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6000941 16Q 











VOL. I. 


Alcidamas apnd Aristot. lihet. iii, 3, 4. 





2^2, e. 1^2^^ 




p. xxxiii 1. 2 omit 'Miad". 

p. xciv 1. 4 omit **same" before book. 

p. xcvi 1. I for "naure'' read ** nature". 

p. 20 note on a. 268 — 9 for "IJuttman's" read ,^Buttmann*s" and so in a few 

other places, 
p. XXII footnote * for '* there" read '*tho'\ 
p. XXV, 12 1. 7 for epicene read „epice com.", i. e. common, 
p. XXVIII footnote * for "scens" read „ seems", 
p. LII 1. 21 for "caplains" read *' explains'*, 
p. LV 1. 32 for "Top." read ''Geogr.'\ 
p. LXVI 1. 5 from bott. for (i) read (2). 
p. LXIX 1. 4 from bott. of text omit. **to" before **lier'\ 
p. LXXIX 1. 12 from bott. of text for "bad" read **had". 
p. LXXXIII note * for "from" read "form", 
p. LXXXIV 1. 16 from bott. for "become" read "became", 
p. LXXXV 1. 6 from bott. after "without" omit the (,). 
p. XCIII 1. 6 for "alliegance" read "allegiance", 
p. XCIV 1. 14 at end omit "to". 

1>. rXV 1. 12 from bott. of text for "fpstftov" read " fpfTftdv." 
p. CXX 1. 13 for "trambles" read "brambles". 

Notice omitted on p. xciv, :it end of § LXXXIII of preface: 

"The words in spaced type in the Greek Text are the 3na^ sigrifisva. A 
list of such is found in FriodlHnder II., with which Bekker's annotatio at the 
<uid of his Odyssey, and the words marked in ('nisius' Le'xicon have been 



Est llomcrus Grnccorum. scriptorum muUo ct iarillimus ct difficillinms : raciUimus delectari 
cupicnlibus, dirricillinms inquirontibus vcl in dictionem ejus, vel in res quas comnipuiorat, vcl in 
carminum ipsorum origrinem ot compositioncm. Hermann Opusc. Ill, ptafat, ad Horn. It, 

I. Whoever believes that "God hath made of one '^*»« "^^^^ 

1 1 1 11 . t* til /» 1 1 11 • ^^^^ inlelleclual 

blood all nations ot men", will teel that they have m claims of iiqmer 
the ffcnius of Homer a common beritaffe and a perpetual '*i'P'''^^ powerfui- 

. __. , 1 1 : 1 1 1 ly lo Iho leeling-s 

Witness, ills moral standard is beyond compare the and taste or the 
highest with which the poetry of the heathen world »"''^*^"* '^8^«* 
supplies us, and it is inseparably connected with the 
awe(i) of God. We find in the poet a moral sense pene- 
trated by the consciousness of responsibility and by the 
apprehension of retribution, but not benumbed by any 
overruling agency, coercive from without, to evacuate 
the will of its freedom. We see in him a pure theistic 
conception, struggling for the mastery with the grosser 
genius of mythology and polytheism — the Deus against 
the Zeus ; but as regards humanity, he teems with testi- 
mony to what in it is good and true as its proper nature, 
in contrast with whatever embases and corinipts it. The 
heroism not only of action but of suffering, and not the 

1 i}^ tpiXo^Bi^voi^ %al atpiv voog ^axl ^BovSri^^ f. 121 (soe note there) 1. 176; cf. 
itQOQ y&Q diog bUiv Snavtcg ^bivol re ttto^o/ re, f. 207 — 8. J. 57 — 8 ; Zsvg S* ini- 
Ti(ii^t(OQ t^Btdrnv ts ^B^vonv Tfi, I. 270. oV d* cK^fl Povlovto &sol ^Bfiviia&oci 
iq>et(iimVf d. 353, where see note; nccvTBg d\ d'emv jjcfr^ovcr* avd'QODnoty y. 48. 
See also the description of an upright king as deovdijg, r. 109 foil. Many other 
passages may be found in NHgelsbach, V., die praktische Gotteserkenntniss. 

UOM. 02). I. /^ 


PART I sterner virtues only but the gentler ones, are imaged in 
his verse; and in spite of the light account made of 
rapine and homicide, there is not an ancient and scarce 
a modem writer who contjj-ins so little to revolt the 
most refined moral sentiment, and so much to gratify 
the ideal not only of beauty but of goodness, as this 
the earliest of all. As regards matters of delicacy, 
we apologize to modem ears for Shakspeare, on the 
score of the fault of his age, on a moderate computation 
five hundred times at least for once that such an apology 
is needed for Homer. Nor is the intellectual value of 
Homer of less account than the moral splendour of his 
song. It is even more cognizable in this age than in any 
previous one. The older the world grows, the keener is 
the sense of invigorating freshness with which we recur 
to the pure simplicity of the hero-dream of its youth ; 
and re-ascend the epic heights as to a patch of primeval 
forest, still left on some mountain top, towering above 
the sheep-walks and stubble of civilization and modern- j 

ism. . I 

The present es- n. Amoug the vast uumbcr of questions of first-rate i 

say is limiled as.^ .i.i.n ^ t/»//. i. 

regards its scope mtcrcst, which ansc irom the study oi ^Uhe poet", as his | 

to certain ques- earlier commontators loved xar' iioyrjv to call him, I 

tions only, but , , , ,. « a/ i ? 

they include from shall uot attempt to discuss any save those connected , 

the necessity of ^ith the text and its authorship, and with the latter only i 

the case the Iliad « . , i • i i i t i 

as well as the SO tar as it IS connccted with the language and substance | 

Odyssey; ^f ^he pocm. It is , howcvor, impossible to deal with | 

Homer by halves. Were I less convinced than I am of | 

the unity of authorship (reserving of course questions of I 

particular passages) pervading the Iliad and the Odyssey, 
still, the extent to which all the greater critical or ethical 
questions started in either poem tend to run into the 
other, would require a general survey of the whole Ho- 
meric ground. Those who hold the opposite persuasion 
will at any rate allow that the two poems stand so far on 
the same ground as regards language and subject matter, 
that the same enquiry may include them. This consider- 
ation may, I hope, have the effect of rendering this 
volume serviceable for general Homeric study, as well 
as for the particular portion of the Odyssey which it 


contaixis; and may thus make some amends for the ex- part i 
tent to which its bulk has swelled. 

III. But the Odyssey has special claims of its own on the "^^^^^ latter, 

student of quaestiones Homericae which have been most re- cUims of nL own 

cently acknowledged by Mr. Qrote (a) and Dr. Friedlftnder. »"»'"ff '~"» **»® 

_ •' . - ^ •^ 11 1 1 1 11 larg-er intermix- 

Its estimate has been generally lowered through the tra- mre of fcmai* 
ditional precedence of the Iliad, to an extent not warranted character and of 

..1 T 1 111 .. t* ii» marvellous ad- 

on critical grounds, and probably arising from the bias, venture 
naturally powerful with scholars, derived from the judg- 
ment of antiquity. But if it were possible for Greek ever 
to become so current among us as for Homer to appeal 
to the heart of the people in his native tongue, I am per- 
suaded that this preference would disappear, even if it 
were not reversed. I will touch on one ground only for 
this opinion, the perfection, viz. of Homer's female 
characters , and the balance which in the Odyssey only 
they are found to maintain. Every woman's ideal of her 
own sex would be ennobled by the power to trace for 
herself the character of Penelopd in its original lines. 
But apart from this, the versatility of the narrative of the 
Odyssey has enabled it to exercise a perceptible influence 
over adventurous fiction ever since; and in a wider ra- 
dius still Penelopfe's web, Calyps6's wiles, Scylla and 
Chary bdis, the Sirens' song, the cup of Circfe, and the 
transformations of Proteus , have passed into the imagi- 
nation of all civilized nations, and won for themselves a 
second life in proverbs , while Polyphemus has become 
the type of a wide family of truculent and witless ogres. 

a Ab that its structure boing^ essentially one, and such as could not have been 
pieced together out of any pre-existing epics, goes far to exclude the Wolfian 
hypothesis; and that the natural process would be, first to study the simpler 
of the two poems (the Odyssey), and then to apply the conclusions thence 
deduced as a means of explaining the other. **lf it had happened that the Odys- 
sey had been preserved thus alone without the Iliad '\ Mr. Grote thinks, 'Hhe 
dispute respecting Homeric unity would never have been raised." Qrote , Hist, 
fir, I. I. xxi, pp. 549, 543, 544. So FriedlUnder (I) p. 23: "Wttre die Odyssee uns 
nllein crhalten, die Frage nach ihrer Einheit wttre vielleicht nie aufgeworfen wor- 
dcn. Denn eine durchdachte Composition, eine Concentration des Interesses 
Huf cinen Haupthelden, der gegenwHrtig und abwesend den Mittelpunkt der 
Ilandlung bildet, dem alle Kroignisse und Personen des Gedichts subordinirt sind, 
auf den sich alle beziehen etc." See, however, for a contrary opinion Hermann 
Opitsc. V. 546, de interpoU. Horn. 


PART I IV. To the Middle Ages of the West Homer was 

Greek literature ^nowii oiily through the transmissive agency of the La- 
peneraiiy took tin, as may be illustrated from the prevalence of the Ita- 
li^d^^'sayTfhlo' ^^^ Trojan legend, wherever we catch a glimpse of his 
logically, until subjoct matter (3). Till the age ofBentley, Greek literature, 
^er^^PoTson^l exccpt in its theological uses, had scanty attention paid 
time, as shown to it in this country. Such a translation as Chapman's (4) 
nJtile\dit*o^of s^^ws how little was known of the poet in the original, 
the poet. Few men of his own or the previous age, including even 

the divines, were such good Greek scholars as Milton, and 
Milton smacks far more of the Attic stage than of Ho- 
mer (s). In the earlier half of the eighteenth century popular 
scholarship was still Latin, or added a lacquer of Greek 
as an accomplishment merely, in a style which might en- 
title it to be called the silver-gilt age. This may be seen 
at a glance from Addison's criticism upon Milton (6). He 
seems to have had no consciousness of Bentley's exist- 

3 See Qrote I. p. 397. In King Alfred^s Boethius ch. zxxviii, and in the ap- 
pendix thereto in metre, is a version of the story of Odysseus, turning el.iefly on 
his adventure with Circe. The remarkable point in it is that the virtue and vice of 
the characters are inverted. It is Odysseus who is willing to love and dwell with 
Circ^, forgetful of his return, — nor is this so far wholly untrue to the original — 
and the comrades, literally ^^his thegnes", who are turned to beasts because 
they resist and wish for their home. 

4 A single ex. may suffice: in N. 560 foil. Homer makes Adamas mark Anti- 
lochus, Chapman renders it as if Antilochus marked Adamas; and following up 
the blunder makes Antilochus^ spear stick in Adamas^ shield instead of vice versa, 
as in the original, and makes Poseidon help the wrong man. 

5 Thus the opening of the epilogue to Comusy although traceable to Homer 
(see note on d. 566), seems derived through Eurip. Hippol, 742 foil. 

6 The portion of this criticism which bears upon Homer has not a spark of 
originality or vigour. Addison is chiefly content to follow Aristotle and Longinus; 
and where he departs from them makes us perhaps wish that he had stuck to 
them more closely. The superficiality of his remarks, that Vulcan among the Gods, 
and Thersites among mortals, are parallel examples of buffoonery (No. 273, 3^** 
paragr.), that "there wants that delicacy in some of Homer's sentiments, which 
now appears in the works of men of a much inferior genius", and that his 
"thoughts" are sometimes "low and vulgar" (No. 279, 3''<* and 4"* paragr.), will 
strike every one. We may excuse Addison individually, as he does Homer, on the 
score of ** the fault of the age " , but it is of the age that I am here speaking. In 
Lord Macaulay's Essay upon Addison a similar opinion as regards his Greek scho- 
larship is even more strongly expressed. 


ence(7). Indeed Greek scholarship is first uninterruptedly part i 
luminous amongst us from the almost yesterday period 
of Person. But, however that bo, the history of the dif- 
fusion of Homer is to a great extent the history of the 
progress of Greek literature revived. It shows that 
not only the fifteenth but the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries had passed by before there appeared even an 
English reprint of any foreign edition of the Iliad and 
Odyssey together. Barnes in 17 ii has the honours of 
our first native edition. Bentley is said to have intended 
to edit Homer. He would, no doubt, have done the work 
grandly, but how the text would have fared in his hands 
we may judge from the way in which he handled that 
of Horace. 

V. As the world goes on, every great poet needs illus- ^.''«** p*«** ^^ 
tration in reference to each successive age. The illustra- ro-odiiinffTami 
tive resources of one period become stale to another, ***^'« *«^'»* J"** 
while the poet retains the freshness of perpetual youth. icnUon drawn to 
This is the case whether there be or be not any fresh ac- Homor. 
quisitions to boast of in the province of scholarship. Our 
social state and manners , and the fuller register of the 
world's experience, reflect something on the study of 
every first-rate literary treasure. To furnish this is, as 
it were , only putting a fresh wick into the lamp which 
burns from age to age with unquenchable brightness. 
The time seems more disposed than ever to regard 

7 In 171a Addison wrote with easy confidence as follows; ** Homer lived near 
300 years after the Trojan war; and as the writing of history was not then in use 
among the Greeks , we may very well suppose that the tradition of Achilles and 
Ulysses had brought down but very few particulars to his knowledge; tho' there 
is no question but ho has wrought into his two poems such of their remarkable 
adventures as were still talked of among his contemporaries". In 17 13 ap- 
peared Bentley 's Remarks etc, by Phileleulhenis LipsiensfSf in which (VIL p. 18) 
occurs the following remarkable anticipation of a part of the Wolfian view: 
** Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies, to be sung by himself for 
small earnings and good cheer, at festivals and other days of merriment; the Ilias 
he made for the men, the Odysseis for the other sex. These loose songs were not 
collected together in the form of an epic poem till Pisistratus's time above 500 
years after" (Wolfs Proiegg, § xxvii). The degree to which these divergent 
views nearly touch each other in point of time, is remarkable. 


PART I Homer with affectionate reverence. Homeric literature 
since Wolfs day has become a library in itself, as 
it did among the later Alexandrines. The homage of the 
foremost men of the age waits upon "the poef , and the 
leaders of our Senate choose the laurel of their leisure 
from his chaplet. 
A hypoihesis, yj^ The reaction which has taken place in the last 
able, may yet half coutury from tho cxtrcmo viows of Wolf (8) as to the 
have its value, origin and Unity of the Homeric poems , is a warning 
against any sanguine hopes being cherished in favour of 
the permanent acceptance of any hypothesis, however 
sparkling with originality and enriched by learning. 
Still, a hypothesis, however perishable in itself, may 
have a subjective value as explaining an editor's point 
of view. Nor is its incompleteness at once an evi- 
dence against it, if it covers only such ground as seems 
probably secure, and is content to let many questions 
In Attica 700- VII. To draw such a rough line as the matter in de- 
roug^hiy iX n as ^^^® admits of , it sccms far more probable than the con- 
marking: the first trary that the Homeric poems, having originated about 
wrhientrxt:from ^^^^ — ^^^^^ ^' ^'9 remained, at least in Attica, until 
thatpoinionward about 700 — 600 B. C. a dcpositum of Oral tradition. 
underthTinflu- They may have assumed a written form later in At- 
enceofMSS.,and tica than clsewhere, for instance in Sparta (9); but it is 
of organized and through the Attic line of tradition among philosophers 
and grammarians that we trace them in writing, and 

8 "During the last ten years", says Mr. Grote (I. i. xxi. p. 541) writing in 
1846, "a contrary (to the Wolfian) tendency has manifested itself; the Woliian 
theory has been re-examined and shaken by Nitzsch, who, as well as O. Miiller, 
Welcker, and other scholars, have revived the idea of original Homeric unity 
under certain modifications. The change in Gothe^s opinion, coincident with this 
new direction, is recorded in one of his latest works." He also notices (ibid) 
its recent revival by Lachmann. FriedlUnder occupies medium ground on the 
question, as does Mr. Grote himself. Mr. Gladstone contends not only fur unity, 
but for the poet's substantial fidelity as regards historical fact. On this last 
point I advance no opinion; but as regards his dictum, ^Hhat we should assign to 
the Homeric evidence a primary rank upon all the subjects which it touches" 
(I. i. p. 72), we cannot, I think, discard the caution of Thucydides I. gi'^OfjkriQog — 
ef tm tnavog ts%firiQiAaat, 

9 See below p. xii. n. 14 and p. xxxvi. 


during not only these four centuries but for certainly two part i 
centuries later they were still most popularly known by continuous criii 
oral recitation. During this time, however, they had cism. 
come under the influence of written texts. It will be 
seen that between the Pisistratic and the Ptolemsean pe- 
riods various persons busied themselves with explana- 
tions of the poems, on much of which a shadow of ob- 
scurity was then beginning to fall; and the text was, of 
course, recopied perpetually. The preparation of the 
text of the Iliad for Alexander by Aristotle is the culmi- 
nating point of these Homeristic eflForts before Zenodotus 
(300 B. C), from whose time criticism is first continu- 
ously traceable. 

VIII. The question, at what period the Homeric poems tho reamres oi 

/,.jj. ... 1 1. • n Klyle, which seem 

were first reduced to writmg, has so great mnuence oiv ,0 bespeak the 
any theory as to the history and present state of the oiig^inaiorauha 
text, that I must be pardoned for spending a few para- Zl luch as*^nIc*ro 
£:raphs on a subject so keenly debated by abler antaffo- »nt>a«»iy ^ouw 
nists before me. It seems most likely that their written 
form is of earlier date than Wolf allowed ; yet that they 
existed from the first in writing, as Colonel Mure con- 
tends, seems against the balance of evidence. The man- 
ner of the poet's handling his machine of language seems 
to me to confirm its purely unwritten character. The 
love of iterative phrase, and the perpetual grafting of 
one set of words on another, the great tenacity for a for- 
mulaic cast of diction and of thought, and the apparent 
determination to dwell in familiar cadences , and to run 
new matter in the same moulds, all seem to me to mark the 
purely recitative poet ever trading on his fund of me- 
mory. Mere antiquity of written style, if we may judge 
from the early books of Holy Scripture, would not pro- 
duce this characteristic of diction. We find in that ma- 
jestic cast of venerable language frequent iterations of 
expression, it is true, but we do not find that budding of 
phrase with phrase which we notice in Homer. A few 
instances will clear my meaning: I will first cite B. 721, 
where it is said of Philoctetes, suflFering from a serpent's 
(i) aAA' 6 f*iv iv vijaa) kbIto xqcct^q' aXyia na6%tQv^ 




especially the 
custom of en- 
grafting' one 
phrase on ano- 
ther, of which 
examples are 

and in £. 13, with a single change of tense the same 
line is applied to describe Odysseus pining for his home. 
Now, compare both these with s, 395, where the hero's 
delight at first sight of land is compared to that of a 
child for his sick father s recovery : — but a single word is 
TtatQdg^ og iv vovap ycsltai ycgaxiQ alyea 7tdox<x)v. 

(2) In T. 137, where Poseidon has been advising Here 
to retire from the conflict, he adds, 

in a. 358 — 9 Telemachus bids his mother resume her 
female labours , adding 

(ivd'og d' &v8QB6iSi (leXrlaeL 
7ta0Lj (idXiOta d'ifioi' tov yccQ XQcctog s6r' ivl o^xfti:(io) 
In A. 352 — 3 Alcinoiis, re-assuring Odysseus in reply to 
one of his counsellors, says, "let him wait till to-morrow, 
till I have completed the array of gifts for him" — 

Ttctaty (idhata d' ifiot' rov ydg xQdtog itSt^ ivl Srliic). 

(3) In-d*, 1 34 Laodamas, admiring the figure of Odysseus, 
commends his 

liriQovg tE Kvr][iag xs xal a^tpcn X^tQag vnsQd'sVj 
in %. 173 Odysseus bids the trusty hinds seize Melan- 
theus , 

iS(pSi d' dnotQetlfCcvts noSag xal x^^Q^S vTCEQd'sv, 
in E. 122 ei al. a deity imparts vigour to a hero, 
yvZa d' id'^xsv ikaq)Qa^ TCoSag xal x^^Q<^S V7C€Qd'£v. 

(4) In A. 416 Thetis, bemoaning her son's untimely fate 
impending, says 

. . . iTCsi vv XOL alca (livvv^d tcsq ov xi (idXa dijv, 
with which comp. N. 573: again in x- 413 describing the 
death-struggles of the female slaves the poet says , 

rj^TCaLQov Sa7t6Se00t (livvvd'd tvsq ov xt (idka d^jv. 
Nor are these rare instances; on the contrary, there is 
hardly any feature of the poet's manner more broadly 
marked. We are so wholly without parallel examples 
showing how a poet so voluminous , trusting wholly to 

10 The passage has been rejected by some critics, but see note adloc. 



memory, would compose, that there is no room for posi- part i 
tiveness on the question ; but I think this characteristic 
commends itself to such a case by all the rules of mental 
analogy. When thrown side by side, as I have placed 
them, those have some of the effects of parody, or remind 
us of the Aristophanic krixvd'LOv aiccikBCisv tagged on to 
all sorts of initial penthimemers. 

IX. The great number of oversights and smaller in- Such Rffain are 
consistencies, which the poems betray, is a further pre- uer.oMirilient, 
sumption in favour of purely oral composition and publi- which would pass 
cation. If we can venture to approach critically the horierl, ^ana 
mental condition of a man carrying memoriter over 20,000 ^}^^^ ^« 
verses of his own composing, this at least may be said : — 
it is absurd to expect the same relations to exist be- 
tween the mind and its work, as occur where it has the 
power of projecting the latter symbolized objectively be- 
fore its view. Flushed with the grander forms of his 
conception , would the poet be likely to adjust minutely 
the details? In a sort of mental /r^^co style, where a great 
deal must often be done at a study, can we expect the 
small pottering exactness of a mosaic? Would not flaws in 
the filling up be most likely to occur in those more prosaic 
elements of time, place, and circumstance, which might be 
slurred or lost without prejudice to the picture presented 
by the imagination ? But those grander forms would carry 
his audience with him, and a happy amnesty would cover 
all. They could not '^ bring him to book'', had their criti- 
cal astuteness been ever so vigorous. Nor, we may be 
sure, would they have cared to do so. Nay, I think it likely 
that tihese poems existed even in MS. for some time, 
before such flaws in them were noticed. Secure of a 
sympathetic carelessness in his audience, the poet would 
probably look very little after such pins as critics have 
since been picking up with elephantine laboriousness. A 
high degree of inaccuracy, in a poem which had no ob- 
jective existence as a whole, we may be sure, would pass 
unchallenged. And so far from regarding such flaws as 
any objection against the genuineness of the text as we 
have it, I am disposed to think that but for critical tin- 
kering we should have found them ten, twenty, or fifty fold. 


PART I X. I should imagine that the danger, to which a poet 

or mi ht arise ®^ composing would bc liable , would be that of having 
through devia- a powcrful grasp ou the part of the poem immediately 
iXinalmTdet; ^^f^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^* retaining a comparatively feeble 
ihe poei himself, hold ou the entire work; that, the rigid safeguard of the 
letter being wanting, he would be merely guided by a 
sense of the pervading spirit of his song ; that, if he re- 
cited perpetually his own work, it would be morally im- 
possible for him to check the puUulation of fancy, so as 
to retain identity of phrase. Why indeed should he? 
Would not novelty have a charm alike for his audience 
and himself? I should expect then that he would modify 
and recast, and judge of the relative effects of this or that 
version on his audience ; and that, crossing and diverging 
lines of thought being thus generated, he might some- 
times be at a loss to decipher accurately the mental pa- 
limpsest. If there be any approximation to truth in this 
conjecture, why may not some variants be alike genuine? 
Nor do I like to attempt to draw the line, as to what 
magnitude of discrepancies, in a poem seldom if ever 
recited save in portions, should be deemed to overstrain 
this licence which I have claimed. Mr. Grote's allega- 
tions as regards the Iliad might , I think , were that my 
present business, be largely answered on this principle. 
He thinks he detects in it an Achillei's recast into an 
Iliad. I think we may admit all the variations in detail 
which he urges without inferring such a change of de- 
sign. Such a view, I think, arises from the assumed ana- 
logy of a written poem. 
Such also are XI. Auothcr tokcu of Oral recitation is the variety of 
equivirentCTam*^ equivalent forms for the same word. Writing trains 
maticai forms, dowTi the wild luxuriaucc of language; it lops some 
iricar'^Muiirrl shoots and developes exclusively others. In Homer the 
ties. healthy vigour of the "gadding vine^' is predominant. 

We find a stage of language in which this profuseness, 
especially of pronominal and verbal forms, reigns un- 
checked. We find moreover a power of shifting the 
weight of the voice fi'om syllable to syllable at will, so 
as that iQvacofiBV should become iQv0ao(iBv^ and sag in 
eflfect slog; which again suggests the first freedom of a 


muse unbroken as yet to the yoke of written forms. The part i 
prevalence of hiatus as an original feature, undeniable, 
I think, by any who deals candidly with the text as ho 
now finds it, is due to the same oral power of governing 
in recitation the sound generated (u). 

XII. Colonel Mure, it seems to me, is successful in Thouseofwiii- 

_,-, , _ - „ ,, , _, ing: in a coniinu- 

cstablismng that a knowledge oi writing existed in a niiy oiicn oxisis 
ffreat part of Greece far earlier than Wolf allowed ; and ^^'^ ""^^^"^ '•"' 

1 . • 1 /* • 11 posos, while Ihe 

that it was practised tor certain purposes, such as the re- general and li 
gister of sovereigns or other official personages, the pub- |''*^*''y "'*° *^' '^ 
lication of laws, the recording of oracles, and the inscrip- 
tion of monuments (la). But that it was used for literary 
purposes is a point of which the proof falls wholly short. 
•A few official persons and a small class of public scribes 
might easily keep it to themselves, save that in every 
community a few congenial minds would appropriate and 
master it. Doubtless, the existence of such would leaven 
the body politic with such a smattering, that a small per- 
centage of the public might spell out the acts of early 
legislators when exposed at Athens on the inscribed turn- 
tables for the benefit of all. They would be able to inform 
public opinion; just as a meeting among ourselves is held 

1 1 1 incline to think that the earliest written copies of Homer had the f, and 
also snch hiatus as could be remedied by the voice in recitation. But the ques- 
tion is hardly a practical one for us. The loss of the f would leave in many lines 
a redundancy of hiatus, and through this, coupled with the reactionary influence 
of a written text, which reminds the ear of hiatus through the eye, the corrupt de- 
vices by which hiatus is stopped were probably generated. As regards the f it- 
self, it probably died out very gradually, going through many phases of semi- 
pronunciation ; and probably possessed from the first a degree of elasticity which 
could evade lengthening a syllable before it by position; cf. the promiscuous 
use of **« university", "«n university", among ourselves, and the various ways in 
which the (probably at first guttural) -ottgh is evaded, which guttural sound itself 
seems often to have been the remnant of a stronger consonantal sound decayed. 

I a The list of Olympic victors, from Corsebus downwards, was kept at Ells, 
that of the Camean victors at Sparta, as also that of the Spartan kings with the 
years of their reigns. The priestesses of Her6 were similarly registered at Sicyon. 
From these dvayQaq>al or some of them was compiled by Charon of Lampsacus, 
before Herodotus had written, his work called the Prytanes or rulers of Lacedse- 
mon; whilst Timseus drew up from comparison of them, what may be called Fasti 
Dorici, in which chronological differences were closely noted (Miiller's Dorians, 
vol. I. p. 149—50). 


PART 1 to be public when the reporters are in the room 13. The 
Several argu- ^bsolute usc of the word y()a9?«^,i/, sc. vofiov^i^ confirms 
ments, especially this vicw, and doubtlcss desccndcd from the ancient time 
i68Voi?^and"an- whcn Writing was very rare. How much older than So- 
other of Mure's lou Written testaments were, or whether so old, it is im- 
both iho ^olms" possiblc to kuow, and superfluous to enquire. In their 
shown to be in- earliest age they would doubtless be drawn by an official 
conclusive. scribc. To take a familiar instance, the existence of the 

"Book of the Law'' is no proof that writing, or even 
reading, was familiar to the Hebrew people. The Levites 
probably engrossed that knowledge, and doubtless the 
injunction of a "bill of divorcement'' would operate as 
an impediment rather than a facility in the age when it 
was given ; since it would compel resort to a Levite, 
which would cause delay, and give passions time to 
cool (15). It is strange that Colonel Mure should think 
that Archilochus' allusion to the 6xvtdli]{t6) implies that 
he "was in the habit of writing his works" and "of dis- 
tributing copies of them". His other arguments, based 
on the strictures of Herodotus on the ancient and 
later Greek alphabet, on the ascription to Palamedes of 
the invention of letters , and on the allusions by the dra- 
matic poets to the art of writing, as practised in the 
" heroic" age from which their fables were draAvn (i 7), are 
either satisfied by the acknowledged existence of writing 

13 This would answer Colonel Mure's ar^ment that "a clamour for a new 
code of written laws could hardly have arisen among a people who were them- 
selves unable to read them". (III. iii. vii. § 17. p. 462.) 

14 The Doric rketras include foreign treaties, and some ancient ones are 
said to have been preserved in writing (MuUer ub. sup. p. 153). A good example 
of a monumental rhetra is preserved among the most ancient Greek inscriptions 
(BoeckhjVol.I.No. 11). It is a treatyfor 100 years between the Eleans and Herseans. 

1 5 This is quite consistent with the New Testament condemnation of its principle. 

16 igiGi Ttv' viLiv alvov co KriQVK^Srj, 

dxwfisvTj anvxocKrj .... cited Mure ub. sup. p. 453. The connexion of 
the last two words is not wholly clear: a%vvacii is in Homer always passive or 
neuter, and aTtvTdXrj should probably be taken in apposition with KriQvu. The 
address to some person whom the poet chooses to designate as "messenger's son" 
— a jocularly fictitious name — is further reinforced by the appellation axvr. = 
"post-stick", just as from the name of his weapon &c. a knight is called "a lance", 
a rower "an oar". Mure takes it as if dxvvf/^svr^v onvxdlriv were the reading. 

17 t6. p.447- 



for a limited purpose, or nullified by the known licence 
of poetic fiction. With regard to the arguments gathered 
from the poems themselves, the famous passage in Z. 
168 foil, certainly proves that a despatch on a matter of 
life and death might in the poet's view be transmitted 
and deciphered. But it may be that this is meant to be 
regarded as a family secret, obtained through the Asiatic 
connexion of Proetus rather than generally diflfused. The 
word ailiiccta or aijfia, thrice repeated, rather points to 
some form of hieroglyph than to written characters, as 
in the coin of Gortys here engraved, whose to 6d^a is j 
the actual lion. A further argument, based on the expres- 
sion td di Tcdvxa d'eav iv yovvaac xettat(iS)^ which is 
interpreted by Colonel Mure to mean, in some book con- 
taining the written decrees of fate, seems to me inade- 
quately supported. Copious as are the Homeric refer- 
ences to Fate under various terms , there is not one allu- 
sion anywhere to a "book" of fate, alaa spins the lot 
of suffering at birth, and Zeus has two vases (ittd'OL) of 
good and evil fate on his threshold : further, the '* lines 
{jtSLQara) of victory are held above by the gods" (19). Such 
are the images of the poet's own finding, and we must abstain 
from adding to them. But even allowing ancient oracles, 
committed to writing, to have been alluded to, this is one 
of those rare and distinct purposes already allowed for 
above, to which early writing may have been directed (20). 
All these arguments fall short of the point at issue, which 
is the popular use of writing on such a scale as would as- 
sist the author of poems consisting of 12,000 lines apiece. 
XIII. On the other hand Mr. Grote, I think, takes 
too narrow a view in lowering the age of written copies 
to that of the formation of an early class of readers. It 
might early be discovered that written copies, used by a 
prompter, would be a great assistance to rhapsodists 


(Coin of Gorlys : 
a lion's head in 
I ho centre, round 
it, h o g-i n n i n g 
from holow, tho 
words roQtvvog 
to a a ft a.) 

Rut the first 
written copies 
were probalily 
not for g-eneral 
readers, hut as 
a mechanical aid 
to the rhapso- 

18 P. 514, T. 435, a. 267, 400, «. 129. 

19 T. 128—9, ^' 209 — io» 5*7 — 8, H. loi — 2. 

20 The allusions to oracles have been challenged by Payne KnigKt (Prolegg, 
§XLvi) as proving the later date of the Odyssey, to which they are confined. Without 
admitting this, it is pertinent to observe that neither of them cohtains any allusion 
to writing as a modus vaticinandi. See further some remarks on p. Lii inf. 


PART I highly gifted in other respects, but whosememory was trea- 
disis and Solon's ^hcrous (21 ) ; or that, if public feeling was against this use 
\Av/TteQi rouQu- of thcui, the mcmory might by their aid be better forti- 
tS^'tooVZ'- fi^d beforehand(22). MSS would also be very useful in 
lowed. teaching other rhapsodists. In such a way it seems likely 

that the habit of copying crept in, but it was doubtless for 
a long while a TCccQEQyov merely, having no public import- 
ance, and carrying no authority. Yet still, as they mul- 
tiplied individually, copies would in time acquire a subsi- 
diary power of giving a consciousness of a text as an 
objective fact; and, on the whole, it seems more pro- 
bable that the law of Solon (23), providing that recitation 
should be i^ v7tofiolrjg\ t\ e. probably, following a gi^en 
cue, or in orderly succession, was passed after that 
power had been acquired than before it. Those who ap- 
prove this view will perhaps be content to regard the 
habit from which a written text was thus first formed, as 
having grown up at Athens in the two centuries preceding 
Solon, viz. the 7*^ and 8'** before Christ (24), and to suppose 
that by the time of Solon, who closes the 7*^^ century, that 
text was complete in its constituent elements, although 
probably these were in great disorder and were charged 
with much 'adventitious matter. On this view, however, 
it is less important to fix precisely an initial period for a 
first written text than on most others. 

21 Some have even thought that ^| vnofiol'qs {arf}qi96tis9'ai, the term em- 
ployed in the law of Solon on recitations, means, "to be recited with a prompter's 
aid*': so Hermann Opusc. p. 311. I take it rather to mean, each rhapsodist in 
turn giving to {vno^dXXtav) and receiving from (v7CoXa[i§dv(ov) another his cue ; 
cf. Wolf Prolegg, § xxsii, n. 4. 

22 Mr. Grote's argument {uh. sup. p. 527), that a tvtpXog dv^g (Hymn ApolL 
Del. 172) could not have used a MS., is superficial. He might have been prompted 
from it in case of need. 

23 Td 'OfiT^QOv i^ vno^oXijg yiyqatpB (aipcoSstad'ai, otov onov 6 ngmtog 
^Xtj^sv, ^usiQ'SV aqx^a^ui xov ixofisvov, Dieuchides ap. Diog. Laert. II. 57. 

24 The many germs of civilization which Solon's time evinces, and which his 
legislation in regard to property leads us to suppose, make it difficult to think 
that the application of writing to so obviously useful a resource, as the fortifying 
the memory for recitation, could be longer delayed ; especially as men's wits would 
be stimulated to the application by the chance of a prize. We are to re- 
member also that for 300 years previously the use of convenient writing materials 
had been within the reach of the Egyptians and Phoenicians. 


XIV. If a written Homer thus sprang up per accidens, part i 
and in its influence was rather felt than seen, and Solon „ . , . 

' Such a fortm- 

attempted in this crude state of the text to deal legisla- tous text at a- 

tively with recitations; it is quite consistent that difficul- ^^^^ b*Vs^. 

ties should have revealed themselves which threw Pi- trams suppie- 

sistratns back on an endeavour to establish accuracy in °»f".*"\ ^'^** *" 

** advised one. 

the text itself, and to do that advisedly which had 
been done fortuitously before. And in this sense we 
may allow that he, in the words of Wolf, "carmina Ho- 
meri primus consignavit Uteris, et in eum ordinem rede- 
git quo nunc leguntur'^(25). If incompetent to expel what 
was extraneous — a question to which I purpose further 
returning — he would have to arrange what was received, 
and to familiarize the Athenian mind with the conscious- 
ness of a Homeric text as an objective whole. And here 
we may accept the suggestion of Mr. Grote(26)^ that the 
period has now been reached, in which a class of readers 
may be looked for; and in which, a standard text having 
been settled, the poet, free before as a bird of the air, 
was , as it were caged in a lilera scripta^ although all but 
a few lettered men would still know him by recitation 
only; and, this continuing to be his popular life, a good 
deal of fluctuation might still exist among the readings 
of the rhapsodists. 

XV. On the whole there may be reason to think that inOuence Z ao- 
too much has been made of the influence of Pisistratus mer, however, an 
upon Homer. Occupying a position which no man did hYs yeihaps 
afterwards — nor indeed before, taking into account li- 'x*^" formed, 
terary opportunities — he would be able with peculiar 

ease to appropriate the results of others' labours. But 
he also could bring the power of the executive to bear 
upon designs which might have been attempted by pri- 
vate hands too feebly for success or too obscurely for 

25 Prolegg. § xxxiii. The ancient anthorities, cited by Wolf there (note 5), 
speak not of the formation of a written text , bnt of the introduction of order into 
the matter which had become confused. The oldest of them is Cic. de 
Oral. III. 34. 

26 He fixes such a period at 660 — 30 B. C, or nearly a century before Pisis- 
tratus (Grote ub. sub. p. 531): a /br/iori therefore , might it be the case, at Pisis- 
tratus' time. 

xvi P E E F A C E. 

PART I notice (27). He, no doubt, by these means gave a direction 
and a concentration to Athenian taste, and supplied 
Athens with the means of gratifying it, and the value of 
the result must be multiplied by the influence acquired 
by the Attic school of thought in later times. It will be 
more convenient, however, to resume consideration of 
this subject further on. 
The questions XVI. In Considering the Homeric text as we now 

here discussed 

relate to 1. the havc it, thc most important questions are those which re- 
word-forms, and j^tc to the genuinencss of the forms of words, of their 
the text. The Substantial identity with those used by the poet, and of 
question of the ^i^q substaucc of the tcxt as a whole, or of its main com- 
rianis , ° sincV it poncut mcmbcrs, including their arrangement. The ques- 
runs back to the ^Jqu of the Origin ofthc Variants is one of great collateral in- 

time before Aris- 

tarchus, is ob- tcrcst, but, subjcct to thc remark made above on p. x., be- 

scure. Several longs rather to thc history of the text in very early days, the 

of them are here materials of whichhavcmostly pcrished. Weareallbut en- 

mentioned. tircly at the mercy of the Alexandrine School. Yet, as will 

be shown below (p.Liii foil.), the predecessors of Aristar- 

chus, and Crates, his opponent and contemporary, exercised 

a perceptible, although scarcely a significant influence over 

the judgment of subsequent ages. Some of their readings, 

which Aristarchus rejected, have been rescued by the 

ScholL, but the value of most is not so great as to enhance our 

regret for the loss of the larger portion (28). In them^ how- 

27 We can thus justify the couplet of the epigram said to have been inscribed 
on the monument of Pisistratus at Athens, in which he declares himself as 

tov iifyav iv ^ovXij IlsiaiaxQaTOv, 6g rov '^Ofirjqov 
fi&QOiaa GnoqdSriv to nglv dsidoftsvov. 

Villoison e Dionys. Thrac. Anecd. Gr. p. 185. 
We may compare the action of Constantine upon the Canon in causing Euscbius 
to prepare 50 copies of Holy Scripture for the new Churches designed at Constan- 
tinople. That that Canon then was not settled — although probably not in such 
an unsettled state as the text of Homer in the time of Pisistratus — is shown by 
Mr. Westcott (77«e Bible in the Church pp. 155 — 60), who supposes that this drew 
further attention to questions of Canonicity, especially the attention of Athana- 
sius, and thus prepared the way for greater definiteness. This of Constantine Mr. 
Westcott calls "the first complete Greek Bible issued by authority for public use". 

28 The Scholl. have preserved many more than are mentioned in the marginal 
readings of this or probably of any edition. The scope of such a margin is not to be 
a receptacle for all refuse -readings, but only to invite the reader's judgment to 
such as seem to possess at any rate plausibility, and generally something more. 


ever, we have a bare glimpse of a non- Aristarchean Homer . part i 

Since Aristarchus' time there is no trace of any sources 

which were unknown to him having been even enquired for : 

but from the Augustan era downwards several critics,among 

whom Didymus is the leading name, found that time had 

again brought round the period of lustration, and passed 

all the various streams of learning derived from the first 

Alexandrines through the filter again. Among the vast 

variety of readings of which now no trace is left, it is 

impossible to say how many that were true have perished /"" '*'^ •^'^^J'*'* 

^ J »i r been exposed to 

at each great revise. For such is human frailty that its various dangers 
best judgment has probably let slip on every such oc- ^°^'* '" ''** °'*' 
casion something that is true, and established something 
that is false. As regards the variants themselves, no 
general theory seems worth advancing. A probable 
source of a large number of original variants has been 
suggested above. The practice of recitation would lead 
to many more. The strongly formulaic character of the 
phraseology would allow the substitution of one for- 
mula for another of the same metrical value. Even with- 
out such distracting influences a reciter, whose wit was 
readier than his memory, might alter much, and, as will 
be shown below Avith regard to interpolations , might , if 
popular, establish a school of followers, and so garble or 
disguise the text as to make it difficult for all the re- 
sources of subsequent criticism to detect the true read- 
ing. Then Inust be taken into account all the dangers ^^a us wniien 
to which MSS. are liable. But these the Homeric poems '"'^'"^ 
share in common with all other ancient writings, al- 
though since 200 B. C. they had for about four centui'ies 
such a hold on critical attention as prevented further 
textual errors from accumulating. It must suffice to 
consider on their individual merits in the following 
notes ad loc. such variants as seem worth the trouble, 
and to omit the rest. There is one other circumstance, , .. ., , 

' whilst It also en- 

which on the whole tells in favour of carefulness in pre- joyed one main 
serving the Homeric text: it is that from the earliest ^^*^""*y- 
times, when education was systematically given, they 
were used as school-books, and were standard classics. 
It is natural to suppose a greater vigilance over such a 

HOM. OD. I. B 

xviii -PREFACE. 

PART I text than over one which was less essential to the mental 
culture of the Greek race. 

The argrument XVII. As regards the genuineness of the forms of 
g'eniiineness of words in Homcr, the first broad argument in its favour 
the word -forms jg feascd ou their fitting into the metrical structure, and 
metrical sinic- ou the fact that the later use of language tended mostly 
*"*"«' to cut them down, which therefore, if yielded to, would 

often have lamed the line. Even such contractions as 
would substitute spondees for dactyls, considering the 
dactylic preponderance which we find surviving, need 
no wide margin of allowance. It seems indeed likely 
that Homer's language was slightly archaic in his own 
time. We cannot suppose him to have reached the 
artistic level on which he stands without many steps of 
ascent haying been raised by others before him. Many 
preludes of shorter flight must probably have been es- 
sayed, and ruder schools of song have had their day, be- 
fore he arose to transcend them all, and perhaps tacitly 
to incorporate the results of some (29). The very copious- 
ness of his matter suggests this, and still more its com- 
plication. Conventionalisms of diction and established 
formulae of expression, common to him with Hesiod, 
suggest previous workmen and a handicraft which had 
become traditional. They can hardly fix themselves as 
features of manner in one man's lifetime. Now, such 
schools of song tend to arrest that flux of language to 
which all that we know of human speech bears witness, 
and the rhapsodists would doubtless maintain a fami- 
2. the rhapso- Jiarity with whatever uncouth or prolix forms were 

clisls* art which 

was traditional dropping out of the most current vernacular ; while the 
and conservative, yinculum of thc mctrc, although uot without some such 

and certainly did , . . . , . 

not be^in in Ho- elasticity ^s muovators might improve, would check 


any wide licence of departure from the primitive stan- 
dard. If at or before the period of Solon interpolation 
was, as we shall see reason to think, successful for a 

29 The Ambros. and other Scholl. on y. 267 mention as doiSol earlier than 
Homer, Demodocus the Laconian, Glancus, Automedes of Mycenae, Perimedes of 
Argos, Lycimnius of Buprasium, Sipis of Doris, Pharidas (or Phalaridas) the 
Laconian, Probolus of Sparta 


time, it could only have been so by keeping to acknow- part i 
ledged old Achaean forms, those which were vernacular 
once, but have come down to us as "Epic", so called 
from the works which have preserved them. 
XVIII. But before the time of Solon the dialects had That ji^t, while 

. j'* tended to keep 

been formed, the influence of which shall bo considered the word -forms 
presently : and by his time it has been considered likely p^*^ » . ^^"^^^^^'^ 

, , . . 1 o. 1 interpolalion, 

that a crude written text existed. So long as that text 
was ancillary to recitation, and had no documentary va- 
lue, it was not likely to exercise a corrupting influence 
on the word-forms. Even long afterwards, the fact that 
recitation continued to be the popular channel of Ho- 
meric knowledge would tend to check such corruptions. 
The rhapsodist Would transmit the word-forms probably 
as he received thein, the copyist from MS. to MS. would 
tend to clip them, to misunderstand, to guess and do 
mischief. On the other hand, the rhapsodist would per- 
petrate or admit interpolations freely, but the copyist, if 
he even incorporated them , would be checked by some 
other who had them not; and whenever a true critic 
arose, no matter how late, if he had only an adequate ar- 
ray of material, he would easily precipitate and expel 
them. It is true, the earliest class of interpolations might 
possibly baffle all subsequent acuteness (XXXVIII — 
IX inf.). But the time when the most formidable 
danger would threaten the word-forms , was the age of 
criticism itself. The famous Alexandrine school set to 
work on the assumption that they knew Greek, and for 
all except Homeric purposes they perhaps knew it suf- »"«* **»<>*« ^^^'^^ 
ficiently well. It was so far unfortunate that they were pernielT^ln *the 
worst equipped on that very point at which they directed »^e of professed 
the greatest force of their wits. Their non-recognition 
of the digamma in Homer, which they knew in -ffiolic, 
shows us how narrow was the basis of their view. It is 
no arrogance to say that, since no language can be 
known by itself, and since with all except Greek that 
school had but the most superficial acquaintance, modern 
scholarship has a collateral apparatus at command 
which sets it on a ground of conspicuous vantage. If 
we in the present day knew no Gothic language save 



PART I our own , how could we edit King Alfred or even Laya- 

mon? It has been the work of scholars since Bentley, 

but more especially since Wolf, to turn that apparatus to 

account; and to supply, if possible, the omissions, or 

even correct the mistakes of Aristarchus. 

3. The power of XIX. As regards the preservation of the word-forms 

1-Tnaiiona^mo- ^^^^ *^^* time, the tenacity of an unlettered populace for 

nument ^ in their ancicut forms of speech is remarkable in an age 

checking- the flux ,i * \ r r ^ • i. i. •j.t. 

of word -forms *^^ uppcr social suriacc 01 which may be over-run with 
written and even printed literature. Thus most rural 
nooks of England contain remnants of Chaucerian 
English. In Greece there were, however, but scanty 
traces of a national life in rural quietude independent of 
the cities. It is not likely that antique traits of dialect 
lingered, unless in Boeotia, with the rustic muse. In At- 
tica especially the assimilation of the people's tongue to 
that of the capital was probably early accomplished. But 
the rhapsodists kept the ancient tongue alive, and Homer 
held his own. The grand master of song had raised 
a monument of language which became a barrier in itself. 
Similar has been the influence of Shakspeare and, 
more uninterruptedly, of the Authorized Version of the 
Bible among ourselves. Homer would derive a still 
stronger influence from the fact that he was recited when 

and 4. the na- ^ities met in festive mirth around the altar of some na- 
tional enthusi- 
asm, which the tioual dcity. The heart of the nation would fix itself 
poet kept alive, ^j^j^ gjj^^^j rgvcrence upon his words, which fired them 

should also be ^ * ' 

allowed for. with a momentary impulse of patriotism beyond muni- 
cipal barriers, and reminded various tribes of thejr ori- 
ginal unity, as each retraced its dialectic rill in the parent 
lake of epos. Our argument does not descend to jot and 
tittle, but it hardly admits of doubt that the essential 
forms, familiar in their ring of sound upon the ear, would 
descend with the true song as its native vehicle, just as 
they would form the only possible credential for spurious 
imitations. I do not think that this view need be rejected 
even by one who were disposed to accept the ingeniously 
constructed antique text of Payne Knight. Those archaisms 
only disguise our present text, they cannot be said essen- 
tially to alter its forms. As regards the digauima, while 

lowed adialecliu 


nothing is better established than its Homeric existence, part i 
nothing is more uncertain or perhaps less uniform, than 
its actual force; see p. xi, n. ii. Fluctuating usage, and 
the poet's own caprice, might in many words mould this 
perishable element to a type either prominent or subdued. 
It is necessary to insist on the great elasticity proper to 
the yet unwritten Epic tongue, and to caution learners 
against the prejudices imbibed from the early study of 
the most highly artificial poetry. If an Englishman 
would be a sympathetic student of Homeric diction , he 
should shut up Virgil and open Chaucer. Although even 
here the influence of writing renders the parallel im- 
perfect in the extreme. 

XX. If we assume, on the contrary, the word-forms of 5. The word- 
the Homeric text to have become corrupted, we know suf- f!!""* ^' "^.'"7' 

A ' li corrupted. 

ficiently the types which they must have followed. The musi have foi 
supposed process of corruption could not have escaped 
the bias which determined contemporary language in the 
7^^ and 6^'» centuries B. C. That bias was not single, but 
manifold, and of the resulting dialects we have adequate 
specimens in the extant remains of Archilochus, Tyrta3us, 
Alcman, Alca?us, Sappho, Stesichorus, Solon and Mim- 
normus, who flourished during those centuries at such 
various places as Pares, Sparta, Lesbos, Himera, Athens 
and Colophon. It would lead us too far astray to analyse 
exhaustively the language of these various fragments. 
But it is clear at a glance that none of them reproduce 
the language of the Homeric poems, although most of 
them teem with Homeric quotations more or less direct, 
showing that those who now talked Ionic, Doric, or 
iEolic, had Homer also on their tongues (30). They 

30 Cf. Archil. V. i, &oijs ^ta aiXfiaTa vrjog tpoCtu with y,. 420, avtcLQ iym Sia 
vriog iq>oitoDVj i A. XXIV. 5 — 6, xocXsTtfjaL &sav oSvvffaiv fxi^tt nsnccgfisvog with 
E. 399, oSvvffai TCSTcaQ^ivog, also with Hy. j4pol. Pyth. 180 xaXininai . . . odw^crt; 
with V. 42, diog . . . fxi^Tt, M. 8 %'Baiv cJcx^yrt; ib. XXXII, vUrig S'iv ^soiai nsi- 
Qottu with H, 102, viytTignsigat' ^x^vtcci iv dd'avcctoioi d'sotaiv; ih. LXXII, noXi'^g 
alog iv nsXdyBaai with b. 335, A. 358, dXog iv rcsXdysaai; ib, LXXXVIII. 4 — 5, 
dkXd a'rf yaav^g voov t€ xal cpgivag TcagTJyaysv slg dvaiSsiav with g, 286—7, ya- 
axigct . . ,ovlofiiv7jv, 17 noXld xax' dv^'gdnoiai diSmaiv, and JiC.391 naghn voov ijya- 
ycv^ExToo^; Tyrtieusl.i, ze&vdfievaiydgHaXov ivlngofidixoiCiTeeaovtawiiliO. $22, 

xxii PREFACE. 

PART 1 exhibit the forms of all the principal dialects , but not 
intermixed, as we find them in Homer. In each a dialect 
predominates, although in most not with the sharp ex- 
clusiveness which the poets of the following century ex- 
hibit. They stand in short, as they might be expected 
to stand, on the supposition that our present Homeric 
text is the genuine product of an age considerably ear- 
lier, each diverging in a different direction from it and 
finding its new centre in some point nearer or more re- 
mote. Among the nearer may be rated firstly Archilo- 

such as the poets ri.i ioi-»i n k 

of the early ly- chus, thcu otesichorus and oimomdes ot Amorgos, then 
ric period show. Mimncrmus, TyrtsBUs, and Solon, the last two having 
a narrower vein of epic language and showing the 
dialectic principle — that of the lonico-attic — more 
fully developed. Alcseus and Sappho have a greater 
divergency, and show dialectic features yet more 
marked. Alcman stands somewhat similarly by him- 
self in relation to Doric, but has a tinge of closer 
affinity with the first group. Simonides of Ceos I ex- 
clude from the list, as having a character too markedly 
advanced even to close it. He imbeds a good deal of 
Homeric phrase, but with the air of conscious adoption, 
even where an express citation is not meant. The Attic 
terseness of his epigram has nothing in common with 
the large fulness of measure which Homer yields, 

hi nqoyi,ti%oi,Gi daarjvai, see also J. 458, P. 590; ib. 15, alia fidxso^s, naq al- 
iTJloict fievovTsg, with P 721, fiifivofisv o^vv ^Agrja nag* allriloiGi fisvovTsg^ 
besides such phrases as danCSog 6iiq>alo£aarjs, tavrjlsyeos ^avdroio id. III. 25, 35, 
which every one will recognize. See also III. 32, and cf. I, 602—3 (perhaps in- 
terpolated). Tyrtseus' words are all' vno yqg nsQ ewv, yCvstai dd-dvatog, which 
contain the germ of the idea evolved by a dichotomy of the hero (Herakles) into 
his BtSfolov and himself {avzog). Col.Mure has also compared VI. (Gaisf.I) 19 foil, 
with X, 71 foil., Vn. (Gaisf. II) 10 foil, with E. 529 foil., O. 561 foU., VII. 31 
with JV. 129. Cf. also Alcman VI. i — 2, Kdarag rs noiloDV taxicDV diiTitiJQsg 
X. T. L with r. 237, Kdatoga d"' tnnodafiov; ib. IX. Jvanagi, naloTcagi x. r. I., 
with r. 39, A, 155; also ib. XXIX. xQ'^^^^v ogiiov ^%oiv with o. 460 (same 
words) and with a, 295 — 6. Cf. also Alcseus I. 5 — 6 %a^vnBq^Bv ticnsioi lotpot 
vsvovaiv with %- ^^4i Seivov dh l6(pog itad'vnsQd'sv ^vsvsv, O. 537 tnnsiov 
l6(pov; ib, II — 12, ^Qnog laxvgov pilsvg with J 137 SQUog duovttov, II. 5 HatmBtpa- 
lag with d", 85 ef al, iiav.Y,ztpalfigx besides again commonplace phrases, such as 
xvfitt HvlivSstai, vat fislaivc^y nag . . . ccvrlog tctoniSriv ^x^i., yag dnb nsigdtav. 


vrhile his other pieces approach the form of the dramatic part i 

XXI. If, now, the Homeric word-forms be genuine, '^^'^^ diaiecis 

and represent a real stage of the development of the Homer mutuR*i- 

Greek language far earlier than all these, it helps us to 'y explain each 

account for them all, and by their facies quah's decet esse supposition thai 

sororum, they account for it, as their common parent. **** »' consider- 

,^ ^1 , . 1 , . .11 , . ably earlier than 

Un any other supposition how is it possible to explain any, as shown 
its existence? What poet from 700 to 500 B. C. could ^y *he example 

•111 1 1 • n T "I i» 1 • of Ihe nearest to 

possibly nave produced itr 1 speak not of the inner him, Archiio- 
soul of song, but of its mere shell of language. Archi- <='*"• 
lochus comes undoubtedly nearest; so much so, that a 
high authority (31) has said, "his dialect is substantially 
the same as Homer's, with fewer antiquated forms, and 
otherwise slightly modified, to suit the more familiar 
tenor of his own composition .'' The compass of his dic- 
tion is, however, very much abridged. Where, for in- 
stance, is the vast variety in the forms of pronouns V 
What has become of the -lyyt -iy;jt -o<pt -od'sv -ad'BV 
termination of nouns? What of the triple ending 
of the pres. infin. act.? What of the melodious open 
vowel system of which avxexotavxaij 6q6g)(Slv^ fiaLiicioiScc 
[dgcDovtag^ are specimens? Where are the Homeric 
many particles, especially the characteristic X6? We 
find the epic pronoun o, ^\ rd, sunk in the article. In 
the word aval^ the digamma is inconstant, while olvog 
and olxos, occurring each several times, appear to have 
wholly lost it. One might easily extend the list of mis- 
sing features. Yet, as some one must stand next to Ho- 
mer, however longo proximus intervallo, let us allow, — 
omitting for the present all consideration of Hesiod — that 
place to Archilochus. Now, all these various offshoots 
of language prove that no poet of those centuries stood 
at a level where such a command of language as Homer 
wielded was possible. And, as we must probably allow 
at least a century for them to form, this throws us far 
back into the 8^** century B. C, and probably even fur- 

31 Mure vol. III. Bk. iii, ch. iii § 10. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

PART I ther. That which had been, probably at some time in 
the 9'^'* century, one, was now manifold. The flattening 
down of the "epic'' into Archilochus shows that epic was 
6. Further, vcmacular once, 
since Homer was XXII. And, in the casc of a poet so broadly popular 
TrnTn/ poeiT of that tho moment we arrive at a literary period it smacks 
all the dialects, gtrongly of him, is it likely that we should have one cor- 
ed tcxion^y7but ruption only out of all the dialects? The early writers 
several would j^ ^11 of them are evidently familiar with Homer, many 
would have left of them borrow directly from him. He must have been in 
some traces. ^hc mouths of Dorfc, louic, and MoWq. rhapsodists alike. 
If recitation engendered corruption, where is the Dorico- 
Epic, the -^olico-Epic etc. text? Pisistratus ought by this 
theory to have found a text consisting of something like 
the Solonian Attic. The same process, if it had gone on 
at all, would have gone on alike in the various diverging 
dialectic streams. That they should have blended again 
into our present text of Homer is against all the analogy 
of language. All ought, on this supposition, to have had an 
existence, and there ought somewhere to be a trace of some 
of them (32). The opposite is the fact. We infer safely 
that they never had existence, and that Homeric diction 
was not in them fused down and recast. 
chiUhus' period XXIII. But if Homcr could not have been a genuine 
or laier could product of thosc ccnturics, still less could the Iliad and 
such a diction as the Odysscy have then arisen by a study of the past. 
the Homeric. T^^ artificial process of the grammarian poet was wholly 
foreign to the period (33). On this possibility, however, 
no moderately well-informed reader will waste a second 
thought. Nor, if we adopt such an extravagant supposi- 
tion as that a poet of those centuries might have been 
equally familiar with all these dialects, could he even 
then have produced the Homer which we have. For 
that contains, besides the germs of them all , many other 
germs of language which did not fructify, but fell away. 

32 There was among the early edd. in the hands of the Alexandrine critics 
one known as the AloXii/Lri or AloXlq, but there is no reason to suspect the de- 
signation of any other than a local force , as in the case of the 'AQyoXnari etc. ; 
see schol. on Od. |. 280, and^uttmann's note there. 

33 See Gladst. I, i. pp. 30—1 . 


This again is what we might expect; it resembles the part i 
spontaneous redundancy which we trace so frequently 
where nature has her way. 

XXIV. As regards individual forms suspected of forms musi sian.i 
spuriousness or alteration, they must stand or fall on ®'* *'"" °" "^**''* 
their own special grounds, and on the general analogies of gomo are duri- 
grammar(34). A number of apparently abnormal forms *''***'** ^^ **"* ^''' 
have been reduced to symmetry by the digamma alone, 
although it may be impossible now to assign it its just 

power in every place to which it seems entitled. That 
such a key should ever have been applicable to the dif- 
ficulties of any text not substantially primitive, would 
have been in itself a paradox. The uncertainty which 
attaches to its use may probably arise from the fact that 
it was in the Homeric period an element which had be- 
gun to lose its hold upon the language. Some words, in 
-which it was continued in iEolic, may in the poet's use 
of it have already lost it. 

*' Homer is con- 

XXV. But the same suspicions which would destroy firmed by Hesiod. 

Tr»i PTT 111 ^^ n t The probahlo jk'- 

the credit of the text or Homer would be equally fatal to ,.ioa of iko van 
that of the Hesiodic poems. I, indeed, can hardly ac- """ \ios\o<\k (so 

' 1 1 ♦ 1 called) poems 

cept these three, or any two ot them, as belongmg to the considered. 
same author. They offer no scope whatever to what is 
to my mind the master-argument for the unity of author- 
ship of the Iliad and Odyssey, the ethical consistency, 
namely, of characters introduced; whilst their mutual 
unlikenesses are far more startling. I should be inclined 
to place the Theogony, allowing for some passages of a 
probably later origin, in the same century as the Homeric 
poems ; the Works and Days — allowing conversely for 

34 Thus among the pronominal forms the epic iy(ov is found also in iEolic, 
the epic ifis^o is justified as a mere lengthened form of the ifiio of Ionic or the 
ifi^o of Doric, the epic rvvrj by the Laconian Doric tovvtj, the epic rstv is Doric 
also, the filv is parallelled by vlv of Attic and Doric tragedy, a(i(iB vfifis afi(ii vfifii 
are at once epic and ^olic, the case-forms of rig and oatig or ortp in Homer are 
all traceable in the Ionic of Herodotus, the rare dfiod'Bv (a. lo) is explained by his 
ovd-aaog. The extended forms of case-endings, as uiiovovtBaaif are directly in 
the line of grammatical analogy, and must in many cases have been supposed as 
its necessary links, even had they not occurred. To similar verb-forms the same 
remark will apply. 

xxvi PREFACE. 

PART I earlier matter most venerable and primitive which it in- 
corporates — in the following century; and the Shield of 
Hercules, which has superficially a greater resemblance to 
the diction of the Theogony, at a considerably later pe- 
riod than either, not however later than the earlier part 
of the 7*** century (35) B. C. Mr. Paley/ the most recent 
editor, has remarked, that ^^to a considerable extent it is 
a cento of Homeric phrases and expressions; more so 
even than of Hesiodic. This is precisely what we should 
expect from an Ionic rhapsodisf (36). 
Certain pecuii XXVI. This Opinion of the late origin of the Works 

arities in Ihe ^ i • i i ti» i i /^\ i x 

Works andDays, and Days, as compared with the Iliad and Odyssey, 1 
found partly on its internal character and partly on the 
primd facie aspect of its diction. Its genius is, as Colonel 
Mure has observed, in a passage quoted by Mr. Paley (37), 
^^essentially personal or subjective. ... In the Works 
not only is the author never out of sight, but it is the 
author, at least as much as the subject, which imparts in- 
terest to the whole. Instead of an inspired being trans- 
ported beyond self into the regions of heroism and glory, 
a gifted rustic impelled by his private feelings and ne- 
cessities, dresses up his own affairs and opinions in that 
poetical garb which the taste of his age and country en- 
joined as the best passport to notice and popularity'' (38). 
Now, although such a genius is not the creature perhaps 
of any period, yet that it should find and keep the ear of 
a people, argues that the facts of its moral and 
mental nature found theirs more in harmony with it than 
seems at all probable in the Homeric age. The quaint, 
terse, and pithy wisdom of its home-saws and rustic 
maxims would not alone necessarily imply a later origin, 
for they were probably a heritage from the earliest times. 
But they are not crudely transmitted , they have a back- 

35 "Hercules (on the Chest of Cypselus) appears armed with his bow as in 
the old Homeric legend, not with the club and lion's skin as in the innovation of 
the Bhodian Pisander which first acquired popularity in the age of Cypselus him- 
self." Mure vol. III. iii. vii, § 7. 

36 Paley's Hesiod p. 108. See also note on Scutum ff, 431. 

37 Paley's Hesiod, Pref. VI, note 3. 

38 Mure U. ii. xxi. § 2. 


ground in the poet's own character, somewhat as has the part i 
Vision of Piers Plowman. 

XXVII. The terse and word-stinted style of the ^^ich seem to 

•/ mark a posl-Ho- . 

purely gnomic passages, which form a considerable part menc epoch, 
of the work, is utterly alien to the easy affluence of 
the Homeric muse. And these are of more value for 
the present argument, since in them any alterations 
in the forms of the words are far less easy; while 
the fact of their being proverbs is strongly conserv- 
ative of their native form, in which they would pass 
from mouth to mouth quite independently of their being 
committed to writing (39). The Hesiodic mannerism 
also, which makes predicative words, mostly compound 
adjectives, do duty as subjects, (40) marks reflection as 
superseding the outspoken first impression of the earlier 
style. And a still further refinement in the same direc- 
tion is the way of telling a thing not in itself, but by its 
results (4>) — the substitution of secondary for primary 

39 Of proverbs keeping peculiarities of verbal form we have English exx. in the 
rebel distich, '* When Adam delved and Evfe span^ Who etc.", the rhyme keeping the 
old preterite form intact; and Bacon's ''When Hempe is spun, England's donne" 
( Essays XXXV), the final e being needed to express the fact of a fifth sovereign 

40 Such are q>8QSoi'iiogf dvoatBog, nivroSog, for the snail, the cuttle-fish, and 
the hand respectively; so x^i'QoSi^noii " might-for-right men", i. e. lawless, bv- 
rpQOvri for the night, vriog ntSQU for sails (used in Homer for oars, but as a predi- 
cate, ta t$ ntBQa vrjval nilovtai I. 1 24). Goettling, Prcpfat. ad Hes, Op, XXX — I, 
notices that iEschylus "cum Pythagor^ proxime accedit ad hanc inventionem vo- 
cabulorum"; instancing dv^B^kOvgyog for the bee in Person 604, dfi^avtog for the 
sea ib. 570; and calls this an "oracular language", comparing that used by the 
Pythia at Delphi. He observes that the Works contains many instances of this 
usage, but the Theogony few; which confirms the view taken above of the greater 
antiquity of the latter. To the same oracular class he refers the cclvog ( Works 
20a foil.) of the hawk and nightingale, — the oldest of Greek fables in the 
uEsopian sense — connecting the term with atviyiia, "i. e, sententia cujus tecta 
est significatio ". All these seem to me clear indications of a later school of 
thought. One might add also the vilification of women, or shall we say, with 
Mr. Paley on Works 375, the first indication of the courtesan? Either of these 
seems non-Homeric, and I think also post-Homeric. 

41 Such are the maxim yvfivov CfCB^gsiv yvfivov 9s Pomzstv in 391, cf. Virgil 
Geor. 1. 2gg nudus ara, sere nudus, meaning, that both would need to be done during 
the warmer weather ; the direction d/Ltc5og ^%(ov fiaaikriv novov OQvC^Baai ti&Biri 
antg^ia naTanQvntmv, 470 — i, where the birds scratching laboriously for the 

xxviii PREFACE. 

PART I phenomena — which Virgil has , with excellent taste as 
regards his own time and circumstances, imitated in the 

especially the XXVIII. But most remarkable is the width and com- 
gnom'irveln. ^ * P^®® ^^ *^^ gnomic range in Hesiod, beyond that of any 
modern and, omitting Holy Scripture and the Hagio- 
grapha,* of any ancient too, except the purely gnomic 
Theognis. One may feel him at times almost rise 
to the impassioned dignity of prophetic warning, some- 
times he muses soberly in the vein of Jacques, some- 
times he strikes the sententiously sarcastic vein of 
Franklin's ^^poor Richard". In him the world seems to 
have done and suffered much since its exuberant heroic 
youth, and to have learned indignant sadness, querulous- 
ness and close calculating thrift. That such a genius 
should have bloomed even in the shade side by side with 
the Homeric, seems strange, but passing strange that it 
should so early have found sympathetic admirers. 

The diction, al- 
though less de- XXIX. As regards his diction, the question is more 
cisive as a test, (Jifficult, siucc, owing to a divergency in the standard- of 
language, differences which seem due to time may be 
only the result of local influences. Many of those noticed 
below (42) would taken singly be utterly insignificant ; nor, 

seed indicate the depth to which it is to be "buried"; and the caution in 496 — 7 
^1} as xaxov ;pst^03V0s dfirjxccvlri narafidgipri ovv nBvljjj iBnzfj 81 naxvv noda 
%Biql Ttisirigj this descriptive action is noticed by Victor Hugo in his NoCie 
DamCf p. 406 ed. 1 836, as characterizing sufferers from cold. 

42 We miss in the Works and Days the characteristic class of open- formed 
verbs in -oca -coo), which are noted above as missing in Archilochus. The Theogony 
has a fair sprinkling. The Shield of Hercules a due proportion, where it is pro- 
bably an imitative feature. There is one in the Works and Days in a passage 
which Goettling (Hes.Opp. not. ad v. 504J, and Mr. Paley (Hesiod, Pref. p. ix) con- 
cur in regarding as non-Hesiodic. In this poem the table of pronominal inflexions 
is far more limited than in Homer, even allowing for the small scope which a di- 
dactic poem furnishes as compared with one so full of dramatic life as his. In the 
typical forms — oto gen. sing., and — ifisvai pres. infin. act. the preponderance is 
slight, but it is on Homer's side. There is a great deficiency in the reduplicated Ho- 
meric forms of aorist and of future not being paulo-post. As regards some more 
special classes, the mixed aoristic forms, as fii^a £to Svcsto, are wanting. The forms 
of siiil and slfii are jejune as opposed to Homeric luxuriance, xtoo I'jttov, frequent 
in Homer, occurs once only, I believe, in the Works (v. 345). I have observed in 


as between Homer and Hesiod, would all taken together part i 
have perhaps a decisive weight, since analogy would be 
in favour of the co-existence of a greater and a lesser 
dialectic richness of inflexional forms in the earliest 
known stage of the Greek language (43); that stage, how- 
ever ancient as regards us , being yet certainly in itself 
both late and transitional." Still, taken together, they 
amount to something, as confirming the argument de- p'»nfin«9 i»>e ar- 
rived from the subject matter of the Works and Days, fvom lUemaner. 
If there be, further, reason for regarding the passage 
v. 7iJ4 ad fin. (44) as older than the chief part of the 
poem, the argument gathers strength, since certain 
forms noted as rare in the previous portion occur fre- 
quently in this. 

them no nom. masc. of the form tnnota fjnvTCCy save the conventional epithets of 
Zeus BVQVona (irjtisTcc vscpslrjySQita. The contractions PaaiXBig and PotQvg 
(v. 248) 263, 611) arc opposed to Homeric usage as re^i^ards those words, altliough 
we have in Homer r7r9rcrff3ce/l£xctff and dgvg acc.phir. (^.151, 5^.851, yl.494, ^« 118). 
The versatile adjective noXvg novXifg noXXog is reduced to fewer varieties. The 
article in one passage occurs with its full force of contrasting persons or things 
with fihv and ifh in a clause. It is v. 287 — 9 

Ti}v (isv tot %a%6x7ixu xal iXadov icxiv iXsad'ai 
(rjiSCmg' leirj fi^v odog, (idXa S* ^yyv^i vain. 
T^g d' aQBxqg tSgata d'sol x. t. I. 

43 Thus is the i4^*> century, whilst Chaucer inflected the verb *to love', in 
the pres. indie, I love, Thou lovest. He loveth^ We, Ye, They loven. Barbour in 
Scotland wrote uninflcxionally I, Thou, He loves. Wo, Ye, Hi (they) loves, and 
John de Tre visa, rector of Kerkeley in Gloucestershire, in the sing, as Chaucer, 
but in the plur. , We loveth, ye loveth, they loveth. Craik's Engl. Lang. pp. 88, 
93. For this and some other English illustrations I am indebted to the Kev^. T. 
W. Norwood of Cheltenham. 

44 It is likely that such a calendar would have been among the earliest fruits 
of observation or of superstition, and that the rules of ceremonial propriety, which 
precede the calendar, are a highly venerable tradition. They will bear compar- 
ison with some of those laid down by Moses, or to which, already perhaps tradi- 
tional, he gave a sanction. The many proverbs and saws scattered in single lines, 
couplets and triplets up and down the poem, may possibly have even in their pre- 
sent form a higher antiquity than any single rhapsody of the Iliad. They, doubt- 
less, came down in some rude rhythm from father to son amid a rustic population, 
and would have been easily gathered by the poet from their lips for the benefit of 
the "much misguided Perses". 


PART I XXX. But the Homeric word-fonois derive some fur- 

As also does *^^^ Confirmation from the Hymns, in popular phrase 
that of the Ho- "Homoric", which date however, the bulk of them, as is 
menc (so-called) ^j^^^. £^^j^ internal evidence, from a period when the 

Hymns. , 

rhapsodists' art had become little else than a handicraft 
of rules and phrases. We shall not far err in placing 
most of them with Mure at various intervals in the two 
centuries which terminate with the ascendancy of Pisi- 
stratus. That to Ceres is probably not older than the com- 
mencement of Solon's period, that to Pan is probably as late 
as the year of Marathon. " The blind old man of Scio's rocky 
isle" had become a conventional i7/^^^o, and the personality 
which he assumes in the Delian Hymn is strikingly con- 
trasted with the non-personal tone of his genuine works. 
The occurrence of the name Peloponnesus also marks a post- 
Homeric age. In all, although least in tlmt to Ceres, there 
is a want of independence of diction, a perpetual tagging 
of Homeric phrase, sometimes queerly perverted from the 
Homeric use of it. All show an absence of lofty conception 
or powerfully marked individuality of character, a striving 
after petty eflfects, and an overdevelopment of accessories 
for the sake of their symbolic or mystical bearing, which 
marks the day when genius had left the epic vehicle to 
priestcraft. Owing to the sacro-festive element in the 
Greek mind, tljese Hymns were abundantly popular apart 
from the question of their merits (45) ; but they are import- 
ant as belonging to the period to which the first crude 
shape of a written text of Homer has above been 
ascribed ; and they carry down a living epic strain, how- 
ever shallowed and dwindled from its original volume, 
far into historic times. In them may be observed nearly 
the same retrenchment from the Homeric word-forms 
which was noticed as prevailing in the Works, whilst 
they are still more barren in some special forms, as 

45 They compare in this respect poorly with the lay of Demodocus in the 
Ody. d; 266 foil., which is in the nature of a Hymn to Hephaestus (Mure 11. ii. 
XX, § 2,), and even with a large portion of the *^ Shield of Hercules ^^: they 
are, however, in close keeping with some of the legends in the Theogony , which, 
indeed, might be viewed as an introduction to them. The Delian Hymn has been 
ascribed to Cynoethus or some other rhapsodist of Chios (ibid, p. 328). 


the case-endings in -tjipL -oipi, in the reduplicated part i 

aorist; and in the 3^^ plural perf. and pluperf. pass, forms 

in -arat -aro, save such as are expressly borrowed from 

Homer. They show a still greater fluctuation of the di- Reasons why 

fJy-t . rt 1 T 1 ' n these Hymns are 

gamma (46). The epic cast of language had become m tact important lo the 
conventionalized, and they rather imitate Homer than p»«8<'"i »»«:«■ 

' T , « . 1 . . nient. 

create in his style, and rather repeat him, than imitate 
liiiti. But, as regards our argument on his word-forms, 
they are highly valuable, because they show, as those 
word-forms through later speech became altered, what 
form the alteration took. They seem to exhibit in con- 
junction with Hesiod how the standard of epic diction 
gradually declined.' If it had been flattened down into 
conventionalism by perpetual recitation, we should not 
trace the diflferences which now occur. As it is, primitive 
characteristics are thrown out in relief, and we rest as- 
sured that even the decomposing influences of writing, 
however early they may be assumed to have begun, have 
so far spared the archaic features as to allow us to re- 
cognise the genuine style. If we continued to believe on 
other evidence than the language, that Homer, Hesiod 
and these Hymns belonged to diflferent periods, then uni- 
formity, if found, would imply debasement. The extent 
to which the Homeric type recedes from the Hesiodic, 
and this from that of the Hymns, confirms on the con- 
trary the substantially primitive character of the former ; 
and this must form my excuse for having led the reader 
so far into matter which is, properly speaking, extraneous 
to the subject. 

XXXI. Mr. Gladstone has remarked on the tendency The rhapsoaisis 
which the matches and prizes of bards at solemn public Xck each"otber" 
gatherings would have in checking corruptions (47). I have 
hinted above, and hope further on to show more fully, why 

46 Baumeister in his ed.of the Hy. Leipsic i860, p. 187, remarkB on the author 
of the Hy. to Mercury. **digfamma non novit sed aliquot locis exempla Homeri 
secutus eas voces in hiatu positas habet, imprimis ot et igya *\ In that to Ceres y. 
37 the f is lost in iXnig^ cf. Ody. «. loi, t. 84, in (v. 66) eWeV, cf. q. 308, 454, and 
in (vv. 430, 440, 49a) ava{ and avaaaa. Some departures from the Homeric stand- 
ard in word-forms are also noticed by Baumeister ttb, sup. p. 278. 

47 Gladst. I. i, p. 56. 

xxxii PREFACE. 

PART I I think that they would not equally check interpolations, 
but ibeir influ- ^^* ^^^7 would uudoubtcdly tend to preserve the word- 
ence, wholesome foFHis iu their purfty. Local and dialectical peculiarities 
"^iT CTadul^iy would bear witness against each other, and traditional 
lost as liieraiare usago would prcvcnt thoso forms which were independ- 
auvance<i. ^^^ ^^ ^jj dialcct from being warped in a dialectic direc- 

tion. If for instance a Dorian rhapsodist had recited 
with the Q final instead of the (T, as in Ttatg^ ror^'for 
Ttatg^ totg{4^)^ or if an Attic one had substituted closed 
for open syllables, there is little doubt that such a liberty 
would have been resisted by his compeers. Yet it may 
contrariwise be also supposed that forms not retained in 
any known dialect would tend to drop out of use, and 
others to be tacitly substituted for them. Where the 
bond of the metre allowed such substitution , the tend- 
ency must be admitted as real; and the influence of a 
written text , when that came into extensive use , would 
concur with it. We should set off against this the influence 
of the rhapsodists, who in the time of Plato (49) had grown to 
be contemned by the cultivated minds of the day, and were 
probably men of the people holding fast a popular tradi- 
tion with a class feeling, while their cultivated despisers 
would have wished to improve them out of it. Whatever 
influence they could exercise on the copies which were in 
circulation, would probably be in favour of the early and 
genuine features of the text (50), and this perhaps is all 
that can be said. The rhapsodists' art does not seem to 
have come down to the Alexandrine period, or if it did, it 
had sunk so far in esteem as to be set aside in silent con- 
tempt. We hear universally of copies, and not of men. 

48 See the early Peloponnesian Monaments in Boeckh vol. I passim. 

49 In Grote's Greece I. i. xxi. p. 521 , there is an attempt to show that the 
rhapsodists were unduly depreciated by Plato's followers. Still, that estimate of 
them is probably to be taken as an index of opinion current in the more cultivated 
Athenian society, and would probably be influential far beyond the limits of 
Athens. The rhapsodists had done good work in their time, and for this probably 
Plato did not make sufficient allowance ; but their apparently complete extinction 
within a century from Plato's time seems to show that their work was done , and 
that they were even then becoming effete. 

50 Tovg yccQ xoi fccil}coSovg olda roc filv k'nri d%QiPovvTag avtovg S^ ndvv 
i^Ud'iovg ovrag, Xen. Memor. IV. 2, 10. 


XXXII. But before the rhapsodist's art had fallen part i 

thus low , it had had contributed something more than a notice of ear- 

oral recitation to preserve the text of Homer. On page *y Homeric com- 

Lviii foil., among the names of the Ante-Zenodotean com- ©f ihem probably 

mentators , appear those of several from the time of Pi- rhapgodists, who 

, T 1 . 1 . n ^ ****** ^^^ poel's 

sistratus downwards, who wrote m explanation of the paramoum influ- 
poet. Their labours wore doubtless for the most part encedowmoPia- 
hermeneutical rather than critical ; but as most of those 
between Theagenes the earliest, and Aristotle, who with 
two of his disciples edited or revised the Iliad and Odys- 
sey, were themselves probably rhapsodists(s>), and as one 
of them, Antimachus, was a poet, we can hardly doubt 
that their feeling would have been against the influence of 
transcribers. At any rate, in their hands the oral and the 
written text could hardly fail of being turned to some ac- 
count as useful checks upon each other; and as they 
flourished over a wide geographical area, from Rhegium 
in the southwest to Lampsacus in the north-east, a con- 
siderable variety of tradition may be supposed to have 
been embodied in their works. If any attempted to deal 
critically with the text, and we can hardly suppose that 
Aristotle's dtd^^^coatg^as wholly without this element (52), 
they probably di^ so on subjective grounds. At the same 
time they could hardly fail to accumulate materials for the 
better informed judgment of a later day. And as Plato, 
who flourished only a century before Zenodotus, mentions 
the names of several of them (53), and those not the most 
eminent of the number, there is little doubt that most of their 
works reached Aristarchus, who came sixty years later, and 

51 Lehrs regards these oarly Uomoric glossographists as rhapsodists (Diss. i. 
p. 46). Thoy wrote brief elementary explanations of difficult words. 

52 His auuteness could liardly have failed to notice the fact of existing varia 
tions and the importance in some passages of their difference as regards the sense 
lint the time was not ripe for such investigations. As regards his interpretation 
Lehrs says (p. 50) ^*ad Homerum expUcandum attulisse Aristotelem quod doctiori 
CBVO alicujus momenti videretur, noc oxempla quee ;ad manum sunt, nee Alexan 
drinornm silentium credere patitur^\ As an ex. of his emendation Lehrs says, 
"nescivit explicare d'sog ccviijeaacCy quaro conjecturasubstituit oviiisaaoc, i.e. quae 
in torris domicilium habet (ibid) ". 

53 Ion. p. 530. C. D. (this dialogue seems of doubtful genuineness, but was at 
any rate probably the work of a disciple); cf. Xcnoph. Memorab. IV. 2, 10. 

HOM. CD. J. 

reached Arislar- 

xxxiv PREFACE. 

PART I were included, so far as he cared to include them, in the 
apparatus criiicm which he employed. At this period or 
earlier, special names, as ^Hhe aQi6rsia of Diomedes'^ (54), 
appear to have been already given to distinct portions of 
the Iliad, and, no doubt, the Odyssey also enjoyed a si- 
milar arrangement. Between Pisistratus and Plato Ho- 
mer was the ruling influence in intellectual Greece. Phi- 
losophy then awoke to divide with him the empire of 
mind. But nowhere is the influence of his poetry more ma- 
The influence of nifest than in Herodotus (55), unless it be inPlato himself. 

statesmen, of pu- ^y^y^-r^^^ tit • t i xx 

biic feeiing^, and XXXIII. It has bcon mentioned that Homer was a 
of individual tcxt-book of instructiou for boys, and enioyed in that re- 

rhapsodists, on ^ ' . . , 

the text, and the spcct a better chancc 01 careiul supervision than most 
question as to pQg^s. Hc was also a Dublic carc to governments in many 

the antiquity of* inn ii .. i 

the copies which citics of Grcece, who followed or perhaps anticipated 
the example set by Pisistratus (56). Statesmen, however, 
only concentrated and methodized the attention which 
the irregular but more sweeping influence of national 
enthusiasm secured to him. Wherever a rhapsodist of 
considerable fame had flourished, his readings would 
probably be accepted by his citizens, and adopted as 
the standard text; and in this way most of the more 
famous men who had lived by Homer aijpl for him, would 
probably leave their impress on his works, and contri- 
bute positive testimony to be sifted by future gramma- 
rians. Those grammarians undoubtedly laboured under 
a deficiency of what Colonel Mure calls "black- 
letter scholarship" in the more flourishing period of li- 
terature. An anecdote, which Diogenes Laertius has 

54 Herod. II. 1 1 6. 

55 Mure (IV. App. Q.) has collected the passages in Herodotus which directly 
reflect the language of Homer, but the subtle penetration of his matterby Ho- 
meric thought is not to be measured by so broad a standard. 

56 Conversely Clisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon, is said (Herod. V. 67) to have 
forbidden the competitive recitation of Homer in that city. Mr. Grote thinks 
(I. p. 514 note i) that the prohibition related to the Thebais and the Epigoni 
ascribed to the poet; Mr. Gladstone argues (I. i. p. 50) that the prominence given 
to Argos in the Iliad would provoke the jealousy of a despot even more. Certainly 
the subject matter recited seems to be of less importance than the public con- 
course and those national sentiments which it would stimulate, save in so far as 
the most popular lay would tend to produce that effect in the highest degree. 


preserved, bears on the point. "How", enquired the part i 
poet Aratus, who professed criticism, "could one come 
by an unvitiated text of Homer?" Time answered him, 
" If one could meet with the anoient copies, and not those 
now-a-days corrected" (s 7). The tone of irony of this re- 
ply seems to indicate the hopelessness of any such quest. 
Yet, still as a good parchment will easily outlast its cen- 
tury (s^), and as the expense of copying a work of 12,000 
lines would operate to check destruction before it was 
worn out, it is probable that a fourth or even a third 
transcript from a Pisistratid archetype of the Iliad or 
Odvssev may have reached Zenodotus. "°^ ^'"' ^^"^ 

J J J inaUer of thf 

XXXIV. We come now to the question of the matter irxi would havp 
of the text. How far would it have been liable to sub- ^'7" .^''r'"^ '^ 

suhslitution or 

stitution or to interpolation? Such substitution as would imerpoiauon. 
alter the facts of the story, would not have been easy 
even in the earliest days of recitation , since the want of 
coherence with the rest of the known text would pro- 
bably have betrayed it. And this holds good to some 
extent even of an isolated rhapsody recited at an obscure 
local gathering; but much more so when we take the 
case of numerous rhapsodies and recitations, kept up 
perhaps for several days together, and that at the more 
celebrated centres of population and political life. Yet, 
within this limit it is by no means improbable that a 
passage may have been frequently recast ; and that thus 

57 TToos tjJv'O^iJpov noLriCLv datpocXag ^trjaano . , , si zoig ccQxai'oig avnyQu- 
(poig ivtvyx^voi xal ftjj totg rj&i^ Si<oQd'(Ofiivoig, Diog. Laert. IX. 113, ap. Wolf. 
Pvolegg, xxxix. 

58 The argument is indeed, if anything, considerably understated. There 
are many remote rural parishes of England with parchment registers intact and 
U»gible from the time of Klizabcth, in a climate more adverse to such preservation 
than that of the shores of the Mediterranean. What would have been the cost in 
the time of Pericles or of Aristotle of a single such diqiO^iga as would contain a 
hundred hexameter lines? Probably, if we include the copyist's labour, not less than 
12 drachmre. tJonsequently 1440 dr., or over £50 present value would be needed 
for 13,000 lines. Copies of Wickliffe's translation of the Bible are said to have 
been sold for €40 each — a much greater sum, if we take into account the change 
in the value of moncysince then. But, although papyrus was a cheaper and more 
perishable material than skin, it is likely that in the case of Homer a sufficient 
number of copies on the more durable substance would have been transmitted to 
Aristarchus even without the conservative influence of "black-letter scholarship". 

xxxvi PREFACE. 

PART I to ^dd polish to the original work may have been during 
one period, and that no short one, an object of successful 
ambition to the rhapspdists. Allowing free play for the 
ordinary tendencies of the human mind, it seems more 
likely that among a people of lively genius, like the 
Athenian, applause would have been sought by such ori- 
ginality as was not debarred by the conditions of the 
work, than by a fidelity to the supposed fixed tradition 
of a textus non scriptus. Moreover, it takes some time 
for such tradition to become fixed. Before that time love 
Athens would of novclty would almost certainly preponderate, and such 
them*i^n\ e^e^t- attempts at inuovatiou, as did not violate the sequence 
er, and Sparta of the story, would probably carry the popular voice 
in a less degrree. ^.^j^ them. On the othcr hand, at Sparta and in Pelo- 
ponnesus generally the tendency would probably be con- 
servative. Of native poets there, save lyric (s9), during 
the period down to Pisistratus, we do not hear. Tradi- 
tion asserts that the poetry of Homer was introduced by 
Lycurgus from Crete — a statement which means under 
that venerable name probably to designate an. early act 
of the Spartan government. The poetry must have come 
in the person of a rhapsodist. Sparta in her early period 
freely imported poets (60)^ and as the universal vehicle of 
poetry was song or recitation, a rhapsodist would be 
necessary. But as Crete had early enjoyment of the sea, 
and therefore probably of Egyptian intercourse, a MS. 
may not improbably have accompanied the rhapsodist. 
The statements XXXV. If Homcr was thus iutroduccd by the govem- 
su-TtuT'rfst on m^nt, it is nearly certain that his text would be jealously 
authority of too watchcd from the popular tampering of reciters. It 
receivedMve in might bc mutilated Or interpolated, if the government 
broad greneraii- thought it had any interest in either (61), but such political 

59 And of the so-called "Dorian" lyrists the majority were ^olians or 
lonians by birth : seeMiiller'sZ>orifln* vol.II.p.381 foil. (TufnelPs and Lewis' transl.) 

60 Tyrtseas of Athens and Alcman of Sardis are instances, and bat for his 
objectionable character, Archilochus would probably have been received there. 
Mure speaks (III. p. 144) of Lacedaemon as being at his "period the great mart for 
poetical commodities". 

61 "Ecprepes the Ephor, on observing that the lyre of Phrynis had two 
strings more than the allowed number, immediately cut them out." MUUer^s 



chicane would be transparent at the first view. Sparta 
and Athens would probably represent the opposite ex- 
tremes of fixedness and variation; and this fact at 
any rate we may suppose Pisistratus would have re- 
cognized; if he had had a mind prepared to enter- 
tain such questions. The Spartan government may have 
given him, since his family had hospitable relations with 
them, the benefit of their copy; for they would almost 
certainly by his time have possessed one, if not in that 
''of Lycurgus". But whether he would have known 
what value to attach to it is very doubtful, and not very 
important. There is great probability that either in 
their copy obtained from Crete, or in that from Argos, 
the Alexandrines possessed what might represent the 
assumed Spartan MS. or its archetype; and most likely 
its characteristics would not have been lost by the year 
250 B.C., the strongjealousy of independence between city 
and city operating as a safeguard of textual peculiarities. 
As regards the action of Pisistratus on the text, the 
Attic tradition has probably attached too much weight to 
it. Later authorities than Cicero insist on finding in the 
Pisistratic era the literary activity of the Ptolem«an(6a). 
The absurdity of this would be plain, even if the later form 
of the tradition did not diverge into an anachronism (63), 
which makes any reliance on the detail of its allegations 
impossible. Yet, taken in the most general outline merely, 
it amounts to this, that Pisistratic research extended to all 


Roa&ons for 
this view. 

Dorians vol. II. p. 335. From this specimen of imperious preciseness we may cal- 
culate how far they would be likely to tolerate corniptions of a text which was 
government property. 

62 The words are Ixifpvfev (nBiaCaxqazog) iv ndafj xri "Elladi zov ^%ovxa 
*OiiriQniOvs axtxovs dyaysCv ngog avxovy inl fita^m toQiCfiivm xa^' ^%aaxov 
oxC%ov. Villoison e Dionys. Thra. Anecdola Gr. II. p. 182. 

63 The anachronism in question is that out of the 72 or, according to 
Allatius, 70 grammarians, to whom was committed the rehabilitation of Homer by 
Pisistratus, were two whose collection and arrangement were allowed by all the 
rest to have excelled, and that these two were Aristarchus and Zenodotus! Wolf 
on the number mentioned remarks, *^ Aristese fabulam audis de LXXU interpreti- 
bus Bibliorum'^; so Villoison ub, sup. p. 183 n. i. Qrftfenhan Gesctnchte der Philo- 
logic sect. 54 — 64 vol. I. p. 266—31 1 is cited, Grote*s Hist. Gr. vol.1, p. 539 note, as 
giving a summary of the facts of the case as regards the recension by Pisistratus. 

xxxviii PREFACE. 

PART I available quarters (64), and oflFered the most substantial in- 
ducement to all persons competent to furnish aid. Cicero's 
statement regarding Pisistratus shows that that view was 
accepted in the schools at Athens in his day ; but he is too 
remote from the period of which he testifies to carry weight 
on more than the most general statement. The notion of our 
inferring from him whether before Pisistratus a written 
text existed or not, is strange indeed. Onomacritus has 
come down to us as the name of Pisistratus' editor, coupled 
unfortunately with a charge of notorious interpolation (64). 
This may be taken, as an admission of the Attic school 
against itself, with less hesitation; whilst it has some 
value as showing that at that period some one was awake 
to the question of what was genuine Homer, and what 
spurious — a value which abides, whatever may become 
of the charge as against Onomacritus. 
The interpoia XXXVI. In a crftical affc, newly conscious of becom- 

tions of Onoraa- i. t i i n • 

critus probably iug SO, men are liable to the error of imputing to earlier 

resttltcd in some „gg ^^le TCSultS of the SamC aCCUmulatcd skill and ex- 
measure from *^ 1.1 

the nccessiiy of pcricnce, which, in their own day, has originated 
ihe case. criticism. The value and criteria of evidence as be- 

tween different sources of authority, where to look and 
with what eyes to see, are things which time slowly 
teaches; but at first critics do not see why these gifts 
are not for every age. Hence literary gossips of the 
Alexandrine period heaped upon Pisistratus the gifts of 
research of a Ptolemy. The evidence of such research 
being wanting, what we learn of the character of Onoma- 
critus does not commend it to our belief. It is, however, 
not impossible that, after collecting all that was reputed 
• Homeric, Pisistratus was obliged to find some one who 
could cement the material together. If the Corpus Home- 
ricum had become disjointed, and the separate members 
had, as it were, sprouted beneath the rhapsodists' hands, 
they might easily have become estranged from their 
former relation, and a new law of combination have been 
required to adjust them, involving the supply of connect- 

64 One of the lines alleged as his is X. 604, see the Harl. Schol. and Nitzsch 
ad loc. 


ing links — the 6Hevri in short implied in the title dia- paet i 
aK€vccOT7Jg{^5). Probably an editor would have been in- 
competent, according to the standard of those days, who 
could not furnish haec ipsa ad munera gluten in sufficient 
quantities. This carries the Pisistratic recension a step 
farther than what was previously allowed, the enquiry 
viz. what was the text of Homer : but this next step would 
almost immediately follow from the answer to that enquiry 
being given : and if Pisistratus took stock of the existing 
material, it is not unlikely that his son Hipparchus 
should have thus followed out the work. 

XXXVIT. And yet all this while there may have been ^*''^'" ^"**^" 

P A • 1 . . r^^^ ^^ *^*^''' ^^^^^^ ****" 

more perfect texts out ot Attica than m it. The literary the Athenian, 
splendor of Athens in a later day was able to ensure cur- "'^^ J^**^® ^^^' 

1 • p -r»« • 1 /• 1 cended to the 

rency to her claim for Pisistratus as the first known re- Alexandrines, 
viser of the text of Homer, and to obscure or obliterate 
the anticipative efforts of other cities, if any were 
made ; and the genius of Cicero has perpetuated to her 
the advantage thus gained. But it is very likely, when 
we consider the long succession at an early age of 
considerable poets in Greek Asia, whose fragments 
testify to their love for Homer, that some earlier 
efforts were made there also to keep or to recover 
a standard text. The more inevitable does this view 
become in proportion as we suppose their Asiatic posi- 
tion to have earlier difRised among them the knowledge 
of the art of writing. In Sparta and perhaps some other 
Dorian states it is likely that copies would have imbibed 
a far less amount of corruption, owing, as has been 
said, to the repression of rhapsodical licence by the state 
itself. Thus Athens and her Pisistratid diaskeuasts may 
have been after all seri studiorum in their textual eflforts \ 
but in the names of several cities fromSinopS to Marseilles, 
which furnished MSS. to the Alexandrines, we probably 
trace a legacy of the non- Attic traditions of the Homeric 

65 Quicunque hoc modo (by interpolation) genuinam carminum Homericorum 
formam cormperant dicebant Alexandrini diaa%Bvaatcig, Etenim quod nos solemus 
dicere interpolare vel quocunque modo geuuinum textum scriptoria mutare, hoc a 
Gnecis Grammaticis proprio vocabulo dicitur diaayt,BvdiHv, Lehrs p. 349, who 
there cites from the Schol. Venet. many examples of this use of the word. 


PART I text. As regards interpolations or substitutions, there 
all carry ing^ alike ^^ ^^^^^^ doubt that thoso found by Pisistratus and his 
their interpoia- diaskcuasts in the text , as well as those in any contem- 
aHnthrabsenTe porary non-Attic texts, would mostly remain there; as it 
of criticism, was ^as Certainly safest that they should, when we consider 
mos to ewis - ^j^^^ crfticism as yet was not. From the specimen of 
critical acumen shown by no less an authority than Thu- 
cydides, in reckoning the Hymn to Apollo as a genuine 
Homeric work, we may rate the Pisistratic discrimination 
of a century earlier sufficiently low. Those revisers would 
probably have no suspicions where the passage presented 
no conflict with any other part of the known text : where 
they had suspicions, their capacity for applying a critical 
test is very doubtful; and where no solution occurred to 
them, they would almost certainly act on the maxim 
that ^^ retention was^ safer than exclusion ^\ And thus 
many passages, which Alexandrine criticism subsequently 
removed, may have cumbered their rhapsodies, and, 
through the vulgate which they, as we suppose, origin- 
ated, may have become for a while currently accepted in 
Greece (66). 
Interpolations XXXVIII. Interpolations are likely to have been 
period were pro- Hiost frcquent in the earliest age, and at no period very 
babiy least no- YSive, wliilc rccitatiou lastcd. Cynsethus is distinctly 
numerous, chargcd with interpolating his own verses in his recita- 

tions at Syracuse ; Onomacritus, we have seen, may have 
felt himself compelled by the necessity of his position to 
interpolate at Athens, and Solon before him was taxed 
with a similar licence for a political purpose. As re- 
gards the ante-Solonian period, if we endeavour to 
judge the question in the spirit of the primitive age 
of poetry, we shall see that the fraudulent essence 
of interpolation vanishes, although its eflfects remain. 
The song, I should conceive, was everything, and the 
poet little or nothing in those days. The poet found his 
account in the office of reciter; and this, after the song 

66 This would help to account for the various passages mentioned or alluded 
to by Wolf Prolegg. § xi, n. 7, as quoted by Plato, Aristotle and others from the 
Homer of their day, which are not found in our present text; without supposing 
that they mean to quote some other poem than the Iliad or Odyssey as Homeric. 


had lost its first freshness, would tend to obliterate dis- part i 
tinctions of authorship. The question, whose was the ,„,! go„,o of con- 
producing mind, was of barren interest and slender prac- Mderauio sizo 
tical importance for those who were absorbed in the ob- JTa^abiy adhered. 
jectivc product. Thus the principle of suum cuique 
would obtain no homage. It was open to all who would, 
to sing the mighty deeds of ancient men. They were 
national property, the heir-loom of the Oreek mind 
rather than the trophies of individual genius. All 
matched — there was no sense of trespass where all was 
publici Juris, no animus decipiendi in the imitator, adaptor 
or interpolator, no suspicious sagacity in the public. 
Frauds, forgeries and literary detectives belong alike to a 
later age. Indeed the only form in which the critical 
faculty could exercise itself in that period was by allying 
itself with the creative. If a thought seemed tame or an 
expression poor; the reciter who had the power would 
criticise by devising a new version ; and if thus roused 
to try an original flight , he would decide the question 
whether or not to incorporate it by his poetical sense 
how far it matched and relieved the existing lay. If it 
be improper to say that interpolation and recasting is 
the oldest form of criticism; yet in this stage of mental 
progress one and the same germ involves the critical 
with other faculties, which afterwards are found to shoot 
different ways. Thus there could have been little in the 
modes of thought at that early period to prevent the song 
of one man being taken up with additions by another (67). 
The feeling of profound reverence for Homer was neces- 
sarily of far later growth than his own day. A rhapsodist, 
endowed with poetical gifts, would be warmed probably 
by the act of reciting, to unite his own out-flow with the 
stream which he transmitted; and would not have felt 
his genius dwarfed and rebuked by the juxtaposition. 

67 Let UB consider how at a later day Virgil borrowed of Ennius and Lucre- 
tius, Ovid of CatiilluB, and all of them impartially of the Greek, nay in our own li- 
terature how the legend of King Lear went through the hands of Wace, Layamon, 
Robert of Gloucester and others, and was actually dramatized and put on the 
stage by an anonymous author within ten years of its being produced by Shak- 
speare before King James I in 1 604. On the argument here and in XXXIX see 
Wolf Prolegg. § xxv. 


PART I Where such additions were in the spirit of the original, 
and of a date not far removed, it might happen 
that they would pass undetected into the corpus Homeri 
cum, and defy the criticism of later days. It is not 
likely that any large member of an epic whole, such as 
an entire rhapsody, could so have been added without 
having excited suspicion when criticism was finally 
awakened ; but many passages of from 50 to loo lines 
may lurk in the text of Homer, which were from a dis- 
tinct source; and may have so completely coalesced with 
it as to have established their position. Those by whom 
the criticisms of Lachmann and W. Midler are accepted, 
will of course as readily suspect whole rhapsodies. But 
I have no confidence in the criteria which they pro- 
pound, and think they may have often mutilated the 
body, for once that they have removed an accretion. 

XXXIX. With regard to short passages of one or of 
a few lines, it may be that there are several hundred 
such due to later authors than the original bard. Such 
short interpolations would be the readiest way of impart- 
ing a finish to whatever seemed left undeveloped before : 
and for a long period whatever enhanced the fulness of 
The Homeric ^^^ image presented to the mind, or left on the ear in 
structure re- any close a better-balanced cadence of syllables, would 
ceives compie- ^^ acccpted for its own sake irrespectively of authority. 

mentary scnlen- ^ ^ r */ j 

ces easily, and The structurc of Homcric scntcnces is such that the in- 
han/^i^^h^^eT ^^^^^^^^ or cxtonsion of a supernumerary clause «rf /i^iVw^w 
cape deteciion, is a Complement which they often gracefully bear; run- 
lioL Jth^aneiKi ^^'^S? ^^ ^^1 ^^^ looscly and at large, like the heroic cha- 
10 serve would riot-tcam with its ita^rioQOi ltctcol. And in this way even 
scwls*^ **^™ felicitous touches may sometimes have been added by a 
sympathetic hand. 'And when this took place, a popular 
rhapsodist, winning prizes in every city by turns, might 
easily succeed in establishing his additions as gratifying to 
the uncritical ear. It seems atthepresent day hardly worth- 
while to trouble one's self or the reader with conjectures 
on such questions. One must in a matter of such anti- 
quity be content to a great extent to accept what one 
finds. On the other hand, additions designed to glorify 
particular houses or cities, or to favour special institu- 


tions^ or which bore the stamp of a given epoch, would part i 
betray themselves. There can be little doubt that 
such fungi yielded a copious crop to the pruning 
knives of the earlier critics, and to a great extent justi- 
fied the slashing expurgatorial zeal of Zenodotus. The 
probability of their existence is the best excuse for his 
excesses, from which, as we shall further see, the more 
discerning forbearance of his successors recoiled. But the 
distinction between disallowing and excising passages 
shows that strong suspicions often existed, where a verdict ,„ns"^ bT^cn 
of non liquet ^was the only safe course ; and in a similar de- doubtful , some 
cision we in the present day must in the greater number JJ*y ^ ,^p* H^^^l^ 
of cases be content to acquiesce. There is indeed one icst. 
test which, I think, has hardly been hitherto sufficiently 
recognized — that of the congruity of the debateable 
passage with tho-^d'og of the speaker, a point in which 
our feeling of Homeric character is often a safer guide 
than grammarian sciiiples*, and on this ground 1 have 
endeavoured here and there to vindicate — with what 
success the reader must judge — passages which have 
laboured under, I think, unjust suspicion hitherto (68). 

XL. The ancient critics who believed in the separate Anncni /w^*- 
authorship of the Iliad and Odyssey obtained the name modern tmitato?s. 
of x&Qciovteg^ as "separating" what had by the voice The notion oi a 

« • J j«i» 1 1 A number ol* dc- 

of previous tradition been pronounced one. Among tached poems co- 
modern critics not only has this view been held, but aiescinir into an 
the substance of each poem has been believed to con- a^ainsT Jl'robab^ 
sist of a patchwork, or cento of epic scraps, which had '''y. 
accumulated round two great centres of heroic song. 
Thus Lachmann(69) has divided the Iliad into sixteen 
such fragments. Minute differences of word-forms, 
phrases, and grammatical manner, as also of costume, 
religion, moral tone and sentiment, have been relied on 
in support of these views, while the grand argument 

68 See the notes on a. 356—9, if, 353 and App. E. 8 (3) note **, d, 511. 

69 In the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy for 1 843 an article of his wishes 
to reckon the wounding of Agamemnon, Diomedes and Odysseus as prior to the 
sending the embassy to Achilles, in the conception of the poet of book XIX. He 
builds this on the word x^^Sov in T. 141, 195, which is precisely one of the in- 
accuracies referred to p. ix. sup. as characterizing a long unwritten poem. 


PART I in favour of unity, which arises from the ethical indi- 
and is refuted by viduality of each character, not only throughout each 
the unity of the pocm, but whcrcver the same character appears in the 
fers*'*"^ '^***'^**^ two poems, has been overlooked. Of such critics it 
may be said that they verhorum minutiis rerum frangunt 
pondera. But before touching on this it may be re- 
marked, that the Iliad and the Odyssey are the sole 
survivors of a wide circle of poems of which the rest 
have perished. How late those others survived is in 
most cases doubtful; but some of those ascribed to 
Homer came down certainly to the age -of Aristotle ; 
one of them, or a large portion of it, to that of Pau- 
sanias. In course of time these also perished, but the 
Iliad and the Odyssey survive and seem imperishable. 
This alone is a strong presumption in favour of their 
superior merit. Neither the ancient nor the modern 
world would let them die. But they let everything else 
of similar pretension die. Surely then it is unlikely 
that such a robust vitality as these poems exhibit could 
have been derived from such a fortuitous concurrence 
of epic atoms as the critics of that persuasion (70) believe. 
It is easy to believe in one mind of towering grandeur, 
and in its creations as permanent, while those of others 
perished. It is not easy to believe in ten or a dozen 
such; it is not so easy to believe in two such; although 
as regards the question of mere duality of authorship, 
the argument has less weight. Again, it is not easy 
to believe that ten or a dozen bards could have so 
sunk all idiosyncrasy as, when united, to appear one(7«). 

70 In France the notion that the Odyssey and Iliad were each a congeries of 
poems was first started circa 1720 by Hedlin and Perrault. They were answered 
by Boileau and Dacier. CasaubonandBentley (see above p.V.note6) favoured the 
same view, and were alleged by Wolf (Proiegg. § xxvi, note 84) as his own pre- 
decessors in the theory. Vico, as Dr. Friedlander says (I. p. a), had gone much 
further than either of these last, but Wolf seems not to have known of him. All 
these, however, hazarded the assertion merely; to Wolf belongs the merit, what- 
ever it may be, of endeavouring to find a scientific ground for it {ibid. p. 4). 

7 1 Payne Knight has given from Fabricius, who rests on Suidas and others, 
a list of over twenty titles of poems, said to have borne Homer's name. They are 
the Hymns to Apollo and other deities, the Epigrams, the Batrachomyomachia, 
the Contest (of Homer and Hesiod), the Goat with seven lengths of hair, the 


The same character, as drawn by different hands, could part i 
not have had the coherency which we see it has. Nor 
would the work, so compounded, have had as much 
wholeness of colour and symmetry of movement as we 
perceive in the Homeric poems. In the first place, the 
more ample and powerful each such supposed genius is, 
the more original and self-possessed will its conceptions 
be, and the wider the range within which divergencies 
will be manifested. In the next, we must guard ourselves 
from viewing these poems as the first rough samples of a stui Homer is 
mere powerful genius wholly untrained. Such fully in «»ii probability 
moulded forms and such versatility of adventure, by the previous pro- 
complexity of the notions which they present, show, as has «^^^^- 
been hinted above (p.xviii), that not a few of those steps 
forward had abeady been taken by which an oral litera- 
ture forms itself. We recognize an age of vast pro- 
lific power, and one which, freely imbibing the external 
stimulants of war, locomotion and commerce, had left 
very far behind that initial stage of human progress 
in which uniformity prevails, because minds cannot es- 
cape into diversity, until growth, pushing different ways, 
has developed it. Homer is not then, in my opinion, the 
symbol for a series of minds ; but he may be viewed as 
the last term in a series, greater than all which had pre- 
ceded it(72). But the longer the period of development 

Arachnomachia, the Geranomachia, the Psaromachia, the CercopeSi the Margites, 
the Epithalamia, the Epicichlides, the Amazons, the Gnomse, the Iresione, the 
Capture of ^chalia, the Thobais, the Epigoni, the Cyprian poem (Herod. III. 1 17)9 
the Little Iliad, the Nosti, the Cycle {Prolegg. \i). The first three are extant. 
The Goat and five following were humorous or satirical, and of those the Margites 
was believed by Plato and Aristotle {Alcib. II. p. 147c, Eth, Nicom, VI. 7) to be 
Homer's own, and had a high reputation. Suidas ascribes it toPigres of Colophon. 
The Thebais was by Pausanias esteemed next after the II. andOdy. {BcboLi^, 729). 
72 It is likely that the Iliad from its more highly episodic character contained 
the result of earlier poets' efforts recast and incorporated. Such are the stories 
of the earlier generation by Glaucus, Phoenix and Nestor (Z. 152 foil., I. 529 foil., 
A. 671 foil.). It is possible also that some of the aqiaTBi^ai, represent what had 
been sung in shorter single flights before, by either Homer, or his predecessors, or 
both. Some of these have been urged in favour of the composite theory of the 
Homeric poems, as if added by a later hand. I believe the opposite to this to bo 
the more correct way of viewing them. In the Odyssey the boar hunt of Autoly- 
cns may be viewed as a similar episode introduced at z. 394. 


PART I through which poetry had passed^ the greater necessarily 
is the distance which separates the Homeric age from 
that of first crude poetic endeavour, where monotony of 
type predominates, where individuality may be supposed 
nearly colourless, and in which accordingly samples of 
different minds might match by virtue of indigenous re- 
The characters XLI. As regards the argument based on characters 

oFOdvssdis PaI" 

las and Men'eiaus contaiucd in the two pocms, I must refer the reader to 
(App. E. 1. 4. 8) Appendix E, in which most of those so contained have 
offer each an bccu cxamiuod at somc length. Those of Odysseus and 
ideniiiy, Pallas, from their complex and multi-lateral type, are 

the characters most effective for the present argument. 
That of Menelaus is hardly less valuable for the same 
purpose, because, although greatly simpler, its traits are 
in the Iliad subdued and overshadowed, while in the 
Odyssey they shine out with great prominence and lustre. 
The conditions are so different, that the identity, if it can 
be established, is the more decisive. And this indeed is 
to a less degree observable of nearly all the characters so 
contained. The analysis does not yield a coincidence of 
ethical points, nor show us the features at the same angle 
of vision; hut pro re natd foreshortened, dilated, reduced 
or enhanced; or changed and mellowed, as it were from 
sunlight to moonlight. The identity which, I think, results 
duly modified by is tlic morc cogcut, bccausc it is relative to the circumstances 
luinst^Tes"^ of ^^^ proportioucd to their demand upon the actor. There 
the two poems, is ouc charactcr, that of Nestor, whose share in the action 
of the Odyssey was hardly large enough for the formal 
notice of an Appendix, but which may be more briefly 
noticed here, as bearing on this point of the argument. 
The turn given to it in the Odyssey has a felicity and 
ease, which speak the master's hand. The element se- 
lected for development there is the jovial one; which, ir- 
repressible even amidst the alarms of war, blooms out 
exuberantly in the "piping times of peace '\ How 
plainly the old gentleman has a will of his own, and with 
what emphatic heartiness, and what a flood of overbear- 
ing good-humour, it makes itself felt, has been noticed in 
some of the notes to book y. and in some of the remarks 


in App. E..4. Yet this, although in the happiest keep- part i 
ing with the Nestor of the Iliad, is less broadly expressed 
in it. The character marches with the circumstances, 
just as in our acquaintance with a real person further ex- 
perience corrects and completes our first impressions of 

what he is. o/sseul^TT' 

XLII. Among the external agencies which modify concUci by duj 
character as between the two poems, the most powerful ""'^'*^ '" "*** "• 
IS, that in the Iliad we have a number of princes banded in,„ in tiu> ody. 
under a chief who is primus inter pares. Such interaction 
of character as thence results is wanting in the Odyssey. 
Thus Odysseus in the Iliad has Diomedos as an alter ego, 
his subordinate and executive half. The few lines at the 
beginning of K. in which Nestor is described rousing them 
in the night to a council give an admirable epitome 
of character. Odysseus is a light sleeper, and rouses 
up at the voice (73), coings forth from his hut where he 
has slept, and, after exchanging a few words, goes in 
again to fetch his shield{74). Diomedes is a heavy sleeper, 
is found sleeping outside his hut with his anuour and 
weapons at his side, is stirred up with a kick (75) and a 
nmsing objurgation from Nestor, and at once takes his 
spear. So the sequel of the book proceeds ; and so also 
in other palssages which contain both these heroes com- 
bined, Odysseus is still the shield and Diomedes the 
spear {7^). But in the Odyssey the two are separated, and 
this draws on Odysseus to be both shield and spear. But This ciivum. 
even thus, his courage is ever cool, his daring kept well hlHimrao'ior*^'' 

73 ^£ vnvov dviysiQE Fsg-qviog [nnora Niatcag 

(p&syidiiBvog' top d* atipa nsgl tpQsvag ^kv»* Icoij, K. 138-9, cf. 148—9. 

74 ib, 150 foil. 

75 Xa| ito6l nivqaaq^ atgwi te vsliisci t' dvxrjv* 

"?y9«o, Tv^iog vti' rCnivvvxov vnvov donvsCg'*; ib. 158—9, cf. 178. 

76 This is that hero's favourite and distinctive weapon, as may be seen from 
the many combats in which he engages. With it ho wounds ApphroditO, Ares, and 
in the funeral games Ajax. See also the characteristic line, 6). iii, where he says, 
he will not retire, Stpgoc %<xl^E%tO!ig iiastai si xal ifidv dogv fiaivstav iv na- 
Xafifjaiv, which same phrase Achilles borrows when, enlarging on the crippled 
condition of the Greek host in the persons of certain prime warriors, ho says, ov vag 
Tv9silfimJiOfii]dsog iv naldfifiatv (lalvstai ^y;^ f ^ly'x.t.i. 7I.74— i;. Diome- 
des is xat' i^oxTJv the spearman of the host, at any rate in the absence of Achilles. 

xLviii PREFACE. 

PART I in hand, and his enterprise circumspect. The act in 
which he comes nearest to the dare-devil gallantry of 
Diomedes , is his attempt to spear the monster Scylla, 
who, like Ares, is immortal. But would Diomedes have 
similarly withheld from his comrades his knowledge of 
the monster's haunt and habits? If not, this rather shows 
that when the two approach most closely there is a clearly 
marked zone of character which separates them. 
Payne Knigrht's XLIII. Payuc Knight thinks the judicial severity of 
1^0 wer ethical Odysscus upou Mclauthius and the handmaids in the 
standard of book Qdysscy a trait unworthy of the same character in the 
ui-founded. lUad, and founds a "chorizontic" argument on this sup- 
posed inconsistency (77). But we have really no situation 
in the Iliad to furnish a test. The treatment of open 
enemies can never supply a standard for that of domestic 
traitors, especially in a servile position. The example 
of Roman manners as regards ihe open enemy, the re- 
volted ally and the servile criminal, will occur to every 
one. Waiving for a moment the question of authorship, 
let us suppose the two poems recited to the same Grreek 
audience. " Would any Greek down to the time of Plato 
have felt in the execution done in book x- a lapse below 
his heroic ideal? He might feel the two poems appealed 
in a different way to his moral feelings, buf would he 
experience in %- particularly a shock to his moral sensi- 
tiveness? I submit that there is no reason to think so. 

77 "In foedis istis et immanibus suppliciis quse Ulysses et Telemachus de ca- 
prario et miseris aliquot mulierculis samunt, judicium limatius et liberalins desi- 
derandum est. Bellatores suos atroces, ssevos et feroces exhibuit Iliadis auctor; 
sed a frigida ea ac tarda crudelitate quse odium duntaxat et nauseam pariat 
omnes abhorrent. Csede et sanguine hostium non cruciatibus inimicorum gaudent : 
neque Achillis tantum vel Diomedis, sed Ulyssis etiam, quails in Iliaco carmine 
adumbratur, excelsior et generosior est animus quam ut in servos et ancillas sae- 
vierit aut tam vili et miserando sanguine ultionem vel iram placaverit " (Payne 
Knight Prolegg. in Horn, § L.j. The mention of Achilles and Diomedes here sug- 
gests the remark that the atrocious treatment of the corpse of Hector by Achilles, 
and the butchery by Diomedes of the sleeping Rhesus and his comrades, although 
not strictly in pari materia with the conduct of Odysseus to his revolted slaves, go 
far to redeem it from falling below the actual Homeric standard. The former 
sinks below the ideal of the poet himself, as shown by the interposition of the 
gods to stay the outrage on humanity, and especially by the line xcoqpijv yotQ S-q 
yatav uH%Ci£i ^svsa^vav SI. 54. 



And if this be true, why are we to tax the poet for a part i 
moral standard so far transcending that of his audience, 
and really borrowed not from the Iliad but from 
Christianity? I cannot think that such a topic -^ould 
ever have crossed the mind of any of the ;|riD(»^£o'i/T£g of 
the heathen world. But I believe that the mistake has 
partly arisen from the objector not observing that the 
aspect of Odysseus in this scene, long foreseen and pre- 
pared for, and allying might at last with right, proceeds 
in a course of measured and graduated retribution (78). 
The suitors perish as becomes Achaean nobles, the female 
slaves are denied an honorable (xa^aQdg) end and 
strangled, the renegade caught in overt treachery is 
hacked to death. We may surely compare the penalties 
of the mediaeval and Elizabethan English law of treason 
and the studied atrocities of executions in ante-revolutio- 
nary France. How long is it since the world grew so ten- 
der-hearted as to let simple death suffice for the highest 
penalties, that we should assume the manners of the Iliad 
to include that degree of clemency ? 

XLIV. The conduct and bearing of Pallas upon the plot '^^'^ hehnng of 

Til- 1 ^1 " •!! T«» • 1 *^® groddess Pal - 

IS, I believe, thought by some too widely different m the us in the two 

Iliad and Odyssey. In the former, it is said, she appears ^^^"^^ **** "°"* 

as the fellow-combatant of the hero whom she befriends, cumstaniiai dif 

and in the latter as his familiar spirit. This opinion is, <^«<'n«<^- 

I believe, based on the prominence with which every 

reader recals the magnificent ccQiOrsta of Diomedes and 

the formidable figure which the Amazon goddess there 

makes. That is suited to the warlike ijdog of the poem : at 

the same time, however, it is an extreme case, and even in 

the Hiad itself is necessarily exceptional. Tohavekepther 

in that degree of predominance would have overwhelmed 

the life of the battle-pieces in that poem, and robbed 

them of their human interest by theurgic intervention (79). 

78 See some remarks' in App. £. i. (14) to a similar purport, bnt which were 
written before reading the remarks of Payne Knight. 

79 Compare some remarks on her function in the fivqatr^QOipovia in App. 
E. 4 (8). We do not feel this so much in book £. because the hostile presence of 
Ares on the Trojan side restores the balance ; and so in the combat of Hephaestus 
with the river Xanthus in $. 



PART I As regards her other appearances in the Iliad, the mode 
in which she acts upon Pandarus in ^, 86 foil, is so pre- 
cisely similar to her repeated interferences under various 
eidola in the Odyssey, that, assuming the priority of the 
former poem, it may be said to be the precedent which 
they follow. Her action upon Odysseus in B. 169 foil., 
and previously upon Achilles in A. 197 foil., is very si- 
milar to her confidential communications with Odysseus 
in V, 288 foil, and in or. 157 foil., in a disguise which she 
readily abandons, or which he easily penetrates. Her 
action against Hector in X 214 foil., complicated as it is 
with an appearance undisguised to Achilles, and again 
under an eidolon to Hector, contains at any rate the germ 
of her operation against the suitors in %, 205, 256, 273, 
297. Her greater familiarity with the hero in the Odys- 
sey may be accounted for by her avowed preference for 
him, and by his greater isolation there. Nor is it dis- 
proportioned to their respective characters, that she 
should appear to Diomedes as his fellow-combatant, and 
to Odysseus chiefly as his politic counsellor. 
Certain objec- XLV. As regards the variation stated by Payne 

.ions are examin- -rr-i-in - t* • i»i \4^ -i 

de founded part Kuight lu the lonus of ccrtam words m the Odyssey 
from the same as found in the Iliad, such as 
in Odyssey in Diad 

vcivviios vdvvfivog 

dyQottig dyQOircit'qg 

i^ovg i^oog 

Soato 8oa66axo 

ly on the ian 

, I monosyllables 

x£%vB(Qg^ nsjtrscig etc. tsdvrjcjg, TCSTcrr^cig etc. 

yQccirjj yQYivg, yQrjvg ysQatij: 

it may be noticed that vcivv(iog comes directly from 
oVofta, which, with the forms ovofid^G) ovofiafSrog^ shows 
that it is the -vog of vcivv(ivogy which is accretive rather 
than the -fiog of vcivvfiog which is defective ; ^itsmg^ as 
Col. Mure remarks (80), is shown similarly by d'E6niSai^g 

80 Mure II. App. D. p. 494. 

or closed Torins, 


to be as primitive as ^BiSniaiog^ or rather more so ; aypotoi- part i 
xYigy or rather its plur. -arai^ occurs in both poems ; cfypo- 
rai is a noun ajra| slQrj^evov in jr. 218. The former word 
is adjectival, and means rustic or even clownish, as shown 
by some such word as fiovxokoLy avsQcg, Aaol, and the like, 
being always introduced with it (8.), and by the line <p. 85 :i;tl'i:V- 
vrjntoLj dyQOL(Stcciy iq>Yi^iQia (pQoviovxeg^ where we have valence of open 
three adjectives or adjectival clauses, all bearing a re- 
proachful sense. As regards tcCoi^ the argument depends 
firstly on the rejection of A. 705 as spurious, secondly on 
Ariys, which follows, having the digamma(82). The only 
passage-apparently favourable to iCQia being a monosyl- 
lable is t. 347, where the a final may probably be lost 
by hypermetral elision. For its general quantity see 
note on y. 33. ?yovg(83) is common to both poems, so are 
xe%vB(og and nentatog^ tsd-vricig and jr£jmjQ)g(84), not to 
mention rs^vsidg and the variation -o'rog -fStog etc. in 
the case-forms; on do'aro soe note at f. 242, where Wolf s 
reading Siax\ confirmed by Butmann, LexiL 38, is to be 
preferred. yQccirig in a. 438 is a ancc^ slQijiiivoVy but 
r^atav in 5. 498 occurs as a nom. prop., yQfit is not pe- 
culiarly Odyssean, witness F. 386, ysQaidg is common to 
both poems (85). He further objects that fjrijv = insl av 
is found not unfrequently followed by indie, in the 
Odyssey, but never so in the Iliad. He cites, however, 

81 A* 549, 676, 0. 373/ X. 29a. 

82 I am inclined to think that the digamma is inconstant in ftfoff, and that 
%{oi is dissyll. in i, 42, 549. 

83 S, 470, 508, 525, /*. 3, V, 94; cf. Arixovq in A. 9. 

84 P. 402, ^. 84, P. 435, 0. 23, g. 354, %. 384, 362, *. S03, fi. 474, t' 384- 

85 A vast number of close and open, short and long, etc. forms in the two 
poems might be raked together, which occur with sufficient promiscuousness in 
both j but it is likely a close sifter might detect some confined by mere chance to 
cither: such are %Xii5iumv %Xi,amv^ Boqiao Bogim, nvai ytvvBaai, but daTigvai not 
SaKQvsaat, contrariwise i^gmiaai not '^Qtoct, (iBi^ovoi fisi^m, (isiiovsg fisCSovg, ntvasavoc 
xtix£c5, ^cSfta and ^00, ^vyatgsgd'vyaTiQegy Svaaijmv dvoaiog^ ngsiav ngsAvy yiXav 
yiXov, dtsaci and osaai, nagi^atog ndgriTog HQaari ytgottogy novXvg noXXog noXvg ; 
cf. also fiad'vggoov ^. 8 with x^''P''<^QQOvg A. 493 ; d'Bol is a monosyllable only in 
^.18; besides the forms in -oio and -ov, case-forms in -q>i. represent -ov -to -r^g 
-jf, and we (lave a large variety in forms of pronouns and their possessives. It 
would be a work of some time to complete the list. But when complete it might 
be easily matched alike from Chaucer and from Shakspeare. 



PART I no instances, and I have not been able to find any sucb. 
Crusius notices none such, nor does Jelf or Donaldson. 
I believe the fact to be, that it is followed several times 
by optat., and more frequently by subjunct., in either 
poem. His objection, that Hermes is nowhere the mes- 
partiyonthemy- genger of Olympus in the Iliad, has been abundantly 
tions^o? deities, answcrcd by Col. Mure (86) and by Mr. Gladstone (87). 
His objection, that in the Iliad Poseidon has no trident, is 
singularly inapposite, for we find no proper function of 
the sea-god in him there. He is there, as it were, a "fish 
out of water '' ; but in the Odyssey he shivers the rock, 
and rouses the tempest (88). The alleged inconsistency is 
a nice observance of propriety of costume. He objects 
that Delos is not mentioned as sacred to Apollo in the 
Iliad, the fact being that it is not mentioned at all, and 
only once in the Odyssey, and there as part of a travel- 
ler's reminiscence. Similarly Cilia is only mentioned as 
sacred to Apollo once in the Iliad (89)^ and nowhere in the 
Odyssey. Equally feeble is the objection that Theseus 
is mentioned as a hero in the Odyssey only. This as- 
sumes A. 265 to be an interpolation. Be it so ; why may 
not then k. 322 — ^5 and 631 be likewise interpolations? 
But the objection assumes that a poet's mythological lore 
is to be equally exhibited in each of his works, and no 
god or hero named in one who is not also named in the 
other. If this principle were applied to Milton's Paradise 
Lost and Regained (90), what havoc it would make of the 

86 Mure II. App. B 3. 87 Gladst. II. iii. 239—41. 

88 tf. 506 — 7, «. 291 — 2. It may be asked whj has not Poseidon his trident when 
he shakes earth to her centre in T. 54 foil. ? And must we not understand it when 
he is matched, otherwise weaponless, against Phoebus in $. 436 foil.? But even in 
the Ody., e, g. in v. 1 63, where it would seem proper, Poseidon has not always the 
trident; and perhaps the weapon used familiarly upon tunnies and lampreys 
would have been ridiculous in a ^sofiax^a. In Virgil's time the trident had be- 
come as purely conventional as it is to us now; hence he without scruple intro- 
duces, in iEn. II. 610 — i, Neptune on shore digging up the walls of Troy with it. 

89 In A. 38 the prayer of Chryses, recurring in 452. 

90 It is remarkable how Milton, in the first half of his greater poem, inclines 
to the Ptolemaean, and in the latter half to the Copernican theory in his celestial 
machinery ; which ought on ** chorizontic " principles to imply duality of author- 
ship. This was pointed out to me by M*". H. James, V. P. of the Normal College, 


poet's allusions ! As regards another objection, the ab- part i 

sence of the oracular terms XQ^^^'^y ZP^^^^^V^^^ffj found in 

the Odyssey, from the Iliad, it may be answered that in 

the latter the Greeks are fast bound to one spot and have p**^*')^ »" ***« 

their soothsayer, Calchas, with them. Their fortunes on cies or the**8*i 

the voyage are most briefly alluded to, their previous •'"<^« concerning' 


home-life hardly at all. The same god, however, who in 
the Odyssey gives oracles, inspires the soothsayer in the 
Iliad. Surely, under circumstances so diflferent there is 
no room for the negative argument, even if we may not 
rather on general grounds claim a confirmation. 

XL VI. Payne Knight also traces a development in the *"^ P**^*^y <>" 
Odyssey of the social state and arts of life beyond that «nd comparaUvc 
of the Iliad. The word dTJg^ dijtr^vco, is said to indicate v^ogrw in the 
a class unknown to the Iliad, and not fitting into the !„ eiihcr poem. 
frame of society there. Such objections forget that what 
wc have there is life in a camp with an occasional glimpse 
of a palace interior in Troy. Of civic life in Troy there 
is little or nothing, -and even the houses mentioned are 
all those of princes. How is it possible that a scene so 
circumscribed should afford scope for all the relations of 
social life to be stated? Take as an illustration the 
question of slaves : the word dovkog does not occur, Sfidg 
once only in II. (T. 333), in a line which could well be 
spared, and which is in fact no statement of events at 
Troy, but a retrospect of home-life by the bereaved Achil- . The sociti state 
les ; the word dvdQanoSov also once occurs (if. 475) in a shown in the 
passage describing various articles of barter; and here "^^J 
again the line could be detached without being missed, 
and has been suspected by Thiersch (9') and others before 
him for the sake of the word. There remains then but 
one undoubted passage in the Iliad, in which a slave of 
the male sex is spoken of, against over 30 times mention 
of it in the Odyssey. The isolated mention in the home- 
picture in question supplies exactly the key to the dif- 
ficulty, and shows that the social state of the Iliad is ex- 
ceptional, and that therefore it is that d(i(og occurs once 
only, and ^rjg not at all. For the same reason there is no 

91 Gr. Gr. 197, § 60. 


PAET I ^^(^XV i^ *h® Iliad. As regards the arts of peace what 
Payne Knight says is very likely to be true ; on the con- 
trary, as regards the arts of war, the opposite is the case. 
We might not, save for the Iliad, have supposed the 
r'Iktr'tf wir Greeks of the period capable of orderly marshalling a 
appears there host of men(92), of onclosiug and fortifying a camp with 
U)')cd *^ **'''^^ ^ rampart, turrets, a foss and palisades (93), of the curious 
metallic combinations described in the armour of Agamem- 
non (94), or of contrivances for keeping a fleet of ships, 
drawn up on the beach for a long time, ready for instant 
launching by troughs and props (95). The first two 
Arguments examplcs of arts which he selects are both trivial and 
mention of cer- doubtful. Hc says, the striugs of the lyre are in the Iliad 
tain artistic ap- Qf fl^^, and in the Odysscy of gut. Assuming that to 
p lances, ^^ ^^^ meaning of the passage, it is certainly open to 

question, whether the twisting fibres of flax into a chord 
be not on the contrary a mark of further civilization than 
the use of the intestine of an animal. Further, both in- 
ventions might have been in use at once, as are hempen 
and chain cables in modern ships. But one cannot but 
question the whimsical criticism which makes a string 
twisted of flax, a vegetable fibre, a proof of priority in the 
Iliad, and the cable (96) twisted of fivfilog^ another vege- 
table fibre, a mark of posteriority in the Odyssey. But the 
meaning assigned is at best questionable. The words Xivov 
d' 'iico xakov auSsv having been, as the objector admits, 
taken to mean something very difi'erent (97). As regards the 
examined in de- ^o'AAo^ (98), or peg (?) for tightening the string8,Bomesuch 

92 J. 297 foil., 447—9- 93 H, 436—41- 94 ^- 19 ^9^^- 95 -^- 486, B. 153. 

96 As regards this objection, it should be noticed that the word for cable in 
the same passage {onXov tp, 390 — i) is peculiar in this sense — and indeed in the 
singular in any sense — to the Ody. Obviously this is to be referred to the spe- 
cial scope of the poem. And, indeed, one might make from the details given of 
the build and rigging of ships, and of the interior of a palace, a long list of Odys- 
sean words. 

97 ^^Haud me effugit viros doctos Xlvov istud pro cantiunculd qu&dam habu- 
isse" {Prolegg. xLvii, note 2). This was Aristarchus' view, Zenodotus preferred 
that of Payne Knight. Two SchoU. on 2, 570 explain flax as used because, the 
song being there a hymn to a god, the gut was unsuited to the sacred occasion — 
evidently regarding the use of the two as contemporaneous. 

98 Volkmann p. 1 20 contends for a different sense of %6Xloip, " non est uer- 


contrivance must have been in use from a very early part i 
period of the lyrist's art, since they would always be 
liable to stretch. His other instance is that of columns in 
a palace interior, mentioned only in the Odyssey. But it 
is there only that such an interior comes in for descrip- 
tion, and the spaces assumed as inclosed in the Iliad 
make it difficult to understand how without columns the 
mass could have stood. His next objection is founded on 
the epithet dil^oQQOog applied to the ocean, "returning 
upon itself, or ''circumfluous", alleged as occurring 
only in the Odyssey, and betokening there a further ad- 
vance of geography and navigation. But it is surely 
puerile to talk of any such advance as would have dis- roandedTr\he 
covered in fact that the continental mass was really sur- epuhet d^poQ- 
rounded on all sides by water. The notion must be taken ^^^' 
as one of poetical conjecture only. Let us, however, 
waive this and allow with Payne Knight, £. 399, in 
which the word occurs, to be spurious. Yet we have two 
passages in the same book 2J, (99) which confirm the no/ton 
as in the poet's mind. The one is 485 — 9, where "all the 
constellations which encircle heaven'^, save the Bear, are 
mentioned as setting in the ocean-stream. How is the 
conception possible, if that stream be not regarded as 
dilfOQQOOs in fact? The other is 479 — 80, cf. 607 — 8, in 
which the ocean-stream is made to run round the rim 
which encompasses the shield. The rim runs round 
(jtegl) the shield, the stream goes along (arap) the rim. shown to be in- 
The obvious inference is surely that the poet's idea is conclusive; 
that of a stream dtlfOQQOogj and thus the argument against 
the word collapses. The next objection, that certain me- 
thods of fowling and fishing (« 00) are also found men- 

iicilltan quo chordae intenduntnr et remittnntnr, sed jttgum, der Steg, quod recen- 
tiores xoXlcefiog vocant^^ Grnsias does not support this. 

99 It should be mentioned that Payne Knight protests (xi — xvii) against Hey- 
ne*8 (Exc. 111. ad Z.) condemnation, following Zenodotus, of the whole shield- 
passage as post-Homeric. Surely then the amount of metallurgy involved in it, 
is such a step in advance, as throws all the art-knowledge of the Odyssey very 
far into the shade ; and this without assuming that metallurgic skill could then 
actually compass such group-casting as the shield implies. 

100 As regards fowling, it is very doubtful whether the birds are not rather 
mentioned as pursuing the chase for themselves ; see Mure*8 remarks (IL Append. 
C.p.492): as regards fishing, Payne Knight consistently rejects £. 487—92, a si- 


PART I tioned only in the Odyssey, may surely be met by the 

general reply, that the war-scenes of the larger poem af- 

as also those on f^j.^ ^^ scopo for such things, and that in similes, in 

certain arts men- ^ • t ^ ^ -ia^t ,i. 

tioned in similes, which alone they occur in the Udyssey, a poet s choice 
to use or to omit any particular image is surely free. On 
the other hand, we have in similes in the Iliad the 
method of irrigation alluded to, and the purple-staining 
of ivory by the Mseonian woman, of neither of which the 
Odyssey yields any trace. 
Beyond their XLVII. Thosc are the arguments ofPavue Kuiffht for 

own inconclu- i i • j -l i 

siveness, these Separate authorship and such answers to them perhaps as 
objections are caubc givcu. But iudccd all spccial answer is superfluous, 

overbalanced by 5^ •ij»iii . i 

the ethical ar- whcu they are wcighcd lu the balaucc agamst the gravc ar- 
grument; and the gumont for Unity based on the ethical oneness of each cha- 
racter found m the two poems : for all such arguments hang 
in the fringe of the garment merely, but these figures are 
indissolubly inwoven in the woof and warp of the fabric 
itself. With the arguments to a similar purport once 
urged by Nitzsch it is needless to meddle, since he him- 
self lived to own their insufficiency, and became a con- 
vert to the belief in the unity (loi). It must be allowed 
that a far larger array of examples would be needed than 
those here reviewed to establish the conclusion aimed at, 
and that the force of those few which have been ad- 
vanced, is too far invalidated by others alleged per con- 
tra, for us to view it as established. And after all, there 
is nothing either in the vocabulary (102) used or in the 

mile in which the net (dipCaL Xtvov) is spoken of, as interpolated. Why the two 
similes in %• 302—6 and 383 — 9 may not be equally interpolations, I cannot see. 
In them alone are these methods spoken of. One or two such facts may be found 
not unfrequently in contemporaries. Thus the ages of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson 
largely overlap, and yet while the latter mentions the familiar use of tobacco, the 
former never once alludes to it. 

1 01 See Mure pref. p. vi, who refers to Nitzsch's Sagenpoesie der Griechen. 

102 There are some excellent remarks on the words which occur exclusively 
in either poem in Friedlander (II), who observes that by far the greater part of 
them are due to the object or person introduced into the one poem, whereas, 
either by chance or by the nature of the circumstances, occasions for their em- 
ployment are wanting in the other (pp. 795 — 6J. On p. 812—4 he gives several 
lists of such words. Thus e^c/SfVvog, Xoiyog, vrjnvTLog, vrjnCaxog, £nnrjldaiog, 
dyaytXsijs, aXayt'Jm, xudtooD, avSixoc, $idvSi%a^ nsgiSsiSmy iavog (stavog), sld'agy 
Tvprj, vnai&a, and xQaiansca, are noted as Iliadic words; forms related to some 

utmost which 
(hey provo 


things mentioned, even if we allow the objections the part i 
full force which the objector ascribes to them, beyond 
such a degree of progress as may fall within the life of 
an individual man. As regards language, our own such a decree or 
during the reign of Elizabeth (103) probably underwent a Zmp'^Lrv^ll 
greater change than the closest sifting could discover in iho doveiopmcni 
the Odyssey as compared with the Iliad. As regards "^l^^f^^^^^^^ 
things, compare the state of the arts of life in Europe rapidly transiti 
wherever a busy and lively period has succeeded one of °"*^* 
standstill, Italy before and during the period of the 
Medici, our own country during and after the Lancas- 
trian civil wars, and a development, proportionate to any 
conceivable as belonging to the period between the Iliad 
and the Odyssey, may readily be found. And certainly, 
if the unity and personality of Homer be allowed, there 
can be no reason for assuming the period which produced 
him to have been in itself a stagnant one. 

of these and common to both poems being igs^og and igsfivog, vj^niog, dyayilvtog 
and ayanXsitogy jXsyco, livSog, TivSgog, Tivd tatog, %vSa^v<Oy Si%a^ dei'^oi. Again 
XQri\i,ata^ s^'qg, danaatog, tnni^kcctog, dlByvvo), ilnlg^ ilTKOQii, nivvtog, dlaog 
ulaocHy amsgog^ Inrjstavog, ncclXifiog, nsQLiirixccvdofiai, are noted as Odyssean, 
and related forms common to both are s^s^rjg,' dandatog^ ^Inca, ^Inofiai, dXaocnO' 
nirj, iirixctvdoficci. He remarks that two of the Iliadic class are certainly striking, 
viz. those remarked upon by Buttmann, iccvog and XQfxiOfiitOy and that two others, 
loiyog and XQW'^''^^9 although in his opinion referable to the distinct subject mat- 
ter treated of, may appear to some critics to present a proof of a distinct usage. 
As regards xQW^^'^^j *^® promiscuous use of it with the Iliadic Titi^fiatcc in Ody. 
(n. 384, 389) goes far to negative any such presumption. But we may surely ask, 
does not human speech progress in one generation with much more startling in- 
crements than these, even if none of those'given in the above lists were accounted 
for by the difference of tenor and subject in the poems? Dr. F. (I, p. vii) has 
also quoted from Lachmann some striking remarks on the mere casual use or dis- 
use of words highly familiar in everyday style. He adds (II. 796) that such words 
as are peculiarly Iliadic orOdyssean are mostly nouns and adjectives, rarely verbs, 
and still more rarely words of other classes, "which^ alone might suggest that the 
ground of the peculiarity lay, not in distinctness of vernacular but in that of sub- 
ject-matter". See on the other hand Volkmann, pp. 121 foil., on words "quae 
nuUft . . . rei novitate excusantur, multo majorem igitur novae originis suspicionem 
necessario movent". He alleges as such in the Ody. 7 nouns, 18 or 19 adjectives, 
and 8 verbs. Volkmann views the later origin of the last six books of the Iliad, and 
of the eighth and eleventh books of the Ody. as established beyond a doubt (p. 1 20). 
How the Iliad could possibly have ended with the onXonoiia of S, he does not 
explain. If any book of the poem leaves us expecting a sequel, 2^. surely does. 
103 See Latham's English Language 1} p. 318 (4^^ edition). 


XL VIII. As regards attention early paid to the study of Homer 
and works meant to assist it, although their critical pretensions are 
very doubtful, the following sketch may suffice. 

Theagenes of Rhegium was a younger contemporary of Pisistratus, 
and is mentioned as ^Hhe first who wrote concerning Homer" (i). He 
is said to have had recourse to allegory in explaining the poet. That 
such a work should have found acceptance so early, seems to forbid 
the notion that Homer was up to the Pisistratid period only known as 
a loose collection of ballad pieces. The writings of Theagenes, no 
doubt , were known to the Alexandrine school ; see Mure vol. IV p. 
95. Fabric. I. pp. 367 — 8. Schol. Aristoph. Av. 823. 

Anaxagoras the philosopher seems first to have unfolded the ethi- 
cal character of the Homeric poetry, as being jcsqI d^Btrfg xal dtxaio- 
Cvvriq (Diog. Laert. II. 11). 

Euripides, the father of the poet, unless it were some other of the 
same name, is said to have revised Homer (Fabric, ibid p. 362). 

Stesimbrotus of Thasos and Metrodorus of Lampsacus(2) also wrote 
on Homer. Metrodorus is said by Diog. Laert. (ub, sup.) to have ap- 
plied to the Homeric mythology explanations of physical phenomena. 
He also is said to have disbelieved the historical existence of the Ho- 
meric personages, and to have viewed them as introduced for the sake 
of the interest of the story (xccQiv olxovofiiag). With these may be 
joined Hippias of Thasos, mentioned by Aristotle in the Poetics (cap. 
XXV. §. 8 ap. Fabric.) as having solved Homeric difficulties, and 
Glaucon, perhaps an Athenian. All these appear to have been rhap- 
sodists^ and to have belonged to about the middle of the 5^^ century 
B.C. : the first was a contemporary of Pericles, and was the teacher of 

1 Schol. Ven. B. on T. 67; whether that on A, 381 speaks of the same man 
is not clear. 

2 Plato, Ion 530 D. 


Antimachus (3) of Colophon, poet and grammarian, whose editions of 
Homer, or one of them, furnished matter for excerpta to the SchoU. 
Von. and L, on j4. 423, 598, N. 59, O. 397, 607 ei aL Eustathius also 
cites him as an interpreter of the poet. His age was 404 B. C. (Fabric. 
ibid. pp. 358, 360 — i). He and Stesimbrotus are said to have treated 
"de carmine, genere et tempore Homeri" (Tatian ap. Fabric. II. p. 
358). As Aristotle revised the Iliad for Alexander, so did Callisthe- 
nes his disciple, and Anaxarchus, the Odyssey (Fabric. I. p. 357) (4). 

Aratus, the poet of the Phcenomena, and Ehianus, an epic poet of 
note in his day, although later than Zenodotus , yet as external to the 
Alexandrine School, may find a place here. The former edited the 
Odyssey, and his dtoQ^o^tg is among the works cited by Suidas. He 
is said to have attached himself to Antiochus Soter, king of Syria, 
who urged him to undertake the Iliad also. Wolf thinks that, on his 
declining it, Rhianus accepted the task {Prolegg. § xLi). This edi- 
tion (1} 'Piavov or Ttatct ^Ptavdv) is often cited by the SchoU. as an au- 
thority for readings in the Ody. also, showing that his labours ex- 
tended to both poems. Fabric, {ub. sup. p. 357) mentions a tradition 
that Aratus edited the Iliad also, being led to do so from its having 
been ^'corrupted {lelv^dvd'aL) by many". 

Cham»leon of Heraclea was a personal pupil of Aristotle, contem- 
porary with Heraclides Ponticus(s), against whom he charged a lite- 
rary larceny in purloining (which may perhaps mean plagiarizing 
from) a work of his on Homer and Hesiod (Fabric. I. p. 508). His 
name is introduced here for the same reason as that of Aratus , and 
on the same ground stands the following name. 

Chrysippus, the Stoic philosopher, b. 280 B. C. (Smith's Diet Biogr.)^ 

3 Wolf. Prolegg. § xl. appears to have at one time supposed that the gram- 
marian was a distinct person from the poet of this name, but to have been con- 
vinced by the further light thrown by the Schol. Ven. Yet Fabricius (ub. sup. p. 
359) puts it as if Wolf bad maintained the affiraiative, and Villoison had doubted. 
Bnidas identifies them. 

4 Antimachus* own poetry is said to have shown a vigorous style and much 
power of expression, but to have been wanting in suavity and ease. Proclus, com- 
menting on Plato, {7Hma*us I p. 38) has a statement that Plato preferred his poems 
to those of Chcerilus then highly popular. Some say that the specimen of prolix- 
ity censured in Hor. A. P, 136, commencing "reditum Diomedis ab interitu Me- 
leagri*\ was really borrowed from a ThehaXs which he composed under the influ- 
ence of Homeric study. Aristotle {Rhet. iii. 6) cites from him an example of purely 
negative poetical description. Over a hundred fragments of Antimachus are given 
in the Script, Gvfvc, BiOlivth. Paris 1 840. 

5 The elder, not the one mentioned in this list inf. 


wrote also on poetry and criticism in which he incidentally illustrated 
many passages of Homer. He is censured by Plutarch {de audiendis 
poetis p. 31) as a frigid interpreter. He is cited by the SchoU. Ven. 
on N. 41 and on Q. 483, where the remark ascribed to him justifies 
Plutarch's censure. 

XLIX. From Villoison's Anecdota Groeca and his Prolegg. in IL 
ad fidem Cod, Ven, the following brief summary of the sources of an- 
cient criticism, chiefly Alexandrine, has been drawn. We find men- 
tioned there the very ancient and now lost editions of Homer ob- 
tained from Chian, Cyprian, Cretan, Argolic, Sinopic and Massilio- 
tic sources, the edition of Aristotle (6) of the Iliad only, the two edi- 
tions of Aristarchus, the two of Antimachus, those of Zenodotus, 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, Callistratus, Rhianus, Sosigenes, Phile- 
mon of Crete, Antiphanes etc. The " Cyclic " (xvxAtxi}) is the title 
of an ed. which embraced the II. and Ody. as part of the poems 
known as the xvxXog^ or viewed them as forming members of that 
series (Schol. Harl. on it, 195, Lehrs p. 30). The iEolian (JloXixi^ or 
jdlollg), and that known as the ^^ museum'^ ed. (rj ix rov (lovasvov)} 
i. e. kept in the temple of the Muses adjoining the Alex, library, 
are known from other SchoU. (on |. 380, 331, 6. 98, g. 304). The 
class, named from localities, are included in the class labelled, pro- 
bably, in the Alexandrine library; as al and roJv noXa^ov, the latter in 
that distinguished as al xax av8qa. Wolf has denied (7) that the former 

6 Called also that ^x rot) vap'&Tjxos, from the casket, literally "hollow reed'', 
in which Alexander the Great, for whose use the poem had been 'revised by his 
great master, carried it with him. The casket was really one of the most precious 
amongst the personal spoils of Darius whose unguents it had held. Wolf refuses 
to allow that any reading ascribed to Aristotle belongs to this revise.. The point 
is one which can never be proved. But it ought to be remembered that, when 
Aristotle cites Homer, he cites a work on which he himself bestowed literary care; 
see Schol. Ven. on B. 73, 447, ^.252,493, where readings etc. of his are mentioned. 
His ed. as well as the Sinopian and the Massiliotic had bqen previously known by 
name from Eustath. , the others are mentioned from the Schol. Venet. and Lips. 
(Wolf Prolegg, § xxxix and xl, p. CLXxxiii, note 46). Athenaeus, lib. XIV. p. 620, 
has a tradition to a similar purport regarding Cassander, King of Macedonia, 
ovToos r{v (piXonTjQog cag (^ta azofiarog ^x^tv zmv inciv xa noXld' %al 'iXiag rjv 
avta Kal'Odvaasia ISCaog ysyQafifiivaL. But this implies admiration for the poet 
rather than critical skill applied to his text. Villoison Prolegg, in IL p. xxvi. 

7 " Publico jussu illas factas esse vel servatas publice, cave cuiquam ante 
credas, quam probabili argumento demonstratum fuerit, ejusmodi instituta olim in 
civitatibus Grascise obtinuisse, quee res, meo quidem judicio, non cadit in ista tem- 
pora." Prolegg. § xxxix. On the other hand Villoison, Prolegg. in IL p. xxiii, 
views these as ^'editiones quas curaverant nonnullse civitates^^} and ]p. zxxvi in- 


designation means anything more than that the librarians at Alexan- 
dria named them from the places whence they had come, and in par- 
ticular, that they were in any sense public copies, which the civic au- 
thorities had caused to be prepared for the use of their citizens. In 
spite of Wolfs denial the fact seems to me highly probable, as well as 
more agreeable to the variety of phraseology in which the designation 
is couched : and Colonel Mure has expressed the same opinion. For 
we have not only at and noketav^ and iviav xtSv xard noletg , but cc[ 
did r(Sv nokecov and ai nolitixai(S), The remarkable blank which 
we find in place of the name of Athens among these cities, is most 
easily explained by supposing, with Ritschl and Mr. Gladstone, that 
the Athenian recension had obtained the authority of a vulgate text, 
generally received in Greece central, to the standard of which those 
of the other outlying cities named might be referred (9). 

L. This view has at any rate the advantage of systematizing what 
little we know. The supposed parallel designation adduced by Wolf, 
ra ix TtXoioVy applied to writings brought by ship to Alexandria and 
returned in copy to their owners by the same, while the archetypes 
w^re deposited in its library, rather makes against his hypothesis; 
for probably nearly all those designated ajrd r(3v jco^eov also came 

telligo editiones publico seryatas vel publico jussu a quibusdam civitatibus factas. 
Payne Knight objects to this that he does not see how a city could discharge edi- 
torial functions, or how municipal decrees could deal with doubtful readings 
(§ xxxiv). But surely such a body could appoint a curator and sanction his acts. 

8 These phrases seem to imply some action of the noXsig in reference to 
them, and some definite relation in which they stood to the noXsig. Nor is it easy 
to see why they should have been thus named as recensions, as if in contra- 
distinction to those which rested on individual authority, unless some correspond- 
ing authority, on grounds connected ,with the noUg itself, had been ascribed to 
them. This probability is further strengthened by the known fact that at Athens 
and at Sparta the Homeric poems had been cared for by the state as early as the 
times of Solon, Pisistratus and (in the sense explained XXXIV sup.) Lycurgus; 
and by the credible statement that Pisistratus used written copies, and by means 
of them and the aid of the judgment of learned men either added or restored to 
them order and unity, which amounts to a public editorial care, however crude 
and tentative. That what was done at Athens and Sparta should have been done 
at least as early in some of those cities which claimed Homer for their country- 
man, as Chios, is more likely than not; especially in those which were the seats 
of public rhapsodic contests; and that it should have been omitted for the four 
centuries which elapsed between Pisistratus and Zenodotus is unlikely. 

9 As cited by Grote vol. I. pt. I. ch, xxi. p. 538 note. Gladst. vol. I. p. 63. 
This seems to me to be more likely than the inference of Payne Knight regarding 
this recension — cujus apud veteres baud magnam fuisse auctoritatem, e gram- 
maticorum silentio colligere licet {Prolegg. § xxxii). 


by ship. Those MSS. ex rciv nkoiav were so called, it* seems, not 
because their source could not be ascertained, but because it was not 
worth-while more specially to distinguish them. The inference is 
that in the case of those from "cities" it was worth-while. And why- 
should it have been worth-while, unless their character as noXiTLxal 
had entered into the question of their authority ? — A view the more 
likely, since they are not merely so classed as writings or copies, 
{fiifiXCa^ yQciiiiiccxcc, avriyQaq)a^) but (teste Wolf himself /. c.) as 8io^ 
^ci6£iQ "revised" or "corrected editions "(lo). At any rate it would 
have sufficed on the other supposition to have merely classed them as 
from "cities", whereas we find beyond this the individual cities named. 
And this is further confirmed from our finding that the copies were 
rated as of more or less critical value, just as we reckon Aldine or 
Elzivir editions now. The epithets which show this are cc[ aXXai 
6%bS6v Ttctaat dio^d-oioaig as opposed to ai ^AQiaxaQxov^ at xa^iursQai^ 
of "higher merit" ; and again, the threefold classification of al xoival 
the "common, uncorrected" editions (i i ), ccC ithQiav^ those "of medio- 
crity", a[ alxccLorsQat the "more correct". 

LI. Of the "men" from whom the recensions xat' &vdQaQ{i2) w#re 
designated, many of whom exercised a permanent influence over the 
Homeric text, it is worth-while to give a brief account. Those here 
mentioned may be arranged in three classes (i), (ii), (iii), one of 
which numerals is prefixed to each name, (i) consists of those who 
were editors of revisions of the poems or either of them, or of com- 
mentaries upon them, (ii) of those who furnished incidental illustra- 
tion, or wrote on special points of grammar, or were occupied in de- 
partments of Homeric study, (iii) of those who applied themselves 
to excerption and compilation of the materials contributed by those of 
(i) and (ii). After the first three or four great names, (i) and (ii) 
will be found interspersed, while (iii) for our present purpose begins 
with Porphyry. 

10 So Payne Knight, "Wolfii autem sententise vocabula inSoasig et $ioq&(0' 
astg, quibus Vetera exemplaria dignoscuntur, obstare videntur; nccgccdoaig enim 
non ^yLSoGtg vel ^LOQ^toaig ek ratione facta fuisset ". ibid. § xxxv. 

1 1 ^^ QusB venalia prostabant apud bibliopolas rmv ig ngciciv yQatpoftivmv fii- 
filLGiVf qiiaeque inquit Strabo, XIII. p. 419, ab ineptis exarabantur libraiiis nee 
postea cum aliis codicibus confercbantur ". Villoison Prolegg. in Iliad, p. xxvi. 

1 2 Those enumerated by Didymus are the edd. of Antimachus, Rhianus, Phile- 
tas, Zenodotus, Sosigenes, Philemon, Aristophanes, Callistratns, Crates, those of 
Aristarchus are of course understood. Lehrs p. 30; for a more complete list 
see XLIX sup. 



flonrishod circa 300 B. C, was the pupil of Philetas of Cos, who, him- 
self an elegiac poet of some mark, contributed to Homeric criticism (Wolf 
Prolegg, § xli). He was the founder of the Alexandrine school of cri- 
tries. Ptolemy Philadelphus, likewise a pupil of Philetas, made Zenodo- 
tus iirst curator of the Alexandrine library, and committed to him the 
revision of the Homeric and the other poems there, except the dramatic. 
He was a more daring critic than Aristophanes his pupil and successor, 
wholly excising passages (13) which the latter was content to "obelize" ('4), 
cutting short the frequent repetitions of messages (Schol. Ven. on B, 60 — 
70), and not allowing verses once read to recur in a new context. This 
shows a strange ignorance of Homeric manner (Lehrs p. 357)- Colonel 
Mure has thrown together a list of the discarded passages (15). Some of 
these are said to have been already omitted by the MSS. which he fol- 
lowed, but "the greater part are evidently disposed of without any pre- 
text of MS. authority, merely from not happening to square with his own 
particular theories ". Mure further charges him with " engrafting new mat- 
ter of his own on the genuine text". This last remark is so far tnie that 
he does not seem to have shaken off the old ha})its of the early SittauBvct- 

' 13 *AQi(fT0tpdv7ig Tj^iTSi Zr^vodoTog Si ovSl ^yQoctl)Sv Schol. Vulg. on JI. 237 et 
passim. Sometimes, howevor, conversely, as in the Schol, Ven. A onlSl.i 1 4, ZrjvoSotog 
T^d'irst naga 'AgtatotpdvBt $1 ovx tjv. Col. Mure, vol. II. ch. xvi p. 172 note, has 
remarked on the importance of the distinction between this ** disallowing" and 
tlie excising the line from the text, as regards the right understanding of the 
method of the Alexandrian critics. Wolf remarks on Zcnodotus, ^^dd'STHjastov au- 
tem ejus tanta est multitudo et licentia ut nonnullis visus sit Homerum ex Homero 
tollore*' {Prolegg. § XLiii). The d^hrjaig, however, was not a "siiblatio", 

14 The famous o§slog, generally named from Aristarchus, was a single hori- 
zontal line thus , drawn in the margin against the beginning of a verse. 

liy it spurious and disallowed {d&BtovfiBvai) lines were noted. Besides this, Vil- 
loison, in his Prolegg. in II. p. XLvi. gives the following symbols as used by the 
Alex, critics, the diple ^ , either by itself (xcfO'apa), or dotted ^ {nBQi- 
eatiyfiivrj), the former being used to mark Sna^ iigrniivct, and other peculiarities 
of a very miscellaneous character, the latter to mark the readings of Zenod. Crates 
and Aristar. The asterisk ^ denoted such verses as were especially admirable 

and apposite. This combined with the obelos •)!(• denoted lines which had 

become displaced from their proper context. The antisigma 3 denoted lines which 
had been altered, and the same dotted 3 marked tautology. Villoison 'gives at 
the end of his Prolegg. a treatise of Ilephcostion nsgl arjfi simv^ from which it ap- 
pears that in MSS. of other poets too such symbols were familiar. Thus the 
ubelos was used to mark the end of a paragraph, or by the lyric poets the end of 
a strophe ; and the asterisk marked the end of an ina}S6g and the commencement 
of a new piece in different metre. Hephacstiun further remarks that the same 
signs have not the same meaning in different poets. 

15 up. sup, p. 173. Another list is given by Wolf (§ XLiii. n. 72): the two do 
not correspond, each having somewhat which ttie other omits. 


ara/; see XXXVI sup. He may perhaps be regarded as the last of them 
and the first of the critics. But he did not, as the above words might 
seem to imply, wantonly interpolate. He is said in particular to have re- 
jected the OTtkonoiia of ^. 

LII. The extreme censure of Colonel Mure is tempered by Wolf, who 
says that some of the readings ascribed to him were not emendations of 
his, but, monstrous as many of them are, probably belonged to the text, 
not only as he left but as he found it. The same may apply to some of 
his alleged interpolations (i6). He is said to have written a sort of lexilo- 
gus, explaining the more difficult words ; and a commentary (vnofivrjfia) 
is cited under his name; but whether a distinct work, or merely some 
other grammarian's view of his writings, is doubtful. Among his errors 
were the endeavouring to foist on Homer the definite article, as by read- 
ing (okXot for alXoLj o^IXsvg for'OiXfvgj the corruptions of Homeric pro- 
nominal forms to suit the usage of his own day; the omission of the final 
V in afieivmv yAvx/cov; the removing anacoluihia, and others given in the 
notes 75 — 78 to § xLiii of Wolfs Prolegg. (17) ; who adds, that some valu- 
able criticisms of his, confirmed by Aristarchus and subsequent writers, 
and yielding traces of good original authorities, are found; so that from 
his remains may be formed some estimate of the state of the Homeric 
text before his time. His study was not profound, and his censure often 
inconsiderate; as is plain from his readings preserved by the Schol. Ven. 
on 27. 89 and the Schol. P. on 1/. 15, 140 ; so that Zrivodotog riyvoiricev oxt 
X. T. X. is quite a commonplace of the Sclioll. in accounting for his read- 

16 It isAristonicus who uses the expression ZrivoSoxog ino^i^GS or fiSTsygatpSy 
following an opinion current among ancient grammarians. The probability, Lebrs 
thinks (p. 374), is that these, as suggested above, were unfairly credited to him 
because he let them stand with the authority of his name. 

17 Lehrs remarks (p. 352), "Si nihil aliud prsestitisset Zenodotus quam ut 
banc meditationem (of detecting spurious lines) ad Homerum attulisset, nunquam 
ejus memoria perire deberet ; quippe a quo omnis criticae primordia repetenda as- 
sent". Lehrs enumerates four reasons for pronouncing a verse spurious: "pri- 
mum deficiens carminum connexus vel discrepans: deinde, si quid displicet in 
arte poetJE vel in hominum deorumque factis et moribus: turn, si quid in antiqui- 
tatibus, denique si quid in sermone a poetse consuetudine discrepat. Et Zenodo- 
tus quidem primo et secundo genere substitisse reperitur, tertium et quartum ge- 

I nus aliis relinquens, qui artem criticam cum arte grammatics conjuncturi erant". 

! As an ex. he rejected Sia to dnQBnsg, i. e. as containing something unworthy of 

1 the deity mentioned, /J, 889, F. 424 — 5, A.S9^ — 406, O. 18; so part of the episode 

i of Thersites, 9ta to yiloiov; see Schol. Ven. on B. 231, 236. Not a few of his re- 

\ jections, e. g, that ofO.64 — 77> have been adopted by Bekker. Perhaps under the 

1 second of these heads would be classed his objections to verses where he himself 

• was at fault in scholarship: — "Zenodoto vocabulorum Homericorum parum gnaro, 

cum vulgares significationes adhiberet, qusedam sensu omnino carere vel ridicula 
\ videbantur. Haec ille non poterat non falsa judicare" (Lehrs p. 364). Lehrs 

adds (p. 374) that all early criticism is too free and sweeping, as in the revival of 

it in Italy at the renaissance. 


ings; see sclioll. on iV. 315 ^ 86^ 11. 697 etc. As an instance of rash 
exegesis may be noticed his view upon B. 12; seoSchol.B. there. Ilis writ- 
ings wore edited by Ptolemy surnamed Epithetcs (Schol. Ven. on B, ill). 
Wolf remarks that we know his readings in about 4CX) passages, those 
of Aristophanes in about 200, those of Aristarchus in more than icx)o 
{Prolegg. § xLii) and cites Ausonius (i 8) as a witness to his reputation, 
conjoined with Aristarchus. His influence on the text is proved by the 
large number of places in which the Scholl. cite his readings in pointed 
contrast with the Aristarchean ; showing the extent to which subsequent 
criticism recognized on the whole both his ability and his fidelity. There 
is no trace of his having allowed variants. 


son of Apelles, pupil of Callimachus, Zenodotus and Eratosthenes, of 
Dionysius xov li^^ov and of Euphronides of Corinth, flourished 264 B.C., 
founded a school of his own at Alexandria, of the library of which he 
was curator, and invented, as it is said, the system of written accents (19). 
Similar irregularities to those of Zenodotus have been alleged against him; 
but his judgment as a scholar was superior. His studies extended beyond 
the letter to the spirit and meaning of his author, whose idea or general 
design and ajsthetical points he sought to exhibit. Besides revising the 
text of Homer, he wrote a "commentary" and a ** glossary", cited by Schol. 
Ven. on A. 567. His chief care was directed, however, to the dramatists, and 
especially to his great namesake. Besides his illustrious pupil Aristarchus, 
two others of his school, Callistratus and Diodorus, left works on Homer, 
as did also others whose names have not come down. We know nothing, 
Wolf remarks, of either his method or his sources ; but may be sure that 
the greater part of any text which could have been called his, would have 
been some older vulgate common to him with Zenodotus, as shown by 
some absurdities which appear under both their names. These therefore 
were not due to him, and he can at most be charged, like Zenodotus, 
with letting them stand. It should be remembered that he had not the 
materials which Aristarchus found ready at hand (ao) ; and if Im abstained- 
from altering where he could not see his way to amend, this alone is 
greater praise than can be claimed for many distinguished critics in va- 
rious ages. It is unfair then both to him and to Zenodotus, to charge these 
absurdities upon them, which may have been accumulating for centuries. 

1 8 In his Ludus Seplem Sapientium, 

Mseonio qualem ciiltum qusesivit Homero 
Censor Aristarchus normaque Zonodoti. 

19 Villoison {Anecd, Gr» II, p. 119) notes that these originally stood on con- 
secutive syllables, as GhoSmgos, 6^€d^o<r/6ff, **sed hunc usum, ciijus nulla in 
nostris codd. vcstig^ia, jam obsolcvisse ante Dionysii Thracis oetatom, qui Aris- 
tarchi grammatici discipulus etc." They seem to have soon become extensively 
current; since Crates, (p. LXxii>who had no connexion with Alexandria) and was 
a younger contemporary of Aristoph., used them (Scholl. BL on A. 591). 

20 c. 347 is given by Lchrs (p« 357) as an ex. of a verse not understood by 
Aristophanes, but rightly explained by Aristarchus. 

HOtf. OD. II. K 

txvi PEE FACE. 

Wolf further remarks that in such readings as can be ascribed to him, 
more learning and more moderation is shown than in those ofZenodotus, 
and that a good number of them were confirmed by Aristarchus; while 
others stuck in the text in spite of his attempt to turn them out of it, being 
ratified by the verdict of posterity (Prolegg. § xiav). From the phrase di- 
Xag ^Aqiaxotpctvrig^ used by Schol. Yen. oniV. 59, it would seem that he re- 
cognized variants; and this is perhaps the earliest extant notice of them. 


bom in Samothrace, flourished 1%% B. C, in the school of Alexandria, 
and, times having changed for the worse with literature there, taught in 
his old age at Rome. The son of Ptolemy Philopator (21) and Ptolemy 
Physcon were educated by him. By the time that he was curator of the 
Alexandrine library sufficient materials had accumulated there to place 
him in a highly adv ntageous position for critical labours. There he de- 
voted himself to the correction and explanation of the texts of ancient 
Greek poets, but especially of Homer. His texts were generally accepted. 
Those of the II. and Ody., which he fir^t divided into 24 books each, be- 
came themes of commentary to his successors, and were no doubt the 
vulgate at the Augustan era. His own commentaries also displayed wide re- 
search and sagacious judgment. He avoided, however, the snare of allego- 
rizing, which, as we have seen, beset the earliest school of commentators, and 
which soon after again became popular (22). Wolfs statement, that we have 
over loco passages where his readings are known, relates to those in which 
some question has been raised; but the present text at large, so far as it 
has not sufi'ered from subsequent corruption, probably owes its form 
mainly to him. By the Schol. Venet. his readings are cited most frequently 
of all. There are some indications that his opinion changed on cer- 
tain passages (23), but this may have been due only to the accumulation 
of further MS. evidence (24). Sometimes two readings were left evenly 

21 "Qui et ipse ^iXoftiypo? fuit", Wolf, citing -ffilian N. H, xiii. 22. 

22 The Stoics were great patrons of Homeric allegory; bnt besides this, to 
save the credit at once of the gods and of the poet, they falsified readings and in- 
terpolated lines. We have a specimen of such a book of allegories under the name 
of Heraclides or Heraclitus (Heyne Excurs. in 11. W, 84, p. 236). 

23 As on T. 386, where occurs ngorsgov dh yqaqxav 6 'AqCctaQXog 

liSTsygwiffsv vgxbqov. 

24 As we seem to see in the Schol. on Z. 4 ngotBQOv iysyQanro .... vatSQOv 
SI 'AqCgz. tavtrjv rrjv ygatp^v svqojv initigivs. Such is the opinion of Lehrs. 
The fluctuation of his opinion in some passages where further reflection, or added 
materials, modified his view, shows that he was not positive or obstinate. So the 
Schol. on JT. 613 says, the verse did not appear iv rfj stiga xmv *AQiaxaQ%B{aiv, 
iv SI xfi Ssvtsga aloyog (1. o^slog) avx& nagsyisixOy and the same on T. 365, af- 
ter noticing a primary omission, adds, o fisvxOL 'Afifiooviog iv xtp negl xrjg insuSo- 
%'BCarig 8iog9'(oaB(og ovS\v xoiovxo Isysi. This inBuSod; Siogd'cja. is really the 
same, I take it, ^as ^ dsvtiga ; see the next note. 


balanced by him, when both were allowed (a s). Traces of deference to his 
authority are found even where his reasons were not deemed conclusive (a 6). 
There were two revises of the text of Homer current under his name. 
From his pupil and successor Ammonius writing to prove that only one 
was his (ay), we must suppose that the second was at any rate unauthorized, 
being perhaps an incorporation of some of his obiter dicta, or of notes 
from his lectures in his later years, with the text which he had previously 
put forth, which those later remarks may have corrected in some places. 
At any rate ai ^AgifSxiQXBioi are cited, sometimes as agreeing, sometimes 
as differing. One is distinguished as ^ divxlga (see n. 24 p. Lxvi). Again 
the distinction is even more clearly marked in one being called the 
nQoiadoaig^ the other the inMoaig^ which would seem to denote posterio- 
rity in time; but there is no perceptible difference in the authority 
ascribed to them (28). Occasionally, as in Schol. B on <P. 252, we find 

a 5 As shown by the recurring phrase 6ix^S «f 'AgiaxdQXOV, These phrases 
may refer to the ngoiTidoaig and inMoaig mentioned paul. inf. 

26 80 the Schol. Venet. on ^. 572 insytgdtrjas 91 17 rov 'AqiCxuqxoVj liaCxoi Xoyov 
ova ^x^vccij and on IT. 415, d^vxovmg dviyvat 6 'AgicxaQXOg xal ineicd'ricav of 
yQafi,[ictxi%oii cf. also Schol. A. on £. 178, 289, Z. 150, N, 103, A^. 38. But see 
also on O. 320, which shows that such deference had its limits. 

27 nsgl xov iirj ysyovivcti nlsiovccg i%96<feig x'^g 'AQLCxagx^iov SiOQ^mBtog 
Didymus ap. Schol. K. 397 ; cf. on T, 365 for a title of a work, also by Ammonius, 
negl xijg inB%iio%'BiiSrig ^logd'aasagy which Wolf {Prolegg. § xLvii, n. 19) thinks the 
same. Lehrs thinks that by /Lii) ysyovsvai nXsiovoig Ammonius meant **not more 
than iwo^\ This is certainly a strain of the language. I believe Amm. meant 
that not more than one could properly be reckoned as the genuine work of 
Aristar., the inBaSod'Btcci dLOQd'aaigy distinguished also as rj ^Bvxiga^ having been 
tampered with by , disciples, although it was commonly cited as his, and might 
even contain his ripest and latest views formed after his own genuine ed.had been 
published. The Schol. A on T. 259 cites ^ 'AgiaxaQXOv. a% is more common, or 17 
ixiga tcoy 'AQLCxagxBitov. Lehrs says p. 1 5 *^Bis ediderat Arist. Homernm : sed si 
etiam post alteram editionem in publicum emissam in legendo et interpretando 
Homerum perrexit, hoc dcmnm tempore quaedam animadvertit antea nondum ob- 
servata. Hsec sensim baud dubie, cum editiones identidem describerentur, textui 
addita ; attamen quiedam quo) ore tantum propagata vel per commentaries, quos 
non omnes habebant, disjecta essent, eruenda fuisse patet ac sero accessisse. 
Attamen damns, ut jam ahtea significavimus, quasdam notas, quas Aristarchus nee 
posuerat nee indicaverat, ex ejus mente et doctrinft ab discipulis appositas esse.'* 
The balance of evidence seems to me against the words his and alteram. It may 
be added (Lehrs p. 30) that Aristar., before he prepared a text of his own, had 
annotated on the ed. of Aristophanes, perhaps that referred to by the Schol. A on 
IBi, 236 as ri *AQi<frdQxov %ai 'AQiCxoipdvovg ; cf. id. on B. i $$, iv xotg %ctx' ^AqiCxo- 
tpdvfiv vnofjLvqfuxaiv 'AgiaxdQXOv. This may have helped to increase the confhsion, 
which perhaps called forth the work of Amm. as aforesaid. All this shows the keen 
literary interest which the remains of Aristar. excited in the Alexandrine school. 

28 This is nearly the opinion of Wolf {Prolegg, § xLvii) cf. Villoison (Prolegg. 
p. xxvii). 


Lxviii PREFACE. 

the remark ^AQiCxa^iog ayvoet^ and so the Schol. A on X. 2S charges him 
with an error in accentuation. 

LV. It has heen urged that his reconstruction of the poet^s text, not- 
withstanding its parade of authorities, was still too ideal and dogmatic; 
and that, while he collected copies from remote sources, he did so only 
to ornament the decision which he really arrived at on subjective 
grounds (29): viz. by considering which of the readings before him was 
most worthy of the poet or best suited to the passage, instead of rigidly 
balancing the evidence. As far as we can see, Aristarchus was under 
two conflicting (30) influences, a scrupulous regard for authorities, and a 
rigid consistency in the application of principles ascertained by analogy. 
It is not perhaps too much to say that his famous ad-itriatg^ or disallow- 
ance of a verse or passage without going so far as to remove it from the 
text, represents the practical balance or compromise which these two 
principles maintained in his mind. I hardly think that Lehrs in his 
estimate of the great critic has taken due account of the latter of these 
characteristics, whilst Wolf has, as, I think, Lehrs shows, not recognized 
the. former with due frankness (31) • -^.s an apt example of the two prin- 

29 **yemm ista omnia sic accipi nolim, quasi bonoset accuratos emendatores 
negem antiquis et exquisitis codicibus usos esse, iisque comparandis genuinam 
fon&am textus qusesivisse. At genuina illis fuit ea, quae poetam maxime decere 
yidebatur. In quo, nemo non videt, omnia denique ad Alexandrinorum ingenium 
et arbitrium redire." Lehrs (364] censures this as inconsistent, **neqae enim 
poteraut uii4 operS genuinam formam quserere comparandis antiquis et exquisitis 
codicibus suoque abuti arbitrio ", and Wolf (§ xLvii) even seems a few pages fur- 
ther on to repent of his dictum, for he in effect admits that we have not the ma- 
terials to decide how far Arist. used or abused his authorities. — *'quid ille in 
summam carminum novi induxerit, qua religione antiquos libros excusserit quo- 
modo USU8 sit Zenodoti, Aristophanis et ceterorum, quos supra nominavi, recensio- 
nibus, haic et alia certis aut probabilibus argumentis hodie perspici nequeunt ". 

30 "Singulares sunt in scholiis loci duo, unus ad i. 222, alter ad n» 466. In 
priore Aristarcho etiam reverentia veterum recensionum tribuitur et nsqiTzri 
svXdpsia : in posteriore constantia emendationis eorum quae prseceptis suis con- 
traria putasset." Prolegg, § l, note 52. 

31 *^ Minime audax fuit Aristarchus ; imo mihi certum est si quid Aristarchus 
peccavit in contrarium peccasse: nam si totam hominis subtilitatem perspicio, 
opinor unum et alterum non laturum fuisse in Homero, ut alienum ab ejus con- 
suetudine, nisi quoedam religio obstitisset." Lehrs 381. Lehrs goes on to say that 
in Homer are some things which he ventures to affimf have no sense in them : 
that Aristarchus had no other reading of them than we have, and that he never- 
theless did not condemn them (379 — 80). It is a pity Lehrs has not given one or 
two examples. Perhaps J;.2oi — 3 may be one such; see note there. See further, as 
against this, Wolfs charge that he "audaciores generosioresque sententias poetae 
corrupit non raro, quo eas propius ad naturam et veritatem reduceret^^ and the 
note (§ xLviii, 52) by which he substantiates it. Opposed to the religio qufsdam, 
ascribed above by Lehrs, is his mention that Arist. "indulged his opinion" in re- 
jecting lines dia to nsQirroi^y i.e. on account of redundancy, the sense being com- 


ciples in conflict the following (Lehrs 375) may be cited: Aristarchus had 
arrived at a canon that g>6pog is never in Homer an equivalent for diog^ 
and wherever his codices provided him with a subsidiary reading, e, g. 
zQOfiog, he escaped from the difficulty by adopting it, otherwise he sacri- 
ficed (fi^itriiSe) the line. He would not allow authority to establish a line 
against his canon, nor allow scope to his canon where authority gave no 
countenance to its dictum, but set the mark of ci^izri<Sig against the line. 
Where the authority of two readings was balanced he preferred to tfvvi^- 
d'hg to to d&v, Homeric usage to abstract fitness. (ApoUon. Dysc. SynL 
p. 77, cited by Villoison and Lehrs.) But he did not allow this to influence 
him where the verdict of the authorities was clear. Thus he retained 
dvaccto in F. 262, where his own judgment would have led him to read 
6v06to^ and firj q>tvy(av in B. 665, where q>svyet>v would have been more 
Homeric (3*). Again as an example of a canon allowed or not according 
to the state of the MSS., he retained in 11. 358 Atag d' 6 fAsyag where Ss (li- 
yag was equally metrical; but in B, T withstood Zenodotus' error coAAo^, read- 
ing akkoi. So in (2>. 84 he dropped the augment in og fii tot avxig dcoxe, 
where the metre would have allowed it; but contrariwise in O. 601 in 
yciQ dri tov i'liekXs he kept it against Aristophanes' (isXXe, The MSS. in 
these cases were clear, where they differed he dropped the augment, as 
in igycc vi^ovto and ^ctvfiot rixvxvo. Lehrs (379) remarks that in deter- 
mining the balance of such doubtful cases, he showed good taste and 
nice discernment. 

LVI. On the whole Wolfs censure of Aristarchus' critical standard as 
ultimately arbitrary cannot stand. Wolf himself argues like a man who 
had swept out a conclusion boldly, and was trying back for reasons 
in support of it. He says that the ancient ciotdol were always viewed as 
addicted to emendation ad lib.y and that this bad habit had descended 
till it infected "all the critics" {Prolegg, § xLvi, last par.). He forgets the 
great change from the iotdol to Zenodotus, and from Zenodotus to Aris- 
tarchus. In the first criticism was interpolatory, in the second expurga- 
torial, in the third explorative. The licentiousness of alteration indulged 
by the rhapsodists reacted in the wholesale excisions of Zenodotus — 
a practice which became moderated as criticism matured itself in Aris- 
tarchus. We must pardon in Zenodotus for reasons explained above (p. 
Lxiv), not only what he cut out, but what he put in — if he did put in. 
He had to patch up somehow a readable text from the materials which he 
had left himself, and in default of a due apparatus he had recourse to 

plete without them; as also in rejecting lines which by extending only weakened 
the sense; as after A. 515 the extension, lovq z* i%toifivBiv %al ijnia fpagfiuxa 
ndfSCBiv (359—60). 

3a So in 77. 636 Lehrs remarks '^noluit una deletfi x omnem dabitandi mate- 
riem toUere, quid igitur veritns est nisi codicnm aactoritatem?*\ The slightness 
of the alteration in this and the above cases tends to enhance his respect for the 
codd. This cannot be said as regards the Aristarchean saggestion to read u^ 
indcavto for i£ i^^ov %vxo in /. 2 a a, which, Aristarchus remarked, would show 
that they partook only oat of compliment to Achilles, haying feasted only just 


diaskeuastic resources, such as random conjecture and perhaps down- 
right coining. Conjectural emendation ahates in Aristophanes, and in 
Aristarchus retires within the narrowest margin, being subdued by an 
abstemious caution, if not guided by a more competent sagacity. This 
crude resource of early criticism gave way as larger materials enabled 
Aristarchus to pave a surer path. We have seen that in cases where the 
MS. evidence was strongly on one side, and yet his canon would have 
led him to rule contrariwise, he set the canon aside. In doubtful cases he 
would let the canon operate. What degree of defective evidence would 
constitute in his eyes a case to be ruled by a canon, is a question impos- 
sible to answer, further than that in the general his deference to autho- 
rity is extreme. His consummate judgment in cases of the different vari- 
ants is generally attested in strong terms by Wolf himself (33). 

LVII. Next to that lack of philology, which, aa noticed above on p. 
xix — XX. narrowed the basis of his verbal criticism, his chief defect seems 
to have been a want of poetic sympathy for the thoughts of his author. 
For so symmetrical a mind uniformity and system would have an abiding 
charm, and he would perhaps miss the force of the poet^s conception 
buoying up the epithet, or dilating the image into hyperbole.- It is on the 
whole fortunate that he was so abstemious in conjecture. The few 
samples which we have contain no very bright specimens, while some are 
egregiously shallow, frigid and prosaic (34). Of the happy divination 
which has not rarely marked modern criticism I doubt we possess a 
single example among his remains. There is reason to think that he 
himself, so encompassed was he with the power of judgment, and so con- 
scious alike of his forte and of his foible, detected his own want of capa- 
city in this respect, and in general distrusted, if on that account only, 
such unauthorized emendations as he might have made. The famous 
reply that "he would not write such verses as he could, and could not 
such as he would '', seems reflected in his careful eschewing of conjecture 
save in a few rare instances. Owing to the same defect he was offended 
at some Homeric similes, much as Addison was in the last century. The 
unhealthy super-refinement of the Ptolemsean age may be partly char- 
geable with this. Such men, as Lehrs remarks, are often spoilt between 
the court and the schools (35). 

before, and having in fact no ^qog left. Such a suggestion shows that the notion 
of *4mproving^^ his author was not absolutely without place in the mind of one 
who could make it. 

33 ** Videmus eum ex discrepantid plurium lectionum earn fere elegisse quae 
Homerico ingenio et consuetudini ipsique loco optime convenisset." (Wolf. Pro- 
1^99' § xLvii.) See also the i'^ par. of the same section. 

34 Thus (Wolf §XLviii,n. 35) he would have read hvBa%Bllovq rj ds%axBilovg 
in E. 860, S. 1 48 for ivvsaxiXovg rj SB%a%{Xovq, and in Find. Pyth. III. 43 fidfiati 
iv TQiTcixm for fidfiati iv nQoanOj thinking such a single leap alarmingly great 
even for a god. Such criticism knocks off natural flowers to substitute cut paper 
ones. So he took offence at vijag plur. in O. 41 7, and read vija on account of the 
expression paid. sup.<, tea dh pkirjg negl vriog i%ov novov, 

35 ^411os vero Alexandrinos et aolso luxuria affluentes, et philosophorum se- 


On th(^ whole his memory has been unjustly treated by Wolf, whose 
sagacity is overlaid by captiousness, and who overlooks the fact that in 
regard to other poetry sober canons (36) of criticism had become accepted 
at Alexandria, and that the presumption lies against Homer having been 
dealt with arbitrarily. Of course, the Homeric text had difficulties of its 
own, to solve which the ordinary principles of criticism were inadequate. 
Still, those principles remained true even where they failed of practical 
application. They were to bo supplemented, not forsaken. Wolf seems 
to assume that critics who dealt soberly enough with other texts became 
suddenly crazed with an arbitrary furor when they turned to the Homeric. 
On the contrary Aristarchus(37) seems to have been in judgment almost 
a "faultless monster" of sobriety. His mind shows, so far as samples of 
it have reached us, great power of analysis, method, order and symme- 
trical combination. It was after all imperfectly stored with materials from 
without, as has been above stated (p. xix), and in the creative depart- 
ment it was nearly blank — the judgment had so thoroughly tamed down 
the imagination. The moral temperament, so far as we can indirectly 
judge of it, was in harmony with the mental. There seems to have been 
in him a judicial calmness of temper, an absence of dictatorial presump- 
tion (38), a capacity for retracting and a readiness to use either end of 

yeritate circumstrepentes, in multis otfendisse mihi consentaneumvidetiir^*, p. 355. 
So Wolf, § XLviii, ''*' fuemnt olim haud dubie qui putarent in prisco poetft anomala 
qufedam ferenda esse, nee indigna repetitu, quae ille ad prascepta sua rigide mu- 

36 Lehrs charges Wolf roundly that he ^'omnino falsam de illorum grammati- 
conim operft conceperit notionem*', viz. inProlegg, §xLvi, contends for the careful 
study of MSS. among the ancient critics (p. 366), and rejects the notion of their 
contemning as a **parum digna cura**, the minutioe of subdivisions of texts, as 
into books etc. with summaries prefixed, of collating copies, correcting errors, of 
punctuation and accentuation (p. 373). 

37 Perhaps by no one remark can Wolfs unfairness to Aristarchus be better 
illustrated than by that in which he says that A. treated Homer as Cato treated 
Lucilius, or as Tucca and Yarius would have treated the iEneid, The falseness 
of the parallel is obvious at a glance. For there was no doubt, we may fairly 
presume, in Gate's mind, as to what Lucilius really wrote; only he thought he 
could improve upon it. Tucca and Yarius, again, had YirgiPs autographs before 
them, but avowedly left in an unfinished state, and their thought was to do that 
for the iEneid which they conceived its author would have done for it. Where is 
the resemblance between such cases and that of a student feeling his way up the 
current of tradition upon the stepping-stones of divergent or contradictory texts? 

38 In testimony of this, no name so surpassingly great in its own 'province 
has ever excited so little of that envious detraction which leaves its mark upon 
great men and is the tribute of mferior to loftier minds. He was not only facile 
princepsy but no one in the ancient world was looked upon as similis aui secundus to 
him, nor am I aware of any attempt to disparage him till that of Wolf. In- 
deed there is hardly a man who is such a luminary in his own sphere, of whom as 
a person we know so little, although none lay more fully in the run of anecdote- 


the stile. The name of Aristarchus is a elate in itself — a turning point 
where a long prospect opens. Before him there is none, but after him 
comes a long line of successors, forming around "the poet " of Greece an 
undergrowth of parasitic literature unequalled perhaps in exhaustiveness 
and variety, unless it be by the Patristic commentaries on Holy Writ. 
Seventeen of his more illustrious personal pupils are known by name be- 
sides his two sons, and forty-one are enumerated. He is said to have 
written 800 books of commentaries, and to have died at the age of ^2. 

LVni. (i) 4. CRATES, 

cir. 155 B. C, the adversary of Aristarchus, son of Timocrates, a stoic 
philosopher, was bom at Mallus in Cilicia, and educated • at Tarsus, but 
flourished at Pergamus, where he founded a school or sect (39) of gram- 
marians which continued to enjoy reputation for some time after his 
death. His favourite principle is named avcBfiaA/cif, as opposed to that of 
Aristarchus, ccvaloylct^ and he is said to have taken it from Chrysippus. 
He viewed the critic's art as excursive into all the provinces of litera- 
ture ; and embraced mythology, geography and physical science among 
his illustrative materials. His chief work, arranged in nine books, was 
entitled Sioq^taGic ^Ikiddog %al Odvcasiag. In what sense he used diOQ^G}- 
Gig is not certain, owing to the scanty traces which are extant. But pro- 
bably it was a revised edition of the J)oem, the word for commentaries 
being vnofirrjiiara. The key- word, avcofiaUa^ as opposed to avakoyiay sug- 
gests that he recognized the abnormal element in language, and resisted 
the dogmatical tendency of the Aristarchean canons. He is cited byScholl. 
AB on O. 365, O, 558, MV on y. 293, by Scholl. HQ on d, 260, by Schol. 
H on d, 611 el al. He wrote also on the Theogony of Hesiod, and on the 
Attic dialect, and enjoyed the • distinction of introducing grammatical 
studies at Rome, whither he was sent as ambassador from King Attains II. 
Whilst there he fractured his leg, and while thus laid up, occupied his 
enforced leisure in lecturing on grammar. Traditions of his views de- 
scended there to Varro, who wrote about a century later. His reputation 
in antiquity was as high perhaps as that of any after Aristarchus, over 
whose readings some of his have enjoyed a permanent preference in a 
few passages. 

mongers and literary gossips. H6 had the rare fortune to flourish when the time 
was duly ripe for him. Never was a genius better timed to its epoch, or more 
exactly commensurate with the province which awaited it, and this probably con- 
tributed to perpetuate the reputation which he secured. He seemed to step spon- 
taneously into a niche of fame ready made for him, and no serious effort, until 
Woirs, has ever been made to depose him from it. This, of course, does not im- 
ply that there was no school opposed to him; but the opposition was viewed as 
heterodox (see on Ptolemy of Ascalon p. lxxv. inf,\ the school had no vitality, 
and left his preeminence substantially unshaken. 

39 A treatise ubqI rfjg KgaTTjrs^ov atgsasmg is ascribed to Ptolemy of Asca- 
lon. Pergameni or Cratetei was the name of his disciples, to whom is referred the 
drawing up of certain lists of writers and catalogues of the titles of works. 


(i) 5. RHIANUS 
rose from being a slave to be an epic poet and grammarian, contemporary 
with Aristarchus and intimate with Eratosthenes at Alexandria. His 
birthplace is variously described as Crete or Mcssene, but the latter is 
probably a mis-description arising from his work on the Messenian war. 
lie also wrote 'JET^cfxAftof, 'JZAtaxcr, SsGaahKa and epigrams, some of which 
are extant and evince much simplicity and elegance. His remains nre 
edited in Gaisford's Poelce Minores Gra'ci, His grammatical works in- 
cluded either a revise of or commentary upon Homer, and several of the 
readings cited from him by the SchoU. are worthy of special remark, e, g. 
those on O, 607, /3. 241, 311, y. 24, 178. 


mentioned above as a disciple of Aristophanes, is probably the same as 
the author of the work on Heraclea, cited by Stephanus of Byzantium, 
in seven books or more. 

(ii) 7. DIODORUS, 

also a disciple of Aristophanes or a supporter of his views (Villoison 
Prolegg. p. 29), possibly the same as the one mentioned by Athenwus 
(XI. p. 479) as the writer of certain yAeoffffat 'ItcifAixal etc. 


addressed a book to Crates (40). Eustath. and the Scholl. cite him several 
times. Varro {de L. L. x. 10) ascribes to him some grammatical work, 
probably on the parts of speech. One interpretation of his uf the word 
TtQOXfiriaig in A, 424, and a reading of Aristarchus (from the book afore- 
Said) are preserved (Fabric. I. p. 5^^)* 


son of Asclepiades, and pupil of Aristarchus, as also of Panootius the 
philosopher and of Diogenes the Babylonian, flourished as a grammarian 
at Athens about 140 B. C, and was a voluminous writer. He is known 
as regards Homer only by a work in 12 books, explaining historically 
and geographically the catalogue of ships in 5., and by a glossary 
{ylmxxai) (Villoison Prolegg, p. xxix), but several of his other works on 
mythology, as that called the jSt|3A40^//3ciy, that tuqI &£(ov etc., must have 
partly covered Homeric ground. Of these the pipiio^, has come down 
to us in an incomplete state, and has been edited by Heyne, Gottingen, 
1803 (Smith's Diet, Biogr, s. «.). Eustath. cites a mention of him from 
Porphyry (Fabric, nb. sup, p. 504). He wrote also a xgovixri avvra^ig^ 
being a history of the world continued from the mythical period to his 

40 If this were to be understood as an epistle to a contemporary, this would 
fix bis date, but there is some reason to think that ngog KQoixr\xa was a mere con- 
ventional form of connecting a work on any subject with a name already famous 
in connexion with it. 


own time, but now lost. He is said to have been the inventor of the 
**tragiambic/' verse, and is cited by the Scholl. Venet. on A. 244, B. 
103, JV. 301, n. 95 el ah 

(ii) 10. DIONYSIUS, 
surnamed the Thracian, pupil of Aristarchus (41), wrote "on quantities", 
cited by Schol. Ven. on JB. tit, in which he refuted incidentally some 
views of Zenodotus, and a xixvy] or treatise on grammar which was am- 
plified by successive grammarians, and was for several centuries a po- 
pular elementary treatise among teachers. He considered "criticism as 
the complement and crown of grammar". A paraphrase on the Ody. is 
ascribed to him (Fabric. I. p. 394). He also wrote against Crates, and 
in this and other works a good deal of Homeric illustration was con- 
tained; hence he is cited several times byEustath., and more frequently 
by the Schol. Venet. That he had no servile deference for Aristarchus, 
appears from the Schol. on JB. 262. 


son of Damnaeus, poet, flourished at an uncertain date, the doubt lying 
between the period of Attains, circa 145 B. C. and the Christian era. He 
wrote d-rjQLaoia, "of venomous animals", and aXs^tg^aQficcTicc^ "antidotes"; 
also lost works entitled Aitcohxa^ yecoQyiKa^ ykmaaat (cited by Athenseus 
VII, p. 288) and others. His yXaaaat is probably the work from which 
the Scholl. quote in citing his authority for certain readings, e, g, Scholl. 
AL on Z. 506. He is often reckoned amongst the medici, and is said to 
have done into hexameters part of the works of Hippocrates under the 
title of Ttgoyvooauad. (Fabric, iv. p. 344.) He is referred to by Strabo, 
p. 823, as an authority regarding serpents. It is doubtful whether the 
Nicandcr surnamed of Thyatira, cited by Stephanus in his epitome (ibid. 
354} ^55)^ ^^ identical or different. 

(ii) 12. DIONYSIUS, 
surnamed "the Sidonian", cited Schol. Ven. on B. 192, 262, X, 29 et al., 
by Varro (de L. L. IX 10), Apollonius Lex, Horner.^ and often by Eu- 
tath. He is mentioned once as censuring Aristarchus, and also as the 
author of a work on "the resemblances and differences of words" (Vil- 
loison Prolegg. p. xxix, Fabric. I. p. 511, VI. p. 364). 

(ii) 13. NICIAS OP COS, 
B. C. 5O) was fortunate in being a literary friend of Cicero and Atticus, 
as on the score of merit he would hardly be entitled to much notice. He 

41 An article in Dr.W. Smith's Dict.Biogr, gives his period as B. C. 80, about 
which time he is said to have taught at Rome. This is probably an error, as he is 
said (Villoison Prolegg. p. xxix; Anecd. Gr. vol. II. p. 171) to have been "one of 
the 40 pupils of Aristarchus", not a later follower of his, It may have arisen 
from confounding him with some other of the name, perhaps "the Lindian", said 
(Fabric. VI. p. 364) to have taught ait Rome in the time of Pompey. The same 
CQilfusion appears in Villoison Anecd, Gr. II. 119. 


18 mentioned in Strabo, p. 657 — 8, as 6 xa-^' i}fiag Nixlccg 6 naxavvQavvii- 
aag Kcitov, Tlie mention of him in Cicero's letters (see Smith's Diet. 
Biogr,) seems to bespeak rather a light esteem of the man. He is cited 
by Enstath. and 9 times by the Venet. Schol., also by Scholl. EMQ on 
a. 109 et cU, 

(ii) 14. IXION, 

surname given to Demetrius of Adramyttium, derived from his commit- 
ting a sacrilege in the ilerseum at Alexandria^ or, as others say, from his 
stealing a play from Philotimus (Fabric, vi. p. 446). He was a follower of 
Aristarchus and lived at Pergamus in the age of Augustus Csesar. He 
wrote of verbs and pronouns, and composed a commentary (fgtjyi/tfig) 
upon Homer and Hesiod {ibid. p. 363). He is cited by Scholl. ALV on 
A, 513 and B. 137, 192, by Scholl, AB on E. 31, by Scholl. HP on f. 
490 et al. His izvfioloyoviieva are mentioned by Athenseus. 

(ii) 15. APOLLONIUS, 

surnamed "the Sophist '\ son of Archebulus or Archebius, flourished as a 
grammarian at Alexandria in the Augustan age (42), and wrote a Lexicon 
to the H. and Ody. which is preserved, not however entire, and probably 
with considerable interpolations. It preserves a great number of very 
valuable ancient readings, and cites many early [authorities, and was 
edited elaborately by Villoison, Paris, 1773- Hesychius took his mate- 
rials largely from Apollonius, who in turn is supposed by Villoison to 
have incorporated the more valuable part of a similar work by his pupil 
Apion. He is cited by the Schol. A on Z. 414 et al, 

LXI. (ii) 16. PTOLEMY or ASCALON, 

author of a work concerning the **differences of words" (43), probably the 
one still extant (ap. Fabric. VI. p, 156 foil.), also of Homeric prosody, 
and of a work on the revision of the Ody. by Aristarchus. He was a 
teacher at Rome; and is quoted by Herodian (inf, no. 25) who lived un- 
der M. Antoninus, but referred to also by Didymus (Lehrs), which fixes 
an earlier date for him. He seems to have ventured on a more decided 
difference from the views of Aristarchus than most of the grammarians ; 
see Schol. Ven. -^.396, O. 31a. 


temp. Tib. Csesar, son of a salt-fish salesman of the same name, and from 
his devotion to study surnamed %ciX%ivxBqog , followed Aristarchus, whose 

43 Rnhnken, however, places him about a generation later (Smith's Diet* 
Biogr, s. n.); this is countenanced by Villoison Protegg, p.xxiz, who speaks of him 
**et ejus mag^ster Apion '\ 

43 Closely resembling another similar one ascribed toAmmoniu8,who belongs 
to the end of the fourth century (Fabric, loc, ciL and note n). Whether either of 
the ascriptions is just is a very obscure question. 


dioQ^axfig of Homer he re-edited with consummate researcli and acumen (44). 
He is said to have written 3500 works, including commentaries on most 
of the more important Greek dramatists and orators (4S). The best of the 
scholia on Pindar, and Sophocles are said to be his (Smith's Diet. Biogr. 
s.n.). Most of these numerous works were probably compilations, in some 
of the latter of which he is said to have forgotten what he had written 
in the former. His Homeric studies formed the most valuable portion of 
his labours. In these he collated edd. earlier than Aristarchus, especially 
those of Zenod. and Aristoph.,* and often gives his judgment with great 
impartiality where they differ from Aristarchus' (Lehrs 28 — 9) ; cf. Schol, 
A on Z. 71. The Scholia minora, called also "Didymi", are a compilation 
partly from him , but including many other and some much later sources 
(Fabric. I. p. 388, cf. cap. 18). An account of them is given by Dindorf 
{Prcef. ad SckolL in Odyss, p. xv). Didymus was the teacher of Apollonius, 
Apion and the Heraclides Ponticus mentioned inf. He was the contem- 
porary and in some sense the rival of Aristonicus. He was, however, a 
superior commentator to him, and made use of original authorities from 
which the latter abstained. He often corrects Aristonicus, and shows that 
readings accepted by him as* Aristarchean could not have been so. But, 
Lehrs thinks, he could not have been in any sense indebted to him (46). 

44 " Hunc Didymum ejusque in Aristarcheis lectionibus exquirendis positam 
operamWolfius si cognovisset melius, hunc si tenuisset Didymum esse qui per tota 
scholia duplicis AristarcheaB editionis lectiones apponit, nunquam ille negasset 
dapUcem Aristarchi editionem fuisse'* (Lehrs, p. 26—7). As regards the value 
of his labours, Lehrs says, *'fuit igitur aliquot sasculis post perutile, quas turn 
Aristarchese ferebantur lectiones ad fidorum monumentomm reg^ilam exigere. 
Praeterea turn accederet, ut non semel Aristarchus sed bis Homerum edidisset, hoc 
etiam perutile, utriusque editionis lectiones inter se conferre singulisque yersibus 
utriusque editionis vel consensum vel dissensum notare. Sed ne sic quidem omnis 
in textu Homerico ab Aristarcho posita opera illustrata. Nam cum post alteram 
editionem emissam multos annos in meditando et interpretando Homero perstitis 
set, atque etiam commentarios edere pergeret, partim discipulis coram, partim iu 
commentariis veterej suas lectiones reprobaverat, alias, ut dies diem docuerat, 
optaverat, defenderat, stabiliverat. Ergo hoc etiam perutile, lectionibus editio- 
num constitutis, variante lectione ex utrS,que congests, addere ex commentariis et 
ex traditione (ea vero discipulorum seriptis vel etiam memoria continebatur) 
lectiones paulatim ab eodem adscitas. Tum demum recte de Aristarcheo textu 
constabat" {ibid, ig), **Quam artem subtiliter diligenterque tractare docuerat 
(Aristarchus); earn Didymus tarn egregie ad editiones Aristarchi Homericas ad- 
hibuit, ut nihil mihi videatur in hoc genere fingi posse perfectius" {ibid. p. 18). 

45 " He stands at the close of the period in which a comprehensive and in- 
dependent study of Greek literature prevailed, and he himself must be regarded 
as the father of the scholiasts who were satisfied with compiling or abridging the 
works of their predecessors " (Smith's Diet. Biogr, s. n.). He is here placed in 
class (i) as having edited the text of Homer. 

46 "Didymus ipsos fontes adieus Aristonici breviario carebat facillime" 
(Lehrs p. 31). Amongst these "fontes" were the edd. of Antimachus, Khianus, 


Ilis work nB()l t^g ^jiQiCraQxelov dioQ&ciaecDg is recited at the end of every 
book by the compiler of the acholl. Venot. as having furnished materials 
for his work; see that on ^. iii. 

(ii) 1 8. ARISTONICUS, 
temp. Tib. Csesar, was esteemed a grammarian of high merit. Strabo 
mentions him p. 38 as of his own time, and as having, in what he wrote, 
concerning the wanderings of Menolaiis, recorded the opinions of many 
upon the matters therein contained. A schol. on J*. 198, ascribed by 
Lehrs to Herodian, cites him as reading otmv where Aristarchus read 
o^cov; see ^Iso on JV. 137, oAoo/r^ojroj. The remarks there adduced as 
his are supposed hy Lehrs to be from his commentary on llomer. He 
also commented on J^indar (Schol. ad 01, 1, 33, III. 31, VII. 153). He 
gave explanations of the marks of Aristarchus, whose name is often to be 
understood where he uses the 3*'*' pers, sing, anonymously. So his phrase 
arifAeiovtfxal xivsg is referred by Lehrs to Aristarchus or his disciples 
(Lehrs p. 5, § 4, p. 15, § 7). See further under Didymus, who with 
Ariston. is one of the four grammarians out of whose works the scholl. 
Venet. were compiled. 

LXII. (i) 19. APION, 

snrnamed ii6%'&og from his literary toils, son of PHstonicus, or Posido- 
nius, but whether of Egyptian or Cretan origin, is doubted. A revision 
of the Homeric text with a commentary, the joint production of him and 
Herodorus, was in high popularity in the time of Caligula, and absolutely 
ruled the Homeric studies of the age. He is cited by Schol. 13 on B. la, 
BL on ^. 457, Q on d. 419 ei al, Hesychius mentions his expositions of 
Homeric li^etg^ and Eustath. often speaks of the commentary. Whether 
he was the author of a distinct Homeric Lexicon, has been doubted {v. s. 
ApoUonius), but his Homeric works, under whatever title, were compiled 
witli great judgment, and (Valckenat^r thinks) became the basis of subse- 
quent Homeric Lexicons (Fabric, 1. p. 503 — 4). He excelled also in ora- 
tory, and was politically concerned in the embassy from Alexandria to 
(Jalignla against the Jews, whom he also attacked in writing, which called 
forth Josephus' famous reply. He also wrote uEgyptiaca, a topographical 
and descriptive work, an eulogy on Alexander the Great, and other works. 
IHs merits were undoubtedly high, but were obscured by his own over- 
weening estimate of them, which outran even the adulation apparently 
paid to him. 

Philetas, Zenodotus,' Sosigenes, Philemon, Aristophanes, Callistratus, Crates, the 
one named ^ noXvctixo^ (perhaps from the number of lines in a column or page), 
those known as the MOtyttl, Sfifiooi^stg etc., the ^olic and the Cyclic; besides the 
commentaries of Dionysius Thrax, Dionysius Sidonins, Choeris, Demetrius Ixion, 
Diodorus, Ptolemaens Epithetes on the text of Zenodotus (**8i modo recte inter- 
protamur B, iiT', adds Lehrs), the tract of Ammonias, referred to p. Lxvii n. ay, 
Dionysius Thrax on Crates negl noaotiitcaVf the writings of Dionysodorus, Par- 
meniscus, Ptolemiens Oroandes, ApoUonius Uhodius on Zenodotus, and a few more 
(Lehrs p. 30). 

Lxxviii PREFACE. 

so called by Fabric, (ub. sup, p. 513), but possibly by confusion with the 
better known one so named and surnamed, who was a pupil of Plato. He is 
claimed by Ammonius, a grammarian of Alexandria towards the close of 
the 4*** century, as "one of us'' (i5fi£T£(>oi/), t. e. probably of the Alexan- 
drine school. He wrote "solutions" {kvasLg) of Homeric questions (47), 
and explained Homeric allegories (48). He is said by Fabric, {ub. sup, p. 
513, cf. VI, p. 369) to have been a pupil of Didymus the younger and 
to have flourished in the times of Claudius and Nero. 

surnamed Jffomericus, wrote i^rjyririTta on the whole of Homer, and also 
taught oratory at Rome. He was the author of other works grammatical 
and mythological. His date is uncertain, but was not later than Sueto- 
nius who cites him (Fabric. VI. 378) A. D. 90. 

(ii) 22,. NICANOR 
of Alexandria (Suidas) or of Hierapolis (Steph. Byzant.) A. D. 130, was 
surnamed derisively cnyiiaxlag from his writing on punctuation, espe- 
cially that of Homer and Callimachus, but also generally {ksqI trig kci- 
^okox) auyiATJg), His work furnished materials to the Sehol. Venet. (Fa- 
bric. I. 368, 517, III. 823, VI. 345). He is cited by the SchoU. BL on 
Z. 445 et ah 


a Greek rhetorician of Halicarnassus temp, Hadrian, who wrote a lexicon 
of^Arnxa ovofiata^ cited by Eustath., also probably by the Schol. L. on Z. 
378. His other works were chiefly upon music. He must be distinguished 
from the more famous Dionysius, also surnamed " of Halicarnassus '', who 
wrote on Roman archaeology and belongs to the century B. C. 

(ii) 24. APOLLONIUS, 
surnamed 6 dvCKoXog from having his temper soured by poverty, was born 
at Alexandria, flourished under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, and wrote 
on parts of speech, verbs in (ii and ** Homeric figures". 

(ii) 25. HERODIAN, 
son of the last mentioned, also an Alexandrian, but removed to Rome 
and gained the favour of M. Aurelius, to whom he dedicated a book, ei- 

47 This was a favourite form of ancient Homeric criticism on detached points; 
cf. Villoison Anecd. Gr. II. p. 1 84, " ac praesertim ii qui ex Alexandrinfi scholft, 
tanquam ex eqno Trojano, prosiluere, et vocabantur ot IvzlhoIj et at Enstatfaii 
verba usurpem, ot x&v ^OykJiqiiimv dnoQimv Xvrmoly quod in Museo Alexandrine 
ut plurimnm Homericis quasstionibns excog^tandis et argute solvendis vacarent.^^ 
One such dnoQla^ ascribed to Aristotle, is mentioned by the Schol. Yen. on B. 73. 

48 Unless these were the work of the elder Heraclides Ponticns, already re- 
ferred to, with whom Fabric, loc. cit, seems to confound him. 


ther his 'lAtax^ ngoacDdia (Schol. Ven. on A, 576) (49), or his 17 xa^oAov 
Ttgocmdia in ao books. Both arc cited by Schol. Ven. on ji, 493; sec also 
on <Z>. 23a et aL lie also wrote ini^iQiafioi^ in which rare and difficult 
words and peculiar forms in Homer were discussed (s®) ; see further in 
Smith's Dtct. Biogr. 5. «. 

names as his contemporary the emperor Commodus, and flourished to the 
time of Alexander (Rom. Emp.). His work is called the diinvoGOfpicxtd^ 
which might be paraphrased as ** learned table-talk''; it is in the form of 
a dialogue supposed to take place at a banquet, but spun out to the in- 
ordinate length of 15 books. It is chiefly on literary and critical points, 
or on literature as illustrating the art of the bon vivant, but is so inimitably 
discursive that anything may lead to anything else. The opinions ex- 
pressed in it are perhaps as often merely whimsical or jocosely exagger- 
ated as sincerely meant; such probably is the statement that Athcnocles 
of Cyzicus understood Homer better than Aristarchus (V. p. 177 e) ; so 
also the allusion to wa and vrngaa (cf. Schol. V. on JJ, 184) and sundry 
other heavy pedantic jokes. He has rescued from perishing a vast mass 
of literary fragments, and wrote a lost history of the Kings of Syria. See 
further in Smith's Did, Biogr, s, «. 

LXIII. (iii) 27. PORPHYRY, 

bom probably in Batanea (Bashan) of Trans-Jordanic Palestine, in his 
youth studied under the Christian Father, Origen, perhaps at Ca\sarea, but 
flourished as a Neo-Platonic philosopher of the school of Plotinus and an 
adversary of the Christians, from Gallienus to Diocletian or Probus. His 
original name was Malchus = ^aOiksvg^ from which "Porphyry" sprung 
by an easy association (Smith's Diet, Biogr, s, n.). He was a voluminous 
writer. Amongst his works were the "Homeric (Questions", probably a 
compilation (Fabric. I. p. 396), see p.Lxxviii n. 47? and an allegorical in- 
terpretation of the "Cave of the Nymphs" in Ody. v., which were much 
in favour with the early editors of Homer down to the 17^*' century; thus 
oven Barnes retains them; also scholia on the H., said to resemble closely 
the schoU. Ven., and (whether distinct from the last named or not, is 

49 Herodian^B work on prosody furnished materials to the compiler of 
the Bcholl. Venet., together with the works of Didynuis, Aristonicus and Nica- 
nor, and Lehrs thinks that the first compilation took place not much later than 
Ilerodian^B age. A few additions were made from other writings of Herodian, 
especially any which seemed to conflict with the views stated in his prosody. 
Casual observations which bore upon the point discussed might, Lehrs thinks, 
have also been added to the commentaries of Didymus and Aristonicus ; and as 
time went on and further materials accumulated, as from Porphyry, other ad- 
ditions were made (Lehrs 35 — 6). 

50 '* Summum magistnim Aristarchnm siepissime respicit, assentiens in pleris- 
que, raro et verecunde dissentions (c. g, Z. 266, O. 10, 320, T, 228, see schol. 
tlioro)) • • •• doctissinnim opus est" (Lehrs p. 34 § 11). 


not quite clear) "annotations on difficult passages in the II. and Ody." 
(Fabric. I. p. 394). He was careful in explaining difficulties, as also in 
adding citations of the passages which illustrate the doubtful word or 
phrase. He states this principle, as cited by the Schol. B on Z. 301, 
d^L^v dh iyo) "OfirjQOv i^ ^Ofirjgov aatprjvi^scv^ avrbv i^riyovfievov iavvov ims- 
dsUvvov. He was also useful in handing down elder traditions. A MS. of 
these scholl. exists at Leyden, and an edition of them was promised by 
Voss, but he did not live to execute it. Valckenaer has published those 
on book XXII of the II. (Fabric. I., pp. 309 — 400, cf. VI, p. 519). Such 
"questions" propounded in the schools of Alexandria formed a favourite 
test of the students' knowledge of Homer; and scholia often take the form of 
ccTtOQia with its lvaig{si) e.g, &tX, 147, S. 200, Z. ^134, 359, 488 (Schol. B). 

(iii) 2S. HESYCHIUS 

of Alexandria or of Miletus, a Christian writer of the 3^^^ and 4**^ cen- 
tury. Whether the same as the Christian martyr under Diocletian is un- 
certain (Smith's J)ict. Biogr. s. n,). The lexicon which goes under his 
name is replete with illustration of the Greek classic writers, and for the 
diction of the poets no one compiler has perhaps done so much by way 
of elucidation. It is no less useful for the LXX and N. T. It professes 
to be based on that of Herodian, and has again been added to successively 
by later hands. The most renowned scholars of Europe since the renais- 
sance have contributed to throw light upon its text. The only known 
MS. of it is in the Marcian Library Ven. (Fabric. VI. p. 199 foil.). 

LXIV. (iii) 29. TZETZES, 

a verbose and voluminous writer, who flourished in the middle of the 
12^^ centuiy, and wrote a poem in three parts: I. Pro-Bomerica, 
2. ffomcrica, and 3. Post ffomen'ca (s^), a "paraphrase on Homer", and 
"Homeric allegories ", which he dedicated to the Empress Iren^ Augusta. 
Parts I. and 2. are also called "the little Iliad". He is said to have had 
no knowledge of the Cyclic poets, but to have drawn his sources wholly 
from scholia etc. The libraries of Madrid and Vienna, the King's 
Library London (Brit. Mus.), and the Bodleian Oxford, contain unedited 
MSS. of various parts of his works. Most of what they contain is, how- 
ever, probably known from other sources (S3). 

LXV (iii) 30. EUSTATHIUS, 

archbishop of Thessalonica, bom at Constantinople, flourished in the 

51 See on p. Lxxviii, note 47. 

5a A fragment of the Post Homericaf and another of the Paraphrase, was 
edited by Dodwell {Dissert, de vett. Gr. ei Rom. Cyclis p. 802), and a fragment of 
the PrO'Homerica by F.Morell (II, carmen Gr, pociw cujits nomen iqnoratur)^ and an- 
other by G. B. Schirach, Halle, 1770 (Fabric. I, p. 403 foil.). 

53 Concerning the ChiUades of Tzetzes, a work of over 12,000 lines mythologi- 
cal and historical, but having no special reference to Homer, see Smith's Diet, 
Biogr . s. v. Tzetzes, pp. 1200 — i. 


latter part of the C2**^ century, and published under the title of TtaQBxpoXal 
(excerpta) a laborious commentary on the Iliad and Odyssey, incorporat- 
ing all the Homeric learning of his time. It was first printed at Rome 
under the auspices of Pope Julius HE, the Emperor Charles V and King 
Henry I of France, in 3 voU. fol. 15427—9. A notice of other edd. will 
be found in Fabric I. pp. 391 — 2,. The mere index of writers cited by 
him occupies forty-five 4*** pages of Fabric. Bibl. Gr, vol. I, and of these 
the great majority would be wholly unknown, or known by name only, 
but for him. Hence the value of his work may be estimated. It is, as 
it was inscribed by the author, a veritable xiQag ^AfiaX^Blag, Valckenaer's 
opinion (ap. Fabric, loc* cii,) was that he found no poets extant but such 
as have come down to us (54), that all his other citations of poets are second- 
hand from Athen8eus(55) or from scholiasts now lost, that of all these, 
however, he was a most careful student (5^), that his other chief sources 
were the commentary of Apion and Herodorus and other scholl. of high 
antiquity on either poem, the copious lexicons of ^Elius Dionysius, Pau- 
sanias and others, and the works of Heraclides and Herodian. His 
above mentioned references to o£ naXaiol are accordingly derived from 
this class of writers (S7). But his copies of many surviving poems were 
superior to any which we now have, and he has thus preserved some 
readings of high value. It is some testimony to the antiquity of his au- 
thorities that his work contains hardly any allusions to the Christian 
Scriptures, although the phraseology of a Christian writer and Divine is 
occasionally traceable in it (5^). 

54 It appears, however, from *Hhe Catalogue of the books of the Patriarch 
of Constantinople^* 1578, that among them were extant probably down to the fall 
of that city, and therefore in Eustathius* time, 24 plays of Menander and "Ly- 
cophronis omnia *\ (This catalogue is in Sir T. Phillipps* library; see page lzzxv 
note 6. 

55 ^*Bentley has shown by examining nearly a hundred of his references to 
Athenoeus, Hhat his only knowledge of him was through the epitome" (Smithes 
Diet, Siogr. s. n. AthensBUs). 

56 Lehrs charges Eustath. with a careless use of the scholl. which he had at 
hand, ^* quern limis oculis quos ad manum sumserat libros percurrisse certum est.* 
(He here adduces instances.) Strictim oculis percurrisse copias suas Eustath., 
hoc etiam proditur illustri documento. Usus est scholiorum volumine eo, quae 
ho die codex Venetus A. habet sed prseterea tractabat, quem saepissime ad partes 
vocat, librum commentationum Apionis et Herodori nomine inscriptum. £0 vero 
libro eadem ilia scholia contineri (qu od ita esse excursu opuscnli mei ostendani) 
longum per iter hoc comitatu utenti non patuit** (p. 40—1). 

57 Dr. Leonard Schmitz {ap. Dr» Smithes DicUBiogr.^ p. lao) farther thinks 
that '*he was personally acquainted with the greatest of the ancient critics, snch 
as Aristoph. of Byz., Aristar., Zenod. and others, whose works were accessible to 
him in the great libraries of Constantinople". 

58 As is occasionally the case in some of the Scholl., 6. p. 17 %dQiq tov ^AyCov 
Tlvsvfiatog 8ia vitpovg ataXayfiovg d£diaci yvdaBmg ». t. X., Scholl. H. Q. on a. a. 



LXVI. The list of ancient authorities which has been under review 
in |Part II leads on naturally to the MSS. of the text and of the 
scholia upon it which we inherit from their labours. Our oldest Ho- 
meric codices are in fact a little older than the age of Eustathius, and 
were mostly imported several centuries later from Constantinople, 
the last native seat of Greek learning. 

The following account of MSS., so far as they are contained in 
public libraries ( I ); is probably not far from complete as regards its 

I I have to thank for the assistance which their replies to my enquiries have 
furnished, the librarians of 

the Ambrosian library at MUan, 

the Imperial library at Paris, 

the Marcian library at Venice, 

the University library at Heidelberg, 

the Public library at Hamburg, 

the Catholic library at Louvain, 

the University library at Leyden, 
^ the Public library at Amsterdam, 

the Royal library at Madrid, 

the Imperial library at Vienna, 

the Royal library at Breslau, 

the Mediceanlibrary at Florence, 

Caius College Cambridge, 

Corpus* Christi Coll. Cambridge 

the Royal library at Berlin. 
The above arrangement follows the order in which their replies were received. 

I have also to thank the Rev^. H. Bradshaw of King^s Coll. Cambridge, and 
especially the Bodleian Librarian in the University of Oxford, by whose permission 
the specimen of the MS. of the scholia on the Odyssey was copied, for valuable 
help which they have afforded in prosecuting the researches necessary for the 


proper scope^ the Odyssey. On one point, however, viz. how far the 
various codices enumerated have been collated, and in what editions 
the results of those collations have been embodied, the information 
which it has been found possible to obtain is in some respects defi- 
cient. I commend this branch of the enquiry to the good offices of 
any scholars who may be travelling on the continent. 

LX VII. In the library of the Brit. Mus. among the Harleian MSS. 
are four of the Odyssey, 
No. 5658, vellum, A. D. 1479. 

5673, paper, XV*** century. 

5674, vellum, XIII^** century. This was collated by Porson with 
Emesti's ed. of theOdy. 1760, and before him, but cursorily, 
by Bentley, who, as Person says, only noticed the various 
readings of the text, omitting those derivable from the 
scholl. These Bentley sent to S. Clarke (the son) for his 
edition of Homer left unfinished by his father. Cramer 
since collated the scholl. with those edited by Buttmann. Of 
the four this alone has scholl. In some parts of the earlier 
books these are very copious. They sometimes fill the en- 
tire margin, including the spaces above and at the page-foot, 
and sometimes have an entire page or more to themselves. 
Cramer thought he detected a later hand in some of the 
longer scholl., and traces of erasure of those by the earlier 
hand to make room for them. On this question of unity of 
hand Porson suspends his judgment, adding, '^neque id 
sane multum refert, cum satis constet, unius jussu et con- 
silio totum MS. concinnatum esse'\ He remarks that it 
was written at a time when copyists had begun to hesitate 
between the t subscript or written ad laius. The MS. is iik' 
beautiful condition and contains [50 leaves (a). The ink is 

Enqniries have also been addressed to the Vatican library at Rome, the Pan- . 
line library at Leipzig, and to the principal libraries at Strasbourg, Angsbnrg 
and Basle, also to the Imperial library at St. Petersburg, to that of the Holy 
Synod at Moscow, and to the Royal library at the Esonrial; but no replies have 
been received from any of them. The notices of the MSS. said to be in their 
keeping are derived from Fabricius, Heyne, Dindorf and other scholars. As re- 
gards private libraries, it is quite possible that MSS. may exist there which are 
generally unknown. I shall of course be thankful for information concerning 
any such. 

1 Heyne (vol. HI. iv. de subsidHs p. xcvii note) calls it an *^* ezimius codex 
cum Townleiano Iliadis codice comparandus ^\ The end of the volume has the 

Lxxxiv PREP AJ(C E. 

in some places paler than in otherS; but the ink used by the same 
writer may not have been always of the same quality. A table of the 
var. led. which Porson extracted from it, arranged in the order in 
which they occur in the poem, is appended to the Oxford Clarendon 
ed. 1800. This MS. is cited as HarL, and its scholL as Scholl. H., in 
the present ed. 
No. 6325, vellum, XV*^ century. 

LXVIII. In the Bodleian library at Oxford is a MS. of scholl. on the 
Ody. without text, in beautiful condition and very legible, ascribed to the 
XI*^ or Xn*^ century (3). They are those known as the scholl. minora^ 
as contrasted with those of Eustath., also as vulgata or scholl. Didymi, 
but with no due authority for the name; see under Didymus p. Lxxvi. 
Their form is that of comments on the individual word or phrase, prefixed 
as a catch-word, in. the order of the text. The books have short argu- 
ments prefixed. Dindorf collated this MS. for his ed. of scholl. on the 
Ody., Oxford Clarendon, 1855, and says (JPrmfat, p. xviii) that the scholl., 
published by Asulanus at the Aldine Press in 1528 were derived from 
a MS. closely akin (plane gemellus) to this. 

LXIX. In the library of Caius Coll., Cambr., is a MS. no. 76 fol., on 
vellum, containing an exegesis of the Ody., apparently a fragment of the 
scholl. Didymi on book I to VII. 54. (Fabric. I. 412, cf. p. 389. and 
Heyne III. p. lxx note.) In the margin are some additions in red ink, 
and the scholl. are occasionally displaced, e^ g. at a, x88 (4). The li- 
brarian is not aware that it has ever been collated. 

In the library of Corpus Christi Coll., Cambr., is a MS. no. 81 fol. on 
paper, probably XV**^ century (s), containing the H., the Post- ffomerica of 
Q. Smyrnseus and the Ody. It was collated by Barnes for 'his ed. 
Cambr. 171 1. 

LXX. In the boys' library, or School library of Eton College is a copy 
of the Florentine ed. prin. 1488, the ample margins of which contain MS. 
scholl. "by the hand of Aloysius Alamannus'^ and precisely dated "the 
6**^ of April 1518, being Easter Day". The scholl. on the II. are said 

subscription ^'Antonii Seripandi et amicorum''\ Seripandi was a Cardinal (Fabric. 
I. p. 401) and Archbishop of Salerno, and died 1563. For this and some other 
similar information I am indebted to M**. £. Deutsch of the Brit.Mus. A specimen 
of this MS., to follow this page, has been copied for the present work, by permis- 
sion of the authorities of that Museum. 

3 A specimen of this MS., to follow that of the Harleian, has been copied for 
this work. 

4 It is bound up in a miscellaneous collection of Greek MSS. principally 

5 From its having the name of Theodore in . gilt letters on the first page it 
has been ascribed to the Archbishop of Canterbury of that name in the VXI'** cen- 
tury, but erroneously, as shown by the character and appearance, betokening a 
date not much earlier than the invention of printing. (Catal. of MSS. in C.C.C.C.) 








^ o 














v5. /. 








O X 




4p 1^P 




li P. r:Ul s 


=-* -I 'f .^ 




to be less copious than those on the Ody. and to cease entirely after 
about bk. XXI. There are none on the Batrachom. and Hymns. Barnes 
extracted the Odyssean scholl. (Heyne III, iii, de SchoU, in Horn. LXXI, 
cf. Barnes prcefat. p. vi. and Fabric. I, p. 390), and they also appear to 
have been previously used for the Camb. ed. of 1689 (Heyne III, i, de 
edd. Horn, p. xxx). 

In the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, B^rt. of Middle Hill, is an 8^^ 
vellum, XV*^ or XVP*^ century MS, no. 367, in extremely good preser- 
vation and very clearly written, but by a careless scribe, without scholia. 
It appears from a mem. at the end to have been the property of Matteo 
Palmieri of Pisa, and passed into the hands of the Jesuits of Clermont 
at Paris (6). 

LXXI. In the Imperial library at Paris are seven MSS. of the Ody., 
six of them with scholl. Their value is discussed by Villoison Prolegg, 
in II p. XLV. foil. note. On applying to the librarian I have not been 
able to ascertain which of them have been collated, but one of them is 
doubtless that mentioned by Dindorf as "Parisinus 2403 '^ the scholl. of 
which were collated by him and are cited under the letter D. This MS. 
is said to be on silk, of the XIV^*^ century, elegantly written in very 
black ink. Its scholl. on books I to III are copious, those on books IV 
to X fewer, after which they wholly cease. It is said to retain the name 
of Porphyry (7) attached to many scholl. where other MSS. had lost it. 
Another is probably the "Parisinus 2894" of Dindorf, inspected by him, 
and cited under the letter S, same century and material, but square in 
form, with double columns in each page, and in each column 22 lines of 
text. The Ody. with scholl. and glosses occupies p. 209 — 333 of the 
MS., but these scholl. etc. disappear after v. 38 of book III. They are 
described as good and ancient, but less copious than those of the Harl. 
Cramer, adds Dindorf, gave some excerpts from this MS. in his Anecdot. 
Paris, vol. Ill, but omitted a good deal as illegible, and misread some 
(Prcefat, xiv). 

LXXn. In the Medicean library at Florence, book-case numbered 
XXXII, the following MSS. contain the Odyssey in whole or in part: 
No. 4, fol. vellum, XV^** century, of great beauty, containing also the 

6 By the courtesy of the owner, now residing at Thirlestaine House, Chelten- 
ham, I have inspected this MS., and collated, but too late to be of use for the pre- 
sent volume, books a. and s» and a part of 6, It agrees more frequently with the 
Harl. 5674 than with any other MS. known to me; yet it differs from it, agreeing 
incidentally by turns with six or seven other MSS., or withEustath., oftian enough 
to give it an independent, and as it were, eclectic character. Among these variants 
I have found three which I do not see noticed as existing in any MS. whatever, 
although two of these are recorded by scholl. on the II. or on a later book of the 
Ody. The third, OQmQBi for oSmSsiv in s. 60, is, I believe, new. There is also a 
MS. of Eustathius in the Middle Hill Library. 

7 This does not imply that Porphyry was the original source, he having 
largely compiled from others; see Porphyry on p. Lxziz sap. 

Lxxxvi PREFACE. 

Vita Bom,^ the H. and Batrachom. : the books have arguments prefixed, 
but no schoU. 

No. 6, fol. vellum, XV*^ century, of great beauty, the same without the 
Vita, but having neither arguments nor sehoU. 

No. I a, large 4*® paper, XV* century, containing the Ody. alone, muti- 
lated in several places, with neither arguments nor schoU, except to 
book I. 

No. 23, 8^*^ paper, XV* century, containing the Ody. with very scanty 
SchoU. by a much later hand, and which .commence at book XVI. 

No. 24, 8^*^ vellum, X* century, containing the Ody. with interlinear 
glosses, mutilated towards the end. 

No. 30, large 4*^ paper, XVI* century (8), containing the Ody., text only, 
with arguments to some only of the books. 

No. 39, 8^° vellum, XV* century, containing the Ody. with some inter- 
linear glosses and very brief schoU. on the first four pages; no argu- 

Book-case numbered LVn(9). 

No. 32, 8^® paper, XV* century, containing ancient scholl. by an un- 
certain author on books I — IV of the Ody., cited by Dindorf as R., and 
as Bchol. R. in the margin of this edition. 

Book-case numbered XCI. 

No. 2, large 4*® silk, XTTT* century, containing Ody. books I — XIV, Ho 
SchoU., mutilated at the end. 

LXXni. In the Marcian library at Venice are the following : 
No. 460, fol. vellum, XII* century, in 250 leaves contains Eustathius 

on II. and Ody., and was used for the ed. Romana(io) 1542 ... 1550 ; 

see Fabric, ub. sup, p. 392. 
No. 513 (or 613 ,as given by Fabric, ub, sup. and Dindorf) ("), fol. paper, 

8 "The trade of the copyist of Greek MSS., instead of sinking at once before 
the printer, held its ground for nearly a century. Some of the most elegant Greek 
books we possess in MS. were executed as late as the middle of the 16^'* century. 
.... The public were supplied with cheap Greek books by the Aldine and other 
presses, but for copies de luxe, such as kings and collectors loved — ckartcB regiw^ 
notn libri — copyist and miniator still continued in request^* Quarterly Rev, No 
234, p. 338- 

9 Erroneously given as 37 by Dindorf. 

ID Cardinal Bembo procured it for the Roman editors, as I am informed by the 
present librarian of the Marcian; who adds that it was once, through misinter- 
pretation of the superscription, supposed to be an autograph of Eustath. himself. 
He refers me to Bembo*s Lettere^ Yenezia 1729. vol III. p. 125, Dorville Varm. Crit. 
Amsterdam vol. I. p. 313. Its register will be found in the Marcian CataL 
Gr. MSS. II. p. 245 foil. 

II Registered 313 in same Catal. p. 315. Fabric, calls it a 4'®, and Dindorf 
describes it as being "formft quadrate ^*. This was collated by Gobet, and is of 
all now extant the most perfect as regards the scholl. on books I— IV. 


in 296 leaves, XIII^*^ century, the Ody. follows the Batrachom. and 
has schoU. in its margin. 
No. 4 of Class IX, 4*'^ paper, XIII^^ to XV^*> century, contains as follows: 

1. From the beginning to book VI, v. 190, with a preface prefixed, 
XIV^»^ century. 

2, From book IX, v. 541, to the end of the poem, with schoU. of 
XIII**> century. Dindorf used the scholl. in his ed. of the SckolL 
in Odys.y and describes them as short and of little value, mentioning 
favourably, however, one long note probably transmitted by Por- 
phyry (i>). He adds that the first portion of the MS. is on sQk. 

No. 463, 8^<^ on paper, in 194 leaves, XI V*** century, with interlinear 

scholl. (13), the books VII and VIII are missing, while VI and IX are 

No. 456, fol. vellum in 541 leaves, XV*^ century, containing also the H., 

the Hymns and Batrachom., with the poem of Quintus Smymeeus. 
No. 457 (14), 4^^ paper, in 191 leaves, XV*^* century or thereabouts. 
No. 611 , fol, paper, in 244 leaves, XV*** century (15), has the Vita Horn, 

No. 29 of Class IX (16), fol. paper, XV* century, "with interlinear Latin 

version, which does not agree with any published up to this day'', and 

accompanied by marginal notes. 
No. 34 of Class IX, fol. paper, XV*** century, with glosses and scholl. 

interlinear and marginal, bequeathed by Girolamo Contarini to the 

library ; the end is missing. 
No. 610(17), fol. paper, in 590 leaves, about XVI* century. 
No. 20 of Class IX, 4*® paper, in 279 leaves, XVI* century (i 8), contains 

among other things "Annotationes grammaticales in Odysseam Ho- 

meri", p. 133 foil. 

I a On the question why Odys. discovered himself to Telemaohus and the ser- 
vants, and not to PeneIop6. This is such an ino^Ca and Xvatg as those mentioned 
on p. Lxxvii note 47. They are as old as Aristotle. 

13 This and the next two are on p. 145 of the same oatal. This is perhaps 
the one given as No. 263 by Fabric. 

14 Possibly that given by Fabric. (u6. sup, p. 408) as No. 647 4^, '^Odyssea 
fine mutila", and by Villoison Aneod, Or, II. p. 147, as being in the append, to Ca- 
tal. of Gr. MSS. in the Maroian from the Gatal. of Gl. Zanetti, No. dozlvii, 4<<», 
in 194 leaves, XIV^^ century, mutilated at the end. 

15 On p. 314 of the same oatal. 

1 6 This and the next are in the Appendix to the catal. aforesaid. The quota- 
tion in the text is from the letter referred to in note 9. 

17 On p. 314 of the same catalogue. 

18 This and the two following are in the Appendix aforesaid. This MS., as 
the Maroian librarian informs me, derives from the^ library of the Nani family of 
Cefalonia, and is described by Mingarelli in the Qrwci CodtL MSS, B. 1 784, pp. 

Lxxxviii PREFACE. 

No. 21 of Class IX, fol. paper, XVP** century (19), imperfect at the begin- 
ning, contains parts of the poem. 

No. 36, 37 of Class IX. A copy of the Florentine ed. prin. of Horn, 
opp.y 1488, with schoU. written in the margin of the Ody., only dating 
from the XVI*** century (20). Bequeathed by Contarini aforesaid. 

The Schol. Ven. on the II., whence Villoison edited in 1788 Homeri 
Ilias ad veteris codicis Veneii fidem recensitay refers to his schoU. on the 
Ody., which Villoison, however, was nowhere "able to find, see ibid. 
Prolegg. pp. 2,y and 44 note. 

LXXIV. In the Vatican library at Rome are MSS. schoU. on the Ody. 
by Georgius Chrysococces, or perhaps copied only by him (Allatius de 
Georgiis p. 360 ap. Fabric. I. p. 416). 

In the library of the "Congregatio Cassinensis"(2i), MS. No. 2, is Ody. 
fol. vellum. 

MSS. of Ody. are mentioned by Montfaucon in his Catal. as existing 
in the same library (Fabric, ub. sup. p. 412) ; he does not say how many, 
nor state particulars. One distinguished as "Reginensis 91", paper, 
Xyih century, containing also the Hymni, is mentioned by Baumeister, 
Hy. Horn, prolegg. p. 94. 

In the library of Padua is a (MS.?) translation of the Ody. by Manuel 

LXXV. The Ambrosian library at Milan has three MSS. with scholl. 
and two without, all carefully examined by Maii, who says PrcefaU de Codd. 
Ambros. Odyss. p. xLi, *' novum esse plerumque diversumque ab editis Ambro- 
sianorum scholiorum(23) genus nemo legens non videt '\ They are: 

A fol. MS. on paper, apparently XIV*^ century, entire with most valu- 
able and copious scholl. which diminish in number in the later books (24) 
(Maii, who first edited them at Milan 1819, Prcefai, p. xxxvi). Buttmann, 

19 The parts of the poem are said to be stated in Mingarelli, pp. 486—7 ; see 
last note. This also came through the^Nani family. 

20 The marginal scholl. in MS. are a similar feature to those in the margin 
of the Etonian copy of the same ed. prin. ascribed to Aloysius Alamannus, 
see p. Lxxxiv. § LXX. 

21 Supposed to be that of the Benedictines on Monte Oassino in Naples. 

22 "Yel potius alicujus indocti." Fabric. u6. «up. p. 41 2. 

23 Villoison {Prolegg. ad II. p. XLi) notes that '^in Ambrosianis scholiis semel 
loquitur Christianus auctor anonymus (<T. 2) semel etiam Gregorius theolo^s 
('9'. 409)^^; adding, ^'nonne etiam in Yenetianis scholiis Christiana vestigia im- 
pressa sunt? " 

24 E. g. the first twelve books in Mali's ed. of the collated scholl. occupy 
over 100 pages, the last twelve 30 pages. These MSS. are registered respectively 
as Q. 38 part, sup., B. 99 part, sup., E. 89 part, sup., A. 77 part, inf., B* 120 part, 
sup., F. 85 part. sup. The description "part, sup." or "inf." probably refers to the 
part of book-case etc. The Ambrosian also contains an allegorical interpretation 
of the fables of the Ody., the work " Johannis Aurati, Gallicani poetae", sometime 
a teacher of Greek at Paris; ^t is a paper MS., 8^°, registered F. 85 part. sup. 


Berlin 1 821, and Dindorf have incorporated them in their respective edd. 
of scholl. and cited them as Q. (^5) : 

One of square form on silk paper, XV**^ century (Maii says 4*®, XIV*** 
century), has scholl., mostly short, as far as the beginning of book XXI; 
partly identical with other scholl., partly of much later origin; used by 
Maii and cited as B (Dindorf. ib. p. xii): 

Another on silk, same age, contains books I to IX, with copious 
scholl. partly good and ancient, partly trifling and worthless. Brought 
from Scio into Italy. Used by Maii and cited as E (Dindorf ib. p. xiii). 

The two without scholl. are, one fol. on paper, containing the whole 
poem but with the first book acephalous, beginning at v. 384; this has argu- 
ments of the books, is a western MS., and bears date as finished Nov. 1468; 
the other contains not the text, but the comments of Eustath. on the first 
book and the beginning of the second, and a latin commentary, also de- 
rived from Eustath., on books I — ^X. It is curious as being an autograph 
of Basil. Ghalcondyles, youifger son of the Demetrius Chalcondyles who 
edited the ed. prin. of Homer at Florence. 

LXXVI. In the Elizabethan library at Breslau are two MSS. of the 
Ody., both collated by F. Jacobs for Heyne (HI. iv. de subsidd, p. xc), 
and probably also by Clarke or Ernesti before him, since the edition of 
Emesti, following Clarke, contains frequent references to their readings. 

One is «., large fol., vellum, in 176 leaves, very carelessly transcribed, 
but in an elegant hand, contains also Batrachom,^ the Vita Horn, and J/. 
I to VI. V. 356. 

Another, A., small folio in 484 leaves, XV*^ century; the a"^ vol. con- 
tains the Ody. by two hands, one that of Michael Apostoles of Constan- 
tinople, driven by the fall of that city intoCandia. It has here and there 
various readings in the margin. 

LXXVn. In the Town library at Hamburgh is a large sized MS. on silk 
in 228 pages, XIII*^ or XIV*** century (a6), containing the Ody. as far as 
v. 67 of book XIV, with scholl., the text carefully written, and with no 
unusual contractions. Some of the scholl. are interlinear, but merely of 
the character of glosses, the greater part in the margin, difficult to de- 
cipher on account of their contractions and the tattered state of the 
edges. These seem also in places to have run away several pages from 
the text. At p. 151 a new series of scholl. commences in a later hand, 
occupying at first only the spaces left by the older series, which by and 
by fail, and the newer series appears alone. This is chiefly from Eustath., 
the older agree chiefly with the Ambrosian and with the Heidelberg MSS., 
and are diffuse and rhetorical. (Abridged from Preller's description ap. 
Dindorf Prwfat, ad ScholL in Odyss. pp. ix — xi.) Dindorf, however, who 
incompletely collated it, says it is useful in checking other scholl., and 

35 Fabric. (u6. «ttp. p. 411) speaks of a MS. of Ody., XIIP^ century, in the 
Ambrosian library, Milan, as mentioned by Montfaucon Dior, ItaJt. pp. 17 — 18. 
I cannot identify it with any known to the librarian there. 

a6 Preller indicates that it had been previoasly assigned to the XII^^ century. 


'^ etiam sdiolia multa solus servayit ex bonis et antiquis fontibus derivata'' 
{ibid. p. xii). He cites it as T. 

LXXVni. In the University library at Heidelberg is a large 4^ MS., 
vellum, in 468 pages, XTTI^** or at the latest XIV* century, having schoU. 
on the margins, which were collated by Buttmann (ed.scholl. Berlin 1828) 
and by Dindorf (27) (ed. sup. citat. prcefat. p. xii), who cites it as F and 
rates it as of less value than the last mentioned, T. It contains also the 
Batraehom., an argument of theOdy. and some other pieces. The schoU. 
on books IV to VH inclusive are difficult through their small and highly 
contracted characters, but of greater value (often agreeing with H and 
Q) than those of the other books, which are by a later hand (Dind. iftirf.). 

In the Public library at Nuremburgh is a MS. in % vol. of the Opera 
Hom.y written in 155^^ by Charles Stephanus (28). (Fabric, ub. sup. p. 41a.) 

LXXIX. In the Imperial library at Vienna 27 are the following: 
No. 5» large fol., 191 leaves, containing the II., the Ody. and the poem 

of Q. SmymsBus, without scholl., on page 5 of the catal. 
No. 50, containing in 2,1 g leaves the II. and the Ody., on page 33. 
No. 56, containing on 169 leaves the Ody. with scholl. interlinear and 

margin, on page 36. 
No. 117, containing on 2,51 leaves the H. and Ody. with scholl. inter- 
linear and marginal, on page 72. 
No. 133, containing in 146 leaves scholl. only on the Ody., on page 77. 
No. 289, containing fragments of Homer, whether any of the Ody. is not 

stated, on page 143. 
No. 307, containing in 90 leaves a large fragment of the Ody., on 

page 147. 

F. C. Alter edited in 1794 at Vienna the Ody., Batrachom., Hymns 
and other poems vulgarly ascribed to Homer, giving a "varietas lectionis 
e codd. Vindobonensibus". Dindorf {ub. sub. p. xv) has incorporated in 
his ed. of Scholl. in Odyss. some excerpts given by Alter from Nos. 5, 56 
and 133. The librarian refers to Max von Earajan, "Ueber die Hand- 
schriffcen der Scholien der Odyssee", 8^®, Vienna 1857, and to the pre- 
faces of Dindorf, Bekker and others, as further showing to what extent 
collations of these MSS. have been made. No. 5 is called the "codex 
Busbequianus ", probably brought home by Baron de Busbecq, ambas- 
sador from Germany to the Sultan about 1580, and is noted by Heyne 
{de codd. HL. ii. xLiv) as superior to the others. That called by Heyne 
"Codex Hohendorffianus'' {(bid. p. xLv), No. 116, is not a MS., but a 
copy of the ed. of Libert, Paris 1620, the H., however, only, with scholl. 

LXXX. In the library of the Holy Synod at Moscow, No. a85, is a 
MS. ascribed to the XH*^ century, on vellum, but Heyne (HI. iv. de 

27 From an original letter from the Heidelberg University librarian to the pre- 
sent editor, June 20*^ 1864. 

28 The librarian refers to "Nessel, Daniel. Catalogos sive recensio specialis 
omnium codicum mannscriptonim GraBCorum .... bibliothecse CsBsarese Yindobo- 
nensis. Yindobonse et Norimbergse 1690 fol.'' The pages on which the MSS. are 
mentioned as found are those of this catalogue. 


subsidd. p. xcii) on collating it throughout, thought it later. It is not 
mentioned by Fabricius. 

In the library of the Escnrial, out of (l) (2) (3) (4) Homeric HSS. 
mentioned in Pluer's index, (4) contains excerpts from the Ody., as veri- 
fied by Tyschen (Fabric. I. pp. 409, 411). 

In the Boyal library at Madrid, No. 27 in the catal. of Gr.MSS. p. 122, 
is a MS. on paper, XY*'^ century, containing besides the Jrgonautica of 
Orpheus 20 books of the Ody., with a few interlinear latin glosses on 
bks. I, n, and part of lU. 

Another, No. 67, contains brief annotations on certain books of the H. 
and Ody. gathered from various sources (Fabric. ub,.sup. p. 411). 

In the library of Csesena a MS. of the year T3IT, Ody. with scholL, 
some in latin being intermixed (Fabric, ibid.). 


d^imv 9^ iym ''Ofirigov i^ 'Ofiijgov (Taqpiyvt'Jsiv, avtov i^rjyovfisvov Euvtov 
vns8s£%vvov. e Pdrphyrio ap. Schol. Ven. B in II. Z. 201. 

LXXXI. In the present edition the attempt has been, by means of a 
margin giving parallel and illustrative passages, to make Homer as far 
as possible his own scholiast ; and to show the remarkable peculiarity 
of his style , that of never parting from a phrase so long as it was 
possible to use or adapt it, which has been noticed p. vii sup. For 
those who lack the leisure or the perseverance to make use of this 
margin it is hoped the notes may provide a secondary assistance. In 
compiling it the difficulty lay ten times perhaps in selecting from a 
multitude of passages for once that it arose from a paucity of choice. 
To record all the iterations and resemblances of phrase would be 
cumbrous and impossible. Some are of course too trivial to need even 
a single citation, and their space has been better bestowed on others 
that need more copious illustration. Yet after all, many passages must 
necessarily be of very unequal value, although I hope'that to the Ho- 
meric investigator all will be of some. Less rigorous students may 
therefore be counselled to use the margin only when referred to in 
the notes. 

LXXXII. As regards the text adopted, it rests on no collation of 
MSS.; nor, if I had enjoyed the leisure to collate (i) any one, al- 
though general Homeric scholarship might have benefitted, would 
this edition probably have been perceptibly improved by the labour. 
The time has long gone by when it was worth while to edit a single 
codex of Homer as such, or at any rate such a work is wholly dis- 
tinct in scope from that which I had proposed to myself; which was 
to give the student a text which, resting on the results of the most 
advanced collations, would as far as possible eliminate the imperfec- 
tions and defects of any one MS. It is, further, advantageous in 
the present day to adopt the economy obtained by dividing the la- 
bours of collating and editing — the preparation of the material and 
the digesting and selecting from it. 

I See, however, page lxxxv. n. 6. 


The editions on which the present is based are as follows Bekker s 
Bonn 1858, Dindorfs Leipzig 1852, Faesi's Leipzig 1849, Lowe's 
Leipzig i8a8, Emesti's Leipzig 1824, Wolfs Leipzig 1807, the Ox- 
ford edition of 1800, Barnes' Cambridge 171 1. 

LXXXIII. The Oxford edition byDindorf of the collected scholia on 
the Odyssey, Eustathius, and Nitzsch's commentary, have been con- 
stantly before me both in establishing the text and in furnishing the 
notes. The Oxford text of 1800 contains at the end the highly va- 
luable results of Person's collation of the Harleian MS. no. 5674 with 
the text of Emesti of 1760, and a less important table of the read- 
ings of Clarke as compared with its own. From some of these the 
various readings of the margin above the footnotes have been mostly 
derived. Others have been taken from the margin of Emesti or of 
Barnes. The digammated readings find place by themselves in an 
.intermediate margin. I have already indicated the uncertainties 
which beset this question (p. xxi, xi. n. 11), and regard this portion of 
the work as tentative merely. From the scholia or from Eustathius 
is necessarily drawn all that is known of the readings preferred by 
the ancient critics and grammarians, while the same scholia often 
show the reading of the text which each scholiast followed. Where 
the name of such a critic etc. is followed by the designation of a 
Scholiast with a (,) between them, it is to be understood that the cri- 
tic etc. is cited on the faith of the Schol. : where this too is followed 
by the name of any modem editor, it is also separated by a (,) ] thus 
on fi. 321, "<y«a<yar' Arist., Scholl.H. Q. R.(2), Wolf" means that the 
Harleian, the Ambrosian and the Florentine Scholiasts all assign the 
reading 6ndfSax* to Aristarchus, and that Wolf adopted it. Nitzsch's 
commentary is cited as Ni., Faesi's and Lowe's editions are referred 
to as Fa. and Low., the Oxford edition of 1800 as ed. Ox.; and the 
other names of editors, critics and authorities, whether ancient or 
modem, are designated by abbreviations which will, I think, be 
easily made out ; the scholiasts by the letters made use of by Bekker 
in his edition of them. The sign [] in the margin above the footnotes 
marks a line or lines as disallowed by some modem critic, the sign f 
by some ancient one. A frequent abbreviation in the same margin, 

1 These letters and the others used in that margin to designate certain 
MSS. are the same as those used bj Dindorf in his Scholia Grceca in Odyss*; 
see PrcBfai. to the same. In this ed. the letters are used to distinguish the MSS. 
of the scholia from those of the poem. Thus the Harleian MS. of the poem is 
cited as Harl., but its scholia as schol. H., and so of others. 

xoiv PREFACE. 

'^ Wolf et recentt.'^ marks the &ct that his reading has been generally 
adopted by recent editors. 

LXXXIV. In the marginal references ei al. for ei alibi refers to other 
places in the same book of the poem last referred to; the references 
to books of the Iliad are made by the capitals of the Greek alphabet, 
those of the Odyssey by the small letters; and this has been adopted 
for its compendiousness, not only in the margin but generally. 

The abbreviation '^mar." appended in the margin to a reference 
there refers to the marginal references given at the passage indicated. 

The Appendices are referred to in the margin under the letter and 
number which distinguishes them, thus App. A. j^o mar. refers to the 
Appendix on yaLVO(iivp on p. XXXI, and to the marginal references 
to be found there. 

The abbreviation ^^cf.^' in the margin refers to passages of colla- 
teral interest, or introduced to illustrate the subject matter where the. 
primary reference is to the form of the language. Where a parallel 
is cited with a less obvious bearing on the text, the purpose will ge- 
nerally be found explained in the note ad4oc. 

The remark et seepius or et scepiss. (seepissime), accompanying a refe- 
rence, indicates that the passage recurs so frequently, either in the 
particular book or the whole poem, as to make it inconvenient to 
enumerate the recurrences, while none have any special prominence. 
Sometimes, as on ij(iata Tcdvxa /3. 55, the first and the last occasion 
of such recurrence are given. 

LXXXV. In the notes and Appendices the proper names which 
occur frequently have been abbreviated; as Ni. for Nitzsch, II. for 
Iliad, Ody. for Odyssey, Odys. for Odysseus, Penel. for Penelop6, 
Telem. for Telemachus : and generally in the notes any proper names 
occmrring in the text to which they stand subjoined will be found in 
an abbreviated form. The common abbreviations of grammatical 
terms as sing., subjunct or subj., adj., demonstr., rel., for singular, 
subjunctive, adjective, demonstrative, relative, (subj. also for subject 
where the sense is unmistakeable), proby. for probably, H. for Ho- 
mer, have been freely employed. 

For the soiorces of the few illustrations introduced, and for infor- 
mation concerning them, I am indebted to the Rev^. W. Burgon, 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford (3). 

The plans attached to App. F, 2 simply reflect my own notions de- 

3 For the two facsimiles of MSS. see pref. p. Lzxziy. n. 3, 3. 


rived from a study of the passages to which they relate. I have 
not thought it worthwhile to attempt to harmonize them with the 
plan given in Eruse (Hellas^ Atlas); Gell and Schreiber, of the 
ruins of the traditional domus Ulyssis in Theaki. Such a minutely rea- 
listic spirit would; in my opinion; be utterly misplaced/ as regards 
Homeric poetry. The plans which are giveii> make no pretence there- 
fore to represent literal factS; but may enable the eye to guide the 
mind to a clearer grasp of what the Appendix means, and I hope also 
of what Homer meant. 

LXXXVI. In two instances only have I attempted to amend the 
text without the authority of a MS.; and in both the amount of al- 
teration is the slightest possible. Both depend on the same principle; 
the easy displacement of a ts or Sh when elided. The places are y. 33 
and 8. 665. In the first the common reading before Wolf was ocQia 
SnxiQv&kka d' iTtsiQOV] the Florent. however has TCQia r' Ssttoiv alXa 
t' ineiQOv. Wolf, adopting for d' of the vulg. the second r' of the 
Flor., gave HQia Sxtfov &kka r' Sjcblqov, I believe the true reading 
to be XQia Ssttiov xakka r' inaiQOVy see note ad loc. ; but that some 
editor oflfended at the hiatuS; not knowing the length of the -a in 
xqH inserted r' after it; the next step probably was that in careless 
copying the v&kka was corrupted into t' akka^ and that then another 
editor; finding one r' too many; struck out the wrong one. The d' 
is probably due to an independent corruption. 

In d. 665 the common reading; which Wolf follows, is in t6(f(S(ov 
d' ttimixi. I have stated in the note ad loc. the reasons against ac- 
cepting it. I suppose in SI t66(ov dixTjrt to have been the true read- 
ing. If then the rdiScnv acquired a d', as the transition from twsog to 
the somewhat stronger toaouSs is easy; a subsequent error detached 
the d' and made it rd(Tot/ 81^ and the next editor or copyist finding 
di twice in one clause, struck out the wrong one. 

To each book a "summary" or argument is prefixed, and the day 
of the poem's action is printed at the top of every page. I ascribe but 
little value, however, to any such attempt to reduce the poem to a 
diary. It seemed worthwile making for the sake of method and con- 
nexion of parts, but must be taken as indicating a possibility only. 

LXXXVn. The Appendices contain discussions of such points as 
seemed to require rather fuller treatment than could be extended to 
them in the footnotes. 

Appendix A. is chiefly grammatical; or is occupied with the forms 
of certain rare and difficult words, but contains also articles on the 

xovi PREFACE. 

meaning of certain words or classes of words, or on the naure of the 
things for which they stand. They are arranged nearly in the order 
in which each word first occurs. 

Appendix B. treats of the various terms employed by Homer for 
the sea, with their epithets and compounds j 

Appendix C. is mythological; 

Appendix D. is geographical; 

Appendix E. relates to the principal characters of the poem, con- 
sidered in their ethical bearing upon both the II. and the Ody. (4) 

4 In the review of the characters of the Homeric poems in App. E., and in 
the consideration of the suhject matter generaUj, it is convenient to speak on 
the assumption that the personages and the facts are real. To snstain any such 
theory in detail is, however, beyond the province of an editor and commenta- 
tor. Nevertheless I am on the whole disposed to view the Iliadic story as en- 
veloping a core of reality, although any attempt to restore by analysis a pro- 
bable residuum of historical fact would no doubt be valueless. The state of 
natural conflict between rival and kindred races may probably have culminated 
in an invasion of the principal neighbouring dominion of Western Asia by a 
confederacy of the principal nation of South Eastern Europe. Thus a historical 
source of the many legends which perhaps united to make up the " Tale of Troy 
divine " is to my mind more probable than any other. Such individual legends 
would probably attach themselves from the first to the chief local personages 
of such a confederacy. If the banded Achaean princes with their forces were 
absent for even a much shorter period than the traditional ten years, news of 
them would be eagerly looked for at home. And, as we may reasonably ascribe 
to the office of the doidog an antiquity at least as great as any period when 
such an united effort could have been possible, the probability of such metrical 
news bearers wandering homewards from the wars, with their imaginations glow- 
ing from the scenes which they had lately left, is sufficient to allow us to as- 
sume many historical points of departure for such legends. All the main person- 
ages in Homer are strictly anchored upon localities, to an extent, I believe, un- 
parallelled in any similar mass of legend. The difficulty lies in assuming that 
where local features come out so clearly, personal traits are purely mythical; 
and that, in spite of the strong tendency in the human mind to associate real 
actors with real scenes, while all that we are told about the places, so far as we 
can test it, is true, all about the persons should be false. At any rate the onus pro- 
handi may fairly be left with those who make the assertion. On the other hand, 
assuming, as antecedently likely, the historical fact of such an expedition as en- 
gaged the flower of the Achsean race on the North Eastern shore of the ^gsean, 
we may assume an animus pervading the period somewhat approximating to that 
of the earlier crusades. That the chief princes of Argos, Mycen^ and Sparta 
may have each had one or more doidol amongst their followers, who would 
have brought over contemporaneous versions of their exploits and would have 
become sources of their transmission to posterity, even as Geoffrey Vinsauf 
sung the deeds of Coeur de Lion, is a supposition containing nothing unreason- 


Appendix F. relates to structural details^ and is arranged in two 
parts, t. the Homeric Galley, and a. the Homeric Palace. 

able, save to an *'over strict incredulity". Even the personality of Achilles 
has this in favonr of it, that he is ascribed to a district comparatively insig^ni- 
ficant and locally remote from the centre of the movement asstimed in the poem. 
It is difficult to conceive why, if the poet had been in search of a purely fa- 
bulous protagonist to his epos, he should have gone so far north as to Thessaly 
to find one. In a poem so teeming with marks of local interest, a prime war- 
rior of pure fiction would probably have adorned some great centre of the AchsBan 
name. It is clear from the Catalogue in B, 68 1 foil, that the poet knew locally 
but little of Thessaly, as compared with many other regions Which furnished 
his contingents. He names only three cities there, and each of those without 
a single descriptive epithet. The other names in this passage are those of re- 
gions and of races. It is easy to account for prominence of locality being 
here overp owered by that of individuality, if we assume the latter based upon 
a personal fact. I do not see how it is so easy to account for it otherwise. 
Homer's veracity has been impugned in various times for different reasons. We 
know from Chaucer that he was in the middle- age looked upon as a fabulist 
because he extolled the valour of the Greeks: 
One said that Omer made lies, 
Feyning in his poetries, 
And was to the Greekes favourable, 

Therefore held he it but fable. {House of Fame iii. 387—90.) 
in short the empire of the West was then Virgirs; but, as between Greek and 
Greek, the selection of PhthiS for his heroes home throws upon the " fable '' the 
suspicion of a truth ; and the same may be said as regards Odysseus and Ithaca. 
At the same time it is a remarkable accident that the names of Hellas and 
Hellenes, destined in after time to such undying fame, should in this pre-his- 
toric period of their obscurity be thus closely associated with the grand typical 
hero of the Hellenic name and race. 

or t' bIj^ov ^^Inv i}d' ^EXXadu %aXXifiva^%Ui 
MvQiiidovsg d' (HctXevvxo iictll&XXrfVBg nal 'Axmolf 
t&v av nevtii%ovta vsmv riv &Q%6q A%iXX9V9. £• 683—5. 

As regards the Odyssey, its beginning and its end may possibly embody histo- 
rical facts — the state of anarchy in Odysseus* palace, his return, and the mas- 
sacre of the intriguing nobles, — whilst all the intermediate portion may be such 
a train of romance and floating legend, as a great name in a dark age, once 
become traditional, is found to draw to and weave itbout itself. We may com- 
pare the Iliad in some of the foregoing respects with the romance of Charle- 
magne, and the Odyssey with that of Arthur, as suggested in the Essay on 
Carlovingian Romance, Oxford EasaySy vol. 1. p. 277. The eairly English me- 
trical romances of Bichard Coaur de Lion and of Guy of A^arMck, or Bevis 
of Hamptoun, might offer other parallels. I think thb Homerie poeMs may in 
the same sense as these be viewed as Chansons de Qeste^ or the Iliad perhaps 
as incorporating many such. To examine, however, the analogies offered by 
these or by the NiebelungenUed would require a wide and careful survey of ground 
lying entirely beyond my present compass, and might well be made the subject 
of an independent work. 

BOM. OD. I. Q 

xoviii PE5EPACE. 

LXXXVIII. Four of the above A. C. D. and E. are divided into 
numerous articles, and for all the following table is subjoined : 

Appendix A. 

PAGE I. I. SvVS7t€. 

II. 2. Epic forms in -oci -oci for -ao. 

3. (i) 6Xo6g)QG)Vj oAo'off, ovXog {^Aq71s\ Sovkog, ovkog, oAo- 
tpmosj 6kog)vSv6g^ 6ko(pvQO(iaL^ (2) oiili] {^dxvri)^ ov- 
lal (6lccl)j O'dkoxvtaty olvQai, ovlafiog, ovXoxccQrjvog^ 
tovkog, (3) ovXog (pXog)^ ovXs^ ovXij (scar). 
III. 4. /SovAi}, ayoQTJ. 
VII. 5. xsaaoi. 

6. (i) dS7J66LSy dSrjKotsg. (2) iSivog, aSriv^ aSriv -ivog 
(acorn), &8ogj atog. (3) avSdvatj aSstv^ ^Sofiai, i^Svg, 

IX. 7. SovXi^y Sii(6g, Siicaiq^ iQid'og^ d^g, olxsvg^ zaiiifi, diiq)i- 

TtoXogj d'aXa(i7Jnokog^ SQi]6tiqQy 8qfi^6xsiQa. 
XI. 8. XQTixriQy ddnag, xvxsXkoVj aX€i6ov, XLeCvfiiov, Cxvtpog, 
XIII. 9. On the use of moods by Homer. 
XXIV. 10. (oSe. 

II. (i)^\..^. (2)iiK..i (3)^^..1J^'. (4)1?^. ..i {5)V 
or^6...iJ^. {6)stt6...^orT^6, (y) '^ ,..etts. {S)€i:rs 

... St T6. (9) Sl ... ij. 

XXV. 12. Ilvkov i^fiad'osvta, 

13. avonata, 
XXVI. 14. S8va, SsSva. 
XXVII. 15. xXritg. 

16. axqi/, dxitov. 
XXVIII. 17. (i) Sijlog, Siskog. (2) ivSiog, dalkri. (3) BvSaCskog. 
XXIX. 18. (i) iJ xa'&i;;r£(^'9'£ X/oeo vsoi^sd'a nainakoieerig 

V1J60V inl WvQiijg, wdv^v i^t' dQiatSQ^ Ix^vteg. 

y. 170 — I. 
(2) — ix* dQi6t€Qd x^^Qog ixotna. s. 277. 
XXX. 19, vd00a {vaifOy vdj^o), 
XXXI. 20. ysvvo(iivp. 

21. ovXa(i6gy v(oXs[ihg, vaXsniag. 
XXXIX. 22. Xiycoy Xixto. 

Appendix B. 
XXXIII. The Homeric use of Slg, d'dlaaaa, jtiXayog, novtog. 

Appendix C. 
XXXVI. T. The legend of the oxen and sheep of the sun. 


PAGE XXXVI. 2. Hermes. 
XXXVII. 3. Atlas. 
XXXIX. 4. Phorcys. 

5. TQVToyivsva. 
XL. 6. Ai y&Q Zsv XB ndrsQ^ nal ^A^vaCri^ xccl "Anokkov, 
XLII. 7. Proteus and EidotheS. 
XLiv. 8. In6, Leucotheg, Cadmus. 

Appendix D. 
XLVI. I. The Ethiopians. 
XLVII. %. OgygiS. 
XLViii. 3. Sparta. 
XLix. 4. Pylus. 

5. The Taphians. 
L. 6. TemesS. 

7. Dulichium. 
LI. 8. Ephyrg. 
Lii. 9. Argos. 
Lin. 10. Cyprus. 

II. Phoenicg, Sidonie. 
Liv. 12. The Erembi. 

13. Libya. 

14. The Styx. 
LV. 15. ScheriS. 

Appendix E. 
LVii. I. Odysseus. 
LXV. 2. Penelop6. 
LXX, 3. Telemachus. 
Lxxu. 4. Pallas AthenS. 
Lxxxiv, 5. -ffigisthus. 
Lxxxv. 6. Antinoiis. 
Lxxxvii. 7. Eurymachus. 
Lxxxviii. 8. Menelaiis. 
c. 9. Helen- 
Appendix F. I. 
cvi. The Homeric Galley. 

Appendix F. 2. 
cxxi. The Homeric Palace. 


LXXXIX. The following are the principal works referred to in 
the preface, notes and Appendices. 

Gbammatical. . 
Donaldson, Greek Grammar. Cited as Donalds. Gr. Gr. 

New Gratylus. Donalds. New CraU 

Jelf, Greek Grammar. Jelf Gr. Gr. 

Buttmann, Lexilogus (Fishlake's translation). Buttm. LexU. or Lex. 

Irregular Greek Verbs (do). Buttm. Gr. Verbs, or Gr. 

v., or Irreg. Verbs. 
Spitzner, Versuch einer kurzen Anweisung Spitzner, Gr. Pros. 
zur griechischen Prosodik. 

De versu heroico. Spitzner de vers. her. 

Adverbiorum qu» in dsv desinunt Spitzner adverb.ind-ev. 

usus Homericus. 
Thiersch, B., Uebersicht der Homer. Formen. Thiersch Bom. Form. 
Thiersch, F., Griechische Grammatik. Thiersch Gr. Gr. 

Ahrens, Griechische Formenlehre. Ahrens Gr. Form, or 

Griech. Formenl. 

De hiatus legitimis quibusdam gene- Ahrens de hiaiu. 

La Roche, iiber den Hiatus und die Elision. La Roche de hiaiu. 
Crusius, Worterbuch iiber die Gedichte des Crusius. 

Homeros etc. 
Curtius, Grundziige der Griech. Etymologic. Curtius. 
Liddell and Scott, Lexicon. Liddell and S. 

Doederlein, Homerisches Glossarium. Doed. or. Doederl. 

ApoUonius, Homeric Lexicon. ApoUonius or Apol- 

Hesychius, do. do. Hesychius. [lon.Z^a;. 

Etymologicon Magnum. Etym. Mag. 

Volkmann, Conmientationes Epicse. Volkmann, 

Hermann, Opuscula. Hermann Opusc. 

de legibus quibusdam subtilioribus Hermann etc. «;^r&a//i». 

sermonis Homerici. 
Werner, de conditionalium enunciationum Werner decondit.enun. 
apud Homerum formis. ap. Horn, formis. 

Dindorf, Scholia Qraeca in Homeri Odysseam. Schol. on a., /3., etc. 
Bekker, Scholia in Homeri Uiadem. Schol. on A., B., etc. 

von Nagelsbach, Homerische Theologie. Nagelsbach or 




Welcker, Griechische Gdtterlohre. 
Buttmami; Mythologus. 

Cited as Welcker Gr. &>iL 
Buttm. Myth. 

Volcker, Homerische Geographie. 

Schreiber, Ithaka. 

Kruse, Hellas. 

Gell, Sir W., Itinerary of the Morea. 

Dodwell, Classical and Topographical Tour 

through Greece. 
LeakO; Topography of the Morea. 
Spruner, Atlas. 
Rawlinson, Herodotus. 
Wheeler, Geography of Herodotus. 

Nitzsch; ErklHrende Anmerkungen zu Ho- 
mer's Odyssee. 
Heyne, Excursus in Homerum. 
Gladstone, Homeric Studies, (s) 
Bekker, Homerische Blatter. 
Wolf, Prolegomena in Homerum. 
Payne Knight, Prolegomena in Homerum. 
Villoison, Prolegomena in Iliadem, 

Anecdota Grseca. 

Spohn, de extremft Odyssese parte. 

Schmitt, Jo. Car., de secundo in Odysseft deo- 

rum concilio. 
Lehrs, de studiis Aristarchi. 
Buffon, Histoire Naturelle g6n£rale et parti- 

culifere, Translation 1791. 

Vfilcker or 

Volcker Horn, Geogr. 


Elruse Hellas, 




Spruner Atlas. 
Rawlinson Herod, 
Wheeler Geogr. of He- 


Heyne Exc. ad II. A, etc. 


Bek. Homer. Bldtt. 

Wolf Prolegg. 

Payne Knight Prolegg. 

Villoison Prolegg. 

Villoison Anecd. Gr. 

Spohn de extr. Odys. 

Schmitt, Jo. Car. de 
11^^ in Odys.Deor.Conc, 
BuflEbn Transl. 1791. 

5 I have been indebted to this work in some passages, chiefly in the ap- 
pendices, where the references have not been made; snch are Qladst. vol. 11. 
86; comp. App. E. 4. (14); p. 87, comp. ibid, p. LXXIII note ***\ p. 1x3 comp. 
ibid, p. LXXIII 1. 7 from bott.; pp. 331—7 and 341, comp. ibid, 1. 11^16 from 
top; p. 436, comp. App. £. i. (11); pp. 484—5, comp. App. E. a, p. LXIX 1. 3— 
4 from top, and App. E. 9, p. CI, 1. x6 from top; vol. Ill, p. 25, comp. note on 
fi. X. There may possibly be others which have escaped me, for which I hope 
this general acknowledgement may suffice. 




The invocation and statement of the general subject, commencing from the 
moment when the hero is about to leave Calypso's island (i — lo). 

In Poseidon's absence, it is resolved in the council of Olympus, at the in- 
stance of Pallas, that the home return of Odysseus be no longer delayed on 
account of Poseidon's wrath by the wiles of Calypso (ii — 95). 

Pallas hastens to descend to Ithaca, in order to further this resolve. There 
the suitors, a numerous body, are found besetting the palace, and wasting its 
substance in daily revels (96 — 112). 

Among them Telemachus sitting, as he broods over the thought of his father's 
return, is surprised by the arrival of a guest, professing to be Mentes, prince 
of the neighbouring Taphians, but really Pallas under that disguise. He re- 
ceives her in the spirit of heroic hospitality. She animates his hopes of his 
father's return, and suggests projects for the overthrow of the suitors' faction; 
as a first step to which, he is to call a council of state (dyoQTJ) and denounce 
their outrages, and then to depart to visit Nestor and Menelaus with the view 
of gaining news of his father (113 — 318). 

The goddess departs, with a token of her true personality, and the scene of 
revel is pursued, the minstrel Phemius singing the hapless return of the Achseans 
from Troy. PenelopS overhears the strain and descends, wounded in her feel- 
ings, to bespeak a change of theme. Telemachus, emboldened by the goddess' 
visit, reproves her interference, and rebukes the suitors, giving notice of the 
dyoQTJ for the morrow, with an intimation of his purpose in calling it (319—419). 

The first day closes with the break-up of the revel and the retirement of 
Telemachus, attended by Euryclea, to rest (420 — 44). 

&f(Sv ayoQa. ^A&rjvag rtaqaivfGig ^tQog TrjXe ^laj^ov. 

*'AvSqu fiotivvs^Sy^ (lovCay nolvtQOjtov,^ og (idXa jtolkd 
noXXfSv d* dvd'Qcincov tSev aorsa^ xal i/dov^- lyvcD, 

aB.76l;cf J.331 

I» X. 330. c I. 165. 
i[ of. ^•^. 4«4 -520, 

r. 230. 
i« o. 4U2, tt. (53, r. 

170, V'. 207. 
f d 401 

3. /tdfi faatsa. 

I. pro ffoAAa llarl. ndvtaav. 3. vofAOV. 

In this exordium the hero is singled 
out characteristically; comp. that of the 
Iliad, where Achilles, the hero of gloomy 
wrath and fearful prowess, is in con- 
trast with Odysseus, the hero of en- 
durance and wide adventure. The latter 
lost all his comrades (5 — 9), and was still 
roaming and pining when his brother 
chiefs had ended their toils (11 — 12). 
Hence he stands per se, cf.TOvd' olov^ 13. 

1—2. &vffQa and jtXdyx^V^ ^^^h 
leading a line, stamp the man and his 
wanderings as the general subject. iV- 
vexe, see App. A. i . fiovoa, the epic 
bard conceived himself the recipient of 
divine teaching, in an age when such 
intercourse with men, once frequent, 
had otherwise ceased. The muses (whose 
number, nine, first appears lies. Theog, 
52 — 60) had knowledge of all themes of 
song, as being divinely evei: present, B. 
48^—6; of men the bard says, i^fier? 8% 

could the bard know more, unless taught 
by the muse. Hence Odys. thinks, a 
muse or Apollo must have taught {iS^- 
da£«) Demodocus in ^. 488. Hence also 
one explanation of xal i)/Lirv, v. 10, inf. is, 
*'tell us, that we, too, may know as you 
do.'* In H. the song is tlio specialty of the 
muses, the lyre, that of Apollo, A, 603 — 4. 
The notion of their teaching sciences 
came with those sciences — later. In 
H. and Hesiod they teach only facts. 

JtoXvtQ,, some take this as explain- 
ed by Off fi, n, nXdyx^'Hi J^^^ ^^ ^^' 
tqotpovritt in 299, by og ot natiga . . . 
^xra following. Nor is this un-Homeric, 
cf. I. 124. Thus it would be = woZv- 
ffXayxroff, 9. 511* It would then be from 
rgamdiai (t. 531), as fvgvxOQog fr. x<5- 
Qog, But some epithet of distinct mean- 
ing suits the exordium better: render 
* Versatile''*, showing, as says a Schol., 
TO tov ij&ovg svfierdpoXov t in which 
sense Hermes is noXvtif,^ h, Merc. 439. 
Eustathius takes it passively, 6 9itt noX- 
Xriv ifinBiQ^otv noXvtpQfOv, "well versed" 
in men and things, but this hardly dif- 
fers enough from noXXmv d*. . . iyvoi 
in 3. MxeqCB, cf. the epithet nxoXinoQ- 
Q'ogj given only to Achilles as in prow- 
ess, and to Odys. as in counsel first; 
on which Cicero erroneously (see O. 77. 
^. 55ofo]l.)says, *'Homerus nou Aiacom, 
nonAchillem, sedUlixem appollavit nto- 
ili.'«." Cic. ad Fam, X. 13. Horace ren- 
ders 1—2 {(le A. P. 141 — 2) with no 
equivalent for noXvr^,, his other render- 
ing {Kpist. I. ii. 19) gives, loosely, pro- 
vidus for it. 

3—4. voov iy», " jearned all thcv 
knew." o y*\ by ys"^ an emphasis is 
laid on the whole action, as related to 
the further action of v. 6. C. F. NU- 
gelsbach in a monograph on the Home- 
ric ys says, **ponitur in sententiis can- 
sam rci cujuspiam continentibus"; here 


0ATS2EIA2 A. 4—17. 

[day I. 

a «. 444, V. 69, \p: 

345, »F. 789. 
b /9. 23, «. 324, 379. 
ck 409; cf. X. 27, 

y. 416, %p. «7. 
d^. 177, O. 104, 

P. 497, y. 146. 
e u. 261 foil, 
f &. 480, i*. 133 

*/ al. 
r a. 168, 354; cf. 

Z. 455, U. 836. 
h a. 33, 47. 
i cf. y. 180-92, d. 

k (. 286, ii. 287, 446. 

m 182. 

n i. 124, V. 378. 

o «. 74 ei al.f i. 

p<r 403, «. 155, 114, 

xf/. 335. 
q r 32. 
r 2.248, ^. 833, 

£. 551, 0. 404, 

s i2. .S25, I. 139, 

d. 208; cf. w. 

t B. 290, 354, r. 

390, 'f'. 229. 

jtoXkd d' y' iv Tcovxfp Tcdd'sv akysa 6V* xara d'V[i6v, 
dQvvfiEvog ^v re iyvxriv xal voiSrov iraiQCOv, 
aAA'^ ovd' (Sg itdgovg i^Qv^aro^ ti^svog tcsq- 
avtol yuQ 6q)£teQr]0iv draed'aXiyOiv oAoi/to,*^ 
vrJTtLOi,^ o? xard^ fiovg ''T%£QCovog ^HbUolo^ 
tjed'LOV ' avxaQ roZiSiv dq>BCkE%o voari^ov^^ r^^aQ, 
[x(Bv dfiod'sv ysy d'sd dvyatSQ Jiog^ siith xal^ i}/[trv.] 
iv%'* &XX01 filv Ttdvteg^ oaoi} (pvyov^ aljtvv oXed'QOVy^ 
oixot ScaVy TCoXs^ov ts %Bq>Bvy6xEg r^Sl %'dXtt66av' 
rov d' o?oi/,™ voarov xf^piyft^vov" i^Sh yvvaiKog^ 
vv^ipri noxvi igvxs^^ Kakvil>(o Sta d'edov^ 
iv a7t666LP 'yXaq)VQ0L6Ly XiXaio^svi]^ tcoolv elvai, 
dkV 5rs drj hog TJXd's TCBQinXo^ivcDv'^ iviavtciv, 
rcoi of inexkcieavro^ d'eol ofx6i/tffi* vhcd'ai, 



17. J^OL 

4. /oV. 5. /ifv, 6. ^lifisvog, 12. J^oinoi. 16. J^itog, 


7. avxmv Schol. K. 204. 

the action of y£ should have been a 
cause, but failed of its effect — **much 
^tis true, he suffered, etc., but not even 
80 did he rescue his comrade^^'. jtovzo}, 
the great expanse- of sea, see App. B. 

5 — 6. dqvvfA,j the notion is dvzt%a' 
zuXXdaataVy Schol., ^'staking his suffer- 
ings to win the safety of self and com- 
rades^'; tt^i/vjLiat, atvvfi,aiy aCgofiai, 
are akin, this verb denotes, however, 
rather effort than result. yt€Q and xal 
with participles mark the concessive 
notion with a certain emphasis; see 
Donalds. Gr, Gr, 548 (32); Jelf, § 697. d.; 
so with nouns, as ^8o£ nso "the very- 

7 — 8. draOO',, in H. always plur., is 
ascribed especially to ^gisthus, to the 
suitors, and, as here, to the comrades 
(mar.), ^ovq, for the legend in ques- 
tion see App. C. i. Some take x;7r€- 
Qio>v as contracted from 'Tnsgiov^oav^ 
and so patronymic; so in fi. 176 'Tns- 
QioviScto is found, but the line is sus- 
pected; others better as a patronym- 
ically formed adj., as TsgniddTjgy T«xto- 
vidjigj 'HnvTtSrjgy fr. tigntOf t^xtcbv, 
mivta (Ni.). As in 'HiXiog ^a^&aiv, 
tne epith. had become a cognomen. 

10. This line is probably spurious: 
dfiod'sv is unknown to epic usage, and 
slnl should have the / (see, however, 
d. 28 ; A. 106), which violates the quan- 
tity o£ jdiog: besides, the invocation of 
line I is feebly repeated; and the xal 
is weak, in spite of the explanation 
given above on fiovaa. Perhaps, as 
Ni. suggests, the line was due to some 
rhapsodist, who, by xal '^fiiv meant 
himself in contra-distinction with the 
poet. td}V depends on dfioQ'SV. ifM" 
S-sv, or dfio&Bv^ has the same root as 

II — 3. dcoi €pvyov. See mar. for 
who these were, as mentioned in the 
poem. alTtvVj the notion of high, 
deep, steep, precipitous, sudden (t. e, 
of a fall), overwhelming, are transi- 
tionally connected; thus aZ'^a, '* sud- 
denly"; cf. &, 369, alna gis^ga, ste- 
^pevy, see on 18, n8q)vyfiivoi. xe- 
XfiVM" "yearning for". 

16. tf^ combined with all' otf, as, 
with avtag inrjv 293, marks that a 
narrative has reached a critical point, 
when some thing of special interest 
occurs. €TOg (to which ini^nlofisvov is 
epith. 7j. 261. S. 287) seems specially 

DAY I.] 

0ATS2BIA2 A. 18-29. 

xal (isxa oI(Tt q)iXot(SL^) d'sol d' ikiaiQOv'^ SnavtBg 
20 v60q)L^ no6€LSd(ovogy S d' AaxBQxh^ ^Bviaivev 
avtiQ'dp^ 'OdvC'^v Tcdgog rjv yalav^ Ixicd'ai. 
&kV fihv Ald'CoTtag fietexidd'e tr]l6d'^ iovtag^ 
Al%'Coitag^ tol Sixd'ct SedccLarai, i(S%axov avSg&v^ 
of (tiv dvcofidvov^ ^TTCSQLOvogy 6i d' Avtovtog^^ 
25 dvrtdav tavQcav re xal d(fV€t(Sv ixatonfirig. 

ivd'^ ys t^QTtsro^ ^afT> TtaQTJfievog* oX Sh di) dkkot 
Zrivb^ ivl {LsydQOLCLV 'OXviiniov dd'Qdov rjcav. 
totCL^ Sh (ivd'cuv '^QXB nat'^Q avSQfSv xb 9'B(Sv re • 
fivfjcaro^ yuQ xard d'Vfiov diiv(iovog^ AlyCtS^oio^ 

a I. 455, Z. 488, 

X 219. 
b cf. X. 115 foil, 
c X. 399. 
d r. 7. e X, 10, 

d. 671. V, 378, 
5. 247, 182, A. 808. 

gr 17. 193, 196, d. 
545 mar. 

h of. o. 50-1, B. 
671-3, 871—2, 
Z. 396-7, r.371 
-2, X. 127-8. 

i cf. y. 251 , I 97, 
0). 108. 

k X 135, e. 538. 

1 ^. 429. 

m d. 74; cf. r. 

n X 167, Si. 103. 

o d. 187-9. 

p *. 3.12, u, 261. 
Z. 171. 

19. foCat, a I. fi]v. 

22. fAStsi^Bictd'e nonnulli motri gratilt, Schol. 23. Ai&ionsg, Schol. Z. 154. 

used in H. of a year at the end of a 
scries, and hence in sing. only. xeQixX» 
render, "completing their course". 

17—8. e7t€xX, the action of spinn- 
ing, expressed by this and by inivito, 
is often applied to Zeus or Deity, 
(i) as breaking off, or continuing at 
will the "thread of life"; (a) of bring- 
ing to pass, as here, particular events 
in it. neq>VYfA, only here occurs with 
gen., elsewhere an ace. follows it (mar.), 
as nBtpBvyoxBg in 12, which means ac- 
tively "having escaped"; this rather, 
passively, "rid or quit of", passing into 
a merely adjectival sense. Such Do- 
nalds. Gr» Gr, 425 (cc), calls a perf. of 
immediate consequence. The ae^Xa 
are his contests with the suitors and 
rebellious Ithacans in books % and co. 

19. ov6* i'vO'a • , , ^iXoiai, a brief 
parenthesis relating to events after his 
return. The apodosis of dkX* ozs ^ij in 
16 is shown by S' in d' dansQxhgy 20; 
'Vhen the year came . . ., and all the 
gods were feeling for him save Posei- 
don, the latter (0 9') cherished wrath, 
etc." xal is = "although". 

31 — 4. avriO'^s an epithet applied to 
heroes and their comrades, to the kind- 
red of the Gods, Otus, the Cyclops and 
the suitors (mar.), comp. ocvtiavsiQOti 
applied to the Amazons. TtaQOQy an 
epic equivalent for nglv, but always 
followed by the infin, Jelf. G^. Gr. § 848 
obs. f.. In sense of priusquam both nqlv 
. . . nqlv and ndqog . . . nqlv are found. 

Ai9'iojt*s the epanalepsis keeps the 
word before the mind, while adding 
to it impressiveness, see mar. For 
the .Ethiopians see App. D. i. /c£rc- 
xiaO'e some read -hbCu^b metri cc^usd, 
but the I is by arsis. tfiXoO'' iovraq 
t. e, the distance was great even for 
a god. Homeric deities are for the most 
part under human limitations of time 
and space, only with a wider range, 
cf. E. 770—2, and "their faculties are 
no more than an improvement and ox- 
tension of the human". Qladst. II, v. 
349. Poseidon is got out of the way 
that the hero may have a fair start in 
book s. on his raft. He knows nothing 
of what goes on, even on the sea, in 
his absence. dvaofi/TTtCQ; gen. of 
place (mar.); see on 8. The pajrticiDle 
belongs to a mixed form of aor., ov- 
astOy §, 388. 

25 — 6. dvri6<aPj a real future, a 
being dropped Donalds. Gr. Gr, 331 (d). 
Like l';i;ofAat and the like, this verb 
takes gen. of contact, but also accus., 
as including motion, in sense of going 
to meet, avraoo, the prose form,. has 
sometimes dat. <f^ continues empha- 
tically the clause ^introduced by ot ohy 
as in 49 that by Off. 

29. The story of the return of Agam. 
is given y. 255—75 ; and allusions to it 
recur so often that it forms as it were 
a tragic back-ground to the action of 
the Ody., perhaps implying a warning 
to the dtaad'oiXiai of the suitors. dfAV' 

OATSSEIAS A. 30—46. 

[day I. 

a N. 633, «. 183, 

E 601 , n. 376. 
b a. 7 mar. 
c c. 436 mar. 
d Z. 246, J. 399. 
e (T. 534. 
f a. 11 mar. 
g- see App. C. 2. 

h cf. £. 28. 
i Z. 162. 
k X. 271 . 
1./J. 356. 
m cf. y. 216. 
n a. 81 , at. -173, 

0. 31; cf. E. 

y. 203, I. 477, 

X 181, v. 393. 
p cf. d. 371, 1/. 


rov q' '^yaii6(ivov£Sr^g rrikexXvtds Ixtav' 'Ogi^rrjg' 30 
tov 8 y' STttiivriOd'elg s%s* ad'avdxoiCt fieri^vSa' 
" (3 Tconoij olov dij vv d'eovg^ PqotoI alxLOGtvxai • 
£§ T^^BOv yccQ <pa6c Ttdx SfLfisvat^ ot 81 xal avtol 

dig xal vvv Atyvi5%'og vtcIq (ioqov ^AtQeCSao 35 

y^^' aXoxov^ fivTjarrjv^ rov S' ixtave vo0t7J6avta^ 

sCSdg^ alTtvv^ oksd'QOv, iitel tcqo of bItco^sv r^^Blg^ 

'Eq^bCuv^ niyb'^avxBg ivaxoTCov 'AQy€tq)6vtT]v^ 

utJt' avtbv xtaivBiv (iTJrs ^vda0d'at axotttv 

EX yccQ 'OQBdtao ti0cg aC^Btai ^AxQBiSao^ 40 

OTCJtot^ av ri^rlori ta xal ^g [^SLQatav attig.^ 

cSg i(pa%'^ ^EQ^atag, akX^ ov (pQBvag AiyC^^oio 

TCBtd'^^ dyad'd (pQOVBov vvv d^dd^Qoa^ itdvt^^ d7tBtc6avJ'"^ 

rov tf' T^^acfiBT BJtaixa ^ad yXavx^Ttig 'Ad^vr^' 
"(o» TcdtBQ YiiiBraQB KqovCSti^ vTtata XQatovtoVj 45 

xal° Xirjvv xatvog ya ioixorc xattat dXad'QO), 

31. Joins', 37. fsiSmg, /ot; ngosfs^nofisv omisso 01, quod tollit Hoffmannus. 
41. omisso tSy ifijg, 46. J^sfomoTi. 


fiiav was at first an epithet of distinc- 
tive excellence (mar.), but had become 
a purely conventional style as applied 
to a class, like our "honourable and 
gallant", or "learned, gentleman". 

32. olov tfjj Wy "only see how!" 
olog 8ri is used scornfully, as here, 
indignantly, and admiringly (mar.), vv 
marks urgency, inf.^^g — 62. 

34 — 5. The double sense in the words 
vn:SQ fiOQOV shows that a moral ele- 
ment was involved in Homer's view of 
the *4ot" of man. Meir incur woes 
gratuitously (JmSQ (i.) e, g, -<Egisthus 
did so by acting unwarrantably {vnlg 
(I.); see on s. 436.' 

36—7. yijfii** /We should of course 
say, he did not. -marry her, for she was 
the wife of another man. As in Paris' 
case, so in -^gisthus', the wrong lay, 
in Homer's view, in the primary ab- 
duction {agnayrj) of Helen, or of Cly- 
tsemn., also of course in the murder 
of Agam., which the guilty pair shar- 
ed. JSee further App. E. 9, (3). Pa- 
ris is called the husband {noatg) of 

Helen, Jf. 427 ; so Hor. Carm. I. xv. 7 
"tuas rumpere nuptias'*\ €l<fd>q at, 
6X* sldmg with neut. pi. adj. following 
is said of one whose mind and thoughts 
are bent in one direction; so titcicc, 6X0- 
cpma, oti^aLfia &c., slStogy tisSv* sldvtcCj 
a. 428; here it means "having a sight 
or clear knowledge of awful ruin"; — 
whose? The STtel h. t. X, following 
points to Ms own: he was forewarned, 
but reckless; insl might, but harshly, be 
thrown back to 34 for its connexion. 
It shows why the case of -^gisthus, 35, 
illustrates the maxim about "men's own 
presumption" in 34. So, d, 534, ov% 
sidot' oXs&QOv (of Agam. slain), "with 
no knowledge of his doom". 

39. fAvdaCO'ai, see App. A. 2. 

40—1. eCCexaty the reason is here 
added in the oratio recta, the previous 
statement might be viewed as in the 
same by taking the infin. tixsivstVj 
fivdaad'at, as put for imper. 'AtQeid, 
depends as object on r^Gig, For Hermes 
and his epithets see App. C. 2. IfAeiQB' 
xai for -rixai subjunct. shortened epice. 

DAY I.] 

0AT22EIAS A. 47—57. 

dg dTCoXoLto xal alkog^ otig xovavtu ye ^itpi.^ 
akkd ftot aftg)' ^OSv0^l Sat(pQOVi^ SaUxat tJtoq^ 
dvefiOQ^y Sg Sfj d7]d'd tpCX(Qv &xo^ nijfiara^ 7td0%Bi 
50 viftfoj* iv aiKpvQvrijj od't r' Ofiq)al6g^ iorv d'aldddfig^ 

"Atlavtog dvydttiQ 6lo6q)Qovog^^ og re d'akdcai^g 
Tcdatig fiiv^Ba olSev^ i%Bi Se^ re xiovag avtog 
^axgdg^ at yatdv rs xal ovgavov aft^jig'"' i%ov(SLv. 
55 rotJ ^ydxYiQ dvatip/ov oSvqo^svov xareQVxai^ 
aiel dh (lakaxotfft xccl at(ivXioL6t^ k6yoi0iv 
%'ikyBL^ OTtcog^ ^Id'dxrjg enikriOeraL '"^ avrei^ ^OSvCOavg^ 

ay. 316, ^P. 4»4. 
b tT. 687, ^ 266, 

0. 368, A. 4S?, y. 

c «. 113 , C- 40 , 0. 
617. d E. NS6. 

a. 198, u. 2S:), d, 

f J. 626, J. 34, 

Si. 273. 
e cf. X. 30S. 
h A 340, «. 60. 
i 6. 811, 617, «. SO, 

1. 18. 

k SCO App. A. 3. 

1 /9. 181, C. I OS, X. 
;W— 6, X. 637, 
ii. 90-1, iV^. 738 
-4, O. 276. 

m y. 486, O. 709, 

f 352, r. 115, 

H. 342. 
n cf. £. 49. 
d. 109, ^. 14, P. 

144, a. 270, 296 

— u. 

p V. 86, «. 324; 
cf. a. 65. 

49. T^il' dXdlrixui Schol. 

53. fot$sv. 

fi. 8. 50. toyvyiji Strabo ex 85. 

Scliol. ex conjecture. 

53. 6Xo6<pQ<av 

46. xal XL, this phrase, only found 
in conversation, conveys a tinge of in- 
dignation or even irony, comp. the Engl. 
"anrf serves him quite right". Xirjv, 
though here long in thes., is said to 
occur 10 times with t in II., 30 times 
with 1. 

481 Buttm. Lex. 37, says datq)Q. is 
used of a woman, 0. 356; better refer it 
there to Laertes. He contrasts Scct(pQ. 
tnnoSdfioio of H. with SocttpQ. nomdo- 
fiiitTjv of Ody. ; but the last occurs of 
Odys. in both (mar.). In Hes. Scui, 
119 it may as well mean **skilful" as 
any more properly warlike quality, as 
it refers to managing a horse. This 
is probably its primary meaning, and 
its application to martial persons, as 
skilled in their special province, merely 
secondary; comp. ** notable ", as ap- 
plied to a woman whom H. would call 
Bgy' eidvCa. 

49. ifvOfi,, observe what emphasis 
an adj. gains when standing first of a 
verse, next before a pause, its subst. 
having preceded; so often vnniog, 
axitXiog, &c. Stio, "far from", so 
in 75. 

50 — 4. oB'i x\ the r« gives a relative 
word a special and emphatic value, thus 
Off TS is **the particular person who" 
(Donalds. Or, Gr, 245 b). This is fur- 

ther illustrated by the Attic use of o><rta, 
oloq xfi; the latter = **just such a per- 
son as to". VTiifoq, epanalepsis, see 
on 23, with case varied by attraction of 
Ofiq)alog preceding. "AtXav* x.r. A. see 
App. C. 3. llesiod. Theog. 359 makes her 
the daughter of Ocoanus and Tothys. 
pivO'Ca is akin to §dd'og as nivd'og to 
ndd'og. 6e and re conjoined make a 
clause appear at once contrasted and 
coordinated with another, here with og 
T£ ... oISbv previous, (mar.). dfiq>lq, 
this prep, signifies (i) *'on either side", 
(2) "asunder, or away from", (3) "be- 
tween" ; (3) is the converse of (i), being 
the relation of a mean to extremes, (i) 
that of extremes to a mean ; see mar. 

57. ^eXyeif cf. (Zavg) A%ttmv &s. 
voov, M. 254—5 "was sapping their cou- 
rage". For a specimen of the aiyi,vlioi 
Xoyoi see Calypso's words a. 206—10, 
where the tone is that of wheedling a 
strong mind to weak compliance, inik, 
Ni. says, not subjunct. shortened epicb 
— a doubtful statement, as that mood 
with onmgf to express an effect, is more 
frequent than the fut. Yet a clear exam- 
ple of fut. \9 A. 136 cc^aotvtsg xcera &v- 
fiovoncag civrd^iov Eaxaiy see also Jelf 
Gr, Gr, § 812, i. 2, and Hey ne JExot/r. 
III. adILA. 251,677. Yor'I^dxfiq, gen. 
with kniXriaBtai^ see on Xad'oifiriv, 65. 


0ATS2EIA2 A. 58—76. 


ax. 99, 149 jcf. 30. 

b B. 702, U. 748. 

c of. 17. 2?4. 

d a. 347, SI. 33-4. 

e 0. 201—3. 

f n. 272. 

g- y. 6, 6. 473, «. 

J 02, 17. 191; cf. 

a. 06. 
h A. 411. 
i f. 407, 2. 292. 
k «. 22, t. 492, V'- 

70. y. 230, (p. 168, 

*-; ^3 ^ 

1 5r'32S, I. 409. 

m K. 243. 

n I. 97, A 554, 

;^. 93. 
P. 279, a. 190, 

D. 388, t. 326. 
p ». 88, 116, ^. 44, 

?. 433. 
q. <f>. 267. 
r d. 378, 479, 1/. 

209, X. 133, /*. 

344, xp. 280. 
8 ;^. 3», N. 43, 

r. 34. 
t d. 543, T. 68. 
u N. 660, IT. 546, 

^. 429. 
V I. 61'6, ^. «4. 
w cf. d. 11, r. 123 

X B. 325, XT. 208. 
y i2. 311. 
z cf. o. 227. 
aa cf. |. 87. 
bb a. 15 mar. 
cc c. 366, };. 66, 

271, &. 354, e. 

283, X. 252, r. 

146, 159. 
dd cf. 8. 212, 252, 

y. .<««, 47.'). 

Idfisvog xal xaicvov^ aTtod'Qcicxovtcc^ vorjoat 

17s yccirig^ ^avisvv IilbCq^uv.^ ovSi vv^ 60C itsg^ 

tvtQiTCBxai (plkov i^^op, ^OXv^ms. ov vv t *Odv60€vg 60 

^AQyslcDv^ Ttaqa vrjvol xaQi^eto vsqu q^^cjv^ 

TqoCti iv evQ€iy; ri vv^ of ro^ov cidv6ao^^ ZtiJ;" 

rrjv d' a7Ca(i6Lp6[i6vog 7CQogiq>ri vstpsXi^ysQha Zsvg ' 

"tAci/oi; i(i6v^ Ttotov^ 6s iitog (pvyav sQxog^ oSovrov; 

TCtSg"" av Itcslt^ *Odv6'qog iym %'bIovo Xadviiiriv^^ 65 

og Jtsgl^ ftW voov iotl fi^rdv^ xsq]^ d^ [qu Q'BoMiv 

ad'avitoiCiv^ SSaxe^ tol ovquvov bvqvv i%ov0iv^ 

alia IloiSscddcDv^ ycci^'i^oxog a0xsklg^ alsl 

KvxXcoTtog xBioXcatav^ ov 6q)d'al(iov'^ aXao^Bv^ 

avtC&BOv TloXvfpri^ov^ oov^ XQaxog B0t\ fiiyiarov^ 7^ 

TCciCiv^ Kvxkci7CS(S6t' &6(o6a Se^ [icv tbxb Nviiq)r]j 

(]>6QXvvog dvydrrjQ aXog aTQvyitoio ftedovrog, 

iv 67ce60t^^ yla(pvQot6L Ilo^Biddcovi ^iyBl6a. 

ix tov dri 'O8v0^a no^BiSdcav'^^ bvo0Cx%'cdv 

ov tc xaraxtBivBt^ tcXcc^bl d^ cctco TtaxQlSog atijg. 75 

akk* ayfi-O"'^^, '^(iBtg ovdB TCBgtcpQa^ci^sd'cc Tcavrsg 

58. fiifisvog. 

59- J^n9' 

62. fot. 

64. fsnog. 

60. ovvSTt' (pro ov vv t*): r' esse roi monebat Herm. 
dovti Aristoph. 76. cSdi 

70. ia-KS Schol. 72. fti- 

58. xaTtvov djtoB'. voii. Lowe com- 
pares Ov. E ponto I. iii, 33 optat Fu- 
mum de patriis posse videre fods, doubt- 
less an imitation of this. 

59. XBQ implies that, ''although an- 
other's heart would relent at such woe, 
thine does not"; so 8. 729, where see 

60—5. Hermann considers r' in ov 
vv r' as TOi. (Oifvif, playing on^ the 
name 'O^vcTtf. in 57 and 60 (mar.). €QX. 
odovXm The image is that of the pali- 
sades {pxavqol, |. 11), by driving in 
which a fence (fpnog) was made, and 
to which the teeth are likened. Others, 
not so well, think the lips, as an outer 
fence round the teeth (o^ovt. gen. ob- 
jective), intended by tqyLOg, XaO'Olfi, 
This verb, when mid, takes gen,, cf. im- 

XriCBtoti 57, when act., accus. (mar.); 
so fivoaoficci, epic for iivdo[iat, 9, 106, 
in sense its opposite, takes gen., rarely 
accus., as J. 168— 9. 

69 — 77. KvxX,,gen, of source whence 
wrath proceeds, Donalds. Gr, €fr, 447. 
IIoXv<p* is by inverse attraction drawn 
to the rel. clause, Jelf Gr, Gi\ 824. ii. 4; 
see mar. n:difiP, ^'amongst all", tfi 
fiiv X. T. A. this clause apparently in- 
volves a ngoad'vaxBQOv f but 8i is em- 
phatic and nearly = yap; it was not 
so much his prowess as his being the 
god's own son, which infuriated the 
latter, as shown by in xov foUowing, 
"in consequence of this". A var. lecL 
fjiiSovti refers this word, not so well, to 
Uoasiddavi in 7^^. jtXd^ei 6* djto in 
tmesis (mar.)« kXB^Ciy the old form 
in fAt, -oofn, -jyiT'9'of, -^^^(v), is prevalent 

DAY I.l 

0AT2SEIAS A. 'J7-^6. 

ov xo^ov' oviih/ yccQ xi Sw^asrat avxCa^ TcdvtcDv 
a^avdtoDv iixrju^ d'ediv igiSavviiiBv ofog." 

80 tov S* i^(ieipst' SnBixa %'Bd ykavxcSmg Ad^vij • 
"(J° TtdrsQ 'j^iiitSQS KqovCSti^ vTtate xQciovrav, 
bP fihv di) vvv roiko (pCXov iiaxdQB66L d'BotOvv, 
voiSrij6av 'OSvC'^a datg)(fova« SvdB^ SofiovdB^ 
^EQiiscav' (ihv iTCBita StdxtOQOV 'AgyBifpovtviv 

85 1/12(701/ ig ^SlyvyCriv^ 6tqvvoiibv^ otpQa td%i6xa 
vv^tpji^ iv7tXoxd(ip Blitri vrniBQxia /JovAiJv, 
voctov ^OdvO^ijog xuXacCtpQOvog'^^ Sg xb v^rjxat, 
avxag^ iydv 'Id'dxriv i0BkBvao(iai^ &q)Qa of vfoi; 
lialXov inoxQWfXi^ xaC ot iiivog iv <pQB<sl d'BtoD^^ 

90 Big AyoQ^v^ xakicavxa xdQrj xoiiocovxag 'Axaiovg 
n&oi (ivi]6xfJQB6aLv d7C€L7te(iBv^^ of xs o[ aUl 
ftiJA' dSivd^ 6(pd^ov<Si xal BlXticoSag ^kixng ftovg.^ 
nd^tlfCD^ d' ig 2]7tdQxr}v xb xal ig llvkov^ iJ^aO'dft/ra, 
v66xov nByadfiBvov"^ TCaxQog (pCkov^ fjv Ttov dxov^rj^ 

95 1}*' ?va (liv xXiog"^ iad'kdv iv dvd'QcSjtOL0Lv ^xyaiv.^' 
cSg* Blnova* vno no06lv iSrjaaxo xakd niSUa^ 

a ct. 87, d. 470. 

b cf. (p. 377, 126 

c A. 230, o. 377. 

d M. 8, O. 720. 

e a. 45 mar. 

f d. 831. 

g a. 48 mar. 

h n. 446. 

I see App. C. 2. mar. 


1 «. 29-30. 

m y. 84, J. 466; 

cf. N. 300. 
n if. 52. 
o <2>. 145. 
1) A. 54, T. 84. 
q A. 515, I. 309, 

431, n. 340. 
r d. 320, 721, 17. 

274, X. 413, n. 


s I. 46, I. 462, *F. 

i fi. 214-5, o. 284 

u X. 257, B. 77, fi. 

308, A, 252. ' 
V /?. 264, a. 281. 
w I. 415. 
X «. 44-6, S2. 340 


78. /ov. 79. afiTtrjtt. 83. J^ovds, 86. /«t7r^. 88. 89. 91. /ot. 

fi,v7ictiJQBaa' cinoj^si^nifisv 92. /^Xtxag. 96. /stwovcr*. 

80. Tov ^' avre nQoaiems, 85. ^v r§ xar* 'Avtiuaxov^ **wyvA^i?i/" ypaqperai, 

Schol.^ 87. nev turitai. 88. 'I^ax^jvd'; l^cAfivffo/iiat et Sislsvaofiai. 

89. ^ifoGO. 93. i^tiad'OEaaotv ; post v. 93 codd. Ambros. Harlej. Vind. ^Bid'av 

9h Kqi^zi^v^b nag *ISoy,6vija &va%ta, 95. pro ^Xfiaiv Rhlan. Xdfiftaiv. 

in the subj. mood sing., Donalds. Gr. 
^* .33 !• 3- ^' Ahrens Grieck, FormenL 
§ 49. D. Anm. a. 

78 — 80. One thought is here en- 
grafted on another; *^he will not be 
able (i) to strive alone against all*' 
and (a) *Ho strive invitis dl«" xdv' 
Tiov> like aUooy 132, is inclusive, where 
the thought is really exclusive ,• = ^'all 
the other ^*; see also g. 401 — 2. 

82—7. vvv emphatic, as showing that 
what before was doubtful now was fix- 
ed: to this k'xeixa, cf. 84, is retro- 
spective, ^*that being settled*\ *EQfii, 
see App. C. 2. 6idxx., Buttm. Lex, 
40, regards '^nmner'* as the original 
sense » tracing it fr. 8{<o<, 9t.(6%a) (t. q, 
^iofxcD, 9in%(0j with analogy of d'&nost 
9'&%ogy igfmya (i^yvvfiiy &c.) and re- 

jecting 9idya), The later view of Her- 
mes as ipvxonofinog suggested the ety- 
mol. from £ittym meaning transveho, 
*SlyvY*> 8®® "^PP* ^' *• OXQVVO; epic 
for '(OfJisv, as 41 , q, v. vooxoq and 
vioiicei are specially used of returning 
home (mar.). xaXaoUp^s another form 
is raXdq)Q(ov (mar.). 

88—98. oi Odys., 88, and ot Telem., 
89, are both datives of special re- 
ference; so is or in 91. Refer^ aeail^- 
ifavxa in 90 to vtov in 88. aneist; 
**warn oflf", from acting as in 92; else- 
where (mar.) = "refuse, renounce"; also 
"report (a message) in answer", ddiva, 
see App. A. 6, (2). JSxdQ. x. t. A., see 
App. D. 3. i^fiaO'., see App. A. 12. 
fpiQOv, imperf., of her habitual move- 
ment; her actual flight begins in loa. 


OATSSEIAS A. 97—109. 



i d. 709, K. 
S. 308. 


b 0. 79, p. 386, 418, 

c /?. 148, d. 839, M. 

207, n. 149. 
d if. 135, S'. 12, 

O. 482, r. 338. 
«• 0. 390-1. 
f y. 135. 
g- <o. 487, J. 74, 

1/. 19, X. 187, 

i2. 121, ^. 44. 
h /J. 239, ^. 556. 
i see App. F. 2. 



m a. 181 , 419, |. 

452, 0. 427; cf. 

a. 417. 
n /. 189. 
o .^. 321, 334. 
p d. 38, 23; cf. X, 


iqS' in' ccTCevQOva^ yalav Sfia nvotfiq^ avi^oto, 

Bikero^ S' aXxLiiov ^yxog^ dxaxfiBvov o^dv ^aAxw, 

PQid^^ fieya 0xifiaQOv^ r« ddfivrjOt ^tcxccg dvdQcav 

^QcicDVy toi6iv XB xoTB00Brai dpQCfiojcdtQri,^ 

^fj^ dh xar' Ovkv(Litoio xaQ7Jv(ov dt^a^ay 

atrj d' 'Id'dxrig ivl drj^o)^ i%l %QO%'VQoig^ Wv^'^og^ 

ovdov in* avksCov^ nakd^rj^ S' i%B %dkxBov Byxog, 

sldo^ivrji^ ^BLVC)^ Ta(pi(ov"^ i^yfjtoQv Mivtrj. 

BVQS d' CLQU ^vfjOT'^Qag dyrjvoQug. 0? fiiv sjtBtta 

nB00Ot0l TtQOTCdQOL^B d'VQdcSV d'VflOV'^ BtBQItOV^ 

Hl^Bvov iv ^cvotac fiocSvy ovg Sxravov avxoC' 
xrJQvxBg^ d' avtotac xal dtQfjQol d'BQdnovtBg^ 



105. J^sidofiivrj. 

1 01. 6^§gi>fionocrQ7j Bek. 109. av totci Nicias. 

vyQriVf "watery", i, e, surface; so 
%£Qaog^ rjnsiQog, really adj. but taken 
as nouns; so Cowper, Time piece, 55 — 6, 
"When did the waves so haughtily 
o'erleap Their ancient barriers, delug- 
ing the dry?^^ SfJia, simulf t. e» "as 
swiftly as". 

97 — loi. These verses are wrongly 
inserted here by some copyist from the 
II. (mar.). There they suit the sequel, 
which relates Pallas^ taking the field 
in propria persona; not so here. Fur- 
ther, the iyxog recurs in 104, as part 
of the disguise suited to the stdoolov 
adopted by Pallas. 

1 01 — 5. o^QLfiOTt, On this epithet 
see App. E. 4, (14). |5pi-, of arbitrary 
length, is probably the root of SpQifiog; 
so in pQi&a), ^qtaqriVj Bgtc^scav, who is 
called 'OpQi^ocQEvg in Hes. Theog. 734. 
^lifioi means (mar.) (i) region, as here, 
(2) soil, (3) people. For nQo9"VQOt^ 
and oi6ov avkelov, see App. F. 2. 
(5). Ta€fiiifv, see App. D. 5. 

106. In BTteixa a transition takes 
place from the progress of Pallas, 
to the course of events in the pa- 

107. neCif,y a game resembling our 
draughts or chess; see App. A. 5. 

109. XT^QVxeq in r. 135 are reckoned 
SrjfiiosQyoLf i, e, persons who had func- 
tions to discharge in which the people 
were interested, a class which also 
includes in q. 383 — 5 the seer, the sur- 

geon, the artisan, and the minstrel. 
The bulk of the people found their 
Ipya in agriculture, each tilling his 
own field, but the above pursuits were 
useful to all. The x^gv^ seems to have 
been personally attached to the man 
of high rank. To a king they were 
"his only immediate agents. They con- 
veyed his orders; they assisted him in 
the assembly, in sacrifice, and in ban- 
quets. They appear to be the only 
executive officers that are found in Ho- 
mer." Gladst. III. I. 69. But of course 
their functions were limited by the sta- 
tion of their immediate chief. In the 
Ody. they are not, except Medon (see 
TT. 252, X' 357 — 8)> ^^ *^® household of 
Odys. The office of ^CQanow, a sort 
of lower comrade , " with a mixture of 
inferiority with equality which may be 
compared to the Scottish "Henchman", 
was one of high honour. Patroclus is 
the great embodiment of the idea. In 
the II. we trace in Eurybates, B, 183 — 4, 
a d-sg. to Odys. He himself, in the Ody., 
in disguise, speaks of Tiijgv^ Evgv^,, 
"whom he regarded above all his com- 
rades, as his sentiments were in unison 
with his own" (t. 244—8). And indeed 
the Tirjgv^ and ^sg. might be united in 
the same person. In a borrowed sense 
kings and warriors are d'sgdnovtsg 
'Agrjog, jdiog^ &c. J^ 

109 — 12. While this was going on 
within the palace (comp. f/6. 144); 

DAY* I.] 

OATSSEIAL A. 110—122. 


1 10 oC [ihv &Q olvoV^ iiM6yov ivl XQrjt'^QOt xccl vdcop, 
ot 6* avts tSitoyyoiCv^ TCokvtQTJrotat tQajti^ag 
vC^ov xal TtQOtid'sv, toi Sh XQsa TtoXXcc Satevvro,^ 

t^v Sh noli) 7CQ<Stog HSb TijX^^ccxog d'Boevd'^s' 
ijato yuQ iv ^injCf^Qat (pCkov rsutjiiBvog^ V'^OQy 

1 15 6wdft6i/os° Tiaxi^ i^d'lov ivl g)Q€(Slv, Bt no%'Bv ild'tov 
liini6tfJQ(Xfv^ t(Sv^ (ihv CxiSaCiv xata dciiiata %'Biri^ 
Ttfti}!/*^ d' aixog S%ol xal xttj(ia0vv olovv avd06oi. 
ta (pQOVBaVy ftvijcTr^ptft ^Bd'TJiiBvogj BtOid^ *j4d^V7jVj 

/Jq^ d' Id^g TCQOdVQOlOj VSllBCCrjdTl^ d* ivl d'VfL^^ 

1 20 ^Btvov Sijd'cc diJQriOvv i(pB(Sr(x(iBv * iyyvd'L^^ Sh 6tdg 
XbCq^^^ bXb SBiiTBQfjv^ xal idd^aro^ %dkxBov iyxog, 
xaC iLiv (pa)tnj(Sag iitsa nrBQ6Bvra 7tQ06rjvda' 

a r. 269-70. 

b y. 439, 463, V. 151, 

^. 414. 
c o. 140, e. 550, 

cf. *P. 121. 
A a 153, j#. 55fi, 

0. 447, I. 13. 

V. 81, A. 106, X. 
17,^. 152, rSSO, 
17. SI. 

Tv. 226 

S H. 461, a>. 497, 

h z. m-6, ;i. 

496, iMT. 310-1 1: 

cf. X. 186, C. 203, 

«. 336. 
i \Q. 325, e. 322, 

M. 106. 
k N. 122, Z. 351. 

P. 254. 

1 d. 16S, n. 544. 
m cf. K. 251. 

n Y S.-) , if. 108, 

S'. 137. 
o o. 282. 

iio.|Li^y/orfov. ii^,fidsd'Boffi97ig. 11 j.foiciftivttOaoi. iiH,^ofi9\ Mi.fintct, 

121. dcftTffp^. 

the suitors were without. The Homeric 
narrative does not carry on two sets 
of actions as contemporaneous. Thus 
here the parts which describe the ban- 
quet are divorced from their real sequel 
by the reception of Mentos (Pallas) by 
Telem. The real continuation of 112 
is 144. This is betrayed by ^Htod'ev 
aXXav (iVTiarTJQcav, a, 1$%, which shows 
that the suitors were then coming or 
come in. Each guest ordinarily had a 
table to himself, but in d. 54 two 
share a table; so in q, 334 Kumseus 
takes his place and eats at Telemachus* 
table. The division of the viands (da- 
TBvvto) was the last thing done before 
the feast, as in 146, commenced; see 
o. 140, p. 331.^ We may compare with 
dcttsofiai daeo ddxg^ natiofAat nd- 

115. OifOOfiBvoq • • • ivl <PQ*, " men- 
tally regarding, wishfully brooding 
over*^; comp. the Lat. opio akin to oa- 
aopktti. Fixedness of regard, seems the 
most general idea of d<J<jd|b^., especially 
when compounded with nq6q\ the mind 
realizing the image by dwelling on it. 
Thus with xaxoi/y oXBd'gov^ &c., ^* fore- 
boding^* is the sense. HamleVs words, 
**In my mind's eye, Horatio", Act I, 
Sc. II, are an obvious parallel. 

1 16. fjLvmifXm xwv fihv, the pronoun, 
emphatically repeating the noun (see 
mar.), takes the latter's place in con- 
struction, introducing the contrast with 

avzog in 117. The noun far more com- 
monly follows the pronoun, as in 125 
and in A, 488—9,^ avxag o fii7i/ie...dio- 
yBviiq IlTjkiog vfog, until, when it fol- 
lows immediately, the pronoun lapses 
into the force of the article, as in 6 
yigtoVf ysgaiog^ A, 33, 35. 

117—23. xifiiiv, "his due*', including 
the yiga£f or substantial part of roy- 
alty. So Achilles, In the (Shades, en- 
quires about Peleus, ij h' ix^i Ufi^v 
. . . (Astd MvQfii96vsaai>v (mar.). v€- 
fieOOijB^, "felt ashamed**, because 
he represented the host; the feeliuff 
is sometimes expre^ssed by aidm xal 
vifiBaiv\ comp. Bg i^ti vifksaiv ts xol 
aCax^oc, nearljr = vefisaai^^ aCaxecc 
(mar.). iyyvO'i, here of place, is 
also used (mar.) of time, and takes 
either gen. or dat., as does iyyvd^Ev, 
<piXfjOBai, with pass, force, "shaltbe 
well treated", used specially of hospi- 
table entertainment. Bo Menel., N. 627, 
upbraids the Trojans; **ye carried off 
my wife, insl (piXisad's nag' avr^; 
and so the active, og %i fp^^^OTS, "who 
may entertain**, d. 29. Observe the 
hospitable rule, to supply the guest*s 
wants first, and then enquire his er- 
rand. 80 Nestor, y. 69 — 70, when his 
guests are sated, says, ^^now it is more 
seemly to enquire who our guests are**. 
Comp, also the reception of Telem. by 
Menel., and subsequent conversation, 
d. 60—4, 117—39- 


OATSLEIAS A. 123—139. 

[day I. 

a 0. 281. 

b A. 464, *• 76, 

i2. 642. 
c /*. 169, X, 507, 

V. 191 , P. 200. 
d Q. 29, O. 126. 
e \V. 90; cf. ^. 66, 

f cf. i^. 260-1. 
fir a. 87. 
h <r. 51 ; cf. a. 145, 

y. 389. 
i X, 353, 9. 441, 

2. 352, «F. 254. 
k X. 815, 367, X 

1 X. 314, *'. 240, 

m 0. 436, .^. 53fi, 

S. 238. i2. 597, 

0. 86, d. 136. 
n/u.281. J. 489, T. 

307, 2. 281 , *. 


T. 423, «. 290. 
o d. 62-8, w. 172 

—6, X. 368-72, 

0. 135—9, o. 91 

— 5;cf.y.440— 1. 
p I. 123, y. 259, 

267,/*. 237, r. 13, 

<r> 562. 
q p. 333, 447, y. 74. 
r h. 259, '^ 
s /*. 345 , y. 479, 

>/. 166, ^. 449, 

p. 495. 

Sslitvov Ttacadfisvog^ fivd7J0€ac^ Streo 0b xqt]-'^ 

cSg d%(Qv iiyat%'\ ri S* efSTtsro nakkug ^Jdnjvri. 125 

o'C d' ore drj ^' 6vto0d'€V i<Sav Soiiov vV'^/oro, 

dovQodoxrig^ ivto6%'Ev ivi^oov^ ivd'a tcbq aXXu 

eyxe ^Odvaaijog taXaCifpQOvogs i6rato TColkcc, 

avtrjv d' ig d'QOvov^ aloBv aycov^ vito klxd^ nBtd60ag^ 130 

xakov^ SatSdlBOV'^ vno 61 d'QTJvvg noclv r^Bv, 

TtccQ d' avtog xhOfiov^^^ %'ito noixCXov^ ixtod'BV aXkcjv 

livri6riJQ(ov^ (iiq ^Btvog dvtrid'Blg OQV^aydai 

dainvip dd7J0BLBv^^ vnBQtpidkoi^v ^BtaXd'tDV, 

)Jd' tva (iLv xbqI naxQog aTCOixo^Bvoio bqoito, 135 

XSQVcPa^ d' d^tpLTCokog tcqoxog} inixBVB q>BQOv0a 

xakfj XQ'^^^^V VTchg dgyvQBOio ki^rjTog^^ 

VLtl^a6d'at' nuQU Sh l^sat'^v Bxdvv60B xgdnaiav^ 

atxov^ d' alSoiri xa^Cif JiaQi%"riXB (piQov6a^ 

125. fsLTtrnv. 134. fad-qasiBV. 

124. fivd"i]G60. 127. fiayiQOv, 134. Vind. aTjdjjasisv et ari8iaaBUv, alii d$9i]asisv. 

124. jtaaodfA.9 only this aor. and 
the pluperf. nsndafiTjv are found in H. 
The yerb also takes an accus. 

126 —30. ot if\ OT€^ 6ii ^' . . . eyx^S 
fiiv ^*. . . avrtTiV 6\ with this train 
of conjunctions and particles comp^ 
T, \^ — 21, oW or« ^5 • • . Tgaaiv fisv 
. . . zov 9' Sg, where qu alone is want- 
ing to complete the parallel, xiova, 
fem., but also masc. (mar.). For ffovQO^ 
66xri and Aera see App. F. 2. (21), (17). 
The drapery spread under the seat (since 
the floor was native earth), was XCg, 
* 'smooth", not embroidered; X\g in this 
sense becomes a noun. On the seat 
was laid a dyed fleece (mar.). Lid- 
dell & S. explain both as being on the 

i^i — 2. xaXov 6ai6n, refer these to 
9'QOvov (mar.). xXiCfiov, having set 
a d'QOvog for the guest, he sets a 
■ulLafiog for himself; so Helen in her 
palace sits on a nX., and so Here and 
Pallas in Olympus @. 436, while Zeus 
on a d-Q. A. 536. Probably the -O-p. 
was the seat of dignity, ^' throne ^\ 
Herd promises to give a "throne", as 

a reward to the Sleep-god, ^. 338, and 
has herself the epithet ^i^pvtrd^pot'og. 
Women or younger persons use a %Xt- 
Ofiog, but the distinction, especially 
in the camp-life of the II., is not ri- 
gidly observed. Either might be used 
with a &Q7Jvvg, Athenseus sajs (V. 4.), 
the d'Q, was for mere sitting, the tlX. 
for reclining; but of reclining, save in 
bed, H. has no trace ; nay, yUiafim %s- 
nXifisvTi is used, q. 96—7, to^^further 
describe the attitude of I^£. aXXixiV, 
like ndvTosv, 79, where see note; comp. 
^ 84, aiia Tyye nal dfitplnoXoi nCov 
a XI at, 

134. ddriCBiBV, see App. A. 6, (2). 

137—9- kififiT., "wash-basin". The 
utensil was also used to heat water. It 
appears thus in simile to illustrate Cha- 
rybdis boiling with surge, and the wa- 
ters of Xanthus bubbling in the flames 
of Hephsestus. In an enumeration of 
presents it often occurs in conjunction 
with the " tripod ", which was not, how- 
ever, a mere stand for the Xifirjgj but 
included a containing vessel; see W, 
264. For the xafiiri see App. A. 7 (4). 



OATSSEIAS A. 140-155. 


140 [a^dara* jrdAA' iici^BlCa^ %UQLio^ivri naQSOvrcDv 
davTQos^ Sh XQSLcSv Tttvccxag TtccQid^xev dsiQag 
navtoimv^ naQCc dd dpv %C%'bl xQv^sta'^ xvneXka •] 
xiiQV^^ d' avtol6iv ^dfi^ intpxaxo olvoxosvcuv, 
ig d' rjX^ov (iVTjOv^Qeg dytjvoQsg. of ^hv inBixa 

145 il^BCrig e^ovro xaxd xXt(S(iovg^ ts d'Qovovg ts^ 
xol6L^ SI XTJQvxsg [ilv CSg3q« inl x^^Q^S ix^vaVj 
attov dh Sficoal TtaQevrjvBov iv Kccvsov0LVy 
xovQOL^ 8h XQ'qr^Qag iiceati^uvto^ icototo, 
ol^ d' in^ 6vBCa%'^ hotficc jtQOxeiiieva x^^Q^S taXkov, 

150 avtctQ insl 7c66t,og xal iSijTvog i^ Iqov ?vto 
(iVYj6rrJQsg, rotOLV fihv ivl (pQS^lv akka (iSfiTJkBV^^ 
(lokitij^ r* 6qxV^'^'^S '^^' f^d ytxQ r' dvad'tjiiata Sccirog, 
x^pvg'" d' iv jf^ptfli; xCd'agiv nsQixakkia d'ijxBv 
OriiiLG), og» ^' ^Bvds Ttagd ^vri0tilQ0iv dvayxTfi, 

^55^ '^^^ ^ (poQ^iiGiV dvefiakketo^ xcckov deiSscVy 

a (.84, |U, 252; cf. 

E. 368. 
b Q. 331. 
c X. 357, r. 248. 
d d. 677, 7t. 252. 
e a. 192 mar. 
f y. 339— 40, y.270 

-1, I. 174-5. 
S d. 213, r. 270. 
h A. 470. 
i &. 232. 
k d.67, 218,«.200. 


0. 142, ft. 54, q. 

98, V. 256, I. 91 

-2, 221-2, i2. 

I9.43O; ct. ^. 271, 

^. 99. 
m &. 67-9, 105—7, 

n /. 330-1, 356, 

a. 337. 
o^.2««, (».262-3. 

141. foivoxoevoav. 

140 delet Kitzschius probante Herm. 14a. rtd'Ti, Dubium ex h. 355 an legen- 

clum sit xai/fi&a; turn fortasse 141 cum 142 permutandus. post 146 nonnulli codd. 

149 babent, tarn vtofiricav d' Sga naciv inag^d^svoi SfTrocsaakv, turn 147, 148, 150. 

Harlej. illi voifiriaocv — , post 148 posito, subjungit 147 et 149. 

She had general charge of the bread 
(attog), and the eatables (ef^^ocTtt) ge- 
nerally except fleshmeat. Each guest 
had a table laid {itdwaae) for him. 

140—3. Verse 140 is probably borrow- 
ed from 17. 176, where it belongs pro- 
perly; see note there, etdaza is also 
used for *'bait'* of fish, and sing. st$otQ 
(mar.) for ** fodder" for horses. It is 
objected to vv. 141 — 2 (rejected by Bek. 
here and at S, 57) that the flesh (112) 
appears to have been already distri- 
buted; but see on 109 — 12. It does 
not, at any rate, appear that the guest 
had been served, and his table was 
only just set. The daiTQoq has no 
busmess with the ^vnsXka. This, how- 
ever, need condemn 141 only; but see 
the emendation suggested in the lower 
margin. For xvxeXka see App. A. 8. 
The x^QV§ is Medon (mar.). 

146 — 8. vcf. iTtl X^^Q^^y * phrase 
of Holy Writ is here parallelled, 2 Kings 
III. II. inecxi^*, "crowned", t. c. 
**filled brim-fulr' of wine. The vina 
coronant of Virg. JEn, I. 724 (comp. 
llf* 535)1 <^s meaning crowning with a 

chaplet, perhaps arose from a mistake 
in the sense here. Butt. Lex. 50. 

152. dvaO'i^fi,, "embellishments", 
properly used of offerings to deck a 
shrine. Comp. Hor. Od, III. xi. 6, of the 
lyre, diviium fnensis et arnica templis, (Ni.) 

154. ^^fiiifi, calledT^pTTtofdi^ff (mar.). 
He is spared in the (ivrjcti^QoipovLCC on 
this plea of having acted '* under con- 
straint". The name, like Phronius, 
Noemon fi, 386, also Aglaia and Cha- 
rops, B. 672, belong to the class of 
names made up to suit character or 
circumstances. Similar are the Phsea- 
cian princes* names, «&. 111 — 9. and Ki. 
on |3. 386, says that Hermann con- 
tended for an extension of the same 
principle to first - class personages. 
There is no doubt of its beihg general 
with subordinate ones. 

155. ?} TOif in discourse these par- 
ticles add strong asseveration, emphatic 
statement, or hearty assent; filv, vvy 
or yuq is sometimes put between them. 
dvepdXX.j sounded or "struck up" a 
prelude; this was done by touching a 
few notes first on the qpo^fiil, whence 



OATSSEIAS A. 156—170. 

[day I. 

a d. 70, o. 592. 
b &. 248, r. 54. 
c 0. 280, $. 377, 

417, a. 377, 8. 

d A. 221, CO. 72, 76, 

m 347, »F. 253, 

n. 793. 
e «f^. 328, ^. 174 ; 

cf. A. 395. 
f |. 135-6, CO. 290 

^ a. 235, /9.35l,d. 

832, |. 70, 90. 
h X. 361. 

i «. 303, *. 133. 
k Z. 412. 
1 a. 188, 204, e. 221, 

u. 348—9; cf. e. 

471, r. 204, 1.374, 

TT. 98, 116. 
m (T. 135, r. 414, 

^. 45. 
n a. 9 mar. 
o a. 206, metal. 
p ^. 187—90, <f>. 

150; cf. y. 71, d. 

138, ^. 550. 

ayii^ 6jU^v xscpaXriv, tva ^rj stsvd'oiad'* ot alXof 
''^stvE (plk\ 71 xai [lot v6fi667J6sav ot'tL X€v sUtcg}; 
tovtoL0tv (ihv tavta ^iXsij xid'aQLg^ xal dotS'^y 
Q€t\^ STtsl dXkoTQLOV fitotov vfjitoivov i8ov0cvy 160 

dv6Qog ov dfj nov XeM^ ddtia TCvd'srai'^ ^i^PQ9 

KSt^LBV^ i%^ I^TCSLQOVy ^ £tV dkl XVfia XvXvvdSL. 

si X€tv6vs y* Id'dxrivde IdoCaxo vo^fq^avtUy^ 

Ttdvtsg X aQfjOaiar' iXafpQOXSQOi noSag slvac 

)}' difvsLorsQOt ;u9i;<yor6 re i^d^rog rs. 165 

vvv S* [ihv (Sg dnoktoXe^ xaxov [lOQOVy ovdd rig i^fitv 

d'aXnco^y^ BL^ nig rig B7a%%'ov£(ov^ dv&QciTtcDv 

g)fjdiv iX€v0£0d'aL' tov tf' SXeto^ v60tt[iov ^ftap. 

a/A'o ays [lot rods sljth xal dtQSxscog xardXs^ov 

rigP Ttod'sv slg dvS(f(Sv; nod'v rot noUg r^Sl rox^sg; 170 

158. ns fsinca. 163. fidoiato, 165. pBcQ-riToq ts, 169. fstne, 
158. Bl%aC. 167. slTcoaQjj, 168. codd. ^ifer^t vel (priaCv\ cpfiaiv Schol. A. 129. 

some derive gjo^/itl, quasi q)Qo£(ii^j from 
(pQo£fiioVy Lat. proosmium. Lowe com- 
pares Ov. Metam, V. 339. prcBtentat pol- 
lice ckordas. In later Greek avoi^oXul 
properly signifies a prelude, Pind. Pyth, 
I. 7, ngooLfiiatv dii^oXag, cf. Aristoph. 
Av, 1385 foll.,^P«c. 830, comp. 1267 

— -70- 

158—60. vBfiea. o, X. €ixa>, "be 

provoked at what I am going to say"; 
for the force of this subjnnct. see on 
316. The gen. dviQO^ is evolved from 
the possessive dXlozgiov, 

162 — 5. The obj. of xvXLv6si is the 
same as the subj. of nvQ'Bxai, The 
doable compar., iXcctpQO'zsqoi 976 dfpvBi- 
6x£Q0ty is used of two qualities con- 
trasted in the same object; Donalds. 
Gr. Gr, 415 ^(cc); so Herod. III. 65, 
inoiTjea raxvxega rj aoqxotsga, Eur. 
Med, 485, ngod-viiog iiaXXov ^ go- 
fptoxBga^ Jelf Gr. Gr, § 782. /. In 
xslvov, 163, we may notice an in- 
stance of the tacitly emphatic way 
of speaking of the hero without men- 
tioning his name, as though it were 
sacredly cherished, used by his wife 
son, and attached servitor Eumseus 
(mar.). ^ ^ 

166. vvv 6 , contrasts an actual with 
a supposed or a past state. dnoXiakB, 

a^XsTO, 168, comp. y. 87—9, lUJicoXsro 
conversely followed by oXoaXsv; "the 
perfect representing the state conse- 
quent on an action", easily becomes in 
usage passive (Donalds. Gr. Gr, 347, 
obs.) **he is lost"; the aor. suggests 
how he reached that state. 

167. ^aXn:ofQfi, for form comp. iX- 
Tcoagrj , dXscogi^. Comp. the Coronach 
in The Lady of the Lake, * *To us comes 
no cheering, to Duncan no morrow". 
This despondent dwelling on the worst 
view is characteristic of Telem. ; see 
App. E. 3. 

168. (fnifiv, so Bek. , following the 
Schol.; sC with subjunct. is common in 
Epic Greek, Jelf Gr^ Gr. § 854, obs. i. 
For examples of si with subj. pres. and 
aor. in Ody. see mar. In Iliad ar^ 
given by Jul. Werner de condit. enun, 
ap. Bom. formis, subj. pr. d. 261, M. 
245, aor. A. 81, 340, E. 258, K. 225, 
A. 116, M. 223, IT. 263, 0. 576, X. 
86, 191. 

170. xlq Tto^eVj see Donalds. Gr. Gr. 
413 {bb) **who and whence are thou?" 
Ni. cites Eur. Helen 85, drag tls ft] 
no&sv; TLVOS', Pkasniss. 122, rt's; nod'sv 
ygycos; N. B. Bek. for slg writes f?ff, 
contrarily to the most recent gram- 

DAY I.] 

OATSLEIAS A. 171-186. 


OTCTCoii^s d' inl vijdg dq)ix€0' 7t(Sg 8i 6e vccvtat^ 
^ fjyayov slg ^I^dxijv; rlveg iii(i€vai eiixBToavto; 

oi iiiqv yuQ xl 0€ TCtidv dtoiiai iv^dS' txiad'ai. 

xat^ fioi rovT* dy6(f€v0ov hijrvfiov, 099* bv Bid(S, 
1 75 i}i^ vdov fied'djtsvg^ ^ xal natQdiog'^ ia0L 

^Btvosy ixBl ^oXXol t6av^ dvigsg i^iiitBQOv S(S 

alXoiy iTCBl xal XBtvog inCiStQOtpog^ f^v dvd'Qcijtcav.^' 
xbv d' avTB nifo6iBV7iB ^Bu yXavxtSmg ^udd'fjvq • 

^^ToiyaQ^ iyoi tov tuvxa fta'A' dtQBxiaiig dyoQSv0(o. 
1 80 MivtYig^ ^Ayxidkoio dattpQOvo^ BV%o^av bIvui 

vldg^ dtaQ TcctpiotCt g)tlfjQhfioi6LV^ dvdoaca. 

vvv d* SSb^ Sw vril xatrikvQ'ov i}d' irdgotCcvy 

nXicov inl oHvona^ Ttovtov i%* dXlo^QOOv^ dvd'Qciitovgy 

ig TBfiBCriv fiBtd %akx6v^ dyco d' ail&ova cCdriQOv.^ 
185 vYivgy^ Si fioc ifS* ScrriXBv iic^ dygov vofSfpi TtdXrjogy 

iv Uyiivi 'PBtd'QOSj VTtG^ NrjicD vXrJBVu. 

a 7t. 57-9, 222-4. 

b d. 045 mar. 

c a.268, 4(ni,/9.29, 

30, 32, 817: 326, 

-8, y. 72, a. 632, 

C. 120-1, X. 172, 

A. 203. 
d a. 187, p. 622, 

Z. 215, 2^1. 
c<7. 194;cf.9r. 335. 
f cf. o. 488. 
ff d. 383*/ a/., K. 

413, 427 
h a. 418-9. 
i a. 48 mar. 
k «. 380, &. 96, I. 

349, V. 36. 
i see App. A. 10. 

in /». 421 , y. 286, 

S. 474, «. 349. 
n y. 302, f 43, o. 

453; cl. J. 437 

-8, B. 867. 
J. 485, H. 473, 

r 372. 
p cu. 308, 212, 7t. 

383; cf. o. 503, 

q y. 81. 

174. J^ctdo). 178. TtQoasfsms, 181. (pUri^itfiotai ^ctvocaaoi* 183. J^oivona, 

171. d': T* Arist. cxf: re. 171 — 3 omittebant nonnuUi, bchol. 172. fiv^a- 

TOODi/TOi. 175, Diud. 9}^ . ..9J: (isd'iTtfj, 176. ^aav. 183. in': ig. 

171. o;r;co/i}$, horc the interrog. 
changes from the direct to the indirect 
form, and again conversely; in 406 —7 
the onnod'sv of the indirect is followed 
by noifig and nov. 

172. evx^'^'s self-assertion is usually 
cxpresBed by this verb, sometimes also 
the act of prayer, as in fi. 356. 

173. A quaint proverbial truism, be- 
ing probably the islander's customary 
address to the voyager. Telem. repeats 
what he had perhaps heard his elders 
say to a stranger newly landed. Mure 
Literat. of A. G. XIII. § 7, ranks this as a 
specimen of Homeric burlesque. Buttho 

f)oet's thought has the nak'veti of child- 
lood, which is not c^mic to the child, . 
only to us in the old age of the world. 
Such a truism is r. 163, ov vag dno 
^Qvog iaoL naXonqxitov ov8' dno nitgrjg, 
175 — 82. viov fieO'., "art newly, 
t. e. for the first time, our visitor'*. 
For ij^«««92f see App. A. 11. For the 
**Taphian8" see App. D. 5. Only to 
them and to the Phieacians is the epi- 
thet fpiXriQBXfiOi applied by H. For 
ace. after taav without a preposition 
see mar. iTtlOVQQfc. occurs .£sch. 
Agam, 397. For wife, see App. A. 10. 

183 — 4. dXXoO'QOOv^, '* of foreign 
tongue '% used of Egyptians, and fo- 
reigners genorall;jr (mar.), comp. fiotg^a- 
Qoqxovoi SLXidciyQiocpoavoi,, (mar.) Homer*s 
dlXo&Q. clvd'Q, always speak without 
any interpreter to Greeks in the Greek 
tongue. He is conscious of the **8trange 
speech" existing as an objective fact 
only. Cf. -ffisch. Sept c, Th, 170, itsgo- 
€p(6v<a argat&y of the Argive army. Tc- 
fiio*, see App. D. 6. 

185 — 6. These lines are not found 
" in some copies, and were rejected by 
Arist. (Schol.). They seem, however, 
genuine, ^de, here, pointing to it. 
dyoov, the harbour named is a little 
£. K. E. of the town, but perhaps the 
spot where the ship lay was visible 
thence. The town was accessible from 
the sea (mar.); but one landing from 
the Epirus side would first reach Rhei- 
thron. From NfiLifi is derived the 
cpith. inovriiog, applied to Ithaca 
(mar.). Xiftivt, before the liquid and 
sometimes B (comp. 203) i has this 
quantity; see Spitzner, Gr, Pros, § 9. a. 
*PBi9'Qifi*.mNi^iifi, a large gulf indent- 
ing Ithaca on the N. E. side nearly di- 
vides it into two parts, a head, the 6. E. 


OATSSEIAS A. 187—208. 

[day I. 

a a. 175 mar. 
b a. 167 mar. 
e fi. 238, I. 176. 
d a. 49 mar. 
e C. 209, 246, 248, 

V. 72. 
f J. 230. 
g X. 193, 323, X 

57, 438. 
h X. 160, ft. 280, 

|. 282. 
i a, 233, i2. 262i 

cf. I. 64. 
k r. 34, K. 271, 

V. 461. 
1 d. 498, 552, 377. 
m a. 50, /I, 283. 
n o. 172-3, y. 226. 
cf. 0. 531-2, AT. 

p cf. fi. 163-6. 

ud?. 416. 
r B. 162, 178. 
s a. 167 mar. (1). 
t a. 169 mar. 
u t. 86, -88! 
vr. 158, J5C. 547, 



^Btvov^ d' dkXij^cov jtatQciLOc €vx6(i£9'' alvac 

i^ ccQXVSy ^^ ^^Q '^^ yigovx* stQi]ac ijtsXd'CJv 

AaiQxriv rJQtoay tov ovxhi q>a6l tcoXlvSb'^ 

§Q%B0%'\ aXk^ andvevd'sv iit^ dyQOv TCijfiara^ ndoxBiv 190 

yQTll Cvv d(iq)i7c6Xa)^ ^ ot ^QiScCv xs tcoocv r£® 

TcaQZLd'St, sir' &v (iiv xd^arog xard yvta kdfir^aiv^ 

BQTCvf^ovr' dvd yovvbv^ dkcu'^g olvoiteSoio. 

vvv *' 7]k%'ov' Sri y^Q^ f^*^ Sq)avr' in:cdijficov^ elvai 

(Jov TcarsQ^' dXkd vv xov ys Q'boI ^XdnxovOi^ xskavd'ov' 195 

ov ydg iito ri%'vriXBv iitl x%ovl Stog 'O8v00Bvg^ 

&XV hi Ttov ifiibg xaxBQ'6xBrai^ bvqbX tcovtg} 

VTJac)^ iv dfiq)LQVtfjj %aXB7tol Si (itv avSqag i%ovCiv^ 

[aygiov^ of Ttov xbIvov iQVxav6a)0* dixovxa.'] 

avxdql^ vvv xov iy(o ^avxBvaofiat^ cog svl d'Vfip 200 

dd'dvaxoL fidXXov0v xai 0J5 xsXieCd'ai ofcj, 

ovxB XL [idvxcg i^v om olavciv^ 0dq)a slScig. 

ovP xoi SxL^ SrjQOv ys g)iXrig dno xaxgCSog atri^ 

BCCBxai^ ovS' bI"^ 31BQ XB oiSfJQBa Siciiax' ixV^^^' 

q>Qd0CBxai Sg xs virjxai^ iital jtoXviitjxavog icxiv. 205 

dXX'^ ayB fiov xoSb alich xal dxQBXsag xaxdXB^ov^ 

bI Sti i% avxoto xocog^ nalg alg ^OSv0'^og. 

aivfSg^ [liv XBg)aX7Jv xs xal ofifiara xaXd Soixag 

191. /ot. 193. J^oivonidoto. . 199. dj^inovxa, 202. fBidtoq, 206. J^stnL 

208. /i/oixaff. 

190. Sly sec. ^ 195. TtsXsvd'ovs, 
margini all' inseruit. 208. ^l 

w&ovs. 201. tstsXiad'ai. ^ 204. pro ovd' Harl. 

208. iilv Arist. et Aristoph.; yag Dind. e Schol. F. 156. 

extremitj, and a body running North- 
westerly. The former contains Neios, 
a still woody mountain, now Stephano ; 
and at its foot, being a smaller bay 
of the same gulf, is a harbour called 
Bathmoi, with a stream of fresh water 
running into it, prob. the (st&gov which 
gave the name. Schreiber, Gell, Dodwell. 

188—91. f^ X€Q, see on 168 for sub- 
junct. with si. The reading aXyscc in 
190 for Tcq^axa may stand, hiatus be- 
ing admissible after the 4'*» foot; see 
App. A. p. III. note, y^ijl • • • ee/f^i;c.^ 
she is said in oo. 366 to be a "Sicilian". 

193' yovvov dXenjq, Doed. ion 
takes this from yovVy and understands 
elevation as the leading idea; comp. 
nvqfiog for the slope of a mountain. 
This seems better than yovog, ysv-, in 

sense of "seed", whence others derive 
it. A hill position certainly suits the 
vineyard; **Bacchu8 amat colles", Virg. 
Georg, II. 1 1^. The threshing floor, too, for 
which yovvog dXcoijs also stands, would 
be higher than the ground about it. 

195—9. pXdxTOvOi, this verb often 
means **to hinder" (mar.), comp. 
^schyl. Agam. 1 20, piapivza loiad'lmv 
dgofioDV. For 197 — 8, xarCQVX. and 
k'xovO.y see on 162. Bek. rejects v. 199 ; 
yet it adds a more precise character to 
the detention supposed. 

203. For krl fffiQOV see on 186. The 
I seems long before 9 by arsis only, 
we may comp. (idla dtjv. 

207. TOOOq implies admiration; as 
does TOtos in 223, 371, inf. ; so Virg^ Mn, 
I. 606, qui tanti talem genuere parenles ? 

DAT I.] 

OATZSEIAZ A. 209^226. 


210 JtQLV y£ zov ig TgoCr^v dvafirj^evac^ ivd'u tcbq aXXoi 
'j^gyELGiv of uQiOtoi ifiav xoiX'jjs inl vrivcCv 
ix Tov S' ovt' 'Odv0^a iydv tSov oik' ifii^ xstvogJ^ 

r^v S' av Trili^axos ^sjtvv^ivog^ avxCov rjvda' 
"Totya^ iyai rot, l^stve^ (idl' dzQSxifog dyoQSvaca, 

215 M^riQ ^iv t' ^fifi' yijiJt tov ffAiAevai^ avzaQ iyci ys 
ovx olS^' oi ydg nci tig iov ydvov avtog*^ dveyvco. 
(og *i) iyci y* ikpskov^ (idxaQog vv tev iiifisvat vtog 
dvigog^ ov xtadtaaciv iotg im yrJQag itstfisv. 
vvv 8\ og dnotfidtatog^ yivsto d'vritcSv dvd'QciTtcov^^ 
ix q>act yeviaO'cct^ insl 0v fifi tovt iQasivatg.^^^ 
tdv d' avts TtQociBiTCS %'ed ykavxSTtvg 'Ad^vri 
"oi5 ^Tjv rot yBVBfjv ys d'Bol vcivviivov^ 6%ia0(o 
di^xav^ iTtal ci ys totov^ iysivato^' JJifivslonsia. 
dkV &ys^ (loi tods slnl xal dtQSxicog xatdXa^ov 

225 ^'''ff ^^^Sj '^^S Si Zfickog od* Inksto; tCnts^ 8i 0s X9^^'^ 
slkanCvrf^ r^s yd^ogi'i insl ovx iQavog tads y' iativ. 

220 ^ov*» ft 

a y. 821, J. 776, 
>;. 30, 0. 451, t;. 
302, V. ?4tt, S. 

I) Si. 90. 

c y. 20, X. 405, a. 
230-2, *F. 440, 
i2. 377, T. 169, 
Si. 442. 

(1 N. 734. 

fi. 183 mar. 
f if. Si. 265. 
«• r 220, 233. 

h a. 128. <l>. 159; 

cf. S. 387. 
i a. 231. 
k V. 239. f 182. 

1 cf. a. 207 mar. 
in A. 280, E. 800, 

1;. 61, ^. 312; 
App. A. 20, mar. 

II a. 169. 

o d. 707, /. 75, 197, 
K. H\ t. 136, I 
<t>. 322, cf. /». 
28, d. 312, 634, 
•. 189, t. 130, 
A. 341, K. 118, 

l» fi. 57, X. 415, K. 
217, S. 491 , fl'. 
201 , 0. 468-7. 

M 6. 3. 

212. fiSoV, 

216. OV foid' ifov. 
221. TtQoaiJ^sme. 

212. Jh Tovd' Dind. ixoTfi V. 214. 
215. ri fie Bek. Dind. 222. ita Bek, 

209. 0'a^d voZov, lit. ''often, so very^\ 
the qualifyin^]^ word following the qua- 
lified with ellipse of the relative clause 
which should supply some measure of the 
degree, which by this very indefinite- 
ness is enhanced. Jelf. Gr. Gr. 823, oba, 2, 
explains this by *'th'e fact that the de- 
monstrative originally performed the 
functions of the relative", but y. 321 
niXayog (li'fa totov^ o&ev ti 9rep ov&* 
ottovol avtoexBs ol^x^Evvtai, rather sug- 
gests the explanation by ellipse ; comp. 
also otov, as used in 410 without Toroy, 
— the converse usage. 

210—2. XQiv, Jelf. Gr, Gr. § 848 b 
lays down a rule for nplv with the infin. 
which would exclude this instance and 
many more, as, d. 668, rj. 83, d; 301, 
(. 65. In Homer's use the infin. after 
n(flv does not differ from the indie, 
in sense, only n(flv becomes quasi- 
prepositional ; here = nQO tov avafii^- 
ficvai. In dvafiaCv, observe, the no- 
tion of going up is involved in that 
of going on board ship, comp. d. 473. 

a 13 — 23. H. uses nBXVn (comp. ni- 

HOM. OD. I. 

218. Nrearcffcrt feotq^ -aiv iJ^oCg^ 
224. fsmL 

%oixakiiai Harl. dyogsvam Schol. II. 
fiiv lib. 225. t£g di ob xqbIu alii. 

vvtog^ 229), for having knowledge, pre- 
sence of mind, &c., t^o^) (supplied i2. 377) 
being understood; nvBvafjy JnvevaBy for 
inspiring (livog or like qualities ; and 
nveioi for mere breathing. For iysi- 
vazo see App.^ A. 20 (mar.). 

225. Before o^tAog obs. hiatus, more 
common in 2"* than in i*' foot (Spitz- 
ner de vers, her, § ii). oe XQ^^S ^^i? 
preferential rule of H. is to use rgm 
as with a verbal force (rarely with iaxi) 
ffoverninff ace. of pers., asjjrpfioo (iovkrig 
Ifil xal «, K, ^3 ; but ];p£t<o with a verb 
expressed, fxavet or the like J^mar.). 

226. eiXastivTi ije, the -ij ij- must 
be read in synizesis. Observe ydfidg, 
by pause and ictus. The sUan, was 
sumptuous, perhaps sacrificial ; cf. lies. 
Frag. CXXXII. 2—4, who says the song 
of Linus was always sung h dkuni- 
vaig Tfi xosfoig t£, which phrase sug- 
gests religion ; so Pind. Nem, V. 38 ev- 
tpQOveg IXoLi . . . ^Bov d^xovtai; Donald- 
Bon^s note there says, an eUan, was 
*'a feast of the gods %oct* Waff^'; of 
the egavOQ wo have a hint in vfi&v 



0AT22EIA2 A. 227—242. 


a cf. ft. 108—9, V. 

b d. 211. 
c a. 213 mar. 
d ». 243, o. 390, 

402, t. 171, %p. 

99, r. 177. 
e t. 475—7, Z. 553, 

r. 293, (7. 138, B. 

39, JC. 356, »f^. 

f a. 163 mar. 
g- a. 194 mar. 
h cf. It. 1«3, 179, 

X- 17, S. 18. 
i ^. 387, uf. 319. 
k a. 163 mar. 
1 a. 242, ^. 258; 

cf. X. 269, V. 79. 
m A. 417. 
n V'. 360. 
o f. 367-71, 

p d. 490, ^. 86, *. 

137, n. 7. 


r d. 727-8. 

s H. 150. 

t t 371, u. 77. 

u d. 675. «. 127. 


cog r£ fiot vfiQiiovtsg^ v%BQ(ptdX(og 8bxiov0Lv 
SaCvvO^ai xara Safia- vsfiBCCr^cairo xev avr^Q^ 
atc%£a 316X1' OQOcDVy og rtj ntvvtog^ ys (letsld'OLJ^ 

ri)i/ S' av Trilefittxog TtSTCvvfi^vog'^ avxCov TivSa 230 

"g^rv', i^csl Sq Srj xavxd ft' aveCgsai^ r^Sh ^araXXag, 
fiikksi/^ [liv nors olxog oS' dtpvetdg xal diivfifov 
l^fiBvatj oipQ* he xstvog^ dtr^Q iTtcSTJficog^ f^av 
vvv d' itiQcog^ ifiolovto^ ^Bol xaxd fiijrtdoi/rc^, 
or xelvov^ ^€v atoxov^ inolricav tcbqI^ Tcdvrcav 235 

dvd'QcS7t(X)Vy ijiBl ov xs d'avovTL 7CBQ wd' dxaxoinuifiVy^ 
bI iiBtd olg BtdgoiCi Sd^ij^ TqcScov ivl Sfj^ipj 
i^h q>CX(QV iv xsqcIv^ ijtBl TtokB^ov xoXvnBv6Bv.^ 
x(p xiv ot xvfifiov [ihv inoiriCav UavaxccLol^^ 
rj8i XB xal p TCatSl fiaya xXdog ^Qax' 6ni00c3. 240 

vvv 8s fiiv dxkBLiSg^ Z^QTCviat^ dvriQBii;avxo'^ 
cixBx' aXCxog &7Cv0xog^^ ifiol S' 6Svvag xb ydovg xs 

232. J^oiTLog, 235. afiGxov. 237. foig, 239. /ot. 240. /c5. 242. aj^itsxog. 


234. i^oXovto Harl., i§dXovxo Eustath. Schol. H., ioXovto, ipovXovto, §ovXovto alii. 
236. ovri Harl., ovuB Schol. H., 9s pro x& Rec. 242. oixBt Apoll. Soph. (Bek.)) 

ita Schol. B. 

%Tiifiat' ^SovTsg dfiei§6fisvot %atd ot- 
%ovq p. 140, and in a scene in S, 620 
—4 where Menelaus* guests bring their 
own provisions. In X, 415 the Igavog 
is said to be a "rich man's", being 
"his" in whose house it took place. 
The banquets given by a king to his 
yigovrsg (referred to by Ni.) in J. 250, 
I. 70, 7j, 49, cf. d". 38—9, &c., provided 
doubtless out of his receipts in kind, 
are dair sg limited by the relation of the 
guests, who are said drjfua nivBiv, P. 
250; cf. X. 185 — 6. 

232 — 5. fiikkev • • • XOTS, "there 
was a time when / thought this house 
would be"; this subjectivity of state- 
ment often marks the Homeric use of 
fiiXXca (mar.), dfivfiwv, applied some- 
times, as here, to things, keeps up the 
sense of distinction in its own class: 
see ft. 261, Z. 171. exiQ(ag ipoXavro, 
Ni., after Eustath. prefers ipdXovzo; 
Spitz, de vers, her, 97, reads itigcoa 
ipdXovTO, in alteram partem se verte- 
runt; for irigoaas see mar.; for ifio- 
XovTO see Buttm. Lexil, s. v, pdXXsiv, 
aiOxov, out of sight or knowledge, so 
that I cannot love him if living, nor 
pay the honour due to him if dead. 

236 — 7. 'S^VOVTif a dat. which may 
be referred to the general notion of 
bestowing our sorrow or joy (so iXd'Ovri 
TisxdgoiTO^ §, 249) on the object which 
excites it. X€Q, see on 6. For the 
sense of di^fiq} see on 103. 

238. xoXvxsV; Penel. in t. 137, says 
iya dl doXovg zoXvnsvm, as we speak 
of "spinning a thing out", t. e, pro- 
tracting. Here the notion of finishing 
predominates, as given more precisely 
by novov inzoXvnsvaotg in Hes. Scut, 44. 

241. dxXeiibg, "silently", leaving no 
%Xiog, 283, so duXia d. 728; an idea 
further expanded in 242, m%BX.,,oinV' 
cxog. "AQXViai are impersonations of 
hurricanes, as Evgog<, Zitpvgogj &c. of 
ordinary winds; one of the Agn. is 
named Podarge in J7. 150. Hesiod. 
Theog, 267, names two, Aelld and Ocy- 
pet§. Q'vbXXui sometimes appear = 
Agn, (mar.). Elemental deities often 
are interchanged in poetic idea with 
the powers of nature which they rule 
and involve. This is most common with 
the various winds Eurus, &c., and fire 
"Htpaicxog^ the physical function and the 
personal action blending in one image. 
avTiQehprns akin to igintofiaiy r. 533. 

DAT I.] 

OATSSEIAS A. 343—260. 


xdXXtnav, oiS' ixi Tcetvov 6SvQ6(i€vog atevaxitfo 
olovy inei vv ftot &Xka %'eol xaxd xtjSb* Irsvl^av. 

245 00601'^ yccQ V1J6OL0LV iniXQaxiovCiv aQiCxoi^ 
^dovXixioai^ rs ^Jccfif] re xal vliJEvrL^ Zaxvv^^j 
ijd' 0660L XQccvaiqv 'Id'dxriv xdta^ xoLQccviovHtv^ 
toaaoL firjrdQ' i^r^v ^vfSvrai^ xqvxovOi^ 81 olxov, 
rj (J* oCr* dQVBttai atvyegdv^ ydfiov ovrs tsXsvti^v 

•250 Ttoiilaai, Sijvccrac • tol Sh ^ivvd'ovaiv idovteg^ 
olxov i(i6v' xd%a Srj [is SiaQQaCcoviSi xal avtovJ^ 

tov 8' inala0tij0aaa^ JtQoarivSa naXXdg^jdd^vrj 
" c5 noxcoiy fj dj} noXXAv dnotxo^ivov *OSvaijog 
d«%,» 3 X6 iivijori^Q0iv dvatSiat x^^Q^S ^9>«^ij. 

255 fit* yap vvv iXd'fDv So^ov iv nQ(6xT[i6i^ d'VQyatv 
arairij ix^'^ xijXrixa xal daniSa xal dvo 8ovq£,^ 
roto^ i(QV oldv [Ilv iyd rd TtQat' iv6ri0a 
otxp^ iv i^fAsriQ^ xcivovtd ts tBQnoiiBvov tSy 
fi'l ^EgyuQrjgf dviAvta TCaQ^^IXov MsQiiSQidao' 

7,60 px^'^^ y^Q ^«^ X€t0€ d'O^g inl vriog 'OSvdCBvg 

a n. 122-6, n. 247 
-*1, t. 130-3, 
K. 214. 

b I 335, «. 292, 
B. 626. 

c cf. (. 24. 

d y, 377, E. 332. 

e n. 84, q. 387. 

f a. 272, t. 167. 

g: *. 169, 634. 

h M. 163, O 21. 

i F. 142, W. 484. 

k cf.^cr. 384—6. 

I X- 2fi0, X. 66. 

m fi. 228, It. 296, 
a. 377, ;f. 101. 

n d. 34^-6, 2. 499 
-601, ^. 133-7, 
». 376-9, A. 

o r. 233. 

p App. D. 8 mar. 

248, 351. fotmov. 

258. J^oinm. 

244. uif^e' Rec, 246. 'Sdfim Rec. 247. ndTanoigotviovaiv Schol. £. 332. 

254. afiVf/ Aristoph., devBi vindicant SchoU. H. M. Q. R. itps^fi Herm. coll. J, 191. 

259. '^Iqov SchoU. H. M. ''lllov Rec. 

242. &xvC» is not found in II., but 
used in Ody, with active, as well as 
passive force (mar.). We have srvd"-, 
nvcug (-fisch. Sept. C, Th, 54), Snv- 
CTog, like si^-, niatigy aniatog. 

246. For Dulichium see App. D. 7. 
Samg is in B. 634 Samo^, and, with Za- 
cynthus, part of the dominion of Odys., 
not so Dulichium, which belongs to 
Phileus, B, 625. H. scans £ and (Tx, 
commencing proper names, as single 
letters, e, g. ZiXnav, £. 824, 27xa|Liay- 
apa>, E.^36. 

252. BxaXaaxiqaaaa. This word 
is only here read, although dXaettiaug 
also occurs (mar.), and dkaazov is neut. 
adj., epithet of fffiydoff, &tog\ also uXa- 
a%iy vocat. , is applied by Achilles in 
vehement passion to Hector. Out of this 
the Tragedians, especiallv in the forms 
dkdatmQf dXdatO(fogy developed a tragic 
depth of meaning, which far transcends 
the Homeric idea, although the dXaatl 
of Achilles, * 'accursed wretch", comes 
nearest to it. No satisfactory deri- 
vation has been suggested: that of 
d-lotvd'dvoi may be rejected without 

scruple. iSee iKsch. J^ers. 355, Kumtn, 
227, Soph. 4/. 374, Antig. 974. 

254. 6evxi, 2. sing. pres. mid.; the 
var, led. of Aristophanes, dfvci, is a verb 
impersonal = XbIuh^ Schol. i^eifi, 
Herm. reads ime^jj subj. , ^ comparing 
A, 191, (pdfffiax tt lisv navttwsi. 

255. el yaq (or as some read at yap), 
is said by Ni. ad loc, to differ in sense 
from sCd-s (or ar^O'c), as expressing, not 
a simple wish, but one combined with a 
conditional proposition, or with a conse- 
quence following from the thing wished 
for, if obtained. The passages adduced, 
however, do not bear out this doctrine ; 
e. g. at ydq (or U yap) and at&B (or 
er<£Fc) p. 251, 494, seem to express pre- 
ciselv the same notion. Also A, 189 
H yap d^ ovxtag stti is surely a simple 
wish; and again Bt&* Sg '^§<6otfH x. t.X.^ 
H, 157, is followed by precisely such 
a statement of a consequence. Ni. 
admits also, what in effect nullifies the 
distinction, that the prop, aforesaid 
may at times not be expressed. Now 
surely in £. 468, A. 313 — 6, it is as 
easy to supply a suppressed prop, after 



OATSSEIAS A. 261—276. 


a /J. 329, iT. 219, 
230, X. 236, 2OT, 
326-7, cf. ^.741. 

b /9. 138, 239, ®. 
407, B. 296—7. 

c a. 378 mar. 

d a. 208. 

e ud?. 417, X' 75- 

f Tf. 129, P. 514, 
r. 435; cf. X. 
238, 845, y. 92, 
X. 481, 1. 147, 310, 
I. 66, ^. 433, J. 

g d. 632, L 493, 
B. 238, 300, 349, 

h a. 295, d. 546, 
P. 144. 

i a. 305, U;50;.ct. 
rt. 422 

k T. 34 ; cf. /?. 7. 

1 K. 76, ^ 394; 
cf. fi. 66, 143. 

m /J. 252. 

n cf. B. 681. 

o /?. 52—3, 196—7. 

(pccQfiaxov^ dvdQO(p6vov di^TJ^isvogj '6(pQa ot strj 

tovg xqCbC^uv xaXxTJQsas' cell' fiiv ov of 

d(ox€v^ iiteC ^a d'sovg vsfis^iieto^ aihv^ iovrag^ 

dXXd TtatTJQ ot d(5x6V ifidg^ ipiXds0X€ yccQ alv(og'^ 

totog itov fivrjer^Qacv ofiUrjasuv 'OdvOOevg, 265 

Ttdvxsg x^ coxvjiOQOi^ xs ytvoCato TCtXQoyanoi rs. 

dXV ij xov flit/ tavta %'a(Sv iv yovvaCi^ xatxavy 

^ XBV vo0xij6ag ditoxiasxaVj i^h^ xal ovxl, 

oIclv ivl (i€ydQOi0c ' 0h 8h q)Qdi€09'aL avcoya^ 

OTtTtCDg^ XB (ivr^ex'^Qag dTcdcsui ix fisydQOio. 270 

si d' aye vvv ivvCsi xal ifiiDv ffwragfo* fivd'cov 

avQiov slg dyoqi^v^ xakicag "^Qioag ^Axaiovg 

^vd'ov TciipQaSs Jta0i^ d'sol S' iTcl fidgxvQOL^ Scxpv. 

^vqCxiiQag fiiv ijtl 0q)ex€^a 0xC8va6%'ai^ av(Dx^h 

^rixiga^ 8\ at ot d'Vfiog iipoQiidxaL yafiiaOd^aL, 275 

a^® fro eg (liyaQOv TCaxQog fisya dvva^evoco' 

261, 262, 264. J^Ol. 262. OV. 269. J^OlGlV. 275. J^Ol, 

261. dasiri pro ot sbj Zenod. alii jjv nov itpsvgot, Scholl. H. M. 270. xal Schol. E. 

272. ita Harl. iniiidgTvgot Dind. inificcQTvgsg al. 274. avatys, 

275. (iT^triQ Schol. H. et Barnes. 

ai'&s^ (or si'-a-g^ as in T. 22, V. 169 after 
al' yag (or si yap}. See further on d. 341. 

259 — 62. 'EifVQ,, see App. D. 8. o 
fikv, i. e. Hus. The restraining motive 
in his case was the fear of the gods, 
but this, it seems, was overpowered in 
the other by love for Odys. — • a token 
of the intense affection which Odys. in- 
spired. q>dQfi9 includes wholesome as 
well as baneful drugs (mar.), here the 
latter are meant. The feeling against 
poisoned weapons is a remarkable an- 
ticipation of civilized warfure. 

263. vsfieal^.f here has ace, but in 
the same sense, "to feel an awe of", 
it has also a gen. (mar.). In the sense 
of "be angry with** it has dat., or ace. 
followed by infin. 

265. roioq ewv, the sentence inter- 
rupted starts anew in its leading word 
xotoq. The same form of wish for the 
return of Odys. recurs elsewhere, si- 
milarly interrupted by an anecdote and 
resumed (mar.). 

266—7. <axvfi. is also found active, 
"swiftly slaying". With niXQCy. comp. 
Eurip. Med, 400, nvvigoyg S' iym , , , 
d'ljatD ydfiovs. iv yovv,, perhaps be- 
cause suppliants grasped the knees; thus 

not merely "at the god's disposal", but 
"to be suppliantly sought*' is intended. 
The sanctity of the knees ^ appears 
from adjurations, as X^anofi' vnsg ipv- 
X'^S xal yovviOVf mar. , and fii) ngog 
ah yovvKOV Eurip. Med. 325. 

268 — 9. join xkv with voatiJGag. Do- 
nalds. Ghf. Gr. 505, p. 543 says, "the 
apodotio use of the participle with av 
is generally found in objective, rela- 
tive, and causal sentences'*. Here the 
protasis, "if he return at all**, may be 
understood, opfoya, Buttm, Lexil, s. v. 
dvT^vod'sv (26) supposes a radical form 
dvrjyco, or, iy being non-essential, ayya. 
The analogy of ilTJlvd'a^ ivrivo%ci^ iSr^- 
dona &c. requires a tetrasyllable with 
a short vowel in 3^<* syllable. He seems 
to imply that avrivoya would be the 
link form. With Buttman's dvriyoi we 
may comp. insiya, 

273 — 5. 7ti<pqa6€y see on a. 444. 
ejtl = cidhibitU t. e. to witness his de- 
nunciation; so he invokes Zeus and 
Themis p. 68. In 275 the sentence ran 
on from the preceding clause, (tvriazrj- 
gagjilv.., Oiidvac&at avmx^h {I'Tiziga 
H' (ccTp livoci)j but was suddenly changed 
in the latter, as if ftifrTjp had preceded 

DAY I.] 

OATSSEIAL A. 377—296. 


6t Si ydfiov rfivgovcTt xal &Qtvviov(Siv hSva^ 
nokka^ lidl\ Saaa loixs fpUrig inl nacSds Snsad'ai. 
aol d' ai)r^ nvMVfSq i>no9^0oiiccv^^ alfi xs TcidijM' 

280 vij'^ &Q0CCS igitriaiv isixoiStv^ ij xiq^ &QC0xriy 
iQXio^ n6v06nevog ncczQdg drjv ol%QyLivoio^ 
Hv^ tCg xoi, BUnjjOt /Jpotcoi/, ^ 8<;<yav^ ixov6yg 
ix ^i6g^ ij ts fidXtdtcc q)iQBL xliogl iv^'ifciitoioi^v, 
TCQfSta^ (ihv ig Ilvkov ikd'h xal bHqso NiiStOQct Stov, 

285 icetd'sv Sh ZxagxYivSa TtccQct l^av^6v Mevdkccov 
og^ yd(f dsvraroff™ '^Xd'sv *A%ai(Sv %aXxo%itoivmv, 
st^ fAiv xsv nccTQog fiiotov xal voiSrov dxo^ayg,^ 
rj t' Sv tQVx6(Ji6v6g tcbq in tkairjg iviavrov 
at Si XB tBd'VYjatog dxoii^rjg firjd' ft' iovtog^ 

290 vo<Jt^(fag Sfj iwCBita (pCkriv ig TtcctQiSa yatav 
iSiiiiLd^ xi ol xBVttL xal inl xriQBct% xtaQstiaL 
Ttokkar iidk\ Saaa ioixB^ xal dvigi ^ifixiga Sovvav. 
avrdg iiti^v di) tavra rBkavtrjayg^ xb xal igl^yg^ 
(pQdisad'ai di} izBLXa xaxd q>Qiva xal xaxd -O-v/iov,* 

205 Znitfog"^ XB iAvri<Jx^Qag ivl yLBydgoiiSi xBOtdtv 
xxBivjig iji ddAoj ^ d^KpaSov"' oiSi xi 6b xqti 

a App. A. 14 mar. 
b a. 292, a. 197, 

223, I. 2h0. 
c a. 194, «. 148, 

0. 293. 
d A. 2«7, tf'. 82. 
e App. F. 1. (17) 

ad fin, mar. 
284, 9, 424, 


r 0. 270, a. 94, /9. 
' 360, r. 416. 
h /J. 216-7. 
i J3. 93. ». 418, 

cf. I 80, y. 216. 
j B. 486. 
k«. 93, /J. 214, 369. 
I ^. 172. 

m T. 61, %if. 342. 
n/9. 218-23; ct./u. 


q. 79-83. 

q. 620, 625. 

p Z. 76. H, 86, .Q. 
799, d. 584 mar. 

q y. 286, i2. 38. 

r a. 278 mar. 

s ;i. 80. 

1 d. 120 mar., 117. 
u X, 119-20. 
v^330, *.299,H. 

'243; cf. «. 120. 

277. ij^sdvct* 

278. J^iJ^oms- 

291. «fot. 

280. iJ^sUooiv, 
292. fij^oms. 

282. j^«^«^<y* focaav. 

278. e'tfeff-e-a* Schol. H. I'tfetf-e-at al. Hunc v. omittit Rhian. 282. wxoytfac 

Schol. A, 105. 286. dcvrfi^og var. leot. Harl., cf. ^. 248. 287. aMVOB^g 

Harl. ex emendatione. 289. ita Harl. ex emend. t«dv«(5toe, ^91. a:«vtf«* 

Clark. ^jTtxt^paa. xte^^ftov Harl. 293- ^avxa pro tavta Schol. X. 468. 

as subject; see Jelf, § 581. i. The 
SchoU. H. M. think (iritiga was de- 
veloped by some copyist adding a to 
[liJQ the ancient abbreviation for firitTJQ. 

277. ol, t. e. ot ftfircpl tov nariQCiy 
Eustath. ecffva, see App. A. 14. 

281. xBvCOfA* takes a gen., see Do- 
nalds. Gr, Or. 451 gg. '*To hear of" one 
absent is here the sense; but &. 12 '*to 
hear" (the speech of) one present. It has 
also ace, as voctov (3. 2x5, 360, properljr 
of the actual statement heard; cf.axov- 
am a. 287, 289, and see (5. 315 note. 
The verb of sense may be classed with 
lapkpiv<o, atgia) etc. in ambiguity of 
syntax. None of them wholly lose the 
right of a trans, verb , yet all partake 
of the possessive and partitive idea; 
cf. a. 121 XBtg' ?l8 de^itsgriVi and H. 
108 &8iitSQris Ub x^^QOS' 

282. Saoav, "rumour", is distinct 
from qpi?V^, Soph. (Ed,R. 43, P* 35 » 
V. 100, and from o^qpij y. 215, Hy. 
Merc, 543— 5 1 which mean "prophetic 
voice". Rumour widely prevalent and 
rapidly spreading, yet not traceable 
to a human source was ascribed to 
God, Buttm. Lexil. «. v.; so vox popuH 
vox Deiy comp. Hes. Opp, 761 fflfirj 
d' ovtig ndfinctv andUvtaiy^ rivxiva 
noUol Xctol<prii»,iiov<ti' »eogvvtig 
itftt Hctl avt7\. Nttgelsb. Horn, TheoL 
§ II. 14 adopts this view, but § IV. 2j 
inclines to identify it here with 01*917. 

284—6. Ilvkov, see App. D. 4. og 
in epic usage was demonstrative as 
well as relat. ; cf. mg for "so" and "as". 

289—^90. axovCviS^ takes a construc- 
tion similar to nvvvavoiitxi^ see on 281. 


OATSSEIAS A. 297—322. 

[day I. 

a cf. X. 619. 

b t. 88, p. 20, a 

c (T. 11, O. 248. 
d ». 332-3, t. .107 

-8, V. 126. 
e K. 213. 
f y. 197-8, 307-8. 
g: y. 199-200. 
h y. 375, i^. 189, 

J. eOl, *. 106. 
i «. 108, (. 513, 

cf. f 7, 0. 418, 

k r. 353, H. 87. 
1 o. 269. 
m /9. 193 mar. 
n 1/. 208. 
o a. 271 mar. 
p J. 219. 
q d. 587, Z. 340, 

o. 277, T. 142; 

cf. L 360—1. 
r 0. 49, y. 30. 
s a. 315, cT. 733; 

cf. X. 23, 26. 
t ;^. 427, t. 96. 
u I. 705. 
V o. 75. 
w ». 395. 
X J. 600, tf'. 618, 

o. 91, 101, 159. 
y S. 600. 
z o. 83, (p. 349. 
aa p. 400, A. 366, 

bb ^. 405, *F. 562, 

cc B. 133. 
dd O. 83, 172, E. 

ec £. 2, *. 145, 

t 140. 

ri ovx dUig^ olov xXdog ikkafis Stog'OQd0ri]g'^ 

ndvtag^ ijt' dvd^QcSTtovg, ijtel Intavs natQoq)ovriaj^ 

AtyiC^ov Soko^TiXiv^ og ol TCaxiga xkvtov ixta; 300 

xaU 0v, (pUog,^ {(idka ydQ <y' 6q6(o xaXov^ t€ fisyav ts) 

aXxcfiog i00\ vva rig 06 xal oflftyovcov^ €v sUtctj. 

avtaQ iydv ixl vr^a d'o^v xatsXev0oiiac ijSi] 

ijtf' stdQOvgy^ ol Ttov fis fidX' d0xccX6ci)0v°' fievovrsg' 

0oi d' a'drp fisXBtG)^^ xal i(i(Sv ifind^eo^ [ivd'av.'' 305 

rijv d' av T}riks(iaxog nsTCvvfiivog dvtlov i]vda' 
'^^Btv'y ij trot ^hv tavttt q)CXu^ q)QOvi(Qv dyoQBVSig^ 
Sg t£ TtatTjQ p naidC^ xal ov Ttota k7J0o^ac avrdiv. 
dXV^ ays vvv Mfiaovov^ ijceiyo^svog^ %sq oSoto^^ 
o<pQa Xo£60d(isv6g^ xa taraQjco^svog^ re (pikov x'^q 310 
diSQav"" i%(Aiv ijtl v^a xCrjgy %aCQ(ov"^ ivl d'Vfi^j 
rc^'^av ^dla xakov^ rot xatfiTJXiov^ ?0rai, 
i^ ifiav, ola qjikot ^alvoi ^6lvol0l 8l8ov0lvJ^ 

iroi/ d' riiLaCfiar Snacra d'ad yXavxcSiccg ^Ad'TJvri* 
''fifj ft' hi vvv xarsQvxa^ hkai6fiav6v tcbq oSoto. 315 

diSQOvy d' 3tr6 xi fiov Sovvav tpCXov f^roQ dvciyij, 
avrig dva^xo^Livqi So^avaL olx6v8a q)iQa0d'ai^^ 
xal fidla xaXov akciv • ** dol d' al^LOV^^ i0rai dfiot^g.'' 

ijfcc ^^p g^' (jjg aijtov0' ajtafiri yXavxcSitig ^^dd^vrj^ 
OQVig d' cSg dvditaca Siinraro'^^ r(p d' ivl %'v^ip 320 
%^xa fiavog^^ xal %'dQ0og^ V7c^fiv7j0£v ri a Ttargbg 
fidkkov Sr* 71 rb ndgoid'av. o 8h (pgaolv ri^i vo7J0ag 

300. J^ot, 302, fsinfj. 

308. J^a. 317. fofKovds. 319. feiTcova' 

321. J^s, 322. (pQsal J^rjai, 

297. vTjmocxoig et vTjmoixovT'. 300. o Arist., Schol. M. 305. avrmv Rec. 
314. avTS ngoaisms Rec. dnafiscPofLivrj ngooitpTj Harl. ex emend, antiq. 
._r ^:- T7^-_ ifi. A f . ^^^ g£^ Clark, secutus Arist., dvonata Herod., 

dv* onctia Voss. 

314. avT£ ngoaesms Kec. 
316. sic Voss., lib. dvmysi. 

TfiXlxog, here =3 tanlulus. an* dvS'Qci" 
Jtovq, the accus. signifies extent or 
diffusion. ^Oqiox» see on a. 29. 

301. ifikoq, for other examples of 
this voc. see mar.; tpClB is also found, 
as p. 363. ^ ^ ^ 

304—9. aaxaXo., a pres. aax^xXAca 
is found, fl. 193. For Xijaofiai see 
on 65. opotOf gen, of thing desired, 
(cf. Xilaiofi. 69, 315) involving a me- 
taphor from motion, as shown in icav- 
fiivosj xixaivofisvog , &c. 69o£Oy as of 
urgent pursuit; see Jelf, Gr, Gr, § 510. 

316 — 8. Ni. suggests gb for x€ and 
objects to oxxi X€m*.dv<ay%iy as leav- 
ing the giving in uncertain expectation, 
in fact z=. iav . . . dvtoyy; but orrt xe 
is used (mar.) of what a man is just 
going to say, &c., and which has no 
further uncertainty than that it is not 
yet said. iXiAv is construed with do- 
fisvai as (mar.) with ^x^^y ^^^ transposed 
into the subjoined clause xal fidlcc . . . 

320—2. dvox., see App. A. 13 and 
note on y, 372. jtaxooCj see App. 
E. 3. 


OATSSEIAL A. 323—344. 

&d^firi<J€v'^ xatd d'Vfidv 6t0aro yctQ d'sov slvai, 
aircUa SI ^inj^tijQag infpxBxo ladd'sog^ q)cig. 

325 Tot0i d' dovSog^ aecds TCSQLKXvtog, of SI ai.aiTtfj'^ 
star' dxovovtsg' S' *A%amv v60tov aaiSav 
IvyQov^^ ov in TQoirjg inBtsCkaxo Ilakkdg 'AdTJvrj. 

rov d' V3t6QG>c6d'6v q)Q60l 0vvd'£ro^ %'B(Sicvv aocStjv 
xovQti^ 7xa(fioio 7C£qC(pq(ov nriveX6^6t,a^ 

330 ^xki^axa^ d' v^AiJv xaTefiTJCsro olo SofAOCOy 
ovx^ ottj' Sfia rjj ys xal d(iq)i7tokoL^ Sv^ Srovro. 
17"* d' 8r£ di) fivri6rf}Qag dipixeto Sta ywrnxav^ 
<yr^" ^a TCaQK 6tad'(i6v xiyeog nvxa Tcoiritoto 
dvxa^ naQBidGiv Cxoybivvi linaQu xgrfSsfivcc'V 

335 afiy^inroAoff d' &Qa of xeSvi^ ixdtSQd'S^ jtaQearrj. 
SaxQvaaOu^ d' iitBixa TCQoarivSa d'stov^ doiSov 
"*ijfit£, TtokXd ydg akka fiQ0X(3v d'ekxxrJQia ^Srig, 
iQy* dvSq^v xa d'saiv r£, xd xe xIbCov0lv^ doiSoi- 
X(Sv «/" yd crpiv SlblSb TCaQTjfi^vog,'' 6i Sh dioiTC^'^ 

340 olvov ntv6vx(ov • xavxrjg d' aTtojcavB^ docS'^g 

Avypiyff, ^ XB (lOL uIbI ivl^ 6X7fd'B06L (fCkov X^Q 

xb£qbIj iiCBC fiB fidkiffxa xaMxaxo Tcdvd'ogy dkaCxov 
xotriv^ yuQ xBq)aXTqv jroWo** fiBfiinifiBVi] alal 
dvSgog^^^xov xkeog bvqv xad'^'ElXdSa xal iLicov'AgyogJ^ 


a ci. y. 371— a. 
b V. 124, B. 585, 

W. 677. 
c ». 83, 367 — 9, 

d a. 840 mar. 
e y. 132. 

fi;.92,o.27, K.44. 

*. 375, V. 388, tp. 

321 ; cf. d. 19V 
h (p. 5. 

i X. 558, L 63. 
k <r. 207, r. 143, 

C. 84, t. 601, d. 

11; cf. B. 745. 
I C. 18, a. 182-4, 

m 7t. 414 — 6, a. 

208-11, 0). 63 

-6; App. F. 2. 

(3) ad /in. mar. 
n ^, 458. 
cf. C- 1«. 
p Xl84, X. 470, 

«. 346; cf.r.3S8 
q /. 181 , C. 1». 
r (). 83, yj. 207. 
s &. 43, 47. 
t Q. 418, a. 351. 
u 0. 83. 
V cf. Q. 621. 
w a. »5-6, f 167 

—8, o. 391, a>. 

X 17. 809, *r. 274—5. 
y 0). 423, S2. 105. 
z;i.5*H,550, «f.l6. 
aa £. 414. 
bb<f 726,816,0.80. 

324. ff^aod'sos. 

32 J. J^muQloiO, 330. /oio. 335. j^ot j^fixdr«p©'f. 

337' .F??*'7ff. 338. /^^y. 340. foivov. 

337. oldag lib., xiSbi^ sivo, fide ^PorBoni , cfdfftff Zenod. 338. doidovg r1. 

342. Clftrk. Dind. aXaatov. 344. f Arist. Bek. 

326—7. *Ax» VOOtov, all the lays of 
bards in the Ody., except that of Ares 
and Aphrodite in book d". (comp. 338 
'8'£cov)i relate to the Trojan war. The 
idea of its renown is thus, to the 
reader, poetically enhanced; comp. the 
reason assigned by Telem. for the 
minstrel's choice of theme, 351 — 2. 
ixexeiX; "decreed*', cf. JEsch. i^'ow. 
99—100 (iOx&ODV XQV ^^9|*a^a ••• ^»«- 

328 — 31. vxCQCi}. and xXifi*, see 
App. F. 2.(32). dfiq>ix. (cf. dfi(piniXrjzai 
352) always female. The names of these 
appear c. 182 as Autono^ and Uippoda- 
meia. Nausicaa (mar.) is attended by 
such; but also the aged Laertes has his 
yQfjvg diitpiit, 191 ; and Telem. is waited 
on by Euryclea 438 — 41. Hence dfitpv- 

TCokBvoD '*to wait on"; see further App. 
A. 7. 

333 — 4.<yTa^.Tiy.,8eeApp.F. 2.(16). 
XQ^^Bfi*, a band or fillet of linen used 
to tie or entwine with the hair, but 
also held loose, kerchief-wise, as here. 
The Schol. H. thinks it was to stay 
her tears. In6 gives one to Odys. to 
bind under his breast. Figuratively, 
it means the battlement of a city- wall : 
see mar. 

339. OKOJt^y not a hint to be quiet, 
but a common -place phrase of a party 
drinking and listening at once, so 325. 

342 -4. dXaaroVf see on 252. v. 344 
is rejected by Arist. and Uek. , but 
needlessly. Penel. may naturally speak 
of Odysseus' fame as *' extending to 
Hellas (in Thessaly) and all Argos in- 


OATSSEIAS A. 345—360. 

[day I. 

a &. 62, 471. 
b &. 45, *. 590. 
c T. 273, d. 34. 
d I. 558-9; cl 
r.l64, T.86-7. 

e C- 8, V. 261; cf. 

0. 453. 
f C. 189. 
S V. 330, r. 156, 

h y. 134, &. 489, 

578, r. 417, 0. 

354, I. 663, i2. 

i a. 338; cf. ^.74. 
k T. 220, »f^. 591. 
1 a. 168. 
m ^. 538, a. 394, 

^ 200. 
n y. 350 — 8, Z. 

o d. 131, 136- 
p q, 227, a. 363. 
q «.62, X. 226,254, 

ud?. 31. 
r X. 352-3, r. 137. 
sT.324;cf.<J. 235. 

Ti)i/ d' at; TriXdfiaxog TCSJtvvfisvog avxCov i]vSa 345 

"ft^r£() ^ftij, rt r' «(>« (pd'ovhcg iQirjQOV^ aoiSov 
teQTtSLV^ oTtTCf] ol voog ^dQwrac; ov vv t' ccocdol 
atxioij akXd 7to%'i^ Zsvg attLog^^ og rs SiS(o<^iv 
dvdQci^iv dlq>ri0tfi6iv^^ 07C(og^ id'sXtjeiv^ ixdetc}. 
tovtfp 8^ ov ve^s6tgs ^Javcc<Dv xccocdv oltov^ deidscv 350 
rijt/ ydg docSi^v fidkXov iiCLxXsiova'^ avd'QcsTtoL, 
ij teg dxov6vt€00i vsordtri d^q)L7tdXriraL. 
(joI S' ijcttoXfidrci)^ XQccdirj xal d'Vfiog dxovHv 
ov ydQ^0Sv6<SEvg olog ditcikB^B voeu^ov^ '^ficcQ 
iv Tqoltj^ TCoXXol"^ dh xal aXXot (pcSreg oXovro. 355 

aAA'" elg olxov lov6a td a' avtilg egya xdfttgf, 
i6t6v t' r^Xaxdxriv^ rf, xal dfi(pt7c6Xocac xiXave 
sgyov^ STCoCxBOd'af^ fivd'og 8* dv8QB6(St ^eX7J6si^ 
ndat^ fidXiara 8' iiioC' rov^ ydQ x^dtog i6r^ ivl otxwJ^ 

rj fihv ^ccfip7J(Sa(Sa jtdXtv olx6v8e PbPtjxsvv 360 

346. igiJ^TjQov, 347. /ot. 349. id'sXriai J^sadaxq), 356. foinov, J^igya. 
358. figyov, 359. J^oiicp, 360. /otHOvds. 

S4.6. ag' av Rec; (pgEvosig ex emend. Schol. M., Bek. annot. ^56. dkkd 

cv y' stasX^ovacc Scholl. E. H. M. Q. R, 356 — 9. delevit Arist." fv dh tatg 
Xccgisat^gaig ygatpatg ova ijffav" Scholl. H. Q. R. 360. ^alafiovSs Scholl. 

E. H. M. Q. R. 

tervening"; see App. D. 9 (5); nor can 
the phrase in o. 80, where it recurs, 
be spared. 

348 — 9. xoS'i = nov, "I suppose", 
giving a modest tone to the speak- 
er's words. dX^tja,, this epith., not 
found in II., occurs only with av- 
dgeg in the sense of enterprising", 
Fa. ad loc. The phrase "knights 
errant", or "merchant -adventurers", 
may, allowing for a different state of 
society, nearly represent its force. Ni. 
explains didcoaiv as of Zeus assigning 
their lots to venturesome men, and so 
giving rise to those adventures, which, 
as in the case of the Greeks at Troy, 
become the minstrers theme. It is man 
who seeks , god who sends the lot 
(comp.Nausicaa's words, mar.) — one of 
blended good and evil ; we cannot alter 
facts, and though the woe be that of 
the Greeks, blame not the bard, he 
only chose it as the newest talp. This 
seems to imply, for the epos, that it 
meant to be faithful to an accepted 
view of facts, and did not consciously 
romance; see espy. <9*. 488 — 91. The 

Chorus in Soph. Antig. 332 — 48 noXXd xd 
dsivd . . . nsgLtpgttdrjg av']^g' is a good 
commentary on dvd. dXtp, here : cf. Soph. 
Philoct. 709. -^schyl. Sept. c, Th. 767. 

350. olxov y "lot", always in evil 
sense, Nagelsbach Horn. ThegL III. § 3 b. 
It is connected with otco^Lai as fors 
with fero. In %•, 48^ — 90 olxov is pa- 
raphrased as oaa' ¥g^av z' ^nu^ov xs 
xai Sac' ifioyriaav 'A%aiod. 

351—2, quoted Plato de Rep, IV. p. 
424 B. Contrast with the sentiment 
here that of Hes. Theog» 99 — loi, where 
the doidog ^(lovadcav ^sgdiemv sinors 
•kXelu Ttgoxigajv dv^'gamoav. The sub- 
junct. dfJL<pmiX7ixai is here used to 
give that indefiniteness which a ge- 
neral statement implies ; see Jelf Gr, Gr, 
§ 828, 2. 

356 — 9. These lines have been sus- 
pected by various critics, but need- 
lessly. They suit the occasion and the 
speaker. Telem. , conscious of new 
strength (321), is somewhat full of self- 
assertion: see App. E. 3. rov uttered 
with some gesture added to show that 
he speaks of himself. Ni. 

DAY I.] 

OATSLEIAE A. 361-384 


nacdos yccQ fti)<&oi/ icBTCvvyiivov ivd'sto^ d'v^^. 
ig^ S* {msQai* ava^ada 0vv &nq>in6Xoc0i yvvai^lv 
xXatsv &r£tr' ^Odv0'^a tplkov Ttddiv, otpQa ol vtcvov 
7jdvv inl pXscftl^oKSL fidle yXavxtSnig ^jidijvri. 

365 fLvij0T'^Q6g^ d' oiidSfiaav avd (i^yaQcc axiosvta^ 
jtdvreg^ d' i^Qijaamo itaQal XB%ie66i xkid^vac, 
TotaL*^ 8h IhjX^iiaxog TtSTCw^ivog iJQXsro fivd'mv' 
'^^ijtQdg^ ifirjg (nvriiSxiiQeg vjtsqPlov v^qiv i%ovxBg^ 
vvv fihv datvv^svot rsQicdiisd'a, ftiydi fiorirvg 

37o^iyro, ixal to^ ye xcckdv axovifiev ictlv aotSov 
roiov8\^ olog 5d' iiStl^ d'sotg'^ ivaXfyxiog aidrjv. 
i^fSd'Bv S' dyoQ^vSs xad'sicifisifd'a^ xiovrag 
ndvxsg^ iv' vfitv ^vd'ov^ ditriXsyecag dnoBvitcn^^ 
B^iBvai^ [iBydQfDV Rkkccg 8' dlayiivBTB^ Satrag 

375 ^ft<iP xtijiiat' iSovTBg^ dfiBipd^Bvoc^ xaxd otxovg. 
si S' vfitv Soxisv xoSb XchCxbqov xal afiBcvov 
ifi^Bvat^ dvSQog ivdg fiiorov^ inJTCOLVov 6kiiS%'ai^ 
xbCqbt*' iy(o Sh d'BOvg intpdaoiiat ailv^ iovtag, 
at^ xi Ttod'L ZBvg Stpci nalCvxvra^ Sgya ysviad'ai' 

380 VTJnotvoi XBV insixtx, Soficov ivxodd'Bv oloted^BJ' 

cSff^ i(pad'\ or d' aQa ndvxBg dSd^ iv jj^e^Acdt q>vvx€s'' 
Trj^Bfiaxov d'avfia^ovy 0* d'agaaX^agy dydgsvav. 
xov (J* avr' ^Avxivoog nQ06irpri EvjtBtd'Bog v[6g 
'^ TriX,ifiax\ 1? fidXa 8rj 0s SiSd^xoviSiv^ %'boI avxol 

a X. 102, r. 342; 
cf. 0. 27. 

b J. 761, 760, 0.49, 
«. (i02— 4, ffl. 356 
-8, \D. 304; cl 
77. 184. 

c d. 768, a. 3W, 
Q. 360, X- 21-2. 

d <r. 213. 

e o. 502. 

f n. 410. 

ff «. 3-1. 

h a. 257 mar. 

i r. 250, /J. 4 mar. 

k r. 136. 

1 I. 309. 

m I. 431, a. 91 

n p. 139-45. 

^. 38. 

1) E, 489, N. 815; 

cf.2.481, Z.414. 
q I. 471. 

r a. 160, f 377, 417. 
s a. 263, ^. 365, A. 

290, 494, <J^.518. 

1 Z. 526, y. 92. 
u ^. 51. 

V (T. 410-2, v.2e8 

w cr./9.302,(u.410, 

A, '513. 
I X y. 166, /u. 375, 

r. 340, <f: 206. 
y a. 385 , ff . 329- 

30, 389-90. 


W. 307 , q. 

^(ii* J-ot. 364. Jhi&vv, 373. anoj^sinto. 375. J^oixovg. 379. J^igya. 

370. ttoiS^v Rec. 373 et 376. i'ftM^ et viipn^v, 377. dX^<rd'a* Harl., vulg., 
oXca<ra* Clark. 379. pro af Bek. passim cf. ^rovc et no&i Harl., srod'c 

etiam Hesych. 

62 — 71. For v;r6^oSi« and axioev. 
App. F. 2. (32) (18). xoiov6\ see 

on 207. 

373—80. fiv^^ov axfiX. dxoeL, 

**may utter ^fearlessly a prohibition'*; 
see on 91. dXeyvv», the imper. shows 
that Telem., declaring what he will say 
in council f warms with the occasion 
into actually saying it. vi^n;,, **as my 
substance is wasted without compen- 
sation, 80 may your death be*'; t. e. 
be unavenged. 66fA<av evx, foresha- 
dows the actual catastrophe of the 
suitors in x> ^n^ vvhcoivol the futile 
attempt to aveuee them in oo. 

379—81. For cel'xeBek. always gives 
€f He. These particles with a subjunct., 

when some verb of urgency or entreaty 
precedes, mean **to try if": with an 
optat. they expresses a wish, *4f you 
only would . . .", and in the apodosis 
%ai %s sometimes follows, ''then would 
I". The at yap of adjurations 'Should 
Ood** has an apodosis understood. 
iv • • • ipvvreg, a tmesis, '* clinging 
with teeth as if growing into their lips'* : 
comp. the common phrase iv t' Squ 
ot q>v xbiqI (mar.). 

382. o = quody (i) **that", simply 
connecting a clause as object, (2) *'for 
that" C3 as regards the fact that, as 
here, (3) c=: di o "wherefore" (mar.). 

384 — 8. This short speech is in a 
strain of ironical banter; see App. £. 6. 


OATrSEIAS A. 385—402. 

[day I. 

a /9. 85, 303, ^.406; 

cf. V, 274. 
b d. 699, Q. 399, 

V. 344. 
c a. 395, p. 293, 

(p. 252. 
d cr. 0. 533-4. 
e a. 158, K. 115. 
f cf. O. 207. 
S a. 411, y.377. 
h ^. 121-2. 
i a. 3*5 mar. 
k /9. 293. 
1 a. 3Sa mar. 
m &. 58. 

n ^.28;cf. V/.357. 
o a. 267 mar. 
p a. 386 mar. 

q cf. r. 174, V. 

r a. 117; cf. x. 


vipayoQtiv^ X* l^evai xal Q'aQtSaXicjg dyoQSVstv. 385 

fiij^ ci y* iv d(iipcdXG)^ '/^axj ficcfft^'^a KqovC(x^v 
TCOLijcsLSv^ S toi yBvsjj TcatQmov^ iarcv,^' 

rdv d' av TijXdfiaxog Jt67Cvv(i8vog ccvtiov rjvSa 
"'jivtivo^ ij xai (IOC vsfi€0^6€av^ otrc X£v sCjccs; 
xai xsv tovt' i%'iXoviLii^ /jidg ys Sidovrog, aQicd'av. 390 
^ g)j}g rovro xdmcxov iv dvd'Qci7Cov6v tstvxd'at;^ 
01; 8: (I'^v ydQ XV xaxov pa0cX6vi(i6v* allied ri ol d(S^ 
dq)vev6v Ttikaxai xal xifiTjdaxsQog avxog. 
dXX* 7] xoc fiaOL^ijsg ^A%aiiSv £l6i xal aXkoi^ 
itoXkol^ iv d(i(pLdXa)^ ^Id'dxrjy vioi^ i^8h naktuol^ 395 

x(ov xsv xig xoS' ixxiHiv^ iicsl d'dvs Stog 'Odvadsvg'' 
aindg iycjv o[xoio ava^ 100(1^ TULBxiQOvo 
xal Sfidcovy ovg (aol Xi]i00axo^ dtog *Odv00svgJ' 

x6v S* a\yt EiQVfiaxog TloXvfiov %atg dvxCov rivda 
" Ttfikifia%\ fi XOL xavxa d'€(Sv iv yovvaCi^ xatxai^ 400 
og xtg iv S!^vdX(p p ^Id'dxy fia0UBv6€v ^A%aiSv • 
xxijfiaxa S' avxog fx^tg xal Soi(ia0L 0ot0tv^ dvd60oigJ 

389. xfi fBCnoa. 392. foi. 397. fo£%oto,\pdva^. 402. coiai favdaaotg. 

389. elt pro ^ Schol. H. sCnsg fioi nal dydaasat Schol. M. 392. sic Bek., (isv lib. 

402. otaiv. 

^ 386. fin 0^ y > 80 40^ » m Y^Q oy 
£l&oi> ; comp. the N. T. ftiy yivoixo ; here 
the phrase is ironical or insincere. '*It 
is admitted by the suitors that the so- 
vereignty descended to Telem. from his 
father. Yet there was evidently some 
special if not formal act to be done, 
without which he could not be king; 
for Antin. expresses his hope that Ju- 
piter will never make Telem. king of 
Ithaca. Not because the throne was 
full, for on the contrary the death of 
Ulysses is assumed to have occurred; 
but apparently because this act, what- 
ever it was, had not been performed 
in his case." Gladst. III. i. 51. The 
same writer notices the change in the 
sense of (iacilBvg in the Ody. from 
that of the II., the Ody. representing 
the political condition of Greece after 
the great shock of the Trojan war. 
Thus the suitors are ^aaiXiiBg *A%aiSiv 
(cf. ^. 390—1), though no one of them 
is actually ^ftfft^evff ; and, as the pres- 
sure of the §a6, in chief was removed, 
the minor ^tt<r*l^€ff would of course ex- 

pand in importance. Nay, Telem. ad- 
mits (396) the right of such a chief faa, 
being chosen from among them in de- 
feat of his hereditary right. 

390 — 8. Telem. speaks in a matter- 
of-fact way, which blunts the effect of 
Antinous' irony by taking his words not 
ironically. With humility, in disclaim- 
ing royalty, he shows firmness in claim- 
ing domestic supremacy; see App.^E. 3. 

396. ^dvB := xi&vri'VLB ; comp. &Xbzo<, 
168; so 413. 

402. aolaiv, so Bek. and Buttm. for 
oftfty of the mss. On the argument 
whether og , iog can be possess, of the 
2""* (and !■') pers. see Liddell & S. *. v, 
who affirm, and Buttm. Lexil. s, v, £^og, 
note, who denies. Of the passages 
(mar.) adduced as supporting this use, 
fjaiv in T. 174 is merely a var. led., 
ajgaiv also being read, as in ^. 221, 
II, 36 , etc. and v, 320 has been marked 
by various ancient critics as probably 
spurious. Thus our present passage 
alone remains; and, considering the 
great frequency of recurrence of iiuog 

DAY I.] 

OAXrSEIAS A. 403-419. 


xtfj(iar' aitOQQttCCBv\^ 'Id'dxrig ht vaLerccovaris* 
405 aAA' id'sXcD <T£, q)dQt,6ts^^ tccqI I^s^volq i^iad'ac^ 
OTtJtod'Ev^ ovrog dvrJQ, noCr^g S* il^ £i!%«rat8^ elvat 
yccirig; nov Si vv of yaveii xal TtatQlg^ agovQa; 
tJb tcv* dyyaXiKiv'^ TCaxgbg (peQet iQ^oiiivoio^ 
fj iov ccvtov XQ^^^S ieWofisvog^ rdd'^ CxdvBc; 
410 olov dvat^ag &(paQ oUxBraCy o'dd^"^ VTtifiSivsv 

yvci^svat' (yd (ii^v yaQ rt xaxip sig (Dita iaixBcvJ^ 
rov S* av Trikifiaxog TCSJtvvfiivog dvxCov rjiiSa 
^^EvQVfiax% ^ tOL voarog^ ditdXeto nat gbg ifioto' 
ovx* ovv dyyaUri ixi neid'Ofiac^ at nod'Bv iXd'ot^ 
415 our € %^BOXQonirig'^ ifiTtdiofAai, ijv rtva firjtrjQ^ 
ig yiiyaQov xakicaCa d'aoicgoitov i^BQirirai, 
%etvog^ d' ovxog i^iog TCatQcicog ix Td(pov^ iatlv^ 
Mivrrjg^ d' ^^yX^d^oco Sat(pQOVog avxaxai slvai 
vCog, drdg Taq>Coi6L tpikriQixiLot^^iv dvdnCBiJ^ 

a 0. S86 mar. 

b T. 344. 

c d. 646, A. 430. 

d 9t. 42S. 

e (. 269, Z. 128, 

O. 247, a. 387. 
f y. 80, f. 47, <r. 

162; cf. a. 170. 
y V, 192-3. 
h X. 29. 
i p. 30, 42. 
k «. 210, ^. 

W. 122. 
I <r. 407, S. 

Si. 172, ^. 

m n. 814. 
n J. 413 ; cf. a. 354. 
n. 60, /J. 201. 
p cf. ^ 120-8. 
q a 187, ^. 62?, Z. 

r App. D. 5 mar. 
s a. 180—1. 

, 276, 


403. dfiaovra, 407. J^oi. 

409. J^BOVy iJ^BXdoiiBvos. 
419. J^avdcasL, 

411. fsj^ipaeiv. 

403. o9\ 404. sic Voss. Bek., dnogguCuBi lib. 408. olxofiivoio Schol. H. 

411. sio Bek. fihv lib. 414. ftyycX/Tjff^ Eustath. -j^e al. intTcstd'o^ai Scbol. M. 

a manu rec. 415. rjv si, 416. xaX^ovffa. 

and aog, a aTcaJ Xey. or, what is prnc- 
tlcallj such, has little or no proba- 
bility when Smfiaei aoiaiv lay so ob- 
viously in the poeVs way. Further, we 
might expect the usage, if it existed, 
to be frequent, as is the use of og re- 
lative for all persons. On the other hand, 
the recurring <r may have offended the 
older critics, and so caused the altera- 

403 — 4. fA^ ydg^ see on 386. dnoQ^ 
gaioei'f optat., not -ga^asi fut. ind., for 
in H. where oatig occurs in a subjoined 
clause, it mostly takes optat., if optat. 
has preceded ; exceptions are y. 319— ao, 
iV. 233 — 4 where oatig takes subjunct. 

406. xoifigy see on 171 sup, 

408 — 9. sji...^^ see App. A. 11. 
ieX66fiA* is found with gen. as well as 
with ace. (mar.). x66* IxdvBi, "comes 
hither '% toSs marking the present 
place, as od£ the present person. Fa. 
thinks it marks the act of coming. 

^410 — II. o2oVj ^see on 209. eie 
(oxa, comp. eig ccvta (or sfeavtct) 
tSf-ad'octy J. 217, which verb may be 
here supplied. 

414^5. For dyyeXl'^ Eustath. reads 
iyy sUrig, so in X. 57 the gen. occurs 
as a var. led. The gen. also follows 
TtelS'Ofiai in Herod. I. 126; see Btthr 
and SchweighHuser ad loc, Jelf. Crr. 
Cfr, 828 , 3 , resolves ^v rtva as if = 
kdv Ttva, expressing a *' definite attri- 
bute of the principal clause, about the 
existence of which some doubt exists. 
This is rare in Attic Greek, as they 
usually prefer the optat. for that pur- 
pose": in H. a subjunct often follows; 
comp. f^ tig . , , dpktpiniXfjtoii y a, 352. 
On the optat. ild-oi see App. A. 9 
(19) end. 

416. i§BQifiVat, here middle voice; 
the act. has also the meaning of "ask'', 
but also, like i££p€£^vo), that of "utter, 


OATSEEIAS A. 420—439. 

[day I. 


a n. 464; ef. y. 

b a. 304-6. 
c JV. 731. 
d d. 786, S. 351. 
e y. 396, 17. 229, 

V. 17, -4. 606, 

*F. 58. 

y. 251. 

Z. 247—8. 

i (. 185, ft. 285; 

cf. S. 337. 
k X. 211. 
1 X. 438, A. 204, V. 

m a. 434, /9. 434, 

r]. 101. 
n -r. 346, v. 57, ri/. 

182, 232. 

V. 148. 

p 0. 483, I 115, 

q a. 218, 0. 89. 
r ^. 263, 0. 518. 
s Z. 236, 2. 593. 

1 /. 223, i2. 730. 
u «. 126, 0.420—1, 

Z. 25. 
V i;. 171, r. 388. 
w \p. 325, 0. 283, 

X. 67, V. 210. 
X or. 333 mar., y. 

455, 2. 608. 
y B. 42, JSC. 21. 
z r. 266. 
aa j^. 198, a. 179, 

^ 592, *F. 743. 

oS^ d' ffe dQxrjCtvv^ XB xal tfi€Q6€6(Sav dotdiqv 

tQSlp(i(lSVOl tiQTtOVtO^ (I8VOV d* ijtl €(S7CBQ0V iXd'BtV^ 

totCL 81 t€Q7Coiiivov0i fidXag inl e^TtSQog '^X,d'£V 

d^® tdts xaxxeiovrsg Sfiav olxovds sxa0tog. 

Trili^axog 8% oO-^*^ ot d'dXa^og neQixuXXiog avkilg^ 425 

vtlfflXog^ 8i8iLrito^^ 7tBQL(5xi%t(p^ ivl XfQQfp^ 

Ivd"' iptj Big Bvv^Vj TCoXka q>QBaV fiBQfiriQi^ai.v. 

tp 8' &q' aiL aid'OfiBvag^ 8at8ag g)dQB xb8v^^ Bl8vta 

EvqvxXbi ° ^Slitog d'vydtrjQ nBv6rivoQv8cco, 

tijviP TtotB AaBQtrig TtQiato xtBdxBO0vv^ B0t6tv, 430 

TtQGjd^firiv'' h* iov6aVy iBixo^dfioia^ d' 18(dxbv, 

l6a Si (itv XB8vy^ dXoxp tiBV iv fiBydQOiecv, 

Bvvfj 8' ov not* IfiixtOj^ ;|r6Aov d' dXhvvB yvvaixog' 

7] ol afi' ald'OfiBvag 8at8ag (pB^B^ xal i lidXi^ra"^ 

8fiG)d(X)v q)cXhaxB^ xal hQBtpB"^ rvtd'bv iovra. 435 

mi^BV 8h d'VQag d'aXd^ov %vxa^ TtovifCotOy 

B^Btoy d' iv XixtQCt}^ (iaXax6v 8' Ix8vve ;gtrc5i/a- 

xal tov fihv YQalrig 7Cvxcfii]8sog IfifiaXB ;|^fp<ytV. 

17 fihv tov %tv%a6a^ xal d^xtj^a^a^^ ;tfcr(ot/a, 

422. fiaitSQov. 423. J^iansQog. 424. J^oiytovds J^sttacrog. 425. J^oi. 

428. %sdva J^iSvZa. 430. ij^oiatv or meccxsaai J^soiaiv. 431. ifsiyioadpoia, 

432. ftaa. 434. J^oiy /«. 

420. &SOCV, 

424. ^viot *'^i} tors •KOifiT^aavto %al vnvov S&qov ^Xovto^^ Scfaol. H. 
429. 'Slnog. 435. md'ov Harl. 438. ygrjog Schol. 

420. n^avdzfiV* The a, due to drsis, 
is frequent in Wpertrisyllabic words, 
e, g, amcifitttog , anovisad'ai , Spitzner, 
Crr, Pros. § 10 b. Comp. JlQlayi,C8rig^ 
which Virgil follows, who also has 

424. Some read here di} xoxs noiftij' 
aavTO xttl vnvov dmgov sXovzo, ascrib- 
ing the text as above to Arist. 

425 — 6. od-t governs avXijq as gen. 
of place; comp. SvaofisvovTnsgiovog, 
a, 24, local gen. without any adverb; 
see mar. there. For the arrangement 
of the avXij and ^dlafiog see App. F. 
2. (5), (25) foil. The form 9i9firito from 
dcc[ivrifii, y.304, should be distinguished 
from this. 

429 — $3. On Euryclea's position, du- 
ties, &c., see App. A. 7 (2). ieixoadp* 
oxen were the primitive standard of 
value, comp. snarofiPoi ivv£a§o^a}v, and 
Tcagd'ivoi dXtpsaipoiai (mar.). So in the 
funeral games the female slave is prized 
at four oxen and the tripod at twelve , 
^. 705, 703. For x^Xov yvv. comp. 
the story of Phoenix, I. 449 foil. The 
91 after xoXov is = yap. 80 in y. 48. 

436. Sioaq S-aX., see App. F. 2. 

437. ex^vvBf active in mid. sense, 
*'he (not she) took off his coat"; comp. 
mar. for ivSvvo) so used. 

439. dox'^ia*, "smoothed"; often 
used of fine artistic finish given to a 
work of art in metal, wool, &c. (mar.). 

DAY I.] 

OATSSEIAS A. 440-444. 


dQyvQiy, iid 81 xXritd*^ irdvv60€v [(idtnt, 
Svd'* o ys navvv%(,o^j xexccXvii^ivog olos^ acJrp, 

a cl. 9. 67, 106, 

(p. 53. 
b V.399, M. 345, 

r. 448, Si. 720. 
c =*. 188, cf. Itt8. 
d w. 90, 0). 46—7, 

138, ^.'111. 
e d. 838, **. 168, 

n, 455. 

f JV. 599, 716; cf. 

I. 434, I. 661. 
^ X. 111. 

444. qppeffl fijiaiv. 

440. sic Clark, et ed. Ozon. ex dubifi Harl. lect. tqritoici iBxi^GCiy *'ubi 
rpi}torip, aut Xi%Biiiii^ prout mavis, legere potes" Pors.; al. xf^rixotg 



441—4. xOQWvn, the handle, crook- 
ed, like a **beak", as being so more 
surely grasped in pulling the door to. 
From qp. 165, where the arrow is set 
down to rest against it, its height on 
the door could not have been above 

the arrow's length (about 3 feet) from 
the ground. For xJi'ijld* , here the 
*'bolt'*, see App. A. 15. xi<pQad\ 
a reduplicated aor. of which ;i€^ad'(iov, 
xixXsTO, nsitvd'OiTO are also instances, 
so at V. 273. 



On the morning of the Second Day Telemachus summons the Ithacans to the 
Assemhlj, which had not met since Odysseus' departure (i — 34). 

He exposes the importunity, rapacity, and insolence of the suitors, and his 
own helplessness, and implores the people not to ahet them (35 — 79). 

Antinous replies by impudently throwing the blame on PenelopS, detailing 
her artifices to elude their suit: — let her choose her husband and they would 
be gone, but not till then (80—128). 

Telemachus states his scruples at forcing her will, or sending her away. 
The debate is here interrupted by an omen, which is interpreted by Halither- 
ses to portend the suitors' doom. This draws on him the violent language of 
Eurymachus, who re -states the suitors' resolve (129 — 207). 

Telemachus drops the question and proceeds to that of his projected voyage 
to Peloponnesus. Mentor urges the Ithacans to oppose the suitors; to whom 
Leocritus replies with sneering disparagement and the Assembly breaks up 
(208 — 259). 

Pallas, in the guise of Mentor, appearing in ani^srer to Telemachus* prayer, 
instructs him as regards his voyage. He, returning to the palace and resisting 
the overtures of Antinous, directs Euryclea to prepare the stores and not to 
tell his mother of his departure (260 — 381). 

Pallas, in the guise of Telemachus, obtains a ship and crew, and sends on 
the suitors a strange sleep while they sit and drink. She then changes her 
form to that of Mentor and summons Telemachus to embark. Their voyage 
commences as the second day ends (382 — 434). 

'id'aotrjOiiDV ayogd. TfjXs^idxov djto6ri{ila. 

^H^og^ d* i^QLyivcLa^ (pavrj ^oSoSdxtvlog 'H^g^ 
Sqvvt^ uq' «g €vviiq)LV^ ^OSvdCiiog (pikog v[6g, 

Ttoaal d' vjto IvnaQOtCiv iSnjcazo xaXd niSvXa^ 

3. pro i^qpoff ... (ufico nonuulli ^iya pdllsto q>ccQOg ex B, 43, addito etiam 

versa ex B. 45. 

a y. 404 ei al . . 

t. 428, A. 477, 

d. 400 mar. 
I) T. 820, V. 156. 

V. 124-6; cf! 

0. 580. 
cl cf. tt). 83, y. 110 

1. 59. 
B. 44-45. 

The a"* day of the"^ poem's action 
here beg^ins. 

On the proceedings of the dyogi^ 
which form a large part of ^. see App. 
A. 4. In order to understand the po- 
sition assumed by the suitors in /}., 
we must remember that the long ab- 
sence and presumable death of the 
king, the long minority of the heir, 
and the defect of near relatives (see 
n, 115— ai), had weakened royalty in 
Ithaca, and that the members of the 
PovXrjf being the advisers of the so- 
vereign and natural leaders of the 
dyoQTj , had no proper ^function in his 
absence and while the dyoQ'q {§, a6 — 7) 
had ceased to meet. Still they might 
find a pretext for assembling at the 
palace in their large stake in the 
country — to use a modern phrase — 
and in their prospective interest in a 
royalty not necessarily hereditary. They 
came thither in the king^s interests, 
as they might say : still their living at 
free -quarters in the palace is always 
viewed as a lawless intrusion on pri- 
vate rights without even a colour of 
justice ((J. 140—5* ^35— 7, cf. 198—207). 
As hopes of his return ebbed away — 
and they would soonest expire in those 

HOM. CD. I. 

who looked to succeed him — the 
questions of who should fill his throne, 
and who marry his widow (the latter 
being an easy step to the former, at 
least in the case of an Ithacan noble), 
would be more boldly stirred. Hence 
the suitors^ clamour rises higher, as 
Penelop^^s forlorn hope fades . and we 
the more admire the tenacity with 
which she clings to that hope and to 
her hold on the palace and estate, with 
all these forces arrayed against her. 
If she had accepted her widowhood 
and returned, as urged, to her father's 
house , the remaining property of 
Odys. would have been at once dis- 
sipated. Hence, as on his own force 
of character his return depends, so on 
hers it wholly depends that he has a 
homo to return to. See further Ajjp. E. 2. 
1. Tif^oq d*, see on tf.^400. ti(fiyiv. 
Some take rigi- as if ijSQij with re- 
ference to the ** mistiness^' of morn, 
cf. ijsQi noll^ A, 75a. Others better, 
however, from adv. ij^t "early**, as 
illustrated by d^iyovog a. 302, and (He- 
sych.) otptyevT^g. A Schol. also notices 
that ysvsia may have an act. or pass, 
force; the latter is best, thus ** early 
born** is the sense. Curtius gives ^gi 


0AT22EIA2 B. 5—14. 

[day II. 

a CO. 370, a. 371, 
I. 4, T. 250; cf. 
^. 174, Z. 401. 

b B. 60— 2,442-4, 

1. 10, W. 39. 

c &. 24, CO. 421, 

A. 57. 
d («. 104, Q. 62-4. 
e 0. 100, B. 822; 

cf. a. 331 mar. 
i A. 50, 2. 678, 

2. 283, fi. 211; 
cf. o.lttl, 'I'. 30. 

y C. 229, 235, 9. 

19, ^. 172seqq., 

(T. 190 &C. 
h »P. 728, 881. 
i cf. a. 387. 
k /9 26, 0.3,0.468. 
I o). 21, 17. 189, 


firi 8' tiisv ix d'akdiiOLO d'e^ ivakiyxiog^ Strtrjv. 5 

alil^a^ Si xijqvx€0(Sl kiyvip%'6yyoL0L xeXavasv 
xriQv66sLV Ayoqn^vSs xaQij xoiiocjvtag ^A%aiovs, 
or fihv ix7JQv00oVy tol d' iqysiQOvto (idk' Sxa. 
avTccQ^ iTCsi q' rjysQd'sv biiriysQisg r' sydvovtOy 
^H ^' t^£v sig ayoQ'^Vy Ttakdfiy d' 1%^ xdkxsov ly%og^^ 10 
ovx^ olog' Siia r^ ys dvcs xvveg dgyoV Snovto, 
d'£07t£0irjv d' &Qa rS ys %dQiv^ xatixBvsv ^Ad'i^vri' 
tov d' aga Jtdvtsg kaol iTtBQXo^iavov d'rjsvvto'^ 
e^STO d' iv TCatQog^ %'(6xq)^^ sliav 8i yeQOvrsg^ 

14. fBt^av. 

6. nilsvs. 

ita Bek. Pors. secuti £. Venet. Ambros., pro 9va> Tivvsg Dind. 
nvvsg nodag secutns Harl. ex S. 578. 

as distinct from r^g ffJQ, ver, -gt being 
aflformative, and rj- same root as in 
ijcoff. In IP". 226 — 7 

i(aa(p6Qog slat (fxomg igicov inl 

ov ts ftita TtgOTionsnXog vnslg aXa 
%iSvatai ^(Off, 
the first line seems to speak of the 
dawn, the next of daylight j but in B, 
48 — 9 it is rimg who comes (poong igi- 
ovaa like the sma(p6gog of ^» 226; 
thus the distinction vanishes, unless 
seated in ngoiionsnXog. The "rosy" 
hue here may attend or follow dawn, 
according to state of atmosphere &c. 
Why applied to the SdiiTvXoi, is not 
clear: perhaps rays breaking diver- 
gently through clouds may be taken 
to represent a hand with fingers spread. 
Virgil Mn. VII. 26 has combined — or 
confounded — godod, and %gon6nBn. in 
Aurora in roseis fulgehat luiea higis, 
Arist. BJiet. III. 2. 13 remarks on the 
poetic superiority of fodod, to tpoivi- 
noddyiT. or. igvd'goddiKT. 

3. §l^oq, this was probably the 
tpdcyuvov which the suitors wield in 
%. 74, 90; persons of free birth com- 
monly wore it, cf. Thucyd. I. 6 on 
the habit of CiSrigotpogBtv long retained 
in Greece , which Aristotle {Pol. II. v.) 
associates with the traffic in women as a 
mark of barbarous manners. The spear 
is borne, as by Mentes a, 104, and 
Theoclymenus 0. 282, who were tra- 
vellers, so here by Telem., who had 
been all night thinking of his journey 
(a. 444) and prepared for it at once. 

The "sceptre" is afterwards presented 
by a herald, 37—8. 

5—6. evaXlYX. the simple aXtyittoff 
occurs twice (mar.). xtjqvxsO, see 
on a, 109. XiYvq>S'm9 a rarer epith. 
for the heralds is iqsgoqxiovoi "raising 
the voice", ^2?. 505. 

11. ovx oloq, these words, used also 
where human attendants (mar.) are 
added, show a sense of comradeship 
between dog and man which culminates 
in the episode of Argus in g, 291 foil., 
where dogs for the chase (r. 436) are 
distinguished from mere household pets, 
or watch -dogs (tgansSijsg &vgaoi}gol 
X, 69), like Eumseus' in |. 29 foil., g. 
200. These last recognize the deity, 
of Pallas (jr. 162 — 3) when Telem. does 
not. From A, 50 we may suppose the 
Greeks took dogs over sea to Troy. 
d(^yol, this word has no connexion 
with igyov, which retains its / in H. ; 
the agyog =3 a - Bgyog is post-Homeric. 
Here it seems to mean (i) ** stalwart, 
powerful", cf. its use for ^oBg {W, 30), 
and (2) "swift", as defending on 
strength of foot: cf. no8agY,7ig epith. 
of Achilles, dgyCnoSig also of dogs 
(iQ. 211), sLn^"AgnvLU TLoddgyri^ sug- 
gestive of ugiy)- or a^(x)- as root, as 
in ag%Biv dgrjystv (Donalds. New Crat. 
% 285). A totally distinct radical sense 
is "white" or rather "glistering", as 
in agyiig, ^Qyivosigy dgyvcpsog or -q>og, 
Sgyvgog, icgyUXogy argenittm, argilla, 

12. See mar. for similar x^Qf'g given 
to Odyss. and Penel. 

14. ^cixo^j or open form d'oonTtog 26, 

DAY 11.] 

OATSSEIAL B. 15—31. 


15 roWt d' iiCBid'^ ^Qcog AiydntioQ ^Q%^^ dyoQSveiVj 
og 81^ yiiQaV xv(p6g lijv xal [ivQia^ jjSrj. 
xal yccQ tov (pCXog vCdg ttfi' dvtid'dp *OSv<sili 
"IXiov^ Big BVTtakov iprj Ko£kyg^ ivl vrivalvy 
^Avtitpog alx[irjrtjg' tov d' HiyQLog Ixtccvs Kvxk(Dil^ 

20 iv aniii ylaq)VQp^ Tfi^iatov d* (QjtXC(S0ato SdQTtov,^ 
TQstg 8d ol &kXoi Saav xal [ihv nvij6t'^Q(Jtv^ 6ii£k£Lv^ 
E'dQVVonog,^ 8vo d' alhv i%ov^ nazQciia iQyw^ 
dkV^ ovd'* (Sg tov kfjd'St* 6SvQ6iA€vog^ xal dxBV(ov. 
TOV" 3 y€ SdxQv xi(ov dyoQTJCato xal fietsBiTcev 

25 "xfxAvrfi® dij vvv ftfiv, *Id'axrj6ioi y Zttc xev BtncD' 
ovtB stod'* rjiiBtiQfi dyoQ^ yivBt^ ovtb d'dooxog^ 
ii ov *OSv00Bvg 8tog ifir^ xoikyg ivl vijva^v. 
vvv Sh rig cod'^ ijyBiQB', tCva %qbi(o^ todov XxBi 
iji VBGUV &vSq<Sv ^* or TtQoyBviCxBQoC b16lv; 

30ijfi tiv* dyyBlCriv (StQatov ixXvBV iQxofnivoio y^ 
^v %* riiitv <sd(pa Btnoi^ 8r£* nQdxBQog yB nv%'ovtOy 

a 9t. 345, a. 349, 

V. 369, y. 461, 

S, 249. * 
b i9. 188, u. 188, 

S. 218, 5V^. 855, 

T. 219, <]^. 440, 

cf. *P. 312. 
c A. 169, f 71, Jff. 

561 , n. 576. 
d 8. 27, o. 211, a. 

181, H. 389, X. 

e (.344, u#.86; cf. 

t. 369, V^. 168-9. 
fa. 266./?. 288, 381. 

h J. 737. 

i /J. 127, d. 818, 

'x.98,f 222,344; 

cf. 8. 117, m. 97. 
k cf. 0. 366, 9t. 

I a. 6 mar. 
m d. 100. ^ 40, J. 

012, Si, 128. 
n 0). 426, ^ 142; 

cf. X. 426. 
o cf. C- 239. 
p /9. 14 mar. 
q a. 182, App. A. 

10 mar. 
r a. 226 mar. 
s/9 42-4, a. 408, 

!b. 160. 

16. fiBri, 18. fiUov, 

21. /ot. 22. J^igya, 
31. feinoi. 

24. listi^stTtav, 25. fainm. 

18. ^9rl. 22. dvo d* ttXilot aliiy utrumque Arist., Schol. H. 
Clark., TOvff Harl. mar.; ods; 8a%qv%imv, 26. ovd^ ... c 
Arist. 28. ^Hft. 31. ort Schol. H. 

24. Tore Harl. 
^ alii; otnrs 9C0i 

means (mar.) both Y,a%'i8gu as here, 
and avviSqiovi it was like the stately 
seat of "smoothed stones", whereon 
sat the vigovtsg "in a sacred circle'* 
in the Assembly {£» 504). All the 
people, however, usually sat (2, 246 
—-8). On d-mtiogy d'&iiog and ^od^at 
see on 336 inf, yiQOVTBq, not ne- 
cessarily in age , but in rank the first. 
Thus in the II. Diomedes is of the 
number, although quite young. In the 
Greek camp, and at the court of Al- 
cinous we find yigovtBg (mar.). 

16. ynoaJL, this dative depends on 
fiVQ^cc 07^ as well as on %v(p6g lijv, 
cf. nccXaia xb nolXd ts sidmg^ inf, 188. 
The statement that the dyoqri had not 
met so long gives us a measure of the 
importance of the step of convening 
it, and of the public prominence into 
which Telem. thereby starts. 

22. EvQVV.y the party of the suitors 
would naturally lie among the younger 
Ithacans v. 51, but there was a lack 
of elder men to control them, these 
having gone to Troy and left a wide 

social chasm behind them. We may 
suppose that the father ^gyptius, now 
yriQut xv^off, was just too old, and 
the three sons mentioned, too young 
for service then; hence the suitors* 

Sarty now might be both numerous and 
eadstrong. Thus vioi and ngoyBvi- 
avBQOi of V. 29 indicate parties; cf. a, 
395. k'qya, used of men, when not 
qualified, as by noXsfirjiaj d'akdaaia^ 
means agriculture, of women, weav- 
ing etc. 

25. scixXvTB, with gen. here, as below 
V. 30 with accus. ; see on a. 281. S'Oa^ 
seo§, "assembly", see above on^ 14, 
and cf. 69 Qifiiarog tj t' dpdgmv dyo- 
Qoig .... %aQ'lifi, 

28—31. For eJrf' see App. A. 10; for 
XQBia^ see on er. 225. toaov "to such 
an extent", cannot agree^with XQ^''^ 
which is fem., cf. xqhoi dvccynaHn €)• 
57; so the adjectives d-qfiiovj Totot^, 
d. 31^, do not agree^with XQiim in 312. 
For ^^ . . . iq and g}€ . . . ^^ see App. 
A. II. axQaxov • • • • iQXOfA*» i* c, 
the Greek army returning, see on a. 



0ATSSEIA2 B. 32—47. 

[day II. 

a y. 82, d. 314, v. 

264, ^. 259, F. 

b /J. 44. 
c 'h. 172-3, ^ 

415, iZ/. 24. 
d t. 180, o. Ill, 

^. 221 , 264. 
e V. 100, 105, 120. 
l/J 397, C. 33, /J. 

285 ,_y. 473. 
g cf. 7^ 79. 
h f. 568, ^. 234 

-S, B, 101, X. 

321—8, .^. 505. 
i H. 278. 
k C. 12, A. 446, V. 

46, P. 325, 2. 

363, i2. 88. 
1 A, 5S2, /J. 240, 
O. 127, 

m cf. ^. 110. 

n JC. 96, S. 465, 

^. 264, B. 171, 

V/. 93. 
o S. 32 mar. 
p a. 409. 
.1 X. 268, V. 208; 

cf. a. 76. 
r /?. 234, |. 62, 138 

-9; cf. ft. 443, 

d. 690-3 

y. 345, 
37. 421. 

fey-d-Adg ftot dox^r dvac^^ 6tnj[i£vog. aUd's of ai5rc5 
Zsvg dyad-dv rskiCBiBv^ on q)QS0lv^ y0L iisvoLva.'^ 

(Sg (fdtOj xatQS dh 9^7*S® 'OSv06^og <pikog vCog, 3^ 
ovS' &q' hi^ Srjv ri0tOj iisvoiv7j0£v d' dyoQSvsiVy 
0t7j^ Sh (1^07] dyoQfj' 0x'^jttQOv^ Si ot i[ipaXs xblqI 
x'^QV^^ Il€L0ijv(OQ Jtsjtvviiiva ^TJSsa^ slScig. 
jtQCotov iitBLta yiQOvta zad'ajttoiisvog^ wcgogientsv 

"c5 ysQOVy ovx ^^dg"^ ovtog dvtJQ {td%a S* st0€aL avtog) 40 
Sg Xaov TjysLQa' iidki0ta 8k [i' akyog [xdvsL.^ 
oihe tiv* dyyskitjv 0tQatov Ixkvov iQXOfiivoto^ 
^v 'I vfitv 0dg)a etTtco ore stQotSQog ys Jtvd'o^firjv, 
ovta XL SijfiLOv^ aAAo yeLg)av0xo(iat ovS' dyoQSVCs, 
aAA' ifiov^ avtov xQstog^ o [iol xaxov e(i7t£0€v otxtp^ 4^ 
8obd' TO ^lIvj TtaxBQ^ a0d'kdv djtci^,s0a^ og not' iv v(itv 
totgds00Lv^ Pa0Lksv6y nati^Q S* cSg iJTtLOg^ ^^v 

33. J-OL, 34. (pQsal f^Gi. 37. fou 38. J^stdcag. 39. nQoasfsmsv. 
40. fsKccg J^e^asat, 43. J^eCnoo. 45. J^oCnqt. 

41. riysLQS Zenod., Schol. H. 42. aut t^lovcc pro dyysX^rjv, aut tjlov pro 

^TiXvov legisse Zenod. testatur Schol. H. 44. pro ovd' r^d'. 45. ita Arist., 

xaxa Aristoph., SchoU. B. H. M. E.; Tianov ^(iTtsas x^dog Ven. 

408. eiJtoi, on this optat., which in- 
fuses a tone of doubt into the sug- 
gestion of news of the army, and on 
the moods of the passage here and as 
repeated 42 — 3, see App. I. 9. (18). 

S3. ovrifABVoq, u e. sHrj, "may he be 
gratified" = I wish him well! cf. fti) 
vvv ovaiiiriv Soph. CEd, Tyr. 644, and 
ovato (Ed. CoL 1042, The closely si- 
milar forms of some parts of the dif- 
ferent verbs ovhrjiii and ovoiiac should 
be noticed (Donalds. Gr, Gr. p. 301). 
The revival of the dyoqii naturally 
gratifies the old man who had doubt- 
less spoken in it in his youth. Ob- 
serve also the thought of news from 
the army uppermost in his mind, as 
having a sou there. 

35 ~ 7" VHf^%i9 word or phrase of 
omen, such was the last part of the 
previous speech in 33 —4. For Irt be- 
fore 8riv see on a. 186. axfiKxqoVy 
this was the badge of public office. 
Telem. having summoned the assembly, 
it was his ex officio to address it, as 
well as from his occupying the itaTQoq 
&coHog V. 14. Thus judges and heralds 

bear the a-nrJTt.j Menelaus, making a 
judicial appeal, receives it, and so 
Hector when swearing to Dolon (mar.) ; 
cf. Arist, PoL III. 9. dl OQTiog riv xov 
av.ri'jtTQOv inavdxaaig. The previous 
speaker here accordingly has it not, 
being a mere private person. 

39 — 41. xaS'axT., this participle 
bespeaks impressiveness , used kindly 
or harshly according to context (mar.). 
ovToq specially notes the person spoken 
of as related to the person addressed; 
"you will .find jyour man not far off". 
Scan V. 41 og X6c\6v rjlyslga etc. — ixd^ 
V€i is used especially of physical states 
or mental emotions arising; so with 
VTCvogy (lOQog, nsvQ'og, tdq>og (mar.). 

43—5. €i3t€Oj subjunct., App. A. 9. (18). 
6, see on a. 382. xaxov, xaxa, read 
by* Aristoph., is justified by the ad- 
missibility of hiatus after 4*** foot in 
heroic hexam, La Roche p. 17; but in 
0- 375 %<xxov ^fin, 0^x00 recurs, also 
the Ven., reading xaxoi^ iiin. x^dog, 
favours xofxov. doid agrees with both 
the evils following (46 — 8). 

47. VfJiiv xoia6., "you here", see 

DAY 11.] 

OArrSEIAS B. 48—54. 


vvv d* av xal stolv [lettov, drj td%a olxov Scnavrcc 
nayxv SvaQQaiCsi^'^ fiiorov *' dno Ttdiixav 61b668i, 
^o (iritiQi, (lOL^ (ivijiSt'^QBg inixQaov"^ oi>x id'slovcy^ 
tiSv dvdgiSv (p£Xoi vhg 6t ivd'dSe y' elalv aQiaxoi^'^ 
0% naxQbg iilv ig olxov dTtBQQiyaai vh6&ai, 
^IxkqCov^^ Sg X avxbg isSvciiSaLto^ d'vycczQa^ 
Soil] d' cJ x' id'iXoi xaC ol X6xaQv6iiivog« iX^oi' 

a a.4U4;cr. ir.4*?S, 
t. 221, C S26, t. 

1)^.771, V^. 158-7. 

c ir.352~e, t.30«, 


d a. 245, TT. 251. 
cf. 0. 10. . 
f App. A. U mar. 
g- cf. /J. 225-6. 

48. Jro^%ov* 5a. ykkv Jrot%ov, 53. ^i%mQCov ij^sdvtoaaito, 54. J^oi, 
50. firitgi x' iti^, 53. pro Sg Off SchoK P. 54. dojiy . . . id'ilij, ild"(j Rec. 

Donalds. Or. Ghr. §. 339. naxiiQ. Ari- 
stotle {Pol, I. 5, III. 4) bases royalty 
on the paternal relation, quoting the 
Homeric title naxriQ dv^Qtov zs Q-sAv 
XB as suitable to the sovereign of all 
things, and says that despotism trans- 
gresses by ruling for one's own in- 
terest, disregarding that of the ruled, 
whereas the rule over one's children 
includes their benefit as a motive; cf. 
ib. IV. 8. The heroic monarchy is the 
fourth kind enumerated and examined 
by him (ib. III. 9). Contrast with this 
Achilles^ rejproaoh to Agam. in A, 231 
as a drjfioPoQog PocGiksvg, which again 
might largely be illustrated from Pol. 
V. 9. So Penel. speaks {d, 691 foil.) of 
the practice of kings in general and 
of the character of Odys. in particular, 
which Eumseus (|. 6a, 138 toll.) illus- 
trates. Some points of a popular king*s 
character are fair division of spoil etc. 
(t. 4a, A. 704), protecting refugees (n, 
434), uprightness in administering jus- 
tice (t. Ill, n. 387. foil.), princely re- 
cognition of services {d". 38 foil.), and 
general hospitality (Ni.); in this last 
duty, however, his "gifts'* supported 
him, so that what was partaken of 
was reckoned dijVta, P. 348 foil.; cf. 
V. 364. 

48 — Q. xoXv fiel^ov, in reference 
to his nouse (ytocnov . . . otntp 45) the 
suitors* licence and pillage were worse 
than his father^s death. This gives 
great rhetorical force to his complaint. 
diaQQcUaei , dnoggceia occurs (mar.) 
with double acous. : (aim simple, akin 
to dQuaaatj is used of ship-wreck and 
other violent sundering. This hint of 
its meaning may be gathered from its 
derivatives, fociaxng the smith's *' ham- 
mer", d-vfiOQutaxTjg "life -crushing", 

and TtvvogaXaxTjg the "dog -tick" (JV. 
544, g. 300). 

50 — I. fioi refers the action dis- 
tinctly to the person Hpeaking. Do- • 
nalds. Cfr, Gr, § 459 a a, calls this a 
"dat. of special limitation". It im- 
plies a closer personal interest in the 
fact stated than ifi^ would convey. 
ixixQCCov, this and its simple verb 
occur in H. only in the imperf., which 
loses its proper force, meaning, "have 
been and are worrying": see the si- 
mile in which it describes wolves wor- 
rying kids (mar.). This passage seems 
to have suggested to Dissen the resto- 
ration, doubtful however, of a frag- 
ment of Pindar (44), dXoffp noxh d'o- 
gux^slg ini%gctBv ctlXoxgltf. vc«$> so 
in the last dyogii (©. 456 — 7) the 
Ithacans are reminded of their sons* 
recklessness having brought ruin, a^c- 
CXOI9 from Ithaca there were la, all 
Sgiaxoi (mar.). 

53—4. dxeQQ. "abhor", i.e. "shrink 
from the trouble", — a well -chosen 
word, especially if Icarius abode, as 
a Schol. supposes, in Ithaca; as mean- 
ing, "they give her the greatest an- 
noyance instead of taking the least 
trouble themselves". Annother suppo- 
sition, that Icarius abode in Sparta, 
does not well suit Pallas' words to Te- 
lem. in 0. 16. It seems assumed that, 
when a widow remarried, she did so 
from her father's house and with con- 
sent of her relatives; i. e,, her hus- 
band's right failing, that of her family 
revived, iedvcio.^ see App. A. 14: 
the optat. here and in v. 54 is forcible 
as if "to give him the chance of so 
doing, if he pleased*\ see Jelf G7\ Gr. 
§ 807 §, The subject of A'&ot is bor- 
rowed from the object of dot'17, dovvcci 
being understood after id'iloi. 


OAT23rEIAr B. 55—70. 

[day n. 

a g. 634—8. 

b«. 301, ^.39, o. 

613, 0). 267. 
c d. 384, 811, k. 

240, y. 352. 
d fi. TXUbet sapiss., 

e q' 180-1, V. 24, 
a. 278—80; cf. 
I 90-5. 

f a. 226 roar. 


h <f.689, cp. 94; cf. 

i y. 208, M. 334, 
*'. 485, /r. 512, 
O. 378, 598, fff. 

k ^. 134. 

1 J. 402. 

m X 212, T. 104, 
109; cf. Si. 488. 

n O. 52, 203. 

o H. 41, 'f'. 639. 

p cf. X. 66, y. 324, 
o. 261, X. 338. 

q r. 4; cf. a. 403, 
^. 238. 

r r.68; cf. /J. 419, 
^. 422. 


/Sovs tsQSvovtag^ xal oVg xal itCovag alyag, 

alkaicivd^oviSvv^ tcCvovcC xb at%'ona olvov 

liail^LSic3g' ta 81 noXXd xatdvBtat.^ ov ydg 6r' dv^Q 

olog^ 'OSv(S0€vg icxev, dgi^v'^ dnb olxov diivycct. 

i^fistg tf' ov vv ri toloi dfivvsiisv ^ xal insita 60 

Xsvyakioi t i06n60d'ay xal ov SsSarixotsg^ akxifv.] 

71 r' dv dfivvaiiiTjv , sC [iol Svvafiig ys naQsirj. 

ov yaQ Sr' dv(S%^d iQya rEtsv%ataL^ ov6^ hi xak(Sg 

olxog iiAog dtokcDka, v€H€0a7Jdi]T6 xal avtol, 

akXovg r' alSdadifite^ xeqixtCovag^ dvd'Qcijtovg ^ 6^ 

0? 7tSQivautdov0v' d'SfSv d' vitoSaCcata ^i^vtVy 

[irj ti instaetQB^ciCiv^ dya00dfi€voL° xaxd iqya, 

Xi0Co^ai iq[ihvv Zrjvog 'OXviiitiov i^Sh 0eiii0tog,'i 

^ r' dvSQfSv dyogdg iqfilv kvsi ijdi xa%'liBLJ^ 

(S%iiS^B^^ (pilot J xaC ft' olov ideara itavd'sV XvyQ^ 70 

57. J^OLVov. 59. foUov. 63. J^igyoc, 64. fotKos- 67. figya, 

55' iJ/JCT^pov Ven.; cf. Hy. Merc. 370, Herodot. L 35. 60. iQfiSLg ov ti vv et 

ov vv xoi riiiBtg\ pro naC Schol. x£v. 63. pro yf.aX&ig Heyn. v,akoc^ coll. 

Z. 326, N. 116. 70. ita Arist., ftif ft' olov Aristoph. 

58. fia^fid,, this word, save in 
the phrase fi, alcfXija^e or -^ai y. 72, 
leads the line in which it stands, as 
does also fiaif) nearly^ always, xaxd" 
vexai, the simple avcD, primary of 
avvcHf is found always save once (mar.) 
with a. — €7C* is here ineati. 

59. doiiv, dgri "woe" has a, dgij 
"prayer^' or ** curse" has a in J9., but 
the latter is always in arsis; hence 
most Lexicons (see Liddell & S. and 
Crusius s, V,) give them, as the same 
word; but in 135 inf. dg-qast' is in 
thesis , showing that cc .is natural in 
a^ao/iftac, and therefore in a^i}. Thus agrj 
is a distinct word. 

60 — 2. "And we are no ways able to 
repel (the wrong) ; — sure enough in that 
case (t. c. in case we were) we should 
be (lit. shall be) poor creatures, and 
incapable of a bold deed; of course I 
would resist, if I had only the power". 
Ni. compares Ov. Heroid. 1. 97 — 8, Tres 
sumus imbelles numero, sine viribus uxor, 
Laertesque senex, Telemachusque puer. 
xoloi is =3 the Attic olol t8,^ and ov 
d€<fa37X.=3Latin nesdi, rj t' av shows 
that it is T£ elided not tot in crasis 

64 — 6. The argument, appealing to 
their sense of wrong, of shame, and of 
awe for the gods, rises in an ascending 
scale. TtBQixxU (which is explained 
by the rel. clause following, see on 
nolvxgonov og (idXa x. t, X, a. i — 2,) 
occurs nowhere else in the Ody., while 
nsgcvaist. is not found in the II. (Ni.). 

67 — 9. fiBxaOXQ., "repent", I. c. no 
more allow you; sometimes voov fol- 
lows, completing the sense (mar.), here 
pbTJviv preceding suggests some such 
word. Crusius takes sgya following as 
its object, "rebuke your misdeeds". 
Zfivoq ••• Sifiiax., gen. of adjura- 
tion, referred by Donalds. Gr. Gr. % 453 ee 
(a) to "relation": ngog or vn\g more 
commonly assists this construction : with 
Xieaofiai und. vfiag. The deities etc. 
in such adjurations are chosen pro re 
naid; here, in presence of the ayog-^, 
Zeus and Themis are preferred (cf. 
mar.). Themis is "ordinance" perso- 
nified : it is hers to convene the Olym- 
pian Assembly (mar.), as here that of 
men. Gifiig has accus. Gifiioxa, X€i~ 
^i^*9 transit., elsewhere neut. (mar.). 

70. axBOS'B, <f. "hold, friends" — 
to the Ithacans, viewed as abetting 


O/^ySSEIAL B. 71—85. 


T6iQ€6d'\ si iiij 7C0V XL TtutiiQ iiidg icd'Xog 'Odvdaavg 
Svgii^avimv xax' iQB^Bv ivxvfjiiLdccg *A%aiovg^ 
tfSv (i^ dTCovtvvfisvot xaxA ^i^Bts SvgiieviovtBg ^^ 
tovtovg itQiivovteg. ifiol Si xb xiqii^ov ^ etrj 

y^ vfiiag iod'^fiBvac xsifiTfkid xb XQdfiadiv xb. 

Bt x' viLBtg ys (fdyoLXBy xdx* av noxe xal xCcig^ slrj- 
x6(pQa yccQ av xaxct &6xv zoxi7exv06oi(iBd'a^ ^ivd'C) 
XQfjficcx^ ATCaixC^ovxBg^y eag x* dzd ndvxa Sod'sitj- 
vvv Si (loi dTCQijxxovg^ dSvvag iinfidXXBXs ^'vintpP 

80 <ogff tpdxo xa)6iisvogj stoxl Sh CxtIkxqov pdXB ycciy^ 
SdxQv' dvaTiQrjCag'^ olxxog d' bXb kaov anavxa. 
iv&*'^ akkoi (ihv xdvxsg dxi^v laavj oiSi xig ixkri 
TriXifLaxov ^ivd'oiCtv^ duBiiffaCd'ai, ;|jaA«3roW«; • 
^AvxCvoog Si [iiv olog afisifidiiBvog nQogiBinsv 

85 ^' Trilifiax* ^ vilfaydQfjj [livog &6xBxa^^ nolov SBLXsg 

a V. 314. 

b p. 320 et sapiss. 

CO. 239. 
c cf. X- W— 7, V. 

d d. 647, y. 22, g. 

509, X. 451. 
e <f. 651, Q. 222, 


V. 179. 
i>.223; cf.x.202, 

e: A. 245. 
h I. 433, n. 849 

-50; cf. fi. 427. 
1 ^. 22; cf.I. 430. 
k Q. 395. 
1 a. 385 mar. 
m Y' 104. 

77. fuaxv. 84. nQoaifsmav, 85. ^J^smsg, 

72. igsisv Ven. ({ k manu sec. adscript^). ^ 77. nQOTi7ttvaao£(is^a Harl. Ven. 

Ambros. cum Scholl. 81. Sdyigva &6Q(itt %iav Zenod., SchoU. H. M. Q. R. 

8a. ita Herman. Bek. Dind. secuti Schol. S., ovts libri. 

(otQVvovteg 74) the suitors — **and 
leave me to pine merely with sorrow! 
Unless it be that my father (said iro- 
nically) ever wrought the Achseans ill, 
then in requital go on wronging me'\ 
Take oloi' with zsigsa, used as a noun: 
it might also, however, as in X 416, 
agree with (is, 

73 — 7* dTCOTivvfi.s some edd. double 
the Vf needlessly, as thto has t in H. 
Spitzner Gr» Pros, § 5^, 3 c. lifiia^, 
he is addressing the ocyogi^, i. e, na- 
tive Ithacans, many of the suitors being 
aliens. noxmxvOO; **we (I and Pe- 
nel.) would address you with our plea", 
probably a legal phrase, with a fbrmal 
plea at law intended, which the dyogii 
would decide; see App. A. 4 (3) (4). 
The verb, not found in the II., means 
sometimes merely to address, also to 
embrace (mar.) 

78—9. dnatxU^*, the simple atxCito 
(which is not found in the II.) always 
includes some notion of importunity, and 
is used for a beggar, thus joined with 
xattt 9fjfiov etc., as an act which is 
(mar.) inconsistent with ai^ftog: so 
XQVfMXZa in sense of property is not 

found in the II. wtQ'^XT. ** without 
redress ". 

80 — 2. This same line describes the 
action of Achilles under strong emo- 
tion in public (mar.). No doubt this 
was meant to add dignity to our im- 
pressions of the young Telem., warm- 
ing out of indecision and reserve to a 
burst of generous indignation, like the 
hero of wrath. The words Sdngv ' ccva- 
ngiiaug^ however, sufficiently distin- 
guish the two. Achilles has tears ready 
in torrents for his friend^s loss, but 
not when provoked by iryury. Xadv, 
see App. A. 4 (3): the word has more 
personal force than Sijiiov, axiiVy see 
App. A. 16. I 

85—7. The words idtffay., fiiivoq &Cx* 
are used in derision cloaked under iro- 
nical deprecation ;' see App. E. 3, and 
6 (i). The speech assumes that the 
suitors are rather the injured party 
than the injurers — a shrewd piece of 
impudence , meant to evade the appeal 
of Telem. and make him ridiculous. 
This banter recurs in 302. fid}fiov 
dvd%p* **to fix derision on us" — a 
phrase occurring only here. 'Axccu with 
fivTiatfjgsg as with novgo^ visg etc. 


OATSSEIAS B. 86-^04. 

[day II. 

kA. 153, r. 164. 
b »P. 3W, 709. 
c cf. /J. 106—7, V. 

d V. 294, 9. 312; 

cf. «,42, «f^.834. 
e A. 40. 
f *. 136 — 56, ft). 

ffef./9.424— 5, 431. 
h X. 223. 
i Q. 174, tt. 248; 

cf. a. 148 mar. 
k J. 318. 
1 a. 332, ^. 363. 
m y. 238, 2. 171, 

398, ©. 70, X. 

n d. 24ft mar. 
o T. 32, i2. 554. 
p n. 57, ft}. 207. 
q A. 585-7,590-7, 

K. 489-90. 

^ft£a^ a^<y%waji/, id'ikoig Se xs (i(S[iov dvatl^at. 

6ol d' ov XI (JLVfiatrJQsg ^A%anSv attioC^ slaiv, 

dkka (pikri (jLfjtriQ, fj rot tcbqv xsQSea^ oldsv. 

f^Sri yaq'^ xqCxov i6xlv Ixog^ xa%a d' b16v xdxagxovj 

ig ov^ axiii^Bi dviiov'' ivl 6x7Jd'sa0iv 'AxanSv. 90 

ndvxag [lev .^' I^jcel xal vni6%sxai &v8qI ixdcxm 

dyyakiag jCQoVet0cc^ voog dd ot akla fisvoiva. 

fj^ Si Sokov xovd' aXkov ivl (pgeel [ieqih^qiIbv 

0XYi0a[iBvi]« [liyav [(Sxdv ivl (isyaQOiCLV vfpatvBv, 

ksTtxdv^ xal TtBQiiiBXQOv &q)aQ 8' i^^tv [iBxistTCSV 95 

'xovQOL', i[iol fivriaxiJQBg, iiCBl d-dvB Stog ^O8v00svg^ 

HLfivBx'^ iTtBiydfiBvoL xov ifiov ya'ftov, Big o xb fp&Qog 

ixxBkB0Gi^ [irj (lOL (iBxaiioivia^ vTJ^ax' oXrjxai, 

AaBQxri fJQCDt xa(piJLOv, sig oxb xbv fiiv 

fiotQ* oAoiJ xad'ikyav xavi^kByiog'^ %'avdxoio^ 100 j 

fiTy' xCg (lOL xaxd drj^iov ^AxccudScov vBfiB07}0ri^ 

at XBV axBQ 07tBLQOv^ xBtxai^ Ttokkd xxBaxC06ag.^ ^ 

cSg Bg)ad'\ rj^tv d' avx^ iitBitBC^BXo d'v^og dyrjvoQ. 

ivd'a xal rjfiaxiri (ibv vq)aCvB6xBv'^ iiiyav l0xov, 

88. FoiSbv. 89. Fstog. 91. fiiv FiXjtsi fBudarco. 92. Foi. 

95. fiSTsfsmsv. 

86. ita Harl., vulg, i&sXsig; di xal Harl. 93. fiSQinjgiiev Harl. cum var. 

lect. -^sv. "88 — 9 qui scripsit, versus omisit 93 — no", Herman, ap. Bek. 

, 2«a 
98. pLStatimUa Schol. P., iiSTocficovta Harl. 103. xiJTOft Ven. , ita Wolf. Bek. 

88 — 9. xigh as at a. 66, so inf. 116. 
The words xqIxov iatlv fr. and titocg- 
xov may be reconciled with 106 — 7 by 
supposing XQ, ixog to mean ''third 
completed year", and thus with iatlv 
=3 "the third year is ended", and xdxu 
d* sL xixaq. = "the fourth year will 
soon come to an end"; on the other 
hand xixq. 'ql&sv ix. 107, means "the 
fourth year", not complete, but com- 
mencing. This reckoning is confirmed 
^y *'• 377 > "*^e suitors are now three 
years [xgUxBg) lording it in thy palace. 
A Schol. explains xd%a slai as = xa- 
Xsmg diiQ%Bxai "is swiftly passing", 
which at once strains the language and 
yields a poor sense. 
^^ 91—6. ekxei, active only here in H. 
dkkav, "besides" what was mentioned 
in 91. pdfMVBx\ the force of this word 
here is hardly more than a negative, 
nolile properare: for a similar sense of 
the partic. i^ivovxi see mar. 

97 — 100. eiq o xe, here with sub- 
junct. (so 7HOX inf. with xa^fXi^at) 
takes also opt., with the usual dis- 
tinction of a principal or a historic 
tense having preceded. Of the fut. ind. 
Dind. retains one instance in Q'. 318 
ditodciasiy where Bek. and others read 
subjunct. All other apparent cases of 
the fut. in H. with slg o hb may be epic 
subjunct. Laertes having no female 
relative, this provision for his death 
devolved on Penel. before quitting her 

102. xeix.j Buttm., Ghr. Verbs s. v. liBt- 
fiai, say.s, "Wolf has altered, according 
to the Venet. MS., the old reading of 
the text UBixcci (which as indicat. would 
be certainly incorrect), to a conjunct. 
ytijtai.. But this was unnecessary, as 
by an old usage TiBifiat^ hbCxcci served 
for both conjunct, and indicat." 

104 — 7. For the combination of the 
form in -axov, marking continued or 

DAY n.] 

OATSSEIAS B. 105—126. 


105 vvxtag d' dkXvsaxev,^ ixsl^ datdag nagad'Stto.^ 
fSg tQiexBg^ [Ahv Sktjd's drfA^j xal InBi^Bv ^Axaiovg- 
ccAA' ore rixQatov r^kd'sv hog xal invjlvd'ov cJpat,® 
xal t6t€ Sfj tig iams yvvaiXiSv, ij* ddtpa^ gdij, 
xal tfjv y* &kkvov6av efpevQOiiBV dyXadv tdtov, 

no Sg TO lihv i^etilsaas xal ovx i%'dlov6% V7t' dvayxrig* 
.orol tf' cJdfi (ivrj0t'^Q€g vnoxQCvovtav^^ ?i/' BlSflg 
avthg ap d'Vfia, BlSiSoi 8h navtsg ^A%aiol. 
^rjtSQa^ 6riv dnonaiAil^ov, avox^i Ss [liv yanhod'aL^ 
rw ots^ ta itarr^Q xdXstat xal avddvst avty. 

11^ el 8' ix* dvLTJ^SL ya Ttokvv xqovov vlag ^A%amv^ 
xd q)Qoviov6^ dvd d'Vfidv a ot Jtigi StSxev 'A^vri , 
igya^ r' inC0xa6%ai jcegixakXia xal' q)Qivag i^d'Xdg 
xsQSad^ -d"', oV ov Ttcn rtv' dxovoiiBV ovSl jtakaiSv^ 
(xdav a? Ttdgog i]Gav ivnloxafitdeg'^ ^A%aial^ 

120 Tvpci" r' ^Akx[i7Jvri xs iv6xitpav6g xe Mvxrjvri' 
xdcav ov xtg onota vonjfiaxa IlrjvBkoTtBCji^ 
ydri' dxaQ ^Iv xoiko y'p ivaCc^iov ovx iv6ri0BV') 
x6q)Qa^ ydg ovv pioxov xs xsov xal xxtjiiax* Sdovxaty 
oq)Qa'i xe xeCvri xovxov axd voov^ ov xivd of vvv 

125 iv 6xfjd'a(S0L xid'at0i^ d'Boi. iiiya filv xXhg avxfi 
noielx\ avxaQ CoC ye non^v nokaog (iioxoio. 

a A. 585-7, 596-7, 

K. 489-90. 
b (u. 254, Si. 227. 
c 0. 506. 
.1 V. 377. 
e X. 2%, ^ 294. 
f (». 307, 153,373, 

(tf. 404, B. 192. 
«• H. 407, 0. 170, 

t. 555. 
h a. 274 seqq. 
i /9. 12s, a. 280. 
k 0.356,12.110-1, 

97, X. 223. 
I cl. V. 255. 
m t. 542. 
n X. 235. 
o cf. J. 279, P.M. 

p 17-299; cf.t.l90, 
a. 220. 

q I. 550-1. i cf. 
J. 220-1. 

r N. 732. 

106. xgiJ^Btsg. 
112. jFctdcoat. 

107. fitog, 108. ^/ftwc. /iJJ??. 
114. favddvet. 116. /ot. 
124. »fOfc. 

III. VTtoxp/vov^* Tva J^H^jjs, 
117. figyoc, 122. JtJ^i?. 

106. erant qui legerent 09; dter^g .... dlX' ore drj xqCtoVy coll. 89. ^ p^ost^ 107 
nounulli r. 153 inserebant. 114. alii ttvrco Bek. 115. de r' dvii^asie 

Schol. H., dvirjaiv Schol. E., dviijarjai Herman. 120. ivnX6yia[iog Harl. Ven. 
ed. Clark. 123. **videntur fuisse qui (iCotov tov gov (vel ^toroto veov) fivrj- 
•atrJQsg iSovxui legerent", Bek. 124. ^%u Harl. 125. avr^g Schol. 

126. noQ^ Arist. 

repeated action, with the optat. naga- 
d'SitOj see App. A. 9 (20). ekti^B^ 
the pres. XriO'ta occurs r. 88, 91. For 
cSg XQlBxsg X. r. X. some have wished, 
says ^a Schol. , to read mg diszsg . . . 
dlX* otfi di7 zg(tov\ but in note on 89 
the text is shown to be admissible. 

109. laxov **web", but 94 *'loom'*. 
So Dryden, of the spider, she **run8 
along her loom^\ N. B,, in no to filv 
means ^gfov, for tarov is ace. of masc. 
nom. tarogf see 94. 

114. There is a similar change of 
subject for object here to that in 54 
sup., where see note. 

115 — 26. The parenthesis suspends 
the sense so far that in 123 totpQa.,. 
the whole is virtually resumed, and 
the bI S' it' dviijasi x. t. X. of 115 is 
left without a formal apodosis. "If 
she will go on baffling the Achseans 
.... they so long will go on consuming 
thy substance as she retains this pur- 
pose." Further, the tdmv ov ttg x. t, X. 
of 121 repeats independently the state- 
ment made depending on ceytovo^sv of 
118, and xal in 117 couples (pgivag iad; 
Tiigded x* to the substantival clause 
^gya x' in^Gxaa^at n8gi.%.^ Thus q>gi- 
vag is not obj. of iniax» dtaQ x. t. it.. 


OATSSEIAS B. 127—134. 

[day ii. 

a a. 288—9. 

b /?.252,V.138— 9. 

c !b. 218-9. 

d 0. 280, V. 343—4, 

X- 76. 
e Zi. 223-4. 
f d. 110, 837, X. 

464 ;cf. 1. 701-2. 
e /*. 194, d. 649, 

w. 321, ^. 137. 
h fi. 179, ^. 205, 

12. 651. 
i e. 396, C- 17'i> *• 

61,^ 64;cf.y.27, 

a. 201, .ii. 792, 

O. 403, r. 182. 

tcqCv y avtfjv yrj^Md'ccL ^A%anSv © x' i%'iXri0ivP 
tbv d* av TriXsiiaxog TtSTtwiisvog avtCov rjvda 
'^^AvtCvo\ ov TCfog i0tv Sofiav dixov0av^ d7t(56av 1^0 

rj ft' itsx'j if [i' i9'Q€ts • ® ytatrJQ d' i^og aXXo^t yccirig, 
^dsi^ o y' rj tedvijxB' xaxov di [is %6Xk^ anoxlvEiv 
'IxuQtcDy si! jc' avtogs iyAv &%b ^ijrBQa Ttd^ij^to. 
ix yccQ Tov statQog xaxcc^ Jteieonai, akla Se dai^cjv^ 

127. J^igya, 130. dfeTiovcav, 133. Finaqitft. 
133. Harl. Ixcov, Schol. H. By tov, i37 t Arist. 

the blame here conveyed gains force 
from the encomium -which leads up to 
it. fi^ya • • • xiQifed , for by a mix- 
ture of these she had baffled them. 

ivala. ovx iv6», a phrase of po- 
lite but cold irony — "this device of 
hers was not judicious", or "for your 
interests". Antin. speaks not of the 
moral quality of the act, but only of 
its effect on their course of action, as 
shown by yag following. The word 
has another sense zn/*. 159, 182, ^'related 
to altfa", as "fate", t. e. "portentous": 
see also mar. 

TvQ(6, mother of Neleus and others 
by Poseidon and Cretheus (mar.) ; itfv- 
scj^, daughter of Inachus. Ofioia Ilriv.y 
"like (those of) Penel.", a contracted 
constrn. Ni. compares tpmvriv Fa%ova' 
dX6%oiaiv d* 279. 

127 — 9. xouZt*, Donalds. Chr. Gr. 
139 says the apparent elisions of at 
belong to syuizesis, — a rash doctrine, 
especially where, as here, a comma 
intervenes, see Jelf Gr. GV. § 18. 5 and 6. 
Ttenwfi. see on a. 213. 

132. gcoce • • • riS^., this phrase, 
elsewhere introduced by ovde xi olduy 
tdf/bsv, or the like, stands here abso- 
lutely; €f T£ might be understood to 
complete the sense; see App. A. 9 (i) 
and cf. idaoiisv, ii %sv T^fftv rj %s pbivfj 
(mar.) where the latter clause contains 
a contingency yet to be decided, where as 
£(6si . . . zi&VTiHS stands as a fact ac- 
complished one way or the other, but 
unknown which. sKotv , read for sya>Vy 
being really J^etuov, impedes the pro- 

134. Some refer rov JtazQ* to 'ixap., 
"Aer father", and explain xaxa ns£- 
aoi»,air by noXX' dnoxCvBiv^ a weak 

meaning for words so strong. The 
whole speech (see App. E. 3) is frag- 
mentary and lacks sequence. Render, 
"ill were it for me to make large com- 
pensation to Ic. (as I must) , if of my- 
self I dismiss my mother. — Why, from 
that father (mentioned in 131) I shall 
have woe to suffer; further woe the 
powers above will add, since my mo- 
ther on going forth from home will 
invoke the abhorred Erinnyes (see on 
y. 310); indignation, too, from men will 
attend me." His father, if alive, would 
return to punish him; if dead, would 
retain a power to curse. aTtoxLv* pro- 
bably means that, as the injured hus- 
band re -demanded what he had given 
the father, when a wife was dismissed 
for adultery (©■. 318), and the husband 
repaid what he had received in pre- 
sents etc., if she were sent away cause- 
lessly, so the same rule would apply 
to Telem. dismissing his mother as pro- 
posed; see App. A. 14. 

6aLfJLtav, NSgelsb., I. § 47, says, 
that although clear cases occur where 
dof/ft. stands indifferently for Q'Boq, or 
for numen divinum, yet only twice in H. 
has it a clear sense of god as helping, 
benefiting etc., and that in the Ody. 
the sense inclines mostly in malam par- 
tem , cf. the adj. SaiiLOVioq^ a term 
of reproof; but cf. also 6xpio(^a^(i(ov. 
Yet he rejects any notion of an inde- 
pendent coordinate power of evil, and 
connects with SaCyi^dov the notion of 
divine agency as strange and myste- 
rious, and especially as exerted for 
harm. Hes. Opp, 121 — 3 has a quite 
different view of SaCyiiOVS^y as the spi- 
rits of the men of the golden age, 
who, departed this world, exercise in- 

DAY 11.] 

0AT2SEIAS B. 135—153. 

oixov &7CBQ%oiiivri* vsneecg^ di [loi i^ dvd'QcijccDV 
i66€tai' Sg ov roikov iyd stots fivd'ov ivC^fo,^ 
vfihsQog 6' el ^hv d^iiog vsiisaiistat^ avxtSv^ 
i^iXB^ (lOi [leydQCDVy ukkag 8^ dXsyvvBta Sattag 

1 40 vfid xtij(iaT* idovTBg^ diisipogievoi, xcctd oCxovg. 
el d' vfitv doxist toSs Xmtsgov xal &(i£i,vov 
f(i(i€vai.y dvSQog ivdg fiiotov vTjTtotvov dXdcd'ai^ 
xsCqbz^'^ iy(D dh d'sovg impoS^ogiaL cclhv iovtag, 
st^ xi no%'i Zsvg Sp0t naXCvtita Igya ysvea&aL^ 

1 45 vTJnotvot XBv insira So^cdv ivroad'sv oXoiCd's,'^ 

Sg (fdto T^iXefiaxog^ t£^ d' aietfA^ sv0vo7ta Zsvg 
v^o^av ix xoQVff^g ogeog itQoirixs nixBiS^ai. 
TCD d' Bag (iBv^ ^' initovro ^std^ Tivocjjg dvsiiovo^ 
nkri<sCfo dkkrjloiGt tvtavvo(idv(D^'^ ntBQvyBCCLV' 

\rpdkV or« di) fidaofiv dyo^v jcokviprj^ov^ CxsiSd^Vy 
ivd'' i%L8ivri%'BVtB^ ttva^d^difiv iczBgd itokkd^ 
ig d' IdixTiv Ttdvvcov xBg)akdg o60ovto^ d' okad'QOv^ 
dQvtpafiBva^ d' 6vvx£<50l nagBidg d(i(p{ xb Saigag 


a ;i. 2S0, J. iU, 

V. 78, O. 404, T. 

418, *. 412. 
b a. 350 mar. 
c I. 148, Q, 629, 

JT. 447; cf. 0.1, 

to. 414. 
d cf. fi, 239-40, 

Z. 335. 
e a. 374-80. 
f /9. 312, cu. 459. 
g ^.51,^.129^9, 
h 0. 168, J^. 821. 
i 0, 245 — 7, Sk. 

292, 0. 160 — 4; 

cf. a:. 274-6. 
k y. 126; cf. P. 

178, 2. 599. 
1 a. 98 mar. 
in l. 599, X. 23, 

*F. 618. 
n /. 376. 
o (. 538, V. 218, 

H. 269. 
p a. 115, e. 389, 

3. 31, a. 154, V. 
1, A. 105, 2. 
224, Si. 172. 
q cf. t. 426, 435, 
77. 324. 

136. ^oC%ov, 140. M%Qvq, 144. fsgyu. 

144. x£ ZBvg SmriGi F. ed. Oxon. 146. x& Oodd. quataor, tco tres, sed 

horum SchoU. rqo agnoscunt. 147. cpigsa^cct. 148. Btatg Schol. A, 193. 

149. nlrjaiov. 151. tiva^ia^tiv Rec. ; pro noXXd Harl. et pleriqne nwivd^ ita 

Bek. , cf. A. 454. 152. oaaavto Rhian. interp. Pors. 

fluence in it. a>$ not oxytone, which 
would mean **so that", but = dto 
** wherefore". Bvhpm see App. A. i. 

138. VBfJL. avrdiv, "has any awe for 
all these", 1. e, the wrath of gods, 
Erinnyes, parents and men. The gen. 
is that of cause or motive (Donalds. 
Gr, Gr, § 453 ee (a) ) ; see also the ex- 
amples of gen. with verbs of wondering 
etc. in Jelf Gr. Gr, § ^95, 499, 500, ^and 
ovtoi TgoMiv ^oilco ovds vBiisaai rjfirjv 
(mar.); but vsfiBa^iofiqci is not else- 
where found with gen. ; see on 239 — 40. 

139 — 45- see on a. 374 — 80. 

148. ea>$ (scanned in synizesis) 
"awhile", t. e. really, while on their 
way in 146 — 7. This indefinite use is 
in correlative clauses common with ots, 
more rare with ^mg (mar.). 

150 — 6. jtoXvif^s tl^ls ^6^1 expresses 
the hum of voices rising into the air; 
which makes the birds* descent more 

ominous, they not being scared by it. 
Tiva§da.f "shook ow<"; cf. «. 368, N, 243. 
Sooov, X. T. X. "looked with omen of 
destruction", see on a. 115, and cf. 
-^schyl. Sept, c, Th. 53 Xsovtav atg 
"Agrj isdog7i6t(ov, 

153. ^qvtpafii*y the mid. voice shows 
that the birds pecked themselves , not 
those in the dyogij , igvnT<o being (mar.) 
transitive. Eustathius mentions a notion 
of birds destroying themselves being an 
omen of ill. But by "themselves" he 
might mean "one another" iavtovg for 
aXX-qXavgy cf. Soph. Ant 145, Jelf Gr. Gr. 
§ 654. 3 ; Teiresias Sopk, Ant. 1003 ,so 
regards birds anavtag iv xv^'^^^'f'V dX- 
XrjXovg fpovutg. — de§ect>^ either on the 
observers* right, or on the absolute 
right, t. e. the Eastern side (mar.). 
The gazers gave the omen its real in- 
terpretation, t. e. woe to the suitors. 
The reading ^ilbXXbv 156 is needless, 


OATSSEIAS B. 154—176. 

[day n. 

a 0. 164, n. 320, 

jr. 274, M. 239. 
b O. 488. 
c *. 137. 
d cf. o. 172—8. 
e B. 36;cf.^.l60, 

233, ul. 310, 0. 

f w. 451-4. 
y N. 431, 77. 808, 

B. 530, Z- 124, 

fi. 536. 
h ^. 74, Z. 376, 

i I. 137, r. 7. 
k ^. 81, ji. 347, 

P. 688. 
I cf. fi. 237, 283, 

^. 168 — 64, *. 

300 — 7, Wfi — 8, 

m Q. 82, O. 134. 
n cf. o. 526—8. 
o I. 21, V. 212, 234, 

«. 132. 
p 8. 241 , 244 , 0). 

q ^. 417, V- 109. 
r itf. 304, P. 41. 
8 a. 210, a. 252, 

Z. 74. 
t a. 6, 7. 
u V. 191 , 397. 
V o. 327, rp. 102, 

w X. 432, V. 132, 

V;. 72. 
X «. 302, V. 178, a. 

271 , B. 329-30. 

A. 48. 

%diiL^ri6av d' 091/t^ag ^;rfil tSov^ 6g)d'aXfiot6LV^ 155 

SQfi7}vav'^ d' ai/a d-vfiov a Ttsg^ raXise^ai ifieXkov.^ 

totei^ 6h xal [istBSLxe ydgcov ijgcog 'Akid'SQarjg 

MaCtOQCSfig* o yStq olog 6[iLrjkLKirjv ixdxadro^ 

oQvid'ag yviSvai Tcal ivaiiJt(ia (it)d^aaiJd'aL'^ 

0q)iv ivfpQovdcav dyo^0aTO xal (isriBLTCSv 160 

'^xexXvts d^ vvv [isvj 'Id'axrfaiOL, otti xbv al!n:<a' 
uvrj^f^Qaiv Sh ^dli0ta 7ti(pav6x6^£vog tdSe cHqg},^ 
tote IV yccQ ^iya sf^iicc^ xvkMstaL' oi ydg '0Sv66evg 
Sriv dndvsvd'B <plk(ov (ov l006taL^^ dkXd stov i^dri 
iyyvg i(^v tolgSecfUi q)6vov xal xiJQa qyvtsvEi^ 165 

7cdvrB66iv TtoXsdiv dh xccl akXoiovv'^ xaxov iexav^ 
or V8fi6[i€0d'' 'Id'dxfiv'^ evSsCsXov. dXkd Tcokv tcqIv 
q)Qatfiiiibs6%'^ Sg xsv xata7tav0O(i6v • p 6t Sh xal avrol 
7cavd0d'(OP' xal ydg etpiv ag)aQ roSs kmov^ i6t£v. 
ov ydg dnsCgrirog^ fiavtsvo^ai^ dkk' sv eldcig' 170 

xal ydg ixscvoi) (prifil tsk6vtrid"f}vaL aitavta 1 

Sg ol dfivd'soiiriv, ots "Ikiov elgavi^avvov^ 
^Agyetoi^ listd Si 0<pLv i^ri nokvfiritLg '0Sv6(fsvg, I 

g)rjv xaxd Ttokkd ita^ovil^ oki^avx^ dno ndvtag haCgovg^ 
ayvoodtov^ %dvts00iv isLXO0rai^ ivvavtoi 17 j 

oHxaS' iksv0s0^aL • ^ xd SI Si^ vvv ndvxa xskeZxav. " * 

154. J^o^moc. 155. J^lSov, 157. tistefems. 160. fistij^stnsv. 161. fsCnm, 
162. J^sigm. 164. fmv, 170. feidcag. 173. J^oi J^iliov, 175. ifeiTioavm. 

176. 179. foUct8\ 

154. pro avxmv Aristoph. ovtmg^ Scholl. H. M. 156. ita Scholl. E. H. S. Q. V. 

Codd. aliquot ipLslXsv, ita Harl. k prima manu. 168. pro di d^, Schol. K, 167 ijdc. 

170. dneiQi^toag Rec; fiavtsvaoiiai Harl., sine 6 Schol. H. 

as in H. and the non- Attic poets the 
pi. occurs with pi. neut. nouns (mar.) ; 
see Jelf Chr. Gr, § 385 , Obs. 2. 

158 — 9. ixixaC, see on y. 282. 
ivcUC, see on 122; so also inf, 182. 

162 — 6. siQO^ rare epic pres. , only 
found in Ody. It was doubtless fsgca, 
or lengthened figgoiiy Lat. sero, as in 
Virg. Mn, VI. 160 sermone serebant; the 
fut. ig^co is used in phrases of solemn 
enunciation, aJiXo &i rot igica^ av d' 
X. t. X. (mar.), rolad. see on 47. 

167—9. evdele*, see App. A. 17 (3). 
xgiv is adv. in 167, but in 128 con- 

junction; in I. 403 both uses occur, 
TO nglv en' slgT^vqg nglv iX&sCv %.t. I. 
xaxaic*y t. e, fivnazijgagj it may be fut. 
as in tpgaimfisd" onoag ^atai rocds ^gya 
^, 14, or subjunct. shortened epiccy as 
in J. 112. aixoX = sponte. 

170 — 2. el6ei^, often, as here, "ex- 
perienced'^; the experience meant is 
shown by the sequel xal ydg x. t. X.; 
he had foretold what was in part ful- 
filled, and he infers that ^* all is being 
fulfilled'' in 176. eiqavi^. see on a. 
210. With the vaticination in 174 — 6 
Ni. compares that of Calchas to the 
Greeks, given B, 265 foil. 


0ATSSEIA2 B. 177—200. 


tdv d' air* Eigv^axos IlokiJ^ov natg dvtiov rjvda 
'^cJ yiQOV^ il d' ays vvv [lavtsvso (SotCv^ tSKB06Lv^ 

1 80 ravta d' iym 6so nokXov diietvcav (lavtsveed'aL. 
OQVLd'sg di te TtoXloi iJjt'^ avyctg i^bXlolo 
(poir(S(t\^ ovSi ts ndvteg ivaiatgiOL • ® ainrccp ^OSv0(S€vg 
aXsro xilk\ i&g^ %al 6v xaxatpd'Cc^ai 6vv ixetvoi 
wtpsksg, ovx &v x6(t6a d'eongoTtdcov^ dyogevsg^ 

185 o'ddi X6 TriXigiaxov xb%oX(oilbvov (SS' dvieCrig^^ 
6p otx^ S(3qov TtorvSiy^evog,'^ st xs jc6Qi]0iv» 
dXl*^ ix rot ig^cD, rd 8h xal vst€X60iiivov ictai' 
at XB vBcitBQOv avSga naXaid ts %oXXd^ xb Biddg 
naQ(pd[iBvog"^ iniBCCtv ^noxQvvyg %aXBJtaCvBLV^ 

190 avx^ (liv oi 7tQ<Sxov dviriQicxBQOv^ iiSxai^ 

[arp^gat® d' i^i^Ttrig ov xv dvvTJ^Bxai BivBxa x6v8b''\ 
0ol 8i^ yiQOVj -O-owJvp ^jci^6o(ibVj rlv x ivl ^vftoj 
xivcDv diSxdXXyg'^ 2^A£;r6i/ Si xot iaOBxai akyog, 
TijkBfidxp d' iv 7td6iv^ iytav V7Cod7J0O(iaL avxog- 

195 [irixiQ* B^v ig zaxgdg dvayyixcn^ dnoviBd^'ai* 
oF* 61 ydfiov xbv^ov0l xal dQXvviov0iv SbSvcc 
xoXXd^ (idX% Zoaa ioiXB (piXrjg ijtl jcaiSog SzB0d'ai. 
ov ydq nqlv nav0B0%'ai dtoiifct vlag ^AxaiSv 
livri^xvog dgyaXirig^ inBl ov xiva dsiSi^iiBV l^nrig^'' 

200 oik* ^ ovv Tr^kdiiaxov^ ^idXa ubq zoXvfivd'Ov iovxa* 

a O. 197. 

b /9. 134 mar. 

c X. 498, 619, 2V. 

d X. 119, /u. 420, 

B. 779, M. 266, 

r. 6. 

e /9. 159, B. 3&3; 

r a. 217, 9. 812, 

;i. 548, r. 428, 

I. 698. 
g- A 109, B. 321. 
h ». 73, JI. 761, 

d. 568, ». 359, 

X. 80 , /9. 300. 
i fi. 2U5, 403. 
k B. 257. 
I fi. 16 mar. 
m ^.287, *. 6; cf. 

S. 217, O. 404. 
n q. 220. 
o A. 562. 
|i N. 669. 
<1 a. 304, «. 159, 

634, B. 293, 297, 

X. 412, i2. 403. 
r r. 121, 528. 
8 a. 269, V/. 182. 
t a. 277—8 mar. 
u a. 278 mar. 
V H. 196, «. 205, 

4. 481, M. 32U, 

F. 632. 

186. ^0C%(O, 

187. J^agm, 
195- ^^i7«'- 

188. J^siSmg. 
196. SJ^sdvce, 

189. fsnhaaiv. 
197. fifome. 

190. /ot. 

180. d(i£ivfo Schol. H. 182. naxavc' SchoU. M. Q. S. 190. at^Aij^ODVfpoy Bek. 
191. omittunt nonnulli. pro stvsyia tmv9s (vel tmv ye) oloff ott' aAiloii/. 192. ini- 

d^aoficti Schol. H. 198. pro navaead'ai nnvcna^ui Harl., navsa&ai alii. 

181 — 9. di re, see on a. 53. v:t* 
avydg iieX., vno here with ace. does 
not mean "to or towards", but fixed 
position (mar.), cf. ad or apud superos 
Virg. JEn. VI. 48 ij 568. avuin^, this 
verb means **to set free, loose or 
open**, here "to set on or rouse", in 
mid. "to rip up" (mar.) It is here 
optat., as depending mediately on ayo- 
QBVBq^ "you would not be talking and 
thereby rousing Telem. to wrath" {%b%oI, 
a further predicate). naq<pdfi*,^ as we 
say ** talking oticr", cf. Tror^dppiytot 
Mbcoiv^ i. 526. 

191— 5. The line 191, not found in 

many of the best copies, is probably 
from II. (mar.). S'Oiiiv "mulct", which 
the ayo^^ could probably impose; see 
App. A. 4 (3). The sense of "blame" 
suggested by Ni. is doubtful, and would 
here certainly be poor. aCxdk., else- 
where da%aXdm or epice -do>; H. has the 
form da%dllm only here; ^see ma», 
Bv xaOm coram omnibus. For a in a;ro- 
vieoO'ai see on a. 420. 

196—203. For at dk ... eedva see 
App. A. 14. BfJUiriq, "in everv sup- 
posable case " ;^ hence, "anyhow"; see 
mar. ovx* ovv x. t. A., "no, nor do 
we fear Telem."; this seems to answer 


0Ar22EIA2 B. 201—224. 

[day II. 

a a. 415, U. 60; 

b cf. fi. 126. 
c J. 336, ilf. 436, 
(. 42. 

d /9. 265, V. 341, 

/9. 404, ^. 42, 

r. 150. 
e cf. 9. 401, V- 24. 
f ji. 763, (T. 251. 
R- /9. 336, JV^. 379, 

429, C. 63, 0. 

h d. 681 , |. 180, 

a. 99, y. 174, 232. 
i cf. f 406, n. 47. 
k /9. 44. 
I «. 327, 331, X. 

574; cf. ij. 86, 

B. 462, 476, H. 

in a. 93—4 mar. 
n a. 281—92 mar. 
o n. 38. 
p A. 68, 101, B. 

76, H. 354, 365, 

^ 213. 

ovrs d'sojtQOTt^rjg'^ d(iJta^6(i€d'\ ijv 6v, ysQaihj 

(ivd'daL axQciavtoVj a^£%%'oiv£av d' Sxv fiaklov. 

XQTJfiara^ d' avrs xaxiSg ^B^Qfsi^sxav^ ov8i not* hsa^ 

i66€tai^ og)Qa xsv H ya SLatQifiy6vv^ ^A%avovg^ 

ov ydfiov rjfistg d' av TtotiSiyfisvov ijfiata ndvra 205 

alvBxa trjg aQef^g^ iQiSaCvofisv ^ ovSi fist' aXlag 

iQ%6^s%'\ ag ijtiavxhg djtvu^sv^ ifSrlv ixd6tG}.'^ 

rov d' av Tr^lifiaxog 7tS7tvv(iivog avrCov vivda 
''EvQv^ax' 'f^Sh xal akXoi^ o6oi ^vi]6r'^Q£g^ dyavol^ 
ravta (ihv ov% vfiaag he ki66o(iat,^ oid'^ dyoQSVto' 21c 
Y^dr^ ydg td t6a6L %'sol xal jcdvxsg *A%avoL 
dkX* ay 8 (lOL dots v^a d'oi^v xal stxoc* ita^QOvg, 
0? xi fioL fvd-a^ xal Ivd'a SLa7tQ7J66(X)6L xilsvd'ov. 
eliLi^ ydg ig ZTtdgtriv te xal ig IIijIov i^fiad'dsvta ^ 
v66rov icevfSoiievog Jtargog dr^v olxofiBvoLO^^ 215 

TJv tig fioi aticri^i fiQOttoVy ^ o66av dxovam 
ix dvogj i] ta (idheta fpagai xXaog dv%'Q(6icov6iv, 
al fidv xav JtaxQog fiiotov xal v66tov dxov6(o^ 
71 t* av tQvx6fiav6g nag in tXaCriv iviavtov 
al 8i %a rad'vr^ditog dxov6(X) ftiyd' h* i6vxog, 220 

vo0t7J6ag Srj iicaixa fpilrjv ig itaxQCda yatav 
6'^ fid ta ot x^'^^ ^«i ^^i xtdQaa^ xtaQat^a 
TCokkd fidX\ 006a §oixa^ xal dviQi ^ritdQa dci6G).^' 

ijp T^Ofc y' (Sg alietDV xat ag' a^ato, tot0i d' dva^trj 

205. fov, lo'j.iniJ^si'Klg fsTtactip. 211. flcocci. 212. fsinoc', 

216. fs£nfi<si J^occav. 222. foi. 223. fsfoints. 224. J^Binoav. 



TCQOTiSiyfievoi, 206. de hoc .v. dubitavit Aristoph. , Scholl. H. M. Q. B 
ii^.SiangijcaiCi. Harl., dvccnQT^atoai Schol. B. ; iiilsv&a Bec< 


'^fiad'osacttv Rec. 

222. ita Herod. ^ xsl<o Arist., alii ;|r£t;<r<D, Schol. H. 
iniKtigsa Hesjch. 

a ^supposed query, as in a. 414. ovv* 
ovv . . . answers a real one. laa 
"equivalent", i. e. ** compensation", 
so >tar' Iffa, in' lau (mar.). 

204—6. diazQ. *Ax* ov y.f a rare 
double accus., with which we may 
compare -ffischyl. Eumen, 221—2 dlyLag 
fiitsifii %6vSb tpmta and mar. e. 
"Puts off her wedding" or "puts off 
the Achaeans", would be simple; this 
sentence complicates the two transitive 
constructions, having one object in the 
persons deprived, and another in the 

thing debarred; cf. the similar use of 
anoQQuCGBi a. 404. dQev^q, "supe- 
riority", see mar. 

207. oxvu, the act. with accus. is 
used of men, the pass, or mid. of women 

212 — 3. «fy€ often becomes purely 
adverbial, as shown here bv the plur. 
S6ts following, kv^a x» €• here of 
motion, "to and fro", but also of po- 
sition **here and there" (mar.). 

214 — 23 are nearly verbatim recurring 
lines (mar.). 

DAY II.] / 

OATSSEIAS B. 225—341. 


225 MivrcDQj og ^' Wv6'^og d^vfiovog ijsv itatQogj^ 
xai of l&v iv vrivfSlv initQenev^ olxov Snavra^ 
nsid'E^d'ai re yiQOvxi xal IfinsSa navra q)vkd(S(S6LV' 
0^ 6(pcv ivq)QOvi(Xiv dyoQ7]6ato xal (ietisixsv 
^'xixlvte dr^ vvv fisvy 'Id'axijaiovy Zxtv xev etnco' 

230ftif« rig in nQ6q)Q(DV^ dyavdg xal Ijmog iCtm 

6xri7ttovxog« fiaailevg, (irjdh q)QE6lv atat^a^' eiSdg^ 

dkV aisl xalsxog^ r' ettj xal atavla^ ^i^ov 

mg ov tig ^dfivrirai 'OSv66^og d^sioio 

Aacov oloiv &va666, natr^Q d' (Sg iJTtiog^ tjsv. 

235 dlV ij TOi (iVfi^t'^Qag dynjvoQag ov ti^ (lEyaiQCD, 
ifSeiv iffy a fiiccicc xaxoQQaq>iy6i^ vooio* 
<fq>dg yaQ xuQd'iiisvoi^ X€q)akdg xatiSov6i fiia((og 
olxov 'Odvtftf^off, roi/ d' ovxixi q>a0l viac^ai."^ 
vvv d' aXXfp dfffiG) v6(i66iio(iaiy^ olov^ dnavxeg 

240 ^(y-O"* ai;£G}/ dxd{f ov ti xa^anxo^isvoi^ iitiaeaiv 
naijQovg^ (ivri0x'^Qag^ xaxanavaxB nokkol iovxagJ^ 

a /9. 253-4, 2S6, 

If. 68-9. 
b cf. y. 268, a. 266. 
c L 17S, t. 525. 
d /?. 160-1. 
e •. 8—12. 
f cf. A. 77, Q. 40, 

ff A. 279; cf. B. 

h O. 207. 
i ^. 388. 

j £. 403, <h. 214. 
k /9. 47 mar. 
1 ». 206, H. 406; 

cf. J, 54. 
in fi. 26, O. 16. 
n y. 74, «. 255. 

r. 61, I 152, r. 
257, S. 101, 13tt. 

p a. 263, /9. 138, 
£. 757, 6l. 407. 

.1 B. 320, JP. 173. 

r w. 144, V'. 93, 
B. 323, i\ 84, 
I. 30, 695. 

» H. 39 mar. 

1 cf. a. 883. 

226. /oi. /orxov. 228. ftBtiJ^smsv. 229. J^aino), 231. fsidcog, 
234. J^dvacae, 236. figSeiv figya. 238. fotnov, 240. J^eniBcatv, 

2$2. (i^mv Harl. mar. 236. xaxoep^ce^^i^ai SchoU. H. M. S. 240. avfo 

libri et SchoU. Bek. Dind. Fa. L(5w. 241. ita Rhian., Schol. H., ita Bek. Fa!, 

libri %cct8QV%Bts, ita Dind. edd. Clark, et Oxon. 

225 — 6. Mentor here only appears 
in prop, persond, beingf elsewhere an 
stdmkov assumed by Pallas, who re- 
peats his words here (mar.). In 0$ 
• • • xal • • • iiov, the subject of 
the second clause is borrowed, as in 
249 — 50, from the object of the first. 
So y^^ovTi, 227, is Mentor, the subj. 
of fpvldaaeiv. It is probable that Men- 
tor was older than Odys. See on y. 268. 

230—8. XQ6q>Q€Ov %* V, L, "forward 
(in beingf) gentle*', or ^'taking^ pains 
to be so". Tig ... axfjxTOvxOQ ^., 
the tig separated gives notice of the 
noun following, as does the demonstr. 0, 
e, g, A. 488 , ^ avxctg {l-Avib . . . nodag 
d-nvg *A%iXXBvg* — vieoB'ai, this verb 
appears only in pros, and imperf., but 
the pres. has also a fut. force, as here 
(mar., Buttm. Or. Verbs s, v.) : it appears 
in epic pres. vevficttj veCccty veCtai.. 

>39— 40* vefieaii. (mar.), in sense 
of **be angry" this verb takes dat. of 
person or accus. of thing, or both; in 

sense of "feel awe at", accus. of pers. 
and once gen., viz. 138 sup,^ where soo 
note, olov x. t. X» , this sudden turn 
from speaking of them to directly ad- 
dressing them gives much vigour to the 
address, avaqi, so Bek. in Ody. (but 
avBto in II., see mar.);' and so "the 
earlier edd. till Wolf" says Crusius 
s» v„ who, however, gives ai/£a>, regard- 
ing it as an adverb. It certainlv occurs 
lb. 93 with sinff. subject, rj S' avBto dijv 
ijftfro, where SvBm is found in all edd. 
Buttm. Lexil. 20 writes it always avBto 
as an adv., t. e, he disregards th(* 
seven times of avBtp for the once ot 
avBio. Those who regard the MSB. 
will probably still keep avBm as an 
adj. plur. , when joined with a plur. 
verb., as do the Scholl. H.M. here; even 
although it may be doubtful whether 
dvico of ijf* 93 be a fern, form or an 
aclverb. Mentor appeals hero, as Hali- 
therses did in 68, to the people as a 
last resort amid the disaffection of the 
PovXif; see App. A. 4 (3). 


OAT22EIAS B. 242-256. 

[day n. 

a y. 294. 

b ^. 223. 

c O. 128, I 464. 

d ff'. TM, r. 356, 

d. eyS, V. 16; 

cf. n. S8— 9. 
e V. 42, ^. 355, 

A. 580. 
f y. 45. . 
h ft. 209 mar. 
i t. 462—3, ^. 504, 

1*. 42-3. 
k r. 280. 
1 y. 317, 416, d. 

339, 340, o. 130, 

131, t. 5aro, ^. 

m a. 63, JV. 739; 

cf. 7t, 88. 
n V. 385, CT. 170, 

u. 37, y. 486. 
o. 274, T^, 277, 

..i. 487. 
p E. 878, J8. 775. 
q TT. 355, a. 85. 
r fi. 286, o. 68-9. 
8 -». 180. 
t a. 408, 414. 
u TT. 347. 

TO!/ d' *Evi]V0Q£di]g AsKOTtQirog^ avtCov r^iiSa 
"MivtOQ axaQxriQS^^ q)Qdvag i^lsl,^ Tcotov Ssvjtsg 
i^fidag otQvvov X(xta7tavd(i£v. Agyakiov^ Sh 
avSgd^L xal 7tXe6v£66L ^axrjiSoc0d'aL neqit daitC. 245 

at 7t£Q^ ydg x' 'Odvasvg 'Id'ax'^0Log^ airog iiteXd'cov 
daLvv^dvovgs xara dtS^a iov fivri^rrJQag^ dyavovg 
H^eXdcai ^sydQOio ^evoiVfj6sv' ivl d'Vfip, 
ov xdv ol'^ xsxdQOLto yvvri^ ^dla^ jt£Q xariov6a^ 
ild'6vr\ dlld xsv avtov dsiTtsa^ Tcotfiov iitiOTtOL^ 250 
[el nk£6v£06v^ ^dxoiro' 6v d' ov xatd^ fiotgav IsvTtsg,'] 
aAA' ays J kaol (ihv 0xC8va6d'^^ iicl igya exa0rog^^ 
Tovto) S' otQvvhv^ MivrcnQ oSov ijd' ^Akid'iQarig ^ 
0% rs of i^ dgxijg TtatQmoi si6iv itatQOt,,' 
dXV^ otcj xal Sii^d xadij^svog dyyekidfov^ 255 

Tcsvcexai elv ^Id'dxy^ tsXiav d' bSov"^ ov Ttots rccvrr^vJ' 

243* £f«wfiff. 

247. J^sov. 249. /ot. 
252. figyoc fsyiaatog. 

250. dfsitiia, 
254. foi. 

251. ifsinsg. 

245. Hal navQOiGi Scholl. H. M. Q. 247. %(o Scholl. M. S. 250. in^ffwg ex 

emend. Harl. 251. si nXsovig ol ^noivto Harl. Ven. Ambros., quorum Scholl. 

quoque nostram lect. improbant. 

243 — S« draoT,, prob^. a reduplicated 
form of dxrjQij from atrj but with a, 
as in ardad'cclog. dv^QaCi x. nXeov; 

'* *tis a hard thing for men though out- 
numbering (us) to do battle (with us) 
about a meal. For if Odys. himself 
were to return and try to drive us out, 
the attempt would be fatal to him". 
V. 251 (see note there) was doubtless 
added by some diasceuast, who mis- 
took the connexion of clvSqugi xal nl. 
'^^ 245, governing it by fiax'q^foccd'ai. 
That connexion is plain from 239 — 41. 
Leiocritus takes up indignantly the 
closing sentence of Mentor^s speech; 
hence the word i^fiiag answers to nav- 
ifovg (JkV7i<st7JQag, and the avSgdai xal 
nL must mean not the same suitors, 
but the more numerous party to whom 
Mentor had appealed. The reading 
xal nctvQOiai seems an attempt to recon- 
cile 245 with 239 — 41, while governing 
dvSgdci by fiaxi^Goca&cci,. 

251. ei X. r. X. This 2°* protas., 
after the i»' with its apod, has been 
completed, is a clog to the sentence. 
With either reading Uiis objectionholds, 
unless el be strained to mean xal si; 
see E. 350—1. Then, if the text be 

taken, this upsets the condition (245 
and 241) of superior numbers being 
against the suitors. If we read si 
nliovsg ot ^itoivto , this re-states that 
condition, most unsuitably to the stress 
laid by avzog (246) on Odys. appearing 
personally: — which same applies to 
the sense suggested for the text by a 
Schol. ; of his "fighting with more on 
his^side^\ The other words, cv d' ov x. 
fiotgav i.y after notov hmsg of 243, 
seem very feeble : the phrase, too, does 
not elsewhere in H. occur with ov, 

253. TOvrq^y said, as in 336, con- 
temptuously. Telem. had asked the 
'dyogrf. to further his voyage in quest 
of Odys. as a public errand. The 
suitors pass this by in derision; "Men- 
tor and Hal. have taken his part, they 
are his father^s cronies, let them speed 
his errand"; cf. inf. 265, 306, 319. 
6tqvv<o, as it is found with other 
objects, as iidxrjVj dyysUriv^ so with 
bdov here (mar.), meaning "prompt his 
journey", t. e. prompt him to go. 

255 — 7. 6t<a X. T. ^., "I rather think, 
etc.", said ironically in derision of the 
want of decision attributable to Telem. 


0ATS2EIAS B. 257-367. 


6t iiiv &Qtt (SxiSvavro^ ict ngdg^ Sci(iad'* Sxa6rog, 
limjav^Qeg S* ig Sdiiat* tiSav ^alov *OSv6'^og,\ 

260 TfiUfiaxog d' indvev^a xtdv ixl d'tvu ^akdiSCrig^ 
%BtQag^ vitlfdfisvog xolctjg'' akdg, e^st' 'A^vjj' 

^'xkvd'i iiEV^ xd'i^og d'sdg ijXvd'sg i^iihsQOV ddi, 
xai f*' iv vrjl xiX€v0ag in' i^egoeiSia^ n6vxov^ 
v6iStov« a6v66fi6vov xatQdg Si^v oixoyiivoio y 

265 £Q%66^ttr vd 6h ndvxa diaxQifiovatv^ ^Axaiol^ 
limjiSv^QBg'^ Sh (idXiatcc xaxdg vnsQ'qvoQdovzsg,^^ 
Sg iq>cct eix^fisvog^ 6x6S6&6v^ Si ot^Xd'SV 'AdTJvij, 

a T. 276, d. lUS. 
b /9. 252 mar. 
c C. 336. 
(I u. 336, n. 1R2, 

n. 305; cf. Z. 


d. 405, \ff. 236, 
A. 350, 9^.874; 
cf. «. 410 mar«, 
cf. O. 265, ^. 

1 y. 105, d. 462, 
•. 164. tf'. 744, 
14. 80, 233, y. 103; 
cf. E. 770. 

i^ a. 94, 281. 
It (i. 204 mar. 
i d. 766. 
k 0. 233, n. 157. 

258. J^Bov. i&ficc J^inaarog, 263. lijeQoJ^siiia, 267. foi, 

257. Ivaccv Apollon. Soph. ; Xcci'ilfTjQrjv Harl. ex emend, et SchoII. H. P. 259. ivd 

£rn. CI. ed. Ozon., ig Wolf. 260. %i(ov Harl. k prima manu ita Wolf., fmv ex 

emend, Schol. H. ita Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Oxon.; <&rfa Arist., <&tvl alii, Soholl. 

H. M. Q. R. S. 262. fioi plerique. 

ai^Qiiv, a further predicate, see 
Donalds. Or. Gr, § 489; in familiar 
English ^he broke up the assembly 

260 — 2. Purification was customary 
before prayer or sacrifice (mar.); cf. 
Hes. 0pp. 739 — 40. dXoq, gen. of 
source whence the material of the act 
proceeded , cf. its^ use with ix to aid 
the sense f. 224. dcL noli^g by Leber's 
index occurs 10 times in II., 3 times 
in Ody. ; aX. nohoio once in II., twice 
in Ody. ^mar.). ^ S = Off, 

26e. ta ffk xdvta 6., **are baffling 
all this plan^\ t. e, his voyage, see 
on 204 — 6. The Ithacans had shown 
apathy, the suitors contempt; cf. his 
words to Antinous 319 — 20 ov yap vriog 
iniiPoXog x. t. I, and note. In the 
speech 262—6 there is no prayer beyond 
the nlvd'i fisv in 262, but *^ prosper 
me in the way wherein thou hast sent 
me*', IS clearly implied. Human aid 
failing, he bespeaks divine. Hence in 
271—87 Pallas, not without rebuking 
his faint spirit, promises help for the 

267. Pallas, who appeared a, 105 as 
Mentes, here and v. 205 — 49, m. 445 foil, 
as Mentor, and p. 383 as Telem., as- 
sumes in fj, 20, n, 155—7) the form of a 
a woman, &, 194 that of a man in 
the crowd, and v, 222 that of a young 
shepherd. Thrice, viz. a. 320, y. 372, 
%. 240, she disappears under the form of 

BOM. OD. I. 

a bird. She is recognized by Odys. as 
his ** staunch comrade" in 4^. 200, %• 
a 10, and by the dogs in n, 162, but by 
others only in the moment of such dis- 
appearance e.g. a, 420, y. 378. Observe 
hero, thatMentor is not evacuated of his 
personality, any more than Telem., by 
the goddess assuming his form. The 
real Mentor loses that share in thepoem*8 
action which we might have expected 
from p. 253 — ^4, but we have a glimpse 
of him in proprid persond in d, 654 foil., 
where Noemon, from the presence of 
the real Mentor in Ithaca, suggests the 
inference that the Pseudo-Mentor, who 
had embarked , was a deity. Me- 
don is aware of the disguised deity 
at last (09. 445 — 9), but had perhaps 
heard No^mon's statement, and had, 
further, witnessed the marvellous tri- 
umph of Odys. against enormous odds. 
Hence, perhaps, his conviction. The 
statement in ir. 161 ov ydff nco ndv- 
tsaai d'sol (paCvovxai ivocgyeCgj shows 
that such recognition was to the poeVs 
mind the privilege of the favoured 
few; cf. A. 197 — 8. The Phacacians, 
whose position ^is wholly exceptional, 
iiidg dvdQ&v iltprjcxdoiv , boast (17. 
201—6) of their privileged intimacy 
with the gods. H. seems to have thought 
that such intimacy was familiar in the 
earlier age, limited in the heroic, un- 
known — we may infer from B. 485 — 
in his own. Nttgelsbach § ni 4—6. 



OATSSEIAS B. 268-284. 

[day II. 

a B. 401, y. 206, 

w. 50:j, 6%. 
b a. 222, /J. 278, 

y. 375. ' 
c JP. 456, r. 80. 
d /9. 304. 
e /9. 60. 

f cf. /J. 318, -^.28. 
g- cf. y. 122—3. 
h y. 375, •• 379, ^. 

315, r. 186. 
i ^. 399-400; cf. 

k cf. E, 800, Z. 

1 C. 314. 
m /J. 373, y. 12 

' sJI'i, 

3*20, d, 

n d. 267, I. 177, 

1/. 211, V. 305, 

^.374; cf.y.l28. 
o y. 133, V. 209. 
p /*. 165, 237. 
q7?'352, y. 242, 

0. 275, CO. 127, 

P. 714, *. 66. 
r P. 202. 
8 T. 110, 229, u. 

105, I. 105. 

^^Trils(iax\ ovS^ oTttd^sv^ xaxog l66£aL ovS' dv(yi](iaiv, 270 
si drj toi 60V TtatQog ivs6taxtav iisvog^ i}v, 
oloq ixstvog irjv tskicm fgyov^ ts iTCog ts' 
ov TO^ iTtsiS''^ aUri^ oSog i66£tai ovS' atkX^Ctog. 
sl« d' ov Ttsivov y' i66l yovog xal nrivsloicshig ^ 
ov 6i y* iTtetra iokita^ t6l6vr7J6£tv a ^svovvag. 275 

TtavQOL'^ yuQ TO6 xatSag ofiotOL jcaxQl scelovtai, 
OL Ttlaovsg xaxiovg, navQOv Si ts Ttargog agsCovg.^ 
akk' iTtsI oiS' oici^sv xaxog l6&sav odd* dvorjiiov, 
ovdi 6s Ttdyxv ys yiiytig *08vOiSi\og Ttqokkkontsv^ 
ikjtoQTJ^ tOL iitSLta rsksvrii^ai^ tads iQya. 280 , 

t^ vvv ^vi]6trJQOv fihv fa fiovkijv^ ts voov ts I 

dfpQaSiciJVy iitsl ov rt vo7J^ovsg° oiSh dUaLOV 
ovSs^ tv t6a0vv d'dvatov xal xiqga fiskatvaVy^ ' 

og^ Stj 6(pi axsdov ictvv^ ijc*^ '^fiatL Tcdvtag oks^d'av. 

268. J^sidofjkivi^. 269. (fovrjeaca ,Fsnsa. 272. J^sqvov finog. 275. fifoXna, 
280. J^slTcenQTi figycc. 283. Haceaiv, 

276 — 7, [] Bek. 281. tat Schol. H. 

270 — 2. The drift of this speech is. 
to throw Telem. on his own resources. 
OTtiS'SV '* hereafter"; Homeric usage, 
contrary to ours, regards the future 
as behind, and the past as before, thus ' 
Sfta ngoaaoD xal oniaaoa A. 343, means, 
**a8 well for the past as for the fu- 
ture". This is indeed the order of 
time itself. Render, "you will not turn 
out a coward or a fool, if indeed you 
have a drop of your father's spirit in 
you". A youth is often said to be 
"his father's son", when showing his 
father^s spirit; hence she continues, 
"but if you are not his son etc." 
BveCx.y not elsewhere found in Homer, 
but see Herod. IX. 3 dXXd ot dsivog 
tig ivictoc%to tfisgog (Ni.). The 
name of his father acts like a spell 
on Telem., and this is the chief key 
to his character, see App. E. 3. He 
is recognized by Nestor from the judi- 
cious character of his address as Odys- 
seus' son (y. 123—5); so is Pisistratus by 
Menelaus as Nestor's (^.206). — zeXi^ai 
€Qy» X. T. X. refers to his brave words in 
theAssembly, which now required energy 
(jiivog i]v) to accomplish them (Ni.). 

276—7 are by Bek. set in the mar- 

gin as suspicious; but they have the 
air of traditional saws current in the 
poet's time, familiar to every one, and 
needing no apology, in his hearers' 
view, for their introduction where the 
sense of the passage has only a ge- 
neral connexion with them. Cf. the 
similar maxim of Menel. , feta d' dgi- 
yvmvog yovog dvigog x. t. X., d. 207 — 8. 
Observe, however, that to Mentor, as 
an elderly man addressing a young one, 
the yvoDiiOTvnsiv or stating maxims is 
adapted (Aristot. R/iet. II. 21). Ni. here 
cites Aristotle's remarks on the tendency 
of degeneracy to follow a certain analogy 
oftype(/?^e<.II. 15.3). Telem. bears some 
such marks of a feebler copy of Odys. 

280. TSkevt^Oai, the aor. often 
follows phrases of hoping, promising, 
and others where a fut. might be ex- 
pected (mar.), cf. -^schyl. Prom. 685—6, 
Iti Jiog fioXstv "Ksgavvovy following 
fiv&ovfiBVT] "warning". 

281 — 2. sa "lyever mind", voov, 
see on a. 3. — vojifioveg, this -word is 
limited in H. to the Ody. and to this 
context. NoijfJi{x>v becomes a proper 
name in 386, like the Latin Cato, 

284. ix * iifjutri, with oXia&at, "upon 


OATSSEUS B. 285-300. 


285 tfol d'* 6d6g cdxiti drigov AnaCCetai^ ^v 0v (levotvoig' 
totog^ yuQ xoi ivatQog iyto naxQcitog bI^v^^ 
og xoi v^a ^ot^v^ atslioi xal Sfi*^ e^o/xat a'dt6g, 

Zitki666v r' Y^ia^ nal ayyaCiv^ &q6ov aicavxa^ 
2()Oolvov'^ iv^ diiq>tq>oQ£V0t xal aktpLta^ fivsXdv dvdgcSv^ 
diQiiatScv iv nvHvvotCw iyci S* avd 6ij(iov itaCQOvg^ 
al^* id'elovriJQag 6vlksl^o(iaL* el^l dh v^sg 
noXkal^ iv d(iq)idkp *Id^dxj] ^ vkav '/^Sl TtaXatal' 
rdcov iLBv rot iytov i7ti6rlfO[iat° ij rig^ dqliSxfi^ 
295 fBxa d' i(ponkCif6ttvxBg^ ivrjaofiBv^ bvqbi: novx^J^ 

(Sg q)dx' ^A^rivairi^ xovqi] dvog' ov8^ ag* ixv^ di^v 
TfiXifiaxog naQBfiifivBv , iitBl d'sov ixlvsv^ ccdSi^v^ 
P^ d' Isvai stQog Stoficc^ (pCXov xBxitifiivog'^ tjxoq, 
BVQB S' &Qa ^vrjCfxrjgag dyijvoQag iv iLBydgovdv^ 
300 alyag dviB^iBvovg^ avdlovg d"' Bvovxag iv avXy. 

290. J^OIVOV, 

b 1?. 828, i2. 1S2, 

d 206, O. 254, 

a. 343. 
c /9. 225 mar. 
<l I 248. 
I' y. 359, C-32, t*. 

127, 0. 104, a, 

182. ^ 
r a. 265, /9. 381. 
^' (i, 410, d. 368, 

u. 329, I. 212, 

Ii B. 471. 
i 8. 349—55. 
k'(.204; cf.«.265, 

C. 78, «.196, r. 

I V. 108, t, 197; 

cf./?.354— 5, 3S0, 

*. 234, ji. 631, 

520, I. 28, $.77. 
in &. 35-6. 
n a. 395, 386. 

I 167. 

I> S, 36, V. 835. 
'1 C. 37. 57. 
r 14. 203, 401. 
s« 382,0.529,547, 
E. 733, e. 384. 

1 a. 203, Ii. 36. 

u d. 831 , X. 311, 

V a. 114 mar. 
XV X. 80, /». 185 


289. onliaaai Bek. annot. 
298. tfievai Barnes. CI. ed. 

292. a'if) Harl. a pr. xnanu. 297. nagsjiBivsv* 

Oxon. 299. delet dyi^voQCCs Harl. addito ivl 

fiByagoiatv fotaiv. 

a day (not fixed)" t. e. some day: else- 
where defined by t&Se^ "on this day", 
bat also meaning '*for a day^s space". 
So, xfflg in' ^f*., ** thrice a -day" 
(mar.). Ni. joins it with cxBdov = "daily 
near", but this lacks Homeric authority 
and is weak in sense. 

280. iiia, also rjta ija (mar.), "vic- 
tual"; Eustath. says* "properly the 
stalks of beans", which sense Curtius 
ascribes, s. v. £eittl, to e^al, slot. For 
these forms, which resemble fem. and 
masc. plur. of which rjia mi(];ht be epic 
neut., there seems no authority but 
Suidas, who renders it "chaflT*, which 
i^^mv certainly means in e. 368. Several 
Scholl. explain it erroneously by f^o- 
8ia onto xov Uvai. — ayyeoiv Sq*, 
"secure in vessels", for carriage and 
stowage on board: ttfiq>i.(pOQriBe and 
diQfiatu are two varieties of ayysce 
for liquids and solids respectively; the 
ua%og is also a common receptacle for 
wine (mar.). Hesiod. 0pp. 600 directs 
the storine of corn iv ayysaiv, 

290. aXifixa, coupled sometimes 

with dlBiatu (mar.), so dlBV^d zb xal 
ttlquta Herod. VII. 119. dXtp^d^ 
albus seems to exhibit the root (Cur- 
tius 399), to which the epithet iBvnd 
also points, suggesting "white" meal 
(of barley J usage so limiting it)^ as 
meant. Observe that the ditpitov dutri 
i^f' 355 means just the same as Al- 
(pittt here and 354. altpi apocopated 
occurs for the same, Hy. Ceres 208. 
dXsiata and alBVQOt are connected 
with alia J merely meaning "things 
ground", but by usage restricted to 
meal of wheat 

291. Ttvxiv,, here = "waterproof", 
from the general idea of density which 
resists external action, hence used of 
houses, chests, armour, brushwood, 
and by metaph. of plan, counsel, etc. 

300. cwiBfi*, "ripping open", cf. 
nolnov dviBfiivri (mar.) of a garment. 
The traditional sense of "flaying" 
seems a needless extension of uie 
simple^ meaning of dvifjfii , nor does 
the •a&vBixo Xayovttg of Eurip. Elec. 
826, "was ripping the flanks", confirm 



OATSSEIAS B. 301—318. 

[day II. 

a &. 291, X. 280, 

L 247, o. 530. 
b d. 311, «. 181, 

C. 254, 17. 330, 

^. 194. 
c /9. 85, V. 274. 
d /*. 272. 
e o. 128, o. 354. 
f m. 69. 
«r>. 265. 
h ^. 212. 
i «. 102, 'g. 366; 

cf. ^. 643. 
k d. 702, •. 19, ^ 

179, ^. 43. 
1 cf. App. A. 16 ♦ 
m li. 301, ^ 91, 

167, 9. 309. 
n E, 349, JP. 450, 

'F. 670, o. 298. 
o S. 143 mar. 
p !Z. 452, i2. 520. 
q a. 216-20, 228 

—9, t. 160—1, 

r a. 94. 
8 2^. 110. 
t J, 66. 
u X' 49. 
T a. 175 mar. 
w ce. 103 mar. 
X /*. 273. 

^AvtCvooq S' i%'vg yeldaag xie Trjlsfidxovo ^ 

'^TriXeiLax "^ vfaydQi]^ ^svog a6%BrB^ fivj ti toe akXo 
iv 6r7Jd'666L Tcaxov ^slitcD i^yov^ re sjtog re, 
akXd (lOL^ icd'iBiLBV^ xal jtLvi^sv dg to TtccQog jcbq. 305 
taika Si toi fidla Jtdvta rBkBvt7J6ov6Lv 'A%avol,^ 
v^a^ xal i^aCtovg^ iQBtag, tva d'daeov ixriav 
ig^ Ilvkov iqya^Sfiv (iBt ay avov Ttatgog dxoxnjvJ' 

rov d* av Tr^lsfiaxog TCBitwiikvog dvxCov ijvda 
"^AvtCvo*, ov 7C(og icrvv vTCBQipidkoiCv ^sd'' vfitv 310 

Saivvad'ai r' dxeovta^ xal Bvq>QaCvBO%'av exrikov,^ 
ij ovx^ Sikig (6g rd icdQoid'BV ixBigstB^ nolldv xal iad'Xd 
xtTJfiar* ifid, fti^^r^pfg, iyca^ d' bzl vr^TCiog 7ia\ 
vvv 6' otB Siq iiiyag Bifil, xal allcov (ivd'ov dxovcjv 
jtwd'dvofiav,^ xal Sij (lot dsl^Btat,^ ivdod'v d'y^iog^ 315 

7tBi^6c3^ Sg X v^fiL xaxdg iitl x'^gag irjlca,'^ 
ij^^ Ilvkovd' ild'cov, ^'^ avrov rc5*' ivl Sfjiip.'^ 
BifiL ^iv (ovd' alir^^ oSog S66Brai riv dyoQBV(o) 

302. foi finog, 304. figyov finog. 312. ov J^dXig, 

305. fiOfr Wolf., fidX' Harl. Amb. E. Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Oxon. 311. ita Rhian., 
Schol. M. ita Harl. Ven. Wolf. ed. Oxon., aifLovta Schol. M. Barnes. Ern. CI. 

it. Yet all the Scholiasts , and lexico- 
graphers from Hesjchins, will have it 

303 — 8. On the tone of this speech 
of Antin. see App. E. 6. The mock- 
assurance given in 306, "the Achseans 
will do all you wish", may be com- 
pared with the contemptuous words of 
Leocritus in 253, and with what Te- 
lem. says in 265. — Sno^ x. r. X. , see 
on d. 610. 

311. A line of balanced harmony ex- 
pressive of the cheerful content and 
calm enjoyment of which it speaks. 
For dxiovxa see App. A 16; for exri" 
Xoq cf. -^sch. Sept. c. Th, 238, %ii7il,og 
i^a&if fiTj^' ayav vnsQtpofov. 

313. ^?a "is aor. according to Her- 
mann" (Ni.), whether so, or as Do- 
nalds. Gr. Gr. §. 321 gives it, imperf., 
its analogy with lyta from fiZjitt, eo, in 
all persons, is observable. 

315 — 7. dxovmv xwO'dv. This 
sentence well brings out the difference 
in sense between these two words; cf. 
Ilv^'fo the oracle, as that which in- 
forms, in which however H. has v. 

Curtius (328) traces this force in the 
Sanskrit words related to nvd". — •S'V- 
fid^y "mental power". Eustath. com- 
pares Herod. 111. 134 av^avoiisva> yaip 
Tco 6(ofiocti avvav^dvovtai xttl at Q)QS' 
vsg; or specially "anger", cf. ToXog^ 
oats .... dvdgcov iv ctrjO'saaiv ds^szai 
(mar.). ^ For ']qh • • • ^ here , and ij . • . 
1^ ••• Tie inf. 326 — 8, see App. A 11. 

IIvXov6\ this purpose is perhaps 
based on Mentes' words a. 284 — 5, 
293 — 6 (which are perhaps alluded to 
in aXXoav fivd'ov 314), by inferentially 
connecting the two heads of his advice ; 
which, however, as given, seem not 
meant to be so connected; for there 
the errand to Sparta is suggested to 
obtfiin news merely. It is natural, 
however, that Telem., after proving 
the weakness of his party in the As- 
sembly, should recur to Sparta as a 
probable source not only of tidings but 
of help. This is brought out plainly 
in the surmis,es of the hearers which 
follow inf. 325 — 6. 

318. ovd' dXlji X. r. X., these words 
only re-affirm negatively the resolution 

DAY 11.] 

OATSZEIAS B. 319— .r33. 


ifinoQog'^ oi y&Q vrjdg infffioXog olid* igstdrnv 
22oyfyvoiiaij Sg vv^ nov vfiiMV isiiSaro xioSiOV^ Blvat,,^^ 
17 ^a, xal ix x^^Q^S X^tQcc andacct* *Avxw6oio 
^Bta-^ (ivrj6t^(f6g dh ddiiov xdtcc daltu nivovto.* 
cli d* insXoifievov xal ixegrdfieov^ inhcciv. 
(Sis 9 Si tig BtjCB6xB viiDV 'dnsQrjvoQsdvtfov 
325 "ij fidkcc TijXiiiaxog q>6vov 'fjiitv (iSQiirKftisi' 
ij^ tivag ix TItJAov* Sl^al dfivvtOQag i^fiad'dBvtogy 
'^^ S ys xal Uicdifrrid'evj insi vv jtsQ Utccv^ alvfSg- 
^ijh^ xal elg *Eq)VQ7jv i^Hei, nUiQav^ aQOvgaVy 
iX^stv, S^p' ivd'sv &viio(p^6Qa^ q>d(f(iax* ivsixjj^ 
330 iv dh fidly XQfiv^Qi xal ^(iiag ndvtag 6Xi66ji.^^ 
aXXog^ d* aw' sUnsCxs viiov 'dxsQtivoQsdvtiov 
"r^ffP <J* old* en xs xal a'dtdg I6v xoiXijg'i inl vfjdg 
n^Xs' ipiXfov* dxdXrjrac dXdiievog Sg nag *Odv066ijg; 

a ». 300. 

b a. N mar. 

c fi, 74, I 866. 

d a. 160 mar. 

e d. 634» X 668. 

f B. 17, &, 168, M. 

g d, 760, o. 483, 
V. 876, i. 861, 
401: cf. "5. 772, 
y. 170, yf. 162. 

h a. 176 mar. 

i a. 03. 

k 17. 866. 

1 a. 368—63 mar. 

m X 641. 

n Z. 168. 

/9. 334 mar. 

p y. 216, O. 408, 
h. 860. 

q a. 817, it. 608, 
V, 216, «. 269. 

rcf./9. 182, 866-6. 

R a, 49. 

320. {^Bicctvo, 322. J^Bniaaciv, $24. J^eineCKB, 

33 a. J^otS'. 

331. av feinBO^a, 

321. cndcax* Arist., SohoU. H. Q. R., Wolf., axdasv Harl. Amb. Fl. Barnes. Eni. 

CI. ed. pxon. tii f Aristoph. et nonnulli, Scholl. M.^ Q. B., [] Bek. Dind. 

327. 7} vv xal ex ZnixQtrjs Dionys. Ilnlic. 333. anoXoito Sohol. K, 204. 

stfAi P'\vi '*! moan to go**, as shown 
by ov9' atiXeaxog added sup, 273 ; they 
affirm nothing as to the result of his 

.V9* fff^^Q^^* ^^^ ^^^ voyaged 
vtjog in* dXXotQiagt *Mn a ship not his 
own*', paying an in^pa&gov, "fare" 
(mar.). Not that Telem. actually so 
paid, Pallas otherwise arranging, inf. 
383 foil. — in-^p,, "successful in ob- 
taining**; of. Soph. Fragm, 95, tpge- 
rcov in-nfioXov, Ho had not obtained 
any public notice of his request for a 
ship, but was left to the resources of 
friends and volunteers. Ilcnco ho de- 
scribes his errand to Nestor as idirj 
ov diffitoff, y. 82. He says nothing 
to Antin. of Pallas^ promise sup, 287, 
but leaves him to infer that he had 
now the means of going; which Antin. 
evidently disbelieves; cf. the eager 
surprise of his questions in d. 642 foil., 
on learning that Telem. had really 
gone, and the suitors* bantering sur- 
mises which here follow, inf, 323 foil. 
This reticence is a trace of the pru- 
dence in which Telem. imitates his 
father, see App. E. 3. 

322. This line, suspected by Aristoph. 

of Byzant., probably because ot 9\ 
323, follows as if no noun had pre- 
ceded, is set in the mar. by Bek ; 
but we left the suitors in 300 preparing 
the banquet, and the subject is here 
naturally resumed. 

324. Ti^j the different suppositions 
which follow evidently belong to dif- 
ferent persons, and represent so many 
conjectures hazarded and remarks ex- 
changed among the company. The line 
is formulaic, but specially adapted, 
and dramatizes the current opinion and 
feeling in the subordinate agents, after 
some impressive exhortation or example 
given by some principal person. 

328. *EipvQ; see App. D. 8. — xlei" 
Qav with this fem. of^niaf^og (nimv) 
cf. vBluiQOt from vBaqog {viog)^ and 
prop, name Niaiga, Ni. adds also 
dYQOtstQoiv Eurip. Etecir, 168. 

329. ifdofi; the knowledge of these 
is expressly ascribed (mar.) to the 
Epean princess Agamedd, A, 740—1, 
see App. D. 8; so Egypt bears ^a^- 
fiaxa, noXld fi0%v ia&ia ikBiktvfiiva^ 
noXla dh Xvygoty d. 230, see also on 
cc, 261, and so^schyl. (Fragm* 42^ Dind.) 
speaks of the Tyrrhenians, Tvffriviif 


0AT22EIAS B. 334—347. 

[day II. 

a B, 420, 27. 651. 
b /«. 368, V. 216. 
c fi. 253. 
d'd. 121, r. 423, 

£t. 191, 317, I. 

582; cf. a).8, 42. 
ecf. J.I37; V.136, 

a>. 10, 62. 
f w. 51-2; cf. ^. 

424, 438. 
ff cf. V. 186. 
h V- 305. 
i y. 391, o. 507. 
k cf. A. 357, ^ 63, 

B. 800, Z. 424. 
1 c. 297, (0. 73. 
m /*. 351 , B. 97. 
o a. 449, C. 175, 

o. 489, «. 483, 

9. 207, V/. 101, 

169, 338. 
or. 128; cf. App. 

f. 2 (4) mar. 
p p. 268, M. 455. 
q a. 139, v. 479, 

^. 152, p. 495, 

a. 169, *. 96, 1//. 

154, Z. 381, i2. 

r to, '63, £. 490, 

Si. 73. 
8 V- 77. 
t a. 429-3?. 

xrrjfiata yccQ xsv jcdvta Scceccified'a y^ oixia d' avts 
rovroV (irjTBQi Sol[1£v §%£iv iJ(J' og teg djcvioL.'^ 

(Sg (pdv^ d' vilfOQOfpov %'aka^ov^ xatefifjaeto jtatgog^ 
svQvv^ od'i vrirog XQvdog^ xal xakxog sxslzo, 
ied^g^ r' iv xi^lot^LV^ &Ug r* evfoSeg Ikavov.^ 
iv SI Ttid'OL^ otvoto nakaiov '^^Svxorovo^ 
€6ra0aVj axQr^tov^ %'eiov tcotov ivtog Ix^vtsg, 
i^Birjg norl tot%ov aQT^Qoregy st icox*^ ^Odv6(S6vg 
otxads vo^TTJasUy xal aXyea^ TCokXa fioyij^ag, 
xkrjiatal d' Sjt60av CavCSeg^ icvxivfSg ccQaQvtaL, 
SLxkideg*^ iv dh yvvri rafctiy^ vvxxag^ re xal ^iluq 
i^x\ 71 %dvr i(pvka60€ i/oov Ttokvl'dQsirjaLVj^ 
EvQvxkei * "^Slitog d'vydtrjQ IlBverivoQCSao. 




33^' J-oi%Ca, 339. fBad"i^g fdXig. 340. foLVOio fyidvnozoio, 343. foCnada. 

346. TtoXvfiSQstrjai. 

yevsav q)ciQfiaH07toi6v ^&vog. Of this 
treacherous use of poison the heroic 
legends contain no instance, and only 
this allusion to it from the suitors who 
stand the lowest in the scale of heroic 

334"-^ > said in derisive irony, "he 
will give us all the more trouble, for 
then we should have to divide the 
property &c,", which was exactly the 
consummation designed in their plans. 
TOVTOV9 contemptuously, as mar. 

337. v'kpOQO^p. 9'dk* see App. F. 2 
(29) end. xaxe^fiC. This verb is used 
with accus. of object somewhat loosely 
by H. Thus we find nazi§aiv* vnsgma 
**went down from the upper- story", 
and %X£fiata xarc/Jifff. "went down by 
the ladder", here **/o the chamber". 

340 — 3. OIVOIO • , . '^dVTtOTOlO, cf. 

mar. for instances of other rhyming 
lines, or members of lines: they are 
probably all accidental. dQTjQ. "se- 
cured" probably to the wall is meant, 
but how is not clear; mere contact 
would be insufficient. eixOT* z. e. kept 
for the special contingency, referred 
to also in 30. — xal "although". 

345. xafjuti, chief of the female do- 
mestics; the title is applied to (i) Eu- 
ryclea, (2) Eurynom^ (mar.) , who was 
probably a younger woman and may 

be the a^npiicoXog tajiiri of n. 15 a, cf. 
ip, 292—3. Thus in t. 356 Euryc. is 
described as oXLyr^nskiovaa "decrepit". 
It seems to be asserted that she was 
always in the d'dXafiog — a poetic am- 
plification of her vigilance, or else a 
tacit recognition of her deputy. The 
designation Tafilij did not exclude the 
person from other special offices. Thus 
Eurycl. acts as d-aXafiriTtoXog to Telem. 
a. 428 — 9 and even here, when acting 
as rafi^T], is called (piXri tQ6q}og in the 
same passage, inf. 361. We also find 
her setting out seats, p. 32, ordering 
household work to the other servants, 
V, 147 foil., and bathing Odys., t, 356 
foil. Cf. the office of Nausicaa's nurse, 
rj. 7 — 13. Euryc, as housekeeper, had 
charge of stores and oversight of do- 
mestics X' 396, 421 — 3, but has the air 
of a factotum, turning her hand to what- 
ever most needed her personal care. 
Similarly Euryn. bathed Odys. ip, 154, 
brought a seat for Penel. after con- 
versing with her (probably not in the 
store-room r. 96 — 7, so again p. 495), 
and in a. 169 is aloft in the vfcsgmcc. 
Euryn. further acts as ^aXafiTjicoXog 
to Odys. and Penel. after aiding Eu- 
rycl. in preparing the bed, 1^.289—95. 
346 — 53. eax\ imperf. of st^tl,^ so 
|3. 59. — 7tokvt6Q,y cf. the naXaid xs 

DAY ir,] 

0AT22EIAS B. .u8— .l^a. 


Trjv x6xs TijXiiiccxog nQoqiq>ri d'dla(i6vdB xaXi0aag' 
"(tar*, ayB 8fj (lot olvov iv d^tpi^oQSv^iv^ &q>v66av 

350 7JSxh/f Stig (letct tov XaQciratog^ ov 0v ^vid666ig 
xetvov dvo^ivrj xov xdiiiiOQOv,^ at nod'sv^ ik^oi 
dioysvrlg^ *Odv66vg %'dvatov^ xul K^Qag dXvl^ag. 
dddsxa d' iiiJtlri6ov^ xal 7toi[ia0iv^ aQiSov dnavxag, 
iv^ di (iot &lg>ita^ ;ffii;oi; itfQQatpisaai 8oQOt6iv. 

355 ^txo(Si d* 10X0) [istQa iivXfig)dtov dX^Cxov axxiig} 
aiVnJ d' oftj ftf^^* xd d* dd'Qda^ ndvxa xBxv%^fa* 
B0niQiog ydg iydv a[(ff]0oiiaL ^ bTtnoxe xbv di) 
(iijxriQ sig {msQp* dvafiy xoCxov xs (lidrixai, 
elfii ydQ ig ZndQxriv xs xul ig Ilvkov if^^ud^oBvxa^ 

360 voaxov^ yt$v06ii6vog xaxQog q>lkov^ ijv nov dxovCfoJ^ 
Sg"^ q>dxOy xcixv^sv dh q)(lfi XQog)dg EiQVxletcCy^ 
xaC^ ^' oXotpvQO^ivrj ijtBa nxsQOSvxcc TtQogrjvSa 

a fi. 290, V> SOS* 
b «. 160, 339, L 

216, V. 33. 
c fi, S42-3 mar. 
d «. 387. 
e <f». 665, /». 283 

f &. 443, 447, I. 

314, J. 116. 
9 /9. 290-1 mar. 
h V. 108. 
i |. 439, J. 631, 

k a. 43, X 271, 

p, 410-1. 
1 a. 284-5, fi. 

214-5, y. 15. 
m n. 200. 
n rf. 742, *, 21, X' 

419, 485, 492, \fj. 

25, 39, 69. 
o S, 72. 

$49* J^oCvov, sso. J^ridvv, s$$, fs^noai, 356. j^/cr^i. ^f^f, J^Banigiog, $62, J^insa. 

350. ita Eustath. Vulg. Harl. Yen. Amb. Wolf. ed. Oxon. XaQcitsgog Barnes. 

£rn. Gl.; mox mv Yen. Harl. var. lect., ov Schol. M. et odd. reo. 354. x^^' 

aov Harl. Barnen. Em. CI. ed. Oxon,, ^j^svov Wolf. 

account of the value of their stores. 
Those whom this explanation dissatisfies 
will probably have to alter the text, 
as by reading d'aldfiov 6h ndXeaasvy 
— "called forth from", he being at 
the door — or the like, fisxd x6v3 
the expectation of his father, now 
keenly roused, peeps out in this detail 
of his voyage: he will not take the 
best — that is reserved for Odyss^ — 
but the next best. XoQiix* obs. Xapog 
a gull, e. 51. Obs. var. lect, Xa^ootfi- 
Qog, The spirit of the passage cer- 
tainly requires the superlative^^ xel' 
vov see on a. 163. — xisifi, aocov, 
* 'secure with stoppers or capsules'*; cf. 
9cd>|[ta q>aqitQrig (mar.) "lid of quiver". 

354—5* SX^it€i dX<pltov, see on 
290 sup. 

3^6. d&ooa 7t. xexvx»f "be set 
forth togetner ready". ^ Bek, after 
Aristarch. aspirates a^^oo^. 

357 ~" 9* €cIqiJ0*, as we say, "shall 
take myself off". For Sparta and 
Ephyr6 see App. D. 3, 8. For IIvXov 
rifiaO'. see App. A. la. 

36 1 --a. xiiixvC., onomatopoeic from 
%io—y a^ cry of sorrow; to cry for joy 
is ololviBiv^ y. 450.^ — dXotpVQ., for 
its connexion with ovlog, oAo^moff see 
App. A. 3. 

noXld ts eldmgy and fivgioc ^di7, ap- 
plied to jEgyptius and Halitnerses 
sup. 16, 188. On account of her "ex- 
perience", trustiness, and attachment, 
Eurycl. is called dia yvvai-aav v, 147 
— a high-ranking epithet, testifying 
to the moral and social aspect of he- 
roic servitude. S'dXafiovAe x,, how 
could he summon her to the chamber, 
if according to 345 — 6 sup, she was 
always there, and therefore there then? 
Ni. suggests tax' ^^^ ^^X* ^'^^ H^ ^^ 
the sense of "kept (the doors) fast"; 
but the difficulty rather arises from 
the ivf which implies that she was as 
much inside as were the stores, cf. 
fv at 340. The ^aXcifiog or O'dlufioi 
probably contained a range or row of 
chambers (App. F. a (29) and note), and 
to all there might be general access 
by the doors described 344 — 5. It is 
likely that the wine and oil would be 
stored in a different compartment from 
the treasures of 338; cf. 9. 51 — 4. 
Hence, if she were in one, and he 
first reached the^ other, he might be 
said to call her d'dXafiovds even though 
she came from a ^dXafiog to him. 
Thus the iv dl yvvtj . . . tax' means, 
"was within the whole range of such 
chambers"; they were never left on 


0ATSSEIA2 B. 363— 38^ 

[day n. 

ay. 184. 0.125, 509. 

b |. 380, *. 284, 
O. 80-1. 

c 7t. 117—20. 

d <r. 727, 817. 

e /9, 333 mar. 


gr cr. V. 241, |. 

h /J. 335, w. 216. 

i y. 156 , «r. 314. 

k /9. 255, o. 456. 

1 a. 296. 

m y. 418-9, •.84, 
140, 158, 17. 79, 
o. 289; cf. a. 4. 

n /?. 364 mar. 

o a. 213 mar. 

p cf. J.49, (0.444. 

*. 156, 17. 253, 
(. 82, X. 28, it. 
447, J. 314, A. 
53, Z. 174, SI, 
610—2, 664—7, 
784-5, «.l 99 seq 

r-4. 425. 

s a. 343, «. 136. 

t rf. 728, t. 497. 

u d. 749. 

V X. 345-6, S. 

w iJ. 349-55. 

X a. 265 , ^. 288. 

y B, 393, rf. 795, 
«. 882, C. 112, 
a, 187, V 242, 
344, *y. 193. 

z £. 495. 

aa 9. 10; cf. *. 
377, «. 516. 

bb o. 171 , ffi. 67, 
!ff. 491, i2. 598. 

cc ^ 245. 

^'xItixb Si rot, 9)/A«» xixvov, ivl (pQe6l tovto vofi^ia 

Ijtleto; jcfi d' id'ilsig Ikvai jtoXXi^v inl yatav,^ 

^ovvog^ i(BV dyaxi]t6g;^ o d' SXeto tr^lod'c stdtQTjg^ 365 

dLoyevrig ^OSvastfg dHoyvcitCD^ ivl Sijiip. 

o1l« Si tOL avtix' lovxi xaxd (pgdccovxav 6^C00m^ \ 

Sg KB 86kip (p^vtjg, xdSs d' avxol ndvxa 8d6ovxav.^ 

dkkd fiiv^ avd'^^ i^tl 60161 xadnjiisvog'^ ovSi^ xi 6s xq'^ \ 

%6vxov^ iic'^ dxQvyexov xccxd nd6%Bvv ovS^ dXdX7j6d'aL.'^ 370 

r^v d' av Trjlifiaxog jCBTCvviiivog^ dvxCov tivSa . 

^'d'dQ6Bv, (iccf^ iTtsl oij XOL avBv d'Bov^ '^Ss ys fiovki/l. 
dll' ofio6ov fti) firjXQl (pCky xddB fivd'7J6a6d'at ^ 
TtQLV y* ox av SvSBxdxri^ xs SvcjSBxdxrj^ xb yitnjxaL, ' 

^ avx^v no%'i6m^ xai dtpoQiirjd'BVXog dxov6aL,^ 375 

tog av f*^ xkaCov6a xaxd XQoa xakov IditxyJ'^ I 

(Sg ap' i^pVj yQV^S Sh d'Bciv ^iyav oqxov dTtcifLvv.^ 

aVXaQ ilCBC Q* 0^06SV xb XBkBVXtl6iv XB X&V SQXOVy I 

avxtx"^ iitBixd of olvov iv d^g)iq)0QBv6LV ag)v66BVy 
iv Si ot akq>Lxa ;|r£i5£v ivQQaq)iB66v SoQoT6tv' ^80 

Tr^kifiaxog d' ig Sdfiax' itov fLvri6x'^Q6LV^ o^lkBvv. 
ivd'^y avx* akV iv6i]6B d'BU ykavxtSitig *j4d'ijvrjj 
TrjkBfidxcD S* Blxvta xaxd^ TCxokiv Sxbxo Tcavxy, 
xaC pa** Bxd6xp (pcoxl ytaQL6xa^ivrj g)dxo^^ (ivd'ov^ 
B67tBQCovg d' inl v^a d'o^v^^ dyBQi6^ai dvciyBLv. ^85 

379. legend, fotvov insitd foi aizi% , 380. /o*. 383. S^zvuLvZa omisso d' 
et ad fin. 382 plene distincto. 384. fsudcTtp, 385. J^sansQ^ovg, 

366. ttXkoyv<6ta}v Apollon., et hoc et dlXoyvoiata) Scholl. 368. (p&s^rjg Amb. B. ; 
ddacovtoci Ern. CI. ed. Oxon. 373. fivO'i^asad'ai Harl. marg. et Schol. 376. idtpfi 
Apollon. 385. ita Wolf. Thiersch. Buttm. Bek. Fa., dyigsa^'ai, Vulg. Dind. Low. 

367. oxlOOOi as Snt&sv 270, where 
see note. 

368. <fS'ixi^ • • • ffdoovraiy see App. 
A. 9 (5) on this change of moods. 

373 — 4. fivS'iio.f see on 280^ *Mp. 
TtQiv y'y the full form is nglv ij ov 
av Donalds. Gr. Gr. § 583 (e); nglv 
may be followed by a subjunct. (or, 
tense so requiring, by an optat.) when a 
negat., as firj 373, has preceded, by an 
infin. whether affirm, or neg. has pre- 
ceded. ivdexdxTj x. r. X. ; cf. Hor. 
Sat, II. vi. 40 8€ptimu» octavo propior 
.... annus, and our similarly formulaic 
way of speaking "the eleventh or 
twelfth". So the tenth day, t. e. the 
ninth with one complementary, is the 

most frequent Homeric reckoning (mar.); 
cf. Hes. Theog. 802 — 3. Telem. here 
takes fuller measure, perhaps to allow 
for unforeseen impediments; so does 
Menel., in the spirit of hospitality, S, 
^88 , when pressing his stay. 

377. ditOifJLVV «=» Aykvv (jk'^j 373; cf. 
dnsmsiv, which sometimes = sinsiv 
strengthened, so ditofivvpi^i in Thucyd. 
V. 50 is Ofjkvvfii strengihened, but never 
so in H. 

380. aX<piTa see on 290 sup, 

384—5. Comp. with this the proceed- 
ings of Odys. in the Grecian camp, 
B. 189 foil. 

385 — 92. dyBQioS'at is 2. aor., as 
dyigovto, S. 245, dysgsad'ai. var. led. 


OdT££EIAS B. 386—407. 


^'v d' avts OQOvloiO Noijfiova q>aiSt(iov vtov 

8viSBt6^ T* ilihoQ 0%i6mvt6 ts n&6ai dyviccl, 

xal^ r&ts vija dcwji; Sclad* 6[qv66, ndvta S' iv avtrj 

390 SnX* ** itid'SVy xd ts v^ss ivMslfioi fpOQiov0iv. 

(St^6€ S* in*^ iiS%axiri Xc(i6vog, negl 6* i0d'XoU itatgov 
d^Qdoi liyegid'ovto'^ d'sd d' Stgwev ixa6tov, 

iv^*^ avt' &kV iv&ij06 d'sd yXavufSmg 'AdTJvij* 
P^ d' livav nQog daiiiat* ^O8v06iiog d'sioiO'^ 

395 ivd'a^ iivri0t7JQ€06Lv ijtl ykvxvv vnvov Ixsvev^ 
^kd^e^ 61 nivovrag, jjj^tpoJi/ d' Ixfiakks niinskka. 
oX tf' sv8biv j&qvvvxo xatd nrokiv, 0^'" &q* itt Sr^v 
Blax\ insi 6q)i(Stv vjtvog inl fikstpaQoiaiv inmrsv,^ 
aizaQ Tijkifiaxov JtQogiqyij ykawimmg 'AdTJvrj, 

400 ixxQOxak£00a(ievri^^ ^syaQcuv iv vauraovttov^^ 
MivtOQL^ 6iSo(iivri i^iihv di^ag i^Sh xccl a'ddijv' 
" Tijkifiax\ ijdti iniv rot ivxvTJiiidsg itatgoi 
slat* infJQetfAOiy^ ri^v 0i^v notvSiyiisvov^ 6pfi9}V* 
dkk* [o(i€v, (irj Sijd'd StatQlfici)(i6v^ dSotoJ^ 

405 Sg &(fa q>a}V7JiSa6* ijyijtfaro Ilakkdg ^A^vri"' 
xaQTtakiii&g' o S* insita list* txvia fiatve d'soto. 
ainrap^ insi ^' inl v^a xarijkvd'ov i^Sh d'dkaeoav^ 

a (T. 639-66. 

b |. 54, V. 372, V- 

314, J. 480. 
c y. 487, 407, 0. 

185, 296, 471. 
d «. 260-1. 

d. 781-3, &. 61 
-4; cf. f. 346, 
tp. 390. 

f I. 182, ^4. 96; cf. 

d, 617, «. 238, 

489, (. 280, a, 

357, (u. 160. 

J. lf3, tr, 327. 

i fit 382 mar. 
k /J. 298, d. 799, 
^. 230, 402. 

1 u, 338, V, 54, S> 


n fi, 36 mar. 

«. 271, 1^.70; cf. 

K, 26. 
p cf. 9. 615. 
q J?. 648, J. 45; 

cf. i. 21. 
r p. 268 mar. 
8 d. 669; cf. «. 16, 

t jr. 123; cf. B. 

u /9, 204 mar. 
V y. 29-30, w. 87 

-8, S. 413, •. 

102-13, S, 46, 

w d. 428, 573, ^. 

50, /4. 301, V. 70. 

387. /ot. 39a. AtQvve fi%uaxov, 401. J^Bidofiivrj, 

391. ita Harl.^ S. Wolf., J<rraTi^ff Barnes. Era. CI. ed. Oxon. 392. pro a^^ooi, 
avf^v Harl. var. loot. Schol. H. 404 f Zenod., Scliol. M. 

is pros. For 7j'/BQi9'ovto a pres. ijyc^^- 
^ovrat occurs. For the form in -'^'oo 
see the list of such verbs in Jelf Gr, 
Gr, § 363, obs. I., cf. § 248 c. — dvc^ 
yeiv, for a defence of the final v in 
the pluperf. s^^ sing, see Bek. Hovier, 
Bldti. 11. p. 29. On the names Noemon 
and Phronius see ona. 154. — ol ••• 
vniif; **undcrtook it at her request". 
In the recurring v. 388 the effect of 
sunset as casting into gloom the roads 
before a traveller seems intended. 
oxk\ "tackle", in sing. **a rope" 
(mar.) see^-^pp. F. i (7), 

.?95~'!J' vjtvov, "drowsiness", the im- 
perf. nXd^Sf ^nPaXXe, &c., denote its effect 
as sustained.^ tzi diiv see on a. 186. 

400 — 3. ixjtQOxak.j cf. i%nQoXi- 
natv unice led. iv vaiex., sometimes 
written as one word syvaiet, vcustdtOt 
here neut., is also transit, with name 

of place; bv vcciofiBvog is a more com- 
mon formula, evxv^fi.^ this and huqij 
nofiomvtBg 408, being in II. epithets 
of 'Axociol, are used of Ithacans, as 
being of that race. inijqet*j if li- 
terally meant, they would be sitting 
(cf. 408), on the shore oar in hand, 
"man and oar being inseparable" (Ar- 
nold's Thucyd. vol. I. App. III.). With 
this accords d. 782 showing that the 
oars were put on board. So Elpenor 
begs that his oar, with which he rowed 
in life, may be set up as his personal 
badge over his tomb. L 77 — 8; see 
App. F. I (13) (14). ini^QBt, elsewhere 
is epith. of the ship. 

405 — 6. This dependence of Telem. 
for his smallest actions on the gui- 
dance of Pallas, supposed by him Men- 
tor (so 416 — 7 in/*.), illustrates his cha- 
racter as yet unformed, see App. K. 3. 


OATSSETAS B. 408—426. 

[day U. 

a cf. w. 167, a. 34, 

I, 601, B, 851. 
b /9. 289 mar. 
c /?. 366 mar. 
d «. 207, V- 227. 
e ^ 345. 
f o. 284—95. 
% I. 177. 

h o. 206, JC. 570, 
11.411; cf.y.75. 
i p. 224 mar. 
k I. 137, 178, 0. 

552; ct. 498. 
1 X. 638, t. 221, 

549; cf. ^. 37. 
m X. 7. 
n rf. 357, 520, 360, 

«. 268-9. 
^ 253, 299. 
p cf. a. 295, ^.289. 
q <F. 208, 2, 576, 

*. 16, 
r a. 183 mar. 

;t. 9, fi, 390, 430. 
t ibid, i^) mar.; 

cf. /J. 109. 
u o. 289, *. 37, V. 

V y. 11. 
wV 427, X. 167, 

6VQOV iiCBit^ inl d'vvl xdQTj xoiidcDVtag iraiQOvg. 

tot6L dh xal ^etdecq)' fopi) Tg* Trjlsiicixoto 

'^Sevts, (piloij ^ta^ q)6Qci(i£d'a* ndvta ydg TJdij 410 

dd'Qd'^ ivl (layaQa' (iijrriQ d' ifti) ov rv ninv0tai^ 

oi)d' akXai SiLtaaXy (licc^ d* oCtj fiv^ov &xov0sv.'' 

cSg aga ipoDVfJ6ag i^ytJ6ato^ tol d' Sfi' STCovto, 
0? d' a^a ^rat/rcf g)SQ0vt6g iv66sXfip ijcl vrjl^ 
xdtd'SiSav, fog ixikev6ev *Odv66'^og fpCkog vtog. 415 

^av« d' &Qa Trilifiaxog vfjog fiatv\ '^Qxe d' ^AdTJvi], 
vi]l d' ivl jtQVfivjj^ xaz*^ &qi* St^eto' ayxi d' ap' avr^ff 
fgaro rijAifta;|ro5- rol di 7CQV[ivijat' ^ lkv6avy 
av^ dh xccl avrol fidvteg iitl xlrit6L xad't^ov. 
xot6iv d' Hxfisvov"^ ovQov^ Xst YkavxfSiag^A&qvrij 420 
dxQail^ Zeq)VQov^^ xeXddovr^^ inl otvona'^ n&inov. 
Trjlifiaxog d' itdgoi^iv iicoxQVvag ixsXsv66v 
07tk(ov^ &7tt£0d'cct' tol d' oTQVvovtog &xov6av, 
forov* d' elkdtivov xoCkr^g ivtoads ft^tfddftijg* 
6rri6av"^ deigavtsgy xatd dh 7CQor6voL6tv iSij6av, 425 

ekxov d' laria ksvxd iv6tQB%xoifSi"^ fioBv6iv. 

409. iietij^siq)' J^lg, 421. J^oCvona. 

410. pro ^ta Callistr. 6q>q* ^ce, Scholl. H. M. Q. 4ii.-^fiol Harl. a pr. manu 
Wolf. Dind., iyb-q Harl. ex emend. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Fa. Low. 414. a/xce 
Ern. CI. ed. Ox., aQU Harl. Wolf., mox M vql Harl. 422. inotgvvocg Harl. a 
pr. manu, sed -mv ex emend, cum Schol., -ag Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. et edd. rec. 

409 — 10. IcQij l^y Bek. writes tsgd. 
The denoting a person by a conspi- 
cuous quality is a form of language 
widely diffused, cf. fi^rj^ 'HgaHlnsiTj 
(mar.). Ni. adds Ig iddfiaaas piTjg 
'HganX., Hes. Tkeog. 332. leQfi, prob. 
as being of kingly race, cf. diotge- 
q>i(ov PacilTJmv. For i^ux see on 289. 

411. a^^d'^ see on 356. cic^y this 
reading is preferable to i(jLo\y there 
being no call for a dative of special 
limitation in the action. 

416, VTioq, Jelf 6fr. Gr. § 624 obs. 
refers this to the head of gen. parti- 
tive (as implying the part of the ship 
which he reached), or local. 

417 — 8. XQVfjivia ••• XQVfJLvic see 
Ap^. F. I (5) (10) (11). These ngv' 
fivTja. {nsCayLaza) fastened the ship to 
the shore, after she had been launched. 

420. iTCfievov is referred by Doederl. 
to sHnm as meaning *Uo suit", or 
** comply with", in which sense, as 
J^sCnm is the real word, toiai ds H- 

TLftevov would be needed. Ni. refers it 
to Ififiag "moisture", not, however, 
taking ttifisvov to mean "moist" (cf. dvi- 
fttov pi^svog vygov divttov), but "smooth- 
ly and equably gliding". This seems 
forced. The simplest way is to take 
it from two, but why it should lose 
the breathing is difficult to say. Per- 
haps it is a touch of nautical verna- 
cular. Similarly we find TJiiccg but 
'^fiigri. — oiQpq is doubtless a form of 
avga, cf. dnovgag partic. of anavgdm. 

421 — 2. dxqd^y the Scholiast^s mean- 
ing of d%g6g ajj^ii, "blowing neither too 
much nor too little", is the best; cf. 
dXiaijg, dvaa'qg,^ For ixOTQVVaq a 
Schol. has inotgvvtov, doubtless based 
on otgvvovTog mox inf, xekddavr', 
Lowe would refer this to novtov^ as 
more used in H. of the roar of water ; 
he perhaps overlooked Ziq>vgov nsXa- 
dstvov (mar.). JECere position also 
awards it rather to Zitpvgov. 

424—6. lazdv, in form identical with 


OATSSEIAL B. 427—434. 

^ixgriUBV^ d' avsfiog fiiaov tdtiov, dfLg)l Sh xv(ia 

^' d' i&eev xatcc xviia dtanQiJ66ov6a^ xilevd'ov, 
430 Sfi6d(i6V0if^ d' &Qa ZitXa %'O'f^v Avct vrja (iilaivav 
(SviJ6avro XQrjt^Qas ini0tkq>mg^ otvoio, 
kstfiov d* d&avdtoi6i d'eotg'^ alsiysvaty^iv y 
ix ndvxfov 81 (idXi6tcc z/td^ yXavxdnidi^ xovQy, 
xavwxirj^ (liv ^' ^ ye xul i}(0"> itetQS^ xilevd'ov. 


a A. 481-3. 
b cf./J.81, 2.m. 
c cf. X. 522, V. 186. 
dXlO; cf.(r.427, 
H, G4. 

J. 506, y. 81, 
J, 125, S, 219, 
(. 392. 

f /9. 213, y. 476, 

o. 47. 
K». 37. 
h e. 232, a. 148, 

-^. 470. 
i r. 296, Z, 527, 

r. 104. 
k Si, 26. 

1 tf'. 217. 

m e. 66, <l^. Ill, 

«. 390 mar. 
n ^. 183, V. 91. 

428. fiiya fCaxB. 431. fo£voio» 
430. 9i]accvtBs Schol. P. 434 f Schol. !P. 8, Bek. annot. 

tatov ** weaver's beam*', also **web*\ 
109 sup, — fieCOif*, see App. F. i. 
(6). — ivaTQixT.* see^App. F. i. (8); 
the forms BvctQSq)rjg, svCTQOq)ogf also 
ocour (mar.).i 

427 — 34. The melodious flow of these 
lines is admirable. The line describing 
the sail - hoisting is succeded by a 
dactylic burst, as if to mark the bound- 
ing of the vessel. Observe also the 
sudden stability introduced into this 
billowy measure by the spondan stabiles 
(Hor. de A. P, 256.) in 431 , where the 
bowls are set in equilibrium, as it were, 
by a dactylic between two spondaic 
dipodia. With this metrical effect may 
be contrasted that of Virg. /£n. III. 
ao8 Annixi iorquent spumas et cofrula 
verruni, in which the measured oar- 
stroke seems imitated in the train of 
spondees. On df€<pl • • • CXBliyi^ see 
App.F. 1.(2). — tax^^ also t (mar.), is 
used of a bow - twang, war - shout, 
trumpet-call, and of water hissing on 

hot iron (mar.). 6fiCafi.9 '^having 
made fast the sneets*\ used in hoisting 
the sails. ij€iOvi<p*, see on a. 148. 
'jqdiy ace. *' during the early morning '^ 
cf. vvxtag 105; besides this, Ni., fol- 
lowing Eustath., gives three senses, 
further extended, of ijooff, viz, (1) the 
forenoon, (2) the whole day till sunset, 
(3) the wxv^fiBQOv of 24 hours, (i) 
may be allowed, as the termintis a quo 
is put for the space it helps to measure ; 
so in o<p^a (ihv vmg 17 tr xal ai^eto 
tsfov miUQ; so ijcDff, SbCIti^ and the 
ykBaov ijficeQy which sunders them, make 
up the day: but (a) and (3) are mere 
poetic figures of part for whole, as 
"morns" are used for days, "summers" 
for years in English poetry. In r. 93— 5 
the idea of this word ?}(d is expanded 
into 3 lines of description. 

Bek. attaches v. 434 to the first 
paragraph of book III, With it the 
third day begins. 




OATSSEIAS r. 7—18. 

[day in. 

a p. 355. 
b «. 160, Z. 174. 
c a. 44, y. 179. 
d V. 56-7, 73-7, 

M. 373-5. 
e y. 178, tt. 322, 

X.140; cf.t.202. 
f /?. 416. 
g (7. 355, cp. 288, 

t. 462. 
h Z. 291, r. 47; 

cf. •.240,*. 302. 
i a. 281, /9. 360, 

^. 12. 
k Z. 464, X 114; 

cf. X. 482, C. 

303, (. 348. 
1 a. 119, Q. 325. 
m tf'. 71. 
n a. 406. 

^Wfa d' IdguL ieav, nsvti^xoevov 8' iv ixdetij 
siatOy xal TCQOvxovTo^ ixdiJTod'v ivvsa^ tavQOvg, . 
svd-^ oF 07tkdyxv' ind0avto^ &B(p d' inl"^ M9^ ixrjaVf 
or 8'^ id^g xatdyovto,^ tS' tatCa vr^og itarjg lo 

0tstXav dsCgavtsg^ ti^v d' <SQ(iL0av, ix 8' ipav avtoL 
ex ^ tf ' aga TriXe[iaxog vriog paiv\ ^p%£ d' *Ad7Jvi]. 
tov nQOtSQri ngogeai^B d-Bcc yXavxfD^ig 'Ad'TJini 

''TriXi(iax\ ov (lev 0a XQ'h ^'^^ al8ovg^ ov8' i^pavov'^ 
tovvaxa ydg xal novtov insTckogy^ oq)ga nvd'i^av^ 15 
ytatgog , OTtov xvd'S ^ yata xal ov tiva 7c6t(iov b^b^tcbv. 
dkV ayB vvv Idvg^ xCb Nkuxogog l%ico8d\tQiQ' 

bI!80(IBV^ fjv XLVa fl'^tlV ivl at7Jd'B66L XBXBV%'BVJ'^ 

7. 8\ J^s%dat7j. 8. J^sitaaTod'i, 10. J^l9' ij^^arjg. 13. ngoaifBinB. 18. fBldoi^Bv, 

7. nBvxayLoaioi Arist. Herod. , SchoU. , nsvtiiiiovta 9' iy indaTrj Harl. suprascr. 
nsvrrjTLoaiot d' av sudatrjv. 8. ngovd'svtoE.y Enaaro&av SchoU. H. M. Q. R. 
9. iddaavTO SchoU. £. H. M. Q., xatov CI. ed. Ox. 10. natdyov toI d* 

Arist., SchoU. H. M. 11. asCaav Zenod., SchoU. quinque. 16. Schol. H. 

iniana. 17. id. pro tnnoSdfioio oq>Qa xdxiata. 

7. iwia , nine cities are under 
Nestor's sway in B. 591 foU. Obs. here 
the varr, led, Ni. thinks nsvrmiovtvg 
may be the true reading. The SchoU., 
however, note the agreement between 
9 (seats) X 500 (men), and, in Nestor's 
armament, B, 602, 90 (ships) X 50 
(men); "fifty'* being the least number 
mentioned as manning a ship in the 
Catalogue. The agreement is probably 
not accidental, but based on some 
poUtical divisions familiar to the poet's 
hearers, but now lost. 

8 — 9. XQOvX'f *^® oxen were "held 
in front'' of each ^Sga ready for 
slaughter. For the number 9 in sa- 
crifice and banquet, see mar. 

ixl expresses destination, as in tag 
[yaatigag) inl Sognat 7Lar&i(is9'a 
(mar.). fifiQla, see on' y. 456. The 
verbs in this are in effect pluperf., the 
aor. involving in its absolute past no- 
tion that of the past before a given 

10— II. oid*y the ^^ is apodotic of 
svts in 9, '''when they had sacrificed 
then these began to land": for S^ so 
used see mar. For the mode of furling 
sails and binding see App.F. i (9) — (11). 

xaray; "brought to shore", opposed 
to dvdyovzo *'put to sea". 

14 ~ 5- V^^^ovy often follows ovd\ 
as here, enhancing negation, but is 
used also in affirmation (mar.). 

15. enejtX^, nXom means '* I float'', 
but with inl both it and nXim become 
compounds in the sense of sailing over; 
this inl here takes ace. of motion over 
a surface, not towards a point, see a. 
299 note. 

16. oxov* XV. yaZa, the words, if 
interpreted by navd yata %aXvnxoi,^ 
and vno %bvQ'B6i yuCrig (mar.), would 
imply death and burial; but Pallas, as 
Mentor, would then be contradicting 
Pallas as Mentes, who (or. 195 foil.) 
strongly asserts the fact of Odys. being 
alive. So does Halitherses, with whom 
Mentor is associated (^. 163 — 6); and 
the object of this voyage is to raise 
up hope in Telem.; thus, as x£v^o> is 
used also (mar.) of a ship , a city etc., 
merely as "containing", we may render, 
"what country keeps him from our 
sight". The form of sentence, "hear 
of thy father, where he is", is com- 
mon in all simple styles; so scin* me 
in qidbua stm gaudiis, Ter. Eun. V. 8, 5. 

18. el^dofiev, epic for -ofLStr, follows 
x^£ without conjunction, as often in 
admonitions brief through urgency, and 
is the hortative subjunct. , cf. Jelf, 
Gr, Gr, § 416, i. So in d^dnxB fiB otti 
tdxtota, nvXag 'AtSao nsgiqaoa, !F. 71, 
and often after aye, q>igBj and the 
like; the non - recognition of this gave 
rise to the var. led. o(pga xdxiexa in 
V. 17, 

DAY m.] 

OATLSEIAS r. 19-33. 


lli^^ead'at ^ Si (iiv avtog Sncag vrifiaQxia stny * 
20 tIfevSog d' ovx igisi' (idka yccQ neytvvfiivog^ iativJ^'} 
tr(v S* av Trikifiaxog nenvvyiivog avxCov rivSa 
"M^vropjC ndg t' ap' fw ; ntSg r ' &q nQoaTCXv^oyLm^ airdv ; 
ovSi tC ;rco (Lv%'0i6i jteneiQijfiai^ nvKivotCiv . 
aldfog d' av viov &v8Qa ysquCxbqov i^SQisad'aiJ^ 
25 roi/ d' avTB nQocisins d'ea yXccvxfSnig 'Ad^vr^ 
^'Tijldfiax^ &lXa [thv airog ivl q>QB6l <T^(rt vo7J66ig, 
akka Sh xal SaCfLtav^ ino^riasxav' oi yccQ dta 
ov^ as d'BfSv iixfiti^ yevitsd'ai^ ts tQatpinev xb?^ 
Sg^ &QU q>(QV7J6a0* i^yTJaccto Ilakkccg ^Adnjvfj 
^oxaQxakiiitag' S 8' inevxa (ist* txvva fiatve ^.eoto, 
l^ov d' ig Ilvkiiov &vS(f(Sv &yvQCv^ xs xal SdQag,^' 
Iv^* &(fa Ni6x(0Q 7l<Sxo 6vv vtd6iv^ &yLq>l 8* ixatQoi 
8atx* ivxvvofiBvoi^ xgia Snxfov xakka^ t' iiCBiQov, 

a y. S27~8. 
b a. 213. 
R/9. 308. 

il /?. 77, 9. 478, 
it. 451, V. 339-41. 

a. 23. 
1/9. 134. 

^ a>. 2&1 , (T. 805, 

». 280. 
h «. 177, ^. 43; cf. 

a. 70, ^ 94. 
i H. 199, S. 436; 

c|-.(r.723, ^.201, 

A. 251. 
k /9. 405-tt. 

1 i7. 661, Sk. 141. 
m y. 7. 

n 0. 500. 

y. 462, ^ 430. 

25. ngoaiJ^BinB. 38. (t/ixijn. 

19. J^einjj, 20. ov /cpcfit. 

19. avtog Arist.| iSchol. H. ad 327 0</l, iia iiek. Dind. Fa., avtov CI. ed. Oxon. 
24. viip dv^Ql Rhian., ScholL H. M. 31. ayopifv Heidelb. Sphol ^ -* - 

recent, man. Harl. 33. xpaa %' Harl. cum aliis, xpia Dind. aXXu 

19— ao. These linos are set in the 
margin by Bek. and belong more fitly 
to 327— 8. For TtBxwfA* see on a. 213. 

22—3. iVu ••• 7tifOOXTv§Ofjuxi, pros, 
subj. followed by fut. indie; cf. Sg 
xe .... tpd'ijjs tade i' .... Sdaov- 
Tai, p. 368: see App. A. 9 (5). ;r€- 
^BiQTjfiUCis this verb commonly has a 
gen., the ** trial'' implying a process 
of contact; here the resalt, — one who 
has made trial of and is well versed 
in words (fLV^ocOi dat.) — is implied. 
In^. 2^^ we have a singular constrn, 
rovg {ai9'Xovg) ^airjasg insiQi^aavt' 
'OSva^og = which they "tried on" 
upon Odys. Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 454 cc 
distinguishes a gen. "tentative''; but, 
to aim at, to reach to, to be in con- 
tact with , or in possession of, are but 
extended degrees of one notion. 

24. Tel em. justifies the ttUoig which 
Mentor declared inopportune v. 14. 
B^BQiBC9w, see on a. 416. 

27-8. ov yaQ • . . ov, the negative 
repeated in same clause adds empha- 
sis, as in "no! I am sure not;" so in ov 
lilv ,,. ov OB%ofi{iH etc., for instances 
see mar. As exfiTi is "by the good will 
or blessing" of Apollo, Hermes, etc. 
(o. 319, r. 86), so dinfjti, is without such 

ROM. OD. I. 

their good-will or blessing. The Qreek 
wall at the ships ttixijrt d'soiv ititVHxOt 
wherefore ov xi noXvv XQOvov fynBiov 
{fjev, M, 8, 9) . Conversely, Mentor means, 
Telem. miffht expect the ffods would 
protect and prosper him. a^x. is also 
used of active opposition, ",in spite 
of", cf. mar. — ycv. TQatp. Tf, "born 
and bred". 

31. SyvQiv^ not exactly = ayoQoiv, 
which means a formal assembly of 
men, the former applies equally to 
(mar.) corpses, ships etc. (Ni.) edQaq, 
the component parts of the whole ayvg,, 
forming hendUdys with it. 

33* XQia &nxiav xakXa x\ Dind. 
and most edd. give xp/a Anxtav aXXa x\ 
The Harl. has xp^a t* SnxmVf or, as 
Hek. says, xpsaT*. Now the plur. of 
%Qiag in H. andHes. is %pi& syncopated, 
or %Qsd contracted, whicn last, occurring 
only before a vowel, becomes %pid. 
Thus ngiocx* lacks authority. But the 
main difficulty lies in ttJlZa x* inEiQOv* 
To say, "were roasting steaks and 
spitting other's'''' is nonsense. But by 
regarding the t* of xp^a t* (Harl.) as 
displaced and really belonging to xiXXu 
following, and viewing the acts SnxmVt 
^nfiQOVj as a prothysteron , we have 


0ATS2EIAS r. 34—46. 

[day III. 

a K. 542. 
b K. 198. 
c d. 030, 9. 62, 

471, o. 183, ^.71. 
d I. 200. 
e V. 3, 95. 
f V. 119, O. 382. 
ff o. 150, (J. 59, J. 

4, I. 196, 224, 

a. Ill, (u. 410. 
h X. 533. 
i w. 50, X. 217, X. 

k a. 25. 
I o. 149—53. 
in y. 187. x. 73, X. 

451, / 33, tf'. 

5H1; cf. i. 130, 

i2. 652, d. 691, 

;i. 218. 
n 2. 645, //. 346, 

I. 20s ; cf M.48, 

;i. 203. 

01 S' tog ovv ^SLvovg Udov^ dd'QOOc ^A^oi/ aicavtsg 
XSQOiv t' ^andiotno'' xal sdQidaad^ai^ avcoyov. 
TCQfotog NaaxoQCSrig IIsiiSCatQatog iyyvd'sv^ Hd^dv^ 
ufL^oriQCHV SXb %slQa^ xai idQVOsv nagd Saitl 
^xciB6LV^ iv iiaXaxotaiv, inl '4;a(idd'0cg^ dlLtjaLV, 
TcdQ rs xa6iyv7Jtc} &Qa0v(i7J8£i: xal natigi S • 
8fSx8 *' aga a^kdyxvav iioigag, iv 8' olvov 1%bvbv 
XQv0Bcp diitaV' 8Bi8Lax6(iBvog« dh ngoarivda 
JJaXXdS" ^A^rivaCriv^ xovQfiV jdiog alyi6%oto' 

^^Bv%BO^ vvv, c5 ^BtvBy TloOBiSdciivi uvaxtv 
tov ydg xal daCti^g^ i^vt7J0atB^ 8bvqo fioXovtBg, 
avrdg^ i^riv eytBcayg xb xal bv^buLj ^'"» d'Siiig iorlv^ 
Sog xal TovtG) inBixa dinag inBliriSiog^ otvov 




34. J^lSov. 39. /eo. 43. fdvaiiTi. 46. iisXifrjSiog. 

41. ita Arist., Scholl. H. M., Wolf, xgvaio} iv Sinai Harl. Ven. Ern. CI. 
45. ri Thiersch. Bek. Dind., iq Scholl. H. M. Ni. Wolf. CI. ed. Ox. 

in zakXa the well-known expression 
for the "remnants", when the sacri- 
ficial portions, as in 9 sup,, had been 
disposed of. The '^spitting" these then 
corresponds with what is more fully 
described inf,^ 462, A. 465, SLajLiatvl- 

^nsLQav, The meaning thus is, '^were 
spitting the remnants and roasting 
steaks of them''. For this sense of 
Tigia cf. Certamen Hes, et Horn, Goett- 
ling, p.^3i9» V» *3» , , , 

iCBVzriiiOvx r^Gotv nvoog iaxccQCCi' iv 
Ss sudatri 

nsvtT^'KOvt' ofiBloi, nsffl 6s Ttgea 

34. 0*1 6\ i, e. Nestor and his sons: 

36. jKQWToq, he was the youngest 
son (413 — 5) of seven, of whom Anti- 
lochas, beloved next after Patroclus 
by Achilles, fell by Memnon^s hand 
(o. 187). It is his office, as youngest, 
to attend to the guests (Ni.). Herod. 
y. 65 , says that Pisistr. the Athenian 
usurper was so named from a notion 
of family descent from the Nele'ids. 

38 — 9. The xixpa^ was the actual 
fleece {oCog digfia, J. 519), used in 
coarser bedding; the gr^yBa (epith. -yLuXa 
nogq>vgsa) , probably noaBci dressed and 
dyed, were commonly thrown over 
the d'govot, x. 352, or formed part of 
the bedding, as in 17. 336. SgaCvfi,, 
the eldest brother, who went with his 
father and Antilochus to the w^ar. (Ni.) 

40 — I, The (ii^gia were wholly sa- 
crificed, the anX. shared religiously, 
each having a taste {indcavto, inf. 
461 , cf. Aristoph. Paa: 1039 devgo 6v- 
anXccxvsvsTs) y see on 456—9 inf,; the 
rest {tilloc, 33) were shared festively. 
The guests arrive when the Pylians 
have began the festive business, but 
are initiated with a share of the anX., 
and in 65 — 6 join in the banquet. 
6ei6iCx*, we have pluperf. d8£Ss%to 
of SsCtlwih in sense of "welcomed" 
or "pledged" (and so dsLTivvfisvos 
"pledging"), and from the perf. a pres. 
SsiSCatiOfiai,, as here, "holding the cup 
out to pledge" (cf. SnSlaaonai, SsC- 
do)), and in the same sense SBi%OLvdO' 
fitti (Bnttm. Gr, V. s. v. SsciiWii,^); 
for examples see mar. 

43 — 6. eiix^Oy addressed to Mentor 
individually, whereas rjvtiqGats com- 
prehends Telem. and his followers; cf. 
n, 91 — 4, where HutaddntBt' and q)dts 
are followed by ci&'sv. (Ni.) Por fjv- 
xria. see on a. 25. The phrase ^ ^€- 
fiig eoxlv or ri d-ifi. ia. passes from 
the sense of abstract right into that 
of mere custom (mar.); here it seems 
to mean the former, "as one ought"; 
in the latter sense stands sometimes 
rj 8C%7i iarC (mar.). On the former is 
based the reproachful epithet dd'B- 
(iLatog, I. 106, /. 63. — o'lvov is one of 
the Homeric words in which the J- is 
inconstant. In a. no, p, 349 et aUb. 

DAY in.] 

OATSLEIAS r. 47-63. 


cnalcai* inel xal rovroi/ 6tonccL &%'avdxoi6iv 

dkXd vsoirBQog i6tiv^ 6f(i}AiX^i}^ 8* ifiol aikco* 
50T0W£xa 60I TtQOtiQp 8ci6io ;|rpt;<T€toi/ Rksi^ovJ^"^ 
(Sg einrnv iv x^Q^^ xC^ei-Sinag r^Siog 0^1/01;* 
XatQE"^ d' *Adijvaiij nsnvvjidvp^ dvSgl dixaip^^ 
ovvexd oC xgoriQji S(Sx€ xQvaeLOv aksLOov * 
a'drixa d' 6vxsro« noXkd Ho^BiSdtovi Svaxti'^ 
55 "JCAiJdt, HoasCSaov yatijoxs, fnydi iisytJQyg^ 
i^fitv B'i>xo(LivoL6i XBXhvtii^tti xdSs Igyoc, 
NiiSxoQL (ilv 7tQcixi6xa xal vldci xvSog 8;ra£e*^ 
avxdQ in SIX* £AAot<Tt Sidov x^Q^^^^^^ccv aftot/)i)i'' 
(SvfinaiSi^v nvXiOLOtv ayaxkan'^g ixax6(iprig,^^^ 
60 Sog d* hi Triki(iaxov xal ifih xgrjl^avxa^ viaC^ai 
odvBxcc Sbvq' tx6ii66d'a d-oy 0vv vr^l fi^AatVj." 

(Sg &Q* fnBix* ijparo, Xfd aixrj ndvxa xakevxa'^ 
d(Sx€ dh T^ilBfidxp xalov Sinag ainfpixvTtaXkov, 

a /9. 349, V. 380, 

o. 370. 
b C 23, X' 209, /J. 

158, y. 364. 
tf App. A. 8 (3) 

d cf. P. 6tt7-8. 
I e a. 213 mar. 

r y. 133. 
i K- /». 261. 
, h O. 8, (). 354. 
i p. 235, ^. 206, 
J, 64, iV. 563. 
k o. 320, 9. 408, 

(. 00. 
I a. 318, /M. 382. 
m >/. 202. 
n p. 191. 

o /?. 171, y. 56, 9. 

51. fBindiv. 53. /of. 54. /dvaxr*. 56. J^igycc* 
51. pro d^irorc 'qSiog of. alii o d^ ^i^ccto xaigmp ex 9^. 797, Bek. annot. 

J-oCvov is proper, but here and y. 51 
otvov. The ending fisXtudiog ol^vov 
occurs Pind. Fragm, 147. Donalds. 44. 

48 — 9* A passage remarkable for 
simple and straight - forward piety 
mingled with high courtesy. Ni. with 
the sentiment here compares Arat. 4. 
nuvzfi 9h Jiog^ nexQW^^^ ndvxeg» 
Here dl is cayap, as in or. 433. Obs. 
OfiffXixlfi is used individually of a per- 
son or collectively of a generation, as 
niivxsg 6(ir}U%i7j ... TrjXfiiaxoio (mar.). 

50—3. iiXeiCov, for this and the 
other Homeric cups etc. see App. A. 8 
(3). The young Pisistr. imitates Nestor 
in his sententiousness, see on 69 — 70 
!«/*,, where Nestor leads oflF with a 
maxim. ; but there is also much naivetd 
in a youth laying down this principle 
of seniores priores, and adding that 
he shall proceed to act upon it in his 
office to the guests. 

xexvvu. *.. dixalipi ** discreetly 
respectful**, cf, 133, where the Greeks, 
being not all vorii»,ovBg and BUctioi, in- 
cur woe through the wrath of Pallas. 
ovvexa, see on 61 inf. The discern- 
ment lay in giving the cup first to 
Mentor on the score of age, passing 
by the princely rank of Teleni, The 

compliment, paid really to the eidolon 
Mentor, is accepted by the goddess; so 
;i;. ai3 foil. Agelaus threatens (as ho 
supposes) Mentor, which Pallas in por> 
son resents, 334. 

55 — 7. The verb ficyalQiO is fol- 
lowed by a gen. case iV. 563, but here 
the infin. supplies the object, lifilv 
includes all who had partaken, not 
merely the Ttilifi, xal ifih of 60 inf. 
Observe the precedence given to Nestor 
and his sons, as the hosts, and per- 
haps further in return for the dis- 
cerning courtesy of Pisist. in 40 — a. 
These "minor morals'* show the spirit^ 
of the Homeric age. 

59— -61. OvfMtaaiv, recognizes the 
occasion as one common to the whole 
people, not private in Nestor's family. 
:tQ7l§avTa, though sing., virtually in- 
cludes both the persons named; no 
trace of such a reading^ as ngi^iuvxs 
occurs, ovvexa, = to ov ?t/exa, ^'that 
for the sake of which**; cf. this with 
ovvsytu *' because ** in 63 sup. and often 
in H., as ovvsnu xov Xgva'^v i^xlfiria* 
aQTit^ga A, 11, 

62 — 4. Poseidon was still among the 
Ethiopians, whither he went a. a a. 


0ATSSEIA2 r. 64-76. 

[day III. 

a C. 166, I. 31. . 
b y. 470, J. 290. 
c y. 309, <f. 3, «. 

50, 'F. 201. 
d K. 203. 

1.378, Z.I 74-8. 
f $. ?01, V- 300, 

346, •. V27, *. 

91, 429, \V. 301, 

gr «. 252-6, a. 

i /?. 58, ij. 310. 
k /*. 370. 
1 /*. 237. 

m $. 231 , a. 183. 
n a. 213 mar. 
o A. 85, 92. 

p C. 139 — 40, a. 

cSff* d' aikos iJQdro 'OdvaaijoQ fpCkog vUg. 

(loigag da66d(i€V0L SaCvvvx^ iQvxvdda datta."^ 
avtccQ iicsl noiSiOQ xal idijtvog il^ igov svtOj 
totg aga iivd'Giv '^gxB Fsgi^vvog iTCTCoxa Ndatog-^ 

"vvv Sri ^^^^f'^v £0X1, (istakX'^fSaL^ xal ige6d'ai 
^sivovg, 0? twig elaiv^ iiCBl tdgjcrieav^ iScod'^g. 70 

J^ ^Btvoiy tCveg i^td; jcod'sv nksW'^ vygd xdlevd'a; 
ij XI xurd nqiilLV^ rl iiail^LSifog'^ dXdlri6d'6,^ 
old t£ krii6tiig£g^ ynslg Ska, toC r' dkotovtai 
ifvxdg nag^ifisvov^ xaxdv dkkodaTCotai^ tpigovtBg^^^ 

xov d' av TifikiyLa%og nenvvfLsvog^ dvtCov i]v8a^ 75 
d-ageijaag'^ a'dt'^ ydg ivl q>ge0i d-dgeogv ^Adr^vri 

65. J^BQvaavxo. 


-4 improbabat hdc 1. Aristoph., permittento Arist. et hie et ad i. 253 — 55, 
quamquam ibi magis propria, ScboU. H. M. Q. R. 

It would seem as if, during sucli ab- 
sences, prayers and sacrifices from 
mortals must fail of their effect; see 
a. 21— 4 note. Here, as regards Men- 
tor and Telem., the question does not 
arise, the prayer being only part of 
the disguise ; as regards Nestor and his 
sons, they were probably performing 
rites stated and due, and the poet's 
consciousness does not seem to re- 
cognize the coincidence of their festival 
with the god's absence. As regards 
the prayer for Nestor, she herself, we 
are told, accomplished it. Thus the 
sacrifice was effectual although the god 
to whom it was offered took no ac- 
count of it. rigdio 'Ocf. hiatus is 
frequent after the csesura of 3^** 
especially the bucolic cses. 

65 — 6. VTtiQTm, "upper or outer", 
as contrasted with the entrails pre- 
viously tasted 40 sup.\ then came the 
libation and prayer, and now in due 
course the feast. igvC ** pulled (the 
meat) off (the spits)". Eumseus on the 
contrary presents his guest, in ruder 
fashion, the pieces on the spits (|. 
76 — 7). daaadfi. dalvwt'. This 
juxtaposition illustrates the connexion 
between ictivvfiai "feast" and daio- 
l^ai "dvide shares". 

68—9. Nestor leads off with a maxim 
see on 50 — 3 sup. This hospitable rule, 
to ask no question till the guest's 
wants have been supplied, is cha- 


racteristic of heroic courtesy. The 

epith. FsQijVLog applied to him, is based 

on a place given as FBQfivCa^ Fig'^vci 

(ra), or Fsgrivov, where Nestor either 

was born or found refuge when all 

the eleven other sons of Neleus were 

slain. Hes. Frag, xlv, 2, 3, Goettl. 

SmSiKaros dl Fsgiivios tnnoxa 


^8tvog imv ixvxrjos nag' iitnoSd- 

lioiot, FsQ'qvoig. 

70 — 3. rdgTtfia* This verb is ca- 
pricious in its construction; the dat. is 
commonly found with the pres. and 
imperf. and once with the i^^ aor. (^. 
131), with which and with the 2"'* aor. 
the gen. mostly follows. Aristoph. re- 
jected 72—4 here, thinking them bor- 
rowed fr. I. 253—5; Arist. also thought 
them more proper there, yet allowed 
the iteration, fiay^idloig *'at random", 
t. e. wherever they could pick up 
plunder; whereas a itQTJ^ig would imply 
a fixed destination. Odys. in his feigned 
story |. 222 — 30, as a Cretan prince, 
speaks of such marauding expeditions 
as occurring before the Trojan war. 
On the question of piracy cf. Thucyd. 
I. 5, who infers the reputableness of 
the employment, and is a testimony to 
the genuineness of the passage here. 

76. ^-aQCriCaq* That Telem. should 
show less hesitation after the hospitable 
reception than he expressed 22 — 4 sup. 
is natural. 


OATSSEIAS r. 77—95. 


[ijd'* %va iiLv xXiog i^d-ldv iv dvd'Qoinoiaiv ^;KB<yfcv] 
"cJ Ne0TOQ NriXriidSri ^ (liya^ xvdog ^A%ai(Svy 

SoelQaai^ onndd'sv eifiiv iytjo 8i xi tot xataXi^cn, 
iq fists ^i ^Id'dxris vnovi^iov^ aikijlovd'nev' 
n^J^Lg^ S* fjd* l^irji ov SrjfiLogy^ ijv dyoQSVto, 
TtatQog iiiov xXiog^ bvqv (istiQXOlJi'Cct,^ ijv nov dxov6c9y 
8iov *OSva6'^og xaka<sCfpQOvog , ^ ov nori fpMvv 

85 aiyv Col (laQvdnevov TQoicDv ndXiv i^akandl^m,^ 
SiXXovg (ihv yuQ Tcdvxag^ oHoi TQtaolv nokiiitiov^ 
X£vd'6iie^\ i^Xi'^ exaCtog dTCcSXeto XvyQp dXid'Q^' 
kbCvov d' av xal okad'Qov dnev^ka^ d"ijx6 Kqovlodv, 
ov yuQ ng Svvaxm adtpa elTciiiBv^ onnod^'^ olGiXav 

gosid'^^^ y' iit* i^neigov ddfir) AvSQdoi Svg(i€vie6iSiv^ 
el ra"' xal iv nakdyBi, (istd xvyLaCiv ^AiitpiXQhrig, 
tovvexa^ vvv rd <sd yovva^'^^ [xdvofiat, nt^ x' iQ'fl'jjijQ'a 
xbCvov kvyQov oXb^qov ivianetv, el' tcov OTtanag 
6q>^ccliiotai' XBotoiv^ rl aXkov (ivd'ov'' axovaag 

95 xka^ofiBvov* xbqI ydQ (itv dl'^vgov tbxb^ fAq7^(>* 

cf. Z. 

a a. 95. 
b ft. 184. 
c a. 186; 
d d. 314. 

/9. 32, 44. 

r a. 283, 344. 
g- a. 87 mar. 
h ^. 251 , d. 176, 
&. 495. 

1 y. 292, A. 607. 
k y. 184; cl'. o. 

242, d. 675, f. 

I J. 577. 
m d. 28-9, 488-7, 

X.371, udr.83,6JV, 

B. 349, M. 289, 

n Z. 453. 

(T. 322-31. 
p a. 267 mar. 
q a. 379 mar. 

r (T. 226, &. 459, 

f 343. 
s fi. 314. 

1 ». 197-8, <. 365, 
5r. 127-8, Z. 
345, S. 304; cf. 
A. 417-8, 


87. J^iytaatog, 89. J^BiniiiBv, 

78 caret Vien. , marg. inseruit. Harl., [] Wolf, et edd. reo. 8 k vno iViji'ov 

Schol. B. 82. inSiifiiog Aristoph., SchoU. U^^M. 87. Jivygov oled-QOv Bek. 

annot. 90 — i. pro sC et Bek. rj rj, 95 [] Hek. 

78 — 83. V. 78 is probably an inser- 
tion by some copyist from a. 95 ; thus 
the question of ixv^fi-v subjanct. fol- 
lowing IpotTO op tat., each with tva in 
same dependence, need not arise; see, 
however, some instances of optat. and 
subj. mixed in the same dependance 
App. A. 9 (x6) end. VTtowitov, see 
on a. 186. On XQi^^fq • • • 6iifiioq of. 
<p.^ 16—7 'OSvaasvg rjl^s fuexa xQ^tog to 
0CC otn&g S^fiog otpekisv, — xXioQ 
here bears partly the sense of * 'renown^' 
as in a, 344, and partly that of 'Hid- 
ing8'\ as in a. 283; the renown of Odys. 
consisting in the news spread of him. 

87-9i ^^*' •^®^^' ^' ^^- § 339 » 8 
writes ^x*' i ^^^ ^^ seems better to view 
it as a real ep. dat. , a twin form of 
the dat. locative in (pi, ib. § 83, i, 
and then the », which is subscript in 
i becomes final in n;i;i. — dxevO'ia, 
in active sense at 184, here in pass.; 
being found in no other book of either 
poem it is marked as unicd ledum; 
for both act. and pass, use cf, Snvatog 

(mar.). OTixoO"', here i is elided,^ as 
in the dat. d1. and in iatl^ negl, Sti, 

90 — I. €i d-*^, • • ec TS, here Bek. 
prints 17 ^' . . . ij ts without adequate 
reason; si following verbs of saying, 
in sense of **tell me if etc." is com- 
mon enough, and stands elsewhere, on 
good MS. authority, repeated with a 
double clause. We find once indeed 
sHxs of one clause followed by rjh xal 
of the other, but though this shows 
that the meanings approach each other, 
it gives no ground for rejecting one 
of the expressions; see mar. — xcXd^ 
yei, see App. B. (3). — 'Afii€piT,, see 
on e. 422.^ 

92. yovvaS**, see on a. 267. Ixd' 
vofiui here shows the s^ense of Txe- 
tijg, **come suppliantly". For al' x' 
see on a. 379. The subjunct. here re- 
sembles that called deliberative, as in 
(pQaisa6ws^* ri %b veoifis^' x. t. X. App. 
A. 9 (6) end. 

95. Bek. suspects this linens genuine- 
ness here and ^. 325 where it recurs, 


OATSSEIAS r. 96-103. 

[day III. 

a |. 387. 

b £. 388, X. 419, 

^.23;cf.^. 172. 
c H. 410, o. 374. 
d p. 44. 
e a. 25. 
f /?. 68-73. 
^ A. 39, d. 763. 
h /J. 272, o. 375. 
i *. 457. 
k a. 49 mar. 
1 d. 765. 
m y. 327, d. 314, 

331, 642, I. 148, 

^. 112, X' 166, 

V^. 35. 

dkX'^ BV iiOL xatdlsl^ov oitog rjvrriaag^ djcoitijs. 
Xca0o(iac,^ et nori^ xol xi nax'qQ i(idg iad'log ^08v66svg 
ri S%og^ r^i xl igyov VTCoCxdg^ i^BxeXeCiSsv 
Srj^ip 6VV TQcioVy od'i, ndaxBtB^ ntjfiax' ^A%aioC' ]oo 

x(Dv^ vvv (tot, fiv^iSac, xcci ftot™ vrj(i^XBg BVv^TtBgJ' 
xov tf' i^fiBipBx^ iiCBvxa Fsgrfviog ixnoxa Nb0x(oq 
"o5 q)il\ inBc (i* ifivr^^ag orgvog, iJV iv bkblvg) 

99. J^inog. J^igyov, 

97. pro onamijg B. marg. axov^g. 100. pro n'qfiat' Veuet. mar^. aXys', 

with the whole passage 92 — loi; but 
although it might be spared, it does 
not weaken the sense, or encumber 
the sentence. Tt^La^Ofiivov is referable 
to Hsivov 92, and sC nov .... ii,vd'ov 
anoveag is parenthetical, or nXu^. may 
depend on ykv^ov to be rendered ob- 
jectively, "tidings of him roaming", 
of. X. 492 xov nuiSog dyavov iiv&ov. 
Yet to read nla^oasvog would be more 
Homeric. oi^VQOV rexe^ i.e. a man 
was born ill-fated, as he was bom strong 
or healthy; elsewhere (mar.) we read 
of ataa as spinning at a man's birth 
the thread of weal or woe which he has 
thereafter to endure ; cf. Thetis* lament 
to her son ri vv a' itQB(pov alva ra- 
Hovaa ... f.ns£ vv xov alaa (iivvvd'd 
nsQ ovTi iidka dijv. A, 414 — 6. 

96. ai6ofiai , here in sense of 
'* compassionate '\ see mar.; atSioficci 
is also found. For a word descriptive 
of shame borrowed for compassion, cf. 
Virg. Mn. II. 541 — 2 jura fidemque sup- 
plids erubuit. The pros, imper. /c£C- 
XiCiJeo is continued in 97 by nazd- 
Xe^ov the former injunction being ge- 
neral, and not limited, as the latter is, 
by the occasion of the moment; Jelf, 
Gr. Gr, § 420, 2. 

97—8. xaxake^av, Buttm. assumes 
a root Xsy- in sense of to **8ay, talk 
of", and another Xb%- in that of *'Ue 
down"; Curtius also (I. p. I63) views 
them as distinct; but in xavriXByiog the 
elements are xdvuog and Xdy- "lay"; 
see App. A. 22. For fivxriCm see on 
a. 25. XiCiJOfiai, for the sentiment 
and the manner of urging Odysseus' 
memory as a topic of appeal cf. (mar.) 
l£eao(iai ... si firj nov xi nax-qg 
ifiog ,?^^ *• ^' ^' 

99—101. eTKO^ and egyov, although 

disjoined by ^...ijs seem to mean "word 
as accomplished in act", reflecting the 
sense of iSereXecaev as joined with 
vnoctdg (mar.). — xwv, the plural is 
more forcible, as assuming that the 
supposed good offices on Odysseus* part 
were in fact frequent. For eviCxeq 
see App. A. i. dijfiq^, see on a. 10 1—5. 

102—200. This whole speech is cha- 
racteristic of Nestor and may be com- 
pared with one in the II. to Patroclus 
(-4. 670 foil.) — a long narrative, clos- 
ing like this with urgent advice. Ob- 
serve in both speeches how accessories 
are engrafted, and episode set within 
episode ; especially see A 690 — 3, 700, 
711, 714, 722, 750, 753, 766—70. The 
old warrior talks on and off his real 
subject, somewhat presuming on his 
years and the well - won respect of his 
juniors, but guided by kindness and 
good sense through all the ramifica- 
tions of his tale. Shakspeare has given 
us some traits of such a character in 
the Menenius of his Coriolanus, 

103. iTtel would lead us to expect 
some apodosis introduced by xol ydg 
iyatv igica or the like ; and indeed, by 
throwing into a parenthesis all^ from 
^v&a (ihv 109 to ndd'Ofisv xaxa 113, 
we might there take xlg nsv insiva n.x.X. 
apodotically, as equivalent to, "I can- 
not tell you all, for no one could (lit. 
"wAo could"), even were you to go on 
asking for years". But the clauses 
so parenthesized are too closely knit 
with their immediate predecessors and 
followers to allow this. It is better, then, 
to view the structural outline as lost 
in the accumulation of details evoked 
in 105—13 by Telemachus' appeal to 
the events of the war; and of which 
the enumeration is simply impossible. 


OATSSEIAS r. 104- 1 15. 


lojijftiv^ oUa ^vv vrivalv in* ijegondia novxov 
TtkaiofiavoL xccta lijid^ ontj Sq^suv^ *A%i)i)iBvg^ 
i^d'^ 06a xal 3C6qI &6tv (liya nQLdfioio avaxros 
HaQvd(i6d'*' Ivd'a 6' InsLta xarexta^sv oaaot,'^ &Qi6roi,* 
iv^a fihv Alas'' xetxav 'Aqijlos, iv%a 8* 'Axillavgy 

I 10 ivd'cc 6h ndxQOxXog d'£6q>Lv^ (i'^6tc9Q dtdXavrogj 

ivd'a 8* i(idg q>Ckoq vlog^ Siia XQataQog xal &(ivnciiv^^ 
K^vtUoxog,^ TtSQl^ (ihv^ ^eCsiv xa%vg i}di (laxfjtiig. 
aXka XB 3t6ll* sTtl totg ytdd'Ofiev xaxd' zCg xav ixstva 
icdvxa ys (ivd'rjiSatxo xaxad'vijxfSv^^ dvd'QciTtoDV ; 

1 15 ovd' al nsvxdexig^ ya xal eidaxeg'' naQajiiiivov 

a/9. 85. 

b ^.383, 576, H. 

301-2, V. 210. 
c I 230. 
d M. 13, C. 257, 

9. 250. 
e X. 543 foil. 
f P. 477, H. 366, 

jr. 318. 
ff d. 187. 
h d. 202. 
i (U. 78. 
k a. 66 mar. 
I 77. 186. 
Ill Z. 123. 
n cr.^410,B.403, 

H. 315. 
*F.2m, 655. 

105. lisQoJ^EtSia, 107. fceatv fdvayixog. 

15. TCBvxdfBxiq i^dJ^stEg, 

III. pro aii,vfimv Heidelb. B. atapjJi}?. 113. dXld ys noil' llarl. mar., sed 

X8 Hchol. H. 

Thus far it seems as though Nestor 
mistook Telemachus* words, xotv vvv fioi 
(ivijcai loi, as meaning, **pray make 
mention of all this to me'\ of. naxgog 

(ivfic^vtti S, 118, and Movaai 

fivfii!aia&\ B. 491 — 2. In the same 
strain he g^oes on to show why it is 
impossible; — "for nine years long we 
manoBUvred against them with every 
sort of artifice {S6Xoiai)^\ and this 
word seems to lead him to the first 
recognition of Odys., rather, however, 
as the [ft'ime deviser of these 80X01 
than as the subject of the enquiry 
which he is answering. He then again 
breaks off in an apostrophe toTelem. — 
**thy father surpassed all in stratagem, 
if so be thou art indeed his son*'. 

In 126 Nestor may be said to settle 
down to his tale. Its flow is copious 
and unbroken, but we find in its course 
little completed events, like islands 
in a stream (see below on 165 foil.), 
in which the imperf. is exchanged for 
the aor. At its close the news of others 
is added to his own , and the final men- 
tion of the fate of Agamemnon and the 
deed of Orestes gives occasion to an ad- 
monition to his young guest and friend. 

105 -6. oaa • • • nXa^Ofi., join this 
with dvixlrifisv 104, "all that we en- 
dured in wandering"; hence, oaot 
fictQvdfisv' is slightly in anacoluthon 
as if =a dvixkrjiiBv fiaQvdfABvoi, — a^- 
§eiev, for the optat. following the im- 
perf. or aor. see App.A.9(2o). — LixiA- 

Acvg, see /. 328 foil, where Achilles 
speaks of twelve adventures by sea 
and eleven by land. 

109. xeitai. Nestor (H. 334) states 
a purpose of gathering the bones of 
the deceased, after burning the bodies, 
to take them home to their children. 
He was an old man and had left 
children. The Hebrew idea that a 
man should "sleep with his fathers'*'* 
found little place with H. Those who 
had left no children at home were 
buried on the spot — even Achilles, 
the prime hero, with his best beloved 
comrades Patroclus and Antilochus (9^. 
91, 244, o>. 78—80), as he himself had 
directed. The Greek^s idea was rather 
to plant his fame abroad, and mark 
remote regions with his memory {fi, 
584). Thus Elpenor (Z. 75—8); and 
so Hector supposes will be done for 
any champion whom he may overthrow 
(H. 85— 91). The examples to the con- 
trary, of Sarpedou's translation by Sleep 
and Death, and of the suitors* corpses 
sent home (JI. 453— 7» ». 4>8— 9) , can 
be easily explained by their respective 

113— 6. aXXa T€, we should expect 
some more marked conjunction than xe ; 
yet it illustrates the easy loquacious 
style of Nestor. xaxa^'Vfi*, a mere 
intensative of d'vrixog ^ cf. QiyrjXog and 
naxaQQiyriXog, axvtpsXog and %axttaxv' 
qisXog* — ovif\ "I could not tell them 
all, even if etc.** 


OAT22EIA2 T. 1 16—126. 

[day III. 

a |. 375, t. Itftf; 

cf. (. 365, n. 440. 
b S. 167, A. 29. 
c cf. <r. 460. 
d •. 107, $. 240; 

cf. B. 295. 
e «r. 379, 422, 423 ; 

cf. 8. 236. 
f T. S2. 
er y. 122, r. 202. 
h d. 834, ». Ill, 

I. 353, <E>. 366. 
i cf. 8. 88, 118. 
j S. 104, K. 359, 

Jtf. 233. 
k X. 236, o. 225; 

cf. S. 204-8. 
I (J. 75, H2, ^.384. 
m d. 206, 597. 
n cf. «. 294. 
(T. 141, 239, 0.46. 
pi9. 148,(r.90,12q, 


141; cf. ft. 139. 
q X 512, jI. 767; 

cf. I. 179-80. 

€|€(»£0£g* ckya X€2^& xdd'ov xaxd Stoi ^Axaioi' 

xqCv^ kbv dvt^rid'slg^ 6rjv naxQiSa yalav txoio. 

slvdarsQ^ ydQ <fq)iv xaxd ^dn:rofi£v^ dfi(pi,67tovt€g^ 

navtoCov0i^ Sokov^iy [loyi^g 8* ixikaMB KQovicav. 

ivd"' ov tig Tcoth firjtiv 6iioi,(od7J(iBvaL avtriv 120 

fld^ak^^ ijcsl (idXa tcoXXov ivCxa Slog 'O8v60€vg 

TcamoLOiav 861ol0v^^ Jtarrjg tsog^ sC itsov^ y« 

xBivov Bxyovog^ i60i' cifiag^ ft' e%£t elgoQocjvta. 

7] Toi yaQ (ivQ'oi^ ys ioixotsg^ ovSs x£ fpaCr^g 

avSga vedtBgov^ fSda iocxota^ [ivd'tjaaiSd'aL, 125 

Bvd'^ ij tOL Bicogv fihv iym xal 8 tog ^OSvaCBvg^ 

118. elvdJ^STsg. 122. fsrsov, 124. J^efomotsg. 125. ^s^omotcc. 
[16. iiigsHS Harl. sed Schol. H. i^sgeoig. 120. ov noi xig Bek. annot. 

1 1 7— 8. 7€QIv, adverbial, "thou would'st 
have gone home first, out of weariness". 
Some, placing a comma at 'A%aiol, 
render it conjunctionallj, "I should 
not have told all before thou hadst 
gone home". This is harsh, for, by 
introducing the indefinite limit of the 
hearer^s patience, it clashes with the de- 
finite limit of **5 or 6 years" previously 
supposed. — (^dxTOfiev is imp erf. 

121. ij9'eX\ not merely = idvpatOn 
as Schol., but **no one ventured'* 
(mar.); so -^schyl. Prom, 1049, ^^^^V 
t' Big oivavyrjTOv (loXsiv '^AiSrjv; cf. 
for a similar tenor, A. 186—7, (f^vyin 
dh %al alXog Icov ifiol (pdc^ui xal 
6yi,oi(a%"fiiLBvai avxriv. 

122. With the 66koi in which Odys. 
was thus fcuiile princeps, cf. the hsqSsu 
of which Penel. was mistress; see App. 
E. 2 (2). 

124—5. ioixate^ n . . ioixora. The 
senses of ioma, "to seem like" and 
**to be seemly**, are played upon here. 
The latter sense is clear in ioLTLOti 
HsCrai olid'Qtp and ioixora yap xata- 
Xi^ca (mar.) while to take both /otxoT£g 
and iomota, with Ni., in sense of "suit- 
able" seems lame and tautological, and 
evacuates ye of its force, which is, "your 
words at any rate are like his", referring 
to the doubt of his sonship just before 
stated; and to take them both in sense 
of "like", I. c. like Odysseus' way of 
speaking, would leave eipoig fi' ^x^t 
X, T. X. without due force. Render, "I 

am astonished as I behold you, for 
indeed your words are like Ms, and 
yet one would not say that a man so 
much younger would speak so suitably 
1. e, so sensibly". The fact that to 
speak like Odys. would he to speak 
sensibly, makes the two thoughts play 
into each other with a very subtle 
transition. They appear more plainly 
as put by^ the less rhetorical Menelaus, 
xolov yag xal natgog, o xal ns- 
nvvfiiva pd^sigy d. 206. 

126. eiwg^ "all that while*', relat. 
for demonstr. tsimg\ cf. otov a. 410 
and note. He means " whilst the siege 
went on", in contrast with the sub- 
sequent events, introduced by avtdg 
iTCsl 130 inf., which dissolved their 
unanimity. Even then, it was rather 
the resolve of Zeus for evil, and Pal- 
las' fateful wrath breaking up its 
brotherhood of chiefs, than any per- 
sonal disunion, which severed Nestor 
from Odys. (132 — 5). The same crisis 
bred drunken discord and prolonged 
debate (App. A. 4 (2) note). Yet even 
then Odys. inclined in judgment to 
go with Nestor, and went as far as 
to Tenedos with him, but thence turned 
back to gratify Agam., clinging to his 
chief even when his brother left him 
(141 — 65, see App. E. i (i)). It is 
observable that H. says nothing here, 
or in f . 108—9, ^^ *^® outrage of Ajax 
OTleus on Cassandra as causing Athene's 
wrath, but perhaps it is hinted at in 9. 


OATLLEIAS T. 127—139. 


oikB ;ror' stv dyoQjj Six''' ifidtojiav^ oik* ivl flovXy^ 
dXl' ?va^ ^Vfidv i%ovxB^ votp xccl ini(pQovi^ /JovA^ 
q>Qai6nB9'\ *AQyaCoi0iv SjrcDg 8;j'« aQiota yevocro, 

130 avraQ inel IlQicifioio ndkiv Suniqaa^av alnrjv^^ 
[fiiqiiBv d' iv V7iB(S6c^ d'Bog 8' inidMCBv 'A%aiovg'^ 
xal xoxB dr^ Za'dg Xvygdv^ ivl q>QB6l (iijSszo^ voatov 
^AgyBiotgy ijtBl ov zt, v<y>j(iovBs^^ oidh dCxaioi 
ndvxBg i6av t^ 6q>B0DV ^roAsag xaxov^ oltov inaOTtov^ 

135 iiijvios^ ^g dXo'^g yXavxoimdog'^ dfiQLjiondtQrjg ^ 
^ t' Iqlv^ *AxqbC8i[i6i (isr d(iq>oriQOi6LV i^XBv. 
rw 81 xakB6iSa(Liv(xi dyogriv igi' xdvxag *A%aiovg^ 
(idif^ dtdQ oi xatd x66(iov^ ig^ ijiliov xata8vvta 
(ot 8* ijA'9'oi/ oft/j3« paficcQijotBg vhg ^AxaiSv) 

a n. 73, X 510. 
b <7. IttS, 9. 408. 
c O. 710. 
d n. 242, t. 326. 
e (. 420, V. 365, 

V- 117. 
f I. 533, 9. 516, 

N. 625; cf. V. 

ff a. 326-7. 
h y. 100, 249, (. 02, 

|. 243. ii. 205. 
i 8. 282, V. 200. 
k a. 350, V. 384. 
I B. 3S9. 
m ^. 1-2. 
n (u. 540, a. 327, 

d. 502, f . 108-9. 
y. 161. 

p O. 69, W. 8t5. 
q B. 214, E. 759, 

TT.IU; cf. O.40, 

r. 848. 
r T. 162. 
8 i.374, 2.61.^463, 

t, 122, .i¥. 226. 

139. j-"oi.Vm. 

138. initpQOva povli^v Bek. annot. 129. yevrjtai Km. CI. cd. Ox., yfvoixo 

Wolf. 131. **aberravit ex v. 317" Bek, 139. fiBficcQii'^otBg Ambros. E. 

Schol. H. . pfpcegrifiivoi Bek. annot. 

50a. But beyond special provocations, 
men are nearest, in Homeric view, to 
the wrath of heaven, when they have 
no earthly check to their will, as the 
Greeks in the moment of conquest, and 
the suitors in the absence of Odys. 
Pallas, as the calm wisdom which 
checks impulse and controls passion, 
is directly hostile to such arrogance; 
see App. E. 4 (6). Her wrath had been 
fatal to Troy, and now pursued the 
conquerors, to whom, unlike the **Ar- 
give^' Her^, she had no national at- 
tachment, ihid, (4). Thus she occurs 
alone, a. 327, as decreeing the ill-fated 
return of the Greeks , and wrought her 
end not only by moral agency but by 
physical, raising waves and storm 
(fi. 108 — 9) to thwart their homeward 

128—9, i^^<PQ*» "opportune", ap- 
plying 97pi}t/ to the occasion, hence 
InitpQoavvriy «. 437, is a gift of Athen6, 
who is lauded by Hesiod Theog, 896 
as Icov fvovaav natgl^fAevos xal ini- 
(pQOvu povXi^v. — 'AQyeloiaiv de- 
fends on yivotto. With the superl. we 
find oxa (cf. vnsigoxog f^oxog) like mg 
in Attic Gr., =3 **the best etc. possible^ \ 

131. This line is out of place, for 
they do not embark till 157 inf., and 
then only t>ne half do so. It is pro- 
bably inserted from v* 317, the same 
line leading up to it there as (130) here. 

There might indeed be room for it as 
the apodosis of avxuQ insl introduced 
by dl, and epitomizing what is ex- 
panded in 1 32—64 (cf. o*t 6' insl ovv 
rlyho^BV .... xoiai d* uviaxafisvog 
fisxitpTjy A. 57—58), but for the more 
formally apodotic phrase xal xoxb Srj 
of 132, which precludes such a view. 

135* finvioq ••• oXoijq, see latter 
part of note on 126 sup,, and, for d^., 
App. A, 3 (i). 

137 — 8, TCtt dh is subject of fivd'si- 
a9'7jv in 140; 139 adds a circumstance, 
the excess of wine on the part of the 
4roops, as a reason for the expression 
ficc'il} ... Tioafiovy Si being 1=3 yap, see 
on 49. fiatjf and (la'tpiSioag commonly 
lead the verse; for exceptions cf. mar.: 
join fidip X. T. A. and ig i^ikipv x. with 
livd'ov fivd; following, iq ^iA. xaTy 
the debate was so long, because in 
the state of the Assembly, otvm ^£|3., 
much time would be idly lost. 

139. olVa» pep* Agam. is reproached 
as otvoPceQhg by Achilles, but also as 
a coward, which he certainly was not, 
see A,, his aQiaxeCcc, Hence the re- 
reproach is probably the contumely of 
unmeasured anger. So in insolent scorn 
Antin, reproaches Odys., cp. 293 — 4. 
Odys. pleads vinous excitement as 
leading a man to act beyond himself, 
play, dance, sing, etc. The suitors 
once appear to sit over their wine till 


0AT22EIA2 T. 140-153. 


a S. 313, 362. 560, 

«. t7, 142, B. 159. 
b A. 24. 

c X. 105; cr.v.313. 
d J. 36, J. 507; 

cf. O. 217. 
e a. 8 mar. 
1 r. 466. 
ff ^. 289, 427. 
h «. 79, ^ 228, o. 

54, 400. 
i d. 583. 
k A. 304—5. 
1 y. 1,^518. y. 23, 

I. 193, ^.^77. 
ni ;i. 43. 633, 0. 

159, Jlf.252, N. 

H.34, O. 355, 590, 

/Z.7fi», 'f. 213; 

ct. B. 367. 
n ^. 337. 
v. 490, o. 40, 188, 

Tf. 367, T. 342. 
p Y 131, 160. 
q «. 179, 187, X. 

3U0, 311, Q. 446. 

[ivd'ov (ivd'si0d7iv rov sXvsxa Xaov ayBVQav. 140 

^1/^' ^ rot Msvskaog avdysv ndvxag *A%aLOvg 

v60tov (ii(iv7J6x€0^ai sjt' BVQia^ vcSta d^akaWrig ^ 

ov8^^ ^AyafiiyLVOvi TtdfiTtav iijvdavs' fiovksto ydg fa 

kaov iQvxaxiBLV^ ^ii^at, ^' tsQctg ixatofifiagy 

(og rov ^A^TivaCrig Ssivbv xokov i^axioaito^^ 145 

^vfjmog/ ov8h to ySrj o oi n6C6B0%'av^ iiisXXev. 

ov ydg^ r' ali/ja ^B(qv XQinhtav voog alev^ iovtcav. 

fSg^ TG) iihv xakB7Cot6iv dfisi^fioiievto in:a€00Lv 

60ta6av' ov d* avoQOveav^ ivxvriyLiSsg ^A%aLol 

VXV ^^^f^^^iyj"^ SCxa Si 0q>v6Lv ijvSave fiovlij.'^ 150 

vvxta (ihv di^afisv^ xakand g)Qsalv OQfiatvovteg 

dXXrjXocg' inl yctQ Zsvg^ iJQtve if^fia^ xccxoto' 

iqtod'BV d' o? (ihv vsag eXxojiev Big aka Slav 

143. ifi^vSavs. 146. /ijdiy. 148. fsnisaaLv. 150. J-tjxv frivSavB, 

149. icxacav Ern. CI. ed. Ox., eotaouv H&rl. Yen. Wolf. 151. Bldoayi^BV a 

potioribus legi monent SchoU. £. H. M. Q. R. 153. pro slg ala 9iav Harl. 

mar. dpLfptrSXiaaag, 

slumber supervenes, but the effect is 
there ascribed to the express agency 
of Pallas. Elpenor is the only clear 
case of a Homeric Greek overcome 
with wine (otvofiaQsioiv) , save the As- 
sembly here (mar.). The Cyclops is 
the only example of stupid or "dead" 
drunkenness , and the centaur Eury tion 
of aggressive insolence produced by 
wine; but both these lie without Greek 
society, in which the rule aPaiiia nC- 
vsiVy <p. 294, seems to have prevailed. 
See Gladst. II. 447. • 

144—7. iQVxax*,^ct for reduplica- 
tion in 2^^ svllable 'qvinanov and ivi- 
vLTtov from IvCnxm. — €§axio*, so we 
have xolog dviqusaTOs (mar.). — v^^Ttioq 
implies that Nestor, the speaker, knew 
better. BfiBXkBy i. e. 'A&rjvrj, was not 
likely to comply or relent, ov ydg r' 
X. t. X. With the sentiment contrast 
Euri]). Med, 960, nsC^Biv Smga xal 
^•Bovg Xoyog-t and I. 497 atgintoi 
Si TS xal ^sol avxoC, t' is t« (see 
mar.) adding emphasis to yapc=3*'but 
no! for the mind of the gods etc.'', 
ahl>a seems the emphatic word, "sud- 
denly" = without grave reason. For 
ul'ipa see on a. 11, ulnvv, Cf. the vain 
attempt of the Trojans to propitiate 
Pallas in Z. 311. 

149. Here the aor. comes in, see on 

103 near the end. The affair of the 
dyoQTi is spoken of as a completed 
event. For this discord between the 
Atridffi see App. £. 1(1), 4 (4) end, 

149 — 50. dvoQOvO., used especially 
of a start of surprise, breaking off 
some occupation (mar.). ^BCnBO; 
Doederl. 500, notices that the sense 
of elnsiv is so far lost in this com- 
pound, that Sophoc. (Ed, Tyr. 463 
has re - introduced it in ^samenHcc] 
render "awful". 

i^i. aeCafi., used, commonly with 
yvxra, of a halt in travelling, not 
implying sleep (mar.). uriiLi, to blow 
(cf. dvBTtvBvaav of breathing, respite, 
Schol.), is the probable present; but 
in meaning lavm comes nearer this 
aor. asea, Curtius (I. 587 J connects 
radically ai?fu {dj^dm l-af(o tavm) 
driQ asXka avgoc ovgog, — x^^BTtd 
<PQ. OQfiaiv*, "revolving ungentle 
thoughts", as variance of opinion 
produced misunderstanding. 

152 — 3. Jtrifjut xaxoio, so 9r^^a 
xaxov, %a%6v xal nrjfia, and Svqg 
nrjiia are found; nrjfioc often stands 
for some bane wrought by supernatural 
power, e. g, g. 446, tig SocCiimv toSs 
Ttrjfia ngoGTiyayB; 


OATSLEIAS: r. 154-167. 


xrifftara* r' ivrid'6(ie0d'a Pad'y^aivovg^ ts yvvatxag. 

155 riiiii0Bsg d' UQa Xaol igritvovto^ iisvovteg" 

av^t, naqi* ^AxQeCdri 'Jyafiifivovt , 7Cot(iivv kuSv • 
i^(ii0€€g d* avafidvxBg ilavvofiev ai 81 fta'A' cJxa 
ixXeovy i6x6Q60Bv Sh d'cog nsyaxrjrea^ novxov. 
ig TbvbSov^ 8' ild'ovxBg iQi^a(iBv Iga d'sotacv^ 

160 otxaSB iBjiBvot,' Zsvg 8* oii nca (iijSbxo^ voOxov^ 

0%Bxkiog^ og ^' iQi,v ^q6b^ xax'^v ini Sbvxbqov^. avxig, 
oi (ihv anoOXQB'^avxBg ipav viag &(i(ptBXi60ag 
d^(p''^ *08v6'^a avaxxa 8atq>Qova^ Ttoixtkofirjxriv ^ 
avxvg in^ ^j^XQBiSij jdyafiBfivovL ij^a* q>BQOvxBg. 

165 avxccQ iym avv vrjvalv &oXXb0lv^^ ui iioi btcovxo^ 
(fBvyov, iitBl yCyvtaCxov^ 8rj xaxd (17J8bxo 8aL(icov, 
tpBvyB 81 TvSiog vtog aQijiog^ cJ^wfe d' BxaCQOvg' 


a c. 40—2, ^ 263 

-5, I. 138-9. 
b J.594;cf.2.122. 
c @. 345, O. 3, 367. 
d <^. 22, 6. 1, B. 

581 , A. r- 
e A. 38. 452, 

e25, N. 83. 
t y. 132 mar. 
g^ A, 10. 
h t. 65, X' S9- 
i Z. 436 seq. , J. 

81-6, M. 139 

seq., O. 301 seq. 
k a. 48 mar. 
1 jt. 376. a. 56, A. 

572. 578, X 132, 

T. 343. 
m y. 412, 427, d. 

448, ^. 394, X. 

132, 259, X. 228, 

O. 306, 312, 494, 

n ^1. 205. 

i6o. J^oinaSs fiifisvoi, 162. afiq>Lj^BX{acag, 163. /avaxtrf. 164. j^^pa. 
163. noi,%Ll6(i7itLv Harl. ex emend. 

154 — 7. yvvaixagy as part of the 
spoil (mar.). iifiLa.y half the forces 
tarried with Agam., the rest, among 
them Nestor, embarking at once against 
his wishes, id 6h, t. e, vrihg under- 
stood from^ dvafidvtsg. With ^aO'V^. 
cf. Pad'vuLoljtmv (mar.). What we call 
a "Grecian waist" is short; but the 
arrangement of the girdle would cer^ 
tainly fluctuate with taste and fashion. 
Here probably loose folds hanging deep 
over the girdle, are meant; see Diet, 
antiq, s, v. TUNICA. 

158 — 9. iaroQSC*, cf. stratum silet 
a'quor, Virg. Bucol. IX. 57. fieyaxiq*, 
this epith. views the whole sea as 
gathered in one vast gulf (cf. the cava 
flumina of Virg. Geor. I. 326) , a liquid 
bulk filling an immense concavity; see 
Buttm. Lexil. 70, tf. i note, and App. B. 

162—4. ot fikv ••• dfitp' *06vc., 
i. e, **Odyss. and his people". Donalds. 
Gr, Gr, § 399 (y) would restrict this 
usage to "later Greek", but the pas- 
sages (mar.) adduced by Ni. seem to 
prove it Homeric.^ BTt' ... ijQa <piQ., 
tmesis for innpigovrsg ijpa. Buttm. 
Lexil, 62 does not recognize in^riga^ 
but always detaches the Inl, wherever 
inirjQoc is commonly read, to go in 
tmesis with qpfpo, always found in 
conjunction with itr Yet igi'^gsg and 
iniT^Qttva surely justify ^Trt'i^pa; cf. 
also ini(iccQtvQOi f and adverbs inino- 

i/oog, intanvysQaqt in some of which 
some critics detach the ini. 

165—85. Nestor provided for himself, 
and his age probably enabled him to 
dispense with personal deference to 
the chief of the host. We may con- 
jecture that Odys. , secure perhaps 
of the favour of Pallas for himself, felt 
not the alarm of Nestor, and had a 
strong sense of duty to his chief; since 
Nestor with delicacy omits ^ to touch 
on what was the ^gig xax^ (159) in 
which he and Odys. were involved. 
For Odysseus' adherence to Agam. see 
App. E. I, (i), for Menelaus* aban- 
donment of him see App. E. 8 (8). 
aoXJii*, this adj., which occurs 30 
times in H., is always placed as here, 
closing the 4^^ foot and making it, as 
also the 3*, a dactyl , mostly followed 
by some slight pause (mar.). It is 
strikingly descriptive of men, ships, &c. 
thronging each other mostly with some 
sense of disorder and hurry; certain 
parts of the verbs doXXim, doXXiim 
occur, but not in the Ody. After the 
first halt expressed by the aor. diaa- 
fisv (151)) the imperf. tense is resumed 
in 179TV8 (152); then again follows de- 
lay at Tenedos and further division 
described by the aor. 158 — 64; again 
a short progress in the imperf. 165 — 7; 
then further delay at Lesbos again in 
the aor. 168 — 9. The imperf. takes us 


0ATS2EIAS r. 168—182. 

[day III. 

a a. 706, •. 322, 
f]. 166, V. 321. 

b «. 277, B. 626, 
E. 355, H. 238, 
ji. 498, iWr. 118, 
240, JV. 765. 

c B. 324, a. 3»4. 
P. 645-7, M. 
199—209, i2. 292. 

d N. 244. 

e App. B. (3) mar. 

f «. 414, t. 489, X. 
129, V- 238. 
I. 84, fti. 20. . 
d. 357, 567. 

1 a. 380-1. 

k y. 10. 

I X. 130, y. 6. 

m y. 9 

n y.273, -4. 40— 1. 

o u. 347. 

p y. 321, 5'. 16. 

q cf. S. 389. 

r c. 262, ii. 399. 

s B. 559. 

t B. 525, M. 58. 

u ^. 760, n. 378. 

V I. 471. 


iv ^£6pG) d' Iki%bv dohxov n;l6ov OQfiaivovtag ^ 

fl xadiJJteQd's XCoio vsoifLsd'a Jtav7talod00i]s 9 170 

vrj0ov BTCt WvQtrig^ avt'^v iic' agietSQ'^ ^xovteg, 

ij mcivBQd'e XCoio^ nuQ^ i^vsfbosvta Mifiavta, 

fjteofiBv dh d-Bov (p'^vav rBQag'"^ avrccQ o y* r\yiXv 

dcrgf,^ xal riv6yBi nikayog^ (leeov Big Evfiotav 

tifivBLV., b(pQa ta%i6xa VTthx xax6ti]ta^ (pvyot^BV. 175 

(OQTO d' B7tl« hyvg^ ovQog drjfbBvai' ai dl (idX' coxa 

Ixd-voBvta' xikBvd'a SiddgafLOVj ig di FBQaLiJtdv 

ivvvxtat xatdyovto'^ IIo^BvddovL^ dh tavQCov 

nolX'sTtl"' f*^'" Sd'BfiBVj'' TciXayog^ [idya fistQijaavtBg^ 

tixQaxov ^(laQ^ si]V^ or' Bv"AQyBt^ vijag itaag 180 

TvSbISbco BtaQOL jdvoii'^dBog uTtTtoSdiioto 

Bazaeav ' ^ avzuQ iyci ys Ilvlovd^ ixov,^ ovSb nox^ BC^rf 

180. ij^iaag,. 

169. Aio^at 8* ai Bek. annot. 171. d' in' Harl. 

Schol. H. , ita Heidelb. mar. 

178. BVvv%ioi Rhian., 

up again in 173— 4, but is broken by the 
momentary action detls; and in 176 the 
last stage, including the arrival home, 
closes the whole in the aor.; broken, 
however, by the continued action ^xov 
in 182. Thus a series of completed 
pauses is interspersed with the pro- 
gress of the tale. 

t68. v6)l, dual, Diomedes and me. 

170 — 2. From Lesbos Chios lies to 
the S., and Psyria to the W. according 
to one Scholiast about 80, or to another 
about 40 stadia from Chios, sheltering 
vessels, when storm-beaten, from the 
-Sgaean. The alternative was to steer 
"above" t. e. to the N. of {yLu^vuBQ^s) 
Chios in the direction of Psyria and 
keeping Chios {avtriv) on their left, or 
to sail between Chios and the Asiatic 
coast, of which Mimas (named from 
a fabulous giant, one of those who 
warred against Zeus. Hor. Carm, III. 
IV. 53) is a cape, this is called "under 
Chios". In the former case they would 
cross the -^gsean at once, which course 
they eventually took ; in the latter they 
would make short casts from island to 
island, as was usual in the timorous 
navigation of that early day, S7t* dQi- 
CxiQ*, see App. A. 18. 

173. O'BOVy the god meant could not 
be Zeus nor Pallas, who were then 

enraged with the Greeks, but is pro- 
bably Poseidon, the deity of the Ne- 
le'id house, and in whose worship the 
speaker had been recently engaged, 
who is also named 178 inf. as thanked 
by sacrifice for the passage. This god 
eflFects a tsgag in v. 162—9, although 
the word is not there used; cf. , how- 
ever, its use in B. 324 for a similar 
transformation. See also, for a^trppcrg 
to sailors, J, 75 — 7, daxsga .;•; 5 vay- 
tf^ai TSgag 176 atgatA svgi'i Xamv. 
Such is, perhaps, intended here. 

176—8. al <fc, t. e. vijsg as in 157. 
FsQaiOT., the southern point of Eu- 
boea; a temple of Poseidon is said to 
have stood there, ivvvx^'^h a Schol. 
gives ivvvpoLj as if meant of the men : 
N. B, ivvvxtog, like nccvvvxiog, is of 
3 terminations, ivvvxog ndvwxog of 2. 
It means "in the night" following the 
3^* day, see on 180. 

179—80. c;rl, with Uocsid. 178 means 
"in honour" of that god. zeTQarov, 
the four stages were probably Tene- 
dos, Lesbos, Euboea (reached in the 
night), Argos. So Achilles could in 3 
days from the Troad reach Phthia, I. 
362. A Schol. reckons the 4 days, 
however, from quitting Lesbos. 

182—3. eaxaCav, 3* pl- i* *<>''• ^or 
^arrjaav, a rare form, and in several 


OATS£EIAS r. 183-196. 


185 xeivciVy 0? t' iiSdc^Bv *A%m(Sv 0% r dn6Xovxo* 
ZiSiSa 8* ivl fiBydgoiiSi xadrj^svog 7J(i6t^qoi0iv^ 
Tteiid'oiAaiy rj" &d(iig inrly doTJaeaiy^ O'dSi as xevCa^.^ 
BV ^hv MvQ[iiS6vag (pd6* ikd'd(ABV iyxBOLiAoiQOvg^^^ 
ovg ay' *A%iKkiiog (iByad"d^ov q>aidi(iog^ vCdg^ 

190 BV dh OiXoxTTJtriv^ IIoidvxLOV dykaov^ vlov 

ndvtag d' *Ido(ABVBvg^^' Kqtjttiv slarjyay* ixaCQOvg^ 
or {pvyov^ ix jioki^LOv^ jiovxog 8i oC ov tiv* dnfivQa,"^ 
'j^TQBidfjv dh xaU' a'&tol dxovBZB v6iSq>tv idvtBg^ 
iSg r' ijA-d** Sg x Afyta^og i^ijaaro^ XvyQov Hsd'Qov. 

195 aAA' 7} xoi xBtvog (ihv ima(ivyBQ(Sg^ dnhiOBv, 
mg dya^ov xal natSa xccxatpd'CfiivoLO kinic^ai^ 


a X. 2>. 

b /». 363, 0. 
5U», y/. 2tt. 

c y. 88 mar. 

il d. 101. 

a y. 45 mar. 

(• *. 325. 

< V- 273. 

Il B. 692, 810, H. 
134; cf. J. 24'i, 

i il. 506-37. 

k B. 721-3. 

I d. 188, 77. 185. 

m B. 045. 

•I o. II, 12. 

o ;i. n•^, a. m. 

I> y. 255. 
•l y. 249. 
r d. 672. 
s 6. 495, 710, I. 

316, E. 154, S. 

485, T. 230, 235. 

184. J^OlStt. 19a. Sot, 
196. oino(pd'i(i6voio bohol. ^. 793. 

plaoeSi whero found, tlieMSS. fluctuato 
between* it and tatocaav, as B. 535. 
S^QV, with object v^a; ^jjco is espe- 
cially so used with ship, chariot, 
etc. (mar.). ovQO^, II. docs not no- 
tice that the same wind which was 
fair from Lesbos to Greece would not 
have him carried them round Tienarus 
and thence northwards to Pylos. Poe- 
tically, however, the wind never failed 
and was an ovf^o^ still. 

184—7. dnevh'., see on 88. xe£- 
vwv» "those" whom we left 155 — 6 
with Agam. 'A^CiLd^t this gen. is 
"elegantly redundant", t. e. added to 
give dignity to the manner of stating 
without adding anything to the matter 
of the statement; so ^. 87. i^ 9'ifi,^ 
(see on 45) refers to dctriCBcti "you shall 
know, as it is right you should". 

188. iyfCBOifii. With this cf. iofica- 
QOif vlanofKOQOi for the second element, 
for the other 6(fsaai - pdctrig tHx^ai- 
9rAifri7Sy these last suggest that that 
second element is a verbal, probably 
akin to fisi(fOfiat ^ftfto^a, in sense of 
having allotted to one; this also suits 
ctvdfMOQOg Herod. V. 93, in which the 
former element is the noun aivog ; for 
the fld in -firnQog cf. t(fmnd<o TQOnog^ 
Valium vofiog. Indeed i/%saijiO(fog via- 
MfiOQOg could not enter the hexameter, 
any more than cid'oivocxog or IlQtocfAidrig. 

189. vio^, Neoptolemus, left in Soy- 

ros by his falhor iluriiig the earlier 
part of the war, whence Odys. fetched 
him at its close. His valour and coun- 
sel are lauded k, 506 — 37. Pindar, 
Nem. VII. 50 foil., has preserved a 
tradition that, after beinff king in Mo- 
lossia on his return from Troy, he was 
slain at Delphi by the priest there, 
Machfierus , whose claim to a share of 
the victim offered he had despised ; see 
on d. 5 foil. 

190. Philoctetes, son of Poean, B. 
721—3, abode in Lemnos, disabled by 
the bite of a serpent. From ^. 219— ao 
we see that he subsequently joined the 
Greek army , as perhaps is implied B. 
724—5. In d", 219 Odys. confesses his 
superior archery. Sophocles has em- 
bodied in his Philoctetea a legend that 
the hero was conveyed to Troy by 
Odys. and Neoptol. 

193 — 5. dxov., see on d. 688 for 
accus., 'AtQBldfiv, in this sense fol- 
lowing this verb, for the form of sen- 
tence see on 16 sup, AfyioB:, see 
App. E. 5, €7110 fi*, probably akin 
to fioyog fioyia; cf. afiiHQog f/kiHQog, 
and in Eng. smelt and melt, smoulder 
and moulder; there is no a^j. inianvye- 
Qog , but the verb ini(i,oyiai is found in 
tmesis (sr. 19) in sense of "to feel an- 
guish /br" a person; so here, "he 
(iEgisth.) has expiated it to his sor7'(nv*\ 

196'— 8. iiq dyad'*, "how good it 


OATSSETAS T. 197-209. 

[day III. 

a a. 298-302, 40 

b r. 353 , H. 87. 
c y. 79. 
d fi. 184. 
e a. 46, e. 477, ft. 

fa. 344, y. 83. 
g X. 76, w. 255, CO. 

433, B. 119; cf. 

Z. 358, 9. 580, 

CO. 197. 
h r. 193, y. 64, 

i r. 366. 
k 7t. 93, o. 588, (T. 

143, v. 170, 370, 

A. 695. 
1 S. 208, ^. 64; 

cr. C. 188. 
m C. 190, V. 311. 

ai/d(>og,^ ^;rel xal xatvog itioaro natQoq)Ov^a , 
Atyi6d'ov SoXo^ijtvv^ og ot Tearega xkvtov ?xta^ 
[xal 0Vy q>Ckog^ {[idla yuQ a' oqocs xakov ts [leyav re) 
aXxt^og l06\ Lva rig 6£ xal difiyoycav^ sv sHjttj.y 200 

Tov d' av TriXiiLa%og 7C£7tvv[iavog avxCov i]v8a 
"c5^ Ni0xoQ NrikriidSri^ fidya^ xvSog ^^xai^v ^ 
ycal^ Uriv xstvog fihv itCaato^ xaC ot^Jxaiol 
otcov6i xkiog^ BVQV xal i06o(AivoL6L^ nvd'eod^av. 
at yccQ ifbol toaorjvSe d'sol Svvafbvv tcbqi^bIsv^ 205 

^^rC0a6d'ai^ ^vrj6t^Qag tmsQfiaairig ulsyeiv^g^ 
OL t€ fiov vpQv^ovrsg drdad'ala^ [irixccvomvtai , 
dlV ov [loi tOLovTOv i^ixkaOav^ %'6ol ok^ov^ 
jtatQi r' ifi£ xal ifioi' vvv 8h xq'^ rerkdfieV^^ f[i7ti]g.^' 

198. o »Foi. 200. J^ELTirj. 203. /ot. 

199 — 200. auctore Aristoph. improbantur ex a. 301 — 2 hue translati, Scholl. 
H. M. Q. 203. fitv pro filv Bek. annot. 204. doidijv Em. Gl. ed. Ox,, 

nvQ'iaQ'ai Wolf., utramque Eustath. 205. nsgid'stsv Bek. juxta Schol. H., 

cseteri nctgad'sisv. 

is!'' kmiai^ai, U. uses the 2 aor. 
mid. of iBlnm in pass, sense, (mar.) 
kXCnriv Xmrivai etc. not being found in 
him. oq 01 X. T. /I., a clause expansive 
of nctXQOtpovfia ^ see on a. i noXvzQO- 
7C0V, and cf. difi'qtriv rjv x. t. X. y. 383. 

199 — 200, these verses recur from 
a, 301, but are probably genuine here 
also, and hint obliquely (Nestor's po- 
liteness preventing more direct allusion 
to the private difficulties even of one 
so much younger), at the occasion for 
vigour aflForded by the state of aflFairs 
at Ithaca. This allusion draws out a 
full statement of those affairs from 
Telem., see App. E. 3 (end). 

204. xal tCCOfiivoiOi , the xal 
implies to future as well as present 
hearers^ jtvO'eO^ai, the reading dot- 
drjv seems to have originated in a gloss 
on TiXiog svgv based on '9'. 580, tva 
TjCi xcrl iaaofiivoiaiv doidri, and 
00. 107 Tsv^ovOL d* ini%9'ovioLaiv 
doioTjv, H. has two forms of phrase, 
with slight variation, to express the 
prospect of renown or infamy among 
future ages: one is "this will be base 
or will be a shame {alaxQOVj Xdprj), or 
the like, for future ages to hear {nv- 
^fWat)"; the other, " they will make 
a song in future ages about such a 
person", or "such an event will be- 
come a song, such person will be sung 

about {doid^ do£dt(ioi)y etc. among 
future ages": nowhere, unless doiS-^ 
be read here, is it brought in as a 
second to a previous noun like TiXiog, 
nor here is it so good a second to 
%Xiog as nvQ'iad'oci is: "shall diffuse 
his renown widely for future ages to 
hear^^ is better than the hendiadys 
"his renown and a song about him for 
future men". The difference, however 
slight, on either ground, seems in fa- 
vour of nv&ia^ai. 

205. ToOC7iy6e , followed by infin., 
with ellipsis of oeov^ expresses "just 
so much as to punish". 

206 — 7. xiCaOO'; this accus. of per- 
son with gen. of thing is common with 
this verb, see Jelf, Gr, Gr. § 500: in 
216 dnozCoBxai has dat. {cqti) of per- 
son, accus. of thing, and in o. 236 an 
accus. of each. For drdcO', see on a. 7. 

208—9. fioi • • • TtaxQi X* ififji xal 
Bfioi, the ever present remembrance 
of his father (cf. a. 115, 135, §, 46, 134) 
occurs to Telem. as he is speaking of 
himself, and occasions him thus to cor- 
rect, as it were, his words. eiiixX; 
see on a. 17 ; in similar sense of destiny 
or lot, wehavtf i«ivijff«, "spun", T. 128, 
SI, 210. oX^oq means "wealth"^ alike 
in the older sense of happiness and in 
the modern sense of riches, Pindar is 


OATSSEIAS r. 210—224. 


210 rdv S' ruLBi^Bx' insixa FsQi^viog iTCTtoxa bli6t(QQ 
"cJa €pik\ iTtsl dij raiJra f*' dvifivi^aag xal hmeg' 
fpaal (ivriat'^Qag O'^g [irjt^Qog e'lvexcc TtoXlovg 
iv ^syaQOtg, dixi^rv^ aid'sv^ xaxd (irixccvdaad'at.'^ 
eljti ^01 r(h ixmv vnoSdfivaOat ^ 17 ad ys Xaol 

215 ixd'aiQova^ avd d^fiov, im67t6[i€vov^ d'sov 6(i(p^^^ 
t£g^ d' Old' at xi Ttoti 6(pt fiCag aTCoxlCBxai^ ild'fov^ 
^ o y€ iiovvog^ icav, ij xal 0V[i7tavt€g '^jjraiot'; 
ei' yccQ a' c)g id'dlot fpikisiv yXavxcomg !//^Viy, 
cSg xox 'Odv06^og TtsgixijSaTO^ xvSakifLOio 

22odifftci)^ ivt TQcifDV^ od't 7cd0xo(Asv aXys* 'j^xccloI, 
{ov ydQ n(D Udov (Sds d'Bovg dvaq)avdd^\ (pikevvrag 
cig xsCvfp dvafpavdd TcaQiarato^ Ualldg ^A%'t^v71') 
Bt <y' oOtfog id-iXoL tpMetv xijdoird^ xb d'vfip^ 
r^ xsv TtffP XBivov yB xal ixksldd'OLto yd^oio," 

a y. 103, y. 9l^B. 
b t. 177, 0. 1ft, 7t. 

91, o. 43, V. 42; 
1 cf. a. 79, y. 28, 

ft. 98-6. 
c 7t. 134, 

tp. 375. 
d ^ 2U2, g. 431, 

(u. 1S3. 
e B. 41, r. 129; 

cf. &. 250. 
f fi. 332. 
JT a. 268, ^. 

(0. 480. 
Ii V. 30, 40, V- 3S, 

//. 388. 
i /C. 285-91. 
k ^. 527. 
I y. 100, <f. 330. 
in X. 455, J7. 17S; 

cf. C. a88, V. 48. 
n r. 121. 
o yf. 190, //. 204. 
p a. 302, V. 394, 


^. 499, 


211. ij^sinsg. 213. aj^exiyrt. 214. j^fiiwf. J^txooir. 

221. J^idov. 

216. Tts J-oi:&', 

211. inifivriaag Harl. suprascript. et in marg. inocvifivriaagt ut oiiiisso fi' priccedat 

Tavr'. 213. firixavdac&aL Venet. marg. 214— S L] ^^k., quippe ex n. 95—6 

translates. 216—7. ditoxiCBctiy av ys Zenod., Schol. H. 

u laoie ttpooial uuiiK ot a god'B lavour 
than help merely, ov ydg rem ndvt- 
saai 9'BOi fpaivovxoti ivocQyeig n. 161, 
cf. ov ai y* insixcc tdov tlovqtj diog 
ovd* ivorjoa x. t,X. v, 318 — 9; see also 
App. E. I (11). 

especially i'oud of tliib teriu; for soiiie 
of its related words see App. A. 3 (3). 

211. see on 200. 

214 — 5. The genuineness of these 
lines here is doubtful. The question 
asked by them is not answered, as it 
is whore they recur (mar.): it implies 
that if Tel em. were overborne against 
his will, it must be through the Xaol 
taking part against him — a strong 
confirmation of the weight due to the 
popular element in Homeric politics, 
as laid down in App. A. 4. iniOnOfA* 
X. T. >l., this is added politely, not to 
seem to suppose that Telem. could 
have given any ground for enmity. 
-9*COti 6fA€f^, oracular or prophetic 
warning, see on a. 282, Buttm. Leant, 
21, and App. A. i. 

216 — 7. Oifij dat. of special rela- 
tion like ot a. 88, 91 : here the accus. 
of the deed {§iocg) follows djtorlo., 
as in 206 sup, one of the doer follows 

218 — 23. The long -spun sentence 
losing itself in a parenthesis, and then 
resuming, resembles that in a. 255 foil., 
seo note on a. 265.^ dvaq>avda wc 
find also i^avatpavSov , and diKpaSiov 
or -tiyv. Visible and manifest help is 

There is ^a^ reading of Zonodotus 1? 
ijv ys for ^ ys, and anoxlcscti for 
dnoxCasxaiy meaning, **who kn6ws 
whether you may perchance return to 
pay off their wrong, either alone or 
with all the Acheeans to aid you": 
but although the words of Telem. 226 — 8 
suit this well, those of Athen@ in 231 
plainly refer to Odys. returning to 
avenge; besides, £f... noxi ,., ikd^atv 
hardly applies with due force to Te- 
lem., and the "united Achseans" is a 
phrase pointing clearly to Odys., cf. 
navotxcctoi (mar.). The variation per- 
haps arose from the difficulty felt at 
passing from rj p ys (217) to si yocg 0' 
(218) and sC a' ovxag (223), which, 
however, is only an instance of the 
rambling Nestorian style. 

224. Ti^^^sed by epic litotes as if 
= nag rtgC The litotes shows con- 
temptuous irony: for ixXeXdO'* yd' 
fioio cf. ^xA. 'AqtQoSixyig %, 444. 


OATSSEIAS r. 225—238. 

[day III. 

a ^. 243, <f. 371, 

o. 405. 
b *. 221. 
c T. 193, (p. 209, 

H. 7, ='.108. 
d a. tt4 mar. 
e K. bW, (i. 322, 

d. 207, X. 673, 

f e. 452, (o. 309, 

E. 224. ^ 
g- fi. 343, *. 483. 
h a. 9. 
i w. 248, V- 55, 

A. 125. 
k d. 526—37, k. 

1 A 140, 211, I. 

m J. 315, 444, a. 

n a. 10. 
o (i. 100, *. 145, 

w. 135. 
p X. 398; cf. n, 

589. t. 464. 

rov d' av Ttilifiaxog n;€7tvv[idvog dvtiov rivda 225 

"c5 yigov^ ov Tto tovio i%og rsXhod'ai ofo* 
kiriv^ yccQ fieya eiTeag' ayrj^ [i' ixBv ovk &v i^oC ya 
^iTtOfiBVO)^ td ysvoit% ovd^ si %'sol Sg id'slouvJ' 

rbv d' avTB ngoGieiTCB %'Bd ykavxcoTtig 'Ad^vri 
''TrjUfiaxB^ Ttotov 6b Snog (pvyBV aQKog"^ odovtcjv. 230 
QBta^ d^Bog y id'skcav xal ti]l6d'Bv avdQa aacicaiJ 
l^ovXoi^i]v d av iyd yB^ xal Ulysa jtokka fioyij0ags 
otxadi t ild'ifiBvaL xal voati^ov ^ftap^ Idsa^ai^ 
Y] iXd'CJV dnoliad'cci Bq)B6xiog^^ (xig ^Jyaiiifivov 
SXb^'^ V7t' Aiylad'oio SolGi xal r^g dk6%oio, 235 

aH'^ ri rot d'dvarov ^hv b^oCvov^ ov8h d'soi Ttsg 
xal^ (ptkp dvSgl dvvavxai dkaXxBfiBV^ OTtTtotB xbv Si] 
(AOiQ^ 6AoiJ<^ xad'Uriav tavqlayiog'^ d'avdroioJ' 

227. J-stnocg, 

228. feXnoiisvo}. ^ 
233. J^o^Tiads, 

229. nQ06sfstns. 
235- ^V9' 

230. J^snog. 

228. pro ovd* a^ Zenod. e^fti}, Scholl. H. M. 230. TriXefiaxog. 231. x' pro y', 

aacoGSL Harl. suprascript. 232 — 8 improbantibus quinque Scholl. receperunt 

Dind. Fa. Low., 236—8 solos [] Bek. 

226 — 8. Telem. answers only the 
latter words of Nestor (22^4),^ which 
h9,d fairly astonished him {ayrj fi' ix^t)' 
— for him, though divinely succoured, 
to- baffle the suitors, was in his eyes 
Uriv fiiya. — eXitOfi; see Jelf Gr, Gr. 
§ 599- 3i ^ dativus commodi often car- 
ries a participle describing the feeling 
etc. of the person accommodated; in 
.iEsch. Agam, 1631 the pronoun is omitt- 
ed, 8Exo^ivoig Xiyng &avSLV as, — 
ovif* el S'Sol %, T. X. This is not felt to 
involve actual impiety, as the Homeric 
conception of divinity is in nearly all 
its aspects restrained by limits; cf. 
note on a, 22 and App. E. 4 (16). 
Athens points out (221) that the act 
which he supposed beyond those limits 
lay really within them. 

230—1. For TijXifiaxB some MSS. 
have TrjXifiaxog^ but they are of in- 
ferior authority. Hermann contends 
that in no such word is the voc. in 
-og found except q>iXog (Bek.) as in 
a. 301. — ^eZa is especially used by H. 
to characterise the ease with which a 
god does what man finds impossible; 
cf. QsCoc ficcX' Sg ts d'sog F. 381, T. 
444, which phrase commonly begins 
a line (mar.). For ys the early edd. 
give x£ after ^s6g, — xal • • • Oa<6(fai 

* 'could bring a man safe (home) even 
from a distance": for this sense of 
aacocaL see mar.; so Xenoph. Anab. VI. 
5, § 20, riv ds dri xal aoad'mfisv inl 

232 — 5. These lines (which were re- 
jected by some ancient critics) if re- 
tained, require us to press the sense of 
xal ... fioy^aag '*and (if he be brought 
safe home) I for my part would prefer 
that lot, even 'though I had to toil hard for 
it^ tothelotof Agam.,who(reachedhome 
without toilsome wandering,- but) died 
at the domestic hearth by treachery" ; 
t. e. your father's lot, hard as it is, may 
be less so than his. In this view, these 
lines need not be rejected. For ^ovXai" 
fiffv in sense of malim^ followed by 17 
than, cf- X. 489 — 91. — AiylaS-* and 
dXox* depend on v;r6j and 66km is 
dat. of manner, fi^ dXox* ^s an ad- 
dition to the previous statement of 194 
which spoke of .^Egisthus only. For the 
full details see X, 409 foil, and 8. 529 
foil. The wife abstracted the victim's 
last weapon, the tpdayavoVy leaving 
him thereby defenceless. 

236 — 8. dkk' Tirol (mar.) appears 
to be a phrase for breaking off a sub- 
ject = "but there — death, the com- 
mon lot, not even the gods can etc." 


0ATS2EIAS r. 239-246. 


tijv d' av TifiX/fiaxog yt€7tvv[idvog dvtiov rivda 
240 "ikKvTop, (ATfixirt tavta^ Xsyoified'a xrjSdnevoi^ nsQ' 
TceCvip d* oixiti vdatog ^Tijirvfiog,^ dl\d of Ijdfi 
q>Qda<Javt* d^dvatot d'dvaxov xal x^Qa n^kaivccv, 
vvv S* id'iXa Inog aXXo iistakX^aat^ xal igi^^at 
NiaxoQ\ insl nsQioiSs^ Sixag^ i^Sh q>Q6vLv^ aXlGiV' 
245 rplff** yaQ Srj ^iv q)a6iv dvdiatfd'ccL^ yivB* dvSQcSv^ 
Sg XB (lOL dd'dvccxog IvSdlkaxai^ slgoQda^d'ac. 

a y. 296, N. 292. 

b .X. 416. 

c d. 157; cf. 140, 

y. 122. 
d /. 69 mar. 
e Q. 317, N. 728. 
f (. 215, ;i. 570. 
^ (T. 258. 
h A. 250—2. 
i d. 177, 602. 
k «. 224, P. 218, 

*F, 460. 

24X. /oi. 343. 244. finog, 344. nsQiJ^oi^B. 
346. J^ividllstai, 

245. J^ocvd^occd'oti^ 

239. rov Barnes, pro t^v. 241—2. in dabium vocant quatuor Sclioll.i parum 

])erBpectft loquentis indole. 244 — 6 Scholl. H. M. improbant [1 Bek. ^ 245.^ pro 

dvdQMv alii SXXav, 246. ita Aristoph., ScboU. H. M., et ita Wolf., d^avdxotg 

Barnes. Em. CI, ed. Ox. 

Bek. sets 236 — 8 in tbe mar. as spu- 
rious. Five Scholl. mark the wUol6 
pass. 232 — 8 as spurious , the first four 
lines as lacking coherence with the 
preceding (see, however, note on 232 
— 5 sup,)^ the last three as incoherent 
with 231. The Venet. Schol. explains 
the apparent conflict of this with 231 
on the principle that the nsicgafiivrj 
(lio^Qoc) in that case is supposed not to 
have reached him, in the latter to have 
done so. But there is no conflict if 
tiiXod'Bv ... aoctoaai be understood, as 
in note on 230 — i sup» Then 236 — 8 
is added rather in reference to the death 
of Agam. than to the main question 
of Odysseus' return. Telemachus had 
positively asserted 227 — 8 that that 
return was beyond hope. He gives in 
his next speech 242 the reason, as 
though admitting, **a god could bring 
him home from however far , were he 
alive; but (he is not, for) the gods have 
decided on and (he implies) executed 
his doom*'. The general sense of 
fAOlQ' oA* X. t. I, is natural death, 
but the scijQa fiiXaiva of 242 is some 
violent cutting short of the course of 
nature. Whether even Zeus could thwart 
the course of (lotga is discussed on 8, 
436, q. w. For rcei^il., see on 97—8 
sup, and App. A. 22; of xdvaog other 
compounds occur (mar.). 

241 — 2 are marked as doubtful by 
four Scholl. ovx* iniv* means merely 
*'not assured", but implies '*sure not 
to be". This despondency, perhaps, 
expresses the blank disappointment left 

HOM. OD. I. 

on the speaker^s mind by Nestor's words; 
although inconsistent with the spirit of 
Telemachus' errand of enquiry about 
his father, it is yet characteristic of 
his tone of mind; see App. £. 3. ix'^iv. 
has cognate forms itviiog^ Sxsog, 

244 — 6 are rejected by two Scholl. 
as superfluous, but needlessly, dixa^ 
in sing, means often custom or the 
course of things, but in plur. bears a 
higher sense (mar.), of. mos and moresy 
and our **by rights": — **he is supe- 
rior to others in sense of justice and 
in information": meaning he is good 
and well informed; cf. 'fpsvioc i' ovx 
igisi* ndXa yoLQ nsnwiiivog ictlvj y. 
328. — KpQOViv is only found in one 
other place (mar.). For aXXiOV, go- 
verned bv Tte^l, cf. a. 66; there is a 
var, lee, avigavt arising perhaps from 
245. ~ dvd^aa. In A. 252 Nestor iistu 
tgitdtoicCv Svotcatvi the change of 
expression here ** marks the difference 
between his age in the two poems". 
Gladst. Ill, IV. § III. p. 450. We have 
dvdaaovtai pass. , and the active verb 
frequently (mar.); here the sense is 
**to continue king"^ followed by aoc. 
of duration, yive*, see on t, 35. He- 
rod. II. 142 reckons 3 yivea to a 
century, or about 30 ^ears each; see 
Gladst. ub. sup, ivdaXX., this word 
is used in II. (mar.) of a prominent 
appearance; so here, **he strikes me 
as immortal", since his age and vi- 
g^our seem to defy death; cf. t. 224, 
tog ftot Iv^dXXeton ^to^, where^^f^- 
SdXX, is probably impers. and rjtOQ 



0AT2SEIA2 V. 247— «6o. 

[day III. 

a y 

101 mar. 

b y. 194. 

c a. 300. 

d cf. I. 409 foU. 

e App. D. 9 (3); 

cf. a. 24 mar. 
f /J. 127, a. 288, 

X 140. 
g- a. 183 mar. 
h C. 282, Z. 260. 
i d. 546, (u. 284-5. 
k E. 887, U. 445. 
1 a. 218, «. 81, //. 

293, Z. 615. 
m ¥^.256, Z.464; 

cf. k. 75. 
n 2. 271, X. 89, 

335,509, «f^.l84. 
ft. 92. 

p y. 263, (T. 617-8. 
q *. 404. 

n(3s id'av' ^AxQBidrig bvqv x^e^cav ^Jya(iiiiv(ov ; 
Tcov Mevikaog iriv; xCva d' avx^ ^7J0ar' oled^QOv^ 
Atyi^^og'' Sokoiiritig; insl xtdvs^ noXkov aQSvca. 250 

^ ovx''j4Qy6og^ ^sv ^AxaiiTiov^ akld nri^ akky 
TtXd^er' iTc' dvd^Qoinovg ^^ o 8i d'aQ6iJ6ag xarinaq)V6V^^^ 

tov d' rjfis^fier' B^sita Fs^vtog [nn&ta Nd6tG)Q 
"roiyaQ iyci tot, texvov^ dkrid^da ndvt" dyoqhvdG^. 
ri xoi [ihv rdSs xavtog^ htaai, Sg xsv itvx^ri^ 
Bi^^oiov^ y' AHytCd'ov ivl fisydQovCiv itsr[iev^ 
^AxQsCdTig TQoCrid'sv iav ^avd'og Mevikaog* 
Tip xi ol ov8h d'avovrt xvtrjv"^ inl yatav ixevav^ 
dkV &Qa tov y£ xvvag^ re xal olavol xaxiSa^av^ 
xsi^svovi? iv nsdipi ixdg aCtsog' ovds xi tig fiiv 



258. foi, 260. J^fiXa JrttGXBOg. 

yipy« ^riv iv 

247. yi.ByoL %v8og *A%aiSiv pro^ av 9* dXrid'lc Mansg Vind. 

'AxauTim Scholl. H. Q., al. "Agyog iriv in 'Axawaov Bek. annot. 255. rods 

Harl. correctum pro xddB a man. pri. eag nsv Harl. nsg saprascr., Tisv Em. 
CI. ed. Ox, Bek. Dind., nsQ Wolf. Fa. Low. 258. nonnuUi ^xsvsv, Schol. 

Scholl. E. M. Q. et H. marg. 260. aatsog Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Dind. 
Fa. , ''Agysog Schol. H. Wolf. Low. 

accas.| "in my mind". The reading 
aO'avdroi^ was corrected by Wolf to 
nom. from the Harl. Schol., who ascribes 
the latter to Aristoph. (Ni.) The verb 
is not elsewhere found with dat. of 
thing resembled. 

247. iviCK*, see App. A. i. 

248. Ttiag, the question means *'how 
came he to die?" and, coupled with 
further questions* 249 — 50, implies that 
the speaker could not account for the 
two facts of Menel. not defending or 
avenging Agam., and of iBgisth. over- 
coming a so much better man than 
himself. The question nov MsvsL ir^v 
is a testimony to the strong brotherly 
attachment of Menel. ; see App. E. 8 (8). 
Telemachus had heard no details of 
the voyage home of the Atridse, save 
that Menel. was of the party who 
urged departure (168 sup,), whilst Agam. 
was for delay. Hence he might have 
reasonably supposed that Menel. would 
have reached home at least as soon. 

2$i. *'AQYeoq, local gen., explicable 
as a gen. of contact, see on 23; Jelf 
Gr» Gr. § 522. i, 2 connects with it 
the local adverbial forms nov, ciyxovy 

tJiXov &c. , and the gen. following 
verbs of motion, expressing the space 
traversed , d'istv nsdioto X, 23, so tn/*. 
476, and the like, which, as well as 
the strictly local gen., is very rare in 
prose. The two other readings here 
are perhaps attempts to get rid of an 
unfamiliar construction. The '^Achsean 
Argos" = Peloponnesus, see App. D. 

9 Ca). 

255. xavTOg, plainly by crasis of 
xal avtog (see mar.), some read %' av- 
Togy but there is no sense in xe (Ni.). 
cos xeVy var. led, mansg, which, how- 
ever, should' mean "as the actual fact 
was" not — as the sense requires — 
"would have been", 

256 — 8. ^ioov y\ var, lecL fcoovT*, 
but ye is found in some parallel 
places (mar.) and suits this place better. 
We also find rare ep. contracted forms 
i6}g imv (mar.), xi extends its force 
to xarida'^av, 259. 

260. aOreog, the reading 'jigysog 
possibly arose from a wrong notion 
that "Agyog was the city of Agam. ; see 
App. D. 9 (i), or it may have been 

BAY in.] 

0AT22EIAr r. 261—269. 


i^(i£ts [ilv y&Q xetd'L noXiag'' teXiovtBg did'lovs 
ijlAsd'*' d' svxfjkog^ (ivx^^'^^Qyeog^ [TtTtofiotovo 
nolV *j4yafi6(ivovBriv aXoxov d'ilysax'^ izhaaiv, 
^^5V *' V '^^^ '^^ ^Q^'^ (^^^ avalvsto iQyov dsLxig^^^ 
dta KXvrai[iV7J6tQi]' q>Q£0l^ yccQ xixQ^'^* dyad'jj0LV. 
nuQ d' &Q^ ir^v xal doidog^ avijp,^ 90 n6kV izhsXkev 
^AxQBCSrig^ TQoltivda xtcov, BtQv6^ai^ axoirtv. 
dXV ore 8rj (ilv (lotga d'etSv inidriaa^ dufi'^vai, 

a A. 72; of. d. 197 

b y. 275, E, 303, 

71. 20S. 
c d. 170. 
d A. 564, I 479. 

Z. 152. 

f App. 1). 9 (2i. 
ir a. 67, ft, MS, 

p. 621 
li ;?. 13, JC. 395. 
i ^ 421, @. SOU; 

cf. ;i. 3G7. 
k cf. &. 487 — 90, 

X. 368-9, D. 618 


1 t. 391, ji, 615. 
m (. 194, O. 141. 
n A. 292, (7.165-6, 

X. 6. 

261. J^i(fyov, 264. d'iXysaiis J^insaatv, 265. J^igyov dj^sinig. 268. J^siQva&cti., 

262. noXXag Harl. suprascr. (contra metruxn)^ noleis Bek. annot. 266. var. lect. 
ninQrjt' Eustath. Schol. P. 267. "«ap a ao* Schol.^uni prsefigitur sed na(f 

yag alii**, Pors. ya^ Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., d' ag' Wolf, et recentt. 

at first a gloss to explain nsSio): the 
expression corresponds to that, dygov 
in iaxcctiij, where ^gisthus is said 
to have dwelt, and to that of iivx& 
"Agysog (mar.). 

261. xkavC*, the %Xav%'yLog was part 
of the rites due; so Elpenor says, fi^ 
^* a%Xuvxov a&ocnxov x. t. X. (mar.). 
fieya • • • €Qy*, this phrase means (mar.) 
(i) arduous task, often physical effort, 
(2) heroic achievement, (3) heinous 
crime, as here. 

262—4. This well describes the con- 
trast between the toils of the warrior 
lord abroad and the sly craft and quiet 
enjoyment (evuLfiXog) of the effeminate 
schemer at home. 

266. See App. E. 2 (7). 

267. dviiQ, this added to a noun 
(so to xuXiiBvgi tfitgog, etc.), imparts 
greater dignity than such a noun alone 
would convey ; contrast with this usage 
the expression qtmg dsntrigt by which 
contempt perhaps is intended. The 
name of the bard is said by a Schol. 
to have been Demodocus, the supposi- 
tion being that a real name is perpe- 
tuated in ^. 262 foil. 

268. ciiQVifO'aij see on e, 484. Obs. 
that no such charge was given by 
Odys, concerning PenelopS — a tri- 
bute perhaps to her superior discre- 
tion — Mentor*s commission extending 
only to the house and goods (§, 225— 7), 

The Minstrel was singled out for this 
office perhaps owing to the sacredness 
of his character {%, 345—6), to which 
the mode of his death was no doubt 
a tribute ; with the barbarous casuistry 
which dictated the fate of AntigonS 
(Soph. Antig, 773 foil.), he was not 
slain by blow of hand, but his death 
contrived to appear quasi -natural. The 
moral influence of bards is also dwelt 
on by^the Schol. ; ndvxsg otvtotg ngoaet- 
%ov Gig aotpotgy xal naiBBv&finui xov- 
xoig itagzdCdoiSciv xovg dvaynaiovg. It 
is clear also that their attainments were 
viewed with reverence (mar.) and re- 
ferred to a divine source. Such an 
one would be free from the political 
temptation which partly animated the 
suitors against the absent Odys. ; thus, 
Phomius on the whole remained true 
to his lord, and only sung to the suitors 
under compulsion {%» 352 foil., cf. «. 

269. ^iy, whom? Ni. says the act- 
Sogr of whom the reader^s mind, he 
says, is full; but then the noun for 
which fiLV stands (doMv) would hardly 
^be found in the clause 9'q xoxb . . . 
V. 270; besides the fiolQa S'edhf seems 
to refer us rather to the denunciation 
of Zeus (a. 35— 43» see note there) 
in spite of which ^gisthus sinned, 
slSag ainvv oXs9'gov, t. e, with a 
knowledge of his doom — the (iol^gct 



OATSSEIAS r. 270—282. 

[day in. 

i u. 351. 
b T. 161. 


c e. 473, V. 

CO. 292. 
d o. 480, P. 272. 
e a. 155. 
f a. 83, n, 445. 

f %. 305, A. 808. 

i cf. (.184, 01.246 
—7, ¥^. 259. 

k y. 438, a. 602, 
^. 509, u. 347, 
(T. 300, tI 257. 

1 cf. w. 37, i*.61, 
162, 179. 

m cf. Z. 302. 

n y. 261 mar. 

o y. 319. 

p cf. y. 262. 

q 17. 64, 0. 410, p. 
V, 276 - 8 , w. 
268 — 67; cf. X 
172, 198, 0. 478, 
a. 202, V. 71, 80. 

r c. 265; cf. x. 32. 

s;^. 127, 219; cf. 
8. 158, ^. 124; 
cf. B. 553-4. 

dij TotB xov fiiv ccolSov &y(DV ig i/^6ov iQ^[iriv^ 270 

TcdkXinav^ ol(ovot6i,v U(dq'' xal xvQ[ia^ yeviad^at^ 

rijv d' i^ikcuv^ id'iXoviSav dvTJyaysv ovds dofiovSs,^ 

noXkd 81 (17iql'« itcria %'£(Sv UQOtg iiel ficofiots,^ 

noXka^ 8' aydXfiai^^ dv^fsv,^ v(pd6iiatd"'T6 xqvOov rs, 

ixrsXieag fidya igyov,^ o ov Tcote iXnsto 6'V[ip.° 275 

1^ fiats ^ f*^ y^Q ^f*« ^Xio(ASv TqoCti^bv lovrsg^ 

'AxQeCSriq xccl iy(D, q>lXa sldoteg dXX7JXoi6tv' 

dXX' ore Uovvtov [qov d(pLx6fi€d'\ dxQOv 'Jdi^vscavj 

ivd'cc xvfisQVTJrriv MaveXdov Qotpog ^An6XX(QV^ , 

olg dyavotg ^sXieceiv inoi%6yLavog xccrinatpvBV^ 280 

TtijSdXiov^ fiatd %£9<yi jd'aovarjg VTjog ixovra^ 

^Qovttv 'Ovr^togidriv y og ixaCvvto^ q>vX^ dvd'Qcixcov 

271. J^iK(OQ. 272. fovSs. 275. J^igyov fskicsto, 277. feidotsg. 280. J^otg. 

271. nvQiia Barnes. Era. Bek., nvgiia Schol. B, Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. 275. ^X- 

nsto Baraes. 276. pro S^a nX, Zenod. maU dvanXiofisv^ Schol. M. 278. A&Ji- 

vaiav Harl. contra metrum nisi omisso aTigov et a metri gratis products ; cf. 

Bek. ad Aristoph. Nub. 400. 

270. vfiOov, a Schol. calls it Carphe. 

274. See mar. for various ayttAftara. 
— 'iipdCfi* • .^. ^Qvaov are two de- 
scriptions of dyaXfiava, which suh- 
division of a general term is common 
in H., see for examples mar.; they 
were thank - offerings for' the unex- 
pected (275) success of his crime. 

277. ^AzQeldTi^y i, e, Menelaus. 
^ 278. 2. Iqov, the S. cape of At- 
tica, sacred to Poseidon, who is invoked 
Aristoph. Eq. 560 as SovviagaxB. (Ni.) 
A sacred character is ascribed to all 
striking natural objects, showing a 
sense of the influence of superhuman 
power. (Ni.) Aristoph. Nid>. 400 has 
xal Sovviov ingov A9"qvi(0Vy where 
&%gov seems required by the sense, 
still, 'A&rivaimv which is also read " in 
all editions before Brunck^* (Pors.), 
might scan, omitting a%gov. But on 
the whole it seems more likely that 
*A&rjvtt£(ov was a gloss both here and 
in Aristoph. /. c. , since Sunium could 
not literally be called a "cape of 
Athens (the city)". So in Aristoph. Eq. 
159 'A^rjva^tov crept into the text for 
A^vmv or *Ad"riviav. 

279 — 80. In tie Ody. Apollo rarely 
appears. It is noticed that he gave 

stature and manly ripeness to youths, 
with which is to be connected* his 
function, the privative of this, of cutt- 
ing short the prime of youth and man- 
hood by a sudden extinction. His sister 
Artemis has precisely the same func- 
tions for her sex. He occurs as the 
patron of archery, worshipped with 
special festivals in Ithaca, and she is 
loxiaiga, as he iyifi^Xog, The epith. 
^xaroff H. 83 may also be compared 
with the name 'Exariy, which in post- 
Homeric mythology is a synonym of 
Artemis. The death of the children of 
NiobS (ift. 605 etc.) was not an exer- 
cise of those previous functions, so 
much as an act of vengeance or dis- 
pleasure; so also probably that of Otus 
and Ephialtes (X. 318)', though the 
added fact of their early youth (319 
— 20) suggests a reference to such 
functions ; as does the case of Eurytus 
cf. ovd' inX yiigag Txct* {&'. 226-— 7). 
Artemis- slaying Orion pertains per- 
haps to her functions as a huntress 
(c. 123—4). 

282. Perhaps aaivvfiai, in connexion 
with Ttsudafisvog i%€%daii7jv etc. (as 
clearly traced by Buttm. Gr» Verbs «. w.), 
is also related to %dim^ Kinudov^ n8- 


0AT22EIA2 V. 283-394. 


fSg S (ilv Ivd'a xatiaxst* insiyoiievos^ neg bSoto^ 
285 Syp* haQOv d'dntoi xal inl HtiQsa^ xt€Qi0€tsv.^ 
aAA' Stfi Sij xal xetvog^ I6v ixl otvona^ n6vtov 
iv vrivfii yXatpvQ'giSiy MaXeidov^ ^Qog alTtv 
l^6« d'ifov] x6xB Sfj 6tvysQflv oSov evQVOTecc^ Zevg 
ifpQaCatOy Xtyiav'^ d' dviiJtcav iic* dvtfi^vcc xbvbv 
290 xvfiatd XB XQ0tp6Bvxa^ nBlci^Ltty l<fa ^qb^ocv. 
ivd'a Scccxfifj^ag^ xag (liv Kqtjxji indkaa^BVy^ 
^^ft" KvScDVBg^ ivccvov 'lagdclvov^ d[i(pl ^isd'Qa, 
iiSxv Si xig XiOiS'^^ alststd xb sig &ka nixQij 
iaxaxty^ Fd^xwog^* iv i^BQOBiSii:^ novxip* 

a N. 334, «. 304. 
b a. 309, o. 49; cf. 

o. 297. 
c a. 291, S. 222. 
d cf. u. W-6. 

a. 183 mar. 
r d. 614, I. 80. 

g: A. 807, «. 442. 

h fi. 146. 

i I. 399, 406; cf. 

S' 17, O. 820. 
k O. 621. 

1 «. 3, «. 409. 

m y. 300, d. 600, 
?. 277, o. 482, 
'. 360, 358. 
:. 94, t. 663, A, 
17, r. 328. 

t. 176. 

p H. 136. 

q •. 412, «. 4. 

r X. 96. 

8 B. 610. 

t y. 106, W. 744. 

286. foivojta, 390. /rtfa. 394. ijepoj^fiid^l'. 

283. aniQXOiiv Em. CI. ed. Oz. Bek., fortasse ex N. 334, cf. fi. 304, tf^rc^- 
XO^ar' Ilarl. ex emend, ejusd. man. Wolf, et recentt., alii aniQrataiv var. 1. H. Ste- 
phan. 389. pro S' alii t\ utramque dedit Arist. 390. T^oopiot^o Ambros. quod 
Aristarcho vix probabiliter tribuit Bchol., ipse vitium procul dubio passas. lam 
vero XQetpdevta et manifesto errore tQOtposvto jpro TQoq>iovto Scholl. exhibent. 
tQOtpiovta Schol. A, 307. Eustath. et bic et O. 631 tam tgofpiovta tum t^o- 
<p6svxa leri memorat. 393, AiaoiQ Scholl. H. M. Q. V., Aiaariv Crates, 

Scholl. M. V. 

dvTfiiva, there is also a fern, atftfii} 
(mar.) in same sense. 

393. Kvd*, the Cretan tribes (mar.) 
were the Achseans, Eteocretans, Cy- 
donians, Dorians, Pelasgians. The first, 
certainly, and the last two apparently, 
bein(( invaders who had settled there. 
These Cydonians lay in the N. W. re- 
gion of Crete, at the root of a spur 
of its coast -line jutting northwards, 
and would be first reached from Ma- 
lea (Herod. III. 59). 

393. Xioaii, obs. that the Schol. 
makes it a proper name, said to be 
BUaari in the Cretan dialect. 

394. Gortys lay about the middle of 
the island towards the S. coast, its 
ruins are widely conspicuous still, and 
some traces of the famous labyrinth 
exist near in cavernous rocks, etc.; 
see, however. Sir Q. C. Lewis (AncL 
Astron, p. 441), who treats the labyrinth 
as wholly fabulous. Phsestus lay S. W, 
of it, distant about 60 stadia (Ni.), at 
the root of a spur of the southern coast* 
line jutting southwards, and faces the W. 
A river flowing from E. to W., having it 
on the S. bank near the mouth, and Gor* 
tys on the N. bank higher up, is pro* 
bably the lardanus; see Spruner^s^Z/off. 

NoedoyTO, fts%a9iicm, of which he says 
''the act. voice had in the older lan- 
guage the causative sense of '7 catise 
to retire, drive back*; thus i%a£vvto 
here Mistanoed*, lit. 'caused to retire 
from him ', so iXifpuvti (pai9i.fiov iu,ov 
%B%a9ykivog Find., distinguished or 
differenced by ivory". Jelf, Or, Gr, 
667, obs. I, notices that an infin. fol- 
lows this verb as it does a^'ectives, 
e. ff. Q'Binv tu%v£. 

284 — 5. 5 i^i*'* Menel. "was de- 
tained *\ it is implied (cf. ^fterip 376, 
and xctVoff 386) that Nestor sailed on. 
^dnrotf since to omit a burial caused 
a fii^vifia^ l» 73. 

386 — 7. exit see on a. 399. MaX*, 
the S. £. cape of Peloponn., now Cape 
St. Angelo; vessels creeping along the 
shore would often encounter a sharp 
gale from the west in rounding it. 

389—90. That this description is not 
overcharged is clear from the tnen- 
tiou in The Times, Naval and Mil. In- 
tell. Apr. i3*»» 1861, of **H. M, Gun- 
boat Lapwing lying at Piraeus, suffering 
from a gale of wind in the Archipe- 
lago, from which she had saved her- 
aelf by throwing her guns overboard.'* 


0ATS2EIAS r. 295—309/ 

[day III. 

a ®. 25, A- 154, 

225, T. 114. 
b @. 325, (p. 221. 
c V 279, 0. 209. 
d e. 40, 405, <. 405. 
e cf. «. 415-6. 
f t. 482, 539, X. 

g- y. 291 mar. 
h y. 312, <f.81,90, 

i a. 183. 
k y. 194. 
1 e. 454, X. 621, 

r. 183; cf. a. 

426 mar. 
ra e. 278—9, yu. 447, 

|. 249—527 
n K. 180, A. 46. 
o 4>. 39, fi. 118. 
p a. 40. 
q a. 299—300, y. 

r y. 66, d. 3, n. 

50, tf'. 201. 

Bv^a NoTog ^dya xv^a Ttorl 6xat6v qlov^ dd'st^ 295 

ig ^avCtov^ itixQog Si At'-^-og ^eya xv(i' ^nodgysL.^ 
at fihv «(>' ivd'' '^Id'ov, an;ovd^^ d' ijlv^ccv oled'Qov 
avSQsg, dtccQ viqdg ye tcoxX 67tildd€66iv^ Icc^av^ 
xv^ar^' arccQ tag Ttsvre viag xvavoJtQOQsiovg^ 
Alyvjtxti) inikaeaa^ (p^gcDV &vs(i6g re xal vScdq, 300 

(Sg filv ivd'a %oXvv piorov xal XQ'^^ov- dysLQOv^ 
rikato ^vv vrival xar' dllod'QOOvg dvd'QdTtovg-^ 
t6(pQa dh xavx^ Atyto^og iiiijaato^ otxod'L XvyQa, 
xtaCvag ^AxQBiSriv ^ deSfiTjxo^ Sh kccog vic^ avx^. 
STtxastsg^ d' ilvacas n;olvxQv0oio MvxTJvi^g'^ 305 

xp dd ol oySodxp xax6v° ^Ivd'S Slog ^OQBCxrigv 
aiff an:* ^Ad'tivdcav^ xaxd d' Extave 7taxQoq)ov'^a,^ 
Atyi6^QV SoXofitiXLV y og ol naxsQa xXvtbv exxa. 
71 xoL o xov xxsCvag daivv^ xdtpov ^AQyeCoKSiv 

296. dnoj^igysi* 298. 

^J^cc^av. 303. 
306. J^oi. 

foL%o%'i. 305. 
308. /ot. 

sntdj^stsg d' ifdvaaas. 

296. pro inTiQog Zenod. MaXiov^ SclioU. E. M. Q. V. 297. ot (ilv Harl. ex 
emend. 302. Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. vrjvalv ivc' fortasse ex a. 183, Harl. xar*. 

303. 304 a qiiibusdam abesse monet Schol. H. pro 0^x0^^ idem nriy^aza. 304. 
Arist. diSfiTjvtOf SchoU. H. M. Q. R. 306. xA d' Sg' dvmatov ApoUon. So- 
phista ex i. 39. 307. pro an' 'Ad'rjvdoiv Zenod. et Eustatt. dno ^toTn^foVf Arist. 
an' 'A^TivaCrig, coll. 77. 80, an ''Ad'Tjvamv Schol. H. 309 — 10 deerant in 

nonnullis vett. exemplaribus , Scholl. M. Q. R. T. 

295. ^iov in II. (mar.) means always 
"peak'' (of Olympus). 

296. For fiiXQoq • • MS'Oq 4 Scholl. 
give a reading MaXiov .♦ li&og; the 
xvfia is the roll of the Mediterranean 
from the west. 

297. OTiovff'^, with great effort =j 
"scarcely"; cf . ttoytg and (loyito. 

298 — 300. ea§av xvfjutx*, a neut. 
plur. with plur. verb, is common in H.: 
Jelf, Gr, Gr, § 385. obs. 2, says, this 
is "often merely for the metre"; here 
and at G, 137, no such reason could 
apply. xvavojtQtOQ* , cf. the other 
epith. for the prows of ships, fiiXto- 
ndgf^og, *. 125; this however is far 
more common; for its probable mean- 
ing see App. F. i (19). AivvXTif} x. t. X. 
cf. Eurip. Bel, 682, iS kniXaa' Al- 
yvnttp, and 671 iniXaas Ns£X(p. 

304. 6^6fiifC0i from dafidtJOy see on 
4X. 426. The attempt of iEgisth. had, 
like the suitorship of Penel., a poli- 
tical element in it; marriage with the 
wife of the absent being the direct 

step to the occupancy of his throne; 
see App.E. 5, and preliminary note to p. 

305 — 6. For Homer's formula of fixing 
a number and then adding one to make 
it complementary (mar.) see on jS. 374. 
Holy Scripture exhibits something si- 
milar, e, g, Prov. XXX. 15. 

306 — 8. Orestes was sent from home 
a boy, to return grown up. The exile 
of Or. was with his uncle Strophius in 
Phocis, according to the legend fol- 
lowed by the dramatists. H. seems to 
speak only of Athens (Zenod. however 
read dno ^(ov,ri(ov 307), whither the 
^schylean form of the legend sends 
him to expiate his guilt. The shade 
of Agam. (X. 458 — 60) enquires where 
he is, at Orchomenus, Pylus, or 
Spafta? as though assured that he was 
not at Mycenae. Of course the date of 
that enquiry was previous to the re- 
turn of Orestes, since -^gisthus ruled 
for 7 years after the fall of Troy. 

309. 6aiw xd<ppv, cf. daiwino 
dari^tt, daCvvvxa ydfiov (mar.). . 


OAT22EIA2 T. 310—321. 


^\o (iritQog ts (Stvys^s'^ ^a^ dvdlxiSog Aiytad'oco' 
avrTJiAUQ di oC '^kd'e porlv^ dy ad'og Msvdlaog, 
Ttolkd"^ «rijft«r' ayavy Saa ol viag &x^og &€iqccv,^ 
xal° avy q>ilog, (i^ drjd'd SofKov ano trjV dldXrjao^^ 
xt7J(iatd xs TtQohniOv avSgag t* iv 0q10i doiioiiStv 

31 /; otnro V7tSQ(pidlovg ^ ^ij tot xatd ndvta (pdy(D6iv 
xtrjfiata ScciSiSd(ASvoi',^ Cv 8h ti^vairjv 6Sdv iX^yg. 
dkX' ig^^ (ihv Mavikaov iyd xiko(iat xal &v(oya 
iXd'etv x€tvog yaQ viov akko^ev slXtjXovd'ev^'^ 
ix tfSv dvd'QciTtoov 8d'6v ovx Sknoix6^ ye d'Vfi^ 

320 ikd'^fiev, ov xiva nQfSxov d7to0q)7JkoD6LV^ askkat 
ig nikayog (liya xotov^^ Z&ev xi tcsq oi5d' oioavol 

a X. 410, 424, 432. 
b P. 665. 
c y. :101 mar. 
il T. 386, fF.730; 
cf. (p. 18. 

o. 10-6. 
f /*. 370. 

K /». 368. 
Il ^ 127. 
t V. 360, 

ft. 26. 
k y. 276. 

1 E. 567. 
m a. 209 mar. 




311. 312. J^oi, 319. OV J-iXnoixo. 
315. pro TOi alii 8ri. 

310. fiviXQoq, this is the only hint, if 
the line be genuine, that Orestes slew 
his mother. That it should be so is then 
a mark of Homer's euphemistic reserve, 
as contrasted with the violent promi- 
nence which subsequent poetry gave 
that action. Arist. remarks (Scholl.) 
that her death may be inferred from 
it, but not necessarily by Orestes^ hand. 
This shows that he accepted the line; 
and assuming it Homeric, the re- 
mark may find place here that the 
igtvvBg were already established in 
mythology, especially in connexion 
with a mother*s curse (§, 135, I. 571, 
0. 412); but, Nttgelsbach says, not 
yet having a distinct penal agency, 
and rather related to the Zsvg xara- 
X&oviog as (lotqcc is to Zsvg {Homer. 
TheoL V. § 38). Yet the description 
uf Krinys (sing.) as '^walking in dark- 
ness*' {i^egotpoirig) J hearing from Ere- 
bus imprecations on tjie guilty, and 
having an implacable {aiie£kix^v) heart, 
is a formidable image, and, combined 
with azvyegocli as proper to an infernal 
power, carries with it the idea of 
vengeance as a special function. The 
doubtful epithet dccanXijtig (o. 234), 
whether 'WehemeUtly hasting", as 
Niigelsbach {ibid, note) suggests, or 
"striking heavy blows" (Lid. and 8.), 
furthers this idea. Thus Krinys instils 
axrj — the wrong which works retri- 
bution — into the mind (o. 234), and 
the Krinyos wait upon the elders of a 
family (O. 304) even among the gods , 

and watch with divine power over the 
helpless on earth {ntaxoav ys d'sol Kal 
^Egivveg sCaiv 9. 475)* They also guard 
against transgressions of the physical 
or moral laws of the >^orld, against 
what ever seems a portentous or im- 
pious privilege ; thus stopping the pro- 
phetic voice of the horse Xanthus, and 
redressing the advantages lavished by 
fond goddesses on some pampered mai- 
dens (T. 418, v. 78). It is clear then that 
the elements of a crime against nature, 
and of these powers as its chastisers, 
existed in Homeric legend. The ^schy- 
leau Eumenides form their legitimate 
development, adding the notion of pur- 
suit, borrowed, perhaps, from the i^riy 
of I. 505—7. 8ee Gladst. II. 302 foil. 

312. aeiQaVy '^supported or floated 
under", a rare sense of ac^poo, but 
following easily from that of *'lifting"; 
see mar. for the closest examples. An- 
other sense, "carrying oflf as spoil", 
occurs; with which compare the cattle 
"lifting" of the Scotch borderers. 

316. XT^Ciipf, with this word, from 
the pron. of the 3'** person, cf. ttvrcos 
"just so and no more'' (see on 9, 665), 
and hence "merely", passing into the 
notion of "idly, in vain", a sense 
more fully developed in itdaiog, which 
is probably trivaiog slightly altered. 
Hence the Schol. gives ficttotiav to ex- 
plain trjva. here. (Doed. § 260—1.) 

320-— I. ov xiva, not merely = ov, 
but as the force of the subjunct. with 
onxig is to make the statement general 


OAXrSEIAS r. 3«2-336- 

[day m. 

a J. 384, E. 790, 

O. 640. 
b t. 173. 
c y. 376, d. 362, 

y.71; cf. ^.566, 

r. 174, U. 671, 

d a. 285, /?. 214. 
e y. 19, 20. 
f a. 213 mar. 
g A. 476, «. 225, 

(.168,558, X. 185. 
h 8. 251, <f. 783, 

i}. 227, T. 186. 
ly 390,«.93,flf.423. 
ky. 6,43,54,55,178. 
1 /J. 368, i?. 138, 

V, 138. 
m «. 510. 
n X. 190, X. 57, e. 

26, V. 241. 
o ^. 76. 
p J. 194, O. 124. 

avtoBte^ olxvsv6iv^^ iTtsl [idya ts 8biv6v xb. 

aXV t&L vvv 6vv vriC xb (Tgf Hal 6otg BxaQOiCiv ' ^ 

bI d' id'ikBig jtB^dsj-TCiiQa xov SCtpQog xb xal Xicnov^ 

TtccQ Sd xoi vUg Bfiol, oZ xov TtofiTC^Bg^ icovxav 325 

ig^ AaxB^ai^ova Stav, o&v l^avd'og MBviXaog, 

kCiS6B0%'ai^ 8b ^tv avxog^ iva v7j[iBQxhg iviaxy 

il^BvSog d* oix iQBBt' ^ndXa yccQ TtBTCvvfiivog^ icxCv!^ 

ag iq>ax* • r^Uiog^ d' &q\ iSv^ xal i%l xvBfpag '^X^bv. 
xolci 81 xal (iBXBBtTtB d'Bct ykavxiOTCvg 'j4d^vi] 330 

"cl yBQOVy ^ xov xavxa xaxa^ [lotQav xaxslB^ag- 
dXV ay By xdfivBXB fihv yXdaaag XBQda6d'B^ 8h olvoVy 
0(pQa no0Bi8d(QVL^ xal aXkoig d%'avdxoL6iv 
aitBieavxBg xpixoto^ [iB8ci(iBd'a' xoto ydg a^ri.^ 
7J81] yaQ (pdog oUxBd'^ vnb gdyoi/," ov8l ioixBv 335 

8i]d'd d'BiSv iv 8atxl^ d'aa60B^Bvv dlXd VBBiS^ai.'' 

322. avtofexB^, 328. ov fsQSSi, 330. fistifsms, 332. foivov, 335. fsfomsv. 

325. ^novtat, Schol. B. cf. 376 

Schol. H. jquod recepit_Fa. 331. pro tavta &\ii ndvta^ex T.1S6. 335. al 

327. avthv Bek. Dind., avtog Arist., teste 
pro ravra alii ndvta ex T. 186. 335. r^ 
igxs^' B'ek. annot Zenod. mx^^'j Schol. H. ov ydg ioi%Bv Schol. A, 475. 

(Jelf. Gr, Gr. § 828, 2), so here that 
general statement is a principle or cause 
to which the previous statement o^ey 

iXd'iiisv is referred. — xiXayog, 

see App^ B. fiiya xoZov, the relat. 
clause oO'BV xi nsQ x. r. X. explains 
TOtoi' **great so as that" ; see on a. 209. 
In the fictitious tale in £. 257 they reach 
Egypt on the 5**» day from Crete with 
a North wind. There Odys., as a man 
of wide experience, speaks soberly. 
Nestor knowing probably nothing of the 
distance beyond hearsay, as story • tel- 
lers will, exaggerates hugely. oUsyyol, 
''drawing his idea from those birds which 
periodically migrate", Gladst. In F, 3 
foil, we have a simile noticing the flight 
of cranes at winter^s approach. (Ni.) 

325—6. 710 fix* 9 "your escort", the 
form nofinol also occurs (mar.). — Aa^ 
xeifcUfi,, previously Sparta has been 
named as the dwelling-place of Menel. 
(mar.); in d. i — 10 we find him at 
Laced, (the region), and fetching a wife 
for his son from Sparta (its chief city) ; 
see B, 581 — 2, note on d. i, and App. 
D. 3. 

327. XiaaeaS'ai depends on Ttilo- 
fftttt in 317 sup., and the <fe is cor- 
respondent to iiiv there. 

332. yXciaOag* The tongue was re- 

served as a choice part, and offered 
in the old Homeric cultus to the god 
specially worshipped, here Poseidon. 
This rite the Athenians retained, and 
Aristoph. Av. 171 1 says navtaxov xijg 
'AttL'KTJg 71 yXarta x^Q''9 tifiv£tociy so 
Pax 1060, when the thighs have been 
offered and the entrails tasted, \fie 
tongue is called for as in due course. 
In the Plutus of the same poet (11 10) 
it is alluded to as if specially offered 
to Hermes, ij yX. xm hi^qvui tovTmv 
tifiVBtaij which was doubtless a con- 
version of the old rite to a special 
symbolism, when Hermes had become 
worshipped as the god of oratory, and 
public-speaking had become the ruling 
art of Athenian life. Of this H. knows 
nothing; nor can any such notion be 
based on the custom ascribed to the 
Phasacians, ij. 138, of pouring a li- 
bation to Hermes the last thing be- 
fore going to bed; although Athenseus 
(I. 14) would connect the two. For 
the Homeric functions of Hermes see 
App. C. 2. The word tiiivoOf tdfivaij 
found so generally with the phrase, 
shows that the tongue was cut out as 
a distinct act (x^''S) when the other 
•parts had been dealt with. 

336. S'aaC, Buttm. points out (Le- 


OAxrsEiAs r. 337-355. 


^ ^a ^tdg ©•vyarij9, rol d' ixXvov addriiSd6rig.^ 
rot6t^ dh xiJQVHeg ^hv vdcoQ^ inl x^^Q^S i%Bvav^ 
xovQOL dh xgrit^Qag iyt€6riipavro nototo^ 

;^40 ^vcofiri^ttv^ d' &Qa n&6iv ixaQ^dfisvoL^ dendBCCiv* 
yXoiatSccg^ d' iv nvgl pdkkovy^ dvtatdiievot d' iitilaipov, 
a'6tdQ^ i^tsl 0itet6dv r' Imov O*' Zaov ijd'eks dvfiog, 
S^ tot* ^A%ifivaCri xal TrjUfiaxog^ d'soeidi^g 
&(ig>(o li0%^v^ xoiXijv inl v^a viB6%ai. 

345 ]Ni0t(OQ d' av xatiQvxs xad'ccjtt6(i6vog ins€00iv 

"Z«i)9 t6 y' dlB^fjaeis xal dd'dvatot d'Bol aAAo^,™ 
dg v(i€tg nuQ* iiieto d'oi^v izl v^a xioits 
Sg tixBV 1] TCaQa nd^inav dvBifiovog i^h nBVLX(fov<i 
cJ oii tv ;|jAari;a^" xal ^yBa^ noXX" ivl otxa^ 

350 our' ai5rcj (lakaxdg ovtB I^blvolOvv ivBvSBiv. 
avtdQ s(iol ndga fihv x^c^tlvai^ xal ^fjyBa xaXd, 
oij d^v^ dj) ToiJd' dvdQog *Odv0aijog^ q>Ckog vi6g 
vrjog iit^ lxQi6(piv^ xatalil^Btai, 89)9' av iyci ys 
gcoG)/ EnBita 81 natdsg ivl [iBydgoiei liTCcovtat^^*^ 

355 iBivovg"" ^bivC^blv, Zg tig"^ x* ifid Scifia^' Lxrjtai.'^ 

a (f. 505, K. 47, 

n. 76. 

h a. 146 — 8 mar., 

tp. 270-3, A. 

c r. 26S— 70. 
d a, 425; cr. cp. 

e u. 218, m. 30.1, 

400, H. 238, O. 


r y. 446, I. 422, 

h y. 446, f 422. 
i V. 395, 1}. 184, 

k a. U3. 

I a. 6. 

Ill X. 366. 

n d. 60, «. 229. x. 

542, ^ 478, 0. 

331; cf. o. 86, 

179, V. 24d. 
o ;i. 180. *. 337; 

cf. d. 297-301. 

II y. 349 mar. 

4 i. 211, J?. 270, 

J. 865, N. 813, 

*. 668. 
r y. 64. 
s V. 74, ii. 414, 0. 

2S3, 562. 
t cf. ^. 88. 
II fi. 154, ^. 485. 
V w. 190. 
w ^. 32, 1. 153, V. 

295, tp. 313. 

343. d'BoJ^HSiig, 344. fiic^Tiv. 345. J^Bitisaatv, 348. afil(iovog, 

349. J^0^H9. 

349. Arist. ovTt, Zenod. o-S^re^, vulg. ovrc; mox pro ^^fyea Zenod. i^Tiffiara, 
Schol. M. 351. Bek. (I'qv. 353. pro o^p* alii svt' Bek. annot. 

xiL 63) that the Attic d'daaHv (with 
cogn. noun <0'axos) is a contraction 
of this. The ^a- and -^0 are probably 
equally radical, cf. 9tnXci<o and dt- 
svZoo, thus we have d'odim, d'onoSf 
^6(o%OQ, and d'ocdaaat^ <9'aci(rco, 'O'axoff. 
340. This line, describing a ritualistic 
act, is not found in the parallel a. 146 
foil., which merely describes the meal 
of the suitors, whose impiety omitted 
recognition of the gods. voifiiiOttV, 
here = circxtmferehant , is used of ply- 
ing, wielding, or turning a bow, pole, 
helm, etc. (mar.); but eytaQ^* is a 
word of ritual, containing the notion 
of an d^xh * t. e. something religiously 
given or taken first. The simple verb 
is used of solid as this of liquid of- 
ferings, cf . ndvxfov aQxofiBvog fisXitovj 
|. 428, and similarly^ dnaQX^^^oci' of 
the victim^s hair, HUtdgx. of lustration 
and of the sacred barley (mar.). Buttm. 
LexiL 39 (4), says the inl adds the no- 

tion of relation to individuals. *— ;ra- 
iJiv^ t. 6. the guests. — dejtdeooiv is 
dat. of instrument. 

344 — 9. iiaS'Tiv, "were making a 
move to go", the literal sense, from 
which comes the notion of desire. — ;re- 
viXQOVf for poverty as shown in regard . 
to garments, cf. J. 513 — 4. — ^Ace?- 
vai is sometimes, as here, found joined 
with (liysctf as bedding, oftener with 
XttoivBgi as garments, the generic st- 
fiocxa Hfxloi following (mar.)i For the 
q>&Qog see 466 — 7 note. The ;i;Xo(rvof( 
alone were also used as seat -covers 
(mar.); see fujther on tf. 297—9. 

352 — 3» ov S^v, found only in 
speeches, as is ^ijv affirmative, espe- 
cially 17 d'fjv^ leal yuQ ^rjVj etc., s=a **I 
should rather think", expresses in- 
dignant irony or surprise (mar.); the 
same feeling of indignation is con- 
tinued in the tov d* avSgog *Odva, — 
ixQi6q>iv, see App. F. i (3). 


OATSSEIAS r. 356—372. 

[day III. 

a Si. 650. 

b cf. A. 259. 

c ^. 543. 

d cf. I. 427. 

e X. 292, fi. 25, 165, 

V. 385, CO. 236-7, 

261-2, 339. 
sf I. 60. 
g- cf. /J. 383-4. 
h y. 49 mar. 
i t. 598. 

k d. 731 , X. 272. 
I cf. (p 279—80. 
Ill K. 429, r. 329. 
n (p. 17, A. 686—8. 
o TT. 78, t. 351, 

u. 332. 
p cf. (T. 8.' 
q cf. ff'. 749. 
r E. 266. 

s cf. a. 320, ;f. 240. 
t (p. 122, r. 342, 

//. 79, «f. 815, 

n. 482-3. 

"£v dij ravra y' iq>riiS%'a^ ysQOv^ q>ikB' 6ol Sh ioiXBv 

Thjlefiaxov %B(%'eiS%'ai^^ inel^ nokv Tcdkkiov ovtcoS' 

aAA' ovrog fihv vvv Col icji eifStaij og)Qa xav svSy^ 

6ot0iv ivl (iBydQOL0iv' iyd S* inl v^a [islatvav 360 

Bifi, Iva %UQiSvva) '9*' iraQOvg BtitG)^ xb Bxa6tcc. 

olos yccQ fiBtd tol6v yBQalxBQog^ bvxo^kl Blvav 

of 8' akkoL tpikorriti vBcitagot &vdQsg« IxovtaL, 

ndvtBQ 6^i]hxLi]^ fiBya^vfiov TtjkBfidxoio. 

iv%'a^ XB XB^aLnriv xoiXtj^ nuQU vril [laXaivy 365 

vvv'^ dxuQ TJfBd'Bv [iBtd Kavxiovccg"" iiByad'Vfiovg 

Blfi\ ivd'a XQ^^og^ [lot d^ikkBtat^ oi; xi viov ya 

ovd' dkiyov ov dh xovxov, btibI xbov Xxbxo^ d(D(ia, 

n:s(iilfOV^ 6vv SitpQG) xb xal vUV' dog Sa of iTtJiovg, 

ov xot ikag>Q6xaxoL^ %'bCbiv xal xdgxog aQiOxoiJ''^ 370 

cSg aQU q>(DvtJ6a0^ dnsfii] ykccvxtS^rig 'Ad^vrj 
(prjvy BiSo(ABVi]'^ d'dfifiog^ tf' ska icdvxag Idovxag. 

356. n(foaifstne. 357. Jrifoi%Bv. 361. J^s^noa J^inaata, 369. fot, 

372. fsidofiivip 

358. TrjXifiaxB Bek. annot. 364. ofiriUyiiy Barnes. Era. CI. ed. Ox., ^o/LnjXix^ij 

Harl. Wolf, et recentt. 367. Arist. XQ^^'^Sj Scholl. H. Af. pro ov tl v. y. 

Strabo VIII. 526 "HUdt dCri, 368. Zenod. Iwfl za aa yovvad"* tuocvsi, Scholl. 

H. Q. V. 372. 'Axaiovg pro Idovtag Scholl. H. E. M. Q. e W. 815. 

357. £1; X. r. X., we miss the usual 
courteous phrase of approval ravtcc ys 
ndvta . . . xaro; fiOLQav isinocg ; nor 
does the curt sv ^tprja&a elsewhere 
occur. It is worthwhile to contrast the 
businesslike terseness of Mentor here 
with the genial loquacity of Nestor in 
the preceding 346—55. — ycQ. €piks is 
the style of Achilles to Priam (mar.). 

366. Kavx^y Cauconians appear in 
H. as allies of the Trojans, in Dolon's 
enumeration to Diomedes, grouped with 
the Leleges and Pelasgi; and again in 
a later battle as in an extreme rear- 
ward or flank position (mar.). With 
the former cf. Herod. I. 146, where 
Rawlinson says: '^The Caucous are 
reckoned by Strabo among the earliest 
inhabitants of Greece and associated 
with the Pelasgi, Leleges, and Dryo- 
pes; like their kindred tribes, they 
were very widely spread. Their chief 
settlements, however, appear to have 
been on the north coast of Asia Minor 
. . . and on the west coast of the Pelopon- 

nese in Messenia, Elis, and Triphylia. 

From the Peloponnese the race 

had entirely disappeared when Strabo 
wrote, but had left their name to the 
river Caucon, a small stream in the 
N. W. corner of the peninsula (Strabo 
VIII. p. 496—7)"; cf. also Herod. 
IV. 148. 

3^7* XQ^^^^» ^^* thinks that the 
debt may have been conceived as one 
of compensation for plunder, but this 
would need to be backed by force, for 
which a single small ship and crew 
was inadequate. Such commercial traf- 
fic as we have a glimpse of in a, 184 
might more probably* lead to a debt. 
Aristarch. read XQ^^fog against authority 
and probability, as far as we know* 
otpikkszai* Buttm. Irreg. Verbs s. v, 
regards ocpilXo) as the only true epic 
present; and Bekk. follows him by 
altering the received otpsUsT* oqfBiXoVj 
A, 686—8, to otpslX. 

372 — 3. <P^vxi9 said by Billerbeck 
ap. Crusius to be the osprey — an 


0ATS2EIAS r. 373—384- 


TYiXsudxov'' d' Ub xstQa^ inog^ t' ifpat\ Ix r' 6v(5fiag«i/. 

375 "^ (piXog^ ov (Se SoXita xaxdv" xal avcclxcv^ iifs(S^av^^ 
el djj tot vifp (SSs ^sol noiiitijeg^ ^itovtai. 
ov ftijv ydg tig oS* aXXog 'OXviintcc' Sci^at* i%6vx^v^ 
aXXit, Jihg d'vydrriQ^ xvdidtri TQLtoyEveicc ^^ 
^ tOL xal naxsQ iad'Xov iv ^AgyBioKSLV iri^a. * 

38odAAa, ai/a<y<yV" Wi^'O'fc, Sldod'L dd not xXsog'' iad'Xov^ 
avt^^ xal 7taide(S0L xccl aldoiyi' jtaQaxoirc 
aol'i 8' av iy(D ^a|co /Sow ijvfcV* BVQvyLixantov^ 
^ddiirjtrjv^^ ijv ov jrw vjto ^vyov ijyaysv dvTJQ- 
rrjv roi iy(6 ^^|(», xpvcyoi; xigaaiv iCBQi%BvagJ^ "^ 

a /9. 155. 
b !iC. 275. . 
c cf. /». 302. 
d ». 330, (). 215. fS. 
c (D. 131. 
f X. 120. 
g- cf.^. 270. 
h y. 325 mar. 
i V. 79, yp, 107. 
k //. 515. 
m C. 175, I. 450, 

/r. 184; cf. y.43, 

77. 233. 
n a. 95, 7. 415. 
o cf. y. 208-9. 
n y. 451 , <^. 479. 
q a:. 292-4. 
r Z. 94, 275, 309. 
s X, 289, It. 262, 

355, r. 4!»5. 
t cl*. a. 1 — 2, 299 

— 800, I. 121. 
u 'K 260, 655. 
V y. 437, 426. 

373. /tdev. 374. Hnoq. 375. J^iJ^okna. 380. J=dv(xaa\ 

375. ov Tt <r' Schol. 378. Zenod. xvdt'ffri?, Scholl. H. M. ita Wolf, et recentt., 
ccysXsiri Barnes. Ern. Cl. od. Ox. 380. pro tXri&i Zcnod. iXiaige , Scholl. II. M. 

instance of the preference of H. for 
specific over generic terms noticed App. 
A. 13. To the view of dvonctta (a. 
320) there taken add the conjecture, 
that dvoncetcc might bo a noun do- 
scribing the bird as roosting etc. 
ava TO onatovj on the smoke-vent; 
such a bird is the swallow, found as 
Pallas^ eidolon in %. 240. 9'dfifi* and 
O'avfi. arc radically identical, ^ being 
= V, and vfi = Bfi by metath. The 
root is raqp. or taj^, strengthened with 
ft and aspirated; cf. tdrpog ti&Tincc, 
ij^ovTccc cannot take the »F here. — 
ojtoig Iffev, with this use of onrng 
as = when, cfj^M. 208 iggiyriaoev onmg 
CSov aHoXov otpiv x. r. X, 

374— S» €7tog T* etpax', ex %, r. X, 
This phrase occurs more than 40 times 
in II. and Ody., often wirthout any name 
following, or even word of address, 
like 00 (piXog here, as ovofiaiB (cf. d. 278) 
would seem to require. The speeches 
introduced by it mostly begin a con- 
versation, or a third speaker by it 
strikes into one. Such addresses have 
a tone of ejaculatory abruptness, as 
if prompted by some demonstrative emo- 
tion — joy, sorrow, sympathy, scorn, 
antipathy — or sudden thought striking 
the speaker. Thus it is often intro- 
duced by grasping the hand, as here. 
For some of the more remarkable ex- 

amples of its use see mar. With (piXog 
voc. cf. a. 301. 

378 — 80. See. on ivoegyrig 420 iw/*. 
TQiToyiv*, seeApp. C. 5. — avaaa', 
cf. Hor. Carm» III. iii. 2, regina . . . 
Calliope, So aya|, of a god (mar.). — 
d/dco^i, very rare; commonly di'dou. 

383 — 83. Tivlv evQVfi* diffifj., the 
second epithet is peculiar to oxen. 
diffi'^TfiV is paraphrased by the foil. 
fjv ov nct> X. T. X, as often in II., see 
on a. I. TCoXvTQonov, Obs. also the 
repetition of the statement of 382, (i^o} 
povv in 384, tijv ... fi^di^ with which 
cf. p. 118 — 21, TTttXaioiv rdiov aV ndgog 
rjaav ... xdiov ov tig x. t. 1., and d. 
125 — 33, 0yX<o 9' dgyvgsov tdXcegov 
(pigs ... tov (d ot dfirpinoXog ^vXm 
X. T. X, In all these the main state- 
ment is emphatically re -asserted after 
subordinate circumstances have been 
added. '^vTv, before a vowel, is an. in- 
stance of the power of a liquid in 
doubling itself to the ear, seen in ivfi- 
iiMrjg y. 400, ivvvrixog ij. 97, and 
more remarkably in ivl fifisydgoiaiv 
Harl. p, 94. These instances are all in 
arsis, and so is the well known Virgilian 
example ^n. III. 91, Limina que lau- 
rusque (as if que It) ; comp. , however, 
in thesis pXoavg&nIg iaTBtpdvcuTO ^ A, 
36;^ also CO. 4S2, A» 343, where 
ng6aa\(o yial oTtlicfSm ends the line. 


OATSSEIAS r. 394-4". 

[day IV. 

a y. 68 mar. 
b y. 428, 0. 381. 
c a. 145. 
d /9. 340; cf. c. 196 

e a. 139 mar., 7t. 

f a. 334 mar 
gr |. 331, «. 288. 
h y. 342 mar. 
i a. 424 mar. 
k y. 352. 
1 i;. 345. 
m a. 440 mar. 
n App.F.2(8)mar. 
o J. 165, P. 69. 
p y. 454, 482, x. 

224, 1.22,1/. 185; 

cf. d. 166. 
q t 62-3. 
r y. 354. 
s App. F. 2 (34) 

t r. 411. 
n p. 2 mar. 
V ^. 6; cf. ^.408, 

X. 211, 253. 

cSg ^97ar' s'dxo^Bvog^ xov d' ^xAvf IlalXag *A&qvri. 385 
Tro?<yti; d' iJyffAov^va FsQiiivLog innota NeatcuQj^ 
vtd6i xal yauPQotacv^ ice nQog Sci[iara xaXd. 
dXV ore Sci^ad'^ txovto dyaxlvtd^ toto uvaxxog, 
B^BCrig^ e^ovto xard xhaiiovg zs d'QOvovg r«, 
rotg 8* 6 ysQCDV iXd'oviSiv dvd XQrjtiJQa xigaH^sv 390 

otvov iqdvjtotOLO ^^ irov ivdsxdtp iviavtp 
mJ^sv xayiCri^ xal aitb xqtjSsiivov^ ikvdBV* 
xov 6 ysQcov XQifif^Qa x£Q(i(S6at0j noXld S* *A^vy 
svxst* anofSnivScnv ^^ xovQrj ^ibg alytoxoLO, 
ccvtctQ^ iitsl ^itBtadv r' iTCLOv %'' o6ov tj^bIb d'y^iog^ 395 
cX^ ^hv xaxxBiovtBg i§av oIx6v8b BxccHtog, 
tov 8' avtov xoL^rj0B FB^viog licitAta NiarcnQ, 
Trili[iaxov q)(Xov vCov^ 'O8va6iiog %'bCovo^ 
^TQritotg'^ iv XBxiBMiv^ v^r'" ald'ov^y iQcdovjco)' 
icaQ d' &Q* ivyin^Bliriv^ IlBL(SL0TQatov OQXccfiov^ dv8qfSv, 400 
og of ^r' 'qCd'Bog^ xai8(X)v ijv iv fiBydQOi0LvJ 
avrog d' avtB xad'Bv8B ftt;%c5* 86^ov v^rikolo^ 
irc5 d* akoxog Si^Jtoiva lixog ic6q6vvb^ xal Btnnjv. . 

^/xog d' i^QvyivBia tpdvri ^o8o8dxtvlog ^Hcsg^ 
Sqvvt^^ &q' il^ Bvvijq)c FsQ^vLog Initota NsarcoQ' 405 
ix 8' iXd'mv xat &q* S^bx* inl l^B0rot0i lid'ottScv,^ 

387. /fia. 388. fdvanTog. 391. foCvov J^ri8v7cq§oio, 396. fotvLOvSe 
J^inaaxog, 401. J^oi. 

394. inianivdmv Bek. annot. 400. 9h ot svfisUi^Vj SvSga id. 

385 — 94, The conversation on the 
sea -shore here closes and the scene 
is shifted to the palace of Nestor. 

386 — 9. FcQifVioq, see on y. 68. 
xXi4ffim ••• S'QOV^j see on a. 131 — 2. 

391 — 2, For Nestor's appreciation of 
wine cf. A* 629 foil. , for Homer's fre- 
quent commendation of it cf. Hor. Ep. 
I. XIX. 6. Laudihus arguitur vim vinosus 
Homerus. XQi^if; not the stopper {jem- 
fia, p, 353), but a fillet round the neck 
of the jar, probably securing the stopper. 
On the various senses of xpifd. see on 
^« 334* ^11 the paraphrase of m^8V 
by the following phrase, see on 382 — 3 
(ddiiTjtTiv) and on <x. i. 

396. olxavffe, the married sons of 
Nestor are said to come next morning 
in d-aXafimVy 413 inf. Probably olnov 
is here in a general sense, ''abode". 
So it is used of Penelope's abode, the 

vTcegmovy a, 356; see App. F. 4 (31) 
(32). It might thus include ^uXafiov 
for inmates of the palace. 

399. aiO'Ovaxi, see App. F. 2 (8) (9). 

400. ivfifi*, an epithet applied to 
Priam, Euphorbus, and others (mar.); 
here it, as ^Iso Sqx* dvdQ*, seems 
applied to a young prince merely as 
such, so to Polites (mar.); Eumseus 
and Philaetius are called ogx- dv9Q, as 
set over others. 

402. fivx^s see App. F. 2 (34). 

403 — 4' TtOQifmy this word with Xi- 
Xog following is used always of the 
wife who sfmres the bed. The form 
Ttogaaivo) is found Hy. Ceres 156, and 
the Cod. Yen. reads nogaaviovca from 
it in r. 411. ^ododdxz*, see on |3. i. 
The fourth day of the poem's action 
here begins. 

406. |£<JT« XIO'0, these appear to 


0AT22EIA2 V. 407—425. 


ksvHol dytpOtiXfiovtsg dk€iq)atog'^ olg iai [ihv tcqIv 
jNriXeifs tge(Jx«i/,<^ d'€6q)LV^ ^rjctoQ dtdlavtog' 

410 dW 8 iihv ^Sfi KtiqI Safislg^'Al'dogSs pePfjxEcv'^ 
Ni6tcoQ av rdr' iq)li6 rsQijviog^ ovQog^ ^A%aL^v^ 
6xiJ7ttQ0V« ix&v. nsgl d' vUg dolXhg^ T^ysgi^ovto 
ix d'ald^iGiv iXd'ovrsg^ 'Exiq>Q(ov' ts ZtQariog ta 
JlsQ^evg T^'jiQTjtog^ ts xal dvtid'sog &QaavfL7JSrig'^ 

4i^totac S* ixBid'' ?xtog IlaiCliStQaxog ijXvd'Sv '^Qcog- 
ndg S* &QCC Tijldfiaxov %'bobCxbXov bUuv^ ayovtBg. 
xol6t 81 iiv^ov ^px* rsQijvLog [jcndta NeCx&q' 

'^ xaQxaXifiag [loi^ tixva (piXa, XQfjfjvar' iiXdoiQy''' 
og>Q* rj rot ytQGiu0ta d'BfSv IXdaao^*^ ^A&TjvrjV^ 

420^ fiot ivuQyiqg^ ijA-O-f ^bov ig Salt a ^ ^dXBiav. 

dXX* &y iihv xbSCovS^ inH fiovv Htcoy 8g)pa tdxt'^ta 
iXd^6Lv, iXday Sh fioav iTCifioyxoXog"^ dvfJQ* 
bIs d' inl TriXB^dxov ^Byad^^iov v^a fiiXaivav 
Tcdvtag i(Av itdgovg dyixfo^ Xtnixca Sh 6v'^ otovg* 

425 Big d' av xQ'o^oxoov AasQXBa Sbvqo xaXitSd'CD 

H. 366. 
r. 294, 

a a. 32, c. 804, a. 

107, n, 344. 
b cf. iF. 170. 
c n. 472. 
d y. 110, 

e t. 11, 
i. 362. 

f 0. 80, A. 840, 

O. 370, 659. 
§r B. 101, 279, S. 

h y. 427, X. 228, 

V. 283, Y- 16S- 
i cf. (T. Ill, V. 332. 
j P. 494, 627, 535; 

cf. 17. 64, 06. 
k J. 81, a:. 255, 

P. 706. 

I a. 130, A. 311,- 
//. 892, W. 698, 
9. 471—2. 

m o. 242, tp. 200, 
604, &. 242. 

II A. 444. 

V. 201, 7t. 161, 

r. 131, d. 841. 
p ». 78, 99, H. 

q «. 149, u. 439. 
r V. 235, y. 208, 

285, 292; cf. r. 

222, I. 102. 
s u. 154; cf. A. 


407. j^Ot. 410. 'iij^ldoffde. 416. d'BOfsi'KBloV, 

411. ^9)£t€ Wolf, et recentt, I'qptfe Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Low. 416. ^fj. Inter 

hos versus in marg. Heidelb. insertus legitur a'dtotg ina£ f' rlyigi'sv ofiTjysgisg 

% iyevovzo.^ • 421. dXXd y* Em. CI. ed. Ox. ciXX' ay* Barnes et recentt. 

have been fixed thrones for the king 
and persons of distinction on occasions 
of state, here of sacrificial solemnity. 
Nestor here seats Telem. by his side 
(416 tn/*.), as Alcinoiis does Odys. in 
^. 6 — 7: "smoothed stones*' are the 
material of palace walls; here an or- 
namental polish is further given by 
aXsitpaQf of the nature of stucco. The 
word also means unguent. In a fragm. 
Sophocl. aXoifia occurs, explained by 
Hesych. as ZQ^^C^^ %ol%fov. Seats of 
smoothed stones occur also in the iyogr^^ 
see on ^. 14—6, and App. F. 2 (4) (6) 
and note. The gen. dX^ifpatoq arises 
from the "action being regarded as 
springing into life from the materials 
of which it was composed''. Jelf Gr, 
Or- § 540 obs. 

409—11. NfiXevg, for his birth and 
posterity see X. 235 foil., 281 foil, ov- 
i^q 'Ax*» ftn epithet distinctive of 
Mestor, see mar. 

412. aoXXieq, see on 165. 

419 — 20. iXdacofA, obs. elision of 
-a*, frequent in mid. voice, whether 
pres. i''^ pers. as here, or pres.infin. as in 
ff. 270, 287. — evaQyng, "recognizable", 
t. e, by the mode of her departure ; so 
tt. 323 Telem. concludes that it is a 
deity, though he does not seem to know 
which {fi, 262). Nestor^s divining that 
it was Athene is doubtless meant to 
exemplify his sagacity. He may have 
perhaps concluded from her known 
partiality to Odys. her attemdance on 
his son. 

422. bX^Oiv, iXdaxi, a form of 
prothusteron arising from the end oc* 
curring to the speaker first and the 
means afterwards, ^owv ixiff*, cf. 
alnoXi ulymv, atnoXog aty&v^ avmv 
cvpoasioe. With int§owi6Xog cf. ini- 
p(OT(OQ V, 222; and' obs. that fiov'H.oXica 
the verb is used in a borrowed sense 
of horses in T. 221 (Ni.). On av^p 
see on 267 sup, 

425* XQ'^^oxoov» No actual fusion 


OATSSEIAS r. 426—440. 

[day IV. 


a y. 384, 437; cf. 

J. 111. 
b y. 412 mar. 
c /i. 322 mar. 
d y. 7, 31. 
e 0. 467, t. 

n. 28, T. 278, 

i;^. 203, fF. 184. 
f t. 140, B. 307, 

</>. 345. 
gr V. 149, A. 600, 

0. 219, ^. 155. 
h ^. 187, O. 309. 
i M. 79, K. 102, 

W. 350, .^. 501, 

H. 402, /u. 51. 
k 2 476—7. 
1 ./f . 194. 
m a. 25. 
n y. 384, 426. 
o a. 439 mar. 
p y. 274 mar. 
q a. 136 — 7, d. 

r fF. 885, B. 467. 

il%'£tVj oq>Qa fioog XQvaov^ xBQa^cv jteQvxsvy, 
oC S' akXoi ^ivsx' avtov aokkieq^^ sttcaxs d' Bt6(o 
SiiCDyaLv xatcc Sci[iaT^ dyaxXvta Satta*^ ^iv£6d'av^ 
sSgag^ re l^vXcc r' afitpLy^ xal dylaov^ oiad^sv vSg^qJ^ 
cSs i'q>ccd'\ 0? d' &Qa Tcdvtsg STCoinvvov^ ^^£ ftiv 430 

Sq Povg 
ix TCsdCoVj f^kd'ov Sh d'oijg Jtagcc vrjog itaijg 
TrjXs^dxov staQOt [isyaXijtoQog , '^Id's Sh xakxBvg^^ 
ZitV iv x^Q^J^'^ ix^^v xf'^XxiJLQi^ italQaxa^ tsxvrjgj 
axiiovd^ ts 0q)VQav r' avitoCritov re TCVQdyQujVy 
ohiv ts xQVffov slQyd^stO' '^Xd'B d' ^A%^v7i^^ 435 

fpolv ai/wdo^a • "* yegcov d' [Tcznildta NiarcoQ 
XQvcbv ^S(ox ' o d' i%8ixa fioog xigaaiv^ tcbqIxbvsv 
daxTJCceg,^ Xv ayak^a^^ d'Bd XBxdQOvxo I8ov0cc. 
fiovv d' dyaxrjv xsgdcDV IkgaxCog xal Stog 'Ex£q>QCi)v. 
X^QVifia'^ 8b 6(p' "AQTixog iv dvd'Bfiosvxv^ Xdfirjxt 440 

427. S-Blnaxe^ dolXBsq praecedente per synizesim lect&. 431. ij^^arig, 
435. J-stgydt^TO. 438. ftdovaa. 

435- fBtgydtero 

436. dvTT^aovGa AthensBUS. 

of the gold follows; it is merely ham- 
mered thin and made a leaf- wrapper 
for the horns. Yet we read of %6uvoi 
in S. 470, showing an acquaintance 
with fusion of metals. In 9. 383 — 5, 
'P- 135) ^6 have the craftsmen and 
professionals enumerated, the prophet, 
surgeon, carpenter or builder, minstrel, 
and herald, to which the %Qva6%» and 
the %uX%Bvqy often, as here, one person 
(432), should be added; and from the 
II. the tanner (P. 389 foil.), potter (2?. 
600 foil.), and currier (H. 220). The 
xixttov includes ship-building, and one 
mentioned in E, 62 foil, was a person 
evidently of importance. A smithy 
existed in the town of Ithaca (a. 328), 
and the connexion in which it is men- 
tioned suggests the notion that it was 
an office of the palace. The designa- 
tion d'qfitosQyol denotes working not for 
themselves only but for all. They were 
doubtless of the free people — the 
dijfjLog who shared the land and are 
called by the same name as it (see on a. 
103) — not reckoned noble, yet invited 
to the king's table (p. 382 — 6) in re- 
cognition of their public usefulness 
cf. 9i^iii« nCvBiv P. 250. The name 

AaBQ%7jfi is probably based on o la^ 
inaQKcaVj and nearly i= drifitoBQyog 

429 — 30. df£<pi is *iH tmesis with 
nivBG^ai. — eitoixvvov, sometimes v 
(mar.). Buttm. Lexil, (93) says it is 
from nvioi Snvvto with reduplication, 
as noKpvaam from fpvado}. The diphth. 
01 may be observed as much used in 
forming words of sound, q>Xoi6pog 
^o£pdog, and the like. It is not quite 
certain that nom-, a mere word of 
sound, like our "puff", is not the 
whole root of this and of Teoitpvaaa, 

433 — 4* TKelQaxa, **sum totalc= whole 
resources", arising from the notion of 
a "limit or bound". The simple sense 
of a "rope" is probably the primary 
one, as seen in noXifioi.0 nBtgag in- 
aXXd^avxBg in' dynpoxigoici tdvvG- 
Gav (mar.); cf. our word "line" {X£- 
vov) for boundary. 0€pvQaVs smaller, 
probably, than the faiatrJQ (mar., cf. 
^sch. Prom, 56). 

435 — 40. 'AO'^ivfis «• «• invisibly: the 
condition of local nearness is required 
by H. for the conception of a present 
deity, dwioio^a^ see on a, 25 and 
App. E. 4 (2) note. xaQotav, gen., of 


OATSSEIAS r. 441-453. 


ijkvd'ev ix d'aXdiiOLO (piQcuv^ etigy 8' i%ev ovkag^ 
iv xavdp'^ jtiXexvv^ 8h ii€vsnr6X€(iog^ ®Qcc0Vfi7J8rjg 
ol^vv^ i%CDV iv X£Q(Sl xccQiOtaro^ fiovv in tie 6x1) (xi v. 
nsgasvg d' duviov slxs' yiQ(ov d' [itTtfiXdra Niar(X}Q 

445 ^XiQVi'fifX'^ tr' ovXo%vrag re xaxr^QXBXO^^^ noXXcc d^'^dnjvy 
svx^'^' a^rapjjd/xci/og,^ xsq)aXijg tQLXccg iv Ttvgl fidkkav, 
avxKQ^ insL ^' svl^avro xal oikoxvTag jrpo/3aAovro, 
avrCxa NiiStOQog vCdg vnsQd'Vfiog ©QatSv^TJSrjg 
^ka0ev uyx^ Ordg' iteXsxvg d' ditixoTl^s xivovxag^ 

450 a^X^^^o^ff? Avtffii/ 8 a fioog ^ivog- aX d' okoXv^av^ 
d^yaxigsg^ xe vvoC xs xccl aiSoCri nuQaxoixig 
Ni6xoQog^ EvQvSixri nqicfia^ KkvuivoLo d'vyaxQcSv, 
cli ^hv iitsix* dvskovxeg djto x^ovog^ sigvoSeir^g 

a cf. y. 445, A. 

b (T. 761. 
c «. 231, t. 573, 

w. 120, O. 711, 

N. 612, W. 851. 
d K. 255. 
e JP. b2(). 
f cf. r. 270-4. 
S S2. 304. 

.'. 340, d. 701, 

^. 422, 428, (p. 

263; cf. |. 424, 

T. 254. 
i ^ 428, cp. 263; 

cf. T. 25I 
k A. 458. 
I cf. n. 687. 
m d. 707, y. 408, 

411, z. m. 

n i2. 16fi. 

o E. 721, 0. 383. 

p n. 635. 


443. X^^9^ Arist., Schol. H. 444. atfiviov^ A]pol\od. et al., Sccfiviov Zenod. 

Nicander et al., Scholl. H. M. Q. R. 453. aviaxovtsg (contra metrnm) Arist., 

SchoU H., undo Porson, avixovtsg. 

part held; so Xa§l yovvmv A, 407. ki' 
^fixi, see on a, 137. 

441. exii^xi. I.e. XBigly probably the 
left, ovkaq, see App. A. 3 (2). 

442. JtiXexvv, used mostly as a 
woodman's or carpenter^s tool, also 
associated with dgivri as a weapon ; 
its. stock, niXs'K^ogi is once of olive 
(mar.). In the bow -contest of the 
suitors in 9). the *^axes*' have rings 
at the ends of the handles, perhaps' 
to hang them up by. From the men- 
tion of ^fii7ciXeii%cc, it is probable that 
the neX, had a double head, like the 
Lat. bipennis, 

444. dfMvloVi probably a sacrificial 
word of uncertain derivation, perhaps 
from alyiia as catching the blood; and 
a Schol. adds that the Cretans pro- 
nounced it at(iviov» Others interpret 
it of the sacrificial knife, and suppose 
that 9a(iviov connected with 9aficc(o is 
the proper form of it — an unlikely 
meaning, since Pisistr. in 454 uses 
the knife, and it is unlikely that an- 
other should previously have care of it. 

445. This may be exhibited by re- 
solution into rjQXBzo (ritualistic word], 
**took religiously first", naza xh^t'pt* 
X. T. X., xava directing action to ob- 
ject (Buttm. LexiL 29); see on 340 
inag^dfi, Jelf, Gr. Gr, § 516 obs., 
gives an explanation based on a mis- 
conception of nccti^QX^^^' — X^Q'^f'P^ 

here the water, means also the vessel 
used. It was poured by an attendant, 
here Aretus (440 *«p. ); see F. 270, 
^' 303-74. 

446. txnaQXO/i*, see on 340, para- 
phrased here by the sequel xsqp. xqC- 
Xccg iv n, p., as in 383, 392 sup,, see 
on a. I. 

447. The rest follow the example of 
Nestor, who officiates as if in priestly 
character (ij. 451), all washing (^.261) 
and flinging meal before praying. The 
QvXaX of 441 become ovXoxvtoti when 
flung; see App. A. 3 (2). Ni. dwells on 
this and similar features of ritual as 
showing that H. knows of no priesthood 
save as attached to a temple, and that 
all might sacrificially approach the 
deity for themselves. 

450. okok*, the oXoXvyrj was the 
cry of women for joy, used sacrificially 
(as here, perhaps to drown the vic- 
tim's groan), or otherwise (mar.).* So 
we find aXaXd^a)y and Lat. ululo which, 
however, is a cry of wail, or the howl 
of an animal, formed like this from 
the mere sound. 

453- dvekovteq* The victim had 
been felled, the elder brothers (oV filvy 
opposed to Pisistr. who used the knife) 
raised it bodily from the ground. In 
Chryses' sacrifice, A» 459 foil., which 
compare with this , we find av igvaocv, 
resupinaverunt, being probably a less 


OAxrsEiAS r. 454—460. 

[day IV. 

a cf. A. 469, B. 

b y. 400 mar. 
c n. 743. 
d f 427, T. 421, 

H. 316. 
e (T. 783, 9, 64, 

I. 342, u. 35. 
f o. 270, ./f. 66, 

317; cf. X. 10. 
ffcf.v.224, ff'.243. 
h |. 427—8. 
i ^ 425. 

trjg d' ixsl ix (isXav al(ia qiji]^ Utcb'' S' daticc -^^05,455 
a?^' &Qa iiiv 8iB%Bvavj^ aq)aQ S' ix (irjQi^ ha[ivov 
ndvtu xatd [lotQccv^^ xatd ra xviay^ ixdXvtIfav 
SvTCtvxcc^ 7tOL7]0avt€g^ STt' avtcSv d' c5fiod'et7j0av.^ 
xalB S' iTcl ^x^VS"^ ^ yBQCJV, iTicl d' aid'OTCa olvov 
iBt^B' vioi 81 Tcaqi* avxov ixov jtBfiTCcipoXa x^Q^^'^- 460 

459. J^oivov. 

full and formal way of effecting the 
same thing, by raising the head and 
throat merely backward and upward. 
The notion was that in offering to a 
celestial deity the rite required an up- 
ward direction. Probably the blood 
spirted upwards : contrast with this the ^ 
rites to the dead, where the lambs^ 
throats are cut "into the trench" dug, 
as the Kbations are poured thither 

a. 25-36;. 

456. 6tex^9 ** broke up", including 
the dismemiterment and the opening 
and removal of intestines. fiviQia (461 
liriQtt^ or A. 460 firjQOvs) are probably 
the upper joints of the four quarters 
ending at the knee. Ni. quotes an 
authority of doubtful value, stating 
that fiTjffol are called firjQia or firjg a 
when viewed as consecrated, and notes 
that what are sacrificially burnt in H. 
are always i^tiqCu or nrJQa. In Soph. 
Antig, 1008, loii, firjQ^a and fir^Qol 
alike express what are so burnt. Some 
think that by either term the bones 
are alone meant, — a view chiefly 
resting on Hes. Theog, 535 foil, which, 
however (Heyne ap, Ni.), is best taken 
for a local custom limited to Mecone 
(Sicyon). We may assume that the bones 
are included in the ftijp^tt, not mere slices 
from the limb offered , as Mr. Paley on 
Hes. Theog, J,tf6 thinks. The -avCcri %&Xa 
avynaXvnxcL of -^Eschyl. Prom. 504 is 
decisive against the latter view, and 
in Soph. Antig, the i^vdmaa nTjTilg 11,71- 
Qifov cannot so well be understood of 
mere bones which had "slipped out of 
their fatty envelope". These joints with 
the fat had the highest sacrificial value. 

457. 9CvlC%i* The omentum y caul of 
fat, enveloping intestines, is prin- 
cipally meant. The word primarily 
means nidor^ the smell of flesh roast 
or burnt (mar.), and the fat as yielding 
it. The fat burnt best — a sufficient 

ground for preferring it: so in the 
Mosaic ritual Lev. III. 14 — 6. The 
blood on the contrary has no special 
prominence in H. 

458. dlTtzvxcis ^est taken as a noun 
from dinrv^i but 8CnTv%oq adj. also 
occurs. The bones of the dead are 
also wrapped SCnXu%i ^rifim (mar.). 
Heyne on A. 461 gives for iint. noiija, 
omento bis, circumducto* fifioO'eTm is 
cleared by |. 427 — 8, where Eumseus 
"slicing votive parts {dgxo^svog) from 
all the members was setting them raw 
on {ig) the rich fat", i, e, to bum. 
Besides the chief joints, prime morsels 
from the rest laid on the fatty en- 
velope completed the burnt - offering. 
Thus the whole victim was represen- 
tatively burnt (SchoL). 

"45 9 • <fX^itl99 *' cloven", as burning 
more quickly. This again recals Jewish 
ritual, see Gen. XXII. 3, i. Sam. VI. 14, 
the ax^Sfj is not, however, exclusively 
sacrificial (J. 425). — alB'OTtay "spark- 
ling", see App. D. i. The "pouring 
wine" ended the strictly sacrificial part 
relating to the god, as the sprinkling 
barley began it; the banquet had a 
wholly human relation; the "tasting 
the entrails" (461) is a link uniting 
the two, bringing the worshipper, as 
it were sacramentally, into direct con- 
tact with the rite. 

460. viov X. T. X., the purpose seems 
to have been to keep the sacrifice from 
falling apart — an ill-omened acci- 
dent cf. Soph. ub,sup. In y. 33 these 
rites had all been performed before 
Telem. arrived. In comparing the 
simpler ritual of Eumseus in £. 425, 
71. b, that sacrifice is not thercy as here, 
the primary object, but only, in mak- 
ing the feast, he "did not forget the 
gods". Where lambs are the victims, 
in consecrating the oath (r. 260 — 92), 
their throats are cut merely. 


OATSrEIAS r. 461-476. 


a'drctQ ind xatct ftijp' ixdij^ xal iinXdy%v' indnuvto^ 
liiarvkkdv r^ aga xakkcc xal diup* dpeXotHiv InsiQav^ 
Sntcnv d' dxQondQOvg dfiekovg^^ iv xeQ(Slv i%ovxes, 
tdfpQa Sh TriXi^a%ov lovCev xalrj IloXvxd^tfi^ 

465 N£0tQQog hTtXordtij^ ^vydtviQ Nrjlriiddao. 

airctQ^ insl kovadv ts xal IxqiUbv Uit' ikaioij 
dfifpl Si ^iv q)SQos^ xaXov fidXav ijdi %LxSva^ 
ix ^' ddccfjitvd'ov^ fi^ Sa^ag d^avdxoiCiv b^otog* 
xaQ d' o ye Nd6xoQ* i(DV xax* ap' e^exo, stotiiivcc^ XaSv. 

470 ot« d' insl SjtxijiSav xgi* vstdgxega xal iQVUuvxo^ 
Sccivvvd'* ii6(i6voc' iitl d' dviqeg^ iiS^Xol oqovxo^ 
olvov ivoivoxosvvxsg ivl xQViSdoig'^ dsTcdstStStv, 
avxctQ^ ijtsl ndtStog xal idrixvog il^ fgov ft/ro, 
xot0i Sh fi'iid'cav '^q%6 FhQijvLog tmtoxa Ni(Sx(0(f 

475 '^natSsg i^iol, &ye^ TriXefidxp xaXXtxQix^g^ Innovg 
gfivjad*' iff* SQfiax' Ryovxeg^^ Xva nQ7J(S6ji(SLV^ dSotoJ^ 

a /u. 995. 

b 1/. 58. a. 288, 0. 

304, r. 108. 
c (T. 49-50, X, 358 

— 05, 450, p. 88 

— 9, t. 605; JC. 
677, X 171, S. 
350; cf. £.905. 

d &. 81, 88, B. 43. 

B. m, fi, 97. 

S. 353, •. 230, 

X. 643, V. 108. 
e V;.lfl3; cf.<r.l28, 

p. 00, &. 460. 
f Q. 109. 
g- y. 65, V. 279. 
h I 104. 
i App. A. 8 (2) 

k a. 150. 
1 d. 776, J?. 331. 
m •. 380, o. 215, 

E. 923, e. 348. 
n v. 478, o. 47; of. 

0. 81, 145, 100, 

E. 731-2. 
0.47, 219, i2. 264. 

470. J^SQvaavto. 472. J^oivov J^oivoxosvvxsg. 

469. alii nuQ 9i ye, noifbiva Heidelb. Bek. , noifiivt Schol. P. CI. ed. Ox. 
Dind. Fa. Lo. 47a. oivoxosvvxsg y ut J^ consalatnr, Scholl. H. V. 476. alii 

462. filaxvXXov, opposed to dii- 
%8vaVi as subdividing into small por- 
tions, not, however, "mincing"; such 
portions are called Hffioc in y. ss whore 
see note. 

464. TdcppcCy since neither oqppcK nor 
flmg precedes , is better taken to mean 
"then'* than "all this while", lovaev, 
Ni. seems to think that a daughter of 
the host, where there was one, usually 
so assisted the guest; cf. 8, 252; as 
Hebd in Olympus (E. 905) who how- 
ever has general ministerial functions, 
and is not a daughter of Zeus, but of 
Kronos (722, of. z/. 2). But in Alcinous* 
palace, itisnotNausicaa, but the slaves, 
who do so, as in the Spartan and 
Ithacnn palaces (<&. 454, S. 49, 9. 88). 
Faosi's account is better, that out of 
distinguished friendship Polycast6 waits 
on Telem. as a sister. Calypsd and 
Circd with her nymphs so attend Odys. 
From £.215 foil, and 97. 296 kovasv or 
Xoev appears to mean, in all these 
cases except the last, merely "pre- 
pared or furnished a bath" ; see Gladst. 
II. 513 foil. noXvxdaxfi, according 
to one legend she afterwards married 

noM. OD. I. 

466—7. Xlx iX*y Xln is best taken 
as accus. of Vi'^ and, being = XQi'aiia^ 
is the accus. oi the eouivalent object 
after l^^ifffi; so X£n* aXsi'iltev £. 227; 
but may also be dat. X£in, and iXalco 
a noun in appos., cf. ^sch. Agam, 1402 
Xinog in* ofiiiidtav atficetog ifinginBiVy 
or with Heyne on JC. 577 as = an adj. 
ifdQoq and x^'^^^^ ^^^ ^^ inverted 
order: the q>&Qog was ample and could 
muffle the head, or serve as a shroud ; 
it is described as (liya nogrpVQSOV^ 
seems to have been worn over the x^t* 
like the jjfAari'tt. It was also worn by 
females. Galypsd gives Odys. several 
tpdoBU to make his sail. The looms 
of the nymphs in Ithaca produce tpdpBU 
dXmoQwvffay by which epithet probably 
some choice dve is intended (mar.). 

469. noiuiva, the edd. mostly 
favour noip^ivi. Juxtaposition with (mv 
gives the preference to the accus., as 
of motion, with nuQa over the dat. of 
rest. Thus NiaxoQ* is NiatOQa, 

470—1. XQi'^ H. T. A.^ see on 33 and 
6$—6 sup, — dviife^ ea^'Xol, a more 
dignified term than xovqoi in 339 sup, ; 
of. d. 236 and mar. 

475—6. That Nestor can be brief 



OATSSEIAS r. 477—493. 

[day v. 

a V. 738. 

b i2. 14. 

c a. 139 mar. 

d cf. ^ 80. 

e V. 387, J. 486, 

E. 20. 
f y. 400. 
e £. 365-0, i2.441; 

cf. C. 79. 
h C. 82. 
i y. 494, o. 192, 

JS. 768, 0. 45, 

X. 530, A. 519, 

X. 400. 
k o. 183. 
1 X. 81 , B. 538. 
m o. 184-91; cf. 

X. 11. 
n 0.54; cf.iV^.706, 

|. 352. 
o /9. 388 mar. 
p E. 542-52. 
q (p. 15. 
r r. 239. 
s y 151 mar. 
t y. 404. 
u E. 239, ^.226. 

cSg* ^'^jaO-' '-ot S' aQcc tov (idka ^hv xlvov 'qS^ enCd'ovto • 
xaQTtaU^cag d' i^sv^av^ vip' Sq^Mlv cixdag vxTCovg. 
iv Sh yvv^^ ta^iri 6trov xal olvov idTjxsv^ 
ofcc ra, ola Idovat^ dL(nQ€q)hg paeiXijeg. 480 

av d' &Qa TTjX^fiaxog nsQi^xuklia^ fi7J6ato SCtpQOV 
TtccQ d' aQa NsiStOQCdvig naiadSTQatog OQ%ayLog^ avdQmv^ 
ig^ Siq>QOv r' dvifiaive xal rivCa Xd^ato %eq61v^ 
lidcxiiev^ d' iXdav roi d' ovx axovts nsried^v^ 
ig^ nsSiov^ Xtnirriv 8h Ilvkov ulnv^ mollB^qov 485 
ol Ss TCavriiiiQtoi^^ Cstov t,vybv a^qAg^ i%ov%sg. 
8v6£t6° t' i^sXisg axiomvto t€ Jta6ai ctyvmi' 
ig OriQctg d' txovto^ ^LOxXijog^ noxl Smiia^ 
vUog ^OQ6LX6%oto y"^ tbv ^AktpBvog tixs^ nutSa. 
ivd'a dh vvxt* &€€av'^ dh rotg TCctQ ^elviM d^xsv, 49^ 
'^liog^ d' r^QiyivBia tpmni ^oSoddxzvXog ^H(og ^ 
iitnovg xs t^svyvvvx^ avd -d*' icQ^iaxa TCovxiX^^ ffiaivov 
ix d' iXa6av icqoQijqolo xal aid'0v6i]g iQidovitov* 

479. J^otvov, 484. dJ^i%ovTS. 

479. supra iv av, supra ^^riTiSv ix^vsv habet Harl. script, probante Scbol. H. 
484. tnnovg pro ikdccv Scbol. M. 486. d'sCov et dii.fpd%ovTBg Aristoph., ScboU. 
H. Q. R. T., sed a^itplq ^xovxBg Scbol. M. Harl. ^siov sed in marg^. et Scbol. 
auov, 489. 'OqxiXoxoio Harl. a manu pr., sed mutatur t in a, a Scbol. In 
0. 187, 9. 16 Harl. per t constanter. "Scbol. ad E. 542 injCod. Townleiano 
patris nomen per T, filii per a scribivult" Pors. 490. S* aga ^sivijia dcoxe 
Harl., dl tots ^^9 ^svi'CC datiBv Yenet. in textu, sed <9^x£y ScboU. H. M. 
493, omittunt codd. complures. 

on occasion is sbown by tbis tbe sbortest 
speecb of bis in eitber poem. Dis- 
patcb is bere tbe prime object, and 
bis absolute tone to bis sons suits it. 
His farewell is witbeld' clearly because 
be counted on bis jest's return, as 
Tel em. was well aware; wbo, in dread 
of bis pressing bospitality, discreetly 
avoids bim on bis way back (0. 193 foil.). 
For Offoio see on 251 and 23 sup. 

480. ola X. r. I. Eumseus bids Odys. 
"eat sucb as servants bave to give'* — 
bis cboicer animals (sucb as are bere 
perhaps by distinction intended) being 
devoured by the suitors (g. 80 — i). 
(Ni.) Tbis line is remarkable for hia- 
tus twice occurring. 

486. With oe <f€ Ttav, cf. 7ULvvv%Cyi 
filv (' fj ye, of the sbip on her voyage 
(p. 434). Aristarcbus bere proposed 
&S10V (ran) ivyov cciitpisxovtsg* Tbe 
words mean as they stand, "shook tbe 

yoke, having it about (their necks)". 
From SI. 268 foil, we see that the 
yoke, or rather cross-bar, was first 
secured to tbe pole and then tbe cattle 
led under it, there being but one yoke 
for tbe pair. (Ni.); see furtber on f. 73 
for this subject. 

488 — 90. ^fiQaq, see App. D. 3. 
A later Orsilochus son of Diodes and 
grandson of Alpbelis the river-god went 
to the Trojan war: Odys. bad also in 
bis youth visited an Orsil. at Messen^ 
(mar.). There is considerable varia- 
tion, and even confusion between g 
and T in tbe orthography of the name. 
aeCaVy see on 151 sup, 

491. See on ^. I. The fifth day here 

493. Tbis V. is wanting in some MSS. 
but seems to be quite as allowable here 
as in 0. 191. (Ni.) For tbe XQC^'V^ 
QOV and aKB'OvCa see App. F. a (8). 

















A Hi 

ii reu 


■: the i 

DAY v.] 

OATSSEIAS r. 494—497. 


195 l|oa/ d' i^ TcaSCov nvQrifpoQov^^ ivd'a d' inscrcc 
iJvov*» oSov totov yccQ vnixfpsQov^ dxeeg Imtoi, 
Sv^exo^ x* 'f^ikvoq 0xt6a)vt6 t€ naOat dyvtai. 

a M, 314, ^. 123, 

^. «02. 
b K. 251, S. 473, 

». 357, 243. 
c E. 318, 377, S. 

268, O. 028. 
a /9. 388 mar. 

494. dj^inovts. 

494 [] Bck. 496. rjvvov {v omisso oSov?) Schol. Vind. 

494 — 6. Homer's love of repetition 
of details in the same words (cf. 483 
— S) is remarkably instanced here. 
Bek. however rejects 404. — l^ov, see 
on y. 5—6. For xedlov nvQifi<p» see 
App. D. 3. This adj. is more common 
under the form nv^otpOQOq (mar.). — 
tivo^f strictly imperf. **were finishing^', 

i'. e, "were near their journey's end": 
the pres. forms avoficn pass, and avvaa 
act. are found in H., not avvfii or 
avvfiai\ past forms '^vvgb rjvvTOf also 
occur (mar.). 

The fifth day of the action of the 
poem, measured strictly, ends with this 
book; but see on ^. i. 



In the coarse of the fifth day Telemachus and Pisistratns reach Sparta and 
find Menelaus engaged in the nuptials of his children. A remark of Tele- 
machus on the splendour of the palace draws from Menelaus a brief sketch 
of his wanderings, which leads him to dwell on the comrades whom he had 
lost, especially Odysseus (i — 119). Helen appears from her chamber and re- 
cognizes Telemachus by his likeness to his father. This leads to a climax of 
sorrow which pointedly depicts the tenderness of Menelaus* character, and the 
surpassing merit of Odysseus (120 — 218). Helen assuages their grief by the 
Nepenthe, and after further conversation on Odysseus* exploits at Troy, they 
retire to rest and the fifth day ends (219—305). 

On the morning of the sixth day, Telemachus, in answer to Menelaus* en- 
quiry, states his domestic troubles , and declares his errand at Sparta to enquire 
after his father's fate (306—350). This leads to the episode of Proteus of the 
Nile from whom Menelaus, when detained in those parts by baffling winds^ 
had learnt the fate of Ajax son of O'ileus, and of' Agamemnon, and the fact 
of Odysseus' detention in Calypso's island. He then presses Telemachus to 
stay and offers him presents (351 — 624). 

The scene then shifts to Ithaca, where the suitors, having discovered Tele- 
machus' departure, at Antinous' suggestion plot an ambush to destroy him on 
his return (625 — 674). Medon overhears and discovers their plot to Penelope, 
who, until this disclosure, was ignorant of his departure. Her affliction at 
the news is vividly pourtrayed. Eui-yclea soothes her, suggesting prayer to 
Pallas, which she offers. The suitors then prepare for their expedition, and 
the sixth day ends (675 — 786) by Penelope's retiring, in a fast of sorrow, to 
her chamber, where, falling asleep, she is reassured as regards her son by a 
vision sent by Pallas. In the night the suitors place their vessel as Asteris to 
lurk for Telemachus on his return (787—847). 

Ta iv Aanedai^ovt. 

Oi d' V^ov xodrjv^ jlaxsSaL^ova xtircisaiSav ^^ 
jtQog 8' &QCC dciiiar* IkcjV^ MeveXdov xvdaX^iioio. 
xbv d' BVQov Saivvvta^ ydnov noXkoldiv hyUiv^ 
vtiog ijdi '9i;yaTp6g anvfiovog cJ ivl oHxan. 

a B. 581 ; cf. x. 02. 
b cf. y. 1 58, <l>. 22. 
c .^2. U96. 
d y. 309, T. 299. 
e d. Itt, 0. 273, Z. 

262, 239, H. 296, 

J. 464, n. 456, 

f H. 228, n. 576, 

I/. 63; cl. i.217. 

I. xaterofeffffav sive wtft£TOCO0av Zenod., Scholl. H. M. Q. R. .^""?®' delebat 
Diodorus Aristophaneus , Wolf, prolegg. p. 264, [] Low. 4. a[iv[iovct Bek. 

ob J^ subsequens. 

I. The fifth day of the poem's action 
is continued after sunset. 

liov, see on y. 5, 6. xolXijv de- 
scribes the region rather than the town : 
Y^ under its Doric form da (^schyl. 
Prom, 580) suggests dijii^og d&fiogy to 
which the 2^^ element in AanB-Sa^iioiiv 
is akin, as yctia to y^; the i"* is Kan — 
as in Xaimos, a pit, Herod. IV. 195, 
Lat. lacero, lacuSf lacuna, and suggests 
XfiTcieaaav '*fnll of hollows or ra- 
vines" (Buttm. Lexil, 70, Curtius 86). 
For noilfjv cf. Ca?/o Syria,^ X0A17 ''H At? , 
and Soph. (E(f, Col, 371 ro noiKov "Aq- 
yog. The region here intended, is the 
narrow valley of the Eurotas between 
mounts Taygetus and Parthenius (App. 
D. 3), on entering which they were 
probably near the town. 

a. eXoiV, here strictly imperf., "were 
driving" while he was (v. 3) feasting: 
but by some 3 — 19 is viewed as an 
inter|>olation; see on 15 — 10 inf, 

3. Mxxi^iv (and ysixovsgrj^l itat 16), 
this word, always plur. in H., has the 
j^, and seems akin to J^ivog a year, 
and Lat. veins. It denotes lapse of time 
spent together, as ysirovBg local near- 
ness (mar.)> and expresses intimacy 

based on that idea, not, therefore, im- 
plying kin, nor feeling like 9/Aot, 
nor comradeship like Ivarpoi, although 
these may be accidentally included and 
are often found in connexion with It; 
and its tie may arise from any or se- 
veral of these, as any may produce 
the mutual habituation. Thus the bro- 
thers and itai of Theoclymenus are 
mighty princes of the Achaeans, and 
pursue him for tribal homicide, 0. 373 
foil.; Ajax Telamon has fra^ %ocl itai- 
(fovgj the former antecedent to, the 
latter arising out of the war. Menel. 
has no kin to celebrate his children's 
nuptials , hence his ysitovsg here. ^ So 
Eteoneus ov noXv vaisv an* avtov 0. 
96. In Lat. necessarii seems closest to 
itai, Apollonius s, v. ha explains it 
by avviid-Big, whom two Scholl. follow. 
4 — 5. "Sophocles in the Hermiond 
says that Hermion^ was given in mar- 
riage to Orestes by Tyndarus while 
Menel. was yet in Troy, and that, when 
Neoptolemus came to demand her ac- 
cording to promise, she was taken away 
from O., but that afterwards, when 
Neoptol. was slain at Pyth5 by the priest 
Machserus, O. resumed her as his wife 



[day v. 

a jr. 393, N. 368 

—9, 01. 335, A. 

514, M. 230. 
b I. 493. 

d .^.240; cf. (f.29. 
e ft. 170, a. 154. 
f i2 202, p. 234. 
g- jy^. 470,' I. 143, 

286, r. 175, E. 

h cf. r. 409. 
i d. 159 mar. 
k App. A. 20 mar. 
1 r. 175. 
m cf. B. 560. 
n r. 64, X. 470. 

v. 225, «. 526, 
T. 333. 

p e. 489, I. 48. 
q <f. 3 mar. 
r S. 604-6, V. 27. 
s ^. 87, 539, Tf. 
262^. 359. 

1 cf. IT. 749-50. 
u S. 51. 

V «. 67, J. 541. 
w ^. 144, ». 447, 
ff. 88. 

^1/ Tgoii] yag XQatov imi0%Bto^ xal xarevBV0£v 
S(Q0i^Bvai^ iolOiv Sh d'eol yd^ov H^etBXeiov.^ 
xfjv &Q* y* lv%^ i7C7tot0t^ Tcal UQinaOi ne^ne^ vis^d'ai 
MvQ^tSovfov TtQOtl aotv tcbqlkXvxov ^^ olaiv &va06€vJ 
vlit Sh £%dQtrfi'sv '^kixtOQog ijy£to xovgriv^ 
og ol trjXvysrog^ ysveto XQaregog Mayajciv^g 
ix^ dovXrig- 'EXivy Sh d'eol yovov oixit^ iipaivov^ 
iTtal Sr^ to JtQfStov'^ iyetvato^ icatS^ iQatevvriv^ 
'Eq^covtiv,^ ^' slSog Ixa XQvaJrig^ *Aq>QoSltYig. 

[_Sg ol ^hv SaCvvvto xa%'^ vil>BQBq)hg^ [isya Sw^a 
yeixovsgv i^Sh itac^ MaveXdov xvSaXi^oio, 
t6Q7t6^evoL'^ UStci S^ 0q>iv i^iXnato %'alog^ doiSog 
g)OQ^L^(DV' Soi(D Sh xvPt0rrjt'^Qa^ xat^ avto'dgf 
fiolic^g il^dQxovtog^^ iSivavov"^ xatd /xc'aaov.]^ 

10 i 

and begat Tisamenus." Schol. Another 
legend made O. kill Neoptol. patrias ad 
aras (Virg. i^n. III. 330 — 2), f. e. probably 
at D elphi. Cf . also Eurip. Andr, 1 1 1 7 foil. 

8—10. jtifATte coresponds with riyBxo 
in 10, *^ sending'' his daughter as a 
bride, ''bringing home" a bride for 
his son. dCTV, no "city of the Myr- 
midones is named in B. 683 foil., nor 
in /. 440, 479 — 80, where we might 
expect it, if at all : their land is Phthia. 
The Scholl. would identify Pharsalia 
with the site — SxaQXTi^'ev i. e, his own 
city, where Alector dwelt, like Eteo- 
neus in 22, a grandson of Pelops and 
cousin of the Atridse (Schol.). 

1 1. TfiXvyevoq. The etymology which 
connects this with Qijlvg d-diXXio suits 
best the decisive passage (pofiog Xdfis 
xtllvysxov mg, and is justified by the 
paraphrastic expansion following in I, 
143, 285 og ot xriXvy sxog xgsqtsxai 
^aXifj ivl noXX^; see on cc, i, 299, 
and cf. y. 383, 392, d. 788 for other 
instances of this usage. -^ MeyaxiV' 
9^^, cf. for significance the scriptural 
names Benoni, Ichabod, etc. For the 
"great sorrow" which gave the name 
see App. E. 8 (16). 


9. fdcxv fdvacfSBv, 11. /o«. 14. J^stdog. 16. fixai, 

9. 'pro^ngoxl nsgl Harl, ex emend, antiq. certe si non ejusd. man. 12. f non- 
nulli; ^EXivrjg Aristoph. Rhian., Schol. M., ita Harl. <r superscripto. 15— 9- hos 
vv. non Homeri sed Arist. esse affirmabat Athen. IV. 180, Scholl. M. T., [J Bek. 
Dind. 17 — 9. [] Fa. 19. i^dgxovxog Athen, ub. sup. Wolf. i^aQxovxsg (ab 
Arist. fictum, Athen.) Em. CI. ed. Oxon. ftiaaov Harl. a manu pri. ita Low. 
fiiaaovg Harl. ex emend, recent, ita Bek. Dind. Fa. 

12—4. 6ovXfiq, see App. A, 7 (i). 
The Scholl. have a name for her, va- 
riously given as Teris, Teiris, Teri- 
dae, or Getis. The same notice a fit- 
ness in Helenas having no children after 
Hermion^, as tending to preserve her 
beauty, and avoiding the notion of her 
bearing any to Paris. Soph. Electr, 539 
says she had two b^ Menel. exel has 
£ by arsis. For eyBivaxo see App» 
A. 20. 

1 5 —9. These lines, some of which 
occur in II. (mar.), are ascribed by 
Athenseus to Aristarchus. Ni. and Bek. 
condemn them. Fa. rejects only vv. 
17 — 9, but Lowe all vv. 3 — 19, ad- 
mitting, however, that too S' aix* in 
20 does not aptly continue 2. If only 
vv. 15 — 19 were omitted, the actual 
nuptials might be supposed over. This 
would be more consistent with the ab- 
sence of any further mention of a yd- 
(iog» That Menelaus' attention ' is ab- 
sorbed in his guests is hardly an ar- 
gument against the genuineness of the 
passage; since the Homeric narrative 
does not concern itself with groups not 
connected with the main narrative, 
save perhaps in a passage of transi- 

DAY v.] 

OATSrEIAS A. ao-34. 


20 . t^^ *' aw' iv 7tQo&'6(foi0L^ So^mv avrd^ xe xal Xnne^^ 
TriXi(iax6g -&■' ^pw? xal Niiftogog dyladg'' vlog^ 
ctiiCav''^ 8 Sh TtQO^okmv^ tSsto XQeionv ^EtBcuvevg^ 
6t(f7iQ6g^ d'BQciTtfov MavBliov xvSaki^oto^ 
/3ij^ 8* tyLBV &YYBli(QV Sect Sainatcc notnivL i,a<Sv^ 

25 ay^o^** *' C^tdfisvog fnea Tttsgdsvta nQogrjiiSa* 
^'isivco Stj tivB roiSe^ SLOtQsg)lg'^ cJ Mevikae, 
&vSq6 SvcDy ysvsfj dh ^i6g^ iieydloio itxxov, 
dlV etn* at apojVv xaxaXvCofiev^ cixiag tnnovgj 
^ &Xkov ni^nfonev Ixccvifiev, Sg xe q>ikfj0jjj^ 

30 r6v'" Si [liy' 6x9^0ag itQogiq>ri gai/frog MBvikaog 
"oi5 f*iji/ vtfmog ijtffra, Boij^oiSri 'Etecovsv, 
TO TtQiv dxd(f ^Iv vvv ye zdl*g Sg vtjnia fid^Big. 
^ [ihv tfi) vm ^HVfjid ytolXd q>ay6vxB 
akkcov dvd'Qoizmv devg* [x6(iBd'\ at xi Tcod'i Zsvg 

a Api>. F. 2 (7) to 

(0) mar. 
b N. 684. 
c d. 303, o. 144, 

(T. 188, K. 106. 
a 17. 4. 
c S. 382. 
f d. 217, a. 100 

mar., A. 321. 
fS d. 628, 67U. 
h ;f. 100, c- 340, 

f. 160, 0. 0. 
i d. 661 , P. 702. 
k *. 108, T. 111. 
1 ,;. 6. 
m d. 332, 0. 326. 

33. fCBBxo, 35. ^insoc. 37. fifi%xov, 

20. avco^ t£ xal TTTTroi alii, Bek. annot. 37. yeviriv Schol. V. itntriv var. 

1. Stephan. 33. aror^ fiij*' vvv Bok. vvv f/Lrjv id. annot. 33. qpaydvTfff Harl. 

Augsb. ita Bek. 34. pro at Bek. st; pro 9rO'9't 9roT8 Bek. annot. 

lion, as 6. 631 — 4, where see note. 
The revelling suitors on the contrary 
are kept in view throughout the hos- 
pitalities of Telem. to the Pseudo- 
Mentes, but the suitors have a direct 
connexion with the story. The question 
of fiiccov or n,iaaov£ is hardly worth 
discussing where the whole passage is 
so doubtful. i£ fiiaaov often occurs 
(mar.) meaning ''into the midst of a 

30—3. XQoS^ifOiai, see App. F. a 
(7)— (9)- ,— O^eQctnoiv, see on a. 109. 
The d'sgdnovtsg perform for Menelaus* 
guests duties discharged for those of 
Nestor by his sons; cf. y. 475—80 and 
35—43 inf. 

37—8. y€vei, **family type", that of 
a royal race, styled commonly ^toys- 
vsi^£ or 9iOXQ8q>BCg\ so 13}, 474 etvtm ya^ 
yBvsnv ayxioxoc itonsiv, — ktxxov, 
Ni. allows a var, lecL itnti^Vy since the 
speaker has them no longer in view, 
or retiring in 34. For eSx* bI Bek. 
writes el^x* ij, but seo on y. 90—1. 
^ 39. nifA7ti»fiev subjunct. coupled by 
71 to ind. fut. See App. A. 9 (5). 

31 -3. Menelaus derived only injury 
from his hospitality to Paris, which jus- 
tifies Kteoneus* hesitation here (Schol.)* 

It is characteristic of Menel. that he 
remembers the good that he has re- 
coivod rather than the evil; seo App. 
E. 8 (10) (13). Eteoneus, once his 
comrade in war and wanderings, was 
now a neighbour (0. 96). — ov iiA'^v, 
Bokkcr*s alteration of (ihv after ov, 
Norl, 17, etc. to finy {Homer, Blatt, ^4)^ 
wherever metre allows, has been fol- 
lowed only where there is some strong 
and emphatic abruptness of negation, 
as here and a. 333. Jelf , Gr, Gr, § 729, 
3. b., reading ov fi^v, notes this as a 
rare use of it in reference to what 
follows , dtUQ (thv vvv N. r. A, For 
^eivijia see on {e^yt' y. 490. 

33— 4' ipayovre, Bek. tpccyovxBg^ 
but vm often has dual participle, e. ff, 
fCQOfpctve^aa G, 377 — 8, &, 314. Bek., 
however, even when vm has another 
dual word joined, as in d. 383, vm filv 
aiitpotigto, jjrefers the fuller sound, 
(isveijvetiJLBv ogfirid'ivtBg, for the end 
of the line {Homer, BUitt, 31 — 3), which 
two MSS. favour. In 0. 398, in the 
^ib foot, the metre requires nivovti, — 
ixofieS'* ''are come", aor. for perf., ac- 
cordingly ett us with subjunct. follows, 
moaning, ''(trying to see) if Zeus may 
hereafter {^f,onia<o, mostly of place, 


0Ar22:EIAL A. 35-48. 

[day v. 

a r 144; cf.^.401. 
b ()r. 812, o. 342. 
c r. 400-1, d.OG?, 

«. 91. 
d X. 4G0. 
e n. 657. 
f d. 23 mar. 
g y. 324, E. 423, 

t. 379, <p. 77, K. 

246, mT31)5, iV. 

h &. 431. 
i <y.604;cf.£.196, 

0. 564, 188-9. 
k u. 3)8, r. 496. 
1 0.435;cf./ 121, 

N. 261. "^^ 
m cf. Z. 252, 
n J. 338, i2 

H. 84-5. 
p or. 296. 

q S. 15 mar. 

r X. \s\, Si 633. 

s o. 4f.2, X. 169. 

1 o. S7— '.I, K. 576 
cf. y. 461-7. 

u (f. 128. 


gaVo)!/, ^s d' avrovg nQOtigao^ ciys d'ocvrid'TJvai.'^ 

cSg g)d&\ d'ix ^eydgoio Sie00vzo^^ otixXero^ d' akXovg 
OTQrjQOvg^ d-SQCCTCovtag &^a« 0%i0^ai sot amp. 
oi 8' LTCTtovg ^hv kvOav vnb ^vyov tdgdovtag^ 
xal tovg fihv xatB'Srj0av iq>' InneCriOL xdnrjaLV^^ 40 

TCccQ 8' ifiaXov tecdg,'' dvd 8h XQt^ kavxov a^ilccv^ 
ccQ(iara^ 8' ixXivav ngbg ivdicia TtafopavofDvra , 
avrovg d' sig^yov^ d'Stov 86^ov' o'C 8h i86vtag 
d'avfia^ov xatd 8c5^a 8LOtQ6q)£og^ fiaOiX'^og' 
Sg r£0 yap i^eXiovP atykri nilev r^l as^^TJvrjg 45 

8c5fia xad'' vilf6Qe(phg'i Mevakdov xv8aki^oio, 
avrdQ"^ iTtsl rdgnriOav oQcifisvoi,^ d(pd'aXnot0vv , 
fg* Q daa^ivd'ovg'^ pdvtsg ivl^sirag lovCavro, 

38. S^Bot. 43. fiSovTBg, 

37. pro S' i% ds Arist., Scholl. M. H. Q. R. 38. dfi' sansa^ai Barnes, ed. 

Ox. Low., afia cnied'ai Schol. %, 324 ita Bek. Dind. Fa. 39. Xvaccv Arist., 

Schol. H., Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. iXvaav Barnes. Em. CL ed. Ox. Bek. 

see mar., here of time) give us rest"; 
see on a. 379—81. Zcvg, the sacred- 
nesB of hospitality suggests his name; 
cf. (. 270, Zsvs iniTiin^TODQ ... ^eivav. 

36. 7tifOTiQ(a aye, "lead them in", 
obeyed in starjyov 43: they were yet 
iv ngo^vgoLGif see 20 sup. 

38. CneoS-ai, the question between 
this and ianiad'ai seems settled (i) by 
the fact that ania&ai suits every pas- 
sage, but sansad'ai is excluded in x* 
324; (2) that compounds of ^nofiai drop 
the £, as inianofisvog; (3) that ani- 
a&oci being found mostly preceded by 
a vowel (a or e) was easily corrupted 
into ieniad'ai, (mar.), and (4) by the 
analogy of ix^ iaxov ario^at x. t. X, 
the same applies to anlad'io anoi'iiTjv 
aitofisvog. Yet Buttm. (Gr, Verbs) and ^ 
Spitzner {Exc. X. ad IL) hold the e- in * 
all these to be correct as an old epic 
form. Heyne, NL, Bek., Thiersch, 
and Ahrens reject it. 

41. ^eidg, Virgil's farra (Geor, I. 73), 
resembling wheat, to which some on 
economic grounds prefer it, and said 
to be distinct from spelt, by which term 
some render oXvgcci. Ni. cites Sprengel 
liisL rei herb, as showing this; but lie- 
rod. II. 36 identifies fsial with oXvgai 
or with a species of it. In ^. 604 

isial are classed with nvgol wheat, 
and xpi barley. In II. %Qi and oXvqui, 
are the usual horse-meat. Eruse, again 
{Hellas I. p. 341 note) cites Pliny (iV. 
H, XVIII. 19) to showjbhat f«ia is spelt, 
and is distinct from oXvga^ which he 
makes a kind of wheat. The whole 
subject seems full of doubt. The word 
occurs also in S, 604 but nowhere else 
in H. ^ 

42. evmitia, see App. F. 2 (8) and 
(16) end. 

43~7« elc^yov, see on 36. Bladyta 
has also a neut. sense (mar.), iiekvoq 
akin to %Xri BtXri "heat", and ucAi^viy 
to aiXag "brightness", as giving light 
but no heat. H. has also (iijvTi, akin 
to fii)v fiBlg, mensis, for "moon", Sir 
6. C. Lewis, Anc, Asiron. p. 17 (65). 
OQcifievot, middle, often means to 
survey with admiration; so here. 

48. Voss would have the bath-cham- 
bers in the nQoSoftog, on the right as 
one entered. The fullest description, 
however (x. 358 — 63), rather implies 
that there were no chambers specially 
so used, but that with moveable ves- 
sels, a tripod was set up, a fire kindled, 
and water warmed, wherever conve- 
nient, the floor being the native earth 
App. F. 2 (17). 

DAY v.] 

0ATS2EIAS A. 49-66. 


tovg^ tf' ixsl oiv dfimal kov^av xal xQt0av iXaip, 

50 diig)l 8* &Qa %kalvaq ovluq fidkov i^dh %ix(Svag^ 
ig $a d'Q6vovg e^ovto tcuq' 'AxqbISyiv Mevikaov. 
XSQVtfia^ d' A(ig)i7CoXog nQ0%6ai ini%BVB (pd(f0v6a 
xccky XQvaeiijj 'iTchQ i^vgioio Xifirirog, 
vCtl>a0^ar xaQCt Sh IbUx^v itdvv66B tQaiCBiccv. 

55 attov d' alSoifi taiiii] TCaQi^HB ^igovoa^ 
BtSaxa n6kX^ ipv^BZOa^ %aQiio^Bvri nagBOvxtov. 
[SaiXQog^ SI tcqbkSv'^ nivaxccg TCccQidijXBV dBigag 
xccvxoitov^ nagd di 6^1 xid'Bi jjpvcyaa xvTtskla.'] 
x(d xal SBixvvfiBVog^ nQogitpri ^avd'bg MBviXaog 

6o^'0Cxov^ -&■' &7tts0d'ov xal xaCQBtov avxd(f iTCBvxa 
SbCtcvov jca00a(idv(o« BlQri06^B^* ot xtvdg^^ i0xov 
dvSgdiv' ov ydg 0q)Sv yB yivog dndkcuXs xoxijcDVy^ 
dXX' dvSQfSv yivog i0xh dt.oxQB(ps(ov^ fia0tX7Jmv 
0xrinxovxu}v ^ i%Bl ov xb xaxol xoiovgdB xixoiBvJ^^ 

6^ fSg g)dxOj xaC 0q>iv i/cora™ ftobg nagd ntova d"^XBv 
&rr' iv %£p<yli/" iAaJv, xd ^d ov yiga^ 7tdQd'B0av avrp. 

a Si. 5t>7. 

b a. 136— 42 mar. 

c Q. S3I. 

d 7t. 49—50. 

cf. y. 41. 

f cf. I 4tt-7. 

ff y. 09-70; cf. 

Si. 641. 
h t. 252. 
i cf. t. 163. 
WA. 176, B. 08; 

cf. d. 24 mar., 

27, rt. 401. 

1 cf. /J. 276-7. 

m ^. 475, t 437, 

H. 321. 
n O. 474. 
o J. 49. 

50. fovXug, 61. J^sigriaofied"' , 66. /o*. 

51. naQCi ^dvd'ov Miv, pro var. 1. notat Schol. H. 54. ^satriv Harl. text.^ et 
Schol., XQ'^^V^ ^^^» 57* 5^* omittit Harl., [] plerique edd. 61. navaafiiva 
Harl. cum Schol. 6a — 4. f Aristoph. et Zenod., SchoU. H. M. [] Bek. 

6a. aipnv Arist. et Herod., Cfpav (quod legi volunt Sclioll. M. V.) ApoUon., 

'Scholl. H. M. 

'50 — 1. ovXaq, '*of criflp wool'*, see 
App. A. 3 (a). — 6g is used, as I^ovto 
a verb of rest implies previous motion, 
Jelf Gr. Gr, §. 641. i, — ^Qovov, see 
on a. 131 — a. 

5a — 8, see on a. 136—48, whence 
these lines recur. In the Harl. M.S. 
57 — 8 are wanting. They encumber 
the passage , as the action of Menel. 
in 65 — 6 inf, supersedes that of the 
SccitQog here; see also on a. 140 — 3, 
and the readings in the inferior mar- 
gin there. 

59—61. 6eixvvfievoq s see on y. 41. 
Contrast with Menelaus' courtesy in 
60 — 1, and that of Nestor y. 69 foil., 
the abrupt question of Polyphemus in 
i. a5a. — feistvov, see on 194 inf. 

6j. 0<pcttv, the common text has 
aip&v, but this dat. dual contracted, 
although common in Attic Greek, is 
nowhere else found in H. Similar dual 
forms as vmX, vaUv^ vattsgog, aiptot- 
XBgogj also avoid contraction, which 

has been one ground for rejecting vv. 
6a — 3. Ni. proposes to take atpav (the 
vulgate according to Eustath.) as in- 
stead of vutoVj which sense he ascribes 
to a Schol., who only says it is to be 
referred to the 3°<^ person, and means 
probably to take ctprnv as gen. plur. 
of aqiog in sense of aiprnttegog {A. ai6): 
aq>6g might indeed as well be posses- 
sive of a<p<o or oqpoos *'you two'\ as of 
atpECg "they". There is no other in- 
stance in H. of Cffog for the a"^ person. 
Nor yet is Homeric analogy against it, 
as it is against a<pmv for aq>mXv, — yi^ 
voq, apparently used like yavErj a; sup,, 
"the type of your parents is not lost" 
in you. 

65. vdixa, the chine, pi. as con- 
taining both loins, was the special por- 
tion of honour; so (mar.) Odys. sends 
part of that which Alcinous had as- 
signed to him to Demodocus. 

66. If the lines 3 — 19 (see on a) be 
an interpolation, this verse should also 


OATSSEIAS A. 67—75. 

[day V. 

a a. 149-50. 

b d. 444. 

c a. 167 mar. 

d o. 167, E. 440, 

A. 3, 470. 
e E. 243, 826, K. 

234, J. 608, T. 

287, i;. 23. 
f ui. 83, ^ 26S, o. 

437; cf. 1^.86^7. 
g 0. 460, ff. 295. 
h A. 704; cf. r. 

i y. 123. 

avtctQ insl noecog xal iSrirvog il^ igov evxo^ 

8yi x6tB Tifiki{La%og nQogeqxDves NictOQog vf6i/, 

ayxv^ 6xtov xsipakiiVj iva fw) nsv%'oCa%'^ ol akkoi* 70 

Xcckxov^ XB 6x€Q07tf^v xaxct Sci(iaxa 'i^x^Bvxa^ 

XQV0OV r' ^qkdxxQOv^ X8 xal aQyvQOv ijd' ikifpavxog. 

Zrivog nov xovijSs y' ^Okv^jciov IvSod'Sv aik^j 

O60CC xdd' a0%exa^ nokkd. asficcg'^ fi' ix^i slgoQomvta.'^ 75 

72. fjjxi^evTcc. 

70. ita Zenod., nsyd'oiato aXXot Arist., Scholl. H. M. 72. %ocl Soifiuta Harl., 
fortasse e add 8<oficcTa (Barnes. Dind. Fa. Low.) corrupte ortum, Bek. %atd 9, 
74. toiavra dofioig iv xrifftara xstrai Schol. P. et Seleucns ap. Athen. V. 189. 

be rejected, as there is then no ap- 
positeness in the mention of Menel. 
having had the vcotcc set before him 

71 — 2. e/c<S x€X* 9'n, cf. Virg. Mn, 
XII. 142 , animo graiissime nostra, x^k' 
xov, cf. Ov. Fast, VI. 363, (eraia per 

73. "ikexTQOV, the sense of amber 
may safely be preferred to that of the 
admixture of gold with Vs ©^ silver 
(Pliny N. H, XXXIH. 4), of which So- 
phocles probably speaks, Antig, 1037, 
as xhv Trpog ZagSstov 7jXs%,y and conples 
with Indian gold. In Hes. Scut, 142 
it occurs in conjunction with gold, 
ivory, and xCxavog (commonly supposed 
gypsum), as a material of embellish- 
ment. Hesiod Fragm, 355 notices the 
fable of the daughters of the Sun being 
changed to poplars and their tears to 
amber, which looks like the mythical 
statement of a mere natural fact. On 
it the lost Eliades of ^schylus was 
based and the Phaetkon of Euripides. 
Cf. also the name "Electra", and the 
"UXbuzqui, nvXai (-ffischvl. Theh, 418). 
The derivation from riXB%Z(OQ (name of 
the Sun) is probable, and suits its 
glittering golden hue; although Buttm. 
Mythol. 162 prefers to derive it from 
%X%(a, as if iXiHTgov, ''the attracter". 
Amber being a primitive substance is 
more likely to have given its name to 
the compound metal than conversely. 
Herod. III. 115 knew of it as a com- 
mercial commodity fetched, as was said, 
from the fabulous (as he thinks) river 
Eridanus. See Bawlinson^s Herod, and 
notes ad lac. The vast antiquity of 

amber, being found, as here, in do- 
mestic ornamentation among the rem- 
nants of the lacustrine villages of 
Switzerland, which are apparently pre- 
historic (Revue de deux mondes Febr. 
1 861), and in tombs of the *' bronze" 
period , gives a probability to its rather 
being meant here than the metallic 
iiXsxTQOv. The use of the plur., too, 
i^XeKTQoiaiv hgro or is^piivoy (og- 
fiov mar.), surely suits the notion of 
''lumps of amber'', and is inapplicable 
if it were a metal. The Baltic Prus- 
sian region is npt the only one where 
it is found. Sir G. C. Lewis, who views 
it as amber here, speaks of a large 
lump (i8*»>) said to have been found 
in Lithuania , and now at Berlin {Anc, 
Astron. VIII. § 4, 461). 

74. Cf. for the idea Hy. Merc, 251 
olu d'sdhf iia^dgoav tsgol Sofioi Ivros 
^Xovaiv, A var, led, Zrivog nov TOt- 
avzoc Sofioig iv Htrjfiutu usttai is re- 
tained by Athenaeus, which better suits 
utiifiaToc 79; tomJ^« also hardly leads 
apply to oaaa, Ni. remarks that avX'^ 
is the court without, which the speaker 
saw not when he spoke: but the si- 
milar amazement of Odys. at Alci- 
nous' palace refers to its outer deco- 
ration, ycglv xdXuBov ovSov tuiad'ai. 
Besides, Telem. sitting within might 
easily express his thoughts of what had 
struck him first on entering and was 
continued around him; a contmuation 
which ivSoVBv easily suggests, and 
uvXri itself may even be conceived as 
put for all that it contained, viz. the 
liiyu^ov,^ Cf. /. 404, ocacL Xdtvog -ov^ 
Sog atpijxogog ivvog ii^yei. 

DAY v.] 

OATLSEIAL A. 76—89. 


rot) d' &yo(fsvovros l^vvsto ^avd'ds MsvdXaog^ 
xcci 0(p6()cg^ q>c9VfJ6ag iicsa nxBqoBvxa XQogr^vSa' 

^^rixva q>iX\ ^ rot Zr^vl figotSv ot5x av tig igi^oi'^ 
dd'dvatoi yuQ tov ye S6^oi xal xt^fiat* iaatv 

80 dvSQfSv 8* ij xiv tig fiot i(fi06Btat^ i^h^ xal ovxl 
xn/fiaCTtv. ^ yccQ jcoi,Xd nad'tov xal nokk* inakri%^lg^ 
i^yayofitiv^ iv vriv^l^ xal dySodtp^ ixBi i^kd'ov^ 
KvTcqov^ 9oivCxriv'^ xb xal AlyvnxCovg^ iTtaXrfi'Blg ^ 
Ai^loitdg^ d'* [xdnrjv xal IJcSoviovg'^ xal 'EQB^povg 

85 xal Aifivrivj^ %va r' aqvBg atpag XBgaol xBXi%'ovai,v ' 
xqXg yd(f xtxxBv [i^^Xa XBXBgq>6Q0v^ Big iviavx6v. 
ivd'a iihv oijXB dva% imSBWJgv ovxb xi Ttovfii^v 
xvQOv^ xal XQBi(3Vf ovdh ylvxBQOto ydXaxxog^ 
dXX* dBt naQi%ovOiv ixriBxavdv^ ydXa dr^0d'ai.^ 

a O. 145. 

b cr. f.213, J. 389. 
c E. 172. 
d a. 268 mar. 
0. 176, 401. 
f H. 389-90, X. 

g y. 306. 
h ^^3 

. .362, p. 442—3, 

448, u#.^21. 
i $. 291 ; cf. V. 272, 

k y. 300, d. |. p. 

sofpius , I. 3S2. 
1 a. 22-3, f. 282, 

2s7, A. 423, «F. 

m 0.425, Z. 290-1, 

fF. 743, 1.295. 
n f. 295; cl. 1.441. 
o X. 267, ^. 292, 

0. 230. 
p iJf. 299 ;cf. 1.225. 
q t. 219, 225, 232, 

V. 69. 


r C- 86 m 
8 n. 58. 

77. J^inBoc, 8 J. J^itsi. 85. Hva ^dgvsg, 87. /ofvaj, 

83. nonnulli in' iXrid'stg Schol. V. 84. ita Arist., alii 'Egsfivovg et 'EpafijSov?, 

Scholl. H. M. Q^ K., Zeno Zidoviovg "JgaPccg t£, Scholl. H. M. 85. pro tvcc 

Herod. IV. 29, o^t. 86. pro tglg nonnulli dlg^ Scholl. H. M.; hunc v. Bek. 

noBtro 88 postposuit. 

78. iQi^oi, this verb found with dat. 
and ace. (mar.), and with double dat.; 
see 80, 81 and mar. there. For the 
sentiment see App. E. 8 (3). 

80. ii xiv rig ••• -ik xal ovxl, the 
question is suggested without prepon- 
derance intended towards either alter- 
native: the mar. gives examples both 
of this force of the phrase and of its 
use to show preponderance, mostly, 
but not always, towards the first. 

83. i^ay^, often used for bringing 
home a wife, here for treasures etc. 

83 — 5 , for the countries and peoples 
mentioned see App. D. 10—13. 

83. ixaX., Eustath. gives in' dXi^' 
^si^g^ **came to the true, t. e. sooth- 
saying Egyptians ^\ if this were adopt- 
ed , we should recognize a play on the 
word at end of 81^ cf. ^aexs Tidi^v 

^ifcrato fACtSoVj SI, 57—8; ali^' 

^Btg might also mean "just*'; cf. M. 


85.^erod., IV. 39, quotes this line 
with odi for tva] he says,^ on the ns- 
oaol, donin di fiOi %al xo yivog tmv 
ponv TO noXov dtce tavta ov ipvBiv %i- 
Q8CC avtod'i {jv ty £Hvd'i%i)j (ictotv- 
oiei Si fiov t|7 Yvmfiviiocl'0(i7jQov snog 
iv 'Odvaaeifj^ ixov Sds* dgd'mg 

sCgrjaivov, iv xottsi d'sofiotac xaxvnce- 
gayiveod'at xa^ns^sec ^^ Iv dh xoCailaxv- 
QOiGi'tpvfsai^^ oy q>vei ^igacc xa xrtj- 
vsa dgxi^v^ ^' tpvovxcc qpvci (loyig, Ni. 
compares Aristot. liisi, Anim, VIIl, 28, 
xal iv yi,\v Ai^vji Bv&yg yCvhzcci x£- 
gaxa ^x^vxa xa HBgaxmSrj x^v ngmv^ 
*'the sort of rams which have horns 
are born at once with them". For 
which Ni. suggests xsgaxaaSfj , but there 
is no xigag in the matter. Buffon 
{Transl. 1791) says of the ram, without 
regard to country, that "his horns ap- 
pear the first year and of ten at birth \ 
adding that in warm countries ewes 
can produce twice a year. The goat 
goes about 5 months with young; hence 
3 conceptions in the year would seem 
possible. Thus poetic exaggeration re- 
cedes within narrow limits. The yag 
in 86 means, ''all increase is rapid 
in proportion, for the ewes etc." Bek. 
transposes the line to come after ydXa 
d'^ad'ctiy so yielding a neater but not 
a more Homeric structure. Had it 
stood so at first, it is difficult to think 
it could have been altered. 

89. ixiiBT*, perenne, derived from 
rjB' =icislf with -xctvog cf. annot-inus 
diu'tinus Lat. So Docdorlein § 1040, 


0AT2SEIAS A. 90-106. 

[day v. 

ay. 301, |. 323. 

h V. 321. 

c *. 39. 

d X. 410, 01. 97. 

e a. 402. 

f X 125. 

S I 492. 

h a. 404. 

i V^. 268. 

k fi. 312, i*. 347, 

o. 159, t. 272; 

cf. ^ 284, 0). 427. 
1 cf. A. 117. 

m J. 246, y. 2C3, 
S. 287, Z. 162. 

n p. 23, $, 40, I. 
612, i2. 128. 

o i2. 10, u#.64-5, 

p r. 23. 

q cf. T. 221. 

r X. 212, i2. 524. 

8 X. 424—5, a. 819, 

T. 306-7, 346. 

Biog iy(D jcbqI xstva noXvv ^Corov fSwaysCQfav^ 90 

^Aco/xi^i/,^ xeCfog puoi ctdsXipsdv alXog insfpvBv 

Xdd'QTj, avmgtl^^ SoXa ovXo^ivrjg^ aXoxovo- 

(Sg ov rot xaiQcav xotgde TitedxBOaiv ai/aWo).® 

Kol Ttarigcsv rdds^ fiiXXsr^ dxovs^ev, ol ttvag v^lv 

elalv^ inel fidXa^ noXV ijca&ov^ xal ajcciXsOa olxov 9^ 

ev fidXa vaiBxdovta^^ xs%avS&ca^ noXXd^ xal ia&Xd. 

(Sv oq)eXov xQitdrriv %bq i%<av iv Soi^a0L [loiQav 

valBLV^ ot d' avdQBg^ 0601 l^^Bvat^ 6i x&t oXovxo 

TqoCi] iv b^qbCti^ Bxag^'AgyBog^ Itctco^oxovo. 

dXX^ iliTtfjg ndvxag [ihv ddvQO^Bvog^ xal dxBvcjv 100 

noXXdxig iv HBydgotcfi xadTJ^Bvog ruiBxigoiOiv ^ 

aXXoxB^ ^iv XB ydm fpQBva xiQ7C0(iaLyV dXXoxB d' atrts 

Ttavo^ai' altlniifog^ Sh ^ogoj^ XQVBQoto yooco^ — 

xdiv ndvxcDV ov xooaov ddvQOiiaif^ dxvv^Bv6g tcbq^ 

dg Bvog^ Zg xs [loi vtcvov d^CBx^aCgBV^ xal iSoSiqv 105 

livcDOiiivG) , ijtBl ov XLg ^j^xcctfSv x600' iiAoyriCev 

93. J^ccvdacto, 95. J^otHov, 



90. ffloff tuentur ed. Ox. Fa. Lpw., Btog Bek. Dind. secuti Thiersch § 168, 10, 

stms Harl. et ScholL E. Q. ^3 f nonnulli, contra ridicule subjungunt alii 

ovdi XL PovXofisvog dkXa KgatSQTjg vn ocvdyiifjg, 94 — 6 [] Bek. '97. nag- 

ixtov pro itSQ i%(av Harl. 99 f nonnulli. 100 — 3. [] Bek. 

and Curtius 353; Bek. from writing 
inrjj^sxavog seems to adopt the affinity 
of fkxog annus y which Crusius also 
gives. B^aS'aL, ep. for ^aad'ai {d'am). 
The only other part found in H. is 

94. fiikkex' is imperf., cf. 8, 181, 
a. 232 

95. axe^Xsca olxov. The commen- 
tators say, *'his own house''. But it 
is odd in accounting for his present 
wealth to enumerate his losses. The 
words will not easily cohere with what 
follows in this sense, nor with fidXa 
noil* ina&ov preceding in any other. 
Bek. cuts the knot by putting these 
lines in his margin. The fact is that 
Menel. is strong in feelings and weak 
in power of expression. On the whole 
retrospect, the melancholy to which 
his character leans, tinges all the cir- 
cumstances; and he dwells rather on 
the break up of his home and the for- 
mer contents of it, than on the sub- 
sequent enrichment, which is more in 

the way of the topic of the moment, 
but which he leaves to be understood. 
The titi^fiaxa carried oflf by Paris are 
often mentioned among the objects to 
be won back by the war (F, 70, 91, 4K8), 
The whole is a specimen of the sni- 
XQOxddriv ciyoQBVBiv ascribed to MeneL 
See App. E. 8 (4) (5) (16) (17). The 
difficulty has led to the suggestion that 
olnov means that of Priam, yielding 
a very feeble sense. 

96. TtoXXd xal icS'Xd, these ad- 
jectives, combined in various genders 
and cases, are a favourite formula 
closing a line (mar.). 

100. 66vQ6fi.i here with ace, but 
104 — 5 with gen. 

105. dxBX^alQBiy in a rare sense, 
"grudges me my sleep and food'^ t. e. 
makes me take less, the bold figure, 
imputing as to Odys. the effect of his 
involuntary absence, expresses well the 
ardent feelings of the speaker; cf. I, 
560, Zsvg — axQottov rix^flQ^t "bore 
a grudge '' to it. 

DAY v.] 

OATSSEIAS A, 107-123. 


avrp xtjSb* lCB0%'ai^ ifiol d' axog «^iv &lcc0tov*^ 
xeivovy oxong S'q di;^6v« dTtoixezM^ ovdd xi tdfisv,^ 

1 10 t^€L^ 3 y' fj ridvfixiv. 6Sv(fovtcc{^ vv xov avtov 
Aakgrrig^ -fr' 6 yiQOHv xal ixiq>Q(ov^ IlrjvBXoTtstcc 
TriXi^ax6g^ d'\ Sv ikane viov ysyafSr*"" ivl oCxcjJ^ 

Sg^ g)drOj t^ d' &(fcc xatpog vfp* XiiSQOv fSgae ydoio- 
SdxQv^ d' &7td ^XstpaQiav ;|^aftadtgP pdkB naxQog axovcag^ 

115 ;(/lart/ai;i noQfpVQiriv &vt' 6q>d'aXnotiv ava^x^v 
d(itpotiQji0tv* XBqcC. vAijae 8s {niv Msvkkaog^ 
^egfifjifiis^ d' Sneixa xaxd q)(fiva xal xaxd d'viidv 
i^i [iLv a'dxov zaxQ6g idcsce iivrj6d"^vaL^ 
tj tcqSx^ i^SQkoixo Sxcccxd xs nei^^Caixo. 

120 slog xavd'* SQiicctve^ xaxd ipQSva x«l xaxd d'viiov^ 
ix d' 'Ekivr^^ d'ald 11010"^ dvciSeog v^OQOipoLO 
ijXvd'eVj ^AqxbiliSv^ xQ'^^V^^^^'^P^ elxvta. 
rjjf d' &Q* an* 'ASQ'^axfi xhaitivy bvxvxxov l^rixBv, 

a J.151— 2,170, V'. 

307; cf. J. 240-1. 
I) a. 240, S. 166. 
c C. 1«6. 
d a. 342 mar. ; cf. 

f 174. 

^. 376, o. 270, 


gr fi. 132, d. 837, 

i 464. 
h i2. 740. 
i ft. 9, 172, 451. 
k o. 3%, 01. 294. 

1 / 144. 
m *. 400. 

n S2. 607 , J. 183, 

If. 108. 
P. 437-*. 
p O. 435, 714 , 77. 

136, D. 193,x'>.«4, 

118, P. 43H. 
q S. 154 , T. 225. 
r f. 528. 
s X. 151, v. 10, a. 

235, JB. 671, «. 

t f. 365 — 6, 424, 

t 118, ^. 193, 

S 15. 
u cf. 0. 123. 
V cf. 0.191-2, .11 7. 
w 77. 183. r. 70. 
X cf. J. 131. 
y TiC. 566, N. 240. 

109. ^L'd(isv. Hi. J^oUto, 119. J^i%aata, 122. J^Binvia, 

113. opcre Harl. a man. pr. 115. alii oqp^aXftorffiv. 119. Tfi ff^t^ifcrairo 

Stephan. Wolf, (i^vdi^aaito Em. CI. od. Ox. x* imiQijaaito (i, e. insgonTrj' 
aeiBv) alii, Scholl. U. M. ^, 120. fo)s ut sup.^ad v. 90. 123. Sfi* jidgfjaxr] 
Arist. et Uerod. afi<x dgriatrj Scholl. H. M.; svntVTitov Harl. unde Bok. sibi 
duxit cvnTVKtoy, sea svtvutov Schol. H. marg., alii omnes nostram lect. tiientur. 

108. aXaOtov, see on «. 252. 

109. oxotq 6ii X. T. 1., this should 
be referred to xijdc* ^Bcj^ai in io8| 
as well as to ifiol d* a;|ros x. r. 1. 
osroff like quoniam or quod= *^ since or 
seeing that*', takes indie; see Heyne 
Exc, III. ad IL J, 251, 677. 

113. Aristotle (/Me/. I. 11. 12) quotes 
this verse to ijrove that xal iv toCg niv- 
d'Bai xal d'Qiivoig iyyivatoti xtg iqdovr} 
X. t. X. 

114 — 8. x<^f*ddi^ with nioB, fidXe^ 
lie etc. is constantly found in this same 
metrical position (mar.). fiBqfiiiQi§€, 
a favourite phrase, when foUowed by 
fjl .,» ijj to express wavering between 
alternatives; see App. E. 8 (17) for 
Menelaus' slowness of resolve ; cf. also 
the repetition of the formula nearly 
verbatim lao inf. The poet by repeating 
it means to give prominence to this 
characteristic. v6fi<fe knew (mar.), not 
as usually *' perceived**. 

122. XQ^^V^ax. The word ijXaxaci; 

in 131 means the ** distaff** which held 
the wool for spinning (v. 135 inf,): in 
XQvarjXaH, it means ''arrow*', each 
being a shaft of reed terminating in 
a point. So^ ^n arrow is called con- 
temptuously at^axtog "spindle" inThu- 
cyd. IV. 40. ijAdxara pi. neut. is the 
wool as held for spinning; see 17. 105, 
<r. 315, It was carded or combed (tcs^xoo, 
iocivtOf %, 423) by the handmaids, who 
also spun and wove with their mistress. 
Helen is industrious even amid her 
Trojan luxury, designing in her wob 
the combats of the war waged on her 
account (r. 125, Ni.).^ 

123. The reading afia Sgijaxrj may 
be barely noticed. ^ We have dpij- 
axi^Q masc. and Sg'qaxsiQa fem.; see 
App. A. 7 (4); but Sgijaxri is highly 
doubtful. xXialffv bGtvxtov, "well- 
fashioned seat'*, in same sense as nXi- 
(Tfioff, see on a. 132, which name is 
used for it in 136 inf, Penelope's xAt- 
ai*7j in t. 55 is wreathed, 1. e. carved, 


OATSSEIAS A. 124—139. 

[day v. 

a K. 156, d. 298, 

1/. 337. 
b e. 247, S. 668. 
c I. 381-2. 
(1 d. 48 mar. 
e I. 122, 264. 
f I. 201. 

g- 9. 439, 0. 106. 
h a. 367, a. 136. 
i d. 616, 0. 116. 
k xp. 189. 
1 (. 426. 
m SI. 697. 
n S. 390, a. 

X. 816, 367, 
o d. 632. 
p K. 634. 
q .?. 386. 


^vk(& S* dgyv^eop^taXaQOv^ q>dQ6, tov ol iScDxsv 125 
^AkTidvdf^^ Ilokv^oio Sd^a(f, og ivat' ivl &i}Pi]g^ 
AlyvnxCrig^ o^t nXsl^ta SofLoig iv Tctfjiiata xetzai- 
Sg Mavskdip dtSxe Sv dqyvQiag daaiiivd'ovg^^ 
Sotovg Sh XQlnodag^ 8ixa Sh XQ'^^oto rdkavxa,^ 
XanQlg S' avd'* ^Ekivri akoxog noQS^ xdkki^a^ SiSga' 130 
XQV667IV X* i^kaxdxf^v^ xdkaQov -S"' vnoxvxkov Znaaaev 
dQyvQBov^ XQvOp'^ S^ inl x^^kea xexQdavxo, 
x6v ^d of dfiipiTCokog 0vk(o Ttagid^xe q)dQOV0a 
vfj(iaxog d^xrjxoto^ psfiva^ivov avxaq i% avxp 
i^kaxdxfj xsxdvvaxo ioSv8g)hg^ slQog ix^vcfa. 135 

e^sxo^ d' iv xkt,6^^^ VTtd Sh d'if^vvg noclv ^bv,^ 
avxCxa S' ^ y' i%iB66v noCtv iQhtv^v BxaOxa, 
^'iS^Bv° StJj MBvdkccB SioxQBtpig^ ol xivBg oXSb 
dvSgfSv Bix^'^otDmaiP Cxavi^Bv^ i^fidxBQOV S(S; 

w*. *;)d' ^ •.wv^cycji. 137. J^iiesaai fi%aaxa, 138. fiSiisv. 

)vg Bek. annot. ^ ^131. XQvaii^v Barnes. tQVcfiv Venet. Ern. CI. 
134. avxov et avxov Bek. annot. 139. bv%bz6<ovxo Schol. Vulg. 

125. 133. /ot. 135. J^ioSvBtph 
128. dgyvqiovg Bek. annot. 

with ivory and silver. Pindar and Eu- 
rip. also use '^XieCa for a couch or bed 
(Pyth. IV. 236, AlcesU 994). Perhaps 
the chair, like Penelope's, had a stool 
nqoc^vf i^ avv^g "fashioned of a 
piece with iV\ as one is mentioned 
136 inf. In II. xXtcr^i7 evx, or Bwerjuxog 
means "tent or hut". 

123 — 5. Circe has four ciiiq>inoXoi, 
Penel, commonly two — the usual 
number, probably. Helen being J tog 
i%ysyavia, the poet amplifies her state. 
See App. E. 9 (8) for her tasteful in- 
dustry, rdkaoov, "basket", elsewhere 
as containing clieese or fruits (mar.). 

126. For the wealth of Thebes, and 
its hundred gates see mar. The name 
is plur. Herod. II. 15 says the name 
"Egypt" anciently belonged to Thebes, 
meaning evidently the Thebaid or 
"upper" Egypt. In 9, 477 the Nile 
is called AHyvntog, 

128 — 9. "Bath- vessels" do not else- 
where occur as presents. There is a 
subtle propriety in ascribing such gifts 
to Egypt, the land of punctilious ablu- 
tions. TQlxoffag see on a. 137. The 
uom. is xginovgy and X 164 zgCnog, 

131. vjtoxvx*, following the ana- 
logy of vnoQQTivog^ based like this on 
a noun, it should mean, **having ix.'tmXoi 

under it", i. e., "on wheels". Some 
explain it "somewhat round", but we 
do not find vno — in adjectival com- 
pounds so used by H., who for "round" 
has niynXozBgrig and nBQ£xQO%og, 

132. inl • • • xexi^davxais see App. 
A. 8 (i) and note. Buttm., Gr. Verbs 
p. 154 note, suggests that itgaivm is 
contracted from agsaivm, but its pro- 
bable connexion with xcfpa ngd-Tog 
points to uga — as the form, in sense 
of "put a head to" and so finish off; 
further shown in d". 390 — i xttra ^^- 
(lov paaiXrjsg dgxol Tigaivovaiy "are 
the head or chief"; cf. 6 %ga£v(ov 
TTJgds Tijff Xtogag, Sophoc. Oeed, Col. 296. 

134. pefivOfi. "crammed", fivcD does 
not occur elsewhere in H., but Herod. 
VI. 125, uses it to describe Aristago- 
ras' mouth stuffed up {ipi§vaxo) with 
gold in Darius' treasury. The vijfia 
was what she had spun: hence the 
basket's repletion denotes her industry. 
The iodvetpeq sl^og, "dark-hued 
wool", was her raw material. 

138 — 9. *i6fJisv (epic and Ion. for 
Paiisv, Donalds. Gr, Gr, p. 289 note i), 
"do we know?" t. e. have they yet 
declared themselves? — alluding to the 
rule of not asking them at first, see on 
^g— 61 sup. evxBTOiovTai^tGona, 172. 

DAY v.] 

0AT2SEIAS A. 140-15.V 


140 ^fvtfofcat* ij hviiov iQeco; xikstai^ Si ^a d'v^og, 
ov"^ yuQ nai xivd q)T](it ioixota (SSe ISitS^ai, 
oUt &vSq' ovxa yvvatTca {cifiag^ fi' ixei slgogofoaav) 
(6g otf' ^Odvaa^og (AsyaXfjtOQog vh iot^xBv^ 
Tijle^dxp^^ tov iXeiTce viov yeyatSt' ivl otxcD 

145 xetvog^ ccvfJQ, or' ifisto^ Tcvvcimdog blv£x' ^jdxcct'Ol 
ijld'Bd'^^ V7t6 TQoirjVy TtoXs^ov ^ga^vv OQ^aCvovtsg.^^ 

ri}i/ d' anafiBi^oiLBvog nQogiq>ifi ^avd'og Mavikaog 
"ovrcj vvv xal iycj i/o^ca, yvvat^ dg av itaxsig-^ 
xsivov yccQ toioCSa TCoSsg^ xoiaCds te x^^Q^S 

150 6g)d'aXfi(3v ta fioXal^ xatpalri t' ifpvxaQd^d ta %arrafc.»** 
xal vvv Tj tot iy(o ^a^vri^ivog d^fp^ 'OSv0^l 
^vd'ao^riv^ Saa xatvog dt^vCag iiioyrjOav^ 
dpuq)' i^ol, a'dtttQ S Ttixgov vtc* dipgvOt Sdxgvov^ alfiavj 

a K. 534. 

b (». 554-5, r.l87. 

c t. 3h0; cf. y. 

d d. 75. 
e d. 112. 
f (). 243, (p. 201. 
ff /'. 180, 2". 39«, 

». 319. 
h K. 2S. 
i r. 313, rt. Is7, 

V. 362. 
k «K 027. 
1 Q. 283, (u. 161. 
m C- 230 - 1 , yj. 

n d. 100 mni'. , yj. 

^. 531, X. 31)1, 

jt. 219, 332, tti. 

233, 2S0 

140. J^Bgia, 141. J^sfoi%6za fiSsa^ui. 143. J^ifomsv. 144. J^o^ntp. 

148. J^sJ^^aytsig. 

141. pro ISic^ai Schol. E. yBvea^-cLi. 143. Ilarl. supra \LByal71x0Q0g scriptum ha- 
bet xalaai(pgovog\ mox pro vh (quod primo fuerat) vhC. 146. rilQ'ov Schol. M. 

140^ tpavOouoci vj c. €.y cf. ^. 132 
JoSft y' 7] xsd'v7j%e, which might be 
read as a question, like this. 

143 — 4. Helen with feminine quick- 
ness (whilst Menol. was spelling out the 
several features, 148 — 50), discerning 
the likeness, contracts the argument, 
"tliis is very like Odys. and therefore 
probably his son", into '^this is very 
like the son of Odys.". 

145. xvvoi7ti6og J a term of vehe- 
ment reproach. The same is applied 
by Hephaestus to his faithless wife in 
^* 319 » which strengthens the argu- 
ment in App. E. 9 (5). Achilles re- 
proaches Agam. in A. 225 as %vv6g 
Ofiiiat' ^ycov. See also G, 423, <P. 481. 

148. etaxix} (J^sJ^ia%(D)y or faxo) 
(J^ianoai), moans "to think like", as 
here, or **make like", as in 279. They 
are kindred forms of crxflo wh. only 
occurs in imperf. ; see Buttm. Gr. Verbs 
a, V. Bt%<a. So 27. 520 eipCatv sliis» i. e. 
idonstf "it seemed to them likely". 

149. Toeo/d£ Jtodeq x. z, X, That 
the physical family type should be 
marked in the descendants was per- 
haps prized as conveying a promise 
uf moral likeness also. Thus Nestor 
found t^e ftv&oi, of Telem. like his 
father^B y. 124. In a, 208 the Pscudo- 

HOM. OD. 1. 

Mentes iinds the head and eyes of 
Telem. like his father^s, who is 
generally described in F. 193 — 8. 
Slenel. here notices the feet, hands, 
and not only the head but its hair 
(which in Odys. is described [f. 231, 
n. 176] as crisp and black, and "like 
the hyacinth", probably in its curling 
line), also the jSoAai, "glances or looks", 
of his eyes; comp. Virg. jEn, III. 490, 
Sic oculos , sic ille manus , sic or a ferehat. 
So Penel. (r. 359) notices the travel- 
worn hands and feet of the guest as 
perhaps like her husband's, supposing 
him aged by toil; and Euryclca ob- 
serves, not quite consistently (t. 381), 
the whole figure [8iyi,uq), the voice, and 
the feet, as like her lord's, 1. e. as she 
remembered him. From the notice of 
nodeg we may infer that the feet were 
so far at any rate bare as to show 
their distinctive form. The family 
likeness is represented in S. 474, as 
noticed by an enemy iu battle. 

153. el^ev is found, in all its forms 
that occur, always closing a line and 
with SdnQVOV preceding. ^Yith Xsifim 
ffP(o, cf. Xai.'iljriQOs cu^rjgog, Xdxvrj 
CCXV7I] so dental and guttural mute« 
are lost when initial, as in ^tcoxo 
^coxco, yara ata. Donalds. Gr. Gr, § 118. 
We have iu N, 88 ddcKgva Xhi^ov. 



OATSSEIAS A. 154--169. 

[day v. 

a J. 115 mar. 

b a. 291, 316, 0. 

64, 87, 167, P. 12. 
c *. 462. 
d a. 119, n. 544; 

cf. P. 254, Z. 

351, N. 122, /*. 

e J. 13, 1.467; cf. 

Z. 489, M. 420. 
f J8. 275. 
g X. 394. 
h y. 68, K, 203. 
i i2. 182, 437, d. 

k A. 395 , fi. 272, 

304, y. 99. 
1 J!. 788. 
m a. 281 , fi. 215, 

264, o. 270. 
n .V/ 119, O. 735, 

o X. 288, X. 196. 
p X. 297 , 373. 

X^cctvav^ noQtpVQiriv avx' dfpd'aXiiotiv avaaxdvJ^ 

Tov d' av NsiSroQidrig nBi0l0tQarog avrlov rivda 155 
"'AxQeCSri^ MsviXas di^otQEtpig 8p;cafAf AacJi/, 
xslvov ^svtoi 8d' vLog itfjtv(ioVj (&g dyoQSvsig- 
alia 6a6(pQov^ iatl^ vs^sacatai^ S^ ivl d'V[ip 
(Sd' ild'iDv TO TCQ^xov^ ijC£g§qliag^ ava^alvBiv 
avxa 0£d'€Vj xov vm d'6ov« (3g xsQTto^ad'' avSy. 160 

avxccQ i^h ^QoiifiTie rsQijviog^ iicjtoxa Nicxmg 
xfp a[ia Ttofijcov^ ensCd'ai' iikSaxo ydg 06 ISiod'ai, 
0(pQa ot 7] XI Inog^ v7todiJ6eat^ r^i xv igyov. 
Ttolld yotQ alye' ixBi TCaxQog natg olxo^svoio^ 
iv ^sydgoig^ c5 /xij allot do00fixrJQsg^ fo^ty , 165 

dg vvv Tr^lB^dxcD 8 [ihv otxBxat^ ovSi ol allot 
Bl'a^ oX KBv xaxd S'^fiov dldlxoiBv^ xaTCOxrixa.^^ 

xov d' dTCafiBtfioiiBvog TtQogaiprj l^avd'og Mavslaog 
"cjjp ;r6;rot, ^ [idla di) q)(lov dvBQog vlog e^ov da 

159. ta ngmta fsfCB6poX£ccg. 162. iJ^iXdero J^Ldia^ai. 163. J^oi finog figyov. 
165. dJ^oGariTTiQBg, 166. foi. 

158 — 60. ab Bhiano omissos notat Scbol. H., [] Low. 159. iniatofiiag Ze- 

nod., Schol. H. 162. pro isldsto Zenod. otstOj Schol. H. 163 f nonnulli, 

scholl. H. M. Q. B., utrumque v. 162 et 163 improbari vnlt Dind. 168. toy 9h 

fiiy' . ox^'^ooiS Schol. H. , quod ex v. 30 peti notat Bek. 

158. vefjieac*, a Schol. says that 
158 —60 had been viewed as suspicious, 
yet they account for Pisistr., who is 
only the noyi^nog, speaking first; and are 
characteristic, as he, unlike Telem., is 
evidently forward, ready of speech and 
busy. Thus he prefaces his welcome to 
the guests with some suitable remarks, 
and manages, rather than Nestor, their 
reception in y. 36 — 50; and thus he re- 
calls his host from the burst of un- 
measured sorrow in 190 inf. So, here, 
it is quite natural that he should thus 
slightly patronize Telem. and compli- 
ment Menel. by the way. The use of 
vsfisaa, for alSsttai is objected to; but 
the feelings are closely akin, see on 
a. 117—23. 

159. TO TtqiHrov should go with iX- 
&a)Vy = insl to ng. '^X&s, *'a8 soon 
as he has come'*. BTtBO^ol; ** over- 
tures"; the noun occurs nowhere else 
in H. Its elements are ^nog (idXXto', 
cf. inia^oXog, adj., mar. 

160. vfbi, u e. Telem. and I: it does 
not appear that Pisist., who had not 
been at Troy, was previously known 

to Menel., and Helenas enquiry (138 — 9) 
shows that to her both were strangers. 

163. e;7ro§ and Mgyov, although put 
disjunctively, have a blended meaning, 
as in hendiadys; see on y. 99. 

165. fjiii alXoi, obs. synizesis of ^ S, 

167. dldXsc*, this verb is used with 
ri Tivog and t^ Ttft, as here, meaning 
"to keep off"; and so */ defend" or 
generally "help" (mar.). It is found 
with dat. of both person and instru- 

169—82. It is remarkable how Me- 
nel. in this speech entirely ignores the 
busy and forward Pisistr., the previous 
speaker, and concentrates his atten- 
tion on the silent and backward Te- 
lem. for his absent father's sake; no- 
thing <;ould more enhance the interest 
in that father, or more happily exhibit 
the frank and ardent temperament of 
Menel., than this simple poetic contri- 
vance; — the rather, that the verjr 
emphatic exclamation about (piXov dvB- 
Qog vtog is exactly as applicable to 
Pisistr. as to Telem., but is clearly 
meant for the latter only. 

DAY v.] 

OATSSEIAS A. 170-188. 


iyo1x6d'\ og elvex* ifisto nokiag i^oyrjasv^ di^Xovg- 
xai (iiv Sfpriv iWovta g)Llri0i^Bv^ S^oxov^ &kk(Dv 
^j^QyeioDv^ si vmv vtcbIq Ska voOtov iStoKav 
VTjvcl d'orjai yBvia^av *Okv(imog svQvoTta Zevg. 
xai xi ofAgyai: vdana^ nohv xal dcifiar* ftavga, 

175 iJi 'Id'dxfjg dyayciv avv xrij(ia0L xal tixeV jJ® 
xal 7ca0iv kaotatj (liav nokiv ii^akandlag'^ 
«r 7teQtvaietdov6LV ,« dvd66ovxav^ d' i^nol ait^, 
xai X€ d'd(i* ^ Evd'dd' iovtag ifii^yofisd'' • oidi xbv ii^iag 
akko SiixQiVBv ^vkiovri^ re rBQTtOfiivG^ ts^ 

180 ^Qiv y* 0x6^ di) d'avdtoio^^ [likav vsfpog dfig)£xdkvilf€v. 
dkkd td [liv nov iiikksv^ dydaaBO^ai^ d'eog airog, 
og xstvov SviStrivov dv66ti^ov^ olov idifjxsv.^^^ 

(Sg q)dto, totat Sh ndoiv vg)* 'ipLBQOv (Sq0€ ydovo, 
xkats ^hv ''AQyeiTi ^Ekivri"^ diog ixyeyavta^ 

185 xkalB Sh Tr^kifAaxog te xal ^AxQeCdrig Mavikaog' 
oi)8^ aQa' NicxoQog vlbg d8axQVX(D^ i'x^v o60£' 
[ivrjaaxo^ yd(f xaxd d'viiov dfivfiovog ^Avxikoxoto ^^ 
x6v ^' ^Hovg ixxsvvB g)a€iv^g dykadg vtog"^ 

a J. 106 mar. 
b fi. 61 , o. 70. 
c •• 118, J. 641, 

P. 358. 
d App. A. 19 mar. 

of. o. 254, B. 62J>. 

S2. 36-7. 

r A. 120, S'. 251, 
». 4!>5. 

K" /*. CO, ^. 551. 
h y. 245, 
i a. 209. 
k &. 316. 

1 (i. 374. 
m 77. 350. 

n d. 377, y. 322, 
cf. a. nf. 

«. 120, a. 70, /i. 
67, d. (i58, ^. 5()V), 
V. 173. 

p cl. <r. 806, V. 333. 
q CO. 52S. 
r V;. 218, F. 418. 
s Qj. 61, A. 4r> 

1 a. 29-31; cf. T. 

u X. 468, (u. 16, y. 

112, d, 202, CO 

V X. 622. 

174. /ot. 175. ^9. 177. favitsaovxai, 

yp. noXia^ Schol. H., ita Wolf, et edd. recentt. noX^iq Barnes. 171. i^oxov 

aXXmv Schol. M., ita plerique edd. ^io%a ndvxmv Venet. Ilarl. fortasse ex SI, 134. 

176—7. [] Low. probante Ni. 178 — 9 apud Plutarch, (de adult, et am. discr. 

XV.) &kXo S(i(i,B, Ni. 181. (liXXii Bek. annot. 

174. vdC4fa, see App. A. 19, * 'would 
have settled for him' , i. e, assigned 
for his dwelling, a city. Ni. says Me- 
nelans* intended offer "could only have 
been a flight of friendly fancy**. The 
offer indeed was one which Odys. could 
not have accepted, even if it lay in 
the other's power to make; but, he 
adds, *Mt contradicts our notions of 
the relation of king to people, as we 
And it among the Achseans^*. This is 
true; but Menel., as a wanderer not 
long come home from Asia, Egypt, etc., 
may not limit his feelings at the mo- 
ment by strictly constitutional notions, 
but talk with the uncalculating ar- 
dour which characterizes him: see App. 
E. 8 (19) end. What would have be- 
come of the townsmen whom he pro- 
posed to turn out {i^aXand^ccg)'^ Pro- 
bably H. means that Menel. did not 
ask himself the question. If any answer 
be given, it should seem that they 

were to take the place of the immi- 
grants; and this treatment of friends 
and subjects was nearly parallelled by 
Xerxes or Nebuchadnezzar in their 
conquests; comp. the ** dragging" of 
Samos for Syloson by the Persians, 
Herod. VL 31. 

i8i. dydaa*,^ this verb means (i) to 
think a thing dyocv or too great, (2) to 
envy or grudge, as here, (3) to ad- 
mire or wonder, (4) to wonder with in- 
dignation, (5) to grudge with indigna- 
tion; see mar. for examples. 

182. dvoCXifiOV occurs nowhere else 
in H., but we find the similar avoaxoq^ 
and voarifiog (mar.) meaning similarly 
"fated to return". 

186 — 9. Pisistr., weeping for his own 
loss, although it is suggested by that 
of Telem., is a touch of nature; so in 
T. 302 the women weep Ildrqo'KXov ngo- 
tpaciv aqtdiv S* avxAv uriSs* Ixacrrij. 
— *Hov^ H. T. X., cf. Pind. ^em. Ill, 



OATSSEIAS A. 189-200. 

[dat v. 

a a. 66 mar. 
b X. 229, f. 285. 
c C- 179;cf.r.l80. 
d t. 513; cf. d. 

c cf. V. 46, I. 234, 

f *. 264, a. 227. 
g- a. 190, 296, J7. 

457, 675, fF. 9. 
h N. 569. 
i fF. 46; cf. 141. 
k n. 570; cf. Q. 

415, O. 11. 
1 J. 374-6. 

rov o y' iTttfivriad'elg iTcaa ntSQoevx^ ayogevev* 
'^^AtQsCdri^ neQi^ fisv as /JporcSi/ tcstcvv^bvov slvai 190 
NiotoQ 9?a<?;g' 6 yigov^ or^ iTtLfivriaaifiBd'a asto 
[ol6iv ivl [isydQ0L6iy xal d^kijlovg iQBOifisv.^^ 
xal vvv^ sH^ xl Ttov e6ti^ Ttid'Oto ^ov ov yctQ iyd ys 
rigno^i^ ddvQOfisvog iis xadoQTCio g'^ akkd xal ijcsjg 
i66BxaL r^QiyivBia. vBfTBaaaiiiai^ ys fihv ovShv 195 

KkaiBLV Off KB d'dvfjac figoxaiv xccl %&t^ov ijtiaTty. 
xovxo vv Tioi yigag^ olov oltvQotac §QOxot6iv^^ 
7CB{Qa6d'ai^ XB TCOfiriv paXhiv r' asro ddxgv TtagBiav. 
xal yaQ i^og xid'vrjXBV ddBkcpBog^ ov xt^ TcdxLCxog 
^AgyBloiV' fisXlBtg 8h 6v td^Bvai' ov yaQ iyd yB^ 200 

189. /fTTfa. 192. foi6Lv. 200. J^Ldfisvai. 

192 t Arist., Scholl. H. Q. [] Bek. Dind. Fa. Low. dXXjjXovg fere omnes, et 
dXlijXoig notant Scholl. H. Q. 194. (istccSogniog Harl. supra (ista habet iTei, 
fisxadognLOv Bek. annot. 197. olov (admirantis) Eustath. 198. usigcca&aL Harl. 

62—3; see App. D. i. Strabo XV. p. 
728 says, (priol S^ xal AiaxvXog rrjv 
(irjteQa Msfivovog KiaaCav. 

191. See App. A. 9 (20) for the iin- 
perf. in -g-aov followed by optat. 

192. The rejection of this line pro- 
ceeds on the sense of "were saying 
or speaking to each other" being 
Ascribed to dXXiqXovg igiocfisVy which 
Homeric usage will not allow. But as 
igsoifii optat. bears in X. 229, ^ov- 
Xsvov onoag sgioifii ixtt6Trjv, the 
sense of "ask" with accus. of person, 
we may retain it, rendering "were 
asking one another". 

193. eirl Ttov eon, i. e. ni^sad'ai, 
"if to comply be possible or reason- 
able"; a modest way of introducing his 
advice: cf. Haemon's words to his father 
in Soph. Antig, 719, yvmfii] yap et tig 
%dic* sfiov X. T. X, 

194. fJLexa66Q7t»y "during supper", 
which had been interrupted by their 
burst of sorrow ; see 216 — 8 where it is 
resumed. Sognov was the latest of the 
meals; af.agiaza, SsiTtvaj S6gna&' 
atgstad^ai rgita, JEJschyl. Fragm. ap. 
Athen. I. 1 1 e. Yet this same is called 
dsLTtvov 61 sup, J agirOTOv occurs n. 2, 
SI, 124. For the form cf. fi{taST]fiiov 
(mar.) "in or among the people". In 
zeQTtOfii* o^vQOfievoq the yoto cpgiva 
zigno^ai of Menel. 100—2 is reflected. 
"I at any rate ", says Pisistr., "find no 
solace in lamentations over our meal", 

cf. also Menelaus' words 105 sup, and 
Penelope's words describing her forlorn 
state (mar.) yfiata . , , rignofi' o&v- 
gofiivTi y 00(06 a, . 

195 — 7. riQiyivBia , see on p. i. — 
vcfiieoo. ye x. r.X., see on 158 sup. The 
force of ys may be given by " not that 
I am ashamed of weeping for one etc." 

oiXvQOiOi ^Qoxolaiv , contains a 
blended notion of the lost and the sur- 
vivors, the ysgag being paid by the 
latter to the former. o'Civgog pourtrays 
the estate of man, exemplified, in the 
poet^s notion, most strikingly in the 
greatest heroes : cf. Thetis to Achilles, 
A, 41'j , (onvfjLOgog xal oX^vgog nsgl 
icdvtoav IWAeo, and Telem. of Odys., 
y. 95, nsgl ydg fiiv o'i^vgov wxe 
(irirrig, also the contrast of this with 
the state of the gods gBia ^(oovrsg, 
and oag ydg insxXcaaavto ^-sol dsi- 
Xoiai §goTotaiv ^oasiv dx^vfii- 
voigj avzol di z* dyiTi^isg slaiv SI, 
525 — 6; see Nagelsbach I. § 9. 10. 

198. xeiQaCB'at, so Achilles and his 
Myrmidones cover the corpse of Pa- 
troclus with their shorn hair, and in 
the opening scene of The Ckoephoroi 
Orestes deposits his shorn lock on his 
father's tomb. This verb there becomes 
trans, in v. 272 (Dind.) ovx ^tsziv oozig 
nXiiv ifiov %sigaizo viVy so Herod. 
II. 61, zov 6s zvnzovzai x. z. 1., and 
so here we might render "to shear 
one's hair for them (PpOTOt)". 

DAY v.] 

OArSSEIAS A. 201—217. 


TJvrfj^* ovdh tdov tcsqI d' alXcuv tpaal ysviiSd'ai 
^AvxCkoxoVy^ %iQi ^hv d'sisLv xa%iv r^Sl ^axritrjv,'^ 
tdv d' djca^6Lp6^€vos TCQogifpri i^'^^og Msvilaog 
''cJ ^Ck\ iiCBl t6(Sa alTceg 06' av JtBTtvvfiivog dvrjQ 

ao5 etTtOL xal ^i^ecB^ xal og TtgoyBviaxBQog BUtj' 

toCov^ yccQ xal JtatQog^ xal JiBnvv^iva^ fid^Big-i 
^Bta S* aQiyvatog^ yovog aviQog ca xb KqovCov 
oXfiov iTtixkcioy^ ya^iovxC xb yBivo^ivGi^ xb^ 
cog vvv NiaxoQL Sc5xb dia^iTtBQhg^ ij^axa ndvxa^ 

z\o avxov (ihv hnag^g^^ yriQacxiyLBV iv fiBydQ0L6Lv^ 
vtiag av Tcvvvxovg xb xal iy%BfSiv slvai dgCcxovg. 
riiiBtg 81 xkavd'fiov puhv idiSo^Bv^ og tcqIv ixvx^fl^ 
SoQJtov S' i^avxLg ^vfjOci^Bd'a ^^ x^9^^^ *' ^9' vdcuQ 
XBvdvxG)V' fivd'OL dh xal i^iSd'BV tcbq iiSovxai 

215 TrilB^dxco xal Bfiol 8iaBi7CB{iLBv^ d^Xrj^otaivJ^ 

(Sg ltpax\ 'AatpakCtov d' ap' vStoQ"^ iTtl x^^Q^S ^X^vbv^ 
dxQfiQog d'BQditiDV^^ MBVBldov xvSakifioio, 

a d. 187 mar. 

b y. 124-6; cf 

S2. 377. 
c I. 58; cf. <7.392. 
d ^ 108, 800, Q. 

265; cf. 375. 
e y. 208 mar. 
f App. A. 20 mar. 

s n. 499. 

h X. 136, t. 368, 

V;. 283; cf. o. 

i r. 148, S2. 601, 

O. 477. 
k a. 146 mar. 
1 |U. 16, K. 425, 

J. 706. 
m d. 213. 
n d. 23, 38, a. 109, 

ui, 321. 

201. J^{$ov, 204. fsinss, 205. fBinoi, 215. diaj^smifiev. 

207. dpiyvmrov yivog H. Stephan, 208. iniyiXmri Ern. CI. ed. Ox. et recentt., 
inixlmaec Wolf. Low. secuti Schol. H. et var. lect. ms. GC. 210. avxm (irjv 
iiek. annot. 212. d?} pro S^ Eustath. 213. pro dognov SbCtcvov Schol. ad 61 sujt. 

204 — 6. The apodosis of ijtel xoCa 
eiTta^ is suspended by a parenthesis 
devoted to the praise of Nestor and his 
sons, as far as v. 211, when it appears 
in y. 212^ rifJiel^ 6h x. r. X, Tn 205 og 
TtQOyeveareqoq sI'tj is an adjectival 
clause coupled by xal to Ttejtvvfiivo^ 
in 204. In 206 o is '^wherefore'*, by el- 
lipsis of dta, see Liddell and S. s. v. og; 
cf. for the sentiment 611 inf, and note. 

208. yafieovxi xe yeiv* xe, "at 
his marriage and at his birth"; a 
ngoiQ'VGzBgov which Ni. illustrates by 
S, 723, X. 417, ft. 134, A. 251, where 
rearing precedes birth; so y. 467, d. 50, 
€. 264 etc. Bek. here and in the pa- 
rallel passages (mar.) edits ytyvofisvo) 
in the same sense. The text is sup- 
ported by the Schol. B. here who, how- 
ever, mistakenly renders it xs^vovvti 
"begetting", to be in keeping with yoi^o? 
dvigog (207) and vticcg (211). Authority, 
however, is against the pres. ysivofiai 
in this sense (see Crusius s. v., Ni. ad 
Joc.y Donalds. Gr. Gr, p. 286 s, u., Jelf. 
Or, Gr, § 261. 5. obs. 3); Buttm. Gr. 
Verbs s, v., however allows it, but cites 

no passage: see further App. A. 20. 
We may for the sense compare Hes. 
Theog. 218—9, ^^fod'(6 ts Ad%BGiv xb 
xal AtQonovj at xe Pgoxoiai ysivo- 
fiivptai Sidovaiv ^xsiv dya^ov xb 
xaxdv XB. 

210. Jii:taQd)g, XLTtccgog expresses 
(mar.) "in holiday trim", as the suitors, 
or "dainty" e, g. a lady*s veil, so Xc- 
nccQOHQTJSBfLvogot Charis; cf. Xmagdg 
zaXiasiBv *A^i]vag Aristoph. Acharn. 
639. In Latin nitidus most nearly ex- 
presses it which Virgil applies [Georg. 
III. 437) to youth, as H. does Xinagog 
to such old age as Nestor's; see also 
yriQOLX XinagSi {mB.r.) and cf. Pind. Nem. 
Vll. 99, fjifiqL Xinaqm xb yTJgccX Sicc- 

212— c. lifiBZg 6k, see on 204 sup, 
ifiaeiJtefiev, "to have our talk out", 
dia = "thoroughly", not "to speak 
in turn, converse"; so f. 47 Siani- 
q)Qa$B, In this form the word occurs 
in H. only here; but forms, in which, 
as not uncommonly in in- bIu^ and 
their dorivates, the f is lost, also oc- 
cur, as diBiitBiv etc. (mar.). 


0AT22EIAS A. 118—129. 

[day v. 

a /?. 393, d. 795; 

cf. /?. 93. 
b cf. «. 77. 
c p. 330, X. 236—7. 
d cf. ij. 220—1, V. 

e cf. /*. 240. 
f T. 208, ^. 227. 
gr /?. 330. 
h J. 153, P. 566, 

fF. 176. 
i r.306;cf.a.269, 

^ 160, n. 258. 
k a. 10, £. 318. 
1 ji. 741. 
m 7. 3, e. 463, t}. 

332, t. 357, X. 


OL d' £jr' dveiad'' itoiiia JtQOxscfisva xstQag takkov. 

Sv^'^ avr akk' evoric' 'Ekivri ^log ixysyavta- 
avtix'^ ap' eig olvov fidke (pccQfiaxov ^^ svd'sv Itcvvov^ 220 
VTjjtsvd'ig t' axokovrSy xccx(dv iTtikrjd'Ov^ aTtdvtav. 
og to xatafigolietsv^^ i%riv^ xqyixHqi^ fiiyELi], 
ov xsv i^ri^BQVog ye fidkoi xatd SdxQV 7taQBi(Sv^ 
ovd' sH ol xatazsd'vaii] litjtrjQ te narrJQ xe, 
ovS' et ol TCQOjcdQoi^Bv d8ekg)edv ^' (pikov vtov 225 

Xakxfp^"^ driioasv^ S d' 6q)%'ak^ot6iv OQfpxo^ 
xota jdibg d'vydxtjQ^ i%6 (pag^axa ^rixtosvxa 
iad'kd^ xd of Ilokvda^va jcoqbv^ S(3vog TCagdxoLXig 
Jiyv%xCri^ xfj 7tk€t6xcc^ fpsQai ^siSoQog^ aQOVQa 

224. 225. 228. J^oi. 

221. inllri^ov Arist., Scholl. H. Q., ita Hesych. Eustath. et edd. recentt.; ^wt- 
li]&ov Ascalonita., Scholl. H. Q., quod Buttm. placuit, et iniXrjd'ov et iniXrj- 
^ov agnoscunt Scholl. T. V., Harl. ipse inilri^svy Schol. InCXri^ov praBbente. 
in^Xrj^sg E. ita (teste Pors.) Dion Chrysost. XII. p. 209 et Plutarch, vit. Horn., 
Barnes. 222. Tiazafigoo^siBV var. lect. Scholl. H. E. 223. ov nev Harl. a 
manu pr. Wolf.; ova av Harl. ex emend. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 227. firjttoaivtcc 
Schol. P. 229. TO'^'i pro t^ Theophr. nsgl q>VTmVj I. IX. cap. 15, Barnes. 

220 — I. olvov meaning the ^QrjxiJQ 
in which the wine was mixed, see 222 
inf, vfixevO-iq, Sprengel and others 
think the opium intended by these qua- 
lities. Sir H. Halford, Essay X., sup- 
poses this possible, but adds that the 
substance may more probably be "the 
hyoscyamus f used at Constantinople, 
and, I believe, throughout the Morea, 
at this day under the name Neben8ch^\ 
To the hyosc. belong the deadly night- 
shade and the potato. ' Two species 
are described by Dioscorides as both 
being /Liai/{a)d£rg[and xaportxol "heady", 
but a third as an useful sedative: cf. 
noXXa fihv ia&Xa fistiiyfiiva noXXoc SI 
Xvyga^ also f. 328 — 30 and note there. 
Without further knowledge, however, 
of the Nehensch, its identity with the 
vrinBv^lg plant, if plant it were, can- 
not be relied on. Spenser has built 
on the purely negative Homeric idea, 
and amplified it into an allegory, as 
follows : 

Nepenthe is a drink of sovereign 
grace , 

Devisfed by the Gods, for to assuage 

Heart's grief, and bitter gall away 
to chase, 

Which stirs up anguish and conten- 
tious rage: 

Instead thereof sweet peace and 

quiet age 
It doth establish in the troubled mind. 
Few men, but such as sober are 

and sage. 
Are by the Gods to drink thereof 

assign^ ; 
But such as drink eternal happiness 

do find. 
Faery Queen, B. 4, Cant. 3, St. 43. 

exlkfiS'OV, an adj.; cf. ind%ovov 
Hes. 0pp. 29 for the form and itciXTJ- 
OBtai a. 57 for the gen. following. 
Crusius says Buttmann reads imXrjd'ov 
as if a partic. of iniXT^oa. Pind. Pytk, 
I. 90 has %afidtoi}v $ inilccaiv nagd- 
a%oi ; cf. Nem, X. 24. Ni. compares the 
fpvXXov vmSvvov of Soph. PhilocL 44. 

222. STttjv^ the optat. prevails through- 
out the following clauses, the whole 
train of thought being that of a hypo- 
thetical cause contingently producing 
an effect; see App. A. 9 (20). 

228 — 9. Ilokvd*, a Schol. notices 
that this word may be read as an adj. 
referred to ra, but on the authority 
of Euphorion takes it as a prop. name. 
On Swv Bee App. C. 7. Obs. the 
synizesis of irj in Alyvnt^rj, 

DAY v.] 

OATSSEIAS A. 230—241. 


230 (pccQiiccxaj TtolXct (Ahv i6d'Xd ^s^Ly^iva TtolXa dh IvyQci • 
IfjtQOs^ Sh axcc6tog iyti6td(Aevog^ yteQi Tcdvrcov 
dvd'QciTtcov rj ydg IlaLTJovog^ alcv yevdd'kr^g,'^ 
avtccQ insi ^' ivirjxe xiXsvdi ta oivoxo'^aaL^ 
i^avxLg ^vd'0i6LV ayLSifioyLivri TtQogietTcev 

235 '^'AtQaidri MevHttS jdioxQetplg^ i}di xal olde 
avdQiSv iad'kiDv icalSsg {drccQ d'sog akkors aXlip 
Zsvg"^ dya%'6vT6 xaxovredidot' SvvaxmydQ^ anavra) 
ij roL vvv SaCvvd^B xadTJiievoL ^ iv ^eydQOC0iv 
xal [ivd'ovg tiQytsffd'S*^^ ioLxota^ ydq xarali^cj, 

240 ^dvta^ ^Iv oix av iya ^vdTJ^o^c^t oiid' dvo^rjvG}^ 
066OL 'Odv66YJog raka6l(pQov6g Bl6tv ded'koL • ^ 

a J. 514. 

b t. 49, V. 313, |. 

359, V^. 185. 
c ^.401, 899,000; 

cf. A. 478, X. 

d V. 130, E. 270, 

T. HI; cf. B. 

c C. 18S— 9. 
f (J. 612,827, «. 25. 
g- (p- 89. 
h d. 597, y/. 301, 

7t. 39S, A. 643; 

cf. t. 590. 
i y 125, d. 141. 
k X. 328, 517, B. 

1 (>. 270-1; cf. d. 

107 mar. 

231. J^fxaffTOff, 233. foivoxorjacci, 234. nQoaiJ^etnsv. 239. feJ^oiyLotu, 

230, TfTvy/Liiya ibid. Barnes. 231-72. ^nBi 0(pioi 8cayt,Bv 'AnoXXmv laad'ai- 

xal yoiQ Arist., Sclioll. B. H. Q., dvd'QdiTtmv et qpapftaxfoov Scholl. M. V. 

236. allot' in' SlXo) Barnes. Em. CL ed. Ox., ocUotb Wolf. 

230-1 . fpaQfiaxa, cf. -^schyl. Fragm, 
428 Dind. TvQ^rivov ysvsdv (pccQfia- 
noicoiov id'vog, — lifiTQOq, cf. Herod. 
IT. 84, III. 129, and the statement of 
the Egyptians' monthly course of physic 
ibid. II. 77. 

232. Haiiiovoq, Paeon, absorbed by 
later mythology into Apollo (.ffisch. 
Agam, 146, Soph. (Ed, Tyr, ie4)\ is in 
a fragm. of Hesiod (Schol.) distin- 
guished from him. It is bI ybii'AnoX^ 
Xoiv ^^oiBogvnlyi ^avdroio aamsiy fj 
avxog liaimv x. t, X, -^schyl. [Fragm, 
229 bind, supposed from the Philoc- 
tetes), invokes death as <o Gdvccre 
Uaidv, PsBon appears in II. as the 
healer of Olympus (mar.), just as Po- 
dalirius and Machaon in the Grecian 
camp. Fa. notes that those skilled in 
healing are his ysvi&Xrj, just ns a war- 
like hero is o^og *jiQriog. We also find 
nccnjav for a 'hymn of thanksgiving 
or of triumph: twice in the II. the 
Greeks sing it, once to Apollo when 
appeased after the plague, and again 
on the death of Hector (mar.). 

235—7. oi&e, here of the 2"** pers. 
as tov in a. 359 of the i*'. — draQ 
^eoq • • • • 6i6ois the relation of this 
common -place formula on human af- 
fairs to the subject finds its link — a 
somewhat loose one — in uvSq. iad". 
naiSegi "Sons of good sires, — though 
all (good and bad alike) must take 

their lot of fortune, good or bad, as 
Zeus awards." Homer's view of hu- 
man afifairs includes their chequered 
aspect and promiscuous distribution. 
Hence the good and brave, if disaster 
comes, must xBtXdfiev fynrig (^, 190, 
cf. d'. 570, X' 287, a, 134—5)- No less 
clearly is it crossed by a notion of 
fatality — - alaa spinning at his birth 
the thread of man's weal or woe. Yet 
on the wUole, the particular events in 
their relation to each are represented 
as dealt out by Zeus ; see the allegory 
of his two nid'Oi of good and evil in 
SI, 527 foil. But there is not traceable 
any notion of a scheme of Providence 
shaping the individual's lot, much less 
comprehending that of all men, save 
in aiffa- aforesaid, nor of any general 
control covering the whole flight of 
human action, neither is there any 
recognition of a general end of good 
seen amid partial evil. Divine know- 
ledge, will, and choice, are merely 
incidental where they occur. See Na- 
gelsbach I. § 28, p. 52-3, III. § 6, 
p. 132, VIT. §. 3» p. 361-2. Still 
chance is excluded from this aspect: 
all that happens has a cause, under 
whatever name of $a£(ioav, alffft, Zsvg, 
or fiorpa, and that of tvxri does not 
even occur. For the relation of Zsvg 
to (loiQCc see on s, 436. 

239 — 43* ioixoray "suited to the 
purpose", I. e. fi^vd^oig xignsad'oci. 


OATSSEIAS A. 242-251. 

[day v. 


akV olov^ rod' SQsi^s xal srlr^ TcaQtSQog dvtjg 

dij^G) ivi Tpo'cjv, 09*4 Ttd^xste Ttrj^at* ^A%aioC.^ 

avroV iLiv nlriyrioiv^ dsLxsXtrjOv Sa^d06agj 

0xetQa^ xdx' d^q>' (S^oc6c fial&v^ oix'^v ioLX(6g^ 245 

dvdgiDV SvgnEviav xarsdv %6liv [avQvdyviav' 

alkp d* avrov (pcorl^ xaraxQVJtrcav ^c6xsvy 

dsxtji^ og ovdhv totog Irjv ijcl vrjvalv ^Axat^v. 

TO) txaXog^ xardSv Tqcdcdv itokiv] ol d" dfidxtj^av 

jtdvtsg' iy(o Sd {llv otri dviyvcov^ rotov iovra^ 250 

xa^ liLV dvrjQcircov dh xaQdo6vvrj^ dkhivsv. 

a E. 601. 

b y. 100. 

c B. 264. 

d t. 269, 179 
fi. 102. 

e t- 129, 0. 505, 
^.462; cf. 0.518, 
B. 239, J. 194, 

' 8. 54, n. 11. 

gr X. 144. 

h |. 31 , X. 247. 

244. ccfsiTisXLTiaL. 

245. /otx^t fsfoi,y.(6g, 
249. fCyisXog. 

247. ij^sJ^LGHSV. 

242. olov Parmeniscus, Scholl. II. P. Q. 244. avtov codd. omn. f Barnes, qui 
putat avTOv scribi debere). 246 — 9. Bek. respuit inde ab svgvayviccv usque 

ad Tq(6(ov TtoUv. 

olov, used admiringly, as often xotov, 
see on a. 209, 410. 

244 — 58. This expedition may be 
viewed as shortly preceding the Wooden 
Horse, and as undertaken to procure 
the necessary information (qigoviv). In 
Eurip. ffec. 239 foil. Hecuba asserts 
that Helen disclosed to her Odysseus' 
arrival, and that she effected his escape, 
a variation which impoverishes both 
these female characters. The Scholl. 
notice a pertinence in this mention of 
the beggar's disguise borne by Odys, 
in Troy to his similar personation in 

the later books n %• 1 ^^^^ P^®' 

paring Telem. for the unfolding of the 
plot, but if 246 — 9 be rejected (see 
note inf.) of course this has no place. 
With the whole story, especially the 
nXriyfiGi afitx. cf. the artifice of Zopy- 
rus, Herod. III. 153 foil. Eurip. loc, 
cit, enhances it by Ofifidtoav ano q>6- 
vov ataXayfiol erjv Y.axi6xatpv yivvv. 

244 — 5. avxov fiiv c=i fiavTov, a 
pron. which as one word never occurs 
in H. Donalds. Gr, Gr. § 235. — OTtelqa 
is used of coarse wrappers, sails, 
shrouds, etc. (mar.). 

246—9. Bek. sets in the mar. from 
evQvdy. to noXiv 249; reading con- 
tinuously dvdgoov dvGfiBVSoav tiazfdv 
tcoXlV oV S' dpdytriGccv — a rejection 
probably well-founded: if Odys. natidv 
noXiv olnrj'C ioitimg^ how could he do 
the same thing tc5 {dsntr^) tyisXog, for 
the two are wholly distinct? Of course 
he might have shifted his disguise^ but 

the assertion , that he '^ariSv noXiv 
first as one and then as the other, 
has all the air of an insertion; and 
ov8\v xoiog k'rjv, if applied to Odys., 
is languid, if used as = orog ov9slg 
^Tjv, involves some violence to the 
sense and the relations of words. The 
imitator however probably meant it in 
this sense — to show the cleverness 
of Odys. Had he appeared in a dis- 
guise which might have been picked 
up inl vr}, 'A%,y he might have been 
suspected, so he shifted it to one pe- 
culiar to the city. As an alternative, 
we might reject from og ovS^^v in 248 
to ndvtsg in 250. 

247. ^a>T^ Ni. distinguishes between 
q)ag and dvrjQf as though dvijQ here 
would have meant some definite indi- 
vidual; but in fact qpcag occurs (mar.) 
in this definite sense, and dvriQ with 
alXog^ tig, etc. in the indef.; see K. 
330, 341. 

^ 248—9. ^BXXT^ and dpdxfjaav are 
cciea^ Xsy,, the latter from saying no- 
thing (a-pafflo) evolves the meaning 
of '*took no notice", 1. e. were duped 
by his trick. In Sapph. 29, ed. Giles 
afia^Tiv occurs expressive of simple 
placidity, as epith. of fpQBvci. 

250—1. roiov i*s I.e. "though in 
such guise". — xeo^foiJ., he evaded 
her enquiries by ready guile, until, on 
his stripping for the bath, his identity 
became too clear for the illusion to be 
kept up. 

DAY v.] 

0AT2£EIAS A. 252—269. 


255 tcqCv ys xbv ig v^dg'' re d'odg HkasCag r' d(pcxe6d'aiy 
xal rots Srj ^oc ndvra voov^ xar ilaliev ^A%aLiSv, 
nokkovg 81 TQciojv xreivag ravccvjxsV x^clxp 
TJkd'S fier* 'j^Qyeiovg^ xard di g)Q6vLV« fiyaya TColXvjv. 
ivd'^ &ki,av TQtQol Uy^^ ixcixvov avraQ ifiov X'^q 

■260 xatQ\ iTCsl ijSri fioc XQccSirj ta'rpainrro vh6%'aL^ 

clilf olx6vS\ arriv SI iiericrevov^ rjv 'Aq)QoShri^ 
Sc5x\ or£ ft' i^yccye xetCs tpUrig djto TCargCSog atrig^ 
TCcctSd t' iiii^v vo6g)t66a(Advrjv^ d'dla^ov rs noaiv re 
ov rev Sevo^svov ^ om Sq tpQevag ovre rt fitdog."*" 

0,6^ rriv S' dTCafieipofievog nQogifpri ^av^og Mevilaog 
''vol Sii ruvrd ye ndvru^ yvvcciy xard ^otQav fecjteg, 
ijdri ^hv nokicav iddtiv PovXrjv^ re voov re 
dvSQcSv T^QcicDV^ TtoXXriv^ S' ejtelrjlv&a yatav 
«AA' ov n(o roLOvrov eycav fdoi/P 6g)d'ak^ot(Scv ^ 

a X. 361, 450, E. 

005, 77.669-70. 
b C. 228, »;. 205, 

I 396. 
c X. 391, ft. 29S, 

a, 55, T. lOS 


d ^.97, J5.288, O. 

72-4; cf. /*. 128. 
e A. 487, X. 302. 
f a. 3 mar. 
gr y. 244. 
h T. 284. 
i of. r. 139 - 40, 

173, 400, Z. 360. 
k r. 380-5, 413 

I t. 339, 579, (p. 

77, 101 J cl. L 

m ;i. 337, a. 249; 

cf. •. 212-3. 
n /*. 281 mar. 
o (i. 364, t. 2S4. 
p d. 226 mar. 

253. /e^j^ara fiaaa, 261. fot%Qv9'. 264. J^Bidog. 266. ftfetwfff. 

269. J^ldov. 

252. iym Xosov Harl. text, et plerique Wolf., iymv iXosvv Harl. marg. Ambros. 
E. V. et (tfeste Buttm.) P. Schol. H. Barnes. Em. Cl. ed. Ox. 254. aij (i^v codd. 
(Harl. (11] (IS etiam prasebet), jlh} ft^v Bek. 260. '^Srj Arist. rj Srj Crates., 

Scholl. H. Q. 263. voctpiaaccfisvriv Wolf., voatpiaaatisvri Barnes, Em. Cl. ed. Ox. 

253. XoeoVy the vai\ led. here should 
be noticed. Bathing the guest (see on 
7. 464) was sometimes the office of a 
daughter of the house, here Helen is 
represented as doing it. Her curiosity 
may have been roused, we will sup- 
pose, by the suspected presence of 
Odys., and such attendance gave her 
the opportunity of private conference. 
He refused, however, to gratify her 
curiosity, until he had bound her by 
an oath; see App. E. i (i) note, and 
(4). The poet doubtless intends here 
and in 143 — 4 sup. to ascribe to Helen 
the quality of quick discernment. 

254. fM.71 fikv, Bek. here again adopts 
(iriVf as if by a canon of his own; 
others fiiv. It may be urged that filv 
adds little or nothing to the sense, and 
indeed Sfioaui firi without filv or |lu)v 
occurs in h. 343—4, 0. 55—6; but our 
present text undeniably uses fihv for 

a mere complementary syllable; see 
a. 252 and cf. r. 124, where in the 
same phrase fihv is inserted and omitted, 
apparently without any modification of 
the sense. 

257 — 8. The details are not given, 
but this line and half suggests the si- 
milar excursion of book K. and makes 
it probable that night gave the op- 
portunity. q>Q6viv intelligence ; cf. 
y. 244. 

260 — 4. Helen omits all mention of 
Paris as offensive to her husband. 
According to a later legend, counte- 
nanced however by d. 274 and '9'. 517 
— 20, after Paris' death she lived in 
Troy as De'jphobus' wife; Eurip. Troiad. 
962, Virg. JEn, VI. 51 1 foil. voaq>iaa.s 
this verb in the middle voice once 
means "to take away'* (mar.), but 
mostly, as here, *'to go away from". 


0AT2SEIAI! A. 270—291. 

f.DAY V. 

a d, 242. 

b V. 393. 

c ^. 493—520, X, 

d I. 3. 

c B. 352, r. 6. 

f *. 381, 1.488, n, 
194, T. 10, 138. 

g- A. 79. 

h ilf. 94, ^. 517. 

i cf. u. 73. 

k cf. I. 11. 

I d, 148 mar. 
m A, 767-8. 
n if. 384, 417, T. 

o X. 83. 
p TT. 430. 
q /?. 82, 84. 
r ^. 489. 
s V'. 76 ; cf. -r. 479 

-80, I. 324. 
t App. A. 21 not. 
u ^. 509. 
V (J, 156 mar. 


olov 'OSv06r}og taXa6L(pQOvog ^0xs q>iXov xiyp. 270 

o?ov* xal rod' Iqs^b xal irkrj naQrsQog^ dviqQ 

iTCTCfp'' IvL Sficyrc), Lv' ivTJ^sd'a TtdvxBg^ &Ql6tOV 

'jQys((ov^ TQ^eaaL^ g)6vov xal K'^qcc ^igovtsg. 

riXd^sg Ijteira av xetas' xakavai^svai di <?' IfiskZsv 

Sav^covy^ og TQcis(S6Lv^ ifiovketo xvdog dgilai- 

xai xoi ^riCfpofiog^ d'sosixeXog sojter^ iov6ij. 

tQlg dh JtsQiatsc^ag'^ xoUov koxov d^(pag)6(o0a , 

ix d' ovoiiaxlrjSriv^ ^avaiSv dvo^a^eg dgiatovg^ 

TtdvtCDv ^AQysCcay g)(X}v^v i!6xov6*^ dloxotaiv. 

avtaQ iym ™ xal TySsCSrig xal dtog 'OSvaasvg^ 280 

ij^svot iv^ fi660oo0LV dxov0a^6v cog ^p6rj0ag. 

v(S^ ^hv dfig)ot£Q(o fisvsTjvafisv oQfirid'Svre 

71 i^skd'Efisvai qi ivSod'Sv alip^ vjtaxovdat'^ 

aAA'p 'Odv^evg xatBQVxs xal i0%s^sv Csfieva) tcsq, 

[fW^ allot ^iv jtdvteg dx'^v i6av vhg ^A%amv^ 285 

*'AvxLyikog 81 0b y olog d^siilfaad'at,^ 87css66iv 

ijd'sksv* dXl' *O8v0€vg iitl ^d0taxa^ %^9^^ Jtis^sv 

VG)k6[i6(og^ XQaraQ7J0L, 0d(o06 dh Ttdvrag ^Axavovg^ ' 

TogyQa"^ S' ix* bg)Qa 0s voCfpiv dnriyaye Ilakldg'Adijvti.y^ 

Tov S' av TrilifLaxog jtETtvvfisvog dvtCov rjvda 290 

"'AtQsCSri'^ Mavkkae ^loxQBtphg OQXfXfis AacSv, 

276. d'soj^sixslog. 279. Hghovg'. 284. fisfievG). 286. fsnesaaiv. 

273- '^QystOL Harl. 276 f apud nonnuUos Scholl. H. Q. 277. nsgi'ati^ag 

Arist., Scholl. H. Q., ita Ambros. et B. 279. stayiova' Harl. Flor. (?) 282. ogftrj- 

d^evzsg juxta Harl. Bek. opfiti&evxs reliqui. 285 — 9 t Arist., Scholl. H. Q. 

et plerisque abesse monet Schol. H.; [] Bek. Dind. Low. 

270—1. Offvaa. ••• x^Qy like tg 
TrjXsfiaxoio , |5. 409, where see note, 
for the person's self. Not resuming 
and repeating the orov of 270, but used 
as in 242, see note there. 

274. xekeva.H.T.X,, "I think some 
god must have bidden you'', see on 
Cf. 232. This is the usual formula of 
excuse or extenuation to an indulged 
culprit; so Priam tells her ov xl fioi 
alxCri ^^oh ^sol vv (loi atxtoi slai F. 
164 — the object being to spare the 
hearer's feelings; see App. E. 9 (6), 
and, for the account of this action, (9), 

279—84. 'iaaova* see on 148. — aAo- 
XOiaiv,^ a contracted constrn. for qpco- 
vatg dX6xa)v, see on |J. 121. — Tv6ei' 
6ri<;, it is remarkable that Virgil. Mn, 
II. 261, in the list of heroes who 

descend from the Horse omits Tydides, 
whose place next before Sthenelus , his 
constant d'sgdnav (cf. iym S&ivBXog xs 
J. 48), is occupied by the unknown Thes- 
sandrus or Tisandrus. OQfi.fiS'SVTS, 
Bek. as usual gives 'Svxsg, but see on ss 
sup, — vjtaxovaaiy "to answer" (mar.). 

285—9. These have been rejected by 
Aristarchus, and Anticlus is unknown in 
the II. ; but the conclusion , as Ni. re- 
marks, is inadequate without them, 
whereas eccmas 8b ndvxag 'A. of 288 
justifies dXl' otov x68* ^qbI^s of 271 sup. 
This, however, may account for their 
insertion — a view wh. seems to have 
escaped Ni. 

287—8. dXk' 'O&va., for this action 
and the whole passage sefe App. E. i 
(4). For viakefiiiaq see App. A. 21. 


0AT2LEIAS A. 292—311. 


aXytov*'^ 01; ydg ot tl xd y' ^'px^effi IvyQOv oXsd'QOv^^ 
ovd' at ol XQceSirj ys 6idi]Q€ri^ SvSod'Sv ijfiv. 

;y5 vTtvG) vjto yXvxsQp TaQ7Cii^B%'u xoi^fid'svreg,'' 

cSg i(par\ ^Agyalri ^ 8' 'Ekevq d^cDjjat xbXbvCbv 
di^VL^^ vjt^ ald'ov6ri^ Q's^evac^ xal ^TJyea^ xakd 
7tOQ(pvQ6^ infialdscv^ 0xoQi6ai t' ifpvjteQ%'a ra'^rijraff, 
X^ccivag t' iv%'iyLSvai ovkag xa^VTCSQd'ev e6a6d'aL. 

[oo cct d* t6av ix fisyaQOio Sdog ^Btd ;|r£p<yli/ fxov6aCy 
Silvia 8b 6t6QB6av' ix Sh ^Bivovg^ ayB xi^Qvi,^ 
oJ»" ^lIv uqi* iv TtQodoiiC)^ So^ov cc'dtdd'c xoLiifJ0ccvro^ 
Trild^ax6g^ d'' iJQCDg xccl NeatOQog dykaog v[6g' 
^ArQBLSrig^ Sh xad'BvdB (ivx^'^ S6(iov^ v^Aofo, 

505 3tap tf' ^EkivTi tavvTCBTtkog^ ikd^arOj dfa* yvvatxiSv.^ 

'^(log d' 'j^QiyavBicc (pdvri ^ododdxtvkog 'H(6g^ 

rapvvr'^ &Q* fig Bvvil^i"^ fioi^v dyccd'og MBvikaog^ 

BLiitttcc B6iJdfiBvog' TtBQl Sh g^^og^ 6^^ ^ar' cSftc), 

7C06(jI d' vyto kinttQ0l6iv iSTJffato xakd ytaSika^ 

510 /SiJ *' ^/Ltfiv ix d'cckdiAOLO d'B^ ivakCyxvog avrriv^ 

Tr^kB^dxp^ Sh jraprg^v/ ^Ttog^^ r' ig)ar ix t' dvofia^Bv. 

a 7t. 147, o. 14, T. 

322, :?. m, 3W{. 
b Z. 1«, r, 28't, 

2V. 440. 
c cf. c. 191, yj. 

172, X. 357. 
d cf. &, 292, r, 

441, t. 315. - , 
e rp. 254^5, [S2. 

(i35— 36. 
i" d. 184, p. lis, 

r. 468. 
g w. 330—39, n, 

643-49; cf. r. 

ii App. F. 2. (7)~ 

(9) mar. 
i y. 349 mar., 351. 
k 0. 542, p. 72. 
1 &. 477, h, 074. 
m S2. 673. 
n 0. 5, V. 1, 14:); 

cf. $. 5. 

d. 21, 0. 4. 

1) y. 402, »/. 346. 
q App. F. 2 (34) 

r a. 106. 
s 0. 171. 

1 a, 332, o. 106, 
Tt. 414, r, 171. 

u r, 228. 

V /*. 2-5, y. 405, 

V. 124-0; cf. B. 

w O. 580. 
X |. 528. 
y y. 374. 
z cf. v. 406. 
aa /;. 302 mar. 

292. 293. ioi. 

299. J^ovXag J^faaafcci, 
311. J^inog. 

308. J^s£fiaxa J^saaciftsvog, 

294. TpfiTra-O"' Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., rpaarfi-O"' Wolf, 295. xttQicmftsd'a 

var. 1. GC. Wolf., xsQnoifisd'a Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., navamiiBd'ct Scholl. H. P. 

TiOLfirjd'ivTS Harl. 

292 — 5. akyioVf "all the more 
sad!" t. c. to think of his brave deeds, 
which could not save him, although 
they preserved others (v. 288). The 
single word has great force, ovd'' el' 
X. T. X*, "not even if his heart had been 
of iron, wd. this have availed agTisaai 
Ivyg, oifi-d".". — v:td expresses the no- 
tion of being covered, overwhelmed 
with sleep. Fa. compares s. 493, (pCXa 
pXi(pccQ' dfttpmciXyipag^ {vnvog), Hes. 
Theog, 798, xaxov 9* inl xcofia xa- 

297—9. This bed is meant to be of 
the most luxurious kind which H. knew : 
the SifiVLU d'ifiBvat, or atOQBaai, is 
comprehensive of the whole, of which 
(ijyBa . . . xani^xag . . . x^*^^vag are the 
parts. In V. 2—4 Odys. sleeps (as here 
in the ngodofi, = atd^ovacc; see on 302 
inf,) on a bulPs hide and many fleeces, 
raw, it seems, from the animals lately 

slaughtered, and covered by a simple 
xXai:va» ^ There the hide — the bed 
being idy^adig (t. 599; cf. v. OJ— 7) — 
supplies the place of Tpijta Xb%bu^ on 
which all the bedding was usually laid 
(y. 39^9). In y. 349—51 Nestor speaks 
of ^riy, and xXntv, only; here Tofariyrfs 
are the added element of greater lu- 
xury; see mar. for the passage as re- 
curring. In V. 58 Xi%tQOioi fiaXanoi^Gi. 
seems generally to express the whole 
of that, on or in which one slept. 

301 — 2. X^QV§, he was specially 
charged with care of guests (mar.). 
avvoS'i, referring us to ccid'ovajj of 
297, seems to identify it with the ngo- 
Sofi,, see App. F. 2 (9). 

306—9, See on fi, 1—5. Milton, Fa- 
rad, Reg. IV. 426 foil., imitates (odo$, 
ijooff, bv "morning fair . . . with radiant 
finger ". 

311— 2. TttCQl^Bv, perhaps on such 


0AT2£E1A£ A. 312-336. 

[day VI. 

a Q. 120-1. 

b /9. 2S mar., X. 

c y. 142 mar. 
d y. 82, /*. 32. 
e y. 101 mar. 
f (?. 156 mar. 
g: a. 117, V. 120. 
h y. 83. 
i a. 160, 377, /9. 

4S-9, 237. 
k ^. 64. 
1 /9. 252. 
m /!?. 55-6. 
n a. 92 mar. 

a. 92 mar, 

]) a. 368; cf. y. 

q y. 92—101 mar. 
r S, 30, 0. 325. 
s Q. 124-141. 

1 n. 745, X. 297, 

u y. 121 mar., r. 

262, *. 281. 
V cf. J. 113-5. 
w *. 445, J. 415, 

^. 573. 
X *. 29, X. 189 


ig AaxsSai^ova Slav ^ in^ svQsa V(Sra d'aXda^rjg; 
SrjiiLOV^ 7] tdiov; rode ftot® vrjfiBQthg ivCaneg,^^ 

xov tf' av Trjle^axog Jtsitw^svog avtlov rivSa 31;, 

"'^tQSLdrj^ MaviXae ^ioxQB(plg oqik^lb Aawi/, 
^'Avd-ov, bH rivd /[tot xkrjridovcc^ nargog^ ivCanoig. 
iad'LBtai' fioi olxog^ oXcoIb^ dh nCova iQycc,^ 
SvgfiBvicov"^ d' dvdQ(Sv jtlBtog Sofiog^ o? tb ^01 aisl 
^lyA'" dSLvd 0q)diov0L xal BlkijcoSag elixccg Povg^"^ 3:0 
(iritQog^ ifi^g ^vrjat'^QBg vnigfiiov v^qlv i%ovtBg. 
xovvBxa^ vvv xd <sd yovvad^' [xdvo^av^ at x! i^sXr^Od'a 


6(pd'aXiiot0L XBot6vv, fi dkkov ^vd'ov dxovCag 
Ttla^o^Bvov Tcigi ydg ficv oltvQOV xbxb fi'ijtriQ. 32,5 

^rjde xC {i alSoiiBvog ilbiXC<S6bo iirjd' ikBatQcav, 
dXV BV iLOL xaxdXB^ov ojtcog rjvxrjoag OTtaTC^g. 
k£a6oiittc^ BtjtoxB xoC xi %axr^Q i^og icd'log ^OSv00Bvg^ 
rl BJtog riB xi BQyov V7to6xdg i^BXBkB0(SBV 
drj^G) ivt TQcicov^ od'i 7cd6%BXB TCrjfiax' ^Axaiol' 33c 

rcJv vvv fipv fjbvrjCac^ xaC ^iol vr^iBQxlg ivLOTCBgJ' 

xoV^ dh ybiy 6xd'7J6ag TtQogitpri ^av%'6g MBviXaog 
"cS^ Ttonoi^ ij ftaAa di) xqaxBqofpqovog dvdQog iv avvrj 
ijd'BXov^ Bvvrjd'^vav dvdlxidBg avxol iovxBg, 
6g^ S' OTtox' iv ^vUxp"^ iXatpog xquxbqoIo liovxog ^ij 
vB^QOvg^ xoifi7}0a6a vsriyBvdccg yaladTivovg 

318. J^oi^og fkqya. 320. J^ 329. finog figyov. 

314. iviansg Harl. a manu pr., Schol. Q. Bek. Dind. Fa., hians Harl. ex emend. 

Ambros. CI. ed. Ox. Low. 317. xal xXijdoVa.E. Schol. ad A. 105. 325. [ | Bek. 

336. Aristoph. Byzant. legisse videtur (e Scholl. E. H. Q. T. ad 339) vi§QOv . . . 

verjysvscc yaXccd'rjvov, vsoysviag Arist. 

^Batol Xi&oi as formed a seat for 
Nestor, outside the palace (mar.). 
BTto^ X. T. X, see on y. 374. xijtxe 
X. r. it. see on a. 225. 

314. 6fifiiov fi *i6iOVs **i8 the matter 
private etc.?", see on p. 28. 

317 — 21. These words of Telem. are 
plainly and broadly to the point, with- 
out the tone of apology and hesitation 
of his similar speech to Nestor in y. 
79 — loi ; but there, it is his first speech, 
and at first introduction; here he has 
spent a night in the house and society 
of the host, whose character, too, is, to 

a youth, more winning and less awe- 
inspiring than Nestor's, xkriridova, 
c= xXfog, but elsewhere (mar.) xAsi^d. 

318 — 20. SQycCy see on |5. 22. — 
d^ivdf see App. A. 6 (2). 

322 — 31. See on y. 92 — loi, but obs. 
that rovvsna in y, 92 refers to the 
uncertainty in which his father's fate 
lay, here to his difficulties at home. 

334. iqS'sXpv, "were venturing", see 
on y. 121; dvoiX'KiSsg following gives 
force to it. Here Menel. dwells on the 
scene wh. Telem. had left behind him. 
Hence the imperf. 


0AT22EIAS A. 337~343. 


d^q)orsQOi6L dh xol6iv dsixia Jtotfiov icprjxsvj^ 
;40 cSg *OSv0€vg xeCvoaSiv aaixia^ noxyiov iq)7JG6L, 

at yap, Zbv re TtdtSQ xal 'Ad'rivaCri xal'^Jitokkov ^^ 
xotog^ i<ov olog nor' ivxti^evji^ ivl Aic^tp 
ii, SQiSog^ OLkofiTjXsidy iTtdkavCev^ dva6tccg^ 

a B. 821 , 4». 449 

569, tf^. 117. 
1) u. 259. 
c 2£. 321, r. 490. 
d J. 145. 
e J. 396. 
f T. 550. 

fu. 376 

J. 2S8 

/7. 97. 
h a. 257 mar. 
i I. 129, 271. 
k IL 111. 
1 cf. ff'. 733. 

a. 235, 
B. 371, 
H. 132, 

338. J^e^v. 339- 340. a/fitx^a. 

337. xpij|Ltvovs B., sed ejued. Schol. 'nv'qfiovs. 342. iv 'Ag^apTj P. 

337. XVfl$lovq, this word in II. is 
used always of Mount Ida, mostly with 
a mention of its wooded character. 
i%BQiXlCi "explores", cf. the similar 
use of i^SQSshmv (mar.). For the sub- 
junct. in comparisons see Jelf, Gr. Gr, 
§ 419, 2. In A, 113— 5 we find what 
seems like a first cast of this simile: 
here the *' seeking out the slopes and 
glens and grazing" seems added to 
mark the security of the suitors* 
depredations on Odysseus' house and 
substance in his absence (318); and 
with like intent xotfti/ffacra is added 
as marking the presumptuous con- 
fidence of the intruder. In A, 115 we 
have ^X&div sis evvqv said of the 
lion, to describe his breaking up the 
fawns at his leisure, not that there he 
finds them, as hero, in his lair, ayxea 
"hollows" is found only in ^simile: it 
is akin to ctyarjy aynvlog^ dynvJiTj. 

338. elCTikvB'ev, this aor., with ^qpi}- 
'«*i' 339 » following i^sgi'fjai subjunct, 
as it might a fut., is to be taken as 
denoting the certainty of the con- 
.sequence; see Jelf, Gr, Gr, § 403, 2. 
It is thus not a case of the "aor. (or 
other narrative tense) of simile" (Jelf, 
Gi\ Gr, § 402, 3), wliich (since a simile 
is under no limitation as to time) merely 
reflects the time of the action compared 
— a practice which is most plain in the 
shorter similes, e,^g. N, 389, rJQine 
S' (o^OTS rig SpvsJjQ^TtBv, T. 403 — 4, 
xal rjgvysv (og ots rccvgog rjQvyeVy 
and so in Q, 455 — 60, iV. 62—5, O, 
271—80, and n. 633, where ogmgei is 
pluperf. with force of imperf., but the 
same is traceable also in longer similes, 
eg, A. 324-6, 557—8- 

339- diiupoTiQOiai, i. e, both the 

hind and her fawns; Ni. would limit 
it to the fawns viewed as twins; but 
dfi(poT, is properly referred to two 
things which have been distinctly 
enumerated .Fa. compares Virg. yiC?i 
I. 458. Atridas Friamwnque et s(wum 
ambobus AchiUem,\ • 

341. at ycsQ, Zev x. r. A., for this 
famous trine invocation see App. C. 6. 
Ni. says it is used of a wish the fulfil- 
ment of which is not expected by the 
speaker. It is true wishes so expressed 
are commonly extravagant or hyper- 
bolical in their terms; yet they gener- 
ally point to some substantial object 
on which the speaker's heart is set at 
the moment. In a. 255 (where see 
note) a wish of preciselv similar im- 
port is introduced by sC ydg without 
any appeal to deities, and concludes 
with the same apodosis as in 346 here ; 
and in H. 157, A, 670 sL'^' is used 
just as ccl yocg, Zsv x. r. I, here. In 
all these optative forms the speaker 
seems in the fervour of his earnest- 
ness lifted out of the sphere of the 
present and catches at the remem- 
brance of some past state, which he 
would fain recall, without at the mo- 
ment considering whether such a recall 
be possible. In all, being originally 
protatic in character, an apodosis, ex- 
pressed or implied, seems due. 

342—3. ivlAiafiq}^ the reading iv 
*Agia pT^imAr.) points to a site on the Hel- 
lespont, which therefore is less suited 
to an exploit performed, we must sup- 
pose, on the way to Troy, than thnt 
of Lesbos, to which the epithet ivxtt- 
fiBvi] also belongs (mar.). — 6§ ci^e- 
doq, so i^ ^gidog (laxsad'ai^ H, iii 
(Ni.)» *'ljy way of rivalry", or as we say 


0AT2SEIAS A. 344-355- 

[day VI. 

a I. 482, 539, x. 

b a. 265—6. 
c cf. o. 402. 
d |. 168 ; cf. e. 439. 
e cf. ^. 424. 
f S. 384, 401, 542, 

J.385, y. 96, 345, 

A. 538. 
g £. 816, d. 744, 

e. 143, |. 467, p. 

154, t. 269, fF. 


h V. 300. 
i J. ' 

736, 1^. 228. 
k I. 535-6, d. 582, 
V. 350, p. 50, 59, 

A. 3lb, B. 306. 
1 £.818,cf.i2.570. 
ID t. 116; cf. 0.403, 

B. 811—3. 

n C- 204, *. 277. 
o I. 366. 

xad'* d' ^'/3o:A£ XQat£Q(og^ 7iB%ciQOvro SI ncivrsg ^Axaiol^ 
roloq^ i(DV fivri6t'^Q0LV o^ilrjasiev 'Odv60£vg' 34; 

jtdvtag «' cixvfLOQO^ ts yevoiaro TCiXQoya^oC ts. 
rawa*^ tf' a {i elQCjtag xal U06 sai^ ovx av iyd ya 
akXa TtaQli,^ sUnoLfiv TtaQaxliSov,^ .ovd^ dTtarrj^o^ 
dkkd td fiBV fiOL hiics yiQOv^ akiog vrj^aQtiqgy j 

t(Sv ovSiv xoi iyd XQVipo E%og^^ ovS* imxav^ai. 35c 

Alyvnrip^ fi' hi^ 8bvqo %'sol [is^aiSta viB(f%'aL 
l^xovy ijtsl ov 6(pvv Igs^a^ rsli]£00ag ixatofifiag. 
of d' alal fiovkovxo ^boI (iB(iv^6d'ac^ i(p£t^d(ov. 
v^^og^ iTtBLxd rig i0xi jtoXixlvCtG)^ ivl novxG) 
AlyvTCxov TtQOTcdQoid'B ^ QaQOv Si £ XLxXrj6xov0LV ^° 3;- 

348. J^stnotfiL. 349. ^J^stns, 350. finog, 355. /«. 

353. t Zenod,, Scholl. E. H. P. Q., [] Wolf. Bek. Dind. Fa. Low. fiovloivto 

var. lect. H. Steph. 

'*in a match against"; cf. the Latin 
certatim. — ^ikofiri., the mother of 
Patroclus was named Philomela; as, 
however, metronymics are not Homer's 
usage, and as the overthrow of Pa- 
troclus could not have caused joy to 
the Achseans , a son of some Philomeles 
or —leus , is meant. Eustathius says 
that he was king of Leshos, and chal- 
lenged all who sailed by to wrestle 
with him; Odys., accepting the chal- 
lenge, overthrew him. Lesbos was a 
dependency of Priam, see SI, 544, 
where Macar is named as its king, 
whether then or formerly is not clear. 

345 — 8. xoio^, see on cf. 265— 6. — 
dkXa is contrasted with xa (isv 349. 
jtaQk^ has the same force as if com- 
pounded with eiTtoifii, and developes 
the force of nuQav,Xi8ov (only read 
here and 9.139) more distinctly: "other 
things, digressing from and declining 
what you ask". 

350. Here begins the narrative of 
Menel., which may be viewed as com- 
plementary to that of Nestor concerning 
him , and fitting in between y. 302 and 
311. He tells how in pinch of famine 
through baffling winds he was taught 
by iiidothee to entrap Proteus of the 
Nile , who then told him all he wished 
to know — and more. This brings us 
to definite tidings of Odys. (555—60), 
as detained in Calypso's island with 
no present prospect of escape, and 

justifies so far the whole episode, as 
also the errand of Telem. at Sparta. 
The whole passage stands unmatched, 
even in H., for vigour of delineation, 
novelty of adventure, and the happy 
play of light and shade; the archness 
of Eidothe^ and the grotesque humour 
of the capture of Proteus relieving the 
forlorn aspect of Menel., and the dis- 
mal tragedy of his brother's death. 

351. AlyvTiTip seems here to mean 
the river. - — en enforces dsvQO^ as 
seen in 736 inf, ^xi 9. movGijj other- 
wise it might seem rather to go with 

353, this v. has been suspected as 
spurious, but see App. E. 8 (3) note **, 
cf. -^schyl. SuppL 205 — 6 Dind. (ts- 
fiv^a&ai eiO'BV ytsdvag itpsxiidg; 
wh. suggests that this line was in the 
Homeric text as known to -ffischyl.; 
also Pind. Pyth. II. 21 &sav S' itps- 
xfiaig. — ijtsl ov should be read in 

355. ^ttQOVf of the fact of its 
having once been an island there 
seems no doubt; the question is whe- 
ther the interval of a day's sail be 
not too large. Herod. (II. 179) says 
that of old the lower portion of Egypt 
was all sea, and was added to the 
land by the deposit of the Nile. This 
leaves open the question of distance, 
which need not be taken as that of the 
shortest line from Pharos to the coast. 


OATSSEIAS A. 356-368. 


roiSCov avevd"^ o66ov t€ xavfi^SQirj^ ykccq)VQrj^ vrivg 
^vvCBv^^ ^ Xiyvg^ ovQog iniTtvBCriCiv^ 07tt6d'6V' 
iv^ 81 kiiii^v evoQ^og^ od'Ev r* died v^ag it6ag 
^g Ttdvtov fidkkov6iv^ &(pv66d^svoL yiikttv^ vScdq. 

60 Svd'cc^ ft' ieUoCiv ^'ftar' ixov ^boI^ ovSi jcot* ovqoi 
TtvBCovxBg fpalvovQ^ dkvaiBg^^ 0% ^d ts vri^v 
no^nilBg^ ylyvovtai iic* B^Qda^ viSra d'aldffffrjg. 
xa^'" vv XBV iJLa " Tcdvta xariq)d'Lto xal ^bvb^ ° dvSQcov, 
«^i» fifj rig fiB d'BtSv 6lo(pvQato xai fi' iddoHBv^ 

65 IlQCDtBog l(p9'i(iov 9'vydtr^Q, aUoto^ ydQovtog, 
ElSod'drj' xy ydg ^a (AdliHtd yB d'Vfiov^ oQtva, 

71 ft* 0t(p fQQOVtV aVVfjVTBtO v66(piV ItttlQCDV , 

aiBl yaQ tcbqI vrj6ov^ dkci^Bvov lxd'vda6K0v^ 

a X. 11. 

b y. 287, d. 513. 

c 0). 71. 

d y. 176. 

e t. 139, E. 608. 

f I. 136. 

g- C. 1)1, v. 409, cf. 

V. 158, J7. 3-4. 
h cf. d. 585-8. 
i cf. 1.285, <Ji.386. 
k y. 325, 376, r. 71, 

v. 364. 
1 y. 142. 

m^.320,cf. 1.163. 
n k. 289 mar. 
J. 447, ®. 61. 
p X. 157, cf. •. 336, 

(. 142. 
(I d. 349 mar. 
r 6>. 178, ^ 361, 

V. 9. 
8 /u. 333. 
t u. 330-2; cf.i/. 

95, 251—4, 12. 


358. ifiaag, 360. ij^siaoaiv, 366. ^siSo^irj, 367. J^iggovzi, 

356. avBvQ'iv oaov Schol. H. sed avBvd'* in text. 350. et dcpvaaofiBvoi Scholl. 

E. P. 363. pro fiivs' fiivog Kek. annot. 364. eXirjasv var. lect. H. Steph, 

366. EvQVvofiri Zenod.i Scholl. E. H. Q. 367. avvi]vtB8 Bek. annot. 

It would suffice to consider it measured 
from the nearest port or frequented 
point, e» g. to Naucratis on the eastern 
side of the western and most ancient 
mouth of the Nile; and, according to 
Aristotle, **then the emporium (Schol.) 
of Egypt**. Or the terminus a quo for 
the day^s sail might reckon from the 
station for ships, which, from Sip 9* slg 
Alyvnxoio x. r. X, 581 inf. (cf. J. 258), 
seems to have been within and perhaps 
some way up the river. Lowe cites 
Lucan. Phars, X. 509 foil, clausirum pe- 
lagi cepit Pharon^ insula quondam in 
medio sietit ilia mariy sub tempore vatis 
Proteos: at nunc est PeUacis proijcima 
muris. The Schol. has preserved a 
story that Pharos was named from the 
pilot who brought Helen thither and 
then perished by a serpent^s bite. 
Herod. (II. iii), who makBs Proteus 
a king of Egypt, gives ^sgmg as his 
immediate predecessor. This is very 
suggestive of "Pharaoh" as in con- 
nexion with ^dgog. The clause 4>a- 
Qov . . . ni'^X'^aiiovaiv bespeaks the 
foreign origin of the tale, being 
such a plirase as a Phosnician voyager 
might use in recounting it to a Greek. 
xixkiiax* is used of an appellation 
given by foreigners, by men in con- 
trast with gods, or with some such 

special significance; but also of sum- 
moning, invoking, etc.* 

357~"9' 71VV0BV, this aor., for which 
the future might be substituted, de- 
notes an "habitual act regarded ns 
single, separate, and of repeated but 
distinct occurrence". Donalds. Gr, Gr, 
§ 427 {hh). — d<fV0C. fi. v6iOQy this 
verb is constantly used of drawing or 
pouring oflf wine from the X917T17P into 
the drinking cups, here of ships water- 
ing from a spring or pool. 

361—3. dXiaiBq, not denoting 
direction to or from the sea, t. e, off 
or on shore, but "blowing along the 
sea's surface", as explained by the 
sequel o? $d xB vrj&v. For this ex- 
pension of a word bjr the sequel see 
notes on cc. i, noXvTgonovt cc. 199, 
natgoipovijci f also cf. y. 382—3 and 
note. — vv has somewhat of "an 
ironical bitterness" (Jelf Gr, Gr, § 732), 
cf. a. 347, p, 320, A. 416. 

364—5. el followed by fAfj is in H. 
far more frequent with optat. than 
with indie, and with the subjunct. is 
not found. — IIq(ot», see App. C. 7. 
In 2, 43 npooTOO is the name of one 
of Thetis' nymphs; cf. Hes. Theog, 243, 
248. For Eidothee see App. C. 7. 

368. Ix^'vdaC, this resource marks 
the approach of famine. Agricultural 


0AT22EIA2 A. 369-379. 

[day VI. 

a cf. E. 796. 
b C- 50, X. 400. 
c I. '213, V. 237. 
d o. 405. 
e T.530; cf.Jt.SlO, 

t//. 13. 
f Z. 52.1, K. 121. 
g- J. 194 mar. 
h cf. a. 50, 55, d, 

i //. 30-1 , I. 48, 

418, N. 20. 
k cf. (>. 481 , 538, 

ci seepius. 
1 e. 445, C- H9. 
m d. 372-3. 
n *. 108, i?. 570. 
o a. 67 mar. 
[> d. 468-70, V. 

74—6, 1.119, B. 

485; cf. «. 2!»6, 

fi. 374, 2^. 521. 

rj^ Se (isv ay%L 0xa6a Ijtog (pdro qxavri^iv rs 3;c 

'vrJTtiog^ sig, cJ l^stva, Ili]v^ roaov i^8e ^cdtigppoi// 
T^h 6X(6v^ ^sd'isig xccl riQJtscct^ aXyscc ndaxcov, 
(Dg^ drj di/^' ivl v7J(Sp iQvxsat^ ov8e xi rixfiOQ^ 
BVQi^evai dvva^aij fiLvvd'SL Sd rot iqroQ^ BxaiQiDv.^ 

Sg i(pax\ avxccQ syci (alv dfiSLpd^evog ngogeeiTCov 375 
'i)c i^iv xov igdfxi, ^ xig^ 6v nig iaat d'sdcDv^ 
(6g iyci ov xi axdv'^ xaT€Qvxo[iaiy aXXd vv fieXXa • 
dd'avdxovg^ dXixs6d'aij° o?p ovquvov svqvv s%ov0lv, 
dkXd^ av TciQ iLOi elni (psol Si xs Jtdvxa tiSaOiv) 

370. ^inog, 372. /fxcov. 

375. TiQoaifsinov. 
379. fetns J^ieaaiv. 

376. J^sgioo. 377. J^BTitov. 

369. yafintois ibid. 370. rj di f*oi dvtoiiivrj Zenod., Scholl. E. H. 372. (is- 

&£sL9 Harl. Ambros. E. Scholl. E. P. Q. Wolf., ita Schol. ad Plat. Alcibiad. I. 

74 (teste Pors.), fisd'£rig Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 374. rot Mo&'sv ijrop Schol. E. 

379. Zenod. perperam isi>nh, Schol. H. 

or pastoral pursuits (the sgya of men 
§, 22 note), furnished man's ordinary 
food. Fishings although well known, 
was an exceptional pursuit. It was 
practised by the net (E.487), and by the 
angle with a hook of copper (27. 407 - 8) 
or of buffalo. horn, weighted with lead 
(fi. 251 — 4, SI. 80 — 2). It furnishes a 
simile {%, 384 — 8), and among the 
sources of wealth in a rich country it 
is mentioned O'dlaacoc dl nagsxsi 
l%&vg (t. 113). In Hes. Scut. 214 — 5 
the fisherman and his action are 
described with some minuteness. ' dXi,- 
svg in the Ody. means a fisherman, but 
also a seafaring man generally {n. 349, 
09. 419). Commercial or marauding 
enterprise offered richer prizes to those 
who could command a vessel , and fish- 
ing was doubtless left to the poor and 
the unenterprising, t. e. was despised. 
Virg. {Geor. I. 141 — 2) speaks of fish- 
ing as an art wh. came in as the 
golden age went out. 

360. ereiQe, *'was beginning to af- 
flict". By thus pressing the imperf. 
sense we may reconcile this line with 
363 sup. 

372. fieS'leiq, "in the 2"'* and 3^** 
sing, (pres.) collateral forms according 
to the conjugation in to are in ti^rjfiL 
not unusual even in the Attic dialect" 

Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 319 I. (3); such 
occur in H. in the verb rijftt, as in 
ngotsi B. 752, dviug (Bek. -rig) E. 880 
and the imper. tBi ^. 338, see also mar. 
Here the ms. authority seems in favour 
of fis&£stg not -rjg, and this is confirmed 
by the Schol. 

373. zixfKOQ, the notion of finality 
pervades this word. In A. 526 Zeus 
promises to nod, that being his ftfyt- 
6tov tSTifioag, *' supreme or decisive 
token". There it procures the deliver- 
ance from doubt, here from difficulty: 
so in n. 472 it signifies remedy or 
riddance. The verb zsiifiaigoficcL si- 
milarly involves the notion of final 
appointment, but not necessarily by 
divine authority (ij. 317, x. 563); see 
Buttm. Lexil. 98. 

379. S'eol 6i re x. t. X., H. asserts 
a theoretic omnipotence {8, 237, x. 306, 
$. 444), as here an omniscience, for his 
deities , but of course both break down 
in practice through the anthropomor- 
phic limitations inseparable from such 
conceptions. Thus Zeus himself is 
beguiled by Here (,^. 352 foil., cf. £. 
168, 184, T. 112); see Nagelsbach I. 
§ 5 — 7. Hence Proteus knows nothing 
of the assault meditated upon him, 
and suspects not the device of the 
seal -skins (451 — 3 inf,), Homeric 


OATSSEIAS A. 380—393. 


380 Ss tig 11' d^avdtfDv iCBSdct xal idrj6€*^ xelavd'ov^ 
voatov^ d'\ cig inl 7t6vxov iX6ViJo[iaL l%%^v6svtaJ^ 

&g^ ifpdiirjVy ij S' avzhC d^aifiato Sta d'sdoDV, 
^fOiyuQ^ iyd rot l^atve fidX' dtQ€XB(og dyoQev0<o. 
nalatrai^ tig Ssvqo y^Qcov^ aXiog vrj^egti^g^ 

385 dd'dvutog nQCDteig Alyvittiog^ og te^ %'ai,d66rig 
nd^fjg fiivd'ca olSsy IIo6€iSdfDVog V7toS[icig. 
roi/dfi^ r' ifidv fpa6LV itatiqi* i(i(i6vaL i^dh texdnd'aL. 
rdi/ y* et Ttcog 6v Svvaio Xoxtl^dfievog lBla^i6%'aVy 
og^ xiv rot alxy6Lv 6S6v xccl fiitQa xe^evd'ov 

390 v66tov^ d'\ <og iTcl novtov iksii^aav Ix^voavta' 
xal Si xi rot stxy^ty /^LOtqe^lg^ at x' id'6ly6d'ay 
orrt"^ rot iv iiBydQOi0v x{);xdi/ r' dyad'ov t€ titvxtai 
ol%0(kivoto 6i%'sv SoXixfiv 6Sdv^ dQyaXiviv ta? 

b d. 390, 424. x. 

540; cf. a. 77. 
c (T. 516, f. 420, \f). 

d K. 487, 503, /*. 

e a. 179, 214, t 

192, 0. 266, 352, 

n, 113. 
f cf. /9. 55 mar. 
g d. 340 mar. 
h a. 52-3. 
i cf. o. 215-6. 
k K. 539-40, cr. 

a. 286, <l^ 198. 
I d. 381 mar. 
m cf. V. 306. 
n d. 483, q, 426. 

386. S^oiBb, 389. JrBCitinaiv, 391. J^BCnTiai, 

380. xsAfiv^ovff Harl. %4lsv9'ov Bek. annot. 383 et 399. ayopfvffoo Harl. 

Wolf. x«T«Xi|<» Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 387. natiQa (paa' Sohol. P. (Buttm.). 

388. XeXccd'ia9'€ct Bek. annot. 

deities e^joy a rauge of knowledge , as 
of power, irregularly transcending 
human, and the poet extends, abridges, 
and economizes either at will, to suit 
the interest of the poem. Thus Menel. 
after outwitting Proteus, still addresses 
him as widely knowing, or even as 
all -knowing (465—8). Poseidon knows 
not what takes place even on his own 
element, until he comes within sight 
of it (£. 286). Apollo only knows be- 
cause he ** keeps a good look-out** {ovd* 
akuo6%onCtiv bI%bv K, 515), but even 
then he knows less soon than concerns 
the interest of those whom he befriends. 
Cf. also is;, 286 foil. Thus the ndvta 9v' 
vnvxai or ifsaci sinks into a hyperbole, 
drawn forth perhaps by the lowering 
sense of human weakness. The Muses 
are said to **be pr^esent and know all 
things", but this is their function, as 
instructing the bard, and this very 
condition carries its own limitation 
with it; and, manifestly, /breknowledge 
formed no part of the gift. This indeed, 
seldom enters into the poet*s concep- 
tion, save as through the medium of 
vaticination {A, 69 — 72): when it does, 
it is chiefly* in express reference to 
alca or (ioCQa (v, 306, T. 407 — 10, e, 
206 — 7), as indeed is Proteus* state- 

UOM. OD. I. 

ment, so far as regards the future 
(m/l 475, cf. 561). The Sirens also, 
profess to know all things that come 
to pass on earth {ft,. 189—91), but the 
poet may have meant their words to 
be untrue. 

384. devQO, with 7€€o2,eiTais a verb 
of motion to and fro involves the no- 
tion of frequenting the spot, not merely 
coming to it. 

388—9. elLXiog x. t. A,., the apodosis 
is og %iv TOt x. t, l. where og t=i avxog. 
For the subjunct. in apodos. with optat. 

in protas. cf. A, 386— 7 , el filv dij 

9r€ipi2'9'e^Y7ff, ovx Sv voi %Q0LCaibri6i, 
fiiog, and see some remarks inApp. A.9. 
(19). With /litQa xeXevO'pv cf. Hes. 
Opp, 648, dsi^m ^97 TOi fiitga noXv- 
(pXoicpOLO d'ocXdaarjg, and Herod. I. 47, 
olSa 9* iym .... (lixga d'aXdacrig, 
Here the words odoy xal ftitga nsX, 
seem to promise a detail regarding 
Menelaus* homeward voyage, which the 
sequel does not verify. 

392. The line was often cited by So- 
crates but with a new application, as 
meaning the knowledge best worth 
knowing, good and evil morally, in rela- 
tion to oue*8 self. (Aul. Gell. XIV. vi.) 

393. ocfov with ol%ofkivoio is an 
accus. of the equivalent notion, similar 



0AT2SEIAS A. 394—404. 

[day VI. 

a X. 274—5. 
b cf. V. 312. 
c d. 3S2 mar. 
d d. 383 mar. 
e (y. 68, ir.777— 

f it. 312, 439-41, 

V. »5, /T. 433-4, 

fA'. 22&-8. 
g- Tj' 318. 
h d. 450. 
i d. 349 mar. 
k H. 64—5, *. 

126, 'P. 692. 
I a. 15 mar. 
m d. 448, 450, 0. 

n r. 207. 

cSg lg)ar\ avrocQ iyd (iiv dfiaLJi6[i6vog ytQoghmov 
'avTiq vvv (pQcc^sv 6v lo^ov ^eCoiO yigovtog^ 395 

liT^ Tccig ^€ jrpoltfcJv* 1}^ nQoSaslg dXirjtai' 
KQyakiog^ yuQ r' i6xl d'sdg /3(>otg5 AvSqI Safi'^vat.^* 

cSg^ iq)d^rjv^ rj tf' aiJr^'x' d^sipero Sta d'sdan/' 
'roLyaQ^ iyd rot, g^ri/e, (idV drgsxioog dyoQevtSca. 
^'^^og^ d' i^shog ^£0ov ovQavbv dfiq)Lfisfi7JX7j , 400 

v^fLog^ aqi* ii, dXog^ eloi ysQG}v^ Shog vri^SQti^g 
nvoifl V7C0 Z€g)VQOiOy (AslaLvrj q>QLxl^ xalvq)d'6lgy 
ix d" ikd'fov xoc^drav vtco 67t€66c^ yXaq>VQot0vv 
d(Aq)l Si (Atv q)SxaL°^ vinoSsg xalijg dloavSvrjg^ 

394. ngoasJ^eiTcov. 396. ngo^iS^v. 

399. iyoiv igioi av 9* ivl q)(fsal pdXkso 6rjai.v Yenet. P. et ex Romand Eust. 
ed. Stephan., nostram tuentor Flor. Lov. (Barnes.). 400. dfi(pipBpi]%ij Bek. 

Dlnd. Fa., ftfi^t^e^ijxft Eastath. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Wolf. Low., etiam afiq> 

p-qustv prodit Schol. H. 

to that of the object cognate with the 
verb; see Donalds. Gr, 6V. 466. So Vir- 
gil has currimus cequor^ JEn. III. 191, cf. 
V. 235. ^ 

400. ilfiog 6 y the absence of any 
logical ground for the presence of d'h 
here led Ni. to suppose that d' was 
^1). He probably means that it forms 
a crasis 6riiXioq , or rather a synizesis 
drj rjiXiog. This would gain some sup- 
port from II. 399, 0. 477, Sri ^Pdofiov 
and other instances collected by Bek. 
(Homer. Bldlt. p. 173) who also reads 
/U'l] Sri ovxtog in A. 131 , £. 218. But 
this presumption is of no value against 
the undeviatin^ custom that i^^oq is 
followed by dF, not, as some have 
supposed, coalescing in sense with it, 
as in xoiogBs Toaoads, but as a con- 
junction having a definite grammatical 
function, as in t. 558—61, A. 475—- 8, 
H. 433, 0. 68, 5^. 226. It is probably 
the same here as dl resumptive of 
r. 200, 229, where Helen's reply to 
Priam's successive questions, "who is 
this and that warrior", commences 
with ovtog 9'; see Jelf, Gr. Gr, § 768, 
4. Yet it should be remarked that 
Homer's style rather overflows with 
conjunctions, and that he feels him- 
self at liberty to connect a clause by 
Si , whether there is or is not anything 
in the subject matter or form of the 
sentence to require it; cf. E. 890 
^X^iGtog di iLoClaai^ 635, ipsvdoiisvoi 
Si as (pa6i, phrases preceded by an 

imperative mood or a question. Pro- 
bably this abundance of conjunctions 
is a trace of the recitative style , they 
forming links to the recitation whether 
there were anything in the matter 
recited to require a conjunction or not. 
The Schol. indicates a var, led, dfitpi' 
Ps^TJuBiv (see Dindorf s note thereon), 
but prefers €[fiq>iPs6misi. Granting 
even that, as dfi^ipipTjuag is said to 
be used with a present force in A. 37, 
so here the pluperf. could in sense be 
imperf. or simply past, still to say "when 
the sun was going" or "went round", 
would not suit the sequel eta\ which 
requires "shall have gone round". 
We may comp. 27. 54, onnote d^ xov 
6fi>o£ov dvrJQ id'HrjCiv dnigaoei .... o re 
%QdTe'i nQopspTjTtjj, where also ngo- 
^c^Tjxs^ is wrongly read (Bek. Homer, 
Bldtt. p. 67). Virg. Georg. IV. 401 
imitating this , has medios quum sol ac- 
cenderit cesluSy and 426, ccelo et medium 
sol igneus orbem Hauserat. 

402 — ^4. See App. C. 7 for Ttvoin, 
€p(fixls and €pwxai* The "Zephyr^' 
might seem , on comparing 360 — i , to 
be the foul wind which had detained 
Menel. so long, but it is rather men- 
tioned as a fact attending the time of 
Proteus' emerging, i. e, noon. — v€- 
7to6eg. Curtius (I. 232) takes this as 
from vsn- related to ocvitpiog nepo(t)s, 
neptiSy nephew^ and meaning "brood"; 
so Eustath. gives anoyovoi as one 
interpretation. Curt, cites Theocr. 


OATSSEIAS A. 405-417. 


405 dd'Qoat BvSoviSLVy nokirjg akog^ i^avccSv6acy^ 

mxgdv aiconvsCovfSai^ iX6g noXvfisv^kog^ oS^tjv.^ 
ivd'a <y' iy(ov Ayayw^a afi* i}of^ qxxtvoiiivritpiv 
S'dvdiJG}^ iistrjg' 6v d' ii) XQ(va6d'aL^ itaigovg 
TQBtgj o? rot TcaQct vrivalv iv66ilii0i6iv &qi(Sxol 

410 Tcdvxa Si roi igito dloipoiLa'^ roto^ yBQOVtog, 
qioixag^ liiv rot ngiStov ccQid'giTJiSei xccl ijt€t6iv'^ 
aixctQ im^v nd6ag 7C€(iytci66€raL '^di tdijtaLy^ 
X,il^€xai iv (iifSiSy6ij^ vofie'dg^ iSg jtcietsi ^tjXcdv. 
rov ^iv ixijv^ di) TtQwta xatevvijd'ivrcc^ fdi^eyd-f, 

41^ xccl ror' inaid'' i^tv lAekha} xagtog^ re /Jtiy r£, 
avd'i S* i%6LV (i6iia(Stcc xal i66v^6^6v^ xsq aXv^ac 
ndvta Sh yiyvdfisvog Ttetgij^sraL ^ 066* inl yatav 

a fi. 2G1 mar. 

b «. 438, A. 369, 

c Z. 182. 
d A. 432. 
e Z. 415, i. 442, 

f C. 31. V. 222, fi. 

24, I 266. '^ 
g 6. 440 
h d. 530, 666, ». 

HK, (u. lOS. 
i d. 460, K. 2S9, p. 

24S. ^ 

k i2. 577. 
1 J' 404 mar. 
m \J>. 359. 
n V. 21.S. 
o •. 4s7. 
p O. 632. 
q y. 183, 

ir>9 mar. 
r i: 448. 
s C. 197. 
t X. 484, f 33; cf. 

a. 309. SIS. 

cf. J. 

410. J^sgim, 412. /idiyrat. 414. J^tdrjad's, 

413. fi,ia60i.<n £rn. CI. fi^ioa^ai Wolf. ed. Ox. 415. Israir' vfi/Liiy Ambros. 

Era. CI. IWec^' Vj^ry Harl. Wolf. ed. Ox., mox I'pyot^ te I'ttoc te Heidelb. Vind. 

pro nccQtog td §£71 tSy quod maviilt ntriiisque Schol. 

XVII. 35, dd'dvcetoi dl x«XewTat lol 
vinodsg. He also (II. 220) views 
-avdvrj in aA.otfvdyi7ff as = Indo-ger- 
manic su-n^jdt ana connects it with 
the fem. of a masc. which in Sanscrit 
corresponds with the German Sohn 
(son). Thus "daughter of the sea]* 
(applied thus also to Thetis , cf . d'vyd' 
xrjif dXioio yigovxog) is the sense. Pro- 
bably -ovSvti might also be akin to vSodq 
{sudor), a^ in sylva vlrj, etc. Cf. Virg. 
Georg, IV. 394 Immania ct^us Armenta 
et turpes pascit sub gurgiie phocas, 

405. xoX» iXdq, see on p, 261. 

406—8. Obs. the rare usage of ;ri- 
se^ov as an adj. of 2 terminations, in 
contrast with aXftnv m%Q7Jv B. 322—3. 
See inf, on 442 , iXomtccxog . odjLiif. — 
evvdcco, see on 440 inf, 
^ 410. 6Xoq>€MMs "elvish tricks", cf. 
oloq>aia ^rjvsa K£^%rjgy and Melanthius 
toEumseus, 0X090110; sidmg (mar.); see 
App. A. 3. 

411. iBxeiaiv, "will go over'* as 
items in a totals an easy transition 
from the notion of traversing a surface 
cf. infpx^'fo i^f' 451 <^nd mar. there. 

412^6. xefiTtdaoetai , this m|ay be 
subjunct. shortened epice, but need 
not, see App. A. 9, 4 (end^ and 5: cf. 
^Bch.Eumen, 748, nsfj^na^sx' 6Qd'mg 
infioXdg '^ifqpcoy, and Pers. 981 , fjkvgia 
n$p,naaxav, "reckoning by tens of 

thousands", he. the host of Xerxes (He- 
rod. VII. 60); also the Heb. t3"^tiwn 
Exod. XIII. 18 in "ranks of five (or 
fiftyV* where the A. V. has "harnes- 
sed ; also the Roman numeral V, which 
was probably originally the hiero- 
glyphic for the hand with its fingers 
spread. It suits here the simple humour 
of the passage to keep the primitive 
sense of "counting on the fingers". 
xa^TO^ re /5. re may have suggested 
to iBschylus his names of the mini- 
stering fiends who bind Prometheus; 
Prom, V, I, — iaovfievov, often used' 
as if = fieftacoTa, here bears its primi- 
tive sense of "set in motion, struggl- 
ing", shown also in iV. 143, the simile 
of the stone, which , after reaching the 
flat, ov xmvXMexttt ioavfiBvog neg, 

417. nsiQfiOevixi , t*. e. aAv£ai; this 
gives greater force to the 9h: render 
"and (to escape) he will endeavour", 
not by joining ««ipi}flr. with yiyv6fJi,8vog, 
"will endeavour to become", which Ni. 
notes as generally a later participial 
idiom , not ,. however, without Homeric 
example, as with ciQXfo f^nd navofiaiy 
cf. p. IS, B. 378, r. 447, N. 81S-6, 
X, 502, and see Jelf Gr. Gr, § 681, 
3, 4. Ni. therefore proposes a colon 
at aXv^cn. Hor. Sat. II. 3, 73 follows 
this, varying the images, in Fiet apery 



0AT2SEIA2 A. 418—427. 

[day VI. 

a 131,P.447. 
b M. 177, O. 597, 

r. 490, <I>. 342, 

3>»1, ^. 216. 
c B. 344, r. 219. 
d u. 196, 164, d. 

e cf. d.. 376. 
f d. 381 mar. 
r d. 670-6, f. 362, 

;i. 253. 
h ^. 229. 
i /. 3S, d. 438, e. 

546, u4. 486, I. 

385, O. 362. 
k X. 309, <i). 551. 
I ^.16; cf./?.428. 

vfistg d' d6t€iig)da}g'^ ixd^Bv [loillov re icUievv.^ 

dW or£ X6V St] 6' avtdg avsCffritaL iici£66iv^ 420 

xotog i(ov olov .x€ xarevvi^d'dvra tSfjad'Sy 

xal tore d^ 6xi6%'m xb fiirjg kv0a( re ydQOvrcc^ 

fJQCDg^ €LQ€0d'cci Sh ^ d'€cSv^ og rig 0e xaXiTtret^ 

vdtfroi/^ '9'', 6g iutl icovrov ilevaeaL Ixd'vosvra,' 

cSg^ slnovo' v%6 novrov iSvasro xvfiaivovta,^ 4^5 
avrdg sy(ov ijcl v^ag^ o^' B6xa0av iv '^a^d^oi6vv^^ 
ijia^^ Ttolld Ss fiOL XQaSCri 7c6Qq)VQe^ XLOvtL, 

420. J^snesaatv. 421. fldr^ad's. 425. J^smova'. 

419. nisisiv Apion, Schol. Q. 420. avzo's Arist., Schol. H., et ipse Harl. 

ex emend, rec. in texta, alii avxis* 42 r. pro tSfja&s Schol. M. a man. rec. 

i^drjai mavult. 426. iaraaav Em. CI. ed. Ox. sataaccv Wolf. 

modo avis, modo saxuniy et cum volet, 
arbor, Ovid Met, XI. 243 foil, ascribes 
similar transformations to Thetis, as 
a sea -goddess. 

The transformations of Protens have 
been viewed as allegorizing i. phy- 
sically, the various forms assumed by 
primary (Hpflor-) matter (Harris' Her- 
mes)^ or by the watery element as con- 
stituent of all things (Thales' theory), 

2. ethically, the dangers which beset the 
sea-faring man, wh. he meets and con- 
quers by enterprise and resoluteness, 
and wh. teach at last by experience, 
thus imparting knowledge not other- 
wise attainable. So Longfellow, 

"Wouldst thou", so the helmsman 
answered , 
"Learn the secret of the sea? 
Only those who brave its dangers 
Comprehend its mystery.". 
Ni. further notes that Plato applied 
the fable to express {Euikyd. 426) 
the wiles of the Sophists; Lucian {de 
Salt. 19) to the intricate changes of a 
dance; Himerins (Or, XXI. 9) to the 
artifices of rhetoric; Horace {Sat, II. 

3. 71) to a pettifogger — all involving 
the notion of versatility or evasive- 
ness. Prof. Conington on Virg. Georg, 
IV. 388 has other applications col- 
lected by Taubmann; who adds, "tot 
autem fere allegorias huic figmento 
induerunt, quot Proteus ipse formas." 
To the notion that Proteus was an al- 
legory of the versatility of matter was 
added that of Eidothe^ being an al- 

legory of form (fiWog). Ovid, Met. VIII. 
731 foil., to the transformations men- 
tioned here and 456 foil, adds those 
of a bull and of a stone. See App. C. 
7, and parts of 3. 

418—20. iQTterdy = t^ci Schol., as 
egnsLV inl yatay (mar.) includes all 
motion on the earth's surface. ^'eCxi' 
^akg, this epithet applied to fire in 
its own nature, without regard to its 
quantity or size, suggests a god as 
the first giver, and leads up to the 
legend of Prometheus* stealing it from 
heaven. d2,X* ore, see on a. 16. 
avtdq «= sponte or uliro, without be- 
ing first addressed. 

419. Tiiil^BiVs so Virg. Georg. IV. 
412, Tanto, naie, magis contende tena- 
cia vinclOf cf. also Silenus bound by 
Chromis and Mnasylos Bucol. VI. 19 

426. %pafidB^i0iv 9 plur. used col- 
lectively for "the beach". In one or 
two places, where the sing, once stood 
in this sense, the best edd. now prefer 
the plur., as -4. 486 j W. 853. We find 
also ipccficc^'og re Hovtg rs to express 
"the sand of the shore", and 'tftdfia- 
&0V ace. for "a heap of sand" (mar.). 

427. TiOQipvoey this word, in later 
authors transitive, is in H. neat, as 
applied to the sea rolling and heaving : 
here the metaphor is from the turbid 
state of the water when so moved. 
So Sophoc. Antig, 20 %aX%a£vovfs' inog, 
and Virg. iEn. VIII. 19, magno curarum 
fluctuat cBStu. Obs. v, but nogfpvQBog, 


OAT£SEIAS A. 428—442. 


adtaQ^ iTtSL ^' iitl v^a xccxTJlvd'Ov i^Sh d'dXa6aav^ 
ddQTtov^ d'* 67thiS(i(i€6^\ iTci t* ijlvd'sv dfifigoairi^ vv^' 

430^1) tor* xoL^fjdTifiev' iitl $riy(itvc^ d'aXcc66fig. 
^fios® S^ i^QcyivBia q)dvri ^oSoSdxtvXog 'H(og^ 
xal roxB Sij Ttagd d'tva d'akd66rig^ evQvndQOLO 
ijicc xoXld^ ^soifg yovvovfiBvog' a'dtdg itaigovg 
TQStg &yovj olfSv (idkiifta TCsnoiO'sa^ icudav iiC Id'tjv,^ 

435 r6(pQoc S* &Q* fjy* ijtoSviSa^ d'aldfS^fjg Byq>jfa^ xdknov 
xiiSiSccQcc q)(Oxdc:>v ix ndvtov SiQ^cct* ivBixsv 
(ndvxa 8* iiSav vfiddapra"), S6kov S* iTCBiirjSsto^ 

sivdg d' iv tffaiidd'OiiSL^ Siaykd'^aiS^ dkiytfiv 
iJ<yro iiivoviS*' '^(istg Sh (idka iSx^Sdv ijld'OiiBv ait'^g' 

440 il^Birig d' svvrjaB^^ fidXBv d' inl 8bq(icc ixdatp. 

ivd'cc XBV alv&tccxog k6xog inXBXO' xBtQB^ ydg alvcSg 
qxoxdmv &Xi0XQBq>i(av Hoiixaxog dS^fj' 

a (i. 407 mar. 

b I*. 292. 

c w. 283, X 267-8; 

cf. L 330, ^. 78. 
d d.449,576,e.l50, 

169, 547, 559, x. 

1S6, /u. e, 0. 499, 

A. 437, e. 501. 
e (T. 306. 
f fi. 2, O. 381. 
g X. 29, * 521, y. 

312, O. 660, X. 


h cf. ft. 98, 
77. 171. » 


i Z. 79, &. 377, 
ft. 304, <a>. 303. 

k «.481— 2, e.332, 
Xl46;cf. t.l27, 
V. 5», X. 398. 

1 S. 140, <t>. 125. 


n cf. X. 895. 

o d. 426 mar. 

p cf. d.lbS, C.381. 

q 77. 610, *. 61, 
366; cf. X. 78. 

440. J^sudava, 

429. doQnov itQ* Harl. ex oxnend. reo. 437^. vsoSsgta Harl. 438. diuylitpaif 
scriba Harl. scripserat Bed in diayvoifji.ipac' mutavit, quod ApoUonio So^histap 
Bek. trlbuit, ^laylv^pocs' Scholl. B. E., sed in text, utriusqae SiayXdipcca\ 
440. diQfiott' Harl. A41. Ivd'd %sv Bek. Dind. Fa. juxta Scholl. H. P. Q. 
collato G, 130, %BS:d'L 9/1 CI. ed. Ox. Low. quod Harl. Heidelb. Ambr. habent. 

A°d t* 53 iXtnoQtp'&Qa; bo noQtpvga in 
Attic Greek, as .£schyl. Agam* 957. 
433. 7€oXXd ^'eovq x. t. Z., so Ovid 

represents Peleus {Me(am» XI. 247—8) 
Inde deos pelagi .... adorat, yowoV' 
fjievoq, yovvovficti means "to entreat", 
often as a phrase of supplication^ yov- 
vovficci 6e (mar.), whereas yowaiofkctt 
is rather the actual taking by the knees, 
sometimes with yovvrnVf gen. of part 
seized, added — an energetic mode 
of supplication. 

434. iSi>v, in H. only found in ace, 
has motion for its primary notion. The 
vulgar English use of "go" as a noun 
may illustrate the lively image of force 
associated with motion, "for every go"; 
cf. P. 72c, f^vtfav d^ (rushed on) 
ifovsaaiv ioi%6tBg. Sometimes its sense 
is more general, as "purpose" (mar.). 
Like t9'fioc E, 778, it contains the root 
of el/Lfri ibo, as shown in td^i its impe- 

435. vxo6v0a, used, as here, with 
ace. to "plunge into'*, with gen. to 
"come forth of", and rarely with dat. 

of person, as n&oiv vni9v yoog "took 
possession of all" (mar). 

440—1. evvfjoes ivy ttaoi in 46S sup, 
is from evvd^o). Bvvdm is also used 
figuratively, with yoov or dvifiovg 
(mar.) to mean "lulled". zelQe, 
said also of fiery vapour or of sweat 
(mar.), oppressing and overpowering; 
perhaps our verb "tire" is akin to it. 

442. 6komxaxoq, here fem.; some 
comp. and superl. adjs. are of 2 ter- 
minations in other writers, as Hy. Cer. 
157, TrpcDTitfToy inmnriv, Thucyd.V. no 
dnoQtotSQog ^ Ifj'ipig (Jelf. Gr, Or. § 127, 
Obs, 3). In H. we have also ningbv 
.... dSfi'^v 406 sup., avQiov Strjv T. 88, 
xXvtbg with 'AiKpivglvrj and InnoSd- 
fUBta^ e. 422, B. 742, and 9'SQfi6g iiitfiii 
Hy. Merc, no. For the sentiment see 
App. C. 7. p. xLiii, and comp. Trin- 
culo's repugnance to Caliban as yield- 
ing "a very ancient and fish-like smell ; 
a kind of, not of the newest, Poor- 
John"; The Tempest., II. 2. Buffon 
(IVansL 1791) speaks of their offensive 
odour as characterizing seals. 


0ATS2E1AS A. 443—454. 

[day VI. 

a a. 67, o. 479. 
bo. 78, X. 433, 

c E, 777, X. 170, 

n. 670, 680, T. 

d cf. 17.119, J. 406. 
e d. 459, X. 181, ^. 

37, tfj. 100, 168. 
f CO. 47, 55—6, N. 

g e. 65, 119. 
h B. 773, d. 430 

i J. 726. 
k P. 356. 
1 t. 336. 

m 7t. 475, I. 453. 
n 17.346; cf.;f. 196. 

tig ydg x' elvuXCip^ nagct xiitsV xoLiiri^'sirii 
dkV avxYl i0(i(O0€^ xal itpgd^aro iisy* ovsi^ap'^ 
dfiPQO0ii]v^ vicb ^tva sxd0ta} d^xs g)BQOv0a 
ijffv fidla 7cvsiov0av^^ oXs00s 8h xtjrsog 68(iijv. 
jca0av d' i^oiriv fievofisv rsrXriorv^ d'y^ip' 
(pwxai d' i^ dkbg ^k%'ov^ dokXasg' at iihv licavta 
sifUg svvdtpvto^ jeagd^ ^yfitvc d'akd00i]g' 
Svdiog'^ 8' 6 ysQcav ijA^* i^ dlog^ svqs 8h qxoxag 
^atQStpsagj nd0ag S' &q^ sjccixsto,^ Xixto^ d' dQt&fiov. 
iv d' i^fieag jtQcitovg kkye xf}ts0LVf ovSi ti dufi^'^ 
diad"!]^ Sokov slvat- ijcsira 81 lixto^ xal avrdg. 
iqiiBtg 8h ld%ovTBg sn600v[i£d'\ dfiipl 8h XBtgag 



445. fenccatq}. 446. J^r}9v, 454. fnxxovrsg. 

449. fivvd^ovto Em. CI. ed. Ox. 
'ovto Wolf. A50. pro Miog Bek. annot. MLog Msiog.^ 454. ^fiBtg d' 
\ip^ (addito ahp ex emend.) Harl., ita Ern. CI. ed. Ox. ri^Lstg Si Wolf. 

4^3.^ H* Wolf. &v Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 

444 — 50. ovBiaQ, "dainty or solace". 
Hector is so called by his mother and 
wife in their fond laments for his death 
(mar.). dfi^QOOlfiv, Buttm. Lexil. 15 
(2) (4) regards this as a noun mean- 
ing "immortality", that quality which 
imparts and perpetuates vigour, a qua- 
lity partaken of by everything which 
belongs to the ffods and is around them : 
hence the adj. afbpQoaiog, This thought 
seems to have possessed Milton also in 
Parad. Reg. IV. 588 foil. 

A table of celestial food, divine, 
Ambrosial fruits fetched from the 

tree of Life, 
And from the fount of Life am- 
brosial drink. 

Such a substance, although not used 
as food, is here meant; not an un- 
guent, as when used by Her^ in order 
to captivate Zeus, and as when applied 
by Apollo to the dead body of Sarpe- 
don ixQvcsv X dfipgoaifj mar.) VirgiPs 
imitation suggests the image of a casket 
opened, diffusing odour, and its con- 
tents then applied by inunction to in- 
vigorate; see Georg. IV. 415 — 8 and 
Prof. Conington's note. But H. here 
speaks of a substance placed ino (ivu 
fmuatm, and, when applied thus to the 
part aggrieved, quelling the noisome 
odour of the seal -skin. And so far 
only as such fetor tends to kill, as 

oXooitatog perhaps suggests, does the 
immortal quality of the antidote come 
into view. This brings out fresh force 
in iadmOB. In the case of Patroclns' 
corpse Thetis instils ambrosia and 
nectar through the nostrils , d(ifiQoairiv 
mal vi'ntaQ ^vd'gov atd^e %atd (i- 
vmv tva ot XQ^S ^(ineSog stri (mar.). 
But there the notion is probably that 
the life giving principle, in order to 
counteract the effects of death, must 
be applied in the usual channel of 
life , the nostrils , through which passes 
that breath which is the life. 

447—50. rerXfiOTi -d*., "patiently". 
For doXXisg see on y. 165 ; for evdiog 
see App. A. 17 (2). 

451. ^;r^x^TO^ see on innotv 411 
sup, — XixTO, here and in 453 there 
is a play on this word in the senses 
of "he reckoned" and "he lay down"; 
see on y. 124 — 5. Xsys in 452 and 
iXiyfirjv (mar.) are said of reckoning 
the items ; but to express the total also 
we have here Xi%TO, Further in 453 
although lying down is the notion which 
predominates , yet there is a bye-sense 
of adding himself as the last item to 
the total, which much assists the hu- 
mour of the whole. 

4S3 — 4' ^^9 * ^^^' ^'\ ^^ avoid, 
probably, the hiatus, is d' aliff*: but 
cdxovxeg may have the / (cf. however. 




455 fici^^ofisv. oiiS* 6 yiQcav dokit^g^ inskij^sro rix'^ris^ 
aAA* ij iro6** nQcitL0ta kimv^ yivBt* f^iyyivsiog^ 
a'draQ Ijceita dQcixav xal jtaQdaXig^ iqSh iiiyag^ 0vg' 
yCyvBto d' vygbv v8(oq xal 86v8qbov^ vrl^metfjlov, 
i^fiBtg d' d0tBii(pi(os^ lxo[isv XBxlrioti^ dvfi^. 
460 dXl' fkB Sf} ^' dviai*' 6 yifftov, dlotpma^ BidtDS, 
xal t&tB 8ij fi* iniB<S0iv dvBiQOfiBvos^ nQoghiTCsv 

^xlg vv rot, ^AxQBog vCb^ %b(Sv 0vji(pQd66axo^^ fiovkccg, 
HipQa ft* Slotg dixovxa loxrjddiABVog^ ; xio^ 0b XQVl^ 
fSg^ ig>ax\ aixaQ iyci (iiv &[iBifi6(iBvog ^QogiBiicov 
465 ^o?<rd'Of,^ yBQOV xi lis xavxa naQaxQoniaav^ dyo- 




, 598, 

a d. 629. 
b y. 419. 
c 0. 275, P. 

S. 318. 
d N. 103, *. 573. 

t. 439. 

f ;i. 5»8, N. 437; 

cf. I. 186. 
fr d. 419, r. 

B. 344. 
h d. 447 mar. 
i «f. 721, cf. — , 

y..87, 2'. 300, 

Xf». 270. 
k d. 410 mar. 

1 d.6dl,e(,23tmar. 
m A. 537, 540, /. 

n d. 388, r. 2C8; 

cf. y. 53. 
a. 124, / .^77 
p d. 375. 
q^. 365. 
r I. 500, 'F. 39s, 


460. /eideoff. 461. J^insoaiv ngooiJ^smBv. 463. dj^inovtce, 464. ngotfi- 
fsmov. 465. J^oia&a, 

457. srap^ftXiff Eostath. Harl. marff. Em. Cl.^ed. Ox. Bek. Fa. srdpdaXis Ap- 
poilon. Harl. a pr. manu Wolf. Dind. 46I. dfiBiPofisvog Harl. ex emend, (sed 
in marg^. rorsus correxit) et Heidelb., sed Schol. et text, a pr. manu dveigo- 
li8vog» 46a. itpgdaaato Harl. ascripsit supra avfitpgdaaato, 465. igeeivBig 
Arist., Schol. P., Harl. Barnes. Ern. Gl. ed. Ox. dyoQBvsig Schol. H. Wolf. 

V, a 1 6) and the dh is then long by ar- 
sis. ineCCVfuH'* a"^ aor. The change 
of tense ^to imperf. in 455 [^dXXo' 
(iBv insX-q^sto) has no force. A very 
familiar instance of this interchange 
is in A, 3), 4 T , ipvrotg "MSi. n q ota ipBv 

vBGiSiv^ espy, as xbv^s is read in H., 
and here the time of both verbs is 
clearly the same. Still H. often pre- 
vents monotony by presenting some in« 
cidents as having incidence merely and 
others duration also, in the same nar- 
rative. With ov8* yigiov x. t. X, cf. 
Virg. Georg, IV. 440 Ille sum contra 
non immemor artis, 

4j7. xdQ6aXi^, Liddell and S. say, 
*^nogdaXi>g is in H. now everywhere 
found in the text**. Bek., however, 
prefers ndgdaXig, as in II. does Dind. 
also. Porson says (Postscr, ad varr, 
I. ecod.flarl, ad he), '^ApoUonius in 
Schol. supra ad y. 1 j6, ndgffaXig n dogu 
Httl nogdccXig to tmov^\ The Oxford 
reprint of Dindorfs ed. of the Scholl. 
gives nccgdaX'^ . . ndgdaXig as the read- 
ing of this Schol., ncegdaX^ being (not. 
ad ioc.) a correction of Cobet for 

ndgdaXig. This seems more likely to 
be the true reading of the Schol. 
Besides the orthography, the gender 
is very doubtful. In *. 573 foil., Hy. 
Fen* 71, it is found fem., but is classed 
with male animals, the Ximv and the ovg 
ndngog, in that Hy. and in P. 20 — 1. 
Prof. Conington from his note on Oeorg, 
IV. 408 fulvd cervice leeena, seems to 
take it as fem. But as H. does not 
seem to have felt any difficulty about 
sex in his metaphors or similes, neither 
need he in transformations; cf. Here 
to Artemis ^. 483 crs Xiovtu yvvui%l 
Zwg ^HruBVy and the comparison of 
Penelope to a lion in 791 m/"., where 
see note. Nor is there perhaps any 
propriety in retaining a tie of sex for 
Proteus whom form does not bind, and 
whose metamorphoses transcend all 
human and even animal limits. 

460. dvla1i\ for the use of this 
verb, neut., as here, and trans, see 

465. TeagaTQOxiaiv, not found else- 
where in H.,^ has (le for object.; cf. the 
use of nagdrgonog actively by Eurip. 


0AT22EIA2 A. 466—477. 

[day VI. 

a d, 373—4 mar. 
b d. 379—81 mar. 
e d 382, 464. 
d *F, 546, Z. 350, 

a. 764. 
e 9. 526, /. 357. 
f ij. 191, X. 130, £. 

553, %fj. 277, A. 

727, *'.195,2(J9. 
K a. 210, d. 579, 

t. 177. 
h ij. 151 , ^. 410, 

X. 416. 
i a. 183 mar., 11. 

k •.'41-2, 114-5, 

C. 314-5, 17. 76 

—7, ^. 410, e. 

I 2. 190, i2. 781; 

cf. X. 334—5, r. 

m^. 374, d. 180, 

J 488. 
n J. 581, w. 284, 

n. 174, p. 263, 

*. 268, 326. 

svQdfievaL dvvaiiat^ fiivvd'si di ^01 ivdod'sv ^tog. 
dkkot^ 0v 7CSQ yboi Blnl {%'6ol 6i te jcdvra C0a0Lv) 
og tig f*' ad'avdtcav nsdaa xal idrjffs xeXsvd'oVj 
v60tov d'\ ag iicl novtov iksv0ofiaL Ix^vosvta,^ 470 

wg^ i(pdfifiv^ o di ft' avtix^ aiiBi^fidiievog TtQogasiTtsv 
'dkkd iidV Sq)ellsg^ dU r akkov0Cv re d'€ot0cv^ 
Qsl^ag^ CbqA xdV dv&paiviiisv,^ otpQu xdxi0xa 
0^v ig TtaxQCS*^ ixoio nkmv inl otvoTca^ novtov. 
ov^ yaQ tov ngiv^ [lotQa (pCkovg r Idistv xal txie^ai 4^^ 
olxov ig vtlf6Qog)Ov xal 0i^v ig icatglda yatav, 
TtQiv^ y or' av AlyvTtxoio SujtBtiog^ notaiioto 

468. femh fCaaeiv, 

471. ngoasfsmsv, 474. foivona, 475. fiSisiv 
omisso T*. 476. fotvLov. 

468. isiitB Schol. H. cf. ad 379. 469. %bXbv^ov Harl. sed erasp g ad fin. 

tanquam y,BXBv^ovq fuisset. 471. avziq Em. CI. ed. Ox. avtU* Wolf. 

477. diBLnszioq Zenod., Scholl. £. H. Q. 

Androm. 528, and passively by Find. 
P, II. 65. We find naQatgitlfag of turn- 
ing a chariot ixtog odov , also in later 
writers of perverting, falsifying, and 
nagatQCtmaoi of turning away anger 
(mar.). Ni., thinking that naguxQ, is 
more correctly intrans., as, he says, 
nsQLtgonim is always, defends Ari- 
starchus* reading igss^vs^g for dyogsv- 
sig, making (le its obj. But in Hy. 
Merc. 542, nsgitgoTtimv . . . tpvl* uv^gm- 
noavy where Schneider would read na- 
gatg,, it seems trans., so certainly is 
tgonim in 2, 224, and nagatgamda 
in I. 500. ^ 

466 — 9. atq, connects the clause 
with ola^a (Low.). — ^ rixfiOMQ, see 
on 374. — kofiOe = dnigvns, as we 
say "weather-bound". 

472-— 3. dJiXd is adversative of some 
statement omitted in the vehemence of 
the reply, such as, **yes, the gods 
detain you, for you have neglected 
them; but you surely ought etc." 
SyeXXeg, see on y. 367. — dvafiai^ 
V€f€€V, see on a. 210. 

475—7. For TtQlv • • • • XqIv with 
optat. following see mar. at 475 : for 
Ttgiv y' ots with av and subjunct., also 
with indie, and optat., see mar. at 477. 

Bek. {Homer, Bldtt, p. 89, 8) notes that 
nowhere in H. is nglv followed simply 
by indie, ifuxcrioq is epith. also of 
the Sperchelis, of the Bcamander, and of 
"a river" indefinitely in a simile (mar.) : 
so Hes. Fragm. ccxii. In *. 195 — 7 
all rivers, as well as the d'dXaaoa, the 
fountains and the wells, spring (trceovffty) 
from Oceanus. In T. 7, 8 all rivers, 
except Oceanus, attend as deities the 
great Assembly of Olympus, and the 
nymphs come next. The statement in 
$. is that of a supposed physical fact 
— one great cosmical water-system. 
Still, the dependence of rivers on 
precipitation , and their sympathy with 
drought or heavy rain must have been 
instantly observed. Hence their epi- 
thet 9unet7igj and their mythological 
relation to Zeus and Olympus, sothe- 
times more closely expressed, as in 
the case of the Xaathus {S. 434) by 
affiliation: in which, however, Zeus' 
own seat Ida, being the local source, 
helps out the relationship. The Ocean 
river was conceived as external to 
both yaCa and ovgavog, and hence is 
independent (2?. 607 — 8, cf. 483) and 
keeps aloof from Zeus. In Hjr. 
Ven, 4 dunwug epith. of olmvovg 


OAT££EIA£ A. 478—488. 


avrtg vdtOQ ilO'jjg^ ^i^VS^ ^' taQcig ixaroiAfiag 
dd'avdtot0L^ d-soMi tol oiigavdv 6'dQvv ixovasiv 

|.8o xal rots vol 6ci6ov6tv 686v d-eol '^v^ 0v iiBvocvoig,^ 

(Sg Sq)ax\ avtctQ iiioi ys xatsxXd09i] (plkov f^tOQ^^ 
ovvcxd (I* ccvng Svcoysv iiC i^eQOBcdia novtov^ 
u4tyvnt6vS* Uvai^ SoXix^v 68dv ciQyaliijv tb, 
dlld xal Sg [itv l7C€60iv AfisiPofisvog jtQoghcTtov 

4.85 ^tccvta^ iihv ovrcD *i} rsUo^ yipov^ dg^ <ri) xelsvsig' 
AlV^ &y€ iioi toSs siich xal dtQexicog xatdks^ov^ 
cl Ttdvtsg 6vv vrjvalv anijiiovsg^ vjkd'ov *Axaiol^ 
oi}g^ Ni6tmQ xal iy(o UnoiLBv^ Tgoiti^eV^ iovteg^ 

A y. 144. 

b a. 67 mar. 

c /?. 285. 

a d, 538, c. 256, X. 

198, 496, 566, fi, 


/9. 263 mar. 

r ;i.80, ff. 20, 180. 
g&. 347, 402; of. 

X. 443, X. 507. 
h a. 169 mar. 
i N. 744. 
k cf. y. 168-9. 

1 cf. /. 119. 
m y. 276. 

48a. 'qSQoJ^si9ioc, 484. J^insaatv Sg J^s, ngoaSJ^Binov. 486. J^smi. 
484. cig fiv&oiaiv Harl. Schol. M. 486. dyoQSvaov Harl. ascripsit supra 

involves the notion of nito(ieiij as 
"flying". The word occurs as epith. 
of the image of "Afftsfiig, which was 
perhaps an aSrolith, in Acts XIX. 35. 

479. ^eoZOif these are not the 
Egyptian local deities, hut those of 
Homer^s own mythology, who recog- 
nizes none hut his own theistic sy- 

^^483—4. <i<fw,^see on 393. — fiiv 
SiteCCiVy here fiv^-oiaiv is a var. lect. 
On reviewing the passages in the Ody. 
where dfisifi, stands with inBaai and 
fivd'oiai, respectively, the former far 
preponderate; and even if we add to 
the latter those in which avsigdiisvogj 
or some such participle, has fiv&oiot, 
suhjoined, and those in which the 
phrase dfisipsto (iv^m occurs, the 
majority remains as hefore. Ohs. 
(ivhoi plur. specially means *^ narra- 
tive" or ** tales", as inf, 597, fiv^oi^ 
Giv ineaai re, *^ tales and talk" (cf. 
X. 379), hut also a speech or conversa- 
tion generally; see vj, 47, 7a, 157, 233, 
L 511, y. 398, p. 488. The verh [iv- 
d-iofjkai means iu Ody. either *^to tell 
a tale", or ^*to declare as with author- 
ity, oracularly", etc. At a, 134 mar.; 
d. 829 mar. the chief passages are col- 
lected. In tp, 193 occurs inog tl xc 
fivdi^6a£firiVi **I could a tale unfold". 

487. el 9 Bek. reads iq, thinking 
(Bomer, BldtL pp. 50-61) (i) that H 
and ^ are only dialectic varieties of 

the same original word, and assuming 
(a) that ^ was the original, and there- 
fbre the Homeric form, and further 
(3) that words so differing should not 
he found in the same poem — all three 
questionahle doctrines. For ^* dialectic 
varieties " ** phonic modifications " 
seems preferahle, t. e. slight changes 
in the sound to express a recognition 
of the difference between two forms 
of thought so closely cognate, as the 
simple hypothetical and the disjunctive. 
(a) and (3) seem unfounded assumptions ; 
and (3), if I understand it aright, would 
tend to exclude ei altogether. He fol- 
lows up (a) by supposing that the co- 
pyists favoured e^, and, agreeably to 
the norma loquendi of a later period, let 
it slip into the place of 17. nl seems, 
however, to repvesent utrum and an in 
Latin dependent questions, *4f" and 
"whether" in English ones. Thus it 
cannot be shown by the analogy of 
language that the conjunction which 
introduces such bifurcate questions 
must be the same as that which sub- 
joins the alternative or 2"^ branch of 
them: see further on y. 90—1. 

487. aTtiifioveg, this adj. and anXccy- 
tog 494 inf, are found, like dnsvQyig 
hnA&nvatog^ alike in active and pas- 
sive sense (mar.); see on y. 88: also 
dntifKov seems by an accretion of po- 
sitive meaning to stand sometimes for 

488. Niaxa^^ xal iyia corresponds 


0ATSSEIA2 A. 489—502. 

[day VI. 

a y. 87; cf. 0. 268. 

b a. 238 mar. 

c d. 471 mar. 

d cf. xp. 264-6. 

e /9. 369, /u. 154. 

f a. 3. 

g X. 64, X. 386. 

h M, 14. 

i (V.286, in II. plus 

k X.383, cf.y.l85. 
1 a. 197. 
m t. 239, 1//. 176; 

cf. ^. 191, 369, 

y. 166. 
n d. 507. 
o y. 291 mar. 
p ^. 12. 
q (f. 512, IT. 687. 

9)i^ (pilcov iv ;|^£9<7li/, ^:r£l jcoXsfiov toXvjcsv^svJ 490 

'^AxQsCSri, tC^ lis tavta SvaCQsai'y ovSs tl 0s X(w}® 
tdfiBvavy ovSh dcp^vac i^idv voov^ ov8d 0s (prjiii 
di^v axlavtov^ S(Ss0d'aif ijcr^v sv ndvta Jtvdijat. 
jtollol^ fiiv yccQ tcSv ys ddfisvj TCokXol 6h lixovto' 
agxol 8* av 8vo (lovvoi ^Axamv'^ xalxoxvtcivcav 
iv v60t(p djcoXovto'^ I'^^Xti ^^ ^* ^^^ ^^ na^0%'a. 
slg^ d' in 7C0V gcnog xatSQVxsxai svqsV jcovtp, 
Atag iilv iistd vi^v0l Sd^iri SohxflQSt(ioi0i.v,^ 
rvQ'g0iv^ (lev 7CQ(Sta no0svSd(X)v i7tsXa00sv° 
7t St QT]0iv iisydly0Lj xal i^s0d(D0s^ d'akd00fjg' 
xaC vv xsv ixq>vys^ xiJQaj xal ix^ofisvog tcsq 'Ad^vrj, 



489. frjg. 491. ngoaifsLTtsv. 493. J^CSyi^Bvai, 

491. avrtgErn. CI. ed. Ox. avzU' Wolf. 492. /Lii} xavzu SibCqbo var. 1. Steph. 
^^. <j* otaa pro oi (priiii Bek. annot. * 494. a%Xavazov Harl., mox kiiBi % supra 
iniiv ascripsit. 495. pro $cc[isv Arist. d'dvov viilg. , Schol. H. 497 f Zenod. 
quern refellit Schol. H. ex v. 551. nagriccg Schol. H. (fide Pors.) sive nuQijccg 
(Dind. ed. SchoU. Bek. annot.). 498. svgit 7i6o(i<p Tzetzes (Barnes.). 499. 
SolixTiQitfirjoiv Bek. annot. 500. iSdiiaaas SchoU. H. P. 

with 'AxQst^fig xal iya of Nestor's 
speech in y. 277. 

499. Aliaq, t. e, Otliades, YirgiPs 
account varies (.^n. 1. 44—5). There 
Pallas, after he had heen transfixed 
by a thunderbolt, turbine corripuit sco- 
puloque infixii cumto, H. gives a cue 
to this in saying that Pallas owed him 
a grudge; cf. y. 145: but Poseidon 
would, on his own ^ element, have 
guaranteed his safety, but for his pre- 
sumption. Lowe here notices that 
Lycophron {Cassand. 392) follows H., 
and that the story had been painted 
by Apollodorus at Pergamus, and by 
Polygnotus at Delphi (Pliny XXXV. 9, 
Pausan. X. 26. i). — 6oJiixVQ*» epi- 
thet of ships or (cf. (piliJQ£X(iog L 349) 
of seamen, viz. thePhseacians, as using 
long oars, when it has the comple- 
mentary phrase vavai%Xvtot, avoQsg 

500. rvQ^Civ, a mere cluster, of 
rocky islets. Myconus, one of the 
Cyclades, is the region assigned to 
them by the SchoU. Spruner, J (las XV., 

makes a Gyros Pmt. the S. £. cape 
of Tenos. Virg. jEn, XI. 260 seems to 
take the S. E. point of Euboea as the 
scene of Ajax^s wreck, Euhoicce cautes 
uliorque Caphereus: and so Quintus Cal. 
XIV. 547 (Lowe). Distinct from both is 
the Gyarus to which state prisoners were 
exiled in the Roman Imperial period 
Juv. Sat, L 73. X. 170. As yt;p6s.= nv- 
TiXiTiog the name might be =: Cyclades j 
importing the disposition of the group 
not the shape of any individual islands : 
But this hardly suits VvquItiv nitQTjv 
507 inf. The name probably imports 
the shape, "rounded"; cf. yvgog kv 
mfioiaLV T. 246, and Lat. gyrus "a 
round". iTtikaCasv, the var, led. 
idd(iaaasv does not so weU suit l|c- 
adoaas d'ocXdaaTjg 501. 

502. AS'T^vxi, H. perhaps tacitly al- 
ludes to his outrage on Cassandra in 
the temple of Pallas, cf. note on y. 310, 
where a similar reticence is seemingly 
used; at any rate Virg. Mn. II. 403 
foil, has embodied a tradition trans- 
mitted probably by the Cyclic poets. 


0AT22EIA2 A. 503—506.' 

g)i7 ^' dixiju^ d'sciv tpvyistv'' [liycc lattfia^ d'aXdatSrig, 
^5 rov Sh no0Bi8d&v iieydk*^ ixlvsv^ avSifeavrog- 


503. J^inog, 504. ocj^inrjti.. 

a n. 685, T. 113, 

b a. 79 mar. 
c cf. y. 124-5. /». 

280, y. 320, J*. 373. 
d Aup. B. (3) mar. 
e y. $27, n. 243, 

f i. 47, n. 76; 

cf. t. 497. 
« .. 292. 
h M. 397, ^^.711, 

503. ix^aXe, cf. Milton Coinuf. 760, 
"Ihate when Vice can bolt her artu- 
mentB", and .fischyl. Prom, 93 a, TOiad' 
inffintmv ^nrj, where the notion is 
that of audacious temerity; comp. the 
expression *'to hurl defiance*'. — 
daO^y **was led to presume'*, the 
pass, form points to the current notion 
of an external agency, leading man to 
be foolish or wicKed, while the i . aor. 
mid. aaadfiriv expresses his yielding 
to that influence ; cf, I. 115 — 6, T. 95 
(where Aristarchus' readinig^ Zsvg aaccto 
seems better that Z^v* aaato as NU- 
gelsbach I. § 46 would take it), 137. 
Sometimes, as in the self-defence of 
Agam. T. 91, 129, "Atrj is personified 
AS the Power ^ ndvtag aoctcci; she 
being, by the usual theogonio device, 
a daughter of Zsvg, who, however, 
hurled her from Olympus in anger 
when he had himself suffered by her. 
This her fall supports the view of 
Gladst. II. 158 foil., as embodying the 
tradition of the Evil One as tempting 
by guile. She also includes the notion 
of the evil so wrought recoiling on him 
who yields to it , even although he re- 
pent (1. 504— i a). Yet, as Nttgelsbach 
(1. § 46 — 7) remarks, her personality 
is indistinct Sometimes a power to 
tempt exerted by some deity, by Erin- 
nys, or the indefinite Salyi,mVy is all 
that is meant (d. a6i — a, X, 61, o. 
»33""4» r. 88, 370); sometimes the 
notion of injury is most prominent, but 
probablv nowhere without that of wrong 
as its basis. Thus comrades, sleep, 
wine, ixgure a man (k. 68, 9. a96~7, 
where the drunkard ittCBv tpQivctg 
ofyo, but just before olvog acccev with 
pers. for obj.). Thus the power of ex- 
ternal objects or agents to stimulate 
inward, desire, or that of such desire 
to mislead, might equally be personi- 
fied by "Axil J and not improperly, since 

such 'temptations from within and 
from without coincide and imply each 
other*' (Bp. Butler AnaL P* I. Ch. iv). 
So as regards the consequences : a man 
regretful after folly, or repentant after 
sin, experienced a change in his af- 
fections towards certain objects; that 
change implied a power, which he 
would at once in Homer's language 
personify as "Atrii and if retribution, 
or a calamity viewed as such, over- 
took him, this would probably be a 
function of the same person. Thus 
wrong done, woe ensuing, temptation 
exerted, and yielded to, all meot in 
this complex ethical notion. 

504. dix. S'Cwv, cf. jEschyl. Sept. 
c. Th, 427—8, d-eov re yap biXovzog 
innigaeiv noXiv^ x«l y^ri d'iXovxog 
(pn^iv H. T. X, — <pvyi€iv, for this 
aor. see on §, a8o, and cf. mar. Lowe 
cites Senec. Agam, 534 foil. 

Tandem oocupat& rupe furibundum 

Superasse nunc se pelagus atque 

ignes; juvat 
Yicisse coelum, PalTadem, fulmen, 
and a paraphrastic expansion of the pre- 
sent passage from Quint. Cal. 564 foil. 
For XalTfiaOfxX* see App. B. ^a) (3). 

505. fieydX' belongs to avSriaavto 
here not to i%Xvsv\ Homeric usage con- 
stantly joins fisydXa with words of 
uttering, shouting and the like (mar.). 

506. TolaivaVy so in iEschyl. Suppi, 
214 and m Pind. OL IX. 30 {xqio^ov- 
tog) this appears as Poseidon^s weapon. 
It was oriffinally the fish spear (Plat. 
Soph, aao c) used for large fish, e. g, the 
tunny^ the hook and line being 1%^^'' 
toCg oXiyoiaiy fi, a5a. The commotions 
and convulsions in which sea and land 
often sympathize were ascribed to the 
trident- wielding Poseidon ; cf. T. 57—8 
ctvtuQ (vsQ&s IloasiSuov itivoc^sv 


0AT22EIA2 A. 507-518. 

[day VI. 

a d. 159 mar. 
b d. 503 mar. 
c |. 137; cf. a. 166, 

r. 85. 
d d. 502. 
e I. 406; cf. M. 

f y. 287. 
g: cf. /u. 72. 
hx. 275, ^.181-2. 
i y. 287, t. 80, *. 

j «. 419—20, X. 48, 

1^.316-7, V. 63; 

cf. Z. 346, T. 

k I. 354. 
I 0). 150. 
m «. 238, 489, a. 

358, fi. 391, y. 

294. ' 
n B. 106—7. 
o App. £. 5 mar. 

xccl to iihv avxod'L fiBtvB^ to 8h tQvq)og IfiytB^B sroi/rp, 
r$5 Q Atag to 7CQ(Stov^ i^pB^ofiBvog iiiy^ ddedij^ 
tbv d' Bq)6QBi xatd novtov ditBCgova xv^iaCvovxa. 
(Sg'^ 8 filv Svd'' an6k(olBv^ btcbI nCBv dliivQOv vSghq. 
0dg Sb Ttov ixg>vyB^ x'^Qag ddsltpBog ijd' vndXvl^ev^ 
iv vrivoV ylag)VQy0i' 6d(o<SB Sh xotvia "Hqij.^ 
dXl'^ StB dij tdx^ f(iBlkB McckBidcDv^ ^Qog ahcv 
i^B0^ai^ totB dif iLiv dvaQ7cdia6a %iJBkka'^ 
jtovtov in* IxQvoBvta tpBQBV (iBydXa^ etBvdxovta^ 
dygov^ in* i^xatitiv,"^ Sd't, ddiiata vatB ©viazrjg^ 
to xqIv, dtttQ t&t' IvaiB @vB0tid8rig Atyia^og."" 


507. fjlccaasv rvgirjv Bek. annot. 508. pro fiBfvs SchoLH. fii(iVB. 511 [] 
Bek. Dind. Low. ; nnllft iitSooei. contineri non tamen ab Arist. damnatum Scholl. 
H. P. testantur. 516. fisydXcc fere omnes pagiccE., cf. e. 420. 517—20. Bek. 
horum. vv. ordinem mutavit, ut qui 319 et 320 in nostro textu sunt, sint 317 
et 318. 517. iaxaxirjg Harl. a m. primft et Schol. 

ycciccv dneiQsaiTjv ogimv x' ainstva 

507. ijXaCB X. T. X. ^^ drove at the 
rock" u e, struck it;^ so in 9. 219 
ovXriv xr^^ . . [lb ffVff rjXaas, "wound 
which the boar inflicted on me", where 
xrjv is the accus. of the equivalent ob- 
ject. In 77. 219 iXomai yaXi^vrjVt "drive 
along the calm** the neut. verb of mo- 
tion becomes by usaffe transitive; cf. 
to "run the blockade'*. 

509. TO XQiOT* seems merely to 
heighten the contrast between his mo- 
mentary security and his subsequent 

510. scard, "down into"; but s. 377 
"along". OTtelQ. xvfiaiv., these 
epithets are not elsewhere found CT>n- 
joined. Their union is most expressive 
of the momentary aspect of the sea — 
"boundless, surging*' — to one fall- 
ing suddenly into it. Out of several 
other classes of epith. including '^bqo- 
siSstty loEiSiuy otvona^ dxQvysxov, 
ixd-voevxa, /Lifyaxiftea , [see App. B 
(4)] none, nor any two combined would 
have been so forcible here. 

511. This V. was current in none of 
the editions {hSoasig)^ says Eustath., 
as being very poor {svxBXig). This rea- 
son being assigned seems to' imply that 

the external evidence in its favour was 
adequate. As regards internal grounds 
of rejection, the earlier clause is for- 
mulaic (mar.), for the latter cf. e. 321 
— 3: it suits Proteus, as a grim irony 
against him who defied the sea and its 
powers: — "So there was an end of 
him (with all his boasting) after a 
mouthful of salt water!" 

514. MaXeidatv, see on y. 287. 

517.- O'9'i is said by Faesi to refer 
not to la%ax, but to aygov; but cf. a. 
238 vi^aov in' iaxccxirjg o^t divSgsa 
fiangd netpmisiv, d. 56^—4 ns^gaxa 
yaCrig .... 0^1^ %dv^og Pccidfiav^vgj 
£. 489 dyg. in* iex. & iirj ndga ytC- 
xovsg dXXoi; from all of which it is 
unlikely that the rel. clause following 
the phrase relates to the position of 
the aygog generally rather than to that 
of iax- Besides, to say that ^gisthus 
lived in the dygog of Thyestes is poor*; 
for where else should he have lived 
who had usurped the royalty wh. was 
once Thyestes^ ? To say that he lived in 
its iax^^- ^^ some descriptive force. 
The extremity of Agamemnon's terri- 
tory trenched on that of Pylus , and in 
I. 150 CardamylS, and other cities 
perhaps on the W. side of Tsenarus, 
are apparently claimed by him, but 


0AT2EEIA2 A. 519-534. 


j^o atl^ 6h d'sol ovfioi/^ 6rQi^av^ xal otxad* txovto^ 
1} tot (ihv xaCQtov i3tsfiiJ6€X0 JtaxQidog aUrig, 
xal^ xvvei itacxoiisvog 191/ naxQlSa' icokka d' &x* ainov 
ddxQva^ d'SQfict xiovx\ iitel ia^a^Cmg^ tds yatav. 
tdv 8* &Q* djtd ^xont'^gs dde 6xo7t6g^ ov ^a xa^Btdsv 

5^5 Atyiof^og^ dok6(iijxig Sytov^ vn6 S* iiS%axo [Atad'dv 
XQV0OV dotd xakavxu''^ q)vXa06a d' 8 y* alg iviavtov^ 
(iTJ i Idd'OL jtaQUOVj iiV7J0aixo Sh d'OVQiSog dlx^g,^ 
/3i}^ d' tiiBv dyyeliayi/ XQog Sciiiaxa Jtoiiiivt kamv. 
a'ArCxa S* AtyiiS^og doXitiv"^ ig)Qd60axo xi%vriv' 

530 ^xQvvdiiBvog^ xaxd di^fioi/ iaCxoCi tpdixag d^i^xovg 
b10b IdxoVf BXBQCod'i S* dvciysv datxa nivB0d'at. 
ai^tcipP fiij xakifjuv *Aya(ii[ivova'^ Tcoiiiiva kaSv 
iytytot0tv xal oxB0q)Lv^ daixia iiBQiirjQiitov, 
xbv d' oix b166z*^ oXb^qov dvijyays^ xal xaxiiCBfpvBv 

a X. 79. 
b 17. 2'i6, 

n. 2'i6, u. 167. 
d. 5S6-ft, • 167, 
0. 34, p. 148. 
d c. 463, V. 354. 

e to. 46, t. 362, H. 

426, n. 3, P. 

437-8, S, 17, 

f ^. 450, V. 38, 

333; cf. c. 466. 
a; J. 276. 
h App. E. 5. mar. 
i J. 129, 1.202, w. 

274, T. 247; cf. 

&. 69, M. 433, 

X. 209. 
k Z. 112, &. 174, 

O. 487, n. 270, 

P. 185. 
I d. 24, 679. 
m d. 455. 
n t 217-8, Z. 

1H8 — 90; cf. I. 

195, J. 391—6, 

iV. 276-7. 
u d. 408 mar., I. 

521 , T. 193. 
p r. 407. 
q ^. 22. 
r a. 37. 

520. foUu6\ 5aa. /^v. 523. /^dfi. 524. S^bCSs, ^ 527. /e. 530. ^/ft- 

xo^t. 533. aSsmia. 534. J^6t96t\ 

521. insfii^actto Hari. 524. xa'9'^x£ Bek. annot. 527. Tca^coot^ SchoU. H. P. 

all this side , including of coarse Malea 
itself, is oat of the apparent coarse 
from Troy to Mycenee. 

519. XBtB'ev, if the whole passage 
be retained as it stands, this should 
mean the last named locality, the iygov 
ic%, ; but this does not suit the notion 
of the ovpoff bringing them home 520, 
vrhich should mean from the novxog 
not from the ttvp. i<rx. Further their 
being brought nyf^ov In ic%, serves no 
poetic purpose whatever. Then, too, 
inl twice repeated with same case but 
in different sense, inl novtov ^^over the 
sea", in' ia%ax, **<o the extremity'*, is 
harsh. Again novtov in' t%^» is used 
elsewhere (mar.) of a storm driving 
voyagers out to the open sea away 
from any shore, which makes it less 
suitable to make aypov in io%. a mere 
extension of the same drift. There- 
fore the lines 517 -8 either are spurious 
or have been displaced from their con- 
text. They might, if retained, follow 
528, or as Bek. sets them, 520; see 
App. E. s. ^ 

521. ^TtB^fiCexo is used most com* 
monly of mounting a chariot (mar.). 

522—3. ^naxQida depends on ntvvBi, 
— X^ovt's obs. plur. verb with neut. 
plur. noun; see on fyslXov §* 156. 

524—37. On the details of the story 
here compared with other forms of the 
tradition see App. £. 5. 

527—8. Seber's Index gives S'OVQi' 
dog dXxnq about 20 times in II., in 
which fivriaocad's d'ovQ. dXit^g is a for- 
mula of warlike exhortation, in Ody. 
only here. The accus. is dov^iv, 
O. 308, S, 157. — Ttoifiivi Xadiv 
t. e. iBgisthus. 

531. ixigto^iy the murder took 
place, in Homer's version of it, in the 
liiyagov or great hall of the palace, 
used commonly for the banquet, iti- 
poo'&t has, in respect of this, a peculiar 
meaning, * at the further end or wall*; 
cf. itigmJ^sv App. F. a (26). Thus 
the loYOs was secreted somewhere in 
the fiiy*] but details are wanting. 

534. el66x*, see on a. 37. — avij- 
yaye is perhaps part of the action 
illustrated by the simile , as the animal 
marked for slaughter was first fetched 


0AT2EEIA2 T. BSiSio. 

[day VI. 

a X. 411.^ 

b n. 487. 

c cf. J. 397. 

d t. 219, y. 165. 

e ji. 691. 

f X. 388— 9.» 

^ X. 496-500. 

h d, 481 mar. 

i «. 82, 

k J. 426 mar. 

1 d. 833, ^ 44, V. 

207, .2. 442, n. 

m cf. X23-.7, S2. 

n cf. d. 103, X. 212, 

i2. 227. 
d. 349 mar. 
p a. 68 mar. 
q B. 347, cf. 



r 7t. 44. 

s 01. 284. 

t cf. H. 144. 

u r. 229;cf. (T.271. 

V (T. 61, K. 220. 

w d. 840, 0. 16.5, 

W. 598, 600, i2. 


SsLJtv^aaaSf^ (Sg rig te xarsxtavs^ fiovv inl g)arvg. 
ov8e^ Tig ^ArQsC8s(Q itdgcDv U'xa%'^ ol^ ol stcovxo^ 
(ydSi tig AlyCad'oVj aAA' ixtad'sv^ iv fisydQOt6LvJ^ 

(Sg^ itpat\ avtccQ ifioi ye xaT€xld6d7i^ tpCXov ^TOp, 
xlalov^ d' iv^ il;aiidd'0v6v 7iad^(isvog^ ov8s vv fioi TciJQ 
TJd'sX^ he tfiasiv xal bgdv tpdog iJaAtoto.^ ^. 

avrdQ"^ in si xkaicov re xvXcv86(i€v6g r' ixogicdip/^^ 
Sfj x6za [16 TtQogdsvjcs ysgov^ aktog vtnieQtfjg 

^[irixitVj ^AzQiog vlh, icokirv %q&uov daxBllg^ ovrcig 
xkal\ insl ovx &vv6iv^ rvva Sfjoiisv^ dkkd rd%iiSxa 
Tceiga OTCcog xav di) 6i^v natQida yatav Xxriat,. 
71 ydg ficv gcadv* ys XL%^6eai,^ ij xav ^OQi6trig 
xtalvBv imog)d'diisvogj^ 6v Sd xav tdq)Ov &vtLfiokii6ocigJ'^ 

(Sg iq)ax% avtag i(iol xgaSiri^ xal d^fibg dyrjvcjQ 
avxig ivl 6xY^%'a66i^ xal dxvvfiavm xaQ^ ldv%^^^ 
xaC iiiv q)(X}vi}0ag Ixaa TCtaQdsvta Jtgogijvdiov ' 55c 

536. fot. 542. ngoasJ^Hne, 550. finsa, 

535. dsmvi^aag Harl. text, et marg. 539. ovdi vv aoi itiJQ SchoL H., 

ov6i (loi 7\xoq sed supra scripta vv iiot %iJQ Harl. 543. (»e%Bklg aisl £. Am- 

bros. hujus Schol. ovt(o. 546. xal 'Ogsatrig Bek. 550. TtQOOrivda Harl. 

(cum emend. — Soav) CI. ed. Ox., nqocrivdmv ieiQ cseteri. 

from the pasture; see y. 421, also rgsCg 
aidXovg itatdymv, v, 163. 

535 — 6. The sense of the var. led, 
d8invTj6ag, as measured by the simile, 
is weaker than that of Ssmp^oaag, 
wh. indicates the image of the beast 
fattened for the knife, and knocked 
on the head while at his manger. The 
same idea prevails in X. 412— 5 where 
the comrades of Agam. %ts^vovzOy ovsg 
£g dgyiodovteg , ot od r' iv dfpvsiov 
dvSgdg fiiya dwafisvoio x. t. i. — 
xazsxT., aor. of simile, see on 338 sup, 
povv CTtl <p», this simile, designating 
the helplessness of superior strength 
(cf. y. 250) through supine security, 
seems, as it were, a melancholy reflex 
of that found B. 480 — i, where Agam. 
armed and leading his host to war is 
compared to "the bull mightiest of the 

539 — 41. The violence of the emo- 
tion of sorrow is even more intensely 
manifested by Achilles for Patroclus, 
and by Priam for Hector; but neither 
does self-reproach or the sense of total 
ruin and loss to self and people em- 

bitter Menelaus^ loss here, nor is his 
loss enacted before his eyes, but only 
narrated by Proteus. 

544. awOiv, with the sentiment 
cf. (mar.) ov yd^ tig ngrj^ig ni- 
Istai Tigvsgoto yooio, — if^Ofiiev, 
Buttm. Irr. Verbs s, v, jdA-^ (4) gives 
this as an epic fut. from that stem 
formed from fut. Saiao by contraction, 
Sai-oyi^Bv d'q-ofisv. So the fut. usi-G) 
becomes TLsim by contraction, and this is 
shortened to kcoo, and of these forms 
we have infin. HSiiiisv and participles 
%SLa)v xfW, ^, 315, 5?. 340 » V- 342- 
The use of the i«'. pers. plur. seems 
a touch of sympathy between the sea- 
god and the hero whom his news has 
so afflicted— shown further (asEustath. 
remarks) by his waiting to be further 
questioned when the fit of grief was over. 

546 — 7. For the moods of verbs here, 
see App. A. 9 (i). With indie, as 
TLTstvev, %sv is rare, the optat. dvri- 
poXi^oaig expresses the uncertainty of 
a further consequence depending on 
the first uncertainty expressed by ^ 
yug 7) nsv. 


0AT2LEIAS A. SS'— S^a- 


^Tovtovg (ihv dij olda' (Sv 81 tqCtov &vSq' ivdfiagfi, 
8^* teg in gooff xatBQ'dKBraL^ eiqiC ardi/rp 
[iji d'ccydv id'ilon Sh^ xccl dxvviisvog tcbq^ (JxovcTat.]' 
Sg^ iq)dlifiv^ o Sd fi' aitix* diASifiofiBvog nQogiamsv 

;55 ^vt6g^ AaiQXBfo 'Id'dxij Ivt oixicc^ vaCtav* 

rdv^ S* adov iv^ vij0p d'cclsQOv^ xaxd ddxQV %iovta^ 
vviiq>rig iv iieydpoteL KaXvrlJovgy ^ [iiv dvdyxri'^ 
t6xsL' d' 01} dvvatai 17V nargCSa yatav txiffd'av 
ov^ ydQ ol Jtdga vijsg^ i7tiJQSt(ioi^ xal itatgotj 

j6o ot xiv iitv niiinouv in* svQia^ vtSta d'aXdaarig. 
60I d' oi %'iii(pax6v^ ian, 6 tor getphg^ (o Msvilas^ 
^^Oysi^ iv [jtJtofi&tp d-avistv^ xal TC&eiiov iniCnatv^ 
akkd 6* ig *HXv0vov naSCov xal TceiQata^ yalrig 

a (T. 4i)S. 

b d. 373, 877, 466. 
c <f. 471. 
a I. 506, 531, cu. 

e (T. 796, K. 221. 
f «. 13-17, p. 

g- B. 721. 
h X. 201, 409, 570, 

X. 5, 466, Z. 496. 
i cf. 0. 311. 
k «. 141-2. 
I 1.224. cf./J.212, 

291-2, (T. 669. 
m /9. 403 mar. 
n v. 142 mar. 
X. 473; cf. &. 

p d. 26. 
q v. 263, (T. 99. 
r «. 308, u. 342, 
•^ 274, A. 52. 
8 A. 200-3, 301. 

551. foCdu, 554. itQoaifHnhv, 

555. J^oi,%ia, 
SS9- •/^o*' 

556. TOV /if^OV. 558. J^TiV, 

551. 6v6(iaaaov Bek. annot. 553. evpA' xd<r|Li€o Tzetzes (Barnes.). 553 f 

SchoU. H. P. Q., [J Bek. Dind. Fa. Low. * 554, ccvtis Em. CI. ed. Ox. 

avtin' Wolf. 

553 is said bj the Scholl. to be 
rejected by all the ancient copies as 
being opposed to the previous state- 
ment of the speaker in 496 — 7 sup. 
Ni. urges against this that phrases 
like imog 17F d-ocvrnv had lost their 
distinctive meaning by usage, and 
become mere formula! meaning vaguely 
*' under any circumstances", and cites 
Lobeok Phryn, p. 764, who is of the 
same opinion, and who has adduced 
Soph. AnHg, 108—9, ft' h* onaovsg, ot 
X* SvtBg oi t* dnovtsgi adding '*quis 
non videt, hoc tantum dici quotquot 
sunV\ But the question whether Odys. 
be alive or dead, is that on which 
this whole portion of the poem turns. 
Hence we cannot suppose that words 
which state that question could here 
be used without their full significance. 
It is true that Menel. has a natural 
tendency to despondency, and of this 
he has already given a token in no 
foil., 181 — 2, passages, which, as Lowe 
thinks, may have given a hint to the 
copyist who [probably inserted this v., 
wh. is not, perhaps, unsuited to the 
character of Menel. [see App. E. 8 (a) 
(5) (i^)]f ^^^^^ ^^ seems too strong a 
contradiction of Proteus* words ub, sup, 
to occur in the same conversation. 

That Menel. on Telemachus* visit, see- 
ing that Odys. was stili missing, should 
indulge in gloomy forebodings, is not 
similarly inconsistent. 

559. CTtiiQSTfioi, see on (J. 403. 
Crusius s, V. refers this to f Tar|^ot , but 
see £. 224 where it qualifies vrjsg; and 
so presumably here. Cf. SoXtxrjQi- 
t(ioiai 499 sup. and note. 

563—9. Hes. 0pp. 170 — 3 makes 
those heroes who escaped death dwell 
dHTidia ^vfiov ij^ovrsg 
iv fiandffmv vrjaoiai nag* Slusavov 

adding pauL sup. that it was ig ns£- 
pata yaCrjg apart from men and far 
from immortals, and that Cronus reigned 
among them; who, however, (Theog. 
851) is placed ** under Tartarus" with 
the Titans; cf. &, 274—9, O. 225 and 
G. 478—81, where the nsigata yairjg 
(mar.) are distinguished in their penal 
aspect by the epithet t/£^ofTa, and Kal 
novxoio is added; * 'there sit Japetus 
and Cronus, solaced by neither sun- 
beam (cf. X. 15 — 19) nor breeze (con- 
trasted with 567 here), but with deep 
Tartarus around". H. only knows 
Cronus as in a state of punishment 
and exclusion, but the *'ends of earth", 
from their remoteness, are the seat of 


OATSSEIAS A. 564—569. 

[day VI. 

a d. 586 

b 17.323, *'. 321-2. 

c cf. ^ 43—5, «. 

d X.7; cf. O.170, 

M. 278-80. 
e I. 622. 
f cf. n 150-1. 
g y. 289, /J. 421, 

h (. 139, O. 626. 

i u. 105. 

k^. 795; cf. J, 

1 t. Ill, 358, 48, 

70, d. 771. 

Qv^ viipBrbq^^ ovt* ccq xbv(1(ov^ nolvg ovzb not* ofifi^og, 
dXV aUl ZBqyvQOio^ kvyv« nvBiovtag dijrag^ 
^HxBavog dvii]0vv^ dvail^vxBvv^ dvd'Qcijtovg ' 
ovvbtC ixBig ^ElBvrjv xai etpiv^ yafifigog dvog iatfi.' 

567. nvsiovtos Harl. raarg. Scholl. H. P. nvsiovzag Harl. text. 568. naga- 

'ipv%riv dvd'Qmnois Pindar. Schol. (Barnes.) 569. abesse a quibusdam exx., 

in nonnullis legi epilog iaal monent Scholl. H. P. Q. 

these sequesflered heroes, as the *^end8 
of Ocean'' (X. 13) are of the dead, 
the former glad and ever -fresh, the 
latter gloomy and cheerless. H. says 
nothing of islands, bat the Ocean send- 
ing Zsff. dritag favours the notion of 
the *Hkv6iov nsS, being in the far west. 
On the passage see App. E. 8 (2) and 

9 (8) note. 

564. *Paffdfiav,, son of Zeus and 
a daughter of Phoenix, and brother of 
Minos; he is not here introduced as 
judge, which office has regard to the 
penal view of the departed (Virg. Mn. 
VI. 566 foil.), but as sharing the abode 
of the heroes by privilege of birth, as 
Menel. (569) by marriage. Yet a 
glimpse of some such office appears 
in his being brought to Euboea *'to 
visit Tityus" by the Phseacians; Ti- 
tyus being among the doomed {1. 576—9), 
and his offence having been committed 
at Pythd not far from Euboea (mar.). 
Yet Pind., 01, II. 129—40, who also ma- 
kes the retreat of the blessed an isle of 
ocean {iv^a (la'ttdgmv vaaog coyisdvi,- 
dsg avgai neQLnvsoiaiv)^ introduces the 
"just decrees of Rhad." into the pic- 
ture, and, more notably, makes Cronus 
and Khea — so far from penal humilia- 
tion — the centre of the beatified 

565. i>fitaTfj, the notion is the 
same as in d'sol gsia ^movtsg (mar.) 
"living at ease", ^lotti, only here 
in H., elsewhere fi£otog; in Hy. VIII. 

10 we find fiiotfjta from nom. fiiOTtjg, 

566. ov vupSTog x. r. I., the de- 
scription , chiefly negative , and which 
may be compared with that of the 
abode of the gods (mar.), suits the 
climate of Madeira and the Canfiries 

with their equable temperature; the 
prevalent wind over the western ocean 
may be a reflex of the trade -wind. 
These mere general facts were known 
to H.; a little later, as the peak of 
Teneriffe is visible at 100 miles, some 
of that group may have ^iven He- 
siod the outline of his fiaxagoav tr^aoi 
(above). The Zephyr, "ever" blows, 
as an element of the delightful tem- 
perature, and the negatives of 566 
imply uninterrupted sunshine. Comp. 
the absence of the sunbeam and the 
breeze in the abode of the Titans, 
(9. 480—1. Hence Milton has perhaps 
derived some images in his epilogue 
to "Comus'\ although blending others 
with them. 
Spirit, To the ocean now I fly, 

And those happy climes that 

Where day never shuts his eye, 
« « « * 

There eternal summer dwells, 

And west -winds etc. 
Wolf [Prolegg. XLIX, 253, note 39) 
mentions [teste Sallust.) another pas- 
sage descriptive of Elysium once found 
in H., but wh. has disappeared from 
our texts. ^ vuperog, snow-storm or 
drift; cf. vBzog of rain, vifpdg is a 
flake; cf. M, 278 vitpddBg %i6vogi vltpto 
is found ih, 280. 

569 is rejected in some edd. (Scholl.). 
a<plv, dat. of special reference, as it 
were "precious in their sight" (mar.). 
Was Menel. not to die? The text only 
says he was not "to die in Argos^\ re- 
ferring to the death of his brother there, 
but to be sent by the gods to the Elys, 
plain. Yet on the whole this implies 
not only an extension of life and a 


0AT22EIA2 A. 570-585. 


570 cSff* sijcfov vjco jtovtov iSv6Bxo xvfiaivovtcc. 
avTCCQ iyav inX v^ag £fi' avxi^iovg haQOi^tv 
ijtccy nolXct Si iioc xgaSiri jcoQipvQS xi6vtc, 
ccvrdg ijcaC $' inl vrja xatrjld'0[isv i^Sh d'dla^aav, 
SdQTtov d'* 6ith6d(i€€fd'% iitl t' fikv^Bv tt(ifi(fO0i7j vvl ' 

575 ^^ '^^'^^ xovfiridifjiASv iitl ^riy^itvi d'ald66rig. 
ijfio^ d' i^QtyivsLa tpdvri ^oSoSdxrvXog 'Hcis, 
vijag^ (ilv xdiiTCQforov iQv60a(iBv^ Big ala Stav^ 
iv^ d* [0rovg ud'e(i€6^a xccl l0xia vtjvolv itayg, 
av^ 81 xal aitol pdvtsg^ inl xkrilei, xdd'ilov^ 

580 fiSijffSr S^ i^oiisvoi noh'^v aXa tvnxov iQSxiiotg.^ 
a^ S* Big Alyvnxoto SujCBxiog jcoxaiioto'^ 
0xii6a viag^ xal Eqb^u^ x6XriB00ag ixaxofipag, 
avxdg ijCBl xaxijcav0ci d'BiSv %6kov aihv^ idvxcov^ 
XBV* "" 'j4yaiABiivovt xviifiov^ %v &0fiB0xov^ xkiog ^Cij. 

585 xavxa^ XBlBVXiJ0ag vb6iiijv^ 8Cdo0av Si (lov ovQOvy 

a d. 425-31 mar. 
b &, 34, X, 2, X. 

403,423, ^.141, 

X 76, 9t, 348. 
c cf. «. 261. 
d A. 480, fi, 424 

—6; cf. 0. 496. 
e App. F. 1 (13) 

f d. 473 mar. 
K iU. 180. 
h cf. X. 77-8, /u. 

15, V. 22, 0. 497, 

A. 485. 
i d. 477-8, |. 25S. 
k d. 352 mar. 
I y. 147. 
m ;i. 75, fi. 141, 

CO. 80- 1, H. 336, 

cf. a. 291 mar. 
n i;.333; cf.I.413. 
o Q. 148—9. 
p d. 520 mar. 

570. fBinmv, 577. ndfingmta J^egvaaafisv* 578. iJ-^Ofis* 

570. iSvaasio Harl. 573. navqlv&ov Bek. annot. 578. latovf t' i&ifiBC^a 
Harl. mox vijvffl iri<nv Scholl. H. P., vrjl (ibsXaiv^ Heidelb., vijog itcrig Schol, P. 

579. iv Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Sv Wolf., cf. 785. 585 

SC&oaav Harl. Wolf. 

idoauv Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 

solace after its woes , but an ultimate 
exemption from death: although, as the 
Tyndaridee were only allowed by Zeus 
an alternate life between them, and that 
vig&Bv y^ff, after submitting to death 
(X. 300 — ^4, r. 243 — ^4) , it is not consi- 
stent that Menelaus should attain im- 
mortality by marrying their sister. The 
TyndaridsB probably embody in myth 
the natural alternation of seasons, and 
so far support the view that the tale of 
Troy is developed from nature -myth 
also. Eurip. Androm, 1253 foil, ha 
adopted from this passage the immor- 
tality of Peleus for Thetis' sake, see 
Thetis* words, al d', (og Sv sCdrjg trjg 
iling svvijg xdgiv, x. t. 1. 

The tale of Proteus being told, Menel. 
narrates his return from Pharos {sup, 
3SS) to the Nile, how he performed 
all dues to the deities and to his bro- 
ther's memory, and sailed home. He 
then invites Telem. to stay, and offers 
him an unsuitable present. 

570. Cf. Virg. Georg. IV. 528, Iia»c 
Proteus: et se jactu dedit cBquor in al- 

HOM. CD. I. 

turn, and Ov. M^L XI. 250, Dixerat 
hoic Proteus et condidit (equore vultum, 

571 — 6. See notes on d, 425—31, and 
for avti&iotg on a. 21. On 573 vi\a h. 
T. i., see App. F. i (21). dfifi, w§ is 
here a faint personification, brought 
fully out in Hes. Theog, — 756 foil., where 
Nvi goes forth having Tnvog in her 
arms. On f^Tiyfitvi, as being of the 
water rather than of the land, see Lid- 
dell and S. s, v. On 576 see notes on |3. i. 

577-80. SeeApp.F.i(6)(7)(io)(i4). 

581. See on d. 351, 355, 477- 

583 — 4.- Menelaus' piety and bro- 
therly affection are alike marked here ; 
see App. E. 8 (3) (8). He might sup- 
pose that -^gisthus' ascendancy would 
prevent any siich tribute from being 
paid in Argos. See also note on y. 
109, The Scholl. will have it, the 
monument was inscribed; but some 
symbol only like the oar of Elpenor 
(X. 77, ft. 15 , cf. Virg. /En, VI. 233), 
would probably be erected. Of course 
there would be a arriXrj (ft. 14). 

585—6. Menel. evidently rcognizes 



OATSSEIAS A. 586—596. 

[day VI. 

a d. 564. 

b a. 309 mar. 

c S. 374 mar.; cf. 

Z. 174-6, S2. 

d ij. 132 etscepius. 
e cf. H. 156. 
f o. 602, r. 101, 

IT. 402. 
g App. A. 8 (3) 

h <f. 543. 
i a. 315, 9, 599. 
k y. 500, r. 446, 

^. 89, S- 328. 
1 ^ 144, P. 439; 

cf. ^. 414. 

ad'dvatoi^^ toC ft' dxa q)iXriv eg naxQiS' fef^^av. 
a A A' ay 6 vvv ini^aivov^ ivl fisyaQOtaiv ifiotecv^ 
oq)Qa XBv ivSsxdxri^ re SvcoSexdrr^ xe yivrirai' 
xal rots <y' sv steiiilJCOj dciacn Se xoi aylad^ S(DQa 
XQStg isCTCovg^ xal Siq)QOv^ ivifiov aindg iitaixa 
dciom xakov^ alaioov^ Iva 0Jtev8y0d'a ^aoiOiv 
dd^avaxoLg, i^isd'sv ^siivi^fidvog i^fiaxa TtdvxaJ^ 

xov S' av Tifild^axog TtBTtvvfisvog avxCov f^vSa 
''^AxQsCSri^ ^1^ dfj (IS jcokvv^ xqovov ivd^dd' igvxs/^ 
xal ydg x^ sig iviavxov iyto nagd 0OC y dvs%oiyLriv 
'^(isvogj ovSs xi ft' olxov skoi^ xod'og^^ ovds xoxtjcav 



596. ov8s pLS J^oCnov, 

589. nifinoi Ernest. 

the fair breeze as a direct answer to 
his adoration of 582, and the pious 
phrase with him is no mere form; see 
App. E. 8 (3). 

588. The term of invitation is beyond 
the usual length in H.; see on fi. 


590. r^ec^ ixxovq, the ScholL say 
"a pair with a rein-horse (wapijopos)": 
the latter ran outside the flank, at- 
tached only by reins {7caQ7iOQ^ai)y and 
completed the "turn-out" for war. It 
was a resource in case of either yoke- 
horse failing. Thus the gods drive no 
nagi^OQog (O. 119). Achilles drives 
one, a mortal steed, rather it seems 
as a trophy, beside his immortal pair 
(71. 148 foil., cf. 467 foil.). Also in 
the race no naQT^ogoSf as being there 
a mere incumbrance , is used (W, 295). 
In G. 184 — 5 Hector drives a team of 
four, perhaps two nag.^ to battle — a 
trace perhaps of the boastfulness which 
marks him. In v. 81 a simile of a team 
of four running iv nsdioi occurs. The 
offer of the chariot etc. is a sample 
of the sanguine and unpractical side 
of Menelaus* character; see App. E. 
8 (19) end. 

594. fiii 671 x. T. X. Telem. here 
begs not to be detained and (598 inf,) 
urges a reason for declining the leng- 
thened stay proposed by Menel. , and 
the next time that the story reverts 
to him (o. 7, 8) he is still with Me- 
nel. at Lacedaemon. Yet in this in- 
terval occurs the departure of Odys. 

from Ogygie, his eighteen days' run, 
shipwreck, concealment, discovery by 
Nausicaa, entertainment by Alcinons, 
escort to Ithaca by the Phseacians, 
and colloquy with Pallas there, who 
says that Telem. is then '* leisurely 
staying" at Sparta (v. 423 — 4), and 
his reception by and stay with Eu- 

mseus (f |.). To give space for 

all this Telem. must have staid nearer 
a month than 11 days with Menel. 
(Ni. ad loc). In order to evade ^is in- 
consistency Jo. Car. Schmitt, a^ II^° 
in Odyss. Deor. concil., would make the 
mission of Hermes to Calypso in s. 
synchronize with that of Pallas to 
Ithaca in a., so that Odys. would 
quit her isle on the same day (6^^ of 
the poem's action), on which Menel. 
tells Telem. his tale. Such parallel 
continuations of distinct branches of 
the plot are not, however, in Homer's 
manner. His groups succeed each other 
in their share in the action, and the 
same law applies even to individual 
persons in the same group. As a 
single marked instance may be taken 
the attendance of Iris and Apollo, sum- 
moned by Here to Zeus , in O. 143 foil. 
Zeus gives Iris her errand first, and 
the poet follow^ out to the end this 
branch of the action by narrating that 
whole errand and its issue. This done, 
he reverts to Mount Ida with the words 
xal 1 6 t"A7[6lX(ova ngoosfprj .... Zs-ug 
(220): which, if pressed, imply that 
Apollo is kept waiting for his errand 


0AT22EUS A. 597- 608. 


ziQXoiiai, alV tjdri fioi Avid^ovtSw^ itatQoc 

iv Uvkp^ 'qyad'iy 6v Si (ib xqovov iv^dS* igyxsig.^ 

600 S(3qov S* orrt xb (loi Soitig^ xBi(iijkiov^ iarco' 

LTtxovg S' Big ^I^dxriv ovx a^otLat^^ dlld 0ot avrcJ 
ivd-dds XBiifG) ayaliia^^^ 0v ydg icbSColo dvd<S<SBig 
BVQBogy ^ ivi iihv l&rog^ ytolvg^ iv 8i xvxbcqov 
TtVQoC XB iBLaC^ X ijd' B'bQv^iv\g xqZ^ Xbvxqv. 

605 iv d' 'Id'dxy oik* ccq Sgd^ioi"^ BvgiBg oiixB xv XBLficiiv 
aiyifioxog^^ xal (lakkov iTcrjQaxog^ l%%o^6xoio, 
ov ydg xtg V7J6(X)v fejrifAarogP ovd* BvkBificDVy 
at ^* all XBxUaxai • *i 'Id'dxri Si xb xal tcbqI naaioivJ^ 


a d. '2aU mar. 
h ». SeS, 429. 
c d. 460 mar.; 

a. 304. 
d A. 252. 
e a. 3151, d. 594. 
f a. 312 mar. . 
ii *. 257, y. 438 

i <h. 351 ; cr I. 93, 

}»4,a7,B.776, ^. 

k d. 41 mar. 
I d. 41 mar. 
m ^. 121. 
n I. 124, V. 242-3, 

V. 103, 347, S 

512; cf. X. 275. 
p V. 242. 
q C. 307, V. 23'«i 

D.97, Jr.l35, A. 

371, O. 740. 

597. finsaci, 602. SavdoGSig. 

599. Arist. us pro fiSf Harl. marg., mox igv^oii text. ^ 606. alyifioxov %a\ ual- 
iov irnqgatov Arist., Scholl. H. P. 607. pro ov ydq Schol. X, 45. aXX ov. 

608. d* hi Harl. 

all the while Iris is pertbrming hers. 
But the poet has no sustained con- 
sciousness of personages off the scene. 

597—9. fiv^'OiCiv in*, see on 484. 
— avid^ovCiv, see on 460. — IlvXff}, 
see App. D, 4. 

601 — 8. Lowe cites Hor. Epist. I. 
VII. 40 foil., Haud male Telemachus ... 
xVoit est aptus equis lihacfp locus etc. 
On this speech and the reply of Menel. 
see App. £. 3, p. lxxi, and 8(11) (16). 

602 — 4. 7tB6Loio, see App. D. 3. — 
kmxb^, not the plant of i. 93 foil., 
where men oat what is probably a 
fruit, but the well known "clover", 
still common in moist grounds in 
Greece, and now called there xqi- 
fpvXXi,, Kruse's Hellas I. 346. Virg. 
Oeorg^ III. 394 recommends a lotus for 
cattle as augmenting their milk. — 
xvnBiQOV, the cyperus rotundus Linn., 
very common in the Greek islands still : 
cf. Theocr. Idyll, I. 106. In Hy. Merc, 
107 we have xv^rcipoe, 6. — ^BiaL • • • 
XqI, see on 41 sup, 

606. BJtiiQaxoqm Ni. explains this 
** exposed, lofty, jutting", but assigns 
no etymol. grounds, nor includes the 
kindred nolvT^gazo^f used (roar.) of 
BVVTi^ ydfiosj ijP^i ^^^*y ^^^ which 
can only be from igdm. In Hy. Apol. 
I^y* 35" (S^9) which he quotes, the 
line seems corrupt, and Inr^QOxog 
(apoo)) or Bvfiffoxoq should perhaps be 
read; cf. anf^orog 1. 109, 123. In lies. 

Theog. 67, Opp, 63, Fragm, XCIII. 4, 
intiQUXOq occurs, always in sense as 
if from eoaco; and so in Find. Pyth, 
v. 69 inrip axov nliog^ Isthm, Y. 12 
So^ccv in^Q.axov. Line 606 should 
probably follow 608, and may have 
been transposed by some early critic 
offended by the homoioteleuton of Xsi- 
fiiav and ivXaifitov closing consecutive 
lines. Lowe would give Kal here the 
force of quamvis, better perhaps with 
iive Scholl. that of %a£xoi, "and yet", 
the lines standing as they are; but if 
transposed as suggested, the %al fiaX- 
Xov ini^Q, will correspond to xal (both) 
nsgl naaioav atyipoxos. 

607. xiq vriCifiV binm, as a cor- 
roboration of this, Odys. and Ajax 
Telamon. are the only chiefs of fore- 
most note who never in the II. appear 
in chariots. They are both islanders. 
Diora. and Odys. capture together the 
equipage of Rhesus; but Diom., not 
Odys., drives it into the camp, and 
stalls the horses with his own {K, 
529—30,566 — 9). Idomeneus of Crete 
is in a chariot in P. 609 foil., and 
Meriones his comrade engages in the 
chariot race in ^, 351; but Crete is 
fvpsttt {v, 256 et al. cf. v, 243) and Ixa- 
xoiiTtoXtg {B. 649), and, although a yaCa 
negiggvxos (t. 172 — 3), is no- 
where called a vrjaogy a term limited 
by II. to islands of small compass. 

608—10. The notion of xBxXiaxai 



0ATSSEIA2 A. 609-622. 

[day VI. 

a *F. 555. 

b «. 181, A. 361, 

E. 372, Z. 485, 

c £. 479, 1. 255, 

2. 95. 
d d. 827, «. 26; cf. 

c. 98. 
e o. 113—19. 
f |. 326, o. 101, t, 

295, u^. 132. 
er App.A.8(l)mar. 
h f. 223, X. 210, 252. 

V.366, y.335;cf. 

^. 234.'^ 
i d, 132; cf. If. 

232-4, \if, 159 

k CO. 75; cf. ». 92, 

0. 195, 2. 371- 

80, 473-7. 
1 6. 130 mar. 
m App. D. 11 mar. 
n fF. 145, *. 258, 

CO. 405, :^. 60, 441. 
hie V. seepissime 
p «. 7, 17.102,0.467. 
q /9. 269; cf. 299 

r cf. Q. 170 

163, 174. 
s V, 19. 

>1, v. 

cSff (pdto^ (is£Sri6sv^ dh ficyiqv dyad'og Mevikaog^ 
XBiQi^.td ybiv xatdgel^sv Sytog r' ^igpar' Ix r' dvo^a^sv. 61: 

"atfiardg 6fe aya-d'oro, ^^'Aoi/ tixog^ oV'^ dyoQevsLg- 
toi/yccQ iycj rot taika fA£ra<yri/tfca • SvvaiiaL^ y^Q* 
Scigtov^ 8\ 800^ iv i(i^ otx(p xsifiijXca^ xsttai, 
Sci0(X} o xdlki0xov xal ti(i7ji0tat6v i0tiv. 
dci0C3 toi XQtiriJQa^ tsrvyfiivov^ dgyvgeog dh 6ij 

60rLv ajcag, XQ'^^P^ ** ^^^ xsCkea xaxgdavtav 
Igyov^ d' *H(paC0toio' TtdQSv^ 8i s 0ai8ifiog fiQCogy 
Uidovicjv^ fia0iXavg^ 8^' sog dofiog diKpsxdXvtf^av 
'xst0B fis vo0tfi0avta'^ tstv d' id'slco rod* 6%daaaiJ^ 

(3g° ot iiiv xoiavta ngbg dllfjXovg dyogavov. 610 

[dactvfioveg^ d' ig^ dd^iat t0av %'biov ^a0ikrlog, 
of d' T^yov^ iihv [ifjla, fpsQOv d' evi^voQa^ olvov 

610. finog. 613. foUto, 617. J^igyov J^b. 618. oz* ij^og, 622. J^oivov, 

609. iis^Srjasv Schol. H. yij'-S'ijfffv. 611. pro dya^oio Crates oJiooio Schol. H. 

613. SoUqov Bek. 617. dubium an proprium nomen ^aidtfiog, SchoU. P. Q. 

621 — 4. [J Bek. Dind. 621. pro ig Schol. H. dvd. 

seems to be that of "leaning on" or, 
as here, "sloping towards" (mar.). On 
ixog t' B<par* x. r. I, see on y. 374. 

611. Menelaus' enthnsiastic sympa- 
thy with his juniors, and his delight 
at recognizing their father^s traits in 
them are part of the generous eleva- 
tion of his character; cf. his words 
206 — 7 sup. to the young Pisistratus: 
contrast with this the barely passing 
touch which Nestor gives to th& same 
thought in y. 124 — 5. Nor in ff. 126 
does Odys., although noticing a similar 
fact, so expatiate upon it. 

615 — 7. XBTvyfJLBVOV does not ne- 
cessarily imply a high degree of finish, 
being used e. g. of Polyphemus' milk- 
vessels , but only ** wrought " or 
"fashioned". On the xpTjiriJp here 
described see App. A. (8) i. — S16O' 
vLwVt see App* D. 11. — ^aL6i/Aog, 
some who take this as an adj. say that 
Sobalos or Sethlos was his name. 

621 — ^4. Wolf. Prolegg, 78—80 (131 
—3) rejects these lines as "ipsa ora- 
tionis insolentia et ambiguitate duris- 

simi, nihilque Homerici coloris haben- 
tes". The "obscuritas" he illustrates 
by saying that Eustath. thought they 
referred to the suitors at Ithaca, not, 
as plainly shown by Spohn {de extr. 
Od, par, pp. 9, 10), to the palace at 
Sparta. Eustath. also took davvvfAO' 
veg in sense of "cooks"; cf. o. 467. 
The lines form indeed a very weak 
bridge over a rather sudden chasm of 
transition and are probably some dia- 
sceuast's work: remove them and we 
have the passage q, 126 foil. From the 
way in which we suppose the Homeric 
poems first composed and recited, no 
abruptness of transition need startle us; 
and, when reduced to a whole, such 
points of articulation are just where we 
should look for padding. Whoever com- 
posed 621 — 4 seems to have had an 
iqavog in view; as the ordinary form 
of entertainment by a king, after the 
extraordinary one of a ydfiog had been 
despatched; see or. 226 and note. The 
word insiinov implies that the "wives" 
were according to custom not present 
at the banquet of the men. Ni., how- 


OATLLEJIAS A. 623—636. 


atrov Si ifip' aloxoi xalXixQijSB(ivov^ insfiTtov. 

cSg 6t (ihv Ttspl Sstnvov ivl (A€y<iQ0v6i nivovto,'] 
25 (ivijiJr'^QBg^ dh ndQOi^Bv Vdv66'^og (isyaQOio 

^8iCxoi6vv^ tdQTCOvto xal alyccv^y0vv^ livtBg^ 

iv xvxtiS^ SaiciSip^^ Sd't TtSQ TtaQog vfiQi^v l%BfSHov. 

^Avtivoog^ SI xccd^iJto xccl EvQV(iccxog d'Soei.Srjg^ 

dQxol^ (ivij6r7J(fCDv y aQsrs S' i6av i^ox &Qiatov.^ 
►30 rotg d' vCog 0QOvioio NoijfKov^ iyyvd'ev"^ ikd'dv 

^AvxCvoov (iv^ov6vv dvBiQ6(iBvog^ nQogisiTtav. 

^^^AvxCvo% ^ ^d XL CSiiev^ ivl ipQsalvy ^6? xal O'dxl, 

6x7t6x6 TijXi(iccxog vetx\ix IIvlov^ i^(iad'6svxog; 

v^d (lOL olx^x*^ ay&Vy ifih SI X9^^^ yCyvexav avx^g 
)35TfA^d'* eg siQvxoQov SiaPfjfisvai^ ivd'a (loi. tnnoi^ 

SoiSaxa^ d^lsiavj vitd d' i^(iiovoi'^ xccXaaQyol^ 

a cf. S. 382. 
b Q. 167—0. 
cB.774; cf.ct.l07. 
d 9, 186, *F, 431, 

e c. 156, 27. 589. 
r 0.366; cf. p. 206, 

M. 105. ^ 
gr jc. 227, X. 420, 

577, y. 188, J. 2. 
h m. ifo-T. 
i S. 391. 
k y. 244, Q. 416; 

cT. n 419-20. 
I p. 386, d. 648. 
m v. 36 mar. 
n S. 461 mar. 
X. 190, y. 26, K. 

100; cf. J. 719. 
p a. 268 mar. 
q o. 93 mar. 
s a. 225 mar. 
t V. 275, 0. 298, ffl. 

347, CO. 431, B. 

615, J. 673, 686. 
u J. 681. 
y 0).23; cf. ¥^.654 

—5, 662, 666. 
w t» 37 ei sapius, 

17. 2, 6, £t. 150 

ei saspiut, 
X cf. Si. 277. 

628. -^eo/fiidijff. 631. nQocifBiuBv. 632. J^^Siisv, 636. xccXaJ^sgyoi, 

623. ivH%ay Schol. H. ivsipiav Bek. annot. insfinov var. 1. Steph. 627. l';i;oy- 
T£ff, distincto post Tcapop, Arist., Schol. P. 635. ^ff emnnov Bek. annot. 

ever , inclines to allow the passage as 

623. xaXXiXQ; see notes on a. 334, 
and on v. 394. 

625 foil. The scene here changes to 
Ithaca. Noemon by his enquiry of 
Antinous about his ship interrupts the 
suitors* sports f who, startled at the 
news of Telemachus* departure, con- 
cert measures to waylay him on his 
return. Medon , overhearing their plot, 
informs Penelop^. Which of the days 
since Telemachus* departure is here 
resumed, is not directly stated. An- 
tinoUs' question 642, not' wxitOy is 
left unanswered; but v. 656 shows that 
it was not the first day. Doubtless 
(see on (94 sup,) the same 6^^ day of 
the whole action, left unfinished at 
Sparta, is meant to be continued. 

627. 6ani6q>, the da- is = y^; 
see on d. i : the ground itself with a 
levelled surface (tvxtqS), notlstrictly, (as 
the Schol.) a "pavement", is intended. 

628—9. ^^ ^^® P^^^ taken here by 
Antin. see App. E. 6 (2). — xa9^axo, 
they sat perhaps as arbiters or umpires 
to the rest (mar.). 

633—4. vett\ *' returned »». This 
enquiry elicits that they knew not of 
his having gone. ^Hvkov, see App. 
D. 4, and A. 12. — XQ^<^ ylyverai 
is an exception to the general usage 
mentioned in note on a. 225. 

635. *'HXi6\ Elis, distinguished as 
moliri (see on d. i), as a level space 
between mountains, is, to judge from 
map delineations, the most unbroken 
plain in Peloponnesus. In A, 678—81 
the spoils of this mSiov are described. 
Herod. (IV. 30) says , that mules could 
not be bred there, but implies, that 
it was a great pasture ground for 
them. Lowe remarks, that v. 605 
shows why Noemon^s mares etc. were 
not kept in Ithaca. — ev^ii/o^oy^ 
the i^^ element in this is t&aoq^ not 
XOQoqi the epithet is vaguely ajpplied 
to any region large or small, if not 
broken up by crags and ravines.^ Pind. 
Pyth. VIII. 57 applies it to the aywaff, 
"streets" of a town. 

636. TifJiiovoit Nau8icaa*s car, and 
that in which Hector*s corpse is 
brought back by Priam (mar.) are 
drawn by mules, hence called ivtsmsQ- 


OATSSEIAS A. 637-6.«;o. 

[day VI. 

a y. 383, C- 109, 

b M. 106, 125. 
c J. 682; cf. y. 4. 
d y. 101 mar. 
e B. 7^\ cf. 8. 

f a. 409, K. 204. 
g- App. A. 7 (3) 

h App. A. 7 (1) 

i e. 90. 
k a. 174, V. 232, 

f. 186, 01. 258, 

297, 403. 
1 A. 430, a. 403i 

cf. ff. 197, O. 

m /9. 77 mar. 
n /i. 133. 

o W.56, V/.343, ?F. 

adft^Tfg"* tcji/ x«V r^v' ika66d(i€vog dafia0aiiii]vJ' 

(3g kq>a%'\ qXS' dvct 9v(i6v id'a^fisov ov yaQ ag>avro^ 
eg IIvlov ol'x£6d'ai JSriki^iov ^"^ &lkd nov avxov 

xbv d' avx' 'Avttvoog 7CQogsq)ri^ EviteCd'sog vtog' 
"vTHLBQtig^ ILOi svL07ts, Ttot^ ^xsto xal tCvag avr^ 
xovQOt €7Covt'; 'Id^ccxrig i^aLQBtOL^^ ^ iol^ avxov 
d"^tsg« t€ 8fi(S^g^ re; Svvaito xe xal ro r€ks0iSai.^ 
xai^ lioL tovt^ d'y6Q6v6ov itijtvfiov^ 0(pQ^ sv £^dcD, 
rj as fiifj dixovta^ ditrivQa vija ^dkatvavj 
ija ixdv o[ diSxag^ i'jtel TtQogTttviato^ fit^O'C};'^ 
tov d* vtog ^QOvCoLO Noil^icov dvtCov rivda' 
"avrog" iyd of dcoxa* xC xev gel^ets %al aklog, 
OTtTtor^ dt^Q totovrog sxtov (islsdrffiata^ %'v^(p 




643. fsoi. 645. fsiSo}, 646. dfitiOVTa. 647. /gxmv foi. 649. J^oi. 

641. 'Avtivoog ditaas^PsTO (poavriGsv zs Harl. marg. Scholl. H. P. 646. 17 
si Bek., mox dnrjvgato Ern. CI. ed. Ox. dnrivqa Harl. Wolf. 649. lyci B 
fixoflv cseteri, quod ob f stare nequit. 


yol, "harness-working". The mule was 
fitter for heavy draught and burden (ra- 
XocBQybq) than the horse, as also for 
mountain use, being sure-footed, hence 
suited to Ithaca. From ogog mons 
comes Sqsvq, Epice ovqsvs. For war 
he lacked the weight, speed, and 
strength of the horse. H, uses '^(jliov. 
and ovQ. as synonyms; cf. SI. 697, 716. 
Arist. de animal. VI. 29 says that the 
iqfi^ov, is bred from male ass and 
mare, and the OQBvg by reversing the 
parentage, sometimes called a "niiute". 
In B. 852 we read of wild mules, un- 
derstood by Koppen ad loc. to be the 
Jiggetai, known in Persia {equus ke- 
mionus Linn.). In W. 655 one of 6 
years old is yet unbroken, but this 
cannot have been usual; indeed, the 
poet adds ij r' dXylcxri ^ccpi'daaad'ai. 
Mules afterwards ran in the Olympic 
games (Pind. 0/. VI.). 

639—42. NfiXriiov^ see App. A. 12. 
— avxov y dep. on uygmv. nov go- 
Yerns dygmv "somewhere in his own 
fields". — Ov^oiT'i^y EumsBus, who 
forms a leading personage in §. tc. 
and Q., is here first alluded to. — 
€Vi07t€y see App. A. i. 

643. 9eov(fOi denotes vigour, but also 

intimates subordination to the dgx^S 
as senior, cf. y. 362 — 4, and Cic. de 
Sen, VI. 17. Some punctuate tiovgoi 
%novx* 'id'U'Krjg i^aigszoi; but no ade- 
quate sense can be given to 'id", i^aig. 
wh. wd. not exclude their being his 
own dependents. 

644 — 7. TO is the manning his ship 
by his own d'ijtsg and Sfimsg: for these 
see App. A. 7 (i) (3). The vulg. is 
dsTiovrog, which cannot be gen. after 
•p^i;, the phrase p^a zivog being post- 
Homeric for "against one's will"; nor 
can it as in A, 430 depend on dnriv- 
gcaVf because as precedes: and in a 
phrase so short a gen. absolute , inter- 
posed between the object to which it 
refers and the verb, is not to be 
thought of, nor is it justifiable by 
atpiai .... Xsvaaovzoov of f. 155 — 7 
(Fa.), where it follows as a separate 
clause. Hence, the conjecture of 
Ahrens de kiatu 21, and La Roche 
19, that dinovza is right, but was 
altered by some early critic to avoid 
the hiatus of -a c?- (cf. G, 503 i(p\onli- 
c6\fLsad'd a|rap), has been received. 
See mar. for places where dsTtovza 
agreeing with a pron. has fiiij con- 
nected with the governing verb. 



0AT22KIAi] A. 651-665. 


ccirc^y; xal$7t6v^ x€v dvrjvaad'ai. doCtv Bti], 
xovQOi S' ot xatd drjfiov dQtOtBvovtSL^ )iBd'*'^ i^^^ccg^ 
OL of fjroi/r'' iv tf' Aqxov^^ syd fialCvovt^ iv6ri<Sa 
MivtOQa"^ iji %^b6v^ xfp tf' airt^ ndvra^ ioixetv, 
►55 dXXcc zd d'aviid^co' tdov ivd'dde Mivzoga Stov 

cSg^ &QCC <pix}tnj6ag dnifiri itQog dci^ara TcatQog^ 
xotiSiv d' d^q)orsQOL(Jtv dydaaaro^ d^vfiog dyrfvcuQ. 
(iVTjift'^Qag d' &[ivSLg^ xdd'taav xal navOav did'Xcav, 

)6o rotdvv d' ^Avrivoog (iBrBg)riy EvTtBid'sog vUg^ 

IdxvvfiBvog*^^^ (idvBog di (idya (pQ^vBg^ dfiqx^fi^kaivai. 
7ti^7tkccvt\ 6(J06 S^ ol Ttvql kafLTtBTOfOvtv itxvriv.l 
"c5*^ TtoTtoi^ ^ fLsycc iQyov VTtBQtpvdlfDg itBkiiS^ri 
T7}l6(idxp 666g ^da* {pd^Bv Sd o[ ov tBlhad'at,^ 

'>65 6x^ di»" rocTcovd' ddxijtt viog Tcatg ot%Bxai aCrog,® 

a a. 387, cf. L 239. 
b ^.36; cf. J.«66. 
c tt. 410, B. 143, 

I. 64. 
d », Itti, X. 204, 


/*. 207-8. 
r u). 440. 

e: g. 25, 0. 530, S, 

h 7t. 24, 142, Q. 42. 
i d. 715, •. 148. 
k d.l8tmar.a.7l; 
d". o. 181, (p.'ish. 

1 •. 407, r. 114, 
N. 330. 

m-4. I03~4. 

n F. 83, 499, 573. 

It, 340-7. 

p of. 8, 250. 

q Z. B79, 384, I. 

r ^.43(1 "7— 8-9, 

/». 330, 340, 351, 

B80, 410, «. 295, 


4H7, M. 96. 
s 7?. 342, P. 143, 

450, O. 128, V. 

130, 379. 

653. foi, 6$4» fsfansiv. 655. f£8ov, 66a. /ot f^fUxriv. 663. J^igyov, 
664. J^ot. 665. dj^i%rixi. 

653. v/Di^ttff Barnes. 

656. vsr' i^ojby Barnos. Em. 01. ed. Ox. vtctjoiov Wolf. 
660. nQocitprj Harl. 661 — a. translatitii vy. ex A* 103, 

659, fivnar'^Qsg B. ^ ^ ^ 

^choll. 11. Q. [] Bek. Dind. Fa. ' 664. q>diiBv ^di (iiv nonnulli perperam, 
Scholl. H. P. 665. roaaoMf d' plerique toaamvd' Aficalonita, Soholl. P. Q. 

65a. lifiiaq, the var. led. ifiiotg 
perhaps arose from an opinion that 
fifittt with accus. could not mean 
*' among", which it can (mar.). 

654—6. ^ S'eov, see mar. — rove 
refers to the start on the evening of 
Day II. If the words (see on 635 sup.) 
are spoken on Day VI., ;(^ig6v would 
mean Day V. Telem. made his pas- 
sage in one night, reaching Pylos the 
next morning or forenoon. With an 
equally fair wind back he might cer- 
tainly have returned, but after a stay 
of 34 hours only, within the time. Thus 
Noomon , as such a degree of dispatch 
was unlikely, is amazed at having 
seen Mentor on Day V. at dawn. 

658 — 9. dydooaro here expresses 
wonder mixed with indignation see on 
d. 181. — &fiv6ic, for the form cf. 
Xayi,a8ig from ;|rttfial , and ajttot^i^dlg : it 
is a more intense form of a/iia , its con- 
nexion with which is sh<3wn by c. 467, 
jiiij ft' ttfivdtff axCfirii T8 %a%7i xal ^' 
Xvi Ugorj 9afiaafj. 

661—2. These lines were probably 

transferred hither by some copyist from 
A, 103 — 4; see on a. 97— iot. 

663. fifya k'^yov, see on y. 261, 
with which cf. also Pind. Nem* X. 64, 
uJya igyov ift'qffctvt', — vxCQifidXa}^, 
Buttm. Lexil, loa, notices that this 
adv. is ^^free from any meanin^strictly 
reproachful", such as the adj. 'dnsg- 
rpialog sometimes admits: and cites 
this passage as more clearly showing 
than others that the word is based on 
'6nBQ(pvrig, That which transcends 
nature and implies supernatural aid 
being required by the sense, not that 
which is overbearing or arrogant. 
Cf. Shakspeare's ^'passing strange". 
Buttm. notes that ixsXia&ri is here =3 

664. TsXiecS'ai is here fut. mid. 
with pass, sense, cf. G, 415, cods yap 
rin$ikrj(S8 . . . ^. 

665. The edd. all give Jx xoarmv 
d'; but diTtrixi cannot easily stand 
absolutely: it governs toiratv, and in 
is in tmesis with oi^xexcci (for i^o^xo- 
ftat see mar.). Now Homeric usage 


0AT22EIA2 A. 666—668. 

[day VI. 

a d. 408 mar. 
b *F. 490. 
c Q. 597. 

d % 165, •. 340, ^ 
110, 218, 0. 178, 

&27, 82, 169, 
. 134. 

r/^a iQV00<i(isvog XQivag^ r' dvcc S'^fiov agCcrovg. 
aQ%Bi xal ngoziQiD^ xaxov i(i(i6vac' alia of atrtS 
Zsvg^ okiQEU fiiriv xqIv iqfitv Tf^fia ipvtsviSac.^ 

666. J^egvaady^svos* 667. foi. 

667. dXXd ot Ern. CI. ed. Ox. dXXot ol Wolf, quod mavult Schol. H. 668. tj^Tjg 
(lizQOv ttisad'tci Arist, Yulg. i^fiiv nrjiicc yBvia^cti Harl. mar. SchoU. H. Q. 
riliiv nijiia (pvtsvirai Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. DInd. Fa. Low., sed Bek. Arist. 


is (see mar.), in coupling by dh a 
sentence beginning with a prep, in 
tmesis, to join the Ss to the prep. 
If the text be the true reading, the 
second ds might easily become de- 
tached, and then from d^ seeming 
repeated, the first dl might be let 
drop, xoamvd' is of course from tocoads 
the stronger demonstr., "so many as 
you see here", wh. well suits the pas- 
sage. Bek. prints i% Toaaavd'^ but 
the leaving the monosyl. in thus iso- 
lated is not in Homeric manner. — 
avTCOg with l| ol^xsrai, "is- got off 
baffling us". "Utrum avtag an av- 
Tooff viri summi dissentiunt " , Lowe. 
Buttm. {LexU. 30) writes avrcog, Herm. 
avzaaq always. It seems based on ai- 
TOSi the adverbial sense of wh. it 
bears, meaning in that way itself, 
hence "in that very way", as is most 
clearly seen in the phrase cSg d' av- 
tcog, V. 238;^ and ccvtoos, if read, seems 
to imply avTog as existing, wh., howe- 
ver, is post-Homeric, as is even iav- 
xov for wh. H. has bo avzov^ ol avx& 
etc. Beyond this presumption no evi- 
dence appears: possibly it acquired 
the aspirate by a grammatical sym- 
pathy with ovzatg. By a slight ac- 
cretion of force avxfog means "in the 
same way as before, as ii8uaUy^\ etc. 
Thus Penel, avx<og fiaxai "sits just as 
she was", v. 336. It points also em- 
phatically to a present or actual state, 
so A, 520 xal avxoog, "even as mat- 
ters stand", or A, 133 "as you see". 
And by further growing into the sense 
of "so much and no more", (cf. Latin 
tantum "only" from tantus "so much") 
it becomes contemptuous, like French 
comme pa and our "so so". Thus it is 
"merely", as in ndXg d' hi vijmog 
avxtog, SI. 726. But there seems a 
class of passages (mar.) which demand 
a more precise meaning, as "in vain, 

absurdly", and so imply another av- 
xmg, in that sense a distinct word: 
for I. in order to enhance "just so" 
and the like into a notion of fiatp 
"in vain", the mode pointed at by 
the "so" should palpably involve that 
meaning, as in 0. 8a — 3 ovde xig iqfi^iceg 
avxag anni(iilfSi^ where "send us so 
away as we came^^ is = "send us away 
bootless ^\ but this condition often fails; 
and 2. the strong stress so required upon 
the word avxag calls for an emphatic 
position, as (here and v, 336) at the 
end of the line, which, however, it 
often has not. Further, the curious 
passage n, 1 10 — i , oixov i^ovxag g^wip^ 
avxag, dxiXsaxov, dvrjvvaxoi inl sgym, 
seems to contain a pile of adverbial 
phrases reinforcinff one another in the 
same sense y and avxag should have ac- 
cordingly as properly definitive a sense 
as ^at/> or dxiXsaxov, Thus we have 
(i) avxag the adv. as it were of av- 
xog, with arrange of meaning as above, 
and (2) avxag irrito, as here. It is 
impossible to settle the breathing or 
derivation of this last, but the onus 
probandi may be left to those who as- 
sert the aspirate. Doeder.256— 7 thinks 
it is really a J^aTfljff from dfaxTj (avdxa 
Pind.). = aT?y — a doubtful doctrine. 

667. TtQOveQO}, with this, as referr- 
ing to fut. time, cf. ngoaca in the 
phrase noocaa xal onicca, and see 
note on OTCi&sv fi. 270. The Schol. 
gives it as = nogfaxiga which would 
similarly mean "further on in time", 
t. e. "hereafter". 

668. For the var, led, here see 
inferior mar.: the authority of Arist. 
claimed by 2 Scholl. for ijPrjg fiix, Tx. 
is undecisive, since on what ground 
he preferred it, we know not. It is 
not strictly consistent with Penelo- 
pe's words of her son (<y. 217, r. 532, 
cf. X. 317), iLsyag hxl xal rjPr^g ii,i- 


0ATL2EIAL A. 669—682. 


aXX*^ &y€ (101, Sots v^a d'orjv xccl BtxoiJ^ itaiQOvgy 
S70 og>Qa (ivv avxov lovxa^ koxij(Soiiat i}di g)vl<i^(Q 

iv^ TtOQd'fip Id'dxrig te Zdfioto re icaiicakoiOiSrig^'^ 
aSff av ixi6(iV'y€Q(Sg'^ vavtCkketai^ sZvexa nat Qog J* ^ 

Sg^ S(pa%'\ oX d' aga Ttdvxag iTcgveov ijd' ixikevov 
avxlx!'^ litsiT avOtdvtsg^ ifiav dofiov^ sig ^OSvOiiog. 
575 ovd' aga IlrivBlonsta tcoXvv xqovov ^bv &icv(Sxog"^ 
(ivd'CDVy ovg (ivij6xrJQBg ivl (pQBtjl fiv60oS6[isvov'^ 
xijpv§ yap of istTtB MiSfXiv ,« og insv^BXO fiovkdg 
avl'^g ixxog iciv ot d' ivSod'L (lijxtv vq)atvov,^ 
pi]^ d' t(iBV dyyBlicDV Sicc ddiiaxa IlrjVBkoTtBiy' 
58o Tov di xax* oiSov^ fidvxa TtQogrivSa IlrivBkdTtBta 
^^X'^QV^y^ xCtcxb Sb 6b TtQOBOav (ivri^xiJQBg dyavoC\ 
71 6l7t6(iBVM dfLGifjiJiv '08v(J(J'^og ^bCoio^ 

a p. 212; cf. n. 

b |. 181, n. 463. 
c a. 845-7, 0. 20. 
d X, 480. 
e y. 195. 
r t 246. 
^ cr. 281, a. 308, 

d. 701. 

h w. 226, ^«^. '3^8, 
V. 47, a. 06, W. 
539, /I, 380. 

i n. 407. 

k n. 358. 

1 n, 328. 


n 0.66,465,^.273, 

e. 316, V, 184. 

o rt. 412, 252, /. 

357, 361. 
p d. 739, •• 356, 1. 

422, Z. 187, H. 

324, I. 93. 
q d. 528 mar., C-50. 
r App. F. 2. 
s d. 707. 

6O9. ^6^yioa\ 677. foi ^fsiTts, 682. fsmifisvai omisso ij. 
670. avTiff Bek., mox Xoji^ifcro) et tvxT^aoiiai Bek. annot. 682. 17 dielot Bek. 

T^oy Txavfit (is come to); but it well 
suits his disparagement by Antin. as 
a "mere boy" (665). Still, the tone 
of unfeigned alarm which the speech 
shows suits better the other reading. 
And the contrast which iQfivv offers to 
ot ttVTfls strengthens the passage. With 
n^lia (pvtsvaai cf. %'uvctzov or xaxa 
(anxBiv {n, 423 , 2, 367). The reading 
yBvicQ'ai is probably taken from Eu- 
msBUs' words tovq (the suitors) Z«vs 
^^okic^iB nqlv 'qfiiv nijiia ysvi- 
a^cci (mar.). Ni. leaves the question 

670. lovxa == ofxadc vtaaofisvov 
in 701. — koxn^* ^^^ <pvX., on ques- 
tion of mooa here see App. A. 9 (5). 

671. TtOffS'fidi , see on 844 foil. 

672. €xiafi\)y€Q€iiq, see on y. 105. 
—vavxikkexai includes, as Ni. thinks, 
a touch of derision; if so, our expression 
of "a wild-goose chase'' would nearly 
suit. The mood is subj. shortened epice, 

675. anvCxo^f see on a. 242. 

677. Mi6is»v, the speech of Penel. 
681 foil, shows that he is in her eyes 
a partizan of the suitors. He has 
favoured their lawlessness hitherto, 
but seems shocked at their plot against 
Telem. and betrays it; and not feeling 
secure through this negative loyalty, 
when vengeance overtakes the suitors, 

he skulks under a seat (%, 362 foil.). 
Telem. intercedes, yet he comes forth 
faintly reassured and pleading still. 
Odys. in the line osff xaxoepynjs fiv- 
BgyBciri ii,iy' dfieivmVy seems there to 
balance his claims ,. based by Telem., 
however, rather on early services, and 
to admit him , though sternly, to grace. 
Spohn. de eoctr, Od, par, p. 6. finds an 
inconsistency in this with the state- 
ment p. 172—3 that Medon was "most 
acceptable of all the heralds (to the 
suitors) and was present at their ban- 
quet'': but then Medon^s conduct is 
not meant to be consistent. He is a 
** trimmer". Phemius, too, entertained 
them by singing; but this was avayxi^ 
(a. 154): whereas Penelop6^s language 
here, although intemperate through 
sorrow, leaves no doubt as to Medon*s 
leanings up |to a certain point. Me- 
don is also the name of a son of O'i- 
leus, (iV. 694) killed by JEneas (O. 332 

678—80. avX^q — 6<ofiaxa — oi5- 
<fov, see App. F. 2 (5) (6)^(10) (23) (24). 

682. Obs. synizesis in ^ eiTti/ievai: 
which, however, is lost when the 
digamma is restored, 17 disappearing. 
— iffiio^CiV, since Medon had in- 
truded on the apartment where Penel. 
was sitting with her attendants, she 


0AT21:EIA2 a. 683-692. 

[day VI. 

a d. 351 mar. 

b u. 13, 116—9, X. 

203; cf. /?. 20. 
c y. 86, xfj. 356, 

10. 459; era. 378. 
(1 d. 94. 
e M. 40. 
f y. 193, 0. 403. /9. 230— 4, *. 

h o. 577, O. 698. 
i I. 218, ^ 59, a. 

275, t. 43, 168, 

to. 255. 
k J. 621. 
1 cf. V. 132-3, r. 

m o. 70—1. 
n in. 156, E. 567, 

O. 597—9. 

v0tata^ xal Ttviiata vvv ivd'dds Secnvrjaeiav 6^^ 

01 O-afi' aysLQoyisvot, fiCotov xaraxstQete^ jroAAoi/, 
xt^6LV TrjlsfidxoLO dcctq)Qovog' ovds xi itarg^V^ 
vfiSTSQGiv TO ngoa^'sv^ axovsxs^^ natdsg iovtsg^ 
olog^ ^OSviSOevg i6xs ^sd'* v(isreQoi0L toxbv6lv^ 
ovrs TLVct ^sl^ccg i^atCLOv^ ovts tv elntQV 69c 

iv dTJfiG)- § t' iarl SCxri^ d'sicov^ fiaatXrjcsv' 
allov^ x' ix^algri^i^ fiQonSv, akXov xe (piXoirj.'* 

683. J^sgyoiv. 690. J^HTttov. 

685. dsiTCvijaaits Harl. 686. ^' Z[i' Harl. sed cum var. lect. <6"afi', ita Flor. 
Steph. utrumque Scholl. H. P. 688. z&v pro to Bek, annot. 

asks this question in anger, viewing 
him as a partizan of the suitors , ^' are 
you come to order the women (off their 
work here) to wait on the suitors?" 

684. fiTi X. T. X., the two participles 
are negatively conjoined, and with 
ocllo^'' XaXXots of time , not aXXod'i of 
place) express a condition of the main 
action dsLnv^a.y — "may they, never 
again suitoring nor even forming a 
party (here), sup their, very last here 
now ". With an aorist verb the parti- 
ciples of condition are often aor. also, 
as Z. 302 — 3 Tj d* agcc ninXov IXov- 
ffa .... -^-^xfiv; 0. 218 — 9 bI ai^ 
ivi (pQsal <9'^x' 'Ayapbif/ivovi . . . avztp 
icoinvvaoevTi, &omg otgvvcci *A%ai- 
ovg; SI, 48 aXX' 17 rot nXavcaq xal 
o.dvQfkiLBVoq fABd'irjTisv. Herm. (ad 
Viger. not. 262), whom Ni. and Lowe 
follow, ffives another construction, in 
which yi,7i and /inj^' are taken as one 
strengthened neg. applied to oiliXyiC. 
only, and fivr^azsva. stands as c=> the 
subj. of the sentence, — "may they 
who have come hither as suitors never 
form a party again, but sup etc." 
But the rhyming clauses imply a clo- 
ser parallelism in the relation of the 
words so linked than wd. allow of one 
being the subject {quasi (ivi^otiJQBg, 
rather more energetically put) and the 
other a jjart of the^ predication. In 
X. 613, ftjj zsxvrjaoifisvog ^rid* aXXo 
zi zsxv'jaaizo^ which Herm. cites, 
zB%vria. is further defined by the rel. 
clause. Off x. r. X., in 614; but in the 

similar rel. clause here (686) the tense 
changes to pres. The participial clause 
of condition, which is. there included 
in one word {zB%v7ie,)^ is here ex- 
panded into two (i) fii7 fivTjaT, (2) 
firid' .... OfitX., the one enhancing the 
other by (irid , rather stronger than 

686. xataxelQ€T€, this change of 
person from SBLnvrjasiav 685 is an 
angry apostrophe including in the 
reproach Medon, as abetting the 
suitors. This ethical point is enfeebled 
by reading dsinvrjcaizB in 685. 

687. datipQOvoq, see on a. 48. 

688. axovere takes for obj. the 
sentence olog 'OS, ia-KS x. t. X. For 
its tense see Donalds. Gr, Gr, 423 (3), 
"the present is used for the perf. in 
verbs which express the permanence 
of a state, or an impression, and its 
results. Such are anovm^ xXtio, etc., 
expressing the continuance of a per- 

689. Penel, implies that Medon was 
one of the younger generation, sym- 
pathizing chiefly with the suitors. 

690. Tiva and tc belong with i£a/- 
aiov equally to both clauses. 

691—2. iix' eCrl 6ixri, this phrase 
appears limited to the Ody. ; cf. note 
on J ^iftig iczl y. 45. — ex^'alQXiCi 
• • • • ifikolTi* In mar. are the passages 
given Jelf Gr. Gr, § 809, 2. in which H. 
interchanges the subjunct. and optat. 
mood. In all these Bek. edits either 
both subj. or both optat., thus ignoring 


OATSSEIAS A. 693-705. 

xstvog d' oii tcoxb Ttdiinccv dtddd'cclov'' avSga ibi^yetv 
alX* 6 (ihv v^EtSQog d'Vfiog xal asixea^ iQya 
595 (paivstat, ovdi tig ioti xdgt^g ilbx6%i0%^* evBgyitovJ^"^ 
T1J1/ 8^ avxB TCQog^HTCS MiStov^ 7C67tvvfiBva sldcig 
"a? yaQ dij, ficciJiksicc^ tods nlBt6xov xaxov bUti. 
dXXd TtoXv (iBt^ov XB xal dQyaXBcixBQOV aXXo 
livrjax'^QBg ypagovrat,'^ o fti) xbIbObib^ Kgovicov, 
700 Tt]U^axov^ liBfidaCt xaxaxxd^Bv 6g«r %aXx£j 

otxttSB« vv606(iBvov' o d' ifirj iiBxd naxQog^ dxov^v 
ig^ Ilvkov i^yad'Brjv ijtf' ig ^axBScci(iova StavJ' 

(Sg^ tpdxo^ X'^g d' avxov kvxo yovvaxa xal tpCXov 

Sy^v^ 6i (ivv d^g>a(Jiri inifov Idfis^ xd Sb ot icOB 

705 SuXQVOtpi 7tX7]0d'BVy d'CclBQI^ Sb ol IC^BXC^^ gXOVlj, 

a a. 13fl, y. 314, 

b X. Wo, W. 21, 

Si. 733. 
c /. 819. 
(1 /J. 367-8. 

(i. 34, 9. ft70, o. 
112, o. 30U, V. 
23({, 344. 

f d. 740, «. 18-20, 

o. 30. 
ff S. 181. 
Ii /?. 308, t t70, 

^. 43. 
i ». 20, a. 281-5, 

/*. 359, y. 326, v. 

k «. 207, 40fi, y. 

GH, 147, \D. 205, 

((I. 345. 

1 P.695-6, T.47>, ' 
*K30«— 7, X.2I7 

.-S,v.34S— 9;cr. 
«. 151—2. 
ni of », 542. 

693. fsj^mgysiv.^ 694. aJ^si-KScc figya. 
/ctdoSff. 7oi. J^oi'nads, 

695. svJ^SQyifov. 
704. ^snimv /ot. 

696. ngoaefems 
705. Jot. 

697. €^ Harl. Heidelb. Ambr. Bek. a? Scholl. Dind. Fa. Low. 701. vHaofiB- 

vov B. t^niraoficyoy Barnes. 702. rjfiad'irjv Rhian., Scholl. PI. P. 705. laxfiro 

Arist., Scholl. H. P. Q. 

the fact for which Jolf there finds 
reasons. The text here will hardly 
bear any such reasoninfi^ as Jelf ap- 
plies, and here even Rek. retains the 
moods different. See App. A. 9 (16) 
for some explanatory remarks. 

In the sentiment we have a pflimpse 
of *'the right divine {d'simv) of kinp^s 
to govern wrong'*, which wrought its 
usual effect. This confirms the tradition 
of the speedy downfall of the "heroic" 
monarchies throughout Greece as pro- 
bably a true picture of history; see 
the stories of migrations which Virgil 
has embodied in .l^'n. III. 399 — 402. 
Odys. is spoken of as a noble excep- 
tion, rather confirming than invalidat- 
ing the rule. 

693. iciffyeiv, this pluperf. has force 
of an aor., the perf. ^ogya retaining 
always its proper force "have done*'. 

694—5, B^fAoq xal ••• Bffyaj the 

one as expressed in the other; see on 
^ inog vi xi igyov, y. 99. Penelop5*s 
view of Medon as being of the hostile 
faction finds here complete expression. 
695. jCaQif, Lowe cites Soph. AJ. 
1283 9«v, xpv ^ccvovtog ag taxsid rig 

pgoxotg xdgi^S dia(|^£rx. t. I. and 
Plaut. Pfen. X. 17 Si quid bene facias, 
levior pluma est gratia, 

702. TjyaO'Briv, Buttm. LexU. 58, 
prefers the etymol. of ayav ^Btog^ in 
rind, aya'9'fiog, "used only of cities, 
countries and mountains, to which the 
idea of divine, sacred, belongs as a 
fixed epithet** : so diav here of Laced. 
•j[o5. i'axBXO, Arist. read I'ffXfTO =» 
iyBvsTO (Schol.) when d'ccXsgri would 
become a predicate, "became faint'*. 
In 699 inf, we have ?<xx« , but no trace 
of rtxfTO occurs in the parallel pas- 
sages (mar.) and the form lacks author- 
ity. There (mar. II.) ^aXsg"^, used of 
the voices of Antilochus and Eumelus, 
must be a general epith., as in the 
phrase d'ocXsgoiv ocl^rimv K, 259, and 
therefore here is probably not distinc- 
tive of a female voice, but rather 
meaning "vigorous'*. The opposite 
meaning of "effeminate** comes out 
in Q'ttlBgov Si ot i^nsas daxpv, B. 
266. Thus iaxsto qpoovw means ^^sound 
was stayed or stifled" (mid. for pass.), 
as by sobs — a stage beyond the 
dfi(poc<r^ri inioav, inability to utter 


OATLLEIAS A. 706-720. 

[day VI. 

a P. 466, w. 155, 

V. 321. 
b d. 481. 
c d. «81. 
d d. 665. 
e a. 225 mar. 
f K, 308, M. 156, 

N. 58, 110. 

er K. 27. 

h a. 97 mar. 
i |. 182, o). .93. 
k d. 677 mar. 
i cf. V. 263. 
mr. 201, V- 222; 

cf. y. 26-7. 
n X. 206. 
o y. 15-16. 
p fi. 215, 218, 264. 
q d. •^62 mar. 
r 6. 657 mar. 
s ^. 541 , O). 315, 

r. 282. 
t Z. 253, »f . 63. 
u 8. 329. X. 363, t. 

323, Z. 169; cf. 

^. 185. 
V r. 421, X. 136, 

f 269, o. 438. 
w jT. 152, ?F. 878. 
X T. 195, CO. 272; 

cf. 0. 253. 
y App. F. 2. (23). 
z X. 409, «. 543, 

(u. 59.' 
aa £. 889. 
bb /9. 293 mar. 

vi]c5v (6xvjt6Q(A)v^ i7ttpatve(i€v y at d'^ akdg l%noi, 
avS^d^i yCyvovxaVy 7C6q6cd6l dl Ttovkvv^ iq>*^ vyQtjv. 
12 iva ^7^6' ovofi^ avtov iv dvd'Qci^0L6L kiitijrac;^^ 710 

ti^v d' i^[i6ifi€t' iTCSita MiScDv,^ naTtvviidva sldcig- 
"o^x* old' ^ tig (itv d'sog Sqoqsv^^ ija xal avrov 
d'Vfiog iipcDQfiTjd'T]'^ tiiev ig IIvloVj og)Qa 7tv%^xai^ 
TtatQog iov t] vqOxov^ rj 3v riva 7t&r(iov^ iitianBvJ^ 

Sg^ &Qa ipcDVTJiJag aTtdfiij xata d(S(i' 'Odv6ijog. 715^ 

trjv d' axog^ dfiipsxv^ri^ %^iioq)%6QOv ^^ ovS'"" aqi* iz 

SC^QG) iq>it,eiS%'ai"^ TtoXXSv^ xard olxov iovtav^ 
dXV ap' ^jt'y ov8ov l^s nolvxiiTJtov d'aXd(ioco 
otxtQ*^ iXofpvQO^ivTi' ^bqI 81 S^coal ftti/vptgov** 
7ca6aLy oiJccL xatd S(6[iar' i6av viat^^ i^Sh jtakavaL 72c 

706. /« J^insGaiv ngoaifsLnsv. 711. J^eiSoig. 712. ov J^oi^d'. 714. ij^ov. 

717. foiaov. 

707. pro ovdl i]s interrog. Bek. annot. 712. fT rCg Dind. Low. CL ed. Ox. 

7J z£g Arist., Scholl. H. P. Q., ita Bek. Fa. 717. $C(pQOv Bek. annot. 

words 704. Virg. Mn, III. 308—9 has 
expressed it with variation thus 

Deriguit visn in medio: calor ossa 

Labitnr et longo vix tandem tem- 
pore fatur. 
707—8. fiiv XQ^^» see on a. 255. 
— iTtTtOi, "chariots"; cf. vatav dnrj- 
V7JV Eurip. Med, 11 19. Properly tn- 
not, (or titnto dual, £, 13, 19) is a 
chariot: but, as we cannot pmralize 
it further, *' chariots" would still be 
Tnicoi, The all but universal practise 
of chariot -driving instead of horse- 
riding in H. favours this. Still, from 
Pind. Isthm, IV. 5, vasq iv novztp xal 
iv agficcaiv Tnnoiy the simple sense 
of "horses" might well stand. In 
simile a ship runs like a team of four 
horses, and on the other hand Odys. 
bestrides a plank of his raft like a 
riding- horse {v. 8t, b. 371). 

712. ciQOQSy the more common word 
with da£n(0Vf d'sog etc. is (OQGSf as in 

rousing a hero to warlike effort etc. 
In &. 539 mgoge is not transitive. 

716. axo^ dfiq>ex»9 the metaphor 
is that of a cloud or mist involving 
a person, so ax^og v6(piX7j indlv^s and 
other like expressions. 

717—8. 6L€pQii> ic. T. X., she could 
not endure to take her chair of state 
[see App. F. 2 (20) (22)] and face the 
company, now numerous, under the 
shock which Medon's news gave her: 
she sank therefore with a piteous cry 
on the threshold of the ^'dXayi^og, — 
For TtoXvxfirixov see App. F. 2 (30). 

71^. 6fiioalj see App. A. 7 (i). — 
fiivvQi^ov probably a word based on 
vocal sound as the fiLVVQO[icci of 
^schyl. Agam, 16; cf. also ipi^vglifo 
and our "whine", "whimper", German 

720. TtdOaiy ocai k, t, X., we know 
that 12 of these were guilty of in- 
triguing with the suitors {%. 424), yet 
the comprehensive expression here 


0ATELEIA2 A. 721—729. 


rjj's d' aSivov^ yod&iSa (isttivSa nrivaXonBia 
**xAvrfi,^ (pilaf niQi ydq (lOL^Olv^TCiog akys^^ id(oxsv 
ix 7ta6i<ov S06CCV (lov dfiov tQccipsv^ i}d' iyivovto' 
4'® 7t(flv iihv 7t60iv i^d'Xdv andkeoa ^vfioXiovta ^^ 
725 navtoiyg dQ€tfj6i,« xsxaOfiivov^ iv jdavaot6iv 

[iad'Xdvy'^ tov xXhg s^qv xad'* ^EXlccda xccl (i66ov 

vvv av TtatS^^ AyccTtritdv avriQsCi^avto^ %iJBkktti^ 
axkia ix (leydQcsVy odd' 6pfiij'9'«Vrog" &xov6cc. 
exixliccv^^ o'dS' vfistg tcbq ivU g>Qs6l d'i6d'€ ixdarti 

a a. 92 mar. 
b ^ 495, B. 56. 
c ^.96, B. 375, 

n 241. 

d cf.(r.208, X.417, 

A. 251; cf. u. 

e d. 814-5. 
f X. 267, E. 639, 

H. 228. 
y O. 642. 
I) cf. J. 339. 
1 a. 844, d. 816. 
k «. 18. 
1 a. 241 mar. 
ni d. 515 mar. 
n d. 282. 
I) 0). 28, V^. 150, I. 

1) JV. 12!. 

729. J^sitdaTTj, 

721. tag ... TTpoffijvda Bek. annot. 722. 'OXvfiniOi ... ^dooxav Em. CI. ed. Ox, 
'OAvftwtOff ... IdwHtv Wolf., 'OAvfATftoff ... iScDKsv Harl. 726 f Arist., Schol. 
I* 395) redundare (collato 724) notant Scholl. H. Q., defendit Eustath., [] Bek. 
Dind. Fa. 727. dnoyitsivai fisfidaaiv Harl., supra scripts nostr. lect., quam 
Aristarcho tributam habent Schol. et marg., eandem Scholl. E. P. Q. 

seems to mean that even these were 
for the while overpowered by the force 
of their mistress* sorrow. 

721. T^c (f\ Ni. remarks that 
Thiersch rejects the S', alleging that 
the ending — fis ought, as is the rule 
in H., to have a vowel following, and 
that the nexus of Homeric sentences 
requires the 6* to be cancelled. No 
editor has ventured on following 
Thiersch. Indeed as regards the lat- 
ter argument we have with the dative 
sing, and other forms of the article 
not a few examples to the contrary 
e. g, f*. 1 01 — 4, I. 50—2. On ddivdv 
see App. A. 6 (2). 

7*3. XQd<pev '^6* iyiv*, see mar. 
for examples of similar ngmd'viStBQOv. 

726. This v., which appears to be 
genuine in 0. 80 and «. 344, where see 
note, is here condemned by the clumsi- 
ness of its coherence with 725, iv dav, 
being feebly repeated in xad' *E. xal 
[i. 'A, So in 816 inf. 

727. dvi^Qel^avro x. t. A., cf. a. 

241 and note, where the expression 
closely approaches this: in v, 66, 77 
both that and this appear blended 
{dvilovxo ^viXlcti .... Aqjcvicii dvfi- 
Qsifp*), Penel. in the wild surprise 
of her sorrow overstates with maternal 
vehemence the fact, suddenly realized. 

of TelemachusMeparture, and refuses 
to distinguish between such fact and 
her fears — inconsistently with her 
own calmer language by and by in 731 
—4 inf. ^ ,^ 

728. OQfifi&ivTO^ a., "did I hear 
(till now) of his having gone^\ The 
aor. is proper here, as also in |3. 375, 
marking the fact as kept from her for 
some time after its accomplishment: 
contrast with this 732 inf, si , , , nv- 
d'6firiv ogaaivovxa where *4f I had 
heard of nis meditating this voyage'*, 
is the sense , as shown by what follows. 

729. Cx^xXiai, this adj. occurs in 
H. mostly at beginning of line and in 
quantity aiHX,^ but axlhX, in V, 414 
It is always used of persons, save that 
iS%iTXici igya occurs several times with 
a range of meaning like that of La- 
tin ifnprobus, "harsh, unkind, brazen, 
pertinacious". In position, especially 
with a contrasted clause following 
coupled by ovdl^ it may be compared 
with vT^niog: both words are also often 
followed by a clause og x. t. X., stat- 
ine some act in which the quality of 
axir. or vqn, is involved. — nk(f seems 
rather to belong to iniatdfisvai'y it re- 
flects, however, the force of that par- 
ticiple at once on vfistg; "you did 
not, though you ought, ... as knowing, 
etc.*' see on a. 59. 


0AT22EIAS A. 730—740. 

[day VI. 


a K. 138. 
b J. 404. 
c y. 365; cf. 

300, T. 331. 
(1 y. 169. 
c l. 68, V. 403, r. 

f p. 212, a. 322, 

w. 222, 3S7, 409, 

g- (T. 351. 
h 1^. 228. 
i V^. 139, 359. 
k v.334;cl.v.411, 

E. 889. 
I d. 678 mar. 
m (J. 700 mar. 

iTi XexBcuv /Lt' avByalQai^^ i%i6xd^Bvai^ odtpa ^vftcJ, 73c 

b^TCoz^ axetvog ^/Siy xoUrjv^ i%l v^a ^ilaivav. 

si yctQ iy(Q 7tvd'6^i]v xavtriv bSbv oQiiaivovta^^ 

tip KS [idV ri x€v lii£LV€, xoi i66vfisv6g tcbq odotOj 

ij xd iLB XB^vrixvlav ivl iLBydgoLCSLV^ bIbitcbv. 

alXd ng 6tQriQ(Sg dokCov^ xaXiOBis ysQOvra^ 735 

d[ic5' i^ovj ov [lOL iS(oxs TtanqQ ixt^ Sbvqo xlovotj,^ 

xaC (lov x'^TCOv i^Bv xolvdivSQBOv ^^ 0{pQa td%i0ta 

Aaigxri xdSa ndvxa jcaQB^oiiBvog^ xaxaki^ri, 

bI Srj nov xiva xstvog ivl (pQBOl [I'^xtv^ vqyrjvag 

^gcAO'cov kccot0LV oSvQBxaij di ybB^daOiv^^ 74c 

730. /LtaXa (cf. y. 313, '^. 185) Harl, sed supra adtpa, ita marg. et Schol., cf. 
J. 404. 732. OQfLTj^ivTU nonnuUi perperam, SchoU. H. P. 734. rs^vrivtav 
Bek, Fa. juxta Thiersch., ts&vrj'Kviav Dind. Low., qui tamen in X. 84, 141, 
205 literam x rejiciunt in 'Kuzatsd'v, 735. ozgijQog Eustath. Heidelb. Ambr. 

Ern. CI. ed. Ox. ozgrjgdig var. 1. ap. Schol. V, et MS. Aloysii, ita Harl. vulg. 
Wolf. 736. drntis Eustath. 

732. OQfiaiv* i. e. tpgiaiv^ "meditat- 
ing" (mar.) 

735. AoXiov* This trusty servant 
of Penel. who tends her garden, has 
a son Melanthius , and a daughter Me- 
lanthC (mar.), the former goat-herd to 
Odys., but taking part with the suitors 
against him, as does the latter, who 
has been petted and spoilt by Penel., 
and repays her by insolence, even 
becoming the concubine of Eurymachus 
the suitor (0.325). The question whether 
the Dolius of oo., who with his Sicilian 
wife and six sons forms a complete fa- 
mily, is the same as this one, is of doubt- 
ful solution. It appears (J. 451) that 
Penel. and Laert. had some joint owner- 
ship in or authority over the slaves of 
Odys.; and that there should be two, 
both yigovtsg, both gardeners, one with 
Penel. and one with Laert., and yet the 
former summoned to take him a message 
is unlikely. On the other hand Dolius 
here is called by Penel. her "own slave 
whom her father gave her when she 
first came to Ithaca;" whereas. Laer. 
had his own house and establishment, 
a ysgag or tsfisvog with a mansion (Fa. 
on OD, 207 ; cf. p. 102), with a numerous 
body of slaves "who did his pleasure", 
and whose society he shared (co. 205 
— 10, TT. 140 — i). It is not likely that 
the one who was by age his fittest 
companion (co. 498 — 9) and had been 

the longest with him —r the head, in 
short, of his slave - household — should 
have been his daughter-in-law's pro- 
perty, and the one most frequently 
away, as a confidential servant of 
Penel. must have been. The Dolius 
whom she sent would certainly have 
rettirned to her; but the Dol. of Laer. 
knows nothing of her more than others, 
and suggests that some one shall be 
sent, not offering to go, to carry news 
to her of her husband's return (0.403 — 
5). Further, the treatment of Melantho 
{a. 322 — 3) by Penel. would rather sug- 
gest that she had lost her mother (cf. 
V. 67 — 8), and then she could not well 
be daughter to Laertes' Dolius, whose 
wife was living {m, 389). These que- 
stions will be further considered under 
the passages referred to in 00. 

740. OifvQBTai, subj. shortened 
epice. The sense is "to see if he 
will", in which sense the phrase is 
usually led by at ms, as in A. 408, 
420. See on a. 204 for subj. with sL 
In all parts of this verb H. has «, 
but odw-q and mSvaao from odvaeo- 
fiat (a. 62). In oi fiepidaai, Penel., 
her fears still exaggerating the facts 
(see on 727 sup.), imputes to all the 
Xaol a share in the suitors' design; 
cf. what Telem. says of the 'A%aiQl^ 
pLvriGTrigBg 8\ ficcliata^ p. 265 — 6; for 
Xaol see on fi, 13; the Schol. errs in 


OATELEIAS A. 741—757. 


6V xccl ^OSv6(Srjog (p^taai ydvov avxid'ioLoJ^ 

Ti)i/ d' ttvxB TtQoqhmB (pCXri^ tQoq)dg EvQiixketa 
"vvfiipa^ (pCkri^ 0v [ihv &q (is xardxtccvB vriliv^ xakx^^ 
ri Sa'^ €v (leyaQp' (ivd'ov S^ rot ovx iTaxsvaca.^ 

745 n**' ^y^ '^«*^ Ttdvtaj nogov Si of Zoc' ixikBVBv^^ 
(Strove xal (iddi) T^Sv' i^iBV d^ bXbto^ (liyav oqxov 
(iiq^ TtQiv 60L BQiBiv Ttglv dcDdBxdrrjv ys yBvio^uL^ 
ij (T* avf^v Tto^ioai xal dq)OQin]d'ivtog axov6ai^ 
fijg av (11^ xXaCovOa xatd XQoa xakov^ idTtryg, 

750 dXX*^ vSQftivaybivri^ xa^agd %qoX stiiad'* skovOa^^ 
sig^ V7CBq£^ dvafidiJa 6ifv d(i<pL7t6koi0i yvvai^lv 
BV%B* ^A^vaCy xovgy J(.6g alyi6%oio'^ 
fl ydQ xiv (itv Mbctcc xal ix %avdxoio aaciaai, p 
(irjdh yigovra xdxov xsxaxcD^iBvoVi od ydg 6td[ 

755 ndyxv"^ d'BoZg^ iiaxdQBCftjt yovrjv ^AQXBL0idSao^ 

lX^B6^\^ dlk^ hv 7C0V trtff inifS^Bxai og xbv ixyiSiv 
ddfLaxd"^ d"' v^BQB(pBa xal inoTtQO^i'^ nCovag dygovg,^^ 

a ti. 3til. 
b r. 130. 
c d. 507, jf. 532, X. 
45, ^ 418, a, 8K, 

?i.*8U0, jf . 475, in 
/. undecies. 
d /*. 281, J. 42. 
e o. 203, d. 350 

f /». 340-65. 
f? w. 265, o. 533 
hX. 119. 
i fi. 373 — 6 mar. 
k V. 308, 430, T. 

203, CI). 44. 
1 d. 750, Q. 48, 58. 
m t 61. ^ 
n a. 362 mar. 
o ri). 520, 547, E. 

7:i3, 0. 384; cf. 

C. 105 mar. 
|» or. y. 231. 
4 ^ 137, A. < 

00; cf. n. 

V. 09. 
r ^ 182. 
s X. 74, a. 82, c. 

188, 9. 326, v. 

55, <T. 420. 
t (u. 517, ^. 118; 

0). 270. 
u cf. Z. 140. 
V 17.85, 225, X. Ill, 

t. 526. 
w ff^. 832, I. 35, 

». 660, d. 811, 

c. 80, t. 18. 


741. fov, 742. ngoaifsiTte, 745. Jiy^fi' /o*. 746. j^ijdv. 747. J^egisiv, 

750. J^sifici^'^ 

741. md'ivai Harl. ex. emen^, qp^ficf'd'ai {tpQ'iaO'tti Bek. annot.) do|Ltot;*SchoI. M. 

744. p Ti Em. CI. ed. Ox. Si zoi Harl. Wolf.^ 745. hilsvae Em. CI. ed. 

Ox. iKiksvBv Wolf. xeXfivfiv. Bok. 753. aacoaei Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 

acemaai. Heidelb. Harl, et Schol. H. Steph. Wolf. 756. &x&Ba^' Schol. B. 

supposing them the suitors , an appeal 
to the people is intended, as at p. 228 
— 41 by Mentor. 

743—4. vyfi€pa, shortened vocat. 
from nom. vvpLfpT}, — iq ia, "or let 
me (live)": the var. led. rj ia (i. pers. 
impei^f. for fiv), "who was in the pa- 
lace", is somewhat tame, especially 
when we come to ^Ss' ... ndvToc. Obs. 
that in ida the 3. sing, ia, i. pi. iA- 
fisv, 3. pi. idaovOiv {E. -256, K, 344, 
9' '^33)i all sufler synizesis in the tirst 
two vowels. Some forms of this verb 
were similarly pronounced in Attic 

746. ifiiev 6' bX. fiiy* oqx. the same 
expression occurs with dat. of pers, 
(mar.), T^coatv d' oti , , 09x01/ FXcofiat. 

749. ia^tvi^g, Ni. says the optat. 
would be fitter, but the subj. is prefer- 

able, as having a lively transition to 
pres. time; see App. A. 9 (12); **he 
bound me not to ( and I have not 
told) that you may not by wailing etc." 
754. xdxovy imper. pres. xaxoe 
contracted, "do not worry him already 
worried". We should here rather ex- 
spect the impcrat. aor. xaxoxroi/; but 
Ni. on a similar pres. imper. fisid^ccBo 
in y. 96, says the pres. imper. may 
stand in prohibitions of an action be- 
fore purposed, if one supposes this 
purpose as already adopted, or the 
action as already previously present 
in the thought. This is especially the 
case in references to a preceding state- 
ment of such purpose". He then refers 
to this passage. The statement of the 
purpose is that given by Penel. 737 — 
40 sup. 


0ATSSEIA2 A. 758—773. 

[day VI. 

a d. 440; cf. •. 

384, n. 524. 
b d. 186. 
c J. 801, t. 268. 
d d. 750 mar. 
c a. 362 mar. 
f y. 445, 447, A. 

449, 458, B. 410, 

ST C. 323. 
h C, 324, B. 157, 

E. 115, 714, JSC. 

284, *. 420. 
i t. 366, A. 40, 

O. 373. 
k y. 101, d. 331. 
1 V. 259; cf. ^.8, 

£. 908. 
m fi. 266. 
n X. 348. 
o y. 450 mar. 
p n. 531. 
q cf. d. 831. 
r a. 365 mar. 
s /?. 324, 331, d. 

772, o. 482, V. 

375, «). 361, t//. 

t V- 149. 
u cf. a. 277,/*. 196. 
V a. 382, /J.45, i*. 

wr. 170— 1,11/. 162. 
X 2. 405. 

(Sg (pdto^ trig 8' avvri6s^y6ov^ 0%i%s S' o66s^ yooio: 
ri^ 8^ vSgrivaybivri^ Tta^aga %qoX sXiia^* skov0a^ 
slg^ vTtSQ^^ avifiatvs avv d^tpiTtoKoi^v yvvac^lv , 
BV 8' id'st ovkoxvxaq^ xavsG), t^qccto^ 8' ^jddijvTi' 
"kXv^'C^ fisvy alyioxoio dtbg tdxos dtQvtaivfj. 
sH Tcoti roc jtoXviii^tLg ivl [isyaQOt^tv '08v66€vg 
^' fioog 12 ol'og xatd nCova [ifiQi' SxijbVj 
tcSv ^ vvv (lOL (iv^^at , xa£ ^ol q>Ckov ^ via d&ioOov , 
[ivriiJtiJQag^ d' aTcdkalxs^ xaxdg vTca^rivoQiovragJ^ 

cSg bI%ov6' 6l6kvi,£^^ d^ad 8dP ol ixXvev^ dgrig. 
yLvriCtHQsg^ d' 6(id8fi6av dvd (isyaQa CmoBvxa- 
(d8s^ 86 tig st7ce6KB vbcdv vnsQTjvoQeovtGiV' 
"if fidXa 8iq ydfiov a^^iL 7tokv[ivfJ6tri^ ^aaCkaia 
dgrvsi^^ ov8i ti o18bv o^ of (povog vh rhvxrat.^' 

(Sg^^ &QCC tig eUTteaxs^ xd 8' ovx ATav,* (6g irarvxto. 
rotffiv d" ^AvtCvoog dyo^6ato xal (latdavnav 



759. fBifvad'', 

767. J^Binova* foi. 
772. ov ^ieav. 

769, 772. fs£ns6'iis. 
773. iLStifsvnsv. 

"J "J I. J^OL$Bv foi. 

762. liXv^l (lOL Barnes.* 

765. adfoaai Vr. 767. avdTJg Bek. annot. 771. 
aQTVvsL Barnes. ^ 

758. yoov • . yooio, this repetition 
offends by its tameness. voov should 
probably be read. It is unusual to 
find yooio applied to the eyes; but our 
double use of the verb "to cry" may be 
compared, also the scriptural expres- 
sion **he wept aloud" or "lifted up his 
voice and wept".^ Eurip. Pkaen. 1583, 
has SanQVCc yoBQct, so 801 inf. yooio 


761. ovXoxvraq, see App. A. 3, 
and y. 447 note. 

762—3.^ dzQVzwvy, see App, E. 4 
(14). — ivl fiey.j Ni. regards this as 
an indication that Pallas* worship was 
established in the family of Odys., 
which is confirmed by K. 571. 

763. 'OifvCOevqy it is characteristic 
of Penel., in whose thoughts he is ever 
uppermost, that she does not say "if 
/ have ever", but "if Odys. has ever 
sacrificed etc.", yet adds iioi itv^acci 
%ctC fioi X. T. A., thus identifying her- 
self with him. 

766—8. aTtdXaJixSy cf. dXaXyiofii- 
VTjig (mar.) epith. of Pallas. 6X6Xv§€, 
for this cry of adoration see on y. 450. 

The suitors evidently hear it from above 
(App. F.«z (32), and recognize it as an 
act of worship, but put their own inter- 
pretation on the prayer which, they 
infer, it accompanies, ol following 
is daiivus commodi (Lowe). OfiddfjiJav 
denotes their exultation. For <Jxed- 
tvra see App. F. 2 (19). 

769. See on p. 324. 

770-1. The atrocity of the suitors 
is perhaps more effectively expressed 
in these two lines than in any part of 
the poem. They 'Surmise that Penel. 
is about to comply with their wishes, 
and choose one of them in Odysseus' 
room, yet they never relent for a 
moment frotn their plot against her 
son^s life, but show a diabolical exulta- 
tion in her unconsciousness of the blow 
prepared for her. This is a striking 
example of the effectiveness of simple 
touches by wh. a great poet makes 
his characters paint themselves. For 
S quod see on a. 382. 

772. 'ioav short for ^aav, 3 . pi . pluperf. 
of pres. perf. olSa: in all other places 
of H. save those noted (mar.) teav is 


OATSSEIAZ A. 774—786. 


8ai(i6vtoL, (ivd'ovg (liv vjtSQ^idlovs dXiMd'S 
775 ndvtag^ 6/LiQg, ^ij nov tlq inayyeiXyac^ xal ettJca.' 
aAA' &y€ (Ttyj^ totov avuiSxdvxsg rslicafiBV 
(ivd'ovg d^ xal TcdiJiv ivl (pgealv fJQagev Tq^itv." 

dig bIjkqv ixQCvaz '" isUoiSi^ qxSrag dgCexovg^ 
pdv« S* ievaL inl v^u d'orjv xal %'ivtt d^akdaarjg. 
7 Ho ttiqa^ (ihv ovv TcdfiXQazov Hog fiivd-ogSB igvcaavy 
iv S' loxov r' ixi^evxo xal tdtia vijl (lelaivyy 
riQxvvttvto S' iQSXiid^ xgoTCotg iv d£Q(iaxivoL0Lv^ 
Tcdvxa ^ xara ^olgav * dvd 0*' texCa kevxd nixaiSiSav * 
•rfvjjea"' Si 6q>' ijveixav vjti(fd^iAOL ^egdnovxeg. 
7 85 v^ov" 8^ iv voxip^ xijv y' Sg^iGav^ ix d* ifiav avxot- 
ivd'a Si SoQTtovv bXovxo^ (levov S* inl edTCSQov ild'Ctv^ 

402, rifii), 

n \p. 332.. 

b a. 229. 

c ol'. d. «75-!». 

il n. 301 , a. 209, 

c d. 530 mar. 
f o. 2s0 

o. V05. 
h &. 51-4, d. 577 

— H mar. 
i cf. ^. 37. 
k ^. 54, A. 480; 

cf. App. F. 1 (10) 

(13) mar. 
I /r. 320, 3(10. 

m o. 21t>. 

n ^.55; cI'.m.SI?, 

X 77. 
o y. 11; cf.jrf.811, 

V. 715. 
p ^ 347, H. 466. 
q a. 422, a. 305. 

778. femmv iJ^eiKOCi. 780. J^igvooav. 786. J^icmgov, 

775. wa^ Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., nov Harl. Wolf., mox dnccyyBUva ox emend. 
Harl. Bek., inayysilriai CI. od. Ox. Dind. Fa. Low. 777. svaoiv Schol. H. 
783. l9v%' inixaaaav Eustath. Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 783. f Harl., abun- 
flare notat Schol. M., [] fiek. Dind. Low. 784. a(piv ivsiKav Barnes. Em. 

01. ed. Ox. Bek., a(p' ^veinav Eustath. Harl. Rom. Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. 785. 
sivodlfo Aristoph. (sive, ut Lehrsio placet, bIv6$iov\ Scholl. B. E. H. P. Q., /x 
o ifav Vr. et tres Harl., ^v 8* ifiav cseteri omnes. 

for TjlCaav 3. pi. imp. of «2fit; so m, 
II, cf. 13. 

774—5. daifiavioi is in H. a word 
of reproach, cf. Satnovis (mar.), xdt^ 
xaq, Lowe refers this rightly to (iv- 
^ovsy **all words alike (dfiwff)", i. c. 
concerning both the ydfiog and the 
tpovog (770 — 1). Ni., after Voss, in- 
clines to tqaA ndvxsg (vfiiCg)'^ but this 
soems less forcible. 

776-7. CiY^ xoloVi see on a, 209, 
and, for Antinous^ caution and yet 
contempt of Telem. here, App. E. 6 
(2). — TlQugev, Buttm. Chr. verbs s. v, 
dQCCQiofUo notes the intrans. sense (as 
here) of this redut)licated aor.; in 77. 
214 both this and the transit, sense 
are shown, cofi ots toCvov ivrjQ dgag^j 
... mg dgagov nogvi'Bg. Buttm. ibid. 
compares with the present passage A, 
136 agcavxBq naroc dvfiov, J, e. i(^ rm 
yigqif also p, 353 nmfLCcaiv dgaov dnav- 
tag, and e. 95 f^gagB Q'vy^hv iSatdrj-j 
adding, *4t is clear that dgiayta) dgiacoy 
which is used in the same sense, co- 
mes from APSl with inflexion -^aoa." 

780—5. For the various naval details 
here see App. F. i (6) (7) (10) (13), 
and especially (9) note ** for 783, and 

ROM. OD. I. 

(8) for tsvxBa 784. With iv votitp cf. 
Eurip. Bee, 1241 Pors. novxCa voxlg. 
For the vulg. iv S* ffiav should be read 
with the Vr. and three Harl. mss. itt d^ 
i^av^ as in y. 11. In ^. 52—5 the same 
lines (with the omission of 784 and the 
change of ovv ndfingrnxov into ot ys 
fiiKatvav) recur verbatim as far as mq- 
fi^eavy when follows ccvxdg instxa pcev 
j* Hfisv *AX%i,v6oi.o ... ig iiiya dmfiu, in 
which house they banquet. To read iv 
makes the crew sup ^ on board here, 
besides making dvapdvxsg superfluous 
in 842 inf. Now, although in exigen- 
cies food must have been eaten on 
board (x. 80, cf. p. 431— 3), it was an 
unheard of thing to do so with one^s 
ship in harbour. They do not start 
finally until evening, although they 
ship the tackle etc. now. Having then 
to wait inl ^ansgov iX&sCVf nothing 
would have been gained cither in time 
or in secrecy (since their embarcation 
by daylight must have been noticed) 
by supping on board: so they t^ot out 
(?x) and supped hd'a 'Uhere^y i. e. 
on the shore, 779. v'^pov need not im- 
ply such distance from shore as to 
cause a difficulty in their landing. 



OATSSEIAS A. 787-796. 

[day VI. 

a o. 517, App. F 

2 (32) mar. 
b t- 250, T. 346. 
c •. 201, X. 384, o. 

ti03, J. 780. 
d cl. «. 87, X. 5S. 
e o. 300. 
r X. 514. 
g-it. 311, 366, V. 

79, B. 2; cf. a. 

364, X. 31, r. 28?. 
h a. 189. 
i t. 371. 
k yj. 343. 
I (i. 382 mar. 
m£. 449, ff^. 104; 

cf. |. 495, «. 87, 

CO. 12, 14. 
n V, 288, n. 157, 

V. 31. 

KStx^ &q' &0trog^ cinaarog^' iSi^tvog'' i^Sh jror^rog/ 

6Q[iaLVOv0' ^ si' ol &dvatov q)vyoi vCog dfivficavj 

iq o y^ vno iivrj0T'^Q6tv v7t£Q(pidXoL6i Sa^ieirj. 79c 

006a dh (i€Q^TJQtl^€ Iscov ccvSqcjv^ iv 6(iUg} 

SsL0ccg^ oTtTtots iiLv SoXtov 7C€qI xvxlov Syo0cv, 

%600a ^Lv 6QnaLvov0av iitrjlvd'S v^dvfiog^ vjcvog' 

svds^ 8' &vaKkiv%'6i0a^^ lv%^Bv^ Ss ol a^ea ndvra. 

ivQ'' ^ avx* akX' iv6ri0€ &€d ykavxc57tig '^dTJT/rj • j(^j 
stdcDkov"' noiri0s^ ds(iag 8' ijixto yvvatxt," 

789. /ot. 793. J^TjdviLOg. 794. /ot. 796. J^sidcoXov r^fi%zo, 

787. ita Harl. Flor. Steph. Wolf., vn^gqi' ava^aaa Eustath. Ven. Ambr. Barnes. 
Ern. Cl. ed. Ox. 788. xftr' ag' avavSog Rhian., SchoU. H. P., uci^xog de- 
fendit Eustath. 792. ayovci Harl. 793. iniXXafis Barnes. Em. Cl. ed. Ox., 
imilvQ'B Eustath. Harl. Rom. var. 1. Steph. Wolf. 796. MiSrj pro Sifiag Hem- 
sterhusius ad Lucian. d. d. p. 270 (Bek. annot.) secutus Schol. M. ad 797. 

787 — 841. The poet reverts again to 
Penel. in the upper chambet, lying 
weary and sorrow-sick, till sleep over- 
comes her; Pallas then sends a phan- 
tom in the form of her sister, who 
soothes her anxiety about her son, but 
on her enquiring about her husband 
vanishes into thin air. 

788. For aCiTOq Rhianus gave avav- 
8ogy objecting tautology to &6iz. anaax. 
X. X, X. Yet the oiaixog is merely para- 
phrastically expanded by anocaxog id. 
following, as nocxQO(povrja a. 299 by 300 : 
noz-qtog moreover adds to the idea. 

791. kictiv, Eustath. says, a lion, not 
with his courage up, but fearful, un- 
decided and inactive, is meant in this 
simile: by this he would alleviate the 
diversity of sex. But Homer's sense 
of creature - sympathy carries him far 
beyond such considerations in his com- 
parisons; see that of Menel. to a bereav- 
ed dam, and to a fly, (fem.) in P. 4, 
5, and 570—1. See also d. 457 and 
note. Ni. says that the poet aims at 
laying before us not an imposing whole 
but a single feature. Better, Homer's 
simile's are mostly not so much in- 
troduced for the sake of illustration 
as they are the spontaneous rebound of 
poetic sympathy from the human scene 
which he is describing to the scenes 
of nature, and the " single feature " is 

the link of poetic keeping which pre- 
vents them from being irrelevant. Yet 
neither must we exclude the element of 
illustration, as in the workmen with 
the wimble, applied to the boring oat 
Polyphemus* eye, the tanner and his 
crew, to "the tug of war" over Pa- 
troclus' corpse (t. 384—6, P. 389 foil.); 
and such are mostly very close in their 
resemblances. Both elements may per- 
haps be found in many. 

792—3. xvxkoVy "circle" of men, 
dogs etc.: perhaps the Highland '*Tin- 
chel". Lady of the Lake, vi. 17. A 
Schol. says it = 8C%xvov. — viqdvfiioq, 
Buttm. Leant, 81 believes this to be 
nothing but an ancient error for the 
digammated /ijdvftog, arising from the 
separable v of a preceding word ad- 
hering to it when the f was lost; see 
App, A. 21. 

796. ei6ii>kov, visions, and phantom 
appearances in H. are all conceived of 
as having an objective reality and a 
substance, "of such stuff as dreams 
are made of," and their form, although 
arbitrary, is always human (Penelope's 
dream r. 536 foil, is hardly an exception, 
see 549 )• Thus Nestor's form is adopted 
by the ovBigog in B. 6 foil., as Iphthime's 
here. Similar in character are the Bt- 
dcaXa by which in the battles of the 
II. a deity imposes on an enemy (£. 


OATSLEIAL A. 797—799. 


a jc. 105->6, 0. 364. 

I) a. 329 mar. 

c B. 714. 

d B. 711. 

d. 5&5. 

r /y. 894 mar. 

798. ^Oi%ia, 

Post 796 Vindobon. xaZJ re ybBydXia ts xal dykaa igy' slSv^rj. 797. 'iw^iar^ 
nom. prop. Eustath. Heidelb. et omnes edd., dubitasse Arist! ^^noxBQov inivs- 
zov ri xvptov" monet Schol. P. 798. onvi Harl, **qasB vera et antiq. forma 

videtur*', Pors. 

449 foil., X, 337, 298 — 9). But further, 
Pallas herself appears to Nausicaa in 
the person of a female friend, and 
there the same goddess, whose massive 
weight oppressed the axle of Diome- 
des* car. modifies herself to be aWftov 
(og nvoirj, just as the figure here enters 
and departs without moving door or 
bolt (naga nXrjC6oc or ulrjCSog tfiavray 
S, 838, 802), and vanishes Ig nvoiocg 
avifioiv. Still the objective reality of 
the goddess* figure is plain, and this 
tenuity of substance, indicated only 
in the moments of appearance and of 
departure, points to the fact that the 
ovBiQog, like the el^dmkov on the field, 
exists not beyond the purpose of the 
moment and the physical state of the 
dreamer. Other formulaic tokens of the 
oveiQog are its "standing above the 
head'\ t. e. appearing hovering in air, 
and addressing the dreamer, '^sleepest 
thou?'' To some such substance the de- 
parted soul is compared (k. 207, 232, ^P*. 
100, 104), called also stStoXov^ and such 
souls and dreams have alike the epith. 
dfiivrjvog. In Hes, Theog. 211 — 12 
Night bare Qdvaxov, tins S' '^Tnvov, 
hinxB 9h (fvlov 'OvsiQmVy unbegotten 
by any father. In JI. 672, 682 Death 
and Sleep are twin brothers ; cf. Virg. 
/Em, VI, 278 consanguineus Lethi Sopor: 
so (3r. 231, Theog, 756, 758 — 61, where 
their joint abode is, like the Oim- 
mcriau land of X* 14 — 9, unvisitod by 
the sun's rays, either rising or setting. 
So in o>. 12 the $^fiog ovBigmv is a 
stage on the road to Hades; and 
Virgil. Mn, VJ. 283 foil, makes his 
Somnxa roost **in numbers numberless" 
beneath the boughs of a massive elm 
in the entry of Hades. So the famous 
double dream -gate of t. 562 foil, is 
objectively the exit of dreams from 
the world of shadows, and again as 
it were subjective to the sleeper, xnf. 

809, who is said, although in her own 
chamber , to slumber h ovBiQBlfiai nv- 
Xfiai. So the 'tpvxv of Patroclus, not 
being itself an ovocg^ appears to the 
sleeping Achilles; and Pallas appears 
to Telem., and again to Odys., she 
being no ovap, and they being not 
even asleep: yet here the situation 
governs the manner of the appearance, 
and we find the formula trr^ d' ag^ 
vnhg X£qp., and in Patroclus' case the 
question evdsigy wh. in that of the 
waking Odys. seems to find its equi- 
valent in x£nx' avx* iyg'^aestg (^P*. 65 
foil., V. 30 foil.). The many well at- 
tested tales of the appearances of the 
dead or absent wh. bewilder modern theo- 
ries of psychology would be simply ac- 
cepted, if current in Homer's day, and 
fall naturally into a place in his my- 
thology. Ponel. dreams of her husband; 
and thus her dream - life has more so- 
lace than her daily life, and seems to 
be weaning her thoughts from things 
visible. Cf. her prayer to Artemis — 
commencing in a petition to the god- 
dess, but passing off into a rhapsody of 
meditation on what she suffered by day 
and dreamed by night (v. 61 foil.). So 
she expects to remember **even in a 
dream'* the home of her youth (t. 541, 
581). Dreams are sent by Zeus, or 
other god, or by a 9a£fi<ov (d. 831, 
v. 87), and may be true or false, or 
even intended to deceive (ovXogj x. 562 
foil., B. 6, cf. 80-1). The word 
nanog applied to them may mean de- 
lusive, or, of evil omen {v. 87, K. 406). 
Hence the function of the oveigonoXog 
{A, 63, cf. £. 149); cf. oveigofiavxig 
.^schyl. Choeph. $^ Dind. 

797 — 8* *tV^f'f^Xi9 Arist. doubted 
whether this was a common or a prop, 
noun. See mar. and cf. ^aiSiiiog ijgoiig 
(Fa.). — EvfAfi^og, son of Admetus 
and Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, led 


0ATS2EIAS A. 800-815. 

[day VI. 

a e. 386, C- 80, (. 

376, *. 367. 
c Q. 7—8, (p. 228, 

w. ml cf. d. 

758, 812. 
d App.A. 15,mar.; 

cf. V' 201. 
e i. 21, V. 32, B. 

20, 59, K. 496, 

»if. 68, S2. 682. 
f B.23,60, 'I'. 69. 
^^.298, a. 114 

h a, 280, P. 641. 
i «. 122, Z. 138. 
k T. 335. 
1 V. 333. 
m d. 378, ¥^.595; 

cf. ft, 317. 
n t. 562. 

X. 93—4; cf. ^. 

p 9, 88, uf. 553. 
q ti. 55, d. 384; 

cf. I. Ib9. 
r •. 80, (. 18, d. 

s «. 517. 

1 3. 120 mar., a. 
294 mar. 

u d. 724—5 mar. 



6LG)s^ IlrivsXonsiav 6SvQ0(isvriv^ yoocooav 

navOBLB^ xXavd'iioto yooio re SaxQvoevtog. 

is d-dXaiiov d' sig^lds naga xXi^tSog [(idvta^^ 

axii^ d' &q' vnhg X€(paX'^g, xai fitv ngog fivd-ov isLJcav 

"BvSavg^^ IlfivskoTCSLa ^ tpikov^ xaxLTHi&vti ijrop; 

ov^ (iTJv <j' ovdi ifSci d'soV gsta ^ciovrsg 

xkaCsiv ovd^ aKi%ri6%'ttLi^^ insC q* ire v60tLii6g^ icxiv 

Cog Tcatg- ov fihv ydg xi d'sotg dkvxrjfisvog^ iaxCvJ^ 

x'qv d" i^fiSLfisx' inaixa 7iSQCq)QGiV UrivsXojtsta^ 
i^Sv (idXa xvdOfSove* iv dvstQsifiOL nvXyOiv^ 
"r^jTTfi,® xaoiyvfjxri, devg' '^Xvd'sg; ov rt jrapogP ys 8ic 
nmXf^^ inai fidla nolXbv diconQod'v^ Sdfiaxa vaCstg- 
xaC (16 xiksai icavGaCd'ai oJA^vog ijd' ddwdcov 
TtoXXeov^ at ft' igsd'ovev^ xaxd^ q)Qiva xal xaxd ^vfiovy 
^'" nglv fihv noccv iad-Xov aTteiksaa d-vfioXsovxa ^ 
navxoiyg dgsx^OL xsxaafiivov iv davaotaiv 81: 

803. ij^smsv. 809. J^Tidv. 

800. sUnmg Barnes. Em. 01. ed. Ox., simg Harl. et Schol. H. ita Wolf. 806. dua- 

Xija^at Ascalonita, SchoU. H. P., et ex emend. Harl., ita Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. 

811. noaXs^ £rn. 01. ed. Ox., naif Barnes. Wolf., ntoXsai Harl., nmki'^ Thiersch. 

812. nilrj Barnes. Em. 01. ed. Ox., nilsai Harl. Wolf. 

troops in the Catalogue (mar.) from 
Pherse and laolcus. This connects the 
Trojan story with that of the Argo; see 
Eurip. Med, 5,6. In Eurip. Alcest. 393 
foil, he is introduced as a child be- 
wailing his mother. 

800. eiiaqy for ontoq (Eustath.), for 
other examples see mar. : the distinction 
between an action tending to produce 
a result, and one to continue until the 
result has been attained, is easily^ con- 
founded, for instance often in oeppor; 
cf. the use of **tiH" in the Irish- 
English common speech. 

802—3. xkiiidpq IfMjdv,, see App. 
A. 15. — OX71 ... VJtkQ, see on 796 sup, ; 
cf. Herod. Vll. 17, ovsigov .... vtcbq- 
atav . . , tov 'Agtapdvov bItcb (Ni.). 

805. The hiatus ovdh imai might 
be avoided by transposing imat to the 
end, but s in hiatus in the 2°'^ foot 
is found B, 8 oils "Ovblqs, F, 46 rotos- 
ds idiv, E, 3io diitpl dl oaas, T, 288 
^ooov iiiv as ^Xsmov (Hoffmann Quaest, 
Horn. pp. 92—3). — i^eia gQ>.^ not the 
securum agere aevum of Hor. Sat. I. v. 
loi, following Lucret. VI. 57, which 
is quite against the abundant theurgy 

of H., but expressing an absence of 
effort in whatever they do, as compared 
with mortals; see on 197 sup,; cf. gsia 
li,dX' mg T€ d-sog, T. 444, jalso x. 573. 
So ^schyl. Suppl, 93 nav anovov dat- 
fiovlav; see also Nagelsb. I. § 9. 

806—7. dxdxv^»9 the participle of 
this perf. is irreg. in accent, being 
proparox. as if pres., which sense the 
infin. here bears : so dXccXi^fisvog v. 333 
and dkixijfievoqy either a shortened 
perf. or a syncop. aor., (Buttm. Gr. 
Ferbs)^. The forms in pres. are axo- 

809. icvciaaovo*, used by Pind. 01. 
Xin. 71, Pyih, 1.8, as by Bion XV. 27, 
and Theocr. XXI. 65 , in same sense as 
here, of sound sleep. Moschns II. 23 
has adopted the entire phrase '^Sv (i. 
XV. The etymol. is uncertain; it may 
be quasi nvatcam from vnvioaaeay or cor- 
rupted fr. ncctavaniSoi (Doederl. 2480). 
iv oveiqeixiCi x, see on 796 sup. 

811. make* pres.. a^ elided, a tense 
often found with naqog (mar.), past ac- 
tion continuing into pres. time, as with 
Lat. Jamdudum, The Harl. writes it in 
full, nmXiai, in synizesi8,so xBXidi 812. 


OATSSEIAL A. 816-832. 


[iod^kov,^ rov xXeog svqv xa»' 'EXXdda xal (liiSov 

vvv^ ttv natg ayanrixog Ifiri xoikrig^ inl viyoff, 

vijncog^ ovts tcovcdv sv siSwg ovr* dyoQacnv, 

rov *ij iy<A xal (idXXov ddvQOfiai^ ij Jtsg ixeivov 

^ZOzov S* d(ig)LrQoiiBG)^ xal dsidia (itJ ri xd^Oiv,^ 
^ o ys xSv ivl SijfiG) ti/V oi^xstaty ^ ivl novra- 
ivg^isviag ydg xoXXol in' aixm (irixavomvrai ^^ 
UyLSvoi xxBtvai nqlv naxgiSa yatav [x60d'ai." 

riji/ d' dytaii6ip6(i€vov TtQogi^ri eCdcaXov dfiavQov 

825 '^^dQ06ij^ fujdfi rt ndyxv fisxd tpQsal SeiStd'L kCriv 
xoiq^ ydg ot no^nog afi* igxsxaL, riv xb xal akXoi 
dvBQBg 'q^tiavxo naQe^xdfisvac ^ dvvaxai^ yaQj 
IlakXdg ^A^vaCri' 6l 6* 66vqoii6V7iv ikeaiQei' 
7J vvv fi6 XQoii/ixSy xbXv xdde (ivd7J6a6d'ai.'' 

830 x^v S* avxs stQogeetTce nBQCfpQdv nrjveXoTeeLa 
"rf fihv dfj d'cog iotii ^aolo''^ xb SxXveg^ avd'^g, 
ei d' aye (lot xal xslvov it^vQOv^ xaxdXsl^ov^ 

a d. 726 mar 

b d. 727. 

c fi. 332. 

d d. 104 mar. 

e n. 290; cf. <7>. 

507, X. 241. 
fP. 242, N. 52, 

K. 93, P. 240, 

cf. J. 508, O. 

123, <|i. 328. 
g C. 27, 56, a. 313. 

JC. 127. 
h 7t. 131, Q. I!i9. 
i V. 362, 7t. 436, 

(u. 357. 
k i2. 182, fi. 286, 

C. 32, d. 162, J. 

1 d. 612 mar. 
m fi. 297, ^ 89. 
n d. 767. 
o y. 95, d. 325, e 


818. f8i9(6g, 823. J^iifisvOt. 824. J^sidmXov. 826. J^oi. 830. ngoaij^ems. 

822. fii^xttyooMriv Harl. sed (ovrai supra oofftv. 826. pro Tt TOt Barnes. Eru. 

CI. ed. Ox., of Harl. Wolf., mox Sfi ^anBtai Vr. Harl. var. lect., quam natam 
e glo8S& tnstai, jure suspicatur Huttm. 827. xal ufivvsiv Vien. Heidelb., Sv- 
vatai yap Schol. P. 828. UdXlced* *A^riva^riv Bek. annot. 831. Bek. con- 
tra omnes avdriv fretus p. 297, |. 89. 832 ^dusivov Vr. Harl. 

816. See on 726 sup. 

818. vijjtip^, oyxe, see on 720 sup, 
— xovifn^ €v ei6d>^, the personal verb 
also takes gen. (mar.): cf. aovpog xa- 
nmVy ^schyl. Suppl. 453 ; see Jelf Gr, 
Or, % 493, I. 

819. xal fiaXXov, the novelty of 
her anxiety makes it at the moment 
more severe. Ni. cites .^schyl. Prom. 
36—7 acl 9\ rov naqovzog d%9'Ji8mv 
xoxov TQVCH 0', 

820. dfMjtpiTQ. takes gen. as dfifpi- 
(idxo(iat O. 391, n, 533; but nBQiSsi- 
(^tahasdat. (mar.). The physical sen- 
sation of tremor pervading (aftepl) the 
frame is probably the basis of the com- 
pound notion. Ni. refers Seidia also 
to rov, but it is best referred solely 
to |Ln} rt n. following. 

8a 1. TCtfV^ The constrn. is, ^'should 
suffer from those in the region where" 
etc.; this gen. of origin or cause is 
assisted by ^x in p. 134. For the unas- 

sisted gen. cf. Eurip. Electr. 123—4, 
Paley, oag ailo';|rov otpayalg 'AiyC- 
a^ov t', 'AydykBykvov, — for diifK^, 
see on a. 103. — iv\ "where", some- 
times also "there"; see mar. 

824—6. dfJUCVQOV, see Liddell and 
S. s. v.; this epith. seems to refer to 
the appearance to the sense, that of 
ivagyhg 841 inf. to the effect on the 
mind, "unmistakeable". — ei(^x^rai. 
Buttm. on Schol. ad loc. rejects the 
var, lect. ianBtai or ^anstai^ the forms 
of ian— found in H. being all aorists. 

83 1 -—2. 9'ed^, as Hermes is Zeus* 
messenger : avd^§ implies a reference 
to nQoiri%B 829. For the var. lect. in- 
volving ceiid^ (mar.) see on a. 281. — 
ei ff aye, "come then", so often; 
only here the el [ihv of 831 seems com- 
plemented, but really is not so, in £^ d', 
the hypothetical force of bI in ei S' 
ays being sunk in colloquial usage, so 
that it means merely age vero. 


OATSSEIAS A. 833—847. 



a d. 540 mar. 

h V. 208, CD. 264, 

X. 52. 
c d. 824. 
d ». 241, fi 56. 
e 4. 132 mar. 
f X. 4H4 , ^. 355, 

E. 216, r. 123, 


S. 802 mar. 

e. 41)2, A. 34M, 

.^. 80, O. 520, 

543, r. 418, <f>. 

255, X. 12, «F. 

879, n 96. 
i a. 98 mar. 
k K. 519. 
1 S. 549. 

m ^ 20; cf. u. 87. 
n J. 173, O. 324, 

X 28. 

y. 71 mar. 

n »r. 379; cf. a. 37. 

q y. 151. 

r 0. 354 mar., c. 

s cf. 1/. 244. 

1 y. 93. 

u tf . 671 mar. 

V X. 141 ; cf. e. 404, 

(. 136. 
w V. 425, ^ 181, 

o. 28, ft. 369. 

£^ srot; ht*^ idsv xal oga qxiog risUow^ 
^^ ijdri tsd'Vfixs xal alv^AtSao doiiotatv,^' 

xr^v S' aTtafistPofjbsvov jcgogifpri sWrnXov"^ aftavp 61/835 
"oi5 i/iiv rot xsLVOv ys dirivexiiDS^ ayogsvCG)^ 
5cj«^ y' ^ ri^vf^xs' xaxov d* dvsfiGilLa^ /Sajfitv." 

cSg f^Jroi/ <Jra'9'ftoro nagd xXf^tSa^ Xcdadifi^ 
eg Tcvoidg^ dvsficjv ijf d' ^| vtcvov^ dvoQOv^sv 
X0VQ7J 'IxaQtOLO' q)ikov de ot '^tog^ Idv^^ 84c 

Sg ot ivagylg ovsigov inifSOvxo'^ vvxrog"^ dfioXyp. 

fivrjer'^gEg d' dvafidvxBg ininXsov vygd^ xilev^a^ 
TfiXefidxei g)6vov^ ainvv ivl q)g€0lv^ ogiiatvovrsg. 
ScxL'' ^i xig v^aog fiiatfy dll^ netgijeaaa, 
fAeaariyvg^ l^dxT^g re IJdfioio re namaXoiaafig ^^ 845 

'Aorsglg, ov iisydlfi' Ufidveg^ 8' ivi vuvXoxol avtfj 
diiq)iSv(iOL' rj tov y€ (livov Xoxornvteg'^ ^A%aLoC. 

834. 'Afldoco. 835. J^sCdmXov. 838. S-unov, 840. J^magCoio foi. 841. foi. 
^33' V ^ov Bek. Fa. 846. avt^g addito serius g sed ab eadem manu. 

^36 — 7* Eustath. remarks on the 

economy shown by the poet in the 

interest of his tale by leaving Penel. 

. thus uninformed. — ^toei o y ^ T,, 

see on ^. 132. 

838. XidoS'71, Buttm. Lexil. 77, con- 
nects this, in sense of ''to go aside, 
turn away from", with dUaatogj and 
disconnects it with XsXirj^iivog akin to 

^841. ivagykq, see on 824 sup. — 
dfioXyip, Buttm. Lexil, 16. considers 
= *'in the depth or dead" of night, 
and accepts the Eustathian gloss on 
O, 324, that the Achseans call diioX- 
yov Tjjy dxfiijv; the |Lia£a dfioXya£7j 
of Hes, 0pp. 590 he regards as = 
d%iLala in sense of "exactly baked". 

Doederl. 377 — 8 connects it with fio- 
Xvi<o, ifiXccg, "black". 

846. *Acregl^, Strabo X. p. 700 ed. 
Casaubon, calls it Asteria, and says 
that Scepsius and Apollodorus differed, 
the one denying, the other affirming the 
continued existence of the Xiyi^ivsg vavX. 
Gell., Ithaca p. 78, names the modem 
Dascallio, as the only island situated 
in the passage ; but adds that no vessel 
could lie safely there ^ and that it is 
out of the way for the purpose of 
intercepting one returning from Pelo- 
ponnesus, which could only be safely 
done by lying in the southern harbour 
of the headland Chelia, partly formed 
by that same island. 

The 6*** Day of the poem*8 action here 



On the seventh morning the gods are assembled in council, and, at the 
instance of Pallas, Zens despatches Hermes to bid Calypso dismiss Odysseus. 
His errand is received' by her with reluctant submission, and on his departure 
she seeks out the hero pining on the shore, and bids him prepare a raft (i — 170). 
He distrusts her at first, but is reassured by her oath, and in their conversation 
the seventh day ends (171 — 227). 

On the eighth day he sets about his work, which is completed in four days. 
On the twelfth she furnishes him with stores, and he departs alone (228 — 77). 
On the eighteenth day* of his voyage and twenty-ninth of the poem^s action he 
sights the land of the Phsaacians; when Poseidon, returning from the Ethio- 
pians, catches sight of him and raises a tempest in which the raft becomes 
unmanageable (278 — 332). Ino Leucothee rises to his rescue from the deep, 
and gives him her immortal scarf; bidding him quit the raft and the scarf will 
support him. He yet clings to the raft till it goes to pieces; when he puts on 
the scarf and swims, while Poseidon departs to ^gae (333 — 81). 

Pallas sends a fair north-wind; and, after drifting yet two days and nights, 
on the thirty-first day of the poem's action he reaches a river's mouth in utter 
exhaustion and naked; there he seeks the shelter of a wood and falls asleep 

* The first of the eighteen days of his run is the twelfth of the poem's action, 
and is further marked as the fifth from the commencement of the work of 
raft-building («. 263): see notes on e. 262—3, 279. It is not absolutely 
certain, perhaps, from e. 278 that that fifth day, on which he starts, should 
not be reckoned distinct from the eighteen^ instead of coincident with the 
first of them; yet I think it safer on the whole to regard it as so coincident. 

^06va(Seo}g (y^ffrfta. 

^'Hdg^ d' ix Xexecov Ttag' ayavov Tid^fovolo 
^Qvvd'^ tv' dd'avdroi0L g>6(og tpigoi riSe ^Qoxoioiv 
ol'' Sh d^sol d'cixovdB^ xad'C^avov, iv 6* aga xotCiv 
ZEvg^ v^i^QBiiixrig ^ ov^ t€ xgdtog iiJrl (isyitfrov, 
^ xot(tt S* 'A^vaiTi XivB^ xfjSaa^ n:6XX' '08v6iiog 

'^Zev^ TtdxBQ i)d' akkoL fidxuQBg ^€ol aihv iovxsg^ 

a A. 1-2, T. 2, 

B. 48-y; cf.e. 

l,v.94, V'. 226. 

b d 18S, «. 121, o. 

c J. 1, N. 689. 
d /*. 26, u. 318, ©. 

i, 439-45, r. 4 

e %p. S31, A. 1354. 
f a. 70, B. 118. 
g d. 452, u. 165, 

*. 203. 
h i. 376,^185, 197. 
i T. 314. 
k X. 426, 554. 
I &. 306, /u. 371. 

6. fot. 

I - 86. The seventh day of the poem^s 
action here begins. The gods muster 
in session f and Athene reminds them 
of the case of Odys. detained still by 
Calypso, a grievance unredressed and 
now aggravated by the snare spread 
for his son. Zeus receives her appeal 
with an air of surprise, and, viewing 
her request as granted, at once des- 
patches Hermes to bid Calypsd speed 
Odys. on his way. His flight to her 
isle is described, terminating at her 
grotto, the romantic beauty of which 
forms a noble contrast with the view 
of the forlorn hero, pining in his con> 
stancy, with his tearful face fixed ever 
on the sea. 

I. *Ha^m Homer*s heaven has its 
day and night, and dawn visits the 
gods, even as mortals. Thus in ft. 382 
— 3 the Sun -god threatens that, if 
Odysseus* crew be not punished for 
their sacrilegious slaughter of his herds, 
he will ** descend to Hades and shine 
among the dead'\ Milton has allowed 
the imago of dawn in heaven Parad, 
L, VI. 6—13, 

which makes through heaven 

Grateful vicissitude like day and 
night : 

Light issues forth, and at the other 

Obsequious darkness enters, *till her 

To veil the heaven; etc. 
— TiO<av, He occurs in the Trojan 
pedigree (T. 215 — 40) as a son of Lao- 
medon and elder brother of Priam. In 
Hy. Aphrod, 218—34 we find the story 
of his being the darling of Eos and of 
his joyless immortality (cf. Tennyson's 
IHihomts). Payne Knight considers it 
as ^^e seriorum opinionibus de diis pro- 
fecta*'; which, although he is disput- 
ing its genuineness in A, 1 — 2 only, 
would condemn it wherever (mar.) it 
occurs. Hes. Theog. 984 mentions ^ma- 
thion and Memnon sons of Tith., the 
latter only being named in H., see S» 
188, X. 522. 

3—5. B^xdvffe, the locative Ss im- 
plies their going thither before sitting 
there. Jlfy€> ** was enumerating*'; see 
mar. for this sense, and note on 8. 
451. — xiidea JtoXX', including the 


0ATSSEIA2 E. 8-i8. 

[day VII. 

a /J. 230-4 mar. 

b ^.142— 6, B. 721, 
«. 395, 0. 232, X. 

c d. 557—60 mar. 

d d. 727, cf. d. 700, 

(i7J^ rtg hi 7tQ6(pQ(x>v ayavog xal rjjtvog Ictca 
0xi]7trovxog PaaUevg^ firjSh g)QSijlv ataifia . siddg • 
a A A' aisl xakanog r' stri xal alovla Qstpi, 
(og ov ng (ie(ivrjtai 'OdvOG'^og ^bCoio 
[XafSv olcLv avu06£^ TCuri^Q d' cSg iJTaog i^fv.] 
aAA'*' fihv iv vrjao) xstrai xgarsQ* aXysa 3ra0;|rov, 
vv(ig)rig^ iv fi€ydQOL0L Kakvtifovgy H fitv dvdyxy 
tcxei' 8' ov Svvarai rjv jtargCSa yalav ixs^^at- 
ov yccQ oC TcaQa irqeg im^Qsr^oi xal ixalgoi^ 
oX xiv fiLv Tts'fiTtoLSv STt' EVQsa vfSta d'aXdatSrjg. 
vvv^ av TcalS^ dyaTcrixbv dnoxxaivai (i6(ida0vv 

9. fsi8(6g. 

12. J^dvccaas. 15. frjv. 16. J^oi. 

8. dyavog ts xal P. Knight v. not. ad loc. 10. dtjavXa var. 1. Barnes, coll. 

E. 876. 

obduracy of Calyps6, and the ever ris- 
ing insolence of the suitors in Ithaca. 
8 — II. A man so just had deserved 
better of the gods, who treat him as 
though a righteous character were of 
no account with them. The topic is 
borrowed from Mentor's appeal to the 
Ithacan Assembly in p. 230—4, where 
see note. Indeed the whole passage 
I- — 48 is largely made up of lines which 
occur with or without modification else- 
where; see mar. passim. On this J. 
C. Schmitt de ll^"" in Odyss. Deor, Con- 
di, has framed an argument against 
its genuineness. He constructs accord- 
ingly a commencement of s. in which 
Pallas^ appeal is omitted, and suppo- 
ses £. to start anew on the same day 
as a. — a notion quite against Ho- 
meric usage; see on S. 594. Further, 
the delay in sending Hermes, as she 
had suggested in a. 84 — 7, is not in- 
consistent with Zeus' character, who, 
as a rule, is indolent and requires to be 
moved, whereas Pallas is prompt, ea- 
ger and bustling [App. E. 4. (4) (7)] ; 
see below on 22 — 7. His reply to 
her also in a. 76 — 9 leaves a door 
open for procrastination, and even im- 
plies that further deliberation should 
precede action {7CSQLq)Qai(6fisd'a). Nor 
in point of fact had Poseidon yet 
**relaxed his ire". That deliberation, 
we may suppose, was now to take 
place, but the urgency of Pallas cuts 
it short: she carries the Assembly with 

her, and the still absent Poseidon is 

12. This V. seems certainly out of 
place here. It is nothing to the spea- 
ker's purpose that the Ithacans forget 
their king. It is Zeus and the g-ods 
who should remember him and do not. 
Omitting 12, ov Tig* of 11 would then 
mean **no one of you^^ — an apt re- 
minder of the resolution which she 
had assumed as taken in a, 76 — 87. 
The line probably crept in here from 
p. by the force of the attraction of 
its context. Similarly in cc. 96 foil., 
where see note, the descent of Pallas 
drew after it the description of her 
spear from E. 745—7, which does not 
suit her errand in a. 

13. xsZrai conveys a notion of in- 
activity, of which it is the proper pos- 
ture, as in B. 688, usito ydg iv vt}- 
saat . . . 'AxiXXsvg. The same line (mar.) 
describes the forced inactivity of Phi- 
loctetes in Lemnos; and, by a singular 
change of vifffo) to vovgcOj is in e, 395 
adapted to a totally different image. 

14 — 17. See notes on S, 557 — 60. 

18. fiBfidaOiVy omitting 12, this 
stands without a subject expressed, 
but this omission in a speech of ra- 
pid urgency is insignificant. Nor could 
this attempt be fairly charged on the 
Xuoi\ see n» 375 foil. It is easily un- 
derstood of whom she speaks, as Zeus 
shows by supplying fivrjaTrJQSg in 27. 
The passage 18 — 20 is not here incon- 


OATLSEIAL E. 19—35. 


otxaSs^ vLiJiJofiBvov' o 8' i^ti fisrd TtatQog dxovi^v 
20 ig TlvXov T^yad'iriv 1^8' ig Aaxsdcctfiova SlavJ^ 

xriv •' d' anapLBL^oiiBvog nQogifprj vBtpskriyBQixa ZBvg 

^^vinvov ifioVy notdv ob Snog tpvyBv BQXog 686vt(ov. 

01) « yccQ di) Tovtov (ihv ipovksvoccg voov avri), 

€og rj XOL xBLVOvg 'OSvGBvg anoxCCBxai'^ iXd'civ; 
25 TrjX^fiaxov Sh av nifitljov*" smiJxafidvcDg^ {SvvaaaL^ 

Sg^ XB (idV d0xij^g^ '^v itaxgCda yatav Xxrixai^ 
(ivYjOX'^QBg d' iv vrjl TtaXifinBxig^ djtovicDvxai.'^ ^ 
rj ^a, xal 'EQ(i6iav'^' vtov tplkov dvxCoV^ TivSa 
'^'EQfiBia' <yv" ydg avxB xd r' alXa TtBQ ayyBkog iaat' v 

30 vvfiq)y'i ivTtkoxdfip bItcbIv vrjfiSQXsa fiovkiqv^ 
vocxov 'Odvaa^og xala^CfpQOvog ^ Sg xb vAyrat, 
ovxB^ ^BcSv xofiTtfj oiixB d'vrixmv^ dvd^Qcixcav 
dkX' 8 y* inl 6xB8Crig^ jtoXvSiCfiov nrjfiaxa'^ ndtSxtov 
ijfiaxC'^ x' bIxo0x^ ^1^9^^^ iQ^ficaXov^ Ixoixo^ 

35 OaiTJxcDv'' ig yatav ^ ol dyxC^BOi yBydaaiv^ 

a d. 701—2 mar. 
h a. 63—4 mar. 
r CO. 47})-SO. 
(I y. 216, X. 118, 
n. 255. 

y. 369. 

r X. 368, V. 161, 

K. 265. 
if d. 612 mar. 
h c. 144, 168, (. 70. 
i |. 255; K. 212, 

II. 247. 
k 77. 805. 

1 o. 308, O. 305. 
mi2. 333. 

n 0, 200. 

o of. 0. 540, Q, 273. 

|) cf. O. 144. 

«l a. 86-7. 

r i. 521; cf. Jl. 33?, 

352, Z. 171. 
s a. 219. 
t c. 338, II. 264; 

cl. t. 177, »/. 274. 
u Q. 444, 524. 
V C. 170 

w I. 363, S. 67. 
X *. 279-80, %p. 


19. /oi'xads. 22. finog. 26. j^ifv. 30. J^sitiblv. 34. «Fctxo0Teo omisao x*. 

19. vsiaofiBvov Barnes. Ern. Cl. ed. Ox., viaaofievov Wolf, 
(quasi signif. tut.) Flor. Lov. 28. q>aov vtov Em. Cl. e 

Barnos. Wolf. 

27. anovBovxai 
ed. Ox., vtov (piXov 

sistent with her assurance to Penel. 
in d. 825—8, since the insolence of 
the suitors remains the isame, and to 
contrast thie with the heroic but un- 
heeded endurance of Odys. is the main 
point of her opening speech. 

22 — 7. Zeus in a. had given no ex- 
plicit assent to Pallas' proposal about 
sending Hermes; but she had assumed 
his compliance and acted on it. He lets 
things rest for six days in statu quo, 
and when she renews her appeal throws 
the responsibility upon her, as thougli 
the executive were her province ex- 
clusively. Thus his character for lais- 
sez faire and hers for energy are ef- 
fectively contrasted. This ethical point 
is lost by those who impugn the pas- 
sage; see on 8—11 sup. v6ov = pov- 
Xriv\ cf. the hendiadys povXi^v ts voov 
T«, d. 267. 25 — 6 could be spared: 27 
coheres exactly with 24, since sub- 
.junct. may stand as = fut. after coe, 
ontog etc., in final sentences [App. A. 
5* (5)]* The other reading anoviov- 

toci is itself a pres. with fut. force. 
To omit 25—6 would suit exactly the 
fact shown in d. 825—8 that Pallas 
had already settled it all, and needed 
not the exhortation which 25 — 6 ad- 
dresses to her. Yet this need not be 
present to Zeus' mind, whose words 
arise naturally out of hers in 18-20 

27. JtaXiftTterkQ cannot be naXifi- 
Ttstisg with s elided, see Buttm. Le- 
xil. 51 (i). 

28. 'Eofielav, see App. C. 2. and 
Glftdst. TI. iii. 231 — 41. 

30 — 1. See note on a. 82—7. 

32. This is verified by the hero's de- 
parture on his solitary raft 263 i/i/'., 
and explains her words 140 foil.: Ca- 
lyps6 in fact only despatches him dno 
vriaov with a fair wind which she her- 
self sends. 

,33—4- OX^^f-ng xoX., see App. F. 
I. (4). — Sxe^ifiv see App. D. 14. 

35—36. dyxlS'BOh cf. 71. 205, ins( 


OATSSEIAS E. 36-50. 

[day vn. 

245, J. 46, 53, 
J^. 119, 206, 430, 
S2. 61 , 423, 435. 

b n- 71. 

c V/. 339-41. 
d ^. 440, o. 207. 
e V. 136-8; cf. «. 

f X 84. 
fif d. 487 mar. 
h^.327; cf.^232 

-3, ji. 625-7. 
i «. 114-5, ». 76 

-7, t. 532-3, X. 

k i2. 340-5. 
1 «. 75, 94, 145, &, 

338, 0). 99, B. 

103, 4>. 497, 12. 

in o. 96-8 mar. 
n a. 2-4. 
o V. 429, TJ. 172, 

466, X. 238; cf. 

N. 59. 
n TT. 195. 
4 «. 14S, 17. 181. 
r X 226-7, B 766. 
s (T. 508, «. 318. 

ot x^i; ft^i; ;r£()l^ ^^9^9 'd'aoi/^ (0V9 tL(i7J0ov0iv , 

3r6AA',« 8(r' ai/ otJ*^ wow Tgoirig i^rJQat'^ 'Odv0G£V£, 
st TtBQ djC7J(i(ov^ '^Id'S, Xax(ov^ &7c6 Xfjidog al6av. 4c 
Sg^ yoLQ of ftorp' i6xl (pilovg r' Idisiv^ xal Ixetf^ai 
olxov ig v^oQOfpov xal irjv ig natQCSa yaZavJ^ 

Sg^ Sq>ax\ ovS^ anC^6B Sidxxogog^ 'AQysapovzfjg. 
aiJr^'x'"* Snsi^' xmo no06lv idijaaro xakd TCsdiXa^ 
diiPQOffLa XQV^^i'CC^ xd (itv (psQOV ^qiilv i(p* vy^v 45 

1^8' i7t* dnsCgova yatav dfia Ttvotyg dvsfioto, 
eXlsxo^ dh ^a/Sdoi/," xy x' dvSgfov ofi(iaxa d^sXysii* 
(Sv id'sXsv^ xovg d' avxs xal vjtvdovxag iyaCQSi' 
xr^v [isxd ^^^(^li/ ix(ov nsxaxo xgaxvg^ ^AQysLg)6vxfjg. 
IliEQiriv^ 8' iTCifidg i^ aid'dgog i(i7tB6€^ xovxp' 5c 

38. faXig fsa^td, 41. J^oi fidisiv, 4a. fot%ov IJ^jJv. 

36. nBQl Eustath, Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Fa., nigi Wolf. Dind. Low. 39. ov- 
dinots sine in Harl. Wolf., ovdinot' in Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 45. qfsgot 
var. 1. Barnes. 50. Schol. P. virgulam post ccl'd'sgos non post intfiag appinxit 

a phrase found also with vsfisaamiiaij 
(pilim, ^%Q'oiCq(o etc., cf. the ultiqoQ'i 
fialXov of 8. 284 et al. (mar.). On the 
question whether to take nsQl in such 
sense as if it had nuvxanv following 
(cf. a. 335), t. c. "excessively", and 
retract the accent, editors differ, nor 
is it an easy point for mss. to settle. 
We find, however, such phrases as 
ubqI d^viim and nsgl tpQBoiv (X. 70, 
cf. *. 65', J7. 157), suggesting that 
words relating to the mind are go- 
verned by nsgl with a peculiar local 
force, based probably on the physical 
notion of x^p or tpgivsq, an analogy 
which d'Vfiog follows. 

38. 66vxBq, gifts as a token of ho- 
nour and source of profit were in high 
esteem with the Greeks from the he- 
roic age downwards; cf. nsid'siv dcOigcc 
xal d'BOvg Xoyogy Eurip. Med, 960. So 
here it is a mark of divine favour and 
recompense after neglect, that Odys. 
should return home richer than if he 
had come straight from Troy. We 
may compare the "end of Job" (Job 
XLn. 12). Ni. seems to think 39—40 

superfluous here, as the gifts are "men- 
tioned only incidentally" (beildu/ig). 
Perhaps he did not give due weight 
to the connexion just pointed out with 
the main subject. 

43. In this passage Virgil has (>t'n. 
IV. 238 foil.) followed in the footsteps 
of H. with unusual continuity and close- 
ness, allowing for the divergence in 
the line of his Mercury's flight. For 
ifidxvoQO^ see on a. 82—7; for *Aq- 
yevffovx'q^ see App. C. 2. 

45—6. See on a. 88 — 98. 

47—8. These lines suit the expedi- 
tion of Hermes in A., which involves 
the casting of the Greek sentinels 
into a sleep ; but have no special per- 
tinence to his errand here, and per- 
haps followed their context by attrac- 
tion as in 12 sup, and a. 97 — loi. 
However, the (apdog^ as specially sym- 
bolical of the god who is XQ^^ogganig 
(87 in/".), may certainly be allowed even 
without such pertinence. 

50. IIieQlfjym Ni. remarks on the 
geographical definiteness of the abode 
of the Gods, as being on Olympus, an 


0AT2:£EIA£ £. 51-58. 


og t€ xaxa Ssivovg xoXtcov^ aAog** dxQvyhoio 
lx%i)g ayQcicocav srt^xtva tcxsqu Savatat akfiy 
r^^ txelog nokia^Civ 6;fij<yaT0* xvfiaiSiv 'Egfi'^g.^ 
55 ^^^' 8r« *ij r^v v^cJov afpixaxo trilo^' iovaav, 
iv^* ix novxov fiag lonSibg ^naigdvSa^ 
ijuv wpQa (ley a cniog Zxaxo^ xp bvl vvfitpri^ 
valBv iv%l6xa(iog' wji; d' ivdod'L xhfisv^ iovoav. 

a Z. 505, H. 20s. 
b y.240, H. 59, **. 

990; cf. a. H20. 
c d. 245. 
i\ a. 72, C. 226, x. 

o (^.249, 77. 11,P. 

r 12.731 icf. 11.211. 
f? ^ 4.").'}, E. 390. 
h «. 438, X. 4U3, 

423, v. 114, 116. 
i a. 86, «. 30. 
k a. 218, 0. 15, Z. 

374, ^. 293; cf. 

'S. 528. 

51. fsfommS' 54. J^^xfiioff. 56. J^ioJ^sidiog. 

54. Imnc Y. pro additamento notant Scholl. H. P. Q. f Eustath. 55. trjlo^sv 

ovaccv Bek. annot. 

actual mountain, in II., and the less 
precise tokens of such relation, and 
greater ideality given to their abode, 
in the Ody. ; in which Olymp. does not 
bear the usual epithets which mark 
it as a mountain. Here Olympus, al- 
though not named, is suggested in Pie- 
ri6 its northern extension. Olympus 
appears to retain even among the 
Turks its celestial celebrity (Hammer 
ap. Kruse^s Hellas I. p. 28a). — i§ 
alS'iooq, this is distinguished (S» 
288) troro iQTiQ the lower and denser 
air, which, when thickened, is viewed 
as homogeneous with mist etc., so that 
i^iQi noll^ means ^4n gloom or haze'' ; 
so rfigi xal vstpilrj X, 15. Pallas de- 
scends from heaven through the al&riQy 
and the flash and clang of arms goes 
up to the ovQavog through the same (T. 
351, B. 458, P'A^B\ (Ni.). ^£ ai»iQog 
shonld go with inifiaq^ not with ifinsas 
n. Thus PieriO is a stage between the 
oilftriQ and the sea — a platform from 
which the god plunges seawards. Other- 
wise the al^Q would be at no higher 
level than Pieric^, which hardly agrees 
with the passages cited. His course 
seems meant to be north-westerly ; see 
App. D. 2. By MfAXBCe contact with 
the surface, not immersion, seems 
meant. The poet appears to adopt 
Pierid as the point of view, and to 
mark and describe his deity's flight 
from thence. Any one who has watched 
from a headland the birds shoot down 
upon and sport along the sea, will ea- 
sily realize this. 
5 1 --4. Cev€CT^ ... ixl, this de- 

scribes motion skimming the surface; 
so 53 inf, the wings arc wet with the 
spray. Xd^t^, this bird, as described 
by Aristotle i^Hvtt, Anim, V. 9, cf. II. 17, 
Vin.3),may be either ih^laruscanusypa- 
rasiticus or marinus. For OQVtS'iYfithXd- 
Q(p see on dvonociay App. A. 13. Observe 
kagog, but XdCQog adject, in p. 350. — 
ioixw^i a simile is shown by this 
word, and not an assumption by Her- 
mes (as often by a deity) of the bird 
form. This may be a special reason 
for the insertion of v. 54, which Eu- 
stath. and Payne Knight reject. We 
are thereby assured that it is Hermes 
in propriA persond, 

52 — 4. xoXxoviS, not "depths", but 
"bays'*; ffeivovq, perhaps alike so 
to navigators by their crags and reefs, 
and on the land side by their preci- 
pices. txeXoq, as also mg or toiog^ 
lead the formulee by which H. tlius 
binds the simile to the thing illus- 
trated. Possibly '£^/c^§ was origin- 
ally ^Egiiiag, a lighter form of 'Eg- 
fisiag (Ni.). Payne Knight based his 
rejection of this line and of {. 435 on 
the non- Homeric form of the name 

55. v^ov. Those ancients who re- 
garded the wanderings of Odys. as 
being in the Mediterranean wholly, 
viewed the isle as being on the coast 
of Lucania; see on f. 4 — 5. 

56. tineiQOv&e , fintiQog is used of 
land as limiting and excluding the sea; 
whether it be island or mainland. 


0AT2LEIA2 E. 59—69. 

[day VII. 

a I}. 109. t. 389. 
b cf. t »2, 426, 0. 

322, Si. 192. 
c cf. <p.52, O. 153, 

(T. l5l. 
(t X. 227. 
c X. 221, CO. 60,-4. 

f A. 31, a. 

p. 227. 
g X. 448. 
h Z. 148, 1/ 

;i. 590. 
i «. 239. 
k ^. 482—7. 

I cf. B. 519, .0. 

m u. 418, |. 30S. 
n o. 479. 
o B. 614. 
p I. 228. 

II fi. 226. 

r X. 6, i. 468,503, 
J. 446. 



xed Qov t avKsdroLO^^ %'vov^ r' ava vijoov oSddsiv^ 6c 
daiofidvfDV rj d' ?v8ov doididova' "^ OTtl^ xakfj, 
i6x6v^ ijtoLxonBvi] xQvaaCri xsqxCS^^ vfpatvBv. 
vkrj dh 07tEog dfiq)l nstpvKBL xYike%^6Gi6a ^ 
xlrjd'Qi^' r' afysLQog^ re xal svcidrgg xvndQL00og.^ 
iv%a Si r' oQvvd'sg xuvvoCtcxsqov evvdtjovxo^ 65 

Cxwnig x' tQrjxig xs xavvyXcoacoc xb xo^cSvat"' 
BivdXiai^^ xficiv xb d'aXdaeta^ BQya^ fiifn^lsv, 
71 d' ttvxov XBxdvvOxo 7Cbq\ 0%Biovg^ yXag)VQOLO 
1^ (IB gig f^ficifDOa^^ xb^t^Xsl dh 0xa(pvXfj6tv. 

67. J^igya. 

59. T?2>lo<?g Harl., TTjJioas Flor. Lov. Steph. Schol. V. MS. GC. 61. etiam legi 
iaiofifvcav vvnq>7j os iimlonanovau KaXvipca notant Scholl. H. P. Q. 63. d(i- 
q>i7r€q)viiSi Flor. Lov. Schol. V. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., disjunctim Barnes. Wolf., 
rrilsd'dovaa Harl. sed ex emend. 66. nmnss var. 1. Barnes citato Aristotel. 

ap. ./Elian. Hist. Anim. XV. 8. 67. fisfii^lsi Schol. H. 68. ^ d' Harl. Schol. 
H. Stephan. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Dind. Fa. Lowe, ijd' Flor. Lov. Wolf. 

59 foil. With the description of the 
abode of Calypso, cf. that of Circe in 
Virg. Mn. VII. 10 foil. — iox^Q^^^'^^ 
see App. F. 2. (19) (20). 

60. evxedroto^^ the notion is that 
of logs split (x£tt£o) xc^oo) for fuel; 
and the word is not based on xa/co 
nrjtoSrigj as if reinforcing oSfiij. — 
S'VOV^ "qualis arbor fuerit ... jam 
veteres ignorasse videntur" (Lowe). 
Doubtless some perfumed wood; cf. 
Pliny N. H, XII. 17 'Non alia arhorum 
genera sunt, in usu quam odorata^ cibos- 
que Saban coquunt thuris ligno; and Virg. 
?En. VII. 13 Urit odor at am nocturna in 
lumina cedrum. Macrob. Saturn. III. 19 
identifies it with the oitrus of the La- 
tins, its fruit being the felix nudum of 
Virg. Georg. II. 127. 

61 — 2. dotdim, the number of open 
vowels in this word is exquisitely 
adapted to express vocalization, espe- 
cially as distantly heard, the sound 
predominating over the words of the 
song. So in the case of Circe (mar.). 
BTtoixofi,, Lowe cites a Schol. onPind. 
Pyth. IX. 33 (18), tatov nahfipdiiovg 
ooovgj to the effect that constant move- 
ment to and fro and turning about 
were required in ancient weaving. 

64 — 5. xXti^QTj, the species of alder 
meant is perhaps the cUnus oblongata, as 
the best known in Greece (Dunbar Z^ea:. 
App.). aiyeiQoq, populus nigra. ivS-a 
6e r\ the t* is probably rot, 

66 — 7. axatJieg, Eustath. describes 
it as smaller than the ylav^, having 
lead -coloured plumage with whitish 
spots, ^lian. {de Nat. An, XV. 28), al- 
leging Aristotelian authority, rejects the 
a here, writing nmnsg, in which Athe- 
nseus (IX. 10) concurs, citing also four 
other ancient authorities. There is an 
owl called the Strix Scops (Linn.) ap- 
parently identified with this. 

XiOQWvat eivaX, Aristot. {Hist. An. 
VIII. 5) and ^lian {de Nat. Anim. XV. 
23) apply this name to what is pro- 
bably either a cormorant or a coot 
(Dunbar Z/ca7..<4pjo.). Eustathius says the 
at^viai (see on 337 inf.) were anciently 
so called. — 9'akdoata CQya, such a.s 
diving, fishing etc. Ni. compares Hes. 
Theog. 440, ot yXavv.riv igyd^ovtai. 
To the Arcadians, to whom Agam. fur- 
nished ships, the phrase is adapted 
negatively (mar.). 

68 — 70. ij, this pronoun article gives 
distinctness and prominence to the 
'^fisglg as among the other trees. 


OATSSEIAS E. 70-81. 


nkriCCai akk7Jk(x>v Tsrgafifievai aklvdig'' aXki], 
afKpl dh kBi(i(DV6s^^ ^aXaxol i'ov i^8h 6bX(vov 
^Ibov Svd'a*^ x' iTCBixtt xal ad'dvarog tibq inak^tov^ 
^TJaaito^ iScav xal xaQ(p%'BCri fpQB^lv^ '^6iv. 

75 iv^tt (Stag d^stro dLaxrogog^ 'AgyaKpovrrig, 
avrag iTcal di) ndvta ioi*^ d'i]7Jaato d'v^&y 
avxix ag' alg Bvgv^ 6niog ijkvd'Bv, ovd^ (ilv avrrjv 
ijy votiycyfiT/ '" idov0a Kakvilf(a^ dta° d^Bticjv, 
ov P ydg r' ay v (Drag d^aol akXijloiac nikovxai 

80 a-O-aVaroi, ovd' at rig dnongo^i'^ dcifjbata vaiat, 
ovd' ag ^OdvOffqa fiayak^qroga^ ivdov itax^avy^ 


a rt, 249, y. 111. 

I) V. 282. 

c C. 138. ♦ 

d I. 132-3. 

(> V. 106, r. m, 102. 

or. X. 71, 14. 56, 

yj. 13», 3\ 129. 
r cC. u. 87-8, J. 

530, N. 343. 
« &. 17. 
Ii &. :168; cf 

i c. 43 mar. 
k 0. 132. 

I I. 237, 337, iV. 32. 
m A, 537, B. 807, 

iV. 28. 
n a. 11, «. stvvius, 

I. 20. 
o J. 376, 382, 398, 

X. ii. swpiusy a. 

190, 197. 
1» cf. E. 127-8. 
(j d. 811 mar. 
r J. 143 luar. 
s e. 58 mar. 

7a. i^^ov. 74. J^idmv J^ijaiv. 76. /eco. 78. /tdovoor. 

71. aX/lij, pro vitioso notat Schol. V. 72. /littilaxov var. 1. Scliol. H., inox fuisso 

qui tov in ff^ov miitatum vellent notant. Eustath. et Atben. II. 61. 80. pro sC 

Tiff Aristar. ring, Scholl. H. P. 

^fiegi^, cf. Virg. Bucol. V. 6—7, aspice 
ut antrum Sylvcstris raris sparsit lahrusca 
racemis. Eustath. talks of a tbin-barked 
kind of oak so called, but the en- 
tiro description points to some species 
i)f vine; cf. Simonidcs Ceos Fragm, 51, 
I, iiyi,BQl navd'slnTsiQcc , fiBd'vzQ6q>6y 
(ifJTSQ onoigag, Apoll. Kbod. III. 220, 
TQfisgidsg xXoigoiai }iataaTsq)hg nsra- 
XoiGt, Possibly the adj. ^fisgog **tamc", 
I. c. ^'cultivated", may be its origin. So 
Liddoll and S. give dygiag as = dygicc 
afiTCBlog. — ^fiakoOa, see App. A. 2. 

70. xoigvai, we may compare the 
two in tne precinct of Alcinous* pa- 
lace, one for the garden and one for 
the honse etc. (1^. 129—31). The larger 
number here bespeaks the abundance 
of a divine abode, niovoa^ or nixo- 
QSg was "the oldest Greek form" for 
ricaagsgy Donalds. New Crat. 158. — 
Xevxfii, contrast this epith. with /li^- 
lav vSmg^ d, 359, expressing perhaps 
the sheltered basin, as this the spring- 
ing rill, and with x^Tjyi^jLiPldvvdpos, 1. 14. 

72. lov, for this Ptolemy Energetos 
proposed to read (J^t;, "marsh-plant", 
HM more appropriate to the ncigiibour- 
hood of parsley than violets; this 
seems trivial. Hoth parsley and vio- 
lets were used for garlands; cf. the 

song inAthen. XIV. 27, nov fioc zk 
pddtt, nov fioi xd Ta, nov fioi rd HccXd 
aslivat and Ilor. Carm. I. xxxvii. 15 
— 6, II. vii. 24, apio coronas. 

73 — 4. This whole clause might be 
spared, as in 75 — 6 Hermes actually ad- 
mires. Yet it generalizes the effect of 
the previous picture very happilv: cf. 
similar phrases in which ovuizi or 
ovd' . . . ovoaaito occurs with similar 
force to that of difjjjaaito here (mar.). 
Moreover in 77 — 80 inf. the line of 
thought is inverted; since there the 
statement of a particular case, ovdi 
fiiv X. r. X.f is followed by that of a 
getieral principle, ov ydg x. x. X. For 
the whole manner here cf. v. 96—112, 
especially for ivd'a repeated and for 
iv&a d* ^nsixcc "there accordingly", 
in 106. In some other instances (mar.) 
of ivd'a followed by ^nsixct the latter 
has a distinct sense of "after" some- 
thing else has taken place. 

SifiiOm Buttmann (Gr. Verbs) gives 
as Doric forms d'dofiai d'aioficciy epic 
^fjofiat, whence {a. 191) &ri<jaiaxOy 
and d'rifofiaij which last is most com- 
mon in II. With this verb here thrice 
rccurrinjv in as many lines Ni. com- 
pares xijuofiai 5 times in 5 lines, r. 
204 foil. 


OATS22EIAL E. 82-95. 

[day VII. 


a d. 539 mar.; cf. 

•. 151—2. 
b «. 157—8. 
c 'if. 317; cf. N. 

441a P. 295. 
d fi, 370 mar. 
c •. 158, ^. 86, 93, 

532, n. 214, N. 

658. S. 32. 
f c. 78 mar. 

•. 78 mar. 

cf. 2, 389—90. 
i «. 169, 2. 422. 
k 2. 424-7. 
1 X. 277, 331. 
m A. 202, Z. 254, 

*F. 94. 
n X 386. 
or. 254, 316, ^. 

p ^. 161 ; cf. d. 

q ^. 195—6. 
r cf. fi. 187, n. 440, 

o. 229, a. 82, t. 

487, 547, a>. 337. 
s -S. 387. 
I o. 188, urf. 779, 

2. 408. 
u T. 12. 
V m. 28—9, o. 333, 

cf. a. 138. 
w d. 445 mar. 
X C. 219, jj. 177. 
y c. 43 mar. 
i ^ HI. 

dlV y i%* dxT'^g xXats^ xadTJfievog' ivd'a jcd^og 

[SdxQVOi ^ xal Oxovaxrlai xai akyaci d'Vfiov iQsx^Giv^^] 
novxov'^ in axQvyexov dsQxdexsxo SdxQva^ ksC^cav. 
'EgiiBCav d' igisLvs Kalvtlfd^ 8ta^ d'edcjv, 85 

iv^ d'QOvp t8qvoa0a tpasiv^^ acyalosvxLj 

''xCnxs^ (lot, 'EgfiB^a XQ'^^OQgaTCL ,^ slXijlovd'ag ,^ 
^aidotog^ X€ ^Clog xs\ ndgog ys (ihv ov xi ^afit^eigv 
aiiSa^i oxi tpQOvisvg- xeXeoat dd (is d^(idg avaysv^ 
si dvvafiai xsXs6ai ys xal si xsxsXs0(iivov itSxivJ 9: 
[aAA'« snso tcqoxsqo)^ Xva xot Ttdg ^sCvia^ d'sCwJ]'^ 

cSg^ aga (p(ovfJ0aiJa %'sd nagi^xs^ xgdnst^av, 
d^i^QOfSCrig"^ jikfjaaOa^ xigaaos 8h vixxaQ igvd'QOv. 
a'dxuQ^ Tttvs xal '^ffd^s ScdxxoQogy ^A^sitpovxTig, 
avxaQ^ insl dsiTtvrjiJs xal ijgaQS d-vfiov iSmSy, 95 

83. axsva%fioi Aristopli., Scholl. H. P. 84 abundare notant Scholl. H- P. 

[J Bek. Dind. Fa., retinent Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Ox. Wolf. Low. 91 omittit 
Harl., **abe8t a multis,^' Bek. annot. [] Wolf. Bek. Dind. Fa. Lowe, retinent 

Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. 

83 — 4. These lines, if both genuine 
here, recur 157 — 8. Eustath. was for 
rejecting both in this place. The Scholl. 
reject. 84 onl^. Certainly, xXttts ... 
danQvai ... ddnQva savours of redun- 
dancy; and the ^'looking on the sea^', 
t. e. towards his home , seems too cha- 
racteristic to be spared, to which it 
adds force that his eyes well with tears 
as he looks. Thus we may preferably 
reject 83. But whether 83 be read or 
dropped, 84, if read, requires a co- 
lon after nad^fievog. On azovaxv^'' 
Buttm. Lexil, 97. grounds an ana- 
logy in favour of atovotxjfjoai atova- 
X^(o from ground-form ativat, as q>OQa 
q>OQi(o from (pigm, — iqix^^v, akin 
to igsCHm (mar.), applied to a hel- 
met etc. burst by a spear etc. So 
Hes. Scttt. 286—7 dgotrigsg rjgsmov 
X^ova. For 6dxQva kei^wv cf. on 
odngvov slfisvj d. 153. 

85—96. This reception and greeting 
consists almost wholly of recurring 
lines, mostly from Thetis* visit to Cha- 

ris and Hephfestus in Z. For 
OOQQaTti see App. C. 2. — S'afjU^eiq 
elsewhere (mar.) has a participle to 
assist its meaning; so here igxofisvog 
might be supposed. In 89 avda was 
an old error for avScc, which Barnes 
first corrected, noticing that the final 
a is long. 

In 90 observe iOTlv^ not, as in 
mar., iatai; since a thing which /ios 
been done is possible. The whole line 
has a formulaic air. Ni. remarks that 
verbals in tog include the senses of 
both fact and possibility, citing Arist. 
Poet, IX. 6. ta SI ysvofisva q>avsg6v 
ozi dvvcctd. Line 91 is better away, 
having followed its context from £. 
385—90: but there the guest is seated 
afterwards, as a consequence of the 
invitation, here he is so already. 

93—4. dfiPgoa., see on d. 445. For 
6idxtm *AQyei€p., see on a. 82—7 and 
App. C. 2. 

95. With j^QaQS ^^. cf. the adj. 


OATLLEIAS E. 96-106. 


xal tots Sij (iLv ljcs06iv^ diisifidfievos ttgogistjcsv 

'^sigiot^g (i' ikd'ovta, ^sccj ^bov a'dtag iyd roc 
vri(i£Qti(og^ tov fivd'ov ivi^m^CcD' xilaav'^ ydg. 
Zeig'^ ifii y* i^vciysL SevQ' iXd-ifiev ovx^ id'sloma- 

100 rig S* av ix(6v ro606vS€ diadQcifioL aXfivgdv^ vSa)Q 
&67CStov; ovSe tig ayii figorcSv noXtg, ol re d'sol^tv 
[egd^ rs $iiov0L xal i^airovg^ ixaroiifiag, 
dXXtt^ fidV oii ytog i6tL zliog v6ov aCytoxoio 
ovr« Ttags^sXd'Btv^ aXkov %'b6v otJ^' dXi^Cai} 

105 fpri^C rot avSga Tcagstvai it^vQiorarov^^^ aAAov," 
rmv"^ dvSgSv oX a6rv nigi nQLd(ioio (idxovro 

a d. 706. 

b t. 26tt. 

c cf. d. 612 mar. 

(1 cf. O. 175. 

«. 155, X. 578, y* 
31, CO. 307. 

f d. 511, i. -227, 
470, u. 286, 21U, 
431, o. 2U4. 

e y. 5. 

h t. 366, fi. 307, 

M. 320. 
i «. 137-8. 
k Jr.344;cr.v.291. 

1 n. 737. 

m cf. X. 216, V. 33, 
n o. 108, A. 505, 

»F. 582. 
o {. 240-2. 

96. j^£ fiuBcaiv ngoaiSsmsv, 106. J^daxv, 

99. ifih cum hiatu omnes ante Barnes., qui ez conj. fi^tr fy', ita £rn. CI. ed. 

Ox., ifii y* correct, a man. certe antiq. Harl., ita Wolf., fis yap Schol. O. 175. 

104. nagi^ iXd'stv Barnes. Km. CI. ed. Ox. nagB^sld'siv Steph. Wolf. 105 

— II t SchoU. P. Q., 105 et 6)^Svg6r€gov et oX^vgotaxov praebet Schol. II. 

^fiagia applied to aXoxov in 'ijf. 232, 
/. 336. 

97 — 159* Hermes states his message 
— reluctantly, as shown by the two 
opening lines. He exhorts Calypsd to 
bow to Zeus and ctlaa (113) and send 
Odys. away. She replies, stung with 
indignation at the selfish jealousy of 
the male gods, of which she cites se- 
veral other instances: but concludes, 
"since Zeus is irresistible, let Odys. 
go,'* and promises to show him how. 
Hermes departs, and she seeks Odys. 
solitary on the shore, to tell him what 
change awaits him. 

98. vijfieQTim^ X. r. X., cf. Mene- 
laus^ words to Telem. d. 350, t&v ov- 
div tot iym xptr^co IWoff, ovd' ini- 

2. Hermes speaks as a human 
messenger who had traversed a desert 
with no places of refreshment might 
speak. There is something playful in 
his manner, pleading his own hard- 
ships in bringing the message, and as 
it were tacitly setting them off against 
the vexation which it would inflict; 
"but," he adds, "Zeus' will must be 
done, no other god can evade it" — 
leaving her to apply the maxim to her- 
self, as she in fact does (137—8 inf,). 
He also carefully abstains from all al- 
lusion to her passionate love for Odys. 

IlOlf. OD. I. 

104. Cf. Hes. Tkeog, 613. &g ovx 
^axt Jtog xl^'^ttt voov ovSh nag- 

105. ot^VQ^j the superl. stands here 
where we should expect the compara- 
tive (which is also read, but probably 
as a corrupt device to ease a difficulty), 
meaning "more wretched than (any 
one of) the others;" it is inconsistent, 
because the sense of ccXlmv expressly 
excludes what the superl. form requi- 
res should be included. Indeed allmv 
after a superl. may by an idiomatic 
abuse of language be taken as =3 ndv- 
tmv. See mar. on SlXmv for similar 
examples. Milton has a parallel to it 
in Par. L. IV. 3a3— 4» 

Adam the goodliest man of men since 
His sons, the fairest of her daugh- 
ters Eve. 
Similarly, Thucyd. I. 10, tiJv atgatBiav 
insivTiv ftByiotrjv filv yBvia&ai tdiv 
ngo avT^ff, and Eurip. Med. 941, sC- 
nsg yvvammv iatl x&v &XX(av fiia; 
so inf, 118 i^oxov aXXmv is to be ta- 
ken as a superl. with compar. force. 

106. There is hardly a doubt that 
vdiv dvifgdiv should^ be taken in clo- 
sest connexion with iXXtoVf not merely 
depending partitively on avdga pre- 
ceding. It then forms, (since what is 
said of "the men" implies ndvxotv) a 
justification of the preceding note. 



0ATS2EIA2 E. 107— 113. 

[day vn. 

a y. 118. 

b B. 328-9. 

c y. 136. 

d (r.378mar.,T.265, 

e CO. 110. 

f *. 147, B. 144. 

g fj.2Jb\; cf. t. 273 

h a. 11. 

i S. 391 mar. 

kVsOO, •.134,17. 

277, «. 39, 0. 482. 
1 ^.434,7^.162,1. 

669;, O. 146, X. 

129, «F. 403, 414. 

eivdsrsg^^ SaxdzG)^ dh noktv niQ6avxeg ifirjCav 

otxad^' drccQ iv vofJtG) ^Ad^vaCriv'^ allxovxo^'^ 

H Og)iv sTtcaQO^ ^ av€fi6v xa xaxdv xal xvfiaxa fiax^dJ 

s\_lvd'^^ aXkoL (ihv jtdvxsg ditdtpd'Ld'Sv i^d'koV axatQOi^ no 

xbv d' UQa SavQ^ avafiog^ xs g)^Qcov xal xvfia Jtika06sv.^ 

x6v vvv 6' r^viiysvv d7t07C6(i7td(iEv oxxl^ xaxioxa* 

ov ydg ol xyd' alaa q)Ck(ov d%ov66(piv okiod'ai^ 

107. slvdj^stsg. 108. J^oinuS^. 

13' J^ot, 

no— II t Schol. H. [] Wolf. Bek. Dind. Fa. Lowe, retiuent Barnes. CI. ed. 
Ox. no. dnitpd'iQ'Ov Barnes. Wolf. CI. ed. Ox. Dind. Low., dnstp^i^sv 

Augsb. cum tribus Vindob. SchoU. Vulg, H. P. Q. Bek. 112. rjvmysiv SchoU. 
P. H. Bek. Fa., riv<6ysi Barnes. Wolf. CI. ed. Ox. Dind. Low. 113. &no v6- 
aq>tv Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., dn6vo6(ptv Wolf. 

108 — 9. These lines no way relate 
to Odys. and his fortunes, but in the 
mouth of Hermes they are perhaps 
good-humoured gossip. He is telling 
Calypso, who lives so remote, the news, 
or what he takes to be such, as an 
ordinary ayYslos might. We learn from 
fi, 389 —90 that he told her more be- 

108. 'Am dXixovxo, see on y, 126: 
cf. Hes. Scui. 79—80, d^'avdxovq 
fidnagag, toi'^OXvfinov ^x^vaiv ijXi- 
XBv 'AfitpitQvatv. 

no — I. These lines seem proper as a 
part of Calyps6's words to Hermes 133 
— 4, and therefore less proper here as 
a part of what he says to her. Three 
Scholl. omit them here, but admit them 
there, although there Eustath. rejects 
them. Two Scholl. reject the entire 
passage 105 — 11, urging that the storm 
raised by Pallas had nothing to do 
with the wreck of Odys., as neither 
could 'AQ'. dXiTOvto apply to him, but 
see above on 108 — 9. But as regards 
no — I merely, if they are retained, 
the word ^v&'a would seem to connect 
that wreck with the storm so raised, 
which is against Odysseus' own state- 
ment elsewhere, and is a further rea- 
son for rejecting these lines here. Be- 
low (133 — 4) ^vd'a properly connects 
the wreck with Zeus' thunder, which 
is exactly in accordance with that 

112. '^pfciyeiv, for the retention of 
the V in this termination see Bek. Ho- 
mer, Bldt. p. 29, who pleads the au- 

thority of Aristarchus, Zenodotus, and 
Aristophanes, as being, according to 
various Scholl. in favour of it. Eu- 
stath. on Z. 170 calls this an Ionic 
form, as being the more ancient, and 
retained by the lonians, from whom 
the Attics also adopted it, as in ^9siv 

113. aloa, cf. fioiQtt in next line. 
The two words have here a shade of 
diflFerence, which the context aptly il- 
lustrates, alaa being used byH. in rela- 
tion to the evil, [loiga to the good which 
befalls a man. Absolutely taken their 
import is often indiflferently "fate" or 
**lot". The former special meaning 
is shown by the epithet xax^ or by 
the context, as in daiiiovog alaa xax 17 
I. 61, cf. T. 259, E, 209, inei vv toi 
alaa (i^vvv^a nsg; ov ri adla dr^v 
A. 416, aaaa ot alaa xara •nLkmQ'ig 
T£ Pag 8 tat ysivofisvto vrjaavzo XCvat 
7j. 197, so T. 127, l'^ aga yiyvofisd'' 
aHajj X. 477, n, 441, ^v d'avdzoio 
nsg atarj SI. 428; the latter by |u,ot- 
gdv X* a (Jbfiog Iff vts natad'vrjtmv a v 
d'gtonmv V. 76, m fidTtag'AxgsidTi, fioi- 
griysvlg oXptodaifiov T, 182. Yet we 
have d'dvaxog xal uotga r.^ loi, 
xstv 9' snl iLOigav Bd'tjiif (Zsvg^ X. 
560, cf. T. 592 and fiotg' oAoiy 5 times 
in Odv. and 3 times in II. So atai- 
fiov saxi and fji,6qaifi6v iaxi, aCai- 
fiov Tjnag and fiogaiiiov Tjfiag seem 
equivalent; cf. also naitii Jiog alaa 
nagiaxrjiifiLvaivo(i6goiaiv 4.52—3, 
which latter passages show that the 
line of distinction is not rigid. 


OATSSEIAS E. 114— 122. 


aAA'** hi of ^otQ* iiSrl (pikovg r' ISisiv, xal [xidd'cci^' 
1 1 5 olxov eg v^6QO(pov xal i^v ig TtatQiSa yatav," 
(Sg*^ g)dto^ ^CyriiSsv 81 Kalvtlfto'^ 8ta^ d'edtov^ 
xaC^ ^iv gxDVfjca^' Inea nxeQoevxtt nQogr^vSu 

(H re d'eatg dydaad'e^ ukq' avSgdiSiv evvd^ead'ai 
120 cc(i<paS(riv ^^ ^v r(g re tpCkov^^^ TtOLnjaer' dxoirriv, 
€jg (ihv or' 'iip^oi;*" c^A^ro ^oSoddxrvXog^ ^'Hcag^^ 
T6q)Qa of f^ydaCd'e^ d'eol^ $eta ^ciovreg^ 

a a. 41—2 mar. 

462-3, 0. 18-9, 
I. 23«-7, S'.B- 
11 , <t>, 523— fi; 
cf c. 41 mar., ^. 
c •. 171 , r. 259, 
0.34;cf. /#. 14S, 
150, 279, J. 264, 

n. 119. 

d «. 78 mar. 

a. 78 mar. 

f fi. 269, M. 236. ^9-. 
442, 460, V. 290, 
V^. 34, 0.35,89. 

ffli. 33. 

h cl". w. 307. 

i d. 171 mar. 

k d. 181 mar. 

1 C. 288, il. 178. 
m I. 397, 9>. 88. 

n X. 310, 672; cf. 

«, 274, X, 29. 
o/». 1, 15//. 241, ^. 

477, JQ. 788. 
I) 0. 250. 
q cf. 0. 260. 
r i. 181 mar. 
8 d, 805 mar. 

14. J^oi J^idisiv omisso t*. 

115. foiviov ifi^v. 
122. /ot. 

117. qxoviiaaaa J^insS. 

118. drjkTJfiovBg v»ir. 1. Eustatb. Scholl. Vulg. E. ot Steph. 120. ij tig tb vni\ 

1. Flor. Lov. Schol. Q. Barues. Em. Cl., ijv r^g ts Wolf. od. Ox. 121. cog 

fiiv X var. 1. Ilarl. et.Schol. 11. 123 -4 f nonmilli, Scholl. II. P. Q. 

Btmq Ambr. (2), ita Harl., scd %(oq (quod omnes odd.) ox omend. 


okeoB'ai, Hermos views Odyssous* 
staying in the island as all ono with 
"pcrisliiiig'*: be would so indeed bo 
lost to his fr^icndS) to heroism and to 
I'anie. Perhaps Calypso in 135 — 6 in- 
tends a reply to this insinuation. 

114. ixiaO'tti rhymes with 113; cf. 

116. (flyfjoev expresses the sudden 
.sciKuro of alarm, not paralysing, but 
prompting to some utterance or action 

118. <rx^^A^^^> ** hard-hearted"; the 
clause ot t£ k. t. X. 119 is to be ta- 
ken in close connexion with it, see on 
d. 729. — 'O'eoi, distinctively of the 
male deities, as opposed to &socif 119. 

— S^il32/t'«> ^l>^s better suits dyaaad'S 
following, than the var. led, dijA-if- 

119—20. dydaaS-e, see on d. 181. 

- afAfpa6», the forco^ of this, which 
belongs strictly to Bvvii,^ is continued 
into tiv xCg xb x.^t. A,.; cf. Musseus 
Hero et Le, 179, dyi^tpadbv ov Swd- 

(iBod'a ydiioig oaiooi nsXdaaai, She 
professes tlie open and honourable 
union of wedlock, as opposed to the 
amours described by naQsli^ccto Xdd'Qy 
^* 515) ^^d Pqox^ Bvvrjd'Biaa B. 821, 
which had yet provoked no similar 
jealousy. JtoiijoeT*, subj. shortened 
epice for noirjarjx\ 

121 — 4. In Eos carrying off Orion, 
since ho is also a hunter and a famous 
constellation, wo probably have the ob- 
scure trace of some nature-myth, the 
true import of which was lost. Even 
among the stars Orion retains his 'Mog" 
(mar.). There is an essay on Orion by 
MUller in the Kheinisch. Mus. (1834 p. 
1—29). Strabo (IX. ii. 12) mentions 
Hyria in Boeotia as his birth place. 
Eos also carried off Cleitus (mar.) and 
Tithonus (Hy. Aphrod, 218). For ^o- 
doda;e.^see on ^. i. 

122. riydacB'e, although in thesis; 
cf. dydaa^B 119 sup,\ an instance of 
the elasticity of epic usage as regards 
quantity; so a. 39 ftvacrar^ort , n, 431 
^v(^a, %. 38 vnsfivdaaO'B, 



0AT22EIA2 E. 123—7. 

[dat VII. 

a 0. 404. 

b J. 533, X. 641, 

y. 198, V- 244, 

Zi. 611. ^ 
c a. 202, V. 71 ; cf. 

il. 386, 9. 259. 
d y. 279 mar. 
c B. 696, £. 500, 

A^. 322, S. 326, 

*. 76, 
f J. 598. 
grZ. 26. 
h a. 433 mar. 
i S. 642. 

cog d' OTTor' ladCcDVc ivTtkoxafiog ^ri(iijrriQj^ 
^^ d'v^^ etl^adaj ^iyri^ q>ik&tritL xal svvg^ 
vscp ivi tQijcoko}'^ ovdh Siqv ijsv anvoxog^ 


124. S^oiq, 126. /fl5 J^Bl^aaa. 

127. xQinvXm var. 1. notant et damnant Scholl. H. P. Q. 

1 23 — 4. These lines are probably an 
interpolation due to some Syracusan, 
who found the name 'O^tvyiri in H., 
meaning probably Delos, (0. 404, un- 
less it be there also an interpolation) 
and wished to glorify his city and Ar- 
temis by enshrining its local legend 
here. 'Ogtvyirj occurs thrice in Pin- 
dar, always in connexion with Syra- 
cuse, Artemis and Hiero {01. VI. 92, 
Pyth, II. 6, Nem. I. 2), but Syracuse, 
where 'Ogrvy^a was the name of the 
island incorporated with the city {iv 
y vvv ovuixi nsgiTiXv^Ofiivj^ ij noXig iq 
ivtOQ icTiv Thucyd. VI. 3), was not 
founded till 734 B. C. (Clinton's Fast, 
ffellen,). Nor it is likely that that is- 
land attracted attention much before. 
Volcker, however (p. 24 § 17), thinks 
that that island is meant ino. 404, which 
he, with Hermann, views as genuine. 
The passage which mentions "l^^rsiLit? in 
Hy. Apoll. Del. 14 — 16 is now viewed 
by most critics as spurious. Later my- 
thology retained the name 'Ogtvy. in 
connexion with the cultus of Artemis; 
cf. "Agtsfiiv 'Ogtvyiav iXaqxipolov 
dfiq>invgoVy Soph. IVack. 214, Dindorf, 
and Nossis Locrissa, Fragm. 3, ''jgzEfii 
JdXov i%oiea licil'Ogtvyiav Igosaaav. 
In o. 403 foil. Apollo and Artemis are 
joined, which suits Delos; and they 
operate on their respective sexes, just 
as elsewhere Artemis sends sudden 
death to women, or as Penelop^ longs 
for her painless arrow (v. 62). Her 
killing Orion is inconsistent with this 
her limited function. Also ^. 483 --4, 
where Here says to her, insi oe Xs- 
ovxa yvvai^lv Zsvg d'tjusv, suggests 
that the death of Orion, the **mighty 
hunter", had not yet been ascribed to 
her. Further, if 'OgzvyCiq in o. 404 stand 
for the Syracusan island, what can the 

island £vg£rj be? There is no other 
island near Syracuse which could be 
said to lie nad^Egd'sv; whereas that 
relation well suits Rhenea and Delos. 
The epithet XQ'^^<^^Q^^<^^ ^ applied 
in 11. chiefly to Herd, but once to 
Artemis, in Ody. solely to Eod, save 
here. It is probably based on some 
chair of state usual in a temple (cf. 
Hermann Opusc. VII p. 310 foil, and 
Ni. ad loc, 

dyvij has, as Ni. remarks, a reli- 
gious character, being applied to Ar- 
temis, to Persephond and to the festi- 
val of Apollo (lAar.). 

125 — 7. The veiqi is the novalis of 
Virg. Georg. I. defined by Varro de re 
r. I. as uhi satum ftdt antequam secundd 
aratione renovetur; with Xi^LXoXifi cf. 
Varro ibid, iertio cum carant, jacio semine, 
lirare dicuntur, our *'han»wing". Cf. 
Hes. Theog. 969 — 71, 
drjfiijxTig fihv IlXovtov iysivato, 8ia 

*IaaC(o npot inysta' igat^ (piXotTjxiy 
VBI& ivl rgmoXm, Kgijtijg Sv 
niovi Si^fim. 
Ni. cites also Theocr. XX V.^ *2C foil., 
^aaiXiji TCoXifv xal dd'sctpatov 
(vofied'* ivdvuimg, tgmoXoig cno- 

gov iv vBiotiSiv 
icd'' ots §dXXovteg, nal tsxganoXot- 
aiv ofio^mg 
and adds that lasius was localised by 
later writers in many places, as the 
hero and discoverer of wheat cultiva- 
tion, as the propagator of Demeter^s 
worship, or as one of the Samothracian 

127—9. ovd^ by ictus. — axvOxog, 
see on a. 242. — <o$ &', it seems bet- 
ter to render this *^as", just as in 121, 

DAY vn.] 

0ZiTS2EIA2 E. 128—146. 


Zsvg^ og (icv xatinB^pva fiaXtov apyijTt* xsQavvdi, 
dg 8^ av vvv ^01 ayaH^s^^ %^6ol^ fiQorov avdga^ nag- 


130 TOP iiiv iydv itsdoda Ttsgl rgoTttog'^ pefia^ra 
olov, sjtsi of v^a d'oi^v agy^rc^ xegavvp 
Zevg iXaag ixia06s (leaa^ ivt otvoni ^rdnrco.' 
ivd'^ aAAot likv ndvxeg aTtstpd'td'ev iad'lol iratgoL^^ . 
tdv d' aga StSg' avefiog re (pegtov xal xvfia nikacaev, 

135 xov fihv iya (pCls6v re xal hgetpov^ i^Sh itpaiSxov 
^6Biv^ dd'dvarov xal dyfjgaov iffiara ndvta, 
aAA'» iital ov Jtmg i6ri ^tdg voov aiycoxoio 
ovte xagsl^sld'stv aXXov d'sov ot^d*' aXuS6ai,^ 
iggsTG},^ Bt ^iv xstvog iieorgvyei^ xal dvciyBi^ 

140 novtov"^ i7C* dtgvyetov jcdfifa)^ 8i ^tv ov nri"^ iyd ye, 
ovP ydg ^01 icdga vrjeg inijgetiioi xal iratgoLj 
of xiv ^tv jtdfijtoiev en* evgia vcSta %'akd66rig, 
avxdg of itgotpgtov vnod'iJ6o[iai ^'i ovd'' i7Cixev0G}^ 
(ffg* xe ftcfA' daxri^g rjv natgCSa yatav txi^rat." 

145 ri}v* d' aire TtgogisiTie Sidxrogog^^ *Agyeiq>6vtYig 
^'ovr© vvv aTtoTtefiTte j"^ ^iog d' inonCt,BO"^ ft^vtr, 

a «. 131 , ». 249, 

fi. 387, 9. 133. 
b d, 181 mar. 
c a. 105. 
d ii, 421-4,438,*. 

278, ij. 252. 
e «. 128 mar. 
r t. 274-6, a. 183 

g- c. 110 mar. 
h 17. 94, 257, \p. 

33«, M. 323, P. 

i «. 103-4 mar. 
k I. 377, r. 349; 

cf. If. 72, 76, e. 

1 Z. 439, O. 

726, K 130. 
m ^. 370 mar. 
n cf. «. 101. 

267, Si. 71. 

p «. 16-7. a. 559 

-60 mar. 
q a. 279 mar. 
r d. 350 mar. 
s «. 28 mar. 

1 n, 37s, 389, *. 

11 «. 43 mar. 

V o. 65. 

w^283, V. 148, X. 
332; of. 1,82, 8S, 
y. 2S, 77. 388 


'31- 143' ^ot. 132. J^iXaccg foCvoni, 139. J^bqqstoii, 144. J^i}v. 
145. ngoaiJ^siTts, 

129. Syaad'B Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., dydccad-B "totJ Ssvtigov a avetsllofis- 
vov" Schol. P., ayaad'6 Harl. ex emend. Wolf. 132. iXdaag Zeuod., Scboll, 
H. P. Q., ita Ambr. (2) et var. 1. Flor. Lov. Schol. Viilg. Steph. MS. GC., ileag 
ut noifitiHmtBQOv laudant SchoU. H. P. Q. 133—4 omittit Eustath. [] Wolf. 
Bek. Dind. Low. 136. Arist. dyiJQmv, Schol. U. 138. nagh^ iXQ^sCv iii in 

104; mox ovS* Ern. Barnes., ovd"' Wolf. CI. 

125 sup.; had "so'' been in^tended, we 
should probably have had mg xal vvv, 
130. With the gen. zgoxioq, cf. tstu- 
vvato nsgl ansiovg rjiisglg 68 — 9 sup, 
nsgl when local takes dat. more com- 
monly, as in Quintus Smyrn. XIV. 548, 
ACag o akXotB filv nsgivTJx^'^o 9ovgctti, 
vi]6g. Calypso seems to claim Odys. 
as by right of "flotsam and jetsam''. 
He had been washed up on her island 
on the keel of his foundered ship, and 
she had saved him: cf. Nausicaa^s 
words to him in ^. 462, ftot imdygi' 
otpiXXeig, For the tgonig see App. F. 
I (2) and note. 

133 — 4. See on no — 1 sup, 
136. aS'dvaxoVf she had probably 
given nectar and ambrosia before ; cf. 

^* 4£3 TOfp^a^ds ol HOfiiSrj ys ^sm 
mg ffinsSog i}ev, but now that her 
hopes are forbidden she serves him 
with mortal food, 199—201 inf. She 
had given him ambrosial raiment too, 
and repeats the gift at his departure 
(17. 259, 265), but this seems of slight 
account; or rather serves to increase 
his perxlj32i inf,). 

140. ov xiQf nri is used either of di- 
rection, "no whither", or of manner, 
"no how" (mar.): the next verse shows 
that manner is here to be preferred. 

141 —4. See notes on the places re- 
ferred to in mar. 

146. ovra»> "as thou sayest", she 
had rather (140) said the contrary; 
but Hermes with diplomatic skill ap- 


0ATS2EIAS E. 147— i6i. 

[day VII. 

a X, S3, n. 386. 
b d. 657, 715. 
c a. 49 mar. 
d d. 143, n. 181. 

a. 14. 

f ij. 255 mar. 
g «. 82, (T. 539. 
fix, 248, %. 472, 

v. 349. 
i Si. 794. 
k «. 160, 17. 224, 

T. 27. 

1 V. 379, a. 55, ;^. 

m »f. 398, D. 173. 
n *. 340, r 326. 
o a. 15 mar. 
p :?. 438-4; cf. y. 

q «. 418, C. 138, B. 

92, K. 462, ^. 

36, F. 265. 
r «. 83—4 mar. 
B cf.^350,V.143. 
t Si. 87. 
u a. 339, ;i.216, v. 

V (7. 204, «. 152 mar. 
w X. 386, V. 391, 

X. 290, *. 500. 

fwf* ;rc)ff trot ^etOTCi^ad's xotso^dfievog ;|raA6;rifv|?.'^ 
ciV a^tt q)(ov7J0ag djtdfiri xgarvg'' ^AQyBiq>6vrrig' 

^'t', BTtBidri Zrivog ijtixkvsv ayyeXidmv,^ 15c 

roi; d' &q' iiC dxr^g svqs xad^fisvov ' « ovda itox^ oaea 

SaxQv6q)tv^ xiQCovxo' xaxsC^sxo^ 6h yXvxvg ai&v^ 

voiSxov dSvQO^ivp^^ inel ovxixi Hvdavs^^ vviMpij, 

dlX' if xov vvxxag ^bv lavedxBv^ xal dvdyxfj 

Bv <sni60i^ ykatpvQoliSL tcuq' o'ix i^'ikcuW id'BXovatj • 155 

Y^lLaxa d' BV jtBXQi]6L xal i^L6vB6(St^ xad'c^Gn/j 

SdxQVOL^ xal UxovaxfiiSi xal akyBiSi %'Vfi6v BQBxd'GiVj 

jtovxov^ ax' dxQvyBXov dBQxiaxBxo SdxQva XbC^&v. 

dy%ov^ d' hxa^dvri XQogB(pcivBB 8ta d'sdcov 

'' xdfifioQB ,^ fiTJ (lOL h' Bvd'dS' ddvQSo, firida xot abov'' 160 

fp%'ivixo3' riSri ydg 6b (idka iCQOfpQaaiS^ "^ ditOTtB^il^G}. 

153- J^vv9otvs. 

153. vvfitpjj Sclioll. P. Q. V. Barnes. 156. pro iv nix. Aristar., dfinix. Scholl. 

H. P. 157 t Harl., "abest a compluribus" Bek. annot., [] Wolf. Bek. Dind. 

Fa. Low. retinent Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. In Heidelb. ad mar. ponitur et signis 

inter 158 et 159 refertur. 

propriates the concession of 143 — 4 as 
a virtual consent, which it proved to 
be; cf. inf. 161— 7. — inOTtl^eo, onig 
(mar.) means the oversight, visitation 
or punishment of men by the gods ; cf. 
^£0>t^ yi,riS\v omiofisvoi., Theog. €fnom. 
732, 1144. , 

153— S' WfJUpfi, the reading vvfiq>ij, 
which would make voatog the subj. of 
TjvduvSj seems rather the feebler even 
if we take ovxm as "not yet": if as 
"no longer" it seems to imply what 
is not the fact, that it once had pleased 
her. Whereas it seems natural that 
Odys., when newly rescued should have 
found content at first, which was after- 
wards exchanged for pining home-sick- 
ness. — ovx^iS'iXatv w., cf. Soph. 
TVack. 198 ovx ^xcoy SHOvai 8i. 

156. ev, Aristarchus preferred dy., 
on what grounds there is no evidence 
to show; and it seems hardly worth 
while to alter the received text in the 
absence of evidence. Ni. prefers aft, 
comparing dfi ^fioici @. 441 , and as 
regards euphony he is right. We may 
cf. , however, SI. 614, vvv ds nov sv 
nhjgii/jaLir, h ovi^tffiv, a rejected {d^s- 
T0V118VOV) line, yeH doubtless of a pe- 

riod when the Homeric spirit was alive 
and procreative, and Hy. XIX. 10, ns- 
tQfjeiv iv riXi§dxotai,v. — '^lovecoi^ 
as nitQU is a single mass of rock, so 
should rj^tov mean some single object, 
and in H. it seems to mean a slope of 
beach down to the sea; see especially 
the epithet fiad's^i], and the position 
assigned to it as between angai (mar.) 
see also Buttm. Lexil. 59 (i). 

157. The line is here retained, since 
the structure admits it with perfect 
ease: two participial clauses left asyn- 
deta are not uncommon ; see on 83 sup. 

160 — 70. Observe that she makes no 
mention of the mandate of Zeus by 
Hermes, and her words in 188 foil, 
would lead Odys. to ascribe his depar- 
ture entirely to her own kindly feel- 
ings; she seeks, however in 206 foil., 
to deter him by mention of unknown 
perils. These few touches pourtray her 
as a being of plausible but selfish wiles; 
cf. a. 56 — 7, and see note on itg sup. 
In accordance with this the reply of 
Odys. 173 — 9 seems to show that he 
had learned to distrust her. 

160 — I. xdfifiOQ€, this expressive 
epithet, especially with its emphatic 

DAY vn.] 

OATSSEIAS E. 162—177. 


dkV ays dovQara'^ ^axga Ta(i(ov aQ(i6^£o xakx^ 

vtlfov, cSg 6b q>iQri6LV in^ r^aQosiSia jtovxov,'^ 
165 avtaQ iyci (Strov xccl vScoq xccl olvov iQvd'QOv^ 
ivdTJiSGi fi6vosLxi%^ a xiv trot Xt^ov^ iQvxoc^ 
stfiatd r' &ii(piiiS(Xi ^^ ni^iL^fXi Si rot ovqov'^ oni(S%'Bv^ 
Sg X6 (idV diSxrid^g (Sijv naxQlSa yalav Xxrim^^ 
at XB d'Boi y' i%'ik<x}6i rot ovqccvov b^qvp fx^v6iv^ 

170 ot (IBV fpiQTBQOC Bl6l VO'^tSai XB XQ'^Vai^ XB»" 

cSg»n (pdxo^ ^iyij6BV Sh nolvxkag Stog ^08v6(SBvg^ 
xaC fitv g>ci}V7J6ag iiCBa nxBQOBvxa JtQogrivSa " 
*^aAAo® XI di) <yv, d'Bd, x68b iitjSBat, oiSi xi xo^tc^v ^ 
H (IB xikBaiv ^X^^^V ^^Qdav (liya^i Xatx^a %'akd6(S7ig^ 
175 Sbivov^ tr' dgyaXiov xb' xo S' odS' inl v^sg iiUcct 
dxvTCOQOi^ %Bg6(o6iVy dyaXkoiiLBvai^ ^cog oHq^. 
ovtf' dv iyciv dsTirixt^ (Sid'Bv ^xBdir^g inifiairiVy 


. «9. 

. 264, <y. 

a c. 343, 370; 

/u. 443. 
b «. 261. 
c 14. 229, 414. 
d 6. 482 mar. 

i*. 19, 327, V 
I. 20s, n. 444; 
cf. «. 265-7. 

f C 76, I 232, I. 

R- je. t77. 
h It. 79, « 

361, o. l._. 
i d. 620 mar. 
k «. 26 mar. 

1 V. 116. 
m «. 116 mar. 
n «. 117 mar. 


q d. 604 , App. H. 

(3) mar. 

«. 367, fA, 119, 

0). 169. 
8 #.230, d. 708 mar. 
t C- 272; cf. B. 

462. r. 222. 
u y. 213 mar.; cf. 

0. 319, -r. 86 , V. 


p d. 812 mar. 

164. riBQO^Sidia. 165. foivov. 166. iisvof6i%i\ 
172. finsa. 175. iJ^Caai sive ifiaai. 

167. fjBCaata dutpij^iaoi, 

177. a/€X7}Tt. 

163. It' d' fSipea habet sed supra iv d' scriptum avrap i. e. arap Ilarl., qaem 
sequnntur omnos edd., mox iv avrg Ilarl. ; sed in mar. in' avrngj ita Wolf., in 
avT^ Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 166. igwiei Harl. ex emend., an errore pro 

igvTiri? 168. rxoio Aristoph,, Scholl. H, P. 170. yt.Qtva£ Barnes. Em. CI. 
ed. Ox., T/Lgrival lilustath. Wolf. 173. fii^Sece Schol. V., inifiijSsai omisso rods 
Bek. annot. 177. iymy' var. 1. Steph 

addition ndvxmv mgl tpmx&v is be- 
stowed by U. solely on Odys. ;r^d- 
tfQaaa*, '*in earnest'*, a solitary epic 
fern. adj. of which a masc. form ngo- 
(pQOig may be supposed. It is applied 
also to Athene and Circe (mar.) for 
the termination cf. Svaaaa d'dXaaacc 
neQaiq>aeacc. qppofSoo contains the root. 

163-4. OxBffiTjv, seeApp.^F. 1.(2) 
(4) for this and its details. V'^ov, in- 
dicates the height of the vessel in its 
vertical section, the tngia (see App. 
1^^* I* (3) indicating the highest point. 

168. iXTiai, (oq %B final after a pres. 
or fut. prefers the subj. , as in A, 32, 
n. 84 (in which last, however, Eustath. 
read ttpoto for vulg. ugriai), unless the 
clause appears put hypothetically, as 
in |3. 52 —4, where Icarius would iBSva- 
aaiTO 9'vyaxQa in case the suitors went 
to him; so in 1^. 135 co? %Bv tig (paim 
**that one might (if he heard it) say"; 
and so even more plainly in p. 163 — 

5 with mg Svj where we have in 163 
the hypothesis expressed. The var, led, 
T%oio would imply a degree of doubt 
unsuited to the passage; see App. A. 
9 (19) and note *. 

169. xol ••• k'xovaiv, Ni. says this 
phrase occurs in Ody. 14 times, in II. 
only twice. It has remarkable force 
as used by Calypso « who belongs to 
the more earthy order of divinities, 
and admits the Olympian gods as her 
superiors, although contrasting herself 
(211 foil.) as superior to Penel. 

173—4. iiXJio re ... rode /m., *'thou 
art plotting something else in this*', a 
form of phrase rare in H.; see mar. 
for one instance of it. — xiXeai, 
scanned in synizesis. kalxfia ^ak., 
see App. B^ (3). 

176. In o^xvxOQOi and dyaXkofi^' 
vaif also used of birds, horses etc. 
(mar.), there seems a reminiscence of 
the image aXog tnnoi iis applied to 
ships in d. 708. 


OATSSEIAS E. 213-227. 

[day VII. 

a a. 251, t. 124. 
b V. 391, V. 61. 
c 1^.213; cf.^. 401. 
d o. 363, J. 506. 
e ». 169, a, 130. 
f e! 136 mar. 
g «. 210 mar. 
h y. 233. 
i a. 167 mar. 
k a. 183 mar. 
1 cf. V. 15- 
m ^. 155; cf. 490, 
J. 492, ^, 607. 
n d. 95. 

to. 207, A. 162. 
p p. 284-5. 

q ». 183, 232. 
r y. 329 mar. 
s cf. y. 402. 

1 c. 68. 

u V. 211 , £. 572, 

ZT^v S' dna^scfidfisvog XQogig)!^ nokvurjfttg 'OSv60evg 
'^jtorva^ &€«, ftiy fiOL rode x^^o'^ olSa xal avrog 
ndvxa fidX*, ovvexa^ 6slo jtspifpQOV IIi^vekoTteca 
elSog dxidvoriQri^ (isys&og r' slgdvra iSi^d'ac 
^ ftiv ydg figot 6g iatij 6v d' dd'dvatog^ xal dyiJQog, 
dXXtt xal (Sg id'sla xal ielSofiaL^ rjfiata ndvxa 
otxadi^ r' Hd's^ievai xal voCtifiov ^(laQ lSi6%'aL, 
sl^ d' av rig ^airj^L ^SiSv ivl otvoiti^ xovta}, 
tX7J0O(iai, iv 0rtjd'€6atv i%(ov^ taXaytsvd'da ^vfiov 
^dri ydg fidXa"' icokV^ inad'ov xal tcoXX^ ° i(i6yi]^a 
i'xv(ia0L'i xal TCoXiiLG}' (lerd xal r6d« rotat ysvaa^a," 

cSg itpax\ riikiog^ d' aqi* iSv, xal inl xvitpag '^M'sv, 
iXd^ovtsg d' aga td ys fivxp^ cnelovg^ ykaq>VQoto 
rsQTtsod'riv (piXoxrixi^ itaql*^ aXXtjloi^L fisvovtes- 



213. 217. J^sidog. 215. J^otSa. 217. J^idh^ai. 219. iJ^iXdofiai, 
220. S^oUaSs, J^idsa&cei ferri nequit. 221. foivoni, 

215. noxvia d'sa Eustath. Barnes. Ern. Wolf. CI. ed. Ox. Low., notvcc ^sa 
SchoU. H. P. Q. V. G. C. Bek. Dind. Fa. 217. fife Svxoc Arist., SchoU. 

H. P^., Eustath. Bames. Krn. CI. ed. Ox., eladvta Wolf. Bek. Dind. Low. Fa., 
sis (oytci edd. viliores, Scholl. H. P. (ita probante Dind. correxit Pors. pro slg 
amfia depravato). 219. ^ISofiai var. 1. Steph. 221. pro st 9' av Thiersch 
Gr. Gr. § 229.. 2. c. st o av conjecit, (aCasLs Vindob. 222. atT^&saat tpiqatv 
var. 1. Steph. 224. iLBxa zoiisi 8b xckI to Bek. annot. 227. fiivovxs Bames. 
Ern. CI. ed. Ox., fiivovrss Eustath. Harl. Wolf, et recentt. 

to us hyperbolical, according to this 
standard was not necessarily so. 

215 — 6. xoTVa -d"., Ni remarks, on 
Wolfs reading notvia d'sa, that there 
is no other instance in H. of d'sa being 
a monosyllable, and only one of d'sol 
{A. 18), and that noTVi.a elsewhere oc- 
curs always in the 5'** foot, notva is 
always, as it would be here, vocat., 
but in Hy. Ceres 118 notva d'sdtov oc- 
curs as nom. Also Hes. Theog, 11, 926 
has the accus. noxviav. — fiii . • • X^^^ 
cf. Eurip. Med. 157 xstW %6ob^ firj 
Xagdeoov, — fidXa goes with ndvxa^ 
"all — quite". 7t€Qi4fQO}V , see on 
210 — 2 sup. 

217. dxiifvOT; the Schol. says some 
interpret this dad'evBatiga some evte- 
Xsazsgay "more ordinary"; the latter is 
preferred here by Apollon. /ica;. p. 98 ed. 
Par. 1773. In a. 130 the sequel seems to 
explain it as "helpless"; perhaps akin 

to axtxvff I. 515, which is from xtxiig or 
niKvg **strength" A. 393. ^^ elodvxa, if 
Aristarchus' reading stq dvza be taken 
stg is in tmesis with the verb. 

221. el**» f^aLxiOi, for subjonct. with 
bI see on a. 168 ; the optat. after what 
Calypso had said, would intimate' too 
much uncertainty. Her mention of the 
axBSCri and his own previous experience 
easily lead Odys. to think of ship- 
wreck as the form of xjfdsa to which 
her words point in 207 sup. 

222. Ern. cites Hor. Sat. IL v. 20 
Fortem hoc ardmum tolerare jubebo, ut 
quondam major a tuli,. 

225—8. The close of the seventh and 
dawn of the eighth day here takes place. 

227. T€Q3tiaS^v . . • fiivovzeq most 
editors have recently adopted with Bek. 
the pi. where a particip. dual would end 
the line with a short vowel. Yet Bek. 
himself says that Aristarchus, Zenod. 


OATSSEIAL E. 228—242. 


iJ/LiOg* d' ^Qtyivsia (pdvri ^oSodaxtvlog *H(og, 
avrix^^ iihv xkatvdv^ re %Lr(avd te ?vvvt' ^OSv(Sif€vg^ 

30 ccvrij tf' aQyvg)BOv^ q)6iQOS ^^ycc avvvto vv(i(pri^ 
XajtTov xal xuqCbv^ tibqI 61 ^civriv fidlet* ii,vt 
xcckrjv XQViSBiriv^ XBtpukfi d' i(pv7tBQd's xalvntQtiv*^ 
xal x6x* 'Odv66'^c ^ByalrjroQL ^tjSbto^ xofiJtTJv. 
d(SxB ^Bv OL 7tilBXVv« ^iyccv^ &QliBvov^ iv^ 7tald(i'rj0tVy 

35 Xtt^xfioi/,^ d^g)or6Q(X)d^Bv axuxiuBvov avrdg iv avt^ 
^tslXblov^ nBQtxallhg iXdlvov^"" bv avaQrjQog' 
ScoxB d' iitBira 6xinaQvov^ iv^oov '^qx^ *' 6dofo 
vrjaov in' i^xccniqvj^ od'i d^vSgBay" (iccxQa nBtpvxBiv, 
xlrjd'Qfi'i tr' atysiQog^ r\ iXdrtj r'lji; o'dQavofiijxrjg^ 

140 avcc^ TtdXat, TtBQixrjXa^ xd of nkdoiBV^ ika(pQ(Sg. 
avtaQ iitBl Si^ SBt^\ oO't divdQBa^ fiaxQcc 7tBg>vxBiv^ 
rj fihv B^Ti TCQog d(S(ia -ffaAv^oJ^ Sta d'Bdiov 

a /}. 1 mar. 

b X. 542^5. 

c k' 132, 154, 320, 
341, 396, 61(), n. 
79, Q. 650, 557, 
<p. 839, y. 487. 

d 2. 50, cl. X. 85, 

n. 621. 

e X. 406; cf. C- 

100, S- 184. 
r cf. ^ 14. 
^ t. 391. 

ii s. mo. 

i O. 411. 
k y. 80. 


y. 422. 


1 ... ^ 

m cf. JV. 612. 
n (. 391. 

d. 517 mar. 
I) «. 241 , Q. 

a. 359, J. 

^. 8S. 
q c. 64. 
r C 292, t. 141, If. 

s (y.30[l;cr.«F.327. 

1 </>.3<)2icf.'r.l22, 
X. 3. 

u «. 238 mar. 
V •. 78 mar. 

229. 230. ^ivwx', fivvvxo, 234, Bm%Bv /ot. 240. ^01, 

232. ^q>V7C%Q^B Arist., Schol. H., Bek. Fa., ini&fiHB meliores, Schol. H., ita 
E\i8tath. Barnes. Ern. Wolf. Cl. ed. Ox. Dind. Low. 236. inccgriQog var. 1. 
Steph. 237. sv {fiov var. 1. Eustatli. 238. ioxcctirjg Eustatli. SchoU. H. P. 
Q. Barnes. Ern. Wolf. Cl. ed. Ox. Dind. Low. Fa., iaxatirjv Harl. ex emend. 
Bek. 240. ^katpga var. I. Em., mox nsgl 'nijXcc Chrysippus, Schol. P. 

and Aristoph. preferred the dual; see 
note on S, 33. Here, however, there 
is no doubt that iXd'ovtsg is the true 
readinji^ in 226, which seems almost 
to require (livovtsg in 227. The inter- 
mixture of dual and pi. forms in the 
same clause is common enough, e. g, 
TO) S' iatav x. 181, tm &^ ... tuovto 
<»• IS3— 4- 

228. See on p. i. 

230. difyv<peov, the unsullied fresh- 
ness of the wool or other material is 
meant, elsewhere it is epithet of the 
nymphs' grotto; see on p. 11, latter 

231 — 2. ^OiVTiVy Lowe remarks on 
imvrj being the woman's, imaxriQ the 
mAn's.— xakv^tTQ'iiv, "veil", distinct 
from the ngijSBfivov or *' head -fillet"; 
sec on a. 33^, also -<Eschyl. SuppL 1 14 
ZiSoviff %aXwirga and Paley ad loc,y 
who cites Hes. Theog. 575, )C. daida- 
Xirjv, The elaborate toilet, as in the 
parallel case of Circe (x. 524 — 5), de- 
notes a solemn farewell. 

234. doixCj join iv araZ., "gave into 

his hands"; agfievov (2 aor. mid. part, 
syncopated, not adj.) "fastened" or 
"joined": it seems used of niXsHvg the 
AXQ-head, as the correlative of sv iva- 
grjgog {inf. 236), of the handle. — iv 
TtaXdfi. occurs in E. 558, <P. 469 with 
a verb of fighting, in the sense of 
"hand to hand", but more commonly 
bears its present meaning. 

237. CxBTtaayov, on the vowel short 
before it see Spitzner de vers, her, p. 
99, 105, and note on a, 246. In ttci- 
Tcsxog for avtdma) and ini%idvaxai for 
G%BSavvvii,i we trace a similar evanos- 
ccnce of (T before x, cf. our *'emerald" 
from oy^ugctydog^ also our words * 'splash 
plash", "smoulder moulder", "sneeze 

238 and 241.^ neifVXBiv, for the fi- 
nal V see on rivmyBiv 112 sup. 

240. Chrysippus read jisqI xijka; 
but HijXiog is the simple form in II., 
only found in nvgi KrjXioi) where -ioo 
is in synizesis. lies. Frag» 247 has 
naxsnvi'sxo xifXfia vjjmvy quoted by 
the Schol. Vonet. on A. 155. 


OAXrSEIAS E. 243—255. 

[day vni. 

a cf. I. 204, |. i03, 

y. 424, H. 161, 

i. 373. 
b p. 341 , cp. 44, 

V^. 197. 
c 9.12l;cf.O.410. 
d \fj. 198. 
e a. 78 mar. 
f e. 162. 
g cf. t. 498 

JW . 3S4, 
h (T. 356, &. 124, 

«. 325. 
i V. 255. 
k (. 323. 
I «. 163. 
in «. 163, u. 2'i9, 

414, V. 74, o. 

283, 552. 
n e. 318. 
o y. 281 , ». 270, 

315, ^^. 558. 


avrccQ o tdfiveto SovQa • d'Ofog Ss of ijvvvo ipyov. 
si!xo6i d' ixfiake ndvra^^ xskdococi^iSsv d' Zqu %aXM&^ 
l^i<50s^ S' imataiiBvog ^ xal stcI dxad'^iriv'^ td^vsv, 245 
totpQa d' ivsLXS xiQBXQa^ Kakvilxo^ Sta d-sdajv 
tixQrivBV^ d* &Qa Ttavxa^ xal ^^^^o^sv^ dXXrjXoi0cVy 
yofupoLauv d' &Qa xijv ys xal aQ(iovii]6LV &Qa06€v.? 
o00ov^ x£g r' eSag>og vrjog xoQvd^Bxai^ dv^g 
fpoQXcdog^ BVQBirig^ bv Bl8(og xBxxoavvdaVj 25c 

x660OV ^71 BVQBlaV^ G%BdCriV TtOLTJiSaX^ ^OSv00€vg, 

txgia'^ di 0xi^aag^ aQagcov d'a^edt 0xafLivB00cVj 
tcoCbi' dxdg fiaxgrj^iv BmriyxBvC8B06v XBkBvxa, 

BV d' l0z6v 7C0LBL XOi ixiXQlOV^' Sq^IBVOV ttVXci' 

nQog d' &Qa TcriSdXiov^ Jtovij0axo^ wpg l&vvoi. 


243. /ot figyov, 244. J^sinoai. 250. J^siSmg, 

247. TSTQjivsv S' Barnes. Era. CI. ed. Ox., tszqtivbv ^' Wolf, et recentt., ti- 
XQTIVB d* Eustath. 248. aQfioviyatv Bek. Fa. secuti Scholl. H. P., dgfiovitjaiv 
Enstath. et cast., mox agriQSv Eustath. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Wolf. Low., 
agccQSv et Sgrigsv Schol. V., agaaoBV Scholl. B. H. M. P. Q. T. Harl. et in textu 
et in mar., ita Bek. Dind. Fa. 249. Tognmaaro var. 1. Scholl. B. E. H. Q. 

244. xdvra, "in all?', for this use 
of the adj. see mar., and cf. Herod. I. 
163 ipitoas ndvza Etnoai, ttccl laatov 
Irfa. Jelf. Gr, Gfr. 454 Obs. i. seems 
to think the article xd would be re- 
gularly required ; but this is not so, as 
ndvza is a further predication. 

245. CxdS'fifiVy the line of the 
plummet, the plummet itself being 
called azoctpvXrif B. 765; when used, 
it was rubbed with ruddle (vtco/ic- 
(i,i,lz(ofiivri Schol.) to leave its mark 
or timber. 

247 — S.iiQfiocev, "fitted"; the ac- 
tual fastening comes in 248. With 
yoiLfpoiCiv cf. uEschyl. Suppl. 440, 846 
Dindorf, yByofiqxozui ffxaqpo?, yo(iq>o- 
8szq> zs Sog£: for the process here see 
App. F. 1.^^(4). — xijv ye, 1. e. axs- 
dirjv. — aQaaaev, "knocked (toge- 
ther)", I. e, with the hammer; so it 
is used of fastening bolts in uEschyl. 
Prom. 58 dgaeae fialXov, atpiyyB. The 
reading dgrigBv may have arisen from 
361 inf. iv agfiov. dgi^gyi but this perf. 
form is not transitive in H. ; the aor. 
agagov is both trans, and intrans., 
see on 777 sup. The perf. also shor- 
tens the -ij- into -it- in particip. dga- 

gvia (cf. zsd'aXvioc), but the aor. never 
lengthens it. 

249 — 51. OC0OV xlq v',^ i, e. ocaov 
zi zig; see mar. xoQVoioeTai, the 
primary notion is that of circular mo- 
tion; see mar. and cf. Lat. tornus lor- 
queo "lathe". So Eurip. BacchoB 1066 

— 7 XVX/lOVTO d' &CZB T0|0V ^ Xt7^- 

zhg zgoxog^ zogym ygatpofisvog nsgi- 
q>ogocv, ^X%si dgofiov: here the roun- 
der form of the ipogzig or vavg azgoy- 
yvXrii as contrasted with the galley, 
seems implied. Ni. says the verb is 
here subj. shortened epice^ but we have 
in a subjoined clause of a simile, X 
27 og (dozTig) (d z' onmgrig slaiVy a 
verb clearly indie, and probably fnt., 
and in J. 422—3 009 ore introduces the 
main clause of a simile^ by indie. , tog 
d' ot' . . . xvfirff d'ocXdaavig ogvvz\ 
where the image is continued by the 
fut. and pres. ind. xogvacBzai and ^p^- 
ftfit, cf. also N. 795 — 6; thus the in- 
die, may clearly stand here. evQeLni^^ 
contrast the expression vavg (iaiiga 
for a war-galley in the historians. 
XOCCOV e7t\ "in such proportions". 

251 foil, on the various parts of the 
vessel down to 257 see App. F. i (3) 
(4) (6) (7) (9) (14) also for t%giu see on 


OATSSEIAS E, 256—272. 


xvfiatog elkaQ^ i(i€v' itokkriv d' inaxsvaxo^ vkriv, 
xotpQOL^'^ 81 q)dQ€' fvaixs Kakvil;(o 8ta &€<i(X}v 
tctCa noLTJaaiSd'ai' d' ev texvfjoazo xal ra.® 

60 iv^ d' vnigag te xdkovg xb noSug^ r' ivadrjasv iv 

fioxkoMiv^ d' &Qtt TTJv ye xarsigvaev^ slg aka Slav, 

xixQaxov riinuQ iriv, xal tp t6t6ke6ro^ anavrw 
TjS d' &Qa nifinx(p niiin* aito v7J6ov Sta KakvipfD, 
si^ard^ r' dii(pti6a6a^^^ d'vcidsa^ xal kotJ(Sa6a, 

165 iv 6d of diSxov^ idijxs 9'sd ^dkavogi^ ofi/oio 

tov hcQOv, hsQOv d' vdarog ^iyav, iv di xal iJa'J 
x(QQVX(p' iv Si of oxlfa^ xC%'Bi (isvostxia^ nokkd- 
^ovQov^ di nQoiyxsv dTcrjfiovd'^ tb Atapdv^ rs, 
yrjd'o^vvog d* ovQp nixaa' ^ [(SxCa dtog 'O8v0O6vg. 

170 avruQ nydaki^y IdvvBxo rexvi^ivtfog 

'^fisvog • ot5d^ of vnvog inl fiksg>dQOt0Lv iitiTCxsv ,* 
Ilkijtddag^^ t' igoQfSvtt xal dfh dvovta Bocityv 

a 17. 96, ^ 11. 
h H. 338, 4^7, ^. 

5(5, 6S. 
c c. 487. 
(I a. 246. 

d. 644, J. 1S8, 
Z, 70, r. 256. 

f «. 266-7. C. 76 

-9, 17. m. 
gr X. 32. 

h c. 332—97 pats, 
i d. 677. 
k /J. 171, 17. 331. 

1 17. 265. 

m c. 167 mar. 
n (p. 62. 

f 78, «. 196,212, 
K. 19, 47. 

p c. i9({, 346. 

q I. 212-3. 

r y. 4S0. 

s r 166, C. 76-7. 

1 fj. 266. 

u /*. 420 mar. 

V 'X, 164, (T. 487 

w ^. 477, 830. 
X ^. 64, A. 480. 
y a. 265. 
z /». 398 mar.; of. 

'K. 26. 
aa Z. 484-0. 

264. J^sCfiotTa oifiq>iJ^iaaaa, 

265. J^oi foCvoio, 
271. /ot. 

267. /oi fjLBvoJ^SLyiia, 

256. oiavtvoiaiv Yr. 257. ttoU^... vA?; MS. G. C. et Schol. V. 259.^ non^- 

asad'm Harl. 262. tltagtov contra metrum Harl. 264. stfiaza i* Harl. 

272. iaoQmvta et OQOavta turn vero iaoQavti et opocovrt loctiones commixtas e 

Schol. H. "dfc;|r(3s at 'AQiatdgxov*^ interpretatur Pors. 

163 — 4 sup. — vkfiVs the oiavXvai] so 
sylva is used in Virg. Oeorg. I. 76, II. 
17, IV, 273 for brushwood or such light 
growth. KOkkriv is best taken as a 
further predicate. **laid his material 
on in abundance' , t. e. to be a suffi- 
cient jdXuff 259 — 60. On xal xa Ni. 
quotes Find. l8ihM.Yll. 15^ (VIII. 30), 
iaxa d'iari figoroPg avv y* ilsvd'fQiqL 
%al td; cf. also mar. With no&ag 
cf. Virg. Mn. V. 830 Una omnes fecere 
pedem, also Eurip. Or, 697—8, Soph. 
Antig, 715 Dindorf. 

261. fioxkoXOiv, the difficulties of 
Robinson Crusoe in a similar effort 
will occur to most English readers. 

262—3. xixQaxav, i, e, of his work 
= eleventh of the poem^s action, since 
the first of these four days was itself 
the eighth; see on 225—8 sup,; thus 
nifMntil^ is the twelfth. Obs. in ^r^fi- 
n%m nifin* a play of words. 

264. A nQfod^atBQOv; the bathing 
would come first. 

266. fiiyavt a Schol. gives the pro- 
portion as threefold. In ». 209 twen- 
tyfold is given for mixing — an evident 
exaggeration. ^ jcCy see on |3. 289. 

268—9. djtrifAOvdi see on d. 487, — 
kutQOV is also^ epithet of blood and 
of water; and a7ri}f». re Xi. xb form a 
joint epithet of sleep (mar.). On yi^- 
9>6ovvoq X. T. X. see App. F. i (9) 
note ♦♦ (end). 

271. Ni. compares ^schyl. Sept, e. 
Th, 1^0 ay ffvnvmv nriSaUmv, Lycoph. 
386 aygvnvov tixvriv. The same 
notion is involved in Palinurus' struggle 
to resist Somnus Virg. ^n. V. 847 foil. 

271 foil. The Hesiodic calendar is 
marked by the Pleiades, Arcturus, Hya- 
des, Orion, Sirius, Opp, 381—5, 562, 570, 
585, cf. Scut. 153, 397, also Virg. Oeorg, 
I. 246, /«;«. III. 514—6. — nXviidff., 
the derivation commonly given is nXei^v 


OATSSEIAS E. 273—274. 

[day XII. 

a X. 29, 50G, H. 

b M. 42, 47. 
c X. 29. 
d &. 340, V. 325. 

"A^xrov d'\ flv Tcal a(icc^av inixkriaiv^ xakdovaiv. 

navigare; see Hes. 0pp. 619 fol., where 
the setting of the Pleiads marks the end 
of the nayigator*s season and the he- 
ginning of the ploughman^s. There is 
just a trace in H. of such a reckoning 
of seasons hy stars in the simile X. 26 
foil., where the dog of Orion "goes 
forth in the late summer, and hrings 
fever*' (see on 328 inf.). But besides 
this "the imagination of poets play- 
ing upon the name conceived them as 
a flight of doves'* (quctai 7tslsi,ccdsg) 
pursued by Orion; cf. Pind. Nem. 11. 
II — 2, 6QSi,av y£ nslBi.ddmv fi'q ttJ' 
XoQ'BV 'Slagiavot vsCad'ai, and even in 
Hes. who keeps the form nirjiddsg, 
we find 0pp. 619 cwt' Sv nXrjidSsg 
a&ivog ofipgiiiov 'Slgimvog qpcvyot)- 
aai %. T. X. So -^schyl. Fragm, ap. 
Athen. has 
of d' %nx' *AzlavTog naiSsg mvofioc- 


ndxQog fi^yiatov aO'Xov ovgavoatsy^ 
TtXaieanoVf cvi^a wttTigmv (pavza- 

k'xovai fiogq>6tg anzsgoi, IlsXsLci' 
In fi. 62 foil, the niXsiai zgijgtovsg are 
explained by Eiistath. mythically of the 
Pleiads. In myth they are daughters of 
Atlas and Pleione; see Athen. XI. 79 
foil, where some other passages may be 
found; hence IJXriiddaiV 'AzXayyevsatv 
Hes. 0pp. 383. Six only are visible 
save a host of small stars, yet seven 
was their conventional number; quof 
septem did, sex tamen esse solent Ovid. 
Fast.lV. 170; cf. SimonidesCeo8,/Vfl^»2. 
122, and Q. Smyrnaeus, XIII. 551 — 9. 
This may possibly embody traditionally 
the fact of the disappearance of a star 
of the group since the period of the 
earliest observations. Various stories 
were invented to account for it; see 
Anc^. Aslron. p. 66. The Latin name 
for them was VergiHcB, as their rise 
marked the close of the spring. In S. 
486 the Hyades are added to the list 
of constellations as represented on the 
shield, cf. Virg. yE«. I. 744, III. 516, 
Georg. I. 138. — 6* d. BomXTiv, the 
epithet is explained, that, as the con- 
stellation is vertical at setting, it takes 
a longer time to disappear, whereas, 
being horizontal when rising, it comes 

into view more quickly. Ovid poetici- 
zes the fact in quamvis tardus eras el 
te tua plaustra tenebant, Met. II. 177. 
So in CatuU. LXVI. 67 the Coma Be- 
renices says, Fertor in occasum tardum 
dux ante Booten, Qui vix sero alto mer- 
gitur oceano; cf. Prop. III. iv. 25, Juv. 
Sat. V. 23. {Anc^, Astron. p. 59). 

273-'ui^xrov ••• afACi%av, with the 
second name cf. the Latin Septemtrio, 
and Ov. ex Ponto IV. x. 39 Proanma 
sunt nobis plausiri prcebentia formam . . . 
sidera. The name Potozrjg {^ovg = trio^ 
Varro de ling. Lat. VII. 74 — 5) points 
to the same fancy — the husbandman's 
notion; as that of the bear and Orion 
in connexion v/ith it was the hunts- 
man's. Mythology accounted for the 
Bear, as being the nymph Callistd, loved 
by Zeus, but by the jealousy of Here 
transformed into a bear; Ovid repre- 
sents Juno as imploring Tethys, ne puro 
tingatur in wquore pellext Met. II. 530, 
accounting thus for the statement oir^ 
d' afifiogog x. t. X., which Virgil ap- 
plies to both the Bears and by impli- 
cation to the Serpent, perhaps, also 
Georg. 1. 246, Catullus {ubi sup.) with 
a qualification (vix), to Bootes. — 
ijtlxX. xccX* should be taken as a 
whole phrase, "they surname". Pro- 
perly the "Wain" is the seven larger 
stars only. The "Bear" contains these 
with others of less magnitude. 

274. avTOV, local gen., "upon him- 
self", as indicating the locality where 
the motion takes place. CZQifpezai, 
"turns", as it were, to bay; cf. azgs- 
q>d'slg of a hunted lion in a simile 
(mar.). There is, however, in this 
phrase a recognition of the conspicu- 
ous change in the attitude of the con- 
stellation manifest towards morning, 
as if "revolves upon his own pole" 
were meant. *SiQl€Ova, his attitude is 
described X. 572— 5 as hunting beasts 
xofT* daq>oSsX6v Xsifidiva. — doxevsi, 
as a wild animal at bay, "awaiting" 
the huntsman's charge; so the hound 
sXiaaofisvov {Xiovza) 9o%sv8i (mar.). 
L()we cites Manil. I. 491. fol. Arctos 
et Orion adversis frontibus ibant. In X. 
26 foil. Orion has a dog, not named, 
but evidently id. q. Sirius; see above 
on 271 foil. 


OATLLEIAS E. 275—283. 


fqv yccQ dij (ilv avtoys Kukv^fo 8ta d'sdov 
xovtoycoQ6vd(iBvaL^ i%* dQcCrsga^ X^'^Q^S i%ovxa, 
BTCtd'^ 61 xal Sdxa (ihv nkiav if(iata TtovrojtOQevcjv,' 
oxtoxaidtxdri]^ d" ifptivri oqbu^ axiosvxa^^ 
i8o yaCriq ^airjxcDV^ S^t r' &yxt6xov itikav avrco- 
eUaaxo^ d' g5s or* ^ti/ov'' iv ij6Q0£idiv^ novxia, 
xov d' 5g Al^ioiKov'^ dvLfov XQ€£(DV" ivoOiX^cov 

a E. U. 

b M. 267, A. 11. 

c k. 238, M. lis, 

201,219, J^. 309, 

326, 675. 
a 1^. 267-9. 
u «. 277 mar. 
r to. 65. 
ff A. 167. 
h a. 365, &. 374, 

il, 3:i4, 592. 
i «. 283, ». 352, *. 

283, B. 791; c(. 

cu. 524, J, 138, 

M. U8. 
kK. 155, y. 27ii; 

cf. J. 447. a. 108, 

«. 435, /u. 395. 
1 y. 294 mar. 
m a. 22—3 mar. 
n «. 375, ®. 208, 

N. 10, 215, s*. 

loO, <P. 435. 

281. J^siaccTO rjegoj^sidii. 

2^7. ;|r«C90ff et supra yp. vf/d? iiarl., eandein var. 1. prsebent iScholl. H. M., ;|ffi- 
Qog Kustath. Wolf, ct omnes edd. 278. Iniradfixat'^fxa Kustatli. Itarncs. Km. 
01. od. Ox., imoi Sh xal dsaa Wolf, et rocentt. 281. or' iqivov legero qui- 
dam, Scliol. H., mats (ivov (sivo (SaT* jptvov) Schol. E., <os ot' igtvov Arist., 

Schol. V. 

275. otfi d' afifioooq x. r. X. may 

equally bo said of all tlio stars in that 
quarter. Arist. {de Poet, XXVI. 17) 
explains ofij, since it is the most no- 
table; Ni., more probably, because the 
others had not been reduced to groups 
in Homcr|8 ^time. Crates ap. Apoll. 
read ri dij a(ifiOQog, probably an in- 
vention to save the poet's astronomi- 
cal reputation {Anc^, Astron, p. 59). 
See for the statement Ov. MeU Xlll. 
293 immunemque wquoHs Arcton, 

277—8. en dQiat€Q€c x-i see App. 
A. 18. 7€OVTOJtOQ., see App. B. 4. 

279. 6xxisixai6*, t. e, the 29^'' of the 
poem^s action, see on 262 sup. Where 
the fcifintov ijuaQ is the first of navi- 
gation and 12^^ of that action. axiO' 
cvta is also applied to V8(pstt and to 
fieyciQcc (mar.): cf. Virg. /En, III. 205 
- 6, Quarto teiTa die primum se attollere 
tandem Visa^ aperire procul monies, ac 
volvere fumum, 

^280. oB-i T* X. T. X., "where they 
(offBct) came the nearest to him*': ay- 
Xiazov is adverbial, Ni. remarks, some- 
what hypercritically, that not the near- 
est but the highest mountains are first 
seen; but why may not the nearest 
happen in poetry to be also the high- 
est? Besides, if they are more remote, 
the state of the atmosphere (r^BgoBiBiX 

novxtp) may prevent their appearing to 
the eye: 

281. bIlCoxOs "appeared", aor. keep- 
ing the sense of the pres. htSBxoti., so 
283 t?!/*., whereas the fut. staofiai ra- 
ther follows the perf. olda in sense of 
*'know". Another staaxo from slfiijso 
occurs in J, 138, N. 191. For mg ots 
without a verb following cf. z/. 462 
iJQiTts d* tog otB TtvQyog^ ivl ^gatsg^ 
vGfiivQ and Pind. Isthm. VI. i Q'dllov 
Tog dvSgoiv 095 ore avfinoaiov (Ni). 
ifivdv neut. and (tvog fem. both oc- 
cur, meaning a **hido", or the "buck- 
ler" made of it (mar.). Now a buckler 
might certainly stand as the type of 
the islands in the Ionian sea, as de- 
lineated in Geirs Ithaca, They rise 
with a mountain boss in the middle 
and flatten down round the edge. 8che- 
rie is not certainly an island; but to 
regard it as such would assist the view, 
of the isolation of the Phneacians (f. 
8). A prominent cape or peninsula of 
it might at any rate have at a distance 
an insular appearance. The SScholiast^s 
mention of the sense of vi(pog or dx- 
Xvg being given to (iv6v by certain 
remote tribes is not worth attention; 
as neither is the reading ot* igivov^ 
"fig", which they ascribe to Aristar. 

282—4. Ai^'ioxfov, see App. I), i. 
SoX., Lycia, or thereabouts, is the 


OATSSEIAS E. 283—297. 

[day XXIX. 

a Z. 1S4, 204. 
b «. 281 mar. 
c I. 227, 470. 
d (. 480, o. 458, a. 

386, y. 224, <i>, 

136; cf. X, 208, 

o. 370, J. 300. 
e «. 376, P. 442, 

^.465, 491, V. 184. 
f «. 298, 355, 407, 

g- cf.JV^.359,Z.143. 
h N. 315, T. 423. 
i •. 379, 397, 414. 
k a. 304. 
I d. 506. 
m <t>. 312. 
n e. 305, B^ 397, 

P. 56, I. 260. 
o t. 68—9, u. 314 

p u. 326, IT. 765. 
q ft. 289, V. 200; 

cf. jI. 305-6. 
r O. 171. 

s cf. i. 315, «, 147. 
t d. 703 mar. 

Ttovxov sitmkoimv"^ d' ixciaaro^ xriQod'L yL&kkov^ 

Tcivfjaag^ dh xccqti^ xqotI^ ov fivd^^ato d^vfiov 285 

"cS noTtOLj 7] fidka di) (letsfiovlsvaav 9'sol akkag 

dfig)^ 'Odv6'^i, ifisto (1€t^ Ald'ioxsaoiv iovxog^ 

Hal di} Oaifijxtov yairig (>j^£d6i/, ivd'a ot aloa 

ix(pvyeeiv ^eya xstQaQ^ ^i^i^og, ij iiiv Cxdvei, 

dkV in fwfv ^tV q>riyLi aSi^v^ ikdav xax6tritogJ'^ 290 

mg sijcdv, avvaysv vstpikug^ ixdQa^B^ 8s Ttovrov, 
X€Q(Sl tgCaivav^ ikdv^ ndoag S' OQod'vvsv^^ ddkkag 
navroicoV^ avB(i(X)Vy avv"^ Sh vs(p6€06i xdkvil;€v 
yatav 6(iov xal novxov dQciQSL d' ovpavod'sv vv^, 
0VV d' EvQog^ rs N&tog r' S7ts6ov ZstpvQog^ xb Svgar^g 295 
xal BoQBrig^ ai%'Q7iyBvixrig^ (isya'' xvfia xvkivScav. 
xal rdr' 'O6v00'^og Avro* yovvaxa xal tpikov ^to(>, 

283. J^ids fneuxo J^oi. 285. /ov. 288. foi. 290. fadriv. 291. J^emmv. 

284. ^ninlBCtov £astath. Baimes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., inmXmmv Wolf, et recentt. 
289. nBiQug Baimes. Ern. CI. ed Ox., ubiquq Eustath. Wolf, et recentt. 292. 
^vilXaq Bek. annot. 294. ovqavo^i Harl. ex emend., sed ovqavo^BV Schol. 
H. Eustath. Wolf, et omnes edd. 295. ^nECov Harl., ts nicBv Eustath., tc 
niaov Bek., t' ^nsoB Barnes. Wolf, et recentt., mox dioaijg var. 1. Schol. V. 
296. at^^riyBVBrii Rhian. et Aristoph., Scholl. H. P. Q., mox fi^ya sr^/iia Harl. 

ex emend. 

region of the people Solymi in Z. 184, 
hence the Taurus might he here un- 
derstood. A Schol. gives Sol, ogrj rijg 
UiaiStag. Similarly in Virg. Mn. VII. 
286 fol. Juno sights ^neas^ fleet on 
her return from Argos. eZcaxo see 
on 281. fiaXXoy adds an indefinite 
vehemency to k%(oaaxo» 

285—6. xiviiCaq 6k x.y this is for- 
mulaic , as expressing indignation ; so 
ifvith axioiVy where suppressed wrath 
and postponed vengeance is intended 
(mar.), as that of Odys. and Telem. 
against Antinoiis and Melanthius. /i€T- 
^^ovXmf this was in fact the case: 
the gods at the urgency of Pallas had 
outvoted him in his absence ; his wrath 
being all the while before their eyes 
as irreconcileable with their resolve 
in the interests of Odys. 
^^288 — 90. aloa, see on 113— 4 ««p. 
ddftv, see on App. 6 (6). — xaxoxTi" 
zoq, here "suffering" or "woe". 

291—3. vcipiJ^q ••• v€q>ieoai, if 
these are to be distinguished, in vB- 
tpily form predominates over matter, in 

vBq>og matter over form: thus vBtpilfi 
will be the single distinct cloud, vitpog 
the general cloud-mass. Thus the drama 
of Aristoph., in which the clouds have 
individuality, is entitled NBtpslai, but 
there 287 — 8 (Dind.) the Cloud-chorus 
says, dnoaBiaauBvai (NBtpilai) vitpog 
OfipQiov dd'ccvatocg Id sag, "having sha- 
ken from off our immortal shape the 
humid cloud -mass." The words are, 
however, as might be expected, not 
sharply distinguished, especially in me- 
taphors; thus we have vitpog d%Xvog 
in O. 668 and d%Bog VBtpBlJiin P. 591. 
The god, while speaking, must be sup- 
posed to have reached his element 
(Fa.). Cf. Virg. yEn. I. 85 foil., HI. 
196, V. II foil. 

296—7. ai^QTiy.y the Scholl. inter- 
pret producing at&Qfi (clear sky) or 
al&Qog (chill), and so ApoUon. Lex, 
Horn,; but the analogy of ahiyBvi- 
xrig, epithet of the gods, rather points 
to an intransitive sense "born or pro- 
duced in the af^'&pTj"; cf. also nvgi- 
yBVBX&v %aXivoiV " furnace - forged ", 


OATLSEIAS E. 198—313. 


dx^fj^ccs d' &Qa slxB tc^oq ov (iByakfjroQa d^vfiov 
a^cJb (loi iy(^^ dsiXog' xC vv iioi (i7}xi0ra yivriraiy'^ 

^00 SBCdfo iLTl Sr^ ndvxa %^Ba vri(iSQria^ sljtev, 

7} yb* ifpax iv n6vxip^ nqXv^ TtaxQtSa yatav ixia^ai^ 
&ly€^ ava7tk7J6€cv'« xd dh^ di) vvv ndvxa XBXetxac 
oloifiiv v^(piB(S6t 7tBQi0xig)Bi O'dQavdv'^ b'Aqvv 
ZBvsy ixdgal^B dh n6vxov^ iniiSniQ%ov0i^ 8' aBllai^ 

305 navxoiov dvifitov, vvv^ (lot ^(Sg ainifs okB^Qog, 
XQig fidxaQBs^ /lavaol xal xBXQdxig^ ot x6x' okovxo 
T(foiy iv BVQBiy^ xdgiv^ 'j4xQBidrj(St g)iQovxBs>^^ 
dg d^ iyci y^ o9)«Aov^ d'avistv^ xal 7t6x(iov inKSTtBtv. 
fjfiaxc^ x(p 8ra ftot nkBt6xoi xalxr^QBa^ Sovga 

310 Tg^Bg insQQttlfav tcbqI ntiXBifovi %uv6vxi, 

rp x' Ska%ov xxBQicjv^ xal (ibv xkdog"^ ^yov ^AxaioC' 
vvv"^ Si (IB kBvyaXip^ d'avdxp BifiaQxo dkcSvai,'^ 
(Sg &Qa iitv Biitovx* SkaCsv (liya xvfia xax^ y axgr^g. 

A «. 355, 407, 405. 

F. 1X1, S.b, <li. 

53, 552, X. OS. 
I> c. 36Q, 4(t5. 
c X. 431. 
a «. 465. 

y. 19, k. 137. 
f d. 823. 

ff «. 207 mar. 
ii /*. 176 mar. 
i T. 364, E. 867, 

H. 178, 201, r. 

257, ^. 272. 
k y. 283. 

1 «. 291-3. 

m y. 28, JV. 773. 

n f 154-5. 


p cf. n. 874. 

q a. 217, X. 548. 

r J. 562 mar. 

8 df 75-6, (0. 37- 

i Z. S 

u rt.'291, y. 285. 
V d 584. 
w U*. 281. 
X o. 359. 
y X. 512, N. 772, 

O. 557, X. 411, 

i2 728. 

398, J^eCnsv ij^ov, 300. J^ffnBV. 312. J^s^ficiQTO, 313. ^Bi^novz, 

299. t/va pro t^ vv Schol. V,, mox yi,riXi,Gxf)i var. 1. Scholl. H. P. Q. V. 300. 
Binri («r7riy) Harl. ^^joa. dvanXt^aHv Harl. ot supra avunXritsai quod pro vaV. 1, 
Hcboll. T. v., dvatXtjasiv I)ek. annot. 305. aoog solus Bek. 306. tqIq ua* 
^ocQsg Barnes. Era. CI. od. Ox. Bok. , TQiafidfugsg Eustath. Wolf. Dind. Fa. 
Low. 310. d(x/i^2/rt B ok. annot. 312. pro aZot^ai ^ilcadtti (e corruptola (xAs- 
a^ai Buttm. restituit) Ixion, Schol. H. 

^schyl. Sept, c, Th» 207, Dindorf, and 
6 Jiog yBvitagj Soph. (Ed, T)/r, 470 
Dindorf, genituH not genitor. In U., how- 
ever, a class of adjectives are used 
both actively and passively; as anv 
atog, %ctt7jQS(prig etc. With XvTO yov- 
vaxa X. T. A. cf, Virg. /fen. I. 92 /Knew 
Holvuntur frigore mctidtra, 

298. ox^iioaq, connected with ajj- 
^£(T-9'tt(, ihittm. Lexil, 90. 

299. fAfiXiOxa^ "the furthest off"; 
hence the phrase means, **what will 
become of me at last?" Ni. cites 
Quid miser niihi denique rest at Y Virg. 
yf-.'n. II. 70. yivtiTtti, the subjunct. 
expresses the uncertain future. 

300. fAfj ••• elTtev, on this indie, see 
App. A. 9 (s). 

304 — 5. Zevq, Odys., being ignorant 
of Poseidon^s agency, ascribes the cloud- 
gathering to Zeus as v6q>skrj'ysQiTrig» 
— alx* iiXeO'Qoq, sec on a. 11. 

306—10. With this soliloquy cf. that 

HOM. OD. I. 

of ^neas in Virg. Mn, I. 94 fol. 
terque quaterque beati etc. 

309 — 12. ilifiaTi^ the fight over the 
corpse of Achilles lasted all the day 
(mar.). AcvyaiL^^, **ignoblo**, cf. jj. 
61 XsvyuXioi %* iaoiisad'a Nal ov Se- 
SariHOTSg aXni^v: the sentiment is pri- 
marily that death by drowning exclu- 
ded those sepulchral honours, so dearly 
prized by a Greek, mentioned in 311; 
cf. S, ^84 and note, Hes. Opjo. 687, d8i- 
vov S iati ^avsCv fista yivnaaivt and 
Eneas' words to Palinurus Virg. /fe'n. 
V. 871 Nudus inignotd Palinure Jacebis 
arend; but also implies an inglorious 
contrast with death in battle (306), the 
lot most worthy of the hero, cf. indigna 
morte peremptum, Virg. Mn, VI, 163. 

3i3""4- 9caT* aXQTjq, often said of 
a city destroyed, captured etc. (mar.) 
Ni. cites Virg. /fen. I. 114 ingefis aver- 
tice pontus and Soph. tEd. Col, 1242 — 
4, Dindorf, &g xal x6v8b xatrfxpag 
ShvuX HvfiixToaysig itcti ^Xoviovaiv 



0AT2SEIA2 E. 314—328. 

[day XXIX. 

a t. 429, 4;il , r. 

737, r. 288. 
b cf. in. 416. 
c ft. 417. 
d cf. «. 270. 
e cf. /u. 422. 
f fi. 288. 
S C- 170, 269; cf.^. 

102 mar., r. 147, 

CO. 137. 
h «. 254. 
i ». 393. 
k e. 264, 372. 
I J. 584. 
mcf. J. 511. 
n jl. 813, *. 261. 
o a. 6 mar. 
p Z. 85. 
q r. 192. 
r «.461; cf.P.264. 
s /J. 213 mar. 
t *. 346. 

xilXs S' and 0%sSiriq avtog 5rf<?£,*^ nriSakiov^ Sh 315 

ix XBiQfSv TtQoerjxs' (lieov dd of tatov^ ia^sv 

Satvri ^c6yo(iBvov ccvdfiov ik^oviSa %ij£Xka^^ 

xriXov Sh OTtstQOvs xal iTtCxQiov^ i^icsas 7c6vt(p. 

xov d' ag* V7t6fiQv%a d^xs noXvv %q6vov^ ovS^ iSv- 

al'^a (idX^ av6%6^iaLv fisydkov^ vicb xvfiarog OQfi'^g' ^20 
st(iara^ ydg ^' ifidgyvsj^ td 01 noQS Sta KaXvipci. 
oilfh Sh Siq q' dvsSv, 0r6(iatos d' ilE,iittv6av ak^iriv^ 
niXQriv^ ^ OL nokkrj and xgatog xsldgv^ev,"^ 
cJAA'® ovS' (Sg ^xeSiYig ijcekTJd'aro , TSLQOfisvog^ Jtag, 
dkla fiad^OQ^rid^alg^ ivl xv^aauv ikXd^ax* avf^g, 325 

iv (IS00TJ Sh xdd'i^s rdkog &avdtov dksalvcuv. 
xiiv S' icpOQav fiaya'^ xvfLcc xara qoov Ivd'a^ xal ivd^a, 
oJg* d' or' ojtfDQLvog BoQBtjg (poQBfj0cv dxdvd'ag 

316. ^J^a^sv, 321. J^SL^ava, 323. /ot. 

314. imaevfisvov Arist., Schol. P. 315. avzov pals Rhian., Scholl. B. H. P. 
Q. vulgato prseponentes. 317. S^vtj var. 1. Scholl. B. H. P. Q. T. 319. ovd' 
iSvvdo^rj Harl. et Schol. H. Wolf. 'Dind. Low. Fa., ovdh dvvdod'T] Eustath. 
Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Eek. 322. dvspT} Bek. annot. 323. noXXov Harl. 
a man. pr. 325. ivl Harl. a man. pri. ut videtur, ita Wolf, et recentt., iv 
antiqq., mox ^XXapsv ex emend. 326. S' i-Aad-i^s Harl., na&ijato Bek. annot. 
327. Ticcza^QOOV {tiaTCCQQOOv?) Harl. cf. mar. ad v. 461. 

dsl ^vvovaai, where xar' ungag should 
perhaps be read. Distinguish from this 
naza'HQ'^&sv (x^ag caput, but Ttuz'avLgrj- 
&sv ap. Bek.) JI. 548. With i:t€0- 
Cvfi*, perf. pass. part, proparox. cf. 
dXalijiisvog ciyiaxi^fiBvog aXizi]fisvog 

318 — 9. OTteiQOv • • • ijtixQ., see 
App. F. I (7). ansLQOV means else- 
where *' shroud" or (pi.) ** wraps". 
VTto^QVXa , Buttm. LexiL 36 (9) pre- 
fers to view this as metaplastic ace. 
for nom. vit6pQv%ogy but adds, **vwo- 
Pgvxiog was more in use in the Hymns, 
Herod. and elsewhere": seeHy.XXXIII. 
12 cevs(i6g T€ ... xal nvfia ... Q'tjuocv 
vnofigvx^TJv, cf. vnopgvxi'Ov Herod. 
I. 189, who also in VII. 130 has vno- 
|3pv;uaofThessaly flooded by thePeneus. 
The subj. of O'ijxe is d'vsXXa in 317. 

321—5. eifiara^ see on 136 sup, 
Ernesti cites Virg. jEn. V, 178 fol., 
where the description is droUy adapted 
to Menoetee thrown overboard, rising 

drenched, and rejecting the salt water 
he had swallowed — one of the few 
touches of humour admitted in the 
-^neid. fieO-OQfifi&slq, "rushing af- 
ter", fiBzd as in iiszsgxofioct y. 83. 

328. OTtettQivd^ B,, the epithet is 
forcible. In X. 27 the Dog-star rises 
oncogrigy in ^. 346 the onmgivog Bog, 
dries a newly watered- plot of ground, 
and thus the hot season when irriga- 
tion would be needed, as opposed to 
the rainy, seems pointed at: so the 
&igog zsd'otXvid v' onagrj, X. 192, cf. 
|. 384, shows by old Laertes* then 
sleeping out of doors that the late 
summer (ij oniod'sv oagrj), when the 
grapes ripen, is meant; cf. Soph. Track. 
703, Dindorf, yAavx^s ondigoig mazs 
nCovog nozov ;i;v'd'fvros slg yijv Bccn- 
xCag an' dfiniXov. So in (i. 76 atO^gri 
"clear weather" may then be expected. 
Then the **thorns" would of course be 
dry, and may be supposed then cut for 
winter fuel. Thus our word "autum- 


0ATS2EIA2 E. 329—337. 

1 96 

330 (Off ^^1^ ^fi ndkayog ave^ot tpiQOv fvd'a^ xccl {vd'a. 
akkoTS yiiv XB Norog Boq^tj XQofidks^xB (pigBtSd'aij 
ttkloTB 8^ avr^ EvQog Zsg)V(fp Btl^aCxs dicixsLv, 

tov dh t8Bv KdSfiov O'vydtr^Q xalki0g)VQog lv(o 
Asvxod'iri^ rj n:Qlv fihv Ir^v figotog av8riB66a^^ 

335 '^'^^ *' ^^<>S ^'^ nBkdyBiSiSi d^scSv^ i^dfi(ioQB ti(i'^g, 
fj° ^' *08v6ij' iXirj^Bv dkcifiBvov^ akys*^ S%ovxa^ 
[ald'viy^ (J' Bixvta^ jtoty dv€8v0ato^ Xifivrjg^']^ 

a. ta. S. 

I) fi. 213 mar. 

c tlSri, r.407;rf. 

If. 13«. X. 8, u. 

150, 440. 

a cf. X. \m. 

c ct'. d. 36 1. 

f X. 582, 593, 0. 

142, E. 895, P. 

g a. 353. 
h fi. 383, M. 20, r% 

194, V. 222, /'. 

386, r. 350, X. 

227, V'. 66. 
I A. 359, 496. 
k y. t. 

33'. /c^Saffxe. 333. J^^Ssv. 337. iJ^i^vCot, 

329. afinidiov et 330. (XftTriilayof Eustath. et Antiqq., Sfi nfS, et Sfi niX» Wolf, 
et recentt., mox dlli^loiaiv Harl. 333. tdvd' slSsv Kustath. 334. ovSi^saaa 
Aristoteles et ChamsBloon, Eustath. Scholl. H, P. Q., avkijsaaa var. I. Scholl. E. 
P. Q. T. 335. d'smv IJ ffifiOQS Barnes. 337 f plerique, dubitabat Arist., 
Scholl. H. P. Q., f] Wolf, et recentt. noxiiv (tanquam nomen) var. 1. Scholl. 
H. P. Q. Eustath. MS. G. C, mox vitBdvauto Arist., Scholl. H. P. Q. 

nal" would convey an incorrect notion. 
However in /7. 385 r[fiaT' 6nmQi,vm 
means the rainy season, and in Hes. 
Opp, 674—5 the navigator is bidden, in 
the same sense, firiol fiivsiv olvov rs 
viov^ TLcti onmqivoy ofiPgov xa I x^^' 
(i&v* iniovta iVoTOto re dsivag dijiag; 
which proves that the transitional point 
of the weather is intended, where the 
dry season breaks up in rain; also 
shown by viocg **early" in -^schyl, 
Fragm. 341, 7 Dind., viag 6* onmQug 

328—9. q>OQiiiiOtv ••• txovxai, for 

the mixture of moods see App. A. 9 
(3)9 where some similar examples are 
explained: the subjectivity of the whole 
image is here given by the subjunct., 
but when the assumption has been 
made, the *'thorns' clinging together" 
is marked as an objective fact by the 

330—2. afi TteXayo^, see App. B (3). 
Observe the force here of the frequen- 
tative form of the aor. in -anov, Tlie 
pairs of names of winds imply the 
cliopping and shifting of the gale^s di- 

333—79. I^^ emerges from the sea, 
and bids Odys. abandon his raft, strip 
and swim for it; giving him also a ma- 
gic scarf to ensure his rescue, which, 
after using, he is carefully to return. 
Ho gives a qualified acceptance at first 
to her words, till his raft parts asun- 

der, when he has recourse to the scarf. 
Poseidon perceives him, and dooms him 
yet to suffering, till he reach the PhoQ- 
acians^ land. 

333. Kd6fiov • . . 'Ivco Abvx. • • • 
av6neaca, see App. C. 8(1) (2). The 
name Kddfiog is perhaps based on a 
Phoenician word representing the Ileb. 
fi^l?,, **the East". The son of Ind was 
Palocmon, otherwise Melicertes, a name 
based apparently on the Tyrian Mel- 
kart, and seeming to show that these 
sea-gods were of Phoenician origin; cf, 
Eurip. Iphig.^ Taur. 270—1 Dindorf. 

335. «^« *V nBkdy., see App. li (i) 
(3). On some expansion of the idea 
of this line Milton has founded his 
beautiful legend of Sabrina, Comus, 
827 fol.^ 

336. iXifiOev, Lowe cites Ov. Jhis 
275. SoUertique vivo, iacerw quern fracta 
ienentem. Membra raits y Semelt'S est mi' 
serata soror. Semele was also daugh- 
ter of Cadmus. 

337. External evidence inclines 
against this verse. The ** doubts" of 
Aristarchus (Scholl.) are perhaps due 
to the felicity of the insertion, if such 
it be. Ino was before (335) spoken of 
as alog iv neXdysaai., and tlie lino 
forms an apt link between that state- 
ment as to her abode and tlie other- 
wise startling abruptness of l^s S* inl 
K. r. k, in 338. If aUvtot meant ^^tak- 
ing the form", this would, on compar- 



0AT22EIA2 E. 338—347. 

[day XXIX. 

a e. 33 mar. 

b 2. 391. 

c e. 160, X.1\%yV. 

33; cf. /?. 351. 
d e. 423, a. 62, 2. 

e H. 106, ^ 218, o. 

178, Q. 27, S2, 

1B9; cl'. d. 068. 
f O. 617. 
ff C. 258, «. 360. 
h c. 358. 
i cf. ^. 388. 
k O. 10. 

1 B. 261, X. 125. 
m «. 331, u. 442, 

t. 468. 
n fi. 444, |. 351. 

u. 220, iC. 401. 
p e. 280. 

q y 460. 

r ^. 477, £. 347, x. 

287, fF. 6IS. 
s e. 373, 459, a- 


1 J. 106. 
11 e. 373 

V ». 563, M. 246. 

lie S' ijtl 0%B8lrig^ Ttolvdda^ov, sItcb^' rs fiv^ov 
'' xdfi[iOQ€ y^ xiitrs xoi (dSs TIoascSdcDv ivo0Lx^ov 
(oSvaar^"^ ixndyX&g^ on xoi xaxd noXXa (pvtBvsi^^ 340 
ov [irjv Stj 6s xara(pd'L66L, [idla^ tcbq iisvsaivcjv. 
sdXld^ ^a'A' (SS' ^Q^ai, Soxisig'' Sb (iol ovx anivv60Biv'^ 
Bi(iccra ravr' dzoSvg^ CxbSCtiv dviiLOKSi (pBQBOd'ai'^^ 
xdkXnt\ axaQ %BiQB60i'^ vifov iniiLaiBO^ voarov 
yairig^ OairfxcoVy od'L roi [iolq^ ictlv dkvi,ai,^ 345 

r^*" Sl^ rods XQTJSBfivov^ vtco^ 6xbqvoio xavvaoai'^ 
aiL^QOxov ovSb XL XOI nad'BBW Ssog, ov8' ditoXi^d'aL.^ 

338. SBtnB. 342. wff J^iQ^ai. 343. J^s{(iaTa, 

338. axs^Ltig %ciC (iiv ngog fivd^ov hmsv Harl. Flor. Lov. Steph. 342. ^q^ov 
Kustath., BQ^ai libri et edd. omnes, igdsiv Bek. annot. 346. xy Eustath. Ern., 

T^ Wolf. Cl. ed. Ox. et recentt. atigvoiai Eustath. Harl. mar., arigvoio in text. 

**utrumque Aristarchi edd.", Scboll. H. P., mox xavvaai Harl., xdvvaaai Eu- 
stath. Barnes. Cl. ed. Ox., zavvcaai Wolf, et recentt. 347. ovdiv Eustath. 
Barnes. Ern. Cl. ed. Ox., ovds xi Vr. Wolf, et recentt., mox %a%6v var. 1. pro 

8ioq Schol. H. 

ing 353 tn/*., be against its genuineness; 
since to mention the figure of trans- 
formation both at the appearance and 
disappearance of a deity is not usual 
with H., and even co. 548 is probably 
an addition, although there is properly 
speaking no disappearance of Pallas 
there. But sliivia may better mean 
to describe her movement, not her form ; 
cf. XaQco OQVt&i ioiyuog (of Hermes) s, 
51, HogrnvTiaiv CusXpt 11. 418, xgriQcaai 
neXeidaiv t&iiad'* oiioiaiy E. 778; and 
thus the objection disappears, and we 
have a verse exactly in Homer's man- 
ner (mar.). This view of stuvia pro- 
bably suggested the reading nOTTjv, 
which would correspond with t&fiaO'* 
just cited. Aristar. read vnsdvcaxo, 
grounding it probably on f. 127, v. 53, 
but the passages adduced for dvfdv- 
aaxo (mar.) offer a closer parallel. The 
objection to Xiiivi^g is easily answered 
by y. I, see mar. and note there. Still 
it is rare in the sense of "sea" and 
an imitator would almost certainly 

have said novxovj novxov or xvfiof {A, 
496); novxov occurs indeed in 352. It 
thus becomes an argument in favour 
of the verse, but hardly inclines 
the balance in its favour. alS'vli^if 
"cormorant", Lat. mergits; cf. Aristot. 
de Anim. Hist, I. i. 6, VIII. iii. 7. Dun- 
bar Lex, App. cf. the verb al&va6(o 
used, especially as compounded, by Pin- 
dar, of rapid glancing motion, as in 01. 

vn. 95, XI. (X.) 73, Pijth. 1. 87, IV. 83. 

338. noXvdiafiov, see App. F. i (4). 

339. xd/A/iOQS, see on 160 — 1. 
342—5. aKivvOOeiv, ^cf. ^ Hector 

stunned and senseless, x^p dnivva- 
6<0Vj (mar.) in the physical sense, = 
animo deficiens, here desipei^e, VOOTOV 
yaiTiq, "arrival at the land"; cf. 
ciksGB xriXov v6axov'A%ctitdog (mar.) 
and Eurip. Iph. Taur, 1066 Dindorf, 
yrig naxQ(pag voaxog. 

346. Tti, Buttm. LexiL 99 (2) takes 
this from the verb root xa- of which 
the existing pres. form is xbCvco or xa- 
vvcD. Thus rof-fi) would give impe- 


OATLLEIAi: E. 348-362. 

J 97 

avxccQ ini^v x€iQB0(Stv itpd^Bai ijTteiQOto^ 

a^ dnoSv0(ifi€vos ^aXieiv elg oHvoita^ tcovxov 

350 Ttokkov &tC i^TtsiQOv^ ccvtog S' aicovoCfpi XQunic^ai,^^^ 
(Sg^ &Qa g)G)V7J(Scc6tt d'sd HQijSsfivov iScjxevy 
avrij d' cctjf ig ndvxov iSvcaxo xviia£vovxa^^ 
aid'viy'^ bIxvIw ^liXav^ 8i i xv^cc xdkv^av. 
avxctQ ^6Q(iijql1^€« nokvxkag dtog 'OSvaaevg, 

355 ^X^^^^S^^ ^' ^9^ ^^^^ ^Q^S ov fisyakrjxoQa d'v^ov 
"(3 (loi iy(o^ (irj xCg ^01 vg)ccivy6Lv^ Sokov avxe 
dd'avdxojVf oxe^ (ib ^x^Sirig dnoprjvca dvciyet. 
dXld^ ^dV ov TtcD X€i(So(i,\ ixsl ixdg 6(pd'cckfiot6tv^^' 
yatav iyciv ISofiriv^ oO't iioi q>dxo g)vl^ifiov^ elvcci, 

360 dXkd^ fidX* cod' ^(>§o), Soxbbl Si fiot alvai &qi6xov' 
oyp'i* ccv'i fidv XBv SovQUx* iv dQ(iovii]0iv^ ^QVQVy 
xotpQ* avxov jABvioD^ xal xkrj^oiiaL akysa^ nd^x^v* 

a a. 183 mar. 
b X. 628. 
c •. 92. 
il J. 425 mar. 
u «. 337 mar. 
f VA 093. 

Il «. 2U8— 9 mar. 
I I. 422, Z. 187. 
k V. VIX 0. 216, O 

4(W, n. -133, -P, 


I 9, 342 mar. 

in ^ 143, (T. 

II ci*. «. 315. 
u «. 312 mar. 

n rr.C- 259-62,^. 

i\ I. 334, N. 127, 

i2. 437. 
r •. 248. 

8 u^. 317, r. 30S. 
t d. 372 mar. 


349 foCvonoi. 

353- J^etxvra /«. 
359- h^ J^Mfiriv. 

355. ut^in 208 sup. 

360. (Og J^SQ^OD, 

358. J^STidg. 

349. alil>\ Vr., mox aTroAvffoffiai'os Sehol. P. Hok. Fa. 350. dnovocfpt ut in 113. 
352. att^* var. 1. Scholl. II. M. P. 356. «vt€ Ilarl. Flor. Wolf, ot rccentt. 
var. 1. Schol. M., SXXov iiarnos. Km. CI. cd. Ox., ctllog liok. auuot. , alXoiv 
Eustatli, 357. 0X8 (h. e. Sio tfi liiittm.) Aristoph., Scholl. II. P. 359. <p«w- 
^ifiov MS. G. C. Aloysii. 

rat. tde ta^ with pi. trjts (Schol. on 
Aristoph. Avharn, 203 who wrongly 
views it as a pron., citing Sophron.). 
Wu may compare %uxcL%zBivai xaT^Ktof, 
paivm kprjv: perhaps an adj. tdaXog z^- 
Xog also existed, hence trjXov and xrjXe 
with its compounds; so trjyaiog y, 316, 
and xavg = tii'^^ccg, noXvg (llesych.). 
The object of trj is always supposed 
held out to the person addressed; hero 
the XQijifefivov, which she was pro- 
bably wearing, and unbound from her 
head as she spoke. 

348—50. xeiQBaCiv %. X. X., cf.Virg. 
/En. VI. 360 Pt'cnsantemque uncis mani- 
bus capita aspera moniis. nokkov djt* 
71*, "a long way out from shore", as 
suiting a goddess who dwelt dXbg iv 
nsXdysaaiv. Cf. Tennyson's Mortc d* 
Arthur, **Take Excalibur, And fling him 
far into the middle mere"; there too 
the recipient is represented as "Sitt- 
, ing in the deeps, Upon the hidden 
bases of the hills." ditovoCifi xq., 
Odys. receives from Circo (^mar.) a simi- 
lar injunction regarding his sacrifice to 

the dead; of. also Virg. BuvoL VHI. 
101 — 2 rivoque Jluenti iransque caput j ace 
nee respexeris. Similar in the prin- 
ciple of the Divine Command to Lot 
in Qen. XIX. 17, based on the fueling 
of reverential awe due to the working 
of superhuman power. No mention is 
made of Odysseu.s' observance of the 
direction; see on 453 — 7 inf. 

355 — 64. On this soliloquy as cha- 
racteristic of Odys. see App. E» i (i) 
end, and (5). 

357. ore, causal with indie, assigns 
some present fact just happening, as 
the cause of what precedes. The read- 
ing o xe is just worth noticing; if 
adopted , it may be better to take o 
as = di6\ see 8, 204—6 and note. 
Hck. apparently would make qiti in 
O. 468, a very similar passage, but 
reads oxs here. 

361—4. av fiiv xev, for examples 
of ccp and xet/ thus comjbined see mar., 
where 60I d* av iym nofj^nog %ctC x£v 
yCXvxQv ^Agyog inoLfiriv shows that the 
Sv is not in such passages due to the 


0AT2SEIA2 E. 363—378. 

[day XXIX. 

aa /9 199, K. 196. 

a ^. 120 mar. 

b «. 296. 

c e. 175 mar. 

d cf. t. 18% V. 349, 

2. 5S9. 
e cf. E. 499—602. 
f M. 157. 
g fi. 289 mar. 
h iV. 279;cf.«. 71. 
i 9. 162 mar. 
j cf. «. 130. 
k O. 679—80. 
1 «. 343. 
m e. 321. 
a «. 346. 
o n. 310,413, M, 

396, P. 300. 
p I. 417, ^. 495, 

*. 115. 
q J. 523, N 549. 
r e 282 mar. 
s e. 285 mar. 
t «. 146. 
u ^. 184, o. 176, 

TT. 205. 
V cf. y. 73, t. 254. 
w o. 314. 

V7J^o(i,\ STtel^^ ov [irjv xi Tcdga 7tQOvo^6aL aiLSivov,^^ 

alog^ o ravd'^ SQ^aiva xarct ipQsva xal xarcc d'Vfidv^ 365 
^Q06 d' i^tl iieya^ xvfia no0€LSda)v evocCjfJ&Giv ^ 
SsLvoV^ r' ccQyaXdov rs, xatriQsq>hg ,^ ijXa0s tf' avrov. 
dg^ tf' ccvafiog^ ^arjg i^lcdv^ d'tjiKOva xlvcc^tj 
xaQipaXmv, xd fihir Hq xs 8ia6xi8a0^ akkvdig^ aXXy^ 
(Sg xrjg Sovgaxa^ [laxgd SLB0xiSaa\ avxccQ ^OSvaasvg 370 
dficp' ivl SovQuxL ^atvSy^ xdXrjd''^ cog tJtJtov iXavvcov^ 
siiiaxa^ tf' ei^aitiSwe^ ra"^ ot itoQB Sta KaXv^d, 
avxixa'^ ds XQ7JSs(ivov vitb CxiQVOio xdvvaaav, 
avxog Sh TtQtijrijg^ dXl xditTCsaa^ xatQi"^ 7Caxd6(Sag,^ 
VYi%iiiavai (laiiadg, tSa Sa xQatcov"^ avo6i%d'(ov^ 375 

XLVfjdag^ di xagi] TtQOxl ov [ivd7J0axo d'y^iov 
"ovxio^ vvv xaxd^ noXXd jtad-^v a^oo^ xccxd tcovxov , 
aig xav dvd'Qcin.oiai SioxQa(paa00i ^iyaLtjg"^ 

372. J^s£(ictxa J^oi. 375. fiSe. 376. J^ov. 

366. mgasv Barnes. 368. xivd^y Eu- 


365. (pgiva diog 'Odvaaavg Eustath. 

staih. Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Fa. , xivdh^s'i Harl., xivagsi ApoUon. Lex. Wolf. 

Bek. Dind. Low. 369 ^aXXri mendose CI. ed. Ox. 373. gxbqvoiq xdvvasv 

Harl., atSQvoiai xdvvaasv Eustath. 378. ^an^asaat var. 1. pro dv&gcon. Schol. 

B., OTCcag ^atrj. var. 1. Schol. H., mox fiLysirjg libri, iu.tyi}i?s Bek. 

presence of oq)Qa, og or such relative 
word. — iytel ov, not here in synize- 
sis as in d. 352. 

368—9. iqiQtv, see on p. 289. — rt- 
v«|^, see on |3. 151: the mood is sub- 
junct. of simile; see App. A. 9 {14). — 
aXXvdi^ aXXri, this form of phrase 
in the dat. case, as here, is very rare; 
it would be more consistent with usage 
if for alXri were read aXXo in appos. 
with xd. As it stands, it resists ana- 
lysis, aXXri being hardly more or less 
than uXXvSig repeated. Disorder as 
well as di.spersion seems to enter into 
the notion which it expresses. 

371. 6ovoaTi, see App. F. i (2) 
note. — xAriS'* , cf. the Roman Cele- 
res, Pliny iV. H, XXXIII. ii, 9. Doe- 
derl. 2138 connects the name with 
v.bXX(o (of a ship) *'run ashore", and 
Lat. -cello, as in percello, procella etc. 
Riding on horseback is not alluded to 
by H. save in this and another simile, 
O. 679, where a hero leaping from 
ship to ship is compared to a man Ttt- 
noiai TisXTjx^Sstv sv sldoag: it may 

possibly be intended in ^. 346 si Ugsi- 
ova Siov iXavvoi; but cf. Hes. Scut, 
109—10, 120, 323 — 4, where the tnnov 
'Ags^ova is clearly spoken of as mere- 
ly the better one (or Ss^ioasigog) of a 
chariot-team, as was At&rj in W. 409. 
It is true that Diomedes in the Dolo- 
neia mounts the ** horses" of Rhesus; 
but he does so l| avdynrig (Schol.), for 
Rhesus* chariot was plainly not car- 
ried off, K. 513, cf. 498, 501, 504—8. 
In Hes. Scut, 286 riders are mentioned 
as forming part of a bridal procession, 
vaO"' tnnmv inipdvxsg id"vvsov, 

374—5. Ttofiviiq dX, X,, he "plunged 
headlong", abandoning the plank, which 
seems to have served only as a support 
whilst he stripped. In proof of this 
there is no more mention of the plank; 
but here and 399, 417, 439 i?if. he is 
constantly spoken of as swimming. 
xiVTiaaq <fc x,, see on 285 sup. 

378. 6ioxQe<f*, nowhere used of a 
whole people save of the Phaeacians 
here (so 35 sup. ot dy%iQ'Boi yeydcc- 
atv, cf. note on |3. 267 end), elsewhere 

DAY XXIX— XXXI.] OATSSEIAi: E. 379-388. 

«AA'* ovS* (Sg 06 eoXna^ 6v66066%'ai^ xaxorijrog," '^ 
380 cSg'^ aga q>(X)viJ0ag ifCaaev^ xaXXizQix^g^ innovg^ 
Xtcbxo^ S' elg Alyag^ od'i ot xXvra^ doiftar' ia0Lv, 

aixag^ ^Ad'YivaCri xovqtj ^ibg akk^ iv6ri6€V. 
rj tot t(Sv &XX(X)v avi^fov xatsdrj^e^ xelevd'ovg ^'^^ 
jtctv(Sa0d'at d' ixiksv^s xal svvtjd^vaL^ anavxag' 
385 ^gOB d' inl XQaiJtvov BoQiriv,^ tcqo Sh xvfiar' icc^ev^ 
ecDg o ye 0aLrjx606ty* tpiXriQit^iLOiai fiLyeiri 
Stoyevrig^ 'OSv(S€vgj d'dvatov xal xrJQag^ dXvl^ag, 
svd'a Sv<o vvxrag^ dvo r' ijfiara xvfiati^ nriyp 


a a. 6 mar. 
b /?. 275 mnr. 
c cr. Si. 211. 
(1 «. 2»0 mar. 
e 0. 215, J. 531. 

r A. 2«i». 

if y. 475, E 323, 

b. 3lh, 133, 5U3. 
h N. 21. 
i w. 82, <r. 371, B. 

k J. 796, E. 733, 

(s>. 3S1, (i, 2!Ki, 

01. 52S, 5IG. 
I cf. w. 272. 
Ill X. 17, O. G20. 
n of. It. KiU. 

v[\ $. 253, 290. 

1) ». m, 3S(), 635, 
k. 341>, V.30; cl. 
». 191. 

(1 /*. 352. 

r 0.287;cf.^.353. 

s X 142;cr.i^. 340, 
iF. 1H«, i2. 745. 

1 yj. 235, y. 290, 
^. 307; cf. I. 

379. J^iJ^oXna. 381. J^ot. 385. I'J^agev. 

379. xaxoTi^Ta liek. annot. 385. pro ngo ta Bek, annot., mox idem ^ctyev, 

386. ?Q>g oSs £iistath., ojcnoag Bok. annot., stog Lachmann., onnrng ^cci'q, var. 

1. Scholl. B. H. P. Q. 388. t* Eustath. Harl. ex emend. Wolf, et recentt., 

d* Barnes. £rn. CI. cd. Ox., mox xvftart X09900 Bek. annot. 

drifts two days and nights, and on the 
third day (thirty first of the poem's 
action) noars the Phfoacian coast, where, 
after much peril from its cliffs and 
crags, and self- debate how to avoid 
them, he lands exhausted at a river's 
mouth; the river- god, whom he sup- 
pliantly invokes, checking the rush of 
his waves to allow of an easier land- 
ing. He then lets go the magic scarf, 
and kisses the earth as safe at last. 

381. Aiya^, the town so named in 
Achaia on the G, of Corinth is, from 
the mention of Helicon in connexion 
with it, the one probably meant in Hy. 
(to Poseidon) XXII. 3, and would best 
suit the situation hero. Pliny also 
mentions (iV. //. IV. 18) a rocky hum- 
mock so called between Chios and Te- 
nos, which /Egafo mari nomen dedit, but 
this is too obscure, and Pliny's autho- 
rity for the name too late. Another iEga^ 
on theW. coast of Eubooa, nearly oppo- 
site Opus, is mentioned by the Scholl. 
as understood by some here, and seems 
clearly meant in Ily. ApoL DeL 32. 
The iEolian and Cilician towns so 
named are less suited for the site of 
the sea-god's palace. 

388 — 9. m^ytp, Curtius II. ^. 98 re- 
cognizes a connexion with naxvgywXnch 

of kings and princes only, to whom 
SiOTQSfphg is a customary style of ad- 
dress; e. g. Menel., see d. passim. In 
the same tone Aicinous boasts that 
the gods came in person to the feasts 
of the Phasacians and met them by 
the way, ins£ 6(pi6iv iyyvd'sv sC- 
fiiv, mg TCBQ KvuXmnig ts x. t. i., ij. 
205 — 6. Further, the Phoeacians *'in a 
measure represent the ^sol (sta Jaiov- 
tsg. We must not look too rigidly in 
them for notes, of the divine charac- 
ter, but rather for the abundance, opu- 
lence, ease and refinement of the di- 
vine condition." Gladst. II. p. 320. 

379. ovcf' c5§, "not even so", 1. e. 
when you reach the Plueacians. — 
ovoOO*, this verb is nowhere else 
found with gen., and Bek. gives a 
reading xaxoTTjra ; still, fic^^Ofiat and 
similar verbs have a gen. commonly 
enough to justify this: render, "will 
think too lightly of your suffering", 
wh, is borne out by Odysseus' own 
words concerning his hnrd.ships in <&. 
182—3, 231 — 2, cf. 138 -9. Pind. Isthm. 
III. 68 has ovoTOff Idia^at, "of small 
account to see to" (Milton). 

380 — 464. On Poseidon's retiring 
Athene orders home the other winds, 
but rouses Boreas, before which Odys. 


0ATL2E1AS E. 389 -398. 

[day XXXII. 

-9; cf. 6. 

a $. 210. 
b X. 144. 
c u. 1(>8 

d X. 91. 

e V. 197, w. 403. 
f r. 374, P. 89, 

25G, X. 141. 
g- V- 233. 
h e 13, B. 721. 
i d. 372 mar. 
k x.64;cf.*.3G9, 

/J. 60. 
1 r. 321, ?r. 364. 
Ill V. 35. 
n >;. 343, ^. 295. 

7ckdt,axo^ noXXa Si ot xQaSCri 7CQoxi606st^ ^ oXsd'Qov. 
aAA'^ ore d^ xqvxov rjficcQ ivjtXoxafiog xiXaO* 'i/cJ^, 390 
xat*= ror' btcelx^ avsfiog fisv ijtav6axo^ i^Sh yaXTJvrj^ 
aitXexo vijV6[iLi]^ o S' aga 6%^^^ etgiSs^ yatav, 
o^v^ [idXa ZQO'Cdcjv^ fieydXov vtco Hv^axog aQd'sig. 
(ogs S' ox* av d^itdciog fiioxog 7taiSe60L {pavijrj 
TCaxQog, og iv^ vov6(p xstxai xgaxdQ^^ aXysa %d6%G}V^ 395 
SfiQov xi]x6fi6vog^ axvysQog de of axQas^ Sacfiav^ 
doitd^iov S' ccQa x6v ys d'sol xaxoxrixog^ lXv6av, 
cog™ 'OSvarj' dana^xov^ ieCcaxo yata xal vXtj^ 

389. J^oi. 392. ^afiSs. 393. nQofidmv, 396. foi. 398. iJ^siauTO. 

391. ij dh Arist., Schol. H. , ^ds libri. 393. inl pro vno Aristoph. et Bhian. 

Schol. H. 394. da7taai(og Harl. , dandaiog Snbol. H., mox tpaveirj Eustath. 

Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., (pavqrj Wolf, et recehtt. 397. donuGCtog Flor. Lov. 

e gloss. Schol. B. 398. Odvast var. 1. Barnes. Bek., 'Odvaij' libri. 

Doeclerl.40, (cf.44 — 5) also implies, na- 
XVSy "sturdy" is used (mar.) of horses; 
cf. dvrjQ Tcaxvs "a sturdy fellow", Ari- 
stoph. Fesp. 288 Dindorf; so we have 
the n-qyaaog Tnnog in Hes. Theog, 281, 
(cf. also nriysa^iiaXXog in P. 197) and 
ndyog^ nriyvXlg **fro8t, ice". With nv- 
fiazi Tty. cf. for the sense xQOcpi yivfia 
and livficcta tgoqjosvxa (mar.). So 
the Scholl. explain nriy& as BVTqstpBi 
xal sviisysd'si. For TtQOZioOOsz* see 
note on a. 115, and cf. for another 
shade of meaning §. 152 and note. 

391 — 3. Aristarchus' reading tJ ^^ 
seems less suitable, as there is noth- 
ing in the sense to require it, and dvs- 
fiog jLifv, with which it would then 
correspond, has not the 6. yaXijVfi, 
as explained by V7}vsfi>{7j in 392, means 
"a lull of the wind" merely, for the 
sea was still running high. It was not 
yet the Xiviiri yaX7]vrj of x. 94, which 
occurs first at 452 inf. within the ri- 
ver's mouth. With o^v x. t. X. cf. the 
phrases o^v vojiee or axovaf, o|v ^ori- 
aag or XeXriTtagt and the like (mar.). 
The Virgilian imitation, Mn. VI. 357, 
Prospexi Italiam sumnia sublimis ah ttndd 
omits the "sharp" look out of Odys. 

395. vovOO}, the latter part of this 
line sounds like a queer parody on s. 
13, where substituting VT^aqj for vov6(Oy 
it is applied to Philoctetes ; cf. s. 449 
with 77. 147. Agents causing a vovGog 

are Zeus, Apollo, and here da^iicov: 
no human remedies seem to be con- 
templated, but recovery, as here, al- 
though unexpected (cf. dsXnia 408 inf) 
to be possible. In i, 411—2 the Cy- 
clopes tell Polyphemus, supposing his 
affliction a vovaog Jiog, to pray to Po- 
seidon for aid. Perhaps the inaoidrjj 
used in t. 457 for staunching hemor- 
rage, might be applied to a vovaog; 
but we know nothing of the use of 
the (pdgfiautt iad'Xd of d, 230 save the 
solitary case of the vrjnsv^lg drug 
there; and it seems heroic medicine 
was confined to the treatment of hurts. 
In Q. 383—6 the list of drjfiiosgyoi puts 
the iritiiQ ttanav (hurts) next to the 
(idvTig. The' drjgov ti^x. here is found 
nobly expanded {X. 201) into vovaog 
trjTisSdvi azvysgfi fisXiatv s^siXsto 
d^v^ov: see Wolf. ffom. med. 

398. *Odvofi , Bek. contends for and 
prints here 'O&vasCf alleging that after 
a diphthong or vowel the elision of an- 
other vowel is imperceptible to the 
ear. On the same grounds he would 
write (although he has not in his edi- 
tion 1858 so printed it) fisvoivi^aai. for 
usvotvYiasi.' in |3. 248, and Sfim iftov 
for d(i(o' iiiov in S. 736, the latter fol- 
lowing the analogy of yiXm and [Sgm 
isomer. Bldtl, p. 41 — 3). This canon 
involves a question of pronunciation 
which it seems impossible in this mo- 
dern day to settle. 


0ATS2EIA2 E. 399—411. 


400 aAA'** ot€ t606ov aTtijv o(Saov re yiyavB Porjaag^ 
xal Sij Sovnov^ axovae tcoxX OictXASaCiSi^ d'akd(S(Srig. 
^ox^st"^ yccQ ^iya xvfia noxl S^pov, Y^nBCgoio 
Saivov iQSvyofisvoVy^ stXvzo^ dh ndvd'' akog &X''^V'^ 
ov yccQ S6av Xi(iiv6g vrjfov oxot^ ovS^ inicoyal^ 

405 aAA' dxral^ TtQopMjreg l6ccv aitUdSeg^ re ndyoc^ re. 
xccU rot* ^OSv(S0i^og kvxo yovvarcc xal (pCXov ijrop, 
oX^dcLg d' &Qa elite itQog ov (leyaXrjtoQa ^v[i6v 
"© jxofc, ijtel drj yatav deknia Sixixev iSia^ai 
Zevg^ xal dij roSe Aarrfta"' dtar/xifgag" ixiXeG0a^^ 

j^vo ix^a0ig ov Tty rpaived'' dXogi^ TtoXioto d'VQa^e.'i 
exroiSd'ev filv yaQ ndyoi^ ^S^fS? d^itpl 81 xvfia 

403. S^bCXvzo, 407 ut 298. 

a <. 473, C.204, u, 
18t; cf. £, 4UI, 
K. 351. 

b u. 20*2. n. 10, X. 
550, K. 354. 

c y. 29S, c. 405. 

d 11. 60. 

«. 438, F 2G5; 
cf. «. 374, n. 1()2, 
O. «2I. 

f cf. iT. 640, 1 13«». 
y J, 42r., u. 2:w. 

O. 626; cf. £. 

Ii X. 8«, V. 07-8. 
i v. 208. 
k «. 411. 

1 «. 207-8. 

m App. 13 (3) mar. 
I) »/. 276, y. 201, 

o »/. V25. 

p «. 132, r. 220; 

cf. /*. 261 mar. 
q ^.20, 237. 
r e. 405. 

403. fox^Bt yag Ilarl. et Scbol., pro yccp Apoll. ct Etymol. Ma{^. d^ hoc 1. ci- 
tato (Pors.). 408. uBlnia Eustath. Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Dind. Fa., 
dsXntiot Wolf. Low. 409. inigrica Eustath. Barnos. Em. CI. ed. Ox., ini- 
gaca siva inegaoccc (**haud dubie glossema'' Buttm.) sed suprascr. izilBcacc 
Venet. Vindob. et var. 1. Scholl. H. P., ixBXfcccc et supr. yp. inBgaacc Uarl., 
itslsaca Vr. Wolf, et recentt. 

400—1. yiya^ve, this verb is pro- 
bably phonetic, from the natural sound 
of a raan^s voice shouting loudly, hence 
the sense *^to shout so as to be heard''; 
cf. M. 337. xB is added to oaaov with 
the same force as in og xb olog x£\ 
see Donalds. Gr, Or, § 245 (b). The 
Httl dri Sovnov x. r. X, adds a fact re- 
lating also to sound. The clause cor- 
respondent to dXX' oxB ... is xal x6x* 
'Odvccfjog ... in 406. — CjtiXd^BCCi, 
akin to our split, spHnier, the sharper 
points of the rocky surface. 

402 — 3. Some place the (,) at nvfia 
joining thus noxl £. 17. with dcifov 
igsvy, following, but (ajd^Bt. left abso- 
lutely without noxl ^Boov seems weak. 
Join iqnBtgoio with BgBvyofisvov ^ as 
often the gen. follows of violent ef- 
fort; so icavfiBvog nsg oSoto, d, 733. 
— eiXvtOj^ Buttm. LexiL 45. distin- 
guishes bIXv(o, to **wrap up or cover 
over", from iXv(Oj to ^^compress or coil 
up together", the latter occurring in 
I, 433, ^. 393, SI, 510, the former 
shown in the noun BCXvfia ^. 179, and 
views both as related forms of root 
iX-, of which ^X<o bUod bUbcd are pre- 
sent forms, and oeXslg 2. aor. part. pass. 

axvxif **8pray", in plur. Sxvat **chaff"; 
a lively image lies in the connexion 
of the two. 

404. vijeiv oxoi, "receptacles for 
ships", ijtiiayal, **shelters,^lee sides", 
the Bchol. derives it from ayvvfii^ as 
where the force of wind and wave are 
broken; cf. pogfa vn im^V ("lar.) ex- 
plained there by nixgij vno yXatpvg^, 
the locality boiuj^ inland. It is thus 
connected with axri}, which etymol. 
Curtius accepts, II. p. 119, comparing 
Eurip. Iph. Taut\ 263 Dindorf, xoUoo- 
nog ay (log and Ilcrod. IV. 196, IX. 
100, •Kviiotxtoyq, 

405. dxtal TtQofiXiit., "projecting 
bluffs" — the grander features of the 
coast, the anU. nay, xb being the 
smaller ones, but painfully conspicu- 
ous from the surf. 

407—9. elne x. x. i., see on 355 sup. 
For kaixfia, which is sometimes ex- 
plained by Q^aXdaarig, see App. B. 3. 

^10. ccA6$ :t,, see on 0. 260—2. Join 
^vga^e with in^aaig, of which it 
serves to develope the meaning, any 
special sense of "doors" being lost. 

411 — 4. The description seems to im- 
ply a precipitous face of cliff running 


OATSSEIAS E. 412-437- 

[day XXXII. 

a P. 264. 

h x. A, V. 293, u. 

04, 79. 
c *. 66. 
d d. 667. 
e «. 439—40 mar. ; 

cf. a. 91, /*. 360. 
f d. 515—6 mar. 
g- d. 446, 452, Y. 

h |, 399. 
i y. 91 , i*. 60; cf. 

k fi. 96-7. 

I e. 340 mar. 

m C- 326, 0. 440, 

I. 362, ^. IS.), 

510, O. 184, «. 

518, O. 173. 
n d, 120 mar. 
«. 435, *K 395; 

cl'./?. 153, IT. 324. 
p u 412, M. 384, 

VA 673. 
q or. 158, w.\, A. 

5.>, o. 234, ^ 227. 

dyxi^ad'Tig Sh d'dka^aa, xal ov ncos loti uoSsO^iv 

0rjj^EvaL &iLq)oxiQOi0i xal ixg)V'yhLV^ xaxotrjta, 

liTJ jtdg (a' ix^aCvovta PaXy Xid'axi noxl Tchgy 415 

xv^a i^iy aqna^av^ fisXii] Ss fioi s606xaL oQf^rj. 

el di X in XQoreQCJ ^ jtaQavfjI^ofiaL^ ijv^ tcov ifpsvQcn 

T^iovag t€ TtaQUTtX'^yag XL(idvag re d'aXd00rjgy 

SeCScD firj fi^ il^avtig dvaQnd%a0a Q^sXXa^ 

jcovrov BTt* ixd'vosvta q>BQy fiaQsa 0X£vdxovray 420 

ija XL iLoi xai x^xog^ i7tL00£vri^ (liycc Sai^Kov 

il^ dXog, old xs noXXd XQifpsi xXvxbg '^^A^i^tpiXQCtri'^ 

old a ydg (3g [iol 6dci8v0xaL^ xAvrog"* ivvo0iyaiog,^^ 

elog^ ravO*' SQ(iacv£ xccxd (pQBva xal xaxd d'viiovj 
x6q)Qa Se fiiv fieya xvfia (peQ6 xgrixstav in^ dxxtjv. 425 
ivd'a X dito QLVovg SQVtp^riy^ ovv^ d' d0xd^ d^dx^rj^ 
si fw} izl'i^ (pQsal d^xs d'ed yXavxSnig ^yddTJvri' 

423. fotda. 

415, pdloi Vr. 417. st nov Vr. 420. (pigoi Vr. 421 — 2 suspectos fiiisse 
iiotat Ni. 421. ij I'll Scholl. P. Q. T. lib. plerique, et Wolf. Low., ?}fi zC 
Eustath. Bek. Diud. 422. pro ^| dXbq Arist. hlv aXl, Schol. H. 425. 

(pigs Eustath. Wolf. Dind., tpigsv Barnes. Em. Bek. 426. nostr. 1. Flor. Lov. 
Vr. Harl, a man. pri. Wolf, et recentt. iv&' dnb oivog te dgvqjd'Tj Eustath. et 
vett., mox avv d' Eustath. Vr. Dind. Bek., aw r' Barnes, Wolf. Ern. 

sheer into deep water, which broke it 
at bottom into sharp snags; or these 
might have been fallen fragments, 
scoured and fretted to fine points by 
the washing of the waves. They would 
thus lie §%xoa&sv, and be first presented 
to the swimmer. 

415. fi-^, anticipates dsidm, which 
does not occur till 419 inf., the same 
anticipation occurs in 467 inf. as com- 
pared with 473. For the sequence of 
moods here see App. A. 9 (5). 

417—8. naQaV7i%Ofiai m^y after bI 
Si 5t« be fut. indie, as shown by E. 212 
si ds us voGxriam xal iaoiffOfiai ... 
natgid* ffiriv, see also qp. 114, g. 82 
(Jul. Werner de condii. envnc. ap. H. 
formis, p. 3i>. — ^V Ttov i<p,y **to try 
if I can find". For riiova^ see on 
156 sup. With Ttagajikiiya^, '* smit- 
ten obliquely", cf. dvTiJclrjysg ax- 
TOfl, Soph. Anlig. 592 Dind., ^'smitten 
point blank". 

421 — 2. Ni. mentions suspicion as at- 
taching to these lines as possibly in- 

terpolated, and says they overload the 
thought, and leave an impression of 
redundancy. Yet we may compare the 
dread of beasts of prey by land ex- 
pressed in 473 inf. Nor is there any 
objection to the notion that Poseidon, 
as a last resource of baffled wrath, 
might send a monster. 'AfKpiTQirf] 
is the watery element personified (cf. 
nccX^g aXoovSvTjg 9, 404) queen of the 
life moving in its waves, and empha- 
tically of the larger forms; she is 
therefore subservient to Poseidon: so 
in y. 91 we have nvpiaatv *Aii(piTgit7jg 
(Nagelsb. II. 8). So Hes. Theog. 240 
— 3 she is daughter of Nereus and Do- 
ris and sister of Thetis. For 6aL/iOiV 
see on f. 134. — €§ dXoq, **from sea- 
ward", lie being now close to shore, 
so T. 148 x^TOff aw' riiovog. 

427. O-iixe, the object of this verb 

. is the action stated in kdps (428); so 

in A, 54 — 5 ayogrivds naliaaocro Xaov 

'AxtXXsvgt TO) yap inl (pg. ^t/tis where 

^^ns has for obj. to naXiaaa^aL X&ov, 


0AT22EIAL E. 438-437. 

rrjg ixeto iitBvd%(ov^ ftcag ^iya xvfia 7taQrjXd'€v, 
430 xal TO nlv <Sg VTtdkvl^s^ TtakcQQod'tov^ ds (iiv avrtg 
nkrjl^€v iTC60(Svii^Bvov ^ triXov 8d (itv IfiPals^ novxfp, 
cos d' oxB icovXvnoSog d^aldfirig i^elxofisvoto^ 
TtQog xotvXriSov6(piv nvxLval Idl'yyeg^ i%ovxm^ 
dig xov ngog nixQYi^i d^QMstdcov^ and xsiqwv 
435 ^^vol dieiSQvtpd'BV'^ xov SI (liycc xvfia^ xd^v^sv. 
evd'a xs di) Sv0xrivog v:thQ iioqov^ colex* VSvaaevgy 
si /[*ij inL(pQO0vvriv^ StSxe yXavxio^tig '^d^vri. 


a (T. 116, (u. 316, 

:?. 23, M. 3S'2. 
h c. 314 mnr. 
c t. 485. 
(1 ^. 258, C- 116. 

J. 214. 

r C- 05. 

fr J^. 5*>3, 571, N. 

134, O. 314, F. 

6B2, ^F. 711. 
h a. 426 mar. 

1 c. 353. 

k a. 34-5, r. 30, 

<^. 517. 
I t. 22. 

431. ccTreaav/Liffov Ixion, Scholl. K. P. 435. xv/Lt' i'udlviljsv Kustath. Vr. Harl., 
mvfia %<iX. Barnos. ot edd. 437. IttI (pgsal d'tjita d-sa var. 1, Scholl. 11. P. 

Dostr. 1. omnes. 

This illustrates tho ini(pQoavvrj of 437 

430. TtaXiQQO&'iov, the ** reflux" 
caught him heforo he could reverse his 
effort (insacvfi.) of resisting the pre- 
vious landward rush of tho wave, and 
swept him from his hold. 

432—5. iii,Uy,Apol.DeL 77—8, nov- 

noi'^aovtai. The loosened clutch of 
Odys. is compared to that of tho po- 
lype torn from its cell. In the mo- 
ment of separation the simile is pre- 
cisely true, after that it reverses the 
fact (ivctvtimg dh nagapipirivtai Schol.), 
the shingle hanging to the crcature^s 
suckers, whereas the Odysseus' lin- 
gers leave their skin upon the rock, (The 
sense of the italicised words is implied 
only.) 9COVvXfidov6<piVi is epic form, 
older and unshortened, for ytotvlrjSoai, 
dat. plur. The tenacity of the polype 
furnishes a simile in Soph. /Va«w. 289, 
Dindorf , vovv^ 9si ngog dvdQi, aa^u 
novXvnovg onmg nitgcc zgctniad'ca, 
436. vjthQ fjiOQOV* The saying that 
one event would have happened if 
another, which did happen, had not 
happened, is formulaic. Still we must 
assume that vnlg (ioqov oUad'cci re- 
presents a possible event; the notion 
being that there was a lot of suffer- 
ing which could not ordinarily be 
avoided but might be increased (mar.) 
or anticipated, and so a measure of 
success allotted, which vigorous effort 
might transcend ; thus the Greeks would 
have gained %vdog xal vnlg Jiog at- 
ffav by their own might, P. 321—3; 

cf. vn^Q d'sov 327: thus -(Egisthus 
brought on himself vnlg (logov aX- 
y£a, a. 34—6. Moiga is the yi,6gog 
porsonitied, but gathering from perso- 
nality a more varied relation to events 
— a sort of average arbitress of man's 
lot, but who might bo overborne for 
good or evil by human energy, much 
more by extraordinary, however arbi- 
trary, divine intervention, as that of 
Poseidon here, or as Zeus in the case 
of death itself (J7. 433—42) seems to 
contemplate; cf. AT. 174—85. But again, 
we have in y. 236—8 a strong decla- 
ration, that '^not even the gods can 
ward off death the common lot, when 
its fatal MoCgoL seizes the man they 
love." Zeus uh. sup. speaks as if ho 
could do so, yet does not. Nor have 
we any such case in point. Thus those 
words of Zeus seem like others in 
which omniscience, or the like power, 
is claimed for the gods, which is al- 
ways found to break down in practice ; 
see on $, 379. The conviction, from 
experience, of death as the sole cer- 
tainty amid *Hhe changes and chances 
of this mortal life", and that, after 
however many hair-breadth escapes in 
seeming defiance of his power, death 
must win at last, seems expressed in 
y. 236—8. The successful strife mean- 
while — unequal in tho last resort — 
of other agencies, divine or human, 
with Morpof, is the poet's way of ac- 
counting for such escapes. Menelaus, 
if spared from death, was so because 
so it was d'iaq)aTOv {S, 561), f. e, be- 
cause MoCga so ruled it, and so of 


OATSSEIAS E. 438—449. 

[day xxxii. 

a d. 405 mar. 
. b O. G-21, «. 374. 
c «. 56. 
A J. 88, E. 168, 

]V^. 760; cf. «. 

417— S mar. 
e /». -ine, ^. 752, 

itf. 33, X. 1J7; 

cf. X 107. 
f y.2is8;cf. *. II. 
f? I/. 281-2. 
h e. 281 mar. 
i C. 210, w. 336. 
k X. 351, JE. 59S, 

1 a. 4 mar. 


n ». 343, 348, 352, 
H. 102, K. 441, 
*. 476, 500. 

o C- 206, w. 239, X. 
160, o 492. 

p >;.147;cf. 0.489. 

q d. 322 mar. 

r fi. 343 mar 


vrl%B TcaQsi,^ is yalav OQci^evog, st'^ tcov itpsv^oi 
^lovag XB TCaQaTtXrjyag li^svag xa d'aXd06rjg. 440 

all' ors di) Jtoxafioto xaxd Oxoilu xalXiQOOio^ 
li,B^ VBCJV, xfjs drj oi hCaaxo^ X'^Qog aQiaxog^ 
XBlog TtBxgdav^ xal iitl^ OxBTtag iiv dvdiiOLO' 
lyvca Sh TCQOQBOvxa^ xal Bv^axo ov^ xaxd d'Vfiov 
"xXvd'L^"^ avdi^ oxcg i6ai' 7CokvXki0xov Si o' ixdvcj, 445 
q)Bvy(A)v ix tcovxolo noOBiSdovog ivmdg. 
aiSotog [liv r' iaxl xal dd'avdxoiCt'^ d'Boiaiv 
dvSQfSv og xig Lxrjxai dXcifiBvog^^ (6g xal iyd vvv 
66vi' XB Qoov ad XB yovvad''^ ixdv(0 TCoXXd^ ^oyrjaag. 

442. J^OL ij^s^cato. 444. /ov. 445. J^dva^, 

442. tfj dn Harl. Eustath. Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. Wolf, et recentt., ttp di} Em. 
445. 06z' saal Eustath. Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., oatLg Flor, Lov. Harl. quod 


stare nequit, oxig Vr. Wolf, et recentt., mox tcoIvIUgtov Harl. et Scholl. H. 

P. T. , -ov Barnes. Wolf, et recentt. quam 1. agnoscunt Schol. V. Aloys. He- 

sych., -Off Eustath., nokvTiXvaTog Vr. 

Ganymedes and Rhadamanthus. The 
question is fully discussed in Nagelsb, 
III. § 10 foil., Gladst. II. § 4, p. 285 
— 97. Comp. Virg. Mn. IV. 696, of 
Dido, Nam quia nee fato, meritd nee morte 
penhaiy and Demosth. de Cor, 205, 6 ftfv 
zoig yovevai (lovov ysysvrjad'ccL vofii- 
fojv Tov TTJg siiiccQfiivrig xal tov avto- 
fiazov ^dvoLzov nsQifisvei x. r. ^.; so 
Suetonius remarks that no one of Cae- 
sar's murderers survived him above 3 
years, ^^negue suli morte de functus est^\ 
Jul. Coisar 89 (Aul. Gellius XIII. i). 

438. T« r , a plur. in the relative 
clause where the antecedent is singu- 
lar, is very common with oloc, as in 
421 — 2 sup, li'^xog ... ota rs noXld 
X. t. X,, and a. 311— 3 Sdigov ... ola 
cpCXoL ^^sivoi ^sivoiai, SiSovatv; rarer 
with Off or o as in ft. 97 xijTOff a fiv- 
Q^a Poansi X. T. A. ; 'but in all we pass 
on from the individual in the one clause 
to the class in the other. eQevyezai, 
the pres. is that called absolute, de- 
noting the general character of the 
statement, that the waves are always 
so doing, without reference to the time 
of the narrative; see Jelf. Gr, Gr, § 
395- I- 

439—40. vilX^y vqxto is formed on 
vim (442 inf.) of the same sense; so 
aadfo afni]X(o, 'tpdat 'ilfi^xot', we have also 
the deponent vi]XOfiai (364 sup.), which 
alone is used by later writers Buttm. Gr. 
V. s. V. vim (3). For 440 see on 418 sup. 

442 — 3. i§€, see on y. 5 — 6. — Xeioq 
TiezgdiOVf genitive of privation, cf. 
dwKQVoav x«voffj Eurip. Hec. 230 Dind., 
Jelf Gr. Gr. § 529. i. — SJtl, "towards 
that side'*, or **looking that way". 

445. ava%, compare the salutation 
to Nausicaa (mar.). With oreg saoi 
cf. -/Eschyl. Agam. 160 Dindorf, Zsvff, 
OGziq noz' kaziv. — TiokvXX*, cf. xgiX- 
XiGzog G. 488, VTjoiGt TCokXvXiazoiai Hy. 
Apol. Pyth. 169, and riczo (Zfvg) no- 
XvXXCcztp ivl vq&i Hy. Ceres 28. 
With the reading noXvXXiozog the ac- 
tive sense must be taken. — Ixdvfo, 
with notion of a suppliant; cf. 449 inf. 
and y. 92 zd ed yovvaG"* tudvoiiai. 

449. yovvaS'', see on a. 267, and 
for ixdvoi, on y. 92. With this sup- 
plication to the river cf. that of Achil- 
les to the Spercheius in W. 144. So 
'the Scaraander was worshipped with a 
priest (aqrizriQ) in Troy (E. 77-8), and 
live horses were thrown into its stream 


0AT22EIA2 E. 450-464. 


450 aAA'*' iXiacQS^ Hva^'^ Cxsttis'^ ds rot svxoficci elvaiP 
fSs g)<i^\ o 6* ttvrUa nav6av iov ^dov/^ i(Sx€ SI 

xvfia , 
jtQoa^s Si of noCri^B yaXtjvtjv^^ tov d* iacio^sv^ 
ig 7tot(X(iov ZQOXodg'^ d' ap' &fiq)a} yovvcct* ixa^i^ev^ 
X^tgag re arLfiaQag' aXl yaQ SsSfiijto ipCXov X'^g. 

455 P^*^ ^^ X9^^ ndvra^ %dXa6(Sa Sh xijxis nolli^ 

&v <yrc5|xa» xb ^tvdg -fr'- o S' ag' &7tv6V6rog xal 

XBtx^ 6hyTjnBli(X)v y^ xdfAarog^ Sd (icv alvog XxavBV. 
aAA'"» or£ dif ^' aiinvvTO xal ig tpgiva d'Vfiog dyigd'Yi^ 
xal xoxB Sy^ xgijSBfivov^^ and bo Xv(Sb &Boto» 

460 xal x6 (liv ig noxa^ov aXLfivgrJBvxa (iBd^XBV^ 

a^ d' ig)BgBV ^liya^ xv^ia xaxd $6oy^ at^a d' ag* 7i/a)i^ 
Si^axo ;|^£(>(yii q)iXi](Scv o d' ix noxafioto lia^d'Blg^ 
axoivp^ viCBxXCv^ri^ xvob^ Sh fatdcopov" agovgav* 
6xdij0ag d' aga bItcb ngdg ov (iByalijxoga d'V(i6v"^ 

a C. 175. 

b cf. y. 380. 

c fC. fi7, I. 269; 

cf. ^. 546. 
d cf. <i*. 369. 
c e. 391 mar. 
f y 231, J. 513, 765. 
ff ;i. 212, V. 65, P. 

Ii K. 118, T. 72. 
i 'K 777. 
k O. 24, 245, * 

356; cf. c. 4li8. 
1 a:. 31-2, 399. 
m 01. 349, J. 359, 

X. 475. 
n c. 346 mar. 
«. 327 mar. 
p e. 333. 
q 9. 482, P. 620, 

2. 27, V'. 90. 
r d, 83S mar. 
s cf. B. 497. 
t ;v.854; cf. (T. 522. 
a y. 3 mar. 
V «. 298 mar. 

450. Sdvu^, 451. /«6v Bive Ifov, 452. J^ot. 459. J^io, 464. ut 298. 

Schol. lI.,^flSji?H8t var. 1. SchoU. H. P., AdriaBv 
456. ta* d' omisso cfp' Jiarnes. Ern. CI. ed. 

455* o^i^fe d\ var. 1. Eustath, 

(^ ) oyx© var. 1. Schol. V. _^^_. ._ _ , ^ 

Ox., &'-' o 8' uq' Eustath. Harl. Wolf, et recentt., &' ' o d' ocvdnvsvaxos Vr, 
458. ^(invvTO Schol. H. (lectio Arist. ut liquot e Scholl. Venet. et Voss. ad K. 
475)' 459* ^0 Zenod., f^£v vul^r., Scholl. II. P., ^0 Eustath. et edd. omn. 

460. 'Ka&^ne Vr. ^i. liatccggoov Harl. Scholl. H. P., Ttcttagfoov (i. e. xat' 

otQ (60V Dind. ed. SchoU.) Heidelb. 

(^. 132). From it too Ilector^s son was 
called £yLafidvdQiog, These tokens of 
a culius of rivers, as also the tremen- 
dous oath by Styx (see on 179 sup.) 
are probably to be connected with ge- 
neral nature -worship, as remnants of 
an old Pelasgic belief; cf. B. 751 — 5. 
^ 451— a« yciX']ivfi, see on 391 sup, — 
iodoMOev, ** brought safely"; so mar. 
453 — 7. This picture of a weary 
swimmer, drooping and dragging his 
limbs, is perfect. We see the hero 
reduced to the lowest point of pro- 
stration to which the poet carries him 
in the whole struggle with Posoi- 
don^s wrath, lie cannot, till a while 
recruited, muster strength to cast off 
the HQi^Sfuvov of Ino, the service of 
which in supporting him may be un- 
derstood, although we only trace his 
own effort and the river god's aid. Ilor 
directions given 348—50 sup, arc per- 

haps complied with in 459—60, as far 
as circumstances permit. Instead of 
casting it into the sea a long way from 
land he "lets it go into the river", ap- 
parently floating away. Tliis tacitly 
adds a further touch to the image of 
utter exhaustion. 

4S5--6- ^dXaOCa %, t. X.,^^see App. 
B. 2. — anvBvCxoq xal avavdoq, 
cf. Penelope's condition, nLBtzo aaitog 
oinaaxog, d. 788, and lies. Theog, 797, 
uBitat dvdnvsvGxog nal avoevSog. 

457—8. With oXiyfjjEeXia^v, and 468 
inf, ohyrinBUjig ^ cf. oXtyodQUvitxiv in 
■^' 337' — <pQBva in the physical sense, 
"his chest". 

462—3. Xiaa^elq, see on 9, 838, 
xvOe, the pres. is %vvia)*, cf. d. 522. 
^eMct^QOV, i^ftal occurs in ^.41 as 
a grain, see note there, and cf. Soph. 
Philoct. 1 161 Dindorf, pioSmgog ala, 
yoticc (pegiafiiog Hcs. Theog, 693. 


OATSSEIAS E. 465-475- 

[day XXXII. 

a «. 299. 

b 2. 521. 

c /f. 188, 312,391); 
cf. V. 52-3. 

(1 (f. 25. 

e C- 122, T. 97, 
K. 27, 'f'. 409, 
fi. 369. 

f cf. «. 457 mar. 

gr £. 698. 

h t. 36, ^. 50. 

i O. 273. 

k ». 285. 

1 T. 511, K. 4. 

m y. '-^71 mar. 

n 0. 204, C« 145, x. 
153, (T. 93, r. 338, 
w. 239, JT. 458, 
A. 23, U. 652. 

"(D* fioi iy(D^ XL nd^(a\ xi vv (iol fiTJxtaxa ysvrjxai; 4^5 
si iiev x' iv Tcoxafip^ SvgxTjSsa vvxxa^ cpvXcioOG), 
lifj ft' a^vdig axC^ri^ xs xaxi^ xal d'ijkvg^ idQ6ri 
i^ okiyrinalCrig^ Safiday xexa<pri6xa^ d'v^ov 
avQTi d" ix Tcoxafiov ^v^pi} TCvesi 'qcSd't^ tcqo, 
si Se xev ig xkixvv dvafidg xal SdtSxiov^ vXrjv 470 

%'diLvoig^ iv nvxLVotei xaxadQud'a^ st fis iisd'eCri 
Qiyog xal xd^axog, yXvxsgdg^ Si ^lot vzvog iTcdld'Tj,- 
dsldiXi"^ firj d^Q£06tv ekfDQ xal xvQ^a yevofiaU' 

cSg^ ccQa 01 q>QOV£ovxC 8od60axo xsqSvov elvai' 
pij p' ^[i6v alg vXfjv xriv Sh 0%£86v vdaxog svqsv 475 

467. ifsQOTi. 473. J^ikcuQ, 474. /0£. 

466. q}vXd4<o Harl. Heidelb. Eustath. Barnes. Ern. Wolf. ed. Ox., qivldaao) Arist., 
ttchoU. H. P., Dind. Bek. Fa. 469. ocvgri yag var. 1. Harl. mar. et SchoU. H. 
P., mox pro nvist niXai Vr. Schol. ad Apoll. Rh. iv. iii. ^^nsXsz' Eustath. in 
comment."-, Ern. annot. 471. d'd(ivotaiv nv%votCi Vr. , mox st yiB var. 1. 

Steph., mox fis&siri Eustath. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Low., (isd'S^rj Wolf. Dind. 
Fa., [isd"i]7j Bek. 472. nvntvog Vr. pro ylvTLsgog. 475. (J17 d' var. 1. Schol. E. 

465—93. Odys. in his "choice of 
difficulties'* resolves to sleep in a 
neighbouring wood; there creeps un- 
der an olive-tree, and embeds himself 
in fallen leaves. Athene sends refresh- 
ing slumber. 

465. See note on 299 sup. 

466. ev Jtorafjiq}, "in the bed or 
cavity of the river", so mar. ipV" 
XdcOoi is probably subjunct., since al 
fiiv x' requires the fut., when the mood 
is indicat. (Jul. Werner p. 30) : tpvXd^m 
may, if read, be fut. ind. or aor. subj. 

467. fiTi, see on 415 sup. ^^Xvg 
iagOfi, so Hes. Scut, 395 : for the mas. 
form with fem. noun, see on d. 442. 
The sense (akin to d'aXXca) is that of 
nourishing, refreshing etc. 

468. oXiyfiJteXlfj^ y see on 457 sup, 
xexaiffiora , cf. X. 466 dnb Si tf)V' 
X'^v indnvaasv, which Crusius ma- 
kes an aor. of Tianvca, but Doederlein 
2227, imperf. of ytaitvaacaj comparing 
dXvsiv aXvaasiVy dq>vstv dcpvaasiVj and 
citing Hesych. A Schol. gives %dnog 
(presumably akin to %dnvog)= •jtvsvyi.a. 
With the form of the particip. here cf. 
%sxaQridig^ %siiin](og etc. It seems to 
agree with fis and govern &v(i6v. 

469. avQfiy the well-known sea-coast 
phenomenon of a land-breeze in the 

early morning, owing to the land cool- 
ing more rapidly than the sea. d' 
might possibly be = yap, as in a. 71, 
y. 48, but a mere coordination of the 
clauses would satisfy the sense. ^a>^c. 
Ni. takes this as a form of the gen., 
but Donalds. Gr, Gr. 156 as dat. It 
probably is, like the termination -(pi, 
common to both cases {-(pi according to 
Donalds. 148 (b) is accus. also). Here 
and in 'iXiod'i ngo (mar.) and in S&i 
= ov it is gen.; but in the adverbial 
forms dXXod't, xrjXod'ij dnoTcgo&L^ iy- 
yv-O-t, itSQOiid'L probably dat. 

471. fieO^eixif epic subjunct. with st; 
see on a. 168. There is no difficulty 
of syntax in the var, led, fis&sirj op- 
tat., when the clause becomes paren- 
thetical, and yX, 8h fi. VTtvog hcsX&ij 
following must be read conjoined with 
si ,.. ytcLxadgdO'to. But this condition 
within a condition is foreign to the 
simpler Homeric style, si Si nsv is 
commonly found with aor. subj.; see 
Jul. Werner p. 31. 

474. This recurring formulaic line is 
followed by infin. — "thus it seemed 
best — to' do so and so" — save in 
two other passages: in one, as here, 
an indie, succeeds (mar.), and in the 
other an optat. with ofpQCc, 


OATLSEIAS E. 476-488. 


£|* dfiod'sv X6q)vcitas' o ftiv q)vXitjg^ d* ikairig, 
tovg^^ (liv &Q* ovr' dvi^iov dtdei ftcVog vygov aivtoav^ 
ovSi «ot' '^iUog^ q>ai%tav axrtoiv ffiaXkav^ 
4S0 ovr' ofifiQog TCBQaaOKS StafiTtSQ^g* iSg &Qa nvxvol 
akXrikov^iv itpvv €7ta(i,oifia8ig' ovg vi^ *OSv<i0evg 
Sv0sr^ ' &(paQ d' 6vvi}v incc(iij0aro^ x^Q^^^ g>iX7j0Lv 
€VQ€tav'^ (pvXXcDV yccQ ffjv x'^^^S^ ijhd'a^ ttoAAi}, 
0000V t' iJ^ Svg) T^h rgetg avSqag iQV0^at 

ri)i;" SI IStav y7Jd'ri06 nolvtXag Stog *OSv00Evg^ 

iv 8* ttQa (ii00ij^ XexrOj^^ x^^^'^^ ^' iTtsxBvato^ g)vkk(ov, 

(og d' oTfi Ttg daAoi/* 07toSiy ivixQvilfS fieXaivj]^ 

486. J^iSciv. 

a N. 170. 

b c. 471 nnr. 

c cf. E, 245^7. 

a t. 410-3. 

c X, 10. 

( n. 105; cf. w. 

g* c. 402 mar. 
ii T. U3;cr. I. 330. 
i •. 487. 
k I 215. 
I cf. 77. 385- C. 
m B. 471. 
n V, 353, fo. r>()l, 

V. 104. 
o J. 413. 
p J. 453 mar. 
q «. 483. 
r •. 257. 
8 cf. J. 300. 

477. ig ofio^sv Kustath. Wolf, et roccntt., i^oiio&BV Heidolb. et Schol. BarncR. 
lOrii. CI. ed. Ox., mox yeyamtoes xm, \. 8choU. il. Q. T., nstpvmrs Schol. nd E, 
245. 478. Sidrj Huk. Fa., St.dti omncs rell. 479. ovx* ctv Eustath., ovdi- 
not' Harnes. Ern., ovdi not' CI. ed. Ox. Wolf. Dind. Low., ovts not' Hek. Fa., 
ovic (ihv vel iiiv Hek. annot. 482. vXrjv pro evvriv Vr. et var. 1. Euatatli. 

483. yccQ irjv Harl., ydg ^rjv Eustath. vulg. ct edd. oinn. 

477. i§ OfAoO'iv, ^'from a common 
stem". Ni. interprets it of size, **grown 
equally**; but for this H. would pro- 
bably have ^ said i^ Caov, Wo need 
not supply rjv with o fikv : it is an in- 
stance of anacoluthon in apposition, 
such as (mar.) Iv' dniks&^ov ix^^' 
tag' filv to^tov ev sidag x. t. X., 
cited by Ni. The statement is pro- 
bably meant to convey a poetic mar- 
vel. We have no trace in II. of the 
sacredness of the olive to Pallas, or 
this might bo significant of her favour 
for the hero, ifvklrig, the SchoU. ex- 
plain **a wild olive", or, "a kind with 
leaves like a myrrh tree". Obs. the v(n\ 
led. d dtpvrjg Jrom the Schol. on E. 325. 

478—80. dvifio}v . • • fikv, vyQ* d*, 
lies. 0pp. 625 has adopted this phrase. 
It is more forcible to refer vygov as 
adverbial accus. to divtmv than as 
nom. to fiivog, Ni. remarks that Sidet 
refers to the fact at the time, but nB- 
gdaans to what was usual whenever it 
rained: cf. with the whole passage Soph. 
(E(i.^ Cot. 676— 8, Dindorf, tpyXkaSa.,. 
dvTjXiov dvijvsfiov ts ndvtmv x£i- 

481. i'^Cv {'Vv by ictus), ** clung", 
as in 6Scci iv x^^Xsai tpvvtsg a. 381. 
— dJiXiiXoiOiv may best be governed 
by inafioiPaSlg, as if, ^^each taking in 
turn the other's place", t. e. interlac- 
ing"; unless we were to road dXXijXoig 

484. egvffO'ai, Buttmann's leading 
conclusions on this verb are (i) that 
the V is naturally short in both senses, 
to "draw" and to *'save"; (2) that, 
when metre requires it long, (vaactto* 
iifvaaocto^ etc, should be written; (3) 
that the v is due to the Attics; (4) that 
sCgvto el^gvad'ai ^gvto igvad'ai cannot 
in sense be perf, or plup., nor the last 
two even in form; and can be aorists 
only when, as in JE. 538, the action of 
saving etc. is completed at the instant; 
and therefore (5) that, as a continued 
action is mostly intended, these forms 
are pres. and imperf. syncopated from 
sigvsto etc., and so here from igvs- 
0&aL; (6) that the ep. fut. of igv(o is 
also igvm (Le.vil, 53, Gr. f^ s, v,), 

488. iviHQV^e, aor. of simile; see 
on *. 338. 


OATSSEIAS E. 489-493. 

[day XXXII. 

a ^. 517 mar. 

b i^. 286, X. 245, 

S2. 445. 
c V. 86. 

6niQlLa TtvQog ^ci^cDv^ Iva iirj jtod'Bv akXo^sv avrj^ 490 
(Sg ^08v6avg cpiiXXotac xaXviljaxo • rp d' &q^ ^Ad'TJvrj 

Svgnoviog xafiaroto, tpika pXd<paQ^^ d^KpixccXviljag. 

489. iGxatLTj MS. G. C. 490. avoi Eustath. Barnes. Era. "Wolf. ed. Ox., aviy 
Ixion, SchoU. H. P., Bek. Dind. 493. dvangayiog Dion. Halicarn. yit, 

Horn. XXIII. 

490. fifj ••• avi^, "he may not have 
to kindle**, akin to ava, **dry" 240 
sup.'y cf. ^vavco, Herod. VII. 231. aviy, 
Ixion^s reading, would throw the clause 
into pres. time giving us, as it were, 
the actual words of the xig aforesaid; 
see App. A. 9 (17). This 32°** day of 

the poem's action ends without any of 
the usual forms rjiXtog navsdv x. 1. 1. ; 
but its end is implied in vvxta 466; 
also in rj. 283 — 4 Odys. tells Alcinous 
that at this juncture inl d' dfipgoaCri 
vv^ 7]Xv&*, 


UOM. OD. I. 



The night of the 32"* day closes with a visit of Athene, as the daughter of 
Dymas, to the sleeping Nausicaa, daughter of Alcinoiis king of the Phseacians 
(i — 25). On her suggestion early on the 33"** day Nausicaa obtains leave of 
her father to drive with her maidens to the river, to wash linen for the house- 
hold (26-84). 

The laundry work done, the maidens dine and amuse themselves with ball- 
play. The ball being lost, their outcry rouses Odysseus; who, emerging from 
his covert as a suppliant, terrifies all but Nausicaa, whom he addresses in a 
speech of much compliment (84 — 185). She answers his enquiries, rebukes 
the alarm of her maidens and clothes him, on which Athen^ gives him a sur- 
passing comeliness (186 — 246). 

Nausicaa then directs him how to find the city, the palace and the presence 
of her father (247 — 315). She then drives away. He follows, and by the way 
implores the aid of Athen^, who for a politic reason does not yet appear to 
him. The 33"* day here ends with sunset (316—331). 

^OdviSOirog atpi^ig eig i^cciccxag. 

'"Slg (ihv iv%a xad'svda nokvrXag dtog ^Odvaasvg 
vnvp xal xa^dxp dgrjiiBvog'^ avraQ *j4^Vi] 
fiv ^' ^S OccLTJxcuv dvdQiSv di^fiov^ re nohv r«, 
0? nglv (liv jtot' ivavov iv svqvxoqg)^ 'TnsQiiy^*^ 
5 dyxov KvxkcoTcav^ dvdQciv^ vzeQr^voQeovtiov y 

a 1. 403, ;i. 13G, (t. 
.S3, V'- 2S3, £. 
435; cf. u. 2SI, 
K, 1)8, $.318. 

b ;i. 14, ^ 4). 

c d. (i35. 

d B. 734, Z. 4;.7. 

c >;. 200, (. 100. 

f ^.581, V. 31. 

I. yiad'Bvde Zenod., Sclioll. H. P., ita Eustath. Barnes. Wolf., nd&BvSs Ern. 
Ci. ed. Ox. a. dgrjiiivog var. 1. Eustath., §BPaQrjfi6vog (o gloss, natiim) Bek. 



1—48. The night following the 3a"* 
day of the poem's action is continued 
in the visit of Athene to Schorie, and 
her appearance in a night vision to 
Nausicaa, daughter of Alcinoiis the 
king, to whom she suggests an excur- 
sion from the city to the river-sido in 
order to wash linen in its laundry-pits; 
reminding her that such provision will 
ho needed for her approaching mar- 
riage. As Athene disappears the dawn 
of the 33'"'* day takes place. 

I — a. JioXvtXa^, the epithet has 
especial force here, hy reason of the 
toils and perils recently surmounted. 
It occurs by Seber^s index 34 times in 
Ody. and 5 in II., a ditifcrenco sug- 
gested by the subject matter itself. 
aQfifiivo^, the Scholl. render this by 
pfpkcciifiivog ^ which seems too severe 
a rendering for X, 136, ijf, a83, which 
speak of the quiet torpor of old age end- 
ing in a painless death. Thiersch {Gr, 
6'r. § a3a, 34) suggests an etymology, 
which removes this difficulty and sa- 
tis6es all the passages (mar.). It is 
that aQrifiivog is contracted by loss of 
the f from J^sJ^agrjiiivog of J^cegioi = 
§aQio» (§aQvg)y when "overwhelmed, 

or sunk, in slumber and fatigue", 
would be the sense; cf. adj?x6T€ffs=:/e- 
J^ttSrjnoxsg {App. A^ 6 [6]), also found 
with KCY^ofroD and vnv(p. It uniformly 
occurs in the same place in the line 
with the d in thesis, showing that the 
quantity is natural. Doederl. 1044 pre- 
fers to take it from dgaQrjfiivog, apao, 
id. 9. dgdaaoiy for which see on c. a48 ; 
virtually a the fisfiL of the Scholl. It 
is found elsewhere (mar.) with dvij and 
yi^gaX as instrumental dat. 

4 — 5. €VQVXOQ<t^9 see on d. 635. — 
*X:t€Q€i'^ • • • hvxXoijtatv, see App. 
D. 15. Ukert takes in the main the 
same view of the question as there 
given {f/om, Geogr, a8j, and concludes, 
with Callimachus and Aristarchus, and 
against Crates, Eratosthenes, ApoUo- 
dorus, Posidonius and Strabo, that 
Odysseus wandered in the ''inner" 
(Mediterranean) sea, only just touch- 
ing the "outer" or ocean {ibid, 5 — 7, 
34). Viilcker (§ 55 — 64) and Ni. in his 
remarks prefixed to J;, adopt a similar 
view. The three Cyclopes, lirontes, 
Steropes and Arges mentioned Hesiod. 
Theog, 140, as sons of Kronos, show a 
total diversity of legend. 



0AT2SEIAS Z. 29-37. 

[day XXXII. 

a (p. 323, yj, 362; 

cf.'r.332-3,5: 273. 
b Z. 413, 429, I. 

6»)1, N. 430, X. 

239, 341. 
c t, 59, o. 420; cf. 

X. 155. 
d J. 407 mar. 
e cf. 2. 550, 560. 
f fi. '.'87 mar. 
ffC. 283-4; cf. (f. 

66G, 652, ^. .S6. 
h o. 267, Q. 373; 

cf. 0. 175, V 193. 
i O. 258. 
k e. 469 mar. 
1 n. 179. 
m i2.263,I90,C.57. 

/S. 295, t. 419. 

^;c yap tot rovtcov q)dtLg'^ dvd'QciTtovg otvafidivet 

fiJO-Ai), %ttCQOV6iv 81 TcaxriQ^ xal Ttotvia ftiftiy^). 30 

dlV [o^€v 7ckvvBov6at^ d{i^ riot (patvoyiivri(piv' 

TcaC roi iyco Cvviqid'og^ d^i^ e^ofiai, oq)Qa xd%i6ta 

BvtvveaL, btibI ov rov bxi Sf^v nag^Bvog la^sac 

7]Srj ydg 6b fivcovtat dQL^fqBg^ xard dii^ov 

Ttdvtcov 0aL7Joc(ov^ od'L rot yivog^ i^tl xal avf^. 35 

dXV^ dy' BTCotQvvov TtatBga xkvxov ^aiO-t*^ tcqo 

'^^iLOvovg^ xal cifia^av iq)O7tkL0aty"^ {j xbv ayr]0tv 

29. roiovzoov pro roi tovrmv Harl., raox dv^'QCOTtoov^ Callistratum Aristophani to 

(fccTig tribuentem yapig legisse testantur SchoU. H. P. ^^. ivtvvso inal 

ovTi Harl. 34. ava drjiiov Bek. annot. 35. [] Bek. o aot avtij to yivog 

satl melioribiis tribuit glossa inter lin. Harl., ita SchoU. R. T. , pro oQ'l xoi 

Schol. V. 7]zoi (an ^ rot), oxi tot Aloys, et MS G. C, leal xal avrij Harl. 

descriptions of wedding festivities in 
^' 493~4> vvfKpag d' ^ in Q'aXocy.cav 
datdtov vno Xafinofisvacav 7]yCvB0v 
dva ocatv, and Hes. Scut. 274 foil., 
rjyovx' dvdQi yvvaCua x. t. X. (Ni.). 
The ceremony is that of bringing the 
bride from her father's house to her 
future husband's, and is a public spec- 
tacle; see on 159 inf. 

29 — 31. rovrof, the same as xoiai 
in 28, "they, being well- contented, 
spread your fame abroad". The read- 
ing x^9''S would rather require xovtoav 
to mean "these things", viz. the being 
fairly robed yourself, and the giving 
fair clothing to