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Full text of "The odontographic journal"








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THE CARSWELL COMPANY LIMITED 



_ 



THE 



Odontography Journal, 



CONDUCTED BY 



J. Edw. Line, D. D. S, M. D. S. 



VOLUME X. 



APRIL, JULY, OCTOBER, 1889, and JANUARY, 



ROCHESTER, N. Y. : 

GEO. P. DAVIS, Publisher, 

i889-'no. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/odontographicjou10roch 



Table of contents, vol. x, 1889-90. 

I'Af.l 

Some Thoughts A bout Laboratories 1 

Cordial Welcome — Happy Response 9 

The Editorial Function 18 

Carbolic Acid and Creosote 15 

The Ethics of Medical Visiting Again 15 

Reflex Nausea 17 

"NoSabe" 19 

Medical Education for Dentists 19 

Old, But Worth Repeating 23 

Science and the Dictionary— Especially the " Century Dictionary " 23 

How Druggists Do Business in Illinois 25 

" Perry's Chasm " — Taking Off the Enamel 26 

The International Tooth Crown Company vs. The Dentists of the U. S. . 27 

Some Laboratories Abroad 30 

Hams vs. Turkey 32 

A Matter of Taste 33 

Darwinism in the Kitchen 34 

'Touch 'er Light " 34 

Original Communications. Fermentation — Putrefaction 35 

Origin of Csesarean Section 44 

Artistic Photo-micrography Attained 44 

By-Laws of the Dental Protective Association of the United States 48 

Mind and Matter 51 

A Few Practical Points in Dentistry 53 

Chicago Dental Society 59 

Dr. Maurice N. Miller 59 

State Society 60 

First District Society 60 

Chicago College of Dental Surgery 60 

New York Odontological 61 

Medical Congress Proceedings 61 

Seventh Societv Meeting 61 

The "St. Louis " for 1889 . . . . ! 61 

Pellets 62 

Books, Pamphlets, etc 64 

The Dental Manufacturer as a Co educator with the Dentist 67 

President's Annual Address * 69 

Remarks to Candidates Recommended for the " M. D. S." 81 

Ectinomycosis 82 

The Elasmothrium 85 

Alveolar Abscess, Gold and Platinum — Gold and Amalgam — Gold and Oxy- 

phosphate — Gilded Amalgam Fillings— Root fulling— Bridge-work. 88 

New A ppliances 91 

Care of Paralysis following the Extraction of a Tooth 92 

A True Story 93 

Definite Thought 94 

Nitrous Oxide Narcosis and the Blood 97 

Syphilitic Teeth 98 

A Band Wagon in Dentistry — France its Home 99 

Pulmonary Consumption 100 

Dental Society of the State of New York — Twenty-first Annual Meeting. . 101 

"The Dental Society of the State of New York." 115 

The Teeth and the General Practitioner 118 

Dyspepsia 119 

Modern Aspects of the Life Question 120 

Dentition as affected by Rickets 122 

Root-filling — A New Method— Cosmoline 123 

The a merican Pasture 124 

Johnstown Members of the Profession 125 

Buffalo Association — Twenty fifth Anniversary 126 

W Jersey State Dental Society 126 

Notei 127 



Table of Contents. Pack. 

Books, Pamphlets, etc., 129 



Physiology <>f Digestion — The Nutritive Organization 131 

Physiological Action in the .Movement of a Tooth 138 

The Mtc( Joy Pneumatic Tool 139 

\ fleeted Advantages 143 

Celluloid 147 

ill of the Mini w bo knew how to make Aluminum from Clay II'.' 

( lare in Dental Operations 150 

A Noble Metal — Platinum 151 

Taking Lower Impressions \7)\\ 

I low to St lin and to avoid Discolorizing the Tubercle Bacillus 154 

National Association of Dental Examiners 155 

National Association of Dental Faculties 157 

The American Dental Association 160 

Our Duties to Children 164 

An Open Letter 169 

Albumen and Bichloride of Mercury 170 

Anaesthetics in Dental Operations -Ether, Chloroform, Mixtures, Nitrous 

Oxide 472 

Union Meeting at Elmira — The 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th in Joint Session. . . . 185 

A Unique Examination for Hospital Appointment 286 

Nature— Give Iler a Slum- 189 

Investing, Backing, Soldering, Tipping 190 

Dr. Samuel I). French 192 

International Dental Congress. .". 198 

Method of a Modern Medicine 194 

Conductors' Department — The American Backing Dr. Crouse 192 

Pellets ' 195 

Books, Pamphlets, etc., 198 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth 199-229 

Perforated Roots" 229 

The Right Relation of Dentists to Patentees and to Medical Codes 280 

Dental Education 289 

Close Joints 241 

Micro-Organisms of Dental Caries 242 

International Devitalization of the Dental Pulp 248 

In the Year 2,000 244 

Nitrous Oxide not an Asphyxiant — A Critical Study 245 

Proposed Victorian Dental Association, College and BospitaJ 250 

I >ental ( laries 251 

Inconsistency — The License Question in Court 254 

The Use of Springs in the Retention of Artificial Denture 255 

Specialize, But Don't Grow Narrow 

Apples for Brain Workers 258 

The Red Line Along the Gums 

1- A tm< spheric Pressure a Myth ? 259 

A New ( Optical ( 'ombination i»\ Zeiss 261 

Dosage '- ),i:: 

Succedaneous Teeth 268 

State Engineer !'»■ igart's I 'a per 264 

Pour Societies Meel 265 

Micro organisms Too Much. &c. ..." ■- >,;: » 

Inconsistency 266 

Pirsl Districl Anniversary 267 

9a lor Sa^ 267 

What Does He Mean 

Qerman (Henle) as She is, &c 

Jameson 269 

Correspondence 

Tenth International Medical ( longress 271 

Pellets 274 

Books, Pamphlets, Etc 



THE 



Odontographic Journal 



Volume X. — April 1889— No. 1. 



SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT LABORATORIES. 



From the point of view of investigators and teachers of the biolog- 
ical sciences, this may be designated the age of public laboratories. 

There is indeed evidence that in Egypt, under the rule of the 
earlier and greater Ptolemies, there existed in Alexandria and were 
supported by the State, schools of instruction and research in the 
practical direct study of anatomy, physiology, and pathology ; as 
well as great libraries in which every student could learn what had 
already been done or thought in his own department of study. But 
with the degeneracy of the later Ptolemies and the subjugation of 
Egypt by Rome, all that was good left Alexandrian science ; the 
great museum became simply a place in which ceaseless metaphysi- 
cal guesses and theories, barren of everything but bitter quarrels, 
took the place of the faithful and patient study of man and the rest 
of nature. Before the Christian era the Alexandrian school had almost 
ceased to be of any value to humanity. 

From that time until sixty years ago, there was not a single public 
laboratory for scientific study in the world ; that is to say, a labora- 
tory open to all competent workers on easy terms, and provided with 
books, instruments and skilled assistants. 

To-day such laboratories girdle the earth from Tomsk to Tokio — 
from Siberia westward to Japan. They are to be counted by the 
hundred, and States vie in building them and making each new 
one more complete, and even architecturally more splendid than its 
rivals. One of the first things Germany did after the wars which 
welded her into a great empire, was to build laboratories — palaces of 
B< ience they have been called — in Berlin and Strasburg. 



2 The Odontographic Journal. 

In this country the building and endowment of laboratories has for 
the most part been attained in a tar better way — by private generosity, 
rather than by public subsidy, combined, as it must be with govern- 
ment control. Scieni • i annol tor any long period advance safely in 
(hams, even if those chains be golden. There lurks as much danger 
to progress in an established national science as in an established 
national church. 

This danger is illustrated by the comparative deadness of French 
science during the last forty or fifty years, in which it ha-- been 
directed from a government office and centralized under bureaucratic- 
control ; and even in victorious Germany, now that the various States 
are consolidated into one empire, every detail of which is controlled 
from Berlin, many leaders of German science, especially among the 
younger men of talent and genius, are beginning to dread the out- 
come as regards the intellectual life, freedom and vigor of the 
empire. Political questions influence the appointment of university 
professors, and such influence cannot but be injurious. 

In these United States there is no such danger. The National 
Government needs the services of scientific experts in order to pro- 
tect the health and promote the material prosperity of its citizens, to 
undertake great geological surveys, or the investigation of the life- 
habits of insects injurious to agriculture, or the study of the breeding 
places and habits of food fishes and of their enemies, or to promote 
artificial fish-culture ; even from time to time to undertake, not 
merely for prospective or immediate material gain, but for 
national credit and renown, great enterprises on purely scientific 
grounds, such as expeditions to observe solar eclipses, or Arctic 
expeditions. For all such purposes it has, and has had, at its dis- 
posal the best qualified scientific men in the country, and it gets 
their servi< es ver) cheap. 

but, in addition to national scientific enterprises, as a supplement 
(perhaps in some sense as a corrective) to them, we need independent 
scientific research and facilities for it. And it may be interesting to 
< ensider how we, the American people, are solving the problem of 
the due promotion of scientific education and research by the govern- 
ment, while at the same time securing opportunities tor independent 
thought and in\ estigation. 

The problem is being solved, has been solved, by the liberality oi 
private citizens. While promoting the investigation of scientific 
questions by the ruling powers, they have also built and endowed 



Some Thoughts about Laboratories 



'ft 



laboratories, colleges and universities. They have provided rooms and 
appliances for study and research, in which no earnest student can 
be repressed or suppressed because his ideas are new or in conflict 
with those adopted by the officials of a central government bureau. 
Through such private endowments — trusts as they are for the public 
welfare, numerous and generous — American science promises to 
attain a variety and independence of thought such as no national 
science has ever had in the past. Its characteristic is that it is indi- 
vidual — it is democratic. With a solid background of traditions 
and established ideas it has a liberty which does not often degenerate 
into license ; and all history teaches that such a combination is that 
which leads most quickly to human progress. 

American science works not for the glory of a monarch, as Alex- 
andrian science for the fame of Ptolemy Soter. Neither does it 
strive to promote the interests of an aristocracy, nor to fill the pockets 
of a plutocracy. Some such consequence may now and then follow 
its advance, but only as a by-result of its general contribution to the 
national welfare. It exists by the people and for the people. To 
make human life longer and healthier and happier is the result, as it 
is the aim, of modern science ; to discover truths and to apply 
them to the welfare of mankind. 

It is frequently asserted, and generally believed, that the first pub- 
lic laboratory for teaching and research was organized and set at 
work by the great chemist, Liebig ; but this is an error. The merit 
belongs to Purkinje. Liebig's effort was no doubt far better sup- 
ported financially, more ambitious, and -more widely known; but 
some years before the foundation, in 1826, of Liebig's celebrated 
laboratory at Giessen, which is claimed as the parent of all modern 
laboratories, Purkinje had provided means for students to study 
physiology and pathology practically, to examine the working of the 
body in health and disease — the very subjects for whose investiga- 
tion the Hoagland laboratory has been built, equipped and endowed. 
To every physiologist present, the name of Purkinje will call up some 
remembrance of the man of genius who first paid attention to the 
retinal images of his own blood-vessels, images ever since known as 
Purkinje's figures ; of the man who first described the peculiar sen- 
sations of vertigo produced by rotation of the body, and attempted 
to explain them ; of the man who is the father of psycho-physics and 
physico-physiology ; of the man who discovered the germinal vesicle 
of the ovum. Such achievements are glory enough ; but to all the 
other fertile work of Purkinje we must in justice add the foundation 



4 The Odontography Journal. 

of the first public laboratory (in the modern sense of the term) 
after the Christian era. Liebig's deserved repute and fame need no 
factitious prop ; and as to the question who founded the first public 
laboratory, we need, I trust, have no quarrel with our friends the 
chemists. The emulation is but an evidence of the belief of all stu- 
dents and fosterers of science in the value of public laboratories. 
That the merit of having first organized them is eagerly claimed, is a 
proof of their public utility. Our country believes in its laboratories, 
and its citizens provide them. 

Purkinje's laboratory was but ill equipped ; it was supported at 
first by his private purse, afterwards by voluntary contributions from 
his friends. No doubt its space was cramped, its apparatus scant, 
its general facilities for work very limited. Thanks to the libera it v 
and patriotism of Dr. Hoagland, we are to-night celebrating the for- 
mal opening of a laboratory with abundant space, comfortable work- 
rooms, an excellent library, the best apparatus that has been invented, 
skilled teachers and assistants, and with all else that may contribute 
to advance knowledge as to the workings of our bodies and the laws 
which govern them in health and disease. It is founded to increase 
human knowledge in regard to the sciences of physiology and patho- 
logy, and the arts of medicine, surgery, and hygiene. 

On such an occasion it is meet that we gratefully recall Purkinje's 
work — the little germ from which this great laboratory has sprung 
and which gives us a direct and glorious ancestry, while also entitling 
us to fi_el some sort of parental pride in the great laboratories of 
physics and chemistry now to be found wherever civilization is firmly 
established. 

The public-laboratory idea started by Purkinje and Liebig did not 
quickly spread. Bacon had long before pointed out the necessity of 
experiment in the study of Nature ; but naturalists, for the most part, 
had still enough to do in the mere direct observation of the phenomena 
exhibited by plants and animals under the conditions of their normal 
daily life, and under circumstances of disease or accident. There 
were scattered here and there a few good experimenters : but the 
majority of biologists were usefully busy in simply seeing accurately 

under natural conditions ; and very excellent observers many of them 
w ere. 

It came at lasl to be realized that mere simple external observation 
of annnaU, though a fundamental first stage towards a knowledge of 

physiology and pathology, did not lead far; that it required to be 



Some Thoughts about Laboratories. 5 

supplemented by experiment. The majority of vital phenomena 
take place inside organisms, and therefore could only he observed by 
subjecting the animal to injuries, such, for example, as opening cavi- 
ties of the body, in order to see the inner parts at work. The earlier 
experiments were mainly the removal of such hinderances to direel 
observation. The thoracic cavity was opened to see the beat of the 
heart ; or the abdominal, to observe the movements of the intestines. 
Soon the range of experiment was widened ; it became obvious that 
in biology, as in other natural sciences, to know Nature and her ways 
we must cross-examine her by the Baconian method, putting her to 
work under conditions which could be varied at will by the observer, 
or, as he now became, the experimenter. 

As an illustration, let me take such a common phenomenon as the 
movements produced by shortening of the muscles. Dissection of 
the dead body had taught that muscles were connected by means of 
nerves with the brain, and observation of cases of disease or accident 
had proved. that a muscle immediately ceased to work when its nerve 
was seriously injured or was divided. Such direct observation led 
naturally to the conclusion that every muscle got its power or 
strength from the nerve, which thus came to be regarded as a sort of 
conduit carrying force or energy to the muscle from the brain. This 
erroneous notion was only upset by experiment added to observation. 
When it was found that the muscle or a living or recently killed ani- 
mal, after section of its nerve, did still contract powerfully when 
excited by blows or by ammonia, by heat or by electricity, it became 
clear that the power or energy exerted by a working muscle resided 
in itself, and was not something carried to it by the nerve from the 
brain ; that all which the nerve did was to set free or liberate energy 
already stored in the muscle, just as several other natural forces 
might do ; the nerve like them, merely pulled the trigger and dis- 
charged explosive material already present in the muscle fibres. Thus 
our whole conceptions as to the physiological relations of the nervous 
and the muscular systems was corrected. 

It is needless to multiply instances. At present nearly every organ 
and liquid of the animal body has been isolated from the rest and its 
properties studied under the most varied conditions. It is not too 
much to say that most of what is real and substantial in our knowl- 
edge of physiology and most of our similar knowledge in pathology 
is based on such experiments. 

Re s of value need for their successful prosecution buildings 

adapted for them, numerous assistants, and (in addition to the out- 



6 The Odontography Journal. 

fit of laboratories of physics and of chemistry) many pieces of appar- 
atus specially constructed for physiological and pathological purposes. 
Another reason why laboratories are necessary is the improvement 
in methods of teaching during late years ; we no longer believe that 
any natural science can be taught successfully by words alone even 
by the most learned and eloquent professor. When the conditions 
are such that the students cannot make experiments themselves we 
insist that they shall at the least have shown to them the most im- 
portant facts ; that the lecture and the textbook shall have as their 
accompaniment, I might perhaps say as their basis, actual demonstra- 
tions, supplemented if possible by personal experimentation by the 
learner himself. We ridicule the notion of any real teaching of physi- 
ology to a student who has never seen a beating heart, a blood pres- 
sure experiment, a demonstration of the action of saliva on starch ; 
of teaching pathology to those who have had no opportunity to 
observe the phenomena of inflammation with the aid of the micro- 
scope ; of teaching bacteriology in its relations to disease to students 
who have never seen a bacillus, or had any ocular demonstration of 
its life history, or of the fundamental phenomena of fermentation 
and putrefaction. 

Many of us can remember the time when all the practical instruc- 
tion a medical student obtained was in the dissecting-room and the 
hospital wards. One outcome of that state of affairs was in the 
medical schools a very undue amount of time and energy spent in the 
study of minitiae of human anatomy ; but the best teachers recognized 
that the men must have some practical training, and the dissecting- 
room was in those days the only means of providing it. Medicine 
and surgery are advancing, slowly but surely, and within the last 
twenty years with greatly increased velocity, from an empirical to a 
rational basis, both as regards the cure, and, what is infinitely more 
important, the prevention of disease. Now that physiology, pathol- 
and hygiene are being yearly more firmly established on general 
scientific principles, and have so perfected their methods that funda- 
mental facts in those sci i an be easily demonstrated to medical 
students (or even investigated by them), the dominant role which 
gross anatomy has often hitherto had in medical education will be 

•« ncd, and the student will get more and more of his practical 

training through experimental physiology and pathology and hygiene. 

permit and encourage this most important advance ill medical 

education such laboratories as the Iloagland must be provided and 

'.nned by enlightened and public spirited men. 



St ' me Thoughts a hoit i Laboratories 7 

It is interesting to glance backward and sec how slowly the idea 
evolved and put in action by Purkinje and Liebig took hold — at any- 
rate as regards physiology and pathology. Fifteen years after Pur- 
kinje's efiort, the practical teaching of physiology and pathology 

amounted to almost nothing. Partly, no doubt, because the essen- 
tial independence of those realms of human thought and inquiry had 
not been recognized. These sciences were still regarded as mere ac- 
cessories, more or less (perhaps on the whole less) helpful in the study 
of medicine and surgery ; they were generally considered as only 
worthy of attention because of their possible use in connection with 
the medical arts, and were for the most part taught in conjunction 
with other subjects by a single professor. The greatest physiologist 
of his time, and one of the greatest of all time, Johannes Mueller, 
was in 840, professor in Berlin of human anatomy, comparative 
anatomy, pathological anatomy, physiology, and embryology. That 
pathology is as distinct from pathological anatomy as physiology is 
from normal anatomy had not then been recognized, or another title 
would have been added to the list of Mueller's duties. 

Among Mueller's students was Du Bois Reymond, now professor of 
physiology in Berlin. It is interesting to read his account of the 
small facilities for observation and practical work afforded in 1840 to 
students of scientific medicine under the greatest teacher of that time. 
He says : 

" We were shown a few fresh specimens under the microscope, the 
art of putting up permanent preparations being still unknown. We 
had also opportunity to see the circulation of the blood in the frog's 
web " (something which every science student in every well conducted 
normal school in this country now sees without considering it any 
great matter). He goes on to say that he and his fellows saw the ex- 
periment of filtering frog's blood so as to retain the corpuscles and 
let the plasma through, and the resultant demonstration by the clotting 
of the colorless plasma, that the red corpuscles of the blood were not 
an essential element of the clot ; he also had opportunity to observe 
an experiment in artificial digestion ; one on section of the spinal 
nerve roots ; a demonstration on reflex movements ; and an experi- 
ment in pharma< ology, proving that opium poisoning was not trans- 
mitted centripetally through the nerves. There was in the whole 
irse but one demonstration on a warm blooded animal, namely, 
lion of both vagi, to show the resulting disturbance of respiration. 
at the pneumogastric nerves had any influence on the heart beat 
was still unknown. These half a dozen demonstrations were all the 



8 The Odontographic Journal. 

quasi-practical teaching that the student of physiology or pharmacol- 

i eived in the best schools in 1840. That he should put up 

microscopic preparations himself or make an experiment himself 

were things hardly dreamed of. 

Moreover lecture diagrams were not in use. Du Hois Raymond 
states that he first saw them employed in England, and that he intro- 
duced them to Berlin in 1850. 

It is, then, very clear that but fifty years ago appliances and meth- 
ods for teaching histology, physiology, and pathology were very im- 
perfect. We may next ask, how was it as regards facilities for re- 
search ? The answer is that there were none. [< Did a young man 
desire to institute a physiological research, he had for the most part 
to work in his lodgings, where an account of his frogs and rabbits he 
got into trouble with the people who kept the boarding house, and 
where many experiments were quite impossible, or could only be car- 
ried out under the most adverse circumstances. No skilled assistants 
directed the young investigator's work ; no library was accessible to 
him ; no collection of apparatus gave him its precious aid. He had 
to buy his own books of reference and provide his own apparatus, 
often to make the latter himself." The student who undertook a re- 
search in those days rolled his induction coils, soldered his galvanic 
element, even made his rubber tubing, for that essential in every mod- 
ern laboratory was not yet an article of commerce. 

Some few men, those born to be physiologists, pathologists or 
pharmacologists, surmounted the difficulties. We need only call to 
mind the names of. Du Bois Reymond, Ludwig, Briicke, Helmholt/, 
Vierordt, Donders, Bernard, and other of their contemporaries. 
There was a good side to all this difficulty. Only earnest students 
would surmount them, and undertake biological research. Whatever 
was done was done by a man who had his heart in his work, and who 
had to work so hard to do it, that when his research was completed 
it was almost certain to be of important e. 

No one believes in laboratories more thoroughly than do I ; they 
are to-day among the institutions most essential tor the increase of 
man's control over nature and his power to harness her as his servant, 

his drudge — instead of master. Nevertheless the great conveniences 
afforded by modern laboratories sometimes lead to their abuse. It 

has !>('( ome so easy, in fact such a pleasant amusement, to make a 
SO-called research, that a greal deal of it comes from the hands of 
s. io!i>ts. It may seem hard to designate as trash a considerable per- 

e ol tlie work now issued from biological laboratories, but there 
is no other wa\ of honestly stating its wiliic. Incompetent and 



Some Thoughts about Laboratories. 9 

imperfe< tly trained persons arc almost daily publishing so-called 
resear< hes, the reading of which is pure weariness of spirit ; and yet 
the physiologist or pathologist has-to work his way painfully through 
them, in the hope that he may extract one grain from the bushel of 
straw. If I thought any considerable number of trivial or plagiarized 
" researches " would be the out come of this laboratory, I could not 
honestly congratulate you on its foundation ; but supervised by its 
founder, and directed by thoroughly competent men, I have no such 
fear. No triflers will be allowed to continue their trifling in it ; and 
what it may publish will be the outcome of earnest and faithful and 
thoughtful work. 

When I entered this room to-night and saw you all here, eager to 
inspect the Hoagland Laboratory, the query which presented itself to 
me was, What went ye out for to see ? A reed shaken by the wind ? 
Those clad in soft clothing ? A prophetic or more than prophetic 
building? Is this laboratory to be but a mere transient and unim- 
portant element in the intellectual life of your city ? Is it to be but a 
place in which some teachers may live idly as those who dwell in 
king's palaces ? Or is it to be the seat and the training place of 
prophets and more than prophets, from whom intellectual fire and 
enthusiasm shall spread over our nation ? 

These questions it is mainly for you, men and women of Brooklyn, 
to decide. The best equipped laboratory, the most devoted teachers, 
are almost impotent unless they have the active sympathy and sup- 
port of the community in which they are placed. 

I appeal to you, citizens of no mean city — one known the world 
over, as the City of Churches — and I-speak with all sincerity when 
I urge you to cherish this laboratory as a new church. It is a temple 
for the study of the works of God, and to my mind as sacred a place 
as that in which you may meet to study the word of God. 

Cherish it, foster it, keep its ideals high, so that as year follows 
year it shall become more and more a centre from which will spread 
not only vast gains in our knowledge of the laws of health and in our 
power to conquer disease, but examples of single-hearted devotion to 
all that is true and noble and patriotic. — Martin, H. Newell, 
Brooklyn Medical Journal. 

CORDIAL WELCOME— HAPPY RESPONSE. 



Mr. keid Green, in behalf of the mayor and citizens of Cairo, 
made an address of welcome as follows : 

Members of tin- Dental Society. Ladies and Gentlemen : I have 
been requested on behalf of the Mayor of the city and the citizens, 



i d The Odontographic Journal. 

to extend to you, the members of the Illinois State Dental Society, 
a most cordial welcome to our city. To the citizens I extend my 
most ardent congratulations that we have with us to-day such a 
distinguished body of gentlemen as visitors. 

ntlemen, we are very proud of the advancement of our little 
city. You no doubt know of Cairo as Eden — Dickens' Eden. Many 
of you no doubt know of Cairo back in the sixties as the place from 
which the old commander took his start. Many of you no doubt, 
and as I understand, were here then. You know what our town was 
then, and you know it as Dickens pictured it. 

Gentlemen, since that time we have developed our resources, we 
have overcome those obstacles, which were no doubt known to you 
then. We have used our every endeavor to bring our city up, and 
at present we know nothing in this town save advancement 
And, gentlemen, I must say that I feel proud, and I know the 
citizens here assembled feel proud, that we have such an intelligent 
band of inspectors present to-day, to view our city and pass upon it. 

But I am very well aware that your time is precious. I would, if 
I had the time, speak at length of your noble calling, of the work 
you do for humanity, and of those good qualities which are possessed 
by so many who are in your ranks. But I am admonished that your 
time is valuable, and that it can be more profitably occupied in other 
matters than by listening to a long address from me. Therefore, I 
simply from the bottom of my heart give voice to the sentiments of 
every citizen of Cairo, and extend to you a most cordial and hearty 
\\ el< nine to our city. 

This was responded to for the Society by Dr. C. K. E. Koch, of 
Chicago, as follows : 

By the partiality of our esteemed President I have been detailed 
to respond to the cordial greeting the people of the historic city of 

iro have, so eloquently extended to this society through you. 
Permit me to observe, Sir, even at the sacrifice of reputation for 
modesty, that no member of this society is better able to apprec 
your kindly welcome than myself. 

I was once a dweller among you ; nearly twenty-six years ago I 
paid a special assessment here. Together with some 950 other 
fellows, who brought their i e on their b;icks. I arrived here in 

August, 1*862. Mine host of the St. Charles hotel, unlike Mr. 
Parker, had no rooms reserved for us; ] M1 t u -e were united to hospita- 



Cordial Welcome -Happy Response. \\ 

ble beds on the bottom land enclosed between the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi levees, just the other side of the Halliday house; and we w< 
told to make ourselves comfortable on the downy surface of old 
mother earth, which two days previous rain had rendered particularly 
soft and pleasant for repose. 

We were a band of Young Men's Christian Association men and 
Scions of the Board of Trade of Chicago, — and at once sent up a 
prayer for straw. In the language of the present day it would be 
said "we kicked for straw." Our prayer or "kick" was effectual. 
The straw was providentially forthcoming and we at once were no 
longer to fame unknown. That great army of the Tennessee, of 
which we soon became an integral part, knew us ever, up to the time 
of our peaceful dissolution, as the "Straw Regiment." 

One of our guards on a bright moonlight night, saw a Cairo bovine 
approaching him. Having been instructed to challenge anything 
that might come near his post, and to shoot if the challenge was un- 
heeded, he pulled the trigger of his Fremont Belgian rifle. The dead 
body of the quadruped was the result of its disobeying the command 
to " Halt ! " The next morning the members of the guard, of which 
your humble servant was a member, were called upon to stand a per 
capita assessment to reimburse the owner of the animal. This was 
not done merely because the man made a terrible fuss about the mat- 
ter, nor from fear of punishment, but particularly because the princi- 
ples of the Board of Trade and Young Men's Christian Association, 
of Chicago, were so strongly rooted in our consciences, that we felt 
justice had to be done, even though it cost us half a dollar apiece. 

. it will perhaps be a surprise to you to hear me assert my claim 
of being the oldest Cairo dentist now in this city. My office in 1862 
was in a row of sheds, situated, perhaps, twenty rods to the south of 
the Halliday. Uncle Sam was the landlord and I paid no rent. A 
camp stool was the operating chair, a cracker box (one of the B. C. 
kind) served as a table, and six or seven pounds of steel instruments, 
a book of tin foil and a bottle of amalgam, comprised my outfit. 
The business was not very lucrative or extensive, and really the suc- 

5 of those operations is still problematical. One of my patrons 
of those days has become one of the most noted evangelists of this 

mtry. It may seem like conceit, but somehow it has always 
impressed me that there was a connection between my Cairo dentistry 
and his evangelistic career. Permit me to assure you, Sir, that these 
men you see here are more skilled than I was, and should you fall a 



i 2 The Odontographic Journal. 

victim to their science you would be in no danger of becoming 
preacher, although it is not altogether improbable that it might 
make you a senator. 

There are a number of our members here, Sir, who remember your 
city as it was during those years that tried men's souls, and who 
believed that times of peace would sound the death knell to the pro- 
gress and prosperity of your city. In this we are glad to see we 
were mistaken. Providence has given to your city the key of our 
inter-state water communication from the Alleghanies to the Rockies 
and to the Gulf of Mexico ; and when congress shall have wisdom 
sufficient to create a channel that shall connect your river commerce 
with the Gulf of St. Lawrence, there is no doubt but Gairo will still 
continue to grow and prosper more and more. 

Somewhere I have read in sacred or profane history that " T'was 
here the Queen of Sheba came to Solomon of old," with a wondrous 
load of spices, pomegranates and fine gold, and when this lovely 
point she saw her heart was filled with joy ; she straightway said she'd 
like to be Queen of Cairo, Illinois. 

We are glad to be in Gairo. Many of our members feared to come 
so far, but coming has taught us all a lesson of the extended wealth 
and importance of our state. With Cairo in the extreme south and 
Chicago in the north, to say nothing of St. Louis in the west, it does 
not seem that Illinois can take anything but a leading position in the 
commerce of the nation. 

This society is now twenty-four years old. During this time it lias 
met annually at different points in the State. Its sole aim and object 
has always been to increase the standard of attainments of its mem- 
bers in order that it might be able to give more comfort to suffering 
humanity. Unlike trade unions and many other societies the ques- 
tion of " The Mighty Dollar, and How to Get it in Large Ouantitu 
has never entered in its deliberations. No corner on dentistry has 
ever been organized by it, nor has it ever undertaken to say how 
many hours a day its members should labor, or what fees they should 
coll- 
In tin- fourth chapter of Genesis it is recorded, "And Abel was a 
keeper of sheep and Cain was a tiller of the ground," showing stock 
ing and farming to be the most ancient of callings. The good 
book speaks of many spc< ial fields of labor and usefulness, but den- 
tist ompelled to confess that their's is a comparatively modern 
calling. In its brief lite, however, its votaries have frequently 



The Editorial Function. 13 

silenced and overawed emperors and prelates. The pulpil and the 
forum are alike dumb when reposing in our chairs, and the fas< ma- 
ting and irresistible accents of woman's melodious tongue are 
frequently bushed into painful silence by us. 

With all this latent potency we are notwithstanding an exceedingly 
mild-mannered and peaceful set of citizens. I pray you, sir, assure 
the good people of Cairo that when we go from here our labors for 
this year ended, we shall take with us the recollection of time profit- 
ably and well spent, and that their kindly greeting and hospitable 
attentions contributed in no small degree to the success, comfort and 
enjoyment of our meeting. — Transactions of the Illinois State Dental 
Society. 



THE EDITORIAL FUNCTION. 



The exercise of the editorial function is so liable to occasion unjust 
reflections and unwarranted conclusions, that brief space may be 
permitted for the presentation of a few general statements : 

First. It should be remembered that the editor has probably the 
advantage of a wider outlook than the writer. As to the acceptance 
or rejection of a paper submitted for publication, the editor is of 
necessity obliged to consider the interests of his journal and of its 
readers more than those of any single contributor. The duty which 
he owes to his subscribers outweighs the claims of business or friend- 
ship. If the periodical has a well-defined field, he cannot admit the 
discussion of irrelevant topics. Subscribers have paid for it as the 
vehicle of information in their specialty, and they have a right to 
complain of the use of its pages for matter not pertinent thereto. 
Even within this limitation if the subjects be of local rather than of 
general interest, or if it be threadbare by frequent discussion, or be 
dealt with in an elementary manner, due consideration for the repu- 
tation of his journal compels an editor to respectfully decline the 
publication of such matter, and such considerations appeal to him 
as they cannot to one not occupying his vantage ground, albeit an 
adverse judgment is frequently as painful to the editor as it is dis- 
appointing to the writer. 

Second. It would seem almost superfluous to assert that the editor 
is as desirous to obtain a good article as a writer can be to furnish 
one, and no well-written paper is rejected except for a valid reason,' 
and after a careful survey of the situation. 



14 The Odontographic Journal. 

Third. An editor who wishes to maintain a literary character for 
his journal must measure every contribution by the standard which 
he has erected. Judged by such standard, many articles must either 
be rejected or made approximately to conform thereto. A reader of 
even superficial culture soon catches the tone of the periodical which 
he reads habitually, and if it pleases him he will not be satisfied with 
a lowering of its style ; and though he may not possess the gift of 
writing well himself, he recognizes and appreciates it in others. 
While it may be impossible to maintain the same high tone in every 
instance, the rule is to keep the exceptions as near the pitch as 
possible. 

Fourth. It should not be forgotten that good contributors are a 
necessity to the successful editor, and it is of vital interest to his jour- 
nal to encourage and develop them. In this effort there ks much 
laborious editorial work, credit for which the editor cheerfully waives 
in favor of his contributor ; with a more mature judgment contribu- 
tors subsequently recognize the value of an editorial revision which 
at the time they were disposed to resent as meddlesome. The reasons 
for this are not difficult of apprehension. The editor is constantly 
exercising the critical faculty ; being practiced in the art of selection, 
he readily sees the merits and demerits of the paper before him, and 
makes honest effort to improve the author's presentation of his theme. 

Fifth. No intelligent editor will claim the right to change the 
meaning of his correspondent ; while on the other hand he will be 
solicitous to correct verbosity of style, inelegancy of expression,, 
faultiness of grammatical construction, and to make plain, by modi- 
fication, obscure or involved sentences, — in a word, to make the 
writer say concisely that which he had desired to say, but had failed 
to make clear by reason of inexperience or undue haste'. 

Sixth. The privilege accorded to the writer to revise proof of his 
contribution gives him the opportunity to correct any misapprehen- 
sion of his meaning on the part of the editor, and should be accepted 
as evidence that there was no'intention to be otherwise than helpful 
to him. 

Seventh. Contributors to the literature of a profession should 
bear in mind that, so far from there being an) antagonism between 

writer and editor, there is assumed to be i common purpose to pre- 

t that which shall be creditable alike to author, editor, journal, 
and to the profession. 

lith. Inexperienced writers should therefore aeeept editorial 
-ion a- well meant even if not well done, and intended as a eor- 



The lit hies of Medical Visiting Again. 1 5 

rective for faults, or what appear as such to the editor, and as an 
inspiration to more careful effort. 

Ninth. While the foregoing summary of points submitted for 
the consideration of our contributors may at first reading appear 
egotistic, it is not meant to assume superiority, but simply to invite 
thought and promote a charitable feeling for those occupying 
editorial chairs, whose best efforts too often bring them reproach 
and censure where they had hoped for appreciation and thanks. — 
Editorial, Dental Cosmos. 



CARBOLIC ACID AND CREOSOTE. 



It is not surprising that the following item should go the rounds 
of the journals that do not stop to think about what they publish : 

— Creosote, as a dental application to painful cavities, is complicated with 
the inconvenience that the liquid is apt to give trouble by coming in contact 
with various parts of the mouth. This may be avoided by mixing it with 
collodion, in the proportion of ten parts of collodoin to fifteen parts of 
creosote. The mixture forms a sort of jelly, which, besides being more 
manageable than plain creosote, forms a varnish which seals the cavity and 
protects the dental nerve substance from contact with the air. 

A recent issue ot one of the dental journals publishes the above, 
and the editor adds the information that " pure carbolic acid may be 
used in place of the creosote." We would add that it not only may 
be used, but must be taken, if the collodoin is to be coagulated. 

We would advise a closer study of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
by those who have published the above item. — Meyer Brothers' 
Druggist. 



THE ETHICS OF MEDICAL VISITING AGAIN. 



In a former number of this Journal* we took occasion to notice 
a letter of Dr. D. A. K. Steele, of Chicago, in which he gave some 
of his impressions of European surgeons. A second letter on a 
similar subject, published in the same journal, The Western Medical 
Reporter, again attracts our attention, and with it, it is our purpose 
now to deal. 

Dr. Steele, of Chicago, Ulysses-like, has continued his wanderings, 
but unlike the crafty " Dux Danaorum," does not escape the 
machinations of the Circe. 

Dr. Steele, we suspect, carries his Circe with him. She seems with 
hun too much at home not to be " to the manner born." As Socrates, 
had his " Daimon," so has Dr. Steele, of Chicago, his Circe. Here 

>-. Odonto^raphic Journal for January. 



1 6 The Odontographic Journal. 

the comparison must end. I)r. Steele neither teaches as Socrates, 
nor laughs as Democritus. Neither, like Diogenes, does he sit in a 
tub, but like him he sneers and scorns. Here, too, the comparison 
must end, for Diogenes, we are told, sat in his tub, content to sneer 
at what came along. He neither left home to sneer, nor published 
his diatribes upon mankind in " The Sinope Slanderer." Once, it is 
currently reported, the philosopher lighted his lamp in broad day- 
light, and went in search of a man. Dr. Steele, of Chicago, appar- 
ently, at cross purposes with his pseudo prototype, in a fit of pespair, 
girded up his loins and went into a far country, blinded by the glare 
of Chicago, to seek a surgeon, or rather to discover whether surgery, 
as a fine art, had any existence — except as a lost art — outside of 
Chicago. Whether Diogenes in his search came upon a man, we 
♦ are left to conjecture. Not so with Dr. Steele. For him all the 
world — but Chicago — is one great Nazareth. And "can any good 
come out of Nazareth " ? Like the monks of old, Dr. Steele is lost 
in self-contemplation. Like St. Simon Stylites, perched upon his 
pillar, too far from the spheres to hear their music, and too far from 
the earth to be a part of it, or to have sympathy with it, for him 
there is but one imposing figure — the perch and its occupant. 

Persons, like mirrors, are faulty aids for scientific observations. 
By the first, one can see only what perchance passes. By the second, 
he can see only himself and what is behind. A combination of 
mirror and pedestal is particularly liable to induce self-worship. We 
speak plainly. We are in earnest, and have no time to waste in 
"patching fig leaves for the naked truth. With Dr. Steele and his 
methods, we have no sympathy ; nor can any man or men, not 
blinded by a desire for notoriety, nor puffed up by vain egotism, nor 
altogether lacking in a respect or appreciation of "the unwritten law 
of medical comity," or common decency. 

With Dr. Steele's former letters, both as regards Mr. Tait and 
other surgeons, we spoke plainly, but not harshly, hoping that a 
regard for the good name and good sense of Americans generally, 
would lead him to desist from further perpetration of boorish inci- 
vility upon those good enough to admit him to their table and their 
work. This he refuses to do. In the November number of the 
Western Medical Reporter he thus harangues upon Prof. Pean : 

"To my surprise, I found that Pean was deficient in those qualties 
that mark the difference between a really great surgeon and a [sic] 
merely skillful operator. He became nervous, irascible, and profane, 
and soon had all of his assistants in the same unhappy frame of 



Reflex Nausea, 17 

mind The first part of the operation was a brilliant 

success but from the moment of hemorrhage oc< uring 

from the stump, its management was a dismal failure." 

And this is the criticism of a man personally invited by the opera- 
tor to his private hospital. 

Hospitality, both "the unwritten law of medical comity" and the 
(written) law of self-defense, must soon be a thing of the past, if such 
conduct as this goes without condemnation and reproval. Dr. 
Steele's diatribes should be included in the index expurgatorius, and 
be burned without reading. Dr. Steele should be suppressed. — 
Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal. 



REFLEX NAUSEA. 



About a year ago a lady brought me several upper sets of teeth, 
well made and adapted for her own mouth ; but after a year's trial 
she had abandoned all attempts to wear them, on account of the 
gagging and nausea. Perseverance only led to vomiting. The 
strange fact was that she did not mind plaster of Paris impressions, 
even when they touched the pharynx, and was not discommoded by 
any handling of the soft plate with the fingers. You could poke 
your fingers down to her tonsils without provoking nausea ; yet the 
moment she put any one of these sets in her mouth and her tongue 
touched it, she gasped and gagged until it was removed. In fact, it 
was quite painful for an unprofessional observer to witness. 

The instant conclusion to which I came was that the plate must 
not cover so much of the hard palate, and I made a set of ten instead 
of fourteen teeth, reaching about half as far back as any of the others. 
It w^as a great failure. I then made the thinest possible plate, cover- 
ing the tuberosities, which were like marbles, and keeping a rim not 
more than half an inch wide, covering the front of the maxilla. It 
was retained by suction from three small chambers at the heels and 
in the centre. The moment the lady attempted to suck it, the plate 
adhered, but she gagged as much as ever, and was obliged to remove 
it. I then reduced the plate to the smallest possible compass, with 
eight teeth, but it was no more successful. 

I then painted the soft palate and the fauces with a four-per-cent. 
solution of hydrochlorate of cocaine. A very slight improvement 
was perceptible, but after an hour the gagging returned. We 
both persevered doing this, but it was of no permanent avail. Finally, 



1 8 T/ie Odontography Journal. 

I made her protrude her tongue, and I sprayed it with the solution. 
I o the surprise of both of us, she instantly for the first time in her 
experience, sucked the plate into place without the least unpleasant 
sensation. The effect — and the set — remained for two days, but on 
the third the old gagging returned, and I could not persuade her to 
make another effort. The interesting question is, what is the physi- 
ological explanation of the cause ? Is it not exceptional as illustrat- 
ing a deviation from the well-known neurosis associated with the 
nerves of the teeth, as an inflammation of the pulp. Evidently the 
tongue alone was the sentient seat from which a centripetal current 
travelled towards the fauces, reappearing as a centrifugal impulse, 
which excited reflex irritability of the nerves of the stomach, and 
contraction of the viscus. Yet it was not until the act of suction 
was performed that the retching occurred. The plate could be put 
into the mouth and the teeth closed on it without exciting nausea, 
but the instant the tongue touched it in sucking, the gagging occured. 
Was not the dorsum of the tongue in a hypersensitive condition, and 
did not the spray paralyze the papillae, as well as by reflex action, the 
nerves of taste, the glosso- pharyngeal, and the lingual or gustatory ? 
Was not the tongue the stimulation that produced the irritation ? 

I am indebted to Dr. T. Wesley Mills, Professor of Physiology, 
McGill College, Montreal, for the following hasty notes on the 
above : — 

Case of Nausea Produced Reflexly. — In this case there seems to be 
little doubt but that the afferent impulses travelling from the tongue 
by way of the fifth nerve, were the sources of the nausea. The 
tongue is very readily affected by all foreign sensations, such as that 
referred to in the account of the present interesting case. But as the 
nature of reflex depends not only on the quality, intensity, site, etc., 
of the stimulus, but very largely on the contraction of the central cells 
acting as centre, it becomes a question whether in the present 
instance there was increased excitability (activity) of the nerve end- 
ings, of the nerve itself, the central cells, or all of these. Many 
facts go to show, that the central cells are of most importance in 
determining the issue, as witness the readiness with which cerebral 
events (emotions, recollections) cause nausea. 

The case in question seems to me to illustrate this aspect of the 
subject. As in the case <>t other centres, so in this instance, the 
tetanus "vomiting centre" had, partly from repeated Stimulating 
and parti) from I crcbral influences, become irritable, i.e., discharged 



Medical Education for Dentists. \<) 

impulses with undue readiness. 'This centre seems to be especially 
liable to get into this condition, so that even a vomiting (or regurgi- 
tating) habit may be formed. — Beers, W. Geo., Dominion Dental 
Journal. 

"NO SABE." 



The more I study Americans, says a Chinese correspondent, the 
more I am convinced that they are mentally diseased. Instead of 
doing everything in a common sense manner, they try all they can to 
do it in the very opposite way. At home, for example, you and the 
other members of your Mutual Health Association pay Dr. Wun 
Lung and his assistants a liberal salary to keep you all well, and pay 
nothing when you are sick. On this account he and his young men 
work very assiduously in regularly calling and examining every 
member of the union, and all of you enjoy comparative immunity 
from illness. Here, in New York, a physician is paid for by the 
amount of your sickness, and the less able you are to earn any money 
the larger and more onerous is his bill. As a result, many doctors, I 
am told, yield to temptation and keep their customers sick. The 
consequence is that those who have the largest number of sick and 
dying are the richest, most esteemed and influential, while in China 
they would be ostracized and not allowed to practice. — Exchange. 



MEDICAL EDUCATION FOR DENTISTS. 



I should be sorry to have this subject of the education of the 
dentist, or rather education for dentistry, become settled without 
having put my finger into the pie, metaphorically speaking. I have 
felt all along that there was no hurry about the matter. It will not 
be fixed until the " cohesive or non-cohesive gold " question, the 
"amalgam" question are fixed, and these or course we shall always 
have with us. But the education question like these others, might 
become quiescent for a while and I might not be here or not in con- 
dition to take an interest in it when it shall again appear on the 
tapis, so I seize this opportunity and plunge into the subject now. 

The fact that busy and prominent practitioners of medicine and 
dentistry, who are not often professors in medical or dental colleges, 
or editors of medical or dental periodicals, are so much interested 
in the education, or proper preparation of those who are destined to 
( ' ( upy the shoes of the present race of practitioners, must have 



20 The Odontography Journal. 

sonic reason] There must be some grounds for the discontentVith 
past and present methods of education. What are these grounds? 
Why are not Drs. A., B. and C, who have been successful in gaining 
professional favor, professional honors, and large practices, where 
one would suppose all their energies could be profitably engaged, not 
contented to let the coming doctor and dentist work out his own 
salvation in the same way that they themselves have? It cannot be 
that Drs , A., B. and C , are possessed by the foolish idea, that " now 
we are in, we must make it as difficult as possible for others to get 
in." It cannot be that Drs. A., B. and C, who have done so nobly 
in all other respects, can have any but the purest motives in this 
direction. They are doing what they consider a duty, and this duty 
lies at present in trying to make the fence about the dental field 
higher and higher, and in some cases adding a barbed wire at the 
top of the fence. Why this should have become a duty, I cannot 
answer. I must acknowledge that I do not know ; nor can I see 
any reason or sense in it. This may be my fault, but I am open to 
conviction. Fences are good in their way for keeping out intruders 
and for defining boundaries. When the distinguished Drs. A., B , 
and C, entered the profession, the fences were so low and badly built 
that they could be stepped over with the greatest of ease, and no 
thoughts of the danger of rents and tears from the abominable 
barbed wire ever entered the intruder's mind. 

Gentlemen, to be sincere, the fence was a very low one when I 
entered the profession. The requirements were a two years appren- 
ticeship or studentship, and a course in a dental college. The labor. 
the anxiety, the sleepless nights and worried days, the study of 
medical science, all came afterwards when securely within the field. 
For several years the mechanics of our practice occupied my best 
thoughts. I don't think I looked or thought of anything beyond 
the how to do it, in daily practice. The how is just as important 
to-day as it was a quarter of a century ago. Clinical experience 
seemed to me the very fust thing of value, and to acquire that 
required all the energy and devotion possible. It is to-day as 
valuable and as difficult to acquire as at any past tunc in our his- 
tory. Cultivation of the muscles so that they shall respond deli- 

tely, and skillfully, and acurately, to efferent impulses from a 
trained mind, is of the first importance in our specialy. Will a 

medical edu< ation tram tin- mind for this sort of work ? If I should 

answer the question in my own way, I should say, u not particu- 
larly." Latin, Greek, the higher mathematics, the natural sciences, 



Medical Education for Dentists. 2 r 

all furnish gymnastic exercises for general mental development. 
So docs the study of the science of medicine. The particular study 
which the dental student needs is exactly that which the best class 

of dental colleges of to-day offer with their two courses of lectures 
on anatomy, chemistry, materia medica, physiology, pathology, 
general and special, and therapeutics, and their present facilities for 
and encouragement of diligent laboratory and infirmary practice. 
This is all the beginner needs. Nothing more, nothing less. It is . 
the education par excellence for the preparation of young men who 
propose to enter the field of dental practice. It is practical. It is 
the outgrowth of independent American directness of purpose, 
untrammeled by ancient precedents. It has been evolved from 
American necessity, and has been admired and applauded and 
copied (as near as possible) by special educators in other countries. 
We hug ourselves on account of the reputation our young specialty 
has gained in the world. The dental college is the prime factor in 
the good reputation — the dental college standing alone and inde- 
pendent of any medical faculty — the American Dental College, 
which has become an institution, in the broader meaning of that 
term, in our country and only in our country — this is the school for 
the dental student. It isn't the school for medical, nor law, nor theo- 
logical students. Neither are medical, nor law, nor theological 
schools the place for dental students. 

But the science of dentistry we say, is a branch of the science of 
medicine. Medicine is the alma mater of dentistry as well as of 
ophthalmology, gynecology, etc., etc. This is all true, a.nd I for one 
have no disposition to dispute the proposition in any of its points ; 
but when you go on to say after stating the above proposition, 
" therefore, the dentist like the oculist should study medecine first 
and dentistry afterwards," I object positively, and insist that the 
conclusion has no logical connection with the accepted proposition. 
Anatomy is a branch of the science of biology. Would it not be 
better for a young man who expects to become a practical anato- 
mist to begin with dissections and the study of anatomy proper, than 
for him to spend a year or two in the study of biology ? After the 
technique has been acquired and skill .with the scalpel, how natural 
it is for the student of anatomy to extend his studies and reach 
back into the interesting science of biology. I don't want to multi- 
ply examples, but to insist that the study of medicine becomes a 
re, a pleasure, a necessity to the dentist after the course in the 
dental college, and after manual skill has been attained in the 



The Odontography Journal. 

infirmary and in practice. Drs. A., B. and C, have pursued this 
course. Dental graduates are continally supplementing their dental 
studies by later medical studies. A dozen dental graduates in the 
immediate vicinity of this house have within a few years graduated 
at one or another of the medical colleges of this city. It is not at all 
an uncommon occurrence, and what fine medical students the dental 
graduates make ! Medical education for dentists is of the greatest 
advantage! Medical education for dentists is becoming every day 
a greater necessity ! We must all approve of it. But I want to 
make the distinction as clear as the line between black and white, 
that medical education for dental students is as unnecessary and as 
unprofitable, as the study of theology would be to a law student. It 
would be a waste of physiological energy at the wrong time. It is 
dilettanteism and harmful, instead of useful to practical students. 
A knowledge of the use and skill in the use of the forceps, or laryn- 
goscope, or of any of the special instruments of specialists in 
surgical practice, can only be acquired by a special training, 
whether after a medical course or before a medical course. 

The dentist, among all specialists, is the only one who has a 
special school devoted to this necessary training. The school has 
proved a success. Why then should we want to change its char- 
acter and go back to older and inferior methods ? Opthamology 
and laryngology might be very much benefitted if these spe< ialties 
had their schools arranged exactly after the pattern of the dental 
colleges, and entirely independent of medical colleges. This may 
be but a matter of opinion. Many things are but matters of opinion. 
By their fruits ye shall know them." The fruit of the American 
I Cental College has made American dentistry preeminent in the 
world. The medical colleges have ripened but very little fruit in 
the dental orchard. If you will show me one very prominent and 
distinguished practitioner of dentistry who has come to us from the 
in dical schools, I will show you ten equally as prominent and dis- 
tinguished practitioners who have come from the dental schools. 
Dr. Norman W. kingsley looked into this subject some years ago, and 
stated some significent huts in regard to it. We might adopt his 
plan and analyze this assembly as a representative society of- the 
State of Ohio. How many of us, members of this society, have 
(1 ;i medical college education first and our dental education 
afterwards? I suspect a straw vote would show a very significent 
minority of the former. Why then, gentlemen, do His. A., B. and 
want to change the methods of the dental college, or attach 



Science and the Dictionary. 23 

"chairs " to medical college faculties. These dental chairs, so-< ailed, 
have always seemed to me to bear about the same relation to a chair 
in an independant dental school, that a little wicker work child's 
chair, with a hole in the bottom, does to a comfortable adult arm 
chair. Our profession is to old for the little chair now. Let's put 
it away in the garret with the tin soldiers, rag-babies, and rocking- 
horses of our babyhood, and stick manfully to our dental schools 
and the chairs filled by professors of the science and art of dentistry. 
— Wright, C. M., Ohio Journal of Dental Science. 



OLD, BUT WORTH REPEATING. 



How much a man is like his shoes ! 

For instance, both a soul may lose ; 

Both have been tanned ; both are made tight — 

By cobblers ; both get left and right. 

Both need a mate to be complete ; 

And both are made to go on feet. 

They both need heeling ; oft are sold, 

And both in time will turn to mould. 

With shoes, the last is first ; with men, 

The first shall be the last ; and when 

The shoes wear out they're mended new ; 

When men wear out they're men dead, too ! 

They both are tread upon, and both 

Will tread on others, nothing loth. 

Both have their ties, and both incline, 

When polished, in the world to shine ; 

And both peg out. Now, would* you choose, 

To be a man or be his shoes ? — Exchange. 



SCIENCE AND THE DICTIONARY.— ESPECIALLY THE 
" CENTURY DICTIONARY" 



One of the most important accompaniments of the progress of 
science, indeed an essential factor in- it, is the increase of its vocabu- 
lary. Every advance in accurate observation, discovery, analysis, 
01 constructive theory, brings with it a new term, or, more often, a 
group of new terms. This multiplication of words is largely inevi- 
table. The new things must, of course, generally receive new 
names, and the new ideas will not always fit into the frames of asso- 
ciation in which the old words are set. The scientific demand for 
ion ;ihd brevity must be satisfied, even if linguistic purity 



24 The Odontograpkic Journal. 

suffers. It thus happens that every year the language of science 
receives a large addition which students of science must understand 
and use. How very large this increment is, it is difficult, even for 
those who are familiar with several departments of science, to appre- 
ciate. Moreover, the process of growth does not stop with what is 
necessary. Unfortunately, the liberty which in many cases must be 
taken with the language has led many reputable scientific men to 
feel that they are free to do what they please with it, in any case. 
The result is a vast number of coinages which might have been dis- 
pensed with, but which must be learned and remembered, since they 
often become current through the reputation of their inventors. The 
number of such words increases at the rate of probably several thou- 
sand a year. 

To this increment through direct coinage must also be added the 
numerous, and not less significant, specializations and enlargements 
of the meaning of established and even common words, such as 
" energy " and "potential." Every movement of science unsettles 
much that has been done before, and of this continuous re-adjust- 
ment its language is a true reflection. 

It is obvious that at this point science can receive a great deal of 
help from competent lexicographic aid. While the dictionary is 
not, in many respects, an adequate exponent of scientific kno\vledge> 
it may be an invaluable record of the greater number of the 
elements or details of that knowledge. Its aim is, of course, 
necessarily to state merely what is or has been in the language it 
describes, not what scientifically ought to have b.en ; but. if it is 
accurately and intelligently performed, this historical labor approaches 
in its value to science very near to original work. It is true, 
also, that the utility of the ordinary dictionary is limited by the 
narrowness of its definitions and the formalism which marks 
its treatment of its material ; but these defects are largely conven- 
tional, and it is quite possible for an editor who understands the 
wants to be met, and who has the necessary disregard of traditions, 
to model a dictionary which will satisfy ever) reasonable scientific 
demand. In a word, the impossibility now felt of keeping track 
of the linguistic de\ elopement not only of science as a whole, but 
n of one specialty, and the difficulty of guarding even estab- 
lished words from misuse or abuse, make the construction ot a 
dictionary which will not only record the entire vocabulary of the 
sciences, but will record it and define it so fully and accurately as 
to conform to the needs of scientific men, one of the most urgent 



//ch< Druggists </<> Business in Illinois. 25 

requirements of the time, h is, therefore, worthy ol note thai the 
attempt has been made in this country, and by American s< ientists, 
to produce' a I took of this kind. It is announced that the "Century 
Dictionary," which has been for some years preparing, under the 
editorship of Professor W. I). Whitney, is to be not merely a com- 
plete general and historical dictionary of common English, hut also 
an equally complete dictionary of technical terms ; and that this 
technical material, which has been obtained by searching all 
branches of scientific literature, has been put in shape by competent 
specialists, who have had in mind the necessities of their fellow-crafts- 
men, as well as the wants of laymen. It appears, thus, that an effort 
is seriously making to embody for the first time comprehensively, in 
lexicographic form, the scientific spirit and work of the nineteenth 
century ; and while it is to be expected that the most direct result of 
the attempt will be the promoting of popular intelligence, it is also to 
be expected — from the reputation of the distinguised editor-in-chief 
and of his co-laborers, among whom are Professor J. D. Whitney, 
Professor E. S. Dana, Dr. Sereno Watson, Dr. Lester F. Ward, Profes- 
sor C. S. Peirce, Professor T. C. Mendenhall, Professor R. H. Thurston, 
Dr. Eliott Coues, Professor Theodore Gill, and many others — that 
the interests of pure science will not be neglected. — Science. 



HOW DRUGGISTS DO BUSINESS IN ILLINOIS. 



We have the duplicate of that New York medical law here in 
Illinois ; but let it be known we have been so fortunate as to have 
among the druggists a few resolute meu who did not fear Dr. Rauch, 
the secretary, and his medical board of health. They told him, in 
plain and unmistakable English, "You enforce this counter prescrib- 
ing clause of your medical law against the druggists of the state of 
Illinois, and we will compel your board to register every druggist of 
the state as a physician. For, if the law decides counter prescribing 
as being the act of a physician, then we are entitled to registration 
as such, as it is a legitimate part of the drug business, and we have 
been practicing counter prescribing ere this medical law was passed 
and went into force." This has had the proper effect on the pompous 
secretary of the board of health, who had previously been making 
his boasts how he was going to do up the druggists who had become 
so important in their own estimation as to have deprived physicians 
becoming registered under the pharmacy law unless they passed an 
examination. Just for a moment think of the audacity of a druggist 



26 TJie Odontographic Journal. 

requiring a physician to pass an examination, and especially before 
a board of druggists. What an outrage! No wonder the secretary 
of the doctors' law tried to get even with the druggists for this. Yet, 
we must give the secretary of the board of health credit that he used 
policy and did not enforce, nor does he intend to enforce it, at least 
so some fellow who styles himself a druggist says, and that Dr. Rauch 
did not wish to add 4,000 more quacks to the medical profession of 
the state of Illinois by being compelled to register these druggists. 

So we do things in this "sucker state," and, thanks to our resolute 
pharmacists, we were not in the hole that our colleagues are in the 
empire state. — Afeyer Brothers 1 Druggist. 



PERRY'S CHASM "—TAKING OFF THE ENAMEL. 



If the teeth chanced to be of good structure and the cavity small, 
how much better to spread them with a separator the thickness of a 
sheet of thin sand-paper, and cutting with small burs, or specially 
shaped, delicate excavators, from the grinding, lingual or buccal 
aspect, fill them with gold or copper amalgam, and allow them to go 
back to their natural positions, with their contour absolutely un- 
touched. 

Following this plan, it would not be probable that a patient would 
come in saying, as one did to me some years after the Arthur aberra- 
tion : "This space between my teeth is giving me no end of trouble 
and annoyance, and I think there must be a cavity there. I have 
named it 'Perry's Chasm.'" Nor would there have been made to 
me the following remark : " Doctor, do you notice that on the left 
side, where many years ago separations were made between the back 
teeth, nearly all the cut surfaces have had to be filled ; while on the 
other side, where no cutting was ever done, the teeth have never 
been filled and are still in good condition." 

Only a few days ago a lady said to me : " Do von remember that 
many years ago you wanted to cut between some of my back teeth 
because you thought there were or would be cavities there, and 
mother begged you not to do it, and it was not done ; and do you 
sec that all of those teeth are still sound? Mother knew; did she 
not ?" 

I tell you, gentlemen, mothers do know ; the public knows, and 

you may reason with all the plausibility at your command and you 
cannot over< ome the widespread, instinctive dislike of that practice. 



The International Tooth Crown Company^ etc. 27 

You may flatter yourself that you have made a good argument, and 

as the patient does not get up and leave at once, you goon with your 
cutting and filing. But a year goes by and your patient does not 
re-appear ; he has quietly slipped away to some one of those men 
who try to leave the teeth as nature made them. 

The public calls this filing " taking off the enamel." It is more 
than that. It is taking off from the operator the armor of courage 
and confidence in his own ability to make his work a real blessing 
to his patient, and leaves him bare and unprotected against the 
temptation of doing hasty, botchy and inartistic work. The evil 
effects of this practice are not felt by the patient only, but indirectly 
"by the operator, who becomes demoralized and ready to cut out and 
hack with the reverence of a bull in a china closet, unmindful of the 
fact that nature, in her constructive processes, has produced in the 
teeth of man a mirvelous example of the adaptation of means to 
ends — of means by which a given amount of tooth material is dis- 
tributed so as to secure a combination of the greatest amount of 
strength with the greatest amount of beauty of form and outline. — 
Perry, S. G., International Dental Journal. 



THE INTERNATIONAL TOOTH CROWN COMPANY, 

vs. 
THE DENTISTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



What is the International Tooth Crown Company ? What is it 
doing ? It is a corporation not composed of dentists, but whose 
stockholders and active officers are partfes recently connected with 
the Goodyear Dental Vulcanite Company, who for many years waged 
war on the individual dentists throughout the country ; and its 
demands and methods of operation are very similar to those pursued 
by the old Goodyear Dental Vulcanite Company. There is this 
difference, however : the International Tooth Crown Company does 
not confine itself to any one patent, but is on the lookout for letters 
patent relating to dentistry when taken out by any person in the 
United States. It purchases such patents when practicable and then 
makes monied demands against dentists under them ; and, if not 
submitted to, harasses them by suits in the United States Courts. 
It has recently, if we are correctly informed, added two new patents 
on removable bridges to its list. 

Those of the profession who consent to pay the royalty demanded 
are compelled to sign a license full of offensive agreements, and 



The Odontographic J our mil. 

which is little less than a species of blackmail to say the least, or 

take the alternative of an expensive lawsuit. 

The principal patents now owned by the International Tooth 
Crown Company are several patents known as tooth crown patents, 
which cover practically most of the successful operations in tooth 
crowning in use by our profession, and patents relating to bridge 
work, the principal one of these being the Low patent, under which 
they practically claim all bridge work. 

The International Tooth Crown Company has suits now pending 
against members of our profession in the States of Maryland, New 
York, Connecticut, and Wisconsin, and are about to commence suit 
in other States, or are threatening to do so. 

A Connecticut and New York case was heard over two years ago, 
in which a voluminous record was made up on behalf of the com- 
plainants and defendants. Upon that record as made, the patent on 
bridge work was sustained, and an injunction issued against the 
defendant dentists. The bill, however, was dismissed as to the 
several patents on crown work, and an appeal was taken by the com- 
plainant, the International Tooth Crown Company, to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, where such patents are now pending. 

To our personal knowledge the International Tooth Crown Com- 
pany claims that the tooth crown patents will be unqualifiedly 
sustained in the coming trial before the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and that every member of our profession who has 
done tooth crown work will be subjected to litigation, put under 
injunction, and compelled to pay costs, damages, and profits for 
infringement of these patents ; and by reason of the voluminous and 
confused record on the part of the defendants in that case, there is 
great danger that this will be the result. 

Our present annoyances from litigation are the claims of the 
Company on bridge work under the Low patent. The greatest 
danger, however, is that we will remain idle until the Supreme 
Court's decision on what are known as crown patents ; then, if the 
de< ision is in favor of tin- Company's patents, .is we anticipate, we 
will not be ready to meet them. 

Mow for the remedy. The only way to meet this problem is to 

get ready beforehand for the worst, \i/.: the sustainment of tin 
( rown patents by the I . s. Supreme Court. 

The profession should be in such shape that any member, however 
humble or obscure, or however remote from the large centers he 



The International Tooth Crown Company, etc. 29 

may live, can step forward in any court, on short notice, with full 
and complete testimony to defeat these tooth crown patents, irresp 
tive of and additional to any evidence presented in the case now 
pending in the U. S. Supreme Court. 

T<> accomplish this single-handed and alone will involve the 
dentists in endless expense and trouble, and probably result in 
victory for the Company. Concerted action is imperatively needed. 

With this end in view, at the earnest solicitation of many promi- 
nent members of the profession, "The Dental Protective Asso- 
ciation of the United States" has been formed. Its object is 
to contest, in a lawful and equitable manner, the patents of this 
Company or any other patents relating to dentistry, where the 
validity of such patent has not been fully established. After com- 
petent legal advice it was incorporated. This was accomplished 
under the name above set forth, and the undersigned consented to 
act as the first Board of Directors. The number of Directors was 
fixed at three, as it will be obvious to all that the work of such an 
organization to be prosecuted successfully must be in the hands of a 
small number, not widely separated, so that there may be concerted 
action without delay. 

By-Laws have been adopted, a copy of which we will forward to 
you. 

The Dental Protective Association of the United States 
proposes to take charge of all suits commenced by the Company 
against any of its members who unite themselves with this Association 
before such suits are commenced. 

And we state unhesitatingly and advisedly that with the evidence 
we now have in our possession and procurable, we will be able to 
defeat this Company in their suits against any member of the Pro- 
tec tive Association on a claim of either bridge or crown patents. 

In order to do this we must have funds to engage the best legal 
talent, and to collect all the required evidence and place it in a form 
to be used in any part of the country. We therefore ask a general 
response from the profession. The membership fee is only $10. co, 
which will entitle the member to protection against this Company, 
or against any unjust prosecution on doubtful patents relating to 
dentistry. 

The names of the members will not be made public. 

We beg the hearty co-operation of every dentist in this movement. 
The benefits will be shared by all, while the work must mainly 



3<d The Odontographic Journal. 

devolve upon a few. Dentists can greatly aid the Directors by 
responding promptly, and by inducing those whom this circular may 
not reach to join the Association. Do not lay this upon the shelf until 
you have mailed your reply enclosing $ro.oo. 

We further desire any one having evidence, relating to either 
crown or bridge work, which evidence relates to crown and bridge 
work done before the year 1881, to send to us a detailed description 
of such work, enclosing a drawing and sketch of the work when 
completed, if possible, no matter how roughly such sketch may be 
made, and giving the name of the party for whom such work was 
made, and for how long a time used. 

Please sign the enclosed By-Laws, and send name and address, 
plainly written, with membership fee, to J. N Crouse, Chairman,. 
Board of Directors of the Dental Protective Association, 2231 
Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111., who will forward you a receipt. 

Lyman J. Gage, Vice-President of the First National) Bank of 
Chicago, has kindly consented to act as Treasurer for the Association. 

J. N. CROUSE, ) 

T. W. BROPHY, Hoard of Directors. 

E. D. SWAIN. ) 

LYMAN J. GAGE, Treasurer. 

P.S. — To avoid unnecessary confusion and delay, all communica- 
tions should be sent to 

I. N. CROUSE, 2231 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
Chicago, March 4, 1889. 



SOME LABORATORIES ABROAD. 



Dr. Bary's laboratory remains in nearly the condition in which he 
left it at the time of his death in January. It is housed in a fine 
stone building standing a few hundred yards back of the main build- 
ing of the University of Strassburg. Of the building itself nothing 
more need be said than that while it is very strong and durable in 
construction, there can be no doubt that the architect had more to 
do with directing the expenditure of money than had Dr. liary. 
The rooms are not particularly well suited to the work intended to 
be done in them, and much money was expended for architectural 
rilV< t alone. The large lecture room is finished much after the 
manner of such rooms in this country. The lecturer's table is a long 
one, well provided with iries, and with ample room underneath 

for « harts and maps. Back of the lecturer are a couple of small 



Sovir Laboratories Abroad. 31 

preparation rooms, in which material and apparatus arc brought 
together to meet the demands of any particular lecture. Connected 
with these preparation rooms, by doors, are the rooms containing the 
botanical cabinet. 

The herbarium is stored in a long, narrow room, well filled with 
rough shelving. The specimens themselves are contained in boxes, 
and these are slid upon the shelves. A label on the front of the box 
gives one a clue to the contents. 

The laboratories proper occupy several moderate-sized rooms, well 
lighted. The tables are firm and solid, most of them being fastened 
along the wall just under the windows. Such tables as are not 
attached to the wall are simply placed upon the floor, no devices 
being resorted to in order to reduce the danger of jarring. The 
tables are of heavy oak construction, but not remarkable otherwise. 

The instruments in use in the ordinary student laboratories are 
all of the usual continental form, i. e., with the simple, low stand, 
plain stage, sliding-tube and the useful fine adjustment. Mechani- 
cal section-cutters are used very little, if at all, the work being done 
by means of good razors, with the specimen held between the thumb 
and finger, or imbedded in cork or pith. Facilities for maintaining 
constant temperatures are supplied, as also for the growing of aquat- 
ics, etc. 

Taken altogether, one is struck with the extreme simplicity in the 
outfit. High powers of the microscope are not apparently much 
resorted to, the objectives usually ranging from our f or ^ inch to -J or 
\. Books and periodicals abound, and the student is evidently ex- 
pected to make good use of them. 

Pfeffer's laboratory in Leipzig is in an old building a mile or more 
from the University. The building has been repaired and altered 
so as to better fit it for its present uses. One cannot here, any more 
than at Strassburg, see an ideal arrangement of space for laboratory 
purposes. Small rooms have been utilized for various purposes, or, 
where the construction of the building would permit it, they have 
been thrown into larger ones by the removal of walls. The small 
rooms are used for special work, and particularly for advanced stu- 
dents. These rooms have oak tables of solid construction standing 
near the center, and at these the work is done for the most part. A 
low table runs just under the window, attached to the wall. There 
ire glass cases against the wall in the back part of the room, and in 
these various kinds of apparatus and ^l.issware are kept for use. 
The larger rooms are used by beginners. Here long oak tables of 



j 2 The Odontography Journal. 

quite rough construction arc used. These stand directly upon the 
floor, and no attempt is made to guard against jarring in any other 
than by the weight of the tables themselves. 

The microscopes are of the usual continental forms. 

At Berlin, Schwendener has rooms in the second story of a build- 
ing which appears to have been built for some other purpose than of 
serving for a botanical laboratory. Small and large rooms, with 
little or no economy of arrangement, are used for offices, private 
laboratories, laboratories for students, and laboratories for beginners. 
One of these rooms nearest to the professor's study looks southward, 
some look westward, some eastward. There is little, if any, north 
light. The use of large tables in the interior of the room, standing 
on the ordinarv floor, is a marked feature here, as in the preceding 
laboratories. Side tables against the wall are found in most of the 
rooms, but the greater part of the work is done at the floor tables. 
The microscopes are practically like those in Leipzig and SPrassburg 
Culture apparatus and facilities for maintaining constant temperature 
are amply provided. Books are at hand, and apparently consulted 
freely. — Bessey, Chas. E., The Microscope. 



HAM v. TURKKV. 



Ham, like death, has all seasons for its own. You can write about 
ham in luly with as much sang froid as in January, and without the 
slightest seeming of having committed what a friend of mine would 
have called "a fox pass,' (He spoke French " as it was wrote.") 

1 lam is superior to turkey in this respect. It is not hollow-chested, 
and there is no place vacant in its anatomy for the cook to shove into 
it a hod full of soaked bread, canton flannel and parsley. When you 
harpoon a whole roasted ham it does not jump into the jar that holds 
the gravy, as a turkey frequently does : ham is naturally more sluggish 
in its movements. 

The prime essential in ham as a food is that it should be like 
sar's wife— above suspicion. A ham that is not entirely dead 

should be shunned, as Bismarck said, like "the deadly upas." The 
mt may be prejudiced against the American hog, but it is as well 
to be on your guard. The first thing to do, therefore, in carving 

ham gracefully is to take a butter tryer and ram it from bow t<» stern 
throughout the ham ; then thrust and pull again from starboard to 
lardboard and get out another sample. Then carry them out to the 



A Matter of Taste. .33 

bark porch and apply a large microscope. If satisfied thai the meat 
is entirely deceased you can safely proceed with the carving. Turn 
the ham on its back diagonally with the right hand of the table, with 
the rump pointing in a southwesterly direction ; remove the wings, 
tear the limbs asunder, and then peel oft" long juicy slices of the 
cured dainty. 

In carving and serving a ham tedious formulae are avoided. There 
is no foolishness about getting some of it without going through a 
civil service examination. — Daily Paper. 



A MATTER OF TASTE. 



Large, full eyes, widely opened, are esteemed a beauty in certain 
countries ; the Laps and the Esquimaux, on the contrary, admire 
half closed eyes. Among the Chinese, eyes placed obliquely, with 
the upper eyelid long and overhanging, are considered most beauti- 
ful. 

A projecting nose is hideous to the Tartars and the Mongolian 
races ; so that the mothers take pains to flatten their infants' noses. 
The negroes and black races regard a broad and frightfully large nose 
as a perfection. To the Persians the beauty of this feature consists 
in a noble length. Several nations and tribes pierce the tip of the 
nose and hang ornaments to it, as is done with us to the ears. The 
objects attached are sometimes so heavy that the nasal cartilage is 
prolonged until it falls over the upper lip ; this hideous enlargement 
is to these people a beauty. In other countries it is the lower lip 
which enjoys the privilege of being pierced with a hole for the recep- 
tion of various jewels which fashion obliges them to carry. 

White and evenly placed teeth appear to us the chief ornament of 
the mouth ; but all nations have not the same opinion. To the 
Siamese black teeth are the handsomest ; it is their daily care to 
blacken them. In Macassar yellow and red teeth are esteemed above 
white or black ones. The women of Macassar spend a part of the 
day in painting their alternate teeth red and yellow. Among the 
Jaggas the absence of the two upper incisor teeth is a condition of 
beauty. The woman who lacks sufficient courage to have them 
drawn would be despised and would be unable to find a husband. 
Many women, led by coquetry or a desire to please, have four front 
teeth drawn instead of two, and are sure to find adorers. 



34 The Odontographic Journal. 

In one country a thick neck, short and buried between the 
shoulders, is admired ; in another, it is a long and slender neck that 
is most esteemed- In certain localities in the Alps an enormous 
goiter has its charms ; a woman without this appendage could not be 
married. — De Drurey. 



DARWINISM IN Till-; KITCHEN. 



I was takin' off my bonnet 

One arternoon at three. 
When a hinseck jumped upon it 

A.S proved to be a Ilea. 

Then I takes it to the grate, 

Between the bars to stick it, 
But I hadn't long to wait 

Ere ii changed into a cricket. 

Says I " Surelie my senses 

Is a gettio' in a fog," 
So to drown it, 1 commences, 

When it halters to a frog. 

Here my heart began to thump. 

And no wonder I fell funky, 
For the frog with one big jump, 

Leaped hisself into a monkey. 

Then I opened wide my eyes, 

His features for to scan. 
And observed with ureal suipris 

That that monkey was a man. 

Bui he vanished from my sight 

And I sunk upon the floor 
.lust as missus with a light 

Came insidt the kitchen door. 

Then beginnin' to abuse me. 

She says, " Sarah, you've been drinkin.". 
I says, " .Mum, you'll excuse me 

Bui h merely been a thin kin'. 

But as sure as I'm a cinder, 

That party what you - 
A gettin' out the winder 

Have developed from a ilea ! " — Leisure Hour. 



TOUCH 'ER UCHT." 



Dr. Benjamin J. Balwin, oi Montgomery, Ala., tells the following 
story : 

There came to consult me a man from the " Piny Woods." He 
was plain, honest, < andid, and rural. A jeans coat, home-spun 
hickory-shirt, red copperas breeches, and long straggling hair consti- 
tuted his makeup. He entered without ceremony, and made known 
his wants at once. 



Fermentation Putrefaction. 35 

11 Doc, t'se hearn tell thai you fix people's years," he said. 

I remarked that I confined my practice to the eye, ear, and throat. 

" Well," said he, " t've been er fitting deefer an' deefer for now 
guine on fore yeer, and I hearn that broth' Josiah Sykes had his 
years fixed up by you, and I come all the way from Pike to see ye." 

I asked him to sit down, and said that I would examine him and 
tell him what I could do. Upon examination I found both ears 
tightly packed with wax. I told him I thought I could relieve him, 
and, after saturating the wax with sweet-oil, the excavation and dis- 
lodgement began. An enormous amount of wax was gotten off each 
ear. 

The old fellow saw it and to him it was incredible. 

"Doc, you didn't git all that thar corription outen my head, did 
ye ? " I replied that I did. 

" Well, by grannie, if you don't lay o'er anything I ever seen in 
Pike, I gin it up." 

After such an effusive compliment, of course, I felt better. // had 
been a great operation. 

" Now, Doc, how much is ye guine to tax me ? " he said. 

"Oh, I hardly know what to charge you," I replied, seeing he was 
very limited in means. 

"Well, Doc, if I had a thousand dollars I'd make ye rich. I ain't 
got much, but I'll do my bess." 

" Never mind about that, it's all right, you can pay me some other 
time." 

" No, Doc, I muss pay ye. Here's a dollar, but touch 'er light, I've 
got to git back home on- the train.'''' • 

The fare was sixty-five cents. — Medical Record. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



FERMENTATION— PUTREFACTION. 



1. What is fermentation ? 

2. What is putrefaction ? 

3. When does fermentation become putrefactive ? 

Not long since the Conductor of this periodical formulated and 
forwarded to the several gentlemen whose replies' follow, the above 
series of questions, every one of which has at some time suggested 
itself to, if it has not been actually asked by, all who have followed 
in even a desultory way, the discussion of questions involving a con- 
sideration of ferments and fermentative processes and [ products. 



The Odontographic Journal. 

The outcome of this effort Is eminently satisfactory to the Odonto- 
grahhic Journal, every man asked responding promptly, and in 
two instances when all but buried in other, and to them more 
important matters. The replies appear in the order in which they 
were received through the mail : 

DR. GEORGE M. STERNBERG, U. S. ARMY, WASHINGTON. 

Fermentation and putrefaction are processes of the same nature — 
induced by micro-organisms during their development in organic 
material suitable for their growth. 

Fermentation is the more general term, and we speak of : 

Alcoholic fermentation ; acetic fermentation ; putrefactive fer- 
mentation, etc. 

By putrefaction, or putrefactive fermentation, we understand that 
form of fermentation which causes the decomposition of animal or 
vegetable material, and is attended with the evolution of offensive 
volatile products — odor of putrefaction. 



DR. C. T. STOCKWELL, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

To vour first question : 'What is fermentation ?" I should say 
it is the changing of non-albuminous matter into other non-albu- 
minous, and is not offensive. 

To the second : " What is putrefaction ? " I may suggest that it 
is the fermentation or changing of albuminous matter into other 
albuminous matter, which process is offensive to our senses. Fur- 
ther, that both fermentation and putrefaction are the result of the 
action of micro-organisms. 

To the third question : " When does fermentation become putre- 
factive ? I am "agnostic," unless it be when the process begins to 
"Mink." In other words, fermentation and putrefaction are. prac- 
tically, identical processes, dependent upon a common cause, and 
distinguishable only by the presence of an odor. If there is an odor, 
we call the process putrefaction ; if no odor is present, we call it 
fermentation. And the presence or absence of an odor depends 
upon the substance acted upon. There may be, however, some 
ult chemical difference. It ><>. 1, for one, must leave it to your 
chemical experts to determine just what it is. 



DR. WILLIAM ii. ITKINSON, mw YORK. 

From my earliest boyhood molecular activities have been the 

charm and puzzle of my lite, bring coupled with an almost insane 



Fermentation Putrefaction. 37 

reverence for the spoken or written sayings of teachers who had 

undertaken to grapple with, unravel and formulate mental and 
bodily activities. 

There lias always been a singular inconsistency in the desire to 
have my own mental make up satisfied by the formulae of word and 
text of the teachers, abject fealty to which, I had been taught was 
the only open door to scientific certitude in conscious ratiocination 
and a sort of a loyalty to this domination, that I but half acknowl- 
edged as legitimate over my own psychic and affectional mode of 
consciousness had made me timid on the one hand, and aggressive 
on the other, in every effort to get at finalities. 

This mixed state of a desire to be first, right myself that I may, 
second, be useful to help others to be right, has caused me to hesi- 
tate as to the form of expressing what views I have on these 
questions. 

First — " What is fermentation ? " 

Second — " What is putrefaction?" 

Third — "When does fermentation become putrefactive?" 

At the very outset it is necessary to comprehend this group of 
three questions that are but the outcome of the first, namely, fer- 
mentation. 

That I may not be tediously analytical, I will endeavor to confine 
myself to the mental processes through which I am carried to arrive 
at what to me is an understanding of the simple and complicated 
process of contact, interpenetration and churning of prime elements 
within the sphere of influence of the power through which these 
molecular changes are affected. 

What is fermentation ? Answer. Boiling. This may be of many 
varying degrees, from the slightest disturbance of the molecular 
mass (by which currents of incoming energy, known as heat, trans- 
port portions of the mass from one site to another, without molecular 
disruption, thereby increasing the bulk at the new site), to the setting 
free of fine particles in the form of vapor, retained within certain 
limits forming a chamber, the upper part of which, is occupied by 
the vapor set free, still without disruption of the molecule. This 
would hardly be complete without having something more than 
water in the chamber, namely a fermentable sugar. 

To study the process of fermentation we must have a fermentable 
body dissolved in water, to which to add a substance, in the presence 
of which, the change known as fermentation takes place. 



The Odontographic Journal. 

This is a microscopical plant the common example of which is tiie 
yeasl plant (Toru/a cerevisium). 

So long as there is sugar enough to support the multiplication and 

growth of the torula the plant will live upon the sugar by converting 
the carbon and hydrogen of the sugar into its own body on the one 
hand, and either alcohol or carbonic dioxide or both, on the other, 
according to the degree of heat, pressure and length of time in 
( ontact. As soon as the fermentable sugar has been consumed the 
process of fermentation ceases and the alcohol and carbonic dioxide 
will not again appear until more of the fermentable body be added 
to the mass. 

The products of this molecular activity are not offensive to the 
smell. Putrefaction or the production of aromatic bad smelling 
vapors, appears when nitrogen is in the fermentable body. 

It is only in this sense that fermentation can be said to change 
into purtrefaction by reason of the retrogressive metamprposis 
breaking up the old and forming the new bodies known as Pto- 
maes — alkaloids — elaborated in the presence of the much-talked-of 
bacteria. Thus the fermentative process presents us under the 
various circumstances with vinous, acetic and cadaveric products, 
some of which are very destructible to vegetable and animal bodies. 



DR. F. V. CLARK, NEW YORK. 

When any liquid substance or matter begins to decompose or 
change, it is in a state of fermentation. This agitation or condition 
is brought on by a set of micro-organisms called bacteria. It appears 
the purpose of these organism, by a system of action, not fully or 
intelligently understood, to break up or convert all matter appro- 
priating to themselves therefrom, by absorbtion, what is necessary 
for their own sustenance and propagation. When all the nutriment 
ne< essary for any species of bacteria is exhausted or absorbed from 
the liquid or matter in which they are found, their mission seems to 
end, and through some undiscovered law, Other species are intro- 
duced, and a new fermentation begins. Thus through the agenc\ 
these organism, one ferment follows another as long as there is any- 
thing to be acted on. Therefore it seems .is though we ma\ safely 
fermentation is the breaking ///> of. and the changing of one sub- 
stance into another^ through the agency of micro-organisms called 
bacteria. 

Putrefa< tion is the last Stage of fermentation, and is inaugurate. 1 
by a species of organism called Bacterium termo. As these organisms 



Fermentation — Putrefaction. ; 9 

are rarely seen until putrefaction begins, and are always present in 
all stages of this ferment, it may be safely said they are the true 
putrefactive bacteria, and that no putrefaction can take place or go 
on without their presence. When all matter in any liquid in which 
they are at work is broken up and decomposed, disagreeable gases 
cease to form ; the liquid becomes clear, and a new fertile com- 
pound may be seen at the bottom of the vessel. In short, then, we 
would say putrefaction is the last stage of fermentation inaugurated 
and consumated by bacterium termo. Of course there are many things 
and conditions pertaining to and connected with this ferment, such 
as temperature, air, moisture and particulsrly the matter undergoing 
decomposition that influience the agents at work. We might almost 
say that putrefactive fermentation is the final process by which nearly 
all, if not all organic and inorganic matter is reco?iverted back into 
— so far as we know — original first matter — compounded through this 
process into fertile innocuous elements ready for the seed of new life. 

Fermentation becomes putrefective when the matter undergoing 
this process tastes or smells disagreeable, when nitrogen and other 
foseted gasses are rapidly evolved or liberated and ammonia formed, 
the process is at its height. Any one kind of matter under the same 
conditions of light, air and moisture, will, unless molested by some 
antiseptic agency, begin to putrefy almost the same time, and go 
through the process about the same way. Unless we accept the first 
appearance of bacterium termo as the initatory stage of putrefaction, it 
would be difficult to say exactly when this process begins, unless we 
adopt that of smell and taste. . 



MR. GEO. W. RAFTER, ROCHESTER, N. V. 

The editor of the Odontography Journal having propounded 
a series of questions, I shall exercise the usual privilege of asking 
others in return. 

As presented, the first is, What is fermentation ? Should it not be 
what are simple ferments ? The second stands, What is putre- 
faction ? Shall we not say, what are putrefactive ferments ? While 
the third, When does fermentation become putrefactive? would, 
it appears to me, be more satifactorily expressed by, when does 
simple fermentation become putrefactive ? 

Answering in the order indicated it appears that simple ferments 
are minute vegetable organisms, allied to the algae, which possess the 
power of decomposing or oxidizing certain organic substances, pro- 



4o The Odantographic Journal. 

ducing thereby new compounds, the operation usually accompanied 
by the formation and liberation of carbon dioxide. 

Putrefactive ferments are likewise vegetable organisms which 
under certain conditions promote the reduction of albumenoids to 
more simple elements. 

Fermentation may also be defined as a process, in certain unstable 
compounds, of rearrangmeiit of molecules, the outcome of which is 
the production of permanent compounds ; while putrefaction is 
a breaking down process, resulting chiefly in a reduction, biologic- 
ally, to primal elements. 

This leads us to a view elegantly expressed by Magnin, that the 
agents of fermentation are two groups of micro-organisms — one oxi- 
dizing, the other reducing. 

To the third question I answer frankly, I don't know, but in 
making this answer I desire to qualify it by the following from 
Schutzenberger, ' 'Everything leads us to believe that putrefaction 
is a complex phenomenon, that it is only a successive series of 
fermentations, exerted on more and more simple products." 

These answers are without pretense to scientific accuracy, and 
have no significence other than as crude guide-posts to beginners in 
biology. They may also indicate how poorly a busy civil engineer 
is qualified to discuss a delicate question in pure science. 



CHAS. MAYR, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

If we have to answer these questions, not from what the books 
say, but from actual observations of the series of facts which we 
connect with word-sounds, the two words lose distinctive meaning 
and a definition becomes quite complex. 

We may class all processes in which organisms and organized 
plants play a part as fermentation and putrefaction ; thus, the action 
of the pancreas which produces pancreatic juice is nothing but the 
breeding of certain putrefactive and fermentative bacteria which, 
acting upon the food by means of a certain principle, trypsine, pre- 
pare this food so that it can be absorbed by other cell-amoebse, 
(hanged by them and used by others. The process of the pancreas 
is a truly putrefactive one, having even the essential requisite of 
smell. On the other hand, a fermentative process, at least according 
to former chemists' definition, is the changing of non-nitrogenous 
substances into others of the same kind by low organisms. Thus, 
the (hanging (it < ane sugar into butyric acid is classed among the 



Fermentation— Putrefaction. \ i 

fermentative changes, yet the odor arising from it would be classed 
by everybody as very stinking. To take a laymen's < on< eption : 

Fermentation would be the " breaking up " of hydro-carbons by the 
action of low microscopic plants producing what is called ferments. 
Another requirement for the term fermentation would be to the layman 
that the product must not display a very nasty odor. On the other 
hand, putrefaction is the u breaking up " of albuminous compounds by 
the action of micro-organisms. The product of this "breaking ' 
would have to be mal-odorous to fit the layman s idea of putrefaction. 

To the exact scientist both terms are replete of vague and inaccurate 
ideas, and are taken from the babyhood of chemistry and physiology 
when men hastened to classify and generalize from insufficient founda- 
tions. Both terms ought to be abandoned and a new term, like 
micro-action, be used to designate the processes as brought about 
by micro-organisms. 



DR. *W. C. BARRETT, BUFFALO, N. Y. 

You have propounded questions to which it is difficult, yes even 
impossible, to give precise and definite answers. The scientific 
world has but barely entered upon a thorough investigation of this 
subject from the proper standpoint. The influence of Liebig was 
so long paramount, and he so befogged the world by his specious 
reasoning, that investigation did not, until within a few years, find 
the right road by which it might hope to arrive at a scientific con- 
clusion. In my early student days, "catalysis " was a general term for 
the changes induced by the presence % of what were called "catalytic 
bodies." We now know that this was but a term invented to hide 
the ignorance which could not explain certain phenomena- 
Schwann discovered and described the microscopic cells of the 
yeast plant, and indeed witnessed their proliferation, but he failed 
to note the true significence of what was unfolded to him. Other 
observers barely missed the great discovery of the biological develop- 
ment of micro-organisms, and it remained for Pasteur and Koch to 
lead the world of science in the true path. Now the field has 
become so wide that I do not know of any one who even pretends 
to have mastered it. 

There are so many kinds of fermentation, and the chemical 
involutions which are induced are so intricate and involved, that 
it is impossible at the present day entirely to systematize them. 
Jn general terms, however, fermentation may be said to be the 



42 The Odontography Journal. 

changes brought about in a fermentable medium by the presence of 
a ferment. This is very indefinite, but I do not know how to make 
it less so. 

There are organic and inorganic ferments. There are those which 
are peculiar to the process which we call digestion, and there are 
Others, the office and character of which it is impossible to determine. 
The organic ferments comprise micro-organisms, and of these the 
yeast-plant fungus is typical. By the growth of this microscopical 
plant we obtain what is called alcoholic fermentation ; that is, sugars 
of the formula C 6 H 12 6 (Dextrose, Levulose, Lactose), are converted 
into alcohol and carbonic acid. C« H r , O f) (sugar) = 2C> H 6 ( ) 
(alcohol) — 2C 0-> (carbonic acid). 

Acetic fermentation is the oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid by 
the Vinegar plant {Mycodermi Aceti), and the formula of the change 
is as follows : Co H f) O (alcohol) — 2 (oxygen) = H (C> H 3 2 ) 
(acetic acid) — IT (water). This change takes place to 
a limited extent without the ferment Vinegar plant, when 
poms substances like carbon, platinum-sponge, etc., are satu- 
rated with alcohol and exposed to the air. In Lactic acid fermen- 
tation we have the following changes : C, ; H,.. 6 (sugar) = 'IC 2 H 5 
0% (Lactic acid). By the action of the ferment which the fungus 
produces, or by direct action of the protoplasm of the fungus (the 
exact manner is yet undecided), the sugar is split and lactic acid is 
the result of the change. 

These are enough to indicate something of the complexity of the 
process, and it must be remembered that in each of the many differ- 
ent fermentations the changes are different. The number of ferments 
cannot be told. Emulsine, diastase, myrosine, papaine, invertine, 
ptyaline. pepsine, etc., etc , are all ferments belonging to the so- 
called digestive class, and each has its peculiar characteristics, which 
are often shown by one or more of the others. For instance, dias- 
tase converts starch into sugar. But so do certain organic ferments 
and fungi, and so also does ptyaline. Invcrotine converts cane SU[ 
into fermentable sugar, or glucose, but so also do many fungi. 
Pepsine converts albumen into peptones, and this office is also 
shared by many fungi. 

>m this brief exposition one may be able to comprehend some- 
thing of the vastness of the subject, and to see that it must be 
Studied by detail, and the liir.il result, if such is ever attained, be 
deduced from synthesis. The wonderful products of nature's labor- 
atory arc hugely the cite* ts of the chemical changes induced by the 



Fermentation- Putrefaction. 43 

action of ferments. The pabulum which supplies the growth oi the 

minute bacterium or micro-coccus and the monster elephanl or 
leviathan of the deep, is prepared by the action of ferments. Not an 
ephemera whose life's span covers but a single day, that is not 
dependent upon the ferments for its sustenance. Our own existence 
is directly dependent upon the changes induced by them. Their 
work is as broad as the face of nature, and their number no man can 
tell. They perform their office in secrecy and silence, and we can 
only claim to have just begun to recognize their importance, and their 
omnipresence wherever nature is at work. Judge then, if it be possi- 
ble at present to sketch their character and functions, and to reduce 
the fragments of knowledge to a systematised science. 

Putrefaction is identical with fermentation, and yet it is entirely 
unlike it. It may be called the rapid and intense decomposition 
of nitrogenous substances through certain fungi, with the formation 
of gaseous and offensive products in large quantities. Like fermen- 
tation, it is a chemical change induced by the presence and action of 
an extrinsic agent. But a ferment organism will produce only fer- 
mentation. The putrefactive organism is entirely distinct. Fermen- 
tation never degenerates into putrefaction, for they are separate 
processes. It is true that a putrefactive agent may become an inhabit- 
ant of a fermenting mass, and may destroy and supplant the ferment, 
setting up its own active changes. But it is also true that one 
ferment organism may supplant another, and induce a new process, 
with its definite results. The popular understanding of the difference 
between fermentation and putrefaction is, that the former is pro- 
gressive while the latter is retrogressive — that the former builds up 
while the latter tears down. But this is only an apparent distinc- 
tion. Both build up and both destroy. Putrefactive changes, 
however, take place in a more limited range of media than do 
those of fermentation. Both are alike the agents which our great 
mother nature employs in the destruction of one part of her work 
for the building up of new structures. Whatever has a complete 
existence is in process of demolition, that new growth may be the 
result. Nature is never idle, never qi iescent. No sooner has she 
built a structure than she immediately commences its destruction, 
and lays the foundation for a new structure into which the old is 
incorporated. Her grandest works crumble into fragments, and as 
fast as overthrow progresses the bricks and the mortar are built 
anew into another fabric. The most active of the agents in this 
< <aseless work are fermentation and putrefaction, but until we are 
admitted into the secret workshop of nature we shall never fully 
comprehend their character and action. 



44 The Odontographic Journal. 

ORIGIN OF C.l.SARKW SECTION. 



Julius Caesar first attracted attention through the Roman papers 
l>v calling the attention of the medical faculty to the now justly cele- 
brated Caesarean operation. Taking advantage of the advertisement 
thus attained, he so % on rose to prominence, and flourished consider- 
ably from too to 44 15. C, when a committee of representative citi- 
zens and property owners of Rome called upon him, and on behalf 
of the people, begged leave to assassinate him as a mark of esteem. 
He was stabbed twenty-three times between Pompey's Pillar and 11 
o'clock, many of which were mortal. This account of the assassina- 
tion is taken from a local paper, and is graphic, succinct, and lacks 
the sensational elements so common and so lamentable in our own 
time. Caesar was the implacable foe of the aristocracy, and refused 
to wear a plug hat up to the day of his death. Sulla once said, 
before Caesar had made much of a showing, that this same young 
man would be the ruin of the aristocracy, and twenty years after- 
ward, when Caesar sacked, assassinated and holocausted a whole 
theological seminary for saving " eyther " or "nyether," the old 
settlers recalled what Sulla had said. 

Caesar continued to eat pie with a knife, and in many other ways 
to endear himself to the masses until 68 B C, when he ran for 
Quaestor. — Bill Nye. 



ARTISTIC PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY ATTAINED. 

BY DR. W. X. SUDDUTH. 



[Reported for the OdontOGRAPHIC Journal by Dr. RODRIGUES OTTOLENGUI.] 

Dr. W. X. Sudduth entertained the First district dental society, 
the evening of March 12th, with a highly instructive lecture on his- 
tology, illustrating with the aid of the steriopticon. He exhibited 
the results of his experimentation in coloring slides, in facsimile of 
the stained specimens which had been photographed. The micro- 
scope is undoubtedly valuable in investigating tissues; nevertheh 

the reported discoveries of micrOSCOpistS are not always reliable. 

Greal obstacles arise in the use of the instrument, even after the 

specimen lias been mounted, not the least being the fact that focus- 
ing is necessary, and thai no two men see exactly alike. Therefore, 
when \ focuses on a specimen to show a < eitain peculiarity, which 
he claims to be able to discern, he finds n difficult to demonstrate 
his discovered fact to B, because B cannot tell when he focuses 



Artistic Photo-Micrography .1 1 'lamed. 45 

whether he is viewing the same plane seen by A. Of course, when 
examiners arc experienced microscopists, the difficulties are lessened, 
because the trained eye is familiar with the appearand es of different 

tissues, and this materially assists in obtaining the true focus. For 
example : suppose A claims to show lacunae and cannaliculi in a 
specimen of cementum. \\ is acquainted with the microscopic 
appearance of dentine, and in focusing aims to get the tubuli of the 
dentine which is adjacent to the cementum distinctly outlined, and 
having done so, knows that the cementum also is in focus, and should 
be able to see the lacunne if present. Again, it is only the trained 
eye which is able to distinguish breaks, tears, or foreign bodies, (as 
shreds of lint, etc.), and the surfaces of the tissues from the sides, 
or thickness ; profile views look flat, not only at the edges of the 
specimen, but at all points over the surfaces ; shadows become lines 
and resemble special features of tissues. To lessen these difficulties 
various methods of staining are resorted to, it being known that 
different kinds of tissues are differently acted on by the same agent, 
thus producing various tints, and materially aiding in the differen- 
tiation of tissues, which may thus be recognized by their known 
colors if the stain used be known. It also shows plainly breaks, 
tears, and foreign bodies. 

Having prepared and mounted a specimen, in order to show what 
he sees with his instrument, the investigator may reproduce as 
accurately as possible with his pencil the picture in the field of his 
vision. These drawings from specimens, however, only carry weight 
in proportion to the honesty and ability of the artist. Therefore, as 
Dr. Sudduth truly says, drawings ma'de by photo-lithographic pro- 
cesses are the more valuable, being above suspicion of inexactness or 
perversion through bias. The tissues themselves have been used as 
lantern slides, but high lantern power and intensity of light are 
requisite, and he knows of but two lanterns capable of such demon- 
stration, one being the Strieker lantern, the cost of which was $3,000. 
One of these Dr. Carl Heitzman brought with him from Europe, but 
has never used; failing to procure here a suitable dynamo. Professor 
Seymour in America has invented a lantern which is excellent for 
showing tissues, but it requires the presence of the Professor to use it. 

Having stained a specimen, and thus made distinct the differentia- 
tion of tissues, the advantage is again lost in the photo-micrograph, 
because, of course, the coloring is not reproduced, the picture being 
only one of lights and shades. This has been remedied to some 
extent by having the lantern slides painted by hand, and by retouch- 



^6 The Odontography Journal. 

ing, thus making more prominent the outlines. Some have attained 
high excellence in this art, but it is open again to the objection of 
bias. An artist might color his slide to prove his theories. Dr. 
Sudduth has experimented arduously, hoping to find a method by 
which he could color slides by such a process as would dispose of 
this objection, and enable him to project on the screen fac similies of 
the stained specimens, making the lantern picture appear as does the 
specimen itself under the microscope. His exhibit proved that he 
has succeeded marvelouslv well. He has done this not by hand- 
work, but by a process of toning in the dark room. He has been 
specially successful in reproducing the purple and pink of haematox- 
ylon and eosin, Bismarck brown and gentian violet. 

He showed on the screen not only colored slides, but also some 
untinted. Conspicuous among these were beautiful specimens of the 
forming blood corpuscles in the mesoblast of the pig embryo, white 
and red corpuscles of human blood, oval corpuscles from the thrush, 
similar but larger ones from salmon, oyster-shaped corpuscles from 
the frog, and a most beautiful slide showing the enormous corpuscles 
from the AmpJiioma (a species of lizzard). As showing comparative 
analogies and differences between blood of various species these 
slides were specially gratifying. 

ct in order came a section through a central incisor from a 
human foetus of eight months. The dental follicle had been imbeded 
and cut in celloidine, and the pulp was so beautifully distinct that 
this slide alone testified to marvellous skill in the preparation of 
these minute and delicate tissues. Not an imperfection was apparent 
at any point, the odontoblastic and ameloblastic layers, the stellate 
reticulum, as well as the forming hard tissues, being specially well 
shown. The doctor claims with this and other specimens, to be able 
to show that the generally accepted theory of the vascular supply is 
incorrect. It is now held to be from a single vessel, a branch of 
the dental artery. This, says Dr. Sudduth, is incorrect, the facts 
being that the blood passes into the bone tissue, thence around and 
into the dental follicle, entering from the sides. 

A line specimen of dentine followed, and then a most excellent 
our of enamel. The enamel rods were very plain, appearing as 
parallel prisms with a dark line between. This specimen attracted 
uiv attention more than all others. I have heretofore admitted that 
Dr. Ileit/inan had convinced me that his theory of tin- existence of 
an organic retit ulum in enamel is < orrect. 1 have seen his specimen 

under high power (1,000 diameters), and though not very distinct 



Artistic Photo~ Micrography Attained. 47 

(focusing with high [towers is not easy), nevertheless the lines claimed 
to be enamel fibres were readily discerned. This specimen shown by 
Dr. Sudduth, was very similar in appearance- lo what 1 saw at. Dr. 
Ileitzman's, but Dr. Sudduth claims that the dark lines, the enamel 
fibres of Heitzman and Bodecker, are not organic matter at all, but 
simply shadows cast by the prisms. If the reader has not seen such 
a specimen, let him imagine a number of round or prismatic rods 
lying side by side ; if photographed it is evident that the picture 
would show alternate lines of light and shade; the highest points of 
the rods would produce the "high light," and the depressions would 
appear as dark lines. This is what Dr. Sudduth claims is shown by 
his specimen, and it must be admitted, that looking at his lantern 
picture, the appearances are in favor of his being correct. Never- 
theless, a gentleman next to me, who has had much more experience 
with the microscope than I, remarked that to his eye the lantern 
picture shown by Dr. Sudduth proved the correctness of Dr. Heitz- 
man's theories. Each must see and judge for himself. 

The next slide showed fine specimens of cementoblasts, the one 
after showing the lacunae of bone. By comparison, Dr. Sudduth 
seemed correct in his claim that cementum is but modified bone. 
A transverse section of a five months' pig showed Meckel's cartilage, 
the premolars forming, developing bone, the Rete Malpighii, etc. 
An interesting point was the forming hairs. Dr. S. explained 
that the hairs and teeth are formed simultaneously and analogously, 
if not similarly. After this he showed slides taken from different 
portions of the same specimen, to demonstrate the use of higher 
powers, the highest being 2,500 diameters. 

Then began the specimens in color. A slide showing stellate 
reticulum exemplified how well he reproduces the haematoxylon and 
eosin stains. Next followed the apex of a tooth, showing Tones' 
fibres retouched. 

Several slides were shown of the Rete Malpighii colored by hand, 
and also by the doctor's method, which latter seemed vastly more 
satisfactory and truthful. One of these in Bismarck brown demon- 
strated how a single stain may be used, the lights and shadows being 
differently affected ; for which reason he thinks this particular stain 
will prove most valuable. A specimen showing the pigment layer of 
the retina, in gentian violet was much admired. A segment from 
the messentary was very clear and distinct. Stained with silver the 
result was dark lines against a yellow back-ground. Nuclei show as 
brown points. A few slides in gentian violet were shown, but this 



48 The Odontography- Journal. 

we were told is the most difficult of the colors to manage. A very 
beautiful slide was from a macroscopic specimen, stained methyl 
green, a section of the finger showing the soft tissues and the bone, 
also the forming nail of a three months' human fec-tus. This was 
shown because it is the only color with which he has succeeded in 
differentiating the nail, which usually appears so light that it is very 
indistinct In this picture it was quite plainly seen. Some slides 
followed showing developing bone cartilege, etc., and then one of 
special interest, showing the mesoblastic tissue forming periosteum 
and pericementum, which is the first differentiation into a mem- 
brane ; these two tissues, which so many claim to be different, are 
shown to be similar, being similarly developed. 

In the discussion which followed the termination of Dr. wSudduth's 
talk, Dr. Allen admitted that much credit was due to Dr. Sudduth 
for his success in coloring slides, but whilst the staining of specimens 
was of value as aiding the differentation of tissues, he, Dr. Allen, 
could not see what was gained by coloring slides. Whilst this is 
undoubtedly true, the plain photomicrograph being perfectly intelli- 
gible to the trained eye, it was the general opinion among the members 
present, that the colored pictures were more satisfactory to those not 
so well acquainted with the tissues. Dr. Sudduth was most heartily 
applauded, and well deserved the praise bestowed upon him. 



BY-LAWS OF THE DENTAL PROTECTIVE ASSOCIA- 
TION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



OFFICERS — now ELECTED. 

Sectioh I. The Officers of the Association shall consist of a President, 
Vice-President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Board of Directors, who shall hold 
their respective offices for one year, and until their BUCeessors are elected and 
qualified ; Provided, that any officer may lie removed by the Board of Directors 
whenever the interests of the Association shall require, and the Board of 
Directors shall lie the sole judges of the Interests •< r the Association; "/"/ 

provided further, that the office of Vice President and Secretary may. at the 
discretion of the Board, he held by our and the same person. 

\\M \l III. IIOV 

II. The annual meeting of members Bhall be held in Chicago, <>n the 

Third Monday in December of each year. A notice designating the place of 

ii meeting -hall be signed by the president and Secretary, and published in 

a public newspaper in Chicago, and in such of the Dental Journals u the 

Board of Directors -hall -elect, and the Secretary shall also mail a written or 

printed notice to each member at least ten days before -aid day. 



By-Lawi <>/ the Dental Protective Association, etc. \q 

Sec. III. A Board of Directors, who must be members of the Association 
Bhall be elected annually al Ihe annual meeting of members, bythe memb 
to b< pve for one year, and until their successors shall have been el cted. 

Sec. IV. The Board of Directors Bhall consist of three members of the 

AjBSOCiation, to be selected and chosen by a majority vote Of all the mem 

of the Association. Every member shall have the righl to vote ;it the regular 
Annual Meeting for three Directors, either personally or by proxy, and in case 
of the member not appearing personally al the regular Annual .Meeting to 
vote and no one being designated as proxy for him, the President, and in his 
absence, the Vice-President shall be authorized to vote as proxy lor such 
member. 

MEETING OF DIRECTOR- 

Sec. V. Immediately after the annual election of Directors, the Board of 
Directors elected, shall meet and select a President, Vice-President, and Sec 
retary and shall be members of the Board of Directors. 

SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Sec. VI. The President and Board of Directors may call special meetings 
of the members of the Association, which shall be held at its general office at 
such time as shall be designated in the call ; and, in such case, it shall be the 
duty of the Secretary of the Association, at least ten days before the time fixed 
for holding such meeting, to mail to each member entitled to vote, whose 
address is known to the Secretary, a notice specifying the time and place of 
holding said meeting, and briefly stating the object of the meeting, if the same 
has been mentioned in the call ; and the Secretary shall also cause to be pub- 
lished in a public newspaper in Chicago, and in such of the Dental Journals 
as the Board of Directors may name, at least ten days prior to the time of 
holding the meeting, a notice of like effect. 

REGULAR MEETINGS OF THE HOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Sec. VII. The Board of Directors of this Association shall hold their 
regular meeting at its general office in Chicago on the fourth Monday of each 
month at the hour of 4 o'clock p. M. A majority of the Board shall constitute 
a quorum for the transaction of all business ; and in case there be no quorum 
oq the day fixed for their regular meeting, the member or members present 
may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum be obtained, or 
may adjourn such meeting sine die. 

SPECIAL MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

BEC. VIII. The President of the Board of Directors shall have the power 
to call special meetings of the Board, whenever he deems it expedient so to do ; 
and it shall be his duty to call special meetings of the Board at the request of 
one Director of the Association ; in either instance a notice of time and place 
of meeting shall be served or mailed to each Director, giving at least one day's 
notice thereof, exclusive of the pay on which said notice is mailed. 

DUTIES OF PRESIDENT AND VICE-PBE8IDENT. 
8ec. IX. The President, and in his absence the Vice-President, shall pre- 
side over all meetings of the Association and over all meetings of the Board of 
Din t which he maybe present, to preserve order and regulate discus- 

sion according to parlimentary usage. 



50 TJic Odontography Journal. 

The Vice-President shall, in the absence of the President, perform all the 
duties of the President. (In ease of absence of the President and Vice- 
Presidenl from any meeting of the Association, a President pro tern, may be 
chosen to preside). 

DUTIES OF SECRETARY. 

Si i X. The Secretary shall attend nil meetings of the Association and 
Board of Directors, whether regular or special ; he shall keep, in a hook pre- 
pared for that purpose, a true record of the proceed iigs of all such meeting. 
He Bhall have the custody of the corporate seal, and shall attach the same to all 
documents which require sealing. 

DUTIES OK I BE USURER, 

Sec. XI. The Treasurer shall receive, have charge of and disburse, upon 
proper vouchers, the funds of the Association under the direction of the Board 
of Directors, and he may be removed at any time, by the Board of Directors, 
for any misconduct in the alliairs of his office, and may be required to give 
bonds for such amount as the Board of Directors may designate, with one or 
more sureties to be approved by the Board of Directors. 

DIRECTORS AND THEIR TOWERS. 

Sec XII. The Board of Directors shall consist of three members, to' whom 
the policy, conduct, property and affairs of the Association and its meml 
ship shall be confided. The Board of Directors shall have power : 

To accept or reject applications for membership in the Association; 

To fill any vacancy that may occur in any office: 

To levy and collect, if necessary, assessments which, in all, shall not exceed 
ten dollars per member; 

To take entire charge of the defense of members of the Association in any of 
of the States or Territories, when prosecuted for the infringement of patents 
the validity of which has not been fully established, and with the funds of the 
Association to retain and pay one or more counsel of their own selection, and 
with the funds of the Association to pay and defray all necessary and proper 
expenses of such litigation. 

M BMBEBSHIP. 

XIII. Subject to the approval of the Board of Directors, any member 
of the Dental profession may become a member of the Association on pnj 

ment to the Treasurer of a membership fee of ten dollars, and subscribing to 
the By-Laws Of the Association. 

VACANCIKS. 

8e< XIV. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the Board of Directors, 

from any cause, it shall he tilled for the remainder of the term by the Board of 
Directors. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS TO MAKE REPORT. 

XV. At the regular annual meeting of the members for the election of 
Directors, the retiring Board shall make, through their officers, a full report of 
the condition of the Association, including a financial statement showing all 

I tfl and liabilities, and the amount of monev received and disbursed during 

the \> 



Mind and Matter. 5 1 

sit. XVI. Lt is understood that all officers of the Association are Amen 
able to the Board of Directors, supreme authority upon all points affecting the 
the Association or its management being rested In said Board. 

ALTERATION OR AMENDMENT OP BY-LAWS. 

Sec. XVII. These By-Laws may be altered or amended at any regular 
meeting of the Board of Director, by a vote of a majority of all the members ; 
Provided, that a copy of such proposed alteration or amendment shall have 
been submitted to the Board in writing, at least one week previous to the 
adoption thereof. 

Sec XVIII. Upon 1 11 questions of construction of By-1 .aws the decision of 
the Board of Directors shall control until overruled by a vote of the Association. 
Any By-Law may be suspended by two thirds vote of any regular meeting of 
the Association. 

Sec. XIX. The presence of ten members shall be necessary to constitute a 
quorum at any meeting of the Association ; which number may be increased or 
diminished by any subsequeut By-Law. 

Sec. XX. At each stated meeting of the Association the order of bush ess 
shall be as follows : — 

1. Reading of minutes of preceding meeting. 

2. Reports of officers. 

3. Reports of Committees. 

4. Unfinished business. 

5. New business. 

To the Dental Protective Association of the United States : — 
/ Jiereby subscribe to the By-Laws of your Association and wish my name 
placed on the roll of membeos. 

Name 
P. 0. Address 



At the regular meeting of the Chicago Dental Society, held 
Tuesday evening, March 5, 1889, trfe following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That it is the sentiment of this society, that it would be of interest to 
the members of the dental profession to become members of the Dental 
Protective Association of the United States. 

LOUIS OTTOFY, 

Corresponding Secretary. 

MIND AND MATTER. 



ELTON R. SMILIE, M. D., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



A close inspection and analysis of matter and mind in all their 
varied connections and bearing, show themselves in fact as parts of 
a disunited whole, each essential in some form of extension or divis- 
ibility to the completeness of the body corporate of the universe. 



The Odontography Journal. 

Animate and inanimate matter owe to each separate constituant an 
allegiance in definite kinds and proportions; attraction of cohesive 
and repulsive forces required to preserve in assimulation a counter- 
poise of reciprocal action for an equilibrium necessary to preserve 
their mutual relations toward each other, are each in like method 
assigned their parts. No matter how small or insignificent the dutv 
or function may appear in the abstract, in combination and appro- 
priate connection they will prove essential to the working complete- 
ness of the whole. A woman and man in their sphere are the sex 
representatives which play the most important role in the scale of 
creation. Of their known normal relations and capabilities no exact 
interpretation has yet been reached. Enough, however, has been 
determined to show that they are mating parts, at least mentally, 
quite out of keeping with the indications of original intention. 
Woman in her physical organization shows conclusively that nature 
never intended her for an amazon in any respect. All the outlines 
of her form were evidently modeled and designed to express the 
highest degree of beauty possible ; and in her other conformations 
everything tends to confirm her capability of extending her endow- 
ment by cultivation to an irresistable degree of fascination. Even 
the mobile pliancy and grace of her movements unincumbered by 
the restrictions of dress proclaim the unlimited possibilities of her 
attractive supremacy ; while her countenance in the full glow of 
maidenly reserve plainly declares a persuasive power and gentle 
influence that inspires with kindly motive her entire sentient being. 
But since she has become subject to the abnormal changes of heed- 
less habit and customs, there have been marked eras in the continued 
relapse in her physical and mental powers, which denote the gradual 
de< line of her perceptive discernment to realize whether her mental 
condition is retrogressing or advancing. This doubt occasionally 
inspires among the leading of her sex an inquiry into the merits of 
her exact status ; one of these recently inaugurated by the introduc- 
tion of physological investigation promises to incite a more active 
and permanent interest for the advancement of woman into the 
sphere that nature intended she should occupy. This is not 
intended to advance the ama/onian or strong minded element in 
woman's character; but the opposite, that recognizes her superiority 
as n resides in her genial .ind sympathetic powers of ingratiation, 

through the avenues of intellectual correspondence. 

Once engaged in this legitimate enterprise so agreeable to the 

natural mstin< tS of her nature, and it will reinstate or induct a force 



A Few Practical Points in Dentistry. 53 

of loving attraction that will gradually controvert all the illusive 

pagentries of war and fashion, and raise woman by elevating her 
intellect to the supreme power of affectionate control. Then if 
fashion is still to exist it can be made subversive to deleterious 
tendencies. 



A FEW PRACTICAL POINTS IN DENTISTRY. 



BY A. M. HOLMES, D. D. S., MORRISV1LLE, N. Y. 

[Read before the Rochester Dental Society, March, 1889.] 
To make a point has been the object and aim of mankind in the 
various pursuits of life since his earliest history, and passing by all 
the diversified features of this question, a consideration of which 
would prove very interesting and profitable, we will refer to a few 
features of it that possess a peculiar interest to the dental practitioner. 
With him a point has often a double significance, and taking a 
mechanical construction, comes to his aid in the pursuit of his 
vocation ; and on a single point hangs often his success or failure. 
If it answers his expectations, and accomplishes the object for which 
he designed it, in a satisfactory manner, then all is harmony : oper- 
ator, patient and instrument blend in harmonious accord and 
ultimate success ; but if it is ill-suited for his purpose, and inter- 
venes between him and a full ideal of success, only partially 
accomplishing the object desired, all is ajar. Unrest seems to per- 
vade the entire surroundings, for " trifles light as air" often possess 
and guide us, and react upon our patient. 

We all realize that the ultimate success of our operations depends 
largely upon the manner of preparing the cavity for filling, as well as 
the degree of suffering which we must inflict upon our patient, and 
there are a variety of methods employed for its accomplishment. 

I have heard operators of repute say that they did not " care 
what kind of excavators they had for fitting cavities, anything would 
do," etc. But, gentlemen, in my experience I find a wonderful 
difference in the time required, the pain inflicted, and the risk of 
injury to the surrounding tissue in the use of different forms, and 
for the purpose I have found no excavator point equal to the scoop 
or spoon shape. But much depends upon its construction ; with the 
face of just the right curve and temper, it will cut away diseased 
dentine with greater rapidity and less pain, than any other instrument 
in my experience. This form of point is preferable to the plain faced 
and square-ended hoe, for the reason that the curved face gives a 



54 The Odontographic Journal. 

cutting edge, which accomplishes the object with less pressure and 
consequently less pain Simply drawing the instrument along the 
cavity walls accomplishes the object ; requiring but little pressure 
and, with the neck flattened for narrow spaces, producing very 
slight vibration, which is a fruitful cause of pain in operating upon 
sensitive dentine. Again the cutting edge, oval in form, diminishes 
the danger of checking frail enamel walls, which is liable to result 
from square edged, sharp cornered instruments. 

And few instruments, comparatively, are needed for all ordinary 
purposes. With a straight point or face on a line with the handle, a 
point at right angles with the handle of various sizes, length and 
curve of neck, and with a peculiar hatchet, with lip, to reach those 
surfaces or under-cuts which are not accessible to the ordinary 
instrument, combined with a little experience in their use, it is 
remarkable how seldom one is required to call upon his u reserve 
corps " to help out of an extreme case in practice. / 

These instruments should be left very hard on the cutting edge, 
and drawn to a light purple in the neck to prevent breaking in use, 
and should be edged, or sharpened, in just one way, which is easily 
done, and always insures a perfect cutting instrument. You have 
onlv to draw vour instrument over the stone, or the stone over the 
instrument toward the cutting edge ; whereas, if you reverse the 
order and draw the instrument from the edge, you are very likely to 
turn the edge over, or " wire it " as it is termed, and defeat the desired 
object. 

Then we have another point which is indispensible to success in 
the practice of our profession, the burr. That does its work rapidly 
and well if properly treated, if not, causes much perplexity and pain. 
The greatest care should be exercised to insure sharpness and 
keenness of cut to our burrs. 

Our success in the use of the dental engine depends mainly upon 
the proper use of the burr. A dull burr or drill should never be 
used, on account of the heat which must result from friction caused 
by the pressure applied to make it cut, causing great and unnecessary 
pain to the patient, besides a delay and waste of time for which there 
is no excuse. We have only to provide ourselves with oil-stones of 
suitable shape, furnished by dealers, and exercise proper care in the 
management of this efficient instrument to do justice to ourselves and 
to our patients. 

With that great blessing and indispensible appliance, the rubber 

dim, securely in place, and sharp burrs, a cavity can be prepared in 



, / Few Practical Points in Dentistry, 



55 



a brief space of time, and usually with slight pain and Inconvenience 
to the patient, lint we are often required to operate where there is 
recession of the gums on the labial or buccal surfaces, and where the 
decay has progressed below the soft tissue to an extent that renders the 
use of the dam complicated, its retention in place difficult and 
attended with suffering to the patient and injury to the gums and 
process surrounding the tooth. 

Much can be done to relieve this condition by a clamp constructed 
with special reference to these cases, which can be so applied as to 
set the jaws at any desired angle and hold them securely in place, 
by an adaptation of the bow or spring to the crown of the tooth. To 






this end holes or slots should be made in the sides near the top of 
the bow, for the introduction of slips of wood, which can be cut to 
fit the cusp or crown when the bow is too long to fit. 

To render the clamp still more adjustable, the jaws which sur- 
round and rest upon the tooth, may be constructed with a view to 
conform somewhat to the form of the tooth, by the action of the 
spring when applied. It relieves in a measure the severe strain at 
given points, caused by clamps in the old form, and lessens the 
liability to injury by distributing the pressure more evenly around 
the tooth. 

The use of the rubber dam has demonstrated its value and great 
advantage in general practice, but there are cases where its use is 
indispensible to s iccess and in which its application has proved most 
difficult. I refer to cavities on approximal surfaces located beneath 
the soft tissues and alveolar borders. Cases of softening of tooth 
substance beneath large fillings, etc., where the gums are congested 
to a degree that the slightest contact results in copious bleeding. 

The question is how to construct a coffer-dam in such cases to 
include the tooth or teeth to be operated upon. To this end I have 
been most successful for the last ten or twelve years, with a clamp 
so constructed as to place a bar of suitable form against the dam, 



56 The Odontographic Journal. 

holding it securely above the cavity, thereby excluding all moisture 
and rendering an otherwise complicated operation of doubtful result, 
simple and positive. 

These bars may be made of any strong metal, but steel has given 
the best results. Such bars can be easily changed in form to fit any 

se, and are sufficiently strong, while they occupy but little space. 
They can be straightened when necessary, and easily removed. With 
a properly constructed clamp, these compress bars are applied with 
the ease and falicity of a simple clamp. 

I have also used matrix clamps for this purpose. While in some 
cases they accomplish the object perfectly, the bar is the more simple 
in application in treating approximal cavities, and when applied is 
least in the way of the operator. Any degree of pressure desired 
maybe applied to this compress bar by blocking between the bow of 
the clamp and the crown of the tooth in spans. 

The matrix clamp referred to is of various sizes, and made to' re-t 
against the tooth at the matrix part and at the end of the arms, and is 
often a valuable adjunct in practice in a class of cases where the 
matrix is desirable and the ordinary matrix cannot be successfully 
applied — cases where an adjoining tooth has been extracted, with 
cavity extending beneath the alveolar borders on the one approximal 
surface, and the other resting firmly against a neighboring tooth. 
This clamp matrix can be as easily and quickly applied as a simple 
(lamp, avoiding the trouble, inconvenience, pain and loss of time 
often experienced in acquiring space on the opposite side to adjust 
a fixture entirely around the tooth. 

In that class of operations where it is desirable to fill the portion 
of the cavity extending beneath the gums with amalgam and finish, 
the filling with gold, this form of matrix is available by cutting it 
away to expose the part of the cavity above the gums, while it COV< 
the lower or part of cavity beneath the gums. 

In the ordinary use of the matrix, a simple and effective method 
which I have practiced is to cut a strip from steel plates that are 
prepared tor making clamps, or bllts of operating tiles, bind it to the 
form of the surface of the tooth to be treated, and secure it firmly in 
place by the use of ,1 metal wedge between it and the adjoining 
tooth. These wedges should be SO made that thej can be used on 
the posterior or anterior suri if the teeth ; one wing between the 

tooth and matrix, and the other resting on the masticating surface ot 
the tooth to prevent their sliding out of place. When sufficient 



A Few Practical Points in Dentistry. 



57 



space is available between the teeth, a strip of sand-paper should be 

placed with the sanded side nexl the matrix and the wedge p] 
between it and the adjoining tooth ; or, double a strip of sand-paper, 




letting the sanded face rest on the matrix and the adjoining tooth, 
and slide the wedge between the fold of the paper. This gives a 
matrix that will stand any degree of pressure and that cannot be 
forced out of place. 

One more point and my ramblings are at an end. It is a great 
help to me to have the handles of my instruments (pluggers and 
excavators), so formed that each has distinctive features, by which 
the eye can distinguish at a glance those representing different 
points ; and I am confident that a little attention given to this idea 
will prove beneficial to all in saving time and relieving the eyes in 
a measure from the severe strain to which they are subjected, and 
which is intensified by selecting instrument after instrument with the 
point only as a guide. Since our success in practice depends so 
much upon our eyes, any suggestion to relieve these very important 
organs from unnecessary strain, in however slight a degree, furnishes 
a proper subject for consideration. 

I refer to this feature in practice, not from a desire to claim its 
originality, but for the reason that I do not think sufficient import- 
ance is given to it, and from the fact that I have had its benefit 
thoroughly emphasized in my own personal experience. 

After the use of instruments of the character suggested for a long 
time, and on the theory that to accustom the hand to the use of 
instruments which should ever occupy the same relation to it, would 
result in a higher degree of skill in their manipulation, I had a set 
of pluggers made from the same pattern, every instrument precisely 
alike except their respective points. Hut in practice the idea proved, 
like many of our theories, a fallacy. The confusion attending their 



The Odontographic Journal. 

use resulted in loss of time, in weariness to the eye in selecting 
instruments, with no guide but their often-times minute points. As 
the instruments increased on my table, this embarassment increased, 
and I was delayed from time to time by picking up the wrong 
instrument in pursuit of a desired point. In the use of instruments 
with general design indicative of their respective points, the desired 
one is grasped at a glance. 

And this may be accomplished by a slight variation in form or 
color, without materially changing their balance or grasp in the 
hand ; and yet, after a short acquaintance with them in practice, 
each individual one will be as readily recognized as an old familiar 
friend. 

FLANGE PLATE. 

Plates constructed with flanges or wing-like projections to extend 
down beneath the tongue, in the treatment of those troublesome cases 
where the absorption has progressed so far as to obliterate the alveolar 
ridge to a degree that only a bed of muscles remains for the plate to 
rest on, or where the attachment of the muscles is so near the top 
or center of the jaw as to displace and render the plate unsteady in 
use. And where the sensitiveness of the tissues, or normal condition 
of the patient is such that heavy plates are not tolerated in the 
mouth. In those cases, where the form of the jaw that the plate 
rests on is highest next the cheek, slanting downward and inward 
toward the tongue, giving the plate a rocking, sliding motion from 
side to side in use, the flange plate has proved more satisfactory 
than any other in my experience. 




The flange should be joined to the plate a little above the edge, 
and extend beneath the tongue. ;i- far and as low as the muscles will 
permit. It may extend entirely around the front, or only on the 
side, in wing-like shape, as the condition of the muscles will allow. 

The plate exhibited ( fig. o and o), is a duplicate of a case that has 

been in use over ten years in the mouth of a nervous patient. She 



Chicago Pen fal Society. 59 

had tried various light and heavy plates in vain, and was not able to 

use any kind of plate in masticating food until the flange plate \\ 
inserted. This plate was used with comfort and proved a success 
in masticating food. 




a. Covering on ridge of jaw. 

b. Flange. 

The tongue and other muscles prevent the plate tipping and sliding, 
by their action on the flange when in use for the purposes of masti- 
cation. The important part of the construction of such a plate is 
the placing of the flange so that it will not irritate the several 
muscles. It should be as low down as the muscles will allow, but 
if placed too low the muscles will lift and displace it. 



CHICAGO DENTAL SOCIETY. 



The 25th Anniversary was duly celebrated at Chicago in February, 
guests from long distauces attending in goodly numbers. Sessions 
were held at the Grand Pacific, clinics held at the Chicago Dental 
College, and at the close of the meeting a banquet at the above 
hotel. For a complete report of all that was said and done read the 
February- March number of the Dental Review, now published by 
A. D. Justi. 



DR. MAURICE N. MILLER. 



The following kindly notice is from the recently issued annual 
report of the American Postal Microscopical Club. Our recollections 
of Dr. Miller are as we met him in his laboratory at University 
Medical College : 

Maurice N. Miller, M. I)., of New York, whose sudden death early 
in the winter deprived us of one of our most capable, distinguished 
and generous associates, had been one of our circle for several years. 
In his intercourse with the Management and his dealings with the 
Club, he never failed to do everything that could be possibly expected 



60 TJie Odontography Journal. 

or reasonably desired, and never ceased to respect and encourage 
the efforts, however inexperienced and crude, of his fellow member-. 
A busy man in the midst of public life, and a prominent teacher and 
acknowledged expert in microscopy, he always found time to per- 
form every duty of membership exactly according to the rules ; to 
contribute slides of rare interest accompanied by scholarly descrip- 
tions and elaborate drawings, and to examine the^most commonplace 
contributions by inexperienced members with such care as to be able 
to add interesting and instructive comments. While the pleasure 
and profit derived from his liberal contributions will long be 
remembered with appreciation and gratitude, yet he will doubtl 
be most cordially esteemed as the friend who was always ready to 
encourage and assist, who answered a harsh criticism by adding 
u Why discourage the member? Better by far it would be to help 
him by advice. He'll do better next time," or another with the 
characteristic words " If *** will correspond with me I will try arvd 
help him do better work." Such a man the world, as well as the 
Club, could ill afford to lose. 



STATE SOCIETN 



The New York State Society will hold its 21st annual meeting 
Albany, May 8th and 9th. The Board of Censor will meet the 
day previous for the purpose of examining candidates for the M. D 
The preliminary call is out ; the program in preparation. Dr. A. 
R. Starr, of 164 E. 91st St., New York, is Chairman of the Business 
Committee. 



FIRST DISTRICT SOCIETY. 



At the February meeting the program included clinics bv Drs. 
Kirk, Van \\ Oert, Canaday and Rhein, and a paper entitled, 
"The Different Methods of bleaching Teeth," by Dr. Edward C. 
Kirk, of Philadelphia. 



CHIC VGO COLLEGE OF DEIS I \l SURGERY. 



The seventh Annual Commencement of the Chicago College of 
Dental Surgery was held at the Grand Opera House, March 26th. 
Dr. Swain presented the annual report. Prof. Brophy conferred the 

. Dr, Eshelman delivered the valedictory, and Prof. Cushing 



Medical Congress Proceedin 61 

the faculty address. The number ol graduates was 64 ; matriculai 

154. The honorary degree of I). I). S., was conferred upon James 
Atwood Swasey, who will be remembered by the Chicago Dental 
Society's February guests as the presiding genius of that most vigorous 
body. In honoring Dr. Swasey the college likewise honored itself. 
Congratulations on all sides. 



NEW YORK ODONTOLOGICAL. 



At a regular meeting of this Society Tuesday evening, March 19th, 
Prof. Horatio C. Meriam, D. M. D., of Harvard University, deliv- 
ered an address entitled, "Professional Atmosphere and Morals." 
Prior to the meeting members and invited guests sat down to an 
informal dinner at the Hotel Brunswick. 



MEDICAL CONGRESS PROCEEDINGS. 



" Whom it may concern " is hereby informed that his subscription 
to the fund of the dental section (XVII) of the International Med- 
ical Congress, does not entitle him to a copy of the proceedings. 
There is no law, however, that will prevent him borrowing the work 
of his neighbor whose membership carries with it the right to a copy 
in full. 



SEVENTH SOCIETY MEETING. 



The Seventh District Dental Society of the State of N. Y., will 
hold its twenty-first annual convention in the city of Rochester, 
on Tuesday, April 30th, and Wednesday, May 1st. The special 
committee is arranging for clinics which will give the convention 
unusual interest. The papers to be read will be of great practical 
value. Members of the profession are cordially invited to be 
present. For further information address recording secretary, 
W. F. Arnold, D. D. S., 235 East Main street. 



THE "ST. LOUIS" FOR 1889. 



The program of the St. Louis Dental Society for 1889, includes 
the following : Antiseptics and Disinfectants, Chemistry, Dental 
Journals, Painless Dentistry, Dental Medicine, General Practice, 
Thorough versus Quick Operations, Cements — their Virtues and 



The Odontographic Journal. 

Faults, Conditions affecting Practice, Filling Materials and their 
place in Practice, Calcarious Deposits on the Teeth, Planting Teeth, 
the Dental Pulp and the Peridental Membrane, Dental Literature, 
Dental Ethics. The Society meets twice a month. 



Practice for Sale. — Wanted to sell a finely equipped dental 
office in Arkansas, with good practice, located at a summer and 
winter resort for pleasure seekers and invalids. Will sell cheap. 
For further particulars address this journal. 



PELLETS, 



Some one says to clean the hands, rub with warm oil, wash in a 
solution of borax, then in soap and water. 



Dr. John C. Dalton, known to dental students through his 
" Human Physiology," died February 12th, aged 64 years. J 



According to Dr. W. H. Rollinson, peroxide of hydrogen robs 
enamel of its lustre and renders the tooth so elastically soft that it 
may be sectioned at will. 

The Ohio Journal for February, contains a most excellent 
likeness of the late Dr. G. W. Keely, also a biographical sketch by 
the senior editor, Dr. Watt. 



Dr. Birdsall's "Ethics," in 1 m Dental Cosmos does the 
subject in new form. As usually discussed it is dry indeed, but 
here it is made both racy and rich. 



V a meeting of the Students' society of the V Y. College of 
Dentistry, held February 4th, C. G. Pease and S. P. Russell were 
elected president and secretary respectively. 



Sulphate of copper may be had in si/// tor the treatment of pyor- 
rhoea alveolaris by binding the neck of the tooth with fine copper 
wire and adding sulphurie acid. So says Dr. J. \Y. Whipple. 



Patient (with fear and trembling): — (iood morning, doctor. 

Doctor : — ( iood morning. 

Patient : — [saac is here, but I see no ram in the bushes. 



Pellets, 63 

The Scientific Amerk \ v ^ continues as of old, to supply its 
thousands of readers with the latest and best in the arts and sciences. 



An M. D., of Wells Bridge, this State, advertises " Fill your own 
teeth with crystaline. Stops pain and decay. Lasts a lifetime. 
Circular free." 



The printer made up and "corrected" (save the mark), the 
January number while we were out. He has promised to never, 
never do it again. 



The Massachusetts Dental Society will hold its Semi-Annual 
meeting at the Institute of Technology, Boston, June 5, 6 and 7. A 
large and enthusiastic meeting is looked forward to. 



The Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal discusses 
editorially and in a most interesting and impartial manner the case 
of the late Emperor Frederick. Its equal has yet to appear. 



In the very first number of the Dominion Dental Journal the 
editor shouts "Ahoy? " three times, and on one page too. Oh ! Syra- 
cuse ! Syracuse ! What did he to thee that thou shouldst mark him 
thus ? 



In the Brooklyn Medical Journal for February, Dr. Otto- 
lengui discusses in all its details, the implantation of teeth. The 
article is fully illustrated, and is alike creditable to dentistry and to 
its talented author. 



Madam Paine : — Don't you think Miss Grace is a very bright 
little body ? 

\)\. Paine : — Yes ; altogether too bright. I sometimes wonder if 
her humor does not amount to a disease. 

M. P., Jr. : — Perhaps she has Bright's disease, papa. — Life. 



L. J. Mason & Co., of 194 E. Madison St., Chicago, manufacture 
dental instruments of the highest grade, and at fair figures. Their 
cutting instruments are unsurpassed, especially their hand cut hollow 
centre burs. These are a novelty, and are bound to displace all 
round-end burs whose seratations come to a common centre at the 
working extremities of the instrument. 



'»4 The Odontographic Journal. 

Announcement is made that Drs. W. H. and C. B. Atkinson, have 
formed a partnership for the practice of dentistry and oral surgery. 
The senior partner may be consulted by appointment between the 
hours of 10 a. m. and 12 m. 



" The taps of oxyhydrogen jets should be lacquered of different 
colours so as to be distinguishable in the dark." This from a recently 
issued book (third edition) may be all right, but for the life of us 
we cannot make it out that way. Perhaps it was made for the man 
who is color-blind. 



" Bridget," said her mistress, '' you'r ill ; you had better see Mrs. 
Blank," naming a woman physician near by. 

" Beggin' yer pardon, mam, but I'll do no such thing ; do I look 
like a woman that'd consint to be threated by a shay docthur ? 
Divil a bit." 



Books Pamphlets, Etc, 



History of the Developement of the Teeth. By Drs. Heitz- 
man and Bodecker. Reprinted from the Independent Prac- 
titioner, P. 89. 

The several chapters of the publication are devoted to the 
developement of enamel, of dentine, of cement, the epithelial cord 
of the enamel organ, teeth in embryos affected with rhachitis, and 
the literature of the subject. The book is fully illustrated. 

Transactions of the American Dental Association. 

Twenty-eighth Annual Session at Louisville, Ky., August, 1 - 

Philadelphia ; The S. S. White Dental Manufacturing Co. 

Pp. 286. 

The largest and one of the most interesting volumes ever issued 
by the Association. The Southern Dental Association met in joint 
session and contributes its share of valuable matter to the book. 

minion Dental JOURNAL. Again Canada has a dental jour- 
nal, and edited by the projector and financial backer of the old 
Canada Journal of Dental Science, Dr. YV. Geo. Peers. Canada 
needed a good journal then, but failed entirely to support it ; she 
da one now, and in duty to herself ought not to withhold the 
mo TOUS support at her command. For years past little has 

rd on this side of doings in the Dominion, except as it has 



Books y Pamphlets, etc. 65 

come through a few representative men who have favored our 
meetings by their presence and speech, and our journals with an 
occasional letter or paper. In fact, we even doubl if our Canadian 
brethren have heard of each other any more often. Now, however, 
she again has a means of communication thai merits the good will 
and financial aid of every dentist in Canada, and that wdl be 
welcomed on this side as a new and much needed medium of fa< t 
and opinion in matters pertaining to dentistry over the border. 
The first issue is filled with excellent matter, the greater proportion 
of it editorial, and of special interest to those practicing in the 
Dominion. 

The Principles and Practice of Dentistry. By Chapin A. 

Harri,, M. D., D. D. S. Revised and edited by Ferdinand J. S. 

Gorgas, M. D., D. D. S., with 1086 illustrations. Pp. 1222, 

Philadelphia : P. Blackiston, Sons & Co. 

For the twelfth time the publishers make it necessary to chronicle 
the issue of this work, the standard one-volume exponent of the 
principles and practice of dentistry. The demand for the work seems 
to be on the increase, the eleventh edition having been exhausted 
before this (the 12th) could be gotten ready for the press. The pre- 
sent edition contains additions to nearly every chapter, and notwith- 
standing the throwing out of old and now obsolete matter, it was 
found necessary to add 2.26 pages in order to bring it up to date. 
382 new illustrations have been added, and a number of new systems 
appear for the first time in a work of this character. As an all-around 
text-book on this subject it stands alone. 

A Text Book of Operative Dentistry. By Thomas Fille- 
browe, M. I)., I). D. S., with three hundred and thirty illustra- 
tions. Philadelphia ; P. Blackiston, Sons & Co. Pp. 273. 
This is one of the several books undertaken by representative 
men of the profession, by invitation of the National Association of 
Dental Faculties, and designed to supply the dental student with 
that knowledge most essential to his preparation for practice. Prof. 
Fillebrown is one of the faculty of Harvard, and thoroughly 
qualified for the task involved in the getting out of a text book of 
operative dentistry, and in the present instance has done himself 
and his subject proud. In his preface he says : "History has not 
been attempted, and only enough of definitions, etiology and symp- 
toms of diseases given to make clear the description of the opera- 
tion to be performed." The most advanced nomenclature has been 



66 he Odontographic Journal. 

adopted, cuspid for canine, calculus for tarter, hypercementosis for 
exostosis, phagedenic pericementitis for Riggs* disease. Crown and 
bridge work is "classed as operative dentistry, as it is all dependent 
upon the natural teeth, and may all be done at the operating chair, 
and almost all of it is much better done with the patient present." 
The declaration that " All operative dentistry is mechanical, and 
crown work is no more so than filling a cavity, applying a medicine 
or injecting an abcess," is likely to involve the distinguished author 
in explanations, inasmuch as there are some of the profession to 
whom the word "mechanical " has a very disagreeable sound. The 
style of the book is such that it will take with the student and pi < - 
titioner — crisp, clear and without a superflous word, except, 
perhaps, in the quotations. The get up is excellent — clear type, 
good paper, well bound. 



THE 



Odontography Journal. 



Volume X.—July 1889. — No. 2. 



THE DENTAL MANUFACTURER AS A CO-EDUCATOR 

WITH THE DENTIST. 



BY L. E. A., NEW YORK. 



The vocation of " manufacturer of dental goods" dates scarcely 
more than forty years back. Before that time a very few artificial 
teeth were made for sale, and a few instruments such as keys and 
lancets were roughly made by ordinary cutlers. But in the main, 
dentists made most of the teeth which they inserted and the most of 
the instruments that they used. The first manufacturers of dental 
goods, properly so called, confined their productions for a time to 
artificial teeth, which speedily put a t stop, to a very large extent, to 
the work of the individual dentist in that line. By intimate associa- 
tion with dentists, and a growing familiarity with their needs, these 
manufacturers (some of whom had been in the practice of dentistry) 
undertook, by degrees, to supply those needs, and thus the range of 
their business was gradually extended. Their first productions in 
almost every line of instruments and appliances were, judged by the 
standard of to-day, exceedingly crude and clumsy, defective in 
adaptation, temper, etc. The commercial spirit, however (if there 
was no higher motive), stimulated those who were far-seeing, to con- 
stant efforts to make improvements. The needs of the dentists were 
studied ; the advice and suggestions of practitioners were sought, 
and efforts were made to carry them out wherever and as far as 
practicable. 

A large part of the improved instruments and appliances in cur- 
rent use to-day are the outgrowth of these suggestions from men in 
practice, but their fine quality, exquisite adaptation and finish, is to 



68 The Odontography Journal. 

redited to the skill of the manufacturer and his ambition to 
el in his chosen callin 

Another large part, however, of these improvements has come 
directly from the manufacturers, in their efforts to meet the growing 
wants of the dentists. Without this work of the manufacturer, the 
dental profession could not have advanced nearly so rapidly as it 
has done in this country, for it would have been impossible for the 
profession, aided by manufacturers in other directions than that of 
dental goods, to have been supplied with the variety and the quality 
of goods that are so indispensable to-day. 

There was absolutely necessary a devotion to one idea — viz. : the 
supply of the dental profession, and an intimate knowledge and 
constant study of the needs of that profession to produce the results 
that have been accomplished. The dentist has now an infinitely 
greater variety of instruments and appliances than the surgeon, amd 
of a quality and adaptability very much superior. American dental 
instruments take the lead all over the world, and are the synonym 
for excellence and superiority wherever there are educated dentists. 
This superiority is owing to the skill and care of the American 
manufacturers, and their eagerness to embody in an improved 
appliance every new suggestion of a skillful practitioner. 

The two callings of dentist and manufacturer of denal goods 
have, in this country, moved on side by side. Very few dentists 
cared to, or could, manufacture and introduce their own inventions. 
The attempts to bring them out by the aid of manufacturers in 
other lines, have seldom been satisfactory or successful. But with 
the manufacturer specially allied to the dental profession, theory and 
practice have been intimately united and have rendered this great 
progress possible. 

The commercial applications of science have in this case (as in 
that of electrical science, as stated by Sir Frederick Bramwell, 
President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
in a recent address), reacted in the interest of pure science. The 
manufacturer has in many instances taken the lead, and has often 
been in no small degree an educator of the profession. This is 
parti< ularly applicable to dentists living at a distance from the 
manufa< turing < enters. 

The leading manufacturers are constantly importuned to attend 

•\ meetings, and annual gatherings of state and Other Societies, 



The Dental Manufacturer as a Co-Educator witli the Dentist. 69 

and to send there a full display of everything that is new and inter- 
esting, "to add to the interest of the meetings and as an additional 
inducement to members from a distance to attend." 

A prominent dentist once said of the Dental Cos?nos, that its 
subscribers, in their eagerness to learn what was newly offered for 
their use, turned first, on receiving its numbers, invariably to the 
advertising pages, and he knew of no other magazine to which the 
statement would apply. 

There is quite a diversity of opinion on the subject of patents in 
connection with the progress of dentistry, and some practitioners 
have been loud in condemning them ; yet to the unprejudiced 
observer it would seem that a large number of the best appliances 
of the dentist to-day owe their success and perfection largely to the 
protection and stimulus of patents. The field for dental goods, as 
compared with that for general merchandise, is very limited, and 
the inducement to expend liberally in perfecting a chair, engine, 
mallet, or electrical appliance, is much less if there is no protection 
and if every other manufacturer is free to copy it as soon as per- 
fected. 

Undoubtedly the protection of patents has been of much value as 
a stimulus and a reward to inventing dentists, and as an incentive 
to the manufacturer to produce the best goods. Where manufact- 
urers are constantly met by lower prices of competitors, there will 
inevitably be a gradual depreciation of quality, and the standard of 
excellence is lost sight of in the race for cheapness. This is a con- 
dition that the dentist, of all men, shbuld deprecate ; an inferior 
quality of instruments and appliances, however low in price, is ter- 
ribly expensive to them. Low-priced dentistry, as every practi- 
tioner knows, is likely to be of poor service to the patient. And it 
is just as true that low-priced dental goods are of little value to the 
conscientious practitioner. 



PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 



DENTAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, ALBANY, MAY, 1889. 

1 or the twenty-first time in the history of this Society it becomes 
the duty of the President to "give a concise statement of the condi- 
tion of the State and district societies, with such suggestions for 
their improvement as he may think proper," a duty imposed upon 
him by the by-laws and not in itself difficult to perform. But Presi- 
dents have gone further than this. They have not only discussed 



;o The Odontographic Journal. 

the affairs of this Society and its less pretentious but equally impor 
tant associates, but have also discussed questions that concern the 
profession at large — of this State, and other, and all States — ques- 
tions of theory, of practice, of politics, of legislation — and have 
suggested ways and means by which, in their judgment, these 
several questions in which we all have a general and associate 
interest, if properly studied by those who have assumed their con- 
sideration or had such consideration thrust upon them, may be made 
to contribute to the common good of all concerned in the practice 
of dentistry, and also that larger and inclusive body that makes 
such practice possible — the public. How well this duty has 
been performed heretofore, is shown in the recently com- 
pleted publications of the Society, the official heads enumer- 
ated therein following lines of discussion, general or special, 
suggested by their surroundings, or their interpretation of them, or 
quite as often their affiliations or prejudices. It comes to pass, there- 
fore, that so far at least as this Society is concerned, it grows more 
and more difficult to say anything new, or what is sometimes made 
to answer the same purpose, say the same thing in a new way. 

Our immediate concern of course is with the business of this 
meeting, the one by the way at which we come of age. But before 
entering upon that, and to enable you the better to appreciate the 
feeling that came over the present incumbent of the principal office in 
your gift on being lifted from a position in which he had well-nigh 
become perennial, not to say soporific, it is desirable to revert to the 
meeting of a year ago and a phase or two of the work of that time. 
" Eyes hath he," saith the proverb, "in the back of his head, and 
his ear doth lengthen to a far-off sound." Caucussing began early, 
and the conclusion lumped at with an unanimity that betrayed the 
hand of the politician was that the next presiding officer should not 
("me, like wise men the world over, from the East, but rather from 
those districts where simplicity and contentment are indigenous, 
and ambitious men are pleased to hold an inquest when denied the 
privilege of serving in the Senate. Diligent study of the map, 
careful scanning of tin- field, the buttonholing of members from 
districts not urban, resulted in directing all eyes to the Hoard of 
Censors, when lo, it was discovered, and not for the first time, that 
a principal of nature would suffer violence, if not nullification, in 
that two things cannot oc< upy one and the same pla< e at one and 

the same time. In other words, that censorship and the president v 

could not he made to lodge in one and the same man. Expediency 



President's .lanital Address. 71 

and the by-laws, said all, forbid. The [saacs of the Board 

were sate in their censorship, but at the cost of a ram — a hornless 
one to be sure — but a ram nevertheless, and from the West. Whether 
he was thus honored because of fitness, or made the recipient of a 
reward on account of long service as keeper of the books, or served 
up as a peace offering on the altar of the Board or that of section- 
alism, is still one of the mysteries. Let it suffice, however, that 
those most concerned seemed to be pleased with the result of the 
evening's work, the elect himself no less than his friends, and this 
he found to be the case with dental friends at home, who reminded 
him of the fact that in twenty-one years and a line of fifteen presi- 
dents the Seventh society had a name on the list for the first time. 
A lengthy digression, but the only one. 

The condition of the Society is much the same that it was a year 
ago. By the rule that but five additions can be made annually to 
the permanent membership, with of course the filling of vacancies 
caused by death, resignation, change of residence and non-payment 
of dues, it is impossible that there should be any marked increase of 
members ; in fact, it is to our credit, that there is no falling off. It 
has been thought by some that the mumber of possible additions 
annually should be increased, but it should be noted that the sug- 
gestion is made only w r hen the number of applicants for permanent 
membership is over and above the number prescribed by the by-laws, 
plus vacancies from causes just enumerated. On the whole, the 
adjustment between places at the disposal of the Society and appli- 
cants for them is so delicate that like rainfall it will average to a 
fraction when taken for a term of years. 

The finances of the Society are all that could be desired, the bal- 
ance being, as at all times in the past, on our side of the ledger. It 
is a fact, too, worthy of remark, that dues as a rule are promptly 
paid by members, either personally at the annual meeting, or by 
mail when notified by the Treasurer, to whose business ability the 
Society is indebted for the regularity with which the figure three is 
offset by the same character. Most societies, other as well as dental, 
find themselves at the end of the year with just enough to their 
credit to warrant a continuance of the struggle for existance, a con- 
dition of things that may be often and justly charged to a misfitting 
segment in the official backbone. In this connection, too, it should 
be remembered that no salary attaches to the office of Treasurer of 
this Society, the incumbent doing the work for the fun of the 



~2 The Odontography Journal. 

thing, for the love of the Society, or simply because when asked to 
do so is too good natured to refuse. 

Our relations with other societies seem to have grown more inti- 
mate, and there is every prospect of a better understanding between 
ourselves and others than has prevailed in the past — a condition of 
things that seems to have grown out of a misapprehension of the 
functions of our examining board, its scope and powers. Gradually, 
however, the working of this peculiar institution is becoming known 
abroad, and where known is seen to be a power for good rather 
than, as had been supposed, a means of cheapening and conse- 
quently lowering the standard of professional attainment. Your 
Correspondent will present matter and opinion bearing on this 
feature of our standing and relations as a Society, and in a light 
complimentary to all concerned. His efforts, too, in other direc- 
tions will reveal the possibilities of one who magnifies his ofifice, or 
in the language of the day, works it for all it is worth. 

Of the work of the standing committees, that of arrangements 
comes first. Year after year this committee, the personelle of 
which has undergone little or no change of late, has sought, but in 
vain, quarters better adapted to the needs of the Society than Geo- 
logical hall, the few available rooms in the capitol, or that which we 
now occupy, but confession is made annually that Albany has yet to 
build for the suitable accommodation of this and kindred societies, 
a hall not too large, well-ventilated, well-lighted and of sound prop- 
erties not too suggestive of a drum. The chairman lives in hope. 

The committees of by-laws, ethics, and prize essays will report 
briefly the work in their hands, and the business committee such 
arrangements as will best facilitate the doings of the day. This last 
committee has done itself proud, whether viewed in the light of 
the fact that the chairman learned of his appointment late, or the 
quality and variety of the feast, or the energy and tact displayed in 
its preparation. 

The committee on law has done more than can be fairly made 
to appear in its report to regulate the practic <»t" dentistry in this 
State, and will incidentally or otherwise < all attention to a weak 
attempt to smuggle into and through the legislature a measure calcu- 
lated t<> rob <>ur present law of several important features now in 

too 

Tin- committee of publication has gotton out the transactions in 
ex< ellent style, and as quickly as possible under circumstances very 
annoying. Information from various sources and a little personal 



Presidents Annual Address. 73 

experience in such matters, point to the chief cause of delay as the 
too long retention of proof sent for correction. This is a matter 
made too much of a convenience, and when at last the corre< ted 
proof does come it often involves less delay and expense to throw in 
the type and reset than to rearrange a speech that was never made, 
all of which, or a large part of it, comes of the failure of men gener- 
ally to say what they mean, and courage to mean in cold type what 
they have said. Few can stand the test of the former ; fewer still 
the latter. Another contributing cause of delay was the heeded sug- 
gestion of the speaker, that the past experience of the printer of 
other years work would save the chairman a great deal of labor. 
This was unfortunate, as will appear in the report. To the future 
chairman of this committee our advice would be to have this work 
done at his own door, where its progress can be watched from 
beginning to end. We have suggested for the last time to any one 
a contrary course. 

The committee on practice has steadily grown in popularity and 
importance until there is some fear lest the Society forget its time- 
honored custom of preparing and discussing regular papers, and be 
led to depend wholly on this committee for topics and the direction 
of the course of discussion. It is but a short time since a sheet of 
note paper was made to answer the purpose imposed by the Society 
on this committee, whereas now nothing more complete or sug- 
gestive, more comprehensive in its treatment comes before us. This 
is as it should be. The committee makes it its business to at least 
see all that appears in print, culling that that promises to interest 
and instruct, and discussing most intelligently for or against mate- 
rials, appliances, methods and opinions. This year's report is an 
advance on all others, and the present worry of the business com- 
mittee is where to place it and what time to give it. Like things 
that concern everybody it is democratic in its content, aim and 
object, and may be discussed in some of its features by every man 
in the room — just like constitutions and by-laws, in regard to which 
the unposted man has yet to live. 

Of the routine workings of district societies little need be said in 
view of the reports about to be read by the Secretary. All seem to 
thrive — some after a fashion, others in a marked degree. One meets 
at least annually, several semi-annually, one quarterly, and one 
monthly, vacation term excepted. In the western part of the State 
union meeetings of the fifth and sixth, and of the seventh and 
eighth societies have been the fashion once a year since the 



7 i The Odontographic Journal. 

old Western New York association was superceded by, or in compli- 
ance with the State law, merged into the modern districts. These 
union meetings have kept alive the interests and associations grown 
and developed in the older body, but in two great sections, the 
counties comprising the fifth and sixth on the one hand, and the 
seventh and eighth on the other. For three years past all four have- 
joined forces, and the largest and best meetings known to the mem- 
bership are among the results. Like all good things these large 
gatherings carry within them the seeds of their own destruction, a 
statement just as true of large meetings of single societies as of those 
of the four societies mentioned. Their size is the first count 
against them. They are apt to become unwieldly, and because of the 
work involved in their management and the numerous details of 
business, the non-participating member — the one not on the pro- 
gramme for an active part in the play — is overlooked, his presence 
practically ignored, the sociability that he had looked forward to is 
denied him, and to that degree that he leaves greatly disappointed 
and perhaps fully resolved to avoid in the future meetings whose 
bigness is the only notion that he can take home with him. His 
desire to see is gratified by the manufacturers and dealers, and per- 
haps by a demonstration or two, if he succeeds in fighting his way 
to and holding a place at the chair. He hears a paper read and 
discussed, sees a model or two, and an instrument for some rare and, 
to the exhibitor, very important operation, but fails utterly in his 
attempts to meet men whom he has known for years by reputation 
and regarded as leaders in the profession; or if he meets them, it is 
only for a moment — all the time they and their busy managers can 
allow. The meeting has become a convention — what was intended 
as a social and business gathering of scientific and practical men, 
has become something akin to a gathering of the clans where many 
men have an ax to grind and are determined it shall be ground even 
at the cost of a good and true stone. Bigness, therefore, is a thing 
that should be kept under in the interests of other and more valu- 
able featur 

Another element of danger is the expense, which is necessarily 
great. The tendency is to outdo all past efforts. Some societies 

have in their membership men who feel an individual responsibility 
in . affairs, and who go down into their own pockets for what- 

ever the treasury fails to supply. This is their business, to be sure, 
but f;ir from jusl and cannot long continue. To illustrate: An 
a< tive little society in a western < itv lva^ held monthly meetings for 



President's Annual Address. 75 

many yens. At first there was simply a paper or two, discussion 
of these and miscellaneous topics, and perhaps a good cigar. Meet- 
ing followed meeting in rotation of members, the good cigar became 
a lunch — at first plain, then elaborate — the lunch grew until it 
reached the proportions of a supper. Right here the executive 
committee met with its first downright refusal to entertain. A was 
told that the next meeting would be held at his office, to which 
reply was made, " Sorry, gentlemen, but it is impossible — can't 
afford it." "But your not obliged to give a spread." "No, I'm 
not obliged to, but there'll be no meeting at my house until I can at 
least do as well as my neighbor." The committee's eyes were opened 
with a snap, and from that time to the present the dictum that the 
after part of the program should not go beyond simplicity itself, has 
made every member not only willing but anxious to entertain, even 
to the theft of a turn from his fellow-member. Therefore, to insure 
the permanency of these annual gatherings of district societies, it is 
necessary that the expenses should be kept well within the means of 
the poorest in pocket of the four. This is also true we are told of 
large meetings in the metropolis, where the expenses are necessarily 
great, and where both labor and expense fall to the lot of the few. 

Another noticeable thing in the history of the district societies is 
the change in membership, the degree men growing in numbers from 
year to year, while those qualified by certificates issued by county 
clerks are becoming fewer and fewer. All this because first of the 
decrease of the possible supply which was at its topmost limit the 
last day of registration, and second, the losses by death, resignation, 
removal and other causes. The degree men have in some societies 
nearly if not quite a majority, which will augment from year to year 
through the operation of our law until the certificate becomes a 
mere relic in the history of dentistry in this State. 

Now and then redistricting is sometimes mentioned. This is a 
desirable thing, for, based as our present system is on division of 
the State in the interests of the judiciary, it leaves some of our mem- 
bers — those of the fourth district — practically in the woods, where 
distances are great and means of transit slow and costly. The pres- 
ent arrangement was unfortunate both in conception and execution, 
those having the work in hand losing sight of the fact that division 
of territory and diversion in travel made by railways is of vastly 
more importance than any division possible to the map makers of 
the legislature. Centers of population, business, and lines of travel 
are of the first importance in fixing upon a place of meeting. While 



76 77/ e Odontographic Journal. 

a change is desirable, it would be inexpedient to attempt the further 
amending of the dental laws, since such attempts involve the risk of 
losing what we have. Other states may profit by our mistakes in 
the past, also by our experience present and prospective. 

A phase or two of the workings of the law of a year ago remains 
to be noticed. We had asked for bread and got in return, not a 
stone, but bread, and of exceeding richness. This disturbed the 
dental stomach somewhat until the brilliant discovery was made 
that by making one's assistant a student both employer and 
employee could live within the letter if not the spirit of the law, the 
spipit being another and for the time a not easily definable thing. 

A second discovery is not so easily disposed of. The aim and 
object of the law was the further regulation and improvement of the 
practice of dentistry in this State, and one of the ways, the chiefest 
perhaps, by which it was intended this should be accomplished was 
by forcing the prospective dentist through a dental or medical /col- 
leg, or by the State Board. It has worked to a charm. The Board 
has been no busier than at times in former years, but New York has 
been numerously represented in the colleges by students from this 
State, and students from other States who contemplate practice in 
this. And with what result — at what cost ? Heretofore the D. D. S. 
has been sought because of the desire of the student to have at his 
command the information, both theoretical and practical, attainable 
only in a well equipped college, and in the case of the ambitious 
student, a college that will best and quickly (it him for legitimate 
practice. In the attainment of his degree he studies and works in 
the hope and expectation of thorough qualification, and takes his 
degree merely as evidence of it. On the other hand, many of the 
young men now in training for a place among the legally qualified in 
this State have no other object whatever in attending a dental col- 
lege than the degree of I). D. S.. The advantages of study and 
practice offered by the school are of secondary importance — they 
would pay the fees and take the degree in twenty-four hours if that 
weit- ,1 possible thing. It is nothing more nor less with such than a 
question of expediency and cost — a course or two in college or a 
series of contributions to the county poor fund. A tew years since 
we sat next a medical student in a class of 550 listening to a lecture 
by the professor of physiology. We asked the student what work, 
if any in particular, had been recomended to the class. The student 
said he had approached the professor on that subject himself, in 
quest of a work that would serve as a roach between times, and had 



President's Annual Address. 77 

been asked, "Young man, how much physiology do you want?" 

" Professor," said the student, "I want just enough to pass your 
chair." He got it, and to-day passes lor a wise man in medicine. 
To " pass " to get his degree, was his only ambition — the course of 
study was simply in his way. The effect on dentistry, in this State at 
least, will be to cheapen the D. D. S. by making it common ; its 
indiscriminate conferment cannot have other than a retarding 
effect on dentistry as a profession while at the same time it advances 
dentistry as a trade. There is no reason, however, in the expressed 
fear that this condition of things to likely to prevail — a leveling up 
must succeed the leveling down, but years must follow in which 

to regain lost ground. 



The past year has been prolific of discussions of subjects both 
scientific and practical, among these questions in histology and histo- 
pathology. The bioplason theory has been ably presented, and in 
its best possible form by at least one of its chief exponents, and has 
been met by all the objections that could be mustered by those who 
hold to another and older theory of the structure, growth and devel- 
opment of tissues and organs. For a time it seemed as if dentistry 
was to know no other teaching than that fathered by Heitzman, and 
advocated by him and his ever alert and faithful lieutenants — 
Abbott and Bodecker. Until these views began to appear, in fact 
for a long time after their first publication, dental readers were 
regaled with quotations from and rehash of the contents of books the 
very names of which had grown musty. All reasoning as to the 
structure, growth and development of tissues and organs had as its 
starting point, with members generally of the dental profession, the 
timehonored and threadbare propositions of these ancient authors. 
Having been prepared by men whose interest centered in medicine, 
the chapters on dental matters were written merely to fill in — 
more for the sake of rounding out the subject than with the expec- 
tation of adding anything of value to the dental student and practi- 
tioner. But thanks to the gentlemen named and their followers, 
original investigation was stimulated, and has continued up to the 
present with the result that the dental profession is to-day in a posi- 
tion to decide for itself, through its practical workers in dental 
histology and histo-pathology, questions decisions upon which but a 
short time since were deferentially received from men without 
knowledge of the commonest affections of the teeth and contiguous 
parts. The published views previous to the advent of the bioplason 



7S The Odontographic Journal. 

theory were in the main the work of compilers well read but non- 
practicaJ in this particular field.. Several exceptions there were 
among the workers, but for reasons best known to themselves they 
worked quietly, for their own satisfaction, without publishing except 
in their own vicinity at meetings whose doings never or but rarelv 
ever saw print. But when the views in question had all but captured 
the whole dental fraternity, Black, and Andrews, and Williams, and 
Allen, and Sudduth, and other qualified observers came to the 
front, and to-day we have two opposing factions — if they may be so 
characterized — each bent on the destruction of the other in the 
effort to get at the truth. It's a hard fight for the principals engaged 
in it, but a glorious spectacle to the looker on. It may be a case 
of perversion, but we are not alone in our delight at a quarrel, the 
conditions being that it shall be between the other fellows, and our 
position for the time being a safe one on the fence. 

Except at the last meeting of the American Dental Association, 
dentistry as a profession, and dentistry as a specalty of medicine, have 
had a rest. Why, unless it be a reaction from former activity, or a 
stop to gather strength for a new attack, would be difficult to guess. 
It occurs to us, however, that the widespread introduction of compar- 
atively new methods in the line of mechanics has had much to do 
with the decline of interest in this to some all-absorbing topic. 
With the introduction of crowning has come a simplification of 
methods of treating pathological conditions. Where not long since 
the tooth pulp was treated to arsenic, and one or more days later 
removed, the root put beyond the probability of further trouble by 
the use of antiseptics, and in a few days more carefully filled, now 
the pulp chamber is made accessible, and with one blow its contents 
effectively knocked out. This is radical, but the results are claimed 
to be at least as good as by the more roundabout way, plus the sav- 
ing of valuable time. How extreme these transitions are is shown 
in the difference in methods of mechanically treating teeth large 
portions of which have been lost by fracture or decay. Contour 
fillings on a scale known in the past will never be repeated, and the 
appliances introduced to make such operations possible to the 
operator and tolerable to the patient have gone for all time. Better 
methods have come, and will continue to come, and with such 
rapidity thai the practical man to keep up with the procession must 
ite, tor the time at least, the question of the status of dentistry 
to those who delight in the working out of such problems as the 
philosophy of the uncoils, ious. 



President's Annual Address. 79 

Dental education is receiving its share of attention, and the com- 
ing discussion will be as between thai kind that informs a man as to 

what ought to be done and that which makes it possible lor him to 
do. What do you know ? is no longer the question in a pushing 
community, but — What can you do ? The education of head and 
hand is rightly a feature of the technical school, but the former 
in some quarters seems to lead at the expense of the latter, and to 
the detriment of the individual. There can be no dentistry without 
finger-skill, and the time to acquire that is not after the student has 
passed the plastic stage. Judging from what one sees of men who 
first acquired mechanical training in other callings before taking to 
dentistry, one is almost persuaded into the belief that it would be 
better for them and dentistry if all were made to work before being 
permitted to study — if such distinction may be made. 

The question of patents has filled a good many pages in our peri- 
odicals, and has resolved itself, as tersely put by a would-be 
patentee, into a difference between sentiment and sense. The 
dental profession has suffered from patent abuses as much as, if not 
more than, any other, but it has also benefited by the protection 
afforded inventors and manufacturers in the just application an 
enforcement of patent laws. That instruments and appliances that 
alleviate or lessen human suffering should not be patented we get 
from the medical profession, five per cent of whose members are 
inventors, and less than fifteen per cent inventive and suggestive. So 
said a noted surgeon of New York., himself an inventor, likewise a 
sufferer in mind and pocket because of this something-for-nothing 
feature of the medical code. A poor patient needed a yet to be 
invented appliance, and the surgeon in question set to work to 
devise a something to fit the case. The instrument maker put a 
skilled workman under his direction, and in time the poor patient 
got just what his case required, and other palients throughout the 
country are to day wearing duplicates of the appliance in question, 
but the work of other hands. The illustration and description 
of the appliance were followed in a few days, in one instance, 
by the appearance in another instrument maker's window of six 
instruments — deprived, however, of several of the very features that 
had made the original valuable — and'eheapened to the figure of $25 
each, where the first one cost in time and money $200, without a 
( rut in return from the too-poor patient. Further modification of 
the appliance followed until it lost its identity, but retains to this 
day the name of the inventor, selling in some sections at $10. It not 



8o The Odontographic Journal. 

only fails utterly of its object, but where applied does more harm 
than good. If patented every appliance bearing that particular 
name would do for every patient so afflicted just what the original 
had done for patient No. r. What is true in this case is true of 
others — the modified appliance was a damage to the patient, likewise 
the man who prescribed it, and it cost the patient more than a perfect 
instrument made in quantity by acompetent maker under the protec- 
tion of a patent. The best instruments and appliances in dentistry 
to day, are patented, and their superior quality, style and finish, are 
appreciated when one invests in articles in the manufacture of 
which competition is free. As a rule the latter are cheap from what- 
ever standpoint studied — they cost little and are worth less. 

The future of dentistry comes in for a word. To day the rela- 
tions existing between patient and dentist are largely personal, and in 
many instances intimate. This is likely to continue until competi- 
tion among dentists is such that it will be for the interests of tlae 
patient, both as to teeth and pocket, to choose not merely between 
two, but many. With this comes a revising of personal and pro. 
fessional relations and the cementing of others on a purely business 
basis. The field is so closely crowded even now in some of the 
larger centers of population that a man in large practice can obtain 
in the market the very best of help in special departments and 
at reasonable cost. The difficulties in the way of obtaining a 
practice are such that the recent graduate would rather put in a 
year or two with his old preceptor than was formerly the < 
when the young man could hardly get out his sign too soon. 
Advantage of this condition of things has been taken by dentists 
without professional standing or ambition, but with grear capacity 
for business, and under their ministrations the public is being slowly 
but surely led to look upon the professional man as poor but perhaps 
respectable, and his latter day competitor as a man of energy, vim, 
push, and in keeping with the spirit of the times. With the di\ isions 
of labor the individual becomes one of a firm, which in time is 
merged into a company, and this again into a syndicate, and finally 
a trust. The modern dental association that we see in every sizable 
city of the land is a step in this direction, and a long one consid- 
ering the time. It merely adds another example of the sinking of the 
individual in the larger affairs of life, in which he is as effectually 
lost as the individual brick in a well. He is of value while in place, 
but can be thrown out without notice, and a better man put in 
without impairing the structure in the least, or interfering with its 



Remarks to Candidates Recommended for the "A/. J). S." 81 

progress or work. Looked at philosophically little else could be 

expected, ("or the socializing agencies, the leveling influences we 
sec about us, are an integral part of modern civilization as we find 
it in the larger and more fully developed centers of population. 
Nor is dentistry alone among the professions that await this fate — 
law firms are larger and their specially qualified clerks more 
numerous than ever. Medicine, which some of us love to quote, is 
building its private hospitals everywhere, most of them small but on 
a plan closely imitating that at Washington owned and operated by 
a late surgeon-general of the army — a man whose standing as a 
citizen, and member of the medical profession, place him beyond the 
reach of other than favorable criticism. So too the rendering of 'much 
and good medical service at small cost, as in New Orleans, where 
hundreds of families are banded together to entertain and accept 
bids for medical attendance at so much per head per year. The 
older and more staid practitioners are against this thing tooth and 
nail, but service must be rendered and rendered largely in this way, 
and to go against it is like an attack on a stone wall with ones head 
as a means of demolition. Our profession has no substantial rea- 
son for thinking itself an exception — like other bodies it must move 
on or get out of the way. It has a great future before it, but all its 
ways are not likely to be ways of pleasantness, nor its paths wholly 
the paths of peace. 

NOTE.-An organization called the Guarantee Medical Attendance Association has been 
perfected in New York city. Its object is to furnish medical attendance to its members 
whenever required, and drugs at a reasonable price. To accomplish this the city is 
divided into thirty-seven districts, corresponding with the police districts ; in each of 
which there is stationed one the association's physicians, who is to respond to all cases 
of sickness among members. In each district contract has been made with a reputable 
drug store to fill all prescriptions at the uniform price of twenty cents each, To 
become a member necessitates the payment oi si entrance fee and forty cents a month 
dues in advance, or $2 will be taken in advance for six months" dues. Tt is said 
thai t lie association is already on a good paying footing, having done so well that it is 
talking of starting branches in the larger cities in the country. 

Theprice is no Par to participation in the benefits of tins association. For what 
would ordinarily be paid for one visit by a physician, medical attendance for a 
whole year can be had. Hut if people don't want the doctor but are themselves in the 
habit of buying many diug-s. they can make membership in such an organization very 
profitable by the discount given on prescriptions. The main question will be as to the 
qualifications of the doctors, if the association shall be worthy of any patronage its 
physicians must be gentlemen skilled in tin; profession. For dangerous cases the asso- 
ciation <av^ it bas a staff of specialists that may bo called in consultation.— Rochester 
Morning Herald, May Both, Lo89. 



REMARKS TO CANDIDATES RECOMMENDED FOR 

THE "M. D. S." 



In accordance with one of the provisions of the dental law of this 
State, and a custom now time-honored, it is the duty of the Presi- 
dent of this Society to confer upon those who have succeeded in 
passing the examination of the Board of Censors the degree of 



The Odontographic Journal. 

" Master of Dental Surgery," and to this duty is added the privilege of 
such comments on what lias transpired as may be suggested by the 
occasion. Others who have stood where you now stand have been 
told again and again, by our predecessors in office, of the difficulties 
of this examination, and of the yearly-decreasing possibility of any 
candidate passing it. The law says that all applicants shall be 
examined, but it does not say in what that examination shall con- 
sist, such matters having been wisely left by the law to the Board 
itself. The standard has been raised with each examination until 
the applicant is all but proscribed, and this in the interests of 
higher and better education. While the Board does not broadly 
publish the fact, it is determined that this honor shall be fairly 
earned, and if necessary, through disappointment, and trial, and 
tribulation. Some try but once and succeed, some twice, and yet a 
third time fail to grasp the much-coveted prize. The meaning of this 
is that the requirements of the Board are most exacting, and that the 
proper course for those who would not fail is to attend a school 
recognized as reputable by this Society, qualify themselves there for 
the school's degree, and be thus put in the way of the right to prac- 
tice in this State. The time is not far distant when the last degree 
will have been conferred, and when the next step will be in the direc- 
tion of a request to the Legislature to abolish the section creating the 
Board and defining its duties. When satisfied that its work is done, 
the members of the Board will be among the first to not only 
request but urge its own dissolution. This last act will have made 
the "M. D. S." of inestimable value, and it will be cherished by it> 
happy possessor, and after him by those into whose possession it may 
pass, as the evidence of achievements of no mean kind. In confer- 
ring the " M. 1). S.," I have the rare privilege of passing it into the 
keeping of the first lady ever before our Board foi examination 
to her qualifications to practice dentistry in this State ; that it will 
be well kept by at least one member of this group goes without 
saying. Therefore, in compliance with the statute, and on the 
recommendation of our Board, 1 issue to each one of you the 
Diploma of this Society, and confer upon you, also each one. the 
" Degree of Master of Dental Surgery." 



ACTINOMW ISIS. 



By the name actinomycosis is designated a contagious disease 
caused by the presence in the system of a vegetable parasite, of 

radiate form, actinomyces. This is a malady which has been 



Actinomycosis. 83 

more especially studied in other countries than ours ; in Germany, 
Russia, and England, where it most frequently appears. Bolling< 
Munich, describes this parasite for the first time, and recognized in 
it a vegetable which produces, by its multiplications, tumors having 

their seat in the jaws of horned animals. These tumors have been 
known to veterinary surgeons under the name of osteosarcoma, 
cancer and scrofula of the bones. They are of a whitish color, of a 
firm consistence, and contain in spots small yellowish masses resemb- 
ling little abscesses. Scraping these masses brings away small 
yellowish grains the size of a hemp seed, which are constituted, 
under the microscope, of filaments of variable form and grouping. 
Harz has recognized these parasites as belonging to the group of 
mucedines. 

The affection does not seem very rare in Germany and Austria, 
for communications have been quite numerous upon the subject, 
and Rotter, of Berlin, has observed five cases in eight months. 

The multifarious aspects under which the malady presents itself, 
have tended to confuse the diagnostic. For the time being, the 
cinical forms have been classed in three categories : 

1. Those produced by the penetration of the parasite by way of 
the buccal cavity, carious teeth, dental fistulae, tonsils, mucous coats 
of the palate, manifesting themselves by diseases of the jaw and 
neck. 

2. Those taking their rise in the lungs ; the parasite introduces 
itself by way of the mucous membrane., wounded or not, of the 
respiratory passages, and develops accidents in the side of the lungs, 
the lips, the pericardium, and in the thoracic walls. 

3. Finally those manifesting themselves in abdominal affections ; 
here the parasite penetrates, probably by the intestinal mucous mem- 
brane and invades next the abdominal organs, as well as the abdom- 
inal wall. 

Under certain circumstances, each of these clinical forms may be 
complicated by accidents resembling those of chronic pyaemia ; as 
when the parasite has penetrated the blood vessels and lymphatics, 
infecting the whole organism and provoking lesions terminating 
habitually in suppuration. 

In the first group of facts noted in the case of man, tumors of 
inflammatory appearance are observed to supervene in the region 
of the inferior maxillary, rarely in the superior. The tumors usually 



84 The Odontographic Journal. 

develop very slowly, have the size and hardness of a cherry stone ; 
they occupy the sub-maxillary region, the angle of the jaw, the 
ion of the zygomatic arch ; mobile and indolent sometimes for 
several years, they in the end become soft, adherent, painful ; if left 
to themselves they ulcerate and give issue to pus containing colon- 
ies of parasites. The tumors may multiply and invade successively 
the n^ck, the larynx, the clavicular region, and remain fistulous 
after having developed a phlegmon circumscribed about them. If 
the disease begins in the superior maxillary, the little tumors 
advance into the cheeks and temporal region, and, more deeply, 
into the vertebral column and the base of the skull, where they 
develop inflammatory accidents. Rotter has cited an instance of 
this kind of evolution, and it is understood that in these conditions, 
the malady presents the clinical aspect of vertebral caiies. Esmarch 
has insisted upon the very pronounced induration which surrounds 
the abscess as being characteristic. s 

How does actinomycosis develop itself in man ? As the disease 
appears to be more frequent with cattle, it has been thought to be 
transmitted from animals in consequence of contagion or by alimen- 
tation from infected flesh. But the observation of cases becoming 
more numerous of late, has tested that opinion with the effect 
that many writers, with Israel, believe that man and beast are 
infected from common sources. Jansen thinks that the parasite lives 
upon certain gramineals in Denmark, and that barley, for example, 
being invested with a long beard, may occasion upon the buccal 
mucous membrane of animals slight wounds which serve as entrance 
doors to the radiate- fungus. Johne, upon his side, has found grain 
beards upon the tonsils of hogs, especially those of barley, covered 
witn a fungus very similar to, if not identical with, the actinomyces. 
Soltman relates that a young man was infected with the disease after 
having swallowed an ear of wild barley, and had abscesses of the 
thoracic wall, in the pus of which were found parasitic colonies, 
and remains of the ear swallowed. 

The prognostic of the disease naturally varies according as the 
infection is local or general. Death is the rule when the parasite 
has invaded the viscera, but so long as the disease remains local, 
that is to say ac< essible to surgical mediation, its cure can be 
counted upon. The treatment consists in ablation of the nodes, 
ml antiseptic dressing. Surgeons who have had occasion 

to treat actinomycosis of the inferior maxillary, have laid great stress 



The Elasmotheriutn. 85 

upon the good results obtained with silicious earth mixed with subli- 
mate, two to a thousand. It is evident, after that, how important 
it is, in point of view of the treatment, to recognize the first stag 
the disease. — L. Jumon {France Mcdicale), L'Odontologie. 



THE ELASMOTHERIUM.* 



TRANSLATED FOR THE ODONTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL. 



[The Elasmotherium is, or was, one of those particularly graceful 
mammals which ambled and gambolled among the cenozoic 
marshes of a quaternary age, and is believed to have been still 
" tripping the light fantastic " when primeval man first awoke to a 
realizing sense of his painful situation in having been born into a 
world wholly unfurnished with "modern conveniences." 

Owing to the nearly complete disappearance of such personal 
effects as were left behind by the last representatives of this ancient 
and aristocratic family, the genealogy of the elasmotherium is some- 
what obscure, and it cannot now be satisfactorily determined how 
the patronymic was originally spelled or pronounced. 

From time to time, such pieces of bric-a-brac and rococo as half 
a skull, (a yard in length) a metacarpian or ulnar fraction, a shin- 
bone or shoulder-blade, carefully inscribed with its former owner's 
monogram or crest, has turned up in some unexpected spot among 
the debris of the centuries in the environs of Samara, in Russia. 

The characteristics of these vagrant members of the several 
deceased, have been sufficiently diverse to cause them to be succes- 
sively accredited with relationship to the elephant, the rhinoceros,, 
the dinotherium, and the aquatic mammals, by a long list of experts 
having Cuvier at its head. If the elasmo knew his own cousins, he 
never told ; perhaps this concealment, preying on his damask and 
extensive cheek, hastened his premature demise. 

M. S. Hugard has drawn for us (upon his imagination), in u Le 
Naturaliste," the portraits of two now defunct scions of the extin- 
guished house of Therium, standing in a paludic Samara landscape. 
Both wear their furs, though the summer season is indicated by the 

•The Introductory remarks consisl partly of a vers tree (and) easy translation of 
the main points In the descriptive article in"Le Naturaliste," up to the paragraph 
where the account of tin- dentition begins, together with some comments and specula- 
tion- which suggested themselves to the Irrelevant and irreverent mind of the trans- 
lator. 



The Odontography Journal. 

" accessories," but a cool glacier has probably just floe-ed by. One 
of them wags a semi-canine tail, sniffs the morning air, and gazes 
into the future with a far off expression in his near eye, as though 
he might be trying to solve some of the vexed problems which wrought 
such havoc in the P^lsmere household. But he isn't ; he is only 
waiting for his last mouthful of sedge to adapt itself comfortably to 
the new environment afforded by the walls of his stomach, prior to 
the pre-emption of another bunch of stalks. 

History is quite silent as to which of these exquisite creatures 
was the entertainer, or, to use a vulgar expression, whose " treat " it 
was, on that halcyon day in the Samara " paysage ; " but the evi- 
dence of uncivilization is incontrovertible, for with champaign lying 
about them on every hand, they are indifferently imbibing aqua 
pura, or impura, as the case may be. However, they seem to be 
having a sufficiently hilarious time of it, not to say malarious, in 
their post tertiary swamp, "out on a lark," I was about to say, but 
bethink me that the lark not having been yet, at that date, " natu- 
rally selected," perhaps it will be more synchronologically correct to 
put it "on a pterodactyl." But how could any animal drink spilled 
water with a Queen Anne gable on his upper lip, all the while being 
obliged to balance a leaning tower just above the bridge of his nose ? 

However absurd their order of architecture, it is impossible not 
to feel an absorbing interest in these esteemed contemporaries of 
our foremost fathers. The ephemeral product of to-day's " effete 
civilation " boasts, forsooth, of Norman blood ! A paltry eight 
hundred years is but the merest twiglet on the family tree. Did not 
"all of our" ancestor come in with the elasmotherium ?] 



But to the translation : 

The dentition is quite remarkable ; in their number and disposi- 
tion the teeth decidedly approach those of the Rhinoceros. But 
their form is different. The hight of the shaft, the almost complete 
absen< e ol a neck, the numerous folds of the enamel, the abundant e 
of the cement which fills all the interspace s. suggest the teeth of a 
horse or a Ruminant of enormous dimensions. But upon the molar 
is rei ognized the fundamental arrangement of the cusps and denti- 
cules which characterizes the Rhinoceros group ; further, as we shall 
presently sec, the Elasmotherium is a Rhinoceros, taking his skeleton 

a whole. We have therefore conjectured that the differences of 
which I have just spoken, were acquired in consequence of a change 
of diet. While the present Rhinoceros has held to the same diet as 



The Elasm other turn, ttj 

those of the tertiary period, and lives, for the most part, upon dry 
and coriaceous shrubs, the Elasmotherium, which inhabited regions 
where the glacial phenomena had just destroyed the forests, substi- 
tuting therefor an herbaceous vegetation, was compelled to trans- 
form his cutting to grinding teeth. This change took place very 
slowly ; one can indeed follow it in different species of the genus 
Rhinoceros. Thus the Rhinoceros tichorinus, without being so 
herbiverous as the Elasmotherium, has, however, teeth more 
elevated, with enamel more contorted, cement more abundant, than 
in the case of his predecessor, the Rhinoceros Merckii, whose teeth 
in turn present a more elevated shaft than those of the tertiary 
Rhinoceros. 

The same phenomenon of adaptation has taken place among the 
Proboscidians ; the Mastodons had teeth with thick cutting summits 
separated by deep clefts. They pass insensibly to the Elephants, 
whose teeth realize, little by little, the type of a perfect rasp. This 
arrangement is especially observable in the Mammoth, contempo- 
raneous with the Elasmotherium and the Rhinoceros. 

The ruminants of the most ancient geological beds have teeth 
equally little planned for grinding herbs. It is only little by little, 
and in proportion as the ascent is made through the series of rock 
formations, that the depth of the shaft is seen to increase, the col- 
onnette takes more and more importance, the enamel folds itself, 
the cement fills the depressions, and by this alternation of hard and 
softer parts, the crown constitutes a surface eminently suited to the 
trituration of herbage. 

Thus, while keeping to the morphological primitive plan which 
enables the retracing of the true origin, the adaptation to the same 
kind of life has brought about the same modifications in the organs 
of animals belonging to different orders. 

The teeth of the Elasmotherium are modified for filling the same 
functions as those of the horse, the ox, the elephant ; the analogy of 
function has then induced a certain analogy of form ; but there is 
no homology of constitutive parts. The homology only exists with 
the teeth of the group Rhinoceros, and it is that homology, concealed 
by the adaptation to a physiological end, but not having disap- 
peared, which makes it possible to reconnect the Elasmotherium 
with its true relatives. 

Further, we see that adaptation to new conditions of existance can 



88 The Odontographic Journal. 

really lead to the transformation of species and even of genera 
paleontology furnishes here to the doctrine of evolution, arguments 
which seem to me to have great weight. — M. Boule, u Le Natu- 
ralist c." 



ALVEOLAR ABSCESS— GOLD AND PLATINUM— GOLD 
AND AMALGAM -GOLD AND OXY-PHOSPHATE— 
GILDED AMALGAM FILLINGS— ROOT- 
FILLING— BRIDGE-WORK. 



Extracts from the report of the Committee on Practice (Dr. 
Ottolengui, Chairman) read before the Dental Society of the State of 
New York, and published in full in the Brooklyn Medical Journal. 



The advocates of immediate root filling have been so loud in their 
hurrahing and so convincing in their arguments that they have con- 
verted the majority of our profession to their method. This, how- 
ever, leaves alveolar abscess to be considered from a new stand- 
point. If the root is to be filled at the first sitting, it is possible in 
many cases where the condition of the end of the root is obscure, 
that shortly after such treatment positive evidences of abscess may 
present. To those accustomed to treat such conditions through the 
root canal this is a point to be pondered over. In such instances 
your committee has to report that the most satisfactory result may be 
hoped for, if the sac be burred off the end of the root with a sharp 
bur, passed through the soft parts and the alveolar wall. Where 
such an operation seems likely to prduce pain, cocaine or gas maybe 
administered, or ether spray may be used. Where pain may result 
and continues afterward, it may be abated with Ave grain doses of 
anti pyrine. In performing this burring operation on superior 
bicuspids or the buccal roots of superior molars, care should be taken 
not to enter the antrum, even though such an accident would not of 
necessity be attended by untoward consequences. 

GOLD AND PLATINUM. 

This is .1 combination which makes a very dense, durable filling, 
of light color. It is specially indicated for extensive contours in 
conspicuous positions, or where greal strength is required, as in 
uniting teeth for pyorrhea. Those who have never used it should 
be very cautious at first, as this material is exceedingly difficult to 
manipulate. It tears readily under small points, and nevertheless 
too large fool pluggers should not be used. A long narrow foot 



Uveolar Abscess, etc. «o 

plugger with fine serations seems best. The main point, however, is 
annealing. It is necessary, to obtain best results, that this should be 
thoroughly done and yet there is danger of burning off the thin outer 
layer of gold, exposing the platinum and thus preventing cohesion. 
Therefore it will be wiser not to depend on skill, but to use the 
Johnson annealing apparatus, with which the material may be 
heated to a bright red without burning. This device may be had 
of S. S. White & Co. It is in appearance like a small nutmeg 
grater, set at an incline over the spirit lamp, the heat passing 
through the little holes to reach the gold which is laid on the upper 
side. It is safer to anneal a large piece and cut in strips afterward. 

GOLD AND AMALGAM. 

It has been demonstrated again during the year, though long ago 
discovered by Dr. Kingsley, that gold may be made to unite with 
amalgam at the same sitting, thus giving amalgam as a protection 
to the cervical border, where it has proven better than gold, and 
gold along all other edges where it is evidently better than most 
amalgams. In filling proximal cavities after this method a matrix 
is needed, securely placed. Amalgam is packed along the cervical 
border, and immediately upon it is packed plastic gold, preferably 
Steurer's, until the gold color persists, when the filing may be 
finished as any other gold filling with any foil which the operator 
may prefer. Your committee was shown test fillings made in this 
manner, a tube of glass one inch long having been filled half with 
amalgam and half with gold. Removed from the tube the union 
between the two was so perfect that it was impossible to break 
them apart with the fingers. Your committee re ommend this 
method in cases where from extensive decay below the gum margin 
it would be difficult or impossible to fill with gold. When the 
depredation is so great that the cervical edge cannot be reached 
with the matrix, that portion may be filled before placing the dam in 
position, and the matrix adjusted afterward, when more amalgam 
must be put over that first inserted to insure a surface free from 
moisture, before adding the plastic gold. 

GOLD AND OXV-PHOSPHATF. 

Your committee wishes to attract special attention to a method 
devised by Dr. Reese of Brooklyn. In shallow cavities, the pulp 
being not exposed but nearly so, and where it would be dangerous to 
obtain sufficient retaining shape to the cavity, some " sticky " 
'!<• of oxy-phosphate may be placed over the bottom of the cavity, 
and before it is allowed to set a pellet of gold large enough to fill 



<;o The Odontograpliic Journal. 

the cavity, is pressed gently into the cement, and then left undis- 
turbed. When the cement has set it will be found that the piece of 
gold is firmly held; it may then be condensed and forms the founda- 
tion on which the filling is built. In this way the filling is actually 
cemented into position. Your committee after trial of more than two 
years has no hesitation in saying that this is a thoroughly reliable 
method of starting a filling and of additionally securing it. Of 
course it is not meant that large contours may be made to depend on 
the cement alone; judgment must be used, but a trial will convince 
anyone that this is a most valuable idea. It also serves well with 
amalgam fillings, possibly better since such a filling may be com- 
pleted without waiting for the cement to set. 

GILDED AMALGAM FILLINGS. 

An amalgam known to be reliable, especially as to color, is mixed 
rather dry and the tooth filled. Very thin gold foil, thinner tjian 
what is known as No. 4, is annealed and cut into small strips, which 
are laid unfolded on the filling, and with perfectly clean warm 
burnishers (which should be kept specially for this purpose) bur- 
nished into the filling until it has set hard. It must be done thor- 
oughly and sufficient gold used; sometimes a sheet or even two sheets 
will be required. The result is an ideal filling which will keep its 
edge, its color, and its finish. Your present committee not only has 
tested this in practice during the year, but was allowed to inspect 
fillings made in this manner by the chairman of last year, where they 
had been in position two, three and four years. These fillings are so 
beautiful that those who see them for the first time involuntarily ask, 
" What amalgam is that ?" 

ROOT FILLING. 

The immediate root filling advocates have covered themselves 
with glory and are masters of the field. So far as abscess after fill- 
ing is concerned, that has been already touched on in this report. 
Your committee has but to outline what seems the best method of 
filling the root. Perhaps the most commonly used filling material is 
gutta percha, and next in order is oxy-phosphate. Neither of these 
materials is as reliable as tin- profession think. At a meeting in 
Philadelphia this winter a gentleman exhibited the results of some 
experiments in this direction which were both instructive and im- 
portant He filled n.ois out of the mouth with gutta percha, and 
others with oxy-phosphate. Twenty-tour hours later they were 
placed in aniline ink and left for one day. \ segment-shaped sec- 



Alveolar Abscess, etc. o i 

tion was removed and it was discovered that the ink had entered the 
dentine from the outside through the cementum, and from the inside 
by way of the canal, despite the fillings, which are generally thought 
to be water proof. A third specimen was where the root canal had 
been filled with cotton as a vehicle to carry carbolized cosmoline. 
The cosmoline had permeated the tubuli and thus prevented the 
ingress of the ink either from the outer surface or from within. 
Your committee does not think it advisable to use cotton as a root 
filling; nevertheless the above experiments teach the value of allow- 
ing a greasy filling to enter and carry with it a disinfectant. It 
therefore seems that the very best method is that introduced by Dr. 
Van Woert, which is to half fill the canal with a paste made of iodol, 
zinc oxide, and carbolized vaseline. By mixing these a paste can be 
formed stiff enough to render cotton unnecessary in its introduction. 
The upper half should be filled with oxy-phosphate, or better still, 
oxy-chloride of zinc. In practice this has proven as good as it looks 
theoretically considered. All manner of teeth have been treated in 
this way, and the percentage of success is most encouraging. 

BRIDGE WORK. 

This system of restoring lost teeth has come to stay. It, however, 
is still in its infancy, though a promising child and well worthy of 
being wedded to the dentist if he can only win her from her present 
parents, or rather " legal guardians." The weak point about bridge- 
work is its strength. This is a paradox, but it is explainable. If a 
bridge be united to several roots, it becomes a most difficult matter 
to remove it. Such removal often involves the total destruction of 
the bridge. And such removal becomes necessary with our present 
methods whenever an accident occurs and one tooth is broken. If 
one tooth is broken on a gold plate it may be repaired at a trifling 
cost to the patient. Not so the bridge. If codes of ethics mean 
anything, then it is our duty to devise promptly some reliable system 
whereby bridges may be so made that repairs may be made inexpen- 
sively. It is not just to exact a large fee for a contrivance so made 
that the patient is constantly in "danger of losing its use or paying 
another large fee. 



NEW APPLIANCES. 



Those who have done much in the way of mounting gold crowns 
and bridge-work understand and appreciate the difficulty oftentimes 
experienced in removing the bands and crowns during the process of 



g2 77/ e Odontographic Journal. 

fitting and adjusting. This part of the work lias been rendered easy 
by the use of a little device of Dr. C. H. Rosenthal!, of Cincinnati. 
It consists of a staple-form clutch, the points of which catch the edge 
of the crown or band at or under the gum margin; a screw shaft 
then passes through the crown part of the staple working through a 
screw-nut on the under side of the staple, and as the screw is oper- 
ated its end comes in contact with the root or crown to which the 
substitute is being adjusted, the band or crown is removed from the 
root without the least jar or strain upon it. Only those who have 
used it can appreciate the great relief its use affords. 

Another very convenient and useful appliance, especially useful in 
crown and bridge-work, is a. Lilliputian rolling-mill, also obtained 
through Dr. Rosenthall; of this he does not claim to be the inventor, 
though it was made at his suggestion. The rollers are two inches 
long and an inch and a half in diameter, set in a strong frame; the 
whole weighing about twenty pounds. It is as efficient as a larger 
mill for working small quantities of metal, even to an ounce. An 
interesting point about it is that it is furnished ready for operation 
for $15.00. — Dental Register. 



CASE OF PARALYSIS FOLLOWING THE EXTRACTION 

OF A TOOTH. 



TRANSLATED FOR THE ODONTOGRAPHY JOURNAL. 



On the 9th of February, Madame G , aged twenty-nine, anae- 
mic, came me to complaining of the first lower left molar, attacked 
by gangrene of the pulp, followed by inflammation of the periosteum. 
Extraction was necessary. I warned Madame G., who is very timor- 
ous, of probable fracture, because it seemed to me inevitable. 

At the first pressure of the forceps, the crown gave way, the root 
was partly luxated and emitted a jet of blood ; I made a plug and 
took out that root with the elevator. The hemorrhage ceased at 
once, and all pain suddenly vanished. Madame G. fainted, and I 
gave up the extraction of the mesial root. 

At the end of ten minutes Madame (i. recovered and wished to 
go home, but at that moment her forearms became paralyzed, the 
hands \\nr drawn in, the lingers rigid ; articulation of the elbow 
joint was difficult. 

Atter a quarter of an hour of friction, the elasticity of the lingers 



A True Story. 93 

seemed to return, but a new crisis threatened, and the paralysis 
seemed disposed to communicate itself to the lower extremities. 

I supported Madame (i., and forced her to walk, the lower 
extremities regaining their flexibility, but the paralysis of the fore- 
arms was as great as at first. The muscles of the head and neck 
had preserved their flexibility during the crisis. At 4 o'clock I 
made the extraction, at half past four Madame G. was able to return 
home with assistance. » 

At 7 o'clock, when I saw her, she was able to use her hands, 
though yet with great difficulty. Electricity, friction and warm 
baths had restored flexibility to the upper limbs. The forearms, 
hands and and fingers alone were insensible to pricking with a pin. 
— Lehr, UOdontologie. 



A TRUE STORY. 



BY SHE. 



A cobbler was ambitious of practicing dentistry. He therefore 
hired a gilded saloon, hung out of his window a sofa made in the shape 
of a full set of artificial teeth, for the convenience of passers by, and 
placed upon his door the inscription — " Painless Dental Parlors and 
Odontological Drawing Rooms." He then obtained for publication 
in the daily papers the certificates of the butcher, the baker, and 
the candlestick maker, that they had employed him these many years, 
that he was the only dentist in the world who extracted and filled 
teeth without pains, and that they felt sure, in the matter of artifi- 
cials, he was quite capable of giving his clients perfect fits. He also 
advertised as follows : 

Teeth filled with gold hand-sewed, with silver, pegged and copper- 
toed. 

Artificial sets, superior felt uppers, musical box attachment. 

Inferior sets, tongue elastic. 

Work guaranteed to last. 

Whole-soled dealing with the public. 

Kid work a specialty (welted and waxed). 

Gum-boils tapped and heeled. 

eth extra* ted by moonshine, etc., eti . 

" Awl went well until one day," when an able-bodied patient actu- 
ally appeared and took the chair. He objected to the use of bi-sul- 
phuret of carbon as an anaesthetic ; he objected to the employment 



94 The Odontographic Journal. 

of an old gum shoe as a rubber dam; he objected to having his teeth 
plugged with shoemakers' wax. In fine, of coarse, he kicked, not 
figuratively, but specifically and energetically. When the would-be 
dentist emerged from the cyclone that ensued, he was no longer 
" painless," though all his windows were. 



DEFINITE THOUGHT. 



Much mental labor is lost, or at least wasted, through a lack of 
definiteness. This is suggested by noticing the apparent lack of 
aim often manifested in considering decay of the teeth. 

Toothache is a symptom, and as such may suggest any one of sev- 
eral morbid conditions. A brief conversation with a layman, in- 
telligent in many lines, but certainly not in pathology, may make 
this thought clearer. " What is good for jaundice, doctor ?" said fie. 
" That depends on the cause," we replied. " This is a case of real 
yellow jaundice," said he. " Why can't you tell me what to do 
for it?" "Well," we replied, "'jaundice is not a disease, but a 
symptom, and may be caused by different states." " Jaundice not 
a disease !" said he.' " I tell you it is, and a h-1 of a disease, too. 
I don't see how you ever cured so many cases, while you know so 
little." And thus we ended. 

But may we not forget that dental decay, in any of its varieties, is 
a symptom of a morbid state, and not a state, itself ? And while it 
is our duty to head off the decay by timely and appropriate filling,, 
is it not also incumbent on us to remove, if practicable, the morbid 
condition that causes the decay ? And in order to do this, each case 
of decay that comes under our care should be closely observed and 
definitely studied, as this is a necessary step in finding out the na- 
ture and character of the diseased condition causing it. We take 
for granted that all agree that no teeth are so badly formed and de- 
veloped that they go into decay in or with a perfectly healthy en- 
vironment. 

And when we have thus closely and carefully studied one case of 
decay, and have succeeded in removing or neutralizing the morbid 
condition causing it, it does not follow that this study and its corre- 
sponding treatment will, as a matter of course, answer for the next 
I or a few moments let us think of caries just as we find it in 
the mouths of our patients from day to day. Forget, if we can, for 
a little, how the books describe it, and how the societies talk about 



Definite Thought. 95 

it. No objection to books and societies at all; but, just now we 
want you and your patients. 

Here is a case — look! the enamel is gone, and something is wrong 
with the subjacent tooth material. A cavity? Well, in a certain 
sense, yet filled, or nearly so. The filling is neither gold, tin nor 
amalgam. On careful examination we find it gives evidence of 
recent organization, and conclude that really it is the organic matter 
of dentine which lately formed a corresponding part of the tooth. 
We find the lime salts are gone, and we know they must have been 
in solution before leaving, or they could not have got away without 
displacing this organic matter. Nobody believes that a flock of little 
microbugs crawled in among these organic fibers and came out again 
each carrying a lump of lime salt, leaving the organic matter undis- 
turbed because not fond of it. Nor does any one now believe that 
a grove of little micro-bushes grew there till their roots took up all 
the lime, leaving the organic matter as the residue of an exhausted 
soil. We are beyond all that. We are not discussing the germ 
theory. But germs, secretions, accidental contact, or what not, all 
agree that here is evidence of chemical action, and that in this case 
its force was mainly exerted on the lime salts. Possibly an acid, 
then? Yes, possibly, and if made by microbes, we care not; and if 
so, we care not if it is from their secretions, excretions, or putrefac- 
tions. Chemical action, though ? Yes, we think so. 

But see this case. Almost the only points of its resemblance to 
the one just considered is that it is in the mouth of a patient, and a 
tooth is involved. Here you have a cavity not filled with organic 
matter, but partly filled with debris from dentine and, perhaps, 
accidental foreign matter from the oral cavity. The destruction of 
dentine is complete as far as it goes. The destroyed tissue may not 
be all removed, and this may be because it is not in perfect solution 
as then it would be carried out by the saliva and other liquids 
There is, here too, definite proof of chemical action, but in the name 
of germs, microbes, acids, alkalies, secretions, excretions, and 
company, all must agree that the action is quite different from that 
shown in the first case considered here. And the science of 
chemistry will state positively that there must have been a different 
reagent, for " chemical action is different in its nature." And 
pathology demands that we find out the reagent in each case, while 
therapeutics demands our prevention of its ravages. 

We are all more or less worried by the almost uniform expressions, 



96 The Odontographic Journal. 

from pen and tongue, used as if dental decay were a unit. Nearly 
all refer to dental caries as if, when you have gained full knowledge 
of one < ise, you are master of the whole subject. But can any who 
carefully examine for themselves, believe that the two cases described 
above, are caused by the same reagent ? that their immediate, or 
exciting causes are identical ? 

But here is a third case selected, of course, to make our office 
clinic the more instructive. It is not more like either of the 
preceding cases than is consumption like yellow fever or small pox. 
There is a cavity, perhaps, but not much of the enamel is gone. 
The semi-transparency of the enamel shows that the dentine beneath 
it is dark colored, sometimes black. Neither dentine nor enamel is 
much broken down. It is plain the condition is not normal. The 
prognosis has been slow. Chemical analysis may show no decrease 
in the weight of lime salts — possibly there may be a slight increase, 
which increase some claim is due to the fact that it takes forty parts 
of sulphuric acid to replace twenty-two of carbonic acid. In this 
case the organic matter seems to be carbonized — turned into 
charcoal, instead of having been carried away in solution, as in the 
first case here considered, or disintegrated, as in the second case. 
This variety is much more likely to be superficial than either of the 
others, and, progressing less rapidly, is not so likely to destroy a 
tooth. The pulp is not exposed by this variety as often, in propor- 
tion, as by the others, partly because of its slowness in penetration, 
and partly because of its color soon attracts the attention of the 
patient. 

Now, no one will claim that the portion affected by this kind of 
caries is in the normal chemical condition of tooth substance. And 
if thus changed, there has been chemical action, and it matters not 
whether microbes caused the action or not, but it is important to 
know. 

Now we appeal to all who have practiced operative dentistry with 
their eyes open, that we have described three cases with which they 
arc familiar. And we do not claim that they will find the caries 
distinctly marked in all 1 ases as above described. Far more than 
one of these varieties may be found in the same mouth, at the same 
tune. It is not uncommon to find a broken down cavity of black 
ly, of long standing, with a newly formed one of white decay in 
the bottom of it. Hut such things will not confuse or mislead a 
ml obsei \ er. 

The difference in color does not suggest the most noted points of 



Nitrous Oxide Narcosis and tin 1 Blood. 97 

difference in the varieties of decay. They are used for < onveniem 

The first variety here described is nearly colorless at first. It 
darkens by exposure, but never looks like " black " decay, and is 
never like it in other respects. 

When we hear that some brother has artificially produced dental 
caries, we have a right to inquire which kind. And if answered, we 
may take courage that he may enlighten us on the others, but not 
forgetting to thank him for that already done. Let the research go 
on. — Ohio Journal of Dental Science. 



Patients often break artificial teeth in the most unaccountable 
manner. Sometimes, however, they are honest enough to acknowl- 
edge that a tooth came off the plate while eating custard pie; or 
that, in sneezing, the plate dropt on a feather bed and broke in 
two pieces. We recently heard of a set of teeth being broken while 
the owner was reading a Sunday paper, he having, it is supposed, 
struck a chestnut. Volapuk is particularly injurious to artificial 
teeth. — Dental Advertiser. 



NITROUS OXIDE NARCOSIS AND THE BLOOD. 



Dr. A. Rothman writing in the Vierteljahrsschrift fur Zahnheil- 
kunde, criticises the communication on the above subject of Dr. 
Ulbrieh, a translation of which we published in our last issue. He 
agrees that nitrous oxide cannot form a stable chemical combina- 
tion with the haemoglobin as does nitric oxide or carbonic oxide, for 
were this the case, the blood would not be able to absorb oxygen, and 
death would rapidly ensue. With reference to the spectral analysis 
of blood impregnated with nitrous oxide, he quotes Preyer, Buxton, 
and MacMunn, who assert that it is precisely the same as that of 
oxy-haemoglobin, that is, there are two absorption stripes marked on 
the scale between D and E. Making numerous experiments on the 
human subject, Dr. Rothman found that he was unable to distinguish 
between the two spectra, but made this observation, that the blood 
of narcotized persons was more difficult to reduce than ordinary 
blood, the broad band between D and E, characteristic of reduced 
haemoglobin, being longer in appearing after adding sulphate of 
ammonia in the case of nitrous oxide narcosis blood than when 
normal blood was used. The broader stripes and the dark aspect of 
the violet end of the spectrum, as shown in Dr. Ulbrieh's plate, as 



98 The Odontographic Journal. 

characteristic of nitrous oxide haemoglobin, Dr. Rothman believes 
to be simply a matter of the amount of dilution of the blood 
.mined. The absorption bands of certain pigments will make 
their appearance in solutions of every possible variety of strength, 
and always at the same portion of the spectrum, but the breadth, 
their clearness, and the commencement of their shaded border 
depend only upon the concentration of the solution and the intensity 
of the light. Using a Bunsen-Kirchof spectroscope, which allows 
of the simultaneous examination of two spectra, he found that with 
one in a thirty-two solution of natural blood and a similar solution 
of blood drawn from a person narcotised to the full extent with 
nitrous oxide, that the spectra very nearly corresponded, and that 
with further dilution, the breadth of the bands decreased equally in 
both. He therefore concludes that in the inhalation of nitrous 
oxide there is no chemical combination with the haemoglobin. — 
Dental Record. , 



SYPHILITIC TEETH. 



Referring to syphilitic teeth, Mr. Hutchinson had nothing new to 
say, but thought that a review of the present state of opinions on the 
subject might be profitable. He believed that it might now be said 
that the value of the notches on the upper incisors is fully recognized 
all over the world as indications of inherited syphilis, and as time 
had gone on he thought that they had learned to concentrate their 
attention on the upper central incisors as being the test teeth; other 
teeth were often more decidedly marked but were less reliable. 
Respecting the test teeth, an experience of thirty years enabled him 
to say that, where their malformation had been well characterized he 
did not think that in a single case he had been misled. With refer- 
ent e to numerous cases of inherited taint in which in spite of it the 
characteristic teeth — using the word characteristic in its strongest 
sense — were not present, the best opportunities for observing the 
range within which syphilite malformations of the teeth might vary 
and occur, were those in which several members of the same family 
had suffered from inherited taint The experience of recent years 
had confirmed, without inany way explaining, two items in clinical 
observation which he had made long ago. The first was, that those 
subjects of inherited taint who presented good examples of intersti- 
tial ho atilis have almost invariably malformed teeth, and those who 



The Band Wagon in Dentistry^ etc. 99 

have malformed teeth scarcely ever escape interstitial keratitis. The 
second was, that those who are liable to suffer in after-life from 
phagedenic affections of the mouth or throat, very often, perhaps 
usually, show nothing peculiar in their teeth. 



THE BAND WAGON IN DENTISTRY— FRANCE 

ITS HOME. 



As she passed across the market-place she saw a crowd surround- 
ing a vehicle of a strange shape, on the box of which a man dressed 
in red was haranguing. He was a dentist going his rounds, who 
offered the public complete sets of teeth, opiates, pow r ders and 
elixirs. Fantine joined the crowd and began laughing like the rest 
at this harangue, in which there was slang for the mob, and scientific 
jargon for respectable persons. The extractor of teeth saw the 
pretty girl laughing, and suddenly exclaimed, — 

' You have fine teeth, my langhing beauty. If you like to sell me 
your two top front teeth, I will give you a Napoleon apiece for 
them." 

" What a horrible idea !" Fantine exclaimed. 

' Two Napoleons !" an old toothless woman by her side grumbled, 
"there's a lucky girl." 

Fantine ran away and stopped her ears not to hear the hoarse 
voice of the man, who shouted — " Think it over, my dear : two 
Napoleons may be useful. If your heart says Yes, come to-night to 
the Tillac d" Argent, where you will find me." 

Fantine, when she reached home, was furious, and told her good 
neighbor Marguerite what had happened. " Can you understand it ? 
is he not an abominable man ? How can people like that be allowed 
to go about the country ? Pull out my two front teeth ! .why, I 
should look horrible ; hair grows again, but teeth ! oh, the monster ! 
I would sooner throw myself head first out of a fifth-floor window on 
to the pavement." 

" And what did he offer you ?" Marguerite asked. 

" Two Napoleons." 

" That makes forty francs." 

" Yes," said Fantine, "that makes forty francs." 

She became thoughtful and sat down to her work. At the end of 
a quarter of an hour she left the room, and read Thenardier's letter 
again on the staircase. When she returned, she said to Marguerite : 



ioo The Odontographic Journal. 

11 Do you know what a miliary fever is ?" 

" Yes," said the old woman, " it is an illness." 

" Docs it require much medicine ?" 

"Oh, an awful lot." 

" Does it attack children ?" 

" More than anybody." 

11 Do they die of it ?" 

" Plenty," said Marguerite. 

Famine went out and read the letter once again on the staircase. 
At night she went out, and could be seen proceeding in the direc- 
tion of the Rue de Paris, where the inns are. The next morning, 
when Marguerite entered Fantine's room before day-break, for they 
worked together, and they made one candle do for them both, she 
found her sitting on her bed, pale and chill. Her cap had fallen on 
her knees, and the candle had been burning all night, and was nearly 
consumed. Marguerite stopped in the door-way, horrified by this 
enormous extravagance, and exclaimed, — 

" Oh ! Lord ! the candle nearly burnt out ! something must have 
happened." 

Then she looked at Fantine, who turned her close-shaven head 
towards her, and seemed to have grown ten years older since the 
previous day. 

" Gracious Heavens !" said Marguerite, " what is the matter with 
you, Fantine ?" 

" Nothing," the girl answered, " I am all right. My child will not 
die of that frightfnl disease for want of assistance, and I am satisfied. ' 

A.S she said this, she pointed to two Napoleons that glistened on 
the table. 

"Oh ! Lord!" said Marguerite ; " why, 'tis a fortune ; where ever 
did you get them from ?" 

" 1 had them by me," Fantine answered. 

At the same time she smiled, the candle lit up her face, and it was 
a fearful smile. A reddish saliva stained the corner of her lips, and 
she had a black hole in her mouth — the two teeth were pulled out. — 
IF go, Les Miserables. 

PULM< >\ AkY CONST MPTION 



This is more to be feared in every community than any other 
disc isc that affects mankind. Cholera, yellow-fever, and small-pox — 
diseases that paralyze with fright entire countries — are exceedingly 

limited in their results, in comparison with the slaughter of 



Dental Society of the Stair of New York. 101 

consumption. Last year Florida was panic-stricken from the havo< 
of yellow-fever ; but during the same year consumption destroyed 
more than twice as many lives in the little State of New Hampshire, 
and not a tremor ran through the body corporate. The average 
annual death-rate in this country, from cholera, yellow-fever, small- 
pox, typhoid-fever, diphtheria, and scarlet-fever, all combined, does 
not reach the enormous total of deaths from consumption. It is 
time that some determined and systematic effort be made to lessen 
this disease which is now regarded by so many as preventable. 
Among the general sources of infection there is one, at least, that 
should be removed, or, if not wholly removed, greatly lessened by 
legal action, and that is the sale of tuberculous food-products- 
Such foods, chiefly in the form of tuberculous meat and milk,, 
particularly the latter, are undoubtedly extensively sold to unsus- 
pecting consumers ; and that the results are not infrequently- 
lamentable, no sanitarian doubts. The general government has 
taken no measures to restrict this abuse, nor have the individual 
States. To illustrate : the New Hampshire State Board of Health 
says that very recently complaint was made to the Board of Cattle 
Commissioners that some disease existed in a herd of thirty cows in 
a certain town of the State; and, under the assumption that the 
disease might be pleuro-pneumonia, the government, upon notifica- 
tion, sent a competent veterinary surgeon to inspect the herd. The 
inspector immediately diagnosed tuberculosis, had an infected cow 
killed, and the post-mortem examination revealed tubercles in nearly 
every organ of the body, including t»he udder. The inspector 
reported that about seventy-five per cent of the herd was already 
infected. All, or nearly all, the cows were being milked, and the 
product being sold daily to a milk-dealer for distribution among his 
customers. The dairyman, ignorant of the character of the disease, 
was bringing up a baby upon the milk of a single cow in which the 
disease had advanced nearly to its fatal termination. Under the 
laws of New Hampshire, neither the Board of Cattle Commissioners 
nor the State Board of Health has any authority to deal with tuber- 
culosis in cattle in a way necessary to restrict its spread among other 
herds, or to prevent the dangers to which it subjects the human 
f am i 1 y . — Science. 

DENTAL SOCIETY OF Till': STATE OF NEW YORK. 



FIRS! DAY — MORNING SESSION. 

The twenty-first annual meeting was called to order by the Presi- 
dent, I Jr. Line, in the Common Council Chamber, May 8th, '89. 



102 The Odontography Journal. 

The Rev. Dr. Rudd invoked the blessing of Divine Providence 
upon the Society and its work. 

Fifty-three permanent and delegate members answered to their 
names at roll call. Others reported later in the session. 

The minutes of the last session of the twentieth annual meeting 
were read by the Secretary. 

The Committee of Arrangements reported briefly through Dr. 
Baxter. 

An opportunity was then given members to pay their annual dues. 

The President, Dr. J. Edward Line, delivered the Annual Address. 
(See Page 69). 

Dr. Mirick then presented his annual report as Treasurer, which 
showed the Society in excellent financial condition, as usual. 

Dr. Curtis, the Correspondent, presented his report as corre- 
pondent. 

Drs. Pinney and Eaton, of New Jersey, and Dr. Harrison, of Eng- 
land, were accorded the priviliges of the floor. 

The Board of Censors reported through its Chairman, Dr. French, 
that seven candidates of the fourteen who had applied had passed 
the examination. 

Dr. Hill moved that the recommendation in regard to the Pennsyl- 
vania College of Dental Surgeons be forwarded to the National 
Board of Dental Faculties, signed by the President and Secretary of 
the Society. 

Dr. Ottolingui moved the thanks of the Society to those colleges 
named in the report (Baltimore and Maryland) for offering to receive 
beneficiaries of us. 

The Secretary then read the report of the Committee on Ethics. 

Dr. Starr read the first report of the Committee on Business. 

I )r. Curtis presented the report of the Committee on the Prize 
Essays, awarding the Whitney memorial prize to Dr. Howard of 
Rochester ; title of paper, " The Facial Angle." 

FUNDS FOR THE LAW COMMITTEE 

The Committee on Dental Law reported through Dr. Can. 

Dr. Carr stated as proving the moral effect of the dental law in 
this State, that over 200 students had entered dental colleges. 

Dr. Hill moved that the Chairman be authorized to draw on the 
Treasurer for $334.67 for expenses. 

I )r. Hart did not know that the Society could do better than adopt 
the recommendation of the Committee that the Chairman be author- 
ized to draw upon the Treasurer for $1,000, if necessary, for the 



Denial Society of the State of Ne7v York. 103 

prosecution of dental law-suits. He made a motion to that effect. 

Dr. Hill thought that too much to be put into the hands of any 
committee. The treasury might become depleted. Why could not 
they effect some arrangement whereby the members of the district 
societies might each contribute $5. He did not wish to oppose the 
committee, but wished to see the money obtained in another way. 

Dr. Curtis said that the district societies were just about impover- 
ished then. He did not know of any society with a surplus on hand. 

Dr. Walker said that the treasury of the first district society was 
in just about the same condition as those of the Western societies ; 
nevertheless, each member had been assessed $5 for a certain purpose, 
which put into Dr. Carr's hands for the purpose in question $500. He 
thought it only just that each member should contribute something 
to this work. If the sum should fall short and the committee 
needed more money, the State Society could then direct that the 
money be taken out of its treasury ; but each individual member 
should give toward defraying the expenses of the committee. 

Dr. Hill moved to amend by substituting $500 for $1,000. 

The motion as amended was carried. 

Dr. Hill then moved that this Society request each district society 
to assess its membership $5 each for the purpose of creating a 
special fund to be placed in the hands of the Treasurer of this 
Society, to be used for the purpose of enforcing the State law. 

Dr. Rich said it was very evident that Dr. Hill did not live in the 
Fourth district. It was all very well to request members of that 
society to pay $5 each to enforce the State dental laws, but it was 
almost an impossibility for that same society to pay its dues to the 
State society. 

I)r. Walker said if members could not pay $5 each let them 
contribute $2.50 ; if not that, what they could. Anything would be 
acceptable to the committee. 

I)r. Hill had been to Albany probably twenty-five times in the 
last fifteen years, and had never received a cent from any one. He 
was as poor as Job's turkey. He hoped this thing would pass, — it 
was only a request. If we could get $500, all right ; if but $300, all 
right, too ; if $1,000, so much the better. 

I)r. Curtis knew for a fact that if the Fifth district society was 
assessed, few would pay. The assessments of each year were 
usually met by a dozen men, except at some such meeting as a 
union meeting, when others contribute. There had been an 



104 The Odontographic Journal. 

sessment made a short time beforeof $5. They had forty members 
and yet $30 was the sum total paid the Treasurer. 

The motion was then carried. 

Dr. Hill suggested that each district society solicit from practis- 
ing dentists, not members, a contribution to this object, and in that 
way see if they could raise the money and forward it to our Treas- 
urer. These men are interested and why not get some from them. 

The Committee on Publication reported through Dr. Jewell. 

There were no reports from dental colleges. 

Dr. Hart moved the appointment of a committee on nominations 
for permanent membership. 

The President appointed Drs. Walker, Hill, Rosa, Colgrove, C. C. 
Smith, Holmes, Elmendorf, and Birdsall. 

LEGISLATION WANTED. 

Dr. Wright moved that Dr. Stack's name be stricken from the roll 
of this society ; he had left the country under a cloud and was no 
longer a member of the Third district society. He thought one 
could not be a member of this society unless a member in good 
standing of a district society. 

Dr. Mirick said that Dr. Stacks was all right on the books of the 
State society, and failed to see how he could be dropped. 

Dr. Van Vleck could not see how a man could represent the Third 
society in the State society unless he remained a member of the 
Third. 

Dr. Walker asked if Dr. S. was a permanent member of the State 
society. 

Dr. Wright said he was. 

Dr. Walker then said that the Third district society had no juris- 
diction. 

Dr. Mirick said the State society had a permanent member in 
Paris. 

Dr. Wright wanted to know if a man could pass from a district 
society into the State society, and not have anything more to do with 
the district He called for legislation on the subject. It had been 
brought before the Third district society, and they were directed 
to bring it before the State society. 

The President said this subject had been before the State society 
on anotlu ision. If a man severed his connection with his 

district society he necessarily cut himself off from the State society, 
be< ause a man to be a member of the State society must be a 
member in good standing of a district society. But it was necessary 



Dental Society of the Sidle of New York. 105 

that the .State society should be officially informed as to the fact. 
All the Third district society had to do was to officially notify the 
State society that the member in question had been dropped ; that 
course was still open to the representative of the Third. Dr. Wright's 
motion was withdrawn for the time. 

HONORED. 

Dr. Brockway asked the attention of the Society to the case of Dr. 
L. W. Rogers, of Utica, whom a number of the older members 
would remember had been one of our most active members, and 
very energetic in the formation of this society, and whose increas- 
ing age and infirmities had compelled him to give up practice. He 
suggested that it would be a grateful act if this society would accept 
his resignation, which he had been authorized to tender, and make 
him an honorary member. 

Instead of accepting Dr. Rogers' resignation it was moved by Dr. 
Jarvie that his name be transferred to the honorary list, he being no 
longer a practicing dentist. The motion was carried unanimously. 

The secretary read the resignations of Drs. C. T. Wheeler and C. 
F. Rich. 

Both were tabled for the time being. 

The Secretary read a communication from the Massachusetts 
State Dental Society, inviting this society to send delegates to its 
annual meeting. The invitation was accepted and delegates author- 
ized to be sent. 

The Secretary read a letter from Dr. Crouse, of Chicago, in regard 
to the Protective Union. ♦ 

The Secretary presented bills of Dr. Jarvie for $28 for engrossing 
resolutions, also a number of smaller bills, and bill of J. P. Smith for 
printing, $172.50. 

The Committee on Business reported programme for the afternoon 
and evening sessions of May 8th, and the morning session of May 
9th. 

Adjourned to 3 o'clock p. m. 

FIRST DAY — AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, after which he 
conferred the degree of M. 1). S. upon the following successful can- 
didates : J. Eben Almy, Chas. Korber, Henry P. Osborn, Richard 
VV. Burrow, Frank E. Warden, Merrit H. Dailey, Miss Carrie 
Wolfsbruck. (See page 81). 

Dr. C. T. Howard, then read the Whitney Memorial Prize essay* 
entitled, "The Fa< la] Angle." 



io6 The Odontographic Journal. 

Dr. Jackson was appointed to a vacancy on the committee of 
By-Laws. 

The Committee on Practice, Dr. Ottolingui, chairman, presented 
its report, a part of which appears on page 88.* 

ONE SIDED. 

Dr. Rhein thought the chairman had presented a very one-sided 
report. He admitted one failure, yet claimed he had had a remark- 
able success in another case, after five months. He did not think 
five months time sufficient to find absorption in a root, but that did 
not prove that absorption had ceased its ravages upon that tooth. 
He was rather surprised at the weakness of the report after the pre- 
diction of what it was going to be. 

He thought the tendency of the profession in regard to pulp cap- 
ping had been from one extreme to the other. Years before every 
man had pretended to save the pulp, while of late we had urged the 
other extreme, that was devitalize and remove. The most successful 
cappings had been made by removing a portion of the pulp. After 
exposure it made very little difference to the tooth whether one left 
in three-quarters of the pulp or three-sixteenths ; but if one could 
leave a good portion of healthy pulp he could put that tooth in a 
condition that would be out of the question if the pulp had been 
extracted. While not always feasible, it was in many cases. Of course, 
the use of arsenous acid would not be in place, but they had in 
cocaine an agent which acted so well upon the pulp that one could 
remove as much as he pleased without seriously interfering with the 
health of other portions ; six or seven years experience of that form 
of treatment had demonstrated to him this fact. 

HAD LIVED TOO LONG. 

Dr. Brock way had lived long enough to have observed a great 
many cases of this sort. The remarks of the gentleman who had 
just spoken, brought to his mind a visit by a celebrated dentist to 
New York, some twenty years before, when this idea Of amputating a 
portion ot the pulp and capping the remainder had been presented. 
This had been adopted by a great many men, and it had affected 
their practice to its subsequent detriment, and that of their patients. 
He knew that that same gentlemen had entirely repudiated the 
idea of amputating a portion of the pulp. He hoped no young man 
would be lead away by the absurd idea that he could success- 
fully amputate a portion of the pulp in most cases, and preserve the 

o Brooklyn Medicai Journal for .inly. 



Dental Society of the State of New York, 107 

rest. If this could be done, which he denied, w li.it was the use ol 
it? He asserted, without fear of contradiction, that in gg cases 
where it was considered necessary to remove the pulp, that under 
proper treatment the tooth was just as serviceable as though that 
had not been done. The pulp was, perhaps, a very necessary organ 
at the start, but the value of it was constantly diminishing with 
increasing age, so that in time the pulp was all but obliterated. He 
said that the proper practice, where the pulp was exposed, espe- 
cially if it had been at all inflamed, was to remove that pulp, and 
with proper treatment one could have the tooth in such condition 
that it was practically as good as ever. Any other method was sure 
to result in trouble to one's self or some of one's fellow practitioners. 
Dr. Edmonds had, in some four hundred cases of which he 
had a record, extracted the pulp with the use of cocaine. He 
had done this in all cases where they were so soft and flabby that he 
deemed them unfit to over-fill. The life of the cementum was main- 
tained by nutrition supplied by the peridental membrane, therefore, 
it was useless to cap the pulp when such capital results could be 
obtained by complete extraction and the sealing of the cavity by 
gutta-percha. 

NOT SO ONE SIDED. 

Dr. Jarvie thought this Society had been pretty fortunate in its com- 
mittee this year, and that they had listened to a most excellent report. 
It went over a great deal of ground and gave material for'discusaion 
for the entire session. There were a few points that he wanted to 
speak upon; one in reference to root fillmg. The report speaks of cot- 
ton for this purpose. He had favored cotton for some years for root 
filling; had used it a great deal. One would think it as poor a material 
as could be used, but it condensed in the root, and would keep out 
moisture. Some two years before a patient had come into his office, 
the crown off a central incisor. This tooth had been filled by Dr. 
Atkinson some twenty years previous, at least. It was necessary to 
crown the tooth and he had to remove the filling from the root. He 
had found it to be cotton, and it was just as fresh and pure as the 
moment of its insertion. It was a beautiful operation, so far as 
the preservative qualities were concerned. He had been so much 
impressed with it that he called the attention of his associate to it. 

A word now with regard to the absorption of roots after implanta- 
tion. A year ago he had reported the condition of the gum around 
a certain tooth, as perfect as any gum could be. On the Monday 
preceeding, when he had examined the tooth, he found the entire 



10S The Odontographic Journal. 

root absorbed. He knew this from the fact that previously the root 
had been rather prominent and one could see the outline of the root 
through the gum. That day it was perfectly black, and he could put 
an excavator to the end of the root. There seemed to be a great 
deal of absorption upon the labial aspect, and none upon the 
lingual. It was held in the mouth as a lateral incisor was held in 
the mouth of a child of eight years, when just ready to drop out. He 
spoke of this case because three months before it seemed like a case 
that would be permanent, and yet in three months there had been an 
entire absorption. There was no pain, and no sign of inflamation 
about the gum. 

Dr. Hill accounted for the cotton in Dr. Jarvis' case being sweet 
and dry, that it was more on account of the closing of the opening, 
rather than any other fact. Let cotton remain in any time and it 
was almost impossible to remove it, if properly packed. He could 
remove a gold filling quicker than well packed cotton. t 

HAD BEEN MISUNDERSTOOD. 

Dr. Rhein wanted it distinctly understood that what he had said 
about amputation of pulps was quite different from the plan of the 
gentleman of whom Dr. Brockway had spoken. That process was 
merely to remove that portion of the pulp in the crown of the tooth. 
He had tried to make it clear that that was not enough. Avery small 
portion of the pulp is all that should be left, and that at the apex of 
the root. He had asked, why should that be lelf ? He said, 
because one excluded all moisture from the root. One must cut 
deep and leave just a little living matter at the apex of the root. It 
was not difficult to save that portion. He had yet to see the first 
case of any detrimental result of such treatment. 

WANTED TO KNOW. 

Dr. Starr asked Dr. Rhein in what manner he capped pulps, 
where large portions had been removed. He thought in those cases 
where amputation was necessary, and so much of the pulp had been 
amputated, that there was very little chance of the remaining portion 
continuing in health. He could hardly think it possible to keep this 
remaining portion in as good condition as at first. The success of 
this capping must depend on materials, non-irritating, and in a 
liquid form, and that will harden quickly. He would like to know 
how one could get thai into the pulp canal and cap successfully. 

NOT ADDRESSING THAT KIND. 

Dr. Rhein was not supposed to be addressing his remarks to a 



Dental Society oj the State of New York. 109 

class of students, but to men of experience. He was talking of a 
case of pulp exposure where the pulp appeared to be healthy, and in 
which, under ordinal \ capping, the pulp would die. As to his man- 
ner of capping a pulp of that kind, he pursued the same method as 
in filling a root. All he wanted to see was a little red spot of living 
pulp way down in the apex. If one left that little portion he got all 
the benefit of a living pulp, because one had to cut off the pulp 
where it meets the periosteal tissue at the apex, a point of danger 
always. He covered that with chloro-percha, and put some gutta- 
percha over that, and filled up with oxy-phosphate. He removed 
the pulp with one of the various forms of Donaldson instruments 
inserting it sufficiently far and giving it a side twist, which any one 
who had removed pulps would understand. He well knew that he 
was not going to remove the whole pulp, but leave a sharp cut edge. 

Dr. Atkinson could not let this report pass without a few remarks, 
because it was meat all through. He had no greater joy than to 
know that his children understood the truth ; but that could be 
truth only so far as it was apprehended as such. 

After further characterizing the report as "magnificent," he was 
pained, however, that so clean cut an intellect as Dr. Ottolingui's 
should slump into the mire in the way he had. The ancients had 
said that a tooth was held in the jaws by a process of compression, 
like the driving of a nail into a board — gomphosis. Every tooth 
was held in place by a most beautiful tissue that we call the peri- 
dental membrane. Ankylosis meant a stiffness, and was complete 
when there was intimate adhesion. 

LAST SHOT. 

Dr. Ottolingui said in reply to Dr. Rhein, that the tooth referred 
to in the report, had not been reported as treated more than five 
months. It was five months since the treatment had been stopped. 
He had not reported or admitted any failure of his own because he 
had not spoken of any case of his own. In regard to the term 
*' gomphosis " he regreted very much that he had used the term; 
the more so because he had forgotten that Dr. Atkinson had very 
ki. idly explained the matter to him before.' He had not used the 
word ankylosis — simply quoted from others' papers. So far from 
speaking of a new theory, he had not done so, and moreover, did 
not deem it wise to say to-day anything that might prevent him 
attending the next meeting. As to the fulfilling of the promises and 
predictions made a year before, he had promised nothing.. Failures 
in implantation must be failures from the materials used. He had 



iio T/ie Odontography Journal. 

conceived the idea that a tooth as nearly healthy as possible should 
be used. It not being very easy for him to procure that, he had 
gone to a cat's mouth and taken out a tooth, and put it in his own, 
and he had had it there ever since last November. His intention 
was to have taken it out and sectioned it, but time would not per- 
mit. The chairman of last year had said he would not consider it 
perfect unless it had remained a year, so he had the cat's tooth in 
his mouth still. 

LEGION OF HONOR. 

Dr. Ottolingui here presented a supplemental report providing for 
the creation of a Legion of Honor, with power to name distinguished 
members of the profession, using medal or certificate for that 
purpose. 

Dr. Walker moved that it be referred to a committee of three, to 
report at the next annual session. 

Dr. Curtis thought this was a good time to discuss this report and 
learn what it was. 

Dr. Walker said it was best to go slow. It was a matter of very 
great importance, and that was why he had suggested that the com- 
mittee report at the next annual meeting. It was not only for the 
benefit of those present, but others who would come after and com- 
pete for the prizes. 

Dr. Ottolingui was in accord with Dr. Walker. The idea was not 
to be carried out at once, but done well when it was done. 

Dr. Rhein said this had already been considered by a committee, 
and a very competent committee too. He could not see why they 
could not consider the report right away, from the able manner in 
which it had been presented. 

I >r. Atkinson said the qualifications of admission had not been 
stated. They need not be afraid however, of having ten thousand 
men apply for the Legion of Honor. Men are not built that way. 
Unfortunately for the community, dentists are not ambitious. So 
far as I understand the" report my heart goes with it. 

MOKE BUSINESS. 

Dr. Hart, of the Committee on By-Laws made a brief report. 

Dr. Walker's motion was amended by Dr. Curtis calling upon the 
committee to report at the meeting. The president named as this 
committee Drs. straw, Southwick and Ottolingui. 

Th< tary presented the bill of the Delevan House, for use of 

parlor $15 ; also bill of janitor, $15. 



Dental Society oj the State of New York. i i j 

Dr. Soathwick reported that he had settled with Matthews, Nor- 
thrup & Co., for $30, for work done on the "lost transactions." 

Dr. Van Woert said a resolution had been offered in his district 
society that he move here that the last clause of the section of the 
code in regard to examinations be stricken out — " The right of 
appeal shall cease after the third hearing." It was referred to the 
Committee on By-Laws. 

Resignations were then taken from the table. First that of Dr. 
Wheeler. 

Dr. Atkinson moved that Dr. Wheeler's resignation be accepted, 
which was carried. 

Dr. Walker moved that the resignation of Dr. Rich lay upon the 
table until after election. Carried. 

Adjourned until 8 o'clock p. m. 

FIRST DAY EVENING SESSION. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, and the min- 
utss of the morning and afternoon sessions were read and approved. 
Dr. Atkinson read on 

PYORRHEA ALVEOLARIS. 

Dr. Curtis suggested that the essayist give his formula for the 
paste mentioned in the paper. 

Dr. Atkinson said it was made first, by dissolving crystallized car- 
bolic acid in water raised to the boiling point ; second, triturating 
caustic potassa at the boiling point, in a Wedgewood mortar raised 
to the boiling point ; and third, pouring them together, about bulk 
for bulk, and rubbing until they form a perfect paste. 

Dr. Curtis asked if this was not the Robinson remedy" ? 

Dr. Atkinson said it was not. It had not the water of Robinson's. 

As to ligating or fixing loose teeth Dr. Atkinson said he had left 
silk on a year ; it was simply a matter of dexterity. There was no 
way of ligating with wire without having it cumbrous. The point 
was to get the tooth into position and hold it there ; have the liga- 
tures above, and have them stay where you put them — on the crown 
of the tooth and not below. 

Dr. Gilson had used Japanese grass line ; Dr. Atkinson had not. 

Dr. Palmer of Syracuse then read a paper on " Regulating Teeth," 
illustrating by colored charts. 

MORE BUSINESS. 

The election of officers was then declared the next order of busi- 
ness and was proceeded with. 



1 1 2 The OdontograpJiic Journal. 

While members were preparing their ballotts, the President pre- 
sented the request of the Brooklyn Medical Journal, for permission 
to print Dr. Ottolingui's report from the Committee on Practice; as 
there was no objection the journal in question was accorded the 
privilege. 

The result of the ballot was as follows : President, Dr. Line ; 
vice-president, Dr. Walker ; recording secretary, Dr. Van Woert ; 
correspondent, Dr. Curtis ; censors, in the First and Third districts,. 
Drs. Carr and French respectively. 

LEGION OF HONOR AGAIN. 

The committee on Legion of Honor recommended the appoint- 
ment of a committee of five, three from the First, and two from the 
Second districts, to report at the next annual meeting in such shape 
that the society could take action, the present committee to be 
discharged. / 

Dr. Ottolingui said in explanation why those two districts had 
been named was because they could be most easily got together. 

Dr. Starr moved the reception of the report, the discharge of the 
committee and the adoption of the recommendations. 

The President appointed as such committee' Drs. Kingsley, Carr,. 
Ottolingui, of N. Y., and Drs. Brockway and Jarvie of Brooklyn. 

PERMANENTS. 

Ths committee on nomination of permanent members reported 
through Dr. Walker the names of Drs. Hart, Jackson, Royce, Saun- 
ders and Birdsall as nominees for permanent membership. 

that "v." 

Dr. Hill said in regard to the raising of the five dollars per head 
that had been carried in the afternoon, it had been suggested by 
Dr. Holmes, that perhaps it might be well for the president and 
secretary to issue a circular to all the district societies, that they 
could use in urging nonsociety men to assist in raising money to 
carry on prosecutions under the law. He would make that a motion. 
( larried. 

OND DAY — MORNING SESSION. 

The time from nine to ten was occupied by members and Others 
in exhibits and demonstrations, Drs. Jackson, Ottolingui, Edmonds 
and others filling in the time. Dr. Jackson's exhibit of models of 
irregularities and appliances used in their reduction, was one of the 

largest, most varied and interesting on record. 



Dental Society of the State of New York. 1 13 

The meeting was called to order by the President, and the min- 
utes of the previous evening's session were read and approved. 
The secretary presented the bill of the stenographer, $68.50. 
Dr. Lang then read a paper on 

"mesmerism and its therapeutical applications," 

A member said that while a student with his brother, some thirty 
years ago, a gentleman brought a lady to the office to have the four 
inscisors excised and new teeth put on. She sat in the chair, and 
after the gentleman had made a few passes, he said to the speaker's 
brother, go on He had struck these incisors off, filled each one of 
the nerve canals and inserted four wood pegged teeth, and the girl 
sat in the chair as motionless as if dead. She informed us afterwards 
that she had felt no pain whatever. 

Dr. Starr read a telegram from the other essayist who was to have 
been there that morning — Rev. Dr. Brown — saying that sickness 
deprived him of the honor of addressing the Society, and asking 
them them to accept his regrets. Dr. Starr suggested that the paper 
be read by title, and he would see Dr. Brown meantime and get the 
manuscript from him so that the paper could appear in the transac- 
tions. 

The secretary then read the paper by title, " Talmudic Medicine 
and Dentistry." 

The secretary read a communication from the Third district 
society, stating that they had erased the name of E. C. Stacks from 
their roll, for conduct unbecoming a gentleman, and requesting the 
State society to take the same action. 

The communication was received and placed on file. 

Dr. Hill moved that the name of Dr. Stacks be dropped from the 
roll in accordance w r ith the provisions of section 8. Carried. 

PROTECTIVE UNION. 

Dr. Walker presented a communication from Dr. Crouse of Chi- 
cago, stating that he had sent blanks for membership in the 
Protective Union which he would like to have the dentists through- 
out the State of New York sign. The fee was ten dollars. He 
also said Mr. Offeld, the attorney they had engaged to look after the 
interests of the dentists, was connected with one qf the largest 
patent law offices in Chicago. He was the attorney for the Pullman 

r Co. and the Singer Sewing Machine Co. lie would be at the 
First district society the following Tuesday evening. He hoped 
every person present who had no! already done so, would forward 
his application. 



i i 4 The Odontograptiic Journal. 

Dr. Palmer said he had received a notice some weeks since and 
immediately responded with pleasure. He thought they should 
stand by it, that they must be protected ; it seemed to have a 
national standing, so we would be protected in the future. 

Dr. Carr said it had been his honor to belong to the company 
having charge of the defence of those who had been arrested for 
violating the patent in New York. Their great difficulty was lack 
of organization. This Chicago affair seemed to meet the require- 
ments. He thought it was a good thing. 

AGAIN THE L. OF H. 

Dr. Carr moved that the resolutions, authorizing the appointment 
of a committee on Legion of Honor, be reconsidered. 

The secretary then read the original report of the committee of 
three. 

Dr. Ottolingui said, as being identified with the idea of a Legion 
of Honor, he would like to make a statement. The original idea was 
that something might be done by this Society, whereby it would 
advance the interests of dentists as a body, and would be an advan- 
tage to this Society. The matter had been discussed and put in as 
a supplementary report by the committee on practice. That was 
referred to another committee of which he had been made a member. 
Although it might be well from an outside standpoint to confer 
honors, in the Society itself it would not. They had so many 
members who might be anxious to have that honor, that there would 
be, rom time to time more or less desire for it, which would make it 
a >ource of trouble in the future. He was entirely in accord with a 
reconsideration, and moved that the whole matter be indefinitely 
postponed. Carried. 

NOT VET. 

Dr. Curtis' resolution, " Resolved, that only graduates of recog- 
nized dental colleges and the dental society of the State of New 
York, be admitted to permanent membership in this society," was 
briefly discussed and lost. 

Dr. Starr moved that the usual warrant be drawn upon the 
treasurer in favor of the secretary for §100, in consideration of his 
services during the year. 

The resignation of Dr. Rich was accepted. 

Dr. jarvie said we should have some other place to meet than 
this hall. It was one of the worst rooms we had ever been in. It 
was impossible to hear a speaker ten feet. He moved it as the 

use of the meeting that the proper committee endeavor to secure 



" The Dental Society of tJie State of New York." i i 5 

some other room, better adapted in -its acoustic properties than this. 

Dr. Curtis suggested that proof be sent the gentlemen who had 
read papers or discussed them, for revision, and to limit the time to 
five days within which they should be returned or published as per 
proof. 

The President then appointed the committees. 

Arrangement — Drs. Wright, Candady, Mills ; Business — Drs. 
Starr, Jackson, Jewell ; Publication — Van Woert, Jarvie, Howard 
(C. T.) ; Practice — Ottolingui, Gross, Rosa ; Law — Carr, Baxter, 
Elmendorf ; Ethics — Van Vleck, Jones, Lamb; Prize Essays — Straw, 
Geran, White. 



"THE DENTAL SOCIETY OF THE STATE OF NEW 

YORK." 



BEING SOME TOAST AT THE 25 TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BUFFALO 
DENTAL ASSOCIATION, MAY 27, 1889. 



In attempting to respond to this toast, Mr. Chairman, I shall avail 
myself of the privilege usually accorded the man who has little to 
say and knows not how to say it — that of telling my story from 
notes. And I tell it in this way because I can tell it better, with 
greater speed, and make it much less of a tax on your patience than 
were I to essay the method of the man w*ho takes to his feet easily 
and whose tongue wags at either end, and that without apparent cause 
or provocation. Would that I could, but I cannot. And while I 
have nothing of value to present even in this form, a little noise may 
be made to answer the purpose. Not, however, that I have any 
ambition in that direction, but simply because " mine host " has 
imposed the condition, and told me that I must. 

According to the records, the State Society has attained its major- 
ity — has been in existence twenty-one years. To those of us who 
have made the Society's acquaintance since '68, that period includes 
its span of life to date, a truthful statement as far as powers 
and privileges conferred by the State are concerned, but very far from 
truthful if we study the matter from the time the scheme, of which 
it forms but one of many features, was first proposed — a time that ante- 
dates the State Society, and I suspect, the formation of the associa- 
tion the close of whose first quarter century we celebrate this evening. 
Of the months and years of preparatory and preliminary work done 



1 1 6 The Odontography Journal. 

by its originators, history has saved us little or nothing ; but 
no doubt need exist that it was hard work, long continued, through 
trials and disappointments, but to which there was no let up until 
the governor had affixed his signature to the document since looked 
up to as our charter. 

Central New York was represented by Wescott and Rogers, and 
Western New York by Whitney, ably seconded by Snow, and Hayes, 
and Harvey, and these in turn by the founders and early members 
of this Association. The most active and vigorous in this matter 
were Whitney and Westcott. and it was to their consumate ability 
and unflagging energy that the State organization owed its birth. 

But what of this Society ? What is it ? What has it done ? What 
mast it do to keep up with the procession ? What of the future ? 

Pefore the Dental Society of the State of New York became a 
fact much and efficient work had been done in sections of the State 
by societies without legal recognition, and whose working methods 
were similar to those prevalent elsewhere to-day. Work of the same 
kind was in progress in other States then as now, and movements 
were on foot having for their object that already attained in this 
State. Pennsylvania and Ohio both led us in time, but the men 
who attempted to lead to success ignored, and proposed to trample 
under foot, the rights of others, and set themselves up as sole judges 
of the qualifications of others, and if needs be, deny them the rights 
that the State said belonged to all, and equally, until forfeited for 
other reasons than earning their bread and butter by following the 
same occupation. These reformers wanted it made a penal offense 
to practice without a permit from their own exclusive body, which 
amounted practically to the robbing of a mass of otherwise good 
citizens of the means of a livelihood. New York men, on the con- 
trary, early appreciated the fact that every man then in practice — 
with a most liberal meaning attached to the word — must be recog- 
nized in the proposed law as fully qualified to follow dentistry as 
his legitimate occupation. And it was this frank recognition on their 
part that made its passage possible at that time, and under the cir- 
cumstances then prevailing. Pennsylvania and Ohio asked every- 
thing and got nothing ; New York asked little and got all that it 
was safe for her to have in that day. 

It was thus set down for all time that our State Society was the 
first to be legally let Ognized, and through the law made the instru- 
ment by me. ins of which every then practitioner jcould be reached, 
and at the same time inducing, if not compelling, the coming man to 



" The Dental Society of the State of New York." 1 1 7 

take advantage of educational facilities whereby he might become 
qualified for intelligent and skillful practice. 

What was done here for the profession made it possible for other 
States to at least talk of similar enactments, and since then to 
accomplish them. Up to '68 it made little difference to other States 
so far as relations between them and us were concerned whether 
they had dental laws or not, as there was about an even exchange of 
dentists of moving tendencies ; but the moment our act went into 
effect, they discovered that New York was like a well filled sponge, 
the squeezing of which gave them what they did not want 
and of which they already had a surplus, and this, fact was used 
with such effect on their legislators that State dental societies duly 
incorporated became the fashion, the end of which is not yet. 

This movement in our State also made possible the system of 
Societies, several of which are well represented here to-night — the 
only system of dental societies in the world. It may be said that the 
district societies made the State society possible ; but it must not be 
lost sight of that the men engaged in the formation of these societies 
had the State society as its objective body, and the districts as a 
means to that end, trusting to the law and the yet to be established 
relations to cement these nine bodies into one smoothly working 
whole. 

To-day the State society is what it has been, perhaps by force of 
circumstances, since its first inception, except that from a law-sug- 
gesting and law-procuring institution it has become law-watching and 
law-enforcing. Its former function is gone — there is nothing more 
to do in that direction, and it would seem to some of us that little of 
the time of its annual meeting need be given to work that by 
custom and law is delegated to its law committee. Some, however, 
persistently cry that law, more law is needed and should be had, 
forgetting that other than general laws come under the head of 
special legislation, one of the growing curses of this enlightened 
commonwealth, and which we fight against with all our might when 
the object is not purely dental and of course in our sole interest. 
These men are of the by-law breed — their notion of the function of 
the State society is that it discuss laws and by-laws, and the wisdom 
and power in debate displayed by the parties in question passes all 
understanding and trespasses on endurance. But we must get 
beyond this, and soon. Such discussions are not only incapable of 
keeping the membership of this body together, but are certain to 
ilt in dissaffection and disgust. Other and more important mat- 



i i 8 The Odontography Journal . 

ters than how to behave should engage the society — it must devote 
its time and energies to the discussion of questions of scientific and 
practical value to the profession at large ; and do so not merely for 
its own good, but for its very salvation. 

It is suggested that the State Society utilize the work and talent 
of the district societies, wherein the familiar or conversational — 
in many instances elementary — style of preparation and presenta- 
tion of subjects prevails, and that this be done by elaborating those 
papers that bear evidences of incompleteness, but at the same time 
have upon them the stamp of originality ; and further, reducing to 
abstracts such papers whose matter is valuable but whose treatment 
leads to the too detailed consideration of non-essentials. This 
would make a volume a year that would be a credit to New York, 
and lead perhaps to the founding of a journal of the Society that all 
would read instead of the motheaten " Transaction" that is rarely s,een 
outside its wrapper. 

Vs things now go — and this is just as true of other State societies 
as of New York, just as true of the American Dental Association — 
papers are read on every conceivable subject, no relation whatever 
in or between them, and this from year to year without the suggest- 
ion of change or improvement. Something should be done — must 
be done — and I know of no better season than the present, no 
better place than Buffalo, no better qualified body to initiate such a 
movement than the Buffalo Dental Association. 



THE TEETH AND THE GENERAL PRACTITIONER. 



Affections of the teeth are not so often considered in our columns 
but that the general practitioner may congratulate himself on the 
appearance, in this issue, of an instructive, though cursory, paper and 
discussion on this subject before a recent meeting of the Practi- 
tioners' Society of New York. There is doubtless a strongly rooted 
reluctance on the pari of the profession (and this was brought out in 
the discussion to some extent) to agree with the writer in respect to 
the importance he attaches to the dental reflex. But the candid 
observer can but feel thai much careless dental work may be the 
outcome of referring dental neuroses due to caries of the teeth for 

treatment to persons unfamiliar, as most dentists are, with the 
important relations of the teeth with other organs. And where the 
physician is unable himself to otter any suggestions to the dentist in 



Dyspepsia. i i q 

tii is regard, the patient is Liable to be made worse rather than better, 
especially from the practice of saving so-called dead teeth. We 
trust the interest excited by thus bringing this subject before the 
profession may continue until the surgical importance of diseases of 
the teeth is recognized by medical men. Every surgeon now fully 
recognizes the importance of drainage and antisepsis in the treat- 
ment of necrotic processes, especially of the osseous tissues ; and 
unless better means than now generally prevail — since the above 
well-known surgical principles are ignored in treating " dead "teeth 
so as to retain them in the jaws — are adopted, more or less danger is 
imminent in every case where the attempt is made. — Medical Record. 



DYSPEPSIA. 



Dyspepsia is a thankless malady. No matter how wretchedlv the 
viccim feels, he gets no sympathy whatsoever. The hand of the 
world is against him, as if, instead of being a worthy sufferer, he 
were a veritable Ishmaelite. Even his doctor laughs him to scorn. 
"Well, what have you been doing now?" the doctor asks. 
" What have you been eating?" 

The callous scoffer knows very well, perhaps, that his miserable 
patient has not eaten a blessed thing in ten days — nothing but 
oatmeal cakes moistened with water. Yet the doctors have fallen in 
with the popular heresy that the best way to sympathize with a 
dyspeptic is to rail at him. 

When you have dyspepsia every man you meet asks you to go to 
lunch with him ; every house you pass is a restaurant; every gale 
that blows wafts to your nostrils the odor of ham and eggs ; every 
newspaper is full of domestic recipes ; every woman in the street is 
loaded with spring chickens, or dressed hogs (ough !), or fresh 
berries ; the only sign you can see is " Dinner Now Ready " or 
"Supper Only 15 Cents ;" why, even the beggars who waylay you, 
importune you for pennies with which to buy " something to eat !" 
It would be a pleasure to do an act of charity once in a while, but 
why do the beggars never importune for money with which to buy 
ine, or lactopeptine, or a seidlitz powder ? 

Dyspepsia never kills, they say ; yes, that's the sneaking villainy 
of the malady — it thwarts every high purpose and honorable ambi- 
tion and compels its prey to dodder and mope through life in a 
condition of perennial consciousness of his weakness and helpless- 



1 20 TJie Odontography Journal. 

ness. We do not agree with those who say that it necessarily sours 
its victim — that may be its diabolical purpose, but we do not think it 
always succeeds. On the contrary, we think that it very often serves 
to soften the temper, to broaden and to deepen the sympathies, and 
to instill into the heart a nobler and sweeter charity. Physical 
discipline, however rigorous, serves the grand purpose of chastening 
the soul ; it is one kind of sorrow, and sorrow is good for humanity. 
A very interesting essay upon this subject was written many years 
ago by Bulwer Lytton ; it would repay invalids, we think, to read 
that essay occasionally — we regard it as one of that great man's best 
bits of work. 

Dyspepsia, if humored properly by long and circumspect fastings, 
occasionally gives its victim a season of rest, and during these 
seasons, whensoever they occur, it behooves the dyspeptic to 
improve his opportunity. Hot mince pie with melted cheese ! ah, 
there is a dish that will compensate vou for weeks of torture ! 
Another glorious viand is Nesselrode pudding ; this is a cross 
between ice cream and the Spanish inquisition ; it is of a decom- 
posed hue and it is full of candied fruits, nightmares, Arabian 
perfumes, pungent flavors, ecstatic sapidities, etc. Then again there 
is nothing the matter (if we may be pardoned the slang phrase) with 
a Welsh rarebit, yet the banqueter should insist upon having a nice, 
overdone, indigestible poached egg served with the rarebit. 

But we shall — we can go no further ; it makes the mouth water, 
the palate yearn and the heart throb to think of these precious boons, 
and even in the midst of stomachic paroxysms we feel constrained, 
like old Louis XI., to plead indulgence not noly for the sins we 
have committed, but also for the sins which we hope to have the 
pleasure of committing by and by — we regret that we cannot fix 
the exact date. — Chicago News. 



MODERN ASPECTS OF THE LIFE-QUESTION 



Thus f.ir, when we have spoken of a living being, we have had 

ince to the organism as a whole, and this of a rather complex 

kind. In this view of the case, however, we find that biological 

microscopists do not agree with us. " The cell alone," says Kuss, 
" is the essentially vital element." Says Beale : " There is in living 
matter nothing which can be called a mechanism, nothing in which 
structure can be discerned. A little transparent, colorless material 



Modern Aspects of the Life-Question. 121 

is the seat of these marvelous powers or properties by which the 
form, structure, and function of the tissues and organs of all living 
things are determined." And again, "However much organisms 
and their tissues in their fully formed state may vary as regards the 
character, properties, and composition of the formed material, all 
were first in the condition of clear, transparent, structureless, 
formless living matter." So Ranvier : "Cellular elements possess 
all the essential vital properties of the complete organism." And 
Allman, in his address as President of the British Association last 
year, is still more explicit. "Every living being," he says, "has 
protoplasm as the essential matter of every living element of its 
structure. . . . No one who contemplates this spontaneously 
moving matter can deny that it is alive. Liquid as it is, it is a living 
liquid ; organless and structureless as it is, it manifests the essential 
phenomena of life. . . . Coextensive with the whole of organic 
nature — every vital act being referable to some mode or property of 
protoplasm — it becomes to the biologist what the ether is to the 
physicist." From these quotations it would seem that even in the 
highest animal there is nothing living but protoplasm or germinal 
matter, "transparent, colorless, and, as far as can be ascertained by 
examination with the highest powers of the microscope, perfectly 
structureless. It exhibits these same characters at every period of 
its existence." Neither the contractile tissue of the muscle, the 
axis-cylinder of the nerve, nor the secreting cell of the gland, is 
living, according to Beale. Hence it would be fair to draw the 
inference that no vital force should be required to explain the 
phenomena of the non-living matter of the body, such as the 
contraction of the muscle or the function of the nerve. If this be 
conceded, it is a great point gained ; since the phenomenon of life 
becomes vastly simplified when we have to account for it only as 
exhibited in this one single form of living matter, protoplasm. In 
describing its properties, Allman includes this remarkable mobility, 
these spontaneous movements, and says: "They result from its 
proper irritability, its essential constitution as living matter. From 
the facts there is but one legitimate conclusion, that life is a property 
of protoplasm." Beale, however, will not allow that life is "a 
property " of protoplasm. " It can not be a property of matter," he 
says, "because it is in all respects essentially different in its actions 
from all acknowledged properties of matter." But the properties of 
bodies are only the characters by which we differentiate them. Two 
bodies having the same properties would only be two portions of the 



\22 The Odontographic Journal. 

same substance. Because life, therefore, is unlike other properties 
of matter, it by no means follows that it is not a property of matter. 
No dictum is more absolute in science than the one which predicates 
properties upon constitution. To say that this property exhibited 
by protoplasm, marvelous and even unique though it be, is not a 
natural result of the constitution of the matter itself, but is due to an 
unknown entity, a terlium quid, which inhabits and controls it, is 
opposed to all scientific analogy and experience. To the statement 
of the vitalist that there is no evidence that life is a property of 
matter, we may reply with emphasis that there is not the slightest 
proof that it is not. — Barker, Geo. F., Popular Science Monthly. 



DENTITION AS AFFECTED BY RICKETS. 



If rickets prevail to any extent in American communities, it must 
exercise a very important influence in all diseases of childhood, and 
must play an exceedingly important role in infant-mortality. As 
dentition is almost always retarded and irregular in rickets, I may 
be permitted to dwell at some length upon its pathology. It is a 
stormy epoch with children. Although a physiological process, 
which should be regular in its course and without danger to life, 
nevertheless all authors agree that any illness occurring during 
teething is aggravated in type and dangerous and protracted in 
course. Convulsions, diarrhaea, bonchitis are common in these crit- 
! cal months, and the mortality among children from six to twenty- 
four months of age, in Buffalo, is 1,500 yearly. I even find 
dentition ranked as a cause of death, sixteen deaths from dentition 
being returned. Yet teething goes smoothly on in healthy children, 
the central incisors appearing at the seventh month, the lateral at the 
ninth, the first molars at the twelfth, the canine at the eighteenth 
and the second molars at the twenty-fourth month. Any essential 
deviation form this order is a variation from the standard of health, 
and its cause should be sought for and explained. Delayed denti- 
tion is not due to all causes which enfeeble a child, for in infants 
suffering from diarrhoea or tuberculosis the eruption of the teeth 
is regular, and tin- teeth are often well formed and strong. Am. 
the laity, many maladies of childhood are referred to the malignant 
influence of teething, and mothers ask their physicians why their 
children are so fretful and sickly, and why the teeth do not appear 



Root Fillings etc, 12$ 

at the appointed time, The maternal anxieties are usually quieted 
witli soothing assurances that all will be well in time, hut the most 
common cause of delayed dentition is rickets. A rickety child may 
have no teeth even as late as the second year, or the eruption of 
teeth may progress regularly until the incisor teeth are through, and 
the child becoming rickety, dentition may be arrested for months. 
These rachitic teeth are very prone to decay, and physicians have 
observed how very bad the teeth are among the children of the city 
poor. No physical examination of a sick child is complete without 
a careful inquiry into the condition of the teeth. If dentition be 
late or irregular, and if the child be harassed by digestive troubles 
or obstinate pulmonary catarrh, the underlying cause will almost 
invariably be found to be rickets. I will quote again from Sir 
William Jenner upon this subject : 

" If a child pass over the ninth month without teeth, you should 
carefully inquire for the cause. It may be that an acute illness has 
retarded dentition. It may be, but this is very rare, that there is 
some condition of the jaw which interferes with the advance of the 
teeth; it may be, and this is infinitely the more common cause of late 
dentition, that the child is rickety. Fail not, then, when called to 
a child in whom the teeth are late in appearing, to look if it be 
rickety, for if you fail to look for rickets you will most likely attrib- 
ute to the irritation of teething symptoms which are the conse- 
quence of the rickety diathesis, the late dentition of rickets being in 
itself a symptom of the general disorder. The rickety deformities 
may be very trifling, and yet the teeth be considerably retarded in 
their development." — Medical Record. 



ROOT FILLING— A NEW METHOD— COSMOLINE. 



It was said by Dr. Truman that gutta-percha, when used as a 
canal dressing, in his opinion, did not leak. My experiment with 
glass tube tests, which I admit are very crude tests, was criticized on 
the ground that the glass expanded. It was not denied that oxy- 
chloride of zinc would absorb moisture. One gentleman, a visitor, 
advised me to take a glass tube drawn down at the end to the size 
of the apical foramen of a tooth. This, when filled with gutta- 
perca, he said, would exclude moisture for months. I did not carry 
out his experiment, as the unequal expansion of the glass and gutta- 
percha again could have been brought forward. I concluded to set 
aside all unnecessary complication by taking natural teeth — three, 
and opened into the canals and filled them much more thoroughly 



124 The Odontographic Journal. 

than it could be possible to do when situated in the mouth. After 
cleansing the canals by careful drilling into one of the teeth, warm 
gutta-percha was inserted until it streamed from the apical fora- 
men. The other two teeth were respectively filled with oxy-chloride 
of zinc and cotton soaked in carbolized cosmoline. The holes in 
the crowns of these teeth were then filled with gold. Having oper- 
ated on these teeth January 7th, I dipped them in a solution of 
analine ink. They were removed on the 1st of February, having 
been submerged just twenty-four days. I then laid bare the canals, 
and here they are, gentleman, for your inspection. I think you will 
all perceive that the gutta-percha has not only leaked, but even its 
surface, to a slight degree, has absorbed the ink. The oxy-chloride 
of zinc is permeated with ink, while the canal guarded by cotton 
and carbolized cosmoline is absolutely intact. 

The cosmoline has also permeated the structure of the dentine, 
making it water-tight and antiseptic. But the chief merit of this 
filling lies in the fact that it can be readly removed. It has been 
said by my friends that I do not fill teeth with cotton, but fill them 
with cosmoline. And yet, in the same breath, they assert that I 
sometimes fill teeth with cotton and carbolic acid, objecting to this 
practice on the ground, that the carbolic acid evaporating, leaves 
the cotton unguarded. 

Why do not they say that I fill teeth with carbolic acid only ? It 
would be just as logical. They must know that the cotton acts as 
a vehicle for holding an antiseptic. No one, at the present day, 
thinks of using it unguarded. Cotton when saturated in cosmoline, 
renders venting of the canal much more easy of accomplishment than 
when cosmoline alone is used. 

The great advantage cosmoline has over all other medicaments, 
lies in the fact that it readily permeates the entire structure of the 
tooth, thus rendering the tooth water-tight. — Head, International 
Journal. 

THE AMERICAN POSTURE. 



These are the days when even the most ordinary and apparently 
inconsequential items in human conduct or social custom must be 
submitted to the prying gaze of science. Everything, from the kiss 
that first actuates the dawn of love to the painful struggles of 
parturiency, has to have its analysis and physiological explanation. 
It seems somewli.it strange therefore that, in this alert and 1 
search for cause and effect, no one has yet attempted to analyze and 
place on a solid scientific basis the practice of sitting with one leg 
crossed Over the other. This is a custom which, we venture to 

rt, is distinctly American, and one that has been observed and 



Conductor's Department. 125 

transmitted with pious care by the average American male for the 

past two hundred years. Its prevalence may have become some 
what modified by the incursions, during late years, of foreigners with 
large waists and weak abductors ; but the true American still 
preserves this detail of his birthright with a constancy and obtrusive- 
ness born of a deep sense of its eternal and inherited fitness. 

There are certain inferior races of men who also sit cross-legged. 
But their case is quite different. They abduct the thighs and cross 
the legs, assuming a more or less fcetal posture, and one evidently 
connected with a lower degree of ethnical evolution. The monkey 
sits somewhat in the same style. In the higher and tenser civiliza- 
tion, however, which has unfolded between the stars and stripes, and 
the ennobling influences of the spoils system in politics, there is 
nothing fcetal in the posture, but directly the reverse. The abduc- 
tors of the thighs are brought into play, a nobler group of muscles 
and one whose superactivity must, we take it, mean a higher physi- 
cal development of man. 

The conditions of life in America made of Brother Jonathan a 
man with a short trunk, small waist, and long legs, anatomical 
proportions exactly suited to a comfortable sedation with the thighs 
crossed. This type of man still prevails in New England, the South, 
and parts of the Middle States and the West. With these a posture 
in which the thighs cross is instinctive. The observations of 
physiologists and physicists would undoubtedly show that in this 
position the centre of gravity is thrown forward so that it corre- 
sponds more nearly with the tubera ischiorum, thus enabling the 
sitter to gain a firmer hold upon the seat. Besides this, the weight 
of the crossing leg doubles the pressure of the foot upon the floor, 
and this again helps to prevent slipping forward. Whether there is 
anything in the posture which arouses a particular sense of ease, 
comfort, and feeling of well-being and contentment, despite a 
frowning environment, we cannot say. For the American leg- 
crosser does sometimes carry his habits to extremes. It may require 
another century of evolution to inoculate those given to the habit 
with altruism, and teach them that a deeper and truer joy may flow 
from not wiping their shoes on passing strangers than comes even 
from the highly evolved muscular adjustments of sitting with super- 
imposed knees. — Medical Record. 



CONDUCTOR'S DEPARTMENT: 

JOHNSTOWN MEMBERS OF THE PROFESSOIN. 

A committee consisting of Drs. Fundenburg, Templeton, Arthur, 
Goshorn, and Smith, of Pittsburg, has issued a circular to the dental 



126 The Odontographic Journal. 

profession, dental manufacturers and dealers in dental goods, in the 
course of which is cited the facts that in the ruin of Johnstown one 
member of the profession lost his life, others members of their 
families, a majority of them their property, and every man of them — 
ten in all — his practice. These gentlemen have taken upon them- 
selves the task of aiding our unfortunate brethren to tide over their 
present hardship, and ask their fellow members to contribute 
promptly and as liberally as possible to this most worthy object. 
Send direct to Dr. Lee S. Smith, 52 Sixth Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



BUFFALO ASSOCIATION— 25TH ANNIVERSARY. 



The 25th anniversary of this "ancient and honorable " body was 
fitly celebrated at "The Niagara" on the evening of the 27th of 
May, when fifty members and guests sat down to several hours of 
solid enjoyment, physical and mental. As to the spread, it was 
evident on all sides that the committee in charge had worked on the 
principle that " the best was none too good," and with the help of 
"mine host" of " The Niagara," made the guest to feel that he had 
been bidden to a seat at the King's very own table. The address 
of welcome was made by the President, Dr. Eshelman, and Dr. 
Snow officiated in a happy manner as toast master. "The Buffalo 
Dental Association" was responded to by Dr. Freeman, whose 
remarks will appear in full in the Dental Advertiser, " The Dental 
Societv of the State of New York " was next on the list. Then 
came " The State Board of Censors," which was responded to by 
Dr. French, of Rochester. Then followed " The Medical Profes- 
sion," by Dr. Potter ; " Dental Literature," by Dr. Barrett ; M The 
Legal Profession," by Mr. Bushnell, and "Our Guests," by Dr. 
Darby, of Elmira. Others spoke briefly, among them the venerable 
Dr. Bristol, of Lockport, whose contributions to dental history are 
always intensely interesting. Of the speeches that by Mr. Bushnell 
should have been taken down word for word as a truthfully and 
beautifully worded and eloquently delivered effort. That by Dr. 
Darby suggests the possibility of his soon being in as great demand 
as Horace Porter or Whitelaw Reid. 



NEW JERSEY STATE DENTAL SOCIETY. 



The nineteenth annual session of this Society will be held at the 
End Hotel, Asbury Park, (commencing Wednesday) July 17th, 



Conductor's Department. 127 

lXth w\\(\ 19th. Prominent dentists from throughout the country 
will read interesting papers, and the clinics will be more than 
usually instructive. Everything new and useful in operative and 
mechanical dentistry will be exhibited by inventors and dental 
supply houses, for whom space will be reserved. Low hotel rates 
will prevail. The national reputation of the New Jersey Society is 
sufficient of itself to call out a large and representative attendance. 



NOTES. 

Dr. Southwick, of Buffalo, is making a rush through Europe. 

The Dental Record jumps on "bony ankylosis " with both feet. 

To remove chloro-percha from instruments, dip them in hot water, 
wiping hard with cloth. 

A patient about to go abroad wanted a " very strong " set of arti- 
ficial teeth — one that would enable him to talk German with safety. 

Charles Fasoldt, whose services to micrometry will always com- 
mand the admiration of microscopists, died at Albany, N. Y., May 
13th, aged 70. 

The American Medical Association held its fortieth annual meet- 
ing at Newport, June 25th to 28th. dentistry was well and ably 
represented. 

Dr. Bogue presents his compliments and states that he will be 
pleased to receive his patients from this time on, at 73 Boulevard 
Haussmann, Paris. 

The twentieth annual session of the California State Dental Asso- 
ciation will be held in San Francisco, the 3d Tuesday in July, con- 
tinuing four days. 

Her teeth contained as many cavities as there are holes in an old 
fashioned collender. She couldn't account for it unless the moths 
had got into them. 

The Rochester Dental Society held its midsummer meeting this 
year with Dr. Cowan, at Geneseo. The '* Big Tree Inn " is still the 
place where the righteous cease from troubling and the weary are 
put to rest. 



12S The Odontographic Journal. 

For thorough want of knowledge and appreciation of Dr. W. D_ 
Miller and his work, the effort in the June Microscope by Dr. F. O. 
Jacobs, is the most remarkable in our whole experience. It will be 
surprising indeed if some one is not hoist by his own petard. 

The Medical Record says editorially, likewise truthfully : " The 
choice of President for the coming year was a most happy one, and 
we extend our congratulations to both the Association and its new 
I'iesident upon the honor which has come to both in this fortunate 
selection." 

Members of the American Dental Association as well as others 
interested in the progress of the profession are cordially requested 
to forward contributions pertaining to dental education, literature 
and nomenclature either in the form of papers or suggestions. Con- 
tributions should be in the hands of the officers of Section II (Dr. 
Atkinson, New York, and Dr. Ottofy, Chicago), on or before August 
i, 1889. 

The science of dentistry is one of the most progressive of what 
may be called the special departments of human skill and learning. 
It does not carry so heavy a weight of conservatism as the medical 
profession, and new inventions in its field are eagerly embraced and 
adopted. Dentistry is ably represented among the periodicals of the 
country, and one of the handsomest publications of this class is the 
" Odontographic Journal." — Mechanical News. 

"Doctor, I see by this periodical on your table that a man was 
prosecuted for simply advertising himself as a dentist, his compe- 
tency, except from a legal standpoint, being admitted." 
\ es. 

"I thought the dental profession boasted of its liberality — made 
unprecedented claims in that direction." 

"Yes." 

" Then isn't this pretty small business for a liberal profession to 
be engaged in." 

Those dentists who take an interest in medical matters should 
subscribe to the Brooklyn Medical Journal which is the official 
organ of all the Brooklyn societies, medical, surgical, dental, 
mi* ical, and pharmaceutical. The July number contains in 

full the report of the Committee on Practice, read at the annual 
meeting of the Dental Society of the State of New York. Numer- 
ous extracts from the report may be found on another page of this 
Journal. 



Books, Pamphlets^ Etc. 129 

At the recent anniversary of the Buffalo Dental Association, our 
old friend, Dr. S. A. Freeman, so far forgot himself as to break the 
charm of a long and hitherto honorable career by perpetrating his 
first and (let us hope) only pun ; and straightway fourteen of the 
fifty gentlemen present fell each on another's neck, while the remain- 
der of the company retired to the conservatory and wept bitterly. 

Great as a microscope is, and varied and important its applica- 
tions, there are some things vouched for by clinical experience as 
much beyond the reach of the microscope as the mountains in the 
moon. Clinical experience has its limitation, it is true ; so too has 
microscopical research in the practical affairs of every day life. 
Chemistry enables one to identify sulphuretted hydrogen, but all the 
chemistry in Christendom cannot disabuse the mind of the fact that 
sulphuretted hydrogen stinks. 



Books, Phamphlets, Etc, 



Dental Medicine: A Manual of Dental Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics. By Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas, A. M., M. D., 
D. D. S. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Philadelphia: 
P. Blackiston, Sons & Co. Pp. 446. 

This standard work comes to us thi£ time with nearly one hun- 
dred pages of new matter, every one of which enhances the value 
of the book to the busy practitioner. Much of the subject matter 
has been rearranged, and considerable additions made to the list of 
subjects, among which may be specially mentioned — Diagnosis of 
affections of the mouth, general and local anaesthesia, action of 
arsenious acid as a devitalizing agent, etc. Antiseptics are con- 
sidered at length, their action also their proper use in 
dentistry ; germicides and disinfectants, a discussion of their 
value ; digestibility of foods, incompatability, etc. The addi- 
tons to the dental materia medica and therapeutics are numerous, 
and in the light of recent experimentation and discussion, impor- 
tant. New formulae occur throughout the work, and there is a 
noticeable enlargement of the index to dental diseases and remedies. 
Taken all in all the third edition is so much in advance of its prede- 
th.it it looks and reads like a new book. The publishers 
have done their part well as a matter of course. 



130 The Odontography Journal. 

Dental Scienci : ( v m estions and Answers in Materia Mid- 
ica. Dental Physiology, Dental Pathology and Thera- 
peutics. By Lumen C. Ingersoll, A. M., D. D. S. Philadelphia : 
Wilmington Dental Mfg. Co. Pp. 140. 

Dr. Ingersoll's little book has been with the profession for several 
years, especially the student element, and is justly appreciated for 
its general reliability and suggestiveness. It is the work of a 
teacher, one familiar with the needs of the student and fully capable 
of meeting the demand. We can say of this what we had occasion 
to say of one of Prof. Flagg's books some time since: It should be 
in the hands of chairmen of business committees the land over, if 
only for the purpose of meeting the steryotyped reply to requests to 
prepare papers for prospective meetings — " Don't know what to write 
about." Every page is alive with suggestions that would do anyone 
good to work out. ; 

Merck's Index of Fine Chemicals and Drugs for the 
Materia Medica and the Arts. New York : E. Merck. 
Pp. 156. 

The " Index " comprises a summary of whatever chemical prod- 
ucts are to-day adjudged as being useful in either medicine or 
technology, with average values, also synonyms affixed. 

Merck's Bulletin, by the same house, is a monthly record of 
new discoveries, introductions, or application of medicinal chemicals. 
It makes a note of everything of value whether of Merck's manu- 
facture or not. The " Index" is worth one dollar, the "Bulletin" 
one dollar per year. 

Historical Sketch ok the Sixth District Dental Society. 
By Frank B. Darby, D. D. S. Pp. 13. 

This little pamphlet tell a most interesting story, and in the 
author's own style, Sketches of men and things are usually pretty 
dry reading, but the man who can get through this without a broad 
and numerous smile stands in need of medical attendance. A sketch 
like this of each of the other district societies would prove equally 
valuable and interesting, and save the future compiler of the history 
of dentistry in this State much trouble and expen 



THE 



Odontographic Journal. 



Volume X.— October , i88g. — No. 3. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION— THE NUTRITIVE 
ORGANIZATION. 



The body anatomic is made up of a number of completely organ- 
ized systems, osseous, nervous, muscular, etc., of which three 
distinctly contribute to the foremost and decidedly important func- 
tion of nutrition. 

Let us give the three a hasty glance. Turn to an anatomical plate 
of the alimentary canal, the intestinal system. Though rudest and 
coarsest it is not the least interesting. A mouth cavity set with teeth, 
a long gullet, the stomach or chymepouch, the liver with its bitter 
bile, the large coils of intestines, small and large, all these form the 
vegative, earthly portion of man. All this mechanism receives, 
masticates, digests, liquefies, and unifies, crude matters, animal, vege- 
table, mineral, solid, viscid, liquid, reducing everything to an even 
paste. This is the system of crude chyme, the system of alimenta- 
tion, the feeding system. 

Take next the plate of lymphatics ; that is to say, the absorbent 
system. The black ground represents the flesh, upon this ground 
throughout head, neck, trunk, and limbs are seen a million white 
rootlets. These rootlets which thus are implanted on the flesh are 
perpetually sucking up juices, drinking, absorbing. They are thickest 
and attain the maximum upon this intestinal tract. Upon the 
intestinal system this absorbent system seems to be implanted or to 
form a continuation. All the rootlets are filled with milky chyle or 
lymph. The main trunk of this root system is the thoracic duct. 

Turn to a third plate, the circulation, the vascular system. By its 
strange branching it reminds one more than any other part of the 
anatomy, of the branches of a tree. We see main trunks, lesser 



t ^2 The Odontography Journal. 

trunks ; large branches, small branches, shoots, and capillary twigs. 
From the heart goes the aorta, large arteries, small arteries, 
capillaries, then small veins, large veins, and so on up to the ascend- 
ing and descending venae cavee. 

Into this majestic vital stream the thoracic duct pours its prepared 
milkv thiid. We see plainly how the three are connected together ; 
the lymph or chyle system is implanted on the alimentary or chyme 
system and empties itself into the blood system. In the intestinal 
system is crude chyme or soluble food. In the absorbent system 
milky chyle, liquid or vitalized food. In the circulating system 
blood, which is organized, vitalized, or plasmic. The first is the 
crude digestive section, the second is the absorbing section, the third 
is the plasmic section, with its double process of assimilation and 
disassimilation. 

Poetically, the first is the earthly part of man ; a reservoir system. 
The second is the vital root, and the third the vital trunk of n\an. 
Such a simile is convenient for the time as a mnemonic aid in grasp- 
ing the whole of this vast and complicated mechanism. 

It will be seen that the field and contents of this organization are 
immense. Three complete systems, alimentary, absorbent, assimila- 
tive, each of which covers or comprises, in a way, the whole man. 
They involve many interesting and complicated apparatuses and 
nearly five hundred distinct organs. 

To see the origin of the mechanism of nutrition, and trace its 
development, we must look to comparative anatomy. ' Here we find 
that the intestinal system, or alimentary canal, in the higher animals 
consists in its entirety of two sections, eight cavities, and thirty-nine 
organs. Its two main sections are the "respiratory intestine" and 
the " digestive intestine," the chief center of the one being the lungs 
and that of the other the stomach. 

The intestinal system, at its simplest, in a fresh water polyp, is .1 
simple pouch with a mouth opening. In the lower worms it consists 
of .1 stomach with a mouth and an anus. In ascidians this intestinal 
tube- is differentiated into two sections, the respiratory, or gill, 
intestine before, and the digestive, or stomach, intestine behind. In 
the lowest fishes gill aivhes appearing behind the gill openings in the 
gill intestine form lip cartilages and a jaw skeleton, and the swim- 
ming bladder grows out from t he lar\ n \. whilst a liver blind-sac 
us from the stomach pouch of the digestive intestine, developing 

into a 1 ompound liver gland. 



Physiology <>/ Digestion The Nutritive Organization. 133 

In the intestinal system of dipneusta, amphibia, etc., the swim 

ming bladder is modified into lungs, the larynx originates from the 

upper end of the trachea, the urinary bladder grows from the last 
section of the intestine. In marsupials the primitive mouth and 
nasal cavity is separated by the horizontal palate roof into food 
passage and air passage, and the anal urinary cavity, cloaca, is 
separated by a partition into a uro-genital aperture and a posterior 
anal aperture. Finally, we arrive at man, where the system reaches 
its perfection. 

In man the eight cavities with their organs are as follows : 

1. The mouth cavity, cavum oris, with its mouth opening, lips, 
jaws, teeth, tongue, bone, salivary glands, palate, and uvula. 

2. The nose cavity, cavum nasi, comprising the nose canal, 
maxillary, frontal, and ethmoidal sinus. 

3. The throat cavity, with isthmus, tonsils, pharynx, Eustachian 
tube. 

4. The lung cavity, comprising larynx, trachea, and lungs. 

5. The anterior intestine, oesophagus, cardia, stomachus, pylorus. 
6.' The central intestine, that is, the gall intestine, duodenum ; 

empty intestine, jejunum ; and crooked intestine, ilium, together with 
liver and pancreas. 

7. The posterior intestine, colon, caecum, rectum, anus. 

8. The urinary intestine, comprising urinary tube and urinary 
bladder. 

It cannot fail to be remarked that this vast aggregate, the coarsest 
and most primitive organization in the body, the oldest, according 
to some anatomists, has little about it that is fine or spiritual, but 
much that is gross, earthy, and material. These eight yawning 
cavities, mouth, nose, throat, lungs, stomach, intestine, rectum, 
bladder, are so many canals and reservoirs of earth, air, and water, 
sac or pouch reservoirs of pabulum, nourishment, and drainage. 
They are the foundation and cellar of the human edifice. 

The lymphatic and lacteal organs, vasa absorbentia, the absorbent 
system, consist of countless myriads of little villi, rootlets or suckers, 
fastened upon the intestines and strewn, at intervals, with certain 
nodosities or glands. These rootlets unite in a root-like tube, the 
thoracic duct, which leads up into the circulation. These vasa 
absorbentia are not limited to the digestive tract, but send their root- 
lets in the form of lymphatic capillaries and lymphatic lucunae, 



i J4 The Odontographic Journal. 

through nearly all tissues except brain and bone ; and this absorbent 
system is like a root implanted on the intestines and overgrowing all 
rest of the body. The remainder of the system comprises jugular 
trunk, or root, the subclavian trunk, the bronchial trunk, all empty- 
ing into the right lymphatic duct. The lumbar trunk joins with the 
thoracic. 

Lymph and chyle, the white blood, are of the same composition ; 
serum, white corpuscle, fibrine, fatty globules. When entering the 
great trunks of the system this white blood passes from a soluble 
food, or pasty chyme, to liquid food, chyle or milk, which by passing 
through the nodosities or lymphatic glands becomes vitalized milk, 
or lymph ; that is to say, it acquires the white-blood corpuscles 
which are formed and living elements. If the blood of the sanguine 

lem is called liquid flesh, the fluid of the lymphatic system might 
be called white blood or liquid white flesh, plasma not yet brought 
up to the standard. Its clot is thin and pale ; it must pass on into 
the veins and through the lungs and liver and be further purified, 
further refined and further elaborated, and further built up before it 
becomes true plasma. 

13y studying the lymphatic system as a whole we see where the 
chyle or white blood originates. In normal states the grand supply 
is from the intestines through the villi, or rootlets, and so through 
the thoracic duct. In case the normal supply fails, the intestinal 
reservoirs being empty, then the lucanae and reticular vessels begin a 
more serious work, as it were, sucking and drinking up the tissues 
of the body. Emaciation ensues, noted especially in such diseases 

phthisis, severe dyspepsia, etc. In all cases of inanition a man, 
by his absorbent system, absorbs or drinks his own flesh, literally 
sucking the life out of himself, the lymphatic system becoming an 
immense leech, covering the whole surface of the body. Science, as 
well as observed fact, shows us that starvation is a fearful and 
terrible process. 

To sum up at a glance the whole of this curious white blood or 
lymph tract : First, its rootlets, the sucker-like villi of the intestines, 
i apillary or thread-like and lacunar or web-like upon the other 
tissues. Second, the nodosities, lymphatic glands, lymphatic ganglia 
in which the blood is united, elaborated or vitalized, being given the 
white blood corpuscles. Third, the five root trunks, jugular, sub- 
clavian, bronchial, intestinal, lumbar. Fourth, the two grand 
trunks emptying into the circulation, on the left the thoracic duel : 
right, the right lymph, iti< duct. 



Physiology of Digestion — ■ The Nutritive Organization. 

The circulatory or assimilative system consists of veins, small an'd 
large, with the two main trunks Leading to a propelling organ, the 

heart ; then through the trunk arteries, large arteries and small 
arteries to the capillaries, where the work of building and repairing 
is constantly going on. 

This highly ramified tree, whether we study it from embryology 
or comparative anatomy, has a history. It is not one of the earliest 
tissues, for the skin, stomach, kidneys, nerves and muscles have all 
preceded it. Only the skeletal and the genital systems were formed 
later. Comparative anatomy shows the vascular system in various 
stages of completion. For instance, in the lower worms Bryozoa, 
appearing between the skin covering and the intestinal wall a simple 
body cavity. In the scolicida appears a long, dorsal vessel above 
the intestinal tube, a long ventral vessel behind it, the two connected 
by rings encircling the intestine. In ascidians a portion of the 
ventral vessel is enlarged to a simple heart pouch. In fishes the 
heart divides into two chambers, the lymph system appears side by 
side with the blood system. In the selachii five artery stalks rise 
from the main chambers of the heart. In amphibians only the right 
and left aortal arches are developed, whilst in mammalia the heart 
has four chambers and the left aortal arch alone is developed. We 
see here a law of decrease in a number of grand trunks and increase 
in the number of heart chambers. 

Turn now to the elaboration of the material, up through this three- 
fold labyrinth, the vital reservoir system, vital root system, and vital 
trunk system to reach its final destination in the flesh. The bolus as 
it leaves the mouth is wetted and masticated ; it is still crude food. 
As it leaves the stomach peptonized, it is soluble food. As it is 
absorbed by the villi having been emulsified by mixture of bile and 
pancreatic juice, it is liquid food. After passing the lymphatic 
glands it is vitalized food. After passing into the veins and through 
the portal system, it is crude blood plasma, and after passing the 
lungs it is purified blood plasma. 

By the natural miracle of transubstantiation the bread is made 
flesh. The eggs, bacon or biscuit eaten in the morning before the 
day is over will be living, walking, talking, writing letters. The 
change is fearful and wonderful if we simply contemplate it. Natural 
and admirable, scientific and not less wonderful, if we observe, test, 
measure, weigh and experiment. This humble mouthful of bread to 
fulfill the order of its being, to carry out the veritable purpose for 



i }6 The Odontographic Journal. 

which it was created and complete the great metabolic cycle must 
pass through fifteen processes. The mediaeval miracle of t ran sub- 
stantiation was performed "presto" at a blow, the modern scientific 
miracle of metabolism develops by stages, elaborates little by little, 
inch by inch, increment by increment. Prehension, mastication, 
insalivation, deglutition, peptonization, emulsification, fermentation, 
absorption, totalization, elaboration, purification, circulation, assimila- 
tion, disassimilation, such are the fourteen processes of the foremost 
of all vital functions. 

How may bread become flesh ? Follow out this bouchee de pain as 
it plunges down into this vital maelstrom and seek to follow it 
through all its windings in the thirty feet of intestinal canal, through 
the absorbent system, through the miles of veins, and through miles 
of arteries. 

Food is licked or sucked by the lips, lapped with the tongue, 
bitten by the teeth, finds itself cut, torn, and ground by incis6rs, 
canines, and molars, held fast and mashed up bymasseter and bucci- 
nator muscles, made moist and slippery by the saliva, moulded and 
rolled up into a bolus by that extraordinary muscle, the tongue, with 
its nine complicated movements, and thrown backward, it leaves its 
first cavity to pass to the second. Deglutition is a complicated and 
difficult performance involving many muscles, many nerves, and 
consisting of six distinct acts. Peristaltic action brings the bolus to 
the stomach, it is deluged with pepsin and hydrochloric acid and 
churned by a peristaltic and rotary motion through the combined 
action of longitudinal circular and oblique muscles. Only one 
portion of the food is dissolved. The nitrogenous or motor portion, 
fats and starches ; the more vegative portions wait for the next 
solvent in the duodenum, the bile intestine. The pasty mass of 
chyme is now again deluged, this time with bile and pancreatine 
mixed together. The pancreatic juice attacks the starch, exerts a 
hydrolytic influence, and emulsifies 40 per cent, of the fat, probably 
the simpler fats. The bile exerts an antiseptic influence, emulsifies 
nearly 60 per cent, of the fats, probably the more difficult ones. The 
pancreatic principle, apparently like the salivary principle, operates 
primarily on the starch or carbohydrates and proteids, and second- 
arily upon the fat, while the bile attacks directly and strongly the 
fats or hydrocarbons. Through the two we have a complete sugar 

transformation and saponification, and the whole is now chyle, a 

sugary, soapy, egg-white, milk\ mass, in taste not unlike mother's 
milk. Four million lacteal rootlets or villi drink this up. The 



Physiology of Digestion- -The Nutritive Organization. 137 

number of human rootlets has been carefully estimated by kraus. 
They begin in the duodenum, decline in the jejunum and disappear 

in the ileum. In the lower intestine, striking fermentative processes 
go on and strange substances are produced, phenol, skatol, etc., but 
we will follow the milky fluid into the lymphatic system. Chyle 
passes into lymphatic glands by the vasa afferentia, and when it 
comes out by the fewer vasa efferentia, it is alive with amoebaj or 
white blood corpuscles. In the spleen and portal circulation it is 
further elaborated, reddened, and strengthened by the red blood 
corpuscles, iron corpuscles, sent to the lungs it throws off its dark 
impurities and is vivified with oxygen, and we might find here a 
fifteenth process vivification, and finally with a hot rush from the 
propelling left ventricle, all sparkling and quivering and alive it 
bounds through the narrowing passages to meet the myriad capil- 
laries that are waiting for it. Living brick and mortar it is piled up 
in unstable molecules in the columns of muscles. As vital cell units 
these live their little lives, do their little work. Their function ended, 
they are dissimilated, disintegrated, pass into the torrent as effete 
matter and are expelled from the organism, the carboniferous portion 
through the lungs, the nitrogenous portion through the kidneys. 
Their two natures as it were divorced, one going to the air, the other 
to earth. Is not man himself and every animal compounded chemi- 
cally of this double substance ? By carbon the organism lives and 
grows, by nitrogen it moves. 

The three systems, reservoir system, absorption system, and 
assimilation system, with their fifteen ot sixteen processes, form an 
immense chemical apparatus, and the iatro-chemists were not far 
wrong when with the iatro-mechanicians they divided the empire of 
man. The surgeon's field is the exterior or mechanical part of man, 
the physician's field is the interior, the chemical part of man. 

You may say literally that the nutritive or chemical organization 
comprises the whole of the inside of the organism. We refer to it 
daily when in popular phase we speak of a man's inside. The man 
who has big lungs and a big stomach, and a powerful circulation 
may be said to have a powerful nutritive organization. 

To the stomach the organism looks for its food, to the lungs for 

its fire. The nutritive organization is of all the four most costly to 

support, yet it must be supported. Nine-tenths of all one's expenses 

for the supply of stomach and lungs. Hunger, thirst, suffocation 

and cold ensue when the wants of the nutritive organization are not 



1 3S T/ie Odontographic Journal. 

attended to. It is the system of vital importance, the veritably vital 
organization, and to supply its wants all the agriculturists, three- 
fourths of the manufacturers and half the traders of this world are 
at work. Food and drink and fuel cost something, houses and 
clothes supply wants, and from these vital wants or necessities men 
work to accumulate food, drink, fuel, clothes and shelter. Comforts 
and luxuries are delightful, pictures and books are edifying, but the 
necessities of this world are what rule it. From the decrees of 
hunger and cold there is no appeal, and the general belief is that 
property, if not the highest thing, is at least before all else a good 
thing. Lands and houses, much cattle, and heaps of gold and silver, 
what are they? Necessities, tissue formers and heat producers, 
nothing else. They all go first and foremost to the support of that 
tyrant inside of a man, the nutritive organization. — Wood, Dietetic 
Gazette. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION IN THE MOVEMENT 

OF A TOOTH. 



When force is exerted upon a tooth for the purpose of moving it, 
the first effect produced is the compression of the pericementum 
between the tooth and alveolar wall on the advancing side and the 
stretching of the same membrane on the opposite side. In the 
compression of the membrane the blood supply is partly cut off, and 
the nerves, by their irritation, create a sensation of pain which is soon 
obliterated by the semi-paralysis brought about by continued pressure. 
At the same time, this irritation stimulates and hastens the develop- 
ment of the osteoclasts, which at once begin the work of breaking 
down and absorbing that portion of the aveolus pressed upon. 

Bony tissue thus being removed, accommodation is made for the 
advancement of the tooth, which at once takes place. Under 
continued pressure this action is renewed again and again until the 
tooth has reached its desired position. While this is taking place on 
the advancing side quite an opposite condition prevails on the side 
from which advancement has taken place. There the fibrous tissue 
of the pericementum has been subjected to extreme tension : greater 
room has been provided for the accommodation of the nutrient 
vessels, and osteoblasts have been developed tor the formation of 
bony material to add to the alveolar wall, and thus close the space 

ised by the movement Of the tooth. While these processes of 
absorption and reproduction on opposite sides of the tooth have been 



Physiological Action in the Movement of a 'Tooth. i ;*, 

going on cpincidentally, their results have been very unequal, for 
the absorption of hone is a far more rapid process than its formation. 

I Hiring the entire time of moving, and for a long time afterwards, 
the tension of the pericementum on the free side of the tooth is kept 
up to such an extent that, were the force of pressure or of retention 
renewed, the tooth would at once be drawn partly back into the 
space created by its movement. 

The tendency is only finally overcome after the deposit of ossific 
matter in the alveolar socket has been sufficient to allow the perice- 
mentum to resume its normal thickness on that side of the tooth, 
when, by virtue of the removal of the tension and support of the 
new bony tissue, the backward movement of the tooth is no longer 
possible. 

While this process of reparative construction has been going on, 
the structures obout the opposite side of the tooth have been adjust- 
ing themselves to the new condition. The pressure upon the tooth 
having ceased, no more bone is absorbed ; any injury inflicted upon 
the pericementum by its continuous compression is repaired ; the 
nerves and blood-vessels resume their normal functions ; and the 
tooth in its new position becomes a far more useful member of the 
dental organism than it had been. — Guilford, International Dental 
Journal. 



THE MacCOY PNEUMATIC TOOL. 



It consists of a cylindrical case bored out internally so as to 
receive a piston. The actuating portion of the piston is uppermost 
as the sectional illustrations stand, and is prolonged downward of 
reduced diameter, as if forming a piston rod, which again expands 
so as to form a second piston-like collar or hammer head. The 
actuating portion, as we have termed it, which is really the piston 
proper, is contained in its own chamber, within which it can recipro- 
cate like the piston of a steam engine. At the end of each stroke it 
is air cushioned. From the lower part of the tool a stem projects 
adapted to carry any desired chisel. This stem is free to move up 
and down. In the lighter class of tools it is normally pressed 
upward by a spiral spring. When the piston is driven downward, it 
strikes the head of this loose stem. At the upper end of the case is 
a nozzle to which a hose connected to an air or steam supply can be 
( onnected. The piston is drilled transversely, and in this aperture a 



140 The Odontography Journal. 

valve travels back and forth. It is turned out of a single piece of 
steel, and cylindrical, with three collars. Four passages for air go 
through the piston. As the valve travels back and forth, it opens 
and shuts the valve openings, so as to admit compressed air to one 
end or the other of the piston, and to bring each end of the air 
chamber or cylinder alternately in communication with the atmos- 
phere. The compressed air itself causes the valve to travel back and 
forth. The effect is simple. When air at high pressure is admitted, 
it actuates the valve, and in consequence the piston, which at once 
starts into action with lightning-like rapidity. It beats back and 
forth, air-cushioned at the end of each stroke, on each downward 
movement striking the upper end of the stem. As many blows per 
minute as 15,000 are spoken of by the inventors. Whether this rate 
has been attained is doubtful, but with its air-driven valve and 
exceedingly limited number of parts, it has the capacity for velocity, 
and certainly attains a wonderfully high rate of action. , 

The tool is provided with its own throttle or cut-off valve for 
stopping or starting it. This, as now adopted, acts by closing the air 
outlet. It has no projecting parts, and is casehardened throughout, 
so that it is not susceptible of injury. It will stand the most severe 
usage and even abuse. 

To the stem the cutting tool or chisel is attached, the lever end of 
the stem entering into a hole drilled and reamed in the end of the 
chisel. From the description it will be seen that the construction is 
simple to the last degree, a piston, valve, and loose stem being the 
moving parts. In some of the larger sizes the spring for pressing 
back the stem is not used. The stem drops forward out of reach of 
the striking end of the piston head. In this class the chisel receives 
no blows until pressed upward within reach of the piston head by 
1 ontact with the work. 

To drive it, air at a pressure of about 40 pounds to the inch is 
used. A number of sizes are constructed for a large range of work. 
\> .1 cutting instrument, it may be used on every material — wood, 
stone, or metal. Asa tamping machine, it can be employed for every- 
thing, from filling teeth to calking steam boilers. It has also received 
an extensive application for repousse silver and sheet metal work 

and engraving. 

i acquire an idea of its power, the action of the large size upon 
a block of brown sandstone may be cited. A heavy chisel, two or 

three inches wide, is inserted in \ bee. the air IS turned on. and at 



The Mac Coy Pneumatic Tool. 



' P 



once the tool begins to hum like a top, 
trembles, in the hand. The cutting tool is 



and vibrates, or rather 
now pressed against the 









r 


\ 








a. Front srctional elevation. b. Side sectional elevation, c. Showing eduction 
chamber, d. I ndu< tion chamber and side-stop motion, e. Valve chamber plan. 
/. Throttle plan. 

stone by the operator. The multiplicity of light blows begin to show 
their force. The stone at the point of the chisel is converted at once 



i 1 2 The Odontography Journal. 

into dust, the edge enters the stone, and begins to wedge off chips 
half as large as the band. Almost as fast as the tool could be 
conveniently moved forward, even without obstruction, it plows its 
way through the material, absolutely planing the solid stone as a 
carpenter would treat a block of soft wood, but deeper and more 
rapidly. A more remarkable exhibition of power cannot well be 
thought of. A tool weighing, perhaps, fifteen or twenty pounds, 
held without any bracing by the workman, cuts stone as if it were 
cheese. 

To show its delicacy a smaller one maybe used. A tool not much 
larger than a pen holder, designed for filling cavities in teeth, is fitted 
with a chisel. With this marble can be carved with the greatest 
delicacy, the shaping reminding one of modeling in clay. The 
marble yields to the rapid percussion as if it were a plastic material. 

Its action on iron comes next. A cut can be carried right across 
a smooth face, with slight pressure from the person holding it, a 
smooth chip or shaving curling away sidewise from the cut, such as 
might have been turned out by a sharp chisel driven by a skilled 
workman. In wood the action is the same. With a gouge as cutter, 
(hip after chip is cut away, the wood yielding with curious and 
almost plastic facility. The cut can be carried up to the very edge 
of the block without danger of splitting. When the gouge is forced 
in too deeply, the work is checked, but by keeping one or the other 
corner free, the chips come away as fast as the tool can be moved 
around so as to cut them away from the body of the wood. 

The above describes the experiences of the writer. It is safe to 
say in each minute the instrument strikes more blows than a good 
workman would in a day of ten hours. Owing to the small range of 
action of the piston, the blows are individually of slight force, the 
remarkable power being derived from their multiplicity. These trials 
disclosed the more characteristic action of the tool where cutting is 
involved. It isalso used to actuate a striking tool for doing repous 
work in metal. The metal yields to the blows, swelling up into 
shapes thai by the skillful operator can be given any shape, such as 
birds, fruits, or other objects. Separate strikers are provided tor 
different inside and outside work, and the striking bits can be 
• hanged at will according to the class or stage of the design. 

Owing to the extreme rapidity of the succession of blows.no 

oil, or a very slight and easily controlled one only, is felt. To 

this pe< uliarity, much of the efficiency of the instrument is due. It 



The MacCoy Pneumatic Tool. 143 

« an, without trouble, be held to its work, and the finest lines ol ;i 
design can be followed with precision. Marble can be cut away to 
a pencil mark ; across a smooth surface of iron a cut can be carried 
with the utmost accuracy. On some materials it accomplishes a new 
result in its planing action. Thus, stone can be worked oil to a 
surface just as a carpenter would plane wood. All these are possible 
on account of the absence of recoil. 

We illustrate several of its applications : In the mine it can he- 
used to cut away the mineral. This use illustrates the lowest stage 
of stone cutting. In the marble factory and sculptor's atelier it is 
used for the most delicate carvings. Work of the most artistic type 
can be executed by it with a rare combination of freedom and pre- 
cision. The iron worker uses it for chipping and calking. We 
illustrate its use on steam boilers. Finally, its use by the jeweler on 
repousse work is shown. The worker in precious metals, and in art 
work generally, can employ it with great effect, also, as an engraving 
tool, and can produce beautiful effects by combining engraving with 
repousse designs, all performed by it. — Scientific America?i. 



NEGLECTED ADVANTAGES. 



No fact seems to be more generally admitted than that the present 
is an age of imyrovement. The triumphs of steam and electricity, 
whereby our ready communication and exchange are so vastly pro- 
moted, are fitly supplemented by the growth of more enlightened 
and liberal views in science, ethics, and religion, softening and 
broadening in their influence, and steadily tending to bring in peace 
and good-will among men. The laws of sanitary science aie 
inquired into with a zeal born of enthusiasm, that the "pestilence 
that walketh in darkness and wasteth at noon-day " may be stayed. 
The reform of political methods is undertaken and carried forward 
by earnest and unselfish men to the end that good government and 
wise policy be promoted, and justice and prosperity prevail. 

But no observant person can fail to be struck with the fact that, 
after all, the acceptance of new ideas and new methods is of really 
slow growth, limited at first to a few receptive minds ; that the mass 
of mankind are not easily changed from the habits and methods to 
which they have become accustomed. To them appears as the highest 
wisdom the snug and satisfied philosophy embodied in the couplet : 
" Be not the first by whom the new is tried, 
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside," 

forgetful that were it adopted by ail there would be an end of 

progress. 



144 The O do a tog rap hie Journal. 

Reflection upon this phase of the subject has led me to better 
understand what I confess has sometimes surprised me in the atti- 
tude held by so many in our own chosen profession, which is but 
an epitome and microcosm of the larger world. 

That the improvements made within the past few years in the 
practice of dentistry — especially in the appliances used — have been 
very great, all will admit. We are, indeed, apt to speak of our 
progress as phenomenal and exceeding that in most other branches 
of human activity, which is perhaps in consequence of our nearer 
view. Be that as it may, the fact remains that we have at our com- 
mand in the present day many advantages in the conduct of our 
beneficent work not possessed or scarcely even dreamed of by our 
fathers, — advantages which, if not neglected, but rightly employed, 
are capable of increasing our capacity and consequent usefulness to 
those under our care to a most marked degree. The statement does 
not readily admit of illustration by statistics, so much of the purely 
personal element is to be taken into the account, or I should be 
tempted to undertake it. I can only say, in passing, that in my indi- 
vidual experience as demonstrated by my recorded operations the 
benefit derived has been sufficient to more than double my capacity 
*for work. 

That many of these advantages are neglected by not a few among 
us, to their own and their patient's detriment, is to me therefore a 
matter of regret, and I shall endeavor in the short time at my disposal 
to designate a few of the more prominent improvements, and com- 
ment briefly upon their value, in the hope that thereby they may be 
more generally appreciated and made use of. 

\nt undertaking to indicate the order of importance, I shall speak 
of the assistant, the burring-engine, the matrix, and the separator. 

And first of the assistant at the chair. There is, I am aware, in 
the minds of many dentists, a prejudice against the employment 
or presence even of another person at the operating chair, — a preju- 
dice which I confess I myself once shared, but which experience 
lias shown to be unfounded and absurd to the last degree. They 
fancy that the presence Of another will in a measure interfere with 
tin- somewhat personal and confidential relation which the dentist 
should hold toward his patient, and that fastidious patients might 
object to their employment. Granting the objection its full weight, 
I am convinced that it should not be for a moment considered in 
view of the advantages which can be set against it. To the operator 
aided by ;i trained and intelligent .i-sist.mt is given another pair of 
hands,— and sometimes we fancy that Briareus with his hundred 



Neglected Advantages. 145 

arms would have too few for the emergency ! — another pair of eyes 
to look for the elusive and particular instrument required, two will- 
ing feet to fetch the needed article just out of reach, and another 
brain to take thought of the order and care of the surroundings. 
To the patient is given the service of one less preoccupied than the 
principal, to see to his needs, look after his comfort, and help in a 
hundred nameless ways to shorten the tedium and fatigue of the 
dreaded sitting. 

Objection is sometimes made to the employing of an assistant on 
the ground of expense, many declaring that they cannot afford to, 
seeming to regard it in the nature of a needless luxury ; and I have, 
in advocating this advantage, not unfrequently been asked what use 
I could find for an assistant aside from malleting. 

The objection of expense can be urged against the employment of 
any means of improvement ; but expense is relative, and what seems 
needless extravagance may in fact be the wisest economy. No one, 
however limited his practice, can afford to forego the advantage of 
an assistant ; on the contrary, the increased efficiency and celerity 
which he thereby secures — to say nothing of the added comfort 
which is insured to his patient — will repay tenfold the probable 
expense incurred. 

A word as to what kind of assistant. Having tried them of both 
kinds, I give the preference to those of the gentler sex, as being, all 
things considered, better adapted by nature to fill the office ; and to 
illustrate, I will mention some of the services rendered me by the 
young lady who has for some time past been associated with me in 
this capacity. 

In the first place, she looks to the general condition of the fixtures 
of the office after the servants have properly swept and dusted, to 
see that everything is in proper order for the reception of patients ; 
she keeps in condition the instruments and appliances used, bringing 
them to me as wanted and returning them to place when done with ; 
she prepares in advance all articles that may be needed, such as 
absorbent paper, pellets, waxed ligatures for adjusting the rubber- 
dam, swabs for dressing root-canals ; she assists in putting on the 
rubber-dam, or in using the separator or matrix ; she holds away the 
lips or the tongue of the patient when needed, to avoid abrasion or 
secure a better view ; prepares ready to my hand the materials for 
filling and assists in packing them into the cavity, and renders a 
thousand and one little services to the saving of my time and 
strength and the preservation of my good temper that time would 
fail me to enumerate. 



146 The Odontography Journal. 

The number among us who fail to make use of the burring-engine 
in some measure is perhaps too small to be seriously considered, 
vet I am of opinion that not a few fail to get from it all the advan- 
tage which they might. The operator who wastes his strength and 
sacrifices in some degree his steadiness of touch by driving his own 
engine, standing on one leg, stands no less in his own light. This 
matter should be delegated to an assistant, or, better still, some 
motor power should be employed for the purpose. There can be 
little excuse at the present day for not doing so. I have in my own 
practice for several years made use of a water motor, put in at an 
expense of about one hundred dollars, and costing me in taxes some 
eight dollars yearly, which I am confident has been a most profit- 
able investment. The steadiness of the bur when driven by a uni- 
form power makes its use less painful than when driven in the 
usual way by the treadle, besides the operator and assistant are left 
free to give their attention to other matters. But great as is the 
advantage secured by the burring-engine in the preparation of ordi- 
nary and accessible cavities, in reaching those upon the posterior 
surfaces of teeth far back in the mouth it is indispensable, if time 
and the feelings of the patient are to be taken into account. By 
the aid of the corundum-stone and the back-action hand-piece, such 
cavities can be readily exposed and prepared with nearly as much 
facility as any ; while with the help of a suitable matrix the intro- 
duction of a proper filling is rendered far less difficult and uncertain 
than would otherwise be possible. 

It is in such cases as these, and in those more accessible teeth 
where considerable loss of substance has taken place, that I find 
most use for the matrix in some form ; and while I do not myself 
make use of it in filling many approximal cavities in the molars and 
bicuspids, I have been surprised to hear, within a short time past, 
two deservedly prominent dentists admit that they had never even 
tried such an appliance. However, I am satisfied that the matrix 
is too useful to be wholly discarded, though less a necessity than 
some other things. 

The separator, as introduced in its crude form by the late Dr. 
Jarvis and modified by Dr. Perry and Dr. Bogue, also the forms 
devised by Dr. Parr, Dr. Elliott, and others, has met with a iess uni- 
versal acceptance than its great merit demands. It is one of the most 
useful devicesfor saving time, both to the operator and patient, that 
has been introduced. Nor is time alone saved, but pain and discom- 
fort as well. By its employment not only are the teeth separated 
quickly without serious discomfort, but being also thereby held firmly 



Neglected A di u mtages. i j 7 

in the changed position their sensibility is greatly reduced, as every 
one familiar with the use of this instrument has doubtless observed. 
1 am aware that many quite progressive dentists have not yet 
availed themselves of the manifest advantage of the separator from 
fear that injury might be done by its use, or that it would provoke 
protests from their patients. This objection might be urged against 
almost any instrument we have, and with about as much force. 1 
have never known of harm done by its use, while we are all familiar 
with cases where serious mischief has been wrought through the 
careless separation of teeth by the ordinary methods with wedges 
of rubber, wood, or cotton. 

It is true that the sensation caused by the application of the sep- 
arator is at the first somewhat unpleasant, possibly painful ; but it 
is only momentary, and patients after experience with it almost 
universally express their preference for it over other means. The 
time saved by its use is no small item. 

To apply it will take, let us say, at a liberal estimate, perhaps five 
minutes in the most difficult cases, and of course much less usually. 
By the ordinary method of separation nearly as much time will be 
consumed in getting the patient into the chair and introducing a 
wedge of cotton or rubber, which not unfrequently will require one 
or more renewals before sufficient space is gained, each renewal 
taking a few moments of the dentist's time and involving another 
visit on the part of the patient. In a full practice the aggregate 
waste of time is a serious loss. 

But as I did not set out to cover the whole field of neglected 
advantages, I will not further continue. In what has been said, my 
desire has been to impress upon such of my professional brethren 
as have for any reason failed to fully appreciate the benefits of the 
appliances mentioned my own belief in their value, and to ask them 
seriously to consider whether they can afford to forego any advan- 
tages of this nature which are within their reach. If any shall be 
aided in this by what has been said, I shall feel that I have not 
spoken in vain. — Brockway, Dental Cosmos. 



CELLULOID. 



Now there seems to be every probability of glass being, at least 
partially, superseded by celluloid in negative work, especially out of 
doors, we may expect soon to find a new subject for discussion in 



148 The Odontography Journal. 

the question as to whether the substance referred to is altogether 
free from faults in its new application. It may he said, indeed, that 
the question has already been raised. 

If it should be proved that these doubts are well founded, the 
question suggests itself as to whether the beautiful substance cannot 
in some way be freed from its baneful ingredients. In other words. 
whether it cannot be decampJwrated and de nitrated without destroying 
its advantageous features, especially its transparency and flexibility. 

With a view of testing the possibility of this we have made a few 
rough experiments, but not with any very decisive result, at any rate 
so far as success is concerned, but rather the opposite. With a view 
of removing, if possible, the camphor, a sheet of celluloid was 
digested with ordinary methylated alcohol, which, though at first 
producing no apparent result, was found in the course of a few hours 
to have completely dissolved it. Here, then, there is no possibility 
of dissolving out the camphor, since the latter lends" its aid to the 
alcohol in dissolving the pyroxyline. 

Another sheet accurately weighed (like the last) was submitted to 
the heat of about 180 Fahr. in a gas oven for a period of twelve 
hours ; at the end of that time it was physically changed to the 
extent of being badly curled and crumpled by the heat, though that 
might possibly be remedied by proper precautions. But the loss in 
weight after twelve hours "stoving " did not amount to one tenth of 
one per cent on the total weight. So here, again, there does not 
appear much hope of driving off the camphor in vapor without hope- 
lessly spoiling the material. 

Of a number of experiments in denitrating, one may be specially 
mentioned. If the celluloid be immersed in strong concentrated 
sulphuric acid, no apparent action takes place ; but if an equal 
volume of water be added, the sudden and intense heat evolved 
causes a deep yellow coloration of both celluloid and liquid, and 
the evolution of a powerful empyreumatic, mixed up with which 
( amphor is plainly recognizable. After a very short time the action 
ceases and the color leaves the solution. 

If the celluloid be now taken OUt, washed, and dried, it will be 
found to have lost, considerably in weight and to have had its surface 

11 iwa\ irregularly, or corroded in much the same way as gl 

when treated with dilute hydrofluoric acid. Returned to the dilute 
sulphuric acid and boiled, no further action takes place until ebulli- 
tion has gone on for some time, when the liquid commences to turn 



Celluloid. 149 

yellow, but the color at first quickly disappears on stirring. Gradually, 
however, it becomes stronger and more persistent, and at the same 

time strong nitrous fumes are given off, these being apparently the 
cause of the yellowing. Finally, the color becomes brown, and the 
celluloid dissolves entirely, forming a deep brown solution. 

Now this seems to prove that as celluloid the substance for a long 
time resists even boiling sulphuric acid, but gradually it is denitrated, 
and then as cellulose is carbonized and destroyed by the acid. Thus 
the possibility of denitration is proved, but whether it can be done 
practically without destruction is a question. 

If this can be accomplished, one at least of the possible weak 
points in celluloid will be removed. — British Journal. 



DEATH OF THE MAN WHO KNEW HOW TO MAKE 
ALUMINUM FROM CLAY. 



The manager of the American Aluminum Company, Fred. J. 
Seymour, died at Findlay, Ohio, last week, and the secret of making 
aluminum is said to have died with him. He was the inventor of 
processes by which this valuable metal could be profitably extracted 
from common clay, and had put his inventions into practical use. 
About four years ago, as the result of years of experiments, F. J. 
Seymour, then a citizen of Detroit, secured patents covering processes 
for the manufacturing of aluminum. He had little difficulty in 
inducing capital to take hold of the enterprise, and the American 
Aluminum Company was organized, with Gen. Russell A. Alger as 
president and Senator Palmer, of Michigan, as vice-president. The 
discovery of natural gas in Findlay caused the location of the labora- 
tories there. Expensive retorts and valuable machinery were con- 
structed, and the manufacture was begun on a large scale, and 
proved so successful that large quantities of the metal were placed 
upon the market at a large profit on the investment. 

The process, although patented in nearly all of its points, has 
been kept a religious secret, says a correspondent, and no one has 
ever been permitted to penetrate the mysteries surrounding it. A 
15-foot picket fence surrounds the buildings, with its gates doubly 
padlocked. From remarks made by the chemists and other employes 
at different times, it is gathered that the clay, after being ground in 
water and treated with various chemicals, is treated to a heat of 
1,500° in large retorts, until it has become thoroughly fused. When 



150 The Odontographic Journal. 

it has reached the crowning temparature, the precious metal is 
separated from the mass by the addition of a certain chemical in 
specific quantities, but the name and nature of this chemical is not 
disclosed in the latters patent, nor has any one employed about the 
works ever discovered it. It is this secret that has gone down into 
the grave with F. J. Seymour. It had been his invariable custom to 
await the critical moment when the fluid mass had reached the right 
stage, and then all the employes were excluded from the room, the 
doors were locked, and all alone he went through the mysterious 
processes of the laboratory, adding a chemical that no one knows the 
name of, has never seen, and in quantities that cannot be even 
guessed at. His death came as the result of a paralytic stroke, from 
which he never recovered consciousness, so that on his deathbed he 
had no opportunity of revealing the all-important secret. The stock- 
holders of the company are undetermined what to do under the 
peculiar circumstances in which they are placed, but wilj probably 
give some of their chemists full scope to endeavor to rediscover the 
lost secret. — Electrical Review. 



(ARE IN DENTAL OPERATIONS. 



The treatment of abscesses, roots, and teeth, when carried to a 
successful termination, also requires the greatest care. I am not 
among those who advocate an immediate root-filling, under any and 
all circumstances; in fact, would rarely advocate the practice, and 
certainly not where the root or tooth had been bathed in and per- 
meated with the products of decomposition for a length of time. 
While we are better able to judge of the conditions at present 
than before the introduction of the peroxide of hydrogen into our 
list of remedies, still, for all that, I am of the opinion that great 
(are should be exercised in determining the facts as to the proper 
time to fill such roots, believing the permanent results to be greatly 
influenced by the condition of the root when filled, whether septic 
or aseptic, throughout its whole extent. In the removal of pulps of 
teeth after devitalization, great care should be exercised to avoid 
giving pain to the patient (or more than is absolutely necessary ), as 
well as to successfully accomplishing that which we have undertaken. 

By resorting to remedies which we should always have on hand, 
irbolic acid, etc, and by the use of broaches, barbed and 

smooth, and the Donaldson nerve-canal reamers, we can arrive at 
tilts that but a few years since were beyond the possibilities, and 



Care in Dental Operations. i 5 r 

of course- our successes will be iu a like manner increased. The 
filling of root-canals also has, from the introduction of the practice 
to the present time, been one of the operations that have stood as 
witnesses in evidence of the fact that care and thoroughness have 
all to do with success in dental practice. The theory of the pres- 
ervation of pulpless teeth is based upon the perfect accomplishment 
of this operation. The means resorted to in carrying out the 
intentions of the operation are various, and outline in a manner 
the amount of skill possessed by the practitioner. With the knowl- 
edge which we have at present of the conditions absolutely neces- 
sary to success, to my mind one who would use cotton as a mot- 
til' ing, as we often see advocated, would certainly show a want of 
care for the patient, his profession, and himself. While I am an 
earnest advocate of the use of gutta-percha in some form, I recog- 
nize that other materials may answer as well in other hands. 

The important uses to which abscessed roots and teeth are 
frequently put in our present modes of practice will, I think, justify 
me in insisting upon the exercise in all cases of the greatest care, 
both in the thorough treatment and filling of such roots, being, as 
they frequently are, the foundation upon which the whole structure 
of a useful denture is based. — Fuller, Wester?i Dental Journal. 



A NOBLE METAL.— PLATINUM. 



Charles Wood, an assayer, in 1741 found in Jamaica some platina 
which had been brought from Carthagena and which he forwarded 
to London for inspection as a curiosity. 

The first to mention platina by its present name, however, which 
means "little silver," was Don Antonio Ulloa, a Spanish mathema- 
tician, who, in 1735, accompanied the French academicians who 
were sent to Peru by their sovereign to measure a degree of the 
meridian in order to determine the figure of the earth. 

After his return he publisned at Madrid, in 1748, a history of his 
voyage, and mentioned the abandonment of the gold mines in the 
territory of Choco on account of the presence of platina, which, 
being too hard to easily break or calcinate, the gold could not be 
extracted without much expense and geat difficulty. 

It is reported in the Chemical Annals for July, 1792, that the 
miners of Choco, discovering platina was a metal, began to use it in 
adulterating gold, in consequence of which the Court of Spain, 



152 T/ir Odontographic Journal. 

tearing disastrous results therefrom, attempted not only to prevent 
its export, but to conceal the discovery of the metal from the world. 

To effect this all gold brought from Choco to be coined at the 
two mints of Santa Fe was carefully inspected, and all platina separ- 
ated and given to the king's specially appointed officers, and when a 
sufficient quantity had accumulated, it was taken to the river Rogota, 
about two leagues from Santa Fe, or to the river Cauca, about one 
league from Papayan, and in the presence of witnesses thrown into 
the river. 

From the great specific gravity of this metal, it being the hea\ 
known, together with its malleability and ductility, and the fact of 
its great resistance to the action of acids, alkalies and sulphurs, it 
has become known as the " metal of the chemists." 

Some of the most important discoveries of modern chemistry 
would have been impossible without the aid of platina. It js so soft 
it may be readily cut with the scissors, and when formed into a 
mirror, reflects but one image. 

Platina has been found in various parts of the world — Peru, New 
( iranada, Brazil, St. Domingo, and in the gold washings of California, 
Australia and Borneo — but the principal source of supply is in the 
Ural Mountains of Russia and the auriferous sand of Kuschwa, in 
the Auralian Mountains of Siberia. 

Platina is rarely found in pieces larger than a few grains in weight. 

The chief uses of platina are for the various apparatus used in 
chemical laboratories, such as crucibles (first crucible was produced 
in r 784), spoons, blow-pipe points, tongs, forceps, and boilers or stills 
for concentrating sulphuric acid. A still of this kind, valued at 
95,000 francs, was exhibited at Vienna in 1 8 7 3 , capacity 20,000 
pounds of sulphuric acid daily. 

An ingot valued at S jo, 000 was exhibited at the London Exhibi- 
tion in 1S62. 

On account of the hi tz;h degree of heat requisite to fuse or melt 
platina — melting point 1,460° to 1,480° — it is the only metal used 
tor making the pins of porcelain teeth, and on account of its value 
and lack of any known substitute, has become the greatest item of 

expense in their manufacture. 

It is also utilized for making tine jewclery, and a great and grow- 
ing demand has been but recently created by the development of 

ele< tn< My. 



. / Nobh ■ Metal.— P la tin u m. 15 3 

The Russian Government began coining plat in a for general 
circulation in 1826 and continued until 1845, when by an imperial 

ukase the coinage was discontinued and the $2,500,000 issued called 
in because of the great fluctuation in the price of the metal. 

The average production of platina metal from 1828 to 1845 
amounted to 2,623.8 kilos or 5,784.48 lbs. per anum ; from 1875 to 
1884 inclusive, the average yield of the Russian mines was '^3,483.3 
lbs. per annum, showing a decrease since 1882, the maximum year of 
45 per cent, in the yield. The Russian mines yield 80 per cent, of 
the total product of the world. 

The price of platina, which has always ruled very high in conse- 
quence of the continually increasing demand, the limited source of 
supply, without any new discoveries of moment sufficient to relieve 
the market, is constantly advancing, so rapidly indeed as to cause 
serious apprehension for the future. 

Those industries whose manufacturers depend largely on platina 
as their chief element of cost (and with no known substitute in 
sight), such as stills, crucibles, porcelain teeth, electrical and chem- 
ical apparatus, etc., are suffering more or less seriously from this 
increase in price, and for self-protection it would seem will be 
obliged to advance prices porportionately. — Electrical Review. 



TAKING LOWER IMPRESSIONS. 



Dr. F. C. Green, in experimenting in staking lower impressions, 
believes he has succeeded in finding a means by which a perfect 
impression may always be obtained in those difficult cases where the 
absorption has been great and where the attachment of the muscles is 
very close to the alveolar border, rendering it difficult to construct a 
plate that will not impinge upon the muscles and rise whenever the 
patient opens his mouth or raises the tongue. This method is 
as follows: Use a very narrow impression cup, one not much wider 
than the alveolar ridge; fill the cup with plaster, very soft, adding a 
little sulphate of potash to make it set rapidly. When hard, remove 
from the mouth, and with a small scraper, remove a thin layer over 
tne entire surface of the impression; trim the edges, and especially 
the tongue. Place the impression in water for a few moments and 
when thoroughly wet fill it with very thin plaster, not thicker than 

♦Above figures are from the latest statistics obtainable, up to May, 1888. Russian officials are 
to be very dilatory with their reports. 



154 Tht Odontography Journal. 

(ream; place it in position in the mouth with gentle pressure; 
observe that the buccinitor muscle is not impinged upon and 
request the patient to raise the tongue, letting the point rest upon 
the cup. When hard, remove, and if each step of the process has 
been carefully taken, the result will be an impression from which a 
plate can be constructed that will not rise or rattle while speaking. 
He never uses anything but plaster for taking impressions of the 
mouth, believing it to be the only reliable material for this purpose. 
— Dc?ital Office and Laboratory. 



HOW TO STAIN AND TO AVOID DISCOLORIZING THE 
TUBERCLE BACILLUS. 



For an expert there is not much difficulty in finding these microbes, 
even if they should be present in very small numbers. For the less 
experienced, however, there is considerable difficulty in their dis- 
covery on account of the great facility with which they are decolor- 
ized by the nitric acid if the prepared cover-glass should be in only 
a few seconds too long contact with the acid. Especially when the 
bacilli are very few in number this decolorization readily takes place, 
and they consequently become invisible. 

The patient is then, on account of the negative result, pronounced 
free from tuberculosis, when he is in reality suffering from this 
disease. 

Therefore, to be able to discover the bacilli, we must know of 
some acid or other agent that does not decolorize these microbe^ 
even after having been a long time in contact with them. 

Such an agent we possess in oxalic acid. 

The staining is done in the following way : One part of aniline 
oil is thoroughly shaken for a few minutes with ten parts of distilled 
water, and then filtered through a filter previously moistened with 
water. To the perfectly clear solution is then added four or five 
drops of a saturated alcoholic solution of fuchsin. In this solution 
(fuchsin aniline water) is immersed the prepared cover-glass. The 
solution is slowly heated a lew minutes until vapor appears, then the 
cover-glass is taken out and washed in distilled water, and afterward 
immersed in a saturated solution of oxalic acid. It must remain here 
until it is completely decolorized, when it is taken out, dried, and 
immersed in a wc;ik solution of methylin blue, until it has received 

a light-blue color (about one-halt t<> two minutes). \ftcr this it is 



National Association oj Pin to! Examiners, 155 

dried again, and examined in Canada balsam with a homogeneous 

immersion-lens. All is now colored blue excepl the bacilli, which 
have a beautiful red color. 

I have tried several methods of staining, but in none of them are 
the bacilli seen so plainly and brilliantly as when the above method 
is used. — Norderling, Medical Record. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DENTAL EXAMINERS.* 



The association held its eight annual session at Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., commencing August 6, 1889. 

The following boards were represented : Illinois by C. R. E. 
Koch ; Ohio, J. Taft, H. A. Smith ; New Jersey, F. A. Levy, J. G. 
Palmer ; Indiana, S. T. Kirk ; Maryland, T. S. Waters ; Massachu- 
setts, L. D. Shepard, J. S. Hurlbut ; Vermont, Geo. H. Swift, James 
Lewis ; Delaware, C. R. Jefferis, T. H. Gilpin ; Colorado, B. T. 
Smith ; Georgia, A. G. Bouton. 

Delaware and California were admitted. 

Drs. Jefferis, Shepard, and Koch were appointed to consider 
correspondence with reference to the standing of a college whose 
name had been omitted from the list of colleges whose diplomas 
were recommended to be received by the State Boards. This 
committee was afterwards constituted the Committee on Colleges. 

The committee later reported that the secretary be instructed to 
inform the Dental Department of St. Louis College of Physicians 
and Surgeons that owing to insufficient information the association 
is unable to take final action on its application for recognition ; and 
sustaining the action of the officers in omitting the name of the 
University of Maryland from the printed list of recognized colleges 
last year. The report was received and adopted unanimously. 

The committee reported the following as reputable : 

American College of Dental Surgery, Chicago, 111. 
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Baltimore, Md. 
Boston Dental College, Boston, Mass. 
Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Chicago, 111. 

College of Dentistry, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Dental Department, Columbia University, Washington, D. C. 
Dental Department of Northwestern University, Chicago, 111. 
Dental Department of Southern Medical College, Atlanta, Ga. 



n report furnished by the publishers of the Dental Cosmos. 



i^6 The Odontographic Journal. 

Dental Department of University of Tennessee, Nashville, Tenn. 

Harvard University, Dental Department, Cambridge, Mass. 

Indian;) Dental College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Kansas City Dental College, Kansas City, Mo. 

Louisville College of Dentistry, Louisville, Ivy. 

Minnesota Hospital College, Dental Department, Minneapolis, Minn. (De- 
funct.) 

Missouri Dental College, St. Louis, Mo. 

New York College of Dentistry, New York City. 

Ohio College of Dental Surgery, Cincinnati, O. 

Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia Dental College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

School of Dentistry of Meharry Medical Department of Central Tennessee 
College, Nashville, Tenn. 

St. Paul Medical College, Dental Department, St. Paul, Minn. (Defunct.) 

I' Diversity of California, Dental Department, San Francisco, Cal. 

Northwestern College of Dental Surgery, Chicago, 111. (Defunct.) 

University of Iowa, Dental Department, Iowa City, la. 

University of Maryland. Dental Department, Baltimore, Md. 

University of Michigan, Dental Department, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

University of Pennsylvania, Dental Department, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vanderbilt University, Dental Department, Nashville, Tenn. 

The committee recommended also that the standing Committee on 
Colleges be instructed hereafter to take cognizance of and investi- 
gate all charges against any college, that they give the accused an 
opportunity for defense, and that they report a revised list of col- 
leges at each annual meeting after having investigated all com- 
plaints ; and that this same committee also have authority to inquire 
into the proper equipment and organization of colleges not now on 
our list, so that they may be able to report as to the capability of 
such institutions to give acceptable instruction, both as to the quality 
and quantity of its teaching. 

After hearing the representative of the University of Denver, Dr. 
P. T. Smith, that institution was added to the list, and the report 
adopted. 

Dr. Koch offered resolutions that it is the sense of this association 
that no one should be permitted to assume the responsibilities of a 
dental practitioner until he shall have had at least three year's pre- 
vious Study and instruction, inclusive of three full terms of not I 
than five months each, in a properly organized and equipped dental 
college, provided that time spent in the study of medicine or gradu- 
ation from a medical college may be credited on this requirement 
not to I the period of two years or two full terms of collegiate 

instruction : and recommending to such State boards of dental 



National Association of Dental Facultu 157 

examiners as are by the laws of their respective States required to 
issue licenses to practice dentistry to all holders of diplomas from 
reputable dental colleges that they make such rules as shall require 
all colleges to make three full calendar years of study and the attend- 
ance upon three full college terms of not less than five months each 
a prerequisite to graduation ; and that only such colleges as shall 
comply with this rule on or before the beginning of their scholastic 
year of 1890-91 should thereafter be considered as reputable ; and 
that all State boards should, when their State laws permit the same, 
decline to grant a license to practice to any one who cannot produce 
evidence showing that he has spent at least three full years in study 
and preparation before attempting to resume the responsibilities of 
a dental practitioner. 

Referred to Drs. Kirk, Palmer, and Bouton, with the information 
that the National Association of Dental Faculties had adopted a rule 
to go into effect at the session of 1891-92 requiring attendance upon 
three full regular courses before examination for graduation. The 
committee reported recommending that the portion " relating to 
States where an examination is held and license granted be 
approved." Adopted. 

Dr. Koch moved that the secretary be instructed to publish a 
notice in the dental journals informing all dental colleges not now 
recognized as reputable by this association that in order to be 
enrolled upon the list of recognized colleges it will be necessary 
for such colleges to apply for recognition and show that their work- 
ings are such as to entitle them thereto. So ordered. 

Dr. Shepard moved to make the standing Committee on Colleges 
consist of five members, whose duty it shall be to report annually 
upon the colleges entitled to recognition. So ordered. 

The following officers were elected : T. S. Walters, Baltimore, 
president ; C. R. E. Koch, Chicago, vice-president ; F. A. Lex y, 
Orange, N. J., secretary-treasurer. The president appointed as the 
Committee on List of Reputable Dental Colleges Drs. L. D. Shepard, 
C. R. E. Koch, C. R. Jefferis, F. A. Levy, and S. T. Kirk. 

Adjourned to meet at the time and place of the next meeting of 
the American Dental Association. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DENTAL FACULTIES.* 



The sixth annual session was held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y ., 
commencing August 5, 1889. 



•From report furnished by the publishers of the Dental Cosmos. 



i^8 The Odontographic Journal. 

The Executive Committee reported credentials as follows : 

Chicago College of Dental Surgery, Truman V. Brophy. 

Indiana Dental College, J. E. Cravens. 

State (/Diversity of Iowa, Dental Department, A. O. Hunt. 

New York College of Dentistry, Frank Abbott. 

Boston Dental College, J. A. Follett. 

Harvard University, Dental Department, T. H. Chandler. 

Ohio College of Dental Surgery, H. A. Smith. 

University of Pennsylvania, Dental Department, James Truman. 

Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, R. B. Winder. 

Dental Department of Southern Medical College, L. D. Carpenter. 

Vanderbilt University, Dental Department, W. H. Morgan. 

University Dental College, J. S. Marshall. 

Missouri Dental College, W. H. Eames. 

Kansas City Dental College, J. D. Patterson. 

Dental College of University of Michigan, J. Taft. 

Credentials were also received from Pennsylvania, represented by 
C. N. Pierce ; Harvard, Thos. Fillebrown ; and Louisville, J. Lewis 

Howe. 

Columbian, represented by J. Hall Lewis, and Maryland, F. J. S. 
Gorgas, were elected members. The application of Royal College 
of Dental Surgeons of Ontario was reported favorably, but doubt 
was expressed as to the propriety of admitting it owing to the title 
of the association, which would seem to confine membership to 
colleges in the United States. 

Applications from American College (Chicago), University of 
Denver, and University of Minnesota, were laid over one year. 

The association adopted a rule requiring attendance upon three 
full regular courses in separate years before examination for gradua- 
tion. The regular courses were made " not less than five months 
each." 

The time when the new rules shall go into effect was fixed at the 
beginning of the session of 1891-92. It was also ordered that the 
resolutions requiring attendance on three terms be published in the 
announcements for the session of 1890-91. 

Drs. Truman, Taft, Cravens, Brophy, and Howe, were appointed 
to take into consideration the equalization of college fees. The 
committee subsequently reported a partial tabulation of fees, with a 
recommendation that the minimum fees be fixed at $100 a year. 
The report was laid over and the committee continued. 

Drs. Cravens, Marshall, and Patterson were appointed to codify 

the rules. 



National Associatiou of Dental Faculties. \ 5 9 

Dr. Fillebrown, from the committee appointed to consider the 
request of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery with reference 

to the granting of the D. D. S. to a prominent practitioner 
without attendance upon lectures, reported in favor of declining the 
request. The report was accepted. 

Ordered that the colleges print the list of their matriculates at the 
previous session, with the States or countries from which they come, 
in their annual announcement, with an asterisk (*) opposite the 
names of those not in attendance and a foot-note stating the fact. 

Ordered that colleges making application for membership be 
notified by the secretary that it will be necessary for them to appear 
by representative before the executive committee. 

The following was adopted : 

Resolved, That all applications for membership reported upon favorably b}' 
the executive committee shall lie over one year before final action may be taken 
thereon. 

Dr. Abbott offered a resolution requiring colleges of this associa- 
tion desiring to confer the honorary degree, to submit the names of 
the persons so to be honored to this association for approval. 
Adopted. • 

The Committee on Text-Books reported that the work recently 
published by Dr. Fillebrown had not been submitted to the com- 
mittee for approval. The report was accepted. 

The committee also reported that they had examined the work on 
"Orthodontia" compiled by Dr. S. H. Guilford, and they recom- 
mended that it be adopted as a text-book. The report was accepted. 

On motion of Dr. Truman, the work on " Dental Chemistry," by 
Dr. Clifford Mitchell, was accepted formally as a text-book. 

The foil wing resolutions were laid over : 

By I )r. Brophy : 

Rewfoed, Thai graduates in medicine who have not hud at least two yen's 
practice In operative and prosthetic dentistry shall be required to attend the 
lectures and engage in the practice work in these departments during two 
annual session previous to admission to the examinations for the dental degree. 

I: Dr. Patterson : 

/.'< otoed, That after the session of 1891 92 a diploma, from a reputable medical 
col.' I entitle Its holder to enter the second course, in dental collegesof this 

1 iation, but shall not. entitle him to an entrance into the senior class. 



160 The Odontographic Journal. 

The following officers were elected : 

James Truman, president ; L. I). Carpenter, vice-president ; J. E. 
Cravens, secretary ; A. W. Harlan, treasurer ; Frank Abbott, J. Taft, 
and F. S. Gorgas, executive committee. 

The following committees were appointed : Adinteri?n committee, 
Drs. T. W. Brophy, R. B. Winder, and J. A. Follett ; Committee on 
Schools, Drs. H. A. Smith, J. 1). Patterson, J. Lewis Howe, W. H. 
Morgan, W. H. Eames. 

Adjourned to meet at the call of the executive committee. 



THE AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION. 



A Monument of Unselfish Work — Disintegrating Forces — 
Iron-Clad Law — A Scene — The Paper of its Meeting — 
The Syndicate — "Excelsior" — Faculties and Examiners 
— "Partial Culture" — Looking Up. 



Philadelphia, Sept. 12, 1889. 

FAiitor of the Odontographic Journal: 

Dear Sir : — The Dental Conventions have had their Annual re- 
unions, and for a series of months we will digest their proceedings 
in the journals and then prepare for a similar round of vacation 
exercises another year. 

It requires no argument at this day to prove the value of these 
conventions. They are absolutely essential to the growth of the 
individual members, as well as for the advancement of the profession 
at large. Hence, no one can in justice to himself or to his calling 
neglect them without a personal and general injury. It is, therefore, 
of vital importance that they should be kept up to the highest attain- 
able standard and be held subject to the closest criticism. It has 
seemed to your correspondent that editors of dental journals have 
been negligent in this respect, possibly through an amiable desire to 
avoid offence. Conventions of nil kinds have their cyclical periods 
from birth to death, and it is sometimes a question whether this 
apparent law can be contravened by any effort of individuals. 

The last meeting of the American Dental Association, held at 
Saratoga, led, to some serious reflections on the mutability of organi- 
zations, and the possibility, near or remote, o\ this body having 



The American Dental Association. 1 6 1 

passed its perihelion of usefulness, and tending as the two previous 
organizations, to decay and final extinction. No one < an contemplate 
the decline and fall of any organization with equanimity, especially 
one such as this that has received the talent and effort of the best 
men in this country for more than a generation, and yet remains a 
monument to their unselfish work. The thoughts that naturally arise- 
in this connection lead me beyond the limits of a letter ; but I must 
be permitted to give my views on the necessity of a change of 
proceedure to avoid destruction in the near future. 

There are two prominent disintegrating forces at work and have 
been seriously undermining the foundations for a long period. They 
are briefly: — (ist). The stringency of constitutional enactments and 
the combined determination of a few " learned in the law," to enforce 
these to the bitter end; and, (2nd), the annual effort to make this 
convention a political machine in which the legitimate work of such 
a body is subordinated to the struggle of rival factions for the 
control of the presidency. 

The first of these is by far the most serious. A certain class of 
men, in all bodies, assume that without parliamentary law, society in 
general and their societies in particular would go down in a general 
wreck. Their whole ambition seems to be concentrated in an effort 
to make the letter of the law perfect, and to bid defiance to its spirit. 
This kind of talent does not seem to be commingled or inter-change- 
able with scientific ability. Your modern Jefferson, Mathias, or 
Gushing, sits serenely under party discussions silent and unmoved 
by any scientific scintillations, waiting for the suprene moment 
when there may be an infraction of the law. This, at times, has its 
serious as well as its humorous side ; but the first concerns us the 
more. Men do not leave their homes and travel great distances to 
be regaled with questions of order that may be decided with more 
or less luminosity after prolonged discussion. They do not care to 
have some one of the "learned gentlemen" sit down unceremoni- 
ously on one desirous of giving his thoughts and experiences, 
but who may not have fulfilled all the requirements of the law to 
entitle him to the floor. They desire to have something 
added to acquired knowledge, and return home refreshed with the 
social life that surrounds, and should be an essential part of these 
gatherings. Your "rise to a point of order" man is a thorn in the 
flesh, a disturber of the peace, an obstruction to all scientific progress, 
and should be relegated to ward meetings, where his peculiar talent 
ought to make him a shining light. Law, in scientific bodies, should 



1 62 The Odontographic Journal. 

be simple and elastic ; but for some years it has been of the iron- 
clad variety in this association, until now it has become dangerous 
for one to even ask the privilege of giving his views unless he 
is sure that he stands correct on the treasurer's books. The dis- 
graceful scene enacted during an evening session, in which one of the 
fathers of the profession and one whose voice is never heard but with 
profound respect, was called to order as not being a member in good 
standing — those who saw this humiliating sight and witnessed this 
venerated man trembling with agitation at this unlooked for call to 
order, will, probably, never forget it, and if we could hope that it 
would be a lesson to the " law and order man," it would be worth 
all it cost ; but that is not to be expected, for in the face of venerated 
age insulted in the house of its friends, these men were busy trying 
to prove that age or service had no rights that an association was 
bound to respect. Instead of welcoming every word of intel- 
lectual light, these blatent defenders of a law would stamp 
enlightenment to death and with it the prosperity and usefulness of 
the body. This insidious influence has been at work now for years 
and its deadly effect is beginning to be apparent in loss of interest, 
meetings of little value, absence of men who could alone make these 
occasions worthy of the loss of time, money and strength to attend 
them. 

This condition of things reminds me of an incident illustrative of 
the point I wish to elucidate. Once upon a time, in the far away, 
I owned a favorite tree. It was beautiful to look upon.- It spread 
its broad branches to the summer heat and was a rest to the weary 
eye. I loved to watch it. It was old and I venerated it. In the 
morning light I would watch the young shoots on the old branches, 
and it seemed to me it was an ever present inspiration to work. One 
dav my tree was dotted all over with little white flock v spots. I 
anxiously drew in a branch. The white cotton, in appearance, was 
more than cotton; it contained the eggs of a parasite, beautiful to 
behold under my microscope, but, I knew my tree was doomed. It 
died, and the blasts of heaven blew it away. An entomological friend 
cultivated the parasite. It was new and he wrote a monograph upon 
it ; but this new thing found a resting place on my tree and killed it. 
Mow this is to my view the condition of this association. The para- 
sites are there, and it will gradually trend to certain death unless an 
effort be made to infuse new life into its circulatory system. 

The political question at this session was not as annoying as al 
some previous meetings. The opposition to one of the nominees 



The American Denial Association. 163 

was quite marked and seemed to be controlled by local influence. 
On the flrst ballot, however, he had the highest number of votes. 
Both the prominent candidates were good men and were sustained 
to the last by their friends, and when defeat came they gracefully 
bowed to the inevitable. It is one of the mysteries of the human 
mind that men will aspire to the anxieties of this position, and it is 
also one of the singular things that it should occupy more th in a 
minimum amount of the time of the convention. 

Your correspondent was not very much edified by the proceedings 
in general. The one paper fully worthy of the occasion he was 
unfortunate enough not to have heard. It was presented by Dr. 
Talbot, and fully and beautifully illustrated by models and drawings. 
It was generally considered to be the principal paper of the meeting. 
Dr. Talbot has spent years on this and analagous work, and he was 
extremely anxious to have it properly discussed, and seemed disap- 
pointed at the paucity of ideas brought out as a result. The way 
these things are managed nothing better could have been anticipated. 
The subject is a profound one, and there should have been a 
synopsis made in advance and furnished to members, and this should 
be done with all papers when possible. By the adoption of this plan 
the discussions will be worthy of the name. It is idle to expect a 
man can do himself or the subject justice with no time for reflection, 
much less study. Dr. Talbot may feel, however, paid for his effort 
in the reflection that his work will not be of an ephemeral character, 
but must remain as an authority on that subject, and a monument to 
his intelligence and industry. 

The syndicate of New York gave us the annual interesting paper. 
The division of labor was well marked out, and the drawings, as 
usual, excellent as pictures. This elaborate paper will be forth- 
coming in the proper journal. 

The commission that sits at Washington and conducts the rail- 
road system, must have had a serious and deterring effect on the 
travel disposed members, for the convention was but slimly attended 
in comparison to 'former years. It certainly could not have been the 
place, for a more healthful and beautiful spot could hardly have 
been selected. It has, however, this disadvantage that the high price 
of living at the hotels sends the majority to small boarding houses, 
thus breaking up all social life. The difficulty in my view is not to 
be ascribed to high charges anywhere, but a state of mind thor- 
oughly in opposition to the present management of this association. 
Are we on the eve of the formation of a new convention ? I sincerely 



164 The Odontography Journal. 

hope not. Let us work together to save the old for it has much that 
is good in it, and if we are true to ourselves and to our profession 
this ^an be easily done. Be ye ready, therefore, to go up to 
*■ Excelsior " and renew the life forces of the American Dental 
Association, August 1890. 

The "Association of Dental Faculties" as well as the "National 
Hoard of Examiners," met at the same time and interfered somewhat 
with the interest, as they drew many away from the meetings. This 
can be readily remedied another year by making but two sessions a 
day for the association, and this, probably, will be done. 

The work of these two bodies is of vital importance, and cannot 
be neglected. That of the Association of Faculties had been looked 
forward to as possibly the most important meeting of this powerful 
organization. It was generally understood that the question of 
adopting three years would come up for decision. The matter was 
debated for several days and elicited a good deal of feeling, so much 
so that the final result was held in doubt by the most sanguine. It 
was with a good deal of anxiety that the final vote was cast, and 
when it was found that more than two-thirds of the colleges had 
voted in favor, there was a feeling of relief, for had it been by a bare 
majority the success of the movement might have been endangered. 
Now in 1891-92, the dental colleges will present a united front on 
this subject, and they can look with complacency upon their medical 
brethern practicing under the two year rule existing in many of 
the medical schools. Perhaps we may hear less talk of " partial 
culture" when that time rolls round. 

The active and consistent work of the " National Board of 
Examiners," has made the labors of the "Faculties" less burden- 
some; indeed, without the co-operation of this body the great reforms 
already inaugurated would have been impossible. 

So are we growing, and in the advancement all true lovers of 
progress must rejoice. T. J. 

OUR DUTIES TO CHILDREN. 



BY DR. W. W. SMITH, PKNN YAN. N. Y 



[Read before the Seventh District Dental Society. J 

The placing of children in our hands makes us trustees of interests 
far beyond the comprehension of those imposing such trusts, and 
the feeling that we tail often to realize our responsible position is my 
excuse for presenting this paper. 



Our Pit tics to Children: [65 

Surely the pathological and deformed condition of the teeth of 
adults, due to neglect and maltreatment in childhood, should arouse 
all sincere members of our profession to a faithful performance of 
their duties. 

I do not hope in the following general treatment of the subject to 
advance any scientific theories that are not known to all present, but 
will be satisfied if it awakens new resolves on the part of some 
who, I assume, treat the subject with too much indifference. 

Much credit is due members of the profession who are making 
such great progress in restoring and replacing diseased and lost 
dental organs, and who are remunerated with glory and cash ; but 
can the conscientious dentist do this to the neglect of careful, honest 
teaching and practice which will in a measure prevent the necessity 
for so much restoring and replacing ? The satisfaction derived from 
having done our duty should be an incentive. If we care only for the 
pecuniary benefits derived from our labor, we disgrace the profession, 
and should seek other employment where the health, comfort, and 
beauty of human beings are not involved. 

Let us bear in mind we can never inspire in others a greater 
interest in the cause we represent than we have in it ourselves; the 
best we can hope to do is to transfer our enthusiasm to them, and 
instead of saying it is not in our nature to gain and hold the 
confidence of children, we should be willing to be at the cost of 
acquiring such ability, remembering that all good work is costly 
work, and "nothing in life slips by more stealthily than an oppor- 
tunity." 

Our duties to children begin with their prenatal existence, and as 
opportunity presents, we should be prepared to instruct the pros- 
peciive mothers, who I believe are often eager for instruction, when 
their attention is directed to the subject ; impress her with the fact 
that its teeth are then being formed, which makes an extra demand 
that if not supplied through her diet, will result in her teeth 
becoming decalcified, and those of the child lacking in solidity. We 
should not be too specific, but do the best we can. Advise with and 
through Iter physician. She should be equally careful of her diet 
during lactation. 

While the theory of abstaining from this character of food may- 
have its commendable features, yet I believe such practice will result 
in irreparable harm to the teeth of both mother and child. I am 
aware that this is a threadbare subject, but are we doing our duty 
in this regard ? 



The Odontographic Journal. 

The next but not less important period is from the time they are 
supplied with organs of mastication until they come into our hand- 

direct. 

The diet and habits of children. What a subject! " A little 
learning is a dangerous thing," etc., especially applies here. Let us 
be cautious and not lose our influence by positive statements in 
regard to articles of food, etc., that are questionable, but teach the 
mothers the importance of attention to the child's diet, get her 
interested, and methods for profitable teaching will suggest them- 
selves. In a general way teach her that systematic habits of feeding, 
as well as a plain, varied diet consisting of food favorable to the 
development of tooth structure are important, a few articles of which I 
will mention. Stale bread from unbolted flour which is not ground too 
coarse, a portion of bolted flour being admissible if desired, to render 
more palatable, and that our dogs (for whose health we seem to have 
more consideration than our children) may have their "c'anail 
bread ; " oatmeal if of good quality and thoroughly cooked, corn- 
meal in bread, puddings, etc., fish, a variety of nuts, (taken as part 
of the regular meal and not as so much extra) soup, from bones well 
broken and boiled for several hours (four at least), and a liberal 
quantity of milk from well fed and healthy cows. These and other 
articles which might be mentioned will form a sufficient variety if 
prepared properly. We should insist that a large portion of the food 
be served dry to give the teeth exercise and promote insalivation. 
I catechise children very closely and find that most of them eat their 
food soft. Very much of the so-called indigestible and unassimilating 
food can be used with impunity if taken moderately and masticated 
thoroughly. I cannot find language to properly condemn the pre- 
vailing and excessive use of pastries and confectionary indulged in 
by so many,' not only at meal time, but semi-occasionally from 
morning till night ; the wonder is they have any teeth at all. 

I can best illustrate my ideas by presenting personal experience, 
and take the liberty of doing so. \ Scotchman aged about twenty- 
one came to me four years ago, after having been in this country 
about two years, with two approximal cavities which 1 filled ; the 
following year I filled four, and a little later six cavities, the teeth 

becoming soft and he discouraged. By close questioning the 

following facts were brought out. In Scotland, he- being of the 
poorer (lass — subsisted entirely on oat cakes and milk, the cakes 
being baked a long time before the tire, rendering them dry and 
hard. They had a certain allowance each day, and ate nothing with 



Our Duties to Children. 167 

it — not even butter. (What a blessing such poverty.) Never heard oi 
artificial in his part of the country, ilis diet in this country has 
been such as four-fifths of our people subsist on, slops. Ilis occupa- 
tion is that of vineyardist. 

Twelve years ago a girl of fifteen come to me for advice; her 
teeth were badly decayed and soft in structure. I told her their 
loss would be a serious one, and advised the saving of them, if she 
would consent to take proper care of them, observe hygienic laws 
and have them examined at least twice a year, which advice and 
instruction she accepted, and resulted in the saving of her teeth. 
On her semi-annual visit one year ago I found them in good condi- 
tion ; had not required much attention since the first very extended 
treatment and filling, but, on her next visit, six months ago, the 
depraved condition in which I found them led me to inquire its 
cause. "Well," she said, "I think I can tell you. I have been in a 
confectionary store several months and have been almost uncon- 
sciously nibbling." Which habit she promised me to overcome. 
Have not seen her since. 

The next case I shall present is that of a teacher (which suggests 
another avenue through which we can educate the children). My 
general treatment of a case of pulpitis suggested to her the fact that 
her teeth were as much a part of herself as were her fingers, and were 
nourished by her blood through the circulation. I found her eager 
for instruction which was imparted as best I could, and resulted in 
the perceptible hardening of her teeth, and she afterward told me 
she had induced most of her pupils who brought their dinners (she 
taught a county school) to reverse their former custom, and throw 
away the "pie and cake" and eat the the "bread and butter," thus 
giving them a lesson in dentistry which was of great benefit. 

While operating for one of our teachers I took the opportunity of 
enforcing upon her mind Jthe importance of caring for the teeth, and 
smiled when three weeks later two little girls (her pupils) came to 
me to have their teeth cleaned, saying their teacher had been talking 
to them about it, and that they would thereafter take proper care 
of them. 

When children are brought to us what is our first duty ? I answer, 
gain their confidence, which in most cases is lacking, often because 
of the stories of others about their experience in our hands, and 
because of the too prevailing custom of deceiving them, in many 
cases by the mothers themselves. We should be gentle, be honest, 



The Odontographic Journal. 

be reasonable, and in nine-tenths of the cases we can control them. 
We do a child a lasting wrong if, by our treatment, we cause them 
to dread the dentist and his office, and lose interest in caring for 
their teeth. I say treat them as rational beings. Do you say this is 
sentiment ? Consult your older patients, listen to the bewailings of 
some and the expressions of gratitude and satisfaction of others 
beciuse of the treatment they received when experiencing their first 
dental operations. If by our tact and kind treatment we win their 
confidence, let us not by lack of thoroughness in our operations cause 
them to lose that confidence. I repeat, they are rational beings. 

The scope of this paper forbids a treatise on the several subjects 
connected with the treatment of children's teeth, but I cannot refrain 
from doing so in part. 

We should teach them that each individual tooth has its peculiar 
mission and should be preserved. * '' 

We should not extract any because asked to do so, but because 
after having thought seriously of the possible consequences 7c>e find it 
advisable. 

Do not extract the inferior central incisors because the permanent 
ones erupt at their lingual aspect unless there is room for them in 
the arch without taking a diagonal position, but leave them till the 
jaw develops, and in most cases they will loosen and the child be 
spared a surgical operation. 

Never extract a second temporary molar without considering that 
it will permit the first permanent molar to incline forward and thus 
prevent the second bicuspid from taking its proper position in the 
arch. 

Let the extraction of the six year molar be a last resort, and 
consider that in doing it you remove nature's prop intended to give 
support to the jaws during the shedding of the temporary teeth and 
until the articulation of the permanent ones has been accomplished 

Never yield to the temptation of crowning a child's tooth that has 
been fractured (I refer of course to the permanent teeth), but if 
possible preserve its pulp that its development may not be interfered 
with. J consider this very important. Still another important duty is 
to teach children to properly care for their teeth. 1 find by careful 
inquiry that very few of them are provided with suitable brushes, 
nor do the) have an) idea of using them as they should. We should 
first direct them to procure one. I favor the *' prophylactic " — and 
inform them where such ma) be obtained, then, with a mirror show 



./// (fp(-n Letter. i6g 

the neglected points and how they may be readied with the brush 

and (loss silk — tell them they can do more to preserve their 
teeth than we, and that our efforts will be in vain unless aided by 
their co-operation. Teach them to have stated times for cleaning 
them, one of which should be at night — giving your reasons for it, 
and not allow trifles to interfere with its performance, and that it 
should be considered of as much importance as any part of the toilet, 
and, as we see them from time to time commend or reprove them as 
the case may require. 

Now, are we remunerated for all this ? Perhaps not, as we 
should be, but we gain the confidence of those we serve and elevate 
the profession, which I trust we all love, and in a measure counteract 
the influence of those who care only for the money they receive for 
their services, and thus degrade it. 

Let us remember that, 

" Small however, the true endeavor, 
Great may its outcome be." 



AN OPEN LETTER. 



Picked up on the steamer '' Vide " " going down the Bay," and 
said to have been dropped by one of the trade syndicate, a traveler 
from Kansaw. (See current Dental Advertiser) : 

Revered Sir : — Please do not leave open any space for me in 
your columns, as I don't see how I could possibly furnish any copy 
very soon. I do not, these days, have time to think who I am (tho' 
I doubt if the most abundant leisure would afford answer to that 
conundrum.) I am doing extra work at the office, and a relative of 
our maid of all work having been so inconsiderate as to die at this 
juncture, I have been sufficiently weak-minded to allow the latter to 
go home, so that, for some days past, present and future, 

" I'm the cook, and the captain's mate," 
" And the crew of the Nancy Jane." 

Good time to invite my enemies to dine ? 

• 

Lastest and bestest of reasons, an acknowledgement which I hate 
to make, and therefore write it in a whisper : " I can't — begin — to 
do — anything good enough — for the Blankety- Blank." Not that I 
have ever had the pleasure of seeing it, but I have- been making a 
tolerably observant, though not very consecutive study of its editor. 



i 70 The OiiontograpJiic Journal. 

Now, addressing you in your other professional capacity, let me 
remind you of a. few particulars which I fear you might not other- 
wise include in your bill — following the idea you furnished the 
other day : 

To time lost in waiting $100.00 

explaining apparatus 10.00 

general information imparted 5 . 00 

furnishing interesting psychological study 5 .00 

hunting for nerve 5 .00 

finding nerve 10 00 

auricular damage sustained from a war whoop which 

" split the ears of the groundlings " 25 . 00 

not discussing the tariff 2 . 00 

furnishing moral support during operations 

item, encouraging smiles 10 . 00 

reassuring smiles 10.00 

agreeable expressions 10 Too 

entertaining anecdotes 1 o . 00 

refraining from expression of real feelings 20.00 

I hope you will accept note for part payment. 

Don't you think this continued pluviosity is likely to develop 
webbed feet in the human species ? For my part, I should prefer 
them to so much caoutchouc. 

Assuring you that it pains me much to seem disobliging, I am 

Regretfully, but can't-help-it-lv, vours, 

"She." 



AIJUMEN AND BICHLORIDE OF MERCURY. 



The relation of albumen to antiseptic work is of very Considerable 
importance for the reason that its presence contra-indicates one of 
the most powerful of the antiseptics in use — bichloride of mercury. 
It has long been known that albumen is an antidote for bichloride 
of mercury. Yet, on account of its great potency in the absence of 
albumen, the drug has grown into very extended use in the utmost 
disregard of the antagonism of the two substances. Experimental 

ts indicating this have beVn published by several experimenters, 
but seem to have been heeded 1>\ very few medical men. In order 
to estimate the degree of antagonism that exists between these two 
substances, and to see if this applied to other drugs as well, I began 
<i series of comparative experiments, but have not found the time to 
« arry them through with any considerable number of medicaments 



Albumen and Bichloride of Mercury. i 7 f 

I have, however, made fairly thorough work with bichloride of 

mercury, the results of which are given in the tables. My first 
experiments (not given in the tables) were in reference to the decom- 
position of the solution of the bichloride when exposed continuously 
to light. These experiments showed conclusively that for a period 
of two months, the addition of five per cent of hydrochloric acid to 
the solution of 1-500 of the bichloride, protected it perfectly ; so that 
its range of antiseptic value was the same at the end of that time as 
at the beginning. The plan of experimentation was to mix the 
solution and set it in the full light of day (not in the sun). This 
solution was tested for its limit of antiseptic value in a certain 
broth infected with saliva. Other tubes of the same broth were 
kept for that purpose, and two tests made each week for the period 
of two months, without showing any diminution of power. The same 
solution, without the addition of the acid, lost power very rapidly. 

The experiments for testing the influence of albumen were first 
made with two solutions. Each contained one of the bichloride ot 
mercury to 500 of water. To the one five per cent of hydrochloric 
acid was added, to the other ten per cent of chloride of sodium. 
The chloride of sodium was added through the suggestion that it 
would prevent the precipitation of the albumen by the bichloride, 
which, indeed, seems to be correct. I found that the addition of this 
solution to broth containing five per cent of albumen, caused no 
clouding of the liquid, while the addition of the other in even very 
minute quantities, rendered it milky and if much were added, the 
albumen was thrown down. 

The tests made with these solutions when compared with the 
power of the bichloride in the absence of albumen, show plainly that 
the two substances are antagonistic ; and that the addition of chloride 
of sodium is of no substantial advantage, notwithstanding the fact 
that the albumen is not precipitated. 

I then made other solutions more carefully, in that a solution of 
1 to 500 of the bichloride was divided into three parts in order to 
be sure that the three were exactly alike, and I give the results with 
these in the tables. The first was left plain. The second received 
five per cent of hydro-chloric acid, and the third received ten per 
cent chloride of sodium. 

These solutions were then tried, using for the purpose a new broth, 
and gave a slightly higher range of value, either from a difference in 
the broth or in the solutions, it is difficult to tell which. These experi- 
ments show a great reduction of the range of value of the bichloride 



i 7 2 The Oilontographic Journal. 

in the presence of albumen ; and, when we consider that in many of 
the positions in which the antiseptic is used, there is present from 
eight to ten per cent of albumen, we can not expect much good 
from it in a dilution that could safely be placed in contact with the 
tissues. There is, however, a range of restraint, shown by the fre- 
quent asterisks in the table, which may account for some benefit 
in the use of the drug even though it does not fully inhibit growth. 
It will be noticed that the results with the plain solution are the 
poorest and the results of the hydrochloric acid solution are much 
the best. I take it that this effect represents the antiseptic value of 
the hydrochloric acid rather than any beneficial effects of this agent 
on the action of the bichloride of mercury. — Black, (i. V., 
Dental Review. 

ANESTHETICS IN DENTAL OPERATIONS— ETHER,_ 
CHLOROFORM, MIXTURES, NITROUS OXIDE. 



THE USE OF SULPHURIC ETHER AS AN AN.ESTHETIC IN DENTAL 

OPERATIONS. 

He said that at an early period of life he was appointed Junior 
Medical Officer to a large Metropolitan hospital, and it was part of 
his duty to anaesthetise all the patients about to undergo operations 
and for twelve years he was constantly chloroforming patients. 
During that period he suffered terrible anxieties, so much so, that he 
even still looked back upon it with horror. Happily he never had 
a death, but he knew that he escaped fatal results by a very narrow 
margin on at least three occasions. Impressed with the great 
responsibility of his position, he longed to discover some means of 
inducing anaesthesia with greater safety, to find a drug which would 
not necessitate unceasing anxious watching of the pulse. In 187 i he 
had the good fortune to see the late Dr. John Morgan, of Dublin, 
using ether in the Lock Hospital, and he felt at once that he had seen 
what he had so longed for. Since then (just eighteen years) he had 
used ether almost without exception in the numerous cases which 
required an anaesthetic, and had never observed a symptom to cause 
him grave uneasiness. Dental operations were most easily performed 
m the erect or semi-erect posture, the very position in which chloro- 
form seemed most apt to induce cardiac failure. So far as his 
experience went the invariable effect of ether was to improve 
the heart's impulse and the circulation generally. Moreover, 
the vapour of ether undiluted was practically safe with ordinar) 



AncBSthetics in Dental Operations. 173 

attention, while chloroform vapour was most dangerous if exceed 
ing tour per cent, in strength. He took it for granted that in 
short dental operations, such as the extraction of one or two teeth, 
the most suitable anaesthetic, was nitrous oxide. On the other hand, 
he was strongly of opinion that in prolonged operations, such as the 
•clearing away of a number of teeth or stumps, the inhalation of ether 
was both safe, satisfactory, and perfectly convenient. The mode of 
proceeding which experience had led him to adopt was as follows : 
First, he arranged that the patient should not have taken food, even 
liquid, for at least four hours previous to the inhalation. This was 
a most important condition in order to avoid nausea and vomiting. 
Next, he saw that the dress was so loosened and arranged that no 
restraint whatever was exercised upon respiration. Then, having 
placed the patient in position, he stethescoped the heart and pro- 
ceeded to give the ether. There were very few, if any, conditions 
of the heart, short of a state of depression indicating impending 
■death, which would prevent him from proceeding with etherization. 
For administering the ether he always used Allis's inhaler, which was 
of the simplest possible construction, allowing of the exhibition of 
ether vapour, either with the admixture of air or nearly pure. The 
inhaler consisted of numerous folds of a cotton fabric, held close 
together by a metal framework, the whole being enclosed in an india- 
rubber case open at both ends. The ether was poured on the cotton 
fabric, and the outer case being of a shape to fit accurately over the 
nose and mouth, the patient was made to breathe a vapour of mixed 
ether and air. The latter could be diminished in quantity by closing 
the india-rubber over the free end of the inhaler. He commenced 
with one ounce of ether on the inhaler, and rarely had to exceed four 
ounces in any case for a dental operation. If the patient was an 
adult and not nervous, he always commenced with ether alone, 
invariably using pure ether, sp. gr. 730, and never the methylated 
kind. It was less irritant, more effective, and caused much less 
headache and subsequent disturbance. Occasionally some patients 
found it a little difficult to bear the ether vapour at once, as it 
irritated the larynx, and induced cough and a feeling of suffocation, 
therefore the inhaler must be cautiously brought over the mouth and 
the patient encouraged to bear it. If he did so, a very short inhala- 
tion sufficed to dull the sensibility of the larynx, the head was felt to 
throb, the face to flush, some vertigo was experienced, the respira- 
tion became rapid, and then drowsiness came on. From this moment 
the ether was borne without inconvenience, and might be pressed. 
This was readily done by pouring fresh ether on the cotton fabric, and 



i ; 4 The Odontographic Jouj-nal. 

by closing over the india-rubber covering of the inhaler so as to 
lessen the quantity of atmospheric air. In certain cases, especially 
with children and nervous subjects, it was not possible to get over 
this stage without the use of a few inhalations of bichloride of 
methylene, or the administration of nitrous oxide. This initial stage 
of etherization was the one which required the most skill and tact on 
the part of administrator. When once that was passed all the rest 
was easy. The ether might then be pushed until the stage of 
"struggling" ensued. A gentle but strong assistant easily kept the 
patient in position, and the ether being persevered with, complete 
insensibility came on, indicated by some stertor and absence of reflex 
sensibility of the cornea. When this point was reached the inhaler 
might be removed, and the mouth opened with the gag forceps, and 
the operator might go to work for from three to five minutes with 
the conviction that the patient felt nothing, even though he groaned 
and resisted somewhat. If during the operation the patient seemed 
to become partly conscious, he wiped the mouth clear of blood and 
saliva, and re-applied the inhaler. The operation being completed, 
the mouth should be cleansed out with a sponge, the face bathed 
with cold water, and very soon the patient would wake, feeling 
somewhat stupefied, and with more or less of headache. The latter 
was seldom troublesome if pure ether was used and the inhaler such 
as he had recommended, and not one of many varieties in which the 
vapour inhaled was a mixture of ether and the patient's own exhala- 
tions breathed over and over again. It was sometimes objected to 
ether that it was slower in administration than chloroform, and also 
in recovery. This was but a small disadvantage considering its 
greater safety as proved by statistics, but he was not at all sure that 
if properly handled, it required more time than its more dangerous 
rival. He lately took ether himself to avoid the pain of the extrac- 
tion of a very bad tooth, and he was able to write a letter and see a 
patient within half an hour of the moment when he sat down to 
undergo the operation. He could not say that the after effects were 
considerably more disagreeable than those he experienced from the 
use of nitrous oxide; on a previous occasion. Many times he had 
entered the dentist's house with patients, and left it with them, all 
completed, within half an hour. As to the slowness of recovering, 
if it occurred, it caused little inconvenience, as most dentists had a 
room set apart for patients who required anaesthetics. A more 
tangible objection to ether was the nausea and vomiting it was liable 
to cause, but this complication' might be avoided in nearly all cases ; 



Anesthetics in Dental Operations. 175 

fust, by arranging that no food should have been taken for at least 
four hours previously ; secondly, by using pure ether, and giving it 
as quickly as seemed safe ; thirdly, by carefully cleansing the mouth 
during the operation, which could be done with a small sponge, held 
in a suitable forceps, so as to prevent the patient swallowing the 
abundant mucous secretion, caused by the ether, and blood caused 
by the operation. If either the mucous or the blood reached the 
stomach, it would certainly act as an emetic. It would be asked, 
what signs should the etherist watch in order to avoid danger to life. 
Firstly, he always watched the heart, and could aver that he had never 
yet seen it fail under ether ; on the contrary, its action seemed invari- 
ably to improve. Herein lay its incaluable advantage over chloro- 
form, which, however carefully administered, would sometimes cause 
sudden, unforeseen and irremediable syncope. Secondly, the 
respiration should be carefully watched. If any danger existed in 
etherisation it was here. Occasionally the mouth became fixedly 
closed, and inspiration was impeded. All that was needed was to 
open the mouth with the gag forceps and draw forward the tongue. 
A greater risk arose in those cases where, about the stage of struggling, 
the chest wall seemed to grow fixed, and lividity of the face ensued, 
but he had always found that the removal of the inhaler for a short 
time, with cold sponging of the face, sufficed to bring all right. 
Were it otherwise he would at once adopt artificial respiration, but 
he had never yet been obliged to do so. Thirdly, if vomiting 
occurred while the patient was stupefied with the ether, it was 
necessary to turn him promptly on his side and see that the vomited 
matters had free exit and did not Tall back into the larynx and 
trachea. If they did, tracheotomy might possibly be required, but 
he had never seen such a case. Finally, it might be asked, " Are 
there ony cases in which the use of ether is contradicted ?" There 
were some, but they were very few and far between. In cases of 
operations done by artificial light, its inflammable nature rendered 
ether unsuitable. In patients with bronchitis, emphysema, advanced 
Hright's disease, degenerated arteries, the risk of etherisation was 
increased. However, in these cases a severe dental operation was to 
be avoided altogether, and it seemed doubtful whether any other 
anaesthetic would be practically safer. — Cruise, F. R. 

CHLOROFORM. 

Dentists, he said, knew full well that there were many cases which 
operative interference, the pain attendant upon which was 



i 76 The Odontographic Journal. 

almost beyond average healthy human endurance, and which if 
indicted upon a body already weakened by suffering, physical and 
mental, would undoubtedly produce an amount of prostration which 
might terminate in death, or the recovery from which would be slow 
and probably imperfect. Under such circumstances, it was incumbent 
upon dentists to accept the responsibilities which followed the 
practice of the profession, and in using an anaesthetic to use that 
which gave the greatest good to the greatest number. He would 
place them in this order : — (1) Chloroform, (2) Nitrous Oxide> 
(3) Ether. In the administration of chloroform, in view of the now 
pretty well ascertained sources of danger, and their antidotes, the 
risk was but small, and the attendant good more than amply justified 
the administration. It was curious to note that the authorities of 
to-day had but emphasized and systematized the methods and rules 
advocated by Sir J. ' V. Simpson and his fellow practitioners, 
namely, that the drug should be pure, the stomach free from 
undigested food, the patient recumbent, and all obstructions to 
free breathing removed. No complicated apparatus should be used 
in the administration. A folded towel or a piece of flannel 
stretched over a convex wire frame was all that was required. 
It induced no alarm on the part of the patient, and permitted the 
operator to feel the breathing and watch any change of the normal 
appearance of the face which might presage approaching danger. 
The time for operating was when the patient was said to be " under." 
This was indicated by the suspension of all reflex action except those 
of respiration and circulation, and could be best ascertained by the 
condition of conjectiva. Any operation before this condition was 
reached was fraught with danger at any time, and more so when the 
fifth nerve was involved. It was sometimes the cause of death, and 
under such circumstances the result could not justly be attributed to 
the drug. The dangers and troubles attending chloroform adminis- 
tration were respiratory and cardiac. The arrest of respiration 
when sudden might be due to the falling back of the tongue or to 
the pressure of foreign bodies. The possibilities of such occurrences 
should be narrowed by removing artificial teeth, etc., from the 
mouth, and tilting the head well back, though not to the same 
extent ;is recommended by Howard before beginning the inhalation. 
In the case of sickness the patient should be turned completely on 
his side, and when vomiting ceased the mouth should be sponged. 
It" the stomach was empty and the patient only retched, the adminis- 
tration of chloroform should be pushed, and so the reflex action 
abolished. The heart complications were those associated with and 



Anaesthetics in Dental Operations, 177 

those secondary to difficulty of breathing when the right side of 
the heart became distended, and congestion resulted. The restora- 
tion of respiratory action usually removed this dangerous complica- 
tion ; but in especially anxious cases, the external jugular vein might 
be opened, or, as a last resort, the right ventricle might be punctured, 
blood withdrawn, and the endocardium at the same time stimulated. 
Should the action of the heart become depressed, as indicated by 
extreme pallor, and weak and intermittent pulse, a hypodermic 
injection of ether might be given, or it might be administered on 
the towel. Chloroform was contra-indicated only in those suffering 
from weak and intermittent heart. The best antidote to all chloro- 
form complications was fresh air. The advantages attending the use 
of chloroform in preference to other anaesthetics, were extreme 
simplicity of administration, and agreeableness in its inhalation. 
It did not irritate the fauces, nor induce an extra flow of saliva, the 
latter being a distinct disadvantage in the use of ether for operations 
in dentistry. It induced a profound narcosis, which, when attained, 
endured sufficiently long to permit of a very painful and prolonged 
operacion being performed. The usual precaution being taken with 
regard to food, it was very rarely attended with sickness. It afforded 
a pleasant and rapid recovery, and was more free than ether from 
subsequent inconvenience or complications. The one thing above 
all others to avoid prior to or during the administration of chloro- 
form was shock or fear. In an address by Surgeon-Major E. Lawrie, 
Principal of the Hyderabad Medical School, the results were given 
of 200 experiments on animals and personal observation of the effects 
of chloroform on between 40,000 and 50,000 human beings. The 
conclusion arrived at by the Commission was clearly stated in a 
letter to the Lancet of May 1 ith, 1889, in answer to an article in that 
journal controverting the finding of the Commission, and upholding 
the theory taught by the English school. Surgeon-Major Lawrie 
said: 'The Lancet would trust to the heart and circulation for 
signals of danger in chloroform administration. Our contention is 
that if the administration is ever pushed far enough to cause the 
heart to show signs of danger, the limits of safety had already been 
exceeded, and a fatal result must inevitably ensue. So far from dis- 
regarding the heart as a factor in chloroform dangers, we say that 
any affection of the heart, either direct or indirect, is the one danger 
to avoid. Hut we say further, that the respiration invariably gives 
warnings when a dangerous point is approached, and consequently 
that it is possible to avert all risk to the heart by devoting the entire 



178 The Odontographic Journal. 

attention to the respiration during chloroform administration." No 
agent had been so well abused, so miserably used, so misunderstood, 
and hitherto so carelessly handled, and this being so, it was no 
wonder that so many untoward results had followed in its wake. 
There still remained the one great broad fact that an equally good 
and more reliable anaesthetic had been sought aud not found. Many 
had been introduced and their advent proclaimed with jubilation. 
All had had their prognosticated powers and merits curtailed as 
experience proved their limitation. Each new general or local 
anaesthetic had been hailed as the champion which was to unseat 
chloroform from its throne, yet amid all the din of opposition it had 
not only held its own, but had gradually and steadily maintained its 
supremacy, and it remained to this day the one anaesthetic which 
best met the varied requirements of serious, delicate, intricate, or 
very painful operations ; and which, notwithstanding the many 
charges, mostly unjust or exaggerated, which had been laid at its 
door, still remained supreme, the one most used by surgeons, the 
one most appreciated by the patient. As evidence of its increasing 
use he would mention that having occasion lately to be in the labora- 
tory of Messrs. Duncan, Flockhart & Co., he inspected their new 
distilling apparatus devised and arranged by Dr. Clarke of that firm, 
an apparatus which with mathematical precision ensured the absolute 
purity of the drug, and he was then informed that for every one 
hundred pounds of chloroform made by them in 1881 they now 
turned out 175 lbs. That was a broad incontrovertible fact from 
which more reliable deductions could be made than from statistical 
tables which gave relative percentages, and which could at best be 
only drawn from varying and incomplete records. — Macleod, 
Bowman. 

certain an.esthetic mixtures with special reference to 
those in use in dental surgery. 

He said the mixtures to which he would confine his at ention were 
nitrous oxide and ether, and nitrous oxide and oxygen* Thc\ were 
indebted to the late Mr. Clover for the first valuable combination of 
anaesthetics. Either nitrous oxide might be used in the ordinary 
manner, narcosis being fully established, and then a small quantity 
of ether added ; or nitrous oxide might be used as a preliminary to 
deep etherization. Those were two distinct ways in which the 
anaesthetics might be combined. Some time ago at the Denial 
filospital he conducted an investigation with nitrous oxide with what 



AncESthetics in Dental Operations. 179 

might be called a whiff of ether in accordance with Mr. Bailey's 

suggestion, and was surprised to find how very little nausea and 
vomiting occurred after a small quantity of ether. The anaesthesia 
from nitrous oxide was prolonged some ten or fifteen minutes, and 
the patient recovered very completely indeed. The administration 
of nitrous oxide as a preliminary to etherization was often a matter 
of some difficulty. Nitrous oxide was a gas which could not pare 
with any free oxygen ; it could only be given to a certain extent, 
and if it was given with a face-piece possessing expiratory valves so 
that all expirations escaped, a time came when the patient was seized 
with certain symptoms which were in reality due to the deprivation 
of oxygen. If at that particular moment ether were given without 
the admission of any air, respiration could not and would not pro- 
ceed. Hence the difficulty in giving nitrous oxide as a preliminary 
to deep etherization resolved itself simply into knowing exactly how 
much air to admit between the gas and the ether. There were 
various forms and apparatus for giving nitrous oxide and ether, but 
without referring further to them he would mention what he re- 
garded as the principles upon which the two anaesthetics should be 
combined. In the first place, nitrous oxide should be given so that 
expirations escaped from the expiratory valve ; in the second place, 
ether should be gradually admitted, and on the word "gradual " he 
would lay great stress. In the third place, to-and-fro respiration 
should be promoted. In the fourth place, a small quantity of air 
should be admitted when the patient showed any sign of embarrass- 
ment of breathing, which usually occurred at the close of the admin- 
istration of nitrous oxide by itself. When any of these symptoms 
occurred a small quantity of air must be admitted, in order to main- 
tain respiration. In the last place, ether must be increasingly 
administered. In that way it was possible to pass from nitrous oxide 
narcosis to deep etherization. With regard to the administration of 
nitrous oxide and oxygen, that had not been practiced to any great 
extent in this country, but from what he had seen of the anaesthesia 
which might be obtained by the admixture of those gases he believed 
the time would come when nitrous oxide and oxygen would be very 
widely used in dental practice. Among the disadvantages of nitrous 
oxide was its power of setting up symptoms due to the deprivation of 
air. If it were given with a certain proportion of air anaesthesia would 
not become fully established, and the more air there was mixed with 
the gas the less profound would be the anaesthesia and the less 
marked the asphyxia! symptoms. It had been argued that it was 



i So The Odontographic Journal. 

necessary that patients should have 100 per cent, of nitrous oxide in 
the lungs in order that the particular blood tension of the nitrous 
oxide should be established to produce anaesthesia, and that supposing 
the atmospheric pressure in which the patient existed to be double, it 
should be possible by giving equal quantities of air and nitrous oxide 
to maintain the anaesthetic effect of gas, and to exclude all asphxial 
symptoms by reason of the air that the patient was breathing. 
Experiments made upon lower animals showed that the theory was 
perfectly correct, and the more perfect form of anaesthesia resulted. 
Attempts were then made to give nitrous oxide and oxygen together 
at what some termed ordinary atmospheric pressure, but when 
employing the face-piece and bag it was very difficult to say that the 
3 was being given at an ordinary atmospheric pressure. It was 
therefore well to use the term intrathoracic pressure. At the 
present time in Germany and America nitrous oxide and oxygen 
were given together very largely by means of a gasometer, but the 
results seemed unsatisfactory. Dr. Hewitt then exhibited and 
explained a portable gasometer which he had made. It contained 
about twelve gallons. After a very great number of cases he found 
that the best percentage of oxygen was about one-eighth. In com- 
paring nitrous oxide anaesthesia with that obtainable by the mixed 
gases a very remarkable contrast appeared. With nitrous oxide and 
oxygen there was an entire absence of lividity, the colour of the 
patient's lips and cheeks remained perfectly good, and in fact often 
heightened rather than diminished. There was no stertor, no irregu- 
larity in breathing, no embarrassment of respiiation, in fact the 
respiration was so real and calm as to be almost imperceptible. The 
pulse was full, soft, and regular, and there was no jactitation. As a 
general rule, when about twelve gallons had been inhaled, the patient 
was quite flaccid. The usual signs of nitrous oxide narcosis were 
entirely absent. If the face-piece were then removed an anaesthesia 
of a somewhat longer duration than that obtainable from nitrous 
oxide resulted. He had administered it in 250 cases, but thousands 
of cases should be known before any tables were drawn up. He had 
taken the mixture twice himself, and could testify to the rapidity 
with which consciousness was lost, and to the absolute loss o\ all 
painful impressions. One of the gentlemen who helped him counted 
aloud SO that he might be heard, and at every ten another gentleman 
pricked him with a long sharp needle. He remembered the pricking 
when ten and twenty were counted, but from that time up to seventy, 
when he came round, he had absolutely no 1 Qnsciousness either of 



Anaesthetics in Dental Operations. i X i 

pain or of surrounding objects. There was conclusive evident e to 
show that nitrous oxide was a true anaesthetic and that the symptoms 
referable to the deprivation of oxygen were purely accidental. He 
could not himself see that there was the slightest danger in < ontinu- 
ously breathing this mixture. Patients could go on respiring it 
almost ad infinitum , because of the oxygen it contained. If a patient 
should be found who did not take the mixture well it was very easy 
indeed by a simple arrangement to give pure nitrous oxide. — 
Hewitt, Frederick. 

on recent researches upon nitrous oxide narcosis and 
their bearing upon the practical question, when and 
how should laughing gas be administered ? 

He said the questions which practical men asked themselves in 
considering the value of an anaesthetic were: (i) Is it efficient? 
(2) Does its use entail danger to the patient? Among medical men 
there was still a curious dread of nitrous oxide, and time after time 
he had been told that Dr. So and So considered Miss Blank "not 
strong enough to take gas." This arose from the fact that the 
average medical mind regarded nitrous oxide narcosis as a modified 
form of asphyxia, and was prone to communicate this idea to the 
patient, who very properly translated " asphyxia" as being smothered 
or choked. But nitrous oxide was no asphyxiant. It possessed a 
specific action upon the organism which differed widely from that 
which obtained when a different gas was respired while oxygen was 
withheld. -By actual experiment it was found that nitrous oxide 
produced gross changes in the organism. Thus if the skull of an 
animal were trephined and a sufficiently large window were made 
in the bone to expose an area of an inch or so across, the pulsation 
of the brain beneath the dura matter could be watched, and the 
colour of the membrane observed. Under ordinary circumstances 
there existed after trephining a very distinct space between the 
bony calvarium and the dura matter, and rhythmic pulsations 
occurred, bearing a direct relation to the systole or general arterial 
dilation. As soon as nitrous oxide was administered the brain began 
to swell up, and although preserving its normal colour for a time, 
the hemispheres assumed a most remarkable appearance. Simulating 
a hernia cerebri, they protruded into the trephine hole. The colour 
of the brain now changed from a bright vermilion to a laky purple, 
the undulations changed in character, becoming less in frequency 
and amplitude, the volume increased, and at length movements 



^$2 TJic Odontography Journal. 

ceased. The dura matter then was pearly and glistening with a 
bluish lustre, and upon examination of the vessels of the pia matter, 
the well-known appearance of commencing stasis was seen. Upon 
resumption of air and a shutting off of nitrous oxide, these 
phenomena were repeated in a reverse order. Experiments had also 
been made on the spinal cord. Several laminae were removed, and 
the spinal cord exposed, in some cases the theca being incised, in 
others left in its entirety. Nitrous oxide was then administered and 
the following phenomena were observed. The pinal cord underwent 
an increase in size, which was pretty clearly evidenced by the over- 
flow of cerebro-spinal fluid. The difference anatomically between 
the brain and cord made the former an easier organ upon which to 
study the changes in the vascular membranes, but no more striking 
proof of the enlargement of the whole cord could be obtained than 
that afforded by the overflow of cerebro-spinal fluid, which took 
place as soon as the animal was brought under the influence of the 
nitrous oxide. It appeared necessary to grapple with two questions, 
viz. : — (i) Are these phenomena really due to nitrous oxide, or (2), 
are they due to deoxygenation of the tissues? To deal with the 
second question, certain apneeal experiments were made. In one 
series, the trachea was tied, while in the other a curarised animal 
was, after a time, left without artificially performed respiration, this 
being done to avoid the struggles which by their very violence pro- 
duced a. rise in blood pressure, and so gave an illusory resemblance 
between the states of apncea and nitrous oxide narcosis. The con- 
clusions he arrived at were that apncea produced changes far more 
slowly than those occurring in nitrous oxide narcosis ; that the brain 
and cord, although when much muscular struggling was permitted, 
undergoing some engorgement, and becoming purple and almost 
black, did not swell up, but actually lessened in volume in apno 
The lessening in volume, provided the apncea had not been carried 
too far, might be checked, and even changed to a state of enlarge- 
ment if nitrous oxide were administered. Experiments showed that 
besides causing anatomical alteration in the spinal column and 
encephalic centres, nitrous oxide produced physiological phenomena 
— a los> of < ertain reflexes, such as skin, conjunctival, persistence of 
the patella, sometimes its exaltation, development of ankle clonusi 
the occasional development of clonic and tonic contractions, opisthot- 
onos, emprosthotonos, and occasional transient pareses and hemi- 
pan ill symptoms of extreme significance and interest. About 

the cardiac and vasomotoria] systems there were very important facts 



Ancesthstics in Dental Operations. 183 

to be considered. Regarding nitrous oxide as an asphyxiant, it had 

been customary to caution persons with weak hearts against its use, 
and indeed were it a member of that class it would be most detri- 
mental in nearly every form of heart and pulmonary disease. There 
were several ways of observing the heart's action, — placing one hand 
upon the chest, removing the chest wall and watching the viscus in 
its pericardium, taking cardiographic tracings, and the less satis- 
factory method of recording the pulse at the wrist or elsewhere, 
either by the use of a sphygmograph or simply trusting to the finger, 
and these, if carefully carried out, showed that the heart was but 
little affected by nitrous oxide. If an animal were made to inhale 
until the respirations grew slower and slower, and finally ceased, the 
heart would be found to beat steadily on in marked contrast to its 
laboured, tumultuous action during the conditions of apneea. In 
the sphygmograms the normal pulse tracing consisted of the initial 
rise as the tidal wave distended the artery, and the gradual descent 
as the tidal wave passed onwards, which descent was marked by 
secondary waves, partly those due to oscillation and partly due to 
reflux of blood driven back by the obstruction caused by the 
capillaries. There appeared to be* a lessened tension evidencing a 
lessened tidal wave, this lessened tension being shown by the greater 
acuteness of the initial curve, the dicrotic wave being placed lower 
down the curve, and the dicrotism increased, while to the finger the 
lift was perceptibly diminished. These results were at variance 
with much that had been published elsewhere. The rhythm of the 
heart, at first accelerated, usually returned to its normal rate during 
narcosis, or dropped a few beats. The blood pressure under nitrous 
oxide must next be considered. For the first period but little change 
occurred. Later on, there was a gradual fall in blood pressure, a fall 
which, although occurring throughout the whole body, was most 
marked in the splanchnic areas. Upon the animal's breathing air 
again a short gradual recovery of blood pressure took place. Control 
experiments made upon curarised animals showed that when they 
were rendered apneeic blood pressure at once rose and became 
extremely high, while the heart's beats became weaker and weaker 
pari passu with increased blood pressure. Upon respiration nitrous 
OxMe acted as follows : the respiration grew slower, and at first 
fuller ; as narcosis progressed they became still more retarded but 
less full, and at length they ceased. At this point the heart still 
beat, and if a gentle pressure were made upon the thoracic parietes 
pirations were resumed, and, provided access of air were allowed. 



184 The OdontograpJiic Journal. 

continued, and consciousness was regained. This was wholly different 
from the wild convulsions incident upon a correspondent period of 
apnoea, and strongly suggested that the cessation of respiration 
under nitrous oxide was due to a sedative action exerted upon the 
medullary centres. Having thus reviewed the subject of the action 
of nitrous oxide, he would point out the practical deductions they 
were justified in drawing from it. How far was nitrous oxide contra- 
indicted in organic: heart disease? Broadly, the matter might be 
considered under two heads: — (1) When the heart muscle was 
diseased. (2) When the valves were diseased. With the overgrowth 
of muscle there was usually some thinning of the walls of the heart. 
A person having such a heart took nitrous oxide, and as a result his 
heart beats were but slightly accelerated, the blood tension was 
slightly lowered, while the medullary centres were subjected to the 
influence of a sedative. If, however, as Dr. George Johnson 
erroneously asserted, nitrous oxide acted as an asphyxiant, there 
would be an engorgement of the pulmonary vessels, and as a conse- 
quence a waterlogged heart, and the patient would be in urgent 
danger. Even in cases of fatty degeneration there was no reason why 
syncope should be determined b\* nitrous oxide. His own experience 
was that cases of syncope were not usually associated with old fatty 
hearts, but occurred in persons in whom anaemia was present, and in 
those whose nervous system was more or less enfeebled. Syncope 
was a frequent and dangerous symptom of advanced valvular 
trouble, and upon the frequency or infrequency of these attacks he 
should decide whether or not to administer gas. The group of cases 
falling under the heading of functional heart disease were far more 
dangerous. Persons suffering in this way would take large quantities 
of sedatives without much effect : they were timorous, peculiarly 
liable to fear reflexes, and nitrous oxide had but a transitory effect 
on the cerebro-spinal axis. Another reason why nitrous oxide was 
often so unsatisfactory in these cases was that there was commonly 
a lack of due oxygenation of the tissues, and so when the full dose 
of nitrous oxide gas was administered there was a concurrent 
impoverishment of oxygen, which induced an amount of apncea such 
as should be absent when gas was properly given. In cases oi dis- 
placement of the heart by pericardial adhesions or pleuritic effusions, 
nitrous oxide gas from the friction of the thorax which the tonic 
spasm of the muscles might bring about, would be contra-indicated, 
and it would be wise while commencing with nitrous oxide to 
continue with ether. lie had never found nitrous oxide when pure 



Union Meeting at Elmira. \ 85 

act as an irritant. He could find no record showing that any organic 
or functional lesions of the cerebral hemispheres or spinal cord 
interfered with the administration of nitrous oxide. That a small 
minority of persons suffered from severe headache after gas he could 
well believe, although he was apt to accept the accounts of such 
cases with a grain of salt. The one lesson of all others to be learned 
was to administer nitrous oxide pure and simple, all his previous 
remarks had referred to nitrous oxide narcosis, and not to the mixed 
narcosis of the agent and suffocation. Chloroform, whatever its 
merits, could not be used as freely as gas, nor could precautions as 
to posture, after effects, &c, be neglected as they could be in giving 
nitrous oxide. Ether, from its offensive flavour, its after effects and 
its too violent action upon the blood pressure, could not be taken in 
the hundred and one cases in which nitrous oxide proved itself a 
friend. He was told that one drawback of gas was the briefness of 
the anaesthesia it ensured, but he was not at all sure whether it was 
not one of its main merits, as it prevented laceration of the fifth 
pair of nerves, which in very many cases was not free from danger. 
— Buxton, D. W., Dental Record. 



UNION MEETING AT ELMIRA— THE 5TH, 6TH, 7TH AND 
8TH, IN JOINT SESSION. 



This year the Sixth Society plays the part of host, and for the 
fourth time these societies unite their forces for the common good. 
Except perhaps the annual meeting of the First society, and that of 
the State at Albany, these are the most interesting and profitable 
held in this commonwealth. Society men throughout Western and 
Central New York are always on hand ; also able representatives of 
the profession in other parts of the country. As in the past, so now 
success is certain to wait on this event. 

The energetic business committee of the Sixth, Drs. Jewell, Hall 
and Stewart, have left nothing undone, and with the help of the sub- 
< ommittees of the other districts, prepared a programme, to carry out 
which will call for the economical use of every hour of the three 
days' meeting. 

Dr. Birdsall will discuss "Ethics of professional charges" Dr. 
Low, "Between two Evils." Drs. Southwick and Emens, " Copper 

amalgram ;" Dr. Snow, " Vulcanizers and vulcanization;" Dr. Cur- 



1 86 The Odontographic Journal. 

tis (I. C). " Treatment and filling of pulpless teeth;" Dr. Ritter, 
"New method of treating foul pulps;" Dr. Butler, "Finishing fill- 
ings ;" Dr. Arnold, " Foundation Principles in Dentistry;" Dr. White, 
"Conventions and their Benefits ;" Dr. Lee, "The use of the matrix 
in filling teeth ;" Dr. Green, "Aluminum as a base for Dental 
Plates." Drs. Curtis, Ritter, Emens, Butler, Jones and Green are 
down for demonstration. 

The meetings will be held in the Masonic Temple, Lake St., Tues- 
day, Wednesday and Thursday, Oct. 29th, 30th and 31st. 



A UNIQUE EXAMINATION FOR HOSPITAL APPOINT 

MENT. 



Sir : It is customary for the management of the Bellevue Hos- 
pital to issue notice that on certain dates a committee will be in ses- 
sion for the examination of candidates who seek places upon the 
hospital staff. These announcements generally reach the students 
of the various medical colleges in the country. They turn eagerly 
to compete for positions upon this hospital's staff, not only because 
of the standing of the Bellevue medical college connected with the 
hospital, the fame of individual members of its facultiy, and their 
operations in the hospital, but because other and exceptional ad- 
vantages are attendant upon such work. The notices, or announce- 
ments, must, therefore, always bring into competition a number of 
the ablest of the more recent graduates in medicine. Those who 
come — at least those who come from afar — naturally and reasonably 
look for an examination in keeping with the dignity of the institu- 
tions, and the importance and responsibility of the positions under 
competition. 

On March 26th last, a number of such men presented themselves 
at the hospital at the hour appointed for examination for the Fourth 
Division. After standing corralled in the rotunda for half an hour, 
they were given seats in an adjoining room. Shortly after they were 
summoned to the rotunda corral again, and left standing to the end 
of the examination — nearly three hours. They were called in turn 
before a member of the examining committee, and afterward re- 
turned to the rotunda to await the call before the next examiner. 
Every man on returning mingled with his friends. It is needless to 
add that he brought word of the character of the examination. 
I irly in the contest it became known that some of the examiners 



A Unique Examination for Hospital Appointment. 187 

were plying repeatedly the same questions — a matter beyond cavil 

had the contestants been kept apart. Happy was the man, there- 
fore, who had " friends gone before." Such an one possessed a 
double advantage — what his friends had to report, and what the 
text-book, which he immediately consulted, had to say on the sub- 
ject. And thrice and four times happy was he who was invited up 
stairs — to consult the authorities ! 

There were two kinds of examiners on the committee, professors 
from the New York colleges, and practitioners pure and simple. 
The questions of the former were invariably essential and to the 
point ; those of the latter were often non-essential "catch ques- 
tions," and one examiner, pregnant with his own ideas, often over- 
rode well- accredited authors. For examples : One applicant was 
asked what he would do in case of stone in the bladder. " Crush it, 
and wash out the bladder," he answered. But he was met by the 
rebuke, u Under no circumstances wash it out — let it alone." On 
venturing the opinion that a stone in the pelvis of the kidney might 
be removed by cutting, he was ordered never to cut into the pelvis 
of the kidney. By another man, atony of the bladder and conges- 
tive stricture were given as causes for retention of the urine. This 
was met with contempt galore — " What do you know about conges- 
tive stricture and atony of the bladder ?" Still another man lost his 
rating because he neglected to mention that fish-bones in the rectum 
are the cause of fistula in ano. 

The question of the derivation of nephrectomy (commensurate in 
importance with another profound interrogatory of a previous exam- 
ination as to the number of ova in the segment of a tape-worm, com- 
mented on in The Medical Record in '86) cost another man his 
head. Misfortune overtook another who came from a distance, and 
consequently pleaded ignorance as to what the invaginated catheter 
might be. The judgment of men learned in medicine must be at 
one upoi^ the foregoing examples. Otherwise the examination was 
marred as to its fairness by the failure of applicants to appreciate 
the idiosyncrasies of some of the examiners. The gentlemen who 
presided over catch questions, and who stated before the examina- 
tion that questions would be asked that nobody could answer, and 
afterward admitted that such had been asked and nonssential details 
exacted only "for the fun of it," might have made Sitting Bull 
ions with the many scalps at his belt. Still a third element, 
peculiarly unfair, was the omission of any examination whatever in 
I obstetrics, and gynecology. 



icSS The Odontography Journal. 

Such were some of the phases of the examination. Was it in 
keeping with what the announcement would lead one to expect ? 
The candidates had been preparing themselves for years in hopes of 
tilling important positions. They were for the most part mature 
men, educated and gently bred, many of them worn with long and 
exhausting study. Was it considerate or decent treatment to oblige 
them to stand for hours on the cold marble floor of a hospital ro- 
tunda, exposed to drafts and colds to which the ordinary boss would 
not subject his laboring men ? By what sort of foresight did the 
examiner propound the same question to men in turn ? — the first to 
be examined retiring to post his friend upon the subject. Could the 
man coming from a distant college, with no friend in the arena, hope 
to win ? Is it any wonder that ten fratres in urbe out of twenty- 
three competitors stood perfect on a most difficult question ? Is it a 
wonder that the first were last and the last first ? That the patient 
waiter was no loser ? That the rank of the last men went up with 
the rapidity of Jonah's gourd ? Who is so idle as to suppose that. 
where four are to be chosen, a man would not post his friend, and 
innocently tell the questions asked and his answers thereto ? 

Again, can it be said that an examination is conducted with fair- 
ness when the competitor's answers, according to a standard text- 
book, are discredited because that individual examiner holds an 
adverse opinion ? It is hardly known whether the adverse opinion 
is in print. And is a man, reputed to be erratic, impulsive, falling 
short of considerate courtesy, and easily prejudiced, the best person 
to hold an examiner's position and deal fairly ? 

Further, catch questions cannot give an examiner the best inkling 
of the applicant's knowledge. Is it fair or dignified to press an ap- 
plicant with such " for the fun of it ?" 

Again, it goes without saying that an applicant should be carefully 
examined in those branches of which he makes the most use in the 
position he seeks to fill. Any place in Bellevue Hospital demands 
such examinations. It has been noted that practice, obstetrics, and 
gynecology were omitted. This omission worked injustice in the 
examination, in that men best qualified in the above-named branches 
fell short in the general average. They lacked the advantage the) 
might have gained if the examinations had been carried out roundly 
and completely. And what can be said in defence of the omission 
of so important a subject as the practice of medicine? 

It may be added, in consideration of the rewards of the contest, 
that the fact of a man's fitness to serve is, outside of the examin a- 



Nature — Give Her a Show. i 9 

tion, never gone into. " What have you ever done to develop ex 
utive abilities ? What qualifications have you to recommend you 
outside of your book learning ?" is never asked. 

Is an examination possessing the unique features of this one as it 
decently should be ? Is it consistent with what an applicant had 
been led to expect ? Is the medical faculty of New York City cog- 
nizant of its scope ? Is it what the people should expect and de- 
mand ? 

In the event of the appointment of a State Board of Medical Ex- 
aminers, the question has been raised whether such a body shall be 
made up from the medical professors of the State or from practi- 
tioners. *The question in all its fulness applies to boards of examin- 
ers for hospitals. A study of the details of the late Bellevue exam- 
ination might give arguments upon one side. But why should not 
the hospital examinations for Bellevue possess in the future the 
merit of courtesy — and also fairness and thoroughness ? — Achorn, J. 
W. — Medical Record. 



NATURE— GIVE HER A SHOW. 



BY W. W. B. 



# 
Nature hath framed strange fellows. 

— Shakespeare. 

< 

The importance of Nature as a factor in the practice of dentistry 
-cannot be overestimated. The subject suggests posies, woods and 
waters — all nature's works — the same old dame Nature who has been 
mending bones and broken heads these thousand years gone by. 
We pride ourselves on the great progress made in dentistry as a 
science and as an art, giving to ourselves all the credit. Nature has 
played her part in all this advancement, and a very important part. 
Nature it is that rebels against improper living, excesses and insuf- 
ficient food, whereby causing decay, and consequently a living for 
the dentist, and indirectly the great factor that has made possible 
the advancement of dentistry as a profession. 

Nature ever stands ready to assist the intelligent practitioner, a 
silent partner as it were in the treatment of every disease. Too often 
we do not give her a chance ; it is so easy to follow nature, so 
difficult for nature to follow us. Pleasant and sunshiny are the paths 
•of him who follows nature; steep and rugged, dark and uninviting 



i (jo The Odontography Journal. 

when nature follows you. We trust nature so little — trust ourselves so 
implicitly. In our treatment of a case it is so easy to overdo, to 
push nature instead of assisting. 

infrequently is it that the teeth are overtreated. Medicines 
and irritating acids are continually employed, keeping the 
surrounding parts in a constantly engorged condition. The dentist in 
despair gives the tooth a rest for a few days, when behold, nature 
left to herself has completed the cure. 

It is so easy to pump carbolic acid into teeth that we forget that 
it can be overdone ; many times a simple syringing with warm water 
or a very mild carbolized solution is the very best treatment that 
could be employed. Let us be an assistant to nature, not a pusher. 
It is related of a great physician who, on arriving in the spirit land 
tired and weary, was assaulted by an unknown form: "What did 
you kick me that way for?" asked he. " I am Nature," was the 
reply, " and seeing you tired and weary I thought I would assist you 
the way you used to assist me." 

In treating teeth, after having established a vent, give nature a 
chance. If you have time let the tooth severely alone for a week or 
more. Perhaps the patient announces after a day or two, " My 
tooth doesn't ache, but is quite sore," and you, to hurry matters, poke 
a broach through the canal, or perhaps pump a bottle of creosote 
through the apex. Don't do it my friend, let it alofie. You by your 
untimely interference only irritate and do not help nature. Again, the 
tooth has been through a course of treatment, and you carefully 
introduce a cotton test filling ; patient returns next day — tooth quiet. 
Now doiit take out the cotton only to introduce another. What are 
you doing it for ? Let the cotton remain for a week, or even longer 
if you are so inclined ; oft' times the irritation resulting from a change 
of the dressing is disastrous. You loose nothing by waiting, you 
gain time, and save labor and anxiety. 



INVESTING, BACKING, SOLDERING, TIPPING. 



11 What is your method of 'investing \ hacking and soldering f" 

I use for investing either sand or marble dust, and plaster equal 
parts. I do not like asbestos as well, as it does not make as solid an 
investment. 

I em lose in a sheet-iron ring, a little larger than the case, three- 
fourth inch wide, because less investing material is needed to heal 



Investing) Backing , Soldering, Tipping, 191 

and keep hot, and there is no danger of portions of the investmenl 
breaking u\\ a) . 

Heat the case sufficiently to -remove the bulk of the wax, and dash 
boiling water upon it to clean thoroughly. 

The backing should be thicker than the plate, about twenty- 
four gauge. I prefer backing in the investment, especially gum- 
teeth. 

For the anterior teeth, do not cover the entire surface but round 
the top, and in plain teeth do not let the backings touch anywhere. 
In gum teeth allow the backings to meet as high as the gum shoul- 
der. If there are spaces under the teeth pack in foil. The pins 
should not be riveted, for in the first place, there is not the slightest 
necessity for it ; secondly, it cannot be done without removing from 
the investment, or backing before investing ; third, there is dan- 
ger ot cracking the teeth, unless an expert ; fourth, when riveted the 
solder holds only upon the surface. 

On the other hand, if the heads of the pins are split with a sharp 
instrument, that holds the backing in place, and the solder flows 
into the hole around the pins and they are consequently fastened 
more firmly. 

The solder should never be of a lower grade than 18k ; if the 
plate is 20k, use same caret of solder. The nearer the melting point 
of the plate the better the solder works. Otherwise, the solder melts 
before the plate is hot enough, and " balls." Use plenty of borax, 
putting it on, and the solder also, before heating. Heat slowly over 
the large gas burner, until as hot as that will make it, then place upon 
whatever is used for holding it conveniently (I use a semi-circular 
sheet-iron pan, open on the straight edge, one inch deep, with handle 
diagonal to the surface). Apply the full blast to the outer surface 
for a little, and then upon the plate, so as to insure its being as 
hot as the backings, then throw it upon the backings and plate at 
once. 

I prefer the mouth blow-pipe. It should be larger than the ordin- 
ary blow-pipes which are made for jewelers, who use low caret sol- 
ders, and do not have to heat and keep hot a mass of plaster and 
sand. The White Co., at my request, are making a large blow-pipe 
The mouth pure is large so as to throw a volume of air into it, and 
also so it may rest against the lips, and not be placed inside, tiring 
Hi'- muscles. The other aperture should be one-eighth inch in diam- 
eter, so as to take in the full blaze of gas. 



ro2 The Odontographic Journal. 

What is the best method of tipping the anterior teeth, and of pre- 
venting the teeth from checking during the soldering process ?" 

The best method, perhaps, for " tipping " the anterior teeth is to do 
it with pure gold, soldering it when the teeth are soldered, either in 
a separate investment or when soldered to the plate. 

I have no trouble with teeth cracking ; do not remember the time 
when such an event happened, and I take no especial pains to pre- 
vent it. This is true either of plain or gum teeth, Justi's or White's. 
I heat the case over the gas for perhaps half an hour, then apply the 
blow-pipe ; after soldering, lay upon the bench ; if in haste to finish 
after a few minutes lay upon a wet cloth, drawing it around the sides 
of the investment. — Haskell, L. P , Ohio Journal. 



DR. SAMUEL I). FRENCH. 



FRENCH— In this city, July 21, 1889, suddenly, Dr. S. D. FRENCH, aged 58 years I 

months and 10 days. 

With feelings of profound sorrow, the Third District Dental Society of the 
State of New York records in its minutes, and announces to the dental pro- 
fession of the State, the death of Dr. Samuel D. French of Troy. 

Dr. French died suddenly at his residence, July 21st, of paralysis of the 
heart. The news was every where received with surprise, and was immediately 
followed by expressions of sorrow and sympathy. 

He was a charter member of this society, and during the twenty-one years of 
its existence, his congenial presence, and friendly nature, endeared him to each 
and every member. Those win) knew him best loved him most, and by his 
denth, this society suffers an irreparable loss. 

Standing in the front rank of our profession, he was honored throughout the 
State; for twenty years he was a member of the State Board of Censors, and 
for ten years treasurer of this society. As a husband and father, loving and 
thoughtful, as a neighbor, courteous and friendly, ever moved by a kind and 
generous heart, and ever prompt to express sympathy for others in distress 

A strong and sy metrical life, esteemed by all. 

J. L. Appleton. If. I). S , President, 
F. Le Grand Ami- Sei retaby. 



Writing for magazines, when well done, is one of the highest and 
most useful accomplishments and one by the means of which any 
person who has the interests of the profession at heart can do much 
toward elevating it. It is a safe rule never to allow those moments 
to pass when one is in the mood to write, or "when the spirit 
movi Mo-t dentists feel at times prompted to record their 



/ n tern a I ion (i I Dental Congress. 193 

observations or to note down certain ideas entertained on topics 
with which they are especially familiar, or in which they are particu- 
larly interested. On these occasions notes should be made for 
future reference and compilation. It is a good practice to have a 
tablet of paper in the operating case and jot down anything of 
interest, practical or theoretical, so often occurring or being pre- 
sented to us while operating. In leisure moments these slips may be 
torn out and placed in envelopes labeled, "Operative Dentistry," 
" Tin," Gold Filling," " Amalgam," " Saliva," or as the case may be. 
It is astonishing how soon by these means wholesome food for a 
paper is secured and how readily interesting points unknown to 
some, or which may readily escape from an erratic memory are pre- 
served and made beneficial. — Illinois State Dental Society. 



INTERNATIONAL DENTAL CONGRESS. 



The International Dental Congress of Paris has just closed after 
a six days session. The Congress was organized, and successfully 
carried through, by the combined efforts of the Odontological Soci- 
ety of France and the Odontological Society of Paris ; and they 
deserve great credit for the grand success of this, the first Interna- 
tional Dental Congress ever held. It being held in this great capi- 
tol, and during the Universal Exposition, has had much to do in get- 
ting together so many dentists from all parts of Europe and the 
United States. They came from Russia, Germany, Austria, Hun- 
gary, Holland, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Cuba, United States, and 
the South American States, and England and Australia ; but of course 
the greatest numbers came from France, nearly every city and town 
of importance being represented. 

The Congress was opened at the Trocadera Palace, under the 
presidency of the minister of commerce, assisted by Professor Gariel 
of the faculty of medicine, of Paris. Each morning was devoted to 
clinics and exhibitions of instruments, at one of the dental colleges, 
and the afternoon was devoted to the reading of papers, and discus- 
sions. The papers read were of a fair order of merit. I was struck 
with the great number of papers on anaesthetics — in point of number 
as great as all the other papers, showing that the French dentist must 
still resort to the forceps, to a great extent, in his practice. But one 
has only to practice among the French to know how badly they bear 
pain. One cannot do heroic operations for them, as he <an for an 



194 The Odontographic Journal. 

American. They prefer to lose their teeth rather than submit to 
much pain. Perhaps it is a fault in their constitution, or in their 
educ ition. But I have known many a dentist, fresh from America, 
who was going to educate them to appreciate and endure American 
dentistry, to be compelled to at least modify his methods, or starve. 
Much bridge and crown-work was shown. A movable bridge was 
exhibited by a dentist from Panzance (a descendant of one of the 
pirates), which was far ahead of anything of the kind I have ever 
seen. He had it in working order in his own mouth. The one great 
thing to recommend it is that it can be removed and cleansed, which, 
to ray mind, has always been an objection to the bridge-work ordi- 
narily made ; for it stands to reason that a plate which cannot be 
removed must become foul. I hope a description of it will be pub- 
lished, and if so will send it to the Journal. 

The Congress closed by a banquet, at which 220 persons sat down. 
After the inner man had been abundantly refreshed with solids and 
liquids, the outer man was entertained by toasts and speeches, in 
various languages, which made one wonder if it was not something 
similar to the first banquet given after the confusion of tongues, occa- 
sioned by the failure of the first attempt at building Eifel tower. 

An old dentist, said to be ninety years of age, was present, and 
replied to a toast drank to himself. He is said to be still in prac- 
tice, and one may believe it, as they say he has just married a new- 
wife. 

Our country was represented by Harlan, of Chicago, Bonwill, of 
Philadelphia, Parmly, Brown, and Parr, of New York. Bogue, of 
New York, was one of the Vice-Presidents. Each person present 
was presented with a medal in bronze commemorative of the occa- 
sion. On one side it reads, "Republic Francaise Exposition Uni- 
versale, Congres Dentaire International de Paris, 1889." On the 
reverse side, " Societe Odontologique de France, Societe Odonto- 
logique de Paris." After which the banquet closed by singing the 
Marssillaise. — Williams, N. W. — Ohio Journal. 



METHOD OF MODERN MEDICINE. 



Take typhoid fever ; much study has taught us that this fever has 
a course which cannot be put aside ; that in the majority of cases it 
tends toward recovery ; but that it sometimes kills by the exhaustion 
which it produces, by the diarrhoea which it causes, or the burning 



Conductors' Department. 195 

fever that accompanies it, or by various accidents. The doctor, 
knowing that he can no more cure typhoid fever than the captain ol 
an ocean steamer can cure the coming storm, tries, not to put aside 
the storm, but makes tight and trim the barque whose freight is life, 
and strives to guide it safely through the tempest. The moment he 
sees the health barometer falling he puts the patient in a state of 
absolute rest so as to save the last grain of strength, for he knows 
that the time may come when a hand's breadth shall make the differ- 
ence between being wrecked on the promontory or scraping by the 
cruel rocks into the safe harbor of convalescence ; by the careful 
selection of food and the use of local remedies he lessens the 
irritation and keeps the diarrhoea in check ; by cold he takes out the 
extreme heat of fever ; and so, everywhere watching, he guides his 
patient safely through ; perhaps during the whole course of the dis- 
ease giving very little medicine, but fearing not in a crisis to support 
most boldly and vigorously some failing vital function. — Wood, H. 
C, Address in Medicine, at Yale. 



Conductors' Department, 

THE AMERICAN BACKING DR. GROUSE. 



In view of the injustice the profession has sustained in the past, 
as well as the annoyance to which it may be subjected in the future, 
and fully appreciating the arduous and important labors of Dr. J. N. 
Grouse, of Chicago, be it — 

Resolved, that Dr. Crouse is entitled to the earnest and practical support of 
every dentist in the United States ; and further be it — 

Resolved, that the' American Dental Association fully approves of the forma- 
tion, the plans, and methods of the Dental Protective Association of the United 
States, and pledge to it our united and continued support and moral aid. — 
Southern Denial Journal. 

■ PELLETS. 



The Indiana Dental College had 51 matriculants at its last session. 



Dr. I. B. Davenport's present address is 30, Avenue de l'Opera, 
Paris. His partnership with Dr. Bogue terminated Oct. 1st. 



The Dietetic Gazette has absorbed the Philadelphia Medical Times, 
Medical Register and Polyclinic. 



nj() The Odontography Journal. 

Humiliating though it be, yet it is true that an American Medical 
Diploma has in itself no meaning. — Wood. 



The Byrnes mallet attracts much attention from those who are 
"gone" on engine attachments. It has several features that are 
characteristic. 



Where is the Dominion Dental Journal for April ? The July 
reached us a few days ago. Must have it regularly or our'Vrib- 
bing " vv ill suffer curtail. 



\ sample copy of the German Dental Directory (Part II of the 
Dental-Kalendar) for 1889 may be obtained gratis of Dr. E. Richter, 
Konigs-Strasse, Breslau. 



The classes at the three dental schools of Philadelphia are larger 
this session than ever before. Crowded seems to be the proper word 
to describe their condition. 



Merck's Bulletin comes once a month with its list of new discov- 
eries, etc/ Much that passes for new in dental materia medica has 
this publication as its source. 



Mrs. Horace Wells, widow of Dr. Horace W'ells, the discoverer of 
anaesthesia, died at her home in Hartford, Conn., July 17, 1889. 
She was seven t\ -two vears old. 



Dr. C. S. Chittenden, for many years at Hamilton, Ont., is dead. 
The old Western New York society rarely met without him, and the 
7th and 8th districts saw him often. 



Landois' "Text-book of Human Physiology " is reviewed in the 
|ul\ Dietetic Gazette in a manner that leaves the reader without 
re< nurse — he must have a copy or lose cast. 



In the discussion of Dr. Sudduth's lecture before the New Jerse) 
society, much spice and not a little personality was indulged in. It 
appears in part in the /. D. J. for September. 

International Dental Congress — There will be a congress. It will 
be dental likewise international — in iSllj. Chicago? New York ? 
We'll write Chauncey M Depew forthwith for his decision. 



The Gundlach Lens is the title of a beautiful four-plate souvenir 
recentl) put out by the Gundlach Optical Company <>t this city. 



Pellets. 197 

Photographers, both professional and amateur, will prize it for its 
artistic merit. 



Dr. F. 1). Darby, chairman of the Union Committee of Arrange- 
ments, writes us in answer to a recent communication that he does 
not read pnnt readily. Hereafter all letters must be writ. We have 
discharged our typewriter. 



"Pits and Fissures of the Enamel," with six reproductions from 
photo-micrographs, by Dr. R. R. Andrews, has the leading place in 
last month's International. When Dr. Andrews talks he not only 
says something, but much of it. 



To improve the common air syringe or chip blower, add a few 
inches of rubber tubing in place of the valve, transferring the valve 
to the free end of the tubing. With this change it may be depended 
upon to pull wind every time, and hold it. 



I made various tests with the oil of cassia in connection with 
albumen and all of these gave results that coincide very perfectly 
with the experiments in broth without the addition of albumen. 
With this agent the presence of albumen is of no consequence. — Black. 



"Student" wants to know, " Which will give me the better stand- 
ing in the dental profession — M. D. or D. D. S.?" Your standing will 
depend primarily on yourself, degree or no degree.' Secondly, on 
where and how you obtain your degree. There are some pretty 
scaly degrees in dentistry, and they "are not all of the "partial cul- 
ture" kind. 



A foreign funny (?) paper {Judy) advertises " Ross' skin tighten- 
er ;" also a machine for torturing the nose into any desired form or 
position ; also one for " outstanding ears." We have ordered the 
last named, and after a fair trial will forward it to some one of sev- 
I of our brother editors similarly afflicted with anatomical super- 
fluities. Don't all speak at once, gentlemen We're going to have 
a hard winter, but selfishness has no part in our make up. 



Dr. J. \\ . Ivory, in describing the method of using his clamps, 
tes a fact or two none too widely known. He says : " An opening- 
is made in the rubber;i little larger than ordinariK made by punches 
for thai purpose, 'on the s< ientific facl thai a large opening in the 
rubber tor an irregular molar is fetter than a small one,' as the 



Ip8 The Odontograpkic Journal. 

rubber has a chance to accommodate itself to the grooves in a tooth, 
while if small, the rubber stretches over the grooves and leaves a 
space for the fluids of the mouth to leak in and destroy your filling." 

Dr. Barrett has a mallet of which he says : It does not, when one 
is most busy, stop to look out the window, or to scratch its head, or 
pick its nose. It does not come on duty in the morning full of 
onions, or cabbage, or other breath perfumers. It does not get up 
flirtations with the impudent dudes who visit the office, and its 
grandmother does not die and give an excuse for absence every time 
there is a picnic. It never helps itself to your perfumery, meddles 
with your letters, nor talks back when you attempt to shoulder^upon 
it the responsibility for failures in operating. 

This unique affair was made by the Buffalo Dental Manufacturing 
Company. 

Books, Pamphlets, Etc 



The Etiology of Typhoid Fever. By Thos. G. Lee, M. D., Pp. 8. 
An interesting paper by an old contributor to the Odontographic 
Journal. 

The Medical Profession — The Medical Sects, the Law. By 

H. C. Wood, M. 1)., Pp. 19. 

An address in medicine at Vale University. A most readable pro- 
duction, but characterized according to some by temper rather than 
tact. 
\ Study 01 Windbreaks. 

This is Bulletin number IX of the agricultural experiment station 
at Cornell University. Members of the profession who contemplate 
attendance upon the next meeting would do well to obtain a copy in 
advance. It discounts both chest protector and liver pad. 

Dissemination oi rHE Knowledge of Denial Hygiene amon< 
mi M ^sses. By L. P. Bethel, D.D. S., Pp. 7. 

The author would have this done through schools, the dental office, 

physicians, periodicals, books, pamphlets and lectures 
\l\ki\i Biologk \i Laboratory, 1888. Pp.40. 

The Inst of a series of reports describing the work at Wood's Holl. 

Students au<l investigators are we\\ omed and assisted in their work 
1 .1 preparation therefor. 



THE 



Odontographic Journal. 



Volume X. — January, 1890. — No. </. 



STRUCTURE AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TEETH. 



BY J. HENLE, LEIPZIG, 1841. 



[Translated Expressly for the Odontographic Journal.] 



STRUCTURE. 

Every tooth consists of two parts, the root and the crown. The 
root is implanted in a socket of the jawbone, the crown rising free 
above the superior margin. Between the two, however, can be 
distinguished the neck of the tooth — that part which lies, it is true, 
outside the socket, but yet is covered by the gum. The crown is 
entire and sharp in the incisors and canines, dividing, however, into 
from two to four prominences in the back teeth ; the root of the latter 
is divided more or less deeply into separate prongs, and thus be- 
coming one or more fold. The root and part of the crown are hol- 
low, the cavity opening by way of one or more apertures in the apex 
of the root. It contains a soft substance, rich in vessels and nerves — 
the tooth-pulp — which is continuous with the periosteum of the 
socket, and which, through the opening in the extremity of the 
root, penetrates into the tooth. Teeth with more roots contain a 
single cavity into which through each root leads a canal, and a single 
branch of pulp having horn-like continuations corresponding to the 
roots. 

The crown is composed mainly of two substances, the outer being 
the harder and polished, overlying like a crust the inner substance; the 
former is called enamel, (Fig. I. e) the latter dentine (d.) The root 
consists inwardly, for the most part, of dentine, which is uninterrupt- 
edly continuous with the dentine of the crown. The enamel, however, 
ends at the neck of the tooth, and the root has instead of this a cover- 



200 The Odontographic Journal. 

ing of a distinctively peculiar substance known as cement or crust 
substance {e.) This extends itself likewise continuously over the 
enamel of the crown. The cement, in regard to its structure, 
resembles in all points bone tissue. It has the same lime-filled 
cavities, with the stellate continuations and canaliculi, as bone 
substance. The medium size of the cavities amounts to 0.0062/" the 
diameter of the canaliculi to 0.0002 — 0.0001,'" (Retzius). The 
layer of crust substance is thickest in the root toward the very apex, 
and in the cleft always between two roots at the superficies 
alveolaris. Thus does Purkinje name that surface of the tooth 
opposite the masticating surface. In the case of a single root it is 
not seen, but pushes downward with the root; but when more roots are 
present, they are immediately separated at the point of origin by 
the superficies alveolaris lying free between them. The cement 
layer of the root is thinner, the younger the tooth ; in older teeth, it 
becomes thicker, and builds up what is known as exostosis. In 
deformed roots, according to Linderer,* cement occurs in the 
deformity. From the apex on, growing by degrees thinner, the 
cement disappears where the enamel of the crown begins, although 
Frankelf once followed it a short distance above the enamel, and 
NasmythJ describes under the name of persistent tooth-capsule, 
a covering-part of the enamel of human teeth, which can be nothing 
else than cement. Yet treatment with muriatic acid made it appear 
like a thin membrane which extended itself within the tooth socket 
and covered the whole tooth like a capsule. At the best one sees it 
in evenly fractured teeth, but isolated remains also occur in teeth 
much worn down. The outer layer of the thin membrane is said to 
be fibrous, the inner reticulated; while connected by hexagonal cells. 
maybe traces of the outer enamel fibres. Nasmyth saw no bone 
corpuscles in human specimens. 

The cartilage of the crust substance of human teeth, from which 
bone-earth has beeen dissolved by acid, may be stripped off in the 
form of a thin membrane. According to Frdnkel, it is lamellate, 
and seems less consistent than the cartilage of dentine. Seen in 
« ross-section the bone corpuscles in the cement of the tooth appear in 

*Zahnheilk, page 171, plate xi, livjurc 5. 
FDent. struc tura, p. 7. 
(Medico-chirurg. transact, xxii, <i •• 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 201 

1 

concentric rings (Retzius). According to Lassaigne,* the cement 

of the crust consists as follows : 

Animal matter 42. 18 

Phosphate of lime 53.84 

Carbonate of lime 3.98 

The dentine or ivory is in its relation to bone nearly akin. It 
consists likewise of an organic basis, which by means of extraction 
of the calcareous matter by boiling, becomes readily converted into 
glue and the lime salts of ordinary bone, though in somewhat 
different proportions. According to Berzelius, human dentine 
contains : 

Cartilage 28.00 

Phosphate lime and fiuor-calcium 64.30 

Carbonate lime 5 . 30 

Phosphate magnesia 1 .00 

Natron and chlornatrium 1.40 

According to Pepys :f 

Gluten 28 

Phosphate lime 58 

Carbonate lime 4 

Water and loss {ceriuHt) 10 

The amount of animal matter in proportion to the mineral, and 
the ratio of carbonate of lime to the phosphate, is also somewhat less 
than in bone. Dentine is composed of a homogeneous base and of 
fibres which are probably hollow. In these bone-earth in granular 
form is deposited, and the homogenous substance is impregnated by 
lime salts just as is the matrix of bone. By means of treatment with 
caustic potash the cartilage is eaten out and the mineral parts 
remain in the form of little granules cohering together, which, 
being friable, break down with equal quickness. The canal of the 
pulp may be looked upon as a central canal, from which issue other 
canals which traverse the tooth substance in all directions. Accord- 
ing to the description of Retzius, with which later observa'ions 
agree, the tooth-cavity is over its entire surface perforated by a 
multitude of openings, and these lead into the canals which run 
across through the thickness of the dentine as far as its surface 
where it is limited by the enamel or the cement. These canals are 
seen like parallel fibres in thin transverse sections of the tooth 
cartilage, which one has previously, though not too long, treated 

♦Rousseau, Anat. comp. p. 262. 

' I OX, N'.'it. hist, i, <yV. 



202 The OdontograpJiic Journal. 

with muriatic acid and freed from the bone-earth, likewise in thin 
cut plates, or the ragged surface of the firm dentine broken across. 
In order to fit these for viewing with the microscope, it is necessary 
to give them an even surface with water, oil or turpentine varnish. 
By more thorough saturation, the tubuli, however, disappear again, and 
indeed from the finest branches on to the mass, as they become 
perfectly saturated with the liquid. In the human specimen appear 
first of all the tubuli lying in juxtaposition, parallel to each other. 
All the tubuli of the tooth radiate, those on the masticating surface 
being tolerably perpendicular, those on the sides horizontal. In teeth 
with more roots the fibres have a direction perpendicular to the cavity, 
both upon the masticating (Fig. II. l>) and the alveolar (a) surface, so 
that they appear only interrupted by the tooth cavity. 1 In the 
crowns of the molars, one can best imagine the dispersed arrange- 
ment of the fibres by figuring as many canines as the crown has 
cusps, united together and covered with a continuous coating of 
enamel. Upon the interruption in the course of the fibres probably 
depends the fact, discovered by Rudolphi, 2 that teeth under the 
influence of muriatic acid, cleave in certain fixed places. However, 
Meckel 3 observed with reason, that the cleavage is not so regular as 
Rudolphi asserted, and that it is not confined to the crown, but 
extends to the root. Here it appears to exist, but to be quite 
fortuitous; the division can be continued ad infinitum. Only in a 
few situations, and those not constant, do the tubules extend in a 
straight course from the tooth cavity to the surface. Such places 
are those which are in the cusps, or correspond to the cusps of the 
crown, and the beginning of the lowest third of the root. In other 
places they mostly have the form of a line with three curves ; the 
first curve turning its concavity toward the masticating surface, the 
second toward the root, and the third again toward the masticating 
surface. Sometimes occurs a fourth additional curve, like the 
second; in the root occurs in the shortest tubule one simple S-formed 
< urve. The curves appear to tend, in well formed teeth, in direc- 
tions corresponding to each other on both sides, according to a 
determined symmetry ; towards the middle of the crown occurs, 
accordingly, the middle curve, whence the others diverge. In their 
3t regularity these curves are found in thin sections of tin- 
front teeth, which have been cut in a direction from front to back, 

1 Fr&nkel, .<. i Op. to 
K :il's Arch. iii. 401. 
\ re h . i i 1 , 471. 



Structure and Physiology of tlie Teeth. 203 

parallel with the axis of the tooth. They cause here a satiny 
brilliance, a play of light in lines of splendor in the more concentric 
zones near the tooth-cavity, which have already been remarked by 
Schreger. 1 Besides the greater curves, it is seen by a strong 
magnifier, that the tubules otherwise short, have incurves tightly 
folded upon each other, in the form of an undulatory bent line. 
In 1'" of length, occur as many as two hundred curves of this last 
kind. In the milk teeth they are, in general, fewer in number, and 
they are fainter toward the other ends of the tubuli than in their 
middle portion. Moreover there occur, chiefly in older teeth, 
stronger and weaker curves, which in a great number of consecutive 
tubes, correspond to each other and thereby produce zones, 
concentric in the transverse section of the inner surface of the tooth,, 
which might appear to be caused by the flowing lines of the tubuli. 
In thin sections of tooth cartilage the curves are smoothed out by 
pressure. Throughout the whole extent of the tubuli both inside 
and out occur dichotomous divisions, and fine branches are given 
out both ways, whereby the lumen of the tubuli especially from the 
last third on, diminishes toward the outer end. The branches 
divide again and in part fill up the interspaces between the tubuli 
lying next each other, in part they curve away past these, and seem 
to wind into the next interspaces. 2 Next the tooth cavity the 
branchlets are fewer, and often appear but as little irregularities or 
peaks. It does not appear that the branches of different tubuli unite 
except somewhere at their extremities. The diameter of the tubuli, 
entire near the tooth cavity, I found to be in man never above 
o.ooi;'" 3 at the end they become immeasurably fine, or pass into 
little, irregular, round, scattered cells. The distance of the tubules 
from each other is in their middle almost three times as great as the 
diameter of a tubule, in their beginning they are nearer together. 
The canals are filled with earthy substance, which by aid of light 
falling through, is seen to consist of minute granules in little groups. 
Cross-sections of the same, seen against a dark ground, appear as 
white dots, and become translucent by the use of dilute acid; the 
broken off tubuli also, at the edges of the fragments, are rigid and 
white ; by means of acid they can be made pliable and transparent, 
and one ran follow with the eye the dissolution taking place in the 
tubule. It appears that the salts are infused into the parietes them- 

';iiflamm and Rosemimller, I'oitr. i, 2. 

V' t/ius in Mull. Arch. 1837, Taf. xxi, fig. 2. 

"' J.inderer; 0.0007 — °- 0023, '"Krause; o. 0013 — 0.0016'" in the 
vu iuity of the tOOth '.avity, Hruns. 



-204 The Odontographic Journal. 

selves of the tubuli, and the tubule contains more than the lime 
deposit, as it takes up readily, by means of its capillary structure, 
colored fluids, as ink for example. 1 In thin cross-sections of 
dentine, are seen the lumina of the tubuli, some round and 
some oval, according as the tubuli cut through are straight or 
oblique. Often the cut is through the middle of the lumen of a 
tubule, and then appears a bend in the cut edge. The tubuli which 
are cut straight allow the light to pass through ; those obliquely cut 
are perfectly white, or entirely dark. The lumen of the greater num- 
ber of the tubuli is, in polished cross-sections, surrounded by a sec- 
ond circle, and the ring which borders the lumen, is somewhat dark- 
er and more yellowish than the fundamental tissue of the tooth. 2 
Purkinje and Retzius take this ring for the cross-section of 
the tube-wall, and see therein evidence that the material which 
composes the wall does not entirely accord with the homo- 
geneous ground substance of the dentine. It can hardly be 
doubted, in accordance with the facts stated, that the little canals 
•deserve the name, and are hollow, but I hold the walls to be 
immeasurably thin, and have not been able to convince myself that 
the dark rings in the cross-sections do not arise from an optical 
illusion. In the tooth cartilage left after extraction of the lime, they 
are not visible. In lengthwise sections of dentine or tooth cartilage, 
the tubuli often stand out a little distance ; they are white, lustrous, 
and rigid in the dentine, confused, finely twined or bent, like thin 
fibres of the elastic tissue, when the lime has been extracted. The 
diameter of these tubules is like the diameter of the lumen in 
transverse sections in the same place. It would be conceivably 
much greater if the rings belonged around the lumen of the wall. 

I have called the fundamental substance of dentine homogeneous. 
So it has hitherto been described by most observers, so it appears in 
thin cut plates of dentine, in the profile and transverse sections, and 
in cross-sections of tooth cartilage appears but rarely a network of 
fine lines between the tubules, which indicates a connective tissue. 
On the other hand it is easy to perceive in the profile sections, that 
the whole tooth cartilage consists of fibres, which lie in the same 
dire< tion as the tubules, so that each tubule runs always between 
two fibres. Tooth cartilage macerated but a short time in 
water, can easily be tmn apart into fibres, which frequently 

'According to Purkinje and Muller, /. Miescher, Inn", on p. 272. 
a Het/ius, a a. D., Plate *XI, 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 205 

expand from the cavity outward to the surface of the tooth, 
broad, thick, and wedge-shaped. Each of these fibres is a bun- 
dle of microscopic filaments which in color has much resem- 
blance to those of the middle arterial coat, in form to the outer 
fibres of lentils. They are somewhat flattened, some of them 
0.0029/" broad, pale, granular and particularly on the educes where 
they lie together, rough, almost toothed. In acetic acid they 
become somewhat paler, but not disconnected. Bifurcation or 
ramification I have not seen, and therefore must regard them as 
extremely rare if they ever occur. If, therefore, the separated fibres 
expand in bulk from the inside outward, this cannot be in conse- 
quence of increment by division, but I believe rather, that between 
the fibres which spring close to the cavity, are interpolated new ones 
here and there, or else folded back, so that not all the fibres which 
end at the outer surface extend back to the cavity. As it happens 
ordinarily, the space between each two fibres is filled by a tubule. 
This often juts out at the cut edge beyond the cut ends of the 
filament, and is often separated from them, so that a space lies open 
between them. Other fibres are often seen, between which lies no 
tubule, or only short and interrupted fragments of such. Whether 
this state of things is normal, or the tubules are lost in the prepara- 
tion, I am unwilling to decide. Could one imagine the division of 
the tooth substance into fibres not spontaneous, and plainly dependent 
upon the direction of the tubuli, still it must at least appear a homo- 
geneous substance where attenuated by pressure of the adjacent 
tubuli. If one compares, however, the fragments of tooth cartilage 
with other fibrous tissue, if one, for example, considers the resem- 
blance of the tooth fibres to the true fibres of the middle arterial 
membrane, that of the dental tubuli to the nucleated fibres of the lat- 
ter (the bifurcation and ramification being common to both), it can- 
not be doubted that the structure is identical in origin. A decided 
proof of this will the manner of development of the tooth tissue fur- 
nish us. 

The fibrous structure of the fundamental tissue does not extend 
through the whole of the dentine. If the cement of the root be 
torn away from about the pulp cavity, the fibres of the inner surface 
of the cement break irregularly, and the cement remains as a firm 
plate (lamella). A similar but finer plate, not fibrous, exists in the 
crown at the dividing line of the dentine next the enamel ; it is the 
thin layer in which the canaliculi ramify to the finest degree and 



206 The Odontographic Journal. 

pass around true bone corpuscles. Here also the structure of the 
tooth cartilage is lost, as of the bone cartilage and cement cartilage. 
The enamel is yet poorer in animal elements than the dentine. It 
leaves after solution in very weak acid, an extremely delicate, 
membraneous tissue, in which a faint fibrous structure can be dis- 
covered. 1 If the acid works longer, a fine brown membrane collects, 
which Berzelius believed to lie only on the inside of the enamel, 
between it and the dentine, and in which Retzius detected by 
microscopic scrutiny, numerous fine openings closely set together. 
The animal substance is only 2 per cent, of the enamel, according to 
Berzelius. Its constitution, according to the latter, is as follows : 

Phosphate of lime and tluor-calcium 88.5 

Carbonate of lime 8.0 

Phosphate of magnesia 1.5 

Organic matter, alkali and water 2.0 

Lassaigne, on the other hand, gives the amount of the organic 
matter much higher, namely : 

Phosphate of lime 72 

Carbonate of lime 8 

Animal matter 20 

and with this agrees tolerably well the analysis of Pepys, according 

to which enamel consists of : 

Phosphate of lime TS 

Carbonate of lime G 

Water and loss 1G 

The enamel is made up of solid, 4-6 sided prisms or columns, of 
which one end rests on the dentine, the other being free on the upper 
surface of the tooth. The upper surface of the dentine is rough 
and full of little peaks and hollows, in which the inner ends of the 
enamel columns take hold. The outer ends are somewhat rounded, 
though in worn teeth, or across polished ones, they are flat, 
polygonal, quad angular according to Purkinje, according to Retzius, 
haxagonal. 2 So long as the tooth is concealed in its capsule, the 
enamel is soft, and easily divided into single prisms which appear 
in the form of small, angular needles of 0.002,"' in diameter, scarcely 
perceptibly thicker at the outer end than at the inner. 3 In some are 
seen small, close lying cross-stripes, part of which extend entirely 
across the prism, others only part away. 4 Linderer 5 did not find 

1 Krankel, a. a., \>. B 

2 a. a., I), lav. xxi, ftp . 

3 o.ooi5 — 0.0023/" Krause ; 0.0013 — 3.021,'" Hrnns. 

[like!, a. a., O. fig. 6. Retzius. a. a., < > T.iw xxi. 
•Zahnhcilk, S. 185. 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. § 207 ' 

them ; it occurred to me that they were the ends of prisms lying 
together cut off obliquely. If the tooth has erupted and the enamel 
become firm, in order to see the prisms in coherence it is necessary 
to cut thin slices lengthwise through the pulp cavity and near the 
axis of the tooth. The prisms become more distinct if the section 
is placed a short time in dilute acid and then in water (Frankel). 
Here too, the cross-stripes appear not to be at equal distances from 
each other,now setting forward in a line beyond other fibres, now alter- 
nating with two contiguous fibres. The direction of the enamel fibres 
is in general like that of the dentinal tubes, perpendicular to the sur- 
face of the pulp cavity, so that they stand vertical on the masticating 
surface, and become gradually horizontal toward the neck of the 
tooth ; they do not, however, continue in the same direction as the 
dentinal tubes, but form with them an obtuse angle, open toward 
the axis of the tooth. Neighboring enamel fibres run parallel to each 
other, frequently in undulatory and even strong zigzag curves ; 
sometimes the curves of different fibres run oppositely, and part of 
them end in surfaces cut off obliquely against others, without 
reaching the periphery of the tooth. On the other hand, there 
occur in the outer parts of the molars, systems of fibres almost driven 
in like wedges, which do not reach the surface of -the dentine. In 
the crowns and depressions of teeth with several cusps, they proceed 
from single points as from vertices. 

Upon the outer surface of the enamel and in transverse sections 
are detected with the naked eye and with the microscope, many 
striae and markings whose causes* have not yet been adequately 
fathomed. Very regular undulating transverse veins are dispersed 
over the front surface and around the crown, especially of the 
incisors and cuspids, so thickly set that Retzius counted twenty-four 
to a line. Leeuwenhoek 1 held these striae to be traces of the passage 
of the tooth through the gum, which he supposed intermittent in its 
progress. According to Retzius they push out in such a way that 
the enamel fibres are produced in encircling rings which ascend 
obliquely from the crown to the cusps, and of which a part of each 
overlies the next beneath like roof tiles. Krause 2 discerned through- 
out the whole enamel, bluish and chalky white fibres, which, corres- 
pondent in color, build up even layers. The striae lie faced together, 
are turned with the edges toward the inner and outer surfaces of the 
enamel layer, and therefore appear on the surface, and likewise in 



I < P- 5- 
*Anat. a Ed. I. 152. 



208 The Odontographic Jour?ial. 

polished transverse sections, as alternate ring-stripes each two layers 
thick, amounting to 26"'. 

It seems to me that this striping is produced in the same way as 
the bands upon tendon and nerve fibres, that is, by a wavy or zigzag 
curvature of the enamel fibres, which curving may be seen in thin 
plates of still soft enamel from the outer surface of young teeth care- 
fully scrutinized. 

Another marking exists in parallel, mostly brownish lines, which 
in the cusps run concentrically at the edge of the dentine ; at the 
sides, almost parallel with the axis of the tooth. 1 With the naked 
eve are seen but few of these, but under the microscope come to 
light yet finer ones between the coarser. Schreger held them to be 
the limiting edges of three separate layers of enamel. 2 Retzius is 
inclined to think they originate from the overlapping and thicker 
cross-stripes of the enamel fibres. Purkinje believes them to be 
caused by sinuous curves, Linderer by intermission in the forming 
process. A third kind of stripes, Schreger's fibre-stripes, 4 appears 
in enamel broken lengthwise, if viewed under the microscope, against 
a dark ground. They are short, white, nearly bow-shaped, half in 
similar directions to the enamel fibres, half in different directions. 
These, according to Retzius, are produced by parallel shadows of 
the cross-stripes meeting together ; Krause made them originate in 
a shorter curve of the whole rank of enamel fibres. The explanation 
of Purkinje 6 seems to be more correct, according to which they arise 
from the circumstance that the curves of the undulating and parallel 
lying fibres are partly cut across, and the cross-cut surfaces reflect 
the light in different ways. At the boundary between the dentine 
and enamel appear fissures in the latter at tolerably regular intervals, 
which proceed from individual prominences or points of the dentine, 
and extend to a certain depth and ramify in the enamel. 7 Their 
signification is unknown. Fissures, through which the fibres are 
disposed in larger bundles, occur also in the soft enamel of the 
foetus. 

In man and the other mamalia, neither vessels nor nerves 
extend beyond the pulp cavity into the substance of the tooth ; the 

1 Frankel, a. a, O. Ki^. 1 c. fig. ». \ <). Retzius, a. a. O. Tav. xxi, fi^. 7 x. Linderer, 
Tav. xxi, fi<, ~\ f. j;. o. 

2 a. ;. ' '. S. (ig, 5. 

inkel, o. a. ( ). p. [6. 
. fig. 7, 8. 
r ' a. a O. S., 1 
■ I rank el, .1 a. ( >., p. 17. 
; I , uikel. i>. 17. Linderer, S. 182. 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 209 

pulp, which at the apex of the root is continuous with the periosteum 
•of the alveolus, lies entirely loose in its cavity and may be taken out 
without laceration. Under the microscope it shows an entirely 
sharp contour. It can easily be pulled apart lengthwise into fine 
filements, and these consist, besides vessels and nerves, of distinct, 
finely granular, somewhat flattened fibres, of the consistence and 
appearance of the gelatinous nerve fibres, with which lie cell nuclei, 
oval or more often lengthened out into short and thin, wavy, opaque 
fibres. The distinct fibres do not split into fibrillar, and the opaque, 
nuclei-produced corpuscles, do not unite with the nucleus fibres. 
At the cuter surface of the pulp is a tissue resembling that of the 
mucous membrane. It has in a homogeneous matrix, little dark 
granules, isolated cytoblasts, an'd cytoblasts with narrow cells. A 
regular epithelium does not exist. The trunks of the vessels lie in the 
axis of the pulp, their capillary branches producing meshes through- 
out its length ; the plexuses and terminal loops of the nerve fibres 
have been spoken of before. 1 In the gum of the foetus and newborn 
animal, near the superior margin, Serres' detected granules grouped 
together, of the size of millet seed, like the Meibomian glands, filled 
with a white substance. They can be emptied by pressure ; under 
the microscope some of them show a little brown point in the 
center. Serres considered them glands, whose secretion is discharged 
through the brown point, if it be an aperture, otherwise by effusion 
through the walls themselves. They have been said to secrete tartar 
after the eruption of the teeth, whence they received the name tartar 
glands, glandulse tartaricae. Raschkow, 3 Frankel, 4 and Linderer, 5 
examined microscopically the contents of these vescicles, and found, 
in a clear, thin liquid, polygonal plates with a round nucelus, like the 
flattened epithelial cells, partly filled with a granular substance. 
According to Raschkow they are entirely closed. Whether they 
persist in the adult is still doubtful. Blandin" asserted it; Meckel, 7 
on the otfier hand, has only seen them at the period of eruption of the 
:th, and considered them abscesses; Rousseau 8 and Linderer have 

1 The old*er anatomists and Frankel yet, (a. u. O., p. 3.) speak of a Membrana dentis interna 
(the periosteum of the alveolus is distinguished as the Membrana dentis externa) and understand 
hy this a membrane rich in vessels, which lines the pulp cavity. There is none such present. When 
■t. e pulp is removed, the dentine i* left bare. 
I. ai, p. 28. 

1 Meletemata, p. n., fig. 12. 

* a. n. O., p. 4. 

r ' a. a. O. S., Tav. Hi., fig. 4, 6. 

'' Syst. dentaire, p. 61. 

7 Anat. iv. 220. 

H nnat. com p. p. 44. 



210 The Odontographic Journal. 

not found them in adults. Before this point is settled, it would be 
rash to decide upon their function. The view expressed by Serres 
is not very probable. I formerly supposed them to be pituitary 
glands, certainly of the simplest kind, starting up here and there as 
closed cells, which upon opening disappear again. One can easily, 
especially in the morning before cleansing the teeth, by pressing the 
gum, force out from between the gum and the neck of the tooth, a 
viscous white substance which consists of nothing but minute mucous 
globules. These probably issue singly from the glands opening 
at the neck of the tooth. 

PHYSIOLOGY. 

About the middle of the third month, within the thickened 
superior margin of the jaw, is found a row of whitish, opaque cells 
or vesicles, formed of soft membrane, each of which encloses the 
rudiments of a milk tooth. Herissant, 1 indeed, describes openings 
in the gum, with which the capsules communicate by canals which 
are to enlarge themselves upon the eruption of the teeth ; Bonn 2 
seems to have seen the same openings, but would only introduce 
into them bristles to a trifling depth ; Delabarre 3 found the canals 
specified by Herissant solid in the normal conditions ; by treatment 
with dilute nitric acid, however, he saw little depressions in the gum, 
at the bottom of which, corresponding to the attachment of cords, a 
whitish point allowed the introduction of a fine probe into the 
capsule. Upon similar observation, Arnold 4 came to the conclusion 
that the tooth capsules were inversions of the mucous membrane of 
the mouth ; in the embryo at the ninth week, he noted in the thin 
superior margin of each jaw, a furrow with ten little hollows, and 
somewhat later, the same number of openings which permitted the 
introduction of a bristle into the capsules. They closed themselves 
immediately, nevertheless, in the third month the capsule of the 
second molar was in still more open communication with fetie buccal 
cavity. 

This conclusion, which stands opposed to most of the earlier 
observations, would also either overturn or conflict with the later 
ones. Purkinje and Raschkow" deny the existence of the hollows 
and openings, and maintain that the tooth-capsule is free from the 

1 Acad, de Paris, i 7 r (i p 

2 De con tin, meinbranaruin in S.uidif. the*, ii. 276. 
1 ( )dnntologie, p. 10. 

1 Sal/1). /(>;. 18 ;r, S. 236. 

letemata, p. 20. 



Structure ana Physiology oj the Teeth. 211 

beginning and has no connection with the gum. On the contrary, 
Linderer 1 lias discovered anew, the openings in the superior margin 

of the jaw, and finally Goodsir" gave a description in detail of the 
first incidents in the development of the teeth, which asserts that 
\rnold saw rightly, although his explanation of what he saw was not 
entirely correct. 

According to Goodsir the origin of the tooth-capsules and tooth- 
germs is as follows : At first, in an embryo at about the sixth week, 
which measures from the crown of the head to the apex of the 
coccyx 7/^/" were found in the place of the maxillae, deep and 
narrow furrows between the scarcely indicated lips and a 
smooth, horseshoe shaped ledge which in the upper jaw answers to 
the first rudiment of the palatal arch. Soon rise up in the furrow 
between the lip and this ledge two ridges or dykes, one behind the 
other, the front or outer one next the palate. Between both dykes 
is a shallow gutter, the primitive tooth furrow. The dykes become 
steadily higher and the gutter deeper in the same measure. One 
must pull apart the lip from before and the palate from behind in 
order to see the gutter with its dykes. 

In an embryo at the seventh week, 1" in length, the outer dyke was 
-entirely formed, the inner only at the sides. The outer (Fig. 
III. a), was on its inner margin three times inflected, and 
thereby divided the gutter into three tracts, of which the pos- 
terior (d), lay between two dykes, the middle and anterior 
were open inwardly. In the inferior maxilla of the same 
embryo, on the contrary, the outer ridge was wanting, the inner 
bounded the gutter to'-vard the buccal cavity, and arched itself away 
toward a single spot beyond. In a two months embryo the inner 
ridge of the superior maxilla extended more widely anteriorly and 
posteriorly, and in the inferior, the furrow was more marked and 
deeper. At the bottom of the posterior division of the furrow in the 
upper jaw appeared an isolated small tumor, a second showed itself 
at the edge of the ridge in the second division ; this was on the outside 
protected by a thin plate growing out from the ridge. At the point of 
origin of the lower jaw were two little tumors of entirely similar 
character. In the ninth week, both papillae (Fig. IV. 1, 2) had 
increased in size, the ridges before and behind the posterior papillae 
were fast joined together. At the same time starteckin each jaw at 
either side of the lip band, two little swellings side by side, (3, 4), 

1 Zabnheilk, S. 63. 

inburgh Med. and Surg. Jonrn., xxxi. r, s<|r. 



2 i 2 The Odontography Journal. 

ea< h protected by a high ridge. That situated nearest to the mesial 

line was the largest and seemed to have started first. In a ten 
weeks old foetus the papillae i and 2 had already retreated into the 
capsules which had elevated themselves like thin plates from the 
base of papillae, but the latter could still be perceived through the 
opening of the capsule ; and the bordering ridges of papillae 

3 and 4 are more distinct. These also were soon transformed 
into open capsules, while they became united with like ridges 
at the posterior surfaces of papillae. In the outer angle of the furrow, 
back of papilla 1, appeared at the bottom a new swelling, at first in 
the superior, two weeks later in the inferior maxilla. In the eleventh 
to the twelfth week, the edges of the ridges blend together in the 
interstices between the capsules, only a suture remaining, which 
is interrupted by the openings that lead to the cavities of the 
capsules. The ridges now form the anterior and posterior wall 
of the processus alveolaris ; in the processus alveolaris of each jaw lie 
ten capsules, in each capsule a papilla. Each papilla has its base 
fixed at the bottom of the capsule, and projects in the thirteenth 
week on a level with the opening, as is seen in lengthwise section of 
them side by side, where the rami of the vessels are also seen to 
enter the papillae (Fig. V.) Each papilla has already the form of the 
kind of tooth it is destined to build. The form of the opening of 
the capsule corresponds in some degree to the form of the tooth 
germ. The margin of the incisor capsules has a depression at each 
side and is accordingly two-lobed, that of the capsules inclosing the 
canines, lias one outer and two inner lobes, in the molar capsules are 
four and five lobes ; each lobe corresponding to a prominence of the 
crown, each depression to ;i furrow of the same. From this time on 
the papilla grow less rapidly than the upper parts of the jaw, 
accordingly they sink back into the capsules, while at the same time 
the openings draw themselves together. Close behind these, at each 
tooth, appears a sharp, crescentic depression, whose concavity is 
directed toward the opening, the same will be spoken of later. Not 
till the sixteenth week are the margins and sides of the ridges mown 
together so firmly that they cannot be separated, and in the cro 

1 tion no trace of the former fissure is found except a firm dark 
in atrix which extends from the former opening of the raphe of the 
gum. ( )f the milk teeth taken collectively, the superior pre-molar 
is firsl developed, the upper canine follows it, then the central, 
next tin- lateral in< isor, last the molar. In the inferior maxillary tin- 
germs follow the same order, only somewhat later. The capsules lie 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 213 

close together at first, and directly above the stems of the vessels and 
nerves, of the alveolus, only separated by a soft substance which is 
fibrous ; toward the middle of the embryo-life the septa between the 
capsules become firmer at their bases, stronger, by little and little 
ossify and build themselves out to the alveolus. First ossifies the 
bottom, then the septum from the bottom out towards the alveolar 
margin. To the cartilage coat of the alveolus, the gum cartilage, 
the capsules are attached as by broad stalks rich in vessels, at the 
opposite part, the bottom of the alveolus, vessels and nerves pass in 
the form of a cord from the canalis alveolaris to the capsule. The 
cavity of the latter is filled with a viscous fluid, which is reddish, 
later yellowish, and according to MeissnerV analysis, contains some 
albumen, phosphate of lime, muriate and sulphate, in the human 
specimen, also a free acid (lactic); in the calf a free alkali; but for 
the greater part it consists of a mucus, of which after mixture with 
water for some time, part remains suspended in fine flakes, part is pre- 
cipitated and is curdled by acid. These without doubt are cells re- 
sembling mucous corpuscles, which either float free'in the serum of 
the capsule or have become detached by maceration from the side 
walls and fallen in. The proportion of phosphate of lime seems to 
increase with the begining of tooth development, but the absolute 
quantity of the fluid diminishes in bulk as the tooth grows. 

The inner surface of the capsule is smooth like a serous mem- 
brane ; in the spot where enter the vessels of the alveolus, springs 
up in immediate connection with jthe capsule of the tooth germ, 
a solid body built up of cells, in which later are developed vessels, 
and still later, nerves. Its periphery is invested with a transparent, 
firm, thin membrane, the membrana praeformativa, which is destitute 
of vessels, and contains in a structureless matrix, round granules or 
cavities. The next true cells beneath it stand in more regular rows 
than the inner ones, are drawn out lengthwise and are at right angles 
or deviating but little from right angles, to the outer surface. Each 
contains a nucleus (Schwann). In the deep part are only round 
cells, and between these and the cylindrical forms of the outer part, 
occur all states of transition as in the cylinder-epithelium, for which • 
reason I deem a more extended description unnecessary. While, 
however, the germ is growing, fresh layers of roundish cells undergo 
transposition into the cylindrical form, join themselves together 
lengthwise, and become fibres, which lie radial from the axis of the 



1 \1< < h anat. iii, r \ >„ 



2 i 4 The Odontographic Journal. 

pulp to the periphery, and at regular intervals are provided with 
their nuclei. These, roundish in the beginning, become gradually 
il, are transposed into the familiar short bodies, and finally join 
themselves also together, as fibres, in which likewise cross branch- 
ings become visible. 

When calcification is imminent, the Membrana pneformativa 
elevates itself in single nodes, that are the foundation of those 
prominences in which becomes engrafted the enamel layer of the 
mature tooth. 

Facing the tooth germ, and, as it appears, also in connection with 
the capsule, is the enamel organ (the outer pulp — Hunter, organon 
ad am an tin se — Purkinje) ; it exhibits, in the beginning, when the 
tooth germ is barely indicated, a globular body with surface some- 
what rough, and consists interiorly of granules which gradually 
assume a polygonal form and are held together by fibres. 1 Possibly 
the granules correspond to the bone corpuscles, and the fibres to the 
out-going canaliculi of the same. In proportion as the germ grows 
toward the concavity of the capsule, in the enamel organ facing it is 
a corresponding recession, growing continually deeper, and when 
the germ (Fig. VI. a) becomes invested with the membrana 
praeformativa (e), in a way the papilla takes on the form of the 
future tooth, sharp at the free edge, contracted at the base, widest 
in the middle, so that the enamel organ (d) is set like a cap over 
the germ, a close-fitting mold of the same, and can be loosened 
from it. When the enamel organ has attained this form, its con- 
cavity, into which the tooth germ fits closely, lines itself with a 
layer of elongated, regularly arranged cells (//), that all stand 
perpendicular to the face of the enamel organ. The cells are 
cylindrical or polygonal, truncated at at both ends, like the cells of 
the cylinder epithelium, and like them provided with nuclei. 8 

They originate in the same way as the fibres of the tooth germ, by 
elongation of cells, and become fibres by blending together of the 
elongated cells. The nuclei seem soon to disappear. There are seen 
only bundles of fibres separated by darker lines, and in these no 
neucleated fibres. At first this close-fitting envelope-like fibre-layer is 
joined to the enamel organ, gradually it loosens more and more and 
becomes an independent membrane, which may be known as enamel 
membrane or membrana adamantina. It is easilv loosened from 

chkow, a. a., O. fig. 7. a. 
-Schwann, Mikrnsk, t'nters. Taf, iii, fig. 4. 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 215 

the parenchyma of the enamel organ, in all except the molars, where 
the enamel organ preserves considerable thickness up to the time oi 
the eruption of the tooth. 

'To each capsule comes a branch of the arteria dentalis. It 
ramifies at the outer part upon the same, and anastomoses with 
branches from the gum ; from this mesh go fine branches through 
the wall of the capsule as far as its inner surface. The main branch 
of the arteria dentalis goes to the pulp and forms in it a plexus. 
The enamel membrane is without vessels. Likewise the outer layer 
of the capsule becomes by degrees firmer, poorer in vessels, and 
builds itself out to the periosteum of the alveolus, or blends with the 
latter, and now lies in the closed cupsule, the tooth germ, which 
meantime has assumed the exaet form of the future tooth, and in the 
molars shows as many cusps as the mature tooth ; the outer layer of 
the tooth germ forms the Membrana praeformativa, the form of the 
latter is repeated by the membrana adamantinae, 1 and this finally the 
attenuated parenchyma of the enamel organ invests in spots, 
receiving its vessels from the surface of the gum, while the pulp is 
supplied with bloodvessels from the canalis alveolaris. 

As soon as the soft parts have attained completion, begins the ossi- 
fication, according to Meckel 2 in the following order : the central 
incisor, the anterior molar, the lateral incissor, the cuspid, the pos- 
terior molar. The pulp becomes very blood-rich, and deposits at 
the outer layer bony particles which gradually extend themselves 
toward the root ; in several-cusped teeth, such particles begin at 
each cusp ; they extend toward the crypt of the superior margin of 
the jaw, and toward the side walls, and soon come together in the 
former. In proportion as they augment in thickness from without 
inwardly, the pulp diminishes, contracts itself, withdraws from the 
alveolar margin, and finally becomes shrunken to the circumference 
which it retains in the mature tooth. As in the mature tooth, so also 
at the beginning of calcification, the inner side of the bone and the 

Mn th^e disagreement over the number of membranes of the capsule and whether they contain 
vessels the enamel membrane is now described as a part of the c ipsule, now as a separate structure. 
Hunter (Naturl. Gesch. S. go) assumes two lamina; of the capsule, an outer without vessels, and an 
inner rich in vessels. The enamel organ and the enamel membrane he has described very exactly 
as extremely gelatinous substance. According to Blake, on the other hand, (Red's Arch, ix, 316) 
the outer thickness of the capsule is spongy and vascuiar, the inner firm, not injected ; the inner 
thickness is the enamel membrane. Serres (Essai. ]>. 13) ; Fox (Nat. Hist, i, 20); Meckel (Anat. iv, 
214), and E. H. Weber (Hildebr. Anat. i, 212), speak of both membranes as full of vessels, have 

divided the capsule into two thicknesses and overlooked the enamel membrane. Accordiog to 
Dietrich (Anleitung das alter d, Pferde zuerkennen, 1822, S. 72) the capsule ossifies ; h^re is the 

ael membrane taken for the capsule. Bichat (A iat. nen. iii, 114), and according to him 
Delabarre ^Odontologie, p. 10), ascribes to the capsule an inner thickness without vessels, which in 
iti' manner of a serous membrane doubles upon itself, and thus covers over the germ. 

'* A; ■.!, . [| 1 



2 16 The Odontographic Journal. 

outside of the pulp appear to be only in contiguity, not in immedi- 
ate connection, and the very smallest calcified particle allows itself 
to be removed from the pulp without perceptible resistance. In the 
same proportion as the bone particles grow at the pulp from without 
and deposit new material within, thin layers of enamel are deposited at 
the outer boundary and thicken gradually outward by new additions. 
With the progressive thickening of the enamel layer diminishes the 
thickness of the enamel membrane, and when the enamel is com- 
pleted, the enamel organ has wholly, or almost wholly disappeared. 

These facts, which have been established by the evidence of a 
very great number of observations, and are easy to corroborate, have 
nevertheless to undergo very diverse interpretation. The question 
is, to decide whether dentine and enamel are only deposits at the 
surface of the pulp and the enamel membrane, in the nature of ex- 
cretions from these substances, and whether the shrinking of the 
excreting organ is onlv an adventitious circumstance perhaps con- 
ditional upon the pressure of the deposited and hardened material ; 
or whether the pulp and enamel membrane themselves calcify, and 
consequently their diminution necessarily keeps pace with the gen- 
eration of dentine and enamel. The newest researches have decided 
in favor of the acceptance of the latter theory, which had indeed, 
because of the resulls of chemical analysis and the resemblance of 
tooth tissue to that of bone, maintained considerable ascendency. 1 

The difference between the tooth germ of the foetus and the tooth 
< .milage of the adult is certainly not greater than between bone car- 

1 The first observers were also inclined to this opinion, namely, Volcher Coiter (Corp. past, 
tab., 1573, p. 59), Jourdain (Essai., 1766, p. 155), and Berger (De dentibus, 1788, p. 4). Jonrdain 
noted that when the hard particle is lifted and viewed with the microscope, fine filaments are seen 
on the particle as well as on the horny membrane which was in contact with its inner face. 
Bichat (An gen. Ill, 118), and Sommerring (Knockerd,-S., 205), explain the origin of the tjoth in 
this way. Herissant (Acad, de Paris, 1754. p. 433), made the compromise, while he indeed held 
the dentine to be calcified pulp, he believed the enamel a secretion ; glands were said to exist in 
the capsule, in the form of little bladders, which were visible with a lens of 3-4'" optical distance. 
Him follow Bourdet (Art du dentiste, 1757, 1, 25), Blake (Keil's Arch., iv. 316), and Delabarre 
(Odontol, i8c6, p. ti), without, however, conceding the existence of the enamel glands. Hunter 
(Naturl. Gesch , S. q8), holds the enamel pulp itself to be a gland which secretes enamel ; his 
opinion also inclines to the structure of the dentine by secretion and forming in layers from the 
pulp out. This theory became prevalent and was maintained by all authorities up to a very late 
date. I name only Rosenthal (Red's Arch., X., 317*, Cuvier (Diet, des. sc. med. art. dent), F<W 
'Nat. hist., p. 22), Meckel (Arch. Ill, s<^6), Serres (Essai., p. I 1. Burdach (Physiol. II. 473), G 
H. Weber (Anat. I, 206), Miller (Physiol. I, 387), Bland ill (Syst, dent., p.» 5a). The 
cement has even been held to be a precipitation from the saliva. (Rousseau, Anat. COmp., p. 
208). In tioi Rochenzahntn^ Muller observed the ossification, but holds it to be exceptional. P» 1 
kinje (Raschkow, Melet., p. 7), does n himself clearly. He says indeed that the rr.em- 

brana pneformativa calcifies ; but there must be layers of tooth fibres deposited between it and 
the tooth ^er n, germ in is dentalis parenchymate materian supseditate ; further (p. B), that tin- cells 

of the enamel membrane are little glands which secrete the fibres. Valentin < \ nt wu kelungs gesch, 
S. 483), says "It sin I > me that the globules (of the pulp) themselves, dissolved, enter 

into the fibres," and Schwann [Mikrosp. Unter. S. 124), concludes the account of the develop- 
ment of the teeth with the words : " I rather incline to the older view, that the tooth substance 
is the pulp ossified," th parability does not testify against it, whereas, in fact, some of 

the pulp attached to the tooth, and the separation must bealways easier, the grcatei 

the difference in consistence ^mong the later ones, Leville (Blandin Syst. dent., p. 94), 

11 , lee decidedly in favor of this opinion, 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth, 217 

tilage before and after ossification. The dentine is also ossified 
tooth germ, and the distinction lies 'mainly in the fact that the car- 
tilage begins the hardening within the tooth germ at the periphery j 1 
that in the cartilage cavities and tubes for vessels first develop them- 
selves at the time of ossification, in the dentine, on the contrary, 
the vessels are obliterated by advancing ossification. 

To begin with, I do not know whether the membrana praeforma- 
tiva ossifies earlier or later than the fibers of the pulp ; but it ap- 
pears, in any case, to be the matrix of the layer with bone corpuseles, 
which, in the mature tooth, lie between the enamel and the fibrous 
dentine. The fibers of the germ calcify from without inward, and 
in proportion as the outer part receives lime earth, the vessels with- 
draw from the periphery, and in the deeper part the roundish cells 
are transposed to cylindrical, and these to fibers. The calcified 
parts are but slightly connected with the still soft ones, and can, as 
we know, be loosened in the form of fine, earthy particles. Such 
earthy particles are, however, on the inner surface here and there 
covered by a cover of cylindrical cells, like the outer surface of the 
pulp, and the fibers of the new formed bone substance are in im- 
mediate connection with these cells, so that the little canals are 
doubtless in connection with the nucleated fibers of the pulp,though I 
am not prepared to make the assertion. The true tooth fibers seem 
to be solid, and the bone earth is chemically combined with the 
organic substances in them contained ; the nucleated fibers, however* 
contain the lime earth in microscopically perceptible particles, and 
are probably hollow tubes filled with a fluid from which the lime 
earth is precipitated. But how the anastomosis with the pulp cavity 
on the one hand, and the cell cavities in the cement on the other, 
comes to pass, has not yet been made clear. As soon as the dentine 
has acquired a certain firmness, commences the calcification of the 
enamel membrane likewise from the outer surface, that is, next to 
the membrana praeformativa. To the free enamel layers adhere 
outwardly fragments of uncalcified fibers or cells, and it is worthy 
of remark, that already the cells from which spring the enamel 
fibers, are mostly inclined toward each other, so that, when one even 
tier of ossified cells leans from left to right, the next adherent, still 
soft cell layer stands leaning from right to left. 

From the membrana praeformativa the ossification advances in- 
wardly in the tooth germ, in the enamel outwardly ; in the tooth 



1 Raschkow (Melet. p. 5), observed in the molars of the hare, the pig, and the deer, stony 
in the form of translucent, oval or roundish granules in the axis of the tooth toward its 
<:<\'d,<\ in ^'rveral irregular rows. I have seen similar ones in the pulp of the adult human tooth. 
They seem to be formless deposits, having no relation to the regular ossification. 



218 The Odontographic Journal. 

germ as far as the axis in which is left an uncalcified residuum, in 
the enamel as far as the enamel pulp, which finally becomes meta- 
morphosed into cement. Perhaps in the structure of the cement 
the tooth capsule has a share ; concerning the crust layer of the 
root, Purkinje 1 conjectured that it was formed by calcification of the 
capsule, and Nasmyth 2 shows that the crust substance of the root is 
uninterruptedly continuous with that of the crown even in man ; 
in that case it must originate from the capsule. In the enamel the 
calcification goes farther in a certain measure, than in the rest of the 
tooth substance, whereby the organic material diminishes so much 
the more. Schwann 3 thought this the result of chemical solution 
by the fluids of the mouth, but it is not explained why such 
a result should confine itself to the enamel, and not effect the den- 
tine or cement. 

Toward the time of birth, and when the formation of the crown 
is complete, first begins the development of the root. The tooth 
pulp extends itself with the capsule to the bottom of the alveolar 
process, and this part of the pulp then calcifies from within out- 
wardly, and to its outer surface the capsule attaches itself, also cal- 
cifying, and becomes the cement layer. In the case of teeth with 
several roots, calcification begins at the alveolar surface, as soon as 
completed, in single bridges, whereby the pulp is divided into sepa- 
rate processes. It begins at the middle of the alveolar surface, and 
extends anteriorly and posteriorly toward the edge of the crown, so 
that the bridge between the roots presents, in a certain time, a little 
rhomboidal plate, of which the points anteriorly and posteriorly 
rest against the side of the crown. 

With the formation of the roots, and as it appears, contingent 
thereon, begins the eruption of the temporary teeth, usually in the 
following order : first the inferior central incisors, then the upper 
incisors, the anterior molars, the cuspidati, 4 the posterior molars. 
Previous to the eruption, absorption of the gum takes place. 
I I erissant B discriminated between a deciduous and a permanent gum, 
the former atrophies at the time of eruption, shrinks to a mere 
tattered fragment and leaves beneath the permanent gum. 



1 Raschkow, Melet, p. 7. 
' p. 312. 

33. 

* Meckel's Arch., iiii, 573, Hlandrn, Syst. dent. p. 108, 
' Acad, dc Paris, 1754, p. 429. 



Structure and Physiology oj the Teeth. 2 if/ 

As to the manner in which the permanent teeth begin to develop, 
there has been much investigation, but as yet not entire agreement. 
Fallopius, indeed, describes openings in the alveolar process behind 
the temporary teeth, through which a Cauda of the permanent 
tooth passes to the gum, "iter dentis." Albin 1 says, that the alveoli 
of the permanent incisors open outwardly behind the temporary 
teeth, while the alveoli of the permanent molars open into the alveoli 
of the corresponding temporary teeth, and the permanent cuspids,, 
sometimes the one way sometimes the other. Serres 2 agrees with him 
and thinks that the iter or gubernaculnm is hollow. Meckel 3 finds, 
however, the opening in the alveoli of the permanent molars, also 
behind the alveoli of the corresponding temporary teeth in the 
posterior wall of the jaw almost as late as the third year ; Linderer 
the same. 4 The first preparatory- beginings toward the permanent 
teeth, are made, according to Goodsir, by the fourteenth or fifteenth 
week. The above mentioned cresent-shaped depressions behind the 
openings of the capsules of the temporary teeth, become reserve 
sockets for the corresponding permanent teeth. They deepen, and 
their walls are in contact, but not grown together. In the fifth 
month of the foetus, life, appears in their depths a fold, the future 
tooth germ, and near the opening two other folds, from which is 
developed the capsule. When it is finished, the permanent teeth lie 
so close to the posterior wall of the capsules for the temporary teeth^ 
in the recess of the same alveolis, that they might appear to grow 
out of the latter capsules/ Later, at the eruption of the temporary 
teeth, the sacs of the permanent teeth withdraw in the opposite 
direction ; their alveoli enlarge and finally only connect with those 
of the temporary teeth by a sort of neck. Through this neck pass 
connecting cords, which, however, are not tubular, the gube macula 
of the permanent teeth. For the last three permanent molars, apart 
of the tooth furrow remains open behind the last temporary molars ; 
in this first start the germ and capsule of the third permanent molar. 
The capsule closes, and the margins of the furrow unite, but not the 
walls, and thus remains between the capsule of the third permanent 
molar and the jaw, a cavity not lined with mucous membrane. In 
the seventh or eighth month after birth, this cavity begins to lengthen 
backward, at the bottom of it appears a papilla, that of the fourth 



1 Adnot. acad. ii., 14. 

ii, p. 36. 109. 
'■' Ar.h. iii, 558. 
1 X.'ihnheilk, S. 71. 

Meckel, in Arch., ii Hell, Anat. of the teeth, p. 61. 



220 The Odontographic Jour?ial. 

permanent molar ; that part of the cavity which contains the papilla 
separates itself, and in the remaining part finally starts the germ of 
the wisdom tooth. 

At the time of transition, as we know, first the roots of the 
temporary teeth are absorbed, whereupon the crowns loosen and fall 
out. Obliteration of the branch of the dental artery which ramifies 
to the milk teeth, precedes this decay. The bone canal in which it 
lies contracts, and in the ninth year becomes empty. That the new 
teeth destroy the roots of the old ones by pressure, has already been 
refuted by Hunter 1 and Albin. 2 According to Retzius, 3 the capsule 
of the closely succeeding tooth tumefies at the surface in contact, 
forming a thick body, rich in vessels, which secretes a fluid that 
dissolves the root of the temporary tooth. This explanation would 
not be sufficient, if, as Hunter noted, the temporary teeth fall out 
when no permanent teeth are present. The latter was disputed by 
Nasmyth, 4 he holding that temporary teeth remain when the perma- 
nent teeth are wanting. According to Nasmyth, the capsules become 
enriched by vessels, and absorb the roots of the temporary teeth. In 
their eruption the permanent teeth follow the same order as the 
temporary. 

Having attained their full growth, the teeth become gradually 
changed and worn by use ; the enamel of the masticating surface is 
worn off, the prominences become smooth and even, and frequently 
the dentine itself is denuded and visible as a yellow stripe upon the 
masticating surface. According to Prochaska, 5 if the pulp cavity is 
by this means exposed, it throws out new bone substance. In the 
case of many animals the loss sustained at the crown is supplied by 
continuous growth from the root ; some portions get in advance, and 
a tooth which is no longer worn down because its opposing tooth 
is lost, attains an enormous length, as for instance the incisors of 
the rodents. 6 In man this gradual restoration does not take place. 

Though it sometimes happens that the teeth are preserved until 
extreme old age, yet so frequently, and in otherwise sound 
individuals, they are lost, that their atrophy must probably be called 
normal. The coherence between enamel and dentine also becomes 
slighter in age; in the attempt to cut thin sections, both separate 



1 Serres, ! £uai, p. 17. 

V turl. (lesch. S. 
J Anat. Bead. ii. 12. 

I >. p. 318. 
'Adnot. anat. p. 14. 

I igfl ( Tie dei denti., p. 151, I t nun, Mem. ilc I'inst an vi., p. 558. 



Structure and Physiology <>j the Teeth. \\ 

much more readily than in young teeth. 1 Asa rule, calcification of 
the pulp precedes the shedding of the tooth, and is perhaps its 
immediate cause. This newly formed bone substance, according to 
Frankel, 8 in the crown resembles dentine, in the root is like cement ; 
according to Nasmyth, 3 it resembles dentine, though its formation is 
not so regular, and it contains bone corpuscles. The alveolus, after 
falling of the teeth, becomes in part absorbed, partly calcified. 

By no means infrequent instances of a third dentition in old 
persons, were collected by E. H. Weber, Hildehr. Anat. iv, 123, 
with which must be counted one by Hunter (Naturl. Gesch. S. 88), 
and by Linderer (Zahnheilk, S. 246). 

In the calcified tooth are neither vessels nor nerves. The teeth have 
often for this reason, been declared to be inorganic parts, like horn 
structure, that have no relation to the nutrient fluids of the body. 
It is true that cavities occur in the substance of the teeth which are 
not filled up, parts lost and gone that are never restored, and a new 
formation, if it occurs, is only seen at the periphery of the pulp. Be- 
sides, tooth caries begins at the periphery, by the setting free of the 
lime earth ; the affected spot is broadest outwardly at first, and in 
the dentine (Fig. VII. b) as well as in. the enamel (a) has the 
general form of a cone whose base is directed outward and its apex 
toward the pulp cavity (<r), in such a way that the base of the carious 
part in the dentine is usually somewhat wider than the adjoining 
apex of the carious part in the enamel, as well as smaller than the 
base of the latter. 4 Accordingly the conclusion seems justified, that 
tooth caries is entirely different from bone caries, and only dissolu- 
tion by an agent working from without, that is from the buccal 
-cavity, upon the tooth. But were the dissolving of the lime salts 
by the fluids of the mouth the only and sufficient cause of dental 
caries, all the teeth would become carious simultaneously, since all 
are in like manner exposed. In that case all would sometimes 
become carious at once from an acid state of the saliva. 5 Since this 
very seldom happens, there must be a predisposing cause in 
individual teeth, that this is an inward one is manifest in the fact 
that symmetrical teeth often become carious, and the cause can only 
be connected with the nutrition of the teeth. Defective nutrition 



1 Krankel, a. a., O. p lo. 

2 P- 15- 

'a. a., <). ]i 

"Linderer, a. a.. O. S. 167. 

'Regnart, citirt bei ) tonne' Hist, de la salive. p. 47. 



222 The Odontography Journal. 

alone does not necessarily induce caries, since the temporary teeth 
and those of old people are often loosened for a long time and fall 
out without being affected ; indeed implanted teeth are sometimes 
attacked, though very rarely. 1 When, however, an injurious 
influence from without is not counteracted by continual renewal of 
material, than decay gains a foothold in the tooth substance. The 
injury which attacks the tooth from without is usually held to be 
chemical in its nature ; especially that an acid state of the fluids of 
the mouth acts as a solvent upon the salts. That an acid condition 
of the saliva might affect the teeth, cannot a priori be denied ; yet 
teeth treated with acid appear quite otherwise than carious. Indeed 
the organic permanent part of the teeth plays a leading part in 
disease of the same. The peculiar appearance of carious teeth, the 
offensive odor in long-standing cases, arouse the suspicion that 
parasitic animals or plants may induce the destruction of tissue, 
especially if one knows what a number of low animal and vegetable 
organisms swarm even in teeth kept constantly clean. 2 

The facts that contiguous teeth infect each other, that decay- 
may be checked by removal of the affected portions, are easily ex- 
plained under this theory. 3 

In favor of the theory of continued renewal of substance in adult 
teeth, speaks their alteration, their half transparent appearance in 
hectic patients. A renewal of lime earth appears not to take place 
in these cases, and for this reason the teeth would be deprived of 
bone, in which lime earth is renewed, though slowly. Madder dye, if 
fed to young animals, has no influence upon the completed teeth, but 
only upon layers in which calcification is just taking place. 4 

In rachitis, in which the bones are deprived of lime, the teeth re- 
main unimpaired. 

The sources of nourishment of the teeth are as follows : I. The 
pulp, as it were the matrix of the teeth, as through it circulates and is 
renewed the nutrient fluid ; in very minute quantity the plasma may 

1 Linderer, a. a., O. S. 488. 
2 Vide page 77. 

2 I,eeuwenhoek (Opp. mi. i .lied attention to the vihriones and a kind of filaments 
found between the teeth. The latter were accurately described by Huhhnann (Mull. Arch. 

. i.'J It is to me very probable that they are of veget ibl< 1 haracter, and it i well wortb the 
trouble to investigate whether they are concerned in the production of tarter. 

1 Hunter, Naturl. Gesch. S. 1 •. Blake, a. a, S. 136. Linderer, S 194, Flourens, Ann. desi 
ee.n.it XIII, ii". According to Huntei and Flourens tlie enamel does nol become reddened by 
madder Blake and Linderer found it also dyed The first named probably made their observa- 
tions ai 1 time when the enamel was already calcified. V l< iurens asietts that he has observed in the 

tcetb of swine led with madder, that the outer layers disappear in the same proportion that the in- 
ner ones arc renewed 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 223 

extravasate and run through the tooth by imbibition, perhaps prefi 
ably through its tnbuli. Congestion and exudation from the vessels 
of the pulp have therefore the same relation to the tooth that exu- 
dation from the cutis has to the cuticle. This explains why pain 
often so long anticipates the caries, which could not occur if caries 
were only decay from without, and the pain only induced by irrita- 
tation of the air or the decaying tooth substance. The remarkable 
immunity of the lower incisors is perhaps because of the sparseness 
of their nerves or vessels. 2. The periosteum ; this furnishes the 
nutrient fluid to the root ; hence the root becomes carious so much 
more seldom than the crown, and is often preserved when the latter 
is destroyed. The fluid, which is contained between the gum and 
the tooth, gushes out upon pressure, and its richness in mucus 
granules proves it a living plastic substance. The tooth is protected 
by it, its coagulation or dissolution into its composing elements, 
causes insensibility. This insensibility of the tooth cannot result 
from the enamel being affected, as has usually been claimed, as in 
that case it could not so soon disappear. There is no restoration of 
tooth tissue. As to the bullets found in the tusks of elephants 
imbedded in tooth substance, it can be asserted that they were 
introduced into the soft pulp during the forming period. Accident- 
ally formed teeth occur in tumors, especially of the ovaries, they 
have not yet been particularly studied in regard to their structure. 
Freshly implanted teeth can through exudation from the pulp 
grow fast. Hunter succeeded in healing up a tooth in a cock's comb 
in such a manner that its pulp could be injected. 1 

Among the varied forms of teeth of animals, we have the so-called 
enamel-containing molars of the ruminants and pachyderms. Here the 
pulp, as well as the enamel organ, divides from the beginning into a 
number of lobes mutually interposed. The enamel organ consists of a 
layer without vessels, corresponding to the pulp of the enamel organ. 
The enamel membrane lies next to the periphery of the germ and 
becomes enamel ; from the enamel, gradually calcifying from the 
apices toward the base or the edge of the tooth, springs the cement, 
which in enamel — containing teeth, occurs in so large a proportion. 
(Blake, diss, de dentium formatione, Edinb. 1780. Reil's Arch, 
ix, 329.) 

In the incisors of the rodents, the canines of many pachyderms, 
and the molars of the ruminants, which as before mentioned, 

1 Naturl. Oesch. S 



224 The Odontographic Journal. 

continue to grow after eruption, the enamel membrane does not stop 
so abruptly, but extends into the socket always calcifying outwardly 
and growing from within. At the inner surface of the gum which is 
next to the erupted molars of the ruminants, there is, in young 
animals, a layer of perpendicular fibres, similar to that in the enamel 
membrane. (Raschkow, Melete, p. n.) 

In the proportion of true tooth substance to that which resembles 
bone, exists the greatest variation. In the human tooth, the layer 
with bone corpuscles occupies only the outermost part of the crown 
and root ; in many animals the bone corpuscles and stellate branches 
are found throughout every part of the crown, and here cement 
takes the place of true dentine. In the lynx and sheep are bone 
corpuscles between the tubuli, the latter curving around the former ; 
in the horse, the elephant and the rhinoceros, are in the pulp cavity 
concentric layers of bone corpuscles ; in the walrus the enamel 
is protected by cement, and through the whole tissue of the tooth run 
a great number of fine longitudinal medullary canals conveying 
blood. Such are found also in the cement of the horse (Gerber), 
in the teeth of the pike and other fishes. Outside the cement, 
Nasmyth observed in oxen, elephants, and other mammals, a peculiar, 
laminated layer, clear yellow to dark brown. C. Mayer called 
attention to pigment in teeth, for example the incisors of beavers, 
the molars of ruminants, on the outer surface of the enamel, not 
constituting of itself a layer. It is sharply limited by the edge of 
the gum, and appears to be conditional upon plant food. 

In the cartilaginous fishes, the tooth germs develop, as in the 
higher animals, in a furrow of the mucous membrane of the mouth ; 
no capsule and no socket are formed however, to enclose the germ, 
but the germs stand exposed, take the form of teeth, calcify and 
gradually pass out of their furrow to the margin of the jaw to be 
shed, while new papillae erect themselves in the furrow. 



No rs —F. Cuvier, Dents de ma nmiferes, Paris, 1820; Heusinger, Histo'ogy, S. 19 j. Rousseui. 
Anat. comparee du systeme dentaire, Paris, 1827 ; Retzius, a. a., O. S 408 ; Linderer, .1. a., O. S. 
2 7 ; Owen, Ann. d. Sc. nat. 2 eser. xii, 21O; Derf. Odontography, Lond. 1840. P. I. (Fische> ; 

myth, a. a., (). p. 315; C. Mayer, Metamorphose der Monaden. S. 24 ; Geiber, Allg. Anat. S. 
iii, fig. 6?, 98. 

In the beaked animals, some cetacea and birds, the teeth are restored by a structure having the 
texture of horn tissue. Camper, Observ. sur la structure de p. 63. Heusinger, Histol. S. 

107 (Schnabelthier, Fischbein), Rousseau, a. a.. O, p. 167, pi. xvi, fig. 9, to (Schnabelthier). 
Rosenthal, Abhandl. d Berl. Akail. 1829, S. 177 ( Fischbein*. Brandt, I'ebor don Zahobau der 
SteMerschen Seekuh. Abhandl. d. Petersb. Akad. 1832; Hesse, Da ungularum, barbae bala 
dentuim orn thorynchi structure. Berol. 1 

Among the older observers, only Leenwgenhoek knew the structure of dentine (Opp, I, c p. 2). 
According to him th 1 teeth consist of straight, thin, transparent tubes, which rise in the pulp 
cavity and proceed out vard to the periphery, 6—700 times liner than a hair ; in the transverse sec- 
tions they reembl • granules, in ivory they run zigzag. The fibrous structure of the enamel, on 
the contrary, has often b.-en noted: Gagliardi 1 \ - 1680, p. 60 discerned the fibers after 

in, IVf alpighi (Opp. posth, 1697, p. ;a) distinguished the enamel as substantia filament 
whi t the root ; the crust of the root also as filamento is, which had formerly been n <ted 

I material lik» tartar. De la Hire (Acad, de Paris, 1669,) added that the fibers fttand perpendic- 
ular tothe grinding surface, and Broussonel (ebendas. 1787, p. 555), that they lie horizontal at the 
side. Her issant (ebendas, 1758, p. 134), said that enamel differ* from bone in die fact that after 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 225 

treatment with muriatic acid no cartilages remain, and that its fibers were crystals ; Hunter 
described enamel as crystalline (Nature!, Gesch. 1780, S. ^7), and likened it to ^all and bladder 
calculi. 

Schreger (Isenfi. and Roseum, Heitr. i8od, S. 2) detected the above described concentric striae 
in dentine; Cuvier (Diet, des sc. med. Dent 1814), Heusin^er (Histol, 1822. S. 201) and C. I) 
Weber (Hildbr. Anat. I, 206) argued therefrom a lemellate structure. In the year 1845, however, 
the dentine was again studied microscopically, its tubuli were detected anew by Parkinje (Frankel 
Dent, struct.) and their ramification described. Parkinje detected further the structure of cement 
and its relationship to bone, as well as the finer structure of the enamel fiber. J. Midler (Arch. 
1856. S. n) showed that the tubuli contain lime earth, also that it is found in the intervening sub- 
stance ; he describes the enamel fibers of the ne* formed enamel layer, as needle pointed at both 
ends (Poggend, Ann. xxxviii, S. 352, Tav. iv. Fig. 2). Retzius (Mull. Arch. 1837,8. 486) gave as 
the result of his researches undertaken simultaneously with Parkinje's, a very complete account in 
detail of the dentinal tubuli and the enamel fibers, which we have fully communicated. Linderer 
(Zahnhielk, 1837, S. 168) confirmed it by his own researches. Schwann (Mikrosk, Unter, S. 117,) 
whom we thank for accurate particulars as to the origin of tooth tissues, first studied the fibrous 
structure of dentine in the foetus, but without divining the relation of the tubuli to the fibers. 
Krause (Anat. 2te. Anfl. 1841, S. 147), noted in appearance as if dentine were composed of fibers 
of 0.0023 — 0.004'", in teeth treated with muriatic acid. Of the cement layer in the crown, and its 
■development from the capsule, we learn from Nasmyth (Medico-chirurg, transact, xxii, 1839, p. 
310). 



LIST OF WORKS CITED BY HENLE IN THE CHAPTER 

UPON THE TEETH. 



ALBINI. 



Academicarum adnotationum. Libri VIII. Liedse 1754, sq. 4. (Academic 
report.) 

ARNOLD. 

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THOMAS BELL. 

Anatomy and diseases of the teeth. Lond. 1835-8. 

BERZELIUS. 

Lehrbuch der chemie. {Elements of Chemistry.) Translated from the author's 
Swedish manuscript by F. Wohler. {Into German.) Bd. I-IX. Dresden and 
Leipsic, 1835. H. 8. 

BLANDIN. 

Anatomie du systeme dentaire considers dans 1'homme et les animaux. 
Paris, 1836-8. 
(Anatomy of the dental system considered in man and the lower animals. 

BRUNS. 

Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Anatomie des Menschen. Nach eigenen Unter- 
suchungen. Brunswick, 1841-8. 
(Elements of universal human anatomy. From his own researches.) 

BOURDET. 

Recherches et observations sur toutes les parties del'art du dentiste. Paris, 
1757. 8, 1. I. 
(Researches and observations in everything pertaining to the dentist's art.) 

BRANDT. 
Ueber den Zahnbau d°r steller 'schen Seekuh. Abhandl. d. Petersb. Akad. 

(On the tooth structure of Steller's Sea-cow.) Lecture delivered before the 
Petersburg Academy, 1832. 



226 The Odontog raphic Journal. 

BERGER. 

Diss. (!c Dentibus, 1752. Killise, 1788-8. 
(Dissertation upon the Teeth.) 

BICHAT. 
Anatomic Generate III. 

BLAKE. 

Red's Arch. Diss, de Dentiura Formatione. Edinb. 1780. 
(Treatise on the Formation of the Teeth.) 

BURDACH, (A. T.) 

Die Physiologie als Erfahrungswissenschaft. Leipsic, 1828-40. 
(Physiology as empirical knowledge.) 

BROUSSONET. 
Acad, de Paris, 1787. 

BUHLMANN. 
Midler's Arch. 1840. 

CAMPER. 

Observ. sur la structure des cetaces, p. 63. 
(Observations upon the structure of the Cetacea. 

CUVIER. 

Dents des mammiferes. Paris, 1820. 

(Teeth of Mammalia.) Diet, des sc. med. art. dent. 

VOLCHERAS COITER. 

Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabula 
atque anatomical exercitationes. Nuremberg, 1573, fol. 

(Tables and anatomical exercises upon the principal external and internal 
parts of the human body.) 

DE LASONE. 
Acad, de Paris, 1752. 

DELABARRE. 

Odontologie on observations sur les dents humaines. Paris, 1815, 8. 
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DERS. 

Odontography, Lond. 1840. 

DE LA HIRE. 

Acad, de Paris, 1099. 

DIETRICH. 

Anleitung das Alter der Pferde bu erkennen, 1822, 

| Directions tor ascertaining the age of horses.) 

frAnkel. 

De penitiori dentium humanorum slructura observationes. Diss, inaug. 
lisl. 1885, I 

(Observations upon the inner structure of human teeth.) 

FOX 
The natural history and diseases of human teetli. 2, ed. 7. I. II. Lond. 
1814, 4. 



Structure and Physiology of the Teeth. 227 

FLOURENS. 

Ann. des sc. nat. 

GERBER. 

Handbuch der allgemeinen Anatomic des Menschen und d<;r Haussaugethiere. 
Orossteutheil's nach eigenen Untersuchungen. Bern und Thur. 1840, 8, aebst 
Atlas in Quer fol. 

(Handbook of general anatomy of man and the domestic mannuals. The 
greater part from the author's own researches. With atlas.) 

GOODSIR. 

1 Edinb. med. and surg. journ. XXXI. 1 sq. 

GAGLIARDI. 

A.natomices ossium novis inventis illustratae. Pars. I. Rom. 1689, 8, p. 61. 
(Anatomy of the bones illustrated by new discoveries.) 

HERISSANT. 
Acad, de Paris, 1754. Acad, de Paris, 1758. 

J. HUNTER. 

Naturalische Geschichte der Zahne und Beschreidung ihrer Krankheiten aus 
dem Engl. Leipsic, 1780, 8. 

(Natural history of the teeth and description of their diseases. From the 
English.) 

HILDEBRANDT. 

Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. (Manual of Human Anatomy.) 
4 te. i\.nag. besorgt von C. H. Weber. Bd. I. -IV. Braunschw. (Brunswick) 
1830, 32, 8. 

(4th edition conducted by E. H. Weber.) 

HEUSINGER. 

System der Histologic Thl. I. Eisenach. 1824, 4. 
(System of Histology.) 

HESSE. 

De ungularum, barbae balaenae dentium omithorhynchi structura. Berol. 
1839. 

(On the structure of nails, of the baleen plates of the whale, and the teeth of 
the ornithorhyncus.) 

JOURDAIN. 

Essai sur la formation des dents Paris, 1766-8. 
(Treatise upon the Formation of the Teeth.) 

KRAUSE. 
Anatomie, 2 te. Aufl. 1841, I. 152-3. 

LINDERER, (C. J. & J. 

Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde. Berl. 1837-8. 
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LAVAGNA. 

Eeperienze e liiflessioni sopra la carie de' denti umani coll' aggiunta di un 
nuoTO saggio sulla riproduzione dei denti negli animalia rosicanti. Genova, 
1812-8. 

(Experience and reflections upon dental caries in man, with the addition of 
a new essay upon the reproduction of the teeth of rodents.) 



The Odontographic Journal. 

ANT. A. LEEUWENH6EK. 

Anatomia interiors rerum cum animatarum turn inaniraatarum delecta. 
Lugd. Batav. 16* 
i interior Anatomy Disclosed, of Things both Animate and Inanimate.) 

MALPIGIII. 

• toera posthuma. London, 1697, fol. 
(Posthumous works.) 

MECKEL. 
Handbuch der Menschlichen Anatomie. Halle-1815-20, 8. 

C. MAYER. 

Die Metamorphose der Monaden. 

(Metamorphosis of Monads.) 

MIESCHER. 

De inrlammatione ossium eorumque anatome generali ; accedunt J. Mulleri 
observationes de canaliculi corpuscujorum ossium atque de modo, quo terrea 
materia in ossibus continetur. Berol. 1836, 4. 

(Concerning inflammation of the bones and their general anatomy ; with ob- 
servations by J. Midler upon the canaliculi of bone corpuscles and the manner 
in which earthy matter is contained in the bones.) 

J. MULLER. 

Arch. 1838, 1837, 1836. Handbuch der Physiologic des Menschen fi'ir Vor- 
lesungen. Coblenz. 1, 387 (Lectures) 1837, 36 verb. 
(Manual of Human Physiology ) 

NASMYTH. 

Medico-chirurg, transact. XXII. 1839. 

OWEN. 
Ann. desc. nat. 2 c ser. XII. and Raschkow. Poggend, Ann. XXXVIII. 

PROCHASKA. 
A'lnot anat. 
(Anatomical Annoations.) 

ROSENTHAL. 

Abhandl. d. Berl. Akad. 1829. 
(Transactions of Berlin Academy.) 

E. ROUSSEAU. 

Anatomie comparee du systeme dentaire chez 1'homme et chez les principaux 
animaux. Paris, 1827, 4. 

(( 'omparative anatomy of the dental system in man and the principal animals. > 

RASCII K<>\\. 

Meletemata circa mammalium dentium evolutioncm. Diss. inag. Wratisl. 
p -jo Fig. r a. p. 5. 
iidit - in regard to the evolution of the teeth of the Mammalia.) 

SCHWANN. 

Mikroskopische Untersuchungen Mm r die Oebereinstimmung in der structur 
und ilciii Wachstum der Thieie niul IMlan/en. Berl. 1839, 8. 

i Microscopic researches into the correspondence in structure and growth be- 
tween animals and plants. ) 



Perforated Roots.— Treatment. 229 

8ENE8. 

Essal sur L'anatomie et la physiologjle des dents ou nouvelle tin-one de la 
dentition. Paris, 1817-8. 

(Essay upon the anatomy and physiology of the teeth, or new theory of 
dentition.) 

VALENTIN. 

Ilandbnch der Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen. Berl. 1835-8. 
(Manual of the Development of Man.) 



PERFORATED ROOTS.— TREATMENT. 



BY BENJ. J. HERT, D.D.S., ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



[READ BEFORE ROCHESTER DENTAL SOCIETY.] 

The subject I wish to bring before the meeting this evening is one 
which fortunately does not occupy much of our time in practice, 
and yet sufficient, I think, to make a discussion of it profitable. It 
is : Filling teeth which have a hole through the side of the root, or 
through the floor or walls of the pulp chamber. 

I have not had, within my recollection, more than half a dozen of 
this class of teeth to fill. Of these I will speak of three or four. 
The first was a left superior lateral incisor, cavity on proximate 
surface. As the pulp was exposed, I killed it with a stick, and then 
enlarged the pulp canal at the lower end in order to gain easier 
access to the upper part. As the blood did not cease flowing, I 
placed a dressing in the root, allowing it to remain until the patient 
came again. On removing the dressing I found that the hemmorhage 
had not ceased, and that there was a sensitive spot in the canal about 
half way to the apex, and which I finally, after treating it several 
times, concluded was an opening through the side of the root. I 
thereupon filled the upper part of the canal beyond the opening 
with wood, then pressed softened gutta-percha into the canal, took 
it out, trimmed it where it had passed into the opening, replaced it, 
and finished with oxy-phosphate, and up to the present time the 
gentleman has experienced no trouble from it. 

In another case two lower molars had each a hole drilled 
through the floor of the pulp chamber. When the patient came to 
/ne of the openings had been filled with a zinc filling, and the 
other had not been touched after the hole had been made. I did 
not fill the latter opening, but flowed soft phosphate of zinc over 
so that none would enter it, and neither of these have given any 
trouble— -both have been filled about one year. 



2 jo The Odontography Journal. 

Another case I had, however, that did not turn out quite so suc- 
ssfully. A lady came to me who had had a hole drilled through 
the posterior wall of a wisdom tooth root. It had been treated for 
some time before she came to me. I treated it several times, 
but the soreness did not abate. I then decided to fill the root, 
which I did as in the first case, by pressing gutta-percha into the 
canal and opening, then taking it out and trimming and replacing it ; 
but I first put a little iodoform in the lower end of the cavity. In 
about a month the soreness passed away, and for several months she 
had no trouble from it, after which the soreness returned, she of 
course doing the same. 1 removed the filling a few weeks ago and 
have the tooth under treatment again. Of course, I am unable to 
tell what the ultimate result of this case will be. The sorene>> 
returned after it had once passed away, because, as I believe, 
of the fact that the entire filling was of gutta-percha, and in using 
the tooth she eventually pressed a small portion of the filling through 
the opening in the root into the adjoining tissues, and therefore, 
almost necessarily, the irritation and soreness returned. I have 
never heard nor read of any special method or manner of filling such 
teeth, but have several times heard them spoken of as being almost 
hopeless ; but my experience has lead me to entertain a different 
opinion. 



THE RIGHT RELATION OF DENTISTS TO PATENTEES 
AND TO MEDICAL CODES. 



BY JOHN T. CODMAN, D. M. D., BOSTON, MASS. 



»ii ntlemen, — I call your especial attention to the following sen- 
tences, as they are worthy of profound thought : 

. /// labor deserves just compensation. The foundation and per- 
manence of civilization depends on the fulfilment of this law, and 
the only danger to our grand republic is its non-fulliment. 

' The professions were intended ,for the rich and educated. The 
poor expected to till the land and work at the trades, for in older 
times poverty meant ignorance as well as poverty. 

The kings and the nobility were the rulers, the aristocracy of 
po< n .ind faith. The professions, arising from wealthy and 

educated classes, grew into power by their increasing control over 
the masses of tie- people's minds through the clergy; over their 



Relation of Dentists to Patentees f &*c. 251 

bodies l)y the physicians; and their estates by the lawyers. They 
were the founders of a new aristocracy, the aristocracy of talent, 
which is slowly unseating the older one of birth and station. 

Transferred to our democratic country, the professions still have 
a strong tenure on the minds of the people, and as we have no 
station or rank, they more or less represent three aristocracies. 

By the growth of modern society new and vast industries and 
interests have developed, and are developing, that demand a high 
and constantly increasing higher grade of talent, so high indeed as 
to vie with and rival that of the so-called liberal professions. From 
obscure beginnings they have increased into enormous developments 
that require learning and education of so profound a character that 
the professions are rivalled or eclipsed by them, and the young man 
of to day of education and wealth, instead of being sure, as formerly, 
as destined for one of the three professions, hesitates, and often casts 
them aside to enter some new occupation not yet dignified by the 
name of profession. 

It is a new profession, that of dentistry. Simply that it comes in 
close contact with medicine does not make it less a new one. It has 
at its base two feet or principles, one of which is mechanical and 
surgical and the other medicinal and curative, both being necessary 
for success, but the first being absolutely fundamental, so much so 
that many to-day are still questioning whether dentistry is a profes- 
sion or an art. 

The professions, from an early day, have been endowed with 
special privileges. The hand of government has stayed proceedings 
against them when it has fallen heavily on non-professionals. 
Special ownerships and rights have been secured by which the path 
of progress and success has been made comparatively easy. 

The legislature of 1887 made the dentist's art in Massachusetts a 
legalized profession by enjoining from practice all who do not grad- 
uate at legalized colleges or pass a board of appointed examiners. 
Therefore there remains no argument on the question as to whether 
dentistry is here a profession or not, but by the fact of its being 
allied to the medical profession by one of its bases, it is claimed, and 
unwisely, I think, that all its formulas and methods should conform 
to the formulas and methods which were adopted by the medical pro- 
fession before the science of dentistry was developed enough to be 
more than a mere trade or calling, and recorded long before the won- 
derful and tremendous developments that have taken place in other 



2 1 2 The Odontogrhphic Journal. 

spheres and occupations of life, and before the modes and ways of 
modern business had come astonish the world. But, primarily, den- 
tistry is a mechanical profession, that is to say, the major part of its 
employment demands mechanical and adaptive skill of no mean 
order, and however well any man be up in anatomy, surgery and 
all branches studied in the medical schools ; however well he 
may be covered with titles, without the talent for and the practice of 
mechanical skill well in hand, he cannot be a good dentist. On the 
other side, with practice of the teachings of the medical school 
alone, a man may become a successful physician, and carry comfort 
and peace into many a sick chamber without having mechanical 
skill enough to crack a walnut or drive a nail without pounding 
his fing< 

What is a profession ? Something that we individually, or, as a 
body, profess or pretend to do or be. The physician professes to 
cure the sick ; the clergyman professes to save souls ; the lawyer 
professes to interpret the laws justly. 

These are what constitute the outward signs of the professions — 
their attitudes before the public and externally. Internally they are 
governed by laws or sentiments that are called codes of ethics. 
These codes define general principles of government and stand 
paramount to law in the regulation of professional intercourse, 
duties and courtesies and in their relation towards other bodies of 
men and individuals and oftentimes to the taking or withholding of 
fees and the amount of fees in given cases. The medical profession 
has a code established by the American Medical Association. The 
Sute Society has one, and the county societies have them. These 
codes impress me strongly that, beside the element of courtesy and 
justice they desire to cultivate, their one great and prominent idea is 
to eliminate from the professions all the principles of trade, and ' 
thus, whether wisely or not, setting the stamp of inferiority on the 
merchant and his modes of accumulation. 

\V> arc called upon to-day by some restless spirits in our societies 
to voluntarily go forward and offer to sign the code of ethics of the 
American Medical Association, and I propose to show wherein the 
new profession of dentistry should not do it ; to show why it should 
mark out for itself an independent positi >n, untrammelcd by any- 
thing that has gone before it, and having its own and improved code 
substantial:}' what our profession needs, and differing from what the 
lical profession needs, in as much as our own profession differs 
from the needs of that profession. 



Relation of Dentists to Patentees^ cW. 233 

But, were we inclined to adopt the medical code, would it be 

prudent to do so? Would this society represent the majority of the 
profession ? Would the combined societies of this state represent 
one-half of the dentists of the state? Would all the societies in 
in New England represent one-quarter of the dentists of New Eng- 
land ? Would all the dentists in the societies of the United States 
represent one-fifth of the dentists of the United States ? 

It seems to me the first duty of dentists is to try and reach their 
professional brothers and make them members of our societies before 
we agitate an addition to our code of ethics that may have an effect 
to divide rather than to unite our body. 

To harmonize all dentists ; to bring about a united profession ; 
to build up a union that is strong ; to teach men to be in honorable 
relation to each other ; to be truly a profession, and that is to live 
up to what we have already proposed ; to come together and discuss 
issues ; to care enough for their profession and themselves to so 
come together, are among our 'first duties. Not to pass resolutions 
and codes that some must entirely dissent from, and have already 
dissented from, and which will have a tendency to keep members 
farther apart than now and stir up opposition, but to join hands and 
go as a united body towards universally agreed ends. 

A supposed inducement offered by the agitators to sign the code 
of ethics of the American Medical Association is that no member 
will be allowed to patent any article of use to the profession or 
have a financial interest in such 'a patent. There are those who 
continually harp on this idea, as though it was morally wrong to own 
a patent, and harmful to the professions, and that the exclusiveness- 
given by a patent right was wrong in principle when applied to any- 
thing that might adduce to the comfort of a sick person. 

I have tried to sympathize with this idea, but am unable to do so; 
in fact, find myself fast drifting in the opposite direction, for it is by 
a patent that the professions have any right to live at all as profes- 
sions. It is by a patent of the legislature that dentistry can lay claim 
to be a profession, i. e., the open right to be exclusive, for we now 
have the right to exclude, for our financial or moral benefit, any 
whom our patent covers. 

To deny the right of a man to a claim on his invention because it 
adds comfort to the sick would deny him the right of recompense 
for an invention of a softer spring bed, a new invention for a pillow, 
a softer wool blanket, a better ventilator, a more convenient drinking 



234 TJic Od autographic Journal. 

cup, a new couch, a better chair, a nicer ambulance, an easier 
vehicle, a safety bit or patent horse shoe, as it might be that the use 
of any one of these at given times could have saved a life. 

Owning, as we all do, and must without exception, the great per- 
sonal and national value that patents have been, and are to-day, is 
there any man so befogged in his mind that he cannot say that the 
one great inducement that has stimulated invention has been that of 
persona] reward. 

And who more likely to see the wants of a profession or business 
than the man who is continually in its practise ? And this I say. 
that the man, whoever he is, who turns aside from his professional 
duties at the call of the inventive genius, be he physician or be he 
dentist, he who invents for all time something that gives special re- 
lief, at a cost to himself, either in dollars, brains, work, or any other 
labor, has a right to be repaid in the coin of the country, and the 
country acknowledges it to be so by giving him the use, or a royalty 
on the invention, covering a few years time. And the inventive 
genius both of the physician and the dentist will wane in proportion 
as this right is unrecognized. I cannot see how in any possible 
way this fact can be ignored. 

This does not prevent any man, who so desires, from giving his ser- 
vices, if he wishes, giving his ideas or his money, if he can afford to, 
but to deny his right to be an honorable man, worthy of a place in 
the most honorable societies in the world because he is a workman 
worthy of his hire, is to deny one of the fundamental principles 
which binds society together, and the ignoring of which will tend 
towards its disintegration, and though it may not be fatal to a pro- 
fession whose special function is to give drugs and medicines, in our 
specialty I am sure it will work harm. 

Hut suppose we ignore patents, and our brother over there has 
invented a good thing and wants to bring it out, what is to be done 
with it in face of this tremendous fact, that no manufacturer will 
make it for the public if it requires considerable outlay in models, 
tools and experiments, without the protection of a patent, unless 
the inventor pays the expenses out of his own pocket. No 
one who is not up in all the modern ways of manufacturing knows 
what expensive tools and appliances are required to make many 
things that look very simple after the\ are finished. 

Shall we lei our inventions be dormant for want of a patent to 

i are the manufacturer. Shall we let our inventive faculties rest 
tor want of a stimulus. It in well said that inventors are usually 



Relation of Dentists to Patentees > 6°<r. 235 

poor. Yes, that is why they invent — for hop'- of reward— and as 
society never voluntarily offers any one his dues ; as every man has 
to demand them ; the patent laws are intended to prevent the in- 
ventor from begging from society what is his natural right — the right 
of compensation. 

Now if the patent laws are unjust, repeal them, alter them, change 
them, regulate them ; but never deny the right of the inventor or the 
equity of his just compensation. 

Much stress is laid on the past existence of a Dental Vulcanite 
Co. and its relation to the dentists. Here let me say that if any man 
felt aggrieved at paying for the use of rubber he need not have used 
it. There was no moral necessity for using it. I never knew that 
the dentists were so penurious as to feel the outgo of a-license fee 
was a grief, but this I did know that the grievance under which we 
all suffered was that it was by fraud and incompetent judgment in 
the patent office, and on the bench, the patent was granted and sus- 
tained. It was the theft from us of what belonged to us. That was 
our grievance. 

I defy anyone to prove that any dentist has injured his profes- 
sion by a patent or any contrivance that has ever been made ; and, 
if your are sensible, you must see that the ingenuity that has in- 
vented many things, daily advertized and in daily use by us, has 
been of incalculable benefit to us and to our patients, the public, 
who pay the bills. Then why should we exclude patentees from a 
mechanical profession ; we who need all the invention we can 
stimulate ? Why should we call the atmosphere of patents foul ? 
To do so is simply absurd ! 

But the anxious writer of the " Footprints of a Profession " gives 
himself away so thoroughly in the following paragraph that I am 
tempted to quote him. Page 12, first paragraph : 

"I cannot see the justice of such men as Dr. Black or our own 
Dr. Andrews working on year after year in faithful earnest work, a 
work that they can best do, a work that can never be repaid by the 
profession, while another may see elsewhere a mechanical contriv- 
ance, apply it to dentistry then sell to a dealer for thousands ; for 
the work of each is but their work, or thought, or idea for their pro- 
fession." 

Exactly, my friend. Just so. I cannot see the justice of Drs. 
Black and Andrews working without financial reward, for the pro- 
fession (and mind you they are doing a thousand times more for 
the public than they are doing for us) ; — but because they do not 



236 The Odontographic Journal. 

iv< uve a present financial reward, is it any argument that another 
man who works in another line should be without his reward also. 
On the contrary, pay, I say, all your creditors you can. 

There may be a time when such men as Andrews and Black will 
be paid, but if all the brain work and all the inventive genius of our 
specialty is appropriated by us, as our right, with only oftentimes an 
un appreciative "thank you " for a reward, what stimulus to future 
inventive activity in our young and glorious specialty will you hold 
forth and will it have. 

I think my honorable friend of the " Footprints " is looking 
through the object end of his spy-glass and narrows down his ideas. 
He would that one could be paid in coin of the realm, but the other, 
God save him, he is only a patentee — let him go. His atmosphere is 
foul. He thinks himself the liberal man, but I know I am, because 
I advocate the reward of both. The one goes unrequited only be- 
cause it has been the habit of our people and our times to appropri- 
ate ideas of certain sorts without pay. Dr. Andrews works well and 
beautifully, but had he also the stimulus of financial aid, would he 
work any the less well ? Nay, you all knew he could do more, if 
not better. 

But I leave this point, simply saying that if you drive from our 
societies its inventors, they will claim more as outsiders than in our 
ranks ; for, while in, they will have, as all have, some feeling of 
fealty and loyalty, which, when out, will be replaced by disregard 
and positive contempt. 

We arc invited to surrender our independence. Sink our indi- 
viduality in the older profession of medicine. To be no longer 
independent but liberal. We are told we are not liberal, but that 
the medical profession is. 

This is a very brpad assumption, and before the surrender of our 
individuality ; before we lose the distinction and the rights that have 
from the first belonged to us, it is well to pause and consider the 
step — whether it leads upward towards clearer atmosphere, or down 
into the fogs thai hang like a pall over the intellects of the special 
workers on the human organism. 

HippO< rates, the father of medicine formulated the code of ethics 
thai for two thousand years has swayed the medical profession. 
Was it a liberal code, and is it a liberal code viewed in the light of 
to-day? It had its distinct points of doctrine. First, brotherly 

npathy and protection : to teach the sons of physicians, without 



Relation of Dentists to Patentees, &*c. 237 

fee, and look after them as their own children. Second, to instruct 
their own sons, those of their teachers and disciples, and no others. 
Third, to follow the system of regimen that was considered best for 
their patients, and to abstain from what they knew to be injurious. 
Furthermore, there were moral instructions and a promise that 
whatever in connection with professional practise, or not in connec- 
tion, should be seen or heard should not be divulged, but kept 
secret. 

At best, though kindly and liberal for its day, it was a class legis- 
lation. It was intended that certain families should monopolize the 
medical profession, become its guardians, and that it should have 
none others. 

Later in the centuries the trades organized under the name of 
guilds, dispensing their own charaties and keeping their own secrets, 
and finally, after uniting in larger guilds or corporations, exercised 
important influences in society and government, and became through 
their unity, their skill and knowledge, the predecessors and probable 
founders of the Masonic order of to-day. 

In England, where patents took their rise more than in any other 
country, their cost was large. The inventions of artisans were kept 
as secrets and handed from father to son, as in the days of old Hip- 
pocrates, and it was natural that after a time this exclusiveness 
should be followed by a better system ; one giving to the public 
the secrets of the artisans only under restricted conditions and with 
the certainty of recognition or reward to the inventors. For often 
the inventors of valued improvements died and the improvements 
were lost to society. 

I wish to show by this that from the medical profession sprang the 
exclusive system which was the ancestor of the patent right system 
of to-day, and that the exclusive system has never been ignored up 
to this present moment, and the china wall built around to keep 
enemies out has dwarfed its usefulness by standing in the way of 
medical progress, and brought about a spirit of conceit that vastly 
narrows its influence. I am not speaking about men. The medical 
profession contains some of the best and ablest men the world 
knows. But I am speaking about the system to which we are asked 
subscribe. 

Do not think 1 am hard on the medical profession. Do not think 
me hard if I say that, with the abundant opportunities it has had, it 
is a tremendous failure in the part of it relating to the general sci- 
ence of cure. I stand on the border land and can say so with less 



The Odontography Journal. 

offence than others. To be a member of so old a profession should 
be a great honor. I cannot but think our young branch of it is a 
branch will bear fruit earlier. At least a thousand years have gone 
by and yet so simple a question as, What is the normal diet of man, 
the diet that will keep him in health ? cannot be answered. Would 
our people living on fruit and grain be as strong and healthy as 
now ? Would the absence of hydro-carbons in diet be a loss or a 
gain ? Is there any relation between a mild winter and a prevalence 
of colds, pneumonia, asthma and diseases of the hydro-carbon sort ? 
Do physicians say to their patients on their way to warmer climates 
that they need to change the diet to agree with the climate ? Do 
they say to us who live in a heated atmosphere of furnaces and 
warm clothing, that you should change your diet to correspond to 
that condition, it being opposite to the normal. Is there a diet that 
will absorb morbid growths ? Is there a habit of diet that will pro- 
duce consumption ? Is there a habit of diet that will cure con- 
sumption ? These are a few of many very, very simple questions, 
and who can answer them ? Certainly not the profession, who can- 
not tell what a common cold is, and how anyone may avoid it or 
cure it. 

Is it necessary for me to suggest that experiment can tell ? Is it 
necessary for me to say that if the physicians will try dietetic experi- 
ments as faithfully as they have tried innumerable drugs, as faith- 
fully as the chemist tries his varied combinations and experiments, 
there would be as certain and as sure results. And if they are too 
busy to occupy themselves with " provings " on themselves, there 
are men and women who have surrendered their rights to life, liberty 
and human happiness, and indeed some who society slaughters like 
beasts, who are dietetically unprejudiced, upon whom the experiments 
may be tried, and who in their lonely cells will be more than glad 
to assist in this work, if by so doing they may be redeemed some 
days or years earlier to their lost privileges and liberties. Yes, re- 
muneration always from society to the individual, for what the 
individual has done is everyone's right. 

But I am warned that I must close. Is there any here who do not 
see the drift of my discourse — independence and freedom. It is 
said, that if we do not do thus and so, we shall not be recognized as 
professional by physicians and others. It is not so. 1 am happy to 
quote the words of the essayist of our last annual meeting : " \\\ 

being recognized as professional men by physicians, lawyei 
clergymen and the public, fully as fast as we deserve. It is not 



Dental Education. 230 

modest lor us to seek such recognition. It will not change the facts 
for this society to resolve, or if all the dentists in Christendom 
should declare we are a profession. It is for us to so educate and 
conduct ourselves that, our work shall compel all to accord to us the 
honor of being a profession." 

That we will truly become so I have no manner of doubt, but 
being the youngest, I desire that it shall take the broadest platform, 
in conformity to the grander times in which we all live, and that it 
shall not bind itself in the swaddling clothes that were made for the 
father profession when it was a babe. But it will never become 
what it ought until every member is so proud of it that he will want 
to bring its achievements into the foreground every time. 



DENTAL EDUCATION. 



Education is a practical matter. Consideration of practical sub- 
jects has two natural divisions or parts, — consideration of the end, 
and consideration of the means. We must first know what we 
want to accomplish. Then we may proceed to consider the means 
of its accomplishment. 

First, then, the end. What is it that is sought by dental educa- 
tion ? Plainly, to make dentists. 

What is a dentist ? This question, I believe, has never been 
answered. There are dental colleges in operation in all parts of 
the country, but we have as yet had no description or characteriza- 
tion of the article which they produce. No criterion has yet been 
given by which we may judge — may recognize the dentist in the 
first place, and appraise his dental value in the second. 

For our present purpose a criterion is necessary. In order to 
know the end or object of dental education, we must know what a 
dentist is. And our knowledge must be clear — definite. It will not 
do to rest content with saying that a dentist is a specialist in medi- 
cine ; we must go on to note what a specialist in medicine is. In a 
word, we need, not a .synonymous definition, but an analytical defi- 
nition. 

The dentist is a person who cares for the deeth. I say " cares 
for" rather than "treats," because a large share of dental effort is 
prophylactic rather than restorative ; and " cares for " embraces 
" treats," as the whole includes a part. The dentist, then, is a 
"doctor" in the true sense of the word — a " teacher ;" his function 



240 The Odontography Journal. 

is "curt" in the original sense — cura, " care." The object of dental 
education must be to produce such a person — a " doctor," capable 
of general "care." 

The dentist, then, is an adviser. He is a man of the same class 
as the architect or the attorney — a man who does more than merely 
execute the will of his client — a man who advises, by reason of 
superior wisdom. 

Is the dentist only this ? No. He is an adviser certainly; but 
he is more than an adviser. Dr. Bonwill says that the fundamental 
principles of dentistry are mainly mechanical. This statement is 
too strong ; but it expresses a truth. The dentist is, like the general 
surgeon, a mechanic. 

An adviser and mechanic — such is the dentist. Such is every 
surgeon, general and special. But the dentist is, in common with 
the surgeon, something more ; he is a therapeutist. Even beyond 
this the dentist is something ; he is something which the general 
surgeon is not ; he is an artist. 

Let us rearrange this matter. We have seen that the dentist is 
adviser, mechanic, therapeutist, and artist, and we have spoken of 
the last three characters as if they were separate from the first. 
In fact, however, no separation exists. It is as mechanic, thera- 
peutist and artist that the dentist is an adviser, and he can only 
competently advise through familiarity with the principles of me- 
chanics, therapeutics and esthetics. (Surgical mechanics includes, 
of course, as its basis, human anatomy.) 

But in mechanics, therapeutics, and esthetics there are two classes 
of men. 'There are those who direct, and those who execute. There 
are the advisers, and the workers. We find the two in the machine 
shop ; there is the mechanical engineer, and there is the machinist. 
We find the two in the sick-room ; there is the physician who pre- 
scribes, and there is the nurse who applies the remedies. We find 
the two, less widely separated but still showing some distinctly 
in the studio; there is the artist, and there is the painter. In sonn- 
ies the t\yo classes have become so distinct as scarcely to come 
tall. The architect advises ; the carpenter executes. The 
navigator advises ; the sailor executes. In dentistry, and indeed in 
Other departments of surgery, no marked separation of the two 
classes his taken place. The differentiation may be one of the great 
professional advances of the future ; but ;)t present the dentist both 



Close Joints. 241 

advises and operates. He is mechanic, therapeutist, and artist, and 
in all these capacities he both directs and works ; he is, in every- 
thing, both adviser and executor. 

Such is the dentist. He is both adviser and operator. He is 
mechanic, therapeutist and artist. But he is more even than this. 
As operater, he is mechanic, therapeutist, and artist. As adviser, 
he is, in addition, necessarily, biologist and sociologist. His advice 
must be largely based on biological principles ; and scarcely less 
largely must he, in giving that advice, consider social principles. 

Such being the dentist, the proper object of dental education is 
-the production of such a person. — Dental Cosmos. 



CLOSE JOINTS. 



Vulcanite is probably one of the most insinuating substances we, 
as dentists, use. It must be closely related to "Paul Pry," who 
though he always " hoped he did not intrude," was always intruding. 
So is it with Vulcanite ; despite the utmost care, it will poke itself 
where it is not wanted and makes an ugly blemish between the joints 
of the gum sections we use in our dentures. It is our custom before 
filling the impression in a partial denture, to put pins into the depres- 
sion of each tooth, by way of strengthening the teeth on the plaster 
model. Before such cases are Masked we cut off the plaster teeth 
from the model and then withdraw the pins. After such cases are 
vulcanized, we have seen the vulcanite forced into all of these pin holes 
their entire length, showing how the rubber will insinuate itself. 

For preventing this, many suggestions have been offered, but none 
are so effective as to secure absolutely close joints. Dr. How, in the 
Dental Cosmos for July, offers some valuable suggestions on Masking 
vulcanite cases, as well as making close joints. On the former sub- 
ject he recommends a groove in the plaster investment around the 
entire circumference of the invested denture in that part of the flask 
containing the model, instead of the radical gates which are most gen- 
erally used for the escape of the surplus rubber. 

For making close joints he says : " An excellent method for mak- 
ing close joints is to grind the section sides to fit squarely in front 
and bevel slightly half-way to the front from behind until they are 
nearly in the exact relations desired. Then, while still in the wax, 

ess the edge of a knife blade into the joint, to separate the section 



242 The Odontography Journal. 

evenly, a very little distance. A thin diamond disk rapidly revolved 
in the dental engine hand-piece may then be steadily passed dry- 
through the joint and simultaneously cut both section sides true and 
parallel, so that a square tight joint along the gum faces of the sec- 
tions will be insured. In fact, a large diamond disk jointer will be 
found to be of great value in the labratory." 

Besides this close jointing, he recommends the use of Zinc Phos- 
phate Cement over the joints. We have used this ourselves, but not 
always successfully in keeping out that insidious rubber, despite of 
close joints. 

Before flashing we fill the cement over the joints mixed thin, letting 
it come over the teeth as well, and over this we lay a piece of moder- 
ately thick tin foil in a strip about a quarter of an inch wide, and 
when the case is flasked we put the cement on the inside, commenc- 
ing at the joint near the pins and bringing it upward, until it unites 
with that which was placed on the outside before flasking. This is 
likewise covered with a strip of tin foil, so as to use every effort to 
exclude the vulcanite from the joints. — Chupein — Dental Office and 
Laboratory. 

MICRO-ORGANISMS OF DENTAL CARIES. 



Messrs. Gillippe and Vignal have studied the microbes which 
penetrate into the little dentine canals, and which alone play an 
effective part in the destruction of teeth. They cleansed the 
dental cavity, crushed the tooth, enveloped in sterilized paper, 
in a vice, and sowed the several particles in different media. 
In this way they obtained six varities of micro-organisms 

1. Small, short and thick bacillus is found constantly, coag- 
ulates milk with formation of lactic acid. 

2. Bacillus twice as long as broad, slightly narrowed in the 
mindle, also forms lactic acid in milk. 

3 Bacillus, similar to the preceeding one, without narrowing, 
forms long chains, does not coagulate milk, prevents easeine from 
coagulating with acids, and transforms milk into a yellowish 
brown fluid. 

4. Very short and tender bacillus, about as long as broad, 

mbling a COCCUS. Transforms easeine, which soon exhales an 

unpleasant odor and takes a brown coloration, such as the media 

of culture. It dissolves filuine. 



Intentional Devitalization of the Dental Palp. 243 

5. Roundish bacillus 4-5 II long, found eight times only. It 
transforms milk without coagulating it into a brown fluid, which 
ifter some time becomes black and exhales a bad odor. 

6. Coccus, comparatively voluminous 6 (1 in diameter, found 
five times only in teeth of advance cariousness with wide cana- 
iculi. It coagulates milk and forms lactic acid. 

In addition, the pulp furnished the following three varieties : 

1. Bacterium termo, which is met with in all albuminous 
substances in a state of decomposition. 

2. Acts in the same way on albuminous bodies, interverts 
sugar and lactic acid. 

3. Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus in a pulp intensively 
infected. 

The biological properties of the microbes enumerated explain 
the process of caries. The microbes form lactic acid, and dis- 
solve the mineral substances of the tooth. The microbes 
disapper in the organic substance and destroy the albuminous 
bodies. The work of detructions is promoted by the saprogenic 
microbes present in the mouth. — Dental Register. 



INTENTIONAL DEVITALIZATION OF THE DENTAL 

PULP. 



Various attempts have been made to modify the operation of 
devitalizing a dental pulp so as, to lessen the risk of after trouble. 
Arsenic, the agent usually employed, has been charged — unjustly, 
I think — with causing many of these evils. In careless hands, we 
all know it is capable of doing a great deal of mischief ; but we 
are not considering that now. We are presuming that the opera- 
tion from beginning to end is carefully and skillfully performed. 
It has been asserted that the arsenic may escape through the apical 
foramina, or in the same way that it acts upon the pulp, without 
really passing through this opening ; it may, and in many cases 
does, produce its peculiar effect upon the tissues at the apex of the 
root, and thus lay the foundation for future trouble. To avoid this 
extremely small quantities have been recommended, or it is left in 
contact with the tissue but a short time. How arsenic effects the 
destruction of a dental pulp is, 1 think, an unsolved problem. We 
are taught that it is absorbed by living tissues only, and when 
applied as an escharotic for the removal of tumor, etc., its action 
is limited by using it freely, so that it quickly destroys the tissue 



244 The Odontographic Journal. 



with which it is in immediate contact ; this dead tissue then acts as 
a barrier protecting the living tissue beyond. In these cases, were 
it applied less freely, it is quite probable that so much would be 
absorbed that serious systemic effects would follow. Many years 
ago, when it was recommended and used for treating sensitive den- 
tine, it was soon found that no precaution prevented the complete 
devitalization of the pulp ; it was utterly impossible to limit its 
action to the dentine alone. Even when the arsenic was finely 
pulverized, used dry, in its least attractive form, and for a few hours 
only sealed up in a superficial cavity, the tooth-issue, immediately 
after its removal, being excavated so deeply that evey portion 
wiih which the arsenic had been in contact was removed invariably; 
notwithstanding all these precautions, the complete devitalization 
of the pulp was a question of time only. This being the case, how 
absurbed the idea that by pricking into the exposed portion of the 
pulp a minute quantity of arsenic a portion only of the pulp will 
be destroyed and the apical one-third or two-thirds remain vital I 
I cannot conceive this to be possible in any case. I know that on 
attempting to remove a divitalized pulp we may find the apical 
portion quite sensitive to the touch of the instrument ; I know, 
also, that in teeth with more than one root the pulp may readily 
and without pain be removed from one while its removal from the 
others — usually the smaller roots — may be painful and difficult ; 
but is this any evidence of vitality ? We frequently find the same 
sensitiveness upon first opening into an intentionally devitalized 
pulp, — so sensitive are they, occasionally, that it is hard to realize 
that the arsenic has done its work ; and yet, after thorughly ex- 
posing the pulp, there has been no difficulty in effecting its com- 
plete removal painlessly, showing conclusively that it had been 
completely devitalized. What reason have we to suppose that the 
sensitiveness in one case indicates vitality, when we know that in 
the other, precisely similar, it does not? — Tri km an. International 
Dental Journal. 

IN THE NEAR 2,000. 



There will be no code, for all men will be properly educated, and 
be gentlemen. With perfect confidence does the family practitioner 

r his patient to the specialist, well knowing that the latter will 
send him back again, with diagnosis stated and a line of treatment 
suggested. There will be no rivalry to be appointed physicians to 



Nitrous Oxide not an Asphyxiant. 245 

the new hospital, for each one chosen will offer to resign in favoi 
of his unsuccessful competitor, and the only possible embarrass- 
ment will come from the ex< ess of self-abnegation. The occupation 
of the consequential and patronizing hospital manager will be a li 
art. Contributors to medical journals will never write on both 
sides of the paper, will never send their manuscripts rolled up, nor 
desire reprints and extra copies, and will wait their turn for pub- 
lication. Their thoughts will be condensed, and their great aim 
will be to say as much as possible in the fewest number of words. 
As all men will be educated, and the private research of each be 
made public property, the opinion of the retiring, common-sense, 
professional neighbor will be as worthy of at least as courteous a 
reception as that of some unknown Herr Professor, with an unpro- 
nounceable name, from the middle of one of the southern provinces 
of Austria. — Medical Record. 



NITROUS OXIDE NOT AN ASPHYXIANT.— A CRITICAL 

STUDY. 



So much attention has during the past few years been bestowed 
upon the subject of anaesthetics, that it is surprising to find so 
important a matter as the modus operandi of nitrous oxide still 
shrouded in doubt, at least in some minds. The researches* which 
I commenced in 1885 were in a measure forced upon me by the 
consideration that if nitrous oxide were simply an asphyxiant, its 
range of utility and the limits of its safe application were necessarily 
very much straitened. Whereas, if upon the other hand, nitrous 
oxide, acting as such, possessed a power of producing anaethesia and 
could be so employed without provoking asphyxial phenomena, it 
was evident that we should have much more confidence in 
commending its use, and should not hesitate to employ it even when 
the pulmonary circulation were in a condition which would wholly 
negative the administration of an agent acting as an asphyxiant. 

Dr. George Johnson's letter, contained in your last issue, cannot 
be taken as a serious attempt to disprove the evidence of facts now 
familiar to all physiologists and students of anaesthetics, but Dr. 
George Johnson's name is rightly held in such high esteem among 



* See H Transactions, Odontological Society of Great Britain, 18H6 " Ibid, March, 1887, 

On Ankle Clonic, with special reference to its production under Nitrous Oxide." — British 

Medical Journal^ August, 1887. "On Recent Researches in Nitrous Oxide Gas."— Journal oj 

■ 'if 1 k Dental Association, September, 1889. I 



The Odontographic Journal. 

all students of science, that his utterances are liable to be accepted 
without the reserve which I am sure he would be the first to set upon 
them when dealing with matters lying outside the province of 
medicine proper. I propose to leave untouched Dr. Johnson's 
interesting, although to me inconclusive, arguments in favor of his 
view of the mechanism of apncea (asphyxia), and merely to review 
the brief mention of nitrous oxide contained in his essay on 
"Asphyxia," as well as his letter contained in pages 526-7 of your 
journal. Logical analysis of this letter may thus be put : "Nitrous 
oxide anaesthesia may be obtained without complete asphyxia." In 
conversation [the italics are mine], Dr. George Johnson has learned 
from his friends, that "if inhalation be sufficiently prolonged, the 
invariable result is cyanosis with epileptiform (sic) convulsions." 
With the aid of Mr. Hamilton Cartwright Dr. George Johnson slew 
two rabbits, killing them by means of nitrous oxide, and found upon 
opening their chests a condition due to asphyxia. Evident impor- 
tance is attached to these (?) experiments, as they are mentioned 
also in the "Essay on Asphyxia." Then follows the curious 
petitio principii, " Unquestionably nitrous oxide is a rapidly asphyxia- 
ting gas.'* To this is appended the rider, "but from what I have 
seen of Dr. Frederick Hewitt's interesting experiments with a 
mixture of nitrous oxide and a small proportion of oxygen, I believe 
that it will henceforth be possible to ensure as a constant result the 
production of a complete anaesthesia without the distressing and 
perilous phenomena of asphyxia. This sentence is interesting as 
showing (1) Dr. Johnson's unhesitating belief that complete anaes- 
thesia with nitrous oxide necessarily predicates the perilous phe- 
nomena of asphyxia, and (2) either ignorance, or a curious ignoring 
of Paul Hert's most important and classical researches upon the 
mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen published more than ten years 
ago, and (3) the same omission to recognize the more recent work 
executed with rigid particularity of detail undertaken to explain the 
true physiological action of nitrous oxide, and carried out in this 
country, in America, and Germany. Lastly, we are asked to accept 
Dr. Snow's views, which suppose that a common action exists for all 
anaesthetics, viz., various ways of impeding the oxidation of the 
nervous tissues, and to regard this as more natural than "the 
sumption that each of these agents has a 'specific anaesthetic 
action.' ' But why we should do so is left unsaid. I propose firstly 
to ( onsider this analysis, and then to state the case for the plaintiff 
— nitrous oxide — showing why we should not regard that useful 



Nitrous Oxide not an Asphyxiant. 247 

agent as "unquestionably a rapidly asphyxiating gas." Dr. 
George Johnson can hardly expect us to accept "conversations," 
when held with persons, even though they have "a large experience 
with the administration of the gas," as evidence, without being told 
(1) Who the witnesses are? (2) What their special knowledge may 
be of the physiology of the question at issue ? (3) What their 
methods of administering the gas may be ? Nor will the canons of 
scientific research permit us to accept without grave reservation the 
experience made upon two caeatures (rabbits), and conducted, by 
unknown methods, many years ago. Possibly every precaution to 
avoid error may have been adopted, or possibly the animals were 
simply placed under a bell jar, as in Sir Humphrey Davy's experi- 
ments, and no effort made to exclude asphyxial symptoms due to 
(i) prolonged deprivation of oxygen (ii), re-breathing exhaled and 
therefore noxious air and gas. 

I have elsewhere pointed out that unless we exclude in a rigid 
way (1) re-breathing once exhaled gas, and (2) we supply fresh and 
carefully purified nitrous oxide gas so freely that no difficulty is felt, 
or exists in filling and emptying the lungs in respiration, we are 
dealing with a problem the terms of which are complex, and include 
not only the action of nitrous oxide, but others — the direct result of 
which must be the condition called apncea (asphyxia). I do not for 
one moment deny that nitrous oxide maybe given in such a manner 
that the patient is partly narcotised by nitrous oxide gas and partly 
asphyxiated by insufficient supply of the gas, and re-breathing 

exhaled gases. This "mixed method" I hold to be pernicious in 

fact and unscientific in principle, and I submit that no argument 

based upon the phenomena which follow this practice can be 
admitted as proving for, or against the specific action of nitrous 
oxide. Indeed, I should almost claim an alibi for nitrous oxide gas 

in the lungs of persons subjected to this "mixed method." 

The arguments, based upon rigid experiments, showing nitrous 

oxide gas (/) is not an asphyxiant, are positive and negative. 

It produces anaesthesia before it kills, whereas animals simply 

asphyxiated (rendered apneeic) are not anaesthetic until moribund, 

if then. 

It kills in less than two minutes, whereas apncea takes five. 

(These figures vary for different animals, but the ratio is maintained.) 
Nitrous oxide, if given in such a way that the oxygen of the 

tissues is not exhausted, as by Paul Bert's well known method, pro- 

duces profound anaesthesia, but without any apnceal symptoms, and 



248 The Odontograpkic Journal. 

this state of things ma\ be prolonged with continuous inhalations 
presumably indefinitely (over an hour). (This can of course only 
be done by the use of Fontaine's chamber, and the inhalation of 
both the gases, under the pressure of two atmospheres. As given 
in this country and Germany, no result like this is obtainable, as it 
is impossible to administer a gas under pressure unless the patient's 
whole body is subjected to an equivalent pressure). 

The process of events during the inception of narcosis by nitrous 
oxide is : — 

The heart's action is hardly at all interfered with; there is 
certainly no tendency in the large majority of cases towards lessening, 
much less abolition of the apex beat. Indeed, if the narcosis is 
pushed to the extent of stopping the respiration, the heart still beats 
on, so that animals are easily restored, even subsequent to respiration 
having been suspended. The pulse, when taken in persons not the 
subjects of fear, is at first slightly accelerated ; but as soon as con- 
sciousness is lost, it drops to the normal rhythm. In no case have 
I seen in a healthy person the radial pulse stop, or even materially 
weaken during the administration of laughing gas. 

The record of the blood pressure under laughing gas also supports 
these statements. For the first period, that is until the blood 
becomes fairly saturated with the gas, the pressure remains almost 
unchanged ; later on a slight fall occurs, which is steadily recovered 
from if access of air be permitted, in a way quite in contrast with 
the wide excursions which occur in the post-asphyxial state. These 
gradual curves are not respiratory as they are present when artificial 
respiration is maintained in urarised animals. 

Upon the rhythm of respiration nitrous oxide acts as follows: At 
first, during the stage of excitation, some acceleration takes place, as 
consciousness fails, however, the respirations grow slowly and more 
profound, the amplitude of the respiration curves being markedly 
increased. If, however, death is superinduced by the gas, the 
respirations grow more and more shallow and finally cease, while 
tli<- heart quickly beats until at length that also stops. The wild 
conscious couvulsions which obtain, when death is brought about by 

phyxia, find no place in the procession of events under laugh 
ing g 

I will not in this place narrate the phenomena which occur during 

nitrous oxide narcosis as regards the muscular and nervous systems. 
I will simply remark they evince, in the most striking manner, the 
most absolute non-accord with those which are brought about b) 
asphyxia. 



Nitrons Oxide not an Asphyxiant. 249 

The experiments which led me to formulate the above data were 

in every ease repeated, substituting asphyxia for nitrous oxide. It, 
as is contended by Dr. George Johnson, the conditions are the same, 

the results should have been the same, whereas, they are utterly 
diverse. Animals asphyxiated by breathing indifferent gases, such 
as nitrogen, breathing through a tube, or after ligature of the trachea, 
presented the well known phenomena of the apnoeic state. The 
hearts action, at first labored, subsequently became tumultuous and 
incoordinate, the pulse, from extreme acceleration, passed to inter- 
mission and finally died away. Respiration became, after the usual 
irregular and ineffectnal movements, marked by the peculiar rhythm 
which consists in a sort of Cheyne-Stokes gathering of respirations 
into a group followed by a period of stillness to be succeeded by a 
further group. Blood-pressure rapidly rose, and when access of air 
was permitted, rose and fell in wide curves reaching far above and 
far below the normal base line. 

Experiments, if such be justifiable at all, when conducted upon 
patients are, in the matter of nitrous oxide gas, of little value as 
proof, because persons about to undergo an operation, however 
trivial, are the subjects of psychic perturbations of greater or less 
severity, which invalidate arguments relying solely upon phenomena 
observed whilst they are being anaesthetised. It is, I think, in this 
way that we can explain the curiously unusual train of events which 
Dr. George Johnson witnessed when standing beside patients taking 
gas. In page 31 of the " Essay on Asphyxia," we read, "After a 
period (of inhalation of nitrous oxide) which varies in different cases 
from forty to eighty to ninety seconds, the pulse suddenly becomes 
almost, or even quite imperceptible, the features become livid, the 
pupils are widely dilated, there is a state of general muscular rigidity; 
in short, all the phenomena of the first stage of an epileptic fit are 
present." This purports to represent nitrous oxide narcosis, as seen 
at the Dental Hospital of London, but is a record absolutely opposed 
to my experience alike at Leicester Square and when experimenting 
upon friends not about to be operared upon, and not the subject of 
craven fear. Further sphygmograms taken upon my own radial and 
that of friends, confirm the accuracy of my results. I may name 
among my friends Professor Schafer, F. R. S., Professor Victor 
Horsley, F. R. S., Professor Mac William, of Aberdeen, Professor 
Dobinson Halliburton, and Dr. Rose Bradford, who were either 
actually supervising, as in the case of the first named, or helping me 
with the experiments ; so that I venture to assert that the results 
may be considered fairly credible. 



2 so The Odontography Journal. 

In reference to Dr. George Johnson's remark about adopting Dr. 
Snow's theory of the mechanism of anaesthesia, I may be permitted 
to point out that Dr. Snow possessed no knowledge of nitrous oxide 
as an anaesthetic. lie died in June, 1858, and it was not until after 
1866 that this agent began to be used in this country. Dr. Snow's 
remarks referred to the alcohol series of anaesthetics, and could not, 
unless uttered prophetically, refer to the reagent of which I am 
writing. 

It is certainly matter for regret, unless actual experiment and 
carefully weighed evidence can be put forward to disprove the facts 
and arguments which have been accumulating during the past ten 
or twenty years concerning nitrous oxide, and which incline to show 
it possesses a specific action; and does not narcotise by reason of its 
asphyxiating qualities, that any one, least of all so staunch a lover 
of truth and so keen and astute a physiologist as is Dr. George 
Johnson, should spread erroneous views concerning that most safe 
and valuable anaeethetic, nitrous oxide gas. — Baxter, Dental Record. 



PROPOSED VICTORIAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION, COL 
LEGE, AND HOSPITAL. 



Our dental friends are to be warmly congratulated upon the 
esprit de corps suggested by the meeting of the profession held on 
7th inst., a full report of which appears in this issue. As will be 
noted, the primary reason for calling the brethren of the forceps 
together was to secure affirmation of the proposition that it was 
necessary to provide for the local education of those desirous of 
obtaining legal qualification. At present the dentist of the future 
is in the unhappy predicament of having to proceed to some 
country where recognised schools are maintained, in order to 
obtain his diploma, and it was to remedy tin's very serious defi- 
ciency that the meeting was called together. In our opinion the 
expressed views of Mr. Potts should strongly commend themselves 
to the craft. The gentleman spoke from an intimate knowledge of 
the society with which he lias been especially identified ; and in 
view of the success which has attended the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Australasia, it would be strange if the association of the dentists 
in a corporate society should not prove most beneficial to the pro- 
31 on, and prove a material factor in promoting the proposed 
educational scheme. Indeed, it seems to us that the formation of 



Dental Caries. 251 

the association is the fust thing to be a< 1 ompltshed ; that without 
the association the carrying out of the educational scheme would 
be attended by a multitude of difficulties ; and that, in short, effect 
could only be given to the ambitions of the profession through an 
accredited executive such as the establishment of an association 
would call into being. The munificent gift of land and building 
for the proposed hospital by Mr. Blitz deserves more than passing 
mention. It is highly gratifying to record so pronounced an act 
of generosity. And that the meeting should have produced so 
emphatic an approval of its aspirations and incentive to exertion 
speaks eloquently for the prospects of the dental profession of 
the colony. 

We take great pleasure in expressing our hearty sympathy with 
this movement and will hail the accomplishment of a Dental 
Association and educational scheme with fraternal greeting. — 
Australasian Journal of Pharmacy. 



DENTAL CARIES. 



The only remote or predisposing causes of caries of which the 
existence has been demonstrated, and of which the action is demon- 
strable, are those named in my papers, namely, inherent structural 
defects in enamel, vitiation of the buccal secretions, and crowding 
and irregularity of the teeth. The statement that enamel, through 
causes acting from within a tooth, can undergo a process of soften- 
ing or deterioration — a kind of degeneration — rendering it less able 
to withstand attacks of caries, is pure hypothesis, resting on very 
insufficient foundation ; and it is besides entirely unnecessary, all 
the phenomena being accounted for without its introduction. If 
any one really believed that enamel were capable of physiological,, 
and therefore of pathological action, he would never fill a simple 
cavity of decay. Is it to be believed that a tissue so highly organ- 
ized as the hypothesis in question supposes, would passively tolerate 
the presence of a foreign body like a stopping wedge into its 
substance ? One consideration like this is almost enough, to show 
the falsity of the views upon which you have asked my opinion ; 
but there are many more equally cogent. The amount of organic 
matter in enamel is so minute as to be indistinguishable by the 
rnif r<> ( ope, and we are justified in affirming that enamel is devoid 



2 5 2 The Odontography Journal. 

of those tissue elements without which physiological action is 
impossible. An American observer states that he has stained 
enamel with chloride of gold, but if this observation were correct — 
to which there are grave doubts — the organic matter must be in 
a state of almost inconceivable tenuity. You will see from my 
book that Mr. Charles ^ T hite, one of the most distinguished living 
dental histologists. agrees with me that there is probably some error 
in the observation. But if it were true, can we imagine the passage to 
and fro of nutritive and effete material via the dental fibrils to the 
surface of the enamel ; and can we imagine their assimilation and 
rejection by a quartz-like inert mass such as composes almost the 
entire bulk of enamel? And furthermore, if in some systematic 
states teeth were to undergo degeneration, owing to abstraction of 
their solid constituents through the vascular system, surely the 
morbid process would begin, if not always, at least very often in 
the surfaces nearest the vessels — in the cementum and the dentine 
forming the walls of the pulp cavity? Does any one allege that he 
has observed such a phenomenon ? and can any one produce a single 
specimen of enamel in process of softening or disintegration, 
displaying any appearance not equally visible in a carious dead 
toolh. Indeed, with the exception of pain, the single subjective 
symptom of caries, all the phenomena of this malady, whether as 
regards appearances visible to the naked eye or disclosed by the 
microscope, are to be observed not only in dead human teeth 
replaced in the mouth as artificial substitutes, but in blocks of 
ivory used for the same purpose. And the remote as well as direct 
causes of decay in these dead substances when worn in the mouth, 
are precisely the same as govern the onset of caries in living teeth — 
teeth with living pulps and living periosteum Dead teeth and 
ivory blocks are under similar conditions neither more or less liable 
to decay in the mouth than their neighbors implanted in the alveoli. 
Some few years ago, before the general use of vulcanite, artificial 
teeth were much more frequently constructed of gold plates with 
human teeth mounted upon them, and it was a fact of very 
common observation — one which 1 was able fully to verify — that 
the durability of this kind of work varied much in different 
individuals and under changing circumstances in the same indi- 
vidual. Every dentist recognized that their durability depended 
very largely Upon the quality of the teeth and blocks employed ; if 

these were of the most solid structure they lasted much longer than 



Dental Caries, 253 

if inherently weak. Everyone reognized also that their durability 
depended, secondly, on the health and personal habits of the 
wearer. In a month habitually neglected and where the frames 
were allowed to remain for long periods coated with decomposing 

debris, the dead teeth and ivory were speedily softened and 
destroyed ; whilst on the other hand where the month and teeth 
were kept scrupulously clean the beginning of decay was propor- 
tionately less frequent and its progress in a like degree less rapid. 
A combination of bad health with neglect, giving rise to extreme 
vitiation, of the buccal secretions, was with certainty accompanied 
by destruction of the artificial teeth. In short it is amply proved, 
that disturbances of the general health exercise the same indirect 
influence upon ivory blocks worn in the mouth, as upon living 
teeth, and the effects are traceable onwards through the same 
agencies, namely, putrefaction and fermentation of organic matter 
attended by formation of acids and development of micro-organisms 
in the vicinity and on the surfaces of the teeth. This is what 
happens in the cases of pregnancy about which you write. It is 
only a minority of women whose teeth suffer during that period, 
and in these there is almost invaribly present dyspepsia with local 
conditions such as I have just referred to. 

There has probably been more nonsense written on the subject of 
dental carires than on any other subject of the sort, and I have no 
doubt that the same kind of writing will go on in the United States, 
so long as dental societies and dental journals refrain from holding 
up pseudo-scientific pretenders to the ridicule they deserve. We 
feel a solidarity in this country with our professional brethren across 
the Atlantic, and we take deep interest in all that concerns the 
progress of the profession in the great Republic. But beyond that, 
I do not think that the production in America of sham scientific 
dental literature, whether in the form of papers or of text books and 
manuals for students will affect us injuriously. Our students are 
not likely to go astray in these matters. They are all obliged before 
commencing their special studies to pass an examination in general 
education, and having passed that examination ihey are not likely 
to pay much attention to authors, whose writings glaringly make 
manifest not only their ignorance of the meaning of the scientific 
terms which they glibly use, but their want of acquaintance with the 
ruh-, of language and grammar, without which the simplest scientific 
proposition cannot be clearly expressed. It is partly to expose the 



254 The OdontograpJiic Journal. 

worthlessness of the productions of writers of this class that I com- 
posed the papers to which you so kindly refer ; and I am quite 
satisfied to know that they have not been altogether without effect 
in checking an evil from which we on this side of the Atlantic have 
been by no means exempt. — Sewill, Dominion Dental Journal. 



INCONSISTENCY.— THE LICENSE QUESTION IN 

COURT. 



This is found in the September number of several journals, and 
it will doubtless be read with much interest. A question will arise 
in many minds whether the United States Court would sustain this 
decision ? 

I am not in full symyathy with the large legislation that has 
so characterized the several State societies. New York has been 
the lead for many other States, and some (one, New Jersey) has 
tried to follow in its folly. We say folly, for we were in at the 
first inning of this society (New York) and set our face against 
the introduction of a degree, and surrendered our permanent 
membership because of it, and have taken occasion to jolt the 
car of the convenant at favorable times. We have had no little 
correspondence over this question, which might be interesting so 
far as it might be instructive in showing how it is viewed by 
many members of our calling. Where are the men that have 
the courage of their convictions ? Those that say in private the) 
have them. 

In the August number of the Cosmos, an excellent article in 
the proceedings of the Odontological Society is found, "The 
Function of the Dental Society," and it is voted by this so< iety 
an endorsement. This commits them to precepts of the paper. 
So far, so good. 

Does not this society find itself in a position of inconsistency at 
once ? We say, " Yes," in reference to the sustaining of this degre< 
of " M.D.S.," which stands as a blotch on the fame of every worthy 
dentist. It is not necessary to go into a detail of histor) regarding 
the creation of this blunder, although we could give it in full. 

\ "lias Dr. Meriam proclaimed against the patent question, 

and showed that it was inconsistent with a liberal profession, good 



Use of Springs in the Retention of Artificial Denture. 255 

men immediately commenced to shake themselves. They showed a 
disposition to try and be good boys first, so that they might be 
angels bye-and-bye. I ask, can we be called a liberal profession 
and let such a monstosity as the "M.D.S.," remain an enemy to all 
our dental schools? The Cosmos, true to the interests of a liberal 
profession, showed the courage of its convictions when it cried 
against the New Jersey legislature falling into the same pit ; this by 
an outspoken editorial. The times of ignorance are passing, and 
can no longer be winked at. Our calling will come into line with 
all that is progressive, yet it has a good deal of deadwood to throw 
off, which is the necessary product of all development. 

1 will publish a*fact which is known only to a few., I published 
an annonymous article in the Dental Register, a few years since, on 
purpose to see if I could draw a fire, knowing as I did some of the 
private views of the prominent members of the New York society. 
Only one peeped. He replied by a scurrilous article, saying the 
author was " Only an old sorehead ! " One very prominent member 
had given me his emphatic feelings, characterized the creating of 
this degree as a great mistake; and said he should try to bear his 
energy (and he is a large man) against it at the next annual 
meeting. He did it by staying away, and many wondered why he 
was absent. As he committed himself in the presence of six other 
dentists of fair fame, the truth of it does not rest on our veracity, 
so we can bear it if it is questioned. As we do not carry a degree 
of any kind it cannot be charged of us that we have any personal 
grounds for trying to probe this old sore once more. We do it 
only for the good and farther advancement of a liberal profession. 
— Mills, Ohio Journal of Dental Science. 



THE USE OF SPRINGS IN THE RETENTION OF ARTI- 
FICIAL DENTURE. 



Can we afford to dispense altogether with the use of springs for 
the retention of artificial dentures ? From observations which one 
hears promisciously dropped now and again, we might be tempted 
to answer thoughtlessly in the affirmative. A well-known American 
dentist, who was visiting this country, told a brother practitioner 
that in the whole of his professional experience he did not think he 
had ever made three sets of teeth with springs. Such a statement is 
to us astounding. Again, only the other day a student asked 



256 The Oilontographic Journal. 

whether it were possible to find any accurate instructions for the 
arrangement of swivels, as in the book on mechanical dentistry 
which lie had read, the subject had been dismissed with scant 
ceremony — or at least with but a meagre notice — as being obsolete. 
It any one cared to find out whether this system of retaining 
artificial dentures had died a natural death, a simple enquiry at 
one of our dental depots would soon dissipate the notion. Some 
of our best mechanics still use springs, and until some adequate 
substitute be found, they will probably continue to do so in certain 
classes of cases. That it is desirable to do away with such uncom- 
fortable adjuncts as far as possible goes without saying, and the 
fact that modern practitioners do not use them to the extent that 
their forefathers did, speaks to the improvements that have 
gradually forged their way into our methods of procedure ; but 
whether we shall be able to bid good-bye to our old friends is 
problematic. 

Now there are classes of cases where our ingenuity has to fall 
back upon the use of springs, and where we cannot afford to affect 
contempt for their assistance. The first class includes endentulous 
mouths, almost as flat as the palm of one's hand, which absolutely 
refuse to be charmed with " plaster impressions," "suction," "Ful- 
some ridges," and other wiles of mechanical art. Someone whispers 
faulty manipulation. This may be true of a good many cases, but 
have we not met with others where the assistance of springs has 
been our sheet and only anchor ? The second class is not at all 
uncommon, and consists of cases where the patient cannot endure a 
large suction plate. We know that in many instances this can be 
overcome by a little patience, but there still remain a large number 
where toleration absolutely refuses to step in ; and the presistant 
retching and discomfort of the patient either compels you to assist 
him out of his trouble with a small plate and springs, or — what 
amounts to the same thing — he seeks the services of someone else 
who has more respect for his patient's comfort than for his own 
prejudices. The last class is by no means a small one ; it is that of 
patients who suffer mentally ; this may simply be nervousness or 
absolute lack of intelligence. Many public speakers of a nervous 
disposition, who otherwise would be able to retain a set of teeth 
with comparative ease, find themselves unable to bowl out their 
impassioned oratory through an apparatus which is dependent on 
the unknown quantity of a power which their dentist lias mysteri- 
ously described as "suction." Want of faith. Quite so ; but you 



Specalize, but Dori 7 Grow Narrow. 257 

cannot make people swallow faith in "suction" in the same mannei 

as they bolt their aperieni pills. Again, in those of enfeebled 
intellect, either from old age or other causes, the value of springs 
has proved inestimable. You cannot argue with these people ; what 
you have to do is to place a denture in the mouth which has the 
physical power of remaining in its proper position without any 
assistance from the patient in the form of confidence, which 
unfortunately they are unable to provide. 

There is no part of mechanical dentistry which requires more 
accuracy and intelligence than the proper adjustment of springs. If 
we can do without them all the better for us and our patients ; but 
we should at all times be on the alert to discover those cases where 
their assistance is indicated as conducive to the comfort of the 
patient ; and having made up our minds as to the necessity of 
calling in their aid, it behooves us to apply those mechanical laws 
which govern their use, so as to secure the maximum of efficiency 
with the minimum of discomfort. — Dental Record. 



SPECALIZE, BUT DON'T GROW NARROW. 



To be a specialist in some department of microscopial science 
is almost necessary at the present time and will become still more 
essential with the advance sure to take place in the future. To be 
recognized as an authority in some department, by reason of the 
extent of one's information and original research, must be pleasant, 
however retiring the man may be, and however distrustful of his 
own ability. But the specialist has a tendency to guard against, 
that of becoming narrow and bigoted. 

In the cultivation of a single field to the entire exclusion of all 
others, he may gradually fail to see beauty or interest in the field 
of his neighbor just over the fence. * * * The histologist 
may look askance at the pathologist, and the pathologist may pass 
by on the other side when he sees the student of microscopical 
optics approaching. 

Much of this is apparent only, and is assumed as a part of that 
love of fun inherent in all Americans, and many similar remarks 
are simply the expressions of that kindliness which one microscopist 
always has for another, the kindliness that finds vent in a little 
sport at the other's expense, the thrust of a sharp edged witticism 
that is parried with a joke, and makes the friendship firmer. Yet, 
while this is true, there is doubtless a tendency for one specialist to 



258 The Odontographic Journal. 

decry the work and object of another. It may be repressed ; among 
strangers it usually is repressed, but the feeling exists and seems 
unavoidable. The probable cause is ignorance. The ignorant are 
always intolerant. No one is so zealous as the young convert, and no 
one so belligerant as the ignoramus. It is good to be a microscop- 
pical specialist. It is necessary. It cannot be avoided if the worker 
desires to do any original work. But in his own chosen field, which 
he may enclose within a high wall, if he wish, the specialist should 
somewhere erect a tower, so that when he thinks he has discovered 
the collar button of an archangel, he may ascend and glance into 
the domain of his neighbor to see what parts of the archangelic 
jewelry he may have found. It is possible that a little corner of the 
button may be broken off, and the neighbor may have discovered 
it, and may be willing to pass it over the fence with a smile and a 
compliment, if he is politetly asked, and the archangel's collar 
button be shown him graciously. A blessing will beget its kind. — 
Editorial, The Microscope. 

Apples for Brain Workers. — Apples contain a larger amount 
of phosphorus, or brain food, than any other fruit or vegetable, and 
on this account they are very important to sedentary men, who work 
their brains rather than their muscles. They also contain the acids 
which are needed every day, especially for sedentary men, the 
action of whose liver is sluggish, to eliminate effete matter, which, 
if retained in the system, produces inaction of the brain, and, 
indeed, of the whole system, causing jaundice, sleepiness, scurvy, 
and troublesome diseases of the skin. — Food. 



The Red Line Along the Gums. — Taking into consideration 
all the facts, I am forced to the conclusions : 

That while the original observer of the red line in phthisical 
patients was correct in observation, he was incorrect in his deduc- 
tions therefrom. The line itself is explicable on other and more 
reasonable grounds. A simple coincidence was mistaken for an 
iciated condition 

That the line is not a diagnostic sign of phthisis at all, but of 
a disease of the gums. 

That unfortunately one cannot diagnose a case of phthisis by an 
examination of the gums. 



Is Atmospheric Pressure a Myth ? 259 

That aside from tubercularrization, lead poisoning and scurvy a 
changed gum line, in the present state of our knowledge, is not 
diagnostic of phthisis, nor of ony other systemi< disease. 

That as a disease of the gums, the red line may be a local 
disease from neglect of the teeth, which may find a genuine predis- 
position in general connective-tissue relaxation. 

That the red lines along the gums, which can probably be found 
in any disease, gives rise to sufficient debility to cause a loss of the 
general tissne tone, if sustained long enough to allow of a deposition 
of dental debris between the gum edges and the teeth. 

That in cases of haemoptysis, where neither cardiac nor pul- 
monray lesions are discoverable by physical exploration, the gums 
should be examined. 

That the exact value of the red line along the gums as a diagnos- 
tic sign of phthisis is naught. 

That the red line is significant of disease of the gums, due to 
improper care of the teeth, excessive accummulation of tartar, or to 
general systemic tone-relaxation, of which the red line is simply a 
local manifestation. — Snader, in Hahn. Monthly. 



IS ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE A MYTH? 



The statement that two surfaces brought into absolute contact at 
every point will be held together with a force of fifteen pounds to 
the square inch, is accepted as an established fact. 

This is due to atmospheric pressure or the weight of a column of 
air one inch square. This pressure varies with the depth of the 
column ; at the level of the sea it is fifteen pounds to the square 
inch, as we rise from the level it decreases in regular proportion to 
the height ascended. In this way, by aid of the barometer, the 
aeronaut measures his distance from the earth when sailing among 
the clouds. 

The only difficulty in availing ourselves of the full force of this 
principle in sustaining artificial dentures, or for other purposes, is 
found in not perfectly excluding the air from between the surfaces 
in contact. 

A piece of dry leather cannot be pressed on the surface of a 
>ne so closely as to exclude the air, but when the leather is wet 



260 The Odontography Journal. 

and softened, and just enough moisture is left to fill the pores and 
exclude the air, a stone of considerable weight may be lifted by a 
string attached to the center of the leather. 

It may be asked how do we know that it is atmospheric pressure 
and not the adhesiveness of the water that maintains this contact 
between the leather and the stone. To one who is in doubt, we 
would suggest this experiment. 

Hang the stone and leather, as joined, in the receiver of an air 
pump, exhaust the air as perfectly as possible, if the stone remains 
attached to the leather, it will prove that Dr. Land is right, but if 
the stone falls when the air pressure is removed the proof is 
absolute that atmospheric pressure is the force that produces 
the effect. 

The dentist well knows that from various causes, unnecessary to 
enumerate here, he does not secure and maintain a perfect fit to 
the mouth, and various devices have been resorted to in order to 
compensate for this inaccuracy. 

Air-chambers or vacuum-plates, as designed by Dr. C. H. Land 
and others, are merely substitutes for perfectly fitting plates. Still 
acting on this belief that atmospheric pressure is the force w'e must 
rely upon, and knowing that if the air can be perfectly excluded 
from even a small area the plate will be retained, the air chamber, 
so called, is formed, and patients do learn to more or less perfectly 
exhaust the air from it, and it is not uncommon to find plates almost 
wholly depending upon this for support when there has been con- 
siderable absorption of the maxillary ridge. 

That moderately deep mouths with somewhat prominent ridges 
retain the plates better than the extremely flat ones is true, as the 
force to remove them is directly downward and against the sus- 
taining pressure. In very flat mouths there is but little to prevent 
a sliding or lateral motion which would be effected much easier. 

If w<- had a great weight to move we should find it much easier 
to slide it over a wet surface than to lift it. 

Dr. Land remarks that the tissues of the mouth are drawn into 
the vacuum so thai it SOOT! becomes useless. This is true and in 
connection with this fact there are two tilings to be considered ; 
first, that it is the pressure of the air that forces the tissues into the 
chamber, thereby proving that a vacuum has been established, and 
second, that by the time the tissues are forced into the vacuum the 



A New Optical Combination by Zeiss. 261 

plate has settled to the mouth and there is a better fit over the 
whole surface and the vacuum is no longer needed. 'This will not 
occur unless sufficient time lias been allowed for absorption before 
the impression is taken. 

When we are able to make perfectly fitting plates, vucuum 
chambers will not be necessary and I think we will still have to 
rely upon atmospheric pressure rather than the adhesiveness of 
saliva. — Nemo, Dental Review. 



To Cure a Black Eye. — There is nothing to compare with the 
tincture or a strong infusion of capsicum annum mixed with an 
equal bulk of mucilage of gum arabic, and with the addition of a 
few drops of glycerine. This should be painted all over the surface 
with a camel's-hair pencil and allowed to dry on, a second or third 
coating being applied as soon as the first is dry. If done as soon 
as the injury is inflicted, this treatment will invaribly prevent the 
blackening of the bruised tissue. The same remedy has no equal 
in rheumatic stiff neck. — St. Louis Polyclinic. 

A NEW OPTICAL COMBINATION BY ZEISS. 



In the last number (November) of the Journal ale Micrographie, 
Dr. H. Van Heurck describes a remarkable new optical combination 
recently made by Zeiss after the mathematical formulae of Professor 
Abbe. In August last the preliminary calculations were completed, 
and the construction of the apparatus was begun, the finishing 
touches having been applied so recently as the latter part of 
September. 

The objective is an apochromatic one-tenth. Its Numerical 
Aperture is 1.63, and its construction such that the whole of this 
enormus angle can be utilized. To accomplish this, however, 
certain conditions are imposed. 

1 st. The cover glass should have a refractive index of at 
least 1.6. 

2d. The object should be immersed in a medium with a 
refractive index of at least 1.6. 

3d. To utilize the entire aperture for oblique light, that is, to 

obtain from the objective all that it is capable of doing in the 

way of resolution, the slide should be of flint and have a 

refractive index of at least 1.6. 

1 



2<)2 The Odontographic Journal. 

All these demands have been complied with by MM. Zeiss, who 
have also constructed an eye-piece which corrects the last trace 
of chromatic aberration, and a condenser with the upper lens of 
flint, and by which is obtained that ultra-obliquity of light which 
the objective will receive. 

The advantages of the whole arrangement surpass every antic- 
ipation. With oblique light the entire valve of Amphipleura is 
resolved into beads, as sharply defined as is the resolution of 
Pleurosigma with the best objectives, yet these beads are much 
closer together than was supposed from the former incomplete 
resolutions, repeated measurements showing that Amphipleura has 
3600 transverse, and five thousand longitudinal striae to the milli- 
metre. It is therefore not surprising that the difficulty in demon- 
strating the beads has previously been so great. 

It is only for the resolution of these pearls that the objective 
demands oblique light. All other difficult tests, Vanheurckia 
crassinervis Breb. {JFrnstulia Saxonica), Surirella gemma, and even 
the tranverse striae of Amphipleura, are resolved by central (axial) 
illumination. An examination without the eye-piece shows eleven 
spectra, the five intermediate ones not having been previously seen. 

The few bacteria which have been observed have exhibited such 
details that it is probable that many bacteriological studies must be 
repeated. 

Photographs of Pleurosigma augulatum taken with the new objec- 
tive, show that its beads are not rounded but angular, and that 
there are details between them. These details are exceedingly 
curious anfj absolutely new ; there is a possibility, however, that 
they may be illusory. The best objectives have always resolved 
Pleurosigma augulatum into hexagons, but these, it was contended, 
are in reality rounded, their angular aspect being the result of 
of an optical illusion, the hexagons appearing because the beads 
were separated at intervals arranged according to three systems of 
lines, which intersected at an an angle of 6o°. 

\t present .only three of these marvellous objectives are in 
existent e. Two, one corrected for the continental short tube, the 
other for the English or long body, are in the possession of Dr. 
Van Heurck ; the third lias just been delivered to Dr. Koch, of 
Berlin, from whom the most valuable bacteriological observations 
may be expected. The price of the combination is ten thousand 
francs, or about two thousand dollars 



Succedaneous Teeth . 

The results obtained from this new apparatus are a merited 
reward for the long labors in theoretical microscopy of the 
illustrious Abbe who, for fifteen years, has so successfully served 
the instrument in many ways, and with indefatigable patience, and 
who has now realized all that theory demands. 

Dr. Carl Zeiss and his son Dr. Roderich Zeiss, who have so ably 
assisted their learned fellow-laborer, likewise merit every com- 
mendation. The three together have done more for microscopy 
in the last fifteen years than was done by others in the whole 
preceeding half-century. — The Microscope. 



Dosage. — For children the following rule (Young's) will be 
found the most convenient. Add 12 to the age, and divide by 
the age, to get the denominator of the fraction, the numerator of 
which is 1. Thus, for a child two years old, —j— - 1 and the dose 
is one-seventh of that for an adult. Of powerful narcotics scarcely 
more than one-half of this proportion should be used. Of mild 
cathartics, two or even three times the proportion may be employed. 

For Hypodermic Injection, the dose should be three-fourths 
of that used by the mouth ; by rectum five-fourths of the same. 



SUCCEDANEOUS TEETH. 



Jn describing the physiological and anatomical relations of the 
first and second series of teeth in the human subject at the Odonto- 
logical Society of Chicago, at the October meeting, I applied the 
word "succedaneous" to the twenty permanent anterior teeth, 
because they succeed the twenty deciduous teeth of childhood, and 
to distinguish them in their relations to the deciduous series from 
the twelve permanent molars that have no predecessors. The word 
succedaneous has no reference to the form of the teeth, but to the relation 
they bear to the deciduous series in time and space. We would not say 
a succedaneous molar, for there is no such molar. The teeth that 
succeed the deciduous molars are bicuspids. On the other hand, 
permanent central or lateral incisors or canines would be correct ; 
but permanent bicuspids would not be correct, as there are no 
deciduous bicuspids to call for such distinction, yet the bicuspids 
belong to the succedaneous teeth. 



264 The Odontography Journal. 

When a deciduous tooth is removed by the physiological process 
of exuviation, the succeeding tooth is not disturbed in its develop- 
ment ; but if a deciduous tooth is removed by the pathological 
process of exfoliation, the succeeding tooth may suffer in conse- 
quence, hence I was very explicit in drawing the distinction between 
exfoliation and exuviation in my address before the society, for I 
used these words in preference to the much abused word absorption, 
which would be meaningless in this connection. If a speaker in a 
dental society should have occasion to use these terms he will use 
them as I have or they will be unintelligible. — Patrick, Southern 
Dental Journal. 



The antiseptic value of a drug is best expressed by its range of 
effective work This range of value is found in the difference 
between the saturated solution, or that concentration that may be 
found injurious to the tissues, and the greatest dilution that inhibits 
the development of micro-organisms. Those essential oils that are 
not too irritating have an extension of range in their use in emulsion, 
or in substance. Also many drugs have, in greater dilution than 
that which actually inhibits, a range of restraint that is useful. — 
Black. 



Conductors 1 Department, 



STATE ENGINEER BOGART'S LETTER. 



In a letter to this journal on the American Dental Association 
(page 163, October issue), 'T. J." writes as follows : " The subject 
(Dr. Talbot's) was a profound one, and there should have been a 
synopsis made in advance and furnished to the members, and this 
should be done with all papers when possible. By the adoption of 
t'n is law the discussions will be worthy of the name. It is idle to 
expect a man can do himself or the subject justice with no time for 
reflection, much less study." Acting on this suggestion, and know- 
ing something b) hearsay of the American Society of Civil En- 
gineers — ;i body at once unique as to membership numerically, the 
( hara< ter and intelligence of that membership, the possession of a 



Conductor ' 's /)r/>tf i tm nil. 

permanent home, and the liberal management of its handsome 
property and income — and desiring something official in regard to the 
presentation of papers at its monthly and other meetings, we applied 
to Secretary Bogart (through a mutual friend, Mr. Rafter, a member 
of the society), for the desired information, and have the satisfaction 
of laving before our readers a letter of unusual interest on a subject 
of vital importance to every dental society having scientific preten- 
tions to the presentation and intelligent discussion of the chief 
thing for which it has any right to exist. We commend it to our 
readers, every one of whom, let us hope, is a dental society man 
and interested in at least one such organization. 



MICRO-ORGANISMS TOO MUCH FOR OUR TRANS- 
LATOR. 



O Henle, Henle, this is too much ! It must be characterized as a 
base attempt at heartless imposition upon the too confiding credulity 
of an unprotected female. Was not that fable of yours about glands 
under the edge of the gum sufficiently shocking (and it isn't true, for 
I can't find any) to a refined sensibilitv, without this horrible asser- 
tion that we have flourishing aquariums and manageries and fern- 
eries in our mouths ? Must we regard our dentures then, as picket 
fences, so to speak, around our private personal individual zoologi- 
cal gardens ? I refuse to believe it — and Henle, I take occasion to 
add, right here, that if such were the flora and fauna of your buccal 
cavity, I no longer regret that I never had the pleasure of your ac- 
quaintance, and I cant believe, Henle, that you habitually brought 
into requisition your — ahem ! — tooth brush, with that frequency and 
thoroughness which a strictly fastidious sense of the fitness of things 
demands. 



FOUR SOCIETIES MEET. 



At Elmira, October 29th, 30th and 31st, the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th 
-<>< it*ties held a union meeting, which was very largely attended, not 
only by the members themselves, but guests from other parts of this 
and the adjoining State of Pennsylvania. In fact, the attendance 



266 The Odontographic Journal. 

from the western half of the latter State was not only large but 
representative, every man of them of reputation as dentists and 
dental society men, Drs. Beck and Templeton heading the list. 

The papers were many, interesting and profitable, and provoked 
discussion in which nearly all present took part. The clinics were 
up to the standard, and the exhibits of instruments, appliances and 
materials as large, varied and fine as on former occasions. 

The banquet brought together men of medicine, law, theology, 
journalism and other callings, and those in attendance enjoyed a 
treat in the ripe and ready wit of the several speakers. The toast- 
master, Dr. Darby, took occasion in introducing each speaker to 
touch off one or more of his little peculiarities; but when the speaker 
turned on the toastmaster, the laugh was on the other side, to the 
amusement of his fellow members and associates. 

Dr. Jewell, as chairman of the business committee, and Dr. 
Darby, of the committee of arrangements, did their work thoroughly 
and well, and with the co-operation of others of the 6th society 
scored a grand success. 

The next union meeting will be held at Rochester, the last 
Tuesday in October, 1890. 



''INCONSISTENCY." 



On another page we reproduce from the Ohio Journal an article 
bearing the above heading, in the course of which the writer carries 
the idea that he has something to say that the dental profession 
generally, and in New York State particularly, ought to know in 
regard to the " ' M. D. S.,' which stands as a blotch on the fame of 
every worthy dentist." He assures the reader that he could give it 
in full: and tor the lite of us we fail to see why the reader should be 
deprived of this valuable information. Some of those who were 
"in," .is the writer says he was, "at the first inning of this society 
(New York)," are dead, others arc not likely to be with us many 
years to come, and it is no more than right that this "old sore," as 
lie Styles it, on the New York l>od\ dental should be probed to the 
bottom opened u\> to every one who would see — opened up now, 
and while those ,ili\c are not only willing, but anxious to take a turn 



Conductors Department. 267 

at the job, and a hand in the fight. It will not do to peep here and 
there, assuring the reader that one knows if he would only tell. He 
must make specific charges, and be prepared to stand by them. 11 
the author of the article in question will do this, the journal pub- 
lishing the discussion will find itself supplying its readers with 
entertainment rich and racy to the last degree. By all means, let us 
have it. 

WHAT DOES HE MEAN ? 



The editor (or one of 'em) of the Western says to the editor of 
the Cosmos — " we suggest Line, of the Odontography, or Catching, 
of the Southern. They'll fight." 

We've been sizing up Editor Catching's picture in Items of In- 
terest, and if we get his proportions correctly, we'll not fight. We're 
not built on that model ; and yet, if he'll knock a chip from our 
shoulder, we'll — Run. "Tail-holt or nothing" is the motto on our 
coat of arms. 



'SASS OR 'SAW. 



A Kansas feller with a vest pocket appointment-book says in the 
current Dental Advertiser that he can't see the joke. Nor we ; but 
now we know from whence. This is the same man who forbids incan- 
tations in fishing parties that he elects himself to engineer, and then 
when members' backs are turned spits on his bait and hooks the fish, 
kettle and all. We'll have no more to do with him. 



FIRST DISTRICT ANNIVERSARY 



The 21st anniversary of this society, local in name but national in 
character, was held the 14th, 15th and i6th, in the Masonic Temple, 
New York, Dr. Northrup in the chair. The programme called for 
prayer by Rev. Dr. Backus, an address of welcome by Dr. Northrup, 
a response by Dr. Foster, president of the American Dental Associ- 
ation, papers by Drs. Crouse, Talbot, Darby (E. T.), Kirk and 
Allen (Geo. S.). The attendance was large, and included repre- 
sentatives from points in the extreme South (Georgia and Alabama), 
and of course, Chicago and St. Louis, West. 



The Odontographic Journal. 

Two half days were devoted to clinics at the New York College 
of Dentistry. Dr. Case, of Jackson, Mich., demonstrated the 
making of the Angle regulating implements and their applications. 
Dr. Gish, of the same place, demonstrated the use of electricity in 
pyorrhoea, also controlling the current from incandescent light 
circuits through the exhibitor's ideal rheostat. Dr. Campbell, of 
London, exhibited his pivotal engine and model laboratory. Dr. 
E. Parmley Brown baked and made cases of porcelain bridge-work, 
and through the kindness of a lady patient, showed three pieces of 
this beautiful work in the upper jaw. Dr. Harlan demonstrated the 
action of coagulants on albumen. Others to the number of thirty 
or more exhibited instruments, appliances, and specimens of artistic 
dentistry, and demonstrated their uses in the operating room, 
laboratory and oral cavity. The successful management of the 
meeting fell to Dr. Walker, of the executive committee, I >r. 
Jackson, of the committee on clinics, and Dr. Crowley, of the 
passenger committee. 



GERMAN (HENLE) AS SHE IS LITERALLY TRANS 

LATE. 



— "Each papilla sits with her base at the bottom of the sacklet firm, 
and towers with her peaks in the 13th week, already to the opening 
of the sacklet above, as one in near-standing long-through-cuts of 
the jaw sees, where the tooth-papillae, through the same treading 
vessel-twigs, out-drawn are." 

"At each tooth-baglet comes a twig of the arteria dentalis. He 
spreads himself to the part exterior at the same, and anastomos 
with branches that out of the tooth-flesh arrive ; out from the net 
depart boughs through the wall of the tooth-baglet, as far as its inside 
outer-surface. The head-branches of the arteria dentalis go at the 
tooth-pulps and build in her a plexus. The enamel-skin is vessel- 
less. Also, the outer layer of the tooth-baglet becomes all b\ 
degrees Steadfaster, poorer at vessels, and builds herself at the 

periostem of the alveolus out, or melts together with him, and now 
lies in the shut-U] 



"By the <ut-teeth of the gnawers, the corner-teeth of main 
pachyderms, and the back-teeth of the again-chew ers, who, how 



Correspondence 269 

already mentioned was, also after the hereforth breaking at grow 
go-on-with, leaves the enamel membrane not so sudden at the root 
off, but stretches herself in the tooth-hole within, ossifies ever to the 
out, and waxes from the inward forth tooth-sacklet, from of it the 
bottom upheaving, the tooth-bud, who in the meanwhile fitting. close 
the form of the artful tooth-crown taken has, and at the back-teeth 
even so many spikes points out, as the ripe tooth." 



Dr. Jameson, of Lyons, this state, for many years an active and 
highly esteemed member and officer of the Seventh Society, died a 
few days since of heart disease. Trouble comes to some men early 
and shadows them to the grave ; but no murmer escapes the man 
capable of bearing a sorrow. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



LETTER FROM STATE ENGINEER JOHN BOGART, ESQ. 



American Society of Civil Engineers, 
127 East Twenty-third St. 

New York, December 3d, 1889. 
Dr. J. Edw. Line, Rochester ■, N. Y.: 

Dear Sir: — I am asked by Mr. George W. Rafter, member of 
this Society, to tell you the method followed in the editing and 
presentation of papers before this Society, and I take pleasure in 
doing so. 

The secretary of the Society is the editor of its publications. 
The committee on publications consists of three members of the 
Board of Directors, and this committee is appointed yearly ; gen- 
erally, however, the endeavor is made to have one or more members 
of the committee serve more than one term. The secretary of the 
Society, by correspondence and personal interviews, endeavors to 
secure papers of professional interest from persons who have the 



2 ;o The Odontogrhphic Journal. 

information which it is considered desirable to present ; and the 
presentation of papers is not limited to members of the Society, but 
all suitable papers are welcomed. 

When a paper is presented it is examined by the secretary as 
editor, with reference to the desirability of its presentation and 
publication. In accordance with the law, all papers containing old 
matter, or matter readily found elsewhere, those plainly intended to 
advocate personal interests, and those not properly written must be 
amended, or they are not accepted. Some papers are accepted for 
reading before the Society, but they are not necessarily published in 
the transactions. At each stage in the consideration of the paper 
the editor can consult with the committee on publication, and he 
does so when any question, except those of ordinary routine, occurs; 
this is done in order that the official action may be complete and 
carefully considered. 

When a paper is finally in shape for presentation, a time is fixed 
for its reading at a meeting of the Society, and if the author has 
presented it so that there is time to do so, it is set up and issued in 
advance form to such selected engineers as are thought by the 
author or editor to be apt to discuss the particular subject treated 
by the paper. 

I send you herewith a copy of a paper in this advance form ; you 
will notice the heading printed upon it. It is considered proper, as 
is there stated, that the author should have the opportunity for a 
final revision of the paper. 

In the case of important papers a letter is sent out with the 
advance copies, particularly inviting discussion, and the day of the 
presentation of the paper is announced as much beforehand as cir- 
cumstances will permit. At the meeting at which the paper is 
presented, written discussions which may have been received are 
also read, and the subject is discussed by the persons present who 
care to take part in the discussion. This discussion is taken down 
stenographically, and is sent to the persons so discussing for 
revision ; finally all discussions are sent to the author of the paper, 
who has the right to finally close the discussion with such remarks 
as he may deem proper. The paper is then issued in one <>t" the 
regular numbers of the Transactions, a <<>p\ of" which I take pleas- 
ure in mailing you. 

We give to the author of a paper twenty-five copies of his paper 
with tlie discussions upon it, without charge, and we also give him 



Dental Section Tenth International Medical Congress. 271 

as many more extra copies as he desires at the COBl of printing and 

stitching, provided only that he orders the extra copies before the 

publication of the paper. 

I send you a copy of a paper and discussions ; this you will see 
is printed from the regular forms used for the regular Transactions. 
We formerly re-paged these extras, but we found that the retention 
of the paging of the Transactions was more satisfactory, as refer- 
ences to papers are made always to such paging. The cover which 
is upon these extra copies is an extra charge, amounting to about 
one cent for each cover. 

With most papers the editing is a matter of no great difficulty, 
but as you may imagine, cases occur occasionally which require the 
exercise of much discretion, and in such cases the editor always 
formally and in writing refers the matter to the publication com- 
mittee, giving the committee a full statement of the circumstances, 
including also any confidential matter that may affect the question ; 
this is always done in writing, and is made a matter of record for 
the protection of the editor, and of the committee, as well as the 
author. Cases occur at times wherein authors speak improperly as 
to other engineers, and in a manner which we do not consider 
suitable for publication ; in such cases the editor corresponds with 
all parties affected, and the paper is finally modified by the author 
in accordance with suggestions made by the committee or, it may be, 
is declined. 

Should you desire further information, I will be glad to give it 
to you. 

Very truly yours, John Bog art, 

Secretary Am. Soc. C. E. 



CONCERNING THE DENTAL SECTION OF THE TENTH 
INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL CONGRESS. 



In response to a call of the organizing committee (Professors 
Virchow, von Bergmann and Waldeyer) fifty delegates from the 
various universities and medical societies of Germany met in Hei- 
delberg on the 17th of September, 1888, to take steps in the organ- 
ization of the congress. At the meeting it was decided that the 
congress should be held in Berlin, beginning August 4th and closing 
August 10th, 1890. 



-7 ~ The Odontographic Journal. 

An organizing committee consisting of Profs. Drs. Virchow, von 
Bergmann, Leyden and Waldeyer, was elected and a general secre- 
tary. Dr. Lassar, appointed. 

Eighteen sections, including Dental Surgery, were organized, each 
with a special committee of nine members. 

An international medico-scientific exhibition is to be connected 
with the congress. Statutes and programme were adopted, which 
will be given in as far as they particularly concern the dental section. 

Art. II. "The congress consists of physicians (approbirten 
Aerzten) who have registered their names and obtained their mem- 
bership cards. Other savants who are interested in the work of the 
congress may be admitted as extraordinary members." 

The delegates did not see fit to change this article so as to include 
dental surgeons, but decided that the article should be so interpreted 
as to admit dentists to membership. Since the meeting at Heidel- 
berg the question has been raised whether dentists resident in 
Germany, but not possessing the German dental approbation 
(degree) could be admitted to membership. Regarding this point 
the Chairman of the Committee of Organization decided that only 
those who possess the recognized degree of that country of which 
they are citizens may be admitted to membership. 

A German citizen holding only an American or Swiss degree is, 
therefore, not entitled to membership, no more is an American or 
English citizen not possessing the degree of his own country ; on 
the other hand, foreign citizens practicing in Germany are admitted 
without the German degree, provided they have the degree of their 
own country. 

Members pay a fee of twenty marks and receive a copy of the 
transactions. 

Art. III. " The object of the congress is exclusively scientific." 
Art. X. "All lectures and communications in the general sit- 
tings, or in those of the sections, must be handed, in writing, to the 
Secretary before the close of the sitting. The editorial committee 
decides whether, or in what part, such communications shall be 
included in the published transactions." 

Art XI. ' The official languages of all sittings are German, En- 
glish and French. Very short remarks may be made in other 
languages, provided some member is prepared to translate them into 
one of the official languages." 



2)ental Section Tenth international Medical Congress. 273 

Art. XII. " Lectures are, as a rule, to be limited to twent) 

minutes ; discussional remarks to ten minutes." 

Art. XIV. "Students of medicine and other persons, gentlemen 
and ladies who are not physicians but are interested in the proceed- 
ings of any particular session, may be invited by the President of 
that session, or, on application, receive permission to attend as 
auditors. There are to be no Vice-Presidents associated with the 
congress; but each section is empowered to elect a limited number 
of Honorary Presidents, and a Secretary for each of the official 
languages." 

The committee of the dental section is composed of as follows : 
Busch, Berlin, Chairman ; Calais, Hamburg ; Hesse, Leipzig ; 
Fricke, Kiel ; Hollander, Hulle ; Miller, Berlin ; Partsch, Breslau ; 
Sauer, Berlin ; Weil, Munich. 

At a meeting of this committee held on the 16th October, 1889, it 
was decided that the hours from 9 to 12 a. m. should be devoted to 
practical demonstrations in the rooms of the dental institute, the 
demonstrations to consist of operations in filling, extraction, and in 
mechanical dentistry ; in short, operations in all branches of oper- 
ative and mechanical dentistry. Demonstrations in extraction and 
artificial work are to be under the direction of Prof. Busch ; those 
in filling under that of Prof. Miller. The theoretical exercises are 
to be held from 2 to 5. They will consist of the usual essays or 
lectures, and the accompanying discussions ; besides these, three 
subjects for general discussion are to be chosen, one to be intro- 
duced in the German language, (on bromide of ethyl, by Prof. Dr. 
Hollander,) one in the English, and one in the French language. 

Those desiring to deliver lectures or read essays on particular 
subjects, are requested to send in, along with their announcement, a 
very short resume of the contents of the same. Correspondence in 
German language to be directed to Prof. Dr. Busch, chairman, 
Dorotheen Str., 40, Berlin ; in French language to Dr. Calais, 
Hohenbleichen 17, Hamburg; in English to Prof. Dr Miller, Voss 
Str. 32, Berlin. In America, Drs. Barrett and Taft. Great Britain, 
Mr. J. H. Mummery, M. R. C. S., &c, and Mr. W. Bowman 
Macleod, F. R. S. E., &c, have, on invitation by the committee, 
expressed their willingness to act in the capacity of honorary 
presidents. 



274 ^h ( ' Odontographic Journal. 

\ fuller report of the steps taken in the organization of the 
congress up to end of October, is given by Prof. Busch in Verhand- 
lungen der deutschen odontologischen Gesellschaft, Heft 2. 

Dr. R. R. Andrews has been made Honorable Secretary for 
America. 

W. D. Miller, Berlin. 



INTERNATIONAL DENTAL CONGRESS, 1892. 



At the nineteenth semi-annual meeting of the New Jersey State 
Dental Society, held at the office of Dr. S. C. G. Watkins, Montclair, 
N. J., Saturday, January nth, the following resolution was adopted : 

" Deeming it fitting, and the proper time for holding an Interna- 
national Dental Congress in the year 1892, the New Jersey State 
Dental Society has appointed a committee to act in co-operation 
with like committees from other dental societies throughout the 
United States. They would request your society to appoint a 
committee to meet with them at the Hoffman House, New York, on 
Tuesday afternoon, April 8th, to formulate plans for the holding of 
the First International Dental Congress." 

The New Jersey Society trusts that this will meet with the 
approval of other societies, and that their respective executive com- 
mittees will appoint delegates at once. The call is signed by the 
president, Dr. Watkins, and fellow officers, also eleven members. 



PELLETS. 



Dr. J. E. Cravens has gone to Paris as associate of Dr. E. A. Bogue. 



" He that bloweth not his own horn, the same will not be tooted." 



A majority of dentists' patients are said to be groan people. 



To our Exchanges. — Mail direct to 39 State street. 



The Boston Dental College is the subject of a two column notice, 

with illustrations, in the Boston Herald ioi December 28th. 



Pellets. 275 

Keep your rubber dam dark and damp. 



"Organic and ^//organic, sir, when you speak of the acids, /nor- 
ganic is out." 



In a note in the December Southern, Dr. Arrington recommends 
beeswax as the best material ever used for filling roots. 



Dr. Brophy, of Chicago, is in California for his health. May he 
return with lots of it. 



Dr. Rice says, in the Practical Dentist, that a piece of resin held 
against the engine belt will prevent slipping of the same. 



According to Prof. Whelpley, slides and covers that have long 
been in use may be made as good as new by a few days immersion 
in equal parts of alcohol, oil of turpentine, coal oil and benzol. 



Editor Welch's gallery of beauties grows apace. Dr. Cravens 
smiles on the readers of the November number, while Prof. Gorgas 
looks straight away in the number following. 



Chicago dentists' subscription for the fair will not be wanted this 
time. Salt it down, brethren, and come to New York in '92 and 
have a- good time. 



The International accuses the Cosmos of perpetrating two jokes in 
the editorial columns, or rather " reperping" them, as they are 
spoken of as " stale." 



Ohio's Seventh District Dental Society has its oar in, and to all 
appearances, for a long pull. The Dental Register for November is 
full of it. 



Masonic Temple grand lodge room is a poor place for a dental 
meeting. In the first place, it is too large for any possible dental 
gathering, and worse still, the acoustics of the place are most 
wretched. 



2 j 6 The Odontographic Journal. 

The Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Company's list of "Chemists' 
laboratory apparatus" is a very handy book to have by one. Forty- 
four pages, fully illustrated. 



The Bausch & Lomb Optical Company have issued a new edition 
of their fully illustrated catalogue of microscopes, stands, objectives 
and other ac< essories. 



Prof. S. B. Howell, of the Philadelphia Dental College, has re- 
signed from the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania. Prof. 
E. D. Cope succeeds him. 



According to Dr. Gramm {Archives), displacement by borax of 
small pieces of gold plate, solder, etc., while soldering, may be pre- 
vented by mixing in a little gum arabic. 



What has become of the Taggert suspension engine, exhibited at 
Chicago last February ? One is wanted clown this way, unless a 
better has come to light since. 



Editor Catching refuses to be held responsible for all errors 
appearing in the Southern. He can't read everything (we have his 
own word for it), likewise his printer. His correspondents are 
therefore cautioned to write as we do — copperplate. 



Annual of the Universal Medical Sciences, 1888, for sale. — The 
above (a series of five volumes,) cost us in cold cash twenty good 
dollars. It is for sale, undisturbed in its original box, for $10.00 
cash, likewise cold. Address this journal. 



San Francisco has a Chinese physician, Li Po Tai, whose pro- 
fessional income is stated to be S6,ooo per month. He has been 
established in that city for thirty years. — Medical Record. Again, 
the Chinese must \ 



According i<> Prof. Griv, the eminent Italian physicist, the com- 
pound microscope ("consisting <>t several lenses, or a suitable 
combination of lenses or mirrors," as distinguished from an instru- 
ment "consisting ol .1 single lens or mirror") was invented by Galileo 

m i^> jo. 



r filets. 277 

Professor Behrend, an English medical authority, points out that 
in a practice of thirty years, largely among Jewish patients, he has 
not met a single case of phthisis in the members of that faith, then 
immunity from its attacks being undoubtedly due to the Hebrew 
method of examining and slaughtering cattle. 



I >r. Bergtold, of Buffalo, begins a series of papers on elementary 
bacteriology in The Microscope soon. This periodical, by the way, 
is now edited by Dr. A. C. Stokes, of Trenton, N. J., a man whose 
standing in the scientific world gives character to anything in 
connection with which his name appears. 



The Italian statistician, Signor Bodie, has published some figures 
showing that ten per cent of all infants in Europe die within the 
first month, twenty per cent before the end of the first year, and 
thirty-three per cent of the remainder during the first five years. 
Hardly seven children out of ten reach the completion of their 
sixth year. 



For intelligent discussion of a non-dental subject by a dental 
society, the reader is referred to the International for December. 
Dr. Roberts " Study of Electricity " found an appreciative body in 
the Pennsylvania society, and the discussion, while by no means 
exhaustive, was extremely suggestive. Who says we are not a 
learned profession — or about to become one ? 



In the direction of reproducing the colors of nature themselves by 
photographic means, nothing has yet been accomplished beyond the 
plan of obtaining a set of negatives of a view representing the three 
primary colors — blue, yellow and red — with a fourth in black, to 
supply outlines and deficiencies, and combining these by super- 
imposed printings so as to get an approximation to natural tints. — 
The Photographer. 



Dr. Walker introduced a novelty at the November meeting of the 
First District Society, in the form of a phonogramic communication 
from Dr. Faught, of Philadelphia, entitled, " Some Notes on Meth- 
ods of Practice," also discussions by Drs. Truman, Guilford and 
others. The machine was read to and talked at in Philadelphia and 
the contents ground out in New York. Talk about enterprise. " Our 
Walker" never fails to get there. 



2 78 The Odontographic Journal. 

The Hayden Dental Society was organized and incorporated 

under the laws of Illinois, August 3rd, 1889. The object of the 
socictv is the professional and social improvement of its members. 
Meetings will be held in Chicago, the third Monday ot each 
month (except July and August). The following are the 
officers: President, Louis Ottofy ; Vice Pies., A. W. Freeman; 
Secretary, A. J. Oakey ; Directors, J. \V. Rogers, J. L. Ubellar, 
H. P. Smith. 



The Johns Hopkins Hospital is found to be a not unmixed 
blessing to the medical profession of Baltimore. The Maryland 
Medical Journal says that, in the last six months, five thousand 
dispensary patients have been treated there, and that these consist 
largely of persons who used to go to a physician. Much the same 
kind of story is told by physicians of this city, regarding the Yan- 
derbilt and the Presbyterian Dispensaries. — Medical Record. 



Books, Pamphlets, Etc, 



Address Before the Massachusetts Dental Society. By Dr. 
Dwight M. Clapp, of Boston. 
An effort both able and eloquent. 

A.NALES DE I. A SOCIEDAD < )DONTOLOGICA DE LA HaBANA. 

The October and November issues have come, the first dental 
journal we have seen in Spanish since El Progresso Dental, in '84. 

It goes on our exchange list forthwith. 

Guilford's "Orthodontia," and Evens' "Crown and Bridge- 
work" in our next. 



This book must be returned to 
the Dental Library by the last 
date stamped below. It may 

be renewed if there is no 
reservation for it. 



270 11 61 



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