



C I. 35. 12 purpurei metuunt tyranni 

C I. 5. 4 flavam religas comam 

C III. 17. 5 auctore ab illo 

(b) Groups of four words : 

C S. 29 fertilis frugum pecorisque tellus 

C. III. 16. 17 crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam 

C. I. 7. 23 populea fertur vinxisse corona 

C. IV. 2. 3 vitreo daturus nomina ponto 

(c) Groups of five words : 

C. I. 27. I natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 

C I. 3. 30 nova febrium terns incubuit cohors 

C. III. I. 10 generosior descendat in campum petitor 

spem nos vetat incohare longam 
viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto 

(d) Longer groups : 

C III, 29. 1 1 beatae | f umum et opes strepitumque Romae 
Ep, I. 10. 48 tortum digna sequi potius quam ducere funem 
C. I. 27. 9 (voltis) severi me quoque sumere | partem Falemi ? 

109. The arrangement within these groups presents great 
variety. (The arrow-head in the following examples indi- 
cates the governing word.) 
C I. I. 22 aquae lene caput sacrae 



a IV. I. 4 



C. I. 4. 15 
C. I. 4. 9 




dulcium I mater saeva Cupidinum 




flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 




C. III. 13. 9 



C III. 8. 13 cyathos amici sospitis centum 

(a rare form) ^ ^^^^.^^^""'^^ 

C, III. I. 16 omne capax movit uma nomen 




C III. 13. 6 gelidos inficiet tibi ( rubro sanguine rivos 




C II. 3. II oblique laborat | lympha f ugax trepidare rivo 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



1 10. When a word within a group is closely connected in 
sense with a word preceding or following the group, there 
results an alternating or interlocked order, which occurs in 
great variety ; as, 
C II. 12. I longa ferae bella Numantiae 



C III. 3. s 




dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae 




retorta tergo bracchia Ubero 



C. III. 5. 22 



A remarkable example is C I. 9. 2 1 : 

latentis proditor intimo | gratus puellae risus (ab) angulo 





where the three ideas shadowed forth in the first verse, — 
some one hiding, a betrayer, a hiding-place — are filled out 
one after another to complete a charming picture. 

III. Two groups are sometimes linked together by the 
connection of their interior words ; as 

C III. II. 26 

* inane lymphae | dolium f undo pereuntis imo 




C II. 5. 10 

lividos I distinguet autumnus racemos | purpureo varius colore 




C II. 9. 13 (at non ter aevo) 

functus amabilem | ploravit omnis Antilochum senex | annos 




C. I. 22. 17 (pone me) 

pigris ubi nulla campis | arbor aestiva recreatur aura 




112. The reader who has trained himself to recognize 
coherent groups of words, will be able to keep his hold on 
the connection even when their continuity is interrupted ; as 



INTRODUCTION. Ixv 

C III. 20. 3 dura post paulo fugles inaudax 

proelia raptor 

C. IV. 7. 27 nee Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

vincula Pirithoo 

C I. 2. 39 acer^t Marsi peditis cruenium 

voltus in hostem 

C III. 4. 9 mefabulosae Volture in Apulo 

nutricis extra limen Apuliae 
ludo fatigatumque somno 
fronde noyaipuerum palumbes 
texere 

where puerum, reviving the idea of me, supplies the neces- 
sary link hetw^QXi fabulosae ^xA palumbes. Similarly in 

C I. 22. 9 namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 

dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra 
terminum curis vagor expeditis, 
fugit intrmem 

fugit recalls me through its subject lupus. 

113. The poet often uses the metre to suggest the con- 
nection of separated words, by placing them at the begin- 
ning and end of a verse or other definite portion of the 
rhythm ; as 
C I. I 14 Myrtoum pavidus nauta secet mare 

C II. 3. I aequam memento rebus in ardub 

servare mentem || 

C. II. 6. 15 II viridique certat 

baca Venafro 

C. III. 18. 1 1 festus in pratis vacat otioso 

cum bove pagus 

or one at the end of each half of a verse (especially in the 
Sapphic verse, and in the Asclepiad, where a rhyme is often 
produced) ; as 

C I. 22. 17 pone x£L<tpigris || ubi nulla campis 

arbor aestiva || recreatur aura 

C. I. I. 9 ilium siproprio || condidit horreo 

quicquid de Libycis || verritur areis 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

or by giving them corresponding positions in different verses 

or hemistichs ; as 

C II. 6. 13 ilU terrarum mihi praeter omnis 

angulus ridet 

C, I. 26. 2 tmdaxsi protervis || in mare Creticum 

portare ventis || 

C I. 20. 6 simul et iocosa 

redderet laudes tibi Vatican! 
montis imago 

C II. 2. 23 quisquis ingentis || oculo inretorto 

spectat acervos 

C. IV. 4. 69 Carthagini iam non ego nuntios 

mittam superbos || 

This is especially common at the close of an Alcaic or 

Sapphic strophe ; as 

C I. 16. II nee tretnendo 

luppiter ipse ruens tumultu 

C. I. 12.7 unde vocalem temere insecutae 

Orphea silvae 

114. A relative or interrogative pronoun or a particle 
which regularly stands at the head of a clause or phrase is 
often taken within the group, giving place to a more im- 
portant word ; as 

C. I. 25. 17 laeta quod pubes hedera virenti gaudeat ; C I. 2. 7 omne 
cum Proteus pecus egit ; C I. 2. 18 vagus et sinistra labitur ripa ; 
C I. 37. 20 daret ut catenis fatale monstrum. 

Sometimes two or more words precede ; as 

C I. 18. 3 siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit ; 6*. III. i. 17 de- 
strictus ensis cui super impia cervice pendet ; Epod. 16. 40 Etrusca 
praeter et volate litora ; C. IV. 4. 42 dirus per urbb Afer ut Italas . . . 
equitavit. 

Prepositions. 

115. {a) A preposition placed between a substantive and 
its modifier, often follows the substantive ; as 

mensis per omnis ; tempus in ultimum ; collibus in suis. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixvii 

(b) Dissyllabic prepositions still in use as adverbs, — 
circoy circuniy citra, supra^ prope^ — with inters praeter^ sine, 
are used with great freedom of position, often separated 
from their object, whether preceding or following it ; as 

haec inter ; quos inter ; aequalis inter ; C. III. 27. 31 nihil astra 
praeter vidit et undas ; .S". I. 10. 31 natus mare citra ; S, I. 3. 60 genus 
hoc inter vitae ; ^.11. 3. 40 insanos qui inter vereare insanus haberi; 
C III. 19. 15 tris prohibet supra ; S, I. 10. 91 discipularum inter iubeo 
plorare cathedras. 

(c) In such cases Horace is fond of placing the preposi- 
tion before the verb of the sentence, as if it were an unat- 
tached prefix ; as 

C. II. 16. 33 te greges centum Siculaeque circum 

mugiunt vaccae 

C III. 3. 37 dum longus inter || saeviat Ilion 

Romamque pontus 

C. III. 27. 51 utinam inter errem \ nuda leones 

Ep. I. 3. 4 freta vicinas inter currentia turris 

Ep. II. I. 43 veteres inter ponetur 

(d) Conversely the prefix of a compound verb is treated 
as detachable in some cases : 

S. I. I. 86 cum tu zxgexiio post omtiiSi ponas 

Ep. II. 2. 93 quanto molimine circum 

spec tern us 

Ep. II. 3. 424 si sciet inter 

noscere mendacem verumque beatus amicum 

{e) The caesura of the verse is sometimes allowed to fall 
between a monosyllabic prepositional prefix and the follow- 
ing syllable of a compound word ; as 

C. I. 37. 5 antehac nefas de||promere Caecubum 

C. II. 12. 25 cum flagrantia de||torquet ad oscula 

C I. 16. 21 hostile aratrum exjlercitus insolens 

Emphasis, 

116. Emphasis is secured (besides the methods usualin 
prose) — 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION. ' 

(a) By placing in juxtaposition the two words of a group 
which express contrasted ideas ; as 

C. I. 3. 10 (\\x\fragiUm truci \ zoram\&\\, pelago ratem 

C. IV. 4. 31 neque imbellem feroces \ progenerant aquilae columbam 

{b) By rhythmical position. The places best adapted for 
this purpose are the beginning of a strophe or verse (espe- 
cially when the word is held in reserve and stands at the 
end of its sentence in this position) and the end of a verse 
or hemistich ; as 

C. III. 18. 2 per meos finis et aprica rura 

lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
aequus alumnis 

C. IV. 9. 25 vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 

multi 

C. II. 10. 9 saepius ventis agitatur ingens 

pinus, et cehae || graviare casu 
decidunt turres, feriuntque summos 
fulgura mqntis 

In C. II. 9 observe the emphasis on non semper^ tu semper^ at non, 
vss. i» 9, 13 (under the first ictus), usque \yOninis 6, omnis 14, semper 17, 
tninores 22. 

{c) By giving related or contrasted words prominent 
rhythmical positions ; as 

C. III. 2. 17 virtus repulsae || nescia sordidae 

C. III. II. 31 impiae sponsos potuere duro 

perdere /erro 

C II. 10. 13 sperat infesHsy || m e t u i t secundts 

(See also the examples under § 113.) 

(d) By repetition, — either immediately, in the same clause 
(Epizeuxis, especially common in the Epodes) ; as 

Epod. 4. 20 hoc hoc tribuno militum ; ib. 14. 6 deus deus nam me 
vetat ; C. II. 17. 10 ibimus ibimusy utcumque praecedes ; 

(e) or immediately, at the beginning of a new clause, 
sometimes with some variation of form (Anadiplosis) ; as 



INTRODtJCTIOK. Ixix 

C, tit. 5. it 'arma 

militibus sine caede * dixit 
* derepta vidi ; vidi ego civium 
retorta tergo bracchia libero' 

C III. 16. 15 subruit aemulos 

reges muneridus ; mumra nsivium 
saevos inlaqueant duces 

(/) or, after intervening words, at the beginning of a new 
clause or of successive clauses (Anaphora) ; as 

6*. III. 3. 65 ter si resurgat murus aeneus 

auctore Phoebo, t^r pereat meis 
excisus Argivis, ^r uxor 
capta virum puerosque ploret 

(g) The emphasis of Anaphora is usually enhanced by 
rhythmical position ; as 

C. II. 4. 4 serva Briseis niveo colore 

movit Achillem 
movit Aiacem . . . 

C II. 8. 13 ridet hoc, inquam, Venus ipsa, rident 

simplices Nymphae 

iji) Anaphora, however, is sometimes used without special 
emphasis, merely serving the purpose of a connective ; as 

Epod, 5. 17 /M^^/ sepulcris caprificos erutas, 

iubet cupressos f unebris . . . 
flammis aduri Colchicis 

117. {a) The poet, whose appeal is to the imagination 
rather than to the intellect, seeks to make a more vivid im- 
pression by presenting a picture in preference to an abstract 
conception, and by putting forward a particular person, 
object, or action to represent a whole class ; as 

CI. I. 9 proprio condidit horreo (for amassing wealth in general) ; 
1 1 findere sarculo (i. e. to till). Cf., further, 3 pulverem Olympicutn ; 
10 Libycis areis ; 13 trabe Cypria ; 14 Myrtoum mare ; 15 Icariis fluc- 
tibus Africum ; C II. 18. 3 non trabes Hymettiae premunt columnas 
ultima recisas Africay neque Attali ignotus heres regiam occupavi, 
nee Laconicas mihi trahunt honestae puq>uras clientae. So the wind 
is EuruSy Notusy Aquilo ; wine is Falemumy Caecuhuniy Sahinum ; the 



Ixx INTRODUCTION. 

Roman legionary Marsus et Apulus ; the outside barbarian Dacus 
et Aethiops ; and so on in endless variety. 

{S) In the same way a part may produce a more distinct 
impression than the whole (Synecdoche); as 

C I. I. 13 trabe Cypria (i. e. ship); I. 8. 7 Gallica ora (i. e. horse); 
C III. 2. 16 nee parcit (mors) imbellis iuventae poplititms timidove 
tergo ; Epod, 16. 59 Sidonii (i. e. Phoenicians). 

Ellipsis, 

118. The common substantive of the antecedent and 

relative clauses is sometimes expressed only in the clause 

that comes second ; as 

Epod, 2. 37 malarum quas amor habet curas (in prose, malarum cura- 
rum quas amor habet) ; S, I. 4. 2 alii quorum comoedia prisca virorum 
est ; ^.11. 2. 59 vinum et cuius odorem olei nequeas perferre (i. e. et 
oleum cuius odorem nequeas perferre). 

119. (a) A word or phrase belonging to two words, 

phrases, or clauses in common is sometimes expressed with 

the second only ; as 

Epod. 7. 13 furome caecus ah ra//Vvis acrior? C III. 25. 2 quae 
nemora aut quos agor in specus. 

(V) It is a favorite device of Horace to indicate this ellip- 
sis by attaching an enclitic -qiie ^ or -ve to the word, which 
then, as nothing precedes to which the conjunction can join 
it, suggests itself as the word to fill the omission ; as 

C. III. I. 12 moribus hie meliorque fama (= melior moribus melior- 
que fama) ; S. II. 3. 139 non Pyladen ferro violare aususve sororem 
(= non Pyladen violare ausus aususve sororem) ; C. I. 30. 6 solutis 
Gratiae zonis properentque Nymphae (= properent Gratiae properent- 
que Nymphae) ; 

{c) So sive (seu) often implies a preceding si or sive; as 

S. II. 5. II turdus sive aliud privum (= si(ve) turdus sive aliud) ; 
C I. 3. 16 quo non arbiter Hadriae maior, tollere seu ponere volt 
freta (= sive tollere seu ponere). 

(//) But sive (seu) in such a position more frequently fol- 
lows an absolute statement or injunction or a description, 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

to which it adds an alternative with a condition attached, — 

to be translated or^ if; as 

C, I. 15. 25 Sthenelus sciens pugnae, sive (== vel, si) opus est impe- 
ritare equis, non auriga piger ; S. II. 6. 20 Matutine pater, seu lane 
libentius audis (= vel lane, si * lane ' libentius audis). 

120. A group of words which belongs to two or more 
members of a sentence in common is sometimes distributed 
among them, each part serving to suggest the rest ; as 

Ep, I. 3. 29 si patriae volumusy si nobis vivere cart; C. III. 21. 
2 seu tu querellas sive geris iocos; C. II. 13. 39 nee curat Orion 
leones aut timidos agitare lyncas *. C. I. 27. 11 quo beatus volnere, 
^^jOkpereat sagitta. 

121. Suggestion by similarity. Where two or more qualities 

belong to a series of objects, the poet is sometimes content 

to express one with each, leaving the rest to suggestion ; as 

Ep. I. 16. 50 cautus enim metuit foveam lupus, accipiterque suspectos 
laqueos, et opertum miiuus hamum, — where the cautiousness of the 
animal {cautus) and his distrust {suspectos) of a masked danger {opertum) 
are to be understood of all three instances ; Epod, 5. 37 exsecta uti 
medulla et aridum iecur {the dry marrow and liver^ cut out). 

122. Suggestion by contrast. Where a twofold contrast 
exists between two objects, it may be indicated by attribut- 
ing to them single qualities which do not match. Each qual- 
ity expressed will then suggest its opposite in the other 
object ; as 

C, III. 13. 6 gelidos inficiet tibi rubro sanguine rivos, — where the 
clear, cold water is contrasted with the warm, red blood ; C. II. 3. 9 
quo pinus ingens albaque populus umbram hospitalem consociare amant, 
— L e. the tallf dark pine and the shorter^ white poplar. 

123. In illustrative comparisons Horace is fond of giving 

greater vividness to the figure by identifying the subject 

with it completely (with or without omission of the particle 

of comparison) ; as 

Ep. II. 2. 97 caedimur et totidem plagis consumimus hostem, lento 
Samnites ad lumina prima duello (L e. velut Samnites, etc.) ; Ep„ II. 
3. 475 quern vero arripuit [poeta] tenet occiditque legendo, non missura 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION. 

cutem nisi plena cruoris hirudo ; C I. 1 5. 29 quern tu^ cervus uti- vallis 
in altera visum parte lupum graminis immemort sublimi fugies mollis 
anhelitu. 

Attributes, 

124. In poetical language a quality of a person or thing 

is often attributed to some part of it, or to some object 

which from close association is felt to partake of the quality, 

or to some action which manifests it ; as 

cm. I. 17 destrictus ensis cui super impia cervice pendet ; C I. 
3. 40 neque patimur iracunda lovem ponere fulmina; Epod. 10. 14 
impiam Aiacis ratem ; C. I. 37. 6 dum Capitolio regina dementis ruinas 
. . . parabat ; C. III. i. 42 purpurarum sidere ciarior usus. In this 
way a quality is often suggested without being expressly attributed ; as 
C. IV. 4. 57 ut ilex tonsa bipennibus nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
— where the dark foliage is that of the ilex itself. 

125. A quality is often attributed to an object which it 
does not itself possess, but which is reflected upon it, as it 
were, from the effect it produces in others ; as 

C I. 5. 7 nigris ventis (i. e. those that darken the sky) ; so I. 7. 15 
albus Notus; C, II. 7. 21, oblivioso Massico (that induces forgetful- 
ness) ; C. II. 10. 15 informis hiemes (marring the face of nature). 

126. An attribute may be brought into greater promi- 
nence — {a) By Hendiadys ; as 

Epod, 5. 54 iram atque numen, all-powerful wrath ; 

(b) By means of an abstract substantive, with the person 

who possesses the quality and is the logical subject of the 

sentence appended in the form of a limiting genitive or 

an adjective (a Homeric device) ; as 

S, II. I. 72 ubi se a volgo et scaena in secreta remorant virtus Sci- 
piadae et piitis sapientia Laeli ; O. III. 21. 11 narratur et prisci Catonis 
saepe mero caluisse virtus ; Ep, II. i. 191 trahitur regum fortuna; C, 
I. 3. 36 perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor ; 

if) By a substantive in apposition ; as 

C. I. I. I atavis edite regibus (= regiis); C. 1. 4. 16 iam te premet nox 
/adulaeque manes. The appositive may itself have a modifier ; as C I. 
3. 20 in/amis scopulos Acroceraunia. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxiii 

Enallage, 

127. The singular is occasionally used for the plural, 
either collectively (especially with an adjective of number 
or quantity) or putting one object to represent its class ; as 

Epod. 2. 31 multa cam ; Ep. II. 3. 203 (tibia) for amine pauco ; 
Epod. 3. 14 (Medea) serpente fugit alite ; C. I. 37. 3 omare pulvinar 
deorum. 

128. The poets use the plural not only of abstracts 
and of names of things reckoned in bulk (amores, irae^ calo- 
reSy (icumina; cruores^ vina^ Cctecuba, and the like), express- 
ing occurrences of a quality, kinds of a substance, etc., as 
in prose, but even of substantives which designate only a 
single object or action ; as 

C. I. 2. 15 monumenta regis tentpia<\viQ Vestae (each a single struc- 
ture) ; C. III. 27. 75 tua sectus orbis namina ducet ; C. III. 5. 52 
populum reditus (sc. of Regulus to Carthage) morantem ; Epod. 17. 3 
Dianae non movenda numitta. 

129. The poet often uses an archaic simple verb in place 
of the more exact compound form in current use ; as 

C III. 25. 16 manibus verier e fraxinos (for evertere) ; CIII. 27. 74 
mitte singultus (for omitte) ; C III. 24. 32 virtutem incolumem odimus, 
sublatam ex oculis quaeritnus invidi (for requiritnus). 

Metonymy, 

130. The name of a divinity standing for his special 
province is particularly common ; as 

Epod. 7. 3 campis atque Neptuno super (i. e. on land and sea) ; C. 
III. 24. 13 iugera liberas fruges et Cererem ferunt ; C. III. 16. 34 
Bacchus in amphora languescit. (See Lucr. II. 652 sqq.) 

Alliteration and Assonance. 

131. Alliteration and assonance hold a very subordinate 
place in the structure of Horace's poetry, but he employs 
them to a limited extent. Alliterative sequences that bear 
the stamp of conscious effort, such as ^ 



Ixxiv INTRODUCTION. 

S. I. 6. 57 /udor /rohibebat /lara /rofari 

are extremely rare, except where correspondence of sound 
with sense is aimed at, as 

*$•. II. 8. 78 viderej 

jtridere jecreta divlroj aure susurros 

C, I. 4. 13 /allida mors aequo /ulsat/ede/au/erum tabemas 

C. III. 5. 49 quae sibi borbanis 

tortor pararet 

Alliterative or assonant pairs, like 

dulce decus, Pontica pinus, vera virtus, 
maius meliusve, arcis attigit, obruit otio, 

come in from time to time in a natural way; sometimes 

two pairs in succession, as 

C. I. I. 16 m creator metuens, otium et ^pidi 

C. II. I. I i»otum ex ^etello ^onsule Hvicum 

C. III. 2. I angustam amice /auperiem /ati 

But in general Horace avoids mere iteration by alternat- 
ing the recurring sounds with one another or judiciously 
distributing them, often with reference to metrical or 
syntactical connection, so that the reader feels the pleas- 
ing effect with little or no consciousness of the manner 
in which it is produced. The following examples will 
illustrate his method : 

C I. 29. 1 1 /ronos relal» /osse rivos 

C. IV. 5. 24 fulpam /oena /remit ^omes 

C III. 17. 8 /i/onbuj /ienuLrje Lirim | /a/e /yrannor 

^ C, IV. 2. 3 mtitur /ennis, vitreo daturus 

ffomina /onto 

C. II. 8. 15 jemper ardentis acuens jagittas 

rote nruenta 
C. II. 6. 15 taridique certat | baca Fenafro 

C II. I. 36 quae caret or2i cmore na&Xxo} 

Epod. 16. 47 mel\aL cava manant ex ilxce^ montibus a/tis 

/evis cre/ante /ym/ha desi//t /ede 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxv 

III. VERSIFICATION AND PROSODY 
OF THE LYRIC POEMS. 

(A) VERSIFICATION. 

Note. — In all the rhythms used by Horace the last syllable of the 
verse is syllaba anceps^ L e., its quantity is not considered. This is to 
be understood in all cases, though, for the sake of greater simplicity, it 
has not been indicated in the metrical schemes here given, being com- 
mon to all. The sign v>^ is used to indicate two short syllables which 
are to be pronounced in the time of one short In other respects the 
metrical notation is that adopted in the grammars in current use. 
'Caesura' ( || ) is used to denote the regular pause in the verse, whether 
it falls within a measure (caesura in the stricter sense) or between two 
measures (diaeresis). 

Dactylic Verses. 
132. The Hexameter (dactylic hexameter catalectic) : 



( — ) 



-^;7u|Xot|-^||c7wI-^ot|X ^33' I -^ 



\j 



Caesura in the second and fourth feet instead of the third, 
and 'feminine' caesura (1. e, between the short syllables 
of the dactyl) in the third are occasionally found, as Epod. 
16. 31, C I. 28. 15. A spondee in the fifth foot occurs four 
times, always in proper names : C I. 28. 2 1 Ori\onts ; Epod. 
13. 9 Cylie\ned; 16. 17 Phdcae\drum; 16. 29 Appen\mnus, 
(There is only one spondiac verse in the Satires and 
Epistles, — Ep, II. 3. 467.) 

133. The Dactylic Tetrameter (catalectic) : 

A spondee in the third foot occurs once (C I. 28. 2). 

134. The Lesser Archilochian verse (dactylic trimeter ca- 
talectic) : 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION. 

Iambic and Trochaic Verses. 
135. ThQ Iambic Trimeter:* 



^ JL ^ ^ \^\ J. sj 


-t. 1 e JL vy 


> yj^ 1 >IIkSv 
(ex. -^)? 1 


1 



The caesura is occasionally hepthemimeral (as -fi^^//. i. 15 ; 
4* 3 > S* 3» ^tc.) ; in two verses it falls after the prefix of 
a compound word: Epod. i. 19 im\plumibus ; 11. 15 
in II aestuet (cf. 149, 150, 155, and see 115 ^). Resolution 
is sparingly used. The apparent dactyl occurs chiefly in 
the first foot, seldom' in the third ; the tribrach oftenest 
in the second and third, rarely in the first or fourth ; and 
both of these substitutions are, always so made that the 
ictus coincides with a word-accent (in two cases with a 
secondary accent only : Epod, 17. 12 hbmicidam ; 74 inimi- 
cis\ usually falling on the antepenult of a trisyllabic word. 
The anapaest occurs in the first foot only twice : Epod. 2. 
35 pavidunty 65 positos (which are perhaps to be read by 
syncope as spondees ; see 183) ; and apparently three 
times in the fifth : Epod, 2. 35 laqueOy 5. 79 inferius, 11. 23 
mulierculam; but see 180, 181. 

136, The Pure Iambic Trimeter : 



\j J- \j -J- \ \j 



A hepthemimeral caesura occurs once (Epod, 16. 4). 
137- The Iambic Dimeter : 



<j J- w-^l^-^ V^-£- 






* The metrical scheme is here given, to avoid confusion, in the form 
presented in the Greek and Latin grammars in common use. Iambic 
rhythm may also be represented, in accordance with our modem system 

of musical notation, thus : ^ • \j ^ | \j etc. ; and it will be 

necessary to adopt this method for those rhythms which are used in 
composite and logaoedic verse, where, though technically iambic, they 
are essentially trochaic in character. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxvii 

Resolution occurs in only four verses {Epod, 2. 62 ; 3. 8 ; 5. 
48; 15. 24) and under the same restrictions as in the tri- 
meter (135). The scheme may also be written thus : 

138. The Iambic Trimeter Catakctic: 

d:-^v^ -J- Zj\J-kj JL.yj\\J. -£-A 

Resolution occurs once, — C II. 18. 34 regumque pueris, — 
unless we are to read by synizesis, /S2m (see 180). 

139. The Nine-Syllable Alcaic (two trochaic dipodies, with 
anacrusis) : ^ \ j^ ^ \j_ >\ ^ ^\jl yj 

The second trochee is always irrational. 

140. The Euripidean verse (pure trochaic dimeter cata- 
lectic): ^v^^wl^w^A 

Composite Verses, 

141. In several of the epodic distichs used by Horace, one 
of the verses is made up of two distinct cola^ one dactylic 
and the other iambic or trochaic. Such a verse is usually 
'asynartete,' that is, its two cola are not welded together (as, 
for example, the two halves of a hexameter are), but the end 
of the first colon is treated in all respects as the end of a 
verse, having syllaba anceps^ and admitting hiatus before a 
following vowel. Whether the dactyl was read in trochaic 
time (cyclic dactyl) is uncertain. It is not improbable that 
there was a change of time in the middle of the verse. 

142. The Greater Archilochian verse, composed of a dac- 
tylic tetrameter acatalectic and a trochaic tripody : 

In the ten verses which Horace has left us in this measure 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION. 

(C I. 4) there is always caesura after the third ictus, and 
the first colon ends with a short final syllable, without hiatus. 

143. The Elegiambus^ composed of a lesser Archilochian 
(134) — which is identical with the second colon of the 
elegiac pentameter — and an iambic dimeter (137) : 

144. The latnbeleguSy composed of the same cola as 143, 
but in reverse order : 

No resolution occurs in the iambic cola^ and no substitu- 
tion in the dactylic, of either 143 or 144. 

Logaoedic Verses. 

145. Most of the Odes are composed in logaoedic rhythms, 
made up of trochaic, with an admixture of dactylic, elements. 
The combination of dactyl and trochee produces a succes- 
sion of syllables identical with the choriamb {-- \j \j — ), es- 
pecially where the trochee is syncopated (-0 \j \ l£) and 
the measure thus forfned is repeated (as in 149 and 150, 
below). For this reason the rhythms were regarded by late 
Roman metrical writers as choriambic, and some of the 
verses (147-150, and sometimes 152) are still so called. 
Their choriambic character is only apparent ; but it is never- 
theless important to observe this measure, — which may, for 
convenience be called the 'choriambic measure* — as its 
repetition constitutes the characteristic feature of some of the 
verses now to be explained. Thus, in 149 the rhythm pro- 
ceeds through the choriambic measure (-v^ \j \ l_) precisely 
as in 148 j it then goes back, as it were, to the beginning 
of that measure and repeats it, but without syncopation 
(— w w 1 1_ II —w v^' I — ^), and continues with trochaic move- 



INTRODUCTION. bcxix 

ment to the close of the verse, as in 147. In the same 
way, 150 is developed from 149, and 152 from 151. 

146. In his logaoedics Horace observes the following 
rules, prescribed in the metrical theories of his time, but 
unknown to the Greek lyric poets and to Catullus : 

(a). Two choriambic measures in the same verse are sep- 
arated by caesura. 

(3), An irrational spondee takes the place of a trochee 
before the first dactyl ; thus, — > | -v^ w | , not — w | — w^ vy | . 

Horace's logaoedic verses are as follows : 

147. The Glyconic (second Glyconic catalectic) : 

J->\^Kj\^yj\S. \ 

Horace appears to have admitted a trochee before the 
first dactyl (cf. 146 d) in C. I. 15. 36 ; but see note. 

148. The Pherecratic (second Pherecratic, to be read as 
a doubly catalectic tetrapody) : 

149. The Lesser Asdepiad: 

Caesura is neglected in C, IV. 8. 17 ; but the text here is in 
doubt. Caesura falls after the prefix of a compound word 
in II. 12. 25 de\torquet (cf. 135, 150, 155, and see 115 e). 

150. The Greater Asclepiad: 

Caesura falls after a prefix in C I. 18. 16 per\lucidior (cf. 
^Ziy i49> "^"^^^ and see 115 e). 

15 !• The Lesser Sapphic : 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION. 

In the hands of Sappho and Alcaeus, and of Catullus, 
this verse had a much freer movement. The quantity of 
the fourth syllable was not fixed, and there was no regular 
caesura. In Horace the fourth syllable is invariably long 
(see 146^) and caesura in the dactyl is strictly observed, 
usually falling after the long syllable ; * feminine ' caesura 
(-V II >u^) is frequent in the Carmen Saeculare and in Book 
IV., rare in the earlier books. 

152. The Greater Sapphic: 

ipx^ perhaps, \-^ \j \ J^ \j \\L\ J- K) 

153. The Adonic: 

-^ \j \ J- \j (oTf perhaps, -ij \j \ lL \ J- A") 

154. The Arisiophanic : 

-^ Kj \^ Kj \jL \j (or, perhaps, -C w j -^ w | iZ j -i. A) 

155. The Greater (eleven-syllable) Alcaic : 

Z, :-1w|jL>||-0v^|-^v/|-^A 

In Alcaeus the fifth syllable, like the anacrusis, is of 
variable quantity, and there is no fixed caesura. In Horace 
the anacrusis is usually, and in Book IV. always, long ; 
caesura is neglected in only two instances (C I. 37. 14, IV. 
14. 17); in three it falls after a prefix, — C, I. 16. 21 
exlercitus ; 37. 5 de\profnere; II. 17. 21 in\credibili (ci, 135, 
149, 150, and see 115^). 

156. The Lesser (Jen-syllable) Alcaic: 

Strophes and Systems, 

157. In the Epodes, with the exception of the seven- 
teenth, which consists of 81 iambic trimeters, every poem 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxi 

has an even number of verses, the unit of versification being 
a strophe of two verses, — the epodic distich from which 
the book derives its name (§ i8). In the Odes the number 
of verses is in all cases a multiple of four, with the excep- 
tion of C IV. 8, which contains 34 verses. In view of this 
striking fact, and in spite of C, IV. 8, — the text of which 
is open to grave suspicion on grounds quite independent of 
its metrical structure, — Meineke laid down the canon that 
Horace's odes were composed in tetrastichs, or strophes of 
four verses, and that accordingly where an ode is apparently 
written in distichs or monostichs, these were designed to be 
grouped together to form tetrastichs. This theory rests on 
a much narrower basis of induction than appears at first 
sight ; for of Horace's 104 odes only 18 are written in dis- 
tichs, and in monostichs only 7. Horace may have desired 
to make these few odes conform to the rule imposed on the 
great majority by their metrical structure, but that is a dif- 
ferent thing from saying that the unit of versification was 
the tetrastich. In a number of the odes the distichs are of 
the same character, — in two odes identical (see 162), — 
with those used in the Epodes, where they cannot be 
grouped in twos. It is true that the text of C, IV. 8 is 
probably corrupt, but it is by no means clear that a reduc- 
tion to 32 or to 28 verses is the way to heal it. It is true, 
further, that in C, III. 9, which is a dialogue, two distichs 
at a time are assigned to each speaker, -^ one would be 
rather short for the purpose ; but in C. I. i, on the other 
hand, a division into tetrastichs is curiously at cross pur- 
poses with the course of thought, while the significant 
manner in which the first two and the last two verses 
are set off by their content from the rest of the poem 
points to a probable grouping of such monostichs in twos, 
if they have any strophic character at all. In the remaining 
monostichic odes (I. 11, 18, III. 30, IV. 10) — leaving out 



'J' — J 



^ u! -^ ^ - '' '' -^'^ 



Ixxxii INTRODUCTION. 

of account III. 12 which has only four verses — the connec- 
tion of thought gives no suggestion of an arrangement by 
strophes. 

The lyric metres used by Horace are as follows : 

< 

158. The Iambic Trimeter (see 135). Epode 17. 

159. The Iambic Strophe: an iambic trimeter (135) 
coupled with an iambic dimeter (137) : — 

For substitutions see 135, 137. Epodes i-io. 

160. The First Pythiambic Strophe: a dactylic hexameter 
(132) coupled with an iambic dimeter (137) : — 

Epodes 14, 15. 

161 . The Second Pythiambic Strophe : a dactylic hexameter 
(132) coupled with a pure iambic trimeter (136) : — 

\J J^ \J JL.\ \j\j^ \J .l-\ \J JL KJ J^ 

Epode 16. 

162. The Alcmanian Strophe; a dactylic hexameter (132) 
coupled with a dactylic tetrameter (133) : — 

C I. 7, 28 ; Epod, 12. 

163. The First Archilochian Strophe: a dactylic hexam- 
eter (132) coupled with a lesser Archilochian verse (134): — 

X C73 1-^ TJO \J^\^J^\J-sJsj\JLKjyj\JLyj N 

C, IV. 7. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxiii 

164. The Second ArchUochian Strophe : a dactylic hexam- 
eter (132) coupled with an iambel^^s (144) : — 

d \J•^JJL.^,\J^^J^^\JL^J^J\J.^JSJ\J,T. 

Epod. 13. 

165. The Third ArchUochian Strophe: an iambic trimeter ^ 
(135) coupled with an elegiambus (143) : — 

eJLvy-£.|d||JLw-t.|e/J!Lw^ 

Epod. II. (For vs. 23, see, 135, 181.) 

166. The Fourth ArchUochian Strophe: a greater Archi- 
lochian verse (142) coupled with an iambic trimeter catalec- 
tic(i38): — 

C. I. 4. • 

167. The Trochaic Strophe: a Euripidean verse (140) 
coupled with an iambic trimeter catalectic (138) : — 

C. 11.^8. (For vs. 34, see 138). 

i68. The Ionic System, consisting of pure lonici a minore 

(yyj ) in series of ten. There is usually diaeresis at 

the end of each foot. 

\j\j S I \j\j JL — I \j\j S. — I \j\j S I 

\j\j J^ — I \j\j J- — I \j\j J- — I \j\j ^ — I 

C. III. 12. 

i6q. The Lesser Asclepiad Metre: a series of lesser Ascle- 
piad verses (149 ;see also 157) : — 

^>\<J^J\\L\\'<J^J\JL^J\J.^ 

C. I. I ; III. 30 ; IV. 8. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

tJiU The Greater Asclepiad Metre: a series of greater 
Asclepiad verses (150 ; see also 157) : — 

C. I. II, 18; IV. 10. 

^ ^7^* The First Asclepiad Strophe: a Glyconic (147) 
coupled with a lesser Asclepiad (149) : — 

JL>|-Cv^| iL \\-<j^\J-^\-L ^ 

C. I. 3, 13, 19, 36 ; III. 9, 15, 19, 24, 25, 28 ; IV. i, 3. 
Elision at the end of the Glyconic occurs C, IV. i. 35. 

172. The Second Asclepiad Strophe : three lesser Ascle- 
piads (149) and a Glyconic (147) : — 

2.>\-kj^\\L\-A^sj\S.Kj\-L N 

C I. 6, 15, 24, 33 ; II. 12 ; III. 10, 16 ; IV. 5, 12. 

173. The Third Asclepiad Strophe : two lesser Asclepiads^ 
(149), a Pherecratic (148), and a Glyconic (147) : — ^ 

J->\-Aj^\\±\-^kj\J-^\-L N 
J->\-kjKj\\L\-AuKj\J^^\JL N 

J->\-<js^\\±\±. h 

-A>|-Ov^|Xw|-LA 
C. I. S, I4> 21, 23 ; III. 7, 13 ; IV. 13. 

1^4 (g). The Sapphic Strophe: three lesser Sapphic verses 
(151) and an Adonic (153) : — 

J.Kj\j.>\JL\yj^\2,^\j^KJ 
J.Kj\-L>\j-\sj<j\-L^\j^SJ 

-£.w|X>|^||vX/|-^w|X> 
'<Jkj\-Lkj 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxv 

Next to the Alcaic (176) the metre most used by Horace : 
C. I. 2, 10, 12, 20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 38 ; 11. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 ; 
III. 8, II, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27 ; IV. 2, 6, II ; C S, 

{b). For the feminine' caesura, see 151. Sappho ap- 
pears to have treated the third Sapphic and the Adonic as 
one continuous verse. Horace does not follow this practice 
absolutely, but he has hiatus between the two verses in only 
four cases (C. I. 2. 47 ; 12. 7, 31 ; 22. 15) in a total of 206 
strophes ; and in all but 12 instances a spondee (by syna- 
pheia) precedes the dactyl of the Adonic. He makes the 
two verses Continuous in C I. 2. 19, 25. 11, II. 16. 7 ; and 
he allows elision at the end of the third verse in IV. 2. 23 
and C. S, 47. Elision at the end of the second verse occurs 
in II. 2. 18, 16. 34, IV. 2. 22. 

175, The Greater Sapphic Strophe : an Aristophanic verse 
(154) coupled with a greater Sapphic (152) : — 

J^sj\JL>\J.\^\\JL\-f^yj\J^sj\^yj 

a 1. 8. 

176 (a\ The Alcaic Strophe: two greater Alcaic verses 
(155), a nine-syllable Alcaic (139), and a lesser Alcaic 

0S6):- 

^\ J.Kj\-L> \\-^Kj\J-Kj\J-h 
^\ J.Kj\J-> \\-<jKj\J-^j\^h 

e:^w|-^> \J- Kj \J-^ 

The metre most frequently used by Horace : C. I. 9, 16, 
17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37 ; II. I, 3, 5, 7, 9, II, 13, 14, 
i5> ^7» i9> 20 ; in. 1-6, 17, 21, 23, 26, 29 ; IV. 4,9, 14, 15. 

(p). Elision at the end of the third verse occurs II. 3. 27 ; 
III. 29. 35. 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

(B) PROSODY. 

177. A final syllable ending in a short vowel is not length- 
ened in Horace before a word beginning with two conso- 
nants. 

178. The prosody of certain proper names is unsettled : 
C. III. 30. 13 ItcUos^ but II. 7. 4 Jtalo; I. 28. 20 Freser- 

pma^ II. 13. 21 Proserpinae; L 28. 21 Orionis^ Epod. ij. 7 
Orion; C, S. i Dtana^ ib. 70 Diana. Cf. also -^^^. 2. 42 
Apuliy 3. 16 Apuliae. 

Horace has -erunt in the third person plural of the perfect 
indicative active, . ^^//. 9. 17 verterunt. It occurs also 
.S*. I. 10. 45 adnuerunt and Ep, I. 4. 7 dederunt (cf. C III. 
6. 7 dederunt) ; but nowhere in the Odes. 

179. The final syllable of the third person singular, 
present or perfect, indicative is long in a few instances 
under the ictus, as in old Latin (see Allen's Remnants of 
Early Latin^ Introd, 52 ff.) : 

C, I. 3. 36 p^rrupft Acheronta H^rculeus lab6r 

C. I. 13. 6 c^rta sede manit || limor et in gends 

C II. 6. 14 dnguliis ridet || ubi n6n Hym<ftto 

C. II. 13. 16 ca^ca timet aliunde fdta 

C, III. 16. 26 qudm si qufcquid arat || fmpiger Apulds 

C. III. 24. 5 sf figit adam4ntin6s 

Once in arsis, before the caesura : 

C III. 5. 17 si n6n periret || immiserabilis 

Horace practiced this license in the Satires also, but in 
his latest writings, the Epistles and the fourth book of the 
Odes, he abstained from it altogether. 

180. Synizesis : C, II. 7. 5 Pompei; apparently also, Epod. 
2. 3S iaqueb(sQ(^ 135) ; and perhaps C. II. 18. ^^ pueris (see 
138). Under this head also are usually classed CI. 35. 17 
anteit and 37.5 antehac ; but the ^of ante'Wdi's probably elided, 
and the words pronounced ant^ity antehac. 



INTRO.. . JTION. Ixxxvii 

l8l. Synaeresis: C III. 4. 41 consiltutn; III. 6. 6 prin- 
cipiutn (in both cases the consonantal / lengthens the preced- 
ing syllable, and its own syllable is elided at the caesura) ; 
Epod, 12. 7 vutis; perhaps also Epod. 5. 79 inforiuSj and 

II. 23 tnulierculam (see 135). 

182 • Dialysis : C I. 23. 4, Epod. 13. 2 siluae, 

183, Syncope: C I. 36. 8 puertiae; II. 2. 2 lamnae; 

III. 20. 1 periclo; IV. 13. 20 surpuerat ; Epod, 9. i repostum; 
9. 9, 17. 72 vincla; perhaps also j^^//. 2. z^^ pav(t)dufn^ 65 
pos(i)tum (see 135). Syncopated verb forms like natarunt^ 
complesti^ inirarit^ promorat are of frequent occurrence. 

184. Elision. In his earliest Epodes Horace appears to 
have studiously avoided elision. In Epode 16 the hexame- 
ters are altogether free from it, and it occurs but three 
times in the iambics. There is no case in Epode 13, and 
in 7 and 12 only one each. Later he was less strict, bijt 
confined it chiefly to short final syllables, and avoided harsh 
combinations. Monosyllables are never elided, except the 
pronouns me and /^, and (once) the adverb iatn (Epod. 17. i). 

i85« Hiatus occurs after the interjections a and ^, which, 
for obvious reasons, are never elided, and in the following 
undisputed cases : Epod. 5. 100 Esquilinae allies; 13. 3 
Threlclo Aqullone : C. I. 28. 2^ capltl Inhuthato. The follow- 
ing are doubtful: C. II. 20. 13 Daedaleo \ odor \ III. 14, 
1 1 male omtnatts (see notes). For hiatus between the cola 
of 'asynartete' verses, see 141. 



^ 




Q. HORATI FLACCI 



CARMINA 



LIBER PRIMVS 



I. 



Maecenas atavis edite regibus, 

o et praesidium et dulce decus meum : 



I. This is Horace's prologue, 
as III. 30 is his epilogue, to the 
first edition of his Odes (Intr. 27); 
and the two poems thus set apart 
from the rest are written in a 
metre reserved for them alone. 
In addressing the prologue to 
Maecenas the poet dedicates the 
volume ta him. After a brief trib- 
ute to his patron he put» forward 
a modest assertion of the claim of 
literature, and of lyric poetry in 
particular, to a place among the 
varied objects of human pursuit 
and ambition, which, after all, he 
implies, have no defense, as against 
one another, but the overmastering 
force of individual bent and taste ; 
and he closes with an expression 
of his own aspiration to win for 
himself a place among the poets 
of the lyre. — Metre, 169 (page 
Ixzziii). 

I. Maecenas : Intr. 21 ff. — 
atavis: here used, like avus^ in 
a general sense, but indicating re- 



moter ancestors, — forefatkert, — 
regibus: in apposition with ata- 
vis; Intr. 126 r. The compli- 
ment is not an extravagant one, 
as rex suggested to a Roman a 
much less exalted monarch than 
'king' does to us. For .similar 
allusions to Maecenas' ancestry, 
cf. III. 29. I, S, I. 6. I sqq.j Prop. 
IV. 8. 1 Maecenas ^ques Etrusco de 
sanguine regum, 

2. o et : for the hiatus, see Intr. 
185. — praesidium, decus : cf. II. 
17. 4 mearum grande decus colu^ 
menque rerum. In each of these 
places the poet acknowledges both 
sides of his obligation to his patron, 
for substantial support and protec- 
tion, and for the distinction which 
the friendship of so eminent a man 
confers. Horace elsewhere (.S*. II. 
6. 32) confesses how sweet this 
distinction was to him ; but dulce 
here, with double application, ex- 
presses also his affection for Mae- 
cenas ; cf. dulcis amices Ep, 1. 7. 12. 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. L 



Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum 
collegisse iuvat metaque f ervidis 
evitata rotis palmaque nobilis 
terrarum dominos evehit ad deos ; 
hunc, si mobilium turba Quiritium 
certat tergeminis toUere honoribus ; 
ilium, si proprio condidit horreo 



3-6. The ruling passion of the 
Greek is athletic contests, and a 
victory at the national games is 
the summit of his aspirations. For 
Horace's method in this and the fol- 
lowing descriptions, see Intr. 117. 

3. sunt quos . • . iuvat, some 
men delight. For the mood, see 
Intr. 84. — curriculo (from curri- 
cuius) y with the chariot. — Olym- 
picum : i.e, at Olympia, in the 
great national games held there 
every four years. 

4. collegisse, to whirl ; lit., 'to 
gather ' (in a cloud) ; cf . pulvis col- 
lectus turbine, -S". I. 4. 31. For the 
tense, see Intr. 81. The meaning 
is, to be in the chariot race in full 
career. To make the picture more 
telling, the two most critical points 
of the race, the turning-post and 
the finish, are included (vss. 4, 5). — 
meta evitata (sc. iuvat), to clear 
the goal: Intr. 105. The Greek 
hippodromos, like the Roman cir- 
cus, was divided longitudinally by 
a low wall, round which the racing 
chariots were driven several times. 
At each end of this wall was a 
column or turning-post (meta). 
To turn this as closely as possible, 
without striking either it or other 
chariots, called for the utmost skill 
and, being attended with consider- 
able danger, was the most exhil- 
arating part of the race. 

5. palmaque : for quosque pal- 
ma; cf. C. S, 26. The victor at 



Olympia was crowned with olive, 
and a palm branch was placed in 
his hand (Paus. VIII. 48. 2). The 
latter practice was borrowed by the 
Romans (liv. X. 47. 3), and hence 
the palm became to them the 
especial symbol of victory. 

6. dominos : in apposition with 
deos. — evehit ad deos, exalts 
them to gods ; expressing the pride 
and exultation of victory; cf. IV. 
2. 17 ; Cic. Flacc, 31 hoc (to win at 
Olympia) est apud Graecos prope 
maius et gloriosius quam Romae 
triumphasse. 

7-10. The highest objects of 
Roman endeavor, political prefer- 
ment and wealth. Cf. Ep, 1. 1. 42 
quae maxima credis esse mala, exi- 
guum censum turpemque repulsam. 

7. hunc : sc, iuvat, the force of 
which, from vs. 4, is still felt, evehit 
ad deos 6 being only a more specific 
expression of the same idea. — 
mobilium : in disparagement ; 
Horace had no respect for ofiice- 
seeking for the mere purpose of 
self-advancement. Cf. .S". I. 6. 

8. tergeminis honoribus: in- 
strumental abl. The reference is 
to the three curule offices, the 
curule aedileship, praetorship, and 
consulship. — toUere : Intr. 94 h. 

9. ilium : see vs. 7 n. The great 
landowner is put forward as a 
type of successful but unsatisfied 
craving for wealth. — proprio: 
i.e. not acting merely as agent for 



1. 3-16.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



10 



15 



quicquid de Libycis verritur areis. 
Gaudentem patrios findere sarculo 
agros Attalicis condicionibus 
numquam demoveas, ut trabe Cypria 
Myrtoum*pavidus nauta secet mare ; 
luctantem Icariis fluctibus Africum 
mercator metuens otium et oppidi 



another or for the government. — 
horreo : Intr. 69. 

10. quicquid, all the grain that, 
suggesting unbounded desire ; cf. 
III. 16. 26. — Libycis : before the 
conquest of Egypt Africa was the 
largest source of the city's grain 
supply, and expressions like this 
appear to have become proverbial ; 
cf. S. II. 3. 87. — verritur areis : 
the area was a circular space, en- 
closed with a low wall and paved 
with concrete, on which the heads 
of grain, usually without the straw, 
were trampled out by cattle {trt- 
tura). A common way of winnow- 
ing was by tossing in tlie wind with 
a shovel (ventilatio) till the chaff 
was blown away. The grain was 
then swept together and removed. 

11. gaudentem, etc.: from na- 
tional characteristics the poet pro- 
ceeds to individual tastes, which he 
presents in a series of contrasted 
sketches ; and first the rustic who 
finds his happiness in keeping up 
the old farm. — patrios : inScat- 
ing his lack of enterprise ; he has 
added nothing to the fields his 
fathers tilled before him. Cf. 12. 
43, 4nd the picture of contentment 
in £pod. 2. 3 ; for the opposite 
spirit, II. 18. 23, S. II. 6. 8, Juv. 
14. 140 sqq» — findere : Intr. 94 d, 
— sarculo : suggesting the small 
scale on which he farms ; he works 
with his own hands. The sarcu- 
lum was a hoe used for loosening 



the soil between the rows of grow- 
ing grain (sarritto). 

12. Attalicis condicionibus, 
terms that an Attains might offer. 
The Attali, kings of Pergamon, in 
Asia Minor, were famous for their 
patronage of literature and for 
the munificence with which they 
adorned their capital with wofks 
of art. The Romans received a 
vivid and lasting impression of 
their splendor when the treasures 
of Attalus III., the last of the 
line, who died B.C. 133, bequeath- 
ing his kingdom to the Roman 
people, were brought to Rome. 

13. demoveas ut, tempt away 
to, — Cypria : Cyprus produced 
within its own borders all kinds of 
material required for shipbuilding 
(Am. Marc. XIV. 8. 14). For the 
epithets Cypria, Myrtoum, etc., 
see Intr. 117, and cf. 35. 7 sq, 

15. luctantem, etc.: in contrast 
with the farmer, the restless trader 
cannot endure the dullness of 
country life, though in the storm 
he may sigh for peace and long 
for the quiet rural scenes of his 
childhood. — fluctibus : dative; 
Intr. 57. — Africum, the Sou^wester 
(blowing from Africa). 

16. mercator : not ' merchant ' 
in our sense, but trader, who sails 
with his wares in his own ship. — 
metuens : with an accusative, be- 
cause the fear is temporary; ipth 
the genitive it would express a per- 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



20 



laudat rura sui : mox reiicit ratis 
quassas, indocilis pauperiem pati. 
Est qui nee veteris pocula Massici 
nee partem solido demere de die 
spernit, nunc viridi membra sub arbuto 
stratus, nunc ad aquae lene caput sacrae. 
Multos castra iuvant et lituo tubae 
permixtus sonitus bellaque matribus 



manent trait, as ^S". II. 2. no. — 
otiuniy pracg and ^iet; cf. II. 16. 
I sqq. — oppidi rura : every tovm 
had its ager^ or adjacent countrv 
district under its jurisdiction (cf. 
ager Romanus^ ager TusculanuSy 
etc.). 

97. laudat : sc, as happy or con- 
ferring happiness (evjku/cov^^ei), a 
sense in which Horace often uses 
the word ; cf. S. I. i. 9, Ep. I. 11. 
6. — sui, his native, — mox: the 
asyndeton suggests the promptness 
with which his natural disposition 
asserts itself when the danger is 
past. 

18. pauperiem : 1.^. moderate 
circumstances, such as those of 
the farmer, not actual want (inopia, 
egestas). Horace calls his father, 
who was a man of some means, 
macro pauper agello {S, I. 6. 71). 
— pati : Intr. loi r. 

19-22. Between the restless 
enterprise of the trader and the 
excitement of war and the chase, 
the poet sets a quiet picture of 
leisurely enjoyment. 

19. est qui: the singular suggests 
that this character is met with only 
now and then. — Massici {sc, 
vini): a much esteemed wine pro- 
duced on the slopes of Mt. Massi- 
cus, on the border between Latium 
and Campania. See Intr. 117. 

20. solido die : i./. one (that 
would otherwise be) devoted whol- 



ly to business or serious work (cf. 
Sen. £p. 83. 3 hodiernus dies soli- 
dus est; nemo ex illo quicquam 
mihi eripuit). The Roman * day,' 
in this sense, lasted from early 
dawn to about the middle of the 
afternoon, octavam circiter horam 
{Ep, 1. 7. 47). — demere : see Intr. 
941. 

21. (nee) spernit : i.e, does 
not deem it beneath his dignity, 
as, according to the old Roman 
notions, it was. For the mood, 
see Intr. 84. — membra : Intr. 4t. 
— arbuto : a handsome flowering 
shrub or tree, common in Greece 
and Italy, with evergreen leaves 
something like those of our laurel, 
and fruit resembling the straw- 
berry, — hence called the * straw- 
berry tree.* See Sibthorp's Flora 
Graecay tab. 373. 

22. ad aquae caput : 1./. by 
the side of some spring. — lene, 
sacrae : the epithets are inter- 
changed : the stream is gentle, and 
the spring is sacred (as the haunt 
of a naiad). Cf. Intr. 124. 

23. lituo : for litui sonitUy an 
economy of phrase common in 
prose and verse. The lituus was 
a long, straight brass trumpet, 
curved slightly at the larger end ; 
it was used by the cavalry. — 
tubae: the trumpet of the in- 
fantry, straight throughout. 

24. matribus : Intr. 54. 



1. 17-32] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



25 detestata. Manet sub love frigido 
venator tenerae coniugis immemor, 
seu visa est catulis cerva iidelibus, 
seu nipit teretis Marsus aper plagas. 
Me doctarum hederae praemia frontium 

30 dis miscent superis ; me gelidum nemus 
Nympharumque leves cum Satyris chori 
secernunt populo, si neque tibias 



25. manet, spends the nighty as 
in S. I. 5. 37; cf. .S*. II. 3. 234. — 
love, the open sky. The poets use 
the name of luppiUr, with certain 
cogiiate forms from the root 
/?/, DIV (cf. sub (Uvot III. 2. 5, 
sub dwum, I. 18. 13, sub diu^ Lucr. 
IV. 211), for the sky or the air, in 
which the god of heaven manifests 
his presence and power in the va- 
rious phases of sunshine and rain, 
heat and cold, storm and lightning. 
Cf. Ennius ap. Varr. Z. Z. V. 65 
isHc est is Iiipiter quern dkoy quern 
Graeci vocant \ derem^ qui vintus 
est et niibeSf imher pdstea^ \ dtque ex 
imbre frigus, ventus pSst fit^ cur 
dSnuo, 

26. tenerae coniugis : i.e, of 
her anxiety for his safety, the con- 
trast, as in matribus detestata 24, 
bringing out in stronger relief the 
hardihood of the man. 

27. seu • . . seu : in either case 
the game will be lost unless pur- 
sued at once. 

28. Marsus: Intr. 117. — pla- 
gas : used to bar the openings in 
die thicket (cf. £pod. 2. 31 sq.). 
The boar has escaped into the 
open country. 

29. me : the emphatic position 
(Intr. 1 16 b) marks the transition 
to his own taste and ambition. 
In contrast with such pursuits as 
those last described, Horace finds 
his own greatest happiness far away 



from the busy world, in the pres- 
ence of nature, where his poetic 
fancy sees the light-footed denizens 
of the woods and hears strains of 
divine music. — doctarum : 0/ 
men of letters. 'Doctus denotes ac- 
complishment in any art (cf. docte 
TVebati, S. II. i. 78 ; docte Cati, S. 
II. 4. 88). In literature it is a 
connoisseur as well as a writer 
(/^., S. I. 10. 87). Here its mean- 
ing is limited by hederae, the ivy 
wreath which was the especial pre- 
rogative (praemia) of the poet, 
as being sacred to Bacichus, who 
was one of the patron gods of 
poets (cf. Ep, II. 2. 78, 1. 19. 4). — 
praemia : here rather the emblem 
(cf. S, I. 5. 35, Verg. E. 7. 25) of 
the recognized poet than a prize 
of victory. For the plurals, see 
Intr. 128. 

30. dis miscent superis : cf. 
vs. 6 ; but here the feeling ex- 
pressed is ecstatic delight 

32. si neque, etc.: the favor of 
the muse is an essential condition. 
— tibias, pipes. The tibia (avX6t) 
was a straight, flute-like instru- 
ment, but with mouth-piece at the 
end, like the clarinet ; in some 
varieties the outer end was curved 
and flaring. The plural is used be- 
cause two were commonly plaved 
together. (See Howard, Harv, 
Studies I v. p. I .) The tibia as well 
as the lyre was associated with lyric 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



Euterpe cohibet nee Polyhymnia 
Lesboum refugit tendere barbiton. 
35 Quod si me lyricis vatibus inseris, 
sublimi f eriam sidera vertice. 

II. 

lam satis terris nivis atque dirae 
grandinis misit pater, et rubente 



poetry; cf. I. 12. i sq. III. 4. i. — 
neque cohibet : i.e. plays freely. 

33. Euterpe, Polyhymnia: see 
note on CliOf 1 2. 2. 

34. Lesboum tendere barbi- 
ton : i.e. to inspire him as she had 
inspired Alcaeus and Sappho ; see 
Intr. 26. — tendere, to tune ; lit., 
to stretch or tighten (the chords). 
For the mood see Intr. 94 k. 

35. quod si, and if. The ode 
closes as it began, with two verses 
of personal address to Maecenas. 
These two couplets are rather 
sharply divided from the rest of 
the poem, giving the impression 
that the intervening verses may 
have been originally written with- 
out reference to their present pur- 
pose, though they are admirably 
adapted to it. — lyricis vatibus : 
/>. those of Greece, of whom 
there were nine recognized by the 
critics, as classic. Horace's hope 
is that his achievement in Latin 
lyric may be regarded by his patron 
as making him worthy to be added 
to this noble company. — inseris : 
cf. II. 5. 21. For the tense, see 
Intr. 78 ; for its use with a future 
in the apodosis, cf. III. 24. 5. 

36. sublimi : proleptic. — fe- 
riam sidera : expressing pride of 
achievement, like vs. 6. The extrav- 
agant phrase is legitimate enough, 
involving, as it does, a compliment 
to Maecenas' literary judgment, 
and there is a touch of humor in it. 



II. The first place in the volume 
after the dedication is very proper- 
ly given to an ode in honor of the 
emperor. It is the poet's declara- 
tion of allegiance to the second 
Caesar. There are no certain in- 
dications of its date; the two 
great inundations of the Tiber in 
B.C. 27 and 22 (Dio Cassius LIII. 
'20. I ; LIV. I. i) were too late to 
be treated by Horace as visitations 
of divine wrath for the killing of 
Julius Caesar (B.C. 44). But as an 
appeal to rescue the country from 
ruin (vs. 25), the ode could not 
have been composed after the 
settlement of January 27, when 
Octavian as first citizen {princeps) 
received, with the new title Au- 
gustusy a renewal of the imperium 
for ten years, and his friends, at 
least, regarded the fortunes of the 
state as established on a firm 
basis. It was probably written in 
the period of . uncertainty which 
preceded this settlement, i.e. be- 
tween the return .and triumph of 
Octavian in August, 29, and the 
end of 28. The portents which 
form the subject of the opening 
strophes need not be supposed to 
have all occurred at one time ; 
they may have extended through a 
number of years. Beginning .with 
an impressive account of these 
signs of the wrath of heaven at 
the Romans for shedding the 
blood of their countrymen, the 



S 



I. 33-11. 10.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



lO 



dextera sacras iaculatus arcis 
terruit urbem, 

terruit gentis, grave ne rediret 
saeculum Pyrrhae nova monstra questae, 
omne cum Proteus pecus egit altos 
visere montis, 

piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo, 
nota quae sedes fuerat columbis, 



poet points out the need of a di- 
vine mediator, and then leads on 
skilfully to the suggestion that the 
messenger of heaven is already 
among them, fulfilling his appoint- 
ed task. — Metre, 174. 

1. satis, etc.: for the repetition 
of the is sound, see Intr. 131. It 
suggests to the ear the fierce per- 
sistency of the storm. — terris : 
dative ; Intr. 53. — dirae, porUn- 
tous, applying to nivis as well as 
to g^andinis; Intr. 119 «. A 
heavy* fall of snow or a severe 
hail-storm was rare enough at 
Rome to be accounted a monstrumt 
or sign of divine displeasure. 

2. pater, the Father (of gods 
and men ; cf. 12. 13 sqq.)^ Jupiter ; 
here as the god who wields the 
elements ; cf. i. 25 n. — nibente : 
from the glow of the red-hot 
thunderbolt. 

3. iaculatus : here with an ac- 
cusative of the thing aimed at; 
cf. cervos iaculariy III. 12. 4. — 
arcis : the twin summits of the 
Capitoline hill, on one of which 
was the Capitolium, the great tem- 
ple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva 
(hence sacras), while the other 
was the Arx proper. 

5. terruit : Intr. 1 16^. — gentis 
(sc. humanas)y all mankind ; cf. 
3. 28, II. 13. 20. — ne : after the 
idea of fear implied in terruit. 
For its position and that of cum, 



et, and quae, below, see Intr. 
114. 

6. saeculum Pyrrhae : i>. the 
Deluge (Ovid, M. I. 260 sqq.). 
Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus 
and Pandora, was the wife of 
Deucalion, the Noah of Greek 
mythology. Many people believed 
that the earth would one dav be 
overwhelmed in a second flood (cf. 
Sen. N, Q. III. 27. i cum fatalis 
dies diluvii venerit) ; and the 
dreadful prodigy of Jove hurling 
his bolts at his own greatest 
temple was to the superstitious a 
warning that the time was at 
hand. — nova, strange. — monstra, 
marvels ; lit., * signs * (cf . moneo) ; 
see note on dirae i. 

7. omne cum, etc. : it is a 
favorite device of Horace to break 
the continuity of an enumeration 
of persons or events by dwelling on 
some subject in the series and let- 
ting the reader's mind rest for a 
moment on a picture. Better ex- 
amples than this are 12. 27 sqq.t 
III. 4 60 sqq. — Proteus: the 
keeper of Neptune's sea-calves 
(seals), endowed with the gift of 
prophecy and the power of assum- 
ing various forms (hence our word 
•protean*) ; cf. Odys. IV. 455 •r^<^., 
Verg. G. IV. 405 sqq. — egit, drove. 

8. visere : see Intr. 93. 

9. piscium genus, the finny 
tribe. — ulmo : Intr. 71. 



8 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



15 



et superiecto pavidae natarunt 
aequore dammae. 

Vidimus flavum Tiberim retortis 
litore Etrusco violenter undis 
ire deiectum monumenta regis 
templaque Vestae, 

Iliae dum se nimium querenti 
iactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 



11. superiecto, the overwhelm- 
ing. 

12. aequore : Intr. 69. 

13. vidimus: the poet returns 
from his digression to the prodi- 
gies which his own generation has 
witnessed. — flavum : a standing 
epithet of the Tiber, owing to its 
permanent muddy color ; cf. 8. 8, 
II. 3. 18 Verg. A. VII. 31 (Tibe- 
rinus) tnulta flavus harena. — 
retortis : as the river falls only 
fifteen feet between Rome and Os- 
tia, an unusually high tide would 
cause a stagnation or even a re- 
versal of the current and inundate 
the lower parts of the city {nusquam 
magis aquis quam in urbe stagnan- 
tibus, Plin. iV. H. III. 55). But 
the description here of what was 
evidently an extraordinary inun- 
dation implies a stronger current 
(violenter) than we can suppose 
to have come from the mouth of 
the river ; it suggests rather a 
great flood, due to heavy rains and 
melting snows in the mountains, 
pouring down the streapi and 
overflowing the banks. The sharp 
bend which the river makes to the 
right just below the Island would 
send the water with some force 
over the low ground between the 
Palatine and the Capitoline, with 
the appearance of being * hurled 
away * from the opposite shore. 

14. litore Etrusco : ordinarily 



designating the Italian coast from 
the mouth of the Tiber northward; 
but litus is also used of the bank 
of a river {e,g, Verg. A. VIII. 83), 
as ripa is for the seashore (cf. II. 
18. 22, III. 27. 24). 

15. deiectum : supine. The 
river is here the river-god, coming 
in wrath to destroy; cf. sub love^ 
I. 35 n. — monumenta regis : 
the Regia, or * palace * of Numa, 
used under the Commonwealth 
as the official residence of the 
pontifex maximus. Monutnentum 
('memorial'; cf. tnoneo) is often 
used of a building. 

16. templa Vestae : adjoining 
the Regia, so that the latter was 
sometimes called 'Atrium Vestae,' 
being used in part as a dwelling 
for the Vestal virgins. The build- 
ings were situated on the south 
side of the lower end of the Forum, 
at the foot of the Palatine. The 
flood is represented as threatening 
the most venerable monuments of 
the city and its holiest shrine. 
The visitation of divine wrath on 
a holy place was the punishment 
for its desecration (cf. 12. 59), — in 
this case by the murder of the 
pontifex maximus, Caesar. For 
the plurals monumenta, templa, 
see Intr. 128. 

17. Iliae: mother of Romulus 
and Remus. According to the 
older tradition, which Horace fol- 



II. 11-26.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



labitur ripa love non probante u- 
20 xorius amnis. 

Audiet civis acuisse ferrum, 
quo graves Persae melius perirent, 
audiet pugnas vitio parentum 
rara iuventus. 

25 Quem vocet divum populus ruentis 
imperi rebus ? Prece qua fatigent 



lows, she was the daughter of 
Aeneas and therefore sister of 
luluS) the mythical ancestor of the 
Julian family. After the birth of 
the twins she was thrown into the 
Tiber, but received by the river- 
god as his wife. He is here re- 
presented as enraged at the wrong 
done her family in the murder of 
Julius Caesar.— -dum: introducing, 
as mere attendant circumstance, 
the cause or occasion of the main 
action ; cf. 6. 9 and see Roby 1665. 

18. sinistra: i^, the eastern. 
The banks of a river are desig- 
nated as * right * or * left * in refer- 
ence to the personified river him- 
self as he moves in his course. 

19. ripa : here over the bank, in 
contrast with Epod. 2. 25. The 
ablative in both places is that of 
*the way by which.' — non pro- 
bante : i,e, he had not appointed 
the river to this office nor ordained 
such extreme retribution. — u*xo- 
rius: see Intr. 174 b. 

21. audiet, etc. : after setting 
forth the signs of divine wrath the 
poet proceeds to the cause of it, 
— unnatural civil strife ; and this 
he presents more effectively by 
carrying his reader forward to a 
time when it will be dispassionate- 
ly judged by a generation which 
feels only its disastrous effects. — 
civis: the emphasis (Intr. 116 3) 



and the usual meaning of * fellow- 
citizens ' attaching to the word 
indicate that they are preparing for 
a struggle against one another, 
as if we should speak, e.g., of 
* brothers drawing their daggers.' 

22. Persae : i.e. the oriental 
peoples, called by Horace indif- 
ferently Medh Persae^ and Parthi^ 
at this time under the sway of the 
Parthian kings, but formerly sub- 
ject to the Medes and Persians suc- 
cessively, whose names were thus 
permanently impressed upon them. 
— perirent : imperfect subjunctive 
of softened assertion in past time, 
with apodosis implied in melius ; 
cf. falleretflY, 6. 16 n ; Gr. 311a. 

23. pugnas: i.e. not only of 
preparations for war (acuisse 
ferrum) but of actual conflict. 

24. rara, thinned. — iuventus: 
i,e. a younger generation. 

25. divum: implying that no 
mere human help would avail. — 
ruentis : the figure is taken from 
a building ; cf. II. i. 32 Hesperiae 
sonitum ruinae, 

26. rebus : dative, because vo- 
cet, with divum, expresses a call 
for favor or help. — prece qua, 
with what (new) prayer^ in con- 
trast with the ordinary ritual (car- 
mina). — prece: the singular is 
rare, and is used by Horace only in 
the ablative. — qua : Intr. 114. 



10 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



virgines sanctae minus audientem 
carmina Vestam ? 

Cui dabit partis scelus expiandi 
30 luppiter ? Tandem venias precamur, 
nube candentis umeros am ictus, 
augur Apollo ; 

sive tu mavis, Erycina ridens, 
quam locus circum volat et Cupido ; 
35 sive neglect um genus et nepotes 
respicis, auctor, 



27. virgines sanctae : the Ves- 
tals. — minus : here merely a soft- 
ened negative (like parum) with 
no definite comparative force ; cf. 
Plant. Cos. 998 moneboy si quidem 
metninisti minus. According to 
Ovid {F, III. 699 sqq,) Vesta was 
offended by the wrong done her in 
the murder of her priest, Caesar. 

28. carmina, their litanies. 
These were old formulas (the 
proper meaning of carmeti) cast 
in rythmical form in order to be 
better held in memory at a time 
when the art of writing was not in 
common use. 

29. partis, office; properly * rdle.* 
— scelus expiandi, of purging 
away our sin^ sc. by casting out the 
spirit of strife and leading the peo- 
ple to worthy achievements. For 
scelus, cf. 35. 33. For answer to 
his question the poet appeals in 
succession to three divinities who 
might be supposed to have a 
special interest in the welfare of 
Rome : Apollo, who had recently 
rendered such signal assistance in 
the critical struggle at Actium (cf. 
Verg. A, VIII. 704, Prop. V. 6. 27.) 
and was adopted by the emperor as 
his patron god ; Venus, as mother 
of Aeneas, the divine ancestress 



of the race {Aeneadum genetrix, 
Lucr. I. i) and of the Julian fam- 
ily in particular ; and Mars, the 
father of Romulus, and hence 
auctor generis (36). 

30. tandem : implying that our 
prayers have long been in vain. — 
venias: Intr. 87. 

31. umeros : Intr. 42. 

32. augur : as the god of pro- 
phecy ; cf. Verg. A.IW. 376. 

33. sive tu mavis = vel tu 
{venias) si mavis; Intr. 119 </. — 
Erycina, Lady of Eryxj i.e. Ve- 
nus. The epithet is appropriate 
here, as her temple at £ryx,^in 
Sicily, was ascribed to Aeneas 
(Verg. A, V. 759). There was 
also a temple of Venus Erycina 
in Rome near the CoUine gate. — 
ridens : after the Homeric 0(Xo/ur 
^t£^^i; with locus (Mirth) and 
Cupido it makes up a picture in 
bright contrast to the grim scene 
next presented. 

34. circum : see Intr. 115 ^. 

35. sive respicis: see 33 n. — 
neglectum : cf. tandem^ 30 n. — 
genus et nepotes : expressing 
the same idea in two aspects, — 
collectively and individually. 

36. auctor: Mars is appealed 
to, not as the god of war, as the 



11. 27-48.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



11 



heu nimis longo satiate ludo, 
quem iuvat clamor galeaeque leves 
acer et Marsi peditis cruentum 
40 voltus in hostem ; 

sive mutata iuvenem figura 
ales in terris imitaris almae 
filius Maiae, patiens vocari 
Caesaris ultor, 

45 serus in caelum redeas diuque 
laetus intersis populo Quirini, 
neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 
ocior aura 



next strophe shows, but as the 
father of the race. 

37. ludo: the nature of the 
sport is explained in the picture 
that follows, which, as a specimen 
of Horace's skill in graphic por- 
trayal may be compared with II. 
I. 17 sqq. See also note on vs. 7. 

38. leves: notice the quantity 
of the penult. 

39. acer voltus, the fierce 
look — Marsi: see Intr. 117. 
The Marsian troops were among 
the bravest in the Roman army ; 
cf. II. 20. 18, Verg. G, II. 167, and 
the proverb * No triumph over the 
Marsi, nor without them ' (Appian 
B, C. 1. 46). If the reading Mauri 
be adopted, peditis will mean ' un- 
horsed.* — cruentum : the epithet 
places the scene in the midst of a 
hot fight at close quarters. 

41. sive : see 33 n ; the apod- 
osis begins with serus 45 and 
extends to the close of the ode. — 
mutata : sc, from that of a god ; 
cf. ales. — ^ iuvenem : here the 
poet gives the first intimation of 
the thought to which he has Been 
gradually leading us. He indicates 



who the iuvenis is in vs. 44, but 
reserves the full revelation of his 
personality to the very end of the 
poem. Octavian was at this time 
about thirty-five years old. ' 

42. ales filius : in agreement 
with the subject of imitaris. — in 
terris imitaris, dwellest on earth 
under the form of, 

43. Maiae : daughter of the 
titan Atlas, and mother of Mer- 
cury. — vocari : Intr. 94 a. 

44. Caesaris ultor : the pun- 
ishment of his uncle's assassins 
was avowed by Octavian as one 
of the chief objects of his career. 

47I 'wiV^MTCi^ estranged, Aequus 
and iniquus are regular expressions 
for the favorable or adverse dis- 
position of a divinity towards men ; 
cf. 28. 28, II. 4. 15. - 

48. ocior aura : keeping in 
mind the character of the god as 
ales (42). Observe how, while the 
language of the last two strophes 
applies equallv well to the god and 
the man, the human side is gradu- 
ally brought out more distinctly 
till fully revealed in the name 
itself at the end. 



12 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



tollat ; hie magnos potius triumphos, 
50 hie ames diei pater atque prineeps, 
neu sinas Medos equitare inultos 
te duee, Caesar. 

III. 

Sie te diva potens Cypri, 

sie f rat res Helenae, lucida sidera, 



49. triumphos: in allusion pro- 
bably to the three triumphs which 
Octavian celebrated on his return 
from the East in August, B.C. 29. 

50. ames : see Intr. 94 c and 
119 a. For the combination of an 
object accusative with a comple- 
mentary infinitive, cf. i. 19 sqq. — 
pater : here a general expression 
of reverence, habitually applied to 
a god (as B ace he pater, 18. 6, lane 
fater, Ep. I. 16. 59), and often to 
a tnan, as in the phrases pater pa- 
triae, pater senatus, pater urbis, 
etc., and also absolutely (cf. S. II. 
I. 12, Ep. I. 6. 54, 7. 37). The 
formal title of pater patriae was 
not conferred upon Augustus till 
many years later, B.C. 2. — prin- 
eeps : apparently abbreviated 
originally from prineeps senatus 
(the title given to the senator of 
highest dignity, who was placed 
first on the roll by the censors), 
and used even under the Republic 
in the sense of prineeps civitatis, 
since the * first senator' would 
usually be in fact * first citizen.' 
Octavian became prineeps senatus 
in B.C. 28, and from that time on 
he cherished the title in its shorter 
form and wider signification as 
best expressing the character in 
which he wished to appear to his 
fellow-citizens. It thus came to 
be the usual term to designate the 



civil power of the ruler, imperator 
expressing his military power ; cf. 
Tac. Ann, I. I. 3 cuncta discordiis 
civilibus fessa nomine principis sub 
imperium accepit. 

51. Medos: see 22 n. — equi- 
tare, to ride on their raids. 

52. te duce, so long as thou art, 
etc. — Caesar : the name by which 
Octavian (as we call him, to avoid 
ambiguity) was known to his con- 
temporaries from the time of his 
adoption by Julius Caesar (in his 
will, B.C. 44), his full name being 
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. In 
B.C. 27 the title Augustus was 
added, but he was still usually 
called simply Caesar, as in III. 
14.3, Ep. II. 1.4 etc. ; and this 
name is used by Horace for Julius 
Caesar in only two places, vs. 44, 
above, and S. I. 9. 18. 

III. The third place in the series 
of odes is given to Vergil, and bears 
witness to Horace's warm regard 
for the friend to whom he owed his 
introduction to Maecenas [S. I. 5. 
40 sqq., I. 6. 55 ; Intr. 20). The 
occasion is a proposed visit of Ver- 
gil to Athens, and in wishing him 
a safe voyage Horace indulges in 
some rather extravagant reflections 
on the temerity of man in braving 
the dangers of the sea, which is 
only an instance of the daring 



II. 49-"i' 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



13 



ventorumque regat pater, 

obstrictis aliis praeter lapyga, 

navis, quae tibi creditum 

debes Vergilium, finibus Atticis 



spirit with which in all things he 
overleaps the bounds that Provi- 
dence has established. The poem 
bears the marks of an early effort 
and, like many of the odes of this 
book, was probably worked out on 
a Greek model. Of the voyage 
referred to nothing further is 
known. It could not have been 
the voyage of B.C. 19, on the 
return from which Vergil died, as 
there is convincing evidence that 
these books were published before 
that time. — Metre, 171. 

I. sic, so ; i.e. on condition that 
(you grant my prayer) ; cf. Ep. I. 
7. 69 sic ignovisse putato me tibi^ 
si cenas hodie mecum. The prayer 
begins in vs. 6, and the words sic 
. . . lapyga are parenthetical, in- 
troducing the prayer by an expres- 
sion of good will to the ship, which 
is here the power appealed to ; cf. 
S. II. 3. 300 ; Verg. E. 9. 30 sic tua 
Cyrneas fugidnt examina taxos^ \ 
sic cytiso pctsUu distendant ubera 
vaccaCf \ incipe ; Prop. V. 3. 67. 
The clause with sic sometimes 
follows the prayer, as I. 28. 23 sqq. 
In the present mstance the appeal 
is not quite logical, since the for- 
times of the ship and the voyager 
are bound up together. — diva 
potens Cypri: i>. Venus, * k^po- 
9/ri| xeXa7(a or xorrfec {Venus 
marina ; cf . III. 26. 5 and 9 ; IV. 
II. 15), whose worship, as a pro- 
tectress of seafailng men, was 
widely disseminated by the Phoe- 
nician traders. — Cypri : objective 
gen. after potens (Intr. 66 b), 
expressing here the worshippers 
over whom the goddess' control 



is exercised. The phrase is some- 
times used to denote the special 
province of the divinity, as 5. 15 
potenH maris deo (i>. Neptune); 
6. 10 imbellis lyrae musa potens ; 
C. S, I silvarum potens Diana, 

2. fratres Helenae: Castor 
and Pollux, whose constellation 
(Gemini) was believed to have a 
quieting influence on the sea ; cf. 
12. 27 sqq., IV. 8. 31 sq. Sailors 
also told of twin lights, which they 
attributed to these gods, appearing 
on the yards of their ships in the 
darkness of the storm, heralds of 
good weather (Plin. N. H. II. loi). 

3. ventorum pater : Aeolus. — 
regat, guide, 

4. obstrictis aliis : cf. Verg. A. 
I. 52 sqq. ^- lapyga : so named 
by the Greeks as blowing from the 
southeastern extremity of Italy, 
which they called lapygia, across 
the Ionian sea ; hence favorable 
in the present instance. It is the 
same as the Latin Favonius. 

5. creditum debes : a figure 
borrowed from commercial life : 
the ship has received Vergil as 
a depositum, and accordingly is 
bound to give him up (reddas) in 
unimpaired condition, at the time 
and place stipulated. Vergilium, 
standing in the accusative with 
reddas, in the place where the 
amount of the depositum is usually 
put, and before the caesura of the 
verse (Intr. 116^) expresses em- 
phatically the greatness of the 
ship's responsibUity. 

6. finibus : best taken as dative, 
but with reddas only, and not 
dird Mivov ; see last note. 



14 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



IS 



reddas incolumem precor 

et serves animae dimidium meae. 
lUi robur et aes triplex 

circa pectus erat, qui f ragilem truci 
commisit pelago ratem 

primus, nee timuit praecipitem Africum 
decertantem Aquilonibus 

nee tristis Hyadas nee rabiem Noti, 
quo non arbiter Hadriae 

maior, toUere seu ponere volt freta. 
Quern mortis timuit gradum, 

qui siccis oculis monstra natantia, 



7. reddas, deliver him. The 
prefix red' denotes the reversal of 
the operation of giving, so far as 
it affects the recipient, — the giv- 
ing up of what was received, not 
necessarily restoring it to the first 
giver ; so here and Ep, I. 13. 2 
Augusto reddes volumina ; cf . also 
the regular expression for deliv- 
ering a letter, epistulam reddere. 
From this it is a short step to the 
meaning * to pay ' sc. what is due 
(debitum = * withheld '). 

8. animae dimidium : cf. II. 
17. 5. The conception is bor- 
rowed from an old Greek defini- 
nition of friendship, fjila yj^vxh ^^ 
ffdfjMTa ipoiKovffa (Diog. Laert. V. i. 
20); cf. Cic. Lael 92 cum amicitiae 
vis sit in eo ut unus quasi animus 
fiat ex pluribus. 

9. illi, etc., his heart was cased 
in, etc., i.e. was impenetrable to all 
impressions of fear. The figure is 
taken from the heavy armor of the 
soldier, but it is only a figure, and 
pectus is the heart ; cf. IV. 4. 34. 

10. erat: Intr. 77. — f ragilem 
truci : Intr. 116 a. 

12. primus: Intr. 116^. — 



praecipitem : as coming in sud- 
den squalls (creber procellis, Verg. 
A. I. 85 ; protertmSf Epod. 16. 22). 
— Africum : see i. 15 n. 

13. Aquilonibus, 7e////i the blasts 
of Boreas ; see Intr. 57. Aquilo 
blew from between north and 
north-east, and his name was de- 
rived by some from the resemblance 
of his violent onset to the swoop 
of an eagle (Fest. ap. Paul. p. 22). 

14. tristis: as bringing wet and 
gloomy weather ; cf. tristis Orion^ 
Epody 10. 10 ; pluvias Hyadas ^ 
Verg. A. III. 516. — Noti: the 
Greek name corresponding to 
Auster, the South Wind. 

15. quo non arbiter maior (sc. 
est)t than whom no mightier mas- 
ter sways ; cf. III. 3. 4. 

16. seu : see Intr. 119^. — po- 
nere, to allay ; cf. 40 n. 

17. quem (= qualem ; cf. Ep. 
I. 15. I sq.) mortis gradum, 
what form of death's approach. 
For this conception of death cf. 
vs. 33 and III. 2. 14; Tib. 1. 10. 4. 

18. siccis oculis : i.e. without 
being moved to tears. The argu- 
ment is a fortiori: the man who 



III. 7-26.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



15 



20 



25 



qui vidit mare turbidum et 

inf amis scopulos Acroceraunia ? 
Nequiquam deus abscidit 

prudens Oceano dissociabili 
terras, si tamen impiae 

non tangenda rates transiliunt vada. 
Audax omnia perpeti 

gens humana ruit per vetitum ftefas. 



could contemplate these things 
without profound emotion would 
of course not be daunted by mere 
physical danger. The thought in 
this strophe is not, as in the pre- 
ceding, of the storm with its perils, 
which might attract a man of ad- 
venturous spirit, but of the awful 
grandeur of the sea itself, the tre- 
mendous force of its waves, and the 
portentous shapes that people its 
waters. The man who gazes with 
indifference on these manifesta- 
tions of a power immeasurably 
above all human strength is lack- 
ing, not in fear, but in reverence 
{pigtas)j and will brave the dis- 
pleasure of Heaven in other ways. 
This thought is developed in the 
remainder of the ode. 

20. infamis : from the fre- 
quency of shipwrecks there. — 
scopulos : Intr. 126 c, — Acroce- 
raunia : a long narrow promon- 
tory forming the northwestern ex- 
tremity of Epirus and enclosing 
the gulf of Oricum. It had to be 
passed on the voyage to Athens. 

21. deus prudens, divine prov- 
idence. The divine power that 
rules the world is often expressed 
by the word deus without further 
definition (cf. 18. 3, 34. 13, III. 16. 

43» 29- 30» ^Po^' 13- 7. £^P' I- II- 
22, 16. 78), giving evidence of the 

persistence of a dim conception of 



a supreme being through the mul- 
tifarious development of Roman 
polytheism. See Preller-Jordan, 
Horn, Myth.y I. 48. As a person- 
ality, however, this supreme ruler 
was no other than Jupiter ; incom- 
parably more powerful than all 
other beings in the universe (cf. 
12. 13 sqq.) but not the one God. 

— abscidit, set apart . . » from ; 
cf. Ov. M. I. 22 nam caelo terras 
et terris abscidit undas. 

22. prudens : sc, for man's best 
good. — Oceaiid : Intr. 70. — dis- 
sociabili, incompatible; cf. Tac. 
Agr» 3 res olim dissociabilesy prin- 
cipatum ac liber tatem. The sepa- 
ration of land and water was 
necessary to make human life 
possible. 

23. impiae : Intr. 124. 

24. non tangenda, which they 
ought not to touch. — transiliunt, 
course over ; suggesting entire free- 
dom from scruple or caution. 

25. audax perpeti : Intr. loi a. 

— omnia : * everything * (without 
exception), hence anything ; more 
forcible than quidlibet (cf. Ep, II. 
3. 10 quidlibet audendi) or quidvis 
(III. 24. 43, Ep. I. 15. 17); cf. holus 
omne, Ep. I. 5. 2. 

26. ruit : cf. transiliunt 24 n. — 
per vetitum nefas : i.e. not only 
through sin, but in the face of an 
express prohibition. 



16 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



30 



35 



Audax lapeti genus 

ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit. 
Post ignem aetheria domo 

subductum macies et nova f ebrium 
terris incubuit cohors, 

semotique prius tarda necessitas 
leti corripuit gradum. 

Expertus vacuum Daedalus aera 
pennis non homini datis ; 

perrupit Acheronta Herculeus labor. 
Nil mortalibus ardui est ; 

caelum ipsum petimus stultitia, neque 



27. audax : the anaphora (Intr. 
116/) mdicates that the cases 
now cited are instances of the im- 
pious audacity just described. — 
lapeti genus : Prometheus. 

28. ignem, etc.: in the separa- 
tion of the four elements from 
chaos (cf. 21 n), fire, the subtlest 
of all» rose to the highest place, in 
the ethereal spaces (aetheria 
domo 29) above the air (Ov. Af. I. 
26 s^.) From there it was ob- 
tained for man surreptitiously and 
in defiance of the will of Zeus by 
Prometheus, who brought down a 
portion concealed in a reed (Hes. 
Op. 50.) — malti, wsckfd ; cf. ma/os 
/ures, S. I. I. 77 and the legal 
form dolus ma/us. — gentibus : 
cf. gentiSf 2. 5 n. 

29. post ig^em subductum : 
Intr. 105 a. 

30. macies, etc. : according to 
the same myth (Hes. /./.) disease 
came among mankind with the 
first woman, Pandora, whom Zeus 
sent with her fatal box (or vase) in 
resentment for the theft of fire. 
— nova : cf. 2. 6 n. 

31. incubuit, settled upon; cf. 
Verg, A, I. 89 ponto nox incubat 



air a; Lucr. VI. 1143 {mortifer 
aestus) incuhuit popuh. — cohors, 
troop; properly * retinue.' 

32. semotique, etc.: i.e. death 
formerly, though inevitable (neces- 
sitas), was far off and came with 
slow pace ; cf. Tib. II. 3. 38 hinc 
cruor, kinc caedes^ mors propiorque 
venit. prius modifies the wfaiole 
description, more particularly se- 
moti and tarda (Intr. 76). 

34. Daedalus invaded still an- 
other element not designed for 
such use. For the story, see 
Verg. A. VI. 14, Ov. M. VIII. 
183. — vacuum, unsubstantial. 

35. non datis : t.e. designedly 
withheld (litotes). 

36. Hercules invaded even the 
realms of death. — perrupit, broke 
into. For the prosody, see Intr. 
179. — Herculeus labor : Intr. 
126^. 

37. nil ardui est (to be pro- 
nounced arduist)f no path is steep. 
Strictly, however, est is predica- 
tive (* there is *). — mortalibus : 
dat. of reference. 

38. stultitia : in attempting the 
impossible ; scelus : in transgress- 
ing the bounds set by divine will. 



III. 27-IV. 4.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



17 



per nostrum patimur scelus 
40 iracunda lovem ponere fulmina. 



V 



IV. 



■o.;- 



Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, 

trahuntque siccas machinae carinas, 
ac neque iam stabulis gaudet pecus aut arator igni, 

nee prata canis albicant prumis. 



40. iracunda : Intr. 1 24. — 
ponere : equivalent to deponerey 
as often in prose and poetry ; cf. 
Intr. 129. 

IV. L. Sestius, who is thought 
to have been a son of the P. 
Sestius defended by Cicero in a 
speech now extant, had been an 
enthusiastic partisan of Brutus, 
under whom he served as quaes- 
tor. Horace's acquaintance with 
him very likely dated from that 
time. On his return to Rome, 
Sestius was wealthy enough to be 
independent, but in spite of his 
undisguised fidelity to the memory 
of his former chief, he accepted 
the new order of things, and in 
B.C. 23 became consul (suflectus) 
on the retirement of Augustus 
from the consulship in July, — a 
fact that may have determined the 
place of this ode in the collection, 
which was probably published in 
that year. 

The ode is a highly artistic pro- 
duction, with an elaborate metre 
and a carefully balanced strophic 
symmetry. The main motive, 
expressed in the two middle 
couplets (vss. 9--12) grows nat- 
urally out of the description of 
spring which precedes (vss. i-^) 
and is ag^ain enforced by the 
thought presented in the conclud- 



ing verses (13-20). *The cramp- 
ing fetters of winter are bursting 
under the warm breath of spring, 
and man and nature are full of 
fresh, glad life. The season in- 
vites to enjoyment ; and life is too 
short and death too sure for us to 
count on many such opportuni- 
ties.' The poem is similar in con- 
struction to I. 7 ; in sentiment, to 
IV. 7. — Metre, 166. 

1. solvitur, is breaking up. The 
hard and fast condition of the 
ground produced by winter is at- 
tributed to the season itself, just 
as death is *pale' (vs. 13 n) etc. 
For the literal application of the 
word, see vs. 10. — Favoni: the 
West Wind (Z^0vpos), which began 
to blow, according to the Italian 
Farmer's Almanac, about Feb- 
ruary 10, and was accounted a 
harbinger of spring {^eris prae- 
nuntius, Zephyrus, Lucr. V. 737). 
The season for navigation opened 
about a month later. Notice the 
alliteration in this verse (Intr. 131). 

2. trahunt : the technical term 
is deducere ; here the direction in 
which the ships are drawn is indi- 
cated by siccas. — machinae : 
simply rope and tackle and rollers 
(phalangae); cf. Caes. B.C, II. la 7. 

3. neque iam gaudet : mark- 
ing the contrast between winter, 
which made the warm stable and 



18 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



lam Cytherea choros ducit Venus imminente luna, 

iunctaeque Nymphis Gratiae decehtes 
alterno terrain quatiunt pede, dum gravis Cyclopum 

Volcanus ardens visit officinas. 
Nunc decet aut viridi nitidum caput impedire myrto, 

aut flore terrae quem f erunt solutae ; 
nunc et in umbrosis Fauno decet immolare lucis, 

seu poscat agna sive malit haedo. 



the COSY fireside so attractive, and 
the spring, which has robbed them 
of their charm. 

5. The awakening of the regen- 
erative power of nature and the 
renewal of life and beauty in the 
spring of the year are typified in 
mythology by the renewed activity 
of Venus. Cf. the fine invocation 
to Venus in Lucr. I. 6, te^ dea^ te 
fugiunt ventiy te nuhila caeli \ ad- 
ventumqtu tuum^ tibi suavts dae- 
dala tellus \ summittit flores, tibi 
rident aequora pontic \ placatumque 
nitet diffusa lumine caelum ; \ nam 
simul ac species patefactast verna 
dieif etc.; and the picture in V. 737 
sqq. — Cytherea : i^. in Cythera ; 
cf. Delius et Patareus Apollo^ III. 
4. 64 n. — choros ducit, etc. : cf . 
the picture in the Homeric hynm 
to Apollo 194, fkinhp ivT\6KafMi 
XdfMT€t KoX iv^poves *Qpai \ *ApiMvlii 
& "HjSiy re Ai6f Bvydrrip r 'A^poSlrri | 
6px^^ dW'^Xup iwl Kopurip x^^P^^ 
Ixovo-ai. — imminente luna : the 
scene is l^dd in the solitude of the 
night, when the gods love best 
to visit the earth {sub nocte silenti, 
cum super is terrena placenta Stat. 
Silv. I. I. 94). 

6. iunctae : sc. with their arms, 
forming a row or ring (ixl Kaprf 
X^^>^^ ff xovcrai). — decentes, comely, 

7. alterno terram : the spon- 
dees imitate the measured tread of 
the dance. — dum gravis, etc.: 



a contrasted picture with heavy 
strokes, to set off the lighter lines 
of the preceding picture. — gra- 
vis, ponderous. — Cyclopum offi- 
cinas : popularlv located under 
the * Volcanic' islands north of 
Sicily; cf. Verg. A, VIII. 416. 
The Cyclopes were three sons of 
Uranus and Gaea, who forged the 
thunderbolts of Zeus (Hes. Theog, 
139), a conception of them quite 
distinct from that of the Odyssey, 
where they are represented as liv- 
ing the peaceful Itfe of shepherds. 

8. ardens : as the god of fire, 
working assiduously at the forge. — 
visit : cf. the description in Verg. 
A, VIII. 423 sqq. The conception 
of the gods visiting from time to 
time their favorite haunts or the 
scenes of their activity is a familiar 
one in .classical mythology ; cf. 
17. I sqq.^ III. 28. 14 sq.^ Verg. A. 
IV. 144. (According to many 
MSS. the verb here is urit,y?r«.) 

9. nitidum : sc. with ointment. 
— impedire : poetical for cingere. 
Perfumes and garlands were regu- 
lar concomitants of a feast ; cf. II. 
3. 13 n. — myrto : i.e. with a gar- 
land of its leaves; see II. i q. 6 n. 

10. flore : the singular is used 
collectively ; Intr. 127. — solutae : 
cf. solvitury I n. 

11. nunc et (/'^).;etc.: another 
form of feasting ; the victim will 
furnish forth the banquet 



IV. 5-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



19 



Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas 

regumque turris. O beate Sesti, 
15 vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam. 

lam te premet nox fabulaeque manes 
et domus exilis Plutonia ; quo simul mearis^ 

nee regna vini sortiere talis 
nee tenerum Lycidan mirabere, quo calet iuventus 

nunc omnis et mox virgines tepebunt. 



20 



12. seu poscat, etc.: economy 
of phrase for vel agndy si {agnd 
immolari)posccUt vel kaedOf si mctlitj 
or the like ; cf. 2. 33 n. For the 
ablatives, which are instrumental, 
cf. Cic. Leg. II. 29 quibus hostiis 
immolandum ctUque deo, 

13. pallida : the paleness which 
accompanies death is ascribed as 
a physical characteristic to the 
personified figure of the destroyer; 
Intr. 125. — aequo, impartial; 
Intr. 124. — pulsat pede : for the 
practice cf. Plant. Most. 453 ptU- 
tando pedibus paene confregi hasce 
/oris. For the repetition of the 
/^ound, see Intr. 131. 

14. te^Ta^ princes. The word 
is constantly used for a man of 
wealth, and particularly for the 
patron of a person in humble cir- 
cumstances ; cf. Ep. I. 7. 37. — 
turris : i.e. lofty houses. — beate, 
favored; usually referring to riches. 

15. summa, span; properly 
the *sum* of the days (or what- 
ever portion of time we may take 
as a unit) allotted to us ; cf. IV. 
7. 17. — brevis, longam: the 
contrast is enhanced by rhythmi- 
cal position ; Intr. 116 c. 

16. te premet, will close round 
you; cf. Verg. A. VI. 827 Con- 
cordes animae dum nocte pretnun- 
tur. — f abulae (in apposition with 
manes ; Intr. 1 26 r), phantom ; lit. 
talk, mere talk, empty names. Cf . 



Epod, II. 8. per urbem fabula 
quanta fui ; Pers. 5. 152 cinis et 
manes et fabula fies. 

17. domus Plutonia : here the 
whole lower world. — exilis : in 
contrast with the comforts with 
which Sestius is now surrounded. 
— simul : without or, as often. 

18. regna vini : at a drinking 
bout (comissatio) it was usual to 
select by lot a magister convivH^ 
who presided with arbitrary power 
over the festivities, regulating the 
strength of the wine, the amount 
drunk, etc., in accordance with 
certain stringent rules. For the 
manner of choosing this arbiter 
bibendiy see II. 7. 25 n. For the 
plural regna, see Intr. 128. — talis: 
like dice, except that two sides were 
rounded, leaving only four num- 
bered sides (I, 3, 4, 6) on which 
they could fall. 

19. Lycidan : the name, like 
all of Horace's Greek names, is 
fictitious, and stands for any hand- 
some lad ; Intr. 117 a. — mirabere, 
feast your eyes upon. Miror 
expresses a fascinated gaze, as 
HI. 25. 14, 29. II ; Ep. I. 6. 18 
Tyrios mirare colores. — quo : 
Intr. 72. — calet, are enamoured. 

20. mox : i.e. when he is a little 
older — tepebunt : denoting a 
milder degree of warmth than 
calet, — the first step from indif- 
ference to interest. 



20 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. L 



/ 



V. 

Quis multa gracilis te puer in rosa 
perf usus liquidis urget odoribus 
grato, Pyrrha, sub antro ? 
Cui flavam religas comam, 
simplex munditiis ? Heu quotiens fidem 
mutatosque deos flebit et aspera 
nigris aequora ventis 
emirabitur insolens, 



V. To a coquette. The poet 
writes in the character of one who 
has himself been led on to ship- 
wreck under her spell, and retains a 
lively recollection of her wiles. — 
Metre, 173. 

1. multa rosa : Intr. 127. The 
singular here suggests quantity 
rather than number. — in : «>. 
wearing them ; cf. Ep, II. 3. 228 
regali conspectus in auro nuper et 
ostro ; Cic. Fin, II. 65 potantem 
in rosa. The roses were worn in 
a great garland round the head 
and shoulders. — gracilis puer, 
slip of a boy; in disparagement, as 
S, I. 5. 6^ gracili sic tamque pusillo. 
There is nothing disparaging in 
puer itself ; see 9. 16 n. 

2. perfusus liquidis odoribus, 
bathed in perfume. — urget, courts. 

3. Pyrrha : Ilu/S^i (cf. irup), 
maid with the auburn hair (flavam 
comam 4), much admired by the 
Romans ; cf. II. 4. 14, III. 9. 19, 
IV. 4. 4; Verg. A. IV. 698 (of 
Dido). — sub : for <», but directing 
the thought more specifically to 
the shelter afforded by the grotto; 
cf. II. I. 39, III. 29. 14 sub tare, 
Epod. 9. 3 sub alta domo. — antro : 
such grottos or bowers, natural or 
artificial, were common in Roman 
country places* serving - the pur- 



pose of our summer-house. The 
youth and maid are making holi- 
day together in the manner sug- 
gested in I. 19 sqq. Hence the 
roses and perfume (see 4. 9 n). 

4. cjxi^ for whose eyes ? — religas: 
i>. in a knot at the back of the 
head, the simplest mode of wear- 
ing the hair; cf. II. 11. 23; Ov. 
M, yill. 319 crinis erat simplex^ 
nodum coUectus in unum, 

5. simplex munditiis, in un- 
adorned neatness. The girl adopts 
a very effective simplicity of dress. 

— iidem: here broken faith, as 
the context shows. Eides is suffi- 
ciently elastic to take on this 
meaning; cf. 18. 16 arcani fides 
prodigay III. 24. y^periura fuUs, 

6. mutatos deos : sc, in their 
disposition towards him, — the 
loss of their favor; see Intr. 105 a. 

— flebit: Intr. 51 a. — aspera 
etc.: i.e, when she is tired of him 
and seeks a quarrel to get rid of 
him. The metaphor prepares the 
way for the figure with which the 
ode closes. 

7. nigris : Intr. 125 ; cf. Epod. 
10. 5 niger Eurus. 

8. emirabitur : the e- is inten- 
sive, as in ediscercy elaborare^ edu- 
ruSt etc. The word first occurs in 
Horace. — insolens, innocent soul. 



V. i-i6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



21 



10 



'5 



qui nunc te fruitur credulus aurea, 
qui semper vacuara, semper amabilem 
sperat, nescius aurae 
fallacis. Miseri quibus 

intemptata nites: me tabula sacer 
votiva paries indicat uvida 
suspendisse potenti 
vestimenfa maris deo. .. 



The word is here used in its 
primitive sense of * unaccustomed 
to,' 'unfamiliar with' something. 
Horace also uses it objectively, as 
II. 3. 3 insolenti lattitia, unusual 
or excessive joy ; and in this sense 
it was sometimes applied to a per- 
son, as Ter. And. 907 quid tu 
jithemis insolenSf {i.e. seldom seen, 
' a stranger ') ? Finally it is used 
of a person who holds himself 
aloof, is reserved, unsympathetic, 
haughty, arrogant, — its common- 
est meaning, as 16. 21, II. 4. 2, etc. 

9. credulus aurea : the juxta- 
position of the two epithets (Intr. 
116 a) is as expressive as a sepa- 
rate clause {credens te auream esse), 
— aurea, all gold; denoting su- 
preme excellence ; cf. IV. 2. 23 
mores aureos, II. 10. 5 auream 
mediocritatemf Verg. A. X. 16 
Venus aurea (xfiwiirtt 'A^poBlrrfs, 
77. III. 64), and our 'golden rule,' 
' silence is golden,' etc. 

10. vacuam, fancy-free ; cf. 6. 
19. 

11. nescius aurae : returning 
to the figure introduced in vs. 6 ; 
but aura in the sense of fickle 



favor had almost ceased to be fig- 
urative ; cf. popularis aurae^ III. 
2. 20. 

13. nites : of outward beauty ; 
cf. ^. II. I. 64 nitidus per ora (i>. 
in public) cederet, introrsum iurpis. 
— tabula sacer, etc. : alluding to 
the custom, not yet extinct, by 
which the shipwrecked mariner 
commemorated his escape and his 
gratitude by depositing in the tem- 
pie of the divinity to whom he 
attributed his safety a picture 
(tabula) of the occurrence, to- 
gether with his clothes, the sole 
possessions which he saved with 
his life. Cf. Vergil's description 
of the sacred olive-tree of Faunus 
at Laurentum {A. XII. 766), nautis 
olim venerabile lignum ^ | servati 
ex undis ubi figere dona solebant \ 
Laurenti divo et votas suspendere 
vestes, 

14. votiva : the sailor in his 
peril would vow the offering ; cf. 
votas vestesy Verg. /./., — paries : 
that of the temple, on which the 
picture was hung. 

16. maris : with potenti ; cf. 
Cypriy 3. I n. — dec : Neptune. 



22 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



VI. 

Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium 
victor Maeonii carminis alite, 
quam rem cumque ferox navibus aut equis 
miles te duce gesserit. 



VI. To Marcus Agrippa; an apol- 
ogy. It would seem that Agrippa 
had intimated a desire that Horace 
should write an ode in his honor. 
Horace protests in half plajrful 
strain that the subject is beyond 
his humble powers, a theme fit for 
epic verse, and by weaving in a 
good deal of complimentary allu- 
sion really grants the favor he pro- 
fesses to withhold. For similar 
instances of his skill in declining 
such requests, cf . .9. II. i. 12 sqq.y 
Ep, II. I. 250 sqq. — Metre, 172. 

1. scriberis: the emphasis (Intr. 
116^) is that of assurance, and 
the ground of the assurance nat- 
urally follows at once, — * Your 
achievements will not lack a his- 
torian ; there's Varius, etc.,' — 
drawing Vario away from its syn- 
tactical connection. Scribere with 
a personal object (cf. vs. 13 quis 
Martem scripserit) or with a per- 
sonal subject in the passive is 
rare ; and the real subject here is 
not merely tu^ understood, but tu 
fortis et hostium victor, i.e, 
your prowess and success ; see 
Intr. 105a. — Vario . . . alite: 
ablative absolute, but with a force 
approaching that of the examples 
in Intr. 105 b. The thought is, 
* Your fame is safe in the fact that 
Varius is an epic poet.' (Some edi- 
tors change unnecessarily to a////, 
making Vario dat. of the agent.) 

2. Maeonii: i.e, Homeric. Ac- 
cording to one of many conflicting 
traditions Homer was born at 



Smyrna in Lydia (Maeonia). 
When this ode was written Varius 
was looked upon as the epic poet 
of the age, and even after the 
publication of the Aeneid in B.c. 
19 Horace couples his name with 
that of Vergil on equal terms {Ep, 
II. I. 247, 3. 55); see Intr. 15.— 
alite: for poet or 'singer'; cf. 
IV. 2. 25 Dircaeum cycnutn (of 
Pindar), and II. 20. 

3. quam rem cumque, etc.: 
Le, whatever exploit the army or 
navy has achieved under your 
command will be an occasion for 
Varius to record your praises in 
his expected epic. The construc- 
tion is similar to our own use of 
the general relative clause, when 
it is equivalent to a general condi- 
tion, summing up all cases that 
may have occurred : * If in any 
case the soldier, etc. (/>. in every 
case where the soldier, etc.), your 
prowess will be recorded.' Cf. Ep. 
I. 2. 14 quicquid delirant reges^ 
plectuntur Achivi, — cumque : 
treated by Horace as a detachable 
suffix ; cf. 7. 25, 9. 14, 16. 2, etc. 

— navibus : alluding especially to 
the naval victories of Naulochus, 
B.C. '36, and Actium, B.C. 31. 

— equis : i.e, (in contrast with 
navibus), on land. Agrippa com- 
manded in Gaul in B.C. 39 and 38, 
and gained some successes on. the 
Rhine and elsewhere. 

5. no8 : Intr. 116^. — neque 
haec dicere nee : i.e. I no more 
attempt these themes than I 



VI. I-I2.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



23 



lO 



Nos, Agrippa, neque haec dicere nee gravem 
Pelidae stomachum cedere nescii 
nee eursus duplieis per mare Vlixei 
nee saevam Pelopis domum 

eonamur, tenues grandia, dum pudor 
imbellisque lyrae musa potens vetat 
laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas 
eulpa deterere ingeni. 



should, etc. ; cf. III. 5. 27 sqq. 
By classing Agrippa*s exploits with 
those of the heroes of Greek epos 
and tragedy, ostensibly to excuse 
himself, he pays the highest possi- 
ble compliment to the Roman 
general. — gravem Pelidae sto- 
machum : the subject of the 
Iliad, — ju^ytp . . . J\y\Kt\iAJ^{a Ax*- 
X^o$ o6\ofi4vTjp, //. I. I. — dicere, 
fo sing; a common use of the 
word, especially where the theme 
of song is given ; cf. 12. 25, 21. i 
sq., II. 13. 30, I. 32. 3, III. 4. I, 
IV. 12. 9, etc. 

6. stomachum, spleen; cf. S. 
II. 7. 44. The word hatf a collo- 
quial flavor, and is used in playful 
irony of so dignified a subject ; 
so sdso duplex (7), wifyj for the 
Homeric irokurpovoiy iroXvfiriris. — 
cedere : see Intr. loi c. 

7. eursus, etc.: the theme of 
the Odyssey. — Vlixei : genitive ; 
cf. Achillei, IC, 34, Epod, 17. 14. 
The name of Olvcvt^ invariably 
used by Latin writers is VJixes^ 
from a dialectic (Doric) form, 
O^X/^. The genitive Vlixei^ 
from a parallel form Vlixeusy 
which however does not occur 
(cf . Perses and Perseus)^ is quad- 
risyllabic here and Epod, 16. 60, 
17. 16 ; but necessarily trisyllab- 
ic in hexameter {Ep, I. 6. 63, 
7. 40). 



8. saevam Pelopis domum, 
Pelops^ savage line^ — the subject 
of many of the most famous Greek 
tragedies, among them the Aga- 
memnon of Aeschylus, the Electra 
of Sophocles, and the Orestes^ Elec- 
tra, and Iphigenia of Euripides, 
still extant. Varius himself had 
written a Tkyestes. The story of 
the family was a series of murclers, 
from Pelops himself, who slew his 
father-in-law Oenomaus, to Ores- 
tes, who killed his mother Clytem- 
nestra. 

9. tenues grandia (agreeing 
with nos and haec respectively), 
grand themes for slender powers ; 
Intr. 116 a. — dum : see 2. 17 n. 

10. imbellis : indicating the 
nature of his unfitness to deal with 
Agrippa*s exploits. — lyrae : cf . 
Cypri^ 3. I n. — musa: see note 
on CliOi 12. 2. — vetat : Intr. 77. 

11. egregii Caesaris: cf. III. 
25. 4, and see 2. 52 n. The poet 
dexterously introduces the fact 
that Agrippa was associated with 
Augustus in his greatest achieve- 
ments. 

12. culpa ingeni : cf. Ep. II. 
1. 229 sqq,, where Horace expresses 
himself at length on this subject. 
— deterere, to belittle. — ingeni: 
substantives with steins in 'to- have 
Only the shorter form of the geni- 
tive in Horace. 



24 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



15 



20 



Quis Martem tunica tiectum adamantina 
digne scripserit aut pulvere Troico 
nigrum Merionen aut ope Palladis 
Tydiden superis parem ? 

Nos convivia, nos proelia virginum 
sectis in iuvenes unguibus acrium 
cantamus vacui, sive quid urimur, 
non praeter solitum leves. 



VII. 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mytilenen 
aut Epheson bimarisve Corinthi 



13-16. Scenes from the Iliad. 
It is implied, of course, that Agrip- 
pa's prowess is to be ranked with 
that of the god and the heroes 
mentioned. 

13. tunica tectum adaman- 
tina : a paraphrase of xa^'^ox^Twy, 
a stock epithet of the Homeric 
warrior. Adamas {i^diMt^ unyield- 
ing; cf. da/tidw) is not a specific 
metal, but a poetic term for the 
hardest iron or brass. 

14. digne scripserit : the more 
accurate Latin use of the future 
perfect, the question having refer- 
ence not so much to the action 
itself as to its quality, which can 
be submitted to judgment only 
after the action b completed. 

15. Merionen: charioteer of 
Idomeneus of Crete (//. XIII. 528) ; 
cf. 15. 26, IV. 9. 20 n. — ope Pal- 
ladis etc.: alluding to the combat 
(//. V. 334 sqq.) in which Diomed, 
with the aid of Athena, wounds 
Venus and Mars and drives them 
from the field. 

18. sectis, but . . . pared; not 
really dangerous. — in iuvenes 
acrium : cf. acer in hostem^ 2. 39. 



19. vacui : see 5. 10 n. — sive : 
Intr. 1 19 </. — quid, cU alL 

20. non praeter solitum, as 
usual. 

VII. This ode is similar in plan 
to Ode 4, the main motive being 
an exhortation to forget the 
troubles and enjoy the pleasures 
of life, with an introduction and a 
conclusion designed to enforce 
this counsel. The introduction 
commends the beauty of a place 
(as in Ode 4 of a season) that 
invites to enjoyment, and the con- 
clusion supports the counsel given 
by an example. The parts are 
not so skilfully fitted together, 
however, as in Ode 4, so that some 
critics, as early as the second cen- 
tury, have thought that we really 
have here two odes (vss. 1-14 and 
1 5-32) ; and this division appears 
in some manuscripts. It is possi- 
ble that vss. I -1 4 were originally 
written independently, but there is 
no sufficient reason to doubt that 
Horace finally composed the ode 
in its present form, on the plan 
indicated above. 



vr. 13-VI1. 7.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



25 



moenia vel Baccho Thebas vel ApoUine Delphos 

insignis aut Thessala Tempe. 
5 Sunt quibus unum opus est intactae Palladis urbem 

carmine perpetuo celebrare et 
undique decerptam fronti praeponere olivam ; 



L. Munatius Plancus, to whom 
the ode is addressed, was a man of 
advanced years and great promi- 
nence in the state. He had been 
one of Caesar's lieutenants in Gaul 
and in B.C. 43, while holding the chief 
command in that country, founded 
the colony of Lugdunum (Lyons). 
He was consul in 42, and for many 
years after that was the trusted 
friend and agent of Antony in the 
East. The Tatter's relations with 
Cleopatra however, finally drove 
him (or gave him an excuse) to go 
over to Octavian just before the 
decisive struggle at Actium. His 
course made him, j ustly or un j ustly, 
many bitter enemies, who have 
painted him as an unscrupulous 
trimmer. If so, it was a master 
stroke to make in the senate 
in B.C. 27 the proposal by which 
the title of Augustus was con- 
ferred upon Octavian ; and for 
this he received his reward in the 
censorship in B.C. 22. Horace's 
tribute implies nothing as to his 
character, being little more than a 
formal compliment. — Metre, 162. 

I. laudabunt : Intr. 79. For 
the meaning, see i. 17 n. — cla- 
ram, renowned (cf. Rhodum no- 
bilenty Cat. 4. 8), applying to the 
first three cities named (connected 
by aut . . . aut). All three were 
noted for beauty of situation and 
delightful climate. Rhodes was 
also famous for its commerce and 
for its school of rhetoric which ex^ 
erted no small influence on Roman 
oratory, counting Cicero among its 
pupils. Mytilene was the capital 



of Lesbos, the city of Alcaeus and 
Sappho. Ephesus was the capital 
of the province of Asia. 

2. bimaris : from its position 
on the Isthm us. The word, formed 
on the model of the Greek bidA- 
y^aavoif occurs first here, but was 
afterwards much used by Ovid. — 
Corinthi moenia : at this time in 
ruins. The city was destroyed by 
the Romans in B.C. 146, and the 
colony of freedmen established 
there by Julius Caesar had not 
as yet attained any great degree 
of prosperity. 

3. Baccho, ApoUine : abl. of 
cause, with insignis. 

4. Tempe (T^/uti;, ace. pi. neut., 
like yivri) : the beautiful defile 
through which the Peneus makes 
its way between Olympus and 
Ossa to the sea. 

5. quibus unum opus est : i.e. 
who devote themselves wholly to 
this one theme. — intactae, the 
Virgin, 'A^my UapBivoi. — urbem: 
Athens. 

7. undique decerptam etc.: 
i.e, to seek distinction by writing 
on every possible topic in Attic 
history and legend. The same 
figure is used by Lucretius, I. 928 : 
iuvatque novos decerpere flores \ 
insignetnque meo capiti petere inde 
coronam, \ undeprius nulli velarint 
tempora musae, — fronti praepo- 
nere : i.e. in a garland. — olivam, 
an olive twig. The olive, the gift of 
Athena to Athens, grew in great 
abundance in Attica and was 
closely associated with the fame 
of that country. 



26 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



plurimus in lunonis honorem 
aptum dicet equis Argos ditisque Mycenas. 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon 
nee tam Larisae percussit campus opimae 

quam domus Albuneae resonantis 
et praeceps Anio ac Tiburni lucus et uda 

mobilibus pomaria rivis. 
15 Albus ut obscuro deterget nubila caelo 



8. plurimus, a great many; cf. 
Verg. A. II. 369 plurima mortis 
imago; Juv. 3. 232 plurimus hie 
euger m oritur vigilando ; Lucan 
III. 707 multus sua volnera puppi 
adfixit moriens. — in lunonis ho- 
norem, etc : cf. //. IV. 51, where 
Hera says : 17 roc ^/uo2 rfteii fUv 
vokb tplXraral elffi xoX^et, | "Apyos 
T€ Zirdprt; re Kal e^pvdyvia Mv- 

9. aptum equis Argos=''A/r)ros 
liTTdfioTOP {II. II. 287).— dicet: 
cf . 6. 5 n. — ditis Mycenas : cf . 
iro\vxp^<fou> Mvjci^mjf, //. VII. 180. 
The city was alreaidy in ruins in 
Horace's time. 

10. me: cf. i. 29n. The enumer- 
ation of Greek cities is continued 
into this sentence, and makes the 
connection with what follows. — 
patiens, hardy. — Lacedaemon : 
the third of the favorite cities of 
Juno. Cf. vs. 8 n. All these were 
insignificant at this time, and inter- 
esting to Horace and his readers, 
as they are to us, from their his- 
torical or traditional associations. 

11. Larisae: in Thessaly, in 
the fertile valley of the Peneus. — 
percussit : se. with admiration. — 
opimae : cf. Adpt/aav ipipQXiiKCk, II. 
IL 841. 

12. domus, etc : >>. Tibur (Ti- 
voli) and its beautiful surround- 
ings. — domus Albuneae : #>. the 
grotto sacred to this sibyl, which 



was resorted to as an oracle in 
early tixnes from all parts of Italy. 
See Verg. A. VII. 82 sqq. — reso- 
nantis, from the neighboring cata- 
ract. 

1 3. praeceps Anio : after pass- 
ing through the town, which stands 
on the edge of the Sabine hills, 
commanding a fine view of the 
Campagna, the river descends to 
the plain in a series of beautiful 
waterfalls. — Tiburni : the mythi- 
cal eponymous founder of Tibur. 
Tradition made him a grandson of 
the Argive prophet Amphiaraus, 
banished with his brothers Catillus 
and Coras ; cf. II. 6. 5 Tibur 
Argeo positum eolonoj I. 18. 2, 
where the town is called moenia 
Cati/if and Verg. ^. VII. 670 sqq. — 
lucus, the sacred grove; the regular 
meaning of lucus in distinction 
from nemus. Cf. Ep. I. 6. 32. — 
uda: i.e. irrigated ; cf. III. 29. 6. 

14. mobilibus rivis: the streams 
that flow into the Anio, with their 
frequent waterfalls. — pomaria : 
cf. Propert. V. 7. 81 pomosis Anio 
incubat arvis. 

1 5. Here begins the second and 
main part of the ode, for which 
the preceding praise of Tibur paves 
the way. — albus, bright; cf. III. 
27. 19 ; Intr. 125. It belongs with 
saepe and the predicate : as the 
South Wind is often bright and wipes 
awayy etc. Notus was ordinarily 



VII. 8-22.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



27 



saepe Notus neque parturit imbris 
perpetuos, sic tu sapiens finire memento 

tristitiam vitaeque labores 
moUi, Plance, mero, sen te fulgentia signis 
20 castra tenent seu densa tenebit 

Tiburis umbra tui. Teucer Salamina patremque 

cum fugeret, tamen uda Lyaeo 



a stormy wind (cf. 3. 14 rabiem 
NoH)y but sometimes brought clear 
weather, in which case he was 
called by the Greeks Aevm^yorof. 

16. parturit, is pregnant with^ 
breeds, 

17. perpetuos : cf. primust 3. 
12 n. — sapiens : equivalent to an 
adverb with finire. — finire, to 
seek relief from ; lit. to set limits 
to, so that they shall not be per- 
petua, Cf. III. 4. 39 ; Ep, II. 3. 
406 ludusque repertus et longorum 
operum finis. — memento : a com- 
mon form of command or advice, 
softening the direct injunction ; cf. 
II. 3. I, III. 29. 32, S, II. 5. 52, 
Ep, I. 8. 16, etc. 

18. labores, troubles, 

19. moUi : referring at once to 
the mellowness of the wine (from 
age) and to its soothing influence. 
— fulgentia : the eagle of the 
legion and the silver disks on the 
standards of the cohorts were 
kept highly polished. 

20. tenent . . . tenebit : the 
natural inference from this change 
of tense, — that Plancus was at the 
time in camp, — places the date of 
the ode at least as early as B.C. 30, 
as there is no evidence and no 
probability that Planers was 
engaged in military operations 
after that year. 

21. tui : according to Porphyrio 
Plancus was a native of Tibur. 
He must at least have had a villa 
there. — Teucer : the example 



which the poet quotes to enforce 
his counsel is that of a man who, 
with hardships and struggles star- 
ing him in the face, refused to let 
them gain complete possession of 
his mind, and devoted to enjoy- 
ment the few hours that were l^t 
before the inevitable time of their 
coming. It is idle to search for 
any special resemblance to his 
case in that of Plancus. Teucer, 
the son of Telamon and brother 
of Ajax, on returning home to 
Salamis after the Trojan ¥rar, was 
repulsed and driven into banish- 
ment by his father, who had sent 
the brothers to the war with the 
strict injunction that neither 
should return without the other. 
Teucer sailed with his companions 
to Cyprus and there founded a 
city, to which he gave the name of 
his native Salamis ; cf. Verg. A. 
I. 619. The story was familiar to 
Horace's contemporaries from a 
popular play of Pacuvius. 

22. cixttiiM%^T^XjWhengoinginto 
exile from; dF. -5". I. 6. 13 Tarqui- 
nius regno pulsus fugitj and the 
Greek ^te&yeip. The time indicated 
is apparently the night before he 
sailed away from Salamis. — uda 
Lyaeo, moist from wine, i.e. from 
drinking ; cf. Tibul. I. 2. 3 multo 
perfusum tempora Baccko, Lyaeus 
('the Releaser'; as if from Xi^), a 
surname of Bacchus, stands here 
for his province, as Baccho in the 
example quoted ; Intr. 130. 



28 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. T. 



tempora populea fertur vinxisse corona, 

sic tristis adfatus amicos : 
25 * Quo nos cumque feret melior fortuna parent e, 

ibimus, o socii comitesque ! 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro ; 

certus enim promisit Apollo 
ambiguam tellure nova Salamina futuram. 
30 O fortes peioraque passi 

mecum saepe viri, nunc vino pellite curas ; 

eras ingens iterabimus aequor.* 



23. populea : the poplar was 
sacred to Hercules, the great 
traveller of heroic times {vagus 
Hercules, III. 3. 9), under whose 
protection Teucer at this juncture 
would naturally place himself. — 
corona : cf. 4. 9 n. 

25. cumque : cf . 6. 3 n. — melior, 
kinder. — parente : represented, 
in the tragedy of Pacuvius, as 
harsh and stem (Cic. de Or. II. 

193)- 

27. Teucro: the use of his own 

name instead of mey — the name 
by which he is known to them, 
with the associations attached to 
it in their minds, — is an appeal 
to their confidence in him. — duce 
et auspice : an expression bor- 
rowed from the institutions of the 
Commonwealth, under which all 
military operations in the province 
of a consul were done under his 
auspicitty though not necessarily 
under his immediate personal direc- 
tion (ductus), Cf. Suet. Aug. 21 
damuit autem par tint ductu par tint 
auspiciis suis Cantabriam, etc. The 
phrase here, however, expresses 
something more than complete 
leadership, auspice being used 
with reference to the prophecy 
which he proceeds to quote. 

28. certus, unerring. 



29. ambiguam : i.e. one that 
will rival the original Salamis so 
that the name will no longer serve, 
without further definition, to indi- 
cate which of the 'two is meant. — 
futuram : sc. esse. 

30. o fortes peioraque passi : 
cf. Verg. A, I. 198 passi gravi- 
ora, 

31. nunc : i.e. while you may ; 
in contrast with eras ; cf. 9. 18 
and 21. 

32. iterabimus : having just 
completed one voyage (from Troy) ; 
cf. Odys. XII. 293 iiiodcv ^ Apapdyret 
iyfyrofuv edp^i T6vT(f, 

VIII. A spirited sketch of a 
young athlete in love. The name 
Lydia, sometimes Lyde (At^vj), as 
III. II and 28, occurs frequently 
in amatory poetry, and is here 
appropriate with its suggestion of 
oriental effeminacy. Sybaris^ af- 
ter the name of a town in Magna 
Graecia proverbial for its luxury, 
is equally suitable for the lover in 
his present state. The poet ex- 
presses his amazement at the 
transformation which has been 
wrought, in a volley of questions 
which do not wait for an answer, 
adjuring Lydia to tell how she has 
worked such a spell upon the 



VII. 23-viii. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



29 



VIII. 

Lydia, die, per omnis 

te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando 
perdere, cur apricum 

oderit campum, patiens pulveris atque solis. 
5 Cur neque militaris 

inter aequalis equitat, Gallica nee lupatis 
temperat ora f renis ? 

Cur timet flavum Tiberim tangere ? Cur olivum 



youth. The questions are at first 
indirect, depending on die, but 
afterwards proceed more quietly 
in the direct form. The ode is no 
doubt formed on a Greek model, 
— Horace's only experiment in 
this difficult metre, — but is 
worked out as usual with Roman 
details. — Metre, 175. 

1. per omnes te deos oro : 
this interlocked order (Intr. no) 
is a favorite one in adjurations ; 
cf . Ter. Am/. 538 /^r fe deos oro ; 
834 per ego te deos oro. Here te 
brings out the emphasis on omnes 
and deos by separating them. 

2. cur properes amando : i.e. 
why he is hastening to his ruin 
under her spell ; not asking why 
she does so, but adjuring her to 
explain the marvelous result. 
What has she done to him to 
change him so utterly ? — amando : 
used in a neutral sense, neither 
active nor passive, like an abstract 
noun; cf. Verg. ^. 8. 71 cantando 
rutnpitur anguis; Lucr. 1. 312 anu- 
lus in digito subter tenuatur habendo. 

4. campum : sc, Martium, a 
portion of which, on the bank of 
the river, was set apart for athletic 
exercises. The usual time was 
early in the afternoon, before the 
hottest part of the day. See S, I. 



6. 125 sqq. — patiens, he who can 
bear; cf. metuensy i. 16 n. 

5. neque . . . nee : i,e, neither 
in the common exercises nor alone. 
— militaris aequalis, the soldierly 
young fellows of his own age, 

6. equitat : an exercise which 
Augustus made more fashionable 
by the institution (or restoration) 
of the Game of Troy {lusus Troiae, 
Suet Aug, 43; Verg. A. V. 545); cf. 
III. 7. 25 j^., 12. 3, 24. 54 j-^. — Gal- 
lica : i,e, of the Gallic steed. Gaul 
supplied the Romans with their 
best horses. — lupatis: cf. Verg. 
G, in. 208. 

7. tem'peTZXf govern. 

8. timet tangere : humorous 
exaggeration to express the ex- 
treme distaste which the youth has 
conceived for what was once his 
favorite exercise. For the infini- 
tive see Intr. 94 /. — flavum : see 
2. 13 n. — Tiberim: swimming 
in the warm climate of Rome was 
naturally a very attractive form of 
exercise. Cf. III. 7. 27 ; 12. 3; S, 
II.' I. 8 ; Cic. Cael. 36 ad Tiberim, 
eo loco quo omnis iuventus natandi 
causa venit. — olivum : with which 
the body was anointed before 
swimming (cf. III. 12. 3) and the 
exercises of the palaestra, such as 
those that follow. Cf. Sat. 1. 6. 1 23. 



30 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



sanguine vipermo 
10 cautius vitat neque iam livida gestat armis 
bracchia, saepe disco, 

saepe trans finem iaculo nobilis expedite ? 
Quid latet, ut marinae 

filium dicunt Thetidis sub lacrimosa Troiae 
1 5 f unera, ne virilis 

cultus in caedem et Lycias proriperet catervas ? 



9. sanguine viperino: regarded 
as poisonous ; cf . Epod. 3. 6. For 
the abl. see Intr. 75. 

10. cautius vitat : cf. timet 
tangercy 8 n. — neque iam, and 
no longer. — livida : e.g. from 
carrying the discus, from occasional 
bruises, perhaps from blows with 
the boxing glove {caestusy called 
arma Verg. A. V. 412). — gestat : 
seldom used except of things sepa- 
rate from the body, but cf. non 
obtusa pectora gestamusy Verg. A. 
!• 567* — armis: sc. campestribus 
{Ep. II. 3. 379); i.e. the discus, 
javelin, and other implements used 
in the sports on the Campus. 

11. disco : a heavy disc of stone 
or metal. The exercise was simi- 
lar to our * throwing the hammer * 
and 'putting the shot' See the 
cut of Myron's famous discobolus 
in Baumeister II., p. 1003. Ap- 
parently the javelin was also used 
in this way, among others. 

12. trans finem expedite, for 
having put . . . clear beyond the 
farthest mark (*broken the record'), 
like Ulysses among the Phaeacians, 
Od.Wll. 192: 6 d (Xaas) inrifmraro 
ffiiyunTa irdvTuv. For the construc- 
tion see Intr. 105 a. — nobilis, he 
who is famous; concessive, like 
patiens 4 n. 

13. ut dicunt : the story that 
Thetis, foreseeing the fate of her 
son if he should join the expe- 



dition against Troy, placed him, 
disguised in girl's clothes at the 
court of Lycomedes, king of 
Scyros, where he was discovered 
by the shrewdness of Ulysses, is 
not alluded to in Homer, but 
occurs in later Greek literature. 
Cf. Ovid M. XIII. 162, and Stat. 
Achil. I. 207 sqq.y where it is 
worked out in detail. 

14. filium: Achilles. — sub, <?» 
the eve of; see III. 7. 30 n. 

16. cultus, dress. — Lycias 
catervas : the most important 
allies of the Trojans. 

IX. In contrast with Ode 4, 
the scene is here laid in mid-win- 
ter, when the forbidding aspect of 
nature invests the warm fireside 
with a special charm. The ode is 
modeled upon a drinking song of 
Alcaeus, a part of which is pre- 
served {Fr. 34) : 

'Tei yJkv b Zci/s, Ik S* dpdvca fiiyas 
X^lfiMP, TreirdYcuriy d* ibdroiv j^ai. 

Kdp^aWe rhv x^^t*^^ ^ ^^^ f'^^ rlOeis 
TTup, if Si Ktpvais olvov d<p€idi<as 
fiiXixpov, avrdp &/jx/>l K6p<r^ 
fid\6aKovdixif>L{Tl0Ti)yv6<f>a\\ov * 

but the details of the picture are, 
as in the preceding ode, Italian. 
* ThaUarchus ' {daXLapxos ^ magis- 
ter cowvivii ; cf. 4. 18 n) is in all 
probability not an assumed name 



VIII. 9-ix. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



31 



Vides ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte, nee iam sustineant onus 
silvae laborantes, geluque 
flumina constiterint acuto. 

5 Dissolve frigus ligna* super foco 
large reponens, atque benignius 
deprome quadrimum Sabina, 
o Thaliarche, merum diota. 



0- 



for one of Horace's friends, but 
with the whole setting of the ode 
existed only in the poet's fancy. 
The poem is one of Horace's eariy 
studies of his Greek masters, and 
may be counted among the most 
successful. — Metre, 176. 

1. ut, how. — stet : of the 
mountain towering up against the 
sky; more picturesque than sit, 
Cf. Verg. A, VI. 471 stet Marpesia 
cautes, 

2. Soracte : on the western 
side of the Tiber valley, rising to 
a height of about 2000 feet. It 
was in sight from the city, about * 
25 miles to the north, but the 
scene, so far as it is definitely 
conceived at all, must here be 
imagined at some country place. 

3. laborantes, struggling^ sc. to 
hold their own against the weight 
of snow. 

4. constiterint : i./. are frozen 
entirely over : cf. Ov. TV. V. 10. i 
ut sumus in Ponto^ ter frigore con- 
stitit Hister, Such extreme cold 
and heavy snow as here described 
did not occur in middle Italy once 
in a lifetime. The picture is bor- 
rowed from the Greek original; 
cf. xcrdycurcir d' dddrwK ^eu in the 
fragment quoted above. 



5. dissolve : cf. solvitur, 4. i n. 

— super, upon; cf. super Pindo^ 
12. 6. In this sense super usually 
takes the accusative in prose, and 
with the ablative is more commonly 
equivalent to de^ as III. 8. 17, C. S. 
18. — foco: in country houses a 
low« square platform of stone or 
brick in the middle of the atrium. 
The fire of logs was built on the top 
of it, and the smoke made its way 
out through the roof. On one side 
was the altar of the Lares. It was 
the centre of household worship 
and work, and around it the family 
would gather evenings, with such 
guests as they had with them ; cf. 
£pod. 2. 65 Si/,, S, II. 6. d^.sqq. 

6. T^^on^tiB, replenishing. The 
word properly means to make 
good the loss of what has been 
consumed, which carries with it, 
however, the notion of an ade- 
quate supply. Cf. epulae repostae, 
Verg. G. III. 527. — benignius, 
more generously. 

7. deprome, draw. — Sabina : 
i.e. containing Sabine wine (Intr. 
1 24). It was a plain wine (cf. 20. i ), 
but in this case somewhat mel- 
lowed by age (quadrimum). 

8. Thaliarche : see intr. note. 

— diottif yiagon ; the amphora or 



32 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



IS 



Permitjte divis cetera ; qui simul 
stravere ventos aequore fervido 
deproeliantis, nee cupressi 
nee veteres agitantur orni. 

Quid sit.futurum eras fuge quaerere, et 
quern fors dierum cumque dabit lucro 
adpone, nee dulcis amores 
sperne puer neque tu choreas, 

donee virenti canities abest 
morosa. Nunc et campus et areae 



two-handled (lit. * two-eared') jar 
in which the wine was kept in 
the cella vinariaf and from which 
it was poured (deprome) into the 
mixing-bowl (cratera) on the table. 

9. cetera, all elscy sc. than en- 
joyment of the present moment ; 
cf. III. 29. 33 sg. — qui simul, lAe 
moment they. See 4. 17 n. 

10. stravere, have laid. — 
aequore : Intr. 69. 

11. deproeliantis : sc. with one 
another ; cf . 3. 1 2 sq. The prefix 
is intensive, as in deamo^ demiror^ 
depereo, etc. — nee cupressi : i.e. 
the warring winds give place to 
absolute calm. The meaning of 
the whole strophe is that the gods, 
and they alone, can make the 
storm cease ; we must bide their 
time, and not waste such oppor- 
tunities for enjoyment as the pres- 
ent affords in fretting over what 
is beyond our control. This 
thought Horace proceeds to work 
out with details which are ob- 
viously his own, and not taken 
from Alcaeus. For cupressi see 
II. 14. 23 n. 

13. fuge quaerere : Intr. 94 k. 

14. quern . . . cumque, each 
day that. — fors : here personified 
and equivalent to Fortuna. The 



goddess was worshipped under the 
name of Fors Fortuna; cf. Ter. 
Phor. 841 ; Cic. Leg. II. 28. — die- 
rum : Intr. 63. — lucro adpone, 
set dowf^ as gain ; lit. insert it in 
that category, on that side of the 
balance-sheet. 

15. nee sperne : see Intr. 88 
and 89 note. — amores : the plural 
of repeated instances; see Intr. 128. 

16. puer, while you are young. 
The word is frequently used for 
early manhood (cf. III. 2. 2, IV. 
4. 20, S. II. I. 60), 2iSpuella is often 
a young woman. — neque tu: the 
insertion of the pronoun with the 
second verb points the exhortation 
with special emphasis at the person 
addressed, — * However it may be 
with others, don't ^^tm, at any rate, 
etc' Cf. Ep. I. 2. 63 huncfrenis, 
hunc tu compesce catena. 

17. virenti : sc. tibi. 

18. morosa, fretfuly easily irri- 
tated, and hence incapable of en- 
joyment. — nunc : repeating with 
emphasis the idea of donee vi- 
renti, etc. — campus : see 8. 4 n ; 
areae, the squares^ open spaces 
about public buildings ; both espe- 
cially attractive for saunterers in 
a city where the streets were very 
narrow. 



IX, 9-X. 2.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



33 



20 



lenesque sub noctem susurri 
composita repetantur hora ; 

nunc et latentis proditor intimo 
gratus puellae risus ab angulo 
pignusque dereptum lacertis 
aut digit o male pertinaci. 



X. 

Mercuri, facunde^nepos Atlantis, 
quiferos cultus hominum recentum 



19. 8Ub noctem, at nightfall ; 
cf. 8. 14 n. 

20. composita, appointed (by 
agreement). — repetantur, be claim- 
ed. Repetere, * to demand what is 
due' (of. composita hora), corre- 
sponds to reddere (3. 7 n.), 9& peter e 
to dare ; cf. the technical phrases 
for demanding and making resti- 
tution, res repeterey res reddere. 

21. nunc et: the anaphora (Intr. 
116^) carries over from the pre- 
ceding sentence (with a slight 
zeugma) the idea of repetantur. 

— latentis, etc.: the arrangement 
is highly artistic, each word in 
this verse expressing a partial 
notion, to be completed by the 
word holding the corresponding 
position in the next verse ; see 
Intr. no. 

23. pignus : f .^. a bracelet or a 
ring, as the following words show. 

— lacertis : dative. 

24. male pertinaci, not very 
obstinate, Male, like a negative 
quantity in mathematics, dimin- 
ishes the force of an adjective 
which expresses a positive or de- 
sirable quality, as here and in male 
sanoSf Ep. 1. 19. 3, male parentem, 
Ep. I. 20. 1 5 ; but strengthens one 
that expresses a negative quality 



or a defect, as male dispari, 17. 25, 
male laxus, S. I. 3. 31, rauci male, 
S, I. 4* 66. 

X. A hymn to Mercury, after 
Alcaeus. The first lines of the 
original were perhaps {Fr, 5) : — 

Xoupe KvXXdvas fjJSeiSy vk ydp fwi 
BvfMS Vfiyrip, rbv Kopv^HiLS iv ai^ais 
Maw, yivyaro Kpov^g, fi(fif€ura. 

Accordingly Mercury appears here 
with the nner attributes of the 
Greek Hermes, with whom he was 
identified at a very early period, 
rather than as the god of trade, 
which was the character under 
which he was most widely wor- 
shipped in the Roman world ; and 
his attributes of cunning and decep- 
tion, which he necesssuily bore as 
the patron of traders in an age 
when trade had not even advanced 
so far as to regard honesty as the 
best policy, are lightly touched 
upon and presented in the more 
agreeable aspect of the harmless 
practical joke. — Metre, 174. 

1. facunde : as the nuntius de- 
orum (vs. 5), *Epfiijs \6yu)s. — nepos 
Atlantis : asjilius Maiae (2. 43 n). 

2. feros cultus, etc., the savage 
life of early man. 



34 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



voce formasti catus et decorae 
more palaestrae, 

te canam, magni lovis et deorum 
nuntium curvaeque lyrae parentem, 
callidum quicquid placuit iocoso 
condere furto. 

Te boves dim nisi reddidisses 
per dolum amotas puerum minaci 
voce dum terret, viduus pharetra 
risit Apollo. 



3. voce, by language^ /./. by 
teaching them articulate speech, 
the first step in civilization which 
raised man above the level of the 
brute. Cf. -S". 1. 3. 99 sqq,y where the 
poet's Epicurean view of man's 
progress is the same, except that 
it excludes the intervention of any 
god. — formasti, didst mouldy />. 
reduce to symmetry and order. — 
catus : i.e. in foreseeing the effi- 
cacy of such means. The word 
has an antique flavor, an instance 
of the rule which Horace lays 
down Ep, II. 2. 115. 

4. more, the practice ; i>. by the 
institution of it. — palaestrae: here 
the exercise, not the place ; hence 
decorae. Physical training was 
regarded by the Greeks as an 
essential factor of education. 

6. nuntium : as *Ep/i^t didjrro^r. 
In this capacity he appears fre- 
quently in Greek and Latin litera- 
ture, e,g. Odys. V. 29, Verg. A, I. 
297, IV. 222 sqq, — lyrae paren- 
tern : according to the myth, which 
is substantially the same as given 
in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes 
22 sqq,t this feat and the one 
recounted in the next strophe oc- 
curred on the dav the god was 
bom. The lively mfant caught a 



tortoise and with the shell con- 
structed the first tetrachord. 

7. iocoso : i>. in fun, with no 
msdice. 

8. condere, to hide. For the 
mood see Intr. loi ^. 

9. te : cf. vss. 5, 13, and 17. 
The emphatic repetition of the 
personal pronoun of the second 
person (Intr. 1 16/) is particularly 
characteristic of hymns and eulo- 
gies ; cf. 35. 5-21, IV. 14. 33-51. — 
nisi reddidisses : the apodosis 
is implied in minaci voce, which 
must have stated what would hap- 
pen if the cattle were not brought 
back. The pluperf. subj. is here 
used in indirect discourse to repre- 
sent the future perf. indie, used by 
Apollo : nisi boves reddideris. 

10. puerum minaci: Intr. ii6a. 

11. dum terret : i>. before the 
threat was out of his mouth he 
found his quiver gone. 

12. risit: emphatic (Intr. 116^), 
indicating the complete success of 
his joke : even his victim was left 
in good humor and joined in the 
laugh. The two brothers at once 
became fast friends ; Mercury gave 
Apollo his lyre, and leceivea from 
the latter the magic rod {virga 
18 n.). 



X. 3-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



35 



15 



20 



Quin et Atridas duce te superbos 
Ilio dives Priamus relicto 
Thessalosque ignis et iniqua Troiae 
castra fefellit. 

Tu pias laetis animas reponis 
sedibus virgaque levem coerces 
aurea turbam, superis deorum 
gratus et imis. 



13-20. The poet now returns to 
Mercury's office as nuntius deorum 
in their dealings with men, recall- 
ing a signal example of his success 
in that capacity and closing with 
a reference to his high function 
of conductor of the shades of 
the righteous to Elysium ('Ep^i^t 
^vxoTOjUir6t). 

13. quin et : the story is intro- 
duced as merely a more marked 
example of the god*s success in 
concealment, and hence suggested 
by the preceding. But it serves to 
make the transition to the sub- 
ject of his beneficent activity in 
behalf of mankind, and to the 
more serious thought with which 
the ode very properly closes. The 
story is from 11. XXIV. 159 sqq. 

14. Ilio : here and elsewhere in 
Horace (III. 19. 4, IV. 4. 53, Epod. 
10. 13), neuter in the ablative. He 
uses a feminine nominative and 
accusative, Iliosy Ilion (IV. 9. 18, 
Epod, 14. 14). — Ilio relicto: and 
so placing himself at the mercy of 
his enemies. — dives : and hence 
a prize they would have been most 
eager to capture, had they known 
of his presence. 



1 5. Thessalos : i.e. those of 
Achilles* men, the Myrmidons, 
from Phthia, in Thessaly. Cf. II. 
4. 10. — ignis : suggesting the 
danger of detection. — Troise : 
dative. 

16. ieieWitt passed unodsen/ed. 

17. tu : cf. /^9n. — laetis . . . 
reponis sedibus, dost bring safely 
to the homes of bliss. Re-ponere^ in 
the sense of * put away * (cf . tellure 
repostos, Verg. A. VI. 655) gives to 
sedes here the meaning of perma- 
nent abode. For the case of sedi- 
bus see Intr. 69. 

18. virga aurea : cf. Hymn to 
Herm, 529: ^{X/3ov koX irXoi^ot; hibfrw 
xcpiJcaXX^a ^dpBov, | xP^^^^V^j 
TpiT^TiXoPj dici^piovy ri ae </>v\d^i, \ 
Tdvras Irucpalvovir* (^fwvs hritap tc 
Kal ipytav \ tQv dya$(av. The cadu- 
ceus, with its two intertwining ser- 
pents, symbolical of peace and 
commerce, was of later origin. — 
levem coerces turbam, keepest 
together the unsubstantial throngs 
as a shepherd his flock ; cf. 24. 16 
sqq. ; Odys. XXIV. I sqq, 

19. deorum : Intr. 63. 

20. imis : for the more usual 
inferis. 



36 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



XI. 

Tu ne quaesieris (scire nefas) quem mihi, quem tibi 
finem di dederint, Leuconoe, nee Babylonios 
temptaris numeros. Vt melius quicquid erit pati, 
seu pluris hiemes seu tribuit luppiter ultimam 
quae nunc oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare 
Tyrirhenum. Sapias, vina liques, et spatio brevi 
spem longam reseces. Dum loquimur fugerit invida 
aetas ; carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero. 



XI. The superstition of the 
Romans made them an easy prey 
to the soothsayers and astrologers 
(cf. S, I. 6. 114) who flocked to 
the city after the conquest of the 
East Leuconoe, — a name chosen 
apparently for its pleasing sound 
and its metrical value, — represents 
in the poet's fancy a young person 
whose attachment to him leads 
her to resort to the fortune-tellers, 
to learn what she can of his future 
and of her own. Horace meets 
this folly with his usual Epicurean 
maxims, — a repetition, substan- 
tially, of 9. 13 sf^. The ode is no 
doubt, like the two others written 
in this metre (I. 18., IV. 10), a 
free imitation or paraphrase of a 
Greek original. — Metre, 170. 

1. scire nefas, 1/ is not vouch- 
safed us to know. Cf. III. 29. 29 sq, 
— quem finem etc.: i.e. when is 
our appointed time to die. 

2. nee : for neve (Intr. 89 note). 
The clause defines more particu- 
larly the kind of inquiry against 
which his warning (ne quaesieris) 
is directed. — Babylonios nume- 
ros : the calculations of the Chal- 
dean astrologers. 

3. temptaris, meddle with. — 
ut, /io7u much. 

4. hiemes : i.e. years, but used 



as in modem poetry, to give 
the desired color to the thought, 

— the same background as in Ode 
9. — tribuit, has assigned^ i.e, at 
our birth, the question which the 
astrologers professed to solve. 
For its position see Intr. 119 a. 

— ultimam : agreeing with the 
antecedent of quae {sc. hanc)^ as 
the last. 

5. debilitat, breaks ; lit. * crip- 
ples.' — pumicibus: instrumental 
abl. The word is here used of 
the rocks eaten away and hollowed 
out by the action of the waves ; 
cf. Plin. N. H. XXXVI. 154 appel 
lantur. quidem ita {sc. pumices) 
erosa saxa ; Verg. A. V. 213 
columba I cui domus et dulces late, 
broso in pumice nidi. 

6. Tyrrhenum : see Intr. 117. 

— sapias, etc. : Intr. 87. — liques, 
strain. The wine as it came from 
the amphora contained a good 
deal of sediment, which was re- 
moved by pouring it through a 
coarse linen saccus or a colander 
{colum). — spatio brevi (abl. abs.), 
since our time is short, sc. for the 
realization of far-reaching plans 
and hopes. 

7. spem longam : cf. 4. 15. — 
reseces, prune down. — fugerit, 
will be gone. — invida : personify 



XI. I-XII. 2.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



37 



XII. 

Quem virum aut heroa lyra vel acri 
tibia sumis celebrare, Clio, 



ing aetas, to express more vividly 
the inexorable promptness of its 
departure. 

8. diem, the passing dayy carpe 
implying a transitory character in 
its object; cf. Mart. VII. 47. 11 
fugitrva gaudia carpe, — credula : 
cf* 5* 9 » it expresses more than 
credens {=yidens), and alludes to 
her foolish faith in the astrolo- 
gers. — postero {sc. diet) : Intr. 
58 tf. 

XII. This ode» like Ode 2, was 
written to glorify the mission of 
Caesar Augustus, as the heaven- 
sent ruler of the world. For the 
form, Horace has worked upon a 
suggestion which he found in 
Pindar's second Olympian ode, the 
opening verses of which he has 
closely imitated : — 

*AMi{t^p/u77ef vyLVoiy 

rlva debp, rlv* ^pcMi, rlva 8*- dvSpa 

As in this ode Pindar approaches 
the praise of the victor Thero 
through the long story of the 
fortunes and sorrows of his an- 
cestors, so Horace presents Augus- 
tus as the culmination of the long 
line of benefactors, — gods, heroes, 
and men, — to whose activity or 
suffering mankind is most indebted 
for its progress. The tone of the 
ode, in keeping with Augustus* 
professed view of his mission, is 
serious and free from any note of 
triumph. It presents him as the 
bearer of a great responsibility, 
the successor, not of the great 
warriors and powerful monarchs of 
the past, but of the men who died 



for their couittry or who served 
her without exalting themselves. 
See notes on vss. 35 and 41-44. 

The allusion to Marcellus (vs. 45 
sq^ shows that the ode could not 
have been written much before his 
marriage with Julia, the daughter 
of Augustus (B.C. 25), nor later 
than 23, the date of his death. — 
Metre, 174. 

1. quem virum . . . heroa 
. . . deum : these three classes are 
taken up in reverse order, — dei 
in vss. 13-24, heroes in vss. 25-33, 
viri in 34-48. — heroa, demigod. — 
lyra vel tibia : cf. III. 4. 1-4. 
Either instrument from its tra- 
ditional use would be suitable for 
the present purpose : the Greek 
rhapsodist sang the exploits of his 
heroes to the notes of the lyre ; 
the tibia was said to have been 
used to accompany the songs 
which the Romans in early times, 
according to Cato (Cic. Tusc. IV. 
3), sang at banquets in praise of 
their ancestors. — acri, shrilly a 
highly appropriate and expressive 
epithet according to Quintilian 
(VIII. 2. 9). 

2. sumis, dost thou take^ i.e, as 
a subject. Cf. Ep. II. 3. 38 sutni- 
te mater iam vestris, qui scribitisy 
aequam \ viribus. The present im- 
plies that the muse has already 
determined to sing ; the poet feels 
her inspiration, and asks what is 
the theme. The future, which is 
found in a few MSS., would be 
suitable if it were an invitation to 
sing. — celebrare : Intr. 93. — 
Clio : possibly addressed here in 
the character, which she gradually 
acquired, of muse of history. But 



38 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



quern deum ? Cuius recinet iocosa 
nomen imago 

aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris 
aut super Pindo gelidove in Haemo ? 
Vnde vocalem temere insecutae 
Orphea silvae, 

arte materna rapidos morantem 
fluminum lapsus celerisque ventos, 
blandum et auritas fidibus canoris 
ducere quercus. 



the special attributes of the musea 
which have come down to us are 
not sharply defined in Horace, 
whose muse is sometimes Euterpe 
or Polyhymnia (i. 33), or Clio, as 
here, or Melpomene (cf. 24. 3, III. 
30. 16, IV. 3. i), or Calliope (III. 
4. 2) ; often simply musay as II. i. 
37, 12. 13, III. 3. 70, etc.; or mea 
musa, 17. 14 ; sometimes with a 
qualifying phrase, as 6. 10 imbellis 
fyrae musa potens ; S. II. 6. 17 
musapedestris; Ep. II. 3. 407 mtisa 
lyrae sellers; cf. II. 1.9 musa tra- 
goediae. 

3. iocosa, merry, personifying 
Echo, as if she mocked people in 
jest. Cf. Ov. M, III. 356 sqq.j 
where Echo is represented as a 
nymph. 

4. ima^o: used in prose also 
for the Greek iix^'t cf. Varro, 
R. R. III. 16. 12 ubi non resonent 
imagines. 

5. Heliconis : a mountain in 
Boeotia, on the borders of which, 
at Ascra, there existed from very 
early times a fwwrnoVf devoted to 
the worship of the muses, and 
under their protection the pro- 
motion of literature. Hesiod was 
the most famous leader of thb 
school or guild, and ancient copies 



of his works with the Homeric 
and doubtless other poems were 
preserved there. The mountain in 
consequence, and particularly the 
springs of Aganippe and Hippo- 
crene, had come to be regarded as 
a favorite haunt of the muses. 
. 6. super : cf . 9. 5 n. — Pindo : 
the mountain range between Thes- 
saly and Epirus, also regarded as 
a seat of the muses ; cf. Verg. £, 
10. II. — Haemo : tradition made 
the Heliconian school of song an 
offshoot from an older school 
which had been established at 
Libethrum, in Pieria, on the 
slopes of Olympus, by a tribe or 
guild of Thracians whose leader, 
Orpheus, was the son of the muse 
Calliope and the Thracian king 
Oeagrus. Hence the name Pieris 
for muse. 

7. unde : i.e, from Haemus. — 
temere : i.e, spell-bound, not of 
their own will and intent ; they 
could not choose but follow. 

9. arte matema : />. music. 
See note on Haemo, 8. 

11. blandum, with charm. — et: 
Intr. 114. — auritas (proleptic), 
to lend ears to , . , and. 

1 2. ducere : for the mood see 
Intr. 1 01 c» 



XII. 3-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



39 



IS 



-^- 



20 



Quid prius dicam solitis parentis 
laudibus, qui res hominum ac deorum, 
qui mare et terras variisque mundum 
temperat horis ? 

Vnde nil maius generatur ipso, 
nee viget quicquam simile aut secundum ; 
proximos illi tamen occupavit 
Pallas honores. 



13. quid prius, etc.: it being 
prescribed by ancient tradition to 
begin heroic songs with the glory 
of Jove (solitis laudibus). Cf. 
Find. Nem. 2. i Minrtp koX *0;ii^ 

Apxorraif Atbs ix Tpooifdov. The 
form iK Ai^ dpx*^f^^^ ^ found in 
Aratus {P/uun. i) and Theocritus 
(17. i) ; cf. Verg. E. 3. 60 ab lave 
principium, — parentis : sc, of 
gods and men, as is indicated in 
the following clause ; cf. II. 19. 21, 
and see I. 2. 2 n. 

14. laudibus : Intr. 75. 

15. mundum, the fimtament. 
Mundus strictly includes the earth 
(mare ac terras), but as we nat- 
urally think of the latter more in 
its connection with our own lives 
than its place in the universe, 
mundus comes to mean the sky 
and the heavenly bodies. 

16. temperat, governs. — horis, 
seasons ; cf. hora Caniculae^ III. 
13* 9 ; ^^ verni temporis horam^ 
Ep, II. 3. 302. 

17. unde=^jr quo, referring to 
parentis 13 ; cf. -S". I. 6. 12. Valeri 
genuSf unde superbus Tarquinius 
regno pulsus fugit. The use of 
unde with a personal antecedent is 
rare, but occurs in prose, as SaK 
lug, 14. 22 tibi, unde minime de-* 
cuit, vita erepta est. — nil, no one ; 
but stronger than netno \ cf. S, I. 



3. 18. — generatur: the present 
expresses what is true at all 
times, so that the meaning is that 
Jove is eternally supreme. The 
statement includes all gods and 
men, Jove being here thought of 
as the parent of all (d. parentis^ 

13 n) 

18. nee viget, etc.: i.e. no living 

being can compare with Jove in 
power and glory (viget). The 
relative construction is abandoned, 
and ei must be supplied with 
simile. — quicquam: cf. nil, 17 n. 
— aut secundum ; proximos^ 
tamen : i.e. though Pallas, as 
compared with the common throng 
of gods, is nearest to Jove, she 
cannot be called next to him : she 
is separated from him by a long 
interval. Cf. Cic. Brut. 173 duo- 
bus summis, Crasso et Antonio, L. 
Philippus proximus accedebat, sed 
longo tamen interval lo proximus ; 
itaque eum . . . neque secundum 
neque tertium dixerim ; neque enim 
in quadrigis eum secundum nomi' 
naverim . . . qui vix e carceribus 
exierit cum palmam iam primus 
acceperit ; Verg. A. V. 320. 

19. occupavit, holds. 

20.^^8j^is : as goddess of wis- 
dom exalted above all other gods 
but Jove himself. Cf. Hesiod, 
Theog. 896 lew ixaiwtii.v rarpl fUvw 



40 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



Proeliis audax neque te silebo 
Liber, et saevis inimica virgo 
beluis, nee te, metuende certa 
Phoebe sagitta. 

25 Dicam et Alciden puerosque Ledae, 
hunc equis, ilium superare pugnis 
nobilem ; quorum simul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit, 

defluit saxis agitatus umor, 



21. proeliis audax : Horace 
not infrequently begins an address 
with a descriptive phrase in agree- 
ment with the name of the person 
addressed, which is inserted in the 
sentence later, as II. 7. i, Ep, I. 
I. I. Bacchus was endowed with 
a greater variety of attributes and 
epithets (cf. Ov. M. IV. 11 j^^.) 
than any otlier god. His prowess in 
war was displayed in the battle of 
the Giants (II. 19. 21 sqq^^ and his 
triumphal Indian journey, accord- 

'ing to one form of the myth, was 
a military expedition. The poet 
naturally mentions this, one of his 
nobler qualities, in a list of gods 
and heroes who have contributed 
to the welfare of mankind. So 
Diana is here not simply the god- 
dess of the chase, but the destroyer 
of monsters (saevis beluis), and 
Apollo is joined with her as the 
god of the bow ; see vs. 23 n. 
Hercules and the Dioscuri are well 
known benefactors of the race. 

22. et : connecting the descrip- 
tion of Diana with proeliis audax 
Liber. The idea of neque te 
silebo {=-U quoque memorabo ; 
non silere being a mere rhetorical 
variation (litotes) for dicere or 
memorare ; cf. IV. 9. 31) is re- 
peated with virgo, which is voca- 
tive. 



23. metuende sagitta : see vs. 
21 n. The allusion is to Apollo*s 
destruction of the python (Ov. M, 
I. 438 sqq). — certa, unerring, 

25. dicam : see 6. 5n. — et, too, 
— Alciden : Hercules, whose re- 
puted father, Amphitryon, was the 
son of Alceus. His services, like 
those of the Roman heroes who 
follow, are not enlarged upon, 
being well known. — pueros Le- 
dae : Castor and Pollux. 

26. hunc, etc.: cf. S. II. i. 26 
Castor gaudet gquis, ovo prognatus 
eodem \pugftis; IL III. 237 Kd- 
irropa 0* lirr6SafMy xal ni^ iya.&6» 
TLoXuSevKea, — superare nobilem : 
see Intr. 10 if. — pugnis: from 
pugnus. 

27. quorum simul : cf. qui 
simu/, 9. 9 n, and the whole de- 
scription there. — alba, bright, 

28. Stella :'cf. 3. 2 n. — refulsit, 
has flashed (out of the darkness) 
upon, 

29. defluit, etc.: Horace here 
introduces one of his graphic 
pictures (cf. 2. 7 n), to break the 
monotony of his long catalogue 
of benefactors. In this passage 
and in IV. 8. 31 he reproduces a 
description of Theocritus, 22. 17 
dXX' l/ixat d/u€tt {s€, At6(rKovpoi) ye 
Kal iK fivGov (Xxere vaas \ abroiffiv 
vavraiffiy diofUpms $av4w$ai * I at^a 



XII. 21-36.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



41 



30 concidunt venti fugiuntque nubes, 
et minax, quod sic voluere, ponto 
unda recumbit. 

Romulum post hos prius an quietum 
Pompili regnum memorem an superbos 
35 Tarquini fascis dubito, an Catonis 
nobile letum. 



d* &To\i^yovT* &v€fwi, Xiirapd Sk 
yak^pa \ Afi* v^Xayot' ye^Aat Si 
SiidpafMP iXKvdis AXKtu, 

31. voluere, Aavg willed. Such 
parenthetical clauses, referring the 
events described to the will of 
some deity, are not uncommon ; 
cf. //. I. 5 Ai6$ 5' /reXefero /3dwXiJ. 

32. recumbit, subsides; lit. ' Ues 
down,' having been xninax, i.e. 
towering aloft as it approached. 

33. Romulum, etc.: from the 
demigods who have befriended 
mankind, Horace proceeds to 
the founders and builders of the 
great empire which is destined to 
bring the whole earth under its 
beneficent sway. The number of 
these is so large as to be embar- 
rassing, and the poet is in doubt 
where to begin. 

34. Pompili : sc, Numae. 
Roman tradition assigned almost 
equal merit to Romulus and 
Numa for their very different 
services in establishing the state. 
Cf. Liv. I. 21. 6 duo deinceps reges^ 
alius alia via^ ille bello hie pace, 
civitatem auxerunt. — superbos 
Tarquini fascis, the haughty 
power of the Tarquin. The 
epithet belongs logically to Tar- 
quini (Intr. 124), and hence the 
reference must be to Tarquin the 
Proud, whose contributions to 
Rome's greatness, through the 
subjection of neighboring tribes, 
were very considerable, and whose 



memory, in spite of the bitter 
hatred which he incurred in his 
struggle with the people, was at 
least respected. Cf. Cic. Phil. 3, 9 
Tarquinius . . . non crudelisy non 
impiuSf sed superbus habitus est ; 
. . . nihil humile de Tarquinio^ 
nihil sordidum accepimus, 

35. Catonis : it is noteworthy 
that Horace, coming now to the 
time, of the Commonwealth, passes 
over the greatest warriors and 
statesmen, and selects only typical 
instances of the Roman virtus 
which courted poverty or death 
for the public good. 

36. nobile letum : Cato's con- 
temporaries were entirely con- 
vinced of his disinterestedness and 
his sincerity in carrying his Stoic 
principle into politicsd life, and 
his dramatic suicide at Utica, after 
Caesar's victory at Thapsus, in 
B.C. 46, invested him with some- 
thing of the halo of a saint, whose 
lofty character and motives were 
a safe subject of eulogy even in 
ah ode in honor of the heir and 
successor of Caesar. Horace's 
admiration for him, which appears 
here and in II. i. 24, dated no 
doubt from the time when he 
joined the army of Brutus. Ver- 
gil's tribute is still higher : he 
makes Cato another Minos, judg- 
ing the dead {secretosque piosy his 
dantem iura Catonem, A, VIII. 
670). 



42 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



40 



Regulum et Scauros animaeque magnae 
prodigum PauUum superante Poeno 
gratus insigni referam camena 
Fabriciumque. 



37. Regulum : the poet's second 
example of a noinle letum. M. 
Atilius Regulus, in his second 
consulship, B.C. 256, during the 
first Punic war, successfully in- 
vaded Africa, but the next year he 
was defeated and captured by the 
Carthaginians. The story of his 
mission to Rome with a Cartha- 
ginian embassy to arrange ransom 
for the prisoners, his advice to the 
senate to leave the latter to their 
fate, and his voluntary return to 
captivity and death, is told in III. 
5. 13 sqq. — Scauros: M. Aemilius 
Scaurus and his son. The latter 
was involved in the panic of the 
Roman cavalry under Catulus in 
the disastrous battle on the Adige 
(B.C. 1 01), when they were so 
effectively routed by the Cimbri 
that they abandoned their general 
and fled incontinently to the city. 
Young Scaurus was met by a. 
stem message from his father that 
his dead body brought home from 
the battle-field would have been 
more welcome than his return 
alive after so disgraceful a repulse, 
and thereupon put an end to his 
own life. Val. Max. V. 8. 4. 

38. prodigum, that squanderer. 
The touch of censure implied in 
the word only heightens the effect 
of the eulogy. L. Aemilius PauUus, 
consul in B.C. 216 with Terentius 
Varro, fell in the battle of Cannae, 
which his colleague had brought 
on against his advice. As the story 
IS told by Livy (XXII. 49. 6) Paul- 
lus could have escaped without 
personal dishonor, but chose to die 
with his men rather than return 
from such a disastrous defeat. 



39. gratus : />. for the sacrifice 
which such splendid devotion to 
duty and country has cost. — in- 
signi camena, with no ordinary 
song. The Camenae (earlier form, 
Casmenae ; cf. carmen =casmen), 
originally nymphs in whose songs 
the magical or prophetic knowledge 
of the spirits of the woods found 
expression, enjoy a wider prov- 
ince in the Augustan and later 
poets, who identify them with the 
Greek muses (cf. II. 16. 38 Graiae 
Camenae ; C. S. 62), and use the 
singular, as here, concretely for 
*song* (cf. Ep. I. I. i). 

40. Fabriciumque : by includ- 
ing one of the group of great men 
next described in his grata relatio 
Horace virtually includes them all. 

41-44. The three worthies 
named in this strophe too are 
selected not so much for the great- 
ness of their achievements as for 
the lesson which their example 
conveys. They stand for the 
highest type of citizenship in the 
best days of the Commonwealth, — 
men whose training for public 
service was hard work at home, 
and whose eminence in the state 
did not affect the simplicity of 
their lives and their indifference 
to riches. C. Fabricius Luscinus 
and M'. Curius Dentatus were 
prominent in the wars agamst the 
Samnites and Pyrrhus, and tra- 
dition loved to tell of the futile 
efforts of the latter to move them 
either with flattery or with gold 
(Val. Max. IV. 3. 5 sq.^ Cic. C. 
M. 55, Rep. III. 6). M. Furius 
Camillus, the conqueror of Veii 
(B.C. 396) and deliverer of Rome 



XII. 37-46.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



43 



45 



Hunc et intonsis Curium capillis 
utilem bello tulit et Camillum 
saeva paupertas et avitus apto 
cum lare fundus. 

Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo 
fama Marcelli ; micat inter omnis 



from the Gauls (390), was the most 
eminent Roman of his time. 

41. intonsis capillis: this charac- 
teristic of earlier and simpler times 
was made familiar to every Roman 
by the public statues. Cf . Varro R, 
^. II. II. 10 olim tonsores nonfuisse 
adsignificant antiquorum statuae, 
quod pleraeque habent capillum et 
barbatn magnam. There were no 
barbers in Rome, according to Var- 
ro (cf. Plin. N,H, VII. 211), till B.C. 
300, which was in the lifetime of 
Curius, and it was a long time after 
that date that the fashion of trim- 
ming the hair short and shaving off 
the beard became general. Hence 
intottsusy barhatusy etc., are used to 
connote ancient times and simple 
manners. Cf. intonsi Catonis, II. 1 5. 
1 1 ; barbato regi, Juv. 4. 103. 

42. utilem : applying to all three 
men. — bello : dative ; Intr. 58 c, 

43. saeva paupertas : cf. III. 
6. 33-44, where the poet points 
more sharply the contrast between 
the severe training which made 
the sturdy manhood of early times, 
and the aegeneracy of his own day 
when poverty was a reproach (III. 
24. 42). — avitus : />. not pur- 
chased or enlarged by him, imply- 
ing his abstinence from . the pur- 
suit of wealth ; cf. patrios agros 
I. II n. — apto, to match; not a 
great country-house such as a man 
of his station would now have. 

44. lare, a dwelling. The word 
itself excludes the idea of a large 
house. 



45. crescit, is growing. The 
present prepares the reader for 
the transition which the poet now 
makes to his own times. This he 
does by selecting as his last 
example of the great men of old, 
M. Claudius Marcellus, the con- 
querer of Syracuse (B.C. 212) and 
the first Roman general who 
fought Hannibal with success. He 
was killed in a skirmish in his 5th 
consulship, B.C. 208. The mention 
of this famous warrior could not 
fail to carry with it to Horace*s 
readers an allusion to Marcellus, 
the nephew ^and son-in-law of 
Augustus, whose untimely death 
Vergil commemorates in the 
Aeneid (VI. 860) ; and the poet 
manages, without expressly nam- 
ing this young man, who had per- 
formed no achievement as yet 
worth mentioning, to intimate that 
he has a great career before him. 
— occulto aevo, which does not 
show its age ; descriptive ablative 
Since the time of the great Mar 
cellus no member of that family 
had attained any special eminence; 
his fame, which would have been 
enhanced by distinguished descend- 
ants, appeared to be at a stand- 
still ; but like a tree, which 
appears the same from year to 
year, it is really growing. The 
compliment to the young Mar- 
cellus is obvious. 

46. inter omnis : sc. duces^ or 
the like ; * in the whole galaxy/ 
as we should say, of great men. 



44 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



lulium sidus velut inter ignis 
luna minores. 

Gentis humanae pater atque custos, 
50 orte Saturno, tibi cura magni 

Caesaris fatis data : tu secundo 
• Caesare regnes. 

lUe seu Parthos Latio imminentis 
egerit iusto domitos triumpho 
55 sive subiectos Orientis orae 
Seras et Indos, 

te minor latum reget aequus orbem ; 
tu gravi curru quaties Olympum, 
tu parum castis inimica mittes 
60 fulmina lucis. 



47. lulium sidus : i.e. the 
Julian house. The figure was 
possibly suggested .by the comet 
which appeared after the death of 
Julius Caesar (Suet. Jul. 88., Verg. 
E, 9. 47), but more probably was 
chosen simply with a view to the 
comparison that follows. The 
poet wishes us to think of Auguis- 
tus and not of Julius Caesar. — 
inter ig^is, etc.: cf. Epod. 15. 2. 

49. gentis humanae, etc.: the 
ode closes with a solemn appeal to 
Jupiter, the father of all mankind, 
to accept the predestined ruler of 
the race as his vicegerent on earth. 

51. secundo Caesare, with 
Caesar next to thee. There is no 
allusion to verse 18, the point of 
view here being entirely different. 
The other gods have their special 
provinces and do not come under 
consideration at all here, where 
the government of the earth is 
the topic in mind. 

53. ille seu, etc.: ue, he, on his 
part, whatever triumphs may be in 



store for him, will ever own his 
dependence on thee. — Parthos : 
see 2. 22 n. — Latio : used like 
Roma for the Roman state ; cf. 
35. 10 with IIL 3. 44. 

54. egerit, j^a//Afa</; lit. * shall 
have driven,' a more exact expres- 
sion than ducere (which is also 
used), since the prisoners preceded 
the victor's car in the triumphal 
procession. — iusto, well earned, 
Justus triumphus is a technical 
phrase, expressing compliance with 
certain well understood conditions 
relating to the rank of the general 
and the extent and importance of 
his victory. 

55. subiectos Orientis orae, 
Vfho dwell beneath the borders of the 
eastern sky, Orientis is a substan- 
tive, like Occidentisy Epod. i. 13. 

56. Seras (S^paj) et Indos : 
vague names to convey the im- 
pression of unlimited future con- 
quests ; cf. IV. 15. 21 sqq.t C. S. 

53 ^99- 

57. te minor, as subordinate to 



XII. 47~xin. lo.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



45 



XIII. 

Cum tu, Lydia, Telephi 

cervicem roseam, cerea Telephi 
laudas bracchia, vae meum 

fervens difficili bile tumet iecur. 
5 Turn nee mens mihi nee eolor 

certa sede manet, umor et in genas 
furtim labitur, arguens 

quam lentis penitus macerer ignibus. 
Vror, seu tibi candidos 
10 turparunt umeros immodicae mero 



thee ; cf. III. 6. 5 dis te minarem 
quod geriSf imperas. For te, tu, 
tu, see 10. 9 n; Intr. 116 / — 
aequus, with justice. 

58. tu gravi, etc.: /.^. thou wilt 
maintain thy supreme authority 
by the usual manifestations of thy 
power and of thy wrath. 

59. parum castis, polluted. — 
inimica fulmina : cf. 3. 40 n, and 
see Intr. 124. 

60. lucis : dat.; cf. terris, 2. i ; 
Intr. 53. Lightning as a sign of 
the divine, will held a prominent 
place in Roman divination, and 
it was re^^ded as of momentous 
«gnificance if a sacred grove or 
temple (cf. 2. 16 n.) was struck. 
PreUer- Jordan /^im. Myth. I. 192. 

XIII. The jealous lover's appeal. 
— Metre, 171. 

2. cerea : i>. smooth and free 
from blemishes, like a waxen 
image. — Telephi : repeated with 
bitterness, in imitation of her mad- 
dening iteration of the name. Cf. 
S. I. 6. 45 sq. 

3. vae, ugh ! 

4. difficili, uncomfortable. — 



iecur : regarded as the seat of 
the passions, especially of anger 
(cf. S. I. 9. 66 meum iecur urere 
bilis) and love (cf. IV. i. 12). 

5. nee mens, etc.: >>. I lose 
control of my feelings and my 
color comes and goes. For this 
use of mens cf. Cat. 6r. 33 mentem 
amore revinciens. 
' 6. manet: Intr. 179. — umor, 
the tear. 

7. furtim, etc.: i.e. to my sur- 
prise, making me aware of the 
depth of my feeling. 

8. quam : with penitus. — len- 
tis, persistent^ lingering. — mace- 
rer, I am wasting away. 

9. uror, etc.: i.e. I am enraged 
by the sight of these unseemly 
marks of the intimacy which you 
have allowed him. 

10. turparunt : i.e. have left 
them 'black and blue.* Cf. 17. 
2^sqq.; Prop. III. 7. i^quinetiam, 
si me ulterius provexerit ira, \ 
ostendes mcUri bracchia laesa tuae. 
— immodicae, {carried to excess)^ 
indecent. — mero, over your cups. 
The abl. expresses the cause of 
immodicae. 



46 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I 



15 



20 



rixae, sive puer furens 

impressit memorem dente labris notam. 
Non, si me satis audias^ 

speres perpetuum dulcia barbare 
laedentem oscula, quae Venus 

quinta parte sui nectaris imbuit. 
Felices ter et amplius, 

quos inrupta tenet copula nee malis 
divolsus querimoniis 

suprema citius solvet amor die. 



II. sive, etc.: the passionate 
youth has been as violent in his 
caresses as in his anger. 

14. perpetuum, constant, 

16. quinta parte : t.e. a gen- 
erous share. Others explain the 
phrase as indicating the degree of 
sweetness, referring to a fancy 
found in the Greek lyric poets 
that honey was tvarov fUpot rrji 
dfippwrlas or Trji Adavcurlai ditca- 
rov iUpo% (Athen. II. 8, Schol. on 
Pind. Pyth. 9. 16); but this would 
imply that the substance with 
which Venus bathed Lydia's lips 
was something else than nectar. 
It has also been conjectured that 
quinta pars was used, like quinta 
essentia in mediaeval Latin, for 
^ HfiiTTTf oiffla, the name given by 
the Pythagorean philosophers to 
the ether, the subtlest of the five 
elements. This would be very 
appropriate here {quintessence) ^ but 
there is no evidence and little 
probability that the phrase was 
used in this sense. — sui, Aer own, 

17. ter ct amplius : cf. Verg. 
A, 1, g4 ter que quaterque beati, 

18. inrupta, that nothing can 
sever. The word is found only 
here and is used, like invictus, 
indomitusy etc., with the force of 
an adjective in -His, — nee malis. 



etc., and whom no estrangement^ 
begotten of hateful reproaches^ etc.; 
an amplification of the preceding 
clause. 

19. divolsus amor: see Intr. 
105 a. 

20. suprema, the last [sc, of 
life). — solvet : with reference to 
copula^ \%. — die: Intr. 75. 

XIV. Quintilian (VIIL 6. 44) 
cites this ode as an example of 
that species of allegory {inversio) 
which aliud verbis, aliud sensu 
ostendity and adds this explana- 
tion : navem pro re publica^ fluc- 
tus et tempestates pro bell is ctvilibus, 
portum pro pace atque concordia 
dicit. The figure of the *ship 
of state' Horace found already 
employed by Greek writers (as 
Theognis 671, Plato J^ep. VI. 4), 
and among others by Alcaeus .in 
an ode {Fr, 18) beginning 

'Acvvdrrifu r(av dvifjuav ardtnv * 
rb fikv yiip tsvSep kv/jm icvTilvderai^ 
tA d* iv$€v ' AfAfAcs d* dv rb fUffaop 
vox <f>ofyij/Ae0a ai>v yuekaivq,^ 
XcifMavt, fwxOevvret fteydXifi puiXa • 
rr^p fji^p ydp AvtXos UrroiriSav ^x<*» 
Xa(0os dk irav^l^ddriXov i^drf 

Kal \dKidcs lUyaKax Kdr' aXno • 
Xf^Xauri 8' HyKvptu, 



xiii.ii-xiv. 8.] 



HORATl CARMINA. 



47 



X 



XIV. 



O navis, referent in mare te novi 
fluctus ! O quid agis ? Fortiter occupa 
portum ! Nonne vides ut 
nudum remigio latus 

et malus celeri saucius Africo 
antemnaeque gemant ac sine funibus 
vix durare carinae 
possint imperiosius 



Horace's treatment, however, is 
essentially different. In the Greek 
poet the ship is merely the meta- 
phor under which he pictures to 
his fellow-citizens their political 
situation ; in the present ode, as 
in Longfellow's famous poem, she 
is the personified Commonwealth, 
the ideal object of patriotic devo- 
tion which we usuadly express by 
'our country.* There is no di- 
rect evidence to show when the 
ode was written, but it probably 
belongs to the period of uncer- 
tainty between the battle of Actium 
and the settlement of the year 27. 
The ship is still at sea, sailing 
now in the quieter waters near 
the shore, but so shattered and 
torn that she cannot possibly 
live through another storm. 
Her only safety lies in making 
without delay a secure harbor. 
The plain meaning of this is that 
the state is in too exhausted a 
condition to endure another civil 
contest ; what is needed above all 
.else is peace, — the very sentiment 
to which Octavian appealed and on 
which he established his power. — 
Metre, 173. 

I. in mare, out to sea. The 
ship is imagined as sailing along, 
according to the ancient practice, 



within a safe distance of the shore; 
cf. II. 10. 1-4. — novi fluctus: 
I.A another storm coming up, 
(another civil conflict). 

2. fortiter occupa, be active 
nowt and gain. 

3. nonne vides, seest thou not ? 
But vides is vague enough in its 
meaning to express the perception 
of sounds (gemant, 6); cf. S. 
II. 8. 77 videres stridere susurros ; 
Verg. A. IV. 490 mugire videbis \ 
sub pedibus terram et descendere 
tnontibus ornos. — ut: cf. 9. i n. 

4. nudum remigio {sc. sit), is 
stripped of its oars (broken off by 
the violence of the storm). . See 
Intr. 66 f , note. 

5. malus : to be taken with 
gemant. 

6. gemant, creaky — not by rub- 
bing against one another, but each 
for itself; they have all been 
strained by the force of the storm. 
— funibus: used for undergirding 
the ship (cf. N. 71 Acts 27. 17), to 
keep the planks from springing 
apart under the strain of a rough 
sea. 

7. durare, hold out against. — 
carinae, the hull. For the plural 
see Intr. 128. 

8. imperiosius, in his sterner 
moody personifying aequor. 



48 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



IS 



20 



aequor ? Non tibi sunt Integra lintea, 
non di, quos itenim pressa voces malo. 
Quamvis Pontica pinus, 
silvae filia nobilis, 

iactes et genus et nomen inutile, 
nil pictis timidus navita puppibus 
fidit. Tu nisi ventis 
debes lucjibrium, cave. 

Nuper soUicitum quae mihi taedium, 
nunc desiderium curaque non levis, 
interfusa nitentis 

vites aequora Cycladas. 



10. non di : i.e, the images 
of gods, which were carried 
in the stem (cf. Verg. A, X. 171 
aurato fulgebat Apolline puppis ; 
Pers. 6. 30), have been dashed 
overboard in the storm. — ^itenim 
pressa malo, when again in dis- 
tress. 

11. Pontica: the woods of Pon- 
tus and Bithynia were famous for 
their excellent ship-timber. Cf. Cat. 
4. 9 PonHcutn sinutn^ \ uM iste post 
phaselus anteafuit \ comata silva. 

12. silvae filia : cf. Mart. XIV. 
90. I silvae filia Maurae (of a 
table). 

13. iactes : observe that this is 
the emphatic word of the verse, 
and inutile is only thrown in inci- 
dentally : boast as thou wilt of 
thy worthless pedigree and name. — 
genus et nomen: carrying out 
the fancy expressed in filia. 

14. pictis : the after part of a 
ship was often richly decorated; 
cf. Seneca, Ep. 76. 13. 

15. tu : cf. 9. 16 n, II. I. 

16. debes, art bound to furnish 
[sc. by fate), art doomed to be (so 
that no effort can save thee). — 



ludibrium, food for laughter.'—' 
cave : used absolutely (as in Epod» 
6. 11), but the caution is expressed 
more fully below (vss. 19, 20). 

17. nuper soUicitum, etc., 
whom I but lately looked upon 
with apprehension and disgust; 
i.e. disgust at the turn things had 
taken, and apprehension of worse 
results that might ensue. The 
allusion is to the time following 
the defeat of the republican drmy' 
at Philippi, when Horace, whose 
whole heart was in the lost cause, 
could see in the triumph of its 
enemies nothing but the utter 
rottenness of politics; cf. Epodes 
7 and 16. — quae : sc. eras. 

18. nunc desiderium, etc., now 
my hearts desire and deep solici- 
tude. Cf. Cic. Fam. XIV. 2. 2 (to 
Terentia) mea lux, meum deside- 
rium ; Cat. 2. 5 ; Verg. A. I. 678 
puer^ mea maxima cura. 

19. ri\XK.n\x&y glistening; alluding 
to their marble-quarries. Cf. III. 
28. 14 fulgentis Cycladas; Verg. 
A. III. 126 niveam Parum. 

20. Cycladas : object of inter- 
fusa. The sea in the neighbor- 



XIV. 9-xv. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



49 



XV. 

Pastor cum traheret per freta navibus 
Idaeis Helenen perfidus Hospitam, 
ingrato celeres obruit otio 
ventos ut caneret fera 

Nereus fata : ' Mala ducis avi domum 
quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
coniurata tuas rumpere nuptias 
et regnum Priami vetus. 



hood of these islands, like the rest 
of the Aegean (cf. II. i6. 2, III. 
29. 63, etc.), was subject to sudden 
and dangerous storms. The men- 
tion of these particular waters 
has no significance in the allegory 
(Intr. 117 a). 

XV. The motive of this ode, 
according to Porphyrio, was bor- 
rowed from an ode of Bacchylides, 
in which Cassandra was represented 
as foretelling the events of the 
Trojan war. If so, Horace has im- 
proved upon his model by transfer- 
ring the scene to the ship of Paris 
on his homeward voyage with 
Helen, and substituting for the Tro- 
jan prophetess the sea-god Nereus; 
for Paris is thus confronted with 
the disastrous consequences of 
his crime in the very hour of his 
triumph. — Metre, 172. 

1. pastor : Paris, who was ex- 
posed in his infancy and brought 
up among the shepherds on lilt. 
Ida. So Phrygius pastor ^ Verg. 
A. VII. 363. — traheret, was carry- 
ing off. 

2. Ideais : i.e. built of wood 
from Mt. Ida. — perfidus hospi- 
tam : Intr. 116 a. No treachery 
could be more heinous than that 



of the man who used the sacred 
rights of hospitality to plot against 
his host. 

3. ingrato, unwelcome {sc. to 
the winds). — obruit, smothered. 

4. caneret, yiv^/^//; frequently 
used in this sense, oracles and 
prophecies being in metrical form. 
Cf. C. S. 25 ; Verg. A. II. 124. 

5. Nereus : eldest of the sons 
of Pontus, father of Thetis and 
tfie other Nereids; always called in 
Homer the * old man of the sea * 
{e.g, II. I. 556 £hJiow yiporros)t and 
never by name. Cf. Hes. Theog. 
233 Ni7/9^a h* dyl/€vS4a xal d\ri$4a 
. . . Ka\4owrt yipovra \ ovveKa 
vrjfiMfn-^s re Kal ifirios. — mala avi : 
for ma/is auspiciis ; cf . mala alite^ 
Epod. TO. I ; bona alitCy Cat. 61. 20. 

— ducis (sc. earn) domum, th<m 
art bringing home a bride. 

6. multo milite : Intr. 127. 

7. coniurata : referring proba- 
bly not to the oath by which 
Tyndareus bound the suitors of 
Helen before her marriage, but to 
the league of the assembled chiefs 
at Aulis, alluded to in Verg. A. IV. 
425 non ego cum Danais Troianam 
exscindere gentem \ Aulide iuravi. 

— rumpere, to break up. For the 
mood, see Intr. 94/ 



50 



HORATI CARMIN^ 



[Lib. I. 



10 



IS 



Heu heu, quantus equis, quantus adest viris 
sudor ! Quanta moves funera Dardanae 
genti ! lam galeam Pallas et aegida 
currusque et rabiem parat. 

Nequiquam Veneris praesidio ferox 
pectes caesariem grataque feminis 
imbelli cithara carmina divides ; 
nequiquam thalamo gravis 

hastas et calami spicula Cnosii 
vitabis strepitumque et celerem sequi 



9. heu heu, ah me I The sym- 
pathy of the god is called forth by 
the actual vision which he has as 
a seer of the events foretold. The 
following scenes are all taken from 
the Iliad. — quantus equis, etc.: 
cf. //. II. 388 Idpfinrei fUv rev 
TeXafju&y . • . I8p(bff€i 64 rev tiriroi. 

10. quanta moves funera, 
what a train of disaster . . . thou 
art starting. For the plural, see 
Intr. 128 and cf. 8. 15. — Darda- 
nae : Intr. 65. 

11. iam, even naiv. — Pallas, 
etc.: cf. //. V. 719 sqq, — aegida : 
sometimes represented as the 
shield of Zeus, more commonly as 
the corselet of Athena (//. V. 738). 
As such it appears in numerous 
statues of that goddess, — a coat 
of mail, with the head of the gor- 
gon Medusa in the middle, as de- 
scribed by Verg. A. VIII. 435 : 
aegidaque horriferaniy turbatae 
Palladis artna^ \ certatim squa- 
mis serpentum auroque polibant \ 
conexosque anguisy ipsamque in 
pectoredivae \ Gorgonay dese£to ver- 
tentem lumina collo. 

12. currus : Intr. 128. — et 
rabiem : added with powerful 
effect to complete the inventory of 
her outfit for battle j cf . //. IV. 447 



fi4v€* iivbpG>p, 

13. nequiquam etc.: cf. the 
taunt of Hector, II. III. 54 ovk dv 
TOi xpo-^M-V "c^^a/MS rd re dCap 'A0po- 
dlrrit I 17 re K6fAi/i t6 re ctSot^ Hr iv 
Kovl'uo'i fuyelijs. — ferox, embolden- 
ed. The phrase suggests a scon^ul 
contrast with genuine courage. 

14. grata feminis : contempt- 
uous, like imbelli cithara and 
thalamo, below. 

1 5. imbelli cithara : cf. imbellis 
lyrae^ 6, 10. — divides, wilt sing 
to the accompaniment of. The 
word, which is nowhere else used 
in this sense, is apparently intend- 
ed to express the effect of the 
instrumental accompaniment in 
marking the parts or measures of 
the air. Others, however, suppose 
that Horace had in mind the 
division into strophes by inter- 
ludes on the lute. 

16. thalamo : see Intr. 69. and 
cf. //. III. 380 rhv d* {sc. Paris) 
i^pwa^' 'A^podlrii \ jcd5' 8* elo iv 
0aSdfjufi eCdtdeXy Kriii)€vri. 

17. Cnosii: Intr. 117a. The 
Cretans were famous archers, and 
Cnosus was one of their princi- 
pal towns ; cf. Verg. A. V. 306 
Cnosia spicula. 



XV. ^32.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



51 



20 



^5 



3° 



Aiacem : tamen, heu, serus adulteros 
crinis pulvere coUines. - 

Non Laertiaden, exitium tuae 
gentis, non Pylium Nestora respicis ? 
Vrgent impavidi te Salaminius 
Teucer, te Sthenelus sciens 

pugnae, sive opus est imperitare equis, 
non auriga piger. Merionen quoque 
nosces. Ecce furit te reperire atrox 
Tydides, melior patre, 

quern tu, cervus uti vallis in altera 
visum parte lupum graminis immemor 
sublimi fugies mollis anhelitu, 
non hoc poUicitus tuae. 



i8. vitabis, wilt thou stay . . . out 
of the way of. — sequi : Intr. loi ^ 

19. Aiacem : the son of Oileus 
('OiX^j ro.x^ Afas, //. II. 527). — 
serus, though long deferred the day 
will come when. Cf . I II. 1 1 . 28 sera 
fata. For the adjective used to 
express time, cf. 2. 45^ Ep. II. 1. 161. 
— adulteros crinis: Intr. 124. 

21. Laertiaden : Ulysses. — 
exitium tuae gentis : to the 
shrewdness of Ulysses, culminat- 
ing in the seizure of the Palladium, 
the success of the Greeks was held 
to be chiefly due. Cf. Ep. I. 2. 18 
Vlixen, qui, domitor Troiae^ etc., 
a free translation of the opening 
lines of the Odyssey. 

22. non respicis, seest thou not 
behind thee? cf. Verg. A. VIII. 697 
necdum geminos a tergo respicit an- 
guis. The god in his vision sees the 
dangers of the battle-field already 
close upon the unconscious Paris. 

24. Teucer : see 7. 21 n. — 
Sthenelus : charioteer of Diomed. 

25. sive : Intr. 119 ^. 



26. Merionen : see 6. 15 n. 

27. reperire : Intr. 94 e. 

28. Tydides : cf . 6. 1 5 n. — 
melior patre : i.e. as a warrior ; 
suggested by the saying of Sthene- 
lus, //. IV. 405 rifuTs rot rariptov 
lUy dfielpopes edx^f^* etpcu. 

29. cervus uti, etc.: sc. fugit, 
of which lupum is the object. — 
in altera parte, (on the other side 
of), across; i.e. without waiting 
for him to come near. 

30. visum, at the sight of — gra- 
minis immemor : a further touch 
to indicate the fright of the stag. 

31. sublimi anhelitu, panting 
with hecul high in air. This de- 
scription properly belongs to the 
stag : the comparison and its sub- 
ject are purposely confused ; Intr. 
1 23. — mollis, faint heart. 

32. non hoc, etc.: i.e. some- 
thing very different from this 
(litotes). With this final touch of 
scorn the god dismisses Paris, and 
closes his prophecy with the fate 
of Troy itself. — tuae : cf . tuo^ 25. 7. 



52 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



35 



Iracunda diem proferet Ilio 
matronisque Phrygum classis Achillei 
post certas hiemes uret Achaicus 
ignis Iliacas domos.' 



XVI. 

O matre pulchra filia pulchrior, 
quem criminosis cumque voles modum 



33. iracunda classis: see Intr. 
105 a. The followers of Achilles, 
who shared the inactivity of their 
chief, are regarded as sharing the 
wrath to which it was due. — diem 
proferet, will put off the day^ i,e. 
the day of doom, already foreshad- 
owed in vss. 8 and 21. 

34. matronisque Phrygum : 
not strictly necessary after the 
comprehensive Ilio, but added to 
lend a touch of pathos to the 
otherwise colorless statement, by 
recalling the class of persons on 
whom the calamity will bring the 
most intense suffering ; cf. i. 24, 
35. 1 1 n. — Phrygum: for Trojan, 
as in II. 9. 16 ; cf. Verg. A. I. 182, 
etc. — Achillei : for the form, cf. 
Vlixeif 6. 7 n. 

35. post certas hiemes, when 
the predestined number of winters 
is pasty i.e. in the fullness of time. 
Observe the asyndeton and the 
emphatic position of these words. 
The preceding sentence is not con- 
cessive, but the two together sum 
up, in its successive stages, the 
course of the war which is to come. 
Translated into prose the thought 
is: For a time internal dissension 
will paralyze the Greek and the 
doom of Troy will be withheld ; 
when the appointed hour is come, 
he will bum the city. For hiemes 
cf II. 4 n. 



36. Iliacas : this reading of all 
the MSS. has been questioned with 
good reason, (i) because of Ilio 
in 33, and (2) on account of the 
trochee ignis, which violates a 
rule elsewhere strictly observed by 
Horace (see Intr. 146 ^, 147). The 
second objection may be explained 
on the supposition that in this, 
which is probably one of his early 
odes, Horace followed his Greek 
models, and allowed himself a 
liberty which he subsequently 
refrained from using. The first 
objection has some weight, but no 
substitute for Iliacas is offered by 
any authority. Conjectures such 
as PergameaSy Dardanias, barbari- 
cos have been adopted by various 
^editors. 

XVI. The inscription in the 
manuscripts, Palinodiay indicates 
the nature of this ode, in which 
the poet represents himself as 
having given vent to his anger 
against his mistress in some verses 
which he now begs her to destroy 
and forget. The fact that he calls 
the offending verses iambi, his 
own name for the Epodes {Ep, I. 
19. 23, II. 2. 59), gives some color 
to the supposition that here for 
once Horace is dealing with a 
definite experience of his owi^ 
But the humorous extravagance 



XV. 33"*xvi. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



53 



pones iambis, sive flamma 
sive mari libet Hadriano. 

Non Dindymene, non adytis quatit 
mentem sacerdotum incola Pythius, 
non Liber aeque, non acuta 
sic geminant Corybantes aera 



with which he urges the lady to 
calm her mind and dilates on the 
dreadful effects of anger is hardly 
to be taken as the expression of 
genuine repentance. In any case 
the ode cannot be connected with 
any of the extant Epodes.^ Metre, 
176. 

2. criminosis, abusive. — cum- 
que : cf. 6. 3 n. — modum pones, 
you shall put an end to. The context 
gives the future a half-concessive, 
half-hortatory force ; Intr. 79, 90. 

3. iambis : a rapid rhythm (cf. 
vs. 24 and Ep, II. 3. 251 iambus^ 
pes citus) well adapted for invec- 
tive, a use to which it was said to 
have been turned by its reputed 
inventor Archilochus {Ep. II. 3. 79 
Archilochum propria rabies arma- 
vit iambo ; see Intr. 18). 

4. mari Hadriano *.- Intr. 117 a. 
The language is purposely ex- 
aggerated, as if we should say, 
*You may fling them into the 
middle of the Atlantic* 

5. non, etc. : the poet proceeds 
to discourse with humorous irony 
on the overmastering force of 
anger, which unbalances the intel- 
lect of man and drives him irre- 
sistibly upon a course of slaughter 
and destruction. It is first com- 
pared with the religious frenzy 
exhibited in the worship of certain 
divinities. — Dindymene : i.e. 
Cybele, identified with Rhea, the 
mother of Zeus. Dindymus was a 
mountain in Phrygia, near Pessi- 
nus, one of the principal seats of 



the worship of Cybele, whose rites 
were celebrated with the wildest 
orgies, the priests in their frenzy 
often slashing themselves witn 
knives. Cf. Catullus 63. — adytis, 
in the sanctuary^ in contrast with 
the mountains and woods where 
Cybele and Bacchus exercise their 
power. For the abl. see Intr. 69. 

6. incola Pythius, he that 
dwelleth in Pytho, i.e. Apollo, 
Pytho being the ancient name of 
Delphi The frenzy of the priest- 
ess of Apollo (the Cumaean sibyl), 
when possessed by the oracular 
spirit of the god, is described by 
Vergil, A. VI. 77 sqq. 

7. Liber : alluding to the orgi- 
astic rites practiced by the bac- 
chanals, under the overpowering 
inspiration, as they claimed, of the 
god. Cf. II. 19. Ssgq. — aeque, 
as muchy completing the predicate, 
non aeque mentem sacerdotum 
quatit, which is distributed, in 
Horace's favorite manner, among 
the three subjects ; Intr. 120. The 
place of acy which would naturally 
follow aeque, is supplied by ut, 
vs. 9, the change being due to the 
intervening sic, vs. 8. — acuta, 
shrill. 

8. sic, with such effect, sc. in 
exciting the mind. — geminant, 
clc^h together ; lit. put together in 
pairs. Cf. Stat. Theb. VIII. 221 
gemina aera sonant. — Coryban- 
tes : priests of Cybele. — aera : 
i.e. cymbals, used by the Cory- 
bantes in their rites. 



54 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



lO 



15 



tristes ut irae, quas neque Noricus 
deterret ensis nee mare naufragum 
nee saevus ignis nee tremendo 
luppiter ipse ruens tumultu. 

Fertur Prometheus, addere prineipi 
limo eoaetus partieulam undique 
deseetam, et insani leonis 

vim stomaeho adposuisse nostro. 



9. tristes ut irae, as unhappy 
anger has. The predicate to be 
supplied, however, is tnentem quati- 
unt or the like, expressing the 
general sense of the preceding 
strophe, which is implied even in 
sic, on which ut grammatically 
depends. — irae : Intr. 1 28. — 
Noricus: Intr. 117. The iron 
foundries in Noricum are alluded 
to by Ovid, M. XIV. 712 durior 
et ferro quod Noricus excoquit 
ignis. 

10. deterret : i.e. from pursu- 
ing its course of vengeance. — 
ensis, mare, ignis : stock ex- 
amples of obstacles ; cf. ^. I. 
I. 38 : cum te neque fervidus aestus 

I demoveat iucro, neque hiems 
ignis mare fer runty \ nil obstat tibi, 

1 2. luppiter : cf . lovcy i . 25 n. — 
ruens, descending* i.e. in thunder 
and lightning. 

13. fertur, we are told that. — 
Prometheus : the myth of the 
creation of man and the other 
animals from clay and water by 
Prometheus, though unknown to 
Homer and Hesiod, was very old 
(cf. Plato, Protag. 11). In its 
present form, however, it is not 
found in any other author now ex- 
tant, though the notion of man 
being endowed with the qualities 
of various other animals, — the 
cunning of the fox, the timidity 
of the hare, etc., — occurs very 



early. — prineipi, firsts original^ 
that of which the first man was 
created. 

14. partieulam : that a material 
portion is meant, and not a portion 
of the soul (as S. II. 2. 79), is shown 
by deseetam. The idea seems to be 
that each of the animals had been 
created by mixing with the clay 
out of which it was shaped a cer- 
tain material which gave it its 
peculiar disposition, but that when 
he came to the creation of man, 
Prometheus was obliged, in order 
to obtain the requisite amount, to 
take from each of the animals 
which he had already created (un- 
dique) a portion of its predispos- 
ing substance. ^ ;trjO\ 

16. stomaeho: ^i>. to the organ 
which is the seat of our passion 
(cf . 6. 6 n) was added, among other 
elements (et), a particle taken from 
the lion, bringing with it the vio- 
lence of his rage. 

17. irae : repeated from vs. 9. 
— Thyesten : son of Pelops and 
brother of Atreus, whose ven- 
geance took the monstrous form 
of a supper at which Thyestes was 
induced to eat unawares the flesh 
of his own son. — exitio, etc. : this 
part of the myth has not come 
down to us. It was probably 
familiar to Horace and his readers 
from the Thyestes of Varius, 
recently published. 



XVI. 9-28.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



55 



20 



25 



Irae Thyesten exitio gravi 
stra^wre et altis urbibus ultimae 
stetere causae cur perirent 
funditus imprimeretque muris 

hostile aratrum exercitus insolens. 
Compesce mentem ! Me quoque pectoris 
temptavit in dulci iuventa 
fervor et in celeres iambos 

misit furentem : nunc ego mitibus 
mutare quaero tristia, dum mihi 
fias recantatis arnica 

opprobriis animumque reddas. 



1 8. altis : a frequent poetical 
epithet of cities, denoting lofty 
walls and buildings, and hence im- 
plying power and splendor ; cf. 
IV. 6. 3 ; Verg. A. I. 7 altae moe- 
nia Romae. — urbibus ; virtually 
dative of possessor (see notie on 
stetere), anticipating the subject 
of the interrogative clause. — 
ultimae, /rimd^ry, the last reached 
in tracing backwards the series of 
results ; cf. Cat. 4. 1 5 ultima ex 
origine. 

19. stetere : more expressive 
than/i/^^, implying the persistent 
efficacy of the cause. 

20. imprimeretque muris, etc. : 
amplification of funditus, to illus- 
trate how far the victor is carried 
in his rage. To drive a plow over 
the ruins of a city as the Romans 
did in the case of Carthage (Momm- 
sen Hist. Ill, p. 54), was to pro- 
claim its absolute and final efface- 
ment. 

21. hostile aratrum: Intr. 124. 
» — insolens : cf . 5. 8 n. For the 
caesura of this verse, see Intr. 155. 



22. compesce mentem : the 
moral of his discourse, which was 
therefore meant as a warning to 
the lady, and not an apology for 
hU own indulgence in anger. That, 
he goes on to say (me quoque, 
etc.), is a thing of the past. 

23. temptavit, attacked (as a 
disease); cf. Ep, I. 6. 28 si latus 
aut renes tnorbo temptantur acuta. 
— dulci : not an idle epithet. The 
fervor pectoris was one phase 
of the strong passions and quick 
impulses that made life so sweet 
at that time. 

24. celeres iambos: see vs. 3 n. 

25. mitibus . . . tristia, kind 
feelings for bitterness. For the use 
of the neuter plural cf. ima sum- 
miSf 34. 1 2 n ; for the construc- 
tion see Intr. 74, and cf. 17. i sg. 

26. mutare : Intr. 94 c. 

27. TcctLntaitiSt now tkat / kave 
retracted; the verb being here used 
as a translation of TraXiPtpdcty. — 
amica, friendly. 

28. animum reddas, give me 
back your heart. 



56 



HORATI CARMINA* 



[Lib. I. 



XVII. 

Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem 
mutat Lycaeo Faunus et igneam 
defendit aestatem capellis 

usque meis pluviosque ventos. 

Impune tutum per nemus arbutos 
quaerunt latentis et thyma deviae 
olentis uxores mariti, 

nee viridis metuunt colubras 



XVIT. On the attractions of 
his Sabine farm, with an invitation 
to a fair friend, whom he calls 
Tyndaris, to visit him there and 
enjoy with him the quiet coantry 
pleasures which it affords. — 
Metre, 176. 

1. Lucretilem : Intr. 24. 

2. mutat : see Intr. 74 and 
cf. 16. 25. — Lycaeo : the moun- 
tain range on the eastern border 
of Arcadia. — Faunus: an old 
Italian divinity, still worshipped 
in the country, sometimes as a 
benevolent god of woods and past- 
ures (cf. III. 18), sometimes as a 
prophetic spirit who secluded him- 
self in the forest, from which his 
loud voice occasionally resounded, 
filling all who heard it with ter- 
ror and foreboding (Cic Div. I. 
lot., />, A^. II. 6. III. 15 ; cf. Liv. 
II. 7. 3). The Arcadian Pan, the 
son of Hermes, with whom Faunus 
was identified in literature, was 
also a spirit of the hills and woods, 
who punished men that disturbed 
his midday sleep (Theocr. I. 15) 
by frightening them out of theu- 
senses with demoniacal cries 
(hence the expression * panic fear *) ; 
but In general he was a merry 
spiriti always accompanied by 



dancing and singing nymphs, to 
whom he played on his marvelous 
pipe, while the shepherds down in 
the valley listened in spell-bound 
^ence or terror (Mart. IX. 6i. 12). 
3. defendit, wards off. — ae- 
statem : «>. heat. — capellis : da- 
tive ; cf. Verg. E, 7. 47 solstitium 
pecori defendite. Gr. 229 c. 

5. impune, with impunity; re- 
ferring to deviae, which implies a 
neglect of the precautions ordi- 
narily necessary to keep them from 
harm. — arbutos: see i. 21 n. 

6. quaerunt deviae, stray . . . 
in search of. — latentis : /./. easily 
escaping notice among the other 
trees and bushes. 

7. olentis uxores mariti, the 
wives of the unfragrant spouse. — 
mariti: se. gregis ; a common 
way of designating the male ani- 
mal. Cf. Verg. E, 7. 7 vir gregis 
ipse caper ; Theocr. 8. 49 w Tpd7e, 
ray Acwrav «lY«#r di^. 

9. If artialis : f>. sacred to 
Mars; cf. Martins lupus, Verg. 
Aen. IX. 566, and the story of 
the birth of Romulus and Remus. 
— baediliae {sc. metuuni)^ the kids. \ 
The word does not occur else- 
where, but this interpretation of it 
as a diminutive form from haedus 



XVII. i-i8.] 



UORATI CARMINA. 



57 



lO 



^5 



nec Martialis haediliae lupos, 
utcumque dulci, Tyndari, fistula 
valles et Vsticae cubantis 
levia personuere saxa. 

Di me tuentur, dis pietas mea 
et musa cordi est. Hie tibi copia 
manabit ad plenum benigno 
ruris honorum opulenta cornu ; 

hie in reducta valle Caniculae 
vitabis aestus et fide Teia 



is supported by the parallel form 
porciliay from porcus. The old 
hypothesis, that Haedilia was the 
name of a place in the neighbor- 
hood, rejected by Bentley, is still 
maintained by some editors. 

10. utcumque: always temporal 
in Horace. With the perfect 
definite, here and IV. 4. 35, it in- 
troduces a determining circum- 
stance, like simul {e^. 9. 9}. — 
fistula, with his pipe. Fis- 
tula is the I^tin name for the 
Greek <rvpiy^, Pan*s pipe. Cf. Tib. 

11. 5. 31 Jistulay cut semper de- 
crescit harundinis ordo ; \ nam 
calamus cera iungitur usque minor; 
and Verg. E. 3. 25. 

11. Vsticae : said by Porphyrio 
to be a hill or mountain of gentle 
slope (cubantis) in the neighbor- 
hood of the Sabine farm. 

12. personuere, have rung; 
perfect, because the strains of the 
fistula, once heard, are an assur- 
ance of the presence of the god, 
inspiring the animals with the 
feeling of security described. The 
music is not thought of as con- 
tinuing. 

14. musa:* see note on Clioy 

12. 2. — copia : not personified as 
in C. S, 60 and £p, I. 12. 29, 



where Plenty is the goddess who 
showers blessings from her over- 
flowing horn. Here, as in the 
oldest Greek conception of the 
*hom of plenty' (the horn of 
Amalthea, the nurse of Zeus, 
taken by Hercules from the river- 
god Acheloos), copia is the con- 
tents of the horn, which was repre- 
sented as in the possession of 
various divinities, Demeter, Dio- 
nysus, Fortuna (Tyche), Autum- 
nus, etc. 

1 5. benigno : cf . 9. 6 n. 

16. honorum, the glories, i,e, 
fruits, vegetables, flowers ; cf. S. 
II. 5. 12 dulcia poftia \ et quos- 
cumque feret cultus tibi fundus 
h on ores. For the case, see Intr. 
66 r. 

17. Caniculae, the Dog-star; 
properly the constellation of the 
Lesser Dog, which the Greeks 
called WpoKimv (cf. III. 29. 17 n) 
as rising before the (Greater) Dog; 
but the name was popularly ap- 

^ plied to Sinus, the chief star of 
the Greater Dog, whose rising, 
July 26, heralded the hot season. 
Cf. III. 13. 9, S, II. 5. 39. 

18. aestus : Intr. 128. — fide 
Teia : i.e, in love songs, such as 
those of Anacreon, who was a 



58 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



20 



25 



dices laborantis in uno 

Penelopen vitreamque Circen ; 

hie innocentis pocula Lesbii 
duces sub umbra, nee Semeleius 
cum Marte confundet Thyoneus 
proelia, nee metues protervum 

suspecta Cyrum, ne male dispari 
incontinentis iniciat manus 
et seindat haerentem coronam 
crinibus immeritamqne vestem. 



native of Teos (Epod, 14. 10); cf. 
Lesboum barbiton^ i. 34 n. The 
ablative is instrumental and means 
' to the accompaniment of.' 

19. dices : cf. dicere, 6. 5 n. 
— laborantis {sc. amore), heart- 
sick ; cf. ambitione laboraty S. 

I. 4. 26. — in : an extension of its 
use in the sense of 'in the case 
of*; see Intr. 72 and cf. Verg. A, 

II. 540 at non Achilles \ talis in 
hoste fuit Priamo ; Epod. 11. 4 ; 
Cat. 64. 98 in flavo hospite suspi- 
rantetn ; translate for. — uno : 
Ulysses. 

20. vitream, crystal^ suggesting 
a brilliant, dazzling beauty ; cf. 
19. 5 Glycercte nitor splendentis 
Pario marmore purius and III. 
13. I splendidior vitro. The 
Romans, though they used glass 
very little for their windows, on 
account of its expensiveness, were 
very skilful in working it for ar- 
tistic purposes — vases, ornaments, 
imitations of precious stones, etc. 
The epithet is perhaps applied to 
her as a sea-goddess ; cf. IV. 2. 3 
vitreo ponto and Epod. 13. 16 mater 
caerula (Thetis). — Circen: Odys. 
X. 274 sqq. 

21. innocentis : i.e. not intoxi- 



cating, as explained in the next 
clause. — Lesbii : one of the 
sweeter Greek wines. 

22. AviC^s^ you shall quaff. For 
the tense, cf. 16. 3 n. — nee Se- 
meleius, etc.: i.e. nor will there be 
any quarrelling over the cups, as 
there is in the companies where 
she meets his rival. — Semeleius, 
the son of Semele ; cf. Cat. 61. 225 
Teletnacho Penelopeoi 

23. confundet proelia : a vari- 
ation of the ordinary committere 
proelia, to express a disorderly 
squabble. — Thyoneus : a name 
of Bacchus meaning *son of the 
raving one,* (GucJinj ; cf. ^a;). The 
latter name was very early applied 
to Semele ; cf. Hom. Hym. to 
Dionys. (34) 21 viiv firjrpl ^efjJXy 
{nre/> KaXiowri QvbSvrfv. 

25. suspecta : because of his 
jealousy. — male, very; see 9. 24 n. 

26. incontinentis manus : cf. 
13. 9 n, and see Intr. 124. 

27. coronam : cf. 4. 10 n. 

28. crinibus : probably dative, 
as S. 1. 10. 49 haerentem capiti 
multa cum laude cltronam ; but 
see Intr. 71. — immeritam : i.e. 
having done nothing to deserve 
such treatment. 



XVII. I9-XVIII. 5-] HORATI CARMINA. 



59 



XVIII. 

Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem 
circa mite solum Tiburis et moenia Catili. 
Siccis omnia nam dura deus proposuit neque 
mordaces aliter diffugiunt soUicitudines. 
5 Quis post vina gravem militiam aut pauperiem crepat ? 



XVIII. "On the blessings of 
wine when used with moderation, 
and the folly and sin of intem- 
perance. The ode appears to be 
a translation, with a few touches 
to give it a local setting, of a poem 
of Alcaeus, in the same metre, of 
which the first verse is preserved 
(/r.44): 

Mrfiiv AWo 0vr€<^]7f irp&rcpop Bip- 
dpiov d/AT Aw. 

The Varus addressed is probably 
the literary critic, Quintilius Varus, 
whose death is mourned in Ode 
24. — Metre, 170. 

1. sacra : i.e. to Bacchus. The 
word sets the tonf of the ode at 
the outset : wine is not for the 
mere pleasure of our palate ; it is 
a divine gift, the abuse of which 
will be punished as sin. — severis, 
plant; cf. Caecilius ap. Cic. C. 
M. 24 serit arbores quae alteri 
saeclo prosint. — arborem : cf . ^^i^- 
Bpvav^ intr. note, and Plin. N. H. 
XIV. 9 vites iure apud prise os 
magnitudine quoque inter arbores 
numerabantur. 

2. circa, about; used in differ- 
ent senses, as the English word 
may be, with its two objects : 
with solum, equivalent to 'here 
and there in,' with moenia, 'in 
the neighborhood of.' — mite, 
mellow^ i>. light and crumbling, 
yielding readily to the plough. 
Such soil was suitable for the vine 



(Verg. G. II. 226 sqq,), — Tiburis : 
it would seem that Varus had a 
country place there. — moenia 
Catili : see 7. 13 n. With the 
name of Catillus (Verg. A, VII. 
672) Horace has allowed himself a 
Homeric license ; cf. 'AxiXWf, 
*Ax«X<^J, €>g. II. I. 148, 199. 

3. siccis : i.e. those who ab- 
stain ; cf. IV. 5. 39, Ep, I. 19. 9. 
— omnia dura, only the hard side 
of life ; dura has a predicate force, 
expressing the aspect under which 
everything is presented. — nam : 
Intr. 114. — deus : cf. 3. 21 n. 

4. aliter, in any other way ; 
used illogically, as if the preceding 
statement had been put in the 
converse form : all things are soft- 
ened to those who drink wine. 

5. gravem militiam, the hard- 
ships of a soldier's life. This topic 
would hardly have occurred to 
Horace, who had seen nothing of 
war for a dozen years ; it is no 
doubt taken from the ode of 
Alcaeus ; cf. 32. 5 sqq. — crepat, 
prattles; cf. Ep, I. 7. 84 sulcos 
et vineta crepat mera. The word 

.simply means rattling on, as men 
do when their tongue is loosened 
by wine, about subjects fit or 
unfit (Ep. I. 7. 72), and is to be 
understood in this sense in the 
next verse. The censure is direct- 
ed against the depressing topics 
of conversation, and not specially 
against the manner of talking. 



60 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



Quis non te potius, Bacche pater, teque, decens Venus ? 
Ac ne quis ttiodici transiliat munera Liberi, 
Centaurea monet cum Lapithis rixa super mero 
debellata, monet Sithoniis non levis Euhius, 
cum fas atque nefas exiguo fine libidinum 
discernunt avidi. Non ego te, candide Bassareu, 
invitum quatiam nee variis obsita frondibus 



6. te potius, etc. : i.e, of the 
brighter side of life, — its joys and 
solaces, rather than of its troubles. 
— Bacche, Venus : cf. 19. 2 n, 
32. 9. — pater : a title of rever- 
ence (cf. 2. 50 n) suited to the char- 
acter of benefactor, in which Bac- 
chus is here invoked; cf. III. 3. 13, 
Ep, II. I. 5 Liber pater. — decens: 
cf. 4. 6 n. 

7. ac, andyetf qualifying the pre- 
ceding recommendation of wine. 
For this use of ac cf. S. II. 2. 118, 
Ep, II. I. 208. — ne quis trans- 
iliat, against a reckless use of. — 
munera Liberi : not simply wine, 
but wine as Liber designed it, for 
the good of mankind. The con- 
dition imposed in his design is ex- 
pressed in modici. With munera 
thus limited the poet uses transi- 
liat, go beyond, with the implication 
of recklessness, as in 3. 42. 

8. Centaurea, of the Centaurs. 
At the wedding of Pirithous, king 
of the Lapithae, with Hippo- 
damia, Eurytion, one of the Cen- 
taurs, who were present as guests, 
attempted in his drunkenness to 
carry off the bride. The battle that 
ensued became a famous subje;^t 
in literature (cf. Odys. XXI. 295, 
Ov. M. XII. 210) and in art (as 
in the metopes of the Parthenon 
and in the pediment of the temple 
at Olympia). — monet, there is 
warning in. — super : cf . 9. 5 n. 

9. debellata : the contest ended 
in the extirpation of the Centaurs 



(//. I. 267), a result which, in the 
form of the myth ¥4iich Horace 
follows, took place then and there 
(super mero). — Sithoniis ; a 
Thracian tribe, used here for the 
Thracians in general. — non levis, 
the severity of; Intr. 105 a. The 
allusion is to the bloody quarrels 
over their wine for which they were 
notorious (cf. 1. 27. i sq.), and which 
are here represented as punish- 
ments inflicted by the god. — 
Euhius : a name of Bacchus, 
formed from €voi (cf. II. 19. 5), 
the cry of the bacchantes. 

10. exiguo, faint, scarcely per- 
ceptible, instead of the broad and 
distinct line that separates right 
and wrong iji the mind of one 
whose moral perceptions are un- 
clouded. — fine libidinum, the line 
which appetite draws; cf. III. 24. 44 
virtutis viam (the path that virtue 
prescribes) ; S. I. i. 50 naturae 
finis (the limits that nature sets). 

I v. avidi, in their strong craving. 
— non ego te : this is the usual 
order where non and ego are both 
emphatic ; cf. 23. 9, II. 7. 26, 
17. 9, S. I. I. 103, etc. — candide, 
radiant; of the ever youthful 
beauty of the god (cf. candide 
Bacche, Ov. F. III. 772 ; Candida 
Dido, Verg. A. V. 571), in accord- 
ance with the ordinary Greek con- 
ception, yet not inconsistent with 
the more serious character at- 
tributed to him here. — Bassareu: 
a name of Bacchus said to be de- 



XVIII. 6-XIX. 2.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



61 



15 



sub divum rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio 
comu tympana, quae subsiequitur caecus amor sui 
et toUens vacuum plus nimio gloria verticem 
arcanique fides prodiga, perlucidior vitro. 



/ 



XIX. 



\ •", 



Mater saeva Cupidinum 

Thebanaeque iubet me Semeles puer 



rived from ptuffo-dpat, a fox-skin, 
worn by the Thradan bacchantes, 
hence called Baffff€^)ld€s. Under 
this name he was represented with 
a beard and the features of mature 
age (Macrob. Sat, I. 18. 9). 

12. quatiam, rouse. — variis 
obsita frondibus, M^ mysteries 
enveloped in divers leaves (espe- 
cially grape and ivy); alluding to 
the caskets containing mysterious 
symbols carried in bacchanalian 
processions. See the vivid de- 
scription in Catullus, 64. 254 sqq. 
Under the figure of respect for 
these mysteries the poet professes 
his own resolution to conform to 
the will of the god, and again 
deprecates intemperate indulgence. 

13. sub divum, to light; cf. sub 
lave 1 . 25 n. — saeva, barbarous, — 
Berecyntio comu : named from 
Berecyntus, one of the mountains 
in Phrygia on which the orgies of 
Cybele were celebrated, and there- 
fore belonging, like the tympana 
(vs. 14), tambourines (cf. Cat. 63. 21), 
to the worship of that goddess; but 
the orgies of the two divinities 
were always more or less confused 
with one another. See III. 19. 19 n. 

14. quae subsequitur : keep- 
ing up the figure, the qualities that 
follow being person&ed in the 
bacchanals who man^ behind this 
wild music. 



15. toUens verticem : cf. 1.36. 
— plus nimio, all too high; a 
colloquial expression (cf. Cic Att. 
X. 8 A. I quia te nimio plus diligo), 
in Horace always used of censur- 
able excess (33. i, Ep, 1. 10. 30). — 
gloria, vainglory^ vanity^ as in 
Ep. I. 18. 22 gloria quern supra 
viris et vestit et ungit, 

16. arcanique fides prodiga : 
see 5. 5 n. — perlucidior : i.e, with 
no more power of concealment, 
a familiar result of intoxication ; 
cf. the practice of the Germans 
described by Tacitus, Ger, 22. For 
the peculiar caesura of this verse, 
see Intr. 1 50. — vitro : see note 
on vitream, 17. 20. 

XIX. The poet will have us 
believe that he has once again had 
to surrender to the charms of a 
fair girl, when he thought his days 
of love were over long ago. — 
Metre, 171. 

1. Cupidinum : the original 
conception of Eros as the one son 
of Aphrodite was later enlarged 
by poets and artists, who repre- 
sented numberless Loves, all in 
the shape of pretty winged boys, 
in attendance on Aphrodite, and 
sometimes on Bacchus. See Prel- 
ler-Plew, Gr. Myth. I. p. 417. 

2. Semeles puer : dF. Seme- 
leiuSf 17. 22. Here, in contrast 



62 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



et lasciva Licentia 

finitis animum reddere amoribus. 
5 Vrit me Glycerae nitor 

splendentis Pario marmore purius; 
urit grata protervitas 

et voltus nimium lubricus adspici. 
In me tota ruens Venus 

Cyprum deseruit, nee patitur Scythas 
et versis animosum equis 

Parthum dicere nee quae nihil attinent. 
Hie vivum mihi caespitem, hie 

verbenas, pueri, ponite turaque 
1 5 bimi cum patera meri : 

mactata veniet lenior hostia. 



lO 



with the last ode, he is the youth- 
ful Bacchus (puer), the compan- 
ion of Venus. Cf. 32. 9. 

4. animum reddere: cf. 16. 28 n. 

5. nitor, the beauty, Cf. nites^ 

5- 13- 

6. splendentis purius, who 

shines with purer lustre. — Pario: 
from Paros, one of the nitentes 
Cyclades (14. 20), preferred for 
sculpture on account of its fineness 
and purity. 

8. et voltus, etc., and her too 
dazzling face. — lubricus adspici : 
i.e. on which one's glance can no 
more rest steadily than one's foot 
upon a slippery surface. For the 
infinitive, see Intr. 102. 

9. tota, with all her force. — 
ruens : cf. 16. 12. 

10. Cyprum: cf. 3. i, 30. 2. — 
Scythas, Parthum : subjects of 
national importance that engage 
the public attention. Cf. 26. 5 n. 

1 1 . animosum : in contrast with 
versis equis (Intr. 116 a), which 
ordinarily indicates fear or coward- 



ice. The allusion is to the favorite 
stratagem of the Parthian cavalry, 
of turning suddenly while in full 
retreat and sending a shower of 
arrows in the face of the pursuing 
enemy; cf. Verg. G. III. 31. 

12. quae nihil attinent, any 
such irrelevant subject; a delicious 
touch of feminine assumption. 

13. hie . . . hie : Intr. 116^. 
The case calls for immediate at- 
tention ; a sacrifice must be insti- 
tuted on the spot. — vivum eae- 
spitem : often used for a tempor- 
ary altar ; cf. III. 8. 4. 

14. verbenas, green sprigs (of 
certain sacred trees and plants, 
here probably myrtle). — pueri : 
i.e. slaves (not necessarily young); 
the usual term in addressmg them ; 
cf. 38. I. 

1 5. patera : a saucer-shaped 
vessel with a handle, used especially 
for libations. — meri : in its literal 
sense, only unmixed wine being 
permitted for this purpose. 

16. veniet lenior : in contrast 



XIX. 3-xx. 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



63 



XX. 

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum 
cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa 
conditum levi, datu& in theatro 
cum tibi plausus, 

care Maecenas eques, ut paterni 
fluminis ripae simul et iocosa 



with tota ruenst 9. — hostia : vic- 
tims were sometimes sacrificed to 
Venus (Plaut. Poen. 449 sqq.f Tac. 
If. II. 3), but her sacrifices were 
commonly bloodless. 

XX. To Maecenas, in antici- 
pation of a visit from him, perhaps 
at the poet's country place (Intr. 
24). The ode lacks the usual 
finish of Horace's lyric works, and 
if genuine, -sc which some even of 
the more conservative editors 
doubt, — must be regarded as a 
hasty and informal production, 
preserved only for the sake of the 
allusion in vss. 3 sqq. The abrupt 
beginning may be explained on 
the supposition that the poem is 
an answer to a note from Maecenas, 
announcing his intended visit. — 
Metre, 174. 

I. vile, plaifiy in contrast with 
the fine and costly brands men- 
tioned in the last strophe. — modi- 
cis, modest, referring not so much 
to the size of the cups as to the 
quality of their contents. Cf. S. II. 
6. 70 modicis (sc. poculis) uvescit 
laetius^ where it is contrasted 
with acria pocula ; S, I. 5. 2 hos- 
pitio modico; Ep. I. 5. 2 modica 
cenare patella. — Sabinum (sc. 
vinum) : the wine of the district ; 
cf. 9. 7 n. According to Ep, I. 
14. 23, it could not have been 
produced on his own place. 



2. cantharis, dowls. The can- 
tharus was a large cup with 
handles, said to have been named 
for its inventor. — Graeca testa : 
ue. a jar which, having contained 
Greek wine, would improve the 
flavor of the Sabine put into it. 
For the case of testa see Intr. 69. 
— ipse, with my own hands. 

3. conditum levi, stored and 
sealed. The cork of the amphora 
was smeared with pitch to make it 
air-tight ; cf. III. 8. 10. — datus : 
sc. est. — theatro: probably that of 
Pompey, the only permanent the- 
atre existing in Rome at the time. 
It stood in the Campus Martins, 
about a thousand feet from the 
river. 

4. cum, at the time when. See 
Intr. 114. — plausus: the occasion, 
as appears from II. 17. 22 sqq., 
was the first public appearance of 
Maecenas after a serious illness, 
probably in B.C. 30. The date of 
this ode must be set some years 
later. 

5. care : cf. dilecte Maecenas, II. 
20. 7 . — eques : Intr. 21. — pa- 
terni fluminis : the Tiber, as ris- 
ing in Etruria (amnis Tuscus, S. 
II. 2. 32), the home of Maecenas* 
ancestors. 

6. ripae : the plural for one 
side of the river only, as Aen. VI. 
305. See Intr. 128. — iocosa 
imago: cf. 12. 3 n. 



64 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



redderet laudes tibi Vaticani 
montis imago. 

Caecubum et prelo domitam Caleno 
tu bibes uvam : mea nee Falernae 
temperant vites neque Formiani 
pocula eoUes. 



XXI. 

Dianam tenerae dieite virgines, 
intonsum^ pueri, dieite Cynthium, 
Latonamque supremo 
dileetam penitus lovi. 



7. redderet, repeated, — Vati- 
cani montis : here used for the 
whole range of hills along the 
west bank of the Tiber, rising to 
a height of over 250 feet above 
the river. The part opposite the 
theatre of Pompey was called 
laniculum. Echoes from the steep 
slopes of this hill were no doubt 
familiar to the Romans, but 
Horace's introduction of them 
here is purely ornamental. The 
applause in the theatre, could not 
possibly have been so reechoed. 
The short / of Vaticanus is peculiar 
to Horace. 

9. Caecubum, etc.: fine wines 
of Latium and Campania respect- 
ively, standing for rich wines in 
general (Intr. 117 a). — domitam, 
crushed. 

10. tu bibes : sc, at home ; not 
the simple future, like potabis^ vs. 
I, but with a concessive-hortatory 
force, brought out by the antithesis 
of tu and mea ; see Intr. 79. — 
Falernae . . . Formiani : again a 
choice Gampanian and a choice 
Latin wine, from the same dis- 
tricts respectively as the Caecuban 



and the Calenian. They therefore 
repeat, with variation of form, the 
same general idea. 

II. temperant, yKoEz/^r; lit. *mix* 
(in due proportion), ^Epod. 17. 80; 
hence * determine the quality of.' 
Observe that the subject is not the 
wine but the vines and the hills. 

XXI. An ode in honor of Apollo 
and Diana, — especially the former 
as the patron god of Augustus, — 
in the form of an address to a 
chorus of boys and girls employed 
in some festival of these divinities. 
It may be compared with the latter 
part of IV. 6 (vss. 31 sqq^ ad- 
dressed to the chorus that sang 
the Carmen Saeculare, and with 
Catullus 34. — Metre, 173. 

1. Dianam : Intr. 178. — di- 
eite : cf. 6. 5 n. 

2. intonsum : as possessed of 
eternal youth, Apollo was repre- 
sented with a beardless face (levts^ 
IV. 6. 28) and long golden locks 
{dKefHr€K6ftfit, //. XX. 39 ; 6 xpvc<^ 
K6fms, Find. 0/. 7. 58). Cf. Tib. 
I. 4. 37 so/is aeterna est Phoeho 
Bacchoque iuventa^ \ nam decet in* 



XX. 7-XXI. 12.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



65 



10 



Vos lactam fluviis et nemorum coma 
quaecumque aut gelido prominet Algido 
nigris aut Erymanthi 
silvis aut viridis Gragi ; 

vos Tempe totidem toUite laudibus 
natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis 
insignemque pharetra 

fraternaque umerum lyra. 



tonsus erinis utrumque deum^ and 
II. 5. 121. — Cynthium : Apollo ; 
so named from the hill Cvnthus, 
in Delosy where Apollo and Diana 
were bom. The latter is for the 
same feason often called Cynthia^ 
as III. 28. 12. 

3. Latonam : to be included in 
the hymn as the mother of the 
twin deities. 

5. vos : sc. dicite ; addressed to 
the girls, as mares, 10, shows. — 
fluviis, etc.: cf. Verg. A. I. 498 
qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per tuga 
Cytithi I exercet Diana choros, etc. 
— coma, the tresses, i^. the foliage, 
as in IV. 7. 2. 

6. prominet, tower aloft, — Al- 
gido : the range of hills between 
Tusculum and the Via Latina, 
north of the Alban mount, being 
the northern member of the semi- 
circular range that encloses that 
extinct volcano. The whole range, 
which was thickly wooded and 
cool in comparison with the sur- 
rounding plain (hence the name 
Algidus and the epithet gelido; 
cf. nivali III. 23. 9), was regarded 
as a favorite haunt of Diana {quae 
tenet Algidum, C. S» 69), and at its 
southern, extremity, near Aricia, 
there was a famous grove and 
altar of the goddess {Diana Nemo- 
rensis; cf. Ep. II. 3. 16). For the 
case see Intr. 69. 

7. nigris : referring rather to 



the color of the leaves than to 
the thickness of the foliage. See 
note on viridis, 8. — aut : Intr. 
1 14. — Erymanthi : a mountain on 
the north-western borders of Ar- 
cadia, a famous hunting ground 
of Artemis {Odys. VI. 103). 

8. silvis, in the forests, of which 
the nemora (open woods and 
glades) are a part. — viridis : the 
lighter color of deciduous trees in 
contrast with the dark evergf^ens 
(nigris) of Erymanthus ; cf. IV. 
12. II nigri colles Arcadiae ; 
though not belonging grammati- 
cally to silvis, it supplants the 
epithet nigris, and silvis alone is 
understood with Grag^. — Gragi : 
a mountain range (Kpd7o$; d.Agri- 
gentum for kicpdyai) on the west- 
em coast of Lycia, the seat of 
some of the oldest legends of La- 
tona and her children. 

9. Tempe : see 7. 4 n. Here 
Apollo was purified after slaying 
the Python, and here an altar 
marked the spot where he plucked 
the laurel branch with which he 
returned to establish his oracle at 
Delphi. 

10. natalem Delon : see note 
on Cynthium, 2. 

12. fraterna : as a present from 
Mercury; cf. 10. 12 n. — umerum : 
object of tollite; cf. III. 28. 9 
cantahimus Neptunum et Nereidum 
comas. Some editors take it as 



66 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. L 



IS 



Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famem 
pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in 
Persas atque Britannos 
vestra motus aget preee. 



XXII. ^ ^ 

Integer vitae seelerisque purus 
non eget Mauris iaeulis neque areu 
nee venenatis gravida sagittis. 
Fusee, pharetra, 

sive per Syrtis iter aestuosas 
sive faeturus per inhospitalem 
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus 
lambit Hydaspes. 



an accusative of speciftcation with 
insignem, which would then stand 
for eum qui insignis est (cf . lactam^ 
5) ; but it is very doubtful 
whether Horace ever used a mas- 
culine accusative, in this construc- 
tion, with an adjective ; see Intr. 44. 

13. hie, etc. : an extension of 
his functions as dXc^/icaicof, or de- 
fender against plague ; cf. Preller- 
Robert, Gr. MythoL I., p. 276. 

14. principe: see 2. 50 n. 

15. Persas : see 2. 22 n. — 
Britannos: cf. HI. 5. 3, where 
they are coupled, as here, with the 
Parthians as not yet vanquished 
foes of Rome. 

XXII. Aristius Fuscus,to whom 
this ode is addressed, was a man 
who dearly loved his joke, as ap- 
pears from the part he took in 
Horace's famous encounter with 
the bore, S. I. 9. 61 sqq. ; and 
Horace was in thorough sympathy 
with him {ptiene gemelli/fraternis 



animiSf Ep, I. 10. i sqq, ; cf. also 
S. I. 10. 83). Fuscus therefore 
could not have been misled by 
the high moral tone in which this 
ode opens, only to be puzzled by 
the somewhat flippant anticlimax 
at the end. No one who has 
learned to know Horace in the 
Satires could for a moment sup- 
pose that he would seriously pro- 
pound the extravagant sentiment 
in the first two strophes, much 
less that he would seriously point 
to himself as an example of such 
lofty virtue. The incident of the 
third strophe was probably real, 
and our ode has no higher pur- 
pose than to tell his friend the 
story with a mock-serious moral 
attached. — Metre, 174. 

1. vitae: Intr. 66^. — sceleris: 
Intr. 66 c. 

2. Mauris: Intr. 117 dr. 

3. gravida, stuffed, 

5. Syctis : here not (as in 
Epod. 9. 3 1 ) the dangerous waters 



XXI. 13-xxii. i8.] HORATI CARMINA. 



67 



Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, 
lo dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra 
terminum curis vagor expeditis, 
fugit inermem, 

quale portentum neque militaris 
Daunias latis alit aesculetis 
15 nee lubae tellus generat, leonum 
arida nutrix. 

Pone me pigris ubi nulla campis 
arbor aestiva recreatur aura, 



of that name, but the adjacent 
coast of Libya, east of the province 
of Africa ; a district infested with 
wild beasts and poisonous serpents 
(Plin. N, H, V. 26.) — iter fac- 
tunis (sc. est) : Intr. 1 20. — aestu- 
osas, sweltering; cf. aestuosae 
Calabriaey 31. 5. 

7. fabulosus, storied^ i,e. rich in 
legends. 

9. me silva lupus : observe 
the skilful arrangement. The first 
three words set before us the 
scene and the two characters in 
the little drama; then follow, in 
their actual order, the poet's light- 
hearted unconcern before the en- 
counter, the quick dhtodment^ and 
the impression left behind by the 
retreating monster. See, further, 
Intr. 112. 

10. Lalagen : the name (Xa- 
Xayi^, * prattle ') is paraphrased in 
dulce loquentem, vs. 24. The ac- 
cusative of the theme of song is 
usual after cantare ; cf . 6. 17 sqq. 

If. terminum: apparently that 
of his own farm. He had strolled 
away deeper into the forest. — 
curis expeditis : for the usual 
curis expeditus, as if the cares were 
fettered to the man instead of the 
man by the cares. Cf. Epod. 13. 5 
obducta solvatur f route senectus; 



Cat. 31. 7 o quid solutis est bea- 
tius curis? 

12. fugit inermem: Intr. 116 dr. 

13. quale portentum : i.e. tale 
portentum (nom., in apposition 
with lupus) quale (ace). — mili- 
taris: 1./. producing good soldiers ; 
cf. III. 5. 9. 

14. Daunias : Apulia, so named 
from a mythical king Daunus (III. 
30. 11 n, IV. 14. 26), who ruled 
over the northern part of the coun- 
try. In the Aeneid he is the father 
of Tumus (X. 616); elsewhere the 
father-in-law of the exiled Diomed. 
In form the word is a Greek femi- 
nine adjective, like 'IXcds, 'A/i^pa- 
iodf, etc. That Apulia was infested 
-with wolves appears also from 33. 
ysq. 

15. lubae tellus: Mauritania, 
luba may be either the elder king 
of that name, who lost his king- 
dom in consequence of his defeat 
at Thapsus, or his son, who was 
educated at Rome and restored to 
his throne by Augustus in B.C. 25. 

16. aLtidait parcAed. 

17. pone : equivalent to a con- 
dition. — pigris, sluggishy with no 
quickening power for vegetation. — 
nulla arbor recreatur : i.e. there 
is no summer breeze and hence 
no tree or shrub (cf. 18. i n). 



66 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. 



Hie bellum lacrimosum, hie miseram famem 
pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in 
15 Persas atque Britannos 

vestra motus aget preee. 



— iiu i i:e luquLiitCiifJ '  



X. 



XXIII. 

Vitas inuleo me similis, Chloe, 
quaerenti pavidam montibus aviis 
matrem non sine vano 
aurarum et siluae metu ; 

5 nam seu mobilibus vepris inhorruit 
ad ventum foliis, seu virides rubum 
dimovere lacertae, 

et corde et genibus tremit. 



19. quod latus, etc.: cf. quale 
portentum^ 1311. — latus mundi : 
in accordance with the Roman con- 
ception of the earth as a flat 
surface ; cf . Tac. Agr, 1 2. The 
far North is the *side* referred to. 
— malus, unkind, 

20. luppiter : cf. i. 25 n. — 
urget, broods over. 

21. sub curru, etc.: i.e. in the 
far South. — niixiium propinqui 
where he is all too near, 

23. dulce : Intr. 48. 

XXIII. The comparison which 
forms the substance of this pretty 
ode is found in a fragment of 
Anacreon (52): 

*Krio,via% dtd re vefiphv v€oOri\4a 
yd\ad7iv6p, liar' iv vkjs Kepoiaaris 
diro\ei(f>0€U inrb firirpbs hrrofifOri • 

and we probably have here another 
of Horace's early studies. The 



name Chloe {x^t * & young shoot *) 
is perhaps chosen to suit the char- 
acter portrayed. — Metre, 173. 

2. quaerenti: /.^.having strayed 
away or been left behind, and 
suddenly found herself . alone. — 
pavidam, timid, enhancing the 
impression of the timorous na-- 
ture of the fawn. — aviis, lonely. 

3. non sine : a favorite litotes 
with Horace ; cf. 25. 16, III. 4. 20, 
etc. 

4. siluae : see Intr. 182. 

5. seu, i/. — vepris ... ad 
ventum : Bentley's conjecture for 
veris . . . adventus of the MSS., 
which is interpreted by those who 
retain it to mean the blowing of 
Favonius (see 4. i n). — inhorruit, 
rustles. 

6. ad ventum, in the wind ; lit, 
when the wind blows, ad denoting 
the occasion of the action, as in 
ad haec, adfamam^ etc. 



CARMINA. 



69 



} tigris ut aspera 
rangere persequor ; 
e matrem 
sequi viro. 



XXIV. 

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus 
tam cari capitis ? Praecipe lugubris 
cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater 
vocem cum cithara dedit. 



7. dimovere : i>. in gliding 
through it. 

10. Gaetulus: cf. III. 20. 2 
and see Intr. 117 a. — frangere, to 
crush you ; suggested, perhaps, by 
the Homeric simile, //. XI. 113 
cJf d^ \Jkiav i\d,</>oto raxdris vifTta 
riKwa I jniiHUn ffvv4a^€ Xo^dv k/mt 
Ttpdiffiv 68o0ffip, For the infinitive 
see Intr. 93. 

1 2. tempestiva viro : cf. Verg. 
A. VII. 53 iam matura viro, torn 
plenis nubilis annis, Intr. 58 b. 

XXIV. To Vergil, on the death 
of their common friend, Quintilius 
Varus, in B.C. 24. Quintilius, so 
far as we know, was not an author 
himself; but as an accomplished 
critic he had a high reputation 
among the writers of the day, who 
often submitted their compositions 
to his friendly judgment. {Ep, II. 
3. 438.) Vergil's affection for him 
is sufficiently attested by the pres- 
ent ode. He was the friend of the 
poet's maturer years — he is not 
mentioned in the Eclogues — and 
his death was at once a personal 
bereavement and the loss of an in- 
valuable literary adviser. Horace 
apparently stood on no such inti- 



mate terms with him ; otherwise 
he could hardly have failed to 
mention him among the literary 
friends whose good opinion he 
valued, in iS*. I. 10. 81 sqq. But 
Horace's relations with him were 
nevertheless, — perhaps not till 
later than the period of the Satires, 

— so friendly that he addressed 
to him the eighteenth ode of this 
book. — Metre, 172. 

1. quis desiderio, etc.: i.e, who 
can feel ashamed of mourning, or 
can control his grief. The case of 
desiderio is determined by mo- 
dus ; the dative would hardly be 
used with pudor alone. 

2. tam cari capitis, /br one so 
dear. For this use of caput, in 
the sense of * person,' cf. Epod. 
5. 74; Verg. A, IV. 354 puer 
Ascanius capitisque iniuria cari, 

— praecipe : i.e. start the strain, 
so that the poet may sing with 
her voice to guide and sustain 
him. 

3. Melpomene: the muse of 
tragedy ; but see 12. 2 n. — 
liquidam: i,e. clear and smoothly 
flowing. — pater: i>. Jupiter. The 
muses were daughters of Zeus and 
Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog, 52). 



70 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



15 



Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor 
urget ! Cui Pudor et lustitiae soror, 
incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas 
quando uUum inveniet parem ? 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, 
nuUi flebilior quam tibi, Vergili ; 
tu frustra pius heu non ita creditum 
poscis Quintilium deos. 

Quid si Threicio blandius Orpheo 
auditam moderere arboribus fidem ? 
Num vanae redeat sanguis imagini, 
quam virga semel horrida, 



5. exf^Oj and so; an expression 
of reluctant conviction and resig- 
nation ; cf . *^. II. 5. loi ergo nunc 
Dama sodalis nusquam est, 

6. urget, holds in its embrace ; 
cf. premet^ 4. 16 n. — cui: dative 
with parem, vs. 8. — Pudor, etc. : 
personified not simply as qualities 
of the man, but in the abstract, as 
in C. S. 57 sq. . Judged by the 
standard of these personified vir- 
tues Quintilius was a rare type 
of man, — unassuming, absolutely 
just, sincere, and candid. — sorer : 
i.e, the constant companion, imply- 
ing that lustitia also dwelt with 
Quintilius. Cf. Cic. Off, I, 23 
fundamentum auteni iustitiae est 
JideSf id est dictorum conventorum- 
que constantia et Veritas, 

7. incorrupta Fides; the epi- 
thet is included in the personifi- 
cation. See note on fidem 5. 5, and 
cf. raraFideSy 35. 21, vitiosa Cura^ 
II. 16. 21, Pudor priscusy C, S. 57. 

9. ille flebilis occidit, Ais death 
was cause for tears. See II. 14. 6 n. 

II. frustra pius, with vain 
piety ; cf. Cat. 76. 26 o di reddite 
mi hoc pro pictate meat and see 



note on poscit, 31. i. — non ita 
creditum : sc. illis a te. The 
meaning is that Vergil, in. his 
anxiety for his sick friend, had 
piously commended him to the 
keeping of the gods, but non ita, 
— not that they should never give 
him back. 

13. quid si, etc.: the thought 
gently suggested mfrustra^ vs. ir, 
is now further developed, and 
forms the transition from the 
sympathetic tone with which the 
poem opens to the exhortation to 
firmness with which it closes. — 
Threicio, etc.: see 12. 7 sqq» — 
blandius : cf . 1 2. 1 1 n. 

14. arboribus : Intr. 54. 

1 5. vanae imagini, to the empty 
form. The ancient conception of 
the dead in the underworld was 
very similar to the modem idea of 
ghosts, — not disembodied spirits, 
but disembodied forms, which were 
intangible, but retained, along with 
the spirit, enough of their material 
quality to be seen and heard, — 
tenuis sine corpore viias^ cava sub 
imagine formae (Verg. A,y\, 292 
sq,) For the dative see Intr. 53. — 



XXIV. s-xxv. 5.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



71 



20 



non lenis precibus fata recludere, 
nigro compulerit Mercurius gregi ? 
Durum : sed levius fit patientia 
quicquid corrigere est nefas. 



^. 



i '! 



XXV. 



Parcius iunctas quatiunt fenestras 
iactibus crebris iuvenes protervi, 
nee tibi somnos adimunt, amatque 
ianua limen, 

5 quae prius multum facilis movebat 



sanguis: cf. Odys, XI. 98, 153, 
etc., where the dead are revived 
by drinking blood. 

16. virga : cf. 10. 18 n. — semel, 
once (for all) ; implying, as often, 
that the act is decisive and final. 

17. precibus : with recludere, 
better taken as ablative of cause : 
because of (/.^. in answer to) our 
prayers. Recludere with the dative 
means to open to those who are 
to enter, as II. 18, 33, III. 2. 21. 
— fata recludere, to open the doors 
of fate, i>. the doors of the tomb, 
which fate has closed forever on 
the departed ; cf. Prop. V. 1 1. 2 pan- 
ditur ad nullas ianua nigra preces. 
For the infinitive see Intr. loi a. 

18. nigro gregi: />. the endless 
procession passing into the dark- 
ness of the underworld. Niger 
is sometimes used like ater (see 
28. 13 n) as an epithet of death and 
of things connected with death ; 
cf. IV. 2. 23, IV. 12. 26 ; Tib. I. 
3. 4 abstineas avidas, mors modo 
nigra manus ; \ abstineas mors 
atra, precor. — compulerit, has 
gathered to. 

19. levius fit patientia: cf. 11. 
3. According to Donatus, Vergil 
himself was in the habit of com- 



mending patience as the most use- 
ful of human virtues. 

20. est nefas, Heaven forbids us, 

XXV. In this ode Horace por- 
trays, with his usual light touch 
but with powerful effect, the career 
of a courtesan, — her short-lived 
triumph, her waning power, and 
• her inevitable doom of a despised 
and neglected old age, in which 
the passions she has fostered re- 
main to torture her. — Metre, 174. 

1. iunctas, dosed ; cf. the phrase 
iungere flumen {e.g. Liv. XXI. 
47. 2) for bridging a river. The 
word is here used with reference 
to the two wooden shutters with 
which alone the window-aperture 
was closed (cf. bifores fenestrctSj Ov. 
Pont. III. 3. 5). 

2. iactibus : i.e. of stones and 
the like, the windows being as a 
rule above the ground floor, which 
was occupied by shops. Cf. III. 
7. 29 domum claude, neque in vias 
de spice. 

3. amat : />. cleaves to, seldom 
parts from ; cf. Verg. A, V. 163 
litus ama et laeva stringat sine 
pcUmula cautes. que : cf . 27 . 1 6 n. 

5. multum : Intr. 48. 



72 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



'5 



20 



cardines; audis minus et minus iam 
* Me tuo longas pereunte noctis, 
Lydia, dermis ? ' 

Invicem moechos anus arrogantis 
flebis in solo levis angiportu, 
Thracio bacchante magis sub inter- 
lunia vento, 

cum tibi flagrans amor et libido, 
quae solet matres furiare equorum, 
saeviet circa iecur ulcerosum, 
non sine questu, 

laeta quod pubes hedera virenti 
gaudeat puUa magis atque myrto, 
aridas frondis hiemis sodali 
dedicet Euro. 



7. me tuo, etc.: words of a sere- 
nade. Hence the plural noctis : 
the lover complsdns of her per- 
sistent indifference. — tuo, your 
lover; cf. tuae, 1 5. 32. — pereunte, 
languishing, 

9. invicem, your turn will come^ 
and ; the arrogance will be on 
the other side. — moechos : no 
longer the protervi iuvenes (vs. 2), 
the bold admirers and the sighing 
lovers of the days of your pride ; 
even the most vulgar sort of game 
will be beyond your reach. 

10. in solo levis angiportu, 
neglected in your lonely alley. The 
window and door mentioned above 
open on ah alley which runs along 
the side and rear of the tenement 
(insula), separating it from other 
buildings (whence its name). For 
levis cf. £p. II. 3. 423 levi pro 
paupere, 

11. Thracio vento : Boreas 
(Aquilo) whose home was in 



Thrace ; cf. Threicio Aquilone^ 
Epod, 13. 3. — bacchante magis, 
pursues his wilder revels. The 
expression accords with his char- 
acter as Thracius ; cf. 18. 9 n. — 
sub : cf. 8. 14. The cold and 
darkness out of doors enhance the 
impression of the loneliness of the 
wretched creature waiting within. 
— inter-lunia : Intr. 174^. 

14. matres equorum : a para- 
phrase similar to that of 17. 7. 
For the force of the comparison 
cf. Verg. G, III. 266. 

1 5. circa, through; cf. 18. 2 n. — 
iecur: cf. 13. 4 n. Here it is the seat 
of sensual passion. — ulcerosum, 
inflamed ; dt. Ep, I. 18. 72. 

16. non sine : cf. 23. 3n. 

17. virenti . . . pulla, fresh , . . 
dark green; both epithets apply- 
ing to each of the two substan- 
tives (Intr. 121), and contrasted 
with aridas. 

18. rsi9Lfg^\^ {%z, qiMLtn aridis froH" 



XXV. 6-xxvi. 5] 



HpRATI CARMINA. 



73 



XXVI. 

Musis amicus tristitiam et metus 
tradam protervis in mare Creticum 
portare ventis, quis sub Arcto 
rex gelidae metuatur orae, 

quid Tiridaten terreat, unice 



dtbus) : see Intr. 119 a. — atque : 
Intr. 114. 

19. hiemis sodali : cf. Verg. 
G, II. 339 hibernis parcebant flati- 
bus Euri, and, for the expression, 
28. 21 and IV. 12. 1. 

20. dedicet, consigns, Cf. 26. 2. 

XXVI. In honor of L. Aelius 
Lamia, one of the two sons of the 
intimate friend and devoted ad- 
herent of Cicero of the same name. 
(See Cic. Fam. XI. 16. 2, Sest. 29.) 
Horace enjoyed the friendship of 
both brothers. He alludes to the 
death of one, Quintus, in Ep, 1. 14. 6. 
Lucius, whose name is 'enshrined' 
in this ode, and in 36. 7 and III. 
17, is described by Velleius (II. 
116. 3) as vir antiquissimi maris, 
etpriscam gravitatetn semper huma- 
nitate temperans. He was consul A.D. 
3, and his death vivida semctute in 
A.D. 33 is recorded by Tacitus {Ann. 
VI. 27. 2). He must therefore have 
been much younger than Horace. 

The date of this ode is fixed 
with considerable certainty by the 
allusions in vss. 3 sqq,, as B.C. 30 ; 
that it was one of the earliest odes 
is implied in fidibus novis, vs. 10. 
— Metre, 176. 

I. amicus : here used in the 
sense oi grains or acceptus {C.S. 62), 
as in dis amicum carmen, IV. 6. 41. 
Cf. II. 17. 2, III. 4. 25 n, and, for 
the opposite, dis initnice senex, S. 
II. 3. 123. 



2. in mare Creticum: see Intr. 
iiy a and cf. 16. 4. 

3. portare : Intr. 93. — quis 
metuatur, etc. : depending on se- 
curus, 9. quis is better taken as 
nominative singular; oi.quispudor, 
24. I. The form quis {=quibus) 
occurs in the Satires and Epodes, 
t)ut in the Odes this would be the 
only instance. — sub Arcto : i.e. 
in the far north ; cf. subiectos Ori- 
entis orae, 12. 55 n. 

4. rex : apparently Cotiso, king 
of the Dacians, whose threatened 
incursion alarmed the Romans 
about the time of the war of Ac- 
tium. He was finally defeated by 
Crassus; cf. III. 8. 18 n. 

5. Tiridaten : king of Parthia 
at the time of the battle of Actium, 
having headed a successful revolt 
against Phraates a few years be- 
fore. In the next year (B.C. 30) the 
contest was renewed and Tiridates 
was forced to take refuge in Syria. 
These verses must have been 
written before January, B.C. 29, 
when the news of his flight reached 
Rome. Subsequently Tiridates 
succeeded in regaining the throne, 
and held it till about B.C. 27, when 
Phraates, with the aid of the 
Asiatic Scythians, among whom 
he had taken refuge, finally de- 
feated him and drove him into 
permanent exile under the protec- 
tion of Augustus. — unice secu- 
rus, perfectly unconcerned^ 



74 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I 



10 



securus. O quae fontibus integris 
gaudes, apricos necte flores, 
necte meo Lamiae coronam, 

Pimplei dulcis. Nil sine te mei 
prosunt honores. Hunc fidibus novis, 
hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro 
teque tuasque decet sorores. 



XXVII. 

Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis 
pugnare Thracum est : tollite barbarum 
morem, verecundumque Bacchum 
sanguineis prohibete rixis. 



6. fontibus integris : such as 
Aganippe, Hippocrene, and others 
less famous ; cf. note on Heliconis, 
12. 5. There is reason to be- 
lieve that in the oldest Greek con- 
ception of them the muses were 
inspired, spring-haunting nymphs 
(Preller-Plew, Gr. MythoL I. 401). 
integris, however, is no doubt 
intended, like novis 9, to convey 
the idea of fresh, unhackneyed 
poetry, and is perhaps a remi- 
niscence of Lucr. I. 927. 

7. apricos, sunny; i.e. the bright, 
gaily-colored ones which seem to 
carry with them the sunshine in 
which they bloom ; cf. Intr. 124. — 
necte flores, necte, etc. : a grace- 
ful way of saying necte floribus coro- 
nam. The meaning is not * make 
Lamia a poet,' but distinguish him 
in song.' Of course, the ode itself, 
commending him to the muses as 
worthy, serves that end. 

9. Pimplei, nymph 0/ Pimplea, 
The latter was a spring in Pieria, 
on the slope of Olympus, sacred to 
the muses ; see note on Haemo 



12. 6. — mei: i.e. those that I 
confer, the possessive pronoun 
here representing the subjective 
genitive. More commonly it re- 
tains its possessive force, as 6. 1 1 
laudes tuas. 

10. fidibus novis : ue. in a 
new kind of poetry, explained by 
Lesbio plectro in the next verse ; 
cf. Lesboum barbiton^ i. 34 n. 

11. sacrare, to enshrincy to im- 
mortalize ; to set his name in 
verse, as an offering is placed in a 
a temple to be preserved forever. 
— plectro : a small stick of ivory 
or other substance for striking the 
strings of the lyre (irXTJicrpov ; cf. 
irXf^ffffta). The player held it in 
one hand, playing with the lingers 
of the other. 

XXVIL A convivial scene, dra- 
matically portrayed, though there 
is but one speaker. The poet 
finds his friends in hot dispute 
over their wine ; offense has been 
given, and from angry words they 
have come to the verge of blows, 



XXVI. 6-xxvii. 10.] HORATI CARMINA. 



75 



10 



Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces 
immane quantum discrepat : impiura 
lenite clamorem, sodales, 
et cubito remanete presso. 

Voltis severi me quoque sumere 
partem Falerni ? Dicat Opuntiae 



when he checks them with the 
sharp rebuke with which the poem 
opens. They laugh, and for answer 
put a goblet into his hand. Having 
thus secured their attention, he 
proceeds to play a little comedy 
before them with one of the 
younger members of the party, in 
watching which they forget at once 
their quarrel and his reproof. 

Though the wine is Falemian, 
the Greek origin of the sketch is 
hardly disguised. Porphyrio says 
that the poem was taken in sub- 
stance from Anacreon, referring 
perhaps to this fragment (63) : 

!5l76 dr^e firfK^d* oura 
trardytp re icdXaXi^^y 
^Kvduciiv Tr6<rip vap otptfi 
fuKertafiep, dXXd JcaXots 
iiroirlvovTes iv vfipois. 

— Metre, 176. 

1. natis : i.e. designed from the 
very beginning of their existence. 
— in usum laetitiae, to promote 
joy and gladness — scyphis : a large, 
two-handled cup of wood, earthen- 
ware, or metal. Its size would 
make it a very effective weapon. 

2. Thracum est : Thracian 
drunkenness was proverbial ; cf. 
18. 9 n. — toUite, away with I 

3. verecundum, i^odest. The 
epithet (cf. modici, 18. 7 n.) is used 
to indicate the quality which the 
god approves in his worshippers. 

4. prohibete, keep , . .free from; 
cf. Ep, 1. 1. 31 corpus prokibere cke- 
ragra. For the sense cf . 1 7 . 2 2 sqq. 



5. vino et lucernis : Intr. 57. 
— Medus : cf. 2. 22 n. — aci- 
naces : a short sword or dagger 
worn at the belt in front of the 
right thigh. Such a weapon would 
never be seen at a Roman con- 
vivium. Horace found it no doubt 
in his Greek original, and retained 
it to continue the idea of barba- 
rum tnorenty 2. 

6. immane quantum discre- 
pat, is a monstrous anomaly amid, 
etc. The phrase immane quan- 
tum (like nescio quis =■ aliquis) 
has lost its interrogative character, 
and hence takes the indicative ; 
cf. Liv. n. I. II id mirum quan- 
tum profuit ad concordiam. — im- 
pium renewing the thought 
already suggested in verecundum 
Bacckumy 3. 

8. cubito presso : t,e. on the 
cushions of the couches. The 
Greeks as well as the Romans re- 
clined at table. 

9. severi, strong. There were 
two kinds of Falemian wine, one 
harsh and tart {austerum, ai5o'ri7p6s), 
the other sweet (yXvKd^iav); Athen. 
I. 26 c. 

10. Falerni : the only strictly 
Italian feature which Horace has 
added to the poem. — dicat, must 
tell us ; i.e. that we may drink her 
health. There was nothing extra- 
ordinary in the demand : on being 
asked to take a cup with the rest, 
he calls for a toast. — Opuntiae : 
from Opus in Locris, near the 
Euboean gulf. 



76 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



IS 



20 



frater Megillae quo beatus 
volnere, qua pereat sagitta. 

Cessat voluntas ? Non alia bibam 
mercede. Quae te cumque domat Venus, 
non erubescendis adurit 

ignibus, ingenuoque semper 

amore peccas. Quicquid habes, age 
depone tutis auribus. — A miser, 
quanta laborabas Charybdi, 
digne puer meliore flamma! 



11. frater Megillae : a humor- 
ous variation on such honorary 
designations as filius Thetidis, 
8. 14, nepos Veneris^ Verg. A, IV. 
163, etc.; substituted for the lad's 
own name, it implies, of course, 
that his chief recommendation to 
the present company is his hand- 
some sister. — beatus pereat : 
Intr. 120. 

12. pereat : of love, as in 25. 7, 
and frequently in the poets. 

13. cessat voluntas, does in- 
clination falter ? 

14. mercede, /'^rm J. — cumque: 
cf. 6. 3 n. — Venus, love, in a per- 
sonal sense ; cf. Verg. E. 3. (&parta 
meae Veneri sunt munera, 

15. non: with erubescendis, 
for which see Intr. 51a. 

16. ingenue semper, etc., ^^i/r 
weakness is never for a lowborn 
lave. — -que : Horace often uses 
'que or et after a clause contain- 
ing a negative, when the latter 
is closely connected with a par- 
ticular word, so that the clause as 
a whole is felt to be affirmative ; 
cf. 28. 34^ II. 20. 4, III. 30. 6, 
Epod, 15. 14. 

17. amore : used of a person, 
like Venus f 14. For the case, see 
Intr. 72. — quicquid habes, etc.: 



he urges the lad to whisper the 
name in his ear, if he will not tell 
it to all. 

18. auribus : Intr. 69. • — a 
miser : his exclamation on hear- 
ing (or pretending to hear) the 
name. liis expectation of an in- 
genuus amor is disappointed. 

19. laborabas, you are strug- 
gling; cf. 9. 3n. The imperfect 
is in keeping with the humorous 
outburst of horror and pity. It 
refers to the time, just oefore, 
when he was urging the lad to 
confess, all unconscious of the 
dreadful fact now revealed ; cf. 
Ter. Phor, 857 oh^ tu quoque 
aderas ? • — Charybdi : expressing 
the insatiable rapacity of the 
woman ; cf. Cic. Phil, 2. 67 quae 
Charybdis tarn vorax ? The com- 
parison of this class of persons to 
all sorts of monsters, Chimaeras, 
Hydras, Scylla, Sphinx, etc., ap- 
pears to have been not uncommon 
(Athenaeus, XIII. 558 a). 

20. flamma : returning to the 
figure of vss. 1 5 sq, 

21. solvere . . . poterit : cf. 
beatus pereat^ 1 1 n. — Thessalis : 
Thesssdy was notorious for magic 
and necromancy ; cf. Epod. 5. 45, 
Ep. II. 2. 209. 



XXVII. ii-xxviii. 2.] HORATI CARMINA. 



77 



Quae saga, quis te solvere Thessalis 
magus venenisy quis poterit deus ? 
Vix inligatum te triformi 
Pegasus expediet Chimaera. 



XXVIII. 



Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis harenae 
raensorem cohibent, Archyta, 



22. venenis, drugs, used to pro- 
duce magical influences on the 
mind ; cf. S, 1. 8. 19 carminibus quae 
versant (ttque venenis \ humanos 
animos; Epod. 5. 87. — deus : ob- 
serve the climax, saga, mag^s, 
deus. 

23. inligatum : i.e. in the coils 
and limbs of the monster. — tri- 
formi : in front a lion, behind a 
dragon, in the middle a goat ; cf. 
Lucn V. 905 ; //. VI. 181. 

24. Pegasus : the meaning is : 
even with the aid of the winged 
horse on which Bellerophon rode 
when he destroyed the original 
Chimaera you will not escape. — 
Chimaera : cf. Charybdi, 19 n. 

XXVIII. This ode, Uke the 
last, is a dramatic presentation, 
the details of which, however, are 
obscure. Whether the poem is a 
dialogue or a monologue ; if the 
former, how it is to be ^vided ; 
who the speaker or speakers are, 
— these are questions which have 
always puzzled scholars and on 
which they are not yet agreed. 
The effort, however, to arrange 
the ode as a dialogue may be said 
to have failed. According to Por- 
phyrio, the ode is a monologue in 
the mouth of Archytas, whose 
shipwrecked body lies on the sea- 
shore. In the opening verses he 



apostrophizes himself, contrasting 
his former world-embracing range 
of thought with his present low 
estate, and reflecting on the vanity 
of all human achievement in the 
presence of the universal destroyer. 
He then appeals to a passing sailor 
for the three handfuls of dust 
which constituted due burial. The 
first part of this interpretation is 
difficult to accept. The language 
of vss. 1-20 is hardly natural in 
the mouth of Archytas, and the 
view is much more probable which 
attributes the monologue to a 
shipwrecked man whose body 
has been cast ashore close to 
the tomb of Archytas, the sight 
of which suggests the reflections 
of the opening lines. — Metre, 
162. 

1. numero carentis, countless. 
— harenae : referring perhaps to 
a discussion of the subject in the 
lost works of Archytas. 

2. cohibent, holds, confines. — 
Archyta : a statesman and gen- 
eral of Tarentum (about 400-360 
B.C.), and a philosopher of such 
eminence that his instruction and 
friendship were sought by Plato. 
As a Pythagorean, Archytas di- 
rected his studies to the solu- 
tion, by mathematical methods, 
of the problems of the physical 
universe. 



78 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



pulveris exigui prope litus parva Matinum 
munera, nee quicquam tibi prodest 

aerias temptasse domos animoque rotundum 
percurisse polum morituro. 

Occidit et Pelopis genitor, conviva deorum, 
Tithonusque remotus in auras, 

et lovis arcanis Minos admissus, habentque 



3. pulveris exigui parva mu- 
nera, the poor boon of a handful 
of dust; i.e. the *few feet of earth* 
which enclose his bones, called 
munera, the last offering of affec- 
tion or pity, to enhance the idea 
of his present helpless dependence. 
We have here the familiar con- 
trast between man's unbounded 
ambition and the 'narrow house' 
to which death consigns him. Cf. 
Juvenal 10. 168 sqq. For the plural 
munera see Intr. 128. (Those 
who accept Porphyrio's interpre- 
tation of the ode are obliged to 
assume that the body of Archytas 
lies unburied on the shore (see 
vss. 23 sqq.)y and to take munera 
. . . cohibent as meaning * the gift, 
etc., holds you here,' i.e. is all that 
prevents you from entering the 
lower world.) — litus Matinum: 
the shore of the Adriatic near Mati- 
nus, which was apparently a moun- 
tain (cf. Matina cacumina^ Epod, 
16. 28), and has been placed by 
geographers on the southern side 
of the promontory of Garganus, 
where there is a modem village 
named Matinata. We are safe in 
supposing that it was within the 
region familiar to Horace in his 
boyhood, and that he had seen the 
tomb or mound near the shore 
which tradition assigned to Archy- 
tas. For the form Matinum see 
Intr. 65. 

5. aerias domps, the mansions 
of the airy the spaces where the 



heavenly bodies (which the Py- 
thagoreans regarded as divinities) 
dwell. — temptasse, to have ex- 
ploredy with the idea of boldness 
in venturing into the region ; cf. 
III. 4. 30 insanientem navita Bos- 
porum I temptabo. — animoque : 
Intr. 119^7. 

6. morituro : expressing in a 
word the reason of nee quicquam 
prodest. For the meaning see 
Intr. 104 ^. 

7. occidit ^t, fa//en too is. The 
main thought is presented first ; 
cf. III. 8. 18, 21. — Pelopis geni- 
tor : Tantalus, a favorite of Jove 
until his head was turned by the 
honor, and his impiety consigned 
him to the punishment which made 
his name proverbial. — conviva 
deorum, though he was aguesty etc. 
In like manner remotus in auras 
and lovis arcanis admissus are 
concessive. 

8. Tithonus : brother of Priam 
and husband of Aurora, at whose 
request he was endowed with im- 
mortality, but not with eternal 
youth {Horn. Hymn in Ven. 218 
sqq). He consequently shrunk away 
{longa minuit senectus^ II. 16. 30) 
until he became a mere voice, like 
a cicada. — remotus, translated. — 
in auras : i.e. to heaven ; cf. aerias 
domos y 5 n. 

9. lovis arcanis : the famous 
laws of Minos we^e represented 
by tradition as a revelation from 
his father, Zeus. 



XXVIII. 3-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



79 



10 Tartara Panthoiden iterum Oreo 

demissum, quamvis clipeo Troiana refixo 

tempora testatus nihil ultra 
nervos atque cutem morti concesserat atrae, 

iudice te non sordidus auctor 
15 naturae verique. Sed omnis una manet nox 

et ealeanda semel via leti. 
Dant alios Furiae torvo speetacula Marti, 

exitio est avidum mare nautis; 
mixta senum ac iuvenum densentur funera; nullum 

saeva caput Proserpina fugit. 



20 



10. Tartara : for the lower 
world in general. — Panthoiden : 
properly Euphorbus {Hap$olSfit 
£v0op/3ot, //. XVI. 808), a Trojan 
hero,^ killed in battle by Menelaus 
(//. XVII. 9 sg^.); but the patro- 
nymic is here used ironically for 
Pythagoras. The story was told 
that the latter, in accordance 
with his doctrine of metempsy- 
chosis, asserted that his own soul 
had previously inhabited, among 
others, the body of Euphorbus, 
and to prove his assertion offered 
to identify the shield he had car- 
ried, which was dedicated among 
many others in the temple of 
Hera It Argos. The shield he 
pointed out, on being taken down 
(clipeo refixo), was found to be 
inscribed with the name of Eu- 
phorbus. — Oreo : Intr. 53. 

1 1, quamvis, etc.: />. although, 
since he proved his previous ex- 
istence in Trojan times, he had in 
fact given up nothing, etc. 

13. concesserat : Intr. 83. — 
atrae, sable ; a standing epithet 
of death and of things associated 
with death ; cf. ^5". II. i. 58 mors 
airis circumvolat alts ; II. 3. 16, 
13. 34, 14. 17, etc. 



14. auctor, interpreter J ex- 
pounder, 

1 5. sed omnis : cutting short 
the list of examples with a com- 
prehensive statement. — una : ue, 
the same for all. 

16. semel : i,e, there is no re- 
turn ; cf. 24. 16 n. — via leti : />. 
the one that desCth opens to man 
(cf. fine libidinum 18. ion); a 
different conception from that of 
3. 17, where see note. 

17. alios, some^ although there 
is no second alius^ a special class 
of persons {nautae) being substi- 
tuted. — Furiae : as inflaming the 
passions which lead men to fight 
with one another. — torvo, grim ; 
his expression as he watches the 
show. — speetacula : a striking 
comparison, representing war as a 
sort of gladiatorial contest for the 
entertainment of Mars; cf. 2. 37 sqq, 

18. exitio est : Gr. 233 a, 

19. mixta, without distinction, 
— funera, the funeral trains, — 
nullum: emphatic (Intr. 116^), 
summing up (like sed omnis^ 15) 
the fact which the foregoing ex- 
amples illustrate. 

20. caput: alluding to the fancy 
that Proserpina doomed her vie- 



80 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



Me quoque devexi rapidus comes OfiOTiis 

Illyricis Notus obruit undis. 
At tu, nauta, vagae ne parce malignus harenae 

ossibus et capiti inhumato 
25 particulam dare: sic, quodcumque minabitur Eurus 

fluctibus Hesperiis, Venusinae 
plectantur silvae te sospite, multaque merces 

unde potest tibi defluat aequo 
ab love Neptunoque sacri custode Tarenti. 
30 Neglegis immeritis nocituram 



tim to death by clipping a lock of 
hair, as the priest did from the 
head of the victim before the altar; 
cf. Eurip. Ale, 74 ; Verg. A. IV. 698 
nondum illi flavom Proserpina 
vertice crinem \ abstulerat Stygio- 
que caput datnnaverat Oreo, — 
Proserpina : see Intr. 178. — 
fugit, shnnSf i^. omits, in perform- 
ing the function referred to. For 
the tense see Intr. 80. 

21. devexi, setting. The time 
was early in November, a season 
of storms, which were attributed 
as usual to the influence of the 
constellation ; cf. III. 27. 17; Epod. 
ic. 7; Verg. -<4. VII. 7 1 9. — comes: 
cf. veris comites animaef IV. 12. i. 

— Ononis: for the prosody and 
rhythm see Intr. 178, 132. 

22. Illyricis undis : i.e. in the 
Adriatic. See Intr. 117. — Notus: 
cf. 3. 14 n. 

23. at tu, etc.: see intr. note. 

— vagae : i.e. of no value, and 
hence a thing it would be niggardly 
(malignus) to withhold. — ne 
parce : Intr. 88. 

24. capiti inhumato : for the 
hiatus see Intr. 185. 

25. dare : Intr. ^^Jk. — sic : cf. 
3. I n. — quodcumque, etc. : for 
the construction cf. quam rem 
cumque 6. 3 n. 



26. fluctibus Hesperiis : that 
wash the shores of Italy (Hesperian 
III. 6. 8n); here those of the 
Adriatic (cf. vs. 22). — Venusinae 
silvae : about forty miles inland, 
but exposed by their elevated situa- 
tion on the spurs of the Apennines 
to the fury of the eastern winds. 

27. plectantur, suffer the loss, 
— multa merces, abundant rec- 
ompense. 

28. unde potest (sc. defluere)-. 
anticipating ab love Neptunoque. 
He can offer no reward from any 
earthly source. For unde with a 
personal antecedent cf. 12. 17 n. — 
aequo, approving; cf. 2. 47 n. Jove 
would reward him as the god of 
hospitality and the protector of 
strangers. 

29. sacri : sc. to Neptune as its 
patron divinity (custode). The 
mythical founder of Tarentum w^s 
Taras (gen. Tarantos), a son of Nep- 
tune. The sailor is thought of as 
belonging to Tarentum, and there- 
fore as an object of Neptune's care. 

30. neglegis, will you lightly 
. . . ? cf. Cat. 30. ^ facta impia . . . 
quae tu neglegis^ and see Intr. 95. 
The sailor has turned away as if 
not disposed to grant the request. 
For the tense see Intr. 78. — noci- 
turam : Intr. 104 b. 



XXVIII. 2I-XXIX. I.] HORATI CARMINA. 



81 



postmodo te natis f raudem committere ? Fors et 

debita iura vicesque superbae 
te maneant ipsum : precibus non linquar inultis, 
teque piacula nulla resolvent. 
35 Quamquam festinas, non est mora longa: licebit 
iniecto ter pulvere curras. 



XXIX. 
Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invides 



31. postmodo : with nocitu- 
ram. — te natis, your children. — 
fraudem, a wrong. To refuse 
burial was to rob the dead of his 
just due (cf. debita iura^ 32). — 
fors et, may be, as likely as not ; 
2l phrase used where the speaker 
regards his conjecture as altogether 
probable, and not a mere guess; 
cf. Verg. A. II. 139, XL 50, Prop. 
II. 9. I, where it is used with the 
indicative. 

32. debita iura, etc.: i.e, your 
turn may come to need the service 
which you now withhold, and to 
have your righteous demand re- 
fused with the same scornful indif- 
ference. — debita iura, rights with- 
held, referring to the right of the 
dead to burial. — vices superbae, 
pitiless retribution. For the epi- 
thet see Intr. 1 24. 

33.' precibus inultis : i.e. with- 
out being avenged for the wrong 
you do me in denying my prayer. 
— linquar (sc. a te) : i.e. in the 
predicament I am now in ; cf. S. 
I. 9. 73 me sub cultro linguity and 
see Intr. 129. 

35. quamquam festinas, you 
are in haste, I know, but. — non 
est mora longa : the indicative 
is similar to that in the phrase 
longum est (*it would be tedious'); 
Gr. 311 c. 



36. iniecto ter pulvere : to meet 
the requirements of the gods of the 
dead, the solemn form of burial in 
accordance with certain prescribed 
rules was sufficient ; cf< Antigone's 
burial of her brother, Soph. Ant, 
429 sqq. The number three con- 
stantly occurs in solemn rites; cf. C, 
S. 23, £p. 1. 1. 37 ; Verg. A. VI. 229. 

XXIX. Iccius, to whom this 
ode and Ep. I. 12 are addressed, 
was a man in whom a taste for 
philosophy was cotnbined with a 
restless and discontented spirit, 
which led him to join, with a view 
to bettering his circumstances, the 
expedition of Aelius Gallus into 
Arabia in B.C. 24. Horace banters 
his friend good-humoredly on his 
high hopes, and his desertion of 
philosophy for the pursuit of 
wealth. The expedition was a 
disastrous failure, and Iccius was 
disappointed. In £p, 1. 1 2 (written 
B.C. 20) we find him in Sicily, the 
agent in charge of Agrippa's estates 
there, — a sufficiently good place, 
it would seem, — but still discon- 
tented with his condition. — Metre, 
176. 

I. Icci, IVhat, Iccius I — nunc: 
in contrast with his former devo- 
tion to philosophy and high think' 
ing. — invides, you are coveting ? 



82 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



lO 



gazis et acrem militiam paras 
non ante devictis Sabaeae 
regibus horribilique Medo 

nectis catenas ? Quae tibi virginum 
sponso necato barbara serviet ? 
Puer quis ex aula capillis 
ad cyathum statuetur unctis, 

doctus sagittas tendere Sericas 
arcu paterno ? Quis neget arduis 
pronos relabi posse rivos 

montibus et Tiberim reverti, 



2. gftzis : appropriate here, as an 
oriental (Persian) word. — acrem 
militiam, a vigorous campaign. 

3. Sabaeae, of Sheba, the west- 
ern portion of southern Arabia, 
famous for its wealth in spices and 
gold and precious stones (Plin. A''. 
H. VI. 161 ; a T. Kings I. 10. 

4. Medo : see 2. 22 n. There 
is no probability that any opera- 
tions against the Parthians were 
actually contemplated in connec- 
tion with this expedition, but no 
doubt at Rome the most extrava- 
gant expectations were entertained 
in regard to it. 

5. nectis catenas: implying full 
assurance of victory. — quae vir- 
ginum : Intr. 63. 

6. sponso necato: ^r. by Iccius, 
who thereby obtains the sponsa 
as his prize ; cf. the picture of the 
young Roman warrior in battle, 
III. 2. 6 sqq. 

7. puer ex aula, royal page ; 
see Madv. 298. 2. 

8. ad cyathum statuetur : i>. 
will be appointed to serve you and 
your guests with wine, dipping it 
from the cratera with the ladle- 
like cyathus and pouring it into 
the goblets. 



9. doctus, etc.: the lad whom 
Iccius is to bring home from the 
palace of some Arab king, is a 
captive from the far East, where 
he had been trained for no such 
menial service. The possession 
of such a rare slave as a cup- 
bearer was a fashionable luxury 
of the day {S. II. 8. 14 sq.; cf. 
Juv. 5. 56), but naturally a very 
costly one, and marks Iccius as a 
great nabob. — tendere, to speed; 
lit. to direct towards a goal ; cf. 
Verg. A, V. 508 pariterque oculos 
telumque tetendit ; -W. 606 spicula 
tendere cornu ; V. 489.. For the 
mood see Intr. loi c, — Sericas : 
see 12. 56 n. This epithet, in con- 
nection with paterno, serves to 
indicate the nationality of the boy 
(Intr. 124). 

11. pronos: i.e. according to 
their nature, to which the supposed 
reversal of their course would do 
violence ; and this is the point of 
the comparison. 

1 2. montibus, up the mountaifu; 
abl. of the way by which. Others 
regard it as dat. (Intr. 53); but 
in that case arduis would be an 
idle epithet. — reverti, reverse his 
course. 



XXIX. 2-XXX. 5.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



83 



IS 



cum tu coemptos undique nobilis 
libros Panaeti Socraticam et domum 
mutare loricis Hiberis, 
poUicitus meliora, tendis ? 



XXX. 

O Venus, regina Cnidi Paphique, 
sperne dilectam Cypron et vocantis 
ture te multo Glycerae decoram 
transfer in aedem. 

Fervidus tecum puer et solutis 



13. coemptos undique, after 
buying up from every quarter^ 
indicating the zeal with which 
Iccius had pursued the studies 
he now abandons. — nobilis : bet- 
ter taken as accusative plural; 
that he could sacrifice such books 
shows the completeness of his 
apostasy. 

14. Panaeti : a Stoic philoso- 
pher of Rhodes, who came to 
Rome about 156 B.C. and lived 
for many years on terms of great 
intimacy with Scipio Aemilianus 
and Laelius. — domum, school (cf . 
lare, Ep. I. i. 13); i.e. the disciples 
of Socrates who recorded the 
teachings of their master, especially 
Plato, Xenophon and Aeschines. 
The authors here, of course, by 
a familiar figure of speech, stand 
for their works. 

15. mutare : <>.tosell; Intr. 74. 
— Hiberis : Intr. 65. Spanish 
steel was famous in ancient as in 
modem times (Plm. NM, XXXIV. 
144, 149). 

16. tendis, are bent upon, 

XXX. A hymn to Venus, im- 
ploring the goddess to bestow her 



favor on Glycera. In all proba- 
bility a study from the Greek. — 
Metre, 174. 

1. regina Cnidi Paphique : cf. 
3. I ; Find. Fr, 99 hiairoiva Ki^rpov. 
Cnidus was a city in Caria, where 
Venus had three temples. In one 
of these was the famous statue of 
the goddess by Praxiteles, of which 
the Medicean Venus is a copy. 
Paphos, in Cyprus, was a very old 
seat of the worship of Venus {Odys. 
VIII. 363) at the spot where she 
was said to have come ashore on 
rising out of the sea ; cf. Verg. A, 
I. 415. Her rites are described by 
Tac. Hist. II. 3. 

2. sperne, slight^ forsake; cf. 
deseruit, 19. 10. 

4. aedem : here a private chapel 
(sacrarium) in the girPs own lodg- 
ings. The meaning is 'Be ever 
present to answer her prayers,* 
which of course were for. the en- 
hancement and perpetuation of 
her own charms. 

5. puer: Cupid. — solutis zonis: 
cf. Sen. Ben. I. 3. 2 tres Gratiae^ 
sororesy manibus implexis, ridentes 
et virgines, solutaque ac pellucida 
veste. 



84 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. L 



Gratiae zonis properentque Nymphae 
et parum comis sine te luventas 
Mercuriusque. 



XXXI. 

Quid dedicatum poscit ApoUinem 
vates ? Quid orat de patera novum 
fundens liquorem ? Non opimae 
Sardiniae segetes feracis, 

non aestuosae grata Calabriae 



6. Gratiae, Nymphae : cf . 4. 6. 
— properentque: Intr. 119^. 

7. parum comis : />. head- 
strong and impatient, the unsoft- 
ened temper that belongs to the 
confidence of youth. The de- 
scription is no doubt I-{orace*s 
own ; only a Roman could treat 
luventas in the retinue of Venus 
as a personified abstraction. — 
luventas : "Upii ; cf. //om. Hymn, 
in Apol. quoted at 4. 5 n. 

8. Mercurius : the worship of 
Hermes was associated, in many 
places in Greece, with that of Aphro- 
dite (Preller-Robert, Gr. Myth, I. 
387). In Horace's mind, however, 
it is perhaps as the facundus deus 
(cf. 10.. I ) that he has a place in 
her retinue. 

XXXI. The poet's prayer. The 
dedication of the temple of Apollo 
on the Palatine, October 9, B.C. 
28, was an event of great interest 
in Roman literary circles; for with 
the temple was united a public 
library (cf. Ep, I. 3. 17, II. i. 
216 sq,), Horace recordis his re- 
flections on the occasion in this 
fine ode, in which, against a back- 
ground of the various forms of 
wealth which the multitude crave, 



he formulates his own simple pray- 
er for the few needs of a happy life. 
The closing verses of Epode i 
were written in a somewhat similar 
strain. — Metre, 176. 

1. dedicatum, enshrined. For 
this use of the word, appliied to 
the divinity instead of the shrine, 
cf. Cic. N, D, II. 6i, Ov. F, VI. 
637. — poscit: notice the tense, 
which is to be taken strictly: * what 
does (not what shall) he demand.* 
As to the word itself, we must re- 
member that the Roman idea of 
the relation between gods and men 
was that of mutual obligation. On 
the erection of a splendid temple 
the people would feel that they 
could claim some boon of the god 
in return ; cf. 24. 12, III. 29. 59 n. 

2. patera : see 19. 15 n. — 
novum liquorem : i,e, wine of 
the vintage just gathered. The 
time was late autumn. 

4. Sardiniae : one of the great 
sources of the grain supply of 
Rome. — segetes, grain lands. 
For this use of seges^ cf. Ep, II. 2. 
161, Verg. G, I. 47. 

5. aestuosae: dP. 22. 5n. — grata: 
i,e, a pleasing sight. — Calabriae: 
an excellent grazing country, ex- 
cept in the hot season when the 



'm»>.')». •. 



"^ 



V': 



XXX. 6-xxxi. 1 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



%S 



lO 



15 



armenta, non auruih aut ebur Indicum, 
non rura quae Liris quieta 
mordet aqua taciturmis amnis. 

Premant Calena falce quibus dedit 
Fortuna vitem, dives et aureis 
mercator exsiccet culullis 
vina Syra reparata merce, 

dis carus ipsis, X|uippe ter et quater 
anno revisens aequor Atlanticum 
impune: me pascunt oHvae, 
me cichorea levesque malvae. 



flocks were driven over into the 
mountains of Lucania and Sabi- 
num; cf. Epod, i. 27 sq. 

6. ebur : very costly ; cf. Plin. 
N. H, VIII. 31 dentibus (tusks) 
ingens pretium. It was used for 
household decorations. 

8. xnordet : cf. lambit, 22. 8. — 
tacitumus : cf. loquaces lymphae, 
III. 13. 15. 

9. premant Calena, etc.: with 
a change of form the poet continues 
the catalogue of objects of desire 
which he does not covet. — pre- 
mant, prune; lit. keep back, check 
luxuriant growth ; cf. Verg. G, I. 
1 57 ruris opaci falce premes umbras. 
— Calena falce : cf. 20. 9 n ; Intr. 
124. — quibus dedit : sc. earn pre- 
mere (Intr. 97*/); /.^. * to whom 
Fortune has given the control of 
rich vineyards,' which those of 
Gales here typify (Intr. 117 a). 

11. mercator: see i. 16 n. — 
exdiccet, drain. — culullis : prop- 
erly a kind of earthenware cup 
used by the pontifices and vestals 
in religious rites. Here and Ep. 
II. 3. 434 the name is used for 
drinking cups of a richer sort. 

12. Syra : i.e. brought from the 
ports of Syria, especially Antioch, 



which had become the chief em- 
porium for the merchandise of 
Arabia and the far East. — repa- 
rata, purchased. From its mean- 
ing, * to get ' (cf. 17 n.) parare with 
the prefix re- (see 3. 7 n.) denotes 
*to get back* in return for some- 
thing given. The construction is 
similar to that of mutare in 17. 2. 
The two pictures of this strophe 
are designed to go together, — the 
vine grower living quietly at home 
in oriental luxui^, the more restless 
trader roving the seas according 
to his bent (cf. 1. 17) and enjoying 
the best that life affords. The 
impression of such enviable happi- 
ness is further heightened by the 
exclamation that follows, in order 
to point the contrast with the 
poet's own simple fare and simple 
wants. 

13. quippe revisens : equiva- 
lent to quippe qui revisat, the 
reason for saying dis carus. 

14. anno : i.e. between the open- 
ing of navigation in the spring 
(cf. 4. 2) and its close at the ap- 
proach of winter. 

15. impune: Intr. 116^. — me 
pascunt, my fare is ; cf. i. 29 n. 

16. leves: /.^.easily digested; cf. 



86 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



20 



Frui paratis et valido mihi, 
Latoe, dones et, precor, integra 
cum mente nee turpem senectam 
degere nee cithara carentem. 



XXXII. 

Poscimur. Si quid vacui sub umbra 
lusimus teeum, quod et hunc in annum 
vivat et pluris, age die Latinum, 
barbite, carmen, 



Epod. 2. 57 gravi malvae salubres 
carport. 

17. p9Lt9^,\Sf what I possess ; cf. 
Ep. II. 2. \(fi ptura parare labores. 

— et valido, etc. : the construction 
is as follows : et . . . et connect 
the two infinitives frui, degere, 
which depend upon dones (Intr. 
97 d)^ while nee . . . nee, which 
are subordinate to the second et, 
connect turpem and cithara ca- 
rentem; precor is parenthetical. 
For this use of et . . . nee . . . 
nee cf. Cic. C M. 7 moderati et 
nee difficiles nee inhutnani senes. 
For the purport of the prayer 
cf. Juv. 10. 356 orandum est ut 
sit mens sana in corpore sano. 

— valido mihi, that I in good 
health may. 

18. Latoe : formed after the 
Greek Aarj^os, from Adroy (Attic 
Aifrw), Latona ; cf. 21. 3. For 
the form cf. Semeleius^ 17. 22 n. — 
integra cum mente : thought of 
in closer connection with old age, 
as valido with bodily comfort 
(frui paratis) ; health and strength 
may fail with years, but the failure 
of the mental faculties makes a 
turpem senectam. 

20. cithara carentem : i.e. 
robbed of the poetic gift. 



XXXII. The poet to his lyre. 
The ode appears to be a prelude 
to another or to other composi- 
tions (as IV. 6 is to the Carmen 
Saeculare)t but to which, it would 
be fruitless to inquire. The lyre 
is addressed as the lyre of Alcaeus, 
on which the poet has already 
played lighter strains {lusimus sub 
umbra) not without success. As 
the song he now calls for is char- 
acterized in no other way than as 
Latinum carmen^ it is probable 
that the 'lighter strains' are his 
studies from the Greek, many of 
which are preserved, especially in 
this book,' and this ode preludes 
his undertaking in compliance 
with the demand of his friends 
(posamur), more serious and orig- 
inal lyric composition on strictly 
Roman subjects, — such odes as 
I. 2, etc., and the majority of 
those in the following books. — 
Metre, 174. 

I. poscimur (sc. carmen) : the 
construction is the passive of that 
of 24. 12 and 31. I ; cf. Ov. M. 
V. 333 poscimur, Aonides ; F. 
IV. 721 Parilia poscor. — si quid, 
etc., if ever . . . / have sung with 
thee in lighter mood some strain 
that, etc.; cf. IV. 9. 9 ; S. I. 10. 37 



XXXI. I7-XXXII. i6.] IIORATI CARMINA. 



87 



5 Lesbio primum modulate civi, 
qui ferox bello tamen inter arma, 
sive iactatam religarat udo 
litore navim, 

Liberum et Musas Veneremque et illi 
lo semper haerentem puerum canebat 
et Lycum nigris oculis nigroque 
crine decorum. 

O decus Phoebi et dapibus supremi 
grata testudo lovis, o laborum 
15 dulce lenimen, mihi cumque salve 
rite vocanti ! 



haec ego ludo, — sub umbra : cf . 

5-3". 

2. hunc in annum, this year ; 
cf. such phrases as in praesens^ in 
tetnpus^ etc. 

3. die : see 6. 5 n. 

5. Lesbio civi : Alcaeus (Intr. 
26) ; civi, to recall his prominence 
in the political struggles of his 
time ; cf. 2. 21 n. For the case 
see Intr. 55. — primum niodu- 
late : i.e. not the lyre in general, 
but as used by Alcaeus, the great 
master of the type of lyric poetry 
which Horace aspired to write. 

6. inter arma, sive, etc. : i,e. in 
the midst of war or in exile (danger 
and excitement or adversity and 
discouragement). 

7. sive : Intr. 1 19 </. 

8. litore : Intr. 71. 

10. puerum : cf. 30. 5n. 

11. Lycum : a favorite boy. — 
nigris . . . nig^o : notice the 
variation of prosody. The same 
description occurs Ep. II. 3. 37. 

13. dapibus: probably dative, 
though we say a/. — supremi lovis: 
cf. 21. 3. 



14. testudo: see 10. 6 n.— 
laborum, in trouble, 

15. mihi salve, accept my 
greetings i.e. hear my call. — mihi 
is ethical dat. with salve (which 
in form is a command ; cf. iubeo 
te salver Cf etc.), expressing tech- 
nically the person who is inter- 
ested in having the command ful- 
filled, i.e, the person from whom 
the greeting proceeds ; cf. Verg. 
A. XI. 97 salve aeternum mihi, 
maxime Palla, aeternumque vale, 
— cumque vocanti, whenever I 
call, Cumque does not occur else- 
where except as a suffix to a rela- 
tive pronoun or adverb. It is 
supposed by some to be an archaic 
form, corresponding to quandoque 
=i quandocumque fIV. i. 17 n), 
quique = quicumque {e.g. Plant. 
Men, 571) ; or it may be a bold 
use of the detachable suffix cumque 
(=<ever*), the relative notion to 
which it belongs being implied in 
the participle, so that mihi cum* 
que vocanti=mi4ii quandocumque 
vocabo; cf. quippe revisens=^qutppe 
qui revisat, 31. 13 n. 



88 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



XXXIII. 

Albi, ne doleas plus nimio memor 
immitis Glycerae, neu miserabilis 
decantes elegos, cur tibi iunior 
laesa praeniteat fide. 

Insignem tenui fronte Lycorida 
Cyri torret amor, Cyrus in asperam 
declinat Pholoen ; sed prius Apulis 
iungentur capreae lupis 

quam turpi Pholoe peccet adultero. 



XXXIII. To the elegiac poet 
Albius Tibullus, who, at least in 
his later years (he died in the same 
year with Vergil, B.C. 19), was 
on friendly terms with Horace. 
The latter does not mention .him 
in the Satires, but Ep, I. 4 is 
addressed to him, and shows, as 
does the present ode, a certain 
degree of intimacy between the two 
men. The character of TibuUus 
here represented is quite in keep- 
ing with his portrayal of himself 
in his elegies, but the name Gly- 
cera does not occur in any of his 
extant poems. — Metre, 172. 

I. ne doleas: Intr. 87. — plus 
nixnio, overmuch; see 18. 15 n; 
to be taken with doleas. 

3. decantes, keep droning; cf. 
£p, I. I. 62 puerorum nenia Curiis 
et decantata Cam Hits. — elegos : 
poems in elegiac verse, the unit of 
which is a couplet consisting of a 
dactylic hexameter and a 'penta- 
meter ' (verstbus impariter iunctis, 
Ep. II. 3. 75). It became in the 
Alexandrine period the verse of 
sentimental love, and in this use 
was successfully ^ cultivated by 
Tibullus and other Augustan poets. 
— cur, etc.: cf. Ep. I. 8. 9 irascar 



amiciSf cur me funesto properent 
arcere veterno ; Cic. Att. III. 13. 2 
me saepe accusas cur hunc meum 
casum tarn graviter feram. This 
use of cur {quor^ qua re) is prob- 
ably a survival of an original rela- 
tive use after causa and the like ; 
cf. 16. 19 causae cur perirent and 
our * the reason why.* — iunior : 
Tibullus was bom about 55 B.C., 
and may have been 30 when this 
ode was written. 

4. laesa fide, her plighted faith 
is broken and. — praeniteat, out- 
shines (sc. eiy *in her eyes*; cf. 
5. 13 quibus nites). 

5. tenui fronte : a low fore- 
head was greatly admired by the 
Romans ; cf. Ep. I. 7. 26 ; Mart. 
IV. 42. 9. — Lycorida, Cyri : 
these and the following are prob- 
ably fictitious persons as well as 
names. 

6. Cyri (objective gen.) torret 
amor : cf. III. 19. 28. — asperam, 
waspish. 

7. declinat : sc. from Lycoris. 

8. lupis : Intr. 56. 

9. turpi, ugfyt in contrast with 
the pretty Lycoris ; cf. imparls 
formaSf 10. — peccet, cf. 27. 16 n; 

Intr. 72. — adultero, paramour. 



XXXIII. i-xxxiv. 4.] HORATI CARMINA. 



89 



10 



IS 



Sic visum Veneri, cui placet imparls 
formas atque animos sub iuga aenea 
saevo mittere cum ioco. 

Ipsum me melior cum peteret Venus, 
grata detinuit compede Myrtale 
libertina, fretis acrior Hadriae 
curvantis Calabros sinus. 



XXXIV. 

» 

Parens deorum cultor et infrequens, 
insanientis dum sapientiae 

consultus erro, nunc retrorsum 
vela dare atque iterare cursus 



I o. sic visum, such is the will of, 
Cf. 12. 31 n; Verg. A, II. 428 dis 
aliter visum. 

1 r. aenea : i.e. that cannot be 
broken ; therein Ho escape for her 
victims. Cf. III. 9. 18. 

12. saevo ioco, with grim 
humor. 

1 3. melior Venus : i.e. a woman 
of higher social position than a 
libertina. For Venus cf. 27. 14 n. 

14. grata detinuit compede, I 
lingered, a willing captive, in the fet- 
ters of; cf. IV. II. 23 sq. Compede 
also occurs Epod. 4. 4, Ep. I. 3. 3; 
the plural compedibus only Ep. 1. 16. 
77. The singular is not found in 
any author before Horace. — Myr- 
tale : a common name of libertinae. 

15. fretis acrior Hadriae: con- 
cessive ; a further reason why he 
should have followed the dictates 
of his good sense. Cf. III. 9. 23. 

16. curvantis, when it hollows 
out; i.e. in time of storm, the 
force of which changes the outline 
of a sandy shore like that of Cala- 
bria ; cf. Verg. A. III. 533 portus 
ab Euroofluctu curvatus in arcum,. 



— sinus, bays. The ace. expresses 
the effect of the action (Goodwin's 
Gk. Gr. 1055). 

XXXIV. For the occasion and 
subject of this ode see Intr.8, and 
cf. ^. I. 5. loi sqq,; Lucr. VI. 400 
denique cur numquam caelo iacit 
undique puro \ luppiter in terras 
fulmen sonitusque profundit ? The 
place of the ode in the collection 
was no doubt determined by the 
closing sentence, which prepares 
the reader for the more elaborate 
portrayal of the attributes of For- 
tuna in the next ode. — Metre, 176. 

1. parcus et infrequens : i.e. 
coming seldom to the altar and 
bringing scanty offerings, at that. 
The time referred to is past (I who 
wets, etc.), as is indicated by the 
contrasted nunc, 3. 

2. insanientis sapientiae : oxy- 
moron. 

3. consultus, an adept in ; see 
Intr. 66 ^. — erro, I strayed from 
the truth,' Gr. 276 e, 

4. iterare, to traverse again ; cf . 
7. 32. — cursus ; see Intr, 128, 



90 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



cogor relictos. Namqiie Diespiter, 
igni corusco nubila dividens 
plerumque, per purum tonantis 
egit equos volucremque currum, 

quo bruta tellus et vaga flumina, 
quo Styx et invisi horrida Taenari 
sedes Atlanteusque finis 

concutitur. Valet ima summis 



5. Diespiter : see i. 25 n. 

6. nubila dividens plerumque, 
who commonly cleaves the clouds. 
For the emphasis on plerumque 
see Intr. 116 ^, and cf. 3. 12, 31. 2. 

7. per purum, across the clear 
sky. — tonantis egit equos, etc.: 
the phenomenon described is that 
of thunder rumbling overhead and 
passing away in the distance. The 
two epithets are not to be taken 
strictly with their substantives, but 
are designed to give an impression 
of the whole phenomenon, — the 
god in his car, with flying steeds, 
thundering across the sky ; see 
Intr. 121. 

9. quo, that car by which ; pass- 
ing from the special incident to a 
general description. — bruta, heavy ^ 
sluggish (cf. terram inertem. III. 
4. 45) ; in contrast with vaga. 

la invisi, repulsive; a frequent 
epithet of things connected with 
death ; cf. II. 14. 23 invisas 
cupressos ; Verg. A, VIII. 245 
regna pallida^ dis invisa ; Sen. 
Here. Fur. 664 Ditis invisi domus. 
— Taenari : the southern point 
of the Peloponnesus (Cape Mata- 
pan), where, under a temple of 
Poseidon, tradition placed one of 
the entrances of the lower world 
(cf. Verg. G. IV. 467 Taenarias 
faucesy alta ostia Ditis) \ here used, 
like Avernusy for the lower world 
itself. For the case see Intr. 65. 



11. Atlanteus .finis : the end 
of the earth, where Atlas sup- 
ports the sky on his shoulders; 
cf . r€pyJiimv ArXayrwcctfy e£trw, Eurip. 
Hippol. 3. 

12. valet, etc.: the power of the 
supreme god is also manifested in 
the astonishing vicissitudes of for- 
tune in human experience. — ima 
summis mutare, to reverse high 
and lo7o. The neuter of the adjec- 
tives is used abstractly, compre- 
hending both person^ and things 
(cf. Ep. I. 9. 4 legentis honesta Ne- 
ronis ; II. 2. 178 metit Orcus gran- 
dia cum parvis). The plural is that 
of repeated occurrence. The am- 
biguity in the construction of the 
cases with mutare (Intr. 74) here 
has its natural application, both 
objects having the same relation to 
the subject, who neither gives nor 
receives, but puts each in place 
of the other. For the mood see 
Intr. 94 n. 

13. insignem, etc. : repeating in 
detail the idea just expressed col- 
lectively, by indicating the visible 
effect on each of the two classes 
mentioned. The presentation is 
also made more vivid by insig- 
nem, which brings a person before 
us, though the abstract recurs in 
obscura. Horace had in mind 
Hes. Op. 6 ^etd 9* ipllyjXop iu.v60u 
KaX AdriXov di^ei . . . Ze^t b\ffi^(i€fx4' 
Ttjs. — deus : see 3. 2 1 n. 



XXXIV. 5-xxxv. 2.] HORATI CARMINA. 



91 



mutare et insignem attenuat deus, 
obscura promens ; hinc apicem rapax 
15 Fortuna cum stridore acuto 

sustulit, hie posuisse gaudet. 



XXXV. 

O diva, gratum quae regis Antium, 
praeseiis vel imo toUere de gradu 




14. hinc apicem, etc.: in a 
moment Fortuna makes or un- 
makes kings. Fortuna is here 
obviously the minister of Jove, the 
/uoTpa Ai6s of Homer (//. XV. 117); 
of. Find. O/. 12. i ra? Ziyi^t, Tdxa, 
and Pans. VII. 26. 8 iyJ itkw ovy 
Hividpov wdLOoftax rj ^Sj, JAoipwp 
T€ cTmu /dap n|r T&x'"!^ "^^^ ^^P ^^' 
dd€\i/>dt rt Urx^^^' — apicem, tA^ 
crown, 1.^. kingly power. — rapaz : 
not an epithet of Fortuna, but 
expressing, in place of an adverb, 
the zest with which she performs 
this part of her function. The 
same idea is expressed in the other 
case by gaudet, 16. 

1 5. stridore : sc. of her wings ; 
cf. III. 29. 53, and Vergil's striden- 
tibus alls {A, I. 397). 

16. sustulit : the perfect here 
expresses the quick completion of 
the action, and in posuisse also 
the tense appears to retain its 
proper force ; Ijut see Intr. 80, 81. 

XXXV. A hymn to Fortuna. 
The powerful goddess, whose 
swav is owned alike on sea and 
land, in every nation and in every 
calling, whose favor is sought by 
peasant and king, is implored to 
preserve Caesar in his contem- 
plated expedition to far-off Britain, 
and the throng of young Romans 
who were preparing to invade the 



East. These allusions show that 
the ode was written B.C. 27, when 
Augustus set out from the city cJ$ 
jceU ^f r^v Bperraplap irrpaTewrioVf 
or in 26, when, though detained in 
Spain, he still cherished the project 
until diverted from it by risings 
there and in the Alps (Dio Cass. 
LIII. 22. 5, 25. 2). The expedition 
of Aelius Callus into Arabia (see 
intr. note to Ode 29) was in prepa- 
ration at this time. — Metre, 176. 

1. diva quae regis : cf. dtva/ 
potens Cyprif 3. i; Venus, regina 
Cnidi Paphiqtte, 30. 1. The desig- 
nation of a divinity by a favorite 
haunt or a famous sanctuary, 
either with or (as here) instead of 
the proper name, is common in 
Greek hymns. — gratum : cf. Cic. 
Att. IV. 8^^. I (speaking of Antium) 
nihil quietius, nihil alsius, nihil 
amoenius, — Antium : the seat of 
a renowned temple and oracle, 
which continued to exist to the 
latest pagan times. There were 
here two images, Fortunae Antiates 
(see Baumeister, fig. 606 f.), re- 
garded as sisters {veridicae sorores. 
Mart. V. 1. 3), by certain motions of 
which oracular responses were con- 
veyed. See Preller- Jordan, Rom. 
Myth, II. 192. Thev were probably 
consulted in regard to the military 
expeditions now on foot. 

2. praesens : equivalent to po- 



92 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



10 



mortale corpus vel superbos 
vertere f uneribus triumphos : 

te pauper ambit soUicita prece 
ruris colonus, te dominam aequoris 
quicumque Bithyna lacessit 
Carpathium pelagus carina ; 

te Dacus asper, te profugi Scythae 
urbesque gentesque et Latium ferox 
regumque matres barbarorum et 
purpurei metuunt tyranni, 



tenSf because by the * presence ' of a 
divinity we mean only the manifes- 
tation of his power. — imo gradu: 
cf. our 'lowest round of the lad- 
der.' 

3. mortale corpus, our perish- 
able clay; i.e. man in his most 
helpless state, stripped of all out- 
ward show and resources ; cf. Liv. 
XXII. 22. 7 transfugam nihil 
aliudq^am unum vile atque infant e 
corpus esse ratus, 

4. vertere, to turn . . . into. It 
has here the meaning and con- 
struction of mutare (Intr. 74). — 
funeribus triumphos : both in 
a literal sense, — the conqueror's 
march to the Capitol and the march 
to the grave. The Romans could 
recall in their own history at least 
one conspicuous example of each 
of these vicissitudes of fortune, ^- 
the rise of Servius Tullius from 
slavery to the throne, and the 
pathetic case of Aemilius Paullus, 
the conqueror of Macedonia, who 
lost his two sons at the very time 
of his triumph (Liv. XLV. 41). 

5. te : see 10. 9 n. — ambit, 
courts^ as the Roman candidate 
courted the favor of the voter 
(hence afnbitio^ ambitus). — sol- 
licita : Intr. 124. 



6. colonus : a type of humble 
circumstances, as in II. 14. 12. But 
the farmer was regarded as espe- 
cially dependent on the favor of 
Fortuna (cf. III. i. 2^ sqq,)\ like 
the mariner, he was at the mercy 
of the elements. In certain figures 
of Fortuna (see Baumeister, fig. 
605) the goddess is represented with 
a rudder in one hand (dominam 
aequoris), and in the other a horn 
of plenty (cf. 17. 14 n). — te : sc. 
ambits the subject of which is the 
antecedent implied in quicumque. 

7. quicumque, etc.: i.e, any mar- 
iner ; see Intr. 117a, and cf . i . 1 3 sq. 

— Bithyna : cf. Pontica^ 14. 11 n. 
— lacessit, braves; lit. challenges. 

9. te Dacus, etc. : te carries with 
it the idea of ambit 5, but the strict 
meaning of the word is lost, as the 
reader proceeds, in the vaguer 
notion of a helpless dependence; 
and without distinctly marking the 
transition, the poet introduces the 
idea of fear (metuunt), which is only 
another aspect of the same feeling. 

— Dacus : cf. 26. 4 n. — profugi, 
nomad; cf. III. 24. 10. 

10. urbesque, etc.: i.e, collect- 
ively, as organized bodies, the 
cases hitherto presented being 
those of individual men ; the 



XXXV. 3-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



93 



15 



20 



iniurioso ne pede proruas 
stantem columnaniy neu populus frequens 
ad arma cessantis ad arma 

concitet imperiumque frangat. 

Te semper anteit saeva Necessitas, 
clavos trabalis et cuneos manu 
gestans aena, nee severus 

uncus abest liquidumque plumbum. 



strongest community is helpless 
against the power of the goddess. 
— Latium : the Roman state, as 
in 1 2. 53. — ferox, dauntless (against 
all other adversaries) ; cf. Roma 
feroxy III. 3. 44. 

11. regumque matres : the 
introduction of the more poignant 
anxieties of woman adds a touch 
of pathos, as in III. 2. 7; cf. 15. 
34 n. — barbarorum : i>. in the 
East. Under the system of polyg- 
amy which prevailed there, the 
succession of a prince to the throne 
was often due to the influence or 
intrigues of his mother, who there- 
fore obtained an importance which 
she did not ordinarily have else- 
where. The nearest approach to 
it in Roman history was the case 
of Livia, the mother of Tiberius. 

12. purpurei (for purpurati)^ 
in scarlet robes. — tyranni : in the 
proper sense of the word, men 
who have seized the supreme 
power (imperium), and whose 
position is therefore the more pre- 
carious. This thought is developed 
in the next strophe into a picture 
in which the portraval of the god- 
dess's power b brought to a 
climax. See also 2. 7 n. 

13. iniurioso, irreverent (from 
the point of view of the tyrannus), 
not respecting his just rights 
{iura)i cf. £pod, 17. 34 n; Intr. 124. 

14. stantem columnam : figu- 



rative, meaning their established 
power and dignity. 

1 5. ad arma : the repetition 
has the effect of introducing the 
actual cry into the verse. Cf. Liv. 
XXI. 49. ion. — cessantis: 1.^. 
the cooler heads, whose adhesion 
to the rebellion would mean the 
fall of the monarch. 

17. anteit: Intr. 180. Necessity 
walking before Fortuna with the 
symbols of her power, as the 
lictors with the fasces before the 
Roman magistrate, declares the 
fixedness of her decrees. 

18. clavos trabalis, etc.: de- 
vices employed in building to 
secure firmness and durability, 
here symbols of immutability. 
Clavus in this figurative sense was 
not uncommon ; cf. Cic. Verr, 
II. 5. 53 ut hoc benejicium, quern- 
ctdmodum dicitur^ trabali clavo 
figeret, — cuneos : used to. tighten 
imperfect joints. — manu aena : 
cf. our * iron grasp.' The charac- 
teristic of Necessitas is transferred 
to her hand. Intr. 124. 

19. severus, rigid^ unyielding, 

20. uncus, plumbum: the iron 
clamp by which two blocks of 
stone were held together, and the 
lead, poured in hot, by which the 
iron was firmly fixed in the stone 
(Vitruv. II. 8). Such clamps may 
be seen in the walls of the Par- 
thenon to this day. 



94 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. ]. 



25 



Te Spes et albo rara Fides colit 
velata panno, nee comitem abnegat, 
uteumque mutata potentis 
veste domos inimica linquis ; 

at volgus infidum et meretrix retro 
periura cedit, diffugiunt cadis 
cum faece siccatis amici 
ferre iugum pariter dolosi. 



21. te Spes et . . . Fides : in 
this and the following strophe we 
have a different conception of 
Fortuna from the one portrayed 
above, illustrating the confusion 
which existed in the Roman mind 
on the subject. Except in the 
single word inimica, 24, we have 
no longer the inexorable goddess, 
dealing out good and evil to men, 
which was perhaps the character 
of the Fortunae Antiates, but a 
more abstract conception of a 
changeable divinity, a sort of gen- 
ius (cf. Ep, II. 2. 187 sqq^^ at- 
tending as well as determining 
the lives of men, — of a state 
or city, of a class, or even of a 
family or an individual. Such a 
conception was Fortuna Populi 
Romania Fortuna Muliebris^ 
Fortuna Caesaris^ etc. (Preller- 
Jordan Rom, Myth. II. 182). This 
divinity typifies misfortune as well 
as good n>rtune, — wears white or 
black (mutata veste) ; and to her 
cling Hope and Fidelity, — the 
hope that never dies in the heart, 
and the rare fidelity that can stand 
the test of adversity. — albo : 
typical of purity ; cf. ' unsullied 
faith.' — rara, rare; with the same 
accessory notion of excellence as 
in English. For the neutral mean- 
ing oifidesy see 5. 5 n, and for the 
personification, 24. 7 n. 

22. velata paxmo : from the 



custom of the priests in the wor- 
ship of Fides, as instituted by 
Numa, who (Liv. I. 21. 4) ^ ad td 
sacrarium flamines bigis curru 
arcuato vehi iussit, manuque ad 
digit OS usque involuta rem 
divinam facere, significantes fidem^ 
tutandam^ sedemque eius etiam in 
dextris sacratam esse* The cloth 
by which the priest veils his hand 
is here transferred to the figure of 
the goddess. — comitem (sc. se)^ 
her companionship ; cf. Ovid. A, 
A. I. 127 siqua comitem negabat ; 
S. II. 8. 2 quaerenti convivam (sc. 
te). — abnegat : with Spes as well 
as Fides as its subject. 

23. mutata veste : i.e. putting 
on mourning. — potentis domos, 
the home of power (Intr. 1 24). This 
home the once prosperous man 
must now leave and go out into 
the world with his changed for- 
tune ; but hope still attends him, 
and a few faithful friends. 

24. linquis : Intr. 1 29. 

25. at volgus, etc.: but the 
great majority of those who were 
the devoted friends of his pros- 
perity will not share with him the 
burden of adversity. — retro cedit, 
fcUl back^ refuse to follow. 

27. cum faece, dregs and all. 

28. ferre iugum pariter: to 
bear, as in true friendship, an 
e'qual share of the hardships, as 
well as the pleasures, of life ; cf. 



XXXV. 21-40.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



95 



30 



35 



40 



Serves iturum Caesarem in ultimos 
orbis Britannos et iuvenum recens 
exameit Eois timendum 
partibus oceanoque rubro. 

Eheu cicatricum et sceleris pudet 
fratrumque. Quid nos dura refugimus 
aetas ? Quid intactum nefasti 
- liquimus ? Vnde manum iuventus 

metu deorum continuit ? Quibus 
pepercit aris ? O utinam nova 
incude diffingas retusum in 
Massagetas Arabasque ferrum. 



Theocr. 12. 15 dXXifXovs $' 44*l\ri<rav 
tcTip firy^. For the construction 
of ferre see Intr. 10 1 ^. 

29. serves : the poet returns to 
the first conception of Fortuna. — 
ultimos orbis, af the ends of the 
earth, 

30. recens : />. newly recruited. 

31. Eois partibus : a general 
designation prefixed to the more 
definite one, — the parts of the East 
towards^ etc.; cf. Verg. A. VIII. 
686 victor ab Aurorae populis et 
litore rubro. 

32. oceano rubro : for mare 
Erythraeum, the part of the Indian 
ocean adjoining Arabia, parti- 
bus and oceano are dative with 
timendum, the places standing 
for their inhabitants. 

33. eheu, ah me. — cicatricum, 
etc.: each cause of shame suggests 
and explains the next : we are 
ashamed of our scars, — they re- 
mind us of our guilt, — guilt 
against our brothers. — > sceleris : 
see 2. 29 n. 

34. dura, hardened. — refugi- 
mus, shrunk froMj ix. not dared 
to do. 



35. intactum, untried, unat- 
tempted ; cf. S. I. 10. 66, and Sail. 
lug. 66. I nihil intactum pati. — 
nefasti : better taken as genitive. 

36. unde,/r£Wf what. 

38. o: Intr. 185. — nova: be- 
cause of the feeling that things 
were doomed to a certain career in 
the making, as men at their birth ; 
cf. 27. 1. The sword is to be broken . 
up and forged anew (diffingas) 
under altogether new influences. 

39. in (with diffingas): i.e. for 
use against. The desire to wash 
out the stain of civil war in the 
blood of the enemy was no doubt 
a genuine feeling on the part of 
Horace's contemporaries, and not 
merely a happy fancy of the poet ; 
cf. the feeling of the soldiers of 
Germanicus after their mutiny in 
A.D. 14 (Tac. Ann. I. 49. 5) : truces 
etiam turn animos cupido involat 
eundiin hostem, piaculum fur oris ; 
nee aliter posse placari commilito- 
num manes quam si pectoribus im- 
piis honesta volnera accepissent. 

40. Massagetas : a powerful 
Scythian people, east of the Cas- 
pian sea. 



96 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



XXXVI. 

Et ture et fidibus iuvat 

placare et vituli sanguine debito 
custodes Numidae deos, 

qui nunc Hesperia sospes ab ultima 
caris multa sodalibus, 

nuUi plura tamen dividit oscula 
quam dulci Lamiae, memor 

actae non alio rege puertiae 
mutataeque simul togae. 



XXXVI. A welcome to Numida 
on his safe return from the *far 
West,' — possibly as one of the 
iuvenes nuper sospites (III. 14. 
9) in the train of Augustus, B.C. 
24. Numida, whose nomen is 
variously given as Plotius or 
Pomponius, was a much younger 
man than Horace, being of the 
same age with their common friend 
Lamia (see intr. note to Ode 26); 
and we may therefore suppose that 
the sacrifice and banquet with 
which his return was celebrated 
were instituted by Lamia, at whose 
request Horace wrote this ode for 
the occasion. — Metre, 171. 

I. et ture et fidibus : both 
indispensable accompaniments of 
a sacrifice. During the progress 
of the rites, amid the absolute 
silence of the spectators, a Jidicen 
(or more commonly a tibicen) 
played a solemn strain to make 
more sure that no ill-omened 
sound should reach the ears of the 
priest ; and no sacrifice was ac- 
ceptable unless the smoke of the 
victim was fragrant with incense. 
— iuvat, we will gladly; express- 
ing here, as in Epod, 9. 37, disposi- 
tion to do the thing rather than. 



as more commonly, satisfaction or 
pleasure in doing it ; see Intr. 94 c. 

2. placare, ^a/(^. — sanguine: 
i.e, the life. Only the entrails of 
the victim were consumed on the 
altar ; the flesh furnished forth 
the banquet which followed. — 
debito : because the sacrifice had 
been vowed on Numida's depart- 
ure, probably by Lamia ; cf . obit- 
gatam dapem^ II. 7. 17. 

3. custodes deos : cf. 28. 29, 
and see Intr. 1 26 c. 

4. Hesperia ultima : probably 
Spain is meant. 

6. plura, a larger share. — divi- 
dit, bestows, 

8. non alio, under the very same 
(litotes). — rege, leader (in games) ; 
i.e. they had been playmates; cf. Ep. 
1. 1. 59; Allen's Early Latin Remn. 
213 n. Others conjecture that rex 
here is equivalent to rector in rec- 
tor es imperatoriae invented (Burrus 
and Seneca), Tac. Ann. XIII. 2. 2, 
which would make the sentence 
mean they had been schoolfellows. 
— puertiae : Intr. 183. 

9. mutatae togae : from the 
toga praetexta of boyhood to the 
toga virilism The change was made 
at about the age of sixteen and 



XXXVI. i-i8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



97 



10 



IS 



Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota, 
neu promptae modus amphorae 

neu morem in Salium sit requies pedum, 
neu multi Damalis meri 

Bassum Threicia vincat amystide, 
neu desint epulis rosae 

neu vivax apium neu breve lilium. 
Omnes in Damalin putris 

deponent oculos, nee Damalis novo 



was of course a memorable event 
in a man's life. 

10. Cressa : i>, white, made 
with cretay which was commonly 
supposed to stand for Creta (= 
Cressa) terra^ though in fact no 
chalk was obtained from Crete. 
The meaning is, 'that the day 
may be a bright one in our mem- 
ory ' ; from the practice of record- 
ing especially happy days with a 
white mark, and unhappy with 
black ; cf. Cat. 107. 6 lucent 
candidiore nota» Another method, 
which Plmy (N, H. VII. 131) 
attributes to the Thracians, of 
determining the color of one's life 
by depositing in an urn at the end 
of each day a stone, white or black 
as the day had been happy or the 
reverse, had also passea into a 
proverb ; cf. Cat. 68. 148 quern 
lapide ilia diem candidiore notat ; 
Pers. 2. I huncy Macrine, diem 
numera meliore lapillo ; cf. also 
.9. II. 3. 246. — • ne careat : better 
taken as a final clause, expressing 
the purpose of the action urged in 
the following verses. 

11. promptae (proleptic), broach- 
ed ; lit. 'brought out,* jr. from the 
apotheca; cf. III. 21. 8. — ampho- 
rae : dative ; cf. 24. 1. — The repe- 
tition of neu in the following 
verses, answering to that of et in 
vss. I, 2, gives the impression of 



lively anticipation and thoughts 
crowding for utterance. 

12. Salium : for the usual 
Saliarem ; cf. Intr. 65. The Salii 
were a college of twelve priests, 
instituted by Numa to kieep the 
sacred shield (ancile) which he re- 
ceived from heaven. To baffle 
any attempt to steal it, he caused 
eleven others to be made exactly 
like it, and with these twelve the 
Salii, at their annual festival in 
March, dressed in a motley cos- 
tume, half military and half sacer- 
dotal, moved through the streets 
and about the altars of the gods, 
singing and dancing. 

13. neu, etc.: i.e. Bassus, who 
it would seem was ordinarily a 
moderate drinker, must on this 
occasion keep it up with the best 
of them. — multi meri : i.e. a 
generous drinker. For the con- 
struction see Intr. 61. 

14. Bassum : otherwise un- 
known. — Threicia: cf. 27. 2 n. — 
amystide, bumper; from AfivaTiv 
(or dfiMirrl) vlveiv, to drink without 
closing the lips {ttibta). 

15. rosae, etc.: for the use of 
flowers at feasts, see II. 3. 13 n. 

16. breve, short-lived (as in II. 
3. 13); in contrast with vivax. 

17. putris, languishing. 

18. deponent, will rest. — nee, 
but . . . not. 



98 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



20 



divelletur adultero, 

lascivis hederis ambitiosior. 



XXXVII. 

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero 
pulsanda tellus^ nunc Saliaribus 
ornare pulvinar deorum 

tempus erat dapibus, sodales. 



19. adult ero : see 33. 9 n. 

20. lascivis: a part of the com- 
parison : twining (her arms) round 
him with no more restraint than 
the ivy round the tree. — ambiti- 
osior : in a literal sense ; cf . 
Epod. 15. 5 artius atque hedera 
procera adstringitur ilex lentis 
adhaerens brace hits ; Cat. 61. 33, 
106. 

XXXVII. On the good news 
from Egypt, September, B.C. 30. 
A year had elapsed since the 
victory at Actium, when Marcus 
Cicero, son of the orator, consul 
suffectus, brought to Rome the joy- 
ful intelligence that Alexandria had 
fallen on the first of August, An- 
tony and Cleopatra were dead, and 
the war was over. Of Antony the 
poet is silent, conforming in this to 
the national feeling, which never 
permitted a triumph to be cele- 
brated except over a foreign foe. 
The ode is devoted wholly to Cleo- 
patra, who is presented in two strik- 
ingly dissimilar scenes. The burst 
of exultant joy with which the poem 
opens is modeled upon an ode of 
Alcaeus on the death of the Les- 
bian tyrant Myrsilus, beginning 
(Fr, 20): 

NCv XP^ fuOtMrOrip Kai nva irpbi filav 
irtbvTjy, iireiS^ KdrBave M^percXos. 

In this strain the poet portrays 



the Egyptian queen in her furious 
onslaught on Italy and her igno- 
minious flight. Then with sudden 
transition (vs. 21), his aversion 
and abhorrence give place to ad- 
miration as he contemplates the 
last scene, where she resolutely 
carries out her determination to 
die rather than be taken captive 
to Rome; and the ode, which 
began as a song of triumph over 
the fallen foe, fittingly closes with 
a warm tribute to her courage and 
lofty spirit. — Metre, 176. 

1. libero, unshackled ; i.e, no 
longer restrained by anxieties for 
the danger which had threatened 
the state ; Intr. 1 24. 

2. Saliaribus : i.e. such as are 
provided for the Salii (see 36. 12 n), 
who, with the pontifices (cf. II. 
14. 28), were proverbial for the 
sumptuousness of their banquets ; 
cf. Cic. Att. V. 9. I cum epulati 
essemus Saliarem in modum. 

3. ornare pulvinar, etc.: i.e. to 
celebrate a lectisterniuntt in which 
the images of the gods were placed 
in pairs on rich couches, and ban- 
quets served to them for several 
days in succession ; cf . Liv. V. 
13. 6, XXIL 10. 9. A banquet 
for the priests was, as usual, an 
appendage of the ceremony. For 
the number of pulvinar see Intr. 
127. 

4. tempus erat, would be the 



XXXVI. I9-XXXVII. 14-] HORATI CARMINA. 



99 



lo 



Antehac nefas depromere Caecubum 
cellis avitis, dum Capitolio 
regina dementis ruinas 
funus et imperio parabat 

contaminato cum grege turpliim 
morbo virorum, quidlibet impotens 
sperare fortunaque dulci 
ebria. Sed minuit furorem 

vix una sospes navis ab ignibus, 
mentemque lymphatam Mareotico 



time, sc. for the priests ; Gr. 31 x r, 
with Rem. 

5. antehac : Intr. 180. — Cae- 
cubum : see 20. 9 n. The Caecu- 
ban was a wine of the richer sort, 
which would be especially reserved 
for such occasions as this ; cf. 
Epod, 9. I repostum Ctucubum ad 
festas dapes ; III. 28. 2 sq, 

6. cellis avitis : i.e. made in 
our fathers* time. The wine was 
not brought directly from the cella 
vinariaf where it was fermented 
in large doiia^ but from the apo- 
theca in the upper part of the 
house (hence de-promere ; cf. de- 
scender III. 21. 7), where it was kept 
in sealed amphorae ; cf. III. 8. 10 
sqt/. — Capitolio : see III. 30. 8 n. 

7. regina, a queen; suggesting 
a worse prospect than the tradi- 
tional bite noire of the Romans, 
subjection to a king ; cf. Prop. IV. 
II. 47 quid nunc Tarquinii fractas 
iuvat esse secures^ | si mulier pati- 
enda fuit ? — dementis ruinas : 
Intr. 124. The most extravagant 
reports of the designs of Cleo- 
patra were believed at Rome, and 
her absolute power over Antony, 
as well as her previous influence 
over Julius Caesar, gave real cause 
for anxiety. 



8. funus et: Intr. 114. — para- 
bat : the imperfect gives dum 
the sense of * so long as ' ; Gr. 
276 e^ N. 

9. contaminato grege : i.e. 
eunuchs (cf. Epod. 9. 13), a class 
of persons who often rose to high 
positions under oriental kings. 

10. morbp : i.e. unnatural lust. 

— virorum : used (rather than 
hominum) with a touch of irony, 
to enhance the force of turpium ; 
they have debased their manhood. 

— impotens (sc. j«x), wild enough 
to. See Intr. loi a. 

1 2. minuit : sc. ei. 

13. vix una sospes, the bare 
escape of a single ; Intr. 105 a. So 
it was probably reported at Rome 
in the first news of the battle, and 
Horace had not yet learned the 
actual fact, that she took all of 
her sixty ships safely out of the 
fight. It was Antony's fleet that 
was burned. 

14. lymphatam, unbalanced ^ 
rendered 'flighty*; the word is 
apparently derived from Lymphae, 
water-nymphs (see ^5". I. 5. 97 n), 
at the sight of whom in the water, 
according to the popular belief, 
the unfortunate beholder was be- 
reft of his senses (vv/u06Xi7irrof). 



100 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. I. 



15 



20 



redegit in veros timores 
Caesar, ab Italia volantem 

remis adurgens, accipiter velut 
mollis columbas aut leporem citus 
venator in campis nivalis 
Haemoniae, daret ut catenis 

fatale monstrum. Quae generosius 
perire quaerens nee muliebriter 
expavit ensem nee latentis 
elasse eita reparavit oras ; 



See Preller-Jordan, Jiom, Myth., 
II. 127, and cf. 'panic fear' (see 
17. 2 n) and Munatic' — Mareo- 
tico : sc. vino : a sweet, fragrant 
wine produced at Marea, near 
Alexandria. 

15. veros timores : in contrast 
with the fanciful hopes with which 
she had come to the conflict. 

16. ab Italia, away from Italy ; 
having been turned back from her 
journey thither. — volantem: sc. 
earn. 

17. remis adurgens, etc. : a po- 
etical exaggeration, based perhaps 
on misinformation (see vs. 13 n). 
Cleopatra was pursued by nothing 
more than the fear of Octavian, 
who did not go to Egypt till the 
next year. — accipiter velut, etc. : 
cf. //. XXII. 138 i((nt KipKos 6p€- 
<r<f>iPj i\a4>p6raTos irererfvCov, | ftrji- 
dl<as oifirjire fjuerii, rfrfipiava irAetav; 
Verg. A, XI. 721 ; Ov. M. V. 
605 sq. 

19. nivalis : t.e. in winter, the 
time for hunting hares ; cf. S. I. 
2. 105 sq, 

20. Haemoniae : poetic name 
forThessaly. — daret ut: Intr. 114. 
The clause depends on adurgens 
17, which takes its time from 
redegit 15. 



2 1 . fatale, deadly. — monstrum : 
as a strange being in woman's 
shape. — quae : a construction ac- 
cording to the sense, which would 
not permit quod ; cf. Cic. Fam. I. 
9. 1 5 ilia furia (/>. Clodius) tnult- 
ebrium religionum, qui non pluris 
fecerat Bonam Deam quam tfes 
sorores, impunitatem est ad se cu- 
ius. The idea of the frantic queen, 
which dominates in the preceding 
sentence at the expense of the 
strict grammatical construction, is 
understood here as there. See 
notes on minuit 1 2 and volantem 16. 
From this point she is consistently 
treated as the grammatical subject 
to the end. — generosius, a nobler 
deathy sc. than that of a captive in 
chains, which would be the death 
of a slave. 

22. perire : Intr. 94 c. — nee 
muliebriter expavit, showed no 
womanish terror of; alluding per- 
haps to the story (Plut. Ant 79) 
that Cleopatra at the sight of Pro- 
culeius, whom Octavian had sent 
to take her prisoner, seized a dag- 
ger and was barely prevented from 
stabbing herself. For expavit see 
Intr. 51 a. 

23. nee latentis, etc.: i.e. she 
did not seek safety in flight and 



XXXVII. 1 5-32.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



101 



25 ausa et iacentem visere regiam 
voltu sereno, fortis et asperas 
tractare serpentes, ut atrum 
corpore combiberet venenum, 

deliberata morte ferocior, 
30 saevis Liburnis scilicet invidens 
privata deduci superbo 

non humilis mulier triumpho. 



concealment. There can be here 
no allusion to the story (Plut. Ant. 
69) that Cleopatra attempted to 
have her fleet transported across 
the isthmus of Suez with a view 
to escape to some place on the 
coast of the Red Sea. Horace 
wrote in the belief that this fleet 
had been all but annihilated at 
Actium (see vs. 13 n), and the 
fleet he has in mind is one that 
might have been prepared, in the 
year that had since intervened, 
especially for flight. — latentis, 
some unknown, 

24. TtpATSLvit, gained ; lit. got as 
a recompense for (the loss of her 
own); cf. reparata 31. 12 n. 

25. et, even. So in the next 
verse. — iacentem, prostrate, i.e. 
humbled, stripped of its splendor 
and prestige as a domus potens (35. 
23); cf. Cic. Or. 224 depressant, 
caecam, iacentem domum pluris 
quam te etfortitnas tuas aestimasti. 
— visere, to gaze upon, 

26. asperas, irritable, violent 
if touched ; cf. 1X1. 2. 10. 

27. tractare, to handle. For the 
mood see Xntr. \o\ a. — atrum: 
i,e, deadly ; see 28. 1 3 n. 

28. corpore, into (lit. with) her 
body, — combiberet, absorb. The 



.manner of Cleopatra's death is 
not free from doubt (Dio Cass. 
LI. 14. i); the report which 
Horace follows, that she died from 
the bite of an asp, was the one 
generally believed at Rome ; cf. 
Verg. A, VIII. 697, Prop. IV. 11. 

53- 

29. deliberata morte ferocior, 

her courage rising with her resolu- 
tion to die, 

30. Liburnis: fast-sailing craft, 
small and low-built, modeled on 
those of the Libumian pirates. 
They had won great renown at 
Actium (cf. Epod, i. i) where they 
proved more than a match for 
Antony's immense, but unwieldy 
ships. — invidens : personifying 
Liburnis (cf. also saevis). She 
begrudged them the honor of 
bringing her to Rome in triumph. 
It is said that Cleopatra repeatedly 
expressed her determination not 
to be led in triumph (0^ Opiafxped- 

ffOfJUll), 

31. privata : i,e. no longer a 
queen. — deduci : Intr. 94 i, — 
superbo : cf. 35. 3. 

32. triumpho : ablative. The 
triumph is thought of as proceed- 
ing all the way from Alexandria 
to the Capitol. 



102 



HORATI CARMIXA. 



[Ln. I.] 



XXXVIIL 

Persicos odi, puer, ^paratus ; 
displicent nexae phflyra coronae ; 
mitte sectari rosa quo loconim 
sera moretur. 

Simplici myrto nihil adiabores 
sedulus euro; neque te ministnim 
dedecet myrtus neque me sub arta 
vite bibentem. 



^ 



XXXVIIL The first book 
closet in a qttiet tone with an ode 
which is singularly simple in form 
as it is in spirit The poet in the 
country, reclining under the deep 
shade of his vine, with a single 
slave to fill his cup, each of the 
two wearing a simple wreath of 
mvrtle, — such is the picture with 
wnich Horace has chosen to leave 
his readers at the close of the first 
book. — Metre, 174. 

I. Persicos odi, etc.: a general 
expression of dislike for all such 
elaborate furnishings of a feast, 
called out by seeing the garland 
which the slave in his zeal is con- 
structing for him. — Persicos: the 
Periitani were proverbial among 
the Oreeks for their luxury and 
the splendor of their banquets. — 
puer : cf. puerit 19, 14 n. 



2. nexae philyra : i.e. elabo- 
rately constructed of choice flowers, 
which the philyra served to hold 
together {coronae sutiles). — coro- 
nae : cf . 4. 9. 

3. sectari : Intr. 947. — quo 
loconim : Intr. 63. 

4. moretur, lingers ; as if the 
rest had in reality gone away. 

5. myrto : see II. 15. 6 n. A 
simple chaplet would be made by 
twining the sprigs together (corona 
plectilis). — nihil, not . . . at all, the 
negative belonging ^ith euro, as in 
the familiar idiom with nego^ nolo, 
etc. — adiabores, try to embellish. 
Adlaborare (= cum labore addere) 
is found only in Horace. 

6. sedulus : with adiabores. — 
ministrum, as you wait ; corre- 
sponding to bibentem 12. 

7. arta : of the foliage. 



<f 



LIBER SECVNDVS 



I. 

Motiim ex Metello consule civicum 
bellique causas et vitia et modos 



I. C. Asinius PoUio, who holds 
the place of honor in this book» 
was a man whose prominence in 
the community and services to 
literature fully entitled him to that 
distinction. Eleven years older 
than Horace, PoUio had been a 
friend and correspondent of Cicero, 
had fought under Caesar at Phar- 
salus, and had subsequently held 
important commands, first under 
the Dictator and then under An- 
tony. He was governor of Trans- 
padane Gaul in B.C. 43-41, and con- 
sul, B.C. 40. The next year he won 
a triumph over the Parthini, a pal- 
matian tribe. With these laurels 
he withdrew from politics and his 
public life thenceforth was confined 
to the senate and the courts, in 
which he was accounted one of the 
foremost orators of j(he day. He 
declined to accompany Octavian 
to Actium, pleading his friendship 
for Antony. By his great ability 
and energy and a courage of opin- 
ion that was tempered with ex- 
cellent discretion, .he maintained 
a position of independence which 
Augustus found.it prudent to re- 
spect. In literature Pollio already 
had a recognized position both as 
an author and as a friend of au- 
thors. He had written tragedies 
{S. I. 10. 42) and other poetry. 
Vergil was indebted to him for sud- 
stantial aid at a very critical time. 
From the spoils of his Dalmatian 



campaign he established a library 
of Greek and Latin works, with 
busts of authors, and threw it 
open to the people, — the first 
public library in Rome. 

It is not certain when he under- 
took the history of the civil war 
which Horace heralds in the present 
ode, nor how far down he actually 
brought his account; but it certainly 
included Pharsalus and Thapsus, 
and probably Philippi. As it was 
Pollio who introduced the practice 
of reading new compositions to 
a company of friends invited for 
the purpose .{recitatio)^ — a prac- 
tice which thenceforth became a 
marked feature of literary life at 
Rome, — we may infer that Horace 
had heard portions of the work 
which he so enthusiastically extols. 
— Metre, 176. 

1. motum : more comprehen- 
sive than bellufHy and embracing 
the whole disturb^ce of the nor- 
mal order of the state. The ac- 
tual war did not begin for ten 
years after the date nameS. — ex 
Metello consule : />. beginning 
with the year 60 B.C., when Q. 
Caecilius Metellus and L. Af ranius 
were consuls. For the construc- 
tion see Intr. 105 dt. — civicum: an 
archaic form for civile, preserved in 
the technical phrase civica corona, 
but otherwise only in poetry. So 
hosticus for hostilis. III. 2. o. 

2. belli I limiting the three fol- 



104 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



10 



ludumque Fortunae gravisque 
principum amicitias et arma 

nondum expiatis uncta cruoribus, 
periculosae plenum opus aleae, 
tractas et incedis per ignis 
suppositos cineri doloso. 

Paulum severae musa tragoediae 
desit theatris; mox ubi publicas 
res ordinaris, grande munus 
Cecropio repetes coturno, 



lowing nouns (connected by et). 

— vitia : faults committed in con- 
ducting the war, blunders ; mo- 
dos : methods of carrying it on, 
tneasttres, 

3. ludum : Fortuna is here 
thought of, not as the stem god- 
dess of fate of I. 35, but as de- 
lighting, like Mars in I. 2. 37, 
28. 17, in the exercise of her 
power; cf. III. 29. 49 sq» No 
vicissitudes of fortune could be 
more striking than those of the 
three great political leaders, who 
for a time had the Roman world 
at their feet, and then one after 
another came to a violent end. 

— gravis, momentous {sc^ to the 
state). 

4. principum, leaders ; i.e, Cae- 
sar, Pompey, and Crassus. The 
genitive limits both of the foUowr 
ing siAistantives. — amicitias: i^. 
the so-called * first triumvirate,' 
which (unlike the second) was 
merely a personal alliance of the 
three political chiefs, invested with 
no legal authority. — arma: i>. 
those which they (in this case 
only Caesar and Pompey) took up 
against one another. 

5. nondum expiatis: cf. 1. 2. 29. 
— uncta, smeared; stronger than 



the more usual Uncta. — cruori- 
bus : Intr. 1 28. 

6. plenum aleae : because so 
many persons still living are af- 
fected bv the story of events in 
which either they themselves or 
their kinsmen took part. — opus : 
in apposition with the whole sen- 
tence (tractas with its objects) ; 
cf. grande certamen^ III. 20. 7. 

7. per, over ; cf. per mare^ I. 
6. 7. — ignis, etc.: i.e. the smoul- 
dering passions of the civil war, 
which burned for a long period 
after peace was restored on the 
surface. 

9. paulum, etc.: 1.^. the theatre 
must do without tragedy for a 
time ; an extravagant compliment 
to PoUio, whose tragedies, how- 
ever, it would appear from this, 
were actually performed on the 
stage, and not written merely for 
the recitatio, — musa tragoediae : 
equivalent in effect to Tragedy 
(personified) ; see note on Cliot I. 
12. 2. 

10. desit : denoting a lack of 
something needed; stronger than 
absit^ which would denote mere 
absence ; cf. Cic. Brut, 276 hoc 
unum illiy si nihil utilitatis habebat, 
afuit; si opus erat^ de/iiit, ^^^Vib' 



•i-. 



I. 3-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



105 



15 



20 



insigne maestis praesidium reis 
et consulenti, PoUio, curiae, 
cui laurus aeternos honores 
Delmatico peperit triumpho. 

lam nunc minaci murmure cornuum 
perstringis auris, iam litui strepunt, 
iam f ulgor armorum fugacis 
terret equos equitumque voltus. 



licas res (with emphasis on pub- 
licas), public events^ the history of 
the state; in contrast with the 
remoter interests that form the 
ordinary subjects of tragedy. 

11. ordinaris, have set in order, 
brought out of the confusion of 
inaccurate and contradictory re- 
ports. The expression is a some- 
what extravagant substitute for 
ordine narraveris, the usual phrase 
for giving a complete and con- 
nected account of an occurrence. 
— munus, calling, function, 

12. Cecropio: i>. Attic; cf. IV. 
12. 6. The greatest writers and, 
according to tradition, the inventor 
(cf. Ep, II. 3. 275 sqq^,) of tragedy, 
were Athenians. — repetes, return 
to* — cotumo, with the buskin, i.e. 
wearing it. The high shoe worn 
by the tragic actor to give him a 
more imposing appearance, and 
used by the poets as the symbol 
of tragedy {e.g, Ep, II. 3. 80), is 
here assigned to the author, as 
the soccus of comedy to Plautus in 
Ep, II. 1. 174; cf. Milton V Allegro 
132 'If Jonson's learned sock be 
on.' 

13. insigne, etc.: with the ex- 
ception of the political prosecution 
of one C. Cato with which PoUio, 
after the usual manner of aspiring 
politicians at Rome, began his 
career, all his orations of which 
we have any notice were for the 



defense. — praesidium, safeguard, 
reliance; cf. I. i. 2 n. 

14. curiae: for the senate itself, 
as we say ' the House.* For its 
case and that of reis, see Intr. 59. 

17. iam nunc : ue, in lively 
anticipation. Although Horace 
had probably heard portions of the 
work, he here makes himself the 
spokesman of the general public, to 
express the great expectations with 
which they awaited its appearance. 
The scene in this strophe is the 
cavalry fight in the battle of 
Pharss^lus. For the word-painting 
cf. Intr. 131. — cornuum • • . litut: 
both used by cavalry. The cornu 
had the shape of a semicircle or 
even a larger arc. For the lituus, 
see I. I. 23 n. 

19. fugacis : proleptic. 

20. equitumque voltus : i,e, 
* and paints terror on the faces of 
the riders.' The vivid picture 
instead of the plain fact (equites 
terret) is quite in Horace's manner; 
but it was no doubt suggested by 
the actual circumstances. The 
battle was decided by the rout of 
Pompey's inexperienced cavalry, 
who were terrified by the blows 
which the Gallic and German 
troopers, by Caesar's order, aimed 
at their faces ; cf. Plut. Caes, 45, 
Florus IV. 2. 50 (vox Caesaris) 
cruenta, sed docta et ad victoriam 
efficcuc, *miles, faciemferil* 



106 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



25 



Audire magnos iam videor duces 
non indecoro pulvere sordidos 
et cuncta terrarum subacta 

praeter atrocem animum Catonis. 

luno et deorum quisquis amicior 
Afris inulta cesserat impotens 
tellure victorum nepotes 
rettulit inferias lugurthae. 



21. audire : to hear with my 
own ears, not merely read. The 
word is placed first tor emphasis 
and to continue the thought of 
the preceding strophe: I am trans- 
ported to the presence of the 
events themselves instead of read- 
ing of them as cold facts. This 
distinction, with disregard of the 
precise meaning of audire (as in 
III, 10. 5; cf. vtdes I. 14. 3), is 
carried on to the second half of 
the strophe : I learn of the subjec- 
tion of the world as a living fact 
accomplished before my eyes. — 
magnos duces : i.€, their voices 
(in battle, as the next verse shows). 
He means Caesar and Pompey 
themselves. 

23. cuncta terrarum: Intr. 64. 

24. atrocem, stern. — Catonis: 
see I. 1 2. 36 n. 

25-40. The mention of Cato 
suggests the battle of Thapsus, in 
which the poet sees the impressive 
fact that just there, on the very 
soil where Rome had gained her 
most signal victories, she was 
doomed to witness a costly sacrifice 
of her own sons. This leads him 
on to some general reflections on 
the enormous outpouring of 
Roman blood in the civil war, till 
he suddenly checks himself and 
recalls his muse from the pursuit 
of so mournful a theme to her own 
proper sphere of love and mirth. 



25. luno : the patron-goddess 
of Carthage ; cf . Verg. ^. I. 1 5 sqq. 

— et deorum quisquis, etc., and 
every {other) divinity wAo, though 
disposed to be friendly to the 
Africans, had retired from thelandy 
powerless to avenge it. It was the 
common belief that the gods of a 
doomed city abandoned it before 
its fall ; cf. Verg. A. II. 351 ex- 
cessere omnes adytis arisque relic- 
tis I di ; Silius Ital. II. 365 et iam 
damnata cessit Karthagine Mavors, 
It is said that in the third Punic 
war Scipio instituted certain rites 
to transfer Juno from Carthage to 
Rome (Serv. on Verg. A. XII. 841). 

— deorum : ""Intr. 63. — quisquis, 
whoever else. Alius is usually 
omitted in such phrases ; cf. Liv. 
IX. 18. 13 mirabiliores quam Ale- 
xander aut quisquam rex, 

26. impotens : here in its 
literal sense, which is unusual ; cf. 
I. 37. 10. The helplessness is of 
course not general, but only relates 
to one object, implied in inulta. 

27. victorum: sc, in the Jugur- 
thine war. That this war was 
more prominent in Horace's mind 
than the greater, though more 
remote, Punic wars, was perhaps 
due to the recent publication of 
Sallust's monograph on the sub- 
ject. — nepotes : among the slain 
at Thapsus there may well have 
been actual grandsons of those 



I. 21-38.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



107 



Quis non Latino sanguine pinguior 
30 campus sepulcris impia proelia 
testatur auditumque Medis 
Hesperiae sonitum ruinae ? 

Qui gurges aut quae flumina lugubris 
ignara belli? Quod mare Dauniae 
35 non decolorayere caedes ? 

Quae caret ora cruore nostro ? 

Sed ne relictis, musa procax, iocis 
Ceae retractes munera nehiae ; 



who fought in the Jugurthine war ; 
the Pompeian commander himself, 
Metellus Scipio, was the grandson 
of Metellus Numidicus, who had 
earned his surname by victory over 
Jugurtha. 

28. rettulit, have offered up (by 
way of atonement); see I. 3. 7 n. 
For the number, see Intr. 77. 

29. quis non, etc.: two ques- 
tions compressed into one : What 
plain is not more fertile, and does 
not bear witness, etc.? — pinguior: 
cf. Verg. G, I. 491 nee futt indig- 
num superis bis sanguine nostro 
Emathiam et latos Haemi pin 
guescere campos. 

30. impia : as - fought by 
* brothers' (cf. I. 35. 34) against 
one another. 

31. Medis: see I. 2. 22 n ; for 
the case, Intr. 54. It was a sore 
aggravation of the calamity to 
think of the glee with which the 
great enemy of the empire watched 
the Romans cutting one another's 
throats. Cf. //. I. 255 sqq, 

32. Hesperiae : here an adjec- 
tive {=^Italae)\ see III. 6. 8 n. — 
ruinae, the downfall; cf. 1. 2. 25 n. 

33. ^rf^es, floods open waters, 
in contrast with running streams. 
In the following questions we 



have another contrasted pair, sea 
and shore. It is noteworthy how 
skilfully the poet, without monot- 
ony, keeps the reader's attention 
fixed through two strophes on the 
one thought that holds for the 
moment his own fancy, — the battle 
ground of the civil war, stretching 
from one end of the empire to the 
other. Allowing for poetic license, 
the picture is a true one ; cf. Flor. 
IV. 2. 3 sqq, 

34. Dauniae: see I. 22. 14 n; 
here used as a special type to repre- 
sent the Roman soldier in general; 
cf. III. 5. 9 and see Intr. 117 a, 

35. decoloravere, deeply dyed. 
The de- is here intensive as in 
dealbare^ denigrare ; cf. I. 9. ii n. 

36. For the assonance see Intr. 
131. • 

37. sed ne, etc.: cf. I. 6. 10 and 
17 sqq. (with intr. note); III. 3. 69. 

38. Ceae retractes, etc., take 
up again the function of the Cean 
dirge, i.e. undertake the service in 
poetry once performed by Simoni 
des of Ceos, whose elegies {BpvjvoL 
cf. lacriniis Simonideis, Cat. 38. 8 
here neniae)^ — for example those 
in honor of the warriors who fell 
at Marathon and at Thermopylae, 
— were the best of their class. 



108 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IL 



mecum Dionaeo sub antro 
40 quaere modos leviore plectro. 



II. 

Nullus argento color est avaris 
abdito terris, inimice lamnae 
Crispe Sallusti, nisi temperato 
splendeat usu. 



39. Dionaeo : i.e, of Venus, 
daughter of Dione. Venus her- 
self was sometimes called Dione ; 
cf . Dionaei Caesaris (as descendant 
of Venus), Verg. E. 9. 47 ; Ov. F, 
II. 461. — sub antro : cf. I. 5. 3n. 

40. leviore plectro : i./r. of a 
lighter strain (descriptive abl.); cf. 
IV. 2. 33 n ; Ov. M. X. 150 cecini 
plectro graviore gigantas | . . . nunc 
opus est leviore lyra. For the plec- 
trum see I. 26. Tin. 

II. C. Sallustius Crispus was 
the grandnephew and adopted son 
of the historian Sallust, and at 
the death of the latter, B.C. 34, 
inherited his enormous wealth. 
Like Maecenas, he abstained from 
the usual pursuit of political 
honors, but under the affectation 
of indolence and lack of ambition 
exercised an influence beyond that 
of the most powerful senato/s; and 
by his intelligence and sagacity he 
won a place in the secret counsels 
of Augustus second only to that of 
Maecenas himself. He maintained 
his influence to the end of Augustus' 
life and through the first years of 
Tiberius, and died at an advanced 
age A.D. 20 (Tac. Ann, III. 30). 
In regard to his style of living 
Tacitus calls him diversus a vete- 
rum instituto per cultum et mun- 
ditiasy copiaque et adfluentia luxu 



propior. Horace's testimony in 
this ode, on the contrary, distinctly 
credits Sallustius with moderation 
and liberality in the use of his 
wealth. The poem was probably 
written in B.C. 29, when the resto- 
ration of Phraates was still fresh 
in the public mind. — Metre, 174. 

1. color, lustre; cf. Plin. N.H. 
XXXIII. 58 color in argento clarior 
est (sc. quam in aurd)^ magisque 
diei similis. — avaris : the disposi- 
tion of the ' miser is attributed to 
the earth, in which he hoards his 
money; Intr. 124. 

2. abdito terris : d. S.l. i. 41 
quid iuvat immensum te argenti 
pondus et auri\furtim defossa timi- 
dum deponere terra ? terris may 
be either abl. (Intr. 69) or dative 
(Intr. 53; cf. Verg. A. IL 553 
lateri abdidit enseni). — inimice : 
apodosis to the condition nisi 
temperato, etc., — (who wouldst 
be) a foe . . . unless^ etc. — lamnae: 
probably a colloquial expression, 
used here in disparagement for 
money as mere metal, — bullion. 
For the form see Intr. 183. 

3. Crispe Sallusti : such inver- 
sion of the nomen and cognomen 
was probably confined to familiar 
address. Cicero used it rarely and 
only in his letters, but it becomes 
more frequent in Livy and Velleius 
and is very common in Tacitus. 



■x> 



I. 39-11. 14.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



109 



10 



Vivet extento Proculeius aevo, 
notus in fratres animi patemi ; 
ilium aget penna metuente solvi 
fama superstes. 

Latius regnes avidum domando 
spiritum quam si Libyam remotis 
Gadibus iungas et uterque Poenus 
serviat uni. 

Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 
nee sitim pellit, nisi eausa morbi 



5. vivet : i,e, in fame, as indi- 
cated in the following verses. — 
extento aevo, a prolonged life 
[sc* beyond its natural limits). — 
Proculeius : C. Proculeius Varro 
Murena, brother of Terentia, the 
wife of Maecenas. Like Maecenas 
and Sallustius he .remained in 
the equestrian order, but Augustus 
held him in such high esteem and 
confidence (see I. 37. 22 n) that 
he at one time thought of him as 
a husband for his daughter Julia 
(Tac. Ann, IV. 40. 8). 

6. in, towards, — animi patemi : 
he divided his own property in 
equal shares with his two broth- 
ers, who had lost theirs in the 
civil war. For the case see Intr. 

7. aget, will waft. — penna, 
wing ; cf. Verg. A, IX. 473 pin- 
nata Fama, — metuente : i.e. that 
refuses (Intr. 94/); not implying 
that there is any danger of it (cf. 
Intr. 95). 

9. regnes : the indefinite sec- 
ond person subjunctive in apodo- 
sis, the protasis being expressed in 
domando. For the thought cf. 
O, T. Prov. 16. 32 * He that ruleth 
his spirit (is better) than he that 
taketh a city.' 



11. iungas: i>. under your 
sway, as explained by the following 
clause, which repeats the same 
idea in another form. — uterque 
Poenus : />. the Carthaginians of 
Africa and those of Spain, where 
there was a Carthago nova with 
other Punic colonies. 

12. iini : sc. tibi (implied in 
iungas). 

13. crescit, is aggravated ; Intr. 
116^. The subject is still, in 
thought, the avidus spiritus^ but it 
is merged, in Horace's favorite 
manner, in the figure which he 
employs to describe its nature ; cf . 
Ep, II. 2. z%sqq,y and see Intr. 123. 
— indulgens sibi, by self indul- 
gence; joined loosely to hydrops, 
which is in a manner personified 
and confused with the hydropicus, 
the disease with the patient. 

14. nee sitim pellit, etc.: i,e, 
covetousness is not cured by grati- 
fying it, but rather increased ; the 
only cure is to root out the desire. 
The patient is sick ; if you give 
him to drink he will only want 
more ; you must make him well, 
and then his thirst will cease. The 
comparison was not uncommon ; 
cf. Polyb. XIII. 2. 2, Ov. /: I. 215, 
Stob. Flor, X. 46. 



no 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



15 



20 



fugerit venis et aquosus albo 
corpore languor. 

Redditum Cyri solio Phraaten 
dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
eximit Virtus populumque falsis 
dedocet uti 

vocibus, regnum et diadema tutum 
deferens uni propriamque laurum, 
quisquis ingentis oculo inretorto 
spectat acervos. 



1 5. venis, corpore : Intr. 70. — 
aquosus: i.e, due to the water 
settling under the skin. — albo : 
the unhealthy whiteness of disease. 

17-24. This subjection of the 
desires, and not the gratification 
even of the very highest of human 
wishes, constitutes true happiness 
and true power ; cf. IV. 9. 45 
sqq, 

17. Cyri solio : the throne of 
Parthia is properly so called, be- 
cause the Arsacidae succeeded to 
the power of the Persian kings 
(see I. 2. 22 n), which in the popu- 
lar estimate was the summit of 
earthly happiness ; cf. III. 9. 4. — 
Phraaten : see I. 26. 5 n. 

18. plebi : t.e, from the popular 
judgment;, cf. III. 14. i n. For 
the case see Intr. 57. — beatorum : 
for the synapheia see Intr. 174 b. 

19. Virtus, etc.: cf. ^5*. I. 3. 41 
vellem . . . isti \ errori notnen Vir- 
tus posuisset honestum. He means 
virtue as set forth by its expound- 
ers, the philosophers, especially the 
Stoics, whose doctrine on the pres- 
ent subject falls in with Horace's 
own views, so that he even em- 
ploys, though only in a figurative 



sense, their favorite paradox that 
the wise man alone is king, in 
which elsewhere (^S*. I. 3. 124 sqq.) 
he finds rich material for his satire. 
See Intr. 8 (end). — falsis, wrong; 
the opposite of vera vocabula re- 
runiy Sal. Cat. 52. 11. 

21. tutum : intimating the de- 
fect in the earthly crown, as exem- 
plified in the recent experience of 
Phraates. 

22. propriam, which shall not 
be taken away from him ; cf . Ep. 
II. 2. 171 sqq.; S. II. 6. 4 nil 
amplius orOy \ Maia nate^ nisi ut 
propria haec mihi munera faxis ; 
Lucil. XXVII. 6 M ciim sciam nihil 
isse in vita prdprium mortali da- 
tum ; and see note on tuVUm^ 
above. 

23. quisquis, whoever he be, 
that, — whether peasant or king. 
— oculo inretorto spectat : i.e. 
merely glances at them as he 
passes by, but does not keep roll- 
ing his eyes back to see them as 
long as possible ; gives them no 
further thought ; cf. respicio and 
* regard.' 

24. acervos : sc. of money; cf. 
S, I. 1.44. 



II. i5-ni. 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



Ill 



III. 

Aequam memento rebus in arduis 
servare mentem, non secus in bonis 
ab insolent! temperatam 
laetitia, moriture Delli, 

seu maestus omni tempore vixeris, 
seu te in remoto gramine per dies 



III. Although Horace puts at 
the head of this ode his favorite 
maxim of the golden mean (II. lo, 
S. I. I. 1 06 sg^.), he devotes the 
main part of it to only one side 
of that doctrine. The warning 
against over-confident joy in pros- 
perity is left as a mere parenthet- 
ical remark in the first strophe, 
and the poet proceeds to teach at 
length the maxim, sapiens finire 
memento tristitiam vitaeque labores 
(I. 7. 17). * There is nothing to 
be gained by brooding over the 
troubles of life ; death will come 
all the same, and the brief time 
given us for enjoyment will be 
irrecoverably spent.* Q. Dellius, 
to whom the ode is addressed, 
had attained a questionable repu- 
tation in the recent political 
struggles, and had been wittily 
dubbed by Messala desultor bello- 
rum civtlium from the happy 
faculty he had displayed of jump- 
ing at the right moment and 
always lighting on his feet in the 
successful party (Sen. Suas, I. 7). 
He was now among the more 
intimate friends of Augustus, and 
being a man of literary tastes and 
a writer, — he prepared a history 
of Antony's Parthian campaign, 
in which he had himself com- 
manded part of the forces,^ he 
was no doubt brought into more 



or less familiar relations with 
Horace in the circle of Maecenas. 

— Metre, 176. 

1. 9L!tQ^zxsi,i unruffled. — arduis: 
in prose, adversis (cf. 10. 13 n) ; 
' when the way is steep.' 

2. servare : (not parare, as in 
Ep» I. 18. 112) implying that he 
has the aequus animus now, and 
.putting the res arduae into the 
future, — 'when hardship comes.' 

— non secus : sc. memento ser- 
vare. 

3. insolenti, extravagant; see 
I. 5. 8 n. 

4. moriture : Intr. 104 b. It is 
the apodosis of the two condi- 
tional clauses which follow: * since 
you will die just the same whether 
. . . or . . .' It expresses the reason 
for the preceding injunction (cf. I. 
28. 6 n), but has more special 
reference to the first part, which 
continues to be the text through 
the rest of the ode ; see intr. 
note. 

6. remoto gramine, some grassy 
nook ; cf. I. I. 21 sq.y Epod. II. 23 
sq. — per dies festos : in contrast 
with omni tempore. The alter- 
native is *^ always melancholy, or 
sometimes (on proper occasions) 
seeking relaxation.' per is dis- 
tributive : on those days as they 
come round ; cf. per autumnos, 
14. 15. 



112 



HORATl CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



lO 



'5 



festos reclinatum bearis 
interiore nota Falerni. 

Quo pinus ingens albaque populus 
umbram hospitalem consociare amant 
ramis ? Quid obliquo laborat 
lympha f ugax trepidare rivo ? 

Hue vina et unguenta et nimium brevis 
flores amoenae ferre iube rosae, 
dum res et aetas et sororum 
fila trium patiuntur atra. 

Cedes coemptis saltibus et domo 



8. interiore : i,e, older. The 
jars farther back in the apotheca 
would be those which had been 
left undisturbed the longest. — 
nota, brand ; properly the stamp 
or inscription on the amphora, or 
on a tag attached to it, recording 
the name and date (consuls of the 
year) of the vintage; hence used 
in general for quality of wine ; 
cf . ^. I. 10. 24. — Falerni: cf. I. 
20. 10 n. 

9. quo, what does it mean that ; 
lit. what (is all this beauty) yZ^r /* — 
ingens albaque : Intr. 122. 

10. hospitalem, inviting. — con- 
sociare : Intr. 94 c. The object 
umbram expresses the result of 
the action, as if it were consociando 
facere ; cf. sinus ^ I. 33. 16 n. 

11. quid, whyy in the same sense 
as qiM 9. — obliquo, zigzags wind- 
ings, always oblique in reference 
to the direct course. — laborat 
trepidare, struggle and bustle ; cf. 
Ep, I. 10. 21 (aqua) per pronum 
trepidat cum murmure rivum. For 
the construction see Intr. 94 h. 

12. rivo: ablative of the 'way 
by which.' 

13. hue, etc.: the poet proceeds 



as if the answer to the preceding 
question were obvious. — vina . . . 
unguenta . . . flores : the three 
essentials of a Roman convivium. 
The ointment was for the hair, 
the flowers for garlands ; cf. 7. 21 
sqq.f 1. 4. 9. — et . . . et : repeated 
in vs. 15. — brevis: cf. breve lilium, 
I. 36. 16 n. 

1 5. res, circumstances. — aetas : 
cf. 1. 9. 16 sq. — sororum: the Fates, 
Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, of 
whom the first spun {KXiMw) the 
thread of life, the second deter- 
mined (Kayxdwta) its length, the 
third, * the Inexorable ' {d+rphna) 
cut it off. 

16. atra : cf. I. 28. 13 n. Al- 
though the thread is the symbol 
of life, the whole conception re- 
lates to death ; the purpose of the 
allegory is to represent not the 
giving of life, but the ending of 
it. 

17. coemptis saltibus : exten- 
sive mountain pastures, formed by 
buying up (co-) a numb6r of con- 
tiguous tracts from small owners. 
Great incomes were derived from 
the flocks and herds raised on 
such pastures. — domo : in the 



in: 7-28.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



113 



20 



25 



villaque flavus quam Tiberis lavit, 
cedes et exstructis in altum 
divitiis potietur heres. 

Divesne prisco natus ab Inacho 
nil interest an pauper et infima 
de gente sub divo moreris, 
victima nil miserantis Orci. 

Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 
versatur urna serius ocius 

sors exitura et nos in aeternum 
exsilium impositura cumbae. 



city; cf. Mart. IV. 64. 25 hoc rus, 
seu potius domus vocanda est, 

18. villa, country-seat A villa 
on the Tiber was especially desir- 
able, and the banks of the river 
were thronged with them (Plin. 
N. H, III. 54). — flavus : see I. 2. 
13 n. — lavit: in the Odes and 
Epodes Horace uses the forms of 
lavere only ; in the Satires and 
Epistles those of lavare as well. 

19. cedes: Intr. 116/ — ex- 
structis in altum : cf . ingentis 
acervos^ 2. 23. 

21. dives natus ab, a wealthy 
descendant of, — Inacho : first 
(mythical) king of Argos, here 
typical of very ancient as well as 
illustrious ancestry; Intr. iiy a. 

23. sub divo moTeris, you linger 
in the light of day, f>. live, but 
suggesting that our life is but a 
brief sojourn on earth. For divo 
cf. 1. 18. 13 n. The subject is no 
longer Dellius, but the indefinite 
'you.' ^ 

24. victima, etc. : i.e, * since you 
are a victim (all the same),' etc.; 
cf. moriturcy 4 n. — nil miserantis, 
pitiless ; cf. 14. 6. 

25. omnes . . . omnium : Intr. 



^116 g. omnium (limiting sors) 
would more naturally have been 
cuiusqt4e. 

26. urna : another conception 
of the allotment of death to the 
individual. Necessity (cf. III. 1. 14 
sqq.) holds in her capacious urn a 
sors (a small piece of wood or 
similar material, with distinguish- 
ing marks) for every man ; the urn 
is continually shaken (versatur), 
and when a lot flies out the man 
is doomed to die. For this method 
of determining by lot cf. //. VII. 
17s sqq. — serius ocius: between 
two words or phrases which are 
opposite in meaning and together 
form a complete idea the conjunc- 
tion is commonly omitted, as corn- 
minus eminuSf a tergo a frontCy 
velit nolit^ etc. 

27. exitura, impositura : Intr. 
104 b, — iTiyfor ; cf. I. 7. 8. — ae- 
ternum : Intr. 176 b, 

28. exsilium : the suggestion in 
morerisy that life is only a tem- 
porary sojourn and not a home, 
is abandoned again, and the poet 
recurs to the thought of the pre- 
ceding strophe, cedes^ etc. — cum- 
bae : Charon's. 



114 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



IV. 

Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori, 
Xanthia Phoceu, prius insolentem 
serva Briseis niveo colore 
movit Achillem ; 

movit Aiacem Telamone natum 
forma captivae dominum Tecmessae ; 
arsit Atrides medio in triumpho 
virgine rapta, 



IV. To 'Xanthias of Phocis/ 
on his having fallen in love with 
his maid-servant. Whether Xan-^ 
thias here stands for a real person 
or is a mere creature of fancy it 
is impossible to say with certainty, 
in spite of the allusion to the 
poet's own age at the close. The 
air of reality that pervades the 
poem and the quality of the humor 
certainly give the impression that 
Horace is here chaffing, under an 
assumed name, one of his own 
acquaintances; but it is quite pos- 
sible that his only aim was to give 
an Impression of reality to a situa- 
tion wholly fictitious. He points 
out with mock gravity that there 
is illustrious precedent for being 
enamoured of a slave girl, and 
further comforts his friend with 
the assurance that one so noble 
and so disinterested must be a 
princess in disguise at least. — 
Metre, 174. 

I. ne sit tibi pudori, you neednU 
be ashamed of. The clause is per- 
haps best taken as a parenthetical 
clause of purpose (Gr. 317 r), ex- 
plaining the poet's motive in cit- 
ing the following examples ; cf. 
IV. 9. I sqq. Others take it as 
hortatory. 



2. Xanthia Phoceu : cf. Opun- 
tiae Megillae^ I. 27. 10. — prius: 
I. e. before you. — insolentem, 
haughty (see I. 5. 8 n), and hence 
likely to hold himself high above 
a serva ; see Intr. 1 16 a. 

3. Briseis : see 11. I. 346 sqq., 
IX. 342 sq. — niveo colore : cf. 
III. 27. 25 ; I. 19. 5 Glycerae nitor, 
splendentis Pario purius mamtore. 
The ablative is instrumental. 

4. movit, touched. For the an- 
aphora, with change of rhythm, 
cf. I. 2. 5; Intr. 116^. 

6. captivae dominum : cf. in- 
solentem serva^ vs. 2 n. — Tec- 
messaie : the daughter of a Phryg- 
ian king whom Ajax slew in single 
combat in one of his raids during 
the siege of Troy ; Soph. Aiax 
210, 487 sqq. 

7. arsit .* sc. with love. — Atri- 
des : Agamemnon. — medio in 
triumpho : with arsit, suggesting 
much the same contrast as inso- 
lentem 2. 

8. virgine : Cassandra, who at 
the fall of Troy became the prize 
of Agamemnon. For the case see 
Intr. 72. — rapta: by Ajax, the 
son of Oileus, from the altar of 
Athena; cf. Verg. A, II. 403 sqq., 
I. 39 sqq. 



IV. 1-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



115 



lO 



15 



20 



barbarae postquam cecidere turmae 
Thessalo victore et ademptus Hector 
tradidit fessis leviora tolli 
Pergama Grais. 

Nescias an te generum beati 
Phyllidis flavae decorent parentes ; 
regium certe genus et penatis 
maeret iniquos. 

Crede non illam tibi de scelesta 
plebe dilectam, neque sic fidelem, 
sic lucro aversam potuisse nasci 
matre pudenda. 



9. barbarae, etc.: an amplifica- 
tion of triumpho, to relieve the 
monotony of the list of examples ; 
see I. 2. 7 n. — barbarae : (from 
the Greek point of view), those 
of the Trojans and their allies ; 
cf. Ep, I. 2. 7 Graecia barbariae 
Unto collisa duello, — cecidere 
turmae : the allusion is probably 
to the time when Achilles came 
out to battle with his Myrmidons 
(Thessalo) after the death of 
Patroclus, routed the Trojans with 
great slaughter, and finally killed 
Hector (//. XX.-XXII.). 

10. Thessalo : used collective- 
ly; cf. Poenot I. 12. 38. — ademp- 
tus Hector, the loss of Hector ; 
Intr. 105 rt. Cf. //. XXIV. 243 
^T€poi ydp /tSXKop 'AxcLUHtrip 5^ 

11. tradidit, delivered . . . into 
the hands of; in what sense, is 
defined by leviora tolli (='an 
easier prey *). — tolli : for the in- 
finitive see Intr. loi ^. 

13. nescias an, etc.: continuing 
in the same vein, the poet plays 
on the well known fact that chil- 
dren of good families were some- 



times kidnapped and sold into 
slavery. — nescias an, very likely ^ 
— you canU tell ; with the usual 
affirmative implication of nescio an. 
The meaning is : You must look 
up her parents, and no doubt it 
will turn out that you will make 
a distinguished match with your 
Phyllis. — beati, rich^ well to do; 
cf. I. 4. 14 n. 

14. flavae : see note on Pyrrha^ 
I. 5. 3. — te decorent, will be an 
honor to you. 

15. regium genus et penatis, 
etc., she mourns {the loss of) royeU 
attcestry^ — 1>. she is no longer 
accounted their descendant, a slave 
being filius nullius^ — and the un- 
kindness of household gods (Intr. 
105 a). The two objects of mae- 
ret correspond accurately to fidem 
mutatosque deosy objects of flebity 

I- 5- 5- 

17. crede, rest assured, — non 

illam : cf. non e^Oy I. 18. 11 n. — 
tibi: ci. loviy I. 21. 4; Intr. 54. — 
de plebe : sc. esse, 

^9. aversam : the strong ex- 
pression betrays the irony. — 
potuisse: emphatic; Intr. 116^. 



116 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



Bracchia et voltum teretisque suras 
integer laudo : f uge suspicari 
cuius octavum trepidavit aetas 
claudere lustrum. 

V. 

Nondum subacta ferre iugum valet 
cervice, nondum munia comparis 
aequare, nee tauri mentis 
in venerem tolerare pondus. 

Circa virentis est animus tuae 
campos iuvencae, nunc fluviis gravem 
solantis aestum, nunc in udo 
ludere cum vitulis salicto 



2 1 . teretis, shapely^ well turned, 

22. integer, dispassioruttely ; cf. 
III. 7. 22. — suspicari : sc. eum 
(one). For the mood see Intr. 94 k, 

23. cuius, etc. : Horace was 40 
in B.C. 25. — trepidavit claudere, 
has fluttered to the verge of; Intr. 

94^. 

V. Counsel and encouragement 
to an impatient lover. *She is 
too young still, — a frolicsome 
heifer, an unripe grape. Wait 
patiently : by and by she will come 
to you of herself.* As it is Hor- 
ace's practice to name the person 
he addresses, the ode is regarded 
by some as a soliloquy, like III. 12. 
— Metre, 176. 

I. nondum valet : the subject 
(iuvenca tua) is postponed to the 
beginning of the positive descrip- 
tion, vs. 5, and there expressed in a 
modified form, animus tuae iuven- 
cae ; cf. I. 37. 14 mentemgue (eius) 
. . . redegit^ * , , ab Italia volantem 



remis adurgens. This vagueness 
and the absence of any direct inti- 
mation in the whole description that 
a young girl is the real subject, — 
quite in contrast with III. 1 1. 9 sqq., 
— shows that though the offensive 
form of the comparison was toler- 
able to Roman taste, the poet is 
not insensible to its grossness, and 
uses some skill to keep it from 
coming in too close contact with 
the subject ; see vs. 9 n. — ferre : 
Intr. 94 n, 

2. munia comparis aequare : 
equivalent Xo ferre iugum pariter^ 
I. 35. 28. Her strength (valet) 4s 
not equal to * the task of a yoke- 
fellow. 

5. circa : cf. I. 18. 2 n. 

8. ludere : Intr. 94 c, — cum 
vitulis : i,e. (stripped of the image- 
ry) she has still the feelings of 
a child, and loves best to play 
with other children. 

9. toUe : cf. I. 27. 2 n. The 
new figure enforces the exhortation 



IV. 2I-V. 21.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



117 



10 



15 



20 



praegestientis. ToUe cupidinem 
immitis uvae ; iam tibi lividos 
distinguet autumnus racemos 
purpureo varius colore. 

Iam te sequetur ; currit enim ferox 
aetas, et illi quos tibi dempserit 
adponet annos ; iam proterva 
fronte petet Lalage maritum, 

dilecta quantum non Pholoe f ugax, 
non Chloris, albo sic umero nitens 
ut pura nqcturno renidet 
luna mari, Cnidiusve Gyges, 

quem si puellarum insereres choro, 



to patieitte, and serves the further 
purpose of throwing the former 
comparison somewhat -into the 
background, as we approach the 
name and person of Lalage. 

10. lividos: the color of the half - 
ripe grapes, — a leaden blue spread- 
ing over the green ; cf . Prop. V. 2, 
13 variat liventibus uva nuetnis, 

11. distinguet, will tint. 

12. purpureo colore (with dis- 
tinguet) : denoting a further stage 
of ripening ; cf. Ov. M, III. 484 
ut variis solet uva racemis \ ducere 
purpureum nondum matura 
colorem. Apparently a deep wine 
color that precedes dead ripeness 
(which is expressed by niger) is in- 
tended. — varius : as clothing the 
face of nature in many hues. For 
the order of words in this sentence 
see Intr. iii. 

13. ferox, headstrong; cf. invida 
aetas, I. 11. 7. 

14. quos tibi dempserit annos: 
i.e. the time you *lose' by waiting 
.will bring her to maturity, annos 
is used in a pregnant sense, the 



years of our life with all they bring 
or take away. In this sense the 
years that bring us to the prime of 
life are thought of as coming, 
those after our prime as passing 
away; cf. Ep. II. 3. 175 multa 
ferunt anni venientes commoda 
secuntt I multa recedentes adimunt; 
Ep, II. 2. 55 singula de nobis anni 
praedantur euntes, 

16. fronte : index of the feel- 
ings, as the cheek with us ; cf. 
frontis urbanae^ Ep, I. 9. 11. — 
maritum, a mate, 

17. dilecta quantum non, a 
greater favorite than, dilecta takes 
its time from petet. — fugax, 
capricious. 

18. albo, etc.: descriptive of 
Chloris. 

19. pura, unclouded; cf. 1. 34. 7. 

20. mari : Intr. 69. — Cnidius 
Gyges: cf. Xanthia Phoceu, 4. 2 n. 

21. quem si, etc.: cf. I. 2. 7 n. 
The poet has in mind here the 
story of Achilles at the court of 
Lycomedes ; see I. 8. 13 n. — 
chore, a bevy. 



118 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



mire sagacis falleret hospites 
discrimen obscurum solutis 
crinibus ambiguoque voltu. 

VL 

Septimi, Gadis aditure mecum et 
Cantabrum indoctum iuga f erre nostra et 
barbaras Syrtis, ubi Maura semper 
aestuat unda: 



22. mire, etc., ifs astonishing 
haw keen-sighted strangers would 
fail td detect. For falleret cf. I. 
10. 1 6. 

23. obscurum, disguised {as it 
is). — solvLtis, Jiowing; cf. III. 4. 62. 

VI. Of the trusty friend to 
whom the poet here confides his 
longings for a quiet old age 
nothing further is known with 
certainty. It is probable, however, 
that he is the same Septimius to 
whom Horace gave a letter of 
introduction to Tiberius {£p. 1. 9), 
in which he commends him as 
*/ortem bonumque,* and also iden- 
tical with the friend mentioned by 
Augustus in a letter to the poet 
which Suetonius has preserved: 
*tui qualem habeam memoriam 
poteris ex Septimio quoque nostro 
audire.^ The ode was probably 
written in B.C. 27 or 26, when the 
recently conquered Cantabrians 
rebelled, and Augustus went to 
Spain to conduct the war against 
them in person. That it was not 
among the earliest odes is shown 
by the last verse : Horace would 
not have called himself vates unless 
he had felt sure that his friends 
at least already recognized his suc- 
cess in lyric poetry. Some years 



later >e expresses {Ep, I. 7. 44) 
the same preference for the two 
resorts whose attractiveness he 
here extols. — Metre, 174. 

1. Gadis : i.e. to the end of the 
world; cf. 2. 11. — aditure: see 
Intr. 104 ^. — et . . . et : the con- 
junctions serve to bridge over the 
pauses between the verses, with an 
effect similar to that of elision 
(Intr. 174 b), 

2. Cantabrum : cf. Thessalo, 
4. 10 n. The Cantabrians were 
first reduced by Statilius Taurus 
B.C. 29, and after successive rebel- 
lions finally subdued by Agrippa 
B.C. 19. — iuga: Intr. 128. — ferrc: 
Intr. loi c. 

3. barbaras, wild. The epithet 
shows that by Syrtis is probably 
meant here, as in I. 22. 5 and Verg. 
A. IV. 41 inhospita Syrtis, the 
coast rather than the adjacent 
waters. The thought, however, 
is not of travelling there but of 
the dangerous voyage thither. The 
three objects of aditure indicate 
by special examples the fatigues 
and dangers expressed in general 
terms by maris et viarum militiae- 
que, 7 sq. — Maura : most of the 
Roman poets betray a certain 
vagueness in their geographical 
notions ; cf. Verg. G* I. 490 sqq. 



V. 22-VI. 1 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



119 



10 



IS 



Tibur Argeo positum colono 
sit meae sedes utinam senectae, 
sit modus lasso maris et viarum 
militiaeque. 

Vnde si Parcae prohibent iniqujie 
dulce pellitis ovibus Galaesi 
flumen et regnata petam Laconi 
rura Phalantho. 

lUe terrarum mihi praeter omnis 
angulus ridet, ubi non Hymetto 
mella decedunt viridique certat 
baca Venafro ; 



5. Argeo {=*Apy€Ltfi): in prose, 
Argivo. — positum : for conditum ; 
cf. Verg. A, IV. 212 urbem posuit. 
— colono, settler^ as in Verg. A. 
1. 12 Tyrii tenuere coloni. For the 
story see I. 7. 13 n ; for the case, 
Intr. 55. 

6. senectae : better taken as 
datiye ; see note on lasso, 7. 

7. modus: equivalent to ^;f/>; 
cf. Tac. Ann. II. 14. 6 si taedio via- 
rum ac maris finem cupiant, hac acie 
parari (an imitation apparently of 
this passage). — lasso, when I am 
weary (future); agreeing in case 
with mihi (seni), implied in meae 
senectae, 6. — maris et viarum : 
i>. travelling by sea and land. For 
the case see Intr. 66 e. 

9. unde si, and if from there ; 
cf. I. 12. 7. — prohibent, exclude ; 
cf. I. 27. 4. — iniquae, unkind; 
cf. 4. 16, I. 2. 47 n. 

10. pellitis, shin-cladf covered 
with skins to protect the fine wool; 
cf. Varro jR. H. II. 2. 18 ovibus 
pellitis, quae propter lanae boni- 
tatem, ut sunt Tarentinae et 
Atticae, pellibus integuntur. — Ga- 
laesi : a few miles from Taren- 



tum ; cf. Verg. G. IV. 125 suh 
Oebaliae {i.e. Tarentinae) memini 
me turribus arcis \ qua niger umec- 
tat flaventia culta Galaesus, etc. 
For the case see Intr. 65. 

11. regnata : Intr. 51 ^. 

12. Phalantho : the leader of a 
body of Lacedaemonian immigrants 
who colonized Tarentum after the 
second Messenian war, about 700 
B.C. For the case see Intr. 55. 

1 3. omnis : sc. {alios) angulos ter- 
rarum. See note on quisquis, i. 25. 

14. angulus, comer ; of a re- 
tired spot, out of the current ; cf. 
angulus isie (the poet's farm), Ep. 
I. 14. 23 ; angulus hie mundi, 
Prop. V. 9. 65. — ridet, has a 
charm. For the prosody see Intr. 
179. — Hymetto : for Hymettio 
(melli)', cf. Venafro, 16, A ulon, 18, 
Formiani colles, I. 20. n. Hymet- 
tus is a mountain near Athens, 
famous for its honey. . 

15. di^c^^'^xiX., yield precedence. 
The mella and baca are personi- 
fied, like Aulon in the next strqphe. 
— viridi : as being filled with olive 
groves. 

16. baca : i.e. the olive, with 



120 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



ver ubi longum tepidasque praebet 
luppiter brumas et amicus Aulon 
fertili Baccho minimum Falernis 
invidet uvis. 

lUe te mecum locus et beatae 
postulant arces, ibi tu calentem 
debita sparges lacrima favillam 
vatis amici. 



reference, however, to the quality 
of the oil it yields ; cf. 5". II. 4. 69 
pressa Venafranae quod baca re- 
misit olivae, — Venafro : an old 
Samnite town on the eastern slope 
of the hills between the lower 
Liris and the upper Voltumus, 
now Venafro ; famous for the ex- 
cellence of its olive oil ; cf. S, II. 
8. 45 ; Varro R, R, I. 2. 6 quod 
vinum {confer am) Falerno^ quod 
oleum Venafro ? For the case see 
Intr. 57. 

18. amicus, favored of; cf. di- 
lecius in the quotation from Statius 
below, and see I. 26. i n. — Aulon : 
*loc}ts contra Tarentinam regio- 
nem * (Porphyrio) ; whether a 
mountain (as Aero says) or not is 
uncertain. Cf. Mart. XIII. 125 
nodi/is et lanis et felix vitibus 
Aulon I det pretiosa tibi vellera, 
vina mihi. 

19. fertili: the quality conferred 
by the god is attributed to him ; 
CI. modici Liberty I. 18. 7, and 
Intr. 125^ -^Falernis uvis : cf. I. 
20. 10 D, and Varro 's words* 17 n, 

20. invidet : see note on decer 
duni 15. This passage has be^en 
imitated by Statius Silv. II. 2. 4 
qua Bromio dilectus ager collesque 
per altos \ uritur et prelis non in- 
vide^ uva Falernis, 

21. et beatae arces, those fa- 
vored heights ; nearer definition of 
locus. For arces cf. 1. 2. 3. 



22. postulant, call for ; a sort 
of personification, as in our ex- 
pression ' an inviting place.' — ibi 
tu, etc.: i>. there we will live 
till death shall part us, taking 
me away, — a deliqate expression 
of the sinceritv of his affection : 
he wishes to be spared the pain 
of losing his friend. — calentem 
favillam : i.e. my ashiss, when you 
gather them warm from the pyre 
and put them in the urn. 

23. debita : sc, to me as your 
friend. 

VII. The poet's greeting to his 
old friend and comrade in arms, 
Pompeius Varus, on his return to 
Rome after long years of absence. 
Of Pompeius nothing is known 
beyond what is indicated in the 
ode itself, — that he had made the 
campaign of Philippi with Horace, 
and afterwards persisted in the 
struggle against the triiimvirs, 
serving presumably under Sex. 
Pompeius (Intr. 12). The men- 
tion of ciboria (v& 22 n) has been 
conjectured to be an allusion to 
his having served also under 
Antony, but that point as well as 
the time of his return must remain 
undetermined, except that the 
latter, on the general evidence of 
the date of the odes, must be 
placed after the end of the war of 
Actium.. — Metre, 176. 



VI. I7-VII. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



121 



VII. 

O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum 
deducte Bruto militiae duce, 
quis te redonavit Quiritem 
dis patriis Italoque caelo, 

Pompei, m^rum prime sodalium, 
cum quo morantem saepe diem mero 
fregi coronatus nitentis 
malobathro Syrio capiUos ? 



1. saepe : Horace's service un- 
der Brutus extended through the 
greater part of the two years 43 
and 42, B.C. — tempus ultimum, 
extreme peril; lit. *the last ex- 
tremity,' like extremae res (e^. 
Caes. B, G. II. 25. 5); cf. Cat. 64. 
150 poHus quam tifn supremo in 
tempore deessem, 

2. deducte . . • duce: regarded 
by some as a reflection on Brutus ; 
but the play on words is probably 
not intentional; d. fregi . . .fractat 
vss. 7, II; adduxere . . . ducere^ 
IV. 12. 13 J^. 

3. quis : not necessarily imply- 
ing that Pompeius owed his resto- 
ration to the favor or mediation of 
any particular person. The ques- 
tion refers not to permission to 
cpme home, which Pompeius had 
under the general amnesty after 
Actium, but to the circumstances 
which brought him or enabled him 
to come. The question is an ex- 
pression of surprise, and quis may 
have for answer a god as well as a 
man ; cf. vss. 13 and 17. — redo- 
navit ; stronger than reddidit. 
The word is found only in Horace. 
— Quiritem, a citizen^ in double 
contrast with his former condi- 
tion ; no longer a soldier nor an 
outlaw and exile. The singular 



is archaic and is used only by the 
poets. 

4. dis patriis : i>. to the home 
of your fathers; cf. III. 27. 49 
liqui patrios penatis. — Italo : for 
the prosody see Intr. 178. 

5. Pompei : dissyllabic ; Intr. 
180. — prime, first; probably in 
the sense of earliest, 

7. fregi : with reference to 
morantem, which indicate^ a per- 
sistent monotony that yields to 
the treatment named ; the monot- 
onous day is ' broken ' as we speak 
of 'breaking up' a cold or 'kill- 
ing' time. The idea is not of 
' making shorter,' but of destroy- 
ing ; cf. Cic. de Or, I. 265 nunc et 
Scaevola paulum requiescet dum se 
color frangat ; Verg. A, IV. 569 
rumpe morcu; Lucan, I. 204 mo- 
rcis solvit belli. — coronatus : see 

8. malobathro : a Greek word 
corrupted from the Indian name, 
tamalapcUtram ( = ' leaf of the 
tamala ' ), — of the fragrant leaf of 
the laurus cassia ; here used for 
the oil of cassia. — Syrio : cf . 
Syra merce, I. 31. 12 n. — capillos: 
Intr. 42. With the whole descrip- 
tion cf. Tib. III. 6. 63 iam dudum 
Syrio made/actus tempora nardo \ 
dfbueram sertis implicuisse (omis^ 



122 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



10 



'5 



Tecum Philippos et celerem fugam 
sensi, relicta non bene parmula, 
cum fracta virtus et minaces 
turpe solum tetigere mento. 

Sed me per hostis Mercurius celer 
denso paventem sustulit acre ; 
te rursus in bellum resorbens 
unda fretis tulit aestuosis. 



9. Philippos, etc.: i.e. the 
battle and the flight ; not a case 
of hendiadys. 

10. sensi, / experienced. — re- 
licta parmula : whether Horace 
is here recalling a literal fact or 
merely employs the familiar Greek 
phrase in a figurative sense, it is 
difficult to say; bat the latter is 
much more probable. The Greek 
ideal of 'returning with one's 
shield or on it * was foreign to the 
more business-like Roman, and 
belonged to war on a smaller scale, 
with simpler organization, and 
where personal prowess counted 
for more. It is true that as trib- 
une Horace would have immediate 
charge of his men in battle, and 
might have occasion to use a shield 
(cf. Ennius Ann. 450 sqq. M), but 
it was no part of his duty to ex- 
pose himself to personal danger. 
That, however, would not prevent 
him from using the stock phrase, 
— which is at least as near the 
reality as vss. 13^^., — especially 
as he found in each of his great 
models in Greek lyric, Archilochus, 
{Fr. 6), Alcaeus (Herod. V. 95), 
and apparently Anacreon {Fr. 28), 
a similar confession of the loss of 
his shield in battle. — non bene : 
not a confession of cowardice, as 
some too seriously take it ; the 
phrase is entirely colorless and 
not only says nothing that is not 



already implied in relicta parmula, 
but rather breaks the force of that 
confession, as a man disarms criti- 
cism by anticipating it with a frank 
avowal that he does not defend 
his conduct. The diminutive 
parmula is in keeping with this 
deprecatory tone. 

11. fracta (sc. est) virtus, etc.: 
i.e. when brave men went down in 
the crash, and braggarts (minaces) 
were humbled to the dust. 

12. turpe: Intr. 125. — solum 
tetigere mento : i>. in prostrat- 
ing themselves before the victors ; 
cf. Caesar's description of his pris- 
oners at Pharsalus, B. C. III. 98. 2 
passis paimis praiecH ad terram 
flentes ah eo salutetn petiverunt. 

13. sed me, etc., but (at this 
point we were separated ; ) /, etc. — 
Mercurius: Horace in effect calls 
his safe escape to Italy, through 
what were doubtless very reaj 
dangers (cf. paventem), 'providen- 
tial'; cf. III. 4. 26, 28; Intr. 13. 
Mercury as dcd/rropof conducted him 
as he did Priam unseen through 
the Greek camp (I. 10. 13 sqq). 
See, however, 17. 29 n. 

14. denso aere : i^pc xoXX^, as 
Aphrodite rescued Paris, //. III. 
381. The device occurs frequent- 
ly in Homer, and was borrowed 
by the Latin poets, as Verg. A. I. 
411, etc. 

16. unda : the surging sea of 



VII. 9-25] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



123 



20 



25 



Ergo obligatam redde lovi dapem, 
longaque fessum militia latus 
depone sub lauru mea, nee 
parce cadis tibi destinatis. 

Oblivioso levia Massico 
ciboria exple, funde capacibus 
unguenta de conchis. Quis udo 
deproperare apio coronas 

curatve myrto ? Quern Venus arbitrum 



public life (cf. mersar dvilibus 
undisy Ep, I. i. 16). When Pom* 
peius seemed to be so near the 
shore (of peaceful private life) that 
like Horace he would actually gain 
a footing, the receding wave drew 
him back (resorbens) and carried 
him once more out to sea. — 
ifretis : instrumental ablative. 

17. ergo : i>. since in spite of 
all this you are safely home at 
last ; referring back to vs. 3. — 
obligatam (sc. voHs ; cf. 8. 5), 
pledged; cf. debito^ I. 36. 2 n. — 
lovi : as the universal source ot 
help and blessing {luppiter Opitu- 
lusy Conservator^ Custos)^ and par- 
ticularly as protector of stran- 
gers ; cf . I. 28. 28 n. — dapem : 
here in its proper sense of a sacri- 
ficial feast ; see, further, note on 
sanguine^ I. 36. 2. 

18. latus : often used, as here, 
in a wider sense, for the whole 
body or person, or for any part of 
it, in reference to external contact 
or influence ; cf. III. 10. 20; 27. 
26; S, I. 3. 59 nulU maio lotus 
obdit apertum ; II. 6. 34 aliena 
negotia centum circa saliunt latus ; 
Mart. VI. 76. I sacri lateris custos 
(i>. the emperor's body-guard). 

19. lauru: a favorite shade-tree 
on account of its thick foliage ; cf. 
1 5. 9 n. — nee parce : Intr. 88, 89 n. 



20. cadis : Intr. 128. — tibi 
destinatis : i>. as the event has 
proved ; the wine was set apart 
for keeping high holiday (cf. Epod. 
9. i) and Pompeius' unexpected 
return has brought the fitting oc- 
casion. 

21. oblivioso : cf. Tib. II. i. 
46 securo mero ; Intr. 125. — 
Massico: see I. i. 19 n. 

22. ciboria : cups of polished 
metal (levia) shaped, according to 
Porphvrio, like the leaves of the 
Egyptian bean after which they 
were named. — ^xpl^f Jill high. The 
chiastic asyndeton (exple, funde) 
marks the poet's eagerness, as he 
hastens forward, in imagination, 
to the enjoyment of the feast. 

23. conchis : shell-shaped ves- 
sels for ointment. — quis: sc. puer; 
cf.1i. 18, I. 38. 1. 

24. deproperare : a compressed 
expression for propere conficere or 
the like ; cf. III. 24. 62. For the 
prefix de- see i. 35 n, I. 9. 11 n. 
For the infinitive see Intr. 94 b. — 
apio : cf. I. 36. 16. 

25. curat, will see to. ve : 

Intr. 119^. — Venus : i.e. the 
iactus Veneris^ the highest throw 
of the talit in which the num- 
bers turned up were all different. 
— ^'arbitrum l>ibendi : see I. 4. 
18 n. 



124 



PTORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



dicet bibendi ? Non ego sanius 
bacchabor Edonis ; recepto 
dulce mihi furere est amico. 



VIII. 

Vila si iuris tibi peierati 
poena, Barine, nocuisset umquam, 
dente si nigro fieres vel uno 
turpior ungui, 

crederem ; sed tu simul obligasti 
perfidum votis caput, enitescis 
pulchrior multo, iuvenumque prodis 
publica cura. 



27. Edonis : a Thracian tribe ; 
cf. 1. 27. 2 n. — Tecepto,/ound again, 

VIII. Barine» * the Maid of Ba- 
rium/ is a heartless coquette. The 
poet declines her professions of 
devotion with ironical compli- 
ments on the impunity and success 
with which she plays her perfidious 
game. — Metre, 174. 

1. ulla . . . umquam, uno . . . 
ungui : the alliteration (Intr. 131) 
aids the emphasis. — iuris peie- 
rati : formed from peierare after 
the analogy of itu iurandum from 
iurarcy the perfect being naturally 
used, especially with poena, to ex- 
press the accomplished fact which 
the punishment should follow. 
The phrase is not found elsewhere. 

2. poena nocuisset : strictly 
€\^e.x poena fuisset or iuspeieratum 
nocuisset would have expressed the 
idea sufficiently. The more preg- 
nant expression marks the poet's 
earnestness, which takes two points 
for the emphasis to rest on. 

3. dente, ungui: abl. of measure 



of difference. The predicate fieres 
turpior is divided (Intr. 120), and 
with it the two adjectives uno 
nigro, both of which belong with 
each substantive (Intr. 121). — si 
fieres : />. if ever. 

5. simul : see 1. 4. 17 n. — obli- 
gasti : cf. 7. 17 n. There the 
victim (implied in dapem) was 
pledged, to be forfeited in case 
the prayer for a safe return was 
granted ; here the caput is put in 
pawn, to be offered up to the ven- 
geance of the gods if Barine should 
break her oath. 

6. perfidum : Intr. 124. The 
perjury was committed in the very 
act of swearing. — votis, impre- 
cationSf prayers to the gods to 
shower curses on her head should 
she prove false ; cf. Hannibal's 
oath, Liv. XXI. 45. 8. 

7. prodis : sc, into the streets. 

8. cura : cf. I. 14. 18 n. 

9. expedit, it pays (with empha- 
sis). — opertos, buried. 

10. fallere : by swearing falsely 
by them ; cf. Prop. II. 20. 1 5 ossa 



f II. 26-VIII. 24J 



HORATI CARMINA. 



125 



10 



IS 



20 



Expedit matris cineres opertos 
fallere et toto tacituma noctis 
sig^a cum caelo gelidaque divos 
morte carentis. 

Ridet hoc, inquam, Venus ipsa, rident 
simplices Nymphae ferus et Cupido, 
semper ardentis acuens sagittas 
cote cruenta. 

Adde quod pubes tibi crescit omnis, 
servitus crescit nova, nee priores 
impiae tectum dominae relinquunt, 
saepe minati. 

Te suis matres metuunt iuvencis, 
te senes parci miseraeque nuper 
virgines iluptae, tua ne retardet 
aura maritos. 



tibi iuroper matris et ossa parentis; 
I si f alio cinis heu sitmihi uterque 
gravis. For the assonance of this 
verse and the next see Intr. 131. 

13. ridet . . . rident: Intr. 116^. 
— Venbs ipsa : who has lovers 
especially under her protection. 

14. Nymphae: to whose nature 
(simplices) such duplicity is ut- 
terly foreign. They are in the 
retinue of Venus here as in I. 4. 6, 
30. 6. — Cupido : with his arrow 
fresh from the bleeding hearts. 
All the powers of love feel Barine's 
fascination, and can only smile 
when she defies their authority. 

15. ardentis, ^rm/f^. The at- 
tribute properly belongs to Cupid 
(Intr. 124). 

16. cruenta : from the arrow- 
tip. Observe how, by a skilful 
disposition of epithets (ferus, cru- 
enta, ardentis), the picture (cf. 1. 2. 

7 n) is made more full and graphic. 
H 



17. adde quod, etc. : further 
reason for expedit 9. 

18. servitus crescit nova : ex- 
plaining the somewhat vague tibi 
crescit. servitus nova is used 
concretely : a new set of slaves. 

19. impiae : recalling the main 
theme, her ready perjury, and indi- 
cating the reason of minati. 

21. te . . . te . . . tua : in mock 
eulogy; cf. 1. 10. 9 n. — iuvencis : 
i.e. their sons ; cf. 5. 6. 

22. parci : such a person would 
be impotens, procax, 'magnifica^ 
sumptuosa^ nobilis (Ter. Heaut, 227) 
at the expense of her lovers. 

23. virgines: used by the poets, 
like puellaj of young wives. 

24. aura : see I. 5. 11 n. The 
metaphor is here used more con- 
sciously, — ' the breeze that draws 
to you*; cf. Cic. Sest, loi quern 
neque honoris aura potuit umquam 
de suo cursu demovere. 



128 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. ir. 



Medumque flumen gentibus additum 
victis minores volvere vertices, 
intraque praescriptum Gelonos 
exiguis equitare campis. 



X. 

Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum 
semper urgendo neque, dum procellas 
cautus horrescis, nimium premendo 
lit us iniquum. 



ice. — Niphaten : a mountain in 
the interior of Armenia, mentioned 
also by Vergil, G. III. 30. Later 
poets supposed it to be a river 
(Luc. in. 245, Sil. XIII. 765, Juv. 
6. 409, etc.). 

21. Medum flumen : the Eu- 
phrates ; cf. Scythicum amnem (the 
Tanais), III. 4. 36 ; amnis Tusci 
(the Tiber) S. II. 2. 32. For the 
form of the adjective see Intr. 65. 

22. minores : indicating hum- 
bled pride; cf. Verg. A, VIII. 726 
Euphrates that iam mollior undis, 
— volvere : for the ace. with 
inf. joined with the simple ace. 
of the object cf. Prop. IV. 2. 7 et 
cecini Curios fratres et Horatia 
pila I . . . Hannibalemque lares 
Romana sede fugantes, \ anseris 
et tutum voce fuisse lovem, 

23. praescriptum : sc. by con- 
ditions of peace imposed upon 
them. — Gelonos : a Scythian 
tribe ; here used for the Scythians 
in general ; cf. Sithoniisy I. 18. 9 n. 

24. equitare : cf. I. 2. 51 n. — 
campis : Intr. 69. 

X. Licinius Murena, to whom 
this ode is addressed, was prob- 
ably the son of Cicero's client of 
that name, but was adopted by 



Terentius Varro, the father of Pro- 
culeius and Terentia (see 2. 5 n). 
He reduced the Salassi in 25 B.t:., 
and established in their territory 
the colony now called Aosta. In 
23 he was the colleague of Augus- 
tus in the consulship, an evidence 
of high esteem on the part of the 
emperor ; but in the same year he 
was convicted of complicity in the 
conspiracy of Fannius Caepio and 
executed. The present ode is one 
of the most finished of Horace's 
poems, and consists, like much of 
his best work, of a chain of pithy 
epigrammatic sententiae on the con- 
duct of life, presenting in various 
forms and under various figures 
his favorite doctrine of the golden 
mean, with its corollary, it.rfik¥ 
Ayavy or, as he expresses it in Ep, 
I. 6, nil admirariy — the aequam 
memento servare mentem of Ode 3. 

— Metre, 174. 

I. rectius : not used in a moral 
sense, but with reference to the 
practical ordering of one's life. 

— altum urgendo, by pressing out 
to sea. The 'voyage of life' is a 
favorite figure with Horace; cf. 
vs. 23 sq.y 1. 34. 3 sq.y III. 29. 57 sqq., 
Ep. II. 2. 200 sqq.y etc. 

3. premendo, hugging. 



IX. 2I-X. 17-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



129 



10 



15 



Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
sordibus tecti, caret invidenda 
sobrius aula. 

Saepius ventis agitatur ingens 
pinus et celsae graviore casu 
decidunt turres feriuntque summos 
fulgura mentis. 

Sperat infestis, metuit secundis 
alteram sortem bene praeparatum 
pectus, Informis hiemes reducit 
luppiter, idem 

submovet ; non, si male nunc, et olim 



4. iniquum, unfriendly^ on ac 
count of its rocks and shoals. 

5. auream : see I. 5. 9 n. — 
mediocritatem : a translation of 
1^ fji£<r&rrii, Cf. Cic. de Off, I. 89 
mediocritatem illam quae est inter 
nimium etparum. 

6. diligit, cherishes, — tutus ca- 
ret, is secure from, — obsoleti, 
etc.: i,e, not merely poverty, but 
the slovenly poverty of the slug- 
gard. The man who aims at me' 
diocritas is sure to rise above this 
low state, because his aim is not 
too high to attain, nor will he be 
in danger of falling down to it, 
because he does not climb so high 
as to risk a fall. On the other 
hand, his temperateness (sobrius) 
will save him from ever becoming 
the mark of envy as the lord of a 
palace. 

7. caret : Intr. 116^. 

9~i2. The suggestion in invi- 
denda is developed in three strik- 
ing illustrations of the danger of 
rising too high. For the position of 
the emphatic words see Intr. 116^. 



13. sperat, etc.: the wise man 
will observe the same moderation 
in dealing with the conditions of 
his life which are beyond his con- 
trol, refraining from both extremes 
of despair in adversity and over- 
confidence in prosperity. — infestis 
(for the more commonplace ad- 
versis)f secundis : neut. pi., with 
abstract force ; cf. I. 34. 12 n. 
They are best taken as dative ; 
cf. Sal. Cat. 40. 2 requirere coepit 
quern exitum tantis malis spera- 
rent ; ib, 2 {jllos videt) miseriis 
remedium mortem exspectare, 

14. alteram, a reversal of; lit. 
'the other' (not * another,' aliam). 

15. informis: Intr. 125; cf. 
Verg. G, III. 354 sed iacet aggeri- 
bus niveis informis et alto \ terra 
gelu late. — reducit, brings round. 
Compoimds of re- are frequently 
used in this sense of the move- 
ment o( the heavenly bodies and 
the seasons ; cf. III. 8. 9, IV. 2. 58. 

17. non si, etc.: the position of 
non shows that it belongs to the 
whole sentence, and denies, not 



130 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



sic erit ; quondam cithara tacentem 
suscitat musam neque semper arcum 
tendit Apollo. 

Rebus angustis animosus atque 
fortis appare ; sapienter idem 
contrahes vento nimium secundo 
turgida vela. 



XI. 

Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes, 
Hirpine Quincti, cogitet Hadria 
divisus obiecto, remittas 

quaerere nee trepides in usum 



the apodosis, — which may per- 
haps prove to be true, — but the 
validity of the inference ; equiva- 
lent to * it doesn't follow that, if, 
etc' — male (sc. «/), things go ill, 

— et, also. — olim, by and by ; 
see IV. 4. 5 n. 

18. quondam : usually restrict- 
ed to the past or (rarely) to the 
future ; here general, sometimes, — 
tacentem : music is silent in times 
of pestilence, which Apollo sends 
with his arrows ; cf. //. I. 44 sqq. 
The same god who brings disease 
and suffering brings songs and 
gladness. 

22. sapienter, if you are wise, 

— idem, yet you. 

23. contrahes, etc.: closing with 
the metaphor with which he began. 

— nimium : with secundo. 

X I. Of Quinctius Hirpinus noth- 
ing is definitely known, not even 
whether he is the * optimqs Quinc- 
tius' to whom Ep. I. 16 was 
written. In the present verses the 
poet represents himself as talking 
to his friend on one of his favorite 



themes, the folly of taking too 
much thought for the morrow. 
We may suppose the two to be 
walking together in the country 
or in a park, with the streets not 
far away. The allusions in the 
first strophe assign the ode to the 
years 27-25 B.C. — Metre, 176. 

1. Cantaber : see 6. 2 n. — 
Scythes : the allusion is probably 
to some disturbance that occa- 
sioned the Scythian embassy to 
Augustus at Tarraco ; see Ode 9, 
intr. note (end). 

2. Hirpine Quincti : see 2. 3 n. 
— Hadria divisus : a ground for 
security, added only in the case of 
the Scythians, because there was 
nothing to be feared from the 
Cantabrians but stubborn resist- 
ance. On the other hand, a suc- 
cessful incursion of a barbarian 
horde into Moesia or Pannonia 
would expose Italy itself to the 
danger of invasion. 

3. obiecto, the barrier of, — re- 
mittas quaerere : Intr. 87, 94/ 

4. nee : Intr. 89 N. — trepides, 
fret yourself ; cf. III. 29. 32. — in, 



X. i8-xi. 1 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



131 



lO 



15 



poscentis aevi pauca. Fugit retro 
levis iuventas et decor, arida 
pellente lascivos amores 
canitie facilemque somnum. 

Non semper idem floribus est honor 
vemis, neque uno luna rubens nitet 
voltu. Quid aeternis minorem 
consiliis animum fatigas ? 

Cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac 
pinu iacentes sic temere et rosa 
canos odorati capillos, 

dum licet, Assyriaque nardo 



('in seference to '), ab<mt. — usum 
aevi, the use of a lifey i.e. the way 
to live it. For the thought cf. I. 
9. 13 sqq.y II. I sqq. 

5. pauca: Intr. 116^. — fugit, 
etc.: reason for the advice just 
given ; cf. I. II. 7. 

6. levis, smootk-cheekedy as in 
IV. 6. 28 (of Apollo). 

8. facilem: i,e, that comes read- 
ily ; cf. III. 21.4 and III. i. 21 n. 

9. non semper, etc: reminders 
that everything is transitory are 
all about us ; cf. IV. 7. 7 sqq. — 
semper idem : ue. changeless, 
imperishable ; it fades away. — 
honor, beauty. 

10. neque uno, etc.: i.e. it 
waxes or wanes and changes its 
hue (rubens). 

11. aeternis: i.e. reaching out 
into the unlimited future : cf. 
spTtm longamy I. 4. 15, 11. 7. — 
minorem, which is unequal to 
them, unable to cope with them. 

12. consiliis : with both mino- 
rem and fatigas ; Intr. 76. 

13. alta, hac : to be taken 
together with each substantive ; 
Intr. 121. — platano : the oriental 



plane tree (sycamore), with leayes 
more jagged and of a darker 
green, but otherwise closely re- 
sembling our occidental species 
(buttonwood). Its stately form 
and heavy foliage made it a favor- 
ite shade tree ; cf. 1 5. 4. 

14. sic temere, yWj/ as we are^ 
offhand ; the Homeric /xd^ ovna 
{e.g. II. II. 120); cf. Verg. A, IX. 
329 tris iuxtafamulos temere inter 
tela iacentis. temere has its proper 
meaning of sine consilio, without 
premeditation. — rosa, nardo : see 
3. 13 n. For the singular rosa 
see Intr. 127. 

1 5. canos : Horace at least be- 
gan to grow gray early (Intr. 29). 
The word adds significance to dum 
licet. — odorati : i.e. * wreathed 
with fragrant,' etc. — capillos : 
Intr. 42. 

16. dum licet: cf. 3. 15 sq.^- 
Assyria : really Arabian or Indian, 
but imported from Syria, with 
which Assyria is often confused 
by the poets ; cf. 7. 8, I. 31. 12 n ; 
Tib. I. 3. 7 Assyrios adores, — 
nardo : here fem.; elsewhere in 
Horace {Epod. 5. 59, 13. 9) neuter. 



132 



HORATI CARI^RNA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



potamus uncti ? Dissipat Euhius 
curas edacis. Quis puer ocius 
restinguet ardentis Falerni 
pocula praetereunte lympha ? 

Quis devium scortum eliciet domo 
Lyden ? Ebuma die age cum lyra 
maturet, in comptum Lacaenae 
more comam religata nodum. 



XII. 

Nolis longa ferae bella Numantiae 

nee durum Hannibalem nee Sieulum mare 



17. potamus : the present in a 
hortatory question, common in 
colloquial language, especially with 
guin (as Liv. I. 57. 7 qnin con- 
scendimus equos)^ and frequent in 
comedy. See Intr. 78. — Euhius : 
see I. 18. 9 n. 

18. edacis : c£. mordctces sollici- 
tudineSf I. 18. 4. — quis puer : cf. 
7. 23. — ocius, quickly. 

19. restinguet : i.e. dilute its 
strength. The word is chosen 
with reference to ardentis {JUry)^ 
for which cf.Juv. 10. 27 lato Seti- 
num ardebit in auro. — Falerni : 
cf. I. 27. 9 n. 

21. devium : i.e. living apart, 
not consorting with the common 
herd ; cf. I. 17. 6, III. 25. 12. 

22. eburna : i.e, decorated with 
ivory, as in .S*. II. 6. 103 eburnos 
lectos. — age: with die, as III. 
4. I, S. II. 7. 92. 

23. maturet : sc. venire ; cf . de- 
properarey 7. 24 n. — in com- 
ptum nodum : cf. Ov. M. VIII. 
319 crinis erat simplex ^ nodum 
collectus in unum. The toilet of 
the music girl was to be neat but 
pimple, in keeping with the whole 



spirit of the occasion, which w^ 
a protest against elaborate prepa- 
ration for enjoyment ; and she was 
not to keep them waiting. — La- 
caenae more : cf. Prop. IV. 14. 28 
(of the Spartan women) est neque 
odoratae cura molesta comae, 
24. comam religata : Intr. 41. 

XII. In this ode, as in I. 6, 
Horace declines to undertake epic 
themes with his imbellis lyra^ and 
tells Maecenas that his own prose 
will serve better to record the 
achievements of Augustus. He 
then turns to a fit subject for his 
lyre, the beauty and accomplish- 
ments of Licymnia, who is un- 
doubtedly Terentia, Maecenas* 
wife (Intr. 21). From the last 
strophes it would appear that the 
ode was written during their honey- 
moon. In the assumed name 
Horace has followed the usual 
practice of the Latin poets, select- 
ing a Greek name metrically equiv- 
alent (w _ w s/) to Terentia, as Catul- 
lus* Lesbia (for Clodia), TibuUus' 
Delia (for Plania), etc. (Apuleius, 
ApoL 10). — M^etre, 172. 



XI. I7-XII. lo.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



133 



10 



Poeno purpureum sanguine moUibus 
aptari citharae modis, 

nee saevos Lapithas et nimium mero 
Hylaeum domitosque Herculea manu 
Telluris iuvenes, unde periculum 
fulgens contremuit domus 

Saturni veteris ; tuque pedestribus 
dices historiis proelia Caesaris, 



1. nolis (standing emphatically 
at the head of the sentence), you 
surely would not have^ etc. — ^longa : 
the siege of Numantia lasted from 
141 to 133 B.C. — ferae: the Nu- 
mahtines after their long and stub- 
bom resistance finally set fire to 
their city, and in large numbers 
put themselves to death rather 
than surrender. 

2. nee : carrying on the nega- 
tive in nolis; see Madv. 458 r, 
Obs. 2. — Siculum mare : the 
scene of the most important battles 
of the first Punic war. 

3. moUibus, etc.: i.e, to have 
such themes presented in a form 
so unsuitable and inadequate ; cf. 
I. 6. 9 sqq, 

5. nee saevos, etc.: the same 
objection applies to mythological 
subjects. These are grouped to- 
gether by et and -que, subordinate 
to nee; cf. ety 9. 8, and note on 
9. 1. — Lapithas : see 1. 18.8 n. — 
nimium, elated^ insolent; cf. Tac. 
Hist, IV. 23 rebus secundis nimii. 

6. Hylaeum : one of the Cen- 
taurs ; cf. Verg. G, II. 457 etmagno 
Hylaeum Lapithis crtitere minan- 
tern, — domitosque, etc.: in their 
battle with the Giants (Telluris 
iuvenes, 7iry€i«?j) the gods were 
assisted by Hercules. Gaea had 
made her sons proof against the 
weapons of the gods, so that they 
could be conquered only with 



mortal aid ; see Pre^er-Robert, 
Gr, Myth, I. p. 73. — Herculea 
manu : cf. I. 3. 36. 

7. unde (for a quihus ; d. I. 
12. 17 n) periculum : cf. aliunde 

fata^ 13' 16; metu insidiarutn a meis^ 
Cic. Rep, VI. 14 ; Madv. 298 b, 2, 
Usually a participle, ortum, or the 
like, would be inserted. 

8. fulgens ^omus : cf. III. 
3. 33 lucidae sedes (sc. deorum). — 
contremuit : Intr. 51 a, 

9. Saturni : i.e. of the gods, 
who were Saturn's descendants. — 
tuque : a third subject, which was 
more than once suggested to him 
(see iS. II. I. 10 sqq.)j Horace puts 
away with a compliment to Mae- 
cenas. Hence the change to an 
affirmative conjunction, and the 
emphasis on tu. — pedestribus, 
prose. The word, so far as ap- 
pears, was first used by Horace in 
this sense {S. II. 6. 17 musa pe- 
destri) in imitation of the Greek 
rre^bi X670J. With a similar figure 
he calls his hexameters sermones 
repentis per humum in contrast 
with the lofty style in which the 
exploits of Augustus should be 
sung {Ep, II. 1 . 250 sq^. Whether 
Maecenas actually wrote or pro- 
posed to write such a work as is 
here suggested we do not know. 
See Plin. N, H, VII. 148. 

10. dices : cf. I. 6. 5 n. For 
the force of (he f vtt^r^ s$p Intr. 7^. 



134 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



Maecenas, melius ductaque per vias 
regum coUa minacium. 

Me dulcis dominae Musa Licymniae 
cantus, me voluit dicere lucidum 
15 fulgentis oculos, et bene mutuis 
fidum pectus amoribus ; 

quam nee ferre pedem dedecuit choris 
nee certare ioco nee dare bracchia 
ludentem nitidis virginibus sacro 
20 Dianae Celebris die. 

Num tu quae tenuit dives Achaemenes 



11. per vias: sc, of Rome, in 
the triumphal procession. 

1 2. reguxn coUa : instead of 
regeSf because they were led by the 
neck ; cf. Prop. II. i. 33 {canerem) 
regum auroHs circumdata colla 
catenis (also referring to the tri- 
umphs of Augustus). — minacium: 
cf. 7. 1 1 n, IV. 3. 8. The epithet 
sets off by contrast their present 
humbled state; cf. Ep, II. i. 191 
max trahitur tnanibus regum 
for tuna retortis. 

13. dulcis: accusative. — domi- 
nae, my lady. Married ladies were 
regularly addressed by this title. 

14. lucidum fulgentis: Intr. 48. 

1 5. bene fidum : like < bien fi- 
dMe'; cf. bene sanOy S. I. 3. 61, 
bene firmumy Enn. Ann, I. 105 M; 
and the opposite, male fida^ Verg. 
A, II. 23. Cf. I. 9. 24 n. 

17. quam nee dedecuit, who 
could with perfect grace^ i.e, keep- 
ing within the bounds of what was 
becoming and womanly. — ferre, 
to move ; cf. Verg. G. I. 11 ferte 
simul Faunique pedem Dryadesque 
puellae. — dedecuit : cf. I. 38. 7. 
The perfect has its proper force, 
referring to the time when Mae- 



cenas became fascinated with her 
charms. — choris : dances at home 
or in private companies, which at 
this time were permissible for 
women within certain limits ; cf. 
III. 6. 21. 

18. certare ioco : i.e. in conver- 
sation ; cf. Sail. Cat. 25. 5 (of Sem- 
pronia) posse versus facere^ iocum 
moverCi sermone uti vel modesto 
vel molli vel procaci, — dare brac- 
chia : graceful movements of the 
arms were carefully studied in 
training for the dance. 

19. ludentem : i.e. dancing, as 
in Verg. E. 6. 27 tum vero in nu- 
merum Faunosque ferasque videres 
I ludere. — nitidis, spruce ^ in hol- 
iday attire. — virginibus : dative 
with dare. 

20. Dianae Celebris die : for 
die quo Diana Celebris est, i,e, when 
her temple is thronged (August 13) ; 
cf . Tib. IV. 4. 23 Phoebefave, . . . iam 
celeber, iam laettts eris. Terentia 
as virgo ingenua could take part 
in this public religious dance. 

21. Achaemenes : mythical 
founder of the Persian dynasty 
(Herod. I. 125, VII. 11); cf. III. 
9.4. 



XXI. II-XIII. I.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



135 



aut pinguis Phrygiae Mygdonias opes 
permutare velis crine Licymniae, 
plenas aut Arabum domos, 

25 cum flagrantia detorquet ad oscula 
cervicem, aut facili saevitia negat 
quae poscente magis gaudeat eripi, 
interdum rapere occupet ? 



XIII. 
lUe et nefasto te posuit die, 



22. Mygdonias : i.e^ of Midas, 
the mythical Phrygian king, whose 
touch turned all things to gold. 

• Mygdonia was a district of Mace- 
donia, which was associated with 
the legends of Midas and the 
Bryges, who were supposed to 
have migrated from that region 
into Asia Minor (Herod. VIII. 
138, VII. 73). Another legend, 
however, told of a Phrygian king 
Mygdon (//. III. 186). 

23. permutare : see Intr. 74. 

24. Arabum : see I. 29. 3 n. 

25. ?iz.%T9Si\\aiy passionate, — de- 
torquet cervicem : i>. turns away 
(de-) so as to expose her neck to 
the kiss. For the caesura of this 
verse see Intr. 149. 

26. negat : sc. ea (oscu/a), the 
antecedent of quae. 

27. quae gaudeat, occupet : 
subjunctive to express the reason 
for calling her satvitia */acilis.* — 
poscente : see Intr. 75, 103. 

28. rapere occupet, snatches 
them first herself; cf. Liv. I. 30. 8 
cum belium utrimque summa ope pa- 
rarent, occupat Tullus in agrum 
Sabinum tr an sire. Intr. 94 g* 

XIII. On the first of March 
B.C. 30 Horace had a narrow 



escape from the fall of a tree on 
his farm, an incident which he 
mentions repeatedly (17. 27, III. 
4. 27, III. 8. 7) and makes the 
subject of the present ode. After 
roundly abusing the tree for so 
nearly causing his death, he pro- 
ceeds to reflect on man's inca- 
pacity to foresee the fate which is 
closest at hand, and then on the 
great dead whom he would have 
met in the lower world, — a 
thought suggested perhaps by the 
famous passage in Plato's Apology 
of Socrates, but worked out in 
the form of a tribute to the power 
of lyric song. For the date of the 
accident see III. 8, intr. note. — 
Metre, 176. 

I. ille : repeated with savage 
emphasis in the poet's outburst of 
wrath, which softens into reproach 
in te . . . te, vs. 1 1 ; cf . Tennyson's 
The Fleet i *You, you, it you 
should fail to understand. What 
England is and what her all-in-all. 
On you will come the curse of all 
the land.' — nefasto die: properly 
a day on which nefas est praetori^ 
apud quem lege agitur^ fari tria 
verba *do dico ctddico* (Fest. p. 
165). There was the same super- 
stition about beginning anything 



136 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



10 



quicumque primum, et sacrilega manu 
produxit, arbos, in nepotum 
perniciem opprobriumque pagi ; 

ilium et parent;is crediderim sui 
f regisse cervicem et penetralia 
sparsisse nocturno cruore 
hospitis ; ille venena Colcha 

et quicquid usquam concipitur nefas 
tractavit, agro qui statuit meo 
te triste lignum, te caducum 
in domini caput immerentis. 

Quid quisque vitet, numqu^m homini satis 
cautum est in boras. Navita Bosporum 



on such a day that many people 
nowadays feel in regard to Friday. 
— posuit, planted* 

2. quicumque : sc. posuit. — 
primum : belonging in sense with 
posuit, although placed in the 
relative clause. Translate, who- 
ever it was in the first place. 

3. produxit, reared. — in, to the; 
expressing the purpose or destiny 
of both acts. — nepotum, posterity. 

4. pag^, the countryside. 

5. et . . . et, both . . . and, cor- 
responding to et . . . et in the first 
strophe. ' He was capable of both 
of the two heinous forms of im- 
pietas named.' — sui : emphatic. 

6. fregisse cervicem (sc. la- 
queo)j strangled; cf . Epod. 3. 2, Sail. 
Cat 55. 5 laqueo gulam fregere. — 
penetralia, his very hearthstone ; 
properly the shrine of the house- 
hold gods, under whose protection 
the 1^ of the guest was sacred. 

7* nocturno, at dead 0/ night. 

8. Colcha : i.e. such as Medea 
concocted ; cf. Epod. 17. 35. For 
the form, see Intr. 65. 



9. quicquid : here used adjec- 
tively as in ^. II. I. 60 quisqais 
color ; cf . Verg. A. X. 493 quisquis 
honos tumuli, quicqtad solamen 
humandi est. 

10. Xt9iCtaLvit, dabbled in. There 
is at most a very slight zeugma, 
nefas being the class of things to 
which venena are assigned. 

11. te . . . te : cf. ille, vs. i n. — 
triste M^Mtsi, dismal log. — cadu- 
cum, ready to fall; to be taken with 
statuit, as if this result was con- 
templated in < setting up ' the tree. 

13. quid vitet : representing 
the 'question of doubt' {quid 
vitemf) of the man who is on the 
lookout for danger. — homini, 
man (in the abstract) ; the fact is 
stated as characteristic of the race. 

14. cautum est, i> . . . on his 
guard. Grammatically the subject 
is the clause quid vitet, and the 
perfect has its proper force ('has 
been provided against*), homini 
is ethical dative ; cf . tibi cautum 
volo Plant. Pers. 369. — in horas : 
formed after the analogy of in dies. 



XIII. 2-28.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



137 



15 Poenus perhorrescit neque ultra 

caeca timet aliunde fata ; 

miles sagittas et celerem fugam 
Parthi, catenas Parthus et Italum 
robur: sed improvisa leti 
20 vis rapuit rapietque gent is. 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpinae 
et iudicantem vidimus Aeacum 
sedesque discriptas piorum et 
Aeoliis fidibus querentem 

25 Sappho puellis de popularibus, 
et te sonantem plenius aureo, 
Alcaee, plectro dura navis, 
dura fugae mala, dura belli. 



— Bosporum Poenus: Intr. iiya. 
The Thracian Bosporus is meant ; 
cf. III. 4. 30. 

15. perhorrescit: transitive, as 
often in Cicero. — ultra : with 
timet ; when the danger of the sea 
is past, he fie/s no further fear. 

16. caeca : here in a passive 
sense, hidden^ — timet : for the 
prosody, see Intr. 179. — aliunde 
fata : cf. unde periculum, 12. 7 n. 

17. miles: the Roman legionary, 
whose massive array (cf. robur y 19) 
was ill adapted to meet the strat- 
agem referred to. — sagittas, 
etc. : i.e. the arrows of the Parthian 
in full flight ; see I. 19. 11 n. 

18. catenas et Italum robur : 
he is afraid to face the solid 
strength of Italy ^ and runs away to 
save himself from chains, 

21. furvae, dusky y as queen of 
the lower world. The word was 
originally used (Gell. I. 18. 4) in 
the sense of ater^ on which see I. 
28. 13 n. — regna: Intr. 128. — 
Prdserpinae : Intr. 178. 



22. iudicantem, sitting in judg- 
ment. — Aeacum : son of Zeus 
and Aegina, and grandfather of 
Achilles ; in his lifetime renowned 
for his righteousness, and after 
his death made a judge in the 
lower world. ^ ,  

23. discriptas, allotted. ^Kk'. <' (<^^ 

24. Aeoliis: the dialect- of 
Lesbos. — querentem : because of 
their coldness. 

25. Sappho : Greek accusative 
(2aT0(6). See Intr. 26. 

26. sonantem : Intr. 51 ^. — 
plenius, in richer strain^ sc. than 
the love songs of Sappho. — 
aureo : implying his preeminence 
in song ; cf. I. 5. 9 n, II. i. 40 ; 
Quintil. X. i. 63 Alcaeus in parte 
operis aureo plectro tnerito donatur, 
qua tyrannos insectatus multum 
etiam moribus confert. 

27. plectro : see I. 26. 1 1 n. — 
dura, etc.: cf. I. 32. 6 sqq, Intr. 
116^. — navis, of the sea, 

28. fugSitt of exile ; oi, fugeret^ 
I. 7. 22 n. 



138 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



Vtrumque sacro digna silentio 
30 mirantur umbrae dicere ; sed magis 
pugnas et exactos tyrannos 

densum umeris bibit aure volgus. 

Quid mirum, ubi illis carminibus stupens 
demittit atras belua centiceps 
35 auris et intorti capillis • 

Eumenidum recreantur angues i 

Quin et Prometheus et Pelopis parens 



29. utnimque : emphatic ; in 
contrast with sed magis, etc. — 
sacro silentio : i,e. profound 
silence, such as was enjoined dur- 
ing the performance of a religious 
ceremony. See 1. 36. i n ; III. i. 2. 
For the ablative, which influences 
both digna and mirantur, see 
Intr. 76. 

30. mirantur, /isfen in wonder, 
— dicere : depending on the 
notion of hearing contained in 
mirantur. The present infini- 
tive here, as often, expresses a 
direct perception of the words 
spoken (not indirect through re- 
port) ; cf. Cic. Mur, 58 saepe hoc 
maiores natu dicere audivi (* I 
have heard them say,' not 'that 
the^ said '). For the meaning see 
I. o. 5 n. 

31. pugnas, etc.: the themes' 
sung by Alcaeus. — exactos tyran- 
nos : Intr. 105 a. 

32. densum (= stipatum) ume- 
ris : in their eagerness to get near 
the singer. — bibit aure : df. Prop. 
IV. 6. 8 suspensis auribus ista 
bibam ; Verg. A, IV. 359 vocemque 
his auribus hausi. 

33. quid minim : sc, that the 
happy shades in Elysium should be 
entranced^ when (ubi) even the 
monsters of the lower world are 
charmed, and the wicked in Tar- 



tarus forget their torments. For 
the construction of the verbs see 
Intr. 85. 

34. demittit: as a watch-dog he 
keeps his ears usually pricked up. 
— atras: see I. 28. 13 n. — belua: 
Cerberus. — centiceps : like the 
Hydra, Cerberus was pictured with 
an indefinite number of heads. 
Hesiod (Theog, 312) describes him 
as kOvo. TcirrriKoin'aKdfnivov. In 
the Latin poets . he usually has 
three, as in 19. 31; cf. Verg. A. 
VI. 417. 

36. recreantur, are relieved (as 
in III. 24. 16), i*e. by the softening 
influence of the music on the tem- 
per of the Furies. — angues: mas- 
culine, as it more commonly is in 
prose ; in poetry the feminine is 
more frequent. 

37. quin et, nay even ; passing 
to the stronger case of the sooth- 
ing of pain. For similar descrip- 
tions of the power of music in the 
lower world; cf. III. 11. 15 sqq.^ 
Verg. G, IV. 481. — Prometheus : 
usually represented as having been 
released from the under-world. 
Horace alone of extant authors 
(here, 18. 35, and Epod. 17. 67) 
represents him as still suffering 
in Tartarus. — Pelopis parens: 
see I. 28. 7 n, and cf. Epod, 17. 



XIII. 29-XIV. 5.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



139 



40 



dulci laborem decipitur sono, 
nee curat Orion leohes 
aut timidos agitare lyncas. 



XIV. 

Eheu fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
labuntur anni, nee pietas moram 
rugis et instanti seneetae 
adferet indomitaeque morti ; 

non si treeenis quotquot eunt dies, 



38. laborem, suffering. For 
the case see Intr. jo. (For the 
genitive laborum^ which has the 
support of some good manu- 
scripts, and is perhaps right, see 
Intr. 67.) — decipitur: i>. loses 
the sense of it, under the spell 
of the music ; cf. S. II. 2. 12 
moUiter austerutn studio fallente 
laborem, 

39. curat agitare : Intr. 120. 
For the construction, see Intr. 
94 /. — Orion : a mighty hunter, 
killed by Diana. He is devoted 
to his favorite pursuit even in 
Hades. (Odys. XI. 572); cf. Verg. 
A, VI. 653 quae gratia currum \ 
armorumque fuit vivisy quae cura 
nitentis \ pascere equos, eadem se- 
quitur tellure repostos. 

40. lyncas : more commonly 
feminine. 

XIV. Whether the Postumus 
of this ode is a friend of the poet 
or merely a convenient name we 
can only guess. In him Horace 
addresses a man of wealth, sur- 
rounded by all the comforts that 
can contribute to the enjoyment 
of life, but perhaps a trifle over- 
careful in the use of his means. 



Horace preaches to him on one 
of his favorite themes, the swift 
flight of time and the inevitable 
approach of death, but the moral 
which he is fond of drawing, that 
not possession, but enjoyment, is 
the end to be sought, is here rather 
implied than distinctly expressed. 
— Metre, 176. 

2. labuntur, ^//V/r by. 

3. rugis, seneetae, morti : no- 
tice the climax. 

4. indomitae, inexorable. Death 
is here personified, the *PJij^ 
iS/«e£XiXos ^^' di-^yjojartn of //. IX. 
158. 

5. non si, no^ not if. The 
apodosis is contained in non, 
which repeats nee adferet. — 
treeenis tauris: three hecatombs; 
an intentional hyperbole to make 
the assertion as strong as possible ; 
cf. vs. 26. Such enormous sacri- 
fices, however, were not unknown, 
as, for example, after the battle 
of Lake Trasimenus ; see Li v. 
XXII. 10. 7. — quotquot eunt 
dies, every day that goes by; a 
paraphrase for quotidie. For eunt 
(more expressive than sunt) cf. 
iV. 5. 7 gratior it dies; Ep. II. 
2. 55 anni euntcs* 



140 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



10 



15 



amice, places inlacrimabilem 
Plutona tauris, qui ter amplum 
Geryonen Tityonque tristi 

compescit unda, scilicet omnibus, 
quicumque terrae munere vescimur, 
enaviganda, sive reges 
sive inopes erimus coloni. 

Frustra cruento Marte carebimus 
fractisque rauci fluctibus Hadriae, 
frustra per autumnos nocentem 
corporibus metuemus Austrum. 



6. places : conative. — inlacri- 
mabilem : ' inaccessible to tears/ 
either in an active sense, ' incapa- 
ble of weeping,* tearless, as here, 
or passively, 'incapable of being 
wept for,* as IV. 9. 26; cf. Jlebi- 
lisy IV. 2. 21 (active) and I. 24. 9 
(passive). 

7. ter amplum, threefold huge; 
referring both to his triple form 
(forma tricorporis umbrae^ Verg. 
VI. 289) and supernatural size. 

8. Geryonen : a gigantic mon- 
ster of the island of Erythia, in 
the far West, killed by Hercules, 
who had been sent to take his 
cattle ; Verg. A. VIII. 201 sqq. — 
Tityon : a giant, son of Gaea, 
killed by Apollo and Diana for 
insulting Latona. His body lay 
in the underworld porrectus novem 
per iugera terrae (Tib. I. 3. 75), 
with a vulture ever feeding on his 
liver; cf. Verg. A. VI. 595 sqq. 

9. compescit, confines. — unda: 
the Styx. — scilicet omnibus, 
yesy all of us ; passing from the 
particular examples of the irresist- 
ible power of Hades to the general 
fact; cf. sed omniSf I. 28. 15, 

10. quicumque, etc.: a para- 
phrase for 'all mankind,* formed 



after the Homeric ot dpodprjs Kop- 
irbp Idoiwty, //. VI. 142. — munere, 
bounty. The plural is more usual; 
cf. IV. 9. 48, 10. I, 15. 26. 

11. enaviganda: not found in 
this sense before Horace. Enavi- 
gare (= traicere navigando) is like 
evadere (= traicere vadendo), e.g. 
angustias evadit, Li v. XXI. 32. 13. 

— reges : see I. 4. 14 n. 

12. inopes coloni : cf. 1. 35. 6 n. 

— erimus : i.e. when our time 
shall have come. 

13. frustra, etc. : no precautions 
are of any use; cf. 13. 13 sqq. — 
carebimus, keep away from ; cf. 
10. 6. 

14. fractis, breaking; sc. on the 
rocks or the beach, (breakers). — 
Hadriae : Intr. wj a. 

15. frustra: Intr. wdg. — per 
autumnos : a very hot and un- 
healthy season at Rome ; cf. III. 
23. 8 ; S. II. 6. 18 plumbeus Auster 
autumnusque gravis; Ep. I. 7. I 
sqq. 

16. corporibus : Intr. 76. — 
Austrum : the hot south wind 
(Sirocco) prevailing especially in 
August and September. 

17. ater : see I. 28. 13 n. — 
flumine, current. — languido : cf. 



XIV. 6-28.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



141 



20 



25 



Visendus ater ilumine languido 
Cocytos errans et Danai genus 
infame damnatusque longi 
Sisyphus Aeolides laboris. 

Linquenda tellus et domus et placens 
uxor, neque harum quas colis arborum 
te praeter invisas cupressos 

uUa brevem dominum sequetur. 

Absumet heres Caecuba dignior 
servata centum clavibus et mero 
tinguet pavimentum superbo, 
pontificum potiore cenis. 



Verg. G, IV. 478 litnus niger et 
deformis harundo \ Cocyti tarda- 
que palus inamabilis unda. 

18. errans, meandering. — Da- 
nai genus : see III. 11. 25 n. 

20. Sisyphus: mythical founder 
of Corinth, of extraordinary cun- 
ning and wickedness ; killed by 
Theseus and condemned to roll to 
the top of a hill a stone, which 
always slipped from his hands and 
rolled down again ; Odys, XI. 593 
sqq, — laboris : Gr. 220. 

21. linquenda, etc.: for a simi- 
lar picture cf. Lucr. III. 894 iam 
iam non domus accipiet te laeta, 
neque uxor \ optima nee dulces oc- 
current oscula naii \ praeripere et 
taeita pectus dulcedine tangent. — 
placens, sweet ; cf. III. 7. 23. 

23. invisas, detested; see I. 
34. 10 n. — cupressos : a tall ever- 
green common in southern Europe, 
in growth like a cedar, in shape 
not unlike a Lombardy poplar. 
Cypress was associated with death 
from the custom of placing it 
before the house of mourning and 
around the funeral pyre, and was 
regarded as sacred to Pluto. 



24. brevem, short4ived^ like 
breve liiium, I. 36. 16 ; but here, 
with dominum, contrasting h^ 
brief ownership with the longer 
lives of the trees. 

25. Caecuba : see I. 20. 9 n ; 
for the number, Intr. 128. — dig* 
nior : because knowing better how 
to use the wine. In this single 
ironical expression is contained 
the only intimation of the mohd 
which Horace usually draws from 
his discourses on the shortness of 
life and the gloominess of death, 
— that we must make the most of 
the brief space that is given us for 
enjoyment ; cf. I. 4, I. 9. 13 sqq., 

1. II, II. 3, II. II. 

26. centum : cf . trecenis^ vs. 5 n. 

27. tinguet, etc.: implying reck- 
less extravagance ; cf. Cic. Phil. 

2. 105 natabant pavimenta vino^ 
madebant parietes. — superbo : at- 
tributing to the wine a conscious- 
ness of its excellence and a feeling 
of humiliation under such un- 
worthy treatment. 

28. pontificum cenis : see I. 
37. 2 n. For the case of cenis 
see Intr. 75. 



142 



HORATI, CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



XV. 

lam pauca aratro iugera regiae 
moles relinquent ; undique latius 
extenta visentur Lucrino 

stagna lacu, platanusque caelebs 

evincet ulmos ; tum violaria et 
myrtus et omnis copia narium 
spargent olivetis odorem 
fertilibus domino priori ; 



XV. A protest against the grow- 
ing extravagance of the day, which 
spends immense sums in building 
luxurious palaces and turns useful 
land into pleasure grounds, in con- 
trast with the spirit of the fathers, 
who were poor for themselves and 
rich only for the state. The ode 
is singular in containing no per- 
sonal allusion whatever. — Metre, 
176. 

1. iam, soon. — regiae (here for 
regales) y regal, 

2. moles, piles; cf. III. 29. 10. 

3. visentur, will meet our gaze ; 
cf. I. 37. 25. — Lrucrino lacu : a 
sheet of salt water near Baiae, 
separated from the gulf of Pozzu- 
oli by a natural dike about a mile 
long. By strengthening this dike 
and opening a passage through it 
into Lucrinus and thence into 
Lake Avemus, Agrippa formed 
the Portus lulius (5. Ep, II. 3. 63) 
in 37 B.C. 

4. stagna,/^;!^/^, artificially con- 
structed both for ornament and 
as fish preserves. — platanus : cf . 
II. 13 n. — caelebs : the familiar 
figure of the vine ' wedded * to the 
tree on which it twines ; cf. Epod, 
2. 9 adulta vitium propagine \ alias 
marital populos ; Cat. 62. 54 {vitis) 



ulmo eoniuncta marito. The 
denser shade of the platanus 
unfits it for this service. The 
meaning is that shady lawns will 
take the place of vineyards. 

5. evincet, will crowd out; cf. 
Plin. N, H. XVIIL \%ifaba evin- 
cit herbas, — ulmos : the unex- 
pressed epithet, maritatas or the 
like, is suggested by caelebs \ cf . 
Intr. 122. Elms and poplars were 
the trees chiefly used for training 
vines upon. — tum: i>. when the 
state of things prophesied in the 
preceding lines has come to pass. 

— violaria, etc.: i.e, flower beds 
and ornamental shrubs will sup- 
plant the olive orchards. 

6. myrtus : a bushy shrub, with 
small, lustrous, dark-green leaves, 
and pinkish white flowers, not un- 
like, the apple blossom. — omnis 
copia narium, all the wealth of 
the nostrils^ a somewhat contempt- 
uous expression for * every variety 
of fragrant flower.* 

7. olivetis : ablative; Intr. 69. 

8. fertilibus, which bore fruit, 

— domino : Intr. 58 a, — With this 
whole passage cf. Quint. VIII. 
3. 8 sterilem plcUanum tonsasgue 
myrtos quam maritam ulmum et 
uberes oleas prcuoptaverim ? 



XV. i-i8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



143 



10 



15 



turn spissa ramis laurea fervidos 
excludet ictus. Non ita Romuli 
praescriptum et intonsi Catonis 
auspiciis veterumque norma. 

Privatus illis census erat brevis, 
commune magnum ; nulla decempedis 
metata privatis opacam 

porticus excipiebat Arcton, 

nee fortuitum spernere caespitem 
leges sinebant, oppida publico 



9. laurea (sc. ardor) : for laurus; 
the bay, an evergreen, bush-like 
tree, growing often to a height of 
sixty feet, with rich, dark-green 
foliage, small yellowish blossoms, 
and a dark-purple berry. 

10. ictus (sc. soiis, suggested by 
fervidos), rays; cf. Lucr. I. 147 
lucida tela dieiy and our word 
* sun-stroke.' 

11. praescriptum : sc. est. — 
intonsi: see 1. 12. 41 n. — Catonis: 
the Censor, prominent in his day 
for his uncompromising hostility 
to all corrupting innovations, and 
to posterity a typical Roman of 
the olden time. 

12. auspiciis : i.e, while those 
men guided the state. The auspi- 
cia could be taken only by those 
highest in authority; cf. 1. 7. 27 n. — 
veterum norma : the old Roman 
maxims on the requirements of 
good citizenship, which he proceeds 
to set forth. 

13. census : properly the man's 
list of possessions returned to the 
Censor ; hence brevis. 

14. commune: neuter used sub- 
stantively, equivalent to respublica, 
the common wealth. — nulla de- 
cempedis, etc. : i.e, no private 
portico on a great scale, the latter 



being indicated by the unit of 
measurement (decempedis). For 
the indirect use of the epithet 
privatis, cf. Intr. 124. 

15. opacam : as the side on 
which the shadows fall. Strictly 
the epithet belongs to the portico 
itself. 

16. excipiebat, lay open to ; cf. 
Juv. 7. i^^algentem rapiat cena- 
tio solem, of a winter dining-room. 
— Arcton, the North, 

17. fortuitum, the chance^ i.e. 
the first that presented itself; in 
contrast with novo. — caespitem: 
for building private altars (cf. I. 
19. 13 n), where marble and other 
costly material had now begun to 
be used. 

18. leges : probably referring 
to the rules of Roman ritual, 
which strictly prescribed the use 
of certain traditional forms and 
materials. What Horace points 
out is that under those old laws 
even the sod under our feet had its 
honorable use, for which no man 
could reject it as common and 
cheap. — oppida : sc. with public 
buildings, etc. — publico, 0/ the 
people in common^ who spent their 
means for this end instead of for 
their personal luxury. 



144 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



sumptu iubentes et deorum 
templa novo decorare saxo. 



XVI. 



4 



Otium divos rogat in patenti 
prensus Aegaeo, simul atra nubes 
condidit lunam neque certa fulgent 
sidera nautis ; 

otium bello furiosa Thrace, 
otium Medi pharetra decori, 



19. iubentes decorare: divided 
between the two objects, and so 
uniting publico sumptu and 
novo saxo, both of which belong 
to oppida as well as to templa ; 
Intr. 120, 121. 

20. novo: see I. 2. 6 n. — saxo: 
;>. marble, which in Horace's day 
was brought in great variety from 
different parts of the empire for 
the decoration of private houses 
as well as of public buildings ; cf. 
18. 3 sq. 

XVI. To Pompeius Grosphus, 
a Roman knight, the owner of 
extensive estates in Sicily, in the 
neighborhood of those which 
Iccius mans^ed for Agrippa. See 
I. 29 (intr. note) and Ep. I. 12. 
22 sq.f where Grosphus is recom- 
mended to Iccius as a man who 
would not take advantage of his 
friendship to ask improper favors. 
The subject of the ode is peace of 
mind, which is never overtaken by 
those who restlessly pursue it, but 
dwells with those who take home 
to themselves the truth that no 
man's lot can be entirely perfect, 
and who find their happiness in the 
contented enjoyment of the bless- 
ings they have. — Metre, 174. 



1. otium, peace, in its widest 
sense, freedom from care, anxiety 
and passion. The subjects of ro- 
gat are types of men restless by 
nature and fond of excitement : 
even they pray for peace. For 
the first instance^ cf. I. i. 15. — 
patenti, opetiy i.e. not near any 
island where he could take refuge 
in a harbor. 

2. prensus : sc, by a storm. The 
nautical term was deprensus (Schol. 
on Verg. G. IV. 421); see Intr. 129. 
For the use of the participle see 
Intr. 103. — Aegaeo: Intr. 117a. 
— simul: see I. 4. 17 n. — atra, 
etc.: see I. 2. 7 n. The picture is 
of the inky darkness of a stormy 
night, when the mariner without a 
compass was peculiarly helpless. 

3. certa, sure {sc, as guides to 
the mariner), such as the Great 
and Little Bear (Cic. Arat. 
37 sqq,)\ cf. Tib. I. 9. 10 ducunt 
instabiles sidera certa rates. 

5. otium : Intr. 116^. — bello 
furiosa : concessive ; they are 
warriors at heart, and love fight- 
ing with a passion that amounts 
to frenzy. — Thrace : the country 
for the people; cf. IV. 14. 49. 

6. Medi : see I. 2. 22 n. — pha- 
retra : associated in the Roman 



XV. I9-XVI. 1 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



145 



lO 



IS 



"Grosphe, non gemmis neque purpura ve- 
nale neque auro. 

Non enim gazae neque consularis 
submovet lictor miseros tumultus 
mentis et curas laqueata circum 
tecta volantis. 

Vivitur parvo bene cui paternum 
splendet in mensa tenui salinum 
nee levis somnos timor aut cupido 
sordidus aufert. 



mind with their dashing cavalry 
(cf. I. 19. II n, II. 13. 17), and sug- 
gesting the restless and advent- 
urous spirit of the raider (I. 2. 51). 

7. non, etCf peace, which no . . , 
can buy, — purpura : used (as in 
English) for purple robes, tapes- 
tries, etc., which are named with 
precious stones and gold as the 
costliest things that a man could 
offer. — ve-nale : Intr. 174 b, 

8. neque : the only instance in 
which Horace has admitted elision 
in the Adonic verse. 

9. non gazae neque . . . lictor : 
i.e. no wealth nor power. 

10. submovet tumultus : a 
figure borrowed from the progress 
of the magistrate through the 
streets, the lictors making the 
disorderly crowd give- way to let 
him pass undisturbed, submo- 
vet is the technical term for this, 
and there is a zeugma with gazae. 

11. curas . . . volantis : includ- 
ed' in the figure : another annoy- 
ing crowd against which the con- 
sul's power is helpless. — laqueata 
tecta, panelled ceilings, i.e. those 
of rich and splendid houses. Such 
a ceiling in its simplest form was 
made by inserting cross-pieces be- 
tween the joists which supported 



the floor above, thus dividing the 
whole space into square or oblong 
panels (lacunaria), which could be 
decorated at pleasure. This simple 
device was imitated in stucco and 
elaborated with panels of divers 
shapes, richly ornamented with 
gold and ivory (cf. 18. i sq.) and 
various tints. 

13. vivitur : sc. ab eo, the ante- 
cedent of cui. — parvo : abl. neut., 
as in S, II. 2. i. — cui, etc., on 
whose modest board, etc.; i>. who 
lives in the aurea mediocritas of 
10. 5, above the slovenly neglect 
of indigence, but free from the 
worry of wealth. For the sug- 
gestion of contentment in pater- 
num see I. I. II n. 

14. splendet, etc.: in his plain 
table service only one vessel, and 
that the smallest, is of silver ; but 
it is an heirloom, ever kept bright, 
and it gives a certain tone of ele- 
gance to his humble board. < — 
salinum : cf. Plin. N, H, XXXIII. 
153 (Fabricius) bellicosos imperato- 
res plus quam pateram et salinum 
habgre ex argento vetabat. 

1 5. nee, and whose . . . no. cui 
is understood here in substantially 
the same construction as above. — 
timor aut cupido : accompani- 



146 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



25 



Quid brevi fortes iaculamur aevo 
multa ? Quid terras alio calentis 
sole mutamus ? Patriae quis exsul 
se quoque f ugit ? 

Scandit aeratas vitiosa navis 
Cura nee turmas equitum relinquit, 
ocior cervis et agente nimbos 
ocior Euro. 

Laetus in praesens animus quod ultra est 
oderit curare, et amara lento 
temperet risu : nihil est ab omni 
parte beatum. 



ments of wealth, fear of losing what 
one has, and greed f oi: more. Cupi- 
(h, always masculine in Horace, is 
usually feminine in other authors, 
except as the name of the god. 

17. brevi aevo : to be taken 
with iaculamur, but brevi, con- 
trasted by its position with fortes, 
suggests the folly of ouj confident 
projects ; cf . I. 4. 15. 

18. multa : the emphatic word 
of the sentence (Intr. 116^); cf. 11. 
5 poscentis aevi pauca. — terras 
alio calentis sole : i.e. foreign 
countries ; cf. Verg. G. II. 512 
alio patriatn quaerunt sub sole 
iacentem. The omitted ablative 
after mutamus {putrid or nostrd) 
is implied in this description, and 
the next sentence assumes that it 
is already understood. For the 
construction see Intr. 74. 

19. patriae, from his country ; 
cf. exsul mumiif Ov. M. VI. 189. 

20. se quoque fugit : cf. Sen. 
Ep. 28. 2 quaeris quare tefuga ista 
non adiuvet? Tecujn fugis ; 
Lucr. III. 1053 j^^. For the tense 
of fugit see Intr. 80. 

21. scandit, etc.: amplification 



of the preceding : a man cannot 
run away from his own discontent, 
though he take the swiftest ship 
or the fastest horse ; cf. III. i. 
yi sqq.\ Ep. I. II. 27 sqq.; Lucr. 
II. 48 sqq. That Horace himself 
had his periods of restless discon- 
tent, he confesses ^S*. II. 7. 1 1 1 sqq., 
Ep. I. 8. 3 sqq. — aeratas, brass- 
bound. — ^vitiosa, morbid; included 
in the personification ; cf. 1. 24. 7 n. 

22. relinquit, falls beftind; cf. 
deseruitf III. 2. 32. 

23. ocior: Intr. 116^. 

25. laetus in praesens : to be 
taken with the predicate, in the 
same sense as III. 8. 27 dona prae- 
sentis cape laetus horae. — quod 
ultra est: />. the future; cf. 1. 9. 13. 

26. oderit: stronger than »<7/fV; 
Intr. 94 /. — lento risu, with a 
quiet smile. 

27. nihil, etc.: reason for the 
preceding ; the wise man will 
cheerfully accept the disagreeable 
along with the good, and not run 
away from it in a futile chase after 
unalloyed happiness. 

29. abstulit, etc.: two con- 
trasted e;camples of the drawbacks 



XVI. 17-40'] 



HORATI CARMINI. 



147 



Abstulit clarum cita mors Achillem, 
30 longa Tithonum minuit senectus, 
et mihi forsan tibi quod negarit 
porriget hora. 

Te greges centum Siculaeque circum 
mugiunt vaccae, tibi toUit hinnitum 
35 apta quadrigis equa, te bis Afro 
murice tinctae 

vestiunt lanae : mihi parva rura et 
spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae 
Parca non mendax dedit et malignum 
40 spernere volgus. 



attending the most coveted bless- 
ings: a brilliant career, cut short by 
an untimely death ; eternal life, an 
infinitely prolonged bodily decay. 

30. Tithonum : see I. 28. 8 n. 
— minuit: perfect. 

31. et mihi, etc.: a slight shift- 
ing of the point of view, suggested 
by the two examples just cited, 
each of whom possessed what the 
other lacked. But the underlying 
thought remains unaltered. On 
the basis of the truth * nihil ab 
omni parte beatum ' the poet boldly 
compares his own humble lot with 
that of his wealthy friend, and 
points out that he may perhaps be 
more happy in some respects than 
one who, according to ordinary 
standards, was -in every way more 
fortunate. 

32. hora, the hour; i.e. any 
given hour in which our fortunes 
may be compared. 

33. greges Siculaeque vaccae: 
equivalent to greges Sicularum 
vaccarum (hendiadys) . — centum : 
for an indefinitely large number ; 
cf. 14. 26, III. II. 17. — circum : 
Intr. 115^. 



34. toUit ! cf. risum tollant^ Ep, 
II. 3. 381, and our phrase *lift up 
their voice.' — hinnitum : for the 
synapheia, see Intr. 174 ^. 

35. B.'^X'diyfit for; implying a fine 
breed and a high market value. — 
quadrigis: i,e. for the chariot race. 
— equa : mares were preferred for 
this purpose ; cf . Verg. G, I. 59. — 
bis tinctae : a translation of the 
technical term dibapha {di-pa<f>a, 
•twice dipped'); cf. V\m.J\r.Il, IX. 
137. — Afro: i.e. from the island 
of Girba, in the Syrtis Minor. 

37. mihi parva rura, etc.: cf. 
18. 1 sgf. and Bacchylides Fr. 28 
od /SowF rdp&rri ffthftar*, ovre xP^^^i 
ovT€ vop4>^peoi rdxrfT€Sj dXXd Ovfjubs 
eifieir^s, \ fiowrd re 7Xvice2ioi ical Boua- 
riounv iv <rKi4>ouriv oJvtn ifd/ts* 

38. spiritum, inspiration^ as in 
IV. 6. 29 ; cf. spirOj IV. 3. 24. — 
Graiae Camenae: cf. I. 12. 39 n 
and note on lyricis vatibus^ I. i. 
35. — tenuem, fine,, delicate, 

39. Parca: Intr. 127. — non 
mendax : a permanent attribute ; 
cf. C. S. 25; Pers. 5. 48 Parca 
tenax veri. 

40. spernere, a contempt for 



148 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



XVII. 

Cur me querellis exanimas tuis ? 
Nee dis amicum est nee mihi te prius 
obire, Maecenas, mearum 

grande decus columenque rerum. 

A, te meae si partem animae rapit 
maturior vis, quid moror altera, 
nee carus aeque nee superstes 
integer ? Ille dies utramque 



(Intr. 97 d); i.e. a capacity to hold 
himself above their envy {invidia 
maiorj 20. 4). — volgus : the un- 
refined * rabble* of readers and 
critics who were incapable of ap- 
preciating the finer spirit of Greek 
poetry (cf. III. I. i), and pursued 
Horace with ridicule and detrac- 
tion {S. I. 10. 78 sqq,)f due partly to 
envy of his social advancement, 
untU his success was established 
beyond cavil (IV. 3. 16). 

XVII. Maecenas was a con- 
firmed invalid, suffering constantly 
from fever and insomnia (Intr. 21 ; 
Plin. iV./r. VII. 172); and at the 
same time he had a passionate 
attachment to life (Sen.^/. loi. 10) 
which made his frequent sicknesses 
occasions of gloomy forebodings. 
Horace here consoles him with 
the assurance of his devotion, 
which will not permit death to 
separate them, with appeals to 
astrology (to which Maecenas was 
addicted), and by recalling their 
common escape from imminent 
death, for which thank-offerings 
were stUl due. This allusion shows 
that the ode was written not long 
after B.C. 30 (see Ode 13, intr. note). 
— Metre, 176. 



1. exanimas, >&i7/; /.^.torment, 
by suggesting such distressing 
thoughts ; cf. Epod. 14. 5 occidis 
saepe rogando ; Ter. Andr. 660 
quor me enicas? 

2. amicum est (equivalent to 
placet) t it is the pleasure of; cf. //. 
IX. 23 wT(a vov At! jUr^XXei inrepiuvii 
4>C\oy tlpai. In point of fact 
Horace survived his patron only 
a few months (Intr. 35). 

4. decus columenque : see I. 
I. 2 n. 

5. partem animae : cf. 1. 3. 8 n. 

— rapit . . . moror : for the tense 
see Intr. 78. 

6. vis : used properly of pre- 
mature death ; cf. 13. 20 (where it 
is joined, as here, with rapere) and 
Cic. C. M, yi vitam adulescentibtis 
vis aufert^ senibus maturitas. — 
altera : sc. pars. 

7. carus : sc. mihij as the con- 
text implies ; cf. Ep. I. 3. 29 si 
patriae volumus^ si nobis vivere 
cari, — aeque : sc. as before. — 

— superstes : to be taken with 
cams as well as with integer; 
Intr. 119 a. 

8. integer : repeating the 
thought of te mecu partem animae 
5. — utramque (sc. nostrum; d. 
vs. 21 n), of both of us. Vtriusque 



xvir. i-i;.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



149 



10 



15 



ducet ruinam. Non ego perfidum 
dixi sacramentum : ibimus, ibimus, 
utcumque praecedes, supremum 
carpere iter comites parati. 

Me nee Chimaerae spiritus igneae 
nee, si resurgat, centimanus Gyas 
divellet umquam ; sic potenti 
lustitiae placitumque Parcis. 

Seu Libra seu me Scorpios adspicit 



nostrum would be more usual, 
but utramque is quite in accord 
with the Latin mode of thought, 
which conceives of two rutnae in 
this case : cf. IV. 14. 19. 

9. ducet ruinam : a phrase 
suggested in its literal use by the 
appearance of a falling building, 
where one part gives way and 
* draws * the rest after it ; cf . Verg. 
A. II. 465 elapsa repente (turris) 
ruinam cum sonitu trakit. — 
non ego : see I. 18. 1 1 n. non 
qualifies perlidum only, on which 
cf. 8. 6n. 

10. dixi, pronounced; the tech- 
nical term ; cf. Caes. B. C, I. 86. 3 
neu" quis invitus sacramentum di- 
cere cogaiur, — sacramentum: the 
soldier^s oath, by which he bound 
himself to follow wherever his 
general might lead : cf. Liv. XXII. 
38. 3. — ibimus, ibimus : Intr. 
116 r/. 

11. utcumque : cf. I. 17. ion. 

13. Chimaerae : see 1. 27. 23 n. 
— igneae : properly an attribute 
of spiritus ; Intr. 124. 

14. si resurgat : 1./. from Tar- 
tarus. — Qyas : son of Uranus 
and Gaea, brother of Briareus 
(Hes. Theog. 149). 

15. sic, etc.: i.^.such is the just 
and immutable decree of heaven. 

16. lustitiae : here not the per- 



sonified virtue of I. 24. 6, but the 
powerful goddess A/m;, daughter 
of Themis and sister of the Fates 
(Hes. Theog. 902), whose authority 
she shares. — placitumque : Intr. 
119^. 

17. seu . . . seu, if ...or if; cf. I. 
23. 5 sq. The meaning is : If our 
destinies are governed by the stars, 
there is a marvelous agreement in 
the influences that rule our two 
lives. Horace had no faith in 
astrology (see 1. 1 1), but he adopts 
its language to express more em- 
phatiddly to his patron, who did be- 
lieve in it, his confidence that their 
friendship was not to be severed 1^ 
death. — adspicit : cf. IV. 3. i. sqq. 
The astrologers held that a man's 
destiny was determined by the 
constellations and planets which 
looked down upon him at his 
birth. These constituted, grouped 
as they were at that moment, his 
'nativity' (natalis hora), each 
member (pars) of which exerted 
its own influence, good or ill, but 
only so far as it was not counter- 
acted by some other member. 
Libra and Jupiter were held to 
be salutary in their influence ; the 
others here mentioned, baleful. 
The present adspicit expresses 
the continuing influence of the 
constellation. 



150 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



20 



25 



f ormidulosus, pars violentior 
natalis horae, seu tyrannus 
Hesperiae Capricornus undae, 

utrumque nostrum incredibili modo 
consentit astrum : te lovis impio 
tutela Saturno refulgens 
eripuit volucrisque fati 

tardavit alas, cum populus frequens 
laetum theatris ter crepuit sonum ; 
me truncus inlapsus cerebro 
sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 



18. pars violentior : referring 
to any of the three constellations. 
It means the influence which tends 
to bring violence and danger into 
his life. 

19. tyrannus, etc. : cf. 1. 3. 1 5 n. 
Certain constellations were held to 
have a dominant influence in cer- 
tain parts of the earth ; cf. Manil. 
IV. 791 tUj Capricorne^ regis quid- 
quid sub sole cadente \ est positum 
gelidamque Helicen quod tangit ab 
illo, I Hispanas gentes et quot fert 
Qallia dives. 

21. nostrum : gen.pl., substan- 
tive ; cf. note on utramque, 8. For 
the caesura of the verse see Intr. 

155- 

22. consentit : t.e. (as appears 

from what follows) the pars vio- 
lentior has in both cases been 
thwarted just before the fulfilment 
of its fatal influence. This whole 
passage has been imitated by Per- 
sius, 5. 45 sqq. — lovis tutela: Intr. 
126^. — impio: the character of 
the Kronos of Greek mythology, 
with whom Saturn was identi- 
fied. 

23. refulgens: cf. I. 12. 28 n. 

24. volucris : better taken with 
alas; cf. III. 29. 53 si celeris 



quatit pennas (of Fortuna). — fati: 
i.e. of death. This conception of 
the approach of death is similar to 
that of I. 3. 32. 

25. cum populus, etc.: see I. 
20. 4 n. 

26. theatris: Intr. 69, 128. — 
ter: apparently the usual number, 
like our three cheers ; cf. Prop. 
IV. 10. 4 Camenae  . . manibus 
faustos ter crepuere sonos ; cf . also 
I. 28. 36 n. — sonum : see Intr. 
45 0, and cf. Prop. /. c. 

27. truncus, etc.: see Ode 13, 
intr. note. — inlapsus cerebro 
sustulerat : Intr. 82. 

28. Faunus : as the accident 
took place on his farm, he natu- 
rally attributes his escape to the 
god of the woods and fields (cf. 
I. 17. I sqq.j III. 18) who had 
moreover a natural interest in 
poets, as the prot^g^s of his father 
Mercury (see vs. 29 n). Cf., how- 

jBver, III. 8. 7. 

29. levasset, Aad averted. — 
Mercurialium virorum : Horace 
here appropriates the name famil- 
iarly applied to successful business 
men (cf. S. II. 3. 25) for poets, 
who also stand under the protec- 
tion of Mercury as the god of 



XVII. iS-xviii. 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



151 



30 



dextra levasset, Mercurialium 
custos vironim. Reddere victimas 
aedemque votivam memento ; 
nos humilem feriemus agnam. 



XVIII. 

Non ebur neque aureum 

mea renidet in domo lacunar, 

non trabes Hymettiae 

premunt columnas ultima recisas 

Africa, neque Attali 

ignotus heres regiam occupavi, 



eloquence and the inventor of the 
lyre (I. 10. i, 6). Cf. 7. 13 sq. 

30. reddere, pay (see I. 3. 7 n), 
sc. to Jove. 

XVIII. The poet illustrates his 
favorite maxim of the aurea tnedi- 
ocritas by contrasting his own 
happy lot, in which small means 
are united with character, talent, 
and a contented spirit, with the 
folly and blindness of those whose 
grasping ambition and love of show 
set at defiance the bounds of nature 
and of right. He gives the ode 
.a slightly dramatic character by 
singling out one of this class for 
reproach, but he names no name, 
and probably had no particular 
person in mind. The reference to 
his own position in life will remind 
the reader of I. 31* and II. 16. 33 
sqq.y and is similar to the fragment 
of Bacchylides quoted at 16. 37 n. 
Cf. also Tib. I. i, Prop. IV. 2. 9 
sqq. — Metre, 167. 

I. ebur : used, like the gold, in 
decorating the ceiling. In prose 
it would be neque eburneum neque^ 
etc. 



2. lacunar: cf. laqueata tecta^ 16. 
II n. 

3. trabes Hymettiae : i^. archi- 
traves of marble from Mt. Hymet- 
tus in Attica (6. 14 n), which was 
of a light bluish tint. 

4. premunt, rest upon. — co- 
lumnas : the reference is to the 
atrium, which being the public 
room of the house, was decorated 
with the greatest splendor ; cf. III. 
I. 45 sq. The columns supported 
the roof, around the impluvium. 
— ultima, ybr; cf. 20. 18. — reci- 
sas, quarried. 

5. Africa : the yellow Numidian 
marble {giallo antico) is meant. The 
Romans were fond of combining 
marbles of various colors in their 
buildings, and the innumerable 
fragments of these dug up at the 
present day bear striking testimony 
to the former magnificence of the 
city. — neque, etc.: i.e. nor have 
I unexpectedly come into posses- 
sion of enormous wealth, — a pro- 
verbial result of which is extrava- 
gant expenditure. — Attali, of an 
Attalus. See I. i. 12 n. 

6. ignotus heres: the inherit- 



152 



HORATI CARHINA. 



[Lib. II. 



10 



15 



nec Laconicas mihi 

. trahunt honestae purpuras clientae ; 

at fides et ingeni 

benigna vena est, pauperemque dives 
me petit : nihU supra 

deos lacesso nec potentem amicum 
largiora flagito, 

satis beatus unicis Sabinis. 
Truditur dies die 

novaeque pergunt interire lunae : 



ance of great fortunes by insig- 
nificant persons unconnected by 
kindred with the testator, — often 
adventurers who had ingratiated 
themselves by flattery and baser 
means, — was a familiar feature of 
Roman life in Horace's day. See 
S. II. 5, intr. note. 

7. Laconicas: the purple-fish 
(murex) was found especially at 
Gythium on the Sinus Laconicus 
and on the coast of Cythera. 

8. trahunt, spin; standing here, 
however, for the whole process 
of manufacture. — honestae, re- 
spectable., well-born, Horace says, 
in effect, that he is not a powerful 
patron whose dependents are not 
merely slaves and freedmen, but 
well-to-do families, who court his 
favor with rich presents; cf. Cic. 
Verr, H. 4. 59. — purpuras, pur- 
ple stuffs ; cf. III. 1. 42. 

1 Q. ibenigna, generous, — vena : 
cf. divite vena, Ep, II. 3. 409. The 
figure is probably taken from the 
underground water-course {^ena 
aquae ; cf. Hirt. B, G, VIII. 43. 4, 
venae fontis inter cisae sunt) 
rather than veins of metal ; cf. 
Ovid, Tr, III. 14. 33 ingenium 
fregere meum mala, cuius et ante 
fons infecundus parvaque 
vena fuit, — est: sp. mihi, - 



pauperemque dives, poor as I 
am^ the rich man; Intr. 116 a. 
dives is used collectively (Intr. 
127). A number of rich men were 
among Horace's friends. 

11. me petit: /./. is attracted 
to me, seeks my society. 

12. lacesso, / importune, with 
two accusatives, as a verb of ask- 
ing. — amicum : Maecenas, as 
vs. 14 shows. 

14. beatus: in its participial 
sense, made rich ; cf. Epod, I. 31 
satis superque me benignitas tua \ 
ditavit. — unicis, my one,^^^ only 
one I possess; cf. unicus filius, — 
Sabinis, Sabine farm ; Intr. 24. 
An estate in a given territory is 
sometimes designated by the plural 
of the name of the people, — 
Sabiniiox fundus Sabinus ; cf. III. 
4. 22 ; Plin. Ep. V. 6. i Tuscos meos, 

15. truditur dies die, day 
crowds upon day ; c£. Epod, 17. 25. 

16. novae lunae: not in the 
narrower technical sense, but as 
new phenomena coming with each 
successive month; cf. Cat. 5. 4 
soles occidere et redire possunt, — 
pergunt : sc. as they always have 
done ; the order of nature goes on, 
keeping the lesson ever before us. 
Cf. IV. 7. 7 sqq, — in^er^re:/.^;. ^9 
^'van$(. 



XVIII. 7-26.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



153 



20 



25 



tu secanda marmora 

locas sub ipsum f unus, et sepulcri 
immemor struis domos, 

marisque Bais obstrepentis urges 
submovere litora, 

parum locuples continente ripa. 
Quid quod usque proximos 

revellis agri terminos et ultra 
limites clientium 

salis avarus ? Pellitur paternos 



17. secanda marmora : sc. into 
slabs for pavements and walls; 
Plin. N. H, XXXVI. ^, 

18. locas, are giving contracts 
for; the technical term. The 
corresponding word for the con- 
tractor's part was redimere (cf. 
III. I. 35). The work to be done 
is expressed by the gerundive con- 
struction with either verb. — sub : 
see I. 8. 14 n. — sepulcri : the 
'house' to which you must soon 
inevitably remove, in contrast with 
earthly houses (domes) ; see 29 n. 

20. Bais : the favorite watering- 
place of Rome at this time {Ep, I. 
I. 83, 15. 2 sqq,)^ situated on the 
gulf of Pozzuoli, about ten miles 
west of Naples. The word is 
dative after ob-strepentis. — ur- 
ges submovere Y\Xox9i^ you press 
on the work of pushing out the 
shore, for the purpose of building 
a house close upon the water ; 
cf. III. I. 33 sqq,, and Martial's 
description (X. 30) of the country- 
house of ApoUinaris at Formiae. 
Horace, however, represents the 
rich builder as fretting within the 
narrow bounds of the shore, which 
he pushes away (submovere) as 
an obstacle in his path. 

22. continente ripa, while the 
shore confines you ; cf . Ca^. B, (?. 



I. 2. 3 undique loci natura ffelvetii 
continentur. For ripa see I. 2. 14 n. 
. 23. quid quod : a phrase fre- 
quently used by the orators in 
passing to a stronger point ; in 
this case it is from the folly to the 
wickedness of the rich man. quid, 
without suggesting any particular 
verb, calls attention to the fact 
expressed by the ^»^^-clause. — 
usque, one after another, usque 
proximos is equivalent to proxi- 
mum quemquCf the one which on 
each occasion is nearest 

24. revellis : stronger than the 
usual term exarare or movere, 
expressing, like salis 26, the man's 
unscrupulous violence. — agri 
terminos, landmarks, boundary 
stones. Such a stone was sacred, 
and a curse was pronounced on 
one who should remove it. 

25. clientium: the wickedness 
was aggravated when the man he 
wronged was his own client, whom 
it was his sacred duty to protect 
against aggression. The laws of 
the Twelve Tables took cogni- 
zance of this crime in the clause : 

PATRONVS SI CLIENTI FRAVDEM 
FECERIT, SACER ESTO. 

26. salis, stride; see note on 
revellis, 24, and on transiliunt, I. 
3. 24.— peUitur : Intr. 77.— pater^ 



154 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



30 



35 



in sinu ferens deos 

et uxor et vir sordidosque natos. 
Nulla certior tamen 

rapacis Orci fine destinata 
aula divitem manet 

erum. Quid ultra tendis ? Aequa tellus 
pauperi recluditur 

regumque pueris, nee satelles Orci 
callidum Promethea 

revexit auro captus. Hie superbum^ 



no8 deos : i^, the little images of 
their household gods, their only 
remaining possessions ; cf. Juv. 
8. no. The acquisition of the 
angulus proximtis qui nunc denoT' 
mat agellum {S. II. 6. 8) was usu- 
ally a slower and safer process 
than in the poet's graphic picture, 
but was effected no less surely 
by gradually involving the poor 
neighbor in debts which in the end 
drove him from his farm utterly 
impoverished. 

28. sordidos, ragged; indicating 
the poverty of the parents. 

29. nulla, etc.: a fuller expres- 
sion of the suggestion in vs. ^8 : 
the rich lord builds palace upon 
palace, but there is none he can 
count on so surely as the palace of 
Death. The construction is: nulla 
aula divitem erum certior manet 
(auld) rapacis Orci fine destinatd 
(for quam aulfi r. O. /. destinata ; 
Intr. 75). 

30. Orci fine : the limit which 
Orcus (Pluto) sets, i.e. death, the 
limit of life {mors ultima linea 
rerum est^ Ep, I. 16. 79); cf. fine 
libidinumf 1. 18. ion. The ablative 
is instrumental. Some editors take 
fine as feminine (as in Epod. 17. 
36; elsewhere in Horace it is mas- 
culine), and (with destinata) as 



ablative after certior. In either 
case fine is similar to modus,, 6. 7. 

— destinata : sc. ei, 

32. ultra: «>. beyond ^^ finis 
Orci; why do you make plans 
that reach far out beyond your 
brief span of life ? cf. I. 4. 15, 11. 
7, II. II. \\ sq.^ 16. 17. — aequa 
tellus: cf. aequo pede and the 
whole passage, I. 4. 13 n. 

34. pueris : for the prosody 
see Intr. 138. — satelles Orci: 
Charon. 

36. revexit captus, wcu enticed 
, , . to ferry back ; cf. hunc capit 
argenti splendor^ S. I. 4. 28. The 
story of such an attempt does not 
occur elsewhere; see 13. 37 n. — 
hie: Orcus. The meaning is: 
Death, the great leveler, comes to 
all alike, — tears the rich man in- 
exorablv away from his luxurious 
life, and relieves the poor man of 
his heavy burden. 

37. Tantalum : see I. 28. 7 n. 

— Tantali genus : Pelops and 
his powerful line ; see I. 6. 8 n. 

38. levare : depending both on 
vocatus (see Intr. 97 a and cf. 
Lucr. V. 945 at sedare sitim fluvii 
fontesque vocabant)^ and on audit, 
which from the context acquires 
the meaning of exoratur; Intr. 76. 
— functum labQribus : equivalent 



XVIII. 27-XIX. 4.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



155 



40 



Tantalum atque Taatali 

genus coercet, hie levare functum 
pauperem laboribus 

vocatus atque non vocatus audit. 



XIX. 

Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus 
vidi docentem (credite posteri) 
Nymphasque discentis et auris 
capripedum Satyrorum acutas. 



to defuncium laboribus^ III. 24. 15 
(cf. Intr. 129); but the phrase is 
used here, on the analogy of 
(de\functus vita (cf. 9. 13), to de- 
note the close of a l^e that is all 
toil, and is equivalent to functum 
vita laboriosa ; cf. IV. 15. 29. 

40. non vocatus audit: oxy- 
moron. — audit, ^ves ear, 

XIX. A hymn to Bacchus. The 
main part of the poem, which is 
devoted, like I. 10, to the attri- 
butes and achievements of the 
god, is introduced by two strophes 
in the spirit of the dithyramb (cf. 
IV. 2. 10 n). The poet represents 
himself as having come unexpect- 
edly, while strolling in the woods, 
upon the god himself, in whose 
overpowering presence he feels a 
touch of the frenzy of the bac- 
chanal ; and when the first tumult- 
uous emotions have subsided his 
mind is left in a fit state of exalta- 
tion to sing the praises of the god. 
— Metre, 176. 

I. in remotis rupibus: the 
gods when they visited the earth 
always sought solitary places, far 
away from the paths of men ; cf. 
note on imminente lunoy I. 4. 5. 
The haunts of Bacchus were in the 



hills and woods, hence the epithets 
^los, ^t0o/ri;t frequently applied 
to him. — carmina docentem : 
the dithyrambic hymns were attrib- 
uted to the inspiration of Bacchus 
himself (cf. III. 25), who is here 
represented as training the nymphs 
and satvrs, as Apollo inspires and 
trains the muses (cf. 10. 18). 

2. credite posteri: parenthet- 
ical, asserting the truth of the 
story against its inherent improba- 
bility, which will tell against it 
with greater force when the nar- 
rator's personal authority is no 
longer felt; cf. Epod, 9. 11. The 
appeal shows that the poet is not 
here telling of a vision, but repre- 
sents himself as having actually 
seen the god. 

3. Nymphas . . • Satyrorum : 
both always represented as music- 
al; cf. I. I. 31 ; Lucr. IV. 580 sqq, 
— auris Satyrorum: a poetical 
variation of Satyros audientis (par- 
allel to nymphas discentis) ; cf. 
umerumt I. 21. 12 n, and Intr. 
126^. 

4. capripedum: so also in 
Lucretius (/. c.) and in some of the 
later Greek poets. The attribute 
is borrowed from Pan and the 
PaniscL The Satyr was generally 



156 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II. 



5 



10 



Euhoe, recenti mens trepidat metu 
plenoque Bacchi pectore turbidum 
laetatur ; euhoe, parce Liber, 
parce gravi metuende thyrso ! 

Fas pervicacis est mihi Thyiadas 
vinique fontem lactis et uberes 
cantare rivos atque truncis 
lapsa cavis iterare mella ; 

fas et beatae coniugis additum 
stellis honorem tectaque Penthei 



represented with pointed ears, 
conspicuous against his bald head, 
a tuft of hair on his neck, and a 
tail; in other respects his figure 
was human. 

5. euhoe : the cry of the bac- 
chantes (eto?) in their orgies (cf. I. 
18. 9); here interjected and re- 
peated to express vividly the poet's 
complete possession by the divine 
enthusiasm. — recenti : i.e. not 
yet quieted. — metu : the sight of 
a god was alwa3rs a strain on 
human nerves (xaXeiroi 9k Oeol 
<l>al¥€<rd(u ivapyeis, II. XX. 1 31); 
cf. Verg. A. IV. 279 sqq, 

6. pleno Bacchi : cf. III. 25. i 
sq. — turbidum : Intr. 48. 

7. parce : sc. from the full force 
of his inspiration, which would 
drive the poet to frenzy 5 cf. Verg. 
A. VI. 77 sqq, 

8. gravi, dread, because its touch 
brought on madness. — metuende : 
cf. 1. 12. 23. 

9. fas, vouchsafed ; cf. I. 24. 20. 
He feels the assurance of this 
in the revelation with which the 
god has favored him. — pervica- 
cis, untiring; persevering, ue. in 
their fanatical orgies, which were 
kept up day and night. — Thyia- 
das: ^(ddcf (cf. ^w, 'rave') was 



another name for the maenads 
(/ia(i>ddef ; cf. puilwofiou) or Bacchae 
(/Sdicxai), the women who took 
part in the orgies of the god. 

10. vini fontem, etc.: these 
miracles, effected by the stroke of 
the thyrsus, are described in Eurip. 
Bacch, 704 sqq.; cf. also 141 60 
ll^pxos Bp6fuos eOot. ^T dk ydXaxri 
iriioVf ftet 5* dvifi, /ki ^ fieKurffav 
piicrapi, — et : Intr. 114. 

11. truncis lapsa: Intr. 70. 
Cf. JSpod. 16. 47 ; Verg. £, 4. 

30- 

12. iterare : to go over in words, 

equivalent to narrare ; cf. Plant. 
As. 567 tua malefacta iterari tnulta 
et vero possunt. 

13. fas: Intr. 116^. — et, too. 
— beatae, blessed, i.e. by being 
received into heaven. — coniugis : 
Ariadne. 

14. honorem: i.e. the golden 
crown, her wedding present from 
Bacchus, which the god, on re- 
ceiving her into heaven, placed 
among the stars (the * Northern 
Crown*); cf. Ov. M. VIII. 176 
sqq., F. III. 459 sqq. For the 
form of expression cf. umerum, 
I. 21. 12 n. — Penthei: grandson 
of Cadmus and his successor 
as king of Thebes. For resist- 



XIX 5-24.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



157 



15 



20 



disiecta non leni niina 
Thracis et exitium Lycurgi. 

Tu flectis amnis, tu mare barbarum, 
tu separatis uvidus in iugis 
nodo coerces viperino 

Bistonidum sine fraude crinis. 

Tu, cum parentis regna per arduum 
cohors Gigantum scanderet impia, 
Rhoetum retorsisti leonis 
unguibus horribilique mala, 



ing the worship of Bacchus he 
was torn to pieces by his own 
mother Agave and other women, 
who in their frenzy mistook him 
for a wild beast, and his house was 
destroyed; Ov. M, III. 513 sqq. 
For the form cf. VJixet^ I. 6. 7 n. 

16. Lycurgi: a king of the 
Edoni (7. 27 n) who attempted to 
suppress the bacchanalian orgies 
and the cultivation of the vine. 
He was driven mad by Bacchus, 
and after killing his own wife and 
son was himself devoured by pan- 
thers (Hygin. Fab, 132). There are, 
however, other versions of his 
punishment, as II. VI. 130 sqq.; 
and later writers (as Nonnus, 
Dionys, XX. 149 sqq,) make him 
an Arab prince. 

17. tu: see 1. 10. Qn. — flectis, 
dost subdue to thy will (cf . IV. 1.6); 
alluding to the minicles of his 
Indian expedition, and particularly 
to his crossing the H^oaspes with- 
out wetting the feet of his panthers, 
and reducing the rebellious river to 
obedience (Nonn. Dionys, XXIII. 
125 sqq,, XXIV. 7 sqq.). That he 
exerosed a similar power over the 
waters of the Indian ocean (mare 
barbarum) is implied by Seneca, 
who calls him Lycurgi domitor et 
rubri maris (Here. Fur, 903). 



18. separatis: cf. remoHs, in. 

— uvidus: sc. vino; see IV. 5. 

39 n. 

19. nodo viperino: i.e. with a 
snake instead of a ribbon ; cf. Cat. 
64. 258 {bacchantes) pars sese tortis 
serpentibus incingebant, 

20. Bistonidum : i.e, Thraclan 
bacchantes, the Bistones being a 
Thracian tribe; cf. Sithoniis, I. 
18. 9 n. — fraude, harm {sc. to 
them) ; an archaic use of the word, 
borrowed from certain legal form- 
ulas; cf. liv. I. 24. 5 rex respondit: 
quod sine fraude mea populique 
Romani QuiriHum fiaty fctcio. 

21. tu, cum, etc.: according to 
one form of the tradition, Bacchus 
as well as Hercules was summoned 
to the aid of the gods in their 
battle with the giants; see 12. 6 n. 

— parentis, thy father (Jove). — 
regna : Intr. 1 28. — per arduum, 
up the steep path to. 

22. impia: as attacking the 
gods. 

23. Rhoetum : one of the 
Giants; cf. III. 4. 55. — leonis, 
etc. : this feature of the story is 
not found elsewhere, but in his 
adventure with the pirates Bacchus 
turned himself into a lion to 
frighten his captors ; Hom, Hymn, 
in Dionys, (7). 44. 



158 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II 



25 quamquam choreis aptior et iocis 
ludoque dictus non sat idoneus 
pugnae ferebaris ; sed idem 
pacis eras mediusque belli. 

Te vidit insons Cerberus aureo 
30 cornu decorum, leniter atterens 
caudam, et recedentis trilingui 
ore pedes tetigitque crura. 



26. dictus: a present passive 
participle, if the language pos- 
sessed one, would here be in place, 
to express what was true up to and 
during the time of ferebaris. 
The perfect, however, is in keep- 
ing with the feeling of the lan- 
guage, which tends to express the 
cause as preceding the effect in 
time as well as logically. 

27. idem, etc.: i,e, thou wast 
(as the event proved) quite as well 
qualified for war as for peace, 
idem is predicate ; (medius) pacis 
and medius belli belong to the 
subject. For the position of -que, 
showing that medius is to be 
understood with pacis, and hence 
excluding the meaning 'half-way 
between peace and war,' see 
Intr. 119^. The use of the geni- 
tive with medius for in media 
pace, etc., is poetical, and is not 
found elsewhere. It is used in a 
different sense in Ep, I. 18. 9. 

29. te vidit, etc. : the hymn 
concludes, like I. 10, with the visit 

 of the god to the lower world, 
where he went to bring away his 
mother Semele and take her to 
heaven. — insons: to be closely 
connected with vidit. 

30. cornu : apparently not here 
attributed to Bacchus as the sym- 



bol of strength and courage (cf. 
III. 21. 18 n), as it often is {e.g, 
Tib. II. I. 3, Prop. IV. 17. 19), 
but the drinking horn with which 
he is sometimes represented in 
vase-paintings, the ic^/nk, /3^u- 
fffiivov iiB4ot oTmou, xP^^^^^ ^ 
ToliiTop, which he carried in his 
left hand (the thyrsus in his right) 
as he marched at the head of 
his army to India (Nonn. XIV. 
240). With the wine from this 
he quiets Cerberus. — atterens, 
'tagging. 

31. recedentis: genitive. The 
first part of the strophe referred 
to the entrance of Bacchus into 
Hades. — trilingui ore: equiva- 
lent to Unguis triplicis oris. There 
is no good reason to suppose that 
Horace intended to present a con- 
ception of Cerberus different from 
the prevailing one; it was neces- 
sary to mention the tongue, and 
it was obviously desirable here to 
keep the number of heads so far as 
possible in the background, as the 
picture of a fawning dog with three 
heads is at best a difficult one to 
manage. Where it suits his pur- 
pose (13. 34) he makes the monster 
hundred-headed. 

32. tetigit : ue, licked. — -que : 
see Intr. 119^. 



XIX. 25-xx. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



159 



XX. 

Non usitata nee tenui ferar 
penna biformis per liquidum aethera 
vates, neque in terris morabor 
longius, invidiaque maior 

urbis relinquam. Non ego pauperum 
sanguis parentum, non ego quern vocas, 
dilecte Maecenas, obibo, 
nee Stygia cohibebor unda. 



XX. The poet foretells his own 
immortality in the form of an al- 
legory based on the familiar fancy 
of the Greeks that the souls of 
poets after death passed into 
swans and in this form continued 
to exercise their gift of song (Plat. 
Rep, X. 620 a). Such outspoken 
appreciation of his own merits, 
though foreign to our habits, was 
not offensive to Roman taste, and 
perhaps the same is true of the 
extremely realistic description of 
the transformation, though some 
editors have doubted this and 
would strike out the third strophe 
as at least unworthy of a man of 
Horace's taste. Its realism cer- 
tainly goes beyond the passage of 
Euripides {Fr, 903) by which per- 
haps it was suggested : 

Xpiftreau, di/j fJM irr^pvyet rtpl v(br<fi 
Kal rd 'L€Lfyiiviav vrepdevra iriSCfC 

pdaofjuil r els alBipa vokbp A^Mt, 
Zrivl Tpoff/jU^wp. 

The ode is not improbably the re- 
sult of Horace's first attempt to 
write an epilogue for the three 
books, and was relegated to its 
present subordinate position when 
he had composed the. much supe- 



rior poem which now worthily fills 
that place. — Metre, 176. 

1 . non usitata : signifying that 
his fame rests on a new kind of 
poetry (cf, II L 30. 13); nee tenui: 
i.f. strong, signifying that his fame 
is secure. 

2. biformis : i^. first a man 
and then a bird. Others, however, 
following Porphyrio, understand it 
to refer to Horace's achievements 
in two departments of poetry {guini 
et iyrica scribat et hexametros), 

4. -que: see I. 27. 16 n; the 
negatives in vs. i. belong to the 
adjectives, and neque morabor 
conveys an afiirmative idea (= dis- 
cedan^), — maior, raised above, 
superior to ; the result of success 
which can no longer be questioned. 

5. urbis : more picturesque than 
terram ; cf. I. 35. 10, III. 4. 46. — 
non ego: cf. 1. 18. 11 n; Intr. 116^. 
— pauperum sanguis parentum: 
a fact of which Horace was never 
ashamed even in his younger days 
(cf. S. I. 6. 71 sqq,), and which I j 
brings into prominence here as 
adding lustre to his fame, because 
it shows that he owed his success 
solely to his own merits. 

6i quem vocas (sc. adte), whom 
you invitif i*e, admit to your 



160 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. II, 



10 



'5 



lam iam residunt cruribus asperae 
pelles et album mutor in alitem 
superne nascunturque leves 
per digitos umerosque plumae. 

Iam Daedaleo notior Icaro 
visam gementis litora Bospori 
Syrtisque Gaetulas canorus 
ales Hyperboreosque campos. 



society ; the converse of me petity 
i8. II n; cf. revocas, S, I. . 6. 
6i. The present expresses custom- 
ary action. This appears to be 
the most probable explanation, but 
the expression is vague, and the 
suggestion of Biicheler (Rhein. 
Mus. XXXVII. p. 238) that vocare 
is the technical word for the re- 
lation of patron to client {is qui 
duet) is plausible. In either case 
Horace's clear purpose is to recall, 
in contrast with his present posi- 
tion (invidia maior) and prospect- 
ive immortality, his humble origin 
and the envy and detraction to 
which as the friend of Maecenas 
he was subjected in the earlier 
part of his career (Intr. 23). 

9. residunt, is settlings owing 
to the limbs growing slimmer. — 
cruribus : Intr. 69. — asperae : 
with residunt. 

10. pelles: Intr. 128. — album 
alitem : see intr. note. 

11. supemS: referring espe- 
cially to album. The -e is short 
also in Lucr. VI. 544 and 597. — 
leves : in contrast with asperae ; 
Intr. 116^. 

13. Daedaleo Icaro : cf. Seme- 
leius ThyoneuSj I. 17. 22 n. The 
adjective here virtually includes . 
the father in the comparison, which 
would have been a more fortunate 
one if the mention of the son 



could have been omitted alto- 
gether ; the reader can hardly help 
remembering the unhappy end of 
his flight. — notior : for the read- 
ing ocior, which has the support 
of some good manuscripts, see 
Intr. 185. 

14. visam, etc.: signifying that 
his poems will be read and sung 
in the remotest parts of the earth. 
— gementis Bospori: cf. rauci 
Hadriaet 14. 14. 

1 5. Gaetulas : for ' African ' ; 
cf. Intr. 117 3. 

16. Hyp6rboreos campos: 
originally a mythical happyland 
situated * beyond Boreas' {ultra 
Aquilonem gens felix^ si credimus, 
quos Hyperboreos appellaverey Plin. 
N. H. IV. 89), and hence not ex- 
posed to his cold blasts, a paradise 
of innocence and peace. The myth 
was variously located by different 
authors, but mostly, in accordance 
with the name, in the far North, so 
that hyperboreus came to be a 
poetical term for 'northern,' as 
here; cf. Verg. G. IV. 517 hyper- 
boreas glacies ; III. 381. 

17. me Colchus, etc.: the con- 
verse of the same idea: *I shall 
visit the remotest lands (13-16), and 
their peoples shall learn to know 
me (17-20).' Observe further 
that the nations named represent 
two classes^ the barbarians oeyond 



XX. 9-24J 



HORATI CARMINA. 



161 



20 



:i 



Me Colchus et qui dissimulat metum 
Marsae cohortis Dacus et ultimi 
noscent Geloni, me peritus 

discet Hiber Rhodanique potor. 

Absint inani funere neniae 
luctusque turpes et querimoniae ; 
compesce clamorem ac sepulcri 
mitte supervacuos honores. 



the frontier and the peoples who 
have already come under the 
mfluence of Roman civilization; 
and the verbs (noscent, discet) 
are chosen with reference to this 
distinction. — dissimulat metum : 
/>. is afraid, in spite of his bold 
front. 

18. Marsae : cf. I. 2. 39 n. — 
Dacus : see I. 26. 4 n. — ultimi : 
see 18. 4 n. 

19. Geloni : see 9. 23 n. — peri- 
tus, accomplished. That literature 
was already cultivated at this time 
in Spain is shown by the number 
of poets and prose writers whom 
that country began to produce in 
the next generation. The Senecas, 
Quintilian, Lucan, and Martial 
were the most prominent. 

20. Rhodani potor: the Gaul. 
The importance of a great river 
to the communities through which 
it flows makes the phrase an ap- 
propriate one; cf . 9. 21 sq, 

21. absint, etc. : cf. the epitaph 
of Ennius (Cic. Tusc* I. 34) : 



,4. > 



Nemo me lacrumis decoret nee fu- 
nera JUtu \ faxit! Cur? Volito 
vivus per ora virum, — inani : be- 
cause there will be no body to 
bum. — funere : Intr. 70. — neniae: 
formal dirges^ chanted usually by 
women hired for the purpose 
{praeficae); cf. i. 38. 

22. luctus: plural, of various 
forms of mourning. — turpes, un- 
seemly^ such as tearing the hair 
or face, beating the breast, etc. ; 
Intr. 125. This, too, was done by 
hired mourners. — querimoniae : 
of friends and relations. 

23. compesce : addressed to 
Maecenas, as the chief mourner. — 
clamorem : the clamor supremus 
(Ov. Tr. III. 3. 43) or wail of sor- 
row raised by those present at a 
deathbed when life was extinct. 

24. supervacuos: because his 
fame was secure without any ma- 
terial monument; cf. III. 30. i. 
Horace always uses this form in- 
stead of the Ciceronian supervaca- 
neus, 

1. '^^'" 



J \ 



162 



■J 



^ \' > LIBER TERTIVS 



7- 



J » 



I. 



Odi profanum volgus et arceo. 
Favete Unguis ! Carmina non prius 
audita Musarum sacerdos 
virginibus puerisque canto. 



The six odes with which this 
book opens are marked by certain 
characteristics which unite them 
together as a group and give them 
a unique and conspicuous place in 
the collection. In contrast with 
Horace*s usual method of arrange- 
ment, they are all in the same 
metre ; they are addressed, not to 
any individual, but to all patriotic 
Romans ; they are furnished with 
a common introduction, which 
sets the key for a discourse of 
unusual dignity and earnestness; 
and throughout them all, with 
whatever license of poetic digres- 
sion and embellishment, the 
thought pursues one main theme, 
— the moral qualities that are in- 
dispensable alike to the happiness 
of the individual and to the 
strength of the state. For these 
reasons some critics, ancient and 
modern, have regarded them, not 
as separate odes, but as parts of a 
single poem, and have sought, 
with much ingenuity, to trace a 
connection of thought between 
the close of each and the opening 
of the next. In this, it must be 
said, they have not been com- 
pletely successful: the odes bear 
the appearance of having been 
written separately; but they were 
probably all written about the 



same time, — the internal evidence 
points to the period immediately 
following the political settlement 
of B.C. 27, when Octavian, with 
the title of * Augustus,* was def- 
initely invested with the principate, 
and Horace's mind was full of 
visions of the coming regeneration 
of the state. And there can be no 
question that Horace designedly 
arranged the odes, as we find 
them, in a lyrical sequence, as 
poems with a common subject 
and purpose, and gave them here 
a position worthy of their dignity 
and importance. Not less certain 
is the design of the first strophe, 
in which, with almost startling 
impressiveness, he steps forward 
as the priest of the Muses, and, 
warning off the * uninitiate herd,' 
makes his appeal, with solemn 
earnestness, to those who have 
ears to hear, and especially to the 
young, whose hearts are not yet 
hardened by the vices he is about 
to attack. Clearly, this is an in- 
troduction to the whole series, 
and does not belong to the first 
ode alone. 

I. After the opening strophe, 
the poet sets forth the futility of 
seeking happiness in wealth and 
power. First, he raises his hearers 
to a higher point of view, from 



HORATI CARMINA. 



163 



Regum timendorum in prOprios greges, 
reges in ipsos imperium est lovis, 
clari Giganteo triumpho, 
cuncta supercilio moventis. 

Est ut viro vir latius ordinet 



which the human distinctions we 
make so much of are seen in truer 
perspective: kings sink to the lev- 
el of their meanest subjects before 
the supreme might of Jove; riches, 
high birth, fame, influence count 
for nothing against the inexorable 
allotment of death. Wealth can- 
not buy, nor power create, the 
peace of mind which belongs to 
him alone who has learned con- 
tentment. — Metre 176. 

1. profanum volgus: t.e, all 
the uninitiated, whose mere pres* 
ence would defile the holy rite 
w^ich ' the bard is (figuratively) 
about to perform (cf. Verg. A, VI. 
258). They tjrpify the ignorant 
multitude) whose stolid minds are 
incapable of receiving his teaching. 

2. favete Unguis: addressed 
to those who remain. It means 
properly * Speak only words of 
gooid omen ' (cf. 14. 11), but prac- 
tically (like c^^/tceire) * Keep rev- 
erent silence* (cf. sacro silentio^ II. 
13. 29 n), since laymen could not 
be sure what words might have an 
unlucky significance. Cf. Aristoph. 
Tkesmoph* 39 w^ftas irat l<rTw 
Xa6f, <rr6/Aa <ri;7icX2f<roj. — non 
prius audita: the poems belong 
to the class called gnomic, for 
which the Greeks {t.^. Theognis) 
commonly used the elegiac metre. 
Xn his use of the Alcaic for this 
purpose, as well as in his manner 
of dealing with his subject, Horace 
might fairly lay claim to originality. 

3. Musarum sacerdos: i.t. 
the inspired mouthpiece of their 
teachings. For Horace's view of 



the office of the poet as instructor 
of youth (virginibus puerisque) 
see £p. II. I. 126 j^^. 

5. regum, etc.: sc. imperium 
est; but timendorum is virtually 
part of the predicate. . The whole 
clause is in the nature of a con- 
cession : ' Dreadful is the might 
of kings to their own subjects, 
who tremble as cattle before them; 
but • etc. — in : with the accusative 
expressing the object on which 
power or influence is exercised; 
cf. Plaut. Men. 1030 si quid im- 
perist in te mihi; Tac. Ann. III. 
24. 2 valida divo Augusta in rem 
publicam fortuna. — greges : not 
to be confused with the Homeric 
figure of kings as 'shepherds of 
the people'; the thought here is 
quite the reverse, being comple- 
mentary to that of timendorum. 

7. Giganteo triumpho : cf. II. 
I. 16. The unapproachable supe- 
riority of Jove*s physical power is 
summed up in this allusion : To 
him whose arm has subdued the 
portentous strength of the Giants, 
what are the puny kings of men } 

8. cuncta, etc.: the figure is 
Homeric (//. I. 528 sqq.) ; cf . Cat. 
64. 204 sqq.\ Verg. A. IX. 106. 

9. est, it is true ; a meaning 
given to it by its emphatic posi- 
tion, making the sentence conces- 
sive, — just as we say *He was 
(no doubt) at fault, but etc.,* and 
the like. The apodosis begins 
with aequa lege^ 14. For the con- 
struction of est ut, see Gr. 332 a 3. 
-^ viro vir : Intr. 75. The juxta- 
position was a favorite one; cf. 



1 



164 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



10 



IS 



20 



arbusta sulcis, hie generosior 
descendat in Campum petitor, 
moribus hie meliorque fama 

eontendat, illi turba elientium 
sit maior : aequa lege Neeessitas 
sortitur insignis et imos, 

omne eapax movet urna nomen. 

Destrictus ensis eui super impia 
cervice pendet, non Siculae dapes 
dulcem elaborabunt saporem, r. 
non avium citharaeque cantus^^ 



Verg. ^. XI. 632 implictiere inter 
se acies Ugitque virum vir ; Liv. 
XXII. 14. 14, etc. — latius ordinet, 
etc.: i.e, is a more extensive land- 
owner. 

10. arbusta : i.a vineyards^ in 
which the vines were trained on 
trees planted at regular intervals 
(ordinet sulcis); cf. II. 15. 4 n. 

11. descendat: sc. from the 
hills, where the houses of the 
better class were situated. — 
Campum: sc. Martium^ where 
the elections were held. Observe 
that the thought here is concerned 
with the distinctions among men, 
and not with the political contest, 
which is introduced only as the 
scene in which these distinctions 
are conspicuously displayed. 

12. meliorque: Intr. 119^. 

13. turba elientium : in hb 
atrium at the salutaiio, or morn- 
ing reception, when the clients 
were expected to call and pay 
their respects to their patron, or 
in public, when they escorted him 
on his way to or from the Forum 
or the Campus. 

14. aequa : see I. 4. 13 n, II. 
18. 32 ; expressing the main point 
of contrast with what precedes, it 



naturally comes to the front in its 
own clause. — Neeessitas: per- 
sonified, as in I. 35. 17, where she 
appears as the minister who 
executes the decrees of Destiny; 
here and in 24. 6, with special 
reference to the decree of death 
to man. 

15. sortitur, ^iMWf J. — insignis: 
cf. I. 34. 13. 

16. urna : see II. 3. 26 n. 

1 7. destrietus ensis, etc. : />. this 
ever*impending presence of death 
hangs over the godless man like 
the sword of Damocles, and robs 
him of all enjoyments in the midst 
of luxury. The well-known story 
of Damocles is told by Cicero, 
Tusc.V. 61. — eui: Intr. 114. — 
super : cf . I. 9. 5 n. -7- impia : 
Intr. 124. 

18. Sieulae : i.e. such as those 
served to Damocles. The high 
living of the Sicilian Greeks wa» 
proverbial. 

19. elaborabunt: implying that 
his natural appetite is gone. For 
the prefix, cf. I. 5. 8 n. 

20. avium eitharaeque: arti- 
ficial devices to induce sleep; cf. 
£p. I. 2. 31. Aviaries were kept 
in many wealthy establishments. 



I. 10-30.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



165 



somnum reducent ; somnus agrestium 
lenis virorum non humilis domos 
fastidit umbrosamque ripam, 
non zephyris agitata tempe. 

25 Desiderantem quod satis est neque 
tumultuosum soUicitat mare 
nee saevus Arcturi cadentis 
impetus aut orientis Haedi, 

non verberatae grandine vineae 
30 fundusque mendax, arbore nunc aquas 



Maecenas, who suffered from in- 
somnia, resorted to the device of 
soft music played at a distance 
(Sen. de Frov. 3. 10). 

21. reducent : implying that 
it has deserted him ; cf. repotti, 
5. 30, Sleep is half personified 
here, as in the next sentence. — 
agrestium virorum : limiting 
domos, although felt also iurb 
KW.VOV with somnus (Intr. 76). The 
words are drawn away from their 
grammatical connection towards 
the head of the sentence for more 
emphatic contrast with the preced- 
ing. Cf. Epod. 2. 25 sqq. This 
brings us to the other side of the 
poet's subject, the contented man, 
whose happier lot he sets forth in 
the next two strophes ; cf . Verg. 
G. II. 458 sqq, 

24. tempe : see I. 7. 4 n ; here 
it is an appellative, as it had al- 
ready come to be used by the 
Greeks (e.g, Theocr. I. 67); cf. 
Cic. adAtU IV. 15. 5. Verg. G. II. 
469. 

25. desiderantem, etc.: d.Ep. 
I. 2. 46 sqq. The man who bounds 
his desires by his wants is free 
from the harassing anxieties of 
avarice, as exemplified in the 
^der (25-28} and the great land- 



owner (29-32). Vss. 27, 28 might 
also refer to the latter (see Verg. 
G, I. 204 sq.)y but non (29) clearly 
divides the two instances. 

27. Arcturi cadentis : near 
the end of October ; cadentis for 
occidenHst as in Epod. 10. 10; Intr. 
129. 

28. impetus : with reference to 
the violent storms which accom- 
panied (and were supposed to be 
caused by) the setting of the con- 
stellation. — orientis Haedi: in 
the middle of October ; also re- 
garded as a source of storms ; cf . 
nim basis Haedis^Ov. Tr, I. 11. 13. 

29. verberatae vineae : Intr. 
105 a, Cf. Ep. I. 8. 4 sq, 

30. fundusque mendax: the 
exasperated cry of the disap- 
pointed planter, whose abuse of 
the farm, as if it were a living 
thing, is thoroughly human. Cf. 
Ep, I. 7. 87. Personification of 
the farm, with which the fanner's 
life was so closely bound up, was 
very common, as it was very nat- 
ural; cf. Cic. de Sen. 51. — arbore: 
the personification is still kept up: 
the tree, speaking for itself and its 
fellows, is always offering some 
excuse for their shortcomings, 
arbore may stand for th^ vine (see 



166 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



culpante, nunc torrentia agros 
sidera, nunc hiemes iniquas. 

Contracta pisces aequora sentiunt 
iactis in altum molibus ; hue frequens 
35 caementa demittit redemptor 

cum famulis dominusque terrae 

f astidiosus : sed timor et minae 
scandunt eodem quo dominus, neque 
decedit aerata triremi et 
40 post equitem sedet atra Cura. 



1. 18. 1 n), but as this has jast been 
mentioned, the poet no doubt 
has in mind here simply fruit- 
bearing trees, and in particular the 
olive. — aquas : />. excess of wet 
weather. 

31. torrentia, etc.: i.g. drouth, 
attributed, like all other meteor- 
ological conditions, to the influ- 
ence of certain constellations. Cf. 
29. 17 sqq. 

33. contracta, etc.: cf. II. 18. 
20 sqq.; III. 24. 3 sq. — pisces 
sentiunt : i.e. they find their realm 
encroached upon by creatures of 
another element. The hyperbole 
has been condemned as extrava- 
gant by rod-and-line critics, but it 
adds a telling stroke to the picture 
of wealth making its elaborate 
and costly provision for a life of 
pleasure: even the bounds which 
nature has set offer no check to 
these ambitious projects. 

34. molibus : of stone, to serve 
as foundations for the house. — 
hue : i.e. in altum, — frequens : 
singular for plural ; cf. Plin. N, H, 
IX. 180 tbi frequens hie ptscts, and 
the corresponding use of rarus, 
IV. I. 34. The use is similar to 
that oi multus (I. 5. i), plurimus 
(I. 7. 8 n), etc. 



3 c. caementa: broken stones (cf. 
eaeao) of irregular size and shape, 
used to fill the spaces between 
the larger blocks. — redemptor: 
here builder ; see II. 18. 18 n. 

36. famulis : i.e. his workmen, 
who would naturally be slaves. — 
dominus : he too is present, hur- 
rying on the work, — showing his 
impatient eagerness to realize his 
dream of pleasure. — terrae : with 
fastidiosus ; Intr. 66 a. 

37. timor et minae :' hendia- 
dys; the menaces are those which 
he sees in the object of his fear. 
The thought is the same as that 
expressed by the sword of Damo- 
cles, above. 

38. scandunt eodem : he can- 
not take refuge from them in his 
lofty sea-castle. 

39. aerata, etc.: see II. 16. 21 n, 
where the whole thought is the 
same as here. — triremi : usually 
a war vessel, here the large private 
yacht of the rich man ; cf. Ep. I. 
!• 93 quern ducit priva triremis. 
For the case, see Intr. 70. 

40. atra : in II. 16. 21, vitiosa ; 
but the uppermost thought here 
is that of death (see I. 28. 13 n). 

41. quod si, now if; summing 
up the preceding considerations ; 



I. 3I-II. I.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



167 



45 



Quod si dolentem nee Phrygius lapis 
nee purpurarum sidere elarior 
delenit usus nee Falerna 

vitis Aehaemeniumque eostum, 

eur invidendis postibus et novo 
sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
divitias operosiores ? 



II. 



Angustam amice pauperiem pati 



cf. I. I. 35. — dolentem: sc. mt. 
— Phrygius lapis : one of the 
rich marbles (see II. 18. 5 n) used 
by the Romans in their more 
splendid edifices. It was mo£tled 
with red. For this and the follow- 
ing epithets, see Intr. iiy a, 

42. purpurarum : /. d. scarlet 
robes and tapestries ; cf. II. 18. 
8 n. — elarior usus : Intr. 1 24. 
Cf. Verg. G. II. 466 nee casta 
liquidi corrumpitur usus olivi. 

43. Falerna vitis : cf. I. 20. 10 
and 1 1 nn. 

44. Achaemenium : i^, costly 
oriental; cf. Attalicis condicionibus 
1. 1. 12. ForAchaemenes,seeII. 12. 
21 n. — eostum : see II. 3. 13 n. 

45. invidendis : cf. II. 10. 7. — 
novo ritu, in the modern style, 
some features of which are indi- 
cated, — the handsome marble 
portal and the great height of the 
atrium (sublime). With the estab- 
lishment of peace and security un- 
der Augustus came a great flow of 
capital to the city and a great impe- 
tus to the building of ornate private 
houses as well as public edifices. 
We have here grammatically an 
ablative of manner combined with 
one of characteristic; but novo 



ritu is practically a qualifying ad- 
junct qf sublime, which is parallel 
with invidendis postibus. 

46. moliar, build ; suggesting 
a massive, laborious structure; 
cf. II. 15. 2; III. 29. ID. — atrium: 
see note on columnas, II. 18. 4. 

47. valle Sabina: Intr. 24. For 
the construction, see Intr. 74. 

II. In the first ode, the poet's 
aim was mainly negative, — to 
strip of their glamour the two 
most coveted objects of human 
endeavor, honor and, more par- 
ticularly, riches ; to show that the 
possession of them is but vanity 
and vexation of spirit. In the 
present ode, he assumes a positive 
attitude and proposes a more ex- 
cellent way. In the cultivation of 
character and, in particular, of the 
sterling Roman virtues of manli- 
ness and loyalty (virtus soid^des), 
he points out to the voung Roman 
the worthy object of a nobler am- 
bition, and one that brings its 
own sure reward. — Metre, 176. 

I. angustam, etc. : he takes 
up the thought where he left it in 
the preceding ode : For this life of 
contented poverty, let the young 



X ; \' 



U A, (, 



168 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



10 



robustus acri militia puer 
condiscat, et Parthos ferocis 
, vexet eques metuendus hasta, 

vitamque sub divo et trepidis agat 
in rebus ; ilium ex moenibus hosticis 
matrona bellantis tyranni 
prospiciens et adulta virgo 

suspiret, eheu, ne rudis agminum 
sponsus lacessat regius asperum 
tactu leonem, quem cruenta 
per medias rapit ira caedes. 

Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori : 



Roman train himself in the hard- 
ships and perils of warfare, where 
his ambition is to be a terror to 
our foes, and his glory to die, if 
need be, for his country. Cf. IV. 
9. 49 sqq, — amice, cheerfully^ 
gladly, as something to be wel- 
comed. Cf. clementer ferrey molli- 
terferre in Cicero, and our * take 
kindly.' For the alliteration in 
this verse, see Intr. 131. 

2. robustus, grown sturdy^ i.e. 
through the sturdiness he has ac- 
quired. — militia : with robustus. 

— puer : see I. 9. 16 n. 

3. condiscat: subjimctive of 
wish. — ferocis, bold; said with 
a touch of depreciation : our lad 
shall humble their pride. 

4. eques, as a, etc. 

5. sub divo: see I. i. 25 n. 

a ilium: notice the emphasis, 

— * my aspiration for him is,' etc. 
The scene which follows is mod- 
eled upon //. XXII. 25 sqq.y where 
Priam and Hecuba, watching 
Achilles from the walls, entreat 
Hector not to expose himself to a 
combat with him. —r hosticis : cf. 
civicum, II. I. I n. 



7. tyranni: the king whose city 
is besieged by the Romans. The 
queen and princess, like the women 
in the Iliad (III. 141 sqq., XXII. 
460 sqq.), watch the battle from 
th&jamparts. 

9. eheu: expressing the woman's 
sigh; but what follows is not a 
Quotation of her words. — ne, etc.: 
depending on the notion of fear 
conveyed by suspiret. — agmi- 
num, 0/ kUtalionsy i.e. of warfare 
in general. 

10. sponsus regius : the son 
of some neighboring king, be- 
trothed to the princess. — aspe* 
rum tactu : see I. 37. 26 n. 

11. leonem: the young Roman 
warrior. — cruenta ira: see Intr. 
124. 

13. dulce, etc.: the connection 
of thought is this : 'And if such 
heroic conduct should cost him 
his life, it is a joyful and glorious 
privilege; for death comes to every 
man, whether he face it or flee 
from it.' Cf. Cic. Phil, 14. 31 
o fortunata mors, quae naturae 
debita pro patria est potissimum 
reddita ! 



II. 2-24.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



169 



IS 



20 



mors et fugacem persequitur virum 
nee pareit imbellis iuventae 
poplitibus timidoque tergo. 

Virtus repulsae neseia sordidae 
intamihatis fulget honoribus, 
nee sumit aut ponit seeuris 
arbitrio popularis aurae ; 

virtus reeludens immeritis mori 

eaelum negata temptat iter via, 

coetusque volgaris et udam 

spernit humum fugiente penna. 



1 4. et, cts welL — persequitur : 
the prefix denotes the persistency 
of the pursuit, — death is ever at 
his heels, no matter how fast he 
may run away (cf, vs. 32), and 
despatches him at last with a 
wound in the back. Horace had 
doubtless read in his Simonides 
(Fr, 65) h h* o!b Odparos kIx^ Kal 
t6v 4^vy6fAaxov. 

1 5. imbellis, faint-hearted, 

16. poplitibus, etc. : cf. Li v. 
XXI I. 48. 4 aversam adoriuntur 
Romanam aciem, tergaque ferientes 
ac poplites caedentes stragem in- 
gewtem . . .fecerunt. 

17. virtus, true manhood^ the 
character of the ideal man (vir). 
The clauses that follow are not 
designed to describe the attitude 
of the man of character towards 
political honors, but to express 
the inherent nobility of character 
itself, and the figures borrowed 
from the political arena are used 
to mark the superiority of the 
power which character confers 
over the coveted prizes of political 
life : The success of character is 
sure, with no risk of humiliating 
defeat ; its * honors ' are unsullied 
by any base practices used in win- 



ning them; its power is permanent, 
. and not held for a brief space by 
the favor of the fickle populace. 
The same figure is used still more 
boldly in IV. 9. 39. — repulsae ; 
the technical term for defeat as a 
candidate for office. 

18. fulget : cf. 16. ^ifulgentem 
itnperio, — honoribus : cf. I. i . 
8n. 

20. aurae : see I. 5. 11 n. 

21. virtus : Intr. 116^. — re- 
eludens, etc. : it is manhood, in 
its highest development, that, at 
the end of his earthly career, ex- 
alts the hero to heaven and makes 
him a god. The third ode is an 
expansion and illustration of this 
text. — mori : Intr. \oi d, 

22. negata : j^. as a rule, — 
not open to common men ; cf . 
indoctli collOf 3. 14. — temptat iter: 
the conception is here shifted a 
little ; virtus ^ which in vs. 21 is 
the power that opens heaven to 
the hero, is now merged in the 
personality of the hero himself, as 
the immortal part of him which 
rises above earth and death, and 
finds a way to heaven. 

23. udam : referring to the rain 
and fogs of the lower air, and sug- 



170 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



25 



30 



Est et iideli tuta silentio 
merces. Vetabo qui Cereris sacrum 
volgarit arcanae sub isdem 

sit trabibus fragilemque mecum 

solvat phaselon : saepe Diespiter 
neglectus incesto addidit integrum ; 
raro antecedentem scelestum 
deseruit pede Poena claudo. 



gesting by contrast the fine, pure 
quality of the aether above, the 
abode of the gods. 

25. est et, etc: another maxun 
from Simonides (Fr. 66), ivn mX 
aiyas dKMvvop 7^pat, which is 
said to have been adopted by 
Augustus (Plutarch Mora/. 207 d). 
The virtue of loyalty is coupled 
with virtusj as its complement in 
those whose lot or whose gifts do 
not call them to great achieve- 
ment. There can be no doubt 
that Horace had Maecenas here 
chiefly in mind ; cf. Prop. IV. 8. 
33 Caesaris etfamae vestigia iuncta 
tenebis ; \ Maecenatis erunt vera 
tropaea fides. Being merely a 
negative virtue, the importance of 
loyalty is best appreciated by con- 
templating its opposite, the wicked 
betrayal of trust, on which the 
poet accordingly dwells, express- 
ing in a vivid way his abhorrence 
of it, and the certainty that sooner 
or later it will be overtaken by the 
just retribution of heaven. Cf. I. 
18. II sqq, 

26. Cereris sacrum : i.e. the 
Eleusinian mysteries, used simply 
as an illustration; Intr. 117 a. 

27. arcanae, mystic. Intr. 125. 

28. sit: the subjunctive with- 
out ne after veto is suggested, per- 
haps, by the familiar form of pro- 
hibition, cave sis. — trabibus : i.e. 
roof. — fragilem: suggesting the 



opportunity offered to the deity to 
inflict the merited punishment. 

29. phaselon, yachts as in 
Catullus 4; a long, narrow, fast- 
sailing craft of Egyptian origin, 
named from its resemblance in 
shape to the kidney bean (0<i0^Xos). 

— Diespiter : see 1. 1. 25 n, 34. 5. 

30. neglectus : cf. 6. 7. The 
neglect might consist either of 
failure to recognize his supremacy 
by due worship and sacrifice (cf. 
I. 34. i) or of indifference to his 
commandments ; more commonly 
the two would go together. — in* 
cesto, impure^ polluted by sin, 
and hence offensive to the god; 
cf. I. 12. 59. — addidit, involves 
. . . with ; sc. in the same punish- 
ment, such as the fall of the 
building or the capsizing of the 
boat. For the tense, see Intr. 80. 

— integrunii the holy man; in 
meaning (from in and root of 
tango) it is the opposite of incesto. 

31. raro: with deseruit. — ante- 
cedentem : i.e. though punish- 
ment does not instantly follow 
the crime ; implying (with pede 
claudo) a feeling of security in 
the offender. 

32. deseruit : i.e. is left behind 
and gives up the pursuit ; ef. II. 
16. 22. — pede claudo : conces- 
sive, whether taken as ablative 
absolute or ablative of character- 
istic. 



11. 25-in. 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



171 



III. 

lustum et tenacem propositi virum 
non civium ardor prava iubentium, 
non voltus instantis tyranni 

mente quatit solida, neque Auster, 

dux inquieti turbidus Hadriae, 

nee fulminantis magna manus lovis : 



III. The poet now reverts to 
the praise of strong manhood, and 
develops the thought embodied in 
the strophes on inrtus in the pre- 
ceding ode, the transition from 
which is so natural that the two 
odes have been regarded as one, 
and are so written in some good 
manuscripts. What was there said 
of manly character in the abstract 
is here restated with concrete illus- 
trations. In the fine climax of the 
first two strophes we see the man 
of upright character and resolute 
will stemming the tide of popular 
passion, braving the threats of 
power, facing csdmly the most vio- 
lent convulsions of nature. This 
is the quality, the poet exclaims, 
which carried the great benefac- 
tors of our race through their 
trials and enabled them to attain 
heaven at last, — a Hercules, a 
Pollux, a Bacchus, a Romulus. 
The last illustration tempts him 
away from his subject, and he fol- 
lows his fancy in describing the 
scene in heaven, when the gods in 
council consented to admit the 
founder of Rome to their com- 
pany. This long description, which 
occupies the greater part of the 
ode, is at the end treated playfully 
by the poet as an unwarranted 
digression, for which he rebukes 
his muse ; but it is quite in keep- 
ing with the patriotic purpose of 



these odes, and it serves, like the 
episode of Regulus in the fifth, 
to break the monotony of his long 
moral discourse. The use of the 
title Augustus in vs. 1 1 shows that 
the poem was not written before 
B.C. 27. — Metre, 176. 

1. iustum et tenacem pro- 
positi, upright and steadfast^ i.e. 
steadfast in the right; for oi course 
the propositum of a iustus vir must 
itself be iustum. The quality de- 
scribed (h(u artey 9) is canstantia, 
one of the cardinal Roman virtues, 
based on rectitude, — the man who 
first makes sure the course of 
action he proposes is right, and 
then consistently adheres to it. 

2. civium ardor : Horace may 
have had in mind the conduct of 
Socrates at the trial of the nine 
generals (Xen. Mem. I. i. 18). 

3. tyranni : the word implies 
irresponsible, and hence arbitrary 
power. It is possible that Socrates 
(under the Thirty Tyrants) was 
the model iox this part of the pic- 
ture also. 

4. mente : ablative of respect. 
— neque Auster, etc.: i.e. if right 
impels him, he wUl go undaunted 
through storm and flood. What 
is audacia in I. 3. 9 sqq. is here 
fortitude. 

5. dux Hadriae : cf. I. 3. 15 
arbiter Hadriae ; II. 17. 19. — tur- 
bidus, boisterous. 



172 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



10 



si fractus inlabatur orbis, 
impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules 
enisus arcis attigit igneas, 

quos inter Augustus recumbens 
purpureo bibet ore nectar ; 

hac te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
vexere tigres indocili iugum 



7. fractus, should hreak and, — 
orbis : here used in a wider sense 
(= mundus), the sphere of the 
heavens ; ci. vs. C3, where mundus 
(like our * world ) is used for the 
earth only. 

9. )iac arte : see vs. i n. — Pol- 
lux: suggesting also his inseparable 
twin brother; cf. 29. 64; Verg. G. 
III. 89; Prop. IV. 22. 26. — ^vag^s: 
in reference to the long journeys 
which his labors entailed. 

10. enisus : in its literal sense 
of struggling out of difficulties 
and hindrances to a position where 
one is free from them. Cf. Tac. 
Ann, I. 70. 6 Vitellius in editiora 
enisus eodem agmen subduxit. — 
arcis, heights ; cf. aetherias arcis^ 
Ov. TV. V. 3. 19. — igneas : in 
reference to the stars (called ignes^ 
I. 12. 47). Cf. Cic. Sontn. Scip, 
16 sqq, * iustitiam cole et pietatem 
. . ./ ea vita via est in caelum et in 
hunc coetum eorum qui iam vixe- 
runt et corpore relaxati ilium in- 
colunt locum quern vides* — erat au- 
tem is splendidissimo candor e inter 
flammas cir cuius . . . ^Nonneaspicis 
quae in templa veneris? Navem 
HH orbibus vel potius globis conexa 
sunt omniay quorum unus caelestis 
est 'extimus . . , in quo sunt infixi 
illi qui volvuntur stellarum cursus 
sempiterni, 

11. quos inter, etc.: i.e. like 
Pollux and Hercules, the great 



benefactor of the world in our 
day will be received, when his 
work is done, among the gods. 
Cf. Verg. G, I. 24, 503 and Ep. II. 

1. 5 sqq,^ where Horace makes the 
same comparison, writing at a time 
when the worship of Augustus 
was already an accomplished fact. 
However extravagant the compli- 
ment may seem to us, and however 
perfunctory it may have been on 
Horace's part, there was nothing 
in it repugnant to Roman religious 
notions. See the curious discus- 
sion of the subject in Tacitus, 
Ann. IV. 38. ^sqq. — recumbens: 
i.e. at a banquet: cf. Ep. I. 5. i. 

1 2. purpureo ore, with rosy lips; 
the hue of eternal youth, Xh^ lumen 
iuventae purpureum (Verg. A. 1. 590) 
proper to a god. Cf . Verg.^. II. 593. 

13. hac . . . hac : ablatives of 
cause (unlike hac artCy 9), the first 
with merentem, the second with 
merens (with Quirinus), suggested 
by the anaphora. — Bacche pater: 
cf. I. 18. 6 n. 

14. vexere: sc. in caelum ^ as 
the anaphora and merentem suf- 
ficiently imply. — tigres : so, too, 
VergU (A. VI. 805) and Ovid (Ars 
Amat I. 550, Am. I. 2. 48) ; in 
Greek poetry and art Bacchus is 
drawn by panthers. His control of 
wild beasts typifies his civilizing 
influence. — indocili: cf. negata^ 

2. 22 n. 



III. 7-24.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



173 



15 



20 



coUo trahentes ; hac Quirinus 
Martis equis Acheronta fugit, 
gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
lunone divis : < Ilion, Ilion 
fatalis incestusque iudex 
et mulier peregrina vertit 
in pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
mercede pacta Laomedon mihi 
castaeque damnatum Minervae 
cum populo et duce fraudulento. 



16. equis : f>. in his chariot 
(though the abl. is instrumental) ; 
cf. conscendit equos Gradtvus^ Ov. 
Met, XIV. 820, where the apothe- 
osis of Romulus is described. See 
also Liv. I. 16. 

17. gratum (with divis): im- 
plying that all the rest were ready 
to welcome the hero. The poet's 
object is obviously to show how 
Rome now enjoys the unanimous 
favor of the gods, divided as they 
had been in feeling towards Rome's 
mother city. Juno voices the 
sentiments of those who had 
hated the Trojans. Her speech 
is thoroughly natural : in yielding 
all that was desired, she b at 
great pains to show that she yields 
nothing at all. Her righteous en- 
mity was against Troy and its 
perjured people, — her rekindled 
wrath breaks out in a savage rep- 
etition of the name, Ilion, Ilion ; 
but Troy has perished, and her 
vengeance is satisfied. Let the 
remnants of the accursed race live 
and prosper, — if only in exile; let 
them extend their sway over the 
farthest lands and people, — but 
they must not rebuild Troy. That 
she dwells at such length and 
recurs again to this condition, 
which saves her dignity and her 



consistency,is sufficiently explained 
by the poet's desire to make the 
scene true to life. Cf. her speech 
in Verg. A. XII. 823 sqq, 

19. fatalis : ue. an instrument 
in the hands of fate ; referring to 
iudex only. — incestus: cf. 2. 30 n. 
His sin was in giving his verdict for 
a bribe in dealing with the gods. — 
iudex et mulier: Paris and Helen. 
The goddess in her lofty scorn 
cannot take their names on her 
lips; so again below, vss. 25 sq. 

20. vertit : cf. Verg. A, I. 20 ; 
Intr. 129. 

21. ex quo, ever since; defin- 
ing the time of damnatum. — 
deos : Poseidon and Apollo, who 
served him for a year, one build- 
ing the walls of the city, the other 
keeping his flocks, according to 
//. XXI. 446 sqq. According to 
another myth, which Horace ap- 
pears to have in mind in vs. 66, 
Apollo built the wall ; cf . Verg. G, 
III. 36 Troiae Cynthius auctor. 

23. damnatum, forfeited^ given 
over to our vengeance. See Roby 
1 199. — Minervae: against whom, 
with Juno, the judgment of Paris 
had gone. 

24. duce : Laomedon, at the 
time; but the doom actually fell 
on his son Priam. 



174 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



25 lam nec Lacaenae splendet adulterae 
famosus hospes nec Priami domus 
periura pugnacis Achivos 
Hectoreis opibus refringit, 

nostrisque ductum seditionibus 
30 bellum resedit : protinus et gravis 
iras et invisum nepotem, 

Troica quem peperit sacerdos, 

Marti redonabo ; ilium ego lucidas 
inire sedes, discere nectaris 
35 sucos et adscribi quietis 

ordinibus patiar deorum. 



25. adulterae : dative; cf. qui- 
bus nitesy I. 5. 12. 

26. famosus, notorious {sc. as a 
hospes). — nec, no longer (from the 
influence of iam, which belongs 
to both clauses). 

28. opibus : here equivalent to 
virihus ; cf. IV. 4. 60. — refringit, 
shatters ; more commonly used in 
prose of breaking down an ob- 
stacle ; here, of presenting so firm 
a resistance that the assailing force 
is shattered upon it. Cf. the use of 
debilitate 1. 1 1 . 5, and Prop. IV. 3. 44 
Teutonicas Roma refringit opes. 

29. ductum, prolonged. 

30. resedit : a very expressive 
word : the * storm of war * has 
given way to a calm. — protinus : 
rather logical than temporal in 
meaning, — she is completely satis- 
fied and waits for nothing further. 

31. nepotem: Romulus, as son 
of her son Mars ; invisum, for 
the reason given in the next verse; 
she will not make him suffer for 
the sins of his race, but she can- 
not love him. 

32. Troica: see I. 2. 17 n. — 
sacerdos : as a Vestal. 



33. redonabo : see II. 7. 3 n. 
The word is here employed, how- 
ever, in the sense of < giving up* 
rather than < giving back ' (cf. I. 3. 
7 n), and is made to serve for both 
objects, iras and nepotem : she 
will give up, in favor of Mars, her 
displeasure, and she will give up 
to him his grandson, whom she 
might withhold. — ilium : emphat- 
ic; against him she harbors no re- 
sentment. — lucidas : see vs. ion. 

34. discere, to taste ; lit. to be- 
come acquainted with (an object 
previously unknown), as in II. 20. 
20. — nectaris : genitive of nearer 
definition; Gr. 214^! 

35. sucos: Intr. 128. — et: con- 
necting the second and third in- 
finitives, as expressing what took 
place after Romulus had entered 
heaven, more closely with one an- 
other than with the first, which 
expresses the entrance itself. Cf. 
Ep. I. 7. 53 and 55. — adscribi 
ordinibus: both words are borrow- 
ed from the Roman political and 
military systems. — quietis : their 
normal condition. In contrast with 
seditionibus^ above, it expresses the 



III. 25-48.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



175 



Dum longus inter saeviat Ilion 
Romamque pontus, qualibet exsules 
in parte regnanto beati ; 
40 dum Priami Paridisque busto 

insultet armentum et catulos ferae 
celent inultae, stet Capitolium 
fulgens triumphatisque possit 
Roma ferox dare iura Medis ; 

45 horrenda late nomen in ultimas 
extendat oras, qua medius liquor 
secernit Europen ab Afro, 
qua tumidus rigat arva Nilus. 



goddess' desire for peace. The 
beautiful rhythm enhances the im- 
pression of serene existence which 
the words convey. 

37. inter saeviat : Intr. 1 1 5 r. 

36. exsules, in exile ; limiting 
the concession in qualibet. 

39. regnanto : concessive ; cf . 
occupatOj 29. 44 n. 

40. busto: ablative of place (Intr. 
69) with insultet (used absolutely; 
cf. Verg. A. XI. 599 /remit aequore 
toto insultans) and celet. When 
these lines were written, Vergil had 
not yet published the Aeneid and 
fixed for all time the legend of 
the death of Priam {^cet ingens 
litore truncus \ avolsumque umeris 
caput et sine nomine carpus ^ A, 11. 
557); so that there was no pre- 
conceived notion in the minds of 
Horace's readers (as there is in 
ours) to deter him from introduc- 
ing a crumbling tomb of the Tro- 
jan king to complete his picture 
of desolation and to make a more 
striking contrast with the splendor 
of the Capitol. 

42. stet Capitolium : see 30. 
8 n. 



43. fulgens: in reference to 
its ^ded roof ; cf. Verg. A. VIII. 
347 Capitolia •• • | aurea nunc, 
olim silvestribus horrida dutnis. — 
triumphatis, to lead in triumph 
and; proleptic. — i^ssiX, have the 
power to; the event had not yet 
justified prophecy in going any 
further than this. 

44. dare iura : the act of an 
absolute sovereign ; cf. Liv. I. 8. i 
(of Romulus) vocata ad concilium 
multitudine, quae coalescere in 
populi unius corpus nulla re prae- 
terquam legibus poterat, iura de- 
dit. — Medis : see I. 2. 22 n. 

45. horrenda, spreading terror. 
— late: with horrenda. — ^nomen: 
/>. her political power; cf. Latinum 
nomen, IV. 15. 13. 

46. qua . . . qua, where, on the 
one side, . . . where, on the other; 
so qua parte . . • qua, below 
(55 ^9')' — niedius liquor : the 
straits of Gibraltar. 

47. Afro : the name of the in- 
habitant standing for the country. 
The plural is more common in 
this use; cf. IV. 4. 63; Intr. 127. 

48. tumidus rigat : . referring 



176 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



Aurum inrepertum et sic melius situm, 
50 cum terra celat, spemere fortior 
quam cogere humanos in usus 
omne sacrum rapiente dextra, 

quicumque mundo terminus' obstitit, 
hunc tanget armis, visere gestiens 
55 qua parte debacchentur ignes, 

qua nebulae pluviique rores. 

Sed bellicosis fata Quiritibus 
hac lege dico, ne nimium pii 
rebusque fidentes avitae 
60 tecta velint reparare Troiae. 



to its annual inundation, on which 
the fertility of Egypt depends. 

49. aurum, etc.: at this point 
the goddess, catching for a mo- 
ment the inspiration of her theme, 
changes from assent to prophecy 
(tangety 54, after sUt^ possit, ex- 
tendat ; c£. also /ata dico^ 57), and 
she warms with admiration for the 
moral fortitude of the Roman, 
which will enable him to triumph 
over all obstacles. As prophecy, this 
refers to the best times of the com- 
monwealth ; to Horace's readers it 
was designed to convey a lesson, to 
point out the condition of future 
success. — inrepertum : ue, not 
sought for, though known to exist. 

50. spemere : Intr. loi a, 102. 
— fortior, showing her courage 
more in. 

51. cogere, gathering (it). — 
humanos in usus (with rapi- 
ente), etc.: describing the opposite 
disposition, — one that shrinks 
from nothing in the mad race for 
riches, humanos is in contrast 
with sacrum. 

52. omne : i.e. all without distinc- 
tion, any and every; cf. I. 3. 25 n. 



53. mundo : see note on orSis, 
7. — obstitit : perf. definite (from 
obsisto) expressing a present state 
(= obstat) ; cf . constiterint^ I. 9. 4. 

54. visere : cf. 1. 37. 25 n, II. 15. 3. 

55. qua parte, etc.: cf. I. 22. 17 
sqq. nn. — debacchentur, revel un' 
restrained fJ.e. have full sway, with 
no counteracting forces to moder 
ate them, as in the temperate zone. 
For this intensive force of de-^ cf 
I. 9. II n, and Ep. I. 3. 14 desaemt. 
The subjunctive indicates that 
these clauses are part of the wish 
(gestiens). 

56. pluvii rores : although ros 
is used by the poets for water in 
general {e.g. 4. 61), the phrase is 
here a singularly happy one to ex- 
press the persistent 'drizzle' which 
is so prominent a feature of the 
weather in some parts of northern 
Europe during a considerable por- 
tion of the year. 

57. sed : the goddess closes 
with an emphatic reiteration of 
the terms of her concession. — 
fata : see vs. 49 n. 

58. hac lege dico : implying 
that she had some control over 



III. 49-72.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



177 



Troiae renascens alite lugubri 
fortuna tristi clade iterabitur, 
ducente victricis catervas 
coniuge me lovis et sorore. 

65 Ter si resurgat murus aeneus 
auctore Phoebo, ter pereat meis 
excisus Argivis, ter uxor 

capta virum puerosque ploret/ 

Non hoc iocosae conveniet lyrae : 
70 quo, musa, tendis ? Desine pervicax 
referre sermones deorum et 
magna modis tenuare parvis. 



their destiny. Fatum (from /an) 
is originally nothing but the ex- 
pressed will {fuoti seme/ dictum 
esty C. S. 26) of Jove or of some 
other divinity; ci»fato dtvom, Verg. 
A. VII. 50, and see Preller-Jordan, 
Rihn. Myth. II. 194. — ne . . . 
velint : in apposition with lege. 
— pii : here of devotion to ances- 
tors (avitae). 

59. fidentes : also modified by 
nimium. The expression implies 
that in entertaining such a desire 
they would consciously incur danger 
(cf. 1. 3. 25), — that of undertaking 
to undo what the gods had done. 

61. Troiae: Intr. 116^. — re- 
nascens, etc.: sc. si renascetur. 
The protasis, already implied in 
the preceding strophe, is again 
suggested by renascens, which is 
itself, however, a part of the con- 
clusion. — alite lugubri : cf. mala 
azfif I. 1 5. 5 n. 

62. fortuna, tAe career. 



64. coniuge et sorore : cf. 
Verg. A. I. 47. Intr. 116^. 

65. ter, etc.: cf. Verg. G. I. 281, 
283. Intr. 116^ and/. — aeneus 
auctore Phoebo: of the very 
strongest material and with a divine 
architect. For Phoebus, see above, 
21 n. — meis : see I. 7. 8 n. 

67. Argivis : Intr. 55. 

69. non hoc, etc.: the poet 
breaks off as if suddenly conscious 
that he is trespassing with his 
playful lyre on epic ground. Cf. 
II. I. 37 sqq. The tone in which 
he rebukes his headstrong muse 
is hardly in keeping with his char- 
acter as Musarum sacerdos^ and 
indicates that the ode was origi- 
nally written independently. — con- 
veniet : the future is natural, just 
as we say * this will never do,' and 
the like. 

72. tenuare : cf. I. 6. 12 n. — 
parvis, petty; cf. 25. 17; IV. 2. 
27 sqq. 



178 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



IV. 

Descende caelo et die age tibia 
regina longum Calliope melos, 
seu voce nunc mavis acuta, 
seu fidibus citharave Phoebi. 

Auditis, an me ludit amabilis 
insania i Audire et videor pios 
errare per lucos, amoenae 

quos et aquae subeunt et aurae. 



IV. With a fresh invocation 
and a renewed declaration of his 
loyalty to the service of the Muses, 
the poet proceeds in thi^ ode to 
inculcate the supremacy of mind 
over brute force, of strength tem- 
pered with wisdom over ungov- 
emed violence. This gentle wis- 
dom is the gift of the Muses to 
men. This is their gift to Caesar, 
— this, and not merely diversion 
and refreshment, — when he leads 
his veterans home from war. The 
victory of Jove over the Titans 
and Giants, which Horace cites as 
an illustration of his precepts, 
could not fail to be understood 
by his readers as typical of the 
victory of Augustus, the champion 
of order and culture, over the tur- 
bulent forces of anarchy and civil 
strife. — Metre, 176. 

1. descende caelo: the Muses 
were conceived as dwelling in 
heaven ('0\AfixM HiifAar* Hx^^^^^i 
//. II. 484), though having, like 
other divinities, their favorite 
haunts on earth. — caelo : Intr. 
70. — die age : cf. I. 32. 3, II. 11. 
22. For the meaning of die, see 
I. 6. 5 n. — tibia, etc.: see 1. 1. 32, 
34; 12. 1 n. For the case, see note 
onjide Teia, I. 17. 18. 

2. regina: expressing the poet's 
homage ^ cf. III. 30. 14 sqq., IV. 3. 



The title, like AwM-tf-a and ^iffvoiPa 
in Greek, was a common form of 
honorary address to a goddess ; 
cf. III. 26. 1 1. — longum : he prays 
for, not a brief or fitful, but a long- 
sustained inspiration. — Calliope : 
see note on Cliot I. 1 2. 2. 

3. seu : see I. 4. 12 n. — voce : 
i.e. without instrumental accom- 
paniment. 

4. fidibus citharave : on a 
Greek vase preserved in Munich 
are figures of the nine muses, of 
whom two are playing on the 
lyra and the cithara respectively 
(Baumeister, p. 1 544), and two on 
tibimi while one is apparently sing- 
ing (cf. voce) from a scroll. — 
Phoebi : as being its inventor. 
The lyre (fidibus) was invented 
by Mercury; cf. I. 10. 6. 

5. auditis: sc. melos; the divine 
melody that fills his soul comes 
with such vividness that at first 
he doubts whether it is not real 
music. 

6. audire et videor (sc. miht) : 
see Intr. 119 a, and cf. II. i. 21. — 
pios, holy; hallowed by the pres- 
ence of the Muses and undefiled 
by the contact of the crowd; cf. 
I. 1 . 30 sqq. 

7. amoenae: Intr. 114. 

8. quos subeunt, ^neath which 
course. 



IV. i-i6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



179 



TO 



IS 



Me fabulosae Volture in Apulo 
nutricis extra limen Apuliae ^i^^// 
ludo fatigatumque somho 

fronde nova puerum palumbes 

texere, minim quod foret omnibus, 
quicumque celsae nidum Acherontiae 
saltusque Bantinos et arvum 
pingue tenent humilis Forenti, 



vCvi/i 






9. me I the emphasis here marks 
the connection with what precedes, 
not by way of contrast (as in I. i. 
29, 7. 10, etc.), but of explanation. 
That he could hear the divine 
strains, inaudible to others, was in 
keeping with his constant experi- 
ence of the muses* favor. In re- 
calling his marvelous preservation 
in childhood, — the incident may 
very well have been a real one, 
though given to us with poetical 
embellishment, — Horace had in 
mind, perhaps, the stories told of 
the infancy of some of the Greek 
poets, — as of Stesichorus, on 
whose lips a nightingale was said 
to have alighted and sung ; of 
Pindar, whose lips, in his sleep, 
were bathed with honey by the 
bees. — fabulosae: with palum- 
bes, a connection indicated by 
their being joined with me and 
puerum respectively (Intr. 112). 
For the meaning, cf. 1. 22. 7 n; they 
are the doves * of story,* the birds 
of Venus, which draw her car and 
carry ambrosia to Jove {Odys. 
XII. 63). 

10. Apuliae: the text is almost 
certainly wrong here, and no satis- 
factory correction has been pro- 
posed. Apart from the improb- 
ability of the substantive following 
so closely upon its adjective, the 
double diange of prosody from 
Apiilo to Apuliae has a very sus- 



picious look, and the second form 
finds poor support in the uncertain 
Xpulicum of 24. 4. Some other 
word, in all probability, originally 
stood at the end of verse 10, and 
has been displaced and lost by the 
blunder of a copyist whose eye 
was caught by the word Apulo 
above it. See Crit. App. 

11. fatigatum, overcome. For 
the position of -que, see Intr. 
119^. For the fatigatum to be 
supplied with ludo, a somewhat 
different translation will be neces- 
sary. 

12. nova, fresh; i,e. green, 
plucked for the purpose. 

13. mirum quod foret omni- 
bus, a marvel to all ; character- 
istic relative clause; cf. Epod. 2. 
28 n. The subject of mirum 
foret is (through quod) the pre- 
ceding sentence, but it is expanded 
in the interrogative clauses which 
follow in the next strophe, ut tuto, 
etc. 

14. quicunque, etc.: i.e, all 
within a range of a dozen or fif- 
teen miles, — implying that many 
witnesses could be called to con- 
firm the story. The places are 
briefly characterized, Acherontia 
as perched on a hill, Bantia among 
the mountain pastures, Forentum 
in fertile lowland. They have 
left their names to the modem 
Acerenza, Banzi, and Forenza. 



180 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



ut tuto ab atris corpore viperis 
dormirem et ursis, ut premerer sacra 
lauroque conlataque myrto, 
20 non sine dis animosus infans. 

Vester, Camenae, vester in arduos 
toUor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste seu Tibur supinum 
seu liquidae placuere Baiae. . 

25 Vestris amicum fontibus et choris 
non me Philippis versa acies retro, 
devota non exstinxit arbor, 
nee Sicula Palinurus unda. 



17. ut : with mirunty 13; see. 
note above, and cf. Epod. 16. 53. 
— atris, deadly; see I. 28. 13 n, 
and cf. Verg. G. I. 1 29 ille malum 
virus serpentibus addidit atris. 

18. premerer, / was covered 
all over; cf. Epod i. 33. — sacra : 
to Phoebus, as the myrtle was to 
Venus. Both sacra and conlata 
are to be taken with each of the 
substantives; see Intr. 121. 

19. -que . . . -que : cf. I. 26. 
12. — conlata : /. e. not at hap- 
hazard, but showing design. 

20. non sine dis : in reference 
to animosus ; the child's courage 
came from no human inspiration. 
Cf. //. V. 185 oim ^ y ^f*v0€ 0€oG 
T<£t5e fMlyerai, d\\d ris &yx^ \ ^<rriy<f* 
d^apdrtap. 

21. vester . . . vester . . . toUor, 
yours I am, . . .yours, when I climb. 
The emphatic vester expresses 
both their choice of him and his 
surrender to them. Theirs he is 
always and everywhere; under 
their protection he has escaped 
from imminent peril in the past, 
with them he will cheerfully face 
any dangers in the future. 



22. Sabinos: see II. 18. 14 n; 
it may mean here, however, merely 
the country. — frigidum : from its 
high situation (altum Praeneste, 
Verg. A. VII. 682). 

23. supinum: cf. Juv. 3. 192 
proni Ttburis. Both Praeneste 
and Tibur were favorite resorts of 
Horace; cf. I. 7. 11 sqq., II. 6. 
5 sqq., Ep. I. 2. 2, 7. 45. 

24. liquidae : probably refer- 
ring to the atmosphere. — placu- 
ere, attract. — Baiae : see II. 18. 
20 n ; for Horace's visits to it, cf . 
Ep. I. 15. 2 sqq. 

25. vestris: Intr. 116^. — ami- 
cum, welcome; see I. 26. in. — 
fontibus : cf. I. 26. 6 n. 

26. Philippis : cf. II. 7. 9 ; Intr. 
12. — versa acies : Intr. 105 a. 

27. arbor: cf. II. 13; 17. 27. 

28. Palinurus : a promontory 
of Lucania, named, according to 
Vergil, after the pilot of Aeneas 
(A. VI. 381). The natural infer- 
ence from the allusion is, that 
Horace had had a narrow escape 
from shipwreck off this point; but 
we know nothing of the circum- 
stances. See, however, Intr. 13. 



IV. 1 7-40-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



181 



Vtcumque mecum vos eritis, libens 
30 insanientem navita Bosporum 
temptabo et urentis harenas 
litoris Assyrii viator ; 

visam Britannos hospitibus feros 
et laetum equino sanguine Concanum, 
35 visam pharetratos Gelonos 

_^ et Scythicum inviolatus amnem. 

Vos Caesarem altum, militia simul 
fessas cohortis abdidit oppidis, 
finire quaerentem labores 
40 Pierio recreatis antro. 



29. utcumque: see I. 17. ion. 

30. Bosporum : cf. II. 13. 14. 

32. litoris Assyrii: used vague- 
ly of the far East, — the shore of 
the Persian gulf or Indian ocean ; 
cf. II. II. 16 n. — viator, a way- 
farer; in contrast with navita. 

33. hospitibus feros: Horace 
probably means that they sacrificed 
them, as they did their captives 
(Tac. Ann. XIV. 30). Human sac- 
rifices were a part of their druidical 
rites, according to Tacitus. 

34. Concanum : one of the Can- 
tabrian tribes (see II. 6. 2 n). The 
practice here attributed to them 
was a Scythian custom; cf. Verg. G. 
III. 461 Gelonus cum . . . lac con- 
cretum cum sanguine potdt equino. 

35. Gelonos : see II. 9. 23 n. 

36. Scythicum amnem: the 
Tanais (Don) ; cf . Medum flumen^ 
II. 9. 21. 

37. vos : continuing the em- 
phasis in vester and vestris^ above. 
The anaphora keeps prominent 
the main idea of the ode, the 
intellectual activity inspired and 
fostered by the Muses, — here as 
affording refreshment after the 



physical fatigue of war ; in the next 
strophe as subduing the fierce pas- 
sions engendered by strife, and re- 
storing the calm control of reason. 
— altum, august ; d. S. II. 5. 62; 
Verg. ^. X. 875 alius Apollo. 

38. abdidit : aptly expressing 
the disappearance from pubUc 
view of the formidable army of 
120,000 men which threatened the 
peace of Italy when the victor re- 
turned after Actium. 

39. finire quaerentem: implying 
a distaste for war and a longing for 
peace. For the inf., see Intr. 94 c. 

40. Pierio antro: i.e. by literary 
study or conversation in some 
quiet retreat. Grottos, however, 
were actually used for entertain- 
ments ; cf. Tac. Ann. IV. 59. Do- 
natus ( Vita Verg. 27) tells us that, 
on his way home from the East in 
B.C. 29, Octavian spent some time 
at Atella, in Campania, to recu- 
perate, and there listened diiring 
four days to the Georgics, then 
just finished, which were read to 
him by Vergil and Maecenas. His 
taste for literature is attested by 
Suetonius (Aug» 84. 85). For 



182 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



Vos lene consilium et datis et dato 
gaudetis, almae. Scimus ut impios 
Titanas immanemque turbam 
fulmine sustulerit caduco 

45 qui terrain inertem, qui mare temperat 
ventosum et urbis regnaque tristia 
divosque mortalisque turmas 
imperio regit unus aequo. 

Magnum ilia terrorem intulerat lovi 
50 fidens iuventus horrida bracchiis, 
fratresque tendentes opaco 
Pelion imposuisse Olympo. 



Pierio, see I. 12. 6 n. Cf . also 
Dionaeo antro^ II. i. 39. 

41. vos : see 37 n. — lene con- 
silium : in allusion to the moder- 
ate policy pursued by Augustus 
after his victory. For the synae- 
resis in consilium, see Intr. 181. 

42. gaudetis : implying that 
their teaching is accepted, with 
beneficent results; otherwise they 
would have no cause to rejoice. 
This thinly veiled commendation 
of Augustus continues to be the un- 
derlying thought of what follows, 
where the poet cites in support of 
his thesis a well-known (scimus) 
example. — ut : cf. vs. 17. 

43. Titanas, etc. : Horace is 
not careful to distinguish the 
Titans from the Giants. — imma- 
nem : alluding to the monstrous 
shapes of the Giants. On the 
great altar at Pergamon, which 
Horace possibly had seen (Intr. 
12), they are represented in a vari- 
ety of grotesque forms, in which 
the human figure is combined with 
that of other animals (Baumeister, 
p. 1 252). — -que : epexegetical, and 
all the. 



44. caduco, descending ; Karat- 
pdrtjs K€pavv6s, Aesch. Prom, 359. 

45. qui, etc. : the triple contrast, 
suggesting the manifold variety of 
detail in the universe which Jove 
controls, conveys a livelier impres- 
sion of his power; inertem (cf. 
II. 9. 5, and bruta tellus et vaga 

Jluminay I. 34. 9) is contrasted 
with ventosum ; urbis (where life 
is fullest and richest) with regna 
tristia, the abode of the dead ; 
divos (the immortals) with mor- 
talis turmas (the ranks of mortal 
men). The objects of temperat 
are terram and mare, which stand 
for inanimate nature ; with the 
remaining objects, which represent 
sentient beings, regit is used. 

49. terrorem : cf. II. 12. 7. 

50. fidens : best taken abso- 
lutely. — iuventus : the Hecaton- 
cheires or hundred-handed (hor- 
rida bracchiis) sons of Uranus 
and Gaea. In the ordinary form 
of the myth in Greek writers these 
three brothers take the side of Zeus. 

51. fratres: the Aloidae, Otus 
and Ephialtes; Odysx XL 308, 
Verg. A. VI. 582. 



ly. 41-62.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



183 



55 



60 



Sed quid Typhoeus et validus Mimas, 
aut quid minaci Porphyrion statu, 
quid Rhoetu^evolsisque truncisH 
Enceladus iaculator audax 

contra sonantem Palladis aegida 
possent ruentes ? Hinc avidus stetit 
Volcanus, hinc matrona luno et 
numquam umeris positurus arcum, 

qui rore puro Castaliae lavit 
crinis solutos, qui Lyciae tenet 



52. Pelion, etc.: cf. Odys. XI. 
315 "Offffav iv OHKOfjLTrifi fUfjuuray 
Oiyxv^ aiDrdp iw "Oaff-g \ Ui/jXtov 
€lpoffi(l>v\\op, tv ovpavoi Afi^arbs efi;* 
Verg. G. I. 280; Prop. II. 1. 19, — 
imposuisse : Intr. 81 ^. 

53. Typhoeus, etc.: Horace's 
picture of the Gigantomachia is 
conceived on a less portentous 
scale than in some forms of the 
myth, in which the combatants 
hurl mountains and islands at one 
another. Here, asinll.19. 21 s^^,, 
we must imagine an assault on 
Olympus, and the gods fighting 
side by side like Homeric warriors. 
— Typhoeus : the youngest of 
the sons of Gaea, and the strongest 
and most terrible of them, sent by 
his mother to take vengeance on 
the gods for their destruction of 
the Giants (or, in Hesiod, of the 
Titans). Here he is not dis- 
tinguished from the rest of the 
Giants. — Mimas : a Giant. 

54. Porphyrion : Pa<n\cds Ft- 
ydtrrtavy Find. PytA, 8. 17. — statu, 
posture* 

55. Rhoetus : see II. 19. 23. — 
tnincis: instrumental abl. with the 
verbal idea in iaculator; Intr. 73. 

56. Enceladus : imprisoned un- 
der Etna; Verg. A, III. 578. 



57. contra, etc.: to be taken 
with possent, though understood 
also with ruentes. — sonantem : 
from being shaken by the goddess 
herself, to inspire terror. In Homer 
the crash of thunder is associated 
with the shaking of the aegis by 
Zeus (//. XVII. 595). — aegida: 
see I. 15. II n. 

58. hinc . . . hinc : />. ranged 
on either side of Fallas, who is the 
central figure; the goddess of 
wisdom is the foremost champion. 
— avidus : sc. pugnae ; so Tac. 
Ann. I. 51. I avidas legiones. 

60. numquam positurus: i.e, 
forever armed and prepared; see 
Intr. 104 a, and cf. ponere^ I. 3. 40. 
In the following strophe the poet 
allows us to pause and contem- 
plate the beautiful god, as a relief 
from the stern conflict and the 
grave thoughts it suggests. Cf. I. 
12. 29 n. 

61. Castaliae : a spring on Far- 
nassus. — lavit crinis: cf.IV. 6.26. 
For lavit, see II. 3. 18 n. 

62. solutos: cf. I. 21. 2 n. — 
tenet : sc. under his sway; cf. 26. 9 
(= I. 3. i), C .S". 69 ; here, however, 
used more with reference to the 
abode of the god (cf. vs. 16). Hor- 
ace follows the legend which made 



184 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



dumeta natalemque silvam, 
Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

65 Vis consili expers mole ruit sua : 

vim temperatam di quoque provehunt 
in maius ; idem odere viris 
omne nefas animo moventis. 

Testis mearum centimanus Gyas 
70 sententiarum, notus et integrae 
temptator Orion Dianae, 
virginea domitus sagitta. 

Iniecta monstris Terra dolet suis, 
maeretque partus fulmine luridum 
75 . missos ad Orcum ; nee peredit 
impositam celer ignis Aetneh, 



Apollo spend the six winter months 
at Patara, in Lyda, where he had 
a famous temple and oracle, and 
the summer in Delos (Serv. on 
Aen, IV. 143). The reference 
to these two places is repeated 
chiastically in the epithets of vs. 
64. 

63. natalem : see I. 21. 2 n. 

65. vis, etc.: this strophe at 
once sums up the moral of the 
story, — the ineffectiveness of force 
without intelligence, — and ad- 
vances the thought a step farther : 
divine favor promotes force that 
is under control ; divine wrath 
overtakes the strength that pur- 
sues its selfish ends unrestrained 
by any controlling principle; and 
with illustrations of this truth the 
poem closes. 

68. omne : cf. 3. 52 n, 

69. testis : sc. est ; cf. scimus^ 
42. — Qyas: see 11. 17. 14 n and 
vs. 50 n, above. 

70. notus : another appeal to 
the reader's knowledge, as in 42. 



— integrae : cf. intactae Palladisy 

I. 7. 5. 

71. temptator, assailant; the 
word is found only here in classical 
literature. — Orion : here classed 
among the Giants; by others he 
is made a son of Poseidon. See 

II. 13. 39n. 

72. virginea: cf. Hectoreis opi- 
busj 3. 28. 

73. monstris suis: i.e. the 
Giants. — Terra: cf. Telluris^ II. 
12. 7; both for Pota or PiJ, who 
was the mother of both Titans 
and Giants. In some representa- 
tions of the battle of the Giants 
she appears rising from the ground, 
plea^ng for her offspring ; see 
Baumeister, figg. 637, 1420.'-^ dO' 
let, maeret : the first of the pain 
of \ja\!g upon them (iniecta), the 
second of her grief for their ca*- 
lamity. 

74. partus : more particularly 
the Titans, who were hurled in- 
to Tartarus (Verg. A, VI. 580), 
though Tityus, the example given 



IV. 63-v. 4.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



185 



80 



incontinentis nee Tityi iecur 
reliquit ales, nequitiae additus 
custos ; amatorem trecentae 
Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 



V. 

Caelo tonantem credidimus lovem 
regnare : praesens divus habebitur 
Augustus adiectis Britannis 
imperio gravibusque Persis. 



below, was a Giant (Oefys. XI. 576). 
— luridum Orcum : cf. furvae 
Proserpinae, II. 13. 21. 

75. nee peredit: i,e. the im- 
prisoned Giant has found no re- 
lease; his punishment is eternal. 
For the tense, see Intr. 80. 

76. impositam : sc. on one of 
the Giants. Enceladus, Typhoeus, 
and Briareus are consigned by va- 
rious myths to this fate. — celer, 
swift consuming. 

77. incontinentis : his offense 
was offering violence to Latona. — 
nee: Intr. 114. — iecur: the pun- 
ishment was aimed at what was 
regarded as the seat of tlte passion ; 
cf. IV. I. 12. 

78. ales : a vulture (Verg. A. 
VI. 597). — additus custos, set to 
keep watch upon. 

79. trecentae : used simply to 
express a very large number ; cf . 
II. 14. 5, 26; S, I. 5. 12. 

80. Pirithoum: king of the 
Lapithae and friend of Theseus, 
who accompanied him to the lower 
world on his impious enterprise of 
carrying off Proserpina. Both 
were chained to a rock there, and 
Hercules, who succeeded in re- 
leasing Theseus, was obliged to 
leave Pirithous to his doom. Cf. 
IV. 7. 27. 



V. From the contemplation of 
Jove triumphantly maintaining his 
supremacy in heaven the poet leads 
our thoughts down to earth again, 
where Augustus has a divine mis- 
sion to fulfill in restoring the old 
Roman valor and the glory of 
Roman arms. Courage and patri- 
otism in the soldier have sunk to 
a low ebb, — the legitimate result 
of relaxation of the stern discipline 
of earlier times, which is finely 
portrayed in the story of Regulus. 
— Metre, 176. 

1. caelo: with regnare; Intr. 
69. — credidimus: Intr. 80. 

2. praesens, on earth. Augus- 
tus is placed in the same relation 
to Jove as in I. 12. 57 sqq. 

3. adiectis: equivalent ^o ^i/w 
adiecirit. — Britannis : see introd. 
note to I. 35. 

4. g^avibus Persis: see I. 2. 
22 n. In passages like this Horace 
no doubt voiced the general feel- 
ing that Augustus should justify 
his leadership by completing the 
conquests of Julius Caesar, and, 
above all, should retrieve the re- 
peated disasters which the Romans 
had suffered at the hands of the 
Parthians. The recollection of 
these disasters leads naturally to 
the reflections that follow* 



186 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



10 



15 



Milesne Crassi coniuge barbara 
turpis maritus vixit et hostium 
(pro curia inversique mores !) 
consenuit socerorum in armis, 

sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus, 
anciliorum et nominis et togae 
oblitus aeternaeque Vestae, 
incolumi love et urbe Roma ? 

Hoc caverat mens provida Reguli 
dissentientis condicionibus 
foedis et exemplo trahenti 
perniciem veniens in aevum, 



5. milesne Crassi : the defeat 
at Carrhae, B.C. 53, left thousands 
of Romans in the hands of the 
Parthians, and subsequent events 
brought them no prospect of re- 
lease. They took service in the 
Parthian armies and even fought 
against the Romans. — coniuge 
barbara : abl. of cause with tur- 
pis; Intr. 105 a. 

6. vixit: in close connection 
with turpis maritus : ' Has he 
consented to live at the cost of 
such humiliation } ' 

7. curia: the symbol of Roman 
law and sovereignty. — mores, 
discipline. 

8. socerorum, whose daughter 
he has wedded ; dwelling with 
scorn on the odious relation al- 
ready expressed in coniuge bar^ 
bara and maritus. 

9. sub rege : a hateful sug- 
gestion, even without Medo. — 
Marsus et Apulus : the best 
types of the Roman soldier; cf. 
I. 2. 39 n, II. 20. 18, I. 22. 13. 

10. anciliorum, etc.: the twelve 
sacred shields in the keeping of 
the Salii (see I. 36. 12 n), closely 



associated, therefore, with the 
foundation of the city, and, like 
the fire of Vesta, with its perma- 
nence. — nominis : the evidence 
of his birthright. — togae : the 
badge of his citizenship. 

1 2. love : i>. his temple, the 
Capitol. ' 

13. hoc : emphatic : // was just 
this that. — Reguli : consul B.C. 
256, in the first Punic war. In 
that vear the Romans successfully 
invaded Africa, and in the follow- 
ing year Regulus, who was left in 
command there, was defeated and 
taken prisoner with a part of his 
army. According to the story 
which Horace here follows, he 
was subsequently sent by the Car- 
thaginians to Rome to negotiate 
for an exchange of prisoners, under 
oath to return to Carthage if the 
negotiations should fail. 

14. dissentientis, when he re- 
fused his assent. On reaching 

Rome Regulus persuaded the 
senate to reject the overtures 
which he brought. — condicioni- 
bus : dative ; Intr. 57. 

15. exemplo, a precedent. — 



V. 5-29.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



187 



20 



25 



si non periret immiserabilis 
captiva pubes. ' Signa ego Punicis 
adfixa delubris et arma 
militibus sine caede ' dixit 

' derepta vidi ; vidi ego civium 
retorta tergo bracchia libero 
portasque rion clausas et arva 
Marte coli populata nostro. 

Auro repensus scilicet acrior 
miles redibit. Flagitio additis 
damnum. Neque amissos colores 
lana refert medicata fuco, 

nee vera virtus, cum semel excidit, 



trahenti, that would entail ; equiv- 
alent to quod traheret, and con- 
taining the apodosis of the con- 
ditional clause of the next strophe. 

17. periret : Intr. 179. 

18. ego . . . vidi ; vidi ego : 
Intr. 116^. He urges his appeal 
with the force of personal experi- 
ence; he has seen with his own 
eyes the humiliation of captivity. 

19. adfixa : as thank offerings 
of victory. " Cf. IV. 1 5. '6 sq. 

20. sine caede : implying that 
they should have shed their blood 
rather than submit to the indignity. 

21. civium : emphatic, to mark 
by contrast the depth of their 
degradation. It may be translated : 
/ have seen citizens, with their 
arms pinioned, etc. 

22. tergo : Intr. 69. — libero, 
their freeman^ s ; repeating the 
thought of civium. 

23. portas (sc. Carthaginis\ 
etc.: i>. as if there were no war; a 
humiliating proof of the c6mplete 
failure of the Roman invasion. 

24. Marte: Intr. 130. 



25. auro repensus : instead of 
being left to the fate which his 
cowardice has brought upon him. 
The phrase, however, suggests 
more than this, — the degradation 
of the warrior who has had a price 
set upon him, like a slave, and 
has resorted to this base substi- 
tute for valor as a means of safety. 
— scilicet : indicating the irony 
of the sentence. 

26. flagitio: the dishonor the 
state has suffered through the con- 
duct of these prisoners ; damnum: 
the breaking down of discipline 
which will result from their ransom. 

27. neque . . . nee : i,e, the 
second is no more possible than 
the first ; cf. I. 6. 5 n. — colores : 
Intr. 128. The natural color of 
the wool is meant. 

28. refert, renews^ shows again, 

29. virtus: cf. 2. 17 n. — semel 
excidit : the phrase itself suggests 
what is next explicitly stated, — 
cowardice is not a temporary weak- 
ness ; the loss of courage is instant 
and final, as of a jewel. Cf.I.24.i6n. 



188 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



30 curat reponi deterioribus. 

Si pugnat extricata densis 
cerva plagis, erit ille fortis 

qui perfidis se credidit hostibus, 
et Marte Poenos proteret altero 
35 qui lora restrictis lacertis 

sensit iners timuitque mortem. 

Hie, "unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
pacem duello miscuit. O pudor ! 
O magna Carthago, probrosis 
40 altior Italiae minis ! ' 

Fertur pudicae coniugis osculum 
parvosque natos up capitis minor 
ab se removisse et virilem 
torvus humi posuisse voltum, 



^ 



30. reponi: Intr. 94/. — deteri- 
oribus : .the same persons that are 
understood with excidit ; the word 
characterizes them as they are left 
when this virtue of courage has 
gone out of them. For the case, 
see Intr. 53, and cf. Liv. II. 43. 8 
si animus hosti redisset 

33. perfidis : in reference to 
the proverbial Punica fides ; cf. 
IV. 4. 49 n. — se credidit: in con- 
trast with perfidis; Intr. \\(>a. 

34. Marte : cf . 24 n. — altero, 
som£ other ; the war in which they 
were taken prisoners being re- 
garded as ended. Alter is used 
to denote any other person or 
thing that is brought into com- 
parison with the one in hand, so 
that these two alone are for the 
time under consideration; cf. 24. 
22 ; .y. I. I. 40 ne sit te ditior alter 
(* thy neighbor*); Madv. 496. 

35. restrictis : cf. retortat 22. 

36. iners, tamely. 



37. unde sumeret: represent- 
ing a question of doubt, unde 
sumam ? The question is, in 
effect, * to what he should owe his 
life,* sc. to his sword and his 
valor, and not to the compassion 
of the enemy. 

38. pacem, etc.: i.e. confused 
the two, treated the enemy as if 
they were friends. • 

40. minis : instrumental abl. 
with the comparative, — higher by 
that much, exalted upon^ etc.; cf. 
Liv. I. 30. I Roma interim crescit 
Albae ruinis. 

41. fertur, men say. The word 
prepares us for something surpris- 
ing; cf. I. 7. 23. 

42. capitis minor : for capite 
deminutus. In the word caput 
were summed up a Roman's per- 
sonal and political rights. As a 
prisoner, Regulus was technically 
a slave, and unfit, in his own eyes, 
for the caress of a Roman matron 



V. 30-56-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



189 



45 donee labantis eonsilio patres 

firmaret auetor numquam alias dato, 
interque maefentis amieos 
egregius properaret exsul. 

Atqui seiebat quae sibi barbarus 
50 tortor pararet : non aliter tamen 
dimovit obstantis propinquos 
et populum reditus morantem 

quam si clientum longa^negotia 
diiudicata lite relinqueret, 
55 tendens Venafranos in agros 

aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum. 



or her children. This humility of 
the man is the background against 
which the poet paints in effective 
contrast his morsd heroism (patres 
firmaret) and his splendid victory 
of self-sacrifice (egregius exsul). 
For the genitive see Intr. 66 d. 

46. auetor, by his influence, — 
alias, before or since, 

48. properaret : his alacrity 
(cf. also dimovit obstantis^ 51) and 
cheerfulness (53 sqq^^ now that 
his patriotic purpose is achieved, 
are set forth in contrast with the 
sternness of his attitude (43 sq^ 
as long as there was any chance of 
a dishonorable release from mar- 
tyrdom. 

49. seiebat: observe the tense; 
he knew all the while. 

50. tortor : Roman tradition 
told of the most exquisite tortures 
especially .devised for Regulus by 
the Carthaginians (cf. Cic. Off. I. 
39, III. 100; Gell. VII. 4); but 
they rest on no historical evidence. 
Polybius, our oldest authority, 
knows nothing of them, nor, in- 
deed, of any embassy of Regulus. 



52. reditus : Intr. 128 ; the 
plural is here preferred for the 
sake of euphony, as in Epod, 16. 
35 for the metre. 

54. lite : either one in which 
he had acted as arbitrator between 
his clients, or one in which some 
of the latter were engaged in court, 
where, as patronus^ he was bound 
to aid them with counsel and in- 
fluence. — relinqueret : for pur- 
poses of comparison Regulus is 
transported in imagination to the 
present, — * than (he would), if 
(living in our day) he were leaving, 
etc' The places named as holiday 
retreats had no such character in 
the time of Regains. 

55. Venafranos agros : see II. 
6. 16 n. 

56. Lacedaemonium Taren- 
tum : see II. 6. 12 n, 13 sqq,; Ep. 
I. 7. 45. The quiet picture in this 
closing strophe, softening without 
weakening the tragic suggestion 
of vs. 49, in which the stem moral 
earnestness of the ode reaches its 
climax, is oneof Horace's happiest 
touches. 



190 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



VI. 

Delicta maiorum immeritus lues, 
Romane, donee templa ref eceris 
aedisque labentis deorum et 
foeda nigro simulacra fumo. 

Dis te minorem quod geris, imperas : 
hinc omne principium, hue refer exitum. 
Di multa neglecti dederunt 
Hesperiae mala luctuosae. 



VI. This ode, like the preced- 
ing, deals with the degeneracy of 
the times, but in a broader way. 
The decline of the old Roman 
spirit is but part of a wide-spread 
corruption which has contaminated 
even the sanctity of family life 
and thus poisoned the springs of 
national strength. This corrup- 
tion with its train of disasters has 
come in through the neglect of 
religion, and until religion is re- 
stored to its due honor, the sins of 
the fathers must continue to be 
visited on the children. But of 
this restoration the poet is not 
sanguine. From his own picture 
of the simple life of Rome's heroic 
age he turns away in despair, and 
sees in the deterioration of each 
succeeding generation an augury 
of the same downward course in 
the future. The ode is the least 
cheerful of the six, and its pessi- 
mistic close, so ill adapted to 
conclude the series, is of itself 
sufficient proof that the poems 
were not written on a single plan, 
but composed independently, and 
afterwards arranged, perhaps with 
some adaptations, in a group. The 
present ode is assigned with much 
probability to the year 28 B.C., 
when Augustus, in his sixth con- 



sulship, instituted many vigorous 
reforms, and began the restoration 
of eighty-two temples which had 
fallen into decay (Mon. Ancyr, 4. 
17). — Metre, 176. 

1. immeritus: in close con- 
nection with lues, not implying 
innocence in general : * Thou shalt 
bear the guilt of sins thou hast not 
committed.' 

2. Romane : used collectively, 
as in Verg. A, VI. 851 iu regere 
itnperio populoSy Romane^ memento. 
Cf. S. I. 4. 85. — templa, aedis: 
here used as practically synony- 
mous. 

4. foeda fumo : some of the 
temples had suffered from fire. 

5. dis te minorem, etc.: Hor- 
ace here utters not a philosophical 
principle, but what was in the pro- 
found conviction of probably the 
great majority of his countrymen 
a historical fact. Cf. Polyb. VI. 
56. 7 Koi ftM doKcT t6 iropd rots AXXots 
dvOpdnrois 6y€iBili6tJLevop, tovto <rvy4- 
X^tv rd *Vq»iuJm¥ trpdyfuira * \4yta 
S^ T^¥ deunStufWPlav ; Cic. A^ £). 
III. 5 nostrae civitatisy quae num- 
quam profecto sine summa placa- 
Hone deorum immortalium tanta 
esse potuisset. 

6. principium : sc. est; cf. hinc 
illae lacrimaet Ep. I. 19. 41, and 



VI. I-I2.] 



HORATI • C ARMIN A. 



191 



10 



lam bis Monaeses et Pacori manus 
nqn auspicates contudit impetus 
nostras et adiecisse praedam 
torquibus exiguis renidet. 



similar phrases. For the synaeresis 
see Intr. i8i. — ezitum : sc. omne. 

7. di neglecti : Intr. 105 ; but 
here di is still consciously the 
subject. 

8. Hesperiae: i^. Italy, 'the 
Land of the West/ in contrast 
with the countries he has in mind 
and is about to name. Cf. II. i. 
32. In I. 36. 4 it is used appar- 
ently for Spain, of a man returning 
thence to Italy. — luctuosae : pro- 
leptic. 

9. iam bis: referring to the 
invasion of Crassus in B.C. 53, 
which ended in the memorable 
disaster at Carrhae (cf. 5. 5 n), 
and the expedition of Antony with 
an army of 100,000 men into 
Media Atropatene in B.C. 36, from 
which he was forced to retreat 
with ignominy, and at the cost of 
enormous loss and suffering to his 
troops (Merivale, Ch. XXVIII). 
Some editors think the first of the 
two disasters referred to was the 
defeat of Decidius Saxa in B.C. 40 
by the Parthians under the rene- 
gade Q. Labienus ; but the defeat 
of Saxa, though severe, was only 
a temporary reverse in a war in 
which the Romans were, on the 
whole, brilliantly successful, and 
their general, Ventidius, earned a 
triumph. It was a war, moreover, 
in which the Romans were repel- 
ling an invasion of the Parthians, 
and cannot therefore be included 
under non auspicoH impetus. — 
Monaeses: a powerful Parthian 
noble who went over to the 
Romans in B.C. 37 and was re- 
ceived with great honor by An- 
tony, but subsequently became 



reconciled with Phraates and re- 
turned to his allegiance. He is 
not known to have commanded 
the Parthians in any of the cam- 
paigns here referred to. — Pacori 
xnanus: cf. Porsenae manus, Epod, 
16. 4. Pacorus, son of the Par- 
thian king Orodes, commanded his 
father's troops in the invasion of 
Syria and Asia Minor in B.C. 40, 
and in the succeeding campaigns 
until he was defeated and killed 
by Ventidius, B.C. 38. Horace 
uses the names of Monaeses and 
Pacorus as conspicuous Parthian 
leaders, with little thought, and very 
likely with no accurate knowledge 
of their individual achievements. 

10. non auspicates: the ex- 
pedition of Crassus was notorious 
in this respect ; cf. Cic Div. I. 29, 
II. 84 ; Val. Max. 1. 6. 1 1; Merivale, 
Ch. XI. No similar particulars 
are recorded of Antony's expedi- 
tion ; but Horace refers, in both 
cases, rather to the wickedness 
(impietas) of the Roman people as 
a nation, in neglecting the gods and 
fighting brother against brother 
(cf. I. 35. 33 sqq.j and impiaproelia, 
II. I. 30), thus inevitably incur- 
ring the displeasure of Heaven on 
all their undertakings. — contudit: 
Intr. 77. 

11. adiecisse : Intr. 94^^, 81 b, 

12. torquibus: used as decora* 
tions for bravery or distinguished 
service. Among the Persians they 
could only be worn by those on 
whom the king had conferred them 
(Xen. Cyrop.Wlll, 2.8).— exiguis: 
i.e, in comparison with the ample 
booty obtained from the Romans. 
— renidet, beams with joy. 



192 



HORATI GARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



IS 



20 



Paene occupatam seditionibus 
delevit urbem Dacus et Aethiops, 
hie classe formidatus, ille 
missilibus melior sagittis. 

Fecunda/culpae saecula nuptias 
primum inquinavere et genus et domos; 
hoc f onte derivata clades 
. in patriam populumque fluxit. 

Motus doceri gaudet lonicos 
matura virgo et fingitur artibus, 
iam nunc et incestos amores 
de tenero meditatur ungui ; 



13. paene : with delevit. This 
strophe carries the thought a step 
farther : the Romans had not only 
failed in their aggressive enter- 
prises, they were so carried away 
by the passions of civil strife that 
they almost put the city itself at 
the mercy of the barbarian. 

14. Dacus et Aethiops : aux- 
iliaries who fought at Actium, the 
former in the army of Antony (see 
also 1. 26. 4 n), the latter in the fleet 
of Cleopatra. They stand for the 
barbarian allies of Antony, whose 
approach the citizens had regarded 
with genuine, though no doubt 
exaggerated, alarm. Cf. Verg. G, 
II. 497. 

17. fecunda, etc. : the poet pro- 
ceeds to show how the neglect of 
religion and consequent looseness 
of living saps the strength of the 
nation. — culpae, vice; here, as 
often, with special reference to 
unchastity. 

18. inquinavere : cf. Epod. 16. 
64. — genus, the stock ; cf. IV. 4. 
29 sqq, — domos : i>. the sanctity 
of domestic life and discipline ; ci. 
IV. 4. 25 sqq. 



19. hoc fonte, etc.: 1.^. corrup- 
tion in the family makes the state 
unsound at the core, and so robs 
it of the strength to resist the 
forces that tend to destroy it. 
This thesis he illustrates by the 
contrasted pictures of the next six 
strophes. 

21. motus, dances^ especially of 
a mimetic character ; cf. movetur^ 
Ep. II. 2. 125. The Ionic was 
a voluptuous kind of dance, which 
was often provided for the amuse- 
ment of the guests at a dinner party 
(Athen. XIV. 27), the dancers being 
usually professionals; Qi.Anth,Fal. 
V. 1 29 (quoted vs. 24 n). 

22. matura : it would be inno- 
cent in a child. — artibus : instru- 
mental abl. ; instead of developing 
in a healthy and natural way, she 
is trained to pose on all occasions 
and manage her personal charms 
as weapons of skill. 

23. iam nunc : i^. even before 
marriage; in contrast with max, 
25. — et: Intr. 114. 

24. de tenero ungui, to her 
finger-tips; cf. Apul. Met X. 22 
ex unguiculis perpruriscens tnulier 



VI. 1 3-34-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



193 



25 mox iuniores quaerit adulteros 
inter mariti vina, neque digit 
cui donet impermissa raptim 
gaudia luminibus remotis, 

sed iussa coram non sine conscio 
30 surgit marito, seu vocat institor 
seu navis Hispanae magister, 
dedecorum pretiosus emptor. 

Non his inventus orta parentibus 
infecit aequor sanguine Punico, 



(an imitation of Plant. SHch. 761). 
The phrase is a translation of the 
Greek ^^ (axaXwi^) 6v6x<»>y, used to 
express intensity of feeling (g.^. of 
impassioned movements in danc- 
ing, T^» dird TTJs 'Afflris 6pxv<^Tplda, 
riiy KaKQ/rixvoLi | ffX'fll^^OLffiv ii dira- 

\Qy Kiwfiivriv dv^x^'^i I <^i^<^f o&x 
Sri wdvra TraOcUverai, 068* iri /SdXXei 
I rdt airaXds dtroKCk cSSe koI cade 
X^pas, AnlA. Pal. V. 1 29; of a moth- 
er's love for her young children, 
tJs h.v l^vSoOev Kal t6 8^ \ey6fiepoy i^ 
6vTbx<^y dLyawCMrai rd riKva^ Plut. 
Mor. 3 c), apparently with refer- 
ence to the extreme sensitiveness 
of the nerves under the finger-nails. 
It appears also to have been used 
in the sense of *^from earliest child- 
hood,* and possibly that is the 
sense in which Cicero understood 
it, ad. Fam. I. 6. 2, qui mihi a 
tenerisy ut Graeci dicunt^ ungui- 
culis es cognitus. This interpreta- 
tion is excluded here by matura, 
above. — meditatur, is filled with 
thoughts of. 

26. inter mariti vina: i.e. among 
the guests at his table. — neque 
eligit, etc. : i.e. it is not merely a 
case of censurable flirtation with 
some favored admirer, allowing 
him a stolen kiss or the like. — 



impermissa, which occurs here 
for the first time, was coined or 
chosen to express a mild form of 
wrong-doing : the offense in the 
supposed case is purposely soft- 
ened to set off the unspeakable 
baseness of her actual conduct. 
Observe the contrast in particulars: 
eligit with vocat institor, etc. ; 
donet with emptor ; impermissa 
with dedecorum; raptim with 
iussa coram ; and luminibus re- 
motis with conscio marito. 

29. coram, bluntly^ without any 
affectation of delicacy. — conscio 
marito : Intr. 105 a. 

30. institor, pedlar; a de- 
spised class, but having plenty of 
ready money and access, in pursuit 
of their trade, to the women of the 
household. Cf. Epod. 17. 20. 

31. magister, the skipper: an- 
other coarse character and, as a 
sailor, a great spendthrift on shore. 

33. non his, etc. : from this 
climax of iniquity the poet turns 
to the Romans of earlier times, 
and draws a companion picture of 
wholesome discipline and pure 
living. 

34. infecit aequor : in the first 
Punic war, which was waged mainly 
by sea. 



194 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



35 Pyrrhumque et ingentem cecidit 

Antiochum Hannibalemque dirum, 

sed rusticorum mascula militum 
proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus 
versare glaebas et severae 
40 matris ad arbitrium recisos 

portare fustis, sol ubi montium 
mutaret umbras et iuga demeret 
bobus fatigatisy amicum 

tempus agens abeuntc curru. 

45 Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? 
Aetas parentum, peior avis, tulit 
nos nequiores, mox daturos 
progeniem vitiosiorem. 



/ 



35. ingentem: a poetical varia- 
tion of his surname, Magnus (see 
Cic. pro Deiot. 36); cf. Verg. A. 
XI. \2i^ fama ingens^ ingentior ar- 
mis vir. The word in this sense is 
found also m Sallust and in later 
prose writers. — cecidit, overthrew. 

36. dirum : cf. dims A/er^ IV. 
4. 42. 

38. Sabellis: Intr. 124. The 
epithet places the scene among the 
Sabines, who were proverbial for 
their strictness and purity of man- 
ners ; quo genere nullum quondam 
incorruptius fuity Liy. I. 18. 4. 

41. sol ubi, etc. : even when 
the day's work was done, and the 
tired ox was allowed to rest, they 
must deny themselves the repose 
which the quiet evening hour made 
so tempting, and go forth again to 
cut and carry firewood for their 
mother. Horace dwells on the 
description of evening in his favor- 
ite way (cf. I. 12. 29 n. III. 4. 6on), 
but here no stroke is superfluous. 



42. mutaret: i*e. lengthened. 
As the sun descends lower, the 
change in the shadows becomes 
more rapid and hence more notice- 
able. Cf. Verg. E. 2. 67 et sol 
crescentis decedens duplicat umbras. 
The subjunctive looks like that of 
repeated action (docta = adsueta) ; 
but as Horace elsewhere uses the 
indicative with ubi in such clauses 
(see Intr. 86) it is probably to be 
explained as due to its close de- 
pendence on the infinitive (Gr. 

342). 

43. amicum, welcome; cf. I. 
26. I n. 

44. AgtnSt bringing on; cf, Verg. 
£, S. 17 praeque diem veniens age, 
Lucifer, almum. 

45. imminuit: perfect. — dies, 
time. 

46. aetas, etc.: the course of 
deterioration through four genera- 
tions is skillfully expressed in three 
verses. — peior avis : Intr. 75. 

47. daturos: Intr. 104 3. 



VI. 35-vn. lo.] 



llORATI CARMINA. 



195 



to 



VII. 

Quid fles, Asterie, quern tibi candidi 
primo restituent vere Favonii 
Thyna merce beatum, 
constantis iuvenem fide, 

Gygen ? Ille Notis actus ad Oricum 
post insana Caprae sidera frigidas 
noctis non sine multis 
insomnis lacrimis agit. 

Atqui soUicitae nuntius hospitae, 
suspirare Chloen et miseram tuis 



VII. The unbroken vein of seri- 
ous thought which runs through 
the preceding group of odes is 
fittingly relieved by a poem of 
more than usual lightness and 
grace, an idyl, as it has been called, 
of a young trader's love. He lies 
storm-bound in a foreign port, 
fretting at wind and wave, while 
the forlorn maid sits weeping at 
home, with no message to tell her 
why he tarries. The poet comforts 
her with the assurance that her 
lover is neither lost nor untrue; 
the spring winds will bring him 
back to her; meanwhile let her keep 
well her own troth. — Metre, 173. 

1. fles: the object is eum {one) 
understood, with which iuvenem 
and Gygen are successively in 
apposition. — Asterie : 'AartplTfy 
'fair as a star'; cf. 9. 21, sidere 
pulchrior, — candidi, /jir; cf. I. 
5. 7n, 7. 15 n. 

2. Favonii : see I. 4. i n. 

3. Thyna merce: cf. Bithyna 
negotia^ Ep» I. 6. 33. Thyni and 
Bithyniyftxe once separate peoples, 
but in Horace's day they had long 
ceased to be distinguished, and the 



shorter adjective was used as a 
poetical substitute for the other. 
Cf. Cat. 31. 5 Tkyntam atque 
Bithynos, — beatum, enriched, 

4. fide : contracted form of the 
genitive, used also by Caesar and 
Sallust (Cell. IX. 14. 25); cf. S. I. 
3. ()lfide (dative). 

5. Notis : see I. 7. 1 5 n. — Ori- 
cum : on the coast of Epirus, 
sheltered by the Acroceraunian 
headland. 

6. post Caprae sidera : i.e. 
after the setting of that constella- 
tion, which occurred about the 
middle of December and was a 
sign of storm. For the expression 
cf. post vinaj I. 18. 5. — insana : 
ue. causing furious storms; cf. 
Stella vesani leonis^ 29. 19; Intr. 
124. 

7. non sine : cf. I. 23. 3 n. 

9. atqui, tf»</^^/ (he could easily 
console himself). — sollicitae : cf . 
amore sollicitusy S. II. 3. 252. 

10. Chloen : the hospita of vs. 
9, the wife of his host. — tuis 
ignibus : i,e. with the passion 
which is rightfully yours, — the 
passion inspired by Gyges. The 



1% 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



>S 



20 



dicens ignibus uri, 

temptat mille vafer modis. 

Vt Proetum muliet perfida credulum 
falsis impulerit criminibus nimis 
casto Bellerophontae 
maturare necem refert ; 

narrat paene datum Pelea Tartaro, 
Magnessam Hippolyten dum fugit abstinens, 
et peccare docentis 
fallaj^ historias movet. 



expression is the poet's and not 
that of the nuntius. 

12. temptat: sc. eum. — mille 
vafer modis, with a thousand 
wiles. 

13. ut, etc. : stock tales of the 
fury of a woman scorned, *cum 
stimulos odio pudor admovet' 
(Juv. 10. 329). — Proetum : king 
of Tir)ms. The story of Beller- 
ophon is told //. VI. 1 52 sqq, — 
mulier : Anteia, in the Homeric 
account; according to others, 
Stheneboea, the name which Juve- 
nal (/. c.) gives. — perfida credu- 
lum : Intr. 116 a. 

1 5. Bellerophontae : Horace 
uses the Homeric form (BeXXepo^^j^ 
TT^s) here and 12.3, but has the ac- 
cusative Belter op hontem IV. 11. 28. 

16. maturare necem : i.e. to 
put him to death before his time. 
For the infinitive see Intr. 97 b. — 
refert, narrat : chiastic; cf. Intr. 
116 e. 

17. datum Tartaro : cf. morti 
deditj S. II. 3. 197 ; both are varia- 
tions on the old formal phrase 
much affected by the poets, leto 
dare: cf. Enn. Telephus 289(Ribb.) 
quorum liberi leto dati sunt in hello; 
Verg. A. V. 806; Juv. 10. 119. The 
construction of paene datum Pe- 



lea is that of Intr. I05<i( = *the 
narrow escape of Peleus *), not in- 
direct discourse ; hence the indica- 
tive in vs. 18. The adventure is 
thought of as already well known 
to the Teader. — Pelea : while a 
guest at the house of Acastus, king 
of lolcus, Peleus, so the story ran, 
was obliged to repel the advances 
of his hostess, with the same re- 
sult as in the case of Bellerophon. 
Acastus decoyed him into the wild- 
erness and there left him alone 
unarmed, hoping the Centaurs 
would destroy him. The gods, 
however, protected him, and He- 
phaestus gave him a sword which 
was a sufficient defense against the 
Centaurs. According to another 
account he Vas found by Chiron, 
who received him kindly and shel- 
tered him in his cave. Subsequent- 
ly he made war on Acastus and 
captured lolcus. 

18. Magnessam : i.e. from the 
Thessalian Magnesia; to distin- 
guish her from the more famous 
Hippolyte, the Amazon wife of 
Theseus. 

19. docentis : Intr. 103. 

20. movet, rehearses ; lit. *sets 
a-going* (cf. I. 15. ion). Vergil 
has movere cantUSy A. VII. 641. 



VII. 11-3^.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



197 



Frustra : nam scopulis surdior Icari 
voces audit adhuc integer. At tibi 
ne vicinus Enipeus 
plus iusto placeat cave, 

25 quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 
aeque conspicitur gramine Martio, 
nee quisquam citus aeque 
Tusco denatat alveo. 

Prima nocte domum claude, neque in vias 
30 sub cantu querulae despice tibiae, 
et te saepe vocanti 
duram difficilis mane. 



21. frustra: cf. 13. 6, where nam 
follows, as here. — scopulis sUr- 
dior: />. no more moved than 
they are by the waves that dash 
upon them ; cf. £poei. 17. 54. 
surdior, with audit, forms a very 
effective oxymoron. — Icari : the 
island; cf. 1. 1. 15. 

22. integer : dF. II. 4. 22. — tibi, 
on your part. See Intr. 116^. 

23. Enipeus : the name is bor- 
rowed from a river-god of Thes- 
saly; cf. Hebri^ 12. 2. 

25. quamvis: Intr. 83. — flec- 
tere equum : cf. I. 8. 6n, III. 12. 
3. For the mood see Intr. \o\c, 

26. aeque . . . aeque (with 
sciens and citus, respectively) : 
Intr, 116^. — gramine Martio : 
Intr, 69. Cf. per gramina Martii 
campi^ IV. i. 39, and see I. 8. 4n, 



28. Tusco alveo: i^, the Tiber ; 
cf. I. 20. 5 n. — denatat : found 
only here. For this form of exer- 
cise see 1. 8. 8 n. The poet dwells 
on the athletic prowess of the 
youth, knowing well its power to 
captivate a girl's heart. Cf. 12. 

29. neque : Intr. 89 N. 

30. sub cantu, wkiU he is play- 
ingy i.e, serenading you. Sub^ in 
this use, means, with the ablative, 

* during (the continuance of) '; with 
the accusative, *just before* or 

* just after.' Cf. sub luce and sub 
lucem, — despice : , in a literal 
sense. 

31. vocanti (sc. illi): equivalent 
to a concessive clause. 

32. duram, unfeeling: difficilis, 
stubborn. 



198 



HORATl CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



- I 



y 



A 



VIII. 



• ■^y 



«• 



Martiis caelebs quid agam Kalendis, 
quid velint floras et acerra turis 
plena miraris, positusque carbo in 
caespite vivo, 

docte sermones utriusque linguae ? 
Voveram dulcis epulas et album 



VIII. An ode for the anniver- 
sary of the poet's escape from 
death by the fall of a tree, recorded 
in II. 13. The form is dramatic. 
The poet is busUy engaged with 
his servants in preparations for a 
sacrifice, when Maecenas appears. 
In answer to his expression of 
surprise, Horace explains the 
significance of the day to him, and 
begs his friend to join him in his 
quiet festival of thanksgiving. 

The date of the ode, and conse- 
quently of the event in the poet's 
life which it commemorates, is fixed 
with great probability by the allu- 
sions of the last three strophes. 
Maecenas, presumably in the ab- 
sence of Octavian (Intr. 21), is in 
charge of affairs. The campaigns 
of M. Crassus against the Dacians 
and other tribes of the Danube 
frontier (vss. 18, 23) were fought 
in the years immediately following 
the battle of Actium, B.C. 30-28. 
The news of the struggle between 
Phraates and Tiridates in Parthia 
reached Rome in January B.C. 29; 
and in the summer of the same 
year Octavian returned to Italy. 
Our ode was therefore composed 
in the spring of B.C. 29, and the 
date of the fsdl of the tree is March 
I, B.C. 30. For it is clear that it is 
the first anniversary which is here 
celebrated. — Metre, 174. 

I. Martiis Kalendis : called by 



Juvenal (9. ^"^femineae kalendae^ 
being the day of the Matronalia, 
when the married women of Rome 
made their offerings to Juno Lu- 
cina on the Esquiline (Ov. Fast. 
III. 245 sqq^. The day was also 
kept as a family festival : the 
mother received presents from her 
husband and children, and like the 
men at the Saturnalia waited on 
her slaves at table; hence called 
by Martial (V. 84. 10) the women's 
Saturnalia. Why an unmarried 
man should be found celebrating 
that day, was a puzzle which Mae- 
cenas, with all his learning, as the 
poet playfully says, could not solve. 
2. velint, mean. — (lores : these 
were a part of the offering to Juno 
(Ovid. /. /.). 

4. caespite : see I. 19. 13 n. 

5. docte : Maecenas is so ad- 
dressed again Ep. I. 19. i. — ser- 
mones : i.e. the literature. For 
the case cf. 9. 10. — utriusque: 
the two which to a Roman con- 
tained all literature and learning, 
Greek and Latin. The expression 
appears to have been not uncom- 
mon, e.g. VVoi.N.H, XII. II.; cf. 
Stat. Silv. v. gemina lingua^ Plut. 
LuculL I iiVKtfro \i^€iv Iicavws kKo.- 
ripav yXOrrav. • 

6. epulas : the regular accom- 
paniment of a sacrifice ; cf. I. 36. 2. 
— album : the prescribed color for 
a victim to the gods above. 



vm. 1-16.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



199 



10 



IS 



Libero capnim prope funeratus 
arboris ictu. 

Hie dies, anno redeunte festus, 
eorticem adstrietum piee demovebit 
amphorae f umum bibere institutae 
consule TuUo. 

Sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici 
sospitis centum, et vigiles lucernas 
perfer in lucem ; procul omnis esto 
clamor et ira. 



7. Libero : patron god (with 
Apollo) of poets ; cf. Ep. II. 2. 78 ; 
Juv. 7. 64. In II. 17. 28 Horace 
attributes his escape to Faunus. — 
caprum : cf. Verg. G. II. 380 Bac- 
cho caper omnibus arts \ caeditur^ 
for no other reason, he says, than 
because it eats the grape-vines. 

9. anno redeunte festus, a /rx- 
tival as the year comes round ; dt. 
S, II. 2. 83 sive diem festum red- 
iens advexerit annus* In both 
cases annus is strictly a part or 
season of the year, as in 23. 8, 
Epod» 2. 29. 

10. adstrietum pice : showing 
that the wine had been carefully 
put up for long keeping. Cf. I. 
20. 3 n. 

11. amphorae: dative. — fu- 
mum bibere : to hasten the mel- 
lowing of the wine. The store 
room (apotheca) was purposely 
placed in a part of the house where 
the smoke could reach it. For 
the infinitive see Intr. 93. — insti- 
tutae, set. 

12. TuUo : probably L. Volca- 
tius Tullus, consul B.C. 33 with 
Octavian, so that the wine would 
now be four years old. There was, 
however, another consul of this 
name in B.C. 66, who may be the 



one referred to here. In that case 
the jar would be only a year older 
than the/M testa of 21. i sqq, 

13. sume: cf. I. 27. 9. — cya- 
thos : see I. 29. 8 n. — amici : a 
Greek form of expression, by which 
the cups are said to be his to 
whose health they are drunk ; cf. 
19, 9 sqq, and Antiph. ap, A then. 
X. 21 iyx^h iraidlor, | Kvddow 
OtQv re jca2 Oecuviop fivfdovs. The 
meaning here is somewhat modi- 
fied, however, by sospitis, which 
shows that present safety is more 
prominent in the poet's mind than 
future welfare as a motive for 
drinking (cf. II. 7. 26 sqq.). We 
may translate: /or the preservation 
of your friend. See Intr. 105 a. 

14. centum: used vaguely, like 
fwplovs above, for a very large 
number ; cf. II. 14. 26. 

15. perfer, stay with; lit. * en- 
dure to the end.' The real object 
is implied in vigiles, as if it were 
vigi/ias sufi iucemis perfer. . This 
the invalid Maecenas would not be 
disposed to do in any ordinary 
drinking party; hence the assur- 
ance that follows, procul etc., 
though these words seem to imply 
that there are to be other guests 
present. 



200 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



20 



25 



Mitte civilis super urbe curas : 
occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen, 
Medus infestus sibi luctuosis 
dissidet armis, 

servit Hispanae vetus hostis orae 
Cantaber sera domitus catena, 
iam Scythae laxo meditantur arcu 
cedere campis. 

Neglegens ne qua populus laboret, 
parce privatus nimium cavere et 
dona praesentis cape laetus horae ; 
linque severa. 



17. super : see I. 9. 5 n. 

18. occidit: emphatic, as in I. 
28. 7 and IV. 4. 70. — Cotisonis 
agmen : see introd. note, and I. 
26. 4 n. 

19. Medus : see 1. 2. 22 n ; Intr. 
127. — sibi: with infestus; but 
its force cannot help being felt 
with luctuosis also. Intr. 76. — 
luctuosis : cf . 6. 8, where it is also 
used in reference to civil strife. 

20. dissidet : used absolutely ; 
cf. dissideat miles, Tac. Ann. I. 
46. I. 

21. servit : cf. occidit^ 17 n, and 
for the meaning, II. 2. 12. — His- 
panae orae : the mountainous 
district along the bay of Biscay. 
For orae cf. I. 12. 55, 26. 4. The 
genitive with hostis in this relation 
is rare. 

22. sera : because he was vetus 
hostis. Livy remarks (XXVIII. 
12. 12) that of all the continental 
provinces of the Romans, Spain 
was the first in which they gained 
a footing, the last to be com- 
pletely subdued, and that not till 
his own day. — domitus : refer- 
ring perhaps to their reduction by 



Statilius Taurus B.C. 29; see II. 

6. 2n. 

23. Scythae : the marauding 
raids of these tribes had been 
checked by the operations of Cras- 
sus, but not yet entirely suppressed 
(cf. II. 9. 23 sq.) ; "Cmd this is all 
that Horace asserts (meditantur 
cedere). — laxo, unstrung. 

24. cedere : Intr. 94/ — cam- 
pis : those south of the Danube 
which were exposed to their raids. 

25. neglegens, etc. : after stat- 
ing these good reasons, Horace 
returns to the exhortation begun 
in 17. neglegens, privatus, and 
laetus are all a part of the exhor- 
tation, the first two repeating the 
idea of mittt civilis curas , 17. — 
ne : after the idea of fear or 
anxiety implied in neglegens 
(here = securus) ; cf. terruit ne, 

I. 2. 5 n. 

26. privatus : i.e. for the mo- 
ment. Cf. S. II. I. 71 sqq* — ni- 
mium cavere, borrow trouble, ca- 
vere is used absolutely as in 5". II. 

7. 68 ; for the mood, see Intr. 94 k. 

27. dona, etc. : cf. I. 9. i^sqq., 

II. 8, 11. 16. 25 sqq., III. 99. 41 sqq. 



VIII. I7-1X. lo.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



20] 



10 



IX. 

Donee gratus eram tibi 

nee quisquam potior]^ braeehia eandidae 
eerviei iuvenis dabat, • 

Persarum vigui rege beatior. 
Donee non alia magis 

arsisti neque erat Lydia post Chloen, 
multi Lydia nominis, 

Romana vigui elarior Ilia. 
Me nune Thressa Chloe regit, 

dulcis doeta modos et eitharae seiens, 



IX. A lyrical idyl, portraying 
with exquisite skill a lovers' quar- 
rel and reconciliation. The brief 
dialogue tells the whole story. 
Lydia*s lover has wounded her by 
too marked attentions to Chloe, 
and her resentment has sent him 
off in a passion. Both are sorry 
and proud. He makes the first 
overtures towards a reconciliation 
in terms of tender regret, mixed 
with reproach ; she replies in the 
same strain, with no sign of yield- 
ing. He then tries to break her 
down by a show of indifference, 
but she answers him with equal 
defiance. Finally he virtually con- 
fesses his fault and offers to make, 
amends, and she, while asserting 
her woman's privilege of the last 
word in the quarrel, consents and 
owns that she loves him after all. 
This is the only ode of Horace in 
dialogue form. — Metre, 171. 

1. eram : d.parabat^ I. 37. 8 n. 

2. ipoXioXi favored rival. 

3. dabat : the simple form for 
the compound (circumdabaf) is po- 
etical ; cf . Intr. 1 29. 

4. Persarum rege : see II. 2 
I7n% 



5. donee, etc. : in this and in 
the second pair of strophes Horace 
observes the rule of amoebean 
verse which requires that the 
second speaker shall match the 
verses of the first, and, if possible, 
produce something better and 
stronger. Cf. Verg. Ecll. 3 and 7. — 
alia : cf. virgine^ II. 4. 8 ; Intr. 72. 

6. arsisti : the perfect, for vari- 
ety, matching the imperfect of vs. 
I, but with the same force. Roby 
1667. — post, second to, 

7. multi Lydia nominis, a Ly- 
dia of great renown; her name 
was on everybody's lips as the 
fortunate object of his choice ; cf. 
elarior. This verse belongs with 
the preceding, the name being re- 
peated as in I. 13. I, 2. 

8. Romana : as the mother of 
the Roman race. She was a Tro- 
jan woman according to the tradi- 
tion which Horace follows ; see 3. 
32 n. 

9. Thressa Chloe: for this des- 
ignation and that in 14, cf. I. 27. 
10 sq. The names are chosen for 
their pleasing sound. 

10. modos : for the case cf. 
sermonest 8. 5. 



2Q2 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



15 



20 



pro qua non metuam mori, 

si parcent animae fata superstiti. 
Me torret face mutua/ 

Thurini Calais filius Ornyti, 
pro quo bis patiar mori, 
/ si parcent puero fata superstiti. 
Quid si prisca redit Venus, 

diductosque iugo cogit aeneo, 
si flava excutitur Chloe, 

reiectaeque patet ianua Lydiae ? 
Quamquam sidere pulchrior 

ille est, til levior cortice et improbo 
iracundior Hadria, 

tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens^ 



X. 

Extremum Tanain si biberes, Lyce, 
saevo nupta viro, me tamen asperas 



11. mori: Intr. 94/. 

12. AnimsLe, my /ovf. — super- 
stiti, andlet her live ; proleptic. 

15. mori : Intr. 94 a. 

16. puero : see I. 9. 16 n. — su- 
perstiti : cf . vs. 1 2 n. 

17. prisca: poetical for /r^/!(;/a. 
— redit : for the present in this 
and the following verses, see Intr. 

78. 

18. iugo aeneo : cf. I. 33. 
II n. 

19. flava : see I. 5. 3n. — excu« 
titur : sc. from her control of me 
(regit^ 9) ; cf. Verg. A* V. 679 excus- 
saque pectore luno est, 

20. Lydiae : dative, as reiec- 
tae shows, ianua patet is not 
altogether metaphorical; see 15. 
9n. 



21. sidere pulchrior: cf. 19. 26 
puro similetn Vespero ; II. VI. 
401 dX/7K(oy Acrripi KaK$ (of Asty- 
anax). 

22. levior : t.e. less steadfast, 
more fickle. — improbo, horrid. 

23. iracundior Hadria : cf. I. 

33- IS- 

24. vivere : Intr. 94 c, 

X. A serenade, of the kind 
called irapaK\avffi$vpoVf in which the 
lover pleads before the barred 
door of his mistress' house (cf. I. 
25. 7 sq.). In accordance with 
Horace's usual practice in verses 
of this kind the names are Greek, 
but the setting is Roman. Lyce 
is of Etruscan origin, and the 
mistress of a wealthy mansion. 



IX. II-X. 12.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



203 



10 



porrectum ante foris obicere incolis 
plorares Aquilonibus. 

Audis quo strepitu ianua, quo nemus 
inter pulchra satum tecta remugiat 
ventis, et positas ut glaciet nivis 
puro numine luppiter.^ 

Ingratam Veneri pone superbiam, 
ne currente retro funis eat rota : 
non te Penelopen difficilem procis 
Tyrrhenus genuit parens. 



Her infatuated lover plies her in 
turn with reproaches for her cru- 
elty, with warning and sarcasm, 
with appeals to pity, and finally 
with the impotent threat that he 
will leave her for good. — Metre, 
172. 

1. eztremum, the far off; cf. 
ultima^ II. 18. 4 n. — si biberes : 
i,e, if you lived on its banks, among 
the Sarmatians, where *peccare 
nefas, aut pretium est mori' (24. 
24). For the form of expression, 
cf. II. 20. 20 n, IV. 15. 21. 

2. saevo viro : in contrast with 
the actual fact (vs. 15). — asperas, 
pitiless. 

3. porrectum : implying that 
he has waited long. — obicere : 
Intr. 94 m ; cf. Plant. AuL 308 
aquam hircle ploratj quom lavaty 
profiindere (of a miser). — incolis, 
that are at home there. 

5. nemus, etc.: cf. Ep, I. 10. 
22 inter varias nutritur silva eo- 
lumnas. In the wealthier Roman 
houses the second court (peristy- 
lium) was expanded into a gar- 
den, with space even for large 
trees. 

7. ventis: causal ablative. — ut: 
see 1. 9. 1 n ; Intr. 114. The ques- 
tion depends on the general idea 



of perception in audis, the specific 
meaning of which is lost at this 
distance. Cf. 1. 14. 3 n, II. i. 21 n. 
— glaciet, etc.: i>. the night is 
clear (puro) and so cold that 
the light coating of snow on the 
ground (positas), which had soft- 
ened in the sunshine, is frozen 
hard. 

8. puro numine, in cloudless 
majesty; cf. I. 34. 7 n. — luppiter: 
see I. I. 25 n. 

10. ne, etc.: i>. your high flight 
in virtue is beyond your powers, 
and will end in a sudden and vio- 
lent fall. The figure is that of 
a windlass, with which a man is 
raising a weight that proves too 
heavy, and the handle breaks or 
slips from his grasp. — retro: with 
currente, and then, by inference, 
with eat. 

11. non te : cf. non ego I. 18. 
1 1 n. — difficilem : cf. 7. 32. 

1 2. Tyrrhenus, etc. : in contrast 
with the supposition in vs. i. The 
Etruscans reached a high point of 
civilization, which was on the de- 
cline when the Romans came in 
contact with them, and had left 
traditions of luxury and effeminacy 
with their accompanying vices. See 
Momm. Hist. Bk. II. Ch. iv. 



204 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. ly. 



'S 



20 



O quamvis neque te munera nee preces 
nee tinetus viola pallor amantium 
nee vir Pieria pag^ee saueius 
curvat, supplieibus tuis 

pareas, nee rigida moliior aeseulo .^^ 
nee Mauris animum mitior anguibus : 
non hoe semper erit liminis aut aquae 
eaelestis patiens latus. 



XI. 



Mereuri, nam te doeilis magistro 
movit Amphion lapides eanendo, 
tuque testudo, resonare septem 
eallida nervis, 



13. quamvis : Intr. 83. 

14. tinetus viola paUor: cf. 
Verg. E, 2. 47 pallentis violas. 
The tint was a pale yellow (wan). 

15. vir saueius: Intr. 105a. — 
Pieria : cf. Thressa, 9. 9. — pac- 
liee : causal abl., as in I. 14. 5. — 
saueius : of love, as Verg. A. 
IV. I. 

16. curvat : a fresh word, for 
the * faded metaphor ' Jlectit. — ^ 
supplieibus, worshippers ; i.e. if 
no personal consideration moves 
you, spare us in pure mercy (like 
a goddess). There is an under- 
tone of irony in this and the next 
words. 

17. rigida : continuing the fig- 
ure in eurvat. 

18. Mauris anguibus : said to 
be particularly savage on account 
of the heat ; Sail. lug, 89. 5. Cf . 
Lucan's description of the snakes 
of the Libyan desert, B, C, IX. 
630 sqq, — animum : Intr. 44. 

19. non hoc, etc.: the comic 
effect of this finaJ touch is obvious. 



— liminis: cf. Epod. 11. 22. — 
aquae eaelestis: cf. Ep, II. i. 
135. The reference to rain (cf. 
vs. 8) shows that he has in mind 
other occasions besides the present. 
20. latus : cf. II. 7. 18 n. 

XI. The theme of this ode is 
the beautiful story of Hyper- 
mnestra and Lynceus, which is pre- 
sented in a setting that adds not a 
little to its charm. The poet be- 
gins as if with no definite theme 
in mind. He calls on his lyre, 
and on Mercury, who gave the 
lyre its magic power, to play a 
strain to which even Lyde shall 
listen, — Lyde, the shy young, girl, 
playful as a colt and with as little 
thought of love. He appeals to 
the past achievements of the lyre, 
how, in the hands of Orpheus, it 
charmed the woods and streams 
and wild beasts, yes, even the 
monsters of the underworld, and 
Ixion and Tityos in their torment, 
and the Danaids, — let Lyde hear 



X. I3-XI. 12.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



205 



lO 



nec loquax olim neque grata, nunc et 
divitum mensis et arnica templis, 
die modos Lyde quibus obstinatas 
adplicet auris, 

quae velut latis equa trima campis 
ludit exsultim metuitqu^ tangi^ 
nuptiarum expers et adhuc protervo 
cruda^marito. 



the tale of the Danaids. Thus he 
comes upon his theme naturally, 
as it were, and without design. 
He shows his skill further in dis- 
posing of the disagreeable part of 
the story first, the crime and the 
subsequent punishment of the 
wicked sisters ; and against this 
dark background he paints the 
bright picture of the one who was 
found faithful. His taste is shown 
no less in leaving off at the point 
where the heroic girl is left to face 
death as the consequence of her 
devoted courage and womanly 
pity. Ovid has treated the same 
suDJect in theI/ierMes(j4)j follow- 
ing the lines laid down by Horace, 
so that the two poems afford an 
excellent opportunity of comparing 
the two poets, and the lyric with 
the elegiac treatment. — Metre, 174. 
I. Mercuri: although his ap- 
peal is to the lyre, he invokes 
Mercury first, because the lyre is 
his handiwork (1. 10. 6 n), and with- 
out his inspiration it is a voice- 
less shell. — nam : introducing the 
reason for addressing the god, — a 
Homeric form of expression, e^. 
Odys, 1. 337 ; cf. Verg. i. 1. 65 Aeole^ 
namque Hbi, etc. The reason is 
given, after Horace's manner, in 
the form of a particular example 
standing for the general fact. — 
te magistro : abl. absolute, but 
containing the main thought : it 



was thy teaching and his willing- 
ness to learn of thee that gave 
Amphion his (well-known) power, 
docilis is more than doctus^ en- 
forcing the idea of dependence. 

2. movit, etc.: the stones were 
said to have moved into their 
places in the wall under the spell 
of his music; see.£/. II. 3. 394x7^* 

3. resonare : Intr. \o\ c, 

4. nervis : ablative. 

5. nec loquax neque grata, 
without voice or charm. — olini : 
/>. when a mere shell. — et: often 
placed at the end of the verse in 
Horace, but always, except here 
and IV. 13. 6, coalescing by elision 
with the preceding word. 

6. mensis : the use of the lyre 
at banquets dates from Homeric 
times; cf. e.g, the story of the 
Phaeacians. — amica: cf. 4. 25 n 
and Intr. 1 19 <i. — templis : />. in 
religious ceremonies ; cf. I. 36. i n. 
Porphyrio says : ' Fidicines hodie- 
que Romae sacrificiis adhiberi vi- 
demus.' 

7. die modos : cf. I. 32. 3. 

9. trima: the time prescribed 
for breaking in a colt was in its 
fourth year (Verg. G, III. 190). 

10. ludit, etc*: see Intr. 123. — 
exsultim, bounding over. The 
word is found here only. — tangi : 
Intr. 94 /. 

1 2. cruda : the same figure as 
in II. 5. 10. 



206 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IIL 



IS 



20 



Tu potes tigris comitesque silvas 
ducere et rivos celeris morari ; 
cessit immanis tibi blandienti 
ianitor aulae 

Cerberus, quamvis furiale centum 
muniant angues caput eius atque 
spiritus taeter saniesque manet 
ore trilingui ; 

quin et Ixion Tityosque voltu 
risit invito ; stetit urna paulum 
sicca, dum grato Danai puellas 
carmine mulces. 



13. tu ; the lyre. The poet is 
reckling the feats of Orpheus ; cf. 
I. 12. 7 sqq. — comites, in thy 
train, — -qtie ; Intr. 119^. 

15. cessit, etc.: for the descent 
of Orpheus to the lower world in 
quest of Eurydice, see- Ovid, M. X. 
8 sqq.j Verg. G, IV. 457 sqq, — 
immanis : used of Cer()erus also 
in Verg. A, VI. 418 recubans im- 
manis in antra. Some join it here 
with aulae ; cf. /era regia Ditis^ 
Ov. M, IV. 438. — blandienti: cf. 
I. 12, II, 24, 13. 

16. ianitor aulae : better taken 
as expressing a single idea ('pal- 
ace-doorkeeper \ modified by im» 
manis. For aulae, cf. II, 18. 

17. Cerberus, etc.: see I. 2. 
7 n. The repulsive picture of the 
monster serves to enhance the im- 
pression of the power of music. 
But some critics have doubted 
whether Horace wrote the strophe, 
which certainly has a prosaic flavor. 
They object particularly to the 
unpoetlcal pronoun eius, which 
Vergil nowhere uses. Horace has 
it, however, IV. 8. 18, as well as 



in the Satires, and it occurs two 
or three times in Ovid. — quam- 
vis: Intr. 83. — iMx\9Xt, fury-like ; 
cf. II. 13. 35 J^. — centum: see 
8. 14 n. 

18. angles: conceived as grow- 
ing like hair about his neck; cf. 
Verg. A, VI. 419 horrere videns 
iam colla colubris, 

20. ore trilingui: cf. II. 19. 
31 n. 

21. quin et: cf. II. 13. 37 n.^— 
Izion : cf . Verg. G. IV. 484 Ixionii 
cantu rota constitit orbis, — Tityos: 
see 4. 77, II. 14. 8 n. 

22. risit : Intr. 77. — invito: i.e, 
in spite of their torture. — urna: 
used collectively, — the one in 
which each carried water to the 
dolium ; Intr. 127. 

25. audiat Lyde, etc.: Horace's 
readers were familiar with the myth 
of the Danaids, — how the Argive 
king accepted the overtures of his 
brother Aegyptus for a reconcilia- 
tion, and married the latter's sons 
to his fifty daughters, but in- 
structed the brides to murder their 
husbands on the wedding night, — 
and with the doom of the wicked 



XI. 13-36] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



207 



25 Audiat Lyde scelus atque notas 
virginum poenas et inane lymphae 
dolium fundo pereuntis imo, 
seraquafata 

quae maneni/ culpas etiam sub Oreo, 
30 Impiae (nam quid potuere mains ?), 
impiae sponsos potuere duro 
perdere ferro, 

^^YVna. de multis face nuptiali 
digna periurum fuit in parentem 
35 splendide mendax et in omne virgo 
nobilis aevum J 



damsels to pour water into a bot- 
tomless cistern till they filled it ; 
they were reminded of the story 
whenever they went to tlje library 
of the temple of Apollo on the 
Palatine (I. 31), where the statues 
of Danaus and his daughters lined 
the portico, alternating with the 
marble columns (Ov. Tr. III. i. 
61 j^.. Prop. III. 31. 2^9')- Horace 
could therefore pass Ughtly over 
these outlines and use them as an 
introduction to the golden deed 
of the one interesting Danaid.-^- 
notas : modifying scelus as well 
as poenas; Intr. 119 a. 

26. lymphae: with inane; Intr. 
66 r. For the order of words here, 
see Intr. iii. 

27. fundo: instrumental abl. 
(the way by which). — pereuntis, 
going to waste, 

28. sera, etc.: 1.^. the doom 
(punishment), long delayed, which 
overtakes the guilty person at last, 
even though he go free all his 
life. 

29. sub : cf. 5. 9. Orcus is the 
person (not the place), as in II. 
18. 30. 



30. impiae . . . impiae : the 
parenthetical clause supplies the 
requisite pause to make the repe- 
tition more effective (Intr. 116^); 
cf. surge^ 37 sq. PietaSy as a hu- 
man obligation, commonly denotes 
that of blood-relationship, but is 
sometimes extended to marriage 
and other obligations that were 
regarded as having a sacred char- 
acter. Cf. Ov. M, XIII. 301 pia 
coniunx. So Hypermnestra, Ov. 
Her, 14. 129, calls her punishment 
pretium pietatis iniquum, 

31. potuere : in a moral sense, 
— they had the heart; different 
from its use in 30, where it denotes 
simple possibility, — *What wick- 
edness could be greater ? ' — duro, 
pitiless; cf. the Homeric m^X^i 

33. una, only one, 

35. splendide mendax : a fine 
oxymoron. Cf. Tac. H, IV. 50 
servus egregio mendacio se Pisonem 
esse respondit,ac statim obtruncatur; 
Soph. Ant, 74 isyoL rapovprf^eura, 
mendax implies that Danaus had 
bound his daughters by a promise 
or oath to commit the deed. 



208 



HORATl CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



^ Surge ' quae dixit iuveni marito, 
' surge, ne longus tibi somnus» unde 
non times^ detur ; socerum et scelestas 
40 falle sorores, 

quae, velut nanctae vitulos leaenae, 
singulos ehea lacerant. Ego illis 
moUior nee te feriam neque intra 
claustra tenebo : 

45 me pater saevis oneret catenis, 
quod viro clemens misero peperci ; 
me vel extremos Numidarum in agros 
classe releget. 

I pedes quo. te rapiunt et aurae, 
50 dum favet nox et Venus, i secundo 
omine et nostri memorem sepulcro 
scalpe querellanx,' 

37. quae, she, 

38. surge : sc. from sleep, sug- 
gesting the figurative expression for 
death that follows. — longus: as in 
II. 14. 19 and IV. 9. 27, for 'eternal/ 
In all of these cases longus gets its 
expressive force from the substan- 
tive (labor t somnuSf nox)f which 
denotes a familiar experience of 
limited duration. — unde : for imie 
unde, *from a quarter from which.' 

40. falle, elude; cf. I. 10. 16 n, 
Ep, I. 5. 31. — sorores : sc. tuas; 
cf. Ov. Her. 14. 123 si qua piae, 
LynceUf tibi cura sororis. First 
cousins were called fratres and 
sorores (patxueles). 

42. singulos lacerant : a con- 
fusion of the figure with the reality 
(Intr. 123), singulos referring to 
the men, lacerant to the lions.. — 
eheu : in her account of the affair 
in Ov. Her, 14. 35, she is made to 
say, circum me gemitus morientum 



audire videbar ; \ et tamen audi- 
bam, quodque verebar erat. 

43. intra claustra : i,e, where 
others would kill you. 

44. tenebo : for retinebo; Intr. 
129. 

45. me: Intr. 116 b,g; not con- 
tinuing the emphasis of ego, but 
contrasted with te. The two sen- 
tences of this strophe are virtually 
concessive clauses added to the ex- 
pression of her determination in 42- 
44: * I will not compass your death, 
let my father do his worst to me.' 

47. extremos: see 10. in. 

49. pedes et aurae: i.e. to the 
coast, and then across the sea ; 
cf. Epod, 16. 21 sq, 

50. Venus : who, as inspirer 
of Hypermnestra's act, has given 
him the opportunity to escape. 

5 1 . nostri, of me, as in 27 . 1 4 and 
Juv.3.318; cf.28.9n. — sepulcro: 
Intr. 69. 



XI. 37-xii. 3.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



209 



XII. 

Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum neque dulci 

mala vino lavere, aut exanimari metuentis 

patruae verbera linguae. 
Tibi qualum Cythereae puer ales, tibi telas 

operosaeque Minervae studium aufert, Neobule, 

Liparaei nitor Hebri, 
simul unctos Tiberinis umeros lavit in undis, 

eques ipso melior Bellerophonte, neque pugno 

neque segni pede victus ; 



XII. This ode IS a study in pure 
Ionics, based apparently on an ode 
of Alcaeus, beginning l|ic delXaw, 
$fu iTiurav Ktucordrup wtd^otjup 
(Fr, 59). Alcaeus wrote a num- 
ber of poems in this metre, but 
Horace seems to have found the 
task of naturalizing it in Latin 
too difficult, or the effect unsatis- 
factory; at least, this is the only 
example he has left us. In form 
it is a monologue, the complaint 
of a love-sick girl, who frets against 
the restraints under which she is 
brought up, and sighs for the free- 
dom of a young man. The names 
are Greek, but the local coloring 
is, as usual, wholly Roman. — 
Metre, 168. 

I. hidJiait free play ; cf. Plaut. 
Bacch, 1083 nimis nolo ei desidiae 
dare ludum, — lavere: /./. wash 
them away. For the form, see 

II. 3. 18 n. — aut, or else; or^ if 
they do; cf. 24. 24; Tac. Ann. 

III. 73. I Auc adrogantiae venereU, 
ut sedem sihi atque exercitui pos- 
tularett aut bellum inexplicabile 
minitaretur. — metuentis : accu- 
sative ; the force of the genitive 
miseranim has faded, at this 
distance, into a vague idea of 



necessity, so that e<u is felt to 
be understood as the subject of 
exanimari. — patruae: not nec- 
essarily of an actual uncle. The 
word patruusy like noverca (see 
Epod. 5. 9 n), had become pro- 
verbial for severity untempered 
by parental affection or sympathy; 
cf. S. II. 3. 88 if^ sis patruus 
mihi. For the form, see Intr. 65. 
— verbera, the lashings. 

2. tibi qualum (aufert), steals 
away your wool-basket. The verb 
here, though used figuratively, has 
its literal (physical) meaning ; with 
its other subject, nitor Hebri, it 
is purely metaphorical. — opero- 
sae : applied to Minerva (in con- 
trast with Venus) as patroness 
of the various handicrafts, par- 
ticularly of spinning and weaving 
('A^ra *^friikin\). — Minervae : 
objective gen. — Neobule: a name 
borrowed from Archilochus, for 
its pleasing sound and metrical 
value; cf. Leuconoe, I. 11. — 
Liparaei Hebri: cf. I. 27. 10, 
II. 4. 2, III. 9. 9, 14. The name 
Hebrus is taken from the river 
in Thrace ; cf. 7. 23 n. — nitor: cf. 
I. 19. 5. 

3. simul: see I. 4. 17 n. — 



210 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IIL 



4 catus idem per apertum fugientis agitato 

grege cervos iaculariet celer arto latitantem 
fruticeto excipere aprum. 

XIII. 

O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
dulci digne mero non sine fioribus, 
eras donaberis haedo, 

cui frons turgida comibus 



unctos : for the exercise that pre- 
ceded the bath. On this whole 
passage see I. 8. 5 sqq,t III. 7. 25 
sqq.t with notes. — eques : a con- 
struction according to sense (as 
if Hebrusy instead of nitor Hebri 
had been the subject of the main 
verb) justified by the interven- 
tion of the dependent clause with 
Hebrus understood as its subject. 
— Bellerophonte : from the form 
Bellerophontes ; cf. 7. 1$ n. — 
segni: with both pugno and 
pede; Intr. 119 <i. The ablatives 
are better taken as causal. 

4. fruticeto : Intr. 69. — excip- 
pere : i.e, to attack him when he is 
driven out, and kill him before he 
can escape. For the infinitives 
see Intr. loi ^ and c, 

XIII. To the spring of Bandu- 
sia. Where the spring was which 
Horace has immortalized under, 
this name, cannot be determined. 
There is evidence, dating from the 
beginning of the twelfth century, 
of the existence of a 'fons Bandu- 
sinus ' near Venusia, and this tradi- 
tion, in itself of no great value, — 
for it was very common in the 
middle ages for a classical name 
to be attached to a place without 
the least reference to truth, — re- 



ceives some support from the name 
itself, which, being probably a cor- 
ruption of the Greek nardpo-^a, 
is one we should expect to find 
in the neighborhood of Venusia, 
rather than in the Sabine district 
where Horace had his farm. There 
was on Horace's farm a spring 
which we know he admired and 
valued highly (cf. S. II. 6. 2, Ep. 
I. 16, 12 J^^.), and which would fit 
in all respects our poem ; but we 
do not know that it was called 
Bandusia or had any name at all. 
Some have imagined that Horace, 
on coming into possession of his 
new home, revived there a name 
familiar and dear to him in the 
place of his birth. Fortunately 
our ignorante need not mar our 
enjoyment of the poem, which 
would lose none of its exquisite 
beauty if we were obliged to rele- 
gate the spring entirely to the 
realm of fancy. — Metre, 173. 

I. Bandusiae : apparently the 
name of the place, not of the 
nymph of the spring. — splendi- 
dior vitro, brighter than crystal, 
Ovid applies the same phrase 
to Galatea (M. XIII. 791). The 
brightness, of course, implies the 
transparency of the water, as of 
the glass. Cf. splendor aquai, 



XII. 4-xiii. i6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



2U 



10 



15 



primis et venerem et proelia destinat ; 
frustja : nam gelidos inficiet tibi 
rubro sanguine rivos, 
lascivi suboles gregis. 

Te flagrantis atrox hora Caniculae 
nescit tangere, tu frigus amabile 
fessis vomere tauris 
praebes et pecori vago. 

Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium, 
me dicente cavis impositam ilicem 
saxis unde loquaces 
lymphae desiliunt tuae. 



Lucr. IV. 211, For vitro, cf. I. 
17. 20 n. 

2. mero : poured into the water 
as a libation to the divinity of the 
spring. That the poet wUl make 
these slighter offerings of wine and 
flowers, along with the greater 
sacrifice promised in the next verse, 
goes without saying. The regular 
time for making such offerings was 
the festival of the Fontanalia (or 
Fontinalia), October 13. — non 
sine: cf. I. 23. 3n. — floribus: cf. 
Varro Z. L, VI. 22 (Fontanalihus) 
et in fontes coronas iaciunt et puteos 
coronant. That they also sacrificed 
animals appears from the present 
passage and from the Acta Fratr. 
Arv. (a.d. 183), where a sacrifice 
of two wethers b recorded. It is 
not necessary, however, to suppose 
that this ocie was written on the 
eve of the Fontanalia. Cf. Martial 

VI. 47. 

5. d^^z\\xi9Xy foretokens, 

6. fnistra: nam, etc.: cf. 7* 
21 n. — gelidos, rubro: see Intr. 
122. 



9. te . . . tu: cf. I. 10. 9n ; Intr. 
116^. — hora, season; cf. £p. II. 
3. 302 sub verni temporis horam. 
The whole phrase means the furi- 
ous heat of the dog-days; see I. 
17. 17 n. 

10. tangere, come nigh. For 
the mood see Intr. 94 o, — frigus, 
etc. : />. during the mid-day rest. 

12. vago: answering to fessis 
vomere ; the aimless movement 
of the grazing flock is contrasted 
with the steady-going ox at his 
work. 

13. nobilium,y&»x<wj ; i.e. such 
as Hippocrene, Castalia, Arethusa, 
etc. The poet has kept his word. 
— fontium : Intr. 62. 

14. cavis, etc : with consum- 
mate skill Horace has painted the 
whole scene for us in these few 
finishing strokes. — impositam, 
that stands upon; cf. IV. 14. 12. 

15. loquaces: with desiliunt. 
The fine effect of this passage is 
due in large measure to the suc- 
cession of liquids and expressive 
vowel sounds; Intr. 131. 



212 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



5 



XIV. 

Herculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs, 
morte venalem petiisee laurum 
Caesar Hispana repetit penatis 
victor ab ora. 

Vnico gaudens mulier marito 
prodeat, iustis operata sacrts, 
et soror clari ducis et decorae 
supplice vitta 



XIV. Early in the year B.C. 24 
Augustus returned to Rome after 
an absence of nearly three years in 
the West, where he had reduced 
the Cantabrians to temporary sub- 
mission and settled the affairs of 
Gaul. During the Cantabrian 
campaign he had lain sick at Tar- 
raco for many months, — a period 
of grave anxiety for all thoughtful 
and peace-loving Romans, in view 
of the disorders that would in- 
evitably follow his death. There 
was no doubt genuine rejoicing 
among the great mass of the 
people over his recovery and safe 
return. As he had declined the 
honor of a triumph for success 
achieved largely by his lieutenants, 
a public thanksgiving (supplicatio) 
would naturally be decreed. In 
anticipation of such a thanksgiv- 
ing Horace wrote the present ode. 
He pictures the outward mani- 
festations of gratitude and rejoic- 
ing, in which the women may be 
expected to take a prominent part; 
and then proceeds with his own 
preparations for celebrating the 
day in a light-hearted strain, in 
which, however, we are not per- 
mitted to forget the significance of 
the occasion. — Metre, 174. 

I . H erculis ritu, like Hercules ; 



referring both to the dangerous 
enterprise and the victorious re- 
turn. — modo (with dictus): ix. 
at the time of his illness. — dictus, 
)u who was said. — o plebs, Oye 
people. The word had lost its 
earlier meaning of a political class, 
and signified, like populusy the 
mass of the citizens in distinction 
from their rulers ; cf. II. 2. 18. 

2. venalem, whose price is. — 
petiisse, to have gone in quest of. 

3. Hispana ora : cf. 8. 21 n. 

5. unico gaudens, whose whole 
joy is in ; cf. unicis SabiniSf II. 18. 
14 n. Vnicusj from its use with 
filiuSffilia, etc., had come to con- 
note a concentration of interest 
and affection on a single object, 
who is one's <all.* — mulier: Livia. 
She was a woman of great ability 
and force of character, tempered 
with good sense and tact, which 
enabled her to keep the affection 
of her husband to the end. Her 
private life was above reproach 
(sanctitate domus priscum ad mo- 
rem, Tac. Ann. V. i. 5). 

6. prodeat : on a day of thanks- 
giving, besides the institution of 
public sacrifices, the temples, which 
were closed to the laity on ordi- 
nary occasions, were thrown open 
and were thronged with crowds of 



XIV. i-i6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



213 



10 



15 



virginum matres iuvenumque nuper 
sospitum ; vos, o pueri et puellae 
non virum expertae, male ominatis 
parcite verbis. 

Hie dies vere mihi festus atras 
eximet curas : ego nee tumultum 
nee mori per vim metuam tenente 
Caesare terras. 






people of every age and class, who 
passed through the streets from 
shrme to shrine, crowned with 
wreaths and smging hymns. — 
iustis, du^; >>. those prescribed 
by the ritual. — operata: i>. at 
home, before setting out to take 
part in the public thanksgiving. — 
sacris : the other reading, iustis 
dnds {scilicet quod Ccusari victori- 
am et reditum merenti dederintf 
Porphyrio), would be more appro- 
priate if operata referred to the 
public ceremonies of the day. But 
operata, which implies an actual 
sacrifice (* operationes^ enim sacri- 
ficia dixeruntf Porph.), cannot well 
apply to the mere presence of Livia 
and the women at the public cere- 
monies, in which they would take 
no active part ; and if it could, it 
ought to be operaturaf as Bentley 
pointed out. 

7. sorer: Octavia. 

8. supplice : in distinction from 
the plain one worn ordinarily by 
free-bom ladies. The 'thanksgiv- 
ing fillet ' would seem to have been 
a wreath of olive twined with a 
woolen ribbon. — vitta : abl. with 
decorae, as in II. 16. 6. 

9. virginum matres, etc.: i>. 
mothers with their sons and daugh- 
tei^ (or daughters-in-law) about 
them, the former just home from 
the wars (nuper sospitum). Some 
join nuper sospitum with vir« 



ginum also, but this is a strained 
interpretation and confuses the 
picture. 

10. vos : the younger children, 
who would especially need this 
caution. This is indicated by the 
word pueri (in contrast with iuve- 
nes, above) and more explicitly in 
the phrase attached to puellae. 
Cf. the very similar expression for 
'boys and girls,* Ep, II. i. 132 
castis cum pueris ignara puella 
mariti. 

11. non virum expertae: the 
MS. reading, iam virum expertae^ 
would make the whole phrase a 
bungling and needless repetition 
of virginum iuvenumque, above. 
— male ominatis,' etc. : equiva- 
lent to favete Unguis^ III. i. 2 n. 
If the text is correct, the hiatus 
(Intr. 185) is due to the feeling 
that the two words belong together 
as a compound. 

12. parcite: abstain from; cf. 
Epod, 17. 6parce vocibus sacris. 

13. vere mihi festus : used 
predicatively : cf. 8. Qn. — atras 
curas: those caused by the pre- 
cariops state of Caesar's headth. 
Cf. III. I. 4on. 

14. X^^mvlXvLTa^ insurrection'; 9i 
war in the dty or in Italy (cf. Cic. 
Phil, VIII. 2 sqq). He is think- 
ing of personal dainger. 

15. mori: Intr. 95. — tenente: 
sc. as ruler; cf. 17. 8, .S". I. 7. 18. 



214 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



20 



25 



I, pete unguentum, puer, et coronas 
et cadum Marsi memorem duelli, 
Spartacum si qua potuit vagantem 
fallere testa. 

Die et argutae properet Neaerae 
murreum nodo cohibere crinem ; 
si per invisum mora ianitorem 
fiet, abito. 

Lenit albescens anlmos capillus 
litium et rixae cupidos protervae ; 
non ego hoc ferrem calidus iuventa 
consule Planco. 



17. unguentum, coronas, ca- 
dum: cf. II. 3. 1311. — puer: see 
I. 19. 1411. 

18. Marsi duelli : the Social 
War, B.C. 90, 89. The Marsi were 
among the bravest of the socii ; 
cf. I. 2. 39 n. — memorem : Le. 
stored at that time. Cf. Juv. 5. 31 
calcatamque tenet bellis socialibus 
livam (dives). 

19. Spartacum: the Servile War 
occurred B.C. 73-71. — vagantem: 
i.e, marauding. 

20. fallere: cf. 11. 40 n. 

21. argutae, sweet-voiced ; cf. 
argutae ThalicUy IV. 6. 25. — pro- 
peret : Gr. 339. — Neaerae : a 
music girl. 

22. murreum, chestnut; it is 
defined by Porphyrio as (color) 
medius inter flavum et nigrum. — 
nodo cohibere : instead of a more 
elaborate coiffure, which would 
keep him waiting; cf. II. 11. 23 n. 

23. ianitorem : the ostiarius of 
the house where Neaera lodged. 

24. abito : the second form of the 
imperative (2d person), referring 
to a point 01 future time removed 
by an interval from the present. 



2 5. albescens : Horace was only 
forty-one, but his hair turned gray 
early (Intr. 29). 

27. non ego: cf. I. t8. iin. — 
ferrem: Gr. 308^2. — calidus iu- 
venta : in contrast with the actual 
fact implied in albescens, etc. 

28. consule Planco : the year 
was that of Philippi. The remi- 
niscence, like those of vss. 18 and 
19, is not without design. To his. 
playful reminder of the unpleasant 
experiences of civil war and insur- 
rection, from which the rule of 
Augustus had afforded a happy 
escape, Horace adds an intimation 
of his own change from a hot par- 
tisan to a lover of peace and quiet. 

XV. Horace here portrays the 
same type of character that he 
attacks with more severity in I. 25, 
IV. 13, and some of the Epodes, 
— that of the woman of faded 
beauty who still tries to play the 
part of a young girl. — Metre, 171. 

1. pauperis : a reason why she 
should stay at home and work; cf. 
vs. 13. 

2. fige : more forcible than/<7»^ 



XIV. I7-XV. 1 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



215 



lO 



15 



XV. 

Vxor pauperis Ibyci, 

tandem nequitiae fige modum tuae 
famosisque laboribus ; 

maturo propior desine funeri 
inter ludere virgines 

et stellis nebulam spargere candidis. 
Non, si quid Pholoen satis, 

et te, Chlori, decet : filia rectius 
expugnat iuvenum domos, 

pulso Thyias uti concita tympano. 
illam cogit amor Nothi 

lascivae similem ludere capreae : 
te lanae prope nobilem 

tonsae Luceriam, non citharae decent 
nee flos purpureus rosae 

nee poti vetulam faece tenus cadi. 



(I. 16. 2), implying (with tandem) 
permanency: 'put an end to it 
once for all.' 

3. laboribus : sarcastic ; * every- 
body knows (f amosis) that at your 
years such capers are hard work.' 

4. maturo, tAe full time of; it 
could not be called untimely if it 
should occur in the near future. — 
propior, getting near {as you are), 

5. inter ludere : Intr. 1 1 5 r. For 
this use of ludere, cf. II. 12. 19 n. 

6. stellis, etc. : her presence is 
like a shadow on the bright com- 
pany. 

7. non, si: cf. II. 10. 17 n. — 
Pholoen (sc. decel) : her daughter. 
— satis, well. 

9. expugnat : not a mere figure 
of speech ; cf. Sen. iV. Q, IV. 
Praef 6 dicebat adulationibus nos 
non claudere ostium ^ sed aperire^ 



et quidem sic utamicae opponisolet, 
qu€te si impulit, grata est^ si effregity 
gratior. 

10. pulso, by the beating of; 
Intr. 105a. — Thyias: see II. 19. 
9 n. — tympano : see 1. 18. 13 n. 

1 2. lascivae, etc. : scornful char- 
acterization of the mother's con- 
duct. — similem : the adjective for 
the adverb, as in I. 23. i. 

13. prope tonsae Luceriam: 
Intr. 115^. Apulian wool was the 
best in the Roman market (Plin. 
N, H, VIII. 190). As it was this 
that gave the town its distinction 
(nobilem) the epithet suggests the 
excellence of the wool. 

14. citharae, etc. : the descrip- 
tion is that of a music girl at a 
banquet. 

16. poti: passive. — vetulam: 
reserved for this place to point and 



216 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



XVI. 

Inclusam Danaen turris aenea 
robustaeque fores et vigilum canum 
tristes excubiae munierant satis 
nocturnis ab adulteris, 

si non Acrisium, virginis abditae 
custodem pavidum, luppiter et Venus 
risissent : fore enim tutum iter et patens 
converso in pretium deo. 

Aurum per medios ire satellites 



emphasize the incongruity between 
her age and the scene which these 
words suggest. 

XVI. Reflections on the power 
and the impotence of riches. Gold 
is a mighty weapon : it can bring 
to nought the counsels of kings ; 
it can break through walls of rock; 
it can destroy princely houses, take 
cities, subvert thrones ; but it can- 
not confer happiness. Wealth 
brings trouble and danger, and it 
cannot keep pace with growing 
desire ; contentment is better than 
great possessions. Heaven can 
vouchsafe no richer boon than 
moderate means with a contented 
spirit. The ode is addressed to 
Maecenas, and is very similar in 
sentiment to II. 2 and 16, and III. 
I. — Metre, 172. 

1 . Danaen : Horace, with mild 
irony, treats the highly poetical 
myth of Jupiter descending to 
Danae in a golden shower as the 
testimony of mythology to the 
power of gold. — aenea: cf. 3. 65 n. 

2. robustae, oaken ; cf. I. 3. 9. 

3. tristes, grim. — munierant : 
see Intr. 82. The indicative ex- 
presses what had been the fact 



until the occurrence of the event 
indicated in the protasis ; the pre- 
cautions had been sufficient (and 
would have continued to be) if 
the power of gold had not been 
brought to bear against them. Cf . 
Tac Ann. IV. 9. i (of the speech 
of Tiberius to the senate on the 
death of his son) magna eafletu et 
max precationibus faustis audita; 
ac, si modum orationi posuisset, 
misericordia sui glifriaque animos 
audientium impleverat. 
4. adulteris : cf . I. 33. 9 n. 

6. pavidum: Acrisius had been 
told by an oracle that his daugh- 
ter's son would slay him. 

7. fore enim, etc. : the con- 
struction shows that the thought 
is quoted, and the context shows 
it is that of the two divinities. 

8. pretium, a bribe. — deo: da- 
tive. 

9. per medios: i.e. not secretly, 
by outwitting them, but right 
under their eyes ; it paralyzes and 
disarms them. This idea of the 
power of gold is kept up in the 
metaphors that follow (perrum- 
pere, concidit, diffidit, submit). 
— ire : Intr. 94 f. — satellites, 
royal guards* 



XVI. i-i8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



217 



10 



15 



et perrumpere amat saxa potentius 
ictu fulmineo ; concidit auguris 
Argivi domus, ob lucrum 

demersa exitio ; diffidit urbium 
portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos 
reges muneribus ; munera navium 
f saevos inlaqueant duces. 

^^rescentem sequitur cura pecuniam 
maiorumque fames ; iure perhorrui 



10. saxa : >>. those of the wall 
of a city or stronghold, as in Ep. 

II- 3- 395- 

11. ictu: Intr. 75. — concidit 

. . . diffidit: Intr. wd b^ c\ cf. 
1.28.7. — auguris Argivi: Am- 
phiaraus, the prophet-hero of Ar- 
gosy brother-in-law of king Adras- 
tus. When the latter was organ- 
izing the expedition of the ' Seven 
against Thebes/ Amphiaraus, who 
foresaw its disastrous end and his 
own death, was betrayed into the 
necessity of joining it by his wife 
Eriphyle, who had been bribed by 
Polynices with the golden neck- 
lace of Harmonia. The conse- 
quences were the death of Am- 
phiaraus, the murder of Eriphyle 
in revenge by their son Alcmaeon, 
and the madness of the latter 
under his mother's curse. 

13. diffidit, clove asunder, 

14. vir Macedo : Philip, the 
father of Alexander. His success 
in accomplishing his purposes by 
bribery was proverbial, so that the 
mention of his name is unneces- 
sary; cf. Cic. ad Att. I. 16. 12 
Philippus omnia castella expugnari 
posse dicebat in quae modo asellus 
onustus auro posset ascendere, A 
Delphic oracle was quoted, ad- 
vising him to fight *with silver 
spears'; aud it was said 5rt rdt 



ff'6Xe(S a2/)€c r(av *}SKKi\viav of) #(Xcir- 
iros, dXXd rd ^iX^irirov yfivoUiv, 
(Plut. Aem. Paul. 12). — subruit, 
undermined. 

15. muneribus; munera: Intr. 
116^. — navium duces: these 
words would recall to Horace's 
readers a conspicuous example of 
their own time, Menodorus, the 
freedman admiral of Sextus Pom- 
peius, who deserted to Octavian, 
then back to Pompey, and finally 
to Octavian again. 

16. saevos, stern; i.e. for all 
their sternness. 

17. crescentem, etc.: the pre- 
ceding reflections on the power of 
wealth convey no suggestion of its 
desirability as a possession ; on 
the contrary, its wonderful power 
is always a power for evil, and the 
suggestion of danger to the pos- 
sessor is not far removed ; just as 
in these days we might speak 
with admiration of electricity as a 
mighty force, which, however, we 
should shrink from handling. This 
underlying thought now comes to 
the surface. — cura : here simply 
the worry of managing great 
wealth. 

18. maiorum: neuter. — fames: 
cf. Ep, I. 18. 23 argenti sitis im- 
portuna famesque^ Verg. A. HI. S7 
auri sacra fames ; and, for the 



•' / 



218 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



20 



25 



late conspicuum toUere verticem, 
Maecenas, equitum decus. 

Quanto quisque sibi plura negaverit, 
ab dis plura feret. Nil cupientium 
nudus castra peto et transfuga divitum 
partis linquere gestio, 

contemptae dominus splendidior rei, 
quam si quicquid arat impiger Apulus 
occultare meis dicerer horreis, 
magnas inter opes inops. 



thought, II. 2. 1'^sqq.; Juv. 14. 139 
crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa 
pecunia crevit. 

19. late conspicuum : prolep" 
tic. The wise man will shrink 
from the dangerous prominence 
which great wealth gives. — tol- 
lere : Intr. 94 /. — verticem : an 
appropriate word with toUere ; cf . 
I. I. 36, 18. 15. 

20. equitum: Maecenas is him- 
self a shining example of the wis- 
dom of moderation ; Intr. 21. 

21. quanto, etc.: in this para- 
doxical sentence plura gets its 
meaning in each case from the 
context ; in the first clause it 
means those things which we have 
in mind when we speak of * deny- 
ing ourselves/ that is, in general, 
luxuries ; in the second clause it 
means the gifts of the gods, that 
is, those enjoyments and satisfac- 
tions that come to us, not of our 
own seeking, but as the fruits of a 
well-trained mind and character. 
In particular, Horace means that 
self-denial develops a contented 
spirit, which is the only condition 
of happiness, and his teaching 
here, as in II. 2. 17 sqq., falls in 
with that of the Stoics ; see Cic. 
Paradoxa 6. 



22. nil cupientium, of the con- 
tented. The figure of the two 
camps is not intended to conform 
in all respects to Horace's actual 
circumstances, but to express viv- 
idly his strong conviction of the 
superiority of contentment over 
riches. The figure is, as often, 
confused with the reality ; see 
Intr. 123. 

23. nudus peto, / leave all and 
set out for; i.e. I surrender all that 
I possess, in exchange for the 
more precious treasure of content- 
ment. — transfuga, etc.: ue, I am 
(like) a soldier in the camp of the 
rich whose heart is in the other 
camp, so that he holds cheap the 
luxuries about him. 

25. contemptae, insignificant 
(sc. in the eyes of the wealthy); cf. 
Cic. Parad. 6. 47 meam^ pecuniam 
contemnisy et recte ; est enim ad 
volgi opinionem mediocrisy ad tuam 
nulla J ad meam modica. — splen- 
didior: sc. in the eyes of the wise; 
cf. II. 2. 21 sqq. 

26. quicquid, etc.': cf. 1. 1. 10 n. 
— arat : here used for the whole 
work of production by the farmer; 
cf. the use of trahunt^ II. 18. 8 n. 
For the prosody, see Intr. 179. — 
impiger Apulus : cf. pernicis 



XVI. 19-36.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



219 



Purae rivus aquae silvaque iugerum 
30 paucorum et segetis certa fides meae 
fulgentem imperio fertilis Africae 
fallit sorte beatior. 

Quamquam nee Calabrae mella ferunt apes, 
nee Laestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
35 languescit mihi, nee pinguia Gallicis 
creseunt vellera pascuis, 



Apuliy Epod. 2, 42. The soil of 
the Apulian lowlands was excel- 
lent for tillage as well as for pas- 
ture (Strabo, VI. 284). 

27. occultare : a fresh word, 
for the more usual condere (cf. 
I. 1.9). — meis: emphatic; Intr. 
116 b, 

28. magnas, etc., being (really)^ 
etc.; expressing the actual fact in 
contrast with what people say 
(dicerer). 

29. rivus aquae silvaque : cf. 
Horace's description of his farm, 
£p. I. 16. $sqq.\ also I. 22. ^sqq., 
Ep. I. 14. I sqq. 

30. se^^etis certa fides: in con- 
trast with fundus mendax. III. i. 
30 n, and spem tnentita seges^ Ep, 
I. 7. 87. segetis is possessive 
genitive ; cf. Cic. ad Fam, XVI. 
17. I ager eiiam ft delis dici potest. 
The poet, *desiderans quod satis 
est,* can always count on his crops 
yielding enough for his needs; it 
IS only the man who is intent on 
growing rich that is worried by 
the uncertainties of farming. 

31. fulgentem imperio : the 
man holding for the time the 
splendid position of proconsul. 
The proconsulships of Asia and 
Africa were the highest positions of 
dignity and power attainable by a 
Roman citixen; they were assigned 
by lot each year to the two senior 
consulars. Others take the words 



as an extravagant expression for 
great landed possessions in Africa; 
but the examples cited in support 
of this view (vs. 41, below, and II. 
2. 9 sqq^ refer to regal power. 
Horace has already used the great 
landowners for comparison (vss. 
26 sq^ ; he now uses exalted station 
and outward splendor, as he does 
in II. 2. 17. The epithet fertilis 
contributes to the picture, suggest- 
ing the great resources of the 
province, which give it its im- 
portance and prominence. 

32. fallit sorte beatior: literally 
'being happier in lot (than he), 
escapes his notice,' />. is a happier 
lot than his^ though he does not 
suspect it. The construction is 
formed after the Greek idiom 
(Xaiitf<iyec 6X^i(irrepoy tv^ the Latin 
language, however, providing no 
equivalent for hv). 

33. quamquam, etc.: with these 
typical forms of wealth cf. I. 31. 
5 sqq.y Epod. 1.25 sqq. ; Intr. 117a. 

— Calabrae apes: cf. II. 6. 14. 

34. Laestrygonia: i>.Formian; 
see 17. I n, and cf. Sabina^ I. 9. 
7 n. For the wine, see I. 20. ion. 

— Bacchus: Intr. 130. 

35. languescit, is mellowing ; 
cf. languidiora innoj 21. 8. — GaU 
licis : i,e, of Cisalpine Gaul, where 
white wool of a fine quality was 
grown (Plin. N, H. VIII. 190). 

36. pascuis : Intr. 69. 



220 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



importuna tamen pauperies abest, 
nee, si plura velim, tu dare deneges. 
Contracto melius parva cupidine 
40 vectigalia porrigam 

quam si Mygdoniis regnum Alyattei 
campis continuem. Multa petentibus 
desunt multa ; bene est cui deus obtulit 
parca quod satis est manu. 



37. importunai, pincAin^. 

38. nee si, etc.: cf. Epocl. i. 31. 

— dare: Intr. 94 A, 

39. contracto, etc.: cf. II. 2. 
9 s^^. — melius porrigam : sug- 
gested by si plura velim. The 
sense is : If I should find my in- 
come too small for my expenses, 
a better way to enlarge it will be 
to cut down my desires till they 
come within it ; the other way, 
seeking for more, never brings 
satisfaction ; desire is never satis- 
fied by feeding it. Horace is here 
preaching on a Stoic text ; cf . Cic. 
Farad. 6. 49 O di immortales! non 
intellegunt homines quam magnum 
vectigal sit parsim^nia. — cupi- 
dine: see II. 16. i5n. 

40. vectigalia, income; prop- 
erly, public revenues, but some- 
times used of private income, es- 
pecially for purposes of compar- 
ison, as here and S. II. 2. 100; cf. 
also Cic. l.c. 

41. Mygdoniis: /.^.Phrygian; 
see II. 12. 22 n. — Alyattei: king 
of Lydia, father of Croesus. For 
the form, cf. Vlixei^ I. 6. 7 n. 

42. campis : dative ; Intr. 56. 

— continuem, unite; sc. under my 
sway, so as to enjoy the entire 
revenues of both countries. The 
word is often used of buying up 
large tracts of land, e.g, Liv. 
XXXIV. 4. 9 quid legem Liciniam 
excitavit de quingeniis iugeribus 



nisi ingens cupido dgros continue 
andi? — multa petentibus, etc.: 
the converse of quanta quisque . . . 
/eretf 21 sq, 

43. bene est (sc. ei), blessed is 
the man. 

XVII. To. L. Aelius Lamiai, in 
regard to whom see I. 26, introd. 
note. The ode, it would seem, is 
addressed to him simply as a com- 
pliment, the substance of it being 
a light sketch in the spirit of I. 9, 
very likely a study from the Greek, 
which it would be idle to attempt 
to connect with Lamia's person- 
ality. The scene is Is&d in the 
country, near the seashore. *A 
great storm is brewing ; you must 
stay indoors to-morrow, and your 
servants can do no work. Make 
ready to enjoy with them the holi- 
day thus provided for you.' — 
Metre, 176. 

I. ab Lamo : equivalent to 
Lamo orte^ the idea of descent 
being implied in nobilis. Lamus 
.was the mythical founder of the 
city of the Laestrygones (Ad/uov 
o/iri) TTo\Udpop I TiyX^uXov Aawrpu- 
yovirip, Odys. X. 81), which was 
identified with Formiae: cf. Cic. 
ad Att. II. 13. 2 si vera in hanc 
TiyX^irvXoi' veneris AaurrpvyovLriPy 
Formias dico. That the Lamiae, 
one of the oldest and wealthiest 
families of Formiae, should place 



XVI. 37-xvii. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



221 



5 



XVII. 

Aeli vetusto nobilis ab Lamo, 
(quando et priores hinc Lamias ferunt 
denominatos et nepotum 

per memores genus omne fastos, 

auctore ab illo ducis originem 
qui Formiarum moenia dicitur 
princeps et innantem Maricae 
litoribus tenuisse Lirim 



this name at the head of their 
pedigree, was inevitable. At this 
time they had little political dis- 
tinction to boast of, and were 
therefore all the more liltely to 
make much of the antiquity of 
their family. The father of our 
Lamia, when he went into politics 
as a supporter of Cicero, was still 
only a knight, though a distin- 
guished one ; in B.C. 44 Cicero 
supported him for the praetorship, 
with what success is unknown. 
(See Cic. ad Fam, XI. 16. i, 17. i.) 
His son, Horace's friend, was the 
first of the family who held the 
consulship, but that was at least 
twenty-five years after the date of 
this ode. We may therefore take 
this allusion to his pedigree as 
serious (not humorous, as some 
take it), and attribute it to the 
same motive as in the case of 
Maecenas (I. i. i, HI. 29. \j S, I. 
6. I, etc.), who likewise was with- 
out political distinction. A century 
later, when the Lamiae had become 
nobiles by the attainment of high 
cunile office, we find them named 
as types of high nobility (Juv. 4. 
i54> 6. 585), a further evidence of 
the antiquity of their ancestry^ as 
their nohlitas was even then not 
over three generations old. 



2. quando, etc. ; the four verses 
beginning here are with some 
reason suspected of being inter- 
polated. If they are genuine,^ the 
whole genealogical dissertation, 
quando — late tyrannus, is par- 
enthetical, and consists of a prota- 
sis, quando — fastos, introducing 
(and giving the reason of) a main 
statement, auctore — tyrannus. 
— priores : /'./. the earliest of the 
name; ' earlier' than the great body 
of descendants (genus omne) 
whose names are in the records. 
— hinc, afier htm; cf. undft 1. 12. 
17 n. 

4. fastos : here used of family 
records. 

5. auctore : sc. generis; cf. I. 2. 
36. It is in apposition with illo, 
which is used substantively. — 
ducis : if ducit is read, genus is its 
subject, and the whole parenthet- 
ical clause depends on quando. 

7. innantem, that floods ; re- 
ferring to the marshes and inlets 
which prevail on that part of the 
coast. — Maricae, Maricd's, She 
was an old Italian divinity, various- 
ly identified with Aphrodite and 
Circe, whose grove was at the 
mouth of the llris, ten miles from 
Formiae. 

8. tenuisse : cf. 14. 15 n. 



222 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



lO 



'5 



late tyrannus,) eras foliis nemus 
multis et alga litus inutili 
demissa tempestas ab Euro 
sternet, aquae nisi fallit augur 

annosa cornix ; dum potes, aridum 
compone lignum ; eras genium mero 
curabis et porco bimenstri 
cum famulis operum solutis. 



9. late tyrannus : the Homeric 
€ifp!i> Kpelup; cf. /ate regent ^ Verg. 
^. 1. 21. For the construction see 
Mdv. 301 c. Obs. 2. — nemus : i.e. 
the ground under the trees. For 
this construction with sterna^ cf. 
IV. 14. 32, where, as here, the 
simple verb is used for consterno 
(Intr. 129). 

10. inutili ; its worthlessnes's 
was proverbial ; cf . vilior alga^ S. 
II. 5. 8, Verg. £. 7. 42. 

11. Euro : cf. £/>od. 16. 54. 

12. aquae augur: after the 
Greek Serd/iayTis (cf. Euphorion, 
Fr, 65 verdfjuims Srt Kp(if^t€ Kopib- 
vfj). Vergil describes its action 
when 'calling rain/ G. I. 388 turn 
cornix plena pluviam vocatimproba 
voce I et sola in sicca secum spatia- 
tur harena. Cf. 27. 10, Lucr. V. 
1083. — fallit : used absolutely, 
as in Epod, 16. 45 numquam fal- 
lentis olivae. 

1 3. annosa : it was supposed 
to live to an extraordinary age, — 
through nihe generations of men, 
accor^ng to Hesiod (Plut. Moral, 
415 c); cf. IV. 13. 25. — dum 
potes : i.e. today, bdFore the storm 
wets it. 

14. compone, get in a store. — 
genium : a man's genius was con- 
ceived to be an attendant spirit, 
divine but not immortal, insepara- 



bly associate4 with his life in all 
its phases of enjoyment or de- 
pression, 'naturae deus humanae, 
mortalis in unum I quodque caput, 
voltu mutabilis, alous et ater ' (Ep. 
II. 2. 187) ; and on its vaiying 
moo(|s depended his happiness or 
unhappiness. The conception was 
not unlike that of the soul in the 
parable of the rich man, Luke 1 2. 
16 sqq. (* I will say to my soul. 
Soul, thou hast much goods laid 
up for many years; take thine 
ease, eat, drink, and be merry.') 
Hence, to deny one's self reason- 
able comforts was to 'cheat one's 
genius ' (Ter. Ph, 44) ; and to take 
a holiday or otherwise give one's 
self up to enjoyment was piare 
{Ep. II. I. 144) or placare (Ep.ll. 
3. 210) genium t or, more common- 
ly, indulgere genio. Horace here 
substitutes curare^ a. word often 
used for bodily comfort {curare 
corpus^ curare cutem^ etc.). — me- 
ro : cf. Pers. 2. 3 funde merum 
genio ; Ep. II. 1. 144 ; Tib. II. 2. 8. 

1 5. curabis : Intr. 90. — porco : 
an offering to the Lares (cf . 23. 4, 
S. II. 3. 164), whose worship was 
associated with every act of family 
life. The flesh of the victim would 
furnish forth the simple feast ; see 
I. 36. 2 n. 

16. operum : Intr. 67. 



XVII. 9-xviii. 9.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



223 



XVIII. 

Faune, nyrnpharum fugientum amator, 
per meos finis et aprica rura 
lenis incedas, abeasque parvis 
aequus alumnis, 

si tener pleno cadit haedus anno, 
larga nee desunt Veneris sodali 
vina cratefae, vetus ara multo 
fumat odore. 

Ludit herboso pecus omne campo, 



XVIII. A hymn to Faunus. 
■The first half is a prayer for the 
favor of the god, which has been 
merited by constant and liberal 
offerings. In the second half his 
benign influence is set forth in a 
description of his festival on the 
5th of December. This appears 
to have been a festival peculiar to 
the country, for in Rome his great 
day was %he Lupercalia^ on the 
1 5th of February. For the attri- 
butes of Faunus, see I. 17. 2n. — 
Metre, 174. 

I. nympharum, etc. : this is a 
characteristic that belongs strictly 
to Pan and the Satyrs ; cf. Stat. 
Silv. II. 2. 100 sqq.y Mart. IX. 
6i. 13. 

3. lenis, in mercy. — incedas: 
the mere presence of the god was 
believed to carry with it some in- 
fluence, blessing or blight, accord- 
ing to his mood ; cf. I. 17. 5 sqq. 
— abeasque aequus, and carry 
away a kindly feeling; /.<• may 
the god be pleased with all he sees, 
to the very end, and go away with 
a desire to bless. 

4. alumnis, younglings of the 
herd and flock, as in 23. 7. 

5. si, etc. : a modest form of 



statement common in prayers, in- 
troducing the ground on which the 
appeal is based ; cf. ^S". II. 6.6 sqq.^ 
and see note on poscit^ I. 31. i. — 
tener haedus : one of the parvi 
alumni; cf. 1. 4. 12.— r pleno anno: 
i>. at the close of it, on the recur- 
rence of the festival in December. 
— cadit : as a victim ; cf. Verg. 
A. I. 334. 

6. Veneris sodali: an epithet 
of the mixing-bowl not found else- 
where. It merely expresses the 
familiar association of 'love and 
wine.* 

7. craterae : dative. When the 
bowl was filled, a libation would 
be made to the god first ; but the 
main use of the wine, as of the kid, 
was to contribute to a spirited cele- 
bration of the god's day. — Vetus: 
suggesting the antiquity of the 
festival. Notice the asyndeton, 
which is continued through the 
rest of the ode. — multo odore: 
for multo ture (cf. I. 30. 3) ; so 
colores for flowers, Prop. I. 2. 9 
aspice quos summittat humus for- 
mosa colores. 

9. ludit, etc.: the appeal to the 
god has merged insensibly into a 
description of the festival, which 



224 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



lO 



IS 



cum tibi nonae redeunt Decembres ; 
festus in pratis vacat otioso 
cum bove pagus ; 

inter audacis lupus errat agnos, 
spargit agrestis tibi silva frondis, 
gaudet invisam p^pulisse fossor 
ter pede terram. 



now continues, bridging over the 
.change in grammatical construc- 
tion. The «cene is a grassy 
meadow, — green even in Decem- 
ber in the Italian climate, — where 
the whole countryside is gathered 
about the old altar. The sacrifice 
is followed, as usual, by feasting, 
after which the people stroll about 
the fields and woods, or amuse 
themselves with dancing and other 
merrymaking. Cattle and flocks 
peacefully grazing form the border 
of the picture. — campo: Intr.69. 

10. tibi, My; dat\ve of reference. 
— redeunt : cf. 8. 9 n. 

11. festus vacat, is making 
holiday. — otioso, freed from toil. 
Both man and beast are enjo3ring 
a day of rest. 

12. pag^s : a few Mss. have 
parduSf a substitution evidently 
due to some lively monk, who 
remembered Isaiah 11. 6 habitabit 
lupus cum agno et pardus cum 
haedo accubabit. 

1 3. * inter : Intr. 1 1 J *. — auda- 
cis : i>. they are not afraid of him, 
for they feel to-day the presence 
of Faunus, who was also Lupercus 
(interpreted as *qui lupum arcet^)\ 
and he is cowed by the same 
presence. 

14. spargit, etc. : cf. Epod. 1 1. 5 



December silvis honorem ( srzfron" 
dis) decutit. The point here is 
that the woods of themselves strew 
the ground with leaves in honor 
of the god, referring to the common 
practice of strewing the ground 
with boughs on festal or solemn 
occasions ; cf. Verg. E. 5. 40 spar- 
gite humum foliis (in honor of 
Daphnis). — agrestis: i.€. natural, 
artless. 

1 5. invisam : because of the in- 
cessant hard work he is condemned 
to spend upon it. — pepulisse : 
Intr. 94 i/, 8 1 a. For the expression 
cf. I. 37. 2 pulsanda tellusy I. 4. 7 
terram quatiunt pede^ IV. i. 28. — 
fossor : the lowest grade of farm- 
laborer, the typical clown (Cat. 22. 
10, Pers. 5. 122). He was em- 
ployed especially in working the 
soil in orchards and vineyards; 
cf. Verg. G. II. 264. On large 
estates he was usually a slave in 
fetters (cf. Ov. Tr. IV. i. 5 hoc est 
cur cantet vinctus quoque compede 
fossor, I indocili numero cum grave 

mollit opus) ; but in our present 
picture we must imagine him a 
free laborer for hire, 9i farm-hand, 
or perhaps the pauper colonus 
himself (cf. I. i. 11 n, 35. 5). 

16. ter : f>. in a dance with triple 
beat (tripudium) ; cf. IV. i. 28. 



Xviii. lo-xix. 8.] HORATI CARMINA. 



225 



5 



XIX. 

Quantum distet ab Inacho 

Codrus, pro patria non timidus mori, 
narras et genus Aeaci 

et jpugnata sacro bella sub Ilio : 
quo ChiumT^Fetio cadum 

mercemur, quis aquam t empct' Ot ignibus, 
quo praebente domum et quota 

Paelignis caream frigoribus, taces. 



XIX. This ode portrays j in a 
lively dramatic form which reminds 
of I. 27, a symposium. There are 
two distinct scenes, one occupying 
the first eight verses, and the other 
the remainder of the poem. How 
these are to be combined, Horace 
has 'by no means made clear. 
Perhaps the most probable ex- 
planation is this : On a sunny 
winter afternoon a company of 
literary friends sit together in some 
garden or elsewhere out of doors, 
and one of their number has been 
discoursing at great length on 
subjects which the poet begins to 
think are very ancient history. The 
sun is sinking low, the air grows 
chill, the cold evening is coming 
on. Suddenly the poet * takes the 
floor,' and interrupts the learned 
' discourse with a demand that the 
company consider a question of 
much nearer concern, — where, 
when, and how they can prepare to 
spend a merry evening. Then, as 
if carried away by his imagination, 
but really with the purpose of car- 
rying his hearers with him, he 
plays the magister bibendi before 
them, with spirited dramatic action, 
as if the symposium had already 
begun, — a performance for which 
the serious and quiet picture in 
the opening yerses supplies a fit- 



ting background. There is a simi- 
lar anticipation of a scene of rev- 
elry in II. 7. 21 sqq,; cf. also III. 
14. 17 sqq. The Whole bears the 
impress of a Greek origin, and the 
only Roman name in the poem is 
to be explained, so far as we can 
see, as merely a passing compli- 
ment. — Metre, 171. 

1. quantum distet : i.e.\ti time. 

— Inacho : see II. 3. 21 n. 

2. Codrus : the last king of 
Athens ; said to have deliberately 
sacrificed his life in battle, like the 
Roman Decii, to ensure victory to 
his countrymen (Cic. Tusc, 1. 116). 

— mori : Intr. loi a. 

3. genus Aeaci : Telamon and 
Peleus and their descendants, A j ax, 
Teucer, Achilles, Neoptolemus,etc. 

4. pugnata bella : so also Ep. 
I. 16. 25. — sacro Ilio : after the 
Homeric "IXtoj l/>i> {e.g, IL IV. 46). 
For the gender, see 1. 10. 14 n. 

5. quo, etc. : the contemplated 
S3mipo8ium is one towards which 
each guest contributes his share. 

— Chium cadum : cf . Sabina dio- 
ia, I. 9. 7 n; III. 16. 34. The 
Chian was a choice Greek wine. 

6. aquam : to mix with the wine. 

7. quo praebente, etc : i>. at 
whose house and when ? — quota : 
sc. Aora; cf. S. II. 6. 44. 

8. PaeligniB : i>. such as pre* 



226 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



10 



IS 



Da lunae propere novae, 

da noctis mediae, da, puer, auguris 
Murenae. Tribus aut novem 

miscentur cyathis pocula commodis. 
Qui Musas amat imparis, 

ternos ter cyathos attonitus petet 
vates ; tris prohibet supra 

rixarum metuens tangere Gratia 
nudis iuncta sororibus. 



vails in that mountainous region ; 
cf. Sithonia nive, 26. 10. 

9. &9i,Jill up. The object to be 
supplied is cyathos (zfini), which 
the cup-bearer was to pour into 
the guests' goblets. CLsumc cya- 
thosy 8. 13, addressed to the guest. 
The genitives that follow depend 
on this cyathos understood ; see 
8. 13 n. — lunae novae, etc.: three 
general toasts to begin the evening 
with, Horace having in mind no 
doubt the Greek practice of begin- 
ning a drinking bout with three liba- 
tions. From the first we may infer 
that the time of the supposed revel 
was the new moon, or perhaps the 
first day of the month, which in 
Greek continued to be called vov- 
firivla ( = nova luna) after the lunar 
month had been abandoned ; noc- 
tis mediae implies that that hour 
was to be included in their pro- 
gramme ; auguris Murenae is 
best explained as a toast in honor 
of Murena's accession to the col- 
lege of augurs. Whether this was 
the Licinius Murena of II. 10 is 
uncertain. We do not know that 
Licinius Murena was ever augur, 
but he may have been ; and we 
know of no other Murena - who 
was a friend of Horace. 

10. da: Intr. 116^. -^ puer: see 
I. 19. 14 n; but we may perhaps 



imagine an actual boy here ; cf . I. 
29. 7 n. 

11. tribus aut novem cyathis: 
expressing, not the quantity of 
wine in the cups, but the proper- 
tion of wine in the mixture. The 
Romans were in the habit of 
reckoning fractions by twelfths 
(unciac), and the cyathus, which 
as a measure was one twelfth of a 
sextarius, served as the uncta in 
mixing wine. Trcs cyathi, then, 
meant ^^ wine ( + ^^ water) ; and no- 
vem cyathi = yHy wine ( + -j^ water) . 
— aut : the magister offers a choice 
between these alternatives only. 

12. cotnmodiSt at your p/easure; 
proleptic, and having the force of 
an adverb with miscentur. For 
the meaning cf. IV. 8. i. 

13. qui, etc.: the bard himself, 
who seeks a strong inspiration,' 
will name the number of the Muses 
as his choice, that is, he will take 
the stronger mixture ; but he who 
fears the effect of too great exhil- 
aration will choose the number of 
the gentle Graces (see 21. 22 n). — 
impafis : in reference to their 
number, nine. 

14. attonitus, rapt. — petet, 
will call for. 

15. tris supra : Intr. 115^. 

16. rixarum metuens : cf. pa- 
Hens pulveriSi 1. 8. 4 n ; III. 24. 22. 



XIX. 9-28.] 



HORATI CA^MINA. 



227 



20 



25 



Insanire iuvat : cur Berecyntiae 
cessant flamina tibiae ? 

Cur pendet tacita fistula cum lyra ? 
Parcentis ego dexteras 

odi : sparge rosas ; audiat invidus 
dementem strepitum Lycus 

et vicina seni non habilis Lyco. 
Spissa te nitidum coma, 

puro te similem, Telephe, Vespero 
tempestiya petit Rhode ; 

me lentus Glycerae torret amor meae. 



— Gratia iuncta sororibus : s.g. 
the three Graces (in their traditional 
posture); cf. Gratia cum Nympkis 
geminisque sororibus, IV. 7. 5 n. 

18. insanire iuvat: cf. dulce 
mihifurere, II. 7. 28. — Bere« 
cyntiae: see I. 18. I3n. 

19. tibiae: see I. i. 32n. The 
Phrygian pipes were distinguished 
by the fact that one of the pair 
had a curved end which gave it a 
deeper tone ; cf. Cat. 63. 22 Hhicen 
ubi canit Phryx curvq grave cala- 
mo. Hence it was sometimes called 
a horn, as in I. 18. 13 ; cf. Ov. F. 
IV. 181 inflexo Berecyntia tibia 
cornu. See Howard, Harv. Studies, 
IV. p. 35. 

90. pendet : sc. on the wall. — 
fistula : see I. 17. ion. 

91. dexteras, a hand. 

22. sparge: emphatic, implying 
a generous supply of the flowers, 
which in winter were more costly 
than usual. — invidus, with envy; 
proleptic. 

23. dementem: cf. dementis 
ruinaSf I. 37. 7. Intr. 124. — Ly- 
cus : the old fellow who lives near 
by with a young wife (apparently) 
Who does not care for him, is 



introduced as a foil to set off the 
hilarity of the revelers, and at the 
same time leads to the suggestion 
of the amica, whose presence com- 
pletes the poet's picture. 

24. vicina, our fair neighbor. — 
non habilis : i.e. too young, — or 
rather, he is too old for her. 

25. spissa: as far as possible 
from baldness. — te . . . te : cor- 
responding to Lycus . . . Lyco. 
— nitidum, who look so spruce; 
here of the general effect of the 
person's make-up, as in II. 12. 19 
and S. II. I. 64 (not, as in I. 4. 9 
and nitentis capillos, II. 7. 7, with 
special reference to the oil put on 
the hair). 

26. puro : i.e. shining through 
a clear atmosphere ; cf . pura luna, 
II. 5. 19; III. 10.8. For the com- 
parison, cf. 9. 21. — Telephe : one 
of the guests, addressed by name, 
as in I. 27. 10, to give a touch of 
personal interest to the scene. 

27. tempestiva, who is suitable; 
in contrast with non habilis, 24, 
and, as there, with more reference 
to the man than to the woman. 

28. lentus torret : see I. 13. 
8n. 



228 



HORAJI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



lO 



XX. 

Non vides quanto moveas periclo, 
Pyrrhe, Gaetulae catulos leaenae ? 
Dura post paulo fugies inaudax 
proelia raptor, 

cum per obstantis iuvenum catervas 
ibit insignem repetens Nearchum : 
grande certamen, tibi praeda cedat, 
maior an ilia. 

Interim, dum tu celeres sagittas 
promisi haec dentis acuit timendos, 



XX. The subject of this ode is 
the attempt of a youth, who is 
called Pyrrhus, to win away the 
handsome boy Nearchus from the 
(unnamed) girl who claims him as 
her lover. The treatment is high- 
ly figurative, so much so that the 
reader needs to guard against 
losing sight of the actual story in 
the graphic metaphors. Pyrrhus 
is likened to the bold hunter who 
is preparing to carry off the lion's 
whelps ; the girl to the she-lion 
who watches over them. Then, 
with a sudden shifting of the scene, 
the poet pictures the beautiful boy, 
complacently watching the impend- 
ing contest. The Greek origin of 
the composition is apparent. — 
Metre, 174. 

1. moveas, disturb. 

2. Gaetulae : cf. I. 23. 10 n. 

3. post paulo : the usual order, 
paulo post is avoided on account 
of its prosaic rhythm ; so in the 
corresponding place in the hexam- 
eter, Sat, I. 2. 120, Ep. I. 6. 43. 
Post paulot however, occurs also 
in prose. — inaudax raptor: the 
contrast (Intr. 116 a), amounts 
%o an oxymoron : a robber and 



afraid ! inaudax is not found 
elsewhere. 

5. iuvenum catervas: these 
stand, in the mets4>faor, for the 
hunter's attendants, — the lioness 
will not be daunted by them ; but 
the metaphor is for the moment 
put out of sight by the introduc- 
tion of the boy in his proper person 
(Nearchum) : the iuvenes are Pyr- 
rhus' companions ; the . girl will 
rush boldly among them to recover 
the boy. The figure and the reality 
are here blended (Intr. 123), and 
after vs. 10 the figure is dropped 
entirely. 

6. insignem, /^^r/^jj;. lit. * con- 
spicuous * (among all the rest) ; 
there is none like him. 

7. grande certamen : in aqipo- 
sition with the action expressed or 
implied in the preceding verses, in 
which all the elements of a contest 
are set before us. Cf. opus, II. i. 
6 n. — tibi praeda cedat, wA^M^r 
the prey (Nearchus) shall fall to 
you (/./. as the prize of victory) ; cf . 
Verg. A, XII. 183 cesserit Ausonio 
si fors knctoria Tumo. 

8. maior: /./.victorious. — iUn: 
sc. siff 



XX. I -XXI. I.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



229 



15 



arbiter pugnae posuisse nudo 
sub pede palmam 

fertur et leni recreare vento 
sparsum odoratis umerum capillis, 
qualis aut Nireus fuit aut aquosa 
raptus ab Ida. 



XXI. 

O nata mecum consule Manlio, 



II. posuisst, Aas p/acet/ ; pres- 
ent perfect. — ^nudo: simply a stroke 
to make the picture more graphic. 

13. fertur, / am told; cf. 5. 41 n. 
— leni recreare, etc.: as he stands 
there, the breeze blows his long 
locks about his bare shoulders. 

1 5. qualis, eu fair as, — Ni- 
reus : Ntpe^t, Of KdXKuTTot dv^,inr6 
'IXtoP 1i\0€P I tQv dXXwy Aavady 
fuer dfiOfiopa IlijXe/ctfnt, //. II. 673. 
Cf . ApaJ, 15. 22. — aquosa : f>. 
rich in springs {iro\vwl8aKot''Ihis, 
//. XIV. 157). 

16. raptus: Ganymede, son of 
Laomedon, os S^ KdXKiffTos yivtro 
BwtrrQif dp0p6irup (//. XX. 233), 
carried off by the eagle of Jove to 
become cup-bearer to the gods. 
For this use of the participle, see 
Intr. 103. 

XXI. M. Valerius MessalaCor- 
vinus, in whose honor this ode is 
written, had studied with Horace 
at Athens and fought with him at 
Philippi. He afterwards served 
with distinction under the trium- 
virs, — under Antony, as long as 
he could do so with self-respect, 
and then under Octavian, on whose 
side he fought at Actium. He 
was consul in the year of that 
battle, and afterwards earned a 
triumph (b.c. 27) by his successes 



against the Aquitanians. From 
this time on he abstained as much 
as possible from participation in 
public affairs, and devoted himself 
especially to practice in the courts, 
where his eloquence, which, when 
he was still very young, had won 
Cicero's commendation (ad Brut. 
I. 15. I, B.C. 43), gave him great 
eminence {S. I. 10. 29). He was 
distinguished also by wealth and 
high social position, and by a no- 
bility of character which shone 
through his presence and address 
[quodamtnodo prcuferens in dicendo 
nobilitatem suam, Quint. X. 1. 1 13). 
He was devoted to literature, and 
gathered about him a circle of 
writers, the most famous of whom 
was Tibullus. The subject of the 
ode is the praise of wine. The 
poet stands before the amphorae 
in the apotheca^ selecting one to 
be opened on the occasion of a 
visit from Messala, and gives utter- 
ance to his reflections on the po- 
tencies for good or ill with which 
the jar has stood charged this 
many a year. — Metre, 176. 

I. nata mecum : 4x» filled and 
stored the year I was bcnm. — con- 
sule Manlio : L. Manlius Torqua- 
tus, COS. BX. 65. Cf. Epod, 13. 6 
tu vina Torquato move consule 
fressa mep. 



230 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



seu tu querellas sive geris iocos 
seu rixam et insanos amores 
seu facilem, pia testa, somnum, 

5 quocumque lectum nomine Massicum 
servas, moveri digna bono die, 
descende, Corvino iubente 
promere languidiora vina. 

Non ille, quamquam Socraticis madet i ,, 
lo sermonibus, te negleget horridus : ^''^f''^^^ 
narratur et prisci Catonis * 

saepe mero caluisse virtus. 

Tu iene tormentum ingenio admoves 



2. tu • • • geris : Intr. 1 20. — 
quereUas, stgAs. It means dole" 
ful utterance of any sort, in op- 
position to the gayety expressed 
by iocos. — geris : i.e, potentially, 
to be brought to pass when the 
jar is opened. 

3. rixam et insanos amores : 
cf. L 13. 9 sff., 17. 25 sf^. 

4. facilem : cf. II. 11. 8 n; III. 
1. 20 s^f. — piA, /ai/A/u/ ; as con- 
scientiously keeping its charge. — 
testa : cf. I. 20. 2, III. 14. 20. 

5. quocumque nomine, on 
whatever account (i,e. for whatever 
end); breaking oh the unfinished 
list with a single comprehensive 
phrase, which we should introduce 
by *in short*; cf. I. 28. I5n. — 
lectum Massicum, Massic vin- 
tage, lectum, referring properly 
to the grapes (* gathered *) is here 
used for the whole process of pro- 
ducing wine ; cf. arat, 16. 26 n. 
For Massicum, see I. i. 19 n. 

6. moveri : sc. from its place 
in the apotheca ; cf. Epod, 1 3. 6. 
For the inf., see Intr. loi e, — 
bono die: the choicest wines were 
reserved for choice occasions (cf. 



L 37. 5 n). The compliment to 
Corvinus is obvious. 

7. descende : from the store- 
room, in the upper part of the 
house ; see 8. 1 1 n. 

8. promere: depending on iu- 
bente. — languidiora : a quality 
acquired by long keeping ; cf . 
Janguescit^ 16. 35 n. The wine 
here would be perhaps forty years 
old. 

9. non ille: cf. non ego, I. 18. 
II n. — madet, is steeped; i.e, is a 
philosopher through and through, 

10. negleget horridus, be so 
rude as to slight, 

11. et, even. — prisci Catonis 
virtus, excellent old Cato ; see 
Intr. 126 by and cf. Juv. 4. 81 venit 
et Crispi iucunda senectus (* cheer- 
ful old Crispus'). Horace is 
speaking of the elder Cato ('the 
Censor*) ; cf. priscis Catonibus, 
Ep. II. 2. 117. Cicero also repre- 
sents him as fond of modica con- 
vivia (de Sen. 44 sqq.), 

13. tu : see I. 10. 9 n. — tor- 
mentum, spur (literally, * rack ') ; 
it stimulates the mind to give out 
its thoughts, as the rack draws 



XXI. 2-24-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



231 



15 



20 



plerumque duro ; tu sapientium 
curas et arcanum iocoso 
consilium retegis Lyaeo ; 

tu spem reducis mentibus anxiis 
virisque et addis cornua pauperi, 
post te neque iratos trementi 

regum apices neque militum arma. 

Te Liber et, si laeta aderit, Venus 
segnesque nodum solvere Gratiae 
vivaeque producent lucernae 

dum rediens fugat astra Phoebus. 



confession from the criminal. Cf. 
Ep. II. 3. 434 reges dicuniur tnultis 
urgere culullis \ et torquere tnero 
quern perspexisse labor ant, 

14. plerumque duro : ue, not 
susceptible to ordinary influences; 
cf. SUius XI. 285 Bacchi munera 
duram \ laxarunt mentem. For 
plerumque, cf. I. 34. 6 n. — sapi- 
entium : limiting curas only. 

1 5. curas, grave thoughts. 

16. iocoso Lyaeo, with the 
merry * Releaser*; i.e. with wine, 
amid merriment. See I. 7. 22 n. 
There is nothing, inconsistent in 
saying the wine-jar does these 
things *with wine ': the jar is per- 
sonified. 

18. viris : object of addis, for 
the position of which see Intr. 
1 19 <i. — cornua : the emblem of 
confidence and independence, like 
our 'holding up one's head'; cf. 
Ov. Am. III. II. 3, 6 scilicet ad- 
serui iam me^ fugique catenas^ \ 
. . . venerunt capiti cornua sera 
meOf and A. A. I. 239 tum pauper 
cornua sumit (an imitation of the 
present passage). 



19. post te : (tf. post vina, I. 
18. 5; III..7. 6. — iratos apices: 
Intr. 124. — trementi: transitive; 
Intr. 51 a. 

20. apices : see I. 34. 14 n. 

21. te : i.e. thy ministrations; 
very much as in vs. 19. — Liber: 
here the god himself; the favor- 
ing divinities whom the cadus 
serves will bless its work. 

22. nodum : formed by the 
twining of their arms round one 
another; cf. 19. 17. — solvere: 
Intr. loi ^. — Gratiae: they stand 
for the charm of social converse, 
sparkling with wit, but ruled by 
courtesy, with nothing excessive 
or unseemly to mar its perfect 
enjoyment. Cf. 19. 16. 

23. vivae : cf. vigiles, 8. 14. — 
producent: cf. S. I. 5. yo prorsus 
iucunde cenam producimus illam. 

— lucernae : the personality of 
the divinities is, after all, half 
merged in the tkings they typify, 
— wine, love, gracious intercourse, 

— to which the lights are added 
as a fourth influence in prolonging 
the enjoyment. 



232 



HO^ATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



XXII. 

Montium custos nemorumque virgo, 
quae laborantis utero puellas 
ter vocata audis adimisque leto, 
diva trif ormis, 

imminens villae tua pinus esto, 
quam per exactos ego laetus annos 
verris obliquum meditantis ictum 
sanguine donem. 



XXII. A dedicatory poem, in 
which Horace consecrates the tow- 
ering pine that stands by his coun- 
try house to Diana, and vows an 
annual sacrifice. The invocation to 
the goddess has much in common 
with Catullus' hymn {c. 34), espe- 
cially with these verses (9-16): 

Montium domina ut fores 
silvarumqtte virentiuin 
saltuumque reconditorum 

amniumque sonantum. 
Ttt Ludna dolentibus 
luno dicta puerperis, 
tu potens Trivia et notho es 

dicta Ittmine Luna. 

— Metre, 174. 

1. custos : so Neptune is sacri 
custos Tarentif I. 28. 29; cf. Suet. 
Dom. 5 navam excitavit aedem in 
CapitoUo Custadi lovi, — nemo- 
rum {^, custos) \ cf. I. 21. ^sqq. 
In C S, I she is silvarum potens; in 
Verg. A. XI. 557, nemorum cultrix. 
According to Servius (on Georg. 
III. 332) 'omnis quercus lovi est 
consecrata, et omnis lucus Dianae.' 

2. quae laborantis, etc.: cf. C 
5". 13 sqq, Diana, in this capacity, 
was sometimes identified with luno 
Lucina ; cf. Cat. /./.; Cic. N. D. II. 
68. — puellas : ue, young women, 
at their first childbirth. 

3. ter : see I. 28. 36 n. — vo- 
cata : cf. Ter. Ad, 487. — adimis 



leto : the opposite of dare leto; 
see 7. 17 n. 

4. trif ormis: properly an epithet 
of Hecate, with whom Diana, owing 
to their many common attributes, 
was more or less confused; cf. 
Verg. A. IV. 511 tergeminamque 
Hecaten^ tria virginis ora Dianae, 
The significance of the triple figure 
of Hecate has been variously ex- 
plained in ancient and modem 
times; see Preller-Robert, Gr, Myth, 

I. 324. 

5. imminens villae : a large 
tree, therefore, as we might sup- 
pose. — tua: predicate. 

6. quam donem, one on which 
I may bestow; descriptive relative 
clause, defining the purport of tua 
esto. — per exactos annos, on 
the completion ^f each year ; i.e. 
at each anniversary of the dedica- 
tion. Cf. pleno annot 18. 5 n, and, 
for the distributive force of per, 

II. 3. 6n. — laetus: correspond- 
ing to the lubens of votive inscrip- 
tions ; cf. Allen's Early Remnants^ 
69 n, 70,,iii. 3, 113. 

7. obliquum ictum: a reminis- 
cence of the wild-boar hunt in the 
Odyssey, where the boar wounds 
Ulysses, Xix/N^lt d^af (XIX. 451); 
so Ovid M, VIII. 344 ohliquo la- 
trantes dissipat ictu, — meditantis, 



XXII. i-xxiii. 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



233 



XXIII. 

Caelo supinas si^tuleris manus 
nascente luna, rusti6a*iPhidyle, 
si ture placaris et horna 
fruge Laris avidaque porca, 

nee pestilentem sentiet Africum 
feeundg. vitis nee sterilem seges 
roDig^nem aut dulees alumni 
poraifero grave tempus anno. 



practicing. The description, as in 
1 3. 4 sq. and IV. 2. 57 sqq.y is a sub- 
stitute for a more prosaic statement 
of the age of the victim, — a young 
boar whose tusks are just growing. 
8. donem : the tree, by its dedi- 
cation, becomes a sanctuary of the 
goddess, and, as such, the offering 
may be said to be bestowed upon it. 

XXIII. A pure life and devout 
spirit needs no costly sacrifice to 
win the favor of heaven. To set 
forth this truth the poet represents 
himself as talking with a country 
woman, — a farmer's wife, — whose 
pious soul is troubled at the 
meagreness of the offerings which 
her narrow means allow her to 
make, and comforting her with 
the assurance that her prayers 
will be answered. — Metre, 176. 

1. caelo: Intr. 53. — supinas: 
i.e. with the palms upward. This 
was the attitude assumed in prayer 
to the gods above ; cf. Verg. A, 
III. 176; Liv. XXVI. 9. 7 (matro- 
new) nixag genibusy supinas manus 
ad caelum ac deos tendentesy oran- 
tesque. — si ... si: Intr. 116^. 

2. nascente luna: ^/. at the 
new moon. The offering was usu- 
ally made, however, at least in 
the city, at the beginning of the 



calendar month ; cf. Prop. V. 3. 53 
raris adsueta kalendis \ vix aperit 
clauses una puella Lares, See 19. 
9n. — Phidyle : ^M\t\ ('thrifty'; 
cf. 4>€ldofJML) ; the name is appar- 
ently chosen to suit the character. 

3. ture : cf . Tib. I. 3. 34 reddere 
menstrua tura Lari.—YiomsL fruge : 
a bunch or wreath of the new 
grain. Cf. Tib. I. 10. 20 stadat in 
exigua ligneus aede deus, \ Hie 
placatus erat seu quis libaverat 
uvam I seu dederat sanctae spicea 
serta comae. For horna (a poetical 
word) cf. horna vina^ Epod, 2. 47. 

4. porca: cf. 17. 15 n, S. II. 
3. 165. 

5. nee, etc. : for the position of 
the subjects in this strophe, see 
Intr. 116^. — pestilentem Afri- 
cum : the Sirocco ; see II. 14. 15, 
16 nn. 

6. fecunda, full-clustered. — 
sterilem : Intr. 125. 

7. robiginem : the seriousness 
of this evil to the Italian farmer 
may be inferred from the fact that 
Robigo (or Robigus) was wor- 
shipped as a god, and a day 
(Robigaliay April 25) set apart for 
a formal service of propitiation ; 
see Ovid Fast. IV. 901 sqq. — 
alumni: see 18. 4 n. 

8. pomifero anno: i.e. autumn; 



234 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



;^ 



>' i 



10 



15 



Nam quae nivali pascitur Algido 
devota quercus inter et ilices 
aut crescit Albanis in herbis 
victima pontificum securis 

cervice tinguet : te nihil attinet 
temptare multa caede bidentium 
parv6s^coronantem marine 
rore deos fragilique myrto. 



cf . annus hibernus^ Epod, 2. 29, and 
see 8. 9 n. — grave, oppressive, 
sickly; dt. Liv. III. 6. 2 ^ave tern- 
pus et forte annus pestilens erat 
urbi agrisque, nee hominihus magis 
quant pecori; see also II. 14. 15 n ; 
S. II. 6. 18 sq,y Juv. 4. 56 lettfero 
autumno. 

9. nivali Algido : cf. gelido 
Algido, I. 21. 6n. Here and on 
the Alban mount the college of 
pontiffs possessed pastures, in 
which victims were raised for the 
great public sacrifices. For the 
case of Algido, see Intr. 69. 

10. devota . . . victima : Intr. 
120. — inter: Intr. 115^. 

13. tinguet: Intr. 79. — te nihil 
attinet, you have no occasion, it is 
not for you. 

14. temptare, to beset. — biden- 
tium : a technical word for animals 
full-grown for sacrifice (about two 
years old). They were so named 
from the two prominent incisors 
which displace the two front milk 
teeth on the lower jaw of the 
sheep at about that age (Hyginus 
ap. Gell. XVI. 6. 14 ; Serv. on Aen. 
IV. 57). 

15. parvos: the position brings 
out the incongruity of multa caedes 
with the small emgies which she 
decks with her simple garlands. 
The Lares were small figures of 
wood or bronze, or of more pre- 
cious metal if the means of the 



family permitted ; cf. Tib. I. 10. 
20 (quoted above) ; Petron. 29 
Lares argentei ; Juv. 8. no. The 
typical form was that of a youth 
in a sleeveless tunic, girded high 
{succinctus, Pers. V. 31), holding a 
drinking-horn aloft in his right 
hand and a bowl in his left. See 
Baumeister, pp. 77, 81 1. Their al- 
tar was the hearth, on (or beside) 
which they stood ; cf. Epod. 2. 
66 n, and Plant. Aul. i sqq. — 
coronantem, whom you crown. 
This service was enjoined oftener 
than once a month ; cf. Cato de 
Agr. 143. 2 (viliea) kalendis idibus 
nonis,festus dies cum erit, coronam 
infocum indat, per eosdemque dies 
Lari familiari pro copia supplicet; 
Plant. Aul. 23 huic filia unast; 
ia mihi cotidie \ aut hire aut vino 
aut dliqui semper siipplicat; \ dat 
mihi coronas; Juv. 9. 137 <> parvi 
nostrique Lares, quos ture minuto \ 
aut farre et tehui soleo exorare 
corona. — marino rore : In this 
order in Plin. XI. 38 and Col. IX. 
4. 6. It is an aromatic shrub 
(rosemaiy), which was used in 
worship by people who could not 
afford incense. 

16. deos: object of both temp- 
tare and coronantem ; Intr. 76. 
— fragili, brittle ; referring to 
the twigs used in the garland. — 
myrto : see I. 4. 9 n, and cf . 

I. 38- 5- 



XXIII. 9-20.] 



HORATl CARMINA. 



^5 



20 



Immunis aram si tetigit manus, 
non sumptuosa blandior hostia, 
moUivit aversos Penatis 
farre pio et saliente mica. 



M V? / *; 



< %* 



17. immunis, guiltiesSf blame- 
less. In this sense it is not found 
elsewhere, except with a genitive, 
as immunes caedis manuSj Ov. 
Her, 14. 8. Many editors, there* 
fore, reject this interpretation and 
render the word 'bringing no gift,' 
citing IV. 12. 23 and Ep, 1. 14. 33. 
But in neither of these places does 
immunis mean simply * bringing 
no gift': in IV. 12. 23 it means 
'exempt from the obligation to 
contribute' (d^^/i^Xof); in Ep, I. 
14. 33, 'without being required to 
make presents.' In both cases it 
has its fundamental meaning, *qui 
vcLcat a muneribus quae alii 
prae stare debenf* (Forcellini). 
From this meaning Orelli deduced 
its Use here : the hand that comes 
to the altar ' immunis* comes, not 
from any obligation to make an 
offering in atonement for sin, but 
purely as an expression4>f gratitude 
and piety, or to deprecate some 
undeserved calamity; immunis is 
then immunis puiculi, rather than 
immunis sceleris. At any rate, the 
meaning ' guiltless ' appears to be 
required (as well as suggested) by 
the context. Innocence in the 
worshipper is the point on which 
the whole sentence turns. Under 
the other interpretation it b, no 
doubt, possible to get in this 
essential idea of innocence by re- 
stricting the application of the 
strophe to Phidyle, instead of 
taking it as the enunciation of a 
general truth; but this gives it 
only a subordinate place : the main 
thought is theft ' bringing no gift ' 
(for immunis is the emphatic 



word). And this, as a description 
of Phidyle, is in conflict both with 
vss. 3, 4, and with the last verse ; 
for the mola salsa was regarded as 
an offering ; cf. Plin. N. H. Fraef. 
II dislacte rustici multaeque gentes 
et mola tantum salsa litant qui non 
habent tura. But the language of 
the strophe is obscure, and its 
meaning much disputed. 

18. sumptuosa hostia: instru- 
mental abl. with the comparative, 
as in alitor ruinis^ 5. 40. The 
verse is commonly understood in 
a parenthetical and conditional 
sense, — ' it would gain nothing in 
persuasiveness by a costly offering.' 
But perhaps it is less harsh to take 
it as more direct, — ' without the 
aid of a costly victim to make it 
more persuasive.' This, of course, 
is only possible if we take immu- 
nis as * guiltless.' 

19. mollivit : Intr. 80. — aver- 
sos, unwilling; not ' hostile ' {ad- 
versos) ^ still less 'offended* {iratos)^ 
but needing to be melted to pity ; 
cf. Epod. 10. 18. — Penatis: here 
not aistinguished from the Lares ; 
cf. Ov. TV. I. 3. 43 ilia etiam ante 
Lares passis adstrata capillis \ 
contigit extinctos ore tremente focos^ 
I multaque in adversos effudit verba 
Penates, 

20. farre, etc. : a poetical para- 
phrase for mola salsa (cf. fruges 
salsaet Verg. A, II. 133), the mix- 
ture of crushed spelt and salt 
which was used in connection with 
all sacrifices ; here it accompanies 
simple prayer. The ablatives are 
instrumental. — saliente : i>. when 
thrown on the fire. 



236 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



XXIV. 

Intactis opulentior 

thesauris Arabum et divitis Indiae 
caementis licet occupes /O^ /r ^cw^vi^ 

. . c Tyrrhenum omne tuis et mare Apulicum> 
si iigit adamantinos 

summis verticibus dira Neccssitas 
clavos, non animum metu, 

non mortis laqueis expedies caput. 



XXIV. In this ode Horace in- 
veighs against the vice and cor- 
ruption of the age with more than 
his wonted vigor. The root of 
the evil is the insatiable greed for 
wealth, which is deterred by no 
danger and scruples at no crime. 
Here is a chance for immortal 
fame I Who will seize it by 
mastering unbridled license, and 
putting it under the control of 
law ? In place of futile complaints 
let us have punishment. But even 
laws will avail little against the evil, 
unless supported by a thorough- 
going reform in public sentiment. 
The ode is referred with some 
probability to the year 28 B.C. for 
the same reason that the sixth ode 
is assigned to that year (see introd. 
note to 6); but it may well have 
been earlier. It comes nearer than 
most of the odes of its class to 
the spirit of the sixteenth Epode. 
— Metre, 171. 

I. intactis, etc.: the first sen- 
tence (vss. i-^) consists of a con- 
cessive clause with licet (vss. 1-4), 
depending on a conditional sen- 
tence (vss. 5-8). — intactis : i.e. 
not yet reached by Roman con- 
quest and plundered, as, for ex- 
ample, those of the rich provinces 
of Asia had been. 



2. thesauris Arabum : cf . Ara- 
bum gazis^ I. 29. I. For the abl., 
see Intr. 75. — divitis Indiae : 
from very early times a thriving 
trade had been carried on between 
India and western Asia. The 
articles that found their way to 
Rome were for the most part of a 
very costly sort, — especially ivory, 
precious stones, silks, and fine 
cotton goods, — which naturally 
gave rise to a popular impression 
of great wealth in the land from 
which they came. 

3. caementis: see i. 33 j^^. nn. 

4. Tyrrhenum, etc. : i^. though 
you line the whole coast of Italy 
with your seaside villas. — Apuli- 
cum: see Crit. App. 

5. figit : Intr. 179. 

6. summis verticibus : i.e, 
those of your palaces. The rich 
man in his luxurious mansions is 
as helpless in the face of his doom 
as the poorest beggar in his hut. 
The same thought is put in an- 
other way in II. 18. 18 sqq. and 
29 sqq.; but there, as here, the 
figure is suggested by the building 
operations of the rich man himself, 
verticibus is probably ablative 
(Intr. 69). — Necessitas : cf . I. 

35- 17 n. 

7. clavos : the driving of the 



XXIV. i-i8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



237 



Campestres melius Scythae^ 
10 quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 
vivunt et rigidi Getae, 

immetata quibus iugera liberas 
fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

nee cultura placet longior annua, 
15 defunctumque laboribus 

aequali recreat sortc vicarius. 
^ -''"Illic matre carentibus 

privignis mulier temperat innocens, 



nail signifies unalterable doom 
(see I. 35. 18 n), here the doom of 
death, from which he can find no 
escape in his palaces, any more 
than in the speed of horses or 
triremes (i. 38 sqq^. 

8. mortis laqueis : d, OT. 
Psalms 18. 5. 

9. campestres, of the steppes ; 
put first to bring this feature of 
nomad life, which is expanded in 
the next verse, into clearer con- 
trast with the palace-building Ro- 
mans. For the epithet, cf. profugi 
Scythae, I. 35. 9; IV. 14. 42. 

10. quorum: better taken with 
domos. — vagas, from place to 
place; proleptic. — rite, such is their 
custom ; 1./. it is not exceptional, 
but the regular thing among them. 

11. rigidi, rigorous ; cf. Ep. I. 
I. 17; II. I. 25 rigidis Sabinis. — 
Getae : they occupied the plains 
between the Transylvanian Alps 
and the Danube (Wallachia). 

12. immetata: not divided up 
for individual ownership.— liberas: 
i,e, common to all. 

13. Cererem: Intr. 130. 

14. annua : ablative. Horace 
here ascribes to the Getae the 
custom which Caesar records of 
the Suevi, B. G, IV. i. In contrast 
with the avarice of Roman land- 



owners, these simple communities 
raise only as much produce each 
year as is needed for their own 
sustenance, and the work of tillage 
can be done by a limited number 
of persons, whose places are taken 
(vicarius) at the end of the year 
by another squad on the same 
terms. 

15. defunctum laboribus: cf. 
functum laboribus^ II. 18. 38. 

16. aequali sorte : abl. of 
manner. 

17. illic, etc.: here begins the 
exposition of the thought in melius 
vivunt (9, 11): simple habits of 
life are conducive' to virtuous liv- 
ing. Like Tacitus in the Germania^ 
Horace invests his barbarians with 
something of the halo of a golden 
age, to emphasize the contrast 
with the vices of Rome. The 
whole force of the comparison, as 
in 6. 17 sqq.j is directed against the 
women, their husbands and sons 
being reserved for treatment later 
in the ode. — matre carentibus, 
motherless (orbis)\ a favorite form 
of paraphrase with Horace ; cf . 
26. ion, I. 28. I n. 

18. temperat, treats with for- 
bearance ; cf. Cic. Verr. II. 2. 4 
superatis hostibus temperavit. For 
the proverbial severity of a no- 



/ 









-a w\^^^-^. A'-^w'J''C- •C'v^'-' 



WW »' (..''^ 



lr'-V'^_ 



"'Vt/^-C-rtXl-/ 



238 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. hi. 



20 



25 



nec dotata regit virum 

coniunx, nec nitido fidit adultero ; 
dos est magna parentium 

virtus et metuens alterius viri 
certo foedere castitas, 

et peccare nef^s aut pretium est mori. 
O quisquis volet impias 

caedis et rabiem toUere civicam, 
si quaeret pater urbium 

subscribi statuis, indomitam audeat 



vercaySA^ note on patruae^ 12. i. — 
innocens, keeping herself blame- 
less ; a part of the predicate. 

19. nec dotata, etc., no wife 
with great dowry y etc. ; i.e. there 
exists no such phenomenon at all 
among them. — regit virum: cf. 
Plant. Men, 766 ita istaec soUnt 
qiMte virSs subservire \ sibl postuldnt 
dote fritae^ ferSces ; AuL ^y-sqq.; 
Martial. VIII. 12. If a marriage 
was dissolved at the instance of 
the husband, he was obliged to 
surrender the dowry, or the greater 
part of it, — a rule that gave to 
wealthy married women a large 
measure of independence. 

20. nitido: cf. 19. 25 n and S. 
II. I. 64. — fidit : i.e, for aid and 
comfort against her husband. With 
this verb dotata is not understood 
as part of the subject ; rather 
fidit adultero is parallel to dotata 
regit. ' ' •■ -r V 

21. magna: with dos. — pa- 
rentium virtus : as a guaranty of 
pure blood and a wholesome moral 
training. 

22. m^tVi^nSftAat shrinks from; 
cf. 19. 16 n, and metuit tangi^ 
II. 10. It stands in contrast 
with fdity above, as dos, etc., 
with dotata. — alterius : see 5. 
34 n. 



23. certo foedere: a loosely 
attached descriptive ablative, char- 
acterizing the castitas as an obliga- 
tion mutually binding and never 
violated. 

24. nefas : sc. est, parallel with 
est in vs. 21, illic being understood 
with both. — aut: see 12. in. It 
follows the idea of prohibition in 
nefas. — pretium: cf. Juv. 13. 
105 ille crucem sceleris pretium 
tulity hie diadema. 

25. quisquis volet ... si quae- 
ret: not different in sense from 
si quis volet . , , et quaeret. If any 
one wishes to secure immort£d 
fame by putting away civil strife 
and bloodshed from the state, let 
him strike at the root of the evU 
in the rampant licentiousness of 
the times. — impias: see II. i. 
30 n. • 

26. civicam: see II. i. i n. 

27. si quaeret, etc.: i,e. if he 
seeks to have his name inscribed 
on the pedestals of statues in nu- 
merous cities, with the title ' Pater 
Vrbis* or the like. Fater was a 
common term of honor for a pub- 
lic benefactor, as pater patriae^ 
pater senatus, etc. (see II. i. 50 n); 
and possibly Horace intended the 
word in this general sense here, 
so that urbium should be taken 



XXIV. 19-38-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



239 



refrenare licentiam, 
30 * clarus post genitis, — quatenus, heu nefas ! 
virtutem incolumem odimus, 

sublatam ex oculis quaerimus invidi. 
Quid tristes querimoniae, 

si non supplicio culpa reciditur, 
35 quid leges sine moribus 

vanae proficiunt, si neque fervidis 
pars inclusa caloribus 

mundi nee Boreae Rnitimum latus 



with statuis; but cf. Stat. Silv. 

III. 4. 48 pater inclitus urhis 
(of Domitian) ; CIL. III. 2907 

PARENS • COLONIAE, XI. 3083 
PATR- PATRIAE -ET • MUNICIP (both 

of Augustus). 

28. subscribi : Intr. 94 c, 

29. refrenare licentiam : cf. 

IV. 15.9 sqq. 

30. clarus : sc. futurus (and he 
will be). — post genitis : a para- 
phrase for posteris not found else- 
where. — quatenus, in as much 
as (so also .S". I. i. 64); an archaic 
use of the word (Festus, p. 258) 
revived by the Augustan poets, 
from whom it was received into 
later prose (e.g. Veil. II. 68. 4 ; 
Tac. Ann. III. 16. 5). It here 
introduces the reason of post 
genitis : the true benefactors of 
their race are not appreciated in 
their lifetime ; cf. Ep. II. i. 5-14. 
— heti nefas: cf. IV. 6. 17. 

31. incolumem, in the living. 

32. quaerimus: iox requirimus 
(Intr. 1 29), in the sense of deside- 
ramus, we mourn. — invidi : this 
belongs with both verbs: the spirit 
which stones the prophets and 
that which builds their tombs are 
one and the same.* The glory of 
the dead is used to disparage the 
living. Cf. Ep. II. I. 88 sq. 



33. quid, etc.: the reformer's 
work must be unpopular, because 
no gentle measures will do ; he 
must attack the evil with pains 
and penalties. — tristes, dismal. 

34. reciditur: cf. S. I. 3. 122 
et magnis parva (sc. delicta) mine- 
ris I falce recisurum simili te. The 
metaphor of pruning, keeping back 
(re-) luxuriant growth, is appro- 
priate here ; cf. refrenaretjiboy^. 

35. sine moribus vanae, which 
are^ etc. These words express the 
general truth exemplified in the 
clauses that follow. In English 
we should be more likely to state 
it in a separate sentence : *■ Laws 
with no moral sentiment behind 
them are futile ; what good do 
they do (for example) if the pas- 
sion for wealth has so completely 
taken the place of right principles 
in a man's mind that no hardship 
or peril can deter him from the 
pursuit of his object ? * With 
leges sine moribus, cf. IV. 5. 22 
mos et lex ; Tac. Ger, 19 plus ibi 
boni mores valent quam alibi bonae 
leges. 

37. pars: as in 3. 55. — inclusa, 
intrenched ; in the same sense as 
domibus negata, I. 22. 22. 

38. latus : sc. mundi; cf. I. 22. 

19- 



240 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



durataeque solo nives 
40 mercatorem abigunt, horrida callidi 

vincunt aequora navitae, 

magnum pauperie$ opprobrium iubet 
quidvis et facere et pati, 

virtutisque viam deserit arduae .^ 
45 Vel nos in Capitolium, 

quo clamor vocat et turba faventium, 
vel nos in mare proximum 

gemmas et lapides aurum et inutile, 



39. duTRUitf /rozen hard^ never 
melting, — solo : Intr. 69. 

40. mercatorem : a favorite 
type with Horace of restless ac- 
tivity: cf. I. I. 16, 5'. I. I. 6, Ep. 
I. I. 45. — horrida callidi: Intr. 
116 d. For the asyndeton in this 
sentence, cf. 18. 9 sqq. 

42. magnum opprobrium, as 
a greaty etc.; cf. S, II. 3. 91 sq. — 
pauperies: see I. 1. 1£^. — iubet, 
etc. : cf. Ep, I. i. 46 per mare 
pauperiem jfugiens, per saxa^ per 
ignis, 

43. quidvis : any and every- 
thing, without distinction (of right 
or wrong) ; cf. omnej 3. 52 n. — et 
facere et pati: cf. Livy II. 12. 9 
et facere et pati fortia Romanum 
est. 

' 44. virtutis viam : i,e. the path 
which Virtue prescribes, and which 
leads to her, as in Hes. Op, 289 
rijt S' dperrjs IdpQra 9€ol irpord- 
pot0€P %9riKav \ dddvaroi' fiaKpbs 8i 
Kal 6p0LOS oJfJLOf it atr'^v. — 
deserit : deserere, depending on 
iubet, which Bentley wished to 
read, would be more strictly con- 
sistent ; but the personification of 
pauperies with iubet is no more 
than a figure of speech ; here it 
becomes vivid, and pauperies, 
before a mere abstraction, is in- 



vested with the qualities and ac- 
tions of the pauper. The same 
thing occurs in paupertas impuiit 
audax ut versus facerem, Ep. 
II. 2. 51. Cf. also indulgens sihi 
hydrops y II. 2. 13 n, and virtus 
temptat iter^ III. 2. 21. — arduae : 
Intr. 124. 

45. In an access of poetic fervor, 
which may remind us of Epode 16, 
Horace calls for a general sacrifice 
of the costly luxuries which are 
the source of so much evil: no 
change of heart is genuine which 
does not engender a contempt for 
these things. — in Capitolium : 
1./. as an offering to Jove ; see 30. 
8 n. The reader will supply the 
missing verb for himself before 
reaching mittamus, so that the 
adaptation of the latter to the 
second proposition does no vio- 
lence to the sense. 

46. clamor et turba: i,e. a 
shouting crowd ; Intr. 1 26 a, — vo- 
cat : i,e, such a reception awaits 
us. Horace imagines a procession 
of rich citizens marching to the 
Capitol, each carrying his valu- 
ables, with applauding throngs 
lining the way, as in a triumph. 

48. gemmks et lapides : it is 
not clear that these stood for dis- 
tinct classes of precious stones; 



XXIV. 39-5^0 



HORATI CARMINA. 



241 



^', 



summi materiem mali, 
50 mittamus, scelerum si bene paenitet. 

Eradenda cupidinis 

• pravi sunt element^ et tenerae nimis 
mentes asperioribus 

formandae studiis, Nescit equo rudis 
55 haerere ingenuus puer 

venarique timet, ludere doctior, 
seu Graeco iubeas trocho, 

seu malis vetita legibus alea, 



we know, for example, that pearls 
were called by both names. The 
mention of the two is simply for 
greater fullness of expression, — 
jewels and precious stones, — aurum 
ct : Intr. 114. — inutile, good for 
nothing; with something more 
than a merely negative force. 

49. materiem : cf. Sal. Cat. 10 
primo pecuniae i deinde itnperi cu- 
pido crevit; ea quasi mctteries om- 
nium malorum fuere, where quasi 
shows that SaUust was still con- 
scious of the metaphor in materies 
(the * stuff ' of which these evils are 
made). 

50. bene : i.e. sincerely. 

51. eradenda, etc. : coming 
down to a more practical view of 
the problem, Horace urges that 
contempt for luxury be inculcated 
by a healthier moral and physical 
training of youth ; cf . 2. i sqq., 6. 

37 ^^q- 

52. elementa, the germs. — te- 
nerae nimis : i.e. those which are 

-.— now over-indulged must (instead) 

^ be moulded, etc. 

% 54. studiis, training. — equo : 

(^^^ntr. 71. — rudis: reinforcing ne- 
scit and opposed to doctior: ' Put 
him in the saddle, he is awkward 
and doesn't know how to keep his 
seat; tell him to play, he will show 



his proficiency, whether it be with, 
etc' 

55. haerere : Intr. 94 o. — in- 
genuus : it might be excusable in 
a slave or freedman. 

56. venari: Intr. 94/. — ludere: 
Intr. loi c. 

57. seu . . . seu: for the use of 
these conjunctions, see I. 4. 12 n. 
— Graeco, for the contrast be- 
tween the traditional Roman forms 
of exercise, such as hunting and 
riding (Romanis sollemne mris 
opusy Ep. I. 18. 49), which were 
valued as good training for a 
soldier (hence called militia)^ and 
the athletic sports imported from 
Greece ; cf. S. II. 2. 9 sqq. The 
trochus is named with the pila 
and discus f Ep. II. 3. 379 sq.y among 
the *arma* of the Campus (see 
I. 8. 10 n). — iubeas, malis : sc. 
eum ludere. For the construction 
of the ablatives, cf. .S*. I. 5. 4.gpild 
ludere. 

58. vetita legibus: Cicero men- 
tions a condemnation for gambling 
in his time (Phil. 2. 56) and else- 
where classes aleatores with *omnes 
impuri impudicique* (in Cat. 2. 23); 
but in Horace's day the law was 
obviously much neglected. Ovid 
speaks of treatises written to teach 
the game (TV. II. 471 sqq.). 



242 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



cum periura patris fides 
60 consortem socium fallat et hospites, 
indignoque pecuniam. 

heredi properet. Scilicet improbae 
crescunt divitiae : tamen 

curtae nescio quid semper abest rei 



XXV. 

Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui 

plenum ? Quae nemora aut quos agor in specus 
velox mente nova ? Quibus 

antris egregii Caesaris audiar 



59. cum fallat, properet : the 
cum-c\sLuse here defines the char- 
acter of the situation by an added 
picture ; see Hale's Cum-Construc- 
ttons, p. 1 9 1 . In English we should 
rather begin a new sentence, Mean- 
while, etc, — periura fides : see I. 
5. sn. 

60. consortem socium, his 
partner. In mercantile language 
sors is capital. — hospites: d.per- 
fidus ^hospitam, I. 1 5. 2 n. 

61. pecuniam properet: cf. 
deproperare coronas, II. 7. 24 n. 

62. scilicet, yes ; introducing 
the poet's reflections on the picture 
he has just drawn : Wealth goes 
right on growing, in spite of mo- 
rality and honor and everything 
else (improbae), but it is forever 
doomed to fail to satisfy its pos- 
sessor; * semper avarus eget' (Ep. 
I. 2. 56). — improbae, graceless, 

64. curtae: proleptic, expressing 
the aspect which the property (rei) 
presents to its covetous owner. 

XXV. This short ode is a tribute 
to Augustus, whose glory is her- 
alded none the less effectively 



because it is mentioned only in- 
cidentally, as it were, in a poem 
which purports to be merely the 
prelude to a greater work. The 
ode is cast in dithyrambic form : 
the poet represents himself as 
hurried away by the irresistible 
power of Bacchus to the wilds, 
haunted of nymph and maenad, 
where, under the joyous inspira- 
tion of the god himself, he shall 
rise to the level of his lofty theme. 
Whether the ode was called forth 
by some particular occasion does 
not appear. — Metre, 171. 

1. tui plenum: d. pleno Bacchi 
pectore, II. 19. 6. 

2. agor in: Intr. 119^1. 

3. velox mente nova : he feels 
like a changed being, moved by swift 
impulses. These are characteristic 
of orgiastic possession; cf. Cat. 63. 
19 mora tarda mente cedat, and the 
whole picture there portrayed. 

4. antris: dative (Intr. 54), — 
* What caves shall hear me ? ' He 
is not thinking of an audience in 
the caves. — egregii: see 1. 6. 11 n. 
— audiar: future; a question of 
fact, like quo rapis^ etc, above. 



XXIV. 59-xxv. i6.] HORATI CARMINA. 



243 



lo 



15 



5 aeternum meditans decus 

stellis inserere et consilio lovis ? 
Dicam insigne, recens, adhuc 

indictum ore alio. Non secus in iugis 
exsomnis stupet Euhias, 

Hebrum prospiciens et nive candidam 
Thracen ac pede barbaro 

lustratam Rhodopen, ut mihi devio 
ripas et vacuum nemus 

mirari libet. O Naiadum potens 
Baccharumque valentium 

proceras manibus vertere fraxinos, 



5. aeternum: proleptic. — me- 
ditans, essaying in song. The 
word is used not only of silent 
composition, but of bursts of song, 
as audiar shows (cf. Verg. E, 6. 
82 omnia qu€u Phoebo quondam 
meditante beatus \ audiit £urotas); 
yet enough of the idea of contem- 
plation is still present to attach 
an infinitive to, and inserere is 
rather complementary (Intr. 94/) 
than infinitive of purpose. 

6. stellis inserere, etc.: i*e. to 
extol to heaven. For stellis, cf. 
arcis cUtigit igneas^ 3. 10 n. 

7. dicam : the subject of my song 
will be, etc. ; see 1. 6. 5 n. — insigne : 
cf. I. 12. 39 insigni camena, — 
recens, fresh ; not hackneyed. 

8. indictum, etc. : cf. Ep. I. 
19. 32 non alio dictum prius ore. 
— non secus, etc. : the picture is 
that of a Thracian bacchante who 
has come upon a height (iugis) 
where a view of the whole vadley of 
the Hebrus,with Rhodope beyond, 
bursts upon her, and stands gazing 
in rapture at the beautiful scene. 

9. exsomnis : because in the 
full flush of her frenzy ; every 



nerve is alive. Sleep comes with 
the reaction from this excitement 
(cf. Cat. 63. 35 sq.), 

11. pede barbaro lustratam: 
i.e. inhabited by a foreign people ; 
she has strajred far away into a 
strange land. 

12. ut: with non secus, instead 
of the usual ac^ which would be 
harsh after ac in vs. 11 ; cf . Plaut. 
Aul. 22 parity moratum ut pdter 
oTJOsque huiiisfuit; Plin. Ep, 1. 20. 1 
cui nihil tuque in causis agendis 
ut breidtas placet. 

13. ripas: used absolutely, as in 
I. 23 and IV. 2. 31. — vacuum, 
untenanted; repeating the idea 
implied in devio. Intr. 119 a. 

14. mirari : see I. 4. 19 n. — 
Naiadum potens : cf. II. 19. 3. 

15. valentium, etc.: the allusion 
is to the destruction of Pentheus 
by the bacchantes, who tore up 
by the roots the tree on which he 
sat (Eurip. Bacch. 11 09). It is 
mentioned to recall the super- 
human power which the inspira- 
tion of Bacchus confers. 

16. vertere: for evertere; Intr. 
1 29. For the mood, see Intr. 94 n. 



244 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



20 



nil parvum aut humili modo, 

nil mortale loquar. Dulce periculum est, 
O Lenaee, sequi deum 

cingentem viridi tempora pampino. 



5 



XXVI. 

Vixi puellis nuper idoneus 
et militavi non sine gloria : 
nunc arma defunctumque bello 
barbiton hie paries habebit,. 

laevum marinae qui Veneris latus 
custodit. Hie, hie ponite lueida 



-17. nil, etc.: my song shall be 
elevated both m matter and man- 
ner. — parvum: cf. 3. 72. 

18. mortale: 1.^.01 mere human 
inspiration. — dulce, fascinating. 
— periculum : because the near 
presence of the god is overpower- 
ing. The same mingling of joy 
and fear is expressed II. 29. 5 sqq. 

19. Lenaee: supposed to mean 
* god of the wine-press * (Xiyi^i). — 
deum, a god, 

20. cingentem, etc.: repeated 
in the suspected verse, IV. 8. 33, 
with the necessary change of cin- 
gentem to ornatus. Here, how- 
ever, it is more natural to take 
cingentem with the subject of 
sequi, understood, — the poet. 

XXVI. Our poet will have no 
more of love. He has acquitted 
himself in that field not without 
glory ; now he will hang up his 
arms in Venus* shrine, for he has 
no longer any taste for her service. 
Only at the very end he lets a little 
word escape him which betrays 
the humorous aspect of the situa- 
tion : it is Chloe's hard heart that 



is at the bottom of it all. — Metre, 
176. 

1. vixi: the perfect definite, im- 
plying * it is all over now.* — puel- 
lis idoneus : i,e. capable of mak- 
ing himself agreeable to them. — 
nuper, till lately, 

2, militavi : the figure is a com- 
mon one ; cf. IV. 1.2; Ov. Am, I. 
9. I militat omnis amans et habet 
sua castra Cupido, 

4. hie paries, etc. : i,e, the side 
of the shrine on the right (as 
you looked at it) of the image of 
the goddess. It was customary 
to dedicate implements or other 
tokens of completed service ; cf . 
Ep, I. I. 4 Veranius (a gladiator) 
armis \ Herculis ad postern fixis ; 
.9. 1. 5. 65, where a former slave is 
asked donasset iamne catenam \ ex 
voto Laribus. 

5. laevum : there appears to be 
no special significance in the choice 
of this side. — marinae : as being 
sea-bom and exercising power over 
the sea ; cf. I. 3. i n; IV. xi. 15. 

6. hie, hie : Intr. 116^^. — po- 
nite : addressed to the slaves who 
carry the articles referred to ; cf. 



XXV. I7-XXVII. I.] HORATI CARMINA. 



245 



10 



funalia et vectis et arcus 
oppositis foribus minacis. 

O quae beatam diva tenes Cypnim et 
Memphin carentem Sithonia nive, 
regina, sublimi flagello 

tange Chloen semel arrogantem. 



XXVII. 
Impios parrae recinentis omen 



1. 19. 14. — lucida: expressing not 
their present condition, but their 
essential property. 

7. funalia : used for going about 
at night, since the streets were 
not lighted. See Juv. 3. 282 sqq. 
— vectis : to pry open doors where 
admittance was refused : cf. Ter. 
Eun. 773 primum aedis expugnabo. 
... In medium hue agmen cum 
vectit Donax I — arcus : unless 
this is the name of some imple- 
ment for forcing doors, the text 
is probablv corrupt. If we could 
imagine tne lover going about 
armed with bow and arrows on 
such an expedition, it would still 
be difficult to see why he should 
threaten barred doors with them. 

8. foribus : Intr. 58 a. 

9. quae tenes Cyprum : cf. I. 
3. I, 30. 2, and for this use of 
teneo^ III. 4. 62 n. — beatam: Cy- 
prus was an island of g^reat and 
varied resources ; cf. I. i. 13 n. 

10. Memphin: Herodotus (II. 
112) mentions a sanctuary ^mft 
'A^podlrris there. — carentem, etc. : 
a poetical paraphrase for * where 
it never snows ' ; cf. matre caren- 
tibus, 24. 17 n. — Sithonia : see I. 
18. 9 n, and cf. Verg. E. 10. 66 ; 
Intr. 117. 

11. regina: cf. I. 30. i. — su- 
blimit uplifted. 



1 2. semel, just once ; cf . I. 24. 
16 n. 

XXVII. The story of Europa. 
The myth is treated on a plan 
similar to that of the eleventh 
ode. As a setting for his picture 
Horace has here, as there, con- 
structed a situation : his imaginary 
friend Galatea is about to set out 
on a journey to the East ; he re- 
luctantly bids her farewell, with a 
prayer for good omens and friend- 
ly words of warning against the 
treachery of the sea, through all 
of which runs an undercurrent of 
unspoken protest at her incurring 
such risk ; he thinks of her on the 
sea at night, with nothing but the 
waves about her and the stars 
overhead, and this recalls the lone- 
ly ride of Europa on the back of 
the bull. In dealing with the sub- 
ject, as in the case of Hypermnes- 
tra, he disposes of the familiar 
features of the story briefly (vss. 
25-32, 73-76), or by allusion, and 
selects for lyrical treatment a 
single scene, — the remorse and 
despair of Europa when she is left 
alone on the shore of Crete. — 
Metre, 174. 

I. impios: emphatic. The sense 
is, * May all bad omens be spent 
in confounding the wicked : I will 



246 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



lO 



ducat et praegnans canis aut ab agro 
rava decurrens lupa Lanuvino 
f etaque volpes ; 

rumpat et serpens iter institutuniy 
si per obliquum similis sagittae 
terruit mannos : ego cui timebo 
providus auspex, 

antequam stantis repetat paludes 
imbrium divina avis imminentura, 



guard her whose safety I have at 
heart by calling up, a good sign to 
anticipate and counteract whatever 
there maybe of evil import.* With 
the idea, which we have here and 
in vss. 21 sqq.y of diverting (rather 
than averting) ill by directing its 
force elsewhere, cf. the prayers in 
I. 28. 25 sqq. and Epod. 5. 53 sqq. 
— parrae : this bird is mentioned 
also by Plautus (Asin. 260) as an 
ominous fowl, and by Festas (p. 
197) as classed with both oscines 
and alius (see vs. 1 1 n) ; but it has 
not been identified. For this rea- 
son the precise meaning of reci- 
nentis cannot be determined, but it 
probably expresses a droning repe- 
tition of the note ; cf. Ep. I. i. 55. 

2. ducat, attend . . , on their 
way, — agro Lanuvino: Lanuvi- 
um was situated on a height, to 
the right of the Appian Way, 
beyond Aricia. Horace has in 
mind a journey to Greece or Asia, 
by the Appian Way to Brundisium 
and thence by sea; cf. vss. 19 x^. 
The uncertainties of so long a 
journey would invest such omens 
as are here mentioned with un- 
speakable terror in the mind of 
the average Roman, who was a 
very superstitious person. 

3. rava : cf. Epod. 16. 33 ravos 
leones. 



5. rumpat (sc. impiis) : not 
simply 'interrupt* by frightening 
the horses, but break off^ as insti- 
tutum shows. The superstitious 
traveller would feel it necessary 
to go back and begin the jour- 
ney anew, after due expiatory 
offerings. 

6. p^r obliquuni : modifying 
the idea of darting implied in si- 
milis sagittae, though grammati- 
cally attached to terruit. 

7. mannos, ponies ; the Celtic 
name of a Gallic breed of horses, 
small in size, fashionable for driv- 
ing ; cf. Epod, 4. 14, Ep, I. 7. 
77. — ego : the emphasis falls 
on this word because the person 
contrasted with impios is not 
definitely expressed, but appears 
only as one in whom the poet is 
interested ; as if we should say 
* May all evil signs go to plague 
^e wicked ; for my friends I will 
pray, etc.* — cui : suggesting its 
antecedent in the same case. The 
future timebo makes the reference 
indefinite ; but of course he means 
Galatea. 

9. stantis, stagnant. 

10. ^\v\Ti9^^ prophetic ; with the 
objective genitive, as Ep. IL 3. 
218 divina futuri; Intr. 66^. — 
avis: the crow {cornix) ; cf. 17, 
12 n. 



XXVII. 2-1 8.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



247 



15 



oscinein^.corvum prece suscitabo 
solis ab ortu. 

Sis licet felix, ubicumque mavis, 
et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas, 
teque nee laevus vetet ire pious 
nee vaga cornix. 

Sed vides quanto trepidet tumultu 
pronus Orion ? Ego quid sit ater 



11. oscinem : an augural term, 
used of birds whose notes were 
observed in divination, in distinc- 
tion from those called aiites (cf. 3. 
61) ox praepetes (Verg. A. III. 361), 
whose flight was regarded as sig- 
nificant. All the birds mentioned 
in this ode, together with the owl 
(noctua) are mentioned by Festus 
(/. /.) as belonging to the first 
class; the vulture and the eagle 
are examples of the second (cf. 
Liv. I. 7. i; Tac. Ann. II. 17. 2). 

12. solis ab ortu: a favorable 
quarter ; see below, vs. i5n. 

13. sis licet, etc. : after this 
general introduction, he addresses 
Galatea directly with parting words 
of good will and friendly warning. 
— sis: optative subjunctive, to 
which licet is joined paratactically 
to intimate that he interposes no 
objection (as *providus auspex') 
to. her going. For this use of licet, 
cf. Plaut. Rud, 139 med quidem 
hercU caiisa salvos sis licet ; Ovid 
M, III. 405 sic amet ipse licet^ sic 
non potiatur atnato. It is akin to 
per me licet 

14. memor nostri : apparently 
a formula of parting ; cf. Juv. 3. 
318, vale nostri memor. For nostri^ 
cf. 28. 9n. 

1 5. laevus, ill-boding. There is 
a confusion in the use of this word, 
owing to the fact that, whereas 



from its application to the left 
hand there naturally grew up about 
it the meaning of *• awkward, un- 
toward, unlucky,* — •. the opposite 
of dexter (cf. dextro tempore ^ S. II. 
I. 18, with tempore laevoy S. II. 4. 
4), — in Roman augury it came to 
have just the opposite meaning, 
because, as the auspex sat facing 
south, the east, which was the 
favorable quarter (see above, vs. 
I2n) was on his left. The same 
is true of sinister. The Roman 
poets constantly use both words 
in the sense of * inauspicious,' 
either following the common as 
opposed to technical usage or, 
perhaps, under the influence of 
their Greek models ; for in Greek 
divination ^e^M Spvts was a lucky 
sign, and dpurrepii unlucky. 

16. cornix: see vs. ion, and 
cf. Verg. £. g. 14 nisi me \ ante 
sinistra cava monuisset ab ilice 
cornix. 

17. trepidet : to the poet's vivid 
imagination, the constellation it- 
self seems to tremble with the ex- 
citement of the storm which it 
brings. 

18. pronus Orion : equivalent 
to devexus Orion, L 28. 21 n. — 
— ater : i.e. in the darkness of the 
storm (cf. II. 16. 2 n), but with the 
implication which attaches to the 
word; see I. 28. I3n. 



248 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



20 



25 



30 



Hadriae novi sinus et quid albus 
peccet lapyx. 

Hostium uxores puerique caecos 
sentiant motus orientis Austri et 
aequoris nigri fremitum et trementis 
verbere ripas. 

Sic et Europe niveum doloso 
credidit tauro latus et scatentem 
beluis pontum mediasque fraudes 
palluit audax. 

Nuper in pratis studiosa florum et 
debitae Nymphis opifex coronae, 
nocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 
vidit et undas. 



19. Hadriae sinus : called lo- 
nius sinust Epod. 10. 19. — novi: 
Horace had probably crossed it 
on his way to Greece (Intr. 7). — 
albus : cf. candidi Favonii, 7. i, 
albus Notus^ I. 7. 15, and see Intr. 
125. It stands here in contrast 
withater; Intr. ii6f. 

20. peccet, plays tricks ; he is 
fair, but not to be trusted. — la- 
P3rz : see I. 3. 4n. 

21. hostium : cf. Verg. G, III. 
513 di tneliora pits erroremque 
hostibtis ilium ! and see vs. x n, 
above. — uxores puerique: those 
who are dear to the enemy, not 
one (Galatea) who is dear to us. — 
caecos motus : i>. squalls, com- 
ing without warning ; cf. caeca fata, 
II. 13. 16. 

22. sentiant : cf. II. 7. 9 Phi- 
lippos et celerem fugam \ sensi. — 
orientis : unusual for surgentis, 
e.g. Verg. A. III. 481 surgentis 
Austros. 

23. aequoris, etc. : observe the 
resonance of these verses, due 



mainly to the persistent r-sounds ; 
Intr. 131. — nigri: cf. ater, vs. 18 n. 

24. verbere : sc. of the surf. — *r1 
ripas : see I. 2. I4n. -ij 

25. sic : f>. with the same readi- 
ness that you show to venture 
upon the sea. Horace represents 
Europa as having voluntarily tak.&i 
her ride through the water; see 
vs. 42 n. — et, too, — Europe : the 
story is told by Ovid, M, II. 836 
sqq,, Fast. V. 605 sqq, — doloso 
credidit: cf. perfidis se credidit, 
5. 33; Intr. 1 16 a. 

26. latus : cf. II. 7. 18. — sca- 
tentem beluis : cf. I. 3. 18 n. 

27. medias, all about her; she 
had come in medias fraudes. — 
fraudes, dangers; lit. 'pitfalls.' 
For the accusatives, see Intr. 51 a. 

28. palluit audaz, braved with 
blanched cheek. The oxymoron is 
the result of the substitution for 
some colorless word like vidit (cf. 
I. 3. 19) of one that paints the 
danger on her face. 

29. nuper : emphatici in con- 



XXVII. 19-42.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



249 



Quae simul centum tetigit potentem 
oppidis Creten, * Pater^ — o relictum 
35 filiae nomen, pietasque ' dixit 
* victa furore ! 

Vnde quo veni ? Levis una mors est 
virginum culpae. Vigilansne ploro 
turpe commissumi an vitiis carentem 
40 ludit imago 

vana, quae porta fugiens eburna 
somnium ducit ? Meliusne fluctus 



trast with her present situation 
(nocte sublustri, etc.) ; d.^ierum- 
que I. 34. 7. 

30. debitae : t.e, vowed. 

31. praeter : Intr. 115^. 

33. quae simul, etc. : Horace 
follows a form of the myth, accord- 
ing to which the bull disappears, 
on landing in Crete, and Europa 
is left alone awhile till Jupiter 
returns in his proper shape to 
claim her as his bride. It is here 
that, with the reaction from the 
excitement of the ride, remorse 
sets in. — simul : see I. 4. 17 n. — 
centum oppidis : after the Ho- 
meric Kfyfyrtiv iKarb^xohxv (II, II. 
649) ; cf . Epod. 9. 29. 

34. pater: the word which comes 
first to her lips in her distress 
instantly reminds her that she has 
recklessly thrown away a father's 
love and protection, and she 
breaks off with bitter self-reproach, 
o relictum, etc. For the nomina- 
tives in exclamation, nomen pie- 
tasque, cf. Cic. PhiL 14. 31 (quoted 
2. 13 n) and Ep. II. 3. 301. The 
accusative is usual. 

35. filiae : defining genitive ; 
Gr. 214/. 

36. furore, mad folly. 

yj. unde quo : not in reference 



to place, but contrasting her pres- 
ent situation with that of yester- 
day. — una mors : cf . Prop. V. 4. 
17 ^/ satis una malae potuit mors 
esse puellaey \ quae voluit Jlammas 
fallere, Vesta^ tuas? 

38. virginum, a maiden* s ; the 
plural (used generically) makes it 
less direct, and so more natural. 
She feels now, in her defetiseless 
situation, the full force and conse- 
quence of having broken through 
the restraints of filial duty and 
maidenly reserve, under the im- 
pulse of a temporary fascination 
(furore, 36). — culpae: dative; 
for the meaning, see 6. 17 n. — vi- 
gilans : emphatic ; she cannot 
believe her senses ; it must be all 
a dream. 

40. ludit imago : cf. Verg. A, 
I. 407 quid natum totiens crudelis 
tu quoque falsis \ ludis imaginibus? 

41. porta eburna : cf. Verg. A. 
VI. 893 sunt geminae somniportae, 
quorum altera fertur \ cornea^ qua 
verisfacilis datur exitus umbris, \ 
altera candenti perfecta nitens ele- 
phantOy I sed falsa ad caelum mit- 
tunt insomnia manes (an imitation 
of Odys. XIX. 562 sqq.). 

42. meliusne, etc. : a taunt at 
herself and her foolish choice in 



250 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IIL 



ire per longos fuit, an recentis 
carpere flores ? 

45 Si quis infamem mihi nunc iuvencum 
dedat iratae, lacerare f erro et 
frangere enitar modo multum amati 
cornua monstri. V^ 

Impudens liqui patrios penatis, 
50 impudens Orcum moror. O deorum 
si quis haec audis, utinam inter errem 
nuda leones ! 

Antequam turpis macies decentis 
occupet malas teneraeque sucus 



leaving the unexciting but safe 
amusements of childhood for a 
dangerous pleasure. — fluctus 
longos : cf. longus pontus, 3. 37. 

45. nunc: emphatic; in contrast 
with the time when she wreathed 
his horns with flowers. 

46. lacerare : with comua, as 
vs. 71 shows. 

47. enitar, /V try with all my 
might; an expression of rage, 
tempered by consciousness of 
physical weakness. — modo : cf. 
14. I. — multum : Intr. 49. 

49. impudens, etc.: in the swift 
fluctuations of her feelings, rage is 
succeeded by shame, iQingled with 
fear of what may happen to her, — 
starvation, slavery, — and a desire, 
gradually shaping itself into a pur- 
pose, to end her life. It is as 
shameful for her now to live as it 
was to leave her home. Oh, if the 
lions would devour her I Yes, that 
would be better than starving slow- 
ly and losing all her beauty. But 
why wait to starve } The thought 
of her absent father spurs her to 
action. * Let your own hand do it, 
ere you, a king's daughter, become 



the concubine of a foreign lord 
and the hated slave of his wife.' 

50. Orcum laoTOTj /put off death 
(lit., ^keep him waiting'); i>. I ought 
to die, but shamelessly hold back. 

51. si quis: here equivalent to 
quisquis; cf . Ep. 1. 18. 57. — inter : 
Intr. 115 c. — errem : i>. come 
upon them by chance ; she has 
not yet reached the thought of 
taking her own life. 

52. nuda, defenseless, 

53. antequam, etc.: this is not 
mere vanity, but the outcropping 
of a deep-seated feeling of the 
ancients, based on the belief that 
one entered the underworld in the 
form in which he left life ; see the 
descriptions in Aeneid VI., and cf. 
Stat. Silv. II. 1. 154 (on the death 
of a favorite boy) gratum est^ Fata^ 
tamen quodnon mors lenta iacentis\ 
exedit puerile decuSy manesque subi- 
vit I integer et nullo temeratus cor- 
pora damnoAqualis erat. — turpis, 
unsightly ; ci. turpes luctus^ II. 20. 
22 n. — decentis : cf. t. 4. 6n. 

54. tenerae praedae : a para- 
phrase for mihi^ with the added 
suggestion of youthfulness (tene- 



XXVII. 43"^'] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



251 



55 defluat praedae, speciosa.quaero 
pascere tigris. 

Vilis Europe, pater urget absens, 
quid mori cessas ? Potes hac ab orno 
pendulum zona bene te secuta 
6o laedere collum ; 

sive te rupes et acuta leto 
saxa delectant, age te procellae 
crede veloci, nisi erile mavis 
carpere pensum 

65 regius sanguis, dominaeque tradi 
barbarae paelex.* Aderat querenti 
perfidum ridens Venus et remisso 
filius arcu ; 



rae). — sucus defluat : cf. Ter. 
Eun. 318 Ch. Color virus^ corpus 
sSlidum et suciplinum . Pa. A nni ? 
Ch. Anni? Sidecim. We express 
it otherwise : *■ the bloom fades/ 
or the like. 

55. speciosa, (still) fair to see; 
not a strong word, like pulcher^ 
but merely deprecating the ugli- 
ness of emaciation. 

56. pascere : Intr. 94 c. 

57. vilis, etc.: the thought of 
her father spurs her resolution. 
The words are not a quotation of 
what she imagines he would say, 
but she knows well what his stem 
sentence would be, and under its 
influence urges herself on to put 
an end to her shame. — vilis: and 
hence, as a princess, unfit to live. 

59. bene te secuta, which, 
luckily, you have brought with you. 
The bitter irony of these- words is 
enhanced by the double meaning 
given to them by the significance 
of the girdle as the emblem of 
maidenhood. 



60. laedere, bruise; used, in 
the same spirit of bitter mockery, 
for the harsher elidere. As her 
resolution assumes fixed shape 
('deliberata morte ferocior') she 
can jest with death ; cf. te delec- 
tant and te crede, below. 

61 . sive : Intr. 119 </. — leto : 
dative with acuta ; Intr. 58 c, 

62. saxa : those at the bottom 
of the cliffs (rupes). — procellae, 
the gale (that blows over the cliffs). 

63. erile : apportioned by a 
mistress {erci), a slave's. 

64. carpere pensum: here of 
spinning an assigned portion of 
wool ; cf. the picture in Prop. IV. 
6. 1 5 tristis erat domus, et tristes sua 
pensa ministrae \ carpebant, medio 
nebat et ipsa loco; Cat. 64. 310. 

65. tradi: i.e. to be put at her 
mercy; cf. II. 4. 11 n. 

66. paelex: and hence the espe- 
cial object of her cruelty. 

67. perfidum : see Intr. 48. — 
remisso, unstrung; his work was 
done. 



252 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



mox, ubi lusit satis, 'Abstineto' 
70 dixit ' irarum calidaeque rixae, 
cum tibi invisus laceranda reddet 
cornua taurus. 

Vxor invicti lovis esse nescis. 
Mitte singultus, bene ferre magnam 
75 disce fortunam : tua sectus orbis 
nomina ducet.* 



XXVIII. 

Festo quid potius die 

Neptuni faciam ? Prome reconditum, 



69. lusit : sc. Venus. — absti- 
neto : the second form of the 
imperative, here referring to a 
designated point of future time 
(cum reddet). 

70. irarum, rixae : Intr. 67. 

71. invisus laceranda, etc.: in 
mocking allusion to vss. 45 sqq. 

73. uxor esse : for te uxorem 
esse ; Intr. 99 ^. — invicti : sug- 
gesting, perhaps, the necessity of 
submission. 

74. mitte : Intr. 129. 

7 5. sectus orbis, a hemisphere. 
Horace follows those geographers 
who divided the world into two 
parts, Europe and Asia ; cf . Varro 
Z. L. V. 31 ut omnis natura in 
caelum et terram divisa esty sic 
caeli regionibus terra in Asiam et 
Europam; Plin. N. H. III. 5 {Euro- 
pam) plerique merito non tertiam 
portionem fecere^ verum aequam^ 
in duas partes . . . universe orbe 
diviso. 

76. nomina: Intr. 128. — ducet, 
will take ; lit. * will draw * (sc. from 
you, implied in tua); cf. S, II. i. 
66 duxit ab oppressa meritum Car* 
thagine nomen. 



XXVIII. An ode for Neptune's 
day. This festival, the Neptunalia^ 
occurred on the twenty-third of 
July, and was celebrated by the 
people in the open air, picnic 
fashion, on the banks of the Tiber 
or the seashore, with arbors (»m- 
brae) to shelter them from the 
midsummer sun. Such, however, is 
not the celebration contemplated 
in the ode. It is past noon, and 
the poet, feeling in the mood for a 
carouse, bethinks himself that it 
IS a holiday. *Why not, then? 
Come, Lyde, bring down a jar of 
that fine old Caecuban, and we 
will celebrate the day together.' 
Horace speaks, apparently, in the 
person of a country poet, and the 
thrifty Lyde keeps his house. We 
cannot define the picture more 
exactly, and it is not probable that 
Horace did so. — Metre, 171. 

1. potius: sc. than that which 
has occurred to me. The answer to 
the question is implied in the order 
which he gives; cf. II. 3. 9-16. 

2. reconditum, hoarded ; cf. 
repostum Caecubum^ Epod. 9. i n. 
For the force of re-, cf. 1. 10. 17 n. 



XXVII. 69-XXViii. 12.] HORATI CARMINA. 



253 



10 



Lyde, strenua Caecubum, 

munitaeque adhibe vim sapientiae. 
Inclinare meridiem 

sentis et, veluti stet volucris dies, 
parcis deripere horreo 

cessantem Bibuli consulis amphoram. 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum et viridis Nereidum comas ; 
tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam et celeris spicula Cynthiae ; 



3. strenua: best taken, in an 
adverbial sense, with prome. — 
Caecubum: see I. 20. 9 n, 37. 5 n. 

4. munitae, (your) well-en- 
trenched; >>. which you steadily 
maintain, against all temptations 
and distractions. — adhibe vim, 
give a shock to. The meaning is 
*Be frivolous for once*; cf. dulce 
est desipere in loco, IV. 12. 28. 

5. inclinare meridiem: as the 
whole vault of heaven was sup- 
posed to revolve with the sun 
(*vertitur interea caelum,' Verg. 
A. II. 250 ; cf. Lucr. V. 510), it 
was natural to think of it as erect 
or vertical when the sun is over- 
head, and to speak of the dav 
(the bright hemisphere) or mio- 
day declining, as well as the sun 
itself ; cf. Juv. 3. 316 sol inclinat ; 
Tac. Ann. XII. 39. 2 inclinabctt dies, 

6. Btet, stood still. — et : used 
here to connect contrasted state- 
ments (= et tamen) ; cf. Juv. I3< 91 
hicputat esse deos et peierat. 

7. deripere, to bring down in 
haste ; the de- as in Epod, 5. 46 
lunamque caelo deripit ; cf. de- 
scender 21. 7 n. For the infinitive, 
see Intr. 94 k, — horreo: here for 
the apotheca vinaria ; see 8. 1 1 n, 
and, for the case, Intr. 70. 

8. cessantem: simply reinforc- 



ing the idea already expressed in 
parcis deripere. — Bibuli : M. 
Calpumius Bibulus, consul with 
Julius Caesar, B.C. 59. See 11. 3. 
8n, and cf. III. 21. i. 

9. nos, /. Horace uses the 
plural of the personal pronoun in 
this sense only where the speaker 
(usually himsdf) is placed in direct 
contrast with some other person 
or persons, as here and 1. 6. 5 and 
17, Epod, I. 5, S. I. 4. 41, 6. 18, 
Ep. I. 15. 25, 17. 5 ; or in such 
personal relation as is implied in 
the phrases nostri memor (III. 11. 
51, 27. 14), metninit nostri (Ep, I. 
3. 12), studio nostri (Ep, I. 13. 4), 
noris nos (S, I. 9. 7). — invicem: 
in reference to the subjects, not 
the singers. 

10. viridis : the colors of the 
sea are attributed to the divinities 
that dwelLthere; cf. caerula mater 
(Thetis), Epod. 13. 16; Ov. M. 
XIII. 960 hanc ego (Glaucus) turn 
primum viridem ferrugine bar- 
bam \ . . , et caerula bracchia vidi. 

11. curva lyra: cf. I. 10. 6. — 
recines, shall sing in response. 
There is a specimen of this sort of 
amoebean song in Verg.^. 3. 60 sqq. 
For the future, see Intr. 90. 

12. Latonam, etc.: notice the 
parallelism to vs. 10 ; in each case 



254 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



summo carmine quae Cnidon 

fulgentisque tenet Cycladas, et Paphum 
IS iunctis visit oloribus ; 

dicetur merita Nox quoque nenia. 



XXIX. 

Tyrrhena regum progenies, tibi 
non ante verso lene merum cado 
cum flore, Maecenas, rosarum et 
pressa tuis balanus capillis 



one object of the verb is a divinity, 
the other some attribute of a di- 
vinity (comas, spicula). Cf. I. 
21. 5-8 and 9-12. — Cynthiae : 
see I. 21. 2 n. 

13. summo, at the close of; so 
Juv. I. 5 summi libri. Cf. Ep. I. 
I. I summa dicende camena. — 
quae, etc.: see I. 30. i, III. 26. 9. 
The verb to be supplied (cantabi- 
tur or the like) is readily suggested 
by carmine and the preceding 
verbs. 

14. fulgentis : see I. 14. 19 n. 
—tenet: cf. 4. 62 n. — Cycladas : 
Naxos in particular was devoted to 
the worship of Aphrodite. There 
is evidence also of her worship in 
Delos and Ceos, and it was, no 
doubt, widespread among all the 
islands in the range of Phoenician 
commerce. 

1 5. iunctis oloribus : cf. IV. 
I. 10, and, for the construction, 
Martis fquis, 3. 16 n. — visit : see 
I. 4. 8 n. 

16. dicetur: see I. 6. 5 n. — 
Nox : implying, like 19. 10, that 
the symposium is to be prolonged 
into the night. — nenia : here not 
a dirge, as in II. i. 38, but a song 
of slow measure, sung low, a good- 
night song. 



XXIX. The last place m the 
collection before the epilogue, 
which the poet reserves for him- 
self and his muse alone, is given 
to Maecenas, — an arrangement 
which Horace afterwards repeated 
in the first book of the Epistles. 
An invitation to his patron to 
visit him in the country, presum- 
ably on his Sabine farm, is made 
the occasion of a discourse on 
Horace's favorite maxim, *Carpe 
diem.' * Here, in the middle of 
the dog days, you are cooping your- 
self up in the hot city, worried 
with cares of state and harrassing 
your soul over Scythians and 
Chinese. There may be too much 
of this. A wise providence has 
hidden the future from us. Only 
the past is securely ours ; the 
present is for us to control and 
use ; all else is beyond our power. 
Fortune is fickle : welcome what 
she brings, but let not our hap- 
piness wait on her favor.' The 
ode purports to have been written 
in July, and the allusions to the 
responsibilities of Maecenas point 
to" B.C. "26 or 25, the two sum- 
mers which Augustus spent in the 
West (see intr. note to Ode 14), as 
the probable date. — Metre, 176. 



XXVIII. I3-XXIX. 12.] HORATI CARMINA. 



255 



lO 



iamdudum apud me est : eripe te morae, 
ne semper udum Tibur et Aefulae 

declive contempleris arvum et '' 

Telegoni iuga parricidae. 

Fastidiosam deserecopiam et 
molem propinquam nubibus arduis ; l^ 
omitte mirari beatae l/\ \ 

fumutn et opes strepitumque Romae. 



/ 



V 



•^ 



/ 



'>• 



1. Tyrrhena, etc.: see 1. 1. in. 

2. verso, brocLched; lit. * tipped,' 
in pouring the wine into the era- 
tera. Cf. S, II. 8. 39. As the cadus 
contained about five gallons, it 
would ordinarily hold out for more 
than one occasion. — lene: coupled 
with generosunty Ep, I. 15. \Zsqq.; 
cf. languidiora vinay 21. 8n. 

3. flore, etc. : see II. 3. 13 n. 

4. pressa tuis capillis : cf. II. 
7. 20, and, for a burlesque on this 
sort of compliment, see Juv. 4. 68. 

— balanus : properly the nut, 
called * ben nut ' (tnyrobalanuSf 
Plin. N. H. XII. 100), growing in 
Arabia and Egypt ; here the fra- 
grant oil pressed from the nut. 

5. iamdudum, etc.: i.e. I have 
long been waiting for you; this 
then is a second and more urgent 
invitation. — morae, procrastina- 
tion^ which holds him, as it were, 
captive. 

6. ne semper contempleris, 
so as not to go on gazing forever at; 
i.e. only looking at these beautiful 
places in the Stance, and never 
coming to them. See vs. ion. — 
udum Tibur : so Ovid F, IV. 71 
tnoenia Tiburis udi ; cf. I. 7. 13 Jf. 

— Aefulae : an old Latin hill- 
town (cf. declive) probably be- 
tween Praeneste and Tibur. It 
•was garrisoned on the approach of 
Hannibal by the Via Latina in B.C. 
211 (Liv. XXVI. 9. 9). 



8. Telegoni : son of Ulysses 
and Circe. Sent by the latter in 
search of his father, he came to 
Ithaca, where he was obliged to 
plunder the country for provisions. 
He was set upon by Ulysses and 
Telemachus ; and in the contest 
that ensued unwittingly slew his 
father (Hygin. Fab, 127). — iuga : 
those of Tusculum, of which Teleg- 
onus was the reputed founder; <S. 
Epod. I. 29 n. 

9. fastidiosam, cloying; Intr. 
125. 

10. molem, massive structure^ 
pile ; cf. II. 15. 2. The splendid 
mansion which Maecenas built in 
his park on the Esquiline (see S, I. 
8. 7 n) was furnished with a lofty 
tower, afterwards known as turris 
Maecenatiana^ from which Nero is 
said to have watched the great 
fire (Suet. Nero 38). This *alta 
domus' (Epod. 9. 3) commanded 
a view of the whole city and of the 
neighboring country as far as the 
Tusculan and Sabine hills (cf . vss. 
6 sqq.), 

11. mirari: cf. 25. 14, and see 
1. 4. 19 n ; for the mood, Intr. 94/. 
— beatae: see 1. 4. i4n, HI. 26. 9. 

12. fumum, etc. : a graphic 
composite picture, combining the 
striking features of the scene, — 
the splendid houses and temples 
(evidences of wealth) looming up 
in the smoky atmosphere, with 



256 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



IS 



20 



Plerumque gratae divitibus vices, 
mundaeque parvo sub lare pauperum 
cenae sine aulaeis et ostro 
soUicitam explicuere front em. 

lam clarus occultum Andromedae pater 
ostendit ignem, iam Procyon furit 
et Stella vesani Leonis, 
sole dies referente siccos ; 



the ceaseless roar of the distant 
streets. — opes, splendor. — stre- 
pitum : cf. Ep, II. 2. 79 inter 
strepitus noctumos aique diurnos 
(sc. urbis), 

1 3! gratae (sc. suni)^ etc.: cf .Lucr. 
III. 1057 haud ita vitam agerent 
ut nunc plerumque videmus \ quid 
sibi quisque velit nescire et quaerere 
semper \ commutare locum^ quasi 
onus deponere possit; \ exit saepe 
foras magnis ex aedibus ille, \ esse 
domi quern pertaesumst^ sidntoque 
revertit | • • . currit agens mannos 
ad villam praecipitanter, etc. — 
vices, change. The thought in 
this verse is simply of i\ie fastidiosa 
copia^ of change for the sake of 
change ; it grows out of what he 
has been saying. But close to this 
lies the thought of the cares that 
go with riches, and this brings him 
to the second point in his plea 
and the main theme of the ode, — 
the cares, not of riches (divitibus 
belongs to gratae only, and not 
to explicuere frontem), but those 
of which Maecenas permits him- 
self to be the victim. 

14. mundae, of simple elegance. 
Horace himself defines this w6rd 
(S, II. 2. 65) as the happy mean 
between pretentious show and 
slovenliness. Cf. Ep, II. 2. 199 
pauperies immunda domus procul 
absit. — sub : see I. 5. 3 n. — lare : 
cf. I. 12. 44n ; we may render it 



here by roo/, which conveys for us 
the same idea of home shelter. — 
pauperum: a poor man*s; cf. 
virginum^ 27. 38 n. For the mean- 
ing, see I. I. 18 n. 

X 5. aulaeis : a canopy suspended 
over the triclinium in fashion- 
able houses, ostensibly to catch 
the dust from the ceiling ; see 
S. II. 8. 54, y^r^. A, I. 697. — 
ostro : in the aulaea and in the 
upholstery of the couches. 

16. explicuere : Intr. 80. 
. 17. iam, etc. : this description 
of the dog days, — a time for rest, 
— paves the way to his protest 
against Maecenas' persistent de- 
votion to public business. The 
constellations used to mark the 
hot season are Cassiopea, repre- 
sented by Cepheus (on earth an 
Ethiopian king, husband of Cassi- 
opea and father of Andromeda), 
rising July 9; Procyon (*quod 
sidus apud Romanos non habet 
nomen,* Plin. N, H, XVIII. 268), 
rising July 15, eleven days before 
the Dog Star (see 1. 17. 17 n); and 
the Lion, whose brightest star, 
which we call Regulus (' regia in 
pectore leonis Stella,' Plin. N, H. 
XVIII. 271), rises July 30, according 
to Pliny. — clarus : with ostendit; 
cf. strenua, 28. 3n. — occultum : 
sc. antea ; cf . quietosy vs. 40. 

18. furit, vesani: d.Ep, 1. 10. 16 
rabiem Canis et momenta Leonis^ 



XXIX. 13-33-1 



HOkAti CARMINA. 



2$7 



iam pastor umbras cum grege languido 
rivumque fessus quaerit et horridi 
dumeta Silvani, caretque 
ripa vagis taciturna ventis : 

25 tu civitatem quis deceat status 
curas et urbi soUicitus times 
quid Seres et regnata Gyro 

Bactra parent Tanaisque discors. 

Prudens futuri temporis exitum 
30 caliginosa nocte premit deus, 
ridetque si mortalis ultra 

fas trepidat. Quod adest memento 

componere aequus : cetera fluminis 



cum semtl accepit solem furibundus 
acutum. 

19. Stella: probably not used 
loosely for 'constellation' (as in 
Verg. G, 1. 222), but for the conspic- 
uous star Regulus (see vs. 17 n). 

20. siccos, of drouth, 

21. iam: referring to the time 
of year, when the scene he paints 
may be witnessed any day. 

22. rivum : cf. II. 5. 6 iuvencae 
. . ,fluviis gravem solantis aeS'- 
turn. — fessus, wearily; cf. clarus^ 
lyn. — horridi : an attribute bor- 
rowed from the dumeta which 
he inhabits. 

23. Silvani : see Epod, 2. 22 n. 

24. taciturna: a part of the 
predicate ; it is silent because there 
is no motion in the air. 

25. tu civitatem: cf. II. 9. 9. 
The reference is perhaps to the re- 
cent settlement of the government, 
B.C. 27, many details of which had 
no doubt still to be worked out. 

26. urbi: with times. 

27. Seres: cf.1. 12. 56n. There 
is a touch of irony in the mention 



of these remote peoples; the city 
cannot be in imminent peril. — 
regnata Cyro : a part of his em- 
pire; cf. II. 2. i7n. For the con- 
struction, cf. regnata PhalanthOy 
II. 6. II, and see Intr. 51 e^ 55. 

28. Bactra: the remotest de- 
pendency of Parthia. — Tanais : 
f>. the Scythians; cf. IV. 15. 24. 
The river stands for the country 
through which it flows; cf. II. 9. 
21 Medumque flumen gentibus cid' 
ditum victis ; II. 20. 20 n. — dis- 
cors: another reason for feeling 
secure at Rome. 

29. prudens deus : cf. I. 3. 
21 n. — temporis: Intr. 76. 

30. nocte premit: cf. I. 4. 16. 

31. ultra fas : cf. scire ne/as, I. 
II. I. 

32. trepidat: see II. 11. 4 n. — 
memento : see I. 7. 17 n. 

33. componere aequus : both 
words, in contrast with trepidat, 
express coolness and deliberation. 
— eetera: 1./. the future, for the 
past does not here come into 
consideration. 



258 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib, III 



ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 
35 cum pace delabentis Etruscum 

in mare, nunc lapides adesos 

stirpisque raptas et pecus et domos 
volventis una, non sine montium 
clamore vicinaeque silvae, 
40 cum fera diluvies quietos 

inritat amnis. Ille potens sui 
laetusque deget, cui licet in diem 
dixisse ' Vixi ; eras vel atra 
nube polum pater occupato, 



34. ritu : as in 14. I ; cf. S. 
II. 3. 268 tempestatis prope ritu 
mobilia, — medio alveo : rivers 
capable of producing such floods 
as are described in the next 
strophe are often, especially in 
mountainous countries, at other 
times quiet brooks, gliding along 
the middle of a broad channel. 
Cf. IV. 7. 3. 

35. cum pace, peaceably (not 
'peacefully'), expressing the dis- 
position of the stream ; cf. inritat, 
41. The same personification ap- 
pears in clamore and fera dilu- 
vies. — Etruscum: Intr.ii7fl,i76^. 

36. adesos : from long lying in 
the channel. 

37. raptas : with all three sub- 
stantives. 

38. una, along. 

41. potens sui, independent, 
not subject to any other control ; 
with especial reference, however, 
to the control of the passions. 
The man who is always taking 
thought for the morrow is the 
slave of desire and hence of fear ; 
*■ nam qui cupiet, metuet quoque ; 
porro I qui metuens vivet, liber 
mihi non erit umquam' {Ep. 1. 16. 

65). 



42. in diitTa, day fy day ; d.S. 
II. 6. 47. Quotidie would be less 
suitable, because the idea is of 
one day added each time to the 
series of days. 

43. dixisse : Intr. 81 b. — vixi : 
in a pregnant sense. The man 
who can say, at the close of each 
day, ' I have lived ' is one who has 
got out of that day's life the satis- 
faction and enjoyment it could 
yield, in contrast with the man 
who neglects these in his anxiety 
to provide the means to * live ' in 
the future. Cf. Martial II. 90. 3 
vivere quod propero pauper nee 
inutilis annis, \ da veniam : prope- 
rat vivere nemo satis; \ differ at hoc 
patrios optat qui vincere census ; 
I. 15. II non est, crede mihi, sapi- 
entis dicere * vivam * ; sera nimis 
vita est crastina ; vive hodie. The 
view of life here inculcated is the 
same as in I. 9. 13 sqq. 

44. polum: see I. 28. 6n. — 
pater : cf. I. 2. 2 n. — occupato : 
the longer imperative (3d pers.) is 
here used with concessive force. 

45. sole : here for sunshine, as 
Verg. A, IX. 461 iam sole in/uso 
(of the dawn) ; cf . its use for * day,' 
IV. 2. 46. — pure : see la 8 n. — 



XXIX. 34-54-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



259 



45 vel sole puro : non tamen inritum 
quodcumque retro est efficiet, neque 
diffinget infectumque reddet 
quod fugiens semel hora vexit.' 

Fortuna, saevo laeta negotio et 
50 ludum insolentem ludere pertinax, 
transmutat incertos honores, 
nunc mihi, nunc alii benigna. 

Laudo manentem : si celeris quatit 
pennas, resigno quae dedit et mea 



inritum, diffinget, infectum : the 
distinction may be illustrated in 
this way: a deed of gift (for ex- 
ample) may be rendered void (in- 
ritum) before going into effect, by 
a subsequent deed, superseding it, 
or it may be modified by recasting 
(diffinget), or it may be destroyed 
and put out of existence (infec- 
tum); but if the gift has been 
received an4 enjoyed^ then no 
power can do any of these things. 
So it is with the * dona praesentis 
horae ' (8. 27). 

46. retro : ue. past ; with the 
same thought of a current of 
events as in hora vexit. 

47. diffinget : cf. I. 35. 39. 

48. semel : cf. I. 24. 16 n, C S. 
26. — vexit: sc. secum ; cf. Verg. 
G, I. 461 quid vesper serus vehat. 
There is nothing in fugiens 
(Jieetingj that which comes but 
does not stay ; cf. 30. 5) to re- 
quire us to take vexit in the sense 
of avexit. It is simply the expe- 
rience, the enjoyment of * the pass- 
ing hour.' 

50. ludum : as war is the tudus 
of Mars, 1. 2. 37 ; cf. II. i. 3. For 
ludum ludere, see Intr. 45 a. — 
insolentem, heartless ; see I. 5. 
8n. — ludere: Intr. loi^. 



51. transmutat honores : cf. I. 
34. i^sqq, 

54. pennas : a regular attribute 
of Fortuna ; cf. I. 34. 15 n. — re- 
signo, I surrender. In this sense 
the word is found in classical 
literature only here and Ep. I. 7. 
34, but it must have been common 
in ordinary speech, as is. evidenced 
by the corresponding use of its 
modem derivatives. It was a 
commercial word, havmg no refer- 
ence to the breaking of seals (as 
it has in Ep. I. 7. 9 testamenta 
resigftat)t but probably derived 
from the use of signare instead of 
scribere (cf. Paul, ex Fest. 284), 
for making an entry in the account 
book ; resignare would then be to 
make an entry opposite (on the 
credit side), balancing the former 
and thus cancelling the claim for 
which it stood ; just as rescribere 
was used in the sense of repay ^ e.g, 
S, II. 3. 76, Ter. PA. 922 argentum 
rursum iube rescribi. In fact Fes- 
tus says : * resignare * antiqui pro 
^rescribere* ponebant ut adhuc 
* subsignare * dicimus pro * subscri- 
bere* (p. 281). — mea, my own 
(Intr. 116^) ; in contrast with the 
uncertain tenure of all other so 
called possessions. 



260 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



5S virtute me involve probamque 

pauperiem sine dote quaero. 

Non est meum, si mugiat Africis 
malus procellis, ad miseras preces 
decurrere et votis pacisci, 
60 ne Cypriae Tyriaeque merces 

addant avaro divitias mari : 
tunc me biremis praesidio scaphae 
tutum per Aegaeos tumultus 
aura feret geminusque Pollux. 



55. me involvo : as with a 
closdc, — his one remaining posses- 
sion. The metaphor is borrowed 
from Plato, in whose ideal state 
cU yVw€UK€t dperijp dvri I/mtIwp dfi- 
iptiffOPToi (Hep. V. 457 a). 

56. quaero : sc. as a bride^ as 
is shown by sine dote, following 
probam, by which pauperies was 
at once personified. 

57. meuixi, my way; a collo- 
quial expression ; cf. Plant. Trin. 
631 fUqu€ meutnst neque fdcere di- 
dici ; ib. 123 Ca. Quidfici? Me. 
Quod homo niquam. Ca. Non istiic 
meumst ? — mugiat Africis, etc. : 
cf. I. 14. 5. 

59. votis pacisci : a cynical, 
but not untruthful designation of 
the transaction ; see I. 31. i n. 

60. Cypriae Tyriaeque : Intr. 
1170. 

61 . avaro : cf. avidum marcy I. 
28. 18. 

62. tunc, in such a case. — bi- 
remis : here not ' bireme,' but two- 
oaredy merely indicating, however, 
the size of the boat, — small 
enough to be rowed with two oars 
{Quorum scalmorum navicular Cic. 
de Or, I. 174). — scaphae : the 
boat carried or towed by a ship, 
like oiir life-boat or dory; (S. 



Petron. loi quomodo possumus 
egredi navif . . . quin potius . . . 
per funem lapsi descendimus in 
scapham ? It could be rigged with 
a sail, as here (aura feret). The 
meaning in these two strophes is 
the same as in the preceding : the 
ship and its rich freight are the 
gifts of Fortune ; if the heav3^ 
laden vessel is about to founder 
in the storm of adversity, he will 
not moan over his loss, but will 
take to the life-boat and cheerf uUv 
sail away : the essentials of h^>pi- 
ness make a light and safe cargo. 

63. Aegaeos tumultus : cf. II. 
16. 2. 

64. aura, etc. : i.e. the breeze 
(in contrast to Africis procellis) 
granted by the twin divinities, — 
the recompense of a more genuine 
piety. — geminus Pollux : for 
Castor and Pollux ; so Ov. A, A, 
!• 746 geminus Castor, probably in 
the same sense. It was common 
to use one name for both, *quia 
ambo licenter et PoUuces et Cas- 
tores vocantur * (Serv. on Verg. G. 
III. 89). Their temple at Rome was 
commonly known as aedes Ccutoris 
(Suet. Jul, 10) or Castorum (Plin. 
N. If. X. 121), For their protec- 
tion of mariners, see I. 3. 2 n. 



XXIX. 55-xxx. 4.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



261 



XXX. 

Exegi monumentum aere perennius 
regalique situ pyramidum altius, 
quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotens 
possit diruere aut innumerabilis 



XXX. This ode was written as 
anpepilogue, as 1. 1 is the prologue, 
of the three books (see introd. 
note to I. i). Each poem is care- 
fully adapted in spirit and tone to 
the place it occupies. When Hor- 
ace sat down to arrange his odes 
for publication, he was already 
well assured of his success as a 
lyric poet by the approbation of 
the limited but competent circle of 
readers who were acquainted with 
his work ; and as the goodly col- 
lectibn grew under his hand, he 
might well feel a pardonable pride 
in his achievement. It meant for 
him, what his earlier successes 
might not have meant, lasting 
fame. He had completed the first 
considerable body of l3rTic poetry 
ever published in Latin ; its place 
was 'assured, as its quality was 
unique, in the literature of Rome, 
— the literature of the eternal 
city, the metropolis of the world. 
It is not surprising that the closing 
poem is a song of triumph ; and 
if it is characterized by a candor 
which our ntodem poets do not 
permit themselves, we must uAke 
allowance for difference of time 
and custom. That it did not of- 
fend the taste of Horace's country- 
men, we may infer from the fact 
that he was imitated by other poets 
(cf. Propert. IV. i. 35 and 57 sqq,; 
Ovid Am. I. 15. 41 /f., M. XV. 
871 sqq.; Phaedr. IV. Epil. 5 sq,\ 
MartCad VIII. 3. 5 sqq.)\ and, know- 
ing Horace, we may feel sure he 



had Greek precedent to fall back 
upon, if need be, as well as the 
example of Ennius in the well 
known epitaph (see II. 20. 21 n). 

— Metre, 169. 

1. ezegi, / have completed ; so 
Ovid Af. XV. 871 iamque opus 
exegi, quod nee lovis ira nee ignis 
I nee poterit ferrum nee edax abo- 
lere vetustas. — monumentum : 
Horace's work was literally a mo- 
numentum in the wider sense of 
that word (cf. moneo), but he here 
calls it figuratively a monument, 
in our narrower sense, for the 
purpose of comparison. — aere : 
a common material for memorials, 
especially statues and inscribed 
tablets. 

2. regali : i.e. magnificent ; cf. 
II. 15. in. — situ pyramidum: 
for ' the crumbling pyramids ^ (cf . 
Intr. 126 d), an intimation, like 
edax and impotens below, of the 
destructive forces to which material 
monuments are subj^t. Trans- 
late, *tAe crumbling magnificence 
of,* etc., or the like. For this use 
of situs cf. Mart. VIII. 3. 5 et cum 
rupta situ Messalae saxa iacebunt, 
I altaque cum Licini marmora pul- 
vis erunt, \ me tamen ora legent. 

— altius : the highest of them, 
the great pyramid of Ghizeh, was 
about 480 feet, — higher than any 
other monument known to the 
Romans. 

3. quod, one that; descriptive 
relative clause. — impotens : cf . 
I. 37. ion, Efod. 16. 62. For the 



262 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. III. 



10 



annorum series et fuga temporum. . 
Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei 
vitabit Libitinam ; usque ego postera 
crescam laude recens ; dum Capitolium 
scandet cum tacita virgine pontifex, 
dicar, qua violens obstrepit Aufidus 



conjunctions in this clause, cf. 11. 
9. I n. 

5. fuga : cf. fugaces' anniy II. 
14. I ; fugiens hora. III. 29. 48. 

6. non omnis, etc. : cf. Ov. Am, 
I. 15. 41 ergo etiam cum me supre- 
mus adederit ignis, \ vivam, pars- 
que mei multa superstes erit. — 
-que : cf. I. 27. 16 n. 

7. Libitinam : i.e. the funeral 
pyre and the tomb ; cf . ^. II. 6. 
19. By an edict of Servius Tullius 
a fee was to be paid, on the occa- 
sion of every death, at the tem- 
ple of Venus Libitina, and there 
also the requisite implements for 
the funeral were to be obtained. 
Hence Libitina became synony- 
mous with death, as Ep. II. i. 49, 
but usually with more suggestion 
of the funeral rites than of death 
in the abstract; so that this clause 
is not a mere repetition of non 
omnis moriar. — usque : lit. 'on 
and on,' denoting an indefinite 
series of repetitions ; cf. Ep. 1. 10. 
24; Cat. 5. 9. It modifies cre- 
scam (and hence the whole clause), 
but with nearer reference to pos- 
tera, which does not mean 'of 
posterity,* but simply * later.* The 
' later praise * wiU be in every case 
greater than that which preceded 
it. 

8. recens, ever fresh. — dum 
Capitolium, etc. : dF. 3. 42. The 
one thing unchangeable beyond all 
else to a Roman was his religious 
institutions, the head and centre 
of which was the worship of Jove, 



with Juno, and Minerva, in their 
ancient temple on the Tarpeian 
hiU (Capitolium). With this 
Horace joins, in the graphic sketch 
which he uses to express his 
meaning, the priestesses of Vesta, 
whose worship was equally signifi- 
cant of perpetuity; cf. 5. 11 sq. What 
procession is referred to we do n6t 
definitely know ; but it must have 
been a stated — perhaps monthly 
— observance, sufficiently desig- 
nated to Horace's readers by the 
features he mentions. 

9. virgine, pontifex : these are 
taken by some to mean the chief 
Vestal (Virgo Maxima) and the 
Pontifex Maximus ; but more 
probably they are used collectively 
(Intr. 127) for the Vestal virgins 
and the pontifices. The former 
marched in reverent silence (ta- 
cita), amid the hymns and chants 
which must have formed part of 
the ceremony. This clause is best 
taken with what follows, as the 
preceding statement is already 
provided with the notion of perpe- 
tuity in usque. Horace couches 
hi^ prophecy in three utterances 
which are progressive in point of 
definiteness : the first is vague, — 
' I shall not w4K>lly die*; the sec- 
ond explains this, — 'my fame will 
survive and increase from age to 
age ' ; and finally he names the 
achievement for which men will 
praise him (dicar — deduxisse 
modos). 

10. dicar, etc. : in accordance 



XXX. S-I3-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



263 



et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 
regnavit populorum ex humili potens, 
princeps Aeolium carmen ad Italos 



with the Latm preference for the 
personal construction (cf. videor 
mihi and the like), for * It will be 
said that I.' We may translate, / 
shall be named as one who, — qua, 
etc.: best taken with dicar, and 
expressing the pride with which 
his birth-place .will cherish his 
fame; but his motive in inserting 
this reference is much the same as 
in IV. 9. 2 longe sonantem natus 
ad Aufidunif and S. II. i. 34. It 
grows, like the mention of other 
personal characteristics in Ep. I. 
20. 20 sqq.y out of the poet's desire 
to be to his readers something 
more than a mere name. — vio- 
lens : it is a mountain torrent in 
the part where Horace knew it 
best ; cf. IV. 14. 25-28, S, I. i. 58. 
— obstrepit : here u§ed absolute- 
ly, but without losing the force 
of ob-, — * fills one's ears with its 
roar' ; cf. Liv. XXI. 56. 9 nihil 
sensere^ obstrepente pluvia* 

11. pauper aquae: cf. Epod, 
3. 16 siticulosae Apuliae. For the 
genitive see Intr. 66 c. — Daunus : 
see I. 22. 14 n. — agrestium : even 
in Horace's time Apulia was still 
a farming and grazing country, 
Mrith comparatively few towns ; cf . 
16. 26 n. 

12. populorum, tribes. The 
genitive is commonly explained as 
an imitation of the Greek genitive 
after dpx<^f ^aaCKdna^ and the like. 
But as no instance of this con- 
struction in Latin is cited until 
about two centuries after Horace 
wrote, and then only in a few 
provincial writers, who have the 
genitive with dominor^ and as no 
such violent departure from the 
Latin idiom is found elsewhere in 



Horace, it may be questioned 
whether this ready explanation is 
open to us. For populorum po- 
tens, Qn the other hand, we have a 
perfect parallel in 25. 14 Naiadum 
potens; and for the position of 
regnavit, in that of musa, II. 12. 
13, of te, IV. 1. 19, of equitavitf IV. 
4. 43, and ms^ similar examples. 
— ex humili potens: this has 
been taken in agreement with the 
subject of dicar, as Horace speaks 
of potentes vatesy IV, 8. 26, and 
contrasts, on occasion, his lowly 
birth with his subsequent eminence 
(II. 20. 5, Ep. I. 20. 20) ; but to 
use the term potens of himself, 
would have been, as Bentley rightly 
held, an unnecessarily offensive 
assumption. It is moreover out 
of place if applied to Horace, and 
disturbs the course of thought, 
which is centred on the one dis- 
tinction which Horace felt to be 
forever his, — that of being the 
first to master the problem of 
Latin lyric verse. Grammatically 
also it goes more naturally with 
Daunus, who did, in fact, accord- 
ing to the legend, rise from the 
condition of a refugee from Illyr- 
icum to be king of his adopted 
country (Festus, p. 69). For the 
construction, cf. Cic. de Part, Or»^ 
57 nihil est tarn miserabile quam 
ex beato miser. The whole clause 
then may be rendered: where poor 
in water Daunus reigned^ o*er rustic 
tribes a lord from low estate^ or 
the like. 

13. princeps : a little more 
than primus ; he was not merely 
first, but a leader, a pioneer. — 
Aeolium carmen : cf. I. i. 34, 
35 nn, II. 13. 24, IV. 3. 12. — Ita- 



< ^' 



264 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IIL] 



»5 



deduxisse modos. Sume superbiam 
quaesitam meriUs et mihi Delphica 
lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam. 



lo8 : here for * Latin ' ; cf . Italiae 
ruiuist 5. 39, res /tolas (= res Rth 
manas) Ep, II. I. 2. Since Roman 
citizenship had been extended to 
all Italians, as the Latin language 
spread throughout the peninsula, 
the more comprehensive term 
came naturally to be used in place 
of the narrower one. 

14. deduxisse, composed; c£. S, 
II. I. 4 mi/Ie die versus deduci 
posse; Ov. M, 1. 4, perpetuum dedu- 
cite carmen. The figure is from 
spinning; cf. Ep-, II. i. 225 tenui 
deducta poemata fito. — modes, 
rhythm; the inherent musical qual- 
ity of the language, its structure 
in reference to the various ele- 
ments of rhythm, in much of which 
it differed from the Greek. To 
succeed in writing lyric poetry, 
he had to make it conform to 
these conditions. — sume super- 



biam : cf. pone superbiam^ 10. 9. 
The muse is addressed as the 
divinity who has given him the 
power to achieve success (cf. IV. 
3. \T sqq.)y and who therefore may 
be called upon both to take pride 
in his achievement and to crown 
him with the laurel of victory. 
The self-gratulation of the poem 
is skilfully softened by this recog- 
nition in the closing verses of 
dependence on an inspiration not 
the poet's own. 

15. quaesitam meritis, well 
earned, — Delphica : cf. IV. 2. 9 
laurea Apollinari. — volens, gra- 
ciously ; a set formula in prayers, 
usually with propitius; cf. C*. S, 
49 n ; Liv. I. 16. 3 precibus expo- 
scunt uH volens propitius suam 
semper sospitet progeniem, 

16. Melpomene : see 1. 12. 2 n, 
IV. 3. 1. 



J 



'^ 



i \ 



LIBER QVARTVS 



I. 



Intermissa, Venus, diu 

rursus bella moves ? Parce precor, precor. 
Non sum qualis eram bonae 

sub regno Cinarae. Desine, dulcium 
mater saeva Cupidinum, 

circa lustra decem flectere mollibus 



For the facts relating to the 
composition and publication of 
the fourth book of the Odes, and 
the significance of its lack of a 
dedication, see Intr. 31, 32. 

I. As if to show that he is still 
young at heart, as befits the lyric 
poet, Horace opens the new volume 
with an ode on love at fifty, and 
himself poses for the picture, as 
usual.^ He protests that he has 
no longer either fitness or inclina- 
tion for the merry service of Venus, 
but the stealthy tear and the 
tongue-tied silence betray the un- 
expected passion. To offset the 
picture by a contrast, he pays a 
passing tribute to the gifts and 
accomplishments of his young 
friend Paullus Fabius Maximus. — 
Metre, 171. 

I. intermissa: with bella. The 
word comes naturally to the front 
in a sentence the real purport of 
which is that the poet after a silence 
of many years has resumed his 
lyre; for the proper province of 
the lyre is the emotions, and above 
all others love ; cf. I, 0* lo and 17 
sgq,, II. I. 37 sqq. 



2. b'ella : for the figure, cf. vs. 
16 and III. 26. 2 sq. — moves : cf. 
I. 15. ion ; Verg. G, I. 509 hinc 
mcvet Euphrates^ illinc Germania 
helium. — parce: cf. II. 19. 7 sq, 
— precor: Intr. ii6</. 

4. regno, sway; cf. regitt III. 
9. 9. — Cinarae : silluded to else- 
where in terms which show that 
she was a real person, and that 
this was probably her real name. 
She was presumably a freed- 
woman, and had the characteristic 
faults of her class and condition 
of life, but she had a good heart 
and a genuine attachment for the 
poet ; cf. Ep, I. 14. 33 quern sets 
immunem (empty-handed) Cinarae 
placuisse rapacL She was now 
dead (cf. 13. 22 j^.), and there is a 
touch of tenderness in Horace's 
allusion to her (bonae). See Intr. 

30- 

5. mater, etc. : a reminiscence 

of I. 19; but the phrase is ex- 
panded by the insertion of the 
epithet dulcium, in designed con- 
trast with saeva, expressing the 
* bitter-sweet * of love. 

6. circa lustra decem : for the 
omission of the pronoun (m^) cf. 



266 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



IS 



iam durum imperils ; abi 

quo blandae iuvenum te revocant preces. 
Tempestivius in domum 

Paulli purpureis ales oloribus 
comissaber6 Maximi, 

si torrere iecur quaeris idoneum. 
Namque et nobilis et decens 

et pro sollicitis non tacitus reis 
et centum puer artium 

late signa feret militiae tuae, 



Ov. M. I. 20 {pugnabant) \ mollia 
cum durisy sine ponder e (sc. 
corporibus) hahentia pondusl Hor- 
ace was fifty in B.C. 1 5. For lustra, 
cf. II. 4. 23 j^. — flectere : see II. 
19. 17 n, and cf. III. 7. 25, Ep, II. 
3. 163. The present is here cona- 
tive, as durum shows. 

7. imperils: better taken as 
dative with durum, which, in 
contrast with moUibus, expresses 
a species of incapacity {hardened^ 
unresponsive) ; see Intr. 58 c^ and 
cf. Cic. Arch. 19 durior ad haec 
studiuy and S, I. 4. 8 durus compo- 
nere versus^ where durus denotes 
another kind of incapacity (Intr. 

lOI f). 

8. revocant : the prefix implies 
that they may rightfully claim her 
presence ; cf. repetantur, 1. 9. 20 n. 

9. .tempestivius : in reference 
to the age of Paullus ; cf. III. 19. 
27 n. 

10. Paulli Maximi : cos. B.C. 
II, and hence probably about 
twenty years younger than Horace 
(i.e, approaching thirty at this 
time), and of about the same age 
as Ovid, who was his intimate 
friend (Pont. I. 2, II. 3). He 
belonged to one of the noblest 
families in Rome, and enjoyed 



the close confidence of Augustus, 
whose cousin he had married. His 
death in a.d. 14 preceded that of 
the emperor by a few months ( Tac. 
Ann. I. 5. 2). — purpureis : the 
hue of divine beauty ; cf. III. 3. 
I2n. — ales, on the wings of, but 
referring to her chariot drawn by 
swans; cf. III. 28. 15, and for 
the ablative oloribus, cf. Martis 
equis, III. 3. 16 n. 

11. comissabere, carry thy 
revels. 

12. torrere : see Intr. 94 f. — 
iecur: cf. I. 13. 4n. 

13. et . . . et . . . : notice the 
cumulative force of the fivefold 
repetition, and cf. vs. 29 n. — 
decens : cf. I. 4. 6 n. 

14. pro sollicitis, etc. : cf. II. 
1. 13; Ov. Pont. I. 2. 118 (vox tua), 
I auxi/io trepidis quae solet esse 
reis. — non tacitus: for the litotes, 
cf. 1. 12. 21, IV. 9. 31. 

15. centum: cf. II. 14. 26. — 
puer, a lad; see I. 9. 16 n. — ar* 
tium, accomplishments. 

16. signa, etc.: cf. bella, vs. 2 n. 
The grouping of words in this 
verse is at variance with Horace's 
usual manner, which would give 
us late militiae || signa feret tuae 
(cf. vss. 10, 12, 14, 22, 28, 30, 32, 



1. 7-26.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



267 



20 



25 



et quandoque potentior 

largi muneribus riserit aemuli, 
Albanos prope te lacus 

ponet marmoream sub trabe citrea. 
Illic plurima naribus 

duces tura, lyraque et Berecyntia 
delectabere tibia 

mixtis carminibus non sine fistula ; 
illic bis pueri die 

numen cum teneris virginibus tuum 



34, 40; Intr. 113); and that is 
perhaps what he reaily wrote. 

17. quandoque, whenever ^ but 
looking forward to only one occur- 
rence, as in 2. 34. — potentior : 
sc, by the force of personal 
charm. 

18. largi, lavish, — muneribus : 
better taken with potentior; see 
Intr. 75. — riserit : sc. in triumph. 

19. Albanos lacus : the prin- 
cipsU ones were Albanus and Ne- 
morensis (Nemi), both near the 
Appian road. It is not known 
that Fabius had a country-seat in 
the neighborhood, and the cere- 
monial proposed is on a scale 
hardly in keeping with the idea of 
a private chapel. The poet appears 
to have in mind a public shrine, 
a jiew centre of the worship of 
Venus. 

20. ponet, set up; see 8. 8 n. 
— marmoream, in marble; cf. 
S, II. 3. 183 aeneus ut stes. — 
trabe : used collectively (= trabi- 
bus. III. 2. 28; Intr. 127), and 
meaning the inside finish of the 
roof. — citrea, 0/ African cedar. 
This tree grew to a great size on 
the slopes of Mt. Adas, and was 
highlv prized for its durability and 
the Wuty of its veining and 



color. The Romans used it espe- 
cially for the circular tops of 
dining tables (orbes), some of 
^which were handed down through 
generations and brought enormous 
prices ; see Plin. JV, H, XIII. 91 
sqq. It was known to the Greeks* 
\fibov or Bba) from early times, and 
is mentioned by Theophrastus 
(Plin. N. H, XIII. loi) as the 
material of the timber work of 
ancient temples. 

21. plurima, abundance of, 

22. tura: cf. I. 19. 14, 30. 3. — 
lyra, tibia : instrument^ ablative 
with delectabere.' — Berecyntia: 
i,e, Phrygian ; see I. 18. 13 n, III. 
19. 19 n. 

24. mixtis carminibus(j/raiVf^): 
abl. abs. expressing manner ; />. 
by a concert of those instruments, 
with the/lr/»/8,as in III. 19. 18 sqq. 
The recurrence of the final a is 
perhaps intended to make the 
description more realistic. — non 
sine : see I. 23. 3 n. — fistula : 
see I. 17. ion. 

25. illic: Intr. 116^. — bis die: 
morning and evening. — pueri 
cum virginibus : for the employ- 
ment of choirs of children in re- 
ligious ceremonies, cf. I. 21 and 
intr. note to C, S, (p. 300). 



268 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



laudantes pede candido 

in morem Salium ter quatient humum. 
Me nee femina nee puer 
30 iam nee spes animi eredula mutui 
nee certare iuvat mero 

nee vincire novis tempora floribus. 
Sed eur heu, Ligurine, cur 
^ manat rara meas lacrima per genas ? 
35 Cur facunda parum decoro 

inter verba cadit lingua silentio ? 
Nocturnis ego somniis 

iam captum teneo, iam volucrem sequor 
te per gramina Martii 
40 campi, te per aquas, dure, volubilis. 



27. laudantes : a hymn is to 
accompany the dance. — candi- 
do : more graphic than nudo, 

28. morem Salium : see I. 36. 
I2n. — ter: see III. 18. 16 n. — 
quatient humum : cf. I. 4. 7, 

37- 2. 

29. nee . . . nee, etc. : corre- 
sponding to the^fivefold repetition 
of et, vs. I3n. 

30. animi mutui : i.e, that my 
love would be returned; cf. III. 
9. 13 face mutua. For animi, cf. 
I. 16. 28 n. For eredula mutui, 
cf. credulus aurea, I. 5. 9 n. 

31. certare, vincire : comple- 
mentary infinitives joined with 
substantives as subjects of iuvat ; 
cf. ames dici^ I. 2. 50 n. — mero : 
Le, in a drinking contest ; cf. I. 36. 
13 j^. 

32. novis: i.e. those of spring. 
— floribus : cf. I. 4. 9 n, 5. i n. 

33. sed cur, etc. : with this un- 
expected break-down of his renun- 



ciation of love, cf. III. 26. II sq, — 
Ligurine : the same name as in 
the tenth ode. 

34. rara : i,e, a single one, that 
is on his cheek before he knows 
it; the same idea as in I. 13. 6. 
The opposite is plurima Itxcrima, 
Ep, I. 17. 59. 

35. cur, etc.: cf. I. 8. Z^9'> 
Intr. 116/. — facunda : with lin- 
gua. — parum: with decbro. For 
the metre of this verse, see Intr. 
171. 

36. cadit lingua : cf. Cat. 51.7 
nam simul U^ Lesbia, adspexi, .. . . 
lingua sed torpet (after Sappho 
Fr, 2 cJt 7d/> evidoi' /Spox^ct^f ere, 
0(6mt I oi^v %r cficet * | dWd ica/tx 
[ijkv YXuHTtra ^076). 

38. iam . . . iam = nunc . . . 
nunc. 

40. aquas : sc, of the Tiber ; cf . 
III. 7. 2(isqq. — volubilis : dt.Ep. 
I. 2. 43 (amnis) Ictbitur et labetuf 
in omne volubilis aevum. 



I. 27-11. 2.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



269 



II. 

Pindarum quisquis studet aemulari, 
luUe, ceratis ope Daedalea 



II. In B.C. 16 the disturbed 
condition of the whole German 
frontier reached a crisis in the 
humiliating defeat of M. Lollius, 
the emperor's legate on the Rhine, 
in his effort to repel an incursion 
of the Sygambri and other German 
tribes/ who had actually crossed 
the river and invaded Gaul. Au- 
gustus proceeded at once to the 
province, taking with him his step- 
son Tiberius; and although the 
Germans withdrew on the news of 
his approach, and gave hostages 
for their future good behaviour, he 
was occupied for three years in 
settling the affairs of the western 
provinces, and did not return to 
Rome until July 4, B.C. 13. It was 
during this interval (in B.C. 15) 
that he planned and carried out, 
through his two step-sons, the bril- 
liant campaign against the restless 
Alpine tribes which is celebrated 
in Odes 4 and 14. The present 
ode was written during his absence, 
and most probably in the winter 
of B.C. 16-15 ; for it contains no 
mention of the Alpine victories, 
beside which the overawing of the 
Sygambri and their allies was an 
insignificant achievement. The 
occasion appears to have been a 
suggestion from Julius Antonius 
that Horace should celebrate the 
exploits of Augustus, — not par- 
ticularly those just reported, — in 
Pindaric odes. The poet replies 
with a fine eulogy of Pindar, and 
a warning : * The man who ven- 
tures on such a flight is foredoomed 
to suffer a great fall. My gift is 
of a very different ana much 



humbler sort. Yet we shaU sing 
our song of Caesar, — you, with 
your more sonorous lyre, and I, 
too, if I shall compose anything 
worth the while, — when we join 
with the people in rejoicing and 
thanksgiving over his triumphant 
return.* 

Julius Antonius was a son of the 
triumvir Antonius and Fulvia, bom 
B.C. 44. He was brought up by 
his stepmother, Octavia, and mar- 
ried her daughter Marcella; and 
he was treated with equal gener- 
osity by Augustus, who raised him 
to the highest offices of state, — 
the consulship in B.C. 10. He 
requited these benefits with the 
basest betrayal of confidence, and 
was put to death in B.C. 2 
for adultery with the emperor's 
daughter Julia. He was evidently 
a man of literary tastes, and is 
said to have written an epic, Duh 
medea^ in twelve books, and some 
works in prose. — Metre, 174. 

1. Pindarum : a poem such as 
Horace was invited to write would 
have been in the manner of Pindar, 
the great lyric poet of Thebes 
(B.C. 522-448) and the classical 
model for odes of personal victory 
and triumph. — aemulari, to emu- 
late^ i.e. to compose successfully 
in his style, but with no idea of 
rivalry. 

2. luUe : an old cognomen of 
the Julian gens^ used as a praeno- 
men; cf. Paullus (Fabius) Maxi' 
must I. 10. Like Paullus it was 
sometimes written with a single /. 
It was the name of the mythical 
ancestor of the family, from which 



270 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



nititur pennis, vitreo daturus 
nomina ponto. 

Monte decurrens velut amnis, imbres 
quern super notas aluere ripas, 
fervet immensusque ruit profundo 
Pindarus ore, 

laurea donandus Apollinari, 
seu per audacis nova dithyrambos 
verba devolvit numerisque fertur 
lege solutis, 



their gentile name Julius is formed, 
as vtlicus from villa^ tnilia from 
mille^ etc. (Lachm. on Lucr. 1. 313). 
Vergil, it appears, set- the fashion 
of writing it as a trisyllable, with 
one /. — ceratis, wax-jointed. — 
ope Daedalea, by the hand of a 
Daedalus (the adjective here hav- 
ing its proper general force, unlike 
Herculeus I. 3. 36) ; i,e. such as 
Daedalus made for his son Icarus, 
with the result that the boy fell 
into the sea which thenceforth 
bore his name. 

3. nititur, soars ; cf. Verg. A. 
IV. 252 paribus nitens Cyllenius 
alis, — vitreo, crystal; cf. Verg. 
^. VII. 760 vitrea te Fucinus unda^ 
I te liquidi flevere lacus^ and see 
III. 13. 1 n, 1. 17. 20 n. — daturus : 
Intr. 104^. 

4. nomina : cf. III. 27. 76 n. 

5. monte : Intr. 70. — velut, 
quern: Intr. 114. — amnis: the 
comparison is a common one ; cf. 
S. I. 10. 62 rapido ferventius amni 
ingenium ; Cic. Acad. II. 119 ve- 
niet flutnen orationis aureum fun- 
dens Aristoteles, 

6. notas : cf. I. 2. 10. 

7. fervet immensusque ruit, 
rushes along with measureless^ 
seething flood For the confusion 



of the poet with the river in the 
comparison, see Intr. 123. — pro- 
fundo ore, deep-mouthedf i.e, gifted 
with deep and rich utterance, the 
^beatissima rerum verborumque 
copia' which Quintilian (X. I. 61) 
ascribes to him. For the expres- 
sion cf. Ov. Pont. IV. 16. 5 magni 
Rabirius oris ; S. I. 4. 43 os mag- 
na sonaturum (a requisite endow- 
ment of a genuine poet), os has 
nothing to do with the mouth of 
the river, where the phenomenon 
described in vs. 7 is seldom wit- 
nessed. 

9. laurea Apollinari : cf. III. 
30. 15. — donandus : the adjective 
use of the gerundive, expressing 
fitness or desert, is exceptionally 
frequent in this book ; cf. audien- 
dum 45, landande 47, loquenda 4. 
68, socianda 9. 4, dicenda 9. 21, 
etc. 

10. seu, etc. : a series of hypo- 
thetical clauses with donandus 
as their common apodosis (cf. 
moriture, seu, etc., II. 3. 4 n), con- 
veying the general meaning that 
Pindar was successful in whatever 
kind of poetry he undertook. — 
nova : i.e. newly coined, referring 
particularly to new compounds. — 
dithyrambos: originally a species 



n. 3-22.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



271 



IS 



20 



seu deos regesve canit, deorum 
sanguinem, per quos cecidere iusta 
morte Centauri, cecidit tremendae 
flamma Chimaerae, 

sive quos Elea domum reducit 
palma caelestis pugilemve equumve 
dicit et centum potiore signis 
munere donat, 

flebili sponsae iuvenemve raptum 
plorat et viris animumque moresque 



of choral song which grew up in 
connection with the worship of 
Dionysus and partook of the wild 
and tumultuous character of its 
oiigin. In its artistic form, which 
it owed to Arion (600 B.C.), it still 
retained, ad the impassioned ex- 
pression of strong enthusiasm, its 
earlier characteristics of unusual 
freedom of language (audacis) 
and disregard of strict metrical 
symmetry (numeris lege solutis). 

II. verba devolvit . . . fertur : 
the figure of the river is still kept 
up. 

13. deos canit : in his Hymns 
and Paeans. — reges : i,e, heroes 
(deorum sanguinem), as in ^. I. 
10. 42. The examples given are 
Theseus and Perithous (cf. 1. 18. 8), 
and Bellerophon. The reference 
is to Pindar*s Encomia. 

15. cecidit: Intr. 116^. 

16. flamma Chimaerae: for 
*the fiery Chimaera*; Intr. 126^. 

17. sive quos, etc.: i>. in his 
Odes of Victory ('EiriWirui), still 
extant, in honor of those who won 
prizes at the great national games 
(Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, 
Isthmian). The Olympian festival 
(Elea) b put forward to represent 
all four, as boxing and racing 



1i 



(vs. 18) stand for the various con- 
tests provided on each occasion 
(Intr. 117). 

18. palma : see 1. 1. 5 n. — cae- 
lestis (predicative ace. with quos): 
cf. evehit ad deosy I. i. 6n. — pu- 
gilemve equumve : in partitive 
apposition with quos. Cf. 3. 4, 
and (with this whole passage) Ep. 
II. 3. 83 musa €Udit fidibus divos 
puerosque deorum \ et pugilem vie- 
torem et equum certamine primum 
. . . referre. The steed is mentioned 
instead of his master, — here (with 
quos) at some sacrifice of logical 
connection, — as the real winner 
of the race. 

19. dicit : see 1. 6. 5n. — signis, 
statues, 

20. munere, a boon ; cf . Ode 8, 
in which this thought is developed 
at4ength. 

<:\ ':^. 'flebili sponsae, etc.: in his 
Bulugi e s (Qfnjvoi). This completes 
Horace's partial review of Pindar's 
work in lyric poetry. — flebili : 
here in an active sense ; cf. I. 24. 
9 and see II. 14. 6n. — -ve : Intr. 
114. — raptum: more forcible than 
ereptum: Intr. 129. 

22. For the elision of -que at 
the end of this and the next verse, 
see Intr. 174^. 



272 



HORATl CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



aureos educit in astra nigroque 
invidet Oreo. 

25 Multa Dircaeum levat aura cycnum^ 
tendit, Antoni, quotiens in altos 
nubium tractus : ego apis Matinae 
more modoque 

grata carpentis thyma per laborem 
30 plurimum circa nemus uvidique 
Tiburis ripas operosa parvus 
carmina iingo. 



23. aureos: proleptic, like aeter- 
num. III. 25. 5. For the meaning, 
see I. 5. 9n. — educit, etc.: />. 
exalts them in men's estimation 
and makes them immortal. — in 
astra : cf. sU//is inserere, III. 25. 
6n. — nig^o : cf. I. 24. 18 n. 

24. invidet (/./. rescues from) 
Oreo : cf . 8. 28 sg. 

25. Reverting to the subject of 
the opening verses and the figure 
of the first strophe, Horace con- 
cludes this introductory portion of 
the ode with a contrast between 
the strong poetic impulse which 
sustained Pindar in his lofty flight 
and his own humbler gift of artistic 
workmanship. — multa aura, a 
full, strong breeu, — Dircaeum : 
Le, Theban, from the famous spring 
and brook Dirce, near the city. — 
cycnum : a stock metaphor, es- 
pecially in Alexandrine literature ; 
see II. 20, intr. note. For the 
prosody, cf. 3. 20 n. 

27. apis, etc.: a frequent simile; 
cf. Ep, I. 3. 21, 19. 44; Plat. lo 
534 A X^QVtf't 7^ ir/)df i^/Attf oi 
iroiiTra/, ^t . . . r& )uAiy ^\uv <^povffi,v 
uffirep al fii\iTr<u ; Arist. Birds 
749. — Matinae: i>. of my native 
Apulia ; cf. I. 28. 3 n. 

28. more modoque : one of 



those (often alliterative) phrases, 
common in all languages, in which 
two words, presenting slightly dif- 
ferent aspects of the same thing, 
readily coalesce to form a fuller 
e]q>ression of a single idea; cf. 
'might and main,' 'hearth and 
home,' ' safe and sound,' etc.; Intr. 

29. per laborem: more expres- 
sive than labore, per (='in the 
course of) suggesting prolonged 
toil ; cf . the phrases per otium, per 
ludutn et iocum, per tram (aliquid 
facer e). 

30. plurimum : with laborem. 
— circa nemus, etc.: Horace's 
own favorite haunts ; but the de- 
tails still apply to the bee; the 
comparison and its subject are 
purposely blended (Intr. 123). 

31. Tiburis: limiting both ne- 
mus and ripas; Intr. 119a. — 
ripas : sc, of the Anio and the 
brooks implied in uvidi ; cf. I. 7. 
14, III. 29. 6, IV. 3. 10. For this 
absolute use of ripa, cf. III. 25. 13. 
— operosa parvus: still keeping 
before our minds the 'little toiler' 
to whom he is comparing himself. 

33. concines : standing first, 
with the emphasis of assurance 
(cf. I. 6. I n), to correct the im- 



II. 23-40-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



273 



Concines maiore poeta plectro 
Caesarem, quandoque trahet ferocis 
35 per sacrum clivum merita decorus 
fronde Sygambros ; 

quo nihil maius meliusve terris 
fata donavere bonique divi 
nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in aurum 
40 tempora priscum. 



pression given by the preceding 
strophes, that the praises of Au- 
gustus would not be sung. There 
is no antithesis between Horace 
and Antonius as to which should 
be the singer, — that would require 
tu to he expressed. There is a 
contrast between their methods 
of work, but it is subordinate to 
the main thought, which is con- 
tained in the two emphatic words, 
concines and Caesarem (Intr. 
116^); see intr. note. — maiore 
plectro (descriptive abl.; cf. II. i. 
40 n) : as we might speak of a 
painter 'wielding a larger brush,' 
in contrast to a miniature painter. 
It means, therefore, not a greater 
poet, but one who works with a 
freer and bolder stroke, neglecting 
nicety of finbh, — a description 
that might well apply to Antonius, 
whose training was in epic. For 
the plectrum, see I. 26. 11 n. 

34. quandoque: see i. 17 n. — 
trahet: in contrast with ferocis 
(Intr. ii6tf); an appropriate verb, 
as implying their unwillingness to 
go (cf. Ep, II. 1. 191); but in fact 
the prisoners preceded the victor's 
car; see I. 12. 54 n. 

35. per, dawn; d, Epod, 7. 8n. 
— sacrum clivum: that part of 
the Sacra Via from the elevation 
on which the arch of Titus stands 
down to the Forum. The name 
occurs only here and Mart. 1. 70. 5. 



36. fronde : the laurel wreath 
worn by the triumphator, — Sy- 
gambros : a German tribe, dwell- 
ing on the south of the Lippe. 
Their warlike spirit (cf. ferocis, 
34; caede gaudentes, 14. 51) gave 
them the lead among their country- 
men at this time, and their feat of 
routing a Roman army invested 
them in Roman eyes with exag- 
gerated importance. They were 
subsequently removed to the left 
bank of the Rhine, and furnished 
auxiliaries to the Roman armies. 

37. nihil : cf. m7, I. 12. 17 n ; 
Ep, II. I. 17 nil oriturum alias, 
nil ortutn tale fatentes (sc. as Au- 
gustus). — maius meliusve: Intr. 
131. Cf. Cic. Acad, 1. 7 nee ullum 
. . . maius aut melius a dis datum 
munus homini. 

38. boni, kind; cf. 5. i. 

39. nee dabunt: in such phrases 
the same verb is usually repeated, 
as II. 13. 20 rapuit rapietque, Ep, 
I. 2. 43 labitur et labetur, C, S, 2 
colendi semper et culti, Ep, II. I. 
17 (above), etc.; but the variation 
here is softened by the separation 
of the words. — quamvis, etc.: 
i.e, though the golden age (tempus 
aureum, Epod, 16. 64, 65 n) should 
return. — redeant : i>. change back 
into ; cf. Ov. M, XIV. 766 {fUus) 
in iuvenem rediit, 

40. tempora, the world; lite^ 
ally *the generations,' as in Ep* 



274 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



Concines laetosque dies et urbis 
publicum ludum super impetrato 
fortis Augusti reditu forumque 
litibus orbum. 

45 Turn meae, si quid loquar audiendum, 
vocis accedet bona pars, et * O sol 
pulcher, o laudande ! * canam, recepto 
Caesare felix. 

Teque dum procedis, ' lo Triumphe ! * 
50 non semel dicemus * lo Triumphe ! ' 
civitas omnis, dabimusque divis 
tura benignis. « 



II. I. 130. — priscum: d. Epod. 
2. 2 n. 

41. concines: Intr. 116^. — 
laetos dies : a variation on festos 
dies. 

42. ludum : for the more usual 
ludos. — super : with the abl. (see 
I. 9. 5 n), expressing the subject 
of rejoicing, as in III. 8. 17 super 
urbe curasj the subject of anxiety. 
— impetrato, vouchsafed to our 
prayers ; cf. vs. 54 n. 

43. fortis: cf. S. II. x. 16. — 
forum litibus orbum : the third 
paraphrase in this strophe for a 
technical term (iustitium). For 
litibus, see Intr. 66 c^ N. It is 
clear that when this ode was 
written, the return of Augustus in 
the near future, though no definite 
time had been set (df. quandoque, 
vs. 34), was confidently anticipated, 
so that the manner of his recep- 
tion was talked over by those in 
authority. His return was delayed 
long beyond their or his own ex- 
pectation, as appears from 5. 3 sq,^ 
and his entry into the city was 
then made, by his own choice, 
unannounced and by night; the 



triumph which Horace and his 
friends anticipated never came off. 
The publicus ludusj however, took 
place. 

45. loquar : less common t^an 
dico for poetical utterance, but cf. 
15. I. — audiendum: dL.donandus^ 
vs. 9 n, and laudande^ vs. 47. 

46. bona pars, a liberal measure, 
— sol: i,e. day, the sun of each 
new day being, for poetical pur- 
poses, another sun ; cf. C. S. 10, 
Epod. 2. 41 n. 

47. recepto Caesare: see Intr. 
105. 

49. teque . . . dicemus, and on 
thy name . . . shall we calL The 
cry of the soldiers and people, as 
the triumphant pageant advanced, 
io triumphe, was regarded as a 
shout of greeting to the personified 
Triumphus, triumphe being voca- 
tive ; cf. Epod. 9. 21 lo Triumphe^ 
tu moraris aureos \currus et in- 
tactas boves? \ lo Triumphe^ nee 
lugurthino parem | bello reportasti 
ducemt etc. 

50. non semel : i,e. again and 
again (litotes). 

51. civitas: in apposition with 



II. 4i-6o.J 



HORATI CARMINA. 



275 



Te decern tauri totidemque vaccae, 
me tener solvet vitulus, relicta 
55 matre qui largis iuvenescit herbis 
in mea vota, 

fronte curvatos imitatus ignis 
tertium lunae referentis ortum, 
qua notam duxit niveus videri, 
60 cetera fulvus. 



the subject of dicemus ; cf. eutaSf 

I- 35- 35- 

52. tura : cf. I. 22 n. Incense 

was burned on temporary altars 
on the streets as the procession 
passed. 

53. te : emphatic, in anticipa- 
tion of the comparison to be drawn 
between the two sacrifices. Each 
must make an offering .according 
to his substance. Cf, II. 17. 30 
sqq. 

54. solvet : sc, from the obliga- 
tion of our vows, which the grant- 
ing of our prayers has made bind- 
ing. — relicta matre: i.e. weaned. 
The detailed description which 
follows is in Horace's favorite 
manner ; see I. 2. 7 n. It serves 
here to heighten the contrast be- 
tween the rich Antonius, who can 
send victims by the score to the 
altar, and the owner of a modest 
farm, who knows well every crea- 
ture in his small herd, and to 
whom the sacrifice is therefore 
m6re of a personal matter ; and it 
furnishes the ode, at tfaie same 



time, with a pleasing close, draw- 
ing the reader's mind away from 
the stirring picture just described, 
to rest, in parting, on a quiet rural 
scene. Cf. the close of III. 5. 

55. iuvenescit : bear in mind 
that inventus is not precisely 
* youth,' in our sense, but the 
prime of life. 

56. in : i,e. with them in view, 
for their fulfilment. 

57. curvatos : i>. crescent. — 
ignis : cf. I. 12. 47. 

58. tertium referentis ortum: 
i>. on the third evening after the 
new moon. Cf. III. 29. 20, and 
see note on reducit^ II. 10. 15. 

59. qua (/>. in fronte)', qualify- 
ing niveus, which, to correspond 
with fulvus, is put as a character- 
istic of the animal, and not merely 
of the spot. — duxit, has got^ has 
taken on; cf. Ov. M, III. 484 
ut variis solet uva racemis \ iu- 
cere purpureum nondum matura 
colorem. — niveus videri : Intr 
102. 

60. cetera : Intr. 44. 



276 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



III. 

Quern tu, Melpomene, semel 

nascentem placido lumine videris, 

ilium non labor Isthmius 

clarabit pugilem, non equus impiger 

curru ducet Achaico 

victorem, neque res bellica Deliis 



III. The steady growth of Hor- 
ace's reputation, culminating in 
the official recognition of his em- 
inence in his appointment to write 
the Secular Hymn in B.C. 17, had 
the usual effect of success in 
silencing to a considerable degree 
the smsdl critics, of whose attacks 
he complains occasionally in his 
earlier writings. He could now 
speak without either vanity or 
false modesty of the attainment of 
what in presenting to the public 
his first collection of odes he had 
held up as the summit of his as- 
piration. He speaks of it in the 
present poem in a spirit rather of 
gratitude than of boasting. His 
muse is here, at least, no mere 
creature of fancy or literary con- 
vention ; she is to him * a power, 
not himself,' but above him and 
working in him ; and to her he 
renders all the praise for what he 
has done. There is a reminiscence 
of 1. 1 in the contrast between the 
meditative life of the poet, seeking 
his inspiration in the seclusion of 
grove and stream, and the excit- 
ing pursuit of the great prizes of 
physical prowess, athletic victory 
for the Greek, triumph in war for 
the Romam — Metre, 171. 

1. Melpomene: cf. III. 30. 16, 
1. 12. 2n. — semel: cf. I. 24. i6n, 
C. S, 26. 

2. nascentem, etc. : an idea 



borrowed originally perhaps from 
the Chaldean astrologers (see note 
on adspicit^ II. 17. 17), but Horace 
found it in his Greek poets; cf. 
Hes. Theog» 81 tvrvn.nyi.'fyritHFt. Atbs 
KoGpai ftcYdXoio (i>. the Muses) | 
y€iv6fJi€vop r* iffldufft. bwrpe- 
4>4<ap fioffiK^iay, \ rtfi fikp ixl yXiiairji 
yXuKepifv x^^^^*-^ UpcriiiVy | rod S' 
tx€* iK <rT6ftaTos ^? fielXixfi. 

3. labor : for the Greek t6vos, 
Kd/MT<n, often applied by Pindar 
to these struggles. — Isthmius : 
cf. OlympicOy I. i. 3n; Elea^ IV. 
2. 17 n; Intr. 117. 

4. pugilem, equus: see 2. 18 n. 

5. ducet, draw ; sc. in the race. 

— Achaico : i.e. Greek (in con- 
trast with the Roman type of tri- 
umph next presented). 

6. victorem, to victory; pro^ 
leptic, like pugilem. — res bel- 
lica: a paraphrase for bellum (like 
res ludicra^ Ep. II. i. 180, for the 
drama), but more comprehensive, 

— the business of war with all its 
vicissitudes, the fortunes of war, — 
Deliis : i.e, of laurel, so called as 
sacred to Apollo ; cf. Delphica 
laurOf III. 30. 15; laurea Apolli- 
nariy IV. 2. 9. For the practice, 
cf. Ov. TV. IV. 2. 51 tempora 
Phoebea lauro -cingetur^ *Io*que \ 
miles *Io* magna voce *TriumpAe* 
canet. 

8. quod reg^m, etc. : in accord- 
ance with the Roman traditional 



I 
I 



•\. V , u- 



.•»' 



<. t c tV 



If.' 



•<r »; v 



^'j t 



It 

V 



III. I-20.] 



lO 



'5 



20 



HORATI CARMINA. 

omatum foliis ducem, 

quod regum tumidas contuderit minas, 
ostendet Capitolio ; 

sed quae Tibur aquae fertile praefluunt 
et spissae nemorum comae 

fingent Aeolio carmine nobilem. 
Romae, principis urbium, 

dignatur suboles inter amabilis 
vatum ponere me choros, 

et iam dente minus mordeor invido. 
O testudinis aureae * 

dulcem quae strepitum, Fieri, temperas, 
o mutis quoque piscibus 

donatura cycni, si libeat, sonum, 



277 



idea that their mission was to ex- 
tend the blessings of peace and 
go6d government ; cf. C 5". 51 n. 

— contuderit, crushed to earth; 
carrying out the figure in tumidas. 

— minas: cf. II. 12. 11 ductaque 
per vias \ regum colla minacium. 

9. Capitolio : Intr. 69. The 
triumphsd pageant culminated in 
a sacrifice to Jupiter by the tri- 
umphator on the Capitol. 

10. sed quae Tibur, etc.: cf. 
I. I. 29 n. The environs of Tibur 
are put as a type of beautiful 
natural scenery in general (Intr. 
117), but serve at the same time 
to prepare us for the transition to 
Horace's own case (cf. 2. 30 sq.y 

— aquae: cf. I. 7. 13 J^. — prae- 
fluunt : for the more common 
praeterfluunt^ as in 14. 26. 

11. comae: cf. I. 21. 5n. 

12. Aeolio carmine : see III. 
30. 13 n. 

13. The enunciation of the fore- 
going general truth has paved the 
way for Horace's own experience, 



which illustrates it. — Romae : the 
city is personified. — principis, 
queen; cf. Ep, I. 7. 44 regia Roma, 
14. dignatur ponere me, deems 
me worthy a place, -\ suboles, the 
children^ i.e. the Roman nation. — • 
inter vatum choxos : cf. I. i. 
35 n. 

16. iam minus, less and less. — 
dente invido : Intr. 1 24 ; cf . Cic. 
Balb, 57 more hominum invident, 
. . . non illo inimico, sed hoc malo 
dente carpunt; Epod,6. I5n. 

17. testudinis: cf. I. 10. 6n. — 
aureae: cf. I. 5. 9n; uureo plectro^ 
II. 13. 26 n ; Find. Pyth. i. i 
Xpvo't^a ^6pfiiy^j * Av6\Kuwot koI 
Unr\oK4fuap ^vBucov Mourar Kr4avov, 

18. Fieri : see note on Haemo^ 

1. 12. 6. — temperas, dost modu- 
late, 

19. quoque, even^ as in Ep, II. 

2. 36 ; an uncommon use of the 
word. 

20. donatura : Intr. 104 e. — 
cycni : with the penult short ; in 
2. 25 it is long. 



278 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



totum muneris hoc tui est, 

quod monstror digito praetereuntium 
Romanae fidicen lyrae ; 
' quod spiro et placeo, si placeo, tuum est. 



IV. 
Qualem ministrum fulminis alitem, 



21. muneris : cf. 2. 20 n; 10. i. 

— tui est : to be read tuist; see 

I. 3- 37 n. 

22. monstror, etc.: a sort«of 
public recognition often alluded 
to by Greek and Roman writers, 
in itself of ambiguous significance 
(cf. Ov. Am. III. 6. 77) and need- 
ing the specification of vs. 23 ; cf. 
Lucian, Herod, 2 ef 7ro6 ye <paveiri 
fi6voPj iSeUwro B,v t$ 9ajc7^Xy, 
OvTos iK€ivos *lB.p65oT6t itrrip ... 6 
rds vUas ijfiQp ifiv^as. . 

23. Romanae fidicen lyae, 
as minstrel f etc.; cf. £/, I. 19. 32 
kuftc (sc. Alcbeum) ego Latinus 
volgavi fidicen. The title con- 
tains the same meaning as Aeolium 
carmen ad JtcUos deduxisse modos, 
III. 30. 13 ; the claim there made 
is now publicly recognized. 

24. quod spiro, etc.: i.e, my 
inspiration (spiritusy II. 16. 38, IV. 
6. 29) and such success as I win. 
The clause is the subject of est. 

— tuum est (see vs. 21 n): i.e, is 
thy achievement, not mine; the 
praise belongs to thee. 

IV. In the spring of B.C. 15, 
while Augustus was in Gaul (see 
intr. note to Ode 2), Drusus, the 
younger of his step-sons, then 
twenty-three years old, led an 
army up the Adige and defeated 
the united forces of the Raetians 
and Vindelicians near Tridentum 
(Trent). The professed object of 



the expedition was to put a stop 
to the predatory raids of the 
mountain tribes into the Po valley. 
To complete the work, Drusus 
crossed the Brenner pass and at- 
tacked the Breuni and Genauni in 
the valley of the Inn, while his 
brother Tiberius invaded the 
country from the west, coming 
from Gaul by way of the Rhine 
and Lake Constance. By this 
combined movement, the Romans 
crushed out all resistance. Tjiey 
scoured the valleys of eastern 
Switzerland and the Tyrol, driv- 
ing the mountaineers from their 
strongholds, and doing the work 
of subjugation so thoroughly, that 
this whole mountain region (the 
Raetian Alps), with the country of 
the Vindelicians, extending north- 
ward to the Danube, was added 
to the empire (as the province of 
Raetia) by this single campaign. 

The celebration of this brilliant 
exploit, the glory of which the 
emperor shared with the young 
conquerors, was a kind of task 
for which Horace had often de- 
clared his unfitness (e^, in iS*. II. 
1. 1 2 sqq,y and, only recently, in Ode 
2) ; and he undertook it, Suetonius 
says, in deference to the express 
.wish of Augustus. The present 
ode is concerned only with the 
first victory of Drusus, in the Tri- 
dentine Alps ; and we must sup- 
pose th^t Horace wrote it soon 



III. 2 1 -IV. 8.] 



. HORATI CARMINA. 



279 



cui rex deorum regnum in avis vagas 
permisit expertus fidelem^ 
luppiter in Ganymede flavo, 

olim iuventas et patrius vigor 
nido laborum propulit inscium, 
vernique iam nimbis remotis 
insolitos docuere nisus 



after that event, before the news 
of the equally brilliant and much 
more important successes of the 
two brothers later in the season 
had reached Rome. These form 
the subject of Ode 14, written 
subsequently. Following the ex- 
ample of Pindar, Horace devotes 
the smaller part, of his ode to the 
exploit it celebrates, and takes his 
main theme from the heroic age 
of Rome. Nothing could have 
been invented more suitable to 
hi^ purpose than the dramatic 
episode of the fight on the Metau- 
rus (B.C. 207), in which the most 
conspicuous part was played by a 
Nero, and the other chief actor 
was a Livius. The transition from 
the praises of Drusus to the glori- 
fication of his ancestors is skillfully 
effected by an analysis of his ex- 
cellence, in which the honors are 
evenly divided between heredity 
and good home training, for the 
latter of which he was indebted to 
Augustus. — Metre, 176. 

I -1 6. The subject of the ode is 
introduced by an elaborate simile 
in two parts, the first designed to 
picture to us the impetuous valor 
of the young hero, the other the 
terror his appearance inspired in 
the enemy. 

I. ministrum fulminis : appo- 
sitional attribute (K€pavtfo<f»6pos) of 
alitem (Intr. 1 26c). So in Ovid M. 
XII. 560 the eagle is volucris quae 



fulmina curzns/erre solet pedibus, 
and in Verg. ^.V. 2^^/ovis armiger. 

2. rex . . . regnum . . .: notice 
the antithesis : the king of heaven 
has made his servant a king. — 
regnum permisit : cf. .S". 1. 3. 123. 
— in : cf. III. I. 5n. . 

3. expertus (sc. eum) fidelem, 
having proved his loyalty ; cf. com- 
item abnegaty I. 35. 22 n. 

4. in, in the case of, — Gany- 
mede : see III. 20. 16 n. — flavo, 

fair-haired ifykiSb/i) ; see note on 
PyrrhaX. 5. 3. 

5. olim» one day. Originally an 
adverbial form of olle (ille), mean- 
ing 'at that time' (i.e. not at this 
time), olim came to be applied in 
a vague way to any action not 
present, whether past ('once,' 
'once upon a time'), — its com- 
moner use, — or future, as S. II. 5. 
27 si res certabitur olim ('some- 
time,' ' ever ') ; and hence, by an 
easy step, to an action cited as the 
tvpe of a class and which may 
therefore occur at any time, either 
with the present tense, as .S". I. i. 
2$pueris olim dant crustula blandi 
doctores (' sometimes '), or with the 
' gnomic ' perfect, as here. Cf . the 
use of ille itself with such a per- 
fect, Verg, A.X.1, 809. 

6. nido: Intr. 70. — laborum, 
toil and struggle ; cf. 3. 3n ; for 
the case, Intr. 66^. — propulit, 
etc. : Intr. 80. 

7. vemi : i.e, soft, gentle. Hor- 



\ 



280 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



IS 



venti paventem, mox in ovilia 
demisit hostem vividus impetus, 
nunc in reluctantis dracones 
egit amor dapis atque pugnae ; 

qualemve laetis caprea pascuis 
intenta fulvae matris ab ubere 
iam lacte depulsum leonem 
dente novo peritura vidit : 



ace's ornithology is at fault here, as 
the young eagles are not sufficient- 
ly grown to fly till late summer or 
autumn. — iam . . . mox . . . nunc : 
marking three stages in the growth 
of the eaglet's strength and cour- 
age, — his first timid ventures in 
flying, his attack upon an unresist- 
ing prey, and finally his entering 
with zest into a fight with a dan- 
gerous foe. — nimbis, storm-clouds 
(of winter). 

1 1, dracones, snakes, "X^i^ Greek 
name is perhaps a reminiscence of 
the description in //. XII. 200 sqq, 
(cf. Verg. A, XI. 751 sqq^. 

13. qualemve : while the case 
shows that Drusus is compared to 
the Hon, the design of this com- 
parison is to bring out the other 
side of the picture, and therefore 
the roe is made more prominent. 
The student should use his in- 
genuity to render accurately these 
shades of meaning in gooa Eng- 
lish. — laetis, glad^ i.e, luxuriant ; 
the word in this connection had 
almost ceased to be metaphorical 
(*laetas segetes ' etiam rustici dicunt 
Cic. de Or, III. 155).: — pascuis 
intenta : the point to be brought 
out is the helpless surprise of the 
victim. 

14. fulvae : a common epithet 
of the lion, as Verg. A, II. 722, 
IV. 1 59, VIII. 552, etc. — matris 
§b ubere, etc.: a difficult passage. 



and not improbably corrupt, as 
iam seems hardly in keeping with 
the point of the comparison, which 
would rather require tnx or nuper. 
Some editors have taken refuge 
in an interpretation which refers 
fulvae matris ab ubere (depend- 
ing on a verbal idea contained in 
pascuis intenta, which is held to 
imply the direction of the attention 
away from something else) to the 
roe and lacte depulsum to the 
lion. But, to say nothing of the 
feebleness of applying the same 
description to the two contrasted 
animals, it is not probable that 
Horace gratuitously weakened his 
comparison by representing the 
enemies of Drusus as inexperienced 
and naturally timid. Some have 
taken ubere as an adjective, and 
this would be appropriate enough, 
as implying that the lion, though 
young, was richly nurtured by a 
vigorous mother ; but as ab ubere 
depulsusy as well as (a) lacte depul- 
suSf is a technical phrase (e.g. Verg. 
G. III. 187, E, 7. 15), this explana- 
tion appears to be excluded. If 
the text is correct, we shall have 
to take lacte depulsum as used 
to express a single idea (weaned), 
to which matris ab ubere is at- 
tached to give an additional detail 
to the picture. 

16. peritura : Intr. 104^. With 
vidit it has something^ of thf same 



IV. 9-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



281 



20 



videre Raetis bella sub Alpibus 
Drusum gerentem Vindelici (quibus 
mos unde deductus per omne 
tempus Amazonia securi 



force as Vergil's sensit medics de- 
laf^s in hostem (A, II. 377)* <>. 
the roe becomes aware of the lion's 
presence and of its own doom 
at the same moment ; cf. also 
Ov. M. IX. 545 superata fateri 
cogor, 

17. videre : the epanastrophe 
in the absence of talent^ marks 
the beginning of the apodosis. — 
— Raetis : for Raeticis (Intr. 65). 
The epithet is sufficient, in Horace's 
suggestive manner, to indicate the 
participation of the Raetians in 
the conflict. The Vindelici were 
evidently more prominent in peo- 
ple's mmds at Rome, probably 
because they were more aggres- 
sive, having advanced beyond their 
own borders, and were a new 
enemy, while the strongholds and 
the raids of the Raetians were a 
familiar story. — bella : Intr. 128. 

18. Drusum : younger son of 
Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia, but 
bom after his mother's marriage 
to Augustus. Of singularly win- 
ning nature, he was a favorite 
with Augustus and with the people, 
who hoped he would be the em- 
peror's successor. But he died in 
his thirtieth year (B.C. 9), from the 
effects of a fall from his horse, 
while engaged in his third cam- 
paign in Germany. He was the 
father of the equsdly popular Ger- 
manicus and of the emperor Clau- 
dius. — quibus, their; cf. tibit III. 
18. i^n. The interrogative is 
unde, and the gist of the question 
is contained, as often, in the depen- 
dent word (deductus), — whence 
the custom was derived which armsj 



etc.; cf. ^S". 1. 6. 12 Valeria unde Tar- 
quinius pulsus fugit. This ill-timed 
digression coidd be removed from 
the text ^thout detrimetit to the 
metre, and one would gladly blot 
it out as unworthy of Horace's 
taste, were it not even more diffi- 
cult to believe it the work of a 
forger. If Horace wrote it, we 
may suppose his object was, in 
introducing the battle-axe of the 
Vindelici, to make use of the 
anticipated astonishment of the 
reader at finding this Amazonian 
weapon in the hands of Alpine 
barbarians, to give his narrative 
something of the rush of the un- 
stemmed torrent of Pindaric utter- 
ance which he describes in Ode 2, 
— as if the course of thought 
were: * whose right hand wields the 
Amazonian battle-axe, — Where, 
you will exclaim, did they get that 
custom, after a thousand years .^ 
But I cannot stop for the question 
now ; I must hurry on ; there are 
some things it is not given us to 
know in this world.' Unfortunately 
the last expression has the appear- 
ance of sarcasm, as if Horace had 
interrupted his fine tribute to the 
prince and the emperor to ridicule 
some antiquarian who had at- 
tempted to solve the question ; 
and some have supposed he was 
guilty even of this breach of good 
manners. 

19. per omne tempus: i^.from 
the remotest antiquity to the pres- 
ent day ; modifying deductus. 

20. securi : for the shape of it 
see Baumeister DenkmiUer I. pp. 
60,63. 



282 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



U 



'), 



dextras obarmet, quaerere distuli, 
i l^nec scire fas est omnia), sed diu 
lateque victrices catervae 
consiliis iuvenis revictae 

2$ sensere quid mens rite, quid indoles 
nutrita faustis sub penetralibus 
posset, quid Augusti paternus 
in pueros animus Nerones. 

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis ; 
30 est in iuvencis, est in equis patrum 
virtus, neque imbellem feroces 
progenerant aquilae columbam : 



21. obarmet : found only here 
in Latin literature of the classical 
period. The prefix has the same 
force as in obseroj obduroy etc. — 
quaerere : Intr. 94/ 

22. nee scire, etc.: i.e. there 
are some things Heaven does not 
intend us to know ; cf. IIL 29. 29 
sqq, — sed : resuming the narrative 
after the digression. — diu lateque 
victrices : probably referring to 
a raid which preceded the battle 
with Drusus. 

24. consiliis, j/ra/^^. — revic- 
tae, beaten in their turn^ re- ex- 
pressing the reversal of the tide 
of victory. 

25. sensere: emphatic (Intr. 
116^) ; they learned by experience 
(in their own persons) ; cf. II. 7. 
10. — quid posset: Intr. 47. This 
and the two following strophes 
are the poet's tribute of praise to 
Augustus for his contribution to 
the result achieved, before pro- 
ceeding to his main theme, in 
which Augustus has no part. — 
mens . . . indoles, mind , . . char" 
acter. — rite nutrita: for the order 
see Intr. 120. The words rite, 



faustis, and penetralibus, with 
their religious associations, lend a 
suggestion of sacredness to the 
home life to which they refer. 

26. sub penetralibus : cf. sub 
larcy III. 29. 14 n. 

27. paternus in pueros ani- 
mus : cf. II. 2. 6 n. 

28. Nerones : Drusus and his 
elder brother Tiberius (Claudius 
Nero), afterwards emperor. ' As 
their father died soon after the di- 
vorce of their mother and her mar- 
riage to Octavian(B.c.3S), they were 
brought up in the house of the 
latter. For pueros, see 1. 9. 16 n. 

29. fortes, etc.: this strophe is 
to a certain degree concessive : 
heredity is sill-essential, but train- 
ing is no less so. Hence the em- 
phasis on est (Intr. 1 16^), — there 
is (undoubtedly). — fortibus et 
bonis (ablative) : a frequent for- 
mula off commendation ; cf. Ep, 
I. 9. 13 scribe tui gregis hunc et 
fortem crede bonumque; ClC. Fam, 
V. 19. I quod omnes fortes ae boni 
virifacere debent, 

31. virtus, excellence, — imbel* 
lem feroces : Intr. ii6a. 



IV. 21-41.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



283 



doctrina sed vim promovet insitam, 
rectique cultus pectora roborant ; 
35 utcumque defecere mores, 

indecorant bene nata culpae. 

Quid debeas, o Roma, Neronibus, 
testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 
devictus et pulcher fugatis 
40 ille dies Latio tenebris, 

qui primus alma risit adorea, 



33. doctrina sed: Intr. 114. 
For the emphatic positions of the 
important words in this strophe, 
see Intr. 116^. For the sentiment 
cf . Cic Arch. 1 5 ego idem conUndo^ 
cum ad naturam eximiam atque 
inlustrem accesserit ratio quaedam 
conformcUioque doctrinae, tum illud 
nescio quid praeclarum etc singu- 
lare solere exsistere ; Ti^^r. II. 13. 

34. recti : adjective ; cf. Ep. II. 
2. 122 sano cultu. — cultus pec- 
tora : plurals of repeated occur- 
rence. For pectora (the moral 
nature), cf. I. 3. 9 n. 

35. utcumque, the moment; see 
I. 17. ion. — defecere mores, 
discipline breaks dawn. 

36. bene nata, a noble nature. 
For this use of the neuter plural, 
cf. I. 34. i2n. 

37. Here Horace reaches his 
main theme, the glorious ancestry 
of Drusus. In the twelfth year of 
the second Punic war, when Han- 
nibal was at Canusium, awaiting 
the arrival of his brother Hasdru- 
bal, who had crossed the Alps 
with a large army, the consul 
Claudius Nero, who faced Han- 
nibal in Apulia, intercepted a 
despatch which put him in posses- 
sion of Hasdrubal's plans. By a 
rapid and secret march, with 7000 
picked men, he joined his col- 



league Livius at Sena Gallica, and 
the two consuls with their united 
forces met and destroyed Hasdru- 
bal*s army at the river Metaurus. 
Nero then hastily returned to his 
own camp. The whole episode, 
which was the turning point of 
the war and of Hannibal's career, 
occupied scarcely a fortnight, and 
the first news which Hannibal 
received of Nero's absence and 
his own disaster came in the 
ghastly form of his brother's head, 
which the brutal Roman tossed 
over the lines. Horace had per- 
haps recently read the account of 
this episode in Livy's twenty- 
seventh book (ch. 43 sqq^t which 
was published about this time. — 
quid debeas : depending on tes- 
tis (sc. est). 

38. Metaurum flumen : Intr. 
65. — Hasdrubal devictus : Intr. 
105 «. 

39. pulcher dies : cf. sol pul- 
cher y 2. 46. — ^fugatis tenebris: abl. 
(Intr. 105 a), the cause of pulcher. 

41. adorea, victory (more strict- 
ly, *• military glory ') ; an old word 
(cf. Plant. Amph. 193) apparently 
revived by Horace and frequently 
used by later writers. Originally 
an adjective from odor (spelt), how 
it came to have this meaning is 
uncertain. 



284 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



dims per urbis Afer ut Italas 
ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus 
per'Siculas equitavit undas. 

45 Post hoc secundis usque laboribus 
Romana pubes crevit, et impio 
vastata Poenorum tumultu 
fana deos habuere rectos, 

dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal : 
50 ' Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium, 
sectamur ultro quos opimus 
fallere et effugere est triumphus. 



42. dims Afer : cf. III. 6. 36. 

— per : 1./. from one to another. 

— ut, since (temporal) ; cf . Epod. 
7. 19; S, II. 2. 128; Cic. Brut. 19 
I// illos de re publica libros edidisti, 
nihil a te sane postea accepimus. 
For the position, see Intr. 114. 

43. ceu : found here only in 
Horace. — flamma : sc. it (zeug- 
ma). Eurus, however, is thought 
as * riding * over the sea in Eurip. 
Phoen. 209 T€pL^i&nav inrkp difap- 
irUmav iredlwv ScireX/as Ztip^pov 
irvoais Iwrei^aavToSf a passage 
which Horace may have had in 
mind here. 

45. usque, more and more; cf. 
III. 30. 7 n. — laboribus: cf.3.3n. 

46. pubes: cf. HI. 5. iS, £pod. 
16. 7. — crevit, waxed stronger. 

47. tumultu, riot. Tumultusj 
in a military sense, denoted a war 
within or upon the Roman borders 
(Cic. Phil. 8. 2 sq,)i such as the 
Social and Servile wars. The Han- 
nibalic war took this form, and 
the word is accordingly applied to 
it in disparagement. 

48. rectos, upright, erect. 

49. dixitque tandem, etc.: this 
speech, if we make due allowance 
for poetical embellishment, does 




not misrepresent the effect of the 
disaster on Hannibal ; cf . Liv. 
XXVII. 51. 12 Hannibal, tanto si- 
mul publico/amUiarique ictus luctu, 
agnoscere se fortunam Carthaginis 
fertur dixisse. — perfidus: a stock 
epithet, bom of unreasoning preju- 
dice and hatred ; cf. Livy's portrait 
of Hannibal, XXI. 4. 9, inhumana 
crudelitas, perfidia plus quam Pu- 
nica, nihil veri, nihil sancti, nullus 
deum metus, nullum ius iurandum, 
nulla religio. 

50. cervi : Intr. 123. — praeda: 
i.e. naturally, usually; cf. negata, 
III. 2. 22 n. 

51. ultro, actually. Fltro, yfhich 
commonly characterizes an action 
as gratuitous or voluntary (going 
beyond what the situation calls for 
or permits), is often applied to 
conduct which reverses the natural 
relation of two parties, as when an 
assailant demands redress of his 
victim, an evil-liver denounces 
vice, or the like, or when, as here, 
the weak attacks the strong. — 
opimus triumphus : after the 
analogy of spolia opima. 

52. fallere: cf. I. 10: 16, III. 
II. 40 n. — effugere est trium- 
phus : oxymoron. 



IV. 42-64-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



285 



Gens quae cremato fortis ab Ilio 
iactata Tuscis aequoribus sacra 
55 natosque maturosque patres 
pertulit Ausonias ad urbis, 

duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus 
nigrae feraci frondis in Algido, 
per damna, per caedis, ab ipso 
60 ducit opes animumque ferro. 

Non hydra secto corpore firmior 
vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem, 
monstrumve submisere Colchi 
mains Echioniaeve Thebae. 



53. gens quae, etc. : Horace 
had read the Aeneid when he 
wrote this strophe; cf. III. 3. 40 n. 

— cremato ah^from the ashes of, 
ue. from utter ruin. With this 
idea fortis is contrasted by its 
position. 

54. iactata, etc. (with gens) : 
i.e, through the utmost hardships. 

— sacra : i>. the images of the 
gods and their belongings, — the 
effigies sacrae divom Phrygiaeque 
penaUs (Verg. A. III. 148). 

56. pertulit: the prefix expresses 
perseverance to the end; zi^perfi- 
ciuntt vs. 73, 211^ persequitur, III. 
2. 14 n. 

57. duris ut, etc.: Intr. 114, 
123. 

58. nigrae frondis : that of the 
ilex itself (Intr. 124); cf. Verg. 
E, 6. 54 ilice sub nigra. For 
the case, see Intr. 66 a, — Algido : 
see I. 21. 6 n. III. 23. 9 j^.; Intr. 
117. 

59. per: 1./. in the course of, 
right through it all ; cf. 2. 29 n. 

60. ducit, draws. 

61. non : with firmior and 
mains. — hydra : this simile Hor- 



ace might have found in Livy, but 
in the mouth of Pyrrhus instead 
of Hannibal ; see Flor. Epit, 1. 18. 
19 cum Pyrrhus ^ video me* inquit 
* plane procreatum Herculis semine^ 
cui quasi ab angue Lernaeo tot caesa 
hostium capita quasi de sanguine 
suo renascuntur* The compari- 
son more probably originated with 
Pyrrhus' minister, Cineas (Plut. 
Pyrrh. 19). 

62. vinci dolentem: Intr. 94 m. 

63. monstrum, wonder. The 
allusion is to the crops of armed 
men that sprang from the dragon's 
teeth sown by Jason (Colchi) and 
Cadmus (Thebae), — vastly more 
formidable than the dragon itself. 
So the Roman lemons seemed to 
spring from the very soil. — sub- 
misere : cf. Lucr. I. 7 tellus sub- 
mittet flores, — Colchi : cf. Afro 
III. 3. 47 n. 

64. Echioniae: Echion was one 
of the five survivors of the fight 
which Cadmus precipitated among 
the earth-bom warriors. He mar- 
ried Agave, daughter of Cadmus, 
and became the father of Pen- 
theus. 



286 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



65 Merses profundo, pulchrior evenit ; 
luctere, multa proruet integrum 
cum laude victorem geretque 
proelia coniugibus loquenda. 

Carthagini iam non ego nuntios 
70 mittam superbos ; occidit, occidit 
spes omnis et fortuna nostri 

nominis Hasdrubale interempto.' 

Nil Claudiae non perficient manus, 
quas et benigno numine luppiter 
75 defendit et curae sagaces 

expediunt per acuta belli. 



65. merses: sc. eamt the gens 
of vs. 53, but under the figure of 
a marvelous bemg (monstrum) as 
in the preceding strophe. There is 
perhaps an allusion in this verse 
to the first Punic war, which was 
largely a naval contest. For the 
mood of merses and luctere, see 
Intr. 87. They here do service as 
conditional clauses. — profundo : 
Intr. 69. — evenit : here used in 
the very rare literal sense ; cf. 
pereuntisy III. 11. 27. 

66. proruet . . . geret : the 
future, expressing what will prove 
true (in every case), when the trial 
is made, is here coupled with a 
present (evenit) of general state- 
ment. — integrum, unscathed (sc. 
in the previous contest). 

67. laude, credit^ iclat ; cf. S. I. 
10. 49; Cat. 64. 112 inde pedem 
SOS pes multa cum laude rejlexit, — 
victorem : i,e, the antagonist who 
has just overthrown him. Cf. Han- 
nibsd's comment on the Romans 
under Marcellus, Liv. XXVII. 14. 
I, sen vicitf ferociter instat victis; 



seu victus estf instaurat cum vtctori- 
bus certamen, 

68. coniugibus loquenda: i.e, 
memorable, the theme of many a 
fireside talk. For the gerundive, 
see 2. 9 n. 

69. Carthagini : Intr. 53. — 
iam non, no more. 

70. occidit: Intr. 116 d. 

72. Hasdrubale interempto : 
there is a climax of pathos in these 
closing words, in which the de- 
pressing sense of personal bereave- 
ment, which underlies the despair 
pictured in the preceding verses, 
comes to the surface. 

73-76. The ode closes with a 
brief epilogue, summing up the 
merits of the Claudii, which have 
been illustrated in the ancient and 
the modem instance given. 

7 J. curae sagaces : their own 
wisdom, in contrast with the divine 
protection just spoken of. 

76. expediunt : cf. Verg. A. II. 
632 flammam inter et hostes ex- 
pedior. — acuta, crises. — belli : 
Intr. 64. 



IV. 65-v. 9.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



287 



V. 

Divis orte bonis, optume Romulae 
custos gentis, abes iam nimium diu ; 
maturum reditum poUicitus patrum 
sancto concilio, redi. 

Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae ; 
instar veris enim voltus ubi tuus 
adfulsit populo, gratior it dies 
et soles melius nitent. 

Vt mater iuvenem, quem Notus invido 



V. The occasion of this ode 
was the unexpectedly prolonged 
absence of the emperor in the 
western provinces in B.C. 16-13 
(see intr. note to Ode 2). The 
avowed, and no doubt the main 
object of his western journey was 
the settlement of the affairs of 
that part of the empire ; but it was 
whispered in the capital that the 
real cause of his departure was the 
hostility of those whom he had 
offended by his measures of re- 
form. Possibly it was the poet's 
sense of the injustice of these 
people that stirred him to the 
exceptional warmth which charac- 
terizes this ode. But however that 
may be, the malcontents were a 
small body; the great majority of 
the citizens recognized their in- 
debtedness to Augustus as the re- 
storer of peace and security and 
the champion of good morals, and 
their dependence on his single life 
for the continuance of these bless- 
ings. The feeling of gratitude and 
devotion to which Horace here 
gives expression was one that was 
widespread and growing.— Metre, 
172. 



1. divis bonis : abl. abs. of at- 
tendant circumstances, — *when the 
gods were in kindly mood' {sc, 
towards mankind); equivalent to 
* whose birth was blest of Heaven,' 
or the like. Cf. S, I. 5. 97 Cnatia 
(a town where water was scarce) 
Lymphis (=Nymphis) imiis ex- 
structa. — Romulae : Intr. 65. 

2. custos: cf. 15. 17 custode 
rerum Caesare. 

4. sancto, ai(^j/y cf.£nn.^«fi». 
298 M. indu foro lata sanctoque 
senatu; Verg. A, I. 426. 

5. lucem : sc. tuam (' the light 
of thy countenance'), as the next 
verse shows. — tuae, thy own ; 
Intr. 116 c. — dux bone : see vs. 
37 n. 

6. instar : commonly used of 
size or quantity, rarely, as here, of 
quality. 

7. it dies: cf. II. 14. 5 guotquot 
eunt dies, 

8. soles : i>. the sun of each 
successive day; cf. 2. 46 n. 

9. Notus, CaTpathii : Intr. 117; 
I. 3. 14, 7. 1 en. — invido : reflect- 
ing the mother's feeling; the ob- 
structing winds seem to her to 
blow from pure spite. 



288 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



»S 



20 



flatu Carpathii trans maris aequora 
cunctantem spatio longius annuo 
dulci distinet a domo, 

votis ominibusque et precibus vocat, 
curvo nee faciem litore demovet, 
sie desideriis icta fidelibus 
quaerit patria Caesarem. 

Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat, 
nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas, 
pacatum volitant per mare navitae, 
culpari metuit fides, 



II. spatio longius annuo: his 
business has detained him beyond 
the close of navigation in Novem- 
ber, so that he has to stay all win- 
ter; cf. III. 7. I sqq, 

13. votis, etc.: cf. lAv.Praef. 13 
cum bonis potius ominibus votisque 
ei preeationibus deorum dearumque 
. . . HbenHus inciperemus, — ^vocat : 
expressing literadly the action of 
the mother as she stands gazing at 
the shore, but used with the pre- 
ceding instrumental ablatives in 
the wider sense of seeking to bring 
him back, by making vows for his 
safety, by looking for favorable 
omens, and by prayers. 

14. curvo : a standing epithet 
of the shore, as Epod, 10. 21, Verg. 
A. III. 223, Ov. M. XI. 352, etc. 

1 5. desideriis : plural of re- 
peated occurrence. — icX9^^ smitten, 

16. quaerit : for requirit; cf. 
III. 24. 32 and see Intr. 129. 

17. tutus bos, etc. : the em- 
phasis, enhanced by asyndeton, is 
on tutus (cf. 1. 17* 5 impune tutum 
per nemust etc.), nutrit, and paca- 
tum ; Intr. 116 ^ — etenim : in- 
troducing the reason why the coun- 
try cannot bear to have Augustus 
long absent, — namely, the bless- 



ings which his presence and care 
confer. — perambulat : i.e, in 
grazing. 

18. rura: the repetition (after 
the emphatic nutrit) is without 
emphasis ; it serves merely to con- 
tinue the discourse (Intr. 116^) 
and to keep the reader's mind on 
the country, the improvement of 
which was an important considera- 
tion in the emperor's policy, rura 
is here used for arva^ as in Epod. 
2. 3, and in a comprehensive sense, 
to include both the land and the 
crops (implied in Ceres) that grow 
on it. — alma : a standing epithet 
of a goddess; cf. 15. 31 almae 
Veneris^ I. 2. 42 almae Maiae^ 
Verg. G, I. y alma Ceres^ etc — 
Faustitas : a personification that 
does not occur elsewhere in litera- 
ture, but was probably not invented 
by Horace. It is (with alma) the 
same as Fausta Felicitas (Fertility), 
a divinity to whom annual offerings 
were made on the Capitol. 

19. pacatum : by the suppres- 
sion of piracy, with special refer- 
ence to Sextus Pompey; see Epod, 
4. 19 n, and cf. Mon, Anc. 5. i 
mare pacavi a praedonibus; Suet. 
Aug, 98 forte Puteolanum sinum 



V. ia-29*] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



289 



nuUis poUuitur casta domus stupris, 
mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas, 
laudantur simili prole puerperae, 
culpam poena premit comes. 

25 Quis Parthum paveat, quis gelidum Scythen, 
quis Germania quos horridaparturit 
fetus, incolumi Caesare ? Quis ferae 
bellum curet Hiberiae ? 

Condit quisque diem collibus in suis 



praetervehenH vectores nautaeque 
de navi Alexandrina . • . fausta 
omina et eximias laudes congesse- 
ran/; '•per ilium se vivere, per ilium 
navigare^ libertate aique forfunis 
per ilium frui* — volitant, JHt to 
and fro; implying a light and 
rapid movement, unhindered by 
fear. The figure has reference 
quite as much to the oars as to 
the sails; cf. Cat. 4. 4 sive palmu- 
lis opus foret volare sive linteo, 
and, conversely, Verg. A, I. 301 
remigio alarum. 

20. culpari metuit: i.e. shrinks 
from even the suspicion of imfair 
dealing. For metuit, cf. II. 2. 7, 
and see Intr. 94 /. 

21. casta: proleptic. 

22. mos et lex: i.e, law, with 
a healthy moral sentiment in the 
community to support it; cf. III. 
24. 35 n. The allusion is to the 
lex Julia de adulteriis, passed by 
Augustus B.C. 18. — edomuit: the 
prefix denotes thoroughness ; cf. 
I. 5. 8 n. 

23. simili prole: instrumental 
ablative. For the meaning of si- 
mili, cf. Cat. 61,217 sit suo similis 
patri I Manlio et facile omnibus \ 
noscitetur ab insciis \ et pudicitiam 
suae I matris indicet ore, 

24. premit comes : as in iS*. II. 
7. 115 (Curd) comes atra premit 



sequiturque fugacem ; cf. III. 2. 
31 j^. 

25. Parthum: see 15. 6 n. — 
Scythen: cf. 14. 42, III. 8. 23 n. 

26. Qermania quos, etc.: see 
intr. note to Ode 2. — parturit: cf. 
I. 7. 16 n. 

27. fetus, spawn. The whole 
description represents them as 
something not quite human, the 
monstrous brood of an uncouth 
mother-land. 

28. bellum Hiberiae : Horace 
has in mind particularly the stub- 
bom struggle of the Cantabrians 
for their independenee ; cf. II. 6. 
2n. 

29. condit, brings to a close, i^. 
spends the whole (quietly, without 
interruption) : cf. Verg. G. I. 458 
at sif cum referetque diem condet- 
que relatum, \ lucidus orbis erit; 
^. 9. 51 scupe ego longos \ cantando 
puerum memini me condere soles. — 
collibus: more graphic than agris 
(Intr. 117); the poet selects vine- 
dressing, as one of the lighter oc- 
cupations of the farmer, for his 
picture of contented country life ; 
cf. Epod. 2. 9 sqq. — suis: em- 
phatic (Intr. 116^). Secure pos- 
session of property was one of the 
blessings of the reign of Augustus 
(Veil. II. 89. 4), and a country 
population of small farmers who 



290 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Ub. IV. 



30 et vitem viduas dupit ad arbores ; 
hinc ad vina redit laetus et alteris 
te mensis adhibet deum ; 

te multa prece, te prosequitur mero 
defuso paterisi et Laribus tuum 
35 miscet numen^ uti Graecia Castoris 
et magni memor Herculis. 



owned the land they tilled was 
always regarded by wise statesmen 
as the most solid foundation of 
Roman power. 

30. viduas, unwedded; a com- 
mon meaning of the word. For 
the figure, see note on eaelebs^ II. 
15. 4. — ducit: here apparently for 
maritat (cf. Epod, 2. 10), though 
the subject of duco in this sense is 
regularly the bridegroom. 

31. redit: scdomum, — alteris 
mensis : for mensa secunda^ when 
the guests sat over their wine. 
The poet skips the more substan- 
tial (and prosaic) part of the even- 
ing meal. 

32. adhibet, invites ; cf. Verg. 
^. V. 62 adkibete Penates epulis* 
The allusion, which is expanded 
in the following strophe, b to the 
libations made to Augustus — they 
were even enjoined by the Senate 
(Dio LI. 19. 7) — at public and pri- 
vate banquets. To that extent, 
as an invisible presence at the 
feast, he was put on a par with 
the gods (deum), particularly with 
the Lares, for whom a portion of 
the meal was always set aside. Cf. 
Ov. F, IL 633 et libate dapes ut, 
grati pignus honoris^ \ nutriat in^ 
cinctos missa patella Lares; \ iam- 
que ubi sttadebit placidos nox umida 
somttos, I larga precaturi sumite 
vina manu, \ et ^Bene vos^ bene te^ 
patriae pater^ optintt Caesar* \ dieite 
suffuse ter bona verba mero. 



33. te prosequitur, thy name 
he hails. The verb retains its 
proper sense of * accompanies ' (sc. 
the thought of thee, the mention 
of thy name).— -prece, with bless- 
ings; cf. vs. 37. For the number, 
see I. 2. 26 n. 

34. defuso, w^h the pouring 
out of: Intr. 105 a. — Laribus : 
dative; Intr. 56. 

35. uti Graecia, etc.: cf. Ep, 
II. I. I -1 7, where Horace points 
out that the Romans paid to Au- 
gustus in his lifetime the honors 
which Greece rendered her bene- 
factors only after their death. — 
Castoris : sc. numen, whereas 
Herculis is in closer relation with 
memor; the result in the reader's 
mind is a dependence of the two 
proper names dvh icouvv on both 
numen and memor; Intr. 76, 
120. 

37. o utinam: cf. I. 35. 38; 
Intr. 185. This prayer for long 
life to Augustus is conceived in 
the same spirit as that of I. 2. 
45 ^9f'* ^^® essence of it being 
. that his country's happiness is 
bound up with his life. Similar 
is the fine tribute of Ep, I. 16. 25 
sgq, — dux bone: repeated from 
vs. c. The word dux conveys a 
much warmer expression of per- 
sonal allegiance than the formal 
princeps; cf. Walt Whitman's My 
Captain* — ferias: f.^. peace, re- 
garded as an interval of repose 



V. 30-VI. I.] 



HORATl CARMINA. 



291 



40 



' Longas o utinam, dux bone, ferias 
pfaestes Hesperiae ! ' dicimus intcgro 
sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi, 
cum sol Oceano subest. 



VL 
Dive, quem proles Niobea magnae 



and enjoyment between the wars 
which preceded and those which 
must (it is implied) follow this 
happy age. 

58. integro die, wAen the day 
is whoUt i.e, when the whole day 
is before us. 

39. sicci : cf. 1. 18. 3, Ep. 1. 19. 
9. — dicimus: Intr. 116^. — ^uvidi: 
cf. II. 19. 18, S. II. 6. 70 sen quis 
capit acria fortis \ pocula, seu mo- 
diets uveseit laetius, 

VI. Horace's authorship of the 
hymn sung at the secular festival 
01 B.C. 17 was deemed by the 
authorities worthy of mention on 
the pillars of marble and bronze 
erected to commemorate the oc- 
casion (see intr. note to C. S.)^ 
and the interesting line, carmen 

COM POS VIT • Q • HORATI VS • FLACC VS, 

is among the fragments of the in- 
scription recently discovered. But 
Horace chose also to record his 
distinction in his own way, in a 
*• monumenhtm eiere perennius* It 
takes the form of a prelude to the 
hymn. Invoking the aid of the 
two divinities to ,whom the hymn 
is mainly addressed, and chiefly the 
minstrel ApoUo, he calls upon the 
lads and maidens of the chorus to 
heed well his instructions, remind- 
ing the maidens in particular of 
the satisfaction they wQl have all 
their lives long in recalling their 



part in the memorable pageant, 
and closes with the seemingly in- 
cidental mention of his own name. 
— Metre, 174. 

I. dive: Apollo. The invoca- 
tion, interrupted by the long di- 
gression on Achilles, which re- 
counts the invaluable service of 
the god to Rome, is resumed in 
vs. 35, and the actual prayer is 
contained in vs. 27. The verses 
extolling the prowess of Apollo 
and those relating to Diana (33/^., 
38-40) look like 'chips from the 
workshop' in which the Secular 
Hymn was constructed. — quem 
vindicem, whose vengeance ; Intr. 
1050. — proles Niol>ea: seven sons 
and seven daughters, slain by the 
arrows of Apollo and Diana to pun- 
ish their mother Niobe for sneering 
at Latona as the mother of only 
two children (//. XXIV. 602 sqq.^ 
Ov. M, VI. 1 55 sqq^. The story is 
the subject of a famous sculptured 
group now preserved in Florence 
(see Baumeister, III. pp. 1673 ^*)* 
A similar (probably not the same) 
group, regarded as the work of 
either Scopas or Praxiteles (Plin. 
N. H, XXXVI. 28), existed in Rome 
in Horace's time, in a temple of 
Apollo built by C. Sosius. — ma- 
gnae : #.^. boastful ; so in Greek 
fW7dXi7 7Xd9#« (Soph. Antig, 127), 
Ivot fu^a (Theogn; 159), etc.; a. 
Ovid M* VI. 150 nee tamen ad- 



292 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



vindicem linguae Titybsque raptor 
sensit et Troiae prope victor altae 
Phthius Achilles, 

ceteris maior, tibi miles impar, 
filius quamvis Thetidis marinae 
Dardanas turris quateret tremenda 
cuspide pugnax, 

(ille, mordaci velut icta ferro 
pinus aut impulsa cupressus Euro, 
procidit late posuitque coUum in 
pulvere Teucro ; 



moHsta est (Niobe) verbis mi nor i- 
hut uH, 

i. raptor : indicating the crime 
(see III. 4. 77 n) that drew down 
Apollo's vengeance on him, and 
so taking the place of magnae 
linguae with sensit. 

3. sensit : cf. 4. 25 n. — prope 
victor : according to the prophecy 
put into the mouth of the dying 
Hector (//. XXII. 359) AchUles 
was slain by Paris, with the aid of 
Apollo, in the very gate of the 
city : Titian rt} ire k4v trt Hdpu 
Kol ^otfios 'ATbXKwp I iveDsibw ibrr' 
SKifftaviP M XKCuiffi ir6\ji^iw. — 
altae, towering; the Homeric 
"IXioj alTtivii (II, XIII. 773); cf. 
also I. 16. 18 n. 

4. Phthius : from Phthia, in 
the southern part of Thessaly, 
the land of the Myrmidons (//. II. 

683). 

5. For the positions of the two 
pairs of contrasted words, cf. II. 
10. 13; Intr. ii6f. 

6. filius Thetidis: in apposition 
with the subject, enforcing the 
concession, — ' although he vhu 
the son of Thcttis and,' etc. 

7. Dardana6: Intr. 65. — turris 



quateret : a hyperbole like Ler- 
nam tremefecerit arcu (Hercules)^ 
Verg. A, VI. 803. For the mood, 
see Intr. 83. — tremenda cuspide: 
modifying both quateret and 
pugnaz (Intr. 76); for the latter, 
cf. Liv. XXII. 37. 8 pugnaces mis- 
sili telo gentes; Intr. 73. The 
spear of Achilles is described in 
//. XVI. 141 as ^(M puhfa ffTtfiapbp- 
r6 flip 0^ d^PUT dXXot 'Ax<uwp \ irdX- 
Xeii', dWd /UP otot iwlararo r^Xcu 
'AxtXXeds. 

9-24. These strophes are par- 
enthetical, and are introduced to 
enforce the indebtedness of the 
Romans to Apollo by a graphic 
picture of the ruthless fury with 
which Achilles would have exter- 
minated the whole Trojan race, 
had the god not cut short his 
career and joined with Venus in 
entreating Jove to spare a remnant 
of the doomed people. — ille . . . 
ille : both emphatic (Intr. 116 ^), 
but in different ways : the first is 
even he (mighty as he was); the 
second, he would not (as others 
did). 

II. procidit late: see Intr. 
123. Cf., however, Odys, XXIV. 



VI. 2-24] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



293 



15 



20 



ille non inclusus equo Minervae 
sacra mentito male feriatos 
Troas et laetam Priami choreis 
falleret aulam, 

sed palam captis gravis, heu nefas heu, 
nescios fari pueros Achivis 
ureret flammis, etiam latentem 
matris in alyo, 

ni tuis victus Venerisque gratae 
vocibus divum pater adnuisset 
rebus Aeneae potiore ductos 
alite muros ;) 



39 (h) 5' ('Ax(XXev) h vrpo^Xiyyt 
Kovlfis (pulvere) iceuro fiiyas /urya- 
Xuerlf and, for the whole com- 
parison, Cat. 64. 105 sf^. 

12. Teucro: Intr. 65. This 
name of the Trojans is unknown 
to Homer, but was familiar to the 
Romans, when this ode was writ- 
ten, from the Aeneid. 

13. Minervae: gen. with sacra, 
as lunonis sacrot 5". I. 3. 11. 

14. sacra : for the plural, cf. 
Cat. 63. 9 typanum^ tubam Cy- 
belUs, ttiUf mater t initia; Intr. 
128. — mentito: see Intr. 51^, 
and cf. Mart. III. 43. i mentiris 
iuvenem tinctiSf Laetine, capUlis. — 
male feriatos, keeping untimely 
holiday. For the whole story, see 
Verg. A, II. 

16. falleret, steal upon, come 
upon them unawares; cf. I. 10. 
16, III. II. 40. The impf. subj. is 
that of softened assertion in past 
time, with a vaguely implied apod- 
osis, 'if he had lived,' *if he had 
been present,' or the like. This 
construction is naturally continued 
in ureret ni pater adnuisset, 
which is ura( Hi pater adnuerit 



transferred to past time. Cf. S, 
I* 3> 5 ii peteret, non quicquam 
proficeret; si collibuisset, citaret; 
Gr. 311 tf, 307/ 

17. palam captis: in contrast 
with the secrecy implied in men- 
tito and falleret. It contains a 
distinct assertion : he would have 
captured them in open fight, and, 
etc. — gravis, with merciless hand, 
— heu . . . heu : a sigh of horror 
at the enormity to be described; 
cf. 1. 15. 9. — nefas : exclamatory, 
as in III. 24. 30. 

18. nescios fari : a paraphrase 
for infantes, and a reminiscence 
of the Homeric m^irta riKva; see 
Intr. loi c. 

19. latentem : more graphic 
than the plural, on the principle 
of Intr. 117. 

21. ni : not found elsewhere in 
the Odes. 

22. divum pater : cf. I. 2. 2, 
12. 13^^^. — adnuisset: Intr. 51^ 

23. potiore alite : cf. mala avi, 
I. 15. 5n. — ductos, built; a nat- 
ural word for construction that 
proceeds in a line ; cf . ducere fos- 
sam, vallum, etc, 



294 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



25 doctor argutae iidicen Thaliae, 

Phoebe, qui Xantho lavis amne crinis> 
Dauniae defende decus Camenae, 
levis Agyieu. 

Spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem 
30 carminis nomenque dedit poetae. 
Virginum primae puerique claris 
patribus orti, 

Deliae tutela deae, fugacis 
lyncas et cervos cohibentis arcu, 



25. doctor, etc.: after propiti- 
ating the god by recounting his 
beneficent deeds, the poet now 
addresses him in the character 
(Apollo Musagetts) in which he 
wishes him to respond to the 
present appeal. The meaning of 
the strophe (even if we cannot 
accept the reading Argivae for 
argutae) is: Inspirer of the Greek 
lyrists, support now the Daunian 
poet. — argutae: see III. 14. 21, 
and cf. Odys, XXIV. 62 /uoiVa 
M7e(a. — fldicen : serving as an 
attributive to doctor; Intr. 126^. 
— Thaliae: Intr. 117; see also 
note on Clio^ I. 12. 2. 

26. Xantho : in Lycia. — lavis 
crinis : cf. III. 4. 61 n. 

27. Dauniae : for ' Italian,* as 
in II. I. 34 (Intr. 117^); but the 
word is chosen with special refer- 
ence to Horace himself ; see I. 
22. 14 n, and cf. III. 30. 10 sqq, — 
Camenae : see I. 12. 39 n. 

28. levis : i.e. beardless, youth- 
ful ; see I. 21. 2 n, II. 11. 6 n. — 
Agyieu : an epithet of Apollo as 
guardian of the streets {irtvwX), 

29. From his prayer to the god 
the poet now turns to address the 
chorus, and begins, as m II. 19. 9, 
by declaring his commission. — spi- 



ritum : see II. 16. 38 n. — artem : 
ue. technical knowledge and skill, 
contrasted in the chiastic order with 
spiritum. The main emphasis, how- 
ever, is on Phoebus. Intr. 116 c^g, 

30. carminis : limiting artem 
only. — poetae: Gr. 214/. The 
word occurs here only in the Odes. 
Horace's favorite word is votes; 
cf. VS.44, 3. 15, 1. 1. 35, II. 6. 24, etc. 

31. virginum primae, etc: see 
intr. note to C S. (p. 331). 

33. Deliae deae : Diana (Arte- 
mis) was regarded by the Greeks 
as the special protectress of chaste 
youth and maidenhood (Preller- 
Robert, Gr, Myth. I. 320) ; cf. 
Cat. 34. I Dianae sumus in fide \ 
puellae et pueri integri. This gives 
the poet an opportunity to bring 
in the goddess, who could have no 
place in the preceding invocation, 
and he dwells on some of her 
attributes, in this and the next 
strophe, so that she may not be left 
with a bare mention alongside of 
the elaborate praises of her brother. 

— tutela : here in a passive sense, 

— wards; cf. II. 17. 23, where it 
is active. — fugacis cohibentis, 
who stays . . . in their flight. 

34. lyncas et cervos : perhaps 
suggested by Diana's words in 



VI. 25-44-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



295 



35 Lesbium servate pedem meique 
poUicis ictum, 

rite Latonae puerum canentes, 
rite crescentem face Noctilucam, 
prosperam frugum celeremque pronos 
40 volvere itiensis. 

Nupta iam dices * Ego dis amicum, 
saeculo festas referente luces, 
reddidi carmen docilis modorum 
vatis Horati.* 



Callim. Hymn, in Dian, i6 oirir^e 
tiTfK^Ti \6yKas I fiiJT' iXd^ovs 
fidXKoi/iu 

35. Lesbium pedem : i.g. the 
Sapphic metre; cf. Lesbaum bar- 
bitony I. I. 34 n. 

36. poUicis ictum :^ sc* on the 
lyre. Horace represents- himself 
as training the chorus (xopo^iM- 
0-icaXos); but this is to be taken, as 
Porphyrio understood it ('suaviter 
hoc dicitur, quasi ipse lyram per- 
cutiat'), as a poetic fiction. In 
view of Horace's disposition and 
of the silence of the inscription, 
we cannot suppose that he actually 
directed the performance. 

37. rite, etc. : t.e. singing the 
Secular Hymn, the main theme of 
which is briefly given in this strophe, 
rite has reference to ceremonial 
form. — Latonae puerum : cf. I. 
21. 3 n. 

38. crescentem, expanding; 
the participle had not hardened 
into an adjective denoting shape, 
like our 'crescent'; cf. 2. 57. — 
face : so Cicero calls the sun 
Phoebi fax in the poem on his 
consulship (Div. I. 18). — Nocti- 
lucam : an epithet of Luna, who 
appears to have had, under this 
name, a temple on the Palatine 



which was illuminated at night 
(Varro Z.Z.V. 68). 

39. prosperam frugum : Intr. 
66 fl. — celerem volvere : Intr. 
loi b, Cf. Cat. 34. IT tu cursUf 
dea^ menstrua \ metiens iter an- 
nuum I rustica agricolae bonis \ 
tecta frugibus exples, 

41. iam (with nupta): i^. even 
after marriage (many years hence). 
This appeal is addressed to the 
girls only, in whose lives such par- 
ticipation in a public function must 
be a rare and memorable occur- 
rence. — dices : the chorus of girls 
is addressed in the singular, after 
the practice of the Greek drama ; 
but the words suggested would of 
course be spoken by each girl for 
herself. — amicum : cf. I. 26. in. 

42. saeculo : see intr. note to 
C.S, (p. 328). — referente: cf. III. 
29. 20, II. 10. I5n. — luces: i.e. 
dies; cf. 1 1. 19, 1 5. 25. The festival 
lasted three days. 

43. reddidi, rendered; cf. 11.34 
condisce modos^ amanda voce quos 
reddas. Like the English word, 
reddo conveys the idea of giving 
oiit what has been put into one 
(cf. I. 3. 7 n). So, also, chorda 
sonum reddity Ep. II. 3. ^48. — 
docilis modorum ; Intr. 60 b» 



296 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



VII. 

Diffugere nives, redeunt iam gramina campis 

arboribusque comae ; 
mutat terra vices et decrescentia ripas 

flumina praetereunt ; 
Gratia cum Nymphis geminisque sororibus audet 

ducere nuda chores. 
Immortalia ne speres, monet annus et almum 

quae rapit bora diem : 



VII. The ingredients which go 
to make up this ode are the same 
as those of I. 4, — the coming of 
spring, the uncertainty of life and 
sureness of death, the wisdom of 
enjoying while we may. The mate- 
riads, however, are here managed 
somewhat differently and with a 
freer hand. The rapid renewal of 
the seasons is made to remind us 
that the years are passing swiftly 
away, with no renewal for us ; and 
the studied symmetry of the earlier 
ode, in which these two motives 
are nicely balanced on the lesson 
they inculcate, is abandoned for a 
more natural sequence of thought. 
Torquatus, for whom the ode was 
written, was an advocate of some 
distinction, and was on terms of 
familiar acquaintance with the 
poet, as appears from Ep, I. 5, 
which is addressed to him. — 
Metre, 163. 

1. campis, arboribus: Intr. 53. 

2. comae: cf. I. 21. 5n, IV. 3. 
II. 

3. mutat terra vices : sum- 
ming up what has been partially 
expressed in the first couplet, 
terra is the face of the earth, and 
is further limited, by flumina fol- 
lowing, to the dry land, mutat is 
intransitive, as often in Livy, with 



vices as cognate object ; cf . Verg. 
G, I. 418 uH tempestas et caeli mo- 
bills umor \ mutavere vices. For 
the meaning of vices, cf. I. 4. i, 
III. 29. 13. — decrescentia: after 
the winter floods, due to melting 
snows on the mountains (cf. 12. 3 
sq^. 

4. praetereunt,^((mf by (instead 
of over), 

5. Gratia cum geminis soro- 
ribus: i.e. the three Graces (Aglaia, 
£uphrosyne, Thalia; Hes. Thecg-. 
909) ; cf. III. 19. 16 n. For the 
scene cf. I. 4. 6, where Venus, in- 
stead of the Graces, leads the 
dance. 

7. immortalia, immortality; dt. 
ipta, I. 34. 12 n. — ne speres, mo- 
net : cf; I. 18. 7, 8 nn. — annus, 
etc. : i.e. (i) the swift panorama of 
the seasons (set forth in detail in 
vss. 9-1 2), which the revolving year 
keeps ever before our eyes, and 
(2) the rapid flight of time as we 
eiq>erience it in our daily concerns. 
— almum: as the time of life- 
giving sunshine; cf. alme Sol, 
C. S. 9. 

8. rapit hora : cf. III. 29. 48 
quod fugiens semel hora vexit. It 
is the passage, not of the years, but 
of the hours, that brings home to 
us the rapid flight of time. 



VII. 1-20.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



297 



lO 



15 



20 



frigora raitescunt Zephyris, ver proterit aestas, 

interitura simul 
pomifer autumnus fruges effuderit, et mox 

bruma recurrit iners. 
Damna tamen celeres reparant caelestia lunae : 

nos ubi decidimus 
quo pater Aeneas, quo Tullus dives et Ancus, 

pulvis et umbra sumus. 
Quis scit an adiciant hodiernae crastina summae 

tempora di superi ? 
Cuncta manus avidas fugient heredis, amico 

quae dederis animo. 



9. Zeph3rris : see note on luz- 
vom, 1.4. I. — proterit, tramples 
dawn; of the devastating effect of 
the scorching heat on the bloom 
of spring; cf. Ov. M, II. 791 (In- 
vidia) quacumque ingreditur^ flo- 
renHa proterit arva \ exuritque 
herbas, 

10. interitura : Intr. 104 b. 

11. pomifer: cf. III. 23. 8 n, 
Epod. 2. 17. As in the latter pas- 
sage, autumn is personified. — ef- 
fuderit : as from a horn of plenty; 
cf. I. 17. i^sqq, 

12. iners : in contrast with na- 
ture's activity in other seasons. ' 

13. dagina caelestia: i.^. those 
of the seasons, as just described, 
having their origin in the air and 
sky (ceuium)t in contrast with us 
men of earth. — celeres lunae : 
i.e, the rapid succession of the 
months (cf. soles^ 5. 8 n). The 
moon, however, is put as a repre- 
sentative of the whole celestial 
system (Intr. 117). Cf. Cat, 5. 4 
soles occidere et redire possunt: \ 
nobis cum semel occidit brevis 
luXf I nox est perpetua una dor- 
mienda. 



14. decidimus : cf. Ep. II. i. 36 
sci^iptor abhinc annos centum qui 
decidit. 

15. quo pater Aeneas, etc. : 
sc. deciderunt, Cf. Ep, I. 6. 27 ire 
tamen restat Numa quo devenit et 
Ancus ; Lucr. III. 1025 lumina sis 
oculis etiam bonus Ancus reliquit 
(quoted from Ennius). — pater : 
cf. I. 2. 50 n, Verg. A, II. 2, etc. — 
Tullus dives : cf. Liv. I. 31. i cum 
in magfta gloria magnisque opibus 
regnum Tulli ac tota res Romana 
esset, 

16. pulvis : in the tomb; um- 
bra : in the underworld. 

17. quis scit, etc. : cf. I. 9. 13 
sqq.i Ep, I. 4. 12 sqq. — hodiemae 
summae (sc. temporum ; see I. 4. 
I5n): the sum that has accumu- 
lated thus far. 

19. cuncta, etc. : cf. II. 3. 20, 
14. 25 sqq, and Ep, I. 5. 13 (also 
addressed to Torquatus). This 
attitude towards the heir is emi- 
nently natural in a childless old 
fellow like Horace. — amico de- 
deris animo : suggested no doubt 
by such expressions as //. IX. 705 
TcTfifnrbfUPOi ^/Xof ^op I (tItov xal 



298 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



25 



Cum semel occideris et de te splendida Minos 

fecerit arbitria, 
non, Torquate, genus, non te facundia, non te 

restituet pietas. 
Infernis neque enim tenebris Diana pudicum 

liberat Hippolytum, 
nee Lethaea valet Theseus abrumpere caro 

vincula Pirithoo. 



oivou). But the habit of thought 
which marks off the emotions and 
appetites as a distinct portion of 
our nature (cf. ag^gr animi, etc.) 
easily takes the further step of at- 
tributing to the animus a quasi- 
separate existence and personality; 
cf. Plaut. Trin, 305 qui h<fmo cum 
animo inde db ineuntt aetdte de- 
pugndt suo, \ , . . si dnimus hami- 
turn pipulit^ actumst, dnimo servity 
nSn sibi; \ sin ipse animum pipulit^ 
vivity victor victonim duct. The 
conception of this personality, as 
we have it here, however, as a sort 
of numcn, to be kept contented and 
in good humor with us (amico), 
is more commonly expressed by 
genius (see III. 17. 14 n). 

21. semel: cf. I. 24. 16 n. — 
splendida, j/'a/^/v; Intr. 124. The 
splendor is that of his court. — 
Minos : cf . I. 28. 9 ; Verg. A. VI. 
432 sqq, 

23. genus : Torquatus belonged 
to the Manlian gens, among the 
oldest of the Roman noble houses. 
— facundia : there is an appropri- 
ateness in confronting the orator 
with the judgment-seat of Minos 
as a type of the inexorable doom 
of death. Notice that in the vary- 
ing metrical accent on non . . . 
non te . . . non te, the stress here 
falls on te. 

24. pietas : cf. II. 14. 2. 
25-28. Birth, eloquence, piety 



must fail where a goddess' love and 
a hero's strength have been baffled. 

26. Hippolytum : son of The- 
seus, beloved of Diana, and the 
victim of the fury of his step- 
mother, Phaedra, whose advances 
he had repulsed. Horace follows 
Euripides (ffippol, 1436 x^^.), and 
does not accept the Roman form of 
the myth (cf. \et%.A, VII. 761 sqq. 
and Ov.M. XV. 533 sqq.), according 
to which Hippolytus was restored 
to life and was the divinity wor- 
shipped in the grove of Diana at 
Aricia under the name of Virbias. 

27. abrumpere : Intr. 94 n. 

28. Pirithoo : see III. 4. 80 n. 

VIII. In this ode, written for 
C. Marcius Censorinus (consul 
B.C. 8), a man of amiable disposi- 
tion and literary tastes, Horace 
takes as his theme the value of 
poetry as a vehicle of enduring 
fame, and not only, as m III. 30, 
asserts its superiority over mate- 
rial monuments, but claims for it 
the power to confer actual immor- 
tality, and even divinity. The ode 
appears to have been sent as a 
present to Censorinus, perhaps at 
the season of the Saturnalia, — a 
circumstance that gives occasion 
for a preliminary comparison be- 
tween poems and material works 
of art, as gifts to a friend. — Metre, 
169. 



VII. 21-VIII. 9.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



299 



/■ 



VIII. 

Donarem patera^ grataque commodus, 

Censorine, meis aera sodalibus, 

donarem tripodas, praemia fortium 

Graiorunu neque tu pessima munerum 

ferres, divite me scilicet artium 

quas aut Parrhasius protulit aut Scopas, 

hie saxo, liquidis ille coloribus 

sellers nunc hominem ponere, nunc deum. 

Sed non haec mihi vis, non tibi talium 



1. pateras : see I. 19. 1511. — 
commodus : with donarem, as 
in Ep. II; I. 227 (»/ nos) €&mmodus 
ultra arcessas, and its opposite in 
Ep, I. 18. 75 i^e te) incommodus 
angat. Here, from its close con- 
nection with grata, it has the 
meaning of 'anticipating their 
tastes/ 

2. aera : the same kind of a 
plural as our equivalent, bronzes 
(Intr. 128), but referring here par- 
ticularly to the bronze vessels 
(X^/8i;res) which, like bowls and 
tripods, were often given as prizes 
(praemia) in the Greek national 
games. The three are mentioned 
together in Find. Isth. i. i3 ^^ r 
ddffXouri Biyov ir\ti<rr<av Aydnnap Kal 
rpir69€<rffiv iKdcftrjirav 86fuop Kal 

XePi/fTtvirip 4>^^^*^<^^ ff XP^^^ 
(cf. //. XXIII. 259, 264, 267, 270). 
Specimens of these * antiques,' of- 
ten elaborately wrought, had been 
brought to Rome in great numbers, 
and were highly prized. 

3. donarem: Intr. 116^. — 
fortium, gallant; as winners in 
the games. 

5. ferres : for auferres (cf. Intr. 
129), as often "mi^preHuntypalmamy 
etc.; cf. vs. 22, III. 16. 22; Ep, I. 



17. 43 tacentes plus poscente ferent, 
— divite me : expressing the con- 
dition of donarem, and introduced 
by scilicet, / tneany of course, — 
artium : used concretely, works of 
art; cf. Ep, I. 6. 17. 

6. Parrhasius : of Ephesus, a 
famous painter at Athens in the 
time of Socrates. He was a con- 
temporary and rival of Zeuxis, ac- 
cording to the well-known story of 
the painting of the grapes and the 
curtain. — protulit, ^r^a/^^; dt.Ep, 
II. 3. 58, 130; Tib. 1. 10. I quisfuit 
horrendos primus qui protulit en- 
ses? — Scopas : of Paros, the most 
eminent sculptor of his time (first 
half of 4th century B.C.). Many 
of his works were in Rome in 
Horace's day; cf. note on proles 
Niobea, 6. i. 

7. liquidis : suggesting by con- 
trast the hardness of the stone. 

8. ponere : apparently a techni- 
cal word for representing an object, 
either in sculpture or painting : cf . 
1. 20, Ep. II. 3. 34. For the mood, 
see Intr. loi c. 

9. non haec mihi vis, this is 
not in my power (i.e. to make such 
presents). For this use of vis 
cf. Epod, 5> 94* 



500 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



15 



res est aut animus delicianimjsgens : 
gaudes carminibus ; carmina possumus 
dpnare et pretium dicere muneri. 
Non incisa notis marmora publicis, 
per quae spiritus et vita redit bonis 
post mortem ducibus, non celeres fugae 
reiectaeque retrorsum Hannibalis minae, 
non incendia Carthaginis impiae 



10. res, animus : the meaning 
is that to make such presents to a 
man of means like Censorinus, 
even if Horace had the power to 
do it, would be merely giving him 
what he already had or could easily 
get, and did not really care for; 
whereas a poem, which Horace 
could give, was something he liked 
and could not buy. res is for res 
/ami/iariSf as £p. 1. 1. 80, II. 1. 106, 
and often. — deliciarum, bric-a- 
brac. For the case, see Intr. 66 c, 

11. For the arrangement of 
words in this verse, in which each 
of the three ideas expressed is in 
contrast with something that pre- 
cedes, see 'Intr. 116^ and e. 

12. pretium dicere : for the 
usual pretium statuere, pretium 
ponercy etc., and taking, like these, 
a dative of the thing assessed 
(muneri); cf. S. II. 3. 23 callidus 
huic signo (sc. pretium) ponebam 
milia centum, 

13. Horace here begins his pretii 
dictio, which continues to the end 
of the ode. ^— incisa : with instru- 
mental abl., as in Liv. VI. 29. 9 
tabula hisferme incisa litteris (Gr. 
225 </), instead of inciscte marmth 
ribus notctCf or the more common 
prose construction, in marmaribus; 
but Horace is comparing with poe- 
try, not the inscriptions, but the 
statues with their inscriptions. — 
notis : i.e, letters ; cf. Ov. TV. III. 



3. 71 quosque legat versus ocuh 
properante viator \ grandibus in 
tituli marmore ccude notis. — mar- 
mora : i.e. statues, as the relative 
clause shows. — publicis: set up 
by authority of the state (/>. by 
order of the senate). 

14. spiritus et vita: the same 
thing under two aspects (notice 
the number of redit); cf. 9. 10 sq. 
and 2. 28 n. For the thought, dP . 
Verg. A, VI. 847 excudent alii 
spirantia mollius aera, . . . vivos 
ducent de marmore voltus. 

15. ducibus: Intr. 53. — non 
celeres fugae, etc.: i.e. the dra- 
matic close of Hannibal's enter- 
prise and (if we accept vs. 17) the 
burning of the great city which 
had well-nigh conquered Rome, 
were events so impressive and of 
such momentous import, that they 
would of themselves, without any 
written record, carry the name of 
Africanus down through the ages; 
but these brilliant memories can- 
not equal the glory conferred by 
poetry. — fugae: from the field 
of Zama (b.c. 202). For the num- 
ber, see Intr. 128. 

16. reiectae minae: i>. the 
reduction of Carthage to the atti- 
tude of submission to which he 
had threatened to reduce Rome; 
cf. 3. 8. 

17. For the grounds for believ- 
ing this verse and other parts of 



VIII. IO-26.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



301 



20 



25 



eius, qui domita nomen ab Africa 
lucratus rediit, clarius indicant 
laudes quam Calabrae Pierides ; neque 
si chartae sileant quod bene feceris, 
mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae 
Mavortisque puer, si tacitumitas 
obstaret meritis invida^ Romuli ? 
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum 
virtus et favor et lingua potentium 



( 



the ode spurious, see Crit. App. 
— impiae : see note on perfidus^ 
4.49. 

18. eius: cf. III. 11. 17 n. — 
qui domita noxnen, etc.: cf. S. 

11. I. 66 qui duxit ab oppressa 
meriium Cartkagine nomen, ab 
Africa modifies dird kwpov both 
nomen lucratus and rediit ; Intr. 

76- 

19. lucratus, enriched l^^ richer 

by; an allusion perhaps to the 
indignant reply of Scipio to those 
who impugned his honesty in the 
management of his brother's Asi- 
atic campaign, — that his surname 
was the only profit he brought 
home from Africa; ^natn cum 
Africam toiam potestati vestrae 
subiecerim, nihil ex ea quod meum 
diceretur praeter cognomen rettuli* 
(Val. Max. III. 7. i d). 

20. Calabrae Pierides: i.e. the 
poetry of Knnius, a native of 
Rudiae, in Calabria, whose histor- 
ical epic, Atinales, included the 
second Punic war. He was, more- 
over, a close friend and admirer 
of Scipio, and wrote one or more 
separate poems in his honor. For 
Pierides, see note on Hcumo^ I. 

12. 6. 

21. chartae, books, literature. 
The word had come to be used 
for literary works, as in 9. 31, or 



even for definite portions of such 
works, as Cat. i. 6 omne aevum 
tribus explicare chartis (i.e. in three 
volumes). — sileant : used transi- 
tively, as in 9. 31. 

22. tuleris: the future perfect 
(Gr. 281 Rem.) carries the reader 
forward to the final result of the 
whole transaction: you will not 
have done a good deed without hav- 
ing received your just reward for it. 
— Iliae Mavortisque puer: cf. 6. 
37, I. 12. 25, and see I. 2. 17 n. 
Mayors is an old name of Mars, 
preserved in the ritual and adopted 
by the earlier poets. 

23. taciturnitas invida : cf. 9. 
33 lividas obliviones. We need 
not think here of envious detrac- 
tors, but only of the spite with 
which we readily endow whatever 
stands between us and what we 
regard as our just due. Cf. 5. 9n. 

25. Aeacum: see II. 13. 22 n. 
He was celebrated in particular 
by Pindar (Isth. 8. 23, etc.). 

26. virtuSf the genius ; properly 
their excellence {sc. as poets); cf. 
£p, II. 3. 370 actor causarum medi- 
ocris abest virtute diserti Messalae. 
Some editors, however, understand 
by virtus the merit of Aeacus 
himself. — potentium: as having 
power to grant or withhold im- 
mortality. 



302 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



vatum divitibus consecrat insulis. 
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori 
caelo Musa beat. Sic lovis interest 
30 optatis epulis impiger Hercules, 
clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab infimis 
quassas eripiunt aequoribus ratis, 
oraatus viridi tempora pampino 
Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus. 



27. divitibus insulis: see Epod. 
16. 42 n; for the case, Intr. 69. — 
consecrat, hallows^ i.e, makes im- 
mortal ; cf. sacrarCf I. 26. 1 1 n. 
For the number, see Intr. 77. 

29. caelo beat : i.e. deifies, — 
a step beyond the mere conferring 
of immortality (as in the case of 
Aeacus) expressed by vs. 28. — 
sic: i.e. through the power of 
poetry. The claim appears to in- 
volve a confusion between a purely 
subjective immortality in the mem- 
ory and worship of mankind, — 
immortality of fame, — and a real, 
objective existence and activity 
after death (cf . Tac. A. IV. 38. 5 
optimus quippe mortalium altissima 
cupere: sic Herculem et Liberum 
apud GraecoSf Quirinum apud nos 
deum numero additos ; . . . cetera 
principibus statim adesse: unum in- 
satiabiliter parandum^ prosper am 
sui metnoriam) ; but it is not nec- 
essarily a denial of the latter. 
Granted that Romulus, Hercules, 
and the rest have been translated 
to heaven, they still cannot dis- 
pense with the aid of the poets, 
who have made their glory known 
to men ; for without this they 
would not be worshipped, and so, 
in effect, would not be gods at all, 
but, like the rest of the dead, mere 
*pulvis et umbra.' Cf. Ov. Pont. 
IV. 8. 55 di quoque carminibus, si 
fas est diceret fiunt^ \ tantaque 



maiestas ore canentis eget. — inter- 
est epulis, etc.: in each of the 
three cases a particular privilege 
or function is put for the general 
fact that they are gods ; Intr. 117 a. 

30. optatis: as the object of 
his ambition; cf. Ep. II. 3. 412 
optatam cursu contingere metam. 

31. clarum sidus: in apposition 
with Tyndaridae ; cf. I. 3. 2 n. — 
ab infimis aequoribus, /t^t^m (go- 
ing tp) the bottom of the sea, 

32. quassas ratis : cf. I. i. 17. 

33. viridi tempora pampino: 
repeated from III. 25. 20. 

34. vota, etc. : so Vergil ex- 
presses the deification of Daphnis, 
E. 5. 79 ut Baccho Cererique, tibi 
sic vota quotannis \ agricolae foci- 
ent; damnabis (= bonos duces ad 
exitus) tu quoque votis, 

IX. M. Lollius (cos. B.C. 21), to 
whom this ode is addressed, was 
a trusted lieutenant of the emperor', 
who employed him on various im- 
portant missions. He organized, 
as first propraetor, the province of 
Galatia, and in B.C. 18 was made 
governor of Belgian Gaul, where, 
two years later, he suffered a hu- 
miliating defeat at the hands of 
the Sygambri (see intr. note to 
Ode 2). This reverse, however, 
in no wise lowered him in the 
esteem of his friends, — among 
whom we must reckon Horace, — 



VIII. 27-ix. 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



303 



IX. 

Ne forte credas interitura quae 
longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum 
non ante volgatas per artis 
verba loquor socianda chordis : 

non, si priores Maeonius tenet 
sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent 



nor of Augustus himself, who 
many years later (B.C. i) gave him 
the most important of the imperial 
provinces, Syria, together with the 
confidential post of companion 
and adviser to his grandson, Gaius 
Caesar, who was sent at that time 
on a mission to Armenia. But 
the conduct of LoUius in the East, 
according to common report, was 
either a complete reversal of his 
previous career, or else, as Velleius 
charges (II. 97), his true character 
was at last unmasked ; he was ac- 
cused, it was said, of receiving 
bribes right and left from the 
potentates who had favors to ask 
of the young Caesar; and his 
sudden death, shortly after this 
came out, was attributed to sui- 
cide. He was succeeded by C. 
Censorinus, to whom the preced- 
ing ode is addressed. 

It is singular that Horace should 
have placed on record, in one of his 
finest odes, his zealous testimony 
to the strict integrity of a man 
who died with such a reputation. 
But the evidence against Lollius 
is not free from doubt; Velleius, 
the chief witness, was a servile 
adherent of Tiberius, who was a 
personal enemy of Lollius. At 
any rate we may accept Horace's 
tribute, not only as the estimate 
in which Lollius was held when 
the ode was written, — probably 



not long after the disaster of B.C. 
16, to which vs. 36 appears to 
allude, — but as good evidence 
that up to that time his conduct 
had deserved the praise so lavishly 
bestowed. — Metre, 176. 

1 . ne credas : expressing the 
purpose of introducing the exam- 
ples in the second and following 
strophes ; cf. II. 4. l n. 

2. longe sonantem: cf. 14. 25 
sqq.y III. 30. 10; Intr. 3. — natus 
ad Aufidum : i.e. a mere provin- 
cial ; see also III. 30. ion. 

3. non ante volgatas : a more 
moderate statement of his claim 
than in III. 30. 13 sq.; cf. Intr. 
26. 

4. verba socianda chordis : 
a paraphrase for * lyric poetry.* — 
loquor: of poetical utterance, as 
in III. 25. 18, IV. 2. 45, etc. 

5. non si : see 11. 10. 17 n. The 
argument which begins here and 
extends through vs. 28 is very 
similar to that of Ode 8, with this 
difference, however, that Horace 
is here concerned to maintain the 
power of lyric poetry to confer 
permanent fame, and therefore be- 
gins by showing that lyric, though 
it yields precedence in dignity to 
epos, is no less enduring (vss. 5- 
12). — Maeonius : cf. I. 6. 2 n. 

6. Pindaricae (camenae): see 
2. 1-25 nn. — (non) latent, is not 
lost to sight. 



304 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



lO 



>5 



Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces 
Stesichorique graves camenae, 

neCy si quid olim lusit Anacreon, 

delevit aetas ; spirat adhuc amor 

vivuntque commissi calores 

Aeoliae fidibus puellae. 

Non sola comptos arsit adulter! 
crinis et aurum vestibus inlitum 
mirata regalisque cultus 
et comites Helene Lacaena, 



7. Ceae : see II. i. 38 n. — 
Alcaei : see Intr. 26. — minaces : 
alluding to his invectives against 
the tyrants of Lesbos; see I. 32. 
5 n, and cf. II. 13. 30 sqq. 

8. Stesichori: a poet of Hi- 
mera, in Sicily, contemporary with 
Alcaeus and Sappho, distinguished 
especially for peif ecting the choral 
ode. His subjects were chiefly 
the heroic myths usually treated 
in epic poetry (hence graves) ; 
Quintilian (X. i. 62) describes him 
as maxima bella et clarissimos ca- 
nentem duces et epici carminis 
onera lyra sustinentem ; reddit 
enim personis in agendo simul lo- 
quendoque debitam dignitatem. See 
also Epod. 17. 42 n. — camenae: 
here of Greek poetry, as (con- 
versely) PierideSf 8. 20, of Italian. 
Cf. Graiae camenae, II. 16. 38 n. 

9. nee si, etc.: i.e, and not only 
lyrics on serious themes (such as 
those just mentioned), but even 
those written in lighter strain sur- 
vive. — olim, in his day; see 4. 
5 n. — lusit: cf. I. 32. in; Cat. 
50. 4 scribens versiculos uterque 
nostrum \ ludebat numero modo 
hoc modo illoc, \ reddens mutua 
per iocum atque vinum. It is used 
here, as often, of love poetry ; cf. 



Ov. Am, III. I. 27 quod tenerae 
cantent lusit tua musa puellae; 
Cat. 68. 17. — Anacreon: bom 
in the island of Teos (cf. Epod. 
14. 10), but a resident of various 
Greek cities in succession; for a 
time at the brilliant court of Poly- 
crates, tyrant of Samos (B.C. 533- 
522), afterwards at Athens with 
Hipparchus. He was a courtier 
and man of pleasure, and a poet of 
love and gayety. (The collection 
of lyrics that bear his name are 
imitations, of a much later date.) 

10. spirat vivuntque; amor 
. . . calores : each pair expresses 
one thing under two aspects ; cf. 
spiritus et vita, 8. 14 n. For the 
use of the verbs, see Intr. 121. 

11. commissi fidibus (with 
both amor and calores): cf. .S*. 
II. I. 30 ille (Lucilius) velut fidis 
arcana sodcUibus olim \ credebat li- 
bris . . . quo fit ut omnis \ votiva 
pateat veluti descripta tabella \ vita 
senis ; so the warm passion of 
Sappho still lives and breathes 
before us in her poems. 

12. Aeoliae puellae (genitive, 
limiting fidibus): see Intr. 26 and 
II. 13. 24 sq, 

13-28. The argument here is 
for poetry in general, although 



IX. 7-25-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



305 



20 



25 



primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
direxit arcu ; non semel Ilios 
vexata ; non pugnavit ingens 
Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus 

dicenda Musis proelia ; non ferox 
Hector vel acer Deiphobus gravis 
excepit ictus pro pudicis 

coniugibus puerisque primus. 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 



the examples are drawn from epic 
only (Homer). The verses should 
be read with careful observance of 
the emphasis, which is helped by 
rhythmical position (non sdla 13, 
primusve 17, ndn semel 18, s6- 
lus 20, primus 24, multi and 
dmnes 26) and anaphora (non); 
see Intr. 116^ and/. 

13. comptos crinis: apparently 
the object dxd koipoO of both arsit 
(Intr. 72) and mirata; but the 
former is gradually lost sight of 
as the sentence proceeds, and does 
not apply at all to comites. For 
this characterization of Paris, cf. 
I. 15. 14. 

14. inlitum : lit. < smeared on/ 
implying extravagant and showy 
embroidery, in oriental style (pic- 
turatas auri iubUgmine vestis, Verg. 
A, III. 483). 

15.- mirata, fascinated by ; cf. 
I. 4. 19 n, Epod, 3. 10, Ep, I. 6. i. 
— cultus, state. 

16. Helene Lacaena: cf.Verg. 
A, II. 601 Tyndaridis Lacaenae, I. 
6 JO Argivae Helenae. The addition 
of the epithet is after the epic 
manner; cf. Vergil's Troius Aeneasj 
Sidonia Dido^ etc. 

17. Teucer: see I. 7. 21 n. He 
figures in the Iliad as the best 
bowman among the Greeks (//. 
X 1 1 1 . 3 1 3) . — Cydonio : ix, Cretan ; 



see 1. 1 5. 17 n. Cydonia was a town 
on the northern coast of Crete. 

18. Ilios, a Troy ; ix. the siege 
(vexata) of Troy was not the only 
great siege that ever took place. 
For the form, see 1. 10. 14 n. 

20. Idomeneus : leader of the 
Cretans in the Trojan war. — 
Sthenelus: see I. 15. 24 n. 

21. dicenda Musis proelia : 
cf . 4. 68 n. For proelia, as the 
object of pugnavit, see Intr. 51 ^. 
— non ferox, etc. : two instances 
from the side of the defenders of 
the city. 

22. vel : rarely used in subordi- 
nation to a negative, as here, though 
•ve is common. — Deiphobus : 
brother of Hector, and one of the 
bravest of the Trojans. For his 
subsequent fate, see Verg. A. VI. 

494 sqq- 

25. vixere: standing first with 

the same emphasis thaty^r^ would 
have in this position, — an empha- 
sis corresponding to that of the 
preceding negatives. The series 
of particular negations is here cut 
short, and the fact implied in all 
of them, — that there have been 
in the world's history many Helens, 
many Teucers, many Troys, — is 
summed up in a general affirmative 
statement, which serves to intro- 
duce the application of the whole 



:}06 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



multi ; sed omnes inlacrimabiles 
urgentur ignotique longa 
,' nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

Paulum sepultae distat inertiae 
30 celata virtus. Non ego te meis 
chartis inornatum silebo 
totve tuos patiar labores 

impune, LolH, carpere lividas 
obliviones. . Est animus tibi 
35 rerumque prudens et secundis 
temporibus dubiisque rectus, 



matter to the question in hand, 
the value of the poet. — ante 
Agamemnona : ue. before the 
Trojan war, in which all these 
heroes distinguished themselves. 

26. inlacrimabiles : not simply 
* unwept/ but beyond the reach of 
tears, or the like; see II. 14. 6n, 
and d.Jlebilis, I. 24. 9. 

27. urgentur nocte : cf. 1. 24. 5 
Quintilium perpetuus sopor urget; 
I. 4. 16 iam tepremet nox. 

28. quia : Intr. 114. — sacro : 
because inspired (cf. 3. 24, 6. 29), 
and singled out for the service of 
the Muses (III. i. 3), and enjoying 
their favor and protection (III. 4. 
21 sqq.). 

29. paulum, etc. : the moral of 
the whole discourse, forming the 
transition to the tribute to Lollius: 
The sluggard dies, and his frailties 
are buried with him and forgotten; 
the hero is in no better case if 
his merits are not made known to 
men. — inertiae, virtus : abstract 
for concrete, as in III. 2. 17, 21; 
4. 67; Ep. II. I. 88. For the case 
of inertiae, see Intr. 57. 

30. non ego te : cf. 1. 18. 11 n. 

31. chartis silebo: cf. 8. 2 in. 
— inornatum: proleptic. 



32. labores : ue, arduous e^er* 
tions ; cf. 4. 6. The word falls 
short of expressing achievement, 
and is appropriate in the defense 
of a man whose merits are under 
the cloud of temporary defeat (see 
intr. note). 

33. irapune, unhindered. — car* 
pere, to prey upon. The word aptly 
expresses the wearing and disin- 
tegrating effect of time. — lividas 
obliviones : cf. 8. 23 n ; Intr. 128. 

34. animus, a soul. 

35. rerum prudens : of the 
wisdom of experience (the oppo- 
site of rerum inscitia, Ep. I. 3. 
33), in contrast with native gifts ; 
cf. Verg. G. I. 416 ingenium aut 
rerum prudentia. 

36. dubiis, critical ; a variation 
on adversis ; cf. II. 10. 13, Tac. 
Ann. I. 64. 6 secundarum ambigu- 
arumque rerum sciens. — rectus, 
steadfast ; properly * erect * (cf . the 
literal use in 4. 48), * not losing its 
balance.' 

37. vindex, etc. : i>. at once 
a champion and an example of 
strict integrity. This is the one 
idea which Horace dweHs upon 
through this and the next strophe, 
— the strength of Lollius' charac- 



IX. 26-48.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



307 



vindex avarae f raudis et abstinens 
ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae, 
consulque non unius anni, 
40 sed quotiens bonus atque fidus 

index honestum praetulit utili, 
reiecit alto dona nocentium 

voltu, per obstantis catervas [^ 
explicuit sua victor arma. 

45 Non possidentem multa vocaveris 
recte beatum ; rectius occupat 
nomen beati, qui deorum 
muneribus sapienter uti 






ter, which not only loathes venality 
and punishes it in others, but can 
itself resist temptation. For the 
use of vindex, consul, iudex with 
animus, cf. Verg. ^. IX. 205 ani- 
mus lucts canUmptor ; Liv. I. 56. 
8 liberator ilU populi Romani ani- 
mus (of Brutus). — avarae : i.e. 
prompted by greed. — abstinens 
pecuniae : see Intr. 66 c. 

38. ducentis; sc. by its fasci- 
nation. — cuncta, all the world, 
with the usual reservation in favor 
of a < saving remnant.' 

39. consul, etc.: in a purely fig- 
urative sense: incorruptible char- 
acter has an intrinsic strength that 
exalts it above common men at 
all times when its power is dis- 
played (quotiens, etc) ; its em- 
inence is not temporary and acci- 
dental, like that of a politician 
raised to office for a few months. 
Cf. III. 2. 17 n, where the same 
figure is employed. It was sug- 
gested, no doubt, by the ideal sage 
of the Stoics, who unites in himself 
all perfections. 

41. iudex, as a judge, — hones- 
tum utili, virtue to expediency. — 



praetulit: in the manner indicated 
in the next clause. 

42. reiecit: for the asyndeton 
here and in the next verse, cf. 5. 
17-24, 8. 29-33, m* ^8. 9-16. — 
dona, bribes. 

43. catervas : sc. nocentium^ 
who are compared to a swarm of 
foes through whom a brave war- 
rior has to force his way to escape 
capture or the loss of his arms. 

44. explicuit: />. has brought 
safely (out of the entanglement), 
has shaken them off, with his weap- 
ons intact. Cf. expediunf, 4. 76. 

45. non possidentem, etc.: the 
poet's approval of the principles 
he has ascribed to his friend, not 
only as right, but as the true foun- 
dation of happiness. Cf. Ep. 1. 16. 
20 neve putes alium sapiente bonoque 
beatum. — possidentem: Intr. 103. 
— vocaveris: cf. scripserit, I. 6. 
14 n. The subject is indefinite. 

46. recte beatum, rectius be- 
ati: Intr. 116^. — rectius occu- 
pat, takes with a better claim. 

47. beati: defining gen., the reg- 
ular construction in such phrases ; 
cf. nomen poetaet 6. 30 n. 



i;\' 






306 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



duramque callet pauperiem pati 
50 peiusque leto flagitium timet, 
non ille pro caris amicis 
aut patria timidus perire. 



X. 

O crudelis adhuc et Veneris muneribus potens, 
insperata tuae cum veniet pluma* superbiae 
et quae nunc umeris involitant deciderint comae, 
nunc et qui color est puniceae flore prior rosae 



49. pauperiem pati: cf. I. i. 
18 n. For the inf., see Intr. 94 0. 

50. peius: colloquial for magis^ 
with expressions of fear and aver- 
sion ; ^. Ep, I. 17. 30 cane peius 
et angui vitabit cklamydem; Cic. 
Fam, VII. 2. 3 oderam muito peius 
hunc quam ilium ipsum Clodium. 
So male = valde^ as Ter. HeauU 
531 timui male ; Plaut. Rud, 920 
nimis id genus odi ego male mala- 
cum. With a verb expressing 
favorable feeling, deterius is used 
with weakening effect (= minus) 
in S. I. 10. 89 si placeant spe de- 
terius nostra (cf. I. 9. 24 n). 

51. non ille: the pronoun serves 
to Dring the subject into renewed 
prominence and single him out 
from the mass of mankind; cf. 
neque tu, I. g. 16 n ; Verg. A. I. 3. 

52. timidus perire: Intr. loi a. 

X. The graver themes which 
preponderate in this book are here 
interrupted by four odes in lighter 
strain, dealing with love and social 
enjoyment. The first of them is 
constructed in the same form as 
I. II, and, like that ode, is a warn- 
ing: * Beauty fades. Be not too 
disdainful, proud boy, of the ad- 
mirers who now court your favor: 



the time will quickly come when 
you will sigh in vain for the hom- 
age which you now hold so lightly.' 
Horace found his theme already 
treated in his Crreek models; cf. 
AntA. Pal, XII. 35, 186. For 
the passionate admiration of the 
Greeks for youthful beauty, cf. 
Cat. 63. 64 sqq. — Metre, 170. 

1. Veneris muneribus: cf . 7/. 
III. 54 rd re dQfi *A^pod/ri7s, ^ re 
K6fi7j rh re eT<8ds; I. 18. 7 munera 
Liheri, 

2. insperata: ue. before you 
have begun to think of it ; to be 
taken with veniet. — tuae super- 
biae: poetical for tibi superbo; 
see Intr. 126 3, and, for the case, 
Intr. 53. — pluma, down^ precisely 
as we use the word ; but it is not 
found elsewhere in this sense. 

3. umeris involitant: cf. III. 
20. 14, and, for the custom of boys 
wearing their hair long, like girls, 
II. 5. 21 sqq, — deciderint : i.e, 
when shorn. The occasion was 
attended with some formality ; cf . 
Juv. III. 186 crirtem hie deponit 
amati ; plena domus libis, 

4. nunc : Intr. 1 14. — color : i>. 
the cheeks (cf. in faciem verterit). 
— puniceae, red, red; cf. III. 15. 
1 5, where purpureus is used. The 



IX. 49-xi- 6.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



309 



5 mutatus, Ligurine, in faciem verterit hispidam, 
dices * Heu/ quotiens te speculo videris alterum, 
'quae mens est hodie, cur eadem non*puero fuit, 
vel cur his animis incolumes non redeunt genae ? ' 



XI. 

Est mihi nonum superantis annum 
plenus Albani cadus ; est in horto, 
Phylli, nectendis apium coronis ; 
est hederae vis 

multa, qua crinis religata f ulges ; 
ridet argento domus ; ara castis 



latter was a darker (cf. II. 5. 12 n), 
puniceus a clearer red (scarlet). 

5. Ligurine : cf. i. 33. — ^verte- 
rit : intransitive. 

6. speculo: instrumental abl. 
The speculum was commonly of 
bronze or silver ; see Baumeister, 
III. pp. 1 691 sqq, — alterum: i>. 
changed beyond recognition. Cf . 
III. 5. 34 n. 

7. puero : sc. mihi. 

8. animis : Intr. 53. 

XI. An ode in honor of Mae- 
cenas' birthday. The poet repre- 
sents himself, in the midst of 
preparations for a festival, wel- 
coming his fair neighbor Phyllis, 
and explaining to her the nature 
of the celebration which he has 
invited her to share. The scene, 
which is similar to that of III. 28, 
is in the country. We need not 
trouble ourselves to locate it more 
definitely. The ode is chiefly in- 
teresting for its quiet testimony to 
Horace's continued affection for 
his old friend Maecenas, who is 
mentioned here only in this book 
(see Intr. 32). — Metre, 174. 



2. Albani : accounted one of 
the three or four best wines known 
to the Romans; cf. S. II. 8. 16. 

3. nectendis coronis: dative 
of purpose or service (cf . Intr. 59), 
a construction surviving in prose 
chiefly in legal phrases (Gr. 299 ^); 
cf. Liv. IV. 43. 10 non ducem scri- 
bendo exercitui esse. — apium : cf . 
I. 36. 16, II. 7. 24. 

4. vis multa, a plentiful supply. 
ViSf in this apparently colloquial 
use, is often found in Cicero, as 
Verr. II. 4. 103 magna vis eboris ; 
Tusc. V. 91. 

5. qua : with fulges only. — 
crinis religata: cf. II. 11. 24; 
Intr. 42. — lulges: a stronger word 
than nites^ I. 5. 13 ; so we speak 
of * brilliant * or * dazzling ' beauty. 
It is probably from fulgeo^ but 
may be future, from an old form 
fulgOy which Vergil has, A. VI. 
826. 

6. ridet : i.e. is bright and cheer- 
ful. The plate has been cleaned 
and polished for the occasion ; cf . 
Juv. 14. 59 hospite venture cessabit 
nemo tuorum; \ *Verre pcnnmentumy 
nitidas ostende columnas, | • . • hie 



310 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



15 



vincta verbenis avet immolato 
spargier agno ; 

cunCta festinat manus, hue et illuc 
cursitant mixtae pueris puellae ; 
sordidum flammae trepidant rotantes 
vertice fumum. 

Vt tamen noris quibus advoceris 
gaudiiSy Idus tibi sunt agendae, 
qui dies mensem Veneris marinae 
findit Aprilem, 



I eve argentutn^ vasa aspera ter- 
geat alter"*; Ep. I. 5. 7 iamdudum 
splendet focus et tibi munda supel- 
lex ; ib. 23 ne non et cantharus et 
lanx ostendat tibi te. Rideo in this 
sense was a favorite word with 
Lucretius, as I. 8 rident aequora 
ponti ; III. 22 (divum sedes) large 
diffusa lumine rident. Catullus 
uses it even of odors, 64. 284 domus 
iucundo risit odore. — ara vincta 
verbenis: cf. I. 19. 13, 14 nn. 

7. immolato ag^o = immola- 
tioru (caede) agni (Intr. 105 <z); cf. 
Verg. A. IV. 21 sparsos fraterna 
caede Penates. 

8. spargier : archaic pres. inf., 
found here only in the lyric poems, 
but five times in the Satires and 
Epistles. 

9. manus: i.e.familia. 

10. pueris: see I. 19. 14 n; for 
the case, Intr. 56. — pueUae : i.e. 
ancillaey as its connection with 
pueris shows. It is very seldom 
used in this sense. 

11. sordidum, sooty. — trepi- 
dant: cf. III. 27. 17 n. Even the 
fire on the hearth seems to share 
in the general flutter of eager ex- 
pectation pictured above in avet, 
festinat, cursitant. — rotantes 
vertice, whirling round. 



13. ut noris: the purpose of 
the following explanation, Idus, 
etc.; cf. 9. I n ; Ep. I. 12. 25 ne 
tamen ignores quo sit Romana loco 
reSf Cantabery etc.; S. II. i. 80. — 
advoceris: here in the sense of 
adhiberiSf and with the same con- 
struction; cf. 5. 32 te mensis ad- 
hibet. 

15. mensem Veneris: there 
were various explanations of this. 
Horace has in mind the one ac- 
cording to which Aprilisy like 
'Atppodlrrif derived its name from 
d4»pbs, sea-foaniy being the month 
in which the goddess rose out of 
the sea (hence marinae; see III. 
26. 5 n). The month was no doubt 
sacred to her because of her ac- 
tivity at that season of the year ; 
see I. 4. 5 n, and cf. Ov. F. IV. 
I sqq. 

16. findit: according to the sup- 
posed derivation of Idus from idu- 
arcy an old word of Etruscan origin, 
meaning < to divide * (Macrob. Sat. 
I. 15. 17). 

17. soUemnis: the same as 
festus in III. 8. 9. — sanctior: the 
difference between sollemnis dies 
and sanctus dies is much the same 
as between * holiday' and *holy 
day.* Cf. Tib. IV. 5. i qui mihi te^ 



XI. 7-28.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



311 



20 



25 



iure sollemnis mihi sanctiorque 
paene natali proprio, quod ex hac 
luce Maecenas meus adfluentis 
ordinat annos. 

Telephum, quern tu petis, occupavit 
non tuae sortis iuvenem puella 
dives et lasciva, tenetque grata 
compede vinctum. 

Terret ambustus Phaethon avaras 
spes, et exemplum grave praebet ales 
Pegasus terrenum equitem gravatus 
Bellerophontem, 



Cerinthe^ dies dedity hie mihi sanc- 
tus I atquc inter festos semper 
habendus erit. 

1 8. paene: d. prope^ 14. 20 n. 

19. luce: cf. 6. 4211. — adflu- 
entis, gathering; lit. * flowing to * 
him. The word contains no sug- 
gestion of old age or decline, like 
our * advancing ' years, but rather 
of an increased store of what the 
years bring; see II. 5. 14 n. 

20. ordinat, reckons. The lit- 
eral meaning is, that he makes 
out the series of his years with 
the Ides of April for the starting 
point (ex hac luce) of each, and 
not e.g. the Kalends of January, 
as it would be in the case of the 
calendar year. 

21. Telephum: the same name 
is used in I. 13. i and III. 19. 26. 
— petis: as in I. 33. 13, III. 19. 
27, and often. — occupavit ; with 
its usual sense of anticipation : 
* has got possession of him before 
you.' 

22. non tuae sortis : i.e. above 
your station in life. 

23. dives : so that you cannot 
hope to compete with her. The 



warning carries with it the sooth- 
ing intimation that her failure to 
win casts no reflection on her per- 
sonal attractions ; the contest was 
unequal from the outset. Observe 
the chiastic arrangement of the 
attributes of iuvenem and puella. 
— tenet grata compede: cf. I. 

33- 14. 

25. terret : for the position, cf. 

monety 1. 18. 8. — ambustus Phae- 
thon: Intr. 105 a. 

26. grave : there is only mock 
seriousness, of course, in the pres- 
ent application of it. — ales: cf. I. 
2. 42, III. 12. 2. 

27. terrenum : hence unfit to 
consort with a creature of the air 
(ales), and teaching by his fate the 
lesson ut disparem vites, as well 
as the sin of unlawful ambition 
(ultra quam licet sperare nefas). 
It was said that Bellerophon, after 
his victory over the Chimaera (cf. 
I. 27. 24), attempted to fly to 
heaven on Pegasus, with the result 
here indicated. — gravatus: Intr. 
51 a. 

28. Bellerophontem : see III. 
7. 15 n. 



312 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



semper ut te digna sequare et ultra 
30 quam licet sperare nefas putando 
disparem vites. Age iam, meorum 
finis amorum, 

(non enim posthac alia calebo 
femina,) condisce modos, amanda 
35 voce quos reddas ; minuentur atrae 
carmine curae. 



XII. 

lam veris comites, quae mare temperant, 
impellunt animae lintea Thraciae ; 
iam nee prata rigent nee fluvii strepunt 
hibema nive turgidi. 



29. ut sequare, etc.: depending 
loosely on the notion of instruction 
contained in ezemplum ; cf. Ter. 
Heaut, 51 eximplutn statuite in met 
ut aduleschttuli \ voHs placere stil- 
deant potius qudm sibi, and the use 
of an indirect question with exem- 
plar proposuit^ Ep, 1. 2. 1 7 . — digna : 
cf. ima summisy I. 34. 12 n. 

30. putando: approaching the 
use of the present participle ; Gr. 
301 (footnote). 

31. age iam, etc. : the conclu- 
sion of the plea : < Better content 
yourself, then, with me ; and come, 
let us enjoy the day- together.' 

32. finis: cf. Prop. I. 12. 19 ml 
neque amare aliam neque ab hac 
desistere fat est; \ Cynthia prima 
fuitt Cynthia finis erit, — amo«- 
rum: cf. I. 27. 17 n. 

33. alia calebo : cf. quo calet^ 
I. 4. 19 n; Intr. 72. 

34. condisce : i.e. ' let me teach 
you.* 

35. reddas : see 6. 43 n. — atrae 
curae : cf. III. i. 40 n, 14. 13. 



XII. We have in this ode the 
same elements as in 1. 4 and IV. 7. 
It opens with a picture of spring. 
The increasing warmth brings 
thirst, and on this the poet hinges 
an invitation to his friend to join 
him in a carous^, to which each 
shall contribute an equitable share. 
The reminder of the shortness of 
life, so prominent in the two odes 
named, is brought in here also, but 
only as a momentary thought (vs. 
26). Of the friend addressed, 
Vergilius, we l^now with certainty 
nothing beyond what the lines re- 
veal. That it was the author of 
the Aeneid is not impossible, if 
we suppose that Horace published 
some years after Vergil's death a 
poem which he had written in his 
lifetime, and that two allusions 
(vss. 15 and 25) which appear to 
contradict what we know of Vergil 
had their explanations in circum- 
stances unknown to us ; but it is 
highly improbable. The Vergilius 
of this ode we may conjecture was 



XI. 29-XII. 10.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



313 



5 



10 



Nidum ponit, Ityn flebiliter gemens, 
infelix avis et Cecropiae domus 
aeternum opprobrium, quod male barbaras 
regum est ulta libidines. 

Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium 
custodes ovium carmina fistula 



a younger friend of Horace, who 
was trying to better his fortunes 
by attaching himself to one and 
another of the great men of the 
day, or possibly a man who was 
brought into close relations with 
noble patrons by his professional 
work. In one manuscript he is 
called medicus Neronuniy which is 
worthless as testimony, but con- 
tains a suggestion. (The 1 3th poem 
of Catullus, in which a similar in- 
vitation is given, may well be read 
with this ode, by way of compar- 
ing the two poets.) — Metre, 172. 

1. veds comites : cf. 7. 9, I. 4. 
I n, Ep. I. 7. 13. For comites, 
cf. I. 25. 19 hiemis sodali^ Euro, — 
temperant, calm. 

2. impellunt lintea: i,e. naviga- 
tion is already open ; cf. I. 4. 2. — 
Thraciae: a literary epithet, as 
applied to the Zephyriy of Homeric 
origin ; cf. //. IX. 5 Bop^f ml 
Z44>vpoi^ T<b re Qfyiicifiev (Ltitov. It is 
more commonly applied to Boreas 
(Aquilo); cf. 1. 25. 1 1 n, Epod. 13.3. 

3. prata: cf. 1. 4. 4. — nee fluvii, 
etc.: cf. 7. 3 J^. 

5. Ityn : son of the Thracian 
king Tereus and Procne, daughter 
of Pandion, king of Athens. His 
mother killed him, and served up 
his flesh to his own father in re- 
venge (male ulta) for the outrage 
the latter had committed on her 
sister Philomela. When Tereus 
discovered the crime, and pursued 
the two sisters, all three were 
changed into birds. (See Ov. M. 



VI. 424 s^f.) There is a confusion 
of names in the myth. According 
to the form adopted by Roman 
writers, Procne was turned into 
a swallow, and Philomela into a 
nightingale (<f.^. Verg. G. IV. 15, 
Ov. E. II. 853 s^g.). For the case of 
Ityn, see Intr. 51 a, — flebiliter 
gemens : properly descriptive of 
the nightingale's plaintive note, 
and it is possible that Horace so 
intends it, following the other form 
of the myth and the example of 
the Greek poets, in whom the 
nightingale is associated with the 
spring (cf. Odys. XIX. 518; Sappho 
Er. 19 ^pos A77e\os, lfiefi64><avos 
irfdibv); but the swallow was pro- 
verbially, among both Greeks and 
Romans, the sign of spring, and is 
probably intended by avis infelix 
here. Cf. Ep, I. 7. 12 /^, du/cts 
amice, reviset \ cum Zephyris et 
hirundine prima, > 

6. Cecropiae domus : the At- 
tic dynasty of which Cecrops was 
the founder. 

7. male: in reference not to the 
act of vengeance, but to the man- 
ner of it. — barbaras : Intr. 124. 

8. regum : the plural general- 
izes, and defines the conduct of 
Tereus as characteristic of his 
class, so that it is substantially 
equivalent to regias ; cf . virginum, 
III. 27. 38 n. 

9. dicunt carmina : cf . C. S. 8, 
and see I. 6. 5 n. 

10. fistula : see 1. 17. ion; and 
for the case, I. 17. 18 n. 



314 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



»S 



20 



delectantque deum cui pecus et nigri 
colles Arcadiae placent. 

Adduxere sitim tempora, Vergili ; 
sed pressum Calibus ducere Liberum 
si gestis, iuvenum nobilium cliens, 
nardo vina merebere. 

Nardi parvus onyx eliciet cadum, 
qui nunc Sulpiciis accubat horreis, 
spes donare novas largus amaraque 
curarum eluere efficax. 



1 1 . deum : />. Faunus, here, as 
in 1. 17. 1 sqq., identified with Pan. 
-*- nigri colles : cf. nigris Ery- 
manthi si/vis, I. 21. 7 n. 

14. pressum Calibus: cf. 1. 20. 
9n. — ducere :'cf. I. 17. 22 n. — 
Liberum: Intr. 130. 

1 5. iuvenum nobilium : the 
word iuvenum appears to indi- 
cate definite persons, but we have 
no means of knowing who they 
were. — cliens : t^. accustomed to 
be invited to their tables, where 
he was not required to contribute 
anything, — the same thought that 
is expressed in vs. 24. 

16. nardo: see II. 11. 16 n. — 
vina : Intr. 1 28. The plural here 
obviously refers to a single jar. — 
merebere : equivalent to a mild 
command ; cf . Intr. 90. 

17. nardi : Intr. 116^. — par- 
vus : the nard was very costly ; 
cf. JV. T. Mark 14. 3 sqq, — onyx : 
usually denoting, when masculine, 
a box to hold ointment, originally 
one made of alabaster (cf. Plin. 
N,H. XX XVI. 60 hunc aliqui 
lapidem {pnychem) * alabastriten* 
vocanty quern cavant et ad vasa un- 
guentariay quoniatn optime servare 
mcorrupta dtcatur)^ but later an 
ointment box of any material. — 



eliciet : a personification of the 
cadus similar to that of III. 21. i 
sqg. 

18. Sulpiciis: cf. Intr. 65; but 
this was the regular usage in the 
case of gentile and other personal 
names that were originally adjec- 
tives; cf. Claudiae manus, 4. 73 ; /ex 
Cornelia, Julius {tnensis), Colania 
Agrippina^ historia Augusta^ etc. 
The horrea Sulpicia stood at the 
foot of the Aventine, where the 
hill borders on the river, among 
numerous other buildings of the 
kind, which gave to the district 
the name of Uhe Warehouses* 
(Horrea). It was built by the Galba 
family (hence also called Galbiand), 
and existed in Porphyrio's day 
(4th century or earlier), * vino et 
oleo et similibus aliis referta.' The 
poet's wine is stored there. — ac- 
cubat, reclines^ the cadus having 
no base ; see Baumeister III. fig. 
2335. 

19. spes donare: cf. III. 21. 17. 
For the infinitive, see Intr. loi b. 
— amara curarum : Intr. 64. 

20. eluere: cf. III. 12. i mala 
vino lavere. For the mood, see 
Intr. loi b. 

21. properas: here expressing 
not haste in coming, but haste 



XII. ii-xiii. 4-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



315 



25 



Ad quae si properas gaudia, cum tua 
velox merce veni ; non ego te meis 
immunem meditor tinguere poculis, 
plena dives ut in domo. 

Verum pone moras et studium lucri, 
nigrorumque memor, dum licet, ignium 
misce stultitiam consiliis brevem : 
dulce est desipere in loco. , 



. /' 



XIII. 



Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota, di 
audivere, Lyce : fis anus ; et tamen 
vis formosa videri, 

ludisque et bibis impudens 



(eagerness) to come ; cf. S. 1. 9. 40 
et propero (I am in a hurry to go) 
quo sets. — gaudia: cf. 11. 14. 

22. merce : i>. the nard. 

23. immunem, seot-free, i.e, 
without paying your contribution ; 
in Greek, dff^ix^\oPf which Terence 
has in Phor. 339 ctsymbolutn venire 
(sc. ad cenam), — tinguere : collo- 
quial, like siccus and uvidus (5. 39), 
irriguus (S. II. i. 9). 

24. plena domo : cf. II. 12. 24. 

25. verum, hit really (breaking 
off the banter); the word occurs 
here only in the lyric poems. — 
moras: the plural (Intr. 128), of 
delay persisted in for one reason 
after another. — studium lucri : 
see intr. note. 

26. nigrorum : see I. 24. 18 n. 

27. consUiis, 7uith your wisdom, 
Cf. III. 28. 4, and for the case, 
see Intr. 56. 

28. dulce est desipere: a Greek 
idea; cf. Sen. Dia/. IX. 17. 10 sive 
Graeco poetae credimuSf *aliquando 



et insanire iucundum est*; Menan- 
der IV. 196 M. od xai^raxoO rh 
tf>p6vifMv dpijJyrrei wofidv, Kal avfi- 
fjMv^vai d* ^I'la Set. — in loco : cf. 
£p. I. 7. 57 et proper are loco et 
cessare; Ter. Ad. 216 peciiniam 
in locd neglegere mdximum inter- 
diimst lucrum. 

XIII. The Lyce who figures in 
this ode as a fading beauty may 
very well have been the same in 
the poet's fancy as the Lyce of 
III. 10, where her coldness and 
arrogance were well suited to call 
out the imprecations on her lover's 
part, the fulfillment of which he 
here recognizes with malicious 
glee. The subject is the same as 
that of III. 15 and I. 25. — Metre, 

173- 
I. audivere, etc.: the repetition 

(Intr. 116^) is that of taunting 

exultation. — vota : cf. II. 8. 6 n. 

4. ludis: cf. III. 15. 5, II. 12. 

19 n. 



316 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



lO 



IS 



et cantu tremulo pota Cupidinem 
lentum sollicitas. lUe virentis et 
doctae psallere Chiae 

pulchris excubat in genis ; 

importunus enim transvolat aridas 
quercus et refugit te quia luridi 
dentes, te quia rugae 
turpant et capitis nives ; 

nee Coae referunt iam tibi purpurae 
nee cari lapides tempora quae semel 
notis condita fastis 
inclusit volucris dies. 



5. tremulo : the effect of wine 
on a voice /nade unsteady by age. 

6. lentum, torpid, unresponsive; 
different from lentus amor, HI. ig. 
28. The same* difference exists 
between S. I. 9. 64 vellere coepi et 
pressure manu lentissima bracchia 
and Epod. 15. 6 lentis adhaerens 
bracchiis. — virentis : cf. I. 9. 17. 

7. psallere: Intr. loi c. — Chiae: 
a name like Delia, Lesbia, etc. It 
occurs in several inscriptions as a 
freedwoman's name. 

8. excubat, keeps watch; i,e. 
lurks there, ready to attack those 
who come within bowshot. 

9. importunus, the unmannerly 
boy. — aridas : in contrast with vi- 
rentis^ 6; cf. I. 25. 17, 19. 

10. quercus : a type of long 
life. — te quia . . . te quia : the 
dir6 Koivw construction (Intr. 76) is 
helped out by the anaphora, te in 
vs. 10 being felt to be the object 
of refugit, while in vs. 11, where 
its repetition with quia serves to 
continue the dependent clause with 
another subject (Intr. 116^), it is 
felt to be a part of that clause and 
the object of turpant. 



12. capitis nives: cf. Lowell's 
' Singer with the crown of snow.' 
The metaphor, so familiar to us, 
appears not to occur in classical 
literature before Horace (though 
Catullus, according to some texts, 
wrote niveo vertice, 64. 309). Quin- 
tilian (VIII. 6. 17) condemns it as 
harsh and founded on too remote 
a likeness, coupling in his censure 
this passage with a verse of the 
poet Furius which Horace himself 
ridicules, ^. II. 5. 41. 

13. Coae : the silk stuffs manu- 
factured in the island of Cos were 
notorious for their fine, semi- 
transparent texture, which made 
them a favorite material with the 
class of which Lyce is a type. 

15. notis condita fastis in- 
clusit : Intr. 76. The meaning is 
that she cannot get back her past 
years or disguise the fact that they 
are past, because they are, as it 
were, securely stored away and 
locked up in the calendar, where 
they are known to all men. For 
the part attributed to the volucris 
dies in the flight of time, cf. rapit 
hora diem, 7. 8 n. 



XIII. S-2S.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



317 



20 



25 



Quo fugit venus, heu, quove color, decens 
quo motus ? Quid habes illius, illius, 
quae spirabat amores, 
quae me surpuerat mihi, 

felix post Cinaram notaque et artium 
gratarum facies ? Sed Cinarae brevis 
annos fata dederunt, 
servatura diu parem 

cornicis vetulae temporibus Lycen, 
possent ut iuvenes visere fervidi 
multo non sine risu 

dilapsam in cineres facem. 



18. illius, illius: Intr. 116^. 
The genitive is partitive, limiting 
quid. 

19. spirabat amores: Intr. 51 
d (2) ; cf. Prop. I. 3. 7 (of the 
sleeping Cynthia) visa mihi mol- 
lem spirare quietetn. 

20. surpuerat: colloquial syn- 
copation of surripuerat; cf. sur- 
pitcj S. II. 3. 283, and see Intr. 

183. For the thought, cf. Cat. 51. 
3 qui sedens adversus identidetn 
te I spectat et audit \ dulce rideti- 
tentf misero quod otnnis eripit 
sensus mihi. 

21. felix i^ostf favored above all 
but. For post, cf. III. 9. 6 n. — 
Cinaram: see i. 4n. — nota: she 
was one of the noted beauties of 
the day. — artium gratarum, of 
winning graces; descriptive gen- 
itive. Some, however, make et = 
etiamy and join the genitive with 
nota, as in II. 2. 6. 

22. facies: here not the face, 
but her whole appearance, — a 



vision^ a figure; cf. Ter. Eun. 296 
o fdciem pulcram ! dileo omnis de- 
hinc ex animo miilieres. 

24. servatura : Intr. 104 a. — 
parem: proleptic, — to equals to 
attain. 

25. vetulae, poor old; collo- 
quial (cf. vs. 20 n) and disparag- 
ing ; cf . the more dignified annosa 
cornix. III. 17. 13 n. — tempori- 
bus, the years (we require in Eng- 
lish a definite measure of time to 
form such a plural). 

26. possent ut, 6tc., to give . . . 
a chance to behold. The point of 
the sarcasm is that Lyce is a 
woman who will subject her fad- 
ing charms to the ridicule of the 
iuvenes fervidi, — Whence the fates 
have selected her as the instru- 
ment of their purpose. 

28. dilapsam in cineres, crum- 
bled to ashes, in expresses the 
result of the change, as in portus 
curvatus in arcum (Verg. A. III. 
533) and the like. 



318 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



10 



XIV. 

Quae cura patrum quaeve Quiritium 
plenis honorum muneribus tuas, 
Auguste, virtutes in aevum 
per titulos memoresque fastos 

aeternet, o qua sol habitabilis 
inlustrat oras maxime principum ? 
Quem legis expertes Latihae 
Vindelici didicere nuper 

quid Marte posses. Milite nam tuo 
Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 
Breunosque velocis et arcis 
Alpibus impositas tremendis 



XIV. For the subject and oc- 
casion of this ode, see intr. note 
to Ode 4. Tiberius, who was bare- 
ly alluded to in that ode, natu- 
rally receives the larger share of 
attention here, but the achieve- 
ments of both brothers are treated 
as merely incidental to the praises 
of Augustus. His transcendent 
merits are extolled in the opening 
strophes, and, after disposing of 
its proper subject, the poem re- 
solves itself into a song of praise to 
the great ruler before whose power 
all nations bow. — Metre, 176. 

1. patrum . . . -ve Quiritium: 
a paraphrase for the formal sena- 
tus pqpulusque Romanus. 

2. ^\tti\%y adequate. — honorum: 
defining muneribus ; cf. I. 28. 3. 

3. in aevum: cf. III. ii- 35 in 
amne aevum. Here the idea of 
omne\s supplied by aeternet. 

4. per titulos: i.e. by statues, 
altars, trophies (see vs. 10 n), and 
other monuments inscribed with 
his achievements. — memores fas- 
tos: cf. III. 17. 4. 



5. o qua, etc.: cf. Ter. Fhor, 
853 ^ dm^nium quantdmst qui vi- 
vont h^o hominum omattssume. 
— qua 80I, etc. : i.e. in the whole 
habitable world. 

6. principum : see I. 2. 50 n ; 
but as there was no oih&c princeps 
in this sense, the word must be 
used here vaguely for rulers in 
general, under whatever title. 

7. quem didicere quid pos- 
ses: such anticipation, in the 
main clause, of the subject of a 
dependent question occurs in Hor- 
ace only here and in vs. 17 spec- 
tandus . . . quantis, etc. It is 
frequent in comedy, as Ter. Eun, 
657 ego ilium nescio qui fuerit (cf . 
* I know thee who thou art * ). — 
legis expertes Latinae : i,e. not 
yet subjugated. 

9. quid posses : cf. quid posset^ 

4. 25; Intr. 47. — Marte: cf. III. 

5. 24, 34; Intr. 130. — milite tuo: 
referring to the operations of both 
brothers (vss. 10-16). 

10. Genaunos . . . Breunos- 
que : it is not clear whether Hor- 



XIV. I-20.J 



HORATI CARMINA. 



319 



15 



20 



deiecit acer plus vice simplici ; 
maior Neronum mox grave proelium 
commisit immanisque Raetos 
auspiciis pepulit secundis, 

spectandus in certamine Martio, 
devota morti pectora liberae 
quantis fatigaret ruinis, 

indomitas prope qualis undas 



ace regarded these two tribes of 
the Inn valley as a part of the 
Vindelician nation, which included 
at least four tribes (Plin. N. If. 
III. 136), or as their allies, naming 
the Vindelici in vs. 8 and 4. 18, as 
he does the Sygambri in vs. 51 
and 2. 36, because of their control- 
ling influence in the confederacy. 
The inscription on a trophy erected 
a few miles from Nice to com- 
memorate Augustus' conquest of 
the Alpine tribes (CIL. V. 7817; 
Plin. /. /.) is equally ambiguous. — 
implacidum genus, a merciless 
breed ; cf . immanist 1 5 n. Impla- 
cidus occurs here first in extant 
Latin literature. 

II. velocis, agile; i.e. in their 
warfare. — arcis, etc. : cf . Ep. II. 
I. 252. 

13. deiecit, hurled dawn; ap- 
plying equally well to the barba- 
rians (cf. Ep, II. 2. 30) and their 
stronghold (cf. Verg. A, XII. 655 
deiecturum arcis). — plus vice sim- 
plici: i.e. making them suffer 
greater loss than they had inflicted. 
For vice, cf. I. 28. 32 n. The abla- 
tive is modal, plus being used as 
a simple adverb without influence 
on the case, as often in prose. 

14. maior Neronum: see 4. 
28 n. His name, TtbHrl^us, is ex- 
cluded by its prosody. He was at 
this time in his twenty-seventh 
year. — proelium : according to 



Dio (LI v. 22. 4) he fought several 
pitched battles. 

1 5. immanis : Strabo (IV. 6. 8) 
describes the cruelty of the Alpine 
barbarians towards the prisoners 
captured in their raids as similar 
to that attributed to Achilles in 
6. 18-20. 

17. spectandus, etc.: the pas- 
sive of the personal construction 
exemplified in vs. 7, where see 
note. For the use of the gerun- 
dive, cf , donandus^ 2. 9 n. For the 
neglect of caesura in this verse, 
see Intr. 155. 

18. devota: Intr. 103.— r pec- 
tora : cf. 4. 34 n. — liberae, afree- 
man*s (cf. III. 5. 22): they were 
determined to die rather than sur- 
render; a difficult foe, therefore, 
to conquer. 

19. quantis: Intr. 114. — ruinis: 
cf. Liv. y. 43. 3 strage et ruina 
fudere Gallos. The plural expresses 
repeated occurrence, — crushing 
blows, or the like. Horace here 
and in the following comparison 
has in mind the Roman pursuit 
of the barbarians into their native 
valleys. 

20. indomitas : parallel to de- 
vota morti liberae, 18 n. — prope 
(with qualis) = * I had almost 
said.' It adds to the effect of the 
description, as a mark of the nar- 
rator's carefulness of statement. 
Cf. 5.18,^. II. 3. 268. 



320 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



exercet Auster Pleiadum choro 
scindente nubis, impiger hostium 
vexare turmas et frementem 
mittere equum medios per ignis. 

25 Sic tauriformis volvitur Aufidus, 
qui regna Dauni praefluit Apuli, 
cum saevit horrendamque cultis 
diluviem meditatur agris, 

ut barbarorum Claudius agmina 
30 ferrata vasto diruit impetu, 

primosque et extremes metendo 
stravit humum, sine clade victor, 



21. Auster: cf. III. 3. 4 sg. — 
Pleiadum choro: cf. Prop. IV. 
5. 36 Pleiadum spisso cur coit igne 
chorus. They were harbingers of 
storm as they approached their 
setting in November; cf. Prop. 
III. 16. 51 non haec {/ulmina) 
Pleiades faciunt neque aquosus 
Orion. 

22. scindente nubis: the pic- 
ture is of a black night with driv- 
ing clouds, through the lifts of 
which the stars are now and then 
visible. — impiger vexare : Intr. 
loi b. 

24. medios per ignis : a stock 
phrase for extreme peril ; cf. .S*. II. 
3. 56 sq.t Ep. 1. 1. 46 per mare pau- 
periem fugiens, per saxa, per ignis. 
It seems inapt here, however, and 
possibly is used literally, in allu- 
sion to a definite incident known 
to Horace and his readers, but 
not to us, — a fight in a burning 
village, perhaps. 

25. sic . . . ut : a rare inver- 
sion (in an affirmative sentence) 
of the usual form of comparison, 
giving up the main clause to the 
Ulustration, and remitting the sub- 



ject illustrated to th6 relative 
clause; cf. Mart. IV. 13. 3 (of a 
wedding) tam bene rara suo mis- 
centur cinnama nardo, \ Massica 
Theseis tam bene vina fanns. — 
tauriformis: such compounds are 
extremely rare in Horace. A river 
god was sometimes represented in 
the form of a bull with human 
face (see Baumeister, I. fig. 604, 
11. figg. 1 136 sq.)t suggested by the 
rush and roar of the stream. Cf. 
Verg. G. IV. 371 gemina auratus 
taurino cornua voltu Eridanus. — 
Aufidus : cf. III. 30. ion; Intr. 3. 
26. regna Dauni : see I. 22. 
14 n. — praefluit : see 3. 10 n. 

29. Claudius : i.e, Tiberius; cf. 
vs. 14 n ; Ep. I. 3. 2. — agmina 
ferrata, mailed ranks. The fact 
is not mentioned elsewhere, but 
Tacitus (Ann. III. 43. 3) mentions 
Gallic troops, thirty-five years later, 
*quibus more gentico coHtinuum 

ferritegimen; cruppellarios vacant* 

30. diruit: as if they were a 
fortress or a wall ; cf. Tacitus' ac- 
count of the cruppellarii in battle 
(Ann. III. 46. 6): paulum morae 
attulere ferratif restantibus laminis 



XIV. 21-42.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



121 



te copias, te consilium et tuos 
praebente divos. Nam tibi, quo die 
35 portus Alexandrea supplex 
et vacuam patefecit aulam, 

Fortuna lustro prospera tertio 
belli secundos reddidit exitus, 
laudemque et optatum peractis 
40 imperiis decus adrogavit. 

Te Cantaber non ante domabilis 
Medusque et Indus^ te profugus Scythes 



adversum pila etgiadios; sed miles 
correptis securibusy ut si murum 
perrumperftf caedert Ugmina et 
corpora, 

31. metendo: cf. Verg. A. X. 
513 proxima quaeque tnetit gladio. 
For this use of the gerund, cf. 11. 
30 n. 

32. stravit huxnum : sc. with 
them; cf. III. 17.911. — sine clade 
victor : so also Velleius (I. 95) : 
Raetos Vindelicosque . . . maiore 
cum periculo quam damno Romani 
exercitusy plurimo cum eorum san- 
guine perdom uerunt, 

33. te, te, tuos, etc.: see I. 10. 
9 n. — tuos divos : i>. the favor 
of the gods towards Augustus, as 
revealed in the auspices, was com- 
municated to Tiberius and Drusus, 
who were simply his legati; see I. 
7. 27 n. 

34. nam : referring to tuos di- 
vos, and introducing the evidence 
of divine favor. — quo die : the 
1st of August. The capitulation 
of Alexandria on that day in B.C. 
30 was the end of the civil war, 
and the senate subsequently (b.c. 
8) commemorated the event by 
changing the former name of the 
month, Sexiilist to Augustus, in 
honor of the emperor. 



35. portus: there were three 
of them. 

36. vacuam : having been de- 
serted by Cleopatra, who had shut 
herself up in her mausoleum. 

37. lustro tertio : i>. at the 
expiration of fifteen years (from 
that day). We need not suppose 
that the coincidence of date was 
exact, but it must have been near 
enough to be striking. 

38. reddidit, granted (as some- 
thing due, something striven for 
and earned); cf. Cat. 76. 26 o di, 
reddite mi hoc pro pietate mea, 

39. optatum : cf. 8. 30 n. — 
peractis imperiis: «>. on the 
deeds done in pursuance of thy 
orders. 

40. adrogavit, bestowed; cf. Ep. 
II. 1. 35 scire velim chartis pretium 
quotus adroget annus. 

41. Cantaber: see II. 6. 2 n. 

42. Medus : see I. 2. 22 n, and 
IV. 15. 6 n. — Indus, Scythes : 
cf. C, S. 55, Suet. Aug. 21; Afon. 
Anc. ^ y> ad me ex India regum 
legationes saepe missae sunt, num- 
quam antea viscte apud quemquam 
Romanorum ducem; nostram ami' 
citiam petierunt per legatos Bos- 
tarnae Seythaeque. — profugus: 
cf. I. 35. 9 n. 



322 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV. 



miratur, o tutela praesens 
Italiae dominaeque Romae ; 

45 te fontium qui celat origines 

Nilusque et Hister, te rapidus Tigris, 
te beluosus qui remotis 

obstrepit Oceanus Britannis, 

te non paventis funera Galliae 
50 duraeque tellus audit Hiberiae, 
te caede gaudentes Sygambri. 
compositis venerantur armis. 



43. tutela : here in an active 
sense ; cf. 6. 33 n. — praesens : cf. 
III. 5. 2, I. 35. 2 n. 

44. dominae, imperial; cf. 3. 13. 

45. qui celat origines Nilus: 
i.e. the Nile to its very source, 
standing for both the Egyptians 
and the Ethiopians. The source 
of the Nile was to the ancients 
much like what the north pole is 
to us; cf. Lucan X. 189 (Caesar 
speaks) nihil est quod noscere ma- 
lim I qtuLtn Jluvii causasper saecula 
tanta latentis \ ignotumque caput; 
spes sit mi hi certa videndi \ Nilia- 
cosfontes, helium civile relinquam; 
268 quae tibi noscendi Nilum^ Ro- 
mancy cupido est \ et Phariis Persis- 
que fuit Macetumque tyrannisy etc. 

46. Hister : standing for the 
Dacians ; see I. 26. 4 n. — rapidus: 
the name Tigris was said to mean 
* arrow * (Varro Z. Z. V. 100). — 
Tigris : standing for the Arme- 
nians. For this use of the rivers 
to designate the peoples who dwell 
on their banks, df. Tanais, III. 29. 
28 n, and see II. 20. 20 n. 

47. beluosus: not found else- 
where in classical Latin ; cf. I. 3. 
18, III. 27. 26. The ocean, how- 
ever, was peopled, by common re- 
port, with creatures of monstrous 



form, not seen in Mediterranean 
waters : cf. Tac. Ann, II. 24. 6 
(of Germanicus' soldiers, driven 
out into the North Sea in a storm) 
ut quisque ex longinquo revenerat^ 
miracula narrabant, . . . inauditas 
volucres, monstra maris^ ambiguas 
hominum et beluarum formas, visa 
sive ex metu credita. 

48. obstrepit Britannis: cf. 
II. 18. 20 n. — Oceanus : standing, 
in this context, for the Britons, 
some of whose chiefs had sent 
envoys to Augustus to seek the 
alliance and protection of Rome 
(Strabo IV. 5. 3). 

49. non paventis funera: Intr. 
51 a. This well-known character- 
istic of the Gauls (cf. Lucan I. 459 
quos ille timorum mctximus haud 
urguety leti metus) vras attributed to 
the teachings of the Druids ; cf. 
Caes. B. G. VI. 14. 5 imprimis hoc 
volunt persuadercy non interire ani- 
maSf . . . atque hoc maxime ad vir- 
tutem excitari putanty metu mortis 
neglecto. — funera : Intr. 1 28. — 
Qalliae : like Hiberiae, gen. with 
tellus ; Intr. 65, 119 a. 

50. audii, heeds, 

51. caede gaUdentes, blood- 
thirsty; cf. ferocisy 2, 34. — Sy- 
gambri : see intr. note to Ode 2. 



XIV. 43~xv. 4.] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



323 



XV. 

Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui 
victas et urbis increpuit lyra, 
ne parva Tyrrhenum per aequor 
vela darem. Tua, Caesar, aetas 



XV. This ode, in honor of Au- 
gustus, which fittingly closes the 
volume, is a companion-piece to 
Ode 14 (just as the similar tribute 
in Ode 5 was coupled with the 
praises of Drusus in Ode 4); and 
as early as the fourth century it 
was an open question whether the 
two were not written by Horace 
as one ode. Porphyrio held that 
they were, and they so appear in 
a few of our coclices. But al- 
though both odes are devoted to 
the praises of Augustus, the sub- 
ject is here treated in a different 
aspect. In Ode 14 Augustus is 
the invincible champion of Roman 
safety and supremacy against all 
nations ; here he is the bulwark 
of peace and prosperity at home, 
the restorer of good morals and 
of good old customs, and of that 
old-time discipline which made 
Rome great. The ode was prob- 
ably written not long after the 
return of Augustus from Gaul in 
B.C. 13. — Metre, 176. 

I . Phoebus, etc. : the fancy was 
suggested to Horace, perhaps, by 
Verg. E. 6. 3 cum canerem reges et 
proeltay Cynthius aurem \ vellit et 
admonuit. — volentem, etc. : cf . Ep. 
II. X. 250 (written about the same 
time) nee sermanes ego mallem \ 
repentis per kumum quam res com- 
panere gestas \ , . , si quantum cu- 
perem possem quoque, where, how- 
ever, he is protesting his unfitness 
to write epic poetry; here, as 
in Ode 2, he has in mind lyric 
treatment (loqui lyra) of warUke 



themes; cf. I. 6. Ssqq.^ II. i. 37 
sqq. — proelia : Intr. 116^. — lo- 
qui : cf. 2. 45 n. 

2. increpuit ne, cried out at 
mcy not to. Porphyrio explains 
this correctly: non Hyra increpuit^ 
sed ^volentem me proelia lyra lo- 
quit* id esty lyrico carmine. Most 
modem editors take lyra with in- 
crepuit, quoting Ov. A. A. 11. 493 
Aaec ego cum canerem, sudito mani- 
festus Apollo I movit inauratcte pol- 
liceJUa lyrae* But there the strik- 
ing*of the lyre is simply to attract 
the poet's attention to what the 
god is about to say, and there is no 
suggestion of * rebuking with the 
lyre.* The only reason for this 
explanation of the text is the posi- 
tion of increpuit ; but cf . vs. 1 5, 
porrecta; II. 6. ii regnata petam 
^Mconi rura Phalantho ; IV. I. 
19 Albanos prope te locus ponet; 
Epod. 6. 16 inultus ut flebo puer. 

3. parva: of lyric, in compar- 
ison with more stately verse; cf. 
III. 3. 72, IV. 2. 31, Ep. II. I. 257 
parzmm carmen. — Tyrrhenum : 
Intr. iiy a. 

4. vela darem : a metaphor 
often used of poetical enterprise ; 
cf . Prop. IV. 9. 3 quid me scribendi 
tam THistum mittis in aequor ? \ non 
sunt apta meae grandia vela rati; 
Verg. G. II. 41 ; Ov. Tr. II. 329. 
— tua aetas: put forward, in con- 
trast with the forbidden proelia, 
etc., as a theme affording abundant 
scope for his lyre, in the varied 
blessings which he proceeds to 
recount. 



324 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV, 



10 



fruges et agris rettulit uberes 
et signa nostro restituit lovi 
derepta Parthorum superbis 
postibus et vacuum duellis 

lanum Quirini clausit et ordinem 
rectum evaganti frena licentiae 
iniecit emovitque culpas 
et veteres revocavit artis, 



O'' 



5. fruges agris rettuUt : sc, 
after the decay of agriculture due 
to the civil wars. — et . . . et . . . 
etc. : the poljfsyndeton, continuing 
the enumeration without pause 
through three strophes, gives the 
impression of a throng of bene- 
fits pressing for utterance. This 
is succeeded through two more 
strophes (vss. 17-24) by an Enu- 
meration of averted evils, which 
are brought out with individual dis- 
tinctness by the anaphora of non 
(Intr. 116/). Cf. I. 13 and 29 nn. 

6. signa : those captured from 
Crassus at Carrhae (see III. 5. 5n) 
and Antony (III. 6. 9 n). In B.C. 
20 Augustus, then in the East, 
organized an expedition against 
the Parthians, and King Phraates, 
who was just then in too much 
trouble at home to fight the Ro- 
mans, purchased a peace by sur- 
rendering, among other things, the 
famous standards. This demon- 
stration of the power of Rome, 
without the shedding of a drop of 
blood, Horace naturally includes 
in his enumeration of the triumphs 
of peace. — nostro, our own; Intr. 
116^. — lovi: cf. III. 5. 12 n. It 
appears from this passage that 
the standards were first deposited 
in the Capitol, and they remained 
there during Horace's lifetime. 
They were afterwards transferred 
to the temple of Mars Ultor {Mon. 



Anc. 5. 40), but this temple was not 
dedicated till B.C. 2. 

7. derepta: hardly accurate, as 
denoting eagerness or indignation 
in the act, but well expressing the 
feelings of the Romans. 

8. postibus: sc. of their tem- 
ples ; cf. Ep, 1. 18. 57 sub duce (/>. 
Augusta) qui templis Parthorum 
signa refigit — dueUis: Intr.66r,K. 

9. lanum Quirini : the famous 
temple of Janus, a short distance 
from the northern comer of the 
Forum. Horace purposely varies 
from the official and prosaic des- 
ignation, lanus QuirinuSf which 
he evidently understood to mean 
* Gateway of Quirinus * (Intr. 65); 
cf. Ov. M. XIV. 836 colle Quirini 
(= Quirinalt). Tradition ascribed 
to Numa both the temple itself 
and the injunction to close it only 
in time of peace (Li v. I. 19. 2). — 
clausit : for the first time in more 
than 200 years. It was closed 
three times under Augustus (Man. 
Anc. 2. 42), — B.C. 29, 25, and a 
third date, not definitely known, 
but later than the composition of 
this ode. — ordinem evaganti : 
Intr. 51/ The figure is military. 

10. frena licentiae iniecit : of. 
III. 24. 29. 

12. artis, virtues^ as the context 
shows ; cf. III. 3. 9n. 

13. nomen : cf. III. 3. 45. — 
Italae : cf. II. 13. 18, III. 30. 13 n. 



XV. 5-24-] 



HORATI CARMINA. 



325 



15 



20 



per quas Latinum nomen et Italae 
crevere vires famaque et imperi 
porrecta maiestas ad ortus 
solis ab Hesperio cubili. 

Custode rerum Caesare non furor 
civilis aut vis exiget otium, 
non ira, quae procudit ensis 
et miseras inimicat urbis. 

Non qui profundum Danuvium bibunt 
edicta rumpent lulia, non Getae, 
non Seres infidive Persae, 

non Tanain prope flumen orti. 



14. imperi: for the position, 
see Intr. 119 0. 

1 5. porrecta : sc. est With 
maiestas it means ' made widely 
known and felt.* — ortus solis: 
poetical for ortenUm (soUm), The 
plural is that of repeated occur- 
rence (Intr. 1 28), i>. not the places 
(regions of the East) where the 
sun rises, but the part of the earth 
(the East) where it rises day by 
day ; cf . 5. 8 n. With the whole 
phrase, cf. Sail. Cat. 36. 4 cum ad 
occasus ab ortu solis omnia domita 
armis parerent. 

17. custode, etc.: cf. 5. 2, III. 
14. \^sq. — furor civilis, political 
madness ( ^ civium ardor prava 
iubentium, III. 3. 2); distinct from 
ira, below; cf. I. 37. 12, III. 27. 

36. 

18. exiget : used in this literal 
sense, with rare exceptions, only 
of persons (cf. II. 13. 31), and 
therefore in keeping with the half 
personification which runs through 
the whole sentence. 

19. ira, quae, etc. : cf. I. 16. 
18 sqq. 

30. miseras: proleptic, — ini^ 



micat : called by Porphyrio a 
fictum verbum^ i.e. coined by Hor- 
ace. 

21. qui Danuvium bibunt: cf. 
II. 20. 20 n. The frontier of the 
empire was firmly established on 
the Danube by Augustus before 
he died, and remained so for cen- 
turies; but at this time the con- 
quest of the tribes on the south 
bank was only half accomplished, 
and their submission had not lost, 
to Horace's readers, the impres- 
siveness of novelty. 

22. edicta Julia : a general ex- 
pression for the orders issued by 
Augustus and the terms imposed 
by him. — rumpent : the future is 
in keeping with the fact, stated 
above : the nations named will be 
reduced to obedience and made to 
keep the peace. — Getae : see III. 
24. II n. 

23. Seres: cf. I. 12. 56 n. — 

infidi: cf. Ep. II. i. 112 Parthis 

mendcuior, and see note on per- 

fidust 4. 49. — Persae : see I. 2. 

22 n. 

24. Tanain prope orti : cf. vs, 
21 n, and see HI- 29- 28 n, 



326 



HORATI CARMINA. 



[Lib. IV.] 



25 Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris 
inter ioco^d munera. Ljl)eri, 
cum prole matronisque nostris 
rite deos prius adprecati, 

virtute functos more patrum duces 
30 Lydis remixto carmine tibiis 

Troiamque et Anchisen et almae 
progeniem Veneris canemus. 



25. no8 : in contrast with the 
foreigners. The close of the ode 
is similar to that of Ode 5. — et 
profestis et saciris : f>. every day 
alike. The picture is of cheerful 
every-day life, not merely of oc- 
casional enjoyment on holidays (cf . 
vs. 27 n). — lucibus : cf. 6. 42 n, 
n. 19. 

26. iocosi: cf. III. 21. 15 n. — 
munera Liberi : cf. 10. in. 

27. cum prole, etc.: i^. each 
in his own family circle. 

28. adprecati: a rare word, 
found only here in classical Latin. 

29. virtute functos, whose good 
work is done. For the form of 
expression, see note on functum 
laboribus, II. 18. 38. — more pa- 
trum : with canemus. The cus- 
tom was recorded by the elder 
Cato ; cf. Cic. Tusc. IV. 3 in OH- 
ginibus dixit Cato morem apud 
tnaiores hunc epularum fuisse^ ut 
deinceps qui accubarent canerent 
ad tibiam clarorum virorum laudes 
atque virtutes. 

30. Lydis : said by Donatus 
(on Ter. Ad.^ Praef.) to have been 
suited to grave themes. — remixto: 



another rare word, used also £p. 
II. 3. 151, but not found elsewhere 
before Seneca. The re- lends to 
the action a suggestion of iteration 
or persistence, as in respergo, — 
tibiis : here ablative, the instru- 
ment being secondary to the song. 
31. -que : introducing a distinct 
topic (cf. /am ague 14, nosque 25), 
— the Julian line, which stands 
preeminent among the great throng 
of Roman worthies, and is a sub- 
ject that takes us back to Troy and 
the divine founders of the Roman 
race. — Anchisen et progeniem 
Veneris : i.e. Anchises and Venus 
and their offspring, — ^ different 
from C. S. 50 Anchisae Veneris- 
qtte sanguis {i^, Augustus). The 
theme of song is to be the whole 
Julian house; but the interest, of 
course, centres in the one great 
figure who represented the house 
to Horace and his readers. The 
compliment to Augustus is indi- 
rect, but no less obvious than if 
he had been mentioned by name ; 
cf. lulium sidusy I. 12. 47 n. — 
almae : cf. Lucr. I. 2 alma Venus^ 
and see 5. 18 n. . ^ ,^ 

• / ••' f ^ 

/ 






CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

In the summer of b.c. 17 Augustus instituted a remark- 
able festival, — one that, in the words of the herald who 
proclaimed the coming event, no living man had ever seen 
or would ever see again. The Quindecimviri, who had 
charge of the Sibylline Books, had produced an oracle 
which called for the celebration of the ludi saeculares. 

The origin of this long forgotten festival was obscure. 
It appears to have grown out of the ludi Terentini^ a religious 
observance associated with the oldest traditions of the 
Valerian family, and with a place in the Campus Martius 
called Terentum (or Tarentum), where there were hot 
springs and other evidences of volcanic influence. It was 
on the banks of the river, at the great bend below the 
Ponte San Angelo. The healing properties of these springs 
were said to have been first revealed to Valesius the 
Sabine, who commemorated his gratitude for the miraculous 
healing of his three children by the institution of sacrifices, 
with other ceremonies and entertainments, on three suc- 
cessive nights, at the ancient subterranean altar of Dis and 
Proserpina, which under the guidance of an oracle he had 
discovered on this spoti (See Val. Max. II. 4. 7.) 

Tradition ascribed the first celebration of the ludi Teren- 
tini as a public institution to the consul Valerius Poplicola, 
in the first year of the Commonwealth, and mentioned sub- 
sequent celebrations by other Valerii. The first celebration 



328 CARMEN SAECVLARE. 

known to history occurred about the middle of the third 
century b.c. It was instituted under instructions from the 
Sibylline Books, which had been consulted in consequence 
of certain alarming portents ; and the oracle gave further 
directions that the celebration should be renewed every 
hundred years (Varro ap. Censor. 17. 7). It was at this 
time, then, according to Varro, that the ludi Terentini 
became ludi saeculares, 

A saeculutn was the longest span of human life. It was 
an idea borrowed from the Etruscans, in whose system, we 
are told, the life of a city or a state was measured in 
saecula^ as a man's life is measured in years. The first 
saeculutn was the life of that one of the children bom at the 
time of founding the city who survived all his fellows ; the 
second saeculutn began at his death, and was measured in 
the same way ; and so on. This system, which of course 
never existed except in theory, left the length of the saecu- 
lutn a variable quantity, and when the Romans came to fix 
it arbitrarily, there was a conflict of views and of practice. 
Varro*s notion of a saeculutn was 100 years {L,L, VI. 11) ; 
and according to Livy {Perioch, xlix) a celebration of the 
ludi Terentini at the beginning of the third Punic war 
occurred a hundred years after the last preceding celebra- 
tion. The Quindecimviri under Augustus, on the other 
hand, found in their Sibylline oracle (vs. 2), — which, what- 
ever its origin, was composed apparently as early as the 
Social war, — I'lo years as the length of the saeculutn (cf. 
C ^S*. 21). As the accounts of celebrations in the past 
were imperfect and contradictory, it is evident that there 
was room for wide divergence of opinion as to the proper 
year for celebrating the jubilee. The Quindecimviri found 
or constructed in their records a series of four dates, at 
intervals of no years, at which the fesjtival had been, or 
ought to have been, observed ; and the celebration of B.C. 17 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 329 

was set down as the fifth. The emperor Claudius, taking 
I GO years as his saeculum and the foundation of the city as 
his starting-point, celebrated the festival in a.d. 47 (a.v.c. 
800) ; so that some people who witnessed the pageant 
under Augustus did live to see it again, after all. Domitian 
chose the year 88 ; for what reason, is not clear. The ninth 
centennial of the city was celebrated by Antoninus Pius. 
Subsequent celebrations are recorded for a.d. 204 (2 xiio 
years from b.c. 17), 247 (a.v.c. iooo), 259, and 298. 

VergiPs fourth eclogue shows that certainly as early as 
B.C. 40, when the poem was written, and probably much 
earlier, a Sibylline oracle was current, which foretold the 
near approach of a regeneration of the world and the advent 
of a new Golden Age. It was perhaps this prophecy and 
the expectations and aspirations roused by it that suggested 
to Augustus and his advisers the policy of signalizing his 
reign as a new era of peace and happiness by celebrating 
the ludi saeculares with a magificence that would at once 
please and impress the people. The main outlines of the 
celebration were prescribed by the oracle, which has been 
preserved (Zosimus II. 5), and the details were worked out 
by Ateius Capito, the most learned expert of the time in 
pontifical law. Everything was done to make the occasion 
memorable, and a lasting record was provided by the erec- 
tion of two columns, one of marble and one of bronze, 
inscribed with a full account of the celebration. These 
monuments, which must have stood many centuries, were 
finally destroyed and their material turned to other uses ; 
but in 1890 some fragments of the marble column were 
exhumed in the neighborhood of Terentum, and a consider- 
able portion of the inscription was thus recovered.* It 

* The inscription was edited, with a commentary, by Mommsen in 
the Monumenti Antichi della ReaU Accademia dei Linceiy Vol. I., p. 618 
(1891). The article has also been printed separately. 



330 CARMEN SAECVLARE. 

originally consisted of 128 lines, and contained full par- 
ticulars of all the preparations for the festival and of the 
celebration itself, including the text of decrees, formulas of 
prayer, and minute details of the ritual. 

The celebration was preceded by a ^distribuHo suffimen- 
torum* and a ^frugutn (uceptio,* For three days (May 26-28) 
citizens who presented themselves, with their wives and 
children, at certain designated places on the Capitoline and 
Palatine, were supplied by the magistrates with pitch-pine, 
sulphur, and bitumen (suffimenta) for purposes of purifica- 
tion. During the following three days the magistrates 
received from the citizens offerings of wheat, barley, and 
beans {fruges\ which were used in part to remunerate the 
musicians and actors in the scenic performances. The cele- 
bration proper began in the night before June i, and was 
continued without interruption through three nights and 
three days. The addition of the three days, in which the 
gods of heaven were joined in the honors of the festival, 
was a signal departure from the old ludi Terentini^ which 
were devoted wholly to the gods of the underworld. The 
ceremonies were all conducted by Augustus in person, 
partly with the assistance of Agrippa. They took place by 
night * in campo ad Tiberim,' ue, at Terentum ; by day, at 
the appropriate temples. 

The sacrifices of the first night were whole burnt offerings 
(hostiae prodigivae)^ nine she-lambs and nine she-goats, 
to the Fates {Moerae; cf. C S, 25 sqq^. On the second 
night the Ilithyiae (cf. C. S, 13 sqq^ were propitiated with 
oblations of consecrated cakes ; and on the third a preg- 
nant sow was sacrificed to Mother Earth {Terra mater; 
cf. C ^S". 29 sqq^. The sacrifices of the first night were 
followed by scenic entertainments, which were given, as in 
the days of Plautus, on a temporary stage, with no seats 
provided for the audience (in scaena qvoi theatrvm 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 331 

ADIECTVM NON FVIT, NVLLIS POSITIS SEDILIBVS). ThcSC 

*ludi Latini scaenici* were kept up without interruption 
through the three nights and days, but after the first night 
they were given in theatro ligneo qvod erat consti- 
TVTVM SECVNDVM TiBERiM. The ludi scoenici of the third 
day were followed by ludi circenses in a temporary circus 
near the same place, and the people were further enter- 
tained by a series of scenic performances and other shows 
not prescribed by the oracle {ludi honorarii\ which lasted 
seven days after the close of the festival proper (June 4-1 1). 
The religious ceremonies of the first night were supple- 
mented by sellistemia in honor of Juno and Diana (i,e, 
Lucinae duae^ according to Mommsen), conducted by no 
matrons ; and these were repeated on the following days. 

On the first day of the festival (June i) Augustus and 
Agrippa each sacrificed a white bull to Jupiter, and on the 
second day each a white cow to Juno Regina, on the 
Capitol ; and after the latter sacrifice and its accompanying 
prayers, Augustus (probably) led the no matrons in a 
special prayer to Juno. On the third day the chief cere- 
monies were on the Palatine at the temple of Apollo 
(cf. I. 31, intr. note), where Augustus and Agrippa made an 
offering of consecrated cakes to Apollo and Diana. 'And 
on the completion of the sacrifice/ the inscription goes on, 
* 27 boys who had been summoned for this service, sons of 
fathers and mothers still living {patrimi et matrimi), and 
as many girls, sang a hymn ; and in the same way on 
the Capitol. The hymn was composed by Q. Horatius 
Flaccus.' 

It is clear from these words that Horace's hymn was first 
sung on the Palatine, and that it was also sung on the 
Capitol. Mommsen supposes that it was sung in solemn 
procession from the Palatine to the Capitol and back, the 
middle strophes, where the sacrifice of white cattle by 



332 CARMEN SAECVLARE. 

Augustus (vs. 49) evidently refers to the offerings of the 
first and second days, being sung on the Capitol itself. 
There was in all probability a procession, but the inscription 
does not connect the hymn with it in any way. In the 
hymn, not only Jupiter and Juno are invoked, but all the 
divinities who were honored in the whole festival ; and 
Jupiter is appealed to, not in the middle strophes alone, 
but in the closing verses, where the chorus confidently 
claims the favor of * Jove and all the gods.' There seems 
to be no good reason to depart from the plain meaning of 
the words of the inscription, that the ceremonies of the 
Palatine in their main features, including the singing of 
the hymn, were repeated on the Capitol ; for the words 
EODEMQUE MODO IN CAPiTOLio do not appear to refer to 
the hymn alone. The explanation is perhaps to be found 
in the fact that the ceremonies of this third day were 
evidently the crowning event of the whole festival; and that 
while Augustus was desirous of exalting his patron god 
Apollo to the position of patron god of Rome, he may 
not, or his religious advisers may not, have felt at liberty 
to exclude the old gods of the Roman state from the honors 
of the day. 

Horace adopted for his hymn the Sapphic strophe (Intr. 
174). A striking feature of the poem is the very large 
proportion of feminine caesuras. It was rendered, we 
must assume, with instrumental accompaniment, and was 
made, for those who heard it, a beautiful and impressive 
performance. The number of the chorus, 27 of each sex, 
was prescribed by the ritual, as we may infer from Liv. 
XXVII. 37. 7 and XXXI. 12. 9, where choirs of 27 maidens 
are mentioned as singing hymns especially composed for 
ceremonies of propitiation. In every case, however, the 
number is stated not as * twenty-seven,' but as * thrice nine,' 
which probably had some religious significance connected 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



333 



with the number three, but may have been used as a sub« 
division for musical purposes. The division of the chorus 
into two main groups (boys and girls) was prescribed by 
the oracle (x<i>P^^ ^ Kopau, \opov avral Ixoiev \ koI \ioplq irauBiav 
fycrqu cTTa^vs, VS. ^o). The distribution of the Various parts 
of the hymn between the two half-^choirs, oi* among smaller 
groups, was probably a complicated matter ; at any rate, it 
cannot now be determined. The only indications in the 
hymn itself are in the ninth strophe (vss. 33-36), which 
was apparently divided between the two half-choirs, and in 
the first two and the last, which were probably sung by the 
full choir. Beyond this neither poem nor inscription gives 
any light. 



Phoebe silvarumque potens Diana, 
lucidum caeli decus, o colendi 
semper et culti, date quae precamur 
. tempore sacro, 

quo Sibyllini monuere versus 



I. Phoebe, Diana: although 
the hymn belongs in a sense to the 
whole festival and invokes in turn 
all the gods who were worshipped 
in the various ceremonies, it was 
first sung at the rites in honor of 
Apollo and Diana, before their 
temple on the Palatine, and these 
two deities are given a correspond- 
ing preeminence in it. This ar- 
rangement was determined by the 
policy of Augustus to raise the 
Palatine Apollo to the position 
of especial guardian of thf Ro- 
man state. — silvarum potens : 
cf. fumarum (custos). III. 22. i n, 
and for this use of potens^ I. 3. 
in. — Diana : cf. vs. 70, and see 
Intr. 178. 



2. decus : referring to both di- 
vinities (as Sol and Luna ; of. vss. 
9, 36). — colendi et culti : «>. who 
shall be worshipped in the future, 
as in the past; a comprehensive 
phrase, perhaps borrowed from 
the rituad, like our *As it was in 
the beginning, is now, and ever 
shall be.' For the tenses, cf. tulit 
et feret, Ep, I. 7. 21 (Intr. 80). 

5. quo: with dicere, vs. 8. — 
versus : they were Greek hexam- 
eters. The old Sibylline books, 
which King Tarquin was said to 
have purchased of the Sibyl, were 
burnt up in the fire which destroyed 
the Capitol in b.c. 83, but a new 
collection of oracles had since been 
gathered from various sources. 



334 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



virgines lectas puerosque castos 
dis quibus septem placuere colles 
dicere carmen. 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem qui 
10 promis et celas, aliusque et idem 
nasceris, possis nihil urbe Roma 
visere maius. 

Rite maturos aperire partus 
lenis, Ilithyia, tuere matres, 
IS sive tu Lucina probas vocari 
seu Genitalis. 



6. lectas, castos: both attri- 
butes belong to the whole chorus; 
Intr. 121, For lectas, cf. IV. 6. 
31, and see introd. note. 

7. dis : referring to the gods in 
general. — placuere : used here, 
as in III. 4. 24, like the perfect of 
an inceptive verb ; Rome has won 
(and now enjoys, is established in) 
their favor. 

8. dicere caVmen: cf. dicmelost 
III. 4. I n. 

9. alme: cf. almutn diem IV. 
7. 7 n. — Sol : so also in the oracle, 
vs. 16 #0(]3of 'At6XX(i;v, | ^r^ KaX 
'HAtos iciKXi)<riceTai. — diem celas: 
i,e, by taking the day with him, as 
it were, when he 'hides* his chariot 
(under the earth); a poetical ex- 
pression of the fact that night, as 
well as day, is due to the sun ; cf . 
III. 6. 44. 

10. alius et idem : i,e. through 
all change forever the same. It 
introduces the following prayer, 
as if he had said ' In thy everlast- 
ing course mayest thou,' etc. 

12. visere: cf. 1. 37. 25, II. 15. 3. 

13. aperire : see Intr. loi a, 102. 

14. lenis : a part of the prayer. 
— Ilithyia : goddess of the labor 
of childbirth. In Homer she is 



sometimes one (Odys. XIX. 188), 
usually more in number, as //. 
XI. 270, where the ^IKeLdvmi are 
daughters of Hera. See Preller- 
Robert, Gr. Myth. I. 511. In the 
ceremonies of the second night 
the offerings were made deis 
[i]lithyis, but the prayer began 
ILITHYIA VTi TiBi, etc.; SO that 
they do not appear to have been 
regarded as distinct divinities, but 
as oife ; as a * diva triformis,' per- 
haps, but not distinctly identified 
with Diana. Here, however, this 
identity (cf. III. 22. 2 sq,) is silently 
assumed, furnishing, as it does, 
an excellent justification of the 
prominence which the policy of 
Augustus required to be given to 
Diana. 

1 5. sive tu, etc. = vel Lucina^ 
si tu Lucina probas vocari^ vel, 
etc.; cf. I. 2. 33 n. It was sup- 
posed to be pleasing to the gods 
to be addressed by many titles, 
and the choice of names was also 
a pious precaution against giving 
offense to a divinity, especiially one 
whose personality was so elusive 
as in this case. Cf. Cat. 34. 21 
sis quocumque tibi placet \ sancta 
nomine, and Callim. Hymn^ in 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



335 



20 



25 



Diva, producas subolem patruiAque 
prosperes decreta super iugandis 
feminis prolisque novae feraci 
lege marita, 

certus undenos deciens per annos 
orbis ut cantus ref eratque ludos, 
ter die claro totiensque grata 
nocte frequentis. 

Vosqtie veraces cecinisse, Parcae, 



Dian. 7, where Artemis prays Zeus 
for ToXvtawfdri. — Lucina : see III. 
22. 2 n. — vocari : Intr. 94 a. 

16. Genitalis: not found else- 
where as a title of this goddess; 
perhaps intended as the Latin 
equivalent of Fci^cTvXXff, which 
was an epithet of Aphrodite, and 
was also used in the plural, like 
EtKelOvtait to denote attendant 
divinities who presided over child- 
birth (Preller-Robert I. 377, with 
n. 4). 

17. producas, r^ar; cf. II. 13. 
3. For the mood, see Inti^87. — 
patnim decreta, etc.: the meas- 
ure referred to was really a law 
{/ex Julia de maritandis ordinibus\ 
passed by the votes of the comitia^ 
with the approval of the senate, 
which was very reluctantly given ; 
but it was the policy of Augustus 
to govern through the senate, 
which became, from now on, the 
law-making body of the empire, 
although the comitia. continued to 
be held some years longer. The 
law was passed in B.C. 18. It 
discouraged celibacy by penalties, 
and encouraged marriage and the 
raising of children by relaxing 
somewhat the strictness of the 
conditions of legal marriage and 
by conferring on fathers of three 
or more children certain privileges 



and immunities. See Merivale, 
Ch. XXXIII. 

18. super: see 1.9. 5 n. Its use 
with the gerundive is very rare. 

19. prolis : Intr. 66 a. 

20. marita: see Intr. 65, and 
cf. Prop. v. 1 1, y^facibus maritis, 

21. certus, etc.: the two em- 
phatic words of the strophe are 
the first and last (Intr. 116^), the 
rest being a poetical paraphrase 
for the saeculum and the festival 
(see intr. note). The goddess is 
implored to propagate the race, 
that the repetition of the jubilee, 
age after age, may be assured 
(certus), and that each festival 
may be celebrated by great throngs 
of citizens. — per: «>. extending 
through; the prepositional phrase 
here taking the place of a defining 
genitive (Madv. 298. 2). 

22. orbis, cycU. — ut: Intr. 114.- 
— ref eratque: Intr. 119^. 

25. cecinisse: see I. 15. 4 n, 
and, for the construction, Intr. 
102. — Parcae : the Mocpac of the 
oracle and the inscription, who 
were worshipped on the first night. 
They were usually represented as 
three aged sisters, forever spinning 
the thread of destiny; see Cat. 64. 
305 sqq. Originally goddesses of 
childbirth, their functions had spe- 
cial reference, on the one hand, to 



^ 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



quod semel dictum est stabilisque rerum 
terminus servet, bona iagi peractis 
iungite fata. 

Fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellui 
30 spicea donet Cererem corona ; 
nutriant fetus et aquae salubres 
et lovis aurae. 

Condito mitis placidusque telo 
supplices audi pueros, Apollo ; 
35 siderum regina bicornis audi, 
Luna, puellas. 



the individual (see II. 3. 1511); 
but in a wider sense they were 
regarded as developing the gen- 
eral course of human events in 
accordance with the righteous de- 
crees of an omnipotent power. Cf. 
Hes. Theog, 904, where they are 
the daughters of Zeus and Themis. 

26. quod semel dictum est: 
a paraphrase ioxfatum ; d. III. 3. 
58 n. It refers to the whole course 
of Roman destiny, past and to 
come. For semel, see I. 24. 16 n. 
— stabilisque : for quodque stabi- 
Us (cf. I. I. 5 n), in which quod 
(unlike the first quod) is the object 
of its verb. — rerum terminus: 
a figurative expression for im- 
mutable destiny ; cf. Verg. A, IV. 
614 et sic fata lovis poscunt^ hie 
terminus kaeret, 

27. servet : optative subjunc- 
tive, hardly consistent with semel 
dictum est; but the inconsistency 
is no greater than we usually fall 
into when we grapple with the 
problem of free will and fate. It 
anticipates the prayer that follows 
(bona, etc.), which is also super- 
fluous, if we insist on strict logical 
consistency. 

29. fertilis frugum pecoris- 



que: a part of the prayer. For 
the genitives, see Intr. 66 0. With 
pccoris, /ecuftdus would be more 
usual, but cf. S, II. 4. 31 mare 
fertile testae^ liv. V. 34. 2 (Gallia) 
frugum hominumque fertilis, — 
TeUus : worshipped as Terra 
Mater on the third night. 

30. spicea, etc.: a pnnrer for 
abundant harvests. The figure is 
based on the practice of making 
an offering of first fruits to Ceres 
in the shape of a wreath of ripe 
ears of grain; cf. Tib. I. i. 15 
flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure 
corona \ spicea, quae templi pendeat 
ante f oris; II. i. 4 spicis tempora 
cinge, Ceres, 

31. fetus: of XYi^ fruges only, 
continuing the thought of vs. 30. 
— salubres, lovis: Intr. 121. For 
lovis, see 1. 1. 2 j n. 

33-36. After mvoking in turn 
the powers to whom the nocturnal 
rites of the festival were dedicated, 
the chorus closes this part of the 
hymn with an interlude, addressed 
to Apollo and Diana, which, how- 
ever, is not disconnected in thought 
with the preceding : Apollo spares 
man and beast from pestilence (cf . 
I. 21. 13 sqq.)i Diana (as Luna) 



/ 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 

/ Roma si vestrum est opus Iliaeque 
litus Etruscum tenuere turnlae, 
iussa pars mutare laris et urbem 
40 sospite cursu, 

cui per ardentem sine fraude Troiam 
castus Aeneas patriae superstes 
liberum munivit iter, daturus 
plura relictis, 

45 di, probos mores docili iuventae, 
di, senectuti placidae quietem, 
Romulae genti date remque prolemque 
et decus omne ; 



337 



gives increase to the crops (cf. IV. 
6. 38 j^^.). 

33. condito telo : see II. 10. 18 
n. This is the attitude in which 
he was represented in the Palatine 
temple ; see Baumeister p. 99. 

35. siderum regina: cf. I. 12. 
47 sq^ Epod. 15. I sq, — bicomis: 
in reference to the two points of 
the crescent ; cf. IV. 2. 57 sqq, 

37. Roma, etc.: here begins an 
invocation to the great gods of 
the Roman state, the gods of the 
Capitol, and more particularly Ju- 
piter and Juno, who were honored 
on the first and second days of 
the festival (see vss. 49 sq.). — si: 
cf. III. 18. 5 n. Here the appeal is 
to the interest of the gods in their 
own handiwork. — Iliae: Intr. 65. 

38. litus Etruscum: here for 
the coast generally about the 
mouth of the Tiber. — tenuere, 
gained; cf. Liv. I. 37. 4 monies 
Sabini petebantt etpauci tenuere. 

39. iussa pars : i.e, if they were 
a remnant under divine protection 
(sospite) and guidance. In this 
dependent clause, and especially 
in iussa (Intr. 116 ^), lies the gist 



of the whole condition, which is 
concerned, not with the well-known 
fact of the migration of the Tro- 
jans to Italy, but with its explana- 
tion. — laris, their homes. 

40. cursu : with mutare. 

41. sine fraude: cf. II. 19. 2on. 

42. castus: in contrast with the 
wickedness of the rest, which had 
brought down the wrath of the 
gods upon them; cf. III. 3. 18 sqq. 
It is equivalent to Vergil's con- 
stant epithet, pius. — patriae : da- 
tive ; cf. mihif Epod* 5. loi. 

43. daturus: Intr. 104^. 

44. plura relictis : i.e. a greater 
city than Troy. 

45. probos mores, etc.: in keep- 
ing with the policy of Augustus, 
which this jubilee was meant to 
emphasize, the blessings of peace 
are made most prominent in this 
prayer. — docili, placidae: both 
proleptic and a part of the prayer; 
intimating a fit state of mind on 
the part of the citizens as a requi- 
site condition of receiving the 
blessing. 

47. Romulae : Intr. 65. — ^rem» 
wealth. — prolemque: Intr. 174 3. 



338 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



quaeque vos bobus veneratur albis 
50 clarus Anchisae Venerisque sanguis, 
impetret, bellante prior, iacentem 
lenis in hostem. 

lam mari terraque manus potentis 
Medus Albanasque timet securis, 
55 iam Scythae responsa petunt, superbi 
nuper, et Indi. 



49. quae veneratur: for this 
use of veneror with the construc- 
tion of a verb of asking, cf. S. II. 
6. 8 si veneror sttdtus nihil Aorum. 
— bobus albis: the sacrifices of 
the first and second days, as the 
inscription records. The tenor of 
the prayer to each of the two 
deities was in the main as follows: 

^^litppiter optime maxitne (or luno 
regina) , , , U quaeso precorque uti 
imperium maiestatemque populi Ro- 
tnani Quiritium duelli domique 
auxis, utique semper Latinum no- 
men tuearisy incolumitatem sempi- 
ternam victoriam vcUetudinem pa- 
pula Hamana Quiritibus tribuas, 
faveasque papula Ramana Quiriti- 
bus legionibusque populi Romani 
Quiritium i remque publicam populi 
Romani Quiritium salvam serves^ 
uti sis k^alens prcpitius papula Ro- 
mana^j Quiritibus XVrum collegia 
mihi domo familicie, 

50. sanguis: f>. descendant; 
cf.- II. 20. 6, III. 27. 65, IV. 2. 14. 
This paraphrase for Augustus, in- 
stead of the use of his name, is 
more in keeping with the propri- 
eties of the occasion, and sdso 
served, like Romulae genti, to 
keep up the main thought of the 
whole sentence, — the connection 
between Rome's present and future 
and her divinely ordered begin- 
nings. 

51. bellante prior, etc. : cf. 



Vergil's famous parcere subUctis 
et debellare superbas (A, VI. 853). 
The thought is here the same : tu 
regere imperio papulas, Romane, 
memento, . . . pacique imponere 
marem. Victory is the stepping- 
stone to peace and order (see vs. 
45 n). This is set forth more fully 
in the next two strophes: in the 
first, victory; in the second, the 
advent of peace and her attendant 
blessings. 

53. iam, etc.: from this point 
on the chorus abandons the atti- 
tude of supplication to the gods 
and assumes that of confidence in 
their favor; cf. £p, II. i. ly^poscit 
opem chorus et praesentia nu^ 
mina sentit, 

54. Medus, Scythae, Indi: cf. 
IV. 14. 42 n. — Albanas : for *■ Ro- 
man,' with the same suggestion as 
above (see vs. 50 n). 

55. responsa petunt: a phrase 
implying recognized superiority in 
the power appealed to, being ap- 
plied commonly to the consulta- 
tion of an oracle or to an embassy 
coming to the senate with a def- 
inite request or a question to be 
settled. 

57. Fides, etc.: most, if not 
all, of these personified abstrac- 
tions were deified and worshipped 
by the Romans. For Fides, see 
I. 35. 22 n. Augustus erected an 
altar to Pax on the Campus Mar- 



CARMEN SAECVLARE. 



339 



lam Fides et Pax et Honor Pudorque 
priscus et neglecta redire Virtus 
audet, adparetque beata pleno 
60 Copia cornu. 

Augur et fulgente decorus arcu 
Phoebus acceptusque novem Camenis, 
qui salutari levat arte fessos 
corporis artus, 

65 si Palatinas videt aequus aras, 

remque Romanam Latiumque felix 
alterum in lustrum meliusque semper 
prorogat aevum ; 



tins, and instituted stated sacri- 
fices. Honos {Good Repute) had a 
temple in connection with Virtus 
(Manly Worth). For Pudor pris- 
cus, cf. 1. 24. 6 and 701. For Copia, 
cf. Ep, 1. 12. 28 aureafruges \ Ita- 
luu pleno defundit Copia comUf 
and I. 17. 14 n. 
59. audet: Intr. 77. 

61. augur Phoebus: cf. I. 2. 
32. — ct : Intr. 114. — fulgente : 
in Homer his bow is silver (as //. 
I. 37, 49); in the other poets some- 
times golden {e.g: Find. 01. 14. 10). 
Here the bow is simply ornamental 
(cf . decorus and vs. 33 n) ; Apollo 
is relied upon as the prophet-god 
who foresees the happy future, and 
who promotes it as patron of arts 
and letters and as god of healing. 
These are his chief functions, for 
which the poet finds a place here; 
they could not well be brought in 
at the outset (vs. 9), in the form 
which the invocation there took. 

62. acceptus Caxnenis : cf. II. 
10. 18. For Camenis, see I. 12. 

39 n- 

63. qui, etc.: cf. I. 21. 13 sqq.^ 

and see Preller-Robert, Gr, Myth. 



I. 277. — fessos, enfeebled (sc. by 
sickness); a poetical use of the 
word adopted by later prose writ- 
ers ; cf. Cat. 64. 188 non tamen 
ante mihi languescent lutnina mor- 
te, I nee prius a fesso- secedent cor- 
pore sensuSf etc.; Tac. Ann. II. 71. 
\ fesso corpore, ubi finis (i.e. mors) 
aderat. 

64. corporis artus, our frame ; 
cf. Lucr. III. 128 est igitur calor 
ac ventus vitalis in ipso \ cor- 
porey qui nobis moribundos deserit 
artus. 

65. si: the conditional form im- 
plies no doubt of the truth of the 
proposition, but puts it, with full 
confidence, as the basis of the 
conviction expressed in the con- 
clusion ; cf. vs. 37, and III. 18. 
5 n. — aequus: cf. I. 2. 47 n. — 
aras : Intr. 1 28. 

66. remque, etc.: a reminis- 
cence, perhaps, of £nn. Ann. 477 
M. audire est operae pretium^ pro- 
cedere recte \ qui rem Romanam 
Latiumque augescere voltis. — felix : 
proleptic, with Latium. 

67. alterum : see III. 5. 34 n. 
The idea is * from lustrum to /m- 



340 



CARMEN SAECVLARE* 



quaeque Aventinum tenet Algidumque 
70 quindecim Diana preces vironim 
curat et votis puerorum arnicas 
adplicat auris. 

Haec lovem sentire deosque cunctos 
spem bonam certamque domum reporto, 
75 doctus et Phoebi chorus et Dianae 
dicere laudes. 



J 



strum.* The word is chosen prob- 
ably with reference to the succes- 
sive periods of five years for which 
Augustus received the imperium. 
— semper: see note on usque, 
III. 30. 7. 

69. Aventinum: the seat of 
the chief temple of Diana in Rome, 
built originally, under Servius Tul- 
lius, as a common shrine of all the 
Latin communities. — tenet : cf. 
III. 4. 62 i\« — Algidum : see I. 
21. 6 n. 

70. quindecim virorum : a 
board, originally of two members 
(Ilviri sacris faciundis), charged 
with the safe-keeping and inter- 
pretation of the Sibylline books, 
and with the conduct of certain 
religious ceremonies. The number 
was increased to ten, then to fif- 
teen, with corresponding change 
of name. At this time, however, 
there were actually 21 members, 
with Agrippa as magister conlegi. 
No prayers offered by them on 
this occasion are mentioned, but 
they took a leading part in all the 



ceremonies, and prescribed the 
forms of prayer. — Diana : cf . vs. 
I n. 

71. votis adplicat auris: cf. 
S, L I. 22 voHs ut praebeat au- 
rem, — puerorum, children; cf. 
Ep, I. 7. 7 pueris pater et fnater- 
cula pallet. In old Latin the sin- 
gular also was used of either sex ; 
cf. Naev. BelL Pun. 30 M. Cereris 
puer, Proserpina. 

72. curat, adplicat: emphatic; 
Intr. 116 ^. 

73. haec sentire (depending on 
spem), that this is the mind of; 
referring to what has been said in 
the last three strophes. Apollo 
and Diana, who have assumed as 
their special charge the welfare of 
Rome, have done so with the full 
consent and good will of all the 
gods. 

74. reporto : the chorus speaks 
in the singular number, as in the 
Greek drama; cf. dices, IV. 6. 41 n. 

75. doctus, etc.: cf. IV. 6. 43. 
Phoebi et Dianae : with laudes. 

76. dicere : see I. 6. 5 n. 



Q. HORATI FLACCI 



EPODON 



LIBER 



I. 

Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, 
amice, propugnacula, 



For a general account of the 
Epodes and the significance of 
the name, see Intr. 18-20. 

I. This epode, which serves as 
a virtual dedication of the collec- 
tion to Maecenas, is characterized 
by a much warmer expression of 
feeling than any of the other dedi- 
catory poems, belonging as it does 
to a period when the poet's place 
in his patron's regard was assured, 
but the impulse of affection and 
gratitude had not yet lost its fresh- 
ness. The occasion was the pro- 
posed departure of Maecenas, in 
the spring of B.C. 31, for the seat 
of war. Octavian, before setting 
out for the campaign of Actium, 
summoned sdl the most influential 
senators and knights to join him 
at Brundisium; and Maecenas nat- 
urally went with the rest. In this 
poem Horace begs to be allowed 
to go to the war with him, plead- 
ing the unhappiness and anxiety 
he would suffer if separated from 
his friend, while deprecating the 
suspicion of any selfish motive. 
Maecenas, it seems most probable, 
did not actually cross the sea, but 
returned to take charge of Rome 



and Italy during the absence of 
his chief (Dio LI. 3: 5, Veil. II. 88. 
2), — though some scholars, in 
spite of these authorities, hold 
that he was present at the battle ; 
and some think, mainly on sup- 
posed evidence in Epode 9, that 
Horace was with him. But the 
indications of that poem are very 
slight, and have little weight 
against the absence of any positive 
testimony and the silence of Hor- 
ace himself. — Metre, 1 59. 

1. ibis: the emphasis may be 
compared with that of C. I. 7. 26, 
II. 17. 10, Ep, II. 2. 39. In these 
instances, however, the emphasis is 
that of assurance ; here it is that 
of reluctant conviction : < You are 
really going 1 ' The tone is half 
interrogative. Cf . TibuUus' appeal 
to Messala under the same circum- 
stances: Ibiiis Aegaeas sine me, 
MessaUiy per undas, I. 3. i. — Li- 
burnis : see C 1. 37. 30 n. The abl. 
is instrumental, though we render 
it with in; cf. Liv. XXVIII. 9. 10 
quadrigis urbem ineuntem, — alta: 
in contrast with the light Libur- 
nian biremes ; suggesting the peril 
Maecenas will incur. 

2. propugnacula, battlements. 



342 



EPODON LIBER. 



[1.3- 



10 



paratus omne Caesaris periculum- 

subire, Maecenas, tuo. 
Quid nos, quibus te vita si superstite 

iucunda, si contra, gravis ? 
utrumne lussi persequemur otium, 

non dulce, ni tecum simul, 
an hunc laborem, mente laturi decet 

qua f erre non mollis viros ? 
Feremus, et te vel per Alpium iuga 

inhospitalem et Caucasum, 



The ships of Antonius were not 
only of enormous size, but were 
furnished with towers {turriHs 
puppibus^ Verge A. VIII. 693), so 
that their bulwarks looked like 
the walls of a fortress (Florus II. 
21.5) 

4. subire tuo (sc. periculo)-, a 
choice paraphrase for *to share/ 
corresponding with the expression 
in vs. 1 5 for sharing toil. 

5. si : sc. vivitur; cf. vs. 8 n. 
The unusual insertion of si with 
the abl. abs. is explained by the 
fact that te (observe its position) 
is in thought the -subject of two 
abl abs. constructions, express- 
ing alternative events. Expressed 
fully, his meaning is : quibus vita 
si te superstite vivitur^ iucunda ; si 
mortuo^ gravis^ or in more con- 
densed form, quibus te vita — si 
superstite, iucunda; si mortuo, 
gravis. This natural conception 
of the thought is fixed by the 
euphemistic substitution of si con- 
tra (in which si is indispensable) 
for si tnortuo, — superstite : here 
simply in the sense of continuing 
to live, unlike C II. 17. 7, III. 9. 
12, 16. 

7. utrumne : the enclitic -ne, 
though frequently attached to an 
emphatic word after utT^um, is not 



found attached to utrum itself in 
any writer before Horace, who 
uses it here and twice elsewhere, 
*$■. 11. 3. 251, 6. 73. Cf. also uterne, 
S. II. 2. 107; quantane, S. II. 3. 
317 ; quoncj ibid. 295. None of 
these forms occur in the Odes. 
Vtrumne is used by later prose 
writers. See Hand Turs, IV. p. 80. 
— iussi, obediently, Maecenas, then, 
it seems, had once refused Hor- 
ace's request to be allowed to go. 
— persequemur, consign myself 
to. Cf. Cic. de Off. III. i. a re 
publica forensibusque negotiis pro- 
kibiti, otium persequimur. 

8. ni : sc. persequimur or the 
like. Cf. vs. 5 n. 

9. laborem takes its construc- 
tion from otium 7, but by a slight 
zeugma, on account of the differ- 
ent character of the object, the 
verbal notion suggested to the 
mind is not that of persequor^ but 
rather of suscipio, fero^ or the 
like, and first takes definite shape 
in laturi ; hence the answer, fere- 
mus II. — mente laturi, etc.: i.e. 
ea mente (eum) laturi, qua decet, 
etc. 

10. non mollis: d. non amicos^ 
II. 21, non auspicatos, C. III. 6. 10. 

12. inhospitalem Caucasum: 
cf. C. I. 22. 6. 



-I. 26.] 



EPODON LIBER. 



343 



vel Occidentis usque ad ultimum sinum 
forti sequemur pectore. 
15 Roges tuum labore quid iuvem meo, 
imbellis ac firmus parum ? 
Comes minore sum futurus in metu, 

qui maior absentis habet, 
ut adsidens implumibus puUis avis 
20 serpentium adlapsus timet 

magis relictis, non, ut adsit, auxili 

latura plus praesentibus. 
Libenter hoc et omne militabitur 
bellum in tuae spem gratiae, 
25 non ut iuvencis inligata pluribus 
aratra nitantur meis 



13. sinum, nook; suggesting re- 
moteness, — places off the line of 
ordinary travel and traffic. Cf. 
Verg. G. II. 122 Indiay extremi 
sinus orbis, 

1 5. roges : for si roges : Gr. 
310 d. — tuum . . . meo : parallel 
with Caesaris . . . tuo, vss. 3 s^.; 
but labore (not laborem) is required 
here by the metre, and standing 
before the hepthemimeral caesura 
gives a balance to the verse like 
that of 2. 19. 

16. firmus parum: referring to 
his health and strength. 

18. maior habet, takes stronger 
possession of, 

19. adsidens, brooding. Its 
meaning is determined by the 
dative pullis, which, however, is 
not so closely connected with it, 
— since the bird is supposed to be 
absent from the nest, — as with 
timet, fears for. See Intr. 76. 

21. relictis, when she has left 
them. — non latura, though she 
would not afford. For the con- 
ditional force of the fut. part., see 



Intr. 104 d. — ut adsit, even if she 
were there. Gr. 266 c, 

22. praesentibus: added (after 
adsit) for contrast with relictis. 
The Latin is fond of expressing 
both sides of a mutual relation; 
cf. Plaut. Most. 1075 <^d^^^ prae- 
sens praesenti tibi; Verg. A. IV. 83 
ilium absens absentem auditque vi- 
detque ; Sat. II. 6. 81. But the 
repetition is not strictly tautolog- 
ical. Here the meaning is : ' with- 
out any thought that if she were 
there, they would find safety in 
her presence.* 

23. militabitur bellum: di.pug- 
nata bella^ C. III. 19. 4, and see 
Intr. 51 b. 

25. non ut, etc.: i.e. not with 
an eye to the increase of my posses- 
sions (pluribus and meis contain 
the main ideas; Intr. 116^) in 
farm-lands or pastures, or the ac- 
quisition of splendid villas. 

26. nitantur: the straining of 
the oxen, here poetically trans- 
ferred to the plough, suggests a 
rich, heavy soU. 



344 



EPODON LIBER. 



[I. 27- 



pecusve Calabris ante sidus fervidum 

Lucana mutet pascuis, 
neque ut superni villa candens Tusculi 
30 Circaea tangat moenia. 

Satis superque me benignitas tua 

ditavit ; baud paravero 
quod aut avarus ut Chremes terra premam, 

discinctus aut perdam nepos. 



II. 



Beatus ille qui procul negotiis, 
ut prisca gens mortalium, 



27. peeusve, etc« : sc. mihiy 
suggested by meis 26. — Cala- 
bris, etc.: cf. C, I' 31* 5 n. 

28. mutet: for the cases, see 
Intr. 74. 

29. superni: the lofty situation 
of Tusculum, commanding a mag- 
nificent view over the Campagna, 
together with the beauty of the 
surrounding scenery and its near- 
ness to the capital (15 miles dis- 
tant), made it a favorite resort 
for wealthy Romans, whose villas 
covered the slope below the town 
(in the neighborhood of the pres- 
ent Frascati), as those of their 
successors do now. Besides Cic- 
ero's famous Tusculanum, Lucul- 
lus, Hortensius, Cato, and Julius 
Caesar liad villas in the neighbor- 
hood. Some of these country 
houses were probably of marble, 
and their brilliant whiteness (can- 
dens), against the darker back- 
ground of the hills or even of the 
walls of the town itself (tangat 
moenia), made them conspicuous 
for miles around. 

30. Circaea: as having been 
founded, according to tradition. 



by Telegonus, the son of Circe. 
Cf. C. III. 29. 8 n, 

31. satis superque: cf. 17. 19; 
and, for the sentiment, C II. 18. 12. 
— benignitas: cf. benignius, C. I. 
9. 6 n., and tnalignus^ I. 28. 23 n. 

32. paravero: fut. perf., because 
he is thinking of what he would 
do with riches after they had been 
acquired. The indicative is em- 
phatic : ^ot * I would not ' (haud 
paraverim), but * I shall not.' 

33. Chremes : presumably a 
typical miser in some well-known 
comedy, not now extant. There is a 
Chremes in four of Terence's plays, 
but he is in no case a miser. 

34. nepos : like avarus in the 
preceding verse, in apposition with 
the subject of the verb. In many 
Mss. an »/ is inserted before ne- 
pos, as in 2. 5 before miles. 

II. The basket's dream of the 
delights of country life. The 
humorous surprise to whidh the 
reader is treated at the end of this 
really charming picture is thor- 
oughly characteristic of Horace, 
who gives us soipe of his mo^t 



-II. 14'] 



EPODON LIBER. 



345 



10 



paterna rura bobus exercet suis, 

solutus omni faenore, 
neque excitatur classico miles truci, 

neque horret iratum mare, 
forumque vitat et superba civium 

potentiorum limina. 
Ergo aut adulta vitium propagine 

altas maritat populos, 
aut in reducta valle mugientium 

prospectat errantis greges, 
inutilisve falce ramos amputans 

feliciores inserit, 



poetic passages while protesting 
that he has no gift for the higher 
flights of poetry (e.g, C. 11. i, III. 
3, .S". II. I. 12 J^^.). For a genuine 
account of Horace's enjoyment of 
country life, see .S". II. 6. — Metre, 
159. 

2. prisca gens : the Golden Age. 

3. paterna: see C, I. i. 11 n. 
The ideal farmer is owner of the 
farm he tills, but unspoiled by am- 
bition or avarice. 

4. faenore, money-lending. 

5. neque excitatur, etc.: cf. 
Verg. G, II. 539 necdum etiam 
audierant inflari classica. The 
farmer's quiet life is contrasted 
with the excitement of war, the 
dangers of the sea (vs. 6), and the 
worries and annoyances of the city 
(vss. 7 sq^y as in 5". 1. 1. 4 sqq, Cf. 
Verg. G. II. $01 sq, and the whole 
passage (vss. 495-540). — miles: 
cf. nepoSy I. 34 n. 

7. forum: i.e, lawsuits and other 
legal business, in which one might 
be involved as suitor or defend- 
ant, advocate, bondsman, etc., and 
money transactions. — superba, 
etc. : /./. the humiliation of paying 
court to the great, alluding par- 



ticularly to the morning call (salu- 
tatio). 

9. ergo, and so; ue. with his 
mind free from such cares and 
annoyances. — adulta : after three 
years* growth in the seminatium, 

10. maritat: d. platanus caelebs, 
C. II. 1 5. 4 n, IV. 5. 30. The figure 
appears to have passed early into 
current speech ; cf. Cato, R.R. 32 
arbores facito ut bene maritae sint, 
— populos : these, with the elm, 
were regarded as the most suit- 
able; on account of the thinness 
of their foliage. Their branches 
were trimmed to form a series of 
stages (tabulaia, Verg. G. II. 361), 
over which the vine was trained. 

11. in reducta valle: cf. C I. 
17. 17. It is to be taken with 
errantis. — mugientium : cf . Verg. 
G. I. 272 balantum (sheep); III. 
541 natantum (fishes). 

13. ramos: sc. of fruit-trees. 

14. feliciores, more fruitfuly 
its original meaning (cf. /^-^»»</»j, 
fe-iusy fe-mind), * Felices arbores 
Cato dixit quae fnictum ferunt, 
infelices quae non ferunt' (Fest. 
ap, Paul. p. 92). — inserit : />. 
grafts; f;i,imitiva, vs. 19 n. 



346 



EPODON LIBER. 



[II. 15- 



15 aut pressa puris mella condit ampHoris, 
aut tondet infirmas ovis ; 
vel, cum decorum mitibus pomis caput 

autumnus agris extulit, 
ut gaudet insitiva decerpens pira, 
20 certantem et uvam purpurae, 

qua muneretur te, Priape, et te, pater 

Silvane, tutor finium. 
Libet iacere modo sub antiqua ilice, 
modo in tenaci gramine ; 
25 labuntur alt is interim ripis aquae, 
queruntur in silvis aves, 



1 5. pressa : sc, from the comb. 
Verg. G, IV. 140 spumantia cogere 
pressis \ mella f avis, — amphoris: 
Intr. 69. 

16. infirmas: a standing epi- 
thet ; cf . Ov. lb. 43 pec ore infirmo. 

17. decorum, graced. Autumn 
is personified; cf. C. IV. 7. 11. — 
mitibus : i.e. ripe ; cf. immitis 
uvae^ C. II. 5. 10. 

18. agris: Intr. 69. — extulit, 
hcu lifted up. 

19. ut gaudet, how happy he 
is. For the participle decerpens, 
which here approaches the mean- 
ing of the infinitive with gaudeo 
(Intr. 94 d\ cf. Ep. II. 2. 106 ri- 
dentur mala qui componunt car- 
mina, verum \gaudent scribentes. — 
insitiva: cf. vs. 14. The better 
varieties can be propagated only 
by grafting. 

20. et : Intr. 114. — purpurae : 
see C. II. 5. 12 n, and, for the case, 
Intr. 57. . 

21. qua: relating to pira as 
well as uvam (Gr. 198 a). — Pri- 
ape : a genius of fertility, whose 
statue, commonly of wood, was 
set up in gardens and orchards, 
* half god and half scarecrow.' See 



S, I. 8. 2 n. — pater: cf. C, I. 2. 
50 n. 

22. Silvane : a very old Italian 
divinity, whose attributes bear the 
stamp of a time when the farmer 
was a pioneer, and the forest 
covered a large part of the land. 
The ' god of the woods ' was felt 
to be very near to his life in all 
its interests, was the protector of 
his home, of his fields and flocks 
{arvorum pecorisque deo, Verg. A. 
VIII. 601; cf. Ep. II. 1. 143), and 
of his borders (custos finium). 
His statue was common in groves 
and gardens. See Preller-Jordan, 
Rom. Myth. I. 392. 

23. iacere, etc.: cf. C I. i. 21, 
Verg. E. I. I. 

24. tenaci: i.e. growing thick 
and luxuriant, with matted roots, 
in contrast with the sparse grass 
of a light soil, which can be easily 
pulled up. 

25. altis: the scene is in sum- 
mer or autumn, when the water in 
the streams is low. — interim : as 
he lies there. — ripis : cf. C. I. 2. 19 
n ; here by or between their banks, 
as in Lucr. II. 362 summis labentia 
ripis. 



-II. 40.] 



EPODON LIBER. 



347 



frondesque lymphis obstrepunt manantibus, 

somnos quod invitet levis. 
At cum tonantis annus hibernus lovis 
30 imbris nivisque comparat, 

aut trudit acris hinc et hinc multa cane 

apros in obstantis plagas, 
aut amke levi rara tendit retia, 
turdis edacibus dolos, 
35 pavidumque leporem et advenam laqueo gruem 
iucunda captat praemia. 
Quis non malarum quas amor curas habet 

haec inter obliviscitur ? 
Quod si pudica mulier in partem iuvet 
40 domum atque diilcis liberos, 



26. queruntur, warble; c£. Ov. 
Am, III. I. 4 et latere ex omni 
dulce queruntur aves. 

27. frondesque, etc.: i>. the 
rustling of the leaves mingles with 
the plashing of the water. Cf. 
Prop. V. 4. 4 multaque nativis ob- 
strepit arbor aquis. If the MSS. 
reading, fofUesque, be retained, 
lymphis is instrumental abl., and 
obstrepunt is used absolutely (as 
in C. III. 30. 10) in the sense of 
striking upon the ear. In either case 
obstrepunt has as direct object a 
cognate ace, understood as the 
antecedent of quod, a sound that* 

28. levis : dF. C. II. 16. 15. 

29. tonantis: here not merely 
a stock epithet (cf. C III. 5. i), but 
helping to indicate the character 
of the season. — annus, time (of 
year); cf. C III. 23. 8 n, sjid /ri- 
gidus annus, Verg. A, VI. 311. — 
lovis : see C. I. I. 25 n, C, S, 32. 

31. trudit: of close pursuit. Cf. 
the metaphorical use, C. II. 18. 
15, Ep, I. 5. 17. — hinc et hinc. 



on^ery side; cf. 5. 97. It is a 
poetical variation (but adopted in 
later prose) of hinc (et) illinc; cf. 
C IV. II. 9 hue et illuc, — multa 
cane : Intr. 127. 

32. plagas : cf. C. I. i. 28 n. 

33. amite: according to Por* 
phyrio, this name was given in his 
day to furculae quibus retia in 
venatione vel in aucupio suspen- 
duntur; but the epithet levi seems 
to show that Horace had here in 
mind the poles (Intr. 127) of the 
clap-net. See Rich, Diet. s,v, — 
rara, wide-meshed (as compared 
with fishing-nets). 

34. turdis : Intr. 59. Cf. Mart. 
III. 58. 26 sed tendit avidis rete 
subdolum turdis, 

35. pavidum, laqueo : Intr. 
135. — advenam : i>. migra